Skip to main content

Full text of "Sturlunga saga, including the Islendinga saga of lawman Sturla Thordsson and other works;"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was prcscrvod for gcncrations on library shclvcs bcforc it was carcfully scanncd by Googlc as part of a projcct 

to make the world's books discoverablc onlinc. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to cxpirc and thc book to cntcr thc public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subjcct 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expircd. Whcthcr a book is in thc public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, cultuie and knowledge that's often difficult to discovcr. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this flle - a reminder of this book's long journcy from thc 

publishcr to a library and fmally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Googlc is proud to partncr with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to thc 
public and wc arc mcrcly thcir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken stcps to 
prcvcnt abusc by commcrcial partics, including placing lcchnical rcstrictions on automatcd qucrying. 
Wc also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use ofthefiles Wc dcsigncd Googlc Book Scarch for usc by individuals, and wc rcqucst that you usc thcsc filcs for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrainfivm automated querying Do nol send aulomatcd qucrics of any sort to Googlc's systcm: If you arc conducting rcscarch on machinc 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of tcxt is hclpful, plcasc contact us. Wc cncouragc thc 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht Goo%\'S "watermark" you see on each flle is essential for informingpcoplcabout thisprojcct and hclping thcm find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatcvcr your usc, rcmember that you are lesponsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
bccausc wc bclicvc a book is in thc public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countrics. Whcthcr a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and wc can'l offer guidance on whether any speciflc usc of 
any speciflc book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearancc in Googlc Book Scarch mcans it can bc uscd in any manncr 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Googlc's mission is to organizc thc world's information and to makc it univcrsally acccssiblc and uscful. Googlc Book Scarch hclps rcadcrs 
discovcr thc world's books whilc hclping authors and publishcrs rcach ncw audicnccs. You can scarch through thc full icxi of ihis book on thc wcb 

at || 

















X n ' 





muxt " ^ 



[Alí nghtí reiintd] 








The information as to the editing of this work has, to 
the best of my ability, been given in the Prolegomena, 
and need not here be repeated. It now remains for me 
to beg the Libraríans at Copenhagen, Stockholm, and 
Upsala to receive my sincere thanks for their many kind- 
nesses and courtesies to me whilst copying the vellum 
texts for the present volumes, and at the same time for 
two.{or three) volumes of the RoIIs' Series, which, being 
long since ready, may soon, we hope, follow in the wake 
of the Sturlunga. 

As to the Frolegomena, I am under great obligation 
to my fríend Mr. Frederíck York Powell, Law-lecturer of 
Christ Church, without whose generous and ever-ready 
help and sympathy they would hardly have appeared. 
Suffice it to say, that we have day after day sat closeted 
together, he taking down across the table my thoughts and 
theories, one talking, one writing and putting into shape. 
Thus, though the substance and drift of aiguments are mine, 
the Ei^IÍsh, with the exception of bits and phrases here 
and there, Ís Mr. Powell's throughout. Many Ímprovements 
also bear his marks, such as the application to English 
Law in § 35, besides many touches, especially Ín § 3 (the 
Saga Characterístics). But even more than this, the con- 
stant exchange of thought, and the sympathetic conver- 
sation on cvery kind of subject, has been a great benefit 
to me, calling forth and unlocking many thoughts and 
things hidden away and half forgotten, besides relieving 
me of the irksome solitary task of wríting. The theories 


viii PREFACE. 

here set forth have, one by one, been growing upon the 
fii*i E ditor's mind these twenty years, and very glad he is . 
to see them at last safely put on paper, no longer subject 
to shifts and chances. I had hoped some years ago to 
accompany my Lexicon, as lexícographers do, with an 
Íntroduction on the ancient language and literature ; but 
this was not to be. However, now the one half of that task 
Ís performed, though the second still remains undone. 

It is a source 6f pleasure to the Editor to associate this 
work as a token of respect and piety with the name of 
Upsala, the cradle once, time out of mind, of the gods 
and the heroes of our old Northem race, and the Alma 
Mater of so many ^me and worthy sons. 


DttiwhtT \, 1678. 




f I. SettkmeDt oflceland ivii 

Í 3. Sagí-ttfSíog xii 

I 3. Saga Characteristics uiv 

{ 4. Ari the Historian, hls Life Bnd Wocks (Konniigft-bdli, Land- 

Dama-bök, IsleDdinga-búk, Kristni Saga) .... xtvii 

I 6- Ari's Conlemponuiei. Ssmutid, Braud. Kolsk^ . . xxivii 

i 6. ThoTodd the Gramiiiarían xxxvtii 

f J. Tbe Isleadinga Sagu ,. . xU 

t 8. Tbe Greater Iilendinga Sagas — Nials Saga .... xlii 

„ „ „ Eyrbj'ggia .... xlv 

„ „ ., Ld^dxla xlvi 

Egils Saga .... xlvii 

„ „ „ Gretlis Saga .... xlviii 
{ g. The Minor Islcndinga Sagas — 

Of the Soulh-we»t (Holmveria, Hcensa-|>oris Sogm) . . 1 
Ofthe'West(Kaniaj, GDanlaagE, CiiU-liorii, Gisla, Havaidar 

Sögur) li 

Of the North (Bandamanna, Heidarviga, Kormaks, Vati- 
dxla, þorvalds, Svarfdsls., UosvetDÍDga, Valla-IjóU, 

VÍga.Glams, Re^dœla Sögur) liii 

Of tbe East (Vapnfirdinga, |iorEteins Hvlta, |>Ðrsteins Stao- 
garhöggs, Hrafnkels, Droplaugarsona, Brandkrossa, 
GnnnaTS þifiranda-bBna, |>orsteins Sidu- Hallisonar, þi5- 

raiida Sögur) ......... Ivii 

OfGreenUnd aad Wineland (Floamanna, Eiriks Randa, Fost- 

bradm Sögur) lix 

{ 10. Thœttir U 

{ II. Spnríous Islendinga Sagas * . . . Ixii 

f la. Age of tke Islendinga Sagas Ixiv 

t 13. Histoiians butween Arí and Snorri — Eirik Oddisoo, Abbot Kari, 

Odd the Monk, Gtinnlaug the Monk Ixx 

Í 14. Snorri StnTlason tbc Hislorian, his Lifc and Works (Lives of 

KÍngs, Edda), Stynnir Ftodi IxxiÍÍ 

Í 15. The Lives of tbe Kings of Norway Ixxxií 

i 16. Other RecensioDS of Lives of Kings 'Agrip, Fsgrsk., Morkinsk.) . Ikxkvíí 



t 17. Skioldunga Siga (Knuti, WBJdioiara, Jonurikiiiea.) . 

Í iS. OrkseyÍDga. (Jarla Saga, Su Magnus. Rognvolds Sc^ur) and 


§ ig. Sturla Ibe Historian, his Life and Works 

j 10. Sturla's Contemporaríes, Olaf Hvitaskald 

t Jl. Bii^raptiie*— Secular (ThorgíU ok Ilaflida, Sturlu, Gudmundar 

Ðyra, Hrafna, Ároni, SvínfelIÍQga, Thorgils SkaiBa Sögur). 

Ecclesiaítlcal — Mincle-boolcs (Jartegna-bækr). Bishops' 

Lives (Hungrvaka, Thorlaks, Pils, Jóns, Gudmundar, Ama, 

Lafraiu Sögar. Amgrim's Life of Gudmnnd) 

t 31. Annals, ObitaarieSi Gloises, &c 

( 33. Lost Sagas A^«^' m^ ^U*f 

\ 14. Ketigious Works (Uves of Saiats, HomiIieSi Stjom, Gydinga 

Sí^i, Ae.) 

i 35. Komanlic Sagas (Karlanugnus, Thidreks, Tristam. Alexandera 

SÖgur, ate.) 

{ 36. SpecutDm Regale and other leoned Wcrkg .... 

% 17. Rerival of Old Leaming in Iceland 

{ 2B. Clunces of recovering MSS 

{ 19. Colteclions of Ihe Thiiteenth and Fourteenlh Centnries . 

% 30. Summarr of the Islendinga Saga 

§ 31. TheSturlungaMSS. 

{ 31. Prínting 

§ J3. The Eddic Poems 

i 34. Mythical Sagai (Volsunga, Halfs, Heidreks, RagDars, H10I& 

Kialu Sögiir, &c) 

I 35. Iav, Icetandic and Norwe^an (Giigis, JsmsiSa, JÓDS-tn^ : 

Frosta and Gulaþings Lög : Diplontataria, &c.) 

i 36. Kdiling 

Table* of Litcralure and MSS. (I, 11) 

Supplement (Gtinr Hallzson) 

Facúmiles of A and B 




II. Thorgils Saga ok Haflida 7 

IH. Sturlu Saga, also called Heidarvics Saca 40 

Preface 86 

IV. CuDMUNDAR Saga Goda, also called Prestz-Saga 


V. CUDMUNDAR Saga Dyra, also called Onundar- 

Brennu Saga 126 

VI. Hrafms Saga ok Thorvaldz 175 

VII. ISLENDINGA Saga, by Sturla Thordsson , i8g 


STURLUNGA SAGA (conlinued). 

VII. ISLENDINGA Saga {fontinited)— f*oB 

Saga Thordar Sighvatzsonar Kakala I 

Saga Svinfellinga, or Saca Ormssona 83 

Thorgils Saca Skarda 104 


I. Hxjupira S*OA '75 

II. ÍBOin Saqa 3" 

III. tiUMZCiK Ahn/laii, call«d Annales Regii 34^ 

IV. ArtiSa-skri, or ObitDtriani J9' 

V. Simdries — 

I. HákoiiArSaea,chapter 311 397 

I. Mildaga-brít IIÖJ 398 

3. Oathof wei 399 

4- Saocri's Genealogy, AM. n ð 399 

5. Charter of Saorri, laið-lljð 4"* 


I. Namea of Places 4°' 

II. Namea of Persons 4*o 

IIL Nttines of Thmgs A^* 

IV. N«mes of Families, &c 4^3 

Political Names, &c 464 

Names of Seasous, ðcc. 4^5 

Names of Literaiy Works 466 

V. Nicknaioes 4^7 

lÍstofLögsi^menn (Speaken) 4*9 

Archbisliops and SufFrseans of Niflaros 4^ 

Obitiut? 47» 

Fjord« in thc West and North of Iceland ...... 474 



Entrie* from Coatcmponry Anmli refenÍDg to Ernptioqs uid Earth- 

qniket inlceUndin the Ifthuid isthCeDtniies ... 475 

Tables of Gehealogies or the iíth and 13TH Cekturies, 
I. Funiliei oí the WcEt— 

i.TheSturlnngí 481,48» 

I. Skara-Saorri ux] the Nufn Sons .'.... 48) 

3. The Seldœlir 4^3 

4. TheSaiirbæíngiofSts&arboI 4^3 

5. The Vfltifiraings _ - - 4^4 

6. The Funily oí Ari Fr6M -484 

7. The Rauftsendir 4^4 

8. The Hiturdale Funilr ^S 

9. The Family of Olfh«in 485 

10. The ReyknesÍDgi 4^5 

tt. TheGikbekkingt 486 

11. TheHússrelIFamilj 4^5 

13. The Family otHill 48« 

n. Funilies of the South— 

l. The OddAverJM 48? 

3. TheHaukdælÍr 488 

3. The MelBmeDD 489 

4. The AlUheijar Gotar 489 

5. The Reykhyltings 49° 

6. The Fwnily of St. TborUk 49« 

ni. Fflmilies of the North— 

1. The SkagliríÍDgi or AsbiniÍDgi 491 

i. The Lflafnbgs 49' 

3. The Lineflge of Slieggi SkunmhönduDg .... 491 

4. The Eyiiraings 49> 

5. The Family of ^rstcin Kanelit 491 

6. The Vatidœlir 493 

7. The Family of Bisbop CuBnituid 493 

8. The Family of GuBmnnd Dýri 493 

9. The Húniöaiings, or Family of Haðifti MÍMOO 494 
10, The Fanúly of Mel in Midfirth 494 

IV. Families of tbe East— 

I. TheSvinfellings 49S 

3. The SIBumenn 496 

3. The Family of DÍgr.Helgi 496 

4. The Hofsve[}ar 496 



1. Froq Mela-b^ 497 

2. From AM. i6a, fol 498 

3. From þórfttr S^ HreSn ia VmUliyma S°í 

4. From Fldanuuma Saga in Vatzhynui 501 

5. From ThonCeiii SUngmiiiögg 503 

6. Liit of Fort; IccUndic Piiests living ÍD ti43,fromMS. iSit 501 

7. Rerlcjiliolti Mildagi J03 

S. Máldagi of RanaaJæL 503 

List of Abbots ÍD Iceland 504 

The Site of the Lögberg, with Map 505 

Addendft to Frolegomeiia, { 15, Thídreks Sagi 

A Mw of IixuHD to iUuttmte STintunnu aod Prqleoohiha ii 
a pochet at the eod of v«l. ii. 








Ths Settlement of Iceknd was \mt of the great Scajidinavian 
emigration which closed the era thkt had begun wilh the eruption 
of the Goths. Wave afler wave, the Teutonic nations had presíed 
westward, oveminnÍDg the civilized world, transforming the Roman 
Empire, metamorphosing society, and changing the destiny of 
mankind ; and this their last movement, for many a century, was 
no less important than any one that preceded Ít. But although it 
is the laCest in point of time, and in some respects the one with 
which we are best acquainted, ihere are many points connected 
wíth the Scandinavian Exodus which are stiÚ obscure. Of the 
very causes that brought it about we are not clearly iafomied, 
though the increase of population beyond the point at which the 
Northern lands could afford it sustenance, a series of bad seasons, 
the advance of society which was breaking down the o!d tribaÍ 
system, and last, not least, the love of freedom and adventure, were 
ail no doubt concemed. Like the English migration it lasted 
many years, and Qowed in distinct streams Westward. (It is 
unnecessary for our purpose to notice here the Swedish move- 
ment Eastward and the Russian stale which sprung iherefrom.) 

The Southera stream, flowing from the South of Norway and 
Denmark to the Low CDuntríes, and thence to the river-basins of 
the Seine and the Loire, tbough all important in its resuhs, has 
left few traces of its progress in Nonhem tradition, and for any 
adequate account of it we musC search through foreign annals. 
Witb regard to the Midmost current from Denmark to the East 
and North of England we are buc httle better off, l'he English 
authoríties alone giving trustworthy deCails of ihis great setdement, 
which changed the local nomenclature of half England, and has 
had no small influence on its later history. BuC iC is only when 
the new Danish dynasty comes in, in much later times, that the 
Livea of the Kíngs of Norway and tbe Skioldunga Saga begín 
to give better support to the English chroniclers than che vague 


xviii PROLEGOMENA. § i. 

thirteentb-century traditions, which centre round Gonn and Ragnar 
and the sons of Lodbrok, can supply. 

But with the Northcni mDvement the case is diðerenL We 
have, beside stray notíces in Irish and English Annals, Saints' 
Lives, ftc, the finn ^round of the Landnama-bók lo stand on ; 
ond we can therefore form some adequate conception of its 
character and some idea of the causes which led to the creation 
of a new European state with a native literature, which for 
oríginality, ríchness, and aitistic and historícal worth, stands un- 
rívalled in Modern Europe. It is important for our purpose to 
look into the phenomena which meet ua here a little more closely, 
especially with regard to the Settlement of Iceland ; and the resutt 
of tbe Editor's examination of the authoríties may be bríeíly stated 
thuB : — Thcre was amigiation from Norway Wcstward, which begun 
before King Harald Fairhair's days, and resulted in the peopling 
of ihe Westem Islands and espiecially the Orkneys with Wikings, 
a few settlers even gettíng as far að Iceland. When Harald's 
policy of putting down the small tríbal kings, breaking down the 
great families, and uniting the land under one man's sway began 
to be successful, the reststance of the Norwegians at home was 
supplemented by tbe efibrts of the emigrants, who were 'not at all 
incUned to &vour a king who was the stem fríend of order and 
centralizatíon, and the foe of piracy and the great houses, or lo 
reverence a monarch who had seized their kinsmen's estates, 
estates to which they had by no means given up their interest, 
and whose power threaCened lo convert their own migration into 
exile. They were continually raaking raids on the old country, 
plunderíng and ravaging, and keeping alive an initating resisCance 
to the King; whose rule, but for their interference, would pro- 
bably have been far sooner acquiesced in. The crísís of Ihis 
reástance, the ranks of which were being continually augmented 
by the disaffected, came at the great sea-fight of Hafursfiord' 
(c. 885), when, as Hornklofl sings, ' The high-born King fought 
with Klotrí the Wealthy ; ships came from the We^ with gaping 
dragons' heads and carved beaks, They were laden with warriors 
and white shields, Wesíern spears and We^sk swords. The Sear- 

> The EditoT larmÍK* ()»t the bittle of HarnnGanl wu rought (gaioit the 
Wikingi of the Wett, tetuTDÍng lad malciag Ihcir liit dfoit. In the long of Hom- 
klofi we iccardingly piopoie to reid vtslan foi aiislan, which reulÍDg ii piaTen hj 
the following Wnun ipsn (vigni Vestnenna) and W^k iwoidi, i> 1I10 b; the 
None king being cillcd itlnldr Áuslntílma, foi in the W«t, ind hence in IceUnd, 
tbe Nonenien got tbe nime of Eiiterllngi (Auitmenn, ind ADttkylGr liter in the 
{XKOi). Then foUowed the raid oí King Hanld to thc Wcit (cp. Magnui Bateleg 
twa centniis iatei), which we pieninic wu Ihe chief ciute of the Scttlcmoil of 
lceland. Foi the Weitem Iilei being the itepping-ttone between Norwiy and 
lcclind icc the Editoi'i EiMy on the Cbronologjr of the lceiandic Sigii (written 
1S54-5), whdc tbii Tiew li foi the finl linie let fbith ind eipounded. It becime 
lcnown in EngUnd Ihiongh thc ChronicoQ Manniae of Munch (1S59), who idopted 
it io that work, thougb wiiting fioin memoiy it Rotne, fai irom bookt, be of 
conne doei not gire qnotitioiii. 



aarks yelled, with war in their hearts. They joined battle with 
the valiant King of the Eastmen, who put them to flight/ ftc. 
The fight was fiercely conlested, but at iength the Wikings 
tumed their war-ships and fled across the North Sea, The 
King', not content with this crushing blow, followed it up re- 
lentlessly, and made a great espedition to the Orkneys, then 
the focus of the Wiking' movement, to stríke at the very roots 
of the influence which he dreaded. There was now no further 
choice; the Norsemen in the Westem Islands were forced to bow 
to the King or to fly again to lands beyond his sway. This 
Utter altemative some of them had already taken; among the 
Getders in Landnama many a man is recorded as having fought at 
Hafursfiord, and of these no doubt a goodly number had atready 
entered on their second Exodus ; an example which was largely 
followed by those whom other causes beside the 'overbearíng rule 
of Harald Fairhair' induced to leave the lands they had at first 
chosen to dwell in. We also hear dimly of conflicts with the Kelts, 
in which the Norsemen took sides, of intestine troubles and diifi- 
culties, and it was sucb causes as these which drove northward 
many of those well-born men that followed in the train of the 
sorrow-smitten Queen Aud to the Westem dales of Iceland. 

Queen Aud's Settlement deserves separate mention. She was 
the widow of Olaf the White, King of Dublin, the founder of 
a dynasty which long ruled there ; after his decease and the deach 
of their son Thorstein, slain in what appears to have been a rísing 
of the Irish against their conquerors, she left Ireland, taking with 
ber one grandson and six granddaughters, marrying one after 
another on her joumey. She was foliowed by a large company 
of kinsfolk, friends, and dependents, Norse and Irish. After siay- 
ing a while at the Færeys on her w^y, where she gave one of 
her daughters in marríage, from whom the house of the Götu- 
skeggs sprung (from which the famous chief Thrand and many 
other great men in the islands were descended), she went to 
Iceland, and 'settled' Broadfirth in the best pút of the new 
country. Her brother-m-law, Helgi ihe Lean, went to the North 
and occupied large 'claims' in Eyiafirth, while Ketil Fiflski, 
her sister's son, settled in the East ; her brother Helgi Biolan in 
the South; Biom, another broiher, in the West. From thia 
mighty kindred of Queen Aud spmng the most distinguished 
Icelandic families, indeed in one way or another whatever was 
good and noble. Queen Aud was the ' daughter of Ketil Flatnose, 
son of Biom Buna, son of Grím hersi (iord) of Sogn,' — the favourite 
burden of many a genealogy. They are the three Falríarchs as it 
were of the Icelandic people. How the Norse Esodus to the 
Westem Isles, especially in this family, set in before the reign or 
even birth of Harald Fairhair, a fact which the comparison of 
parallel pedigrees yields abundant proof of, has been fuUy put forth 
in Timatal, and is noticed above. Next in importance is the great 



fellowship of WitinjB, brothere in anns, who fought and were de- 
feated at Hafursfiord, — Sæmund o' thc Sudreys, Anund Woodleff 
(he lost his own leg in the battle), Thrond the Swift Sailor, Geir- 
mund Hellskin,and many othera. The close^ænnection of Queea 
Aud and her kindred with Ireland is notable in relation to the 
prominent place which memberB of it take in Icelandic history 
and literature. 

Beside these great settlements, which formed the most important 
constituents of the new colony, there was a smaller and later 
emigration direct from Norway, wbich must be taken into account. 
But the fact remains, that the bulk of the settlers were men who 
for at least one generation had dwelt among a Kehic population, 
and undergone the influence which an old and strongly marked 
civilization invariably esercises upon those brought under it, an 
attraction which in this particular case was of so potent a kind, 
that three centuriea later it metamorphosed ihe Norman knighls of 
the foremost European kingdom, with startling rapidity and com- 
pleteness, into Iiish chieftaina. Moreover we find atnong the 
emigrants of all ranks men and women of pure Irish and Scottish 
blood, aa well as many spmng from mixed marríagea, and traces 
of this crossing survive in the Irísh names bome by aome of the 
foremost characters of the Heroic Age of Iceland, especially the 
poets, of most of whom it is also recorded that they were dark 
men. And surely it is not wholly visionary to suppose that this 
close intercourse wiih the Kelts may have had something to do 
with heightening and colouring the strong but somewhat prosaic 
Teutonic imagination into the finer and more artistic spirit which 
is manifested in the lcelandic Saga. So it may not be trifling 
to notice that it is precisely in the West of the Island, the classic 
land of Icelandic letteré, that the proportion of foreign blood was 
probably the strongest. 

What effect the Keltic spirít had upon the Norsemen wbo still 
remained in the West subject to its attraction ís a matter which 
must be touched on later ; but it was in our opinion even more 
powerful and effective. Only when it is possible to judge fairly 
of the remains of the Keltic literature of the ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh centuries can any definite conception of the iníluence 
it ezerted on Icelandic, Norse, and Enghsh wiiters bc properly 

Aa to the character of this great Exodua from the Western 
Island northwards, which ran its course for sixty years, we have 
pretty full information in Landnama, besides the later traditions of 
the Sagas, and know that tbe settlers brought over not only their 
wives, children, and kinsmen, but also their tenants and thralls, 
and even their cattie, horses, and sheep. 

The men who had come to Iceland were in some respects the 
flower of the North, 'a race of giants,' such as the old Californian 
days alone supply some parallel to. They had most of them 


§ a. SAGA-TELLING. xxi 

passed throti^b a stem training, holding their own by sheer 
strengih of head and hand, in a stirring age through a Ufe of 
adventiire by sea and land, and all their feeUngs and ikculties 
seem to have been strengthéned and expanded in ihe process. 
Tbe Heroic Age of Iceland, which was to the Saga-men what the 
Wiktng-tide was to the poets of the West, was still an age of 
transition ; Índividual character was as strongly marked as of old ; 
famfly príde and policy were as strong as ever ; heathendom bad 
still its votaries, and the great growing ideas of ihe age, Unity, 
Christendom, and Feudahsm (though tbeir influence was widely 
felt), were not yet strong enough to level to one plane the 
characters and thoughts of those who were most swayed by thero ; 
Ihe foreign influence now exerted by the greatest kings that ever 
ruled in Scandinavia was not oppressive but stimulating; wbile 
the intemal political condition of tbe country was not highly 
developed enough to permit of tbe feuds which later split up tbe 
wbole island into factions and eKalted party spirít to tbe rank 
of patríotism. 

§ 3. Saga-telxing. 

Tbe state which grew up from sucb begiiuiings as this resulted 
in a form of life and social habit peculiar to the Island. Tbe 
geographical characteristics of the new land precluded centraliza- 
tion or town Ufe, while the spirít of independence, the circum- 
stances of the freeholders were far too strong to permit tbe 
growtb of a feudalism of tbe English or French type. The power 
of the Chie& waa great, but it dependcd on Custom and Law, 
which rígidly defined its influence; and thougb in later tiraes the 
increased wealtb and family alliances of the great men, and the 
influence of the Ecclesiastical Power, brought many changes, these 
had as yet aSected but little the state of things with which we are 
here concemed. Each cluster of dales opening on a separate bay, 
nay, each dale Ítself possessed an individuahty and life of its own, 
within the circle of wbich a man's days were mainly passed; and 
tbe more so as nearly cvery firtb had been originally the 'claim' 
of a single settler, wbo had divided it out by gift or sale among 
his kmsmen or dependents, later comers being obligcd to buy of 
tbe earlier settlers where and how they could. Thus a 
of almost 'family' groups was formed, each living its own life 
amid its own interests, cares, and politics. 

But for all this isolation, tbere were for every Icelandic yeoman 
two great oudets — the one, the Althing ; tbe other, the 5ea. The 
fonner strengthening the bonds wbich made ihe Island one 
Btate, by bringing together men frora every quarter yearly at 
reguiar intervals, and exercising mucb the same sort of influence 
on Iceland as the feasts, fairs, and games of Tara, Ohud, and the 
Istbmus bad on tbc scattered tribes of Ireland, Arabia, and HeUas; 


xxu PROLEGOMENA. § a. 

keeping up the tíes which made them one ín civilization if nofrtn 
poliiy. . The second, the sea, beside being the field for adven- 
ture and trade in which eveiy young chief proved himself, was 
also the road that led to the molher-lands of Scandinavia, and the 
only path by which the aits, sciences, and fashíons might reach 
these ' dwellere at the gates of the world' The importance of the 
foreign trade alone ia amply iUustrated by its effect on the literature 
and even vocabulary of Iceland^ In the old days the inhabitants of 
each homestead passed their lives in a varying round of labour. Iq 
spring the fishing, in summer the bay-harvest, and in a few farmed 
localities the grain-harvest also ; in autumn killing andsalting meat 
for the winter furnished constant occupation ; while in winter, after 
the wood cutting and stump grubbing had supplied a store of fuel, 
the indooT occupations of weaving and spinning, boat building and 
making or mending tbe farm implements fiUed up the time. The 
only breaks in tbe year of labour in tbe heathen times, when time 
was still counted by pentads and neither Sunday nor Saint's day gave 
a partial holiday, were the three or four great feasts of Ihe year, 
which were kept in greater state and with more exact observance in 
consequence. The High Summer Festival was passed by the 
chiefs and their families at the Althing, held yearly at midsummer, 
the tíme of the old healhen restival of ihe sun; the Althing lasled 
about a fortnight, and all tbe chiefs and a certain number of the 
freeman of each district were espected to attend. This meeting 
was at once a court, a council, and a meny-making, and probably 
in the 'old days' a Teligious feast; itdecidedallmattersconceming 
tbc commonweal and such cases as concemed several districts and 
could not be therefore settíed at the local moots. We have, above, 
noticed the kind of influence it ezercised on the life of the people 
and the opportunities for social intercourse it aðorded ; we hear of 
games of hurling and foot ball, of match making, of feasting, and 
above all of the recital of stories by those who could tell best the 
legenda and traditions of their several districts, a fealure wbich is 
highly noteworthy wilh respect to the origin and deveiopment of 
Ihe Saga in Iceland. We hear also of spríng and autumn sacrifices, . 
whicb no doubt coincided wilh and were beld at the district Things. 
Bul the greatest holiday of all was Yule-tide, which sometimes lasted 
a. forinigbt, when fríends, neighbours, and kinsmen would assemble 
Bt some farm in the dale and pass the time eating, drinking, 
and merry-making. The homely life of those days, while it kept 
every man in his 'own place, yet tolerated no fomial separation 
of ranks, and tbe meanest thrall shared with the highest chief in 
the hospitality and relaxation of the season. In early times 
religious solemnities were celebrated at this time, and the fitting 
sacrífices always concluded wíth a feast. Weddings and Arval- 
feasts too were opportunilies for great gatherings of guests down 
to much later times, and oflen lasted many days. 

It was aniid such scenes that the Saga came into being. 


$ 2. SAGA-TELLING. ixiu 

Tbere was no music, no dancing, no drama in the old tímes in 
Iceland, so that hearing and telling stories, and repeating verses, 
formed (besides athlelic sports) the staple amusement of the 
assembled guests. The ' local heroes and the local traditions 
fiimished che chief topics, for the Iceianders were a practical 
rather than a religious people, and though they had legends of 
a superstítíoua character they preferred tnith to fictíon, and so the 
plain unvamished tale of some great local chiefs career abroad 
and adventures at home was woveu iuto the permanent sha^pe of 
the Saga. 

Thus we frequently hear of story-telling as a recogrnised amuse- 
ment. AttheYule-tídefeasts,asin£rik theRed'sSagaiuGreenland, 
where the household sat playing at Cables and telling stories (töH ok 
sagna-skemtan) '. At the Althing, where Halldor Snorrison sat by 
his booth and told so truthfully the wonderful Ufe and adventures 
of his old master Harald Hardradi (Hulda) and when Thorgrim 
teUs the tale of his own ezploits in slaying Thorgeir (Fostb. 5.) 
At great feasts, of which we have a vivid picture in Sturlunga 
(L p. 19) Saga of the banquet of Reykholar. Od sea voyages, 
as in the pretty passage in Hauks-bók, where the crew land for 
the night, and one of ihem tells ihe story of King Vikar as they 
sit beside his howe, for which the gratcM ghost appears to him 
and bids him, as his fee, take for himself the buried treasures 
of his caim. 

We have the names of men and women renowned for their skill 
in story-telling and vast memory — and thus of Ingimund the 
priest, — Ingiraundr var fræftiraaðr mikUl, ok fór mjök meö sögur, 
ok skemti vel kvæðum. . . . Hann var hinn raestí gleðimaðr, ok fékk 
mart til skemtunar (Sturlunga i. pp. 8, 16). Styrkár Sigmundson 
of Greenland,— var hann sagna-maðr mikill ok sannfróðr (Sturl- 
nnga i. p. 87). So also Thurid, Teit, Thorkel, Odd Kolsson, &c. 
See the § on Ari. 

And not only in the island but also at the courts of Norway, 
tbough the Icelanders shine prc-eminently here as the best tellers of 
tales, we find numerous instances of the same kind. The scene in 
Niala, in Stufs t>attr, and, best of all, the account in the last chapter 
of Sturlunga of Sturla's own enthraUing skill as a story-teller 
and the consequences thereof, will readily occur to the reader. 
"Even when the Sagas had passed out of oral tradition and had 

* Tbe lecbnici] word (br [tor;-lelling Íi 'ikemtin' or ' ngni-tkemtu],* exaelly 
Shikcqiean'i íbridgment: — 

'Sar, whit ■brid^ent hive ^ou for thii evening? 
Wbat mask? what mgiick? How ihall we beguila 
Tbe \ízf time, if nol wilh sooie delight?'— M.N. D.. Act V.Sc. i. 
Tfae ronit ' ikemta' it either an iteratÍTe or detived from ihe neuter pailiciple of 
'^emnia,' to ihorten, which igain comet from tkimi, ai Ín the phrate ' þetii laga 
vír ikemt Sreni konungi,' King Svetri wai enteitaioed with Ihit ilory. See Dicl. 
(ub Tocc ikemta. EdeI. uanl a 1 kindred word. 


xxW ■ PROLEGOMENA. § 3. 

b«en commítted to wríting we heai of the reading of storíes, as on 
that SundEty, 1258, when Thorgils Skardi was killed they were 
reading the story of Thomas ^ Becket. The language itself in such 
worda as skemmta, to shorten, to kill time, bears witness to the 
practice, which is still in full force in Iceland ; where the long winler 
evenings are whiled away in the big room, where the household 
work is going on and all are gatheied together, in hearíng the 
same tales read, the recital of which had charmed so many 
generations of their forefathers. 

j 3. The Saga Charactzristics. 

The Saga proper is a kínd of prose Epic. In has íts fi^ced laws, 
Its seC phrases, its regular epithets and terms of expression, and 
though there is, as in all high literary form, an endless diversity of 
interest and style, yet there are aSso bounds which are never over- 
stepped, confining the Saga as closely as the employment and 
restríctions of verse could do. It will be best to take, as the 
type, ihe smaller Icelandic Saga, from which indeed all the later 
forms of composition have sprung. This is, in its original form, 
the Btory of the tife of an Icelandic gendeman, living sometime in 
tbe tenth or eleventh centurícs. It will teil first of his kin, going back 
to the 'seltler' from whom be sprung, then of his youth and early 
promise before he left his father's house to set forth on thal foreign 
career which was the fitting education of the young Northem chief. 
These ' waoder-jahre ' passedin trading voyages andpirate cruises, 
or in tbe service of one of the Scandtnavian kings, as poet or 
henchman, the hero returns to Iceland a proved man, and the 
main part of the story thus preluded begins. It recounts in 
fuller detail and in order of time his life in Iceland, his loves and 
feuds, bis chieftainship and lawsuits, his fríendships and bis enmities, 
his exploits and renown, and finally his deatb; usually concluding 
wilh the revenge taken for him by his kinsmen, which fitly wínds 
up the wbole. This tale is told in an eamest straightfomard way, 
as by a man talking, in sbort simple sentences, cbanging when the 
interest grows high into tbe historic present, with here and there 
an ' aside ' of explanation put in. Tbere is no analysis of character, 
the actors ' present ibemselves ' in their action and speech. The 
dialogue, which is crisp and laconic, ful! of pithy saws and abound- 
ing in quiet grím humour or homely pathos, expressed in three or 
four bríef words, is never needlessly used, and thereforc all the 
more aignifícant and forcible. If the hero is a poet we find moat 
aptly interwoven many of his extemporary verses. The whoíe 
composition, grouped round a single man and a single place, is so 
weU balanced and so naturally unfolded piece by piece, that the 
great art shown Iherein often at first escapes the reader. A con- 
siderable choice of words, a ríchness of alliteration, and a delicate 
use of syntax are always met with Ín the best Sagas. The slory- 



teller is absorbed in his subject, no descríption of scenery, no 
redections of his own ever brealc the flow of the story. He is a 
heathen vrith the heathen, a wrathful man with the avenjer, and a 
sorrawfiil man with the moumer, as his style reflects the varied 
feelings of his dramaJu personae. The plot is nearly always a 
tragedy, and the hnmour dark and gloomy (the bearty buffoonery 
of Bandamanna is the marked exceplion), but this is relieved by 
the brighter and more idyllic home and farm scenes and by the 
pathos and naíveté which are ever present 

The constant epic allu^ons to the 'old days,' the continoal 
reference to Law, the powerful use and vivid re^ity of tbe super- 
natural element, the moral stand-point of the story-teller himself 
appreciating so fully the pride of birth, the high sense of honour, 
the quick sharp wit, ready hand and dauntless beart of his heroes, 
and last and most important tbe constant presence of women 
Ín the stoiy, whicb give it that variety and intercst wc admire 
Go much in Homer, are all notewortiiy characterístics of the 

Just as every reg:ular form of composition, whether dramatic, 
lyríc, or what not, has its special beauiies and advantages, so also 
there will be inherent deficiencies and imperfections. It is of course 
so with the Saga, the monotony of the subject whicb turns so 
frequendy on bloodshed and revenge or poinis of taw, the bald 
prolisity at times of the stj-le, nay, the very qualities which fit the 
story for oral recitation, such as the broken succession of incident, 
and tbe prolnngalion of the action, will often weary thc reader who 
will miss the artistic balance of the literary schools with wbích he 
ís most familiar, and all these must be acknowledged as salient 
defects. But while fully admitting this, it must be remembered 
that the only true test to which the Saga Ehould be put, is to 
consider and treat it from the position of lislmer, when alone one 
can fitly appreciate the reason for much that jars ihe solitaiy student. 
Thus the necessity of keeping the fiearers attcntion aíive by a 
succession of small shocks is obviöus, and the need for a simple 
conventional style was felt just as mucb by the Saga-teller as it is 
by the Arab reciter of to-day, for ao only was he able to devote 
himself to hig subject without needlessly oppressing the memory, 
which must be kept free to deal with the matter, Again war, 
whether public or prívate, was the ideal drcumstance to an 
Icelander of the tenth century, and exciled more inlerest than any 
other save Law, which if less romantic was perhaps more intei- 
tectually enthralting: while the tocal feuds, which to us are but 
imaginatívely stritdng, aSected bis every interest, political and 
Bocial. The aristocratic pride of family, the hereditary enmities 
and fríendships which inspire the Sagas, were stitt living motives in 
ihe lives of the men who tislened to these stories, which gave them 
the history of ðieir distrícl, and ensbrined its heroes and vitlains in 
their memory in a way which \ve may best piciure to ourselves by 


xívi PROLEGOMENA. § 3. 

remetnberíng the popularíty of the ' Hisloríea ' of the Elizabethan 
drama. And as the mere student can never fitly eoler inlo the 
spirit of these plays by the most careful perusal only, so to 
appreciate rightly the peculiar ezcellences and idiosyncracies of 
the Sagas we must never forget the circumstances nnder nhicb 
they vere prodaced, and the fact that by the tar only can they be 
properly enjoyed. 

The period during which the Sagas were making was but brief, 
nor could it have been otherwise; the combination of circum- 
stances which will produce such a literature is rare and transiCory. 
The Sagas of Iceland, like the Elizabethaji drama, are tbe outward 
expression of the innermost heart of a great Age, the passion- 
floner, as it were, which blooms and fades in a day. Just as the 
discovery of America, the Reformation, the stiuggle wilh Spain, 
the spread of Classical Literature, metamorphosed the Englishmen 
of the sixteenih century and drew them up into a higher region of 
mental hfe, so the discovery of the Westem Lands (as new and 
strange to the Norsemen as Mexico and Peni to the Conquesta- 
dores), the sudden outburst of the Wiking Life (like the free career 
of the half-pirate adventurers of the Spanish Main) wich aJl ics ad- 
venture and danger on sea and land, che close contact in peace and 
war with the Kelts, whose ancienc civiliiation was, as far as we 
can tell, in many points superior to that of the invaders, and 
therefore the stronger in ics inðuence, aU seem to have deeply 
að'ected the Northcm mind and wrought it to a higher pitch Chan 
it had ever before attained. So soon as the right note is struck, 
the ríght form of expression hit on, the Saga, the Heroic Lay, or 
the Drama starts into life ' fnll-armed ' as it were, lasts a few years 
in full beauty and power, and sinks quickly back into decay. 
We have indeed the Epigonic poetry and pseudo-Sagas of the 
Decadence in Iceland, but we could almost regreC that the cbange 
had not come sooner and snapped the thread of continuity before 
their birth. 

Nothing can be further from the truth than to imagine that 
Iceland is still the tand of Saga-telling, or that the Icelander of 
to-day belongs to Che Saga Age; it is as if we were to talk 
of the English dramatist of the nineCeenCh century as the best 
playwrighcs of che world because the noblest of all dramatic 
schools once esisCed in England. There has been a complete 
breach in both countríes between the pasC and present, a ' great 
gulf fixed' which can never be bridged again. We can never 
revive the Drama of Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Webster, and for 
an Icelander of to-day to wríte modern history in Saga-style is a 
ludicrous absurdily. Nor can he pretend to exclude the Westem 
emigranCs from whom he sprung from their share in the glories of 
the past; surely when all is told the debC owed to Iceland is 
heavy enough and ihe rank which must be accorded to its Litera- 
ture of the highest, as perfectly Tepresentative of the noblest aud 



most charactemtic qualities of the Teutonic niind. Qualitiea 

which had lain dormant as it were in continental Scandinavia, till 
the awakening came, and the Norseman came forth aa 'a giant 
refreshed to nin his race." With the S^, as the maín subject of 
our work, we must deal first, bnt we hope to devotc a few Lnes to 
the so-cailed ' Eddic Poetry,' which cannot be disregarded or passed 
over ín a survey of this nature. 

To sum up the matter, we have firat to diatinguish the Heroie 
Agt or Sögu-öld of Iceland (890-1030) covering first the sixty 
years of the Sett leme nt, then the stirríng and important epoch 
centring round the Hves of the two great Olav es. the age when the 
eventa which are recorded in the Sagas tooí place. The last 
act of this age ends somewhat abruptly at the year 1030, marked 
by the death of St. Olaf in Norway, and of Skapti (the Lawman) and 
Snoni (the Chief) in Iceland. Neít the Age of Growth of the 
Saga, the Slory-idhng Age, when it was gradually working into 
definite sbape in the mouths of men, through the more or lesa 
peacefiiL years which succeeded the ' Sturm und Drang' períod 
of Icelandic history. Then comes the Age of Writíng or Rit-öld 
following on the literary labours of Arí and his school, which 
gave them their definite literary clothing and form. This division 
of time begins towards the close of Ari's life, and lasts tiil the 
time of the Sturlungs; it is succeeded by a seríes of períods of 
strictly literary development, which are affected by the varíous 
new interests that successively prevail in Ihe Island, These we 
must consider separately, each in its own peculiar aspect ', 

§ 4. Ari Tint Hktorian. 

[,067-1148.] ^,aiC^] 

Aki, called the Higtorían (fróði), was bom in 1067, of a noble 
family sprung from Queen Aud and King Olaf the White, fixim 
whom he was eigbth in descent Of his lineal ancestors five were 
bom in Iceland, two in the heathen days, three in the Chrístian 
times, but only one died a heathen ; his sixth lineal ancestor, the 
Settler Olaf Feilan, was bom in the Western Islands (probably in 
Ðublin), but died in Iceland. On his fathér's side Arí was the 
great-gmndson of Gudrun the beroine of the Laidæla Saga; on 
bis mother's he was spning from Hall o' Side, up to whom it Ís 
remarkable that the three great Icelandic historians trace their 
descent on the mother's side; Thorey Sæmund's mother being 
HaU's granddaughter, and Joreid, Arí's mother, his great-grand- 
daughter, Gudny Snorri's mother standing to him both in the 
Eizth and seventh degree of descent. It was from the noble family 

* See thc Editoi'* Enij on Timatal, p. 187 njq., whcre tliit dÍTÍiioD ii fitit 


xxviii PROLEGOMENA. § 4. 

of ttie Reyknesings, Ínto which his p^ndfather had raanied, that 
the hislorían got his name Ari, tbeEagle. His father Thorgils was 
drowned in ihe child's infancy, hence he was brought up at Helga- 
fell (Holyfell), the hotise of hia grandfather Gelli, wbo died at 
Roskild on his JDumey back from a pilgrimage to Rome, 1073, 
' There,' says the Heimskringla preface, ' the child came at the age 
of seven to Hawkdale to Hall Thorarínsson and was there fourteen 
years, when Hall died ninety-four years old. Hall was a man of 
good parts and clear memory; he could remember priest Thang- 
brand baptizing him when he was but three winters old.' Hall 
was a very distinguisbed man, and had been mucb abroad ; he was 
even for some time a partner in trade with King Olaf the Saint, 
as we leam from the same authoríty. * Teit, son of Bishop Isleif ' 
(whose father Gizur the White is often mentioned in thc Sagas), 
' was wilh Hall at Hawkdale in fosterage, and dwett there after- 
wards. He taught príest Arí and told him much history, which 
Ari afterwards wrote of. Ari also got a great deal of historícal 
knowledge from Thurid the daughter of Snorri the Chief ; she was 
a woman of a good understanding, sbe could remember Snorrí her 
father.' ' It was not wonderful that Arí should be so truly informed 
of what bappened in old days both here and abroad, for he bad 
galhered his knowledge from old and wise men, and he hionself 
was always eager to lcara and a man of good memory.' We know 
from Kristni Saga that Ari at twelve was present at the burial 
of Bishop Isleif. 

Of Ari's life till he was twenty-one we know so much, but of 
his subsequent career, long and laborious as it was, nothmg, save 
the names of his wife and two children, a son and daughter. He 
was a Godi, for there were godords in his family, and he bimself 
is once, in the year 11 18, recorded among the Chiefs of Iceland 
who were in holy orders : as such he must often have been at the 
Althing, where we take it he gathered much of bis information. 
We do not evcn know bis abode. The family seat was Helgafell, 
and there his uncle Thorkei (the elder Iwother) dwelt till old age, 
and probably his son Brand ihe príest after him, so that Ari must 
have lived elsewhere; and as we find his son Thorgils living at 
StaÖ in Snowfellsness, where also lived long after Ari's great- 
granddaughler Helga, the wife of Thord Sturlasson (father of 
Slurla the Historian), we may conclude that to bave been bis 

Arí died 1 148 (as we leam from the Annals), on Nov, 9, so says 
the Obituaríum, aged eighty-one, or even in his eigbty-second 

The Works of Ari. Snorrí in thc Dfe expressly stales that ' Ari 
was the first man, here in this land, who wrote in ihe Norse tongue 
histories relaling to times ancient and modern.' To begin with the 
evidence on this head, waiving non-essenlial points and stating the 
facls of the case in order, three works of An are distincdy men- 



tioned : i. Konunga-bók, or Book of Kín^ ; a. Landnaha-bóe, or 
Book of Settlements ; and 3. Islendwga-bók, or Book of Ihe Ice- 
landers. The very use of the word ' bók' is distinctive of Ari ; for, 
when he wrole, il prcceding histories were 'Sagas' in the true 
sense of ihe word, vivá voce tradition ; and it would seem tbat he 
thus distinguisheB his own wrillen work, perhaps as a clerk. bor- 
rowing thc idea from the Books of Scripiurt. 

T. As to Koni;nga-bók, we have the distinct testimony of tbe 
superscription to Cod. Fria, (whence that MS. was afterwards known 
as ihe ' Book of Kings '), ' Here beginneth the Book of Kings 
according to the records of Priest Ari the Historían; opening 
from thc threefold division of the World, which is followed by 
the History of all the Kings of Norway.' To thia statement 
a short introduction containing a Life of Ari is prefiied. These 
words can only mean either that the following Sagas are Ari's 
'Book of Kings,' or that they are derived therefrom. And the 
Ynglinga we take to be ihe very work of Arí, abridged here and 
there, but still preserving in many chapters (eapecially those which 
depict thc life and rites of the heathen days) his characteristic style 
and words. The discrepancy between the mythology of the 
Ynglmga and the Frose-Édda may be noted as some siight con- 
finöation of this view. 

Towards the end of St. Olaf s Saga we íind, ' Prieal Ari Thorgils- 
son tbe Historian first wrote these records (grein) of the King's 
reign, a man both wise and of tmthrul speech, having a good 
memory, being also of such age that he could remember and draw 
informadon from men old enough to have well remembered tbese 
tidings, as he himself has written in his books, naming those 
men from whom he had gotten his infonnatíon.' Although this 
sentence is awkwardly placed in the midst of a passage bearíng 
on chronology, we take it to be a general acknowledgment of the 
author's (Snorrí) obligation to Ari, upon whose Book of Kinga 
he had founded his own Lives of thc Kings. The word 'greÍD* 
must here be translated 'records'.' It is not solely for informatíon 
as to the question of Che prccise length of St. Olafs reign, fifteen 
or fifleen and a half or sixteen years, but for the whole life of the 
King, that we are indebted to Ari's book and researches. This 
is corToborated by the Life in the preface to Heimskringla, ' Ari, as 
he has told us himself, wrote the Lives of the Kings of Norway 
as told him by Odd Kolsson, the grandson of Hall o' Side. Odd 
agajn had leamt the sCory fVom Thorgeir, who was a wise man 
and of good memory, and so old that hc lived at Nidarnes (in 
Throndheim) when Earl Hakon was slain.' 

Arí is indeed cited in various oCher instances with clear reference 
to mcre chronological points, as twice in the great 0. T. Saga ; and 
Odd the Monk spends a whole chapter on the respective chrono- 

> Sc« the Gditot** iniclc od thit «ot4 in the Dictionif]'. 




lc^cal systems of Arí utd Sæmund. Ari's Konunga-bðk probably 
ended with the death of King Harald Sigurdsson, as &r as we 
can judge from the style of the ' Kjngs-Lives ' and frora divera 
scattered indications. It has períshed, except so ^ as ic is em- 
bodied in Snorrí's work, in which we can detect somc fragments 
of it apparently verbally cited, e. g, ihe preface, ' á bök þessi ,'. . ,' 
which certainly cannot be ascríbed to Snoiri, as Gisli BTynjulfsson 
long ago maintained. This is clearíy bome out by thc wording. 
The writer repeatedly speaks of vtvá voce sources, never of booka 
— 'as I have heard wise men say,' 'as I have been totd,' 'old 
traditions' (fomar frásagnir), 'poems' (kvaeði), 'epic lays {sögu- 
Ijöö) nsed for entertainment ' — these are his sources. He sdso 
speaks oí Langf^galal, by which wc take him to mean genealogical 
lays, which indeed were specially styled /ii/(Yngl)nga-taí, Haleygja- 
tal). AII this is in good keeping witb Arí and his age ; when 
Snorrí wrote a century later, a whole cycle of wrítten Sagas had 
spning up; whilst tradition had at the same rale died away, <x 
was becoming extinct. 

2. Landnaha-bók (as it ia entitíed in the two editions of Sturla 
and Hauk and cited in Floamanna Saga), in accordance with the 
usual MSS. custom, does not contain its author's name. But Law- 
man Hauk, at the end of his recension, says that he had compiled 
his book ' according as former historians (fróftir menn) have wrítten 
it, first priest Arí the Historían, and Kolskcgg the Wise.' He says 
further that he compiled his booV from two copies, Sturla's and 
Styrmi's, and that these two books agreed with each other in the 
raain ', The evidence of the book itself is, ' Now I have taken one 
by one all the lcelandic settlements that we have heard of,' whicb 
surely points to oral tradition. The suggestion that Arí only 
began the work is idle, for the whole book is of one cast, and the 
conception of such an undertaking, uniquc in the whole field of 
literature as it is, must be due to a single mind. Moreover, thc 
interpolations of Sturla and Styrmi, the later editors, mainly 
consist in bringing certain pedigrees (the bulk of the genealogies 
ceasing at the beginning of the twelfth century) down to their own 
times; Sturla tracing them to his grandmother Gudny and his 
grandfather Sturla of Hvamm, and Hauk to himself. Styrmi's 
text, possibly the bcst, is unfortunately lost, escept so far as it 
is represented in Hauk's edition, Both editions, that of Sturla 
and Styrmi, we take to have been independently taken from Arí's 
work ; and as in Hauk's days both were mainly identical, Sturla 

■ The woidt of H»uk run thuc— 'Nd ct >fir f»rit nm laodaim þw er verit 
hifi & lilíudi, eptii þvi lem h»f» ilirifn. fynt Aii pialr hinn Fr44i þorgUt lon, ok 
Kokkeegr hina TÍtri, Eo þeua búk riu6» ek Híukr Eriendi nn eplli þeim búk 
■eiu riIaS h»f6i HerT» Sturla Lögmaflr, hinn fróSaiti m»6r. ok eplit þeirri bók 
«nn»rri, tt rilafi h.fSi Stjrraii hino Fróðí. Ok hafSí ek þat úr hreiri leni fMmií 
greindi; en mikili þori var þat. er þrr wgftu eini báftar; ok þvi er þit ekb at 
undim þó þeui LuHlniiDa-b^ U lengrí en nokkui Öoaut.' 



at least could not be the author, for when Styrmi died (1245) 
Sturla was only thirty years of age, which would not give him 
time to have written any considerahle part of such a work. Oa 
the other hand Landnama is often cited (ihough not by name) in 
the Sagas, being the groundwork or matrix to them aa it were ; 
and in style and cbaracter lying behind and bejoad ail other 
Icelandic íiterature. 

We have therefore no hesitation in ascríbing to Arí and his 
contenDporary, Kolskegg, the sole authorship of diis peerless work, 
an opinion entirely ín consonance with all esisting tradition on 
the subject ; e. g. an early editor of Gunnlaug's Saga (Snorrí } the 
style is very Uke that of Egla and the Kings' Lives), who has 
interpolated the text largely with quotations from lost works of 
Arí, chiefly Islendinga-bók, bears witness to Arí as tbc greatest 
Icelandic authority on tbe traditions of the Settlement and the 
history of old days, ' er mestr fiæði-maðr hefir verít á Islandi á 
Landnáms-sðgur ok forna fræði.' 

With reference to Kolskegg's share of the work in the text of 
Landnama-bók (IV. ch. 5) itself, speaking of the Settlement on the 
East coast, we find, ' Nó hefir Kolskeggr sagt héðan frá um land- 
nám,' and for a while the style has a peculiaríty of its own, stating, 
fOT Ínstance, ín reference to each ' claim,' ' from hence came such 
a family ' and so forth, a peculiarity less marked elsewhere ; but 
though we can fairly guess, we have no actual notice of the 
extent of Kolskegg's coUaboratioa As to the two editions 
they are chieSy at varíance in the first chapters (the order in 
which the three discoverers reached the island, &c.) How is this 
discrepancy to be accounted for? Did Arí revise his earher wotk 
by the light of later and as he judged better information, or 
have Íater editoTS used independent authorities (SEmund?) to 
correct the oríginal text? We prefer the former alternative, as 
cntirely consonant to Ari's habit of mind, which we know waa 
evcT open to fresh informalion and eager lo get at the exact 

3. IsLENniNGA-BÖK. This book ilself is lost, but we have a 
partial revision of it, called ' Libellus,' by Arí himself, in the brief 
preface to whicb he says, 'The Book of the Icdanders I first 
made for our bishops Thorlak and Ketil, and showed it both to 
them aod to Sæmund the príest But according as it liked them 
so to have it or to add thereto (svá at hafa eþa þar viþr auca), 
I afterwards wrote this one of tbe sarae purport, without (fyr utan) 
the Genealogica and the Kings-Lives,' &c, The prefaces of old 
aulhors are proverbially diCGcuIt to ujidersCand, and this is true of 
Ari no less than of Livy, Moreover, we have constantly to bear 
in mind that the technical language of authors and editors of our 
own days is a recent creation, and here in especial Arí has to give 
e](pression to ideas which had never before been expressed in 
speech or wríting ín his native tongue. Thus the phrase above 



qnoted must be taken to refer to two of ihe ordinary ronns of 
criticisro, ' svá at haía,' alleralion, and ' þar við at auca/ addiHon. 
No one would be likely to suggest any omissions or compressions 
to one vho vas essentiálly, as Arni Magnusson justly says, ' auctor 
brevis,' Upon the words 'fyrir utan' Ihere have been two con- 
slnictions put, one of Arni M^nusson's, one by the present 

Here the reader will find it convenient to have by his side 
a text of the Libellus, which has been printed several times, and 
laKerly edited by Möbius, whose correct and handy edition may 
easily be procured. Chapter locloses with the words, ' Hereendeth 
Ihis Book,' upon which in chapter i \ foUows the pedigrees of the 
two 'present bishops' of Iceland, and in chapter la the genealog;y 
of the author himself traced up to Odin through several early 
kings, and concluding with ' father of Thorgils, father of mine, 
but I am named Ari.' These two final chapters Ami took to 
be the ' Ættar-tolur ' and 'Konunga-Æíi,' which Ari had added 
lo his new revision ' fyr utan,' meaning ' besides.' Our text would 
thus be an mlaTgemeni of the older ' Islendinga-bök.' But why 
then should Ari sLyle his former work 'Liber' and the present 
one 'Libellus?' Ór how can a mere pedigree be referred to as 
'Life of Kings?' Moreover, in chapter ir, Ari says, ' Thorlak 
who is now Bishop in Skalholt next aller Gizur;' but we know 
from intemal evidence that Thorlak was already dead (died 
ist Feb. II 33) when the Libeltus was written, hence these two 
chapters must have formed part of the original work, from which 
they have been transferred to this new one, The explanatíon 
seems to be that these two chapters stand really in the place of 
a dedicaiion and tHU-page. Our modem devices for this end 
were of course unknown till some time after the invention of 
piinting, and many are the ways taken by classic and mediæval 
authors to eífect the purposes for which we utilíse the first pages 
of our books. Ari's is certainly one of the most ingenious and 
reasonable, especially when we consider the habit of Icelandic 
scribes in later times of omitting all such superfluitíes (in their 
eyes) as prcfaces, tities, and authors' names when they copied out 
a book, These two chapters were important enough to be allowed 
to remain untouched, while the compliment they convey was one 
which would be most highiy appreciated in an age when oral 
genealogies were the title deeds as it were to consideration and 
social positíon. We must therefore take the words ' fyrir utan ' 
in their natural sense of ' excepting,' and believe that they refeired 
to something which the Islendinga-bók contained, bnt which 
was omilled in the LibeUus, Again, Snorri's short Life of 
Ari, in the preface to the Kings' Lives, tells of a 'book' of Ari, 
which besides containing 'records of Iceland' included ' Lives 
of Kings' and a section on 'lslands bygð ok Laga-selning,' 
the Settlement of Iceland and the Constiiutíon thereof, which 


(4- ARI THE HISTORIAN. xxxiii 

last item is jast vhat we do find in LibeHus whtlst the others 
are omttted'. 

Ample corroboration of this view is afforded by other sources. 
In the Sagas we often find paragraphs, fionieEimes whole chapters, 
inaerted from Arí's Islendinga-bók, though the authority is not 
always given; as, for instance, Sturl, VII. chapa. ia-15 (vol. L 
pp. 303-6), Úie scattered interpolations in Gunnlaug's Saga ; the 
great extracts in Hænsaþ. (Vatzhyma text); the important chapters 
in Eyrbyggia, and the account of the oath and old heathen rites 
noticed by Maurer. In all these cases it is from the Liber that 
the insertion comes, nevtr fi-om our Libellus. The Liber therefore 
contained a fuUer text where it ran parallel to the Libellus, as wel! 
as an abridgment of the Lives of Kings and of Landnama-bók, 
a fragment of which last is, we believe, preserved in the extracts 
ÍTom the lost Mela-bók. 

In an unpubfished Essay on Arí, written in Icelandic some seven- 
teen years ago, the Editor, besides setling forth his presént views 
on the connection between Liber and Libellus, strove to establish 
the theory that Arí had wrítten otu book only, an Islendinga-bók, of 
which our Landnama-bök and the Lives of Kings had once formed 
an integral part. This latter opinion he has long since given up as 
unjust to the memoiy of Arí and lacking in probability, for the fol- 
lowing leasons : — ^LÚidnama-bók we have, and it is too Íarge a work 
to have ever formed only part of a book, moreover the Íntroduction 
of Fris-bók is, as wc have tried to show above, conclusively favour- 
able to our present theory. In the next place Arí must have been 
about sixty years of age when he wrote the Liber (c. 1137), and 
seventy when he partly revised it in Libellus (in the days when 
Rafn was Lau-man, 1135-9), ^nd it is most unlikely that he wrote 
his first book at such an advanced age. In fact the negative 
evidence is almost conclusive : Arí himself gives us the names of 
eight persons from whom he deríved information for much of his 
work. Of these, five died towards the beginning of the century 
— Thuríd the Wise, in 1112, aged 88; Teit, in iiii (who was 
brought up with Ari); Lawman Marcus, in 1108; Ulfhcdin, in 
II 18. As to Ari's uncle Thorkel, his dealh is not recorded, hut 
it cannot have taken place much after iioo, as he was the eldest 
Bon of a man bom in 1008. Lastly, Odd Kblsson, who was a 
grandson of Hall o' Side, and Ari's aecond and fourth cousins. 
We have therefore to imagine thc yotmg Ari listening to the o!d 
Odd Kolsson. Arí himself, as well as Snorri, states that the 

- ' Thepnfacc to St.Olaf'i Siga ujn: 'He vTote mott m tlie bcgiuiungorliiibook 
of tbs Settlancnt and CoiutiiutioD af Iceland, thcn of the Liw Spciken, luiw 
loog cich bsd becD Spcaker, and Gxed Ihe chconalog]' Etit np to the coming of 
Chríitianity to lceliad and ihen ríght down to bit own diy. He aiio treited 011117 
othcr qnctiiODi, both of the Li*et of ihe Kingi in Noiwiy and Sweden, ind in 
Englaiul u well, ind ilw Ihc grcit mnti tbit had happcDed bert io tbii land ; 
■nd aU he bai written cairiet with ni Ihc gteateM weight.' 


xxxit PROLEGOMENA. § 4. 

Islendiaga-bölc conbúned a bríef life of all the Law-speakers from 
the oral records of Markus Skeggjason, and the loss of these Livea 
is indeed a great one, especially as rcgards tbe legal and con- 
Btitutional history of tbe country. Arí's Uceiary life inust therefore 
have begun early, and we should put the composition of the Book of 
Kings and the Landnama-bók about 1 1 10, certainly not after 1 1 lo. 

What we (ake to have been the case Ís this. Arí having already 
wrítten iwo distinct works, the Book of Kings and the Book of 
the Settlement (the Icelandic ' Joshua'), undeitook, at ihe Bishop's 
ÍDStauce, the Book on Iceland, in which, besides fresh matter, he, 
as it were, summed up and epitomised his two former books, 
working them into the new one, but again etiminating them in 
tbe Libellus, his last work on the subject. 

Kkistni Saga, the history of the Christian missious to Iceland 
and finally of the introduction of the New Faith, which is suffixed 
to one of our MS5. of Landnama-bók (Hauks-bók), seems to be 
an appendiiE 10 the Landnama. Part of it is actualiy quoted in 
BiBhop Paul's Saga as Arí's, in the style and frame of whose works 
it is entirely moulded, so that although it has not come down to 
us altogether untonched by the hand of a later editor (Odd the 
Monk ?), we take it to be clearly his. 

Besides these works Ari seems to have wrítten something on Ihe 
life of his fríend the good Bishop Ketil, wbo died whíle on a vi«t 
to Skalholt in 1145, 'about sunset on Fríday, in the octave of 
SS. Peter and Paul, as Bp. Magnos, who was himself present at his 
death, told Arí the Hístorían' (see voL ii. p. 502). Arí outlived him 
three years and four months. 

Snorrí sums up Arí's chaiacter in the words s<mn-s(^l, vilr oh 
mínnigr, ' a man of truthfulness, wisdom, and good memoiy,' and 
assures us of the high importance attached to all his work. And 
indeed, tnithfulness, the foundation of all real knowledge, is 
certainly the distinguishing quality of his works, and gives him 
a very high place among the great historíans of the world. Hb 
sagacity,hÍB careful and orderiy method, and plain, straigbtforward, 
but puie and dignified style enhance the value of the immense 
amouDt of information which he carefuUy gatbered from the best 
soiu-ces, the relative woith of which he guages minutely. Neither 
was he a mere antiquarian; on the contraiy, his view of history is 
both poetical and scientilic, and differs in every respect from the 
nairow and distorted vision of the ordinary medÍEeval wríter, 
with whom indeed he has nothing in common. His gieatest 
woik is undenjably Landnama-bók, which is truly the creation 
of a mastei mind, when we considei the escellence of plan, 
the enormous difficulties to be encountered in its prosecution, 
and the success with which it was accomplished. This book, 
at once the Domesday and Golden Book of Iceland, is worthy 
to be lanked with the Bible of Ulphilas, the Saxon Chronicle, 
and tbe Norman Survey, amoDg the foremost monuments of ths 



histoiy of our race. Opening with a brief sketch of ihe Settle- 
meol, it proceeds to give a notice of each settler (some 400 
in all), his pedigree and descendants, and his ckim, in geogra- 
phical order (beginning with thc South Firths and going com- 
[^tely round the island from West to East). This plan is filled iit 
with a great mass of interesting detail, shoit accounts of bmous 
men and women, notices of old customs, laws, rítes, and nomen- 
clature, &c., verses and sayings, references to events vhich took 
place abroad in England, Ireland, Scotland, and the eastem Scan- 
dinavian countríes. Arngrím ', who mentions it (1594) for tbe lirst 
time after the Reformation, when the anthor'B name was siill 
nnknown, wrítee of it as containing some aooo names of home- 
steads, nesses, hillocks, brooks, rívers, dales, fiiths, creeks, moun- 
tains, and ístands, besides some 4000 names of real persons (of 
whom abont one-third are women). Indeed it would l^rdly be an 
exaggeration to say that whatever we know for ccrtain of life, 
religion, and conadtaiion of the oid days in the Scandinavian States 
is in one way or other due to Arí. And it is well for us that he 
hved wben he did, like Herodotus, just in time to gather up and 
gamer for us traditions that were dying or being driven out of 
men's minds by new interests and new ideas, and not in vain does 
Snorrí, perhaps half regretfu]!/, notíce his age and the oppor- 
tunities it ga,ye him, advantages which he himself was denied. 

In our complete ignorance of tbis great historían's life after the 
Bge of twenty-one, we cannot tell how all this information was 
brought together. Did Arí travel over Icetand, making his en- 
quiríes in every dale, or did he learn Ít, hke a Socrates of history, 
ftom questioning the men from all qnarters whom he met at the 
Althii^^ which latter hypothesis we shootd rather incline to. 
Was Ají ever out of Iceland í Did be know Norway i Had he, 
wbo has preserved the livcs of so many kings for us, ever beheld 
a kiDg's facei' We believe not*. Tbere is an air of loraancc 

> ' Hi plDici quim 400 cun 


t agnitli ct pnclcrca aamnod lámilit 

ncc illoniin Untum nDinciui dcicríbitur, 

led qnuon>.quu littoii, et qua 
M aBoniDdo priiDÍ iolubiiUote 

c lcxa mcdi 
, freti., lim 

bm. poTtobiu. irthniij, portlimii, pronion- 

tiríia, nipibui, tcopnlit, moatibui, collibui, vallibut tuqui), ftmtibDt, fiuminibui, 
lÍTÍi, ct dcaiqsc villii icu domiciliii lua aonuDi dcdeiint, quoium hodie plcriqac 

qoiint pi«age oí Aingiim'i ii wortb inicnlng foi comparíKm with ■ ititemcnt of 
Pcler CliuiMO, wbich hu, nibly wc thiok, bcca tikcn u pntof of Ihxl wtiter 
baTÍng had acceu to a copj of the loit 'Liber Iilaadonun.' A cvinpuiion wilt 
boweTci ibow tbat tbere ii nothing Ín bii woidi but what could have becn aitived 
■t liom ■cquaÍDtanee with Aragiim'i woAi, lad eipedatl]' the pamge beforc ui. 

* At the dcdioe oT Ari'i life rojtltj wai it her loweit ío the North. In Norirajr 
thc old line of Uinld Faicbiii became entoct (io 1130), nnd the Gaelic Qikhríit 
luled Ín the land. In Denmailc the lait of tbe famoui loni of Svcio Ulfuon wu 
i)ain. and unall men for ■ time held thc throne. The bright itar of futme diyi, 
King Waldimar. wai ■ bo;. In Swedcn thcic were kingi of littlc maik. The lulurc 
natioDil lainl of Swedeo, Kiag Eric. bclongi lo the nexl geaciation. 



-breathed througb the Kings' Lives, a. kck of predse detail in the 
scenc and circumstances, the prívate life, the law, Sec, and ft 
meagre geographical knowledge, which ia veiy Btriking in com- 
pariaon with the minute accuracy of tbe Landuama-bók, It Í3 
only in the Sagaa whicb follow Sigurd the Crusader, and espe- 
ciaÚy Sverri's, the Boglungs', and Hakon's, that we fínd a rícb and 
correct topograpby ceitirying to personal knowledge and eye- 

Ari, like other great men, haa suffered at the bands of bis 
commentators, and nptably from the dry formal críticism of the 
last century-wríter^ who looked on him chiefly as a chrono- 
logist, and held his chief merít to lie in the care with whicb be 
discusses the esact length of a reign, &c. To us, after all, hia 
cbronoiogy appears hta weakest point, and this by no means 
implies any disrespect to his memory, for it could hardly have 
.been othermse. It was no easy thing in Arí's day to find out 
from oral tradition the esact sequence of events which took place 
many years before one's own time, and still harder was it to assign 
a precise date to each. The notation of years from a. d. was 
unusual if not quite unknown in Iceland at Arí's time. The very 
eSbrt of calculation was very great, and the system of notation 
confnsing and clumsy (see Úic Editor's coUectanea in Dict. s. v. 
tígr, þiisund, écc.) We see, for instance, what baid work Arí 
had to fix the death year of his contemporary Bishop Gizur. 
Sometímes be has gone altogether wrong; thus our Annals, on bis 
authority no doubt, put Sweyn Twy-beard's death and Cnut's 
accession six years too soon. Here Ú)e Saxon Chronicle helps us 
to the rígbt date. So tbe battle of Clontarf (1014) was placed by 
him 1004. The very year of the Settlement of Iceland will, we 
take it, never be made out. Arí at alt events put it too early. 
But when it is no longer a matter of a partícular year, we may 
foUow him more surety ; thus, tbough we may not btindly accept 
bis conclusions as to the year of Ingolf's coming to Iceland (and 
he ís never dogmatíc on such points), we should be ready to 
believe bis statement that the ' settlement ' ran its course in about 
sixty years. 

To Arí's wise choice of his natíve tongue for his books we owe 
the classic style in wbicb the masterpieces of the Icelandic his- 
torícal wríters are composed. In the rícb simphcity of Egla and 
Laxdæk, the poetic boldness of Snorri, and the vivid colouríng 
of Sturla his influence may be distínctly traced. The initb of this 
may be felt by any one who will read the first few cbapters of 
Xandnama or those relating to the Thorsness Settíement, in which 
aU tbose peculiar ezcellencies and well-marked qualitíes with 
whicb we are familiar in their fnll development by Snorri and 
Sturla may be found, qualitíes which are lotally distinct from 
those which characteríse the local Sagas or the unique style which 
marks out a Niala as a thing apart. 



The trne father of Icelandic letten, as well as the first prose 
vriler and the first historían, Ari's inQuence and example kindled 
tbe flame vhich bums with no unceitain light in niany a noble 
Bloiy, and shines fairest and brightest in the works of hig tnie 
spirítual sons the Sturlungs. 

§ 5. Aki's Conteuporaries. 

SjtHUND SiGTUssoN of Oddi (b. 1056, d. 1133}, surnanied Frodi, 
an elder contemporaiy of Arí. He stodied in Sazland (Westphalia), 
or, as some say, París. There it was that Bishop John found him 
ateorbed in the study of the black art under a greal magician: 
the legend of his escape is well known. See St. John the Bishop's 
Saga. From tbis in later days arose the traditions which made 
him the Vergil of Iceland. 'The Ann. Reg. record his retum at 
the age of twentj to Iceland, 1076. In the Sagas he appears as 
tbe greatest churchman of his day, as an historían, and as the 
founder of a great familj, the Oddverjar, His cognomen attests 
hi3 leaming. He wTQte a bríef ' Kings-book,' whether in Latin 
or in Icelandic one cannot tell, containing lives of the ten 
rulers of Norway from Harald Fairhaii to Magnus Ihe Good 
(850-1047), íizmg the chronology of each reign. Odd the Bene- 
dictine quotes this book once, and once refcrs to it on a point 
of chronology. In the Flateyar-bók, ii. 520-8, Konungatal, a 
poem composed in honour of Jón Loptsson, Sœmund's great- 
grandson, these lives are mentioned as the fotmdation of the 
singer's verses. ' Now I have counted ten rulers, eacb of whom 
sprung from HaraJd, I narrated their lives according to the words 
of Sæmund' Úie Wise.' Sœmund ís also cited in one vellum, 
AM. 510 of Jomavikinga. He was consulted by Arí, as the 
Islendinga-bók tells us. It is not till the revival of Icelandic 
Uterature that his name is mentioned by a confusion of words ia 
connection wiih the Foetic Edda, a conclusion wbicb is not sup- 
ported by the sligbtest scrap of evidence. 

Bband, sumamed Frodi, a contemporaiy of Ari, is quoted in 
Landnama as author of ' BreiðfiTðinga-KynsIðð,' which, like ' Ölfu- 
singa-Kyn,' tbe author of which is unknown, was one of the 
sources of Arí's work. Botb works, we take it, were genealogical. 
He is called ' príor' (perhaps a mistake for ' prestr'), His name is 
found nowhere else. 

KoLSKEGG AsBioRNSSON, also called Frodi, and also the 'WÍse,' 
of a good family in the Easl of Iceland, was Arí's fellow-worker 
in the Landnama, His co-operation was probably limited to 
supplying the genealogies of his disthct It is (old of Kobkegg 
that he saw the hom whicb King Harald Fairhair gave to Earl 
Hrollaug die Settler, It bad in all likelihood perished by Ihe 
' lime. 


xxzviii PROLEGOMENA. § 6. 


The famous Coder Wormianus, or, as it might be better called, 
Codez Amgrimi, contains bestdes Snorri'a Edda a coUectioo <^ 
small grammatical treatises, which, as this MS. was early known (it 
was in Amgrim's [lossession in 1609 when príest Magnus Olafsson 
compiled from it his recension of the Edda), are mentioned by 
Biom of Skardsá, nho, without a shadow of reason, attributed 
tbem, under the name of ' Skalda,' to Gunnlaug the monk. Later 
on it was observed that Olaf Hvítaskald is mentioncd as tbe writer 
of one of them, whereupon the wholc werc attributed to him, an 
ojnnion held by Kggert Olafsson in 1763. When Rask edited 
them for the first time in 1818 hc observed the great difference 
between the separate pieces, and concluded that tbey must be 
the work of several authors. Dr. Egilsson, in his editions 1849 
and 1853, upholds the same hypothesis, but witb little furthér 
progress. The followíng theory identifying Thorodd as author 
of the First Treatise was worked out by the present Editor in 1860, 
in an unpublished £ssay, which waa communicated to Ðr. Maurer 
of Munich at tbat date. 

' Skalda' consists of three short Essays preccded by a prologue, 
aod completed by an epilogue, which latter, to judge from tbe 
verses therein quoted, must be the work of a man writing; about 
1330. The prologue is plainly by the same hand, possibly that of 
the edttor or collector of tbe whole Codez. In it we find the 
foUowing statement: — Skal yðr sýna hinn fyrsta lctrs-hátt, svá 
rítinn eptir seztán stafa stafrófi 1 Danskrí tungu, eptir þvi sem 
I>óroddr Rtína-mcistari ok Ari prestr hinn Frófii hafa sett f móti 
Látinu-manna stafrófi, er meístari Príscianus hefir' sett, 'I wiU 
place before you the first alphabetical system . . . according as 
Tborodd tbe granunarían and príest Arí the historían have ordered 
it, in comparison with the alphabet whicb Master Prísdaii had 

This can only mean that the editor intends to copy out first an 
accoimt of the alphabet according to Thorodd and Arí, a descrip- 
tion wbich entircly suits the First Treatise, in the first chapter 
of which tfae author declares hímself the contemporary of Ari, and 
says tbat his work is the first on the subject in the Norse tongue. 
That tbe prologue had in view the nest foUowing Essay is proved 
by his own words, Skal yðr sýna hinn^^rAi letrs-hátt, and by 
thc following words: The proiogue says, Hafo þ^ir þvf fleirí 
hljóðs-greinir með hverjum raddar-staf, sem þesBÍ er tungan fá- 
talaðri, 'and they [viz. Thorodd and Arí] had [in their alphabct] 
as many more vowel symbols to each vowel [of the Latin] Ín 
proportion as that tongue [Latin] has fewer vowels.' While Ín 
the Essay the author says that he has made an alpbabet for the 
Icelanders, using tbe Latin alphabet as his foiuidation: 'As to 
the Latin consooants, I have addcd some and left out some; but 



as to the vowels, I have left out none, but &(Ide(l very miuiy, for 
our tongue has by fai ihe most vowels.' The ideitlity betweefl 
the words of the prologue and the First Treatise is clear and in- 
controvertible. The mention of Ari as collaborateur we talce to 
be the guesa of the collector from the mention of Ari's namc. 

The words which we have omitted above, ' as it is wrítten 
according to the sizteen-lettec alphabet in the Danish tongue,' are, 
if taken literally, in absolute contradiction to tbe statement below, 
as to the comparative rictmess of the two alphat)ets, and if they 
are not a mere flourísh of the prologue wríter, must be a confused 
allusÍOQ to the Runic chapter of the Third Treatise, or even i 
dumsy interpolation. 

Runcs were little known to the Icelanders of those days, and 
tbe epilhet of Runa-meistarí here applied to Thorodd, which is 
very possiUy of later coinage (as in Saxo's case, whose real nick- 
name was Longus), perliaps an omamental addition of the col- 
lector's, must be translated 'Grammaticus' in the sense in which 
Snoirí in Hattatal uses Runes as equivalent to characters, Homer'B 
rpá/iiiara. Indeed the first account of the real Runes seems to be 
that by Olaf Hvitaskald, who got his knowledge of them from 
King Waldimar of Denmark, as he tells us in hts Rtuiic chapter 
ín the Third of these Skalda Treatises. 

We have external evidence as to Thorodd's age and identity 
from an entirely independent source. John the first Bishop of 
Holar, iioó-iiai, built a new cathedral church of timber. His 
architect was Thorodd (Gunnlaug the Benedictine here adds 
'Gamlason'), who waa held to be the best craftsman Ín all 
Iceland. Now the bishop had set up a school-house or seminary 
whcrein the yotmg scholars were being trained up as príests, and 
we are told that this Thorodd, whíle engaged on his building, 
Ustened to the teaching of grammar, and held it so well in hia 
memory that he afterwards became a, great master ' in that art* 

We aiso find in Stutlunga (í. p. 41) a certain Thorodd Gamlason, 
styled 'a good yeoman,' mentioned as Uvit^ at a time which tallies 
with tis being a contemporaiy of Ari's. If we suppose the cathedral 
to have been built about 1 1 15, Tborodd could not have been very 
young to have already gained at his craft the high respect in which 
he was then held ; nor, had he been very oid, would he havc been 
so apt a scholar or indeed likely to have been attracted at ali to the 
oew and difficult pursuit of book leaming : his nork too ís fresh and 
oríginaL We may therefore fis; his birth about 1085, which would 
make Arí his elder by some eightcen years. Thorodd is rather a 
rare name (occurríng indeed only four times in the Landnama- 
bök), and Gamli still rarer, so that the coincidence of these ín the 
case of a man wbo was also famed as a ' grammarian,' leaves 
hardly any doubt as to the identity of our author, who would then, 
according to the pedigree in Sturlunga (ii. p. 492), be the uncle of 
Odd the BenedictÍRe historían, and the great-grandson of Greui 


xl PROLEGOMENA. { lí. 

the Strong^s sister, of the old and famous famil^ of Anund Wood- 
leg, a seltler in the North-west of Iceland. 

Tuming to the intemal evideiice afforded by the First Treatise 
ve find the author speaking of wríting in the vemacular as a new 
thing, mentioning only ' the laws, homilies, and the wise histoiical 
vorks (spaklegu fræði) of Aii Thorgilsson the príest,' wbom he 
speaks of as contemporary, omitting also the universal epithet 
' fróði.' The language is arcbaic (kannk-a, sekka-a, vilja subj.) and 
the style simple; the only verse quoted is one of King Harald 
Sigurdsson's time, and the only work cited is Cato's Moralia. 
The author knowB the 'English' handwriting. Moreover, tbe 
peculiar alphabet which hc invented, though never adopted in 
it9 entirety, is p^rtly used in most of the early Icelandic MSS. 
(Islendinga-bók, Rimbegla, the Laws, the Eddas, ftc); all indi- 
cations which taily with what from otber sources we know of 

Tborodd's work shows great sagacíty, apart from the delicate and 
exbaustive phonetic análysis and ingenious piactical suggestions 
which alone would give it a bigh value ; thus we find him holding 
thc hypothesis of the development or 'branching' of languages 
from a common stem. He was acquainted with the Hebrew and 
Greek alphabets, and knew something of the Latin tongue. He 
bas preserved to us many important pbilological facts ; for instance, 
ihe nasality of the vowels in certain cases,. a phenomenon which 
has left no later traces and which was perhaps disappearing even 
in his days. If the time and circumstances of his life be con- 
sidered, Thorodd may with justice be ranked among the foremost 
in genius as in time he was perbaps the earUest of Teutonic 
grammarians. He especially reminds one of Jacob Grímm, whose 
keen observation and homely language, full of images drawn from 
carpentry, ftc, denole a man of kindred spirit and character. The 
edition of 1852 (Edda ii. 10-43) leaves much to be desired; even 
in the first few lines an important word 'þegar' is omitted, and in 
the alphabet the lines of the vellum are reversed. 

AMONynous Grauuarian. The Second Treatise in the Skalda 
is the work of a man of considerabíe power of observation and 
scientific habit of thought, wbo also possessed a somewhat poetical 
im^nation. He is later than Thorodd, whose work he knew, 
but eannot be dated much afler 1180. He was a clerk, if we 
may judge from the pious tone and allusions of the Treatise. 
The scrong point of tbis writer is phonology, and he evidently 
had a musical ear; his analysis of letter position appears to be 
derived from the Hebrew Grammar. He invented several useful 
phonetic terms. In his day vowel nasality had aheady vanished, 
and the mediœval handwríting was coming in. 

There is an abrídgment of his treatise ín the UpsaJa Prose-Edda, 
in whicb the curious tables omitted in Cod. Worm. are given. 

For the Third Treatise by Olaf the White Poet see § ao. 




These we might arrange into five great g^oups (see the map). 
The North-weslem, whic^ compriscs some of Ihe oldest S^as. 
Those of the Norlh-east and East, which are of distínctly Jocal 
character, dealing little with events which touch the resC of Iceland. 

Those grouped round the 'Neck' which unites the North-western ^ r- ^^ 

headlands to the con^egí and those of the ' Dales,' rich in varied '>^"*^'^ V ' 
interest and scene! Those of the South-weat, the most complete ^ !'' ' '' 
and perfect, are usually in a late and compUx form (containing ' 
each one the substance of a small set of Sagas), and of widest and 
m08t univereal interest, as the frequent mention of the Althing 
would alone suffice to prove. 

The smaller Icelandic Sagas are distinctly locol in character and 
simple in plot and interest, representing more or less completely 
the original oral tradition as it was first committed to wríting. 
The greabr Sagas are wider in interest, dealing with more than 
one generation or more than one locality, broader in scene, and 
more intricate in plot. They are the productions of hterary men, 
working up eíisting scattered material inlo an artistic story. They 
do DOt sway loosely, foilowing the fortunes of their hero, but 
proceed in obedience to literary law with a certain consistency of 
purpose and balance of execution, subordinating less important 
incidents, leaving out less important detail, rounding off their 
Eomewhat chaotic material into strict and finished shape. 
Wheiher love, law, politics, or aristocratic feeling be the hinges 
on which the story tums, whether it be as artfully constructed 
as LaxdæU or as loosely strung as Eyrbyggia, whether it be 
in tbe style of the Sturlungs or of the unknown author of 
Niala, these characteristics nm through them all. These Sagas 
we owe in their present shape to the tbirteenth century. They are 
the fruit not the blossom of lcelandic literature, consonant to the 
age of SturluDgs and the Kings' Lives. Such evidence as we 
have with respect to their composition in their present sh'ape 
(whicb we have considered in the heading prefised to each Saga) 
points to the same conclusíon. They beai the same aitistic 
relation to the earlier Sagas of which they are compounded as the 
Tevisions of Shakespeare do to the earlier plays on which he worked, 
and in botb instances, the earlier works which were thus used have 
perished almost completely, so that we find a blank area round the 
. district treated of in any great Saga. Thus Niala covers the south 
coast from Markfleet to Ingolfs-head, even Hall o' Side's Saga 
having perished. The Sagas included in the greater one were 
neglected, those not so included were eclipsed and forgotten by its 
Bide, The compkx Sagas, with the exception of Niala, we take to 
have been worked up in that Icelandic lonia, the classic country 
of tbe West. We have instances among the smaller Sagas of the 
materials out of which these greater stories are woven, as ihe 


xlii PROLEGOMENA. § 8. 

Weaponfirth cycle, aad even incoinplete realisatíon of these laíer 
artÍEiic processes in distinction to the living growth of tradition 
in earlier times, as in Floamanna Saga. Gretti's Saga demands a 
special notice U> itself, as diS'ering from the other four great Sagas 
in important TCGpects, though in size, date of composition, com'- 
plez character, singleness of purpose, and exCent of locale, it is 
fully enticled to rank with them. 

§ 8. The Greatkr Icklandic Sagas. 

NULS Saga. 
[Sonth odcdatid — e. 970-993. 1000-1014.] 

This Saga has always, and justly, been placed foreroost of all. 
In many respecta it stands alone, belonging to no school, and 
peculiar in matter, style, and spirit. In area the widest, in 
interest the most universal, having the Althing, the focus (d 
Icelandic political life, for its centre, but notícing men and places 
throughout the wfaole Scandinavian empire. The Saga of Law, 
par exctUtnce, it is based on that most important element of early 
Bociety, and the lesson it teaches is of a Divihé retribution, and 
that evil bríngs its own reward in spite of ail that human 
wisdom and courage, even innocence, can do to oppose it. 
Hence, while inspiring the deepest interest and the warmest plea- 
sure, it has almost the chaiacter of a sacred book, and is read 
with reverence. The very spirit indeed of £arly Law seems to 
breathe through its pages, ^owing the modern English reader 
the high ideal which his kinsmen strove long ago to attain. To 
judge of this work fairly it must be read in the original, for much 
of the subtle beauty of its style, Che admirable play of its dialogue, 
and at times the veiy technical peculiaríty of its matter, must of 
necessity be lost in any Cranslation, however faithfuL 

The subject, like a Greek trilogy, falls into three divisions, each 
containing its own plot and dramatis personae; all three loosely 
connected in one Saga by the weaker and later parts of the work. 
(i) The first pIoC (founded we believe on a now lost 'Gunnar's 
Saga ') Cells of the fríendship beCween Gunnar, the simple-minded 
brave chief, the ideal hero of his age, and the wise lawyer Nial, a 
man of good counsel and peace who never bore weapons. The cold 
envious heart of Hallgerda, which is here contrasted with the proud 
bonesty of Bergthora, has caused the death of her two former 
husbands, and at length, though she is unable to break the tie that 
binds Gunnar CO his trusted counsellor, Hrut's prophecy and Nial's 
forebodings are finally fulfilled, and after a brave defence the 
Lithend chief is slain in his own house by his half-regretful foes. 
His son and Nial's avenge his death. Then comes an episode 


§ 8. NIALA. xliii 

abroad which ís merely a link to connect the secotid and most 
important of the three dramas with the foregoing one, and to 
introduce fresb characters on the scene. (3) Nial is now tbe 
central figure, his character is heightened, he is almost a sage and 
prophet; the writer's highcst skill is lavished on this part of the 
Saga. The death of Thrain, slain bj' the sons of Nial, at length 
brings down on himself aná his house the &.te which he is power- 
less to avert, Tbe adoption of Hoskuld, his foeman's son, by 
which he strives to heal the fend, is but a step to Chis end. And 
wben, to further his fosler-son's interest hj a great marriage, be 
obtains for him one of tbe new ' Priesthoods,' which were set up 
ia consequence of the great Constitutional Reform he had carried, 
tbe batred of the old aristocracy wbose position he had thus 
assailed, whíle tbe change of Faitb was threatening it from another 
side, broke out in the guile of Valgard and his cnnning scm, 
Mord, who sowed hatred between the Whiteness Priest and bis 
foster-brethren. A fancied slight at last rouses these iatter to 
murder the innocent Hoskuld. Nial, cut to the heart, sttil sCríves 
for peace, but a few bitter words undo all bia work, and tbe end 
he bss foretold is near. The scenes at tbe Althing, which relieve 
the story, by introducing portraits of every great cbief of that da/ 
ín Icdand, boldly and humorously depicled, are very notewortby. 
Flosi, the widoVs kinsman, driven unwiUingly to action, now takea 
up the boly duty of blood-revenge, and by his means Nial and hig 
\nít and sons perish in the smoke of their buming homestead. 
Tbis awfíil catastrophe closes the second part (3) Of tbe con- 
cludjng drama FIosi is tbe hero, and the plot tells of the Bumers' 
fate. The greal suít against them at the Althing fails by a legal 
technicality, and the ensuing batde is stayed by Hall and Snorri, 
by wbose award they are exiled. But Kari, Nial's son-in-Iaw, who 
alone escaped frotn tbe fire, pursues tbem with unrelenting ven- 
geance, one by one they fall by various fates, and when in the 
great battle of Clontarf, 1014, those of them who have bitberto 
evaded their destiny perish, fighiing against the new Faith, by the 
swords of the Irigh, his revenge is at lengtb complete, and Flosi 
and be are reconciled. 

ThÍH story is, from intemal evidence, tbe work of a lawyer, well 
acquainted witb Icelandic history and genealogies íthe pedigrees 
do not come from tbe Landnama, but point to a different tradi- 
tion), and living in the far East of Iceland — be makes mÍBtakes in 
the geography of Ibe West and Soutb : for ínstance, he never 
names the 'Þvcrá' wbicb runs by Gunnar's homestead, whereas 
the river Rangá is ubiquitous througbout the Saga, and Gunnar is 
continually introduced riding by it, Of course S we had the old ■ 
Gunnar's Saga thia confusion of the two rivers would be proved to 
be the later editor's. Agtun later on in the Saga the distance 
between Kirkiubær and Bergthorshvol is miscalculated, and the 
site given to Figkivatn Ís mucb out of place. He also confounds 




Bjame^^ar on Hvanunfirth over Rgamst Thorwald's farm •mth the 
better known fisbing station of the same name on BroadGith off 
Reykjaness. He deaJs freely with his facts; thus we find the 
death of Gunnar told tn a less romantic way elsewhere (see 
Landnama V, ch. 5), and his sons mentioned in a diCTerent con- 
nection. His age it is less easy to fix. The Saga is certainly to 
be taken as a whole and ascríbed to one man, who cannot have 
composed it earlier than 1330, nor later thasi 1380, for though it 
ís rísky to argue &om genealogies, yet all the MSS. name the 
Sturlungs, and trace (ch. 35) to Kolbein the Young (1309-45), 
who majTÍed Snorrí's daughter, and we know that the Sturlungs 
flourished in the earlier half of the thirteenth century, to which 
date our Saga cannot therefore be antecedent. A few forms and 
words, suchas 'aðila' from 'aöili,'and 'ju5ta,'aforeignword(thougb 
such an argument must be cautiously used), support this opinion. 
The weakest parts of the Saga are chaps. 38-31, 83-87, 154, 159, 
whcre the diction sinks to a. common level, and it will be seen 
that ihis takes place egpecially at thé junction of parts i and 3 of 
the trilogy, The whole has undergone a linal rccension about 1 300, 
when a number of spuríous verses were inserted. Those, about 
thirt}' in all, which occur in the earíy part of the Saga (chaps. 
í-99) are worthless, not in all MSS,, and should never be prínted 
in the texL The Íater verses, nine in number (ch, 131 ff.), are 
poetical but not genuine ; they are of the same school as those in 
Droplaug. There are genuine verses in ch. 103, as are also the 
hístorícal verses in ch, 78, tbough of a late date, early in the 
fourteenth century, and found oniy Ín the later MSS. Genuine 
also the Lay of Ðarrad, and a few eztemporised bits in chaps. 
34, ia6, 146, 

The storíes, whether written or not, of Thorstein Hall o' Side's 
son, Gauk Trandilsson, Thorkel Fullmouth, the Men of Ligbt- 
water, Brian Boroímhe, the Christening of Iceland, were known 
to the writer, though most of them have since been lost He also 
knew St, Olaf's Saga, for the episode (ch. cHv), when Kari stríkes 
off Gunnar Lambi's son's head before the King and Earls, copies 
the very words of Snoni (O. H. ch. 105), and perhaps Sturlunga, 
for the death of Kol (ch, clvii) may be taken from the death of 
Skidi (1335), aithough a similar incident occurs elsewhere, (See 
Sturlunga, ch. 113.) The earlier episodes abroad aStet Gunnar's 
death are copied probably from scenes in other Sagas, and are 
full of epic common-places, Orkneyinga was also known Ín 
Bome shape to our author. Finally, all the long pleadings 50 
characleristic of this Saga are clearly drawn from written law 
ScroUs and law manuals, such as were used in the twelf^h and 
thirteenth centuríes, and form no part of ihe oral story as told. 
These all point to a literary man writing when traiítion was 
fast dying, 

There are accounts preserved elsewbere of several of the events 


§ 8. EYRBYGGIA. xlv 

tnentioned ín this Saga besides those relating to Gunnar. As 
Nial's buming, the battles at Hof and Knafa-holar, the founding 
of the Fifth Court, &c. 

We have about fifteen vellums of this Saga, seven of whích are 
in a inore or less. complete state, the rest mere fragments. The 
oldest aré of the end of the thirteenth century, and the earlier of 
the fourteenth, a few of the fifteenth, and one of the sixteenth 
century. As for the name, the vellums (AM. 468) give ' Brennu- 
Nial'a Saga.' In the Saga of Thorstein, son of Hall o' Side, 
where only it is cited, it is called Níal's Saga. The modern use is 
Niála as a feoiinine, an abrídged form. 

The classical edition is that of Copenhagen, 1773. Dr. Dasenfs 
Bumt Njál contains a fuU translation of this Saga. 

Eykbtggia Saða. 

[Wat of Icdínd — c. 890,930, 1010-1031.] 

This is the Saga of Politics, as Niala of Law, and is of the 
highest importance for the numerous nolices it preserves to us of 
the institutions and tnanners of the heathen times, most of which 
are no doubt derived, if not inserted bodily, from the lost works of 
Ari. It consists of a set of stories loosely connected, and coveríng 
about T40 years. The early days of the Settlement and the 
natning of the Land, tbe story of Thorarin, the adveniures of 
Erik the Red, the discoverer of Greenland, the career of Biomj the y 
Broadwick cliampion, and fullest of all, the life of Snorrí, the 
greatest chief of his time, are successively told in an unequal slyle, 
sometimes vigorous and pointed, at others weak and inferior. It 
haa always been a favouiite, especially in later days, and indeed Ít 
is, as one MS, calls it, ' a good Saga.' (' Her hefr Eyrbyggiu ok er 
góö saga,' AM. 309.) 

It is cited once in Hauks-bók, and named in the list on the 
fly-leaf of St. OlaPs Saga, No. a, at Stockhoim. But the most 
important indication of its agc is derived from itscH ch. 65, in 
which the moving of the cburch of Tunga and consequent transla- 
tion of Snorri's bones are mentioned, ' And there stood by then 
Gudny Bodvar's daughter, the mother of the Sturlungs, Snoni, 
Thord.and Sighvat, and she used lo say,' &c. Gudnydied in laii. 
The wbole tone also of the Saga forbids it being later than 1260. 
We should theiefore fix it as between 1330-60, inthe daysof Stnrla 
theLawman (d. 1284), to wbom the Editor is inclined to ascribe the 
editorship of the whole, and the authorship of at least ch. 56 and 
the last chapters. The subject, a peculiarly interesting one to his 
&niily, and the topographical accuracy displayed, which could only 
be acquired on the apot, strengthen this view. The compogite 
character of tbe Saga is strongly marked by its title, which the text 
dcclares to be ' Saga Þórsneúnga, Eyrbyggia, ok Alptfirðinga/ It 



has been also calleð 'Kjalleklinga' and 'Bjamar 5aga Breidvfk- 
inga-kappa.' The varíous locaUties and interests touched on are 
strongly illustrated by this variety. It, however, was earlj' known 
as ' Eyrbyggia,' for so it is called ín Hauks-bók and on the íly-leaf 
of the Stockbolm O. H. Tbat it is made up of many smaller sepa- 
rate Sagas, each giving its own local story, is very evidenC, and 
suppliea strong proof of the orígin of tbe other greater Sagaa. The 
verses inserted in ihÍB Saga are genuine. Vatzhyrna is no doubt 
the best foundalion for an edition. There are five MSS. or frag- 
menls in ezistence. It was edited by Vigfusson io 1864, Leipzig. 

Laxdæ-a Saga. 

[Wcit of IceUnd — c. 910, gSi, 1003-1016.] 

This, the second only in size of the Icelandic Sagas, is perhaps 
also the second in beauty. It is the most romantíc of all, ftiQ of 
pathetic sentiment, which, like that of Euripides, is almost modem, 
and brings it closer to the thoughts and feelings of our day than 
any other atory of Icetandic life. The cbaracters of the plot, thc 
vaiying situations, the fine dialogue, and thc clear sunny atmo- 
sphere whicb fbrms the background to the quickly moving incidents 
of the subject, all confirm to strengthen this impression. Tbe style 
is remarkably rich and flowing, and skilfully adapted to the 
changing emotions on wbich the story touches in rapid succession. 
It evidently belongs to the School of the Sturlungs, though it is 
neither the vigour of Snorri nor ihe detail and precision of Sturla, 
but rather a peculiarly dramatic word-painting, whicb strikes the 
reader as tbe leading characteristic of the unknown auihor. It is 
worthy of notice that this Saga seems to reflect the tone of mind 
of the later Eddic poetry; and especially to catch reminiscences 
of the laler lays of the Volsung cycle. Nay, the veiy fact that 
the beromes of the poet and the prose writer bear the same 
name sCrikes one as something more than a coincidence, and often 
throws ligbc upon the development of Gudrun's character in our 
Saga. fiesides tbe customary buC always interesting introduction, 
the storj falls into two parts. Firsc, tlie early love of Kiartan 
and Gudrun, the hero and heroine, and the poet's career in 
Norway. The second parC goes on with the sCory after Kiartan's 
retum to Iceland, relating his death at his rival fioíli's hand, Bolli's 
death no long while after, and the vengeance Caken for them both. 

To fix the age of tbe Saga we have but few indications. On the 
one hand, the mention of che priesC who built the church aC Husa- 
fell late in the twelfth cenCuiy; the allusion to tbe cloister of 
Helgafell (1164). On the oiher, the quotations from it in Gretla, 
Eyrbyggia, and the great Olaf Tryggvason's Saga, which laCCer 
was put into its present shape about the end of the chirteench cen- 
tury, would lead us to fix the Saga abouC 1230-40, a date whicb 
ihe intemal evidence of style and chot^ht mosc certainly confirm. 



While admíttíng tbat age for the Sag;a in its present shape, we 
can of courae offer no conjectures as to the oríginal form of the 
atory, for it is evident that it was well known ín an earlier stage, 
before the handling of the artist had wrought it to its present shape. 
The scene of tbe stoiy, we may notice, was one well known to 
the Sturlungs. The curíous chronological difficulty which so long 
puzzled all commentators may be here leferred to as a proof, Í 
any indeed were needed, that the author uaed his materíals freely. 
Helgi, as he wiped bis bloody sword on Gudrun's cloak after tbe 
Elaying of her husband BoIIi, prophesies that tbe child she should 
sbortly bear would avenge bis father on him. Helgi is accordingly 
slain by the child twelve years afler, whereon Gudrun marries 
Thorkel. This has been a crax to all Icelandic chronologists ; 
for we know from otber sources that Gelli, the son of Thorkel 
and Gudnm, was a hostage al King Olafs court in 1025, and 
letumed to Iceland charged with a mission from him in 1026, 
whilst Bolli was slain in 1005 or 1006. Tbe ríddle was, we hope, 
unravelled by the present Editor in Timatal, 1855; where it 
is shown, that in fact Gelli was Ixim in 1008; the marríage of 
Gudrun and Thorkel accordingly took place not later than 1007 ; 
and the blood-revenge was wreaked on Helgi c. 1007, only one year 
or so intervening between that event and the death of Boili. From 
wbich it foUows that the postbumous son BoIU the younger was 
quite unconcemed in that event. We are thus beholden for this, 
one of tbe most powerful scenes in the whole Saga, to the strong 
dramatic instinct of the author, who has seized, just as an Eliza- 
bethan dramatist would have, on the facts — Helgi's wanton out' 
rage and Gudrun's lemaining a widow tUI her husband was 
revenged, to add the prophecy and thus create a powerful and 
lifelike útuation, 

Five more or tess complete vellums of tbis Saga exist, the chief 
velluin being the great veUum 132; the last third part of wbich 
however is but a poor version, and compríses the spurious story of 
BoUi, This blemisb however is made good by the vellum fragment 
AM. 309, a fifleenth-century MS. in bad condition, which contains 
tbe best tezt of the iatter part. A new edition of tbe whole Saga 
is much needed. Mr. Morrís' poem, 'The Lovers of Gudrun,' 
part of the Earthly Paradise, is founded on tbis story. 

Kgils Saga. 

[Nonra^, Sn^nd, and Wat oí IceLmd— c. 870-980.] 

This story is the most complete embodiment of the arístocratic 
spírit of tbe great Norse fanulies in the early Middle Ages. The 
pTOud independence and fierce batred of royal encroachment, 
above aH of personal subordinatíon or feudal innovations wbich 
drove so many great men from tbe continent to the Westem Isles 
aod Iceland, is singulariy wel! shown therein. The whole story 


xlvui PROIÆGOMENA. $ ff. 

is but, a3> it were, the history of the de&dlj feud between a noble 
family and Harald Fairhair and his descenduits, carríed through 
three generations. The orígin of the quarrel is the wrongful slaying 
of Kveldulfs Eon by the tyrant king, whereupon the aged father, 
who had always been against his son's fonning any connection 
with tbe new royal system, resolves in despair of vengeance to 
seek &eedom at least. On tbe voyage to Iceland he dies. But 
his son Skallagrím settles and becomes lord over broad lands of 
the best in the new country. Sut it is with the career of his son 
I^I, the greatest chief and most famous warrior of his kin, that 
the main part of the tale is concemed. In his life and character, 
as in his person, he seems to unite extremes which make him 
a type of the age in which he lived. Steadfast in love and hate, 
COdI and passionate to madnesB, crafly and reckless, grasping and 
generous, he passes through a chequered life as poet and pirate, 
chief and champion, the henchman of Æthelstan and the hereditaiy 
foe of Eirík, now an honoured guest at court, now a helpless 
prísoner, now a mighty lord, in such fashion as fits the typical 
Northman of otir traditions. The Saga ia especially interesting to 
Engliah students from thc numerous notices it preserves of the 
days of the Danish invasions, the settlements, the piracy, the great 
fight at Brunanburh, ðtc, though the late date and the epic character 
of the work, as we have it, of course forbids too literal credence to 
its vague traditions. The style is bold and ngorous, well suiting the 
subject, and resembling in a marked degree that of Snorrí, who 
may well have felt an interest ín the hero, in whose home, Borg, he 
himself had dwelt, wielding the chieftainship of the distríct as Egil's 
political descendant He quotes Egil's poems six or seven times 
in the Prose-£dda. The verse in this Saga is partly genuine 
(Sona-torrek Hefiið-lausn, &c.) and of great philological and 
literary interest, and partly the work of a thirteenth-century editor 
(for instance, the stanzas relating to the Bninanburh baltie are 
certainly not genuine). In the best MSS. a blank is, in many 
places, left for ihe verses, which have been partly fiUed up ia 
another hand. 

The Saga has always been popular, and none, save Niala, has 
survived in so many MSS., twelve or fourteen, only two or three 
of which are more or less complete, the rest being mere shred 
and fragments. One of these fragmencs is old, not much later 
than c. 1340, and yet it belongs to class B. The old edition 
(Copenhagen, 1809, reprínt of which 1856) is too ponderous and 
scholastic, and a new one Ís needed. 

Grettis Saga. 

QTettifl 8aga(North of Iceland and Norway, 1010-31), though 
complex in stmcture, differs by the nature of its components from 
Ihe other greater Icelandic Sagas. Three separate parts may l>e 


5 8. GRETTIS SAGA. xlijt 

clearly distingwshed. (i) Historícal, founded, we can hardly 
doubt, on an early Grettis Saga, which narrated ihe real life of the 
great outlaw. (2) The Mythical portion (chaps. 32-36, 64-67), 
which is the most interesling lo us as coniaining a late version of 
the famous Beowulf Legend'. Gretti's fight with Glana, and 
afterwards with the troU-wifc and the mooster below the water-fall, 
is tbus tbe Icelandic version of tbe Gotbic hero's struggle with 
Grendel and his witch-mother. (3) The Fabulous and Romantic 
parts of the Story are of twofold origin, derived, on the one hand, 
froRi Icelandic folk-tales of the half-troíls dwelling in hidden dales 
of tbe uninhabited deserts wbich cover tbe centre of the land, &c. 
(chaps. 54, 6r, 62) : on the other hand, from literary and foreign 
sources, Trístram and Isoult (the last chapters, 88-94), such as form 
the basis of Skrök-sögur ; or by amplification of hints in Landnama 
(Sturla's edition) and Heiðarvíga Saga, and copying incidents in 
Konunga-bók, Fostbræðra Saga (cbapters i— 10, 22-25, 59, 60 are 
mainly fabricated in this way). The Saga must bave been put 
together into its present shape no king time afier the death of 
Sturla the Historian, as tbe compiler speaks of the later days of 
his as ' lying witbin tbe memory of still living men.' Sturla is also 
allnded to in the epilogue as if he bad something to do with the 
composition of tbe alory, and more arobiguously in chapter 49, 
wbere it is told that Gretti's spear-bead, which was lost at the 
slaying of Tborbiorn Oxmain, was found 'eigi fyrr enn f þeirra 
manna mínnum, er nú lifa; þat spjót fannz á o&nverðum dðgum 
Sturlu lögmannz Mrðar sonar.' We may even conjecture the 
mytbical part to be Sturla's own addition, and the Saga as we 
bave it now to have been finally edited c. 1300-10. 

Looking at tbe Stoiy as a whote, though singularly unequal in 
Style and matter, it is not unworthy of its popularíty. Some parts, 
for instance, tbe slaying of the Bearsarks, tbe wrestling with 
Glam, the stay of Gretti in the bidden valley (Thorísdale), are 
well-nigh peerless in old Sagas, and are told in a way worthy of 
Lawman Sturla. On the other hand, the additions in (3) are of a 
commonplace order, wordy and diluted, poor and weak, and often 
coarse and gross. The hero Gretti is a man of good birtb, great 
gifts, and dauntless courage, none of wbich could avail against the 
fate that brougbt down on him one after the other, misfortune, 
outlawry, and death. The Icelanciic proverb, that 'good parts 

' Thit wai noticed by the Editor In the iprlngt of 1S73. ohen he Grit iei<t Ben- [ 
wnlf Ín the 01121011. It gÍT« the clae to Gretlii ^ga. nhicfa ii olhetviie obicHTe. | 
The old Irgend thot forth rrom iti uicient Scandinivian bome into Iwo branches, 
one 10 England, whete it wai lurned into an epic, ind one 10 lcelind, wbcre it wai 
domeiticaled and embodicd in a popular Saga, taclted to thc n>me or an outlaw and 
beio. One lenutlr rnoic — Where eTeiything elte ii liaiiironned, one word still 
remaiiit ai a memorial or ils origin, vii, in Ihe Englith epic haft-in'tt and in the 
lcdaodic Saga kefii-tax, both occurrÍDg in the same plice of the Irgend, and both 
fe^ AfTitfUva in ihdi ictpe ' ' ^ 

VOL. I. 



and good luck are very different things,* well expresses the motive 
of tbe Saga. Its general tone 13 gloomy, buC it is relieved by lif^ht 
and cven bumourous passages, and the clever dialogue is full of 
old saws. The verses, with the exception of two stanzas and 
a half taken froni Landnama and Edda, are spurious, aod sbow 
very little true poetic spirit'. 

There are five vellum MSS. of this popular story, aU of the 
fifteenth century, AM. 551 (or perhaps 556) Ís tbe best; Ít is 
talcen as the groundworlí of Gisli Magnusson's edition, Nord. 
Old., Copenh. 1853. Mr. Morris has Englished ibe story in his 
' Gretti the Strong.' 

§ 9. Thx Minor Icelandic Sagas (arranged geographically). 


Hardar or Holuveria' Saoa (South-west of Iceland, c. 980), 
one of the older Sagas, containing, amid much of interest, a curious 
account of a band of outlaws living, Robin Hood fashion, on a 
holm Ín Whalesfirth ; a feature of the eariy state of things in 
Iceland, which, though single outlaws and their deeds are often 
told of, is not elsewhere illustrated. The hero, named Hord, the 
ringleader of the band, is a man of greaC gifts, good family, but 
evií fortune. The epilogue to the story is noteworthy for the 
cbronological evidence it supplies. The verse is entirely spurious. 
We have but one vellum, AM. 556, of che whole Saga, which 
yields a very ' stuffed-out ' test, buC a leaf of Vatzhyma shows the 
prímitive form of the story. Vatzhyma, as well as Landnama, 
entitles it ' Harðar Saga,' while AM. 556 twicc calls it ' Holmveria 
Saga.' Published by Jón Sigurdsson in Islendinga Sðgur, and 
series, vol. ii, Copenh. 1847. 

Hœnsa-Þoris Saga, the story of Hen-Thori (South-west of 
Iceland, c. ^Vs)- * ^^'^V o''^ Saga, preserves perbaps the best 
picture of thé IceMndic chief of the old days, ilIustraUng his 
rights, duties, and authority, The story narrates how the worthy 
and humane chief Blund-Ketii, after whom, rather than his despica- 
ble foe, thc Saga should have becn called, is wickedty attacked and 
burnC in his house. The lawsuit Chat arose from this outrage led to 
Thord Gelli's ConstiCutional Reforms, abouC c. 964. Our Saga, after 
the manner of a true, local, old story, is wholly unaware of and 
unconcerned about the policical and constitutional sequel. But 
Vatzhyma, oiu' sole authority for the whole Saga, contains an 

' Tbii ii ihe judgmoit of Arai Magnusson — 'Grettii Siga gengr nm fibulie en 
hiitOTÍae; et fDlI aieS fabulu, parachraniimot ; er ÍDterpolerufi ar einhreijii npere 
Sturhi, og liaDi ztta eg TÍiumac lé. Oreltii Saia iii ei véi höfam, ei ínterpoleniS 
dr þeiiri er Sluila póiitnoa hefit litið, og þao kannike semt & limum. Interpo- 
latoc muD hafa lett fabuiii þar inn. Eg miniiiit mig að hafa léb ganialt fragmeat 
dr þeuaii Giettis lögu. Annin er eigi óiiit aS Orettii Saga Stuilu hafi og rabulou 
TeiiS. og líkan þrkir mér lA SluiU háii komið yib TÍiumar. er nanda i þeini lem 
Téi nú hdfum. f>ewi Saga ei fabulii plma.'^lUS. ífyt Kgl. Saml. iSj6. 



Ínterpolation from Arí's Liber Islandonim in a maflgted text and 
oddly inserted. Of another text two vellum leaves, AM. rös, 
only are left; from nhich the present Editor has been able to 
calcukte — from the volume of the text intervening between the two 
leaves, making exactly foui leaves, not connting the interpolation 
from Liber, for which there is no room— that it could not have 
contained this insertion. Published in Islendinga Sögur^ znd seríes, 
voL ii, Copenh. 1847. 


BuBNAK Saga (South-west of Iceland, 1010-24), telling of the 
rív^TT in love, batred, and song between Biorn and Thord, the two 
greatest men in Hildale, which ended in the death of tbe f<xmer. Tbis 
Saga is mentioned by name in Gretta, and has been preserved in a 
nngle defective vellnm, now lost save two leaves in AM, i6z, but 
eztant in a paper transcrípt of the seventeentb century; a blank in 
the middle cannot bc filled up, whilst the beginning, lost in the 
vellum, is bodily inserted in one copy of St. Olaf' s Saga (Bæjar- 
bók), though sometbing curtailed. Both the rival heroes, Biom 
and Thord, were brought up in the same neighbourhood ; even 
there brawís and quarrels arose between the two youtbs, ' which 
we however,' aaya the editor of St. Olafs Saga, 'leave mentioning, 
as not conceming this Saga.' One would wish he had ml. The 
onlyedition is by Haldor Frídriksson, Nord. OId.,Copenh. 1848. 

GuNNi.Aufi5 Saga Oshstungu, which the vellums call more 
aptly 'the Saga of Hrafn and Guonlaug' (West of Iceland, England, 
and Norway, 980-1D08), is a pure love>story, simply and deli- 
cately told, neither faiiing into the gross frankness of Kormak's 
nor tbe unromantic realism of Hallfred's Saga, thougb the subject, 
a poef s luckless love, is the same in all. Gunnlaug's ríval Hrafn, 
a pK)et also, who betrays bim twice, takin^ first his m i s tr eaa , 
Helga the Fair, aiid tastly his life, tbough he himself wounded to 
tbe dath ín the ' holm-gang ' or judicial combat. Tbe cDntrast 
between the two rival poets and lovers, Hrafn, with his dark, fierce, 
Korse nature, and Gimnlaug, the hot, explosive man of the south 
(cf. Kiartan and Bolli), is boldly worked ont. As a poet Hrafn (in 
Landnama sumamed Skald-Hrafn) bears the palni, judging from 
the verses in the Saga. The pathos of the plot, the advenlures 
of Gunnlaug, especíally his poetica] circuit round ihe courts of the 
Princes of the North, and Ibe pure style in which the Saga is told 
make it one of Che best of the smaller Sagas. Poems of Gunn- 
laug are quoted in the Prose-Edda, and botb bis and Hrafn's 
verscs in Óie Saga are genuine. Tbe plot of the story is referred 
to in the Landnama ; and in che Rimur. The reference to Ari in 
Öiis Saga is discussed in oiu: account of ihat Historían. The text 
suivives in two vellums, of which one, the famed SlockhoIm MS. 1 8, 
brought from Iceland in i68a, is much the bctter. The second 
vellum is AM. 557, of which tbe two lasC cbapcers were already 
lost in Biom of Skardsa's time; whilst tbe Stockholm vellum is 


lii PROLEGOMENA. § 9- 

Gomplete. Tbis story has been edited by }6n Sif^nrdsson, lal. Sfig., 
and seríes, vol. ii, Copenh. 1847. There is an EnglUb translati<m 
of ihÍB Saga in Mr. Morris' ' Three Northera Love Storíes.' 

GuLL-ÞoRis Saga, or Þorsxfissinga Saga (Norway, Finlajid, 
and West of Iceland, c 930), is a curious story, containing several 
interesting notices of the heathen days in Iceland. The hero's 
adventures abroad are roythical, but his later career in Iceland is 
historícal. In subject this is the earliest Saga ve possess, which 
accounts for tradition having seized upon the life of Þorí at so 
early a date. It should be itoticed tbat our present text is rather 
a late recension. The story is cited as Þorskfirdinga Saga, from 
the scene of the Icelandic pait of jt, in Landnama. We owe our 
texi to one MS., AM. 561 (which gives the present title 'Gulí- 
Þorís Saga '). The oulsides of the four sheets of this vellum have 
been washed out, and even in 1720 Arni Magnusson was unable to 
lead more than a few tines of the last ; and the end of tbe Saga 
was consequently so completely lost that a false local tradition on 
the Eubject grew up in Iceland. In 1860 the present Editor 
succeeded in deciphering the whole of the last page and 
restoríng the hitberto unknown ending; which disposes of the 
false tradition, as well as of an apocrypiial ending lately fabricated, 
but in full credit until then. (See Ný Félagsrit, 1861.) Bul there 
are yet three pages let^ to be read, two in the middle and thc 
last but one. Dr. Maurer's edition, Leipzig, 1S57, is tbe editio 
prínceps of this Saga. 

GisLA Saga Surs sonar (West of Iceland, 9Ö0-80), a fine stoiy of 
a EOmewhat gloomy cast, recounting the weaiy restless life of the 
famous outlaw Gisli under the unmeríted curse that lay upon him 
and pursued him to the death. It is well told, the didogue ia 
terse and good, and the imaginative parts of the Saga beautiful and 
appropriate, especially the introduction of the two Dream-Ladiea 
that foretel by their appearance the hero's fate, tili at last the wbite 
one leaves him, and the dark one alone fills the drearos of the 
doomcd man (like the good and the bad angel in Mariowe's 
Faustus). The thirteenth-century edilor, to whom our reccnsion 
is due, was a wríter of tbc first class, and no mean poet, if the 
verses, of which the Saga coniains many, be his (Gisli's they cannot 
be; we do not even know tbat he was a poet at all), and they are 
certainly by a thirteenth-century Icelander. The text rests on 
two vellums, each containing a different recension : one late, wordy, 
and amplified, especially the beginning, which is quite rewritten 
and stuffed up by a person ignorant of the topography of Nor- 
way; after the arríval in Iceland tbe two texts mainly agree, though 
the one is somewhat wordier, presenting also a few interpolations 
frora Landnama and I^Is Saga. The other one, in our opinion the 
truer text, is that of AM. 556, simpler and earlier. A fragment of a 
third vellum of the Saga exists (four leaves together with a fragment 
of Gluma, in AM. löz). Konrad Gislason has edited both texts in 



Nord. Old., Copenh. 1849. Dr. Ðasent bas given English readeis 
a spirited verston ofttiis Saga, in his Gisli the Oudaw. 

Havardar SAeAlsFiRDiHðs(Westof Iceland, 99'7-ioo2}, atragic 
tale ; the cnjelty of the powerful chief Thorbiorn, the innocence of 
the murdered Olaf, and the terrible grief of his old father Havard, 
Etning at last to unfaltering vengeance, are conceived in the tnie 
Æschylean vein. For ihe text we depend on paper copies frotn 
a single vellum now entirelj' lost. The latter part of the Saga, 
fbllowing upon the death of Thorbiom (chaps. 1 1-33), seemB to be 
stu&ed out with added matter by a later hand. Thus the matter of 
one chapter is taken firom Landnama, but in a vitified state. These 
airoless and iU-told scenes of slaughter of a]l the brothers of the 
slain chief Thorbiom are both absurd and iU-considered, besides 
being impossible, considering time and circumstances. They 
weaken the impression left by the early genuine part of the story. 
The verses are so hopelessly corrupt througbout tbat it is hard to 
tell whether they are entirely genuine. Edited in Nord, Old. 1860. 


Sandahanka Saga (North of Iceland, 1050-60) stands apait ,^_ 
from all the rest, boA in plot^and matter. They are tragedies, ^****- ,( 
teUing of the hves, loves, and deaths of noble gentlemen and ladies. 
This Í3 a comedy, with a man of low estate for hero, and a success- 
ful intrigue for subject Odd, a small farmer's son, gets rich by 
smuggling voyages to Finland, comes home and takes a chief- 
taincy. Seven chiefs of the jealous old famiUes enter into a league or 
bond (whence the name ' The Story of the Bond-raen, or Confede- 
rates') to ruin bim, and contrive to bring him into great straits ; 
so that he is well-nigh lost, when he Ís rescued hy the cunning of 
his old fatber, whom he had treated coldly in his prosperity, and 
who now manages to hoodwink and outwit tbe seven chiefs, by 
detaching two of their number ; then follows the banter between 
Egil and the crest-fallen chiefs. An essentially plebeian story. 
The Btyle is dryly humourous, full of pithy saws and broad homely 
jesting. Ölkofri's þáttr is evidently closely connected with this 
Saga, fi-om which its plot Ís indeed borrowed ; both cannot be 
tnie, and we have other evidence to Ehe fact of Odd's existence and 
character'. The Bandamanna Saga is cited in Gretla, and one of 
the hero's smug^Iing adventures is told in ihe Saga of Harald 
Hardradi, in Hulda. He is also mentioned in Heming's þáttr. 
We thus find thal he traded with England, whence he brought 
certain relics of St Stephen, which were tong preserved in Iceland. 
The Roy. Lib., Copenh. 2845, 4tO, though a late vellum, contains the 
old text. It was edited by Dr. Cederschiöld of Lund, 1874. The 
Other MS,, AM. 133, gives a late enlarged and far inferior text, 

• Arsi nyi — ' BíDdiroinm S«gí íýniit aS ?«« hbula, dielufl id imitationcm et 
(Oetbadiiiii ÖllcorTa-þitU. |>aT 1 er ÖI1 önDni jaríxlÍcttD efia methcKtui jurii en 
Oriciui-lÐg fftit tln|n,og iá eiu ro geítae miDÍreile om >* lifl ei Oiágii vii liig. 
Vcfh þcMit ekki tcI MnuakoEiið.'— jV'S. A>* Kgl. Sami. 1S36. 


fiv PROLF.GOMENA. 5 9. 

ftdorned witb spuríous veraes ; it y/as pnbli^ed by Haldor Fridriks- 
son, Nord. Old., Copenh. 186O- An adjunct to this Saga is — 

ÖLKOFRA-þATTR (South of Icelaud, early in the elevenih 
cenlury). The hero of this comical tale is Thorhall, nicknamed 
Ale-hood, who brewed the beer at the Althing. It is a clever 
composition, and interesting from the rough banter and broad 
humour which runs through it. It is given in AM. 132, and is 
now being edited by Dr. Gering of Halle. 

Heidarviga Saga, the story of the Ballle on Ihe Heath (the Heath 
connecting the Nonh and West oflceland, 990-1014), acelebrated 
story which, if perfeet, would be perhaps the best specimen of an 
antique Saga we have, with a plot of the true old typc centring 
round a famous blood-feud, and a style incoherent through the 
writer's lack of skill in prose composition, which was as yet a new 
art. This story is quoted in Eyrbyggia, and was known to the 
composer of Gretla. The text is found in one vellum, the oldest ■ 
Icelandic Saga MS. we poasess, of which the beginning was lost 
ere it came to Stockholm in 1682. Half of the reraainder (twelve 
leaves) was lent to Arni Magnusson at Copenhagen in 1734, and 
períshed in the fire 1728. To complete this misfortune J6n Olafs- 
Bon's transcrípt of it (ihe ooly one ever taken) was also destroyed, 
fiO that all we know of this portion is derived from his recollections, 
wrítten down a year after, and a few phrases which he had copied 
out separately. The principal contents are the exploits and death 
of Viga-Styr, and Snorri's foray to Borgarfiord, the slaying in 
Norway of Ha!l Gudmundson, which was the cause of the Heath 
slaughter, The Lykewake scene must have been very striking, 
and is referred to in Eyrbyggia. The vellum came from the North 
of Iceland, and was once in the hands of Magnus Olafsson, but no 
copy seems to have been taken. This Saga was edited by Jón 
Sigurdsson in Isl. Sög., and seriea, vo!, ii, Copenh. 1847, 

koRMAKS Saga (North of Iceland, 930-60), the most primitive 
piece of Iceiandic prose wriling that has come down to us. Thc 
slyle is so rough and broken Ihat it is at times hardly intelligible, 
fwm tbe sudden transiiions and want of connection which occur 
not only in its wording, but even in the matter. It is a coarse 
rough story of coarse rough life. The subject is the unfortunate 
love of Kormak (note his dark eyes and Gaelic name), a wild roving 
poet, for Steingerda. The hero's generous passionate character 
shines out ihrough the obscurity of the sioiy, in which many of 
his verses are inserted somewhat at haphazard, rendering confusion 
worse confounded. Others are to be found in the Prose-Edda, 
To this Saga we are indebtcd for the best and earliest account of 
the ' holmgang ' and its rules. The legend of the magic sword 
Skofnung points back to very early mylhs, cf. Mitford's Tales of 
Oldjapan, p. 78. The text is founded on AM. 133, whichwas here 
tianscribed from a very old vellum. Two small leaves in AM. i6a 
are the sole remains ofa lost MS.,which also contained BiarnarSaga. 



A new edition is much needed; it haa only been printed once, by tbe 
Arna-Magnæan Fund, Copenh, 1833, with a Latin translalion. 

Vatzdæla Saga, the alory of the Waterdale Men (North of 
Iceland and Raumsdale, 890-9S0), one of Ihe oldest Sagas Ín 
point of subject, telling tbe lives of Ingimund the old and his sons 
at tbe time of the Setdement; how Ingimund's coming to Iceland 
waa foretold, how the prophecy waa íulfilled, and how he settled and 
gave namea to the new home. All this is recounted afler tbe 
manner of Herodotus, and ihe mainspring of the whole is one of 
his most cbaracteriatic maxims, to wit, no man may withstand his 
fate. The calm steadfastness of tbe bero, bis dealh, and the 
revenge arc nobly drawn ; and there are several interesting inci- 
dents in the story, the account of tbe Volva (Sibyl), tbe spirit 
joumey of the Finns, &c. Vatzhyma is tbe foundation of the 
texL Aftcr Ingimund's death and revenge (chaps. 28-47) ^^ story 
flags ; and the latter part of the Saga ia greaúy inferior, and has 
evidently been worked up in a weak and confiised manner by 
a late lúnd, while the early part (chaps. i— a?), tbough somewbat 
wordy and diffuse in atyle, probably preaervea the plain oríginal 
woilc No versea occur in this Saga. It was published by Vig- 
fiisson in Fomsögur, Leipzig, 1860. 

ÞoRVALCZ Saga vmwotajL (Nonh of Iceland, 980-4) belongs to 
the same class of Sagas as Kríslni Saga, telling how Thorwald 
Kodransson tbe Far-travelled, fellow-missionary and companion 
of Ihe Saxon Bishop Frederick, preacUed the New Faitb to the 
Icelanders during four years, but in vain. Thorwald's Wiking 
spirit and the Bishop'a Christian meekness are well contrasted. 
The text is preserved in Olaf Tryggvason's Saga, and published in 
Biskupa SögoT, pp. 35-50. 

SvAKFDALA Saga (North of Iceland, tenth cenmry), the coaiseal 
and worst of the Islendinga Sagas, told in a rough confused way, 
seidom rísing to a higber level, but preserving to us some few 
notices of the old heathen life and manners. Tbus the slain 
Bearsark Klaufi walks again ; and so we have the battle between 
Karl tbe Red and Ljotulf Godi, and the episode of Skidi and 
Yngvild Faircbeek (The Taming of ihe Shrew), cmel and brutal 
scenes. The tale of Tborlcif Earl's poet ''quotes the Saga, The 
story mentioned in Landnama is not our Saga, but a better one, 
wbich may never have been written down. The text depends on 
paper transcripla from one loat vellum (either that part of AM. 561 
which has [>erished, or ratber the Liosvetninga Saga vellum). One 
leaf of another MS. exists. Tbe beginning (ch. 1 to the raiddle of 
cb. 10) is an undoubted forgeiy of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
century. Islendinga Sögur, ist series, vol. ii, Copenh. 1830. 

LiosvETNiNGA Saga, or story of the Lightwater Men (Nortb of 
Iceland, 1009-24, 1050-60), treats first of the feuds between 
Gudmtmd the Mighty and the men of Espibol (wbence this part of 
Úte Saga is once, m a later chapter, called ' Espbælinga Saga'), and 




bstween the same great chierand the men of Liosavatii. conclading 
with the death of Thorkel Hake. In the second part of the story 
the feud is carríed on bj' Gudmund's sons, and resalts in the 
Bl.íying of the innocent Kodran. The whole tale Ís a series of 
loosely-strung episodes, and affords perhaps the earlieBt exaraple 
of the process of consolidation of the traditions of a dístrict, which 
long afterwards resuits in such ^tistic Sagas as Laxdæla : it gives 
a lively picture of law and local politics in early timea. The lext 
ís founded on paper iranscripts of a lost vcllum, of ihe end of the 
fourteenth century, of which three blaek and mangied leaves (in AM, 
162) remain ; it gives a good example of a pure early text in a late 
MS. There are also fragments of another vcUum, AM. 561, but this 
■ MS. probably never coniained the later half of the Saga, and cer- 
tainiy omitted some of the episodes of the earlier part, e. g. Sorli and 
Vödu-Brand ; it also bears traces of abridgmenL The title of the 
Saga is authentic. A new edition is much wanted. It has only been 
once published, Islendinga Sögur, ist series, vol. ii, Copenh. 1830. 

Vallfl-IíjótB Baga (Nonh of Iceland, c. loio) belongs to the 
Lightwater cycle. and tells of the feuds of Ljót o' Vall, in a light 
sketchy style. We have it in paper copies of one loat vellum MS. 
(probably ihe lost Liosvetninga vellum). Published in Islendinga 
Sögur, ist series, voi. ii, Copenh. 1830." 

Viga-Glums Saga (Norih of Iceland, middle and end of tenth 
century), a popular story, of which the hero is a man of fiercc, dark, 
unscrupulous character. The style Ín consonance wiih the subject 
is rough and boid, the verses inserted arc doubdcsa genuine. The 
Saga is named on the Stockholm O. H. fly-!eaf. The text is given 
in veryearly and pure form in AM. 133. Fragments of Vatzhyma 
esist which conlained a lalcr reccnsion somewhai expanded in style 
and including the story of Ogmund Ðytt in an abridged form, sce 
Olaf Tryggvason's Saga. There is another vellum fragment in 
AM. i6z, a few leaves also containing Gisli Saga. This Saga was 
' edited in Isleudinga Sögur, ist series, vol. ii, Copenh. 1830 : it is 
known to many English readers through thc plain and vigorous 
transiadou of ihe laie Sir Edmund'Head. 

Revkdæla Saga (North of Iceiand, c. 990), a discotinecled story 
failing into two divisions, the first narrating thc fcud between the 
good chief Askel and the evil Vemund Kögr/thesecond connected 
with Gluma, telling of the career, outlawryj and dcath of Askel's 
son Viga-Skuta. The text rests on paper transcripts of a singlc 
lost MS. (probably the Liosvetninga vellum), but lacking the end, 
which is prcserved in another vellum, AM. g6i. At the junction 
of ihc two vellum texts there is a small blank, from a page in tbe 
MS, 561 being herc washed out (see Gull-l'oria Saga above). 
The present Editor however succeeded in asccrtaining the extent 
of the blank (fifteen and a half MS. lines, answcring to about twenty- 
four lines of the prínted edition), and paitly in reading it. It con- 
tains the preparations for the slaughter of Skuta, and the slaying ' 



his faithful hound just before his 'own death, an Íncident common 

to several Sagas aod notablf occurríng in Niala. The Saga is 

contained in Islendinga Sögur, ist seríes, voL ii, Copenh. 1830. 


Vapnfikdinga Saga (East of Iceland, latter part of tenth cen- 
tury), one of ihe older Sagas, telling of the feuds between the 
men of Hof in Weaponfinh (whence the name of the Saga) and 
the mcn of Crosswick. It falls into two parts, the feuds of Brodd- 
Helgi and Geiti, ending with their deaihs, and afterward the 
continuance of the quarrel bj- ihcir sons, concluding with a 
reconciliation brought about by Jorun the wife of Thorkel Geitison. 
The story is simply, straightfotjíardly told. It is cited in Olaf 
Triggvason Saga and its contents noticed in Islendinga Drapa. The 
text comes from paper copies of a single vellum, of which but one 
leaf remains ; but this luckily preserves a part of the Saga, namely, 
a whole vellum leaf, the ríght hand side of which the seventeenth- 
century transcriber was unable to read. He read ihe left hand 
page imperfectiy, but did not even Utempt the first side, which has 
been partly deciphered by the present Edilor, who prínted what 
could be read of it in íiý Félagsrít, 1861. The Saga appeared in 
Nord. Old., Copenh. 1848. 

ÞoTBteinB Saga hvíta (East of Iceland, c. 900). This slight 
sketch is really an introduction to the greater Vapnfirdinga Sa^. 
The hero ia the grandfather of the celebrated Brodd-Helgi. It 
is dcrived from copies of a lost vellum (no doubt the one which 
also preserved Vapnfirdinga Saga), and has been published in the 
same volume of Nord. Old. as the larger Si^. 

ÞoTsteiiu Saga StangairhöggB (East of Iceland, c. 985) also 
belongs to the Weaponfirth cycle. It is a touching little story, 
retating an episode in the life of the famous chief Biarni Brodd- 
Helgiiion of Hof. It is given in paper copies of one vellum (the 
Ijosvetninga and Vapnfirdinga vellum) and was published with 
VapnGrdinga Saga. &yt^>J 2, fc»«" 

Hrafnkels Saga Fbeysgoda (East of Iceland, c. 960), a small 
Saga admirably composed and skilfully told, and almost idyllic in 
character. Hrafnkel, in his great devotion to his god Frey, who had 
prospered all his undertakings, makes a reckless oath, the keefHng 
of which leads him into mansiaying against his will, whence trouble 
and disaster come upon him. This theme is lightened by charm- 
ing scenes of farm life. It is preserved in paper transcrípts of one 
lost vellum (the Liosvetninga vellum). Óne leaf however of a 
second somewhat inferior MS. exists, which the word ' miskviða- 
laust ' aV>ye proves not to be ours. Edited by Thorsen and Gisla- 
son Ín 1839, and again by the latter in Nord. Old., Copenh. 1847. 
' DROPI.AUGARSONA Saga (East of Iceland, 997-1007), a very old 
Saga in the uncouth broken style of early Icelandic prose. It 
recounts tbe deeds of two brothers, Grim and Helgi, the sons 
of ihe lady Droplaug, concludíng with the levenge taken by Grim 



Iviii PROLEGOMENA. $ 9. 

for Helgi's death. This story is remarkable as nearly the only 
one vhich contains any statement as to its authorship. ' Þorvaldr 
[or Þorkell] átti son er Ingialdr h^t, hans son hét Þorvaldr, er 
sagði sðgu þessa.' This would be ciear enougb, and would give 
about iiio as the date of the oríginal, if the reading ' Þorvaldr' 
were certain, as he was son of Grím; and it certainly is the 
likeliest (being the grandfather's and the grandson's name). But 
if we read ' Porkeli' we must suppose a blank in the text which 
we cannot fill up or explain, and no chronolugical conclusion 
could be drawn. There are verses in ihis Saga, alone of all the 
Sagas of the East of Iceland, which bear a remarkable resemblance 
to those in the latter part of the^Niala, and may be by the same 
hand; they are of course in both cases later insertions of ihe 
thirteenth century. AM. 13Z, perhaps a copy of an old incom- 
plete oríginal, is the foundation for the tezt of this Saga. One leaf 
exists of a late and rather illegible vellum (the Liosvetninga 
vcllum), containing a tnore wordy and enlarged recensioQ. Edited 
by K. Gislason Ín Nord. Old., Copenh. 1847. 

Brandkrossa-þáttr, the bcginning historical, the rest fabulous. 
It is a kind of adjunct to the preceding Saga. Published in Nord, Old. 
1848 frompape/ copies taken perhaps from the lost Liosv. veliuni. 

ánimars Baga Þiðranda-bana (East of Iceland, 1000-8), also 
a small Saga of the Weaponfirth cycle, mentioned however in 
(rXa^dnuBft as ' BjarSvíkinga Saga,' and noticed as to matter in 
Islendinga Ðrapa. It tells of the slaying of Thidrandi, the son of 
the chief Ketil Thrym, by Gunnar the Easterling, whereby Gunnar 
fell into outlawry, and, bardly avoiding death at the hands of the 
avengers of blood, by the help of his fríend Sveinung, at last 
escaped to Norway. Paper copies of a stngie lost vellum supply the 
text, which is printed as an appendix 10 Laxdæla in the Copenhagen 
(i8z6) edition of that Saga, 

ÞoRSTEiNS Saga Sisu-Hai.lz sohak (East of Iceland, c. 1014), a 
tale of bloodshed and violence, preserved in a very imperfect shape, 
narrating Thorslein's feuds with Thorhall and olhers, and his 
adventuies at home and abroad. This Saga is preseived in paper 
copies of a lost vellum once belonging to the Royal Library at 
Copenhagen (whithei it was brought by Tor^us in i66a) which 
also contained Gisla and Fostbræðia Sagas : the beginning and end 
\ are wanting, so that we only know of Thoretein's death from an 
episode preserv'ed elsewhere ; a copy of the test was supplied by 
Vigfusson to Möbius for his Analecta, Leipzig, 1860. There is 
beside an episode of Thorstein in Hulda (King Magnus the Good's 
Saga), and the account of his death in Vatzhyrna. 

MSranda Saga (East of Iceland, c. 996), another tale relating 
to the family of Hall o' Side, of whose lost Saga it may be a • 
fiagmeni. It is a pathetic littie story, with a weird power about it 
that strongly ímpresses the leader. Hall is about to become a 
Chrístian, and forsake his old gods, but they will not depart 



without a victim; and his young son Thidrandi is accordingly 
slain by the nine dark goddcsses, Woden's shield-mays, before the 
whiCe angels can come to his aid. It was known to the auchor of 
Niala. We have it as an insertion in Olaf Tryggvason's Saga, into 
which it is fitlj' woven as part of the History of the Change of Faith. 

Sagas chieflt relatino to Greenland and Wineland. 
Floahanna Saga (South of Iceland and Ihe deserts of Green- 

land, 985-90), depicting the roving adventnrous life of Thorgils, 
surnamed the step-son of Scarleg, in Iceland as well as abroad. 
The character of the sturdy, gruff, unbending Wiking Thorgils is 
well sketched. Its most interesting part is that which tells of 
the terrible life of a shipwrecked band of colonists on the wild 
shores of Greenland. This graphic narrative is interesting for' 
comparison with recent accounis of the same regions. The 
incidental matter and the introductory chapters which give the 
tradilional history of the Ftoe-men are also noteworthy. The 
wfaole S^a is in Vatzhyma; and in AM. 445 there is a good 
vellum fragment; both inciuded in Fornsögur, Leipzig, 1860. 

EiRKS Saga Rauda, thus inscribed in the velium, but now 
often called Þorflnnfi Saga KarlBefioiB (Greenland, Wineland, 
and Ihe North of Iceland, 990—1000). This celebrated story, 
after the opening scenes in Iceland, reiates mainly to the Green- 
land colony and the discovery of Ameríca. It is cleaily and well 
told ÍE both texls, for this Saga presents the unique phenomenon 
of two entirely different recensions, which, though corresponding 
on the whole, are both separately derived from oral tradilion. The 
one we should ascribe to the Wm/, to Broadfirth, from whence the 
colonization of Greenland chiefly took place; the other beiongs, 
we believe, to the North of the Island, where Thorfin's family dwelt, 
and is ruder in style and manner. The correspondence of these 
distinct versions throws great light on the vitality and the faithfuN 
ness of tradition, and is a strong confinnation of the credibility 
in main points of a Saga which is especially important for bis- 
toric reasons. The version of the North Ís preserved in the Flatey- 
bók (i. 429-432 and 538-549); that of the West in two vellums, 
Hauks-bók and AM. 557. The better tille for this atory would be 
the Saga of Eirik the Red, in fact it is styled so Ín AM. 557 

ÍEiríks Saga Raufia). The test in Antiq. Americanae is mainly 
rom Hauks-bók. 
F(»TBRÆDRA Saga (West of Icctand and Greenland, 1015-30) 
tells of ihe lives and foster-brotherhood of the murderous and reck- 
less Thorgeir and the poet Thormod Kolbrunarskald. Thorgeir 
is slain by a chief from Greenland, and Thormod goes there in 
disguise 10 revenge him, The scenes of life among the Norse 
colonisCs in Greenland are especiaily interesting. 'The styk of 
the Saga is romantic, almost euphuistic; and we evidently possess 
tbe later edition oniy (c. 1330) of a oiuch earUer compositíon. 



We have several MSS. of this Saga, AM. i^a and Flatey-bók ara 
perhapa ihe best, Hauks-bék is inferior, Of the lost Cod. Reg. 
text a paper copy remains. The name ' Fostbrædra Saga ' is not 
authentíc; the ancients Beem to have called it the Saga of Thormod 
and Thorgeir, or the like. K. Gislason edited this Saga in Nord. 
Old., Copenh. 1852 (two fragments). The whole text is published 
in ihe Flatey-bók, scattered throughout the second volume. 

We.may put with the above QTsenleiidinga-p&ttr (c. 1125), 
preserved in the Flatey-bók (iii. 445-454), which tells of Bishop 
Arnald and his fríend Einar Sockisson, who according to his oath 
avenges ao insult dene to the Bishop, and is slain in revenge 
therefore. A list of the churches (twelve in thc East, three in the 
West) and bisbops of Greenland (nii»e) is appended by the scríbe. 
Published in the Flatey-bók, vol. iii, Chriatiania, 1868. 

These four Sagas, with a few scattered notices (as in Speculuin 
Regale and ihe fictitious Króka-Ref's Saga), and the Greenland 
Lays comprise nearly all that relates to the most northem of 
European colonies. For the geography of Greenland the Memo- 
ríal of the Norseman Ivar Bartison of c. 1340 is of paramount 
importance; published in Antiq. Amerícanae. 

§ 10. TUÆTTIR. 

