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Full text of "The Subanu; studies of a sub-Visayan mountain folk of Mindanao. Ethnographical and geographical sketch of land and people"

UC-NRLF 



B 3 ME7 13D 




THE LIBRARY 
OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

Anthropology 

IN MEMORY OF 



Martha Beck with 



THE SUBANU 

Studiesof A Sub-Visa YAN Mountain Folk 
OF Mindanao 



Part I. Ethnographical and Geographical 
Sketch of Land and People 

By LIEUT.- col. JOHN PARK FINLEY, U. S. A. 



Part II. Discussion of the Linguistic Material 

By WILLIAM CHURCHILL 



Part IIL Vocabularies 




WASHINGTON, D. C. 

PtraUSHED BY THR CarNEGIE INSTITUTION OP WASHINGTON 

1913 



PLATE 1 




THE SUBANU 

Studies OF A Sub-Visa YAN Mountain Folk 
OF Mindanao 



Part I. Ethnographical and Geographical 
Sketch of Land and People 

By LIEUT.- col. JOHN PARK FINLEY, U. S. A. 



Part II. Discussion of the Linguistic Material 

By WILLIAM CHURCHILL 



Part III. Vocabularies 




WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Published by the Carnegie Institution op Washington 

1913 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

PUBUCATION No. 184 

Anthropology 
Add'l 

Gli'T 



PRESS OF GIBSON BROTHERS, INC. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



jL,' hrairy 



CONTENTS. 



Part I. A Brief History of the Subanu. 

Page. 

Tribal Designation i 

The Home Land 4 

Population 8 

Discovery History 8 

Slow Modification of Culture 12 

The Industrial Life 15 

Construction and Location of Houses 21 

Manufactures 23 

Characteristics and Habits 26 

Religion 32 

Burial Customs 38 

Marriage and Divorce 39 

Part II. Discussion op the Linguistic Material. 

Chapter I. Pitfalls of the Vocabulist 45 

Chapter II. Subanu Phonetics and Composition Members 55 

Chapter III. Subanu-Visayan Filiation 77 

Chapter IV. Polynesian and Malayan 99 

Part HI. 

Subanu-English Vocabulary 1 79 

Engli.sh-Subanu Vocabulary 217 

Bibliography 230 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Map of the Island of Mindanao Frontispiece 

Map of Sub-District of Dapitan, District of Zamboanga 236 



t^Et 



% 



THE SUBANU 

Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk 
OF Mindanao 



Part I. 

Ethnographical and Geographical Sketch of 
Land and People 

By JOHN PARK FINLEY 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Infantry, U. S. A., Governor of Tjomboanga 



THE SUBANU. 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SUBANU. 

TRIBAL DESIGNATION. 

The term Subanun (Subanon) is of Moro (Sulu) origin and signifies 
a man or people of the river or, more exactly, a man or people from up 
the river. The Sulu equivalent of the word river is soba; of the phrase 
up the river, the equivalent is sumud ha soba. The suffix mm denotes 
locality or place of habitation. The suffix noit has a similar significa- 
tion in Visayan. The suffixes num and nom possess similar meanings 
in the dialects of Ilocano, Lepanto, and Bontoc, and in some of the 
Formosan dialects. According to the Spanish nomenclature this term 
is written Subano. When these people are interrogated, those living 
near the coast call themselves Subanu or Subano ; those living near the 
headwaters of the rivers and in the mountains call themselves tan bukid 
or tan buid, meaning, respectively, man of the hills or hill-man, or man 
of the fields. The word bukid in Visayan means hill or mountain, in 
Tagalog it means field or country. 

Christie says : 

The name Subanun means river dweller, from the word suba river, common 
to Philippine dialects, including Sulu and Visaya. This term was applied to 
the tribe because its members are met with in going up the river from the coast, 
in contradistinction to the Moros and Christians of the Zamboanga Peninsula, 
who are coast dwellers. Probably the term was first applied by these people 
to themselves.* 

The habitat of these people is confined to the interior and moun- 
tainous portions of the Zamboanga district of the great island of Min- 
danao. In his history of Mindanao and Sulu, published in 1667, Father 
Francisco Combes calls the Subanu the "fourth nation of Mindanao" 
and refers to them as the inhabitants of the rivers, to which they owe 
their name, as the radical suba is the "word used by the nations (tribes) 
of Mindanao for river." 

The names of tribes, of persons, of titles, of places, and of natural 
features in the PhiUppines have been subject to much irregularity and 
confusion in their orthographical presentation. This is due to the 
absence of an established orthographic system, the neglect of such a 
system when properly authorized, ignorance of or indifference to the 

*Emerson Brewer Christie: The Subanuns of Sindangan Bay. Manila, 1909: 
Bureau of Science, Division of Ethnology; Publications, vol. vi, part i, pp. 121, chart, 29 
illustrations. 

1 



2 TH^ SUBANU. 

application of any system, and attempts at individual phonetics. Thus 
great diversity appears in official reports, both civil and military, and 
in the construction of maps of the islands. An example is given in the 
spelling of the Sulu term datu (chief), a Moro designation of rank, 
variously written as: datoh, datto, dattu, dato, datoo, dattoh, and datu, 
the last being the best form, according to Saleeby's system oftrans- 
Hteration, described briefly as follows in his Studies in Moro History, 
Law and Religion (Ethnological Survey of the Philippine Islands) : 

In translating the tarsila (original manuscripts) such a large number of 
words have to be transliterated that it is deemed necessary to adopt a system 
of transliteration which can be easily understood by every EngHsh reader and 
which is more adequate to express Magindanao sounds than either Spanish 
or English. With the exception of ng and sh the characters used in this system 
represent simple sounds only. Every radical modification of a certain simple 
sound is regarded as a different simple sound and is represented by a separate 
and distinct character. Every compound sound is represented by those char- 
acters that express its simple constituent sounds. It is an unvarying rule in 
this system that every character represents an invariable sound and every 
sound has only one invariable character. 

We have already observed a considerable variation in the orthog- 
raphy of the tribal name of the Subanuns, which in that form has the 
sanction of the Philippine Bureau of Science. If the word is spelled 
as generally pronounced by the members of the tribe, and applying the 
principles of the Saleeby system, it would be written Subanu.* 

Concerning this question of orthography and nomenclature, Blu- 
mentrit said in 1 890 : 

Notwithstanding the rich literature concerning the peoples and languages 
of the Philippine Archipelago, there is no book or publication in which are 
catalogued the names of the tribes and the languages, and this appears the 
more inexcusable since both Spanish and Philippine writers, with few excep- 
tions, handle these names very carelessly, so that great confusion must ensue. 

The prevailing bad form in the Philippines of transferring the name of one 
people or family to another, who possess similarities of any kind with the first, 
either in manner or life, or even only in culture grade in the widest sense of the 
term, has its counterpart in a second bad fashion of making several peoples 
out of one by replacing the folk name with the tribal names. Only with the 
greatest pains and thought is it possible to extricate one's self from this laby- 
rinth of nomenclature. After thorough search I am convinced that many 
names reported to me must be eliminated, since they owe their existence to 
mistakes in penmanship or printing, to ridicule, misunderstanding, or to error, 
as I have proved in single instances. 

*For the reasons stated in the preceding sentence it has seemed preferable to adopt for 
this work the designation Subanu and to employ it indeclinably. The derivation proposed 
by the several authorities cited in the preceding pages is in violation of the principles of 
composition employed in the language. Thus suba is river, -nan is locative; observe in the 
vocabulary sinbaan, a church as the place (locative -an) in which worship {sinba) is per- 
formed; accordingly, subanun would not mean people of rivers, but a place where rivers are. 
Furthermore, in the language, -an is the locative suffix, -nan is restricted to the value of 
forming nouns of quality from adjectives. The suffix -n is employed to form collective 
plurals, therefore Subanun means only all the Subanu. Following the best modem usage 
we shall employ Subanu for singular and plural, as noun and adjective. — W. C. 



TRIBAIy DESIGNATION. 3 

Dr. Barrows, in his paper on the non-Christian tribes of Mindanao, 
published in the Census of the Phihppine Islands, 1903, states: 

The word Subanon is derived from the very common Malayan word suba, 
meaning river, and the suffix non, meaning people of. It is a good tribal desig- 
nation, is in general use, and has been recorded a long while. The Subanons 
are the only Pagan people of Mindanao among which I have spent sufficient 
time to judge somewhat of the type, the language, and culture. They appear 
to be a representative type of the primitive Malayan race widely distributed 
through the Malayan archipelago, who have been forced back from the sea in 
the interior by the arrival and persecutions of the sea-faring Malays, both 
previous and subsequent to the latter's conversion to Mohammedanism. 

Mason, in his introduction to Blumentrit's work on the native 
tribes and languages of the Philippines, says : 

To umavel the mysteries set forth by the foregoing is the opportunity of 
the ethnologist. It needs only to look back upon the bloody horrors enacted 
in our own history through lack of knowledge concerning the social organi- 
zation and prejudices of the Indians, to awaken the liveliest sympathies and 
cooperation of the statesmen and philanthropists in the ethnology of the 
Phihppines. 

Since the above criticisms were published much has been accom- 
plished to correct the evils complained of. Labors to this end have 
been unremitting by the Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Depart- 
ment and by the Bureau of Science of the Philippine government at 
Manila. Much yet remains to be done, and the field for faithful and 
patient research is a large one, offering rich rewards to ethnologists of 
the highest abiHty ; private munificence has an unusual opportunity in 
promoting this most important survey of primitive people, including 
Indonesians, Malayans, and European and Asiatic mestizos. 

Blumentrit in "Native Tribes of the Philippines" mentions "the 
Subanos (Subanon, river people) as a heathen people of Malay extrac- 
tion who occupy the entire peninsula of Sibuguey (west Mindanao) 
with the exception of a single strip on the south coast." 

On a chart of the Phihppine Islands and China Sea, engraved in 
Manila in 1734, from data obtained from Spanish and British naviga- 
tors, the native inhabitants of the Zamboanga and Dapitan districts 
are referred to as "Subanirs" and "Solocos," and the territory as a 
part of the great island of "Majindanao," as it was then written. 

Along the western shore of Illana Bay (then called Bongo Bay) 
the inhabitants are referred to as "Moors," a translation of the Spanish 
designation for the Mohammedan tribes, Moros. 

In the record of his voyages (i 774-1 775) Captain Forrest uses the 
terms "Haraforas, Sunabos, Kanakan and Oran Manubo" as applied 
to the Subanu of Mindanao. He describes them as — 

the vassals of the Sultan and of others who possess great estates. Those vas- 
sals are sometimes Mahometans, though mostly Haraforas (heathen). The 
latter only may be sold with the lands, but can not be sold off the lands. 



4 THE SUBANU. 

The Haraforas are more opprest than the former. The Mahometan vassals 
are bound to accompany their lords on any sudden expedition, but the Hara- 
foras, being in a great measure excused from such attendance, pay yearly taxes 
which are not expected from the Mahometan vassals. They pay a boiss or 
land tax. Those vassals at Magindano (Kutabatu Valley) have what land 
they please, and the Mahometans on the seacoast, whether free or Kanakan 
(slaves), live mostly by trading with the Haraforas (heathen), while their own 
gardens produce them betel nuts, coconuts, and greens. 

Forrest evidently used the term "Haraforas" in a generic sense as 
pertaining to Pagan peons wherever found. He writes of the "Hara- 
foras" of New Guinea as subject to the control of their overlords. 
Blair and Robertson comment on this term as follows : 

Crawfurd in his Dictionary Ind. Islands explains this name as a corrup- 
tion of Alf oras ; it is not a native word at all, nor is it the generic name of any 
people whatsoever. It is a word of the Portuguese language, apparently 
derived from the Arabic article al and the preposition /ora (without). The 
Indian Portuguese applied it to all people beyond their own authority or who 
were not subdued by them, and consequently to the wild races of the interior. 
It would seem to be equivalent to the "Indios bravos" of the Spaniards, as 
applied to the wild and unconquered tribes of America and the Philippines. 

THE HOME LAND. 

From the published records of the early Spanish discoveries, more 
especially from the writings of Father Francisco Combes (1667), in his 
History of Mindanao and Sulii, there is good reason to believe that 
the Subanu were the aborigines* of western Mindanao, viz : that portion 
of the great island lying west of the Isthmus of Tukuran, separating 
the bays of Iligan and Illana. It was over this isthmus that the Spanish 
General Weyler (governor-general of the Philippines, 1 889-1 891) com- 
pleted, in 1890, a military trocha or line of fortified stations, named 
after members of the Spanish royal family, as Fort Cristina, Fort Isabel, 
and Fort Alfonso. In his plans for the subjugation of Mindanao, 
General Weyler constructed this trocha for the purpose of shutting out 
the Malanao Moros (Moros of the lake region) from the Subanu 
country (western Mindanao) and preventing further destructive raids 
upon the peaceful and industrious peasants of these hills. In further- 
ance of this project he proposed to the Spanish Cortes the granting of 
an appropriation for the construction of a canal across this isthmus, 
which he estimated could be accomplished with native labor at mod- 
erate expense, by following and improving the course of the Tukuran 
River and of the Lintogud stream connecting with Pangil Bay on the 
north, a branch of the much larger Iligan Bay. 

The military preparations at the Tukuran (south) end of the trocha 
consisted of a stone blockhouse at the mouth of the Tukuran River; 

*The term is properly used only as relative to later and dominant Malay races. We 
shall see that the Subanu are an older stock of the Visayan family, therefore Malays and 
comparatively late comers. They have nothing in common with the persistent pygmy race 
of autochthons of whom the Aeta stand as type specimens — W. C. 



THE HOME LAND. 5 

earthworks on the high bluffs above the river on the east side ; a stone 
fort on a knoll about loo yards further east; another stone blockhouse 
about a quarter of a mile east of the river and on a knoll overlooking 
the sea, and guarding the water supply for the post. In connection 
with the earthworks on the bluffs the Spaniards constructed quarters, 
barracks, storehouses, hospital, and magazines for the use of infantry 
and artillery. A good wagon-road was built from Tukuran to Lintogud, 
connecting the fortified stations of Cristina, Isabel, and Alfonso. Tele- 
graphic communication was established between Tukuran and these 
stations, and thence to Misamis, at the head of Pangil Bay. Thus it 
will be seen that extensive preparations were made by the Spanish 
government to prevent Moro raids across the Tukuran isthmus against 
the Subanu of the Zamboanga and Dapitan districts. The government 
appreciated the peaceful attitude of the Subanu and their industrious 
habits as the native farmers of the hills, and General Weyler displayed 
a fine sense of justice and high quaUties as a governor by zealously 
engaging with generous plans for the protection of a people who pre- 
ferred peace and agricultural development to piracy and war. 

In a review of the plans of General Weyler for the subjugation of 
the Mindanao Moros and for guarding the interests of the Subanu, 
Retana writes in 1896 as follows: 

Uno de sus primeros cuidados du^ la construccion del camino militar de 
Tucuran a Misamis, para establecer una comunicacion de N. a S., que no la 
habia en el interior de la isla, am^n de defender a los subanos, gente pacifica, 
de las agresiones de los moros, que solian secuestrarlos para reducirlos a la mas 
infamante esclavitud. El trazado de esta trocha, justo es decirlo, era obra 
enterior a la posesion de Weyler; pero adolecia de grandisimos defectos, y de 
Weyler es la gloria de la rectificacci6n, asi como la construccion, que se di6 
poer terminada el 12 de Marzo del '90. Mide la trocha 28 kilometros de larga, y 
en ella se establecieron los fuertes de Tucuran 6 Alfonso XIII, Infanta Isabel 6 
Lubig, y Lintogut, en el fondo de la bahia de Pangil. Desde este ultimo punto 
no fu^ posible continuar el camino a Misamis, a causa de ser el terreno panta- 
noso; pero se hace por mar a Balatacan, continuandose el camino a Tangot, y 
desde aqui a Misamis. Tambien en estos puntos se pusieron fuertes. Prac- 
ticaronse reconocimientos, de orden del General, para ver si era posible abrir un 
camino desde Lintogut 6 Lubig hacia la punta de Binuni ; pero huba de desis- 
tirse por lo mucho que hubiera costado su construccion. Con todo, una vez 
establecida la linea de fuertes de la trocha de Tucuran, habia mucho granado 
para ir dominando de una manera ef ectiva la parte mas importante de la isla ; 
y despiies de situar destacamentos en los puntos mencionados, piisose otro 
en Margo-sa-Tiibig, en la bahia de Dumanquilas, a mas de que dicto disposi- 
ciones para tener en frecuente relaci6n por mar los principales puntos que 
existen desde Dapitan a Cagayan de Misamis, y restablecer el servicio mari- 
timo de guerra en la costa Sur de la isla para impedir expediciones piraticas. 

After American occupation Tukuran was garrisoned by United 
States troops, and telegraphic connection by cable was established with 
Zamboanga and Jolo to the south and west, and with Misamis and 
Manila to the north. Troops occupied the old Spanish fort at Misamis 



6 THB SUBANU. 

and the military trocha was maintained in fairly good condition until 
the latter part of 1902, when regular troops were removed and the 
whole trocha left to the control of the Masibai Moros, under the leader- 
ship of Datu Maminton. The Moros took advantage of this absence 
of troops to resume their raids upon the Subanu and made it necessary 
to reestablish the garrison at Tukuran in January, 1903, and to cause 
the trocha to be patrolled from Tukuran to Misamis. 

When the regular troops were again withdrawn they were replaced 
by native troops, constabulary at first, succeeded in 1908 by Philippine 
scouts, which continue to garrison the trocha. 

When the Spanish mihtary occupation of the Tukuran-Lintogud- 
Misamis trocha ceased, in 1899, by the withdrawal of the troops of 
Spain, in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Paris, the Masibai 
Moros fell again into control and resumed their depredations against 
the Subanu in the Zamboanga district and against the Filipinos and 
Subanu in the Misamis district. These raids involved the destruction 
of life and property and the carrying of many people into bondage. 
A Moro village was reopened at Tukuran on each side of the river; 
and the military buildings, together with a Moro kota (fort) on the 
west side of the river, were occupied by Moros until they were forced 
to abandon the situation by the appearance of American troops on 
October 15, 1900. Telegraphic communication was then established 
with the north coast at Misamis in time to connect with the Manila 
cable on January i, 1901. 

Father Pablo Pastell, writing of the native people of Mindanao, 
under date of April 20, 1887, says of the Subanu: 

The Subanuns are a tribe that has become degenerate because of the per- 
secutions which they have had to endure from the Moros, who collect large 
tributes from them. They are husbandmen, but the Moros gain the benefit of 
their sweat. They are long-suffering and pacific, for they are not accustomed 
to the handling of arms. They are also superstitious and ignorant. Their 
docility would render their complete reduction very easy. They occupy 
almost all the peninsula of Sibuguey and are contiguous to the Moros of Lanao 
and of the bay of Illana. The latter make use of them, for they enslave them 
in order to make them work their fields. The military road from Tucuran to 
Maranding, on the way to Misamis, will destroy the dominion exercised by the 
Illanos Moros and those of Lanao over the Subanos, for it will destroy the 
piracy and captivity, because of the impossibility of communication across the 
trocha. At the same time it will faciHtate the action of the missionaries in the 
reduction of the said heathens. 

As one of the primitive tribes of Mindanao, the Subanu quite 
naturally covered that portion (panhandle) of the great island lying 
west of the isthmus of Tukuran, this territory being of uniform topog- 
raphy, the interior capable of intercommunication by trails, the streams 
small and at frequent intervals, and the soil and timber well adapted 
to rude methods of cultivation. Father Combes says that he found 
a few Negritos (Aetas) in the Misamis strip, but Barrows, in his chart 



THE HOME LAND. 



of the races and tribes, shows that they were confined to Surigao in 
extreme northeast Mindanao. If these dwarfs ever inhabited any por- 
tion of the Zamboanga and Dapitan districts, every trace has long 
ago disappeared. These districts, from an aboriginal viewpoint, 
form the Subanu country, which has been held by them exclusively, 
especially the mountain areas, from the earliest times. 

The Subanu have never left their home country (the panhandle of 
Mindanao) except as they have been carried away in involuntary ser- 
vitude by Moros and Filipinos. Originally occupying the entire land 
area to the coast line, they have been gradually driven back into the 
most inaccessible portions of the mountainous interior by the raids and 
exploitation of their long-time enemies, the Moros and Filipinos. 

There is a legend among the Subanu that their first chief was a 
giant by the name of Tabunaway; that he lived and ruled over his 
people before the appearance of the Moros and therefore before the 
coming of the Spaniards; that his residence was near the place now 
called Zamboanga, then known as Nawang; that when the first Moros 
(about the year 1380) came, they wanted to exchange their fish for the 
fruit of the land and guided their boat up a river into the hills for the 
purpose ; the fish were placed on the rocks at the landing-place and the 
Moros retired to await the coming of the hill people who, when they 
came down the trail and saw the strange fish, tried them for food and 
were pleased; so they gave of their own food (rice, sugar-cane, and ubi) 
and placed it on the stones from which the fish were taken. Thus 
began, several centuries ago, the exchange of products between the hill 
people and the coast or sea people. The industrial significance of this 
primitive trade relation, as a factor in the political and commercial 
development of these natives, was not appreciated by the Spanish. 
After American occupation in 1 899 the writer began the study of these 
trade relations between the hill people and the coast people, which in 
1904 resulted in the development of the Moro Exchange system of 
markets, trading stores and tribal ward farms, which by June 30, 191 1, 
were turning out a business of 1,000,000 pesos annually. So much for 
the controlled productive development of a savage people which pro- 
vides for honest living and moral responsibility while industrial uplift is 
being promoted. 

Localities and association with other people affect the Subanu to 
some extent, more especially in dialect, in dress, and in methods of 
agriculture. According to locality these people may be designated as 
follows : 



1. Subanu of Dapitan (Illaya valley). 

2. Subanu of the Dipolog valley. 

3. Subanu of Bukidnon, Misamis strip. 

4. Subanu of Manukan valley. 

5. Subanu of Sindangan Bay. 

6. Subanu of Panganuran and Coronado. 

7. Subanu of Siukun (Sicogon, Siocon). 



8. Subanu of Kipit (modem Spanish, 

Quipit; old Spanish, by Pigafetta, 
Chipit, Chippit, Cippit; by the Ro- 
teiro, Capyam, Quype; by Peter 
Martyr, Chipico; in Transylvanus, 
Gibity; and in Barros, Quepindo). 

9. Subanu of Malayal and Patalun, 



THE SUBANU. 



10. Subanu of Belong valley. i6. Subanu of Dipolo valley. 

11. Subanu of Tupilak valley. 17. Subanu of Dinas valley. 

12. Subanu of Bakalan valley. 18. Subanu of Lubukan valley. 

13. Subanu of Lei-Batu valley. 19. Subanu of Labangan valley. 

14. Subanu of Sibugai-Sei valley. 20. Subanu of Mipangi valley. 

15. Subanu of Dumankilas Bay. 

The above localities of Subanu culture are in juxtaposition to a 

variety of other native cultures ; the following gives their designations 
and the dialects they use : 



1. Dapitanos, Cebuan-Visaya dialect. 

2. Boholanos, Boholan-Visaya dialect. 

3. Joloanos, Sulu-Moro dialect. 

4. Zamboangans, Zamboangueno or Taga- 

log-Visaya dialect. 



5. Samales, Samal-Sulu-Moro dialect. 

6. Magindanaos, Magindanao-Moro dialect. 

7. Kalibugans, Kalibugan-Moro dialect. 

8. lUanos, Illano-Ranao-Moro dialect closely 

allied to Magindanao dialect. 



POPULATION. 

No accurate census of the Subanu people has ever been taken. 
The American census of 1903 conducted by General Sanger, U. S. Army, 
under the direction of the Philippine Commission, furnished the fol- 
lowing data for a portion of the Subanu country, the panhandle of 
Mindanao : 

The sub-district of Dapitan 5,995 

The Misamis strip 3,418 

The Zamboanga settlements I3ii70 



Total 22,583 

The following estimate for 191 2 is taken from the records of the 
office of the governor of the District of Zamboanga: 



Municipality of Zamboanga. 
Municipality of Dapitan. . . . 

Tribal Ward No. 2 

Tribal Ward No. 3 

Tribal Ward No. 4 

Tribal Ward No. 5 

Tribal Ward No. 6 

Tribal Ward No. 7 

Bukidnon-Misamis strip . . . . 



362 
696 
10,895 
7,636 
9,954 
4,447 
8,521 
2,875 
4,778 



Total 47.164 

In 1897 the Spanish general and governor of Mindanao, Gonzalez 
Parado, submitted an official estimate of the tribal population of Min- 
danao, in which he classifies 16 different tribes of non- Christians and 
places the Subanu population at 70,000. It has been found, however, 
that the Spanish records of population were not prepared with sufficient 
care to insure accuracy, especially in the making of estimates. The 
tendency seemed to be in the direction of exaggeration. 

DISCOVERY HISTORY. 
The first contact of white men with the Subanu was on the north 
coast of Mindanao, near what is now Dapitan, by the Magellan expedi- 
tion on its way southward from Cebu about May 6, 1521, and described 
by Pigafetta as follows : 



DISCOVEJRY HISTORY. 9 

After coasting along the island of Panilongon (Panglao, off S. E. coast of 
Bohol) where black men like those in Ethiopia live, we then came to a large 
island (Mindanao) whose king, in order to make peace with us, drew blood 
from his left hand, marking his body, face, and the tip of his tongue with it as a 
token of the closest friendship, and we did the same. I went ashore with the 
king in order to see that island. Two hours after nightfall we reached the 
king's house, two leguas from the beginning of the river. The king's name is 
Raia Calanao. The harbor is an excellent one and is called Chipit. 

By some writers this word "Chipit" is interrupted as "Quipit," 
a Moro rancheria on the northwest coast of the Zamboanga peninsula, 
about 45 miles south of Dapitan, but without a harbor, and where ships 
can not lie with safety during the southwest monsoon. 

In 1656 Father Francisco Colin, in writing of the Subanu of the 
Dapitan district, describes them as "the nation of Subanos, which is 
the most numerous in the island of Mindanao and well disposed toward 
evangelical instruction, as they are heathens and not Mahometans, as 
are the Mindanaos." 

In Pigafetta's account of the voyages of Magellan, 15 19 to 1522, he 
refers to the journey from Jolo along the west coast of the Zamboanga 
Peninsula as follows: 

Then we laid our course east by north between two settlements called 
Cauit and Subanin, and an inhabited island called Monoripa, located about 
ten leguas from the reefs. The people of that island make their dwellings in 
boats and do not live otherwise. In those two settlements of Cauit and 
Subanin, which are located in the island of Butuan and Calaghan, is found the 
best cinnamon that grows. Laying our course to the northeast, we sailed to a 
large city called Maingdanao, which is located in the island of Butuan and 
Calaghan, so that we might gather information concerning Maluco. 

The identification of this part of the voyage north and east from 
Jolo (written Zolo by Pigafetta) is very much involved when it is com- 
pared with existing conditions and nomenclature. The Cauit referred 
to may be the rancheria of Kauit located in Kauit Bay on the west 
coast of the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 30 miles north of the town 
of Zamboanga, the present capital of the Moro Province. There is a 
small island in Kauit Bay, about one-fourth mile from the submerged 
reefs at the coast line, but this island does not answer to Pigafetta's 
description of Butuan. The cave of Kaua Kaua, near the western 
extremity of the town of Zamboanga, is the location of a very old settle- 
ment of non-Christians, which may have been visited by Pigafetta. 
The settlement of Subanin might have been a rancheria of Subanu 
located near Kaua Kaua. Off to the southeast of Kaua Kaua, about 
two miles, lie the islands of Santa Cruz small and Santa Cruz large. 
Farther to the east in Basilan Straits are the islands of Coco, Sibago, 
Lanhil, Tiktaban, Bilang Bilang, and Sakol, the latter being the largest 
of the group — all at the entrance to Sibugay Bay. If Pigafetta entered 
this bay on his way south to Sarangani Bay and the Moluccas (October 
152 1), he may have seen and visited the island of Buluan with its 



10 THE SUBANU. 

Subanu settlements, as well as the much larger island of Olutanga at 
the entrance to Dumankilas Bay, also in the possession of the Subanu. 
But Pigafetta did not tarry long at these places, as he was anxious to 
reach the Moluccas to obtain treasure and food. 

After leaving Maingdanao, where they laid hold of the brother of 
the king of that place, because he could pilot the ships of the fleet to 
the Moluccas, the captains changed their course to the southeast and 
arrived at Tidor in the Moluccas on Friday, November 8, 152 1 . None 
of the fleet returned to the Philippines. The voyage through the archi- 
pelagos of Sulu, Basilan, and Mindanao, governed as it was by the 
ever-present desire to reach the Moluccas, afforded little opportunity 
to study the islands or their inhabitants. The information is indefinite 
and subject to much corruption by the transcriptions of many authors 
from the original manuscripts of Pigafetta. Blair and Robertson have 
exhibited rare skill and the utmost patience and fidelity in present- 
ing an English translation and the original Italian, publishing them 
together and rigidly preserving the peculiarities of the original text. 
Pigafetta may have met some of the Subanu on the north coast of 
Mindanao when the fleet stopped near Dapitan, and again on the south 
coast, as the ships passed through Sibugay Bay, but the details will 
always remain a matter of conjecture whereby the value of the infor- 
mation is obscured. 

Professor Hirth, the Chinese scholar, thinks that the first observa- 
tions upon the Philippines are to be found in the work of Chao-Jukua, 
inspector of foreign shipping at Fu-Kien, between the years of 12 10 and 
1240. In this work, the Chu-Fanchi or "Description of outside bar- 
barians," he speaks of the islands of Po-ni (Borneo), Ma-i (Mindanao 
or Panay), and of the Pi-Sho-ye of Taiv/an (Formosa). This latter 
name sounds something like "Bisaya, " the native designation for 
Visaya. The book mentions also the San-su or "Three Islands. ' ' Book 
325 of the History of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1634) of China, as 
abstracted by Groeneveldt, refers to the kings (sultans) of Sulu as 
attacking Puni (Borneo) in 1638, and of the King of Sulu, Paduka 
(Japanese "lord") Pahala, as dying while on a visit to the Emperor of 
China at Te-Chou on the Grand Canal (Shantung Province). The 
Emperor then recognized his eldest son, Tumohan, as Sultan of Sulu, in 
1 4 1 7 , The brother of King Pahala, who was named Suli, made a visit to 
China in 142 1 . From this and other extracts it appears that the Chinese 
knew of the Mohammedan settlements at Manila and Tondo prior to 
the arrival of the Spaniards, and must have carried on a lucrative trade 
with them; otherwise the pirate Li-Ma-Hong would not have made such 
a desperate attempt to take Manila so soon after its foundation in 157 1. 

Saleeby quotes Captain Forrest (Enghsh navigator, 1 774-1 775) as 
authority for the statement that the first Mohammedan priest arrived 
in Mindanao (Kutabatu valley) in a. d. 1475. Father Combes in 1645 



DISCOVERY HISTORY. H 

found the natives (Boholano Filipinos) of southwestern Bohol and of 
Panglao Hving on the northwest coast of Mindanao at Dapitan. He 
calls them "the noble and brave nation of the Dapitans," and refers 
to the village of Dapitan as being small at present, but as having been 
"one of the most densely populated in the past, the one most respected 
for its power, and in our times the whole, both of these conquests and 
of their Christian churches." He states: 

In a small number reduced to one single village, there is inclosed a nation 

apart from all the others and superior to all those discovered in nobility, valor, 

fidelity, and Catholicism. They are descended from the island of Bool (Bohol), 

where they anciently occupied the strait made by that island and the island 

of Panglao. They occupied both shores and the entire island of Panglao. 

[Visited by Pigafetta about May 3, 1521, where he found "black men like those 

in Ethiopia hve. "] War exiled the Dapitans from their country, a proof of 

their valor and the unforeseen accidents of their misfortunes. Among the 

j Subanos their valor is so accredited that a Dapitan has nothing to fear among 

j a hundred of them. For if they see him ready for them they do not dare to 

j attack him, however thirsty for his blood their hatred makes them. The 

I Subanos are all the triumphs of the arms of the Dapitans of which the sound 

I and vigorous execution has drawn the former from their mountains and made 

j settlements of men from savages scattered among the thickets, who are reduced 

I to more civilized life. 

' It was on the island of Bohol that the Spanish navigator, Miguel 

Lopez de Legaspi, about March 15, 1565, entered into a blood compact 
i with Sicatuna, the Filipino chief of that island. He found Moros from 
; Borneo trading with the Boholanos and also with the Subanu in northern 
' Mindanao. The distance from Bohol to Dapitan is about 60 miles 
and easily covered by native saiHng craft. The Boholanos still con- 
tinue to trade with the Subanu at points along the west coast of the 
Zamboanga peninsula from Dapitan to Sindangan, and along the north 
, coast from Langaran to Dapitan. Many of the Boholanos are expert 
i fishermen and sailors, and some of these people bring their fleets of 
fishing boats into Subanu waters and gather large quantities of certain 
kinds of fish known as bagon and culasi, which are cured and packed in 
salt in large jars called tinajas. 

As the Subanu generally do not own boats and are not accustomed 
to the sea, they do not know how to fish, and as they greatly enjoy this 
class of food they find it convenient to barter with the Boholanos for 
both fresh and cured fish. 

The mixture of Visayan words with Moro and Subanu is due to the 
migration of the Visayans to the shores of northern Mindanao, begin- 
ning about 1600. Pigafetta, with the Magellan expedition in 152 1, 
refers to the Moros and Visayans as engaged in trade between Cebu 
and Mindanao. 

Mackinlay, in his Hand-book and Grammar of the Tagalog Lan- 
guage, says that "the Arabic words in Tagalog, which are hardly more 
than a dozen in number, evidently came in with the Mohammedan 



12 THE SUBANU. 

religion, and upon the extinction of that faith around the mouth of the 
Pasig at Manila, all but a few words fell into disuse. Mohammedanism 
could hardly have become established in the Tagalog region before 1450 
to 1500, as it came very slowly from India or Arabia to Java, and thence 
by way of Borneo and Sulu to the Bay of Manila and the Pasig valley. 
Some Arabic words were adopted by the Spanish and thus brought into 
the vocabulary of the Tagalog." 

SLOW MODIFICATION OF CULTURE. 

Accustomed as they are by nature or forced by necessity to occupy 
the isolated interior of the country, Combes observed their cultural 
backwardness by referring to the — 

natural barbarism of the Subanuns, living, as they do, in high, wild country, 
with as little sociability as animals, and having their houses placed a league 
apart, wherever one of them may be pleased to make himself a settlement. 
They lack civilization as well as human intercourse, for they are so opposed by 
nature to intercommunication that they grow old in their rancherias without 
being drawn by curiosity from their settlements, or seeing the sea, although 
some of them live within sound of its waves ; and if necessity or gain does bring 
them in sight of its shores, they are contented with that, without seeking to 
attempt fortune through its dangers. 

This lack of inquisitiveness by the Subanu as noted by Combes 
is not peculiar to them, for the writer has had occasion to observe a 
marked indifference on the part of members of other non-Christian 
tribes in Mindanao (Kalibugans, Samal Lutangans, lUanuns, and Magin- 
danaos) to passing events of a novel nature. The well-known custom 
of Americans and Europeans of the rustic and middle classes to view 
strange sights with ignorant wonder and prolonged attention is mark- 
edly absent from the characteristics of the wild people of Mindanao, 
and especially from the Subanu. Even when temporarily visiting the 
larger coast towns, the Subanu give strict attention to the business 
that brings them there and usually, after its completion, make early 
departure for their homes. 

As late as August, 191 1, the writer observed Subanu (men of adult 
age) visiting the rancheria of Sindangan, on the west coast of the Zam- 
boanga peninsula, viewing the sea, for the first time in their existence, 
with considerable equanimity. Finally one of the men rushed forward 
into the gentle surf and caught up with his two hands a quantity of 
the sea water, carrying it to his mouth, for the purpose of drinking to 
quench thirst, when he was seen to spit it out and to back away from 
the surf. When his companions advanced to learn the cause they 
were informed by him that the water was umpet (bitter) and unfit to 
drink. There was a general exclamation of surprise and disappoint- 
ment that such a vast body of water as Sindangan Bay, evidently clean 
and pure, could not be used for drinking and cooking. It was explained 
to them that the alleged bitterness was due to the presence of salt held 



SLOW MODIFICATION OF CUI.TURE. 13 

in solution and in such a way that they could not see it but could taste 
it. The explanation was continued further to show the Subanu how 
the salt cakes were made by the KaHbugans, at certain of their coast 
rancherias, by the artificial evaporation of sea water. For years these 
Subanu had been trading vegetables, mountain rice, and corn in exchange 
for salt cakes, but had not the slightest idea how the cakes were made 
and no curiosity to find the source of supply. The Kalibugans had 
learned from the Chinese traders the process of making salt cakes from 
sea water. The Subanu are very fond of this salt imasin) to use with 
their food and are always ready to make a trade for it. 

In spite of continued contact with these alien influences, the 
Subanu have preserved their tribal unity, their distinct customs, their 
dialect, and their religion. The situation is a remarkable one, consider- 
ing their simple patriarchal form of government and lack of warlike 
instincts, and probably they could not have withstood the aggressive 
control of outside forces but for the fact that as this pressure became 
more and more persistent the Subanu moved farther and farther into 
the inaccessible interior. Here they found vast areas of rich virgin 
soil, wild fruits and vegetables in abundance, together with wild fowl 
and swine, and an abundance of fresh-water streams. 

The strongest external influence has been that exerted by the 
Moros (Mohammedans) , far exceeding the powerful efforts made by the 
Catholic Church through its zealous missionaries, backed up by gov- 
ernment forces. As a result of the Moro influence, a new tribal name 
was long ago given those Subanu who became converts to Moham- 
medanism; such converts are KaUbugans (Kalibogans) . The word is 
made up of the Visaya radical lihug or lihog, and the Magindanao-Sulu 
prefix ka and suffix an. The radical signifies "of mixed blood" or "of 
mixed faith" and may be applied to persons and animals; thus, the 
offspring of a free person and a slave; of one race with another; of a 
wild animal with a domesticated one; of one tribe with another; or a 
marriage between persons of different religious beliefs, as a Subanu 
with a Moro, or a Spaniard with a native. The particles ka and an are 
used to form derivative nouns, and in this construction the name Kali- 
bugan signifies a person of mixed Subanu and Moro blood. In marriages 
of this combination the Subanu invariably becomes a convert to Islam- 
ism; the reverse has never been reported. Once a Mohammedan, 
always so, is the historical record of this faith throughout the world. 

The Subanu who becomes a Kalibugan is at once freed from the 
stigma of being considered an infidel and is established upon a footing 
of friendliness and of freedom from many annoyances and burdens 
which the Moros have always placed upon the Subanu, including peon- 
age and slavery. Having become a Kalibugan, the Subanu usually 
abandons the hills and becomes a coast dweller. Therefore the Kali- 
bugan villages are found on the coast line of the Subanu country. 



14 THE SUBANU. 

Christie says (1909) of the Kalibugans: 

As a matter of fact, many of the people included under this name are of 
pure Subanu blood (converts to Mohammedanism). Personal observation 
of many of them has convinced me that in most of them the Subanun strain is 
much stronger than the Samal, the Ilanun, or the Magindanan. Indeed the 
majority of Kalibugan settlements are of Subanun speech, though close inter- 
course vnth Moro groups has led to the adoption of some foreign words; the 
economic life is Subanun, the Kalibugan making a li\dng by agriculture of the 
Kaingin or forest-clearing type. Many Kalibugans in fact are merely Suban- 
uns converted to Mohammedanism and mark the line of contact of Subanun 
culture with Islam, just as the ' ' new Christians ' ' mark that with Christianity. 

Kalibugan settlements are started usually by the marriage of some 
Samal, Ilanun, or Magindanao fisherman or trader with one or more 
Subanu girls. This necessitates conversion on their part, and the 
family or families, if there are several Moros, serve as the nucleus of a 
Mohammedan community. Mohammedanism presents itself to the 
Subanu with the prestige of a superior civilization, and first the relatives 
of the Subanu wives of Moros and then other neighboring Subanu are 
attracted to the Mohammedan religion and culture. For a long time 
the customs and beliefs of such a community are mixed (the writer has 
seen Pagan religious ceremonies performed in Kalibugan villages), but 
the drift is constantly toward complete assimilation by the Moro cul- 
ture. In the Kalibugan settlements of to-day we see going on before 
our eyes the process which constituted the various Moro tribes of Min- 
danao. An account of the origin and growth of the Kahbugan villages 
of the peninsula (Subanu country) might correctly be entitled, "How 
a Moro tribe is made." 

I have often asked the natives, both Christian and non-Christian, 
to explain the difference between a Kalibugan and a Subanu. A native 
of the latter tribe has generally avoided a reply, conveying an impres- 
sion to me that he strongly disapproved of the apostasy of his fellow 
tribesman. WHien an explanation came it was usually attended with a 
contemptuous expression of countenance or of words. I have observed 
instances of this contempt exhibited by Moros, in place of satisfaction 
and pleasure that a convert had been gained to Islam. Even among 
these savage people a backshder loses caste and seldom regains his 
former status among the members of his new organization and faith. 
From a respected Subanu the backslider does not become an equally 
respected Moro or Mohammedan. He is suspected by the Moros as not 
being sincere, and is an outcast from his maternal tribe, the Subanu. 

Therefore these people, these apostates, have gathered together 
in separate villages where they have gradually acquired the distinctive 
name of Kalibugans. The name is sometimes used as a term of 
reproach when referring to bad conduct or the commission of a crim- 
inal act. Kahbugans generally lead a wretched existence and their 
settlements are usually the abode of poverty, distress, and illness. 



THE INDUSTRIAI, hWH. 15 

The nearest relatives among the Subanu sometimes come to the 
relief of their apostate Kalibugans when death is about to claim them, 
or some enemy is seeking their undoing, or the strong arm of the law is 
reaching out to inflict punishment for misdeeds. 

A Kalibugan carries his record with him in his name and in his 
affiliations. Among the various Pagan and Moro tribes of the pan- 
handle of Mindanao, in the Sulu Archipelago and in the Basilan group, 
the Kahbugan is generally a vagabond ; the door of welcome and pros- 
perity seems closed to him among all classes of the native people. The 
Moros having general supervision over Kalibugan settlements provide 
for the maintenance of the Mohammedan hierarchy therein and thus 
hold these apostate Subanu in subjection and in obedience to the faith. 
Religious appointments are therefore held by Kalibugans, and in 
this manner they can be employed to proselytize among the heathen 

Subanu. 

THE INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 

The very name Subanu constitutes the possessor thereof a farmer.* 
His life is spent in the fields and forests. His sustenance is drawn from 
the earth by primitive agricultural methods. He seeks the isolated 
and wildest portions of the interior and relies upon his strength and 
native ingenuity to cope with nature and wring from it a means of living 
for himself and his family. 

The method of cultivation pursued by the Subanu is known as the 
kaingin system. It consists of clearing a piece of forest and planting 
the land by the use of a sharpened stick to make holes in the ground to 
receive the seed. The ground is not plowed, spaded, or harrowed, and 
after the second season is usually abandoned for a new clearing. Agri- 
cultural development is seriously retarded by want of proper methods, 
the lack of efficient labor, and the varying prices of the staple products. 
The native planter can contend with low prices and insufficient and 
inefficient labor with much better success than can the Americans and 
Europeans likewise engaged. The latter have not only more expensive 
methods of Hving, but their cost of operating plantations is much 
greater. The kaingin method of farming involves a great waste of 
labor and materials and must be eventually interdicted by appropriate 
laws, rigidly enforced. Under section 25 of Act No. 1 148 of the Philip- 
pine Commission : 

The cutting, clearing, or destroying of the public forests or the forest 
reserves, or any part thereof, for the purpose of making kaingins, without 
lawful authority, is hereby prohibited. And whoever, in violation of this pro- 
vision, shall cut, clear, or destroy the same, for such purpose, or shall wilfully 
or negligently set fire thereto, shall, upon conviction by a court of competent 
jurisdiction, be punished by a fine not exceeding a sum equivalent to twice the 
regular government charge upon the timber so cut, cleared, or destroyed, and, 

*The sole instance of the word in the accompanying vocabulary is somoctoloan noc 
subanon, with the definition "peasant." — W. C. 



16 THE) SUBANU. 

in addition thereto by imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, in the dis- 
cretion of the court. 

The author has held many meetings with the mountain people, 
including both Christians and non-Christians, and has explained to 
them the great waste attendant upon the practice of the kaingin 
method of agriculture. The cleared land is not cultivated in any sense, 
but only planted between the stumps. This method may be briefly 
described in its regular order of development as follows : 

1 . Ruthless cutting of timber, saving not even desirable trees for shade, j 

2. Leaving the timber, good and bad, where it falls until dry enough to burn. 

3. Indiscriminate burning of all fallen timber, with no effort to preserve 
any portion of it for lumber or for building purposes. 

4. No efforts to improve the land by removing stumps, partially burned 
timber, or stones. 

5. The land thus cleared is planted to rice, corn, camotes, uhi, gabi, tobacco, 
vegetables, buyo, and occasionally some fruit like bananas and papayas. Seed 
is placed in small holes made with sharpened sticks; tubers, cuttings, and 
young plants are transplanted. 

6. The soil is moist, covered with rich humus, very fertile and easily 
cultivated, but soon dries out by reason of the absence of all shade, although 
the ashes and humus afford considerable protection from the burning rays of 
the sun and the drying effect of the winds. 

7. After planting, the clearing is generally neglected. If the seeds germi- 
nate, the plants take care of themselves. The weeds and second tree growth 
have an equal chance with the crops. 

8. The crops receive attention only to prevent their destruction by 
monkeys, rats, mice, wild hogs, wild fowl, deer, and insect pests. 

9. Crops are harvested when mature and the surplus, over and above that 
required for daily consumption, is stored in large cylindrical baskets, in size 
about 5 by 10 feet, open at both ends, the lower end resting on a platform 
raised about 4 feet above the ground. These granaries are called lulu tongalang 
and consist of several baskets placed side by side and covered over with a grass 
or nipa shed. The baskets are usually made from the split stalks of the bagaki 
rattan, woven into a large mat of little squares; when of the required dimen- 
sions, this is rolled into the cylindrical basket and the two ends fastened 
together with strips of bejuco rattan. These baskets are sometimes made 
from the inner bark of the bakawan tree or from the dried fronds of the areca 
palm. 

10. This terminates the first year of the kaingin method of agriculture as 
followed by the Subanu. In beginning the second year an effort is made to 
burn off the grass, weeds, and second tree growth that have made great head- 
way during the progress of the first year's crops. The burning must be done 
during the dry period and is generally only partially successful, but the ashes 
mulch the soil and preserve the moisture therein. 

1 1 . There is no plowing or other form of upturning of the soil. The seeds 
are placed in holes made by a sharpened stick, as at the beginning of the first 
year, but they do not germinate as successfully as when the land is cleaner 
and more moist. The refuse growth of the first year has diminished the 
fertility of the soil. 

12. It now becomes a question of the survival of the strongest — crops, 
weeds, or second tree growth. The same protection as during the first year 
must be exercised against monkeys, wild hogs, rats, mice, deer, and insects. 



THE INDUSTRIAL LIFE. 17 

13. If the crops survive against all obstacles, harvesting follows, but with 
greater difficulty than in the first year, owing to the established headway of 
the grass, weeds, and second growth. The surplus crops are stored at the 
close of the second year of the kaingin cultivation. 

14. At the beginning of the third year the old kaingin is abandoned if the 
cogon grass shows strong development and the second tree growth has made 
vio"orous headway. A new kaingin is now sought, the forest cut down and 
burned, and the same process of cultivation and harvesting followed as in the 
first and second years. 

15. If the old kaingin is cultivated for the third and fourth years the same 
method is observed as in the first and second years, but with diminishing suc- 
cess, by reason of the lack of proper tillage. 

16. The Subanu justifies the kaingin method of agriculture on the basis 
of ignorance, poverty, lack of proper implements, and the absence of working 
animals. There must also be added the lack of incentive to improve, because 
of the exploitation of these hill people by the coast dwellers. Whenever the 
former gave signs of prosperity, the latter formed and finally executed schemes 
to gain the entire surplus of the hill people. To rid themselves, as far as pos- 
sible, from these parasites, the Subanu moved farther inland and sought the 
most inaccessible places for their temporary houses. 

17. The kaingin farmer can not successfully develop the cogon clearing, 
his only implements being the pes (chopping knife), with a blade about 14 
inches long and with a round or square head; the hilamon (digging knife), 
smaller than the pes; the gwasay (grubbing knife and adze), a sort of axe \vith a 
blade about 13 inches long and about 5 inches wide at the cutting edge, and 
tapering back to about an inch at the head. This knife is fastened in a handle 
corresponding in form and size to that used with the American axe. For har- 
vesting rice and digging roots and tubers smaller knives of various shapes 
are used. 

18. Cogon grass is a rapidly growing plant of tough fiber and sometimes 
reaches a height of 10 to 12 feet. When thrown down by the wind and rain 
it forms an impenetrable, tangled mass which will yield only to the knife and 
fire. When young and about 10 inches high the grass is tender and excellent 
for grazing. When 18 inches to 2 feet it may be cut for cattle fodder. When 
5 to 8 feet in height the grass is cut for thatching, especially when the nipa 
palm can not be obtained. 

The kaingin method of farming has deforested many thousands 
of acres of the finest timber in the Subanu country and has been very 
destructive of such natural resources. The practice still prevails to a 
large extent, both in and out of the Subanu territory. The law pro- 
hibiting the system is ineffective for want of sufficient forestry inspectors 
and lack of funds to employ them. It is evident that this system is 
not profitable either to the government or to the hill people, nor is it the 
best that can be done by the government for the welfare of these people. 
The Public Law Act No. 926, as amended by No. 979 of the PhiHppine 
Commission, provides a homestead (free land) of 40 acres for natives 
of the islands. The conditions under which this presentation is made 
by the government involve many complications and delays connected 
with the cadastral survey of the land, in order to secure a reliable title in 
the name of the native, who stands in urgent need of a permanent home 
and a greater degree of prosperity than he has ever before possessed. 



18 THE SUBANU. 

Placing the wandering Christians, Moros, and Pagans permanently 
upon homesteads by the government will do more to civilize them and 
add to their prosperity and that of the government than any other 
measure that can be undertaken for the development of these dependent 
people. The best method for this work requires most careful study and 
due consideration of all of the factors entering into the solution of the 
problem — such, for example, are the tribal relations, tribal customs, 
religious peculiarities, prescriptive land titles, acquired rights, surrender 
of weapons and interdiction of their use, the improvement of trails, the 
establishment of government exchanges and trading stores, the opera- 
tion of model tribal ward farms, and the harmonizing of all differences 
between the hill people and the coast dwellers or shore people. 

The dependent peoples of the various Moro and Pagan tribes are 
wards of the government and must receive instruction and supervision 
carried out by government officials in the most faithful and patient 
manner. They must be taught the advantages of a permanent home, 
the benefits to be derived from the legal possession of land, its proper 
cultivation, the maintenance and education of a family, the making of 
an honest living, respect for the rights of others, and obedience to the 
law. As these people must be developed along industrial lines, even 
before school training is provided for to any considerable extent, it is 
imperative that the government devise ways and means for promoting 
and maintaining agriculture, trade, and commerce among them, thus 
bringing their labor and the products of their labor to the markets of 
the world. To this end the writer has great faith in the exchanges, 
trading stores, and tribal ward farms organized by him in 1904 and 1906, 
while governor of the District of Zamboanga. 

The Subanu cultivate principally mountain rice, corn, camote, 
and tobacco. Next to rice their main dependence for food is upon the 
camote (sweet potato or yam). Two other tubers or esculent roots 
are grown for food, known as gabi (gabe) and ubi (ube)* Both are 
cultivated like the potato and must be thoroughly boiled in order to 
destroy their poisonous constituent before being used for food. The 
camote, gabi, and ubi are also made into preserves and sweetmeats; 
they are roasted as well as boiled. Gabi and ubi throw up stalks with 
large leaves, while the native camote produces a running vine that 

*Lack of botanical identification of these vegetables is quite sufficient complication in 
itself; the confusion is increased by the doubtful English names of camote. The yam is 
properly one of several species of Dioscorea, the sweet potato Batatas edulis; the two articles 
of food are in no likelihood of being confused. But in the United States, more particularly 
in the South, yam is frequently applied to the sweet potato. I infer that here we are under 
the influence of this dialectic usage. The camote, so far as the philological record may 
instruct us, is clearly Batatas. The name was transported by the galleons from Acapulco to 
Manila, for it is the Aztec camotl ibericized; the possibility that in yet more distant and 
far less readily comprehensible transport camotl of Mexico has become kumara of Polynesia 
is attractive but wide of the present inquiry. The true Dioscorea yam is here identifiable 
as ubi, the Polynesian ufi. The gabi of this text is undoubtedly the Polynesian kape, the 
bitter giant taro, Colocasia. — W. C. 



run INDUSTRIAIv UFE. 19 

covers the ground with a mass of leaves that are sometimes boiled and 
used as greens. The Subanu occasionally cultivate a tuber called 
camote-cahoy {camoting-cahoy , guccu or cassava) , whose fecula is known 
as tapioca. In preparing the root for food it is necessary to grate, wash, 
and press it so as to express the juice. The remaining material is the 
flour or tapioca, which is white or yellowish-white in color, sweetish in 
taste, and somewhat insipid. It is much valued in medicine on account 
of its digestibihty and is often used as food for children and sick people. 
Camote-cahoy grows above ground as a shrub, having a single stalk 4 
to 6 feet in height, with a tuft of succulent leaves at the top. 

When the rice crop fails the Subanu make use of buri and luntbia or 
lumhay. Both belong to the palm family and grow to trees of large 
size, topped with large fan-Hke leaves, all gathered at the apex of the 
tree, like the coconut palm. The interior of the entire trunk of these 
trees forms a starchy flour which is used for food and is of great nutri- 
tive value. The bagsang palm is used in a similar manner, and also the 
pagahan and canong palms, each of which supplies a starchy flour or 
kind of sago that forms an excellent article of food. The Subanu do 
not cultivate any of these sago palms, but search for them in the forests, 
especially along the streams, and mark the locahties so that when this 
class of food is required the trees can be found and converted into flour. 

When cultivated crops entirely fail because of droughts and the 
ravages of insect pests, the Subanu must resort to the several varieties 
of the sago palm and to certain wild edible roots for food. In some 
localities they cultivate an excellent squash, egg-plant, and melon. To 
some extent bananas, papayas, pineapples, nangcas, and lanzones are 
cultivated for fruit. There are several varieties of bananas in the 
Subanu country, some of which are eaten raw, while others must be 
cooked to prepare them for food. Pedro Delgado enumerates and 
describes 57 varieties of bananas grown in the Phihppine Islands, vary- 
ing greatly in form and taste, and all available for food. 

Fences are made of split bamboo and small poles about the size of 
the thumb. The poles are set upright in the ground and fastened 
together at the top and midway by interlacing of tough roots (baging) 
or with whole bejuco rattans. The bamboo fences are flimsily made; 
sometimes only rattan strands are used with neither posts nor other sup- 
ports . The more civilized Subanu employ fence-like hedges of a rapidly 
growing tree, set in the ground as stakes as close together as possible ; 
these stakes never fail to take root. When 6 to 8 feet high they are 
lopped off and interlaced with split rattans. 

To a hmited extent the Subanu cultivate coconuts and employ the 
nuts for food and for trade. Hemp (abaca) is grown and the fiber used 
for rope and for weaving cloth, the surplus being exchanged in the mar- 
kets for manufactured articles. From the forests the Subanu gather 
gutta-percha, almaciga, bulitic, and beeswax, all used in trade. 



20 THE SUBANU. 

As might be expected, these people are expert woodsmen and pos- 
sess an acute sense of locaHty, which enables them to travel the trackless 
forests and thick swamps of the tropical jungles without losing their 
way. They are therefore trustworthy and tireless guides and, being 
accustomed to living on wild fruit and roots, in emergency can endure 
long journeys with the minimum food supply. 

To supplement the use of tobacco and for chewing purposes the 
Subanu cultivate the areca palm which produces the favorite betel nut, 
the pit of which is overlaid with a thick greenish-colored meat that is 
split into sections for chewing. The nut is somewhat smaller than the 
pecan and retains its green color when mature. In connection with this 
nut there is used the buyo leaf, taken from the buyo plant cultivated 
like hops and trained upon poles or low-growing trees. The entire 
chewing quid is composed of a small leaf of tobacco, a section of betel- 
nut, one buyo leaf, and a small quantity of paste made of shell lime and 
ginger root mixed sometimes with coconut oil and sometimes with 
water. Women generally omit the tobacco, as do the Christian Fili- 
pinos. The Moros and Pagans always use the tobacco in this combina- 
tion. This root gives the dark-red color to the spittle, lips, and teeth 
while chewing, which makes the habit so disgusting to foreigners. When 
he can afford it the Subanu purchases, usually from the Chinese trader, 
a few pieces (squares about the size of loaf sugar) of gambler (terra 
japonica) for mixture with the other parts of the chewing quid. Gam- 
bier acts as an astringent, heals mouth sores, reduces the sensitiveness 
of filed teeth, and heightens the dark-red color of the spittle. This 
remarkable combination for chewing is placed in a betel-nut box, which 
may be suspended from the shoulder, carried in a bag or basket at the 
side, like a haversack, or in a belt or sash tied about the waist. The 
betel-nut quid is considered more useful than food when severe exertion 
becomes necessary, and all classes of natives resort to its use. The 
habit when once formed is difficult to abandon, and in that respect is 
akin to the opium habit, but is not by any means so deleterious and 
degrading to the human system. 

The Subanu cultivate the areca palm, the buyo plant, tobacco, and 
ginger root. The lime is obtained from the burning of sea shells, which 
is generally done by KaHbugans and Moros, and therefore must be 
obtained from them as a matter of trading. When for any purpose it is 
desired to employ Subanu as guides or for other form of labor, their 
attitude toward the work and their cheerfulness and efficiency in per- 
forming it will be greatly improved and enhanced by supplying them 
beforehand with mountain rice and the materials for the betel-nut 
chewing quid. 

Subanu are very fond of smoking a sort of cigarette made of native 
leaf-tobacco and the soft inner husk of the corn. The tobacco is 
wrapped within this husk and the whole is so folded as to take the shape 



CONSTRUCTION AND I.OCATION OF HOUSES. 21 

of a cornucopia; the small end is placed in the mouth when smoking. 
In the absence of corn husks, dried banana leaves or the nipa frond are 
used as wrappers for cigarette smoking. 

When out of native leaf -tobacco, if they can afford the luxury, 
Subanu will purchase, from abulante traders, the famous Chinese hun' 
tobacco that so deUghts the palate of the non-Christians of the Moro 
Province. In order properly to control the importation of this tobacco 
in that province and prevent smugghng, the Legislative Council enacted 
two laws in March and April, 1906, which provide that "each distrib- 
uting agent shall sell the tobacco delivered to him to Moros and Pagans, 
in quantities of not to exceed ten pounds, to any individual during a 
calendar month for cash, at a price fixed by the District Secretary." 