There are besides Ihe Sagas a number of small tales or episodes 
which have rcceived tbe name of Þáttr ('tait' or morsel). These 
are ,found inserted more or less loosely in the Kings' Livcs. 
They are of diverse origin ; some being fragraents of larger storieB 
once esisting in a perfect shape, treated just as we find Orkney- 
inga, Færejdnga, Laxdæla, and others have been, by the editors 
of the coUectíons of the Kings' Sagas, who cut them into pieces 
and fitted them into the main story in rough chronological order. 
But the most of them are litde stories, too small to be calied Saga, 
relatíng some single incidents of the hero's Ufe at the king's court 
in Norway or elsewhere. It is indeed difficult to draw the line 
between a Saga and a Þáttr; some here given above as Saga, 
as Thorslein the White, Thorstein Stangarhögg, t'iðrandi, being 
ratber Wttr ihan Saga, Tbey belong to every ^e of literature in 
Iceland, from the S^a' tíme tíU the death of tradition and the 
introduction into Iceland of mediæval leaming and the consequent 
eponymous legenda, 

The foUowing rough dassiGcation wiU give some idea of the 
matter and nature of ihe chief Þættir, for which Okf Tryggvason's 
Saga, Hulda, Hrokkinskinna, and FÍatey-bók (Fb.) are tbe chíef 

Of loelandera : 

Inserted in King Olaf Tryggvason's Saga, in AM. 61, 53, 54; 


§ lo. THÆTTIR. Ixi 

//■ Sriðl >nd Araot Ketlingar-Der, chapi. íí^-itj, 'ff- 
N Tbonteia OxFbot, Fb. i. 149-163. 

C Tbonild Tittldl, ch. 100. 9f! 

In Magnus the Good and Harald Hardradi's Sagas, all in 
Huldai and Hrokkinskinna ; 
^ AodaTiDo'WeitfinhaDdbii WhitcBeu. cbapi. 71-7;. IV n- 
Bcind Ihe Open^iiDded, ch. 96. 
Hieidu Heimtki, diapt. 16-19. 
11.0 ■ Hnb oFHidufjoiB, chapi. 40-51. 
fl Odd Oreigioa, aa idventuie ortbe bcio of Bindim. S., chapi. I06, lOf. 
Sntghi-HaUi, ihe king'i fool, chapi. lOl-log. 'H <•• ft-'A>/>- 
Stu^ the blind miaibel, dL iðo. 
TbonteÍD, (be inqDÍtitH. '''/ T* 11- 
Thorrard Ki&kDOtr, cb. 110. 
The lcelaDdic itoiy-telléi, dl. 99, 
t þontein, h>ð of Hall o' Side, cli. 45. 

In Magnus Bareleg's Saga, in Hulda and Hrokkinakinna ; 

Giali IllugiuoD, ibe poet, cbapt. 15-19. 
In Signrd the Cnisader'a Saga, in Hulda ajid Hrokkinskinna ; 

Irai. the lore-iick poet, át. ig. 

GulI-ÆiD-Thoid, chapt. 14, 15. 

Id GilIÍ's Sons' Saga, in Morkinskinna ; 

Eiaar SkiiIaioD, the poet, pp. 116-1)8. 

In Magnus Erlingsson's Sag^ in AM. 337; 
Maai, Ihe poet, Sven. S, ch. Sj. 'Tf, 

Oí Hanemeu: 

In Olaf Tryggvason's Saga ; 

FÍDD and Sreia, cbapi. loi-toj. "" 

Rognnld and RaaA, the orighi sf tbe ramilj of EJSTda-Kari, chapi. 
144-148. -rf 

InStOIaf's S^; 

Olaf Qeintada-AU', ■ hiir-mjthical epiiode telKng the itoi; oT 

St. Olafi birth, Fb. ii. 6-9. 
Eindridi ud Erling. Fb. iL 193-197. 
Sguid Hranuon or þinga-Saga, leally an integial part of Sigurd and 

Eyiteini Sap 1 Hulda ind Hrokkinikinni. chapt. l7--^5. It hll 

beeo e<fiTed itpaiateiy by O. Slorm ; Cbiiitiana, 1876T 
SjeÍDki, the bntly chief of the EIAr-Grimat, cbapi. 9-13. 
{Bakan Innion, latel]' edited by G. Stoim, ii plainlj' a fifteenth- 

century foigery. | j; 

In Magnus the Good and Harald's Sagas, in Hulda; 

Thrond DflJpUnd^ch. ij. jf,^ Jrííw 'fí-*!- 

Kail reiali, chapi. ^-^ 
UlftbeWealthy, chapt. 99-95, 
Of Svedes: 

Uauk hibiok, the chatnpioD oi King Harald Faiihair agiintl the 

Swedei. bal/fabnlou^ Fb. i. 577-583. 
Slyrbiom and tbe battle of Fyiiivalla, Fb. ii. 70-73. 
Eymand Hringnon, a cnríoDi acconDt oT tbe adTeDtaiei of a None 

cbicf ia R.auia, Fb. ii. 11S-134. 


Ixii PROLEGOMENA. § ii. 

Of ÐaneB: 

In St. Knut's days ; 

Blood-Egil, 1 ftagdicat of Skioldniiga, fntm thc Saga or St. Kiiut ; 
Knytlinga Saga, chapi. 33-40. -fl- 

Ofthe OrkneTs: 

Belgi and Ulf, Pb. iii. ^^^-^Co. 

The buTDÍDg of Bishop Adam, Fb. App. to Orkn. S.. Roll)' editioii. 
Of a semi-samlific nature : 

Randulf. the iitrologer, Fb. ii. 191-301. "^ 

Stjöinu-Oddi, the itar-gazet, Vatzhyma, the Notil. Old. iSðo. 

RelatíQg to legendary and my/hical subjects : 

Bergbua-þ&ttr, Vilihyma, tbc Nord. Old. 1S60. 

Eindridí Hbreid, ihe arcbet. O.T. ch. 135. 

Bflgi Thoiiuou, lerctiing to Gudinund of GlxiitTolI, Fb. 1. ISf-lii. 

Heniíiig the Aicber, containing lonie ciuioui adiealuiei of the heio 

in Euglaud, Ibe legend of Hitild Godwinion'i escape ifter tbc 

battle of Haitiogs, ðw. ; piinted in Appoidíx to OilcneyÍDga, 

Roltt' editiðo, L 347-3S7. 
Hroi theFool, ofeaitciaoiiginilt bat beentiamlated by Mr. Monii; 

Fb, ii. 73-80. 
SötK, lefettiDg to tfae EveTlailing Fight belweoi H«dia ind Hogni, 

Fb. i. Í75.-18J. 
Thontein BKir-mign. told by Siio in a different fofin nnder otbei 

namei; it lefeit to GudtDund of GIztiiToll, &c. ; AM. 343 aiid 

B^k- - Thonlein Sketk, Fb. i 416-418. 

Toki the Aichei, to be coinpaied irilh Noma-Geitt Saga ; it con- 

taini the Tell legend ; Fb. ii. I36-I38. 
Volta-þdtlr, Fb. ii. 331-336. 
Hakon Haiekuon (a limilir legend to that of Schillci't Baltad. Dei 

Treue Fiidoliii). published in Fmt. xi. 411-439. 
The itoij of King Haiald Faiihaii'i Ihiee poet», foundei on a 
'fabliau' DrEaitein orígin. 
Of clerical origín : 

Eirik thc Far-tiaTellei, who let oBt to finiTthe Land of ETetlaitÍng 

Life (0dain.iaki), Fb. i. 39-36. 
Albanui and Sunniva oi ihe Men of Sclja, O. T. chapi. 106-108. 

§ II. Spurious Icelandic Sagae (SkrÖk-Söguk). 
We meet with these pretty early, some even belonging, from , 
the evidence of the MSS., to the thirteenth century, most are 
of the fourteenth. They are interesting, not for their style or 
matter, which are very poor, buí from tbe evidence they yield as 
to the literary spirit of the age in which they were written, proving, 
as they do, Áat all Tradition of the old Heroic Age was dead by 
the end of the thirtcenlh century, and ihat Taste was already 
dechning. Tbey also preserve indications, which we are glad to 
have, of the genuine Sagas' exislence, &c. They are (i) partly 
made up, by a process similar lo ihat which embellishes genuine . 
Sagas wilh phrases, episodes, and verses, on the genuine founda- 
lion of hints in Landnama and other Sagas, such as the fabricated 



part of Grella; (a) partiy pure fabrications, such, for instance, as 
Vigiund's Saga, when the very dregs of tradition had been used 
up. A poverty of diction and most plentiful iack of true fancy or 
imagination, with few traces of tlie fresh vigour which the pooreflt 
gentiine Sagas possess, tnark the whole tribe. We may notice the 
names of tbe chief Sagas here. 

Of those included in Va'tzhyma : KjalneBÍiiga Saga^ a fabrí- 
cation, in the first chapter of which Landnama and Libellus 
are used to give credit to the Saga, which is one of the earlier 
(c. 1300), as the last fen lines prove. Sárðar Baga Sng»- 
fiallB-áss (the most popular of the lot); its hero is one of. ihe 
' half-troUs ' which are so prominent in the later Icelandic folk- 
taies. Scraps of Landnama are also put in here to give a genuinfr 
Eur. Eróká-Beft Saga ; this Saga, like the next we shall notíce, 
refere to Greenland, but sho ws rea l local knowledge on Ihe part of Jf-oií'f 
ihe anthor . so that Dr. Maurer has even believed it possible \X> 
idcniify a firth which he describes as the lately-discovered Franz- 
Joseph's fiord. The Saga of Thord Hreda, a real personage of 
whom nothiug is known, is a little better told in parts than most 
of its type. We have two recensions of it, the worst extant in 
several vellums, and often edited ; of the better but a fragment 
exists, the beginning and end (the pedigree) in a single vellum, 
viz. the Vatzhyrna, wbich text also is the older. Bard's and Thord's 
Sagas (from Vatzhyrna) were edited in Nord. Old. 1860; Kjalnesinga 
inlsl. Sög. 1847 ; and Króka-Refs by Sveinsson, Copenh. 1866. 

In other velluins: Fúmbogs Sa^ thc name and genealogy 
of the hero taken from Landnama, the subject from Vatzdœia 
(chaps. 31-35) are liie only foundation for tbis Saga, wtiich occurs 
in AM. 132, and is certainly of the thirteenth century. It is now 
being edited byDr, Hugo Gering of Halle, BollarÚtte, tacked to 
Laxdælain AM, 133, and printed at the end of the Copenh.edition 
of ihat Saga. Víglmidar Saga is a feebly lold love-story, imitated 
from Frithjors Saga, Gunnlaug, &c, It contains, what we rarely 
find even in these tales, a distinct statement as to its authorship. 

There is yet a later clase of stories which are entirely apocryphal, 
and were clueSy composed after the Revival in Iceland, thoi^h we 
can trace them, through stories of intermediaie date, up to those of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, noticed above, They may 
be said to begin with the ÍhÍTd kand of Flatey-bðk, who spins out 
the tale of t^jrstetn Tj aldstædin g from hints Ín Hauks-bók, and gives 
Stieg l u- Halla - þát tr fn an enlarged and vulgar form, To this con- 
nection beiongs the l^ttr of Hakon Ivarsaon, which was made 
out of Heimskríngla, and is found in a veilum of about 1500, 

The S^ of Jokull Booson is a forgery of still later date and 
inferior worth, fabricated as an appendÍK to the fabulous Kjalnes- 
inga Saga, but omitted in the oldest vellums of that Saga. The 
story of Qunnar Keldugnups-flfl, of about the same date, exists 


btiv PROLEGOMENA. § iz, 

in paper copies of the seventeenth century ; ít ia purely fabulðus. 
The beginning of Svarfdæla (pp. 115-136 of the Copenhagen 
edition) is a forgery of the same kind by a man who was not even 
acquainted with Landnama. He left a blank, perhaps designedly, in 
his edition, which was filled out by a later fabrícator. Ðroplangar 
8aga H^jor, exisling in paper copy of about 1630 (AM. 551), is 
founded on the text of AM. 132, and filled up from many sources. 
It has unfortunately been used in the Lexicon Poéticum. Jón 
Thorlaksson, in the East of Iceland (died 1 7 1 a), a contemporary of 
Ami, a man of good family (son of Bishop Thorlak), treated Egla 
in the same way. This is attested by Ami himself. Snorri Bioms- 
son, prícst of Husafelt (died 1803), a poet, wrote a Starkadfl 
Baga on the basis of the traditions and verses preserved by Saxo. 
Armaiui Saga, another of these, ig printed in the edition, 1778, of 
Egla. The Editor has traced this story to Haldor Jacobsson, who 
died early in the present centuiy. It is the most readable of ail 
its class. Þáttr EgilB iUgjarna of YeQdilskaga, published in 
Copentiagen in 1820 as a Univeisity Program, contains an account 
of King Magnus' death, brought about by means of an enchanted 
horse, for the hint of which the author was indebted to Saxo, Lib, x. 
Latei still ÍE tiie false ending of Gull-lMris Saga (already referred to), 
composed in the earlier part of the present century, with whicb in 
point of date we may couple the story of Thori Hast and Bard birta 
and Hrani bring. To Gisli Konradsson (bom 17S7, died tS'jÓ) 
we may ascribe the Saga of Harald HringB-bani. Others míght 
be mentioned, but we have noticed the best specimens of ihe class, 
which maystill be augmented; forthe notíon thattheSaga isaform 
of literature equally suitable to every writer still holds in Iceland. 

§ 13. Agk of thh Islendikga Sagas. 

The singular silence as to authorship which runs throughout the 
early Icelaiidic litérature, as it does through the Dramatic literature 
of Elizabeth, gives us no information and little means of tracing 
single Sagas. Of course in both cases the explanation is the same; 
the veiy objectivity of the epic style and feeling, which made Ihe 
writer careless as to recording his name, made the scribe pass it 
over where it was recorded ; a habit against which at a later date 
we find the pathetic appeal of Berg the monk, to the future 
copyists of his work, not to omit his name, since he was desiroua 
of the prayers of those that should read it. As to the more general 
determination of the age of the Sagas, we are forced to have 
recourse to scattered ihreads of evidence in order to arrive at 
some broad conclusion on ihis subject. Let us first try to fix 
the-earliest date at which the Sagas can have been written down, 
and afterwards examine the evidence as (o ihe latest date it is 
possible this could have taken place. 

Beginning wiih the intemal evidence. At first sight, so frankly 



are the storiea told, so little trace is Ifaere of Chrislian ináaence, bo 
local is the interest, and so minute the circuinstanceEi, we might 
conclude that they couid not have been written tong after the events 
told of in them took pkce. But a closer examination leads one 
qiiite another waj ; thua we find traces of local change since the 
old days, e. g. in Liosvetninga Saga, ' It was well wooded at that 
time;' Gluma, 'There was then a ford;' Lasdæla, 'This is now 
a waste ;' Hœnsa í*oris Saga, 'The rarm-buildings stood higher up 
than they do now;' Hardar Saga, 'There are now sheep-sheds' 
(where the dwelling-houses stood) ; Fostbrædra Saga, ' The Home- 
Etead lay lower down on the Tongue than it does now ;' Eyrbyggia, 
' The mark of the wall ean still be seen ;' Liosvetninga, ' There was a 
moot there which is now held at Kaupang ;' Biamar Saga, ' It wa3 
the fasbion in those days to use garterings ;' Eyrbyggia, ' It was Ihe 
cu^tom then of chapmen . . . ;' Egla, ' The mouth of the river waa 
then narrower and mudi deeper tíian it is now' — and so on. 

If we look to Snorrí's words on this point, ' that it was more than 
two hundred years twelve-ríght (340) from the Settlement (which 
Ari íised at c. 870) before Sagas began to be written,' and that 'Arí 
was the first man who wrote in the vernacular stories of Ihings old 
and ncw,' they must be accepted. It is of course possible that a few 
Sagas might have been wrítten without Ari's knowledge; but it ís 
not Ukely ; and Thorodd only speaks of ' Laws, Genealogies (the 
veiy kind of works which are first wrillen down in all early litera- 
tures), Homilies, and the most vise Hisíorical Works of priest 
Ari 'Hiorgilsson ' aa wrítten before the date at which he is writing. 
Now we are told that the laws were first put on paper in 1096 and 
1116, so that tbe weight of proof is entirely against any Sagabeing 
written down before c 11 10. 

As to the evidence supplied by genealogiea it must be recetved 
with caution, from its beÍDg the habit of the scribes to bring the 
piedigrees down to their own times ; stilS it is satisfactory proof that 
the Saga is not likely to be later than the person to whom the 
pedigree is brought down. To take particular instances of this 
class of indication : — The mention of Bishops Magnus and Brand 
the ýrst presupposes a knowledge of Bishop Magnus ihe second 
(1217-37) ^^ Brand the second (1362-4), niid ihe naming of 
Giznr the Eari (1258) or the Siuriungs (1200-50), i.e. the three 
brothers and iheir nephews, gives a definite date on one side. 
And we find Hauk, in his editíon of the Landnama (Hauks-bók), 
brings the pedigrees down to himseif or his mother ; Sturla, in his 
edition, to Hvam-Sturla and lo Gudny the molher of the Sturiungs 
(also Landnama tezt); the editor of Mela-bdk to the Melameon; 
while the scribes of Vatzhyma draw them to Jón Hákonsson their 
patron, and the editor of Hrafn Sveinbiornsson's Saga to his bero's 
descendants, for whom he was working. Again the same pheno- 
mena occur in the biographíes : in Bishop Ami's Saga, Thord the 
Lawmatt is recorded among the children of Egil of Reykholt (died 

VOL. I. e 



Ixvi PROLEGOMENA. § 12. 

1 397) ; in this case the títle ' Lawman ' is pUdnly due to (he tran- 
scríber of our single vellum (c. 1350); for Thoid, though be was 
B grown up man when the S^^ was wrítten, was not a. Lawman 
tiU 1341, and the Saga is clearly twenty-five ycars oldcr than that 
date. In Liosvetninga Saga we are told of a man who was the 
father of Gudmund, that ' stabbed Bisbop Ketil in the eye.' Ketil 
was the fríend and contemporaiy of Arí, and died an old man 
in 1145; the accident long preceding his consecration as Bishop, 
about the year iioo, see Sturlunga, IL ch. 39. In Vapnfirdinga 
Saga, a pedigree is brought down to Jón Amorsson, a chief of the 
beginnÍQg of the thirteenth century. But one inclines to take 
this rather as evidence of the age of the now lost vellum, from 
which only one copy was taken in tbe fourteenth centuiy, than as 
any proof of the Saga's age, which we hold to be much earlier. 

The custom of tranjferríng the bones from the old churchyard 
to the new when a new church was built, on the removal of the old 
one, is noticed in several Sagas. In Egla such an event is noticed 
as taking place during the priesthood and under the eyes of Skapti 
Thorarinsson, who was alive and in orders in 1143. (See ii. 502.) 
In Eyrbyggia when Snorrí's bones and those of his mother 
Thordis and his uncle Bork were moved, Gudny was present. 
and her eldest son Thord is appealed to as the authority íor 
the cÍTCumstances. In Biamar Saga, Runolf Dalksson the príest 
(m holy orders 1143) Ís mentioned; he was yet alive in 1173. 
In his days the bones of Biom were moved from Vellir to 
Husafell at the end of the twclfth centuiy (c. 1170-80). Thorarín 
Brandsson the príest, the founder of the new church, is also men- 
tioned in the last chapter of Laxdæla. 

In Floamanna Saga the lady Thorey dreams of the leek witb five 
shoots, one of which ís goldcn, and rises far above the rest, whích 
refers to her descendant Bishop Thorlak the saint, who died 1193, 
and was canonized by popular vote five years later. This would 
point to the earlier years of the ihirteenth century, but Floamanna 
Saga is surely one of the latest Icelandic Sagas, and has passed 
through clerical hands. So in Laxdæla, ch. 66, ailusion is made to 
the existence of a cloister at Helgafell (1184): 'Sá staðr mun 
veröa mestr hér á landi, þangat hefl ek opt Ijós sét.' Again, one 
vellum of Fostbrædra Saga (Hauks-b<5k), c 1310-20, says that a 
wooden hall, built early in the eleventh century, was standing in 
■ the days of Bishop Amí the second (1304-20), which of course 
means 'at the present day,' as is shown bythe other MS. (AM. 132) 
reading ' Magnus Gizurarson,' who was bishop eighiy ycars earlier 
(1217-37); the scribe here we surmise copying from a vellum 
of Bishop Magnus' time. The Saga therefore cannot anyhow be 
put later than 1230, and judging from its euphuistic tone and style 
it is evidently among the most modern. See also the nolice in 
Kristni Saga, ch. 3, from which we infer that Lawman Hauk wrote 
from acopy of Bishop Botolf's timc (1338-46). 



Interquotatíons (one Saga quoting another) do not yield much 
Ínfonnation as to the age of the individual Sagas. We must iirst 
set the Landnama references aside, as pl^nly speaking of Sagas 
existing in oral tradition and not yet vritten down, though some 
of them, as Isfirdinga and Svarfdæla, were actually put on parch- 
ment at a later date. But only the great complex Sagas quote at 
all, vÍE. Olaf Tryggvason, Gretla, Laxdæla, Eyrbyggia (in which 
from ten to twelve references occnr to Vapnfirdinga, Biarnar Saga, 
ftc.), and their evidence goes no further back than the time when 
they tbemselves were composed in their present shape. The small 
Sagas being purely local, move inside their own little circle, without 
heeding or knowing the Sagas of other districts; and in the only 
exception known to us — Thorstein Hall o' Side-son's Saga, where 
Nials Saga ia named — it is far easier to suppose cither that this 
is an interpolation in the single vellum we possess, or even that a 
simple older Nials Saga is meant, than to rely on the solitary cita- 
tion to prove that our present Niala is older than Thorstein Hall 
o' Side-son's Saga. So in Vatzdæla the ' Story of the Earls' is 
dted, which certainly cannot refer to our present complex Orkney- 
inga, edited in the later half of the thirteenth century, but to one of 
its component parts, the old ' Jaila Saga.' 

Tuming from these Indications to the extemal evidence aiforded 
by the words of the well-known statement by the editor of our 
present Sturlunga, hitherto cited in the false reading of Cod. B, 
but here given in its true shape, ' Weil nigh all Sagas that have 
taken place in Iceland up to the death of Bishop Brand Sæmunds- 
son (i30i) had been written down; whereas those Sagas which 
took place aíter this were not written down till Lawman SCiu'la 
dictated (sagöi fyrir) the Islendinga Saga.' These words plainly 
bear on tbe earlier detached Sagas whidi now form part of our 
present Sturlunga (see § 19). But granting, as we perhaps may, 
that they have at tbe same time a wider bearíng on the old Sagas 
in genml, our condusion must be somewhat to this efFect — that 
all the ancient S^as had been committed to wríting before Sturla's 
time, say before 1240, a date which we are incUned to put back 
some twen^ years. 

If we consider the age oí the MSS. we get little or no dirrcl 
help, the otdest 'geoeration' of MSS. being lost But indirectly 
tbey do throw great light on the questíon. Our oldest estant col- 
lection of Islendinga Sagas is of the end of the thirteenth century, 
the AM. 133. That it contains Gluma, Droplaug, Kormak's Saga 
indeed does not aid us, but rather the fact that besides these, 
genuine botii in form and matter, this MS. comprises fictitious 
Fseudo-S^as, such as Finnbogi ; and that it gives us true Sagas 
in a bad retouched text, as Bandamanna (the genuine recension of 
which is only preserved in a much later velhim of the fifteenth cen- 
tuiy). Hence it follows that even at the end of the thirleenth century, 
by which date these fabulous stories, bearing no trace wbatever of true 


hvjii PROLEGOMENA. 5 "• 

tradition, had been some years in ezistence, the old Saga time was 
pasl. And that the text of Finnbogi in AM. 133 is by no means the 
oríginal is shown by comparison with other extant vellums of that 
Sajta, whicb still further pushes back the time of its rahrícatÍDn. 
This is corroborated by Kjahicsinga, a stoiy of the Finnbogi tj^e, 
composed at the end of the thirteenth ccntuiy ; and fartber hy 
onT tezt of Gretla, put into its present shape about the same time, 
Ofthecomponentsof this Saga, the Historícal, the Mytbical, and the 
Fabrícated parts, the last is the editoi's work (consisting chiefly of 
chaps. I— 10, 31—15, 59, 60, 88-95), hesides many Bmaller sections 
which may be easily recognised (drawn from wriiUrt sources such 
as Landnama in Sturla's recensions, B of our ediCions), the Eariy 
Lives of the Kings of Norway from our Konunga-bók (Kringla), 
Trístram's Saga besides Heidarviga and Fostbrædra Saga. Of Uving 
traditíon other than folk-tales of a late type there is no trace ; on 
tbe contrary, every page of the Saga béars witness to the entire 
absence thereof. Su<3i works as these mark the close of a 
literary period, and the prevalence of influences which are abso- 
lutely foreign to the style, the tone, and the matter of the fírst 
Islendinga Sagas. 

Only in ont iingU ínstance are we told from whose dictation 
a Saga was written down, viz. at the end of Droplaug, one of 
the very oldesL Thorvald was a son of Grim Droplaugson, 
and born ahout loofi. He had a son Ingiald, who again had 
a son named Thorvaid, 'he who told this Saga.' Unfortunately 
there is a corniption in the name (the son of Grím being first 
called Thorkel and then Thorvald), and thc Saga is only pre- 
served in one single velium. However, we prefer thinking that 
no link has been lefl out, and that the Saga was wrítten down from 
the narrative of the great grandson of one of the heroes of the tale, 
which answera to a date early in the tweliih century and during the 
lifetime of Ari. 

The period to which they wonld thus be assigned, c. 1140-1330, 
is <»ie which would appear probable on mere h priori grounds. 
The impulse given by Arí and his school, the greater facilities for 
wríting, the interest, fitting the distance of time, felt in the old days 
by men who are neither repulsed by heathendom as contemporaríes 
□or forgetftil of the feelings of their ancestors, aa would have been 
the case in another generation. It was also a time of peace, a 
períod in which neither foreign influence nor party violence were 
all-absorbing and colouríng everything as in the Sturiung days. 

In times undisturbed by any great shocks from without or con- 
vulsions from within, traditions of an heroic Past will live, grow, 
and develope. But just as on some highland road, when tbe 
traveller's path tums, and a great mountain suddenly as it were 
draws a curtain between him and the country he has left behind, 
while strange new landscapes open out before his eyes, so in history 
there comes ever and anon a sudden change which shuts out the 



Past aB though it had never been, and spreads new vistas of hopes 
and interests before a. nation, which in their tuni too will disappear 
as inexorable progress shall decree. 

Such a change as this came npoa Norway in the days of Sverrí, 
breaking old traditions and treading out the old families; aod a 
generation later a simtlar crísis overtook Iceland in the Sturlung 
age. The whole tone of the later biographies and the Sturíunga 
itself cleariy shows it. Sturía was the ' last minstrel ' of the Saga 
time, his birth and eaily youth falling within it, while his old age 
<Í3 outside it, and he is left alone, hke Ossian, with the dead. 

Only ÍD broad outUne can we hope to fiz the age of the Sagas, 
to settle the problem in each particuiar case would be indeed vain. 
And wc can but guess at the date at which any one was composed 
or first put down on parchment. £ven words are not a safe 
críteríon here, and it is often a mere chance whether a Saga has 
been handed down in a genuine or adulterated shape. Tbus 
Gluma preserves the tme type of an old Saga, but it is a pure 
acddent that the vellmn AM. 133 has survived, whereas if it had 
períshed we should have had to depend on the Vatzhyma text, 
in which the Saga has been slighdy retouched with an insertion 
(Ogmund dytt) abridged from Olaf Tiyggvason's Saga. So on the 
Other hand the Holmvería of AM. 556 is edited and retouched ; but 
we have a single leaf of Vatzhyma, the remains of an earlier and 
truei text. The best we can do is to look at the tone and charac- 
ter of a Saga, v^ích even in a late adulterated form is never 
' guite effaced ; even the worst, SvarfdæSa, shows marks of antiquity, 
No furhishing can hide the antique grace of a true Saga, such as 
Kormak's or Havard's, neither can any affectation of spuríous 
age toake Kjalnesinga or Viglund's Saga look ancient. And the 
evil was not whoUy unmixed. No doubt some Sagas have profited 
by the finishing touch of a master-hartd ; else surely the component 
[árts of Niala, Egla, Laxdæla, and Eyrbyggia would not, as works 
of what the finished Sagas are now; and where perhaps history 
has lost, art has certainly gained much. We believe tbat when once 
the first Saga was written down, the others were Ín quick succession 
committed to parchment, some still keeping their original form 
through a succession of copies, others changed. Tbe Saga time 
was rfiort and transitoiy, as has been the case with the highest 
hterary periods of every nation, whether we look at the age of 
Fericles in Athens, or of our own Elizabeth in England, and that 
which was not written down quickly, in due time, was lost and 
forgotten for ever. 

The verítt in lAe Sagas, though hardly affording indications of 
the age of compositioa, since ^ey are mosdy mere adjuncts to 
the taíe itself, yet are valuable as evidence of these processes of 
editing, and embeUishing, and adulterating by foisting in incidents 
and narratives of a more or less fictitious character. We find 
genuine early verscs in Koimak's &tg;a> Gluma, Gunnlaug's Saga, 


hx PROLEGOMENA. § 13. 

Hallfred's Saga, Sígbvat's Saga, Eyrbj^gia, Landnama, Kristni 
Saga, and Uuougbout the hlstoiical works, Kinga' Liv», ftc 
At least half of the verses in Egla and BiainaT Saga are also 
authentic. Of a somewhat doubtfiil character are tbe verses in 
Havard's Saga, Ðroplaug, and ihe latter half of Niala. (In these 
last two Sagas, hj the same hand — a proof of Niala being probably 
composed in the East) False, but of a poetical character, aie those 
in Gisli and many in Egla. While those in Niala (chaps. 7-1 1 3V 
Ín Gretla (excepting 2\ verses quoted ítom Edda and Landnama), 
in Bandamanna, in Hardar S^a, and in the fabulous Sagas are, 
both false and worthless. In the Sagas of the Noith and East it 
Í8 noticeable that no verses occur, nor in Laxdæla of the West 
Besides the philological and metrical tests, which are very trust- 
h^o worthy here, we have in the Prose-Edda (about 450 quotations), in 
the work of Olaf Hvitaskatd (about lao quotations), and in the eailier 
Kings' Lives a very feir means of comparison and of asceitaining 
wbat poets and what kind of poetry were known in the days of 


Histoiians of the end of the twelfih centuiy, wiiting Lives of 
Kings, for the time intervening between Ari and Snoiri : 

Siiik OddsBOn wrote lives of King Sigurd Slembidjakn and tbe 
Sons of King Harald GiHe, in a book called HryBgiar-Btykkí, 
parts of which are preserved in Morkinskinna, and in an infeiior 
form in Hulda and Hrokkinskinna. He lived about the middle 
of the twelfth century. 

Karl JonsBon, the Benedictíne abbot of Thingeyrí, is the 
authoi of STdTris Sasa, oi the Life of King Sveni, wbicb was in 
great part derived from the King himself, who ' sat over him and 
told him what he should wríte.' The lesult is an inteiesling woik, 
which has come down to us unchanged. Abbot Karl went to 
Noiway 1 184, and was there for a year or two, just as the crisis of 
the King's fortunes was over, and his success assured. The quaint 
lacy style of Sverrí's Saga, which is entirely distínct from that of the 
other Kings' Lives, and has a marked individuality of its own, 
must be our best authorily for the Abbot's character and culture. 

As to the authorship, tbe vellums are as usual silent. But there 
Ís a preface prefixed to the story ' ; the cuirent inteipretatíon of 
which bas been that Abbot Karl (d. 1211) wrote but the first pait, 
which does not go very far, and that the whole later part was 

' ' Her hefir app ok ie|^ IH þeíiD líSeiidDni n nú haSi venl um hiíí, ok i þeiira 
manna minnnin cr fyrir þcui bi^lc hafa ugt, en þatetat legji fiá Srerri kannngi. . '. 
&i þat er uppbaf bókaríonu, et ríuB a eptir þeiiri biik er f;rtt riuAi Kul ábdti 
Júnuon, en jfii ut ijilfi Svenir koiiangi, ok léð fyrlr hnt lita ikyldi ; ei lá fiá- 
liigo «ei langt fram konin. , . . KúlluBu þeii þaun hlut bálat fyiii þTÍ Giýlu. 
Uinn tlðaii hluli bókar er ritiBi qitii þeiiii maiuii íritSga er minni böntu tll tví 
al þeii böíba ijalfir tit ok heyrt þaii tiðindi, ok þdi meaD anmii höfða vtrit i 



writtea hy Slynni (d. 1345). ^e take the bearing of the passage 
to be quite anotber. The ' key words ' are the Bentence, ' er sú 
fiúebga eigi langt fram komin.' The wríter has told how the 
first part was written from the lips of the King himself ('en yfír 
sat sjalfr Sveirir kontmgi-, ok i^ö fyrir hvat rfta skyldi'); be 
then adds — ' this tale is not come from fer,' L e. 'tis on the first 
hand, no mere hcarsay inronnation; or, as the copyist of the 
Flatey-book pnts it, ' This narrative can therefore not liive changed, 
in men's moaths.' Again, the latter part of the Saga was taken 
down from men who had seen and heard themselves the tidings 
told there. The tezt in Flatey-book was, we take it, written from 
a copy in Stynni's own handwríting — 'rfta' has a donble sense; it is 
here the penman, not the autbor, that is meant. The whole Saga 
is of one cast, precluding any reasonable tbought of a double 
autborship, least of all by men so far removed as weie Karl and 
S^nni. And Sverrí's Sága is the last one would try to imitate. 
Here, as elsewhere, in An and Tborodd, all depends on a true 
interpretation, bearíng in mind that the technical terms of our 
bookmakers were imknown to tbe ancients, who bad to coin a new 
];diTase for wbat they had to say, the word in (juestion oflen in 
consequence being ðirnf Xtyófutor. 

Sverri's Saga is remarkabte, alike for subject and style, standing 
alone among tbe Kings' Lives, as indeed it was most meet it 
ebould. For it may ahnost be considered the autobiograpby of the 
man who swept away the Old Norway, witb its royalty, its nobiUty, 
its old customs and life, and cleared the ground for the mediæval 
kingdom whicb was to come. Like Olaf Try^;vason he made 
history, and impressed his personality npon the nation in a way 
which it is granted to few kings in many generations to do. In 
tfais work we have fresb from Sveni's own lips, often preserving 
tbe very idiomg which smack of his Fserey birthplace ', and the 
ideas which his priestly education bad characterised, the authentic 
bistory of his strange career. His strong unbending will, his faith 
in his mission and belief in his destiny, bis curíous trust in dreams 

ÐirottÐm meb STCriÍ lunangi. Smn þeui tíBindÍ TÚni ivi I minni fett, *t meaa 
ríuba þcgir eptii ei D^-orðia Túru, ok laC» þan ekkj brejit liSin.' — AM. 31J. 

The Flaley-book njt— ' Her befr opp at iegia fríi þeim t. er guiit tad 1 þeim 
miao* mianom ijiiífia a þeua bdk hiFi i ffntu uman sett, ok eptir þeirri bói (ei) 
tiuBi Kul ibáú Jóaaan mci faUu ritoiai [jairi Sremi ktHninga, ok bann frrir lagSi 
hre tita ikyldi eíi hTemig letja ikjrldi. En eptir þeirri Wk ikiifaai Styrmir prestr 
Iiimi Ftiti. En þena STeiiii nirn ríCaíi eptii þeiiii búk Magnúi preitr þóihalliiðn 
(llu eepUr of Flalrf-boai) ; □)& þvi eigi þetla m41 1 munni gengii hafa.' 

' The King io one ptace cila a half-Terte from Fifniimal, the earlieit knoirn quo- 
tation from mii ichool of poetry. Hii roieígn edncalian in the Watirn Iilii would 
OD oor bypothetii (lee the paiagiaph on IheEdda) aoBnnt foi thii. The Iceianden 
ðfien refei to STeiri'i JDdgment on men and eTcn booki ; ' Sveni wu entertained 
witfa thii itoi;, and he uid ibat (beie Fables weie very amuiing,' Stnil. i. 19. So 
STeiri itteMi tbe unexampled Talout ihown bf Olaf TifggTaion at Svold, Oíld the 
Mook, ch. 69. ■ Kiiw STerti, a oan of wile qicecb uíJgood tindeiitanding, lucd 
lo ujr' . , . , Tbe AiitEor of HuDgmka. 


btxii PROLEGOMENA. § 13. 

aod forebodíngs, bis sober PurítaD life (be seldom toucbed strong 
drínk and ate but once a day), all tinged with a miztnre of half- 
conscious, half-instinctive hypocríay; the stern disciplinc which 
turned the ragged band of Birch-legs into veterans, for whom 
victory was certain ; the eloquence, hard, stirríng, and ever appeal- 
ing with an assured conSdence to the strongest and lowest passions 
of human nature, which contríbuted almost as much Co bring about 
his designs ; the cunning which tumed the veiy Decretals into a 
weapoQ against tlie Pope himself; the knowíedge of mankind 
which secured the steadfast adherence of his partisans through the 
most diEficult and dangerous passages of his fortunes, when their 
political and even religious sympathies were appealing most 
powerfully against him ; even his pereon, the thick-set burly form, 
red beard, and strong features — all these are set before us in the 
boldest relief. The lives of Cromwell and Napoleon alone perhaps 
supply parallels to such a charactcr as this. And we can hardly 
regret his success : the times were rípe for change ; the old Wiking 
spirit had fled ; the Norse noblea, lUce the English of the days of 
Eihelred and the Confessor, were sunk in gross materíal sloth, 
' mead-paunches,' asSverricalls them, ' whose god was their belly;' 
EO though the resistance was bitter, it was fitful and sporadic ; and 
one by one they fell, ofíen in the midst of their feasting, by ihe 
ever-wakeful sword of the great adventurer; bravery ihey showed 
indeed, but the qualities which would enable those reckless ' cava- 
liers' to bold their own against ' men who had the fear of the Lord 
before their eyes' were totally absent among tbem. And so the 
old order of things gave way ; and to Nofway, as to Iceland aiter- 
wards, there came a new life, which ran its course too in time in 
its own appoinced way. 

• Sverri's Saga bas come to us in three vellums, besides abrídg- 
ments (see § 15) and fragments (some twelve leaves). One or 
more were burnt in the Copenhagen fire, 1728 ; of the remaining, 
the Flatey-book on the whole gives the best text. Edited in Fmg. 
vol. viii. and Flatey-book, vol. ii. 

Afler Sverri's death, in March laoa, Norway for a time relapsed 
Ínto a state of anarchy, two kii^ one in the South-east, one in 
the North-west, This is depicted in tbe Böglimga-SögiiT, die 
story of the Croziers, the poUtical party opposed to the Bircb- 
legs, which brídges over the gap between the two great Sagas of 
Sverrí and Hakon. 

Among other Lives of Kings beside the series above noticed, 
we may mention here the Life of Eiug Olaf TrygBTBSon by 
Odd Snorrason, a Benedictine monk of Thingeyrí, wrítten in 
X.atin between '1160-80, which we only possesa in a free and 
paraphrastic translation, which appears to be abridged in places. 
Odd knew of Arí's work, and discusses his and Sæmund's chrono- 
logy as above noticed, 'The passage which refers lo his authoríties, 
Gelli ThorgilssoD, Asgrim Vestlidason, the Priest Biaim Berg- 



thorason, Ingiinn Amor's daughter, Herdis Daði's daughter, Thor- 
gerd Thorstein's daugbter, and to bis sbowing his book to Gintr 
Hallsson, is also given elsewhere of Gunnlaug. Thc balance of 
probability perhaps favoui^ Odd. The oríginal Latin evidendr 
followed the Saga. Btyle, even including verses, one of which 
is preserved in this eitraordinary guise. The clerical element 
is by no means intnisive. It is doubtful whether Snorri was 
Bcquainted with Odd's book, the loss of the Latin original pre- 
cludÍTÍg a full comparison. Odd's text exísts in three separate 
recensions, of which the AM. veiium {No. 310) is the best (Fms. 
X. 216-376); the Stockholm MS. (No. 18), with the fragment, 
W&S edited by Munch, Chrístiania, 1853. 

Onimlaug the Monk, died 1 2 19, a fellow Benedictine of Odd's; 
be wrote a life of St. Olaf, which is lost ; it was no doubt in Latin. 
Excerpts from it are translated and inserted in Flatey-book. He also 
WTDte a life of St. John, bishop of Holar (1106-31), of which a, 
thirteenth-century translation exists, published in Biskupa Sögor, 
Tol. i. 315-360. Among the disciples of Bishop John's Granunar 
School at Hoíar, whom as he sajs, ' I saw with mj own eyes,' were 
Bishop Klceng (died 1176). Bishop Biom of Holar (died iiöa^ 
Priest Biarai the Arithmetician (died 1173), and Abbot Vilmund 
of Thingeyrí, who died in 1 148. Therefore at his dealh in 1119 
Gunnlaug must have been a very old man. 

A L«gendary Lifla of St. Olaf, written in I^tin by a con- 
temporaiy of Odd, of wbich a translation alone survives. This Life 
has evidently come through Norse hands, and is partly of Norse 
origÍiL Our only vellum is the De la Gardie Cod, Upsala, 
published in 1849 by Munch and Ungei (marked O. H. L., i. e. 
The Legendary St. Olaf's Saga). 

$ 14. Shorki Sturlason the Histokuk. 

SNOKRt Stuklason (bom 1178, died 1341) was a man of good 
family; his father, a hard, ambitious, and successful man, had mairied 
when fifiy years old his second wife, a girl of about eighteen ; Gudny, 
'the moiber of the Sturlungs,' as sfae was proudly called in after 
days, was a remai'kable woman, inheridng the great gifts and deep 
passions of her race (the Myra-men of the blood of Egil Skalla- 
Grimsson), and it was to her tbat her sons owed the fame they 
gained and the talents they transmitted, in one case at least, to 
another generation. In Snorri the good and evil qnalities of 
both parents were present ; and bis famous career, his wonderful 
gifts, and his untimely and violent death were the outcome of this 

Snorrí's early life partly eKpIains tbe estrangement which to 
Eome degree existed between bim and his brothers, and may even 
bave given him the opportunity of tuming to those studies which 
he was so successfully to pursue. Wben three yeais o!d he was 
sent into fosterage to Oddi, the house of the migbty chief Jön 


btxiv PROLEGOMENA. § 14. 

Loptsson, the most influential man of his day in Iceluid, great- 
grandson of Sæmund tbe Historían, and grandson of King AUgnus 
Bareleg, as the Genealogical Poem in the Flatey-book proudly 
boasts. Heie Snom stayed till 1197 (when Jón died at the i^e 
of Beventy-three) ; two years aftervards be made a wealthy mu- 
riage. He now lived at Borg, ihe seat of bis mother's migbty 
forefathers, till 1205, when by means of an arrangement with the 
priest and cbief Magnus and Hallfrid his wife (a great-grand- 
daughtcr of Ari the Historian), who were now both stricken in 
years, be moved to Reykjaholt, where, vith tbe exception of bis 
two visits to Norway, the refit of his life was spent. He was 
Lawman from 1215-18. In the latter year be paid his long- 
defetred visit to Norway, at a more advanced períod in life thaj) 
was usual. He amved there at a critical moment. The young 
King Hakon and his adviser Earl Skuli were preparing a fleet 
to hany Iceland, in order to avenge an outrage which one of the 
chiefe tbere had inflicted on somc Norwegian mercbants. Snorri 
interposed, and bis advice to the King was to nse fair means with 
the great men, and thus bríng the island into subjection withoat 
tbe need of violence, professing his wiUingness to engage himself 
and his family in the fuitherance of this project. Whether tbia 
advice was merely intended to induce the King to forego his 
project, as would seem not unlikely, or part of a deeper Bcbeme 
we know not, but bad Snorri really wished to bring about the 
imion, it does not follow that he was meiely selfisb in his desires ; 
notbing could be worse tban the feudg and petty tyranny of 
the Icelandic chiefs, out of which there was apparently no other 
means of escape tJuC Norwegian intervention ; and though be 
might individually profit by it, Iceland at all events could not 
suffer. And it is useiess to brand bim as a tiaitor on such slight 
evidence as we possess either of bis acts or intentions. At all 
events things went no further on Snorri's retum, and his pronuses 
to the King of assistance from biniself and his &mily were ap- 
parently put off 01 forgotten. He was a second time Lawman, 
from 1221-33. In 1^37, civil war forced Snorri to flee toNorway, 
where the enmity between tbe King and Ðuke Skuli was just 
breaking out ; unfortunately be took the wrong side, against tbe 
King, in open defiance of whose orders he went home to Iceland 
in 1339. Skuli's fall in the spiing 1240 decided his fate, for the 
King sent out seciet orders in the summer to slay Snorri or take 
him alive. They weie at first but wbispered about, and it was not 
till the autumn of 1241 that they were obeyed, and Snorri slain 
on tbe night of the aand Sept. The leaders of the murderers were 
Earl Gizur and Ami bis sons-in-Iaw. 

In comparison with bís contemporaries, Snorri's broader views 
and keen statesmanlike tact are ceitainly remarkable, and every 
page of his historícal works attests bis sympathy with the poUtical 
life and his possession of the peculiar qiúlities necessary for a 



niler of men. Able to value ac its rea] wortb tbe careful tnith- 
Bceking of Ari, he yet takes his own path as an historían; 
sdzing on cháracter and Bituation with the tFuest dramatic 
feeling; leCting his heroes speak for themselves; working boldljr 
and vigorously but with the surest skill; and so creating works 
which for deep political insight, truth of conception, vividness of 
coloor and knowledge of mankind, mtist ever retain their place 
beside the mastcrpieces of tbe greatest histoiians. 

It may be noticed that the name Snoni is of rare occurrence, 
and never met with out of Iceland. The account given of its 
origin and application to Snorri Goði, from whcnce our author 
derived it, is doubtful, since the first person of the namc was the 
Bon of Thord of Head and grandson of Kiarval the Ihsb King, 
and tbis nmn's grandson Thorfinn Karlse&ii flourisbed c. looo, 
wbicb wonld ceitainly make bim an old man at the time of Snorri 
Gofii's birth. If the name be of Nortbem origin, it is probably 
the diminutive form of some mckname, bnt it may be the connp- 
tion of au Irish appcllation. It is now very common in Iceland. 

In giving a short account of Snorri's Writðigs, it will be con- 
venient &rst to set down in order the scanty proofs of his author- 
ship preserved to us in the MSS. He hos always been known as 
a poet and as the author of the Prose-Edda, which is indeed 
aacribed to him in the Upsala MS., while in the Annals of 1580 
we find bim noticed (1241) as the author of 'Edda and many 
historical works (fræði) and Icelandic stories.' Thc compiler of 
these Annals certainly knew tbe Stuilunga and Bishop Ami's Saga, 
and bis testimony may therefore not be very weigh^ witb respect 
to the 'historical works.' The name £dda was, we believe, in che 
last instance derived from the old Lay of Rig, preserved in one of 
our Edda MSS. Another vellum (AM. 748) also bears witness, 
as we shall see, to Snorri's authorsbip of the Skaldskaparmál. 

Tbe Sturlunga (i. 399) tells us that Snorrí wrote Sagas, and he is 
twice fii. 84, 399) called 'fróði,' the historian's special epithet in a 
genealogy. He is refened to in the Great Ólaf Tryggvason's 
Saga, ch. 356, as an authoricy on King Olaf's end. It should 
be noticed that che peculiar wording of the phrase, ' SO says 
Snoirí Scurlason,' by no means ezcludes Che hypochesis of tbat 
Saga being Snorri's very work. Again, in St. Magnus' Saga be 
Í8 cited with reference to Earl Erlend's death. This passage 
taDies witb the record ín Hulda, and Hiokkinskinna, and Heims- 

But there is another piece of evidence of a clearer kind. In tbe 
Norse translation of the Heimskríngla by the Norseman Lauritz 
Hansen in 1550, these words occur, 'Hcr enddes fortalen Snoiiis 
Sturlasenne udi Konunghe Bogben, som staae i samme fortalen 
Snorris Sturlles historiographi Norwag.' Tbe MS. Hansen nsed, 
as we can tell by an erior occurring ín tbe second line, was the 
KonuDga-bók, tbe very Fris-bðk which we still possess, whtrein not a 


Ixxvi PROLEGOMZNA. § 14. 

^gle mention of Snorrí is found. But Hansen had besides another 
MS. at hi9 disposal, from which this statement maj' liave been 
taken. It is impossible that the statement should be a forgery, 
for not even in Iccland, still less in Norway, had any one at that 
day the slig^htest notion that Snorri had ever wrítten historícal 
works. His very name could not have been known out of 
Iceland at that time, and even in Iceland itself not two men 
perhaps knew that such a petson had existed. Moreover the 
firsC leaf from the Kringla, a MS. of Heimskríngla known to 
have been in Norway at that time, is missing, vhich may well 
have contained the notice quoted by Hansen, especially as he saya 
that he made use of íwo MSS. ' The statement was repeated by 
Peter Clausen, from whom, Ihrough Ole Worm's edition of 1630, 
it was brought to Iceiand, at which date the Sturlunga was totalty 
unknown, no copy of it having been taken for about 300 years, 
It would be important to know whether Clausen's testimony is 
Índependent or simply a repetition of Hansen's earHer statement. 
We have had no opporturuty of examining Clausen's autograph 
MS., which is said to be in the Guelphian Libraiy at Hanover, 
an inspection of the wording of which would probably settíe the 

We have to dismiss every thought of living traditions in Iceland 
at that time. Snorrí, as author of Lives of Kings (though, perhaps, 
not as the wríter of Edda), Was deiui to them. This is proven by 
the absence of any allusions in the earlier wrítings of men likÁ 
Arngrim, as well as by positive statements when, in 1630, the Danisb 
edition of Worm appeared. Thus Amgrim, in a letter to Worm 
of Aug. r8, 1632, says, ' Nec quod ad Snorronem, nostrum an 
veslrum potius, quibus lucem et se ipsum profundá oblivionis 
nocte erutum debeat, continuandum puto apud nos repeitum iri.' 
And if Amgrim, the most leamed man of his generatioD, knewnot, 
how should othersP Magnus Olafsson of Laufjs, returning thanks 
for a received copy, writes Aug. 29, 1634, ' Operae pretium fecisse 
judico clarissimum Wormium in hujus operis editione, quá Nor- 
wegiae et nostri Snorronis nomina multum reviviscunt.' As the 
compiler of Laufás-Edda, he knew Snorri as the author of the 
work he copied, and his low-toned words here seem to bint that 
be, an essentially poetical man, did not much relish tbe Danish 
Translation of the Kings' Lives. 

Having thus gooe through the extemal evidence on this head 
we must confess that our case is so Eir weaker tban ihat for 
Thorodd's authorship for instance; but if we add the collateral 
inteinal considerations, which fumish entirely independent proof, 
we may consider Snorri's authorship of the Lives, in their best 
and fuUest fonn, as conclusively supported. We have here actually 

1 tbat bare eiÍElcd íd 



handcd down in ancient vellums a seríes of Lives of Kings hy 
aome vmknown greU histortan, whose full classical style if com- 
pared vith Egla and Lazdæla, works of a date kDown within 
certaia limits, must be allowed to correapond with that of some 
man livin^ in Snorri's days. We have also in the Prose-Edda, 
a work of Snorri's — the clear positive statement of the MSS. 
leaves no doubt on that head — containing mythical Tales told 
in a manner which for its grand simplicity, humour, and flexi- 
bility has never been approached, tiU the brothers Grimm wrote 
their beautiful Mílrcheii^ If the Edda stories be compared with 
the Kings' IJves it is impossible not to be struck with the simi- 
larity of mind and conception displayed in works of such differeÐt 
character, ahnost amouncing to coincidcnce in such passages as 
the famous tale of Utgard-Loki, and the story of Asbiom Selsbane, 
where the words of the dialogue betweea the two kinsmen recall 
the very spirit which inspired the dialogue of the Giant King and 
Thor'. It is not possibte to imagine that we have here two 
Beparate contemporary writers of such eminence, and yet so like, 
and knowing as we do that Snorrí wrote Sagas, we ^all not be 
wTong in assuming that by those Sagas were meant the íives ^ 
Kings of which we are now speaking. 

Were it worth while other minor considerations might be urged, 
of wfaich we may perhaps menlion one : the verses in the Kings' 
-LÍves, especially St. Olafs Saga, are remarkably well chosen and 
well preserved, always scanning correctly, and thoronghly satisfying 
the ear, the most necessary quality of Icelandic poetiy. This 
points to a poet's hand, and certainly Snorrí's literary fame among 
his conlemi>oraries rested on his eminence as a poet, an opinion 
which, as the Prose-Edda will show, was based on strong grounds. 
Agahi, the author of the Kings' Lives is above all things epic, 
and of course all personality as such is absent from his work ; 
but the dramatic instinct for situation, tbe splendid speeches in 
wfaich he delights, as affording him the opportunity foi bis political 
tastes to revel Ín unchecked, now pleading with patríotic zeal the 
cause of loca! independcnce, now persuasively setting forth the 
advantages of a strong govemment, but equallj at home in both 
sides of the question — but, above all, the infinite varíety and 
delicate manipulation of a style which never fails to charm — 
afford the strongest confirmation of the fact that to no one in all 
Icelandic literature but Snorri could such masterpieces of historic^ 
composition as the Sagas of Olaf Tryggvason and St, Olaf be fitly 
or properly ascríbed. 

Between Arí and Snoirí there is this difference : Ari is a master 

I Foiinnutce, 'Aitqðrnmzlti:"Seinlnutta[>pyrja, mér hc6r kenDl vcrit á unga 
>MrJ *t m65i[ infn v«ti fTJili-boria i allii hilfui. . . Eilingr si til hans, ok glotti 
TÍ&t6naokmz1ti"'(p. 114, Ed. 1853)1 ind Eddi, •fííno (ClgirSii-Lokií leÍtKÍnl 
til þdiT*, ok glolti om tönn ok mzlti : " Seint er om lingin veg ít ípyija lííind*. 
£ða cc innu] veg en ek hjgg, it þein iTdn-itiulÍ le OkD.þdir?" ' 


Ixxviii PROLEGOMENA. § 14. 

QÍ /ael$, &Dd bis tiuthru) research hag l^d the fouDdatioiis of 
hi^ory; Snoni is a poUtical historían, a man of the worid, a 
poet aiid artist. We must not fancy him stooping, pen in hand, 
over voluines of Odd, Gunnlaug, or Agríp, probuig for &cts, 
selecting now this, now that, ever questioiiing bimaelf, Can this 
be tnie ? Is this so ? an faistorícal ' Lord of Doubts.' Far from 
thÍB, we have his word for it, that he implicitly relied on Ari as 
to facts, attracted by the wisdom and sagacity of the old historían. 
Besides, Ari's informants lay in their graves these hundred years, 
the wise truthíiil Lady Thurid, the Sag^an Odd, all dead and 
silent, and tradition was fast dying out in Iceland. But in tfae 
tneantime there had spnmg up a host of wrítten Sagas to supple- 
ment tbe works of Arí. Especially in the case of St. Olaf's life, 
many Gtories and episodes, new for the most part, seem to have 
been used up; for instance, a Saga of Hialti Skeggiason, and 
tbe message to Upsala ; a Saga of Sighvat, the friend, poet, and 
wise counsellor of Kmg Oiaf; besides Færeyinga, Orkney Saga, 
and smaller tales, such as those of Thorodd Snorrason, Stein 
Skaptason, Thorarín the great sailor, and many others. Out of 
all this tbe great Sagaman worked, not wríting, but dictaling 
(whetber he was a penman al all may be doubted; as a great 
cbief in an age and circumstances in which coirespondence by 
writing had become necessary, and as lay rector of several 
churches he would naturally have clerks always about hím, and 
Ihe Maldagi would seem to impiy ihat two príests at least fomied 
part of his regular household), and ever mouiding all into hia 
own style, far unlike the mechanical compilers and scríbes of the 
Skioldunga, or Flatey-book. The speeches throughout, like those 
of Thucydides, we take to be bis own. Sucb are those of Law- 
man Thorgny, Einar of Thwera, the Debates at the Battie of 
Stiklestad, and many others. So also the dialc^ues. For instance, 
that between King Olaf and the yonng capdve Earl (given by 
Mr. Carlyle m his Early Kings of Norway), On the other hand 
as to facts, when Arí went wrong, so too we believe did Snorri. 
Versions of facts which differed éom thoae of Ari have mostly 
períshed (and few may have deserved to survive),* but some we 
can still check. For instance, the death of King Tryggvi, slain, 
not by treason of tbe sons of Gunhild, but by fais own subjectB 
Ibr his harshness ; the last moments of Erling Skíalgsson, reliev- 
ing S[. Olaf of the odium which must stick to his name if the 
story as told in his Saga were true. (See for this Agrip.) So 
the journey of Tosti to Norway, discredited (fairly, we think) by 
Mr. Freeman ; the true incidents being preserved in an inserted 
clause in Morkinskinna. In chronolDgy, the length of the reign 
of the sons of Gunhild, where the calcuíations of Sæmund remain 
to us in the poem Konungatal ; the mistakes in the date of Knut 
the Great's Dfe, of the Battle of Clontarf, &c. As to geography, 
he makes the Swold an island, Ínstead of what Ít Ís, a strait or 



coTTent, for in Hallfred's song we must resd ' á vlðu sundi Heðins- 
eyjai' (Hiddense), and 'Heðins reiÉa' {fcom a. ^vonic TOFd for 
Btream). So the Sag& oF Sig'hvat is at varíance with his own verses 
(Austrarar-visuT), which teU of his joumey to Russia, and the 
Eaiis there, out of which the Saga makes a journej' to Upsala. 
Sotne, perhaps most of these errors must be ascríbed to Arí ; but 
then if Ari did misdatc Harald Greyfell's reign, he was the foun- 
tain-bead of all true knowledge as to the ancient beatben rítes, 
customs, temple-worship, constitution, and law. Tbia goes for much 
with a man of Snorri's mind, who would and did readily accept 
Ari's authority on every point And we may perbaps venture to 
gness tbat it was owing to Snorrí's complete incorporation of hia 
predecessor's work that Ari's Konunga Ævi has disappeared. 

To Dotice one thing more. It has been said that Snorri was tbe 
first man wbo introduced the old poems as sources of history. 
This is founded on the erroneous supposition that be and not 
Ari is the author of the Fre&ce (á bók þessi). On the face of 
it, it would seem strange that a man of Ari's sagadty should fail to 
notice tbe importance of tbe Drapas, as evidence of facts having 
actually occurred, and as to their sequel. Tbe grain of truth in 
this assumption we take to be, that Snorrí was the first man 
wbo for attistic and omamental purposes introduced the songs 
in the Sagaa. Hundreds of verses arc inserted in our present 
Lives, but many more were actually used by the hístorian. 
He knew the whole songs, but only inserted such versea bere 
and there as fitted his story. 

There sprung up in the last century a fancy, started probably by 
some Icelandic student at Copenhagen, that from Snorrí were 
descended many of the most distingnishéd Icelanders of modem 
timcs. The EcÚtor has even heard it suggested that Thorwaldsen's 
talents migbt be regarded as to some eztent an atavism, reverting to 
tbe skill in wood-carving wbich Olaf P& is recorded to faave pos- 
sessed I This of course is a reductio ad absurdum of the theoiy, 
bnt the grave pedigrees which adom many modem works, tracing 
Ami Magnnsson (who was entirely innocent of such dreams) and 
Fum Magnusson back to Snorri, are just as tme. This idea seems 
to rest on an induction from an entiy in the Annals in 1343, 
lespecting the death of Lady Wilborg, the mother of Einar. In 
obedience to a custom often followed, it was imagined that ber 
fotber's name must also bave been Einar (as a fact from a negtected 
passage in the Aimals we know that his name was Sigurd), and if 
^nar, wbo so fit a person to identify him with as Einar, the son 
of Tbordis the daughter of Snoni ? See Genealogies, vol. ii. p. 48 1 . 
Consideríng the character bome by Snorri's children, one would 
hardly wish to draw one's pedigree through them. If any man 
was ever blessed by fate in bis gifls and cursed by destiny in his 
children, Ít was Snorrí. We bave indeed little doubt that but fbr 
their wretcliedness and misdeeds, which crossed his patb at every 


\xxx PROLEGOMENA. § 14. 

toni, his own great abilities would have bronght him at last through 
a SQCcessfal life to a peaceful ending. 

As a matter of hct, but one family pedigree in Iceland can 
be traced through the dark ages of tbe island's history back to the 
thirteenth century. 

With reference to Snorri's historícal vrítings, we believe the 
Eings' Lives, down to and including that of King Sigurd the 
Crusader, as they now ezist in the fuller fonns, to be his very 
work (parts 1-4 as we have numbered them in our discussion of 
tbem in § ig). Tbe Ynglinga and the earlier Lives down to Olaf 
Tryggvason we consider to be substantially Ari's, little altered save 
by abrídgment, though even here there are traces of his handi- 
vork. For further críticism on the Kings' Lives see §§ 15, 16, 17. 

Tbe Prose-EDDA is a poetical Handbook in three parts, com- 
prísing: i. A mylhohgical compendium from which most of our 
knowjedge of the Scandinavian theogony is deríved ; 2. A poclic 
Dictíonary, which is a. perfect treasury of ihe older words of the 
language; and 3. A treatise on metric. Prologues and epi- 
logues are affixed which are clearly not Snorri's, but the work of 
Bome one who waa ' book-learned ' and had shared in the ordinary 
mediæval culture. Neither is a list, known as I^ilur, of poetic 
words in verse for convenience of memory, to be ascríbed to 
Snorrí ; it would rather seem to be the work of some poet of the 
Westem Isles, to judge from the mention of many English and 
Scottish ríver-names. 

Tbe Mythology, called Qylíb-giiming ', consists of a seriee 
of stories told by Woden in answer to the questions of Gylfi, a 
Swedish King, who has heard of the gods' &me, and comes in 
disguise to spy out the tnitb. The storíea are illustrated by quo- 
tations from nine old Lays (eight of which we still possess in the 
Poetic Edda), and a verse or two of Bragi's and Thiodulf's. 
Aftcr a short dialogue on the origin of songcraft between Bragi 
and Ægir, there foUows the Dictionary, 8kaldakapar-mál ', also 
in caiechetical form, containing lísts of synonyms and epithets 
arranged under heads, and illustrated by over 240 quotations from 
sisty-five named poets, and eigbt or ten anonymous lays, The 
Þulur are inserted here. The third division of the book, called 
H&tta-tal', was wrítten for King Hakon and Earl Skuli (about 
1322). It contains examples, a few of which are quotations, 
arranged Ín order so as to make a complete poem of every kind of 
metre known to the writer, and should be compared with the 
similar Hátta-Iykil composed some eighty years earlier by Earl 
Rognvald of Orkney and the poel Hall. 

We bave no Ínformation as to the date of the two former parts 

' • Hei heri Ojha ginning Fri þíf er GylB lótti heim Al&rSnr f AigirS ineS 
íjolkyas', ok fT& viUu iu olc frá ipumingu OylTa.'— Coij. Upsúl. 
' ■ Htr b«rr StaUiiaþar mal ok heiii mirgTa hluti.'— Cod. Vpsal, 
* •HdltiUal, ct Snoiri Sturlo lon orti um Hákon konang ok Skula.'—CMÍ. Upiat. 



of this Edda, but tbe}' are, one would guess, later than the third. 
Could it be in connectioir with his Utely finished work that about 
the years izsS sqq. he occupied a booth at (he Althing, wbich he 
called Walhall, and close to another called Valhallar-dilk or Litde 
Walhall? About 1230 would be a likely date. 

The test of this work rests on three MSS. : i. Codtx Regius, 
anintcrpoUted tezt of the end of the thÍTteenth century. An abridg- 
ment of the Saga of Sigurd and the Volsungs, and the unique copy 
of the Grotta Song are also contained in this vellum. 3. Codex 
Wormiatttu at Orms-bók, the best and most accurate of the three, 
a fine large MS, written by a schoiar about 1330. Its later history 
is known. Amgrim the leamed (died 1648) gave it to Ole Worm 
(djed 1651), whose grandson, Christian Worm, in 1706, parted 
with it to Ami Magnusson. In 1609 the Priest Magnus Olafssoa 
compiled from it his Poetical Handbook, since called Laufás-Edda. 
Codex Wotmianus contains the only copy of Rígsmal and 
Thorodd. 3. Codex Uþsalmsis belongs to another type pf MS. 
than the two former, which are related, and hence deserves more 
attention than it has hitherto received. The verse is utterly cor- 
nipt, by passing through a Norwegian copy as one would think 
(pecuUarities in the spelling indicate as much), and the contents are 
difierenUy arranged, This vellum alone contains the fuli title and 
the author's name, ' Tbis book is called Edda, and is composed 
by Snorri Sturlason/ &c. ' An abridgment of the Second Skalda 
Treatise, containiog the Tables of the Anonymous Grammorian, Í3 
affixed to the Edda text The Arna-Magnæan vellums 748, 757 
contain an abridgment of the second part of Edda joined to the 
Third Grammatical Treatise of Olaf Hvitaskald, to be used by 
poets as a Gradus or Poedc Handbook. AM. 748 espressly 
names Snorri aa the author'. 

A new edition Ís much needed, which should take Codex 
Wormianus as its basis. The former editions are those of 
Dr. Egilsson, Reykv. 1848, and the AM. cdition, Copenh. 1848 
and 1852. 

Sttehie Eakason the Historian (fróði), príest, and prior, filled 
thehigh office of Lawman twice (iaro-15 and 1232), and died an 
old man in 1245, He must have written a Life of St. Olaf, now 
lost, but cited in Ratey-book. He made a recension of Landnama 

> 'B6k þcMÍ beitii Edda, hani htfir taman tetU Snorri Eturlu (onr cptir þeiin 
hvtti teni her n iklpt : £1 ffnt fri Asum ok Gylfi (Ymi, Cmí.) þii nzit Skald- 
■kapu mil ok heití maigra hluta. EiAait H&IIaial ei Snoni faefir ail um Hakoa 
konung ok Skiila heitoga.'— /nitn>íioii to Cod. Dpíal., Edda (1851), ii. »50. 

■ ■ Héi er Irkl þcim hlnl bdkar ci Ölifi {idiaiiioa hcGi taman lett, ok npp hefr 
Sk&ldtkapai m&l ok kenningar eplii þvi lem Cyn fbndit rai f kncSam bÖfuB 
■kildi, ok Sooni he£[ (iftan laman fera litÍS.'— Edda, ii. 417. 438. 

That Snoni bímieir wai Ihe anihor of ihe Piote Cómmenlar]' to ihe poem 
Uatuial ii pioTeD by ■ citation of Olif Hvitaikald, at well ai bj woidi in the 
commentar; iuelf. 

VOL. L • f 


Ixzzii PROLEGOMENA. $ 15. 

wbich Hauk Erlendson had before him. He also copied out King 
Sverri's Saga. He is tTientioned once or twice in Sturlunga in con- 
nection with Snorrí. The epilogue to Holmveria Saga speaks of 
him as an authority on Icelandic Sagas, but this latter quotation 
may well be spurious, and copied from the Gretla epilogue. 

§ 15. The Lives of thb Kings ot Noxwav. 

The process which the Kings' Sagas underwent in the thirteenth 
centuiT is preciaely the reverse of that applied to the Islendinga 
Sögur, They were dressed up and fiUed out, while these werc 
mercilessly cut down. 

Taking first, for instance, the Lives of King Hakon and Sverrí, 
we have indeed good slore of vellums, but they are in a sad plight; 
for upon eiamination it will be found that each contains a sepa- 
rate abrídgment executed in a separate way. But none of them is 
well done ; sentences are curtailed and transposed ; the transcríber, 
fOT be is nothing more, aliipping, as it were, from full stop to fuli 
Stop; entire chapters are omitted in a completely arbitraiy fashion; 
and the whole process shows little tiistorical sltill and scant venera- 
tion for the text, but such mechanical execution that the framework 
of words and of style are rctained. Thus we have one abridgment 
in Fris-b6k, omitting Sverri's Saga; another in Eirspenmll con- 
taining Sverri's Saga, Hakon's Saga, and those of the precedíng 
Kings from Magnus the Good ; Jofrastin/ta includes both Sverrí's 
and Hakon's Sagas ; and GuUinsiinna the same, preceded by the 
Kings' Lives from Harald Hardrada's time. In Christiana and 
Stockholm there are fragments of a losC vellum which contained 
St. Olafs Saga in full and that of Hakon in an abridged form, and 
perhaps ihe Sagas between. Tbere are even fragments of editions 
still more curtailed — a chaotic state of tbings, were it not that 
one OT two mutilated MSS. of the true Saga remain, from wbich 
■we are able to piece il together. It will at once strike the observer 
that the worst and most mutilated texts of these two Sagas are 
those afTorded by the so-called Heimskringla vellums, of which the 
JCringla alone ends as the editions do in 1177. 

This bodes badly for the Heimskringla text of the previous 
Kings' Lives, and when we come to examinc into the fact, it will 
most clearly appear, if ihese texts are placed for a minute in juxta* 
position with oiher and better MSS., that they too have lieen dealt 
with in the Uke way'. 

We may take as an example here the death of Earl Hakon and 
the accession of Olaf Tryggvason, which is in the Great 0. T. 
Saga, 2 piece of the most t>eautiful dramatic sCyle, and is well 

' In the fbllowÍDg paragnphi we hiTe Mlected t few ipecimeai — ror lo nin 
tbroagh tha vhok oi HcimikríDgla «ould be out a( ihe qucition bere— whlch will 
be printed (in tbe good teit) in ibe IcelaDdic Readei eow ld ihe Picu, euabling tbc 
(tadcDt to compaie and judge fot hinuclf. 



wortb; of Snorrí. But if we tum to the Heimskringla version 
of the same events, instead of the delicate contrivance and inimitablo 
phrasing of our text, in which every word tella and every syllablo 
is stgcificant, we find only a dull skeleCon-like abrídgment, which, 
like a pirated quarto of Shakespeare, defaces the beauty which it 
cannot hide. Thus that tbe thrall Kark and the Eari were bom 
on the same day, and that the fonjier had been given to the latter 
as his ' tooth-fee ' (a usage which survives in our chrístening gifl), 
is entirely omitted by Heimskríngla ; while the story of Ihe wily 
Earl's attempt to mislead his pursuers is half told. We hear indeed 
how Hakon, hard pressed, thnists his borse inCo a hole in the ice, 
leaving his cloak at the edge, but the point of Che story, which 
comes a lictle further on, the effect of this ruse on the pursuers, 
is left out by the forgetful abridgment-maker. 

Again, in the same story, when the fugitives have reacbed the 
cave and are asleep there, the scene changes, and we are told 
of the fight between King Olaf and Hakon s son Eilend, and of 
the latter's fall ; whereupon we are brought back to Hakon and 
Kark's flight to the house of Thora of Rimul, wbose fírst greeting 
to the Earl is the news of his son's death. Not so in the abridg- 
mept ; there the chapter on the death of Erlend is put after the 
meeting wicb Thora, who nevertheless tells the Earl the news of 
which ihe reader has been kept ignorant; a clumsy arrangement 
whicb manifestly spoils the dramatic fitness of the original plot, 
The diction too throughout the abridgmenC is poor and meagre 
beside the rich fuU style of the rightful tezt. 

So in the splendid ' Passing of the Ships' before Svold, the 
name of the captain of the leading vessel is wrongly given, and 
the two or three nezt ships (and one of the vriter's most significant 
touches to booC) omitted altogether. 

But perhaps che most scriking instance of the lacfc of poetic 
feeling in the abridgment-maker is the omission of Che blind 
Yeoman of Moster's prophecy, and its accomplishment. He had 
foretold that the four most precious things in Norway should 
perish, and his words were fuIfiUed in the fall of King Olaf Trygg- 
vason, and the death of the Queen Tbyra and the hound Vigi for 
gríef at his loss, and, lascly, in the breaking up of the famoua 
war-ship the 'Long Snake,' which no man but Olaf could steer 
(chaps. 257-359). Many pious iegends of the King's were stored 
up, especially from his last days. Thorkel, the King's mother's 
t^ther, and who survived him by some forty years, used to tell how 
he had seen him in conversation with angels. This and many of 
King Olaf's great feats are already related in che poem ReksteQa, 
but omitted in the Heimskríngla. 

The objection which might be raised to our theory that the Great 

Olaf Tryggvason's Saga is the oríginal work, from tbe occurrence of 

the phráses, 'Snorri Sturlason segir svá' (ch. 256), and 'þ»r frá- 

sagnir er Snorrí Sturluson váttar,' may be met in several ways. The 

f 2 



writer would speak thua of Snoni even if he werc copying his 
oríginal work, or if he wished to give the authoríty for a parti- 
cular iheory (cf. ' en svá es sagt frá oröum sjaifa Kolbjamar,' &c.), 
which Snorrí himself preferred, and need not be tmderstood as 
introducing a separate work, of which we have no traces. 

Such are a few stríking specimens of tfae character of tbe 
Heimskríngla compendia, but the careful reader will notice like 
instances in almost every chapter. 

In St, Olafs Saga the oríginal prologue (cbaps. 1-18, middle, in 
the edilion of 1853) and epilogue (chaps. 252-278) are altogeUier 
omitted, though otherwise ihií Saga is unscathed. 

In Harald Hardradi's Saga, to take two of the more striking 
instances, the former of wbich Mr. Freeman has noticed, Heim- 
skríngla omits altogether the death of Toati (ch. 119, by the 
scribe's skipping from one stop to another), and the advice of 
Gurlh(ch. izr). 

King Magnus Bareleg's Saga has suffered ín like manner, e. g. 
chaps. 20-38, which are sorely mangled by transposition and 

In Sigurd Crusader's Saga observe the wortWess abrídgment of 
the all-important Þinga Saga (absent in Kríngla). 

Now though the many veilums which give these curtailed texts are 
all in Icelandíc handwriting, the weight of evidence points to their 
having been written in Norway. The white parchment', so djfferent 
from [he smoke-tinted rugged Icelandic MSS. ; the marginal scrawls 
in Norse hands and idioms of the fourteenth and foUowing centuries; 
the history.of tbe vellums, all of which came from Norway to 
Benmark in the sixteenth century, some earlier, some later. While 
on the other hand all the MSS. which give the fuUer texts, the five 
or six vellums of Olaf Tryggvason, Hulda, Hrokkinskinna, even 
Morkinskinna, the Skalholt-book, and the Flatey-book, are of tiue 
Icelandic origin, and were unknown out of the Island till they were 
taken to Denmark, most. of them in Ami Magnusson's time, 
Flatey-book and Bergs-book a líttie earlíer. Again in the abridg- 
ments Olaf Tryggvason's Saga is invariably badly treated, while 
in the Icelandic Kings' Lives he is the central figure round whom 
all contemporary Sagas are grouped as the typical Hero King, 
even St. Olaf being second to him, which state of things reflects 
very truly the Iceiandic tradition. On the contrary, in the Heims- 
kringla tests Sl Olaf 's is the only Saga left untouched in its original 
condition. All wbich points to Norse influence of the time of King 
Hakon Hákonsson and his son King Magnus, when St Olafs 
fame had quite supplanted the earlier glory of the former Olaf. 

' The Kricglí «nd JSrrukÍDiu wete migniBcent rellunu. Qullik. >nd Fígnk, 
mtin Oaldti\-Mn ■od Fiar-skiii, ' menibnni vetailiuiiiii et TenuitÍBÍmi,' uj% 
ToilaEiu, who give the namei. Tbej wtre the drawing-ioom bootu of that dajr, 
to look at ralher than to read. Of theie siow npitt now onlf Frii-búk and 
remain, tbc Gie o{ Copenhagen deitrojed the leil. 



The clue to all these pbenomena would seem to be something 
of this kind : — About the time of the Union, twenty years after 
Snoni's death, Icelanders staying in Norway (of which we know 
many instances) for a winter or Iwo, were engaged by thc Norwe- 
gian chiefe to write a compendia of Lives of the Kings, from 
Icelandíc sources; of these works our present Heimskringla is 
the moEt prominent. These MSS. being kept in Norway soon 
became known to the Ðanish historians, even early in the sisteenth 
century {Chiiatiem Pedersen). Translations begin to be made (rom 
them (c. 1550); these are edited in part in 1594, completely trans- 
lated in 1599, and published by the celebrated Ole Worm in 1630. 
Thus brought into notice, the Icelandic text is printed at Stockholm 
towards the end of tbe seventeenth century, and again a hundred 
years later in Copenhagen, with a Latin translation aíGzed. The 
name of Snorri attached to them by Hansen, Clausen, Worm, Ac., 
their intrínsic value even in their mutilated condition, nay, even their 
sterility of styie and baldness of diction, and the rationalislic shape 
which they assumed undet the inardstic hands of cheir transcribers, 
suited the Voltairean taste of ihe latter half of the eighteenth ceti- 
tury and ensnred their popularíty and authoríCy. 

On the otber band, Cbe dark begrimed vellums in which the good 
texts were preserved were lying unknown, hidden away in a corner 
of Iceland, till Ami brought tbem Co Denmark. True the Great 
Olaf Tryggvason's Saga was prínted at Skalbolt in 1689 in black- 
letler from the Flatey-book text, but this edition was unnoticed 
abroad, partly no doubt for lack of a translation. As to tbe Hulda 
and Hrokkinskinna texts, they were first published in Fommanna 
Sðgur, some fifty vears aeo . Tbey too wcre neglected abroad, 
Wt were eagerly read in Iceland. Ic is ooe of the most vivid 
recollectiona of the present Editor's boyhood, bavjng aC thc age 
of DÍne or ten, in winter evenings, listened to Olaf Tiyggvason's 
Saga, which was much admired by men and women alike. No 
one of that household knew the Heimskríngla abridgment even 
by name, nor had it been known would it have been received on 
account of its scanty and unappreciadve treatment of their much- 
beloved hero Olaf Tiyggvason. 

The practical results of our examination, with regard to the 
foim which a definiCe edition o^the Kings' lives sbould assume, 
may be briefly given herc. 

1. Tbe Lives of the earlier Kings down to Olaf Tiyggvason, 
including the Ynglinga, are only to be found in the Heimskríngla 
school of veltum, which must therefore furnish our groundwork here. 
WheCher the YngUaga iCself is abridged or not is a different pro- 
blem ; we incline to the view that it bas been so Created in parcs at 
least. This section may be most fitly enCitled ' Konunga-bók,' 
according to the heading in Frís-bók which (with Kringla as the 
authoríty of the verses) yields the best basis for an edition. 

3. Though Olaf Tiyggvasoa's Saga is in a sorely mutilated sbape 


iKxvi PROLEGOMENA. $ rg. 

in HeimBfcringla, yet the curtailer worked on a good uninterpolated 
tezL On ihe other hand, we have the Great Olaf Tryggvason's Saga 
cont^ning the fuU text indeed, which however is inlerlarded with 
manySi^s and'þættir' beanngupon the great KingorhismissionEiry 
work. These later additions of the end of the thirtecnth centuiy 
we should ascribe to a clerk, from the toning down or omission of 
allusions to heathen rites and customs and the introduction of a 
few legends aud edifying remarks. For in Iceland, whece we 
find even the fictitious Sagas in fiUed-out forms, the tendency had 
been more and more to overload and bear down the originals with 
added inatter, in obedience to a taste which is best exemplified in 
the full and detailed style of Sturla. Fortunaiejy most of the 
additions to this grand Herodotean work are pure in style and 
congenial in ^irit to Snorri's masterpiece. The MSS. vellums 
AM. 53, 54, and 61 are the best. The earliest of which go back 
to the béginning of the fourteenth century. The bríef introduction 
(containing a ^etch of the previons history), prologue and epi- 
logue all belong to the oríginal, and should of course be preserved 
in 3. definite edition. 

3. St Olaf's Saga; here, though omitting introduction and 
epilogue, Heimskríngla preserves, as we have noticed, ihe pure tczt, 
which we have aiso in its original form. The basis of an edition 
must be the Slockholm No. 2, which was written perhaps within 
iiíteen years of Snorrí's death. A few blanks are common to the 
Heimskríngla MSS. and the Stockholm vellum ; thus both belong 
to one family. 

4. The Sagas qf 1035-1135 are always atffidged, often badly, 
in the Heimskríngla vellums, and ihey are much confused in the 
MSS. We must tum to Hulda and Hrokkinskinna for a trae text, 
though even in them many easily separable episodes, some of 
which are good and some of inferior worth, have been actached to 
the main work. 

5. For the fcJlowing Sagas tiH Sverri (J135-77), Morkinskinna 
and Fagrskínna contain the best and fuikst text, even Hulda and 
Hrokkinskinna being somewhat abrídged here, and Heimskríngla 
even more so, Eirík Oddsson's HryggiarsiyklEÍ is the foundation 
for thia series. 

6. Abbot Karl's Svem's Saga (1177-1 aoa), for which Flatey-book 
(a copy of a copy of the original) is the best authority ; AM. 317 
is occasionally nseful. 

7. The Böglunga or Inga Saga (1202-17) now only exists in 
two abridged versions, Eirspennil and Skalholt-book, but a few 
fragments of the oríginal remaining. However the Norse trans- 
lator, Peter Clausen (1599), worked from a complete copy, and 
from his Danish version the oríginal may be partly rccovered, as 
Dr. Egilsson's clever retranslation (Fms. ix) sufficiently provcB, 
This Saga is quoted by name in the extract from Klng Hakon's 
Saga in GullinBkinna. 



8, Storla's Hakon's Saga (1217-63) Íe preserved in SkaJhoIt- 
book and Flatey-book, the end however is fdler in the Stockhohn 
velluni. All the MSS. of this Saga have now been used for the 
first time by the present Editor for the Rolls' Series. The old 
editions all foUowed the inferíor abridged text of Fris-bök, whicb 
gets worse and worse towards the end. Of King Magnus Hákons- 
son's Saga (1363-80) only a fragraent on two vellum leaves 
remains and a few extracts in the Annals. These are all prínted 
in the Rolls' edition. 

We may notice here, that the íiirther muldplication of the 
abrídgcd texts, Heimskríngla &c., is very much to be deplored, and 
that the use of them for teaching purposes Ís especially to be 
deprecated. The style of any abrídgraent, however good, must 
always be cramped and broken, and the beauty and fancy of the 
origuial plot and slyle greatly obscured when not whoHy destroyed 
by such mutilation. Again, any tnie bistorícal treatment of the 
Kings' Lives bas been greaUy hindered, as will be seen by the 
instances given above, by the acceptancc of these late and re\-ised 
com[>endia as the pure sources of Northem History, whereas thcir 
tnie place is by thc side of Eglai and Laxdæla rather than Kormak'e 
Saga or Liosvetninga. Snocrí was no dry rationalistic bistorían 
of the eighteenth-centuiT type, but a great prose-poet who insdnc- 
tively felt the real vaJue of the legends wbich modem crítics, basing 
^emselves on Heimskríngla, have in the trac euemerísi vein 
praised him for omitting. An historían like Mr. Carlyle seizes at 
once on such a slory as that of Thor's appearance to King Oiaf, 
as the expression of the highest historíc truth and decpest poetic 
feeling; while we íind the wooden scholarship of Scandinavian 
crítics rejecting ít with scom, as a worthless tale ríghtly passed over 
by Snorri — the author of Edda slighting Myths and Legends 1 

§ 16, Other Recensions of Lives oí Kings. 
Or the many abrídged coUections of Kings' Lives, two are 
certainly worthy of a separate mentíon. A.grip, the modern name 
for a Konunga-tal, which compríses short Lives of the Kings of 
Norway, from Haráld Fairhair to King Sverri, 1180. It is a very 
early work, aod closely connected with Sæmund and Ari, from whose 
Konungatál in the lost Liber Islandomm it may he partly copied. 
Ab the only example of an Icelandic abrídgment it is interesting. 
A single vellum (AM. 325, fasc. 2) of the end of the twelfth 
century givcs the test which has been published in Fms. x, 375— 
431 ( capite et caicc), Its quaint style is interesting. The 
spelling of the vellum is vcry regular and good, a facsimile edition ^ '^- 
would therefore be useful. ^ u.~ // 

FaKrakimia ; a modem name for Ættartal Norecs Konunga C^t^^^ 
' (as it is inscríbed in Cod. A) or Norkgs Konungatal (as inscríbed 
in Cod. B), an independent compendium of the Kings' Lives from 
HaUdan tbe Black to Sverrí, to which later Saga it was apparently 


kixviii PROLEGOMENA. § 17. 

ÍDtcnded to serve as introdnction. It was preserved only in Norse 
vellums (destroyed in 1728), and must have been compiled by 
a Norseman from Icelandic sources. The style in many pUces 
resembles that of Barlaam and Josaphat in the days of Hakon 
the Old. Moreover we can identify it wiih the work read to th^ 
King as he lay djing (Haiion's Saga, ch. 339), both by i(s place 
of beginning in which it is paralleled by no other compendium, 
by its name, and also by the time it took to read through, 
which corresponds esactly with Fagrskinna. We might almost 
Buppose from the pious and didactic tone of the whole book, 
shown espedally in such passages as refer to Harald Fairhair, 
who is ' Chrístianized,' in the fine speeches of Edward the Con- 
fessor and the conduct of his kinsman Magnus, &c., that it wjs 
written 1« usum Dtlpkini or as a nobler Telemaque by a grcater 
Fenelon. It is of great value, as it has preserved the Lay of 
Harald Fairhair, part of the magnificent Eiriks-mil, the oldest 
draft of Jomsvikinga Saga, which differs from our later reccn- 
sions, the ArnmÆSlingalai, and several interesting episodes, none 
of which are found elsewhere. There is altogethcr an oríginality 
and raciness about Fagrskinna which place it above thc Heims- 
kríngla school of abridgments, although it is by no means im- 
plicitly to be trusted as an historícal document. The oríginal 
vellum B has now many blanks, but was esistíng in a more perfect 
State in the sixteenth century, when Arild Hvidfeld, Úie Ðanish his- 
torian, took several genealogiea from it, from which one lacunae at 
least in our copies may be filled up. An edition in which the Norse 
spelling of the vellum should be preserved is stilj a desideratum. 

Morkuukiima, an ancient vellum, contains the Lives from King 
Magnus the Good to Sverri ; it mainly resembles the Hulda text. 
Its chief value is for having preserved the lost Hryggjarstykki 
of £rík Oddsson in a better form thau elsewhere found. Edited 
by Unger. 

S 17. Skioldunga Saoa, or Sögur Ðana-eonunga. 
Knttlinga Saga, the modem name for the Lives of the Kings 
of Denmark, from Harald Blue-tooth to King Waldimar and his son, 
comes down to us Ín one vellum of the fifteenth centuiy, AM. 180, 
which contains a seiection of Lives of distinguished Chrístian 
heroes, saints, or knights, Konrad, Bæríng, Sl. Vitus, Dunstan, 
Katharíne, Bishop Laurence of Holar. Our Saga is there pre- 
served in two parts in a somewhat curíous way — -first, between two 
other ' Biographies,' come the Lives of St. Knut, King Ejrik 
the Crusader, and Waldimar the conqueror of the Wends 
(chaps. 28^nd of the editions); then, in a later part of tbe 
MS., the Life of Harald Blue-tooth, the first Christjan King, and 
the following Kings till the death of King Svein II. (chaps. 
1-37); but from ðie very text we can see that this is not the 
whole of the original work, but that what we have must bave 



becn preceded at least by the Ufe of Gorm hÍ3 father '. The 
coDtinnity and ríght order of the two portions which survive is 
proved by a fragment of nine leaves, AM. 20, which luckily begins 
with ch. 37, and goes on without a break through ch. a8, &c.* 
While the Éditor was at Copenhagen in 1877, and began to make 
a transcrípt of this fragment (whicb yields a little better teit than 
AM. 180) for tbe Oxford Icelandic Reader, he vas at once stnick 
wilh the similaríty of the handwríting wilh that of AM. i e ^, a 
fragment of the Skioldunga Saga, usually known as ' Sogu-brot.' 
On puiting the two side by side the identity was manifest (the 
Dumber of Unes, the size, the incisions in the back, &c.), and it 
was evident that tbey were parts of the same MS. But this is not 
apparent on first sight, tbe leaves in i e ^ being black and sbora 
or cnt close to the margin, ihe unwrítten parchment having been 
used for other purposes, whilst fragment AM. so is white, wilh the 
broad margins still remaining. This is perhaps the cause why Arni 
Magnusson, though he for years was engaged on an ' Edition of 
Knythnga,' and even took a coirect copy of i e ^, nevci observed 
this. Neither did the Editor ever notice it duríng his connection 
with the AM. Libraiyin 1856-Ö4. But the coincidence once estab- 
li^ied, the key lo the whole matter lay before him. Skioldunga, 
of wÚch we now only possess fragments, is frequently quoted in 
other Sagas, in seveial of which inseitions from it occur; for 
instance, the death of King Gorm in our texl of Jomsvikjnga, and 
we know that it contained Lives of Ihe Kings of Denmark from 
the earliest times. Among others we have here to moum the loss 
of the lcelandic Saga of Hamlet (Amloði), Hagbard and Signy, 
King Frodi, &c., which we take all to have been included in the 
mythical part. The Skioldunga is mentioned as late as 1462 in 
tbe inventory of the church of Modrvalla. The scríbe thcn of 
AM. 180, piobably a cleik, had before him a complete copy of this 
Saga; from which he first took the pail most consonant with his 
design, the compilation of an edifying woik containing typical lives 
of Chrístian heroes, — the Life of St. Knut, &c. He afteiwaids 
resolved, eithei fiom a sense of the incompleteness of his former 
extract, which without introduction plunged the reader in meJias res, 
at once to complete it, as it were, by the life of Harald Blue-tooth, 
who was the fiist baptized Danish King ; further back he would not 
go, as Gorm was a heathen. To his scruples therefore we owe the 
loss of the eaily pait of Skioldunga, though ceitainly his pious zeal 
has preserved the rest for us. Besides the six leaves of i e ^, 
the extracts and quoiations noticed above, we have an account 
of the death of King Sigurd Ring, in a short Latin epiiome of 

' [t b^im thoi : — ' Haraldr Qoimnan ni tekinD tíl kcraungs qMÍc IóSut iÍdu,* 
eiactlj at in tbe middle of the Nonc Kiufp' Livn íd Heimikríiigli. But ucTet 
iii Saga begin in lliit biliion. 

' Anotbet fragment ortiut thiee íeiTei in folio lilcewiie begini in ch. it and goei 
ðn tiii 17. 


xc PROLEGOMENA. § 17. 

AmgríiTi'', taken evidently from another MS. of Skioldunga tfaan 
that from which i e $ comes, as we can tell from the fact thát 
the portion he epitoniizes begins in the last page of our 1 e $, 
taking in a few lines contained there. But as these leaves Etill 
hang together in the back with the preceding leaves, Amgrím 
if hc had them In hand, wonld have known more, and certainlj 
inserted more into his Supplements. Tt may well be that his MS. 
was the folio vellum, of which we have three ieaves left also in 
AM. 20, the sole other fragment of this Saga whicb we possess. 

The Skioldunga was evidently a complex work, put together by 
some Icelander of the thirteenth centnry out of tbree distinct 

I. The mythioal part cantains traditions relating to the early 
KingB (woven into a connected narrative parallel to the Ynglinga 
which quotes il), and may have been derived from Arí's jfi/í 
Dana-konu^a or ' Skioldunga-bók,' as the work is styled in the 
O. H. fly-Ieaf; the very name 'bók' is suggestive of some con- 
nection with Arí. This must have been the fikioldimga proper, 
the name being afterwards extended to the whole seríes. 

3. Knuta Saga, or the Lives of St. Knut and his brethren 
of a later and separate orígÍD, and parallel to the Líves of the 

' The tto^ toli) b; Amgtim ron> ihDi in fiill: — 'Ex Airhilda SniTdui Ring 
fiKnni batniit Rigneium Lodbrok, de qao inoi. Deriiiict& lutem A1fliiTd& SigTacdnt 
>d (ecDnda toU tramire dectevit. Cum eoim peragtati pro more Vettro-GotiL 
regni ioi provEacÍ& in Vichiam Norregiae provinciam ad facienda lacra ethnica ÍD 
ScirÍDgial, quae (olieninii ibi erani, diveneret, vídit rirginem rormoEÍiiÍmaiD Alfioi, 
AIE legii de VÍndK filiim, viiamque ci^l, poliriquc cupita etiam invitii diii omnino 
Totnit Haec liatiei habuit, Alfom paiti cognominem, ei Inguonem alteium. Ab 
hit Sigviidui uioiem nuplum petit. llli juTcnculam foiTDOuuíniam rugoto teni 
datuioi oegant. Quo raccentent Rei le lantum monatcham a reguli Gliit lepudi- 
- ■ dltu- 


(cerenmt, torori Tenenum propi. 

n pugnam futtitet occumbentibui 
Alfo cum IngTone fratie, Sigvardui etiam male lulDeratui ett. Qui Alfiotae funere 
allato, magnam navtm. moiiuotum cadaveiibui onciatam loiui TÍTomm conicendit, 
fcque et mottuam Alfwlam in pupfri coUocant, nanm pice bilumine el tÐlpbure 
iDcendÍ jabet, atque tublatii veiit, tn altum, Talldit a continente impellentibut renti^ 
pioram diii^t ; limnlque manoi libi violenter ÍDtulit, lete lot faduorum palratorem, 
tantonim tegnoium poiseiiorem, moie majomm luotum regali pompá OdÍDum 
legem (id eit tiiferos) inviiete matle, quam inenii seDectutii infiimilatem perpeli, 
alicri animo ad Hjcioi in liltore antea relictoi praefatni (quidam nairanl eum ante- 
qutm liIÍUB lelinqueret, propriA le confodiwe manu). Buitum Umcn ín lilloie mote 
lui leciili congerí fecit, qnod Rmgskaug appellaii jutiil. Ipie vero lempstaiibui 
latnm (I) gubernanlibiu Sljgiai iine moie ttanavit undas.' — Ftom Regum Dani- 
cotum ftagmenla ex vetutliiiimit NorTegorum commentatui hiitoiicii. live mavii 
lilandotum, Itantlata AnDO Dni Jetu kjiitc. (1596), bjr Amgtim Jonuon; in 
MSS. Baithdiniana. No. 15, folio, not publiihed. How delighled Marlowe wonld 
hive been to hare knowri thit itorj. penned onlj three jrcan aflei hii death, foi 
hii Tambetlaine the Greal. Alftol (í^rinn) ihinei brighlei Ihui Zenociate: ind 
there ire thc giand obiequiei to boot I Of coune legendt of ihii kiad weie the 
cteation of the Wiking time. 



great Norwcgian Kisgs. A ' Saga Knútz ' is cited Ín die Life 
of Oiaf tbe Quiet of NOTway. 

3. Finaliy we liave, to complete the seríes, the LÍTes of King 
Waldimar tíxa Oreat and his son Knat, by a later hand ; pro- 
bably, judging from the style, a contemporary to the author of 
Sverri's Saga, a further prcof of which is that the woric breaks oíf 
abrupily in 11 85, halfway through Knut's reign. The last chapter 
mentions the name of Olaf Hvitaskald, and his staying at King 
Waldimar Il'a court We know by his own account that he had 
been in Denmark and that he was a friend of this King, and 
observing the aimilarity of the style with thal of Sturlung SchocJ of 
Historians, especially at the junctions of the component parts, and 
the frequent reference and quotations of the ' Lives of the Kings of 
Norway,' it may not be impertinent to liazard the guess that he is 
the editor of tbe whole series. 

It is interesting to compare the traditions &c. of the Skioldunga 
with those preserved by Saxo the Ðanish monk, who amongst 
his authorides notices the information given him by Icelanders. 
In Ragnar Lodbrok's Saga and one or two of the oiher half- 
mythical S^as, which we only have in a late fourteenth or 
fifteentb<entury shape, we also have the faint remains of early 
traditions reiating to Danish Kings. 

Lastly, the Skioidunga was known to the author or forger of the 
Story of Göngu-Hrolf, who has hence, we believe, borrowed the 
names for faig pseudo-battlea (from the wars of Knut the Great) ; 
iie has also inserted the geographical chapter of Denmark, though 
abrídged, and besides this a short geographical notice of England, 
vhich we take to have belonged to some lost part of Skioldunga. 

A new edition of the whole Skioldunga. in wbich it should be 
treated in accordance with tbe hypothesis set forth above, is 

JoKsviKmGA Saga, which forms an appendix, as it were, to the 
LÍves of the Kings of Denmark, tells the story of the rise and fall 
of the pirate community of Jom (Julin Wolin) on the Wendish 
COasL It is only second to Orkneytnga in the Wvid pictures it 
has preserved of Life in the Wiking Agc. The ' Laws ' of the 
Jomwikings should be very interesting to English students, as 
they formed the basia of the Code of Rules by which the famous 
' Thingmaunalid ' or Guard of Knut was govemed (see Dr. Steen- 
strup's leartted work). Thorkel the Tall, who commanded part of 
tbis force, was the brother of Sígvald, who was ruier in Jomsburg. 
The atyle is eupbuistic and the incidents romantic. 

The Saga survives in four vellums, the expected age, worth, &g. 
of which prcsent a difficult problem. r. A compiex test in AM. 
291 of ihe later balf of the thirleenth century (this is foUowed in 
Fomm. S., vol.xi); Flateyar-bók, a parallel text ; the Stockhohn MS., 
a shorl recension, edited by Dr. Cedcrschiöld. 1. A sirtgle text io 


xdi PROLEGOMENA. § r8. 

AM. 510, of which an edition is now in preparation by Dr. Peter- 
sén of Lund, a fuller text of the shorí type. It will easily be 
granted that tbe first thirteen chapters of ttie Fornm. S. edition 
are extraneDUG detached pieces of the lost Skioldunga S^a, and 
that the original Saga tnust, like AM. 510, have begun with Toki 
in di. 14, the ancestor of the founder of the Colony. But 
as regards the enlarged and the short text, it is difficult to de- 
tenninc which must now be foilowed; on the whoie the Editor 
inclines to the Stockholm MS. There are raxay gtran^ and rare 
pbrases and words embedded in the somewlmt oniate style of 
this Saga, most if not all of which occur in thb MS., though 
the shorter and more concise of the two. But the best test is 
probably afforded by the section which tells of the ' Laws,' where 
tbe larger version is plalnly wordy and inferior, diluted from 
the simplicity of the onginal (see Oxford Icelandic Reader, where 
this chapter is given for comparison), There is a Latin translation 
or ratber parapbrase of Jomsvikinga by Amgrím the Learned (lately 
edited by Dr. Gjessing of Chrístiana), which contains several new in- 
cidents in the first part of ihe Saga, but we believe that tbese are all 
/ ijíMr íl^rived from the lost Skioldunga, of which Anigrim posséssed m*l-e 
/O ^TtfiY^^ fragments thaJihaveícome down to us, while we have no reasofl to 
suppose that tiis copy of Jomsvikinga differed in any respect from 
our own. One curíous epithet of Hakon 'Uma-Jarl' occurs only 
here and in Agríp (where spelt bvma). It is such an one as 
would not come readilj' to the pen of a writer of the thirteenth 
century, but would admirably fit into a phrase of Ari's Æfi Kon- 
unga, or Skioldtmga Saga. 

§ 18. Orknetinga Saga. Thx Lives of the Earls of Okxnet. 

The name is modern, the true old name being Jari.a Saga, from 
one of its component parts, and in the copies of tbe seventeenth 
century it is inscribed thus. Our present Saga is undoubledly a 
complex work, and it is still possible to separate it into the 
component parts of diverse age and origin of wbich it is made up. 
We may take them one by one. 

I, Fundinn IVoregr, chaps. 1-3. There are extant two inde- 
pendent epitomes of a lost original, containing an account of the 
orígin of ihe Norwegian Empire by sea and land, viz. our text and 
HTerau IToregr byggðizt preserved in Flatey-book, To fix its 
age and place, we may nodce that it is epor^mous and of a piece 
with the scholastic introduction Co tbe Prose-Edda and other me- 
diæval works of the kind ; that it must have been wrítten at a time 
when the Scandinavian power was at its height, and wide spread ; 
that it is evidently not the work of a Norseman or Icelander, 
bul would seem to be written by one living in the Western Isles. 
That it cannot be earlier than the end of the eleventb century Í3 
proved by the dragging thc ships across tbe neck of Elda, a legend 



Íi8. ORKNEY SAGA. xciii 

dravn rrom the faniDus feat of King Magnus at the Tarbert of 
Cantyre in 1098, The philological test points the same way, for 
the eponymy Norway=Nors way, the way of King Nor, marks a 
timc when the ð was lost, whilst the w remained, Nor-vegr. 
King Ælfred in 890 has it Norðwæg; but a century later, on the 
^ellinge Runic stone, we read Nurwiag. The myth therefore 
cajinot be of high antiquity. On the other hand, Nor is among 
the Sea Kings of the tnilur, and is mentioned by Odd. To date 
it from the reign of Sigurd the Crusader would seem to be not 
wide of the mark. 

3. Jarla Soga, chaps. 4-38, which has given the name to tbe 
whole complex Saga, gives the Lives of the first Earls, cenlring 
round Torf-Einar and Thorfinn the Great, the Heroic Age of the 
Orkneys, where men lived in the old Wiking way longer than 
in any other part of the North. We have litde doubt but that thts 
is the 'Jarla Saga' of the quotations. The Jarla Saga is often 
cited, and extracts given in the Lives of the Early Kings of 
Norway, but we never find any citations in the Sagas referring to 
tbings which took place after Magnus Bareteg's time, and the 
authors of the Kings' Lives know nothing of the Sagas of Earl 
Rognvald and Sweyn, with the exception of a short abridged 
account of ihe Cnisáde which is given in Hulda. But this is not 
from Orkneyinga, as.the discrepancies in ihe two stories prove; 
thus — Hulda makes the £arl sail down the Irísh Channel (probably 
Ihe truth), whereas Orkneyinga brings him through the North Sea. 

3. St. Hogiitui Saga, chaps. 39-59. This again in style and 
matter di£fers from the rest of the Saga. It also exists separately 
in a double recension. 1. A longer recension of it in the lost 
Bsejar-bók (preserved in a paper copy), a complex work made 
np of a Norse or Icelandic life of St. Magnus, and a translalion 
of a Latin biography of him by Abbot Bfibert, of whom nothing 
else is known, but who would seem to have been an Orkneyman of 
Eari Rognvald's days. The Norse Life quotes Snorri, and must 
therefore have been vrítten not earlier than 1130. The book of 
Robert has leít its traces in the rhetorícal scholastic style of the 
teit, extending over many chapters. a. There is also a short 
Ufe of Earl Magnus, agreeing in the main with the second Saga, 
preserved in AM. 335, so that we can eliminate Robert's work 
from tbe rest. Bolh Sagas are published Ín tbe Master of Rolls' 

4. The HÍTOOleB of 8t. Hagntis, chap. ðo, an ecclesiastical 
work of the same type as the Miracle-book of St. Olaf, &c. It 
mnst have ezisted in an independent form, and has afterwards been 
attached to the Saga. 

6. The Saga of Sorl BognTold and Swein, chaps. 6i-ir7, 
the principal part of the whole ; a Saga of great merít, the last 
maniiestation of the Wiking spirit, which inspires the whoie work. 
Swein is the last of the great Wikings of old, and the one whose 


xciv PROLEGOMENA. § i8. 

lífe and ezploits have been handed down by a skiUiil draœatic hand. 
This Saga, as we have noticed above, must have also existed 
. separately, and it bears in style little resembiance tQ tbe earUer 
' Jarla Saga.' 

6. Addenda only found in Flateybook, such as the Bunmig of 
Bisbop AdBm. This must be of the thirteenth century. 

The whole Saga is found in Flatey-book, where in tbe scríbe's 
usual fashicHi ít is cut up into sections, and chronologically 
distributed into the Lives of Kings. The text is hastily written, 
and in many instances corrupted, sentences skipped in a sUp-shod 
manner, and the verses mangled. It is therefore of great use/ that 
fragments of the detached Saga have been preserved. — i. A vellum 
fragment of eighteen leaves in AM. 325, of about the year r^oo, 
3. A vellum fragment destroyed in the old University Library in 
1728, but preserved in a copy of Asgeir Jonason's, now in AM. 
132. A Danish Translation of c. 1570, preserved in a transcrípi 
of 1615, yields the whole Saga, evidently from this very vellum 
when complete (save one blank), and is of great value, supplying lost 
sentences, skipped in the Flatey-book, and giving the means of 
mending false readings. But most remarkable of all — 3. A vellum 
fragment of two leaves, hard to read (pp. riD-ii8 and 148-136 in 
the new edition), used for binding, marked á in ihe Rolls' edition, 
and preserved in AM. 325, acquired by Ami Magnusson, ' I 
Reykholti 1707 úr Austfjoröum.' Moreover, in Magnus Olafsson's 
Icelandic GÍossary, coUected in 1630-36, but edited by Ole Wonn 
as Lexicon Runicum, there are upwards of a hundred references 
from 'Jarla Saga' from a better text, which,we can clearly ideniify 
as taken from this vellum, when complete, only the end wanting. 
There are some aix references from the fishing episode, and some 
eight from ihe atill existing two leaves, by which the identily can 
be proven. Resides this, tbere is a complete list extant of the versea 
of the Saga, accompanied by an abridgment of the scenes centting 
rouiid this verse, and last of all, the 'Fishing Chapteí' completely 
given, all compiled by Magnus Ólafsson in the year 1633, and now 
preseived in the Libraty at Upsala; — a most valuable contribution to 
the final edition of the Saga. 

Respecting Ihe fishing episode and several other verses and 
incidents onjy preserved here — Are we to put the omission 
of this down to the slovenliness and huriy of the Flatey-book 
scribe ? We think not, for this reason ; Besides the Flatey- 
book we have the Translation representing a fair and good text of 
the complex Saga, wherc these things are equally absent. The tnie 
clue to the matter we take to be this — The scribe of oiu: b (living 
about A. D. 1300 or even earlier) had at hand, besides the complex 
text, also a copy of the oiiginal Earl Rognvald's and Swein's 
Saga, from which he drew this incident omitted by the compiler of 
the compjex Saga. We have anaiogies in the Flatey-book, in the 
Færeyinga, and Hallfred Saga. Excerpts from Færeyinga had beeii 


fið. ORKNEY SAGA. icy 

long ago Ínserted Ín the Great OlaT's Saga, wbich he had before 
him, but ÍDStead of copTÍng that S^^ here, tbe scribe, fortunately 
for us, had recourse to the detacbed original Fsereyinga Saga, 
QOw lost, which'has thus becn preserved to us. — From tbis 
chequered material, the Rolls' edition has been made out by tbe 
present Editor. 

The wbole tone of the Orkneyinga Saga diSers from Sagas of 
known Icelandic orígin, tbe vivid pictures of tbe Wiking Age 
which recall the spirit of tbe Lays of Helgi and tbe almost complete 
absence of the Law elemcnt, for instancc, are quite a contrast to 
Sagas depicting contempoiary life in Iceland or Norway. Tbe 
English reader wi)l find a faithful translation of the Flatey-book 
text ia Mr. J. Hjaltalin's ' Orkneyinga Saga,' edited with an excel- 
lent introdQctioQ by Mi. Joseph Anderson, Edinb. 1873. 

Færeyinga Ssga, in many respects a parallel to Orkneyinga, 
is preserved in the Flatey-book in detached parcels. No frag- 
ments of tbe detacbed Sa^ are lefL It is none of the smallest 
merits of this great volume to have preserved the Saga of these 
worthy Islanders. As to tbe age, the last cbapter mentions ' Einar, 
lately a king's steward in the Isles.' He lived c. 1200 (see 
Orkney Saga, Rolls' edition, p. 133). which would place our Saga 
at c. 1130 (like Laxdæla). The scribe of the Flatey-book evidently 
had before him a complete work, compiled in thc thirteenth century 
by an Icelander (the absence of local knowledge and colour testify 
against it being by a Fasrey man, the Islands Skufey and Dimun 
cbanging place, &c.), from the separate Sagas of Sigmund and Leif. 
The episodes, the artistic plot and classic style are sufGcient to 
prove its late date. Parts of the Saga have also been used by 
tbe wríters of thc Great Olaf Tryggvason's Saga and the Saga 
of St, Olaf. The story tums on the conversion of the Islands to 
Christianity, and the bringing of them nnder the rulc of the 
Norwegian Kings. The two heroes of tbe Saga are well con- 
trasted; the brave, fiery Sigmund, thc champion of the Cbrístían 
Faiih, and the henchman of the Norse King. And on the other 
úde, the wary, crafty Thrand, tbe champion of thc old Fatth, and 
defender of the indepcndencc of his native Island. Thrand is one 
of the most ^pica! characters of the Sagas, a man wbo in many 
rcspects rescmbles Louis XI ; even his ' Creed ' would havc guited 
that King. Thrand livcs to the end of the Saga; at last the boy 
Sigmund, who was the only being be ever secms to have loved, 
was kidnapped A'om him, and this broke his old ' vixen ' heart 
Some of tbe scenes are most heautifully told. There are several 
Faroesc ballads cxtant, which refer to Sigmund Brcstisson, Leif 
and Thrand, ihe heroes of the Saga. The Saga was separately 
edited by Rafn, Copenb. 1832. 


xcvi PROLEGOMENA. § 19. 

§ 19. Sturla thz Historian AND HtS WOBKS. 

We now come to Sturla, the fourth and last great name in the 
Ctassic Literature of Iceland. He belonged to the famous famil^ 
of which we have already spoken in the short account of Snorri. 
Sturla's father Thord, the elder of Gudny's three sons, was of a very 
different character to either of his brothers, though he had no less 
marked talents of his own. A man of great sagacíty and foresight, 
with Eomething of the Seer about him, loving to dwell ín peace, 
ready to give wise counsel if he were asked for it. Thord had 
married Helga the great-granddaughter of Ari the Historían, but 
' they did not get on as well as they might have done,' and in the 
end they separated, and it is not from her, but from Thora Thord's 
beloved mistress, that Sturla and his elder brotber Olaf sprung. 
Neither the year nor the place of Sturla's birth are known, it may 
be guessed that il was at Stad, where Ari had once dwelL He died, 
we are told at the end of SturÍunga, on the next day after his birth- 
day, aged seventy (sjautðgr), or as a various reading has it (the vellum- 
ieaf being loat, we have but the paper transcripts) ' near seventy.' 
He was accordingly bom on the a^th July 1314 or 1215. 

When Sturla was bom his father was almost íifty years of age 
(bora 1165); that Olaf (we!l known as the White Poet) was tbe 
elder, appears from the invariable usage of the MSS. which name 
him first in all the genealogies. Of Thora nothing is known; she 
belonged to none of the great families, but that she must have 
been a woman of a character which in many points resembled that 
of Thord would seem likely from the way in which Thord's finest 
qualities are intensified in his sons. Sturla was called after his 
grand&ther, who had derived his name from the first of that 
name we know of, Sturla Thiodrek's son, founder of Staðarhol, 
who is spoken of in Havard's Saga. The word, which is never 
met with out of Iceland, is curíous; it is a diminutive such as 
are frequently found in the Gothic, e. g. WuIfiJa, ' little wolf,' and 
stands for Sturila, ' little steer;' it is declined as a femínine; a 
masculine form has since been made, Sturli. 

The first time we hear of him is when his grandmother Gudny 
dies in November izzi. She had outiived her first husband by 
more than thirty-eight years; manied again a grandson of Ari Frodi, 
named Ari ihe Strong; went abroad and squandered her infant son 
Snorri's patrimony, insomuch ihat be started in Ufe as a 'poor 
man.' In 11 88 she was widowed a second time, retumed to Ice- 
land, and now lived at Hvamm, till at last she went to Reykholi, 
where she died at her son Snorrí's house. She had given her 
jewels and paraphernalia lo her Jittle grandson (Sturla Thordsson), 
but Snorrí seized thera in tota! disregard of her wishes. 

The nezt time we hear of Sturla is in 1227, when his falher took 
him and Olaf with him to a great Yule banquet at Reykholt, which 
Snorrí gave in the Norwegian fashion. 



Ini23iBÍ3bop Gudmund, for whom Thord, apious man, hada 
veiy great regard, ín his wanderíngs about the country followed by 
a train of vagabonds and beggars who lived upon the alms which 
tbe sanctity of their patron procured for them, came to Hvamm (the 
ancestral seat of the Sturlungs, whither Thord had moved from ^yrí), 
and was well received with as many as the house would contain. 
Sttu'la and his brother were sent round to the neighbouríng yeomen's 
bouses to find quarters for the rest of the ragged troop. 

Sturla's youtb was passed in peaceful days when the Stud- 
ung family were at the height of their power, but the dvil 
disturbances, which desolated lceland for about a quarter of a 
century, began witb his manhood, and occtipied the best p>eriod 
of his hfe. He was, iike hið fatber, a man who as far as possible 
seems to have kept aloof from poiitics and strífe, but he could 
not wholly keep himself aloof at a time when the fortunes of 
his &inily were at stake, and was dragged for a. time into the very 
vortez of the stniggle. On the aist August 1238, a year a(tcr 
his father's death, he was captured at the fight of Orlygstad, 
and Epared, while his uncle Sighvat and his cousins were put to 
death. We next find him manied to Helga Thord's daughter, 
and setded at Tunga, the seat of Gudnm and Snorrí Goði, The 
murder of fais uncle Snorrí Sturlason íq 1241 completed the 
overthrow of tbe faraily. In July 1242 Slurla was captured again; 
this time by treachery, his enemies intending to send him out of 
the counliy, but the intercession of his fríends prevailed, and he 
was let go unhanned. Soon afier, whcn his cousin Tbord Kakali 
came to Iceland, and the old adherents of the Sturlungs rallied 
round him, Sturla was again forced to take part in the feud. One 
of the consequences of this was that, in Apríl 1244, a raid was 
made by his enemies upon bis house at Tunga ; luckily he had news 
of their plan, and fled in time to save his life, but his wife with her 
little month-old son Snorrí Sturlason ibe second in her arms was 
forced to take rehige in the cburch. The slendemess of tbe thread 
on wbicb history oden hangs app^ears wben we tbink that in sucb 
a miserable midnight 'bicker' the last historían of Iceland migbt 
have perished, and no work of bis ever seen the light to tell tbe 
histoiy of his time, and 'of the family who did so much for theír 
country's fame. Next year the tiger-like Kolbein, a deadly íoe 
of Sturla's house, died, and Thord Kakali soon made himself 
supreme in Iceland, so for a wbile all wenl well for tbe historían. 
But Thord's work was overthrown by ibe foUy of the King, wbo 
sent for bim out to Norway, and, misirusCing his (aients, kept him 
there in bonourable esile till be died, Oct. 11, 1256. 

With Ihe arrival of Thorgils Skarfti bia nepbew (in 1252), wbom i 
tbe king sent out to Iceland, it seemed as if matteis would again 
turn iU for Sturla, but after the surprise of Stafholt, when Thorgils 
was captured by Hrafn Oddzson and Sturla, tbere came a recon- 
ciliation, and Sturla's gentleness and Thorgils' generosity laid the 

VOL. I. S - 


xcviu PROLEGOMENA. $ 19. 

foundatiðn for a fríendshíp which lasted till the nephew's death, 
ond is marked by the sympathetic and affectiooate tMographjr which 
his uncle consecrated to him. Sturla now gets mixed up with 
Earl Gizur, the evil genius of this part of the story, who first 
got him to marry hts daughter Ingibiorg to Hall Gizur's son. 
The raarriage feast ended in the fearful tragedy of Flugumyri 
(Oct 32, 1253). Sturla had just rídden away, when at nightfall 
the bousG was beset by Eyjolf and Kolbein, the avengers of 
Snorrí Sturlason; the besieged held thc hall till Eyjolf, fearful 
lest the neighbourhood should be roused, set fire to the buildings, 
and though Gizur himself escaped, and the young bride and a 
few others were saved, Gizur's wife and all his sons, Hall among 
them, períshed by the sword or tn the flames. Gizur left the 
country not long after this fearful blow, and Thorgila was left 
eupreme. Till his murder, January 23, 1258, Sturla was in a 
good position, and enjoyed a bríef rest from the deadly struggle, 
into wbich he had been drawn against his will. Gizur caroe 
out and took Thorgils' place ; this was a change for the worse, and 
Sturla was hoodwinked and cheated by his fair promises and pro- 
fession offríendship. 

In 1263 Sturía, who had come to be looked on by the 'pa- 
tríotic party' as a prominent opponent of Norwegian nile, was 
forced, by a privatc quarrel, to fly abroad. Helpless, penntlcss, 
and alone be had no course left but to throw himself upon the 
mercy of the King, who had been the biiterest foe of his house. 
So he went to Bergen ; the old King was away, which was perhaps 
the best for Sturla, but the young King at first looked coldly on him, 
till the talents of Sturla, his enchanting power of Saga-teiling, and 
his poetic giíts won him over, and he acceded to the requests of 
Gaut and the Queen to admit him to his proper position at court, 
and promised to speak in his favour to his father on his retum. 
£ut King Hakon never came back, and Sturla undertook to wríte 
his life, as historíographer royal to the young King. This work 
he must have begun in the spríng of 1264, when (in the middle of 
March) the news of the old King's death reached him, and a 
passage in chapter 275 authorízes us to believe that the whole 
Saga waa nearly finished in 1265. There is now a blank in the 
history of the time (1263-71), which can only be fiUed up from the 
Annals, which however, though scanty, are ezact and careful ; and 
os ihey never mention Sturla's retum from Norway till 1271, when 
they notice his coming out to Iceland with the Book of the Law 
(Jamsiða), we cannot suppose two entries to have slipped out. 
The Annals of the day are extremely particular in this point, 
and never forget to register the (ums and retums of the chiefs 
to and from Norway. And as we hear of his wife joíning him 
in Norway, we must believe that he passed eight years in Norway, 
engaged, partly, no doubt, in literary work, perhaps in the prepara- 
tion of tbe Law Book he took wilh him to Iceiand. 0(xupying 



a second time the oflíce of Lawman, to vhich he had been 
appoinled by the King, whose favour he enjoyed, Sturla waa 
now in a bettcr position than he bad ever reached before; but 
as we leam from Ami's Saga (ch. 20) S the only time that he Í3 
ever mentioned save in Sturlunga Saga, his administralion was 
not a very energetic one, and he took no more real interest in 
politics than before. In 137; hc went out to Norway again 
ibr the last time, retuming the next year to Iceland. 

Weknowfrom Islendinga (ch. 331, p. 2^3) that, onSturia'swfCw/ 
voyage to Norway, King Magnus charged him to write his own bfe 
for hun as he had done his father's. It is hardly likely that this 
coutd refer to the year 1264 or have been before 1277. At 
Sturla's earlier stay in Norway, there would have been lilde for 
hím to write. King Magnus nas young, beginning wbat should 
have been a long reign, activc and cnergelic, and full of promise, by 
twenty-four years the younger of the historian; whereas now, when 
Stnrla saw him ^ain, he had been broken down by a severe 
illness in Jan. 1272, the effects of which hc had nevcr skaken ofT, 
bis healtb was weak, and hc must have felt that the end waa 
ap[»x>aching. It was natural that hc should ask his old fríend 
to make a record of what he had bcen ablc to accomplish, when 
it was no longer improbable that Sturla should, as indeed he did, 
outlive him. Tbis book, of which we only have fragmenls, we take 
therefore to have becn a work of Sturla's latcr days, finished after 
the King's death in May gth, laSo, Sturla surviving hiœ four yeara 
and thrce months, dying ^oth July 1284, the day after bis birth- 
day. Of his three children, Thord the younger, a man of gende 
disposition like his father, became a clerk, and died before hia 
father, 4th March 1283. Snorri the elder, called after his grand- 
nnclc, waa a man of action, kept a band of arnicd retainers, and 
was turbulent and quarrelsome, getting his father into trouble; he 
died in 1306. Ingibiorg, the bríde of FÍugumyri, was married agaio 
to a chief, Thord of Madervalla. 

Sturla lived first at Tunga, when he lcft his father's house, then 
fae flitted to Staðarhol, moving thence to Fairdale, and finally died 
in Fairey off Thorsness in Broadfirth. It was at the latter two 
places that we must suppose his chicf works to have becn written. 

The Works of Stubla. 

The aturlunga Saga as we have it in two MSS. of the four- 
teenth century, written within a few years of Sturla's death, is 
cvidentíy a comples work. Keeping tbere the title ' Sturíunga ' 
as a convenient name for the wholc mass of Sagas, we must first 
endeavour to discover the evidence upon whicb Sturla's autborship 

* *En irStnHu tlúfi minna gign ci 
11 tb« Butiop repom to tbe King, tell 
wai oot, wcnt on. 




of any part of it rests, and to which part it will bc ríght to affiz 
hÍ3 name, Beginning with the ^oí-Sturlaean part of the work : 

First of all, Urafn Sveinbiormsmi s Saga may be aeparated 
fiom the rest, as we have it in two sepaiate distinct vellums, one 
of which has fortunately retained the preface which the other and 
the Sturlunga text have drapped. From this we learn, what migt^ 
have been concluded on i priori grounds, that the author was 
a friend of the hero, in pious meraory of whom he coraposed 
fais Saga. The minuteness and persoiúl knowledge of the maa 
spoken of, which one remarks in many parts of this Saga, are quite 
incompatible with the authorship being attributed to Stuila or any one 
of his generation; for Hiafn diedin 12 13, befoie Sturla was born. 

With Priesl Gudmunds Saga, ending still earlier in the year 
1303, the case is the same, though the facts are a Uttle more con- 
fiising, one of the vellums, Codíx Rcsenianus, using other parts of 
the Islendinga, which it weaves into Gudmund's Saga in exactly the 
same way as the compiler of Sturlunga has therein used the Gud- 
mund's Saga to £11 up his coœpilatíon; insomuch that we should 
have to argue in a circle, were it not that anothei vellum has come 
down to us, in AM. 637, in puie shape, although it gives in some 
respects an inferior tezt, and by its test one can at once separate 
this Saga also frora the mass. 

With regard to Shtrla's Saga and Önundar-Srennu or Gud- 
mund Dyri's Saga, that they once existed sepaiately we know 
firom tbe Stockholm O. H. fly-leaf, and it cannot be doubted that 
Ihey are the same as those tbere mentioned, and tbe distinctness 
of style and subject would at once enable us to pick them out 
from the lest, altbough the-second is, as we have seen, cut ÍQ 
pieces and mixed up with other works. 

That Thorgih and Haflidi's Saga, which stands by itself in Stur- 
lunga, is an old and distinct woik cannot be reasonably doubted. 
It ends in nai, and in one passage we &nd 'minnir mik,' either 
the words of the scribe or the person from whose Ups he was 
wríting the story. The realism and the comraonplace character 
of the story utterly esclude a later origin. 

But in addition to ihe extemal evidence, tbus briefly noted 
in the case of each Saga by itself, that there is an iramense 
difference between these separate Sagas in fundamental points 
of method, style, and diction, must'be apparent to the most casual 
reader. Eqnally plain is the gulf between all of tbem and the rest 
of the Sturlunga (we reserve the Svinfttlitiga Saga, which will be 
touched on below), for whícb we shall keep the title iBleDdinga 
Saga, and treat as Sturla's work. 

Coming next to the tvidence ofSlurla's aulhorship of tht Islend- 
inga, we shall first take the intemal proof afforded by the MSS, 
themselves, where the compiler's preface (vol. i. p. 86) is of the 
highest importance ; and here we would beg the reader to keep the 



Icetandic text before him. It is placed after Sturla's Sag:a, be- 
caus'e down to ihis point he had been copying out separale Sígaa 
(Geirmund, Thorgils-Haflidi, and Sturla's), one after another. 
Now in order to make his history easier and more straight- 
forward according to his notions (and it should be remembered 
that such modern devices as parajlel-printing, as notes, appen- 
dices, ftc. were unknown) he is going to cut up two Sagas, which 
run parallel, and weave into them Sturla's IslendinBa, so that 
a kind of twist is formed, of which Islendinga is the longest 
strand, so to speak, and hangs dear out of the plait into whích 
the oiher two have been completely wovcn. So he stops and 
tells the reader, just before he begins his operations, that several 
Sagas now run side by side; and loyally anxioos that Sturla's name 
should be preserved, he goes on to say that, though the history of 
Icetand down to Bishop Brand's dealh (in 1201) was already com- 
mitted to writing, it is to Sturla we owe most of our knowledge 
of Icelandic History since that event, for before he wrote, very 
httíe of it was written down at all, He concludes with a eulogium 
on Stuila, praising the íidelity of his work, and praying for his soul, 
for ' we knew him as a very wise and judicious man.' This preface, 
which ia here for the first time restored to its proper text and in- 
terpretation, is a ' locus classicus ' for all writers on Icelandic 
literature, as it is interesting in itself, and one of the few stateraents 
on authoiship &c. which the carelessness of sciibes and the ravages 
of time has spared us. The old interpretation founded on the B 
tejtt (printed ín nole 3, p, 86) may be traced to ihe following 
marginal note, scribbled by Biom of Skardsa, on p. 26 of his auto- 
graph, AM. 439, 'Anno laoi dó Brandr Biskup, hann hetir látið 
saman skrifa meðan til endizt sögumar, en Sturla hinn fróði þær 
EÍðari,' i. e. ' he had the Sagas composed as far as his life reached, 
but Sturla the wise the later ones.' From henceforward Brand, 
the oid gouty Bishop, known to us from Thorlak Saga and 
Gudmund Dyri, was set down as the author of all Sturlunga till 
1201, Sturla limshing the work which he had begun. This state- 
meat was copied and recopied, e. g. in Hist. EccIesiasCica, tiU 
P. E. Mllller slarted a new interpretation in his Saga Bibliothek, 
181 7. He held that 'flestar allar sögur'&c. referred to the general 
literaiy history of Iceland, to Niala, Gretla, Egla, &c., and ihat it 
proved all such works to be older than 1201. This again was 
copied by Finn Magnusen and all wriiers on the subject, includ- 
ing the Editor in 1S55, and is the received theory. 

But in 1861 another theory came to the mind of the Edilor 
wbilst he stiil only knew the B text, via. there was a transposiHm in 
this important phrase, which he endeavoured lo amend in the plain 
sense given above. We have printed below • ihe Editor's notes as, 

■ þexi orB cni mjög tTÍ.rcð, i^ Ter&a iS tkiljait io contextQ. — Á otidan befir 

I liSatl ícni (an]>D bákioa ' ' "' " 

t f TTfra hlnta StutlnngD, ( 


oii PROLEGOMENA. § 19. 

in 1861, they were hastily put down on a rough slip jnst as they 
rose to his mind. Wben some time afterwaTds he came to examine 
the black vellum shreds of Sturlunga, hís conjectuie was, as tbe 
reader can see, almost verbally confirmed. 

That the Iskndinga Sögur, wbich the preface ascribea to Sturla, 
are idendcal with our present work there can be Uttle doubt ; both 
our veUum MSS. have lost their first leaves, but the best transcripts 
are headed ' Islendinga Saga ; ' to which Biorn of Skardsa added 
the titie hin Mikla to dislinguish it from all other Islendinga 
SðguT. By this name the whole work went till the days of Anu, 

Eg bcld aA oi5ia ci^ ivoiB (idlja — 'Flcil þiA if Stnrlangu mn QorSitt fyilr lioo 
ru ritaC fjrir dag Slurlu, t»ð er þrl ekki fTum-riCaí af hoaani. }»ð ttm tilhii 
2Jor&itt k tiUndi uni 13^" öld, mcgin-hluli Stuilungu cAi Stuitunga old, rii litt 
litafi 6ðr en Stuila lúk aC cita. fnð n þvi aí nuita (ÍDm-iilafi af Stuilu.' — £f ivo 
CT ikilift, þ& ci lélt hermt, þvf Pi»t laga auðmundai, og Gulhnundai lagi dýia, 
Rafni Saga (Heiltan'igi Saga?), Pált Saga, þorlaki Saea. rðni allar liiaeai (tem 
lannaS reifii) í bjTJun ij'i* aldai, og liðui hBaSai iun 1 Stuiiungn, óriit brort af 
Siuiiu ijalfuni, tfa, teni niéi þykir iikara, af hiaum liSara Redactaii (þói&i i 
SkaiAÍ uni 1308?). kh ztla að með otðunum 'Flciiai tógur,' eic., te Utifi tíl Nj&ln, 
Eyrhj'ggja, o. 1. b. er •ihugianda, því. i. Kienii þafi tem deus ex machioA i 

Ecuain (taS, þai sem um taniictning Stuilungu ei að ixba. og þá logu-þztti lem 
dn laman ttendi af, 1. Ksemi það i bera mát-töga rið þifi tera vér vitum af 
iSgum, afi gull-öld stgoa i lilandj byrjafii fyiit eptii i loo 1 og þafi ei degi ]júui> 
■ð Njála, Laiidn., Laxd., Eyrbyggja 0. 1. fi. tiu allai liiaitar eptii 1 loo, ab cg ekki 
uefni tögui lem Fióamaana S.. icm bera mcfi >er, aí þier etu lilafiai I laic ij''' 
■Idai. Setningin tem bón nú itendi i handiilum Stuiiungu ci þri Tixluð. Oiðia 
* nSru lilafiai ' itanda k liingum ttafi, og «lti afi tetjitt framin, og leiatt þamiig : — 
*Pleitar logul vint \_aSr\ rilaðar ei licr haGi gjorat k lilaDdi áÁi Braadr Uikup 
Szinundar lon andafiiit (i.e. Ouðm. S., þorl. S., Ouðm. dyra),en þzr lögur ei liSan 
bafa gjoizt (i. e. poit lioi) viiiu lilt litaðar,* etc [i4 er létt mil ag hngian, en 
farla létt bugian eintog ilendr. Llklegt þfki mjr að compilatoi ha£ fiiiidifi eptir 
Stuilunotata.iemhaDnhiGrikiBifldSii, efþeui vi]la,seraméiþ]'kkii likait, er ekki 
■rtkrifvrum aS kenna. Summa leium ei þvi þeui : Hinii fyntu þiii þzttíi Siuilunga 
(in the old cdition), i-iii B, Bli. 1-317, "^ '■'> ™^™ cAi meitum bluta litaðíi af 
Tmtum höfundum fyrii dag Stuiiu, en ilfiaa iiin-limiðir i Slurlungu, innað-híoit í 
hellD liki efir ífpf þar af. Allr megia'liluti lögunnir ([aettii ir-i) er þai á mðti 
fium-rit^ft af Sturin ; en Sll þnii tlftindi gjöiðutl um haiu dag efti ikömmu fyrir 
fzðing hani (iÍEddr 1114). fictt mi geta, afi þaS mun laDnait, að Stuila bafi 
■ndait Iti ■öga liuni óbúÍDnÍ ; hefii iro innai, að bonum ÖDdufium, fim vetium 
eplir Ijoo, lelt allt laman eplii handritum bani, tem bezt bann gat; lett upphif 
og nokkuii-konai nÍSilag nm dauða Stuitu. Oll handrit vor eni fi^ þeiEUÍ compi- 
latione komin eo engin fii fhim-iiti Sturiu, lem líklega aldrei befit komiit úl i 
almenning. þafi gefi hverjum aS ikllia tem töguna lei, aft böfundi hennai hefir 
ekki Ugt i bana tlfiuttn hiind. Sögu-þi&fiiiun er vifia lundi-ililinn ; fii lumu lagt 
tviivii, Mai^ lálið dugt lem höruiulriaa mundi vula hafa tleppl, L d. bókriii k 
lilandi i I3''° Öld; lumt oifi-lengl tem finytt ei. Yfii böfuð er tagan fiemi auðugt 
tafii Sturlu tíl Itlendinga Sögu i 13'^° íild cn ugan ijalf. . . . Sðgu-þiáðinn rantar ; 
þvi ei lorveldt að muua Siiguna I lamrellu. þú menn leti hana optai ea eiau linni. 
þetia VBiði ið gzta, ef menn líltri&lega vilja dzma um lagna-íiagleik Stuilu of 
knnniitu iS rila logur. Afi Stuila han ekki byijað k logu tinni fyi en eptir ia6o, 
cptii aft frifii var koniian aS nokkru i landl, mi liSa af oiðunum, að hann hafi haft 
riiindi af fizðÍ-mSnnum. lem röiu i ofan-veiðum dögum hani. En hann andaðiit 
70 iia. — Tbe leadei, baving lead tbe preceding lectiont, witl lee tbat at thii time 
Ihe thcory of diilinguiihing belweeii siaglt and eonplix Sagai. aud. ai it weie, tha 
doublc aulhoiihip of the latlei had not ac yet ripened ín the Editoi'i mind. Th« 
.noticei above were dotled dowa, at the ipur of the moment, ai a fint thought. 



MagDnsson, wlieii the title Sluríunga Saga was applied to it, which, 
being more convenient and distinctive, ouste3 the fomier title. 

Next, giving the exlertial evidences on the question, which are 
not likely to bc very numerous, considering Ihat Sturla himself 
was one of the tatest IcelaJidic bistorians^ — still some do occur, 
proving Ihat, early ín the fourteenth century, our text was known and 
ascribedto Sturia: i. InBishopGudmund's^iruf/í-íoiDÍ, compiled 
C. 1320, 'SvásemSturla ÞórðarsonsegirífslendingaSögu.'Biskupa 
Sögur, vol. i. p. 589, referring to Islendinga, ch. 50; and again, 
' Fór hann (the Bishop) þá vlða um sýslu slna, ok enn vfða annarS' 
staðar um landit, sem Stulla sagði f fslendinga Sögu,' BÍskupa 
Sögnr, vol. i, p. 591, referring to ch. 67. a. Aragrim, the Bene- 
dictine, ín bis Life, and ' Hefir þessi sami Sturia skrifat marga 
merkiliga hluti af Herra G. biskupi,' Biskupa Sögur, vol. ii. p. 162, 
refening to tbe scene in ch. 1 23 (þann vetr . . .) ; and ' Sem Sturla 
váttar er þessa sögu sam setti,' Biskupa Sögur, vol. iL p. 78, Tcfer- 
ring to the episode of the ogress Selkolla, Islendinga, ch. 30. 

Tbe epic character of the work forbids any direct evídence 
vhich might support tbe arguments drawn from extemal sources ; 
but by a curious sUp, which has been preserved, in one place, 
vol. i. p. 407, I. 30, the words 'eigi vissi ek' belray the personality^ 
of the writer, who was at that moment in the hands of his enemies, 
who were deliberating as to his fale. Moreover, though Stul-la will 
relate circumstances which none but ihose concerned in tbem 
cotild have known, and which it was impossible thai hc should be 
acquEunted with, yet it is noticeable that scenes, at which he 
actually was present or could have heard accounts of from persons 
in íntimate relations with him, are related with the most wonderful 
minuteness and reality of detail, sucb as the battle of Orlygstad 
(1138), the outrage at Saudafell in 1329, the raid to the South 
in Dec. 1241, the surprisal at Stafholt in 1253, and the death of 
Thorgils Skarfii, his great fríend, in 1158. 

The next question to be answered concems the edilmg or 
eomínlitig of the whole as we have it It Ís ^vident that the work 
is postbumous, the last chapter is conclusive on that bead. Are 
there any traces in the work itself which would enable one to 
come to any definite conclusions as to the personality and date 
of this anonymous editor P We think thal there are, and would 
beg the reader first to tum to vol. i. p. 126, in the introductory 
pedigree to Gudmund Dyri's Saga these words occur : ' Pricst Ketil 
Thorlaksson my mother's father, ilem mother's father to ihe sons o/ 
Narfi' They are onjy found in the paper copics of Cod. A, of 
vhicb this part has períshed, and are omiited in Cod. B. The late 
Finn Magnusen, reading 'eirDÍn"for 'item'inthispassage,cleverly 

nending of ihe icribc. 


dv PROLEGOMENA. § 19. 

gnessed that a c<mm to the Narfasons must be meant; but he 
could oniy find one man who would fit at all, Thorstein, abbot of 
Helgarell, son of Snorri Markusson of Melar. For the relationship 
Bee the pedigrree, vol. ii. pp. 485 and 489, where of two sisters, one, 
Valgerd, married Narfi, one, Helga, Snorri of Melar. But on closer 
inspection Finn Magnusen's theory breaks down, for Thorstein 
Snorr^son could hardly be a contemporary; and the preface, 
which is clearly the editor's work, speaks of Sturla as of a personal 
aequainlance, whereas Thorstein died in 1351. And certainly the 
tone of the whole Saga, which must have passed under the 
editor's bands, beais no trace of cltrical leaning or fceling. On 
the othcr hand, if we read 'item' (for which perhaps A had 
ii/.=i(/íj/, which has beenfilled out into <y«n) one of the Narfasons 
must be meant. That is to say, the editor, instead of giving his own 
name, as Ari in a similar case does, describes himself by a perí' 
phrasis as 'one of the sons of NarB.' What he says is, ' He wai 
moihet's brolher of Tnint, ikatis to say, 0/ ihe sons ofNarfi, ofwhom 
J am one.' 

Which of the tbree brothers (for three they were, see tbe 
pedigree) was ití They are all distinguished persons, Lawmen, 
and of good position. The use of pedigrees as title-pages and 
dedications has been referred to in a previous case; here we find 
prefised Co the whole work, with which it has absolutely no 
connection, the story of Geirmund HeDskin, a distinguished settler, 
whose 'claim' was Skard, the legend attached to this story aiso 
refers to Skard. The genealogies (vol. i. pp. 5, 6) all trace down 
to ' Skard-Snorri,' the grandfather of the Narfasons, ajid back to 
Geirmund's daughler Yr., mne to the cousin-Hne of Melar. 

Now, of the three brothers, one dwelt at Skard (which also was 
the seat of their ancestors), the very place with which all these 
associations are bound up, Thord, a personal friend of Sturla's, 
the very man whom one .would for other reasons have been 
inclined to pitch upon. For instance, in thc last chapter of the 
Islendinga, which is certainly the compiler's work, he is referred 
to, — Siurla turns to him, and asks him for his writing tablets — 
an incident of that familiar kind which none but an eye-witness 
would have recorded. Thord seems to have bcen a sort of pupíl 
of his ; his words, p. 86, ' Hann vissum vér {or vjsse ek) albeztan 
ok hófsamastan,' call to mind nearly literaíly Plato's words on 
Socrates in tbe end of the Phaedo, ávipiit Twr t<ít« &>• inttpáörtiitv 

ápioTov tai S\\at tþpoviiuarórov lal ðiKaim-áToii ; but though Thord was 

as true as Plato to his masier's memory, his simplicity falls behind 
the olher's skiJI of composition. Thord and Sturla were related, inas- 
much as the Narfasons were second cousins to the historian's wife, 
Helga (ii. 482). It has accordingly long been the Ediior's opinion 
(since 1858) that it was Thord Narfasm who, after Storla's death, 
came into the possession of his perhaps unfinished M55., and 
compiled from them and other sources that corpm hisiorictm of 



the twelfUi and thiiteenth centuríes which now bears the name of 
Slurlunga. Lawman Tbord died at Skard on May 12, 1308, thus 
outliving his fríend and mastei hy nearly twentj'-four years. 

IsiÆNDiNGA Saga. This work as it stands mxf be perceived to 
^into twoseparate parts, thejírj/of which comprises forty years, 
1303-43 (chaps. 1-163). In it the dramalis þersimae are tbe three 
Sturlung brothers, Bishop Gudmund, Thorwaid Gizursson, though 
itjusttouchesan earlier generation, naraing Sæmund of Oddi (died 
i32i) and his brother Orm (died 1218), and Hrafn Sveinbiomsson 
(died 1213), but of the later second generation only Sturla Sig- 
hvatsson is prominent This part is wound uþ by the death 
of all the chief persons who are told of in it, within the space of 
a few yeara (1136-41). 

Wvíi the tecomí balf of the Saga, 1243-62, entirely new 
characters are introduced. It opens with Thord Kakali's coming 
to Iceland, and tells of him, of Kolbein Ungi (bom 12 10), of Earl 
Gi2ar(born 1309), of Hrafn Oddsson (bom 1226), and of Sturla's 
great favourite Thorgils Skardi (bom 1236). This division of ihe /^.a, 
work is told with very great mínuteness, so that its twenty years fill 
more space than the forty years of the other, The 5^a breaks 
oflf abmpdy in June 1 262, just before a crisis in bis life, and there i_8 
then a blank of eight or nine years, which nothing but the Annaís 
can help to £11 up till Bishop Ami's Saga comes in (see Bs. i. 677 
sqq.) , This blank is very much to be deplored, as ihe history of 
these very yearÉ was both interesting and importanC. Then a little 
episode, in Sept. 1264, vol. ii. pp. 261-365, not, we think, written by 
Sturla, and the final chapters in one of which SLurla's hand can bé 
traced, but which are substantially the work of the compiler. 

These two halves of the Saga, which the volumes of the present 
edition are divided to show, would seem to have been wricten 
as almost separate works. The second part the EdiCor would 
place the earlier. It is more biographical, one part of it was 
certainly once a separate Saga, Thorgils SkardCs Lift by Sturla, 
of whidb fragments exist yielding a fuller text, and it is from this 
separate work that the part of Islendinga, which refers to the hero, 
is cleariy taken. This may serve as a hint Co the origin of the 
whole Chronicle, We may fancy Sturla's first work on Icelandic j 
subjects to have been tbis Life of his fríend Thorgils. He may the^ TW 
have proposed co write other biographies, but íinding that a great 
part of the history would be common to all these, he determines to 
write a Chronicle of his own days, which is the second part of the 
Islendinga. With such an inCention the first part evidently begins 
as the opening paragraphs profess. The editor seems to have cut 
out the chapters which touched briefly on Thorg^ls, and have put 
in their stead an abridgment of the fuller separate Saga, thus a 
Uttle destroying the balance of Sturla's work. 

We may then go on to fancy Sturla determining, as Tacitos 
and Saxo both did, to wrice the history of those timcs which led 


cvi PROLEGOMENA. § 19; 

np to and detennined the events he had alread^ treated on; thia 
first part is more orderly arranged, in better proportion, and more 
terse and condensed in those chapteis of it wbícb act as links and 
mtroductions lo the stirring scenes of the Saga. There are a few 
filight discrepancieg also between the last chapter of this part 
and the first of the second part, which would be likely to happeu 
if our guess-work theoiy were true. 

That Islendinga Saga was the work of Sturla's later days, Ihere 
are slight indicaiions which seem to hint : ihus once in each half 
he speaks of the law ' «'^11/ was thm in Ictland' (at þeim lögum er 
þá vóru á landi hér, vol. i. p, 39^, ch. 157, and sem þi vóru lög til, 
vol. ii. p. 177, ch. z66 beg.) ; this phrase anyhow was wrítten afier 
1271, and some lime afterwards too, or ihe remark would have 
been liardly necessary. There is aJso, if we compare it with 
Hakon's Life, a far greater power of diction and ripeness of style 
in Islendinga Saga. 

Of Hakon and Magnus Scigaa, their dates, MSS., &c., something 
has been said above and in § 15. But though a!l those works be- 
long, we believe, to the latier years of Sturla, we need not suppose 
that he was not engaged in literary work long before. He certainly 
made an edition of Landnama-bók, and it is ihe Editor's convicfion 
that we owe the finest parls of Grettis Saga (which surely no «n« 
else could have written) and our present editions of Eyrbyggia and 
the Great O. T. Saga to his pen. Wiih regard to Sturla's style, it 
is from the Islendinga alone that he should be judged; Hakon 
Saga was a task, and Magnus Saga we take it has come down to 
ÐS as a fragment in an abrídged form fcom a fuUer oríginal texL 

In Hakon Saga, beyond a few anecdotes of the King's child- 
hood, and an impressive scene, when the King first hears of the 
rebellion of his father-in-Iaw, Duke Skuli, late one night, and the 
Queen is roused, there is fittle that rises to his usual excellencc. 
A very g MÐM te account of the King's journey to Wermiand forty 
years before his death is so minutely told that it must have come 
from an eye-witness; there is a courtier-Iike description of the 
Cardinal's landing, but there is no drawing of character ; and wben 
he is wríting of the King, his heart is clearly with Skuli. But even 
in tbis Saga, as welt as in the almost annalistic Life of Magnug, he 
ís not wríting from documents (to suppose that he eve\ did so, is to 
misinterpret bis whole character and misread Thord's preface), but 
teliing a tale from word-of-mouth accounts ; and he writes baldly 
because he does not feel much interest in his story, or fell con- 
stiained as a royal historíographer, or because his infonnants are 
not able to tell their stories well to him. 

In the IsUndínga his full power is seen: the simplicity of 
a style, of which no archaism or crabbed expression ever stops 
the even but ever-varied fiow ; the realism of his descríptions, 
which set a scene before his hearer's eyes absolutely as Ít oc- 
curred wilh such force and fidelity, as Defoe and Carlyle alone of 



English autbors have attained to. In the Surpríse of Stafbolt, 70U 
are startled by tbe trampíng of the horses' hoofs as they rattle 
through the night ; in the Buming of Flygumyrí, you can feel the 
choking smoke and heat, and hear the roar of the flame in the hall 
and the clash of the spears in Ihe porches. This realism is some- 
times appalling, so pitiless is its faithfuhieBS to fact, as in the horríd 
butchery of Kolbein and the scenes in which the miserable Orækia 
is introduced. Again, though Sturla's narrative is nearly always 
picturesque and interesting, a mass of detail is occasionally lavished 
on an insignificant incident, and, as with Defoe, there are 'dul- 
nesses ' wliich are indeed ' of Nature,' but which Art should pass 
by ; the caCalogues of persons counted up on the flngers, as it 
were, the details of uninteresting transactions will at times weary 
the reader; and it must be confessed that Sturla is far the most 
unequat of all the great Icelandic wríters. The humour and bold- 
ness with which Snorrí disregards all useless facts and simply takes 
what auits his purpose are qualities which Sturla does not possess. 

Accordingly, espccially in what we take to be his earlier work, 
there is often a loiig desert track between the grcen oascs, but 
in the first part of the Islendinga there is a greater skill shown in 
the composition of the whole. But in spite of such mistakes, 
whicb it would have been difficult for him to avoid altogeiher when 
treating of the subjects he had deCermined to wrice on, chere is also 
running all through Sturla's work an undercurrent of patience, of 
gentleness, and of pathos which are all the more feU because they 
are never openly expressed. The epic structure of che Saga for- 
bade this ; but th^ so many delicate and lovjng touches in his 
narratíve, when he is describing the appearance or the actíons of 
those he loves, that our sympatby is roused to the vcry híghest, 
and we feel as warmly towards them as he does. 

Sturla is a tiue poet ; his love of a legend, such as that of Gizur's 
childhood (cb. 55), which he has instinctively chosen to tell, though 
be must have known that it was inconsistent wich true chronology, 
his delight in his own gift of foreseeing events, his firm belief in 
dreains,presages,omens, the prophecies of his father, the dialogue 
between Sighvat and his son Sturla, the naive pleasure he has in 
bis own verses, are all distinctiy marks of the poecic temperament 
which enabled him to paint scenes equal in truth and beauty to the 
finest word-picCures of the greatest poets. 

Sturla presents at once a curíous parallel and contrast to Arí. 
Ari lived in the past ; Sturla in the present. Arí was an historian 
at heart ; Sturla was in soul a teller of stories, by accident an his- 
torian. Arí was the Grst and Sturla the last of the great Icelandic 
writers. Arí laid che foundatíon for all the Sagas that were wrítten 
since his day, and Sturla was Cbe last who wrote tbem. Ari was 
the first Icelander that wrote the lives of kings, and Sturla (though 
not quite of his own free will) was the !ast. 

In a word, to Ari we can trace the beginning of Ihe rích and 


cvui PROLEGOMENA. £ 19. 

varíed líterature of which the work of Sturla vas the last oulcome. 
And i( in a sentence we should endeavour to characterise the three 
greatest writers which the island has produced, it might be said that 
Ari was the most venerable, the most truthful, and the one we could 
least afford to have lost ; that Snorri excelled in humour, in eloqueoce, 
and in an epic richness oí style ; while we should pronounce Sturla 
to be the most pathetic, the most natural, and the most human. 

7íe J'lan upon wkich Ihe preteni edition is arranged will demand 
a short notice : as will be seen from what has been already said, 
the Sturiunga of the MSS., and stili more of ihe paper copies, was 
in a terrible state of confusion, so that it had even become a bye- 
word that ' no one could remember the Sturlunga,' and ihe Editor 
recollecta a tradition that Bjshop Finn (the author of Hisi. Eccles.) 
was ihe only man who ever accomplished this feaL It was as 
necessary to uncurl this tangle as it was to give a sound text, if the 
book was to be of any real use. 

The annexed figure, in which the numbers refer to the different 
component Sagas, wi!I give a notion of the state of the whole in 
the MSS. (g=the Genealogies, the stroke | marks the Preface) : — 

. 1, . ni j „ n, - v^ 

And ihis confuslon was rendered worse by a division (made either 
by Biorn of Skardsa, or one of Bishop Thorlak Skulason's scribes) 
into ten books, which begin and end quite haphazard, -and Írre- 
spective of subject or Saga. The references at the top of the pages 
in our text will permit a ready comparison with the old edition 
which followed the former numeration — the first figures mark volume 
and pages, ihe second IxMjks and chapters. 

With the first three Sagas (i, u, ni) the Editor's task was easy ; 
they were simply separated and renumbered. But with the paralíel 
Sagas after the preface, which were intertwined, chapter between 
chapter, it was more difficulL However, as already noticed, it was 
possible, following a stríct and sciendfic method (for to have done 
so on theoretical grounds would have been unjustifiable), to eliminate 
according to AM. 657 the Saga of Priesl Gudmund (iv), this left 
Gudmund Dyri's Saga (v) in its eniirety, so that il had oniy to be 
renumbered and placed afler Príest Gudmund's'. Then the elimi- 
nation of tfae latter left the beginning of the Islendinga (vn) free 
and clear from all extraneous matter. 

> The iwiil of Sag43 in vdlumi ii Ihm— Chapi. 1-14 of Gndmdnd D]!ii (t) 
are insmed betwtni chipi. 14 ind 15 of Piiett Gudmund (Ir), vol. i. p. 107, and 
thc leil between chipi. 16 ind 17, vol. i. p. 109, And agiin, cláps. 1-17 of lilend- 
iiigi (vii) aie inseited bctween chipi. \g and 30 (i. 113) cf Priest Oudmuud; opoa 
wbich fdlaws the end of Priest Gudmuud, chaps. 10-14 '• ''>'" '''' lilendingi Saga, 
chapi. iS tqq.; and now all rnni ilnight, till after ch. 36 of Iilendinga cliapi. Il-M 
of Úrafn (vi) aie again inKried. 



The Codex ResenUniis, a beautiTuUy wrítten MS. (AM. 399) from 
which the text of the Saga of Priest Gudmund in Biskupa Sö^ur is 
derived, is a tnost curíous instance of the mechanical kind of work 
done by the compilers, It contains inserCiona from the Islendinga, 
from Aroa's Saga ; aod even into the piece of Aron's Saga which 
it borrows, it ' supei-inserts,' so to say, stuðing in scraps of chapters 
47 and 49 of the Islendinga, besides various Annals. It is, however, 
lucky that this compilation was made, for it has preserved part of 
Aron's Saga which has perished in the sepaiate copies of that work. 
The foUowiiig stray chapters, or bits of chapters, of the Islendinga 
are embodied in Codex Resenianus — chaptersiS; 20-33; 24-30; 
32-36 ; 41, 42 ; 48, 60, 67, 81, 86, 87, 93, 97, 102, 103, where ihe 
velliim breaks off (see foot-note, vol, i. p, 326), 

Further on in Islendinga Saga the latter part of Hra/ns Saga fvi), 
in an abridged form, was inserted after chapter 36 of Islendinga (see 
foot-note, vol.i.p. 228). Thishas been taken out and printed sepa- 
rately (vi), while the unabrídged text of it which exista separalely 
bas been printed as an appendix. When such insertions as this 
were made, tbe cbapters of the oríginal work, which covered the 
same ground, were cut ouC and diaappear, And so it has lieen 
here. But the scribe of Codex Resenianus must have had a copy of 
Islendinga Saga before hím in whích this insertion had nol been 
made, for he bas kept a little chapter which exacdy fiUs up tbe 
place now taken by Hrafns Saga. It haa been accordingly prínted 
bere in its proper order (as ch, 37, see foot-note, vol, i. p. 228). 

Unfoitunalely in the next place tn which an insertion is made 
when Svinftllinga Saga (ch, 315) is put in, the blaok cannot be so 
filled up. It has therefore been retained as ch. 213 (it, 83-99), ^"^ 
this chapter has been numbered into sub-chapters, by wbich it may 
be quoted, 

ThoTgils Skardi's Saga (t, s,), which begins in ch, 331 and goes 
on at intervals till the last piece which occurs in 323', was by 
Sturla hiraself, unlike the former works, and therefore does not 
clash Ín style with the rest, while it preserves a more minute 
account (ihough abridged in places) than the oríginal Islendinga 
probably gave, It is only found m vellum A. It has therefore 
been retained in the text, but in the foot-notes wiil be found 
leferences to tbe MSS. on this head, 

As to tbe end of the Saga, the only alteration of any signification 
that we have made from the text, as in the transcripcs of the 
A class (tbe vellums being here wanting), is the transposition of the 
episodes in cbaps. 328, 319. In the MSS. tbey stand immediately 
before ch. 339, breaking off the story of Sturla. This episode was, 

■ The foUawíng cbipten of tbe Islendinga belang to Imrgili Saga. and tn 
íCOTtdinglj ibttnt in Cod. B — áapt. aai-151, 164, j6g, Jjí, »77-189, »93-315, 
318. la cli. 319 (iL 153) Cod. B bccaki oiF, and tlie paper lianscripti of A aud B 
■like are 1 fuion of both texu ; bnt the conteit cleirly ihowi that chaps. 310-31^ 
wíod ap þorgilt gigi, aiid cuiiiðt ia.n becQ ÍD B. 


tx PROLEGOMENA. § 19. 

we think, for Temarks of Biom of Skardsa Índicate so much, only 
found in vejlmn B, from where it was ingerted, and in a wrong place, 
into the transcripta of A. Probably it is not written by Sturla, but 
by some partisan ofEarl Gizur. For other extraneous episodes, see 
the dream-stories, ii. 319—221, foot-nole ; as also i. 3B1-383, foot- 
note; both only found in B. Further, the letter in ch. 31. Sturia 
seems not to have bad any great leaning for deeds or charterg; see 
also thc strange episode in ii. 243, foot-notc, 

In vol. ii. p. 397 will be found a chapter which has always in tbe 
paper copies been annexed to Sturlunga. There are only two 
texts of Sturlunga, A and B, and their two versions of the incidents 
related in Ihis chapter may be distinguished. From whom then 
could this third independent account be derived i On comparing 
it with Hakon'a Saga, ch. 318, in che abridged text of Fris-bók, and 
with Flaiey-book, vol. iii. pp. 314-215, the Editor infeired that an 
early copyist of Sturlunga must have had Hakon's Saga before him, 
and also that the Hakon's Saga he knew was ihe original fvil iext 
from wbich the Fiatey-book and Fris-bók abridgmcnts were de- 
rived. When the fu!I text of [he Saga was found and ezamined at 
Stockholm (in July-Aug. 1874), this conjecture was proved true. 
To complete this ediiion and enable readers to compare it for 
Ihemselves with the other versions, tht chapter has been printed aa 
an appendix. 

One more alteration has been made. The Genealogies have 
been put in their proper place at the head of the Islendinga Saga, 
the whole being now arranged thus : — 

ii2i|pi:: 1 :ig- 

CH. 215 T.S. 

ITie Hislory 0/ Ihe Sturlunga Uxl in a/ler iimts begins vith 
the statement of Sturla's editor in the preface. Nezt in order 
come the quotations embodied in ihe Codez Resenianus c. 1300, 
and the citations of the Miracle-trook c. 1320, and of Amgrim 
c. 1345. given above. After this time, with a single exception, 
there is unbroken daikness covering Sturla and his work for 300 
years. Arí had been clean forgotten, Snorri had become a mere 
name, andnowSturia toosunkintooblivion. Einar Fo3tri(c. 1450), 
the author of Skiða-Rima, does indecd know Slurlu Saga, but thia 
we take for several reasons to have been the separate and un- 
abridged copy, not the one now included ín Sturlunga. 

It is in one of the many sets of Annals, that marked L and M 
in the big edition, that we find citations and notices from the Isltnd- 
inga (referring to the battle of Orlygstad, quoting the ditly ' Loptr 
er f Eyium '), ch. 44, 4c. The very vellum, whicb the compiler of 
ihe Annals had before him, may be idendfied, for he quotes from 
Bishop Arni's Saga, which is only found ío vellum A. If this be 



so, the eitd of Bishop Ami's Saga was still, in the compiler's days, 
to be found in A, from which it is now missin^, for there are one 
or two entríes in the Annals that musc come from the lost part 
of Arni's Saga. One of these is printed here {vol. ii, p, 475), 
and refers to the eniption and earthquakes of 1294, noticing the 
appearance of new Geysers in the South of Iceland, and the dis- 
appearance of ones that previously existed. The second refers to 
the destruction of the cathedral of Skalholt in 1309 '. 

With the exception of this anonymous annalist, writing c. 1580, 
no one had heard of the Sturlunga till tbe two copies, A and B, 
were unearthed and copied c, 1640. Forinstance, \6n EpilssCT i. 
writing Lives of Biahops under the cye of the learned and áHi- 
quarían Bishop Odd in 1606, knows nothing about Eishop Amí 
- tíie First, ' um hann e^ki parit.' 

In the Crymogæa, 1609, the leamed Amgrim . whose industiy 
and Íngenuity are alike remarkable, where he gives a lial of LaW' 
men, puts to the year 1251 ' Sturla SÍghvatzson,' thus confounding 
Sturla the Historian wilh his cousin, and giving the speakership to 
one who had then been in his grave for thirteen years. ^lagnus 
Olafeson again, who died in 1636, gives negative evidence bý 
ömitting all menrion of Sturla or his verses in his list of poets and 
coUections of poetry. Biorp of Skardsa , too, in his earlier essays 
(1626-40), makes not the slightest allusion to any part or parcel of 
Sturlunga. And even when the vellums A atid B were being 
copied, T 6n Gizursson {died 1647), though an historian himself, 
and other copyists mistake the names of auch well-known charac- 
ters as Sighvat Sturlason, the great favourite of all readers of Smri- 
unga, tuming the vellum abbreviation ' Sgh,' or ' Sh.' into ' Sighurd ' 
(i.e. Sigurd), the Norse fonn then in fashion, 

5 20, Sturla's Contekporaries. 
Olaf Þordaxson Hvitaskald (the While Poet), so called to 
distinguish him from a contemporary of the same name, also a 
poet, a dark man, sumamed Oiaf the Black Pœl. He waa the 
elder brother of Sturla, and appears to have been a quiet, studious 
man, of mild and gentle characcer and weak health : of his life 
something Ís told in the Islendinga, from which we also gather that 
he was in orders, and that he went abroad or stayed at King Wal- 
dimar II's court, a visit to which he himself alludes in his gram- 
matical work (Third of the Skalda Treatises), where he speaks of 

> Ijog. Brann kirkji 1 SkUhollli, er Herri Ami bjikap þocliluKm hini aön lilið, 
th iDÍÍclnm hlnt nm aótlina fjric Ptii-mestu ; bana biri LaDgardig. Og ao UyndDm 
Oufii ddmi laDiI leifi ilöpulinn með elldingDm þ4 itjami nr i luitri mcS tv4 miklu 
megni. aS kiikjan, hiiran, ilöpullinn, t>t albninnit Ur ■tiaina var í lind-iufirí. ]m 
bmnnn bzkr Hcilar nema itjaa beitu böklar (tic). þir brunna bxkr (brikr?), 
bagkr, ok meunkliEði, klukkur, olc kitlur, kanlan-kápai.ljold Öli, með-bdEkiaT- 
klzíam ; mikit i rekkju-búnaði, lalnn ok blzjur. ^r týndui 14 liUr-boUai, ok 
margir dyrgripii, bxfti i gdli ok btendu liirri. ok margta manna eignii. Um vkrit 
vac beSit nm allt liland lii uppreiitar kirkjuuni ; itúAj þir miigir vd undir. Heio 
Jómndr byikup gaf olt epÍKopalia. 


cxii PROLEGOMENA. § at. 

the mnemonic vords nhicb the Ðanish King invented for the 
Runes. He is the only Icelander known to have wrítten about 
Runes, having, as he says, received his infonnation from his ' Mastcr, 
King Waldimar.' In one of onr vellQmB of the Third Treatise 
(AM. 557) the Runic chapter has been left out. It might therefore 
be supposed that Olaf had only interpolated the work of an older 
r7 grammarían, and that the text of ^57 were the original treatise 
. and not his. This theory however is inadmissible, Both texts, 
lYi AM. I57 as well as 748 and Cod. Worm,, contain the verses cited 
/ f from Snorrí. Olaf must therefore have interpolated the work of a 
contemporar}'; but the identity in style and diclion preclude any 
tbought of ihis being the case. We fake the fact to be, eíther tbat 
the chapter on the Runes was wrítten separately, and later inserled 
, \'t by himself, or that the scribe of Í57 simply omitted the chapter on 
, '/ account of the strange matter, Tor Ihe Icelanders seem to have 
taken but a scant interest in Runes. Olafs home was Stafholt, 
Snorri's second estate, and where he oflen resided. He was 
therefore much with Snorrí. He was Lawman 1248-50 and again 
in 1252. (See especially Islendinga, chaps. 256, 257.) Besides the 
work above mentioned, which is principally founded on Priscian 
and Donatus, an account of the figures of speech and illustrated 
by Icelandic verses, of which he quotes about 140 specimens, 
those of hls iincle Snorri being the latest,' he is known to have 
composed poetry, of which the Skalda epilogue-wríter has pre- 
served several specimens'. We may perhaps also fancy him to 
have edited the Prose-Edda, fumishing the prologues and epi- 
logues thereto, which are certainly the work of a book-leamed 
man, such as we know him to have been. The Third Skalda 
Appendix, however, is the work of a still later hand. The final 
ediiing and compiling of Skioldunga may also be his work, His 
intimate acquainiance with Snorri and probable knowledge of what 
part of Ari's Ðanish Kings' Lives was in Snorri's possession perhaps 
Btrenglhen this conjecture. He died at Stafholt in 1259, aged 
about fifty years. It was for his poetical gifl that he, like his 
kinsmen Snorri and Siuila, was chiefly famous in his own time. 

§ 21. filOGRAPHŒS. 

Tbe works treated in this chapter assume a new and distinct 
form, that of Biographies ; though it is still in the Saga form that 
they are written, their contents and spirít are very difi'erent. They 
are far more mediæval in type and thought, and nearly all of them 
are by clerks. They are very interesting as exact portraits of 
the time drawn from life, and give much valuable materíal to the 
historían and the sociologist, from their fidelity in descríbing con- 
temporary evenls, and even their faults are on the right side, (heir 


|2r. BIOGRAPHIES. cxiu 

occasíoiial pro»DeGS and the absence of poetry, of legend, and 
tradition, the supematural element being merely ihe belief of the 
day, recorded as it manifested itself co ihe biographer. Tbeie 
is not a vestige of archæology about tbem; they are always 
Tranchement de leur siécle.' 

They fall naturaJIy into two groups — the Lives of Bishoþt arid 
the Lives e/ Champions — but the line between them is more one of 
subject than spirít (Hrafo b as much a saint as Gudmund himself), 
and ihe only true champion of the old Saga type treated of, though 
even he is a rvthful soidier of onhodoxy, is Aron, 

Most of these stories, both of Bisbops and Laymen, came to 
pass before the time of Slurla, between the years iri8-i2i3, 
beginning a century afler the true Saga'time, and ending at the 
birth of Stiu'la. Two are conteroporary with Sturla : Arotíí Saga 
and Svinfellinga: iwo are later, the Lives oíAmi and Lawrence. it 
was of course of the first group that the preface writer is thinking 
when he tallcs of ihe Sagas which happened before Bishop Brand's 
deathhavingbeen committed to writing before Sturlabegan to wríte. 

Or these works, ihe Life of Bishop Faul is a model biography, 
in which the book charms us even more than the subject, as in 
tbe Life of John Stirling ; that of Bishop Ami ís of the greatest 
historical importance; the Saga of the Svinfellinga is the moBt 
patbetic ; and the biography of Bishop Lawrence, the ' last of the 
Sagas,' the roost enlertaining of all. 

We shall take first the secular Lives, which are the older, 
DOticing them one by one, as has been done above with the 
older Sagas of the heroic days ($ 9). 

GsntMintD Hzllskih's Saqa (I. voI. l pp. 1-7) does not really 
belong to this series at all, It is merely a family legend of the old 
type, put down at a later period by Tbord of Skard, as has been 
Etated above. 

The Saga of Thobgils and Haflidi (11, vol. i. pp. 7-ai of this 
edition), iii8-ai. This litile story is only found iu Sturlunga, 
in an abrídged state there can be little doubt, as we know how 
ihe StuiJunga editor acted towards Hrafn and Gudmund's Sagas, 
where we have the fuli text 10 compare with his contracted form, 
t»it it has not apparenlly suffered much from the process. If the . 
words, before alluded to, on p. 38, I. 9, ' at þvi sem mik minnir J be 
reLed on, as it is reasonable to suppose they may, this Saga, which 
is of a more archaic type than tlie rest, should be of the chird 
quarler of the twelfth cenlury. The passage in ch. ao, p. 28, 1. 33, 
which would make it as late as Bishop Magnus, who died ^237, 
must be an interpolation, and is simply an indication of the age of 
the MS. which the Sturlunga, compiler used, Analogous instances 
occur in Krístni Saga and Fostbríedra Saga. The story is con- 
cerned with the quarrels beiween two great chiefs, Thorgils of the 
West and HaHÍdi of the North, which grow more and more biiter. 


cjiiv PROLEGOMENA. { Ji. 

till they nearly end in a civíl war. The interposítion of good priest 
Keiil aml the chivalry of Haflidi at last brought about a reconcilia- 
tion, with which the story ends. Ketil's touching stoiy (ch. s^) 
where he pleads for peace, ihe account of the Banquet of Reyk- 
holar (ch. lo), the introduction of such historical persons as Bishop 
Thorlak, Arí's friend, and Sæniund the Historian, and the great 
scene on the Alihing, which may be compared wilh the finer 
account of similar events in Nial's Saga, are the chief points which 
make the Saga worthy of altenrion. 

Sturla Saga (III. vol. i, pp. ^0-85), rigo-83. After a break 
of about thirty years, Ihe history of part of the next generation 
ís told in the biography of Sturla, ihe founder of the great family 
which was to play such an important part in Icetandic History. The 
first parl of the story tells of the rise of Sturla and his rivalry withEinar 
Thorgilsson, whom hc had, as it were, supplanted, taking away bis 
clients and becoming the greatest man in the district, Einar was 
a worthless son of a worthy father, securíng his en^s by violence 
and brulality; but his rival was a man of a very different kind — coot, 
ambitious, scheming, cunning, and setf-seeking, with all Ihe quali- 
ties which were necessary to command succe^s in the patfa he had 
marked out for himself ; a good judge of men, of admirablc aelf- 
control, ready decision, quick humour, and antíring perseverance'. 
And so lÍLtle by little Sturía, who, though of a fair f^mily, was not 
one of the arislocracy of the island, raised himself step by step tiU 
he became rich and powerful, and was able to ally himself with the 
grea.est chief and to marry into the best family in Iceland. 

Thc contest wiih Einar ends in the fight on the Heath (1171), 
in which he completely crushes his adversary. The second part 
of ihe story deals wiih ihe most famous case of the time of tbe 
Deildaritingu-mal, a ' cause célfebre,' Sturla was talking over a 
matter of dispute with priest Paol of Reykjaholt, when Paul's 
wife, enraged at — what she considered— his chicanery and double- 
dealing, nished upon him and stabbed him in the face. He kept 
his temper and passed it over lightly, bul Paul was frightened and 
gave him seif-doom, i. e. the right of himself appointing the com- 
pensation he consídered due lo him for the insult and injury. But 
generosiiy was not part of Slurla's character, and his demands 
nere so extravagant, that after awhile a second arbitratíon was 
agreed on, and Sturla'iigave up his right to Jðn Loptzson, the 
greate?t chief in Iceland, who gave a fair award (1181), and to 
please Sturia took his son Snorri into fosterage with him. Sturla 
died two years after, at the age of aixty-eight. Tbe Saga is very 
unequal, parts of the first half are repulsive and monotonous, but 
the last half is vcry good, and with more of humour in it than any 
other Saga of ihe Silver Age, That it is the same atory as the Stock- 

■ Thc 'biiii niot' of BUhop Brind, toI. Í. p. 84,!. 17, Einginn maBr Mt þíi 
Titz CD ineirr end grunaSr um gzzkn, 'lhy hcad ii good cnougb, but thj heinr 
[BJnU the nun— a MachiaTcl. 


§ar. BIOGRAPHIES. cxv 

holm fly-Iear mentiona is undoubced ; ihe letters ' Slnrla' isaga.' can 
stand for uothing else, — the orAy possible ultima.te, ' Sturlaug ' being 
a modern form for ' Styrlaug '.' From the fact that the author of 
Skfðarima knew the anonymous beggar's name (ch. n), one would 
contend tbat he had known an unabridged test of the Saga. Our 
uníque one in Sturlunga is evidently a little cut down in places. 
That che author was a man who lived not tong after the events he 
recounts ia clear : he probably wote it about the end of the century, 

GuÐUUND Dyki's Saga {V, voL i. pp, 1*6-74), 1185-1100, A 
rough bloody story of the same type as Jomsvikinga, telling; of the 
life and feuds of a great chief in Eyjafirth. A dispute about an 
Ínberitance begun the strife wich which the whole Saga is caken up. 
Teic, a rich man, goes abroad for a far joumey. One night at a 
great feast, while his wife is serving her gueats, she sees him sitting 
Banquo-like in his seat in the hall ; but he was visible to no one 
else ; she was so troubled that she could noC go on with ber work, 
and now feeling convinced that her husband was dead, she gets 
divorced from him, and his goods were divided. At last the news 
came that he bad died Che day and hour when his ghost had ap- 
peared Co her. Tbe law questions arísing out of tbis complí- 
catioQ itnd the division of property, bring on all the trouble. 
There is a dreadful case of fire-raising (May 7th, 1197), in which 
Onund perishes; this central incident gave the tiUe by which the 
whole Saga is quoted on the oft-mentioned Stockholm fly-Ieaf by 
the name of Önandar-bTðnna Saga. Jón Loptzson acts as umpire 
for the lasC time in chis case aC che Althin^, dying Nov. i that 
Bame year. AnoCher scene of bmCalicy and heroism, Che slaughter 
at Laufás, occurs in 1 1 98. The close of the Saga is abmpt, Gud* 
mund retires into a cloister, but his end is not told. The Annals 
recoid his deaCh in laia. The Saga is, we chink, abrídged in its 
present shape; there is unhappily no oCher texL 

Hrafii STembioTnsson sága (VI. vol. ii. pp. a^g, 311, and 
vol. i.pp. 175-87), 1190-1213, Thebiographyofaveryremarkable 
man, s chief in the West, by a friend who wished, as he says, 
to pay a pious tribute to the memory of one who was not righdr 
honoured in bis life, and who had fallen unavenged at a traitor ■ 
hands. Hrafn's accomplishments are recounted ; his skiU in armB 
and archery ; his knowledge of surgery and leechcraft ' for which 
he would take no fee ; ' his acquaintance with the practical crafls, 
carpenCering, building, smithing, wood carving, and the like ; hi> 
excellent seamanship ; his skÍU ín song ; and hís noble qualities 
of mind, forbearance, courage, hospilality, and, above all, the 
generosity and greaUiess of soul, which cost him his life, are as 
lovingly set forch. Telling first of Hrafn's travels, his fríendship 
witb Gudmund, and especially his pilgrimage to Canterbury, where 

' aenilÍTei in tf. i, c. 9. » Savpr, ire raj fiequcnt 1n MSS. of (hit tímc, ttw 
bc^nniDg or thc fbiiiteentli ccnlui7. Thc 'doti' t>cforc »11 iftcr wnnlt arc ■!» 
IrciÍBaat iu MS. •pdling (ice f, cxiii). 


cxv! PROLEGOMENA. í ar. 

he presented to St Thomas' ahríne a carven nanvhale's tusk, which 
he had vowed if the saint would help hira to secure the fish, Tbe 
whole Saga has been preserved in two separate vellums, Codex 
Academicus, lost in 1728, but preserved in paper tranacripis, and 
AM- 557 (the preface only in the latter) ; the Íatter part is also in 
an abrídged form, as already noticed, inserted in Islendinga. The 
feuds between Hrafn and the base Thorwald of Vatzfiord occupy 
the whole of this half. Twice Hrafn foils Thorwald in attempts 
on his life, gets him into his power and forgives him ; the ihird 
time Thorwald captures Hrafn, and slays him without pily, March 
4, 1213, and the story ends in 1215. As the wríter deplores ihe 
* prosperíly of the wicked,' we may be cerlain thal be wrote -his 
book before the nemesis overtook Thorwald and his family in 
iaz8, when he was bumt to death on a journey by his enemies, 
who had indeed little cause to show pity to one who never felt 
it himself. The tragedy of Hrafn's death and the loving venera- 
tion of his biographer give this Saga, which has a distinct style 
of íts own, a very living interest. It was first published in Biskupa 
Sögur by.the present Editor. Il is now given in App. I. in a litllc 
emended and corrected form '. 

Aron HjörleiAeoii's 8aga (App. II. vol. ii. pp. 312-47)- 
A fine dashing story of a dauntless champion and ouflaw, a 
man who in his strength, recklessness, and generosity recalls the 
heroes of the old days, Gisli Sursson, and the like, He was of 
the band of Bishop Gudmund in his exile and misfortune in 
Malmey ; and wilh his kinsman Eyjolf, the most chivalrous of men, 
led the famous raid to Holar, crossing the sea in a gale during 
the night of the ^th of Febr. 1222, surprísing the homestead, 
slaying Turai, Sighvat's eidest son, and returning in triumph to 
the bishop. But the vengeance of the Sturlungs burst upon the 
bishop and his adherents. Sighvat and Sturla attacked them 
in Grimsey, where they had sought a safer refiige than Malmey. 
Eyjolf and Aron make a splendid fight of it, but the lalter falls, 
is left for dead by his enemies, and only savcd by the self-sacrífice 
of his kinsman Eyjolf, who loses his own life. Now Aron's life 
as an outlaw begins, his numerous hair-breadth escapes are thril- 
lingty told, especially at Walshamrí. At last Aron goes abroad, 
is we!l received everywhere, travels far and wide (10 Palestine even), 
and at last ends hís life in Norway, no oudaw now, but a favourite 
and benchman of King Hakon, who himself spoke these words 
over his grave, which sum up his character and life in a very 
perfecl way : ' 'This man Aron, our henchman, was a great traveller, 
very well tried in all manner of danger, and one that hatb oHen 
stood in peril of his life ; and we will give our judgment on him 

' Onc chipler of onr Sigi bu been inierted in the Mincle-booii: of Biihop 
OndniDiid. in Bitkupa Sugar, and hu rumiitief) help io fiiing the preicnt teit. A 
tew aiKndilioni hare been mide to IhB edilioa of 1S5S, e. g the iijiiig in p. 176, 
1. II. Tbe laj'ing in p. iGa, 1. 14. we hare not U fet tieeD ible to deac up. 


§ 31. BIOGRAPHIES. otvii 

in a. word,* says th« king, ' that in losing him we have lost the 
best swordsman of a.11 our Thanes.' 

In the seventeenth century there was one very illegible vellum, 
with a blank in it, from which a poor copy was taken. Of this 
vellum only fivc leaves reached Arni Magnusson (AM. 551); on 
these, as far as ihey go, our teit is founded (ch. ri, p. 333 to 
the end). For the rest the paper copies, and Codex Itesetuamis, 
which is of the greatest use, for it supplies the blank which was in 
the vellum. As noted above, however, the Codex text is interpo- 
lated with insertions from Islendinga, most of which are removed 
in thc teit (see the foot-note to pp. 314-20). Thereis one point 
to mention, which may be useful to future editors. The text as 
printed, following here mainly Resenianus, puls ' Fær ok . . . . 
fundi lúki,' p. 3ÍI, II. 7, 8, wrongly as 9. riflcxion of the wriler. 
From fl^t one can see in the confused paper copies they are 
right in putting it as a speech of Eyjolf haranguing his men, to 
which it should have been altered in our test. \Ve cannot guess 
at the author of this Saga ; Aron's younger brother Olaf, the 
Augustine Abbot of Helgafell, who outlived his brother forty-five 
years, dying in ^302, may have had something to do wíth it. 

STÍnfellmga Saga, or the story of the sons of Orm (ch, 315, 
vol. ii. pp. 83-99), «248-5*. Orm Jónson was a noted chief of 
the famous Svinfeil family, the brother of Brand, the Augustine 
Abbot of Thykkvabse (see pedigree, ii. 495), and afÍerwards Bishop 
of Holar, known as the author of Gydinga Sögur. Their sister 
Steinun was marríed to Ogmund, a neighbouring wealthy franklin. 
Orm died on his return from the Allhing, Sept. 5, 1241, leaving 
three sons, Sæmund, Gudmund the younger, whom Ogmund and 
Steinun took in fosterage, and Orm, bom afler his falher's death. 
As the brothers grew up, Ogmund, an ambitious man, seems to 
have been wishing to gct the family chieftaincy into his own hand, 
but they resisied this, and a fierce quarrel arose. Sæmund was a 
proud, reckless young fellow, and at last he made a raid upon 
Ogmund, and carried off his cattle and fumiture, which stung Og- 
mund ihe deeper, as he was a careful and notable husbandman. 
Other insults foUowed, but by the influence of Sleinun and Brand 
the matter was patched up. And Steinun obtfuned from God by 
ber prayers that there should no bloodshed happen in her life. 
When she died (^oth March, 1*53) it was as if his good angel had 
left Ogmund, his fierce and gloomy temper overpowered him, and 
a fortnight after (r^th April) the sighl of the brothers' riding by 
goaded him to relenlless wfath ; he laid an ambush for them, cap- 
tured them, and in spitc of the poor bo/s, his foster-son's, appeal 
for mercy slew them both. When the deed was done, Ogmund 
repented, and by Brand's intervention the blood-revenge was 
Biayed, heavy pcnallies were imposed on Ogmund, and he was 
dríven from the district. The posthumous son of Onn, who bore 
his father's name, succeeded to the chieftaincy of the family, and 


csviii PROLEGOMENA. § ". 

bccame, when he grew up, a great man jn the East of Iceland. 
The Saga is especially interesting, as it fumishes us wiih some 
account of tbe East, genealogies, &c., of which, as ibe political 
interests of che Sturlung times lie wholly in the other quarCers, 
little would otherwise be known. The text is only found in Islend- 
inga. If there be any abridginent it is very slight'. 

Thokgils Seaxdi (vol. ii. pp. 104 sqq., chaps. az i sqq., see above), 
1353-61. Something has been said already abouC this Saga, 
but as it distinctly belongs to the class of whicb we are now 
treating, a brief account of ic musC be given here. It is a highly 
romancic atory of the too brief career of ihe greatest hero of the 
third generation of the Scurlungs, the son of Bodvar, Sturla's half- 
brother. It opens with scenes from his youch, and tells of his 
Btay in Norway, wfaich is the more noteworthy, as we find therein 
pictures of private life in that country (as the Yule feast in the 
bomestead at Sogn, some notices of Cown life, Scc), such as ihe 
Kings' Lives do not give, conceming ihemselves, as they do, 
only with court life. ThorgHs altracts the nolice of ihe king, 
who admired his high courage, his proud bearing, and chivalrous 
behaviour, and at last, in August 1352, he was sent to Iceland 
as his commissioner to administer that part of the country where 
Snorri had but lately ruled. This at once threw him into opposi- 
tion to his family, and the surprise of Stafholt (Dec. líga) and 
his capture, when be was only let go on taking an oath to abjure 
the king's party, However his duty to the king overrode this 
enforced obligation ; but a reconcihation was bTougbt about, and 
a modus vivendi agreed on. On igth July, 1255, at the batde of 
Thverá, he crushed the Burners, who, noC content wich their suc- 
cess at Flugumyri, had slain Gizur's locum tenens, Odd Thoraiins- 
6on. It was at the instigation of Thorward Odd's brother tbat 
Thorgils took up the caae. After this he moved to the Norch, and 
was ackuowledged for the rest of his Ufe as practically ruler of 
Iceland. Thorward now began to hate him as overshadowing 
his own power in the East, and at last slew the young hero by 
treason, Jan. za, 1258. With the suit that follows the Saga ends. 
It is mosi minutely told, and the character of Thorgils is evidently 
one chat bis biographer greacly loved and admired. Sturla's aim- 
plicity of style and avoidance of archaism has been noticed ; it 13 
curious however that in this one Saga several archaisms occur 
(balldraz; sallaðr, Fr, sallade, here used of a hayrick ; heljunar- 
maðr, a patron saint, &c.) This may be due to Sturla's informant 
having used them in telling him part of the slory, for they are all 
in that portion of it which Sturla himself could not as eye-witneBs 

' SteinuD and her biothei Onn, the fatber af the two brothcTi. weie the chililren 
of TÍiori the íMer of ihe raimige diilogue jldend. ch. 16, lee ihe Icdindic Reider, 
p. 319). And » thi( Iraged^ too, one miy thiiik, wii loomÍDg in thi ditk future, 
■nd ruliiig the two »i«er»' fite. The eldtr Thor» becinie Ihe mothei of Eífl Qiiur, 
of hapleu meinory. How diffeient the file of Iceland might hiire been if the huibandi 
had been leTened, *iid Thora tbe '^axn^ ' bad mutied J<ofai, QO on« ciD tell. 


§ ai. BIOGRAPHIES. cxix 

have supplied. There is also a lack öf artisUc balance in the con- 
stniction, which would lead one to think that we bave here an early 
work of Sturla. The Edilor's belief is, that Sturla first wrote a 
bio^raphy of Thorgils as a scparate work, and that it was not tiil 
afterwards that he fonned his plan of making a general chronicle, 
as it were, of his own days. In Cod. B of Sturlunga Thorgils S-iga 
is absent, and he plays only a subardinate part, ihe main thread of 
die etoiy being bound up wíth Gizur, The Sturlunga edítor, when 
he put the wbáe togetber aíter Sturla's death, cul up Thorgils' Life 
and wove Ít in among the contemporary chaptera of Islendinga, as 
giving a fuller acconnt of many eventa there slightly touehed on. 
And so we have it in Cod. A. It vould be almost possible to 
reconstract the separate Saga of Thorgtls. But as it would weaken 
that part of Islendinga very mucb, it has been left iu the text in 
this edition, Two leaves of the separate Thorgih Saga have lately 
tumed up in Norwa}' in a bad state ; they have been collated, 
tbotigh the text they give is a iittle inferior to the onc we have. 
These are from an Icelandic vellum of the fourteenth ccntury (see 
voL iL pp. iiS-ai, the foot-notes). 

Thk Biogkafhies 07 THE BiSHOPS are of two kinds, of enlirety 
distinct oiigin. The íirst the Uiraole-booka, which we find in ihe 
MSS., as in the case of St. Olaf of Norway and St. Magnus of Ork- 
ney, tacked on to the large Lives of tfae Saints wbo are the subjects 
of them. Tbey were used as lessons in the Service of the Saini's 
day, and were continually added to as fresh miracles were per- 
formed The first in Iceland is of course that of Bishop Thorlak 
of Skalhoit, the earliest lcelandic saint, the oldest MS. of which 
(AM. 645) dates from c. izoo. There are other less excellent 
recensions (see prefacc to Biskupa Sögur, vol. i, Copenh, 185S, 
by tbe prcsent Editor, where they are all printed). Those of John 
of Holar are only found in the MSS. which also contain bis Life, 
of which something wiU bc said below. The miracles of these 
two bishops took place afier tbeir death, but in the case of thc 
tbird Icelandic sainC, Gudmund of Hohr, vcry few wonders 
happened when he was dead, his mighty works and sanctity were 
acknowledged during his life-time. Indeed, till about eighty years 
ai^his dcath, whcn there was a kind of revival of his cult , his memory 
was not a very blessed one, for the continual strifes tn which he was 
mized up had still left their traces in many men's minds ; but at 
this date all these feclings were forgotten, and a coUection of his 
miracles was made with the view of getting bis sanctity oiTicially 
recognised in Norway (the other two saints had received their 
^faonours by a kind of universal suffrage at the Althing per unani- - 
Diitatem populi in 1198 and 1200 respectively). Tbe composer 
laments the written collectanea, made by the bishop's fricnds, 
which perisbed in tbe firc that dcstroyed Laufás' church in 1258. 
This Miracle-book of about 1320 is preseived in AM. 657 (printed 


cxx PROLEGOMENA. § ai. 

< ÍD Biskupa Sögur, vol, i. pp. 559-618); here is found the famom 
ghosl siOTy of Sealhead (Selkolla), a sort of 'Grendel' monster 
which haunted Steingrim's firth and was laid by the bishop. 

Of the Biographers proper of the Bishops, first comes /Ae anmy- 

pums auihor of HungrTakli, or [he Lives of the first five Bishops ofíTi;. Skalholt (1056-1176). The auihor, whose name we should be 

' , . glad 10 know, was evidently a pious and truthful man, a cierk and 

'Aitj- 1> í/"*^ a resident at Skalholt, weil reád in the scriptures, and knowing 

^ti^oÁ. ^aMu^. Ari's Islendinga-bók. He tells us that he leamed much from 

- ,/• . ' 7 Gizur Hallson, whose life had been bound up with this see of 

'^ ■ Skalholt, and we must suppose it to have been written after 

- Gizur's death (July a^th, 1 206). The title ' Hunger-waker,' 

which he gives to his work, shows his intent, by telling what he 

v„' lí-4ujt knew of Ihe holy men he writes of, that peopie should be stirred 

.u-wf ^^ ^^ their example and seek to know more of them. 

To the same author we owe the Biography of SÍBhop Paol 
(Páls Bsga), (bishop ii^s-iaii.diedNov. 29, i3ii,)araodelbio- 
graphy of a model bishop ; it contains many idyllic scenes of home 
life. Having been, as he hints to us, of the bishop's household, his 
personal knowledge of his hero assures the fidelity oF his descrip- 
Uons and anecdotes. Both this and Hungrvaka came down to 
us in one velium, which tumed up about the end of the sisteenth 
centur}'. Its influence was very remarkable, for it roused Bishop 
Odd (of Skalholt, 1589-1630) and J6n Egilson the priest to try and 
complete and continue the history of the subsequent bishops in 
the same style, taking Hungrvaka as a model. To it therefore we 
owe our knowledge of the days of the Refonnation and of the Livcs 
of Odd Gottskalksson and many other men of worth and mark. 
Biahop Thorlaka Eaga(bom 1133, bishop 1178, dted Dec. 13, 
/r 1193), anentirely separate work though by thML same author, spoken 

of in the preface of Sturlunga, is well worthy to be sct beside the 
other two Sagas. Thorlak was indeed a very sainUy man, of a 
gentle womanly disposition, but very strict in his discipline, and 
ever ready to resist what he believed to be wrong. His early life 
was passed abroad ; be studied in Paiis, and Lincoln in England, 
which hc left in 1161. This was of course before any idca of 
Thomas-i-Becket'B sanctity had arisen, and destroys the idea 
tbat Thorlak could have brought any traditions relating to him to 
Iceland, This Saga was, we take it, writlen in Bishop Paul's life- 
time, and after the sanctity of Thorlak was declared. It exists in two 
MSS., in each of uhich the Miracle-book (founded on that which 
Bishop Paul read out to the Allhing as proof of Thorlak's super- 
natural power) ís affixed. But in one, AM. 383, which is based on 
a better text than the other one, there is a curious insertion, by 
a man living some fifty years later, who writes in a vigorous style, 
resembling that of Arni's Saga, with a preface. In the middle of 
the Saga £ere is inserted an ' Oddaverja þáttr ' (Biskupa Sögur, vol. i. 
pp. 380-93), contaíninganaccountofapartofBishopThorlak'sIife, 


§31. BIOGRAPHIES. cxxi 

which he complained the old biographer had overlooked, namely, 
hi9 political contesU and troubles. ^Vhen Thorlak fir^t became 
bishop, his beart was sel upon ihe plan which BiBhop Ami took 
up nearly a century later, the desecularizing of tbe glebes. Here 
he was brought face to face with the chiefs, Sigurd Ormsson of 
Ihe East, and Jón Loptzson of the South ; and hating strífe, and 
villlng if possible to live in charity wíth all men, he tumed hÍ3 
attention to the mental and moral condition of bis diocese, the 
concubinage, the besetting sii^f the time, and the like. But even 
here he t^d to encounter the redoubtable chief ]6a Loptzson, 
whose much-loved mislress Ragnetð was Ðishop Thorlak's own 
sister; and wben the bishop bade him put her away, the cbief 
threatened to quit the community of Christian men altogether, and 
take up his abode in Thorsmark, if he and Ragneifi were not left 
in peace. Here too Tborlak gave way protesting. The fmit of 
this forbidden union was Paul the Bishop (see above). There are 
Iherefore very evident and exceUent reasona -why the old biogra- 
pher, writing at the house and in the life-time of Bishop Paul his 
friend and patron, should glide lighily over such matters, in the 
treatment of which he must blame his father Jón and his motber 
Ragneiö, or else cxcuse tbem at his unde Thorlak's expense. 
Thc other MS. is Stockholm, No. 5. 

Biflhop John'B UíB (bom 1052, bishop 1106, died April 22, 
ii3i). Thia biography wich the sligbt eariy part of the Hungrvaka 
gives the first view of Icelandic life after the blank of fifty years which 
foUowed the old Saga-times. It testifies to great changes ; and its 
hero, Bishop John himself, was aC the head of the progressive move- 
ment, striving however to tura it into what he considered the right 
cbannel, building the scbool at Holar, c. iij6 ; laying the founda- 
tion to the famous Benedictíne cloister of Thingore ; introducing 
the best ecclesiastical music, of which he was very fond ; building 
new churches (it was so that hc employed Tborodd the gram- 
marian) ; changing the heatbcn names of the days ; but setting 
his face against such innovations as dancing, which had been 
lately introduced, and was a perfect rage for a time, much to 
the endangcring of good morals, and encouragement of light 
living. The bishop had travelled abroad in his youth with bis 
mother, and the legend wbich tells bow be saved his great friend 
Sæmund from his wizard master occurs among his adventures 
abroad. Once in Norway he saved the Icelandic colony by his 
'wise speech' from the anger of King Magnus Barefoot, which 
had been TDUsed by Gisli lilugisson, tbe poet, slaying a benchman 
of the king's in revenge for his fatber's murder. The Icelanders 
faad violemly rescued him from prison, and the King bad deter- 
mined to makc an esample-of them alL 

The North quarter of Iceland wished for a bisbop of their own, 
and Gizur was wilUng that it sbeuld be so ; hence a see was set up 
at Holar, and Jobn was clected ; he went to the newly set up arcb- 


cixii PROLEGOMENA. $ ar. 

btshop-stool in Lund to be consecrated by Ozur. The fríendship 
of John witb Sæmuiid and all the best men of his day, the excel- 
lent ÍDÍluence he had over his disdplcs, several of whom, as Klæng 
(afterwaids Bishop), fiiarni the Arítbmeúcían, and Abbot VilmuDd, 
became distinguished men, inspire much veneration for tbe ' musical 
schoolmaster;' and if a man is ever justi£ed in his works, surely 
he was. When the South had got their saint in 1198, the North 
cast about for one also, and who so fít as John? So nearly eighty 
yeare aí^r his death he too was m^e saint ' consensu populi ' at 
the Althing in 1 200. There are two MSS. of this Saga containíng 
different recensions: Stock. 5 and AM. 234, fragments (see Biskupa 
Sögur, vol. L pp. 150-360, where both texts are printed). A work 
of Gunnlaug the Benedictíne, written in Latin, was the origin of 
those two Lives, pp. 315-60. The chronology of all the Bishops' 
Ijves above mentioned foUow the ' Thingore System.' 

Of the succeeding Bishops of Holar, Kelil' (bishop 1123-45), 
Úie pious and noble friend of Ari (see Haflidi's Saga), Biom Gils- 
son (bishop 1145-56), also a pupil of John's Schooi, and Brand 
Sæmundsson (bishop 1163-1201), the shrewd old man who had 
Bomething to do with tbe religious Revival which niade Thorlak 
and John saints, a movement which Faul, his fellow-bishop, was 
noi nearly so eager about, — of none of ihese are Lives found In 
Ketil's case this is a real loss; one would wish for a ' Hungrvaka' 
telling of him. 

Gndiamd tlie Friest'e Saga (born Sept. 26, 1160, bishop 
laoa, died March 16, 1337) tells ihe life of Gudraund Arason up 
to his clection as bighop. This extraordinary man is one of ihe 
foremost characters of the Sturlung times, and he is mixed up with 
eveiy event of importance that took place in Jceland during his 
life. He came of a noble familyi(see pedigree, vol. ii. p. 493), 
'famous for long-lived, bandsome, and galiant men, and fair women. 
His falher Arí met death like a. hero in Norway, to save the life of 
£arl Erling, whose hencbman he was. Hís father's sister Ingi- 
biorg, tbe first wife of Sturla of Hvamm, was ihe most beautifid 
woman in Iceland. His fatber's brotber Ingimund, a great 
traveller and sailor, and a devoied scholar to boot, brought 
up ihe boy Gudmund after his father's deatb. Thc tuming-point 
of his life came when be was on a voyage wiih his uncle Ingimund, 
•— (he ship was wrecked near the Horn, and tbough Gudmund was 
saved, his legg were so lerribly crushed that he was lamed for 
life. The scene is well told in our Saga; the account after ihe 
Storm of Ingimund's anxious solicitude for the safely of bis book- 
box, rosbing to ít when it was found, and spreading out the books 
on the rocks to dry, is very arausing, for 'bis beart was with hb 
books.' Other voyages of ihis Ingimund are mentioned, especially 
his trading to England. His end was tenible; be was wreckcd 

' Bithop Ketil «u ■ git*x-giiaitoa ot Oiidmand Riki, of LÍoivetiiiDga, aad 
■ loa-iu-liw of Biihop Oiini (pniigneti rol. ii. p. 49>). 


§21. BIOGRAPHIES. cxxm 

on ihe deseits of Greenland (in 1189), and nothiiig was heard of 
him lill founeen yesjs after, when his ship and the frozen corpses 
of himseif and hii companions were found by accident. 

According to the notions of bis day, Gudmund being críppled 
was only fit for the priesthood, and he accordingly took orders ; 
bui he threw bimself into his new career with the whole zeal 
of his nature, and lived and dted as a true Wiking ; and although 
he was fighting under the Rood of the church, instead of the 
heathen Raven, he stniggled as Rercely in total disregard of odds, 
and was as incapable of giving way an ínch as any Jomswiking 
of old. Openlúnded waa he even in his straiteat poverty, 
cheerful in die face of the worst dangers, a bom leader of tnen, 
who could attract to him snch very different natures, as Aron's, 
Thord's, and Hrafn's, with a faith of the moat ardent kiod, amount- 
ing to actual superstition, and with a natural generosity of soul, 
bolh qualities which he shared witb the man he most resembled, 
St. Thomas of Canterbury ; but Gudmund also possessed what 
Thomas entirely lacked, a vivid and poetic imagination. 

The ascetícism, the fervour in prayer, the charity of the yoimg 
priest soon began to give liim the repntation of a very holy man ; 
his coríous consecratíons of wells and springs, for which he was 
soon very femous, and the raptures (probably epilepsy) into which 
he was occasionally cast, when it was said that his spirít appeared 
to people many miles away from the pUce where his empty body 
lay (on one occasion saving a man from the clutch of a giantess), 
íncreased this impression. He made circuits of the country, 
hallowing the watera and relieving the sick; it was on one of these 
that he visited Hvamm, and sat a guest at Snorrí's bridal (1200). 

Kolbein Tumason, a greai chief in the North, who had marríed 
his firsi cousin, entertained a high regard for him ; and when the 
tnshopríc of Holar fell vacant, managed to get it conferred on him. 
Being an ambitious man, there is also said to have been in Kol- 
bein's mind soœe idea that the new bishop, owing so much to 
him, would be under his thumb, and prove a usefiil fríend. But if 
he thought this, as Henry II Ís said to have done, líke Henry he 
was mistaken, as was very soon proved. Gudmund at first re- 
Bisted the proposal to ruse him to the episcopal stool with great 
eamestness, but his scruples were overniled, and be set oui to 
Norway for fais consecratíon. The letters passing between the 
chiefs in these negotiations are given tn our Saga, which enda here. 

The MSS., Codex Resenianus and AM. 657, and the way Ín 
which the Saga has been inserted into Sturlunga in bits have 
all been touched on above. The styie is striking and peculiar, 
which is seen even in the Sluríunga abridgment. The author is 
DOt known ; the Editor has guessed at Lambkar Gunsteinsson, later 
Abbot of He^afell (djed 1148Í It must anyhow have been wrítten 
duiing Gudmund'g bishopríc Vy one who was wiih him íd Iceland 
ÍD his arcuits when príest, but who díd not go ahroad with him. 


cxxiv PROLEGOMENA. $ ai. 

For this and other questions connected with the Saga, see pre&ce 
to Biskupa Sögur. 

The secoad part of Gudmiind's life must be gathered from 
Istendinga and from the cuiious collections of storíes which we 
have spoken of above. It will be perhaps as well lo sketch the 
end of his career, as it is one of the distinct Cbreads of lalendinga, 
and to take it here will prevent the short analysis whícb must be 
given of that great work from becoming (oo complicated. 

After a terrible voyage, in which his friend Hrafn's skill as a 
seaman saves the whole crew, he is consecrated and comes back 
to Iceland. His notorious lack of all sense of economy led to the 
appointment of a curator of the property of the see, and Sigurd 
Ormsson, an old friend of the bistiop, was given chis stewardshíp. 
But they did not pull well together, and troubies arose. But wlut 
brought roatters to a crísis was the bisbop claiming sole right of 
jurisdiction and punishment over a priest who had commiCted some 
atrocious crime. Kolbeín, his old palron, upheld the common law ; 
both wcre rigbt according to thcir several views, and neither would 
give way, and when Kolbein came to Holar to hold an executive 
court, he was slain by the blow of a stone (Sept. 9, 1208), a mani- 
fest judgment of God, as the bishop's men thought This deach 
led directly or indirectly to most of the disorders of the Sturiunga 
time. A great league of eighc chiefs was fonned against che 
bishop, Sighvat and Snorri among theni (neither Hrafn nor Thord 
would join it). They weni to Holar and arrested Gudmtmd, 
Snorri's politic crafl covering the violence under colour of an 
invitation to his own house. The following winter (1209-10) he 
etayed at Reykjaholt as Snorri's honorary guest, and a line is pre- 
served of a drapa composed by Snorri, in the fashion of the old 
time, in honoui of the bishop. The bishop's years of wandcring 
now begin, the enmity of Sighvat, whose wife Haldora was Kol- 
bein's sisler, pursuing him from place to place, whilc a band of 
swom adherents gathered round him in his exile, and repaid 
violence by violence. Twice Gudmund went abroad, bnC he did not 
get on any better with the Archbishop than with the chiefs. Sigh- 
vat had now moved Co Grund in Eyjafírth, and became the greatest 
man in the Morth. He and Amor, Kotbein's brocher, came down 
Upou the bishop and his band as they lay at Helgaslad, captured 
him, and carried him away across the whole island to Hvitá in the 
West, where he kepc him waiting for a fair wind to send him in 
exile to Norway. But now Eyjolf Karsson plans and carries out 
the gallant rescue, which is so well told in Islendinga (ch. 41). Then 
folJow the events thaC have already been related, the slaying of 
Tumi, the Grimsey figbt, and the bishop's capture and eiile to Nor- 
wayfor four years. Ití 1236 he came backbrokenin health, but as 
Ímplacable as ever ; hunted about by Kolbein the young, with 
short intervals of peace, wben he was allowed to live at Holar. At 
last be fell blind, and after a year or two more of Fesdeisness and 


§ ar. BIOGRAPHIES. cmv 

unquiet, hig last illDess came upon him. He would not die oq his 
back, s&yitig, like Hofer, that one should meet death standing, so 
he bade them lift him out of bed and set him on his feet when he 
fell the cnd waa near, and sinking from their anns on to a hurdle 
strewn with ashes, he breathed his last. Gudmund was given the 
títle of ' Good' by the solemn act of the Bishop and Chapter in 
the fourteenth century, but he was never rightly sainted as Thorlak 
and John had been. 

BÚhop Ami'a Sogo. Sturta's work, as we have seen, breakn 
off in 1263, two subsequent epigodes alone occurring in 1163 and 
1264-, so ihat for the later period of Icelandic History we must 
look eisewhere. The deíiciency is partly supplied by Bishop Ami's 
Saga, which, as a continuous stoiy, begins in 1271. For the blank 
between, comprising several of tíie most important years of tbe 
island's history, we have unfoitunately nolbing except the dry 
notices of the Annals. 

During Bishop Ami's episcopate (bishop 1269, died April 17, 
1198) arose the question of the ownership and management of the 
glebes and other ecclesiastical endowments, which was fiercely fought 
over by the laypatrons and great churchmen of the time. Bisbop 
Ami was the leader on the clerical side in this struggle, his foremost 
antagonist being Hrafn Oddsson, a daughier's son of Hrafn Svein- 
biornsson. Bom in 1237, Ami died in Norway in 1298, leaving 
behind him the memory of the greatest Hierarch that had ever 
wom the bishop's mitre in Iceland. This Life of the bishop 
Btands alone among the other Icelandic biographies, resembling 
much more a modern historical work than a Saga, comprising 
tetters, secret correspondence, documents, &c. It is the work of 
a deric, a near relation of the bishop's, but one who, though a 
decided churchman, is yet frank and fair in his dealings with party 
questions. In its present state the story is imperfect, ending 
abrapdy with the year 1291, omitting the last seven years of its 
hero's life ; though, owing to a modern transcriber having wound 
up the story by tacking some annaJistic notes to the end, covering 
the last years of the Life, this has been little noticed. 

Our lext ÍE derived fix>m Cod. A, in which it was placed after 
Sturlunga. Of this two and a half leaves are stiU remaining. Bj 
a curious incident we can prove conclusively that all our paper 
transcripts are derived directly from this singie vellum. One of 
our three extant leaves is mutilated, the íirst and fourth columns 
being inlact, while of the second and third the most is gone, yet 
leaving stumps of the lines. (See the facsimile of Cod. A, third 
hand, where this piece has been selected on purpose.) From the 
transcripts we see that in c. 1640 this leaf was but partly mangled, 
and that a slanting segment had been cut off, maiming only the 
nine hnea at the bottom. At a later date Ihe wbole vellum was 
destroyed by a Vandal's knife, and this leaf left as it now stands. 
All our paper copies are here confused, getting worse and worse, 


cjxvi PROLEGOMENA. $ *i. 

aome even ðkipping altogether the mumed lines, of which however 

thc stumps stiU remain. The best transcript is Che modem velluin, 
now in Scockhoim, No. i|t taken by Bishop Thorlak Skulason. 
(See Biskupa Sögur, vol. i, pp. 7 1 4, 7 1 5, chaps. 25, 16 of the Saga.) 
This was the only blank or mutilation (besidcB the lost end) in ihe 
vellum at thaC time, and a good luck has left us just Cbis leaf, with 
the sCumps lemaining', so as to make the evidence complete and 
conclusive, for no two vellums could cver be aJike as are two 
copies of the same prínted editions. The tezt foUovríng after the 
last leaf that is left answers to four leaves and a haif in the vellum j 
owing, we think, to the last page being, when in 1640 the copicB 
were taken, blurred and unreadable. The sheet containing the 
end of the Saga was at that date also lost ; buc it appears to bave 
been extanC in 1580, from which time dates a modern Annal com- 
pilation (marked L and M in the edition of 1849). Thecompiler, 
as many entríes show, knew Sturlunga and Bishop Ami's Saga. 
We take ic Co have been this very veilum that he had in hand. 
For besides entries well known to us from the preserved text 
(such as the Ballad ditties, a.d. 1318), there are two entire, highlf 
interesting, now found nowhere, viz. the entiy of the eruption and 
earthquake in the South in 1394, and the appearance of new Gey- 
sirs near Haukadal (see vol. ii. p. 475, see also the Editor'a aiticle 
on Geysir in the Ðictionary). The second entry in question is the 
detailed account of the sudden destruccion by lightning of the cathe- 
dral in SkaJholt m 1309. Both entries we take to have been derived 
from che losc end of Bishop Arni's Saga, tn this our very vellum, 
then compIeCe. There are two leaves of another 'barren' vellum 
which yield a little better test for Che portion they contain ; they 
have been used in the Edicor's Biskupa Sðgur, to which we may 
refer the reader for the tezt of this Saga (pp. 679-786), whicfa wai 
deserving of a somewhat minute notice here, as it is so intimately 
connected with our Islendinga Saga, and because it is the last bi»- 
torical work of the Classic Age of Icelandic letCers. The Editor has 
guessed thaC Bishop Arni Helgason II, the nephew and suc 
of Bisiiop Ami I, may be the author of Chis Life of his prede< 
which most probably was composed c. 1315- 

Bishop Lawrenoe'B Life (bom 1366, bishop 1394, died Ajml 
16, 1331). The last of al! the Icelandic biographers faithfulljr 
descríbed by his favouríce disciple £inar Haflidason, who wrote 
down the bishop's recollections from his own lips. It is a veiy 
charming and interesiing Saga, giving the picCuresque and chcqueied 
carcer of agood and gifCedman. It is ofvalue to the Hislorían of 
Norway, as it gives a glimpse of the condition of the Norse church 
at the end of the chirCeenth century. For it was in that century, in 
the service of the Archbishop, that Lawrence first came into pro- 
minence; his faithl'ulness and boldness led him into great adver* 
sity when his patron, through illness, became incapable of helping 
him, and at last he was bauished Lo Iceland, forbidden to preacbi 



and suspended from his fiinctions. But hia meek and lowly bear- 
ing vanquisbed even his enemies, and like Abbot Sampson, lo 
whose life-story, as told by Mr. Carlyle, that of Lawrence bears 
much resemblance. after yeaTS of patient endurance he was at last 
by his very enemies raised to a position which it had seemed 
hopeless that he should ever attain. The end of the S:^, contain- 
ing the last few days of the bishop's life, is lost in both of the 
MSS. (AM. 406 and 180) on which che text rests, but the gap may 
be filled up from the Annals. The Saga was puhlished Ín Biskupa 
Sögur (pp. 787-914). That Einar Haflidason was the author of 
it, was guessed by fiishop Finn, but again put forth by the Editor 
(see preface, Biskupa Sögur), who was at the time ignorant of the 
bishop's remark in Hist. Eccl. 

A collection of the Lives of Bishops, from Hungrvaka to Law- 
rence, was published by the IceiaDdic Literary Society, Copenh. 
1858, in oue volume, together with an Introduction, under tfae 
present Editor's care. 

Abbot Arngbik of THiNaxTiu (bom c. 1380, died i3^)- The 
author of a life of Gudmund, written (i34S~5o) ^ ^ phet jwtífi- 
catíve, to be used as evidence of that bishop's sanctity. We knew 
something of Amgrím from chc Annals and from Bishop Lawrence's 
Saga ; for the Editor inclines to identify Amgrim with the monk of 
Thykkvabser and the príest of Oddi of the same name. He therein 
appears as a man of wild, loose character. He was a muBÍcian, and 
when he was sent to Norway to represent the cloister in a suit with 
the bisiiop, whose agent was Egil (aiterwards bishop of Holar), he 
ia descríbed as neglecting his business, and passing his time in play- 
ing on ihe organ . He had something of genius in him evidently, 
and his liteiary character may suffcr from the accounts of his moral 
shortcomings fumished by the annalisL Bishop Gudmund's Saga, 
which is compíled from older sources, concains little new atwnt 
tbe bishop, but tells a great deal about Jceland, aa it was Ín- 
tended to be read abroad, and Amgrim was desirous of making 
all Decessary explanations. ICs style is pompous and magnilo- 
quent, recalíing that unrivalled patchwork of grand pbrases, Saxo's 
Danish History. It is printed in Biskupa SCigur, as a first fasciculus 
to vol. ii, which winds up the second seríes. 

§ 23. Annals and Obituarœs. 

There is still one kind of historícal work to notice — The 
Aonals. They make their appearance comparaiively late in Ice- 
landic Literature, and outlive every ocher class of composition, 
gctting fiiller and fuller as the Saga dwindles, and finally almost 
reaching the rank of Chronicles. Tliey are the jackdaws of the old 
literature, the fatter the Saga the leaner the Annals, and vict versá. 

There are no Annals dating bcfore 1150. The earliest notices, 
bald and short, are merely drawn from tbe works of Arí and 


cxxviu PROIÆGOMENA. f ii. 

Sæmund. The firet eniption (the ravouríte topic of ihe Annals) 
recorded is that of 1 104. The greatest and most importanl Ami^ 
collection are those catled Annales Rigii, ending in 1300, tfaougb 
continued by a later hand. These Annais (given bere in the old 
apeiling and from ihe unique vellum, in vol. ii. pp. 348-391) are a 
mere ' register,' ihougb bighly valuable as an index to Sturiunga 
and ihe Lives, rumighing the dates. For the time of the Commoa- 
wealtb (till 1262) they are aJmost paramount, so fuil and accurate, 
that one may weU-nigh dispense wíth all the rest. Fram notices 
e.g. under year 1359, ane would think that our collection was 
mainly founded on dotlings or memoranda of Lawman Sturla. 
After 1362-1331, ihe other Annals, brief though they be, fumish 
new matter. For instance, those of Lawman Hauk in AM. 3ig, 
covering years 1371-1315, and others. In 1331 the last Sa^ 
ends, and henceforth the Annals are our inain source, (of decds 
and charters there are but few.) 

From this time till 1392 we look first to the Aunals of Einar 
Hafiidason, the author of Lawrence Saga. The raain events of hÍB 
long life, as recorded in the Annals and the Saga, are as follows : — 
He was boni Sept. 16, 1304 or 5^ — the entry under 1307 in Flatey 
Annals must be wrong. Tonsured ('vlgðr krúnu-vfgslu') wben nine 
years old ; entered the school at Thingore as a pupil of monk Law- 
rence (laterbishop), whence he went to ihe catbedrai schoot at Holar; 
his father died 1319; the private secretary to Bishop Lawrence, 
'night and day about his person,' 1314-31, and wrote his Life; 
ordained príest in 1331; received the prebend of Hoskuldstad 
in '334! steward to Hoiar, 1340; adminisiered the last unction to 
Bishop £gil, Aug. iz, 1341; 'oÉcialis' (locum tenens duríng a 
bishop's absence or death), 1341 ; got the prebend of Breidabolstad 
ín Vesterhoop, which he kept for forty-nine years, 1344; went 
abroad to Nonvay, 1345; his mother died 1348; 'officialis' 
second time, 1370 sqq. ; had a great lawsuit, 1388—90, and won it 
by the aid of his son Sira Ami; 'officialis' third time, 139 1 ; died 
Sépt 32, 1393, aged eighty-nine, having outlived his master and 
fríend the bishop by sixty-two years and five months, Beyond tbe 
Life and the Annals he is not known to have wrítten anything. Of 
tbe Life, see above. Tbe Annals compassing the fourteenth cen- 
tury, down to bis death, are preserved in AM. 430, under the name 
of ' Lögmanns Annal,' the MS, having once been the property of 
a Lawman ; his work is, for the fourleenth century, thc main groimd- 
work for the Annal compiiation in the Flatey-book. 

The largest coUeclion existíng is that in the Flatey-book (vol, Íii. 
PP- 473-83, Flateyjar A nnalí), the earUer part of wbich is founded on 
a sitler MS. to Annales Regii, but in a very confused state, always 
being in the wrong when the two disagree. But for the fourteenth 
century these Annals are of great vaiue, tbough still confused and 
displadng dates. 

Tbe New Annah close ihe list, covering some ihirty or forty 



years. Tbey end abmptly in 1430, afler wbich there is a total 
blank for above a century. Of all ihe Annals these are the best, 
Chronicle-like, even Saga-Iike, approaching in style the last two 
writers of the Saion Chronicle. They are preserved in one vellura, 
a copy of the siiteenth century, and form our chief authentic infor- 
tnation of the Great Plagne in 1403 (confounded by later tradition 
with Ihe Black Death, which never touched Iceland), and the bejfin- 
ning of the SttglisA Trade in Iceland in 1413. They are on thi9 
account prínted in full in the Rolls' edition of Hakon Saga, Append. 
pp. 409-436. After the close of these Annals an absolute blank 
of nearly a centuiy falls on Iceland and its history, till the Revival 
under Bishop Odd and his fríend and scribe Jón Egilsson, to 
whom we owe the scanty scraps of Information which we have 
relating to this dark períod. 

A coilection of Icelandic Annals was issued by the Arna- 
Magnæan trustees in 1847. 

The Obituaiues, calendars in which the deaths of people of 
note are entered, often give interesting information. Two of these 
have been preserved (though the vellum oríginals are lost): ont 
of the thirteenth century, prínted in vol, ii. p. 393, is very useful 
fbr the chronology of the Sturlunga period. The oiher of c. 1330 
fhere prínted in vol. ii. p. 473) relates to tbe m'yo™, and mentions 
several people of whom we know nothing, as diey belong to the 
generation wbich succeeded the great age of which Sturla wrote. It 
also comes from a lost vellum. The entríes in botb have been as 
&r as posEÍble identilied by the Editor, and years, so far as known, 
added. One or two errata may be corrected here. .Under March 6, 
the person meant is certainly Sigurd Tafsi, the Archbishop, who 
died on this dayin 1354 (see Hakon Saga, ch. 376); under May 8, 
Bisbop Nicholas, or whoever it be, cannot be the great antagonist of 
Sverri, who died in Nov. 1225. It is one of the few entries added 
by a later hand, like the preceding one, referring to theyear 1420. 

LisTS. 1. FerBOnal: a list of /'of/f (SliLálda-tal), preserved in 
KringlaandUpsala-Edda,publishedbyWonnandMöbius; ofKings 
of Norway (Seríes Regum), in Fb. i. 36'38 and elsewhere; of 
Biskops of the ten Nidarosian dioceses; of Abboís of Iceland, in 
Stockholm 5 and elsewhere, often confused and inaccurate ; of 
Pritsts, in No. 1812 (see ii. 503) ; of Logsogumetm, in Mela-bók 
and Upsa]a-I>ök. 3. QeogrBphical : a list of Fjords in Iceland in 
a stray mangled leaf in Hauks-bók (see Sturl. ii. 474) ; QÍ Islartds in 
Norway and of Norlk Briíisk Rivers, &c., both in Þulur (Edda) ; 
of Churches in Greenland, Fb. iii. 454. 

Genealogical Scrolls. Fragmenls of stparale scrolls, of which 
many must be lost, are preserved in Mela-bók and in AM. i6í, fol. 
(printed in vol. ii. pp. 497-500). One or two are found affixed to 
vellums at the end ; one of these, important for our purpose, was 
attached to our vellum of Hrafns Saga, vol. ii. p. 31 1. Others are 
printed in vol. ii. pp. 501, 503. 

VOL. I. i 


ciix PROLEGOMENA. § aj. 

§ 23. LosT Sagas. 
There is ample evidence that many Sa^ have been lost. In 
ordcr to form even an approxiinate idea of how many, it is not 
sufficient to aet down the namea of Sagas which are posilively 
recorded, for many have perished, leaving no traces, not even thc 
name. That such is the case we can safely conciude from the 
still extant S^as, of which not more than the third part is cited. 
Thus, if the vellum, often a singie one, of a Kormaii, a Gunnlaug 
had by mischance been destroyed, say in the sixteenlh or tbe 
flfleenth century, no trace of such Saga having ever existed would 
now remain. Even Egils Saga is never quoted in old wrítings. How 
chary they were of citations we have bad many opportunities of 
seeing. Our way of enquiry would be to mark down the proportion 
between Sagas quoitd which still exist and their ratio to the whole 
number of actually existing Sagas. Then to mark down Sagaa 
quoted but hsl, presuming the lost Sagas not cited to stand in the 
same ratio as the fonner oncs. 

We shall now name Sagas cited and existing : — Laxdœla (cited 

in Gretla and Olaf Tryggvason) ; Eyrbyggia (Hauks-bók) ; Nials 

Saga (Thorstein Sidu Hallson Saga); Éandamamta Saga (Gretla); 

Biarnar Saga (Gretla); Htidarviga Saga (Eyrbyggia); Vafm- 

firdinga Saga (Olaf Tryggvason Saga) ; Niardvikinga Saga (Lax- 

óæ\7Í)\' Hail/redar Saga {ya.\.záæ\3) ; .s»íij;/£Íí/fl (Þorleif Jarlaskald). 

Thus of the existing Ihirty-five Islendinga Sagas about ten are 

quoted or mentioned, such important Sagas as Egla, Gisli, and 

Gunnlaug'a Saga being never mentioned even by name. 

& Losl Sagas ciUd are ■.—Tkorgils Höllu son's Saga (Lasdæla) ; 

ۥ ^iUtS King Brian Boru's Saga or Brians Saga (Thorstein Sidu Hall- 

son Saga); the concluding chapters of.Niala also are no doubt 

borrowed from it. Gauk Trandilsson's Saga (see above). Gauk 

í.'i k^ Mí jiU. l is mentioned in Niala; he/i> also/nantieHíá in one of the Mae- 

S/jJúiK. st l ahowe inscriptions ; an echo of this old and once, as it seeras, 

•' ? ^ popular Saga ia in Maurer's Volksagen, ' þá er Gaukr bjó í Stöng, 

þi var eigi til Steina-stafia leiftin löng.' Skald-Helgi' s Saga, on 

•" í'— ^ which story we have ballads, Skald-Helga Rfmur. /*/. f.-**. 

The quotations from the Landnama should be kept apart, refer- 
ring, as they do, to vivá voce Sagas, told, but not as yet ■wrillen, 
There is a whole cluster of plots of Sagas scattered through that 
work. Sometimcs they are cited by name, ' As is lold in N. M. 
Saga,' or, ' Hence arose the Saga of N. M.' Of these, many are 
lost: Thord Gelli, Grintolf and Gerpi, Vebiörn Sygna-kappi, Hroar 
. Tungu-godi, and many others. Some have been preserved, not 

<^ always, we should think, just as told in the days of Ari, for 

tJr l UJCl ^^^^^^^< Thoríkfirdinga, Isfirdinga, Svarfdæla, Erik Ihe Red, 
"j **■ ""i Certainly too, some Sagas, which we only have in 'þættir,' were 
once complete and separate works, as Sighvat'g Saga. 
Another piece of evidence is ieft :— On a rragmentai? vellum of ihe 


§ 33- LOST SAGAS. cxxxi 

thirteenth century, a poem, Islendin^ Drapa, ís preserved, which 
contains short accounts of the subjects of many lcelandic Sagas. 
The poet, we takc it, lived in the East of Iceland, in the latter part 
of the tbirteenth century, for he starts with two small minor Sagas 
of the far East, spending three verses upon cach, His list of the 
East and the North seems to be the most complete. In the enisting 
part the foUowing occur : Vafmjirdinga, verses 3-5 ; Droplaug, 
6-8; £gla, 9, 10; Glum Geirason's Saga (lost), 11; Haílfrtd's 
Saga, 12; TAaral/Sio/msion (loit), 12; Firmóogi (axi ea.T]y in&tancn 
of a fabrícated Saga), 14; Orm Slorol/sson ^apparently from a 
betterteítlhan Flatey-book), 15; BiamHhe Poel l^o&), 16 ; Grella 
{probably an old draft), 1 7 ; Thorki/ tht EarP s Poet ^nA Svarfdala, , 
18; OrmSiogarne/andGaui Trandi/sson Saga(lost),jg; Gunnar's 
Saga (probably the separate Saga which we only know as part of 
Niala), ao; Midfir ih Skeggi's Saga {[ast), 21; Ball o' Sidt's Saga 
(perhaps Thidrandi's þattr is a part of this, and there may be scenes 
from it incorporated in Niaia), 22 ; Tharsíein ffall c' Side's son's 
Saga, 33 ; Holmgang-Bersi' s Saga (perhaps from a separate Saga, 
of which we oniy have a part in Kormak) and Kormak's Saga, 24 
and 25; TTiorarinn Sleinarsson's Saga(\.o%t), a6; Holmgang-SÍarri's 
Saga (loBt). Of these twenty-two some /en exist, and it may be 
presumed that at least an equal number have perished, if we 
remember that we probably have only half the poem. 

Again, on thc flv-leaf of the St. Olars Saga at Stockholm, No. 2, 
in a hand of c. 1 300, this list is wrítten : — 

ikÍvUdniigi .b. mmrnia ,1. Íi. bclcr. cjibjgia .uga. A/naadir. brdiu ugi. 
Starli/ .ugi, dmni ugi. TÍgi GluniK .ugi. 

Of these S/urla and Onuniar-brenna arc the oríginals, no doubt, 
of the abridginent of Sturla of Hvamm and Gudmund Dýri, pre- 
served in Sturíunga ; Drauma Saga is unknown ; Siioldunga is 
called ' hók,' and distinguished from the Sagas, and evidcntly referB 
to tbe Book of Danish Kings' Lives of which we have parL 

It mnst be remembered that our Sagas, especially the local 
ones, are derived from very few MSS. (one or two in most cases) ; 
hence the chances that many are losl is on this ground alone very 
great, as may be seen from the following table. We must here go 
back to 163D-40, when there were as yet no paper copies. Of 
the figUTes, the units represent a vellum surviving at that date 
and now still extant, either in body or in paper transcripts, for 
many of the vellums have since perished; the fractions represent 
fragments of another vellum, in most cases the shreds of one or 
two leaves, the sole remnants of barren vellums of which no paper 
transcripts were taken : — 

Gullþoríi S. I. BiiraiT S, I. N>itSvik. i. 

KimditS. I. Heiíarr. 1. Erik Rcd (North) i. 

Vapirf. I. ViHa Ljót I. ÖJkofti I. 

^oM. hviti I. þoTEt. SiBn H. I. Hitðu S. l). 




FlowiunMS. ij. 

RcykdcU 3. 

Kom»k a. 

GimnUog 3. 

V,tid-I. ij. 
SvairdKb iV 

Uoneto. S. ij. 

Bindim. i. 

FmeyingiS. li. 
OÍ(I> Snn S. i{. 

H>11fr«d >. 

GlDni l|. 
Hnfokd t j. 

Eirík Red (Weit) 

Add to this list, Krístni Saga i, Islendinga-bók {Ubellus) i, Land- 
nama a, Sturlnnga a ; and of the Lives and Biographies, Arna 
Sa^ i^, Laurentius Saga a, Aron i, Fáls Saga i, Hungrvaka i, 
Hrafa Sveinbiomson's Saga 2. The great coinpies Sagas fared 
better: Niala some 15, Egla 13, Eyrbyggia, Lasdæla, and Greiia 5 
each (mostly however bare shreds of what once was a vellum). 
These are sad statistics, when we consider that the worthless fabrí- 
cations in and and ^id vols. of Fas. (Bósi, Ketil faœng, Egil One- 
handed, Gongu-Hrolf, &c.) exist in three ot four MSS., where one 
OT even tione would have sufficed. Yel after all, we must be thankful 
that a work of art has been preserved at all, though it be but 
in one scorched and mangled copy. The damp climate, the 
chances of £re, Ac are especial dangers in Iceland, and the small 
vellums on which the lesser Sagas were first writien would be 
more exposed to risk than the more costly MSS. of the greater 
Sagas, which belong to a. later time, when books were more widely 
read and cared for. On tbe wbole we may guess that at least 
one third, if not one half, of the Icelandic Sagas have totally 

Two Sagas, lost as separate stories, we have reserved for a last 

Bkáld-HelgA Soga, the story of Helgi the Foet and his unfor- 
tunate love, preserved in Rímur (Ballads) of the fifteenth century. 
Three verses of the Saga are preserved in a flfieenth-century 
handwriting on the fly-leaf of Cod. Upsal. of the Edda, and other 
fragoients are cited by Snorrí. The hero was bom in Borgar- 
fiord, but the scene lies chiefly in Greenland — a rough, gross love- 
81017. One beautiful touch there is, viz. tbe poet goes in quest 
of his lost sweetheart, and at last, aftei traveis of toil and danger, 
finds her in Grecnland, when, by a step-mother (or the like), he 
ÍB allowed an interview with her, but they may only be together as 
long as ' three fires bum out.' 

Sie^vat tJie Foet, a purer and nobler life than Helgi's. He is 
the fiiend and companion of St. Olaf; a black-eyed man, stam- 
mering of speech in prose, but in verse his utterances were as 
fluent as those of others in talking. A great traveller, he visited 
Russia, lived at the court of Cnut tbe Great; went to Normandy; 
and even made a pilgrimage to Rome in the year when the battle 
of Stiklestad was fought Aiterwards he became the fríend and 
counsellor of the young King Magnus, whose godfather he was. 
He died c. 1040, for the story in Hulda (Fms. vi. io3) is surely 
apociyphal; morcover, his last verses are of c, 1038 ; and Sighvat 



was a tnie songster, and let no year pass vithout it3 due burden 
of song. He was buried at Christ Church in Nidaros. 

Or no poet are tbere so many verses left as of Sighvat, about 
150, many extemporísed. Tbe Great Life of St. Oktf is dotted 
vith them. His Saga is lost as a whole, but scattered fragmenls 
are preserved in Flatey-book, and it was used b/ Arí and Snom in 
their Life of St Olaf. 

§ 34. Religious Wobks, Livss of Saints, 
These are preserved in some of our oldest MSS., which havíng 
been kept in cioisters and church iibraríes, have been better pre- 
served than secular works, exposed to the risks of fire, damp, and 
ill-usage in Icelandic farms and Norwegian halls. As giving early 
examples of spelUng and style, both Norse and Icelandic, they are 
often of high philological importance. Thege comp>ositions, espe- 
cially those of the thirteenih and fourteenth centuries, are mosfly 
diluted, embellished paraphrases. The technical words for this last 
were 'glóian ' and 'glSsa ' (to gloss), a plain rendering being thought 
too BÍmple (see the Priest Grim Holmsteinsson's preface to the 
Ofe of St, John). Accordingly these works are, on the whole, in 
Style and manner inferíor to the old English or Anglo-Saxon of 
the same kind. Dikta and dikt are the technical words for any 
prose composiíion in Latin, such as the Lives of Bishop John and 
Olaf Tryggvason by Odd and Gunnlaug ; snara is to translate. 

Helgra Manna Sögur, or Lives of Saints. The shorter recen- 
sions of these are among the oldest works in the Ilterature, but 
the bulk, enlarged and paraphrased, are of the thirteenth and 
fourteenCh centuríes. The following are in existence (those 
marked * being of known authorship) : — 

LifeofSt. Agittu. ■Dnrutii]. e. ■Nicholii of Bari. 

Agno. Edwaid Coolcuoi. tbi^ Otwild. U. 

A^xit. Eraunut. Paul ibe tiennil. 

Ambrote. /* Gngor). ff Pladdui. 

F AaliHij. Liwicnce. Reni]'. 9'' 

'AniliD. Ldcj. Sebattiui. 

Barbara. Malchui. Seren Sleepen. 

Benetlict. Marpret. Slepben. 

BlaÍM. ff ii-MaiS». í,, SjtlTMet. 

/, Bn.nifn.fim hiil Manin. Theodote. 

CatherÍDe.'^ Mirj of Egypt. Viacent, 

Cccili*. Mam. Vitut. 

Crou (legenib oí}. Mamice. Aod tbe Vitie Patnun of 

Denit. fr h *Michael tbe Aichangel. Sl. Jetome, or Lirei 

/>~ Dorolhy. ■Nicodemui the Evaage- of the Fatbetl. 
ipgH^iA: Duggalíttanceof).?"^ liit 

The bulk of these works are preserved in three collections— AM. 
334, mutilated in Icelandj AM. 235; and tbe great Stockholm, 
No. I, fol., of the end of thc fourteenth century, containing twenty-Gve 
Sagas. For the older series we have fragmenis of similar coilec- 
tions in AM, 623, AM. 645, AM. 656, Sk., dating from before 


cxxsiv PROLEGOMENA. § a^. 

laao, and may be even of the later part of the twelfth century. 
Some fragmcnlB of MSS. of Sainta' Lives are contained in AM. 
655, These Saints' Lives have all been edited in two vols., under 
the name of Htlgra Manna Sógur (including the Legends of thc 
Cross, the Dialogues of St. Gregory, the Legend of Michael the 
Archangel), by Dr, C. Unger, Christiania, 1877. 

The Life of ihe Virgin Mary, or Mdríu Saga, founded on tbe 
apocryphal mediæval legends, including a large collection of legends 
or rairacles, Theophilus, Romanus, and several others, in many recen- 
Bions, all now edited by Unger, Chrisliania, 1872, in one volume. 

The Livís 0/ Ihe ÁposíUs belong to the same category as the 
above, though perhaps not quite so carly. These Poslula SögJír, 
inctuding the Lives of St. Cleraent, the Four Evangelists, and 
John the Baptist, have been edited by Unger in one great volume, 
Christiania, 1874. 

The NiSrsíigningar Saga, or Harrowing of Hell, a rendering 
of the lasC part of the Pseudo-Gospel of Nicodemus, a most popular 
mediæval work, deserves a special notíce here. It is contained 
in AM. 645 and 633, the latter a very o!d veilum. Edited in 
Unger's ^reat collection, 

These works are all from Latin originals, and Saints' Lives ín 
Laiin are mentioned Ín Sturl. vii. ch. 113, and in Norse Ín Hak. S. 
ch. 339. 

The HoHiUES rank next in order ; of ihese there are three col- 
lections. (1) The Icelandic Homilits of the famous old Slock- 
faolm MS., No. 15, one of the oldest Icelandic vellums, bound in 
sealskin; brought to the continent by Jón Eggertson, who bought 
it for five marks in i68a. It has been most accurately edited by 
Professor Wisén of Lund, 1873, and largely made use of by 
the latc Swedish philologisl, Rydquist, in his great work, Svenska 
Sprákets Lagar. (a) The Norst Homilits, of which, ihough 
otber fragments exist, the only completc text is AM. 619. This 
twelfth-century vellum also conCains the best text^ of S l OlaPs 
Miracle s, showing the eariy date at wbich St. Ólaf became Ibe chief 
object of veneration in Norway. (3) The Strmons and Homilies 
of Pope Gregory (AM. 677, a twelfth-century vellum) are chiefly 
interesting for the numerous citalions from the Gospels, the only 
vemacular translation till the Reformation. The Norse Homilies 
were edited by Unger, 1864. Those of Pope Gregory (a fragment, 
about ten in number) are being edited at Copenhagen by Mr. Thor- 
vald Bjarnarson, 1878. Thcre is little doubt thal by Thorodd's 
'i'ýðingar helgar' are meant Homilies, not Lives of Saints. 

ElucidarÍHs, famed in the Middle Ages, exists in three vellums, 
one (AM. 674), ezceedingly old, has been photographically edited, 
Copenh. 1874. 

The Lives of King Edward (edited in the Rolls' Series, vol. i. 
pp. 388-400) and King Oswald (edited in Ann. for Nord. Oldk. 
1851) and Dunslan (edited as Appendix to Hakonar Saga, Rolls' 


5 24- LIVES OF SAINTS. cxxxv 

Series, pp, 385-408), like the Saints' Lives, are from Latin originaU 
written in England. 

The compilers of somc of these religious works are known; 
atnong them are — 

Bishop-elect Kygri-Bjöm (died 1237), the author of a Life of 
the Vjrgin ; of him much is told in the Saga of Bishop Gudmund, 
whose secretary he had been, tbough it is as his opponent that he 
appears later. 

Priest Berg Gunnsleinsson (died 1 2 1 1 ), of a Western family, com- 
piled a short Life of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 

Jón Holí, priest of Hitardale, known from Arni Bishop's Saga [^tf^. ^/hií-^ 
(died 1302), compiled a Life of Thomas-á-Becket, probablj' that now '' 

contained in the Thomas-skinna. There is besidea a Norwegian 
translation of the Quadrilogus, contained in a vellum at Stock- 
holm. Both have been accurately edited by Unger, Christiania, 
1869. The RoUs' edition of Thomas Saga is a reproduction of 
Unger"s printed text. 

Prince Hakon (1233-57) was the author (or rather, the work was 
executed under the King's patronage, as in usum Delphini) of a 
good Norwegian version of l ohn of Damascus' story of Barlaam 
and Joeapbat, the besi and foremost of ihis whole series of Sagas, 
It was ascribed by an old writer (Amgrim the Abbot) to King 
Hakon Sverrison, who died 1204, but, aa the Latin original of 
the legend was not in existencein 1200, this must be a confusion. 
The work was edited by Unger and Keyser, Christiania, 1851. 

Bishop Brand Jónsson of Holar (died May 26, 1 264) left behind 
him a book called OySinga Sögur, an account of the Jewish Wars, 
&c., from the Historical Books of the Vulgate. When Kiog Hakon V 
(1299-1319) ordered a paraphrase of the Bible to be made, the 
author (c. 1310) goi no furtber in his task (which he performed in 
legular mediæval fashion, makiog use of Vincent of Beau vais' Ency- - 
clopædia( the SEeculum,H^toriaIe, and of Felrus"Come?trtt 's worit) / 
.than ch. xix of Eaodus, p. 300 of Unger's edition. The unfinÍBhed 
book was completed by af&xing thc rest of the Bible history, taken 
.bodily from Bishop Brand's work, to this fragment, so that the bulk . 

of the Gyðinga Sögur has been thus preserved to us. The whole '^ tOaúf^^' 
work goes by the name of Stjórn. It is curious as the only woik S^ '7i^*tt*j». 
till the Reformation by which an unleamed man couid gain any 
knowledge of the Old Testament. It is preserved in several Ice- 
landic vellums, and was edited by Unger at Christiania, 18Ö2. 
The above theory was set forth by the present Editor in Ný 
Félags-rit, Copenh. 1863, pp. 132-151. 

Grlm Holmsleinsson, a priest (died 1298), wrote a Life_£' 

th e Bap tist (preserved in AM. 625) at the request of the well- 
known ABbot Runúl/ Sigmundsson ofVer (died 1307), of whom we 
hear in Bishop Arni's Saga, Runólf himself was the author of a 
Lifeo f St. Austin (Augustinus Saga). 

Bishop Lawfcnce's bastard son Arni, a Benedictlne of Thingeyri 


• nWt.l. 

cxxxvi PROLEGOMENA. § aj. 

(born c. 1296), was Che author of a Lire of Sl. DunslaH (see above) 
and of poems, some of which remain. We are told somewhat 
of his birth in Norway, and his younger days, in his father's Jífe. 
Though he was clearly a youth of great gifts, his wild behavtour 
and drankenness caused great grief to his father, whose remon- 
strances with him are set down in his Saga. But these were 
apparenlly of litlle eífect, for an ominöus silence covers his career 
fiom the death of the Bishop, 1330. 

Berg Súkkason, Benedictine Abbot of Thwera (1310-50), the 
author of Lives of the Archangel Michatl and Si. Nickolas 0/ Bari, 
and no doubt of many other Lives of Saints. His style is lauded by 
Einar Haílidasou, the anthor of Laurentius Saga, who tells us that 
his paraphrases of the Saints' Lives wiU last as long as the cotmtry 
herself. Such was the taste and fashion of the fourteenth century. 
He has been supposed, on Ihe authority of the Stockholm MSS. 
(Bergs-bók), to have been ihe author of the Great Oiaf Tryggvason. 
But the word 'snaraði' is either a misreading of the writer or 
a mistake. It is however extremely likely that Berg wrote or bad 
written the copy of Olaf Tiyggvason, which the scribe of the great 
Stockholm vellum had then before him. 

Jón HalldÓTSSOD, of Norse birth, a Dominican Friar, and iast 
bishop of SkalhoJt, in IceJand (1335-39), studied in Paris and 
Bononia. He used to entertain people, in sermons and in table- 
talk, wilh legends and stories, wbich were since coUected by bis 
friends, and have come to us, though in a fragmentary state, in 
Beveral velluras, AM, 624, 657, 764; a complete edition is contem- 
plated by Dr. Gering of Halle. These stories are mostly of 
monkish type; some, however, are interesting. Best ofallis 'Arch- 
bishop Absalom and ihe Peasant,' see Oxford Icelandic Reader, 
p. 234. The story oí Mors (the same as Grimm's 'Der Gevatter 
Tod,' No. 44). Bishop John was a colkague of Lawrence of 
Holar, and is ofíen spoken of in his Life ; by charge of the dying 
Bishop Lawrence he in 1331 ordained Einar Haðidason the príest, 
For a brief account of his studies abroad in-Paris and Bologna &c. 
and of his death (March 25, 1339), see Bisknpa Sögur, vol. ii. 
pp. 321-230. 

§ 25. RoMANTic Sagas (Riddara Sögur). 

These are either Norse versions of stories from the great 
Mediæval Cycles, preserved, with one exception only, EIis Saga, 
in Icelandic copies from the Norwegian transiations, or else 
íictitious Sagas composed by Icelanders oul of incidents occurríng^ 
in the Romances, bearing the same relation to these as the Skrok- 
Sögur do to the genuíne Islendinga Sögur. 

Tbe first Romantic Sagas date from the reign of King Hakon 
Hakonsson (1217-63), when the longest and best were composed, 
and ihey appear to cease at the deaih of King Hakon the Fifch 


éag. ROMANTIC SAGAS. axxvú 

(1319)1 vho, we are expressly told, commanded many translations 
to be made. They in no way represent Northern life or man- 
ners, but are merely a Court Literature of pnrely exotic character. 
They became very popular in Iceland when the ciose connection 
with Norway and othcr causes had brought about a complete 
change of taste, wbicb allowed the true Sagas to lapse into almost 
complete neglect, as is wimessed to by the Rímur. 

For further information on the subject the reader is referred to 
Dr. E. Kölbing's instructive preface to Riddara Sögur, Strasburg, 
1872, in whicb collection many of ihese Romances wil! be found. 

A colleciion of eigbt or ten of the best and most ancienl is in the 
press, imder the editorship of Dr. Gustaf Cederschiöld of Lund, 

A Ust of the chief of them is appended. Those maiked *, and 
perhaps more, are pure fabrícations : — 
Romuuxi of — 

AdÐniui. ^Jirlmin (AM. 589). 

Amiliui. Kölbing, [o,^ a»~i--^ þ. jKnl (EwaÍDi). Kiilbiiig. 

BetiDg. Cedencniotd. KiijaUx (Emp. Aleiioi). Giiliioii. 

Berui (Bevii of Hunpton). Ceder- C- Migoi (Sont of Aymon). CsdeT- 

tchiöld. ichiold. 

BiiDi and Viclor. ^-Midnan. Kiilbing. 

CUrai. CedenchiÖld. ^ MÖIliiI {Boy ind Mintle ilory). 

C Conrad. Cederichíöld. Ccdciicbiöld ind WulfT. 

Damutlt. Nicslai the Jugglei. 

Dinoi Drimbliti, Nitidi Frzgi. 

Elii. KiílbÍDg. Pimpfayliu ind OiUthea. K5lbing. 

A ErTekiiidEnid(Aiihatcycle),Ceder- ^ Pucevil (Sl, Orul). Kolbing. 

Khiöld. Firtalopi. Klockhoff, Upuli. 187;. 

PalcDtln (Valentine ind Orton). Remnnd. 

Florei and Blliicheflúr. Ann. Nord. Siului ind NÍcanoi. 
Oldk. •Sigurd Foot. 

C Flovenl. CederH*iÖld. *Sigutd Ihe Jonifer. 

Oibbon. A Triitvi and fioull (AM. 543). Kiil- 

Hectot. bing, 1878. 

*Hring and Tryggyi (AM. 589). A Valvenl (Gawiio). Kölbing. í '' 

Two perbaps merit a separate mention for their síze and from 
the circumstance that tbey are derived from LaUn originals : — 

The AlexBnder Soga, written by Bishop Brand Jónsson 
(died 1364), founded on ihe Alesandreis of Philip Gautier. The 
translator intended Alexander to fill up the gap between the old 
historical books of tbe Old Tcstament and the Maccabees ; hence 
it is that Alexander is found along with Stjóm. Published by 
Dr. Unger, Chrístiania, 1848, from AM. 519. 

The great EBrlamagnufl Soga ok Kappa hans, made up of . 
several books, such as Agulandus, Geirard, Olger, Otwell, Geipunar 
þattr, Runceval, Landres, &c. Ít is derived panly from French 
originals, partly from the chronicles of Ihe Pseudo-Turpin, and 
would be of about the same date as Bishop Brand's work. Edited 
by Dr. Unger, Christiania, 1860. 

These Sagas are chiefly to be found in three great collectíons 
contained in the vellums, Stockholm 6 and 7, 4to, and the oldest 


cxxxviii PROLEGOMENA. § 25, 

(c. 1300), 7, fol. Part ofStock. 7, 4to, is at Copenhagen as AM. 580. 

Most of those collectioDs date from the fourieenth century. In 
AM. 598 is a collection of fragtneDts of MSS. of Romances, 
Pseudo-Sagaa, &c. 

Besides stories of Knighl-Errantry, Mary of Brittany's Lays 
were also, by King Hakon Hakonsson's orders, translated ftom 
French into Norse. They are known as Streng-Ieikar or Haq)- 
ings and loðSa-bók or Book of Lays, and survive in a single 
Norse vellum of the thirteenih century, edited in 1 860 by Dr. Unger. 

There is a Norse version of the Story of Troy and the Brut legend, 
based on Geoffrey of Monmouth and Dares Phrygius, called Breta 
Sðsur, the Grst part of which is known as TrQjiimanna Sðgur. 
Published in Ann. for Nord. Oldk., Copenh. 1848, 49. 

Bðmveiga Soga may perhaps be íidy noticed here; it is a 
paraphrasc of Sallust's Jugurthine War and Lucan's Pharsalia, and 
curious as the only version of any portion of classical literature 
which, as far as we know, was ever altempted in Norway or Ice- 
land. It was edited by Dr. Gislason in Pröver, Copenh. 1860. 

A brief thirteenth-century History of the World (Sex Aelates 
Mundi) in AM. 625, also edited by Dr. Gislason in Prðver, Copenh. 
1860 (a fragment of a fuller recension published in Rfmbegia, 1780). 
Of the Rimur or Ballads, founded on written stories beginning 
with Olafs Ríma in Flatey-book and continuing through the liftecnth 
cenlury, the very metre points to foreign influence, while the sub- 
jects show the decadencc of taste. Of the Rfmur many were founded 
on the worst Sagas, whích contain the very smallest grain of tra- 
dition and the largest amount of false matter ; while (he better 
mythical stories, the Kings' Lives and the Icelandic Sagas, are 
scarcely touched on. Of the latter indeed only three are cited. 
A list of these Ballads wiil exemplify this ' ; — 
From foreign Romances : 

B«ring) Riniiu. f Hcktoii Rímur. Magui RIiiiDr. 

Bhui Rlmur. HcTberW Rimur (Itxt •Ormin Rlmur (loil Sagi). 

Dinui Rímnt. Siga). i«ReíiiiUs RlmuT (loilSaga). 

Fllpo Rimnr (loit Sig*). Jailmani Rlmui. RolUnti Rlmur. 

- OctTaunlr or Hiingi ok <Kapp> Rinia. Auiú'i Saalui ind NicaDOt Rlmnr. 

Tryggva Rímor. KleikaRirour(lo«S»ga). •Skikkju Rímut. 

•Gciplur. /^KoniadE RimDt. Vilmnitdu Rlmnt (Jott 

QdraTdt Rfmui. Landies Rimnr. Saga). 

•Gletlu Diktr (lott Saga). M«bil(Rimut(lattSagB).j^fiijoF> Rímui (lott Saga). 

From lale half-fictitiotis Sagas : 

Amlra Rímur (lott Saga). HaialdHrÍngibuaRimui Sigutdar fötai Rimur. 
íut Rimui (Fai. ii). (loii Saga). Eigurdar þogla ^ost Saga). 

Bod>anBiarkaR.(Fat.i). Hjilmter Rimni (Fai, iií). Stuilaugi Runur (Fu. iii). 
BoH Rlmot (Fn, iii). OgmundarakTaipmii(Ioit Siirla Rimur (Fai. iii). 

rBionu Rimur iFat. iii). Saga). //-þorii hilegg (loil Saga). 

Egili einhenda (Fai. iii). h Oliii Rlmur (lott Saga). fwitteiui Rimur (Fat. ii). 

' Tboie maiked * have beea publitbed. 


§ a6. LEARNED WORKS. cxxxix 

From mythical Sagas : 
FriSþióh Rímai (Fu, ii). Hemiagi Rimur. •Viiisungt Riniur. 

Oripiur. Lokrur. / '[nynilut, 

From bistorical and Icelandic Sagas : 
Grettli Rirdui. í" RauSulfs Rímur (O. H.) ftrznlur (from FEiejÍiigs 

ÖIUiTryggTatDniRliaDr. •Skáid-Helga Rlmur (loit Saga). 

•ólUs Rlma (Fb.) Sigi). 

•Skiía Rlma (edited bj Maurer, a moelt-heroic poem, eipecuHjf ÍntereitÍQgí. 

We also find the following heroes alluded to Ín tbe Rfmur, 
where a list of lovers is introduced : 

EUdí (lott Sagi). Mirminn. Simton. B 

Enek. A Pirlilopi. *-P Slcald-Helgi (loit Siga). tf- 

Flocii, ^'^ Priimui (loit Sagi). Sörli. 

GuSjon. íuy-íitt*"^ Rollínl, c Trittran. A 

Guanlaug and Hnfn, (v 

§ 26. Learnfj) Works. 

Some work3 of the preceding chapter might, but for being 
translations or paraphrases, count under this head. We shaU 
therefore restrict our notice to original compositions. 

The Eonungs Skuggslá— the author himself cails ít by that 
name — of which Speculum. Rtgale is the Latin rendering ; King's 
Mirror, the name evidently borrowed from one of the many 
Mirrorí of the twelfUi and tliirteenth centuries, The anonymous 
author describes himself as a Norseman livíng in the far north of 
Norway, Hálogaland, the county of King Alfred's hendimaD 
Othere. A dialogue bctween fathcr and son, the one asking, the 
other answering questions, Just in the scfaolastic fashion of the time. 
At the beginning the author draws up a plan in /our sections : 
I, on Chapmen, 3. on Court Manners, 3. on Learned Men, 4. on 
Bonders or the Common People. Oniy Nos. i and a were ever 
executed; and even of these, all the latter half is taken up by 
an excutsus on Bible history, the story of Esiher, and sundry other 
things, better known from elsewhere ; of the second section, a long 
digression on weapons and warfare, on court manners, dress, &c., 
though interesting, is chiefly drawn, not as one should have wished 
from old Norse life, but from foreign fashions, of the Plantagenet 
days. The chief value of our work is a digression in Bection i, 
chaps. 8-33, on the Physical History not only of Ireland, but of 
Greenland and Iceland, ihe Whales and Seais, the Icebergs, the 
Northem Lights, the Icelandic Volcanoes and Springs, andso on; 
all uniqne in ils kind and greatly interesting. AU the rest wc might 
afford to miss, but not this. The style is somewhat stílted and 
ornamentai, !íke in Saxo, but for all that, bald and prosaic, though 
fuU of good Norse common sense, and even humour — but it is no 
classical work to be set off against the Icelandic Sagas. It has 
however made a great stír in the Uterary world, greater than even 


cxl PROLEGOMENA. § 26. 

Niala and Lazdæla did. Its date (the author's nanie 'cannot now 
be gvessed at) fonnerly put as high up as possible, to Sverri's days, 
to whom it has even been ascribed, is now agreed upon on ali 
hands to be the thirteenth century, King; Hakon's claasic time, 
c. 1330-50. The state of the MSS, is a curious one : there is a 
Norse vellum (though defective and without the preface) of c. i z 70, 
not much younger than the lost original, and a few leaves, also 
Norse, of the same time. Then all is blank, aod the wotk would 
now be defeclive, but for the chance that there are some len or 
tweive Icelandic vellums all of thc sixteenth century. It appears 
that about the year 1500, a stray copy from Norway came to Ice- 
land (there are 110 traces of the work being known there ere thal), 
where it was much thought of, and numerous copies taken. It has 
twice been edited, once in 1768 wjih leamed notes, again ín Chris- 
tiania in 1848, the text, but in an Icelandic normalised spelling; 
a new edition in the Norst spelling of the old vellum is required. 

Mathematical : — Turning to Iceland, we find uppermost 
learned works of a calendary and arilhnulical kind. A ' Star-gazer ' 
named Stjömu-Oddi (Star-Oddi) is named as authority for a 
system of reckoning the time' (calied Odda-tal, the Reckoning 
of Odd) ; he lived in the North of Iceland, but when we do not 
know ; the dream or vision called the Dream of Star-Oddi (published 
along with Rímbegla, 1780) is a fable. Next to him is a Prieat 
Qjami BergþórBBOn tðlvisi, or the ' Number-wise,' the Arithme- 
tician, a pupil of Bishop John's school at Holar, died in 1173; a 
computistic treatise founded on his wridngs and those of Star- 
Oddi has come down lo us under the name of Rlmiegifi* (rfm 
being the mediæval term for almanack, compulalion), in an old 
veiium of the twelfth century, in No. 1813, a quire of twelve leaves', 
now being edited by Dr. Piehl of Upsala. Since many other 
calendary essays were added, and at last, in Ihe fifteenth century, 
collected into a misceiianeous volume called Blandn ', in AM. 624, 
A collection was published by Stefan Bjðrnsson, Copenh. 1780, 
under the name of Rfmbegla, eztending the name to the whole, 
though of right it only belongs to the oid essay. A little essay 
calied Bókar^, also preserved Ín No. iSia, Ís a kind of old 
c^pendix to the Rfmbegia. 

Purely arilhmetícal : — An essay called Áigorismus , preserved in 
Hauks-bók, probably by (he pen of Lawman Hauk ErleiLdsson 
(died 1334), tbc great penman, collector, and annalist; treats of 

> • Svi Ulði Stiornu Oddi, er glöggTutr miiiDi Tir i illri tolu um himm-tungla 
goneu, hrc tur at lya, allra þeiira miiiiii, ci k róni laudi ha& veiit, at. . . .' — Tkt 
Avlhor ofRimhtgla. 

■ The Prtface ayl, ' Tekf búkia nafn þ>flan ok heitir Rimhtgla, þiri a[ hdn nun 
ITÍ þjklcji wma mega hj& gúðu ríintali, lem "begia" hj& fögiu tmiði.' 

* The wbole volome, No. iSl), iiacollection ol inndrin, of vaiioui datet, looielr 
ilitdied togelher. 

< ■Sbal ijá búk þatan af nafn lalca olc heiU Blanda, Ijiii þrí at tamin er 
" bkndat " ikyldu tali ok iaVj^Aa^—Prtfaa. 



the Four Rules, and the Square and Cube Roots. Hauk is also 
the first man who cmploys Arabic figureí instead of the Roman 
numeral letters. Tbe Algorísrous is published in Ann. for Nord. 
Oldk., Copenh. 1848. 

GEOGBAPmcAi. : — An essay called Guiáe to ike Holy Land (Lelðar- 
vfsir ok borga-skipan), Nikiilas (died 1 1 58), a Benedictine Abbot of 
Thvcra in the North of Iceland. Published under the name of Sym- 
bolae ad Geogr, medii aevi, by Werlauff, Copenh, i8ao. Similar 
tracts are found scattered in the Hauks-bók, all in a scholastic and 
skeleton-like fashjon. A little essay f rom AM. i e ^, published 
in Fms. xi, is worth special noiice, as it mentíons Wineland, gives 
the numbér of the Orkneys, the Faroes, the Hebrides, &c. The 
Flos Peregrinaíionis oí Gizur Hallzson is mentioned in p. ccxiv. 

Smalt and insignificant essays or rather translations, sorting 
under Pkysica, are scattered about in colleccions of miscellania, 
sucb as Hauks-bók, AM. 624; or even medical, as in AM. 194. 
The nalural-hislorical sectíon of the King's Mirror already men~ 
tioned is here of course of paramoimt interest, as are Che lists in 
tbc ^ulur. Observe also the chapCer in Amgrim's Life of Gud- 
mund, describing the nature oF Iceiand. 

Of Glosses, such as abound in thc A.S. (the Ælfric Glosses), the 
Icelandic is very poor. A small coUectíon of about one hundred 
and fifty words, on a stray blank page in the old vellum, Xo. i8iz, 
lately pubLshed in Zacher's Zeitschr. by Dr. Gering of Halle, is 
about all. But a rích crop of synonyms and word-coltecCions 
(giants, dwarfs, sea-kings, gods, báttles, weapons, ships, rígging, 
parts of ships, rivers, islands, sea, earth, tiesides trees, fishes, 
whales, birds, írc.) is contained in our Þuiur, — a motley roychic 
geographical-physical colleciion, in aliiterative gaberdine, memorial- 
verses, for leaming by Keart one would think. The chief coUec- 
tion, fullest and tiest, is found al the end of the famous Edtk MS. 
AM. 748. The Grammatical Essays of Thorodd and Olaf Hvíta- 
skald, the Commentary to Hattatal are treated separately, §§ 6, 20. 


For some timc before the Refoimation, owing to the revolutíoft 
of taste and roanners, an almost complete ignorance of the older 
LÍterature had prevailed in Iceland, but hardty was the scir of the 
second change of Faith over when, as elsewhere, the feeling for 
antiquarían research biegan to arise, side by side with the spirít 
of the new Literature. It is with the former result ttiat we now 
havc to do. 

The first man of any nole in this field was Arngrim /ónsson 
(1567-1648), whose Brevis Commentarius appeared in 1593, and 
tiis Ciymogæa, an interesting epitome of Icelandic history, in 1609, 
when Islendinga-tiók, Sturlunga, and Bishop Arni's Saga were all 
unkn'own. He does not appear to have made any copies of the 



old MSS. Vatzhyrna (and a kv Sagas) was thc storehouse from 
which he drew Ihe constitutional history of Iceland. 

Magtats Olafssm, a priest {1574-1636), headed the revival of 
poetry in Jceland by the compiiation of his handbook, the Laufás 
Edda. We have but few copies of his, but he left an abridgment 
of a lost Orkneyinga Saga, and the first glossary of the Icelandic 
tongue, the Lexicon Runicum. 

Biorn Jénsson, of Skardsa, in the North of Iceland (bom 1574, 
died blind 1655), judge, franklin, and client of Bishop Thorlak 
Skulason, began writing about the year 1635, at the age of lifty, and 
becatne one of the foremost antiquarians of hts day. His specula- 
tions are often rash and hyper-patriotic, but it is impossible not to 
.adniire his zeal and industry. He wrote Annals, composed an 
account of Greenland, and took a few copies, but they are not very 
accurate. He notices the terrible state of ihe M5S. in his days. 

Bishop Odd. of Skalholt (bishop 1589-1630), made the great 
collection of Deeds and Inventories (Maldagar) which rescued for 
us what was left of Icelandic church hislory outside the Sagas. 
The Bishops, as the better educated men of ihe Isiand, indeed 
were the centres of this literary revival. 

J6n Gizursson^ (1589-1648), half-brother to Bishop Brynjolf, 
and a Chief in the West, was the first great co/^-isJ, and Bishop 
Paul's Saga is only preaerved in his copy, which was taken most 
probably in his last years, about 1640. Many folios in his hand 
are preserved Ín the ÁM. collection. 

Bishop Tkorlak Skútúson, of Holar (bishop 1628-56), had the 
ancient lives of the Iceiandic Bishops coilected ; to him also we owe 
the preservation of the Sturlunga and Bishop Ami's Saga in paper 
transcripts taken about 1640-45. The names of his copyists are ' 
not known, but their handnTÍting is familiar to the Edttor. 

In the South the leamed and venerable Bishop Brynjolf, of Skal- 
hoh (1639-75), collected a great library. He cmployed_/iín Erlends- 
son, priest (1638-72) of Vallaholt, the best and most accurate 
of scribes, who has left behind him whöle folios of beautiful and 
correcl penmanship, To his labours we are most highly indebted. 

Another famous scribe of the Copying Age, as it may tie called, 
was Keíil Jorundsson, priest of Hvamm (1638-70), in the West, 
mother's father of Arni Magnusson. To him we owe Sona-Torrek, 
whicb existed only in one vellum of £gla copied by him, now lost. 

' From híi Life, wrhten by hic ton Síra Toifi, we inierl — 'Hinn rar 0% cinnig 
ni niikill bdk-rítaTÍ, >B Uir em hér i, landi tem (amlfSis eSr nni þcna daga hafi 
ivó mikit itaifaS f lit-rerki og búka-ikrífi. Hann ikríraAi á aS cini heÍUr Poitillnr 
og margar heilagit bzkr ng bzklinga, heldi og einnig þar lA auki maigai fomar 
fieSi-ba:kr af allra-hai>di landa rg þjúAa fornidgum og logu-þ&itani, landnimum og 
Annálam, Rtmiu-Bokkum og ynitam kveðlingum, diipum ok Ijótum, og ÖStu 
þeti-háltar, af hTcríu hann hefii eptir lig liIiS margii iHcfli inubaiidnai og úinn- 
bandnir bzkr, og jafn-vel heila og itúra Folianu. Svd til þoiuia hini ineiiia er 
ið leita ivó lem i annan fjiil-hieraii handiaSa, um allt þaS eti fleil lem maðr gimiit 
aS heyn eSr ikj'nji og meikja am allia haiida fyni manna hilla-lag. roin-iiSi, fiam- 
kramdii og Iþríttir.' 


A^,^íU.^/h^ á«A'-^ ^4^ /rf--j ->//•■ ''■^f'pl 


From 1650-1700, beginning even in the lifetime of tbese men, 
the destruction and mutilation of MSS, was verj" great Thua 
Bbhop BrynjoirB heirs (died 1675) neglected and destroyed many 
of his fine collection of vellums '. 

The Saga copies of the ancient time, even those few that exist 
of the sisteenth century, were all on vellutn ; these from the revival 
period, all (the few exceptions of Sishop Thorlak are mere 
curiositíes) on paper. This is why we distinguish between the 
vellum and the paper MSS, and talk of the Paper Age *. 

The history of some of the more noiable MSS. may be worth 
tracing, to sbow how the destniction of vellums went on in the time 
next preceding Ami Magnusson, 1 640-1 700: — Of Islendinga-bók 
and Sturia's edition of Landnama, copied by Jón Erlendsson in 
1650 and 1651, not a leaf remained when Amt Magnusson made 
enquiries for them. The Landnama of Hauks-bók, copied by ihe 
same scribe, was cut up for binding by a. príest, and Arni could 
only secure a few loose leaves, all that were leil. 

As to Orkneyinga, Magnus Olafsson's Lexicon cites phrases 
from a Jarla Si^a, and especially from a fishing scene, which are 
not to be found in our recensions. His abridgment of the 
Orkneyinga Saga, made 1633, now at Upsala, contains this scene 
and two more verses than our text gives, as well as a whole list 
and a better test of the other verses of the Saga, Among the AM. 
fragments are two leaves of a lost vellam, once used for binding, 
which give eight of the references found in Lesicon Runicum, 
with precisely the same mistakes as the citations therein contained. 

' FtoiQ the Biihop'i Lifi in MS. w* talte the fotlowíng: — ' Migisler Btynjolfr 
ligti nAn itiondin 4 og þyrmdi engum koslnali til a& fk hína beztu ikTÍfara til 
>t upp ■lcrífa, optait mct itúrt icllleir, illat gimtar (iígnr, Annila. ok hver>.kjiu 
Idenzkat Frzti-bzkr, ktd hinn upp >p«rAi f ymnim ilöiain þesu lindi. Srí hann 
eg Bitknpinn fiorlikr ivð tem keptuit tifi aí koma Antiqnilelei k fút aptr, þá (ifiiM 
nndir lok liSnum ; cig aS þcirra dzmuni ikiifueu þi margir upp iplr gamlit Sögui 
og Fneei-bzkr. Og eiei hafa IzidÖrni-mentir riunir itaíia f blÓmi en á þeirra 
dugum. . . . Jún biindi I Flalej. sonr Sin Torfa Piiint tonat, ilti itdra og þykkva 
Peigimenlz-bók með gamla Mnnki-ikiipt, inni hildandi Nnitgwkonga Sugnr og 
mirt Aeiia ; og héi fyrii vai han almennilega kölluð FlalejjaF-bdk. Hani folaU 

ir... „_...=..,_ -.1 , ...... r ■_ _... p^ lijjn fytit finun hnndinfl i jÖiflu. 

' ' " ' n lil ikipi úi Byjunni, gif 
. ^ . lln UuniS, Siían leadi og 

ikenkll Mig. Brjmjoirr huu Kgl. Mijeitali.' 

■ Ai to tbe lad plif^t in which the old vellumi were even in 1640, lee Biorn of 
Skarfisa, Pieface to hii Annali. He uyt : — ' þal votta tHtr biekr og ikiEAur tem 
þeir iki&í hafa ; lem þú nii tekr il ijiil litill öimull af a mrftal vót. þviiS þessar 
bBkur hinat gtinilu em ai allar feygtir og fordiirliaar, ivii ift i þeiium fini ikneðum 
lem eplii eru, fiiiit hvotki up[mif né endir;' . . . *nd, >Nú fyrir þaS lem ifir i 
veik, aS þzi fizfii-bzki lem þetiir menn hafa laman Itkifi nm Itlaud og tilburði 
hir, eru nú foi-Totnafiii afl mcita paiti, þi heBr þeim Heiðirlega Herra Bitkupi 
þoiliki Skdla lyni ÓMmilcgt týnzt lem og dviirlegt, að af félli, svú aS einginn stci 
eét viiii eplir ou. hvernig flandinu til gengifi hefir, hTerir þvi haii itiírnaS, hvennr 
það kom undli úllenda hem, Slifiiniii nndit Kenni-valdiS. og anmiS fleira tlikt. 
Og faefii þvi liitS upp leikmi og laman skrila þifi sem nifizl hclir, fynl þann frðfia 
Lamdttám, og ilSan þi miklu IsiíHdinga Sögu, 1 hveni niirl mi nm tlfkl gteinilega 
qi. þvi bvemkalKgja vorum eptirkomendnm fri ih'ku, ef einginn heldiþviuppi?' 

natí ncira ; og uui Jjrii vai unn aimenniiega koiiuc 
Mag. BrynjolA' til kanps, fyitl fvtii peni.iga, (ifian 
Fekk huu þó ekki afi heldt. En er Jdii fjlcti ho! 
hann honum bókina; og meiniit aft Bitkiip bafi hana 


cxUv PROLEGOMENA. § 27. 

It was evidently from this MS. that Magnus Olafsson worked ; it was 
Ín his days complete, all but the end, for we have no reference 
of his to the latter part or to the iast verse of the Saga, no notice 
of which is contained in the íist, But another vellum of this Saga, 
which was in Norway in the sixteentb century, has perished com- 
pletely, as may be thus shown, We have a Ðanish translation of 
the Orkneyinga, 1615 (which G. Stonn believes to be a copy from 
an older translation made about 1570), from a far better text than 
thc Flatey-book, but with a biank. Asgeir Jónsson (of whom 
below) made a copy from a fragment of the same Saga ín the old 
University Library, destroyed in 1728, This transcript is now 
in AM. 333. On the other hand, tbere is the Danish translation 
esisting of the whole Orkney Saga of 1615. A blank, common 
to both the translation and AM. 333, helps us to identify the 
vellum fragment as the original from which the translation was 
taken. The vellum itself was destroycd save a- small fragment, 
which was incorporated in the University Library, where, ere its 
destruction in the great fire, it was copied by Asgeir Jónsson. 

Again, to take the case of King Hakon Hakonsson's Saga. 
Our copies of it are nearly all abridgments, e^pecially Fris-bók, 
the only full texts are in Skalholt-book and Flatey-book, allhough 
the latter ia cut down a good deal lowards the end, while the 
former lacks the end, as it already did in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, as can be lold from the copies then taken. 
The tnie unabrídged end of the Saga woutd now be lost but foi 
a rare and happy accident. In Stockholm tbere is an Icelandic 
vellum of the fonrteenth century, represeniing a text of no remark- 
able worth, But in the sixteenth century this vellum had become 
mutilated, the end was lost, which a scribe supplied from another 
vellum, in the true, unabrídged form. This late transcript is now 
our sole copy of the full text. Of the vellum from which the 
transcript was taken no traces are left. Even the Stockholm vel- 
lum has since been mutilated, and the passages referríng to the 
batlk of Largs must be supplied from a fragment in AM. 325 
and from Flatey-book, which has been little altered in that part. 

Of MSS. which left the island before the Copying Age, say 1 640, 
we have as a rule no paper transcripts, but of nearly all brougfat to 
the continent after tiiat date copies were taken, which in many 
cases we may compare with the transcrípts made in Denmark from 
the same vellum at a later date by Asgeir Jónsson (1680-1700) 
for Torfaeus, and by others for Ami, &c. 

The history of the Sturlunga MSS. will be told in § 31. 

Thus to form a correct idea of our materials we must go back 
to about 1640, and see how matters stood then, tracing down- 
wards. For if this be nol done, no tnie idea of the value of the 
paper transcrípts can be arrived at, and the real basis of our texts 
must remain a matter of guess-work. 




It is about 1630 that the esportation of vellums frotn Iceland 
begins; most of those which left the country earliest being sent as 
presents from lcelanders to men of note or leaming in Denmark. 
Thus even two years before ihis date, Arngrim had sent a MS. of 
the Edda as a gift to Ole Wonn, by whose name it has gone ever 
since. This, as far as is known to the Editor, is the first instance 
of the kind. The nest seems to be Vatzhyrna, also sent over by 
Arngrim, but to whom or in what year we know not. The Codex 
Upsalensis of Edda followed shortly after. 

The chief coKectors at that time in Denmark were Stephaniua 
(died 1650), the leamed editor of Saxo, and Bishop Resenius, 
whose coliectíön of Icelandic veUums was ÍncoipoTated in the 
Univeraity Library in 1685. 

The chief exporter was, as we shall see below, Bishop Brynjolf. 

The whole of our Icelandic MSS. are contained in the foÚowing 
CoUections, which are here taken in order. 

Rqyal Liirary 0/ Copmkagen, founded by King Frederic the 
Tbird (1660-70), as his private Library, but now become national 
property. For an excellent account of its origin and genesis see 
the present Libraiian Chríst. Bruun's Kong. Bibl. Stíflelse, Copenh. 

The Icefandic vellums are all tn the Gamle Kongelige Samling 
(Old Royal Colleclion). The paper MSS. in the New CoUections 
are worÁless, The following list drawn up by an amanuensis of 
Torfaeus will be the best notice of the former. The last three in 
this hst came over in 1656. The other portion ítwelve vellums) 
was procured by Torfaeus himself or presented by Bishop Brynjolf 
to the King in 1661. This list is heie prínted for the first ttme 
from a loose paper unearlhed by the Editor in 1863. 

ManutciÍptonuD in Pergamini Catalogni. 

[a\ Cli. epÍKoput Scbitboltiae hoi miiit ;— 

1. CodeiLegum modiniiium in Itlindil; folio [J6ní-b6k, No. jaTð]. 

a. Regum quorundim Norvegonim bistotii ; folio [Maikinikiiina, No. 1009]. 

3. Njalt cu)uídam'hiitori> mutili; quaito [ar&tkiniia, No. aSðe]. 

4. Giilavi Sdi, et Tboimodi KalbTuniiioldi ; quaita [loit]. 

5. Mitbenutica quiedam; quarto [Rlmbegla, No. 181}]. 

6. EddaSaemundi; quirto [Cod. Reg., No. 1365J, 

7. £ddi SDOironÍt; qnaito [Cod. Reg., No. 1367]. 
[6] Reliqua haec compiraTÍ ; — 

J. Hittoría Regum Noiregiae a Magno cognomine Bono, cique id Sreieietii 
Migniim juita taiem continuata ; folio [Hiokkinikinna, No. loio]. 

a. Sanctic Thonue Arcbiepiicopi Cintabregientli. et Sancti Olavi Regii Noi- 
Tegiae Hittori*; foHo [Tbamaukinna, No. T008]. 

3. Niali Hittoria mntila; quaito [fng., Noi. 1E69-70]. 

4. Anntlel quidam Trtuiliiiinii ; quailo [Annalei Regii, No. 1087]. 

g. Halfnki [lic] Teirítoríi cujusdam Narvegici Regii inte Pulcbiicomi tempui 
bÍKoria, llem Hódreki Cimbriae Regii Tetuttiiilml et multa alia ; oclaTO 


VOL. 1. k 


cílvi PROLEGOMENA. § a?- 

Hib«otDC pnetcr tupcHorM nunDtcriptoi in BiblioChecL Rcgil : — 

I. Fliteyil-bók iD Mio, quem tranttDli ; [Flater-bók, No>. 1005-6.] 

a. aiagii, folio, tnnifacndm ; [Cod, Reg., No. 1 157.] 

[Totfiinu b» hcre fbrgotten to meption the Volinngi 'Sagi, wbich wu miihiid 
for minj Jta,ti, dnrínB which time onljr papei copie* weie knowa, ind 
onij raondin iSiI. It is oow in Ihe New Royal Coll., No. iSi^.b.] 

Delte fortkreroe er (kreven after Moni. Thormod Torvcioni egen haand 1711 
i Octotiri. [TheiB arc pencii maiks on thii liit in Anii Magnxui' bind.] 

Universify Library, Coþenhagen. This Library was completely 
deBtroyed bythe great fire of 1738; but this deplorable accident 
has done less hann tban was to be looked íot, owing to the 
collection of paper copiea made by the leamed Toríaeus, who 
has preserved fdr texta of nearly all that was valuable. The 
nucleug of the Libraiy were the Codices Reseniani, The wholc 
coUectíon is most commonly quoted under ihe title Codicet 
Aeademici. Among which were the Kringla, Jöfra-skinna, 
GuUin-skinna, which were brought from Norway to Copenhagen 
in the MXteenth centtiry, the two Fagrakinnas, A and B íwe have 
by chance a leaf which exactly fits Ínto tbe blank left in tne paper 
copies, it had been used for binding in Norway, where it was 
found), three or four vellums of Sverri's Saga, and a few important 
fragments of Orkneyinga. There were also the greater part of 
Vatzbyma (the heaviest loss of all), of which we gather some tn> 
formation from Amgrim's Crymogæa; Hrafn Sveinbiomsson's Saga; 
the 'Annales Reseniani;' the great Codex Bergensis, a diplo- 
mataríum of deeds, letters, and cbarters, of which Anii'g copies 
contain no doubt the best part; and many old Nc^rse and old 
Danish MSS, One book of this collection alone escaped, the 
Codex Resenianus of Priest Gudmund's Saga (now numbered AM. 
399), which had been lent out of the Library to Ami Magnusson. 

Upsala. Stephatiio s, the leamed editor of Saxo, had made a 
collection of Icelandic MSS., which were on bis death (in 1649) sold 
by his widow to the Swedish nobleman, Magnus de la Gar die ' in 
i65i,atwhose death in 1686 tbey were presented to iEeTJníversity 
Libraiy. We can identify tbese from the old catalogue ; and only 
one is lost, a MS. of tbe Kings' Lives. They are a very important 
coUection, though few in number. Tbe ' Upsala Edda,' Gretla, the 
unique MS. of the Legendary Dfe of St Olaf, Odd Monk'g Life of 
Olaf Tryggvason, Strengleikar, and Elis Saga are among them. 

Stockholm. The greatest colleclion nest to that of Arni Magnus- 
son is that of Stockholm, at the Royal Library. In 1658, during 
the war of King Charles X, an Icelandic ship with a young Ice- 
landic student, named JÓJLRu^oan (born 1636), from Rugstaðir 
Ín tbe North, on boardrwas taken and brought to Gottenburg. 
There he was well received by Count Peter Brahe, the King's 

* Por tbe maaj npi ind downi in the Ufe of thii rcmirkaUe min duriog tbe 
icigni of Queen Chiiitina, King Chailei X Qnitaf (to wboie liiteT Coont Magniu 
wu married), mai Cbarlei XI, lee Andieai Piyidl'i cfaarmiog work, BerítteUct 
nr STenika Hiitorien. 



tmsted fríend aiid Sweden's fírst maii, and settled in Sweden. A 
few years later (r66o-Ö3) he waa despatched to Iceland in quest 
of MSS. He reaped a rích harvest there — a collection of MSS., 
obtained principaily from the north of the island. In thc mean- 
time more Icelanders had settSed in Sweden, and in 1683 jón 
Eggertson brought over a. second collection from the same quarter, 
of which we have a list spccifying the cost of everj' volume. 

The vellums of Heidarviga Saga, Gunnlaug, the Bergs-bók, and 
Thidrek's Sagas, the Homily-book, and the coilections of Saints' 
LiveB, Romances, ftc. are the tnost important of this collection. 
The vellum copies amount to about thirty, not counting the small 
and insignificant ones. There is, besides, a great óollection (about 
two bundred) of paper MSS, but with few exceptions (e.g. tbe 
Danish TranBlation of Orkney Saga) these are of little worth. Two 
veHtuns, with tbe O. H. No. a, and a MS. of Thidrek of Bem's 
Saga, had been at Stockholm from the fourteenth century. 

Wol/aMlUl. The Ubiary here contains two MSS. bought at 
X sale in tbe seventeenth century. One of these contains i^la 
and Eyrbyggia. The other a great coUeclion of Rfmur. 

Christiaiua. Beyond the alips and fragments which had been 
Bsed for bindjng Áe ledgers of an up-countiy sheriff io Norway, 
1634, vhich were discovered in 1847, and contain pieces of Fagr- 
sldnna (as noticed above), of Norse Law, of Thorgils Skardi's Saga, 
of the Life of S. Brandan, this Library contains no Icelandic MSS. 

There were, when Arai Magnusson began to collect, some sixq' 
and odd vellums alreadf enlisted into foreign lihraries. 

Árm Mt^musm's CoIUction. Aeni Macnusson was bora at 
Kvennabrekka, in (he West of Iceland, in 1663, but bis youtb was 
Spent at the famous farmstead of Hvamm, where his mother's father, 
Ketil the prícst, lived, a well-known copyist of MSS. At Ketil's 
dealb (1670) his son Paul succeeded lo hb cure. Ami came to 
Copenhagen in 1683 as a poor smdent, but soon became acquainted 
with Bartholin, who employed him in writing and copying. Even 
at this tíme Arai began to colléct MSS. The first he acquired was 
Hulda, which had come a few years earlier to Norway, and had just 
arrived thence in Denmark, where it fell into Arni's bands in 1687. 
The second purchase made was the great AM. 133, whicb had been 
KxA by an Icetander. Biom Magnusson . to Denmark with his son as 
a credcntíal and recommendation to the Danisb scholar Bartboliii 
(died 1690), and it was at bis sale that Ami bought it in 169V Xt 
the same salc Ami bougbt another great Icelandic vellum, namely, 
the present AM. 61, cont^ning both the Olats' Sagas. This 
vellum had been presented by Magnus BiomsBon to the Danisb 
govemor Heidemanai from whom it came to Bartholin. The third 
was the Fris-bók, so called from the name of its owner and Eir- 
spennil. These vellums had come to Denmark from Norway 
(wbere ihey were written) in the sixteentb century ; Arai bought 
k 3 


cxlviii PROLEGOMENA. § aj. 

bolh in 1696 al the sale of Jens Rosencrandz, the possesBor of 
a second folio of Shakespeare (acquired by the Royal Library for 
I dollar 2 maik 8 skilling, about 5 shillings), the only compiete 
edition of his works which Mr. Bniun, the RoyaJ Librarian, has 
noticed in more than seventy Danish catalogues of private collec- 
tions of ihe seventeenth century. Fourlhly, ihe vellum B of 
Sturlunga (AM, 122 A), acquired about the year 1700. 

But the bulk of his coUection waa the fruits of his stay Ín 
Iceland from 1702-12, vrhen he was employed on the Royal 
Survey; these MSS. came from all parts of Iceland, but chiefly 
from the wesL Although Ami, having lelt lceland for good in 
1713, never retumed to Iceland, he lefl many friends behind him, 
and from them he received the 'gleanings' or 'aftermath' of his 
harvest, and Sess important MS5., fragnients, &c. came over at 
intervals till his death. In 1719 Torfaeus died at his distant house 
in Norway, and Ami bought his whole library frora the widow. 
Thus he got the impoitant copies which Torlaeus had bad taken of 
Icelandic vellums in the University Dbrary by his kinsman and 
amanuensis Ásgeir Jómson (1680-1703, died in Norway ia 
1716), which included many early MSS. of importance in the 
collection of the University. Afier this date no MSS. of any 
importance except a paper transcript of Sturlunga have been dis- 
covered in Iceland.. The folio copies of Aageir Jón Erlendsson, 
of Jón Gizursson, &c. ; the quartos of Ketil Jonindsson, of Bishop 
Thorlak, Biom of Skárdsa, &c., all went into Arna Magnusson's 
CoUection, and were there saved from destruction. 

Ami has carefully traced the hístory of each MS, or fragment, 
as far as he knew it, in his scholarlike way, thtis preserving much 
useful infoimatíon whic^ we lack with regard to the other collec- 
tions. In October, 1728, came the great fire of Copenhagen, 
lasting many days, and on the 6th of January, 1730, Ami died; 
he had never recovered the shock, nor had the heart to find out 
in the min of his Ubrary what he had reaJly losC. What the loss 
was we have the means of judging from Ami's catalogue of 
vellums (AM. 435 in his own hand) for the years 1707-27, 
which was checked through by the Editor (in abouC 1861), and 
from the nimierous cross-references on Arni's slips in the MSS. 
themselves, from which it appears that far from Bishop Finn's 
weU-known statemenC in Hist. Eccles. (made indeed nearly fifty 
years after ihe event), that only one-third had survived the fire, 
being substantiated, the trath is that hardly one MS. of any 
account has perished'. Paper copiea and some MSS. of little 
worth, as well as many printed books of printed literature, must 

' 'MliiDtar nmlti, quae Eupcnunt, rdiqoiu; quid autem feciuent, li inte^run 

(upenit, quod eo mijoie fiducia icríbo et pronuncio, quod muliodiei eandem hii 
meli oculit luitnTÍ, hiique manibui leliqniai, quie lupenunt, ex flimmii eiportaTÍ, 
ultiinutque omDÍuia ei domo, flimmii jam jam chutai lambeatibui egieuui tum. 



have formed almost the whole of that portion of the Library which 
then períshed there. Of vellums we miss : two vellum copies of 
Thidrek of Bern's Saga, three or four of Karlamagnus, Bæiar- 
bók (containing St. Oiafs Saga, the only copy of the Great Earl 
Magnus Saga, and the tieginning of Bjöm Hitdælakappi's Saga, 
which is not found elsewhere), and two or three MSS. of Livea 
of the Saints, Romances, &c. The one great irreparable Iogs 
was that of the twelve leaves of Heidarviga Saga, With respect 
to the Poetic Edda we have perhaps some cause to regret the 
paper copics of the seventeenth century (1643-1700), all of which 
were then destroyed. The foUowing Íiat, from a slip in Ami 
Magnœus' own hand (inserted in AM. 739, 4to), wtll give some 
idea of them : — 

Sziniindar Eddur gejti-anigiT. 

Met headi J6tu OitJitonar; 410. 

Magniisi SigurduonaTi rol. 

Am> Airuoaar; fol. 

M«a hendi Sai Úlifi JániiDnai ; 410. 

McB hendi Mag. Brynjðlfs framan af bi Oddl SignrdHTIií; foU 

Mcð hendi Biömi i SkaiBii; 410; gaafiröng. 

MeA hendi Sen Jdni i ViliÍDgaholti; rol. 

M«e hendi Stra J ; 8vo. 

Sen t>Ðibe[i Amgrimionai ; 8to ; dnýt. 

Seta Ama I GeiW ; 8vo ; ínýt, 

Sert Einart i G^nlnm ; 410 ; ónjt, 

Sera Halldori i Rsylcholti; 4)0. 

Sigorðar fijönuionai iögmanni; IdI. BUar eini tangar nieS triifaldii Völuipi. 

1 Magiitei BrynjiUb var fleira en f membraDÍi. 

Jdni í Oddgeiriholnm ; 4to. 

MeS minoi eigin hendi; fiil. fnrar bafa copior Ser> J<in i Hilaidal og Pill 

If we had these copies we should probably be able to ascertain 
with certainty the orígin and contents of the other Edda fragments 
which once eiisted, and to fix the authenticily of the additions 
which the paper MSS. supply in a few places. AbouC the middle 
of the century (about 1650), a few more leaves may have been 
extant of AM. 748 than were fifly years later, when Ami rescued 
the remaining six leaves ; hence may be deríved the half verses 
Völuspá 64, and Hávam. 134 (Möbius), as surely were the final 
verses of ihe Runic Song of Sigrdrifa. 