The Subanu are neither boatmen nor fishermen, and whenever it 
becomes necessary for them to make journeys by water they seek the 
assistance of their Kalibugan relatives who have become coast dwellers, 
or of some friendly Moros or Filipinos. These sea trips are very seldom 
taken and only resorted to in case of emergency or when travel by land 
is impossible. Although vegetarians in their diet, Subanu will eat 
fish, fowl, and the meat of the wild hog and deer when their crops have 
failed or the supplies stored have run low; in some localities in recent 
years they have raised goats and cattle for food, using the latter for 
work also. 

CONSTRUCTION AND LOCATION OF HOUSES. 

With few exceptions the houses of the Subanu are of temporary 
construction, due to their wandering habits, to the kaingin farming, 
and to raids and exploitation by the shore people. Native materials 
are used with no attempt at ornamentation and very little regard for 
personal comfort. No matter what the size, the house consists of but 
one room which may be temporarily subdivided into apartments by 
hanging mats and screens. There are no windows as such. Light is 
admitted by the one or more doorways and through numerous openings 
in the imperfect walls and roof. The floor is elevated above the ground 
from 3 to 30 feet, according to the nature of the soil, the kind of building 
material available, the danger from predatory animals, and the near- 
ness and character of the shore people. The building is supported upon 
numerous poles of varying size, according to the convenience of obtain- 
ing the material. Where a more permanent structure is desired, heavy 
logs are used for uprights. No matter how many doorways may be 
provided, entrance to the house is restricted to one only. This is a 
matter of precaution. Sometimes a pole stairway with steps is provided, 
but usually only a single pole with notches cut in it, which can be used 
conveniently and safely only by a person with bare feet. Boys and 
girls run freely up and down these notched poles ; older persons support 
themselves by their hands when on the ladders. Men and women 



22 THE SUBANU. 

alike enter the house from the ladders facing inward ; they come out 
backward and descend the notched pole in the same position; but 
where the house has a ladder with treads they come out and descend 
forward. 

The Subanu seldom build their houses in trees, except in the case of 
small watch towers used by guards for protecting the crops from wild 
animals and birds. 

The materials for thatching are the leaves of the nipa palm, the 
coconut palm, and cogon grass. For the walls, bagaki rattan is used 
when available and in its absence any of the thatch materials are 
employed. The floor is always open; that is, composed of strips of 
palma brava, split bamboo, or small tangal poles, laid about an inch 
apart and bound to the stringers or joists with split bejiico rattan. 
The open floor permits of the free circulation of air and of the passing of 
all refuse to the ground below. This open floor is of great economic 
importance to the Subanu and is generally used by all classes of Moros 
and Pagans and by many Filipinos. The ground underneath the house 
becomes a refuse heap where the domestic animals of the owner search 
for food and find a place of refuge from the sun and rain. When in the 
course of time this pile of waste rises near the floor, the Subanu owner 
may abandon his house and erect another or, if not already at a consider- 
able height, decide to raise the building some 5 feet or more. It never 
occurs to this child of the forest and hills that the refuse can be removed 
from time to time and destroyed by fire, as an economic and sanitary 
project of the first importance. Houses are built near fresh water if 
possible, provided isolation and security can be obtained. 

The Subanu are a peace-loving people. They love the solitude 
and quiet of undisturbed natural surroundings. So long and persist- 
ently have they been hunted by the raiding Moros and Filipinos that 
they seek seclusion and usually establish their houses where it is most 
difficult to gain an approach to them — for example, near the bottom of 
a deep gulch or upon the projecting point of some hill or on some moun- 
tain peak. From a nearby elevation one may catch a glimpse of the 
shack through the swaying foliage and then search for hours to find the 
blind trail leading to it. 

The safe placing of the home is of prime importance and after 
that comes the location of the kaingin farm. They are not often near 
together, since fertile land does not always coincide with a favorable 
spot for the protection of the house. In the event of a wide distance 
between the house and the farm the Subanu usually makes a small 
planting about the former; about the more or less permanent home 
he may erect small shacks for the storage of harvested crops, although 
in most instances some portion of the house is used for that purpose. 
If the granary is placed under the house that section is protected from 
the receipt of waste material passed through the open floor. 



MANUFACTURES. 23 

The furnishings of the house are usually of the barest necessities, 
especially where the building has been placed in an exposed location and 
the occupants may be interrupted by visits from strangers. The cook- 
ing may be done on the ground and the food carried into the house for 
eating, or the women may employ the small burned-clay stove in the 
house and prepare the food on the floor. No chairs or stools are used. 
When resting the members of the family squat upon their haunches and 
can easily maintain this position for hours. The posture in sitting is 
that of a squat on the full soles with the buttocks just clear of the ground 
or floor, knees and calves apart and the arms resting on the knees. 
When the buttocks rest upon the floor the calves are approximated 
to the thighs and the arms are brought forward over the knees. When 
the posture is free and there is no rest for the back the body inclines 
forward on the knees. This posture is the same for men, women, and 
children. In general it is observed that the women maintain a wider 
angle between the legs when sitting and more frequently support the 
back. The family sleep on the floor, using grass or rattan mats and 
pillows made from tree cotton {kapok) . 

The women boil rice between banana leaves in an earthenware 
vessel, or in an iron pot when it can be obtained. One leaf section is 
placed at the bottom and the other is used as a cover. When the water 
boils away, more is added until the rice is thoroughly cooked. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The women excel in the making of pottery and in the weaving of 
cloth. Both men and women engage in the construction of mats, 
baskets, hats, and screens from grass, bejuco, bamboo, bagaki (reed), and 
palma brava. These mats are colored by dyeing and by burning. The 
grass mats are colored with native dyes, and those made from heavier 
materials of bejuco, bamboo, bagaki, and palma brava are burned. Sev- 
eral colors (principally shades of red, yellow, and green) are produced 
with dyes, but these colors will fade in the sun and when washed. Both 
the coloring and burning are sometimes arranged so as to produce vari- 
ous designs and even to represent animals and birds which the people 
are accustomed to see. Light materials, such as leaves and cornhusks, 
are fastened to the mats in forms to represent the designs, and when dry 
are carefully burned off. To deepen the color, more material is laid on 
and greater heat produced. 

Cloth is made from the fiber of hemp, banana stalks, and the leaves 
of the pineapple. Baskets are made from the leaves of the pandan 
grass, of the buri palm, and of the nitu. 

Pillows are made from kapok (tree cotton) and from the catkins or 
fruit of a species of wild hop that grows as a low bush. 

Dyes are obtained from the leaves and roots of herbs and from 
the bark and leaves of trees. Safflower or alazor produces both red 



24 THE SUBANU. 

and yellow colors. The bcUanti tree supplies a black coloring matter. 
The roots of hancuro afford a red color. The hagolihas tree yields a 
dye of yellowish-brown. The sibucao raltar tree furnishes a red coloring 
matter and is very abundant in the forests. The bacauan tree, found 
in all mangrove swamps, yields a reddish coloring matter. 

In most of the Subanu settlements men may be found who are 
fairly good wood-carvers and others who are capable of fashioning from 
steel, brass, and iron the various implements used in agriculture and 
in household work and hunting. The men prepare various forms of 
nets or snares from bejuco, bamboo, and hemp fiber for the captm-e of 
wild fowl and wild pigs. A bellows is constructed from bamboo and 
bejuco for blacksmith work. 

Wild Subanu and other pagan tribes make fire by rubbing dry sticks 
in either the plow or the drill method. The sticks are well seasoned 
and are kept in the shelter of the house until needed; in journeys they 
are carried on the person in baskets. The spark of fire developed by 
the friction is caught in a nest of dry grass or dry bamboo scrapings. 
The fireplace is a sand box within the house, commonly in a small room 
which serves as kitchen, but if in the living room it is set in a corner. 
The smoke escapes as best it may through the window and door open- 
ings and the house is generally much smoked. In boats a small baked 
clay stove is used ; this has scalloped sides, is some 1 8 inches long by 6 
inches wide and 5 inches deep. Those open at the bottom are set 
within a sand box when in use ; those closed with an earthenware bottom 
receive the fire without the sand box. In the open conntry, fires when 
used outside of the houses are made in a pit in the ground, kindled with 
grass and leaves, and brought to heat with dry fagots and limbs ; the 
food is roasted above the flame. Sometimes fires are built under the 
houses for the purpose of smoking the interior. 

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. 

So far as known the Subanu have never congregated into villages, 
as do the Moros and Filipinos. Their tribal government is patriarchal 
and each chief governs by paternal right, subject to the will of the 
people. Such communal chief has the title of t muai and holds it only 
while acting as headman of the community. The term timuai {timu- 
way or timway) is a Magindanao Moro word meaning chief or leader, 
adopted by the Subanu and by some other hill tribes in Mindanao to 
designate their headmen. The title was first used by Tabunaway, ruler 
of Magindanao (Kutu Watu, Kota Batu, Cotabato) about a. d. 1470. 
Tabunaway was succeeded by Sharif Mohamad Kabungsuwan, about 
A. D. 1475, from whom all present-day Moros profess their descent. 

The Moro title of datu is sometimes taken by Subanu in addition 
to the Subanu title of timuai. Both signify chief, but the latter con- 
veys greater power in that it combines in one person both civil and 



<l 



SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. 25 

religious authority. The title datu conveys only civil authority. The 
old Subanu title of panungo signifies "chief of chiefs" and ceases upon 
the death of the man upon whom the unusual honor has been conferred 
by a council of timuai. No young man can hold the title of panungo, 
as it is reserved for men of age, long experience, popularity, and success. 

When superseded by another headman the title of timuai becomes 
honorary until the late incumbent may again be called to assume the 
direction of his community. Once a timuai, the recipient of the honor 
is hable at any time during his Hfe to further active service as headman 
(especially if he has been faithful in the discharge of pubUc duty), when 
not prevented by physical infirmities. In some cases where such head- 
men have been notably efficient in leadership and very popular with the 
people, the commonalty have insisted upon his remaining in office until 
the very moment of his death. Among the Subanu the family is the 
governmental unit. The father is the head of the family and its abso- 
lute ruler. He holds the power of life and death. An association or 
confederation of famiHes forms a community under the leadership of a 
timuai. Family rights are supreme and therefore the right of secession 
from the community inheres in the head of the family. When a family 
becomes dissatisfied with the conduct and control of a headman the 
father secedes and places his family under the domination of some other 
timuai. This does not always involve a change of residence but more 
often only a change of allegiance. Under these conditions the family 
becomes sufficient unto itself as an independent governing unit in all 
matters except those pertaining to its relation with other families in the 
same class. The tribal government of the Subanu has evolved the exec- 
utive timuai and clothed that official with the necessary authority to 
adjust the relations between the families of a confederation or com- 
munity. The size of such a community depends upon the abiHty and 
popularity of the timuai in charge. Families go and come and give the 
headman due notice of the change. In this respect perfect freedom is 
accorded the families. 

Recognizing the independence of the families as a fundamental 
principle of Subanu social order, these people have thus far resisted all 
appeals and efforts by the Spanish and American governments to gather 
them into towns. The Subanu dearly cherish the independence and 
freedom of the family unit and look with suspicion and even fear upon 
the many restrictions that must of necessity be imposed upon people 
when they are closely associated in communities. As soon as the young 
men take to themselves wives they break away from the old family 
home and estabhsh new family units at remote points, where they can 
enjoy all the freedom of their peculiar nomadic Hfe. 

At various times the Jesuit priests have made strenuous and per- 
sistent efforts to estabhsh village life among the Subanu, especially in 
the sub-district of Dapitan, but the plan was not successful. 



26 THE SUBANU. 

CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITS. 

The Subanu are lighter in color than either the Mores or the Fili- 
pinos who surround them. They have high foreheads, but rather flat 
noses ; mild countenances, with well-set and expressive eyes. The hair 
is long, straight, and jet-black. While these people are not wholly 
beardless, usually very little hair appears upon the face. The head is 
covered with a heavy mat that is coarse and refractory. When the 
men permit the hair to grow long, they fold and tie it in a knot at the 
back of the head, as do the women. The latter do not approve of the 
men wearing long hair, looking upon it as a mark of weakness. The 
women use their turban or head-cloth to hold the hair in place. They 
sometimes do up with the hair a braid of hemp or banana fiber dyed of a 
color to match the hair. This fiber braid is used as a switch of false 
hair to augment the mass where the natural hair is thin and insufficient 
from any cause. Sometimes a small tuft of hair grows upon the chin of 
the males, and the possessor favors and protects it with much patience 
and pride. 

The limbs are well rounded, clean, and supple. The whole form is 
attractive in youth and in middle age, because of fine muscular develop- 
ment, light color, and general freedom from deformities. The young 
women are graceful in form, of pleasing countenance, modest and indus- 
trious. All native women in the tropics lose their attractive features 
early in fife, owing to the climate, the severities of motherhood, and the 
burdensome life of the wife. No form of labor is too severe for a Subanu 
woman to undertake. The men are fairly industrious as a class and, 
besides preparing their kaingins for seeding and following later with the 
harvest and storage of crops, they make long journeys on foot in search 
of forest products (wax, copal, nuts, and gutta-percha) which they may 
exchange for cloth, beads, wire, iron, and steel at the markets or with 
passing traders. 

The large toe of many males is turned inward to a marked degree, 
giving the appearance of abnormally projecting away from the other 
toes and beyond them. This peculiar development suggests a prehen- 
sory employment of the member. The big toe is used frequently for 
holding fiber and bejuco while braiding them into rope and for other 
purposes. 

Men do not use bows and arrows ; children employ them as toys. 

The first clothing of a boy is a loin cloth ; that of a girl a petticoat. 
Children go naked until the age of puberty. The facts of sexual life 
are not hidden from the children ; they grow up with them as a matter 
of course. Marriageable young men and maidens are not segregated 
in separate houses, as with some tribes. The family is held intact with 
the father as absolute ruler. Girls have little or no recreation, but are 
occupied with household duties from a tender age . B oy s play and hunt. 



CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITS. 27 

The Subanu do not tattoo, but they have a name for the practice, 
putik or lulik, derived from the Visayans, who are very freely tattooed. 

A pecuUar attitude of the males when resting is to lean against 
some support and then raise one foot and place it against the knee of 
the other leg ; this position is changed from one leg to the other, so as 
to rest both feet. 

Circumcision, freely practised by the Moros as a religious rite of 
Semitic origin, is rare among the Subanu and is not practised at all by 
the wildest of these tribesmen. Where circumcision is in use among the 
pagan tribes of Mindanao incision is equally in use. Instead of cutting 
the preputium transversely this consists of slitting it longitudinally and 
allowing the skin to fall away on each side and to heal in that position. 
There is no circumcision of women. 

When on land the Subanu always retire from view when defecating 
and are sedulous to bury the excreta, with the idea that the bodily 
refuse is morbific and must be avoided, but with no thought of scato- 
mantic possibility or sympathetic magic. In micturition the squatting 
posture is the rule and girls and adults screen themselves with the cloth- 
ing or retire from view; they wash after the operation. The Moros 
observe the same posture, as do all of their religion ; the Christian Fili- 
pino men stand. 

Cleanliness of body is not a pronounced virtue of the Subanu. 
They do not bathe as do the Moros. The latter, as a tenet of their 
religion, cleanse the body more frequently than any other of the inhabi- 
tants of the southern islands, including the Chinese, Europeans, and 
Americans. While much attention is given by the Moros to bathing 
the body, and especially to certain portions of it, like the Subanu they 
are very neglectful of their clothing, which in many instances is never 
washed. The garments are worn without cleansing until they fall to 
pieces. In this connection it is necessary to keep in mind that, usually, 
the garments used by both Moros and Pagans are few and simple, and 
generally the same for both males and females. The children go naked 
until about ten years of age. The garments of the adult males and 
females consist of trousers, petticoat, jacket, and turban or head-cloth. 
The youth of both sexes wear the same article of dress and, as before 
stated, the children are generally not provided with clothes. The 
women also wear ear ornaments, long strings of colored beads about the 
neck, and brass rings on the lower arms and on the legs below the knee. 
The ears are pierced when children are young, and the hole enlarged 
gradually by wearing a small coil of split bejuco rattan, which tends to 
open out and increase the size of the opening until it will receive a circu- 
lar piece of wood about an inch in diameter. The opening is now 
allowed to collapse and when not used for ornaments is employed to 
hold a newly rolled or partly smoked cigarette or cigar, or some small 
article of frequent use. 



28 THE SUBANU. 

The Subanu are fond of bright colors in clothing and jeweby. 
The more grotesque the variety and arrangement the better are they 
pleased. This fondness for adornment among the women and young 
men leads often to the undoing of the family by reason of the fact that 
the ornaments (always of brass, copper, and colored glass) are sold to 
them by FiHpino, Chinese, and Moro traders at prices outrageously 
above the true value. The writer has investigated many such cases 
of swindling and fraud and has brought to justice some of the perpe- 
trators of such acts. One instance may be cited to show the artlessness 
and folly of a Subanu who was persuaded to exchange a full-grown ox 
for a brass ring with a colored-glass setting. The animal was worth 
not less than 70 pesos and the ring much less than i peso. To save 
these hill people from much suffering through the operations of defraud- 
ing traders, the writer devised and organized the Moro exchange system 
of pubhc markets and trading stores in the early part of 1904, and 
opened the first establishment at Zamboanga on September i of that 
year. Since then more than thirty such trading stations have been 
opened in the District of Zamboanga, where the hill peoplehave gathered 
by thousands and ascertained and obtained the highest current market 
value, through the government superintendent, for the products of 
their labor, and made purchases of necessary manufactured articles at 
the lowest current market price. 

Various methods are resorted to in counting, such as tying knots 
in a strip of split bejuco; arranging objects in a line, such as shells, 
small stones, kernels of corn or rice. In some instances the fingers are 
used or a combination of the fingers and small objects. For example, 
the shells, stones or kernels are arranged in groups of five, corresponding 
to the fingers of one hand. These groups are counted up to ten, corre- 
sponding to the number of fingers on both hands. In some cases count- 
ing is accomplished by cutting notches on a stick and these notches 
may be cut in groups of five or arranged consecutively, according to 
the fancy of the person thus engaged. Counting by use of objects 
arranged in fines and groups may have been acquired from the Chinese 
traders who have worked over the islands for centuries. 

Upon arriving at the age of puberty many of the men and women 
grind and blacken their teeth. This practice is not only very painful, 
but greatly detracts from their personal appearance and leads to diges- 
tive troubles through want of proper mastication of food. Sometimes 
the teeth are ground down to the gums and the stumps fall out and 
painful ulcers ensue. The writer has persistently followed a course of 
constant opposition to this pernicious habit with rather small but en- 
couraging success. The practice is not of religious origin, but appears 
to have been resorted to many years ago by reason of the beUef that 
pearly-white teeth belonged to animals Hke dogs and cats, of which 
the Subanu have many, and that man, as a superior animal, must 



CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITS. 29 

change the color of his teeth if he wished to maintain his supremacy 
over the lower animals. The writer has discussed this question with 
many Moros and Pagans who follow the practice and has pointed out 
to them the fact that the colored races, generally throughout the world, 
consider the white man as of a superior race and seek in various ways 
to modify the color of their skin by bleaching it and by marriage with 
the white races; that in preparation for marriage many Moro and 
Pagan women resort to a slow and rather painful process to whiten 
the skin, even though only temporary results are attained; that the 
white races highly prize white teeth as a sign of cleanliness, good health, 
intelHgence, and civiHzation; that therefore the Moros and Pagans 
should aspire to follow the habits of the white man regarding his teeth 
and avoid much suffering, as well as vastly improve their appearance. 
Some success has attended this effort to improve sanitary conditions 
among the hill people and the shore people. In some cases the men 
have brought their wives and children to the governor to show him the 
progress made in the proper preservation of their teeth. 

The superstitious nature of the Subanu and Moros is also illus- 
trated by their refusal to give their names except through a third party. 
The interrogator should always ask an acquaintance, friend, or some 
member of the family of the person questioned, for information as to 
his name, and the reply must come from such third party without 
inquiry of the second party. The reason assigned is that these people 
do not wish to be considered like the egotistic crow who cries about and 
incessantly calls his name. The natives throughout the PhiHppines, 
where crows abound, have named the bird according to their interpreta- 
tion of its well-known call, for example: in Subanu, quak; in Visayan, 
awak; in Magindano Moro, kuak; in Sulu Moro, wak; in Tagalog, wak; 
in Malay, gagak; in Yakan, uwak* 

The Subanu practice polygamy, but not as extensively as the 
Moros. They have a high regard for the marriage bond and are faith- 
ful in the marital relation. Polyandry is occasionally resorted to where 
men are too poor to provide the laxa (dowry) required to secure a wife, 
and two of them join in the purchase of one woman. The laxa is paid 
to the father of the bride. In some Subanu communities the women 
are considerably in excess of the men, but even under such circum- 
stances and the ignominy of remaining ceHbate, these native women 
are opposed to the practice of polyandry. Marriages are performed 
by the timuai or chief of a settlement, and he may be rewarded for his 

*The custom is of wide extent among primitive people in many widely scattered regions, 
and, so far as we have been able to collate the reasons assigned, this objection of the bubanu 
is but a pretext. In general the name is so much a part of the spiritual essence of the man 
that the man hesitates to give it over to the possible thaumaturgy of a stranger In the 
Semitic system and in later developments therefrom the highest observance of religion 
involves the avoidance of the ineffable name, the employment of substitutes and in the 
highest act of worship the utterance of the name indistinguishable in the din of the temple 
instruments of music. — W. C. 



30 'J'HK SUBANU. 

services if the groom is abk to make a gift. The dowry is generally 
paid in the form of cloth, Chinese jars, and brass gongs. The payment 
may be made in any article of value agreed upon between the father 
of the bride and the groom. Actual money is rarely used for this 
purpose, as it is possessed in very limited amount, if at all, by these 
people ; those of the far interior never handle money, but gain a few 
manufactured articles through the process of bartering raw products 
for them, and always thereby sufifer loss in deaHng with the wandering 
traders. 

The Subanu possess a rich folk-lore which they are not altogether 
averse to make known to the stranger, especially if he comes equipped 
with the sanction and interposition of the timuai. Their short tales 
generally seem vulgar to the Christian and are indulged in as stories 
to create a laugh and make the narrator appear as a "good fellow." 
Their legends are prolonged and serious accounts of the alleged experi- 
ences of imaginary persons, gods, and mythical headmen. The details 
of these experiences are given in a natural and easy manner and by 
the use of terms and relations that are common to the daily life of the 
people. The narration is given usually in an ordinary tone of voice, 
but may be recited in a sort of singing tone that produces a weird effect 
at night in the forest when the face of the chanter is lighted by the 
glare of the torches. 

In the course of such narratives mention has been made of the 
following characters of pure myth or of dim history, in the present 
stage of our knowledge it being quite impossible to reach a definite 
determination : 

Datu nong Mitom Gawasa nong Medendum, Timuai Dogbuluan Getunan, 
Timuai Datu Lumugun, Timuai Datu Magutanga, these being men- 
tioned as chiefs in the myths. 

Bai Binubung and Bai Punbenua, mythical princesses. 

Datu Magujabang Pungobii Megligat Dali Ondao, characterized as the chief 
of the land of the setting sun. 

Timuai Datu Magbayaja, spoken of as a great balian and one of the most 
potent of the diuata. 

Timuai Datu Pogowanen, whose residence is in the sky. 

Timuai Datu Menelenga, a battle spirit in command of the sea depths. 

Timuai Datu Menelengman, also in the sea. 

Timuai Datu Gunlu or Munlu or Makaayaga, the chief of the manamat or 
evil spirits of the body. 

Timuai Datu Magaboligan, chief of the evil spirits of the rivers. 

According to the Subanu cult all dreams are under the control of 
the spirits who thereby express their will; all the Subanu dream, there- 
fore each person is considered to have a sentient soul within his body 
and a corresponding spirit somewhere external. Dreams are the com- 
munion of soul and spirit, but they are not of private interpretation. 
It is the province to the halian to read the visions of the night and to 
explain their purport with the assistance of the lines in the palm of 



CHARACTEJRISTICS AND HABITS. 31 

the hand. The spirits may come upon earth in a form resembling that 
of the person who has the counterpart soul. 

The Subanu have so long been in subjection to the Mohammedans 
and Christians who surround them, and have been compelled to pay- 
tribute and obey the commands of such self-appointed rulers, that they 
have become timid, unwarlike, and non-progressive. To escape menial 
service and tribute they have acquired deceptive and lying traits of 
character, so that they are denounced as untrustworthy and as devoid 
of the characteristics which tend to develop a strong and prosperous 
people. At times, when driven into a corner and brutally imposed 
upon, they have resisted their persecutors with ferocity. They can and 
will fight when exposed to repeated indignities and to the violation of 
their homes ; but many instances could be given to illustrate how they 
have been cut to pieces and robbed of everything by marauding bands 
of Moros, even while extending the hand of friendship and hospitahty 
to their treacherous visitors. This was the penalty for having acquired 
some comforts and surplus products, over and above the barest neces- 
sities of maintaining life, thus exciting the cupidity of their persistent 
enemies. Continuing for several centuries, these methods have devel- 
oped an inveterately hostile relation between the hill people and the 
shore people. 

Following in the wake of the Moros, the Christians have ruthlessly 
applied to the hill people a raiding system that has kept the Subanu in 
ignorance and poverty, seriously retarding the development of the coun- 
try. Naturally, under such blighting influences, the Subanu are cowed, 
suspicious, and superstitious. Having withstood every form of adver- 
sity and preserved their dialect, religion, customs, and industries, these 
people now deserve patient, strong, and continued support. Their bad 
habits must be borne with, their virtues commended, and the way of 
advancement made easy under protection and supervision. They are 
the natural farmers of the country they inhabit, and only their adapta- 
bility to the cultivation of the soil, with its inherent richness, has saved 
them from extermination by the rapacity of the Mohammedans and 
Christians. It is no mean record that they have made the soil support 
both the hill people and the shore people for about three centuries. 

In contending against the difficulties of their settlement life the 
Subanu have gradually adopted an effective quarantine service against 
the spread of infectious diseases like smallpox, measles, and cholera. 
Upon the appearance of the first case among any of the settlement fami- 
Hes the timuai orders the establishment of the signals of quarantine and 
these are quickly provided. Fences of poles and split bamboo or bejuco 
are erected across the main trails leading to the houses of the settlement. 
On these fences are placed, in fixed positions, carved imitations of war 
weapons, such as spears, kampilans, harongs, and piras, pointed outward 
to warn the approaching stranger or visitor to remain away. It is a 



32 THE SXJBANU. 

notice that death will be visited upon the person who attempts to enter 
the settlement while the scourge of disease prevails. The victims of the 
disease are segregated in isolated houses, supplied with food and water, 
and then abandoned by friends and relatives when recovery seems 
impossible. If death ensues, the bodies may be buried later by the 
relatives, and if any of the afflicted recover they are aided to rejoin their 
families. Near the signal fences are erected light wooden stands with 
offerings of various articles of food to appease the wrath of the gods 
and cause them to assist in extirpating the disease. Small sheds are 
also sometimes erected near the stands, under which guards may be 
stationed to prevent the food from being taken by wild animals, birds, 
and mischievous persons. But the guards go to sleep and the food 
(cooked rice, boiled eggs, fruit, tobacco, betel-nut, cooked chicken, etc.) 
disappears, whereupon the guards report that diuata (god) has accepted 
the gifts and will drive away the disease. Superstition and good sense 
are strangely but effectively mingled in this scheme of practical and effi- 
cacious quarantine, and the Subanu stand alone among all the tribes 
and peoples of Mindanao in devising and operating such protective 
measures. 

The attempt in 1904-05 to induce Subanu to enUst in the PhiHp- 
pine Constabulary was abandoned as impracticable, after a trial of a 
few months, during which every man induced to enter had deserted. 
These people have no desire to become soldiers or policemen, or to seek 
employment far from their homes. A hard and bitter life has taught 
them to place no confidence in the stranger and very Httle in any form 
of government but their own. 

RELIGION. 

The Subanu are nature worshipers and beUeve that the spirits of 
their gods dwell in some of the most striking natural features of the 
land ; for example, in an unusually large tree, in a huge rock balanced on a 
small base, in a peculiarly shaped mound of earth, in an isolated cave, in 
a mountain top difficult of ascent, and the Hke. The gods or spirits are 
called diuata. The Subanu or his balian realizes that no man or woman 
on the earth can build these trees, the great rocks and the mountains, 
and believes they must therefore be the handiwork of the gods and the 
abode of their spirits. In the presence of these evidences of the great 
power of the gods, the Subanu finds his opportunity for communion 
with the diuata. At these places he prays to the spirits for good crops, 
freedom from disease, a safe journey, the recovery of a member of his 
family from disease or injury, for rain to break a protracted period of 
drought, and the like. He likewise argues that no person could make 
the sea and that therefore the spirit of one of the diuata must reside 
therein, and to that spirit he prays for a safe journey upon it. 

The spirits or diuata are believed to possess the power of producing 
conception without human agency, and the progeny of such unions 



REUGION. 33 

become the most efficient balian; they may visit the sky to attend the 
great assembUes (bichara) of the diuata, and upon earth they have 
power to raise the dead. 

Observances of a reHgious character, either informal or with the 
assistance of the balian, are frequent in all the affairs of Hfe, the clearing 
of a new plantation, the building of a house, the hunting of the wild hog, 
the search for wild honey, the snaring of feathered game, the beginning 
of a journey by sea or by land, the harvesting of the crops. Such 
ceremonies are accompanied by offerings proportionate to the wealth 
of the worshiper. In general, all spirits (even such as are popularly 
considered benevolent) must be propitiated by food-offerings. These 
sacrifices comprise betel-nuts, tobacco and cigarettes and cigars, boiled 
eggs, cooked rice, young fowl, the meat of a young pig, and the burning 
of incense in the form of the resin of the nibung tree. 

Festivals (buklug) are held to propitiate the diuata or to celebrate 
some event in which an entire settlement is interested. The principal 
features of a buklug are religious ceremonies, feasting, drinking, dancing, 
and singing. The religious ceremonies are performed exclusively by 
the medicine men and the medicine woman, called balian or belian. The 
men rise to greater prominence and power in this profession than the 
women. Occasionally some strong-minded woman attains great power 
in a settlement. At a buklug the balian conduct their ceremonies 
independently of the other people, who never interfere with these 
professional duties and go about their feasting, drinking, and dancing 
as if their very lives depended upon getting the most out of all these 
enjoyments. The balian are entitled to receive fees for their services 
at buklugs and are usually paid in cotton cloth, tobacco, rice, or palay. 

The functions of a balian may be classified as those of a medium, 
direct intercourse with spirits, the conduct of sacrifices, and the healing 
of the sick. 

Prayers to the spirits or diuata are offered in the posture most 
convenient to the occasion, standing, sitting, or kneeling. The prayers 
may be chanted in a monotone, delivered by a silent motion of the lips 
or indicated by the bowed head. 

Adjoining the house of a balian is sometimes placed a small struc- 
ture resembling a dove-cote, erected on a pole or stand, in which the 
spirits with which the balian is accustomed to commune are believed to 
reside temporarily during such communion. In these spirit houses are 
placed articles of food for the refreshment of the spirits. Sometimes 
spirits are represented by rough wooden images and they may have 
attached to them, by wooden pegs or strands of split bejuco, representa- 
tions in carved wood of various weapons, such as barong and kampilan. 
It is supposed that the spirits may require weapons for self -protection. 

Wooden altars (small, rough tables or stands) are erected at various 
places, on the banks of streams and occasionally on the sea beach, 



34 THE SUBANU. 

where communion is held with the spirits or diuata and where they 
may receive food. 

Every large collection of Subanu usually contains representatives 
of their balian or priestly fraternity. These wizards, both men and 
women, have mysterious association with the spirits or diuata and are 
beheved to possess the power of discerning the cause of all forms of 
illness and of applying the proper remedies to effect satisfactory cures. 
If restoration to health is not effected through the intervention of a 
medicine man or a medicine woman, then the sins of the patient have 
been too great for the spirits or diuata to forgive, and the offerings made 
by the family and friends of the sufferer have proved too unimportant 
to merit more powerful intervention by the balian with the diuata. 

Failure to satisfy the demands of the gods as interpreted by the 
balian may lead to extreme measures on the part of the relatives and 
friends of the patient, especially if the illness can be connected with 
some affair of general importance to the Subanu people or to any settle- 
ment. Under such conditions greater offerings must be made if pos- 
sible and resort may be had to human sacrifices. That such sacrifices 
have been made in times past is acknowledged by trustworthy Subanu, 
although these people are averse to talking about their religious prac- 
tices. To their minds the subject is fraught with many portentous 
consequences. By unguarded words they might incur the enmity of 
some of the gods and then untold injury would come upon them per- 
sonally or upon some of their relatives and friends. 

Human sacrifice has been resorted to by the Bagobos (hill people) 
of eastern Mindanao and probably by other hill tribes in that great 
island. The last recorded case was reported on January 3, 1908, by 
the district governor of Davao (southern Mindanao), who states that 
the sacrifice was made by Bagobos at the rancheria of Talon near Digos 
on December 9, 1907. The following is extracted from the report : 

The headman Datu Ansig said that a sacrifice had been held and that 
both he and his people were ready to tell all about it, as to the best of their 
belief they had committed no crime, but only followed out a religious custom 
practiced by themselves and their ancestors from time immemorial. The 
Datu and his followers say that the Bagobos have several gods : Bacalad, god of 
the spirits; Agpanmole Manobo, god of good, and his wife, the goddess Dewata; 
Mandarangan, the god of evil, to whom sacrifice is made in order to appease 
his wrath, which is shown by misfortune, years of drought, or of evil befalling 
the tribe or its members. Also, it is at times necessary to offer him human 
sacrifice so that he will allow the spirits of the deceased to rest. In case a 
Bagobo of rank or great influence dies and his widow is unable to secure another 
husband, it becomes necessary for her to offer sacrifice to appease the spirit of 
her departed husband in order that she may obtain another. 

To provide that these sacrifices be not made too frequently, it is custo- 
mary for the old men of the town to gather once each year, during the time 
when a collection of seven stars, three at right angles to the other four, are 
seen m the heavens to the east at seven o'clock in the evening, which is said to 
occur once each year, during the first part of December. This collection of 



REUGION. 35 

stars is called by the Bagabos "Balatic" and is the sign of the sacrifice; that 
is, if a sacrifice is to occur it must take place during the period when the' stars 
are in this position. 

The old men meet and decide if enough misfortune has overtaken the tribe 
or village during the period since the last sacrifice to render necessary another 
tribute to the god of evil. It is not necessary to offer a sacrifice for each evil, 
but when the misfortunes amount to considerable a sacrifice is held to cover 
the entire lot. 

In this case it appears that two widows, Addy and Obby, went to Datu 
Ansig and requested that he arrange a sacrifice to appease the spirits of their 
departed husbands, which were bothering them. Ansig called a meeting of 
the old men at which were present, besides himself, Bagobos OHng, Pandaya, 
and Ansing, and these four decided that, as they had not had a sacrifice since 
the great drought (about three years ago), and that since that time many evils 
had befallen them, it would be well to offer a sacrifice. These four men sent 
out to find a slave for sacrifice, the finder becoming the chief of the sacrifice. 

Ongon, a henchman of Datu Ansig, purchased from Bagobo Ido a Bilan 
slave boy, named Sacum, about eight years old, and who was deaf and cross- 
eyed and had other defects of vision, making him of little or no value as a 
laborer. Ido originally received this slave from Duon, a Bilan, as a wedding 
present when he married Duon's daughter about a year ago. 

Ongon agreed to pay Ido five gongs for the boy and took him to the 
house of Ansig, where arrangements were made for the sacrifice by calling on 
all who for any reason had need to appease the evil spirits to come and take 
part. Three days after the slave was brought to the house of Ansig the people 
met at Talon near the river InoH, a short distance from Ansig's house, this 
being the regular place of sacrifice. 

Leaving the house of Ansig, the boy, Sacum, was seated upon the ground 
near the place of sacrifice. He was naked, but no other preparation was made 
with regard to his person. Upon a platform or bench of bamboo about two 
feet high and a foot or two square was placed a small basket or receptacle made 
of the bark of the bonga tree; in this each person present and taking part in 
the sacrifice placed a piece of betel-nut ; over this the men placed their head 
kerchiefs, and over them the women laid strips of the bark of the palma tree. 
Upon this the men laid their bolos, and spears were then stuck in the ground 
in a circle around the platform. Next Datu Ansig, as chief of the sacrifice, 
made an oration, which was about as follows : 

"Oh! Mandarangan, chief of evil spirits and all the other spirits, come to 
our feast and accept our sacrifice. Let this sacrifice appease your wrath and 
take from us our misfortunes, granting us better times." 

After this the boy, Sacum, was brought forward by Ongon, placed against 
a small tree about six feet high, his hands tied above his head and his body tied 
to the tree with bejuco strips at the waist and knees. Ansig then placed a spear 
at the child's right side at a point below the right arm and above the margin of 
the ribs. The lance was grasped by the widows, Addy and Obby, who at a 
signal from Ansig forced it through the child's body, it coming out at the other 
side. It was immediately withdrawn and the body cut in two at the waist by 
bolos in the hands of Modesto Barrero and Ola, after which the body was cut 
down and chopped into bits by the people present, each of whom was allowed 
to take a small portion as a memento of the occasion, the remainder of the body 
being biu-ied in a hole prepared for it. 

Datu Ansig, a man about sixty years of age, says that in his life he has 
attended or oflficiated at fifty human sacrifices, more or less, both among the 
Bagobos and the Bilanes; and that human sacrifice is also a practice among 



36 THE SUBANU. 

the Taeacolos, although he has never been present at one held by that tribe. 
The Baeobos sacrifice none but old and decrepit or useless slaves captured 
from other tribes, but the Bilanes sacrifice even their own people. Being asked 
if it was customary to eat any portion of the body sacrificed, Ansig said it was 
not customary, nor did he know of any case where such had occurred. 

The last sacrifice before this was held at Talon during the year of the 
drought (about 1905), when a Bilan slave, an old man who was paralyzed in 
one arm, was sacrificed by Datu Oling, his master. „ , ^ ^ 

Asked if the sacrifice of an animal would not do as well as that of a human 
being, they said no, better to have no sacrifice at all. 

They appeared utterly unconscious of having committed any crime, told 
their story with frankness, said it was a matter not talked about among their 
own people; but that if we wanted to know the facts they would give them to 
the authorities. They claimed the offering of human sacrifices by their tribe 
to be an old custom, and as far as they knew the only way to appease the wrath 
of the evil spirits, but said if ordered to give the custom up they would do so, 
even if the Devil got them all. 

Near the rancheria of Ley (Lai), in Sibugai Bay, the Subanu of 
that region possess a tradition concerning a great chief who frequently 
sought relief from physical exhaustion by the sacrifice of one of his 
slaves, whose blood and heart he consumed while these parts were still 
warm. A mound on a steep bluff overlooking the river at Ley is claimed 
to be the sepulcher of the famous and greatly feared Subanu chief. 

In the Philippine Journal of Science for 1908 the subject of human 
sacrifices in the Philippines is presented with a list of cases reported 
by the Spanish missionaries. 

The Subanu are very reticent about divulging any detailed infor- 
mation as to the occurrence of human sacrifices among their people. In 
the absence of a decided negative to a direct inquiry, it may be safely 
asserted that such practice was rather common among them before the 
American occupation, especially in the secluded mountain areas of the 
upper Dapitan and Malindang country. 

During the great buklug or religious festivals of the Subanu excite- 
ment runs high, and sometimes it is hard for the more conservative head- 
men to keep the younger element under control. Unscrupulous and 
vicious Moros and Filipinos take advantage of the extreme agitation 
attending these festivals, impose upon the credulous balian, debauch 
them with visions of exercising extraordinary power over their fellows, 
stir up unusual religious fervor through alleged spirit manifestations 
from the diuata, and appeal to the passions of the lowest members of 
the tribe for sordid gain. Under such circumstances the ignorant and 
credulous hill people are willing to desert their homes, abandon their 
crops and personal property, and give themselves over to the depraved 
control of their self -constituted leaders. 

The Jesuits first arrived in the Philippines in June, 1595, with Gov- 
ernor Don Antonio de Morga, and in the following year two of these 
missionaries entered the island of Mindanao with the ill-fated expedi- 
tion under the command of Captain Rodriguez de Figueroa. After his 



RELIGION. 37 

death in 1596 at the hands of Moros, near the mouth of the Rio Grande 
River, in the Goto Bato Valley, the expedition, under its new com- 
mander, General Juan Ronquillo, retired to Caldora Bay, 10 miles 
west of Zamboanga, and constructed a presidio, which was garrisoned 
by 100 Spanish soldiers. Here the Jesuit missionaries, including Father 
Juan del Campo, assisted by Brother Gaspar Gomez, began work among 
the Subanu and the Lutaos (Samales). 

In 1 63 1 St. Francis Xavier began work among the Subanu near 
Dapitan. He was preceded in 1626 by Fathers Juan Lopez, Fabricio 
Sarsali, and Francisco de Otazo. In the year 1629 the missionary work 
in the Subanu country was placed in charge of the Bishop of Cebu, 
Fray Don Pedro de Arze. Missions were established by Father Pedro 
Gutierrez in 163 1 and 1632 along the west coast of the peninsula, from 
Dapitan to Zamboanga. The permanent mission of Dapitan was estab- 
hshed in 1 63 1 and Father Gutierrez was made the rector. 

The first Catholic priest to minister to the spiritual needs of the 
Subanu near Dapitan was Father Pasqual de Acuna in 1607. It is 
stated that he preached among these people with great success and bap- 
tized 200 of them. Missions were established by Fathers Lopez, Campo, 
and Gutierrez at Dipolog, Duhinog, Dicayo, Disakang,Sindangan,Mucas, 
Tehnga, Quipit, Siocong, Sibuku, La Caldera, Malandi, Baldasan, and 
Bocot, all situated on the coast. Later, Fathers Francisco Combes, 
Francisco PaHola, Pedro Tellez, and Adolfo de Pedrosa labored among 
the Subanu. Father PaHola was killed by the islanders in 1648 and 
Father Campo on January 7, 1650, at the Mission of Siocong (now 
written Siukun). 

The early missionaries suffered many hardships in trying to con- 
vert the Subanu to Christianity. They applied themselves with great 
courage and fidelity to the difficult task and succeeded in liberating 
slaves, aiding the sick, diminishing barbarous practices, and bringing a 
few of the more tractable under the spiritual instruction of the church. 
Commendable effort was made to instruct the children in the art of 
reading and writing by using the publications of the church. Solemn 
services were held for the dead, and the natives were taught to march 
in funeral processions and to carry with them candles, rice, and other 
offerings, as suffrages by the faithful for the peace and safety of the 
souls of the departed. 

From 1596 to 191 2 these missionary labors, both Catholic and 
Protestant, have penetrated from the coast but a few miles inland. 
The vast interior of the Subanu coimtry has remained untouched by 
missionary effort. The writer in 1904 and 1905 traveled about 2,000 
miles on foot through this country and found at Sianib, about 10 miles 
inland on the Dipolog River, a partially constructed building of poles 
and grass, which the Subanu informed him had been built at the behest 
of the CathoUc priests at Dipolog and Dapitan. These Subanu made 



38 THE SUBANU. 

early inquiry of the writer as to the attitude of the new government 
(American) relative to religious matters, and whether or not they must 
forego their native worship and take up some new doctrine. They 
were informed that the government of the United States made no 
attempt to control a man's conscience and that therefore all people 
under the new management were at hberty to hold any religious beUef 
they chose to follow; that any and all reHgious observances and doc- 
trines were to be permitted where and in what manner their advocates 
desired, provided such action did not contravene the law of the land. 
This announcement was greeted with smiles, gesticulations of joy, and 
much excited conversation among the men and women. The meeting 
was held in the incompleted church building, and the Subanu were 
advised to finish the structure and that it could be used for reHgious and 
secular instruction. But on the occasion of the writer's next visit, 
some weeks later, it was found that the building had been destroyed by 
fire, whether accidental or not was never fully ascertained. At the 
present time CathoHc mission work among the Subanu has practically 
ceased. 

The American government has accompHshed practically nothing in 
the way of extending the pubhc school system to the Subanu. This 
has been due in part to lack of pubHc funds and in part to the extreme 
isolation of the people. The CathoHc missionaries at Dapitan and 
Dipolog, on the west coast of the Subanu country, stiU maintain paro- 
chial schools at the rancherias of Toocan, Matam, Barcelona, Langa- 
tian, Dohinob, Ilaya, and Polanco, and on the north coast at Sauang, 
Libay, and BaHangao. The missionaries on the east coast at Langaran, 
Oroquieta, and Misamis maintain parochial schools for the Christian 
FiHpinos, but the Subanu children do not attend, largely because it is 
impracticable for them to make the long journey from the hihs to the 
coast, and, finally, the question of association with a race of heathen 
regarded as inferior would introduce serious elements of discord. In 
those schools referred to as being established on the north and west 
coasts the attendance is restricted to children whose parents are mem- 
bers in good standing of the CathoHc church. 

All the towns mentioned are within 3 miles of the coast. The 
Subanu are hill people, usually residing much further inland and in any 
event debarred from the parochial schools because of religious disquaU- 
fication, and prevented from entering the government free pubHc schools 
because such schools are confined to the largest Christian towns and 
are out of reach and still more out of sympathy with Pagan surroundings 
and customs. 

BURIAL CUSTOMS. 

Where death results from ordinary causes the body is usually 
buried in a grove of trees which serves as a cemetery for several f amiUes. 
During epidemics of smallpox and cholera the bodies are frequently 



MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 39 

left in the abandoned houses and may be consumed by the hordes of 
starveling dogs and cats that always infest Subanu settlements. The 
balian, man or woman, is called in to minister to the sick, and entire 
reliance is placed upon his judgment in the employment of herbs and 
prayers to drive away the evil spirits which are beUeved to produce 
the illness. Medicine and religion are so closely allied in daily life that 
the herbs used in medication are considered quite ineffective unless 
administered by the balian. 

If the deceased is a male adult the women of his family engage in 
wild lamentations while others prepare the body for burial. The body 
may be encased in a wooden receptacle hollowed out from a tree, or 
wrapped up in mats securely bound about with strips of bejuco or 
bamboo. The graves are marked by carved pieces of wood and deco- 
rated by a varied arrangement of stones and shells. Bodies are some- 
times placed for burial in natural caves where available, and in the 
hollow trunks of large trees. When corpses are interred the pits are 
always shallow, for they must be scooped out with knives and the 
hands. Therefore the graves are often dug open by wild hogs and 
dogs and the bodies devoured. To avoid such unearthing the dead 
from isolated families are buried near the house and sometimes under 
the house, especially in the case of children. In some cases shelters 
are erected over the graves and the spot is inclosed with a fence of split 
bamboo or of poles. 

During epidemics the dead are sometimes cast into the rivers and 
the sea in order to destroy, if possible, the cause of the contagion. 
The Subanu do not practise cremation in disposing of the dead. They 
have a horror of thus disposing of a body and fear the condemnation 
which may follow from the spirits or diuata. 

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 

Subanu women usually marry upon arriving at the age of puberty 
(about 13 years), while young men are often restricted beyond the age 
of puberty by the necessity of providing for the dowry, which must be 
paid to the father of the bride before she can engage in the marriage 
ceremony. 

The Subanu do not know their ages, as no record of the date of 
birth is ever kept and they are unable to read or write. They appre- 
ciate the succession of day and night and count a period of days by 
tying knots in a string of split bejuco, each knot representing a day of 
Hght and a day of darkness. In some instances a separate knot is 
made for each. 

Marriage among the Subanu is brought about through the efforts 
of relatives of the young people, especially the parents. The fathers, 
as absolute heads of their families, control the disposition of the brides. 
They fix the marriage portion and determine the time of payment, 



40 THE SUBANU. 

together with the character and value of the articles composing it. 
They may consist of rice, palay, cloth, Chinese jars, articles of brass, 
weapons, gongs, and domestic animals. Maidens bring a better price 
than widows or divorced women. 

The father of the bride may condition his acceptance upon a period 
of personal service by the young man in the bride's family, the length 
of such service to be fixed by the father of the young woman, subject 
to modification through conferences between the two famiUes. 

A plurality of wives is permissible but not common, mostly for 
want of sufficient means for the marriage portion and to pay for the 
ceremony and the usual feast provided for relatives and friends. Other 
restrictions upon marriage arise from the observances of consanguinity 
and affinity. Kinship nearer than first cousins constitutes a bar and 
usually this degree of relationship is prohibitive. 

Step-relationship is usually a bar to marriage, although marriages 
between step-daughters and own sons of the same family are sometimes 
permitted. A man may marry more than one daughter from the same 
family, and cases are known of his also marrying the mother of the 
daughters. 

A more extraordinary feature of the Subanu marriage customs is 
exhibited where a man marries his mother-in-law who is divorced or 
widowed, even while the daughter is Uving as his wife. These exhibi- 
tions of variations from the normal customs of the people are controlled 
by personal or family considerations, present at the time, and are not 
generally followed or approved of. 

Violation of the marriage laws is punishable by fines paid to the 
iimuai or headman of each Subanu settlement, and these laws are quite 
rigidly enforced through pubHc sentiment and good faith. 

Neither a pregnant woman nor her husband will go down the house 
steps and turn back before reaching the ground. A pregnant woman 
must not remove a pot from the fire and then put it on again. Neither 
a pregnant woman nor her husband may tie anything about the neck 
before the birth of the child. Pregnant women are enjoined by the 
balian from covering their breasts during pregnancy. If during preg- 
nancy the husband ties or binds up things in the house where his wife 
remains, such action may result in fastening the child to the mother 
and destroy its Hfe. Some few days before the birth of the child the 
father must refrain from all excitement in order not to attract the 
attention of evil spirits. Any difficulty attending birth is ascribed to 
the intervention of evil spirits. A short time before the birth of the 
child the mother is placed in a little house by herself; this house is 
called gosina and is temporarily erected for the purpose. After child- 
birth the mother submits to a baking process by lying close to a hot 
fire, exposing alternately the stomach and the buttocks, until the womb 
is said to dry up and there is no more discharge. During the pains of 



MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 41 

childbirth the midwife presses hard upon the chest and stomach of the 
mother, with her hands and sometimes her knees, to prevent the child 
escaping from the mouth of the mother. In the event of a very diffi- 
cult childbirth a balian is called in to determine what particular spirit 
or diuata is angry or annoyed by the approaching birth and how such 
spirit may be appeased. 

Christie records the note that in punishment of incest the culprit 
is set in a wicker cage with his hands tied and thrown into a stream. 
This note of an isolated fact is valuable but obscure. We comprehend 
it only through recognition of the same manner of punishment for 
marriage within the forbidden degrees practised by the Kayan of North 
Borneo, also a fluviatile people. The Kayan inflict this death penalty 
without spilling blood in order to avoid the necessity of paying the 
blood atonement. Our notes lack detail upon this point among the 
Subanu, but the occurrence in the vocabulary of hangon in the sense of 
blood money shows the custom to be operative here also. 

As the father is the absolute ruler of his family, so he may put 
away his wife by divorce for good and sufficient cause, in accordance 
with the customary law. 

The headman sits in judgment upon the application for divorce, 
which may be made by either party. Violations of the law and con- 
tumacy in respect of the decision of the headman are punished by fine. 

Public sentiment is against divorce, especially if there are children. 
The usual causes for divorce are sterility, adultery, desertion, and 
incompatibiUty of temper. The dowry can not be recovered unless 
the woman secures the divorce. 

Under the general designation liingan are grouped certain customs 
which are the rule of life for widows and widowers. After the death of 
husband or wife the surviving partner must wear plain clothing of 
white or black, must refrain from all dances and other festivities, avoid 
the transaction of all business, and generally keep as far as possible 
within the seclusion of the house. An unkempt appearance is the out- 
ward and visible sign of grief, at least of mourning, and to attain this 
lugubrious appearance the relict must take no baths and wash no 
clothes. The period of this mourning is set by the performance of the 
two funerary celebrations, the buklug timala and the buklug pulimtu. 



THE SUBANU 

Studies of a Sub-Visa yan Mountain Folk 
OF Mindanao 



Part II. 

Discussion of the Linguistic Material 
By WILLIAM CHURCHILL 

Honorary Member of the Polynesian Society, Corresponding Member of the Haavaiian 

Historical Society, Member of the American Philological Association, Fe/loiv 

of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 



CHAPTER I. 
PITFALLS OF THE VOCABULIST. 

The material upon which has been based this study of the Subanu 
speech was collected partly by Colonel Finley himself during the active 
and somewhat militant years of his term as governor of Zamboanga and 
partly at his order and under his direction by such assistants as he 
could spare from the exacting details of his administration. The exten- 
sion of the American system to dominions oversea, the adjustment of 
American poUty to the at present unassimilable and non-homogeneous 
peoples of a distinctly lower culture plane, the inopine and hghtly 
assumed administration of an empire through the machinery of a loqua- 
cious democracy — all these things at the beginning of but their second 
decade are yet so new that our people who stay at home in ease have no 
slightest conception of the character and the mass of administrative 
details which are laid upon our new proconsulars. 

It so happens that I know, because it has been given to me to pass 
through the experience. Designated to the administration of one of the 
weak kingdoms of the Pacific, primus inter pares in a board of three 
consulars, each of whom had the absolute right of veto, sworn to admin- 
ister the Berlin General Act, which was fatally defective from the very 
beginning, I have known the trials of ruling the kingdom of Samoa. It 
has fallen to my lot to face the hostile front of war with no greater show 
of force than the American ensign hoisted aboard a 21 -foot rowboat, 
where my British and German colleagues could back their authority 
with steel cruisers. I know through experience the hours and days of 
talk, the tangle of plot and counterplot, the reams of paper covered 
with reports never to be comprehended in Washington, time working 
into overtime just to keep the peace. I can sympathize with the effort 
which it has cost my collaborator, the sacrifice which it has meant to 
him of rest and relaxation, to compile this material which he has put 
into my hands for study. Better than others, I can count the cost of 
such work as this, done under trying military and civil conditions, work 
in a field which Ues wholly outside his professional duty. Therefore I, 
at least, know that such material must be approached with sympathy 
as well as reverence. It is only after full and cordial conference with 
him upon the subject that I venture upon the criticism of the material. 

I found my collaborator anxious that the data should be discussed 
solely upon their own showing and without consideration of the circum- 
stances under which they had been collected. When I pointed out to 
him that other vocabulists had been confronted with the same unrecog- 
nized difficulties, I found him not only willing but enthusiastic that, in 

45 



46 THIS SUBANU. 

connection with the critical discussion of his material, I should write a 
further note upon the general theme of the pitfalls which beset the first 
vocabuUst when he essays the task of collecting the words of a speech 
hitherto unrecorded. So far as I have been able to discover, this is a 
chapter of practical psychology which has never been written. 

As it must serve as an apology for some of Colonel Finley's work in 
the field, so must it serve quite as much for errors into which later 
students'of this material, now for the first time presented, will discover 
that I have fallen, and with less excuse, since my work has been prose- 
cuted with assistance of library f aciUties and in conditions which better 
make for effective research. 

These data have been presented for my study in three parcels, each 
of which has entailed a somewhat different method of examination. 

1. The text of Colonel Finley's geographical and ethnographical 
account of the Subanu, which forms Part I of this work. In this I have 
had to do no more than glean the vocables incidentally occurring in 
the narrative and to check them into their proper places in the vocab- 
ularies already compiled from the two parcels next to be mentioned. 

2. A collection of Subanu words with their EngUsh translations, 
written with the pen and covering 27 foolscap foHos. This record is of 
the first order, for it is an original record and presents the words just as 
they impressed Colonel Finley's ear when he collected them from his 
Subanu informants. In several particulars the spelhng differs con- 
siderably from that which obtains in the third item and which I have, 
for reasons later to be noted, adopted as the preHminary standard. 
Where this manuscript dupHcates an entry in the other record I have 
harmonized the spelHng; in all other cases, because of the great value 
which the original record will have for phonetic study, I have refrained 
from altering the speUing. From this source the alphabet acquires the 
letter k, which sound in the other source is uniformly represented by C 
(qu before e and i) . Similarly this collection of words employs g before 
e and i where the other collection, following the usage of written Visa- 
yan (in which the Spanish influence of the friars is manifest) , employs 
gu. These points will be more fully discussed in the chapter on Subanu 
phonetics ; they are mentioned here solely as characterizing this material. 

This manuscript is not continuous ; several periods of activity are 
indicated. 

a. The first 148 entries are words and phrases collected at random, 
measures of capacity, names of gods and heroes, a wealth of ethno- 
graphic material which has been transferred to appropriate places in 
Part I, where it more properly belongs than in the vocabulary. 

b. This section is based upon a number of English words arranged 
in alphabetical order with Subanu entries, amounting to 380 items; the 
strict alphabetization is interrupted after the word egg by the interpola- 
tion of 48 items of numeration. This is found to be a standardization 



PITFAI.I.S OF THE VOCABULIST. 47 

of Christie's vocabulary of the Sindangan river mouth with many 
additions. 

c. Without mark of division begins a second EngHsh alphabetiza- 
tion of common vocables amounting to 206 items. This is based on 
Christie's vocabulary of Nueva Reus. 

d. In the same abrupt fashion begins yet a third EngHsh alpha- 
betization amounting to 88 items. 

e. A brief supplement of 1 1 entries without order. 
The sum of the items contained in this material is 881 . 

3. A collection of Subanu words typed on 28 folios closely spaced. 
Each folio has four columns, respectively Subanu, Visayan, Spanish, 
and English. This collection also exhibits two efforts. 

a. The earUer 8 foHos are words and phrases chosen at random, 
301 word items, 47 phrases ranging in relative utihty from "give me a 
drink" to the ultimate theology of "good and wicked people will be 
well distinguished on the day of judgment." 

h. Beginning at the top of the ninth folio the material is alpha- 
betized by the Spanish column of equivalents. This alphabetization 
goes only as far as the Spanish initial m and but briefly into that 
section, for the last entry is under malgastar. In each initial the colla- 
tion has been done very lazily. For example, the entries under a cease 
at acumular, 65 entries in all. Turning next to b, the compiler has 
entered 43 items, under C 44, under d 46, under e 67, under f 39, under g 
43, under h 44, under i 86, under j 22, under 1 47, under m 24. The 
sum of this section is 570 entries and the sum of the whole collection is 
918 items. Including the sum of the manuscript material with that 
which has been typed, we have 1,799 items, many of the items contain- 
ing four or more Subanu vocables. 