It is difficult to overrate the services which Ami rendered to 
Northem Literature ; but for him the hulk of the works which form 
its chief glory would have perished slowly but surely, the change 
of taste had already restrícted the love of the old masterpieces of 
the past to a learned few, whose labours were as liable to loss, 
decay, and neglect as the MSS. they labonred to preserve, and the 
ung^ateful tradition which declares that Ami robbed his countiy 
of her precious manuscripts — bringing them over only to perish by 

nierat, cnm allimni qui are- 
— ffiK. Efd. lú. iii. p. J76. 


cl PROLEGOMENA. { i-j. 

fire at CopenhageD — is but another ínstance of the reward which 
popuUr ignorance too commonly metes out to merit and tnie 
patríotism '. 

Arni's distinguishing attribute ÍB a steadfast eamest character, 
and a shrewd and careful sagacíty, which scood him in good stead 
in the career which he had so wisely marked out foi himself and so 
Buccessfully cairied out — tfaat of a great collector. 

The slips in his marlced handwríting, containing as much as he 
knew of the history of the MSS. to which they are attached, are 
even affixed to fragments, and prove the care and thought which 
he was willing to expend on the.meanest shred of the Literature 
be had done so much to preserve. They are unfortunately all 
that survives of the collection which he had been forming for many 
years towards a Literary History of Iceland. Arni's faithfiil fríend 
and clienC Tón Olafsson , the humbler Boswell of a gentler Johnson, 
came to him a'yoiítE of twenty in 1725, from his foster-father 
and Anii's fríend Paul Vidalin, and lived with him day by night all 
tiie cemaining years öFhísirfe, nursing him on his death-bed, Jan. 
7, 1730. He outlived him by well-nigh fifty years, a Lving index 
of the memoríes of the life and sayings of Ami and Faul Vidalin, 
He has recorded for us many good remarks and humourous say- 
ings of his paCron. 

Like Johnson, his taste was practical; above all, he delighted in 
Annals, Charters, Deeds, &c., and was espedally fond of Libellus, 
which he considered to be the only surviving work of Ari's (wbose 
authorsbip of Landnama &c. he left unheeded), while he íonsidered 
the Islendinga Sögur aa in some sense unworthy the seríous con- 
Bideration of the historian. A specimen of his criticism is given 
below, which will give some idea of his literaiy standpoint, and 
tbe curious patchwork style of his memoranda'. 

We have noticed elsewhere the resulCs of the Benefaction which, 
though it was long before it took efTect, has yet been of great use 
iu stimulating the interest felt in Iceland for the older literature. 

' Miny of (hí chiefer Víllurai AmL bought, not in tcelind »t ill, bnl in Dtnmírfc, 
nchai AM. 61, 66(Kiilda), tjl (ihe grcit veUum), Edda Wotm., NjaU 468, Scc., 
aot to ipeak of Fii>-bók, Eitipeonil, and olhen thal hid neTR been in lcelind. 
In tict, in 1 70), it Ami'i atiinl, thete were few TeliuQii of note in whole condition 
lelt in Iceland. 

■ Of the Sigai, he u;i: — 'Pleitii af vonun lileniku logum eru ilirifaiai if 
hominibui hiitoriie peDÍtm ÍcDarii et chconoiogiie imperitii ; em þar f meilin part 
•cilu. indigni impliGcerað með minmocða-fjiílc^; item rei coofutitiime trakteiaðir, 
og mirt aukið og úiatt. tilenskir ilulte ereheiíSir. Fleitai eni og ikrifiAu ivó 
leiDt, afi autoiei kunnu eigi vel vita Terititem geitnium. 1 lilcnzkum lilgum eve- 
heciEt itulte Iilindi, og þeitii meiitei, einiog þeir vzii ölluin niiionibui fremi. 
Fnmar öðnim beGr Nj&li lögu autoi veríð bljgðuDacliai þac I möcgum iiöðuin. 
Og er þaS eitt argument til a3 Snmandc Fiófii lé ei hennac lulor, þvl af honum ei 
að ranta mdi) greindai,'— fl/S. Nyi Kgl. SamJ. 1836. 

Anú wiote no booki. 'There are too nuajr booki,' he nied to uy, but he 
collecled all hli life towaidi »me Opui Magnam. AU iheie pipeii were itowed 
awaf in Ihe iU-fateil 'Krinium' he lefl bdiind him UDiwuei in the burolng hou^. 
and Ihe kui broke hii heatt, ' 



In these six collectíons are contiuned the whole of the Icelandic 
MSS. now estant of oríginal value. Nooe but late and inferior 
copies from MSS. in these collections exist elsewhere. 

After Ami's days Icelanders continued to take copíes, for use Ítl 
the island, from their oríginals on the continent, many of tbose 
have been brought from Iceland in iater times. Thus Finn 
Mayniija^n collected and sold many of these ; hence 'the paper 
MSS. in the Bodleian, the British Museum, and the Advocates* 
Library. Sir Joseph Banks brought over some such MSS. Ín 
1772. As far as they touch on ihe old lilerature, they are (with 
one exception, of which laler) entirely valueless. 

The Danish historían Suhm (died 1798) had many paper tran- 
ficrípts taken by Icelanders, for use in hts works. These are now, 
with others, in the New Royal CoUection at Copenhagen, but, like 
all copies taken after Ami's days, they are completely worthless. 
The single exception is the Sturlunga paper text in the Brítish 
Museum and Advocates' Library. The habit of making such 
copies has survived to the present day in Iceland, but their sole 
interest lies in the beautiful penmanship of ihe scribes. 

It is perhaps worthy of mention that gardinal Mazari n. tn 1648, 
formed the project of colJecting Icelandic MSS., and tried to 
induce Sts£aiL,QlaiÍ5op the poet (died 1688) to come lo Faris 
as Librarian and Translator, but he was dissuaded by his parenta 
and Bishop Brynjolf from accepting the invitation. Tbough 
the Cardinal did get several vellutits, he acquired none of any 
value. A MS, of Jóns-b6k is the best of tbe colleclion. 

As to the oulward appíarance of Icelandic vellums, — those of the 
Royal Library are not now in the dress they were when they came 
from Iceland, having been bound in 1780-87, bearíng the rojal arms 
of Cbristian VII, not unscathed by the binder's knife. Tbus in Cod. 
Reg. of the Poetic Edda the indei to the dialogue is oflen written 
far in the edge of the margin, in order not to disfigure tbe page, this 
has in one or more instances been touched by the binder's knife. 
The Flatey-book, a colossal vellum, is now parted into two volumes. 
Few remain in their natural savage slale — No. 2845 in plugged oaken 
boards; tbe Gráskinna and 181 3 in sealskín with hair on, the fitting 
gabardine, we take it, of small vellums, indeed, the ' limp cloth ' 
of those old days. The Ama-Magn, vellums are plain binding of 
Ami MagnusBon's own time, all uncut, ibe shreds in pastebcard 
cases. A few stilt in their old bare thong-plugged oak-boards, such 
as Hulda, Niala 4^8, AM. 1 33. Beat of all are the vellums in Stock- 
holm, each volume, bound or unboimd, encased in a separate case. 
One Strange custom of Ami's must be mentioned, — the paper folios 
of Jón Erlendsson, Asgeir, and others, contaíning each a whole 
collection of Sagas, are all cut up and distríbuted according to the 
class of the Sagas throughout the Library, disjecta membia, the 
odds and ends being filled up by Ami's scríbes. 


clu PROLEGOMENA. § a8. 

§ 28. Chances of Recovering MSS. 
We may add a few words as to what poasibility there may yet 
be of rccovering MSS. either in or out of the island itself, As to 
the latter contingency. During the fourteenth and fifleenth cen- 
turies, which were really the Dark Ages of its spiritual and literaiy 
life, there was little communication between Iceland and otber 
countries with Lhe exception of England, with whose westem ports, 
especially Bristol, ihere was considerable trade between the years 
1413-15Z0. But although Englishmen frequently wiutered in 
Iceland, there are no traces of their bringing anyúiing, save fish 
and eider-down, horae with them, We must regret this, for there 
were no doubt at that time twice as many vellums in eiislence as 
ultimately survived until the Revival, two centuries later ; and many 
Sagas must have utterly perished since, whicb migbt then have 
been saved. 

In the Færeys or Faroes, inhabited by the Icelanders' nearest 
of kin, there was in the Middle Ages, if we may believe the 
. somewhat mysteríous hints of the Ballads, one great book at least 
said to have come from Iceland, the contents of which may be 
guessed at from the Bailads themselves (as in the similar case of 
the Icelandic Rímur) ', These are chiefly of a fabulous or romantic 
cbaracter, but one or two of the Islendinga Sögur musl have been 
among them. The following list of the subjects of tbese lays is 
fairiy complete :— 
Tkt Balladt of— 

Tbc FaiinliiethrcD. JaUgrim. 

The Uxd«l»folk. Hílf. 

The FzicTfolk. Hervar and Arrow-odd. 

OunnaT. Fina aod HiifdaD. 

Orni Storoiriion ind BrruL Oongo Hrolf. 

Tbe JomiTÍIdDgt. Illagi OriðaifotUa. 

HemÍDg. SiguiS Fafni'i baae and hii cjcle. 

KiDg Obf ind the Troll. NDma-Qett. 

ThcLadf Margiret a^d King Magaut. Lold. 

But of the original MS5. not a vestige remains. 

In Norway ihere were, besides their own, a great many Icelandic 
vellums in early times. Fragments of some of these are preserved 
at Christiania, in Denmark, and Sweden, beside stray books which 
came through Norway, as Olafs Saga in Stockholm and some 
others. Hopes had been entertained that the Vatican migbt (even 
if there were no lcelandic MSS. araong its treasures) possess one 

' The Baltadt, tayi Mr. Hamnienhaimb. often begin lajing — 
AÍD ci rlmaD ur Islindi komin ikrírad i bok K> breida. 
Or, Frödid er komid ur Itlandi ikiÍTad i bok 10 brcida. 
And, HaGd tía tioytl nm kongin laon id ihiiradvr Mendur i bok 7 
Svábo/t Ballad collection ofl^Si-Sl ii itilt in MS. in ihe Royal Libi. Copenh. in 
phoDctic Faroe ipelliog. Ptinled arc Siurar Irvaji by Lyn^yt, in iSii, and tbe col- 
lection of HaninKntainii. in Nord. Oidik., Copcnh, 1851-55, in Icelandiciied ^lling. 
Tbe Ballad in Antiq. Americanae giTct a fair ipecimcn of tbe whole kind. 



or two of the lost £a/i« Sagas, aa King Olafs Life by Odd, and 
Bishop John's Lífe by Gunnlaug, and the Life of the Kings by 
Sœmund; but Muoch's unsucœs^ul search auguis ill foi this 

In Iceland itself, damp and rot, smoke and dirt, in farm- 
houses built of turf and imperfectly weatber-tight and warmed 
vith fires of sheep's dung, were, ai^er all, the greatest enemies 
of MSS. None but religious works, homilies, lives of saints 
and the like, seem to have been preserved in the monasteries, 
wbere they met with more care than fell to the lot 'of secular works 
in private dwelltngs. But tbere are a few homesteads, the seats of 
great iamilies, which seem to have possessed and preserved col- 
lecdons of MSS. These lay mostly in ihe wcst, e.g. Skard- in 
Medalfeilzslrand, Reykjaholar, Ögr, Stadarhol, and others, and the 
vellums would be some of them no doubt heirlooms, as it were, in 
the very places where Ari, Snorri, and Sturla had lived. Great 
bavoc was wroughl by the binders in the seventeenth century, 
cutting up fragments and sometimes mutilating complete MSS. 
We know bow many clippings of this sort were saved by Ami 
M^piusson (e.g. in the cases AM. 163, 325, 655, 698, noticed 
elsewhere), but even now all books from Iceland, esp>ecia11y those 
from the east, should be carefully ezamined for such scraps, though 
there is not much hope of any great (inds, as owing to the causes 
noticed above, few bindings of the seventeenth century (and those 
of later date are hopeless) have survived to the present day. But 
as Ín the old style of book-covers, and even in old printed Bibles, 
*c., when the backs were loosed by use or decay, the leaves got 
loose and frequently fell out altogether (for instance, two folds of 
the Eddic Lays are thus losl), a scrap or two of such lost sheeis 
might stiU be forthcoming ; and even a shred of an Icelandic MS., 
owing to ihe condensed style and close writing, fuU of abbrevja- 
tions, is often of great value. Thus of the lays in AM 748 only 
siz leaves are leít, but these contaiu tbree poems in fiill and por- 
tions of other three, 

To speculate stiU more botdly. Greenland was of all the Norse 
settlements in the closest relation to Iceland. Judging from the 
number of cburches and parisbes, the names of which are on 
record, the colony at its best must have had a population of about 
three tbousand souls, nor were these people entirely uncultured. 
Two of our Eddic Lays,those of Atli, are inscribed'Greenlandisb,' 
and the intemal evidence confimis it ; for reasons noted elsewhere 
we should add a third (that of Hymi) to this category. 

Several of tlie Icelandíc Sagas are closely connected with Green- 
land in scene and cbaracters ; this was aiso the case witb some 
that are lost, notably Skald-Helgi Nay, the Greenlanders most 
likely bad Sagas of their own. All these, as well as the Icelandic 
MSS. which we may fancy them to have possessed, are lost by 
the entire extinction of the colony, which was brought about as it 


cliv PROLEGOMENA. § i8. 

is supposed by famine and plague, caused by the breach ■of com- 
' munication with the mainland, and, if any belief may be given to 
the legends of the Eskimos, by the assault of that people on the 
enfeebled European settlement. This great catastrophe seems to 
have happened aboul 1400 and the following yearB, When Green- 
land was re-discovered two centuríes later, not a trace was left of 
the fonner colony; they had died, like Franklin and hia crew, 
leaving barely a aign of their esistence, Whether the MSS. which 
they may have poasessed in the twclfth century perished with their 
owners or are still hidden in the deserted dwellings, the very site 
of which is as yet unknown to us, we cannot tell. For we musl 
not too hastily accept all the conclusions of the leamed editors 
of the Gronl. Hist Mind. or Antiq. Americanae. The massive 
upstanding stone buildings they depict fit badly with what we 
know of Icelandic dwellings, whose turf walls and sod roof will 
have sunk together in a heap, so that the explorer would have to 
seek for relics below rather than above ground. Still a search 
could hardly be wholiy unproductive, and household appliances 
and utenails might at ail events repay the toil which is httle likeiy 
to be rewarded by the discovery of MSS. or wood-carvings. 

In Iceland itself the search may be more hopefully attempted, 
and we may conclude.with a pious hope ihat some one of the 
hidden homesteads lying beneath the ashes of that volcanic land 
may yet yield the harvest with which the insulae of Pompeii and 
Herculaneum have enríched the explorer. The fourteenth century 
was especialiy marked by violent volcanic convulsions. In 1363 
the greatest eruption ever recorded destroyed two parishea, a whole 
little county. A deed of an earlier date which we still poasess 
(ii- 503)1 names some twenty fams which now lie buríed beneath 
the ashes. Swinefell, Flosi'a house, alone escaped. This disttict is 
one wbere the stories of Nial, of Hall o' Side, and of Thord Frey's 
príest would be well known, and no doubt reproduced on more than 
one vellum, but as there is some reason to fear that the glacier 
streams have completed the work of destniction begun by the 
ashes, we cannot hope for much here. In 1390 (see Sttitl. ii. 4J7) 
two great homesteads near Hekla were destroyed by an eruption, 
one of which, Skard, ig a famous place in Icelandic history, as the 
dwelling-place of many worthies, and the chief estale in the district. 
Here were preserved two crosses, one marking the hdght of King 
Olaf Tiyggvason and the other that of Hialti Skeggisson the 
missionary (see Kristni Saga); and here, if anywhere, we might 
certainly expect to find MSS. of value, such as Ari's Liber and 
Sæmund'g Sook of Kings. The other farm is Tjalda-stadir, whích 
got its name from the tents which were set up aa a field boapital by 
that heathen Samaritan Thorstein, for a plague-stricken Norwegian 
crew who had come there. It was also a notable place, and one 
where MSS. may perhaps be awaiting the spade and pickaxe of 
a new Schliemann. 


{ a9. COLLECTIONS, ETC. clv 

§ 39. CoLLXcnoNs OF THE Thirteekth and Fourtbknth 

Inthe time of the Commonwealth, whiiethe creative instínct was - 
Btill at work, we may &iicy the wrítten literature as circulating in 
pamphlet-form, small-siied vellum biODlts roughly copicd, like the 
quartos of our early playwríghts, such as the Libellus gives us an 
esample of. But all these have períshed, and it is from ihe collec- 
tion of the following centuríes, fine large books well wrilten on 
large parchments, that we deríve our texts. It was not till all 
originál power hád died away, that this work of collecting began, 
tbat nobles paid clerks to copy out for them what MSS. Öiey 
wished to have. But we owe a debt of gratitude to the men who 
did this work ; if they could not wríle themselves, Chey at least 
took care of tbe works of those that could ; if they had no imagi- 
nation or much scholarship, tbey gave fatthful copies and good 
clean tests, so that, though we should have liked to have tbeir 
scholia on the storíes they have handed down, we bave every 
reason to be content with their honest work. The popular taste 
was at this tíme veiy low, caríng for little but French Romances 
(in prose translations) and fictitious Sagas ; only the coUectore, 
few of whose names are known, remained faithful to tbe older 
literature. Of the coUections (under which we include aU M5S. 
which contain several distinct works) we can scldom give the exact 
date, but they begin in the tbirteenth century ; the bulk are of the 
early fourteenth century. Their numbers dwindling away in the 
fifteenth century (lo a fourth of the number of ihe preceding 
century), in the sixteenth they disappear, leaving a gap of c. 130 
years before 1630. The earliest coUectÍons made were thoseof 
the I«W8, see $ 35. 

Of tbe cdleciions of Historioal WorkB made by Icelanders in 
Norway, we have spokeo already, see § 15. 

The collections of lalendinga Sðffur may be roughly arranged 
Rs foUowB : — 

a. AM, 133 once contained three greater, seven minor Islendinga 
Sögur, and two fictitíous Sagas. It is of the end of the thirteenth 
century. A model MS., important for its speUÍng, of beautiful 
penmanship, and in faír preservation. The facsimile in the old ^ ^, , , (j^^ 
edition of Egla is bad. __- ; (^íi3*í«^ <^ , 

b. Vatahyrna, a century later. In ^^mplete state it seems to < 
have beld Iwo greater, !■» minorf^ur fabulous S^as, and three 4vnL 
or four Þætiir fabulous alsa See Fomsögur and Bardar Saga ' 
(Nord. Lit. Samfund, 1860) prefaces. It once belonged to Am- 

grim the Leamed, and formed the staple of his materíal for Cry- 
mogæa. It has bad a curíous fate, one part (known as Cod. 
Resenianus) came into the University Library in 1685, and is 
mentioned by Arni as Vatzhyma, but when we come to compare 
Amgrim's quotations from it, only one of his three refers to a 


clvi PROLEGOMENA. § 29- 

Saga contalned in ihis porlion, we iherefore conclude part to have 
been separated. That this is so, a set of fragments of a folio in 
beautiful writing, preserved in AM. Library, shows. For putting 
these fragmentaiy eight Seaves and what we know of Codex Rese- 
nianus (which itself perished in the fire, though paper copies have 
sucvived) side by side, the size, writing, and contents tally, while a 
genealogy in one of the fragments and another in the Codex agree 
in drawing pedigrees down to Jón Hakonsson {the nobleman for 
whom Fiatey-book was writlen). Moreover, in these fragments we 
find the two quotations which Ámgrim gives, but which are missing 
in Codex Resenianus, correet to a misspeiling. We may tberefore 
eonclude with absolote certainty that these fragments are part of 
ihat smaller balf of Vatzhyrna wbicb gol separated from the bulk 
of the book (Cod. Res.) after Amgrim's days. Resenius, into 
whose hands the greater part fell, was a Danish bishop, who made 
the fine coUections which perished with the University Library. 
Facsimile in second volume of Isl. S6g., Copenb. 1847, Tab. IL 

c. The Liosvetninga vellum, whicb, from our Liosvetninga and 
Vapnfirdinga Sagas being derived from it, we have calied Liosvetn- 
inga. A large folio of tbe later fourteenth century in a gross thick 
hand, tiut correctly copied; seven leaves only remain in veiy bad 
condition (three Liosv., one Vapnf., one Dropl., one Finnbogi, one 
Thorstein Stangarhtígg). But the vellum must have contained more 
matter, and we are inclined to think that several Sagas (Reykdsela, 
Valla-Liót, Havard, and perhaps Svarfdæla), which we cannot 
father to any oiher MS. or fragment, may be derived from ihe 
lost part of it. A facsimile of it would be welcome. The frag- 
ments have been used for the Oxford Icelandic Reader (Liosv. and 
Vapnf. extracts). 

d. AM. 309 comprised Laxdæla (best text of part used in 
Oxford Icelandic Reader), Niala, Eyrbyggia (only bits of these 
left), and Olaf Tryggvason Saga (a copy from Flatey-book, a rare 
instance of one old MS. copying from another that survives). 
Dated 1498. No facsimile; part of Laxdæla sbould be taken, 

e. AM. 556 of the fifteenth century: Gretti, Gisli, and Hardar 
Saga, ail these perfect, Facsimile in Isl. Sog., Copenh. 1 847, Tab. I. 

/. AM. 557 of the fifteenth century contains, among olher ihings, 
Gunnlaug's Saga, the Saga of Erik the Red (on whicb the text 
in Oxford Icelandic Reader is chieíiy based), and Hrafn Svein- 
biomsson's Saga. Facsimile in Antiq. Americanae, Tab. V. 

g. Slockholm, No. 18. A most valuable MS. of the thirteenth 
century, containing Heidarviga (see p. liv) and Gunnlaug's Saga. 
Its fate has been cunous. The Editor was able to enamine it in 
1874 (the iírst person who opened it since Jón Sigurdsson had 
read it thirty years before), and compare its Heidarviga text with 
that of editions, Jinding two small mistakes in the latter (cb. 15, 
p. 331, 1. 3, giving sva wókvi mikinn for the accepted sva ntssla 
mikinn, and ch. 16, p. 321,1, 9, where it gives ^íriinní for vtrksmS. 


§ »9- COLLECTIONS, ETC. clvu 

Dict, s. V,, p. 698, should be corrected here, we suspect the rcading 
verksmíðar-maðr in Bandam. ch. i, AM. 132 to be also a mia-ead- < 
ingfor ' verksnúöar-maSr'), The first hand of Hcidarvig;a appieared 
to the Editor to be part of a stiU older unlinished MS., the oldest 
written Islendinga Sa^ left to us, completed hy two later hands at 
B. later date. Facsimile in Isl. Sög., vol. ii, Copenh. 1847, Tabs. IV 
(the old hand), V, VI. 

A. ^^. 561, fourteenthcentury: Liosv., Vapnf., Gull-þoris Saga. 
See § 9 for account of this MS, 

t, Cod. Reg., see p. cxlv above, early fourteenth century, con- 
tained Gisli, Fostbrædra, Thorstein's Hall 0' Side son's Saga. This 
MS. has vanished in some way, as tbe Editor first found out ; we 
hope it may yet turn up. 

j. Mela-bók, an early fifteenth-century vellum ; two or three leaves 
remaining, containing genealogies (printed here in App. II) and 
pieces out of the Landnama in Ober. See Oxford Icelandic 
Reader, p. 17. Facsimile in Isl. Sðg., vol. i, Copenh. 1843, Tab. II. 

k. Among the fragments in AM. 163 are three leaves of a fine, 
well wrítten little MS. of the early fourteenth century, which once 
contained Biorn and Kormak's Sagas. It is the motber text for 
Biorn's Saga. A facsimile would be worth taking. 

/. Codex Wolphenbutklensis contains Eyrbyggia and F^la. A 
fourteenth-century MS. The texts are both of B class. Facsimile 
in Antiq. Russes, vol. ii, Tab. III. 

m. In AM. 445 b are nine leaves of a folio vellum, fourteenth 
century, which contained Eyrbyggia, Ftoamanna, and Vatzdæla. 
A barren M5. The fragments are prinled in the Appendix to the 
Editor's edition of Fomsögur and Eyrbyggia. Facsimile in Antiq. 
Americanae, Tab. VI, 

«, AM. ioAdd.: fragmentsof the endof ihe thirteenlh century of 
a vellum which contained Eyrb. and Laxd. (which usually otcur toge- 
ther in MSS.), written in a very fíne and regular handwríting, whicb 
occurs in the Stock. No. r8 of Odd Monk, and in certain frag^ents 
of Niala. Facsimile in Munch's Odd Monk, Chrístiania, 1853. 

0. Pieccs in .i4jíf. i6a of aroughly written MS. (GisIiandGluma); , 
not used in the editions//f i»*Æy) 

p. Hauks-bók, amid much miscellaneous matter, contains Fost- 
brædra and Erik the Red (West), also Landnama and Kristni Saga. 
We shall recur to this MS. 

q, &c. In the capsae which hold these additamenta are many 
other fragments of Islendinga Sögur vellums, mostly copies of 
single Sagas. 

Of colleclions of the EingB' Livee : — 

a. The giant Flaley-book, wrilten for Jón Hakonsson (1370-80) 
of Viðidals-tunga in the North. A full account of this MS. wilt 
be found in the prefece to the published edition. The old book 
is in two bands ; a third hand inserted three sheets, King Harald 
Hardrada (Morkinskinna type), a bundred years later, How it 


dviu PROLEGOMENA. $ 39. 

came into Bishop Brynjolfs possession is told in a foot-note (p. czliii, 
' note t.) Edited by Vigfusson and Unger, Chrístiania, 3 vols., i8ð8. 
Facsimile of first hand in Antiq. Americanae, Tabs. I, II ; of second, 
executed for ihe first time for Rolls' edition, Orkney Saga. 

&. Skalholts-book, AM. 81 (Sverri, Boglunga, Hakon's Sagas), a 
íifteenth-century MS. Belonged to Bishop Thorlak Skulaaon, £nd 
wanting. No facsimile yet taken, 

e. Hvláa, AM. 66, an early fourteenth-century MS. FacEÍmile 
in Fornm. Sög., vol. vi, Tab. I. 

As an example, both of the varíous fates which a MS. may 
undergo, and of the patient care with which Aroi Magnusson 
traced out wherever he was able the bistory of the treasures 
he acquired, we have affised a note ^ of hís on this, the most 

' > Noiegi konunga Sogur (ÍncipcTe debenl in Jaroilao Ruuiae rege) rolio nunore. 
Bókina hefi eg feoeia if Arna Hákonanjni, en hann af foaur linum Hikoai Ania 
ijni i Vatihomi. H&kon eignaaiit hini (>em mér ei Mgt), frá Staairhdli. Á 
ipáxiunni iteudi k einum itií "Jón Steioþ^ lan 1614." þeiu b6k kÖlluSu þeir 
í Borgirfirfli fyrnim Hnldo, Noitgi kouungi liigiimir (Huldu) fékk Hikon Ama 
lOD i Vauhomi til eignir fri Staltirhdlií léSi þier ilfiin S" Þórfli í Ritirdil. 
S» {lúrflr IMi lit if >éi Sigutfli Jóniiyni Logminni, hTerr biSkinni eigi vildi iptr 
tkili, hvorki Hikoni né S« tx^fli. Relitio Jðni Hikonar lonar. Anno 1671 þi 
þonnAfli Torfaion Tai iliait i lihndi, li hann Kilfikinni-bdk hji Siguifli Jðni. 
lyni Lögminni, hver efl hana kallaðí Huldn. Kauniit og einnig nokkrii Í Borgar- 
Hrti Tifl þeiu bdkarinnar nifn. Seinl i dögum Slgurflai Lögnianni kom bókin 
ipti i hönd Hikoni Ama lyni, og Tar þi Tifla ikemd og fuin. í mfnti (Ami 
Mignuuoiuir) ungdzmi vir hun til lini i Hvimmi { Hvammi-ivdt. SiSin lá&i 
Hikon Aint lon þein bðk til Noregi lyni tinum Ama Hikonir lyni, lem þi vai 
AmmaDueniii fionnóAir Torfaionii. Ami fzrti met lír fii Noiegi bókini til 
Kaupinhifhii, og leldi mér 1687. fieua bók Huldu hafBi fyrmm iti Giili ^bxtít 
lon LögmaSr. Jáni Steinddri tanar nifh ilendi i henni, og mun hinn hafa þottit 
hina eiga eptíi Steindór Oiilaion. GIili Magnúuon i Hlfflarenda vildi ni lil 
bókaiinnir ei juie Ouerdnir Giila dóltur Qiáflui linnar. Bjamí Felruon muQ 
hafa oiflit handhali ifi bdkinni cndir Jökli þi binn haffli Stipi-umboð. Héi um 
Anoo i663«itvegaai þ«i>i bók S" Hanneí Bjömtton þi preitr i M/mm, ok líSÍ 
hani HaUddii Jónuyni i Reykholti ; hann S™ Helga Grímiiyni i Hiiiarelli, hTei 
b*ni npp ifciifaei 1664. Eptii exem[dari S~ Helga ikrilifli S~ Hxllddi i Reyk< 
hohi umiB eiemplii 1666. Allt þetta nm bókar-lioin var i pukri, og itti Kii& 
hljúK aí faia. Mig. Biynjotfr bffir iitifl S» Jön i VlUingahoUÍ if dm'fa þeiu 
bók, og i eg þafl eiempliir in folio. Jún Hlkonarson iktifafli og eitt eieroptar af 
- bókinni iflr hún ligldi. þaS lignafliit Guflilin Hikonai dúttir (Pill Amundaion) 
Ðg af GuSrnnu fékk eg Ami Magnuuon bókina. Ei in 4I0.'— AM. 435. And 
tigain in tlipi — 'Notegi koounga lögnmir in 4to(i) léfli Bjaroi Peiiuon SignrU 
Jdnuyni LÖgmanni; S" Hinnei Bjömuon þi preitr í Borgai-þingum niíi li6k- 
inni i Einanneii (rolenle vel inicio Sigurdo), og IMi hana S» Halldóri i Reykholtl, 
S" Hilldór fékk hina í hendi S» Helga i Húurelii, og kÖlluSu þeJr bókina út dr 
þeui] HvldM. &* Helgi skrifati bðkina npp fyrir lig (það exemplar tii íd 410, og 
i cg þaS DÚ, feDgiS if GvSrdnu Stephini dúttur), eg eptir þvl eiempliri ihriliM 
S™ Hilldór fyrii >ig annaS exemplir (er in 4I0, og i þaS nii 1711 S'> Hannei HaH- 
d6iuon}. Guflmundr Jdnuon bróSir SignrSar iÐgmaanz, ikiibfli og eitt eiempUr 
fynr (ig (er Úviit hTort hann ikrifaS faa£ eplir Kalhkinnz búkinni, eSa bdk 
&* Helga). þegat Si' Kelgi bdkina ir>kiifá& hinti vai henni aptr ikiliS til 
Einarineu, og tindem tók Hikon i Vatahomi hantt þai (i Einirenni meinai 
S" Hanno) aptr vegoa Bj>ma Pettuonir. Rrlatio S™ Hanneaar Í Reykholti 
1711. Exemjjar Guflmundar legir S'> Haunei giuS-iangt TeriS bifi, og þifl ei 
ivo í lannleika. Eptir þTl ikririSi Magnúi í HTimmÍ litt eiemplai in ^to, og er 
það ein* dnýti. Eiemplar QBflmaDdii er i Sauiba i Kjilamtci. Eg lét k^ta 


§ 89- COLLECTIONS, ETC. cl« 

important MS, for the Lives of Harald Hardrada and the followiog 
kin^s of his blood. 

á. Hrokkxnskirma (wrínkle skin), a sister MS. of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, with slightly better text in places. Facsimile in Fomm. Sög., 
vol. vi, Tab. III. 

t. AM. 6i, early rourteenth centuiy, contains both the Olafs' 
Sagns : used for extracts as the best text in the Ozford Icelandíc 
. Reader. Facsimile in Fornm. Sög., vol. iv. 

f. BergS'bók in Stockholm contains both the Olafs' Sagas and 
some poems, Lilja, Rekstefja, Geisli, ftc, c. 1400. Facúmile in 
Dr. Cederschiöld's edition of the poem. 

g. Fragments of a lost vellum, AM. 323, eleven leaves, which 
once contained Sverri's, Hakon's, and Magnus' Sagas. Abrídged 
texts. Important for Magnus Saga. See Rolls' edition. It has 
been in the hands of an annalist, and (as Munch suggested) from 
lost leavcs of tbis MS. insertions have been made in one of our 
Annal collections. 

h. Fragment of a veUum at Stockholm (Sverrí and Hakon's 
Sagas), impSrtant for tbe end of Hakon's Saga, which is in later hand 
than the bulk of the book. There are one or two interesting mar- 
ginalia in this vellum ' : ' In the year 1644, aoth June, at Gellding- 
boil, thÍB Saga was read by Sigurd Tborfinnzson ' (a late notice of 
the practise of Saga-reading). ' John Magnusson has leamt on 
me' (reminding onaíof Ælfred's iearning his ABC on thc beau- 4^^^ 
tiful MS.) : a ditty— 

' Mxny Idtc ihe taniinn', foi ihe fiir birdi' long; 
Bnt I liks tfae winter bat, for the nigbti are long.' 

Júauon npp ikTÍfi PcTgimentz Ixikina i Kinpinhifh meS Silum böndunum «ni og 
þit ttendr og gif eg liSui þaS exemplaf S" þdtAÍ & Sli6antaS. Er in folio. Copia 
■rþeiia S" þdifiir ciemplart k Lögmiar P41] Jónisan Vídalin, mefl hendi Ög- 
iDDndai Ögmnnduonir. Er og in folio. — Af Noregi kDnonEa Sögunum, er Botg- 
fiiSingai kDlluða Huidn, k LöemiSiiaa SieuiSi Björniion copiu. ikrifiifia með hendi 
ODSmundai Sál. Jónwonar. Ei in 4to. Vidi 1703 i Siuibz á Kjalimeii. Ec vfSa 
ringt (kiifDfi, og itnndum aflaKÍilega diéll in nDniinibui ptopiiii. Eptii þsiD 
Sigurðar Logmannz hefii ikrírað S» Magndi Magnúsloa i Hranimi, ei þið hiDf 


' AnniIi-bTOtt Hulda, eoa copiar 
uppmni til Hnufcllz-bdkii-narniÍD 
lem fyiit 11 komin fi4 STÍum.' 

' On Ikt mnrpn o/ Iiaf II— •Anao 1644 ao" Janii f GeildingahoUti var þem 
Saga leiin af Sn^urde Tboifinni lyne.' 

OnUrf 16 — ' Jdn Magnuuon hefiii Izrtt a roig.' 
And li* Ballad ditty— 

' Maigi piliar •DmariA fyrir fagtan liigli-iÐag ; 
En eg.tueli TctilnDm þri nðttin er löng.' 
ánd ilu tSilj/ mitmporistd — 

' BldcÍA lekar bdkfell (,, bltr litift penni ; 
HeldnT TelduT höndin imi, henni eg nm kenni.' 



And the verse — 
*The L 

Used afler trying a pen on paper or parcbmeDt. 

Collections of BiographieB: — 

a. The Sturlunga MSS. wiU be noticed below. 

6. The great Stockholm, No. 5, fourteenth century. (Lives of 
Jón, Thorlak, Bishop Gudmund, and Edward the Confessor, lists 
of Bishops, &c.) 

, CoUections of Saints' ZiÍTeB and BomaDCeB are rcferred to 

Prose-Sdda. Codex Wonnianus (Snorra-Edda, Skalda Treatiae, 
Epilognes, Appendices, Rigsmal), AM. 748, (Eddic Pocms, Skald- 
skapaimal, Olaf Hvitaskald's Treattse, Þulur.) Facsimíles to 
be publisbed in the impcrfect vol. iii of the Copenhagen Snorra- 

Cotlections of Miaoellanea.^ The most famous of all such is 
Hauks>b6k, a quarto of 200 leaves when entire (about the largest 
8ize ever reached by an Icelandic vellum), An extraorSinary ' oxa- 
nium gatherum,' as the contents' list will show. Isiandica : Land- 
nama (imp.), Krislni Saga (imp,), Erik the Red (West), Fostbrædra 
(imp.J LegmdaTÍa and Mythica : Heming's Kltr (imp.), Heidrek's 
(imp.), Ragnar's (imp.) Sagas. The Stoiy of Harald Fairhair's 
Poets, the Bnite Story, and Merlin's Prophecy. Theoli^ica .- De- 
batc of Body and Soul, Homiletic pieces from St. Augustine, &c., 
The History of ihe Cross, Portraiture of Jerusalem, Lucidarium. 
Scientifica : Geographical and Physical pieces, treaiises on Astro- 
nomy, Arithmetic (Algorismus), on Gems, and lastly, the Völuspá 
[the second text of ihis famous poem]. The tests are not 
always the best; but we are glad to have them, and to know 
that a man in the fourtecnth century was able to gather such a 
varied and, on the whole, eícellent choice of works together for 
his personal use and pleasure. The book is now split up into 
three MSS., numbered AM. 371 (Landnama and Krístni Saga), 
544 (the bulk of the book which now keeps the name of the whole), 
and 675 (Elucidarius). There are also fourteen leaves (Geogra- 
pbica, Astranomica, Ác.) in Iceland, whither they were taken after 
i8ai, for Werlauff certainiy used ihem for his Symbolae ad Geo- 
graphiam Medii aevi. Several leaves are, as we have seen above, 
lost See preface to Biskupa Sögur for fuU account of the history 
of this MS. 

Hauk ErlendsBon, the begetter of this work, in whose fah- and 
reguiar handwritíng the greater part is (two lcelandic clerks of his 
come in altemately now and again), was a man of note in his day, 
though hardly sufficiently prominent to juBtÍfy the conflict which 
has bcen waged over his nationality, his parentage, and his life. The 
best account of him is that by Munch, where his handwriting is 
identified, his caieer in Norway set forth, and what claim he has to 


5 29- COLLECTIONS, ETC. clxi 

faine shown by the publication of bis Algorísmus : for í( is as an 
aríthtnetician that Hauk was really in front of his feilow-countryinen, 

We may epitomise Hauk's life here. Although his geoealogy Í8 
well known, as we have it drawn by his own hand in his copy of 
Landnama, and we know who his mother, father, and grandmother 
were, hís birtfa-year is not known. Judging from his own style, 
which never shakes off the Icelandic idioms entirely, though he 
usually spells Norse fashion, and the character of his penmanship is 
Norse, he was bom and brought up in Iceland. A son of Law- 
man Érlend the Strong, by Jonin, and base born (he himself says 
that Erlend's wife's name was Irongerd), he would not be unlikely 
to go abroad early, for that he owes his whole education to Nor- 
way we must certainly believe. He is first spoken of in 1294 as 
Lawman of Iceland. He was also, we know, Lawman of Gula- 
þing in Norway (several deeds in his autograph were unearthed by 
Munch), and thougb he marríed an Icelandic lady, great-grand- 
daughter of Hrafn Sveinbiornason^he seems to have passed most 
of his life abroad. He died in 1334. 

Besídes Hauks-bók we have an aríthmetical treatise, a small set 
of bríef annals of his day, ' Hauk's Annals,' and a handbook of 
Norse Land Law copied by himself for his own use. And it Ís not 
improbable, since Hauk was the first and almost the only Icelander 
who used the Arabic figures, tbatthebeautifutcontemfrorary vellutn 
of Niala, AM. 1 33, one of tbe few MSS. in which they occur, may 
be in some way connected with him, perhaps executed imder his 
Eupervision. There arc aiso one or two MSS. in which we can 
recognise the hands of one or other of Hauk's two amanuenses. 
The facsimiles of Hauk's hand in Antiq. Ameríc, Tab. III, at the 
bottom (Tab. IV and Tab. III at the top are his two amanuenses), 
are most beautifully done, as indeed are all those executed for tbat 

e. One other MS. of a like kind deserves notice — the small thick 
AM. 634, stiU in the old oak boards and thongs of its prímitive 
binding. Of ihis 171 leaves are left; when complete it must have 
gone up to about 200. It is full of varia, sacra, romances, &c., but 
its special feature is the Slaruia, a corpus of computistic treatises 
of different orígins ; the legends are also noteworthy, e.g. that of 
Arcbbishop Absalon (given in the Oxford Icelandic Readér), one 
of Jún HaÍldorson's stories. There are also poems, &c. For full 
notice see Jón Sigurdsson's Diplom. Isl., p. 238. 

Among later collectiona, which are mingled masses of true, 
&Ise, and legendary Sagas, we need only take two as specimens. 

a. Royal Lib. 3845, of the fifteenth century, containing Gongu- 
Hrolf, Hhmí4, Bandamanna (best texl), Ingvar VidíÖrU, and HaJf 's 
Sagas. A thick vellum. 

6. AM. 153, foho: a huge book, including the Romances of 
Magus, Konrad, Gretti's Saga, and four or five worthless Sagas, 
Buch as Gongu-Hrolf. 

VOL. I. I 


dzii PROLEGOMENA. { 29. 

The chai^e of taste, ver^ clearly showa ia tbe varying contents 
of these Saga coUectiong, which reflect f^úy enough the in- 
clinfttions of the more cultivated minds of the times when they 
were made, at length manifests itself openly in a new fonn of 
composition, the Rimur, which were made in profusion at the 
end of the fourteenth and fifteentb centuríes. At length they also 
are thought worthy of collection, and the thick little quartos, of 
which AM. 604, Úte biggest of all, and the Wolfenbflttel book 
may serve as the best tj'pes, close the era of the classic literature 
of which they present the very faintest possible reflection, 

CoIIections of Sacred Poems of a similar type — Drapur, oíten 
called 'Diktr,' as Ceciliu-diktr — are also found; AM. 713 and 
other vellums contain such works. 

When the Faper Age comes, it Ís curíous to see how the copyists 
chooae out certain vellums to copy, leaving the rest entirely withont 
notice. They, of course, care nothing for the MS., and are only 
aniious to secure the Saga. But they have as a rule been lucky in 
their selection. Thus the standard Egla, Eyrbyggia, and Niala. 
COpies are from the best test In a few in.stances, as Hardar Saga, 
tbey were less fortunate. Wben they had once got a copy of a 
Saga, they did not care about laking another MS. and makmg a 
fresh copy from iL 

Thus even of the most popular S^^ of which many vellums 
were at their disposal, only two or three are taken : all the lest are 
left barrrn, e. g. of Egla only tbree out of thirteen are taken, and 
of Niala about the same proportion. So constant is this nile of 
theirs, tbat ít is almost possible to telt in what order tbe great MSS. 
became known. Thus AM. 133 and the Vatzhyma were among 
tfae first copied, and we can see that there must have been some 
system about it, for in the Liosvctninga vellum, where Vapnfirdinga 
and Droplaug are side by síde on tbe same sbeet, Vapnf. is copied 
and DropL neglected; they had got the Saga from AM. 133 
abeady. So in the case of the Biom and Komiak veltum, Biom 
is taken and Komaak lef^ for the same reason. Again, theré were 
two vellums of Reykdæla : one has been copied, the other only so 
as to fill up a blank in the first. This is the more tantalising as the 
fruitful vellumB have becn in most cases preaerved, while the frag- 
tnents represent barren MSS. which we should oflen be glad to have. 

But the early copyists were very careful not to let a Saga slip 
altogether, and we can only find two notable inslances in which 
tfaeyhavedoneso. Heidarviga left tfaecountryin i68a. We ougbt 
therefore to faave copies of it, but tfaere are none. It waa even 
tfaen imperfect, hard to read, and therefore not attractive lo a copyist, 
but we should suppose the real reason for ils barrenness to be that 
ít lay hid away ín tfae North, and never fell into tbe handa of any 
literary man. GuIIþoris Saga is the second example. AIJ the paper 
copies of it were taken after Ami Magnusson had secured die MS. 

We may notice here, as a caution to travellers and collectors. 



that no paper copies, aave those now in the AM. collectíon, have the 
Blightest value, and that it is absolutely certain that any paper copy 
of a Saga wbich turns up in Iceland must be itself derived from 
some MS, in that Library, usually through a generation of paper 
copics, tbe increasing comiptians of which sometinies make the 
text look different at first sight. The penmanship indeed of the 
modem copies is usually vety good, but it Ís only as curiosities that 
any onc would care to possess them. 


l5LEHÐn«0A Saga. It will bc well to give a brief summary of the 
contents of those parts of Sturla's work which have not yet been 
treated, so that the main threads of the story may be put wilhin the 
reader's grasp, It was not necessary to add long chronological 
tables, as by Úie full indices and the year-headings on any page one 
can easily find onc's way about the book, which keeps luckily to 
pretty exact order of time. 

Beginning then with tbe first part of Islendinga (really the main 
work of Sturla) — after the seven or eight geneaiogical trees, which 
give a complete survey of the Icelandic nobility, a tabte of ' Ðratna- 
tis Personae' to the 'Hislorie' that follows — the Saga opens with 
a few introductory chapters, briefly setting forih the scenes and 
intFoducing the characters. We cannot help thinking that some- 
thing Ís mÍBSing, a prologue or a few words oí the author as to the 
purport of his woric, before the present chapter 2, which begins 
with noting Sturla of Hvamm's death. In these opening chapters 
(1-34) we are told of the youth of the three Siurlung brothers, the 
dialogue of Gudmund's daughters, and a few words about Snorri's 
early career. 

'There is also imbedded in the midst of this matter (chaps. 
13-14) ''híit seems to bé an extract from the lost Dber of Ari, 
partly in his very words, telling of Bishops Isleif and Gizur, and 
of Teit, his friend, and Gizur, Teit's grandson. 

It is with the retum of Bishop Gudmund, to whose agency much 
that foUowed may be traced, tbat the action of the drama begins 
with the troubles which preceded the foul murder of Hrafn Svein- 
biomsson, a crime which avenged itself very surety and bitterly. 
Most of these matters we have noticed elsewhere (§ 21). But in 
chaps. 33-37 we come to the death of Hall, the Eyiafiord chief, and 
the migration of Sighvat Sturlason to the North, an important 
event upon which much hinges. 

After a short episode touching Snorri (ch. 39) and his voyage 
abroad, &c., comes the story of the quarrel between the Norwegian 
merchants and Sæmund, Orm's slaughter at their hands in re- 
venge (ch. 40), and the King of Norwa/s wrath when he heard 
the Norwegian version of the quarrel (here Snorri gives the well- 
known piece of advice which has been so often quoted to hia detri- 
tnent) ; finaUy, his retum is told. And now Snorri's political career 
1 1 


clxiv PROLEGOMENA. .§ 30. 

begíns in eamest, when, afier tbe brawl at BreidaboUtad, in which 
Biorn is kiDed (ch. 44, where the ditty, ' Loptr er í Ejjum,' the first 
Ballad ditty knowu, is quoted), he marries his widow, Hailveig, 
Orm's daughter, the richeat wfiinan in Iceland, — a pohtical match, 
and one that ultiinaCel)' ful&lled Tbord's boding words when he 
heard of it, but still a happy one while both lived. 

Chaps. 47 and 49 recount the raid at Holar and the reCum fora^f 
to Grimse^, which, as we have seen, is told in fiiU in Aron's Saga, 
SnOTTÍ uow streng;thens himself still more by giving his daughters to 
the most inSuential men in the country — one to Gizur Thorwalds- 
8on (of whose childhood a striking stoiy is told, ch. 55), one to 
Thorwald, the murderer of.Hrafn, and a third to Kolbein the 
Young — men whom he wished to make use of, connecting the third 
Gtill doser to him by getCing his sister for the wife of his bastard 
son Orækia. Tbord, between whom and Snoiri a quarrel arose 
about this tíme, prophesied evil also of these matches, and his 
forebodings were stríkingly fiilfilled, for iC was Snorri's sons-in-taw 
that were the leaders Ín the attack upon him in which he was slain, 
nor did the matches tum out weli (two of the three ladies were 
divorced, and none of them seem to have led pleasant lives). 

Sturla Sighvatzson, the darling hero of his cousin and namesake 
the historian, now comes inCo the story, a bandsome, strong, brave 
young bero, but a brainless man, as his actions and the way in 
which he dragged his fether, a far finer character, into disaster and 
death sufficientíy prove. But his briliiant qualities are just Chose 
which fescinate the mind of such a thoughtful poetic lad as Sturla 
the Historian must have been in the heyday of his namesake's 
bríef life, though we might perhaps wish he had rather tavished his 
care upon the greater figure of Snorri the Historian. The Althing 
scenes interspersed in this part of tbe story may be mentioned. 

In chapters 71, 72 a notable deed was done, of which the con- 
sequences were seríous indeed. The sons of Hrafn caught Thor- 
wald on an outlying fiirm (Aug. 6, 1328), attacked the house, set 
fiie to it, and bumt tbeir enemy like a fox in his earth. 

The sons of Thorwald, reckless, hrutal young men, believed that 
Sturla Sighvatzson had t>een cognisant of and abettor in the death of 
their father. They therefore surprísed Saudafell in the night, Jan. 
1339 (chaps. 75-78). Sturiahad luckiiy ridden away on businessCo 
a neighbouring farm ; they were therefore foiled of their intent, and 
manifested theír disappointment by destroying everythtng they 
could lay their hands on, wounding che women, lettíng the ale 
run out, and spoiling the food, entireiy disregarding the presence 
of Sturla's young wife Solveig, who had just been delivered of ber 
first cbild. This Saudafell foray is one of the best-told chapters 
of all the Islendinga, so fresh and tme that it- bríngs the wbole 
Scene before the reader's eye in the most lively way. The coolness 
with which Sturla receives the news in his bath, mcrely asking 
. if his wife was safe, and Che mocking verses of Snorrí, fitty wind 



up the incídent. A reconciliation is patched upjTrat the derying' 
háughty behaviour of the young sons of Thorwald rouses Sturla to 
wrath, and he breaks the tnice ^d puts them to death. This 
tragedy, like the preceding one, happened (March 8, I33a)within a 
few mÚes of Hvamin, tbe home öf the historían, then a youth of 
seventeen. It is touchingly told and most minucely (chaps. 88-90). 
So the críme which had rested on their house since Hrafn's murder 
was finally expiated. The pages of the Saga are now defiled by 
the deeds of Snorri's wicked son Orækia and his band {chapa. 
9 1-99). Sturla SÍghvatzson now starts on a pilgrímage, going first 
to Norway, then to Rome, where he does penance, being flogged 
from church to church, while the pcople wept at seeing such a. fine 
man so cruelly used. Butnow that he was.absolved from his sins, 
his luck left him ; he falls under the falal influence of the King of 
Norway, too strong for his weak head, and comes home to raise a, 
party. It was his actions that ultimately set the civil war a-flame. 

Now follow the cruelíies and wickedness of Kolbein the Young, of 
whose crimes one is very pathetÍcaUy told in ch. loi ; a few notices 
ofOlaf and Thord (ch. 107), and more of the wretched Orækia, 

The death of Thord (April 10, 1237), who had wamed Sighvat 
of the end that muat needs overtake him in the path be had chosen 
to take (unwelcome advice which Sighvat took ill, charmed as he 
was by ^e persuasiveness of his son, though in his heart he must 
have felt that Thord was right), the deaths of Bishops Gudmund 
and Magnus, alltake place this year(i237, chaps. 134-25). Thor- 
wald, Gizur's father, had died two years before. Snorri now leaves 
Iceland, hard pressed, and goes to Norway, and witb the field thus 
cleared the fight begins in earnest. The Apavatn raid is fitly 
ushered in by the dialogues between Sighvat and his son, the 
common sense of the old man coming out finely as he banters 
his son on his high ambition and aims in a quiet laconic way 
(chaps. 130-31). Another talkof Sighvat with Mew, an old friend 
of his, in which the coming storm ts foreshadowed, is given in the 
foUowing chapter. 

The raid itself is very well told ; the folly of Sturla, which rouses 
Gizur, who has been quiet and gentle up to tbis point, and having 
waked the tiger at last, neglects to cruah him altogether, now 
quickly brings on the end. Sturla himself was in the raid, as he tells 
us, whtch accounts for the remarkable minuteness of his narrative 
(ch. 134). Gizur's behaviour is wonderfuljy painted ; his besitation 
tiU his mind is made up, and his laughing coolness when he had 
decided, is like Louis XI's behaviour to Charles at Peronne. 

Now are set forth the gathering of the forces of both parties in 
the North, Gizur's alliance with Kolbein, and all the omens and 
dreams which ever precede an important evenL Then comes the 
fight at Örlygstad (Aug. 21, 1238), a fearful blow to the Sturlungs, 
for Sighvat and four of his sons are made prisoners and slain in 
cold blood, one of the family (Tumi) alone escaping. To Sturla 


dxvi PROLEGOMENA. § 30. 

the Historian, who bad loyally followed his cousin, qnarter was given 
(chaps. I37-44)' 

Of course such an event as thig, told by an eye-witness, could 
hardly fail to be ímpressive ; but the narrative is well worlhy of the 
occasion, and most moving and vivid it is. 

Ch; 147 goes back to Snorri, the head of the falling family, who 
got tbe evil news in Norway at an unlucky moment for him, when 
the E,ing and Duke Skuli had begun to quarrel. He had espoused 
what looked like ihe winning side (Skuli's) ; he therefore left Nor- 
way against the King's express command ('I wiJl go,' he says 
whcn he geta the letler), having accepted the tiUe of Earl from 
Skulí. The Duke's death, the King's secret orders (he seems to 
have been roused to fuiy by Bomething he had found out at Skuli's 
death), the plot against Snorri, the Historian's last interview with 
him, and the brief but striking account of his death (chaps. 148- 
56), complete the real action of the tragedy, 

AIÍ the incidents which follow Snorri's death, though less im- 
portant, are most minutely told by Sturla, who took part in them 
all, and the realism of his nairative^is very marked. Orækia now 
endeavours to revenge his father, and hunts after Gizur to slay 
him, coming upon him at Skalholt, where the Bishop arranges a 
peaceful settlement, which is to be completed next year. But at 
the Bridge-meeting (on a natural bridge, now destroyed, over Hvitá 
Ín Borgarfiord), Gizur treacherously captures Orækta and Sturla. 
Orækia is banished, and Sturla is released at his friends' inter- 
cession (chaps. 157-Ö3). 

Here ends ihe first part of Islendinga, and with it the History of 
the Commonweakh may in truth be held to close. 

Down to this date the character of the hcrocs themselves, their 
objects, and methods of carr^'ing thcm out, are nearly the con- 
tinuation of what had been going on cver since Nial and Mord and 
Gunnar and FIosi had fought and takcn counsel and carried on 
suits in the old days. But now old Iceland really expires wilh the 
tbree Sturlung brothers : and when Snorri, the last of them, is dead, 
one feels a void which is never filled by the subsequent bistory. 

The student of poUtical insUtutions will find mach to repay bim 
in the first part of lalendinga, which he will vainly seek in the 
second, wherein, though the forai of the old Common Law is kept 
up, the spirit is manifesdy dead. The very crudencBSes and 
biemishes of the style in the first part are of a piece with the 
older Sagas and purely Icelandic, for in the second half, where 
there are passages which perhaps excel any in the former, they 
are sucb as always relate to palhetic or dreadful subjecls (the Bum- 
ing of Flugumyri, for instance), while the love of law, the homely 
wit, the rough pungent dialogue, and the littíe idyllic incidents of 
every-day life which we have noUced as so characteristic of tbe 
Icelandic Saga, are almost totally absent. We may perhaps sum 
up the matter by saying that the first part of Islendinga is ihe last 



Islendinga Saga, while the second part íb naily a coUectÍon of 
Biographies — that the one is wholly Icelandic, the otber tinged with 
foreign and Norse influence ; that thc one tella of heroes whom 
we loDg to know more of, the other of men and matters for wbich, 
tbough they interest us as long as we are actually under the charm 
of the author's words, we care little when the sound of bis voice 
bas ceased to ring in our eam 

The secimd part of Islendinga opens wilh the return of Thord 
Kakali, tbe avenger of the Sturlungs. He had been many years 
in Norway, of whícb we told somewhat in Aron's Saga. He wa» 
tbe fourtb of Sighvat's sons, and far tbe most talented of tbem. 
He is a man of order and disciphne, good-hearted and generous— 
altogetber tbe finest character of the epigonic generation. His 
antagonist is Kolbein, who had since Snorrí's death ruled unques- 
tioned, and forced the West counuy-men to take oatba to be fEuth- 
fiil to him. (The story of Gisli's equívocating oath is amusing, cIl 
164.} When Tbord appeared the fríends of the old family rally 
round him, and tbe feud begins anew, and lasts with the usual 
altemations duríng his life. By one of the sudden surpríaes bo 
frequent in this part of Islendinga, Kolbein nearly captures Thord, 
Kolbein is overtaken hy a snow-storm, but makes his men wrestle 
to keep themselves warm, His men now lie waiting for Tbord 
to pass by. However, all tbeir patience is in vain, for Thord's 
quickness saves bim, and he escapes after all. The cfaase across 
the snow is very reaiistic, as indeed ii tbe whole incident. Hrafn 
Oddsson was present at tbis affair, and it is from bim, we b«Iieve, 
that Stnrla got the story (chaps. 164-74). 

A Uttie later Kolbein again sends out two hands, one to surpríse 
Tumi, the brother of Thord, at Reykjaholar, whicb they accom- 
pUsbed (Apríl 18, ^244), sJaying "rumi; tbe other to capture 
Sturla, who got away, as was notíced in his life, being wamed íd 
tíme (chaps. 18Ö-88). 

The famous sea-fight, Flóa bardagi, Ís the next event of note, 
fought in fishing-boats under the midnight snn (June 34), in the 
bighest latítude in wbicb perhaps a naval engagement ever took 
pbíce. It is told by Sturla in most grand and impressivc style, as 
the very Trafalgar or Salamis of bis day (cbaps. 191-97). 
■ Kolbein dies in his bed, July aa, 1245, agedonly thirty-five, and 
Brand, his kinsman, takes up his posiUon. He is overthrown by 
Thord at Hangsnes fight, April 19, 1346. Tbis is bríefly told, 
thongh it was thc greatest battie that had ever taken place Ín Ice- 
land, 100 being slain (it was long used as a chronoiogical land- 
mark, just as Waferloo often is), but tben Stiula himsclf was not 
prcBent (cbaps. 304-5). 

Thord is now supremej and nnopposed for four years, when he 
goes abroad. After a short stay in Norway be came back, but 
soon Siuled again thither, never lo retum agún. The King was 
too jealoug of bim to let bun go back, and fooUshly kept bim tn a 


ckviii PROLEGOMENA. § 30. 

iind of honourable captivity ín Norway, where, at hia post of 
Sherifl', he died like a. c^geá lion, Oct. 1 1, 1256. 

It is here that the story of the Svin/eUings (ch. 215) comes in. 
An account of this Saga has already been given (§ ai). 

Thorgils Skardi now comes on the scene. His career has also 
been roughly sketched. We shall therefore confine ourselves to 
pointing out the chief incidents which occur dtring the last yeare 
of this period. The Burning of Flugumyri, Sept. 33, 1253 (chaps, 
252-60), Stuila's masterpiece, the Slaughter of the Bumers, Jan. 
^5> 1^64 (ch. 262), various notices of the old Norwegian Bishop 
Heniy, who was now sitting in the seat whicb Gudmund had fiUed, 
and Úie going abroad of Gizur, are first to be noted. Gizur leaves 
Odd, a young man whom he used as a cat's'paw, to £11 his place 
while he was away, but he soon showed himself unequal to the 
task. Escaping a terrible snow-storm in the middle deserts of 
Iceland (ch. 274), which raged in the beginning of Jan. 1255, he 
falls in a surprísal a few days later at Gelldingaholt, Jan. 14, 1255 
(chaps. 275-76). This story is also excellentíy well told. The 
career of Thorgils now fiUs mucb spacc, but this section of tlie 
work is relieved by several scenes of merry-making, dancing, &c., 
the bright side of tbe Icelandic life, of which we see too little in 
the midst of the slaughter and discord. The Battle of Thverá, 
at which Sturla was present, July 19, 1255, is minutely and drama- 
tically told (chaps. 285-93), with all proper accompaniment of 
dreams and omens. Three years after Thorgils also fell by 
treachery, Jan. 22, 1258 (chaps. 312-15), aged thirty-two. 

Gizur now came back wilb the titíe of Eari (ch. 317). The final 
submission of Iceland to the King took place 1262, two quarters 
and a half swearing fealty, promising to pay scot to the King, and 
take an Earl (chaps. 324-27). 

A litUe episode contains tbe deatb of Thord Andrésson (the tast 
scion of the great house of the Oddveijar), by treason at Gizur's 
hands, Sept. 27, 1264 (chaps. 328-29). Chapters 330-31 relate 
Sturla's going abroad, and give his adventures in Norway, the first 
of which has been aheady touched on in his Life. 

There seems (o be a break here : whether Sturla ever wrote more 
weknownot Finally, in ch. 332, Sturla's deaihis recorded, and the 
Islendinga ends. It is curious that there is no mention of the evii 
Earl's death, Jan. 12, 126S '. 

' It mDit not be suppÐicd tbit in the ibovc hiiij sketcb >ll that Í> inttreitÍDg or 
woTthy of atteation in the Islcndinga hai been pointed onl. Theie ace louchei in 
c*eiy chtplet of which the mciologiit, the hidorían, and Ihe philotopher will lee Ihe 
nlue. But if the leidei were lo be brought face lo face wiih nich i balkj work 
without ioine clue to gníde him, he might eatily be lepulscd bj the muhitnda 
of chaneten. ihe number of ilicami of iclion, ind the minuleneM Ðf tbe lieal- 
ment, and give up Ihe tatk of maileríng ii »t hopeless. To an; one atticking 
the Stuilunga fbi the liitt lime, we would lecommend Ihe leading of Ibe lattei pirt 
of Stuila's Saga. Ihe íull lexl of Hrafh't S>ga (Af^. 1), and perhapt Aran't Sa)p, 
l>efoie readipg ihe first rail of the Ulendinga. He will ihiii bc bctler able lo lee 



A few words on the rea! significance of the whole story may not 
be out of place. The fall of the Commonwealth and the destnic- 
tion of the old Houses is what it really means. For some years 
the chiefs had been one by one giving up their Godords to the 
KÍng of NoFway; and the Oath taken in 1262, 1263, 1264, by 
QiKUter after Quarter, till the whole island had sworn fealty and 
agreed (for the first time then) to pay scot, was but a public ratifi- 
cation, as it wcre, of what had gone before. Up to this point the 
cbiefs, we tbink, had acted wisely ; and if Norway had been a rísing 
instead of a ainking power at the time, mucb good might have 
come of it. But other changes foUowed quickly. Snorri's con- 
fiscated estates becaroe 'royal demesne;' the Ahhing and Quarter 
Courts disappear, and a kind of Curia Regis takes its place, the 
Logretta, exercising a restricted legislative power which widiers 
away, and full judicial powers as a High Court ; the Logsogu- 
maðr shrinks into the Logmaðr, Justitiarius Regis (of which there 
are two, one for the North and West, one for the Souih and East 
Quarters) ; a Viceroy is appointed, at first called Earl, but after- 
wards named ' Hirðstjori,' Magister Aulae, like our Justitiarius 
capitalis domini Regis in Ireland; the place of the Goðar with 
their clients was filled by Sýslumen (King's Sheriffs, who collected 
the taxes, tept the peace, and perfonned many of the functions of 
our J. P.'s), with defitied districts (Sýslur), a new thing in lceland, 
where the ties of Clientela were not affected by locality, In a 
word, the old Common Law was swept away in 1271, when 
a Code, and that of foreign origin, was first introduced into Ice- 
land. And we cannot but regret this : dreadful as were the disorders, 
unsettled as was the condition of the countiy, the sacrifíce of tbe 
pubhc life of the old days, with all the ennobling influences, was 
a high price, too high surely to pay even for peace. Our ezpe- 
Tience of the New Monarchy in England, which did not attempt 
a quarter of the change, shows how dangerous a thing it is for a 
nation to gíve up the smallest jot of its power of self-govemment 
to secure the greatest advantages. Peace was secured, but the 
island sunk into a torpor and inaction which it has never ^nce 
completely shaken off. 

The decay of the great Houses went on side by side with this 
process ; the civil wars and feuds, though the number of those ihat 
fell was, to English nodons, ludicrously small', had cut off tbe 

th« «aj tbe hiitiMf of Ihe age i> going, md uiideiitand bit by bit the dicDHUtance* 
in wbich the greit dnma of tbe Islendinga takes place. 

' The Editot hat cilculated that in the fifty yeart' feudt, riom Sept. lioS to Jan. 
1158, the deilh of KolbeÍD Taniaioa 10 the deith orThotgits SkarSi, oalj 370 men 
in all fell, Dol » miny poitibl]' u peiiihed in ihipwiecki, when eighty oi ninely 
men oiten died at otkce, and fording tiTcit daiing tbe nme time. Tfae eiplanatioa 
of CODIK Íi thil the chiefi aloae foaght to tbe dealh ; ihe common people were 
»lwíyi giveÐ quattei, and had little inteieil in continaing a despeiale conflict which 
tbey conld get little good ot haim from. The noblei, who eould only look for 
dcatb it the handi of their foemen, had eiieiy niolive íoi Bghling hiid. 


cb« PROLEGOMENA. § 30. 

flower of the nobtlit]', the wisest, the bravest, the most vÍgorotiB, just 
as happened in our Wara of the Roses. Manj of the great families 
too had begun to show signs of phyBÍcal exbaustion, ðie demoniac 
character of Gizur, with its Btarding contrasts, manifests such jl 
comples and peculiar organisation as is seldom to be met with save 
in the last generations of an old and failing family. The miserable 
children of Snoni are another case in point Those that Ungered 
on wcre cut off from a free political career afler 1171, while in 
Ecclestastical matters Iceland had been subordinate to the King 
and the Niðaros Chapter ever since 1237 — Bishops Gudmund and 
Magnus, who both died in 1237, were the last bisbops elecied by 
the Icelandic people, — so that when the daikneBS of Úie fourteenth 
century falls over Icelandic History, the few descendants of the 
old Houses, whose names we know, are mostly in insignificant 
posilions, not even (as we leam from a. petítion made when the 
oaths were taben to a new King in 1302) allowed to occupy the 
office of Sheriff in the Sýslur that replaced the Godords, so long 
the inheritances of their famihes, while the decay of trade in Nor- 
way itself (Norway, the mother of the sea-kings of old, now became 
the bondwoman of the Hanseatic towns, who dr^ the Datives off 
the seas altogether), and the misfortunes of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries in Iceland (earthquakes, eruptions, bad seasons, 
famines, epidemics), prevented them from opening out a fresh 
career in trade or commerce. 

The last of the Oddverjar we know of dies Ín 1310; the last of 
the Narvasons in 1333 ; of the Melamen (Abbot Thorstein) in 
135^ ; of the Hitardale family, Ketil the Viceroy, in 1343; of the 
Svinfellings, Odd, in 1306. 

Of the greatest famiTy of all, the Sturlui^, Snorri Sturlason the 
second dies in 1303, and the line of Snorri Ihe elder (as we Íeam 
from a fly-leaf entry only, vol. ii. p. 399) dwindles down to a few 
insignificant names of a bastard line, and the only man who is worth 
notice is Egil of Reykjaholt (the good husbandraan of Thorgils 
Skardi's Saga), the son of Solmund, a Norseman, who had married 
Snorri's sister, Helga. He dwelt at Reykjaholt forty years, and he 
or one of his children is connected with the Upsaki velium of the 
Edda, perhaps also with i e 0. He died Aug. 13, 1397, and his 
son John Murt (out of respect, seemingly, to his cousin, four of 
Egil's children are named after Snorri's) is the last of the line 
mentioned. As was noticed above, p. Isxx, only one family, tbat 
of Hrafn Sveinbiomsson, is known to have continued tbrougb the 
Middle Ages to the present day, but only on the spindle side*. 

< Arter Erik hcm in the Seldzlir ftm'új (ice Oeacalogicil Tible^ I. 3, Tol. ii. 
p. 4S3) dme Einac. hú kjd, who bcgat Bíoni thc Crnudcr (diéd ■Rcr 141 g). who begat 
KrÍEtiiu of VitiGotí (> rttj fimout lady, or wboni legeadi Hiirive). Her Mn wu 
Biom (killed by Engliih tndeti, 1467, and iTcnged by the Lady Olofa, hii widow), 
from whom thc pedigiec goei on to ihc prcient day. Thii family hdd thc old 
■eati, SkarA, Rcykjaholar, aiid Valzfioift, and we are beholden to a mEmber of It, 
Júa Pinnitoii oT Flaley (alio a family ciutc), foi Ihe Flaley-book, whidi he gave to 


§31. THE STURLUNGA MSS. clxxi 

§ 31, The Sturlunga MSS. 

Thb Stublunga MSS. : — Much has been already said of the 
Revival of Letters, the Paper Age, the Copyists, and the like, so 
that what remains to be told of these MSS. of Sturlunga tnay be 
briefly dealt with. 

In the AM. coUection are parts of hvo vellums from whicb we, 
like the copyists of the seventeenth century, derive our knowledge 
of tbe text of our Saga. One of these, ' B ' of our edition, AM. 
132 a, is, as we shall see, in a partly perfect condition. But tbe 
otber, ' A,' remains only in a packet of thirty grimy and discoloured 
shreds (twenty-four of Sturlunga, three of Árni's Saga, and three of 
Bishop Gudmund) enclosed in one of Ami M^nusson's rough 
cartridge-paper envelopes or 'capsae' (laab), These fragmenls 
are of varied size and shape; some have been used as slips for 
binding, some as tailors' patterns, and tbe hke; some are still 
leaves, but half-tom and mutilated in all sorts of ways. Tbe diffi- 
culty of reading them was so great that the ««pe nd i tuw! of time < 
and/eyesight would not have been justified had not the work been 
one of such high worth'. But a close inspection of them rcvealed 
the fact thal Öiey were all parts of oru great vellum (as indeed 
Ami ME^^nusson knew, see bis note, p. clxxiv, ' the book'). The 
incisions at the back of tbe leaves (where the back is kfl), the 
number of lines Ín the pages, but above ali the fact that every 
calculation of tbe blan/u that should be fiUed by the text interven- 
ing between the different fiagments, always squares with whole leaves, 
prove this beyond doubt. There was in this capsa only one shred 
which the Editor recognised as foreign to the rest (amongst which 
it had slipped by mistake), it proved to be tbc upper part of leaf 7 
of a lost sheet in B, in which MS. it is now replaced. 

We owe the preservation of these two vellums to the pious care 
of Thorlak Skutason, the leamed and excellent Bishop of Holar, 
to whom we are also beholden for Biskupa Sögur, &c. This we 
know from Biora of Skardsa's express words (see 5 aj, p, cxliii, 
n, 3), in which, when talking about the miserable state of the M55. 
reJating the history of the old times, he tells how ' the worshipful 
Bishop drew up atid wrote down alj that he could lay bands on; 
first the learned Settlement [Landnama-bók], and then the Great 
Islendinga Saga, in whicb you may see many such matters laid 

Bbhop Br;iijolf ; ■□d perhipi foi StDilDnga and moic MSS. to Qthei bnnchct oT the 

' In thc ■DiDmn' o( 1874, it Copenhigen, I laet my woithjr fiiend the Rer, 
J. FritiDCT, ihe vfell-known Noise Leiicogiapher, and took hira o»ei Ihe Ami- 
MignuD colledion, this heing hit fint vitil to Copenhigen. He being 1 leamed 
min, I did not get him the 'ihow copies' of the coUection, but taking down the 
■hredt of the A vcUDm, I gire fhem into hii haadi, nying, ' Vou mutt Kc Siuil- 
nnga.' He looked at the bitickeaed pieces caicfully. but inide no lemaik al Ihe 
tiuie. Howevei, a few wecki latei, whcn I trai itaying with him ia Noiway. he 
taid, 'What you showed me al Copenhagcn wai Mtiemely Ínteteiting; bui one 
Ibing fiiil j tuipiited me, I miut own, to Gad Stuilunga ioolcing like Uut 1 ' — Eu. 


clxxii PROLEGOMENA. § 31. 

down distinctlj in order. For who should there be to tell them 
thaccomeafterusof sucbthings, ifwe werenot topreserve themf' 

This is clear enough, but does it refer to our Sturlunga MSS. Í 
II must in the case of 6. AU the copies lead back to the ríght 
date, and the best of tbem (AM. 43?-38), from which all the others 
are transcríbed, is in a hand which the Editor was able aC once to 
identify with that of one of Bishop Thorlak's scribes. 

In the case of A, the answer is equally satisfying — because, first, 
all the copies of either class contain Thorgils Skardi's Saga, which 
has never been in B. Therefore the copyÍBls must have known A 
as well as B, NexC, the oldest estant copy of the A class, the 
British Museum MS., has an apparatus of marginalia, chronology, 
references, &c. These are derived from a little abridgment of 
Sturlunga made by Biúrn's own hand, containing these marginalia 
word for word (sec p. clxxvii, fooc-note). This httle volume actually 
belonged to the Bishop, for in it he has himself written ' this Book 
I Thorlak Skulason own.' The notes are therefore Biorn's, and 
the Brit. Mus. MS. writer must either have had Biom's copy AM. 
439 or a copy of the original MS. (a* we call it) which contained 
these notes. Lastly, Arni's Saga has come down to us in a copy 
made direct from A (Stockholm, No, 8, a vellum for Bishop Thorlak), 
as the acraps of Arni to the three remaining leaves in the capsa 
show beyond a doubt (see the following page). 

It was necessaiy to prove this step by step, because n* being lost 
(doubtless if we had it, it would be found lo bebyoneoftheBishop's 
scribes), it is only by induction we can prove that the Bishop knew A. 

Having thus setlled that the two vellums, from which all our 
knowledge of Sturlunga comes, first emerged and were first copied 
under Bishop Thorlak's auspices, c. 1640, we may proceed to 
noCice the exact state of the MSS. 

B now comprises 1 1 o leaves (including the half-leaf rescued from 
the capsae), and lacks ga or 34, namely, one sheet at the beginning 
(see vol. i, p. I to p. 33, n. 6) ; two leaves (vol. i. p. 316, n, 3, to 
p. 324, n. i); a sheet (vol. i. p. 336, n. 2, to p. 36», n. 2); another 
sheet (vol. ii. p. J, n. 3, to p. 39, n. 1) ; two leaves (vol, ii. p. 51, 
n, í, to p. 57, n. 2) ; one leaf lacerated (vol. ii. p, 78, n. 1, this was 
already torn in Thoriak's day) ; half a leaf (vol. ii. p, 192, n. 3, 
mutilated in Thorlak's Cime also) ; and the end lost (vol. ii. p. 253, 
n. 4. Biorn's note tells that it ended later in his day at our p. 265, 
L a6). That the first sheet existed ín the Bishop's day can be seen 
from the Ínterpolated pedigree (vol. i. p. 6, n. 3), which is not in A. 
Again, in vol. i. p. 317, there is an interpolation not found in A, 
whicb shows tbat the blank of two leaves in B was then fiUed up. 
B in complete state would therefore have held 144 leaves. 

Cod. A seems to have been entirely complete save the end of 
Bishop Ami's Saga and the mutilated leaf referred to already under 
the noCice of that work (p. cxxv), part of which we have still. The 
following list of fragments will complete the notice of A : — 


§31- THE STURLUNGA MSS. "ivviii 

Úi StDihingi Sön 4 blðS drciter koEDÍii ti) min 1701 bi Sin Haildori Pilt (yni I 

SelárdiL £m eigi íi þdm lem pósic Stcinddii >oii itti, og aú a h}k mer. 

[Stntl, [xirgili iltarSi.] 
{tetta blift er 1703 komÍS Fii BQduda] tíl Migndtai Ar> loaai, en fri bonnni til 

min. Fepgið >f cÍDOm bónda k BarðailrÓDd 1703. [Stuci.] 
twtu blaS hcG cg 1703 fengiB fii Magndii Ara ijni i Haga. [Stuii.] 
Fii Magndii Jóni lyoi i Snoktdil 1704. [Stnii,] 
StDilunga Sögu bloð þeui eiu hk Migu. Ara lyni til min lcDmlci, cn hiDn hefir þin 

fengíð 1 Bíldudal h)á Arna GuSmundi lyni, Og ei þar ckkeit mein. [Sturl.] 
Fii Siguröi SigarSt lyni t. Fiiðt 1 ^07. [^tail.] 
Fri Eggdt Suzbjorai lyni 170S. [SlnrlT] 
Fri Eggert ^wbjonu tyoi i Múb 170S. [Aio* S.] 
Jienna dalk úi OufimDndac Sögu fekk eg 1710 af |>A(ði Bjomuyni iigdtt loiial. 

£1 Úr GuSmnndai SÖgu Km fyrnim ÍTti Algeii Einari lon, [QuSm, S.] 
Halft annaS blaS úr Áma biiicupi Sögu fiotliki (onir, fcngiS I715 fri Mont, 

Oimi DiSa lyni, með haoi breG dateruSn 1714. [Ami S.] 
þetu blað úi Stniluuga Sögu fckk eg i Svefnerjnm I BieiSaSrSi um velrína 

ilcamt fycii Júi I7>3. meinast fri Flaley komiS iiamt bókiDní lem þaS ru 

ntin oiD ryiii unr-blaS. Fri Moni. Ormi Dada lyni 1734. [Storl.] 
Fri Capteini Magnúii Aia lyni 1714. [Scur!,] 

Age anq PcNifANSinp or M55. 

The oldcr of the two is codex B. It ia written after ijo6, for 
in an interpolatÍÐn (voi. i. p. 108, n. 2) Bíshop Ami II is men- 
tioned. About 1320 would not be far wrong. 

It is in three hands (facsimiles of which are annexed) ; the jírst 
(leaves i to 6z of tbe vellum) is a loose shifty hand, which alters 
its character gradually till it becomes veiy like Úie second kand (jYOm 
which however it is certainly distinct); the spelling is irregular'. 
The whole impression it conveys is that of the work of a weak, 
or a young person. The hand is remarkably like one of Hauk's 

The j'ftnmi/ Aam/ (teaves 63 to 69, and 95, ch. 315, to the end) is 
that of the scríbe of Codes Resenianus, which the Editor, not know- 
ing this fact, once put to 1280, too early perhaps, thougb Cod. 
Res. certainly preceded oura. A good hand, and latber antique 
Bpelling, — þ in Öie middle of words. This scribe alao wrole a copy 
of J6ns-b6k, now in AM. coUection; it contains a statute of 1310, 
which helps to fix hÍB date. It stops in a lost sheet, and resumes 
the work again in ch. a 15 (Svinfellinga), and goea on to the end, 

The ikird kand (leaves 70 to 94), boíd dashing penmanship, with 
curious spelling, worthy of attention for its half-Norae doubling of 
con&onaots, as ' nng ' for ' ng,' ' nnd' for 'nd,' &c.; and'aa'for 

' Imtmen art-~Oxlg = Dil, aoi = jxii, EDnga — gogn, laungn ■• logci, legktar' 
Mktar, Tlaflziiiona — Etifliegiuna, hogiptei>.liug>peki, gudruð — goðocS, Sigrii6r>i 
Sigriðr, iorfra-iöfra, ilifr-iilfr, auSiI-Vaðil, boigo - bioggo, ikoitt - ildott. biora 
— bötn, ikild — (kioM, IniiJdDi, Imiin.^Jómnn, Laga — Lauga, lagr — lagSr. kzyti 
B keypti, Ka(r ■• Kilfr, hcySn - hCTCðu, noðr '^ nocSt, 1»]» — fieila, itinum — itaðuum, 
icrita — KTÍpta, Manui — Mignni, Sklangi— Klzugi, hen — hné, he v -^ hvc, þra — þau, 
loi — iist, ieit''iTeit, DDaquad icnaquat (i.e, nokkut), fyllði — íylgSi, andiiz — 
indaSii, itdnum — iteÍQÍuum, konungini — konnngiini, nii bioa iTeinainii — nn 
bioggni . . .; z — d, lezuz — léSuz; «1 — a, tzikii, izikia, Kimir, tEÍgi, Uizikia, 
illhzig. Lattr kæu /ornu — Sturli = Stuiiá, Starholt = Stafahoh. Nita ward — 
dfgiag=dagan, FiirfJUr— baofSgiabt=hofuSgiarat 01 baliið-grumt (?). 


cUxiv PROLEGOMENA. § 31. 

'á;' once we find the spelling 'baana,' in full, for 'hana,' vhich 
is elsewhere invariably abbreviated '. This scríbe was also, the 
Editor believes, concerned in part of Stockholm, No. 5. 

Codex A we take to be of c, 1350; Thord Egilsson is called 
'Lawman' (Ami's Saga, ch, 12), which office he held in 1341-45. 
There are three distinct hands, about which there can be no 
mistake'. It was diScult to give facsimiles because it is hard 
to pin legible Unes together. Two are chosen to show picces of 
the characteristic parts of the vellum which do not occur elsewhere, 
Thorg^ Skardi's and Arní's Sagas. The complete A, comprísing 
those and Bishop Gudmund's Saga in addition too, wiih fuller text 
than B of Sturtunga, probably coutained about 170 leaves. 

The early history of these two veUums we have no means of 
knowing, but in B there ið a margínal scrawl on leaf 70 record- 
ing a phrase of Sturla's, which mentíons a fann in the parísh 
of Reykjaholar in the West'. And Ami Magnusson received what 
he got of both vellums from the 'neck' of the West. The vellums 
of Olaf Tryggvason's Saga, which resemble A in handwriting, are 
ftlso from ihe West, 

Thi diffmnct 0/ Ihe A <md S Uxls. B, besides the oft-noted 
omission of Thorgils Saga, bears the character on the whole of an 
abridgment Whole chapters are omitted, especially in the foimer 
part of Sturlunga, e.g. in Gudmund Dyrí's Saga, chaps. 7 and 8. 
In Islendinga, on the whole, the case is better ; but even here, as 
will be seen from the test foot-notes, it is occasionally curtailed, e.g. 
ch, 164, Occasionally there are corruptions, e.g. the famous passage 
in the preface, Cod,Amust havebeenaveryfinevellnra,accurate!y 
and carefiiily written, so that even the copies are wonderfuUy correct 
in the many names of persons (c. 4000) and places (c. zooo) which 
occur in the course of the book. The spelJing is also very good, 
and the Editor would now keep rather to it in such cases as the re- 
flexive ' z ' for ' sk ' than change it to the older form here adopted. 

How the MSS. came into Ami's hands we know from his 
careful annotation : — 

TheieUumil [ — AM. iij, cipii b]. 

'Tibulie lunliagíi Migni Chtonid Iilindiie, Slurlnngi SQgu, qnod mtxlmo hii- 
toriae Iilindtie dimno, piulo inte noUta lenipon. imo in pueríti& noitri, in 
occjdentili l(UDdi& diicerptiim eit et ditiipitum.' [On a Iook ibcet of papet.] 

'lilendingi SÖEaDnir Miklu, aliai Stnrlanga SSgo frigmenti varii komin til nda 
tfVeitfioTBum hTir bákia njflega 1 lundi liGn ei: icilícet hj& Ánu QuA- 
mtmdi lyui Í Blldudal,' [AM. 435 ■.] 

■ Inituicei of híi ipelting iie— Kaalfi, Aaton, liaiir, HMlfdan, Hiailmii, Larnb- 
kaii, kaami or kaain (Cain uted ai a nickname), Veggliagr (niclciiinie), rubití, 
ObKive, that while the thtid hand hai the old foriD Dufgui, the Gnt baiuj hii 

Dagfui CUte Noiwegiiniied fonn), 
*^Some of theie haiidi the Edito. 

e Editor finciei he can identifj with tboie of ceitaia 
copieiof O. T. S. 

■ ' þit ni til tidindi þetta nimir ■■ Iilandi at Fall Markni lon kejpti Oodnmn 
doltnr Einan huapi i bio [Bk] i Kiox-Gidi ok gif hennl heit Uoi trieikiii i tilgiof 
ok rir gelldi ludru elili,' 



Tbe TcUnm B [— AM. Iii, apa b]. Poucu«d b^ Arai MagniuMM bcfore 

1701, from bii Docle,Príeit Pml of HTimin ; — 
> Uendiagi Stgta Mikla, nattr mikiS i. Et komin til mfa ^ton 1701] fiá 
Pili KetitUTai, en til bioi hi þóiBi SleinþDn lyoi.' [AM. 435 1.] 

Thís may be epitombed bríefly. Having got B in its present 
State froni his uncle, Prieat Paul Ketilsson, c. 1701, during the 
next twenty-seven years bits oí A kept coming in, mostly from 
the West of Iceland. This unfortmiate vellum having been nith- 
lessly destroyed just before, in Ami's .very childhood, as he says, by 
Ami Gudmundsson of Bildudal, a Vandal whose name bardly 
deserves to be recorded here. When Ami had got all these thirty 
shreds together he found out that they were the fragments of a • 
better MS. than he preserved, and with a ' crí du-cœur ' he labels the 
poor wracks ' Tabulae Naufragii.' It is a curious thing too that 
in spite of his indefatígable research he never secured a paper 
copy of A. They eluded his grasp in a most eztraordinary way. 
For that the absence of such copies in his coUection is not owing 
to the fire, we can infer from the fact of his selecting a good B 
copy to make his own annotatíons on. 

Pafia- (opies. The foUowing tabte exhibits the relationship of 
the most importaut: — 


A [now IVagmentt, AM. iii b, Tellam]. 

a* chirL, c. 1640, [wii itill in exiiteoce in 1730-45.] 

StocUidiii, AM. 440 B. M, cbiit., Advocatei' 

durt., ifijo. [fiagm.] chut., c. 1690. Libnry, chirt., 

1656. c. I73S- 

The líler copiei (B. M. íod Adroeilei) are tbe beit, they are (air and accnrate. 
Tbej' contaln mach of the marginalia and ippendii matter of Thoiiik'i edition a* ; 
the Uter copia eren add indicci, ðic. 

More mlDDtely tbii ii a liit of the beit papet copiei — 
Tbe.4 clan: 

<^. Biihf^ Thorlak'i copy, loit, copiei hence — 

o, Biitiih MuMom MS. 11,137, fol., of c. l6go, written In the Soatb of leelind; 
puicbiied from Finn Magnaien. 

t. AdTocilci' Libniy, Edinbnrgli, 3i. 3. 17, antograph of the leamed antiqnarltn 
Piieit Eyjoir JúnuoQ of Vcllir in Sraibaaidil, Noith of Iceland, written 
c. 1735 ; dÍTÍded into 415 mnning chipten. Inicríbed ' Iilendinga Siga.' 

t. Cod. 8 Holm., of c. 1650. On tbe fly-leaf, 'Olani Veielini pouidet, Anno 
1667.' Tben owncd by Reeobjelm and bjr Rndbeck. Iniciibed ' lilendinga 

d, AM. 440, 4to. On the fly-leaf, ' Anoo l6j6, 14 Apr.' And in Ami Mag- 
□Duon't hand, 'fieua bdk heBi ikrifií Biynioirr Júnuon i Efita-lindi i, 
öinadil. k lanibliftinu atin um þetti SlurlDnga Sogu defect itda ; " Tbor- 
■rion Vigfnnon m. eh."' [mcribed ' lilcDdinga Saga.' Endi ia lilendingi, 


cliivi PROLEGOMENA. §31. 

(. New Rojil CollectioD, Copenh. 1134, fol., 358 pp. (of c. 1740); 'Mér gtf 
b&kliii þamtdr Gottikilki lon [ThaiwiIdiBi'i gnndfithei] ; buin barCi 

^git baaa if hendi S» Jóni Halldon sonai t, Tjorn fri S» Ejjolii Jóni ^oi 
Vullum. Eilt hifi allia bcila eietnplu. Vihj'jai klauitii g Ang. I77It 
TÍtotiSkdli Magnuuon.' laiciibed 'lilcndinga Sagi.' 
/. A copy in ihc Collrction of tbe Icelandic Litnarjr Socictjin the hand ofPriett 
|>oii(dD KetilUDD ÍD Eyjifjoid. c. 1750, fcl., witb iadicei, chioiiolog;. Copj 
of the pieceding. 

B [now in AM. 119 a, tcIIdid]. 

AM. 437- j8, chíit., e. 1640, 


AM. 116, AM. 114, AM. r)0, AM, 117-18, AM, ns.^ 

chart. charL cb«rl. cbart duil. 

Of these^^ Iraiucripít we apecially note: — 
o, Cod. Ama-Magn. 437-3S, ^to. cbart., in two roli,, ilgned E ia the old edjtion, 
11 tbe beti of all ihe B clau, in the hand of ooe of Biibop Tboiltk'i iCTÍbet. 
In tbe mugiii naticei in ihe hand of Ketil Jonindi lon. 

b. AM. IT5, fol., ÍD the baod of Jón Eileadison, once owned by Biihop Biynjolf, 

aod with inaiginal aolei in hii hind. Inicribed 'ltlendingi Saga.' 

c. AM. 114, faL, ÍD the hand of Jón Giiuiar ton. On the By-leaf rertei bjr 

Prieit Jðn An lOD of Vatzfjoid, leferring to tbe gieat war then laging in 

d. AM. 117-18, fol, wilh chioaology and maiginal notei lo Anii Magnuuon'i 

«. AM. tt6,Ín tbehand of Frietl Jdn Olaliioo of Reduud. 
/. AM. I30, fol. (oftbeconunoDett type). And we DOtc icTeral othen in and 


* We piint theie, bitherto tinpubliihed Te 
eibibiling contempaiaiy opinioai on tbe en 
illegiblci tbeii placei aie niaiked by dott. 

Thtjiru, aUuding 10 llu Bariary piraUs' imnmi'm « i6»7 ead ih* Tiirty Ytari 
War, ruu— 

' Lof ei aS leia og iknfa, og l^ðum biita líBin, 
lagnii af teggjum lignum og liigiii á fyni dógum: 
GdSr Oizun niaji gtai Jdn þeina rUa, 
ali-TÍSa ormi i guUi ibyggr tkal þó bggja. 

|iakka eg l&a og lukku lundz befti nofini giundai 
>it eg bit ^ litiS Toai i minni tkoAaS. 
Vai iliia Eii og óiar ibt é. þeitu lUi, 
on nú aC óiiio linnii eiagia TOpn ijáit tengi. 

Seni loki yfii akia ly'Si gengi hina biUi, 
ganga nii TÍil vlkingar Toit ySi landið, ikoitii 

GvS gzti TÍð TÍií, Dg gcgn Tyikja oit ttjiki.' 
Amdfiirlktr — 

■ STenikii halda ilag TÍB Dantka til ijói og laadi i tíS þfc kjdia, 
Skiaey eyBa, skemma nena, ikaSa folki, & boigii TaSa; 
Hertoga-dxmin Holitdn fiito oieS heitidldi fiiS og DitmankeD, 
unau Jótlaad altt f lennD, aS Eyja-fótkiS . . . ttiið heyja, 
LéaaiSi fen Iflci Ijóni um landiS alll tit beggja handa, 
tbei og ilingi, hóggi. heijir, bllfii ongani, i&ttu lýrr: 
Hntr reiti Henaa Chriile bretdu ityik nú Dana-Teldi 
Kongi TOium lif og langa lukku geS i þcuDai hiukkuai. 

SkrifaSþanaDtaAug. Aano 1645. J(Ún) A(ia) Síon)Vauf(iifli).'* 


Í3i. THE STURLUNGA MSS. clsxvii 

g. Cod. Stockhotm, No. 3. 'ldcDilingi lagin míkla byiúit bér; ikrifiið meS 
m*it» flýlir «6 MöírovoUuni i Hörgirdil, Anno 1 683 ' (of the common type). 

A. Dr. George Slepheru, iinoiigtt hii mauy treaíurFi, posieuei a good copf or the 
B clax, 'wilh vaiiODi mdinn from A ; ' SkrifuS i. aj k lÍTill&IruiD f 
BreifiifirBi af Petrí Joiuiyni, Anno Damini 1713. Minum hjartant njiunn 
Seigr Joni Hakonar íyni lis eg þeua bdk nKit-lfomandi vetr. Datum Skailli, 
Biarni PetDruon' (bora 1681, died 17Ö8), of wboni Bogi Benediktien in 
FeÖga-xfi, ' Skrifkii to hann giSSr einkuni i breytla lUli,' p. jS, fool-note. 

Next comes — 

i. Bioni of Skardta't aulograph compendimn, AM. 439, 410, with copioui mar- 
gÍDil notei', chronology, ðcc. On the fly.leaf, in Biihop Thorlak'i hand, 

And a ymr laltr a /avourílt Baltad nulre-^ 

•■ 'Ur DinmÖik barnm rér feDgÍ& Eregn nm lii&ai böndlan aj)í 
Tifi Sria. 
DÖnum gjöiðiit dýr-keypt bú, daprii miini londin þijd. 

þii mart viU mygja. 
t- t þyzhiiandi þreytir itriS þafi iS Srenska rneng;! 
ivo lengi. 
Linaríi* er úSr og zr, jmu blti hann og tlier, 

IVD dyra dtengi. 

3. LindiB allt er eytl og ipijlt af því langa itriSi, 

Franikir llka fijúga aB, falla yfir boig og itaS; 

þvi Kelurinn kviSir. 

4. FöfiurlandiS fitzkt Tort meí fiiAi Diottinn geymi 

Diglegt hann vort bleiti biauð beTUÍ fyrir hungn nauS, 
ITO lútt ei iveÍRiL 
r. DrottikÍDg Srla drambir nii, og digr er . . . ama 
ITO gjaraa, 
HoUenzkÍr þaS hala giiiíl aft hlupu ikip om hiGt bvert 

í- Fti þeii aln forþcnt laun hll . . . m . . . 

KríitDÍi TÍIja kiUait þd, kaitilt þor i djdpan ijú, 


4- jDlii, 164Ö. J(ún) A(ra) S(on).' 

* Elymcltigia. — Folgiiiar jarl : fblginn eSi faUnn. — Stifkaria letr : mjog bundnai 
Riinir. — Bakiarb, bak : aila. — Pdsi eSa poii ; liiill pungr. — Hneljoi: glningai 
»f hrBJum dauSra manna. — Velvaugr, vett: víg, Tingr; jiirS. — Hjúkolfr; ^kid; 
bjuk: (f1.-~Hamfdng; forum ekki f annan ham. — Á berlum er borit, á leiglum ei 
ISgii ei hiS lama. — -Fei-rjiki : ienekinn eSr íi liiikr, — Andaspta eSr mdtivara. 

Varía. — ölai-reÍBi af hiiSam þáá Iilandz haftkipum, — Gzl aS meikilegu dcmi 
Kttar-blíBiÍDI.— Spáiaga fcórBar.— Hugipi Síghvati.-^akmKli fiorTBldl og Sig- 
bvatz. — Korku dani þorflar teiltn ryilr dauSa hani. — H£r vantar viB ijgn Gizuri 
jatii (10 vol. ii. p. j6s). 

IMtrary hiiiorícai iíðíími.— Oddi preiti kalUBr StiömD-Oddi. Anno laoi dú 
Brandr bp„ haim hefir l&iiB laman-tkrífa meBan lil eiidiit lögDniai, en Eturla hinn 
fidði þsi iiBarí. — þaS hefir veríB Noiegi konanga bók oe um Iilendinga eptir þaS 
Scmnndr fidSi og,Arí fidSi dðu (vol. i. p. 199).— Af Stcíui Aileifar lynt lei I Oiko- 
cyja ij. Mgu. — Byit StDila um i Oeinhdlmi lem Hobnverjar fyn. — Veginn Snoirí 
fiturlDion hinn frdSi. — |>euí kvBsSi itanda i lögum Hikonar konangi og Magndu. 

Palriotic, iaudalar limporís aeli. — Hér koma eigi úllenzkir ollum kjorum TÍB 

Iileodinga, lem nú gjöríit. — Hákon konungr er cök lil ofia Siurln. — Ofrir á konungi 

riki k tilandi. — Eklíi þoiBi }>óiBr aS ríSa i SkagafjötB meB hundraB manna upp 4 

■ Leanart Tomenion, tbe great Swediih captain. 

voL. I. m 


clxxviii PROLEGOMENA. 4 31. 

' fitm bok i cg fioiUkr SkiUa loa A* 164S.' loicitbBd by Bioni u ' Iilend- 
ÍDgi ^gin MiUi ! (tott nál miiud tekía.' Hbocc m copict AM. Ill, fol., 
iu tbo baad of S" t>ontcÍD of Oukalt, ind AM. 119, bL, ÍD tbc baod of 
Aigcii JdaMÐn. 
72e old EdiHon. The first work undertaken by the Icelandic 
Literaiy Society was to publish Stuilunga. Their editioii is in four 
volumes (three Stuil., cme Arni), and took four years (i8i6-aoJ. 
The men who, at a time of great gloom and distress, d«voted their 
time, money, and labour, for pure love of the task, to editing and 
pubdishing this book deserve both gratitude and reepect. They 
begun with the best paper copy they knew of ía B-class MS. 
with various readings in its margin from the A-class copies). 
When they got to Bishop Gudmund's Saga, the Advocates' Library 
MS. came from Iceland and passed into Finn Magnusen's hands ; 
on it the rest of their work is based, but they kept the (alse division 
into books, and gave a tenible list of various readings from worth- 
less paper copies. To tbe vellums or to any classifícatíon of MSS. 
they paid no heed whatever. An indez of persons wae given (it 
is very inaccurate), but no indez of places, a great desideratum. 
But in spite of these deCects it is a very creditable work for tbe 
time, unpretentious and useful. 

The Vice-President of the Sociely, under whose auspices the 
first volume appeared (Rask the íounder was away prepaiing 
for his voyage to the East), the venerablc Bjami Thorsteinsson, 
lived to a high age, c 95, and though blind for tbirty yeaxs, he 
letained his &culties to the last, dying Dec. 1876. He possessed 
a great store of infoimation respecting the Iceland of his day, hei 
law and constitution, was a good English scholor, and a man of 
most amiable and kindly nature. Dr. Egilsson (then a student at 
Copenhagen) and Dr. Gisli Biynjulfsson (a gifted man, whose early 
death cut short a career of gieat promise) weie also members of 
the Society when the work appeared. 

"nu prestní Sdilion. It had long been the Editor's wish to 
qndeitake av. edition of Sturlunga, and when his work on the 
Btsknpa Sögui, so inCimately connected with it in every way, was 
over, he b^an in i86i-6a to make piepaiatíons foi that end, 
going diiough the MSS. at Copenhagen and deciphenng tbe 
fragments. But his design was broken off by his comtng to 
England in 1864, and tuming for seven years to a very different 
and all-absoibing subject. StíU the plan of an edition— the relatíon 
of the vellums, and of the vailous papei MSS. to each other and 

Kolbeia. Kd rilja Iilendinga TÍkja tit konungi railaaam. — Leggja til konungi 
málin; mcS þri kemit laadiB oadir koaaaíian. — Tckr aC lukait konungi rald k 
Íibndi. — SnoiTÍ fjiitr landiUa-niaBr &tti afi reta. — Tekc konuagi lil ifi áipa jSi 
■tjdni. — Tdci konungi aS ilúkka fjðt&ungum Islaadi. 

OtagraþUca, toucking Biorn't nativt plati, Skagafiard, — þaS hygg cg Vatioct 
dt frá Völlum.— RcnDa vötn fyrii veitan Valla-liug.— StDilunn leitihcitii i kiikja- 
gtiBi á Mdka-^reii (to toI. i. p. 379). — Arí hcGc vciit □jiinai-iiiiSr og lcgið í 
QIAlarfeykir t ^Sja dagÍDD, og þfi icgii (unnadíMt), — MÓrk aS TÖtn hafa niDalS 
T<*t>n LangMnyd. 


§ 3"- PRINTING. c!mr 

thdr reBpective valuea — had already been settled in Iiíe mÍDd, so that 
vhen he first saw the Brít, Mus. MS. in 1865 he could ot once 
recognise its worth and character. In 1873, when he waa at 
ICDgth able to propose to the Ðelegates of the University Press 
the usdertaking, of which the present volumeB are the outcome, 
bÍB long-deferred project was realised, As aome excuae for the 
time which haa clapsed lince then, Ít may be urged that varíous 
causes of delay unconnected with the book have firom time to 
time ansen and put off the completion of the work. 

The plan of the present Edition ís to follow A, basing the 
tezt on the Brít. Mus. paper MS. (Br., Cd., and Cod.), corrected by 
the Advocates' Library MS. (V) and in a few instances by the 
Stockholm copj (H). Of course wherever the twenty-fom vellum 
fragments come in, they are the basis of the text (tbe 'vellum' of 
the notes, where the place of their beginning and ending is daty 
noted). Id a few of the latter chapters of the Saga, B ia used, 
(B for vellum, B* for paper copies whece vellum is defective,) all 
nselesB paper copies (A, B, C, £, G, R, Þ of the old edition) being 
entirely disregarded. 

In one place (the preparations for the sea-fight of Floi) tbere 
were certain diSculties which almost led the Editor to beUeve that 
tfane were in the paper copíes traces of a third text; though there 
ÍB nothing else that would at all point to the eiistence of such a 
one, but it is possible that o* may have had a double text from 
a fragment now lost in this place. 

All changea of order &c. have been already noted in § 19, and 
are marked in the foot-notes. Alt obvious interpolations are given 
in Italics. The Indices, in which references are (as should be the 
invariable rule in editions) to chapter, no/ page, have been made 
anew, and are as complete aa the Editor could make them. The 
colleciioD of nicknames &c. is also new. 

§ 33. Frintinq. 

The Copyifig Áge was succeeded by an Age 0/ PritUing. We 
have traced the histoiy of the former to its beginning under 
Bishop Thorlak. It is to anotfaer, Bishop Gtidbrand, that Iceland 
owes tbe printing press : for a long time the efforts of tfae printers 
of tbe island were dlrected to fumishing a supply of Religioua 
Books, and it was not till later that tfaey tnmed to secolar Utera- 
ture. Some account of tfaeir masterpieces, tbe noble Icelandic 
New Testament of Odd Gottsfcalkson, and the translation of the 
whole Bible under the supervision of Bishop Gudbrand, wiU be 
found in the Oxford Icelandic Reader, where we faave been able to 
reprínt tfae Gospel of St. Matthew from Odd's text. 

In the meaa time, in 1664, tbe first Saga was printed at Upsala, 
tíiat of Hrolf Gautreksson. It was followed by several more Sagas 
of the kind, for tfae Swedisfa Bcholars of that day believed that in tfaese 
late and legendary productions the early history of theic country lay. 


clxxx PROLEGOMENA. § 3a- 

The editío prínceps of Edda, Copenhagen 1665, hardly deserves 
ihe name, it is so badJy arrajiged, and gives such a mJserably 
coTTupt text. 

It is to Bishop Thord, son of Blshop Thoriak and grcat-írandson 

of Bishop Gudbrand, that we owe the firsl Icelandic edition of 

Icelandic Sagas. They were issued from the old press with the old 

types, some of which Bishop Gudbrandhad cut with his own hands; 

but from Sfcalholt, whither the establishment had been moved for 

awhile from Holar. Bishop Thorlafc had had thoughts of printíog 

Sagas, but he and Bishop Brynjolf had quarrelled over the right 

of printing and the ownership of the press, so nothing was done. 

Thord's taste and wisdom was shown by the choice of Land- 

*■ ^fJ^As^ nama, Kristni Saga, LibeIIu%''and thc Great O. T. S. (Flatey-book 

'^rt,Ti«,- *.^1 lext), which appeared in 1688-89, having passed through ihe press 

>:*^-J in two years. We have printed the preface to the latter work' to 

show the spirit and sagacity of the good bishop. 

Notbing furtber vas done for tbe Sagas in Iceland (it was a 

poor country, and paper copies largely supplied the place of 

f,^* printed booka) till 1756, when a 4to and an 8vo of Islendinga 

^^^^ Sögur appeared from tbe Holum press. About this date another 

* h4-f^ "^^'^ press was set up in the Island of Hrappsey, whence in 1783 

^T/mlf the editio prima of Egla issued. There, too, were several other 

í^tJ useful books printed, Biom of Skardsa's Annals, ðíc. Since ihat 

fr^- date, nothing of the classic literature buC reprinCs has been put in 

MtA-a type in Iceland. 

' iTí^' Though Ami Magnflsson devoCed his life to collecting and 

yib Föðutland TOtt. einkuni þar geli um Cbtiatni-boSun hér i Is 
iitt it ekkcrt b« mcir it metn en Guði diS ; þd ct þat cigi binoii peu i mioii si 
ikemli téi at góSum ftóaiciki-bókmu. " Siga þeu Htioacga Hctn Olafi Ttyggva 
Miur Noregt konungi." ' 

And fivm Ikt Prologut lo iht Limdmima Siafíiotl, April iS, i6S8 :—' En mcS þTÍ 
eg metki aB landimenn minir lumit girnut lika afi fá gamlat Hiilaríui ok fneíi- 
bzki, einkum þiBi icm vort Pöturland ok n&lzg löod ok ríki, Daniuork ok Noreg 
etc. meita, þi heS ek þeim til þénustu ok þdknauat i fteat út ganga Uitifi þcM* 
gömlu Sógu-bök, lem ncfniit LÁhdhAka, Ujóðandi nm fytttu bfgeing þcua laudi 
elnkum af NÐiAmÖanum. Ei þella at roinni hjEgjn ein id brzu Iráðleiki-bák, ofc 
no ttm [andaiDeal ok giuudvöllr til at (kilja aont gamlit fileaikar ok Noiikar 
Sfign-bxki, ok Anliqaitet. • . . Hvar fjrrir þii tótii Letari mál( ci dfcuBoigr við 
bieg&iil. þdtt þeHÍ bók tí nokkufl oAiuvii otiu3 ok itÖfuB, cn ná cr venjnlegl 
cfir almenat voifiit her hj& ou í þeiiu landi. Öikandi vKri þeti að vér héldum víA 
Tort gimla mdaur-mU, lem fotfeSr voiit brnkaS hafa, og bt;&luSum þvi ekki, þvl 
ijaldaD Tei betr þegar breytt et, legir gamalt máli-hittr. MKtti þaO ou faeldr til 
hróSn hotfa, aS véi heldum ðumbteyttu þvl ganila ok vÍSfizga Noirznu-roili, 
>«n brdkið hefir vetiS að fornu i miklum paiti NorSi-halfnnnar, einkuro Noregi, 
DanmÖrk, Svlaiíki, etc. Hefi tg hugiS, Lofi Gu6, »6 lita fylgja þeuai! búk 
mappam Geogiaphiooi Iibndiae. En eigi hefi ck ifoimat aS leggjait ivo i Sagna- 
prcDt, aS þeu vegna hindiiit GuSi OrS, kviS ztiS i ok tkil meil metail meðan eg 
og. mioii hoiuni rit i þeuu prenlvciki.' 


§ 3'- PRINTING. dioutJ 

working towards his projected edítion of Libellus and Skioldunga, 
he never published any Saga. By a curíous accident, however, his 
unfinished edition of Libellus was printed at Ozford. Chrístian 
Worm, grandson of the great Danish scholar 3nd physicist Ole 
Wonn (a man who gave a great impulse ta historícal and philo- 
logical studies in Denmark and abroad), came, when quite a young 
man, to England, and as he wished to get somethmg ' Runick ' 
printed here, having a copy of Ami'a notes with him, he got tbem 
prínted abont 1693, though as they lay by many years before 
publication, the book is dated 1716. Arni was veiy wrath at this 
EurTeptittous production, and made Worm ip give him what the 
Sagas wÐuld call ' self-doom,' and thereby got, as damages, 
several MS5. which had descended to Worm from his grandfather's 
collection, Codez Wormianus of £dda, and Codex Runicus of the 
Laws among them ; and lucky it is that he did so, for aflerwards, 
when Worm had been raised to the bishopríc and was getting od 
in years, a fire broke oul in Worm's bouse and dcstroyed the 
i^ole of his libraty. 

Ami, whose end was hastened by gríef and despær caused by 
his losses in a more terrible conflagration, lefl all his property íd 
trust to the University Library to form a fiind for the benefit of 
Icelandic scholarship, and especially foi the purpose of printing 
Icelandic classics. For forty ycars this was inoperative, owing to 
vexatious treasury claims, which were at length waived, and Ihe 
beqnest took effect. The first work which appeared in conncc- 
tion with the fund, was the Niala of 1773, a work which has never 
been surpassed, among the numerous editions of Icelandic Sagas, 
for it8 artistic beauty, and rarely eqnalled for its good, sensible 
editing, the model of what an edition of such a work should be. 
Kristni's Saga in 1775, and Hungr-vaka in 1778, and several otber 
Tolumes followed with Latin translations afilized. The Poetic Edda 
among them in 1778 sqq. Since then ihe fund haa put forth, Egla 
1809, Laxdæla 1826, Grágás 1829, and Kormaks Saga 1832. 
AIl in the same place, and others of less note. The Danish His- 
torían Suhm had several Sagas published at his own expense, 
fine 'tall copies, broad margins,' but bad texts: Orkn., Gluma, 
Rymbegla, &c. 

The conscientious but hcavy scholarship of the end of the last 
centnry, wbich had been gradually getting duller and blinder, was 
now pushed out of the way by tíie New Leaming of a knot of 
young men, of whom the leader and inspirer was Rask. He 
founded the Icelandic Literaiy Society in 1816. One of its objects 
was the pubUcation of classic Icelandic works. They began, as 
noticed above, witb the Sturlnnga. The Society also made the 
large map of Iceland, a work of great accuracy and care, Under 
their ausþices Jón Sigurdsson bas edited the Icelandic Diploma- 
taríum, and the Editor printed Biskupa Sögur. 
In iSas Ha/H founded the 'Nornena Fomfræöa Fflag,' better 


clxxxu PROLEGOMEKA. $ 3». 

icnovm as the Socíélé des Antiquités du Kord. The most ugeful 
vork done by this Society ÍB the SeríeB of Kings' Lives, Fomnuuina 
Sögur (Fms.), zii vols., 1825-37. Less notable and not so well exe- 
cuted are the Fomaldar Stí^r (Fas.), a coUection of mythical and 
fictitious vorks, 1839-30. It was Fms. that Ðr. Egilsson, the last 
of the long list of Icelandic Latinists, nsed for his Latin transla- 
tions in Scripta Historica. From them was also made a Danish 
branslatioiL Two series of Islendinga Sðgur (two vols. each) — the 
first 1830, with Icelandic prefaces and apparatns; the tatter 1843- 
47, with Danish introductions, étc. — followed. The activi^ of the 
Society in these its early years was evidenced by the production of 
aeventeen volumes in twelve years. The gigantic Antiquítates 
Russes and the luzurious Antiquitates Americanae, chiefly useful for 
their beautiful facsimiles, are due to the new Danish manageraent. 

In 1846 a litde Society, Nordiske Literatur Samfimd (often 
quoted as Nord. Oldsk.), was set on foot, under tbe auspices of the 
láte Professor Westergaard (whose lamented death has so latety 
taken place). It has published several Sagas — Gisli, Hrafnkel 
(ed. princ), Vapuíirdinga (ed. princ), and chief of all ' Gr&gás,' 
I. e. Cod. Reg., edited by W. Finsen, all in a handy, useful fonn, 
with Danish translation. 

The Independence of Norway, secured by the conatitution of 
1814, produced astonishing results in that countiy, which awoke, 
as Ít were, from a long sleq), and a race of men appeared, whose 
freshness of view and wonderfiil eneigy mark a new era in Scan- 
dinavian leaming. The publications of Munch and Keystr, the 
Norse Laws and the Norse Diplomataríum, Ac, were the first- 
Iruits of thís movement ; but we are chiefly bere concemed with the 
long series of works which Dr. Unger has edited. For the last 
thirty years this indefatigable scholar has been printing MSS. 
fnearly all of which had never hitherto been touched), — the huge 
Corpus of Saints' IJves, ihe Mariu-Sögur, Postula-Sögur, Stjóm,' 
Ac (the remains of the Cloister Libraries), Romantic Ságas (Korla- 
magnus, Thiodrek S., Ac), Historícal MSS. of high importance 
(Morkinskinna, Frís-bók, Olaf's Saga, O. H. L., &c), will remain 
as marks of his colossal industry. 

In Germany, of late years, K. Maurer's edition of GuU-Þori, tbe 
Editor's Eyrb^gia, Fomsögiu', and Ðr. KUbin^s Riddara Sögnr 
and now (1878) Trístram have appeared. 

The Swedish Text Society (Fomskrift-SaUskapet), under the 
leadership of Klemming, haa long been engaged with the remains 
of their own old literatiu'e. But recendy several scholars have 
turned to Icelandic studies, and Cederschíólí s Bandamanna, Joms- 
vikinga, and several Romances, and, most important, the valuable 
Hom&y-book of Dr. Wisén are editions of permanent merít. 

Tbe study of Icelandic also appears to have taken root in Eng- 
land, and the Northem Sagas for the RoUs' Seríes, the Oxford 
Icelandic Dictionaiy (begun tni866 and finished iniSj^), together 


f33. THE EDDIC POEMS. cliiíÍU 

witb tbe present two voltimes, mark the aeríous interest felt in the 

§ 33. Thi Eddic Poems. 

It Ís not our purpose to deal fully with these poems, but merely 
to point out, as brieðy snd clearly as we caa, certaín points con- 
nected with Úieir orígin and history which may serve as si^gestiong 
for fnture investigation. 

To begin with the Nimu .• the word ' Edda/ now applied to & 
coUcction of Lays of vanous authorship and age, though occa- 
sionally convenient, is misleading and historically fiilse, and shonld 
be aslittle used as possíble. It is a word only met with in Rigs- 
þulaJ|^ Lay, part of which Ís lost, only found in a stray leaf of one 
MS.pwhere it is used in the sense of Álava, great-grandmother. 
It never occurs in the Laws, and is not found in any other Teu- 
tonic language. Frímð fade, it is highly unlikely tlút we should 
have in any tongue for great-grandmother a simple uncompounded 
word; and when the word used in the same poem for great- 
grandfather is looked into, it tunis out to be the word 'ái,' which 
we take Eo mean simply ancestor. Whence Ihen can the poet 
have got the word ? He must either have invented it. or, as ia 
olher cases, borrowed a word of kindred meaning from some 
neighbouríng tongue, very possibly Gaelic, j'ust as he does ' Righ' 
in the same poem '. 

The history of the name begins with the occurrence of the word 
in Cod. Upsálensis (see p. Ixzsi), and in a fragment of Snoni's 
work. // M always used in conneciim witk Srtorri's work, and espe- 
cially wilh reference to Skaldskaparmal, So the Rfmur over and 
ovcr again used the ' art of Edda ' as equivalent to ' ars metrica,' 
tbe complicated system of synonyms wÚch were regarded as the 
cbief beauty of Icelandic poems — for instance, an untaught poet 
who called a spade a spade, insCead of descríbing it by a mytho- 
logical circumlocution, would bc scouted as 'Eddaless.' At the 
Revival the first mention of the word is by the annalist of 1580 in 
the before-quoted phrase referring to Snorri (p. Issxi), In Cry- 
mogæa, 1609, Amgrím calls Snorrí ' Auctor Eddae.' 

We now comc to the cimfusion in tbe use of the title. In a com- 
mentary to Jóns-bók, 1626, Biom of Skardsa several times uses the 
word with reference to vocabulary in the later part of Snorrí's Edda ; 
but as hé knew this work from Codex Wormianus and took the 
whole of the varied contcnts of that vellum as one book, he often 
gels confused, and seems to have some theory as to Ssmund's having 
begun tbe work which Snorrí finished. Sometimes too he speaks of 
Gunnlaug as if he fanded he had written part of this Corpus. 

> Wi taD ruK7 that in ■cciniUace with ■ Gommoa ind ingeniauf Icdindic 
ciutom, which rciched i beiglit in Snorri and SlurU'i diyt, tbe word Edda !■ 
RÍgi-þuU, which pleued the taa«ii( eat, wai fint ipplitd 10 the Codei wbich 
conuined It, and maeh beiide, etpedill; Siiom''i Edd>. If 10, it wonld euilj 
beCDine Ibe ipecíEc name of Snorri'i wotk. 




Amgrim fell into the same habit in his later works, and when 
Ole Worm asked him how it was that he once called Snprri the 
author oT Edda, and now talked of Sæmund, &c., Arngrim put 
him off with an ambiguous reply : ' We find it in our monumenla' 
[observe the omission of anliqua, for it is but a statement of 
Biorn's,] ' that Sæmund be^n and Snorrí finished the book.' 

So malters Stood when Bishop Brynjolf, accepting Biom's theory, 
writes to one of his learned Danish friends and speaks of the 
'original Edda' of his fancy thus, 'lngentes Thesauri totius hu- 
manae sapientiae conscripti a Sæmundo sapiente,' we have, he gocs 
on, 'vix milleBÍmam partem' of what is lost. And in this latter 
statement he is correct, for the liats of names in the Þulur aie 
the last dry bones of once living legends, the ossa coccygis of 
gods and sea-kings and heroes, of whose bodies all tbe rest has 
b>ng since mouldered in the dust. 

Up to this time the word Edda has been consistently used 
fbr Snorri's Edda, and before 1643 there is no trace of any one 
knowing the Poelic Edda at ail. An Essay of Biom still in MS., 
written 1641, and a composition of Jón Gudmundsson, penned in 
1643, both treating cshaustively mythological subjects, yield uot 
the faintest allusion to the poems we know as ' Edda.' 

But now the Cod. Regius of the Lays turned up, and Brynjolf at 
once accepted it as proof positive of his own theory : ' IUa genuina 
ihythmica Sæmundi,' he says; boldly writes Eðda SÆMtmDi on the 
back of the newly-discovered book, and henceforward the 'two 
Eddas' become a standing phrase among the learned; Snorri's 
Edda being distinguished as Prose-Edda, the Book of 'L.a.yi as 
Sasmund's Edda. 

Wbence the bishop got this Book of Lays we do not know for 
certain. About this he says nothing, but we believe that it was in 
the East of Iceiand, which was almost a terra incognita, where 
things might lurk in silence for scores of years, for there were no 
great copyists in the East, it was so far from tbe real centres of 
intellectual life, Holar, Skalholt, and Broadfrith. One reason for 
this hypothesis rests on the fact that with Cod. Regius came a 
fragment (A of editions, AM. 748) which contained Vegtamskviöa. 
Now there is a poem of the fifteenth or siíteenth century, Hrafna- 
galdr, which was composed to serve as introduction and be aSixed 
lo Vegtamskviða. In it there is a word borrowed from the Völuspá 
of Cod. Regius, so that it is clear the author knew both these two 
MSS. But ihis poem is, we lake it, by an East countiyman, the 
word ' endr-rjoða ' (see Dict. s. v.) being a provincialism only used 
In that quarter, as far as we know. Again, the handwriting of the 
two vellums is quite unlike any handwriting known to the Editor. 
This wouid, at all events, be hardly the case if they were of 
Weslera origin, from a part of the countiy where there had 
been a regulax school of scribes with a marked character of hand- 
writing, &c 


§33- THE EDDIC POEMS. clxxjtv 

From what has been said bcfore, the readcr will see that to 
imagiae anj 'Eddic tradition' to have existed in Iceland would 
be idle. Id &ct, if these two MSS. had not emerged we should 
not have known that such poems as the Lays of Helgi, Havamal, 
Hymiskvifta, the AtU Lays, or the Gudnin Lays ever existed. All 
we should have been able to say when we read parts of Volsunga 
Saga is, what we say now with regard to parts of Skioldunga, ' this 
curious prose must be founded on ancient Lays.' 

In the absence therefore of all direct allusion, we must seek 
back for traces of them through Icelandic literature. In the 
fifteenth century we have. besides Hrafnagaldr quoted above, the 
two Thrymlur (printed in Möbius' edition of Edda), Ballads founded 
on the Lay Thrymskviða, Next we come to the fourteenth-cen- 
tury paraphrase of the Lays of Heigi and the Wolsungs m Vol- 
sunga Saga, clearly drawn from a sister copy of our Cod Regius. 
In the thirteenth century, Snorri's Edda quotes from three Lays, 
which he knew, we think, in the shape of singU Lays on separate 
scrolls. About the beginning of the same century, in Monk Gunn- 
laug's Poem, 'MerUnus Spá,' a paraphrase of Geoffrey's prophecy 
of Merlin, there are phrases and cadences which prove that autbor 
to have known and sometimes imitated the Lays of Helgi. In 
Fostbrædra Saga is a phrase of Havamal quoted as a ditty. That 
part of Havamal which relatcs to Charms &c. was also known to l^aifcuf. 
the author of Yng^Ínga (Ari), In np other Icelandic composition 
do we see any trace of 'Eddic' iofluence, save in LaxdæÍa only, 
where the cbaracter of Gudrun, to our mind, especially in the scene 
where she eggs on her sons to revenge Bolli, is affected by a reflec- 
tion from the Lays. See Oxford Icelandic Reader, where the 
passages are given and potnted out King Sverri, as we have 
noticed, once quotes a piece of Fafnismal. 

We are thus thrown back on the poems themselves, and must 
ezamine them to try and find out, if we can, whence and where 
they arose. 

Looking at the mass of separate poems of diðerent styles, ages, 
and subject, as a whole, we ^all at once perceive that they are all 
inferíor in age to the períod when the Scandinavian language 
broke off from the other Teutonic tongues, and took upon itself 
a character of its own, both in vocabulíúy, in the development of 
new grammatical peculiaríties (e. g, the reSexive), and in the great 
morphological changes (e.g. very great contractions and apheresís). 
A veiy early origin is therefore impossible, and the ninth centuiy 
must be our upward limit. 

We may also note that foreign words are found in these Lays 
of Latin, even Gaelic aud English origin (a point we shall recur 
to later). That the finest of these Lays breathe the very spirit of 
the Wiking Age is clear ; thcre could be no better exponents of 
tbe roving life or daríng recklessness and wild adventure of that 
Age than the lays of Helgi. It is aJso evident that these Lays 



dtfrer from tbe Icilandic poetif of known poets in style, diction, 
metre, and subject 

Again, the ancient mytbs bave been localised in a strange way 
in tbe West. The Magic Mill ÍB sunk in the Pentland frith, the 
Everlasting Figbt takes place at Hoy. Moreover, curious Gaelic 
words occur in the first chapters of Ynglinga, Tefemng to Odin 
and tbe Ases, wbicb looks as if Ari's mytbology at al! events had 
come down to bim through folks whose ancestora bad once been 
in the Westem Islands. 

It was moved by tbese considerations, whicb a minuter ezamina- 
tion of the Lays confirmed, tbat the Editor, some ten years ago, 
came to tbe conclusion tbat but one solution was possible — tbat 
tbese poems (with one or two exceptions, to be noticed below) owe 
tbeir origin to Norse poets in the 'Westem Islands' — tbat tbe 
Lays are, in fact, to these Islands what the Saga was to Iceland — 
that they date from a time subsequent to the settlement of Iceland 
from tbose Islands, thougb perhaps tbe work of tbe first genera- 
UoQS after tbat event 

It ia obvious that the only way to setUe sucb a question as tbis 
is to take the poems one by one, and argue from one to anotber 
where they are connected, classífying tbem in the process. 

Let ua begin with RigsþtiUt, which, indeed, first snggested the 
above theory to tbe Editor. Here ia an Hesiodic poem : tbe 
author is giving his idea of the orígin of Society, bow eacb class 
aiose, and bow Kings came to be. It bas not at all the look of 
a veiy early poem, and must not be nsed as autbority for the fifth 
and sixth centuries (an appendiz to the Germania, as it were), bnt 
ratber belongs to a pbilosophical and enemerist class of work. 
There is an explanation needed to tbe poet's mind for the exist- 
ence of a King, and be is obJiged to go beyond the sea (to Dublin 
or Denmark?) for him, and his nomud idea of a state is that in 
wbicb an Earl is the higbest degree: — this does not point to a 
Norwegian orígin. Next we notice tbat be describes a society the 
grades of wbicb are very distintí — the tbrall, a loatbed and ugly 
person, is quite another being to the ceorl or franklin, whose 
pbysical cbaracteristics are very different. This is what we should 
expect where two races are in contact, and where serfs of tbe 
conquered race líve on under their conquerors ; but it suits neither 
Iceland nor Norway. Then we find carls empkiyed, non-Icelandic, 
peai dug, not Norwegian, bnt, as we see from Orkneyinga, a Gaelic 
ctistom, taugbt the Norsemen in Orkney by Turf Einar *. Coming 
to words, cart ís Gaelic ; calk is Latin ; Edda is foreign (as we 
noticedabove); the names of several tbralls look foreign ; andlastly, 
Rtgs-þula itsdf ÍB, we beUeve, simply the Kin^s Lqy, a fanciful titie, 
for wbich the poet bas borrowed tbc Gaelic Righ, or King. 

Taking Grifmasmal, several of the rivcr nanus are, wc tbink, to 

* P«it pti iD CBÍthncM ire meDtíoiicd ÍD Otknejlngs Sag*, p. 214, Rolls' edition. 


Í 33. THE EDDIC POEMS. clxixvii 

be identifled with Gaelic Btreains. Even ' Kerlaugar tvær ' strikes 
as as remukablj like a Scotti^ or English Kerlock or the like. 
The Kjar seema to point to some such root as appears in Ci^r, 
CAer-vtW, Char, étc, all CeLtic names. 

In one of the Layt 0/ Sigurd (an important instance, becanse the 
Lay in question belongs to a gTOup, all of whicb must go together) 
we find the phrase ' suðr á Fifi' [soutbwards on Fifel. This the 
Volsnnga paraphrast has changed to 'suðr á Fiom,' putting a 
place he knev for one he had never heard of. But against lus 
reading we may urge that Funen is never used with a mark of 
direction, wbereaa Fife, which only occurs thríce, always bas sucb 
a mark attached to it, the other two instances being a verse of 
Sighvat's, composed Ín England at Cnut's Court ' ur Fivi norðan,' 
and in Orkneyinga ' suSr í Fifi,' p. 34, Rolls' edition. 

We may now tum to those compositions which present the 
dosest analogy to the Lays of which we are speaking. Manj 
of these we know the origin of, and they seem to support the 
foregoing conclusions, for most of tbem are aasociated witb the 
Wegtem Isles. 

The grand dirge Siríkstnal, perhaps of all these the most con- 
■onant in feeling and style to the finest of the Eddic Lays, was 
composed on the King of Northumtierland for his widow Gunnhild, 
while Bhe was yet in exile, at sorae time between Eirik's death (950) 
and Hakon's death (c. 969), for it was then imitated by Eyvind 
Skaldaspiller.' It sbould therefore be the work of a Westem poet. 

The Hafurfirth Lay, ascribed to Homklofi, calls the King of 
Norway ' King of the Easterlings ' and the Norwegians ' Easimen,' 
which no Norttunan would have done, but which would be tiue in 
tbe mouth of a Westem man. 

In Biarkamal occurs tbe name ' Aðils,' a form which, like that 
in Ynglingatal, is a wom-down form of 'Eadgils' and Norse and 
Swedish 'Audgils.' It is found only' Ín these poems, in mytbs 
founded on soch poems, and on the Manx Rune stones — that is 
to say, the poems are tbe work of men who pronounced the name 
in this way, ajid the only men we know to have done so are &om the 
West In the second fragment of tbe same poem a river name,'Orun,' 
occurs, whicb looks to us Uke the name of some Gaelic stream. 

Darratiar-ljoi is bistorically a Westem song, and it is very 
valuable to us, as it gives us a date; it is af^r 1014, in the days of 
King Cnut, and of ThoTfinn the most powerfiil of all the Orkney 
EarJs whose reafan extended to part of Ireland (died c. 1064). 

With regard to Sólar-ljot, Úie Sun's Lay, we bave a strong 
opinion that it too belongs to the West, the purity of its diction, 
the pe^uliar religious tone which pervades ic, and reminds us strongly 
of tíie compositions and ideas of tbe early cburcb of the West, the 
■weetness and meekness of the Columbian churcb. The Vision is 


dixxviii PROLEGOMENA, § 33. 

quite cODBonant to tbe early Irísh Saints' Lives, and tbe whole poem 
bears Ihe imprínt of a time when heathendom was yet a power 
in tbe land. The morals too, drawn from stories hinted at as well 
known, do not rcfer to Icelandic personages or history. We 
sbould place this Lay in the latter part of the eieventh century. 

Coming to a later or epig'onic school of poetry, the poetry of 
Ragnar'i Lays, the Rune Lay, the Song o/Proverbs, and still later 
Krakumal, we can confidently mark these down in the West ; the 
wording of tbe last poem ia quite concJusive (' h * omitted, &c.) 

When the stream of poetry has run dry, the Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum is needed. The ^ulur lists of classiíied words drawn up in 
veree, for poets' use, therefore fitiy close the poetíc períod. That 
they must be ascríbed to tbe Western Islands was first forced upon 
the Edilor's conviction when, coming for tbe first time into tbe 
Oxford City Library in 1866, and musing over a big English 
map, he notíced that among the Northem rtver'nanus there were 
many wbicb be knew from the í^lur — Spey, Nitb, OykiII, fcc. ; and 
upoo examination he found that of izo tmlur ríver-names one 
might identify at least 100 as Nortb Brítisb streams ranging from 
the Wash to Pendand, and there is little doubt Ibat where a name 
sucb as Nitb occurs, common to Norway and Scotiand, that the 
latter is meant. The list of iirds also, wben examined for the 
Dictionary, comprised a large number of species whicb do not 
inhabit Scandinavia or Iceland, but are to be found in Bewick, 
Ac, as birds of tbe Britísh Islands. 

In tbe list of sktpping íerms, parts of the ship, rigging, spars, 
&c., tbere are many ternis never met with in Iceíandic líterature 
or talk, and unknown in Norway. This would be just whu we 
shoujd expect in tbe case of a place where tbe ship was a home, 
and Ihe Wiking-tide lasted longer than in any other land, — the very 
focus of the Nortbmen's Empire of the Sea I 

That these ímlur are late, tbe occurrence of raodem Greek 
words — fengarí, <ptyyájnov, tbe mooi^; nis, »íf, the night (as Bu^e 
noticed) ; Kipr, Kíirpot, Cyprus, such as may have been brought 
back by Rognvald's crusading crews ; and of Latin words, korvass, 
&c. — prove pretty conclusively. 

Coming back once more to the mass of Eddic poetry we may 
feel our way to a rougb ciassification of the single Lays into groufis\ 
which may serve as a basis for further reseaich. Many of them are 

' Some iDch grODping orthe Liji ai ii hetc attempled for Ihe Giit timc (though 
the Edilor had already made tltii rough claiiiGcation Íong before thi> preKnt tbeocy 
of theii Weitem aiigin wai taken np) ii qnite neceiiaiy lo a ligbt undentanding óf 
tbe Lifi thcmielrei. The abience of any soch atlempt hii had a good deal to ðo 
with the backwaid itale of'Eddic' itudies (uTC ai legaidi teitual ciiticiun). If It 
had beea done eiiliei it would have pievenled many miiundentandingi of thc 
lubjcct. Il ii hoped that in futuie editioni of the Eddic longt the old aibitiai; and 
nnhiitoriol ordei of thc MSS. will be at lait depaned fiom, and the Uiyi themidvei 
tnated u i pait of i great ichool of long, in whtch Kiekimal and the Waking of 
Anganiy, and «veii the þulur bate ai much right lo itaiid ai Völuipli itielf. 


§33- THE EDDIC POEMS. dxxxix 

BÍngle, manj only pieces of lost Lays, but Bome of them are com- 
plex (Völuspá, Havamal), and in somc we find distinct interpo- 
lations (Grímnísmal). 

Taking the Helgi IiayB first, they seem to be the two fonner gc.i. 
parts of an epic trilogy, Helgi and Swafa, Helgi and Sigrun, Helgi 
and Kara — the tbird is lost. Judgíng from £e subject and style, 
and lasdy, and most conclusively, we think, by ear from the ríng 
and flow of the verses — and having known these Lays by heart 
for some twenty-five yeais, the Editor is entitied to speak with 
Eome confidence on this head — we should also attríbute to the 
Helgi-poet the Raising o/ Anganty and Hialmar's Dealk (found 
now in Hervarar Saga), as well as the few fragments now inter- j^ c^ic"^ 
potated into the older Fafnismal and Sigurdarkviða JI. 

To a poet of the same school and períod the Editor would also ci 2. 
give Vólvspá, V^tamskviSa, Thrymskviða, perhaps the finest ballad 
in the world, and happily preserved complete, Grotta-song, and 
VoImdarkvilSa (these last two have many resemblances). The 
Bcrenity and calm of this group mark them off from the bright 
vigour of the Helgi group, but the ríng and beauty of expression 
and matter common to the two sets of poems would rather incline 
one to attríbute them to the youth and ríper years of the same 
great unknown poet, than to imagine that two such masters of 
metre and passion were alive at the same time. The contrast is 
not 30 great as between the Goethe of Wilhelm Meister and the 
Goethe of Faust and Werther's Leiden or the Shakespeare of King 
Lear and the Midsummer Night's Dream. Inferíor poems of thc 
same school are several of the Wolsung Lays. 

Leaving these, we come to an equally well defined group, 
marked out by a peculiar metre and a diFferent spirít and mode of . 
expression, the Sramatio FoemB — The Fiyting o/ Loki, Skimi't p-' • 
£qy, Harbard's Lay (some of which seem by the change of 
scene and the number of characters, six in Skimi's Lay, sixteen in 
Loki's Flyting, to mark an actual drama of an early type, in wbtcb 
several recitcrs could take part). They are the work of an un- 
known Westem Arístophanes, full of humour, not respecting even 
tbe gods in his mirth. His conception of Thor, a favourite cba- 
racter of his, admirably contrasted and set off against Loki (e. g. 
Harbard's Lay, where Bergmann's theory is certainly ríght), is like 
the Athenian's Herakles in some points. The Lay which under- 
bes the prose of Skioldunga (whose compiler was acquainted with 
Starkad's Lay and Biarkamal) telling of Ivar Vid/admés dealh may 
well be hÍ3 also. See Oxford Icelandic Reader for passage. 
Further, the Lay on Siaíi and Niord, and the Lay on Thor's a^t.^t/'/C 
Skgptjl Aj^ Geirrod, of which fragments (two stanzas of each) are 
lefl in Snona-Edda. 
i_l The yiflftrfl»^ Foema Grimmimal, Va/thntdmmal, Alvismal, S'^- 
and the little ' Slattu tcAm' /ragmeni in Gylf^nning seem to belong 
to the same school, as their dnimatic fonn ^d metre is alUn to the 


cxc PROLEGOMENA. § 33. 

formei poeroB, though tbeir matter sind intent ÍB more dídactic, ytt 
there is humour in them too. 

The Qreenland Gronp ia discussed below. [^^'■J 

The a«iiealogioal Foenu, Lays of 11 Hndsuic cast, of which 
many muat be lost, three however survive — Fiiglitiga'íal, by Thio- 
dulf of Hvin (in Ynglinga Saga), telling of the lineage of the early 
kings of Sweden down to Harald Fairhair'B uncle; Ifaleygia-/al, a 
later composition (fragmente preaerved), end of the tcnth century, 
bj Eyvind, on the genealogy of the great Earl Hakon and the 
lithe-Earla ; lastly, the £qy 0/ Hyndla, perhaps the earliest of the 
three, written for Ottai Heimski, a sciofl of the great hoose of 
Haurda-karí', from whom Saint Magnus and his nephew Earl 
Rognvald are sprung (see pedigree, Tab. IV. A, Orkneyinga, Rolla' 
edition), and most likely therefore to have been preserved in the 
Westem Islands. It has only reacbed us in a hopeleesly comipt 
fltate, especially where the poet leavee the gods and herocs, and 
comes to the human members of the hncage. An epigonic Lay 
of A.D. 1184-97 'B found in Flatey-book, ii. gao. 

In the Dirgflfl and Songs of Fruse of the early known poets 
we have other means of information, aad they caa alwayB be 
treated under the names of their different authora. 

It will be noticed that there are yet three poems in the ' Edda' 
MSS. to be taken into account, ffavamaJ, the Greai Woltuttg Lay, 
and Hcandimaí. The first, the Lav of tbe High On e. a complez 
piece as it atands, may be dealt with in two parts, one of whicb again 
ÍB Ínteipolated. It is a gnomic poem, like tbe Works and I^ys, 
and bears marks of high antíquity, having for its chief chaiactei- 
isticg a Stuidy common aense and piactical sagacity, without any 
of the enthusiasm and 'boiling of the heart' of the Helgi Lays. In 
it the Editor believes we have a spedmen of the Fre-WikJng 
Foetrr of Norway. The Greai Wolsung Lqy (which the editiona 
talsely bieak up into three— Second Sigurd, Fafnis' Lay, Sigrdiifa's 
Lay) is also «n antique poem of the like cast of thongbt, and 
likely to be antnnor to the Helgi Laya, as we might gather from its 
beíng interpolated witb fiagmenu of that gioup*. AIl the aimiles 
in this long poem, aa in Havamal, belong to coníinmlal Norway, 
and are permeated by an older mylhology than the Hclgi Group, 
01 even the Ðiamatic Group (which is iater than the HeJgi Lays to 
OUT mind, and betongs to a different oidei of thought). A thiid 
and beautiful fragment, Hatndismal, belongs also, we bdievt, to 
the Piæ-Wiking Age. It is interpolated from a laier poem of the 

> An aptiiioii Gnt proponDded bf ihe Editorin Timatal, iSj£, long eie the preteat 
diioiT 00 tbc 'Eddic' Laji daWDcd Qpon faim. The ciiHoiii ind raie □iinei Kljpp 
U)d KetU, the fonner only foDiid in the HaDrda-kiii iiiiiilj, ind botb iltciiutíiig i> 
tbe (ams wi; in the pedigree of ihit familj' aad oui Lay, are tei]' MiilcÍDg. 

' Poi the pDipoia of idcieice we appeod a litt of Ibeia — Sig. ii. 5, 11, 13-18, 
aj, 36 ; Pafb. 33, 33, J5, 36, 40-44 : Sigrdiif. i, «. Tbe inierpolatioa ii mott 
[ilaiiily nuiked ia the xnigi of tbe biids to Siguid, wheiB the □liginil llwtt of the 
•Idti L*j> aod thi ctana of tbe Hdgi pott naj ba chulj díMiiigaithed. 


(33. THE EDDIC POEMS. cxd 

Great WoUang-Lay type. The glootaj weírd cast of thoi^t lliat 
pervades Hamdismal is moet alien to the Lays whlch we have 
attiiboted to tbe WcBtern Islands. It is ceitainlj by a higher poet 
than the anthois of Havamal and the long Wolsung Lay. We . 
may add to this group the vertet <m Ihe Sume ximus oí the Conti- 
nent, (chiefly found in Sweden.) 

AÍid, which we think worth remarb, it is to thia group, and not 
to tbe Westem poems, that we sbould tcace the stream of Icelandio 
poetiy ; the bits in Landnama and the so&gs of the older Icelandic 
poeta bdng entirely of the same cast Icelandic verse is artíGcial 
or bald, marvellous in the intrícacy of its metrícal form, perfect 
indeed in ils effect on the ear (thus supplying in some degree the 
aheence of music, which has been noticed as a curíous featurs 
of the Island's life in early times), but overloaded aud obscured 
with mytbological allusÍDns, and totally lackii^ in the rích [toetic 
instinct which breaibes througb tbe Westem Lays. The Saga, 
not the Lay, is the trne Icelandic poem. 

We tww tnm to sn Icelandic colony wide away. It would not 
on the face of it seem likely that Greeuland shonld have con- 
tríbuled to our Eddic Songs, yet there is clear evidence that so 
it wat. Two of the old Lays are in the only vellum in which 
they are preserved, called ' Greenlandish,' viz. the two Lays on 
Atli ; whatever may be ttw case with tfae former and older one, 
AíIaimSa, the ÁUamal was plunly composed in Greenland; tbe 
dream aliout the white bear is conclusive, where the verses are 
of the same caat as the reit of the poem, so as to predude any 
thought of interpolalÍQn. The whole tone and air of tbese poems 
i> harsh and terrible. There is one more Lay ^icb we have long 
Bince been bent on attributing to the QrMnluid Qronp, viz. the 
Lay ofHymi — tbe wbale-fiahing of the frost-giant wbo dwells cast 
of tlie £Ii-vágar, ' at the world's end.' About tíie whole poem there 
b an tir öf frost and snow and high latitude. Observe also the 
Brobdignagian cauldron, ouly to be got there. Fram the geogra* 
phical descriptíon of Greenland, by Ivar Bardson (Antiq. Ameri- 
canae,p. 311), we leam, that inone of the Greeoland islands, close 
to the bÍBhop's see, there was a quarry of soíl stone, out of which 
were scooped huge vessels that could stand beat, sven cauldrons 
bolding ten or .twelve tuns. 