It is this third group of Subanu material which makes it pertinent 
to give here some detailed attention to the pitfalls which lie in wait for 
the unwary and the untrained vocabulist. These pitfalls are many 
and well hidden; it is not until a language has become well studied that 
its terrain becomes free of such dangers, and even then it is but a small 
group of the persons born to any speech who may be trusted to employ 
it without risk to themselves and to their hearers. Far worse, then, is 
the pUght of the one who, without a safe guide, endeavors to thread the 
way of reason through an ill-comprehended speech. 

Here we must take under consideration the problem of what trans- 
lation really is. Is it sufficient to take this or any sentence, to seek in 
the French, the German, the Ural-Altaic dictionary, as you will, the 
recorded equivalent of each word in turn ? Have we done all when we 
have associated these equivalent vocables in accordance with the syntax 
of the language into which we are supposably translating? 

Who eats cherries? It will make a large Teutonic difference 
whether one translates wer isst or wer frisst. 



48 THE SUBA>rU. 

Thus we see that there is something more than mere extraction 
from a dictionary and the appUcation of rules of grammar. The essence 
of translation is the portage from one mind to another of a certain defi- 
nite idea ; the form of words is but the least of the agency to be employed. 
The schoolboy construes Ccssar venii in Galliam summa diligentia beau- 
tifully, as coming to France on top of a diligence, and is sure that he has 
rendered unto Caesar as by law required. So long as mere words out- 
rank sense we may all do much the same thing; if only the words be 
sufficiently sonorous we call it oratory. 

With pains, with the skill which comes from use, we may succeed in 
expressing our thoughts in aHen speech with certainty, provided we have 
the same sort of thought as that which our hearer possesses. It is the 
portage of the thought which alone can be called translation. But sup- 
pose the hearer has no such thought as ours ; suppose his mind is wholly 
incapable of such thought. Suppose he be one of our own rude folk or 
one of a folk all rude. In that case what does translation become? 

On the path toward the lower culture planes with which we shall be 
engaged in these studies I may cite an instance in which defective trans- 
lation led to war with its train of death. After years of distress in 
Samoa, three great nations undertook to bring the blessings of peace, 
and the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, of the United States, and of 
Germany met in Berlin. After long deliberation, indeed after many 
really generous sacrifices of national ambitions which each nation con- 
tributed in the hope of peace, there was formulated a constituent treaty 
known as the BerHn General Act. In this document it was provided 
that Malietoa Laupepa should be king of Samoa. The plenipotentiaries 
understood the word, king, k'nig; there could be no manner of doubt, 
even the American member had some recollection of George III, quite 
sufiicient to fix and define the idea to his comprehension. Then came 
the translation whereby this great document should be made effective 
for the waiting Samoans. In this one point the plenipotentiaries had 
not compared their faculties ; they had not thought to examine whether 
they had the faculty of translation. To put the accepted text into 
Samoan words was not difficult ; the English masters of the island tongue 
declared that English king is Samoan tupu; the Germans who had equal 
facility with that tongue agreed that German konig is Samoan tupu. 

Thus, then, it came into Samoan; peace was to rule at the behest of 
the great powers of the earth and Malietoa Laupepa was to be Samoa's 
tupu. The word had been translated, the thought had failed of portage. 
The brown islander under his palms had no memory of Georgius Tertius 
to help him to comprehension. At times I was almost moved to salute 
that quiet and lovable man Laupepa in the phrase "O king, live for- 
ever," for I knew the trouble which had been provided for the succes- 
sion. But his own tupu trouble came to harass his days while yet he 
sat upon the throne. For the Samoan tupu is he who rules over all 



PITFAI.LS OF THE VOCABULIST. 49 

Samoa; first must come the right to rule, then follows the title. The 
right inheres in the possession of four names of might conferred after 
a rather complicated system based on traditional custom which in 
another connection I shall have to present at length. Here it suffices 
briefly to say that one petty village community has the right to confer — 
and to withdraw — the name of Tui-Atua and with it the right to rule the 
district of Atua and its family dependencies ; another has the right to 
confer the name of Tui-'A'ana, yet others the names of Tamasoali'i and 
Natoaitele respectively. In each case the right to withdraw accompa- 
nies the right to confer. Who holds all four names is the ruler of all 
Samoa, its tupu, for the period of possession of the four names as much 
a king as the Samoans can imagine, but always subject to inopportune 
subtraction. And because the high plenipotentiaries translated their 
king and konig with all the connotation of right divine and constitu- 
tional checks into this temporary and amorphous tupu of the South 
Sea, Samoa knew no peace; first one and then another of the royal 
names was retracted and war followed. 

We may find the same sort of thing much nearer home. Popularly 
it is supposed that we speak the same language in America and in parts 
of Great Britain; when hands are across the sea we try to glow with 
after-dinner satisfaction that our mother tongue is our common heri- 
tage. But when it comes to the usufruct we are not without evidence 
that need exists for true translation. From John S. Farmer's Ameri- 
canisms, Old and New I extract this instance : 

Jag. A slang term for an umbrella, possibly from the article being so 
constantly carried. 

He came in very late (after an unsuccessful effort to unlock the front door with his 
umbrella) through an unfastened coal hole in the sidewalk. Coming to himself toward 
dayUght, he found himself — spring overcoat, silk hat, jag and all — stretched out in the 
bath tub. — Albany Journal, 1888. 

Yet another and later recorder, J. Redding Ware, in Passing Eng- 
lish of the Victorian Era, clearly stands without the interpreter's house: 

Yaller dog (American). Yellow is the tint of most dogs in America; 
hence it is the most searching term of ordinary contempt. 

If there can be such pitfalls in a speech supposedly common, think 
what must be awaiting the men who make the first record of newly dis- 
covered tongues. One such error has become classic in all the lan- 
guages of civilization; its error has almost faded from memory; our 
most recent authorities now essay to believe that it was no error at all. 

When Captain Cook discovered the coast of Australia at the spot 
where now stands a thriving city bearing his name, his naturalist, later 
to become the great Sir Joseph Banks of the Royal Society, was at once 
attracted by the great marsupials hopping over the landscape. The 
conditions were ideal for error. Just that day discovered, the aborigi- 
nes knew no English, Banks had not a word of the Australian speech, 



50 THE SUBANU. 

the means of intercommunication were wholly blocked. Yet still the 
marsupials hopped like giant grasshoppers, a sight to attract any 
naturahst with the prospect of annexing to the name of the animal nov. 
gen. et nov. sp. But first to know the name. One may readily imagine 
the naturahst inquiring in some manner of broken EngHsh, for Beach- 
la-Mar was not for a generation to be invented, "and now, my dear man, 
what may be the name of that most extraordinary animal ?" To which 
the answer Ka anguru. And by others confirmed on repeated ques- 
tioning, Ka anguru. Thence comes into our languages kangaroo. It 
is only long afterward, when men have settled the Australian wild and 
some knowledge of the speech is acquired, that it is learned that the 
answer was no name at all, but simply "I do not understand." 

Very similar to the instance of the kangaroo is an item in the 
Subanu material which I have been elaborating. In one of the manu- 
scripts which have come to me (3-6) is the entry : 

bicho a small grub or insect mananap nong mica daay ngalan. 

It is only when the language is worked out that we find even this 
scanty vocabulary quite sufficient to show us that the Subanu words 
mean only "animal without a name." 

Elsewhere in my studies upon the primitive languages of the Pacific 
{The Polynesian Wanderings, page 365, and with greater fulness in 
Easter Island, page 166), I have remarked upon another pitfall of the 
vocabulary. This was the case of the acquisition of the numerals by 
means of the finger count. It was shown that (by reason of the fact 
that we are in the habit of counting the fingers which we stick up to 
view and that several savage races count the fingers which are flexed 
upon the palm) it has more than once happened that early collectors of 
speech have inverted the order of the first four numerals and have reg- 
istered the further note that the savages under their examination were 
found unable to count as high as five. 

Here, too, belongs the story of the Island of Yesindeed. Three 
names of European shipmen are associated with the discovery of Samoa. 
The first was Roggeveen, who happened upon the group in 1722 and 
conferred upon 'Upolu a name out of the United Netherlands. Second 
came Bougainville in 1768 and designated the archipelago the lies des 
Navigateurs. In 1 787, La Perouse entered the group from the eastward 
and found no difficulty in obtaining the name of Manu'a. When he 
reached Tutuila he was misled by the name Maunga, which is titular for 
the chief of Pagopago, or else by the same word used as a common noun 
to designate a mountain, for he charted the island as Maouna. Stretch- 
ing westward across the strait which now parts German from American 
Samoa, he named 'Upolu Oyolava, a name which has not entirely dis- 
appeared from the charts and which commonly persists on the larger 
globes, cartographic material less frequently subject to revision. We 



PlTFAI^IvS OF THE VOCABUUST. 51 

can readily reconstruct in imagination the question which La Perouse 
put to his Samoan informant from whom he derived what he took to be 
the name of the island. Less readily can we reconstruct what the 
poHte and always suave Samoan thought that the Frenchman was ask- 
ing him, but it is quite clear that even though he did not understand 
the French the Samoan was filled with sufficient bonhomie to reply 
ioe lava. Down it went into the navigator's notebook as the name of 
the land. We who understand the Samoan smile at the incident, for 
ioe lava means "yes, indeed." 

Such considerations as these, and I have but skimmed the surface 
of a most interesting chapter of practical philology, should make it 
quite clear that it is the part of wisdom to approach the original record 
of a newly discovered speech with fear and trembling. Into my hands 
have been placed the field notes of discovery ; their immense value must 
be recognized, but in their original state they are immense in the sense 
in which the Romans used the term, great but lacking order. With an 
eye for the pitfalls I have sought to clear the path whereupon others 
may safely tread. Many errors have I rectified; that many more still 
remain is undoubted. 

It is sufficient satisfaction for the present to feel that the beginning 
has been made, that a convenient handbook may be offered to those 
whose duty may engage them in this field. Thus will the errors be cor- 
rected and additions will surely accrue for the improvement of our 
knowledge. Best of all, this small vocabulary will serve the end of 
social betterment and help to a poor folk who from their own kind have 
met with nothing but rapine and toward whom we have assumed a duty 
of protection for the present until they may be raised to the point where 
they may accept the good we offer them. 

It has proved of interest to work out the perturbation factors 
which affect the Subanu source designated as 3 in the foregoing account. 
From my collaborator I learn that the work was done by two collectors. 
The former list (3-a) was collected through a partially tamed Subanu 
who had a knowledge of Visayan, a bilingual assistant. With this 
information it is possible to follow out his method. Against such 
Subanu words as he saw fit to record he set the Visayan equivalent. In 
further development by another hand it was possible from the Visayan 
vocable to pass to the Spanish and thence eventually to the English. 

The collector of the larger part of this material is described by 
Colonel Finley as a rather bright Visayan who was employed as a mu- 
chacho by one of the Spanish mission priests. He was trilingual; in 
addition to his proper Visayan he comprehended the Subanu in one 
direction and to a certain extent the Spanish in the other. Here enters 
yet another factor, one which has been of great assistance to me in 
making determinations whereby I might correct the errors of the original 
text. This is the Visayan dictionary of Fray Juan FeHx, a really com- 



52 THE SUBANU. 

mendable piece of lexicography to have been accomplished by one quite 
ignorant of the science of language. The edition which has been placed 
at my service by the Librarian of Congress is entitled: "Diccionario 
Bisaya-Espafiol (Espaiiol-Bisaya) compuesto por el R. P. Fr. Juan 
Felix de la Encarnacion . . . tercera edicion aumentada con mas de 
tres mil voces por el R. P. Fr. Jose Sanchez; Manila, 1885." The 
Visayan vocabulary contains some 12,000 items. 

In my earlier characterization of this section of the material, I 
pointed out that the collector had based his work upon a Spanish word- 
list which he had followed somewhat irregularly. Upon my first inspec- 
tion of the Visayan dictionary I discovered that the muchacho had saved 
himself much trouble by following the Spanish- Visayan of Fray Juan 
FeUx. This suspicion was fully confirmed when I made the discovery 
that his following had been so uninspired that he had followed even the 
typographical errors. The only difference noted is that he seems to 
have used a dialectic form of the Visayan slightly variant (particularly 
in the use of the vowels a and u) from the standard of the dictionary. 
This is matter of less moment when we find that the reverend lexi- 
cographer is not consistent with himself, that many words in the 
Spanish- Visayan vary, not only in vowels but in consonants as well, /H 
from the forms recorded in Visayan-Spanish. 

The original entries seem to have been written by hand with pen or 
pencil, for there appears a constant perturbation factor of imperfectly 
legible chirography. This has produced a most irregular treatment of 
the composition members; at times they are united with the stems to 
which they apply, at other times they stand apart, in the end it is by no 
means certain that this type of error has been wholly corrected. In 
Uke manner such independent members of the sentence as conjunctions 
are found joined with more important vocables ; where the equivalent in 
Visayan has not been discovered it has proved impossible to assort these 
to their proper places. With considerable experience of the haste and I 
the bad pen of unready writers, I find that I have visualized a chir- ' 
ography for this stage of the notes and have had to exercise my wits in i 
detecting error attributable to bad writing. As a single instance from 
many I cite the entry "patoel, brother." When the Visayan gives us \ 
patod we may readily see that we are not dealing with an anomalous 
mutation, but that a loosely penned d has been misread el by the 
transcriber. 

The material reached its second stage when the written notes were j 
transcribed upon the typewriter by some clerical assistant. We assume 
that he was quite ignorant of Subanu, scantily acquainted with the 
Visayan, and imperfectly acquainted with Spanish, as is the wont of the 
enHsted man on foreign service. At this stage was added the fourth 
column of text ; against the triple entry of Subanu-Visayan-Spanish is 
now set the EngUsh equivalent. Here again I have had the fortune to 



PITFAI.LS OF THE VOCABULIST. 53 

identify the manual in use, Appleton's Spanish dictionary of 1872, 
Seoane's Neuman and Barretti by Velazquez. In adjusting this mate- 
rial to the growing vocabulary the clerk has followed consistently an 
easily identifiable method. In all cases where Seoane renders a Spanish 
word by two English words the clerk has used the former. The result 
is odd, but easily corrigible when we hold his manual. Of this class of 
error I cite the definition of gocsip through Spanish /a/ca by the former 
of Seoane's renderings "washboard;" of course the washboard is yet a 
distant culture plane above the laundry requirements of these savages, 
and apart from this a priori reasoning the Visayan homologue sipsip 
enables us to discover, with the assistance of Fray Juan Fehx, that the 
object is really a wedge. 

In this stage of the text appears yet another perturbation factor, 
the errors of the typewriter. Here a revising hand has made with the 
pen such corrections as seemed necessary. I instance the definition of 
meaon through Visayan mayahon and Spanish enano "dwarfish" by the 
typed word Awarfish; here the corrector, recognizing that there was no 
such word, has drawn his pen to part the initial A from warfish and has 
added the explicative note "fighting fish." It was no more than a slip 
of the finger, the a key was hit when reaching for d. 

I have corrected all such errors as the use of the method of com- 
parative study has shown me. I can not feel sure that I have cleared 
the text of all error, that would be too much to expect; but I have per- 
formed the task of emendation with the utmost sympathy, for I have 
had abundant experience of the diflSculty which attends the student of 
a new-found speech. 



I 



CHAPTER II. 
SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 

The alphabetical system employed in this work is neither consistent 
nor particularly to be commended. Its variety has indeed arisen in the 
variety of the sources from which the vocabulary has been derived and 
is conditioned by the various influences which have affected the col- 
lectors. It would be far preferable to present the results in some more 
acceptable alphabet ; in view of the fact that print has either not at all 
as yet, or only very slightly, reached these Pagan tribes of Mindanao, it 
would have been well to employ the scientific alphabet. But in these 
studies, conducted at a distance, it has been found impracticable to 
make any change in the field notes as provided. 

We are grateful to Cadmus for the gift of letters, but gratitude 
toward a figure dimly seen in the dawn of culture can not blot out the 
sense of the unfitness of these things which must come over us in the 
attempt to represent new languages by the alphabetic system of our 
own. Letters are indeed a great gift ; without them it is hard to con- 
ceive of civiHzation making headway. Cadmus wedded Harmony, but 
the inheritance comes not from the distaff side, rather the seed of the 
dragon's teeth with strife — and spelling. Scant wonder is it that the 
marks, whatever they may have been, which Bellerophon bore were 
described as a^fxaza Xojpd. 

Indeed it is a dismal task to seek to apply the six and twenty signs 
of our alphabet to the needs of a foreign speech, to employ but two 
dozen (bakers' tale) symbols in representing to the eye a series of 
sounds which fall but Uttle short of four score. In this work upon 
which we are entering we shall have to recognize that we can have no 
more than an approximation. Recorded in the Roman alphabet with 
no suggestion of diacritical marks the words in this vocabulary must 
be regarded as but sketches, not working plans drawn to scale; the 
ivhole topic of pronunciation, directions whereby this material might 
DC placed to speech use, must necessarily be omitted. 

The influences affecting the collectors of this Subanu material vary 
n terms of European speech. All that part of the field notes which is 
n Colonel Finley's manuscript is naturally reduced to conformity with 
he usage of the EngHsh alphabet, and doubtfully placed sounds are 
eproduced by the proximate English sound most familiar upon an 
American ear. It is thus that we owe to this influence the employment 
)f k in some few vocables where the other collectors employ C, and qu 
)efore e and i. 

55 



56 



THB SUBANU. 



That somewhat larger part of the vocabulary which rests upon the 
efforts, such as they are, of the Subanu informant and the Visayan 
muchacho has been brought into conformity with written Visayan. 
That speech was reduced to writing by Spanish missionaries ; therefore 
in the dictionary of Fray Juan FeHx we find the custom of the Spanish 
alphabet. 

It is unfortunate that we miss the opportunity to correct the variety 
and to present this newly recorded speech in better guise. Yet it is 
really less to be regretted, for in the ordering of this wild community it 
is Hkely that for a long time to come intercourse with the shy moun- 
taineers will most commonly be conducted through Hispanized Visayan 
intermediaries. 

The following notes upon the phonetics of the Subanu are suppUed 
by my collaborator and are presented without change, for their impor- 
tance is that they are a record at first hand : 



The vowels have generally the Continental 

value. 
The doublet oo corresponds to Visayan u. 
The value of y is always consonantal. 
The c is always hard. 
The g is always hard. 
a has the broad sound as in mar. 
The frequent termination aan is a dissyllable. 
aay is a syllable and diphthong. 
gu is used before e and i to preserve the hard 

sound of g as in Spanish. 
o is sounded as in move. 
gua as in guano. 
au as ou in house. 
ao as ow in how. 
ay has the diphthongal sound of i in pine. 

With these notes from the field to guide us and with the assistance 
of the vocabulary it is practicable to construct the alphabetic scheme 
of Subanu as shown upon the following table : 



qu before e and i has the value of k as in 
Spanish. 

ng has the sound of ng in singer. 

fig has the doublet (ngg) sound of ng in finger. 

ua has the value of wa in water. 

h as in English. 

The vowels e and i are difficult to distinguish 
in Subanu pronunciation. Sometimes 
the same difficulty is experienced with 
the vowels o and u. These four vowels 
are not always used in the same manner 
by the same speaker at different times. 

gh and kh are harsh guttiu-al sounds some- 
times heard in Subanu speech; the 
sounds are not found in English. 



y 


r, 1 


w semivowels 


ng 


n 


m nasals 


h 




aspiration 


sonant — 
surd — 


s 


• sibilant 


sonant gh 
surd kh 


z 


~> spirant 


sonant g 
surd k 


d 
t 


p) ™"t^ 


palatal 


lingual 


labial 


series 


series 


series. 



I find that this is the 107 th time I have pubHshed the alphabetic 
diagram for languages of my study. Out of this frequency of use has 
grown famiUarity and fulness of comprehension. I regard the diagram 
as far more than a convenience in the presentation of the alphabetic 
scheme of any speech; to me it is a language picture by which it is 



IJ 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 57 

possible to trace the family resemblance of a language and from the 
resemblance to recognize its affiUation. We shall now advance to the 
interpretation of this picture of the Subanu. 

The vowel uncertainty will recur in the last chapter, where we shall 
have occasion to discuss its critical value in the solution of the major 
problem which we develop in these studies. 

The outline of the consonant supply upon this diagram surely has 
a deep linguistic signification — one, we feel confident, not beyond our 
powers of interpreting. A lineal presentation of the consonant element 
of the foregoing tabulation would consist of a square lacking its east 
side. The upper and the lower bounding lines would be indicated by 
heavier lines as showing that along those lines there is a double supply 
of material ; the west boundary would be lighter, yet 
distinct and almost complete. Within the area of the r*"^^"^^^"" 
square would be set a dot to represent that a single 
effort has been made to fill up the vacancy. Before 
we dismiss the Subanu we shall find that the simplicity 
of such a graphic method as this will facilitate the 
comparison with other languages and speech famihes 
which exhibit diagrams of different construction. 

These forms are not without meaning in the history of speech 
development; they call for study along that line of examination. 

It will be granted that the use of the vowel possibility is a common 
possession of the higher orders of animal life ; for convenience we may 
regard it as colimital with vertebrate life. By vowel possibility we 
designate such arrangement of an air-sack and resonating chamber as 
will admit of the formation of sounds which may be noise when pro- 
duced without sentient direction and which may become musical tones 
when formed by more or less purposeful attention to the method of pro- 
duction. The vowels, open-throated sounds, are the product of vibra- 
tion within an unstopped column of air. They vary according as one 
position or another within the air-column is selected as the point of pro- 
duction ; they vary in quality according as these soft- walled resonating 
columns differ in texture. But the vowel possibility man has because 
he has the acoustic equipment of the air-breathing vertebrate. That 
he has it in higher degree and under more perfect control of modulation 
we may ascribe to epochal development of the possibility through exer- 
cise in purposeful employment, the epochs being marked along the 
biologic side, of which the possibilities may readily be seen to be hmit- 
less, by evolution into new species and genera. 

Whereas the vowel is of the type of vibration in an open air-pipe, 

! the consonant is dependent wholly upon the employment of stops and 

' closures in the pipe which contains the vibrant column of air, and in 

certain of its features it depends upon the added fact that the vibrant 

air is Ukewise in motion of progression outward and therefore exerts a 



58 THE SUBANU. 

certain pressure upon the point of stoppage . Consonant possibility is a 
late acquisition in the course of vertebrate history. We are in a posi- 
tion to say positively that it is limited to the primates. An effort is 
making to estabUsh the possession of at least the beginning of consonant 
possibiHty in certain of the apes. Just in passing, entering the note of 
recognition that this question is yet sub judice, we may properly say 
that the power to make the closures of the vocal organism whence con- 
sonants come into speech is the pecuhar possession of the present type 
of man. The qualification is forced upon us by the recent discovery of 
human remains in England, to which has been given the name Eoan- 
ihropos, for if we may rely upon the collation of skull fragments upon 
which the genus has been erected we find abundant anatomical reason 
to beUeve that this was man who was speechless. 

It is an early postulate that speech makes the man. He who has 
the form and stature of a man but speaks not, he is an idiot and he 
gibbers. He who is but the beginning of a man and can not yet speak, 
he is an infant, infans because he can not speak, i^vjzco: since he has no 
words, the pr^-ia xUva of Homer come to mind. It is only in the 
Semitic system that out of the mouths of babes and suckHngs is strength 
estabUshed, and that is the imagery of revelation rather than the keen 
sense of primal observation. 

This is not merely a postulate of the classical tongues of our own 
high race. I find it in the use of an African folk with scarcely more 
than an entering foot over the threshold of human culture, as we may 
read in EHenberger's History of the Basuto, ancient and modern" at 
page XXI. 

Bantu is the plural of Muntu, the Kafl&r and Zulu word for a human being. 
The equivalent m Sesuto is motho with the letter h to accentuate the intonation. 
But the word mtintu or 7notho means more than that: it indicates the power 
of speech as well, a speaking being as distinct from monkeys or baboons, who 
have something like a human shape but can not speak. A child before it has 
learned to speak is ngoana, that is, a httle being; mo, the prefix denoting 
being, being changed into ngo for the sake of euphony; and the diminutive 
suffix ana. But as soon as the child has learned to speak, the tho, denoting 
speech, is placed between prefix and suffix, and the little being becomes 
mothoana, a little being which can talk. 

Here we have two instances: one is derived from the childish estate 
of a culture which has come to high maturity, the other is drawn from 
a low culture plane where man is all child ; the two are in accord. 
Who speaks, he is man. 

Nor is the possession of the consonants evenly divided among man- 
kind. There are races which have but a few of the speech consonants 
in possession. There are races, and in this category we are numbered, 
which have through disuse lost the power of forming certain consonants 
which once were in possession. We shall soon have to examine the con- 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 59 

sonant scale of the Subanu in order to see where they He in relation to 
neighboring speech-families. 

Because of the structure of the vocal organs we shall follow a natu- 
ral method of study of this consonant diagram if in certain areas we deal 
with its horizontal members, in other areas if we direct the attention 
more particularly upon its vertical columns. At three distinct points 
near the outer end of the vibrant column of air we possess organs 
whereby closures may be made and from these closures consonants may 
be produced. These are the palate in the rear of the mouth-cavity, 
the tongue centrally situated within the cavity, the lips at the front of 
the cavity. Furthermore, at each of these closure-points the closure 
may be of any degree of completeness, and from this arises variety of 
sound there produced. 

Our first horizontal member includes the semivowels. These are 
practically universal in human speech ; upon a priori grounds we should 
expect so to find them; their general presence is confirmatory of the 
view that they represent the beginning of the acquisition of consonant 
power. All the vowels are formed with open throat ; the true consonants 
are made with closures by palate, tongue and Hps. It will be seen by 
simple experiment how these semivowels are formed. A light applica- 
tion of the fingers to the throat and lips will readily enable any one to 
identify the position in which any given sound is made. Thus we are 
able to discover that the y semivowel is formed near the palate, the r 
and the 1 in slightly different forms near the center of the cavity where 
the tongue is dominant, the w near the lips. The same digital exami- 
nation will show after what manner they differ from the vowels proxi- 
mate to those positions, how 1 and y are not quite the same, a slightly 
varies from r and 1, U and w differ. It will be seen that the semivowels 
vary from the vowels in one direction, from the consonants in the other, 
in this important particular that the vibrant air-column is less open 
than in the case of the vowels, less closed than in the case of the conso- 
nants. In other words there is a constriction instead of a closure; the 
sounding pipe is not closed but it is constricted. Because this effect 
is an incomplete exercise of the power of each of these speech organs 
these semivowels are set upon our diagram not exactly in the palatal, 
lingual, and labial columns, but proximate thereto. 

The next horizontal member is a triplet of consonants denominated 
the nasals. Here we should pause for a moment in order to avoid con- 
fusion with an idea subsisting in our common speech and likely to lead 
us astray. Of certain individuals in all our English societies, even of 
certain groups of individuals where the blemish in speech is so frequent 
that we incline to consider it a dialectic character, we commonly say 
that they speak through the nose. We use this expression quia nemo 
scit; for the briefest examination of this speech-fault will convince U3 
that "speaking through the nose" is really speech with the nasal cavity 



60 THE SUBANU. 

shut off, it is objectionable to our educated ears simply for the reason 
that we miss the supporting tones which have their origin in the upper 
air-passage. 

The nasal consonants are really formed by dropping the veil of the 
palate and thereby opening to the passage of sound vibrations the nasal 
cavity with its twin exits. While the passage of the sound is thus 
diverted in a high degree (for we must not lose sight of the fact that this 
diversion is always present in a minor degree), the distinctive character 
of the sound is formed by the adjustment of the three consonant- 
producing organs to their pecuUar positions of control. Here, also, 
digital examination will readily disclose the positions within the mouth- 
cavity out of which arise these three consonants, and the attention 
directed to the perception of the vibration of the air-column will soon 
discover the course of the vibrations through the upper cavity. 

The possession and employment of the three nasals vary widely in 
the languages of men. The labial nasal m appears to be everywhere 
present in speech. This universality is not difficult to comprehend. 
While the consonants producible by the lips may require such precision 
in positioning the organs and such a fine sense of synchronization with 
the outward impulse of the air as to lie wholly outside the possibilities 
of many, if not most, of the more primitive languages, the m position is 
the simplest exercise of speech mechanism. Assuming the dropping of 
the veil of the palate and the quiescence of the two rearward speech- 
organs when the sound vibrations are about to issue, the result depends 
upon the position of the upper and nether lip relative to themselves 
and therefore to the sound-pipe. So long as the lips are not in contact 
with one another, the sound which issues is vocalic, and this holds 
equally true whether the lips are wide apart (as in the vociferous shout) 
or closely approximated (as in the production of the French vowel u). 
But if the hps come together in any one individual for but the briefest 
touch, we find that we have passed from vowel to consonant, the m is 
produced. 

There is abundant reason to regard this consonant as the earUest 
acquisition of man and the foundation of human speech as consciously 
differentiated from the animal cry wholly vocaUc. It is so light a 
difference that we incUne to delude ourselves that some at least of 
the animals possess this or the hngual or the palatal nasals. This is 
evidenced by our onomatopoetic names for common animal cries, the 
bovine "moo," the "neigh" of the horse, the "cock-a-doodle-doo" of the 
barnyard fowl, even one sHght step further in consonant development 
in the Cockney cry of the burro ' 'hee-haw. ' ' A careful ear will soon dis- 
cover that none of these animals shares our consonant possibilities ; the 
effect is an error of interpretation in the human ear ; what is really heard 
when these familiar animals vocalize is the appulse, the abrupt incep- 
tion of the sound. This confusion all the more readily arises since the 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 61 

nasals are of the class of consonants denominated sonant — that is to 
say, the sound is produced just before the closure is appHed to the 
vibrant column. 

It will be understood that no consonant is a sound in itself; it is 
only a modulant of the sonorous vibrating medium which, without such 
modulant, would produce no more than a vocalic sound. The nasals 
are therefore terminal of the sound. This is readily seen in what we 
know as mumbling, a name in which the use of the labial nasal plainly 
appears. With the lips wholly closed we find it possible to hear our- 
selves say "um-um," but we find it wholly impossible to produce that 
primitive consonant in the closed mouth if we attempt it in the initial 
position as "mu-mu." 

The lingual nasal n is also a common property of most speech. It 
is frequently subject to mutation along the vertical column of the pos- 
sibilities of tongue positioning within the buccal cavity ; less frequently 
it tends to undergo an exchange with the palatal nasal ; but in the main 
we are justified in regarding it as among the more permanent posses- 
sions of speech equipment. 

The palatal nasal ng is in a marked degree less general and less 
permanent. To many languages it is missing ; few of those which pos- 
sess it can employ it in the initial position. We may see this in our own 
speech. We find a marked difficulty in using it as an initial when we 
attempt to acquire facility in languages which employ it at the begin- 
ning of words. Even in the final position it is subject to alteration 
along two distinct lines. In Oxford English of the present time speakers 
who profess their good taste say "comin" and "goin" and the like in 
the common present participle termination. Those who employ this 
manner of speech write the words, when they wish to indicate their 
pronunciation, as "comin"' and "goin' " and would describe the event 
as dropping the g. This is an absurd misconception of the mutation 
which takes place ; in ng there is no g to drop except in so far as to the 
eye we use n and g in juxtaposition to serve as the symbol of a simple 
consonant which in the scientific alphabet and in any other reasonable 
alphabetic system is represented by a single character. What really 
happens is this : the palate, a peculiarly blunt and coarse organ of speech, 
being insufficiently under the fine control needed to give its nasal the 
true value, the more facile tongue is employed instead and we thus find 
n in the place of ng. The second mutation, a pecuUarly vulgar error, is 
based upon the same inabiUty to adjust the palate to its true position 
for this modulant. After taking the proper position at the beginning 
of the sound the palate ghdes into its ultimate position, which is more 
easily held. TheTesult is that instead of a clear ng we have a double 
sound in which the nasal serves but as preface to the mute, ng termin- 
ated by g as a sonant, ng terminated by k as a surd. This is found in 
several of the vulgar dialects of England and is beginning to find a place 



62 THB SUBANU. 

in the careless and uneducated speech of our own recent immigrants . In 
a recent circular of instructions issued by the school department of New 
York City it was considered proper to advise teachers to observe and 
to try to correct such pronunciations as "sing-ging" and "anythingk." 

vSo far we have passed under review the heavy outline at the top of 
the incomplete square which we observe in the diagram of the Subanu 
consonant scheme. Having discussed the individual consonants which 
make up that heavy Hne in detail, we may now sum up the underlying 
principle. We find that the Subanu have acquired the constrictions at 
each of the three consonant-producing positions which are the semi- 
vowel bridges over which development passes through practice to the 
exertion of the true consonant-forming closures. We further find that 
the Subanu have acquired the closures of each of the three speech- 
organs in their lightest force. 

Now we shall pass to the heavy outline which forms the bottom of 
the incomplete square ; we distinguish it as heavy for the reason that 
we have a double equipment in all the mutes, the sonant as well as the 
surd. When we come to the comparison of the Subanu with certain 
other languages with which it has been sought to associate the Malayan 
languages, we shall note that many languages lack this double equip- 
ment and we shall find therein a critical character. 

It is a long leap from the top of the square to its bottom. Yet in 
making it we are not carried away by the enticing force of an illustra- 
tion, great and misleading though such enticement might prove. It 
is just that long leap which is taken in the development of speech facility. 
In another connection {Easter Island, page i8) I have discussed this 
matter at greater length than here seems necessary. It suffices to note 
that next after the easy nasals the speech-power passes to the utmost 
attainment of the mutes. This we find to be the case in the Subanu. 

It would be idle to attempt to calculate the number of positions 
which may be taken by any one of the speech-organs. Undoubtedly 
between the limiting positions which establish the nasal and the mute 
each organ may assume a great many positions, but we need concern 
ourselves with but two or three or four positions at most. These serve 
to establish the different classes of consonants which have been found 
sufficiently distinct to serve the ends of clearly articulated speech. 
They do not exactly correspond in all languages. In any language they 
do not exactly correspond for all speakers ; it is that quality which gives 
to human speech characters whereby we may, though tone deaf, identify 
our friends in the darkest night if they will but speak to us, or by modern 
miracle (now become a necessity of life) we may distinguish a familiar 
voice over miles of copper wire or when ground out from a wax cylinder 
or composition disk, so that even the dogs may sit up and take notice. 

In our own English we have adopted four distinctive positions for 
the palate and the tongue and three for the lips; in each case two of 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 63 

these positions are limiting, two and two and one are intermediate. It 
is in regard of these intermediate positions that we estimate the devel- 
opment of languages as a matter of evolutionary history and that we 
evaluate their orthoepic richness as determining their flexibiUty and 
beauty of efficiency as a means of communicating thought. 

We have already spoken of the palate as a blunt organ. It is so 
seen to be on anatomic examination. Its movements and practical 
positions relative to the column of vibrant air are few. It is just such 
a coarse speech-organ as would serve the uses of a people to whom nice- 
ties of pronunciation remain yet needless. The tongue we see to be far 
other. In its speech use it has two forms of activity which operate 
singly or in conjunction : by changes in the form of its thicker body it is 
able to alter the shape of the central cavity of the mouth ; by the pre- 
cision with which its flexible tip may be applied to one point or other 
of the containing walls it may produce almost an infinitude of consonant 
raodulants ; at one extremity of its applicability it may compose with 
certain palatal positions to produce linguo-palatal sounds ; at the other 
extremity it may compose with the inner aspect of the lips to produce 
Hnguo-labial sounds and in the same region with the teeth and gums 
to produce yet other sounds. In the arts the finer tools of precision 
are useless in prentice hands; training and skill are required before 
they can be economically employed. So with men to whom speech is 
yet an early and imperfect acquisition we should expect to find, we do 
in fact find, that the prodigious flexibility of the tongue is used in its 
least degree. 

The hps again are extremely mobile organs. These "leaves of the 
mouth," as the Polynesian people denominate them, are capable of a 
great variety of closure which may impose upon the issuing vibrations 
of sound the last determining modification. The essential character 
of the tongue is its great flexibiUty; the essential character of the Hps 
is their applicability to great refinements of precision. The positioning 
of the lips plays a part so large in our own speech that it has been found 
possible to teach the deaf to see speech by reading the lips. It would 
be interesting to learn to what extent lip-reading might apply to the 
case of the ruder folk v/ho have not yet acquired distinct control of these 
organs. In a computation of the frequency of sounds in English and 
in Samoan I have shown that in speech involving i ,000 occurrences of 
the most frequent vowel sound the English employs the labials 908 
times, the Samoan but 378. The labials are the last possession to be 
added to man's speech equipment, just as the Hps are the last to come 
under control of their fine musculature. We employ but one of the 
possible intermediate closures of the lips in its dual phase of V sonant 
and f surd ; some other languages make better use of the paired organs ; 
many languages there are which have either not attained at all to any 
but the Hmiting Hp closures or, if they have found the possibility of 



64 THE SUBANU. 

intermediate closures, have not yet attained to precision in their use. 
The Subanu have not attained them at all. It is for that reason that 
the typical square of their consonant scheme is left open on that side. 

On the other side, the bounding line of the palatal series is as com- 
plete as in English, though in a slightly different sense. Of the two 
principal and generally occurring intermediate closures we have per- 
mitted disuse to overcome the spirants gh and kh ; the latter we seem to 
have rejected early in our speech history and to have selected the sonant 
in preference over the surd ; the former yet remains present to the eye 
and a torment to our conservative orthography, as in " neighbor, "which 
also exhibits the passage from the kh of nachbar to the sonant, yet in 
sound it has vanished. The Subanu have attained to the use of the pal- 
atal spirant in both its phases ; our palatal sibilants, zh and sh, have not 
yet been acquired. 

In the lingual series the Subanu has estabUshed the limiting clos- 
ures — at the hither end the semivowel in its double phase, the nasal; at 
the distal end the mute in its two phases ; in the intermediate space we 
employ with beautiful accuracy the spirant and the sibilant, each in its 
two phases ; the Subanu has acquired no more than a single one of these 
four possible consonants, the surd lingual sibilant S. 

There remains now for consideration the aspiration, an activity of 
speech so anomalous that in our diagram we set it to one side and on the 
margin, because it does not seem possible to associate it with any of the 
speech-organs. It is present in Subanu, but its use appears scanty in 
this vocabulary material ; it is frequently dropped from situations where 
the intimately allied Visayan shows that it might be employed except 
for dialectic preference. There is really in this material so little bearing 
upon its phonetic place that I have been content to make but a single 
entry upon the diagram^. In other studies based upon richer material I 
have shown that there is an aspiration proximate to the palate, an aspi- 
ration proximate to the tongue, and an aspiration proximate to the lips. 

In speech sounds are employed singly or in combination. Thus we 
arrive at the need to study the syllable as a secondary unit of the spoken 
word. The sounds which may be employed singly are the vowels ; their 
number is but small. Each vowel may enter into composition with one 
or more consonants in two positions, in either one or both. Conven- 
ience in study has led to the classification of these secondary units as 
open or closed syllables, according as the vowel sound is final or is closed 
by consonant modulation. There is more than convenience in this 
classification; languages fall into two primordial classes according as 
the syllables are of open or closed type. We then have the following 
varieties of syllables, two for each type: open syllables, vowel alone, 
consonant-vowel ; closed syllables, vowel-consonant, consonant-vowel- 
consonant. The Subanu exhibits all four varieties of syllables; it is 
therefore a language of the closed type. To such an extent does the 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEJMB^RS. 65 

disposition toward this character hold that we shall soon have occasion 
to note the somewhat frequent assumption of a final consonant by stems 
which the Subanu have taken on loan from languages of the open type. 

Premising that the data upon which we are working lack much in 
the matter of extent, and that final accuracy of form is too much to 
expect in the conditions in which this Philippine speech finds its intro- 
duction to science, we shall find an interest in examining some of the 
distinctive characters of these vocables. 

First we shall pay attention to the duplication phenomena. A 
characteristic of many languages of the primitive type, duplication so 
strongly marks the speech of Polynesia that it has been possible to 
study out its form varieties and to assign to the varying usage a value 
almost syntactical. For the fuller consideration of this mechanism of 
word-formation and word-employment I invite attention to my mono- 
graph upon "DupHcation Mechanics in Samoan and their Functional 
Values" (1908) in "The American Journal of Philology," vol. xxix, 
page 33. In the Subanu this mechanism is far less frequent than in 
Polynesian speech and its syntactical value less apparent. All the 
instances which are found in this vocabulary are here presented, together 
with the estimate of their functions in the scanty number of cases where 
that is deducible. 

As expressive of the diminutive sense, Subanu duplication gives us the 
following hatahata,gihasgihas,manocmanoc,sapasapa and sibulansibulan. 

To express a plural or general collective, duplication here gives us 
leenleen. The cognate sense of plurality of action (verb) which inheres 
in reciprocal action, movement back and forth, is found in gocahgocah 
and poc-sindilsindil. 

The intensive sense, really a protraction of the idea of plurality, 
is found in the following: boangboang, cotecote, dayandayan, gonagona, 
libaliba, lingalinga, mog-langlaang. 

Owing to the paucity of our information, the remaining instances of 
duplication must remain unclassed as to the inner nature of their employ- 
ment. These are the following: conotconot, cotooto, dubdub, gwakgwak, 
gantingganting, gibusibus, limalima, lingulingu, maomao, niugniug, 
pondopondo, porongporong, so-ganagana. 

The foregoing instances are of the simplest type of duplication ; the 
word as a whole is doubled. In the Polynesian languages, where this 
formation method reaches its highest development, the frequency of 
such simple duplication is so great as to establish a superficial character 
of the speech ; in Subanu we have been able to discover, in so much of its 
vocabulary as is here contained, certainly a most considerable part, no 
more than the foregoing 28 instances, a percentage so small as not to be 
worth the arithmetic which it would require to determine it. 

In the Polynesian languages, again, a very beautiful and flexible 
system has developed in the duplication mechanics to form a specific 



66 THE SUBANU. 

type to which I have given the designation preduplication. This con- 
sists in dupUcating the first syllable of a polysyllable; in the scheme 
which I have formulated for convenience in classifying duplications, the 
letters b, c, d, and so on, standing for the syllables of the word in order, 
preduplication is expressed by the formula bbc, or bbcd. Thus is 
created a very pretty system whereby syntactical differences may be 
expressed in languages far anterior to the mechanism of inflection. 
While preduplication is quite frequent in Polynesian we are able to 
discover but five instances in which its occurrence in Subanu is satis- 
factorily established and one in which some uncertainty holds. The 
five undoubted instances of preduplication occur in words compounded 
by the addition of prefixes. Of these, four duplicate an open initial 
syllable of the stem, namely sogmog-sosulat, sogmog-dadao, po-gogovitan, 
a-lalaat. 

In the fifth instance we have the duplication of a closed initial sylla- 
ble, poc-agagom. The doubtful instance is the word gagun; deriving this 
from the Malay gong, as seems probable, we may class this as predupli- 
cative. The chief objection, for vowel variety may here be neglected, is 
that gong appears to be a monosyllable and our studies of duplication up 
to the present have afforded us no cases in which the duplication has 
dealt with anything less than the syllable as a unit, none which seems to 
split the syllable. On the other hand, the length of the vowel in gong 
suggests a primitive goong, a dissyllable with two short vowels in time 
reduced to a monosyllable by crasis, yet retaining sufficient of the past 
life of the word to allow the resolution of the long vowel in the employ- 
ment of duplication. Likewise, our future studies upon composition 
of words by formative members applied interiorly will indicate very 
clearly that there is here no disposition to regard the syllable unit as a 
thing so fixed as to preclude its separabihty. 

Before we proceed to the details of composition in the Subanu words, 
we note a case where composition involves the loss of a stem vowel. 
The instances are few and curious. The loss of stem vowel is unmis- 
takable in pic-nogan from inog, mog-langlaang from laang, quina-anglan 
from angol as we establish from its Visayan relative hangol. In lack of 
definite information upon the point, I include herewith guiadman from 
doma and poalat from laat; it is quite possible that adman and alat 
derive from doma and laat through inversion of the former syllables. 
While this may seem to us a brutal treatment of the syllable, we shall 
find in the comparison of the Subanu with the Visayan, in the next chap- 
ter, so many instances explicable only as inverts that we may anticipate 
that etymological mechanism in this case. The word pogugha remains; 
this composite is pog-ugba; the stem seems (the sense supporting) to be 
associable with gapog. It does no violence to the genius of the language 
to excise the final g, which is no more than a suffix establishing the noun 
character of the attributive vocable, and therefore is properly dismissed 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 67 

when the attributive passes into verb sense. Next, inversion of the 
former syllable in the resultant gapo gives us agpo; it is very simple and 
general phonetics to find the sonant g attracting its neighbor p from 
surd to sonant in its own series; therefore agpo becomes agbo, and lack 
of vowel fixity is so characteristic of this rude speech that ugba is quite 
explicable. 

We are next to examine a phonetic usage which is not properly to 
be dealt with as a case of consonant mutation, for it affects certain con- 
sonants, the two palatal mutes, positionally ; that is to say, only when 
they are used as the initial consonant of the vocable. It will be seen in 
the vocabulary that many vocables which begin with the syllable ca are 
duphcated by forms which lack the c and that to a lesser extent this 
double form is true of vocables with ga initial. Even where the double 
form does not appear in the Subanu vocabulary, a reference to the 
Visayan affiliates will show that the uncertainty exists. There are three 
seeming exceptions to this principle of uncertainty as restricted to the 
beginning of words, cotooto, gibusibus, and gonauna. It will be seen 
that while the loss appears to have taken place in a position inner with 
respect of the vocable, it is initial with respect of the stem duplicated. 

To a certain extent it has been possible to associate these variant 
forms with the several sources of the vocabulary material. Yet after 
all that leads nowhere, for there is no uniformity; the source which 
affords us the abraded form in one vocable may yield the full form in 
another and precisely similar vocable, and each in turn applies or 
neglects the initial palatal mute in the case of vocables for which we 
have a Visayan or even Spanish original. Thus from the Spanish 
caballo the Subanu borrows the transliteration cabayo and parallels it 
with an abraded form abayo. It will not be difficult in scanning the 
vocabulary under these initials to find a sufficiency of instances to show 
that the Subanu abrades the mute initial in words which clearly pos- 
sessed it in the source of the loan. On the other hand there are quite as 
many instances to show that Subanu, through some principle in its own 
phonetics, assumes C or g as initial to words which in the Visayan are 
devoid thereof; for instance gama is Visayan amahan. In our later 
examination of the exterior relations of both Subanu and Visayan we 
shall observe this word in its proper class and shall discover that the g 
is really a Subanu assumption upon a stem whicli in its genesis began 
with a consonant wholly distinct in series and in the speech-organ em- 
ployed. We are warranted in the statement that the Subanu assumed 
an initial consonant and that this assumed consonant tends to disappear. 

I have had a sense that this matter of the assumed initial palatal 
mute represented a senior and a junior stage of the language; that it 
was an ancient Subanu character to assume the mute, and that in the 
more recent stage it was being dropped in avoidance of dialectic rude- 
ness, as intercourse became more free with more advanced Visayan 



68 THE SUBANU. 

neighbors. Against this provisionally formed impression mihtate two 
important facts ; the former is that we have no data, other than infer- 
ence wholly from outside, upon which to base a valuation of relative 
age in the vocabulary which now for the first time comes to us in a very 
disheveled mass, but all essentially modern; the latter is that the his- 
toric record, as presented by Colonel Finley in Part I of this volume, 
makes it plain that the Subanu shrank, and with the best of good 
reason, from intercourse with their more advanced neighbors. This 
impression may therefore, and quite properly, be dismissed. 

I beHeve that we have here a far more interesting and philologi- 
cally important principle at work ; that we are not dealing with a later 
and refining process of speech, but with a rude and primitive principle 
effecting word formation at a stage when words are things to be created 
by evolution of speech power. This apparently anomalous assumption 
of initial affects the palatal mute. In terms of speech evolution we see 
that this is an activity of the first of the speech-organs to come under 
control and that so far as relates to that organ it is the result of the 
maximum speech effort; for the variety of C and g is here negligible, 
since it amounts to a mere shading of the manner of vibration at the 
exit time and place of the sound formed by the particular closure. In 
this view I regard the assumed initial as appulse. 

I have employed this term in connection with the explanation of 
our English onomatopees formed in the effort to create words to denom- 
inate descriptively the familiar cries of our domestic companions to 
whom true speech has not yet come in facilitation of the small ideas 
which they try so hard to communicate to us. Appulse is the initial of 
all sound, the beginning of the characteristic vibration from a state of 
rest. It does not exist in sound ; it is an interpretation through the ear 
and in the auditory centers of the brain of the suddenness of existence of 
a sound out of stillness. Here I credit it to the interpretation of a very 
rude human speech. Hitherto I have credited it to the interpretation 
of the cries of barnyard animals. It is yet more general, for as it does 
not qualify sound in itself, but does quaHfy aural interpretation of 
sound, we may sense appulse even in mechanically produced vibrations. 
In littoral conditions of abode I am well within the range of a steam 
siren, say at a distance of four miles. During still winter nights, when 
falling snow draws a curtain against the harbor mouth, I can hear the 
blast of that instrument whose monotone is more prophylactic than 
musically pleasing. Four times in each minute the air is filled with a 
wailing sound which is essentially vocalic, yet four times in each minute 
my sensorium reads into it an initial consonant, the maximum eftort of 
the labials. I hear Pooo-Pooo. Nor am I singular in this; it is not a 
matter of the personal equation of the observer; it has gone into our 
speech in the onomatopee "puff." Thus the appulse is our misread- 
ing of the change from silence to sound ; we go a trifle too far and read a 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 69 

consonant in our audition where no consonant exists. To vocalize that 
audition we must employ a consonant and thus we take a mere ghost of 
speech and materialize it. If we, long culture ages higher in develop- 
ment with wit and ability (sometimes put to use) of knowing what we 
are talking about, do this in our common speech, think how more potent 
this must be with the rude savages remote in their mountains. It is 
their nature, as it is the nature of most rude folk in the higher cultures, 
to be strong in their speech, and this is most manifest at the beginnings 
and endings of words. We shall examine in another connection the 
mutation of d, a firm and strong consonant when at the end of the word, 
reducible to the weaker lingual effort in medial r when the word receives 
a formative suffix. This principle of strength at either end of the word 
tends to build up the appulse into a true consonant. 

Such examination as at this point we may give to the characteristic 
consonant mutations in Subanu is confined to those few instances in 
which we find two forms in use. There are but few more than a dozen 
cases in which mutation is discoverable within Subanu itself, but these 
will prove valuable as establishing an introduction to the larger mass 
of phonetic material which will become available when we discuss this 
inner speech in its relation to exterior cognate languages and particularly 
to its immediate neighbor the Visayan. 

At present we register a note of a distinctive phenomenon which 
not yet are we prepared to comprehend : every single instance of muta- 
tion which we may establish upon purely Subanu material is found in 
connection with the tongue, with two exceptions. These two are wholly 
anomalous; the former is daromog as a variant of domomog, mutation 
from labial nasal to lingual semivowel ; the latter is palad as a variant of 
palag, mutation from surd lingual mute to sonant palatal mute. It 
will be observed that in each of these instances the mutation is extra 
seriem and that there is movement out of class, nasal to semivowel in 
one case, surd to sonant in the other. Those who have accompanied 
me in my studies of the Polynesian phonetic will have no difficulty in 
finding in the mutation of palad to palag an instance, soHtary in Subanu, 
of the kappation of t which is so marked a present character of many 
languages in the central and eastern region of the Pacific. 

The lingual mutations which we have been able to segregate for 
study are most frequently from the mute, the maximum speech effort of 
the tongue, clear across the whole range of its activity to the minimum 
effort in the Hquid semivowel. The surd lingual mute t affords one 
instance: in posoloron, from the stem soloi, we find the mutation t-r. 
This is the weakening of a consonant strong when final into the liquid 
when it ceases to be final upon the addition of a formative suffix. 

The same principle is active in the case of the sonant lingual mute 
d as a final with mutation to r in the following instances: giiicoran and 
poguingcora, from the stem cod; Hnonsoran, from the stem lonsod; pego- 



70 THE SUBANU. 

iaran, from the stem gatad; and tobora from the stem tobod. I have 
already directed attention upon the fact that rude speakers give par- 
ticular force to the beginnings and endings of words; this weakening 
mutation is in itself confirmatory. In the three following instances we 
shall observe the d-r mutation applied to the initial d when it is buried 
under a formative prefix: maralag, from stem dalag; corala, from stem 
dala; mar ope, from stem dope. 

In the sole instance of batasan from stem batad, we find a mutation 
that stops midway : instead of upon the semivowel, the weakening mute 
rests at the sibilant. We lack data for the determination whether the 
variants bold and buis represent the same halfway mutation or whether 
this is an example of an S-d mutation not elsewhere discovered. 

If this inversion of mutation movement remains in doubt in the 
matter of S-d, we may regard it as definitely settled in the case of r-d in 
two instances: the variants danao and lanao and dongog and rongog. 
The proof is external to Subanu, external in fact to all Indonesian speech, 
yet we are justified in advancing it from its proper later place in order 
to settle this matter of phonetics. The parent of rongog is certainly 
the Polynesian longo (rongo) ; thus it is clear that this is really a case of 
r-d mutation. The other word, lanao, is not quite so clear; it appears 
associable with two Polynesian words, lano sweet water and lanu a lake, 
these two being probably a divaricated stem. If this be indeed the 
source of lanao, the r-d mutation, already once established, receives 
confirmation. In the Bontoc Igorot we find tjenum, danum, denoni, all 
in the sense of potable water. This series, so fortunately preserved, 
gives us both lano and lanu derivatives in the signification of sweet 
water, and goes far toward establishing the original unity of the divari- 
cated vocables. 

The uncertainty which I have manifested in the discussion of 
lanao rests not only upon the diversity of sense but rather more upon 
the lack of acquaintance with the phenomenon of ao employed in 
dipthong value as representative of an earlier source vowel. The 
collation of the Bontoc Igorot upon vv^hich I engaged after the foregoing 
note had been written has given a satisfactory suite of instances in 
which this dipthong appears as the mutation product of the vowel 0. 



Subanu. Bontoc. i Subanu. Bontoc. j .Subanu. Bontoc. 



boligan faolengan 

gayo kayao 



goloan olaoan ! tao takao 

linao alinoao I toon taaowin 



This does not exhaust the source of this dipthong. From a we 
have balin-gawa-kaaowa, from e goyamet-komaot, from U pusu-baosig. 

This discovery applies particularly to the etymology of lanao. 
We see here abundant evidence that lano and lanao are homogenetic; we 
have an item of confirmation of a possible lann-lanao association. 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 71 

Finally, we are to note one more phonetic principle of great interest. 
This is the speech necessity of supporting or prefacing the mutes with 
the nasal of their own proper series. I have already dwelt at some 
length upon my beHef that the nasal, as the easiest and least forceful 
exercise of the speech activity of any organ of speech, is the earhest 
acquired, and that from the weakest exercise of the speech activity the 
man in his acquisition of control of the new power leaps next to the 
strongest exercise of that power. This case of the prefaced mutes fits 
naturally into such an explanation. The particular organ (palate, 
tongue, or lips) to be used is naturally put into its most famihar posi- 
tion as a preliminary to the passage toward the more difficult. This 
preHminary position encourages a light vocalization which appears just 
prior to the enunciation of the more difficult sound, a principle which 
is entirely accepted as causative of the differentiation of sonant and 
surd. The prefaced palatal mute, ngg or ngk, undoubtedly occurs in 
Subanu as in the Visayan, although our vocabulary does not make its 
existence clear. 

Of the prefaced lingual mute nd and the prefaced labial mutes mp 
and mb we note that the occurrence is most marked when the mute 
which has been able to hold its own when in the forceful initial position 
becomes weakened by the employment of a prefix. Thus, from daay, 
daapa, and di we derive by composition gondaay, ondaapa, and 07tdi; 
from pia, poti and pulo we derive supported forms gompia, gompoti, 
gompulo. Similarly, bagol, baya, and bata provide the prefaced forms 
gombagol, sogombaya, and gombata. 

We may see a reason underlying all these instances if we look back 
to the alphabetic diagram. It will be noticed that the vowel 0— and 
it will undoubtedly have been noticed already that each one of the pre- 
faced mutes is introduced by this vowel — is set upon the diagram in a 
position midway between the region controlled by the tongue in speech 
and that regulated by the Hps. When one is sounding the lips and 
the forward cavity of the mouth are in position to pass to a lingual or to 
a labial consonant with equal ease. But when speech is yet a new art 
the speaker must, v/ith more or less of design, pass to the first position 
which shall determine Hngual or labial, namely, the nasal position. The 
very slightest vocalization of this position will exhibit to our compre- 
hension how it comes to pass that each mute is prefaced by the nasal 
proper to the organ wherewith it is formed. 

In all Subanu there is but one instance of a prefaced mute which 
does not represent the weakening of a strong initial, yet that one involves 
the same use of O : this is sogmogombal, from stem gobal; yet on better 
acquaintance with the language this exception may prove more appar- 
ent than real. The general form of the prefix is sogmog, although 
sogmo occurs ; the stem appears in our vocabulary as gobal, yet the abra- 
sion of initial palatal mutes is so frequent that it may very well be that 



72 



THE SUBANU. 



this composite is sogniog-ohal, and thus the b may be brought so close to 
the initial position as to be governed by the general rule. 

This system of prefaced mutes is found somewhat widely spread, in 
whole or in part, in the tangle of languages which we denominate Mela- 
nesian. In Fiji it has become an invariable rule; that speech has no 
sonant mutes which can stand alone of their own power; the preface 
of the nasal of the series is required and we hear ngg, nd, and mb. 

Great variety of form is given to the Subanu vocables by the free 
employment of formative members. We lack the data whereupon to 
work out the syntactical value of these accessories of speech, but we can 
arrange our material to prove the existence of the following types of 
word composition: i, prefix alone; 2, suffix alone; 3, infix alone; 4, pre- 
fix-suffix; 5, infix-suffix. 

I. The following are the prefixes employed in composition without 
accessory formative members ; in the cases of those less frequently used 
the instances of occurrence are noted; where this reference is not made, 
the words are readily found in the vocabulary order under the par- 
ticular prefix. 



a duplicating the initial syllable, alalaat. 

ba basulan, baton. 

be belema, belintis. 

ca 

cu ciitao. 

di probably of prepositional value, dialum, 

dihaban, dien, dipag, diselum, ditaas. In 

the Malay (ij is distinctly a preposition. 
do dosop. 

em (ma variant) embais, ? empelek. 
g (ca, ga variant) gayac. 
go godaay, gondaay, gondi, gompia, gompoli, 

gonipulo, gopia, gotao. 
ig (probably a ga variant, as em of ma), 
ma (variant forms me, mi, mo, mu). 
maca (variant forms maa, maga). 
mail 

mi milipay. 
mig 

mo molomo, moloto. 
moc (variant form mog). 
mu musop. 

negmeg (variant of nogmog). 
noc (secondary forms are nocmaca, noc- 

pig, nocpog, nocti). 
nog (secondary forms are nogma, nogmig). 



nong (nog variant). 

pa (variant form pe). 

paca (variant form paa, as maca of maa). 

pac (variant form pag). 

pala (variant form palo). palalabian, pa- 

laminis, palapa, palobaya. 
pic (variant forms pig, ping), 
ping (pig variant), pingoclnban, pingon- 

dian. 
po (pa variant; alternative and secondary 

forms poc, poca, pocca, poco, pog, 

pogli, poglo). 
poglo (secondary po form), socalpoglogo- 

mutan. 
quina (kina). 

sa (variant forms are sac, sag, soc, sog). 
so (secondary forms are sopoc, sopoglo). 
soc (secondary forms are socmec, socmi, 

socmica, socmo, socmoc, socmog, 

socpo, socpog, socsocal). 
socal (secondary form is socsocal). 
sog (soc variant; secondary forms are sog- 

maca, sogmag, sogme, sogmi, sog- 

mica, sogmig, sogmo, sogmoc, 

sogmog, sogpaca, sogpig, sogpo, 

sogsocal). 



2. The following are the suffixes which are used with no earlier 
formative element ; more properly it is a list of the suffixes when used 
alone, for we shall find most of them in use in combination with prior 
prefix or infix. 

-an antosan, balidyaan, batasan, begyaan, 
boocan, bootan, donggoan, gaitan, 
gaoman, labanan, lintisan, lo- 
bungan, pandayan, pintasan, sala- 
pian, sinbaan, sindepan, tabian, 
togotan. 



-en pimolaen. 

-han nlihan. 

-1 bonoal. 

-nen panganen. 

-non pomolanon. 

-on baloson, gantoson, ntotaon, saboton. 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 73 

3. In this list are gathered the infixes in their employment without 
other formative elements. 

-al- dalomdoni, logalin. -n- laronon. 

-eng- bengawan. 

-in- hinaal, binutong, linagami, lines 

quinaan, sinonan, tinalicala, tin- 

ingog, tinongol. 
-li- golitao. 



-om- domangop, gomolang, somaloy, soma- 

ma, somacay, somocol. 
-on- tinongol. 
-uk- gimukud. 
-ul- bulud. 

4. In this list are entered the instances in which prefix and suffix 
appear simultaneously. 



ci-, -n cisabaon. 

ga-, -an gabuludan. 

ga-, -nen gabilunen, galonaonen, gapet- 
nen, gapulonen, gasalag- 
nen, gataluknen. 

ge-, -an gedungusan. 

ge-, -nen gemisnen, getomnen. 

go-, -nen gosomnen. 

gi-, -nan gipianan. 

gui-, -an guibogan, guicoran. 



ka-, -nen kagobolnen. 
ma-, -on malalison. 
ma-, -ot malipotot. 
pe-, -an pegotaran, pegoyvimn. 

pic-, -an picnogan, pictoonan. 
pic-, -nan picpongonnan. 
pig-, -an pigbuatan, pigdaoan. 
poc-, -on poctoboson. 
sogme-, -an sogmebagolan. 
sogmi-, -an sogmigagoyan. 



5. Here we list the instances in which infix and suffix are simul- 
taneously appUed to stems. 

-al-, -an dalinduman. I -im-, -an timondoan. 

-en-, -an beninalan, benoiran, senombagan. \ -in-, -an linonsoran, liniinbogan, binalan. 

We need not now give particular attention to prefixes and suffixes 
beyond the mere listing of their occurrence. They appear to be gov- 
erned by rules sufficiently famiHar in the science of speech. The infixes, 
however, are worth all the study which we can put upon them in this 
place, for the use of infixes is not only a distinctive character of Indo- 
nesian languages, but is a diagnostic and critical character. 

In the material which we have here collated it is clear, upon the 
first inspection, that the infix is almost always apphed to the initial 
syllable of the word-stem.* But four exceptions are noted and it will 
be proper to submit these exceptional uses to examination before 
advancing upon the general theme. The instance of log-a/-in offers 
no explanation. 

We find variant forms of one stem, guimukud and guimud; super- 
ficially this appears an infixature, guvm-uk-Vid. The two forms are 

*From Dr. Seidenadel's iangwage of the Bontoc Igorot I extract the following memo- 
randa upon the structural use of infixature, the references being to the sections of his essay 
on the grammar: 

68. The part of the body which is wounded, hit, struck, etc., is expressed by the infix 
-in- placed into the reduplication of substantives with initial consonants; to those with an 
initial vowel in- is prefixed and the initial vowel is doubled. 

119. Progressive quahty, or transition of a quality into a higher degree, is expressed 
by adding to these verbalized forms the particle um as prefix before an initial vowel; but 
as infix if the adjective begins with a consonant. As infix -um- is placed between the initial 
consonant and the first vowel, 

170. Um- is used exclusively with personal verbs. Um- is prefixed to initial vowels; 
if there is an initial consonant -um- enters the root and takes its place between the initial 
consonant and the vowel of the first syllable. 

231. But -in- is infixed, or placed between the initial consonant and the followmg vowel 
of verbs beginning with a consonant. 



74 



THE SUBANU. 



merely variants, we have no other evidence that -uk- is used as an infix ; 
it produces no change of meaning, and all our well-established infixes 
function in value, though not in position, as inflectional. In view of the 
fact that elsewhere we note the tendency of palatal mutes to vanish, it 
is quite possible that guimukud is the true form of the vocable, that it 
becomes guimuud by loss of the palatal, then by crasis guimud. 

In laro-7i-on, as an infixature from laroon, the infix -n- seems 
associable with the well-estabHshed infixes -en-, -in-, -on-; further- 
more, its presence changes an adjective into a noun, a proper function 
of this composition member. 

In tin-cw-gol, as an infixature from iingol, we encounter yet 
another anomaly. In all the other instances the infix is applied between 
consonant and vowel; here it seems to be applied between two con- 
sonants. It is more remarkable than it seems. In Subanu ng is not 
a compound consonant, it is as individual a consonant as n or m of the 
class to which it belongs or as g and k of the series in which it occurs. 
Accordingly we are at a loss to comprehend this severing of a consonant 
by the insertion of a formative element. 

In the regular infixatures the introduced element falls into two 
types according as the consonant is Hquid or nasal. We note, but with- 
out full comprehension of the significance of the fact, that these are the 
weakest of consonant possibihties. The liquid we find as -al- and -li-. 
The nasal infix appears most frequently as -in- and -en-. The soli- 
tary instance of -eng- in the infixature b-^wg-awan from hawang sug- 
gests a leaping interchange of n and ng which is familiar in the general 
study of phonetics. A second place is occupied by the labial nasal in 
-im- and -om-. 

At this point it will be proper to introduce the loan material which 
the Subanu has assumed from the Spanish. From this material, scanty 
though it be, we shall be able to derive a few principles upon which the 
mountaineers deal with speech acquisitions which for various reasons 
they may desire to incorporate in their own language. The considera- 
tions thus based upon a language with which we are famihar will enable 
us to make a better start in the next chapter, where we shall consider 
the relation of Subanu with its congener Visayan. The Spanish loans 
are set down in the following table : 



Subanu. 


Spanish. 


Subanu. 


Spanish, 


Subanu. 


Spanish. 


aao 


cacao 


camote 


camote 


paldon 


padron 


abayo 


caballo 


capote 


capote 


pares 


par 


antocos 


anteojos 


compinsal 


confesar 


sarol 


azada 


apote 


capote 


daro 


arar 


sengguil 


senor 


bandela 


bandera 


gasol 


azul 


sondalo 


soldado 


bino 


vino 


gobednarol 


gobernador 


tacho 


tacho 


bob6 


bobo 


laguas 


enaguas 


viste 


veste 


cabayo 


caballo 


locao 


lugar 


1 





\ 



SUBANU PHONETICS AND COMPOSITION MEMBERS. 75 

The abrasion of an initial mute (aao, ahayo, apote) has ah-eady been 
discussed at length; it calls for less attention here since for the second 
and third of these instances we have unabraded forms as well. The 
assumption of an initial palatal mute is exhibited in gasol. 
The Spanish r becomes 1 except in daro, pares. 
That hino shows a change of Spanish v to b while viste retains it 
unaltered, although this labial spirant is not included in the proper 
alphabet, is easily explicable. The Tagalog, with whom the Spaniards 
came first into contact, made the mutation to hino; thence, as the 
knowledge of vinous and distilled hquors spread in advance of the Span- 
ish culture and through purely PhiHppine exchanges, the different lan- 
guages encountered in this very intoxicating course adopted the Tagalog 
word long before the original Spanish form came within their knowledge. 
The interior change whereby confesar becomes compinsal is of pecu- 
liar interest and will not be difficult of comprehension if we approach 
it simply. In the f the Subanu finds a consonant modulant to which 
his lips are not trained, and it must equally be understood that his ear is 
undoubtedly as yet dull to its nicety of position and vibration. He does 
the best he can; he hits the ultimate labial possibility p, and because he 
has been making a particular effort to employ an unfamihar labial he is 
easily led to attract the preceding nasal from n of the lingual series to 
m of the labial series. 

In gohernador and padron he hears the r grasseye, a variant of the 
hquid which is beyond his practice. That in gobednarol and paldon he 
has reproduced this by d, the ultimate possibiHtyof lingual effort, is yet 
one more instance that when for any reason he has to pass beyond the 
minimum consonant activity there is nothing to check his effort before 
reaching the maximum activity. Yet in each of these words a d which is 
easy for him to produce goes back to the Uquid, r and 1 respectively. 
This is a secondary result of the particular effort already made which 
has produced a mutation d and therefore renders necessary some variant 
in the simple d. 

In sondalo, from soldado, the mutation from the lingual semivowel 
to the nasal of its own series is a passage through the least possible dis- 
tance. That it has been made in this case I incline to attribute to the 
Subanu tendency when d in an interior position is preceded by to 
employ the preface of the nasal of its own series, as we have seen in 
gondaay and gondi. 

These words sondalo and sarol and gobednarol show an r or 1 deriva- 
tive from d, a tendency which we have already seen operative in the 
case of a truly Subanu d when in an inner position. 



CHAPTER III. 
SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 

Geographically, the Subanu occupy a position within the region 
of their Visayan neighbors, unneighborly foes as appears distinctly in 
Colonel Finley's sketch of their life. In comparison of culture the 
Subanu are on a plane far lower than the Visayans ; yet so large an ele- 
ment of Subanu speech is found in the Visayan that we must recognize 
that some manner of relationship exists. Of what manner this relation- 
ship is, whether the Subanu is an archetypal speech from which the 
Visayan has evolved through more active use in better culture condi- 
tions, whether the common element in Subanu has been absorbed by 
the mountain folk from their keener neighbors, or whether each draws 
its descent from a common source — these are problems which naturally 
suggest themselves and to which we shall direct attention in this chapter. 

The proportion which this common stock of Subanu-Visayan bears 
to the vocabulary of the Subanu here assembled is so large that the 
theory of absorption is scarcely tenable. Such absorption of more 
cultured speech by a lower race becomes possible only when there is 
long-continued association in conditions where it is either convenient or 
necessary for the lower race to adopt the readiest means of communi- 
cation with the superior. 

In the general field of language growth through environment we 
may readily pick examples of the limiting cases of this absorption pos- 
sibility. Where the association of higher and lower is most largely a 
matter of the adoption, voluntarily on either side, of a modus vivendi, 
and where the questions of civic domination are negligible, we find the 
jargon type of speech, the Pidgin, the lingua franca. How scanty such 
a trade speech need be and yet serve all the ends of intercommunication, 
may be estimated from the jargon of the western Pacific, culturally more 
fairly comparable with Mindanao conditions than would be the Pidgin- 
EngHsh of the China coast. I have presented the results of such study 
in a monograph on the "Beach-la-Mar." Referred to the base of any 
one of the rude island tongues which have contributed to this speech 
magma, the Beach-la-Mar represents about one per cent of the speech 
equipment of the lower folk; relative to the superior English, it is 
infinitesimal. 

To this type we assign the Pidgin of China, for it has been volun- 
tarily assumed under the attraction of trade chances and is not at all 
to be regarded as forced upon its users by a conquering people. Here, 
too, we place the Chinook of the northwest coast of America. It may 

77 



78 THE SUBANU. 

appear inconsistent that we place the white-red Chinook jargon in a 
different class from the white-black Krooboy, but personal experience 
has shown me conclusively that the attitude of the white man to the 
red and of the red man to the white in the Puget Sound artificial speech 
is that of partnership and voluntary contribution to the capital stock. 
On the other hand the relation of white and black on the African 
beaches is essentially that of master and servant, even if the law pre- 
vents the name of slave. 

At the other limit of such possibility we have the frequent cases 
in which an inferior race stands to the dominant superior in the ser- 
vile relation. The history of African slavery gives us a considerable 
range of the speech possibilities which result. In the West Indies we 
encounter certain jargons which yet await philological examination; 
such are the Papimiento of Curasao and the Negro KngHsh of the 
Guianas; to these we add the Krooboy of the African west coast as 
genetically associable. We are sufficiently acquainted with these and 
others of the type to recognize that they form but a small part of the 
vernacular, that they are regarded by their users as a foreign language; 
in fact the cannibals of the western Pacific refer to the Beach-la-Mar 
as "speak EngHsh." On the other hand, in our own land the Africans 
have undergone a loss of their widely varying vernaculars ; their con- 
tribution to even our lowest speech is practically negligible. 

Yet the element common to Visayan and Subanu is all of half of 
the latter, a fact in itself which argues that it is not to be associated 
with trade jargon or servile speech. On other than linguistic grounds 
Colonel Finley 's narrative contraindicates any such possibility of absorp- 
tion. He has made it satisfactorily clear that there was no freedom of 
intercourse in trade of Visayans with Subanu; that the shy Subanu 
withdrew to the mountains and thereby avoided the chance of slavery; 
that the sHght mixed element, despite the catholicity of the Moham- 
medan faith in absorbing inferior races, forms but a despised element 
under equal contempt of the Moro and of the hill tribe. 

We might multiply considerations to show that Subanu absorption 
of Visayan material is out of the question, but the foregoing will surely 
suffice. 

What, then, is the source of this very extensive speech community 
amounting to 463 items? 

Before we can pass intelligently upon the problem here involved, we 
shall proceed in the more orderly course by collating the common mate- 
rial in the several classes into which it proves associable and thus study 
the types of variety in this community. 

In the first group, very nearly half the material (226 items), we 
shall collect the common element where the two languages differ in this 
record only by means of formative elements (which for convenience we 
indicate by type differentiation) or in regard of the vowels. It has 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



79 



already been noted that in Subanu there is such uncertainty in vowel 
employment as to remove that element of speech wholly from a critical 
position. The same is true of the Visayan. Therefore we are under 
double necessity to disregard vowel mutations in this record, for we 
have no certain base upon which to erect a critical structure. 





Words common to Subanu and Visayan. 




Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


aba 


abaa 


dalan 


dalan 


mata 


mata 


agom 


agom 


daU 


dali 


matay 


matay 


a/olaat 


alaot 


daoa 


daoa 


mis 


tomis 


ambit 


ambit 


dapig 


dapig 


wonoog 


naog 


antoson 


antos 


daro 


daro 


moo 


moo 


ang 


ang 


dato 


dato 


mota 


mota 


asoang 


asoang 


dila 


dila 


motood 


matood 


atop 


atop 


dilo 


dili 


name 


namo 


ba 


ba 


dogo 


dogo 


napo 


napo 


baal 


baol 


dowangop 


dangop 


nepes 


nipis 


baba 


baba 


donggoan 


donggo 


ngalan 


ngalan 


baboy 


baboy 


dongog 


dongog 


obos 


obos 


baga 


baga 


doso 


doso 


ogboc 


ogboc 


balagon 


balagon 


gasa 


gasa 


olang 


olang 


balani 


balani 


gatas 


gatas 


osa 


osa 


balay 


balay 


gaui 


gaoi 


paa 


paa 


balbal 


balbal 


gobii 


gabii 


palongan 


palongan 


balibad 


balibad 


gobot 


gobot 


palos 


palos 


baling 


baling 


gua 


goa 


panday 


panday 


balod 


balod 


gubat 


gobat 


panilong 


panilong 


balon 


balon 


gulang 


golang 


pasaylo 


pasaylo 


bangot 


bangot 


init 


init 


pat 


opat 


basa 


basa 


inom 


inom 


patay 


patay 


basulan 


basol 


labian 


labi 


patod 


patod 


bata 


bata 


labon 


labon 


pili 


pili 


batasan 


batasan 


laen 


lain 


pinilian 


pinilian 


batirol 


batirol 


lalis 


lalis 


pintas 


pintas 


bato 


bato 


lanao 


lanao 


pitu 


pito 


batog 


batog 


lansang 


lansang 


pocoloya 


^cgcoloya 


baton 


baton 


langan 


langan 


polos 


polos 


bilin 


bilin 


langit 


lingit 


pono 


pono 


biling 


biling 


latin 


h'natin 


ponoan 


ponoan 


binocot 


binnocot 


lauas 


laoas 


ponooc 


naog 


bisan 


bisan 


layo 


layo 


pongol 


pongol 


boangboang 


boangboang 


leeg 


Hog 


posinao 


pasinao 


boaya 


boaya 


leenleen 


lainlain 


poti 


poti 


bolit 


bolit 


libac 


libac 


potol 


potol 


bonal 


bonal 


libang 


libang 


puasa 


poasa 


bono 


bono 


libot 


libot 


pulo 


pola 


bonoa 


banoa 


ligo 


ligo 


sa 


osa 


boot 


boot 


lima 


lima 


sabay 


sabay 


botang 


botang 


limbong 


limbong 


sabot 


sabot 


botasan 


botasan 


linao 


linao 


sacay 


sacay 


bulac 


bolac 


linganay 


linganay 


saguing 


saguing 


bulan 


bolan 


lingin 


lingin 


sal a 


sala 


bunga 


bonga 


lioat 


lioat 


salapi 


salapi 


buot 


boot 


lipay 


lipay 


sama 


sama 


butang 


botang 


lisod 


lisod 


sambag 


sambag 


caban 


caban 


lobung 


lobong 


samoc 


samoc 


cahoy 


cahoy 


lolan 


lolan 


sapauaw 


sapao 


calauat 


calaoat 


lolid 


lolid 


sayop 


sayop 


cana 


canon 


loon 


loon 


siam 


siam 



80 



THE SUBANU. 

Words common to Subanu and Visayan — Continued. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


conot 


conot 


lopa 


lopa 


siclat 


siclit 


cota 


cota 


lotao 


lotao 


silong 


silong 


cotecote 


coticoti 


loto 


loto 


sipoon 


sipon 


daag 


daog 


loya 


loya 


sobo 


sobo 


dacsoc 


diwasoc 


maligon 


maligon 


sogo 


sogo 


dagat 


dagat 


managat 


mananagat 


sogpao« 


sagpa 


dala 


dala 


mananap 


mananap 


sowocol 


socol 


dalaga 


dalaga 


manoc 


manoc 


sompoyow 


sompay 


sontoc 


sontoc 


tapus 


tapos 


tolod 


tolod 


sopang 


sopang 


teguib 


tJgib 


tolog 


tolog 


suba 


soba 


tian 


tian 


tonaoan 


tonao 


sulat 


solat 


tibooc 


tibooc 


too 


too 


sulu 


solo 


ticas 


ticas 


toon 


toon 


taab 


taob 


tigom 


tigom 


tuba 


toba 


taas 


taas 


tina 


tina 


tubig 


tobig 


tabia« 


tab! 


tjwalicala 


talicala 


tuman 


toman 


tagana 


tagana 


tingala 


tingala 


tumbaga 


tombaga 


tago 


tago 


tingog 


tingog 


tuyo 


toyo 


talao 


talao 


tobang 


tabang 


uliwo 


oli 


tampalasan 


tampalasan 


tobe 


tabi 


walu 


oalo 


tampoling 


tampaling 


tobod 


tobod 


ya 


ya 


tao 


taoo 


togot 


togot 


yaua 


yaoa 


tapis 


tapis 


tolo 


tolo 






tapolan 


tapolan 


tolo 


tolo 







We shall next follow out the examination of such fiUation as may 
subsist between the Subanu and the Visayan, progressing from the 
vowel area by the naturally developing series of consonant classes. In 
this examination I have set the Subanu form in the former position 
and have compared the Visayan therewith; it should be made clear 
that until the data have been assembled we leave in suspense the ques- 
tion as to which language occupies the prior position, for the settle- 
ment of this and aUied questions must rest upon our reading of the 
collated data. 

In the first order we undertake the comparison of the liquids and 
begin with r. In the three words, arunaan, gare, and its variant lare, T 
is common to the two languages; it will be observed that it lies in an 
inner position. 

In type r-d the Subanu r represents a Visayan d in the nine 
instances it is medial in its occurrence. The irregular fiHation of sora- 
isda will find its explanation later under the theme of inversion. 



Subanu. Visayan. 



Subanu. Visayan. 



Subanu. Visayan. 



Type r-d. 
gare 

guicoran 
laraban 

Type r-I 
Type r-w 



hadi 

lingcodan 

ladaoan 



poraigon padayigon 

porong podong 

sayorow sayod 

marongot maligotgotow 

morala oala 



sora isda 

taron tadong 

torong tadong 

Pporang bolad. 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FII,IATlON. 



81 



In the collation of the other Uquid, 1, we shall 
certain others which do not appear in the paucity 

Type l-I, that is the community of the letter: 



find these t)rpes and 
of the r material. 



balidya 


donlag 


guUat 


logalin 


lotang 


binal 


?dula 


guilid 


logoc 


lua 


boclag 


gaclop 


laang 


logong 


lugbas 


bolaan 


galad 


lagi 


logud 


magalin 


bolao 


goles 


lagoy 


lolat 


maloot 


bolig 


golitao 


lee 


lonao 


moli6 


cogool 


golo 


lines 


lonsod 


morala 


dala 


gonlo 


linga 


lood 


palon 


debaloy 


gull 


logan 


loop 


pull 



sapulu 

solog 

solot 

sool 

talinga 

tolisan 

ulatay 

tilihan 



When we compare type 1-d with the parallel type r-d we see that, 
whereas that appears only medial, this is found initial, medial, and final. 
We anticipate the explanation of luma-odma as an invert. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type I-d. 












Pguilos 


iding 


loon 


daghan 


ponicol 


panicad 


laat 


daot 


luma 


odma 


sicol 


sicad 


Uwagami 


dagami 










Type 1-t. 




lopong 


topong 






Type d-1. 




Pgood 


dool 






Type t-I. 




lompoc 


tapoc 






Type l-g(c). 




lamo 


camo 


sindil 


indig 


Type g-1. 




guingcod 


lingcod 






Type n-l. 




niguan 


ligoan 






Type I vanished. 




bila 


abian 


daan 


dalan 


Type 1-h. 




lare 


hari 






Type 1-s. 




liga 


siga 






Type nd-dl. 












ondao 


adlao 


ondoc 


hadloc 


tondo 


todlo 


Type pl-mp. 




sopla 


sompa 






Atypical 




monlogos 


mamomogos 


litobong 


hagbong 






libongan 


iftobongan 


llayan 


caoayan 



Progressing to the nasal class we collate first the palatal ng. In 
the following vocables it is common to the two languages : 



anding 


gabang 


guingcod 


lopong 


panga 


sopingi 


bangitao 


gangay 


libongan 


mopong 


pongong 


tobang 


bencong 


gatbang 


linga 


ngisi 


porong 


torong 


bogguiong 


gongog 


litobong 


osisang 


sansang 


tungdong 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type ng-n. 




logong 


logon 


lotang 


lothan 






pongow 


jpon 


posong 


togipos6on 


Type n-ng. 












atandanan 


catongdanan 


palon 


palong 


sinbaan 


singbahan 


bencong 


bingcong 


sansang 


sangsang 


taron 


tadong 


lonsod 


longsod 










Type ng-t. 




bingcon 


botcon 


laang 


lacat 


Type ng-d. 




porang 


bolad 






Type ng-g. 




marongot 


maligotogoton 


pongong 


pogong 


Type ng vanished 




atodanan 
buta 


catongdanan 
botang 


guicoran 


lingcodan 


Atypical: 












guilos 


inng 


talinga 


dalonggan 


tonggab 


tongab 


impit 


hingpit 


tondong 


tongod 







82 



THE SUBANU. 



The lingual nasal n affords us a far briefer record of variability as 
between the two languages, for it is not necessary to repeat in this posi- 
tion the n-ng variety since it has already been listed. The list of 
vocables in which this nasal is common is here given : 



anding 


donaan 


gonom 


guinom 


maranaya 


ponopoton 


arunaan 


donot 


gonos 


guinonosola 


masm 


poporenion 


atandanan 


doon 


gonto 


inog 


meaon 


poraigon 


atodanan 


gaan 


goyon 


laraban 


mogonao 


puonan 


bingcon 


gantoson 


guicoran 


libongan 


nano 


sindil 


bolaan 


gasintos 


guien 


llayan 


mguan 


tioan 


bondyag 


gina 


guilan 


logalin 


panas 


tocsocan 


bone 


gonagona 


guinaoa 


loon 


peen 


tolisan 


daan 


gonas 


guindog 


magalin 


ponicol 


ulihan 


deni 


gonlo 


guinocsip 









There are really so few instances of variation that they may properly 
be grouped in a single table ; only the first and second show any relation 
one to another. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


donot 
lonao 


nonot 
lodhao 


nano 
donlag 


cano 
damlag 


niguan 
monlogos 


ligoan 
mamomogos 



The labial nasal m is appreciably less in use than the others of this 
class. Its community in the two languages is as follows : 

arao gamo gomot lamo marongot ocom 

dagom gampo gonom linagami meaon pogliquimo 

dalinduman gaora guinom luma monlogos timod 

garaa gomog itom 

In the following series the presence of m in Subanu and absence in 
Visayan is not to be treated as phonetic ; it is rather the presence of the 
ma prefix of condition: 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


magalin 

maimo 

maloot 


balhin 

himo 

lolot 


1 maranaya 

1 matugas 

mogonao 


hanayhay 

tiga 

bognao 


molio 

momoc 

morala 


balico 
homoc 
oala 



In two instances Subanu maintains an initial m lacking to the Vis- 
ayan ; in the latter case we shall have occasion to observe that this is a 
stem letter: 



Subanu. Visayan. 



Subanu. Visayan. 



In the following group of instances the presence of the m in one or 
other of the languages suggests its employment for some not well-com- 
prehended reason as a preface to the mute of its proper series : 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


impit 
lompoc 

Atypical. 


hingpit 
tapoc 


sombag 
sopla 

donlag 
mita 


tobag 
sompa 

damlag 
quita 


tolisan 

mopong 
tamisac 


tampalasan 

topong 
pisac 



The aspiration is very scantily employed by the Subanu. In the 
vocabulary will be found but three instances in which it appears as an 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FIUATION. 



83 



initial, hilamon, huopongon, hatud which is given as a variant of atud. 
There are no instances of community of use. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type an-han. 












arunaan 


arunahan 


gma 


inahan 


sinbaan 


singbahan 


gama 


amahan 


meaon 


mayahon 


ulihan 


oalihan 


gapo 


apohan 










Type h initial. 












aoid 


haoid 


inog 


hinog 


ondoc 


hadloc 


atud 


hatod 


hnes 


hilis 


poqmcot 


hocot 


guinaoa. 


guinhaoa. 


waimo 


himo 


ulatay 


holat 


impit 


hingpit 


ocom 


hocom 






Type g-h initial. 












gaclop 


haclop 


gonas 


hon&s 


guinonsola 


hinolsol 


gangay 


hangay 


gongog 


hongog 


pogliqyximo 


paghxmo 


gare 


hari 


goot 


hacot 


qmpos 


hipos 


gonagona 


honahona 


gosay 


hosay 






Type h medial. 












baa 


baha 


gaitan 


gahit 


puonan 


pohonan 


biag 


bihag 


gaora 


gahom 


saa 


saha 


boi 


bohi 


lood 


lohod 


sool 


sahol 


booc 


bohoc 


lua 


luha 


taap 


tahap 


doon 


dahon 


peen 


baihon 


taod 


tahod 


dua 


doha 











We next segregate a puzzling group in which the Visayan employs 
aspiration where it is not present in Subanu and apparently combines 
it with other consonants. Where we have the forms gh, dh, th we 
might be tempted to class them as spirants if it were not for the fact that 
we have similar combinations with liquids and nasals where that 
explanation would be impossible. It seems more reasonable to account 
for this aspiration as initial to the syllable following the consonant. 



Subanu. 



Visayan. 



magalin 
bangitao 
bone 



Atypical : 



gayo 
litobong 



balhin 

balanghitao 

binhi 

pagcahobag 

cahoy 

hagbong 



Subanu. Visayan. 



deni dinhi 

poporenion paanhion 

loon daghan 

log lihoc 

lolat holat 

maranaya hanayhay 



Subanu. Visayan. 



lonao lodhao 

lotang loth an 

potao pothao 

momoc homoc 

panas hilanat 

tocsocan tohogan 



The sibilant S in the two languages is remarkably free from modifi- 
cation. The vocables which show community of use are the following: 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


casit 


saquit 


lines 


hilis 


sicol 


sicad 


gantoson 


antos 


lonsod 


longsod 


sinbaan 


singbahan 


gasintos 


asintos 


lugbas 


lapos 


soay 


asaoa 


gasoy 


asoy 


masin 


asin 


socog 


cosog 


gocsip 


sipsip 


monlogos 


mamomogos 


soggo 


sodoc 


goguis 


ogis 


ocsop 


sopsop 


sogod 


sooc 


goles 


balas 


osisang 


cosisang 


solog 


solod 


gonas 


honas 


pasagdan 


pasagad 


solot 


solod 


gonos 


onos 


posong 


tagiposoon 


sool 


sahol 


gosay 


hosay 


quipos 


hipos 


sopla 


sompa 


gosig 


osig 


saa 


saha 


sora 


isda 


gosod 


sogot 


saac 


socna 


tamisac 


pisac 


guinocsip 


sinapsap 


sacog 


sacop 


tobos 


tapos 


guinonsola 


hinolsol 


sansang 


sangsang 


tolisan 


tampalasan 


guisip 


isip 


sayoron 


sayod 







84 



THE SUBANU. 



The most frequent mutation of the sibilant in the greater number 
of languages is to the aspiration ; therefore it is noteworthy that we find 
but one trace in the Visayan-Subanu, namely tocsocan-tohogan. 

The instances in which S is present in one language and absent in 
the other number five. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


doque 
matugas 

Atypical: 
guilos 
liga, 
ngisi 


sontoc 
tiga 

iring 
siga 
ngipon 


puli 
sindil 

panas 
panga 


balos 
indig 

hilinat 
sanga 


sopingi 

sapulu 
sombag 


aping 

nap61o 
tobag 



The first and most casual inspection of the vocabulary makes mani- 
fest mutation variety in the mutes so great and seemingly so intricate 
that it will be necessary to subject these ultimate consonants to a more 
minute classification in subdivision than the earlier consonants have 
called for. Following the natural evolutionary order we shall first con- 
sider the palatal mutes and in this pair the surd will first engage our 
attention. It will be well to order the instances in accordance with 
their position as initial, medial, and final. 



Subanu. Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type k (c, qu) initial common.' 










caya cana 


gwicoran 


lingcodan 


casit 


saquit 


cotooto cot6cot6 


guingcod 


lingcod 






Type k initial (Subanu). 










cogool olol 


poquicot 


hocot 


quipos 


hipos 


pogliquimo paghimo 










Type k initial (Visayan). 










amo camo 


atandanan 


catongdanan 


osisang 


cosisang 


anding canding 


atodanan 


catongdanan 






Type k initial atypical. 










lamo camo 


mita 


quita 


nano 


cano 


Type k medial common. 










bencong bingcong 


ocdoc 


docdoc 


sacog 


sacop 


bingcon botcon 


ocom 


hocom 


sicol 


sicad 


gaclop haclop 


ponicol 


panicad 


socog 


cosog 


gaco aco 










Type k-g medial. 


tocsocan 


tohogan 






Type k medial (Subanu). 


boclag 


bolag 


ocsop 


sopsop 


Type k medial (Visayan). 










bolaan bolacan 


laang 


lacat 


molio 


balico 


bui boquid 


lee 


lalaqui 


tioan 


potiocan 


goot hacot 


loop 


locop 






Type g final common. 










bocbaac baqui 


logoc 


looc 


ondoc 


hadloc 


booc bohoc 


lompoc 


tapoc 


saac 


socna 


doque sontoc 


momoc 


homoc 


tamisac 


pisac 


Type k-g final. atoc 


tagna 


tauac 


taoag 




Type k-d. loletoec 


toadtoad 


(dao 


caoat) 




Type g initial common. 










gaitan gahit 


gonto 


gonto 


guien 


guini 


gaom gahom 


gosod 


sogot 


guinaoa 


guinhaoa 


gonlo onglo 










Type g-k initial. 










gaan caon 


gomog 


camot 


guilat 


quilat 


gam6 cam6 


gomot 


camot 


guilid 


quilid 


gayo cahoy 











SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



85 



(Continued from p. 84.) 






Subanu. Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type g-h initial. 










gaclop haclop 


gonagona 


honahona 


goot 


hacot 


gangay hangay 


gonas 


honas 


gosay 


hosay 


gare hari 


gongog 


hongog 


guinonsola 


hinolsol 


Type g initial (Subanu). 










gabo abo 


gasoy 


asoy 


gopao 


opao 


gaco aco 


gatop 


atop 


gosig 


osig 


gagda agda 


gina 


inahdn 


goyon 


oyon 


galad alad 


goguis 


ogis 


guibid 


ibid 


gama amahan 


golitao 


olitao 


guibog 


ibog 


gampo ampo 


golo 


olo 


guilan 


Ua 


gantoson antos 


gonom 


on6m 


guilos 


iring 


gangay angay 


gonos 


onos 


guinom 


inom 


gapo apohan 


gooay 


ooay 


guisip 


isip 


gapog apog 


gopa 


opa 


guito 


ido 


gasintos asintos 










Type g medial common. 










dagom tagom 


logong 


logon 


niguan 


ligoan 


lagoy laguio 


matugas 


tiga 


pasagdan 


pasagad 


liga siga 


mogonao 


bognao 


poraigon 


padayigon 


linagami dagami 


monlogos 


mamomogos 






Type g-k medial. 


lagi 


lalaqui 


logud 


licod 


Type g medial (Subanu). 










logalin lain 


lugbas 


lapos 


sogod 


sooc 


logoc looc 


magalin 


balhin 






Type g medial (Visayan). 


loon 


daghan 






Type g final common. 










baga pagcahobag 


bondyag 


bonyag 


inog 


hinog 


biag bihag 


daig 


dayig 


sombag 


tobag 


boclag bolag 


donlag 


damlag 






Type g-k final. 


dipag 


taboc 


log 


lihoc 


Type g final (Subanu). 






bolig 


bala 


Type g-d final. 


solog 


solod 


timod 


tigom (timog) 


Atypical : 










bogguiong bodyong 


gocsip 


sipsip 


guingcod 


lingcod 


goles balas 


goles 


balas 


litobong 


hagbong 


gomot domot 


guicoran 


lingcodan 


sacog 


sacop 


good dool 


guindog 


tindog 


sindil 


indig 


gabang tabang 


guinocsip 


sinapsap 


soggo 


sodoc 


gatbang tobang 











Of the lingual mutes the surd t displays very slight mutability. 
We shall first Ust the common instances arrayed according to position. 



Subanu. Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type t common initial. 










fltandanan cotongdanan 


taron 


tadong 


tolisan 


tampalasan 


atoc tagna 


tauac 


taoay 


tom 


itom 


ctodanan tatongdanan 


tee 


tai 


tondo 


todlo 


gatbang tobang 


timod 


tigom 


tondong 


tongod 


loletoec toadtoad 


tioan 


/>otiocan 


tonggab 


tongab 


wiatugas tiga 


tobang 


ctobang 


torong 


tadong 


taap tahap 


tobos 


tapos 


tungdong 


tongod 


taod tahod 


tocsocan 


tohogan 






Type t medial common. 










atud hatod 


gantoson 


antos 


lotang 


lothan 


bangitao balanghitao 


gasintos 


asintos 


marongot 


maligotogoton 


binutong ibotang 


gatop 


atop 


mita 


quita 


buta botang 


golitao 


olitaoo 


ponopoton 


panapton 


cotooto cotocoto 


got6 


gonto 


potao 


pothao 


Type t final common. 










casit saquit 


goot 


hacot 


lolat 


holat 


gaitan gahit 


guilat 


quilat 


maloot 


lolot 


gomot camot 


impit 


hingpit 


poquicot 


hocot 


gomot domot 


laat 


daot 


ulatay 


holat 



86 



THE SUBANU. 



Subanu. Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type lingual mutation. 










lompoc tapoc 


sombag 


tobag 


solot 


solod 


lopong topong 


guito 


ido 


talmga 


dalonggan 


panas hilanat 










Type linguo-palatal mutation. 










bingcon botcon 


gabang 


tabang 


gumdog 


tmdog 


laang lacat 


gomog 


camot 






Type linguo-labial mutation. 


mopong 


topong 







In an interesting and probably important contrast the lingual surd 
mute d is far less constant, a difference which comparison with the 
immediately foregoing tabulation will show to the glance. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type d initial common. 










daan 


dalan 


deni 


dinhi 


doon 


dona 


daig 


dayig 


donlag 


damlag 


dua 


doha 


dalinduman 


domdom 


doon 


dahon 


ocdoc 


docdoc 


Type d medial common. 










anding 


canding 


gagda 


agda 


ondoc 


hadloc 


atandanan 


catongdanan 


guindog 


tindog 


sindil 


mdig 


atodanan 


catongdanan 


ondao 


adlao 


tondo 


todlo 


Type d final common. 










aoid 


haoid 


guilid 


quilid 


lood 


lohod 


atod 


hatud 


guingcod 


lingcod 


pasagdaw 


pasagad 


galad 


alad 


logud 


licod 


taod 


tahod 


guibid 


ibid 


lonsod 


longsod 






Type linguo-palata 


mutation. 










porang 


bolad 


good 


dool 


dao 


caoat 


balidya 


baligya 


soggo 


sodoc 


loletoec 


toadtoad 


bogguiong 


bodyong 


solog 


solod 


sogod 


sooc 


gomot 


domot 


timod 


tigom (timog) 






Type lingual mutation. 










dula 


loa 


poraigon 


padayigon 


lonao 


lodhao 


guilos 


iding 


porong 


podong 


dagom 


tagom 


laat 


daot 


sayoron 


sayod 


dipag 


taboc 


loon 


daghan 


sora 


isda 


donaan 


toton 


ponicol 


panicad 


taron 


tadong 


doque 


^ontoc 


gare 


hadi 


torong 


tadong 


gosod 


sogot 


laraban 


ladaoan 


donot 


nonot 


solot 


solod 


Atypical. 












bondyag 


bonyag 


dala 


oala 


tungdong 


tongod 


bui 


boquid 


tondong 


tongod 







Last of all we reach the labial mutes, the strongest expression of 
the consonant modulation power of this organ. The surd p is almost 
positive, so very scanty are its variants. 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type p common. 












gaclop 


haclop 


loop 


locop 


poporenion 


paanhion 


gampo 


ampo 


lopong 


topong 


poraigon 


padayigon 


gapo 


apohan 


mopong 


topong 


porong 


podong 


gapog 


apog 


ocsop 


sopsop 


posong 


tagipos6on 


gatop 


atop 


pasagdan 


pasagad 


potao 


pothao 


gocsip 


sipsip 


palon 


palong 


puonan 


pohonan 


gopa 


opa 


pogliquimo 


paghimo 


quipos 


hipos 


gopao 


opao 


ponicol 


panicad 


sapulu 


napolo 


gumocsip 


smapsap 


ponopoton 


panapton 


sopmgi 


apmg 


guisip 


isip 


pongon 


ipon 


sopla 


sompa 


impit 


hingpit 


pongong 


pogong 


taap 


tahap 


lompoc 


tapoc 











SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



87 



(Continued from p. 86.) 



Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Subanu. 


Visayan. 


Type p-b. 












dipag 


taboo 


porang 


bolad 


puli 


balos 


peen 


baihon 










Atypical. 












panas 


hilanat 


sacog 


sacop 


tamisac 


pisac 


panga 


sanga 










Type b common. 












baa 


baha 


bocbaac 


baqui 


gabo 


abo 


baga 


pagcahobag 


boclag 


bolag 


gatbang 


tobang 


balidya 


baligya 


bogguiong 


bodyong 


guibid 


ibid 


bangitao 


balanghitao 


boi 


bohi 


guibog 


ibog 


bencong 


bingcong 


bolaan 


bolacan 


libongan 


ibobongan 


biag 


bihag 


bolig 


bala 


litobong 


hagbong 


bila 


abian 


bone 


biiihi 


sinbaan 


singbahan 


binal 


baol 


booc 


bohoc 


sombag 


tobag 


binutong 


ibotang 


buta 


botang 


tobang 


atobang 


bingcon 


botcon 


gabang 


tabang 


tonggab 


tongab 


Type b-p. 












bolao 


paolao 


lugbas 


lapos 


tobos 


tapos 



From our comparison of Subanu and Visayan we shall properly 
omit the many instances in the foregoing tabulation where community 
of consonants is manifest, for these instances lack critical value. In the 
residue of differences we are struck at once by the fact that practically 
every difference is double ; that as soon as we have established it as sub- 
sisting between Subanu and Visayan we discover its converse existence 
as between Visayan and Subanu. This is typically instanced in the 
second table on page 8i in the case of the vanished 1: Subanu bila is 
Visayan abian; on the other hand we are estopped from the belief that 
Visayan drops an 1 present in Subanu, for we find immediately Subanu 
daan and Visayan dalan in a case where we have positive knowledge 
that the 1 pertains to the stem. This tells a tale. No such interplay 
of differences can hold between a parent and a daughter speech, but it 
can hold between languages descending from a common parent. 

We shall find more to the same point in the examination of what 
may readily be designated speech biology. These languages are of the 
agglutinative type, a stage in advance of the isolating class, yet still in 
the development stages of consonant acquisition. We see that the 
greatest fixity of the consonants holds in the mutes, the most forceful 
expression of consonant possibility; and within the class of the mutes 
we observe that fluctuation is most noted in the sonants, essentially a 
less precise result of the positioning of the speech organs than the surds of 
the same series. The maximum variety (equally the maximum range of 
variation), lies in the region where are formed the semivowels, the nasals, 
the aspiration, and the sibilant. These are all sounds produced by 
the less forceful exercise of consonant-forming power; therefore, where 
the differences in position of the appropriate closures is but slight, it is 
natural for men to whom precise speech is not yet an art fully acquired, 
or even needed, to fall far short of precision in sound formation. 



88 THE SUBANU. 

The examination of the variety by reference to the speech-organs 
employed points in the same direction. The least variously utiHzed 
organ is the hps : only two closures have been taken into speech use, the 
minimum and the maximum ; here we find almost no variety in the com- 
parison of Subanu and Visayan. The palate, the speech-organ which 
first came under control, is the least flexible of the speech-organs and 
is cornmonly established in the primitive languages in but two closures, 
the minimum and the maximum. Here again, although the variety is 
somewhat greater than in the labials, it amounts to little in the sum. 

But when we give our attention to the lingual series we are filled 
with amazement at the amount and extent of the mutation -variety. 
Its mutes are fixed ; that is to say, the speakers of these languages are 
able to attain the maximum of the speech effort to which the tongue 
lends itself; beyond that maximum it is in essence impossible to go; 
therefore the mutes must be a fixed quality. Bariier in this chapter I 
have pointed out the character of force in speech : how that initials and 
finals are more forcible, and that weaker forms supervene when either 
is brought within the interior of the word. Those of us who have had 
much intercourse with the inferior races of mankind have recognized in 
the declamation of their speech this quality of word force. We employ 
it ourselves in speaking to children and foreigners and other unfortu- 
nates not fully in possession of their wits ; we aim to speak distinctly in 
order to make comprehension sure. The primitive races are all children 
together, and we need go no further than the next school-yard at recess 
time to appreciate the dynamic force with which children converse 
among themselves. 

Omitting, then, the Hngual mutes as under the dominance of 
another set of influences, we find that in Subanu and Visayan the tongue 
is a most uncertain member. It is within the power of these speakers to 
put the tongue in all but one of its standard closures, yet the positioning 
is so insecure that we have seen in the tabulation (pages 85 and 86) 
that any closure may and does slip in to any other closure of the same 
organ. More than that, we find that the duty of the tongue is not 
infrequently delivered over to the palate to perform, a return from the 
imperfectly mastered organ to one whose control is more sure and whose 
use is directed by longer familiarity of habit. 

Thus far we have considered Subanu and Visayan together, as in 
some as yet undetermined relation of fiHation. The phonetic variety 
will not lead us directly to the determination of the nature of this fiHa- 
tion, for the mutation is by no means in a single direction. We are not 
able to assume, for example, that the Visayan is the som-ce speech and 
that Subanu diverges therefrom by dialectic variety exhibited in a 
certain array of mutation instances ; for in fact we find that for every 
mutation in one direction between Visayan and Subanu there is its 
converse in the other direction between Subanu and Visayan. 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 89 

Yet we are not without data which may be appUed toward the solu- 
tion of the problem. The formative elements tell a tale of importance. 
In general we observe that the Visayan employs all the composition 
members which are in Subanu use. From the dictionary of Fray Juan 
Felix we find that the Visayan has in use a considerable number of such 
members which the Subanu lacks. This is particularly to be noticed in 
the matter of the infixes, those puzzhng yet very convenient marks of a 
word- treatment which is just beginning to reach out toward inflectional 
value. From this we begin to form the impression that the Subanu 
represents an earlier phase of a common speech ; that it has not under- 
gone the development which accession of higher culture has induced 
among the Visayans. 

The geography of the culture site of the Subanu leads us in the 
same direction. On the ethnographic chart in Father Algue's "Atlas de 
Filipinas" the Visayans are indicated as occupying a somewhat compact 
area in the mid PhiHppines. Their settlements are principally found on 
Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Leyte, Samar. North of this center the 
islands of Panay, Masbate, Tablas, Romblon, and Sibuyan show more 
or less extended occupation by this stock. Toward the south they are 
found in settlement at spots upon the north coast of Mindanao, on the 
east shore of the Bay of Iligan, on its west shore as far as Dapitan, on the 
northeast coast from Surigao toLianga, and upon the outlying islands of 
Dinagat and Siargao. This plot shows distinctly the movement of the 
Visayans in their advance upon the archipelago, for it is indisputable 
that they are a Malayan race both linguistically and ethnologically. 

From the tip of Borneo two well-marked Hues lie before the coast- 
wise seamen of the prahu. The northern Hne leads from the north 
shore of Borneo by Balbac, Paragua, and Busuanga direct to Mindoro, 
with not a trace of Visayans along the Une. The southern Une of 
approach, after leaving the south coast of Borneo, leads by Tawitawi, 
Jolo, Basilan, and Zamboanga directly to the abodes of the Subanu and 
to the center of Visayan life and settlement spread over the area from 
Negros to Samar. The position in which the Subanu lie relative to this 
broad avenue of Visayan migration indicates for them an early asso- 
ciation with the main body of migrants. Having taken possession of 
this region north of Zamboanga, they withdrew to the interior of the 
country for the usual protection of weak peoples by evasion. Thus 
they lost touch with the greater members of their race; they remained 
undeveloped in their inland seclusion and now present an earlier type, 
perhaps the earliest type of the race which with greater freedom of 
development under better settlement conditions has marched forward 
to such progress as now marks the Visayan culture. 

By combination of all these considerations we reach the conclusion 
that the Subanu are of the Visayan race, that their language represents 
an early phase of the Visayan, and that future investigation may bring 



90 



THE SUBANU. 



to light the fact that its vocabulary preserves many vocables which in 
the general Visayan are but rarely encountered. 

It is wide of the purpose of this work to point out in the vocabulary 
the Malay affiliates. We do not need them for proof that the language 
is Malayan, and it would do no more than duplicate work already 
famihar. The only exception which I have made is in the case of a few 
vocables for which I have noted affihations in several languages in the 
Celebes waters. These were collated in Dr. Elbert's Sunda Expedi- 
tion, while the study of Subanu was in progress, and are therefore quite 
new and undoubtedly welcome additions to the stock of Malay com- 
parative material. 

There remain for our consideration a double-handful of examples of 
a mutation which is certainly anomalous, for it does not fall within the 
ordinarily established categories of phonetic variability. Absolutely 
these examples are few, yet it is clear from their repetition for so many 
as are here shown that they represent a speech principle. Therefore 
they are worthy of our examination in order that we may discover the 
principle which is operative. So far, when it has been necessary to refer 
to any of these vocables in passing, I have classed them as inversion; 
now we shall see of what nature they really are. 

For readier vision, let us first see what would be the result if the 
principle were a part of our own speech equipment, since it is much 
easier to study it when applied to vocables more familiar than any 
which may be drawn from the distant Subanu. From the Latin ruga 
we derive the adjective rugose; if this principle were at work in our 
linguistics we should have gurose or urgose; from the German beten we 
should have tebe or edbe in place of bede as in bederoll. These illustra- 
tions in familiar material, so far as they have true appUcabihty to the 
matter, will show us that there are two possible forms ; that there is an 
interchange of consonants between the second and first syllables ; that 
the syllable itself is inverted and its initial consonant is made final. In 
our Subanu material we must discover which of these takes place. 

Omitting here all consideration of the usual phonetic variation 
which may or may not affect the form of the compared vocables, we 
present the examples in similar groups: 



Subanu 
Visayan 


casit 
saquit 


gosod 
sogot 


socog 
cosog 



In these the change has affected the initial syllable ; we find the 
same number of instances in which it has been appHed to the final syl- 
lable. 



Subanu 
Visayan 


timod 
tigom 


tondong 
tongod 


tungdong 
tongod 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



91 



So far as relates to the former group, we might conclude that the 
process was an interchange of the initial consonants of the former and 
the latter syllables, regarding the initial syllable in each case as open, 
that is, consisting of consonant and vowel. In the second group we 
should have, in continuation of the theory that the interchange is 
between one syllable and another, to regard each syllable as closed and 
that the movement applied to final consonants. This is by no means 
satisfactory ; it involves a complication which is foreign to language of 
so elemental a type. 

Our next group of three will afford us a better view of the process. 



Subanu 
Visayan 


gonlo 
onglo 


luma 
odma 


sora 
isda 



Here we have no difficulty in seeing that the syllabification is 
gon-lo, lu-ma, so-ra. This makes clear what has happened, the initial 
syllable has been inverted without any doubt in luma and sora, lu-ma-ul- 
ma-od-ma, so-ra-os-ra-is-da. In the first group of three we find the 
same syllable inversion in all three cases ; gos-od-sog-od-sog-ot. In the 
second group it holds; ti-mod-ti-dom-ti-gom. 

There remain now three apparent anomalies, gonlo, tondong, tung- 
dong. Instead of nog-lo we find ong-lo; instead of ton-ngod ton-god; 
instead of tung-ngod ton-god. Since all involve the palatal nasal we 
may safely conclude that the same principle of inversion of syllables is 
operative, but that the result is subjected to perturbation produced by 
some attractive quality in the palatal nasal, a closure which we have 
estabUshed as among the first of the consonant possibiUties to be 
developed. 

Our material affords us a group of four vocables, in which at first 
sight there appears to exist a different type of inversion, the interchange 
of consonants concurrently brought together. They are these : 



Subanu 

Visayan 


ondao 
adlao 


ondoc 
hadloc 


sopla 
sompa 


tondo 
todlo 



As these have arisen for consideration in the foregoing text I have 
indicated a more satisfactory explanation, that when for any reason a 
Hquid is assumed by the stem the preface of the series nasal is dropped 
by the stem mute; or, that when a stem hquid is dropped the mute is 
prefaced by way of compensation. Just which of these two statements 
is the proper view must await the determination of the true stem in 
these words and that can be accompHshed only by following them 
through their various occurrences in Indonesia. 

The Bontoc Igorot affords us three instances of inversion which 
may properly be adduced for comparison. 



Subanu 
Bontoc 


gosa 
ogsa 


lipay 
paley 


niug 
inyog 



92 TH^ SUBANU. 

These are confirmatory of the deductions which have been drawn 
from the Subanu material ; in the first and third of these inverts there 
can be no doubt whatever that the initial syllable is inverted as a unit, 
in the second invert we shall find justification in regarding the inversion 
as of the same type. 

This theory of inversion as deaUng with syllable units comports 
with our broader comprehension of languages so primitive as are these 
of agglutination. While the word-stem is frequently dissyllabic we 
must regard it as compact of monosyllabic roots. In the languages of 
isolation the two roots which enter the stem are capable of independent 
existence and most commonly are found free in the same speech. In 
agglutination the secondary root has in most cases ceased its free exist- 
ence and in the process of such disuse has undergone more or less of 
form-change, so that it has become merely a composition member. 
The principal root remains susceptible of necessary modification as a 
speech unit. I may note the occurrence of this type of inversion, 
though infrequent, in the isolating languages of Melanesia. 

It was not within my original plans for the scope of this work that 
the collation of the Subanu affiliation should extend beyond the im- 
mediately circumjacent Visayan. It was easy to recognize that in 
the many languages of the Philippines many interesting discoveries 
might be made and that more extended study must be fruitful in valu- 
able results. After due consideration I determined to rehnquish this 
study to those whose concern is more specifically directed to PhiUppine 
Unguistics and to those masters of Malay philology who may be ex- 
pected to deal with the new material which has been given me to arrange 
and to order for their examination. It will be understood that my 
particular object has been to sift this Subanu for such data as might be 
found to bear upon my own specific study of the early phases of the 
Polynesian speech. With that I am quite content. 

But it chanced that while these pages were being put into type 
my attention was somewhat fortuitously directed to Dr. Seidenadel's 
study of the language of the Bontoc Igorot. Immediately I recognized 
a marked similarity in parts of the vocabularies of the two races. They 
are widely separated; almost the whole length of the archipelago lies 
between the Igorot of Bontoc in the northern tip of Luzon and the 
Subanu of the southern extremity of Mindanao. Despite the dis- 
tance which parts them they have one condition in common: each 
is interiorly situated with reference to a Malayan people of more 
advanced culture and richer development; the Subanu an inclusion 
within the Visayan area, the Bontoc Igorot within the Tagalog region 
of predominance. 

Despite hnguistic differences, this condition is readily compre- 
hensible in our acquaintance with the PhiHppines . The Aetas and others 
of the true negritos represent the survivors of a primitive autochtho- 



SUB ANU- VISA YAN FILIATION. 



93 



nous people who were feebly in possession of the islands at the time of 
the coming of the first wave of Malay migration. Unfit to make a 
successful stand against the better-equipped invaders these almost 
pygmy people withdrew to the mountains where they could preserve 
in uninterrupted simpHcity their rude life but little advanced above the 
plane of social animals. In the same manner the earUest Malayan 
settlers were dealt with by later swarms of their own race; before the 
better fighters they, too, withdrew from the coasts and found a refuge 
in the seclusion of the mountains. This we may readily comprehend 
in the case of the Subanu shyly retreating before their Visayan kinsmen. 
I think that further study will establish this as fact in the case of the 
Bontoc Igorot, that they are in some sense poor and primitive relations 
of the Tagals who have established themselves as the dominant race of 
the northern area of the Philippines. 

At the present time there is marked difference between the Tagals 
of the north and the Visayans of the south. This difference is nowhere 
more marked than in speech; mutually incomprehensible they would 
not be identified as of the same stock save upon philological investi- 
gation. This diversity of settlement is an affair of somewhat modern 
times ; at least it has been formed in the last wave of migration which 
estabHshed the settlement of the Philippines as we now see it. It is 
not in the least necessary to postulate the same diversity for the earlier 
migration wave out of western Malaysia, it is quite possible that the 
first settlers were far more homogeneous. Therefore it need cause us 
no surprise should we discover a relation between Subanu and Bontoc 
Igorot of the earlier migration which may imply community of origin. 

In the collation of Seidenadel's vocabulary of the Bontoc Igorot 
I have succeeded in identifying 90 affiliates which may be recognized in 
the Subanu with no great difficulty. A very considerable number of 
these affiUates He within the element common to Malayan and Poly- 
nesian; therefore they add their confirmation to the conclusions which 
I base upon the similar element of the Subanu. These affiUates I shall 
list in tables based upon the several phonetic elements involved in 
order to facilitate our topical consideration of the material. 

The hquid 1 is practically common to Subanu and Bontoc Igorot 
as shown in this table : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


dalan 


djalan 


lima 


lima 


salamin 


salming 


dila 


djila 


linao 


alinoao 


salapi 


salapi 


galad 


alad 


lipay 


paley 


sapulu 


polo 


golo 


olo 


lua 


lua 


sulat 


suladak 


goloan 


olaoan 


lusung 


luson 


sulu 


sillu 


gulungan 


kolong 


palad 


talad 


tolo 


tolo 


laga 


lago 


palay 


palay 


tolod 


itoludko 


lagi 


lalaki 


pilak 


bilak 


tongalang 


alang 


laneg 


lanib 


pili 


pili 


walu 


walo 


lasag 


kalasay 











94 



THE SUBANU. 



The only instances of 1-mutation are these 






Subanu. Bontoc. 


Subanu. Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


bulan buan 
sapulu po'o 


lanao tjanaom 
ngalan ngatjan 


ngalan 
gare 


ngadan 
ali 



The loss of 1 is found within the Subanu, as, for instance, the 
alternative forms dalan and daan. The interchange of r-1 in gare-ali 
is so slight and so famihar as to attract no attention. The mutation 
1-d and the slight variant 1-tj is mutation in series, therefore readily 
to be comprehended, it is passage from the weaker effort of hngual 
closure to the most forceful effort in 1-d or stopping in 1-tj just short 
of that limit. 

The palatal nasal ng is found for the most part unchanged; the 
only instances of variety are ng-n in lusung-luson and the dropping 
of the sound in posong-poso. The instances where this consonant 
remains unaltered are the following : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


gulungan 

ngalan 

panga 


kolong 
ngadan 
panga 


payung 
saguing 
sising 


payong 
saking 
singsing 


sopingi 
tongalang 


iping 
alang 



The lingual nasal n exhibits a minimum of mutation. The stems 
in which it appears unchanged in the two languages afford us this table: 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


bulan 

cana 

goloan 


buan. 
kanek 
olaoan 


lanao 
laneg 
linao 


tjanaom 

lanib 

alinoao 


niug 

ngalan 

pono 


niyog 

ngadan 

punek 


gonom 
ina 


mim 
ina 


manoc 
masin 


monok 
asin 


sigupan 
sinbaan 


songyopan 
simfan 


mom 


inumek 


mmsan 


mammgsan 


toon 


taaowin 



The recessive inter-organic mutation from lingual to palatal, 
n-ng, is found in the three instances cana-mangan, minsan-mamingsan, 
salamin-salming; the progressive mutation ng-n has been noted in 
a single instance. The progressive inter-organic mutation from Ungual 
to labial, n-m, is found in the single instance of sinbaan-simfan ; this 
is readily explicable by attraction to the labial tract in the effort to 
produce the surd spirant f in an intermediate lip closure not yet fully in 
the habit of the speech. We note such attraction in the Subanu itself. 