For the ehromli^y of tbe Eddic Songs it is indeed of great 
ímportance diat a few are to be traced to Greenland, for ihe age, 
of this colony is welt settled. Thorkel, the uncle of Arí, had spc^n 
to oae man of the crew tbat followed Eirík the Red in bis first 
voyage, when he gave its name to the colony. Tfae date of tbose 
Bongs would then be about the earliest part of the eleventb 
century ; hardly later, there is no prominent trace of Christianity in 
them. But tbese songs are, we tbink, later than the Lays of Helgi, 
and Öie bnlk of tbe other songs; so tbat we bave dius a down- 
waid limit, below which the Eddif Poenu cannot fall. 


cscii PROLEGOMENA. S 33- 

Another consideration, which may bring ub evcn closer to the 
real date of the Westem Lays, is the reœcmbrance how little trace 
there is in Icelandic literature of any knowledge of them, whicb 
could haidty havc happened had the Settlers brought them with 
them ; so we should be disposed to believe that they belong to the 
first generations in the Westem Isles <^íer Ihe lcelandic emigration 
had finisbed,- that is, they are of about the tJme of Alfred and 
his son Edward, A date which would exactly suit tbe tone of such 
poems as the Helgi Lays. 

We must add a paragraph on another point. When and where 
were these Lays collecUd? In the absence of all specific evi- 
dence, and the paucity of allusions, we are forced again to draw 
our conclusions from the evidence of the MSS. themselves. Here 
is a collection of Lays, buddled together in Iwo heaps ', orderless 
and noteless (but bappily untouched by any Ubergearbeihing what- 
ever), often fragmentary, and with the missing verses replaced 
by píeces of prose. These bits of prose are worthy of atlentÍÐn, 
they are nide and roi^b and primitive beyond the oldest Icelandic 
Sagas, Kormak for instance, they are as lapidary as Runic inscrip' 
tions, and resemble most nearly the Ceolwulf story of the Saxon 
Chronicle. Their vocabulary too is peculiar, and contains words 
not found in Icelandic workg. 

How is this ? If the poems had been taken down by Icelanders 
early, they would surely have been better known. If they were 
taken down in the tweifth or thirteenth century, it is curious tbat 
the prose should be of so arcbaic and simple a character, when we 
find Ari and Thorodd capable of treating higtorical and scientiSc 
Eubjects of some intricacy in a mature style. To imagine them to 
have been written by Icelanders in Snorri's day, is out of the ques- 
tion. We must therefore either suppose them to have been ^en 
down from an Orkneyman's hps, in Iceland or in the Orkneys*; 
or conclude that an Orkneyman took tbem down in his own land 
(it may bc at an Icelander's instance), wíiich latter alternative we 

There was a continual intercourse between the Orkneys and 
Iceland ; and Icelanders often wintered abroad (as Orkneymen 
also did in Jceland), when they would have many opportunities 
(at Arvals, biidals, Yule feasts, and the like) of listening to such 

' Ttlat thej wcre oiiginilljr collcdcd in 
velluin) — one contíining tongi rtliting t' 

encydopiEdii; Vuluip& fint; the othei, the longt aDoui neioei — appeiii prDDit>ie 
from the inangement of Coil. Reg. Thit AM. 748 wai moie perfFct in ihe leveD- 
leenth centuiy than it it at pretent appeaii fiom the end of Sigtdiifamal gireu íd 
lome ofthe papei copiei; for thii is not taken fiom Ihe loil pait of Cod. Rcg. (for 
if it were 10, owing to liic of leaTei, &c., morc would have been piMcrved), bul, at 
Ptofeiioi Bugge pointed out, from a cuiioui peculiaiitj in the way the iciibe wiitet 
tbe venei, from AM. 748. 

' We ue Orknejt for conveoience, » the beit tepreientition of the Wetletn 



songs as those which, as we know, — for the epilt^es in Atli I, 
Gudrun III, Sigurd III, the prologues in Hamdismal and Gudnin's 
Egging are quíte conclusive on this head, — were used for purposes 
of entertainment. That such an entranced listener, recognising 
the beauty of the songs, should piocure copies, is not a forced 
supposition *. 

That the Lays were taken down during Earl Rognvald and Bishop 
Biami's time appears from there being no trace of any uncer- 
tainty as to the 'hl,' 'hr,' &c., which rapidly fall oul after that 
date. Again, 'var' and 'er' point to an Orkney rather than an 
Icelandic collection, as the í was changed for r in the West first. 
If we allow the prose to be Orkney prose, all will be clear. The 
Orkneys are not a liUrary centre. Their ' spiritual manifestation ' 
was in verse, not in prose. They did not tell tales for amusement, 
but recited songs. 

Wc may therefore take the Lays to be a paralUl development 
in the Western Isles to the Saga in Iceland, composed for the 
same purpose, popular entertainments, after the initiative of soine 
great poet who arose among die Norse emigrants somewhere in 
the West (Ireland, Man, Northumberland or Scotland, we know 
not which), and inspired a school of poetry, just as Ari in Iceland 
inspÍFed a school of Saga-men. The same causes, which in Iceland 
produced the Saga, were at wodt here ; tbere was an Heroic Age, 
the remembrance of which was fresh in every man's ears, to 
fumish the subject-matter ; an adventurous life to give colour and 
incident; great gatheríngs at Yule feasts and moots, on cruises 
and al wapentakes, and the like, where a delighted audience would 
always be found. 

That this school of poetry did not last long, we should á priori 
conclude from the analogies of ihe Dorian poetry of early Greece, 
and ofthe Saga in Iceland; the passion flower of Song, to repeat 
a simile we used of the Saga, bloomed and withered in a little 

' Thc Erit [iutuicet of the inflaence oí ibe Eddic Layi on modem Icelandic 
poclrr >re round in the Pasám Hyrms of Hallgrim Pilurson, i conlemporary 
of MÍitan, and tfae onlj reil poet which Ihe iiland hu pioduced lince tbe Kerorma- 
tÍÐn. We know Ihat Hallgrim and Bishop Brynjolf Wíre in c<mít»n[ communicalion 
(ODC of the fint ptiiÐiii lo whom tbe poet leat a copy of hii iroilc (in iö6o) w» 
Ragnheid, the biihop'i daughtei), and it wai no doubt through the biihop llúit he 
rec«ired a copy of ihe Edda. It ii curiont that all the alluíioni of Hallgrim may be 
Inced 10 one poeœ, HavanMl, tbe witdom ind tboughtfulneu of whicfa weie conio- 
ninl to hii own habit oí mind, Tbat he ihould have ptutd orei (he Helgi Lajt 
uid gooe back it it wete to tbe fountaia-head teemi to argue fbi the more conv 
pletdy Noftbein tpirít of the older poem, wbich he could at once auimilate. We 
can bowerer haidly bcliere that Sdlar-lji^, had he Itnown it. would bave fallen 
nnbecded on blt ear or left bii vertes nncoloured; ind probably hc nevei uw ■ 
copy of ihit Liy, wbtch li ikot !a tbe Codex Regiot. 

The following are the pamget in tbe Panion Hymnt : — 

' HugguD er manni möonDm að,' ]. io-:Hm. 46. 

' Opt mk if m&li þekkja maiinian bvec belzt bana er,' 14. ig'Hm. 56. 

' Andvana lik lil einikis oeytl,' 4. 13 — Hm. 70. 

* Ökendmn þ^ þÓ aumt lé . . .,' 14. i() = Hm. 133. 
TOL. 1. n 


cxdv PROLEGOMENA. S 34- 

space of time, and the weedy floweTless growth of epigooic veree 
foUowed it 39 usuaL 

The diðerenceB between these Lays and tbe Sagas are well 

marked. Fof instance, the Songí draw a good deal, like the 

early Greek poetiy, on mythology; the Sagas hardly ever contain 

ft mythological allusion (the change to a new country without 

the old religiouB associations of the old land, and the practical 

homely eveiy-day life which the first gencrations of Settlers bad 

to lead, would account for this). The Songs are like the best 

of our Englísh ballads in the vigour and freshness of tbeir colour- 

ing, in their powerful and aparíng use of metaphor, in the teirible 

force of the words which cut righl to the heart like steel blades. 

The Songs never aim at drawing eharaeter, they simply depict 

_\(^t4 incident in the most impressive way. Thc Sopgs are|untoudied 

j|. t^ with the legal spirit which is at its highest in Niala, the best of 

^^*T í the Icelandic Sagas. In short ihe Songs are essentially Lyrical 

■ /íí^-*"**'' and Ðramatic, in the truest sense, while the Sagas are Épic, and 

helong to a whoUy diSerent, perbaps more distinctively Northem, 

Ufe and apirít 

Tbere are two names which must not be passed over in con- 
necdon with this subject, those of Bei^ann and Bugge. The 
former, the Nestor of Eddic studies, whose fresh and sagacious 
' Po£mes lalandais ' (an essay onW'Öluspá, Vafthrudnismal, Loka- 
senna), which appeared in 1838) mark a new start from the 
Btagnation in which the subject had long remained. Tbe latter, 
wbose edition of ' Edda ' is far the best ever published, has done 
for the 'Eddic Poems' what Madvíg, on a greater field, díd for 
the classics, throwing ligbt on many obscure places, líy the bappy 
and etr/am emendations which, by some 'gift of divination,' he 
has the secret of making. 

§ 34. Mythical Sagas. 

These fall into two groups — worlhy and worthless,- 
hardly deserving the epithet of mythical, 
figured are they. 

Taking Úie /ormer group : — 

Volsunga Safta is in close connection witfa the Eddic Lays. 
There was once a Saga of Sigurd Fafnisbani, cited in Sagas, but 
pow losl, though in one MS. of the Prose-£dda there is an epitome 
of it The composer of Volsunga Saga had this whole before him, 
and gives it in a diluted form, but into this version (havíng, we should 
tiiink, lit on them in thc midst of his job) he insetts paraphrases of 
many Eddic Lays referring to bis subject One cannot but wonder 
at the perversity which could use such poems as material for sudi 
miserable prose, and our estimate of Uie parapbrast falls lower when 
we see that he bas known and neglected such % Layías the Second 
Song of Helgi and Gud run, in wbich to his mind there was not 
sufBcient action. /í^T~j\ 


§34- MYTHICAL SAGAS. cxcv 

But evea what he gives is usefiil for test-críticisin, and also 
because it helps us to íind out something about the size and con- 
tenls of the missing' portion of the Cod. Reg., a sister of which 
was used for the paraphrase. A sheet has certainly faJIen out in the 
roiddle of tbat MS.; hut is that all? After a calculation based 
upon the space taken by ihe paraphrast over Lays which exist; 
Upon the number of Lays we have which were known to, but 
omitted bj him ; and upon the fragments embedded in his prose, 
we find that more lost Lays must have existed than could have 
been coutained in otií sheet, and therefore suppose two to have 
been losL Thege would have contained about 500 stanzas, or 
twelve Lays of average forty stanza length. 

We may even guess that some of these lost poems were hy the „ 

poet of the Lays of Helgi; such a phrase, to give one instance, ^v- , -* - , 
as 'Hun svarar af áhyggju af sinu sæti sem álfl a/báru, ok hefir 'Hr*- •*-—7 •*-- 
sverÖ í hendi ok hjálm á höfði ok var í brynju ' is surely unmis- _; 

takable. And a lost Wolsung Lay of the same poet seems to t. 7_; ff^, f_^ 
underUe the account of the Buming of Siggeir, ' Skal ek nú deyj'a f-T"' ' 
með Siggeiri konungi lostig, er ek átta hann nauÖig.' ^gí. ^jC tt ■ ÍXÍ 

noma-Qflst's i^^ttr. Only found in Flatey-book, which (see 
% 10, Thættir) contains a few other smaU mythical tales. Sigurds 
Saga Fafnishana is quoted in this story. 

Of the heliiT eiass besides the above is one set consisiing of — 

HalA Sag^ in No. 2845. Songs in the earlier chapters genuine, 
those of tbc later spurious and low-toned. 

HeiSrekB Baga oIe Herrarar, in No. 384S a^d Ín Hauks-bi5k. 
Powerful and beautiful Songs noticed in § 33. 

BagDars Saga, in No. 1824 b, tbe Volsunga vellum. Songs 
QOticed above. A Palimpsest of part of the end of this Saga in a 
diíferent text has been found undemeath a text of Jóns-bók in tbe 
AM. coUcction. 

B^nars sona Þáttr, m Hauks-bók. The Lawman's own 

There is an antique broken, meagre look about the prose of 
tbese Sagas which does not quite give the idea of ahridgment, 
but would rather seem to point towards their not having passed 
through the crucible of an Icelandic story-teller's mouth, We 
bave guessed that their skeletons may have been preserved in the 
Westem Islands, and thence carried off by some wandering Ice- 
lander, In accordance with this idea we should espect to find 
them diluted and stuffed out by collectors who could not Colcrate 
iheir bare frames. 

In such state, hut not so well-treated, are — 

Örrar-Odda Saga^ in many vellums. VerECS fabrícated. 

Asmundar Saga Eappabana. Best textjn Scockhobn veQum. 
A fragment of genuine Lay. í** " (arf * "^" 

Frithioft Saga, in two vellums. Brought into ootice irom 
Tegnér's well-known poem. 


cicvi. PROLEGOMENA. § 34. 

Oantrebs Saga, in an old MS., contains bits of good tradition, 
and a few ditty-like versea. 

But there are two Sagaa which have received very indecent treat- 
ment, as they contain matters of very high interest. 

Hrolf KrBki'B Saga. Only seventeenth-century paper copies 

of one vellum. Whether comiption is due to transcribers or is 

earlier we know noL There is a part of Biarkamal paraphrased in 

jl3^'<*,* *' (with a litde better treatment than Helgi's Lays received from the 

'f"^" ^ Volsung composer), and it contains traditions such as must have 

" eiisted in the losl part of Skioldunga, whence indeed it may have 

been laken, False sluffings and fictitiotis episodes. 

Hromund QTÍps Bons Saga. In same state as to MSS. as 
Hrolf-Kraki's. It contains the story of the lost Lays of Kara. 
There was once a better text, which raay be guessed at from the 
' Griplur ' ballads. It is mentioned in Thorgils and Haðidi's Saga, 
as told at the Banquet of Reykjaholar. 

Lost Sagas of this type are those of Olaf LiðmBima-konimg, 
told also at Reykjaholar; Huldor Baga, a mythical tale of a giantess, 
told by Sturla before the King. There must also have been tales 
of Eing Asmiind, the owner of the famous ship ' Gnoð' (wave- 
cnisher), alluded to in the end line of the Saga of Egil Eikhendi, 
whose author knew the tale. Other lost Sagas of tbis class were 
known to the Rfmur writers. See § 25. 

The better mythical Sagas are collected in Fom. i. ii ; but a few 

g^olsunga, Hervarar, Half) have lately been ediled by Professor 
u^e, Christiana. 

The worlhless mytkieal Sagas are the lowest and most miserable 
productions of Icelandic pens. They, however, contain a few ihings 
worth noticing — the Magic Dance in Bosi's Saga, thc Polypheme 
story in £gil Einhandi's Saga (not known to W. Grimm, it is also 
found in Maríu Sögur), besides a few echoes of older traditions, 
Buch as of Gno6, and Ihe bits from Skioldunga in Göngn-Hrolf 
(§ 17). They are found in coUccliona AM. 152, 586, 343, 589, 471, 
577, and interspersed with better Sagas in AM. 510 and No. 2845. 
They formed the favouríte reading of ihe lifteenth century, Rímur 
werc made out of them (5 25), and in Sweden many were printed 
ín the seventeenth century. Their names are — 
An BogtreÍgÍT. HerriDd and BotE. Kelil Hcng. 

E^l One-hand. Hjalmter and Olvi. SlailiBg Starftimi, 

Grim LoSÍn-kiani. Hiolf aantrekt xm. Sorli. 

Göagii-luiiir (Rolf-Ranger). Illngi Gii&ir fonii. þonlein Vildngi loa. 

HalfdiD Bronufoatn. Ingrar ríHSrli (Sireditll And tee liM of ThKHir, 

Halfdm Eytteint laa. lieTo of Rnaic ilonet). { lO. 

All but one wiU be fornid in Fomaldar Sögur, vols. ií. iii. Ingvar 
vfðförli was pubhshed by Brocman, 1762, and again in Antiq. 
Russes '. 



§ 35. Law, Icblandic amd Norwegian. 

Any notíce of the Litemure of such 'kw-abiding and legal- 
minded' folks as the Icelandera would be incomplete without a 
bríef mention of their legal remains. And this should be the more 
interesting to EngUshmen, who may see ia them so much that 
is analogous in spirít aud matter to their own Constitution and 
CommoD Law. And it is, we think, predsely because Conti- 
nental jurists have rather chosen to draw analogies from their 
own systems, than from the state of things which prevails even at 
present in England, tbat they have sometimes fonned false concep- 
tions of early Norse and Icelandic Law. Thus, in their very use 
of the words Law and Laws, they seldom seem to get quite free 
from the notions of a ' Code' and 'Book Law' with which the 
Roman law, ancient or modern, has so thoroughly leavened their 
legal conceptions. The idea of Custom Law and Common Law, 
in our English sense of the words, they seem unable to grasp; 
yet it is under just such a Common Law and Customary Law 
tbat Iceland stood tili 1271. That Law has a growth of its own, 
so to speak, and that it may change, silentíy and slowly and noise- 
lessly, but stiH contínually, without new legislatíve enactment, is a 
notíon that is familiar to us Englisb from our Case Law, but 
Etrange on the Continent. 

Again, that acts of legislatíon are and must be rare in early 
times, and that as a nile they only aflfect a very few poínts of 
law (particularly procedure and penal law, in which owing to some 

in rading 'Ounla Kimpi Sigos' old iloriei of chimpioiii aad heroei (ibete Tcrj 
Sagai, whicb were ai\y pubUdied in Sveden), ind that bit tutor LÍDdikiöJd lebuked 
him ror poiiag ofei lucb booki u meie wiite of time. But ibc ipirít which hid 
kd Ihe King whcn a child ta viih that he bad a biolher (o whDm tci leave liii 
lealm, while be might go fonh with hit cbampiani aad caaqaer like a lea-kiug of 
oid, foand in thete old tale* matter which fitted hit fanc^ well, uid he aever loit 
bit delighl in Iheoi. Jnit befoie Pultawi, whea be wat lyiag wotinded on hii bed, 
ID irkiome weary while for a maa af hii tnagy, he made Hultmaa hit terraat tit 
b; him aod tell bim HorÍM, and one whicb be heard with peculiai pleaiuic wai that 
of Hialf Gautcekiton, how he ilew Ihe Riaúan giaat ia the Itle of Rituiari (Ihc 
holm oa wbicb Cronttadt wai bDÍtt) and won Dmmack and eat great woildly 
hme and hoaour. The good Hultman evideatly told the tale nii owu way, and 
gave the gianl a fitling nitianality and dwelliag, for tbe Saga tayi nolbing aboal 
tbil. Hultman wii witb Charlei to the end of hil lifé, and bat left i diaiy wbich 
grvei nuny interetting paiticulan of the King. Befoie he went oui ta the fatal 
rampait, at he Sniihed híi huty tuppei. which he took itaading, Cbarlei lumed to 
Hultman and pionioted him to a higher poit. 

Theie ate nuny traiu abaut Chiilei wbich lecall the heioei of Ihe oldea lime — 
bii ilubboianeii, bii love of Gghling for itt owa lake, bit ibiiit fai fame in toag 
and taga, hii iim[4ídty of life and eameitneti of puipote. lo thit it ii not meia 
pedantiy or lancirulnest wben Cbails picki out a band of betieiks. ' Drabantei,' to 
follow him on hii wiking expeditionii and wben be mikei light of a wound, 
ihowing no tigni of pain, oi cnihcs leckleuly into a hand-to-band Ggbt, we fcel he 
ii doing at befiti tuch a man, and ihat be ii fii ncacer to Ihe old warrioii whoie 
deedi he einulatci than wai the Macedoaiaa Ktng to bii pattecn the ' gloiÍÐUi loa 
of Thelii.'— See FrjxdTi BirSíUUtr ur Svnsia Histarun, pauini. 



cxcviU PROLEGOMENA. § 35. 

particular case popular Ínterest íb roused), seems to be forgotten or 
not understood even by wríters whose application and industiy 
English students must not hope to rival< 

With so much of preface, which is necessary as a caution to 
the English reader, who must turn for fuller informadon, on matters 
of which in such a hasty sketch as the present veiy little can be 
said, to foreign sources, we may begin by giving such a resumé 
of Ihe iJHle that is known of Icelandic Law of an earlier date 
than the famous Law Collection of the thirteenth century whích is 
known hy the misnomer Grágás. 

We get our firet infonnation from Ari, who tells of the Constitu- 
tion of Ulfliot which replaced the anarchical state of things among 
the early aettlera (see Oxford Icelandic Reader, p. 17); the refonns 
of Thord Gelli and of Skapti^ (the Fifth Court so closely con- 
nected with the name of Nial) ; the alcering of the time for the 
Great Mooi (Althing); the adoption of Christianily by the whole 
community at the Great Moot; the abolilion of Wager of Batlle; 
the new rule as to the succession of the duty of seeking satisfactíon 
for a kinsman's death (Eyrbyggia, but like other notions of this 
kind to be traced, as we believe, to thc lost Liber of Ari). 

To Ari, Coo, we owe the first mention of wriling being applied 
to the preservation and recording of Law. Referring to 1116 he 
tells ' that ' in the first summer of Bergthor's Speakership, a statute 
was passed [ný-mæli, the technical Icelandic word for siaMe or 
amendmenl of the Common Law, answering to Norse réttar-bœtr] 
that our lawa should be written in a book aC Haðidi Marson's 
house during the following winter, according to the oral testimony 
[sogo, the technical word used for the Law-Speaker's rulings] and 
counsel of Bergthor and other learned [spakra of law wisdom 
especially, as fróftra would be of hislorical leaming] men who 
were chosen thereto.' This committee received powers to make 
'amendments' when they thought they could better the old law. 
These [the amendments only, we take it] were to be proclaimed the 
next summer Ín tbe Court of Laws [Logrettuj, and those of them 
were to hold which the majority approvcd, ' And the end of the 

' Skipti VII 1 moit dittinguithed man, >nd odb ortfae rathcri of lcelindic Law. 
He wai ipenker from I003 lo 1030, wfaen fae died. 'Skiptí hifSi logHtgo iITJÍ 
tumoi. Hiim letti Fimliiddmi log, ok þat at engi regandi ikj'ldi \ýa >lg i hendr 
oSrum Tegindi an lér ; en U)r toio hér illk log of ^t lem i Norregi. A hant 
dogum urío raargir hoíSÍDgiir ok rítii-menn lekir eSa líndftólta otvig eSa bar- 
imiíic of likii loiíom hani ok landitiorn. En hann indaAisk k eno sama iri ok 
Ol&fr enn Digri (ell Haialdz toa.'—UbtUm, ch. 8. 

• ■ Et fyríta iDmar eil Bergþór ugSÍ log npp vat nymíli þat goit at log Úr ikyldl 
ikrjfi t bók at Hafliða Mái lonar of retrinn eptir al logo ok umnlSi þeirra Beig- 
þ<ln ok annarra ipakia manna þeina ei til þeii voio leknir. Skj Ido þeii g^if a 
DTmzli þau oll i logODi ei þeim litiik þin betrí in en fomo log. SkjiMi þau legia 
npp et Dzita lumai eptir i Logrettu, ok oll þan halda ei eun meiri falulr manna 
inKlti þi eigi gegn. En þat Tiifi at fiam faia at þi vii ikrifaSr Vigsl6Bi ok mait 
annat 1 [ognm ok lagt dj^ i Logiello af kennimannom of lumaiit eplii; eo þat 
líkaBi 011001 *el, ok [nclti þvi maimgi 1 gegu.' — LibiUus. 



niatter was ib&t Vígslöfii fthe Bection which retates to Weregild, ftc.] 
and much else in the taws [amendments in other parCs] was then 
wrítten down,' aflerwarda in due course to be proclaimed and 
accepted. Thia passage cannot, we hold, be pressed into the 
formatíon of an Icelandic Code in the modem senae of the words. 
It surelj goes no furtber than a desire that part of the Common 
Law should be put into wríting so that it might not be lost, and that 
whaC was wrítten might be correctly recorded ; a commíttee Í3 
appointed to aid the Speaker who, like an Engliah Judge of to-day, 
was supposed to have che wbole Common Law in ^emio ; and as 
tbe opportunity was good it was provided that íf the committee 
should, in the course of their labours, Gnd anything chat they could 
better in tbe old Common Law, they were to propose amendments 
thereon next year to the Court of I^ws. That Vlgslöði should be 
the first part of the law written down, ia, of course, what analogy 
would lead us to espect; the amendments 'elsewhere,' we take it, 
referred to kindrcd matters. 

Ari tella, too, of thc Tithe Law' that wa» made [I \og leittj 'for 
love of Bishop Gizur, through the persuasion of Sæmund, and by 
the counsel of Markus the Law-gpeaker.' We may suppose it to 
have been substantially preserved in Grigás. 

Next comes the description of the 'setting' of the 'Christian 
Law'' [between iiaa and 1133] by 'Bishop Ketil [named first as 
proposer perhaps] and Bishop Thorlak, according to the counsel 
of Archbishop Ozur [of Lund, first Norwegian archbishop] and 
Sæmund [the historían] and many clerks, as it waa now gathered 
in order [tfnt, a technical word] and proclairaed.' This litcle Code, 
in the true sense, touching the datíes owed by all Christian cicizens 
to the church, is found in Grágás, in what we cake to be substan- 
tially its primitíve form and arrangement 

Besides theae secular Chrístían 'Dooms' we have regular Peni- 
tentiariea (such as our Theodore's) by Thorlak and others of a later 
date, And the Canon Law takes its place in mediæval Iceland, 
as in England, side by side with the Common Law. 

We have, beádes the above, notíces of Cuslomary Law and Law 
of Procedure in several Sagas (which in many cases we should also 
attríbute to Ari's authorícy), — such are the Oath of Peace (Gretla), 
the Oath of Brocherhood (Gisli, Fostb.), che Wager of BaCtle (Kor- 
mak), the Ordeal (Laxdæia), varíous casea of Oudawry, and part 
of the Jomswikings' Articles of War, which probably fonned the 
basis of the ' Thingmanna lagu ' in England. 

' Tithc law oC 1096. — ' Af iitticlt hiiu ok af tolom þdn SxmundaT nle& amb- 
nði Mirknu LogiÐgoinuiiu Tai þat i log leiK at allir mcnD (oiSa ok mbo ■llt 
(i iftt ok tóra al rétt rirt mi, hvtit tan tu i londom eSa í lauu-aDcoin ok gocío. 
tÍDDd af ■iðan.'— liWíiH. 

' ■ St* ««11 þdr Ketill bjik<^ ok Thoriakr byikop al rWi Oionr erkibytkopi 
ok SEmoDdir dk mugn kcanimiDaa KruÉima iagaþdU Kta aú rai lint ok upp 
ngt.'— LiMínf. 


cc PROLEGOMENA. § 35. 

Beyond Thorodd's itnportant statement that Laws had begun to 

be wrítten down in his day [see extiact in Oxford Icekndic Readerj, 
for further information we niust turn to the CoUection of the Laws 
themselves. As tbe Laws were (if our opinion be correct) put 
on parchment before the Sagas, it is reasonable to suppose that 
when the Collecting Era begun the Laws would be the first to be 
coUected. We have only two MSS. of Law CoUections, Codex 
Regius, which we should datc c. 1336) ^nd Stadarhols-book 1371 
^ccording to Munch's happy hypothesia, Hist iv, r, p. öa7), 
These MSS. bear every appearance of being first-hand copies 
of the separaie scroUs out of which we believe they were com- 
posed An examination is sufficient lo show that these CoUections 
were not ' Codes ' at all, but merely ' Bractons ' or Blackstones 
compiled by prívate individuals for private use. The whole tone 
of them, we think, proves this — they are just such books as a 
great Law-Speaker would be lUiely to write or have wdtten for 
him. Their substratum and bulk is old Common Law, to this 
are added: i. Decisions of Law-Speakers — Case Law, 'thus saíd 
Markus,' &c.' (three Speakers as thus noted, Markus', Ulfhedinn, 
and Gudmund who went oat 1135); ». Amendments — Statute 
Law [nymtBli is placed in the margin of the codices over 
against eight paragraphs in Coi). Reg. and eighty-seven in 
Stadh. See list in Islandske Love í Fristatstíden, pp, 136-3», 
Copenh. 1873, an Essay by the leamed W, Einsen]. Two of 
these amendments, appended in Cod. Reg, to the ' Chrístían 
Law,' have a name affixed, that of Magnus (bishop 1316-37*), 
whence the MS. musi be after 1316; but, on the other hand, 
he is not likely to have been thus mentioned !ong after his 
death, so that some time duríng his bishopríc would be the 
likeliest date. [To the theory that the occurrence of the word 
Earl* must place Cod. Reg. afler 1258, we would prefer to con- 
sider the passage a mere alliterative fossU of older law, the MS. 
itself forbids so late a date.] 

That the coUector had access to a ScroU of Procedure, gtving 
the dutiea and formal speeches to be used by the Law-Speaker, ap- 
. pears from the way in which the section on that subjeci has kept 

' ' þat ugði Maikni lög.' — Xí. ch, 321. 
' þat lagfii Ulf beðinn lóg and Ulfhcaioa usði þal lög . . . ,' etc — Kb. ch. 73. 
' JMt ögSi Guðmuniir lög.' — Kb. chípi. i^ and 143. 

* 'J>i tók Mukúi Skcggia lon logiogo. Harm hcEc viliaiti rerit log{>9gu) 
minna & Iilaiuli iDDarr en Skipti.'— CrúMi' Saga, cli. 1 1. 

It it a grcal pilf tbat the 'Æfi illii Lögiögomaniia ' wbicb Aii wiote froci 
Markoi' dictatiini, conceining all the Liw-Spéakcn thit pteceded him, ii loit wilfa 
thí Liber of whieb Ít foniied parl. — See LibMat, ch. 10. 

* ' |>at >ar nymxlt gort þi ei Magnúi Oizorar con var bj'icop orðinn, at . . . þat 
Tar annat DymiEli at . . .' — Cod. Rtg. in an appendix chaptei to the Cluiitian Law 

* Tbe whote paiiage itandt, 'Halbn rett scal bann laca ei hano komr K iiil* 
lorð. en þa ailan oc futlan ei banu komi á konaagi ioiS.' — Cod. Rlg. ch. 1 1 1. 



the ^>eecbes of the Speaker m the Grst person', whicfa would 
confirm the guess above. 

But 3. most importaiit passage, with Tcference to the scrolls and 
to what haa been said above~as to the character of Icelandic Law, 
ÍB one' which gives the Regula Praxis, or Rule of the Court, as 
to the relative authority of the different scroUs'. It mentions a 
collection at Skalaholt, and names the Haflidi Scroll as a final 
authorily, 'except where there has been a change made since,' 
Then tuming to Oral Law and ils authority, ' But of the decisions 
of other Lawmen that alone shall have weight which does not nin 
counter to it [the law-witness of the ScroUs], provided that where it 
touches matters left out [in the Scrolls] or is clearer it shall pre- 
vail.' This certainly is no more than a rale such as all courts 
have found necessary, and does not even give Haflidi the authority 
which the Empeiors gave to Papinian, but simply provides for 
a case that might easily occur when two private scrolís should be 
produced as evidence as -to what was law, the theory still re- 
niaining that the Speaker ' spoke tbe Law,' of which he was the 
nltiniate repository. 

Of regular and consistent Legislation we cannot find a traoe in 
what remains of Icelandic Law. Of something analogous to Case 
Law we believe mnch of the nymæli to be witness ; and it is 
evident that such an assembly as the Althing and such a court 
. as Logretta were unfitted for such a purpose, which indeed they 
were never designed to meet*. 

' AfewmiUnca:— 

' Hér k þingi,' íoI. i. pp. 68, 77. 83, vol. ii. p. 14. 
'Eiek talða nú." ch. 97. 
'EiU)Tti1Saek.'cfa. 191. 
■£> ná hefi clC tatiA,' ctu 9S. 
'Hjggekmlt«l»é.'íh. 77. 
And — ' Menn tkoln i dag ók. k moigin . . . ,' toI. i. p. 39. Or — 
' Dómat ikolo í dag reu oefDdir,' p. 38, &c. 
' Vér (kolÐm &» til Logbergi á mm^in,' voL i. p. 45. 
■ ' }»t a olc, >t log ikolo yta í laDdi hei Km i ikrdm itindi. En cT ikrói [kilr 
i, ok ikil þit hiTi a itendr á ikiðm þeim et byikopar eigo. Ni! ikilr enn þeirra 
•lcrór i, þ& tkal lú tufa (ítl miil ei lcngia legir þcim orðom e* mili ikipu með 
monnom. Ea ef þier icgia eigi iarn-langt, ok þó iftt biriir. þá ikal lú hafi litt mál 
ei i Sk&lihollli a. þat ikil aUt hafa et finz i iki6 þeliii er Ha£iSi goiðí, neml 
þokit ti liSao. En þit eitt »f innats Logmanna fyiiiiogn ei eigi maiir þ»l I gegn, 
ok bifa þit illt ei hitzog 1ei£i eða ^oggia a.'—Cod. Rtg, i. 313, Lijgiéttn þ&tlr. 

' Of mch K10II1 a> thoie abore meniioiied, each containing a lepaiile and dii- 
tinct poitioo of ihe law (ttparait Law-Sciolli weie opnoied to the eolIteiioHs Cod. 
Reg. and Stad.), we have two fragmenti, AM. 315 d. twelftb eentury, aod AM. 
31J c. thineenth ccntuiy, printed ai App, Ei. iig-16 to W. Fiuim'i cxcellent and 
handy edition of Cod. Keg. Cod. Stadaibol. (Staaaihóli-búk), by the ume cditni, 
will appeu in 1879. 

* A pauage in Si Rolind K. Wilion'i cleTcr and pbiloiophical little handbook, 
' Modem Engliih Law.' exactly illuitratei thii ; — 

' In the Middle Agei the direct bw-making power af Pailiamenl wai, ai we 
ihonld coniider, veiy spariagly uted. The Commoni " fell themie1(ea bettci quilir 
fied to ttale a gnerince than to piopoK a remedy ; " ihey tat ooly foi a thort tinie. 


tcii PROLEGOMENA. § 35. 

The C17 of the Icelandic n&tion vas not for a Code, — their own 
law was eicellent in many respects, well suited to the state of 
society that prevailed ; nor for a Constitution, — the one they had 
was caJculated in a great measure to foster noble political qualities; 
but for Order', the due enforcement of the Laws and Constitution, 
which they by their violence had too often made of none effecC 
But, like other peoples, tbey asked for bread and they got a stone ; 
they needed the slrongp hand of the King and they got a bad Code, 
for in 1*71' the whole of the old Common Law was nithlessly 
iwept away hy a real Code from Norway, ' Ironside.' 

The evil results of thischange', which completely cut the old life 
to the root, havc been noted elsewhere (p. clxix). To concludc the 
story of Law in Iceland, we need only say, that Ironside, a mere 
compilation of Norse Law, was soon replaced by a second and 
ultimate Code, Norse mainiy, Jóns-bófeAtill the law of the land. 

Ironside is only found at the end aT the Stadarhols-bók, after 
' Grágás/ A blank of two Jeaves therein may be filled up from 
the Frosta Thing Law. Of Jóns-bók there are some forty or fifty 
MSS. : the editio princeps is 1578. About fifteen Ordm&noM of 
the kings of Norway, supplementing Jóns-bók, wiil be found in the 
appendices to the editions of that work. 

The Historia EccUsiastica hlaniiat of Bishop Finn Jónsson 

Íbom 1704, bishop 1753, died 1789), pupii of Ami Magnusson 
see foot-note, p. cxlviii), and son of ihe biographer of the later 
post-c!assicaI Icelandic Bishops {see foot-note, p. cxUii), is a rich 
repository of Charteni, Ðeedk, end Iietten, which are scattered 
through its four volumes. It is from them indeed that this, the 

lud not much liteiacy >kill among thcm. >n<) hid doT, whit u now the chief motÍTC 
poweT in legiiblion, a minlitrf unitcd in pDlicj', retliiig on the tuppoit of ■ ptriii- 
tnentiiy mijoiil;, and pliced in office on the exprcii uadeislinding thit piiticulaT 
meatuics ire to be puthed through. MoreoTcr, there wai ■ ditpoiitian to look 
opon Ihe common law ■■ tomething idf-exittent and qoaii-tacied. It wai con- 
luleied an almoit fitil objectioD to any piopoied lefoim to tsy, " Thit caunot be 
done withoul making a new I>w." ' 

' llit on thit tubjectoldBithopWidaUn(diedl7ao)miketaoclo(]Denta1luiionla 
Ihe Slurlnnga in hii Tribate-money Sermoa : — ' Og h*at riljam vjr Ungt leiti f vít 
bofum eplirdzmin hj4 oit, þegar þettk Tciala land fiiut i iínD eigin bldSi, Ur en 
auG gaf Dtt kotiung, tvo að dnginn mitti dbultr leggjut i lekkja lina. Hrenn 
ágKt%i leið ou þ47 Hmnu fdr þi fnm f landi Tura? Mundu menn þ4 ekki 
alll hugar fegnir TelAa aS jila konnnei og eaiigi undir hanu, tll at halda líS og 
limum, friSi og írelii í Sro er þrt háttíS, Bfíeðr Minir, fyrir oii ijndiigum mönnam ; 
vér hljótnm laganna þrclar lA veia. upp & þifi rér kiinnim (irelti aS hildi.' 

• The Ljfe of OudmDDd,.B»; ii. l6a, makei Amgrim o.y that the Iroiitide laited 
'xv' yeart, but 1171-S0 makei but nine yean, and ihe Annali iie poutire on 
thii head ; the Code wit not heard of tíll tben. Either Aiíignm, wriiing lerenlf- 
fonr jeiri aftei, made > tlip of band or of memory, or rither the tcribe (foi Ihii pirt 
of the Sagi hai onl; come down in one MS.) wrote > xr ' Ibr ' ix' 

• 1171. 'Kdniu Nomen )og í land.'— l™-. S.. Biik. S. i, 791. Eliewbeie ciUed 
Liga-tkipti k liland, ' ihe Ciumgt-of-Lau iii lcelind,' a wcight;, faul ward. 

For tbe name JAmii&a: I171. 'Sturla kom dt með Iög-b6k JiniMa: — One 
Tellum of the Annalt. 

liSl. >Lögtckin>JiH-hMáIilandiáAlþingi.'— j<)iii(iZi,cp. Fb. i. aS. 



most leamed work that has proceeded from an Icelandic pen 
since the Rerormatíon, now deríves its chief value. 

Iceland Í3 especially rích in deeds, M&ldagi, in the vemacular 
tongue. Mogt of them are gifts in mortmain, such as the famous 
' Reykjaholts Maldagi' (printed as a specimen, vo!. ii. p. 503). Such 
conveyances were like Our ' 6nes' pnKlaímtd {Giigis, Kríst. Lag. 
Htir. Cod. Reg. p. 15), ' Taken to the Moot, and proclaimed at the 
Hill of Laws.' (Such a deed proclaimed before Snorri the Law- 
man is prínted in vol. ii. p, 400.) They wcre nearly always pre- 
served in dupiicate ; the original at the church or cloister, che copy 
at the cathedral. ReykjahoJts Maldagi is the only one, however, 
that has been preserved in both, the vellum oríginal and ihe copy. 
Nearly all Bucb veliums are destroycd, and we have only two 
collections of paper copies, taken by Bisbop Odd of Skalholt's 
orders, c, 1600. One is in Denmark, AM. 363; the second 
colleclion is in Iceland, Reykjavik Libr., D la. The originals of 
these probabty períshed in the fire at Skalholc in 1630. 

A collective edition of Maldagar is much required. 

An Icelandic Diphmatarium, edited by the learned Jón Sigurds- 
Bon, is in progress, voL i (all that has yet appeared) contains what 
is left of Charters, Deeds, &c., down to 1363, including about 
Bixty Maldagar. But the mass of Icelandic Deeds are of the four- 
teenth and especially the fifleenth cenCury, where they furnisb all 
that we know of public and prívate history, 

The student of Icelandic Law may be referred for a fuller notice 
of the subject to the works of che greatest living authority on this 
subject, Konrad Maurer, whose BeiCrSge cleared away so many 
crrorsofthepast, andissofúllofsuggestiveand valuablemaccer. 

Law in Norway. For the early hiscory of Norwegian Law, we 
must, as in the case abovc, trust to statements which may all, we 
believc, be more or less traced back to Ari'. In examining tbis 

bfuBar, ok utli liig ok giMti liilfi. sk þrr'iti ollom 
^rSi han ■ ■- ~ ■ - ■ • 

nnnTnda ok 

iieypa lögununi, görai hann lialfr Sáiial, olc tklpaíi biun bólam hieiÍDm eptir 
linom bnrB ok metnaSi.'— Boo* o/Kings, Fríi-bók, p. 37. 

c. Hakm ASaliliiiu /ótlri. — ' H&kon konunei rar ildr-TÍti, oh lagSÍ míkinn bug 
" " lelti Oula-þÍHgi^Sg mtb liSi Jxirleíft ipaka ; ok hinn letíl 

"" Tí þiBndí þeina er Titraitit »6ni. 

fyrr rar riiaa.'— Boot 0/ Kingi, 

Frwla-^ngt-tSg met liSi Siguidíii jailt ok innana þienda þei 
En Heíai^lög hafK u " " ■ - 

Frii-bík, p. 70. Aiid — 

■ "■ ■ "■ AStóki ^„_ _„ 

in lög.'— O. H. c 

d. Sl. Ola/.—' OUfi Ktti lög þan er heiu Stís-lög ; þia itanda ifSan um Vffioad 
okVlkioiíoitr.'— 0./Í. cb. 31. A-ul^ 

• pk itefodi Olifi konungi þing Eolment i ilað þeim ei liain hefii Terit Heiawn>- 
Kng. Setti bann þ& þat I logom at til þesi þingi ikjldo KEkÍa Upplendingii, ok 
H«ioixvii-lög ikjldn ginga itm öll fylki t Upplöndam ok rlfia tiinar-itaSai, Km 
ilSan ha& þao gengit.' — 0, H. ch. lOI. Again — 


cciv PROLEGOMENA. § 35. 

seríea of statements we see that, though treating of varíous times, 
they all agree in naming some king as a ' law-setier,' and are always 
disposed to considei the whole older law as the work of some 
specíal king in the past, the iast great law-giver's fame eclips- 
ing and dríving into oblivion all the great law-givers who had 
gone before him ; just as in England, the Laws of Ælfred, meaning 
the whole body of the old Common and Constilutional Law of the 
Land, were looked back to in Eadgar's time ; so in Eadweard the 
Confessor's time, l''dgaT had replaced Ælfred, and fais Laws were 
talked of, while a step íarther ' Eadweard the Confessor's Laws' were 
to be MtÍMd hy the Red King and Henry the First. 

In Norway the era of legal memory shifts in precisely the same 
way. Odin is succeeded by Halfdan, whose fame is great in 
Hakon's day, Halfdan is replaced by Hakon, and Hakon by the 
two Olafs; and, finally, such was the fame of St. Oiaf, tradition is 
seen to have rested upon him and his son Magnus, to whom in 
tbe Norse Laws we shall íind numerous references. 

This shifting can be seen because Ari has' got together tradi- 
tions and facts of varíous age and origin, some brougbt by the 
Settlers, some by old travellers, some by men he had known. It 
is not of course meant that Olaf and Hakon and Halfdan did not 
make laws: we believe they did, and that this Ís precisely the 
leason why they are pítched on as ibe embodiment of all law- 
making kings that had gone before them, and the authors of the 
constituiions of their country; just as Ælfred was popularly be- 
lieved to have invented tríal by jury and divided England into 
bundreds and counties, because he took the trouble to collect 
dooms of Ethelbert, Ina, and Offa, and kept good justíce. So in 
Norway we need not actually beheve tbat every old Law ascríbed 
to St. Olaf, or to Magnus, is no earlier or even later than their 
day, or beyond all dispute their work ; though we may believe 
from the statements preserved, supported by other reasons, Chat 
the constitutional growlh of Norway began in the East with Eið- 
sifia or Heiðsævis Lög [Law bere as in Dane-Iagu, the commu- 
nity iiving under one system of Common Lawj, the Halfdan 
IradiHon : that ít went on at a later date witb the organizatíon of 

'Hion (St.CHaí) lít upp telji fyrii Ut log þiu er Hakon ASilitiini-fóitri hifji 
(Itt f þriÍDdheinii. Hkon tkipaSi loganum ineð lUi «ini vitroitu nuuna, túk if 
cBa ItgHi y\Í þar a honDiD lyodiz þit. En Eritlin riU iclti haun við xiA Grímkeli 
bftkapt ok uiiuni kenDÍnunna.' — 0. B. cb, 43 (Oiford Icelandic Reader, p. 175). 


' þat ei nii þvi nzit. at tct ikÐlom kirkioni þei 
(lomi ei Olafr hion Hclghi ok Grimkcll bytkup 
ollom er liðan TOro gtorvai.' — GiUaþ. Laa, ch. ib. 

*. ' Eytlelnn konungr haíBi f marga itiði b«tt rétt laDdzminna, ok hilt hann Ttl 
Dpp logunum. HiDn gerBi tta knnnig ÖU log f Noregi. Var hinn tpekingr mQciU 

at TÍti. Sec Oxfoid lcetandic Reader, p. 14^ Hulda, Fmt. lii. He is ilto called 

2^f-E}tteinn, and Oyilzin loghtpalce, N. O. L. i. 39} ; and in Ihe Dialogiie betweeo 
Ibe Biothen, 'Skipða ek lögunum, biúðii, tt brnr mztti hab léttendi rið amun; 
ok cf þiu eni haldiu þfc mun beti fara landz-iljiimin.'— fii>/di, Pmi. vii. Itt. 



Gnla-Þings Lög, in connection with which Tkorláftht Wist is men- 
tioned, and Frosta-t4ngs Lög, which is ascribed to Earl Sigurd, 
íht Hakon iradiHon : that still later a fourth Lög was organized 
and a Christian-Law set up by St. Olaf, where at lasl we seem to be 
on pretty firm ground. When we get to statements about Eystein 
we may take what is said even literaily, 

Let us now see what is lefl of these ' Four Laws ' (we had Three 
in England). There are no remains from the two Southeni 
'Things' save a ' Christian-Law.' But wc have something from 
the Westem Things. 

And of Frosía Thing íirBt — it is said in two places that the 
Throndheim Laws were written down and preserved in a book 
called Giágáa, Gray-goose, just aa the canons and decrees of the 
church authorities were kept in GuU-flðSr, Gold-feather. St. Olars 
Saga attributes Gray-goose to his son, King Magnus the Good '. 
This is confirmed by Sverris Saga, which also telb us that Arch- 
bishop Eystein wrote Gold-feather *. 

This Gray-goose is still, we take it, preserved with a few alter- 
ations in the Frosta Things Law of our single MS., but with the addi- 
tíon of the A'íw Zow which Sturla, in his Life of Hakon Hakonson', 
says was put into Ihe Book [Gray-goose of coursel, to whom also 
our single MS. gives iL Unluckily we cannot tell exactly where 
this New Law ends, as the MS. has a blank in the midst, at the 
end of which we are plunged into the older atock, the original Gray- 
goose. If we had the missing portion, there might well be some 
prologue to confírm Sturla and Karl's assertion as to King Magnus, 
St. Olafs aon, being ita compiler. 

We may here explain how it was that the name of Grágás was 
transferred from Frosta Things Law to the Icelandic Law CoIIec- 
tion. In the aisteenth century all remembrance of the old Com- 
monwealth and the old Law had died out entirely in Iceland, so 
that the only name they knew of to which any trudition of Law 
clung was St. Olaf. In petitions to the Norwegian King they 
would aak for 'our old Laws — the Lawa of St. Olafl' while the 
old Common Law and Consiitution was entirely faded from 
memory. (See a telling instance of this, Isl. Dipl. i. p. Jir.) 

About 1600 the Stadarhol vellum turned up; they found in it 
two Codes, onc their own ' Ironside ' — thia they called Inlerim (i. e. 
between St. OlaTs Law and Jóns-book). The other, evidently older, 

' ■ SiSin lél Mignúi kffiinngr ríta Iögb6k þi er enn cr I þrDndhetm; er kolloa ec 
arágiú. nr hina fyrir þi tök kallaSr Mignúi 06Si.' — Olcifi S., ch. iSl (pp. 139, 
J40, nJit. l8sj). 

■ • Skant konangr (f. c. STcni) jifiian linn máli tU lindz lin er »tt hifSi bínn 
Heilígi OlAfr konongr ok til LÖg.bökir þramda þeimr er kÖliuS yu GrSgi^ er 
■kriFa hafBi litiB Magndi konungr hinn QóSi lun 01)^1 konungi. Etkibyiknp bauS 
rram þi bdk er OuilEöar nr köllnS ok lita lét EjiteÍDn erkibyikap. þir m«ð 
biaft hinn OuSi lög RumTenk. . . .' — Sturr. S,, <h. 117, Fb. ii. 636. 

■ ' Uann (Klng Hakoa) ]6t þat letia 1 Bákioa er ná et kölluð hin Nyiu Lög.'— 
B<a. S.. ch. 333, RoUi' edition. 


ccvi PROLEGOMENA. 5 35. 

must belong to the Golden Age, the Age of St Olar, and with dira 
memoríes or misreadings of Sverris Saga it was dubbed Gray-goose. 
Forty years after Cod. Regius was found, and when a little later 
Bishop Br^njolf sends it with two other MSS. to the King, in the 
accompanying letter, da^ted July 10, 1Ö5Ö, he talks of ' tertium jtidem 
membranaceum codicem qui Grágás appellatur.' The name has 
stuck, and, as in Edda's case, it is, we fear, too late to change it now. 

Returning to King Olaf and Magnus bis son, and the second 
Westem ' Law,' Gula Thingt Law (whtch has come down in one or 
two vellums), there is good evidence that the tradition ascríbing atl 
older Law to 5t. Olaf and all emendations to his son is in full 
force ; such statements as ' Olaf imposed but Magnus took off,' 
'both the Olafs and Magnus did so and so,' 'Olaf alone held 
(mælti) this,' and even ' Olaf and Magnus ' affised to sentences, 
- are conlinually occurríng in the test. Magnus ihus being ctearly 
laier of the two. Wc are aware tbat the ' Magnus ' of 5ie text, 
which we bave so constantly in relation and altemation with Olaf 
(by whom all acknowledge St. Olaf to be meant), has been held 
to mean Magnus Erlingsson, surety the most unlikely King who 
could be pitched on as a tegislator, a young man wtío, as far as 
we know him, cared for nothing but play, wine, and women, who 
is hardly once ' mentioned in conneclion with law or council or any 
serious business of kingsliip, brought up too under the guardian- 
ship of his father Erling, a bnital, coarse kind of man, who sunk 
into drunkenness, till both fell by the sword of Sverri. Of course 
there may be pieces of laUr tegislation put down to ' Magnus,' as 
the tfpe of the Law-making King, in Gula Things Law. But this is 
what we should ezpect; and our view, that Magnus the Good and 
none other can tie meant, is supported by eíternal evidence. 
Besides the ctear mention of Magnus the Good once in Guta Tliings 
X-aw as a maker of ordinances (Réttar-txetr)' tbere is a certain 
Atli mentioned in Gula Things Law ' in connection with a famous 
protest made, in the reigri of the same king, at Gula in the name 
of ihe whole hiody of Franklins belonging to the moot. In Agrip* 
we get the poputar version of this story, but misptaced to the 
Thrond fotks of Frosta Thing. Thus it is evident tbat tradition 

* The Bojr-King and the Eul, hii fither, ire mcrely AichblthÐp Ejitein'i dupel 
m tbe puuge, ad Gtda Thitvfi Law, i ». 

' 'lÍei <ro Rettir bcnr þiai er Magnni lconongr Odði gaf í Langejjar-iundL 
En (umar gaf Hakon þdrit-fditri.'— 0/ii Gula Thingi Lok, i 14S, N. G. L. i. 5S. 

* ' Nú lufuin T« IiTidTom vira i >kii letta, ok vitDm eigi hvarl þst er retl eði 
ngnt (i. e. nngt). Eo þd it lagnt lé, þi Ekolam vei þat logmal hiva nm atgetftir 
váni er fýn berii verit, ok AIIÍ talfií fyiir moDnam I Quli, nenia koDangi TÍir TÍIi 
outr&rom ialta ok TerSim >ér i þit s&ttir allir laman.' — 0. G. L., \ 314. 

'Uinn itti þing i Nihiiiii (lic) ok leiiti meS freko uku-gipf Tifi þnxndr alla. 

naði AtH at oaAiÍ. ok niBltí eigi Beirí orfien þeMor: 

ok ttungu allir oefi I ikinn-feid, ok Teitta allii þggn en engi indir^r. StÚð npp þi 

■ "■ ' " ■ ' leo þeMor: Svi icoTpnii Korat l^ti met 

ti krafi þar þegai tíio þeiia ; 
Hztt er þat ei ■lUi Alla, etc . . .. 
ok taDfik þing þai mefi þeima hxtil al. , . .' — Agrip, cb. 19. 

ii eip B< 
|[. En! 



supports tbe clatmg of Magnus as a legíslator. Sigbvat seems ta 
allude to the same incideiit Ía Bersöglis-vfsur. See DicC p. 760 a, 
s. V. ' æiia.' 

Coining to later specific branches of Law, a curíous legal tradi- 
tion may be mcntioned in connection witb Sigurd the Crusader, 
respecting tbe creation of tbe Archbishopríc and the imposition 
of a Titbe Law, botb of whicb institutions are said to be owing to 
an oath sworn to King Baldwin in retum for a piece of the true 
cross, which Sigurd had received from him. Although the state- 
ment occurs so late in the bistory, and is not a tradition of Ari's, we 
must Buspect that in the older Christian-Laws some arrangement 
for tithes was made, tbough it may have bllen into partial disuse. 
Of course tradítion must have a tangible reason and person, and the 
strícter Chiiatian-Law of Sigurd is accounted for by this story'. 

Itjurkflyiar Lög or Béttr, our Law-Merchant or Law of the 
Towns, is a later section of Norse Law. We begin to heax of 
Towns first in Olaf Kyrre's days ; and under the peaceful reign 
of Eystein tbey fiourisb, and we might guesa that part of Eystein's 
fame as Law-malier may be owing to his liaving set Laws for 
these new communíties that were sprínging up in his kingdom. 
Tbis Biarkey-law is found in an old and a new (afler 1260) form. 

Law-Bersi is ihe name of a Norse Lawman in eastem Norway, 
ínOlaf the Quiel's- reign ; a grandson of his was living in 11 38*. 

Hird-Bkrá, answeríng to our Thingmanna-laga, is also preserved 
in a late fonn. 

The name of Biami M^rd^íson, a Norwegian noble, c. laoo, ia 
connected witb tbe new Frocedure sectíon, Baktal', in Gula Law. 

We have now come down to a períod at wfaicb tbe Norwegian 
Common Law, like the Icelandic, gives way to what lesembles our 
modem idea of a Code. King Magnus Lagabœtir, c. 1 364-80, gives 
a new ' Land's Law ' to the wbote countiy, addressing copies to eacb 
TbÍDg identical ín all save the title. A step toward unity of this kind 
bad been taken wben King Sverri set Lawmen over the country, 
)>earíng the same title indeed as the time-honoured Speakers, but 
really approacbing ratber the Justiciarii and Vicecomites of England 
as represenlatives of central royal autboríty (see Hakon's Saga, 
chaps. 86-9Ö, Rolls' edition). The law now t>eing fossiUzed in a 
code, regular alterations became necessary, and we have a collecdon 
of about one bundred Royal. Ordinances, stretching over a century, 

* 'þat rar ok ikilt nndii diitaf Signckr konnngi it hann ilEjidi frcmja ak 
tt7ik}a Kríilinn doni f ilnu rikl meí öllum nucni ifDum, ok komi «kib;ikupi itdl 
i Nixeg c( hann mztti, ok Uta r«i at bini Hcilnga ÖUfi bcai ok hclgin dúm 
kronini. Hann ikyldi ok bjóSa líundar-gjald I linDLindi, ak geri i)ilíi.'—Sig)ird 
CnaadiTÍ Saga, Sulda, Fmi. ju. p. g I . 

* ' Um Baiia logk, Jhq cc hann gciíi,' and ' ]>i gfbi Bzui þar logh til, oc þiu 
hala m Tcrít liSan.' — BorgarJ,ings Kria. rtl. J 4. He it caLled ' LÖg-BeiiÍ,' Moik- 
imk. ilo, wbeie a giandioa of hi> ii named, i. ■. 1138. 

■ ■ H<r hefii Dpp Sailal liil Níja þat er Biarni Maiðar iod tkipaðL'— OU QiUa 
Tkingt LatB, i 316. 



1380-1384. These Ordinances are called fiáttBT-bCBtr, which 

originally signified a Charter of Liberties', granted by the King, 
but is now used in a new sense for Ordinances of the King in 
Council. Many also of the StAtuta, as the Ordinances of the 
Bishops are called, Decrees of Synods, &c. are preserved, 

The three vols. of the ' Norges GanUe Love ' (vol. i. Old Law, ii. 
New Land's Law, iii. Ordinances, Slatuta, ftc), edited by Munch 
and Keyser, Christ. 1846-47, contain atl that has survived of Nor- 
wegian Law. To this we may refer for account of MSS. &c.' 

There are beside the Law over ten thousand documents, chartera, 
deeds, inventories, Ac, published in a huge collectíon, the HorM 
Ðiplomatarium, edited at Christiania by Unger and lAnge, which 
is stiU in progress, but nearly finished. 

Of Terríera containing accounts of the landed possessions of 
various churches, ctoisters, &c., four collections exist, of great 
importance of course for eariy and mediæval geography of Norway, 
&c. Or these, the Bergen Calfbkin Book, Aslak Boldt's 
Terrieri and Uuiika-Iiif have been pubhshed by Munch. M. 
Hvitfeldt, the present Royal Archivist, is now publishing the most 
ímportant, Arciibishop EyBtein'B Bad Book. 

An interesling little document tnay find a place here. The Plea of 
King Sverri against the Pope and Clergy who took part against him ; 
published first by Werlauff, under the curious title Aneodoton 
Bverreri, and later as App. (pp. 176-90) to Christiania edition of 
Skuggsiá. It ÍB preserved in one Ncrse Law velltun of c. 1315. 

In the Orkneys, the history of Law must be similar to that of 
Iceland and Norway. The tiaditions point to a struggle between 
the Earls and the Franklins; and to Earl Thorfínn, the mightiest 
of all, as the gfeat law-making ruEer '. Into the intrícate and troubled 
history of these islands, however, we cannot enter here. 

SwKDKN. Dr. Sehlyíer's ' Sweriges Gamla Lagar,' la vols., Lund, 
1837-77, contains the whole corpus of old Swedish Law. It is a 
great national work, worthily accomptished by one man's life-Iabour. 

Denharx. We are yet awaiting such a collection of the Danish 

{ 36. Editing. 

With regard to the future editing and printíng of the varioua 

works of Icelandic Literature, it is clear that for a certain number 

of^hem there will always be a demand. These are the golden 

nucleus of the whole, and wÍU never lack adinirers and readers. 

■ So nsed, e. g. ' |>cui lítUr-bdt gif Hinldi konnngr ok Migndt þn^idDm ak 
ellum löguDautnm,' N. Q. L. i. 158. 

* A foDrlh Tolnme (ficiiniils, indicei, Ac), the publicatian of which wu itof^ied 
bj the limealed deith of Munch, may be expected ihoTlIy. 

' Of him it ii tiid, ' Léi hann >i af htrfíiíium ; Ug6i þi hng & itjóm lýBi ok 
landi ok á liga-ictning.' — Orlin, ch. 37, RalU' edilian. Thete litl iwciitf ycari of 
hii long rcign (10I4-64) weic the Golden Agc of Otknej, aud he ii ihe Grtat 
Ba-l «it' iioxff. 


§ 36- EDITING. ccis 

It is wlth just these worlcs, as artistic and historícal monuments of 
a very high order, that we are chieðy concemed here. The rest, 
whiclí are now aecured from hie by print, may be safely left to 

What is practicall)' wanted now is a small seríes of the real 
nusterpieces of Icelandic literature giving siandard texts in good 
noimal spelling, freed from the pedantry of needless and useleaa 
apparatus which encumber and disfigure many of the former 
edilions, and f^úrly and clearlj' prínted in a bandy fonn. 

Such a series should contain — 

a. The Ictlaniit Sagas in five volumes : 
I. Landnama and Krístni Saga. 

3. Niala; this might be prínted in a more luxmious way than (he 
rest, standing alone as it does in style and beauty, 

3. The Four Greater Icelandic Sagas. 

4, 5. The whole of the Minor Icelandic Sagas. 

b. The Prote-Edda in a volume by itself. 

{. A Book rf Kings, which should contain the whole seríes of 
Kings' Lives, down to and including Sigurd the Crusader. A 
moderate sized quarlo in double columns, or two such volumes 
as our vol. ii of Sturlunga would hold them and what is left of 
Skioldunga as welL 

d. A Corpus Potiicum, a much-needed work, which besides the 
Xjaya of the Edda collection should contain the other remaing of 
the Classic Poetry arranged and properly ckssified. One volume. 

These with the present Sturlunga (two vols.) and the Biskupa 
Sögur (one vol.), which have already appeared, would form a set of 
twelve volumes, in which everything diat is really important or 
beautiful in Icelandic literature might be found in a readily acceS' 
sible forra, which would undoubtedly bccome the testus recepius 
of the fiiture \ No prefaces or long escursus would be needed ; 
the texts would speak for tbemselves; and Ít is hoped tbat the 
present Prolegomena may some day serve as a General Introduc- 
tion to such a Series, when, as must happen, it is undertaken. To 
this end indications have been fumished in many instances, during 
the course of this Sketch of the Classic Literature, as to the way in 
wbich the editor of such a collection should proceed'. 

' The pagrnatioD of tbe editionf oied in the Dictioiuij' ihould, for nk« of 
rdercDcc, bc placed in (he macgin. 

■ Tbe itite of Icelandic MSS. i) nich that il faibidi a cam^DHnif' text 1 lod tbe 
only phn for in editor \o woilc aa it to lake the best MS., >nd fbin bli ediIloD oa 
that, conecling ciron from other MSS. (bot talcing care not to (wimp bii text with 
indÍRélent Taiiout lendingi). Pnil Indicei, Mapt, &c. ihanld alwij'i be added. 
Landnama in eipccial thould be accoropanied by a Map. gÍTÍng claiiai of Firtt 
Settlst, &c. (indiotiont of importaiice to ttudcDtt of Teutoaic Uttoi;). 








Thíodulf. Yng- 

Heioic An oflce- 


land. Thedecdi 

poels and Hench- 

VSIuspi [Ork.]. 

lelaled in the 

mtn at tbe Dan- 


Sígjs take p1.ce. 

iíh, Norwegiau, 

Lays of Helgi 

900-1030. it 

English, and 

[0.k.], Kotmali, 

End of S>g. linie. 

Orkney Conrti. 

EjTÍpd, Uy of 




Atli. aftn 985. 



E.Thorfinn [Ork.] 
Sigr.t, d. 1040. 
Araor, d. c 1080. 

Sagai shaped io 
tr.dition, 1030- 

1 ti'^n 


aSlatljoS [OrL.], 
Last Eddic Lay.. 


S«mund, á. ^. 

Kolskegg, £ 



Lay ofSluk;id. 





Sagu £rit wri en. 

Eirik GddMon, 


Ibe Minor Isleiid- 



inga Sögur, 1140- 


Eiri RoFnrald'i 
H.ttalykiU, c. 

Odd Mk. L.I., c. 



Kail Ab^ Srerri'í 

t™1ur [Ork.], e. 

Oízur H.11s>on, 

Saga of Thoigils 

S.g. begunllS^. 


>ud HaflíSi. 

Ágiip. Gunnlaug 


Annali compiled. 

Mk. Lal. 



SNORRI,d. IJ41, 

Stnrlu Siga. 

Böglunga Saga, c. 


Sl7roii.d. 1145. 

Bp. John'i Life, 


The greatet Sagai 

Htafni Siga. 

Snorri. Konunga 

Qudmund Djra S. 

Sögur or Kings' 


Bp. Gudmunds S. 

LÍTCi, c. 1330. 

Egla.c. uao. 

Anon, .uthot of 

Ætiaital Noreei 
Konunga (Fsk.). 

Hungivaki, and 
Ihe Tboilík and 

Niala. c'la^o. 

c. IJSO. 





Olaf HritukUd. 


Mythinl Tiadi- 


Hakon'. Saga, 

tion. worked up 

c. 1170-1184. 


in thí Ute Saga 

Icelandic Sagas 

touihed up. 
Falie Sagai begin 

to be fabitc.ied. 

Aroní Saga. 
Svinfelling. S. 

Maguui Siga, c. 


Gretla, c. 1300. 
Wholiy rabríoted 
Sag,s as Finn- 

GrealO.T. edited. 
Gieat Har, HMBt. 
iu Hulda and 


Anon. aulhot of 


Stuihing. ediled c 





Fareyinga edited. 



Sagii collecfed. 

Elnar. the tait Ice- 

Kinei' Lirei col- 

Skaldi collected. 


iJU « 1. Fb, 

Voliunga S. coni. 

V.i7h. and Fb. 

d. 1393. Annal.. 


pilíd c. IJ50. 





L«.t AnnaU. 







Firil MÍMÍoo, 981. 

Ulfliot'i conjtit. 

Lawi, c. 930. 
Thord Oelli'i le- 


Chrinianity ic- 

Nial's refornu, c. 

cepWd, .000. 

Skapti the Law- 

min. á. 1030. 
Sl. Olaf. Noiway, 


Adan. of BreniíD, 

c. to8o. 

Biihapi- seet 

Markni the Law- 

man, d. 1 108. 

at Skalhoit. 1056. 


TitheLaw, looð. 

THORODD. boro 

Schoií there, c. 

HaflidT. Skii. 

c. io8s. 


Stjaiiiu.Oddi, c. 

Ecclttiutical Law, 


c. trij. Tboibk 

None Thiodtdc 

Romiliei ÍQ tce- 

■nd Kedl. 

Bjami Tolriíi. d. 

Mk.L., 1185. 




Den. Si-em Aakí- 


Rímbegla.c. 1180. 


c. 1153, 

Lawi wiitten io 

Anon. Gnunmaii- 

Dm. Suo Mk. 

Bened. doiitei 11 

Noiway. c. IIIO. 

an. c. 1170. 

Lat., lalo. 

Thingore. 1133. 

Goldrciiher Nor- 


EiTly Li»ei of 

way. EccLCode. 

»r-viiir, cnso. 

Sainll traniiated. 

Qiznr-i Fh» Pere- 

FicDch RomiiKct 

Barlum and Jou- 

Law ScrolU col- 

tiaiulatcd at thc 

ph.t. uso. N. 

leeled in Kon- 


ungi-bík, IJ30- 

- bert Ab. ijj6- 



Konung-. Skogg. 
.jí.o. H30. N. 

ActofUnion, 1 JÖa. 


Thidickj S.. cora- 


poieilc.iaso. N. 

Chsnge of Liw in 

Notweeiin abridi'- 

Bp. Brand, Gyfl- 

I«l.. NorM Law 

OUTí Grammir, 

ment Df Kin7>- 




Livei, in Hetm.- 

J.m.iSa, 1,7,. 


Jóiii-bók, laSo. 


Law Rerition in 

Hauk Erlendsaon, 

Stjórn compiled in 

died 1334. 

Norway, c, 1310. 


Second •eriet of 

W. «i3»o- 

French Ro- 

Pinphriiet of 

nuncet at the 

SainU, 1330- 

NoTK Conrt, 


Statutei (Ríllar- 

Blanda collected. 

1300-1 3 ao. 

AmRiim Ab., d. 

bœti), ij8o- 









2 'S'V^t; 


Í! Ji 

s1:i=|=siá í S? .3 

il £ I a g g a 3_ 

lý ^= h. 

i 41 

•s í •< 

»" :- "3 i'í 

»111 i é f M lll- 

4 -4 í. 



||í;- sIó I 


i Í Í i i 



a. Writtm in Nonmj fc/ Noiwegiaiu. 
Hoa^'et, AM. 6tg c.1170.... Editcd by Unger, 1864. 

"^í£í.".°'".<°;.''±'.Í ■•"==■■•• ""<■■.-«■ 

fMdnk'i Sigi, Stockh. 4 .... ciaso.... Unget, 1853. 
Stioigl, Upuli 47 c. ligo .... UngcT, iSgo. 

B„u„„í,„^,.s,.d.h., .. „50 .... I "-sas^^^szzt 

*Fagnkuuu, Cod. B. c 1150 .... MuDch >nd Unger, 1S47. 

UwiAM.,37 í.„so.... jM».jh.ndKq«,,l!,6-47(ln 

*Law,^ Cad. RoMÍuai c lafe 

Sp«,A.« R.I.I., AM. .« .. t. „jo.... j D.^jk« i" -™«li»í onl'"- 

•F.j,.kl».,Cal,A. =.„80.... "!",'".'"■«"■''*'■'»"" 

^ ' ( Icclandic nonn. ipelling. 

ThomuSi^ Stockh. 17 c. 1300 ,. .. Ucgcr, 1864. 

AnecdotooSraTeii, AM. 114 c, 1315 UDgei, iS4S(wÍthtbeSkaggií&). 

*Cod. Bei|caiii c. 1340 .... N. Q. L. and None Dipl. pauim. 

Bergoi'i Kalnkinn, AM. 319 e. 1360-1370 Mnnch, 1S45. 

The Red Boók, AM. 338 . . c. 1388-1401 Being edited by Hritfeldt. 

Atlak Boldt c. 1418 .... Moiicb. 

í. MSS. wrinen in Noiwi; bj IcelindeTi in tbe tatter half of the i^th century 
foi Noiwegian nobla. 

•KringU c. 1966 .,., Ungei, 1S6S. 

*Jafhukinna c. 1370 

Fiii-búk, AM. 45 c 1970 Unga, 1871. 

•Gullinikinna c I300 

Eiripennil, AM. 47 c. I180 Unget, 1873. 

Srenii Sagi, AM. 337 c 1190 

Tfae*deiiotet lhelotioftheMS.Ín thefiit of 1718. 

tcnKmc fvíTS. 

J*J <;*w«OjÍ. (^S^-'ÐJo) 



Supplenunt /ú § 21, p. cxx. 
GizuK Haluioh: — 

'Tbit my foiterer,' aj Arí calls him, ii nated in Iilendinga-bðk u lh« anlhorítf 
for icTeral ttatemeDtt, ctpccially those letiting to the cttibliihmeDt of Chrisliaiuty 
Ín Iceland, whicti weie derívid no donbt fiam hit gre il-giandratber OiZDr ihe While, 
Ðoe ofthctwo miiuonariet who bioa^t abDuI the Chaoge of Faith at the Althing. 
Son of one Bi(h<9, Itleif, ind brotber of anolher, he would be in the bed poiilion to 
know whal conld be known of Icelandic hisloty, and to tell Ít to hii young foiter- 
brother Ati. Teil wai adopted by Hall oF Hawkdale, aod racceeded to hit eitate 
iike a léal lon (an extiaordinary circumitance, as of courte adoptíon wai uuknown 
to Icelandic Law). taking up a new potílion, so thal the Hiwkdale mea, ai hii 
deicendanli are called, almoit seeœ to belong more to Hall Ihan lo Isldf. By ■ 
maiTÍage wilh a great-granddaughter of Hall o' Side (tiom whom to many dittin- 
guiihed men ipiDng), he hid a lon Hall, named aflei Hall of Hawkdale. He wai 
■l)o a man of note in hii day, a great tiaveller, and so good a linguist thit it ii said 
of him hy the aathor of Hungrvaka (who got it no doubt from Oizur. HaH't lon), 
Ihat Ín erciy land he came to he ipoke the longue ai if he had been bom Ihere. 
He wu electcd Bishc^ of Skalholt, and díed at Ulrechi i i;a, ou hii way back from 
Romc, whither he faad gone to gel conlinned. 

Hii lon wai Gizut Haijjioh, boro c II 15 in Hawkdale. Hc wai brougbt np at 
Skalhoh by Bishop Thorlak I (Arí'i fríend) ; when of fall age he lÍTcd at Hiwkdale, 
but hewai much abroad ttaveÚlng in Ihc'SoulheinLandi' (Italy, &c.)befaie 1153. 
In Norway the King mide him ' Marthal,' and in Icelind he filled ihe moie honour- 
■ble poit of Law.Spéaker foi twcnty-two yean. In hit latlet dayi he wis moch at 
Skalholt. The latt notice we have of him ii in Reykholti Maldagi (ii, 501), which 
he ligni along with Snoiri in the tpríng of lloj. He died July 37, iiofi. 

Thne aie two 01 three inlereitine allusioni to him. Odd the Benedictine lends 
him a copy of hii Life of King OliTl for revition (as Aii lent Liber to Szmund). 
In the Life of Edward the CoDfdtoi, where the lainl leei a king'i death by tecond 
■Ighl, Gizui'i theory, that the drowned king meant was SwayD, Alfgifa's lon, ii 
givcn (see Rolli' editioD, voE. i. p. 390). So nmch wc knov of hii repute ai a lileiai)' 
man, beiide the fad ihat he wrole 'Flm PtTCgrinaúoiut! a recoid of hii travclj 
(probably in Lalin), ai Slnrla telh In di. 15 of Islendinga. But it it at a Sagaman, 
telliug the autbor of HuDgrvika the lives of the biihopi, ihat he i< of tpecial 
impoitance to Icelandic letten. *Wherefore I have made tbii tiitle book, that 
what I heard that wite (fioAi) man Gizui Halluon tell on thii head might Dot 
altogelher bW out of my mind,' layt tíie bithops' biographer. Of GiEui'i peisonil 
chaiictei ind potition in the Church and Stat*, theie are leverat noticet icatleicd 
through the Bíshops' Lives. Szmund, Biihop Paal'i biolher, taid of him, thit 
he wai Ihe'very king (lit. 'castle,' met. taken from cheti) of good company and 
pleUDie wherever he wai.' He wai an eloqucnl man, and fond of tpeaking 1 and 
two of hit funeral orations are noliced, one over an aged nun, Ketllbiorg ; one over 
the holy Biibop Tbotlak, bitt of which are piesetved 10 ut. In il he tayt thit, ai 
wat the cutlom abroad, he wished to speak over ihe gravc (Dec. 1 193), and telli of 
the Biihop'i good life, and of the assurance they had that he wat now reaping his 
reward ; DotÍcÍDg also that he himself had already tcen foui biihops (Thorlak, Feb. 
1133: Magnas, Oct. 1149; Ketil of Holar. July, 1145; Klzng. March. 117G) 
burícd. Hit words on this occaiion wete in aftei days laken ai a foreboding of the 

Gizur left many children, lome of whom were men of note in their generatioo. 
Magnas tbe Biihop (died 1137); Hall, Liw.Spcaker and Abbol of the Austin 
minster at Holyfell (died 1 330) ; and Thoiwald, well known to us from Islendinga, 
the fatber of the evil Earí, our Gizur'i nametake, witb whom, ladly enough, endi 
the righl line of ■ raee which erer kept iu the foieíront of Icelandic life, whether as 
Seltlcri, Mii»onaiiet. Prdates. Spcakers, 01 Chieft, and to whom we are indebled 
foi much that ii ofhigh woith. 

Hawkdale, Qiiar's home, now lilleD fiom iti high estate, ii wcD known to all 
UaTelleri that visit tbe Gcyiirt. 


COD. A. 
Virn hond, *al. i. p- 8, 

iiattó^ ^Mrtí P«Öim |WA-ír ^l^ 

TUri Iwnd, BiA. S., Tol. i. p. 713. II- 14-^3- ""^ P" T'* "■ •^"*'*- 

8«16iniui4Kni»W'@t^tiíi-t«éi>B^t)(i& ««W 

p _^ 


Rhf nutlr oc ^ ftít) %*«) 

ftapt Yliaai ðct iUa^t: ^-^ 
íopjni w»Utm-%^S5i tanf iljérií 

;é& |>ic ^ Wtss l Iw viU licac 
^ p lo^ - Ct^ la^ls tWáia • 
mme (ðr- 9i^ 1<«pti t)^ m.'l- ad 

SaooDd hamd, i 

Thlrd buid, rol. i. p. 356. II, 

^-f ttoíuflR \tó- 6%, vi«g éjSHié 

pft^ Sttnfe/ tr eii6rffi|ioníiV w^* w 

Ili%>fini Iðufo ttil }^ és YiaÉHÍ; mattdt) 

|H^e|^f éþil ea\t#TUu£fií9m 

iá« l)ámtut& tc^^ »1u^tta| 'o^ 























1. Geiiluuhdr Heljar-skinn var sonr HjCrs konnngs Hálfs- 
sooar, er Hálfs-rekkar eru við kenndír, Hj'örleifssonar konungs; 
annarr son Hjörs konungs var Hámundr, er enn var kallaðr 
Helj'ar-skinn. Þeir vóru tvfburar. En þessi er frásögn til þess 
er þeir vóru Heljar-skinn kallaðir — At þat var I þann tíma er Hj'ðrr 
konungr skyldi sækj'a konunga-stefnu, at dróttning var eigi heil; 
ok verðr hón léttarí meðan konungr var ór landi, ok fæddi hón tvá 
sveina ; þeir vóni báðir ákaflega miklir vSxtum, ok báðir furðulega 
Ijótir ás^Ís, en þó réð stærstum ófrfðleiki' þeirra á at sji, at 
einginn maðr þóttisk sét hafa dökkra skinn en á þeim sveinum 
var. Dróttning felldi lídnn hug til sveinanna, ok sýndisk henni 
þeir óSstúðlegir. Loðhöttr hét þræll sá er var fyrir stjórn annarra 
þræla. Þessi þræll var kvángaðr; ok úl kona hans son jafn-framt 
þvf sem dróttning varð léttari ; ok þessi sveinn var svá undarlega 
fagr, er þræls-konan átti, at dróttning þóttísk ekki ]ýú sjá i svein- 
inum, ok sýnisk henni nú þessi sveinn ástúðlegrí enn sínir sveinar. 
Síðan rsðir dróttníng til kaups um sveinana við ambáttina; en 
ambáttínni s^disk svá sem dróttningu, at henni þ<5tti sfnn sonr 
tfgulegrí, en þorði þð eigi aC synja at kaupa við dróttningu um 
Bveinana. Ok tekr nú dróttning við ambáttar-syni, ok lætr gefa 
nafn, ok kalla sveininn Leif; ok segir dróttning þenna fivein sínn 
son ; en ambáttin tekr við þeim dróttningar-sonnm, ok fæöask þeir 
upp I hálmí sem Önnur þræla-bðm, þar til at þeir vóru þré-vetrir. 
En Leifr leikr á I6fum, ok hefir virðing, sem ván var at konungs- 
bam mundi hafa. En svá sem aldr færisk á sveinana alla jafnt, þá 

I en þi— ðlTieieiki] cmend. ; en þd i4ð tMnta nm lÍfiJSleik þeiciB, Cd. (tee Dict. 
(tófi IV). Beltet, en þó hir (tsntum .... 



[1. 1.3H.1.] 
gugnar Leifr ; en þeir HámuDdr ok Geirmundr gangask því meiir 
vi6 sem þeir eni ellri, ok bregzk því meÍTr hveir til síns ættemis. 

a. Þess er viö getið eitt sinn, at Bragi skáld sótli heimboð til 
Hjörs koDUngS, ok var hann með konungi nökkura hrlð. Ok ein- 
hvem dag er þat sagt, at konungr fór á dýra-veiði með hirð sfna; 
ok verðr mann-fátt heima I höUinni. Bragi skáld var heima ok 
sat f ðadugi ok hafði reyr-sproU einn f hendi sér, ok leikr at, ok 
þulði f feld sfnn. Dróttning lá f þverpalli' innar' í höllinní, ok 
var bulin klæðum, svá at eigi mácti vita hvárt hon var þar, nema 
þeir er Sör vissu nánari. Leifr sat í hásseti ok lék sér at guUi ; en 
þeir Hámundr ok Geirmundr, bræðmir, sátu f hálmi, ok hugðu 
at er Leifr lék sír at guUinu, í*eir sá ok ekki manna f hðUinnl 
f^ mælti Geirmundr til brððui sfns — ' Viltú at vit farim til Leifs, 
ok takim af hónum gullið; ok leikum okkr at nökkura hríð?' — 
'Bijtnn em ek þess,' segir Hámundr. Síðan hljópu sveinarnir 
innar at hásætinu ok tóku gullit af Leifi; en hann glúpnaði eptir. 
i>eir mæltu — 'Heyr á',' sögðu þeir, 'hvat konungs-son tekr til, ok 
æpir eptir einum gullbaugi; ok er þat satt at segja, at þat er flla 
komit er þú feri með.' Þrffa nú sveinamir til Leifs, ok ráku hann 
ór hásætinn, ok blæja at. Þi stendr Bragi skáld upp, ok gengr at 
þar dróttning lá f pallinum, ok styör á bana reyrsprotanum, ok 
kvað vfsu þessa — 

Tveir '10 inai, tnli'k biðDin vcl, 

H&mDndT olc Geiimundr Hjöivi boniir, 

en Ldfi þriai LofthiltiT iodtj 

f&tt filðii' þann; fár taan iu* Tcni. 

Dróttning stendr nií upp, ok gengr I brott með sveinana, ok sfciptir 
nú aptr við ambáttina f annat sinn. Sýnisk dróttningu nú sem er, 
at þeir görðusk mannvænlegir sem glfkindi era á, ok þeir áttu til- 
brigðí. £n um kveldit, er konungr kom heim ok hafði sezk f 
hásæti sflt, þá gengr dróttning fyrír konunginn, ok leiðir sveinana 
nieð sér, ok segtr konungi allt sem við nemr, ok hverju hön hafi 
keypt við ambáltina, ok biðr konung af sér reiðL Konungr leit á 
gveinana ok mælti, — ' At visu ætla ek at þesdr sveinar sé mínnar 
ættar, en þö hefi ek eigi s^t slfk heljai-skino fyrr, sem þessir sveinar 
eru.' — Ok af þvf vóm þeir sfðan Heljar-skinn kallaðír. Ok þegar 

' þ»erlHlli] tmwid. ! þilpallj (-þSpalli), Cd. • innir] emend. ; otw (»tu), 

Cd. ' beyr i] ihould be, heyii? oi heyi & endemi? ' fiíSir] Br. ; pTydii, H. 
' íd] cnn, Cd. (lee Dict. eo tenip. 2. 0). 


8SC-900.] ÞATTR AF GEIRMUNDI, »-4. 3 

er þeir vóru fruravaxta, fðru þeír ór landi at herja, ok öðuðu brátt 
bæði fjár ok fnegðar, ok stýrðu lengi mikluin skipa-stóli, at þvf sero 
segir f suroum frásðgum, ok nökkuð vfsar til f' enuin efra hiut 
sögu Hróks' ins svarta, er þeir brceðr vóru þar kallaðir inir mestu 
hcrroenn af sœkonungum í þann tfma. 

8. Ok þat var eitt sumar, er þeir héldu 1 vestr-víking, at þeir 
fengu svá niiklu meira herfang en önnur sumur, at þvt er frá befir 
sagl verit. Enn fyir cnn þeir ksemi heim, skiptu þeir herfangi 
sfnu um sumarít, þá hlaut annarr þeírra tuttugu pund silfrs en tvau 
pund gullz. Ok á þessu sama sumri rufu þeir bemaðinn, ok leysiu 
hvem sfnna manna með góðum skot-penningum á brott. Þeir 
bræör héldu samfloti tveim skipum f Noregs-konungs-rfki. Þá réð 
fyrír Noregi Haraldr konungr Hárfagrí ; ok tetluða þeir bræðr at 
hafa þar fríð-iand, ok skildu þá samflot sftt ok fétag. Ok er kon- 
UÐgr frétti þat, þá Ifkar hónum eigi þarvist þeirra ; ok þykkir eigi 
örvent, at þeir muni þar eflask ætla til mótz vi6 sik. Ok þat vilja 
sumir menn segja, at Geirmundr færí fyrir ofrfki Haraldz konungs 
til fslandz, £n ek hefi þat heyrt, at f þann tfma, er þeir bræðr 
kómu ór vestr-víking, værí gem mest orð á, at engin þætti vera 
frægðar-för meiri en fara til fslandz; ok af því inu sama vildí 
Geirmundr sigta út þcgar um sumarít er þeir kömu við Noreg, 
þvl at þá vœri hallað sumri; cn Hámimdr vildi þat e^; ok fór 
Hámundi til mötz við Helga inn magra, ok fóru þeii báfiir samt 
út til íslandz. 

4. £n Geirmundr fór þá þegar út, ok kom skipi sfnu f Breifia- 
fjörð, ok var f Búðardal inn fyrsta vetr er hann var í íslandi. En 
um várít nam hann land frá Búðardals-á ok til Fábeins-ár, ok setti 
þar, bústað sfnn er nú heitir á Geirm'undarstöðum. Geirmundr 
bóndi var stórmenni mikit, ok bélt aldri færrí menn en átta tigi 
vfgra kark með sér á Geirmundarstöðum. Hann átti ok fjögur 
bú öimur; var eitt bú bans f Aðalvfk f fsafirði, aimat f Kjarans- 
vík ; þar var Kjaran þræll Geirmundar, ok hafði Kjaran tólf þræla 
uitdir sér. It þriðja bú. átti Geirmimdr f almenningum enum 
vestrum ; þat varfi-veitti Bjðm, þræll bans. Bjöm varð sfðan sekr 
vm sauða-töku, ok urðu almenningar tekðar-K hans. It fjérða bú 
Geirmtmdar varð-veitti Atli, þræll bans, ok bafði bann ok tótf þr»la 
undir sér sem Kjaran, ok þjónuða þessi ÖU biíin undir þat er 
bann sjálfr hélt kostnað af á Geirmuadarstöðum. 

' rjeraend.; t, Cd. > Hrðki] Hniiri, H. 





S. Geirr hét maðr ríkr ok ágætr i Sogni; hann var blótmaðr 
mikiU; var hami af þvf kallaör Vé-geirr. Hann átd sjau börn eðr 
fleiri. Vébjöm bét son hans ok Végesti, Vémundr ok Vésteinn, 
Véleifr ok Véörn, en Védís dóttir. En er Végeirr andaðisk, þá 
tók Vébjöra fonáð bæði fjár ok metorða. Hann hélt óvini Há- 
konar [jarls] Grjótgarðzsonar, ok fóru þau systkyn af þvf öll til 
fslandz. t>au velkti lengi úti 'um sumarit i hafinu, ok tóku at 
lyktum HlKðuvfk of haustið fyrir vestan Hom, l^ gékk Vébjöm 
at blóti'; en bræðr hans eggjuðu brottfarar, gvá at hann gáði eigi 
blótzins; ok létu þau lít ok brutu inn sama dag undir háfum 
hömrum f miklu fllviðrí ; ok kómusk þar upp, er nú heitir sfðan 
Sygnakleif. M tök við þeim öllum skipverjum um vetrinn Alli, 
þræll Geirmundar Heljar-skiimz. Atli var ódæll ok hamramr mjök. 
£n er Geirmundr vissi þessa órlausn þrælsins, þá frétti hann 
þrælinn, — ' Hvat kom þér til þess, er þú tókzk svá mikit á hendr 
við Vébjöm ok förunauta hans ?' Þrællinn svarar : ' Þat kom mér 
tit þess, at ek vilda þann veg ' sýna hversu mikit göfugmenni ok 
Störmenni sá maðr var er þann þræl átti er slík stórræði þorði á 
hendr at takask.' Geirmundr bað þrælinn hafa þökk fyrír sttt 
órræði, ok gaf hónum fyrir þesaa sök frelsi ok búland.— Mörgum 
mönnum gaf Geirmundr stórar eignir, bæði ( löndum ok lausum 
eyrL Hann gaf Hrólfi Kjarlakssym bijstað at Ballará. Hann 
var vinr Geirmundar, ok var mÍkiU ættbogi af hönum ; hans son var 
ÍUugi inn rauði, ok Sölfi, faðir Mrðar, fööur Magnúss, fbÖur Sölva, 
íbður Páls prestz. 

e. Geirmimdr bjó á Geirmundarstöðum til elli æfi sfnnar. En 
sá var einn hvammr f landi Geirmundar, at hann kvazk vildu kjósa 
á brott ór landinu, ef hann mætti ráða ; ok mest fyrir þvf, ' At sá er 
einn staðr i hvamminum, at ávalt er ek lit þangat, þá skroemir' 
þat Ijós fyrír augu mér er mér verðr eigi at skapi; ok þat Ijós er 
ávalt yfir reyni-Iundi þeim er þar er vazum einn samt undir brek- 
kunni.' Ok þat fylgði, ef nökkuru sinní varð búfé hans staðt f 
hvamminum, þá lét hatm dnýta nyt undan á þeim degi. Ok eitt 
EÍnn er frá þvf sagt, at búsmali hans hafðí þar komit niðr um nött 
eina. Ok er smalamaðr reís upp ok sá féit f hvamminum, varð 
hann ákaflega hræddr, ok hleypr sem hann má ok eltir féit ór hvam- 
muium; ok r^ ðr reyni-runninum vðnd eirm ok keyrlr féít roeð, 

■ blúti] emaid.j it blðu, Cd. ' lýiu] heie begini the iiiit Tellum leaf. 

* Thui the Tellam, not ikriimir, a> ihe papei iniiicripti and thc edition. 


880-900.] ÞATTR AF GEIRMUNDI, S-7. 5 

ok rekr féit heim til Geinnundarstaða. £n Geiminndr var út 
genginn ór hvila sfnni um morguninn, ok sér hvar smalamaðrínn 
eltir féit ofan ór hvamminum ; ok verðr hónum ekki vel at skapi 
er féit hefir þar vcrít, ok snýr 1 móti enialamanninum, ok þekkir 
brátt, at hann hefir reTni-vöndinn í hendi ok keyrir féit með, Ok 
bér verðr bönum svá fllz-kallt' við hvárt-tveggja samt, at bann 
blejpr at smalamanninum ok berr hann ákaflega mjök ; ok bað 
hann aldregi göra þat optaTT, at beija fé hans með þeim viði er f 
þeim hvammi er vaxinn, en þó einna slzt ðr reyni-runninum. £n 
Geinnundr mátti þvf auðvellega kenna viðinn' at þar at eins var 
þá reyni-viðr vaxinn i hans landeign f þeim sama stað er nú stendr 
kirkja at Skarði, at þvf er vér höfuði heyrt sannfróða menn frá 
segja. Geirmundr lét taka vöndinn ok brenna hann f eidi, en búfé 
sítt lét hann reka f haga ok ón^ nyt undan á þeim degl 


7. Dóttir Geirmundar var Vr, roóðir Þóroddz, fóður Brodda', 
fbður Hallberu er átti Börkr son Þormððar t^óstarssonar. — Steinólfr 
inn lági, son HróJfs hersis af Ögðum, nam land milli Búfiardals-ár 
ok Tjaldaness, ok bjó f Fagradal ; hans dóttir var Helga, móöir 
Hymings ÓIaf|3.', er átti Amdlsi, dóttui Geirmundar Heljar-skinnz ; 
þeirra dóttir var Fríðgerðr, mðöir Snería' Þóroddzsonar, föður 
Odda, föðtir t^srgils Oddasonar. Önnnr dóttir Steinólfs ins lága 
ór Fagradal var Amdfs, móðir Þórðar, fSður t>orgerðaT, móður 
Hrafns, ÍÖður Snartar, föður Védfsar', móður HöUu, móður Yng- 
vjldar, er átti Snorrí lögsögu-maðr, faðir Narfa, fbður Skarð- 

Ingólfr [Amarjson hann stafifestísk fyrstr á íslandi land- 
náms-manna, svá at menn kunní ættir sfnar til at telj'a. Ingólfr 
var faöir Þorsteins, föður Þorkels mána lögsögu-mannz ; Þórhildr 
var dÓttir I>orsteins Ingólfssonar, móðir Þorkels, íbður Ketils, 
föður Hauks, fbðni YngvUdar, móður Snorra, föður Narfa, íöfiui 

Hrollaugr h^t sonr Rögnvaldz jarls á Mærí. Frá hónum eru 

' illi.lul]t] Ihgi thc Telliun ; fllt ok killt, tbe pipci tnnictipti. ■ Ti«nn] 
vöodian, H. * Bnxlda] Oddi. H. ' Thm Br.; reid Ölarooiiar? bi tbe vel- 

Inm the Dune ii cat olf. * SDcrii] thni ihe TellDin ii il lecnii, not Sueríi. 
• Siuttu — V*di»»r] thoi tbc TcUiun, not SviHar— Ejdini ai the papet tiaiucripti. 



Síðu-menn koianÍT. HanB sonr var Özurr, faðir Mrdísar, tnóðtir 
Kallz i Siðu. Egi]l, sonr Hallz, var faðir Þorgerðar, móður jóans 
biskups. Yngvildr Hallzdóttir var móðir Wreyjar móftur Sæm- 
undar ins Fróða. Þorvarðr Hallzson var faðir Þördfsar, móður 
Jóreiðar, móður Hallz prestz 1 Haukadal, Teitzsonar. Þorsteinn 
Hallzson var faöir Magmlss, fbður Einars, föðnr Magnúss biskups. 
Ljótr Hallzson var faðir Guðninar, móður Einars Arasonar, ok 
Steinunnar, móður Guðmundar ok Hallberu, móöur Þorgils, föður 
Húnboga, fööur Snorra, föður Narfa, íbður Skarð-Snorra. Móðir 
Skarð-Snorra var Guðrún Þórðar dóttir, Oddlei&sonar, Þórðarsonar 
kráku-nefs. Þessi vóru systkin Skarð-Snorra : Þórör, er átti Jóreiði 
Hallzdðtlur; þeirra dóttir vár Helga, er Sturla átti Þórðarson Lög- 
maðr. Þorbjðrn var laun-getinn ok Halldís. Yngvildi, systur 
Snorra, átti Gunnsteinn HaJlzson ; hon var móðir Vfgfiiss ok þeirra 
systkina. Guðrlðr, systir Snorra, var móðir Guðmundar prestz 
Öláfssonar ok þeirra systkina. Hallgerði, systur Snorra, hana átti 
Þórðr undir Felli; hón var mðfiir Snorra ok Guðmundar ok Yng- 
vildar, móður Pdtrs f Skógarnesi, Snorra sonar. 

Bjöm sonr Ketib Flatnefs var faðir Kjallaks, föður' Þorgrfms, 
föÖur Vermundar, fbður Yngvildar, mðður Þóröar, fbður Yngvildar, 
móÖur Snorra Húnbogasonar. 

Ðálkr var bróðir Þorgils Hafliðasonar ; hann var faðir Bersa, 
fSður Ðálks, föður Halldórs prestz í Saurbæ ', fSður Þorstcins, ei 
átti Ingigerði Philíppusdóttur, Sæmundarsonar *. 

' fÖSui] nnmd. ; t., i. e. lon, rcllum (Indl]'). * pcc*tz i Saotbz] om. thc 

vcllUin leafi add. thc pipcr tnnKrtptt (riom vellum B whcn whole). 

' Here >I1 ihe piper tranicripts adil — ' þeim ddtlit var Guðnin td tienedikt ilti 
lyn. en líaait Herra Kdbeinn (Auakýliiigr). Hillben ibbiilli vir önnQi diitlit 
|>onteiiu bdnda oí Ingígetðai. Thii pedigtee i> not in ihe velhun ieaf; bnt only 
in ihe paper tiaiisciipts, wheie it wii piobably iiueitcd fioni the relliini B when 




A.D. 1117-1121. 
1. Hafliði hét maör; hann var Másson, Húnr&ðarsonar, Vé- 
rröfiarsonu ', Ævaissonar. Þóilðr hét kona hans, dóttir Þórfiar, 
Bonar Sturlu Þjóðrekssonu' ; ok áttu þau mart baTna. Síðan átti 
hann Rannvei{(u, sjstur Hallz Teitzsonar ; Þeirra dóttir var Sigríðr, 
er átli Þórðr I Vatzfiröi, Snorri hét son þeina. Hafliði bjó at 
Breifiabólstaö 1 VestrhÓpi, ok var bæði forvitri ok góðgjam ok 
ÍDR mesti böfðingi. Bergþóirhét bróðir Hafliða Másaonar; hann 
átti Kolþemu, dðttur Eyjólfs halta; þeirra son var Guðmundr, 
faðir Más prestz. Son Bergþórs var Már ; haim var óvinsæll ok 
flla skapi farinn, ok ólíkr góðum frændum sínum; hafði nakkvat 
íé ok hélt fUa á. Hann var opt með Hafliða frænda sfnum i 
vetiinn, ok var hónum óskapuðr '. Þat var sagt eitt vár, at hann 
keypti 5^1 skip ok ferr á Strandir norSr. Hann var maðr mikill 
ok beinstótr, skarpvazinn, svartr, ok ósélegr. Hann kemr niðr 
á Ströndum norfir þar sem heitir í Avík tíl þess bónda er Hneitir 
hét; hann var skilgéðr bóndi ok vinsæll. Kona hans hét Bjðrg; 
þati áttu tvá sonu, Steinþór ok Finnboga ; Rannveig ok Hergerðr 
vðru dætr þeirra. Hneitir var þingmaðr Haflifia, ok annaðisk reka 
hans'. Þorsteinn hét maðr, vinsæll ok nSIyndr; hann var kallaðr 
aUra manna veiðnastr; hann annaðisk mófiur sfna ok böm s&i; 
fór jafnan með skipi Hneitis, ok skapaði hann hÓQum góðan hlut 
fyrir starf sftt. 

ð. í þenna tfma bjó Þorgils Oddason á Staðarhóli f Saurbæ ; 
hann hafði mann-mart með s^r, ok rausn mikil var þar f mörgum 
hlutum. Hann var stórfengr ok auðigr. I>orgils var sonr Odda 

' Véhöbm.] om. rellDm (imerted from B7). ' ódupDSr] thni Bi., lad pcrh. 
COTispted fiom ' ^^kipgllkr ' « the lilce. * ok iimaðiik icka hioi] oni. Tellnni ; 
in the papei tiuiKiipti thit tenttDce W4i piob. tikeii fioin the kitt part of fellum B, 



[I. 9; i. 6.] 
Sneríssonar*, Mroddzsonar r Móðir Sneris' var FriBgerðr Hym- 
ingsdóttÍT. Hyrningr átti Amdísi dóttur GeinnundEir Heljar-skinnz. 
Móðir Odda Snerissonar var Alof dóttir Bitru-Odda, t'orbjamar- 
Bonar. Mófiir Bitni-Odda var Yngvildr dóttir Alfs í Dölum. Yng- 
vildi hafði átt torvaldr eyrgoði, Steingrfms son er nam SteingrlmS' 
fjðrö, ok bjó f Trollatungu. Sjá kyns-þáttr Þorgils Oddasonar er 
sumum ókunnari erui Reyknesinga. Hallbera hét móðir hans, 
dóttir Ara af Reykjanesi'. Kolfinna [hét] kona Þorgils, dóttir 
Hallz Styrmis sonar, í^rgeirs sonar frá A^eirsá. Þser sveilir vóru 
Qölbygðar, ok góðir beendr í þenna tíma. Þórðr Gilsson bjó undir 
Felli inu iðra'. Hónbogi Þoi^lsson bjó at Skarði, faðir Snorra 
lögsðgumannz. Már prestr Þormóðsson bjó f Sœlingsdals-tungu ; 
hann var frændi náinn Hafliða Mássonar. Halldóra hét móöír 
hans, dóttir Védfsar Másdóttur, en Védís var systir Hafliða Más- 
eonar. Þorsteinn Kvistzson átti Védfsi, dóttur Þorgerðar, dóttur 
Védfsar Másdóttur. Guðmundr prestr Brandzson bjó í Hjarðar- 
holti; hann var náfrændi Þoi^ls Oddasonar ok alda-vinr. Ömólfr 
Þorgilsson bjó at Kvennabrekku. Araórr Kollzson bjó at Kleifum 
f Gilsfiröi. Þórálfr Bjamarson h}6 at Skriðins-enni ; hann var íé- 
IftiU, ok var þ<5 vinr ok þingmaðr Hafliða Mássonar. 

3. Ingimundr prestr Einarsson Arasonar, hann bjó á ættleifð 
stnni á Reykjahólum. Hann var vinsæll maðr ok þó nSkkut févani ; 
en var þó bæði ðrr af penn[in]gum, ok i6 mesta stórmenni f sfcapi *, 
sem ættemt hans var til. Hann var skáld gótt, ok at mÖTgu inn 
mesti mætis-naaÖr. Hann var enn frændi f^rgils Oddasonar; ok 
hann hafði gefit hdnum' Reyknesinga-goðorð, ok var þeirra 
frændsemi allgóð. Ingimundr var fræðimaðr mikill, ok fór mjök 
með sögur, ok skemti vel kvæðum ; ok orti góð kvæfii' ; ok þá laun 
fyrír litanlandz. Hann var ok góðr viðtakna ei vinir hans sendu 
hónum vandræðaraetm, ok seldi ^ jafnan vel sér af hendi. Hrólfr 
• hét maðr er bjó á Skálmaraesi undir Mdla ; haim var vinr góðr 
t>orgiIs, ok var þingmaðr hans, lögmaðr mikiU, ðk fiSr mjök með 
sakir. Hann var ok sagna-maðr ok orti skipuliga ; vcl fjár-eigandi, 
ok átti gótt bú. Þórðr b^t maör, hann bjó f Hvammsdal', ok átti 
þat land Þorgils Oddason. Þórðr var félítiU, ok var kallaðr Rufeyja- 

' Siuiu aiiil Snerii, TctlDin. * Rejkjancti] thoi Cd. ■ ÍSn] ihgi veliani. 
* Heic endi the Bnt vellum leaf. * hónnm] til, add. H. * Artci ' gút kraði,' 
add. Br. — ok götai hina ijilfr. ' Kldi] emend. ; lendi, Cd. * HTwnmtdal] 
thui Bi. ; GudMhl, i. e. QtTftiil, H. 


ni7.] K)RGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 3, 4. 9 

skáld, af þvf at hanti hafSi þar lengi verít áðr. Skip þat stóð uppi 
I Dögurfiarnesi, cr átti Bergþórr Másson; hann seldi Má son 
stnn til fóstrs Þörði, ok ðz Már þar upp, ok þá flla góðan vifir- 
göming; ok at nestlokum vinnr Már á Þórði fóstra sínum mjök, 
ok hleypr sfðan til Hafiiða Mássonar frænda sfns, ok tók hann 
við hðnam. En Þorgils ferr með eptirmálit. Ok er þar löng frá- 
BÖgn um málaferli þessi ok tilgaoga. Ok er þetta sagt uppbaf 
mála þeirra i'orgils ok Hafliða Mássonar. 

4. Maðr sá fæddisk upp f BreiðaSrði er öláfr hét ok var Hildis- 
son. Faöir bans varð sekr skógarmaðr ; en sveinninn var færðr til 
féránsdðms ok görðisk ' at fjðrðungs-ómaga ok héraðs-fara um 
Breiðafjörð; ok ferr svá fram unz hann var tðlfvetra. Hann var 
heldr óvænn maðr ok nökkut kjötvaxinn, hærðr vel, ok fé)! mjök 
hárít f lokka. 14 var hann talinn af þessi vist, ok var þá Iðngum 
með Þorgilsi á Staðarhóli. Hann átti fátt í fémunum, ok bross 
nökkur átti hann, ok var óhraklegr at klæðum ; eina fata-kjstu ok 
öxi mjðk góða. Hann leitar þá við Þorgils hvert ráð hann sæi 
helzt fyrir hónum liggja. Hann svarar ; kvað þat vænst, at hann 
færi norðr á Strandir ok aflaöi þar fjár ; sagði þat margra manna 
úðvenju. Sfðan fór hann norðr á Strandir með gagn sftt, ok kemr 
niör 1 Avfk til Hneitts. Þess er við getið, at Már Bergþórsson 
vekr ú\ við Þorstein, ef hann mundi vera á skipi meö hónum : ' Þú 
ert' [segir haim] 'maðr bægr viðreignar, en þyrfla ek þess mannz 
mest.' Hann sagði : ' £k hefi lengi verit með Hneití, ok hefir mér 
gótt til hags orðit, ok er mér nauðbreytt' um þat.' Már segir, 
kvazk ok ætla, at hann mundi vel við hann lúka ; ok sækir mjök 
eptir. Ok þar kemr, at Þorsteiim neitar eigi skipvist með Mávi. 
Þá skorar hann ' til mjök, ef Hneitir legði leyfi til, at t^>rstdnn 
réðisk frá skipi hans ok í sveit meö hónum. Hneitu* sagði : 
' i>ykkir hónum einsætt at skilja við mik P' Már segir : ' t^ lætr 
hann * ni! at hðnum þykki þat ekki afðr ' hent.' Hneitir segir liann 
ráöa mundu. Ok skilja at þvt Öláfr Hildisson vekr til við Hneiti, 
ef bann mætti veita bónum skipun. Hann sagði, at hann hefði 
ráðtt menn til skips slns, en sagði [at] Már hefði enn eigi ráðit 
fnlla skipun. óláfr svarar : ' tttt sem okkr hefir at orðum orðit, þá 
verðr m^r sá maðr torsóttr ; vilda ek nú at þú vekðir til fyiir mfna 
hðnd.' Hann hét þvf ; ok vekr sfðan til við Má ef hann vildi Caka 

' fötlKik] RidgöiT? ' □auðbnj'lt] H.; vindbicytl.Br. (better?). * 'hann,' 
i.c. Mtr. ' lupn] Bt.; tlm, H. ' tltr] Br.j lút dú, H. 



við Öláfi. Már \ézk vilja tala við manninn áðr hann h^ti hónuiii 
Ekipun. Sfðan kemr Hneitir máli þeiira saman, ok ræfir öláf til 
skipunar við Mi. Már frétti : ' Hvar eru veiðarfEerí þfn eðr vistir? 
er þat sfðr manna at f% sér slfka hluti ' áðr sér taka skipun.' Hann 
sagðisk ekki hafa þeirra hluta. Már sagðisk eigi mundu við þeim 
mönnum taka er svá fólslega hafa búit slna ferð ; kvazk ok þann 
veg á hann Iftask sem honn mundi glxpamaðr nökkiuT vera. 
Hneitir átti nú hlut f, at hann varai hónum eigi skipunar, en hann 
ráði mjQk sjálfr fyrir kostum. Már segir, at hann mundi eigi við 
hónum taka, nema hann ynni hónum allt, ok hann réði kaupi hanð. 
Ok þann kost tekr Öláfr upp ; ok rézk hann f skip með Mávi. 
Þat er eitt sinn um sumaiit, at óláfr er óslyngr við þat er hann 
skyldi gðra ; enda þiggr Már ílla. Verðr opl þeirra f miUum at 
standa um sumarít ; kemr þar svá, at Öláfr svarar flla ; en þó fi 
þeir mikit fang ; ok koma f Avík at hausti til Hneitis. Pí vekr Öláfr 
til hvat hann skulí kaups hafa. Már sagði hann ekki hafa munu, 
ok kvað hann einskis verðan. Öláfr svarar, kvazk opt hafa góða 
menn heim sóct, ok kvað ölJum vel hafa tii sln orðit öðrum enn 
hónum;-ok kvað hann f mesta lagi ór slnni aett; sagði öngan 
mundu við sik jafn-flla lokit hafa. ' Heyr á endemi I ' segir Már, 
' ok eru þat mikil 6m ef ek skal taka af þér ÍU orð. ' Sfðan tekr 
Már allt upp fyrír Öláfi er hann átti 1 fémunum, bæði kistu hans 
ok klæði, ok svá vápn hans sem annat Oláfr sagöi Hneiti til svá 
biiins. Hann segir [at] Már mundi þat eigi göravilja; ok rœðir 
Hneitir til við Mí, at hann láci rakna fémuni hans ok kistu ; segir 
þó hlut hans yfrít harðan, þó [at] hann missti kaupsins. Már kvað 
eigi tjá hans umræðu um þenna hlut. Hneiti þótti verr ; ok skilja 
við þat. Litlu sfðarr sagði Hneitir Mávi, at vistir hanB mundu þar 
eigi verða lengr at hans leyfi. £n þat var raunar', at Hneiti þótti 
Már gfira of marg-talat við dóttur sfna. Már kvezk eigi hirða 
hvat þeir búkarlar ræddu þar i Ströndum um vistir hana, ok lézk 
þar mundu öngan gaum at gefa. 

6. Öláfr HildisBon ferr á brott ór Avík ok hefir misst alls fjár 
sfns. Hann kemr 1 Saurbæ á Staðarhðl ; ok var þat kveldit, er 
hann kom á Staðarhðl, ósvást veðr ; ok sitr Þorgils bóndi við eld 
ok húskarlar hans. Kemr hann inn Öláfr; ok sér hann Þorgils 

■ illka hlnli] Bc. ; slíkir TÍitir til hlnti, H. ' en þat vat ranDu] en þat m6 

unar, H ; «i þ. Tari. (lök ?) rauur, Br. 



manninn ok kennir, ok býfir hönum þar at vera. Lætr ' fianin ' vita, 
er hann selt hefir vápn sfn ok klæði '. ' Munu vér eigi annars- 
Staðar,' segir Þorgils, ' þurfa veiSiskap at kaupa, en at þér,' ' Verr 
er en því aæti,' segir Óláfr. Hann er þar um nótttna, ok segir 
f>orgiIsi vandræði sfn, ok biðr hann ásjá. Þorgils lætr hann þar 
vera; ok biðr hann hiísrreyju a[ f^ hönum klæði nðkkur. Ok þi 
leitar Óláfr eptir, hvert ráð í*orgils legfti helzt til með hónum. 
Hann sagði, [at] hönum hæfði at leita eptir við Má at hann næði fé 
sfnu. Öláfr sagðisk þess áfúss; — 'ok vænti ek þar ÍUra orða.' 
' Þetta er þó mftt ráð, at þii leitir eptir sæmð þfnni ; en þat sé ek, 
at þik skortir vápn,' — ok fékk Þorgils mikla öxi f hSnd hónum, ok 
sagði : 'Eigi vædr þú ótlugutnannlegr,' sagði hann. Ok skilja at 
því. Ok ferr Öláfr norðr, unz hann kemr f Avík. Þat var ekki 
stð dags. Hneitir var eigi heima, en húsfreyja sat' á palli ; ok 
gengr Öláfr á patlinn tíl húsfreyju. Hón frétti tfðenda. Már lá útar 
í bekk, ok hafði lagt höfuð sftt f kné Rannveigar dóttur Hneitis 
bónda. Hann settisk þá upp er hann heyrði til öláfs, ok hafði 
annan fótinn niðr fyrir bekkinn; hann var í loðkápu; en Óláfr 
sn^r at pallinum litar fyrir hann Má, ok spyrr: 'Hversu máttú, 
Már, eðr hve Ifkar þérí' Hann sagði: 'Hvat mun þik' undir 
vera ? fyrir þat mun þér ganga sem ek mega flla ok mér líki ok 
ílla.' Sfðan mælti öláfr linlegia til, ef hann mundi vilja bæta hönum 
fyrlr fjár-upptökuna ; ok mælti til vel. Már svarar flla, ok sagði 
eigi mundu tjá um orð' eðr tillögur Þorgils Oddasonar. Sfðan 
höggr óláfr til Más, ok verðr þat svððu-sár ok eigi beinhögg. 
Sfðan gengr Oláfr út ; en Már vill hlaupa eptir hðnum ; f^rsteinn 
hle]T)r upp ok heldr Mávi, ok þægir hónum f bekkinn. Már verðr 
ákaflega óðr við, ok lézk t^rstein mundu vilj'a slfkan kost af hónum *, 
ef hann bannafii hdnum at hefha sfn. £n Þorsteinn gaf ðngan gaum 
at orðum hans. W eggjaði Már sonu Hneitis titgöngu', ok hefna 
sfn ; en sveinamir hjjápu ijt ; en möðir þeirra eptir þeim, ok bað, 
[at] þeir hlypi eigi f þetta vandræði. Oláfr ferr nú leiðar sfnnar. 
£n konur bundu sár Más. Hann þiggr þat fUa. Ok litlu sfðarr 
spietlr upp Már, ok at hónum t^rsteini, ok vegr hann ; ok hneig 

' Thiu H, ■ Izti Gtnm ' or ' Rir nu ' ctc. Thc whole ptisage is corrupl. ' þik} 
thni (IC), H, laihet than þai ot þcr, cp. hTit er mik it þvi, Skr. i. iS. ■ am 

«ð] read umiBAar ? < ok lézk — if hAnuni} thui H, ok tieit þariteinn munde 
*il)i t. k. 1. h. ; thould pcthipt bc— ok líit þonteini muDdu vdja (likin koit, etc. 
* K>nu — útgongv] emcTu]. ; >on Hn. al út ganga, H. 



l>orstcinn f faðm móður sínnar. Ok [litlu BÍðair] kom HDeitir 
heim ok rak þegar Má á brott, ok kvaö mart fllt af hónum standa. 
' Þat mun nú ok vera at simii,' sagði Már, ' en Iftinn gaum væntír 
mik at ek gðra at orðum þfnum um þat.' Sfðan fór Már á fund 
Hafliða fraenda afns, ok sagði hónum víg Þorsteins, ok þar at allan 
atbnrö eptir þvf sem mála-vöxtr slóð til. Hafliöi \ét llla yfir verkinu, 
ok kvað Má lengi hafa verít mikinn ðnytjung, ok kallaði slíka mean 
helzt mega heita Irænda-skömm. 

6. Nii er þar til máls at taka, at Hneitir bóndi ór Avík ferr til 
fundar við Hailiða Misson. Hafliði tók vel við Hneiti, ok sagði 
at hann vildi bæta óbapp bróður-sonar síns, ok léik gjalda mundu 
fyrir víg t>orgteins tíu hundruð þri^a álna aura; 'Eðr ella fylgi 
mér lil handa hði taans, ok mun ek annask ; eðr at öðnmi kosti 
taktú viö fé.ok ómegð." Hneiti líkar vel ummæli Hafliða; ok 
dvetzk þar nökkurar nætr. f annan stað er at segja frá þvf, at s& 
maðr kom til fundar við Má, er Hrafn hét, ok var kenndr við 
móðuT sfna, ok kallaðr Finngerðarson, mikill ok sterkr, ódæll, ok 
mesti landz-ofríngi. Peii bera ráð sfn saman, ok mælti hann Már : 
' Hvar vildir þlí helzt fyrír þfnu ráði sjá ?' Hrafn mslti : ' t>at væri 
tnér skapfellzt, at vera með þeim mönnum ei ódælir menn værí ok 
kynstórír, ok veita þeim eptirgöngu.' Már mæltí : ' Slfkir menn 
væri mér vel hcntir sem þú ert.' Hrafn sagði : ' Þat verör yðr 
stundum, at þ^r látið mikillega ; en þá er rfkra manna orð koma 
til yðar, þá eru þér þegar limhlaupa.' Már sagði : ' Vel er slfkt 
mælt, en eigi ætla ek þat enn heldr fyrír mér.' Þeir fara nú til 
Avfkr báðir saman, ok bjoggu þar búi Hneitis meðan hann var 
heiman ; ok gðra þat ráð, at Már leggsk með dóttur bónda, en 
Hrafn með húsfreyju. Hneitir frétti nú hvat þeir hafa til tekit. 
Hann bregðr við skjótt, ok ferr heimleiöis, sniiðigt ok þó leynilega, 
ok vii! stræta þá árdegis. Vóru þar saman ' nökkurir menn. En 
þá er Már veit, at Hneitir mundi heim koma, þá hefir hann vörðu 
i sér ; ok biðr þann sama morgun, er Hneitis var heim ván, at þdr 
skyldu standa upp, ok bfða hans eigi heima. Ganga sfðan til 
árinnar; hón var opin ofan eptir miðju en hðfuð-fsar at útan. 
Hann Már hleypr yfir ána, þvfat hann var bæði knár ok fótmjúkr ; 
ok jafnt f þvf er bann Hrafn vill eptir hónum hlaupa, koma þeir 
Hneitir at, ok hðggr hann Hrafn framan á þjóknappana, ok fellr 

' killaðir add. Bc. above thc line. 


1117-] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, ð, 7. 13 

hann við sárít áfram. Sfðan taka þeir hann ok flytja til lækningar. 
Már ferr nii leiöar sfnnar til þess er faann kemr til Jönindar f Odd- 
bjarnar-ejjar, ok lætr góðvettlega; tnðr Jörund þar viðrtðkii, ok 
hann tekr við hónnin. Ok þá beiöir Már at þeir skyldu sækja 
eptir gagni hans f Avfk. Jörandr kvazk önga óþektar-fiir vilja 
fara til Hneitia. Már sagði, at þeir væri sáttir. Sfðan ferr Jörundr 
með Mávi, ok koma til Avíkr snemina um morguninn. Már mælti 
til JGnindar : ' Nii mun ek ganga inn, en þú bfð mfn liti.' Gengr 
þá Már inn. Hncitir hvflði, ok spyrr hverr þar gengi. Ok eptir 
málinu hfi^r hann Már. Hneitir sprettr upp ok tók t hSnd sér 
tré-kefli, ok hleypr á gólfit ; en Már hðggr í tréit ; ok kippask þcir 
um lengi. Pí kaUaði hann Már: ' Skömm er þér þat, Jönindr, at 
fara svá með manni, at standa hjá, en menn vinna á mér.' Sföan 
hleypr Jömndr inn, ok höggr Hnciti þegar bana-hfigg. Eptir þat 
ganga þeir út. Ok þá mælti Már : ' Þú ert glæpamaðr mikill, ok 
óhappa-fullr, drepit ' saklausan mann, góðan bónda ; göri ek betr 
enn vert [er] ; er ek drep þik eigi ; ok vertií i brott sem skjótast ; 
en ek mmi sækja á ftmd Hafliða firænda mfns.' Jönmdr fór tíl 
skips sfns. Ok er þat frá hónum sagt, at veðr kemr at hónum, ok 
týnisk hann. Már ferr á fiind Hafliða, ok segir hónum hvat f hafði 
görzt Hann lætr mart fUt af hónum standa, ok kallar hann mjðk 
segjask ór sfnni ætt. £n fyrir frændsemis sakir þykkisk bann eigi 
mfega við hans mál' skiljask. 

7. Þorgils Oddason átti för norðr á Strandir, sem opt var vanði 
hans til. Björg ok synir bennar fara á fimd Þorgils ok biðja hann 
Ifta á sfD mál. Nenna nú eigi at sækja á fund Hafliða, meat fyrir 
þvf, at Már var þar fyrír, ok þðtti sér vera skapraun f þvl. t'orgils 
kvað sér eigi vera skylt at sjá á þat mál, er hlut áttu f þingmenn 
Haflifia. Hön sækir eptir mjök. Ok er Þorgils sér þat, þá segir 
hann, at henni muni harðir eina kostir ' á görvir, ' Þvfat eigi mun 
auösótt þykkja, at sækja Hafliða málimi. £k mun gjalda tðlf 
bundnið vaðmála fyrir vfg Hneitis, en ek mun þat hafa er af fæsk 
af málinu við þá Hafliða.' Ok á þat sættask þan. £n þá er 
Hafliði fréttir þetta, þá þykkir hónum málit verr snúisk hafa enn 
hann vænti ; sagði þetta öngva sæmö fyrir vig Hneitis, ok kallar 
þau gört hafa vanda-laust til sfn; ok kvazk ætla, at meirí sæmö 
mundi hann hafa fyrir hugat. l>orgiIs býr mál þetta tU Alþingis. 

' drelrit] etnead. ; drepr, H, Br. * vib hini mtt] emeod. ; mAI vijt hann, H, 

Br. * cmi koitir] thnt H. 


14 STURLUNGA SAGA. II. [a. d. 

Hafliði b^r ok mál á hendr Öláfi Hildissyni ; hann var þi með 
Þor^i á SuðaihólL Ok rlða þeir Hafliði ok I>orgila til þinga 
báðir með þenna mála-tilbúnað. £n áðr Þorgils ríðr heiman, sendir 
hann Óláf suðr á Eyrar til handa þeim xaaiuú er Áuú hét, ok var 
kallaðr Qöniskeifr ; hann hafði veril heima-maör Þorgils um vetrínn; 
hann átti þar skip uppí sCandanda, ok sá maðr annarr er Hermundr 
hét t>orvaUdzsoD, bróðir tvSrðar i Vatzfirði. Þeir höfðu báðir veric 
f útfbrum með Jórsala-Sigurði, ok vöni þeir sföan félagar. Ok 
sendir Þorgils Arna orð, at hann flytti Öláf útan. ' £k þykkist 
gli^gt sjá,' sagði Þorgils, 'hverau mil þetta mun fara; þú mimt 
verða sekr, en ek mun leita um sættir, ok bjóða Íé dl famingar 

8. Snorrí hét maðr, er kallaðr var Mág-Snom; hann bjó í 
Saurbse fyrir Múla'num neðra; hann átti Hallbeni dóttur Snorra 
Þórðaraonar, Sturlusonar, bróðm-dóttur Þðrtðar er átti HafliÖi 
Másson. Grímr hét son þeirra, ungr ok aeinlegr. Snorri átti 
vel íé, ok hafði selför i Svínadal þar sem nil heita Snorrasuðir. 
Hann druknaði f Sælíngsdals-á þar sem [nú] heitir Snorra-vað. P& 
fór Sighvatr Úlfsson, mágr hans, at leita Ifksins ok þeir fimm saman ; 
ok tók þá snæ-skriða, ok fónisk þeir þar allir. £n er Öláfr fór af 
Staðarhóli ok suðr til Eyra, þá Cók hann hest fyrir Snorra ^ Mdla, 
þviat hann nennti ílla at ganga; ok riðr unz hann kemr til fiindar 
við Ama; ok tckr hann við hónum, ok lætr hann vera þar á ÍauD. 
Nú eru menn í^jrgils komnir [dl þings] ok er leitað um sættir 
millum þeirra höfðingjanna, ok segir Þorgils, at hann vili * þessu 
máli eigi með kappi fylgja, ok kvazk meira hafa gört fyrir órlausna 
sakir ok btena-stað fhendanna. Hafliði tekr ok svá á um máUt, 
sem eigi mundi varnað bótanna; ok dregr þó hvárr-tveggi mjök 
sílt má!, fram, — Þorgila um vlgit Hneitis, góðs bónda ok fhenda 
sfns, en Hafliöi um áverkana við Má. En þó verða þessi mála-lok, 
at t sætt var slegit ; ok skulu þar gjaldask þrtr tigir hundraða fyrir 
vfg Hneitis, en ix hundruð fyrir áverka við Má ; ok sckð Ölifs Blfk, 
at hann skal leita við útanfbr þrjú sumur, ok varða eigi bjargir 
hans. Hann skyldi vera eykn f förum með Þorgilst, ok t landeign 
hans, en sekr fuUri sekð annarstaðar. Haflifii greiddi Þorgilsi fé 
sem ákveðit var, vfgs-gjöld eptir Hneiti. P&* vóru kveðnar vlsur 
þessar: — 

' vill] vili, H, Br. ■ þ&] þú, H : t"[ am, Br. 


11.«.] iORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 8, 8. 15 

Viib HaBiftÍ hundruð tuppvitum [lotgldi 
(>& Tu-a ' vep aé vegftu' vildi) þrjli tigi gjalili : 
Sátl TU fögA i (unui ilífc nicðil giifgra ýu; 
hl^iiit Od<h-Kmr tun Iti it Slnnda-Hneili. 
Vuð Hiflifii af hdndum hrÍDg-baldr tögu gjalda 
(djatfr litk Odda-aifi eaa Haflifiii) þTernia: 
j&tt) lUtam Uttmn iTeit eplii Stnnda-Hueiti ; 
afieki knani at nnna allTÍium þorgUi. 
Lét UafliAi aT húndiun Uneitii gjfild á StröndDm; 
diútt TacS Odda-acfi áSi a( mikla hTicG: 
Rej'iidiik ■eggrínn iTÍniii (ilikt he£r öld i minni ; 
a gSií'g opt mefi nnoi) it igxtÍMiialiui. 

8. Nú er at segja frá þvf, at þeir kaupmenniiiir bjöggusk á 
^yram, ök öláfr Hildisson var þar á laun með Ama fjöniskeir. 
Þeii báru nú út um dagion vöni síua. öláfr gengr ÚC i skip, ok 
hafði hött slðan á höfði. Hemiundr stýrimaðr görír at Ifta mann- 
inn, ok snýr at bónum ok spyrr : 'Hverr ertií?' sagðihann. Hónum 
verðr staðr at svara. [Hennundr segir] : ' Hvárt ertú eigi óláfr 
Hildisson?' ok hleypr at hónum, ok hrindr hónum af biyggjunni 
& kaf, ok verða aðrír menn aC bjarga hónum, ok fyrír-kveðr hðnum 
fánungina ; ok verðr þeim st^-mönnum þetta at sundr-þykki ; en 
þeygí rjúfa þeir skipun sfna; ok sigla á haf; en Öláfr sitr eptir, ok 
fór veslr til Þorgils ; ok tekr hann vift hónum. f^tta spyrsk nú 
um héruðin at óláfr er meö Þorgilsi ok sitr at Staðarhóli. Már 
Bergþórsson utr nú at HaBiða. Hann ferr heiman vestr til Saur- 
bæjar, ok slæsk f ferð með þeim mömumi er f6ru til sölva-kaupa, 
ok hefir Már frétt af um athafnir Öláfs, ok sitr um ef tund þeirra bærí 
saman. Þorgils fréltir til ferða Mís, ok skipar fyiir sér örendum 
hans, ok mælti slðan til öláfs : ' Hvert ráð muntú taka nú, öláfr ? 
ek hefi spurt at Már fór norðan með þessum mönnum, en haim er 
hvcrgi tíl bœja kominn, ok mun liann sitj'a til hefnda viö þik/ 
öláfr imelti: 'Ek mun þlnum ráðuni fram fara,' sagði hann. 
Þorgils maelci : 'Hér eni blautar mýrar hj'á garði, sem þú veizt; 
þangat sendi ek þik með Ijá at rfsta torf j ok er þeir sjá þik, munu 
þeir þykkjask hafa ráð þftt f hendi ; en verða má at leiðin verði eigi 
svá greíð sem þeir ætla.' Öláfr görir svá. £n l^rgils sendir alla 
karla af bæ, eðr nær svá; ok lœtr þat Epyri'ask, ok svá aChöfn 
öláfs; ok egndi þann veg veiðma fyrír þeim Mávi. Nú frétta þeir 

' rac-a] emend, ; Tai, H, Bi. ■ djtcfi — HafliBi] thu Cd. ; read, djirfr HafliBi 



Már þetta, at ekki var fcarla heima á Staðai-höli; en Öláfr værí á 
Íeið þeirra. H mælti Már : ' Vera má, at oas gefi nú veiíina ; ' 
ok ríða þeir nú á mýrina at óláfi; ok liggja hestarnir dijúgt í 
mýrínni; ok fersk þeim seint ok égreitt. Öláfr víkr heim til 
bæjaríns ; en þeir vildu eptir renna. f þvi kemr heimaii af Staðar- 
hóli ijölði kvenna gyrðar f brækr, ok höfðu sverö í hendi. i^ir 
Már fóni þá af baki, ok ætluðu at henda öláf á hlaupi, er hestunum 
mátti eigi við koma. Ok þá er kómu heiman konumar, soúa þeir 
undan ok vildu til hesta sínna, ok náðu eigí; kómusk á hhtupi 
undan, ok áttu fótum Qör at launa. Þorgils lætr gefa at þeim 
Öngan gaum þaðan frá; ok fara þeir unz þeir kómu norðr tíl 
Hafliða, ok lítt örendi fegnir. Hafliði lét flla yfir fíir þeirm; ok 
kvað þess ván, at Már mundi eigi hafa gæfu við Þorgils : — ' Ok gðr 
þfna fbr aldrí heiman slfka sfðan.' Lfða nú af misserío ok kemi 
annat sumar ; ok er eigi getið at Ölifr leiti til útanferðar. 

10. Yngvildr Þórðardóttir hjó f þenna tfma vestr f fsafirði; hón 
var aufiig at fé ok virðinga-kona ; vai andaðr bóndi hennar; ok 
átCu þau tvær dætr; hét önnur Helga en önnur Hallfrfðr. Þetta 
vár it sama rézk hon vestan á Reykjahóla til Ingimundar prestz, 
ok göra þau félag sftt. Ingimundr var sonr Einars Arasonar, 
systrungr Þorgils Oddasonar. Ingimundr var it mesta gðfugmenni, 
— skáld gótt; ofláti mikill, bæði f skapferði ok aimari kurteisi; 
hinn mesti gleði-maðr, ok fékk mart til skemtunar. Hann var inn 
vitrasti maðr, ok hélt s^r mjök til vinsælða við alþýðu. Hann var 
ok mikils virðr af mðrgum mönnum göfgum. Ok þá er Einair 
faðir Ingimundar andaöisk, þá gaf Ingimundr Þorgilai frænda sfnum 
Reyknesinga-goðorð, sem fyrr var ritað ; ok var þeirra frændsemi 
allar stundir góð meðan þeir lifðu báðir. Um sumarit biðr sá 
maðr Helgu dóttur Yngvildar, er öláfr hét; ok skyidu þau ráð 
takask; skyldi veizlan vera á Hólum um öláfsmessu-skeið um 
sumarít. Ingimundr ok Yngvildr vildu bjóða fyrstum til þessarar 
veizlu ís>rgilsi Oddaayni. Sfðan bauð Yngvildr Þórði t^rvalldzsyni 
órVatzfirði. Hrólfr af Skálmamesi var ok svá at þessarí veizlu, 
ok mart armat gótt mannval'; en þó vóru [þeir] Þorgils ok Þórðr 
mestir virðinga-meim komnir. Nú er mörmum f sæti skipat, ok 
sitr Þorgils á aiman bekk með svat sfna, ok Ingimundr prestr; en 
Þórðr á annan bekk gagnvart't'orgilsi. t>órðr mælti viö fbru-nauta 

' mannTari Bi. ; maniu, H. 


1119.] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFUÐA, 10. 17 


slna: 'Þann vcg segir mér hugr, at nðkkut verði þess at þessi 
veizlu, at ek mynda mik ná heldr annars-staðar kjósa, at þessarí 
manna-skipun sem hér er fjrir; ok gjama vilda ek heldr sitja 
heima f Vatzfirfii, ef ek hefða ivau ráðit ór einu '; ok kann ek cigi 
at vita, nema hér sé nökkurir fyrir óvinir várir ; ok þætti mér allt 
betra undir mér at eiga en þeim.' Förunautar hans sögðu : ' Miklu 
eru hér fleirí góðir menn saman komnir, cn hér muoi né ein flærð 
eðr svæla * til nOkkurs mannz gör ; mmi ok eigí annarr maðr meírí 
virðingar-ÍÖr hingat eiga en þá, annan enn Þorgils Oddason"; 
eru ok * fyrir-menn þessarar veizlu eigi annars mannz vinir meiri 
en þfnir.' Þórðr kvaS þat svá vera ; ok görir sik glaðan. Eplir 
þat fara borð fram ; ok er setið þröngt á bekkjum ok forsætum. 
t>ar vóru bæði tilfting gó^ ok [g]nóglig, ok gengu ósparlega ; skorti 
ok eigi drykk góðan. Þá ræddi Ingimundr prestr, at Þorgils 
skyldi mæla fyrir minnum. Kn hann vetk lil Þórðar, ok bað hann 
r&ða bvert minni fyrst væri drukkit f'örðr var þi kátr vel; ok 
mælti við Ingimund prest, at ntikkurr vilðis-manna ætti at hefja 
gildit; en kvazk undir mundu standa meö þeim um hverja gleði er 
þeir vildu fraœ hafa. Drekka þeir nú glaðir ; ok rekkir þá brátt 
drykkrinn. Þórðr var eigi mikill drykkju-maðr, nökkut vangæft 
um fezluna, sem at opt kann verða þeím er vanbeilsu kenna ; þvfat 
maÖrínn var þá á öfra aldrí, ok var þó enn hraustr, en kenndi 
nökkut innan-meins, ok var því eigi mjök svá mathcill, ok nökkut 
vandblœttr' at éta slátr, þvfat hann blés svá af sem hann hefði 
vélendis-gang, ok varð þá nökkut andramr. Þórðr var mikil-úöligr 
maðr; eygðr vel, ok lágu vel augun, fram-snoðinn, ok stryhærðr, 
sá upp mjök, ok ríðaði Ifttat Þeir drekka nú ákaft, ok fær á þá 
alla nðkkut ; görask nú málgir ; ok má kalla, at hvcrr styngi annan 
nökkurum hnæfil-yrðum ; ok er þó fStt hennt af ' þeirra keski-yrðum 
í þessarí fTásögn. t>ess er getið, at Ingimundr prestr laut at sessu- 
naut sínum, ok mæki við hann svá sem hinn spyrði : — 

' tlri6an lccDdir þcf þmiw ? ' ' þúrSr indai nú handiD.' 

Ðk verðr at hlátr mikfll ; ok er næsta gCrr a[t] þessu gyss mikilL 
Ok er þvf léttir, þá kveðr t>örðr f mót :— 

*Aiidi er Ingimuadii, tkki gMr i, bckkion.' 

' tTiD— einD} thui Br. ; to ridid ur «iiui, U (doolitfgl). * ivEla] tbni H, Br. 

' aniUR— Odduoii] <an. H. ' cni ok] dgi, tiá. H, Bi. * vandblEltr] tliiii 

cDiend. ! vindblnt, H. Br. (cp. B>. i. 394 ; Dict. 666). * >f] Í, H. 



[I. Jl;i.lj.] 
Ok af þessum áköstum tekr heldr at grána ' gamanit, ok koma kvi6- 
lingar við 3vl. W var þetta kveðit til l*órðar : — 

Ryrii* i biTka ilkii-miiiiii ; 
gliUi ikillina vií i goti ySium. 

Hér hlær tNSrfir mjök at þessum kviðlingi, ok kveðr þegar f mót : — 

Viu Miitrar k þuia bekk þtðri>: 
raun-illr görítk þefi »t rofmn * jSruiD. 

Þoi^s brosti nú at, en lagði aldri lil nm ákfistin. Ingimtindr 
mælti, at nökkurr þeirra bekkju-nauta skyldi sjá vfsu' 1 mðt við 
!v5rð. H var þetta kveðit:— 

þat er iri4itifi þÓlt TÍr iqxim 
bd&u-ntutar< af boli-kjölri, 

reptiT {nJTfir |>onraldi taa 
Kjaitaui-ionai af kaiia' lÍDUm. 

Mrðr Iftr' eptir kviðlingi þessum, ok þótti hðnum mjðk bera 
hljóðit þar yfir sem maðr sat á forsætum mjðk þreklegr ok allvel 
hærðr. Þórðr heimtir þá hiísfreyju i tal við sik, ok spyrr hverr sá 
sé lokka-maðrínn, sem sitr á forsæti á bekk l^rgils ; ok visar henni 
til. H6n segir: 'Pax er óláfr Hildisson.' Þórðr mælti: 'Eigi 
munu vit hér báðir sitja at veizlu þessi lengi ; ok sentú hann f brott 
á annan bæ, eðr ellegar mimu véi rfða á brott.' Hón svaraði seint, 
ok mælti svá : ' Sæmð þykkir oss at hérvist þfnni ; ok * eigi kann ek 
þat at mfnu ráði at sjá, at kveðja i brott foriinauta Þorgils; ok 
mun öláfr önga skapraim yðr göra f orðum sfnum.' Nú verða 
aðrir menn nökkut áheyrsla hjals þeirra; ok gpyrr fH^rgits eptir 
hvat þau eigi at hjala; en hön segir hónum; ok biðr Þorgils með 
vægð, at hann láti öláf á brott fara, svá eigi yrði beina-spjöll. I>á 
svaraði Þorgils : ' Svá var Oláfi sykn mælt, at hann skal sykn mcðr 
mér, en sekr ef værí annars-staöar; þvl mun ek öngan senda mfnna 
manna til bana ; en Þórðr göri um brottreið sfna sem hann vill ; en 
öláfr mun hvergi fara ; ok munu véi láta vel vært við Þórð.' Þá 

' giina] giUna, U, Bi. ' lyiii] Tfiii, H, Bi. ; bcttci ncrii, L e. h nart, 

rimUt. ' þaSia] eniend.; þa&an, Cd. ' raDn-fllr— ropuni] thus H ; bmnill 

— hiðpuin, Bi., V, tndlf. ' TÍiq} »dd. by coojecture ; q>. ijí ei6a it e-m (Ditt. 

ijá A. II). * báSa-Dantai] búío annaí, H. ^ of kina] thui by a lUght 

emendation ; *,( kana ifnum, H, Bf . ; kani or kanai meant a aip, tm, ludnrd, aiid 
occDTi, beaidea heie, in Band. MS., wbeie it ii hovrever niÍMpeU tani \t= c). * liti] 
cmend. ; liti, K, Bi. * ok] Ibiu; cd7 



■ 119.) í-ORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 10. 19 

atígr Þórðr undan borði, ok bHs viö mæðUega, en nueld ekki. Þá 
var þetta kvefiit: — 

Æiti * upp ót biiðiti it&ng (un itg laogMi 

bcfiju* Böiu' niSJK billingi hviÍD Dli. 

AIIi< tók s&t, þ4 « mir idtt-líaaa' blé( imun. 

(þjiiB di þefr I bdftiun) þÍDgh^r of nef Sngnim. 