Quite as we should expect from our acquaintance with languages of 
this type, the labial nasal m exhibits no mutation phases in this material; 
the occurrences of its community are noted in the following table : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


gama 
gonom 
inom 
lima 


ama 
inim 
inumek 
lima 


manoc 

mata 

minsan 


monok 

mata 

mamingsan 


salamin 

siam 

sombag 


salming 

siam 

samfad 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



95 



We note two instances which suggest the abrasion of m-initial, 
tnasin-asin, matay-idoy. Each will receive more full discussion in 
the next chapter ; in the latter case it is clear that we are not concerned 
with frontal abrasion, but that the Bontoc stem is a primitive while 
the Subanu has arrived at secondary development by the apphcation 
of the ma prefix of condition. 

The examination of the palatal mutes shows us a considerable 
play of mutation of the sonant g. Numerically the largest group 
consists of the instances in which an initial g exists in Subanu and is 
absent from the Bontoc, as set forth in this table : 



Subanu. 



Bontoc. 



galad 


alad 


gama 


ama 


gapid 


apik 


gapoy 
gare 


apuy 
ali 



Subanu. 



Bontoc. 



gatai 

gatop 

golo 

goloan 

gonom 



atoy 
atep 
olo 
olaoan 



Subanu. 



gooay 
gugat 
gutek 
gwasay 



wue 
uad 
utek 
wasay 



The question of the g-initial is discussed in the study of the Subanu 
phonetic and need not be taken up here. The single instance in which 
this assumption or dropping of g affects the letter in other than the 
initial position is to be seen in gugat-uad. We have four instances 
in which the g is common to the two languages : geeg-alogoog, laga-lago, 
niug-niyog, gosa-ogsa. The very simple mutation from sonant to 
surd, g-k, appears well estabUshed in the following instances : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


baga 

balin-gawa 

gayo 


poko 

kaaowa 

kayao 


goyamet 
gulungan 


komaot 
kolong 


lagi 
saguing 


lalaki 
saking 



Recessive mutation, that is upward in the series and from forceful 
toward weaker expression, occurs twice in the type g-ng: holigan- 
faolengan, sigupan-songyopan. We may be justified in the interpre- 
tation of lasag-kalasay as a recessive mutation yet further continued 
past the nasal as the first of the true consonants and clear over to the 
semivowel proximate to the speech organ involved in g; this explana- 
tion, which at this point can be no more than tentative, will need addi- 
tional data for its determination. We find the more violent mutation 
out of series, palatal to Ungual in two instances, gabo-tjapo and sombag- 
sumfad; and palatal even to labial in laneg-lanib. 

The surd palatal mute k undergoes httle mutation, quite as we 
should expect after observing with what frequency the sonant comes 
to rest upon it; the community is observed in these instances 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


bocbaac 

booc 

cana 


fakfak 

fook 

makan 


gutek 

kanuku 

manoc 


utek 
koko 
monok 


patik 
pilak 


fatek 
bilak 



96 



THEJ SUBANU. 



In a single case, cana-mangan, we have recessive mutation from 
mute to nasal. In three cases we find a k in Bontoc which is absent 
in Subanu; basa-fasaek, siyu-siko, tao-iakao. 

Passing now to the Unguals we find no more than one instance of a 
mutation affecting the sibilant. This occurs in sopingi-4ping, and we 
are unable to determine if it is a Subanu assumption or a Bontoc abra- 
sion, except in so far as the Visayan aping is indicative. The instances 
where s is common are set forth in this table : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


basa 
buis 


fasaek 
fuys 


posong 
pusu 


poso 
baosig 


sigupan 
sinbaan 


songyopan 
simfan 


gwasay 
lasag 
lusung 
masin 


wasay 
kalasay 
luson 
asin 


sa 

saguing 
salamin 
salapi 


isa 

saking 
salming 
salapi 


sising 
siyu 
sombag 
sulat 


smgsmg 
siko 
sumfad 
suladak 


minsan 


mamingsan 


sawa 


asawa 


sulu 


sillu 


gosa 


ogsa 


siam 


siam 


! 





We find the sonant lingual mute d unaltered in four instances: 
di-adi, galad-alad, palad-talad, tolod-itoludko. In three vocables we 
encounter the sUght recessive mutation d-t j ; dalan-tjalan, dila-tjila, 
and d-dj in dua-djua, as to which we note that each is initial. In 
gapid-apik we meet a mutation out of series, from Ungual backward 
to palatal; it is suggestive of the kappation of modern Polynesian. 

The surd Ungual mute t remains commonly without mutation, as 
shown in this table : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


bato 


bato 


mata 


mata 


tao 


takao 


gatai 


atoy 


pat 


ipat 


tee 


tae 


gatop 


atep 


patik 


fatek 


tolo 


tolo 


goyamet 


komaot 


pito 


pito 


toon 


taaowin 


gutek 


utek 











The mutation from surd to sonant, t-d, occurs in three stems; 
gugat-uad, matay-idoy, sulat-suladak. 

In the course of these studies based upon extended research in the 
phonetics of primitive speech I have sufficiently estabUshed the fact 
that when the lips are brought into use m, almost unalterable, is the 
weakest type of expression and b-p the most forceful. While m is 
fixed, positive, an unchanging modulant, we find in these languages 
the greatest play of variety in the consonants which depend for their 
formation upon the positioning of the lips. 

The sonant labial mute b scarcely exists in the Bontoc; even 
that name is uniformly spelled Fontoc by Dr. Seidenadel; it appears in 
no more than two vocables, hato-hato and bulan-buan, and for the latter 
we find the alternative fuan. In two instances we find mutation from 
sonant to surd, b-p; baga-poko, gabo-tjapo. In all other cases the 



SUBANU-VISAYAN FILIATION. 



97 



sonant mute passes to the surd spirant, b-f, in a class of consonant 
which the Subanu lacks. 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


baboy 
basa 
boaya 
bocbaac 


fafuy 
fasaek 
fuaya 
fakfak 


boligan 

booc 

buis 


faolengan 

fook 

fuys 


bulan 

sinbaan 

sombag 


fuan 

simfan 

sumfad 



The mutations of the surd labial mute p are very infrequent. 
Two vocables aJBFord us the p-b mutation from surd to sonant; pilak- 
bilak, pusu-baosig. In the single instance of patik-fatek the mutation 
is yet one step more in recession, from surd mute to surd spirant. 
There is but a single case of mutation extra seriem, backward from lips 
to tongue, p-t, in palad-talad. The instances where p is common to 
the two languages are listed in this table : 



Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


Subanu. 


Bontoc. 


gapid 

gapoy 

gatop 

lipay 

palay 

panga 


apik 

apuy 

atep 

paley 

palay 

panga 


pat 

payung 

pili 

pito 

pono 


ipat 

payong 

pili 

pito 

punek 


posong 

salapi 

sapulu 

sigupan 

sopingi 


poso 

salapi 

polo 

songyopan 

iping 



I have presented this material in the form of the adjustment of 
the Bontoc Igorot upon the Subanu base, and for the reason that in this 
work the Subanu is the norm from which we measure divergence in 
cognate languages. To prevent the chance of error which might 
naturally arise in this manner of presentation it will be necessary to 
employ a few words in the explanation of the true fact in the case. 
It is not to be understood that the Bontoc mutation is any sort of a 
divergence from a Subanu standard or the Subanu a variation upon the 
Bontoc base, and the cases in which the two languages agree upon the 
employment of a common consonant are not at all indicative that we 
have estabUshed in such concord a primeval stem of any given vocable. 
There is a tertium quid to which each language must be referred inde- 
pendently. Mutation variety as between Subanu and Bontoc may be 
divergent variation from a primeval type, or one of the languages 
may preserve the primal type and the other exhibit mutation there- 
from. When Subanu and Bontoc are in accord it may be that they 
are also in accord with this third member of the problem; it may be 
equally the case that they accord in variation from that third member. 

The tertium quid is the stock speech from which Subanu and Bon- 
toc have derived this common element amounting to 90 items. It is 
a possibility that the Bontoc Igorot and the Subanu are widely sun- 
dered remnants of a common migration wave of closely related folk. 
This would be difficult to estabUsh in view of the wide diversity of the 



98 THE SUBANU. 

vocabularies in all but this community of 90 vocables, still more diffi- 
cult in view of the essentially different method of grammatical treat- 
ment. It is far more reasonable to consider that this community of 
vocables is the residuum of the draft made independently by Subanu 
and Bontoc, at some remote period of time and in some remote dis- 
tributing point of migration, upon the common stock of archetypal 
Malayan speech. That the source language of this community was 
already in possession of archetypal Polynesian elements is made clear 
by the further and most important fact that in this community of 90 
vocables preserved at the far north of Luzon and at the far south of 
Mindanao, separated by ten degrees of latitude, no less than 55 are 
identifiable as in Polynesian possession at the present day. Much 
of this Subanu-Bontoc community in the possession of the common 
element of Malayan and Polynesian is identifiable with the Proto- 
Samoan and not with the Tongafiti migration of the Polynesians into 
the Pacific. 

What bearing this may have upon the problem of the great equa- 
torial archipelago I leave contentedly to the students of Malayan lin- 
guistics. Its bearing upon my own theme of Polynesian speech is clear. 
In the advance of the first Malayu migrants upon the primal Polyne- 
sians settled in the Java seas there was a mixing period during which 
the Malayan language was enriched by the assumption of Polynesian 
vocables, evidence of which admixture survives in some 250 vocables 
which we identify as common to the two language families. Further- 
more in this mixing period the interchange of speech material was 
almost wholly one-sided, assumption by the Malay from the Poly- 
nesian. This is estabhshed by the fact that there is not a single item 
in this community for which a Malayan source may be exclusively 
proved, and in but one doubtful case (tinae) is there a single suggestion 
that a secondary Malayan form is discoverable in the Polynesian. 
This mixing period was succeeded by an accession of new Malayan 
strength as new hordes poured in upon the archipelago. In this more 
violent stage the Polynesian ancestors began their first flight into the 
safety of the empty Pacific, the earHest Malays either fled to yet more 
remote islands, a movement in which we beUeve the Subanu in one 
flight and the Bontoc in another to have participated; or else they 
remained at the spots of their first settlement and welcomed their kins- 
men, thereby carrying over to the later comers more or less of the new 
vocabulary stock which they had acquired and thus securing its very 
uneven distribution throughout Malaysia as now within our study. 



CHAPTER IV. 
POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 

We are now brought to that division of the theme whose particular 
interest I freely confess was most largely operative in inducing me to 
accept the not inconsiderable task of preparing this Subanu material 
for publication. Indeed it is a great pleasure to be intimately asso- 
ciated with the introduction to scientific philology of a speech hitherto 
unrecorded, to array its vocables and the machinery of their sense- 
diflferentiation in such order as to facilitate the work of other students. 
It has been a rare delight and I would not seem to suggest anything 
which might in any way beUttle the importance of such work. Yet 
I recognized in this employment the opportunity to make a fresh ap- 
proach upon the problem of the Malayo- Polynesian as a speech family; 
upon this base of absolutely new material to recompute the particular 
element upon which that family has been erected ; from the Malayan 
side, as already I have done from the Polynesian side, to seek to render 
the family into its units. 

I consider that the unquestioning acceptance of this Malayo-Poly- 
nesian family has operated to prevent inquiry into the most promising 
source of linguistic knowledge. I believe the Malayo-Polynesian family 
to rest upon wholly false grounds. I know there is not, there can not be, 
a family of speech which shall include the Malayan with the Polynesian. 

Therefore I shall assemble the data which the Subanu and its 
kindred Visayan provide and shall let them prove these contentions. 
No material could be better for the purpose, for it is acknowledged by 
all authorities upon the Indonesian that the Philippine Malay pre- 
serves the most pure and uncontaminated type of the speech which 
holds throughout the Malay Sea. 

In the whole of the vast Malayo-Polynesian domain, extending from 
Madagascar to the Sandwich Islands in one direction, and in another to New 
Zealand, passing by the Sunda Islands, a common speech reigns, of which the 
groups and subgroups not only belong to the same class, but possess the ele- 
ments of the same vocabulary. 

Thus Andre Lefevre, at the beginning of the fourth chapter of his 
"Race and Language," and at the end of the chapter: 

The Malay family of languages is one of the simplest and most convenient 

of the agglutinative idioms, as it is the most extensive and the most clearly 

defined; it constitutes a perfectly independent group, or at least its relationship 

to any other has not been discovered. 

99 



100 TH^ SUBANU. 

Upon what authority does the professor of anthropology at Paris 
issue these statements so positively and without qualification? Let us 
look at similar pronouncements by an even greater master of systematic 
philology : 

On the islands, however, which lie off the southeastern part of the conti- 
nent of Asia, and through most of the groups and isolated islets that dot the 
Pacific, north to Formosa, east to Easter Island, south to New Zealand, and 
west even to Madagascar on the very border of Africa, are found the scattered 
members of a vast and perfectly well-developed family, the Malay-Polynesian. 

Thus William D wight Whitney at page 241 of "The Life and 
Growth of Language," and he continues: 

The Malay-Polynesian languages are more simple in regard to their pho- 
netic structure than any others in the world; hardly any of them have more 
than ten consonants, many only seven; and they do not allow a syllable to 
begin with more than one consonant or to close with a consonant. 

In the preceding chapter, when discussing the Subanu syllabifica- 
tion, I have convicted Whitney of error in the last item. 

Whence did Professor Whitney derive the information which 
enabled him to speak in such positive terms about the Malayo-Poly- 
nesian family? I yield to none in my reverence for the great authority 
of this profound master of the Sanskrit, and in addition I have an affec- 
tionate sentiment toward the preceptor who set my feet upon these 
ways. But what was the source of his information upon Malayan, 
Polynesian, and Malayo-Polynesian? 

Lef evre writes as one dealing with facts of common notoriety which 
require the citation of no authority. More precisely Whitney refers 
to Friedrich Miiller. His opinion is in the same form. I cite from 
page 271 of "Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Brde: 
linguistischer Theil:" 

In einer Zeit, welche jenseits aller Geschichte liegt, zog die helle malayo- 
polynesische Race vom Westen her, wahrscheinlich dem siidlichen Theile des 
asiatischen Festlandes gegen Osten, und liess sich auf den Kiisten der Inseln 
nieder. Am ersten scheinen die Malayen auf den siidlich gelegenen grossern 
Inseln, wie Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, aufgetreten zu sein, wo sie sich nieder- 
liessen und die dort vorgefundene schwarze Bevolkerung theils vertilgten, 
theils sich assimilirten. Von da breiteten sie sich gegen Norden iiber die 
Philippinen, Marianen und die anderen angrenzenden Inseln aus, und gingen 
selbst nach Formosa, hart an der Kuste Chinas hiniiber. Andererseits setzten 
sie auf ihren leichten, hurtigen Prahu's iiber den grossen Ocean, und siedelten 
sich auf den unbewohnten zahllosen Koralleninseln an, die in Gruppen hie und 
da aus der uniibersehbaren Wasserwiiste hervorragen. Auch die Doppelinsel 
Neu-Seeland, die Krone unter den Inseln der Siidsee, wurde von den kiihnen 
Wanderern in Besitz genommen, und wie es scheint, nach manchen Kampfen 
mit den wilden Raubthieren und Riesenvogeln bevolkert. 

Here we are coming closer to information at first hand, for Dr. 
Miiller had seen the Polynesians and the Indonesians with such super- 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 101 

ficiality of observation as comes to scientific voyagers whose stay at 
any one spot is necessarily brief. How superficial his knowledge is 
the last sentence exhibits, for it is a fact of zoology that New Zealand 
lacked beasts of prey, and it is more than doubtful if the moa persisted 
until the period of the Polynesian settlement of the islands ; certainly 
there is no warrant for the assumption of the dinornis as a combative 
fowl. Despite his personal experiences on the cruise of the Novara, 
MuUer derives his authority for the Malayo-Polynesian family from 
Franz Bopp. 

At last we have gone upstream to the source. The Malayo- 
Polynesian family was erected by Bopp, "Ueber die Verwandschaft 
der malayisch-polynesischen Sprachen mit den indisch-europaischen," 
published in 1841. 

No one may deny Franz Bopp the credit of establishing the science 
of comparative philology ; he first brought into order the study of the 
interlacing languages of mankind, established the greater groups, and 
pointed out the method whereby the study of speech could be made 
effective. All the authorities whom we have cited in the introductory 
pages of this chapter have been satisfied to rest upon the dicta of their 
leader ; to not one has it seemed proper to subject to further examina- 
tion the data which he had used. It is the compelling force of a great 
name deadening research. 

Now it is proper to attempt to resurrect the data which were 
available for Bopp in 1841. It is well to bear in mind that he was 
fresh from his triumph in elucidating the relationship of the various 
Indian, Persian, and European languages which now we commonly 
designate the Aryan group . He had established a Semitic family, which 
later information has considerably modified. He had given Africa the 
Hamitic family in a speech arrangement which is now completely dis- 
regarded. Carried away by the zeal of completing his system, of 
assorting all the languages of mankind into families, he created this 
Malayo-Polynesian family. We have the right to examine the material 
upon which he based this classification. 

First and foremost in his study was the great work of Wilhelm von 
Humboldt on Java, "Ueber die Kawi-Sprache," which was pubHshed 
in 1838. I can find no slightest evidence that Bopp went beyond the 
material which Humboldt had amassed in this great work. Accord- 
ingly the authority for the family which Bopp created must lie in the 
work of his predecessor. 

Let it be understood that there is here no suggestion that Humboldt 
is anything but our best authority upon the Kawi speech in Java. His 
study of that ancient language is both brilliant and profound, his discus- 
sion in pursuit of his theme when it carries him to the modern Javanese, 
both in its Basakrama and its Basangoko types, leaves nothing to be 
desired. But when he goes further afield and brings in comparative 



102 THE SUBANU. 

material we are entitled to estimate the value of that material. I can 
do nothing better than to quote from Edward Tregear upon this very 
point (Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, page xiii) : 

In this very voluminous work Humboldt examines the vocabularies and 
grammatical construction of the Oceanic languages and considers that the 
Tagal of the Phihppines is the leading dialect. His vocabularies, however, 
were of a very imperfect character, and his deductions would have been con- 
siderably modified had he possessed the information at present at our service, 
his Maori being the Maori of Lee and KendaU (1820) and his Tongan, if 
possible, still more defective and illusory. 

I have been at pains to discover what Hnguistic information as to 
the languages of Polynesia was available to Humboldt and therefore 
through him gave Bopp the data for the creation of this family. A 
very few word-lists were buried in the narratives of the great explorers ; 
even if we assume that Humboldt had access to them all the material 
was in very imperfect condition and by no means trustworthy. Tregear 
has characterized the "New Zealand Grammar and Dictionary" of 
Lee and Kendall. The Tongan vocabulary was that of Mariner's 
"Tonga Islands," pubhshed in 181 8 and filled with errors which at the 
present day are impossible of resolution. The work of Davies on the 
language of Tahiti had been published in 1823, but its present value is 
that of a curiosity. In 1837 Chamisso had pubhshed his brief and 
inaccurate vocabulary of the Hawaiian, but it does not appear that it 
affected Humboldt's work. In these few items we have the sum of the 
data, both scanty and untrustworthy, on which rests theMalayo- 
Polynesian family of speech. 

I arraign this family (experience has proved it a deadening collo- 
cation), upon the following grounds: 

1. That the evidence upon which it is sought to support it is 
incompetent, immaterial, and irrelevant. 

2. That a family of languages can not be constituted of members 
belonging to radically distinct orders of speech, and that in this case 
the Malayan is an agglutinative speech and the Polynesian isolating. 

3. That the use of infixes, characteristic of all the Malayan lan- 
guages and necessary to their use in speech, is wholly unknown to any 
of the Polynesians. 

4. That the Polynesian is essentially a language of open type in 
its present stage and that a consistent effort has been operative to 
excise final consonants in stems where inferentially they existed in a 
remote past; that the Malayan languages admit closed syllables and 
that in very many instances there has been an assumption of conso- 
nants in order to close syllables originally open. 

5. That the fixed element of the Polynesian lies in its vowel 
structure; that the vowels of the Malayan are most uncertain, and that 
the permanent elements are in the consonant skeleton. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 103 

From the beginning there has been some opposition to Bopp's 
Malayo-Polynesian family. John Crawfurd, a profound student of 
the Malay, was the first to raise his voice in opposition and was treated 
with a most undeserved contempt for his really great powers ; in For- 
nander's words "he was treated as an ethnologic heretic." The only 
successful opposition directed upon Bopp dealt with quite another 
division of his Malayo-Polynesian theory, that in which he sought to 
associate this family with the Sanskrit, a position no longer held by phi- 
lologists. The only modern author who has recurred to this position is 
Judge Fornander, who sought to estabhsh the relation of the Polynesians 
with the Aryan folk ; yet even in so doing Fornander is sedulous to set 
himself against his predecessor's association of Malay and Polynesian. 
The same stand of opposition is held by authors so widely at variance 
upon other points of Polynesian study as Alphonse de Quatrefages, 
A. H. Keane, Lesson, and Alfred Russel Wallace. Despite this very 
respectable opposition, our systematic philologists cling to Bopp's im- 
possible family. 

Now what has produced this error? Some cause there must have 
been of sufficient strength to prove operative upon Franz Bopp and 
Wilhelm von Humboldt to lead them into this position. Of their fol- 
lowers we need say nothing now save that they have one and all followed 
their leaders, that not one of them has sought the original material in 
confirmation of the doctrine which they have blindly accepted. 

There is a reason, and on its face and so far as it goes a very good 
one. In every Malayan language there is a certain number of words 
which either on immediate inspection or after very slight dissection are 
found to be in use in many, if not in most, of the languages of Polynesia. 
For myself I am willing to go one step more, to acknowledge that the 
words common to the Malayan and the Polynesian occur also in several 
languages of Melanesia. Probably had Humboldt known of this fact 
(in the complete absence of vocabulary material it was hidden from 
him) Bopp would have included this third member in his family, just as 
in the present time Dr. MacDonald has tried to do in his Oceanic family. 

We have followed one another in accepting the results of collation 
of this common material. Most of it will be found conveniently acces- 
sible in Mr. Tregear's dictionary. Now I have had the opportunity to 
collate anew, and on fresh material, a Malayan language of the purest 
type and to extract the words in which I can see or detect community 
with languages of Polynesia. These words, with all the comparable 
material at my disposal, are here set down in order for individual exam- 
ination, that we may be fully prepared to enter upon the exhaustive 
study of the nature and source of this community. In ordering 
this material I have shown, in the caption of each item, the Proto- 
Samoan stem and the Subanu form, or in default of the discovery of 
of this stem in the Subanu I have estabhshed the comparison upon the 



104 THE SUBANU. 

Visayan form. In the former group are tabulated the various dialectic 
forms in Polynesian with a statement of their provenience ; in the latter 
group are the Malayan forms so ordered as most conveniently to 
exhibit their alterations from the more simple to the highly complex 
type of variety. It has not appeared advisable herein to exhibit the 
mutations of Polynesian stems as found in Melanesia; that problem 
is quite distinct from that with which we are here engaged. For the 
convenience of such as care to examine this theme I have appended, 
wherever I have collated this material, a reference to the page of The 
Polynesian Wanderings where such data have been discussed. I have, 
however, included this third and intervening element in the discussion 
of every such vocable as was not included in the scope of the former work. 



afi 
ahi 
ai 



I. 


afi fire: 


Subanu gapoy id. 


Samoa, Tonga, Futuna 


Uvea, Niue, 


ai 


Siwa, Brissi. 


Aniwa, Sikaiana. 






hai 


Vaiqueno, Rotti. 


Tahiti.Mangareva.Marquesas.Rapa- 


hahi 


Timor. 


nui, Hawaii. 






api 


Malay, Kolon, Tomohon, Solor, 


Rarotonga. 






hapi 


Battak, Bugis. 
Java. 


Bima, Ceram. 






yap 


My sol. 


Mima, Matabello. 






apoi 


Silong, Champa, Formosa, Matu. 


Malagasy. 






apui 


Kayan, Madura, Dayak, Tagalog, 


Guam. 








Ilocano, Sideia, Bontoc Igorot. 


Chamorro. 






wha 


Bouton. 


Guam. 






pepi 


Macassar. 


Gah. 






puro 


Bolanghitam. 



afi 

efi 

afo 

ngafi 

quafi 

goifi 

aif 

yaf Ahtiago, Teor. 

The last of these forms is highly problematical ; it is here included 
for the completion of the record, but it has no suggestion of association 
with afi save through the presence of p, which occurs so commonly in 
the secondary Malayan stem. The Macassar pepi is in slightly better 
case, for we may regard the prosthetic p as due to attraction of the stem 
consonant, a precisely similar instance being the prosthetic h in hahi. 
Bouton wha, if associable with this stem, is a mutilated fragment. 
Three forms, aif, yaf, and yap, exhibit different phases of inversion, 
a structural method which we have already discovered in the discus- 
sion of the Subanu. The remaining forms fall into accord through 
the operation of well-estabUshed laws of mutation. These mutations 
are triple in their incidence. The stem consonant f varies in one direc- 
tion to h, in the other to p, even undergoes extinction, variations of 
frequent occurrence in the phonetics of these languages. Prosthesis 
operates through four agents, h, ng", g", k; these, it will be observed, 
run the whole scale of palatal consonants. The final vowel undergoes 
a modification to what may prove a diphthong, a mutation which we 
shall observe again in the study of this material (cf . 4) ; a change such 
as this is wholly foreign to the spirit of the Polynesian languages, where 
the vowels are of the stoutest constancy, but we note with interest the 
occurrence of the converse in Niue, where we encounter several instances 
in which ae of the stem, essentially not diphthongal, becomes e. In 



POLYNESIAN AND MAIvAYAN. 105 

the Malayan cognates i becomes ui and oi, and in the vowel uncer- 
tainty of these languages, the two forms are different alphabetically 
rather than in reality. It will be seen from an examination of the maps 
that this variant occurs almost distinctly in the eastern and older half 
of the Malayan province, where also prosthesis occurs. 

Subanu gapoy exhibits the maximum of mutation away from the 
primal stem, prosthesis in the same sense as in Guam, mutation of the 
consonant from spirant to mute, alteration of the final vowel. 
2. hangi to blow: Visayan hangin the wind. P. W. 317. 



angi Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, 
Uvea, Nukuoro, Maori, Ma- 
ngareva, Moriori. 

dhangi Viti. 

ani Hawaii, Marquesas. 



angi Bima. 

ange Kisa. 

angin Malay. 

angina Malagasy. 

anging Macassar, Bugis. 

Ranging Bali. 



hangin Java, Tagalog, Magindano, Bicol. 

I am not indisposed to regard the Proto-Samoan stem as hangin, 
basing this upon the Samoan form in the objective aspect angina and 
the Viti dhangina, as to which Hazlewood notes "an irregular passive." 
On this assumption the Malayan hangin, all in the eastern half of the 
province except Java, is a constant. We have learned to interpret the 
dh of the Viti phonetic as the attempt, an effort which through force 
overleaps its aim, to render the aspiration proximate to the lingual 
series, this aspiration having become extinct in all other Polynesian, 
In this reading of the early stem we look upon hangin as a preservation 
of the original in Indonesia, and the Bima and Kisa forms as having 
undergone the same modification as is the case in the present phase of 
the Polynesian. The other mutations entail no difficulty, mutation 
from n to ng in the final consonant in three instances, and of initial 
h to k in Bali. This may be an accretion of the palatal mute after 
the loss of the aspiration, that is to say hanging may be a secondary 
development upon anging; on the other hand I have estabUshed for 
the triple aspiration a portative value whereby mutation extra seriem 
may be brought about, and this mutation from lingual aspiration to 
palatal mute is conceivable as effected by the tendency to revert to 
the palatal, further exhibited in the n-ng mutation. The primal type 
is best preserved in the eastern or Philippine subprovince. 
3. aku I; Visayan aco I. 



a'u Samoa. 

au Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Niue, Raro- 
tonga, Rapanui, Tahiti, Marque- 
sas, Mangareva, Hawaii. 



aku Sulu, Malay. 

akui Kayan. 

aho Malagasy. 

yahu Kisa. 



From a multipHcity of terms employed in Indonesia for the first 
personal pronoun, many of them mere forms of courtesy, these have 
been selected as clearly belonging to the Polynesian stem. There are 
no difficulties of mutation, for k-h is but a halfway post on the Hne 
toward the extinction of k in modern Polynesian. The accretion of a 



106 THE SUBANU. 

final vowel in Kayan is counterbalanced by frontal accretion of the 
semivowel of the same type in Kisa. 

4. ate the liver; Subanu gatai id. P. W. 320. 



ate Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, 
Fotuna, Nuguria, Maori, Tahiti, 
Rapanui, Marquesas, Mangareva, 
Rarotonga. 

ake Hawaii. 

yate Viti. 



ate Pampangas. 

ati Malay, Java, Magindano. 

atai Matu. 

atay Visayan, Tagalog. 

adoy Bontoc Igorot. 

hut Ternati. 

akin Kisa. 



Here we meet with no matters of particular interest so far as 
relates to form. The original stem is retained unchanged, for the vowel 
difference is negUgible, in two languages of the eastern and two of 
the western subprovince. The assumption of an initial aspiration in 
Ternati is not unusual, the accretion of final n in Kisa is frequent, the 
t-k mutation in the same speech foreshadows the great movement in 
that direction which has swept over the Polynesian area with a force 
not yet spent. The sense variety in the application of this stem is 
most attractive. In the great majority of instances its reference is to 
the liver, but it has been applied not only to other inner organs but to 
parts of the body exterior to the trunk cavity. Thus we find it with 
a modifier used of the spleen in Samoan atepili. Without modifier it 
is used of the spleen (Efate), of the gall bladder (Wedau), of the lungs 
(Rapanui), of the chest in general (Solomon Islands and perhaps Mota), 
of the heart (Java). What is the common factor which will admit of 
such diverse appHcabiUty? The heart as known to these amateurs of 
the insides of their foes is a hard body, the lungs soft to the touch. 
This distinction is so well comprehended that in many of these lan- 
guages one word does duty for the heart of man and the stone of fruits. 
The name of the lungs is the word which in adjective use means fight, 
exactly paralleled by our use of the word lights, an expression by a 
still further oddity now most famihar to us in Quilp's adjuration, "Oh, 
my lights and liver !" Between these extremes the other organs which 
carry this name are variously graded in density. It is quite clear, then, 
that density is not the point in this nomenclature. Another common 
factor is that of shape : every one of these organs appears to the sight 
as nodular, an agglomeration distinct from the softer organs among which 
they are exposed to view in the crude processes of anatomy to which 
the trunk is subjected by hungry savages. This sense is probably the 
germ sense of ate, for we find it in the Samoan atevae and atelima used 
of the bunches of muscle in leg and arm respectively when contracted. 
5. asu smoke; Visayan aso id. P. W. 286. 



asu 


Samoa, Nukuoro. 




afu 


Futuna. 


aasu 


Rotuma. 
Rotuma. 




u 


Hawaii. 


osu 








ahu 


Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 




as-ap 


Malay. 


ohu 


Nuguria. 




aso 


Tagalog. 


au 


Maori, Nugiiria, Tahiti 


, Mangareva, 


ashok 


Bontoc Igorot. 




Marquesas, Rapanui, Rarotonga. 


etu-na 


Malagasy. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 107 

For such determinant value in the matter of s])eech history as it 
may be found to possess, we should give particular note to the Indo- 
nesian affiliates. The Visayan not only represents the original stem of 
the word, but also is capable of carrying the signification without need 
of an auxiUary; in these two particulars, form and strength of defini- 
tion, it corresponds with the languages of Nuclear Polynesia. On the 
other hand the Malay retains the consonant of the original stem, but 
its signification is so weakened that to as (smoke) "vapor" it has been 
necessary to adjoin ap (from api, cf. item i) "fire." In the history 
of the word, asu from smoke has come to signify any visible vapor 
and therefore has to be strengthened to convey the smoke signification 
as "fire- vapor;" this course of devolution and auxihation reappears in 
the languages of southeastern and generally distal Polynesia, accom- 
panied by a weakening of the stem by loss of its central consonant. 
We thus find eastern Malaysia in accord with western Polynesia upon 
the older form and the strong sense; western Malaysia and eastern 
Polynesia upon the weak signification. The collocation is significant. 
Eastern Malaysia, particularly the Philippines, preserves the older type 
of Malayan speech ; western Polynesia, the region of Nuclear Polynesia 
(which, on philological grounds, I have erected into a province), repre- 
sents the earlier or Proto-Samoan migration into the Pacific. In distal 
Polynesia we find the stronger influence of the latter or Tongafiti migra- 
tion, a junior type of the speech; it is not without moment that we 
find this in association with the western and later phase of the Malayan. 
So far as we are at liberty to interpret this in terms of folk movement, 
we read that the first Malayan comers into the Indonesian archipelago 
were in contact with the Proto-Samoan ancestors of the Polynesians; 
that the later Malayans advanced from the Asiatic continent along 
the Malacca highway and dislodged their kinsmen in an easterly direc- 
tion in order to make their own settlements in Sumatra and Java, and 
that these newcomers were in contact with the ancestors of the Tonga- 
fiti Polynesians of the junior migration. 

6. alimango a crab; Visayan alimango a crab with large claws. 

The word is evidently composite, but in neither language is it pos- 
sible to resolve it into comprehensible elements. In my study of the 
Samoan it has suggested itself to me that it might be formed of three 
elements, a-lima-ngo. Of these a plays a part in word formation which 
I recognize dimly, but which I have not yet been able to reduce to full 
comprehension; it seems to be a sign by which a descriptive vocable 
(adjectival in sense) is set apart into noun use. In the appearance of 
the Samoan crustacean which bears this name the claws are prominent, 
and in the Visayan definition their size is incorporated within the defi- 
nition; therefore the word lima, as hand or arm, might properly be 
segregated in the composite. The final element ngo should then be an 



108 



THE SUBANU. 



attributive in adjective sense descriptive of some appearance of the 
claws of this crab ; the only meaning which might seem apphcable is 
derivable from Mangarevan ngongo "a conical hole," with which we 
may associate Hawaiian no "a hole." The Samoan alimango is the 
Portunid Lupea ; we are by no means sure to what extent the dotted and 
pockmarked appearance of this crab would warrant the designation 
"pitted claw" when the marking is carried over the whole carapace, 
but we are no more than at the beginning of our understanding of 
selectivity of definitive characters as authorizing name-creation by these 
beginners of speech. 

7. apunga-leveleve spider; Visayan laoalaoa id. P. W. 361. 



apunga-leveleve 

ka-leveleve 

hala-neveneve 

buta-lawalawa 

ka-velevele 

punga-verevere 


Samoa. 

Tonga, Futuna, Nine. 
Nukuoro. 
Viti. 
Uvea. 

Mangareva, Paumotu, 
Mangaia. 


punga-werewere 

pua-verevere 

puna-welewele 

puna-vevee 

lawalawa 
kdaowa 


Maori. 
Tahiti. 
Hawaii. 
Marquesas. 


Malay. 
Bontoc Igorot 



The primal sense appears to be that of the web, but the passage to 
the Webster is not difficult, therefore we find the word indifferently 
applied to the spider. Our three Indonesian terminals being found in 
agreement upon the form which characterizes Nuclear Polynesia, we 
may argue that the concordant inversion which marks the Tongafiti 
use is of later development than the exit of the Proto-Samoans from 
the Malayan archipelago. 







8. alelo tongue; 


Subanu dila id. 


alelo 


Samoa, Futima, Nine, 


Fakaofo, 


rera 


Bima. 




Manahiki, 


Hawaii. 




rilah 


Ratahan. 


arero 


Maori, Tahiti, 


Paumotu, 


Mangaia, 


lila 


Sanguir, Bugis. 




Rapanui. 






lela 


Malagasy. 


warero Moriori. 






lilah 


Bouton, Salayer, Menado. 


aledo 


Sikaiana. 






ledah 


Malay. 


alel 


Rotuma. 






lidah 


Kayan, Basakrama. 


aeo 


Marquesas. 






ilat 


Java. 


elelo 


Tonga, Hawaii 






dila 


Bolanghitam, Sulu, Tagalog, Ilo- 


erero 


Mangareva. 








cano, Pampangas, Visayan. 


lelo 


Hawaii. 






delah 


Baju. 


eo 


Marquesas. 






djila 


Bontoc Igorot. 



In the Polynesian we have no difficulty in picking out the stem lelo, 
nude in Hawaiian and Marquesan, elsewhere prefaced by the formative 
a, concerning which I have already made sufficient note in item 6. 
The presence of the simple stem in Hawaii and the Marquesan is not of 
critical value, inasmuch as each has the augmented stem as well. In 
general we note that this augment has been acquired since contact with 
the Indonesians ceased. In the Indonesian languages the final vowel 
has passed from o to a, a mutation of no moment in the vowel uncer- 
tainty of that area. We find, then, the first five items sufficiently 
representative of the lelo stem. The remaining forms fall into two 
groups according as the initial or the medial Hquid undergoes mutation 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 109 

to the mute of its own series. The western group, Malay and Java, 
applies the mutation to the inner liquid exactly as in Sikaiana. The 
eastern gi'oup, geographically the Philippines and linguistically the 
earlier phase of the Malayan, apphes the mutation to the initial liquid. 
As to this, I have in the foregoing chapter mentioned the effect of 
stress in pronunciation. 

9. hala road; Subanu dalan id. 



hala 
hara 


Tonga, Niue. 
Nuguria. 


saleh 


Malay. 


sala 


Viti, Rotuma. 


jalan 


Malay, Silong. 


ala 


Samoa, Futuna, Uvea, Hawaii, Nu- 


dalan 


Java, Ilocano, Visayan. 




kuoro. 


djalan 


Bontoc Igorot. 


ara 


Maori, Tahiti, Mangaia, Rapanui, 


daan 


Visayan. 




Mangareva. 


alah 


Malay. 


eara 


Paumotu. 


aleha 


Malagasy. 


aa 


Marquesas. 







In those parts of Nuclear Polynesia less exposed to the influence 
of the Tongafiti supersession upon the older community of Proto- 
Samoans, we find the effort made to preserve the stem aspirate, and in 
Viti its passage to the sibilant. The vowel prefix in Paumotu may 
represent the same effort to preserve the stem initial, for the Paumotu 
speech is in some interesting particulars of the oldest type of Polynesian. 
In the Indonesian affiliates we find most strongly marked the mutation 
results from this original aspirate. Viti shows us that it was the aspi- 
ration proximate to the Unguals, for the h-S mutation is clearly indica- 
tive. So in the Indonesian, all the mutation takes place in the lingual 
series, to the sibilant, the spirant, and the mute respectively. The 
three Malay forms, jalan, saleh, alah, form a descending series within 
that language sufficient to render it unnecessary for us to associate the 
alah with the Tongafiti migration, since the Polynesian itself does not 
divide in migration streams upon this point. 

10. hake up; Visayan saca to go up. 



hake Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 
dhake Viti. 

ake Futuna,Uvea,Aniwa,Marquesas,Ma- 
ngareva, Paumotu, Bukabuka. 



a'e Samoa. 

ae Tahiti, Hawaii. 



daki Malay. 



From the next preceding item we continue the note upon the 
lingual aspiration and the mutation to d. The h-s mutation in Visa- 
yan is not in accord with the stronger h-d mutation just seen. 

1 1 . f af a to carry on the back ; Subanu baba to carry by land. 

fafa Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue. I 

vava Viti. i baba Subanu. 

The sense in Polynesian is particular after the habit of those lan- 
guages; the Subanu sense is more broadly stated, yet that need not 
militate against the identification, for the phonetic accord is quite 
satisfactory. It will be observed that the word is distinctively Proto- 
Samoan. 



110 



TH^ SUBANU. 



337- 



winih 


Java. 


maho-weni Sanguir. 


pin 


Mysot, Waigiou. 


bin 


Waigiou. 


bini 


Malay. 


bina 


Ceram. 


binei 


Gah. 


benaing 


Silong. 


babineh 


Salibabo. 


pipina 


Saparua. 


pepina 


Ceram. 


bahini 


Madura. 


bawine 


Bouton. 


baini 


Salayer 


banie 


Macassar. 


mahina 


Liang, Morella, Lariko, Awaiya, 




Caimarian, Ceram. 


mewina 


Teor. 


mainai 


Batumerah. 


mapin 


Gani. 


umbinei 


Cajeli. 


ihina 


Teluti. 


gefineh 


Wayapo. 


libun 


Subanu. 


babai 


Ilocano. 


fafayi 


Bontoc Igorot, 


vavy 


Malagasy. 



12. fafine woman; Visayan babaye id. P. W. 

fine Tonga, Uvea, Aniwa, Fotuna. 

hine Maori, Rapanui. 

ahine Nukuoro, Mangareva, Rapanui. 

hoina Rotuma (metathetic upon 

ohina) 

aine Mangareva. 

fafine Samoa, Tonga, Fakaofo, Futuna, 

Uvea, Sikaiana, Efat6, Moiki. 

fafini Liueniua. 

fefine Tonga, Nukuoro. 

fifine Nine. 

vahine Tahiti, Manahiki, Marquesas, 

Paumotu. 

wahine Maori, Hawaii. 

oahine Tongarewa. 

vehine Marquesas. 

vaine Rarotonga, Tubuai, Bukabuka. 

veine Mangareva. 

mafine Samoa. 

mahine Tahiti. 

mohine Paumotu, Mangareva. 

tafine Aniwa. 

tahine Nuguria. 

fineh Massaratty. 

fina Sulu. 

vina Ahtiago. 

Appropriately varium et in a high degree semper mutabile such sense 
as may subsist in this vocable struggles forth into the most compHcated 
expression. The Polynesian discloses to us a primal stem fine existing 
independently and in addition quahfied by the formative elements a, fa, 
ma, ta prefixed. Interpreting }im^ as a diffuse attributive carrying the 
signification of femininity, we have shown (items 6 and 8) that the use 
of a exhibits in afine a specification of noun use. In its proper place in 
this series we shall find that the ma prefix is of practically the same 
value, that mafine particularizes the person who is characterized by the 
possession of the quahty which fine expresses. So with tafi^te, which 
does not appreciably differ in signification; we do not regard ta as a 
mutation product of ma, against which mihtates the difference in series, 
but we do find in it a parallel and independent mechanism for the 
expression of this differentiation, in which connection note the paral- 
leHsm of Subanu mopong and Visayan topong in the vocabulary. In the 
Malay archipelago we find the remnant of the primal stem of more 
frequent occurrence than in Polynesia and within that province widely 
distributed. The fafine type in Malaysia is so closely interassociated 
that we may distinguish it as a Celebes type, therefore central in respect 
of the province. The mafine type is similarly interassociated east of 
the Celebes form; we may delimit it as a Ceram type. While Subanu 
libun is widely apart from all types, we must recognize in its bun some 
association with the stem fine. At the end we find a small group very 
difficult of inclusion in this fine series; babai of Ilocano and Visayan 
babaye are][closely associated, and with them must be joined Malagasy 



POIvYNESIAN AND MAI^AYAN. Ill 

vavy. In the utter absence of n we may not be positive in associating 
these forms with fine; yet it is possible that they may be anomalous 
devolution products from the Celebes fafine type, and this possibility 
is made more probable by the occurrence oifafdyi in the Igorot. It has 
seemed to me that /a oi fafine may be associable with the next ensuing 
item, for we find in fa and faka a sense of resemblance in addition to 
the more frequent causative employment. 

13. fa, faka, formative; Subanu po, poc, poco id. P. W. 270. 



faka Futuna, Tonga, Paumotu, Uvea, Ro- 
tuma. 

fak Rotuma. 

vaka Viti. 

whaka Maori. 

haka Marquesas, Paumotu, Nukuoro, 
Tongarewa, Rapanui. 

hanga Rapanui, Paumotu. 

hoko Moriori. 

aka Rarotonga, Mangareva, Bukabuka. 

anga Mangareva. 

fa' a Samoa. 

faa Tonga, Uvea, Tahiti. 

haa Tonga, Nukuoro, Tahiti, Marque- 
sas, Hawaii. 

hoo Hawaii. 



pag Tagalog, Bicol, Visayan. 

poco Subanu. 

pog Subanu. 

poc Subanu. 

maka Sulu. 

mak Sulu. 

mag Tagalog, Bicol. 



fa Samoa, Uvea, Paumotu. 

va Viti. 

wha Maori. 

ha Tonga,Rapanui,Marquesas, Hawaii. 

ho Hawaii. 

a Rotuma, Rapanui, Paumotu, Ta- 
hiti. 



pa Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 

paga Visayan. po Subanu. 

Mr. Tregear has frequently called upon me to suggest some expla- 
nation for the hoko and ho forms of this most largely utilized of all the 
composition members in Polynesian. While I do not incline to regard 
the vowel mutability here in the Philippines as of much diagnostic 
value, I think that our Subanu will answer his query, which up to this 
discovery has wanted a satisfactory reply. It will be noted that the 
Subanu is a secluded speech within the area of the Malayan archetype ; 
the Moriori is an equally remote and ancient form of the Polynesian ; 
and the Hawaiian ho, without this knowledge of its source, I have 
already employed in proof of the early settlement of those islands by 
Proto-Samoans long before the era of the Tongafiti migrations. Pre- 
bendary Codrington writes upon this formative prefix {Melanesian 
Languages, page 1 84) : 

The causative is almost universally va, alone or with a second syllable 
ka, ga. The form va, fa, pa undoubtedly appears to be the original particle, to 
which ka, ga, ha has been attached. This may perhaps be the verbal particle 
ka, ga, which is used in several languages. 

I am by no means convinced of the justice of this determination. 
The Polynesian exhibits a complete devolution system faka-fak-f a, and 
in the Philippines we now see similar systems, paga-pag-pa and poco- 
poc-po. In the biological study of the upbuilding of the Polynesian 
I shall give due weight to Codrington 's suggestion, but merely as a 
matter of the etymology of the languages in their present phase it is 
quite clear that we pass by abrasion from paga to pag, from poco to poc. 



112 



THE SUBANU. 



Whether po is abraded from poc, and equally fa from faka, is a matter 
with which we need not here concern ourselves. It remains that we 
have the two forms faka and fa in substantially the same sense, but 
faka is far the more commonly in use. 

14. fale house; Subanu balay id. 



fale 


Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Niue, 








Fakaofo. 


bale 


Pampangas. 


fare 


Aniwa. Sikaiana, Manahiki, Tahiti, 


ball 


Sanguir. 




Paumotu. 


balay 


Visayan, Subanu. 


vale 


Liueniua, Viti. 


bal-ry 


Menado (? balay) 


hale 


Hawaii. 


wale 


Magindano. 


hare 


Rapanui, Mangareva, Tongarewa. 


bareh 


Salibabo. 


whare 


Maori. 


bore 


Bolanghitam. 


are 


Rarotonga. 


bahay 


Tagalog. 


fae 


Marquesas. 


faoy 


Bontoc Igorot. 


hae 


Marquesas. 







It will be observed that all these affiliations are found in the 
Celebes and Philippine subprovinces ; in western Indonesia this stem 
has gone into disuse under the sweep of the stem ruma, which seems to 
have been in Proto-Samoan possession all the way through the Mela- 
nesian traverse, but has dropped out, except for its retention in Maori 
in a particular sense. 



The phonetic variety is here of the simplest type and nothing need 
detain us upon this score except to observe the interesting, yet at 
present isolated, fact that the most frequent Indonesian type pana is 
found intrusively in the Marquesas at the eastern verge of Polynesian 
migration. The whole vexing subject of the use of the bow and arrow 
in the two island areas is entertainingly and exhaustively discussed by 
Captain GeorgFriederici, at page 119 of his recent work " Neu-Guinea." 
Butif the phonetic curves are particularly smooth, the case is apparently 
different when we come to examine the range of sense. I have not 
detailed this in the individual identifications of affiliates; it is quite 
enough to mention here that the signification ranges along three items, 
to shoot, the bow, the arrow. This affords an excellent opportunity, 



I 





15. fana to shoot; Subanu pana a bow. ! 


fana 


Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Futuna, 


banah Ceram, Ahtiago, Tobo. 




Uvea, Paumotu, Tahiti, 


pana Madura, Macassar,Sikka, Mang- 




Moiki, Tikopia, Aniwa. 


garai, Baree, Gorontalo, 


fan 


Rotuma. 


Bunda,To-Bungku, Tobelo, 


vana 


Viti. 


Magindano, Tagalog, Su- 


vavana 


Sikaiana. 


banu, Visayan. 


pana 


Marquesas. 


panah Malay, Karo, Java, Sunda, Bali, 


whana 


Maori. 


Dayak, Salayer, Sumbawa, 
Sanguir, Cajeli.Ambon, Ma- 
gindano, Baju. 


fana 


Bima, Tiruray, Kolon. 


fana-yana Malagasy. 


o-pana Bouton. 


faan 


Salawati. 


tum-panir Alfuro. 


fean 


Mysot. 


papana Sumba. 


fan 


Waigiou. 


am-panah Timor. 


fun 


Teor. 


panat Massaratty. 


aan 


Mysot. 


pala Gorontalo. 


bana 


Sikka. 


p^ppe Bugis. 


um-bana 


Simbo. 





iC 



POIvYNESIAN AND MAI^AYAN. 113 

all the more because of the absence of phonetic complication in the 
series, to direct attention upon the sense-character of the vocables of 
these primordial languages. We are far below the categories of the 
parts of speech famiUar to us in the languages of richer development. 
There are but three parts of primitive speech; the demonstrative, 
expressive of individualities of place and time, and out of the place 
designation grows the person designation ; the paradeictic, an operative 
class expressive of the fact that a relation exists in the sense of two 
vocables with which it is employed, the nature of the relation being 
as yet undistinguished ; the attributive, the great mass of the vocabu- 
lary, the name of an object or an action or a state. It is from the 
attributives that selection is to erect into separate categories the noun 
and the adjective, the verb and the adverb; at the stage of develop- 
ment at which we find these languages of Indonesia and of Polynesia 
this function diversity is just beginning to call for discrimination. 
The verb and the noun have not yet come into independent being. 
The sense of the attributive is diffuse, unconditioned, absolute. In 
the case oi fana we shall find no great difficulty in comprehending this 
inchoate phase of speech. The diffuse sense is that fana is the name 
of an act of archery; it may therefore express any one of the details 
which we find it necessary to express in three distinct forms; it does 
express sufficiently any one of them, inasmuch as to the minds of the 
users of these languages it expresses them all in one unconditioned 
statement. Thus it amply expresses the verbal sense which we par- 
ticularize by reason of conditions which exist in our own more highly 
specialized mentality and which we have drilled our speech to express; 
it means "to shoot" without regard of mood or tense or person or 
number or any other of the precisions of our speech. Equally it means 
that which shoots, "the bow." Equally it means that which is shot, 
"the arrow." And when I say equally, I mean simultaneously as well; 
fana in itself carries without distinction the three ideas which we find 
it necessary to differentiate by "shoot," by "shooter," by "shot," 
differencing these three items by the employment of simple stem, of 
stem with inflection, of stem with ablaut. In the stage of intellectual 
development to which the Samoans have advanced and the need of 
particularity has been reached, these three ideas have been set apart 
as follows: "to shoot" /ana; "the bow" 'au-fana or stick-shoot; "the 
arrow" n-fana or reed-shoot. 

1 6. fanua land; Subanu bonoa field. P. W. 341. 



fanua Samoa, Aniwa, Fotuna. 

hanua Rotuma. 

vanua Viti. 

fenua Futuna, Uvea, Sikaiana, Moiki, 

Fakaofo, Marquesas, Tahiti. 
henua Nuguria, Marquesas, Rapanui, 

Paumotu, Manahiki. 
whenua Maori, Bukabuka. 


enua 

fonua 

honua 

banua 
banoa 
wanua 
benua 


Mangareva, Bukabuka.Rarotonga. 

Tonga, Nine. 

Hawaii. 


Malay, Bicol. 

Visayan. 

Bugis. 

Malay, Togean. 



114 THE SUBANU. 

Here again, as in item 15, with a very simple mutation picture the 
variety seems to lie most in the sense. The Polynesian shows a mag- 
nificent crescendo series, from the mold at one's feet (Samoa, Aniwa, 
Maori, Tonga, Nine, Hawaii) to the land in which one Hves (Samoa, 
Aniwa, Fotuna, Futuna, Uvea, Tahiti, Sikaiana, Moiki, Fakaofo, Efate, 
Marquesas, Paumotu, Rapanui, Manahiki, Maori, Bukabuka, Raro- 
tonga, Tonga, Viti, Rotuma, Nine, Hawaii), upward to the whole world 
of many lands (Aniwa, Maori, Mangareva, Tonga). In Indonesia, 
equally in the intervening area of Melanesia, the series is diminuendo, 
specific, minutely particular; in Polynesia the ultimate sense of a world 
is built up inferentially as a series of habitable lands ; in the Subanu, a 
Malayan archetypal speech, we have no difficulty in seeing that the 
world (alibutan) is only that which may be seen by the utmost straining 
of the eyes; it is limited by the last stretch of vision, by the horizon 
{libot to go around) ; it is of two flat dimensions, a circle in which the ego 
sits proudly at the intersection of all radii, as important as a spider at 
the center of his web. To the Subanu the world is a thing of the eye, to 
the Polynesian it is a thing of the mind, an intellectual conception rest- 
ing upon a grander thought of the greatness of the cosmos. From the 
general sense of land the word passes to the smaller conception of place 
(Sesake, Mota, Fagani, Nggela, Laur, Lambell) , to village (Sesake, Mota, 
Kabadi, Pokau, Galoma, Mekeo, Lambell, Motu, Tubetube, Suau, 
Lamassa, Rubi, Saa, Santo, Sinaugoro, Hula, Keapara, Bicol, Visayan), 
down to such a minute particular as house (Malo, Santo, Togean) . 

Divesting our minds of the connotations grouped about these 
words in our own speech, it is not difficult to comprehend this down- 
ward series. His land, his country, to the bare savage is narrowly 
restricted. This little stretch of beach from which he may launch his 
canoe, this stream upon which he may build his flimsy shelter, this 
small clear spot in the jungle upon which he may plant his food and 
yet remain within reach of the support of his fellows by the exercise 
of nimble legs or the frantic shout — this is all the land of which he 
can say that it is his own. All else is forest; there dwell the spirits 
which work him evil, there roam the inland tribes more brutal and 
more savage than himself, for absurdly there are social degrees even at 
this unsocial basement of society. Therefore his connotation of the 
word land embraces no more than the tiny acreage upon which he 
lives in his peace and his comfort in the protection of his neighbors; 
land so exiguous is dignified when we call it village. In certain of these 
communities the village becomes the house. I can not find that the 
community house develops from any sense of greater convenience in 
building or of greater security when built; for the savage, iron-ruled 
by his traditions, is Httle actuated by considerations which partake of 
the nature of free will. More probably it is a case of the dominance 
of the religious tyranny which is ever strongest with the ignorant ; the 



POI^YN^SIAN AND MAI^AYAN. 



115 



omens are taken for the whole community when the first post of the 
home is set ; the house is made a community house in order that all the 
folk may share the good omen. It is in the region of the long commu- 
nity house that we find that the land word has become a house word. 
Acting in the opposite direction, we find an instance in which the house 
word {ruma, cf. item 14) has passed to the village sense; this is nma of 
the Kayans of Borneo, who use the community house and with whom 
the only village is the long house. 





17. fatu stone; Subanu bate id. P. W. 344. 


fatu 


Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, 


Fakaofo, 


batu 


Malay, Kayan, Silong, Macassar, 




Niue, Futima, Aniwa, 


Fotuna, 




Togean, Ceram, Rumbia,Meng- 




Sikaiana, Manahiki. 






koka, Bouton. 


vatu 


Viti. 




bato 


Ilocano, Subanu, Visayan, Bontoc 


hatu 


Nuguria, Nukuoro. 






Igorot. 


hathu 


Rotuma. 




watu 


Magindano, Savo, Maronene, Kolon. 


whatu 


Maori. 




wadu 


Bima. 


haku 


Hawaii. 




vato 


Malagasy. 


atu 


Mangareva, Mangaia. 




fahou 
hatu 


Satawal. 
Ceram. 



The two series are concordant in phonetics and in sense. In sev- 
eral Polynesian instances where we have a second word for stone and 
where fatu has secondary significations (such as the heart and the stone 
of fruits) we see that the primal signification is nominal not in respect 
of any given object, but in reference to a certain quality possessed by 
the objects to which it is applied. The common factor is quite clearly 
dual, hardness and such size as to lend itself to hand grip; just as in 
English, under the generic "stone," we have similar particulars in 
"pebble" and "dornick" and, by an odd variety, the southern United 
States dialectic use of "rock" in the same sense. 

18. fetu star; Subanu bitun id. 



fetu 


Samoa, Niue, Fakaofo, 


Sikaiana. 


bituun Visayan, Sulu, Magin 




Manahiki, Marquesas, Tahiti. 


bituin Tagalog. 


fetuu 


Tonga, Futuna, Uvea. 




bittuen Ilocano. 


fetia 


Tahiti. 




batuin Pampangas. 


fitou 


Liueniua. 




bituek Silong. 


fatou 


Aniwa. 




biti Tami. 


hetu 


Rapanui, Paumotu, Marquesas. 


bituy Menado. 


whetu 


Maori. 




betol Gani. 


heth 


Rotuma. 




bitang Matu. 


hoku 


Hawaii. 




bintang Malay, Salayer. 


etu 


Mangareva, Marquesas. 




lintang Java. 
toen Mysot. 






fatui 


Sulu. 




toin Matabello. 


witun 


Sanguir. 




teen Wahai. 


witung 


Bugis. 




tokun Teor. 


bitun 


Ibanag, Subanu. 







Here we shall have to concern ourselves simply with the mutations 
of the stem. In Polynesia we deal with a stem Jetvni ijctii) subject in 
general to the mutation variety normal to the several languages of that 
family. In Tahiti /f'/Za affords us an example of a mutation which is 



116 THE SUBANU. 

not phonetic but social ; it is best explained as an adoption from the 
Paumotu fetika under the influence of the word-tabu known as te pi; 
wholly anomalous in Polynesia (and it must be recalled that the Pau- 
motu is filled with intricate problems of speech) we find no afhhate of 
fetika except bituek of Silong in Indonesia. The vowel alteration to 
fatou in Aniwa is paralleled by fatui of the Sulu. The vowel change to 
hoku in Hawaiian occurs again in that speech in to'elau-koolau. So far 
as our Polynesian material extends, we have no evidence that the stem 
is other than open ; the incidence of the accent upon the ultima, how- 
ever, suggests a device of some compensation. But in Indonesia a 
final consonant is so common and in general so uniform as to preclude 
the interpretation of local accretion. In nineteen forms there are but 
three which lack a final consonant, of which Sulu and Menado retain 
the second vowel characteristic of the Polynesian, one station at the 
threshold of the PhiHppines, the other in the Celebes subprovince. In 
ten forms the final consonant is n and in four more it is ng, which we 
know to be a most frequent mutation product of n. In the Silong 
bituek, with which is associable the Paumotu fetika, the k may be 
regarded as an ng mutation once removed. In Gani betol we are at no 
loss to consider 1 as a frequent mutation product of n upward in the 
lingual series. We find such an agreement upon final n or recognizable 
n-products that I am willing to propose fetuu as the original stem of 
the word. In the general absence of the labial spirants in the languages 
of Indonesia we find two instances in which the initial f is weakened in 
borrowing and passes vov^'elward to w in Sanguir and Bugis. In eleven 
instances it is strengthened to the ultimate labial possibiHty, the mute 
b, and these instances are smoothly distributed over the whole archi- 
pelago. The second consonant t remains unaltered except in the soU- 
tary instance of Teor tokii, and this t-k mutation, so general in Poly- 
nesian, may well have begun to be felt before the exit from Indonesia; 
mention of this has been made in item 4. We next direct attention 
upon a special group of three forms, making a series by themselves: 
bitang is readily to be established in the ^Malayan series; bintang follows 
with the preface of the mute by the nasal of its proper series; lintang 
shows an anomalous mutation b-1 extra seriem, but the agreement with 
bintang in other particulars is suflficient to place it in the group. The 
characteristic former vowel e but once appears in Indonesia. The a 
which we have found in Aniwa is also in Sulu and Pampangas, both 
PhiHppine languages and archetypal. In twelve instances evenly dis- 
tributed over the region the vowel is i, and without complicating the 
record by citation of examples I note that this is the characteristic 
vowel throughout the Melanesian traverse. The characteristic latter 
vowel u is well preserved. Last of all we find a group of interrelated 
forms in which the stem has abraded its former syllable ; these are found 
in the Ceram subprovince. 



POIvYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 117 

19. fili to choose; Subanu pili id. 



fiH Samoa, Tonga, Futi 


ma, Niue, Uvea, 


piti 


Visayan, Subanu 


Fotuna. 




pilih 


Malay. 


whiri Maori. 




piri 


Formosa. 


iri Mangaia. 




fidi 


Malagasy. 






ma-pi I i 


Bontoc Igorot. 



Except for the Maori and Mangaian I should consider this stem as 
of the Proto-Samoan stock. There are instances in which we admit 
stems of this older migration in the Maori, but Mangaia is commonly- 
attributed to the distinctively Tongafiti; however, the stem is absent 
from the other Tongafiti Polynesian. 

20. fili enemy; Subanu pinilian the wicked. 
fili Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Futuna, Uvea. I pinilian Visayan, Subanu. 

This is a most interesting case of a purely Proto-Samoan stem dis- 
covered in the archetypal Malayan region. In the Visayan we find a 
secondary form showing that after the stem had been taken on loan it 
had been subjected to the Malayan regime in forming derivatives; it 
is easy to discover the stem pili when we set aside, in piin'Alilan, the 
infix and accompanying suffix. 

21 . fohe paddle; Visayan bogsay id. P. W. 429. 

fohe Tonga, Niue. 

foe Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, 

Sikaiana. 
foi Fotuna. 

vodhe Viti. 
hoe Maori, Tahiti, Marquesas, Rapanui, bogsay Visayan. 

Mangareva, Hawaii, Tonga- 

In the absence of a wider Indonesian series this Visayan is included 
for reference only, since it is by no means certain that it stems with. fohe. 
In that direction points its bo. If next we seek in g a mutation product 
of h, we find that it would be objectionable, though not impossible, as a 
mutation extra seriem, for the dh of Viti shows the stem h to be aspira- 
tion proximate to the lingual series. Assuming this mutation, however, 
we are at a loss to account for say. If it were not for g wq should see 
the affiUation of bo(g)say With, fohe; the intrusion of the g Hcs at present 
beyond our comprehension. 



rewa, Nuguria, Nukuoro, Liue- 
niua, Nukumanu, Nuguria, 
Tauu. 
ohe Mangareva. 



22. funga fruit; Subanu bunga id. P. W. 29^ 



funga Samoa. 
hunga Nukuoro. 



bunga Malay, Subanu. 
bonga Visayan. 
vuni Malagasy. 



This is an interesting Proto-Samoan vocable of narrow limits. In 
the other languages of the two oceanic areas this stem seems to have 
been lost in fua, which is probably of kin. It is quite clear (The Poly- 
nesian Wanderings, 426) that the latter was originally /«a//; recalling 
the frequency of syllable inversion, it is quite possible that an original 



iya Malay. 

sia Sulu, Visayan. 

siya Tagalog, Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 

hia Kay an. 

ya Pampangas. 



118 THE SUBANU. 

fuan was transformed to funa and thence in compensation to funga. 
As an open stem this would tend to permanence, while fuan must in the 
course of Polynesian speech-growth slough off its final consonant. 
23. ia he; Visayan sia, siya id. 

ia vSamoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, 

Rotuma, Fakaofo, Marquesas, 

Rapanui, Tahiti, Mangareva, 

Rarotonga, Manahiki, Maori, 

Hawaii, Aniwa. 
koya Viti. 

Here it suffices to note the substantial identity of these forms. 
This and the other pronouns will better repay study when grouped for 
examination in relation to the theory of evolution from position desig- 
nations which I have advanced in a paper on "Root Reducibility in 
Polynesian" (27 American Journal of Philology, 369) and which I shall 
prosecute more exhaustively in writing the comparative grammar of 
this family of isolating languages. 

24. ikan fish; Subanu, sera, seda id. P. W. 350. 

ika Fakaofo, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, 

Uvea, Moiki, Nuguria, 
Sikaiana, Maori, Marque- 
sas, Rapanui, Mangareva, 
Tongarewa, Mangaia, Pau- 
motu, Rarotonga, Mana- 
hiki, Viti. 

i'a Samoa, Rotuma. 

ia Nukuoro, Tahiti, Hawaii. 



ackan 


Silong. 


ian 


Lariko, Wahai, Gani, Saparua, 




Ahtiago,Matabello,Ceram. 


iyan 


Liang, Morella, Nufor. 


iani 


Batumerah, Awaiya, Caima- 




rian. 


iano 


Ceram. 


ein 


Mysot. 


yano 


Teluti. 


jikan 


Borneo. 


nyan 


Tidore. 


guihan 


Chamorro. 


nik 


Uap. 


iwa 


Java. 


ka 


Kar Nicobar. 


ga 


Central Nicobar. 


isda 


Sulu, Visayan. 



ikan Malay, Massaratty, Teor, Ilo- 

cano, Wayapo, Gah, Rum- 

bia, Bontoc Igorot. 
maran-igan Menado. 
itjan Maronene. 

ikani Bouton. 

ikiani Amblaw. 

The concord of the Malayan aflfiUates is so preponderating that we 
can entertain no doubt that the stem was originally closed with the 
nasal n. That we can not identify this closed ikan from any of the 
Polynesian uses of ika is susceptible of a simple explanation. When an 
attributive most strongly inclines toward what we know as the noun 
use, it is not susceptible of modification by the suffixes used to particu- 
larize the employment of the more diffuse attributives ; it is lacking in 
the protection to the stem afforded by these additional members, and a 
final consonant drops off and leaves no sign. As ordered in this table, 
the Indonesian affiliates fall into a readily comprehensible series of 
devolution forms . This is true of all but the last form . I have included 
isda in the hst in order to complete the record, but it is clearly a dis- 
tinct stem. It affihates readily with the Subanu seda by metathesis of 
the former syllable, and seda is just as distinctly a mutation of sora. 
I regard either isda or seda as primal, but which of these two came first 
we can not discover until a further series of the stem is discovered. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 119 

25. hiku tail; Visayan icog id. 



hiku Tonga, Uvea, Niue, Marquesas. ! siku Malay. 



iku Tonga, Futuna, Mangaia, Mangareva, 

Rapanui. 
i'u Samoa. 
si*u Samoa. 
hiu Tahiti, Hawaii. 



iku Baree. 
ikur Malay. 
ikun Buru. 
eko Kayau. 
ukui To-Bungku. 
uhi Malagasy. 



inom 


Visayan. 


ma-Inum 


Bontoc Igorot 


minum 


Malay. 


minom 


Pampaugas. 


o-minum 


Magindano. 


o-minom 


Tagalog. 


minu-na 


Malagasy. 


nginum 


Java. 



The identifications are satisfactory except for the ISIalagasy uhi; 
this would involve an inversion of syllables (for which we have no war- 
rant) in an Indonesian stem hiu, of which we find no trace. In both 
areas we encounter an interlacing of two stems : hiku " the tail, to end, " 
and siku "the elbow, any projecting angle." It is not impossible that 
these are particulars of one general idea slightly differentiated in 
the form. 

26. inum to drink; Subanu guinom id. P. W. 376. 

inu (m) Samoa, Fakaofo, Tonga, Nuku- 

oro, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, 

Nuguria, Maori, Tahiti, 

Marquesas, Mangareva, Fo- 

tuna, Mangaia, Tongarewa, 

Rarotonga, Manahiki, Ro- 

tuma, Aniwa, Hawaii. 
unu (m) Rapanui, Sikaiana, Viti. 

ngunu (v) Viti. | ma-nglnum Bontoc Igorot. 
ma-ngino Togean. 

For some reason, which it is quite impossible to determine in our 
present knowledge of these two language families, this stem in each 
area has been subjected to violent perturbation. In Polynesia we find 
the two types inum and unum, a vowel change somewhat extensive, but 
not by any means unfamiliar. In Viti, alongside the Polynesian tmum, 
we encounter the form ngunuv. The possibility of an alternative stem 
final in V is confirmed by the presence of inuv in Nggela and unuv in 
Mota along the Melanesian traverse. The accretion of wg is met with 
in Java nginum, Igorot ma-nglnum and Togean ma-ngino. Except for 
the last and the Malagasy form the Indonesian exhibits the stem inum. 
In the Visayan this appears without ornament, and the Subanu accords 
therewith except in the particular of the g frontal accretion which we 
have found so characteristically appHed to stems beginning with a vowel. 
In five examples, three in the PhiHppines and two in the extreme west 
of Indonesia, we find the secondary stem minum, which has not passed 
along into Polynesia; yet the Igorot ma-inum suggests that minum is 
a composite of inum with verb-formative ma. 

27. isu nose; Subanu soong id. P. W. 348. 

ihu Tonga, Niue, Uvea, Maori, Tahiti, 
Hawaii, Marquesas, Mangareva, 
Paumotu, Rapanui, Tongarewa, 
Nukuoro. 
udhu Viti. 



ISU Samoa, Futuna, Fakaofo, Aniwa, 
Manahiki, Nuguria, Fotuna, 
Rotuma. 

ishu Moiki. 

iu Rarotonga. 



In my former examination of the intricacies in which this stem is 
involved {The Polynesian Wanderings, 348) I was led to the erection of 



120 THE SUBANU. 

a primal stem su, which is the only common factor entering into the 
several vocables there collated. This Subanu soong I regard as con- 
firmation of that judgment. From this primal su various determinant 
vocables have been formed. With a wider range of Indonesian mate- 
rial than was then accessible to me, I may arrange the material from 
this family in a provisional series. The key is the mutation of the s, 
weakly to the lingual hquid, strongly to its mute. Assuming the sec- 
ondary vocable isu, which we find as the most common stem in Poly- 
nesian, we now list the mutations. 

iru Ambon, Kolon. 

irung Java. 

idung Malay. 

TIeng Bontoc Igorot. 

hiru Ambon. 

niru Allor, Ceram, Minahassa. 

nirun Kei. 

ngirung Minahassa. 

iri Ambon. 

iiu Bima. 

The Ambon dialectic forms serve to link together widely variant 
types in a continuity which otherwise would not be discoverable. The 
recurrence of final ng (n) in so many of these variant forms tends to 
establish that final consonant in Subanu soong as pertaining to the 
primal stem, on which point refer to the note under item 24. The chief 
links in this Indonesian chain are found in Melanesia, and particularly 
in the important region of the north shore of Torres Strait. The four 
entries at the end of the list are presented to complete the record so far 
as it goes ; quite clearly they pertain in some fashion to the series, but 
for the present they stand as somewhat anomalous. 

28. kapa to flap the wings; Visayan capacapa id. P. W. 295. 
kapa Tonga, Futuna, Nine, Uvea, Manga- I kapak Malay 



nggilung Minahassa. 
ill Ambon. 

uru-na Malagasy. 
kam-uru Macassar. 
urong Daj'ak. 
ninura Ambon. 
nunu Ternate. 
ngunu Halmaheira. 
usnut Gani. 



reva, Mangaia, Maori, Nuguria. 
'apa Samoa. 
apa Tahiti. 
pa Fotuna, Rotuma. 



pacpac Tagalog, Bicol. 

pak-sa Kawi. 

pak-si Basakrama. 

papak Magindano, Baliyon. 



kapakapa Magindano, Visayan. 

It is quite plain that we are concerned here with two stems, or in 
better likelihood a primal stem with determinant accretion. The 
primal stem seems to be pak, the derivative kapak. In the general 
theory of the evolution of isolating vocables we should look to find the 
primal stem in the possession of the earliest phase of the speech. The 
evidence here presented is not decisive. The pak stem is found as far 
to the west as Java — truly in the ancient speech, since it is credited to 
the Kawi, and to the Basakrama, which is frequently conservative of 
archaic forms; eastward, in the region of the archetype of Malayan 
speech, it is found in the Philippines in Magindano, Tagalog, Bicol, 
and in the immediately associable Baliyon of the Borneo Dayaks. 
Yet in composition with kau, "a projecting member, " the primal stem 
pak appears in Polynesia in these words for "wing" as "flap-limb," 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



121 



pahkau Fotuiia, pakau Maori and Moiiori, pckeluu Marquesas, pehau 
Mangareva, peheu Tahiti and Hawaii. Rotuma papau is not exactly 
reconcilable, but seems in some way associated. Omitting Fotuna, 
these are distinctively Tongafiti languages. On the other hand, the 
secondary stem kapak is found generally in Polynesian, in the Malay, 
and equally in the Visayan and Magindano. It is accordingly mani- 
fest that pak and kapak were synchronous in the Proto-Polynesian 
before the two streams were divided at their source, but that the secon- 
dary stem was not considered necessary in the ' ' wing ' ' composite by 
the ancestors of the Tongafiti. In my earlier study of the word I am 
manifestly in error of judgment in regarding kapak as primitive and 
pak as derivative by abrasion of the former syllable. It comports far 
better with a theory of evolution in the languages of isolation to proceed 
from the simpler form to the more complex, from the general and diffuse 
to the specific and particular. 

29. kape wild tare; Subanu gabe an edible tuber. 
kabe Tonga. 



kape Futuna, Niue, Mangareva, Rapanui, 

Marquesas. 
'ape Samoa. 
ape Marquesas, Tahiti. 



gabe Subanu. 
gabi Visayan. 
gobe Subanu. 



This stem is of peculiar interest as indicative of one of the most 
remote outposts in the Pacific of Proto-Samoan migration. In the 
Malayan archipelago it occurs in the most primitive region of the lan- 
guage family ; in the Pacific it is found only in Nuclear Polynesia, save 
for its recurrence in all the languages of the province of Southeastern 
Polynesia which I have found it advisable to constitute. In that prov- 
ince this stem is one of several pieces of evidence upon which I have 
been able to establish the fact of an early settlement by wanderers of 
the early migration community. 

kau tree; Subanu cahoy, gayo id. P.W. 



30. 



353- 



kau 


Futuna, Niue, Fakaofo, Manahiki, 


gai 


Omba, Arag, Nggela, Bugotu, Gog, 




Nuguria, Maori, Rarotonga, 




Tangoan Santo. 




Tongarewa, Mangareva, Pau- 


hai 


Vaturanga, New Georgia. 




motu, Fotuna, Sikaiana, Nu- 


ai 


Malekula, Ulawa, Bululaha, Alite, 




kuoro, Rapanui, Moiki,Tonga, 




Vitu. Graget. 




Uvea, Marquesas, Viti. 


ta-ngae 


Mota. 


'au 


Samoa. 


gei-ga 


Maewo. 


au 


Hawaii, Tahiti. 


re-ga 


Lakon, Lo. 


kao 


Aniwa. 


ta-nkei 


Merlav. 


kou 


Aniwa. 


nge 


Volow, Motlav, Norbarbar, Vuras, 


kai 


Viti. 




Mosin, Pak, Sasar, AIo Teqel. 


oi 


Rotuma. 


ge 


Malekula. 






ke 
g« 


Umre, Leng. 
Tanna. 


kasu 


Efate. 


gr 


Nggao. 








Efate, Sesake, Epi, Nguna, Anei- 


cahoy 


Subanu, Visayan. 




tyum. 


gayo 


Subanu. 


gau 


Marina. 


kayu 


Malay, Baju. 


au 


Motu. 


kayao 


Bon toe Igorot. 


kai 


Aneityum, Bierian, Malo, Epi, 


hazu 


Malagasy. 




Longa, Lent. 


kai 


Teor. 


gair 


Murray Island. 







122 THB SUBANU. 

Because this stem, if a single stem it be, has been so tangled, I find 
it necessary to include the list of Melanesian types. Of these some, 
in fact the majority, serve to establish connection between types in 
Polynesia and types in Melanesia, which without these intervening 
varieties would baffle inquiry. Other Melanesian forms, apparently 
wide of the two greater speech-family types, in this array will readily be 
discovered to be successive devolution forms in somewhat degrading 
borrowing by the uncouth savages. Polynesia affords us the two types 
kau and kai, for we may disregard kou as being a product of vowel muta- 
tion from kau and oi as similarly related to kai. Melanesia yields us 
three types, kasu, kau, and kai. In the second and third it accords with 
Polynesia, therefore we find these t3^pes carried back to the very gate- 
ways at which Polynesian migration emerged from Indonesia. The 
kasu type is easily identified with one of the Indonesian types, hazu and 
its derivative cahoy. The kai type is found in Indonesia, in Melanesia 
and in Polynesia, therefore we may regard it as original Polynesian 
stock brought by the roving fleets as far as Viti in Nuclear Polynesia. 
In kayu we can see a probable association with kau, the common Poly- 
nesia type ; and gayo is clearly a variant of kayu. The last difficulty is 
met in the attempt to connect gayo with cahoy. Inasmuch as the two 
are met with concurrently in Subanu, I feel that we are justified in 
regarding gayo as derivative from cahoy, the Igorot kayao being an 
intermediate link. Thus the series is complete. 

31. koe thou; Visayan icao id. 

koe Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Rarotonga, Ma- 

nahiki, Rapanui, Paumotu, Manga- 

reva, Marquesas, Maori, Aniwa, 

Sikaiana. 
'oe Samoa. 
oe Tahiti, Marquesas, Hawaii, Fakaofo. 



kau Baliyon. 

kaaw Matu. 
icao Visayan. 
sika Bontoc Igorot. 

angkau Malay. 



Ceremony in Malayan life (the courtesy of the honorific phrase and 
the humility of the speaker) has largely obUterated syntax. In fact 
parsing does not become an obsession until distrustful speakers begin 
to lose confidence in the expressive character of their speech and put 
their reliance in machinery — auxiliary verbs, for instance. This cere- 
mony affects equally, but in opposite directions, the pronouns of the 
first and second persons ; I is abased, the speaker is but a worm of the 
dust, a mere insignificance ; thou is raised to the peak of honor ; lord is 
but the beginning of address; from tuan the Malayans pass to giddy 
heights of exaltation. Therefore the Hst of Indonesian affiliates of the 
second personal pronoun is brief and hard to come at. Yet the con- 
nection is made clear by the Visayan, always noting that here in the 
Philippines we find the archetypal Malayan. From icao, a secondary 
form with the i augment which in time I shall establish as being a per- 
sonal index, we may readily trace the simpler kau type. For transition 
forms and for the portage of the type into Polynesia we shall need a 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



123 



collation of the Melanesian material. Segregated according to the 
mutation of the primal consonant k, this falls into a remarkably com- 
pact and interesting table with exceedingly few lacunae. 





iko in-iko in-ik 


a-iko n-ik ik 


ko 




en-ik 








igo in-igo .... n-igo 


go 




ingo ig-ingo in-ing 


j-ingo n-ing 


ngo 




ni-ingo 








.... in-ek 


n-ek 






ni-ek 











ag-ike 


ke 


in-iko 


Maewo, Merlav, Mota, 


ni-ingo Sesake. 




in-ik 


Gog. 


in-ing Volow. 




en-ik 


Vanua Lava. 


g-ingo Arag. 




n-iko 


Maewo. 


n-ing Volow. 




n-ik 


Merlav, Gog, Lakon, Vanua Lava. 


ngo Sesake, Omba. 




ik 


Merlav. 


in-ek Motlav. 




ko 


Epi, Sesake, Maewo, Mota. 


ni-ek Norbarbar. 




in-igo 


Santo. 


ng-ike Lo. 




n-igo 


Santo. 


ke Gog, Lakon, Lo. 




go 


Santo, Arag, Omba, Maewo. 


ka Mota. 




ig-ing 


o Arag. 


o Ambrym, Santo. 





From this showing we perceive that icao and the putative primal 
form cao have been carried into the movement toward Polynesia, for 
this is the sole present worth of Melanesia to our studies, and that they 
have been subjected to the same mutation, kao has become ko. At 
present we may regard this as vowel loss. This mutation is rare in the 
attributives, yet not unknown ; in the demonstratives it is more com- 
mon. Where so much of the primal stem is preserved we must admit 
this mutation by vowel loss as permissible. Thus we are led from icao 
to iko, and this we find in Nuclear Polynesia in the strengthened ko iko 
of Viti, a language in which we encounter much that is archetypal of 
Polynesian. Those students who have examined my estabHshment 
{The Polynesian Wanderings, page 147) of two streams of Polynesian 
exit from Indonesia, the Viti Stream by way of Torres Strait, the Samoa 
Stream by the north coast of New Guinea, will have no difficulty in 
recognizing this series as deposited along the sweep of the southern or 
Viti Stream. For the northern course, the Samoa Stream, Melanesia 
affords us another type of mutation, which may be set forth in the 
following tables: 

ihoe ioe io o, ho 

go, no 



igoo Fagani. 

goo Fagani. 

go Fagani, Nggela, Bugotu, Ngao. 

no Savo. 



igoe 
igoo 
goo 

igoe Nggela, Bugotu, Ngao. 

ihoe Vaturanga. 

ioe Ulawa, Wango, Saa. 

io Saa. 

o Ulawa, Wango. 

Here we see a vowel mutation from kao to koe; preferably we have 
the two variants from some primal type which we are not yet able to 
uncover in Indonesia. The devolution leads us (go) both to the ko type 
of Viti and to the koe type of Polynesia in general. 



124 



THE SUBANU. 



32. kumi beard, chin; Subanu gumi beard. 



kumi Viti, Maori, Marquesas, Mangareva, 
Paumotu. 



umi Tahiti, Hawaii. 



If it were not for the presence of kumi in Viti, this would seem 
assignable to the Tongafiti migration, which is scarcely probable. In 
Tonga, Uvea, and Nine occurs the form kumu applied to the chin; it 
seems to bear some relation to the foregoing. 



33- 



kutu louse; Visayan coto id. P. W. 357. 



kutu 


Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Fotuna, Si- 




kaiana, Marquesas, Rarotonga, 




Rapanui, Nukuoro, Niue, 




Maori, Viti. 


ngutu 


Paumotu. 


*utu 


Samoa. 


utu 


Tahiti, Marquesas. 


uku 


Hawaii. 



kuto 


Macassar. 


koto 


Wayapo, Massaratty, Visayan, Bon- 




toc Igorot. 


kota 


Sula. 


kutim 


Ahtiago. 


o-kutu Bouton. 


hut 


Teor. 


utu 


Morella, Matabello. 


utu-a 


Caimarian. 


6tu-k 


Tihu. 


utu-n 


Wahai. 


uti, ut 


Mysot. 



kutu Malay, Java, Salayer, Menado, 
Bolanghitam, Sanguir, Gani, 
Lariko, Gah, Baju. 

Here we have a perfectly smooth series of affiliates, the same frontal 
abrasion occurring in each area. 



34. kana to eat; Subanu cana, gaan id. 
kana (kani) Viti. 



P. W. 191. 



kana 
caon 



Subanu. 
Visayan. 



gaan 
ma-kan 
mo-konie 
mangan 



Subanu. 

Malay, Bontoc Igorot. 
Togean. 

Bontoc Igorot. 



This is manifestly a Proto-Polynesian stem carried down to Viti by 
both streams of Proto-Samoan migration, for we have a full series of its 
occurrence in Melanesia. The general Polynesian stem is kai. Yet we 
are not justified in assigning this to the Tongafiti migration solely, for we 
find it at four stations in Torres Strait, the exit of the Viti stream; 
these are Sariba kai, Suau and Mabuiag ai, Dobu e'ai, and they are 
dotted among other stations where the kani type obtains. In default 
of Indonesian instances of kai, I am still unwilling to accept its produc- 
tion from kani by loss of n in its inner protected situation. Still it is 
clear that kani and kai existed simultaneously at the period of the first 
Polynesian flight out of the Malay seas. 

35. lafa ringworm; Visayan labhag id. 
lafa Samoa, Tonga, Futuna. 

From its restrictively Nuclear Polynesian provenience this vocable 
has particular interest as tending to show that the Proto-Samoans who 
took part in the flight into Polynesia were the same folk as those who in 
some part of the Indian archipelago were in contact with those first 
comers of the Malayans who later moved northeastward to the settle- 
ment of the Philippines. 



POI^YN^SIAN AND MAI.AYAN. 



125 



36. langi sky 

langi Samoa, Fakaofo, Tonga, Futuna, 

Niue, Uvea, Manahiki, Nuku- 

oro, Viti, Rotuma. 
rangi Maori, Rarotonga, Mangareva, Ra- 

panui, Paumotu, Tongarewa, 

Aniwa, Fotuna. 
lani Nuguria, Hawaii. 

rai Tahiti. 

rang Efate 



Subanu langit id, 
langit 



P. w. 359. 



Visayan, Subanu, Sulu, Tagalog, 
Chamorro, Kayan, Magin- 
dano, Malay, Java. 
langid Baliyon. 
langi Bugi, Champa, Macassar. 
lanit-ra Malagasy. 
janggie Togean. 
ran Uap. 



ani, aki Marquesas. 

Assuming the closed stem langit, and for this we have Indonesian 
evidence of excellent quality and complete extent through the province, 
the final consonant had been lost at the time of Polynesian exit from the 
Malay Archipelago, for in each stream we find only the open form in the 
Melanesian traverse {langi) or the secondary abrasion {lang) to the 
closed type. 

37. lango a fly; Subanu langau id. P. W. 360. 



lango 


Samoa, Tonga, 


Futuna, 


Niue, 


lango 


Kayan, Sanguir, Pampangas, 




Uvea, 


Viti. 








northeast Celebes. 


rango 


Fotuna, Maori, 


Rarotonga 


Pau- 


rain go 


Menado, Bolanghitam. 




motu. 








langau 


Subanu, Tagalog, Malay. 


nango 


Nukuoro. 








lengeau 


Dayak. 


lano 


Nuguria. 








langao 


Visayan. 


nalo 


Hawaii. 








langow 


Baju, northeast Celebes. 


rao 


Tahiti. 








lalangou 


North Borneo. 


lang 


Rotuma. 








langa 


Gorontalo, Bunda. 



The only matter which need engage our attention here is the muta- 
tion of the final vowel. We shall find other instances of the 0-ao 
variety, and it will simplify the study to examine them collectively 
after the massing of the data has been completed. 

38. laka to step; Subanu laang to walk. 



laka Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea. 

la'a Samoa. 

lako Viti. 



laang Subanu. 
lacang Visayan. 
pag-lacat Visayan. 



The data are insufficient for the determination of the question sug- 
gested by the Subanu-Visayan, whether this is a closed stem and 
whether the final consonant is t or ng. We find it in Melanesia in two 
widely severed stations on the Viti Stream, Motu and Mota. In Motu 
we find raka ' ' to walk. ' ' In Mota we have a tangle of forms : laka ' ' to 
kick up the heels as in dancing," lagau "to pass, cross over, of impedi- 
ment rather than space," lago "to step." 

39. lalo below; Visayan ilalom id. P. W. 213. 
lalo Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, 



Uvea, Hawaii, Nuguria. 
Maori, Tahiti, Rarotonga, Tonga- 
rewa, Bukabuka, Mangareva, 



Sikaiana, Aniwa, Fotuna, Nu- 
kuoro, Rapanui. 

ngango Moiki. 

ao Marquesas. 



At the time of my earUer study of this vocable I lacked Indonesian 
affihates, a lack which is now supplied most satisfactorily. The Visa- 
yan i-lalom is clearly a composite representing the modern Samoan use 
of i lalo locative and 'i lalo of terminus ad quem. The fact that it has a 



126 



THE SUBANU. 



nasal final may be taken to shed light upon the forms which we have 
proposed in Melanesia for affiliation with this stem. In Vaturanga we 
find lao, which follows the regime of that speech in dropping an inner 1 
and thus halfway approximates the denuded form ao of the Marquesas. 
The only other provenience in Melanesia is confined to a group of 
hitherto obscure forms found in the tiny Banks Group, and all inter- 
related. These are effectively lalangai, lalange, lang. It will be seen 
that all these forms have a final nasal. Though it differs in series from 
the final m of the Visayan the distant mutation m-ng is well supported 
in another word in the same group, malum-melunglung {The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 370). 

40. lano a lake; Subanu danao id. 



lano Samoa. 

ndrano Viti. rano-masina Malagasy. 

rano Rapanui. danao Visayan, Subanu. 

ano Tonga, Futuna, Uvea. tjanaom Bontoc Igorot. 

This word is Proto-Samoan, in Rapanui an interesting article of the 
proof of migration to that ultimate islet by the first-comers into the 
Pacific. In sense it imphes fresh water. Therefore it does not surprise 
us to find that in usage probably Tongafiti it interlaces with the slightly 
variant lanu, which signifies sweet water in general and certain of the 
particular uses to which it may be put. We find the same in Indonesia, 
Java and Kawi rami, Kawi danu, Ilocano danum, all signifying water 
in general. Thus we are led to Malay danau of the ocean, the sweet 
water has passed to the salt by steps which have left their record. 
41. laun a leaf; Subanu doon id. P. W. 397. 
Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Nu- 



lau 



ndrau 

au 

lou 

rou 

ou 



guria, Niue, Hawaii. 

Viti, Maori, Tahiti, Rarotonga, Ra- 
panui, Paumotu, Mangareva, 
Nukuoro, Fotuna, Rotuma. 

Viti. 

Marquesas. 

Tonga. 

Mangareva. 

Marquesas. 



rau Savu. 

rou Java. 

laun Saparua. 

daun Baliyon, Baju, Malay. 

dawun Malay. 

dahun Sulu. 

dahon Visayan. 

doon Subanu. 



That the final n pertains to the primal stem we have abundant 
evidence in Indonesia, confirmation in Melanesia in Moanus, Barriai 
and Malekula laun and Malo rauna. 





42. le no, not; 


Subanu da, di id. 


e 


Rapanui. 


kakore 


Mangareva, Rapanui, Paumotu 


eaki 


Rotuma. 




Marquesas. 


se 


Samoa, Rotuma. 


kakoe 


Marquesas. 


le 


Samoa. 


koe 


Rapanui, Marquesas. 


lea'i 


Samoa. 


kare 


Rarotonga, Mangaia. 


te 


Maori, Mangareva, Rapanui, 


aohe 


Hawaii. 




Marquesas. 


aole 


Hawaii. 


sega, 


segai Viti. 


aore 


Mangaia, Tahiti. 


ohe 


Hawaii. 


aoe 


Marquesas, Hawaii. 


ole 


Hawaii. 


kahore 


Maori. 


ore 


Tahiti. 


ahore 


Maori. 


kore 


Rapanui, Paumotu, Mangareva, 


hore 


Maori. 




Marquesas. 


ko 


Rapanui. 


oe 


Marquesas. 







POIvYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 127 

It will tend toward the simplification of this nexus, which seems the 
more complicated as we extend the view, if we dissect out the negatives 
which are found singly or in combination in these Polynesian languages 
before we advance upon other alUed tongues. From the variety of the 
Samoan le particular and se indefinite negatives, corresponding in the 
functional value of the consonantal modulant to the weak demonstra- 
tives (article value) le particular and se indefinite, we infer a primal neg- 
ative e. This we find in an unmodulated condition in Rapanui, and in 
the Rotuma composite eaki corresponding to Samoan Ica'i it again 
appears. For the 1 and the S modulants I can discern no value other 
than that of indicating precision. In composition with other elements 
they recur in the following forms, postponing consideration of the value 
of the composition members : ohe, aohe, ole, aole, ore (oe) , aore (aoe) , hore, 
ahore {kahore), kore (koe), kakore (kakoe), kare. The same primal nega- 
tive receives the consonantal modulant t in certain languages of the 
Tongafiti stock, te in Maori, Rapanui, Mangareva, and the Marquesas. 
This modulant maybe regarded as the definite modulant, such as in the 
same migration group we find in the article te; at the same time we may 
find reason to assign to the t in this composition a negative value of its 
own. Toward the latter interpretation operates the fact that in the 
range of Polynesian te is considered so strongly negative that it requires 
no bolstering with other negative particles, which we have just observed 
to be so extensive in the case of se and in an even more highly marked 
degree of le. The second stage away from the primal negative e shows 
the preface of ko to se and to le, thus producing a typical kose which is 
inferential from Hawaiian ohe, and kore. In Hawaii and Tahiti, which 
lack k, we find this stage in ohe, ole, ore; and in the Marquesas, which 
drops the liquid also, we find no more than oe. This preface syllable 
is itself a negative, as we may see from Rapanui ko; the composite 
is, therefore, a determinant compound in which two stems carrying 
inter alia one signification in common are compacted in order to set the 
meaning beyond doubt. With kore we shall probably associate the 
hore which gives us a series of three members in Maori. I am unable to 
discover ho elsewhere in Polynesia in a negation use, and the k-h muta- 
tion, while it is phonetically possible, I can not find in Polynesian use. 
A variant kare in Rarotonga and Mangaia has pecuHar interest because 
we meet the same form far to the westward in Maewo kare, dehortative 
"do not." In the discussion of Melanesian negatives I hope to be able 
to show that ka in itself carries negative value. In this place we shall 
assume this to be fact and shall estimate kare not as a vocalic mutant of 
kore, for vocahc mutation is almost unknown in Polynesian, but as a 
le compound with the negative preface ka. This same ka gives us the 
third stage of the Polynesian negative, kose and kole prefaced by ka, 
doubly a determinant compound, "no-no-no," which ought surely to be 
beyond all chance of miscomprehension. In this third type we have 
from se the Hawaiian aohe rising in the loss of k twice, and from le we 



128 THE SUBANU. 

have kakore, kakoe, aole, aore, aoe. We have akeady noted that Maori 
hore is anomalous; it continues so through its series; kahore is a com- 
pound of this third type, but ahore is beyond explanation, since the 
Maori is in general tenacious of the k. 

We shall now examine the Melanesian negative, a sad tangle at 
first view, but I am quite convinced that the following table will sug- 
gest the way toward a simple statement. 

(a) sa ta ka-re 

tate 
tat 
taho 

e he te t- 

hete tehe 

teo 

i si-a ti 

di 

Here we have the e negative, the a negative which we have already 
met in kare and kakore, and in addition an i negative which may be 
primal or may be a mutation from e. The languages comprised in this 
table are as follows : 



sa Marina, Saa, Bugotu. 


te Omba, Mota, Lakon, Arag, Deni. 


ta Motlav, Volow, Gog, Norbarbar. 


tehe Arag. 


tate Lo. 


teo Ngao. 


tat Lo. 


t- Motlav. 


taho Nggela. 


i Alo Teqel. 


kare Maewo. 


si-a Savo, Vaturanga. 


e Pak, Alo Teqel. 


ti Sesake, Efate, Merlav. 


he Omba. 


di Sesake. 


hete Omba. 





Of the three Polynesian negatives in the first remove from primal 
e, namely se, le, te, we find se represented by sa, he and si; te represented 
by ta, te, ti, and di; le is found in but the single instance of ka-re. In 
the compound forms here presented hete, tehe and tate are clearly deter- 
minant compounds of the grateful double negative type ; tat comes from 
tate by terminal abrasion. In taho and teo we readily segregate ta and 
te; the residual ho and o do not elsewhere appear as negatives, but they 
certainly suggest the ho of Maori ho-re and provide a primitive for the 
modulated ko of Rapanui and the general secondary type ko-re. 

We next encounter a group of composite negatives of the secondary 
type which are quite manifestly associable inter se and beyond Mela- 
nesia with the lea'i of Samoan. These will be shown in order in the 
following table. 

ai tagai 

gae tigai 

bwai 

pwai-ke 

hai-ke 

(a) aga 'iga 

taga 
tagar 
tga 

(i) tigi 

tig 
teji 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



129 



The languages comprised in this table are these : 



ai Wango. 


tagai 


Mota. 


tagar 


Gog. 


gae Fagani. 


tigai 


Maewo. 


tga 


Motlav. 


bwai Wango. 


aga 


Pak. 


tigi 


Macwo. 


pwai-ke Ulawa. 
hai-ke Saa. 


'iga 


Leon. 


tig 


Maewo. 


taga 


Merlav. 


teji 


Norbarbar. 



It will be seen that the preface members of such composites as are 
in this list are variants of the te type. 

The Subanu da and di are sonant varieties of the ta and ti, of which 
we have evidence in Melanesia, and its daay is paralleled by tagai. 
Bontoc Igorot yields us adt. 

43. like around; Subanu molio curved. 



liko 
li'o 



Futuna, Viti. 



balico Visayan. 
molio Subanu. 



This is the least-used of a group of three consimilars, liko, niko, 
and piko, in which we may recognize as operative the effect of conso- 
nant modulant prefaces upon a primal stem iko. The liko form is found 
at these three stations in Nuclear Polynesia and doubly at this single 
Philippine station ; relative to the speech families in which they occur, 
Nuclear Polynesia and the Phihppines are recognized as archetypal and 
representative of the Proto-Samoan. In Subanu we have no difficulty 
in dissecting out the particle of condition ma, and the ba of the Visayan 
is a famiUar variant of the same. 



longo 



rongo 



ongo 
lono 
ono 
oko 



44. longo to hear; Visayan dongog id. 

Samoa, Nukuoro, Futuna, Uvea, 

Niue, Fakaofo, Rarotonga. 
Viti, Maori, Mangaia, Mangareva, 

Paumotu, Rapanui, Aniwa, 

Fotuna. 
Tonga. 

Hawaii, Nuguria. 
Marquesas. 
Marquesas. 



P. W. 398. 



langan 


Matu. 


rungu 


Java. 


rohona 


Malagasy. 


rungak 


Uap. 


hungu 


Chatnorro. 


dongog 


Visayan. 


dengek 


Bontoc Igorot. 


dangar 


Malay. 



In Polynesia we lack derivative forms which might protect a final 
consonant if this had been a closed stem. The final mute palatal in 
dongog and rungak I incline to regard as verb-formative suffix in the 
eastern Malayan; it is suggested again only in Omba ronghogosi, and 
there obscurely, for we have no means of determining if the g is terminal 
of the stem or initial to the latter composition member. In examining 
the Melanesian material we find suggestions of final m in Vaturanga 
and of final V in Vaturanga and Kabadi. In our slovenly American 
orthoepy it may not be wholly unnecessary to draw attention to the 
fact that the Malay recognize in langar full consonant value for the 
final r; this seems to belong to the stem, at least in one stage of its 
development, for it recurs in Lambell, King, Duke of York, Baravon, 
Raluana, Mukawa, Tavara, Wedau, Awalama, Taupota, Oiun, and 
Raqa. It will be seen that these are stations at the two exits from 
Indonesia, five at the gateway through the Bismarck Archipelago, seven 



130 THE SUBANU. 

in Torres Strait, therefore at points of our earliest information of the 
Samoa Stream and the Viti Stream respectively. 

45. lua hole; Subanu luang id. 
lua Samoa, Futuna, Hawaii. 



loaka Malagasy. 

rua Malay. 

luwang Java. 

luang Subanu. 



luo Niue, Tonga. 

rua Rapanui, Paumotu, Mangareva, 

Tahiti, Maori, Mangaia. 
ua Marquesas. 

lue Mota. 

From the Indonesian evidence (to which we must add the anomal- 
ous Malay luhang and the Bontoc Igorot kaupan) we are justified in 
regarding this as a stem closed in ng and the Malagasy is a normal 
mutation therefrom. 

46. ma conditional prefix; Subanu, Visayan ma id. 

This particle is general throughout the three Oceanic areas. It 
undergoes the normal vocahc mutations ; it is paralleled by at least two 
similar particles (ta and pa) with differences in the consonantal modu- 
lant. I am forced to postpone discussion of the variety in use in this 
matter to a later period of my researches. In a general way it may be 
said that given a signification of an action or a state in a primal diffuse 
attributive, when the need arises for particularity the employment of 
ma prefaced to the attributive stem conveys the sense that a given 
object exists in the condition stated in the stem signification. Such 
forms are in essence adjectival in their employment. We may illus- 
trate this from the Samoan fola to spread out and mafola appHed to an 
object which has been extended and therefore is spread out; we are 
forced to employ passive forms, but no such voice sense is yet within 
the power of these languages. 

47. masakit, makit sick; Visayan saquit id. P. W. 379. 
masaki Futuna. mai Rapanui, Tahiti, Hawaii. 

mahaki Tonga, Uvea, Niue, Maori. 
madhake Viti. 

maki Marquesas, Rapanui, Mangaia, 

Mangareva, Paumotu, Nu- 
guria, Fotuna. 
ma'i Samoa. 

The strong concord in Indonesia leads me to postulate a final t. 
In the masakit forms this is quite clear and finds confirmation in the 
Melanesian King miseit. In the Malayan we have in one form for 
makit this final and in the other instance it does not appear; testimony 
toward the estabUshment upon Melanesian authority of the final t is 
derived from Baravon mait. The masakit type is a conditional ; we find 
the primitive sakit in Malay, Visayan, and Bontoc Igorot. This is the 
elder type; it is Proto-Samoan. For the Tongafiti makit we have been 
able to discover no instance of a primitive, but analogy leads us to the 
conclusion that this also is a conditional ma-akit. Interpolating a term, 
we may infer the descent from sakit through hakit to akit, then prefacing 
akit with the conditional ma the concurrent vowels might coalesce 
through crasis. It will be observed that now in deaUng with the 



masaquit Ilocano. 

sakit Malay, Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 

makit Silong. 

maki Kisa. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 131 

Visayan material I express myself more positively in support of the 
position which in my earlier work seemed less clear and that further 
support appears in the Igorot. 

48. malemos to drown; Visayan lomos id. 



lemohaki Tonga. 


maremo 


Rarotonga. 


ndromu Viti. 


palemo 


Hawaii. 


emu Rapanui. 


paremo 


Tahiti, Maori 


malemo Samoa, Futuna. 


peremo 


Mangareva. 


melemo Tonga. 


parego 


Paumotu. 



The final S is found in the Visayan and in normal mutation in the 
Tongan lemohaki. We have in Polynesia three forms of the simple 
stem, two {lomu, lemo) in Nuclear Polynesia and one {emu) in Rapanui, 
as an interesting article of the proof of a settlement upon that remote 
island of a Proto-Samoan colony; even so recently as my recension of 
the dictionary of that speech this item escaped my attention inasmuch 
as I had not then the Visayan evidence. The remaining forms in 
Polynesia are conditional with ma and with a variant pa; pa is found 
in languages of the Tongafiti settlement, ma is Proto-Samoan, except 
that Rarotonga is a Tongafiti community but has the conditional prefix 
of the earlier stock. In Paumotu the m-g mutation, a shift across the 
utmost nasal range, is not unknown in other instances. 

49. mama to chew; Subanu mama id. P. W. 280. 



mamah Malay. 
mama Subanu. 
mangaga Bontoc Igorot. 



mama Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Nine, Ra- 
panui, Marquesas, Manga- 
reva, Hawaii, Viti. 

manga Nukuoro. 

maanga Uvea. 

Except for the mutation in Nukuoro and Uvea this identification is 
so complete as to be featureless. We note the almost complete absence 
of the stem from the Melanesian traverse, its only appearance being in 
Aneityum a-mai. In secondary and derivative forms in Nuclear Poly- 
nesia we encounter the form maga, which passes before the superficial 
judgment as of the common type of verbal noun formed from stem ma 
by the usual suffix -ga, the secondary sense denoting either an act of 
chewing or the person who chews. If this were the true explanation 
of maga we should find ourselves under the necessity of arguing that 
in Nukuoro and Uvea the verbal noun, after it had been created pur- 
posely to express a distinction for which the language had felt a need, 
sacrificed that distinction and took the place of the primal verb from 
which it is derived. This runs contrary to the grammatical course of 
the speech. The discovery in the Bontoc Igorot of mangaga estabHshes 
the existence in the earhest type of the Polynesian of a verb radical 
manga and authorizes us in classifying the Nukuoro and Uvea forms 
as Proto-Samoan. Elsewhere in Nuclear Polynesia, in regions to which 
the later Tongafiti swarm found readier access and where its domina- 
tion was better estabhshed, the abraded stem ma of that phase of the 
common tongue came into use in its duplicated form. The particular 



132 



THE SUBANU. 



significance of the Igorot, as in many instances it is the particular 
significance of the Subanu itself, is that it is an interior language in 
this region in which we find the archetype not only of Malayan speech 
but of its early accumulations from the Polynesian ancestors whom it 
was dislodging. Accordingly, when we are enabled to pass through the 
coastal settlement of the later Malayan swarms in the PhiUppines and 
may find in the languages of the eadier migrants who have been driven 
back into the mountains word forms identifiable with those which we 
find in Nuclear Polynesia, we are just.fied in estabHshing them as of 
the eariiest Polynesian type. 

manifis thin; Subanu monepes id. P. W. 298. 



50. 
manifi Samoa, Nukuoro, Tonga, Futuna, 

Uvea. 
mafinfini Fotuna. 



nipis Malay. 

manipis Visayan. 
monepes Subanu. 
manifi Malagasy. 



These are all clear identification, all of the conditional type except 
that in Malay we have the primitive stem, which reappears at Roro in 
Torres Strait in the form nivinivi. 

51. malino calm; Subanu linao id. 

malino Futuna, Hawaii. 

malinoa Uvea. 

marine Maori, Rarotonga, Paumotu. 

melino Tonga. 

merino Mangareva. 

milino Niue. 

manino Samoa, Tahiti. 

menino Marquesas. 

Disregarding the simple varieties in the Polynesian course of the 
vocable we estabUsh a conditional type with the primitive plainly appa- 
rent in the three PhiUppine languages. 

52. manu bird, animal; Subanu manoc bird, P. W. 372. 

Gani. 

Dayak, Bontoc Igorot. 

Wahai. 



linao 


Subanu, Visayan 


allnoao 


Bontoc Igorot. 


malinao 


Bicol. 


marina 


Malagasy. 


marne 


Formosa. 


maino 


Motu. 



manman 



Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, Manga- 
reva, Rarotonga, Mangaia, 
Futuna, Niue, Uvea, Fo- 
tima, Bukabuka, Maori, 
Hawaii, Nuguria, Rapanui, 
Marquesas, Paumotu, Viti, 
Tongarewa. 

Rotuma. 



manik 
monok 
malok 
manu 



manuk 


Malay, Sulu. 


manug 


Chamorro. 


manok 


Kayan, Magindano, Subanu 




Visayan, Matu, Gah, Mata- 




bello, Teor, Bontoc Igorot. 


manoko 


Bolanghitam. 



mano 

mani 

manue 

manui 

manuo 

manuwan Ahtiago. 

manuti Wayapo. 



Savu, Kisa, Menado, Sanguir, 
Sula, Morella, Caimarian, 
Baju, Salibabo, Togean, 
Bouton. 

Saparua, Lariko, Liang, Batu- 
merah. 

Waigiou Alfuros. 

Amblaw, Awaiya. 

Cajeli. 

Teluti. 



The final palatal mute is so widely estabUshed athwart Indonesia 
in languages of varying type that we must regard it as proper to the 
stem; in Melanesia it reappears at such distant stations as Carteret 
Harbor in New Ireland (manuk) and Tanna (manug). In Polynesia 
the word has seldom deviated far or completely from the signification 
of animals in general; throughout Indonesia it is particularized upon 
the bird sense, and in Bontoc Igorot it designates a chicken only. We 
note as a resemblance Sanskrit manukh, manush a living creatture. 



POIvYNESIAN AND MAI^AYAN. 



133 



53. 



masima 



Samoa, Tonga, Niue 
Duke of York. 
te-mosi Rotuma. 



masima salt 

Uvea, Viti, 



Subanu masin id. 



rano-masina 
asin 



asmg 
fau-asina 



Malagasy. 
Visayan, Subanu, 

Igorot. 
Sanguir. 
Malagasy. 



Bonloc 



masin Malay, Subanu, Visayan. 

This is a remarkably interesting vocable. In the Pacific it occurs 
only in Nuclear Polynesia and is therefore properly to be assigned to 
the Proto-Samoan migration. Just at the gateway to the Pacific we 
find it at the Duke of York, a position sufficient to establish it in the 
Samoa Stream. Therefore the note in Pratt's Samoan Dictionary 
"from Fiji" is inaccurate. In Polynesia the stem consonant is m. 
In Indonesia, however, the stem consonant is n. Regarded as pho- 
netic mutation, this variety is well established. Furthermore, our 
Indonesian affiUates disclose the existence of the types asin and masin; 
in fact they exist concurrently in Subanu and Visayan. We therefore 
infer with whole propriety asin to be primal, masin conditional, and 
that a crasis ma-asin has taken place is inferential from the vowel 
quaUty in Samoan masima. We are now brought so close to another 
group of forms signifying salt, specifically salt water, thence the sea, 
that we are justified at least in noting their presence. One small Hnk 
would establish the chain, namely, the discovery after asin of asi in a 
salt sense. As meaning salt water and sea we find this asi in Ulawa, 
Wango, Fagani, Saa, AHte, Bululaha, all determining stations in the 
Solomon Islands upon the Samoa Stream. As a conditional derivative 
of asi, noting that we have already observed the parallelism of ma and 
ta, we have tasi in the same sense with tas, tahi, tai in series, which 
brings us to the general Polynesian tai of the sea and, in the Tongafiti 
languages, of salt as well, on which see The Polynesian Wanderings, 
page 418. 



54. mata eye, face; Subanu mata eye, mesh, bud. P. W. 380. 



mata 



maka 



mafa, maf Rotuma. 



Polynesia ubique (except as fol- 
low) in the sense of eye, 
face, point, edge, mesh, 
source, any small object, to 
see. 

Hawaii. 



mata 



matsha 
matada 



Visayan, Bontoc Igorot, Kayan, 
Sulu, Savu, Ilocano, Taga- 
log, Pampangas, Baju, Bou- 
ton, Sanguir, Liang, Wahai, 
Togean, Salayer, Menado, 
Bolanghitam, Morella, La- 
riko, Saparua, Caimarian, 
Malay, Macassar, Awaiya, 
Ceram. 

Central Nicobar. 

Matabello. 



matara 


OllUUg. 

Ahtiago, Alfuros. 


matalalin Wahai. 


matanina Gah. 


matacolo 


Teluti. 


matava 


Batumerah. 


match 


Baliyon. 


matan 


Ahtiago. 


maten 


Dayak. ^ 


matin 


Teor. 


mat 


Kar Nicobar. 


maa 


Ceram. 


makan 


Kisa. 


mut 


Mysot. 


mucha 


Tagalog. 


muka 


Java. 


muguing 


Ilocano. 


mua 


Madura. 


maso 


Malagasy. 



The complete concord of the Polynesian is strangely offset by the 
variety in Indonesia. There is quite as much variety in Melanesia also, 
but in this place it is not necessary to include that material. In the 



mate 


Macassar. 


mati 


Malay. 


maty 


Malagasy. 


matay 


Magindano, Subanu, Visayan. 


patay 


Visayan, Java. 


maki 


Kisa. 


matei 


Kay an. 



134 THE SUBANU. 

Malayan section I have aimed to order the material in the progress of 
variation, principally with respect of the final syllable or consonant. 
The agreement is so overwhelming in favor of mata that we need have 
no hesitation in postulating that open stem as primal. The residual 
forms, each concurring in but a single speech or at most in but two or 
three, will fall into the two classes of suffixed composition members and 
closing consonants added in conformity with the regime of the several 
dialects. 

55. mate to die; Subanu matay id. P. W. 373. 
mate Samoa, Tonga, Fakaofo, Futuna, make Hawaii. 

Nine, Uvea, Maori, Tahiti, 
Rarotonga, Rapanui, Mar- 
quesas, Mangareva, Pau- 
motu, Manahiki, Bukabuka, 
Tongarewa, Nukuoro. 
u-mate Nuguria. 
ko-mate Aniwa. 
kono-mate Fotuna. 

Strange to say, this word in all its recorded occurrences must be a 
conditional, for that is the only basis upon which we can comprehend 
the form patay which exists in Java and is found in Visayan simultane- 
ous with matay. We should then postulate a primal ati, recognizing 
the considerable predominance in Indonesia of forms in i; this might 
then serve to account for the oti of Samoan. In that language mate 
and oti are synonyma relative to the fact, but, relative to the subject, 
mate is employed of the beast, oti of the man. In my former notes upon 
these two words {The Polynesian Languages, pages 274, 374) I was 
forced, in the lack of this fuller information, to assign to the courtesy 
speech the use of oti as death. It will be far simpler to consider it as 
probably a primal, and the discovery of ate or ati in Indonesia will serve 
to establish this view beyond perad venture. 

Since the writing of this note my collation of the Bontoc Igorot 
in Seidenadel's vocabulary has disclosed in the noun signifying death 
the primitive id'oy and variants itoy, eddy, odoy. Thus, having reached 
a hypothetical primitive by deduction, it is interesting to find that 
access to additional data brings confirmation. 

56. mati-kuku nail, claw; Subanu kanuku id. 



kuku Viti. 

mati-kuku Mangareva, Futuna, Maori. 


mai-uu 


Tahiti, Marquesas, Hawai 






mai-kuku Maori, Paumotu, Rapanui, Mar- 


kuku 


Malay, Savu, Pampangas 


quesas. 


cuco 


Tagalog. 


beji-kuku Tonga. 


coco 


Visayan. 


pasi-kuku Uvea. 


koko 


Bontoc Igorot. 


mati-'u'u Samoa. 







In Polynesia we encounter the primal stem only in Viti; elsewhere 
it is involved with a formative agent, principally mati or mai. This 
occurrence of kuku in Viti should serve to set aside Hazlewood's note 
that it derives from kuku the name of a small shell; this shell name 
extends beyond Viti into Polynesia in its own independent existence. 
The primal is well estabUshed in Indonesia, for the vowel mutation is 
there negUgible, particularly the interchange of o and u. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



135 



ma-tou 


Samoa, Marquesas, Tahiti, Ra- 


kamai 




panui, Mangareva, Raro- 


gamai 




tonga, Manahiki, Niue, Uvea, 


kamam 




Fakaofo, Tonga, Futuna, 


kanam 




Maori. 


kemam 


keimam 


1 Viti. 


kemem 
komom 






kama 


Aneityum, Gog. 


igemear 


gama 


Lakon. 


iame'u 


gema 


Ambrym. 


meat 


kami 


Maewo. 


mai 


garni 


Fagani, Nggela, Bugotu, Ngao. 




ngami 


Sesake. 




hami 


Vaturanga. 


namai 


iami 


Ulawa. 


ma 


mimi 


Epi. 





57. matou we (exclusive); Visayan came id. 

Araga. 

Omba. 

Merlav, Mota. 

Marina, Norbarbar. 

Norbarbar. 

Vanua Lava, Motlav, Lo. 

Vanua Lava. 
1 Volow. 

Wango. 

Duke of York. 

Savo, Mekeo, Pokau, Kabadi, 
Motu, Hula, Keapara, Suau, 
Sariba. 

Waima, Roro. 

Sinaugoro, Tubetube, Panaieti. 

Without being fully prepared to discuss the Ufe history of this 
exclusive pronoun, I have sought to order the material at present avail- 
able in such wise that the system in variety may be suggested. In 
Polynesia we find in the dual and plural exclusive of the first person the 
stem ma in composition with the remnant of the numerals two lua and 
three tolu respectively. In Viti with its three numbers above unity we 
have for the first person exclusive the suite, dual keirau, trinal keitou, 
plural keimami; from this it is clear that kei being common to the suite 
may not exercise the precise numeration of the plurahty, although it 
may be found to have a general plural sense; that as rau of the dual 
suggests an artificial variant of rua two and as ton trinal is known to be 
in Polynesian use as an artificial variant of tolu three, therefore kei bears 
the exclusion sense of the composite. Thus we come to a comprehen- 
sion of the Melanesian series from kamam to komom locaHzed in the 
Banks Group. The element mami does not exactly recur in Melanesia, 
but Volow ige^meam is almost identical, and the eleven forms with 
which the Melanesian list opens are not to be set aside. In Torres 
Strait we find a considerable deposit of a mai type, commonly associ- 
ated with a variant ai, and therefore we may not definitely ascribe it to 
a primal ma. But in the same region we do find ma in three languages. 
I am as yet unable to resolve the Visayan cama (Bontoc Igorot tjakami) ; 
taken as a whole we find it represented in Melanesia in kama, gama, 
gema, most Hkely in kamai and gamai, which should serve to link the 
Savo and Torres Strait mai into place, and perhaps in the Banks Group 
series. 

58. mull the stern; Visayan olin id. 

(This will be discussed under the item uli.) 

59. namu mosquito; Visayan namoc id. P. W. 386. 

namu Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, 

Uvea, Rarotonga, Mangareva, 

Nuguria, Sikaiana, Nukuoro, 

Mangaia, Paumotu, Maori, 

Marquesas, Tahiti, Viti. 
lamo Fotuna. 
•amu Tahiti. 
■om Rotuma. 



namok Malay, Bugi, Visayan. 

njamok Dayak. 

njamo Macassar. 

hamok Kayan. 

yamuc Pampangas. 

muka Malagasy. 

lamu Macassar. 



136 



THE SUBANU. 



As set forth in my former note, we sense a primal mok, although in 
no speech yet found does it appear unsupported. Additional to the 
closed Indonesian forms here listed, I note similars from Melanesia; 
Marina namugi, Lakon namug, Galavi and Boniki namokiri, Tangoan 
Santo moke, Malo mohe, Tanna kumug, Taupota himokini, Wedau imo- 
kini. The Dayak and Macassar forms have a parallel in Moanus njam. 





6o. nifo tooth; Subanu ngisi id. P 


. W. 302. 


1 nifo 


Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Futuna, 


25 livon 


Siassi. 




Uvea, Fakaofo, Fotuna, 


26 liwo 


Arag, Graget. 




Moiki. 




27 lewo 


Motlav. 


2 niho 


Nukuoro, Aniwa, Maori, 


Tahiti, 


28 liwoi 


Mota, Maewo. 