Ekki er þess getið, at fórfir andærti þessarí vísu. Ok gengr hann 
ok allir hans menn á brott ; ok er þeim grddd vápn sfn ok klæði ; 
ok rfða þeir á broit, ok á annan bæ um nöttÍDa. En þá er Þórfir 
gékk út, þá var þetta kveðit:— 

OoSinn rcpti wi, »t vér genguniik hji — 
itðfi i hnakka hf— bren maSr kvafi, fý t 

£r svá sagt, at Þórðr væri með þessum kviðlingi út leystr. En 
ekki er getiö, at neitt yrði at gjöfum viö hann. En Þoigils sitr nú 
eptir ok fbnmautar hans, ok svá bníðgumi ok bofismenn; ok 
þykkir þeim fbrunautum Þorgits nœsta íbrozlegt ' um brott-reifiina 
þeirra Mrðar. I>ar var nú gtaumr ok gleði mikil ok skemtan góS, 
ok margs-konar leikar, bæði danzleikar ^, gilmur ok sagna-skemtan- 
Þar var sjau nætr fastar ok fullar setið at boðinu; af |>vf at þar 
skyldi vera hvert sumar öláfs-gildi, — ef kom gæti at kaupa, t\au 
mjbl-sáld, á Þómess-þingi, — ok vóru þar margir gildia-bræðr '. 
A Reykjahólum vóru svá góðir landz-kostir f þann llma, at þar 
vóru aldri ófrævir akramir. En þat var jafnan vani, at þar var | 
nýtt mjöl ball til beina-bótar ok ágætis at þeirrí veizlu, ok varj 
, gildit at Óláfs-messu hvert sumar. Frá þvi er nökkut sagt, er þó 
er Iftil tilkváma ', hverir þar skemtu eðr hverju skemt var. Þat er t ''*• T**^ 
frás^ haft, er nú mæla margir 1 mót, ok látask eigi vitafi hafa, 
þvfat margir ganga dulðir ins sanna, ok hyggj'a þat satt er skrökvaö 
er, en þat logit sera satt er : Hrólfr af SlEálmamesi sagfii sögu frá 
Hrðngwfii. vlkin gi ok frá Öl^fi Liðsm anna - konun gi . ok haug brot i 
ÞrAins berserk a. ok Hrómund i Grip^^i, ok margar vfsu r með r. 
En þessarí sCgu var skemt Sverri konungi ; ok kallaði hann slíkar 
lygi-sðgur skemtilegastar. Ok þó kunnu menn at telja ættir sfoar 
til Hróraundar Grípssonar. Þessa sögu hafði Hrölfr sjálfr saman- 

' BMl] ■ita.Br. * beSJD] cmend.j biidin, Br. ■ BöMi] t.e. Bun; Bem. 
Cd. * lUr] «meDd. ; allt, Cd. * Thiu Br.. doubtAil. * ibrrolegi] I. e. 

ibratfligl,tlM>Hi ibrotligt.Bi. : i.e.(iíni^ Thii word iian dr.Xir. ^ bcði 

dimleikar] om. H. * braðr] bbt., i. e. brxít, Br. ; gildir bendr, H. ' er þó cr 
Util tilkrima] tbni by Eonj. ajllnmgh itbt a tmall inddtal (lee Dict.. >. t. tilkvima 
1, Fbc. l|0)i er þo er litiB lilkami, H; ei þolt litið til komi, Br. 




setta. Ingimiindr preatr sagði sí^ Oirns Barre yj ar-skál dz, ok 
vfaur mar gar ; ok flqkk g óðan yiö_enda_sÖguniiar, er Ingimundr 
hafði ortan. Ok hafa þvi' margir fróðir menn þessa sögu fyrir 

IL A því hausti [inuj sama keypti Þorgils Oddason Múla-land at 
Grfmi Suorrasyni ok móður hans. Ok með þvf [é kaupa þau 
Tungu-land í Svfnadal, ok biía þó í sama stað þessi misseri. Nú 
takask leikar upp f Saurbæ *, ok sækir Grfmr leik á Staðarhól; ok 
eigaak þeir leika við opt, óláfr Hildisson ok Grfmr Snorrason. 
óláfr er góftr leikmaðr ok harðleikinn ok kappsamr ; en Grímr var 
[eigi] aEmikill ok linr, ok þó ákaEega sækinn; ok verðr hann 
þvf opt vanhluii ok hraklegr fyrir Óláfi ; ok leggja þeir á ofan gár 
ok gys. Grfmr ræCir, at þeim væri þat Iflil-menska, at göra hann at 
athafnar-manni, ok göra leika til hans. Þeim þótti þcss at brosligra, 
ok réðusk Öngar bætr á at heldr. t>á ferr Grimr heiman ok suðr 
yfir heiði í Sælingsdals-tungu. Í>ar bjó Mir prestr t'onnóðarson 
frændi Hafliða Mássonar; ok sagði Grímr hónum hvat tftt var. 
Már bauð Grfmi meö sér at vera um Jólin, ok mælti : ' Ek mun 
fara norfir á bak Jólum til Hafliða frænda mfns, ok far þú þá með 
mér norðr þangat, ok seg þú bónum þá til vandræða þfnna.' Þetta 
þekkisk Grfmr, ok er hann þar fram um Jó). Ok fara sfðan norðr 
á bak Jðlum. Ok koma nú til Hafliða, ok eru þar gððar við- 
tökur. Var þar mannljölði mikill ok gleöi góð. Þeir áttu opt 
hjal sfn f mllli, Hafliði ok Már piestr. Ok þá er þeir bjöggusk 
f brott, þá leiddi Hafiiði þá á götu, ok mælii vel við þá at skilnaði. 
Ok þá spurði Már Grfm, hversu hðnum hefði þar hugnat. Hann 
tót vel ySr — ' Ok hér hefi ek svá verit,' segir Grfmr, ' at mér hefir 
bezt þótt ; ok vel værí sá maðr kominn er hér skyldi lengi vera ; en 
fleira ætlaða ek at mæla við Hafliða en orðit hefir.' ' Hverf þú 
aptr þi,' segir Már, ' ok mæl við Hafliða slfkt er þér sýnisk ; af þvf 
at hann tók ávallt vel þfnu máli.' Grfmr hvarf þi aptr ; ok kallar 
hann þá i Hafliöa; ok veik hann aptr f móti hðnum ok fagnar 
bónum ; ok segir Grimr at hann vill ræða viö hann. Ok setjask 
niðr; ok sagði Grimr hvat þrir ætti um at vera vestr þai f sveit- 
unum, ok þat með at hónum hugnafiisk eigi; kvazk þvf hafa 
þangat sótt erviðliga lun langan veg, at hann vænti fyrir fiænd- 
semis sakir þar nökkurrar ásjá ; sagði öngan veita gér slfkan ágang 

< þvl] Bm.; þd, H, Br. ' Siuibx] Bm.; Incnum, H, Bi. 


iuo.] tORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 11. ai 

[I. íS:l-M.] 
sem öláf Hildisson. ' Skil ek hvat þú segir,' sagði Hafliði, ' en 
cígi vil ek eggja þik fram til önýtra hluta; en halda mmi ek þik 
sem gon mlnn, hvat sem þér bersk á hendr.' Sfðan stfgr Grfmr & 
hest sfnn, ok biðr Haðiða vel lira. Kemr nú Grfmr beim vestr 
f Saurbæ. Ok nú talca þeir at gabba hann ; ok segja nú, at hann 
haíi Uaupit undan leíkum ok þoiat eigi vi5 at verða. Hann gefr 
at þvf öngan gaum ; ok Ifðr gvá áfram á Langa-fÖstu. tMrgils átti 
heiman-fbT; ok ræðir við Öláf; segir svá, at hann vill at Ölá& sé 
jafnan heima, ' f*ví at þat > mun þá nðkkut vandara [en] þá (er) 
ek em heima. Pú skalt ok einnig geyma ÍHX)ssa mfnna.' Hann 
sagði ok sína heim-ván f efstu viku Föstu. Lfðr nú stundin, ok 
kemr tvsrgils eigi heim. öláfr vinnr heima i. bænom þat sem 
hónum var bofiit. Þat er sagt, þá er kemr at Ðimbil-dögum, þá 
sækja menn þangat fjöimennt tíffir. Skírda^s-morgin þá var Grfmr 
komisn, ok gékk at tiðnum öláfi eptir nátt-aöng ok mælti, ' Skaliú 
nökkut geyma hrossa Þorgíls? aú eni þau t vóru landi, ok er 
enginn gaumr at gefinn.* öláfr svaraði : ' Við mik mun þat metið, 
ok ek skal ok eptir fara.' Ganga sfðan báðir saman, ok hefir Öláfr 
öxí f hendi en Grfmr staf. H mælti öláfr : ' Övarlega ferr ek nú, 
er ek geng einn saman úti á nóttum með þér ; en með okkr er 
hcldr ótítt; ok veit eigi hvar manni mætír, eðr hverju heilli 6t 
gengr.' Grfmr svaraði : ' Ekki er nil tiættilegt um, ek hefi sprota f 
hendi, en þú hefir öxi ; ok þat he(i ek á fundit, þótt vit værim jafn- 
biSnir, at þér mundi vit eigi Ifkt víglegir þykkja.' Óláfr segir : ' Vit 
skulum þat nú niðr leggja, er menn eigu saman f leikum, ok eru 
nú þær tfðir, at eígi þarf á slfkt at minnask.' Fara nú báðir saman 
til Laxár ; ok hefir þar fjölði hrossa gengit um vetrinn á mýrunum. 
Vill Öláfr henda hross I^^rgils, ok vill slá beisli við hestinn ; en 
Grfmr samnar at hrossunum öðmm, ok á götuna. Hestrínn göiisk 
órór er hann s^r önnur hrossin, ok fær Öláfr varla haidit hestinum. 
Ok f sveiðum * hestzins fellr niðr öxín ór hendi hónum. Þá gei^ 
Grúnr þangat at, ok þiffr upp Öxina, ok veitir Óláfi bana-sár ; 
ok rfðr heim sfðan ; ok þykkisk þó þat fyrir sjá, at eigí muni þar 
vist hans vera mega tölu-verðar stundir; ok ferr hann þegar af 
skyndingu norðr yfir heifli til Bitni, ok svá inn Cil Hnltafjarðár, ok 
kemr t^ttdaginn fyrir Páska til fundar við Hafiíða, ok tekr hann 
við hónum vel. Ok eptu Páska-viku sendir Hafliði Grfm austr 

' þat] rcad þéit ' tveiBuni] thui H, Bi. Thc woid ii an Í: Aty. ; treiðuin 
peih. bcing • iTnruni ol nifimim mHHgiiigt. 


aa STURLUNGA SAGA. K. [a.d. 

[I. i6:] 
í Fjðrðu, f Hofsteig til Fiimz Hall^nai Iðgsögu-mannz. Hum 
harði áu HaUdlsi dóttur Bergþón Missonar brófiur Haflifia. Ok 
kemr Finnr hónum dCan. Ok þá cr Grlmr kemr út, staðfestisk 
hann austr þar 1 Fjðrðunum, ok þðtti vera mannhofnar-maðr ; ok 
varö v^^ af húskarli slaum. 

12. Nii er þat s^, at lik ölárs var beim flutt, ok tjaldat y&r 
1 kirkjU-garðL Ok nm daginn rfðr Þorgils sunnan um heiði, ok 
tekr ái-fanga at f^Srðar Rufeyja-skáldz f Hvammsdal. Þórðr hafði 
ort kvœði um Þorgils, ok var eigi launat. Þorgilsi bafði gefin 
verít Qx góð, ok tekr hann Þórðr til özarinitar ok litr í, ok spjrT 
hvérs þeim þætti verð ösin; en þdr urpo i tvier me^. Þórðr 
kvaö visu : — 

Mctin nuclu tnggÍR n£[ þalti Sncl-legg)t 
gðð ef grunkui mi ; gea j'MiÍ ' mir fni : 
Ok figr-ilcgiD fiila bitlcgi vvM tUa 
tzmSÍ' iji IJTic kTsSí; (leppc möignai ndlcxAÍ. 

t^gils mælti, at Mrðr skyldi taka kndz-leigu undir sjálfum sér, en 
hann sagðisk eigi eiga lóg til öxarinnar'. Ok um daginn kemr 
t'orgils heim ; ok eru hónum sðgð þessi tiðendi ; ok lætr bann grafa 
Ifk öláfs at kirkju. 

13. l^ er sagt : at um várit kom sá maðr til torgils er Ketill h^t ; 
ok skorar i hann til viðtðku ok ásjá. Hann var Vestfirzkr ok 
sekr. f>orgiIs mælti : ' Þú munt verða fátt undir hðfuð at leggjask 
ef ek skal við þéi taka,' segir Þorgils. Ketill mælti : ' £f ek kveð 
nei við þvf er þú villt fjrir mik leggja, þá seg þii mik þéi afhendan ; 
cn cngi em ek* giptu-maðr, ok mun opt verða þfnnar gæfii við at 
njóta, ef vel skal takask.' Nú er hann með Þorgilsi um várit. Ok 
einn dag um várit mælti Þorgils til Ketils : ' Ek vil senda þik norðr I 
Vestrhóp, ok far eigi örindleysu;' ok setti I^rgils ráö fyrir hann, 
at hann skyldi drepa einhvem mann fyrír Haðiða Mássyní. Ketill 
mælti : ' Fara mun ek, en eigi em ek sigr-strangligr,' aagði hann. 
Ok þá var bdin för hanS. Ok er eigi getið nátt-staða hans, fyrr en 
bann kemr i Vestrhðp tíl Hafliða Mássonar, ok berr npp ðrendi 
sln ok vankvæði öll; ok segisk hann vera sekr, ok hefði I^>rgils 
eptir-mál, ok beiddi Hafliða ásjá ok viðtðku; ok var hann þar; 
ok hugnar mðnnum vel til hans. 

■ TÍIM] enend.; Tildir, H, Br. ■ imiN] leiadi, H, Br. ■ eigi eigs tdg 

t. ö.] Ihni enwnd.; eigi löe, H, Br.j i.e. hann vildi ebki 16gi oxinni— i< tsonU 
mt fart aiA ikt mu ; cp. lúg, Dict. 39B, bottom. ' Here bégiu tbc lemai 

Teltuai leaf. 


■iM.] K)RGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 12-16. 23 

n. Í7,i8ti.i6.] 

14. Maðr er nefnðr Steinólfr; hann var Austfirzkr at kyni, ok 
baiSi verit gHn sekr fyiir nðkkurs-konar (Uvirki austr þar f Fjörð- 
unum. Slðan strauk hann i brott ok fór i fiind Hailiða, ok tekr 
bann við hÓDum Steinólfi ok görír hann sfnn heima-mann. Ok 
einn dag um várít er þeím Steinólli ok Katlt skipat til verks 
báðma saman, ok skyldu g6ra upp stekka. Ok fara snemma 
dags heiman, ok hjala matt, ok varask hvárrgi annan ; en verSr 
þó skihiaðr þeirra, at Ketill vegr Steinólf, ok fellir á bann stekks- 
garj^nn. Ok ferr & brott sfðan, ok lýsir vlgi á hendr sér, þar 
(er) bónum var ðbætt Ok ferr slÖan unz hann kemr á Staðar- 
h^, ok segir ðrendi s£n; ok lætr Þoi^Is vel yfir hans firendi, 
ok kvað hann hafa vel farit 

16. Nli ferr tvrim Bðgunum fram : — Þá þykkir þeim í VestrhópÍ 
frestask heimkváma þdrra Ketils ok Steinólfs um kveldit Ok er 
þeim ^t at leita. t>á mælti Hamði : ' Ef svá flla berak at, at þér 
fínnit amian-hvám þeiira andaöan af manna-vCldum, þá görí þér 
ekki tt hónum fyrr en ek kem til; ok kann mart í mðrgu at 
verða." Ok er nú fyrst fiirit at leita til stekkanna; ok finnsk 
Steiniilfr þar, en eigi Ketill, sem Ifklegt var. Uú er g^t Hafliða ; ok 
férr hann skjótt til stekkanna, ok Iftr hann á, ok menn með hónum ; 
ok sji, at kemr höndin ber fram undan torfanni liram fri lilflið. Ok 
þoT letðir Hafliði at vátta, at eigi sé bræit bulið ; ok býr þetla m^ 
til Alþingis, ef nökkut skortir áðr á fhlla sekð Ketils. Þorgils hft 
ok málit um vfgit Ölá& Hildissonar, svá sem hann værí sykn maðr; 
ok íæríT þat til, at hónum værí sd sykna mælt, at hann skyldi sykn 
{ fÖrum með Þorgilai ok f hans landeign. Ok eptir þat Qðlmenna 
nú mjök bvárir-tve^u til t»ngEÍns, ok var leitað um sættir; en 
Hafliði kallar Öláf sekjan hafa fallit, qk drepinn f annarí landeign 
en bónom var sykna mælt Þá innti Þorgils til þess, hvárt eigi værí 
BiS sykna Öláfi mætt, at hann skyldi ' sykn f förum meðr mér, ok f 
landeign mínni.' Ok svá er þá borít Pi mælti Þorgils: 'Hvat 
mcgu þér at þvf kalla Öláf sekjan ? ek kalla mfna landeign allt þar 
sem ek á lönd.' Hafliði mælti : ' £k mun gefa Þoigilsi átta kiigildi 
fyrir metnoð hans ok virðing, ok kalla ek gjöf en alLc ekki gjald.' 
Ok skilr þat með þeim, at öðrum þóui fyrir ekki at gjatda, en 
6ðmm þótti betra Iftið gjald fyrir sökina en eiga gjðf at launa; ok 
þótti þtir hvánim sfn virðing viS liggja, hvárt heldr værí þat kaJlat ; 
ok stóð þat f milli at eigi urðu sættimar. Ok skilðusk með þvf, at 
þá þótti bvámm verr enn áðr. 


34 STURLUNGA SAGA. 11. [a.d. 

Ið. Ht er sagt: at Pétrs-mesau-ikgs-morgin am þingit géngn 
fiokkamir allir tJI kirkju um messu uni Guðspjall, ok stóðn meðr 
vápnum fyrír framan kirkjuna ; ok stóðu slnum-megin kirkju- 
duranna hvárir. Hafliða flokkr stoð fyrir norðan kirkju-dyiT, ok 
þar var hjá Hallr Fáluson; en fyrir aunnan kirkju-dyrr Þórðr ór 
Vatzfirði ok hans sveitungar ; ok þar suðr frá Hallr Teitzson ok 
margir menn með hönum. £n fyrir vestan kirkju, gegnt kirkju- 
durum, stóðu þcir Þorgils Oddason ok Böðvarr Asbjamarson, ok 
þar vöni margir flokkar hjá þetm. t>á mæJti Þorgils Oddason lil 
Böðvars Asbjamarsonar : ' Taka mun nú 6x mín til Hafliða Más- 
sonar,' sagði hann, 'ok mun þá um meira at mæla en um átta 
kiSgiIdi.' Böðvarr mælti : ' Ærr ertií,' sagði hann ; ok fékk nökkut 
svá til hans ; ok mælti harðlega til hans. t^rgils m£^ti : ' Ekki em 
ek œrr,' sagði hann. ' Þetta er salt,' segir Böðvarr, ' Fyrir hvai?' 
sagði Þorgils. Böðvair mælti': 'Eigi llcr þú rétt á; Hygg at þá 
hvar vær eruro komnir, at þetta skal vera s&ttar-fundr við Guð, er 
vér höfum á kirkju-helgi sótt, ok biðjum oss miskunnar. Nú er ( 
þessu ok kirkju-fríð raskat ; ok er þetta fyrir þá sök ódæma-verk. 
HÍtC er ok annat, at yflr stendr dags-helgrín, er vær höfum aHa 
hjálp af hlotið, ok sjálfr Guð almáttigr ]ét sfna mildi ok miskunn 
svá mikla sklna ok birta á þessum deginum. Þat er ok til at telja, 
at gríð ok fríðr er settr um þingit, ok þing-helgrin stendr yfir, ok 
er þetla fyrir þvf it mesta laga-broi.' Ok er þeir höfðu þetta við 
mælzk, þá heptisk hann at þvf, Þorgils ; ok réð hann eigi til Hafliða. 
Ok er þeir géngu heim til biíöa, þá mælci f^jrgils til Böðvars : ' Þat 
mæla menn, at þú aét tnílauss, mágr, ok meðal-lagi góðgjam ; en 
eigi lýatir þú nú því.' Böðvarr mælti : ' Þat er ok satt, er þó segir, 
ok ekki gékk mér tnja til þess er ek latta þik tilræðis við Hafliða, 
heldr hugða ek að fleira en at hjali okkm; ok sá ek, at flokkarnir 
sCóðu á tvær hendr okkr, en vær vórum f kvlnni ; ok s& ek þat, ef 
þetta færi fram, at þegar mundi slá f bardaga, ok myndi hverr várr 
félaga drepinn vera á fætr öðrum. En þvf sagða ek þér þat eigi til, 
at ek kunna skap þftt at þvf, at þú myndir öngan gaum at ge^ ef 
ek fynda þat tiL En ef eigi væri þaC, þá hirta ek aldregi þótt þú 
dræpir hann f kirkju-friði eðr þinghelginni.' Nú biðja þeir hvárír- 
tveggju liðs (il dóma, ok fjölmenna mjök hvárir-tveggju eftir 
fÖngum. Þá tekr Hafliði 6xi f hönd sér, áðr hann gengr frá biið 

■ Bciímr tnrMi] om. Cd. 


iiio.] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIDA, 1«-18. ag 

slnni til dóma ; en þat hafði ekki verít vanði hans fyrr, at göra þat ; 
þvfat hann réð nálega einn jafnan fyrir öllum málum við bverja 
sem at sfcipta var; þvkt Hafliði var bæfii fjSlmennr ok frænd- 
göfugr. H mælti kona hans Rannveig: ' Hvat er Í þessu, Hafliði,' 
sagði hón, 'at bera nú vápn, heldr en fjrr ertií vanr at göra; ok 
hallt þú háttum þfnum.' Hón var vitr kona, ok vel at sér um mart. 
Hann svaraði nökkut stygglega, ok kvað þat ekki til hennar koma, 
ok kastaði at benni nfikkunim ocðum. Þorgíls gékí at dómum 
mefir miklu fjöhnenni, ok hafði fram sðkina um vig öláfs Hildis- 
sonar. Þorgils var svá búinn, at hann var f selskinnz-kofli yfir 
brynjunni útan, ok var gyrðr f brækr, ok hafði ösi sfna í hendi 

17, tess er wð getið, at Þórð Magndsson f Reykjahohi dreymði 7"'' ■ " 
draum um þingit ; var hann þá heima i Reykjaholti. Hónum þótti 

sem maðr kæmi at hónum, ok þöttisk spyria hvaðan hann vsrí 
kominn. Hann sagðisk vera kominn af þíngi. t>órðr þóttisk 
spyrja tlðenda. Hann ðagði þing-kvitt '. Þórðr þóltisk spyrja ef 
nökkur deilu-mál ' vœri framm höfð á þinginu. ' í^t er helzt ný- 
tfðenda,' sagði draum-maðrínn, ' at einn maðr hefir tekizk i hendr 
at vinna f ðllum bdðum ; sá er heitir t'órðr dritloki.' Pórbr léö svá 
draominn, at eigi myndi þar öll mál vel lúkask áðr slití þinginu. 

18. t^t er nú sagt þessu næst : — at Haíliði gékk nú at dóminum 
með fjölmenni mildu, ok vildi hleypa upp dóminum; en þeir 
Þorgils vóni komnir þar í þröng mikla'; reiðir ýmist aptr eða fram 
þröngina. Ok þá er svi hefir gengit mjðk langa stund dags, þá 
ræða margir vitrír menn um, at enn skyldi ieíta um sættir ; ok býðr 
Hafliði in sömu boð sem fyrr hafði hann boBit. Ok vildu menn nú 
til hlýða hvat mælt var ; ok rýmir nii heldr nökkut um þröngina. 
Þoigils lézk eigi nema orð Hafliða ; ok lætr hann reiðask þangat at, 
er liíir menn vóru f miUum þeirra Hafliða. Ok sér hánn f'orgils, 
hvar npp kemr öxin HaQiða; ok þá höggr Þorgils yfir öxl manni, 
ok kemr bðggit á hönd Hafliða Mássonar við öxar-skaptinu, ok af 
tnn lengsta fingrínn með öllu, en f sundr köggulinn f inum minnzta 
fingrí ok þeim er þar er f millum. Ok þá hlaupa menn í millum 
þeirra; ok varð Þorgilsi laus Öxin þá er menn þröngðusk at 
Hafliða. Þorgils þrffr þegar özi mikla ór hendi manni einum f 

' Thui vdlum. þing-lniiu pcrh. meani Thmg-ntm; 'A 'a in Sm. kty. ' dcUa- 

■nál] deilUTCnlig mál, H. * ok er hðn bxði löng ok þröiig, add. relium as it 


26 STURLUNGA SAGA. 11. [a.d. 

D. 3«. 3' ■ 1 i8.] 
fiokki Hafliða; sá h^ Þormóðr, ok var fcallaðr Isknir. Sá iim 
sami Þonnéðr batt hðnd HaAiAa Másaonar, ok gneddi hann svá, at 
fingniir tveir ligu upp 1 Íó£inn ; en hann græddi fyrír stúf ena þríftja 
fingrarins'. En þá er HaSiði hafði fengit áverkana, þá sleit þröng- 
inni *, ok gékí aUr flokkr Hafliða heim til búðar. Ok þá a hann 
gékk inn 1 búðína ' ok þar at sem sat Rannveig kona hans, ok 
mœlti svá : ' Opt hefi ek þat re^nt at ek em vel kvángaðr, ok enn 
hefir þá raun á gefit, at þú ert all-vitr kona, ek hefir þd n»r forspi 
verít ; af þvl, at eigi munda ek f}^r þessum vansa orðit hafi^ ef ek 
hefða þfn ráð haft.' Siðan var bundin höndin, ok gengit siðaa tit 
Lögbergis. Eptir þat var ]ýst áverkunum; ok beiddu þeir Hafiiði, 
at síðan skyldi færa dðma út 1 annat sinn. Ok náðu eigi fleirum 
dómundnm en i þeiira öokkí höfðu verít ; ok settu þeir þrysvar 
niðr dómendr sína í d«Sm-8laðnum*, ok máoi aldrí dömrínn setjask. 
Ok þá n^ndi Hafliði vátta at því, at hann mátti eígi dóminum fram 
koma fyrír ofrfkí Þorgils. Ok þi &erðu þeir dóminn austr f hniunit 
hjá Byrgis-búð. í^ gseta gjár þrim-megin, en virkis-garÖr einum- 
megin. Ok f þeim dómi verfir t>orgils Oddason görr sekr skógar- 
maðr ; ok þetta eilt mál nýttisk þar þat er f dóm var lagt. Ok þi 
eptir þat var gengit til Lögbergis ok sagt dl sckðar hans. Ok er 
menn kómu hcim til búða, þá var frétt hvcTJa Hafliði hafði hbtið 
áverkana ; af þvf at alþýðan vissi enn þá eigi vfst favat at hafði orðit, 
eðr hversu mikit at hefði orðiL Pí var sendr til Böðvarr Ásbjamar- 
son ok Ingimnndr prestr Einarsson at skjnja um áverkana ; ok 
menn fóni ok aðrir með þeím dl fundar við Þorgeir Hallason, er 
átti Hallbem Emarsdóttur systur Ingtninndar prestz ; en Böðvarr 
hafði búðor-vist með Þórólfi S^^undarsTni, ok hafði meirí ráð 
yfir þingmönnuin ok bdðar-liði en Þórólfr. Svá skipuðu menn ti! 
f orðtaki sfnu, sem Böðvarr ríði at baki Þúrðlfi, ok héldi þö f 
taumana, ok st^rði hvert ^u^ skyldi. Ok þá er þeir kómu heim 
til búðar Þorgeirs, þá vóm þeir spurðir tfðenda, ok eptir örendum 
sfnum. Þ& kvað Ingimundr prestr vlgu : — 

Hngr ern þrfr if þeiri (þ6 ikrldn mnn fleitl) 

Mndr 4 neliiigl* hendi (ilfkt *r BÖggvir*) mjök höggaii. 

* iapvni. Ihe vdlDm, ■ þröiigniini] þinBÍnD, veUum u ít nemi, bnt crro- 

neoDily. * Uere endi the lecoud vellnm leif. ' dAm-itiBniim] thui Br.; 'dóm- 
■tcinnm' of tbe edition ii i tnd reiding. ' wlingi] emend. ; ivalinp. H; 
vrilnÍQgi, B; ijilingi. editÍDn. * iKkl er BÖgsrir] thnt Br. (DTKeTtua if ilíkror 
liikO : illki ei bðggr mjkm, H. 



[I.33: i-is.l 
Sfðan vai kvatt féráns-dóms. Ok liða meiui beim til hérafia ; ok 
BÍtT Þorgils eigi at slðr 1 búi sfnu. Ok nú þegai at dregr féráns- 
dómum, samnar Þoi^ils at sér mfinnum, ok verfia saman nær fjögm' 
hundniö manna. Hafiiði haiði norðan nsr tvan hnndnið maima, 
ok einvala li6, bæÖi at búningi ok mann-virðingn. £n í þríðja 
stað samnask saman héraðs-meon til meðal-feröa meðr góðgímð. 
Var þar f]>nnnaðT Þórör Gilsson, ok Hiínbogi Þoigilsscoi frá Skarði, 
ok meðr þeim aðrir góðgjamír menn, Guðmundr Ðrandzson, 
Öroólfr Þoiplsson frá Kvenna-bfekku, ok höfðu tvau hundnið 
. manna til meöal-göngu; en Þorgils œtlaði at verja vígi allt héraðit, 
ok skyldi þeir Hafliöi eigi ná bæjar-reiðinni ; ok œtlaði Þorgils at 
vetja Heiðar-brekkumar, ef þeir riði SælingBdal, en Mjósyndi ef 
Svfnadal vsri riðit. Þar megu fáir einir menn rffia jafn-framt, þvfát 
þar eni Qöll brött ð báfiar hendr. 

18. Nií er at segja : — at Hafliði ok hans flokkr rfða um kveldit 
til f^ns-dómanna til gistingar til Sfás prestz f Sselingsdals-tungu ; 
ok bafði hann fyrir f}6ra tigi manna til lifis meðr Haflifia. Þá rför 
Guðmimdr Brandzson, sj^tnmgr Þorgils, son Stmunnar Aradöttnr ; 
ok var haim inn mesti mætis-inaðr, ok var hann opt mikils metinn 
f stómuelum; ok hanQ var mest hafðr f orfistefi, þá er um biskupa 
skyldi kosningEU' vera f Vestfiröinga-Qórðungi, annarr manna en 
Kkengr. Guðmundr var vínr Hafliða göðr. Ok þá liðr hann á 
milli ok menn mefi hónum, ok inldi miðla mál með þcim; ok 
spuTÖÍ Hafliða, hverja tiUetlan hann hefði um löt sfna; — 'Ok gör 
svá vel, at þii far varlega, ok gæt viiðingar þfnnar ; af þvf at svá er 
mikit fjölmenni fyrii, at þú hefii ekki liðs við; ok eigu menn 
ndut i bKttn, ^ cigi gengi aUvel til ; ok er þér engin svtvirfiÍDg I, 
at búa.þar mil til ei þú kemi framast at lögum ok yði ei óhætL 
Mun ek ok með [þeim] jkkrum at sn^, at mfn orð virðir meira, 
mefi þá menn alla sem ek fæ tiL Haf þú nd við láfi vina þfnna, at 
þú fylgir svi at dns m&lum þessum, at þá gætir vel sóma þfns.' 
Hafliði mælti : ' Sannlega ei slíkt mEclt ok vingjamlega, ok mun ek 
mjðk þot ha& ei slíkir mæla, ei bæði eiu beilráðii ok vitiir ok eigu 
mikils kosti.' Ok þá rfði Gufimundr á fund Þorgils, ok spurði hverja 
tilœdan hann helði á sfnni ráða-görð, svá mikit fjölmenni sem þai 
væri saman komit, ok búit sem til baidaga bæði at vápnum ok 
öðmm vifiibdningi. Þorgils kvezk þat tetla vænst, at hann myndi 
viö leita at veija þeim Haðiða ok möunum hans bæjai-reiðiua, 
annat-tveggja Heiöai-brekknmai við Selingsdal, eðr Mjósyndi ef 



þeir ríöi Svín^al. Pi sagði Guðmundr ; ' Eigi er slfkt at mæla ; 
en sit þvf er at hyggja við hversu göfgan mann þú átt málaferlum 
at skipta; ok mun þó sá orðrámr á falla, at þú ha&r þó all-mikit' 
mannlega íani, þóat pá takisk eigi meira á hendr, en þú verír bse 
þínn, ok þar sem féránB-dómrínn ætti at vera, efir landeign þína it 
mesta. En ef þá ferr meðr þann ofsa, sem f einskis mannz dæmi 
cr, þá uggi ek, at þú mætir ofsanum ok ofrkappinu áðr lýkr málutn 
ykkrum Hafliða ; þvfat ek hefi hvergi hcyrt dæmi til, at nökkurr 
mafir hafi með slfku ofrkappi farít eðr fram komizt Ok fytg eigt 
slíku svá þrátt ; þigg heldr ráð af vinum þtnum, er þú þó mátt eigi 
sjá satt mál fyrír ofrkappi þfnu ; ok vill Hafliði fara með vægö ok 
stilling ; ok er várkunn at hann vili halda máli sfnu til þrautar; ok 
muntú vilja víröa orð vAr vina þlnna, ok stýra eigi mörgnm 
mðnnum í mikil vandræði.' Ok h^r fær hann heitorð af l>orgilsi 
um þetta. Ok f þvf bili koma þeir menn rfðandi er Þorgils tiaffii 
tit sett at njósna um ferðir þeirra Haftiða ; ok kunnu þeir þat at 
segja, at hann mundi rfða Sælingí'dal. Ok þá eptir þat biðr f'orgils 
flokkinn rífta á móti þeim Hafliða, Ok riðu sfðan allt þar til er þeir 
kímu upp um Steins-hyt at Werdals-á. M bfða þeir þeirra HaBiða; 
ok koma ' þar h^Taðs-menn þeir er f millum gengu. Þar eru hamrar 
háfir fyrir austan ána, en mctar brattir fyrír vestan ; ok má þar eigi 
hjá rfða, ef fjölmenni er mittit ; ok verðr þetta nær at einstigi. Ok 
rföa þeir Hafliði at fram, ok slfga af baki; en nefnir hann vátta, 
at þeir megi eigi komask óhætt lengra; ok bejja þar féráns- 
dðminn; ok er þat eigi f Staðarhöls-landi ; ok ráða hvárígir á 
aöra. Reið Hafliði heim norðr ; en Þorgils sitr í búi sfnu með 
álta tigi vfgra karla; ok höfðu bváiir-tveggju vðrðu á sér um 
aC'^fíuL^iilL 30. Skip haíði staðit uppi f Hnitafirði um vetrinn, ok hafði 
Þorgíls keypt marga viðu tit skála-görðar, ok heim flutta, nema eitt 
hundrað viðar hafði eptir orðit. Ok þat eitt fékk Hafliðí af sekðar- 
< Qám við Þorgils. Þau misserí var skálinn gðrr er Þorgils var f 
sekðinni.— £0k sá skáli var þá óhrörtigr er Magnöss biskup andaðisk 
Gizurarson^— Ok þau misseri var Einarr Þorgilsson feddr er hann 
var f sckðinni. Eptir þat sendir Haitiði orð f allar sveitir, at 
biðja aéi liða ok fulltingis, bæði stærri menn ok smœrrí. En 
um haustið stefndu þeir samfund sfn í miðli, Hafliði ok Hallr 

< koma] add. Bni. 


iiíi.] tORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 20, 2L »9 

Teiizson ok l^rðr t^irvsldzson Vatzfirðingr. Ók var þetla þar 

um kveðit: — 

Amb-fa5fBi kom noiðiD, cr öikn-hurfii sannan, 
Hjart-hÖfSi kom rcitan ; höfAn rið ond ikiati : 
Tdku mart at mzli et menn ipakir fíiDdiuki 
þd vat ulbúS crin I Amb-höfBa brjúitL 

Ok aú liflu af misserin ; ok er flest seinna en segir. 

21. Ok um várit eptir fðr Hafiifii Másson suör yfir heiÖi I 
Haukadal til kirkju-dags, Tveggja-Postula-messu Fhilippi ok 
Jacot», til Hallz mágs sfna ; ok dvalðisk þar 1 góðu yfirlæCi Ok 
talaði þar tangt örendi um málin þeirra Þorgils OddaBooar eptir 
allar liðir um daginn; ok sagði, at hónum þótti sér ervitt veita at 
skipta málom við hann fyrir sakir ofrkapps ok fjölmennis. Ok 
talaði þar um tangt örendi ok snjallt, ok baö liðsinnis til þing- 
reiðar, ok Ijölmennis 61 héraðinu ; ok baö Hall mág sfnn liðs ok 
styrkðar; ok hami bað liðs lærða meim, at biðja skyldi fyrir þeim 
til Guðs, ok þess, at mál þessi lykisk með góðu; ok svá yrði 
nökkurs-háttar, scm bezt gegndi Sllu landz-búinu, en haim héldi þó 
bæmð slnni. Þá svarar sá maðr er ÞorsCeinn hét af Drumb-Oddz- 
stöðum: 'Nauðsyn sýnisk mér mikil, at styðjaorð þfn; þviat þú 
hefir lengi borit skarðan hluC fyrír Þorgilsi, ok setið hónum mikinn 
vansa.' Þá svarar Hallr Teitzson: 'Þorsteinn féla^ verum \ÍC 
hljóðir; ok enú vesall máls; eigi kunnu vit betr en hl^ða til; 
þú vill vel en máct fila; Hafliði hefir hónimi aldrí vansa setið; 
en þó er hónum þelta nauðsynja-mál ; ok sá einn er mfnn vinr, 
er þessum málum fylgir sfðr'.' Ok nú um sumarit ijölmenntu 
hvárir-tveggju til Alþingis epCir fóngum. Ok riðu menn & þing inn 
næsia dag fyrír Jóns messu [Baptistæ], ok þeir Hafliði mágar ok 
Hallr Teitzson ok nökkurír flokkar með þeim. Rfða snemma dags 
á þingit; ok srýr Hafliði at biið Þorgils; ok brjóta niðr alla lil 
jarðar; ok slðan eggjar Hallr, at þeir Hafliði skulí rfða á móti 
Þorgilsi með þvf liÖi er þeir fá Cil ; ok kallar þat ósóma mikinn ok 
Ifigleysu, at sekr maör rfðr á helgat þíng ; — ' Ok minnumsk nú þess, 
at hann ]ét eigi ná aC heyja féráns-dóminn, þar sem vera átti at 
lögum, nema meim beiðisk*.' Ok þá ríða þeir upp á Völiu, ok 
gðra þar fyrir-sát; ok var altt um seinna en segir af; þvfat þar 
lögðu margir menn orð til ok löttu fyrír-sáCarínnar ; kvóðusk þá 
ætla at hvárír-lveg^ju mundu þá heldr láta leiðask til sátCa, er 
' liðr] thni. ' bei&lik] ediilon; böddist, H, Bi, 



DiargiT góðgjarnir menn á(tu falut at; en svá inargTa tnnndi við 
kostr ef menn sæltask ' eigi. Ok mait varfi til dvala ; ok er af þvf 
eigi ríðit Íengra ; ok st^ menn af baki. Þá gengr at Ketil) prestr 
Þorsteinsson, ok spurði: 'Raeðr þú Hafliði fyrír-sátinnií' 'Svá 
er vÍBt,' sagði Hafliði. Kctill mæld : ' Þessi fyrír-æLlan er óráðleg ; 
mætti vera, at Þorgits tæki þat rAð, at rfða í nótt, eðr eigi alþýðu* 
veg, ef þö vill hann með kappi laia.' Ok þá gengr at Þorlákr 
biiikup, er þeir ræddu þetta; ok bað Hafiiða, at hann færí heim til 
búða ; ok værí Idtað nm sættir. Hann svarar : ' f>etta mál er mér 
miklu nauðsynlegra ok nær-kvæmara en þetta megi í nðkkura 
umræðu leg^'a, at' sekir menn rfði í helgat tuig, ok bfjóti* svá 
landz-lög. Ok þá raun mun enn á bera af stimdu, at eptir þessu 
munu margir glíkja, ef þessum hlýðir.' Pí mœlti biskup : ' l^t er satt 
sem þii mælir ; en hvárt er þat satt scm komit er fyrir oss, at þcssi 
misserí hafir þú þér liðs befiit i allar sveitir, höffiingja ok minni menn, 
ok svá fátækjamenn, ok hverja karai-kcrling?' 'Þat er vlst satt,' 
sagði Hafliöi. Biskup sagði : ' Þat var Ifdlátligt, slfks mannz sem 
þú ert, er þií vildir at allir menn [værí] f huga sfnmn ok bænum 
þéi f stnni. £n þð mun þat um mæk, at viirum manni miss^isk 
slfkt f meira lagi, cf þú vtll alla ina herfilegustu menn mcfi þéi i 
sinni ; en þenna irm dýrliga mann f móti þér, er messu-daginn i 
á morgin, ok gðfgastr er nær einn af öllum Gufis helgum mSnnum, 
at vitnt sjálfs Gufis ; ok mtm faans reiði á I^gja, ok muntú hana 
hafa ef þú vill svá margs mannz blóði út hella um þessa sök. £n 
tfkasi, ef þd lætr fyrír-fíu^k þctta á þessarí hátfð tim fríðinn, at 
Guð mimi þér, ok sá kappi Jón Baptista, sóma-hlutarins unna f 
málunum. En hitt Eumat, er þetta er einskis-vert hjá, at þér mun f 
Cðrum heimi goldit þat er nti görir þú fyrir Guðs sakir ok Jöns 
Baptista.' H svarar Haflifii : ' Sannlega er slfkt maslt ; en þó nennu 
vér eigi at heyja þingit f gvá mikilli iögleysu, at sekii menn rífii 
á þingiL' Ok gvá lauk, at Hafliöi fyrír-kvað* þat sem túskup 
beiddi. H vdra þar f ryrír-sátinni tólf hundrað manna. 

22. £n þá fyrir-býðr biskup ðllum lærflum mönnum at ganga f 
flokk með bðnum ; en bifir alla alþýðu tíl meðal-g&ngu með sér. 
fess létusk margi/ búnir mundu. £n þá er í»orgiIsi var fyrir- 
kvefiin túngreiðin af Haðiða, þi hleypðu menn at móti flokkinum 
Þorgils, ok sðgðu hvar kotnit var, ok hittu flokkinn fyrír norðan 
bijúti, H. * kl-aíl 


.1»..] ÍORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 33, 28. 31 

SandvatD. Þar var þá sjau hundnið manna, Þar var beðit Stynnis 
Ureinssonar af Gilsbakka, mágs Þorgils. Pai vóru þá allir goðorðz- 
menn með Þorgilsi fyrír vestan Blásköga-heiði, nenia Þórðr ðr 
Vatzfirðl Ok síðan tóku menn hjal meö sér ok umræður, ok 
löttu flestiT þingreiðarínnar við svá mikinn liös-mun. Ok þá mælti 
Þorgils : ' f^t veit elc glöggt, ef þar er svá mikit fjölmenni scm 
sagt er, at þar munu þeir maigÍT, er í mfnum flokki mundu sik 
kjdsa heldr ef þeir þyrði ; ok munu þeir Iftt berjask með Hafliða. 
En þeir munu ok þar mai^r er fagna mundu þyf ef annarT-tveggi 
okkarr létisk; en hirða mundi þeir aldrí hvárr á brolt ksemisk. 
En ek veit, at ek hefi svá tratista menn f mínu fönmeyti ok mjök 
tirugga, at hverr mun beldr vilja falla unt þveran annan, en mér 
veröi né eilt. Ok rounu vér af því ftam halda ferðinni.' M var 
Styiniir kominn með hundrað manna. Ok þá mælti Slyrmir: ' Þat 
vitu vér, hversu þat er nær öUum gefit, at öngum þykkir sér lið 
vatt með liilln nema vlgs-gengi sé veitt ' ; nú megu vér ök þat sjá, 
at I>orgilsÍ þykkir sér etgi Uð veitt með fuUu nema hóntnn sé vfgs- 
gengi veitt. Nii þcir sem hér eru saman-komnir, bindisk I því, at 
skiljask eigi við málin fyrr enn þau túkask i nökkura leið, þeír er 
nú vilja sjálGr sik leggja f svá mikla hætlu.' [Stynnir svarar*]: 
' En vita vii ek til hvers þú vilk á þingit fara annai^ en s^a 
oírkapp þftt, ok stýra svá mörgum mönnum I svá mikinn vanda.' 
t>orgil3 segir : ' Þal er ðrendi mftt til þingg, at bjðða Hafliða aU- 
góðar sættir til sæmðar hóniun; en ef þvf er neitað, njóta þá 
mai^ra ok gðfgra vina', ok mikils brautar-gengis.' — ' At þessu er 
öllum vdtanda vðskum vinnm þfnum,' sagði Stynnír. 

23. M var fenginn Ul Bárðr inn svarti, ok Aron sonr hans, 
ok nökkurir menn með þeim, at rföa fyrir*, ok bera njósn, áðr en 
saman iysti flokkunum. En megin-liðit reið f fj'Ikingu 6r Vfði- 
kjörrum, ok ofan yfir háls at Sandvatni, ok töluðu mart um ráða- 
göröir; ok var farit heldr tómliga. Reið Þorgils f framan-veröri 
fylkingu sfnni. H kvað Ingimundr vfsu : — 

Hilli v>U-at> fHS ruirin; foi HafliAÍ >t TCiji 
brdSan töII, ok biiBIr binni ikAgir-muini : 
þir rlBi niBlj* M niátí (málm-iyrí tel ck ikýiin.) 
oiAÍnD lUrai fcrðu Oddi-ionr i broddi. 

' Tcitt — Tcitt] tbni Br. ; öagum þykkir léi liA vcn vdtl mcft rnílD rfgigcngi, H. 
* Stymiir iTaiu] >dd. Bm. * vini] miDm, H. ■ ffiir] þcim, idd, Br. 

' vill-tt] nncnd.i vÍU Ur, R, Bt. < oiBtr] mab, Br. 


31 STURLUNGA SAGA. U. [a.d. 

K kom þar at Þórðr prestr rfðandi, er kallaðr var Lundar-skalli, ok 
nökkuríi menn með hónum. Hann var auökýlingr mikill, ok vinr 
Þorgils, tilkvæmða-maðr ' ok skilgóðr. Hann spyrr, þó hann 
vissi áðr, um hvat þeír ætti at ræða, eðr hvar þá væri hverju komit, 
eði hvat menn vissu sfðast til flokksins Hafliða. Hónum var sagt 
innilega, at íiokkr Hafiiða væri kominn á VöUu'na efri, ok ætluðu at 
rfða, ok verja vfgi alla þinghelgina; en biskup ok maigir aðrír 
góögjamir metm löttu fyrir-sáiar ok mótreiðar. En vissu eigi 
lengra; ok menn vÓru sendir fyrir, at vita hvat ifðenda vœri. t^rðr 
mælti: 'Eigi kann ek þér, þorgils, ráð at kenna; en á því er mér 
bæna-Btaðr, at þú þiggir at mér heimboð. £n lyrir Iflilæli þlCt ok 
fyrÍT öfusu mlna skal þat vera um mælt, at þú bafir eigi til matar 
eins aptr horSt En þat er Ifklegast, at HaQiði haldi eigi fyrir-sátina 
lengr en f dag eðr f nótt *, ok muntú þá mega rfða hlutlaust ; ok 
svá vel má veröa, at góðir menn komi sáttum á með ykkr eðr 
gríðum ; ok er þá góu at rfða, en hafa marga menn firða vand- 
ræðum, svá sem nú horfisk til.' En þá er Þórðr lauk sfnu máli, þá 
þðkkuðu 'hónum margir vel ummæli sfn, svá úk f^stu at sjá' værí 
upp (ekinn. 

2Í. Nú er at segja nökkut frá ferðum þeirra feðga Bárðar ok 
Arons : — at þeir koma ofan um Klyptir, ok sjá niðr undir Armannz- 
felli fjölða mikinn hrossa ok maima. Ok hugsa nökkut fyrir sér 
ráðit, ok þykkir eigi ólfklegt at þeir HaSiði myndi þar fyrir sitja, 
ok gæta svá hvárrar-tveggju leiðarinnar, cr finnur li^r fram undir 
Armannz-fell ok hji Sleða-isi ; en Cnnur liggr leiðin austr yfir hraun 
undir Hrafna-björg, ok undir Reyðar-múla til Gjá-bakka, ok svá 
austan um hraun til búða. Þeir Aron göra þat ráð með sér at 
rföa, ok hitta þessa menn, ' Ok veit ek oss f öi^m sðkum við 
menn. £n nökkurír fbrunautar várir skulu rföa sfðarr, ok hug- 
leiða um, hvat f hverju* verðr, ok segja I^rgilsi bvat sem f görísk, 
ef nökkut er tálmat um fðr vára; ok felmtið dgi aJl-mjðk, ok vitið 
með sannleik áðr hvat þér skulut segja.' Ok nú ilða þeir Bárði 
inn svarti, ok Aron sonr hans ok nökkurír fÖTunautar þeinn, þar at 
fram er flokkrínn var fyrir. Ok hinir atanda á fætr, er fyrir vóru, 
. með vápnum; ok slns vegar hvárr þeirra leiddr; ok þar þrðng 
mikil at gör, svá at hinir máttu eigi sjá fyrir þrðnginni hvat uro ^k 
var ; ok hCfðu þat fyrir satt, at þeir væri allir görvir handteknir ; 

■ lilkneftl-iiutr, H. ' cBr 1 nútt] Bm. ; efic liða i niÍH. Br. * tji] 

•ú, H i tta, Bt. * hvil i hverjo] Dm. ; hvat liroriu, H. 


iiit.] K)RGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 34. 26. 33 

[1. 40: i. »2.] 
ok bundu eigi lengi sfðaii bjTðaimr', ok riðu sfðan aptr Bkyndilega 

ttl (undaT við Þorgils, ok sögfiu * mikla at eigi mun tlðeuda-laust 

vera. iNargils mælti : ' Frá hvcTÍum cr líðendum at segja?' ' Vér 
kunnum frá Ci^um tiðendum at segja vislega,' en sögðu þó frá þvf 
hvar þeir Bárðr skilðosk : ' Ok þar var mikill fjölði manna fTTÍc 
ohu Sleða-ás, ok þangat ríðu þeir Bárðr ; ok þat þóttumsk vér sjá, 
at meim spnittn upp i flokkinum meðr vápnum ok görðu þi hand- 
tekna alla at minnzta kostL' Þorgils mælti *. ' f^ttusk þér nökkut 
vita hvat ' flokki þat mundi vera, eðr kenndu þér nökkut menn eðr 
bdning þeirra eðr &raT-skjóta ?' Sendimenn mEeltu': 'Eigi vilju 
vér þat vlst segja; en þat hugsuðum vér, at flokkr Hafiiða mundi 
vera, ok kcona þóttumk vér ' Kinn-skjóna fóstra þftm er þd gaft 
Bððvarí mági þínum í fTfia sumar í Alþingi; ok eigi kunnu vér' 
at kenna, ef eigi var þar spjótið þat it gullrekna er þii gaft bónum.' 
Margir Iðkn undir at þetta mundi víst tfðendum gegna ; ok einsætt 
væri at þiggja heldr virðingar-heimboð at Þórði, heldi en at leggja 
sjálfan sik 1 slika mann-hættu ok menn sina, at ganga til bardaga 
f mðti svájniklu ofreQi; ok sýna evá mikinn ofsa, at gæta eigi 
sómans ; fyrir því at hættu-lauat mundi at rfða um morguniiui, eðr 
í tveggja nátta fresti. Ok tóku upp allt hjal Þórðar. 

20. tVrgils hlýddi til meðan aðrír mæUu slfkt, ok lagði ekki til, 
ok hugsaði fyrir sér málit. Ok þi er aðrír spurðu hvert ráð taka 
skyldi, mœllti Þorgils: 'Ef þetta er svá sem sagt er, at mena 
várir inir vöskustu ok skilbeztu sé gfirvir handteknir, ok klandaðir 
eðr meiddir eða drepntr, þá mun oss ámælis-samt verða ef vér 
ifðum Evi á brott at vér vitim ðngan hlut görr enn vér getum til. 
Hitt er í öðru lagi *, at þeir þóttusk kenna þi tvá grípi, besC ok 
spjót, er ek gaf Böðvari mági mfnum, er faann myndi hvimgan 
lausan lita at vilja sínum. Ok ef bónum er orðit nökkut til meins, 
þá víl ek rfða, ok vita ef ek mega nökkurum hefna. En ef svá er, 

* buDda — bjiSam»] conject. ; ok tnuidD dgi leugi liíia ' bji Tií,' H ; ' bjr nid,' 
Br. ; bilhi þcir oú eigi leiigi bjijiiiDi, Bm. * . . .] we arc iiiuble to totore 

tbe prectdiii| wocdi; olc tögSu 'nian töga (A'mjkli, U; ok togSu 'sion tög* 
m jkli, Br. ; ok tbgba hÚDam ok nun logu iiiikU, Bm. Id which ' tög ' or ' ugu ' 
11117 be hidden either to^ Le. 'toguni,' oi 'irigi.' ' bnt] emcnd. ; hTCin 

flokki, H, Bi. < KDdimena mseltu] add. H. ' þdttnmk Tér— knima Téi] 

cmend. ; þúttiit tk . . . kaao ek, Bi, H. Noae of the mctieDgeii ii named ía the 
preceding, eicepl Bud uid Arao. The leturoing mcitengen aie berc lepreteated 
ipeaking u ■ bodj. ' Ugi] bere bcgim Ihe relhim 6 (Ania-Magn. 1 1 3 *. in 




34 fSTURLUNGA SAGA. II.' [a.b- 

lem ck vtenti at vera muni, at hann sé heill mafir ok fylgi Bjálfr 
grípum eínum til fulltings vift oss meö flokki miklum, en vser ríöim 
á brott, en látim hann eptir í háska, þá man enn eigi litið oröa- 
laust við osB. Ok er þat sem ek sagða; at ek vil riöa til þingsins, 
hvat sem annars er, meö þá menn sem mér vilja fylgja ; en þeir 
hverfi aptr er þat sýnisk drengilegra.' Ok snýr áieiðis. Ok ríða 
menn ofan um Sand-klyptir. En enginn vildi apH hverfa, þegar 
þeir sjá at hann tjáði eigi at letja; ok vóru allir skeleggir 1 þv( at 
skilja eigi við hann hvat sem á aðra hfind bæri. 

2ð. Nú er at segja nökkut frá þeim Bárði ok Aroni :— at þrir 
ríða fram at flokkinum, ok menn standa upp 1 móti, ok fagna 
þar hvárir öðrum vel, af því at þar var vina-fundr. Þar var fyrir 
Böðvarr Asbjamarson, ok Guftmundr í^>rgeirsson mágr i^rgila ; 
ok höfðu þeir með sér vel hundraö manna; ok var þar hvánim- 
tveggjum mikill hugr á, at spyrja aðra tíðenda '. Böðvair fréttir 
Bárð at fyrir-ætlan Þorgils; en Bárðr fréttir Böðvar tföenda af 
þinginu. Ok var þar þröngzt at öUu-megin, er margir vildu heyra 
hvat sagt var. Ok er þeir hafa við talask um hrfð, þá rffta þeir 
Bárðr enn lengra, ok allt þar til er þeir koma ohn á VöUu at 
fiokkinum Hafliða ; ok var þeira vel fagnat, af þvf at margir vissu 
á þeim feðgum mikil deili, þvfat þeir vóru skilgóöir menn ok 
margra göfgra manna vinir. Ok eru þeir fréttir hvat þeir konnu at 
segja af ferðum í>orgiIs eðr fjölmenni. f^ir segja at i^rgils væri 
komtnn auðr á heiðina frá Reykjadal með mikit fjölmenni. ' Ok 
þá kómu menn á mótí flokkinum ok sögðu Þorgilsi, at hónum 
væri bönnað þingreiðin ; ok þat með, ef hann ætlaði at riða eigi 
at sfðr, at Haflifti ætlafti at verja hónum alla þinghelgina. En 
t^rgils kvaö Hafiiöa mundu hafa kastað þvf fram við öngan aloga; 
cn hinir sðgðu at öruggu, at satt væri, ok at Hafiiði væri kominn 
& ferð með tólf hundruð manna, þá er þeir vissu sfðast. Ok viÖ 
þetta nam flokkr Þorgils staðar, ok tóku ráfta-görð með sér hvem 
upp skyldi taka.— Ok f þvf stóð þá er vær vissum siðast,' 

27. Epiir þetta rífta þeir beim til bóða, ok fara til fundar við 
up. Biskup fagnar þeun feðgum veL Ok þar segja hvárir 
atrúnað, okhvar komitvaröUujafnt-saman. Sfðansenda 
: í^jrgilsi njósn af skyndingu, ok láta segja faánum svá 
m var, ok þeir höfðu vfsir orðit. Njósnar-menn kómu 
íið Þorgils undir Armannz-felU fyrir ofan Sleða-ás, þar 
ok vir— tiSend*] om. B. • ikípit] B ; ikipit, Cd. 


tiit,] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 38-98. 35 

[I.4J; i. a+l 
sem þeir Böfivur* hðfðu beðit, ok segja I>orgilsi allt wm vaxit 
var. Þeir segja þat ok, at bdðin I>oi^ils var Sll brotin at Jðrðu, 
Þá nuelti Bðfivair: ' t>at er B^t i slíku, at Haflifii Bparír Utt bendr 
virar at hefoa ; enda vcrí þat ok eigi f]am at hann rej^di, hvirt 
vér kntinim nðkkut fleiia. at vinna en gðra upp bdfiina Þorgils; 
þvbt ná klæja oss Waniii mjðk.' Ok tók at berja vápnnm á 
hlífamar. Pí. tóku matgir undir, at þat værí Uklegast, at Þotgils 
muodi ráða at sinni atböfnum þeina. Þi kvað Þorgils vlsu ; — 
Mat«t öi*>TÍta ímm ann-qnn^itidi * lcngi 
((■t ugi'k gnUi iiu gjalk OtrSi) þii^Iogi TCftt. 

' Ok mnnu v«r rlða,' sagði Þorgils, ' eigi at BÍ-r ; ok verðr för 
sem má.' 

XS. Nú ferr tveimr sðgnum fram; — H er biskup hefir til sfn 
kaliat lærða menn, þá gengr hann l annat sinn á fund þeirra 
Hafliða ok mælti : ' Ertú nú, Hafliði, ráðtnn til, at virfia bér einskis 
maniu orð n^ vilja til heim-göngunnar?' 'Svá verðr nú fyrst at 
linniV aagöi HaflifiL Biskup roælti: 'Þá munu v^r ganga faeim ' 
til kirkju. Ok af þvl valdi er Guð gaf Pétrí Fostula at binda ok 
lcysa ailt i jðrðu ok himni ; en hann gaf CJementi páfa, ok bvárir 
af * Öfinmi tðku þat veldi, en ötzurr erkibiakup gaf m^r ; ok fyrír 
þat atkvæfii nmn ek banna yðr béi at sitja, ok ndta sættunum en 
slíta friðinn. Eni þau m^ orfi komin af Þim^ hendi, at hann viU 
sæmileg boð bjóða fyrir sik.* Ok endir biskup svá málii : ' At af 
þessí rðksemð allrí jafnt-saman, ef mítt mál má nðkkut standask 
viö Gufi ok virar bænir, at hann s^ þér svá bæna i dóms-degi, 
seœ þú ert mér nli bæna.' Þi mælti Hafliði : ' Verðr þat at lyktum 
mála-ferlis okkars Þorgils sem auðit verðr, ok sUka virðing hveir 
& leggja sem sýnisk. £n við þeesa umræ&i þfna mun ek eigí 
beijask daglangt ", ef aðrir ráfia eígi fyrri i oss *, ef þesnr mcnn 
beita at skiljask eigí við mil mfn fyrr en þan lúkask nðkkum veg til 
sóma. ' Ok náir ' þii einn at gðra,' sagði Haltr Teitzson. Ok þvf 
j&tnðo menn. Þ& mælti Einarr Gilsson: 'Þigg þd Haðiöi þetta 
heilneði, er biskup kennir þér ; eu sUkt veitu vér þ^ eptir helgina 
sem vét böfom filng á.' Ok sfðan ganga þeir Hafliði heim til 

■ BÖtrur] B ; bielr. Cd. ■ .«adi] B ; Audi, H, Br. * fjnt al niim] 

icm þat qncSi, B. • ■f]it,B. ' díglwip] B; Idíg. H, Br. ' ef»fliii— 
om] thoi ciDCDd. ; ÍD Cd. tliii Kntcnce hai beoi diiplaccd lod put after HiIIi Teitxioa ; 
B om. ' niii] B ; w. Cd. In B the w)tole puuge nuu thui, . . . tU lónia, ok 

náii þú eÍBD at göra. þ& ivaru Hilii Tdtzion. OIc þvi jitta ma]ii(1}. 


36 STURLUNGA SAGA. 11. [a.d. 

[1. 44- L H-] 
bðfia. En i annan stað ríöa þeir Þorgils tíl búðar hans i vttllinD, 
ok sjá þar vegs uin merki, at búðir bans vóru niðr brotnar. Ok 
bjóða hónum margir slnar biiðir at tjalda; en hann neitti þvf, ok 
vildi ekki annat cn láta upp gðra sfna búð. Ok þá gékk til 
Sæmundr inn Prðði við nökkura menn. Ok var tekit til at göra upp 
búðina um aptaninn, ok vai6 lokit fyrir óttu-sSng um nóttina öllu 
etarfinu. — Ok nú er leitað um sættir meö þeim Þorgilsi ok Hafliða; 
ok vill Haíliði ðngar sættir nema ^ilfdæmi. Ok þess vaniaöi t>or- 
gils eigi, at Haílt^ göröi fé slfkt * tii gæmfiar sér sem hami vildi, en 
undan væri skilðar mann-sekðir ailar ok goðorð ok staðfesta. Ok 
fitöð f þvf um belgina, at Hafliði vill einn ráða óskcaat. Ok þykkir 
þá beggja vinum vant á milli at ganga. Ok eptir messu-dagiim 
inn næsta d^ sfð um aptaninn þá er flestir menn höfðu l^zt til 
svefns, þi gékk Ketill Þorsteinsson til búðar Hafliða með nOkkura 
menn ; ok var hánum þar vel fagnað, ok mælti haim til Hafliða : 
' St6r mein þykkja vinum yðrum á þvl, ef eigi skulu sættir takask 
ok lúkask mál þessi með góðu, ok þykkir mðrgum fyrir ván kotnit, 
eðr nær þvL Nú kann ek þér eigi ráð at kenna. En dæmi-sCgti 
vil ek segjaþ^r: — 

29. ' Véi óxum þar upp í Eyjafirði ; ok var þat mælt at þat Uö 
væri efnilegt £k gat ok þann kost er beztr þótti vera, Gró dóttur 
Gitzorar biskups. £n þat var mælt, at hón léti ' mik eigi einhlftan, 
t>at þótti mér illa er þat var mælt, ok tilraunir vöru görvar, ok 
gengu þær vel En eigi at slðr þá þ<5tti mér fllr orðrómr sá er 
á lagöisk, Ok fyrír þat lagða ek fjándskap á manniim. Ok eitt- 
hvert BÍnn, er vít hittiunk á fSmum v^, þá veitta ek hönum athlaup, 
ok vitda ek vinna á hónum ; en hauQ raim undir hö^t, ok varð 
ek undir. Sfðan brá hann knffi, ok stakk f auga mér, ok inista ek 
8j<inar at auganu. H lét [hann] Guðmundr Gr&nsson mik upp 
^tanda; okvar þat nökkut með óUkindum, at þvf sem ekvirða; 
ek hafða tvau megin hans, enda þólti mér vera mundu okkarr slíkr 
monrföðni. Ok þessa vilda ek greypilega * hefna með fiænda afla, 
ok göra manninn sekjan ; ok bJDggn vér taí} til. £n þó urðu til 
nfikkurir afla-miklir menn með bónum itt veita at málum, ok 
ónyttusk svá mín mál.' — Ok nú má ok vera, at til verði nökkurír 
at veita Þorgilsi þð at þfn málefni sé réttilegrí. — ' Ok þá er svá var 
komit, þá buðu þcir fé fyrír málit Ok þá hugða ek at, hvat mér 

■ fé ilikl] fdekt, B. ■ Mti] gcrK, B. * fnjfiitp} B; gctiblif^, H, Br. 


1111.] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 38, 80. 37 

[1.45= i- »6.1 
befði at borizk, eflr hversu allt hefði tekizk þnnglega ; ok neitta ek 
fébötnnuin. Ok sá ek þá, at þat var eitt hjálp-ráðit, at skjóta 
málmu i Giiðs niisknnii, þvfat áðr téksk allt þi öðm þunglegar til 
■naimvirðingar um mfit ráð; ok ek legða ofikapp við ofmetnað 
Möðnivellinga, hve þung-keypt mér mundi vera '. Fann ek þá þat, 
altz* ek hugða at maimvirðingu, at ekki mundi þær beetr fyrír 
koma at mér mundi þat at mann-sóma verða. Görða ek þá f^r 
Guðs sakir, at gefa hönum upp allt málit. Vissa ek þat, at þ& 
munda ek þat fyrír taka, at mér værí halld-kvæmst. Ok þá bauð ek 
hónum til mfn ; ok var hann með méi lengi sfðan. Ok þá snerísk 
þegar orðrómrínn, ok þar með virðing manna; ok lagðisk mér 
hverr hlutr síðan meirr til gsefu ok virðingar en áðr. — Ok vænti 
ek af Guðt, at svá muni þ^r fara. Ok tiaf þú nó af bjali mínu þat 
er þér þykkir nýtanda,' sagöi Ketill. 

80. H þakkaði HaSíði hðnnm vel ok mælti : ' Ht mál he&r hér <''"' 
verít at rseða áþingi, er mikils er vert*; hvem vér Norðlendingar •"' 
skyldim til biskups kjósa i stað Jóns biskups; en til min skjörs 
hafe flestir vikit. £n íyríi málum þessum hefir eigi svá skjótr dómr 
á fallit. En nú þarf eigi lengr at Ifta á þá kosning, at ek verð eigi_ 
á annat sittr sumar-langt, en þd sér til biskups kosinn ; ok þat er mltt 
vit, at þá »é fjrír landz-mönnum bezt * faugat, at þvl mann-vali sem 
nd er, ef þd verðr biskup.' Ok fékk hónum Hafliða míkils viö- 
hjal* þeirra. Ok þafian f íti. var bann meirr snúinn til sátta en 
áðr, ok miklu auðmjúkari. Ok þá mælti Ketill : ' Ek em ðsæmilegr 
aUks Örendis. t>at megu allir sjá* bver stór-lýti i mér eru fyrír 
manna augum ; en miklu eni þó meirí l^ á mfnum hag f Guðs 
augliti, at ek em ð&Ilinn tii biskups-tignar.' Ok þar kom at nest- 
loknm málsins, at Ketill mælti : ' Ef þá væri nœr um sættir yðrar 
en áðr, þá kviðjumsk' ek eigi þenna vanda,.ef til þess er annarra 
vili sUkr sem þfnn.' Eptir þenna atburð var leitað um sættir eim i 
n^a-leik af góðgjönium mönnum, ok var heldr torsótt; ok var 
Hallr tregarí f öUu málinu en Hafliði. En þó varð sú sætt þeirra, 
at Hafliði gkyUÍ gCra fé svá mikit sem hann vildi fyrir áverkana, en 
frá vðru skilðar sekðir allar ok goðorð ok staðfesta, sem boðit var 

' ok ck Itgí*— Tcn] tbni we bin Iried to rcMore tbii pa»ge; ok ck ugfia 
ofikapp mi ok metnií MiiCinTeUÍDgsk, hre þnng beipt méi mundi Tcn, Cd.; 
B cnnib tbe wbole pBuage. * allz] þi, add. U, Br. * rert] ok, tdd. Cd. 

* bcB] B í meM, Cd. • Ti6hj»l] TÍSbjíK, Cd. ; TÍSrtal. B. • tj*] B ; llu, Cd.- 
' kTÍfijonuk] B ; kTcðjunut, H, Br. 



1 fyrBtunnl. Ok þiU fylgfii, at hverr þelrra manna þrig^a, er til 
handsala geng^u, unnu Fimtardóms-eíð ' Hafliða, at gjalda sllkt fé 
■em gört vsri. £n þessir menn gengti til handsala; Þorsteinn 
Gellisson frá Fróðá, auðmafir mikill en mágr f^rgili; hann átli 
Steinvöru dóttur fvirsteíns Arasonar. Annarr Styrmir Hreinsson af 
Gilsbakka, migr Þotgils; Mriðr dóttir Þorgeirs Galltasonar var 
móðir Stynnis; en Stynnir Þorgeirsson var faðir Halli, föðnr 
Kolfinnu. Þriði maðr gékk til handsala Þor&teion rangUtr, — at 
þvf sem mik minnir *. Ok þá er lokit var málum þessum þá var 
tjá visa kveðin :— 

MiltiA ' leÍgaDi liltnm niulliom fjrlr itmdi ; 
þó Utli iniÖk mip m&l U greifia táli: 
BvT* kn& hlym-bjdtr hjðiTi hj^-inildt il þ& ikylJi 
til egg-þiiciu 6u* il-þjdfl' hn bi&ðla, 
Mittift miga tittnsi (mil drtguk Ijót til bdu) 
(geigi TuA,v(B mi) leigum uDdkom friir itanda! 
Hiaft-ilðngTÍr bað brlngt hng^MrÍ&i fin iI6ui 
■lU þjM Umi er* olll all-ikjdlt* megin^iiólfca. 

81. Peas hafði á kennt í meðal-göngu manna, þá er um sættimar 
var leitað, at Halli þótti eigi þiirfa at draga allmikit lið saman, 
nema Hafliði neytti þess um sinn-sakii um nauðsynja-mál sín, eðr 
réði einn ella óskorat ; ok lét Hafliða ærít íé hafa & gamals-aldri, 
ef hann héldi* virðing sfnni. Enn þriöja dag fyrir þinglausnir 
gengu menn Qöhnennir til hvárir-tve^n, er sætCin skyldi vera upp 
sögð. Hafliði görði fyrir áverkana átta tigu hundraða þriggja álna 
aura, vöni-virt fé; lönd" norðr 1 Norðlendinga-ÍJÓrðurgi, guil ok 
silfr, Norænan" vaming, jámsmíði, rífligir gripir þeir sem ekkí 
væri minna fé en kúgildi, geldir hestai; þvf aC einu graðr hestr, at 
merr fylgir ; ok því at einu merhross ef hestr fylgði, ok ekki hross 
ellra eim tólf vetra ok eigi yngra enn þré-vett ; gjalddagi á féinu 
skyldí vera fyrír blíðar-daram Hafliða, eðr fiera hönum heim gjaldit 
á sumu fénu ; en hann virða sjilfr féit Þá er Hafliði sagði upp 
v6xt Ijáríns, þá svaraði SkapCi t^rarínsson : ' Dýrr mnndí Hafliði 
allr", ef svá skyldi vera hven limr.' Pi sagði Hafliði: 'Egi 
mundi sjá tunga þá eptir mœla ef [þess] þyrfti við ; ok ferr þetta 

' it hireiT — amiB Fimtirdðm».«&] >t hTcrt þcim GmtinlAm] mtiuu þtiggia er 
lll huinla gengti uimg eið, B (badly). * al þTÍ tem mik miniiii] om. B. 

* mittit] B. • barr] B; bct, Cd. ■ du] thni B. • al-þjAfi] thui B. 

* hiim ei] þi er, B. • allikidtl] B ; auBikjot nm, C;d. ' hildi] B ; beldi, 
Cd. ■• lönd] *dd. B. '■ amtnEiun, B. " Tcn, >dd. Cod.. bot om. B. 


iiii.] ÞORGILS SAGA OK HAFLIÐA, 81, 83. 39 

meirr eplir því sem vilja mundi Böðvarr Asbjamarson e8r aftrir 
övinÍT várír er' ek skal fé taka á mér, heldr en ek befða mér 
þenna hlut ætlað ; ok mein hefi ek þessa sætt látið vera eptír been 
Tina várra, heldr en eptir f^gimi einni saman.' Böðvarr mætti: 
' Af þvl at þessu er meirr á mik vikit en aðra, þá verS ek at svara ; 
ek mnn eigi þctta ósanna *, af þvf at vanhlutaríns unna ek þér sltks 
eðr meira en fjárins eigi.' PaX hafði Böðvarr mæ!t þá er Hafliði 
sa^ði upp sáttina : ' Þar reis at undir krðki,' ok þvf kvaddi HaSiði 
Böðvar at ; enda var ávalt ótftt ' með þeim. í^rgila mælti : ' Gefi 
menn vel hljóð máli Hafliða, þvf at hér hefir hvárr okkarr þat er 
vel má við una.' 

3S. Ok eptir þetla þðkkuðu bvirir-tveggju vel sfnum liðveizlu- 
mðnnum fylgð ok fbruneyti ok allan sóma. Ok fyiT en Þorgils 
kæmi beim af þingi, þá hafði bann eigi minna fé þegit af vinum 
sfnum ok fhendum, en átta tigi hundiaða: £n margír buðu 
bÓQum heim ór öllum sveitum, bæði norðan, ok Buiman, austan ok 
vestan, þeiira' er bann vitjaði sfðan ; ok leyatu þör hann með Stðr- 
kostleguffl gjöfum á braut. Ok farit var vfða al krefja fjár um Vest- 
firðinga-Qórðung. £n at öUu Cénu upp luktu, þvf sem gört hafði 
verit, þá gaf Þorgils Hafliða virðulegar gja&r, stóðbross fimm saman, 
fingr-gull, ok feld hlaöbúinn, er hCnum hafði gefit SÍgrfðr, dóttir 
EtjöUs Snorra sonar Goða austan íii. Höfðabrekku, er átt hafði 
Jón Kálfgson. Þangat sótti Þorgils beimboð, ok þá gaf bÖD hónam 
þessa gripi alla '. Hafliði mælti : ' Nú sé ek, at þú vill heilar sættir 
okkiar, ok skulu [vit] nú betr við sjá deilum en áðr.' Ok þat 
efiida þeir, ok stóðu einu-megin at máluro ávalt slðan meðan þeir 

> er] idd. B. ' ek maa eigi — ðnnna] emeod. ; ok aoa ek þetU duima, H ; 
olt miiii ekki þetU énma, Br. ; B OCD. '(^.' ■ ðtln] oþjikl, B, * þdn] 

þeir, B. * þangit—iUa] idd, B. 



A.Ð. 1148-1183. 

p.5a.S4: ii.8.9-1 

1. ÞoRGiLs h^t maðr Oddason ; hatin var hSfðingi tnikiU ; hann 
bjó á Staðarhóli í Saurbæ. Sá samt Þorgíls átti deilu við Hafliða 
Másson sem fyir segir *. Hallbera hét móðir hans, Ara dóttir af 
Reykjanesi *. Hann átti Kolfinnu dóttur Hallz Styrtnis sonar 
norðan 6r Viðidal 64 Asgeirs-á. Þessi vórn böm þeirra þan er 
kómusk ór bamæsku: — Oddi ok Einarr; ok dætr: HaUbera er 
átti Guimsteinn f^risson er bjó norðr f Reykjardal i Einarsstbðum ; 
önnur var Valgerðr, er átti Þðrhallr Fintizson austr f Fljótzdals- 
háraöi ; þriðja Alðf, er átti Snorri Kálfsson er bjó á Mcl í Mið- 
firði; fjórða Aldfs' er átti Ömólfr Kollason frá Snjótjöllum ór 
Isafirði; fimmta Gunnhildr er átti Halldórr Bergsson; sétta Ingi- 
björg er átti Böðvarr Barkarson ; sjaunda GuÖrún er átti Halldörr 
slakkafótr* t>órarinsson er bjð f FagradaL/^ Oddi Þorgilsson var at 
fóstrí með Sæmundi Sigfiissyni f Odda; ok var hann prestr*. 
Einarr I>orgilsson var at fóstri með i^rgciri Sveinssyni at Bniimá ; 
Viöarr* hét sonr fvjrgeirs. Vermundr inn auðgi bjó á Hóli í 
Saurbæ ; hann átti Þórfði Stairadóttur ; Þorbjörn hét son þeirra, en 
Í^Sra döttir ; önnur ÍVjrbjÖrg, cr átti Ari Einars son, Ara sonar. Þóni 
átti Þorgiis Simonarson ; þeina synir, Gunnlaugr' ok Jón, Jönindi*, 
ÞorgeiiT. Þá bjó á Stað f Hiútafiröi Skeljungr Helgason; hann ■ 
átti Þorgerði, dóttur Asbjamar Íns datifa ; böm þeiria vóm, Helgi 
prestr, Narfi ok Þorlaug, er itú Jón Þorgilsson. 

cgit] om. B. ■ Rejkjattsi] Rerk)iliólnm, B. • Aldii] 

Alfdft, B. < ilabkiTiitr] iliti fðtr, B. ' ak nr b*im prenr] tbn Cd. ; ok 

Tirft haon f% (i. e. tió6t\ B (badlj). * Viían] Qunnirt, B. * prettt, >d*l. B. 
• Jörundt] Vennundt, B. 

STURLU SAGA, 1-8. 41 


3. Snorri lC^sJ^-oiaðr Húnbogason bjó at Skarfii á Nerðri 
Strönd; hans mó6ir var Yngirtldr Hauksdóttir; hennar móSir hét 
t>orgerðr ; bennar mófiir Yngvildr ; hennar móðir Þorbjörg dóttir 
Öláfa HöskuIIz sonai, Móðir Höskullz var Þorgerfir, dóttir Þorsteins 
[rauös], Öláfs sonar ins Hvíla, Ingjaldz souar. MóSir Ingjaldz var 
Alöf, dóttir Sigurðar Orms-f-auga. Snorri lögsögu-maðr átti Yngr 
vildi Atladóttur. Synir þeirra vóru þeír Þorgils ok Nar£, faðir Snorra 
preetz er þar bjö slðan. ÁlfrÖmóIfssonbjólFagradalöðrum'. Bim- 
ingr Steinarsson bjð f Tjaldanesi ; hann átti Helgu dóitur Þorgeirs 
langhöfða; dóttir þeirra hét Sigríðr. Móöir Bimings var Hallfríðr 
Bimings dðttir, Halldórs sonar, Snorra sonar Goða. Undir Felli 
á Syðri Strönd bjó Þórðr Giisson ; móðir Þórðar var Þórdfs, dóttir 
Guðlaugs* ör Straumfirði ok Mrkötla, Halldórs dóttur, Snorra 
sonar Goða. ÞiSrðr Gilsson tók við gofiorði Snormnga eptir 
Mána-Ljót. Þórðr átti Vigdisi dóttur Svertings Grlmssonar. Böm 
þeirra vóm, Sturla ok Snorri, Þórdis ok Guðrún. Hallr son Þóröar 
gufu var húskart ' nndir Felli ; ok gneddi íé þar til er hann keypti 
land ok görði bú * I Flekkudal. Hann elskaðí Sturlu er hann var 
ungr, ok görðisk fóstii hans. Hallr átti þi konu er Guðbjörg hét ; 
þeirra synir vóra þeir Grtmr, Snorrí, Ingjaldr. Erlendr hét mafir er . , ^ 
bjó f Svínaskógi ; hann átti Alöfiijdóttur ÍVDrsteins * Kuggasonar ; ^*^ ***'^ ' 
þeirra döttir var Guðleif. Erlendr andaðisk en Alöf bjó þar eptir, ok ''í'' '*' ' 
þótti vera kvcnna frfðust ok görvilegust. Sturla ÞórÖarson tók þar f**- P 1"^ ^ 
til ráðs, ok hafði hana heim [vifi sér], ok áttu þau fimm böm : Helga, 
Valgerðr; Sveinnok Þðrfðr vóm jafn-gömul; Sigríðr, hón var ein'. 

8. Skeggi hét maðr er bió i Skarfsstöðum, sonr Gamla Skeggja- 
sonar skanun-höndungs ; hann var sonr Þórdfsar', systur Grettis 
Asmundarsonar. Skeggi var vitr maðr ok gildr bóndi. t\3roddr 
bét annarr aon Gamla er bjó f t'órólfs-höfn ' ; hann var gófir bóndí ; 
son hans héi Vilmundr. Einarr hét inn þríði son Gamla er bjö 1 
Miðfirði; hann átti Sigrfðí Kálfsdóttur, systur Snorra. Helga hét 
döttir Gamla er itti Mrarínn Króksfjörðr; þeirra synir vóm þeir, 
Jdn, Þorsteinn, Oddi ; þeir vóru miklir menn ok slerkir. Þá bjó í 
Hvammi Þorkcll prestr, góör bóndi ; hann átti Þórunni Ormsdóttur ; 

* otmm] idd. B. ■ Gunnliugi. B. * nr hútkacll ihui B i bjd, CL (H, 

Bi.), which majr be thc tiuei ceading. * ok göfíli bú] om. B. * ^citdni] 

emend. ; þorgeÍTf, Cd. and B. * Uelga oi ValgeiAi toiu iarngimlii. Sveinn ok 
þDTlBf rdro ok úfhgaml. Sigrirh (1) hit cinn, B (badly) ' Meidkai ikeggja, B 
(badlf). • þjdðdirihöfh. B. 



[L56-. ii.n.] 
þeim synir vóm þeir Gaðmandr prestr ok BjamL Þeir vóni 
görflegir menn. £n er Þorkell andaðisk, þá eyddusk fé fyiÍT þeim 
biæðnim, ok seldu þeir landit Söðvari Baikanyni. Gnnnvarör* 
hét prestr dtlendr ; þessi v6ni bðm hans : Asólfr, öfialrikr ", 
Margrét; þau v^m gOrfilegir menn ok fóm með verka-kanp um 

4. Nú er frá þvl sagt, at öealrikr fékk iir vist með Skeggjft 
Gamlasyni. Þat bar um sumarít til tlðenda at sex ilnar lérepts 
hurfu Amóm konu Skeggja. £n hann Skeggi þðttisk þat spnit 
hafa, at Vigdfs fy!gju-kona öðalríks myndi ha&; hón var skilIAil 
kona, ok var þá vestr f sölva-fjöm 1 Saurbæ ; hón var at herbo^ f 
sauða-húsum fyrír Hvitadal. Skeg^i heimti öðalrík á mál, ok kvað . 
[svá at orði] : ' Svá er nil mál með vexti, at lérept nökkut er horfit ; 
ok býðr hugT mlnn helzt*, at þit munit handhafa* at orðit, ok vilda 
ek at þú segðÍT mér f tnlnaði, ok mun þá létt falla.' Hana svarar, 
ok kvezk eigi ætla sllk orð Skeggja fyrir sftt starf, er hann vann 
fyTÍT hónum. Skeggi mælti : ' Vilí þit festa jámburð ?' Öfialrikr 
kvazk þat gjama vilja. Ok Skeggi lét þat fnim fara ; ok lézk þö 
eigl vilja'hann í vistinni þar til [er] hann hefði hmndit málinu. 
Öðalríki kvað séi þ6 eigi tftt at bera jám, ef hann skyldi láta 
vistina. Skeggi sagði : ' Svá er at varask fU tíö, at þat er jafnan, 
at þau lúkask opt eigi vel.' £n með þvf at Skeggi var maör ok 
vinsæll, ok haldsamr á sfnu máli, þ6tt stóimenni ætti hlut at, þi 
varð þat öfundsamt, þvíat öllum tengfia-mörmum Þorgils Odda- 
sonar þóttu skylðir til at vægja fyriT þeim, en Öðalrikr var þeim & 
hendi bundinn *. Ok nú fór hann at hitta Odda ÞoTgilsson, ok 
sagði hónum hver ósæmð hónum var gðr, ok bað hann ásjá. 
Oddi segÍT, ok kvazt ógörla vita hvat manni '' hann var f tnllyndi 
eðr í öðrum hlutum, hvárt þat værí eptir ásýnd hans ok gÖTvileika 
efir eigi. Öfialrikr kvazk þat eigi vita, hversu þat vildi veTÖa, 
Oddi mælti Iftt af hendi um ásjána*. Ok í þenna tfma hafði 
Oddi f bú sezk at Skarði á Nöiðrí Strönd, en Einair bróðir hans 
bjö i Sælingsdals-tui^. t^t eama sumar hittusk þdr á þingi 

' Oannntr, B. ' The TellDm B ipelli indiiciiminitelj 06»1- »nd Afiat-. 

* ThDi B. * ok befiT hogr mínn þar helit i, B. ' hindhifk] B ; huidhafindi, 
H. ' þriat ölhun — bundinn] Ihu accordÍDg to B ; þvi öllnm göfgiun mönnnin 
þirgili Odda-KMiar þátti Æi ikrltduEÍr it ng)> íyiÍT Skeggj*. en Oíaiiiki nr 
heinia.nia5r faaoi ey oríinn (or ny-orðÍDn), H. Bi. (compt). ' hrat Dimu] 

emend. ; hveminn maSr, H ; hveir maír, B. ' > eik þi eigi if hendi . . . , B. 


114«.] STURLU SAGA, 4, 6. 43 

(^jrgeirr Hallsison, óí Staiia t>örðarson, ok hafði hann fram bónorð 
fyrir 8Ína hönd, ok baÖ Ingibjargar dóttur bans. í^rgeirr svarar 
þeim málum vel, ok átti ráð við vini sfna. Hann hafði ok spurdaga 
af Sturlu, at hann var mikil'menni ok ætt-atárT ok Ifklegr til höfð- 
ingja; ok rézk þat ór málum þeiira, at Sturla fastnar sér Ingi- 
bjöi^ á þvf þingi, þá konu er vænst var kölluð ' á f slandi ; hana 
hafði átt Helgi Eireksson, ok hét Einarr Bon þeirra ; hann var þá 
þré-vetr. Mððir Ingibjargar var Hallbera Einars dóttir, Ara sonar, 
torgils sonar. Þorgeirr bjó þá í KristEnesi I Eyjafirði, ok var mikill 
höfðÍDgi. Sturla sækir norðr þangat brdðkaup sftt; ok féru þeir 
Þorgils Oddason ok EinarT son hans, ok Magnús prestr, ok vóni 
þrfr tigir manna, ok bðfön frftt lið. Faðir hans' var farumaðr af 
ellí, ok fór hann eigi. Ingibjðrg fðr norðan með Sturlu, ok vóru 
þau undir Felli inu Vestra*. En nm haustið um Matheus-messu 
var gildis-fiindr* f Hvammi, ok kom þar fjöhnennt. OddÍ Þor- 
gilsson var þar kominn á kynnig-leit. £n um daginn milli ttða 
skj'ldi mæla samkvámu-míUtnn, ok var stofan skipuð. Oddi sat 
í ðndngi en Skeggt Gamlason sat f tnnan-veTðrí stofu i ian eðra * 
bekk. Menn biðu Böðvars Qar^arsonar, en hann kom eigi inn ; en 
Öðalrikr var [þar] kominn ok reikaði á gólfi. En er hann kom 
fyrir Skeggja, þá brá hann ðxi undan sldkkju, ok hjó f hðfuð 
hónnm, svá at Oxin sflkk ; ok nuelti vifi ; ' Svá kann ek jám bera.' 
Skeggi hljöp upp við höggit, ok settisk þegar niðr apCr ; en öðal- 
likr hljóp þegar ttl dura ok fram ; en Bððvarr Barkaison hafði staðit 
fyrir fiaman hurðina, ok lauk aptr eptir hónum hurðina er hann 
hljóp út. Hann hljóp á fjall upp ok svá austr* um beiðL Pi 
mælti Oddi Í>orgilsson : ' Þetta er fllr atburðr.' Skeggi svarar : 
'Eigi fjarrí þvf sem þér munduð vilja.' Ok er eigi getið ðeirí orða 
hans. Ok varð þat þegar at vfgí. En fyÚT þat at Skeggi var 
þingmafir [þeirra] i^rðar ok Sturln ok vin, þá tók Sturla eptir- 
málit; ok kvað slíkt flla at beiask, er flugumenn hljópu í hðfuö 
mönnum. En til Öðalriks fréttisk ekki f biáð. 

fi. En nm vetrinn ^ eptir J61 var skinnleikr undir FelIL Pít var 
kominn Norðlenzkr maðr; hann mœJci, ok kvað þat i máli haft 
norðr þar um Öxarfjðrð, at ' vestr h^r mundi vera góðir leikmetm, 

' f þann tíB, sM. B. ' huu] i. t. Slurln : tit ' þá ' hraniitr if ellí, B 
Veim] tbui H, Br.; om. B, ' gildii-fiiDdi] hiepp-fdndr, B(bettn7>. 
íeSri] B; á neíra, H, Br. ' íoílr] reHr. B (b»dlj). ' «nn«n »etr. 



, þvfot þar var komiim . . . foi^;angs-iiiaðr er þar var at leikum ', ok £01* 
um váiit austr I Fjörðu.' Sturla frétti hvat nafn hans værí. GestTÍnn 
kvafi bann undarbga heita, ok svíl föfiur haus. H nefndi ScurU 
Öðalrik Gunnfarsson. Gestrínn kvað hann svá nefnaski Ok kvað 
Brand prest Úlfh^ðinsson hafa sent sik anstr l Fjörðu til t>ðrhaliz 
Finnzsonar. [Sturla] kvað nú hœgra um at leitask. Ok um várit 
eptir Páska för Sturla norðr til Ösarijarðar at fjár-reiðum sfnum. 
£n er hann var f Skagaiirði at Valla-laug, þá kom þai Brandr prestr 
Úlfhéðinsson ; ok beimti Sturla hann á mál; ok spurði, ef tiann 
værí sannr at björg við maiminn eðr hveija meöferð hann byggi at 
bafa ; ' Vilju véi leita eptir með stiUingu við þik.' Hann kvað þat 
satt vera ; ' En nií cr svi komit, at ek vil at þú vitir allt um ferðir 
bana ; en ek vil [at] þú ráðir einn ' um m^t með okkr.' Sturla 
segir: 'Slfkt hefir þú aUt'; ea görla skil ek bvat þík hefir 13 
lekit ; ok mun verít hafa f ráði Oddi Þorgilsson, ok margir aðrír 
þótt ek nefna eigi.' Hann þ<Sttisk nú glögglegar vita enn áðr, 
hverir f ráðum eðr björgum böfðu verít með öðalriki. Ok nii 
tókn at rfsa lifar & vinfengí þeirra Odda; en þð var þetta mál 
f deilð lag[i]t, ok fram haft á Alþingi um snmarit; tA. varð Öðal- 
rikr seki, ok stððu menn þvf ekki f móti. En hónum varð útan 
komit austr f Fjörðum. Sfðan vai eptir leitað hvat menn vildi 
bjóða fyrír bjargii eðr Qöiráð. En þar kom viö umtðlur góðra 
manna, at goldit var fyrír bjargir eðr fjÖiTáð þrfr tigir hundraða. 
Þat sama sumar létu þeii ivrstiinn Asbjamarson okEinarr'son 
hans sækja Gils Þormóðar son' ok Guðrúnai Gmsdöttiu-, systor 
Þórðar Gilssonar, lun þat er bann átti böm við Asn^u knarrar- 
bríngu sysiat Þorsteins tidings. Hámundi ok Sigmundr* vðni 
synir Gils ok Ásnýjai. Sturla beiddi at fé vasi tekit fyrír frænda 
hans. En þvf var eigi játaö; ok fóru sakir f dóm. H bað Storla 
tér liðs; ok kvaö nauis}^ á, at fnendr hans værí eigi vanbaldnir; 
ok hétu þeir^ bénum liöi. Ok eptir þat gékk hann at dómi; ok 
gékk upp dómríim. Sfðan mælti hann: 'Nú eiu enn sömu' boð, 
at f^ mun fiam lagt fyrir frænda vám til góðrar sæmðar, þvfat 
hér vilju vér eigi sýna * ójafnað.' H var því játað. En " dómr 
var eigi settr fyrr enn srotzk var á máht ok tekit íé sekða-Iaust. 

* Thni ; tk ci fbtemig <l) miAi nt Idkiiifu, B. ■ Mir eÍDn] riAír j um mUH, 
Bi. ; gcrÍT dnn ain milie, B. ■ •llt] danbtful ; illt, Bi. ; ttt, H ( - or >Ut ?) ; B 
omiti the pluage. * Eíiun] Eiríki, B. * þonnóBi-ion, & * Signrðr, B. 
' þeii] mcDn, B. ■ cdmu] loin. B. * (3>di] B ; þenni. H. **en]at,H. 


ii49-iis>.] STURLU SAGA, 6, 7. 45 

I>essi mál vóm fjrst, er Sturla átii á þingi ' málnin at skipta við 

e. Nú er at segja frá er menn kómu heim at þingi, hitti Sturla 
Bððvar Barkarson ok kvezk vilja kaupa land at hónum, ok kvezk 
þar [helzt] hafa til fellt hug sínn. Böðvanr görði & þvf kosti, ok 
sðmðu þeir þat meö séi. Eptir þetta görði Sturia bú f Hvammi, 
þvf* er hann h^lt til elli; en BöðvarT fár þá til Sælinggdals-tungu. 
Ok f þenna tíma fór ÍÞorgils Oddason norðr til Þingeyra, en synir 
faans tðku við búi & Staðarhóli ok goðorði. En um vetrinn eptir 
var sóct mikil. H andaðisk Oddi Þorgiisson ; ok þótti þat mikiIL 
mannskaði, þvfett hann var vilr maðr ok manna snjallastr f máli. 
Hann andaðisk bamlauss. Þá andaðisk ok Alfdís aystir tians'. 
Ok þat sama vár andaðiak Þorgils faKr þeina. Einarr tók þá íé 
sltt ok goðorð ; ok gðrðisk hann höfðingi, þvf margar stofiar * runnu 
undír bann : fiæDdr ok mágar * cA. vinir, er tNsrgils faðir hans haíði 
fengit s^r; hann skorti ok eigi kapp né áræði, Enginn var haim 
taga-maðr, ok blestr niaðr 1 máli. Prá þvf er sagt, at Vermundr 
inn auögi andaðisk, en t>orbj8m son hans tók arf eptir hann. 
Hann var kvenna-maðr niikil], ok átti mart bama, ok urðu flest Iftt 
at þroska. Hann átti Helgu l'órölfsdóttuT. öláfr bét son þeirra, 
ok var prestr. 

7. Yngvildr ÞorgUsdöttir varð eigi unnandi Halldóri bðnda 
slnum; ok varð með nðkkurum bæfindum meðan Þorgils foðir 
bennar var viö ; en sfðan nýttu þau ekki af. Rézk þá Halldón tíl 
átan-ferðar ok með bónum Þorbjöm Vermundarson. Ok er þeir 
kómu um haf, réðusk þeir til suðr-ferðar ok ðnduðusk báðir. £n 
er þat spurðisk út hingat, þá tóku þan I>orgils ok t>óra til varö- 
veiilu fé bama f>orbjamar ok bjö^^u at Hválí. M rézk þangat tiL 
vistar Helgi prestr Skeljungsson ; hann var vitr maðr ok góðr 
kenni-maðr, ok mai^ vel knnnandi, ok læknir góðr*. Þá gékk 
Jón Þorgilsson at eiga Þorlaugu s^stur Helga prestz; en hann 
fifkk þá Þorgerðar dóttur Halldór^ Slakka-fótz, ok Guðrúnar Þor- 
gilsdóttur; tók þá Jón við búi at Hváli, þvfat (þau) Þorgils ok 
fóra elldusk m}ök, Helgi prestr átti bú með Jóni mági sfnum. 
Þöroddr Grettisson hét hóndi, mikill ok slerkr ; hann gat son við 
Þðrgerði ^ inni lygnn ; hón var göngu-kona ; sá sveinn hét Geirr, 

■ )>«ui vdru ifStnrlu upp liap (t) fynt er h. ctti . . ., B. ■ þvl] þit, B. 

■ þt— htni] idd. Bi om. Cd. * MoAir] B; itoSii, Cd. * ok migar] B; 

m»Tgir, Cd. • ok ídh b«ti (I) l«knir, B. ' i»ó.j;erSi] |HSrdlti. B. 



[I. fii í fi. 13.] 
ok var inn mesti 6aldar-mafir, stulða-maðr ok útilegu-þjÓfr ; hann 
var skjótr á faeti, svá at engi hestr tók hann. Viðkuðr hét annarr 
maðr, hann var Galmans son ok Stutt-LÍQU ' ; hann gCrðisk ok 
óreiðu-nmðr mikill; bami var IftiU maðr vezti ok inn hvatastt. 
Póiii héc maðr Norðlenzkr, fóstri Þorgrfms assa, lítiU vexti ; hann 
var í fönineyti meö Geiri, ok gðrðu mait flli. Þesa er við getið, 
at húskarlar frá Hválí höffiu farit f eyjar i!t; ok er þeir kómu útaa 
at Qöru sævar, þá festu þeir skip sftt við Sallt-hólm, en báru upp 
fSt sín á land ; ok fóni heim um kveldit. £n tmi nóttina kómu þeir 
GeÍTT, ok tóku broit vistimar ok klseöi, ok allt þat er þar var hirt. 
Ok um morguninn er Hvál-menn kómu, þá mistu þeir þar vinar 
i stað, ok þótti þeim sfn fbr iU. Um haustið nökkuru siðarr þóttisk 
Helgi prestr hafa njósn af^ at Þorgeirr at Brmmá, ok Viðarr soD 
hans mimdi herbergja útilegu-menn. Ok öndverðan vetr, er mjFrar 
vóni lagðar, þá fóru þeir tfu saman frá Hváli Öndverða nótt, þvlat 
nýlýsi var í. Peii fóru ofan til Brunn-ár ; ok er þeir kómu mj6k at 
garði þá fóru móti þeim tveir menn þar var Viðarr ok Þöiir inn 
fjölkunngi; ok fundu þcir eigi fyrr, enn Hvál-menn kómu at þeim, 
þvfat þeir áttu at sjá f gegn tungUnn. Þeir hljópu á eitt enni-svell 
ok höfðu vápnin fyiir séi; en Hvál-menn slá um þá hring, ok 
EÓttu at i glett ', ok kastask á orðum. Jón kaUar maklegan fund 
þeiira ; ok kvað Þóri eigi hafa firit kurteislega um bygðir ; ok iét 
þeim fUa sama er þóttusk miklir, at stela bitlingum. Þórir kvazk 
áviljaðr stundum at skera steemim segum. Hann hafði öii sn^- 
hymda, er átt hafði Vfga-Steinn. Hana lagði öxinni til Jóns, ok 
kom á kviðitm. Þat var mikit sár. Sfðan tóku þeir Mri höndum. 
En Vifiarr komsk f brott, ok fór hann á Staðailiól til 'Einars 
fóstbróður sfns, ok s^ði hónum svá t^iit ; ok kvezk ætla at bann 
mundi vilja rétta blut sfnn*, þá er þeir léku eaman bamleikum, 
Einarr lézk svá gðra mundu, ok kvað hann eigi skyldu rekask um 
Strandir. £n fórir fðr f böndum til Hváls ok var ætlaðr til drápi. 
Snenmia nm morguninn kom Einart tit Hváis með fimmtánds 
mann, ok gengu til stofn, ok köstnðusk menn orðum &. Einarr 
Bpurði, ef þeÍT vildi manninn lausan láta. Helgi prestr kvað eígi 
þat efni f, at láta'hann lausan, ' þjóf ok fjCtkunÐgan, en vaaat nú 

ilnuns (OD ok Stutt-LÍDu] thui B; minumcd io Bt. 'OcIIíhod' toi 'itaTb- 
' i glcK] B ; glettni, Bi., H. ' Eiiuri] ben b«giiu thc fburtb TeUDm 
* tlnn] haiu, B. 


1IS-M59-] STURLU SAGA, 7. 47 

tíl ÓÍÍG3 ' sér.' 00317 segir mart munu mega tlna ' um ' hanu sem 
aðra menn ; ok lét bónum katlmennBku í því, at hann verði hendr 
sloaT. Prestr kvafi þat [mundu] mál manna vera, at ot hékt værí at 
gengit ef þeir tæki hann á brott; ok segir meðal-lagi ráðlegt, at 
hefja svá virðing sína um viendismenn*, at gfíra góða meno s^ at 
óvinum. EÍnaiT kvazk mundu manninn i brott ha&. Ok þat varð 
at lyktum, at Einarr gékk at Þóri, ok skar af hónum böndin, ok 
hafði hann með sér. £n upp frá þessu varð Helgi prestr aldri vior 
Einars slikr sem áðr. £n Jón lá um hrfð í sárum ok andaðisk 
ór. Eo f'órir úti ok var í ymsum stööum, ok höfðu þeir þ& sveit 
ok Viðkuðr LfnuaOD. Vigfilss hét maðr ok var Austfirzkr. Geirr 
var ok þar aðra lotu; ok var þat kvittað, at þeir veerí hríðuio á 
Staðarhóli eðr at Brunná eðr í Tjaldanesi. Um vetrínn fyrír Föstu 
er þess getið, at Hvál-menn kðmu þar, ok vóru fimtán eðr sextán, 
ok sóttu þegar at þeim; en þcir vörðusk ór húsum, En Hvál- 
menn þóttu^ vita', at ója&t yrði skipt ef Einarr yrði við varr, þá 
burfii þeir frá. BirDÍngr talði at, er bús hans vóni rofin ; en Hvál- 
menn kv&ðu œma sök til þess, er hann haföi hýst óaldar-menn. 
Ok varð af sltku lltt miUi manna. £n um várít tók Helgi prestr 
G«r f sauða-hÚEÍ þeíira frá Brunná, ok hafði hann upp til Hváls, 
ok bað nú ekki fresta at hann værí upp festr, áðr' mcnn görðisk til 
at draga bann af þeim. Ok svá görðu þeir; ok festu hann upp f 
Kopps-trOð þar at hús-baki. £n um sumarit eptir var lagt hesta- 
þing á StaðaiiióU. Þá var þai Viðkuðr Lfnuson, Þelm varð at 
orðiun ok Biini Gilssyni ok talði Viðkuðr at við hann um þat 
er hann hiJði farít i Tjaldanes með Hvál-mönnum. ok beiddi bóta 
fyiir, Bjðni kvað hann sýna mikinn ósóma, er hann fór & manna- 
fundi, þjófr ok stulða-maði, Sföan heitaðisk hváir við aonan, 
Bjöm sagði, at Viðkuðr mundi eigi þora at ráða framan á hann. 
H mælti Viðkuðr: 'Sé þií nú við þá;' ok lagði &aman öxinni 
Steins-naut f kviðinn ; qk íéll Bjöni þar, En Viðkuðr gékk heim á 
Staðaifaól, ok inn í suðr-búr. Þar var ok þá t^Srír ^r, ok var 
lokit búr i lás. Bjöm andaðisk um nóEtina. Sfðan kom Einarr 
þeim^ útan ; en vigin vðni bóta-laus. Viðkuðr var 1 ymsum stöðum. 
En menn böfðu á höodum Einari, at hann vierí f ráðum ' um vfg 

' OHfií] ábtjp, B. ' liiu] B ; li». Br. ' um] of, B ; »i8. Br. ' um 

TKoduniena] xld. B; om. Bc, H. * þúttuik vita] B; trc;ilDit, Tellum lcaf (u 
alio Bi'.,H.) * cAr, thc Tdlom uid B; lad 'iAtl' ' þcim} þðrí, B. 

' at — níSam] sdd. B. 



BjamaT; en hann fEerðÍsk undan með eiðum, ok varð þat aldri 
uma-kust '. 

8. Þat bardc at í Króksfirði þar er at Kambi hcidr, — þar bjó 
Emair* Kjartansson, — at þangat höfðu sðtt da^skemtan* J6n ok 
Þorsteinn synir f'óraiinB Króksfjarðar*, en Þorsteinn var inni ; hann 
átti þar fylgju-konu. £n Jðn stóð úti undir vegg, ok talaði við 
Steinimni húsfreyju. Pi riöa fram fyrír húsit', Viðkuðr Lfnuson, 
ok Vigfiiss ; hann hafði öxina Steins-naut ; en Vtðkuðr hafði sviðu 
ok silfr-rekinn leggrinn &, ok allra vápna bitrast, ok vafit jámi 
skaptið. Þeir hljópu þegar báðir at Jðni ; ok sögðu, at þá skykli 
þeir launa hónrnn atferðir ok eltingar; ok lagði Viðkuðr til hans 
sviðunni, en Steinunn raim á Vigfús ok héU hónum. Jón hafði 
öxi vfða, ok lágt skaptið f ; hann laust af 5^r lagit ok greip sviöuna, 
ok las at höndum hónum. Þá vildi Viðkuðr bregða undan'; ea 
Jðn t<5k hann; ok þá kenndi afls-munar, ok börvaði Viðkufir 
undan. Þi kom ÞorsLeinn út, ok varð ekki af tihæði hans. Ok er 
Jón sá þat, þá hiatt hann Viðkunni frá sér svá hart, at hónum var 
við fall. Slðan hjó hann til hans, ok kom f ennit þvert; ok var þat 
ærít bana-sár, Þessi áverkí var mjfik lofaðr af flestum mönnum. 
Eptir þessa atburði lagðisk orðrómr á, at mjök þótti annarr háttr 
á um héraðs-stjömina en þá er Þorgils hafði. Ok tóku þá DoargÍT 
menn, þeir cr mikit þóttusk at sér eiga, at ráða eér til eigna 1 aöra 
sCaði, þar sem þeim þótti sér helzt traustz at ván. 

e. Nú skal þar til mils taka, er Böðvair bjó f Tungu f Sælinge- 
dal. P& rézk til bútags með hóntmi Yngvildr Þorgilsdðttir ; hón 
var þá ekkja. H var ok þat tíSenda, at þeir synir Þorgeirs vðru f 
Hvammi, Þorvarðr ok Ari, með Sturlu mági sfnum. Þeir görðu 
sér tftt um fondi við Tungu-mcnn, ok hittusk optast at laugu. t^ 
var um vetrinn er f>oivarðr hafði farít til laugar f Sælingsdal ; [ok] 
er hann skyldi heim fara, féll hann af baki, ok skeinði stk á fæti ; 
ok mæddi haim blóðrás ; ok fóm þeir i Tungu, ok var hann þar 
eptir, ok batt Vngvildr um fðt hónum. Hann var f Tungu mjök 
lengi at lækniiigu; ok um várít var hann /mist þar eðr l Hvanmu. 
Mönnum fimdusk orð um þat, at þau Þorvarðr ok Yngvildr mæltusk 
fieiravið en aðrir menn; en vinir þeirra synjuðu þess. £n uia 

' luna-Uutt] ttiuCd.iadB(Tiiulaiiit);mÐict.i.T.u[ui; nnunáU liutt, Br., H ; 
the tnie ftitm howcTer mzj be • umlet-laud.' ' Eiiilci, B. ' digikcmtiD] 

*dd. B. ' lynii {iðraríni KrdktfjiTÍar] aii. B. * menii fyiit húaa, B. 

* uiidan] uxi, B. 


ii3i-i'S9-] STURLU SAGA, 8, 9. 49 

[1.65:«.. 4.] 
várit eptir réik Þorvarðr norör til Eyjafjarðar; en Ynjfvildr fór þá 
út á Meðalfcllz-strönd, ók görði bú at Ballará. Hön lét aét búa 
svefnhus, ok var þar löngum. Hón hafði fóCar-meia um sumarít, ok 
gékk líit um sýslur. En um haustið kom þar kona. at sez vikum * 
SÚ er hét Wrdfs, ok var Leifedóttir; hón var ór Eyiafirði. Ok er 
hón bafði skamma stund dvalizl, þá ól hón bam; þat var nefnt 
Sigrlðr; en faðir hennar hít Þorsteinn Þorleifsson, Norðlenzkr 
tnaðr. HÖn f<k um baustið með bamit norðr til Eyjafjarðar. £n 
eigi at sfðr gninuðu menn, ok görðu möi^ orð á * um ráð þeíira 
f^rvarðz ok Yngvildar. Ok er Einarr verðr þessa varr, leitar hann 
epdr um málit við Þorvarð ; ok kvað hann mundu bér um vitja 
sðnnn svara. En þau svör kómu hér 1 mót af hendi Þorvarðz, at 
synjað var máls ; ok festr fyrír jámburðr ; ok skyldi Klængr bískup 
göra um hversu sem skfrslan gengi. Grfmr hét sá maðr Norð' 
lenxkr er jámit bor. £n er bOndis var leyst, þá var þat atkvasði 
biskups, at hann væri skfrr. Ok eptir þat sneri biskup f görö, ok 
görði íé i hendr Einari. Ok sleit svá því þingi. Þat sumar bjósk 
Þorvarðr til litan-ferðar f Eyjafirði. Þá seldi ok Yngvildr Qár- 
heimtur sfnar allar Sturlu ; ok tók hann sókn ok vöm allra mála 
hennar, sem hann væri aðilL Eptir þat rézk Yngvildr til ferðar á 
laun norðr til Eyjafjarðar, ok skar sér skör ok karl-klæði, ok með 
henni Steingrimr kumbaldi Másson. Ok er kaupmenn lögðu út 
eptir firðinum, hltSðu þeir segU ok skutu b&d, ok rQru yfir á 
Galmars-strðnd * ; ok gékk Yngvildr þar í skip, ok fór f brott roeð 
torvarði; ok kómu við Noreg. Þá var Ingi konungr Haraldzson, 
ok r^zk Þorvarðr þá til hans. Eu Gregorius Dagsson tðk við baldi 
Yngvildar. En er þecta fréttisk, þá hóEsk af nýju sá orðrómr, at 
SÍgrfðr mundi vera dóttir í^arvaröz ok Yngvildar; ok þat með, at | 
skfrsla hefði viUt verit, ok svá at Sturla ok IngibjÖrg hefði þessi 
ráð ráðit * með Þorvarði. Ok snýsk nú Einarr með fjándskap á 
hendr Sturlu ; ok kvað hann bafa sik vafðan f miklu vandræði *. Ok 
næsta sumar kvað Einarr þat upp fyrir vinum sfnum, at hann myndi 
málino fram halda á bendr Sturiu um þenna öhæfu-hlut Ok svá 
görði bann, ok fjölmennti mjök. Ok sótci þau mil f dóm, at bann 
hefði ráðit þau ráð i\>rvarði, at hann skyldi segja, at Þorsteinn væri 
faðir Sigríðar, þar sem Þorvarðr var Þargeirsson ; ok gört f þvf 
mannvillu ok krÍstni-spjöU'; ok \ét varða fjörbaugs-garð. En Sturia 
> it tcx Tikum] add. B. * mötg oiS i] mirgort, B. ■ Thui Cd, ; ailmu 
■Irönd, B. ' ri4Lt] víut, B. * vendntK, B. * «^^1] ^l, B. 


60 STURLUNGA SAGA. lU. [a.d. 

[1.66: «.M.] 
kvazk mtmdu fyrír þetta [mál] vimia eiða, at hann hefði eigi í þeim 
ráÖom veriL Einan mælti : ' Fá þú tóif menn með þér at sanna 
eið þfnn, ok mun ek eigi þá málum fram halda,' Ok er eiða skyldi 
vtnna, þá skilði Slm-la svá undir eiflstaf, at hann heffii eigi riðit 
Þorvarði at göra mannviUu. Þá innti Enarr svá ' málit, at hann 
hefSi eigi vitað með hðnum *. Þi sagði Sturla : ' Etgi hugða ek 
mik um þat mundu sekjan verða, þótt ek segða eigi óhapp eptir 
tengða-mfinnum mfnnm meðan ek var eigi [at] spurör.' M sagði 
EnaiT : ' Mundi nií þat mega heyra, hvirt Sturla hefir vitað mann- 
villuna.' Ok svá lagðisk orðrömr á, sem hann mundi vitað hafa. 
Var þá ok lokit sættinni. En með þvi sætt sú var ógoldin er 
biskup hafði gört á bendr Einari, þá stefndi Sturia eindaga um 
Alþingis-sættar-hald, ok lét varða Qörbaugs-garð, ok fóru hvár- 
tveggi málin í dóm. Hvárír-tveggju böfðu mikit fjölmenni, ok 
gengn hvár-tveggi málin' íram, ok varð hvárr-tveggi sekr íjör- 
baugs-maðr, Sturía ok Einarr, Eptir þingit söfnuöu þeir báðir liði 
til féráns-dóms. Ok þá fðr Einarr f Hvamm með hundrað manna*, 
en hann lét eptir f Saurbæ Hrólf Gunn<5Ifsson með hundrað manna. 
Þar var með Einari Snorri Kálfsson, Þorleifr beiskaldi or Hitárdal, 
sonr Þorleiks auðga, ok Hermundr Kofiransson, Halldórr Egilsson, 
ok mart annaira virðinga-manna. Sturla hafði ok mildt lið : þar 
var Böðvarr Þórðarson, Páll Bjamason. Sturia reifi vestr til Saur- 
bæjar meÖ sex tigi manna, ok reifi upp Þverdal ' en ofan Traöar- 
dal ok svá f Saurbæ, ok háöi féráns-dóm á Staðarhóli. Ok reiö 
aptr um Sælings-dal, ok útan reiðgötu at Hvammi. En flokkr 
Einars sat fyrir ofan gömna railli túngarðz ok Stekks-miila *. SlÖan 
gengu þeir Böðvair heiman af bænum með flokkinn ok mót Sturlu; 
en Einarr hljóp upp ok eggjaði atgöngu; en Þorleifr beiskaldi bað 
bann eigi stýra mðnnum f svá mikinn' váða, at aldri leystisk, sem 
ván var i, ef svá mikit fjölmenni skyldi þar beijask. Ok urðu 
margir góÖir menn ti! með hðnura' at eiga hlut í, Ok skilðu 
menn óhappa-laust. En er þeir fundusk, Sturla ok Böðvarr, sagði 
Böðvarr, at Sturla hafði mjök hætt til um málit, riðit frá mönnum 
stnum. Sturla kvað eigi œundu þykkja haldit til jafns við Einar, 

' ni] iiDdiT, idd. B. ' at haDD — btíiinm] 'ok cigi *iuS með htenm,' B. 

' mÍUn] B ; Td, Cd. • hnndrtð manna] (bm (c. muini) Kllum : lulit c, B. 
■ þrcrdal] B ; þúatdil, Cd., H, ai *lio belov ch. i8. * Stclikwndla] Kckka niDli, 
B. ' mikjiin ráh] bere endi thc rourtb ind bcgini thc Gftfa nUgm lcaf. * mcð 
hdnum] idd. B. 


iifo.] STURLU SAGA, 10. &i 

ef hann sæti heima ok heyði > eigi féráns-dóm ; en kvað vaitt at 
vita hváiT þar bœrí bætra hÍuL 

10. Nú sátu bváiir-tveggju I sekt* þau messerí. En at sumrí 
bdask þeir báöir til þin^-reiðar ; ok reið Sturla Langa-vatzdal, ea 
EinaiT Bratta-brckku. Ok er hann kemr suðr 1 Norðrár-dal *, þí 
skipti hann liði sfnu ok mælti : ' Nú er á þá leið, at v^r munum 
brejta ráðum um ferðir várar, ok snúa aptr til héraðs; en vtð 
gofiwði mfnu skal taka Alfr som i>óroddz jails.' Mörg;um mönnum 
kom þetta mjök í óvart, ok þöttusk skilja at nökkut mundi stórt 
undir búa. Einarr sneri þá aptr með hál&n þríðja tug manna. 
Þar var með hónum Gunnsteinn Þórísson, E^jðlfr, Oddr Baasason *, 
ok Viðarr Þorgeirsson. Þeir höfðu nátCverð at Sauðafelli, ok ríða 
um nóttina inn í Hvanmi. Þá mælci Einarr, áðr þor ríðu eU 
bænum : ' Nii vaera ek á þat viljaðr at vér eldim ósparlegs í Hvammi 
f nótt, ok msetti þeir minnask* kvámu várrar.' Þeir vóm ok flestir 
með hónum er cigi löttu þessa mjök. Ok er þeir kómu f Hvamm, 
þá færðu þeir alla menn i kirkju; en niddu' fé öllu, ok brenndu 
aJlan bœinn; ok flutm fé allt vestr til Saurbæjar, ok tötðust at sinu 
ganga. Einarr reið þíl til þings með nfunda ^ mann. Ok er menn 
kómu á fund Studn ok sögfiu bónum tiðendin : Hann svarar ok 
kvað Einar m]mdu ellt hafa trýju-Iaust eina nótt. Sfðaa var teitað 
um sættir af vinum beggja þeirra ok ste&iur til lagðar ; ok þótti 
mfinnnm til vandræða horfa. Slðan var at söttr Elængr biskup at 
hamt myndi göra um málit Sturla játaði þessa ok Einarr, ok þeir 
mundu hab þat er biskup gerði '; ok kalla hann Ifklegan at göra 
til jafnaðar. Ok & þvl þingi var sæUk á 811 mál at þessn. £n áðr 
lil loks værí lyktum á snúit, kvezk Sturla vilja at biskup ynm 
fimtardðms-eið, at hann görði jafn-sætti. Siöan var fundr f Bónda- 
kirkju-garði alIQfilmennr. t>á mælti biskup : ' Ek gfiri fyrír brennu 
ok bæjar-skaða sez tigi hundraöa, en fyrír sakir við Sturlu af 
Einarí ' gðri ek fimm tigi hundraða ; rán skulu gjaldask apte.' 
Eptir þat vann biskup fimtardóms-eið. H mælti Sturla: 'Svá 
virði ek eið biskups sem Fáska-messu ; má ek þat cigi til íjii meta ; 
en B<3mi er oss þat £a fleatir munu eigi kalla gjöldin mikil, ok 

> heyK\ luefii, B. ■ i lekl] B ; > kM. Cd. ' Norarir-dal] Kitidal B. 

' BaiuoD, B. * míniuuk] leka mÍDni til, B. * nuUn] thoi Tellam ; raata, B. 
* ix*, B; in nllnm lUicertaiQ (i nunnc?}. * Hmn mni ok krafi — gctU] 

emeDd. The vdlmD bdng heie ilmott illegible, the papei tniucripti (Br., U} ire 
ill fiiiltj. la the iHegible vardi ve hiTe therefore had Tccoane to B. * Stoilu 
arEiDui] enfjTÍi ukii nð Eioii, 8 (bettei?}. 



[1.68,69; "-"ö-] 
gfirðir eigi fésamar.' Sfðan róni menD heim af þingi, ok vóra 
Báttir at kalla; ok réttusk rán ðest, ok eigi görsamlega. Sturla 
BetCi hlísa-bæ * sfnn um sumarít ; ok var alh^st fyrír veCr, eigi verr 
en áftr, Þau Sturia ok Ingibjörg áttu tvær dætr, t'órdfsi ok Slein- 
unni. Ingibj^g tók sótt ok andaðisk á6r mála-lok þessi urðu. 
Sfðan átti Steinunni Jón Brandzson; ok bjðggu þau á Reykja- 
hólum. I>eirra synir vóni þeir Bergþórr, ok Brandr ok fvarr ok 
Ingimundr. En Þórdfsi átti Bárðr * Snorra son, Bárðar sonar ins 
Evarta ðr Selárdal ; ok vðru þeiira synir, Snorri ok Pétr ok StuHa, 
Nökkuru sfðarr áttd Sturla son vifi GuðfÍQnu Steinsdöttur, þann 
er Bjöm h^t. Ok litlu sfðair fékk hami Guðnýjai Böðvarsdóttur, 
ok var þat brúllaup* í HvammL Ok átti hana til ellí. 

11. Þá var Einarr Helgason stjúpsonr Sturlu í Hvammi ; hann 
görðisk þá roskinn maðr. H galt SCuría út íé hans; þat var land 
I Sælingsdals-tungu, ok þar búít með. Hann settisk þá I hú ok 
kvángaðisk, ok fékk Gufininar Brandzdðttur systur ]6as með tilstilli 
Sturlu, með þat fé er henni fylgði heiman ; þat var land f Króks- 
fjarðar-nesi ok Króksfjaröar-eyjar. En þat hafÖt verit nfikkura hríð, 
at Brandr hafði léð Eínari Þorgílssyni at færa f ær um haustum til 
skurðar ; en þá var avá komit, at Einan torgilsson þóttisk eiga mála 
á, at hafa meðan hann bjðggi á Staðarhóli. Sfðan lét Einarr Ingi- 
bjargarson færa út ær sfnar um haustit, ok kvezk ætla at hann skyldi 
eigi vera ræningi fyrir Einarí Þoi^lssyni. En er þetta frétti EÍnarr 
fvrgilsson, kvað hann þat Ifklegra at hann mtmdi halda réttu ryrír 
' nafna sfnum, ok kvað þeim enn eigi kiðask at leita á sik. Hann 
sendi sfðan Ljúfina prest at færa lit sínar ær ok hinar ótan. Ok er 
þeir kóma f Króksfjarðar-nes til Eyjólfs Hailgrfmssonar; hann var 
gamall maðr ok góðr bóndi. Þeir báðu hann akips. Hann kvezk 
eigt mundu Ijá. Þá maelti preatr: 'Fim mikil tekr þú til;' — ok 
laust hann með öxar-hamii ; ok varð þat sýnn áverki. Þeir tóku 
gkip hans ok færðu út æmar, en hinar útan ; ok fara heim eptir 
þat. En er Einarr Ingibjargarson spurði þetta, kvað hann Einar 
Þorgilsson enn sýna rangyndi, ok fylgja at vándum mála-efnum 
sem fyrr. Hann lét fara eptir ám sfnum ok reka heim. Sfðan 
finnr hann Sturlu, ok segir (at) hónum Ifkaði flla við nafna sfnn. 
Sturla segir : ' Þat munu flestir ætla, at ek muna fyrir láta vinnask 
málaferli við Einar ; en eigi vil ek enn sitja hónum óhæfu-hlut við 

■ wtti bii(i.bB] thm Teltom (ind H, 440) : lét hdu, B. ■ BirSr] B; Bnndr. 
Cd. (irrDngly). ' brúakiap, B. 


1161-1169.] STURLU SAGA, U, 12. 53 

tnjk eðr mfna vini.' Litlu sfðarr fóni þetr Sturla ok Einarr með 
tólfta mann vestr f Gufudals-fjörð at heimboði. Ok er þeir fóru 
vestan, f<5ni þeir út f Króksf^arðar-eyjar, ok hjaggu allar ær Einars 
Þorgilssonar, ok báni saman f elnn kOst. Eptir þat fóni þeir heim. 
H var Hnarr t>orgilsson at brúðhlaupi á Reykjahólum, er Böðvarr 
Barkarson gipti ValgerðÍ, dóttur sfna, l^rhalli Brandzsyni. Þá 
spurði Eínarr il-hðggit ; ok svarar svá : ' Ekki leiðisk þeim enn at 
[vér] eigimsk við gtettni.' Um vetrinn eptir Jöl fór Einarr Ingi- 
bjargarson norðr til Eyjarjarðar. En er Eínarr Þoi^tsson fi'étti þat, 
þá fÓT hann um daginn viö átta mann suðr f Tungu. Hann kvaddi 
til sÍD Þorgeir Grfmsson, ok kvezk vilja at hann ynni á Lopti fóst- 
bróður Guðnýjar Brandzdóttur, ok lézk vilja göra þcim nökkura 
ákenning sínna verka, Þá er þeir kdmu f Tungu, gengu þeir f 
stofu ; ok var þeim heilsað ok spurðir tiðenda, ok settusk þeir niðr. 
En er Einarr sá, at ekki varð tilræði tíirgeirs, þá stóð hann upp, ok 
gékk útar á gólfit Hann var nærsýnn, ok þekti hann eigi hvar 
Loptr sat Hann sneri at þeim manni er Þorólfr bét, ok lagði spjóti 
í lær hónum svá at skar lít ór ; ok var þat svÐðu-sár'. i>á hlaujKi upp 
menn þeir er inni vdru ok héh bverr & öörum. Þar var Guðfinna 
Svetnsdéttír, ok hélt hón Einari. Þau skutu konu einnt út f 
Hvamm at segja Sturlu ; en konur ok karlar þeir er þar vóru héldu 
þeim Einarí. Ok roundu þeir cigi á brott komask ef Svertingr 
Starrason veitti þeím eigi ; haim ]ét þ& lausa ; ok kvað eigi hæfa at 
þar yrði metri vandræðt ; ok kom hann þeim f brott ; bann var þar 
beima-maðr. t'eir Einarr rðru þegar brott, ok gengu upp á Múla 
ok norðr eptir fjalli, þai til er þeir kómu beim. £n er Sturla kom 
f Tungu, lét hann lýsa áverkum. Haim gékk sfðan at Svertingi ok 
rdddi öxar-hamar at höCði hónum, ok kvað hann þess verðan at 
haim væri drepinn ; ok var við sjálfl at þat færi fiam ; en þat barg 
hónnm er hann var heima^aör Einars Ingibjargarsonar, NiÍ 
þóttusk þeir Einarr f'oi^ilsson hafa hefht nökkvat á-höggsins. 

13. Nú er þat sagt um haustið, at i^argrímr prestr brotaraaðr' 
kom norðan ór héraði ok með hónum Alöf kona hans ; hón var 
kvenna vænst, en hann var gamall. t>au kómu á Staðarhól. Hallr 
Þjóðólfsson var heima-maðr Einars. Haim kvað þat aldri skyldu 
vera lengr, at gamall maðr flakkaði með* svá væna konu; ok tók 
hana af bónuro, ok svá hcst hans er Máni bét, allra hesla beztr. 

' löOu lir. B. * broUmaðr] a^d. B. ■ AakkiU melt] flckkaði, B 


64 STURLUNGA SAGA. lU. [a-d. 

[i.7«: ii.iB.] 
I>O^TÍinr fór broU af Slaðarhóli ok unði fUa við. Hann fðr f 
Hvamm, ok sagði Sturlu at hónum var göi svfvirfiing, ok bað hann ' 
ásjá. Sturla segir eigi veia mikii-mennsku f slfku ; en kvað Einar 
þat ílla gðra, at veita vendiS'inönnuin á leið fram, ok leggja þar við 
virðing sfna. Um haustiö hafði brotifi skip norör við Hom, ok 
kömu menn þaðan félaustr til Sturlu ok báðu Siurlu isjá. Hann 
tóí við þeim um vetrínn. £inn þeirra hét Gjafvaidr. Sturla 
mæltí við hann : ' £k þykkjumk ha& ráðit vel mjök við þik. Nii vil 
ek senda þik vestr til Saurbæjar til Helga prestz til haldz, at hann 
sé þ^ at liði ok heima-menn hana ; en þú skalt sicja um Hall 
tjóðólfeson.' Hann kvezk til þess skyldr at göra sem Sturia vildi. 
Haun fór, ok kom tíl Hváls, ok segir Helga prestí. Hann kvazk 
mundu við hónum taka. Ok var hann þar um hrfð. Ok litlu sfðarr 
kom þangat Hallr Þjóðólfsson um brinn veg, ok stefndi þaðan 
ofan til Máskeldu ; en húskarlar Helga prests slógusk á leiði-orð 
við bann. £n er þeir kðmu út ór garfii, kom Gjafvaldr eptir þeim, 
ok hjð þegar til Hallz, ok kom á hægii ðsl, ok renndí o&n eptír 
armlegginum mjök at mnboga, ok varð mikit sár. Gjafvaldr lók 
þí blaup, ok ferr tíl þess er lunn kom f Hvamm. En er Einarr 
[t^jrgilsson] spurði þetta, heimtír hann at sér vini sina, ok kvað sér 
Illa hugna svá búiL Suniir mættu, at eigi værí mótráð góð '. £ptir 
þat fór Alðf brott af Staðarhöli, ok suðr f Hvamm, ok tók Þorgrfmr 
við benni. M bað Sturla í*orgrfm fera til Saurbæjar, ok viia ef 
bann næði hesti sfnum. Sfðan för hann f Saurbas, ok sat um 
hestinn, ok gat tekit f drffu-éli, ok komsk brott með. Ejnarr Ingi- 
bjargarson kom norðan um vetrínn, ok líkaði flla er hiiskaii hans 
var særðr. 

13. Sigurðr bét maðr keríingar-nef; hann bjö at Laugum f 
Sælingsdal; hann var þingmaðr Einars Þorgilssonar. Hánum 
fylgði at lt^;i Amgerðr dóttir Asólfe Gunnfarz-sonar ; hón var væn 
kona. Þat var eitt hvert sinn, at Einarr Ingibjargarson reið yfir til 
laugar ok kom til búss ; ok batt hest sfnn við dyir ; en hann gékk tíl 
Btolii ok talaði við Amgerði. £n er Sigurðr varð þessa vair, hleypði 
hann beisli af hestínum ; ok hljóp hann brott ; en konur kómu f 
stofu, ok kváðu Einar mundu verða ganga heim ef hann tekr cigi 
hcst sfnn. Einan gei^ út ok hittí Sigurð, ok spurði hvf hann 
görði hónum slfkan * larar-táhna. Sigurðr var stór-orðr, ok kvað 

■ a(— gúA] U þil Tieri úrUligt, B. 


ii6i-i(Í90 STURLU SAGA, 13, 14. 55 

hann vera vel til hlaups biSinn at elta hest sfnn. ' Heyr i,' sagði 
EÍDaiT, 'at þú görír mér afar-kosti.' Ok laust til hans öxar-hamrí 
fyrir ofan eyiat, svá at þ^ar horfðu upp fsetniir. Þá spuriSi Einacr 
ef hann vildiannat'. Sigurðr stóð á tetr ok skauzt inn í dymar'; 
en konur grfpa Einar, ok b&fiu baim heim fiiTa ; ok hann görfii svá, 
Síðan sendi hann f Hvamm at hitta Sturlu. Einarr Þorgilsson vax 
at gÍEtÍngu f Asgarði at Erlendz prestz. Sigurðr fór þegar á fimd 
Einais, ok sagöi hónum hver ósæmð bónum værí gör, ok hað bann 
ásjá. Einarr l^zk þat vilja, at eigi ynni þeir opt á þingmönnum 
bans. Sturla fór f Tungu ok ste&idi til sfn bóndum ; ok vóru þeii 
mer {x'fr tigir manna. Einan f>orgils5on sendi þá Styr Gilsson at 
beiða bændr, at þeir kæmi f Asgarð. Ok er Sturla varð þess varr, 
þá kvað bann þess skyldu eigi kost Sfðan reið Einair f Tungu 
við nfunda maon ; en þeir Sturla gengu mót þeim Einarí. H segir 
Sturla : ' Saddir eni véi nii * á heimsóknum yðrum, ok mjðk virða 
vér til ágangs yfirar tiltektir, ok sýnu meirr þykkjumk vér undaa 
æra*; ok vetdr þat, at véi þykkjumk meirr sjá við vandræöum'; 
es kostr mun nii á at rélta hlut sfna við þik, EinaiT.' Hami segir ; 
' Svá at eins skal sú heimsókn, at yðr skal engi ósæmð at vera,' 
ok mælti all&grL Ok var þat mál svá lukt, at Sturla skyldi einn 
gðra *. Sturla kvezk þá mundu gðrð upp segja, ' At ek mun göra 
rétt r" a n "J^nfl | ok skaJ hér nú gjalda ffiL' t^ var yzn þo'é-vett ok 
hestr'. Ok akilðusk við þat. Hallr Þjófiölfsson var al lækningu 
at Hváli þar tii hann var bcilL Pi mælti Helgi prestr : ' Ná ræð ek 
þat, at þú &iir f Hvamm ok skjötir þinu máti undir Stiulu ; ok ætla 
ek þér þat vænst til leifiiéttu.' HaHr íen ók hittir Sturlu, ok kvezk 
vilja leggja & bans döm sftt máL Sturla sagfii, at haon vill Íeggja 
Halli sæmð til fyrír iverkann. 

14. Halidón bét maðr, er kallaðr var hvirM; hans son hét "^ 
Kjaitan ; hann var húskail öspaks f Holti. GuðbjOrg hét kona 
bans ; hón var dóttir Skáld-Þóröar ; hón hafði fylgt Viðari Þorgeirs- 
syni, ok vðru þau þá skilð ; bón vaj þá heima-kona f Holti. Þat 
var þá mál manna, at Kjartan værí at hjali við hana. Svá bor at 
eitt sinn, ei þau fóru frá tfðum, at Viðarr bitrí þau á leifi. Hann 
bljóp at Kjartani ok rak hann niðr ; ok kvað mikil fim, er auvirðt 

' Einur OKelti ' TÍUtn aui aniut,' 8. ' ijnia, B. ' itiddic etoþ «1 pd, B 
(otoo.) * «>] B; ein («"11), Cd. > Teudnfium, B. * doa gðn] gÖ» 
Dieð þéiiD, B (wTonglj). ' Sturli lcreik— hntr] Stnrii lagfii ec gcti íjm ÍTcrkiD 
hcM ök nu iii vctnn ok giiMi nd þ^t, B. 


5« " STURLUNGA SAGA. 111. [a.d. 

þat lagfiisk at konum ; ok fðr við haiin flla. £n er bóta var beilt 
fyrir þetta, þá sagfii hann : ' Ef ek skal bæta, þá vil ek eiga fyrír 
nfikkut at bæta.' Ok enn I annat sinn hictir hann þau Kjadan ok 
Guðbjörgu á fömum vegi, ok rekr hann níðr ok ferr með hann ílla, 
ok berr svá á hónum, ok mælti við hann svfvirðlega. Ok cr Öspakr 
varð þessa vajr, þá beiðisk hann bóta, ' Ok virð mik til f þessu máli 
um búskarí naínn, ok þar er tengfia-mafir mlnn sem þú ert.' — Þeir 
vóru braeðr, Oddr faðir öspaks, ok Þorgeirr faðir Viðara. — Hano 
kvazk mundu einu' bæta, kvafi Kjartan h^Sa. verit lengi sér til 
óþyrftar *. Ok féksk af ekki. Þat var um vetrinn Magnús-messu 
fyrir Jól at þeir fðni báðir til Hváls til tíða ■ ; ok er lokit var [tffium] 
gengu menn f brott. Viðarr gékk ór kirkju-garfii, ok fðr heím ; en 
Kjartan gékk þegar eptir hónum ok hjó f höfuö hónum ; ok leiddi 
þat sár Vifiar til bana. Kjaitan hljóp þaðan snðr yfir Heiði, ok 
kom I Hvamm, ok sagði Sturlu áverkann. Sturla kvað hónum 
nauðsyn á hafa verít, ok skaut yfir hann nökkunim skildi *. KjartaD 
var skyldr þeim biæðnmi Þorgilsi ok NarJa frá Skarði, ok sendi 
Sturla hann þangat, ok tóku þeir við hónum ok kómu hónum útan, 
ok gáfu fé til famingar hónum. 

10. Gils bét mafir, a bjó á Meðalfellz-strönd ; bann átti Iftið fé 
ok mannbeill. Özurr hét sonr hans, hann var í förum; ok var 
fyrst lest-reki Guðlaugs auðga, Noræns mannz. Hana grasddi af fé 
til þess er hann var maðr auðigr. Hann keypti land i Nðrðri 
Strðnd í Búðardal, ok görfli sér bú, ok görðisk nýtr bóndi ok gagn- 
samr, ok þó flla heill löngum. Þorgiis bét maðr er bjó f Króks- 
firði*; hann var Iftill fyrir sér; bans synir vóru þeir Grímr ok 
Skapti*. Grfmr var kominn & íramfærslu Alfs' Ömólfssonar í 
Fagradal ; en Skapti bjó f Króksfirðí, ok átti ómegð mikla en fé 
lítið, ok bann sjálfr vai Iftils-háttar. Þeir bræðr vöm taiðir til 
arftóku eptir Özur inn auðga ; þvlat íVDrkatla SvarUdóttir þótti eigi 
bala vit til at varðveita ftíit ; en hón var þá skyldust Özuri. Josep 
hét maðr, hann var Grettisson, Skeggja sonar Skamm-höndungs; 
bann var góðr bóndi ; kona bans bét Aiöf, ok var Tryggva dóttir; 
böra þeirra vóra þau Oddr, Heimlaug ok f>órdfs. Oddr Jósepsson 
var jafn-skyldr Özuri sem þeir Skapti ok Grfmr. Oddr var snjallr 

> elDu] tago, B. * lcnð K}acUa hafa Ten )ufl í Huium(l) ok tÍlgerAcim, 

B. ' þ»t Tii— lIS»] B ; CD er mena fiira til tiSi. Br., H. * Dokkoro ikiiili, B. 
• i Kidkifiiði] B ; i Skvði, Br, H. • Skopti, B (ind below). ' Atft) B lad 
440 ; Öbr*. Cd. 


1161-1169.] STURLU SAGA, 15. 57 

maftr ok vel mæltr ', ok þótti özuri þar vel komit íé sítt er Oddr 
tæki við. Oddr var ok lön^m 1 Búðardal, ok svá þá er 3<5tt féll aC 
hónmn*. i^ bjó Erlendr prestr HaUason' í Asgarði; hann var 
þjnginaðr Ijnars l>orgilBsonar ok alda-vin hans, ok sat fyni gisting 
hans hvárt sem hann var fjölmennari eðr i^mennari; hajin var 
gildr bóndi ; hónum fylgði Jóninn Grettisdóttir. Snorri son Gufu- 
Hallz baföi ráðit sik at vistar-fari vestr í Saurbse, þvlat hann var í 
tfðleikmn við Kolfinnu í^jrgrfmsdóttur konu Sigurðar i Bjamar- 
stöðnm HöskuUz-sonar, ok görðisk hann vin Einara Þorgilssonar. 
En er um var vandat viscir hans í Saurbæ, þá lagði hann búlag viö 
Erlend presC í Asgarði ; var hann balh- undir Einar f málaferlum þeirra 
Sturlu. Þá lagði Sturla óþokka á þá Erlend ok Snorra; ok kvað 
sýnask sem þeir vildi mótgöngu-menn hans gfirask. Þat var eitt 
únn, at hross þeirra Erlendz* höfðu gengiC yflr ána ; en Már Alísson 
gætti smala f Hvammi. Hann tók hrossin ok bindr ; en Iv^rleifr 
Ketibson, hiískarl Erlendz prestz, ferr til, ok rak hann af baki, ok 
barði hann svá at hann var bœði biár ok blóðugr. Scurla var 
riðinn á Strönd út, ok kom heim annan dag viku. Hönum var sagt 
af sameign þeirra Más ok i\>rletfs. Sturhi kvað slfkt vera ðsóma 
mikinn at beija á mönnum saklausum, ok kvað eigi góðu mundu 
reifa. Stðan lét hann göra njósn um hvat þeir höfðusk* at f 
Asgarði; ok varð þess varr, at þeir Erlendr æduðu til laugar 
Ðróttinsdag eptir dagverð. Um daginn fór Scurla heiman, ok 
Sveinn sonr haos, til laugar. Ok er þeir kómu þar, var prestr í 
laugu, en Snorri gékk ðr lauginni ; en Þorleifr sat, ok forinn * ór 
klæðunum ok ætlaði f laug. t>eir unnu þegar á Snorra, en vógu 
f^rleif. Þá mælti Sturla við Svein, at hann skyldi vinna á Erlendi 
presti'. Sveinn sagði: 'í*aC hæfir eigi, þvfat hann er skíri-feðir 
mfnn.' Siðan fara þeir Sturla heím. KetiU prestr faðir Þorleifs 
var þingmaðr Einars Þorgilssonar. teir Einarr fóru ok I^tu vlgi 
ok áverkum '. Þeir kváðu mjök sýnask ofsa ok fjándskap ok lUsku ; 
ok kváðu SCurlu opt vekja óvfsu '. Ok um várít eptir var fundr 
lagðr ( Sælingsdal ofanverðum; ok urðu merm þar eigi sáttir. 
Nökkuni síðarr kom norðan Snorri Einarsson". Ok var þá [enn] 
timdr lagðr f Sælingsdal ; ok átii hann mikinn blut f sætCum, ok 

> inzltT] B ; mtDCr, Bc, H. • ok ití þi cr faanD tj^zDa, B. • Halliion] 
iái. B. * þeim Erlmilz] þdini ór Áigarai, B. ' bcfBÍtz, B. * fdr, B. 

' Tið Snin — pmli] iM. B. ' ok &rcrkuiii] B{ rjrrÍT tiSruin, Cd. ■ optaz 

fjir Tckj* ÚTÚu, B. '• Einarnoo] thui B; icad 'Kairuoii'(')- la Bi., H, tbe 
Danic it abridged and uucimín. 


58 STURLUNGA SAGA. Ul. [a. d. 

[i.:6 :«.«.».] 
kvað einsætt at eigi aukisk ' vaDdræfii manna, ok kvað ymsa valda. 
Pá varfi sátt ; ok tók sfim mann hvárr til görðar. Eptir þat brá 
Erlendr búi sínn, en Snorri fór á Skarfstaði. 

16. H er Einarr Þorgilssoo frétti* andlát Özm^ ins auðga, þá 
fór hann út f Fagradal til Alfe. Ok er hann kom þar, þá sagði hana 
Grfmi eyrendí sf tt : ' £k vil at þú biir heim með mér ; en ek vil 
eiga ■ fjár-heimtu þá er þú átt f Búðardal.' Grímr var leiddr ór 
kirkju, ok för með Einaii. £n Alfr kvað þat eigi at sfnmn vilja 
gfirt, ' Þvfat ek hefi,' sagði hami, ' áðr tagt íé fyrir hann ; þviu 
Ozmr var eigi skilgetinn; ok sat ek því fyiir ómegömn; ok 
þykkjumk ek þvf til kominn at nökkurum hluta um fjár-tðkuna.' 
KnaiT kvezk eigi hiiða bvat hann mælti. Ok tók í hönd Kirkju- 
Grfmi, er þá var kallaðr, ok nefndi vátta ' ; ok skilði svá fyrír hand- 
sali, at bann tók handsölum ok heimilðum á fé þvf tíllu er var í 
Búðardal ok Grfmr var þá aifi at orðinn; '£n ek bandsala* 
hónum vist á móti ok framfærslu.' £ptir þat fór £inarr á fund 
Skapta, ok t<5k af hónum handsðl með slíkum hætti. Sfðan fói 
hann 1 Búðardal á fund Oddz ; ok sagði bðnum, at bano vildi leysa 
haim frá fé þvf ðlla, ei þar var, með sex tigum hundiaða '. Oddr 
kvazk þat eigi vilja, þótt hann tæki af möimum nauðgum slfkar 
klengingar^ H mæltí Einarr : ' ht befi ek heyit menn mæla, at 
þii mimir eigi vera skilgetinn, ok mun þat vera réttara at þú hafir 
ekki af.' Sfðan skilðu þeii' með slíknm orða-&köstum ; ok fór 
Einan heún ; en Oddr ferr þegar ok hittir Sturlu, ok sótti hann at 
máli. Sturla kvazk mtmdu á Ifta með bónum. Sfðan lét Oddr 
þau orð fara til £inars, at hann mundi bera jám, at hann væri 
arfgengr*, beldr en láta laust fyrír lög fram. Ok þ& var komion 
til Einais Már Guðmundarson, Vilmundr Snorrason, ívarr Özurar- 
son, Grfmr ok Asbjöm Ljótz-synir. Þeir urðu sekir um vlg Karls 
Konriðssonar ok Böðvars Gifmssonar. Þeii vóiu kallaðii Skóg- 
ungar. Þeir bðfðu áðr verít f Flatey með Þorsteini Gyðusyni. 

17. Um várít eptir Páska fór Hnarr Þoigilsson út S Búðardal, ok 
tók upp búit allt mat ok * vöra ok ganganda f^, þat er þeir mittu 
með komask; en Oddi var haldit meðan, ok bað Einarr bann 
kyrran vera ; ok gékk at bónom, ok greip af hendi hðnimi silfi-- 
hring ; ok fór heim sfðan. Þá var gðrt virki um bæinn á Staöar- 

■ iDkuk] icykii, B. * Mttí] fri, B. ■ eig>] tdca, B. * Orlnii ok Dcfodl 
Táiu, B. ■ hanuk, B (bcn ■nd oftai). * nia tígt hiiiulnB(t), B. ' þM 
hann tski af lér luDSgDni, B. * aifgengi] lö^gr arfi, B. * mit okj idd. B. 


U69-1170] STURLU SAGA, 16-18. 59 

[L 77 : iL is-] 
hóli, ok vóni þar bji^fi nautin um nætr ok vakat yGi, en setið at 
um daga niidir Qallinu gegnt Staðarhóli. Oddr Josepsson för 
þegar eptir ránit i Hvamm, ok bað Sturlu liðs, ok kvazk mjök 
þur^ hans fulltings, 'Ok vil ek,' segir hann, 'gefa þér fé til 
liðveizlu.' Sturla kvezk eigi nenna at deila um alíkt mál við Ein&r, 
'£d hitta máttú Einar Ingibjargarson, ok vtta ef hami vill' r^tta 
hlut þfnn.' Nú bitti Oddr £jnar, ok sótti hann at traustí, ok 
kvezk vera mjök van-haldinn; 'Nú víl ek gefa þéi íé til lifis.* 
Einarr kvezk vilja hitta Stuiiu. Ok nii hiz þeir báðir i fund 
StuHu ; ok sagði Einarr, at hann mun til seila&k * ; ' Sýnisk mér at 
<^afnaðí ganga at sognni. Eðr hverju viltú þér af skipta ?' Sturla 
sagði: 'Veiztú þat, mágr, at ek mun eigi við \Ák skilja f mála- 
fertum.' Slðan fór Sturk ok Einarr með Oddi 1 Búðardal, ok 
görðu þar setur; Bömnuðu at sá: búíé þvf er eptir haíði orðít, ok 
Bvá höfðu þeir fbng ór eyjum, egg ok sela '. Sfðan fór Sturla heim ; 
en þeir Einair ok Oddr vóru fyrir setunni. KnarT hafði skipkost 
betii enn Bdðdælir, ok urðu bans menn þar opt fengi-sœlli. 

18. Einarr Ingibjargarson fór eitthvert sinn með n&kkura menn 
í Tjaldaues, ok kvezk vilja göra Saurbæingum nökkut fUt. Ok er 
þeir kómn f Tjaldanes, bjðggu þeir f snndr skip ok skútur Eioars, 
ok vóru þau þrjií, ok kvað þat* mega jafíiask með þeim. Ok sneri 
heim aptr tt neðra um fjöru. Þá róru þeir Ami Gilsson ok Bjöm ' 
Kálfsson útan f mót þeim it efira um mýrainar; ok flindu þeir 
EinaiT eigi fyTT en þeú: kóms um fram ; ok SDeru þ^ar eptir þeim, 
ok eltu langt; en þá dró ondan. Ok skildu at því. En er Knarr 
ÍVH-gilsson varð þessa varr, kvezk harm vilja hitta BúðdælL Ok 
svá var gört. En er bændr urðu þcssa vaiir, þá sömnuðnsk þeir 
saman, ok gengu & milU, ok var hvirigum kostr at göra öðmm 
mdn. Einarr stefodi sfðan um skipa-hðggit. Ok fóru heim eptir 
þat. iEjnan rciö sfðan til iÍDgB. Ok Wðju-nótt [ena] nasstu íyrir 
þingit, fóru þeir Einarr [Ingibjargarson] norðr* it efia yfir fjall o&in 
Tiaðardal upp frá Staðarhóli ; en þeir görðu tvá menn kfna ofan 
i Melárdal', ok einn ofan Asólfs-götu' til njösnai, at vita um naut 
þau er 6t Búðardal væri komin. £n þeir kómu á móti þeim 
Einari í Weiárdal, ok sðgðu þeim at naulin væri nær túni á Staðar- 
hólL Sfðan fóra þeir til nautanna; ok þekti Oddr þar mefi 

' Till] viH, B. • kUi. B. ' ^ ok «1»] B ; cgg tetDoni ok lebi. Br, 

' þat] þá, B. > Bjoni] Biuni, B. * DorSt] emcnd. ; ufti it e&a, Cd. ; om. 
B. ' mcl u dal. B. ■ Cp. Skiti R. 



[I. 78! ii. 23-] 

gmfiung þann er komuiii var ór Búðardal. Oí fyrír þvl hugðu þeir, 
M þau myndu vera nautín. £n þat vóru þð heima-naut af Staðar- 
hóli. Þeir reka nauíin beint yfir ána, ok stefna til Tjaldaness. fÁ 
er Einarr reið til þin^, setti hann eptir Má Gilsson ok Vilmtind. 
Sturla reið [ok] til þings. VÍImundr ok þeir félagar vóru heima biöir, 
ok vóni gengnir tii borða, en Már ^taði um daginn. Pi kom maðr 
inn f stofiina, ek sagði þá vera mundi tii ðnnur sýsla en matask 
lengi; ok segir [at] nauC Einars væri brott rekin, ok Búðdælir 
mundi komnir. Þeir Vilmundr hljópu þ& til vápna, ok fóru eptir 
þeim, ok nökkurir menn af næstum bæjimi, er sá' fbr hv&Tra- 
tveggju. I%ir fundusk fyiir útan ána upp frá Hleyptlæk, ok vóni 
þeir Oddr xv eðr xvi, en þeir Vilmundr v6ru fjórtán. En er þeir 
finnask, slósk þar þegar í bard^a. Ok snemma dagsins hjó ívan 
prestr Einar um þverar herðar, ok varð þat mikit sár ; en Oddr bj6 
fvar prest bana-högg. Oddr Josepsson vá Leif húskarl Einars 
Þorgilssonar. Sfðan hjó Oddr til Asbjamar Finnzsonar á öxlina, 
ok klauf niðr f sfðuna svá at sá inn f holit. H hjó hann til 
Þorsteins Alfssonar', ojc klauf andlitið ; ok féll hann þar. Asbjöm 
Finnzson lagði Spjöti til Grfms; ok féll hanu eigi, ok gékk' upp á 
lagit, svá at oddrínn nam staðar 1 hrygginum. Hann snörisk * við, 
ok hljóp spjötið út á mÍUi rifjanna, ok g^kk hann þá upp á skaptið, 
ok hjó með handöxi á hönd Asbjamar ; ok var þat mikit sár.. t>ar 
flíll Grímr ok Auðunn Tostason '. Steinótfr af Kvemgrjóti *, Einarr 
Sigurðarson^ af Bjamarstöðum. Þeir höfðu hlaupit til ór torf- 
skurði. Bjami Finnzson fékk ok mikit s&i á sfðu, ok S^urðr 
Ingimundarson fékk áverka stóran. Vilmundr Snonason varð ok 
Etaddr nauðulega; ok hörfaði fram at ánnt, ok stakk spjót-skapt- 
inu á bak sét aptr yfir ána, ok komsk svá með hlaupi f brott. Ok 
nú lauk bardaganum. Ok er þeir vðru skilðir, urðu Búðdælir þess 
varír, at Einarr Ingibjargarson var sárr orðinn. Ok vildu þá sumir 
fara eptir þeim ok drepa þá ; en hitc var ráðs tekit, at þeir snöra 
yíir til Hváls til Helga prestz, þvfat Einarr f^sti þess; ok kvað 
mikit at orðit; ok var hann borinn af fundinum í skildi'. Hallr 
inn rauði fór til Hváls ok sagði presti tlðendin. Sfðan ferr hann i 
móti þeim, ok batt um sár Einars, ok Sutti bann heim til Hváls. 
*£n þat er mftt ráð,' sagði hann, 'at nökkurir feiri á Staðarhöl, 

> ciii] B; EÍDurt&.Cd. ■ Alfuonii] emend.: Ólifu., B indCd, * g^] 
Biféll,Cd. ' taöciik] loanSÍz, B. > Toituan] B; Jofteiu lynir.Cd. • Kvenf 
grjóii] tbui B : kTernbijai, Bi. {þiá]y'). ' Sigvitiion, B. ■ i ikilJi] iJd. H. 


uío.] STURLU SAGA, 19. 6i 

[I. 79,Bo: iLí4.] 
þvfat miktii þarf nú um stærra M tala, aHz þó heflr mÍBtekizk til 
naulaiina.' Ok þat vildi Oddr. Vóni þá nautin rekin á Staðarböl. 
Sffian fóni þeir Oddr i BúSardal ; ok sendu þegar til Sturlu, ok var 
þ4 hestr búinn, ok reið óláfr t>orgeirsson þeim ' í Lækjarskög. PS, 
var tekinn annaix hestr; hónum reið hann á Glystaöi'. H inn 
þriði til þÍEigs til biíðar Sturlu ; ok sagði hónum tfðendin. Þá heimti 
Sturla at sér vini sína, ok sagði hvat at hefði orðiL Ok lidu sfðarr 
kom Sigmundr, er Herdís hafði sendan af Staðarhóli at segja 
tfðendin Einarí Þorgilssyni. 

18. Sfðan gðrðisk óþokki mikill milli manna ok liðs-dráttr. 
KJængr biskup var með Einarí frænda sfnum, Gizurr Hallzson, ok 
Þorleifr beiskaldi, Snorrí Kálfsson' ok margir aðrír. En Brandr 
biskup vcitti Sturlu frænda sfnum. Sæmundr faðir biskups var 
fbður-bróðir Vigdísar tnóður Sturlu. Böðvarr t>örfiarwn veitti 
Sturlu mági sfnum, forvarðr í>orgeirsson, ok mai^ aðrír. En 
sumir leituðu um sættir. Ok varð ekki af þvf ; ok fór milit 1 dóm, 
ok görðu hvárir aðra sekja. £n er leið at þinglausnum, þðtti 
möanum ófriðlegt, ef svá bliÍD fœrí roál til héraðs. Ok áttu menn 
þá hlut at ; ok var þá sætzk á málin, ok skyldi Klængr biskup göra 
ok BöðvaiT t>órðarson. Ok var þá þegar upp lokit ; ok þótd Sturlu 
verða görðir skakkar ok óhagar; ok vóru þá fram færðar syknut 
manna. Sturla reið fyrrí af þingi en lUnarr. Ok er haim kom 
heim, þá var Einarr Ingibjargarson þar kominn ok Helgi prestr 
með hónum. Ok litlu síðarr kom Oddr* JoscpsBon at hitta Sturlu ; 
en Sturía kvaö eigi mundu annat vænna* en þeir görði félags-bú. 
Oddr kvezk þess búinn. Ok var þat ráðit, ai hann skyldi eiga 
bú * í Hvammí. Sfðan settisk Sturla fyrir mál þeiira SII. Einair 
Ingibjargarson ok Oddr ok aðrir Biiðdælir vón i Hvammi þau 
misseri, ok vðru þar xviii mCnn sekir um vetrínn. Einarr Þorgils- 
son hafði ok mait setu-manna um vctrínn : Þar var Hallr Gilsson 
frændi hans, ok Asbjöm Hafliðason, Ámi Bassason ok [N^rgils 
Sighvatzson, Hallr f>órðarson, Þorgrfmr Kolbeinsson '. Þeir vóru 
allir fiálegir menn*, svá at þeir þótmsk öni^ir fyrir jarn-mðrgum; 
ðk eigi kvóðu þeir sftt óvænna þött þeir hitti hálfu fletrí Búðdœli. 

* þcim] %ái. B. ' Gtfiti&i] ihiu B, cp. Bi. i. fgi ; now cslled aiíutaðir, 

» Sdom KiWuon] uld. B. ' Oddr] B ; H*lgi, Cd. ' k«6— T«nq»] B ; 

krai dgi nmu laaat, Cd. • dga bí] dgi i búi, B. ' fiorgllí— KolbdnMon] 
fMTgíb SÍgbratuon, Hilir f>org;rínusoa (I). 8- ' Hltgir menn] fjlgíir mcnn 

Ein. Jmtg., B. 


62 STURLUNGA SAGA. lU. [a.d. 

[1.80,81: 0.15-] 
Margr Tór orða-sveimr, en ekki varð af fundum. Sturla léí ok 
engin gjðld um sumarít, þviat hætt var kallat milli þeirra. Hann 
hafði látið gOra virki um húsin í Hvanuni. Einarr Ingibjargarson 
fór optlega um vetrínn til hiugar með fimm menn eðr sex. Ejnan 
Þorgilsson hélt njósnum til um ferðir hans. Hann fréttir þi, at 
Einarr Ingibjargarson œtlar annan d^ til laugar. Hann fór þá 
veatan með þrjá tigi manna. Þann sama dag bjósk Einarr Ingi- 
bjargarson til latigar við fimmta mann ; en Sturla latti hann, ' Ok 
þykti mér fllar hleypí-farir sifkar.' Einarr kvezk fara vilja jafiit 
sem áðr. Síðan bjósk Sturla til ferðar, ok v6ra þeir á þríðja tigi, 
alvápnaðÍT. (^ls Stynnisson bjó þá at Laugum. Ok er hann 
varð varr við at þeir Einarr t>orgilsson sálu við laugina fjöl- 
mennir, þá leysti haim út kýr sfnar ok rak þær ofan í Hóla, 
þvlat liann vissi at Hvamms-menn ætlufiu til laagar. Hann kallar, 
at þeir Sturla skyldi aptr bverfa; en annat skeið œpti hann á nautin 
til ólfkenda. í^eir Sturla fóru um fjall, ok kómu til laugar, ok vóro 
þeír Etnarr Þot^sson þar fyrir ; ok réðu hvárígir i aðra. Ok nú 
fðr Einarr heim ; en Sturla btlu sfðarr. Sturla lézk ætla, at Einarr 
Ingibjargarson mundi eigi þykkjask of fjðlmennr verit hafa, ef hann 
faefSi farít mefi fimmta mann, sem hann ædaði. Hann sagði : ' Mágr, 
opt ertú vitrarí en ek.' Síðan vóru þeir vaiarí um laugar-farar en 
áör. í'ann kölluðu Hvamms-menn Búðdæla-vetr. 

aO. Um sumarít ríða hvárir-tveggju til þings. P& aótti Hnarr 
Sturlu um sáttar-haldit ; ok áttu þá enn vinir þeirra hlut f at sætta 
þá ; ok var þá enn málum komit til lykta. Ok gengu til handsala 
fyrír Sturlu, Snorrí brððir hans, ak Ingjaldr sonr Gufii-Hallz ; hann 
átti Þóríði dóttur Sturlu ok bjó i Skaifstöðum. Þá var gört fé í 
bendr Sturlu fyrir sáttar-haldit ; en allar inar fyrrí görðir stóðu. Pi 
vóru bomar fram syknur hvárra-tveggju. Þat sumar var í>orvarðr 
Í'orgeÍTsson ð þingi, Hann hafði þat á máli, at Einarr systur-sonr 
hans var' hafðr at forhleypis-manni ok at eggjanar-fffli vestr þar. 
Hann \ét séi þá ekki annat líka, en hann farí norðr með hónum af 
þinginu'. Ok þat var. Ok sífian fór bann útan, ok var meö 
Magnijsi konungi Erlingssyni, ok var vel mecinn* ok þótti kurteis 
maðr. En hann féll á íluvöllum. £n er Sturla kom heim af þingi 
þá Ifkuðu hónum görðir ei^ betr en Ít fyrra sumarít. Hann lét 
ok Ingjald mág sinn engin gjöld gjalda, ok bauð bðnum at vera 

* var] Tcrí, B. * if þinging] (dd. B. * ok rar rcl metinn] nm 

rettion, B (1). 


»i;i.] STURLU SAGA, 20. 63 

hjá sér, ok kvaz þat vulegni þykkja. Ingjaldr kvezk sitja vilja ( 
búi slaa. Snoni i>ór6ar3on galt ok ekki íé; þvfat hónum þótti 
sem > eigi mnndi af sættum verða ; þótt hann gyldi stunt en sumt 
væri .^oldit. Hann seldi af böndum bú sftt undir Fjalli*, ok tók 
við Oddr Krðksfjarðarson ; en Snorrí fór til Ballar-ár til Alls* 
Snorrasonar, ok var þar um sumarit H var iUt þeni-sumar, ok 
spiUtusk hey mamia. Ok DrðttinsUag &t vetr-nöttum kom Ingjaldr 
tU tíða 1 Hvamm. Þá mælti Sturia við hami ; ' Ek vilda kaupa at 
þér geldinga til slátrs ; þv^t mér þykkir eigi varlegt, at þú farir með 
mart geldinga ; heii ek þat spuit, at þeir Saurbæíngar heitask jafnan 
viö {uk ok fé þitL' Ingjaldr gékk undan ok þagði. Ok þríðja dag 
eptÍT* kom Oláfr l>orgeirsson 1 Hvamm; hann var heima-maðrá 
BjamaistöðunL Sturla leiddi hann á götu, ok apurði hvert hann 
skyldi &ra. Hami kvezk eiga Örendi upp á Kúgaldastaði. Hann 
hafði verít heima-maðr Sturiu. En þá var þar í Hvammi Ásbjöm 
prestr bróðir hans, ok Kolfinna Gilsdóttii móðir hans, ok Cecelia 
systir hans; hón fylgði þá Sveini SturlusTni. Þá var fátt karla 
( Hvammi. Oddr Jösepsson var farínn norðr ' til héraðs at smfðis- 
kaupum. Sveinn ok Prest-Oddr' vóra famir yfir.í Dali. Sturla 
melti om kveldit cr hann kom inn ; ' Eigi þótti raér Öláfr, fóstrí várr, 
f dag al<^legr, ok veit ek eigi hvat verít mun hafa undir fi3r hans.' 
Um kveldit kom Sveinn heim ok Prest-Oddr, ok mart búi-manna. 
Ok nm kveldit eptir nátt-verð mælti Sturla við Guönýju bús&eyiu, 
at vera skyldi hríngleikr ^. Ok fór til alþýða heima-manna ok gestir. 
Stnrla raælti, at sjá skyldi út at ððru-hvár^, ok bað menn hlýðask 
um; þviat þi var kyrt veðr, Ok var vakat til miðrar nætr eðr 
meirr ; ok varð ekki vart við maima-iarír. óiÁb f^H^eirsson kom 
vestr á Stafiarfaól, ok sagði Einarí 6U tfðendi ór Hvammi ; ok svá þat, 
at þar var fátt kaiia. Einarr kvað hann vel segja. Ok annan aptan 
eptir bjósk Einarr til ferðar. Þeir vóm Qórtán eðr fimtán. Pít var 
Hallr Gilsson, Asbjöm Hafliðason, Ami Bassason, öiáfr KJökkuson, 
Hallr t^rðaison', Þorsteinn Tjöríason, Þjóstólfr Starrason. Þeir 
Kinarr fiSm vestan um nóttina, ok suðr at brúninni fyrír austan 
gtls-botn þann er austr er frá reið-götunni ; en skafi ok nýfenni var 
li^ f brúnina, ok bmtu þeir þar slóð ( gégnuro. I>eir fóm ofan 
eptir Sælingsdal, ok út íyrír Hvamm ok allt á Skarfstaði ; ok fóm 

' iem]B; »t,Cd. ' undir FjaUi] »dd. R ' A]&] B; ölifí, Cd. ' qrtit 
tf«t, B(!). ' not&t] B-i iði. Cd. * Ptn^Oddr] called KiAjDOddi, iboTe 
cb. 16. ^ «t lU ikjldi hfingldt, B. ' Iwigili a., idd. B. 


64 STURLUNGA SAGA. 111. [a.d, 

[I.8j-. ii.í6.] 
sumir til hiísa heini, ok leystu lit naut ói fjósi þrettán. Sumir róra 
til sauía-hiiss ofan f nes, ok sömnuðu sauSfé öUu því er þeir fundu. 
Þar var Einan sjilfr í för, Hann reið í grytju nökkura ok féll 
bestrinn undir hónum ; en hann af baki, ok varð hónum meint við. 
Þeir rákuallt fé er þeirfundu; ok f|5ru útan' um nóttina; ok kómu, 
er lýsti, f Sælingsdal. 

21. Nú er þat Uðenda á Skarrstöðum,— at kona ein sióð upp f 
dagan*; ok gékk til bæna-húss. Hón gékk til fjóss, því at hón 
heyrði at naut beljaöi. Hón sá at nautin vóru I brottu, nema rin 
kvíga var eplir. Hón gékk inn ok sagði Ingjaldi. Sfðan fóru 
menn f klæði sfn, ok tóku sér hross ok riðu inn til Hvamms. f>ar 
var Ingjaldr, Þorsteinn Gunnarsson, P6t6t Böðvarsson. Í^Ír kómu 
á far nautanna, ok sá mikla manna-slóð. Sturla haföi ri^t upp 
þegar lýsti, ok gékk til töðu-garðz. Þar vóru fyrir húskarlar, ok 
rafu hey-des er drepit hafBi um haustið. Vindr var á norðan, ok 
fijósanda. i^ir sá, at þrfr menn hleypðu handan frá Akri sem ^ra 
máttu. Ok er þeir kómu á túnvöllinn, þá kenndu þeir at þar var 
Ingjaldr. Þá mælti Sturla : ' Svá Ifzk mér á Ingjald mág mfnn, 
sem hann muni nú í da^ selja mdr geldingana.' Ingjaldr kom nú 
ok sagði þeim ránit. Sturla svaraði öngu. Gékk heim þegjandi, 
, ok inn f skála til rúms sfns ok tók ofan skjöld ok öxi. Guðný 
] húsfreyja var vöknuð, ok spurði hvat Ifðenda væri. Hann svaraði : 
I 'Ekki enna', annat en þeir Einarr ÞorgilsBon hafa ræntan 
' Ingjald öUu ganganda fé.' Ok hljöp þegar fram á gólfit ok þaðan* 
úi. Giiöaý slóð upp skjótt, ok gékk útar á gólfit, ok mælti : ' Standi 
, menn upp skjóit, Sturla er brott genginn meö vápn stn, en Ingjaldr 
ræntr.' Menn bnigðu við skjótt ok klæddusk, ok bjðggusk af 
hrapaði mjök. Ámi Bjaroason tók skjöld af þili, en cigi* fleiri 
menn ; ok þeir höfðu tvau ein spjót Ok fór þá hverr sem biiinn var 
út ór garði* með hlfðinni, ok t<5ku tveir hross saman. Ok er þeir 
kðmu til Krosshóla, vóru þeir nflján saman. 5á þeir þá er þeir 
Einarr fóra upp um Ránar-vöUu. Sturla sagði; 'Þat vil ek, at 
menn beri svá öxar-skðpt sfn, at eigi leggi jökul &;' en bað þá 
di^ sem bezt Sagði þess ván, at nú mundi annat-hvárt fásk 
mikil sæmð eðr bani góðum drengjum. Ok fleiri studdu hans mál. 
Ok sóttu nú leiðina sem ákafast Siðan sá þeir Einarr [eptir]- 
reiðina, H mælti Hallr Gilsson: 'hx sýnisk mér ráðlegast, 

■ ok fim itm} aió. B. ■ dagtn] ðipng, B. ■ enni] (o iIm B. ' þaSan] 
þrf Dxtt, B. • m cigi] ok enn, B. • 6r prtfj add. B. 


.171.] STURLU SAGA, 21. fig 

ihendi, at láta eptir ungfét, en reka nndan þat [ít] hraðfærra; 
þvlat mér segir svá hugr nm sem við liðs-mun muni at etja, ef vér 
ficnumk [hér] fyrír sunnan heiðina.* i>á mælti Ami Bassason, 
ok nökkurír fleiri þeir er ákafastir vóru : ' Eigi sjám vér þá fleiri 
en vér erum, heldr nökkuni færi ; ok víst eigí viiju vér renna fyrir 
jarn-mðrgimi.' H segir öláfr Klökkuson : ' £k em maðr skygn, 
ok s^sk mér sem flestír hafl tví-mennt þrir er eptir ríða '.' Einarr 
sagfii : ' Hafa skal hvert tamb \ meðan halda * má.' Þeim varð nú 
sein ftrín upp yfir ána, þvfat féit var heimfúst. tá er þeir Einarr 
kómu upp yfir Snorra-vað, þá fóru þeir Sturla um Ránar-völlu. 
Þeim Einarí varð seint npp tmi brekkumar, þvfat þar var snjór í 
driptum. Pí mælti EinacT til Amgeirs Auðunnarsonar : ' Þú skalt 
faia vesti um Heiði at samna Uði.' Ok svá görði bann. Þeir 
Einarr fóru [allt] upp á heÍÖar-bnÍnina *, ok fóru reiðgötu. Ok er 
þeir vóm komnir [á] upp, þá hljópu þeir af hestum ok tóku sér 
stöðu á framan-verðrí brekkunni *. Ok þá vóra þeir Sturla komiúr 
at inni efsm brekkunni, ok hlaupa af hestum sínum. Ok hljðp 
Sveinn Sturluson ok l^arsteínn Gunnarsson ; ok verðr Svdnn fyrstr 
upp, ok snörí * til þeirrar slóðar er þeir Einarr höfðu farít um nóttína 
vestan, ok öngir vóra menn fyrir. Ami Bassason skaut af boga 
nðkkurum öram, ok geigaði þat', ok kom & öngan mann. En er þeir 
Einarr sá hvert þeir stefndu, þá runnu þeir á mðti þeim fyrir gils- 
botninn; en Sturla sneri þar upp eptir, er þeir Einarr^ böfðu áðr 
hrít upp, Ok er þeir kómu upp í brekkumar', þ& snúa þeir 
Einarr aptr mðti þeim. H mælti Sturla : ' Viltú, Einarr, laust láta 
féitl' Einarrmælti: 'Aldri, meðan vær megum á balda.' Ok því 
næst hlaupask þeir at Ok gékk Ingjaldr bart &am með rddda 
ðxina; en öláfr Klðkkuson hjó þegar til hans, ok kom á öxllna 
vinstrí, ok hljóp þegar á hol, ok var þat banvænt sár. Ásbjöm 
Hafliða Bon * bjö þegar til Sturiu ok ofan í skjöldinn, ok klauf niðr 
at mundriða; þá fékk hann lög tvau, ok kom hvárt-tv^gja í 
skjðldiim. Ok í þvf bili var bðggin bönd af Bersa Ljðtzsyni. Þvf 
næst fékk sár Þoi^fmr Kolbeinsson; Sveinn Sturluson ok Þoc- 
ateinn Gunnaisson særðu bann ; ok var bann högginn á höndina 
tve-falda ok snndr bandleggrinn bæði fyrir ofan ðlbogaim ok 

■ riða] B ; ero, Cd. * haldi} giaga, B. ■ brÚDÍiu] brúoi, B. ■ brekk- 
nniii] brúninni, B, and igiÍD in thc ncxt liiK. * tDÍiti] inem, B. ■ ok gcigiAi 
þai] emaid. ; ok gagnaSi þat ekk!, Cd, ; om. B. ' EÍDiii] add, B. ■ bieklc- 
ntnai] brduiai, B, * Heflaþ. i. <!}, B, aad igaiD below. 

VOL, I. F 



framaii; hann hafði ok herða-sár mikit. Síðan lagði maðr til 
öláfs Klðkkusonar, ok kom á miðjan hann. Tvau hafði hann lög, 
ok stör sár önnur, ok gékk hann firá f hallmn upp ok settisk þar 
niðr. Þá fékk Snoni Hallzson sár i hendi. i^ir Ámi Bassason 
ok Arni Bjamason stóðu i þot', ok reiða upp vápnin. Þá mslti 
Ami Bassason : ' Nafnt, eigumk vit eigi vit, þvfat vit böfum mælt tíl 
vináttu.' Lét þá Ami Bjamasou sfga niðr skjöldinn fii andliti s^r. 
En er þat sá Ami Bassason, þá reiddi hann upp öxina tveim 
höndum, ok hjð til htuis ; en hann brásk undan, ok hjó hann niðr 
öxinni, ok steypðisk eptir. Pi. hj{%gu þeir Arni ok Prest-Oddr* 
báðir til hans, ok kom annat í höfiiðit en annat um þverar 
herðamar f gegnum brjóstið ; ok lét Amí þar Iff sítt f þvf bili 
hafði Asbjöm Hafliðason höggit niðr Sxinni, ok varð hóntun lans 
Cxin, ok renndi frá hðnum; ok er hann vildi takahana, þáhðrvaði* 
hann, þvfat þar var hallr*, ok féU hann flatr. Þi hjó Sveíim 
Sturluson til hans, ok kom á hann miðjan, ok brast við. Asbjöm 
var gyrðr saxi, ok kom höggit í hjaltið o^; en oddrinn saxins 
nam mundríðann '. Hann stdð þegar upp, ok var eigi sáir orðinn. 
H fékk EinaiT lag af spjóti á sfðu, ok rann hðnum mjök blóð. 
Þorsteinn Tjtírvason krækði nunn Sturlu at sér með öxinni, ok 
svá undir &etr sér; ok fékk hann komit sér o^ f gilit imdir 
holfenni'. Nokkurír fleirí menn nrðu sárir í hvámm-tveggja Sokki 
en hér era nefhdir. I>á mælti Etnarr við Svein Sturluson : ' t>at 
vildu vér, at þú gæfir oss grið, þv^t þá átt jahian þaim hlut f 
með oss, er þá er betr en áðr.' Sveinn mætti : ' Faðir mfnn 
ræðr gríðimi.' l^ settisk Einarr niðr, ok mæddi haim blóðris. 
Þá mælti Hallr Gilsson til Sturlu : ' Gríð vildu véc nú hafa.' 
Sturla mælti: 'Leggit nú vápniu niðr.' i^ vildu þat eigi': I^ 
mælti Sturla : ' Grið skulu þdr nú fá.' tá vðru þeim grið seld, ok 
mælti enginn f móti, þóat íé mundi aptr fara. l>essÍT menn vóra 
nefndir með Stuilu á heiðiimi: Sveinn sonr hans, Ingjaldr mágr 
bans, ok húskarlar hans tveir, Snorri bióðir bans, [Prest-Oddr,] 
f>orgeiir Bassason, Þórðr Eindnðason', Asbjöm Ljötzson*, 

' [tðftu í þol] tboi B (dubioui), which H in the mugin commaiti bjr ■ þatn app,' 
wbich in 440 ii receÍTed inta tbe telt • Prcil-Oddr] þdr&r, B. * reíd 

hnuafii (?). ' halli] billent, B- ° mm vifi jÖrSttDDl, B. * olc ivi — boUtnDÍ] 
olc (aiDfiu þeit hann undii fxtt lét ofan I gilit undir holfcnne nacquat, B. * þcir 
THda þat eigi] thu>; ouc would eipcct, 'þeir görSu vri,;' 6 abridged — Slorla 
■TaniT, Leggit þi vapuiu. þi vóta þeim giÍS gefin. ' B; Nichuluton, Cd. 

* conj.; HjortuoD, Cd. ; oin. B. 


1I7I.} STXIRLU SAGA, 22, 23. 67 

[1.86. 87: il 17, j8.] 
Þóroddr ' Sveinsson, Bersi • Ljótzson ok Ingimimdr bióbii hans, 
Arni Bjarnason, Hallr Gilsson, ok Atli ÞonnóðaTSOD. Ingjaldr, 
mágr Sturlu, var þegar örendr ; ok Ami Bassason af liði Einars, en 
öláfi- Kl&kkuson ok ÞoTgrfnu' Kolbeinsson fengu þjónostu ok 
Öoduðuz báðiT. ÞoTsteinn Tjörfason lá allan vetrina í sánun, ok 
varð græddr at kalla. Græddir urðu ok aðrir menn allir. En 
SnotTÍ Hallzson ok Bersi [Ljótzson] uröu eigi örkyinla-lausir, þvíat 
Bersi lét hönd sína, en Snoni n^ti ekki af hendi*. 

22. Þá er Sturia fór heim af fundinum hafði bann með sér Ifk 
Ingjallz ok fé allt þat er raant hafði veriL teir Einarr flultusk ok 
heim ; kómu menn 1 móti þeim i Hvammsdal. Eptir fund þenna 
sátu hviiir-tveggju í bdum [sínum] um vetrinn ; ok var þat mál 
flestra manna, at á þeim fundi skipti um mann-virðmgar með þeim 
Sturlu ok Einari. Um várit eptir vóru máUn btíin til Alþingls, ok 
ríðu hvárir-tveggju til þings, ok héldu fram málunum. Var enn 
sem fyrr, at vinir þeiira gengu i milli ; ok var snúit til sátta ; ok 
skyldi Jón Loptzson göra um ok Gizurr Hallzson. Var þeim 
görðum avá farit sem Ifklegast þótti, at helzt mundi sættiraar 
haldask ; en ekki með þvflíkum stafna-burð ' sem fyrr vóni görvir, 
Ok skilðusk menn sáttir á þvf þingi á öll þau má) er milli höfðu 
verit ; ok fóru við þat heim. Ok vóru nú ' sáttir. 

23. Tanni hét mafir, er bjð i Galtardals-tungu ; haim átti Gunn> 
hildi Bersadóttur ' systur Mröar. Þórdís hét önnur dóttir Bersa ; 
henni fylgði at lagi sá maðr er I^rgeirr hét ; haim var kenndr við 
móður sína ok kallaðr ArnÓTUSon ; Böðvarr hét &ðir bans. 
I^Srdís var óskapvær. Þórdls fór eitt sinn á kynnis-Ieit í Tungu til 
systuT s&nar. En er f>orgeÍrí þðttí hón seint koma hehn, þá fór 
hann eptir henni ; en hón var trauð ' heimfarar. H lagðí Tanni 
þau orð til; kvezk hann dgi vilja at hón iarí nauðig ór sínum* 
hýbýtum. Þorgeirr sagði, at hann mundi eigi þvf ráða. Ok 
greindi þá á, þar til er f>orgeirT hjó til Tanna, ok var þat bana-sár. 
Eptir þetta fór I^Drgeirr þegar á fimd Sturlu, ok bað hann ásjá; 
en Sturla kvað slfkt fll verk vera ; en lézk eigi kunna um * (nngmenn 
sfna at reka þá Irá sér. £n Tanni halði verít þingmaðr Þorleifs 

■ Oddc, B. * Beiti] Brdii, B. * ok Juni BauitoD — if headi] tbi( wbole 

pauage ii heic rectorcd ÍD accotdaDce wilb B ; in Bi. the Damet iie whoU; dit- 
plictd and ihiown ÍDto coQfiuioD. * Should either be ' lUfDa-buifium ' (pliu.) or 
'Tit götr' roi'vúni gömr;' B omiti the whole pittige. * qú] B; TÍ6 þat, Cd. 
* Brdiadóttur, B. ' tiaaO]B; aau(IÍg,Cd. ■ liunm] baut, B. * um] B; viS.Cd, 



[1.88: u. 28.] 
beiskllda ok frændi. Þorleifr tók við máli eptir Tanna ok sótli 
Þorgeir tíl sekðar fullrar á Alþingi ; ok sýndisk Sturlu eigi at verja 
þat mál ; ok vafö Þorgeirr sekr skógar-maðr, en Sturla kom bönnm 
útan vim smnarit norðr f Eyjafírði. öfeigr faét maðr SalgerðarsoD, 
en Bergr hét faðir hans; harm var vinr Sturlu ok heima-maÖr 
hansj hann fór norðr með Þorgeiri ok fðr útan. Aiinat sumar 
epth- kom Ófeigr tít, ok fór þá til Sturlu, ok var þar um vetrinn. 
Ivrleifr varð þessa vf ss ; ok sagði mikla ósæmð f sltku s^nask af 
Storhi, er hann vildi sitja fyrir saemð höfðingja. t'orleifr görir um 
várít ' lifi-samnað, ok ferr í Dali ok gisti f Asgarði at Bjama ' Steins- 
sonar. Þar kom Einarr Þorgilsson til hða við hann, ok höfðu 
þrjd hundrufi manna, ok fðr stefnu-lbr f Hvamm. £n er Sturla 
Spurfií liðs-drátt þeirra, þá samnar haim liði at sér', ok hafði þÓ 
fjölmenni miklu minna. Síðan stefnir Þorleifr öfeigi um þat, er 
hann hafði orðit samfara með * I\Drgeiri. Sturla kvaö Þorleif 
jafnan hafa stórræfii fyrir hendi, þótt ekki mætti vifi þat jafnask, 
er hann brenndi Ínni Magnús biskup f Hitardal; 'En vart sjál& 
dreginn grátandi ór eldinum.' Þorleifr sagði : ' Öngum munu þau 
tföendi verrí þykkja enn mér; en etgi eni vit þafian komnir', at 
þat sé vfst at sá hafi betr er einskis þykkir* um þau tfðendi vert 
£n ekki görla mantú þat nil, at þú mundir drepinn hjá gaiðt 
þfnum, sem melrakki hjá greni, ef ek stæða eigi fyrir þér. En 
þess vilnumak ek' at færí gangí höfuðtausir á dóms-<l^ fyrir 
mik en fyrir þík, er þú leikr þér ' nú at glæpum þfnuro.' Sfðan 
riðu þeir Þorleifr brott, ok f Asgarð um kveldit; vóru þar aðia 
uótt með allan flokktnn. En at momi skilfiusk þeir Einarr þar, ok 
fóru hvárÍT-tveggju heimleiðis. Ok htlu sfðarr kom Sturla við 
s^ita mann f Asgarð ; ok var Bjami bóndi heima við aiman mann í 
emiðju. Sfðan kvaddi Sturla hann úl ok mæiti : ' Þat ætla ek,' 
sagði hann, 'at vit munum nú skilja verða sambúðina;' ok kvezk 
eigi YÍlja, at optair ætti óvinir hans heimilan gistingar-stað 1 
Asgarfii, 'þá er þeir fara slíkar óspekðar-farir;' ok kvafi annan- 
hvám þeirra færa mimdu verða biistaðinn. Sfðan reifi Sturla 
heim £n Bjami setdi landit Erlendi presti Hallasjmi. Sföaa 
reið Þorleifr beiskaldi til þings, ok hafði frammi málit imi sumarit. 

> um lárit] tdd. B. ' Bjinn] B ; Bnndz, Cd. > it léi] B ; fyrr, Cd. 

* i fSnun tifi fiorgeiri, B. ' Thui Cd. ; to eiom viA enn þi5an kamair, B. 

> þyldcÍT] B ; er, Cd. ' thai : TÍInumz ck, B ; vÍlumM rér, Cd. ; TÍljomE ck, U, 
440 (from B). ■ leikr þíf] Ixir-blBn, B. 


c. ii7*-iij4.] STURLU SAGA, 34, 26. 69 

Ok gengu menn á mcðal ok sættu þá; ok tóku sfnn mann til 
gðrðar hvárir. Sturla tók til Böðvar f>órðarson ; en torleifr Knar 
i^^ilsson ; ok urðu þeir á ekki sáttir um gfirðina. f>á mælti 
Bðövarr: 'Wt þykki mér ráð, al vit hlutim um hvárr [okkarr] 
gSra skal.' Ok þvi játti Einarr. Síðan hlutuðu þeir, ok hlant 
Böðvan at göra. Hann görSi Iftil fégjöld á hendr Sturlu. 

34. Nðkkuru sfðarr fór sótt mikil um héröð *. Þess er getið, 
at einhvem aptan kom f Hvamm sá maðr er kominn var litan af 
Snæfellz-nesi, en áðr ör Borgarfirði. Hann var umremiingr '. £n 
Sturla settisk á tal við hanu ok spurði margs. Hann spurði fyrst 
um ferðir haiis. £n himi sagðí. Þá mælti SturU : ' £r sótt mikii 
saðr um h^raðit?' Haim sagði at svá var. ' Komtú l Hitardal?' 
sagði Sturla. ' Já,' sagði hann ferða-maðriim. ' Hversu mátti 
Þorleifr?' sagði Sturla. 'í^f' var betr, at haim mátti vel,' segir 
ferða-maðiinn. 'Já,' sagði Sturla, 'svá mun vera; þv&t allar 
kvalar munu bónum sparðu* til annars heims.' Nii skilja þeir 
talit Ok ferr hinn um moTguninn, ok allt um haustið vestr 1 
TjÖrðu, ok vestan nær vetii. Ok þegar Utið er af vetii, kemr 
hann 1 Hitardal. Þorleifr beiskaldi' var spumll vifi bann, ok 
frétti*: 'Komtú ór Fjörðum vestan?" Ferða-maðr ss^jði sv4 
vera. t'orleifr spurði: 'Hversu [er] þangat^ œrt?' Hann segir 
þar gott ár, ' Nema ' sótt göiðisk þar [nií] mÍkiL' Þorleift mælti : 
'Komtií f Hvamm?' 'Ji,' sagði hann. 'Uversu mátti Siurla, 
bóndí ? ' ' Vel mátti haim,' sagði ferða-maðr, ' er ek fór vestr ; en 
nú lá bann, er ek fór vestan*, ok var mjök tekinn.' ' Svá mun 
vera,' sagði Þorleífr; ' hann mun nú hafa fllt, en hálfu verra síðarr.' 

28. Maðr hét Bjami, ok var Þorsteinsson, hann átti Heigu 
GelIÍsdóttur " ; þeiira son bét Þorsteinn drettiogr. Þorfaallr h^t 
bóndi, hann var Surtzson, hann bjó á Hóhnlátri á Skógar-strönd. 
Haim átli Æsu l'orbergs dóttur ". Hann var auðmaði mikill ok 
steikr ok ódæll ok mikilmenni. Hann var þingmafir Þorleifs 
beiskalda, ok farmaðr, ok gjafvin. Þau ittu þijár dœtr, hétu Þórdfs, 
Þómý ok Helga. f^m^ar fékk f>orsteÍDn drettingr; hann átti þá 
góðan Qárblut, ok rézk bann I Hólmlátr með fé sftt. Kt kom þá 

' yfit bénb. B. ■ uniHnningr] luniningr, B. • þrf) B ; þit, Cd. 

* *pu&*t] qnnðar, B. ' bdndi, B. * frjtli] narp, idd. B. ' þangat] 

þannig, B, ' Denu] dtin, B, ' et ek— ralan] idd. B. " GíUiidóttor] 
thni B; Cd. — hon nr Snitz dðttit, hanii bjd i HÓImlálii, no doobt ■ repetition ftom 
Ihe liue below, ■■ þotkeli ddtlat, B. 



[1. 90: «.39.3 
app, at Þómý heffii verít gefin ðlétt, ok átti bam við heiini sá 
maðr er Þórðr hét, ok var all-skillítill. Þorsteinn drettingr itti ok 
bam 1 vánom, ok var því leynt. Guðnin' Ásbjamar-dðttir sagöi 
ok þi, at Þorsteínn væri faðir at bami hennar þat er þá var 
nökXuira vetra gamalL Ok er þat hom upp alit saman, þá lét 
Mrhallr kenna manna-munar ' ok di6 fjárhluti ÞorsCeÍns aila undir 
8Ík, en hélt hðnum til verknaðar; en ef hann legði orð 1, þá var 
hann hrakðr f orðum eða barðr. £kki var l>or3tcinn vinsælðar- 
maðr. Þorvarör hét niaðr bjó lít I Eskigrasej' ', gildr bóndi. í^t 
var eitthvert sinn at vetr-nóttum, at Sveinn Sturluson ferr lit 
þangat ok keypti mjðl at hónum til handa Sturlu. En er mjðtin 
kómu heim, reyndusk þau verr en stlað var. Nii þykkir Sturlu 
ílla ok [þótti] Þorvarðr hafa sik falsat. Sveinn* fór suðr skðmmu 
eptir, hittir Þorvarö, ok segir hónum svá: 'Tveir eru kostir af 
mfnni hendi : sá annair, at ek mun stefha þér, eðr þú takir við 
syni mfnum er Halldórr heitir.' t^rvarðr kvazk þat mundu kjðsa, 
[heldr] en hafa óvingan þeiira feðga. Ok fór Halldórr þangat. 
Þorvarðr var alda-vin Þorhalla at Hólmlátri. Ok er hann spurði 
þetta, þá fór hann til' ok faerði I brott sveininn, ok at Homi' 
frændum móðuríonar þar eem áðr hafði verít, ok kvezk eigi \dlja 
slíkan ágang. Þorvaldr kvafi hann sýna vináttu við sik, en kvað 
þð betra at sýna Iftilmennsku hér um 'en koma sjálfum mér f 
vandræði.' Þórhallr kvaö svá [búit] vera skyldu. £n er Sveinn 
spurði þetta, þá mælti hann : ' Vera kann, at Þörhallr vili sitja yfir 
várum hlut, en kost-gsefr vil ek vera at leggja hér slfktf móti.' 
Siurla kvað þat auðséð vera, at slfkir menn vildu fllt vi6 þá eiga. 
En Guðní bafi þi vera láta kyrt; þvíat vel var með þeim Þórhallí. 
SfÖan var þat af riðit, at menn vóru sendir á Hðlmlátr, at &la 
þtjár vættir matar at hónum; ok vóru til sbgð orð Guðnýjar. £n 
Þórballr sagðisk ðngan mat mundu láta falan. Æsa íýsö at selja, 
en t^rhallT vQdi eigi selja; ok réö hann. Sendimenn kómu 
heim f Hvamm ok sögðu Sturlu orð hans. Sturla bað Gufinýju at 
reyna vini sfna. Litlu síðarr bittask þeir Sveinn Sturluson ok 
l>orsteinn drettingr vifi Kambsnes '', ok sátu á tali um hrfð ; ok var 
þat I hjali með þeim, at Sveinn skyldi ráða af * Þórhall, en Þor- 

> GnroD (D, B. ■ B ; nunn rannaT, Cd. ■ ThM >bo B (Etkí gntt (?). 

' Sreinn] emend.; Stailí, Có. uid B. ' tíl] þ>tig«l, B. • ok »t Honii] thni 
Cd., i.c. Vatihami tn HukDdtle (7) j i hendr móftur frcndDin, B, omittiiig ihe 
ntnie. ' k Kunoeti, B. * af ] B j tí, Cd. 


c. iií»-ii;4.] STURLU SAGA, 36. 71 

[I. gi : u. js-] 
steinn skyldi gefa hönum til sex tígi hundraða ; skyldi þat kaup á 
laun fara. Ok um várít eptir Páska görði Sveinn ferð sfna [út] & 
Hólmlátr við ttimda mann; ok fóru á skipi, ok lendu út hjá 
Btekkum f^rhaliz. Síðan meelti Sveinn vifi menn sina : ' Vita 
sknlu þér nú örendi mltt, at vér rounum stefna Þórhalli.' S(ðan 
ganga þeir til húss. Hafþóir Naddzson' var húskarl Þórhallz, en 
vinr Sveins, ok ætluðu þeir at kalla hann úí ok láta hann heyra 
stefnuna. Mr gengu h«m* til dura, Þóroddr ok Þórðr Bessa- 
son', ok dr&pu á dyrr; en Þórhallr gékk sjálfr út lil dura ok lauk 
upp, ok stóð í durum inni. Þá gei^ þeir Sveinn at dunim; ok 
nefndi hann sér vitta, ok stefndi Þórhalli um þat at hann hefði 
leynt Ijórðungi Ijár sfns ok eigi gört tfund af ; hann stefhdi annarí 
stefnu nm þat, at hann hefði tvá pundara, ok hefði á inn meira 
keypt en selt á inn minna, ok værí hvárr-tveggi rangr. Ok lét 
varða fjörbaugs-garð. Hann stefndí enn um þat, at hann hefði 
áhiar rangar, ok lét varða fjörbaugs-garð, ok jamnan sex merkr. 
Þvf næst stefndi hann Þorleifi Þormóðarsyni fj<5rum stefnum, sfnni 
um hvem fjórðung tfundar, ok lét jafnan varða sex merkr. Þórhallr 
mælti þá til Sveins : ' Kaupa múntú vilja fé mftt svá sem þú hefir 
virt tfundir'.' Sveinn svarar, ok kvað hann mundu eigi vilja sclja 
hónum þrjú himdnið hundraða [i] frest, ef hann vildi eigi eiga at 
hónum á frest verð þríggja vætta matar. Ok með þat fóru þeír 
Sveinn f brotL £n Þórhallr fór á fund Þorleifs beiskalda, ok sótti 
hann at ráðum. Þorleifr segir at tveir væri kostir til: 'Sá er 
annarr, at selja land sltt ok ráðask brott vestan þaðan, eða sættask 
við Hvammverja, ok selja þeim sjálfdæmi.' Þórhallr mælti : 
'^^iltú þá fá mér lönd suðr bér}' Þorleifr kvezk æúa, at hónum 
mundi þat eigi fullgðra ; ok eggjaði hann, at hann réðisk lengra 
f brott. I^SrhalIr fór heim ; ok litlu sfðarr inn í Hvamm, ok hitti 
Sturlu, ok seldi hónum sjálfdæmi, ok kvazk þetta mál eigi til 
þrætn leggja. Siurla kvezk ætla, at þetta mundi hónum betr 
gegna. Sfðan frétti Sturla Svein eptir hvat göra skyldi; en 
Sveinn kvezk vilja, at hann gfirði eigi minna en sex tigi hundraða ', 
ok kvað hann þess maklcgan. 'Nei,' sagði Sturla, 'tfu hundruð* 
skal göra lengr, þó heGr hann undir niik lagit máliL' Ok þá görð 
sa^ Sturla upp. £n Mrhallr kvað sér vel lika. Ok svá kom, 

' NiddiKn] B; Piluon, Cd. ■ heim] fyri^ B. * Brdiaioa. B. 

< tionilir] til tluiidai, B. * c. tmiidnða, B. * tín hundrua] B (x b.) : ek, 




[I. ga : ii. 30.] 
at hann galt !and, LaQgeyjar-hólma ', ok þijá hundni6 i slátnim. 
Mafir hét Þorsteimt ; hann var Þórísson ' ; hann haiSi verit heima- 
maðr Stwlu ; hann var þá á vist með t>órhalli, oí fði með þeim 
heldi ílla, olc ÞórhaUr stefndi hónum um bross-reið. Síðan [fór 
t^rsteinn] á fund Sturlu ok bað hann ásjá. En Þórhalh' sótti 
hann á þingi til fiiUra sekða; en Sturla gékk við heimilis-fangi 
hans, ok réð þvf Þórhallr eigi til at féráns-dómr vœrí háðr. Sfðan 
sendi Stuila Þorstein norðr um land, ok varðaði eigi um bjargir 
hans. MiÍ Ukaði hvárum-tveggjum heldr verr en áðr; Sturlu 
þótti Wrhallr þat einskis meta er hann haföi hónum i hendi verit; 
en Þörhalli þóttí enn hafðr ójainaðr við sik. Nd er t>órhallr þóttisk 
spyrja kaup þeirra Sturlu ok Þorsteins, þá liitti hann I^rleif 
beiskalda ok Einar Þo^lsson eitt sutnar i þingi; ok sagði þeim 
svá, at haim þóttisk við mikil vandræði* kominn vera. [Einarr 
mæltí] : ' Þætti þér eígi þat til liggja, at við Þorleifr rföim Sturlo 
af, ef vit mættim, en þó héldir* uppi fé-bótum.' Harm kvezk 
gtaðl^a vilja undir þat ganga. £n Helgi prestr Skeljungsson 
varð varr við ráða-görð þeirra, ok sagði þeim feðgum. Kálfir 
hét maðr, er bjó á Gunnarsstöðum Ínn frá Hólmlátii, it næsta; 
hann átti þrjá sonu; hét Börkr' inn yngsti. En er Kálfr faðir 
þeirra andask, þá seldu þeir landit, enir ellrí * synir hans, ÞórhalU. 
£n er Börkr var nokkuð i tegg ' kominn, þá kallar hann í heudr 
Þórhalli til landzins á Gunnarsslöðum ; en t^rhallr kvezk eig^ 
mundu laust láta landit fyrir hónum, ok svarar heldr atutt. Bðrkr 
var ok eigi orðstiJltr. Hann var þingmaðr Sturlu. 

26. Kárr* hét maðr, er þar bjé t Dðlum'; hann var óspekðar- 
maðr. i>enna sótti ÞórhaHr til fullrar sekðar; en Kárr hafðisk þar 
þó við f Ðölunum. Ok eitt sinn hittusk þeir Sturla; ok bar Kárr 
upp fyrir hónum vaDdræði sfn, ok kvask eigi vel við látinn. Sturla 
kvafi þat satt vera, ok kvað margan eigí mundn slfkt sitja. Maðr 
hét Alfr; hann var lítill bóndi; [hann] hafði fasCnað sdr konu 
þá er Valgerðr hét, ok skyldi brúð^up þeirra vera á Ketilssttiðnm 
viku eptir miösumar". Ok f(5r Þórhallr tit boðs, kona hans ok 
dóttir, En Dróttins-daginn reið hann iim f Leiðar-hólm til hesta- 
þings. i'ar var þá kominn Sveinn Sturluson, ok höfðu þeir aðra 
sveit, ok var ÞórhaUr íj&lmennarí, þvfat hann gékk um daginn 

' f LaDgcyjdneii, B. * {>]. iod, B. ' Tendre&i, B. * rtSim — haldir, 

B. • BÖrJor] Haukf , B hece, bot Bmki Wow. ' dlii] B ; elditn, Cd. 

' nokknð k Iqy;] B ; heím, Cd. ' Kin] Mit, B. ■ DÖhun] B ; dilnnin, 
Cd. " miAtumu] to ibo B, 


c. 1171-1174-] STURLU SAGA, 26, 87. 73 

p. 9j; IL 31.1 
með þrjá ttgi maniia. Ok nm aptuúnn reið hann út á Ketils- 
staðí, ok var þar um nóttina. Þeir Sveinn ríðu ok svá 6t i 
Skógai-stTÖnd ok f^-nautar hans; þar var Börki Kálfsson, ok 
Bergþörr ok Torú Snaitarsynir ', Kárr iim seki, Þeir rfða á 
Gunnarsstaði um kveidit til Héðins Bergþórssonar. En nm 
morgnninn eptir reið Börkr ínn á Ketilsstaði á njósn, ok kallar 
enn til lacdsinB við ÞórhaU; ok var þar deila mikil. Ok sfðan 
fór hann lit aptr til þeina [Sveins]. Ok um daginn rei6 I\3rliallr 
heinileiðis ok Æsa kona hans, ok Helga dðttir hans með hónum, 
HaSdór Guðbrandzson mágr hana. Kolbrandr hét maðr, er þar 
var með þeim. Þau líða it neðra með sjó. Ok er þeir Sveinn sji 
ferð þeirra, þá rlða þeir á miSti þeim; ok hittaak þeir við sjóinn 
g^nt Gunnarsstöðum. En er þeir Þórhallr sjá ferð þeirra 
Svons, þá stigu þau af baki. Ok er þau hittask, hlanpa þeir 
Sveínn af baki ok fbm-nautar hans, ok hélt Börkr Halldðrí, en 
Sveinn varðveitti Kolbrand. Kárr ok Bergþðrr vágu ÞÓThall. Ok 
eptir þat ríðu þeir Sveinn inn í Hvamm ; ok tók Sturla við þeim 
Cllum nema Kárí ; hann var f Tmsum stöðum. Þorleifr beískaldi 
tók við eptÍT-máli um vfg Þórhallz, ok sétti þi á þingi ; ok varð 
Bergþórr sekr skógar-maðr. Tjörvi var ok trott görr af landi ; ok 
skyldi vera útan þrjá vetr. BeTgþórr var ok ferjandi; en fégjöld 
kórou fyiÍT Sveln ok Bðrk. En féráns-dömr var* f Hvammi, ok 
wSttn þeir heim til Sturlu, Þorleifr ok Einarr Þorgilsson ; ok höfðu * 
hnndrað manna. tv var ok fjfilmennt fyrir. I^ bauð Sturla 
t\)iieifi heím til dagverðar með flokk sfnn. l'0Tlei& sagði : ' Öðm 
sinni mun ek hingat kyimis leita.' En skylt var með þeim Þorleifi 
ok Guðnýju. Sturla mœlti : ' Þiggja máttú af þvf boðit, at hér em 
þeir Bergþórr ok TjÖTvi * ; ok skulu þegar f brott ef þér viUt hingat.' 
Sfðan riðu þeir ÍNiTleÍfr f brott. Ok léttí þar þessu máli. 

27. Clemet hét maðr ; haim var Karlsefnis-son ; hann var 
bóndi; hann átti þá konu er Helga hét; hón var dðttir Vincentius 
Eyjólfssonar. Bárfir hét maðr, Alfs son, Ömðlfs sonar. Þat lék orð 
á, at hann fiðði Helgu konn Clemetz. Maðr hét Kjartan, ok var 
|>órvaIldzson, ok var frændi Clemetz. Þat var eitt siim á hesta- 
þingi at' Kleifum f Gils&rði, at BÍTðr var á tali við Helgu; ok 
þar kemr at Kjartan veitti ' Bárði áverka. Eptir þat sótti Alfr at 

> StuUt., Cd.; B dropt tbc wholc pauige fram ok farn-fliiiur to nm kveldit. 
• rMnt^ómar tíih, B. ■ lurr, tiá. B. ' TjörTi] B ; Torfi, Cd. • »1] 

B; 4, Cd. * þar kom il Kjuttn ok •eitti, B. 



[I.94: ii.3a,33l 
liðveizlu Einar Þorgilsson; en hann talðisk undan; þvfat hann 
var meiiT hallr undir þá Kjartan ok Mrvald feðga ; þeir vóru vinir 
hans ok þingmenn. Slðan sótti Alír at Sturlu; ok tók hann við 
haldi þeiira Bárðar ok Alfs, ok mælti eptir Bárð. Ok var þ& sæzk 
i málit, ok görði Sturla hálfan þriðja tög faundraða ; ok rézk Alfr 
þá at þingfesti iindir Sturlu. 

28. Bimingr Steinarsson ok Helga kona hans, dóttir Þorgeirs 
langhöfða, urðu eigi mjök samskapa ; ok var görr skilnaðr þ^rra, 
ok áttu þau þó döttur eina er Sigrfðr hét. Þá gékk Bimingr at 
e^ Guðbjörgu Alfsdóttur', en Helga giptisk Þorsteini fwrvarz- 
Byni; ok áttu þau bðm saman, í^rgeir prest ok Ingimund. f^ 
Guðbjörg ok Birningr áttu þann son er Þorleikr héL Nií kallar 
BÍmingT {>orIeik arfa sfnn; en Sigrfðr [dóttÍT hans] varfi Iftt at 
txoska ; henni fylgði at lagi Hjaltr nökkuTT* er Eirikr hét. Einarr 
Þorgilsson keypti at henni aríván eptir Biming; ok kallar ekki 
verit hafa laga-kvánfang, er hann hafði fengit Guðbjargar. Sfðan 
beiddisk Einarr, at Bimingr færi heim til hans með fé sftt; en 
hann kvezk muudu skipta af nökkum Guðbjðrgu tii handa ok sym 
hennar, slfku sem hann nefir '. £n Bimingr vildi þat eigi. Hann 
bjó þi at HeinabeTgi, ok hafði mikit fé, Ok um baustið sendi 
Einarr húskarla sfna út á heifiar at samna samau geld-fé Bimings. 
I>eÍT íóni, ok ráku heim á Staðarhól sjau tigi geldinga; ok lét 
Einarr alla skera. Sfðan fór Bimingr f Hvanun, ok hicti Storln, 
ok s6tú hann at ráðum ; ok kvezk vilja handsala bónum f<é sftt allt 
Ok þat var nú af liðit, at Bimingr f(5r f Hvamtn, ok var þar meðan 
hann lifði ; en Guðbjörg varð-veilti bóit at Heinabergi, Ok lauk svá 
þessuin málum, at Sturla sótti eigi Einarr um r&nit, enda sagði eigi 
Einarr ósætt sfna á handsali þeirra Sturlu ok Bimings. Sátu þeir 
þá hvárir um þat er fengit höfða 

as. I þenna tíma bj'öggu þeir f Vatzfirði, Snorri ok Páll, synir 
Þórðar Þorvaldzsonar ok Sigrfðar, dóttur Hafliða Mássonar, ok 
Rannveigar Teitz dóttur, ísleifs sonar biskups. Þeir bræðr vóra 
miklir* höfðingjar, Var Páll allra manna vænstr ok görvilegaatr, 
en Snorrí var Iftiil mafir ok vænn, forvitri, ok skðmngr mikiU. Þá 
bjó at Helgafelli Óláfr prestr Sölvason, bróðir Páls prestz f* 
Reykjaholti, Þar var & vist göfigr kenni-maðr, Rúnólfr' prestr 

> ííbiótfat] B i ÓU&. Cd. ' Hjalti oSkhin] B ; hjil. ookkDinm, OL 

■ nEðr] rMi, B. ' nuklir] meitn, B. * i] B ; M, Cd. * B ipcUi RonoUr 
bcrc and oftcn. 


c. 1174-] STURLU SAGA, 28,39. 1& 

[I-95: «i-330 
Dálks son, Þorsteins sonar, bróður-son Ketils biskups '; ok var inn 
mesti lærdóms-maðr, ok höfuð-kleTkr *. Hans dóttir var Hallgerðr, . 
er áttí óláfr prestr ; hön var kvenna vænst ok merkilegust ok mestr 
sköningr at hvcTvetna. Þat er sagt, at Páll kom at máli við Snorra 
bróður sínn ; ok kvezk vilja fara suðr tíl Helgafellz, ok nema brott 
Hallgerði, ok kvezk vilja þar til hafa hans lifisinni. Snorri sagfií 
þat ílla sama, at gðra slíkt við góða kenm-menn ok göfga; ok lét' 
þá eiga sæmðar-menn nærri sér, þi er eigi mundu slíku vel una. 
Páll kvezk vilja i þat hætta. Sfðan fðru þeir eígi allfátr sanian 
suðr yfir heiði, ok ^fir Breiðafjðrð, ok kómu um nött* til Helga- 
feUz; ok gengu þ^ar inn f skila; ok var HaUgerðr tekin upp ór 
hvflu slnni, ok borin út; en óláfi var haldit ok svá Rdnölfi. Hann 
var mikill ok sterkr. Þá var þar at Helgafellt Jórunn Hafliða- 
dóttír, móður-sjstír þeirra Vatzfírðinga; hana hafði átta Brandr 
Gellison er búit hafði at Helgafelli Sfðan fóru Vatzlirðingar 
brott. t>etu fréttisk vlða; ok þóttí mSnnum sýndr í slfku mikill 
ósömi. Ok um sumarit eptír, er menn kómu til Alþingis, þá var at ( 
sótlr Jón Loptzson þessiun roálum; hann var míkiU vin þeirra 
bneðra Páls ok Óláfs, en frœndi Rúnólfs ok þeirra Möðruvellinga : 
Dóttir Eyjólfs ins halta var Þórey, móðir Sæmundar prestz, föður 
LoptK, fSður Jóns. Riínólfr [prestr] var son Dálka, Þorsteins sonar, 
Ejjólfs sonar. í^ir vóru á þingi Vatzfirðingar ok svá Hallgerðr. 
Vóru þá sem mestar virðingar Jóns ; ok var þangat skotið ðllum 
stór-málum sem hann var. Þeir Páll, Rúnólfr, ok óláfi-, hittu Jón á 
þinginu, ok sðgðu hónum hver Ósæmð þeim var gör, ok beiddu 
Jðn ásjá. Hann svarar, ok kvað víst f slíku sýnask mikinn óséma 
ok ágang. Hann bað þangat kalla Hallgerði. Ok svá var gört ; 
ok tóku þau Jön Cal með sér; ok tjáði hann fjrir henni, hversu flla 
sómði ', ok bað hana hug sfnn frá leggja þessu [ójráði. ' Hefir 
með OBS,' sagði hann, ' lengi vel verít ; vilda ek at þú sæmðir vel 
við bónda þfnn. En þó at þdr þykki vera manna-mum, þá er þð 
mtklu meiri munr nm ábTi^fi þá er á liggr; ok mun þetta öráð íUa 
út seljask; ok samir þér betr, at þú ráöir þik sjálfviljandi frá, en 
nanð-skilnaðr verði ; þvfat eigi mun þat betr falla '. En ekki mun 

' Eþor. t. Ketili. bpi, B, wbich the p»pei traniCTÍpti h»Te mUrendeted ioto ' Hei- 
^on lonat KetiU •onar,' lee the old editÍDn, * emend.i \sai6nu maír hani(l) 

ok höfua protT, Cd. ; hanD var ino meiti kleiki, B. ■ lít] leM, Cd. ; ok l«t 

it hann letti, B. * nm nðtt] B. > fómSi] umfii, B. ' þTÍ it eigi man 

þar fenp n;tii arinait, B. 

ídbvGooglc . 

í6 STURLUNGA SAGA. lU. [a.ij. 

p. 96:11.34.] 
ek at sinni {H^ngva þéi nm þetta ; en s^ ek þér bvat £ muni ' 
liggja. En ef þlí virfiir orð mfn, ok ferr heim með bónda þfnum 
at þfnnm vilja, þá skal þat fram ganga. £n þvf mun ek þét heita, 
ef þú þarft f nökkuni sinni * mfnnar áejá, at ek skal þér heimill * lil 
liðveizlu, ef þlí lætr aú eptir mér mfnn vilja. En ef þd vill eigi 
þetta, mun ek þér aldrí ásjá veita.' Hallgerðr svarar : ' Þat mun 
vera kjör mftt við þik, Jón, at kjósa þik eigi frá ásjá við mik*.' 
Sfðan lagði Jón orð til, at Öláfr prestr tæki við konu sínnL Ok 
var sfðan sætzk á málit. Litlu sfðarr dreTmði Pál Þðrðarson : at 
hann þóttÍBk [vera {\ sk;gðum ' Ifnkyrtli. Ok eptir þat dniknaði 
hann f Isafiiði, ok nökkurir menn með hónum. Ok vai þá svá 
ráðinn draumrinn, at línkynill sá væri bárur stðrar ok Ijósar er 
gengu at hönmn *. Eptir þat tÖk Snorri ^ bróftr hans mannvirðing 
í Vatzfirði ; ok vóru hans synir : Hafliði, [tórðr,] ok ls)rvaldr, ok 
Bárðr. Valgerfir hét dóttir Hallgerðar ; hana nam Sveinn Sturlu- 
son f Hvamm ; ok görfiusk þar af myUar ðsáttir. Þá sótti Hall- 
gerðr Jön at málum, ok kvazk þá vilja taka til þess er hann hafði 
heitið henni. Hann kvað þat heiroolt vera. Ok sfðan sendi hann 
vestr Siemund son sfnn ok Dökkura meim með hónum. Þeir fónt 
vestr til Borgarfjarfiar ; ok kömu þar til liðs við þá, Þorleiír 
beiskaldi ok Ijnarr f>orgilsson ; ok fóru sffian stefnu-fðr f Hvamm. 
Þá mslti Sturla, er hann kenndi mennina: '^ Sæmundr þar?' 
segir hann. ' £k þykkjumk hér vera,' segir Sæmundr. Sturia 
mœlti : ' Miklu muntú vera mafir vitrari en eigi mynir þú * vita, 
hvárt þli ert eör aðrir menn.' Sffian stefndu þeir Sveini Sturlu- 
syni. Ok kómu þessi mál ðll i þmgi undir Jðn Loptzson ; ok réö 
hann eiim sem bann vildi, ok skipaði svá at fiestum Ifkaði vel. 

80. F&D Sölvason bjó þá f Reykjaholti; hann átti Þorbjðrga 
Bjamardðttur systnr Helgu* er átti Biandr biskup. Bðm þeirra 
Pála vóni þau : Brandr ok Magnús, Þórlaug ok Amdfs. Þórir hét 
maðr, ok var Þorsteinsson ; hann var prestr; hann bjó f Deildar- 
tungu f Reykjadal enum n^ra; hann var auðigr mafir at fé. 
Hann átti tfu bygða bólstaði ; hann átti auðigt bú ; hann átti eigi 
minna fé á leigu-etöfium en hundrafi kúgilda. Hónum fylgði at 

■ mani] naa, B. ■ liiuii] add. B. ' heimill] heai (r), B. * þat nun ^ 
kjdM, « þii iji míi I TÍnar húii, B. ■ ikygaum] ikyckaDm, B (?). * ok 

rar þi — hAnum] om. B. ^ Snoiri] cnwDd. ; þdTÍr, Cd. ■od B. * mjnii 

þú] B; muntu, Cd. ' AuA-Helgu, B. 


1177. iií8.] STURLU SAGA, 80. 77 

[!■«: ÍÍ-34-] 
lagi Asný HaQdéradóttii; synir þeiiTa vóm þeir Leggr aik Li6r 
snbdjákn, er útí varð i Bláskóga-beiði. Vigdfs hét systÍT Þóris 
stdigetin, er ácti Kleppr prestr Þorvarözson ; en bðm þeirra vóru 
þau Þorvarðr prestr ok Kolfinna * er &tti Hámundr Gilsson frændi 
Sturlu f^rðarsonar. Þorvarðr prestr átti OddnjFju Torfadéttur. 
Þau f>orvarðr prestr ok Oddný ittu mðrg böm : Ami prestr, faðir 
Ara at Lundi, fafiir Lundar-Bjama*; Snorrí prestr, faöír Játgeira 
prestz; Torfi prestr, ^ir Leggs piestz ok Oddnýjar; Gunnair, 
Guðbrandr*. Í>6TÍr inn auðgi bað Þórlaugar Pálsdóttur. Páli 
kvazk vcra kunnigt um fjárbagt f'öris; 'En þvj at manna-munr 
mun þykkja mikill, þá mnn ek ráða fyiir m&ldaga.' SfðaD tökusk 
ráð þessi með þeim máldðgum, at !>öriaug skyldi ha& beiman þrji 
tigi hundraða. Ok var þat þó * mál manna, at I^örir legði fram 1 
gjöfimi viö Pál ok staðinn f Reykjaholti eigi miima [fé] en bón 
bafði heiman. £n eptii samlag þeiira, þá skyldi eiga bálft fé hváit 
við annat, fengit ok ófengit. Ok eptir þenna ráða-Ii^ bjoggu 
þau þar f Tungu sjau vetr eðr átta; ok áttn bOm, ok önduö- 
usk öll. En eptir þat beiddisk Þórlaug at &ra J brotc af landi, 
ok kvezk bafa beitið Róm-ferð f vanmœtti sfnum; en f>óiir 
kvað þat eigi láðlegt at skiljask víö svá mikil * hægindi, ok kvezk 
ófúss vera ráða-breytnL £u hön la6 tiaim mjök. Ok fyríi ástai 
sakir við hana, lét hann leiðask til, ok var þð tregr til. Hann seldi 
fjár-varðveizlu sína Páli mági slnum meðan þau vierí útan. Ok 
var þat kaHat fjðgur hundnið hundraða. f'órir kom af hafi norðr 
við Þróndheim ; ok vai þai um vetiinn ; ok om sumarít epttr féra 
þau suðr til Bjðrgynjar, ok vóru þar annan vetrj ok öl I>ðrlaug 
svein þann er Bjöm hél. Ok eptir um várit* bjöggusk þau til 
suðr-ferðar, ok seldn sveininn eptir til fóstrs. Hann var at MjÓlka^ 
skamt frá bænum. Sfðan fiSm þau til Rðms; ok kom hvártki 
þeiira ^tr. Ok nm sumarít eptir andaðisk sveinninn Björo nnr 
Selju-manna-messu. Jón hét prestr fslenzki, hann var Þórallzson, 
réttorðr, ok Breiðfirzkr at ætL Hann hafði þenna vetr inn sama 
verít f Suðrgöngu. Hann sagSi svá &á, at Þðrir prestr inn auðgi 
hefði andask 1 Lukku-borg, Fösm-dag í Ymbni-dðgmn um Langa- 
fbstu ; en Þórlaug hefði fram haldit ferðinni til Róma-boi^ar ; ok 
bafði hann hitt hana á vegimmi er faann fði suiman ; ok var þat 
eptir Páska; ok var þá snauö ok sjúk. t>órír kráka bél maðr 

' Kolþcnu, B. * LuDdir^vcÍDa, B. * QaniiirT, OuSbnndr] add. B. 

* þð] idd. B. • mildb, Cd. • niaurit, B. ' M)A11uÍ tfaui ; om. B. 



[I.98.99; ii.34-] 
Noræirn er þá var á Sufirvegxim ; hann kvazk tiitt hafa ÞórUugu 
nra sumarit, eptir andlát Þórís, um Mánuinessu-skeið. Ok er þan 
ti6endi kómu til Notegs, þá vaj f>or1ákr biskup inn helgi ' kominn 
frá vfgslu til skips, ok fór þat Bumar til fslandz, ok sagfii þessi 
tífiendi tít. H sagði Páll Sölvason eptir sögn i^ris kráku um 
misdauða þeirra, at Póríi hefði fyrst andask, en þar næst svelnn 
faans', ok þá værí Þóríaug dóttir bans arfi hans ok sonar síns'; 
en hann kvezk vera réttr aifi hennar. Ok tók hann allt féit nndir 
sik. Btíðvarr Þórfiarson var náirændi Þðrís ok Vigdfsar er þá 
lifði; ok talði Vigdísi vera þá rétun arftöku-mann Mrís; þvíat 
h6n var skyldust at œttemi skilgetinna manna. Böðvarr sendi 
menn til fundar við Pál um vetrinn, ok beiddisk landz [þess] er 
tæki fjóra tigi hundraða fyrir hennar hönd, ok kvað betr sóma, 
at hón væri nokkum-veginn frá leyst Páll l^zk stla, at lögum 
mundu hénum bera féin, ok kvezk eigi vilja láta þat er hann átti at 
réttu. Sonum Þóris þótti sem þeim myndi bera erfð eptir fbður 
sfnn ; ok bauzk Eyjölfr Þorgeirsson til liðveizlu við þá ; hann bjó 
i Stafabolti. Ok um várit reið Böðvarr 1 Tungu inn þríðja dag 
P&ska með ses tigi manna, ok settisk I búit. Ok eptir þat bauð 
hann Páli at hafa af fénu sex tigi hundraða. En Páll kvafi sik eigi 
mega svá til lokka at ge& þat upp er hann viidi eigi fyrr. Slfian 
görfii Böðvarr orfi eplir vinum sinum, Hennundi Kofiranssyni, ok 
sonum lians, Kath ok Kofirani *, er þá vóru görvilegastir menn 1 
hérafii, Magnús t'orláksson af Melum ; Helga Sölvadóttir var móðir 
Þorláks, systir f>órðar, fbður Magnúss, fbður Stílva, fúður Páls. 
Magmis t>oriáksson átti Valdfsi, dðttur Hreins ábóta at Þverá. 
Brandr Pálsson bað Magniís liðveizlu ; ok var Valdfs kona lians 
mjök eggjandi þess at hann veitti hónum. f'órðr Böfivarsson baö 
ok MagnÚE liðveizlu ; ok kvað hónum þat hent at veita fbður sfnum, 
er þeir vóru báðir f einni sveit ; ok kvað hónum þungt mjök mimdu f 
móti hónum at standa. Magnús kvazk Páli mundu veita er hann 
hét fyrri iiði. Brandr var maðr knár ok mikill vexti. Magnús 
bróðir tians var ok ófælinn maðr, ok vóru opt með hónum ein- 
hleypingar frálegir menn. Þórarínn svaði var fðstbróðir hans, inn 
knálegsti maðr ok all-ödæll. Margir aðrir vöm þá 1 Reykjaholti 
hans jafningjar. Ht görðisk þá ráð göðfiíssa manna, at auka eigi 

n hdgi]om. B. ' irrinninn, B. ' ' dúttit hant ' and 'totar tUa'] 

• Kailli : k KoiuUi (1). B. 


ii}9,n8o.] STURLU SAGA, 80. 79 

vandræði i héraðinu, ok láta bfða þings svá bdit. Ok föru bvárÍT' 
tveggju til þings um sumarit ; ok vóm áttar stefnur at málinu. Talði 
Páll upp fikaða aínn, at Böðvarr hefði eytt upp í Tungu miklu íé, 
ok þðttisk þar verðr fynr yfírböta, svá ranglega sem hónum þótti 
fiöðvarr ganga á hendr sér. En Böðvari þótti Vigdis eiga at 
heimta viðtöku ok varðveizlu þess hluta fjár er Þórir bróðir hennar 
faafði átt 1 félagi við Þóriaugu. En til þess at sætzk væri i málit, 
þá vildi hann at Vigdfs hefði þríðjung allz fjár til eigin-orðz vifi 
Pál '. f>á var þvf máii svá lokit, at hvárir-tveggju játtu umdænú 
Jóns Loptzaonar. Ok i þvl þingi lauk hann upp görðinni, ok 
kvazk haiui göra lönd öll til handa Páli, þau er Þórir hafði átt ok 
evá lausa-fé ; en kvezk vilja at Páll gyidi Vigdlsi fjóra tigi hundraða, 
sem hðn' hafði fyrst beitt; ok þótti þat vel, at Páll görði þetta til 
samþykkis við frændr Þöris, þött hann ætti féit at Iðgum. PáU 
kvað sér haus ummæli vel líka; en Böðvari Ifkaði ekki af gðrðínni; 
ok reið heim 1 hérafi, ok sat I búi í Timgu þau misseri. PáU 
Sölvason hafði gipt Amdísi dóttur sína Guðmundi inum dýra, ok 
veiUi hann því Páli. Um várít eptir Páska fór til liðveizlu við Pál 
Brandr biskup ok Gufimundr iim d^ ' með mikla sveit ; Þorleifr 
beiskaldi, Ari inn sterki [l'orgilsson]. Magntis prestr Pálsson átti 
HaHfrffii systur Ara. f^ kom ok Hermundr ór Kalmans-tUngu, 
er átt hafði Hallgerði' Rúnólfs dóttur, ok fjölði héraðs-manna. 
Þá kom neðan ór Tungu Þórðr Böðvarsson, ok beiddi at PáU yimi 
sóma-hlutar frændum Vfgdísar. Pí svarar Guðmundr inn áýn, ok 
kvað Fál hafa sett höfðingja yfir sftt mál Jón Loptzson, ' Ok vill 
nú hafda Öll hans ummæli, ok göra þat fyrir sakir kennimann- 
skapar síns, at eigi hlytisk stói vandræði [at] f héraðinu;' lét þá 
Tungu-menn Iftt hafa f sýnt, at þeir væri sæmðar af verðir. Sfðao 
fóni ReykhyltÍQgar stefnu-ibr f Tungu. l-i hafðí Böðvan látið 
gðiu virki nm bæmn f Tungu, ok hafði þar fjölmenni mikit. Þai 
var þá Slnrla t^rðarson mágr hans við marga menn ; Þórðr Böð- 
vaisson, Ami Bjamason' frá Hólmi, Sveinn Sturluson; ok gengu 
þeír allir á tal um þat, hverja meðferð hafa skyldi ef þeir stcfndi 
þeim. Réðu nökkuiir menn, þeir er óðastir ' vóru, at vinna skyldi 
í mönnum. Sturla svarar, ok kvað þat ekki ráða-görð vera, við 

* ok þdttUk— TÍB PiT} much ibridged ia B— niiklu fé, ok beiddi bóu ryrii, ok 
þOtti haun nngliga 1 hali MZ. En BöðTail þðiti Vigdit agi, þii&jUQg alli QÍi TÍS 
Pil. * bón] Km (i.e. BöSrarr). B. ■ ok nitti— dýri] idd. B. • Hall- 
gcr&il B ; HaUlii&i, Cd. ■ B<irgnxiaitoa(l), B. ' Msntir, B. 



avi mikinn afla sem þeir hðföu ; en kvað þat beldr ráð, at stefna & 
tnóti jafn-mðrgum stefhum, ok finna þat til er sýiúak. Ok var 
þetta af tekit; ok bjöggu hvánr-tveggju mál tiL Frá þvf ei sagt, 
at Sturla gékk at Jóni í^rvalldzsyni bróður Guðmundar ins dýra — 
móðir þeirra var Þóríðr dóttir Guðmundar LJJgBÖgu-mannz — Sturia 
mælti við hann : ' HeiU þii Jón 1 ' Menn spurðu hví hann kveddi 
hann en eigí Guðmund. Sturla svarar, ok kvað þcnna mann ' við- 
frægastan at endemum. Jón var skáld ; hann kvað þetta : — 

Kirl et itiddi hji Staihi; itcaili hiiia fyrír* líttoidiua; 
þnuDÍi iDdikotiiui uadir oið-sIoDgr goAi boigi'. 

Sfðan ríðu menn af þeim fundi. Ok fóru málin um snmarít til 
Alþingis ; \ét Páll þá sanna misdauða þeirra Þöria ok Þórlai^ar & 
þinginu at lögum, eptir því sem hann haiði fyiri gört ; en bvir^;ÍT 
urðu lögsekir*; ok var þá svá komit máHnu, at ætiaðr var sættai- 
íimdr f héiaði um haustið eptir Michaels-messu f Reykjahotti. Attu 
þá margir góðir menn hlut f. Kom þar þá til Böðvarr Þóröarson, 
ok Sturla mágr hans. Ok sátu menn út á veUi fyrír sunnan hiSs ; 
ok var rætt um sœtt manna; ok vildi Böðvarr cnn scm fyrr, at þau 
Vigdfs heföi þríðjung ^ir ; ok talði þat, sem var, þótt búit 1 Tungu 
hefði orðit ófésamt, at hann hefðí þó mikit sltt* til lagt l mjölum 
ok slátnmi. En Páll var beldr tregr; ok lieimti til sfns máls; ok 
varð sein lyktin. 

81. Þorbjörg kona Páls var griminúðig f skapi, ok Ifkaði heimi 
stór-fUa þóf þetta. Hón hljðp fram milh manna; ok hafði knff f 
hcndi, ok lagði til Sturlu Þórðarsonar, ok ætlafii at leggja í augat*, 
ok mælti þetta við : ' Hvf skal ek eigi gðia þik þeim Ifkan, cr þd 
vill líkastrvera — öðinn'?' Ok f þvf var hón tekin ; ok stöðvaðisk 
lagit, ok kom f kinnina ; ok var þat mikit sái. Sfðan hljópu upp 
menn Sturlu ok reiddu upp vápnin. Þá mælti Sturla : ' Vinnit ekki 
i mönnum hér fyrr en ek segi hvar niðr skal koma.' Böðvair 
varð ok óði mjök. Pi mælti Sluila : ' Setiak menn niðr, ok læðum 
um sáttmál; ok þurfu menn eigi hér at lýsa van-sttUi" fyiii þessa 
sQk, þviat konur kunna með ymau móti at leita eptii ástum; þvíat 
lengi hefir vinfengi okkat Þorbjargar verít mikiL' Haim hafði 
höndina at aodlitinu, ok dreifði blöðinu á kinnina, ok mæltí: 

' m«aa] þi. B. • fjrit] fri, B. ' gofi» bc^'] Cd. uid B (btep dii, ftom 
Mgi). ' cneklduiðnþaieaaiáttír. B(l). * miklt iltl] B; mcð lítt, Cd. 
• ok itífíi (t) i augM, B. ■ en þ»t er ÖSina, B. * nui-niUi] B ; vuuátt, Cd. 


ii8o, it8i.] STURLU SAGA, 31, 82. 8i 


* í'ess" mest ván, at vit Páll munim sættask á okkur mál, ok þurfi 
menn eigi hérhlutíateiga. Ok sezk' ni6r, Páll mágrl' M svarar 
Páll : ' Ræöa [vil] ek víst um sáttmál okkar Böðvare; en þó Ifzk 
mér þetta umr^fiu-veit, sem nií hefir í görzk, at sniSa nökkut 
áleiðis.' M svarar Sturla : ' Ræði menn um sættir fyrst með ykkr 
Böðvari ; einskis mi kalla þetu vert ; ok munu vit Páll mágr ræða 
um þetu slöarr.' H ræddu þeir um sáttmál við Böðvan ; ok lét 
PáU þá gangask þá hluti er áðr höfðu 1 miUÍ staðiL Ok var þá 
lokit málum á þá teið, at Böðvarr skyldi hafa þriðjung þess fjár 
er f^rir hafði átt. Eplir þetta bjöggusk menn brott at rfða, ok 
báðu vinir Páls, at bann skyldi selja Sturlu sjálfdæmi. Hann 
kvazk þess eigi fúss, ok \ét þar ójöfnuð einn mundu fram koma* 
er Stmla var, þótt [hann] léti fegrt. Þó gékk hann at Sturlu, við 
umtöliir manna, ok baö hann þökk hafa fyríi gtiUing sfna, er hann 
hafSi þar gðrt í þeim fundi, Þá svaiax Sturla : ' Pat heyri ek at 
litlu mnni gkipta hvcrsu til roín* ei gört; ok þykkjumk ek þat 
á sjá, at * yðr þykkir svl Páll svarar : ' Ef þat sýnisk, at hér 
muni eiga nöUtut bót fyrir at koma, þá má ek vel eiga hóf undir 
þér um þat, at þú görir slíka sæmð til handa þér sem þér líkar 
sjálfum.' Sturla mælti : ' Bústú * svá fyrir, at ek vænti, ef ek skal 
sjálfr meta mik, at yðr muni þykkja óhófs vita, en ekki hófs; mun 
þat veröa annan veg enn mér lízk at verða muni^,' H svarar 
Páll : ' Eigi hefir fyrir þá stlk slfk vandræði mér til handa borit, at 
ek munda þat kjósa, né svá hitt at þú hlytir óvirðing af; ok er þvf 
þat vel fallit, at þtí ráðir fyrir ; ok mun réttara at bœta veL En biöja 
vil ek þik,' sagði PáU, ' at þú l^ðir eigi fyrr dóm á míUit, en við 
eru staddir rétllátir menn ok vinir aUra vár.' Eptir þat fóru fram 
handsöl; ok handsalaði PáU Smriu sjálfdæmi, en Sturia hand- 
salaði hönum aptr á mót niðrfaU at sökum. Ok skUðusk at þvf. 

Sa. Nú leið vetrinn. Ok um várit eptir fór Sturla suðr til Borgar- 
fjarðar, ok reið f Tungu til Böðvars; ok sfðan sendi hann orð 
Fáli f Reykjaholt, at hann skyldi koma f Tungu at heyra á sáttar- 
görfi. Þat var Kross-meseu. En er PáU kom, þá mælti Sturla : 
' Hversu marga menn viltú skUja undir sœttir okkrar, svá at þú 
vilir handsölum uppi halda fyrir '.' H mælti Páll : ' Mik, ok sonu 
mfna, ok konu.' H mælti Sturla: 'Nökkut fleiri menní' H 

' þeu] B ; þir, Cd. ' leliz, B. ' ójtíntbtj cioi it TÍn, B. * til 

min] B. ' þrf, kU. Cd. ; ok finn ck þit dtt i. >t, B. • nu þú, B. ' Thui ,- 
B dropi thit lentence fTMn ' m ckki.' * B oniiti ' fyiii.' 

VOL. 1. G 




mælti PáU : ' Hennund, ok hana sonu, ok Torfa Surtzson.' H 
mæm Sturla: ' VUir þú þá til skUja, þá vil ek þá firá skilja; þviat 
nú berr þú sjálfr vitni um, hverir sannir era at bana-ráöuni vi6 
miL' PáU mælti : ' Þat .er mín ætlan,' Begir hann, ' at þeim ráðum 
muni öngir menn sik sjálfir hafa vafil, nema sá er til stýrði. En 
þvf nefnda ek þessa menn til, at en^r menn sýna sik búnari til 
liðveizlu við mik en þessÍT. Nii muntil eigi bæði vilja, at skilja 
menn undan sættum, ok göra þó einn um þér til mann-virðingar.' 
Sfðan kom þar, at Sturla lank upp gCröinni, ok mælti : ' Hvat 
, munu vér breyta um at göra' eptir ins vitrasta mannz dæmuro, 
Hafliða Mássonar, þá er hann fékk vansa 1 sára-fari'f Nii göri 
ek þér á hönd, fyrir frumblaup Þorbjargar konu þfmiar til mfn, 
tvau himdruð hundraða; þat skal vera vara ok búK, guU ok 
brennt ailfr, eðr aðrir rfflegir aurar.' Páll segir; 'Vfst hefir hér" 
lengi at þnítnað um ójafnaðinn, en þó er nú knútr á riðinn um 
ósómann;' Ok kvað þess ván, at eigi mundi féit upp goldit at 
inum fyistum fardögum eðr skildaga. Eigi fóru þar þann dag 
ræður mjilUega meö mðnnum ; ok þótti CUum mönnum mikil undr, 
er hóntun kom í hug at kveða slíkt upp. Ok eptír þat fóra menn 
heím. Páll kvaddi at sér sonu sfna ; ok spurði hvat þeim leÍEt af 
at kj'ósa ; ' Hyggak mér svá, at ef fí þetta gelzk upp, at þar muni 
þá fara eiga vár Öll. Nú er at kjósa, hvárt þér vilit heldr, at silja 
fyrir því vandræði, át verða fyrir Sgangi Sturlu ok umsíitram, eða 
viliþérleila 'trauaizá menn með fégjöfum til liðveizlu; þvfatflestir 
munu svá virða, at viö þetta sé eigi leitanda.' í>eír kvóðusk aldri 
vilja sína eigu upp gefa. Siðan sendi Páll Brand son sínn auðr 
f Odda. H fékk hann þar göðar viðtekjur af Jóni. Bar hann þá 
upp málit fyrir hann, ok sagði alla mála-vöxtu. Jón kvað þat cigi 
vel sama, at höfðingjar gangi við svá mikinn ójafnað á hendr svá 
dýrðlegum kenni-manni sem Páll var. Ok kvazk veita mundu 
. hónum lið á þingi eptir þvf sem hann hefði föng á. Sfðan fóra þeir 
Brandr vesir heim, ok segja svá búit Páli. Ok nú liðr at þinginu. 
H bjðsk Páll tíl þinga ; þvfat hann álti Reykhyltinga-goðorð. . t'á 
' vðni viðsjár miklar ok varðh&ld með flokkum. Ok er þeir koma 
tii þings, þá reið PáU [til] búðar sínnar ; en Jón Loptzaon gékk frá 
bú6 sfnni, ok móú hónum, ok heilsaði hönum, bað hann vel kÐmínn, 

■ um at gön] add. B. ' lAra-rirÍ] B; lanii ratl, Cd. ■ lit] hann, B. 

' HcTc bcgini tbe lixtb relluni leaf. 


ii8i.] STURLU SAGA, 38, 84. 83 

p.104: ii. 37.] 
' Ok far til biiöar meö mér.' P&U bað bann þðkk bafa fyrii boðit, 
'£n ek mun riða til báðar mfonar; en vér munnm drekka allir 
samt um þingit.' CA svá görðu þcir. Ok snemma ^úi^sina kom 
BöðvZTT Þóiðaison á fund Jóns Loptzsonar, ok ræddi við hann; 
krað Stnrlu hafa sendan sik ; ok kvað hann þess vænta, at J6n 
mundi eigi í mðt snúask málinu, þótt þau orð 0ygi um. J6n 
kvað meö miklum ákafa ^t á bendr Páli ; en lét þat eigi sama, 
at etjask viö' kenni-menn gamla ok gOfga, rfkjum höfðingjum. 
' Hú hefi ek beitið Páli ásjá ok liðveizlu.' Ðöðvan' mœlti : ' Svá 
segíi méi hngr um, at höfuð-grannt verði' nðkkunim vina Páls 
ef Sluila ei nökkut minnkaðr.' Jðn svarar: 'Viiu menn þat,' ' 
kvað bann, ' at Stm-la er opt ðbilgjarn um manndiápin ; en fleirí 
kunna enn at drepa menn en Sturla einn; ok þat segi ek þér, , 
Böövan ; ef Sturla lœtr drepa einn mann fjríi Páti, at drepa skal 1 
ek láta þrjá fyrír Smríu.' Slðan skilðu þeir talit. Nú vöm miklar 1 
viðsj&r um þingit. Sturla sitr f búð sfnoi, ok gékk ðvfða, ok lét 
skemca sér heima f biið. 

S8. Fiil [H'eEtr gékk á fund t>orláks tuskups, ok töluðusk þeir 
við. Ok mœlti tHskup : ' Eigi þykki méi maklcg vera deilan yður 
Scuríu ; þeíi eru menn ifkir ok kaldráðiF, en þú ert kenui-maðr 
dfjiilegT. Nli vilda ek, at þó værir vair um þik, ok bwrir vípn, 
ok verír bendr þfnar ef þú þarít, þvfat enkis er fyrír þ& ðivænl.' 
Ok svá görði Páll nii. En þð lágn bónum opt eptir vápnin þá 
er hann gékk frá kirkju. Ok s^disk þat f þvf, aC haim var óvani 
vápn at bera. 

34. Nii ei um sættir leitað. Ok verða þeir Sturla þess vaiii, at 
Jón ædar hér til kapps at halda at veita Páli, at bæn Brandz 
biskup^. Ok ganga menn nú þeirra í miUum; ok beiða þess at 
Stuila j&ti þvf, al Jón görí einn uoi málit', ok kvððn þess ván, 
at bónum mundi f þvf aukask meatr semðar-hlutr ; 'en hitt all- 
ós^t, hversu vegnar, at slá f deilur um ;' ok si^ðu þá breytt bafa 
görðum þeim er Jðn görði um Tungu-mál, ok gört í þvt ðnga 
virðing til bans. Létu þeb ok þelta máLt eigi sfðr mega skipask, 
er með fimum var npp tekit*. Ok einn dag er menn kómu fjöl- 1 
mennastii til Lðgbeigis, þá gékk Stnrla fram á virkit fyrir búð 1 

* i, TÍft, B. ■ höfaNgnnnt Terði] ho^ ifii. *eniini ; hu^fne gioni (t). B ; the 

copfiM of TeUiim A dioppcd Ihe Mcoad part of the conipoaiid 'gianit' (oi graiil?); 
hofba raiði, Bi., V. ■ at Sluila jitaði I dúni Jiíiu um milit, B. ' létu þeii— 
tekit] om. B. 

G 3 



[Liosiii. 38.] 
'slna*; þviat þat var opt háttr hans at gOra langai tölur um mála- 
ferli sfn ; ok leiddisk mönnum opt á at keyra '. Vildi hann at þat 
yrði jafnan frá borít, at virfiing hans yrði vífifræg. Hann kvað 
nú svá at orði: 'Kumi^ mun mönnum vcia um málaferli vár 
Páls, ok um þá svfvírðing er mér var æduð at veita, miklu meiri 
en fhtm kvæmi'; ok olli þvl meirr hamingja min en tilstilli þess 
er görði. Síðan var sæzt á milit ok selt mér sjálfdæmi af Páli; 
en nú er svá komit þvl máli, at settir eru at mér mestu menn hér 
á landi^ at þetta mál skuli nú í görð leggjask er áðr kom 1 sjálf- 
dæroi. Nú ° ef dæmi fyndisk til þess at menn hefði svá fyrr gört, 
þá væri i at líta. En þeir menn er »k tnnda nú við máBt — 
nefni ek fyrst til þess Jén Loptzson, er mestr* maðr ei i landi 
' þessu, ok allir skjöta sinum mála-ferlum tíl — þá veit ek eigi vist 
hvárt annat er nú virðingar-vænna, en reyna hvem sóma hann 
vili' mfnn göra. Nú kann vera, at ek hafa ekki vit tíl at sjá mála- 
hlut til handa mér, en vilja munda ek halda minni sæmð.' Þá 
svarar Brandr biskup : ' Engi maðr frýr þéi vitz, en meirr * crtii 
gmnaðr um gæzku.' Jón kvað Sturlu vicrlega mæla, ok sjá fyrir 
margra hönd ; ' En f^gjöld,' sagði Jón, ' af Páls hendi munu til 
VEEgðar sniSask; þvíat þau vóni með freku reist; ok skal nú við 
mik um at eiga en eigi við PáL' Slðan gengu menn frá Lögbergi 
> ok heim til búða. En áðr þinginu lyki, þá bauð Jón Sturlu 
bamfóstr, ok banð heim Snorra syni hans ok hónum sjálfum til 
Kirkju-dags f Odda. Sfðan fylgði Smrla suðr sveininum ; ok þ& 
sfðan virðuk^gar gjafar af J<5ni. En fégjöld svöifuðusk* mjök, ok 
var þat " ákvcðit at væri þifi tigir hundraða. 

86. Páll piesti bauð heim Jóni Loptzsyni f Reykjaholt ; ok var 
þai góðr diykkr. Ok þar vóiu leiddir fram yxn"* þrir, ok var einn 
sex vetia, ok annarr niu vetra". í^ mælti Páll; 'Minni munu 
laun fram koma en þii værir verðr fyrír liðveizluna ; en bét skaltú 
kjósa, hvárt þú viU heldr hafa þenna uza inn ses vetra eði hina 
báöa.' Jón leic á uxana ok mælti : 'Svá s^sk m^r sem eigi 
muni verða mega sEóm mciri uxi ok belrí en sjá Ínn sex vetra 

' k riridt — tína] om. B. * ok lei<Uiik — he;ia] om. B, putting iatteul — þviit 
maðrina vat bzSi ritt ok tnngD mjúkr. ' ef fiim kEml. B. < ea dú cni 

(últÍT at inir ooilu œeoii á tdandi. B. ' nú] B; tn, Cá. * dýittr. B. 

'^ viirj nll, B. * meirrj om. B. ' iTÐrTuAuik] tiiul cmeiui.: (uoidui, llie 

relium lea^ a« wdl u Bi., H; en gitDd tnejrríz miok, B. *° heiit, add. B. 

" öxn, B. " Thui both Tellnm and B. 


»8i-ii83.] STURLU SAGA. 36, 86. 85 

[1. 106 : iL 38.] 
gamli, ok kýs ek hann.* Páll mælti : ' Þat er ok vel ; fyrir þvf at 
jafh-mikit hefir mik kostað sjá, ok hinir tveír.' Sffian dró hann 
gtiUhríng á hom uxanura, ok kvað þvl fylgja skytda ok tfu 
- hundnið vafimála. Jón þakkafií hónum vel slíkar vingjafir. Ok 
skilðusk öii^ðar-vinir. 

86. Svá er sagt: at þ& er Sturla frétti andlát Þorbjargar konu 
F&Is prestz, at hann legðisk f rekkju; ok þat var hónum opt tftt 
þá er hann var hugsjúkr. Menn fréttu hann at, hvf þat gegndi. 
Hana svarar: 'Ek he& nú þau tlðendi fréct' er mér [^kkja at- 
huga-verö'.' Menn svBraðu: 'Ekki hugðu vér, at þú œundir 
stríð um þat bera, þótt l^jrbjöi^ væri önduð.' Storla svarar: 
' Annat berr til, þvfat raér er . . . alheg at * þvfcit ek virði svá, at 
aldri væri saklaust við sonu Páls ok I>OTbjargaT meðan hón lifði ; 
en nú samir eigi vel, at veita þeim ágang er hón er önduð/ — PÁ bjó 
Magnús prestT Pálsson at Helgafelh, ok Hallfríðr dðttir Þorgils 
Ara sonar ins Fróða, ok var bðn skönmgr mikill. 

Sturla andaðisk f elli sfnni f Hvammi, ok bjó Guðný þar eptir 
lengi sfðan. Einarr f>orgilsson andaðisk tveimr vetnira eptir þat er 
Sturla andaðisk. Sem enn mun sagt verða sfðarT, 

■ ftdlt] frcgit, B. * itmga mi, B. 

* þrfat tnét ti . . . xJbtg at] tbii ii i rrrf daabtrnl puugc. B hii — Stnrli 
ivanr: sDiut berr ok til þTÍ it þan (thui ai it Mcnu) cru dgi tJlbcig (I) st þvl 
■t ck Tiiði trk KOi illdri tcií uka lautt viS E«ii Pali ak þotb, ... Id TGUum A, 
whcQ tbe pip« tnaicripti weie taken in the middle oF tbe I^th cealuiy, thii 
paiuge miut, erca theo, hiTc been faded and hard to reid, al the triDKTÍpti ihow. 
What we now ein read i»— ' þm' at m«r cni .. . . | allheg a( ;' after ' eni," at the eod 
of theUDe, ooe word ii blotted out, 'engÍQ'oT thc like. 


{1.106,107: ii.38.] 

Makgar Sögur verða hér samtfða; ok má þó eigi allftr seiin 
ríta: S^a, Thorlaks biskups ins Heilaga', ok Guðmundar ins 
Góða Arasonar, þar til er hann var vfgðr til prestB. Saga Guð- 
mundar ins dýra hefzt þrem vetnim eptir andlát Sturlu, ok lykr 
þá ci Brandr biskup ei andaör, en Guðmundr inn Gófii er þá 
T%6r til tnskups. Saga Hrafns Sveinbjarnar sonar ok l\)rv^ 
Snorra sonar er samtfða sög^u Guðmundar ins Góða, ok lylut faón 
eptir andlát Brandi biskups, svi sem Sturla f>i5T6&rBon segir f 
Islendinga-sögu *. — Flestar allar sögur, þær er gera höfðu á fslandí 
&ta !^ndr biskup Særaundatson andaðiz, vóni ritaðar'; en þær 
aögur, er síðan bafa gcm, vóni Iftt ritaðar, áör Sturla skáld Þórðar- 
son sagfii fyrir f^endinga sögur*. Ok hafði faann þar til vfenidi 

I aS fróðum mönnum, þeim er vóru i. ofanverðura' dögum hans; 

i en sumt eptir bréfum þeim, er þeir rítuðu, er þeim vóru samtíða, 
er sögumar eru frá. Marga hluti mátti hann sjálfr sjá ok heyra ' 
þá er gerðuz á hans dögum til stór-tíðenda. Ok treystum' vér 
hánum bæði vel til viz ok einarðar at segja frá ; þvfat hann vissum 
vér' alvitrazUn* ok faófÉamaztaTL Láti Guð bóniun raun lofi 

' Thiu Cá.; helgi, B. ' Itltndinga i'ógam, B. 

• B maneouilj Tnnipoics the wotdi thuj— FicaUr illar logor þm- er hér híft 
gon i Iilinili TÓni [ilaSar ájh- Bnndt tuikup Seninndar lon andiiz (tic). En 
þiu lögui tr ElSin bafa goii Toru litt TÍiaíar iSr Snitli (I) tkaltd þorðir ton ngði 
fyrii filcndinga iogoi . . . 

< lögui] thut the vellum (tög') ; there i> t linle hole in tbe Tdlam, but the 
íbbtevistion íbore the line (") Ít clear ; B hu • logoi.' 

' ofanveifiom] thui Tellum ; aradTetðum, B (aud hence lome paper tnnicripti, 
eren of the A clatt, tuch ai Br., H). * ok beyn] om. B. ' trcf ituinz. B. 

* Tittum vér] Tjua ek, B. ' That il-, not ill-, Tcllum, B. 






[1.107! ii.39.] 

1. ÞoRQEiR Haixasom bjó undir Hvassafelli f Eyjalirði. Hann 
átti HaJIberu Einars dðttur af Reykjanesi, Ara sonar, l'orgils sonar, 
Ara sonar, Más sonar. Þau Þorgeirr ok Hallbera áttu tfu böm, er 
ór bamæsku kómusk; sonu fimm ok dætr fimm. Þeirra sonr var 
Einan- ; hann átti ekki bam. Hann fdkk Ifflát á Grænlandi 1 
óbygðum. Ok eru tvennar frásagnir : Sd er önnur sögn Styrkárs 
Sigmundar sonar af Grænlandi, — ok var hann sagna-mafir mikill 
ok sannfróðr, — at skip þeirra færisk f óbygðum; en lið þeiira 
hafði gengit í tvá stafti ; ok bærisk svá um þat, at aðra þraut fyir 
vistir en aðra ; ok komsk Einarr i brott meö sélta mann, ok vtldi 
leita bygðar, ok gékk á jökla upp, ok létu þeir Iffi ', er d^leið var 
til bygða; ok fiindusk vetrí sfðarr; ok var lik Einars heilt ok 
ósakat; ok hvflir hann á Herjólfs-nesÍ. Annarr son Þorgeirs var 
Þorvarðr. Hann fór lítan þá er hann var átjSn vetra. Ok þegar 
er hann sté á land fótum f Björgyn, þá laust hann hirðmann Inga 
konungs, þann er Jón hét, svá at hann varð aldri heill sfðan, ok 
dó um vetrinn eptir. En þat var fyrir þá sök, er þessi maðr sigldi 
fi^ hönum f Eyjafirði, en t^rvarðr rézk þegar til annars skips; ok 
kómu þeir þrim nóttum sfðarr [til Björgynjar] en Jóns skip. f^ 
sötti Þorvarðr fund Kelils Kálfssonar, ok hafði f sfnni hváni hendi 
6zina ok skeptið, er brotnað hafði þá er hann laust Jón. £n þvf 
máli lauk svá, at Þorvarðr görðisk hirðmaðr Inga konungs ok varft 
hónum kærr. Nú er hætt frásögn um athafnir torvarðz; þvíat 

' lifi]B,Gmí.; lif. Cd. 



IXioSt 0.99.] 
þai eni tn^ efni f, en ek vilja f þessa sOgu rfta. Hann kváng- 
aðisk þá er hann \ét af siglingum, ok fékk Herdfsar Sighvatz- 
dðttur. Hann átti fimm dætr, þær er ór bamssku kómusk: 
Guftnín var ein, er átti Þorgeiir sonr Brandz biskups, en síðarr 
Eirekr Hákonarson 6t Orkneyjum dóttur-son Sigurðar slembis; 
önnur Gyríör, er álti Kolbeinn Tumason ; en þriðja GuðnSn, er 
átti Klængr Kleppjámsson ; fjóröa Hallbera, er átti ívSrðr ÖmÓlfs- 
Bon ór önundar£rði ' ; fimta Ingibjörg, er átti Brandr. En áðr 
Þorvarðr kvángaðisk, átti hann dóttur viö Yngvildi dótínr Þorgils 
Oddasonar; hón var gipt Hjálmi Asbjamaisyni. Aðra dóttur 
átti hann við Herdfsi Klængsdóttur, ok sú hét Helga; hón var 
gipt Teiti Oddzsjmi 1 Anslfjörðum. forvarðr átti son, er Ögmundr 
hét, við þeirri konu er Helga ' hét. Ögmundr þessi fékk Sigrfðar 
Eldjámsdóttur af Espihóli. En f elli sfnni átli Þorvarðr dóttur, er 
Berghildr hét, við Bimu Brandzdóttur. Hón var gipt Eldjámi f 
Fljótzdals-héraði. Þriði son Þorgeirs hét Þórðr*; hann var munkr 
at l^-erá, ok andaðisk þar, ok átti ekki bam ^j^hann var prestr ok 
mikit göfug-menni. Arí hét Ínn fimti son Í>OTgetrs; hann var 
mJkiU maðr ok sterkr. l^ni í'orgeirsdóttur átti Héðimi Eyjólfe- 
Bon er bjó at Hólum f Eyiafirði ; en sfðan átti hana Eyjól& 
Einaisson. önnur ddltir Þorgeirg var Ingibjörg; hana átci fyrst 
HelgÍ Eiriksson 61 Langa-hlfð, en sfðan Hvamm-Sturla. Þriðja 
hét Mmý; hana áttí Grfmr Snonason at Hofi f Skagafirði i 
Hötða-strönd. Fjórða dóttir í^ji^irs hét Grjma; hana átti 
Brandr Tjörvason á Viðivðllum. FímU dóttír t*orgeir3 hét Oddný; 
hana átti Þórir torvarðz son. Gunnarr hét maör, er kallafir var 
Sleggju-Gunnarr ; hann var Helga son, í*6rðar sonar, fóris sonar, 
Amgeirs sonar, Böðvars sonar. Gunnarr átti Rannveigu tJlfbéðins 
dóttur, KoUa sonar, Þórmððs sonar, Kolla sonar, Þortáks sonar, 
bróður Steinþórs á Eyri, er Örbyggjar eru frá komnir. f>ormóðr 
KoUason áttí Þórn^u Ara dóttur af Reykjanesi. I'au Gunnarr ok 
Rannveig áttu dóttur er Úlfeiör hét; hon var gipt nauðig; en 
siðan lagði þokka á hana Ari Þorgeirsson, ok átti með henni böm 
fjögur; Clemet hét son þeirra, ok andaðisk ungr. Þau áctu son 
annan, er Guðmundr hét; hann var fæddr at Grjðtá i Hðrgár* 
dal. Þar var þá Steinunn Þorsteinsdóttir, ok dóttír Sigrfðar Úlf- 
héðinsdóttur ; hón var systrungr Úlfeiðar, ok var ástúðugt með 

' þórSr öaondinon, B. * H«rc endi tbe lixth Tellum leif. ' Þ^'^l 

þorir, Oni(, 

/ -:•.-■?.: ..■ . , '„..;,.,: -l^}. r-'--. 

'" ''■'■',< .. i.Cooglc 

ii6f, ii6í.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 3. 89 

[1.109,110; u.40.1 
þeim. í^t var þrim nóttum fyrir Michaels-messu ; er sveinninn 
var fteddr. í^ var vitr maör ok fróðr, Guðmundr kar-höfði'. 
Ok er sagt frá orða-tiltekju hans þá er sveinnjnn kvað við nf- 
fæddr, at hann lézk einskis bams rödd slíka heyrt hafa ; ok kvaz 
vlst vita, at þat bam mundi afbragS verða annaira manna, 'ef lífi 
heldr;' ok kallaði sét bjóða ótta mikinn, er hann heyrði til. I>au 
áttu dóttur er Guðrún hét, ok son er Gunnarr hét, ok andaöisk 
ungr. En þá er til tðk % þeirra Ara ok Úlfeiðar, þá \ét hón í 
hendr hónum fimtán hundnið þriggja álna aura til forráða ok 
meðferðar; ok bafði hón þá eptir gullhríng ok marga gripi aðra. 
£n fyrir þvl at Arí var maðr stórlyndr, þá l^ðisk þeim fé skjétt 

2. Nii er þar til m&Ia at taka : at Þorvarðr Þorgeirsson kom út 
eptlr fatl Inga konungs; ok I^ þvf, at hann vildi Öngum konungi 
þjóna jarðneskum eprir Inga konung ; þvfat hánum þótti sem 
einginn mundi verða jafningi hans. Ok þess bað hann Ara 
bróður sínn, ef hann kæmi útan-Iendis, at hann skyldi eigi við 
þann Öokk bindask, er fetlt hafði Inga konung. Kallaði ván, at 
flokkr mundi hefjask í Vík austr, at leita eptír hefndum ; ok baö 
hann at ráðask f þann flokk, ok setjask í rúm sftt. Nó ferr Ari 
útan, en Úlfeiðr sitr eptir með son sfnn Guðmund. Sótti Arí í 
fimd Erlings, ok hitti hann í Vík austr um várít eptir. Ok áttn 
þeir slðan bardaga í Tlinsbergi, Hákon herði-breiðr ok Krlingr jarl. 
Faer Hákon ósigr ok fiýði. En litlu sfðarr börðusk þeir fyrir 
Hrafna-björgum ; ok lagðisk Hákon enn á flótta. Inn þríðja 
budaga áttu þeir þat sumar undir Sekk fyrir Raumsdal; ok þar 
í&í Hákon konui^, ok mart gSfgra manna með hðnum. £n 
Erlingr jarl lagði miklar virðingar á Ara fyrir fylgð sfna. Um 
vetrínn fér jarl ok Magniis konungr um Upptönd ok Arí með 
þelm, ok mart hirðmanna; ok áttu þeir þar bardaga á Reríí'skamt 
frá Hamar-kaupangi ', ok börðosk við Sigurð jarl; ok f^Il hann 
þar, ok mart Uð með hönum. £n er tfðendi þessi kðmu tíl 
Tslandz, ok þat, hveija virðing Ari f^kk af konungi ok jarli, þá 
kvaö ÍSJrgeirT vfsu : — 

Eodr Ut tfax' i nuDR nuir-EngT nwð Erlingi 
brMii minD nad btciðir briad-éli ttiSt tandíi : 
Vfg-gaiíi hcGr Tirðat TeSr-eg^itdi beggji 
okkat r^ þar er ioiir angi böft-koflu tpningu. 

' Thut ilio B, ' Hamir-kaupaiigl] B ; Hakaupangi, Cd. * lýnt] lunnr, B. 





Ok nm v&rít ^tir ífs/a^ Arí út hingat; ok gaS jari hðnum knfirr 
með rá ok reiða'. Hum varð vel reiðfarí, ok kom skifH sfnu 
at Gásuca f Eyjaljörð. Skipit átti hálfl mefi hönum Amundi 
Konráðsson *. p3t sumai var kallat Grjótflaugar-sumar. H var 
barizt 1 Lðgréttu á Alþingi*, ok varö mart manna sárt; ok þar 
fiíkk líflát Halklánr prestr Snorrason; ok þar var sárr Þorvarðr 
5 . I'orgeirsson. £n er þessi tíðendi vöni orðin, þá þðtti höfðingjum 

nauðayn at auka þingit ; ok væri mál þessi þá þegar sótt, ok sættir 
menn er höfðu beðit vansa af grjðt-3aug (A vápnum; þviat þar 
varð með svá miklum ólikindum grjóti kastað, ok sannorðir menn 
sögðn þat, þdr er þar vóni, at eptir baidagann fengu menn þeJm 
steinum trautt af jörðu lypt er kastað var í bardaganum. Ok er 
þetta mál mjQk knfat* at þing veri aukiL H verðr til svara 
Þorgeirr Hallason, ok sagði svá : ' Þat er vfst, at þessu máli verð 
ek eigi samþykkr, at göra ðllinn mönnum svá mikit mein ok 
vanhag, at auka þingit; ok uggi ek, at viö þat muni aukat^ 
vandræði ok ófríðr en þverra eigi. Nú hafa þat kennt enir vitrustu 
menn, at lægja skuli ðll vandiæði en æsa eigi. Nú heflr m&in 
Bonr orðit fyriráverka; ok þykki m^r hann gildr maðr fyrir sér; 
ok vil ek eigi þann hlut ajá til handa hönum ok mér, at göra 
almáganum vandræði ; ok heldr mun ek bfða, ok leita mér ráðs, 
ok &ra heim at sinni.' Ok er hann hafði þetta upp kveðit, þá 
svara allir hðfðingjar, at þiggja vildu þetta ráð. Var þá sUtið 
þinginu. Um haustið fór Arí til Hvassa-fellz Cil föður sfns ; ok 
þangat fór með hðnum Úlfeiðr; ok vóni þau þar tvá vetr. £n 
þangat var kominn Guðmundr son þeirra. En er Ari haXði hér 
verít tvá vetr, ferr hann lítan ok Ingimundr bróöir hans. Ok 
er þeir kómu nm haf, fara þeir til hirðvistar með Erlin^ jaflí, 
ok eni með hðnum um vetrinn. A þéim vetrí hð&k flokkr Öláfs 
Guðbrandzsonar, dóttur-sonar Haraldz gilla. Arí bjó skip sftt 
um várít til fslandz, ok vóru albiinir til hafs. En þeir er helM 
vóru öfundar-menn Ara, lögðu bónum til ámgelis, at hann legði svá 
fylgð sfna við Erling jad, at fara þá frá hónum er hann þyrfti 
roest manna við, ok ófnðar aC ván. En er Ari varð varr þeas&rar 
umræðu, þá lætr hann þegar bera f&t sín af skipi, ok rézk þá eim 
til hirðvistar raeð konungi ok jarli. En Ingimundr, svá ok aðrir 

> reUU, B. ■ Tbui alio B; Koðradwot), Omt. * LogTállu i Alþingi] Bi 

f þiogför, Cd. < kniit] B, Omt. ; koUt, Cd. 


ii63-ii6?.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 2. 9» 

[1.IIJ: 0.4*0 
fslenzlur Tnenn, b^n til fslandz, ok urðu vd reið&ra þat Gnmar. 
Fylgði Aii jaili um haustið anstr l VSk. &i um nóttina eptir 
Allra-faeikg7a.-inesEa var jarl sCaddr í bæ þeim er á RjðjöklÍ heítir 
n>e6 liö sftt; ok reis upp um nóttina at venju slnní tíl óttu-sðngs; 
6k gékk til kirkjn, ok þeir menn með hónum, er hónum vóm 
kæntstir. En er lokit m óttu-söng, sat jarl ok saung pealma. H 
beyrðu þeir Iiiðra-söi^, c^ þóttugk þat vita at ófríör myndi fylgja. 
Jail lýkr psalmum sfnum, ok gengr út sfðan ; ok verða þess vs^r, 
at £6 er komit at bænum, svá at bsNÍnÐ var fullr af mönnum. Ok 
Tildi jail láta beim til stofu slunar ok til liðs ok vápna. Þá tók 
til oröa Bjöm bukkr, at jarli værí einsætt undsji at halda; ok^ 
þdr hfifðu ekki vápna, ok mittu eigi vetja j^ þött þeir vildi. Arí 
svstar : ' Hér enim vér þó ; ok fylgjum jarli at betr, at eingi sé 
vápnin.' H taka þeir undan, en ðfríðar-menn eptir. Jarli fy^ði 
BjÖm bukkr ok fvarr gilli *, lendir menn, Bjðm stallarí ok Arí. 
£t þeÍT k6mu at ^ðgarði nökkunim, þá hljópu þetr yfír garöÍDn 
Björa bukkr ok fvair ; en jarl fékk eigi yfir hlaupit, þvíat hann 
var þnngr maðr á sér ; ok tóku þeir Bjöm ok ívarr i móti hénum ; 
an Ari hljóp & milli jarls ok ófríðar-manna, sem hann setti sik 
skjöld fyrir jarl ; ok snerí í mótí heraum, ok gaf svá jarli Ilf, at 
faann bnn sik fyrir; þvfat Arí var eigi sárr [áðr]. En þá var 
bann skodnn gafloki f óstínn, ok nistr svá við garðinn; ok lét 
faann þar Iff sítt. En jarí komek undan, ok var skotinn f lærít áðr 
cn hann komsk yfir garðinn. £n f þessu athlaupi féllu tfu menn 
aörir cn Ari. Þessir menn féUu aí ErLngi jarli, at sögn {>orí[els j 
baga: Ari Þorgeirsson, Einarr opin-sjóðr, Bj'Öra skotzki', Jón / 
fjósi, Ivarr dælski, Gunnarr* tjor-skinn*, Mroddr Jórsala-maðr. 
En er jari komsk yfir garðinn, ok f nökkut hlé, þá spurði hann 
hvar Ari væri, fstendingr. EA þeir sögðu, at hann dvalðísk þar 
eptir vlð garðinn líflátinn. Jarl mœlCi : ' t^t er víst, at þar fór sá 
maðr, er oss hefir bezt fylgt ; ok höfum vér ðngan jafn-hvatan ; 
eptir ; ok varð bann einn búinn fyrstr at gefa sjálfviljandi sftt Iff ' 
fyrír mftt líf! Kú mun ek hans frændum eigi kunat fá þann skaða ' 
er þeir hafa beÖit fyrír mfnar SE^ar.' Hú kemr jarl til liðs sfns, ok 
samnar saman flokki sfnum, ok lœtr grefba menn sfna þá er 
famt faöfðn. 

■ ok] þrfal, Onu. * gilli] thm ilm B, Gnit. ' íkotiki] Hcrlci, B. Gms. 

lániT, B. * tjoi.lkiim] Cd. uid B : tiontrÐÐd, Gmi. 



[I.iiy. iii.i.] 
Tfðendi þessi kómn dl íslandz um sumarít cptir. Þá yikir 
Þorvarðr, bróðir hans, erfi-flokk um Ara ; ok þóttisk hann þann 
veg helzt hyggja af líÖáti Ara, at láta hreystí hans koma í kvaefti 
þau er vföa vseri borin. 

3. ' Nú tek ek þar til Irásagnar:— er Gnðmundr, son Ara, var 
fæddr at Gijólá. Ht var allt á cinum missenmi ok faU Inga 
konungs, ok þat at brendr var bær Sturlu f Hvammi. Þá var 
Bjöm biskup at Hólum, en Klængr f Skála-holti. Vfgðr Ej'steinn 
erkibiskup einum vetri áfir. t>á var lifiit frá burði várs Henu 
(D. c. Ixi.' ár. Annat sumar eptir fár Bjöm biskup norðr til Nerár, 
at vfgja [til], abóta Bjöm bróður sfnn ; ok t þessarí för biskupaði 
hann Guðmund Arason á Möðru-völlum ; ok var þat um vár eptir 
Páska. f>at sumar Eeúaði Bjfim biskup til þings ; en þi tók hann 
sött, svá at hann mátd eigi til þings rfða. Hann stethir þá at sér 
fnendum sfnum ok vinum, ok slupar þeim hlutum er hónum þótti 
mest þurfa; svá at þat fansk þá, er síðarr kom fram, at hann 
vissi hann skyldi við bana sfnum bilask. Hann gcfr hundraö 
hundiaða af staðnum til Munka-Werár; ok s^di þat tvennt f þvf, 
at hann þóttísk hafa verit of óveitull* af staðar-fjánum ; en hann 
tniði þat mesta styrking Kristninnar, at styrkja munklffi ; ok hand- 
salaðí Brandi frænda sfnum til heímtu, er næstr var biskup eptir 
hann. En þat var forsjálegt, at hann handsalaði þeim er sjálfr 
hlaut at gjalda. En sfðan ferr hann heim til Hóla ; ok liggr allt 
sumarit; ok andaðisk um haustíð næsta dag fyrir* Kolnis-meyja- 
messu. t>á bauð t>orgeirT Hallason heim til fóstrs GuðmundÍ Ara- 
syni. Ok var sá annarr vetr aldrs hans. Þau misseri féll Hákon 
konungr herði-breiðr [undir Sekk]; en hðfsk Magniís konungr. 
Þau' misseri andaðisk Asgrtmr ábóti ok Þorvarðr auðgi ; ok þau 
misseri börðusk menn at rétmm f Flóa suðr. Ok var vfgðr Hróí 
biskup tíl Færeyja. On þriðju misseri kom út Arí Þorgeirsson. 
Ok þat sumar var LOgréttu-bardagi, sem fyir var sagt t'at sumar 
var vfgör til biskups Brandr Sæmundarson, ok fór útan. In Qórða 
misseri fjölmenntn þeir mjök til þings, Þorgeirr ok synir hana; ok 

' Heie ii » liige iniliil leltcr and a littlc bbcik ipace left ía B (Anu-Magn. 
131. A). The paper trintcripti, eipcciaJIy thoie of thí B clau, start here a fnA 
lection or ■þáttr' (thelhirdootoften). ■ThuiV.; m. c.lx.,Cd.; 'M.l.lj.,'B; 
' þúintid retni olc c. ok I. ok iiij.,' Omt. ; lee tbe foot-note in Bitk. SÖgnr i. 414. 
■B; olbn.Cá. 'nztta dag ^ric] Gmi.; við, Cd. ; fyiir, B. 


1161-1169.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 3, 4. 93 

hefir Aii Austmenn marga f flokki með sér, nær þijá tigi; ok var 
þat kallat Skjalda-sumar. Pi mæltu þeir feðgar eptir áverkum við 
torvarð við Vatzfirðinga ; ok fylgðu þvf máli svá, at sá varö sekr, 
er vann; en Vatzfirðmgar, Páll ok Snorri, seldu Þoivarði sjálf- 
dæmi; en Þorkell Flosason, er sekr var görr um sumarít, terði 
t>orvaiði höfiið sftt Skfrdags-kveld, ok lagði á borð fyrir hann. 
Ok hann gaf hónum höfuð sftt, ok bað hann fara f fríði hvert er 
hann vildi ; ok gaf hónum hest eptir Fáska-viku ; ok skyldi hann 
þess nj(5ta er hann kom á þeim tfðum. In fimtu misserí kom 
Brandr biskup ÚL Ok urðu land-skjálptar f Grlmsnesi [ok fórusk 
átjin menn]. Þá var Karls-hrfð Gregoríus-messu. In séttu misserí 
féU Arí t^>rgeirsson. H kom blöð [Chrístz] f Nfðarós. Ok þann 
vetr andaðisk Jón Sigmundarson inn fyrrl Hreinn ábötí v^ðr. 

4. £n fyrír þat, at fé þat er Arí hafði átt, bar undan Guðmundi 
syni hans, þá þótti frœndum hans ráð fyrír hÓDum at sjá, at setja 
hann til bðlíar; ok tekr Ingimundr prestr við hónum at kenna 
bónum. Ok fékk hann þat þá fyrst í ÍÖður-bætr, ok erfð, at hann 
var barðr til bókar. Hann var ólatr mjök ; ok þótti þat þegar þá 
auð sýnt á athöfn hans, at hónum myndi í kyn kippa um ödælleika ; 
þvtat hann vildi ráða við hvern sem hann átti. £n ryrir þat var 
fóstrí hans við hann harðr. Sá vetr var kallaðr Kynja-vetr; þv^ 
þá urðu maigir undarlegir hlutir ; þá vóru sénar tvær ' sólir f senn ; 
þá vóru sénir álfar ok aðrír kynja-menn ríða saman í flokki f 
Skagafirði. [f>at] sá Arí Böðvarsson. Þat var f Hegranesi, at þar 
hlj^p gyltr ein 6t hilsi sfnu um nótt, ok hraut upp hurðir, ok hljóp 
at hvflu einni er kona bvfldi f með bami ; ok greip gyltrin bamit, 
ok beit til bana, ok hljóp út sfðan; en bamit lá eptir dautt; en 
gyltrin hlóp f hús sftt. Onnur misserí eptir selr Þorgeirr Hvassa- 
fell, ok rézk til Munka-Þverár ; en Þorvarðr ok Ingimundr prestr 
tóku við búinu. Þau misseri eptir brann kirkja i Laufási. Guð- 
mundr var þá átta vetra. H fóm þeir Ingimundr prestr, fóstri 
hans, norðr á Hils til Brandz [Tjörvasonar] er átti Guðrúnu Þor- 
geirsdöttur; ok vóru með hönum á vist þau misserí. t'á fór 
Þorgetrr til Ljósa-vatz at biia; en Guðmundr var nfu vetra. Þá 
átti Ingimundr bú við Brand mág sfnn á Hálsi ; ok vóni þeii þar 
vetr annan. En A þvf ári vá t>orgeirr Höskuld Hérason. Ok þá 
var vfg Kára Koðráns-sonar '. Ok þá var Karl ábóti vfgör til 

' tvzi] trenir, B. ■ nr— lanar] emend., fioin Ann. Reg. ind Gini. ; vdru ríg 


94 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a. d. 

ÞingCTra. t>á var Guðmundr tfu vetia. Pi fór Ingimundr, fÓstri 
hans, á Vagla at búa. Ok er þcir bTæðr byggja svá i stoðrenni, þá 
áttu þeii Guðmundr ok Ogmtmdr barnleika saman, ok mörg Önnai 
imgmemii með þeim. £a til ins sama kom jafnan um atferli þdrra 
ok leika at nest-lokum ', bvat sem fyrst var upp [tekic], at Guð- 
mundi var gört mitr ok bagall ok messufíjt, kirkja ok altarí ; ok 
skyldi haim vera biskup f teiknum ; en Ögmundi öx ok skjöldr ok 
vápn; ok skyldi hann vera hermaðr. f>ötti þat mönnum vera fpV' 
spá mikil, þá er þat kom fram um hvám þeirra er ætlað var. Þau 
misseri fónisk átta tigir manna I skriðum ; ok var kaUaðr Bysna- 
vetr. Þau misserí féll Thomas 'erkibiskup á Englandi. Ok þá 

, andaðisk Þorgeirr munkr Hallason. l^t sumar börðusk þeir 
Einarr Helgason, ok Skógungar, Vilmundr Snorra son Kálfs 
sonar, i Saurbæ ; ok féllu sjau menn af Vilmundi ; en Einarr varð 
sárr, ok var borinn i skildi l brott; ok nökkurír menn urðu sáiir 
af liði hans. Um várít eptir fór Ingimnndr búi sfnu á MöðravöUu 
iðri, ok le%ði landit tfu hundruðum. I^u misserí fékk Ingimundr 

' Sigrfðar Tumadóttur. Ok þat haust börðusk þeir Sturla f^röarsoa 
ok Knan Þorgilsson í SEcIingsdals-heÍði, um þaC er Einair hafði 

, ræntan Ingjald tnág Sturlu. t*á er Guðmundr var tólf vetra, brá 
Ingimundr b<ii. Ok reið vestr til Ass f Skagafjörð til Tuma mágs 
hans með Sigrfði konu sfnni ; þvíat samfarar þeirra vóru eigi með 
værðum. M fór Guðmundr á Háls til Þorgeirs. Þat vár andaðisk 
Grundar-Ketilt. Um baustið för Ingimundr brott ór Asi, þvfat þau 
Sigrfðr n^ttu eigi af samfi3nim; ok buðu margir göfgir menn 
hónum heim ; en hann fór á Grenjaðarstaði til Hiafns Hallzsonar. 
I^ rézk þangat Guðmundr, fiændi hans. Sá vai kallaðr inn Göðí 
vetr. H biann Ejörgyn um velríim. Þá var in heilaga Sunnifa 
færð ór Selju áði um sumarit ; ok stfiðvaði þat eldz-ganginn, er 
skrfn hennar var á móti borít Veginn Einarr Grfmsson; ok 
brendr bær Einars Skaptasonar f Saurbæ á Kjalamesi. Tók lög- 
sögu SCyrkarr Oddason. 

6. Nú vóra þeir Ingimundr ok Guðmundr á Grenjaðarstöðum. 
Var hann þá tólf * vetra. H tók hann vfgslur af Brandi biskupi til 
acolula/em. Vetri sfðarr vfgði Brandr biskup hann til subdjákns; 
en ^ttán vetra til djákns. En in fyrstu misseri varð þaC til tfðenda, 
at þá var veginn Ingimundr Jónsson, bröðir Karls ibóta. Ok þaa 

' at n(M-k>kum] add. Omi. * túlf] þiett&n, B. 


ii/o-iiBo.] GUDMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 6, 8. 95 

p. 116,117: iiLj.] 
nusserí fór Páll Þórðarson ðr Vatzfirði, ok Sveiiui StDrhison með 1 
hónum, meö Qölmenni mikln til Helga-fellz. Námu þeir HaUgerði j 
Rtinólfsdóttur ok Valgerði dóttur hennar þaðan. En önnnr mis- ' 
Berí var veginn Helgi Skaptason á Alþingi fyrír þat er hann brendi 
kaupskip fyríT Páli Austmanni, er kallaðr var Brennu-Pátt ; en eptir 
vfgit mælti Þorvarðr i^rgeirsson ; ok féick sjálfdæmi af Austmanni, 
ok fékk af þvl virðing mikla. Þau misserí andaðisk Snorrí Kálfs- 
son & Mel. In þríðju misseri andaðísk Klængr biskup. í^ féU 
Eysleimi konungr, ok Nicfaulas Sigurfiareon. Þá vóra skærur ^ 

þeinu Amórs ¥^Rasonai ok Sveins Sturlusonar; ok hafði Sveinn Aí>'W'< 
ríðit at hitta konu Amðrs þá er Amóir meinaði ; ok reið Amórr 
eptir hónum við sjaunda mann ok barðtsk við hann Máríu-messu- 
dag inn sfðara' hjá Svtoa-vatni; en þeir Sveinn vóru tveir fyrir; 
ok var föninautr hans teldnn ok haldinn; en Sveinn tJjóp at 
Amórí, ok hjó á hönd hónum svá at hann varö óvígr. En þeir 
aóttn at Sveini sex saman; ok þóttusk þeir ganga af hónum 
dauðum; en Sveinn varð beilt sára sínna; en Amórr tifði við 
örkyrast síðan. Af þeasum atburðum má skilja, at Kolbeini var 
ætt-gengt, at stiUa eigi reiði sína ok ákefð fyrír Iiitfðar sakir 
Máríu dióttningar. In fjórðu misserí var v^ðr til biskups Þorlákr 
inn helgi. Ok tók Sveirir konungs-nafn. Var Guðmundr þá 
sjautján vetra, 

6. Þá réðusk þeir Ingimundr brott af Grenjaðarstöðum, ok fór / - ' ' 
Ingimnndr til Staðar i Kðtdu-kinn at bdi tit Þóraríns, ok bjó þar 
tvá vetr. En Guðmundr fór inn I Saurbæ í Eyjafjðrð tit Öláfs 
ÞorsteÍDSSonar, ok var hann þar þá tvá vetr er Ingimundr fÖstrí 
hans var á StaÖ. En þann inn þriðja vetr fiíkk Guðmundr kar- 
höfði vitran. Þann vetr sat fyrstan at stóli t^rtákr biskup. Þa féU 
Erlingr jarl um várít eptir. Þá vóru f lög teknar Ambrosius-messa 
ok Ceceliu-messa ok Agncsar-messa; en af teknir tveir dagar 
Hvítasnnnu-viku. Þau misserí eptir andaðisk Hallbera Einars- : 

dóttir. Ok þá var gipt Guðríin þorg«Mdóttir í^rgeiri biskups- l ■'>'-'^/, 
syni ; ok var boð þeirra á Hálsi ; ok vóm fíram hundrað manna 
boðnir. Þau imsserí var bardagi á IluvöUum með Sveiri ok Mag- 
niísi, Um várit er Gnðmundr var nftján vetra, þá bregðr Ingi- 
mundr prestr til útan-ferðar ok Guðmundr fðstri hans með tiónum. 
Þeir réðu sér iar at Gásum með Hallsteini kúlu-l>ak ; ok létu <ít Ínn 

' cplir hóniiin — lífiara] idd. Omi. 



[I. II8; 10. >.] 
næsta dag fyrír Michaels-messu. Þat var Ðrðttinsdag, ok leiddi 
veðr þá norðr fyrír Niípa til Melrakka-sléttu ; [þá koni andviðrí] - 
ok leggja þeir iBgimundr l rétt, ok velkir svá viku, ok rekr þá at 
Hom-ströndum. A einum aptni, er þeir sátu yfir mat, sprettr 
tjaldskör. Sá maðr er Asmundr hét, hann var Austmaðr, ok séi 
út, verðr þetta at raunni : ' Hviss þiss I af tjöldin I upp menninir 
hart ok tftt I boðar eni allt fyrír, hríndi borðunum, hirði eigi um 
matinn'I' Þá spretta menn upp allir saroan, ok kasta af sér 
tjöldum, Hallvarðr stýrimaðr kallar : ' Hvar er skips-prestr 1 ' 
' Skamt er bans at leiCa ; ' s^ði Ingimundr, ' eða bvat vili þér 
bónum?' — 'Vér viljum ganga lil skrípta,' sðgðu þeir. Hann 
svarar : ' Eigi er nú betra til skríptB at gai^a en f baust, er ek hefi 
hvern Dröttinsdag bofiit yðr til fyrír Guðs sakir, en þ^r vildut því 
aldrí hlýða. Nú verð ek biöja Guð at skrípta ykkr, þvfat ekki er 
mér sær nær' en yðr; verít nil braustir ok óhneddir.' Þeir 
sögðu : ' M muntú vilja, prestr, heita með oss suðrgöngu eðr 
ððrum stórheitmn; þvíat ná mun eigi annat stoða.' 'Víst eigi,' 
segir prestr, ' ok raun [ek beita], ef ek ræð hverju heita skaL En 
ella mun ek taka máli fyrir alla íslenxka menn er á skipi eru, at 
alU eingi œun í beitum með yðr vera ; þvfat ek vil nú eigi beldc 
yðra forsjá yfir mér en þér hafit viljat mína forsjá í hausL' — 
'Hverju villá beita þá, prestrP' sögðu þeir. — 'Ek vil beita á Alla- 
valdanda Guö ok helgan Kross, Fni Sanctam Máríam, ok alla 
Heilaga, at gefa tfunda blut af öllu þvf er á land kerask til kirkna 
eðr fátækum mönnum, eptir ráði biskups.' t'eir svöniöu: 'Pú 
skalc ráða, prestr ; þvfat eigi megum vér nú missa þfna forsjá.' Þá 
ferr haodtak um skip þeirra at þessu beiti. Ok em þeir þ4 komnir 
rajjik svá allt at boðunum. £r þá á þræta míkil hvert ráð skal 
taka ; vill sítt hverr ; sumir vilja Uta vinda segl upp ; ok er til þess 
þrifit. Þá ræðir Hallvarðr stýrímaðr viö prest; ef hann kynni nafn 
Guðs it hæsta. Hann svarar: ' Kann ek nökkur nöfn Guðs; ok 
trúi ek þat, er segir PáJl postuli, at eigi sé annat nafn Guðs æðra 
ok belgara en Jesus; en hitt veit ck eigi bvat þú kailar hæst' 
Hann svarar : ' £igi kalla ek slfkt veia presta, er eigi kunna nafn 
Guðs.' Þá kallar hann á Hallvarð, ok spyrr hann : ' Kantii nafn 
it hæsta?' Hann segir: 'Veit Guð, at ek ætla mik nú eigi muna 

' hirAi dgi um natinD] Gmi. i hlrSi mcnii eigi matinii, Cd. ' m aet] 

mi.; ililct QgCTTÍ. Cd. 



[I. U9:iii.í.] 
þegar; ok er þat þó ÍUa. Ok mun kuima Þórðr kráka.' — 'Þórör 
kráka I kantú nafnit ?' Hann segir : ' í>vl er verr, fdlagi, at mér er 
ór minni liíit ; en ek veit annarr kunna mun ; Þorbjörn humla 
mun kunna I ' — * Já, já 1 vel, vel ! í'orbjöm humla l nefn nafnit, ef 
þú kannt.' Hann segir: 'Ek vilda gjarna kunna; en ek ætla, ek 
muna a)dri heyrt hafa þat nafn; en vlsa mun ek þér til mannz er 
ek œtla at muni kunna, Einarr næpa'.' Þá var reynt við harm; 
ok nefnir hann nafnit. En er þeir höfðu segl af búlka upp varla 
mami-hátt, þá kenu' áfall mikit fyrir framan búlka ok aptan, ok 
dreif yfir búlkann. ' En þá hélt maör á reipi hveiju, ok þreif Ingi- 
mundr prestr hefil-skapt, ok vildi kippa ofan. £n Guðmundr 
fóstrí hans átti bygð I báti, ok stóö f mÍUi bátzins ok seglsins ; ok 
ekyldi greiða seglit. En í þvf ketnr áfall annat, svá mikit, at yíir 
gékk þegar skipit, ok ofen dtap flaugina, ok af vlgin baeði ; ok 
útan-borðz allt þat er taust var á biilkanum, nema menn ; ok lesttsk 
mjök skipit ok svá bátrinn. Þá hríndr þeim fram af boðunum ; ok fS 
þeir áfall it þríðja ; ok var þat minnzt. M var hlaupit til austrar, bæði 
fram ok aptr ; en segl var undit upp. Þá sjá þeir land ; ok ræða um 
hvar þeir mundi kommir ; sögðu sumir, at þeír mundu vera komnir 
at Máhney ; en l^rarinn rosti, f slenzkr maðr, kvað þá seint rekit 
hafa at þvL Þá segir Márr Eyjólfsson, ok lézt kenna at þeir vóru 
komnir vestr at Ströndum ai. Skjaldabjamar-vík, ok kvazk þar hafa 
verit áðr um sumarit. Báftu þeir þá, at hann myndi segja þeim 
leið tíl hafnar, ok vildu norðr fyrír til Þaralátrs-fjarðar ; þvlat þar 
var örugg höfn. H var leitað um hvat lil skaða væri orðit; ok 
kemr Ingimundr at Guðmundi frænda slnum. En áfelUl hafði 
drepit hann inn f bátinn ; en fótrinn hægrí hékk lít af bátz-borðinu, 
ok var fastr 1 seglinu. Ingimundr spurði hvf hann stæfti eigi upp. 
En bann kvað svá höfugt á sér, at hann mátti eigi hrærask eða 
upp komask. Þá var rótað af hónum; ok mátti hann eigi upp 
Btanda. Ok spurði Ingimundr hvf hann mátli eigi upp standa. 
Hann kvað sér svá höfgan fótinn, at hann mátti hvergi hræra, . 
' Mun fótrinn eigi brotinn ? ' kvað Ingimundr. ' Eigi veit ek,' segir 
hann, ' ekki kenni ek til.' Þá var at hugat ; ok var fótrinn brotinn á 
bátz-borðinu svá smátt sem skeija-moli; ok horfðu þangat lær sem 
hæll skyldi. H bjoggu þeir þar um hann f bátinum. Þá saknaði 
Ingimundr piestr bóka-ktstu sfnnar ; ok var hón fyrir borð dottin. 