Hawaii, Marquesas, 


Rapa- 


29 liwun 


Rook. 




nui, Mangareva, Paumotu, 


30 luvo 


Admiralty. 




Manahiki. 




31 luon 


Bilibili. 


3 nitcho Sikaiana. 




32 lung 


Jabim. 


4 nio 


Mangaia, Rarotonga. 




ii riho 


Wango. 


5 ngiho 


Nuguria. 




34 ribo 

35 hise 

36 ike 


Malekula. 

Motu. 

Doura. 


6 nifan 


Onin. 




7 niho 


Ulawa. Saa. Bululaha, Buka. 


37 igeo 


Uni. 


8 nihena Roro. 




38 oke 


Galavi, Boniki. 


9 niwo 


Awalama. 




39 ivo 


Taupota, Wedau 


10 niuwo 


Tavara. 










11 niou 


lai. 




40 nifoa 


Matabello. 


12 nyo 


Lifu. 




41 nify 


Malagasy. 


13 nibo 


Mukawa. 




42 nifin 


Chamorro. 


14 nise 


Kabadi. 




43 nihi 


Manatolo, Sula. 


15 nisan 


Nokon. 




44 nihan 


Kisa. 


16 nike 


Pokau. 




45 nichi 


Bouton. 


17 ni'e 


Mekeo. 




46 nissy 


East Vaiqueno. 


18 ni 


Panaieti. 




47 nissin 


West Brissi. 


19 nini 


Tubetube, Misitna. 




48 nipun 


Magindano. 


20 nungi 


Tagula. 




49 knipan Kayan. 


21 ngise 


Pala. 




50 ngisi 


Subanu. 


22 lifo 


Fagani. 




51 ngipin 


Tagalog. 


23 liho 


Buka, Ugi, Bougainville. 




52 ngipon Visayan. 


24 livo 


Alite, Vaturanga, Nggela 


, Bieri- 








an, Epi, Wuvulu, Aua, Pa- 








luan, Leut, Nakanai 









The available data from the three Oceanic areas have been here 
arrayed upon the basis of the changes which are found to have taken 
place in the initial consonant. In Polynesia and Indonesia these are 
very slight, n-ng in 5, 50, 51, and 52. This is a mutation from Ungual 
backward to palatal, of great frequency in the nasals of these languages. 
The kn of Kayan (49) is anomalous. With the excessive variety of the 
initial in the Melanesian areas we need not engage, for it does not 
enHghten us upon any problems of the Malayan and the Polynesian at 
this point. In Hke manner we note the persistence of the former vowel i 
and therefore need not consider Melanesia. 

The second consonant f exhibits great variety and presents prob- 
lems. We find the f in i , all Proto-Samoan Languages and confined to 
Nuclear Polynesia, including two of the languages of the Western Verge 
and omitting three. In Melanesia this f occurs but in two languages 
(6, 22), in Indonesia but three times (41 the extreme western ofif shoot 
of the Malayan, 40 and 42 extreme eastern offshoots). Labial mutants 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 137 

do not appear in Polynesia. Indonesia shows but one such mutant, 
f-p, spirant to mute and both surd, in 48, 49, 51, and 52. In Melanesia 
this mutation is found in 13 and 34; but there are other labial mutants, 
f-v, surd spirant to sonant spirant, in 24, 25, 30, and 39 ; f-w, spirant to 
semivowel proximate to the labial tract, in 9, 10, 26, 27, 28, and 29; to 
extinction along this channel in ii, 12, and 31. 

In our next group of mutations we find the result in the aspirate. 
At this point I must renew attention upon the fact that speech has 
three aspirates, one proximate to each of the three tracts of speech 
organs. It is a breathing always, almost formless, not dependent upon 
palate, tongue or lips for its production, therefore not to be set in pala- 
tal, lingual or labial series but in close juxtaposition thereto. We find 
mutation to an aspiration near the labial, f-h, in Polynesia 2, all Tonga- 
fiti languages except Nukuoro, a secondary Samoan, and Aniwa, best 
regarded as secondary to some undetermined language of Nuclear Poly- 
nesia; in 5, one of the islands of the Western Verge, I hope to show that 
this aspiration is not labial. Through this channel we find the extinc- 
tion of the second consonant in 4, both Tongafiti languages. Now let 
us examine 3, the nitcho of Sikaiana, an island of the Western Verge, 
and compare with it nichi of Bouton in the Celebes subprovince of 
Malaysia. This tch is a lingual, therefore not to be considered a muta- 
tion product from f labial, for such mutation extra seriem is not to be 
considered when another explanation is possible. In Subanu ngisi we 
have another lingual, and it is at least interesting that the initial conso- 
nant ng also occurs in Nuguria (5), a near neighbor of Sikaiana. It is 
true that nitcho-ngiho differ in the final vowel from ngisi, but that 
amounts to little since in 41 and 42 we have nijy and nifin, undoubted 
congeners of nijo. We are justified in the conclusion that there were 
two primal stems niJo{i) and ngisi(o); the fact that we have one in 
Malagasy and Chamorro, the other in Subanu, shows that they were at 
least of equal currency in the earliest period. The forms with s are 
found in 46 and 47 in Indonesia, in 14, 15, 21 , and 35 in Melanesia, and in 
Polynesia are absent. The mutation s-tch is well estabhshed in the 
labial series; we find it here in 45, and that should be sufficient to set 
nitcho of Sikaiana as an S-derivative. The most common mutation of 
the sibilant is the weakening to the juxtaposed aspiration, S-h. Begin- 
ning in the Indonesian region, where we have first found the ngisi stem, 
we identify s-h mutants in 43 and 44, which are in the neighborhood of 
the Subanu, therefore archetypal in this region. In Melanesia we shall 
find the geography of the s and the h forms instructive. We find ngise 
in Pala, nise in Kabadi and nisan in Nokon, all in the gateway through 
the Bismarck Archipelago where the Samoa Stream made exit into the 
Pacific. Next we find niho (7) in Ulawa, Saa, Bululaha, Buka, all just 
It the portal in the Solomon Islands, and liho (23) in Buka, Ugi and 
Bougainville, and riho at Wango, in the same chain of islands along the 



138 



THE SUBANU. 



course of the Samoa Stream. Next in our two stations of the Polyne- 
sian Verge, not far to windward offshore of the Solomons, we find in 
Sikaiana nitcho an indisputable S-mutant, and by proximity we deem 
Nuguria ngiho (with its patent initial resemblance to the Subanu) an 
S-h mutant. Against this plain reading of the record we are to set the 
occurrence of S forms in hise (35) at Motu and a secondary nihena (8) 
at Roro, both in the Torres Strait, which is on other grounds well 
estabUshed as the gateway of the Viti Stream. These two instances need 
cause no serious hindrance to the acceptation of this interpretation. 

The second vowel falls into two groups, O and its derivatives, i and 
its derivatives. For o we have a complete accord throughout Polynesia ; 
in Melanesia in 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 
34, and 39, and the u- variant in 29, and a less common a- variant in 6 and 
15; in Indonesia we find O in 40 and 52, the u- variant in 48, the a- 
variant in 44 and 49. Of the i group we find no trace in Polynesia; in 
Melanesia we have it in its e-variant in 8, 14, 16, 17, 21,35,36, and 38; 
in Indonesia we find i in 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 50, and 51. 

Last of all we examine the data for traces of a final consonant. In 
Polynesia with its open type we find no suggestion of an anterior closed 
stem. In Indonesia a final n is exhibited in 42, 44, 47,48,49,51, and 52. 
We find the same n in Melanesia in 6, 8, 15, 25, 29, 31, and 32. There 
can be little doubt that one or both of the primal stems was closed with 
this consonant. 

61. niu coconut; Subanu niugao coconut grove. P. W. 390. 



Samoa, Tonga, Fakaofo, Futuna 
Niue, Uvea, Viti, Rotuma, Fo 
tuna, Nukuoro, Nuguria, Moiki; 
Maori, Rarotonga, Manahiki 
Tongarewa, Hawaii, Paumotu 
Mangareva, Rapanui, Marque 
sas. 

Mangaia. 



Kowamerara, Tatau, Barriai, Na- 
matote, Saa, Lobo, Sesake, Epi, 
Arag, Ulawa, Wango, Fagani, 
Bululaha, Vaturanga, Nggela, 
Bugotu, Motu, Kabadi, Pokau, 
Doura, Sinaugoro, Keapara, 
Hula, Galoma, Mugula, Suau, 
Sariba, Tubetube, Panaieti, 
Nada, Dobu, Port Moresby, 
Mannam, Moanus, Lifu, Solo- 
mon Islands. 

Karufa. 

Misima. 

Areimoa. 

Buka. 

Alite. 
niura Mukawa. 
neura Awalama, Taupota. 

Kwagila. 

Kubiri, Kiviri. 

Nengone, Nifilole. 



niyu 

nihu 

niwi 

neu 

liu 



diura 

rura 

nu 



nuia Kiriwina. 
luia Kiriwina. 
ni New Caledonia. 



niu 

nju 

nyu 

inyug 

nihu 

nior 

niula 

nier 

nivver 

niwel 

niwi 

nimel 

nimil 

nikwel 

niweli 

liweli 

nuelo 

luen 

nu 

nui 

nuim 

nua 

nur 

niyog 

niugao 



Bima, Uap. 

Dayak. 

Salibabo. 

Bontoc Igorot. 

Malagasy. 

Malay. 

Gah. 

Liang. 

Ceram. 

Ceram. 

Cajeli, Wayapo, Massaratty, Am- 

blaw. 
Ceram. 
Lariko. 
Ceram. 

Batumerah, Caimarian. 
Awaiya. 
Teluti. 
Wahai. 
Java. 
Sulu. 
Ahtiago. 
Tobo. 
Malay. 

Bicol, Bontoc Igorot. 
Subanu. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 139 

The most frequent of these forms is the ;«'w of all three Oceanic 
areas and its immediate derivatives. A nu type is found in Mangaia 
alone of Polynesia, in Nengone and Nifilole of Melanesia, and in Java 
of Indonesia. In each of the latter the derivatives of mt may readily be 
recognized. In ni, ascribed to New Caledonia, where a multiplicity of 
languages exists, we may have no more than a variant of the Nengone 
nu, U-i being well recognized among the vocalic mutations. From niu 
to nu we find a feasible series of transition forms in Torres Strait, niura 
to diura to rura, save that at the last we find no explanation for the loss 
of i any more than we can comprehend the same loss as between niu and 
nu in their simple form. 

Reverting to the ni type, for which I have already suggested the 
possibility of vocalic mutation, it is worthy of closer examination. If 
ni were primal and carried such sense as to the logical powers of these 
primitive folk suggested a genus, then it might be possible to regard niu 
as composite of ni and u, the latter being too formless for us now to 
venture to interpret. In Mangareva we have an interesting pair of 
coconut words; ni-u is used of the young palm, ni-kau when it has 
grown up. But we are able to identify kau; it is the general term for 
tree (cf . item 30) ; therefore nikau is clearly the ni-tree ; by analogy niu 
should be the ni-aliquid, an indefiniteness which we can not yet resolve. 
Disregarding a terminal consonant or even additional syllable, we find 
for this second member of the word, u, hu, yu, o, yo, e, we, wi. Of these 
the ;y-forms are susceptible of ready explanation : nyu amounts to no 
more than variety of transliteration of niu; in niyog the y represents the 
glide of the vowel from the palatal position of i to the labial position of 
0. Conversely the aspiration in nihu represents the purposeful inter- 
ruption of such glide. When we pass through o to e, a mutation series 
which is well estabHshed, we find a group of forms in Ceram which 
exhibit marked changes. For niwel we have abundant support in 
several languages. From niwel to nimel is supported by Lariko in 
Amboyna; since the semivowel W is close to the lips and m is the labial 
nasal the mutation lies within the same series. But we are left without 
any accounting for the intrusive palatal mute in nikwel. At present 
the resolution of this tangle eludes us. 

62. pe, po interrogative particles; Subanu ba id. 



pe Samoa, Futuna, Hawaii 

be Tonga. 

pee Uvea. 

po Samoa, Futuna, Niue. 



be Efate. 



ba Subanu, Visayan. 

This particle is in wider Polynesian use, but with a variation in 
sense. As interrogative it is restricted to Nuclear Polynesia and the 
Proto-Samoan ; in the Tongafiti languages it is but a disjunctive particle. 
The Efate is an interesting link between the Philippines and Nuclear 
Polynesia. 



140 THE SUBANU. 

63. pepelo a lie; Subanu balos id. 

These may properly be associated for the present, although affil- 
iates are nowhere to be found. The Proto-Samoan stem we find to be 
pelong in Samoan pelongia of the objective aspect ; therefore we may not 
make the identification with halos positive in the absence of transition 
forms, but it warrants consideration. 

64. pili lizard; Visayan tabili a large newt. 
pili Samoa, Futuna. I bill Tonga. 

We find this stem narrowly restricted to Nuclear Polynesia. The 
Visayan is evidently a composite upon the same stem. In alimango 
(item 6) we have a still more noteworthy instance of the community of 
animal names between these widely sundered regions. 

65. po night, calendar day; Subanu labong yesterday, lalabong after- 
noon, P. W. 330. 

po Samoa, Fakaofo, Niue, Uvea, Fo- 

tuna, Tahiti, Manahiki, Futuna, 
Maori, Hawaii, Mangaia, Mar- 
quesas, Mangareva, Rapanui, 
Nukuoro, Paumotu, Nuguria, 
Sikaiana. 

pongis Samoa. 

pongi Samoa, Nukuoro. 

ko-po Aniwa. 

pope Bukabuka. 

bo Tonga, Nuguria, Sikaiana. 



boni Rotuma. 

mbongi Viti. 



bungi Java, Salayer. 
bo-etta Macassar, 
po-garagara Teor. 
caha-pon Visayan. 
bang! Macassar. 
bengi Minahassa. 
wengi Minahassa. 



We have no difficulty in tracing successive stages of this vocable 
from po to pong to pongi to pongis. These are all found in Polynesia, 
in Indonesia we lack pongis. In this fullest form the stem has the 
appearance of a composite ; we are not able to resolve it accurately, yet 
there is some reason to regard po as primal in the sense of dark. 

66. punga coral; Visayan apog lime. 



punga 


Samoa, Futuna, Niue, Rapanui, 


pua 


Tahiti, Paumotu 




Mangareva, Maori. 


bunga 


Tonga. 


puna 


Hawaii, Marquesas. 


vunga 


Viti. 


puka 


Marquesas. 







The form variety is easily disposed of. We recognize in these 
southern Philippine languages the employment of a (ca) prefixed in the 
sense of a noun determinant ; the mutation from nasal to mute in the 
palatal series is exhibited in one of the Marquesan forms. The sense 
may readily be brought into harmony; these peoples had long since 
known the art of obtaining lime by burning the coral; in Hawaii, 
Rapanui, and Niue the same word does duty for the raw material and 
for the product. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 
67. pupula to shine; Subanu bulan moon, month. P. W. 329. 



141 



pupula 


Niue. 




huia 


Doura. 


vula 


Viti. 




hua 


Motu. 


hula 


Rotuma. 




uran 
pulan 


Karufa, Utanata. 


pura 


Angadi, Mimika. 


Chamorro. 


pul 


Umre, Leut. 




pula 


Uap. 


bura 


Lakahia. 




bulan 


Malay, Ilocano, Subanu 


bulo 


Uni. 




bolan 


Visayan. 


bol 


Leng. 




bulang 


Tringanu. 


mbul 


Moanus. 




bula 


Kaili. 


buia 


Umi. 




buran 


Ceram. 


bue 


Keapara, Galoma. 




burang 


Solor. 


furan 


Lobo, Mairassis. 




bulam 


Molucca. 


fule 


Graget. 




fulan 


Aru. 


vula 


Nggela, Belaga, Marina, Arag, 


fula 


Rotti. 




Mota, Vaturanga 


Bugotu, 


furan 


Lobo. 




Pokau. 




funan 


Timor. 


vule 


Omba. 




fuya 


Togean. 


vuia 


Pokau. 




fuan 


Bontoc Igorot. 


vul 


Merlav, Gog, Lakon. 




wulan 


Gilolo, Solor. 


wula 


Maewo. 




wura 


Bima. 


wuran 


Namatote. 




huran 


Ceram. 


wol 


Vuras, Mosin, Motlav, 


Volow. 


ulan 


Magindano. 


wui 


Rubi. 




ulang 


Kisa. 


hura 


Wango. 




ulano 


Ceram. 



The primal sense is that of shining, more particulariy of a white 
Hght, a sense which predominates in the Polynesian of each migration. 
In the Pacific at present the moon word is masina, a conditional of sina 
white. That pulan is the earlier word is exhibited by the completeness 
of its series out of the Malay seas through Melanesia and into Nuclear 
Polynesia. 

68. pusi to puff; Subanu bol to fire a gun. 

pusi Futuna. 

puhi Niue, Maori, Hawaii, Marquesas, busi Efate. 

Mangareva, Rapanui, Pau- vus Mota. 

motu. 

pupuhi Uvea, Tahiti. ambus Malay. 

pupui Rarotonga. bohi Visayan. 

bubuhi Tonga. boi Subanu. 

The Subanu signification is a particular and, of course, a modern 
one. The general sense of blowing and puffing runs through all these 
affiliates and occurs in Polynesian of each migration ; the identifications 
in Efate and Mota show that it accompanied the Proto-Samoans in 
their earUer wandering down through the Melanesian chains. 

69. sala to err; Subanu sala id. 
Samoa, Futuna. 
Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 



sala 

hala 

dhala Viti 

hara Rapanui, Marquesas, Tahiti, Maori 

ara Mangareva, Rarotonga. 



sala Tagalog, Subanu, Visayan. 

salah Malay. 

hala Malagasy, Kayan, Java, Kisa. 



Students of comparative morahty may find a certain interest in the 
evidence borne by this word that the conviction of sin was not intro- 
duced by the missionaries. Even primitive savages have recognized 
that to wander and to go astray from such standards as they had was a 
wandering of the soul, a sin. The use of the word in the Maori is clear 



142 THE SUBANU. 

evidence that it was possible, though thriUingly dangerous, to sin against 
the tabu. In the Indonesian affihates noted under hala the moral sense 
has advanced yet one stage beyond the actual fact of sin ; these words 
mean, in order, "hated, detested," "guilty," "base, mean," "wrong." 
From the mere fact of delinquency the connotation has begun to par- 
ticularize the estimate in which the delinquent is held by the right- 
living majority of his community. 

70. selu a comb; Visayan solod id. P. W. 218. 



selu Samoa, Futuna, Nukuoro. 

seru Nukuoro, Fotuna, Viti. 

helu Tonga, Uvea. 

hetu Niue. 



saru Mannam (New Guinea). 



sisir Malay. 
solod Visayan. 



In Nuclear Polynesian and the islands of the Verge this is found 
particularized as a noun; the general verb sense of scratching is met 
with in Polynesia in both migration streams. 

71. sulu to enter; Subanu solot id. P. W. 405. 
dhuru Viti. 



sulu Samoa, Futuna, Nukuoro. 

suru Fotuna, Nukuoro. 

hulu Tonga, Niue. 

huru Rapanui. 

uru Rapanui, Tahiti, Mangareva. 

uu Marquesas. 



julok Malaj'. 
juluka Malagasy. 
solot Subanu. 
solod Visayan. 



In the former note on this vocable I pointed out the fact that in 
Polynesian we find traces of the stem as closed in f , m and n. We now 
find it in Indonesia as closed in k and in t. Probably these forms are 
homogenetic, but we have not yet sufficient data whereupon to base a 
determination of the primal stem. 

72. sulu a torch; Subanu sulu id. P. W. 247. 



sulu Samoa, Futuna. 
hulu Tonga, Niue. 
huru Maori. 



sulu Subanu. 
suluh Malay, Java. 
solo Visayan. 
si 1-1 u Bontoc Igorot. 



Additional to the torch sense, which is found in Indonesia and in 
Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Baki, and Motu, we have the abstract meaning of 
shine, which is found concurrently with the torch sense in Samoa, Tonga, 
and Niue, and exclusive thereof in Futuna and Maori. 

73. susu the breast; Visayan soso the breast, to suck. P. W. 410. 



susu 


Samoa, Futuna. 


susan Matu. 


huhu 


Tonga, Niue, Uvea, Nuguria. 


sus Waigiou. 


sudhu 


Viti. 


usok Kayan. 
dughan Visayan. 






susu 


Malay, Java, Bugis, Pampangas, 


tusun Siassi. 




Macassar, Chamorro, Kai. 


thuth Uap. 


suso 


Tagalog. 


tutu Gorontalo, Bunda. 


soso 


Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 





I have not here sought to distinguish the three senses carried by 
this word, the breast, the milk, and to suck, for that has already been 
discussed at length at the place cited in the note. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



143 



74. susunu to burn; Visayan sonog to set afire. P. W. 407. 



sunu Samoa, Futuna, Viti. 
hunu Tonga, Niue, Uvea, Maori. 



sunu To Bungku, To Mori, 
sonog Visayan. 
ishunok Bontoc Igorot. 



Other problems of interesting variants upon this stem have been 
examined in The Polynesian Wanderings, loc. cit. In this particular 
form we find a close filiation between the Philippines and Nuclear Poly- 
nesia with its Proto-Samoan peopling. 

75. tae excrement; Subanu tee id. P. W. 414. 



tae Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Moriori. 
te Niue. 
tee Tonga. 
nda Viti. 
nde Viti. 



tae Visayan, Magindano, Bontoc Igorot. 

tai Malay, Macassar, Klemantan. 

tay Malagasy. 

tee Subanu. 



In continuation of the former note upon the use of this obscene 
word as a proper name I find an interesting case reported by Hose and 
McDougall from the Klemantans of Borneo. Children remain un- 
named during their infancy in order that they may escape the notice of 
evil spirits, and when at last a name has been given they are long 
addressed by tai in order that these spirits may incHne to leave them 
alone. 

76. tali rope; Subanu tali id. P. W. 414. 



tali Nukuoro. 
ndali Viti. 



tali Malay, Subanu, Chamorro. 
tadi Malagasy. 
tai Uap. 



We have increased the former note by no new items from Polynesia, 
but the three Indonesian additions are not without significance, for 
the Subanu, the Chamorro, and the Uap represent an extreme easterly 
sweep of migration and are therefore to be regarded as archetypal. 
77. talinga ear; Subanu talinga id. P. W. 415. 



talinga 


Samoa, Fakaofo, Futuna, Uvea, 


tainga 


Sulu, Tagalog. 




Nukuoro. 


tadiny 


Malagasy. 


kau-talina Sikaiana. 


kaling 


Kolon. 


ndalinga 


Viti. 


karin 


Teor. 


taninga 


Nukuoro. 


tali 


Uap. 


tanginga 


Moiki. 


toll 


Macassar. 


telinga 


Tonga, Niue. 


telinga 


Malay, Sula, Baju 


taringa 


Maori, Rarotonga, Paumotu, 


telingan 


Wayapo. 




Rapanui, Manahiki, Aniwa, 


telina 


Morella. 




Fotuna. 


telinawa 


Batumerah. 


tarina 


Nuguria. 


telila 


Cajeli. 


teringa 


Mangareva. 


teninare 


Wahai. 


tiringa 


Moriori. 


tengeh 


Silong. 


karinga 


Liueniua. 


tarina 


Ceram. 


faliang 


Rotuma. 


terina 


Liang, Lariko. 


aina 


Marquesas. 


terinamo 


Awaiya. 






terinam 


Caimarian. 


talinga 


Malay, Bouton, Dayak, Visayan, 


terena 


Saparua. 




Subanu. 


16-jilingo 


Marshall Islands. 


talingan 


Java, Basakrama. 


tjuling 


Bugis. 


talingo 


Menankabau. 


linga 


North Borneo. 


talinhe 


Satawal. 


lingah 


Matu. 


talenga 


Ulea. 


linganani 


Massaratty. 


talanga 


Chamorro. 


dalonggan Visayan. 


talina 


Ceram. 







144 



THE SUBANU. 



In the Indonesian series of affiliates we note mutation in two direc- 
tions which are contradictory of one another so far as they may be 
expected to yield the primal stem of this manifestly composite vocable. 
Superficially talinga has the appearance of a verbal noun formed by the 
suffix nga proper to that sense applied to a stem tali, of which we have 
no knowledge beyond this hypothesis. In Uap and Macassar we find 
simple forms tali and toli, which seem to bear upon this point. On the 
other hand we find a group of three forms in which linga is the theme, a 
suggestion that this is the primal stem rather than tali. No decision 
upon this point is yet possible. Of the alternative Visayan form 
dalonggan Fray Juan Felix notes the derivation from dongog to hear. 
This is a somewhat violent infixature in Visayan ; it would never have 
suggested itself if this lexicographer had had a glimpse at the exte- 
rior history of the word. 

78. talc to pray; Subanu talo to speak. P. W. 236. 



tatalo Samoa, Futuna, Tonga. 

taro Rapanui, Tahiti, Nukuoro, Viti. 



tatao 
kaio 



Marquesas. 
Hawaii. 



The Proto-Samoan stem is discovered to be taros, which we should 
expect to find preserved in the Subanu ; perhaps the accent upon the 
ultima is compensatory for the loss of the final consonant. The sense 
association involves difficulties. In all the Polynesian the signification 
is that of asking the higher powers for a boon, some good for him who 
asks or evil upon his neighbor. In Viti the sense of "prevent " is asso- 
ciable only as the answer to prayer, for there is strongly marked a desire 
for prophylaxis in most orisons. That the word in Subanu, if indeed 
the affiliation be tenable, has come to mean no more than to speak, 
requires a more spiritual comprehension of the theology of the savage 
than we are able to supply. 

79. tama father; Subanu gama id. P. W. 272. 



tama 


Samoa, Fakaofo. 


a'mam 


Cajeli. 


tama 


Aniwa, Viti. 


amai 


Ahtiago. 


tamai 


Tonga, Uvea. 


amaeolo 


Teluti. 


tamana 


Futuna, Sikaiana, Fotuna, Nu- 


amao 


Amblaw. 




guria, Nukuoro. 


amana 


Bouton. 






iama 
yaman 


ATptinHo 


tamd 


Gilbert Islands. 


i.VXCllCl.U.U. 

Sanguir. 


tama 


Klemantan. 


jaman 


Tobo. 


ama 


Sasak. 


kiamat 


Bolanghitam 


ama 


Bima. 


mama 


Gah. 


ama 


Visayan, Bontoc Igorot, Kolon, 


mam 


Mysot. 




Salayer, Liang, Lariko, Teor, 


nama 


Wayapo. 




Saparua, Awaiya, Caimarian, 


nSama 


Massaratty. 




Wahai. 


gama 


Subanu. 


a'ma 


Morella. 







In the father sense tama is wholly Proto-Samoan. In the later 
migration tama is a composition member of such words as tamaloa man 
and tamaiti child. The latter is instructive. As iti means little the com- 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



145 



posite signifies "little tama." So with tamafafine, this means "woman 
tama." It is highly improbable that any simple minds could think 
of calling a child, Httle father; it is inconceivable that a girl could be 
spoken of as a female father with its clear contradiction in terms. In 
the later migration, therefore, tama means no more than human being. 
In the rude society of the earUer migration it is quite possible that society 
was recognized as consisting of human beings and women ; therefore the 
word would acquire largely a male connotation; then particularly the 
head of the family unit; thence, in view of his function, father. 

There is one great problem in the study of the form of the vocable. 
Subanu gama is readily seen to be the common Indonesian ama with its 
own characteristic noun-formative prefix. All Polynesia has the tama 
form, practically all Indonesia has ama; in Melanesia the two are about 
equal in occurrence and they are found indifferently in neighboring 
communities. I regard tama as primal, principally for the reason that 
I have found it in the Klemantan of North Borneo. In many details 
these pagan tribes of the great island show much in common with the 
Subanu and they are recognized as preserving many of the words of an 
archetypal Malayan. 

80. tatou we (inclusive) ; Visayan quita id, 

da Viti. 

ta-tou Samoa, Futuna, Uvea, Maori, 
Rarotonga, Mangareva, Ta- 
hiti, Paumotu, Rapanui. 

aipeki-ta-tou Aniwa. 

tau-tolu Tonga, Niue. 

da-tou Viti. 

ka-kou Hawaii. 



ta 



gi-ta 

ngi-ta 

hi-ta 

i-ta 

ge-t 

da 



Arag, Pokau, Awalama, Taupota, 
Wedau, Galavi, Mukawa, 
Kwagila, Kubiri, Raqa. 

Arag, Marina, Bugotu, Ngao, 
Barriai. 

Aneityum. 

Vaturanga. 

Epi. 

Lakon, Vanua Lava. 

Omba, Maewo, Motu, Suau, Sa- 
riba, Kiriwina, Dobu, Nada. 



gi-da 


Maewo. 


ni-da 


Sesake. 


da-ga 


Lo. 


gi-de 


Omba. 


i-de 


Nifilole. 


di 


Murua. 


d 


Meriav. 


ge-d 


Motlav. 


gi-d 


Meriav, Gog, Volow. 


d-at 


Duke of York. 


ka 


Waima, Roro, Kabadi. 


'a 


Mekeo. 


ra 


Sinaugoro, Hula, Keapara, Ga- 




loma, Rubi, Panaieti. 


la 


Sinaugoro, Tubetube. 


ta-lau 


Matu. 


qui-ta 


Visayan. 



This pronoun is properly to be correlated with the exclusive matou 
of item 57. In studying out the migration tracks it will be found 
interesting to compare the geography of the gita type here with the 
kama type of the former. It will be seen that Polynesia has had the 
primal ma and ta and has developed them along a system proper to 
that family; but in Melanesia it has been closely followed by a stream 
of migration from some center possessed of the gita and kama personal 
pronouns, a stream which fed the Visayas northward and Melanesia 
southward, and in the latter direction the occurrence of this form at 
Barriai shows the course north of New Guinea in contrast with the 



146 



THE SUBANU. 



simple forms of Torres Strait. The two primals ma and ta afford an 
excellent example of the coefficient value of consonantal modulants. 
8i. Ufa pearl shell ; Visayan tipay mother-of-pearl. 



tifa 


Samoa, Futuna, Niue, Sikaiana. 


dhiva 


Viti. 


jifa 


Tonga. 






Una 


82. tina mother; Su 

Samoa. 


banu gu 


ina, ina id. 






tina 


Viti. 


tinan 


Klemantan. 


tinana 


Futuna, Sikaiana. 


tinano 


Rumbia. 


tinga 


Futuna. 


tiwano 


Maronene. 


jina 


Tonga. 


ina 


Sasak. 


kina 


Liueniua. 


ina 


Subanu, Bontoc Igorot, Teor, Tihu 
Kolon, Bima, Amblaw, Liang 
Lariko, Saparua, Caimarian, 


tina 


Graget. 




tina 


Marina, Vaturanga, Nggela, New 




Awaiya, Wahai. 




Georgia, Rubi, Tagula. 


inai 


Klemantan, Ahtiago. 


tinang 


Leut. 


inahan 


Visayan. 


tinong 


Umre. 


guina 


Subanu. 


tsitsina 


-nggu Vitu. 


inana 


Bouton. 


tnagn 


Barriai. 


inany 


Menado, Dorey. 


zina 


Uni. 


inungi 


Sanguir. 


sina 


Pokau, Doura, Motu, Sinaugoro, 


inano 


Mengkoka. 




Suau, Sariba, Tubetube, Nada, 


inanu 


Muna. 




Dobu, Mukawa. 


inamo 


Cajeli. 


hina 


Panaieti, Tavara, Awalama. 


inao 


Morella, Batumerah. 


hinana 


Roro. 


inau 


Teluti. 


inna 


Mekeo. 


neina 


Wayapo, Massaratty. 


ina 


Wango, Fagani, Hula, Keapara, 


aina 


Tobo. 




Galoma, Misima, Kiriwina, 


nina 


Gah, Matabello. 




Murua, Oiun. 


nin 


Mysot. 



As in the case of tamd (item 79) the Klemantan preserves for us in 
Indonesia the initial t. Although some of the details are obscure, the 
general range of the variants is not difficult to follow. This vocable 
also is Proto-Samoan. 

83. tinae intestines; Subanu tinee id. 
tinae Samoa, Futuna, Mangareva. | tinai Mota. 

In Polynesia this rare word is found but at three points. Its 
occurrence at Mota, central in respect of the Melanesian area, suggests 
that when more complete vocabularies come within our reach we may 
be able to trace it elsewhere in that intermediary region. I can not 
refrain from a note that tinae of the Polynesian suggests an infix in 
this solitary instance, one which we can not parallel in that extended 
family. This is a mere suggestion. If it were accepted it would be the 
sole evidence that the Malayans have exerted any influence upon the 
Polynesian. The infixature will appear as t:in: ae and refers in form 
and in sense to tae, item 75. 

84. tongo mangrove; Visayan tongog id. 
tongo Samoa, Tonga. | ndongo Viti. 

85. tui chief; Subanu tuan master. P. W. 225. 
tui Samoa, Tonga. Futuna, Niue, 



Samoa, Tonga, 
Uvea, Viti. 



tuan Subanu, Kayan, Malay. 
tuhan Malay. 
tuwan Malay. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



147 



In Nuclear Polynesian this word scarcely exists independently, but 
is extremely frequent in combination with some place name or other 
designation determining the sphere of governing activity. Thus we 
have Tui Levuka, the chief of Levuka on the island of Ovalau in Fiji ; 
in Tonga we find the priest-king Tui Tonga and the civil king Tui 
Kanokupolu, in which the designation is not of a known place, although 
it smacks of 'Upolu in Samoa. I recall but a single instance where Tui 
is used absolutely; it occurs in the Samoan legend of Timuatea, a 
peopUng myth. 



Ona igoa ai lea 'o le tama matua ia Tuima- 
nu'a, 'a e igoa le teine ia Le Malumanu'a, 
'a 'ua leigoa !e teine itiiti. Ona alu ane 
lea 'o le fai mea e 'ai, 'o Alamisi, 'ua alu 'ia 
Le Malumanu'a. Ona fanau ai lea 'o Tui, 
toe fanau 'o Tui, toe fanau 'o Tui. A fai 
'o le alo o Tui ai e tali 'atoa le selau o lenei 
vao Tui. Ona 'avea ai lea e Tuisamau ma 
ona uso o le a o e tufa le vao Tui. 



The eldest son they named King-of-lManu'a, 
and the maiden was named vShade-of- 
Manu'a, but nameless was the little maid. 
Then came along he who made the things 
to eat, Alamisi ; he went to the vShade of- 
Manu'a. Then King was born, again 
King was born, again King was bom. 
When the birth of Kings was accomplished 
belike there was pretty near a hundred in 
this grove of Kings. They were carried 
away by King-fast-fixed and his brethren 
who were to go to allot this grove of Kings. 

The context shows that this employment of Tui absolute is regarded 
as merely anticipatory, for the voyage goes on to set these kings in 
Tonga and Fiji and other lands of Nuclear Polynesia. The designation 
is never used vocatively in address in the absolute form but is replaced 
by ali'i; in this it is paralleled by the English use of earl and my lord. 



86. tui to sew; Visayan tahi id. 



tui Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, | 

Viti, Maori, Mangareva, Pau- j tahi Tagalog, Visayan. 
motu, Tahiti, Marquesas. jahit Malay. 

kui Hawaii. | 

The identification is not so close as most of those in this series and 
I am by no means confident of its vaHdity ; the change of the former 
vowel is rather more extensive than is common and the presence of the 
aspiration in the Indonesian is difficult to account for. I include it in 
this series more through generosity than from conviction. 



87. tulu to drip; Subanu tolo, tolu id. P. W. 425. 



tulu 
turu 



kulu 



Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue. 
Viti, Nukuoro, Fotuna, Maori, Ra- 

panui, Tahiti, Mangareva. 
Hawaii. 



tolo 
tolu 
jurus 



Subanu, Visayan. 

Subanu. 

Malay. 



88. tumu to be full; Subanu toman id. 

tumu Samoa. I jumu Malay. 
toman Subanu 



The word is excessively rare in Polynesian, Samoa alone retains 
but the identification is satisfactory. 



148 



THE SUBANU. 



uha rain; Visayan olan id. P. W. 322. 



uha 
ua 



udha 
uas 

oha 

usan 

uan 

huya 

ulah 

ulan 

olan 

hulan 

ulane 

ulani 

hulani 

ulano 

ulanu 



Tonga, Niue. 

Samoa, Fakaofo, Futuna, Uvea, 
Fotuna, Nuguria, Maori, Ta- 
hiti, Hawaii, Rarotonga, Mar- 
quesas, Mangareva, Rapanui, 
Manahiki, Tikopia. 

Vit. 

Rotuma. 



Bolanghitam. 

Kayan. 

Gah. 

Sula. 

Amblaw. 

Gani, Wahai, Salu, Timor, Tobo, 

Ambon, Ceram, Makian. 
Visayan. 
Liang, Morella. 
Awaiya. Ambon. 
Cajeli, Caimarian. 
Batumerah. 
Minahassa. 
Bual. 



ura Ende. 

hura Galela. 

uran Tidore, Pampangas, Solor, Sikka, 

Minahassa, Ambon, Ceram. 

huran Baju. 

haran Lariko. 

uran a Ceram. 

hurani Teor. 

orana Malagasy. 

urano Ambon. 

urang Bugis. 

urong Salibabo. 

udjan Togean, Minahassa. 

utchan Chamorro. 

otjan Bontoc Igorot. 

hujan Malay, Sandol. 

uda Kaili, Minahassa. 

udan Rotti, Minahassa, Bontoc Igorot. 

hudan Java. 

udama Matabello. 

ut Mille. 

nu Uap. 



Only in a few spots does Indonesia preserve the primal stem of this 
word, in Menado of north Celebes and in Ceram, and with the minimum 
of mutation in the tongue of the Kayans in North Borneo, a region of 
the early settlement of the Malayan races. Beyond these few points 
we have a long line of mutants which become simple of comprehension 
when we observe that the range is up and down the lingual column. 



90. 



ufi yam; Subanu ubi an edible tuber. P. W. 316. 



ufi Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, 






Aniwa, Sikaiana, Fotuna. 


ubi 


Malay, Malagasy, Subanu 


uvi Viti. 


uvi 


Kayan. 


uwhi Maori. 


uwi 


Java, Kisa, Kolon, Bima. 


uhi Nukuoro, Maori, Moiki, Tahiti, 


obi 


Visayan, Tagalog. 


Hawaii, Mangareva, Rapanui, 


ove 


Kayan. 


Paumotu, Marquesas. 


ovy 


Malagasy. 


ui Mangaia, Rarotonga. 







In the Indian archipelago the sense lacks specific character; it is 
the yam where that plant occurs ; elsewhere it is the sweet potato ; in 
other cases it is defined as an edible tuber in general. But there can 
be no doubt about the identity of the word. 

91. uila lightning; Subanu guilat id. P. W. 345. 



uhila 
uila 



uia 
liva 



Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 

Samoa, Fakaofo, Futuna, Sikaiana, 

Nuguria, Rarotonga, Hawaii. 
Tahiti, Mangaia, Maori, Nukuoro, 

Rapanui, Manahiki, Moriori. 
Marquesas. 
Viti. 



uila 

kuilat 

quilat 

kuirlat 

guilat 



Kisa. 

Pani. 

Visayan. 

Tagalog. 

Subanu. 



chalirit Java. 

kila Tidore. 

kilat Malay. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



149 



92. uli to steer; Visayan olin id. 
uli Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Viti. 

The stem appears to interlace with mult the stern, in which case 
we shall regard the m of the latter as possessing coefficient value. 

93. ulu the head; Subanu golo id. 



ulu Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, Niue, 
Viti, Manahiki, Fakaofo. 

uru Maori, Tahiti, Mangaia, Paumotu, 
Aniwa. 



ulu Nggela, Bugotu. 



ulu Salayer, Awaiya, Caimarian, Kissa, 

Chamorro. 
ulun Wayapo. 
olo Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 



golo 

olun 

olum 

ulo 

ulura 

ulure 



Subanu. 

Massaratty. 

Cajeli. 

Magindano, Tagalog. 

Batumerah. 

Wahai. 



ulukatim Ahtiago. 

ulin Teor. 

yulin Tobo. 

uru Lariko, Saparua. 

uruka Liang, Morella. 



The g of Subanu golo is the noun-formative prefix characteristic of 
that speech. 

94. uta to pay; Visayan otang debt. P. W. 249. 



uta Niue. 

utu Maori, Marquesas, Paumotu. 

utua Tahiti. 

uku Hawaii. 



utang Malay, Tagalog. 
otang Visayan, Bontoc Igorot. 



There is a vowel difference between the Tongafiti and the Proto- 
Samoan, the latter being in better accord with our few identifications 
from Indonesia. 

95. uti penis; Visayan otin id. P. W. 431. 



uti 


Viti. 






usu 


Lalinau. 


ule 


Samoa, Tonga 


Niue, Hawaii. 


usina 


Kabadi. 


ure 


Maori, Rapanui, Tahiti, 


Manga- 


us 


Pala. 




reva, Paumotu. 




u 


Bongu. 




Marquesas. 










oe 












uti 


Rotti, Timor, Ambon 
Gorontalo, Bunda. 


uti 


Efate, Barriai, 


Emsau. 




utid 


Siassi. 






wuti 


Gorontalo, Bunda. 


oti 


Ninigo. 






otin 


Visayan, Tagalog. 


otin 


Saran. 






oti 


Bontoc Igorot. 


witin 


Siassi. 






utien 


Tuburuasa. 


gudin 
kutira 


Tami. 






butu 


Lombok. 


Kilengge. 






wota 


Savu, Sumba. 


uting 


Lihir. 






us 


Karas. 


ut 


Lemusmus. 






ul 


Lamotrek. 


usi 


Motu. 











Ceram. 



We have here a tangle of forms, uti, ule, use, which we may by no 
means confidently reduce to a common stem; of these, uti occurs but 
once, yet significantly, in Polynesia; it occupies a moiety of Melanesia, 
and is the dominant form in Indonesia. The second Melanesian form 
use is not detected in Polynesia at all and occurs but once in our Malayan 
record. The Tongafiti ule is totally absent from Melanesia and Indo- 
nesia, but recurs slightly beyond the Malay Archipelago in Lamotrek. 



150 



THE SUBANU. 



96. vaka boat; Visayan bangca id. 



vaka 



vaga 
waka 



Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, Faka- 
ofo, Rapanui, Paumotu, Manga- 
reva, Marquesas, Mangaia, Raro- 
tonga, Manahiki, Tauu, Nuguria, 
Sikaiana, Nukumanu, Aniwa. 

Nuguria. 

Sikaiana, Maori. 



wangga Viti. 
wanga Aniwa. 



vak 

va'a 

vaa 

waa 

va 

ak 

vaka 

vako 

vago 

vanga 

vak 

vuak 

vuok 

buak 

waka 

waga 



oaga 
wage 



Nukumanu. 
Samoa, Anuda. 
Tahiti, Marquesas. 
Hawaii. 
Liueniua. 
Rotuma. 



Suau, Vaturanga, Ngela, Savo, 
Bugotu, Ngao, New Georgia. 

Vokau. 

Vokau, Vrinagol. 

Alite. 

Amge. 

Malol. 

Sissano. 

Ser. 

Tobadi, Ingrau, Entsau, Suau, 
Galavi, Boniki, Mukawa. 

Barriai, Kobe, Kilengge, Jawna, 
Jeubi, Bo, Bisapu, Palabong, 
Mugula, Sariba, Tubetube, 
Panaieti, Tagula, Nada, Dobu, 
Kiriwina, Taupota, Wedau, 
Galavi. 

Kabakaul. 

Ingros, Nakudukuda, Kalil. 



oangga 

wanga 

w5ga 

wogo 

wang 

wak 

warn 

wa 



ua 

wai 

faka 

haka 

hak 

aka 

age 

anggo 

anga 

ak 



To. 

Epi, Arag. 

Pire, Namarodu, Matantuduk. 

Labur. 

Lambon, Mimias. 

Graget. 

Tavara, Awalama, Taupota. 

Menukwari, Mokmer, Pom, Ansus, 

Wuvulu, Oleai, Wedau, Raqa, 

Kiviri, Oiun. 
Feis. 

Sorong, Menukwari, Mokmer. 
Fagani. 

Ulawa, Wango, Saa, Bululaha. 
Abutumete. 

Maewo, Mota, Duke of York, Molot. 
Molot. 
Kait. 
Omba. 
Merlav, Gog, Lakon, Sasar, Vuras, 

Mosin, Norbarbar. 
Aweleng. 
Lo. 

Pak, Alo Teqel, Motlav. 
Volow. 



nak 
eka 
ok 
ong 



waga Wayapo, Massaratty. 

waha Tobo. 

waa Cajeli, Amblaw. 

haka Liang, Morella, Batumerah. 

banca Tagalog. 

bangca Visayan, Pampangas. 

fangka Bontoc Igorot. 

bunka Bouton. 

wangkang Malay, Macassar. 

wog Gani. 



wangga Nakanai, Vitu, Kambangerim. 

The great wealth of intermediary forms derived from Melanesia, 
in great measure from the industrious efforts of Mr. Ray and Captain 
Friederici in the New Guinea region, completes the chain of mutation 
through the three oceanic areas and leaves little to be said. 
97. vae leg; Subanu pa id. 

vae Samoa, Fakaofo, Tonga, Futuna, 

Uvea, Niue, Rapanui, Manga- 
reva, Paumotu, Tahiti, Mar- 
quesas, Rarotonga, Tonga- 
rewa, Manahiki, Aniwa. 

Tonga. 

Niue. 

Hawaii, Maori, Sikaiana. 



vee 
ve 
wae 
yava 



Viti. 



Mekeo. 

Roro, Pokau, Doura,Kabadi,Motu, 
Suau, Panaieti, Dobu, Tavara, 
Awalama, Taupota, Wedau. 

Kiviri, Oiun. 
hage-gunapa Hula, Keapara. 
ape Roro. 

afe Mekeo. 

ahe Kobe. 

kae Galavi, Boniki, Mukawa, Sariba. 



bai 



kaikaie 


Tubetube. 


kaike 


Kiriwina. 


nae 


Bugotu. 


ne 


Graget. 


ai 


Barriai, Kilengge 


aiyi 


Misima. 


we 


Makian. 


wain 


Ceram. 


ae 


Alfuro. 


ai 


Ambon. 


eei 


Aru. 


aien 


Ceram. 


eik 


Rotti. 


ike 


Ceram. 


akain 


Jabim. 


agen 


Siassi. 


paa 


Kolon, Visayan. 


pa 


Subanu. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 151 

These forms in Melanesia and Indonesia are so obscure that it will 
require more abundant data before they may be studied with a sense of 
security. I should not be surprised if it were necessary to segregate 
several stems here interlaced. Our present task is to extricate from 
this material whatever evidence may estabhsh the fihation of theSubanu 
pa and the Polynesian word for foot or leg. The Nine ve may be con- 
sidered as a direct mutant of vae through Tongan vee with crasis, an 
interpretation supported by direct but scanty evidence in that speech. 
On the other hand we encounter a we in Melanesia and again in Indo- 
nesia; therefore this may be regarded as an ancient stem. The Viti 
yava may not be regarded as a derivative from vae; in The Polynesian 
Wanderings at page 319, I have given exhaustive study to the y-initial 
of Viti; the presence of an alternative avae in Tahiti points to the 
existence of an early ava which has become yava in Viti and in the 
eastern island has become colored by the greater prevalence of vae; for 
a primal ava we have Melanesian affihates in ape and afe. In the same 
area we pass readily to hai, which may be comprehended as the primal 
va colored by the neighboring frequency of ae. Having abundant 
reason to regard Viti in Polynesia and Subanu-Visayan in Indonesia as 
preserving archetypal forms of speech, we need have no hesitation in 
estabhshing a primal va, with which pa readily affiliates. 

98. pasa to speak; Visayan basa to read aloud. P. W. 191. 



pasa Nukuoro. 

paha Mangareva. 

visau Fotuna. 

vosa Viti. 



vasa Sesake. 
bosa Nggela. 
baha Tavara, Awalama. 



basa Malay, Tagalog, Visayan. 

I At intervals I have deemed it better to interrupt the foregoing 
alphabetic series in order that I might discuss in conjunction a group of 
ten similar vocables. In all that has gone before I have been by no 
means chary of directing our attention upon the psychological factors 
which function these linguistic problems. This group of ten vocables, 
lying in the Polynesian content of Melanesia as well as of Indonesia, must 
in the highest degree involve the psychology of the arithmetic of the 
savage, the mathematics of fingers and toes of the bare man. The 
physical association of the mathematics and the mathematician is a 
matter of observation and record : 

In counting any objects that can not be held in the hand or placed in a 
row the Kayan (and most of the other peoples) bends down one finger for each 
object told off or enumerated, beginning with the little finger of the right hand, 
passing at six to that of the left hand, and then to the big toe of the right foot, 
and lastly to that of the left foot. (Hose and McDougall, The Pagan Tribes 
of Borneo, vol. 2, page 210.) 

There we have the basis of all such arithmetic as we are to study 
in this work, fingers, one hand, two hands, the whole man — quinary, 
decimal, and vigesimal numeration. Through a black mass of igno- 



152 THE SUBANU. 

ranee, savage men whose minds had not yet devised a name for the 
result when to one they added another, cuts in precise knowledge the 
migration of the keen Polynesian race with its equipment of a perfect 
decimal system. We can readily comprehend how their gift of numbers 
was welcomed by the lowly folk whom they met upon their course to 
the new Pacific home. But how it has come to pass that the Malayan 
folk, a race of at least equal culture attainments, adopted the numerals 
of the fleeing Polynesians so completely is for the present a mystery 
beyond our powers of solution. Between decimal Polynesia and deci- 
mal Indonesia we shall find a great variety of adoption by the rude folk 
of the intervening Melanesia. We shall find some communities which 
had advanced in numeration to the possession of names for one and 
two and three, to which a few had added four ; five seems to have come 
as a distinctly new concept to the most of them, for the number of these 
languages is enormous in which we find five to be represented by the 
Polynesian word for hand, lima. With this acquisition two-thirds of 
them were content, the remainder third adopted the Polynesian desig 
nation of ten, and of these last ambitious folk only a few more than half 
assumed the names of the intervening digits. 

In our examination of this Melanesian arithmetic we shall find 
it convenient to follow the classification presented by Prebendary 
Codrington {The Melanesian Languages, page 235) and continued by 
Sidney H. Ray {Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, 
vol. Ill, page 470). 

The lowest system is the quinary. In Uni and Eromanga we find 
it with Polynesian names for all five digits ; in Aneityum with Polyne- 
sian I, 2, 5 ; in Tanna with all five digits Polynesian and 10 represented 
by 5+5- Epi, Paama, and Sesake have all five Polynesian digits, 
lo = 2 X5 ; the intervening digits are represented by i, 2, 3, 4, not addi- 
tive to 5 as later we shall frequently find them, but with a prefix, la in 
Sesake, in Epi and Paama. Efate assumes the Polynesian digits 
2,3,4, 5; 10=2X5; the intervening digits are the first four additive to 
5,6=5+1. 

The next group comprises the imperfect decimals, systems which 
count one hand to 5, count that hand plus the fingers of the second hand 
to 9, and possess a designation for 10. The detailed information of this 
class may be epitomized as follows. Unless otherwise noted 6 desig- 
nates the type of all the digits 6 to 9. 

Amge. Polynesian 4, 5. 6=1 and suffix. 

Deni. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4. 6=1 and suffix. 

Nifilole. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4. 6=1 and prefix. 

Savo. Polynesian i, 2, 4. 6=1 and prefix. 

Lakon, Pak, Malekula. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 1 and prefix. 

IvO, Norbarbar, Volow, Motlav, Mota, Mosin, Vuras, Gog, Merlav, Maewo, Ambrym, Vitu, 

Marina. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10. 6=1 and prefix. 
Marina. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10. 6=1 and suffix, 7 = 1 and prefix. 
Nakanai. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 20. 6=1 and prefix. 
Barriai, Kalil. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10. 6 = 5-|-i. 
Kilengge. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 10. 6=1. 



I 
i 

1 



POlvYlSmSIAN AND MALAYAN. 153 

Murua. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6=1. 

Rubi, Sinaugoro. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Longa. Polynesian 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Abutumete, Aweleng. Polynesian 4,5,10. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Kobe. Polynesian i, 2, 3. Incomplete list. 

Graget. Polynesian 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 10=5X2. 

Panaieti (below 10). Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 10 = 2X1. 

(counting tens). Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, but in strange disorder, 6 siwa (9), 

7 on (6), 8 pit (7), 9 ata (10). 
Misima (below 10). Polynesian 3, 4, 5. 6=5 + 1. 10 = 2X1. 

(counting tens). Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, but in disorder, 5 suwa (9), 6 nima 

(5), 8 won (6). 
Doura. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. io = ?2Xi. 
Mekeo. Polynesian i, 2, 4, 5. 6=5 + 1. io = ?2Xi. 
Nada, Kiriwina. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 not given. 
Leng. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10. 7, minus 3; 8, minus 2; 9, minus i. 
Mouk. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 7, minus 3; 8, minus 2; 9, minus i. 
Umre. Polynesian 2, 3, 4, 10. 6, minus 4; 7, minus 3; 8, minus 2; 9, minus i. 
Leut. Polynesian 2, 3. 6, minus 4; 7, minus 3; 8, minus 2; 9, minus i. 
Motu, Kabadi, Galoma, Keakalo, Pokau. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 2X3; 7 = 2X3 + 1; 

8 = 2X4; 9 = 2X4 + 1- 
Roro, Waima. Polynesian i, 2, 4, 5. 6 = 2 X3; 7 = 2 X3 + 1 ; 8 = 2 X4; 9 = 2 X4 + 1. 
Hula, Keapara. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 2 X3; 7 =8 — i ; 8 =2 X4; 9 = 10 — i. 

The next group is composed of the languages which employ the 
decimal system. Most of them have adopted the Polynesian names in 
full; these are Nggela, Fagani, Wango, Saa, Arag, Ulawa, Omba, Laur, 
Lambell, King, Lamassa, Likkilikki, Mafoor. A small group, two 
languages in the Louisiades and two in the Solomons, employ nine Poly- 
nesian digits, but have words for 10 of their own; these are Brierly 
Island and Tagula, Bugotu and Nggao. Vaturanga uses all the Poly- 
nesian digits but 5, and New Georgia has 2, 5, 6, 9, 10. 

The vigesimal group comprises the following languages: 

Awalama, Tavara, Mukawa. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1; 10 = 5X2. 

Nengone. Polynesian i, 2. 6 = 5 + 1. 10 = 2 Xsome thing not 5. 

Raqa, Kiviri, Oiun. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Dobu. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Suau. Polynesian I, 4. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Sariba. Polynesian i, 4, 5. 6 = 5 + 1. 10 = 5X2. 

Tubetube. Polynesian i, 4, 10. 6 = 5 + 1. 

Kubiri. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Mugula. Polynesian i, 4. 

Boniki, Galavi. Polynesian i, 2, 5. 4 = 2 X2; 6 = 5 + 1 ; 9 = 5+2 X2; 10 = 5X2. 

Taupota. Polynesian i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 4, 6, 9, 10 as Boniki. 

Wedau. Polynesian 1,2,3. 4, 6, 9, 10 as Boniki. 

Kwagila. Polynesian 2 . 4 = 2X2. 

Lifu. Polynesian I, 2, 5. 6 = 1+5; 10 = 2X5. 

With this presentation of the varieties of notation, we may next 
pass to the study of the primal forms and mutation forms of each of the 
ten Polynesian digits as presented in the three island areas. 



1. taha 

2. tasi 

3. tahi 


99. tasi one; bt 

Tonga, Nine. 

Samoa, Futuna, Fakaofo, 
Aniwa, Moiki. 

Tongarewa, Uvea, Rapanui, 
Mangareva, Marque- 
sas, Tahiti, Manahiki, 
Maori, Sikaiana. 


iban 

4- 
5- 
6. 
7- 
8. 

9- 


u sa, isi 

tai 

kasi 

kahi 

ta 

ndua 

a 


lid. 

Rarotonga. 

Liueniua. 

Hawaii. 

Rotuma. 

Viti. 




Pak 6, Savo 6 



*In many instances where the name of six is compacted of five and one it has been 
possible to find a designation for one simpler than is in use for that digit standing by itself. 



154 



THE SUBANU. 



10. a-ngaomo 

11. a-buna 


Mekeo. 

Galoma, Keakalo. 


65. tasa 

66. tata 


Nakanai. 
Mohr. 


12. e-bweuna 


Dobu. 


67. te 


Gog 6, Vuras 6, Mosin 6, 


13. emoti 


Tavara, Awalama.Taupota. 




Motlav 6, Volow 6, 


14. ere 

15. esega 

16. ha 


Barriai. 




Tami. 


Suau. 
Waima. 


68. tea 

69. tega 


Marina, Maewo 6, Mota 6. 
Panaieti, Misima. 


17. ha-momo 

18. hibeti 


Waima, Roro. 


70. tes 


Jamna, Kubamba. 


Moar. 


71. tesa 


Efate, Sesake. 


19- hu 

20. ja 

21. jea 

22. jia 

23. joser 

24. ka 

25. ka-una 

26. ka-ona 


Ambrym. 


72. tewa 


Maewo. 


Deni. 


73- teya 


Mugula. 


Norbarbar 6. 


74. thi 


Aneityum. 


Lo. 
Dasener. 


75. tia Merlav 6. 

76. paihe-tia Brierly Island. 


Lifu, Pokau, Kabadi, Hula. 


77. tika 


Pala. 


Uni. 


a. tik 


Lamassa. 


Doura. 


b. ti 


Likkilikki. 


27. kahe 


Ngao. 


78. toa 


Buka. 


28 kai 


Malekula. 


79. towa 


Norbarbar. 


a. takai 


Lambell, King. 


80. towal 


Mosin. 


h. tekai 


Kalil, Laur. 


81. tsitsi 


Vitu. 


29. kaigeda 


Tubetube. 


82. tukse 


Tarfia. 


30. kaita 

31. kaita-moi 

32. kasi 

33. katsiu 


Kubiri 6, Kiviri 6. 


83. tuwa 


Lakon, Arag. 


Ti Kubiri, Kiviri. 


84. tuwal 


Gog. 


Lifu. 


85. tuwale 


Merlav, Mota, Omba. 


Vitu. 


86. tuwel 


Vuras. 


34. kesa 


Vaturanga. 


87. twa 


Volow. 


35. kesana 


Mukawa. 


88. twag 


Motlav. 


36. kesega 


Sariba. 


89. wal 


Pak. 


37. kis 


Masimasi. 


90. wosio 


Waropin. 


38. ko-puna 

39. meke 

40. ngi 


Hula. 

New Georgia. 


91. esa 


Saparua, Ahtiago, Menado. 


Nifilole 6. 


92. hasa 


Tihu, Mahuan. 


41. o-buna 


Keapara. 


93. hia 


Sulu. 


42. ra 


Nakukur, Mioko. 