' amft] emeild., at bclow ; *ippi, Cil. ; nipa, B. * Hcrc begios the Mvealh 

TcHmn leir. 

VOL, I. H 



Þá þótti hðnum hart um hög;^; þvlat þar var yuSi taas Km 
bækfDar vóni; en maðr sá meiddr er hami uimi bezt. Ok þakkaði 
hann þat allt Guði ; ok þóttí skjótt hafa ræst draum þann er hami 
dreymfii áBr mn nðttina : — at hann þóttisk koma til Eysteins erki- 
txskups ; ok þótti hann fagna sér veL En Gu6mundr fðstri hans 
réð svá diaumlnn, at þar myndi koma erki-bysn ' yfir þá. En um 
daginn, áÖr þeir aigldu f boðana, tekr til oröa Magnús Amundason, 
ok spTiT hvárt þeir vissi hvar boðar þeir værí er Þúfu-boðar heita. 
En þcir sögðu hónum, at þeir vóru fyrir Strðndum. ' Svá hefir mik 
dreymt til,' segir hann, ' at þar nær mTndÍm vér komnir.' En lithi 
sfðaTT er þeir höfðu þetta talat, þá urðu þeir vaiir við boðana. Nú 
hefr þá norör fyrir Reykja-fjörð. Pi gengr eigi lengra; ok leggfa 
segl, ok kasta akkeri ; ok hrífr við Ifnu-akkerí eitt um sfðir ; ok 
Kggja þar við um nðttina. En at morni flytjask þeir til landz með 
viðum af skipinu; ok höggva tré sftt ok strengi á borði, ok I^tu 
reka upp. Þá var um lætt hversu fara skyldi með Guðmund. Ok 
tekr til orða sá maðr er Bersi hít, ok var kallaðr valbrið, — þvfat 
kinn hans Gnnur var kolblá — ' Hvf munum vér &ra með sjúkan 
mann ok fðl-brotinn, þar sem vér megum eigi bjai^ sjálfum ossí 
— Ok skjóti fyrir borð!' Mrarinn rosti svarar: 'Mæi þii alh* 
manna armastr ; ok skyldi þér fyrír borð skjóta, ef vel vœrí ; en hér 
mmium vér leita annars ráSs.' Hann hleypr þegar fyrir borð, ok 
Einarr næpa. Þá vfkr skipit svá, at þeir stóðu gnmn; ok láta síga 
Guðmund ofan f vaðmáli fyrir borö ; en Þórarinn ok Einarr taka 
við hónum; ok hélt um sftt lær hvárr þeirra; en Hann hélt sfnni 
hendi um háls hverjum þcÍTTa, M gengu sumir eptir, ok hUfða 
þeim við áfbllum. Ok drðgu[sk] svá til landz, at át vildi draga at 
dtsoginu ; en þá skreið á, er brímit hratt þeim at upp. Ok kómusk 
at landi með hann. H haUar skipinu frá landi, ok skolai til hafs út 
allt ór skipinu. Ok braut skipit allt f spán ; en Iftið kemr á land 
af fjár-hlntinum. Þar býr fyrir sá maðr er Snorri hát, ok var 
Amgeirsson; hann var tæknir. Hann tekr við Guðmundi, ok 
íæTÍT hann heim til sfn, ok gðrrr við hann sem hann kunni bezt ; en 
hann var þð félitiU, ok vildi veL Margir mena kðmn þangat ðr 
næstum bygðum, ok vildu dnga þeim ok fé þeirra. Þí hét Ingi- 
mundr, at bóka-kista hans skytdi koma á land ok bækr. En lím 
néttum sfðarr spurðisk, at kistan værí á land komin at Dröngum ; 

' erki-byiD] tbiu Omi. (i pun on thc woidi) : bjta, d. 


ii8o-ii8j.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 7. 99 

ok allt þat er ván var ; ok hélt ein hespa ; en tvær v6ru af brotnar ; 
en allar afinir kistur viSni upp brotnar, þær er í land kómu, ok allt ór 
þat er f var. Þi för Ingimundr þangat, at þnrka bækr sinar ; ok var 
bann þar til Marteins-messu. Þá fór hann norðr aptr at Snna fóstnt 
sfnn, ok vildi vita hvat Uði om fót hans. £n þ& var festr fótr hans. 
7. H rézk Ingimundr norðan, ok til BreifiabólBtaðar í Steingrfms- 
flörfi. tw bjó þá J6n Brandzson. Hann átti Steinunni Sturlu dóttur 
ok IngitJBi^ar Þoigeirsdðttnr, sy stur-dóttnr Ingimundar. Ok taka 
þau vifi hðnum báfium hfindum. Ok er hann þar um vetrinn. 
Ok er þrjár vikur vöru til Páska, þá kom norfian Guðmundr við 
þat, at úti stðði lcggja-brotin; ok gékk vifi þat norfisui, ok kom til 
Breiðabólstaðar ía Passione Ðt>mim'^. Ok varð Ingimundr fóstri 
hana bónum ailfeginn. Þar er hann fram yfir Páska-viku. £n þá 
þótti etgi lengr vera mega svi gört um fót hans. Þá för hann 
Buör til H6!a í Reykjanesi til Helga prestz Skeljungssonar. Haon 
var igætT mafir, ok inn mesti læknir. Hann tekr við Guðmundi 
báðum hfindtmi ; ok er hann þar til lækninga fram um Fardaga. 
En brált er hann kemr þangat, þá bakar Hclgi fótinn mjök ; ok 
drógu tveir kaitar beinit með töngu áðr brott gengi; en þá græfiir 
hann eptir; ok verðr Guðmundr heill nær FardÖgum. Eptir Far- 
daga ferr hann norfir á Breiða-bólstað. £n velr sá, er haim var 
á Ströndum, var kallaðr Sóttar-vetr. H öndufiusk margir menn, 
þeir er mikill skaði var at ; Bjöm ábóti at Þverá, ok Styrkárr 
Lög[sðgn] maðr, Oddr Gízurarson, ok Amórr Kolbeinsson. Pi 
ték Gizurr Hallzson lögsögu. Þá vóra Deildar-tungu-mál. Ok er 
Gufimundr ní tvítögr. Um sumarit eptir ferr Jón Brandzson 
norðr til gildis til fHngeyra; ok ferr þé mcð þeim Guðmundr 
Arason ; þvfat Ingimundr prestr vildi at hann færi á Háls til vistar 
til ty>r*aröz ; ok var svá, at hann var þar um vetrinn. M ffstist 
hann vestr aptr til fóstra sfns; ok ferr hann til þings norflan með 
Þorvar&L l^t sumar var kallat Graslejvu-sumar. Þá um vetrinn 
ifir andaflisk ValdÍmarT konungr f DanmSrk, sonr Kniit/konungs. 
Ok þann vetr urðu land-skjálptar miklir, ok týndusk elLfii menn 
af þvl H hafði Guðmnndr vetr ok tuttugu. £n af þingí um 
sumaiit fylgði hann vestr Jóni Brandzsyni. Þat sumar fór inn 
helgi í^rlákr bbkup fyrsta Binn um Vest-fjörðu. En er hann 
keinr 1 5teingT&nsf]8rð þá hefir hann gistingar-staö f Kálfanesi; 

in PutioDt Domini] oi 


loo STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

þvíat þu var kírkja óyigi ok ný-gör. p^ kemr gótt mann-val ; þxr 
var Ögmundr ábóti, Þorsteinn Tumason, er sfðarr var ibótL Þar 
var þá Ingjmundr prestr ok Guðmundr fðstri hans. En Guð- 
mundi þótti skemtilegra at eiga tal við klerka biskups, en vera 
at tfðum eðr kirkju-vfgslu. Þá gengr Ingimundr prestr eptir 
Guðmundi fóatra slnum, ok mœlti við hann : ' Far þú til tlða ok 
kirkju-vfgslu, ok hygg at vandlega; þvlat cigi veit til hvers þarf 
at taka ; en ek hygg, s& er nema þarf, at eigi muni færi á gefa, 
at nema at betra manni en þeim sem nú skal þetta embættí fremja 
hér.' Ok var þetta tví-feUdr spáleikr ; þvíat hvárt-tvcggja kom ftam 
slðan, þat er I hans orðum bjó, at Þorlákr biskup var sann-heilagr 
maðr, en Guðmundr þurfti sjálfr þetta embætti at fremja sfðarr. 

8. Um haustið eptir fór Ingimundr prestr til Hvftár til skips, 
at kaupa vaming til sölu ok ávaxtar; þvfat jafhan bjósk hann viö 
útan-ferð, sera sfðarr kom fram. Nú akilðusk þeir fnendr f Ðölum ; 
ok íékk Sturla Guðmundi fSnmej'ti norðr í Háls ; þvfat Ingimundr 
prestr sendi hann enn þá þangat. £n þar unði hann eigi lengr 
en hálfan mánuð ; ok ferr vestr aptr þegar, ok er á Breifiabólstað 
um vetrinn. Þenna vetr var veginn Guðmundr Bjamarson at 
Kleiftmi f Gilsfirði; hann var vinr Jóns Brandzsonar; ok fór hann 
til at mæla eptb- vfginu. 

0. Nú stefnir Guðmundr Koll-Oddi, ok sækir hann til seköar. 
Ok er hann var sckr oríinn, þá tekr við hðnum jón Húnröðar- 
son. Guðmundr ferr af þingi vestr f Saurbæ at heyja férJins-dóma 
á Staðarhóli epCir Odd. Þaðan ferr hann á Brdðabólstað at fiima 
Jón frænda sfnn; ok er þar á kTnnis-vist. Hann ferr þaðan ; 
ok kemr f Hvamm; ok beiðir Sturlu mág sfnn at leita eptir 
skðgar-manni sfnum. £n þat var þá til tfðenda, at Sturla lá f 
bana-sótt ; ok lifði tvær nætr þaðan frá er Guðmundr kom þagat 
Ok btör hann þar til er Sturla var grafinn. Ok var þ4 farit þat 
Uaust er þar var ván. En kapp hans var eigi ferit Ok leitaðigk 
hann þá um f huga sér, hvert hann skyldi leita til fram-gfingu sfns 
máls, þess er hönum yrði eigi at sviviröu, er hann hafði mann 
sekðan ; enda legði hann eigi á sik þá ábyrgð, at hann týndi fyrir 
þvf vfgslum sfnum ok kennimannskap. Ok gefi- sá hónum ráðit 
er hónum veitti flest, er almáttigr Guð er. Ok snýr hónum því 
f skap, at heita á almálkan Guð ; ok heitr hann þvf, at gefa Guði 
allt þat fé er hann telir á sckðinni Oddz, ok yrði sæzt á mál 
hans, at hónum yrði eigi at sálu-háska. 


u83, u84.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 8, 8. loi 

[Ln3:aa.] . 

Nó er þar komit þesa sögu sem frá var horfit HeÍðarvígB- | 
sögu ; ok hafa þaer lengi gengit jafD-fram. 

t^ssi misserí uröu Bs^ar-Hfigna-m&l, er hann gipti Snælaugu 
dóttur sfna MrÖi Böftvarssyni með tvf-földum meinum. Þann 
ráöa-hag bannafii inn heil^ t*orlákr biskup með svá miklu Guðs 
trauGti, at hann gékk til Lðgbergs með klerka-sveit sfna, ok Íét 
vinna eiða, at sá ráða-hagr var f mód Guðs l6gum. H nefiiir hann 
vátta at, ok segir f sundr riða-hagnum, ok forboðar þá alla er 
ráðit höfða þessu. Þetta sumar t^dusk fimm hafskip; ok var 
kallat Öfara-sumar. Þessi misseri átti Sverrir konungr enn bardaga 
á fluvöUum. Nú hefír Guðmundr tuttugu ok tvá vetr. Eptir 
andlát Sturlu fcrr Guðmundr til Þingeyra. t>á var þar fyrir Þorgrimr 
alikar), vinr hans ok fóstbróðir. Hann biðr Guðmimd fara' 
með sér til hesta-þings vestr til Vatzenda f Vestriióp. En hann 
svarar : ' £k vdt eigi, hvat vel þat mun hsfa; þvfat þar munu komst 
þeir menn er mér er Iftið um, Oddr skögar-maðr mlnn ok þeir 
er halda hann ; en mér er þat skapraun, at sjá þá ; en þó skal ek 
fara ef þð viU ; en Guð mnn til gœta.' Þeir fara nú, ok eru á 
maima-mÓti. Þar kemr Jón Hónröðarson með mikla ræinga* 
Bveit ok gems mikiL Þar var KoU-Oddr inn seki. Þar kemr ok 
Þórðr Másson frá Þorkels-hvili, ok með hónuni mat^ÍT menn. 
t^ kom Bjami Kálfsson ok margir Miðfirðingar með hónum. 
Pi skilr á, KoU-Odd ok Húnröð, systur son Jóns, ok hlaupask 
þeir f móti ; ok höggr Hlínrððr til Oddz, ok verðr hann sárr á 
hendi. Þá verðr Jón óðr við, ok vill vinna á Hdnröði frœnda 
sfnnm. Þá verðr þröng mikil; ok höggr Húnröðr þá annat sinn 
tn Oddz, ok verðr at mis-höggum son Jóns er Eyjólfr hét, ok fékk 
þar bana. Ok þar vann Jón á húskarli Þórðar ívarssonar er 
Þóroddr hét. Mart annana manna varð þar Bárt Nú fór Guð- 
mondr við þ^ af manna-móti, at Gnð heíndi óvinum hans, ok lét 
Jón þar son sínn fyrir Oddz sakir ; en Oddr varð sárr mjök ; ok 
btutusk þessí vandræði ðll af Oddt En Guð gætti svá Gnð- 
mandar, at haim hafði til þessa hvárki lagt orð né verk. Hann 
ferr sfðan norðr til Staðar til Þorgeirs bi^ups-sonar, ok er með 
hónum um vetrinn f góðu yfirlæti ; gvá at hann váttaði þat sfðan, at 
bónum hefði einginn óskyldr maðr jafn-góðr þátt sem Þorgeirr. 
Um várít eptir vóru borin mál á bendr Jóni HúnrSðarsyni um 

' Cara] here eodi the screnth fdlaai lcif. * Tieiiiga] reing*, Cd. 



ávcTka af Þórði ívansyni ; ok verðr Jón sekr nm Bumarit £n 
at málum veita þeír Þórði, Ðrandr bi^up ok Þor^in' son hans, 
frændT hana ok vinir; ok ijSImenna þeir norðan til féráns-d6ma; 
ok urðu þau laál lögð andir görð Brandz biskups. £n l^>rgeiir 
biskups-son kvað þat sk)rldu fyrír sættum atanda at eigi fylgði þar 
mál Guðmundar um sekð Koll-Oddz ok bjargir; ok s^di svi 
mikla ást ok dnörð við hann f þessu, at einginn kostr var lœtta 
ellar. Ok var þá sæzt i þat mál undir dóm biskups ok Þorgeirs. 
A þesBum misserom var þat tfðenda, at þá féll Magnús konungr 
í Sogni Erlingsson, ok þi andaðisk Tumi Kolbeinsson. Þá brann 
bæiinn á Möðruvfillum ok á Bakka 1 Míðfirði. Þá hafði Guð- 
mnndr xxiii vetr. Þetta sumar fór Guðmundr Araron til Alþingts, 
ok af þvf þingi suðr á Nes, til Magnúss Amandasonar ok Þórfinnz 
er Bfðarr varð ábóti, at heimboðuro, ok með hónum GeUir prestr 
Höskullzson; ok var hann þvf eigi staddr við sáttar'fundimi [at 
AsgeÍTS^áj. En er hann hafði veiit [at} kynnis-viit suðr þar, þá ferr 
hann norðr til Staðar til Þorgeirs, ok er þar þau misseti, ok svi 
Ingimundr prestr fóstrí hans. Um várít eptir bregðr Þorgeirr bái 
sfnu, ok sn^ til útan-ferðar ; ok rézk til skips f EyjafirðL Þat 
skip átti Ögmundr ra&-koUr; hann var faðir Helga [prestz] er 
sfðan var biskup á Grænlandl Þai fen til skips með hðnum 
ÞóróUr prestr SnOTrason, Þorsteinn ok Þorkell Eireks-synir, ok mart 
annat íslenzkra manna. Þá átti bú at Stað sá maðr er HesthÖfði 
hét, Gnnnars son, ok son GuðrúnaT Sæmundar dóttur STStur 
Brandz biskups. Þat sumar fór útan f Eyjafirði í ððru skipi 
Karl ábóti ok Ingimundr prestr ÞÐrgeírsson ok Ögmundr Þorvarða- 
son, ok mart annat fslenzkra manna. Þerma vetr áðr andaðisk 
EinaiT Þorgilsson at Staðarhóli. Þessi misseri höfusk Kuflungar. 
Týndisk Eiiuirr kati ok mart góðra drengja meö hónum Attra- 
Heilagra-messu-dag. Ok þann vetr hljóp Bkhða austr f GeUdal; 
ok létusk átján menn. Ok hefir Guðmundr nd xxiv vetr. 

10. Þetta vir um Langa-fÖstu var Guðmundi v%ðr til prestz af 
Brandi biskupi fjiSrum nóttum eptir Gregoríus-meEsu. En Ingi- 
mundr prestr gaf hónum bækr þær allar, er hann átti beztar ok 
ftóðastaT, ok messu-föt, at skilitaði þeirra. Ok skilðisk svá vift 
hann, at hann var prestr, ok fuUkc»ninn 1 góöum siðum. Ok fóra 
þá 1 brott þeir menn tveir er hann unni mest, Ingímnndr ok 
Þorgdrr. Nií fara sWp þessi útan f Eyjafirði, ok taka Nóreg, 
ok era í Þrándheimi um vetrínn. Þoi^íjt biskups-son er meö 


n84-"86.] GUDMXmDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 10, 11. 103 

[I.ií5,ií6: in.5.] 
Eysteini erkibÍBkupí; en Ingimundr prestr hafði bæjar-Betu; ok 
er hónum gefln Jóns^tdka at Krístz-kirkju til sðngi ; en var 
hátlðir, um Jól ok Fáska, með erkibiakupi, ok hafði göða Tirfiing; 
af hÓDnm. Um várit eptir fór Þorgeirr til fslands ok fiílagar hana. 
En Ingimundr presQ- er eptir f Noregi, ok tekr Márlu-kirkju til 
söngs á staði ', ok er þu- tvá vetr. Ok er þat til maiks, hve vel 
erkibiskupi reyndisk hans klerkdómr, at þá er JÓÐ biskup inn fyrri, 
er Knútr var kallaör, andaðisk & Grænlandi, þá vildi ETEteinn 
erkibiskup vfgja faaim þangat til biskups; ok i þvf mátti metnaðar- 
ieysi hans vita ok vaniö, at þat fékksk dgl af hðnum. Þann vetr 
ínn fyrsta, er Ingimimdr prestr er útan, var Gaðroundr rátum at 
HoS hjá Grfmi mági sfnum, túnga-prestr þar. Þenna vetr andaðisk 
Böðvarr Þðrðarson ok Þorvarðr auðgi. Nú er Guðmundr hálf- 
þrftCgr. Um sumarít f hafi tekr sótt l\>i^rr ijiskaps-son, ok 
lÍggT þar til er þeir v6m landfastir. Þá ves sótt hans, er bano 
kemr á land, ok andaðisk tveim nóttum fyiir Mirfu-messu fyrri; 
ok var lík hans f»rt til H61a. Ok spyrr bisknp eigi fyrr andlát 
hans, en þeir kðmn þar með Ifkinu. Þau tíðendi þóttn mikil 
frændnm hans ok vinnm, ok þó bískapi mest, Ok svá [segir] 
Gaðmnndr Amon, at hann hefði einskis mannx þess misst er 
hónum þætti jafn-mikit at missa ; ok féU þat hónmn svá ner, at 
nálega mátti kaHa, at bann skiptisk f allan annan nann. Hann var 
þá enn at Hofi '. 

U. Guðmondr prestr görðisk þá svá mikill tnimaðr f tfða^ialdí 
ok bæna-gðrð, ðrlæti ok harðtffl, at somum mönnnm þðtti halda 
Tiö vanstini ; ok ætlnðu, at hann myndi eigi t>era mega aUt-saman, 
faarfilffi sítt, ok dynði af andláti Þorgeks. Hami tók heim til 
kensla prestlinga; ok var þat athöin bans hversdaglega tföa f 
miUum, at kenna ok at rita. Hann var ok at Inrkju mikinn hlat 
nátta, bœði öndverðar nætr ok ofanverðar; en g;ékk til skiipta 
jafnan er hann náði kennimðnnum. Hann skoðaði ok rannsakafii 
bœkr manna, þar sem hann kom ; ok hendi af bvers bókum þat 
er hann hafði eigi áðr*. ÖUum mönnum þótti mikite vert um 
Xtú hans, ok þeim Sllum mest er vitrastír vóni. Marga blati tðk 
faann þá npp til trúar aéi, at eingi maðr vtssi iðr, at né eiim lAaðr 

> u iIm B, Omt. (or ' it inei'). ■ lik þoigcin liitkapi hidii tu gtifit 

TÍrtaligi il Hiilum, add. B (and editÍoD). ' banD ikotiði — Ur] thui Omi.; 

hino laniu. bxkr nuniia ok btat manni heiular i þeim þar Mni buia keoiT flllct et 
hinn hafBÍ dgi Ur, Cd. 


104 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

p. ■a6,lJ7;iii.6.] 
hefði nennt ' áðr bér á landi. £n 1 annat sínn þóttusk menn hafa 
mestan mun á fundit, at skap hans hefði skipask vetr þann er bann 
lá eptir skipbrotið á Ströndum; þvfat þá unÖi hann s^r bvergi nðtt 
né dag, þar til er hann bitti fóstra slnn; ok kom þaðan fri við 
nðkknt á hveijtim misserum til siðbótar hónum; ok þor kom, at 
nær þötti bann vera allr annair maðr f atferð sfnni, en fyrst þótti 
til horfask er bann var ungr. Þat fylgði ok þessu, at möig merki 
urðu at vatz-vfgslum bans ok yfirsöngum, svá at mönnum þótti þá 
þegar mikils um vert ; ok þat mátU at finnask, at Guði Ifkaði alfei4 
bans. £n alþýðu manna sýndisk þat f þvf, hvers efni f þóttí vera 
um athCfh bans, at hónum var þat gefit kenningaT'nafn, at hana 
var kallaðr Guðmundr inn Góði. £n þat varð, sem jafnan er 
vant, at eigí lagði jafnt i þökk við alla, þótt góðu væri til varit 
Sumir þökkuðu [Guði] þeir er þurfendr vóru, ok bæði bfitðu gagn 
af hónum andlegt ok likamlegt ; en sumir öfimduðu þat er þeir 
vóru minni nytja-menn af meirum efnum en hann var. Ok þat 
f<5r fram bvert ár, at eytt var kaupí þvl ðUu er bann tók á vetrinn ; 
ok gaf hann þat til matar ok klæða fátækum mönnum ok frændum 
sfnum ; ok vóm þat sjau ómagar er bann fæddi mefi þessu, Nii 
var bæði þess leitað, at hðnum væri þat ðbægt, ok mætti hann 
minna al bafask til þurftar öðrum, af þeim er hann öfunduðu, at 
skipt var þingum við bann, ok skyidi hann þau bafa er fé-mínni 
værL Ok þá kallaði Brandr biskup til bóka ok messa-fata f bendr 
hðnum, ok kallaði slaðinn eiga at Hólum arf eptir Ingimund prest. 
£n þeir fenga hvárigu hnekkt, örlætum hans né meinlætum ; þvfat 
nökkul bar til þess jafnan, af tilstuðtiingi góðra, manna, at bann 
fékk þvf baldit er bann hafði upp tekit. t>essi misseri varð mart 
tfSenda : Þá var Jórsala-borg unnin af Serkjum ; svá at allir 
Kristnir menn sem þar vóru áðr, þá var annat-tveggja, er þeir luðu 
at flýja, ella vðni drepnir; ok flUr Kristinn dómr niðr brotinn. 
Pi dró myrkr fyrir s6i um miðdegi, svá at margir vitrir menn æt- 
luðu at verða mundu beims-slit. K var kaUaðr Felli-vetr. Kom 
grasleysa mikil ok óáran um várit, ok kom ekki skip tU íslandz af 
Noregi, Þá hafði Guðmundr xxvi vetr, 

12. Um várít eptir fór Guðmundr á Miklabæ at vista-fari til 

Bjarnar, er Auð-Bjðm var kaUaðr ; ok var þar tvá vetr, Ok in 

fyrri misserí er hann var þar, andaðisk Eysteinn erkibiskup; þ& 

hafði hann áðr vígðan Jón til biskups Sverris-fóstra til Grænlandz. 

' neniu] kent, B (ind editían}. 


I186-I188.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 12. 105 

[I.118: iii.6.] 
Þá hafði Guðmundr xxvii vetr. En in sfðarí andaðisk Heinrekr 
konungr i Englandi. Hnn vetr var Jón Grænlendinga-biskup í 
íslandi í Auslfjörðum. Pi dniknaði Ögmnndr ábód um várit, Ok 
þá andaðÍBk Kárí ábóti. Þessi misseri vai Ingimundr prestr í 
Björgyn; ok reyndisk inum vitnistum mönnum ok göfgum þess 
merkilegri hans atferð er hann varð kunnarí ; ok fékk hann þar 
virðing mikU af JónÍ kuflungi ok hans mönnum. Þat bar ok svá 
til, al þar var þá íyrii Ögmundr i>orvarðzson, ok hafði þar virðing 
mikta; ok teki hann báðum höndum við Ingimundi föður-bróður 
sfnum ; ok bauð hónum allt sitt fullting þat ' er hann mætti til 
leggja. £n um várít áðr, þá hafði InginiundT prestr farít vestr til 
Engiandz kaupferð, ok kom vestan um baustið til Björgynjar. 
' £n er þeir koma meö mikil gæði af Englandi, vfns ok hunangs, 
hveitis ok klæða, ok margs annars, þá vilja menn Jóns kutlungs 
taka upp fjrír þeim ok ræna þá. H gengr Ögmundr fyrir Jón 
kuflung ok mælti svá : ' Þat mundi satt vera, ef Ingi konungr væii 
á lífi, þá mundi hann eigi ræna láta bróður Þorvarðz Þorgeirssonar, 
ef hann kæmi á vald þeirra, ok svá Magnús konungr fyrír sakir 
Ara. Nií vænti ek þess af yðr, at þér munit göra fyrír þeirra sakir 
ok mfnar bænir, at láta fé hans fríð hafa.' Jón svarar : ' Vel segir 
þú ; ok skal þat satt vera, at hverr penningr skal sá fríð hafa sem 
haiui á; ok gakk til sjálfr með frænda þfniun; ok skal hann Guöi 
vel kominn ok oss,' Nú gengr Ögmundr til skips, ok segir 
ummæh Jóns. Þá gengu menn Jóns at sex vfn-tutmum stórum, 
er kaupmenn átlu, ok spurðu hverr ætti tunnumar. En Ingtmundr 
prestr kenndi séi fimm eðr fjórar, ok svá annat mart er þeir spurðu 
eptir ; þar til er þá grunaði, at hann mundi eigi svá auðigr maðr 
vera sem hann sagði; ok mæltu við hann : 'Nú sjám véi, prestr, 
at þil munt kenna þér þat er aðrír eigu ; ok nennum véi eigi aí 
missa allz.' Ok taka þcir sfðan tunnu eina ; ok hlauzk svá til, at 
þá átti Ingimundr prestr. Ok enn tóku þeir sextán ilnar klteðis 
rauð-bninað er hann átti ; þat var allgótt klæði. £n þat vildi 
hann eigi segja ; ok vildi heldr missa en þá skilði á. Eptir þetta 
leitar Ingimundr prestr sér herbergis ; ok er þar um vetrínn. En 
er á leið, þá berr þat við, at hann kennir klæði þat S kyrtliun sumra 
hirð-manna er hann hafði rænt[r verít] um haustið. Hónum verðr 
lætt um fyiÍT Ögmundi, at hann kennir klæðit ; ok bað hann þó 
lita vera kyrrt ; ok kvazk eigi vilja at nökkut hark görðizk afþvf; 
ok kvað at ák mundi eigi fé skorta. Bjöm bríkar-nef gesta- 


io6 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

böfðingi haíSi ráðit fTiÍr ráni viö Ingimund prest, þd er hir6nien& 
vildn opp gefa. 

13. Þat bar til dnn dag, at ögmnndi berr fyrir augn menn þ& 
er gengn f kyrdum þeim er gðrvir vóru af Uæði Ingimundar ; ok 
sagðí bann frá vinnm sinnm, Báiði aálu ok Pétrí glnfsn' oS 
Gndriða, ok mæltí við þd ; ' Eigi eni qú góð efni í ; mér bor þat 
fyrír angn, at BjQm btftar-nef ok sveitungar faans genga í kfaeðnm 
þeim er ræntr var Ingimnndr frændi mlnn í hausti.' Eindriði 
svarar : ' Hvl lézri þat kyrrt vera, ok kallaðir eigi til ?' ögmundr 
svarar : ' Eigi vill hann sjilfr beimta láta ; ok vill hann at ekki ÍUt 
gCríak af.' Eindríði sagðl: 'Þat akal aldrí verða, at svá vándir 
menn gangi yfir oss, ok görí vinum vántm slíkar skapraunir ; ok 
skulum vér vfst tíl leita, þótt hano vili eigi þat, frændi þfnn.' 
Spretta upp þegar, ok taka Öxar f faönd sér, þeii Austmeiminir ; 
ganga til diykkju-scofu, ok Ögmundr með þeim, þar er Bjöm 
brlkar-nef drakk inni, ok gesta-sveit raeð hónnm, nær fjórír ti^ 
manna. Ok vildi Eindríði ganga inn þ^^ at þeim; en Báiðr 
kvað þat eigi Iue&, þar sem fyrír vðiu Qðrír tigir manna, en þetr 
Qórir einir, ok bað þ& bífla þess er þeir gengu út. Ok hefír þat svá 
til hæfís, at þeir ganga út fjórir, sem þeir værí valðir til, sem kleðin 
faöfðu þes». Ok lieggr Eindríði Bjðm þegar bana-hfigg, en þeir 
Bárfir ok í^mundr vógu ' þí þrjá, svá at eigi varð viðr-nám. Þ& 
kvað við gesta-Iúðr, ok samnask saman nærrí fjögur huBdmð. H 
koma þessi tfðendi fyrír ]6n kuilung ; ok kvað þ& við hirðmaima- 
lliðr ; ok sögSu hvárir-tyeggju JM koflnngi sögn aína. En þeir 
B&rðr ok Pétr vóm ná-fnendr erkibiskups. (% virði Ján þá [svi] 
mikils f þessu máli, at hann görir í brott svot þá aHa frá fjdgð við 
sik. £n þeir Ögmnndr töku klsði til sfii. Ok er kyrt aax bM 
þetta béðan I frji. Um virit eptir résk Ingiimindr piestr tS skipi 
þess, er kallat var Stangar-foli ^ ok bjósk til fslandz. Þar var & 
skipi Bei^þörr, son f^rðar Einarssonar *, ok mart falenzkia inanM 
ok Norænna, góðra drengja. Skip þetta kemr í ól^gðir & 
, Gtænlandi. Ok I]lkr þvf máli svá, at þar týnask nteitn ailir. £n 
þat verÖr svá vfst, at fjórtín irum sföan fansk sktp þeina, ok þi 
fimdusk menn' ^u f hellis-skúta einum. Þar var Ingimundr 
prestr. Hann var beill ok ófúinn, ok svi Uæði faBns; en ses 
manna bein vóm þar hjá hðnum. Vax var ok hji þeim ok nÍMr 

' glDfiu] Gmi. ; gUptlu. Cd. ; gljbn, B. ■ B ; eo þdi Bitht ok Ögmnndr ok 
tógu, Cd. ■ Stingii bolli, B. * InrMoiitr, B. 


1188-119».] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 18-16. 107 

[l.i30,iBa: iii.8, jí.] 
þaer er sðgftu atburö um liflát þeirra. En þetta þótti mönnum 
mikil merki, hve Goði hafði Ifkat atferð Inghnundar preatz, er hann 
skyldi Bvá lengi legit hafa úti með heilum Ukama ok ósköddum. 
Þat gumar er týndiak Stsngai'foli kom af Grænlandi Asmundr 
kastan-rasi. Nií befir Gu6mundr zxviii vetr. 

14.^Þá er Gufimundr prestr var & Miklabœ þá átti hann brott- 
söng i þann bœ er á Marbæli heitir. í^gat söng hann einn 
hátíðar-dag. Þar var á vist góð kona ok skynaðm er Hallfrlðr hét, 
ok var Öfeigsdóttír. Hón var Btödd hji messo Goðmundar prestz, 
ok bugði at sér vel um messuna, sem jafnan var hðn vön; ok 
horfðl hón jafnan á hann um messuna. £n er lesit var Guðspjall, 
ok hami snerisk útarr ok sagði : Ðominus vobiseunt, þá sá hón eld 
fram ór munni hans ^a f lopt upp bjartara miklu en hón hafði 
fyrir slíkan séð. Eptir þetta fenr basn af Miklabæ ok í Viðvfk; 
ok er hann þar um vetrinn mefi Mávi Finnz-sj'ni. Þat var eitt sinn, 
þi er Gnðmundi |»restr var l kirkju úti at bsen sfnni, þ& kena Mái 
bóndi f kii^ju. £n er haon kemr f kirkju-dyir, þá sá bann, at fugl 
Iftill fló upp af özlum Guðmundar f loptiö, ok hverfr þar. Þau 
misseri týndisk skíp Asmundar kastan-raza, ok fórusk þai margii 
fslendzkii memi, þeir er mikiU var skaði at Þá andaðisk Hallr 
iiióú ok Eirekr jarl. Ok þá var bardagi f Vfk auBö. Nú er Gnö- 
mun^ vetri miðr en þrítögr. 

18. ' H er Guðmundr prestr inn góði Arason var á Miklabæ, ok 
var vetri miör en þrfttigr at aldri, þá rdzk hann i VöUa'f Svarfeöar- 
dal, þvfat þess beiddisk Amþniðr Fomadóttir ei þar bjó^ frænd- 
kona hans ; hón var ekkja ; bóndi hennar hét Eyjúlfr, sá er hðn átti 
sfðarr, ok áttu' þau sonu tvá, Brand ok Kljeng. Sá hét Snom er 
hana áttí fyrr. Þau áttu ok tvá sonu, Þorstetn ok Snorra. £n 
Austmaði vá Snorra bóanda * hennai, er hann vildi eigi lúka skuld * 
fyrír hdskail slnn; en húskarl hafði ekki til. Þá tók við Aust- 
manninum Önundr Þorkelsson, ok kom hðnum útan. Ok var 
þetta upphaf saka þeirra er Amþnlðarsynir vóm at biennu Ön- 
ondar. Ok Snnnr misseri er Guðmundr prestr var á VfiUura, um 
haustíðj var v^inn at tjðldum SumarHði Önundaisson; en vðld 
vfgs þess vóm kennd Snorra Grfmssyoi, brœfirungi Guðmundar 
prestz Arasonar. £n tU Hðveizlu um eptir-máUt gðrisk Brandr 

' Tbi> and Ibe following chiptcr irc coDtained in tha oiDth ntlDni leif. 
■ bðuida] brUnr, Tellnin (badly). ■ ikDld] (kyld, B. 


io8 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

[1.183: iB. 3», 33.1 
biskup, ok vildi láta bera kviðn á Snoira á Alþángi mn fjörráð ok 
vetvangs-björg við Braitd er vá vígit. £n af orðiim Guðmundar 
Arasonar ok margra aimarTa merkra manna, þeiira cr Snorra veíttu 
lið,þá lét Þorlákr biskup bera kvið' afSnoiraum Qörráð. Nú hefir 
Guðmundr vetr um þrjá tigi. Ok þá er Guðmundr hafði tvá vetr 
cm þtjá tigi, annan vetrínn tveim nóttum fyrir Jól, andaðisk Þor- 
lákr biskup Ínn Heilagi í Skálaholti. HafSi hann nökkuru áðr 
boðit þangat til vistar Gizuii Hallzsyni, þá er hónum tók ráða-hagr 
sfnn at þyngjask. Ok var Gizurr þar meðan hann lifði. — Þij4 
menn virði Þorlákr biskup mest, ok hafa þeir trautt orðit ^-ifkir 
öðnim mönnum vel-flestum: Einn var FáU systur-son hans, er 
sfðan var inn nsesti biskup eptir hann í Skálaholti. Annarr var 
I>orvaldr Gizurarson, er sfðan var inn mesti höfðingi; ok vóru 
hónum flestir hlutir betr gefnir en þeim fiðrum er hónum vóni 
samtfða. Enn þriði var Guðmundr grfss, er fleira veitti fyrír Goðs 
sakir en flestir menn aðrír; en gðrði sfðan eptÍT Guðspjatla boð- 
orðum, skilðisk við á einum degi allt fé sftt ok ástmenn, ok gékk þi í 
munklf fi '. AUa virði Þorlákr biskup mikils sonu Giziurar ; hann veiHi 
ástsamlegt fóstr Magnúsi meðan hann vildi þar verít hafa. Hafði 
inn sæli Þoriákr biskup mjök tfrar-hendi' i bónum tekit; af þvfeit 
hann var bæði forvitrí ok vel lærðr ok tnn mál-snjallasti. Þorlákr 
biskup vfgði þá til presta, Þorvald ok Magnús. Þorlákr biskup réð 
ok staðfestu undir Onn, systur-son sínn, Jónsson, [á] Breiða-bölstað 
í Fljótz-hlfð,.þá staðfestu er hónum þótti bezt þeirra er hann ætti 
forráð. Þat siunar eptir er Þorlákr biskup andaðisk um vetrÍÐn 
áðr, andaðisk Snorrí Þórðarson VatzfírðingT Remigius-messu. 

Ið. Ni5 er at segja frá Guömundi Arasyni ; — at þá er hann hafði 
verit á Völlum nökkura vetr, ok Amþníðr hiisfreyja vai komin til 
Sökku f Svarfaðardal, ok synu- heimar, Brandr ok Klængr, þá 

' kvíí] kfiftu, B. 

* ok hafa — munklifi] ibridgcil ia B — rai einn Pall tyitor (od hu» ci tf&an Txrð 
bp, iimirr þoivilldr Q. (■ þriíi Guðmmidr grUt. Aftcr vhicb B iddi the follow. 
ing patuge :— 

'Sun GnSrnimdar griu rai Magnúi giii; uiniiT fioTtUT, faBii Ama bilkiip* 
bÍDt fjna, ei eÍDnhTeii hefir niellr mcikiK-miAi veiil á ItlandL fieuli Tðni emt 
tjnir fwilUu Gnfimundai lonu, Ormi pretti kann[oki] í fiykkrabz, ok Magniit 
er andaSii kann[oki] f Viíey. Dati fmiláki rúra þjet Aibjurg uunna, niÓSÍr ína 
biikupi hini ilSan ok Agithu abbiditar ; fiorgerAr ok GuArún ixitr i Kirkjabz.' — 
The papci trantdipti of tlie A ai wcll ai thoic of thc B cUu hife ill copied thii 
piuage from B. 

• titat-hcndi] thui both, Tílluni and B. 


II93-II98-] GUDMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 16, 17- 109 

var þat eitt gumar á þÍDgi, at Halldóra abbadfs Eyjólfsdðttir &t 
Kirkjnbæ bað Guömund prest, at hann skyldi ráðask austr þangat 
til fOTvistu með henni. Ok játti hann þvf, ok skyldi hón senda 
menn f móti hónum um Bumaiit. £n eptir Öláfs-messu kom skip 
lit at Gásum, ok var þar á Páll biskup. H reið Brandr biskup á 
Grund; ok fundusk þeir Fáll biskup þar. hr kom ok Guðmundr 
prestr ; ok tðk þi leyg af þeim báðum biskupunum at ráðask f 
Eirkjube. En er sveitar-menn urðu þessa varir, þá fara þeir til 
fundar vifi Brand biskup, ok bifija, at hann banni Guðmundi presti 
f brott at ráðask. Ok hann götði svá. Ok er Bveitar-menn fimda 
Guðmund, ok segja hónum orð biskups, þi bittiT hann biskup 
þegar, ok segir biskup at bann bannaði bónum í brott at fára. 
Reifi Guðmundr þá á Völlu, ok var þar um vetrinn, Þenna aCburfi 
virði Brandr biskup svá mikils, at hðnum þötti þat &ra Ifkt ok um 
Gregorium páfa. Um vetrinn eptir gílrisk þverúð mikil milU Guð- 
mundar preslz ok f>orsteins Þraslaugaisonar er bjó á Völlum, þvfat 
sveitar-menn báni fé þeiira f bendr Guðmundi, er þeir hétu á helga 
menn. £n þat fé kallaði Þorsteinn at hann tield. Þat var vanfii 
Guðmundar prestz, at opt um hátfðir láta menn kyssa á helga 
dóma ; en t^3rsteinn kvazk eigi vita, hvárt þat vóni heilagra manna 
bein eðr hrossa-bein. Ná görðisk af þessu óþykt mikil með þeim, 
8vá at t>orsteinn sótti at þvf Brand biskup, at hann skyldi koma 
Guðmundi presti á brott þaðan. Um várít eptii ferr Brandr 
biskup norðr á VcUu ; ok kannaðisk þat af alþýðu manna norðr 
þer, at þeir vildu Guðmund prest fyrír öngan mun f brotL Þá 
hýbr hiskup tiónum staðinn á VöUum til varðveizlu ; en bann vildi 
þat eigi. Þá r^ð biskup annan prest þangat Þá stefhir Guðmundr 
prestr Þorsteini tveim stefnum tmi váiit; annarrí, er hann kendi 
bónum stulð um heit-fé manna ; en annarri um guðiastan, er hann 
kallaði bein helgra manna hrossa-bein. Ok reið f brott at Far- 
dí^m ok til Upsa. Ok um sumarít rtðr Guðmundr til þings ; ok 
var um mál tians selt hönum sjálfdæmi. Af þingi býðr hönum 
beim SigurÖr Ormsson tU Svfna-fetlz; ok feir hann af þingi suðr f 
Haukadal, ok svá austr yfir til ^vfna-fellz. Þaðan austr f Fjörðu. 
Svá f Pljötzdals-hérað ok til Vápnafjarðar, ok til Öxar^aiöar, ok 
svá norðan til Eyjafjarðar ; ok komr heim til Upsa nær vetr-náttum. 
£n á farlengð hans þesBÍ urÖu fleirí hludr merkilegir, en ek kunna 
telja, af yfirsCngimi hans ok vatz-vfgsium. 
17. It næsta vár áör er þeir vóru vegnir um haustit f Lauf^fi 


iio STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

[1.187,18«: iii.36.] 
i^rðar-symr ok Ajnþrúðitr-symr, fór Guðmundr prestr Aiason 
tíl vistar til Sufiar í Sks^aQCrð, þviat Kolbeinn AmérsBon batið 
hónnm þangat Ok eptir ^ng sendi Páll biskup menn santiao 
eptir Brandi biskupi ok Guðmundi presti Arasjmi, at þeir skyldi 
koma suðr f SkáUholt þegar eptir þingit. £n þat hafði ráðit verit 
í þinginu, at taka upp helgan áóm Þorláks bbkupa ór jörðu. Ok 
fare þeir eptir þingit, ok koma f Skálaholt Margrétar-messu. £n l 
þjónostu þeirrí, er þar var gör Guði til dýrðar ok inum sæla Þorláki 
biskupi, þá setti Páll biskup Guðmund prest Arason nsesta þeim 
biskupum i allri þeirri þjónostu; ok létu hann þerra ' kisiunni með 
sér, er hón var f kirkju borin ; ok hann réð mjðk fyrir bvat sungit 
var er heilagr dómrinn var upp tekinn. 

18. Eptír þetta fór Guðmundr heim ; ok var at Stað með Kol- 
bdni þan misserí. En um várít eptir rézk hann á Vfðim^ til 
Kolbeins Tumasonar. Þat sumai fór Guðmundr prestr tíl þii^ ; 
en af þingi ferr hann vestr til Borgarfjarðar ; ok bjðða hónum þá 
heim ma^r meon um allt hérað. Þaðan fðr bann vestr í Hvamm ; 
ok var þar at bruflaupi Snorra Stnrlusonar. Hðan för bann I 
Fagradal, ok þaðan til Hóla'; ok v%ði þar brann þann er þeii 
migu } sfðan, ok görðu þat til háðs við hann; ok batnaði þá eigi 
gfðr en áðr við þat vatn. Þaðan fiSr hann til Steingrhnsfjarðar, ok 
svá til Mið^arðar; ok svá beim inu haustið & Vfðtmýrí; ok var 
þar nm vetriim i góðu yfirlæti. Ok lagí^ Kolbeinn svá mikla. 
virðing á hann ok ástúð, at hann kallaði hann sann-helgan mann ; 
ok sagði sjálfan sik margar raonir á þvf hafa. Um sumarít áðr 
var Þorláks-messa í lög leidd — Þann vetr er biskup var á Vfðimýri, 
var vetr mikill, ok horí'ði mflrgnm mðnnnm þnnglega. Þá berr í 
drauma um helgi Jóns iHskuiis; at hann vitraði þat, at veðrátta 
mundi foatna, ef heilagr dómr hans mundi upp tekinn. H var 
þat ráðit af Brandi biskupi, ok sendi hann orð Guðmundi presti, at 
hann skyldi til koma, ok vera forráðs-maðr fyrir þeirri þjðnostu; 
þvfat biskup lá í rekkju sjálfr. Stefnir biskup at sér mönnum ; ok 
vóni svá hörð veðr, at Guðmundr pffestr kom nótt sfðaiT en ákveðit 
v^; ok var hans þö beðit. £n er hann kom, þá var upp tekinn 
helgr dðmr Jðns biskups með stór-jarleignir, sjau nóttum eptir 

Um várit för Gnðmundr prestr norðr í Eyjafj&fl. En meðan 

■ þerra] thai botb C4. and 6. ■ RF^kJihdli, B. 


II98-I1O0.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 18,18. iii 

[l. 189: iii. 36 
hann var heiman, andaðizk Úlfeiör, móðir hans ; ok var Ifkj bennar 
fylgt til Hóla; ok lók biskup við Uki hennar með ástðð. Nú 
kemr Gnðmundr heim, ok . . . ' eim heiman. Hann ferr tíl þings 
nm sumarít. H var leidd f lög J< ns messa biskups af bæn 
Brandz Inskups, ok af tölii Guðmundar prestz er hann talaði i 
Lðgréttu. Af þingi buðu hónum hrán Vest&rðingar ; ok fór hann 
fyrst til Borgaríjarðar, ok þaðan til Breiðafjarðar. Af Reykjanesi 
var haiin fluttr til Flateyjar, ok gistu i kiðinni *. Þorgils Gunn- 
stnnsson tót sonu s(na fylgja Guðmundi presti ok einn húskaiL 
Hann bað Guðmund prest at gefa sveinunum byr er þeir f:^ apcr ; 
'þvfat þeir eru ókrðptulegir,' segir hann*. — 'Biðja ska! ek Guð,' 
sagði prestr, ' at hann gefi þeim byr.' f>á var togn er þeir kómu í 
Flatey. Nú bilask synir Þorgils þegar i brott ; ok gengu ttl skips, 
ok búa til segl-reiða sínn, ok báðu prest efna við sik um byrinn. 
En hanii gékk til kirkju. En er þeir vóru btSnir draga þ«r upp segl, 
ok kastar þegar vindi epdr þeim ; ok leggja eigi fyrr segl en heima. 
Ok höfðu þvf betra byr er þeir höfðu lengra siglt 

10. Nú feir Guðmundr prestr vestr í Fjörðu. Ok er hann var f 
Sanðlaus-dal, þá vígði hann vatn [er] kona [bar] heim f húfu slnni. 
Þaðan fór bann norðr f Fjörðu, þar til er hann kemr f Keldudal 
til Þórðar Aiasonar ; hann hafði bönd visnaða, ok lá verkr I* svá 
st bann mátti eigi skera mat fyiir sik. £n tun nðttina, er hann 
þóttisk eigí mega liggja, gékk hann út. En er hann kom inn, sá 
bann á relikjii Guðmundar prestz Ijós mikit, sem skini ofan geisli. 
Hann réttí hðndina þá ina van-megnu í Íjósit, ok var þá Ijósit 
jaíh-bjatt i hfindinni sem áðr. En eptir þat var hón orðin heit 
ok verldaus ; ok Ilðr þá af Ijösit. Þaðan fðr tiann f Haukadal tit 
Ama rauðskeggs. Ok um kveldit, er hann var kominn í hvHu, var 
fei^n til kona at klá hónum fót sínn. Hón var handhðlt, svá at 
í)6ríi fingr lágu í lófa, En er hónum þótti klegit of kyrrt þá spymir 
Iiann við fætinnm ok mjðk hart, ok kemr hæilinn f bug fingranna 
þeirra er kreptir vóru ; ok spymtr bann þar f, svá at henni verðr sárt 
við nðkkut. En fára nöttum sfðarr kom hón i fund hans, ok 
8^di hðn hðnd afna heila. Ok þökkuöu allir Guði þeir er sá. t^ 
fðr hann til fsafjarðar; ok kemr at Matheus-messu í Súðavfk, ok 
gefr hann þijá tigi hundraða ví^ Bárði frænda sínum til kvánar- 

' Here i* * blaok tot i woid ; B omiU tha paiMge. ' Tfaui Cd., cp. Onii. 

lc. in Biik. u i. 460. * er þeii — tegir bann] tdd. B, ■ ok li rerki i] B; 

ok li Teiki, Cd. 


113 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

[I. igo: iii. 36.] 
inimdar, ok var hónum fest dóctii Steinþórs prestz Bjamarsonar. 
Ok kemr kona sú hkupandi er Þórlðr hét, ei fylgt bafði Ama 
rauðskegg áðr f banni Páls biskups; ok fékk hann eigi skilit þau. 
£11 ei hön heyrði sagðar kenningar Guðmundar prestz, þá görðizk 
hón einskis jafn-fús sem at Gnna hann ; ok veiöi at leynask f brott 
frá Áma, þviat hann unni henni mikit. Attu þau ok bam samaii. 
Hón vai fríð sýnum. H6n komsk nú á fund Guðmundai presti 
Matheus-messu, ok bað hann með iðranar-grátí sér miskunnai ok 
viðtöku, at hón mætti skiljask við vandræði afn. Ok hlaut hón svá 
mikit gótt af fundi hans, at hðn vitjaði aldii aptr til ins sama vand- 
ræðis ; ok fylgði hónum jafnan síöan, þá ei þau skilði eigi ófriðr 
mánna. f^an fór hann til Vatzfjaiðai, ok svá til Steingilmsijarðar 
til Jóns Brandzsonar; ok vai þai Uð mikit í fíir með hónum; ok 
var mælt, at sendir mundu menn fyrir at segja, at þeir kæmi e^ 
á óvart. £n hann kveðr eigi þurfa mundu, 'Ok mun guð gefa 
fyrir oss, ok senda þeim hval, áðr vér farim á brott.' En þessi orö 
hans fylldusk svá, at þenna sama dag kom reyðr á reka Jóng, þar er 
r bann einn átti, ok var sögð hval-kváman um myrgininn eptir. Jón 
gaf Guðmundi presti b6k þ^ er gerBcmi vai f, ok Fáll biskup hafði 
i ge6t Jóni. Þaðan ferr hann á Broddanes, ok svá norðr um Flóa 
■ til Miðfjarðai, ok svá til Vatzdals.— Ok er hann var at Hofi þetta 
haust, bar svá til, at hann söi^ yfii sjúkum karar-manni, ok bar 
yfir hann helga dðma sína. Hann lá f bekk hjá inum sjiika manni, 
ok sofnaði haim á bæninni; at þvf er þeim þótti er við vöm. 
Sjákn hans lá f bekk hjá hónum, ok hné Guðmundr prestr á hann 
ofan, djákninn, er hann sofnaði. £n er hann hafði dcamma stund 
legit, þá kcnndi djákninn eigi, at hann legí á hónum ; en hann sá, ok 
Bvá aðrir, at hann tá þar, Þat var mjök langa stund. En er hann 
vaknaði, spurði djákninn, hvf hann kenndi hans eigi, er hann lá á 
bijóst hónum. En hann vildi eigi fiá segja. — Þá kemr sú saga vestan 
6t Fjöiðum um vetiirm, at maði sá er Snoiri hétj austi l Skálavfk, 
hann var leikinn af fiagði einu ; ok sótti hann tiollkona mjök, svá 
at hann hugði^ eigi mundu undan komask. £n þessa nött ina 
sCmu, er fyrr var frá sagt,— þat var Laugai-nótt, — þá fór hann Snoiri 
einn gaman til t(ða, ok vai mjök langt at fara. Pi kemr at hónum 
trollkonan, ok sækir hann, ok bægir hónum til fjallz. Þi biðr 
hann, at Guðmundr prestr skyldi duga hónum, ef hann væri svá 
mikils láðandi við Guð, sem hann hygði, ok leysa hann af flagði 
þessu. £n f þvf s^disk hónum sem Ijós kæmi yfir hann; en 


iioi.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 20. 113 

[1,191, Í08: iii. 36, •Ui. 8.] 
Ijósinu fylgöi maðr í kör-kápa', ok harði vatz-stökkul i bendi, ok 
stökði á hana. En þá hvarf [hðn] trollkaDan sem hón sykki niðr. 
En hónum fylgði Ijósit heim til bæjar, ok þóttisk hann gÖrU kenna 
at Ijósinu fflgði Guðmundi prestr Arason. Nú bar þat saman, at á 
einni stundu vitraðisk hann Snorra, ok djákninn kenndi cigi þunga 
af hónum. Sá inn sami djákn hafði sull í höfði s^r. Ok eitt sinn 
er hann stóð undir [hðndum] Guðmundi presti í messu, ok lá öln- 
bogi hans á sullinum, ok varð hónum s&rt við mjök. En er lokit 
var messunni kenndi hann hvergi sullzins. Siðan fðru þeir tíl 
Þingejra, ok kom þai^t fyrir AUra-heilagra-measu. Þar var fyrir 
Karl ábóti ok Gunnlaugr munkr. Þeir gðrðu processio f mót 
hÓQum om daginn; ok var hann þá prestr, ok sungu þeír f mðt 
hónum R[espon9oríum], Vír isle in. populo suo miHssimus a^aruil 
sanctitaie tl gratiá plemts. Nii bar þetta [allt] saman mikit vitni 
tmi, hvílfks menn virðu hans láð, áðr þeir urðu af metnaði blindir. 
H predicaði hann lengi AUra-beiIagra-messu. Þaðan ferr hann út á 
Blöndn'bakka; ok er hann þar mjQk lengí. Þá var hann ekinn 
þaðan upp eptir Langadat ; ok vóru menn sendir eptír hesti þeim 
er styrkvastr var í dalnum ok feitastr; ok var eigi léð. En um 
nöttina gengr hestrínn i heima-brunn, ok dð þar. Nú ferr Guð- 
mundr preatr þar til er hann kemr heim á Vlðimýri [at] Nicholaus- 
messu ; ok varð Kolbeinn hónum allz-hugar-feginn. Ok er hann 
heiroa um vetrinn f góðu yfirlæti ; en fór imi várít norðr at heim- 
boðum um hérað, um EyjaQðrð ok I Flatey ; ok norðan at Al^gi ; 
ok reið til ^ngs. Af þingi buðu hónum margir menn heim, Sunn- 
lendingar ok Austfirðíngar. Sem enn mun sfðarr s^ vcrða. 

30. f^ta sumar fór Guðmundr prestr inn gðði ti) þings. £n 
af þingi buðu hðnum heim Sunnlendingar ok Austfirðingar, ok fðr 
hann af þinginu suðr í Skálaholt. Þá nótt er bann var þar, anda- 
ðisk Ketilbjörg nunna, ok lét Páll biskup Guðmund prest syngj^ 
yfir líki hennar ; en biskup stðð yfir, ok Gizun Hallzson ; ok var 
sú þjðnosta avá merkileg, at Gizurr váttaði þat f tölu sfnni yfir 
greptrínum, at þeir þðttusk eigi slfkan líksöng heyrt hafa ; ok virði 
benni til heilagleiks, er henni [skyldi] slíks líksöngs auðit verða. — 
Þaðan ferr hann austr yfir ár. Þá býðr hðnum heim Ami prestr 
á Skúmsstððum. f>ar var fall mikit, svá at sjau menn vöru fallnir, 
ok bæði naut ok hross. Haim gistir þar, ok vígir vatn, ok stökkvir 
■ k^ döfckii, B. 


114 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.b. 

[I.»9-. *íii.8.] 
sjálfr vatninu um akis hans ok cán, ok vfða um en^ar. Ok tók af 
síðan fall allt. Þaðan fór hann austr undir EyjaQtm, ok svá austr 
jl Sffiu, ok f Ver anstr. Ok þá komr hann á þann bæ er á Lóma- 
gnúpi heitir. • Þar var þ& hlaup í ánni Lðmagnúps-á, Evá mikit, at 
Arni * béncli komsk viÖ íllan Idk af; ok druknaði maðr fyiir hónum 
af hlaupi árínnar; ok braut hón land vlða. Menn sátu við ána 
fynr austan, ok máttu eigi yfir komask, þvlat áin var berlega óter. 
£n er Guðmundr prestr kom til árínnar, þá stfga þeic af baki. Þá 
sjá þeii, at ^n fellr fram. £n er þeir hðfðu lai^ stund setið við 
ána, ok tieystusk eigi á at rfða, þá sá þeir er fyrír austan sátu, at 
iin féll fram ; ok ráða til at líða. t>á ríðu þeii Guðmundr prestr 
ok Eveit hans á ána ; ok hittask á ánni nær miðrí ok þeir er auatan 
kómu at, ok fórsk hvárum-tveggjum vel. En cr hvárir-tveggiu 
kómu yfir ina, þ& vex bón þegar, ok var ófær nokkora daga' 

31. Hðan ferr Guðmundr prestr til Svfnafjallz til Sigurðar 
Oimssonai. Þar var þá kominn Kolbeinn Tumason til heimboðs. 
Ok vóru þeir þar allir samt þrjár nætr. M ferr Kolbeinn í brott ; 
ok rlða þeir Sigurðr ok Guðmundr prestr á leið mefi bónum. £n 
er þeir vóni skilðir, þá rlða þeir Guðmundr prestr ok Sigurör tveir 
saman ; þvfat Sigurðr vUdi tak við bann einslega um vandræði sfn 
þau er leiddi af málum þeirra Sœmundar, at hann lézk varla þoia 
mega vansa þann ok ámælí er leiddi af málum þeirra ; ok leitaði 
ráðs undir Gufimund piest; kvazt einskis jafn-fúss en leita til 
befnda viö Sæmund. £n Guðmundr prestr bað hann þat vaiask 
mest, ' Þvlat þil mátt viö þat vel una, at þú hafir af þvf ámæli er þú 
hefir vel gört. Nú mun ek biðja Guð, at hann styrki þik ok gæti 
þfn.' ' Hins vil ek þik biöja,' segir Sigurðr, ' at þó beiðir þess Guð, 
at hann láti þik þess ráfianda, at þii mættir s^sla mér nökkura 
staðfestu norðr þar f sveitum, þá er höfuð-burðr værí at ; þvfat m& 
B^isk svá mikit yfir þér, at méi býði þat 1 skap, at þlí veiðir meiia 
ráðandi en nti ertú ráðandi. £n ek vilda þessa staðfestu selja f 
hendr Jðni Sigmundarsyni, frænda mfnum. Ntí man ek annat- 
bvárt leita undan, ef þú vilt mér þessu heita ; eðr ella mun ek eptir 
leita við Sa^mund bvern veg sem ferr.' £n Guðmundr prestr 
kvezk lieldr vilja þessu heita, at biðja, at Gíiö léti hann þessa verða 
ráðanda. Ok þann inn sama dag er þeir rædduzk þeCta við, þá 

' Ároi] Örn, Qmt. * iidfkDn dtg*] B, Omi. ; nAtina, Cd. 


tjoi.] GUDMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 21, 22. 115 

[I.«o-. •iii.9.] 
andaBisk Brandr bfskup. Ok fylldusk nti beggja þeirra orS um 
yfirbragð þat er Sigiirðr þöttisk sjá á bónmn, ok gó6vilja-heit þat, 
«r GuðmandT prcstr bét Sigurfii, ef hann siEetti stöðva missættl 
þeirra Ssmondar, at sýsla bónum staðfestu; en þenna dag bar 
andÍT hann riÖ InskupsdtEmis, þótt hann vissi þat dgi. 

22. 5á atburðr varð þar, at Stdnn prestr bað Guðmund prest 
gefa sír helga dóma ; ok svá görði hann. Ok er hann gaf hónuU 
af beini Jóns biskups, segir Steinn prestr, at sér þætd e^ vel Utt 
beinit ok óheilaglegt. En Guðmundr prestr spyrr mjúklega hvárt 
hann o^ði eigi. Steinn prestr svarar, ok kvafi s^r eigi þykkja Jón 
biskup taka Þcdáki bisknpi hæra en f miðjar slður. Guðmundr 
prcstr nuelti þá : ' Biðjum vér allir GuÖ ok inn helga Jón bisknp, 
at hann s^ni helgi sfna f nökkuri jartein'.' 14 féllu allir menn á 
kné með GuSmundi presti ; en eptir þat Mt hann alla menn kyssa 
á beinit Þar kenndu þá allir svá sætan ilm af beininu sem reykelsi 
vseri, nema Steinn prestr, hann kermdi engan ilm. H skamtnaðisk 
hann sfn, ok si þá reiði Guða ok ins heilaga Jóns biskups við stk, 
er hann var nfi görr frá-skila þessari dýrfi ; ok baÖ þá Guð, ok inn 
heil^ia Jón biskup [með tirum sér] fyrii^fhingar. Þi bað Guð- 
mnndr prestr at gefa Steini presti af beini Jóns biskups, ef hann 
vildi af öTlu hjarta áfiki bann. Harm kvazk nlj'a feginn, ok var 
hræddr nm hvárt ]ón biskup vlldi þíggja dyrkun hans. M eegir 
Guðmundr prestr, at allir skjldi biöja fyrir hðnnm; ok svá var 
gört. Ok þá kenndi hann svá sætan ihn, sem aðrir. Þá þðkkuðu 
allir Guði ok inum heilaga JiSnl Uskupi. Var þá hringt öllnm 
klokkum ok sungit Te Ðmm lúuáamus. Ok l^sa svá þessarl jartegn. 

Sá atburðr varð enn þar, at hlaup kom f á þá er þar fellr við 
bæinn, ok braut akr ok tiin, svá at stórum sköðom gegndi. K 
bað Sigurðr Guðmund prest fara til ok syngja yfir ánni. Hann 
lör meö hclga déma sína ok klerka, ok söng lengi yfir ánni. Eo 
tmi morgunínn eptir, þá var hón horfin ör þeim farveg, ok hafSi 
brotið sér n^an farveg austr um sandana. 

Kerling ein var þar at Svínafelli, ok Svá sem komin at bana. 
Hón hafði sjan nætr mállaus verit, ok öngum mat bergt, ok ekki 
hnert i sér nema &atnan-ver6a fingr ok tær ; en þó skilðisk eigi 
ðnd við hana. En þá hafði heimi gðr verit 611 þjónosta ; hðn var 
góðmenni. En er Guömnndr prestr var brott búinn fi^ Svínafelli 

> at irefji dtrd Sttína preitt, idd. B. 


ii6 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a-b. 

ok kominn til hesU sfna, mælti hann : 'PM ei satt,' segir hann, ' at 
ek hefi cigi gáft' að kveðja kerlinguna sælu' innij þat skal þó 
eigi,' segir hann, Ok svá gengr hann inn, ok alþýða manna með 
hónum. Hann kemr í stofu þar sem kerling Uggr. -I"! var hón 
nær andláti. Hann [kysti hana ok] mælti: 'Ver nú heil ok sæl, 
kerling min, ok mantú nú &ra til Guðs ', ok heilsa frá mér Márlu 
Guðs móður ok MichaeU [yfir]-engli, Jóni Baptista, Pétro ok Páli 
postula, [óláfi konungi] ok Ambrosio biskupi vin mínum.' Þi segir 
kerling, svá hátt at jafhvel heyröu þeir er langt vóru fram 6á : ' Já, 
}ár sagfii h6n. Sagði bón þetta at miðdegi, en andaðisk at nðni 
þann sama dag. 

23. Þá ferr Guðmundr prestr til Austljarða ok föru-Dcyti haos ; 
ok kemr at Bartholomeus-messu til Stafafellz. I^ spyrr hann þau 
tfðendi tmi óttu-söng, andlát BrandE biskups Sæmundaisonar. En 
við tiðendi þessi varð hónum svá ósvipt sem hann vseri stein[i] 
kistinn. K lét hann þegai syngj'a sálu-messu ; en um daginn eptir 
sálu tfðir ok Ifksöng meö alln vandvirkt ok ást. Sfðan f6ni þeir 
ok kómu í Fljótzdals-hérað til Valþjófsstaðar til Jóns Sigmundar- 
sonar at Egidius-messu; þá var þai kirkju-dagr; þar vóra viötökur 
góöar. £n er Jón leiddi Guðmund prest inn fri kiikju um kveldit, 
þá ^yir Guðmundr hann tfðenda. Jón segir: 'Tiðendi mikil 
ok góð, héraðs-menn f Skagafirði eigti fund á morgin, ok kjÓea 
biskup, ok mantii kosinn vera; þvlat Guð mun þat vilja.' £n 
þafian frá var hónum svá mikil bræzla f bijósti, at bann mátti 
hvárkis með hallkvæmð njóta, svefns né matar, fyrir ugg ok ótta 
slfkra hluta. En aptaninn fyrir Kross-messu kom Guðmundi i 
þann bæ ei 1 Hlfö beitir f FljÓtzdals-héraði. H dieymði hann um 
nóttina, at bann þóttisk koma f kirkju á Völlum f Svarbðardal; ok 
þótti hónum altant falla f ^g séi, ok veia skiýtt inum bezta 
skrúða. Uro daginn eptir faia þeir noiðr yfir heiði til Vápna- 
^aiðar, ok koma f Kiossavfk um aptaninn. En ei þeir vöiu undir 
borði, þá koma þar sendimenn Kolbeins Tumasonar; ok gengr 
nnaii forkr innai fyrii Guðmund piesl, ok kvaddi hann vel. Hann 
spuiði tfðenda. Einan svarar: 'Góð tfðendi; þú ert koúnn til 
biskups af Kolbeini ok fillum héraðs-mönnum ; nú feir ek meft 
bréfum ok þeini orðsendingu, at þú skulir sem fljéCast heim koma.' 

' þat CT — g£ð] B ; it hann hefl)Í eigl, Cd. i þM cr lattna, Onu. ' tmla] 
ijúku, Cd. ' olc miMii— Gob] tái. B. 


iioi.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓDA, 33-26.- 117 

£n vi6 þessi tlðendi varð hðnum svá ósvipt, at hann mátti langa 
stmid ekki mæla. Þá bað hann Guð, at láta þat upp koma er 
öllmn gegndi bezt. 

24. Um dagimi eptir ferr Guðmundr prestr til Hofs til Teltz 
Oddzsonar. Þar var þá vistum Halldórr prestr Hallvarðzson. Þá 
rœik Guðmundr prestr [um] við Halldór prest, ef nökkur vSn væri 
á, at hann leystí hann ór þessum vanda, ok geng;i sjálfr undir. En 
bann talðisk undan, ok kvazk mjök aldri farinn, ok þó at öðru eigi 
til felldr; kvazk vita þikkjask, at hónmn mun eigi tjóa undan at 
mælask, 'Mun þat bæði Guðs vili ok manna, at þú sét biskup; en 
ek vil beina til með þér bænum mfnum, ok öllu því er ek má, þér 
tíl íiilltings.' t^an ferr hann norðr l Ösarfjörð mn Möfirudals- 
beifii ; ok kemr á fyrir þeim veðr mikit ok bait, ok kafa-hrfö ; ok 
^lzk lið þeiira, þar til er Guðmundr prestr laknar viö at þeir 
mundu eigi rélt fara. Kemr bann fyrst til búss, ok meö hónum 
djáknar tveir, Sturla Bárfiarson, ok Lambkárr t>orgitsson ; ok fleirí 
afirír kómu miklu sffiarr. Nú hiz þeir norðan, ok koma á Gren- 
jaöarstað. I^ bjó þá Eyjólfr Hallzson. i>á talar Guðmundr prestr 
viö Eyjólf, ef hann vikB gangast undir ok verða biskup. En hann 
kvað eigi þar um at leitask; kvaö Skagfirðinga ok Eylirðinga 
ðngan annan vilja en Guðmund. Nil fara þeir noröan, ok koma á 
Háls at Michaelis-messu til ögmundar Þorvarözsonar ; ok spyrr 
Ögmundr hvárt þat sé satt at hann telisk undan at vera biskup. 
Hann kvað þat satt vera. ' Hvf sætír þat,' segir Ögmundr. Hann 
svarar: 'Þvfat mér þykkir vandi mikill at eiga vifi marga menn 
óhlýðna ok ÖfundbiIIa ok ríkja; Efia mantú, frændi, vera oss 
hlýðinn ef vér vöndum um ráðit þtttl' Ögmundr svarar: 'Hvers 
vandræði skaltá heldr ábyrgjask cn mín; en sv4 sem ek em þér 
^ShlýðÍnn, þá man ek mftrgum öðrum [óhl^önari] ; ok öngum mun 
Stoða um at vanda. Ok þér mun eigi tjóa undan at tctjask; þvfat 
þér mun &ra sem Ambrosio biskupi; þvíat þér spáðu bamleikar 
fyiir sem hónum, at þii mundir biskup verða. Nú tjáði hðnum eigi 
undan at teljask, enda mun þér svá ; ok viljuro vér öngan annan 
biskup en Jnk.' Nú ferr Gufimundr prestr vestr ok hcim á Víði- 
mfn, ok er þar at vetr-náttum; ok urfiu allir menn fegnir heim- 
kvámu bans. 

26. Laugardaginn gengr forvarðr í\)rgeirsson til máls við Gufi- ' 
mund prest einn saman ; ok spyrr hvárt þat væri satt, at hann vildi 
görask einhverfr f þvf at teljask undan biskups-vfgslu, ob hlíta eigt 


ii8 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a-b. 

y. íi4i*iii.ij.] 
hans fomjá ok annarra vitra manna. £n hann kv^ þat vera. 
Þorvarðr svarar : ' Ek þikkjumk eiga at vera forsjá-maðr yður; ok 
vil ek ráöa.' Guðmundr svaiar : ' Hví man þat sæta, at ek muiM 
[eigi] eiga at ráfia fyiir mért' t^ mælti Þorvarðr: 'Veittij þat, 
&ændi, at ek hefir verit böfðíngi fyrir ætt váni, ok mínn feðir fyrir 
mik. Nú hlitti þfnn ^ðir mfnni forsji; svá ok aðrir &ændr mfnir; 
enda ræð ek þér þat. Nd man þér ætlaðr hðfðingskapr eptir mik.' 
Guðmundr svarar : ' Eigi bauðtú jaér at taka fé eptir íliður mími ; 
ok Iftillar virðingar hefii þii méi leitað héi til, nema láta berja mik 
til bækr; enda sýnisk mér sem þú viUr heldr koma mér f vanda en 
1 virðing.' Þorvarðr gvarai : ' Hvat ' hefir ek slfkt heyrt I at drepa 
hendi við virðingu sínni; enda man ekki stoða; þvfat þú munt 
biskup verða, ok mik hefir »vá dreymt' 'Hvat hefir þik dieymt?' 
segir Guðmundr. 'Mik dreymði,' segir Þorvarðr, 'at ek skylda 
ganga inn 1 hús mikit ok hátt ; en ek hafða eigi jafii-mikit sét ; ok 
svá miklar dyrr á, at þat var eigi með minna mótL £n er höfuð 
mftt kom inn f dyriin, þá nam við herðunum, ok gékk eigi lengia. 
£n ek ræð þanit draum svá, at vegi þinn mun verða svá mikill, at 
011 Kristni raun eigi h]^i;gia mega svá mikla viiðing þína sem veröa 
mun. H dreymði mik enn annan draum ; at ek þóttumk vera 
kominn norðr f Nfðarós í höU Ölá& konongs, ok þótti mér hann 
Eitja f hásæti, ok alskipuð höll hans. Mér þótti hann standa upp f 
mót mér, ok breiða ' faðminn, ok kveðja mik : " Kom þú heill ok 
sæll, Þorvarði mfnn, þú mant blezaðr um öll Norðriðnd." Nú veit 
ek at þil átt þessa drauma. Vili Guð at þd s^r v%ðr 1 hfiU Öláb 
konui^ þat er f Kiistz-kirkju ; þar mantú vfgðr tíí bisknps. Nú 
man þetta fram ganga hvárt er þú vfll eðr eigi.' Þá skilr með 
þeim; ok segii t'orvaiði Kolbeini viðtal þeirra; ok geiigr Kol- 
beinn til hans, ok segir hónum, at þeir áttu liind Egidf-messu i 
Vf ðivCllum ; ' Ok þar vóru á fiindinum ábótar fii t>ingeyrum ok fri 
Þverá; ok þar var Gizurr Hdlzson ok Guðmundr ina d^, ok 
mart héraðs-manna ; ok vat látinn f kosningi þú ok Magnús 
Gizuiarson; ok dró Gizurr fram mál sonar sfns; ok þóttu meiri 
stoðai rfsa' at með hónum til fulltingg, ok meirr reynd Qár-varð- 
veizla hans en þfn; en ek lét mér vel Ifka hváir ykkaii til veeri 
köriim. £n þá segir Hjálmr Ásbjamarson, at sér værí Iftifi um at 

■ breiAa] B, Oini.i bjiSSa, Cd. * riia] B, 



[I.ÍIS1 '01.13.] 
^ Öðmm fjórfiungi VEeri mafir köiinn^. Siíkt sagöi ok Haír, ok 
margÍT aörír; enda þótti þetta öUum svi vel, at eingi varft til mót- 
mæla, ok saml^ktu þat því þá aUir ; ok ertú því nú kötinn ^tlega 
at Gu6s körí ok manna. Nú væntum v^r, at þú munir bæði vilja 
göra Gufts vilja ok vám, ok skorask eigi undan,' Hann svarar : 
' I^t vil ek vita ok heyra, hvárt svá er öðrum héraðs-mönnum gefit 
sem þér; þvlat m^r þykkir stórr vandi við liggja; ok em ek þvf 
tregr undir at játtask.' 

36. Þá var stefhdr lundr DróttinBdag Í Vfðimýri, ok kómu þar 
þá héiaðs-menn, ok lögðu þá af nýju til umræðu ; ok kom þar þi 
f sama stað niðr. Senda þá eptir Guðmundi presti; ok segir 
Kolbeinn hónum, at þeir biðja hann til samþykkis ok jáyrðis, at 
ganga nndir vanda þann er þeir höfðu hann til körít, at vera 
biskup. £n er hann sá hve horfði af Kolbelni, at hann vildi ekkl 
annat, ok hugði sér verða mimdu þelta dælst, þá svarar hann : 
' Heldr vil ek hætta á Guðs miskunn um þat, at játa þessum vanda, 
en ábyrgjask þat, at enginn sé til körínn, ok þykki yðr eigi öllum 
eitt' Pá svarar Kolbeiim : ' Mæl þii allra manna heilastr.' Þök~ 
knðu hðnum þá allir af n^u ; ok fara menn heim. Ok um kveldit 
er hóntun þar biiit borö ok hásæti, ok bar Kolbeinn sjilfr mal fyrir 
hann, ok breiddi dúk á borð. £n er skjótt Jiurfti til at taka, þá 
var dúkrinn slitirm mjOk, ok ræddi Kolbeinn um : ' Mjök kennir nú 
dælleiks af váni hendi, meirr en verðleiks yðvars, er svá vándr 
dúkr er á borði yðru.' Hann svarar : ' Ekki sakar um dúkinn ; þar 
eptir mun fara biskups-dómr mínn ; svá mun hann slitinn vera sem 
dtíkrínn.' Kolbeinn roðnaöi við, ok svaraði öngu. Um morguninn 
eptir riðu þeir til Hóla með biskups-cfhi, Kolbeinn ok Þorvarör ok 
klerkar hans sj&)&. Kolbeinn gafhónmn nxa gamlan um morguninn 
er þeir fóru, ok kvazk vilja hefja upp gja&r við hann '. Fara sfðan 
om daginn út til Hdla ; ok kómu út um aptaninn fyrir Kolnis-meyja- 
messu ; ok er þá gör processio f mðt hðnum. En er þeir eru þar 
komnir, þá tekr Kolbeinn þegar ðll ráð undir sik ok biis-far, at 
ðngu loforði bisknps-efhis. Þi var þar fyrir Kygri-Bjðm at Hólum. I 
Ed áðr þeír kæmi lil Hóla, þá hafði Lambkáir djákn ríta-görðir 
, Kolbeins allar jafhlega þá er hann var heima. En þegar er hann 
' kom til Hóla, þá var bann at viðsjá hafðr um ríta-görð alla, en 
Kygrí-Bjöm er tekinn til bréfa-görðar f staðinn ; ok görði Kolbeiim 

' köríim] B; konnn, Cd. ■ ea bum cackaAi (I) ttm Td, add. B. 


"o STURLUNGA SAGA. ^V. [a.d. 

[sér viíS] öngan mann kærra en Bjöm. En Björn sló þegar fæð á 
vift biskups-efni; þvfat hann þóttisk of lítils metinn af hónum. 
Ok spáfti þat þegar fyrir, er sfftar fram kom um Björn ; þvfat sjá 
öfund fæddisk meö bónum, ok var þess meíri ssm hón liafði lengr 
staðit. Nú ferr þat fram um vetrinn, at Kolbeinn réð þar einn öllu, 
en bisknps-efni var svá ráðum borinn, at hann skyldi eigi ná, at þar 
væri bróður-synir hans ; ok göríSi hann þeim bú á Kálfsstöðum af 
því er hónum var gefit um sumarit. En Kolbeinn görði sér 
heimolt at setjask við sjaunda mann á staðinn. Biskups-efni vildi 
ok láta fá fátækum mönnum mat t tvau mál; cn Kolbeinn rak þá í 
gesta-htís, ok \ét gefa í eitt máí '. En er Jól liðu af höndum, þá. 
kom Þórarinn bryti Geisladags-aptan tii máls við biskups-efni, ok 
segir Evi: 'Eigi ertú forvitinn mn biifar þat er vær höfbm meö 
höndmn.' Guðmundr svarar : ' Eigi þykki mér sá beztr, at hlutask 
til, ok ráða öngu.' ' £k vii þó segja þéi deili á,' segir Þóiarínn, 
' ek hefi slfkan örkost ætlaö til Jóla-vistar mönnum sem béi hefir 
lengi vant verit; ok hvem vetr fyrr, krepti' at sjóða til Jóla; en 
nú hefir endzt viku lengr; ok hefir aldri verit fjötmennara um Jólin 
en nú.' ' Þat er sýnt,' segir biskups-efni, ' at Márfu þykkir betra at 
veilt sé en Kolbeini." Kolbeinn aat hjá, ok þagði. Þá géík bryti 
í brott; ok kemr nauta-maðr þegar, at segja fii ijár-fóðri því er 
hann hafði hendr yfir; at þat hafði aldri orðit jafh-<Irjilgt sem þá. 
En biskups-efhi svaraðí inu sama : ' Hverr veit, nema Márfu þykki 
betr at veitt er en KolbeinL' 

27. Eptii Jólin sendir biskiips-efhi mann, Þórð Vermundarson, 
at stefha Hrafhí Sveinbjamarsyni á fund við sik í MiSfjörö ; ok 
viJdi biskups-efni krefja hann til titan-ferðar með sér. Eu þá er at 
þeirri stundu Ifðr, bjósk biskups-efni heiman. En er hann var 
komiim í Ittwi sfna ', þá gengr Kolbeinn at hónum, ok mællí við 
hann : ' Nú vil ek, at vit leggim niðr feö þá er I hefir verit í _vetr 
með oss, þvíat þat eitt er til; ok skulum \ét þat einskis virða 
hvárigir við aðra.' Biskups-efni svarar: 'Ekki köUumsk ek til 
saka hafa gört; er ok vel ef þér bafit svá gört; en ábyrgisk sjálfir 
ef öðru-vís er en yðr þykkir.' Kolbeinn svarar : ' Hvárir-tveggju 
munu vér valda; svi verðr optast. Nú er Ilklegt at vér valdim 
meira af ; viljum vér af því biðja yðr fyrir-gefnii^ar ; viljum v^ ok 

' i eitt mU] Gmt. ; ein mmU. B ; I mil. Cd. ■ thui, oi lciifti, Cd. ; befir 

eiiit, Omi. ■ I keciu liiu] thiu Cd. aiul B ; til heiti dni, Om>. (Ket.) ; bnt ■ M 
keitQ ilapi,' T. ]. 


iMí.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA GÓBA, 37, 28. lai 


fyrir-gefa yír ef þér hafit í nðkkuru oftekjur haft.' Hann svarar: 
' Gó6 eni góð orð, ok munu þar aá hvárír al sfnum gömiugi dQlðir, 
þvfat ek dyljumsk við, at ek hafa við nfikkut hér of^ekjur hafðar f 
vetr, þvfat ek hefi ekki kosti átt.' Nú ferr hann vestr f sveitir, 
ok gistir at Þingeynmi. Þar var ein nunna, góð ok skynsðm 
eÍRsetu-kona, er Úlfnin hét; hón var móðir Sfmonar prestz ins 
mikla. Hón hélt svá rfkt einsetuna, at hðn vildi eigi sjá son sfnn 
er hann sötti hana hetm. Hón segir biskups-efni svá, at Márfa 
dróttning bcfði þat vitraA henni, að Guð ok hðn vildi, at hann værí 
biskup, ' Ok skaltú e%i undan teljask, ef þd vilt Guðs vilja göra, 
sem þú munt vilja; þvfat þér mun ædat.' Þessi sögn þótti hónum 
merkileg, ok nam* á trúnað. Ferr sfðan vestr f Miðfjörð; ok 
kemr á nefndum d^i á Staðarbakka. Ok þenna sama aptan kom 
þar Hrafn ór FjCrðum vestan, sem á kveðit var. Þá talaði biskups- 
efhi langa tölu ok merkilega á Dróttinsdag ; ok Ifsá þvf, ef 
nökkurr maðr væri þar kominn, er þess mannz visd vánir, at undir 
þennavanda vildi ganga er hónum var ætlaðr, eðr sá er hðnum 
vildi hnekkja, ' Þá vil ek feginn upp gefa, ef þat mætti verða með 
samþykki manna.' En þess treystisk cingi, at vera hnekkingar- 
maðr. Ok því var á þom fiindi ráðin útan-ferð Hrafns Svein- ; 
bjamarsonar ok biskups-efnis. Af fundi þeim fara hvárir heim, 
biskops-efni ti! Hóla en Hrafn vestr í Fjörðu. 

S8. Um vetrínn hafSi biskups-efni sent mann með bréfi austr 
tO Svfaafellz. l^t mælir svá:— 

'Guðs kveðjn ok sfna sendir Guðmundr, er kallaðr er biskups- 
efni, Sigurði ok ÞórtðÍ:— Guð hefir miklar jartegnir gört, at vér 
skyldim beit várt efna m^a sem vér enun skyldir til við yðr, at 
& yðr* staöfestu. Nú em ek þurftugr* þfns fulltings ; þvfat ek 
hefir meira vanda játt á mik, en ek sjá til færr at bera. NiÍ býð 
ek ykkr til staðar-forráða ok fjár-varðveizlu með mér. Ok komit 
sem fyrst má; þvf at þat gcgnir betr staðnum ok öUum oss. 

Nú ferr bann austan eptír Jól; ok bittask þeir biskups-efhi á 
leiðinni er hann ferr heim norðr. Ok ferr Sigurðr fyrir skjótara 
norör til Hóla. En er biskups-efni kom til Hóla, þá var lagt f 
umræðu hveija kosti Sigurðr skal hafo. Hann kvezk eigi vildu til 

' T»im, Cd. , ' yíi] Oim. ; ost, Cd. ' þQiflogr] Gmt. ; skyUugr, Cd. 

and B. * Takte] tcI, Cd. ; Tt., B. 


tai STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a.d. 

p. 118,119; •iiÍ->50 
liðask nema hónutn veeri handsðlufi staðar-forráð. En biskups- 
e&ii var lengi tregr aX bandsala; en kvazk gefa mnndu Btaðar- 
fonáfi í benilr Stguiði. Nú báðu vicrír menn, Kolbeinn Tumason 
ok Hafr Brandzson, ok margir aðrír, at biskups-efhi skyidi heldr 
handsala Sigurði staðinn til forráða, en hnekkja slfkum manni frá 
Kia vax Sigurör. Ok þótti mörgnm mÖDnum eigi mega betr fyrir 
6Ji staðar-forráðum en selja í hendi Sigurði ok Þórfði. Ok rœzk 
þat 6r, at hann handsalar Sigurði staðar-foiráð. Síðan fen Sigurðr 
meö bréf biskups-efhis 1 Skákhoh til P&Is biskupB, þat er avi 
mielti :— 

20. 'PálÍ biskupi sendir kveðja Guðs ok sfna Gnðmundr prestr, 
er aú er kallaðr biskups-efni : — Ek hefi játzk undir meira vanda 
en ek sei til færr at bera, ok haft eigi yðart ráð til eðr lof, sem 
vera átti. Nú vil ek biðja ybi álfta af Guðs bálfu, sem þér emð 
Bkyldir til, at segja hvat yði er næst skapi. Vili þér anaan mann 
kjósa tíl þessa vanda' ok vegs, er ek hefi ómaklegi undir játask, 
þi vil ek feginn upp gefa ok fri faia, þvfat ek verð þess af 
nökkunim van, at þeir þykkjask af mælt hafe; ok hefi ek þvf 
riðit Sigurð Onnsson til fjár-forriða með mér, at menn kvfddo 
Qái-fonifimn minom. Nú kjósit skjótt annat-hváit, þat sem Guð 
kennii yði, ok sendit mér* bréf sem fyist, hvárt þér kjðsit mik til 
eðr fiá. VaU: 

80. £n er Sigurði ferir PáU biskupi bréf þetta, þi sendir haiin 
maim þegai með biéfi austr f Odda til Sæmundai, þat ec svá. 
mælti: — 

' Pill biskup aendii kveðju Gnðs ok sína Ssemundi bröður sfnum : 
— Bréf biskups-efnis kom til mín, at ek skula kjósa annan mann 
til biskups, ef ek vij; en* hann lézt bdiim upp at gefa koBningina. 
Hann hefir ráðit til Siguið Ormsson til etaðar-foniða ; þvfat mcnn: 
hogðu þat helzt áðr, at fjii-vaiðveizla hans myndi eigi með forsji. 
Ek þikkjumk þess kenna á bréfi [hans], at hann mun ætla titan 
í sumar, ef hann er eigi fri körinn ; þvfat haim bað mik skjótt 
at kveða, bvárt ek vilda kjósa hann til eði frá. Nú vil ek, at þú 
segii, hvárt ek skal at kvefia.' 

31. Sæmundr sendi bréf 1 móti, ok mælti svi : — 

'Fili biskupi sendir Sæmundr kveðju Guðs ok sína: — ^Veiztu, 
br6ðir, at Guðmundr biskups-efni hefii eigi mikill vinr verít f 

' vanda] ralldz, Gnu. * mér] Gm>. ; með, Cd. ■ cd] ad<l. Otni. 


i»M.] GUDMUNDAR SAGA GÓÐA, 2B-33. 133 

[I. ai9.íío: •iiLi&J 
málum várum Signrðar ; en þó er hann mjök leyfðr af mQtmum, 
ok Ifklegt at þvl muni kosningr undJr hann kominn, at þat muni 
Guöa rili vera. Spjr ck, at hann muni fyrir margs jakir vel ttl 
ftJlÍDn, bæði gæzku sfnnar ok síðvendi, ok hreinií&s ', er mest um 
varðar. En d' nökkut er annat f, þ& takðu eigi ' vanda af Noiðlend' 
ingum at þeir ábyrgist kör sítt. £n þat er ráð mftt, kjós hann beldr 
til en frá, þv^ eigi [er] víst hverr iíklegri er til at Guði Ifki betr* en 
sjá. Ok er vánu bezt at hætta ; óráðit at si &nDÍsk at eigi megt 
al finna. Einhlftir görðusk Norðlendingar at um kör sftt; beri 
þeir nú ábyrgð fyrir hve verðr, VaU! 

82. Nú kemr bréf 1 Skáiaholt. \k sendir biskup boð f>orvaldi 
Gizorarsyni ok Halli, ok Magnúsi l»6ðar hans, ok Sigurði Orms- 
syni. Ok eiga þeir fund. Ok lýur biskup yfir þvf fyrir þeim, at 
kosningi var orpit undir hann ; ok hann hafði ráðit fyrir, at kjósa 
hann til en [^gi]* fii- Binda þeir þá allii með fast-m^ þetta 
með sér. Sendi þá ok biskup Sigurð Ormsson með biéfiim norðr 
til Gnðmundar biskups-efhis. t>at mæltí svá : — 

'Páll t»skup sendii kveðju Guðs ok sfna Guðmundi biskup»- 
efni: — Guö hefir kosit þik til biskups ok vær; ok eitú &stlega 
kosimt at Guðs Iðgum ok manna, Evá sem á þessu lasdi mfi 
follegast. Nú er Guð ok góÖir menn hafa þeDna vanda á þik 
lagt, þá berr oss nauðsyn til, at finna þik sem bráðast ; þvíat ek 
kennda þess f tfféfi yðru, at þú munt ætla útan f sumar, ef sá 
viU sero þú mundir kjósa*. NiJ vil ek koma til mótz við þik þor er 
þú vill ; en kunna þðlik, at þú sækir mik hdm ; en skylda þik eigi 
til; þvM ek á mörg nauðsynja-örendi til erkibiskups, þau er ek 
vil at þú komir á mínn fimd áðr þú íárir útan. Vak*: 

83. Nú Ifði vetrinn af bOndum, ok ferr l»skaps-efni eptir Hvfla- 
daga suðr í Skálaholt at hitta Pál biskup, ok tekr við biéfum hans 
þ^ er hann sendi erkíbiskupi. FeiT sfðan heim til Hóla. && 
kemr Sigurðr austan ok þan t^ríðr. Göra þann kost biskups^fni, 
at fé þeirra skyldi eigi þverra ; ok kðUuðu tvau hundruð hundraða. 
En þat var allz-konar fé, bæði frftt ok ófiftL Ok var þvf játað. 
Guömundr var búinn til skips með tfunda-vðni gfna. £n er hann 
vai til skips kominn, þá kom Hrafh vestan Sveinbjamarsoo, ok sas 
bdinn með hónum til farar, sem þeir höfðu ætlað. Þai vai ok 

■ hrdnlifii] QinL 1 mciaieynv Cd. ■ lakAu egi] Gmi., B ; frrit, Cd. \ talú 

þei, B. ' betr) Omi. ; rel, Cd. * dgi] add. * Tbot ; eC *vi fáir Mm þií 
Btlu, Qmi. : om. B. • Vate] idd. B. 


ia4 STURLUNGA SAGA. IV. [a-d. 

Thomas Ragneifiarson ok fvarr Jónsson, Grfmr munkr, EyjóUr 
Snorrason. Fimtán vóm [þar] fslenzkir menn. 

Sí. ÞeÍT létu út Dróttinsdag, fyrir ' Divúio Áposlolorum. Biskups- 
efni hafði sendan Kollsvein Bjamarson frá skipi norðr [um Qörð], 
at sækja vatz-keröld þeirra; ok kemr hann norðan at firði þá er 
skipit siglii út; ok er oiðinn gtraiidu-glópr. Þar koma þá at f 
þessu menn róandi, Narfi ór Brekku, ok vóru komnir með fiska 
austan 6t Flatey. Kollsveinn sagði þeim til vandrsefia sfnna, ok 
skorar á þá til flutningar. ' ílla ertú kominn,' kvað Narfi, ' ok er 
þetta bæði nauðsyn þín ok biskups-efnis, ok skal at vfsu vi8 þér' 
verða.' Þeir kasta þegar föngum af skipi ; taka við Kollsveini ok 
fbngum hans, ok róa lít undir segli eptir firðinum. Tekr vindr 
at vaxa ; ok gengr kaupskipit undan. Tekr hann til orða Narfi : 
þá er hann sér at undan berr hafakipit : ' Hversu lengi róum vér 
nd eptir kaupskipinu áðr þár þykki klækis-Iaust eptir sótt váirar 
bandarí' Hann svarar: 'Út i Qarðar-kjapta ', þar til er haf tekr 
vií.' ' Svá er jafnt,' kvafi Narfi, ' ok skal svá vera.' En er kaupskip 
kemr út at Hrfsey, tekr biskups-efni til orða: 'Nii skal leggja 
segl; ck vil ek eigi sigía frá manni mínum þeim er á landi er; 
enda vil ek hafa messu t dí^ f eTunnL' Austmenn mæltu, at 
ðUum væri þetta mjök f móti skapi, at ðnýta góðan byr. £n hann 
sagði, at þeim mundi befna; 'Ok mun Guð láta verða meiri' 
seinkan farar þessarar várrar en þeCta.' £n er þeir sjá, at hðnum 
mislfkar, þ& var lægt* segl ok kastað akkeii. Gékk biskups-efni 
& land, at sjngja messu. Nií þurftu þeii Narfi eigi lengra at róa*, 
ok stfgT KoUsveinn þar á skip, £n um morguninn eptii þ& var 
byn, ok vilja þeir heimta upp akkeii sftt ; ok er þac fast ; ok ganga 
þar til aðrir at Oðrum, ok leita þess er þeim kemr í hug, ok gengr 
eigi upp. Þá er sagt biskups-efni ; ok gengr hann til, ok blezaði 
ok mælti: 'Ðróttinn mfnn, leystu akkeril!' — ok Cekr f strenginn. 
tá losnar akkerit; ok taka þeir til segls, ok sigla til Grfmseyjar, 
ok liggja þar viku. H kemr á byrr, ok sigla þ& norðr fyrir Gnúpa. 
I^ kemr andviðrí á, ok rekr þá aptr allt vestr til^ Skaga. Þá l^ttir 
þeim rétti ; ok komask þeir annat sinn norfir fyrir Langanes ; ok 
kemr enn andviðrí, ok rekr þ& enn vestr 1 haf. Þá dreymfii konu 

' fyrii] tiáti, foi in l)0) Dít. App. or I5th of Jul; fdl on Moadiri conte- 
qDenlly it wat on thc l^th thcj ttaned. ' þ^] add. B and Onii. ■ kj^ti] 
B, Omi.; kjöptu(l),Cd. < HKÍrí] B, Omt.; miimi, Cd. ' Isgt] felll, Gmt. 
• at róí] »dd. Gan. ' 01] fyrir, B. 




uiD nótt á skipi þeirra, at maðr í biskups-biiningi gengi' eptir 
skipinu, ok þar at, er biskups-efni hvfldi ok blezaði yfir baim. 
Hón þóttizk vita, at þar var Jón biskup. Um daginn^eptir ræðir 
biskups-efni : 'Þat væii ráfi mítt at taka til segls, ok sigla veatr 
fyrir landit, þvlat ganga á land-nyrðingar, ok mun eigi gar^^a vilja 
fTTÍr -norðan landit.' Þetta er ráðs tekit. Ok sigla vestr um landit; 
ok svá fyrír Vest-fjörfiu ok sufir fyrir Snæfellznes, ok svá suðr fyrir 
Reykjanes. Þá fyiir EyjaljðlL Þá ganga & landnyrðingar. Ok 
rekr þá sufir í haf, ok veiða vaiir við Suðreyjar, ok bera kensl á ; 
ok eru komnir við Eyj'ar þær er Hirtir hcita. fto spurðu þeir 
sndlát Sverris konungs. Pi berr þá suðr f frlandz-haf ok sufir 
fyiir frland, ok hafa storm veörs*, ok heyra grunn föll alla vega 
fjTÍr sér. í*á ræfiir biskups-efni, at aliir menn sknli ganga til 
skrípta, ok keimi-menn allir skuli göra krÚDur sfnar, ok sk/Idi 
stofha heit Ok svá var gört sem hann bafi. I>eir heita at ge& 
alin af sekk hveijum, ok göra [maim] til Röms, ok gefa háUa mörk 
vax maðr hverr til kirkna. H féU þegar veðrit, ok fengu þegar 
bjT tíl Nóregs. Okfánnbiskups-efni Hákon konung f Björgyn; ok 
tök hann allvel vifi hónum. Fói btskups-efni norðr til Nlðaróss. 
Ok vlgðí Eirekr erkibiskup bann tíi biskups. 

* at — goigi] B ; nrniD — ok gengi. Cd. * itonn TcBn] B, Qmi. i itor 





A.D. II84-I3OQ. 

[I..30; iii.9.] 

TVií tek ik þar íil/rásagnar er tvennum/err sögum/ram al: — 
GvÐMUNSR hefir maðT heiUð. Hann var EyjóÍfsEon, ok bjó 
á bæ þeím ei heitir á Helgastððum í héraði því er Rejkjardalr 
heitir. Hann var auðigr maðr at fjárhlutum ok vinsæll; heldr 
var hann sinkr kallaðr. Hann itti son þann er Teiti b&; hann 
var vænn œaðr ok vinsæll'. Guðmundr átti bræðr tvá ; hét annan 
HalldéTT en annarr Björn ; þeir vóru féminni enn Guðmundr, ok 
vóru þó bœndr báðir í dalnum. Þar var þá gótt bónda-val i dalnum. 
Þá bjó í Fellz-milla Sigurðr Styrkárs son lögsögu-mannz, en 
á Grenjaðarstað Eyjólfr son Hallz Hrafns sonar lög[sögu]- 
mannz*, Úlfhéðins sonar, Gunnars sonar, I6g[sðgu]mannz. Sigrfðr 
dóttir Hallz Hrafns sonar var móðir Guðlaugar, móður Ketils prestz 
torláka sonar, mSSw-/(Xur míns, ilem mSbvr/^ur Narfa-sona*. 
En er Teitr ós upp, þá var hónum ráðs leitað. t>órólfT h^t bóndi ; 
hann var Sigmundarson ; hann bjó í E^jafirði á bce þeim er heitir 
[f] Mööru-felU; hann var f góðra bönda vurðingu ; hann var dóttur- 

> B begiiutbui — GnSmuiidr hét nuír hanii bi6 i Helgailöínin f Reykjudtl; 
hanii var inBigi ok nnsxlL HanD itti iod a Teitr hét. Ouemundc itti brzðt ij. 
ctc. The whole chiptcr being here moch abrídged and cuitailed, 

■ StjiUn tooar lögiogo maimz ÚirhiðiDi loaar lögmauna Qnmiin loiur lög- 
maimz (I), B. ' mdeut-faÍQt— Naifl-toaa] thui Cd. (Bi.) ; atihm föðu Nufa- 

■ona, B, diopping * móAui foAar mint item,'— « bomoteleuton, ' mðtuc-föSDi ' 
being repeated in A. 



son Hafliðsi MássOTUu-, ÞöróUr átti konu þá er Steinunn hét, dóttir 
Þorsteins langlátz; þan áttu þrjá sonu; ok er þeirta eigi hér við 
getið. Dðttur áttu þau eina, er Oddkatla ' hét ; hón var væn kona, 
ok kunni sér allt vei. i^iirar konii VEir beðít til handa Teiti Pat 
pótú j^-ræði; hann var kTn-stæiri; [en] hón var fémeiri, en 
hvár-tveggi it vinsœl^ta, Nú er hón föstnuð Tdti. Eptir þat 
íói hón heim til bús þess er þau áttu. Tók hón þegar til bús- 
forráða; en ibi hCfðu þar ymsar matseljur verit sfðan er lcon£ 
Guðmundar andaðisk. Þat varð öUum vel at skapi. En eptir þat, 
vinu bráðara, þá seldi Guðmundr af hendi búit ok alla fjár-hluti, 
ok tóku þau við; en Guðmnndr lézk i brott með þat er hami 
þurfti til forlags-eyris ; ok r^zk til Þverár; ok tók munks-vfgslu ; 
en þai var þá Hallr Hrafnsson ábóti. Brátt snerí fjár-haginum 
fyiir Teiti, er Guðmundr var f brotta. £itt sumar kom skip f 
EjÍaQiði, ok stóðu þar uppi þijii skip um vetriiu); en þá var 
haUæri mikit Þá var Kolbeinn Tumason höfðingi í Skagafirði; 
ok [hafði] hann fundi' at þvl, at bændr skyldi eigi taka ininDÍ 
forgipt þar 1 béraðinu en haim kvað á; ok lagði íé viö. En 
Anstmðnntim þóttu þegar heldr miklar forgiptir, ok vistuðusk þvf 
eigi vestr um Heiði. Teitr Guðmundarson tók við þremr Aust- 
mönnum; hét einn Grfmr, er kallaðr var niuðr, Erlingr ok Rafh. 
tat var þann vetr, er bzsjar-bruni var á Möðni-vÖUum f Eyjafirði ok 
á Bakka f MiðGrði, ok enn Seirí aðrír. Teiti Ifkaði vel við vetitaks- 
menn gÍDa, ok þðtti ff sUegt á brott at fara með þeim. Hann hafði 
«gi áðr af landi farít ; ok r^zk hana til skips með þeim. Þá fÓni 
ok tJtan fieirí menn. Teitr hét ok maðr; hann hafði biíit at 
Eeldum ok i Gunnarsholti; ok átti VUborgu, dÓttur Gizurai Hallz- 
sonar. Ok þat sumai fói útan Þoi^irr son Brandz biskups, ok sá 
maðr er Guðmundr* hét af Auðkúlu-stað. Aimat sumar áði bafði 
£uit Þorvarðr Asgrlinsson inn auðgi. Ok um hvem þeirra f sinni 
sveit, þá þótti at ðngum meiri ekaði [þeim] er eptir vóiu ; en engi 
þeiira kom [aptr] hingat til landz. Þat var þá siðN^ni, at Brandr 
biakup fór hvert sumar um fjóiðung [slim], ok gisti annat-bvárt 
snmar at flestum kirkjum*, ok átti þi at gista at Helgastöðom at 
bdi Teitz. Þá hafði Oddkatla þai boð inni, ok bauð þangat frændum 
sfnum ok vinum, Þórólfi ' [móðnr]-fbður sínum ok Cláfi Þorsteins- 

> OdntU, B. ■ foDdÍ] cmaid. ; fbodíd. Cd. ■ OiumiiT, B. ■ ok gúti 
it miniii hTÍiri lciikju, B. > |K>Titcim. B (badly). 


rí8 STURLUNGA SAGA. V. [a.d. 

[i-ijit ia.9.] 
syni móður-bróður sfnum, ok Eyjólfi Hallzsyni, er iul Guörúnu 
I Öláfsd<5ttiir systning' Oddkötlu. — Hnn dag er hairn sat þar, þá 
urðu þar nðkkurír kynlegleikar : Þá er konur gengu um beina 
um dagverð, þá sýndisk -Oddkötlu Teitr bóndi sfnn sitja f millum 
manna nökkurum sinnum. £n þá er hón hugði at, þá sá bón 
Öngan hónum Ifkan. Ok mátti hón* dgi ganga um beina fyrir 
þeim sökum. Ok áðr menn færí brott, þá heimti Oddkada til f66ur 
sfnn ok tnlnaðar-menn sfna; ok beiddi, at skipta skyldi fé með 
þeim Teiti bónda hennar. En þat þótti kynlegt ; þvfat þau unnusk 
vel meðan þau vóm ásamt. £n þá er h(5n sagði þeim þetta, þá 
\-öm þeir ótrauðarí. En hón átti at hafa mund sínn ok hdman- 
fylgju ; ok er ákveðit hvat hón skyldi bafa f löndum eðr lausum 
aurum. £n hón kvazk hvártki mnndu skilja við Teit bónda sfnu 
fjár-hlut né samvistu, ef hatm kæmi til. En þat siunar it sama, er 
skip kómu, þá var sagt út lát Teitz; ok hafðt haim andask um 
várít f Noregi. Þau áttu engi b5m. Ok þá tóksk umraeða hverr 
erfingi Teitz vai; þótti þar veiði-vefjan ' mikíl. Var þat margra 
maima álit, at faðir hans myndi erfa hann * ; en bræðr Guðmundar, 
Björa ok Halldðrr, köUuðu at Guðmundr ætti ekki fé at taka, né 
annask, er hann hafði muiUts-vfgslu. Þar gengu menu at sveitum, 
ok vóra margir hvárir-tveggju. En Eyjólfr Hallzson á Grenjaðar- 
stað lét sýnna, at bera mundi undir Guömnnd. Eyjólfr átti bodu 
tvá, ok vildi a hvárum-tveggja staöfestu ; ok fór til Þverár, ok 
falaði at Guðmundi löndin ok erfðina; ok keypti sfðan Iftlu betr 
en hálf-viröi; ok skyli BJálfr ábyrgjask hvat* lög bæri. Ok er þeir 
Halldárr ok Bj'Örn fregna þetta, þá þolðu þeir ÍUa við, ok þótti sfn 
eign vera; unnu Eyjólfi ílla at njóla; en þeir mjök fé-þurfii. 
Eyjílfr keypti féit milli JÓIa ok Föstu. En f Páska-viku fóni þeir 
bræðr inn til Eyjaijarðar til Hörgár-dals til fundar við goðorðz- 
menn sína, — annarr þeirra var f þingi með Þorvaröi Þorgeirssyni, 
hann bjó á MððruvöUum f Hörgárdal, en aimarr meö Önuodi 
Þorkelssyni á Laugalandj, — ok bára fyrír þá vandræði sln, ok báðu 
þá ásjá. Ok þar kom, at hvárr þeirra handsalaði sfnum goðorðz- 
manni heimting íjárins, hvergi [er] þeirra hlulr verör af sjáUra. 
Ok fóra þeir við þat f brott Ok spurðusk þessi tfðendi. £n um 
várit eptir Páska skipar Oddkatla lönd sfn ; ok tók þá til þess fjár- 

■ ifitiuil^ B. ' hóa\ idd. B. ' TCiei-vefjin] thui Br. ind 440 (TciBtr- 
rini 1 OT • ok Cirin ? oi thc like) ; B omitt Ihe punge. * mTiidi >if eigi it 
taki eptii hariD, B. ' hTit] hnCrt, B. 


118;.] GUDMUNDAR SAGA DÝRA, 8, 3. 129 

[L 133 riii. 10,1..] 
skiptis er verit haffii it fyrra sumarít. Ok slðan fór h6n af Hetga- 
stööum mefi aUt sítt inn ti! Möðrufellz tU föður slns. Ok er hón 
61 þessi sögo. 

S. Eptir þetta hittask þdr höffiingjamir, Þorvarör ok Önmulr: '' '"",.„; 
ok réðu þat með sér, at hverfa at báfiir samt ; ok fðru heiman ok ' 
norðr til Reykjardals, ok höfðu nær fimm tigi manna; ok settusk 1 
bii á Helgastöðum. £n þat frétti Eyjðlfr brátt; þvíat hann átti 
ekamt at spyrja ; ok samnaði at sér mönnum ; ok rézk þar til með 
hðnum Sigurðr, búi hans, Siyrkársson, ok fsleiír ok Asbjöm bræfir' 
Eyjólfs. f^ rézk [ok] til með þeim Kleppj&m Klængsson; hann 
átti Ingigeiði* systur Sigurðar. Þangat rézk ok meö Eyjólfi 
Hjáhnr Ásbjamarson 64 Vestrfiópi, ok Asgrfmr GUsson í Vatzdal, 
er átti Jámgerði systur-dóttur Eyjðlfs; Már Guðmundarson ná- 
frændi Eyjótfe; hann átti Helgu, dðttur Snorra Kálfssonar. En 
með önundi var Einarr Halkson frá Möðravöllum. í>eir áttu bæði 
saman gofiorð ok fiændsemí. K hðfðu hvárír-tveggju setur 
f}öhnennar. t^ fór Eyjólfr tit Hetgastaða, ok máttu þeir eigi 
sættask, þvlat hvárir-tveggju költuðusk allt' eiga þat er þeir deilðu* 
um ; ok urðu eingi miðlunar-mál með þeim ; þvlat hvárigir vildu 
láta né eitt af slnn máti. Ok varð þat sffian at stefnu-föi'; ok 
stefndi Önundr Eyjólfi um afneyztu fjárins, ok kallar síns neytt 
vera. Þorvarðr stefndi Mávi Gufimundarsyni ; ok stefnt var 
sonum Önundar tveimr, Hámundi ok Vigfúsi, ok þeim mwni er 
Valgarfir héu Þeir bjoggu þetta mál tit Vððta-þings. 

8. Maðr hét Guðmundr, ok var Þorvatlzson 1 liann var kaltaðr ''' ' " 
inn dj^. Hann bijó f Öxnadal á t)æ þeim er á Bakka heitir; 
hann var bróðir Asgrfms, fbður Þorvarðz ins auðga, oK Aifeifiar er J-« Í7U> 
átti Gizurr Hatlzson, ok Vigdísar er átti Fomi Sokkótfsson, " ,, 

Fomungar eru vifi kenndir ; ok var liann sam-mæðri viö Mrð /'' * * 

Þórarinsson aC LaufSsi. Guðmundr hafði gofiorð at meðfSr, er átt 
hafði Asgrímr brððir hans, ok Þorvarðr auðgi. Hann var með 
hvárigum at þessum málum. Hann samnaði at sér mönnum, bæfii 
sfnum þingmfinnum ok annarra, ok fór við þat tit vár'þings. En er 
menn vðm komnir tit þings ', þá var ekki um sættir at leita, þvfat 
hvárígir vildu aé eitt af sínum málum leggja, ok^ hváiir-tveggju 
költufiusk allt eiga einir, þat er um var deilt i^ir Þorvarör ok 

> bneðr] biiia, B. ■ Ingiriði, B. ' allt] V., 440; mut, Cd. * iai^} 
V. ; riMn, Cd. ' Halg«talb— ite&u-för} oin. R '«10 mcmi kdng til vir- 
llág^ B. ' hv&rigir— ok] idd. B. 

VQI. I. K 



Önundr heitnöusk þess, at leita eigi lög-vanut fyrír ök, ok ver|a 
má) með bardaga; en Guðmundr gékk svá œilii með flokk síon, 
at hvárki varð bardagi né saksókmr. En þeir er saksðkn höfðv 
til búil, nefndu at þvf vátta, sem \ag stóðu ', at taka svá búin mál 
upp á Alþingi, sem til vár-þings v<5ni búin, er þar máttí eigi Eiekja 
at lögum. Ok sleit við þat þinginu. Þá bjoggusk menn til 
Alþingis, er at þvl kom ; ok ferr hvárrgi þeirra til þings, Önundr 
né Þorvarðr; ok fór Einair Hallzson með goðorð Önundar; ea 
meö goðorð Þorvarðz sá maðr er Snorri hét, ok var GrfinssOD, 
frændi t>orvarðz. t^ir beiddu þá eigi svara fyrir sik, eðr leggja þar 
blut sfnn viö, ok Sögðusk mundu klappa um eptir, er mál kæmi 
heím Ihérað. Öláfr Þorsteinsson bauð Kleppjámi, hvirt haan vildi 
heldr veita Eyjólfí, ok fara til þings, eðr vera heima ok gæta héraðs. 
Kleppjáro f6r til þings, en Óláfr var heima. En þeir önundr ok 
Þorvarðr sátu f búum ' sfaum um þingit, ok hlfföu svá setunnir ok 
gðrðu öngum maimi mein. Ok er menn kómu heim af þingi, þá 
vóni þeir kallaöir Befcir, Önundr ok Þorvarðr, Ok fóru þi í aetw 
hvárir-Cveggju, ok sömnuðu mðnnum at hváiu* sem þeir fengu. 
En er dró at féráns-dómum, — ok sóttu menn langt til, — þá kom 
austan ór Fjörðum Tcitr Oddzson, mágr Þorvarðz, at veita hónum. 
tá var kominn til ráða f Skagaijörð Sigurðr Ormsson með Þörfði 
Gizurardóttur, er áct hafði Tumi Kolbeinsson; en Kolbeinn 
Tumason var útan farinn, ok skyldi Sigurðr hafa manna-fonáð 
eptir. Guðmundr sendi Sigurði orð, at bann skyldi fá hónum 
nökkut lið; ok fékk Sigurðr bónum Qóra tigi maima, alla vel búna. 
Ok þann dag ei féráns-dómr * skyldi vera, fór Guðmuudr heimam 
með tvau hundnið manna ' ok fór á hálsa miUum Hðrgárdals-ár ok 
Kræklinga-hlíðar, ok mætti þar flokki Eyjólfs. En féráns-dómar 
vöru nefndir, annarr & MððruvöUum, en annarr á Laugalandi. Nú 
faia þeir Önundr ok Þorvarðr með flokki s&ium á móti flokki 
Eyjðlfs. £n er Guðmundr hafði stöðvat flokk £yj61Es *, þá sneri 
hann aptr þar til er hann mætti flokki þeina Önundar ok Þorvarðz, 
ok stððvaði þá '', þulat Eyjólfr kaUaði tög til þess, at þeir heyði * þar 

' Tliut cmoid. ; Km lög ttóía at þvi. Cd.; en þdr ei mcfiiðlunr fiini, bsBa >t^ 
húiú mátÍQ til AlþiDgis, cr ap m&lti it lögniD ickja i TÍrþio^. ok ddt, B. 
'bdm, B. ■ Emcnd.; at hT&ium, Cd. * féiiru-dðmir, B. * Ulft uunl 

c. DUDiu, 8. ■ ea féiÍDi-iótiatSoík Ejjðiii} add. B ; in Bi. bo« ii > homo- 

Uleatoo. ' hanD gétít þu i nulJi, add. B (a i^etition fcom tbe foUMring). 

* hey&i] hsBi, B. 


1187-] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA DÝRA, 8. 131 

réiins-dóina í liði ' sinu, er þeim væri óhætt framast at koma. Ett 
þeir Þorvarðr ok Önundr hétu því, at þegar sk^ldi bardagi vcra. 
Þá gengr Guðmundr milii ; ok sagði, at tiami mmidi þeim i móti ei 
eigi viklu hlýða þvf cr hann mælti. Ok varð enginn féráns-dómr, 
ok einginn bardagi Ok fóru menn við þat brott, þá er á dag var 
liðit; þvfat þat vai mælt f lögum, at féráns[dómB]-gSgn * skyldi 
&am komin er sól væn f suðrí. Ok fóru menn svá f brott, ok 1 
aetur hvárir-tveggju, En þeir menn til héraða sfnna, er lengst vóra 
at konmir. Sátu þá hváiir-tveggju með fjSImenni. Vist var miklu 
betri at búnafii i. Helgastöðum; ok varð þar betia til einhleypinga; 
en fór mn tilfbi^ scm verða mátti, þá er blíit stóðsk eigi, En at 
Eyjölfi var borinn bvalr ok egg, ok neytti allz þess er eett var, ok 
haft þat eitt er Eyjólír átti. Pi er fættask tóku fÖng á Helgastöðum, 
þá urðu rán; ok ræntr sá maðr er Þorgeirr hét, ok var kallaðr 
HUfarson, ok bjó i þeim bæ er f Nesi beitir ; ok aimarr sá [maör] 
cx Hallr hét, ok var ísleifsson ; ok hann vildu þeir taka sjálfan ; en 
hann komsk út um glugg á húsum sinum, ok reið f brott þeim 
besti er þeir áltu; en þeir báru i brott þaðan mat, ok tóku fé. 
En er þeir fóru aptr, þá áöu þeir í túni i Gren]'aðarBtöðum ; ok 
eggjuðu menn ofan ór virki, þvfat hvárir'tveggju höfðu virki um bæ 
sfnn. Isleifr Hallzson vildi ofan ganga ok beijask við þ&; ok 
náöi eigi fyrir sfnum mönnum. Ok fóru þeir IVDrvarðr ok Onundr 
til Helgastaða með föng sln. i>á þótti £yjól£ of lið-fStt, ok fékk 
eigi meim 1 nánd sér. f>á feir fsleifr vestr til Skagafjarðar °, þvf at 
hann itti bú f Geldinga-holti. Ok er hann kom vestr, þá fór til 
hans maðr sá er Grfmr hét, ok var Snorrason, ok bjó at HoG út & 
Ströndinni frá Hjalladal, er átti i>ómýju Þorgeirsdóttur Bystur 
l^irvarðz, ok var hann eigi f setunni með þeim. Hann görði 
beiman för sfna, ok fói á Bakka til Guðmundar ins d^ Ok 
þaðan fór hami* með bónum, ok vóni fimtán saman, norðr til 
Re^kjadals til Helgaslaða ok til Grenjaðarstaða ; ok hitta hvira- 
tveggju; ok leita um sættir; ok sögðu þeim þat, at eigi mundi 
Betan haldask mega, svi at eigi görðisk rin ok annarr óhiðr meö 
þeim, En Gr&nr var maðr ráöleitiim ok vitr, ok kom á sættmn 
með þeim, ok þeir Guðmundr. Þar fylgði bónorð; ok kom 
Grfmr þvf upp; ok bað Kkengr sér konn, sonr Kleppjáms, 

' SBi] thu aho B, ' fjrim-gogn, Cd. ; tðrtiK. di. googn (1), B. * >t >a* 
Ult, idd. B. * Iudd] GotmDndr, B 


133 STURLUNGA SAGA. V. [a.d. 


Guðrúnar dóttur Þorvarðz Þorgdrssonar. Þat rézk ^t saman, 
sætt þeirra ok þetta ráð. Þar vóra engir menn til görðar ' teknir ; 
var þar allt á kveðit. Skyldi hvdrigir þeirra faafa þau lönd er þeir 
d^du um, en biífé allt var upp edö. Skyldu þeir hafa lönd 
feðgar, Klængr ok Kleppjám ; ok þótti ÞorvarBi þá bera undir sik 
meÖ mægðum; skyldu þeir þá. verð fyrír inna þeim er Iðg bæri. 
Gengu menn til handsala fjrrir rin þau er vetit höfðu. £ra nú 
sittir, ok rafu setumar; ok vistuðusk menn þcir er þeim höföu 
fylgt; ok fóra við þat f brott, ok höfðu hv&rígir metorð af þessum 
málum, þeir er um deildu. Hurfii þá tii Guðmundar^ Ok l^kr 
þar þessum málum, áðr f sleifr kemr aptr, ok þóttisk Eyjólfr þá at 
öngu þurfa manna, en hverjum þeirra var heitið vetr-vist er teknír 
vóra frá sumar-bi'örg slnni. Skildi þá at því* bneðr, fsldf ok 
Eyjólf. Sfðan leysti fsleifi- þá alla af hendi, ok gékk f hval-grafir 
Eyjólfs, ok reiddi hverjmn þijár vættir, ok fóra þeir víð þat 1 
brott ', En ráöa-hagr sá tekzk um haustið, ok var boð á Mööra- 
vöUum. Fór Guðrún þegar til Hrafnagils með KlængL Þá var 
Asbjöm Hallzson, bróðir Eyjótfs, staðfestu-Iauss, ok falaði bann 
Helgastaði ; en þeim feðgum Klængi ok Kleppjárni var jafnan 
bú-skylft, ok seldu þeir fyrír þat landit Aabimi. Ok er Þoivarðr 
frétti þat, þðtti hónum verr er imdir þá Hatlz-sonu var komit; m 
þeir köUuðusk beimilt eiga at selja þat° fé sftc sem aðra eign slna; 
ok fór Asbjöm biii sfnu á Helgastaði. Ok lýkr þar þessimi 
deildum. Hafði Guðmundr inn d^ mesta virðing of málum 

4. Bjöm héc maðr ; bann var Gestzson ; hann bjð í ölá^ði 
þar er á Sandi heitir; hann var fylgðar-maðr Önundar ok þing- 
maðr; bann var mikil-menni ok öeirinn um alIC, bæði menn ok 
fjár-hluti, ok drðsk opt þá menn á hendr', er óskilamenn vóru. 
Hann hafði þat sumar allt fylgt Önundi ; ok kom svá fremi * lil 
bús síns er lokit var þessum málum ; ok var Iftiö forverk orðit ; en 
hann átti ómegð ok fjár-hlut lltinn. Þann vetr gðrðusk fll tfðendi 
f héraðinn, at menn héidu íUa kvikfé, ok svá vóra búr brotin i 
Fljótum ok svá f öláfsfirði. En þá hafði þar manua-fbTráð Jðn 

' gÖrSít] emena. ; ;il gor&ir, Ci • Thni Cd. (1) • þvf] emend. ; þit, Cd. 
* olc viftulhuk — bton] B ota. the whole pauagc. ' lelji þat] 8 ; setji þai, Cd. 

' hiffti — þeuum] idd. B, yet oniítting tbe preceding pamge, ' ok [ýkr þu þasnin 
deildam.' ' ók iráslt opt þi menn i faendi] B ; ok drdgndE opt þcir mcÐii í 

hendi hónmn, Cd. • fcemi] B ; foiinne, Cd. 


t.8M.88.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA DÝRA, 4. 133 

Eetilsson bróðir Asgrúns skáldz ; ok Jón átti bú at bœ þeim er 1 
Holti hét; en hann nx vistum at Hólam með Brandi biskupi. f^ 
urðu menn við varír, ít fUræöa-menn vöni 1 húsum Bjajnar. Pi 
fóm heiman 6r Fljótum tveir bæiidT; — hét annan- Már, ok var 
Rijnólfsson, cn annair Þorvarðr, ok var Sunnólfsson, — inn til Hóla, 
aC hitta Jón ; ok sögðu hónum til vwdræða sfnna. £a hann 
leitaöi ráðs við Brand biskup. En hann kallaði þat ráö margra 
inanna, at hieinsa héruð; ok væri þeir menn af teknir er lengi 
heföi reynzk at óskila-möimum ; en þat var þar er Bjöm var. 
Síðan fór Björn út í Fljót með þeim Mivi ok t'orvarði, ok þaðan 
fóru Fljóta-menn með hónum ; ok vóni nær fÍTTiTn tigir manna ; ok 
fiSru til Óláfs-ljaiðar ; ok kómu á Sand, ok var Bjöm róinn [á 
fiski]. t>eir tðku skip tvau, ok röni at leita þeiira; ok hittask á 
sjó; c^ var bdtt, at hann mundi eigi tekinn verða. Eyjótfr h^t 
maðr, cr i skipi var með bónum. Þeir tóku Bjöm ok bundu hann 
á skípi, ok fðm svá til ]andz með hann'. Ok mœlti Bj'örn við 
prest ', Valdi hét maðr, hann var Másson ; hann var ÍUræðiS'maðr ; 
bann höfðu Fljóta-menn tekit á ðráðum, ok höfðu hann með sér ; 
hann veitti Bimi atvfgi, ok skyldi vinna þat tii lifs sér ; ok vannsk 
flla at Ok sfðan köauðu þeii Bjöm. Nú frétu þeir Önundr af- 
tCku Bjamar, ok kallaði sér mjök mísboðit f þessu; þvfat hann 
virði menn eptir því er hónum þóttu sér fylgja, en miðr at 
vinsEdðum við aðra menn; ok kallaði fulk eptir-mál um vfg 
Bjamar ; ok kaUaði hann á öngum óskilum hafa staðinn verít er 
þeir tðku hann. Nii leið vetr sá til Langa-lbstu. Ok Miðviku-dag 
í Sælu-dögum kom sá maðr út í Fljót cr Sölvi hét, ok var {^rarins- 
6oa; haim kom á þann bæ er á GHl heitir; þar bjö Þorvarðr 
Bjamarson er kallaðr var Skerja-Bjöm. t>orvarðr hafði verít at 
vfgi* Bjamar, ok var Sölvi sendr til at veiöa Þorvarð. En er 
menn fóni heiman til nón-tíða, þá rézk Sölvi f brott ok vildi eigi 
verða staðinn þar, ok þóttisk vera fáliðr. Sfðan fór hann f sauða- 
hús Jóns 1 Holti, ok sat þar um aptaninn. Glúmr hél sá maðr er 
gætti sauða. Ok um kveldit er hann kom til sauða-hússins, vá 
Sölvi hann. Eptir þetta hljöp Sölvi um nóttina inn til Svarfaðar- 
dals; ok kól haon á fætr mjök ; ok komsk hann inn á strQnd frá 
Svarfaðar-dal ; cn þá var hónum fylgt hús frá húsi, unz hann kom 

' ak föni (TÍ tll liDdi meí huin] add. B. ' ok Dudti Bjöm TÍð prat] tluu 

d. ' it TÍgi] lil Tigi, Cd. ; TÍB Tig, B. 


134 STURLUNGA SAGA. V. [a.d. 

á LBHgaland til önundar ; ok var hann þar síðan. Ok eptir um 
várit heitask önandr at &ra út í Ftjót, ok biia mál til um vfg 
Bjamar & hendr þeím ðllum, er verit h&fSu at afcöku Bjamar; 
þvíat þeir vóm* aUir vel Qár-eigendr, ok þöttu málin fé-vænleg. 
En eptir víg Glúins áttu at mtela þeir brEcðr, Jón ok ABgrfmr; ok 
hafSi sá einn til farit, er þeim þótti ekki nndir, hvárt sekr var eðr 
eigi; ok þóttusk Fljöta-menn sjá, at þeir mundi eigi hafa fullnað 
ði málum vi6 Önund, ef eigi nyti þeir við annarra ; ok fóm til 
fundar vi6 Brand biskup, ok leituöu ráða undir faann. En biskup 
kallar um þau mál, er verit hefði mikillegust it fyira sumaril, at þar 
hefÖl Guðmundr fengU öll in beztu ráð til, ok bað þá [fara] til 
fundar við hann, ok vera fýrir málum þeirra *. Nú fóra þeir bræðr 
til fiindar við Guðmund, ok báöu hann at vera íyrÍT málum með 
Eér. En Guðmundr kvað sik ekki til skylda, ok kvaÖ tér aX 
hváiignm langt. Sjá þeir nú, at þeir munu ekki af hðnum fá um 
þetta mál. H gáfu þeir Guðmundi Ftjðtamanaa-goðorð ; — þat 
var bæöi fjölmennt ok vel skipaL — í^ssa gjöf þá Guðmundr at 
þeim ; ok nrðu nií hans þingmenn allir þeir er sakirnar horfðu * til. 
Ok slðan settu þeir eáttar-fimd meö þeim Guðmundi úk önundi ; 
ok sættusk á mál sfn; ok vóra menn teknir til görðar, Hallr prestr 
Gunnarsson af MöðravöUum, ok Bjöm prestr Steinmóðsson af 
öxnahváli ; ok görðu þeir jafh-mikla sekð fyiir vfg Gtúms ok 
aftöku Bjamar ; ok kölluðu þat því fé-vænna málit eptír Bjöm sem 
þar v6ra vi6 Öeirí; ok kölluðu hann þó öngra bóta verðan. Ok 
skilðu at þvf, at hvárir-tveggju skyldi bæta sfnum mönnum*. 

5, Guðnin hét kona ok var ÍN5rðar dóttir ; hón átti bó á þeim bæ 
er beitir i Amaraesi, út 5 Strönd frá Hörgárdal • ; hón var bæði 
væn ok kurteisleg; hón átti þar bæði lönd ok bú. Hdn var ung 
kona ok bafði tekit við fbður-leifð sfnni ; hón þótti þar beztr kostr 
jab-borinna kvenna. Hennar bað sá maðr er Súnun hét son 
t^rvarðz erkallaðr var kamphundr; hann var vinsæQ maðr, ok 
þótti þetta jafnræði með henni. Nú var þat ráö ór gört*. Ok 
eptir þetta fór Símun f bú með henni. Eigi vai sandag þeirra 
faægt; ok Bvá gfirðisk brátt, at GuðnSn fór stundum frá búinu en 
stundum heim; en Sfmtm var inn hógværasti maðr. t>au vóra 

' vfini] neri, Cd. • ef dgi nyti — inUum þdrra] om. B. ' horfBn] B ; 

honhi, Cd. ■ Thit wholc diaptet it verj aiukilfull; ■brídgcd in B. ' Höigit- 
dil] Svirfafiardal. B (bidir) ; in that cue there ihotild be ' inni.' ' M 6r gört] 
thDtCd.; iirUigört? 


n88,ii9o.] GUÐMUNDAR SAGA DÝRA, 6. 135 

ti.139; iu.13.] 
sanun tvá vetr, ok var mn slðara vetrinn hægra roefi þeim. Var 
hón þá beima. Þi vai FöBta-mata^-fátt Ok er Lan^-fasU kom, 
tnælti bðii við faaiin, at bann skyldi sfflkja Fðstu-mat út á Siglunes 
tx hann átti at föðar sfns. Þá för hann, ok sigldi dt eptir firði ; 
ok Eigldi á etein upp, er kallafir er Svarthðfða-steinn. Þar 
dmkknaði Sfanon ok hiiskarlar hans tveir; ok var þá Guðnín 
ekkja eptir. Þat sama snmar bað hennar sá maðr er Hrafh hét, ok 
var Brandzson j hann var vestao ór Skagafirði ór svtit Grfms 
Snoirasonar; okhann gékk með þessu máli; en ÞorvMi^r Þorgeirs- 
6on var at umsi'á með henni; ok feerðu þeir mágar þau mál saman, 
at Guðiún var föstnuð Hrafni ; ok var brúðkaup at Grfms. Ok var 
þat sagt, at hðn bljóp 6r hvílu ena fynta nött er Hrafn var innar 
Idddr. M fóni þau norðr til Amaniess til bús síns, ok t6k Hrafn 
til ums^Ia £n Guðrún var eigi enn all-skapvær við bónda sfnn ; 
hljðp hÓD brott lim sumar-dag vestr til Hofs ; ok t6k Grúnr vel 
við henni, ok var hón þar um bríð. i>á varð bón vör við at þeir 
Grfinr ætluðu til skips, er komit var f Eyjafirði, meö Guðrúnu ; en 
bón vildi eigi þat. Hóq hljóp þaðan 1 brott á lann, ok varð eptir 
&rar-skjóti bennar. Hón nam eigi staðar fyir enn bðn kom út til . 

Sighmess til Þðnar kampbundz ; kom þar grátandi, ok kvazk þar ^(^ii' L 
Uima hvfvetna af^imoni. ÍS)rvajðr tók vel við henni ; ok var bón 
þar lengi. Þorvarðr var þvf vanr bvert sumar aC færa Föstu-mat 
ini] til Eyjafjarðar, ok selja bóndum. Ok enn görði hann svá, at 
hann sigldi inn eptir GrSi, ok bafði Guðrúnu með sér. Hann fór 
til Gása, þar vóru * kaupskip. Þorvarðr tjaldaði þar, ok var 
Guðrún í tjaldi með hónum. Þeir menn vóm þar fjTÍr, er nökkut 
er getið við, — Þórðr Þörarinsson undir* Laufási, ok synir hans: 
Hákon, Hildibiandr ok Dagstyggr. £itt sinn bar saman fund 
þórra Hikonar ok Guðnlnar svá [at] þeim varð at máls-endum*; 
en opt bOfða þau sézk ; en af því tali gékk Hákon bvem dag til 
tnáls við hana meðan þau vðra þar. £n er Þorvarðr bafði keypt 
Btfkt 'er bann vildi, bjósk hann f brott ok bafði Guðrúnu með sér. 
Ok er hann kom á* Araames, gékk bann þar á land, ok fylgði 
Guðrdnn til biiss ok til biiss ok til bónda^ Sfðan fór haim heim. 
Ok er hann ór sögunni. £n þaðan firi vöndusk á kvámur Hákonar 
til Araamess'; ok fór svá ð-am aUaji þenna vetr. Eíno dag mælti 

I *faD] TiT, B. * ODdia, B. ' mili-eiidiim] 44D, H ; máb-cjTcndDm, Cd. 
* i] tD, B. * til hÚM— Mnd)] ta bdodi *iiu ok bDiuBu, B. 


13« SrURLUNGA SAGA. V. [*.», 

[1.140,141: iii. 13.] 
Guðnjn til klákonar, kvazk eigi vilja kvámw hans ineÖan Hrafn 
værí á lifi, ' £n gör sem þér sýnisk sfðan.' Þess er getið, at þao 
sátu á þver-palli þau Hákon ok Hildilvandr bröðir hans, ok Guðrún 
f milli þeimi, ok tölufiu marL £n Hni&i sat f bekk ok reist* 
spán, þvíat hann var hagr. Sffian rlsa þcir i^p bræðr, Ok ct 
þeir gcngu úiar eptir gól&iu, þá lagði Hákon tit HraTns með 
spjóti lágskeptu, ok kom l^t fyrir brjóst hónum. Ok f annat 
sinn lagði Hákon til Hrafns ; ok varð þat svöðu-sár. Síðan gengo 
þeir lít bræðr. En Hrafn tók til öxar er hjá hónum var, ok reis 
upp; en Guðnín tók til hans, ok bað hann eigi firam ganga. 
Hann svarar : ' Skamt mun nú farit verða, þó bröstulega sé látið.' 
Þá spurði iión hve mjök hann var sárr, Hann svarar; 'Gnmn 
verða svöðu-sárín; en svíða gét ek bringspala-dllann um stund,' 
Hrafn lá þijár nætr 1 sánun; ok fékk aila reiðu; ok andaðisk 
sfðan ; ok var færfir á MöðruvöUu. 

6. Nú þótti höfðingjum ærinn uppgangr GuðmuDdar; görðisk 
hann þi fjölmennr. Hann hafði tekit af VöðU.'-þing ', skyldi þat* 
eigi sóknar-þing beita; þótti hónum þar verða stór-deildir * svi 
sem i Alþingi. Höfðingjar hugðu gótt til, at taka eptir-mál unt 
Hrafn. Guðmundr var fyiir málum, þvfat Hákon var bróður-son 
hans. ÞÍ leitaði Guðmundr sér ráðs; ok sendi maim, er Valgarfir 
bét, vestr tíl Skagaijarðar á fund Eriendz; hann var Brandzson 
bróðir Hrafns, ok Áiú eptír-mál ok fdbætr at taka eptir Hrafh. 
Guðmundr lét bjófia hðnum til sfn ; ok bað hann svá segja, at 
[hann] mundi þann veg mestar bætr taka eptir Iwiður aínn, 
Erlendr fór vestan með Valgarði, ok tveir prestar aðrir, FIosi 
prestr Mroddzson er bj6 á Silírastðftum ok Bjöm prestr Öláfsson 
er bjó undir Felli f Skagafirði ; ok kómu þ»r & fimd Guðmundar; 
ok tók hann vel við þeim ; ok aendi eptir Mrði ok sonum hans ; 
okþeirfóru til Steinastaða ', þar áttí Guðmundr bii. t>at er þar 
fiðru-roegin ár. Síöan leitaöi Guðmundr um sættír, en Þórðr 
kvezk eigi bæta Hrafn fé, nema Gufirún bætti at helmingi ; kallaði 
hana ráðbana* Hrafns. Guðmundr vildt þat eigi ofrask Uta. Ok 
sættusk á þat, at þeir Guðmundr ok FIosi görðu; ok gðrðu þeir 

' wil] «inend. ; tiili, Cd. ; teiitl, B. * hinD hifBi af tekit Va51>-tring, B ; 

Cd. inadvcrlentl; dropi the pniclc ' if,' foi in tlie maigin tbe Ktibe hu Dolei] down 
— 'OaðmaDdi dýri tók "tí" Voítaþing.' Bolh H and V. letiin die paiticle. 
* þit] þai, B. * deildii] jtóideloi, E ' Thut Cd. ; now called Sleiaiueir ; 

B om. the pauage. * liBbana] B ; i&ða bana, Cd. 



fimtán hundnið um vfg Hrafns, þriggja álna aura ; ok galt Guð- 
mundr þá þegar hvem eyri. Hann galt lönd tvau fyrir vestan 
Heiði, annat lieitir f HálTdanar-tungu, en annat at Uppsölum, it 
næsta Silfra-stððum. Sfðan gaf Guðmiuidr þeim öllum gjafir 
prestunum ' ; vóru þá ok veittar trygðir eptir víg Hrafns ; ok urðu 
böfðingjar eigi varir fyrr ,en þessu var lokit. Síðan fékk Hákon 
Guðrúnar, ok var við hana harðr; ok kvað séi sk^yldu eigi þat 
vería, at hennar menn stæði yfir hðfiið-svöTðum hans. Ok verör 
þar nii frá at hverfa. 

7. 'Helgi hét prestr; hann var Halldörsson. Hann bjó á bæ 
þeim er heilir á Arskógi inn i Strönd frá Svarfaöardal ; hann bjó 
\Á við konu þá er Herdís hét, er átt hafði Brandr Gellisson, er þar 
hafði búit, ok þar haflJi verit veginn í kirkiu-durom. í\5rdís hét 
kona sú, er Helgi prestr átti ; en Í>orgerðr hét móðir hennar, ok 
var Þorgeirsdóttir. þorgerðr bjó á þeim bæ er á Bratta-velli heitir, 
öðru-megin ir, þar er Þorvaldzdalr var kallaðr. Hðn átti land þat 
er bón bjó á, ok vildi hón !áta göra upp stofii slna. Helgi prestr 
sýslaði um með henni, ok dró viöu at henni, ok annat þat er hón 
þurfti. Sá maðr var þar i svdt, er Ingimundr hét ; hatm var 
einhleypingr ok hagr; hann rézk þangat til stofu-smíðar ; hann 
görði stofima, ok dvalðisk þar um vetrínn ; ok síðan var hann þar 
mjök lengi ; ok var þat mælt, at hjal væri á með þeim. Talðí 
eingimi at því ; þvfat meina-laust var ; ok var þá hðlegra hans ráð, 
ok svá bii heimar. Þar kom svá, at hónum endisk eigi gæfa til 
þess ; ok elskaði hann þá aðra konu er A^erðr bét ; ok var hðn 
at vistum á Kálfskiimi; ok fór Ingimundr þangat opt; ok varö 
þeim Þorgerði þat at sundrþykki; ok stökk t>orgerðr í brott 
Sttmdum af þvi, ok ofan f Arskdg. Ok Föstudaginn næstan eptir 
Jðl fór Ingimundr at hitCa Asgerði. Ok er hann kom heím, urðu 
þau Þorgerðr sundr-orða, ok hljóp bón J brott um kveldit ok ofan 
f Árskóg, ok var þar lun nóttina. Ok um aptaninn er menn sátu 
yfir náttverfii, þá kom Ingimundr þai ok vildi hafa Þorgerði f brott 
meö sér; en hðu vildi eigi faia. I>á spurði Ingimundr Helga 
[prest] ef bann vildi sér nökkut af skipta um þetta ráð, Hann 
sagði : ' I^ vilda ek, at Þorgerðr sé aldri nauðig hér dregin f millt 
hlisa ; ok skal vist hennar heimil hvert hón vill heldr vera.' Ok 

* B omits the íoUowing two ctuptcn 


138 STURLUNGA SAGA. V. [a-d. 

vðni þftu bæði þar um nóttina. Þar var karl-Ktt heima, ok hvfldu 
allii meim í stofh '. Ok er menn vóni sofhaSir, þá gébk Ingimuodr 
út. Hann hvíldi í langbekk ; en konur f þver-palL. Ljóa bmm f 
stofmuii, ok var dregit upp. Ok er Ingimundr kom inn, géik 
hann at Helga ok hjó í höfuð á hónum með öxi, ok vaknaði hann 
tigi hingat f heim, svá at menn vissi. Slöan hljðp Ingimuadr 
brott; okkom f Arskðg inn ytra ok kallaöt á Sumarlifia er þar 
bjó ; ok mæltí, at haim skyldi bifija fyrir Helga prestL Sfðan íðr 
hann til þess er hann kom vestr til Hóta ok hitti Brand biskup, ok 
bar upp fyrir bónum vandrœði sfn. £n biskup vildi eigi skiipta 
hónum ; kallar hann þess verðan, at hann vœri tekinn af U& ; en 
kvað þat eigi sftt at g6ra*; en talfiisk eigi til fæir at skripta 
hónum ;