94. isa 


Lariko, Subanu, Bontoc 


43. rega 


Tagula. 




Igorot. 


44. riti 


Tanna. 


a. lai isa 


Awaiya. 


45- sa 


Nengone, Onin. 


h. isa iray Malagasy. 


46. sago 


Boniki. 


95 isai 


Caimarian. 


47. sago-kava 


Galavi. 


96. itja 


Bima. 


48. sai 


Eromanga, Mafoor. 


97- ja 


Punan. 


49. sakai 


Nggela. 


98. ji 


Kay an. 


50. samosi 


Namatote, Lobo. 


99. kusa 


Sanguir. 


51. se-bona 


Sinaugoro. 


100. lepso 


Gani. 


52. sikai 


Sesake, Malekula. 


loi. nehe 


Iliwaki. 


53. sikei 


Bugotu. 


102. nosiuno 


Massaratty. 


54. simoksi 


Karufa. 


103. osa 


Visayan, Kolon. 


55- siri 


Wandammen. 


104. osso 


Dorey. 


56. ta 


Ulawa, Saa, Motu, Rubi. 


105. sa 


Java, Liang, Morella, Mata- 


57. ta-mona 


Motu. 




bello, Baju, Subanu. 


58. tagai 


Fagani. 


106. saangu 


Bouton. 


59. tagogi 


Wedau. 


107. sabi 


Amblaw. 


60. tai 


Epi, Paama, Wango. 


108. sali 


Wahai. 


61. tai-mona 


Raqa. 


109. san 


Teluti, Tobo. 


62. tai-monomon Oiun. 


no. satu 


Malay. 


63 (tana) 




III. sedri 


Salayer. 


a. a-tan-ok Nada. 


112. sembaow Salibabo. 


h. koi-tan 


Murua. 


113. silei 


Cajeli. 


c. e-tega 


Panaieti. 


114. so 


Gah. 


d. mai-sena Panaieti, Misima. 


115. soboto 


Bolanghitam. 


e. ke-sana 


Mukawa. 


116. umsiun 


Wayapo. 


64. tara 


Kobe. 


117. wasa 


Batumerah. 



This we find to be the most complicated of all these numerals ; even 
upon such dissection into the elements as we may perform we shall still 
find a score of stems which in one speech or in another may be regarded 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 155 

as primal. Yet we may establish two major groups of usage in all this 
intricacy. In languages purely Polynesian we shall find the system of 
determinant compounds in order to establish precision of the numerical 
statement of unity ; in languages where the Polynesian has been taken 
up more or less completely with the adoption of a system of arithmetic 
thitherto unknown, we shall find most frequently simple stems and less 
commonly composites of the Polynesian system. In yet other lan- 
guages, those in which some slight system of counting existed yet had 
not arrived at the stage of an arithmetic, we shall find the Polynesian 
stem affixed as a precise member to the vernacular word which had been 
in some manner of use. 

The class of determinant compounds is one which I found it neces- 
sary to establish for the designation of one very important factor in 
the usage of these languages of isolation, that factor which by filHng the 
speech with dissyllables of precision renders it inadvisable to use the 
older designation of this as the monos5dlabic type of speech.* 

Simultaneously there operates a yet more rudimentary principle. 
In composition we are dealing with syllables established in some sort of 
signification. With the syllables as roots we pursue our dissection yet 
further to the seeds of speech ; we examine their variety through the co- 
efficient value of their consonant modulants.f I shall not here prose- 
cute in full these two interacting forces, for three particularly pertinent 
examples will serve to establish the method and thereafter there will be 
no difficulty in following it onward through the matter here assembled. 

The first seven items of the foregoing tabulation cover the word 
for one in all Polynesian languages, and it is apparent on inspection that 
we have to do with three elements, ta absolute in Rotuma, prefixed to a 
stem sa in Tonga and Nine, to a stem si in the remainder of Polynesia. 
Furthermore we find that sa and si have one element in common, the 
consonantal modulant prefixed ; its coefficient value is the same in the 
two cases ; therefore such distinction as may be found to exist inheres 
in the varying element, the vowel. Our minute studies of these lan- 
guages show us that the basic value of these vowel demonstratives is 
that of relation in regard of the speaker, of the thinking mind finding 
speech expression — a relation which in its simplest terms is that of posi- 
tion. I shall not here repeat the evidence upon which this is based; 
it is readily accessible in the paper last cited ; the conclusion is that a 
comes from the mouth to supplement the speech of the pointing finger 
for the purpose of indicating something remote, i something nearer. 
As yet the category of number has not come into being; therefore a and 
i refer to the many or the one aUke. But as the need is felt for dis- 
tinction between the one and the more than one a consonant is applied. 
How the selection of the consonant modulant is made is not wholly 

*" Principles of Samoan Word Composition," 14 Journal Polynesian Society, 40. 
f'Root Reducibility in Polynesian," 27 American Journal of Philology, 369- 



156 THE SUBANU. 

beyond our comprehension. In these studies I have dwelt at some 
length upon the two Hmits of speech expression for each of the buccal 
organs, the employment of the least speech effort and of the maximum. 
At the minimum for the tongue lies S (h) ; at the maximum t. Consider 
now the case of the beginning speaker into whose intellectuahty has 
come some faintly appreciated need of specifying his diffuse a yonder 
and particularizing that it is one object. He employs the minimum 
speech effort in the central lingual area and produces thereby sa; its 
sense is still general in particularity ' ' a yonder. ' ' In hke manner, when 
he wishes to distinguish which of several to each of which "a yonder" 
might apply, the effort of mind is followed by effort of speech; he 
employs the maximum, ta is particular and unmistakable " this yonder." 
In like manner we find 1 with the same pair of coefficients producing the 
same result, si "a here," ti "this here." The four forms are not merely 
theoretical and diagrammatic ; they occur somewhere in the Polynesian 
languages in exactly these senses and are readily discoverable. We 
thus see how our three elements of Polynesian words for one arise. 

Now we pass to the compaction of these established elements. I 
have said that a and i stand to the speaker in some relation of position. 
At the beginning of such speech it is sufficient to express a concept as 
away from the speaker, more as a, less as i. This remoteness may be 
in place, it may equally be in time, and in time it may be equally 
time before or past, time to come or future; we shall find the need 
arising for particularity in this item also and by the like method of 
consonantal modulants. But at a certain stage of the speech develop- 
ment sa with si in one group and ta in another were applicable in many 
senses just beginning to particularize in use. Then, as further need of 
precision arose, there developed the device of determinant composition. 
For the argument let us assume that ta has four significations including 
"this yonder," sa has other four including "a yonder." By employing 
in conjunction the two stems of several meanings we obtain a vocable in 
which the two stems agree upon the common significations ; ta plus sa 
can mean only "this yonder," for it has the force of double insistence. 
Thus we obtain taha in the sense of unity. In like manner we may 
trace the growth of tasi. 

As between the two forms we note in Polynesia that taha is found 
in Tonga and Nine ; it occurs more or less through Melanesia ; its ele- 
ment sa is the most common in Indonesia. We may safely attribute 
this form to the Proto-Samoan migration, tasi to the Tongafiti swarm; 
yet the evidence of ja in the Punan and ji in the Kayan, both archetypal 
languages in north Borneo, warrants the beHef that the elemental sa 
and si may have existed concurrently at the earliest period. 

We shall now present the type forms of the word for unity in the 
three oceanic areas, listing in the three columns the occurrences of each 
type form as used absolutely, as prefix, as suffix. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



sa. 



157 



sa45. 105. sa-go 46, 47 


ke-sa 34 




ra 42 


la-i 94a 


ta-ra 64 




sa-kai 49 


ta-sa 65 




ha 16 


ha-momo 17 


ta-ha I 




sa-mosi 50 


te-sa 71 






ha-sa 92 






sa-angu 106 


e-sa 91 




a 9 


a-ngaomo 10 


te-a 68 




sa-bi 107 


ha-sa 92 






a-buna n 


ti-a 75. 76 




sa-li 108 


ku-sa 99 
i-sa 94 
o-sa 103 






a-tan-ok 63a 


to-a 78 
hi-a 93 
je-a 21 




sai 48 


i-sai 95 


ii. 


ta. 




ji-a 22 


ta7, 56 


ta-ha 1 


kai-ta 30 






ta-ra 64 






ta-si 2 


kai-ta-mora 3 1 




ta-sa 65 






ta-hi 3 








ta-ta 66 






ta-i 4, 60 






ja 20, 97 




i-tja 96 




ta-mona 57 






tai 4, 60 


tai-mona 61 






ta-gai 59 








tai-monomon 62 




ta-gogi 58 




iii. 


ka. 






ka24 

; 


ka-una 25 
ka-ona 26 
ka-he 27 
ka-si 5. 32 
ka-tsiu 33 
ka-hi 6 

se-bona 5 1 
se-dri 1 1 1 
se-mbaow 112 

ne-he loi 


ti-ka 77 

ka-he 5 1 
ne-he 101 


iv. 

V. 


kai 28 

se. 

lai 94a 

te. 


kai-geda 29 
kai-ta 30 
kai-tainom 31 

e-bweuna 12 
e-raoti 13 
e-re 14 
e-sega 15 
e-tega 63 c 
e-sa 91 


ta-gai 58 
sa-kai 49 
si-kai 52 
si-kei 53 

e-re 14 
si-lei 113 


te67 

i 

1 


te-a 68 
je-a 21 
te-sa 70 

ke-sa 34 
ke-sana 35 


rae-ke 39 


vi. 
vii. 


ke. 
si. 


te-wa 72 
tes 70 

ke-sega 36 
kis37 






si-ri 55 


ta-si 2 






i-sa 94 


sa-i 48 




si-lei 113 


ka-si 5, 32 
wo-sio 90 
um-siun i 


6 




i-sai 95 
i-tja 96 


ta-i 4,60,61,62 
kai 28, 29, 30, 

31. 49. 52. 

53.58 






no-siuno 102 


















ko-i 63b 




hi-a 93 


ta-hi 3 








ma-i 63d 




hi-beti 18 


ka-hi 6 


viii. 


li. 




la-i 94 


ngi 40 


ri-ti 44 
ti-a 75, 76 


sa-li 108 
sa-bi 107 

ri-ti 44 


ix. 


ti. 

thi74 




si-ri 55 
se-dri in 




ti-ka 77 


hibe-ti 18 




tsi 81 


tsi-u 33 


tu-kse 82 


ji98 


ji-a23 













158 




THE SUBANU. 
X. SO. 






so 114 


so-boto 115 
o-buna 41 


os-so 104 
lep-so 100 




o-sa 103 
wo-sio 90 








xi. to. 








to-a 78 
to-wa 79 
to-wale 80 


sobo-to 115 




jo-ser 23 








xii. ko. 








ko-puna 38 


sa-go 46, 47 I 

xiii. tu. 


koi-tan 63b 


ta-gogi 59 




tu-kse 82 
tu-wa 83 
tu-wal 84 
tu-wale 85 


sa-tu no 

xiv. 


hu 19 

ku. 


tu-wel 86 
ndu-a 8 





ku-sa 99 



XV. wa. 



wa-sa 117 


te-wa 72 




tu-wal 84 


wal 89 


to-wa 79 




tu-wel 86 




tu-wa 83 




tu-wale 85 




t-wa 87 








t-wag 88 




ndu-a 




to-wal 80 








xvi. 1 


3ona. 




sc-bona 5 1 


a-buna 11 


e-bweuna 12 


ko-puna 38 


ta-mona 57 


tai-mona 61 


tai-monomon 62 


a-ngaomo 10 


ka-ona 25 


ka-una 20 


ha-momo 17 


kaita-niom3i 




xvii. misc 


ellaneous. 




ke-sana 35 


mai-sena 63d 


san 109 


a-tan-ok 63a 


koi-tan 63 b 


e-sega 15 


ke-sega 36 


sago 46, 47 


rega 43 


tega 69 


e-tega 63e 


kai-geda 29 


mai-sena 63 d 


me-ke 39 


sa-mosi 50 


si-moksi 54 


e-moti 13 


sa-angu 106 


ta-gogi 59 


iray 94 


joser 23 


sago-kava 47 


no-siuno 102 


sembaow 112 


ya73 









One form in the Polynesian area remains unexplained, Viti ndua. 
It is not wholly easy to arrive at a decision upon this point. Under- 
l3dng its Polynesian element of later settlement, Viti contains a large 
element of speech affihated somewhat indefinitely in hither Melanesia. 
If we assume this ndua to belong to the Melanesian element we find it 
immediately associable with the tuwa-towa forms found in the Banks 
Group and adjacent northern New Hebrides. Yet in islands of the 
same region we encounter a tuwale form and in the present lack of infor- 
mation on these tongues we may not venture upon dissection. On the 
other hand the thirteenth item of the preceding tabulation will show 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 159 

that, though rare, tu does exist in Melanesia and in Indonesia in the 
sense of one ; therefore it might be possible to regard ndu-a as a deter- 
minant compound after the Polynesian fashion. 

loo. rua two; Subanu dua id. 



lua 



Tahiti, Rarotonga, Viti, Rotuma, 
Maori, Mangareva, Rapanui, 
Tongarewa, Aniwa, Sikaiana. 

Samoa, Fakaofo, Uvea, Hawaii, 
Manahiki, Liueniua. 

Tonga, Niue, Marquesas. 

Moriori. 



do Save. 

dui Mafoor. 

dua Sesake. 

duru Eromanga. 

ewuru Lambell. 

huo Leng. 

aqa-iu Nada. 

qe-yu Murua. 

lu Paama 7, Kumamba. 

pa-lu Nggao. 
lua Epi, Paama, Lifu 17, Kowamerara, 

Koko, Nakanai, Kilengge, Po- 
kau, Doura, Sinaugoro, Hula, 
Keapara, Galoma, Keakalo. 
lue Lifu, Mouk. 

luaga Tavara. 
mondu Wandammen. 
nuwa Onin. 

ngua Mekeo. 
rewe Nengone. 
reu Tagula. 

ro Aneityum, Ambrj^m 7, Vuras, 

Mosin 7, Motlav, Volow, Nor- 
barbar, Save. 
a-rho Tarfia. 
ro-waba Oiun. 
roa Nokon. 

ru Efate, Tanna, Eromanga, Am- 

brym, Gog, Lakon, Pak, Moar, 
Jamna, Masimasi, Mosin, No- 
kon. 
a-ru King. 
e-ru Lamassa. 
i-ru Likkilikki. 

nru Efate. 

rua Barriai, Kalil, Kobe, Vitu, Marina, 

Maewo, Merlav, Mota, Lo, 
Arag, Ulawa, Saa, Wango, Fa- 
gani, Nggela, Nguna, Bugotu, 



ruabi 
ruaga 



ruam 
ruamo 



New Georgia, Waima, Roro, 
Kabadi, Motu, Panaieti, Mi- 
sima, Galavi, Boniki, Dobu. 
Raqa. 

Awalama, Taupota, Wedau, 
Galavi. 

Kwagila, Kiviri. 
Mukawa. 
rue Omba, Laur. 

rue-iti Karufa, Namatote. 
rue-ti Lobo. 
ruka Vaturanga. 
rumo Umre. 
ru6 Longa. 

wo-ruo Waropin. 
ruru Mohr. 
rusi Tandia, Kubiri. 
su-ru Dorey, Dasener. 
ua Malekula. 

i-ua Kiriwina. 
wo Brierly Island. 

wuaa Rubi. 



dia 
doha 
drua 
dua 



dudua 

duoh 

ga-hu 

lo-tu 

lu 



Bolanghitam. 

Visayan. 

Mahuan. 

Malay, Sirang, Sumbawa, Matu, 
Sanguir, Salibabo, Lariko, 
Kayan, Punan, Pampangas, 
Ilocano, Baju, Subanu, Bon- 
toc Igorot. 

Menado. 

Dusun. 

Sulu. 

Gah. 

Mysot. 



lua 



luua 

roa 

rua 



lep-lu Gani. 



Cajeli, Amblaw, Morella, Batume- 
rah, Caimarian, Teluti, Tobo, 
Ahtiago, Wahai, Mame, Tihu, 
Iliwaki. 

Awaiya 

Malagasy. 

Salayer, Wayapo, Massaratty, Li- 
ang, Saparua. Matabello, Teor, 
Lampong. Timor, Aru. 

Bouton. 



ruano 

Nothing in this Hst need detain us; the affihation is clear and each 
mutation is supported in at least two of the oceanic regions . The general 
stage of the name for two is a composite, in the majority of cases a com- 
paction of readily comprehensible mutants of ru and of a, in all other 
cases of rw-mutants with some other element. In the composites we 
see that ru carries in itself the sense of two; we find it persisting in 
absolute use in Indonesia, frequently in Melanesia, in Polynesia in 
Moriori, which may be estabHshed as a primal phase of the Polynesian 
in the Pacific. 



160 



THE SUBANU. 



[Oi. tolu three; Subanu tolo id. 



tolu 
toru 



thol 
tou 
kolu 
folu 

tolu 



Samoa, Niue, Futuna, Tonga, 

Uvea, Fakaofo, Viti. 
Tahiti, Rarotonga, Manahiki, Ma- 

ngareva, Rapanui, Maori, Ani- 

wa, Sikaiana. 
Rotuma. 
Marquesas. 
Hawaii, Liueniua. 
Rotuma. 



Efate, Epi, Paama, Omba, Arag, 
Nggela, Vaturanga, Nguna, 
Nggao, Bugotu, Nokon, Na- 
kanai, Vitu, Leng, Kiriwina. 
Sesake. 
Longa. 
Kowamerara, Koko, Dasener,Wan- 

dammen, Namatote. 
Karufa. 
Lakahia. 

Mukawa, Kubiri, Kiviri. 
tonu-ga Tavara, Awalama, Taupota, 
Wedau. 
Marina 8, Masimasi, Moar. 
Ulawa, Saa. 
Wango, Fagani. 
Pak. 

Marina, Maewo, Merlav, Gog, 
Vuras, Mosin, Mota, Norbar- 
bar, Barriai, Kalil, King, La- 
massa, Kilengge, Graget. 
i-tol Lamassa, Kobe. 
tor Tarfia. 

tola Nokon, Nada. 
tolo Paama 8. 

oro Mohr. 

woro Waropin. 
toni Raqa. 
ton Murua, Panaieti. 

toi Motu, Sinaugoro, Rubi, Dobu. 



dolu 
e-tlu 
toru 

tohru 
torua 
tonu 



tou 

*olu 

•oru 

•ol 

tol 



koi 

roi 

oi 
e-talo 
tai 
tau 
taur 
tel 
sil 
kior 

tulu-mo 
tuwru 
turu-si 
tul 
tun 
sul 



Uni, Pokau, Doura, Kabadi, 

Hula. 

Malekula. 

Keapara, Galoma, Keakalo. 
Mouk. 
Norbarbar. 
Jamna. 
Kumamba. 

Lakon, Motlav, Volow. 
Eromanga. 
Mafoor. 
Umre. 
Lobo. 
Tandia. 

Nok6n, Laur, Likkilikki. 
Misima, Oiun. 
Ambryra. 



tolu 



Mame, Matabello. 
a-tlu Pampangas. 



toru Saparua. 

tol Mysot. 

tolo Subanu, Visayan, Timor, 

Wahai, Bontoc Igorot. 

ta-tlo Tagalog. 
toro Bolanghitam, Lariko. 
to Sulu. 

talu Java, Saru. 

te-talu Salibabo. 
talau Matu. 
klau Champa. 
tauro Formosa. 
telu Tihu, IHwdki, Mahuan. 

telua Batumerah. 



Gab, 



telo 



tero 
tulu 



Punan, Kayan, Dusun, Malagasy, 
Salayer, Bouro, Caimarian, 
Morella. 

Liang. 

Lampong, Magindano. 



In this ordering of the data we find such a smooth series of muta- 
tion that we have no difficulty in including so remote a variant as the 
toi series of Torres Strait. To what extent these aliens have debased 
the Polynesian currency in their borrowing is strangely shown in the 
Motu lakatoi, Polynesian vaka boat and tolu three ; yet in the ceremonial 
voyages across the Gulf of Papua, in the annual barter of pots for sago, 
they lash three hulls abeam and navigation confirms the obscure phi- 
lology. In Malaysia the more primitive languages employ tolo and telo, 
but the pure Polynesian type of tolu appears in a sufficient list of lan- 
guages to establish its persistence in this area. 

I am now prepared to offer a genetic hypothesis in explanation of 
this tolu three. In the rigid order of logical development of any such 
argument this should follow and depend upon such a dissection of the 
inner content of lua two as I have been able to demonstrate in the case 
of tasi one. Up to the present, that clear comprehension of the primal 
signification of lua has eluded my study. Yet I have the less hesitation 
in presenting this analysis of tolu at the present time extra ordinem 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 161 

because I feel encouraged to hope that from the result of these consider- 
ations we may be able at some later period to return to the considera- 
tion of the basic lua with more success and thereby interpolate its 
rational explanation. 

In these studies of the arithmetic of primitive man we have marked 
two well-defined stages. The Polynesian has attained to the decimal 
system, he has firmly grasped the whole initial requirement of the 
science of mathematics, he has the material equipment for all those 
speciaHzed operations of number which are to be acquired from the 
decimal base by the gradual growth of knowledge stimulated by the 
advancing needs of life. The only obstacle which withholds from the 
savage Polynesian the facility of the table of logarithms is that the need 
has not yet appeared in his life-condition to stimulate his mind to higher 
mathematical activity than the operations of addition and subtraction. 

In the introduction to this study of the numerals I have pointed 
out the considerable number of races of savage men within the oceanic 
district of my province who have not yet attained to the facility of the 
decimal system, whose numeration is quinary, whose finger count is 
limited to the digits of a single hand. In the dissection of the quinary 
system we are brought face to face with a yet more primitive concept 
of number and notation. Because it is primitive, because it is a work- 
ing of the dawning intelligence struggling with the comprehension of 
dimly perceived needs of life, where effort to comprehend involves some 
effort to reproduce and to confirm by speech such comprehension, we 
shall not look to find this early numeration restricted by the boundaries 
of any one family of speech. The vocables employed in such expression 
may vary widely between family and family ; the principle remains con- 
stant. We are engaged at first with psychology rather than linguistics. 

Long culture-ages anterior to the development of the decimal base 
which v/e possess in its completely acquired form in our Polynesian 
speech the quinary system is found as a halting stage of progress toward 
a system of notation. The highest development of the quinary system 
rests in the possession of names for the units from one to five. This is 
exhibited in the language of Aneityum where the numerals are : i,e thi; 
2, e ro; 3, e seij; 4, e manouun; 5, ikman; and no words exist for num- 
ber beyond ikmayi, which 1 have shown to be a derivative from the 
common lima as hand and five. 

A stage yet more primitive is represented by a system which we 
may continue to call quinary because it is in possession of a word which 
expresses at its minimum connotation the sum of the digits of one hand. 
It differs from the perfect quinary as illustrated in Aneityum in the 
fact that instead oi possessing four names for specific number below 
five it has but tv/o. We thus have an imperfect quinary of three terms. 
We may go yet lower in the scale and find a numerical system of but 
two terms. The imperfect quinary of three terms becomes effectively 



162 THE SUBANU. 

quinary by composition, the linguistic equivalent of the arithmetic of 
simple addition. There are several phases of such addition-composi- 
tion but here it will suffice to illustrate along the phase of the type 1,2, 
2 4- 1, 2-1-2, 5. This I recall from the Austrahan aboriginals of the 
NorthwestBend of the Murray River; i,nitshe; 2,barcoola; :i,barcoola- 
nitshe; 4, barcoola-barcoola; 5, yentimarra. 

A stage lower than this is presented by the numeration which has 
not yet set five apart as a discrete concept even without precision. 
This is illustrated among others by the Miriam {apud Ray) of Torres 
Straits. It has but two numerals, netat 1 , nets 2. Higher numbers are 
but sums in addition of these two primitives, neis-netat 2 -hi =3. w^^^- 
neis 24-2=4, neis-neis-netat 2-I-2-I-1 =5. neis-neis-neis 2 + 2-|-2 = 6, 

Without prosecuting further this research these examples will serve 
my purpose satisfactorily in showing that we need feel no surprise if in 
the Polynesian decimals we may be able to detect a composite of similar 
type. At the beginning of the sense of number we find the recognition 
of the distinction between the one and the more than one ; the division is 
cut along the cleavage between unity and pluraHty. The next dichot- 
omy must be equally simple ; it will apply to the plurality. The mind 
becoming more observant of detail will distinguish between few and 
many, the small plurality and the greater, or, as I have heard it defined 
in the Beach -la-Mar, "small-plenty" and "big-plenty." The least of 
these must be one and one ; if it were less it would be merged in the 
name already estabHshed for unity ; there we find a name assigned to 
this one and one, a name and a signification of two. The maximum 
plurality varies with different peoples and diverse culture attainments, 
but even we retain our diffuse "big-plenty." With piety probably 
quite as obscure as the mathematics, we obey the solemn formula and 
rise and join in singing "oh for a thousand tongues to sing" and mean 
no more than this maximum diffuse pluraHty. In like manner we 
speak of a myriad stars which dot the firmament without any sense of 
restriction to 10,000. The Austrahan of the Murray fixes his "big- 
plenty" at yentimarra, which is higher than barcoola-barcoola 2 4-2 by 
one unit or many. His scale of number, therefore, consists of i, 2, 
2 -hi, 2 4-2, and infinitude, which begins at the very finger-tips. 

With this possibility in our minds let us return to the examination 
of the Polynesian tolu 3. In the discussion of tasi i I have explained 
at no little length the development of the sense of unity and the manner 
in which its designation has been made more and more precise by the 
method of determinant composition. In the tabulation which sums the 
result of that inquiry I have set aside the employment of a t-component, 
ta in 22 names of unity, te in 6 names, ti in 11 names, to in 5 and tu 
in 8; in sum the t-component appears in 52 out of the 117 names for 
unity which I have assembled. 

In dealing with hia 2 I have advanced the opinion that this also 



POLYNESIAN AND MAI^AYAN. 



163 



may be regarded as a composite. The list of forms assembled will 
exhibit the stem lu as meaning 2 in each of the three island groups of 
language. 

Accordingly I am wilHng to advance this further opinion, that tolu 
is a composite of stem to and stem lu, in effect 1+2 = 3. At least we 
have estabUshed stem to in the sense of i and stem lu in the sense of 2 
and we have shown that in primitive counting the name for 3 is in 
certain instances positively identified as the sum of i and 2. To have 
attained to the knowledge that i and 2 make 3 is a great stride in 
mathematics. 

102. fa four; Subanu pat, upat id. 



fa 


Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, 




Uvea, Fakaofo, Marquesas, 




Manahiki, Aniwa, Sikaiana, 




Liueniua. 


va 


Viti. 


ha 


Hawaii, Mangareva, Tahiti, Ra- 




panui. 


hak 


Rotuma. 


wha 


Maori. 


a 


Rarotonga. 


fat 


Onin, Namatote, Lobo, Lakahia. 


fatta 


Nokon. 


fati 


Nggao. 


hat 


Nok6n, Kalil, Laur. 


i-hat 


Lambell. 


hati 


Paama. 


bat 


Kiviri. 


bata 


Mukawa, Kubiri. 


bate 


Efate. 


bati 


Raqa. 


pat 


Panaieti, Misima. 


pati 


Sesake. 


tati 


Marina. 


vat 


Eromanga, Maewo, Merlav, Gog, 




Vuras, Mota, Lo. 


vata 


Vitu. 


vati 


Marina, Nggela, Vaturanga, 




Bugotu, Kowamerara, Koko. 


vatz 


Malekula. 


veat 


Volow. 


vet 


Mosin, Motlav, Norbarbar. 


veti 


Sesake 9. 


wati 


Le Maire, Rubi. 


oatti 


Mannam. 


at 


Lamassa, Likkilikki. 


lu-at 


King. 


ate 


Wandammen. 


attes 


Tandia. 


atti 


Dasener. 



hasi Mugula, Suau, Sariba. 

?eso-pari Tubetube. 

?wohe-pali Tavara. 

?wahe-pari Awalama. 
las Nada. 

vas Lakon, Murua. 

vasi Arag, Sinaugoro, Kiriwina. 

vesi Omba. 

hani Doura, Motu. 
bani Waima, Roro. 



pane 


Barriai, Kilengge. 


pangi 


Mekeo. 


peng 


Abutumete, Aweleng, Amge. 


vani 


Uni, Pokau, Kabadi. 


fen 


Oiun. 


pal 


Graget. 


vari 


Epi. 


vir 


Ambrym. 


bai 


Galoma, Keakalo. 


fai 


Fagani. 


hai 


Ulawa, Saa, Wango. 


vai 


Hula, Keapara. 


fa 


Tanna. 


fau 


Jamna, Moar, Kumamba. 


fauk 


Tarfia. 


fiak 


Mafoor. 


fo 


Masimasi. 


va 


Savo 9. 


i-va 


Nakanai. 


ve 


Pak, Nifilole 9- 


wo-ako 


Waropin. 


a-mo 


Umre. 


a-o 


Mohr. 


e-a 


Mouk. 


pat 


Kayan, Subanu. 


a-pat 


Dusun, Sulu, Saru, Tagalog, 




Pampangas, Bontoc Igorot. 


hi-pat Formosa. 


i-pat 


Bontoc Igorot. 


o-pat 


Visayan. 


u-pat 


Subanu. 


e-fatra 


Malagasy. 


hat 


Iliwdki. 


haat 


Timor. 


hata 


Morella. 


at 


Mahuan. 


pak 


Champa. 


tak 


Tihu. 


fa 


Mame. 


faa 


Amblaw. 


fai 


Teluti. 


faat 


Gab. 


pa 


Menado, Wayapo. 


pah 


Lampong. 


ko-pa 


Sanguir. 


ha 


Cajeli. 


a-ha 


Lariko. 


i-ha 


Galela. 


haa 


Saparua. 


aa 


Caimarian. 



164 



THE SUBANU. 



It is quite evident that in its primal stage this was a closed s 
and the weight of evidence indicates fat. Ordered upon the mutai 
variety of this final consonant the foregoing data show a series in 
main simple. The only point where the mutation in series se 
perhaps violent is in the series from hani to vani in Melanesia, yet e 
here the difficulty passes when we observe that the mutation is of 
type which I have already so minutely elaborated, the passage from 
maximum to the minimum of the possibility of speech effort of a gi 
buccal organ. Having established this series the series bai to 
through loss of inner n follows as a natural subsidiary. The only fo 
which fail to fit snugly into this devolution series are the Tarfia /( 
Marina tati, and the Tihu tak, the last perhaps associable with Mar 
lima five; Subanu lima id. P. W. 363. 



lima 



nima 

ngima 

liam 

liman 
lima 



103. 

Samoa, Futuna, Niue, Nukuoro, 

Nuguria, Sikaiana, Hawaii, 

Viti. 
Maori, Tahiti, Rarotonga, Rapa- 

nui, Moriori, Aniwa, Fotuna, 

Mangareva. 
Tonga, Uvea. 
Moiki. 
Rotuma. 



teve-lima 
tava-lima 



Pala. 

Epi, Sesake, Arag, Makura, Male, 
Santo,Nggela,Bugotu,Nggao, 
New Georgia, Lambell, Mo- 
anus, Kiriwina, Nada, Ta- 
gula, Brierly Island, Bierian, 
Wulua, Mannam, Nakanai, 
Vitu, Mouk, Graget, Kobe, 
Koko, Barriai, Kowamerara, 
Le Maire. 
Lo. 
Gog. 



tave-limwe Mota. 



lime 

limi 
limo 
Una 
lim 



Hem 

te-lim 

teve-lim 

teve-liem 

tava-limw 

teve-Iimw 

'eve-limw 

teve-lem 

tivi-lem 

'eve-lem 

tava-lemw 

lum 

e-lme 

luem 

rima 

rimi 

rimbi 

rlmo 



Likki- 



Paama, Omba, Malanta, 

likki. 
Yela. 
Epi. 

Tangoan Santo, Iklarina. 
Duke of York, Laur, Kalil, 

Lamassa, Ambrym, Nokon, 

Eromanga, Kumamba. 

Aweleng, Amge. 

King. 

Maewo. 

Norbarbar. 

Merlav. 

Mosin. 

Leon. 

Vuras, Motlav, Volow. 

Lakon. 

Sasar, Pak. 

Retan. 
Marina, Weasisi, Naviliag. 
Longa. 
Abutumete. 

Malekula, Wango, Fagani. 
Karufa, Lobo. 
Dasener. 
Waropin, Mohr. 



rem 

rum 

j(i)man 
jim 
jimo 

nima 



mm 
ima 



Eromanga, Pangkumu, T 
Jamna, Masimasi, Moai 
kahia, Wandammen, N 
tote, Mafoor. 

Eromanga. 

Kwamera. 

Aneityum. 
Jamna. 
Baki. 

Kubiri, Panaieti, Misima, ^N 
wa, Taupota, Galavi, Oi 
nima-gesau Graget. 

Kiviri, Murua, Tavara. 

Waima, Roro, Mekeo, Uni, P 
Doura, Kabadi, Motu 
inara, Mailu, Eoniki, S 
goro, Hula,Keapara,Ga 
Keakalo, Rubi, Mailu. 
ma Galavi. 

lima Alalay, Java, Cajeli, Ivlorell; 

tumerah, Teor, Magin 
Champa, Sulu, Suml 
Visayan, Tihu, Pamps 
Tagalog, Kayan, Su 
Mahuan, Mame, Sa 
Sanguir, Wayapo, IV 
ratty, Amblaw, Av 
Biraa, Kolon, Cairn 
Baju, Teluti, Ahtiago, 
toe Igorot. 
de-lima Salibabo. 

limah Lampong. 

limoh Dusun, Saru. 

limo Togean. 

liman Kisa. 

limanu Bouton. 

lema Timor. 

e-lma Iliwaki. 

lemo Basakrama. 

lim Sirang, Gah, Mysot. 

lep-lim Gani. 

rima Menado, Liang, Bolangl: 

Lariko, Saparua, Mata 

rim Jobi, Dorey. 

nima Wahai. 

dimy Malagasy. 

ma Dayak. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



165 



In The Polynesian Wanderings, he. cit., I have discussed at length 
the question of precedence in the signification of this stem, whether the 
five derives from the five fingers of the hand or the hand derives from 
the five of its digitation. The very considerable additions of material 
in the present tabulation add nothing, subtract nothing from the argu- 
ment there advanced. After renewing consideration of the subject I 
yet inchne toward the opinion that the numerical sense is primordial 
and the hand secondary. 

104. one six; Subanu gonom id. 



ono 


Samoa, Tonga, Futuna 


, Niue, 


onu 


Kolon. 




Uvea, Fakaofo, 


Viti, 


Manga- 


on 


Panaieti. 




reva, Rapanui, 


Marquesas, 


anam 


Malay. 




Tahiti, Hawaii 


Rarotonga, 


unam 


Salayer. 




Manahiki, Maori, 


Aniwa, 


nam 


Kay an, Baju. 




Sikaiana. 






enem 


Bontoc Igorot. 


on 


Rotuma. 






nanam 
namano 


Java. 
Bouton. 






ono 


Omba, Arag, Ulawa, 


Saa. 


Wango, 


nain 


Mahuan. 




Fagani, Nggela 


Vaturanga, 


nem 


Teor. 




Bugotu, New Georgia. 


e-nem 


Iliw^ki. 


ona 


Tagula. 






nen 


Tihu. 


onem 


Mafoor. 






nome 


Awaiya, Caimarian. 


ano 


Kowamerara. 






lomi 


Wahai. 


eno 


Le Maire. 






num 


Menado. Tobo. 


fa-mno 


Nggao. 






ka-num Sanguir. 


monom 


King. 






gane 


Sulu. 


wono 


Leng, Mouk, Lambell. 




ne 


Cajeli. 


wona 


Brierly Island. 






noo 


Lariko. 


uone 


Likkilikki. 






nooh 


Saparua. 


won 


Laur, Lamassa, Nokon. 




noh 


Amblaw. 










noi 


Ahtiago. 






gonom 


Subanu. 






an-nuh 


Salibabo. 


onom 


Visayan, Dusun. 






nena 


Liang, Morella, Batumerah 


onomo 


Bolanghitam. 






e-nina 


Malagasy. 


onam 


Matabello. 






ini 


Bima. 


onem 


Dorey. 






lep-wonan Gani. 


onum 


Mysot. 






wonen 


Gah. 



It will be seen at a glance that the tabulation for 6 varies widely 
from that for 5 ; the difference numerically stated is that we have suc- 
ceeded in establishing lima in 197 languages of these three oceanic areas 
and ono in but 80, the decrease being wholly in Melanesia. The reason 
for this decrease lies wholly outside the realm of philology ; it is not at 
all a question of phonetic variety. It inheres in the art of counting, it 
is a limitation of arithmetic, it is the picture of human minds yet unde- 
veloped. Our first five numerals are true digits, fingers of one hand. 
At this point arithmetic may begin, in Polynesia it has begun, in Indo- 
nesia it has come perhaps a Httle more slowly but it has arrived. In 
Melanesia there are scores of people who have not attained to the sense 
of mathematics and the system of the decimals, having counted one 
hand they start and count the other hand, a new operation and a dis- 
continuous one . Six is not in the sweep of the arithmetical series, it is 
one on the other hand; the meaning of some of these designations of six 
is selected at random, "hand and one," "hand-other one," "hand on- 
its-top one," a system which leads us eventually to the comphcated 



166 



TH^ SUBANU. 



statement of ninety-nine as (Tavara apud Ray) oloto wohepali hi hilage 
po nima luaga hi tutu po aitutu po wohepali" men four they die and hands 
two they finish and foot it finishes and four." 

I have written of Indonesia in the foregoing paragraph that the 
decimal arithmetic has come a Httle more slowly. Perhaps it would be 
better to say that it has come a Httle less surely, for the reckoning has 
some sort of story to tell us; lima appears in but 17 variants in 55 
languages of the Malay Archipelago, ono in 32 forms in 40 languages, 
forms which diverge so widely from the primal onom that I can account 
for them by no law of the phonetic of these languages at present known 
to me and which I should not venture to include in this Hst if it were 
not that I find them occurring with other number words which are 
undoubtedly Polynesian. I do not profess to understand what under- 
lies this variety in the upper decimals of Indonesia; but this fact is 
clear: these languages have been conservative of the form of the digits 
of the first hand; of the fingers on the other hand they have been 
reckless in mutilation. 



105. fitu seven; Subanu pitu id. 



fitu 



vitu 

whitu 

hitu 

itu 

fiku 

hiku 

hith 

ahito 

fitu 
fita 
fik 
fiak 
vitu 
vitsu 



Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Niue, Uvea, 
Fakaofo, Marquesas, Aniwa, 
Sikaiana. 

Viti. 

Maori. 

Tahiti, Manahiki, Rapanui, Mar- 
quesas. 

Raro tonga. 

Liueniua. 

Hawaii. 

Rotuma. 

Paumotu. 



Nggao. 
Le Maire. 
Mafoor. 
Dorey. 

Arag, Nggela, Vaturanga, Bugotu. 
Kowamerara. 



hiss Likkilikki. 
i-hise Lambell. 
iss Lamassa. 



wijtsou Le Maire. 



bitu 

bi'u 

piru 

pi'u 

pit 

pik 

hi'u 

hit 

it 



Omba. 
Wango. 
Tagula. 
Fagani. 
Misima. 
Brierly Island. 
Ulawa, Saa. 
Nokon, Suralil. 
Laur. 



fitu Teluti, Matabello. 

fiti Gah. 

fito Malagasy. 

fit Tobo, Teor, Mysot. 

lep-fit Gani. 
pitu Subanu, Kolon, Java, Menado, Bo- 
langhitam, Salibabo, Amblaw. 

pitu-ano Bouton. 

ga-pitu Sulu. 

ka-pitu Sanguir. 

pidu Bima. 

pi to Visayan, Wayapo, Massaratty, 

Bontoc Igorot. 

pety Basakrama. 

witu Awaiya. 
hitu Tihu, Iliwaki, Saparua. 

hito Cajeli. 

en-hit Ahtiago. 
itu Mahuan, Liang, Morella, Lariko, 

Caimarian, Wahai. 

itu-a Batumerah. 
tusu Kayan. 
tujuh Malay. 
tujoh Salayer, Baju. 
turoh Dusun. 



mau-it King. 

For seven the Indonesian runs truer to the Polynesian type than 
for six. The only doubtful point lies in the tusu group ; this may be 
explained as tu of the primal stem with terminal accretion ; against this 
explanation militates the fact that nowhere in the three oceanic areas 
does tu appear as carrying the seven sense; it is more reasonable to 
regard this as the intrusion of an aUen stem bearing this partial resem- 
blance. This seems the more likely interpretation, since tusu is accom- 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 



167 



panied by alien words for eight and nine after Polynesian designation 
of the numerals inclusive of six, as here set forth. 





Seven. 


Eight. 


Nine. 




tusu 

tujoh 

tujuh .... 
tujoh .... 
turoh .... 


saya 

karna .... 
salapan.. . 
dolapan . . 

(walu) . . . 


pitan. 

kasa. 

sambilan. 

sambilan. 

(siam). 


Salayer 

Malay 









1 06. valu eight; Subanu walu id. 



valu 



varu 



Samoa, Tonga, Futuna, Uvea, 

Niue, Fakaofo, Rarotonga. 
Tahiti, Manahiki, Mangareva, 
Rapanui, Aniwa. 
a-varu Paumotu. 
vau Marquesas, Tahiti. 

vol Rotuma. 

walu Viti, Hawaii. 
waru Maori, Sikaiana. 



walu 


Ulawa, Saa. 


welu 


Omba, Arag. 


wala 


Le Maire. 


uale 


Likkilikki. 


wal 


Nokon, Laur. 


ual 


Lamassa. 


i-wal 


Lambell. 


te-wal King. 


falu 


Nggao. 


alu 


Nggela, Vaturanga, Bugotu 


waru 


Wango, Fagam. 


war 


Mafoor. 


wan 


Brierly Island. 


wa 


Tagula. 



107. hiva nine; 

hiva Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 

dhiva Viti. 

siwo Sikaiana. 

Slav Rotuma. 

iva Samoa, Futuna, Fakaofo, Rapanui, 

Marquesas, Tahiti, Rarotonga, 

Manahiki, Aniwa. 
iwa Hawaii, Maori. 



siwa Le Maire, Ulawa, Wango, Fagani. 

si we Saa. 

siwo Omba, Arag, Brierly Island. 

sia New Georgia. 

siu Suralil, Laur, Likkilikki, Vaturanga. 

ciu Tagula. 

siw Mafoor. 

tsiu Nokon, Kowamerara. 

siuk Lambell. 

sewok Lamassa. 
hiua Nggela. 
hia Bugotu, Nggao. 
Hsu King. 



siwa Cajeli, Amblaw, Morella, Batumerah, 
Lariko, Saparua, Awaiya, Cai- 
marian, Teluti, Tobo, Ahtiago 
Amboyna, Ceram. 



valo 


Basakrama, Malagasy. 


velu-ano Bouton. 


walu 


Subanu, Dusun, Sanguir, Amblaw. 


walu- 


-'a Batumerah, Awaiya, Caima- 




rian. 


walru 


Menado. 


walo 


Cajeli, Bontoc Igorot. 


oalo 


Visayan. 


wal 


Tobo, Teor, Mysot. 


lep-wal Gani. 


waru 


Bima, Salibabo, Liang, Morella 




Lariko, Saparua. 


waro 


Bolanghitam. 


wagu 


Teluti. 


wolu 


Java. 


en-wol 


Ahtiago. 


alu 


Kolon, Gah, Wahai. 


allu 


Matabello. 


hau 


?Iliw^ki. 


i-hau 


Tihu. 


ban 


?Iliwaki. 


kao 


Mahuan. 



Subanu siam id. 

siwah Lampong. 

siwer Teor. 
sia Mahuan, Liang, Gah, Wahai, Mata- 
bello. 

e sia Iliw^ki. 

i-sia Tihu. 

gata-sia Sulu. 

e-shia Wayapo. 

chia Massaratty. 
siam Subanu, Visayan, Dusun, Pampan- 
gas, Bontoc Igorot. 

siyam Tagalog, Bontoc Igorot. 
sio Menado, Bolanghitam, Tidore, Ga- 
lela. 

sio-anu Bouton. 

ka-siow Sanguir. 

sioh Salibabo. 

siaou Magindano. 
sieuw Dorey. 

lep-siu Gani. 
sivy Malagasy. 
pitan Kayan. 
si Mysot. 

iva Mame. 



168 



ngafulu Samoa. 

ngahuru Tongarewa, Maori. 

lau-ngahulu Manahiki. 



ngaulu 


Rarotonga. 


angafulu 


Futuna. 


anaulu 


Hawaii. 


onohuu 


Marquesas. 


sanghul 


Rotuma. 


sangavulu 


Viti. 


hangahuru 


Rapanui. 


hongofulu 


Tonga, Niue, Uvea. 


ahuru 


Tahiti. 


tangafuru 


Aniwa. 


tingahuru Maori. 


tirongouru Mangarcva. 


sefulu 


Samoa, Fakaofo. 


sangavuru 


Kowamerara, Koko 


zangavulu 


Vitu. 


sangafula 


Le Maire. 


sangapulo 


Le Maire. 


sangahul 


Barriai. 


sanghaul 


Kalil. 


sangaul 


Kilengge, Umre. 


sanghul 


Suralil, Laur. 


sanguli 


Lamassa. 


sangul 


Nokon. 


sungul 


Aweleng. 


e-sungul 


Abutumete. 


sanaulu 


Tubetube. 


sanhulu 


King. 



'HE SUBANU. 


4 


u ten; Subanu sapulu id. 




sanau 


Dobu. 




samfur 


Mafoor. 




sauli 


Likkilikki. 




singino 


King. 




songo 


Leng. 




nanau 
sanpulo 


Mailu. 




Magindano. 




sangpuo 


Tagalog. 




hangpu 


Sulu. 




hampulu 


Kolon. 




sapulu 


Subanu, Basakrama. 




sapuluh 


Malay. 




sapuloh 


Bouton, Salayer, Baju. 




sanulu 


Iliwaki. 




senulu 


Tihu, Mahuan. 




polo 


Wayapo, Massaratty, Bontoc. 
Igorot. 




napolo 


Visayan. 




folo 


Malagasy. 




pulu 


Kayan, Lampong, Sirang. 




apulu 


Pampangas. 




plu 


Champa. 




mpuru 


Bima. 




buro 


Amblaw. 




pulo 


Kayan, Matu. 




pulah 


Java. 




kapuroh 


Sanguir. 




mapuroh 


Salibabo. 




mapulroh Menado. 




mopuru 


Bolanghitam. 



In Polynesia and in Indonesia we find a primal stem fulu with two 
prefaces, sanga and se respectively; in Indonesia we find a frequent 
occurrence of the primal stem absolute and this in the languages which 
our other evidence shows us to be primordial. In Melanesia the devo- 
lution forms are all derived from the sangafidn composite. The tale of 
the forms for ten is not without interest, 59 forms in 73 languages. 
When we compare this with the record for lima, we are led to the con- 
clusion that the concept which establishes the decimal system is of the 
most modern phase of these languages at the hour when the first Poly- 
nesians were expelled from Indonesia. 

Since the collation of the material and the establishment of the 
numeration of the foregoing synopsis of the Polynesian content in the 
conjoint Subanu and Visayan I have seen reason to include two items 
whch escaped my attention. These will be found in brief synopsis in 
the dictionary under the words hui and tian. The sum, therefore, must 
be increased by two and stands at no items. 

In this list there is little to call for explanation on the score of 
phonetics. The consonant mutations are all readily comprehensible 
and of standard type. We have already had occasion to note that the 
vowel mutability is great; it represents a Malayan speech principle 
quite opposed to the stern fixity of vowel elements which holds through- 
out the Polynesian. We need not examine particulars except in one 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 169 

small and quite important group. A few final vowels exhibit a muta- 
tion to diphthongs which is wholly anomalous when referred to the 
Polynesian phonetic. All the examples which present this diphthongal 
mutation are exhibited in the following list : 



a-ay 


tifa 


tipay 


i-oy 


ati 


gapoy 


e^ai 


ate 


gatai 


o-ao 


lano 


danao 


e-ay 


fale 


balay 




malino 


linao 




fohe 


bogsay 


o-au 


lango 


langau 




mate 


matay 


u-hoy 


kau 


cahoy 



I can see an explanation of this movement which seems valid so far 
as it goes. It will serve excellently to account for the foregoing in- 
stances ; the objection will lie in the fact that it offers no explanation of 
the many instances in which the final vowel undergoes no such mutation. 
The Polynesian languages are under an inexorable movement toward 
open syllables. In every one, the words invariably end at their present 
stage in a vowel. But as we work backward along the track of their 
migration we find convincing proof that this compulsion is modern ; it 
has become effective only since their arrival in their new Pacific homes. 
In my late studies of Rapanui I have been able to establish as fact that 
the migration which eventually settled upon Easter Island left Nuclear 
Polynesia at a period when the Proto-Samoan still retained in use its 
final consonants. In Polynesian loan material held by Melanesian lan- 
guages we find not only final consonants, but we find distinct evidence 
that stems ending in a vowel were abraded to establish a preferred form 
with a final consonant and that this in turn has been abraded when the 
speech fashion turned toward the open syllable; and thus we have 
exposed as final a vowel originally medial in the primal stem. On the 
other hand the Malayan languages have an equal desire for closed stems ; 
we encounter many vocables whose primal open stem is now closed 
by the addition of a consonant in deference to this movement. As I 
take it, these ten words of the open stem were held by their Malayan 
borrowers as (for some reason to us incomprehensible) exempt from 
their own inclination to add some final consonant. Therefore the minds 
of the speakers were under stress to avoid the easy final consonant, to 
accentuate the fact that the final sound was a vowel, accordingly to 
reproduce this mental stress by making the final vowel more vocalic 
than it was intended to be. Why this motive has left no trace in other 
stems of open type we may not now attempt to explain. 

Thus we are naturally directed to the general treatment of the 
Polynesian content by the several groups of Malayans which possess it 
to a greater or less degree. We have just seen examples of assiduity in 
its pronunciation, evidence that the material was at least subconsciously 
felt to be alien. In the same way we find that the Polynesian content 
is held uncontrolled by the ordinary rules of Malayan grammar ; it is 
almost wholly free from the incidence of the customary Malayan infix- 
ature. In the foregoing synopsis (item 83) I have pointed out the 



170 THE SUBANU. 

possibility of the use of the infix in the word tinae, but this is unique 
and therefore doubtful. The more closely we study the Malayan use of 
the Polynesian content, by so much the more do we convince ourselves 
that it is essentially a foreign element— adopted, but very scantily 
adapted. I can find but one instance in which :Malayan infixature has 
been applied to a Polynesian loan, fili item 20. 

Since the mutation is found most irregular in the treatment of the 
vowels, which in Polynesian are the elements which carry the meaning 
despite consonant variety, I may cite an instance in our own Enghsh 
which will illustrate this point. In France the contre-danse may be 
appHed with reason to so formal a dance as the stately minuet. A 
polished court brought contre-danse into England in order to add dig- 
nity to its festivities and to have possession of a name which should 
prevent the dances of Whitehall from confusion with the Morris dancers 
on the green before the wayside tavern. After adoption followed adap- 
tation ; through an inexorable rule of EngHsh phonetics the alien contre- 
danse underwent vowel mutation and became country-dance. In its 
new form it was misunderstood and applied to the very dances which 
it was designed to place in a more humble state. Now it is very freely 
employed of the folk dances lately restored somewhat artificially to use. 
Last stage of all, the true meaning of contra having quite vanished, it has 
become bam dance. From a Louis Treize treading the gavotte whose 
lilt is yet not wholly forgotten, the word has passed to Hodge heehng 
and toeing the dust from a puncheon floor between the racks of hay. 

Where we see the Malayans preserving the Polynesian content as 
a foreign acquisition we see on the other hand the Polynesians quite 
uncontaminated by any Malayan influence, the only possible exception 
being tinae, which I present more as a result of curious research than 
with conviction. 

The purpose of this chapter — indeed, so far as I am concerned, the 
end and object of this whole book — is to pass under critical review the 
validity of the so-called Malayo-Polynesian family of speech. We now 
have come through much minute investigation to the point at which we 
may deal with this problem. 

We shall flnd assistance in arithmetic. In former books in which 
I have dealt with this subject I was content to accept the list of words 
common to Malayan and Polynesian compiled by predecessors in this 
inquiry and copied by one from another. Thus I was led into the state- 
ment that the mass of material satisfactorily thus estabUshed amounted 
to somewhere about twelve dozen stems. Now I have made a fresh 
computation for myself upon one Malayan base and am prepared to 
amend the former figures. In Subanu-Visayan the amoimt of the Poly- 
nesian content is 1 10 stems. This is a figure upon which I am willing 
to stand as the result of careful study. It represents the extent to which 
some Polynesian has community|with one Malayan, namely the Subanu- 
Visayan. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 171 

It will be seen that this figure is not exhaustive. The full record 
should state the figure of the extent to which some Polynesian has 
community with some Malayan. I can answer for practically all Poly- 
nesian. To answer for all Malayan would entail the collation of all the 
languages of the archipelago, a task which would inordinately delay 
other work which I must prosecute. To the figure thus established in 
my own studies I now add the figures which are derived from the studies 
of other workers but which I have not wholly verified. 

In The Polynesian Wanderings the work was conducted upon the 
base of the speech of Efate in the New Hebrides. Referring to the 
serial number of the items in Appendix I of that volume, I now present 
the following table of Malayan identifications which are extra- Visayan : 

9 lo 27 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 47 78 

79 128 169 171 174 177 178 179 180 181 183 184 213 215 218 

221 222 223 225 226 227 228 230 231 233 235 237 238 241 243 

248 249 252 255 256 257 258 260 261 265 266 268 269 270 272 

273 275 276 279 281 282 286 287 288 289 291 293 296 297 299 

302 304 305 306 307 311 313 316 320 322 326 328 329 331 333 

337 341 342 345 346 349 352 353 354 355 357 358 360 362 364 

The 105 additions to the Polynesian content in this list rest most 
immediately upon Tregear's "Maori Comparative Dictionary" and 
Turner's "Samoa." 

I next add from Mr. Tregear's dictionary these 42 items, referring 
to the Maori words. These are the residuum after extracting all 
instances contained in this tabulation and in the synopsis of the Visayan 
in this chapter. Of this residue in Tregear, the 42 are all that I am 
wilUng to accept, for Mr. Tregear, while equally opposed to the Malayo- 
Polynesian family, goes in his identifications a little beyond what I 
regard as just in philologic method. 

anewa hamuti kata mai miro patu tango 

anini hana koekoea mana miti poto tara 

anuhe haunga ko mo manga ngita puke tia 

api horo kopu marie pae puna tuna 

atarau kaho korokoro matau paka rama tupu 

ato kapo kui mimi papa rimu wawara 

The sum of these three groups is 257 ; that is the tale of words upon 
which, really upon far less than which, Bopp erected his family of the 
Malayo-Polynesian languages. The research which has compiled these 
Hsts is so great, the study has been so minute on the part of my pains- 
taking predecessors, that it is not to be supposed that further study, 
such as I have conducted de novo upon the Visayan, will add appreciably 
to this figure. I do not intend to perform the operation under the rule 
of three, not puzzled but inexpressibly weary of this Malayo-Polynesian 
bar which has long blocked the path of philologic research into the begin- 
nings of human speech; but any one who cares may compute the ratio 
of no Polynesian words to the 12,000 stems entered in the Visayan 
dictionary of Fray Juan Felix. Then, if he will, he may reckon the 



172 THE SUBANU. 

ratio of 257 words to the corpus of Malayan speech in some scores and 
more of languages. I do not now recall an enumeration of the number 
of words which we have assumed from the American Indian. Squaw 
and papoose, wigwam and tepee, wampumpeag and quahaug from 
which it was cut — I am sure that I could find 250 words taken by vio- 
lence or wheedling from our wards and included in the tongue we speak. 
But not on that account (should I ever be tempted to become a philo- 
logic systematist) do I intend to propose the erection of a speech family 
of the Anglo-Algonkian for New England or Anglo-Iroquoian for New 
York, although I sometimes fancy that such a family, did it really exist, 
would tend toward the better preservation of the purity of the diction 
now local to Manhattan. This is not absurd, or else Bopp's Malayo- 
Polynesian family founded on equal numbers is absurd ; which, in truth, 
I believe it to be. 

I shall not here enter at length upon the consideration of the source 
of this Polynesian content of the Malayan ; I shall not here explain how 
it is possible that the Malayan contains Polynesian and the Polynesian 
contains no Malayan. Amending the figure from 150 to 257, I have 
presented this argument in full in The Polynesian Waitderings. In its 
barest outUne I shall restate it. 

The Polynesian peoples before the Christian era occupied more or 
less completely the islands of the Malay Archipelago and were probably 
as now in the Pacific, coast-dwellers. About that epoch the Malayan 
peoples descended upon the island region from the coast lands of the 
Asiatic continent with a superior civilization, probably in the possession 
of the art of working metals. Before the better-equipped warriors the 
Polynesians fled eastward, ever being dislodged from more eastern 
islands of the archipelago as the Malayans bore upon their rearguard. 
Eventually the Polynesians were forced out of the archipelago by way 
of the waters respectively north of New Guinea and south* thereof and 
in the free Pacific were beyond the reach of their oppressors. From the 
reading of the material contained in this volume I add to my former 
consideration another explanation of the Polynesian content. 

In the west of Malaysia — say in Sumatra, since the present ethno- 
logic position of Mentawei off the western coast of that island is most 
significant — the first stragglers of the Malayan swarm, too few to be 
dangerous, necessarily on their good behavior, would be adopted into 
the Proto-Polynesian communities and undergo naturalization in speech 
and habit. Later, upon the coming of the irresistible body of the 
invaders, this body of naturaUzed Polynesian Malays would be the first 
to feel the attack and would scatter wherever their fleets could carry 
them, yet as soon as peace was made they would prove readily assimil- 
able with their parent Malayan stock. This provides a sufi&cient expla- 
nation why we find the most archetypal Malay at points so sundered as 

*See note at end of chapter, p. 173. 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 173 

the Malagasy of Madagascar, the Punans, Klemantans, and Kayans 
of North Borneo, the several tribes of the Philippines, and why, in 
conjunction with the most archaic Malay, we find equally the purest 
preservation of the Polynesian. 

In thus sundering the Polynesian from the Malayan, in estabhshing 
the fact that they represent two families of speech of different grades of 
development and not a single one, we shall work no harm to the science 
of language. On the contrary the result should be most highly bene- 
ficial, for it is always a relief to be rid of superstition and obsession in 
any relation of life. Set free from its impossible association with the 
agglutinative Malayan, the isolating Polynesian will stand forth as the 
fit road along which investigation may trace its steps to a genesis of the 
speech of man. The ultimate attainment of research into the modern 
languages of the analytic type is to establish their groundwork in the 
inflected tongues. The last point which the student of the languages 
of inflection may attain is to connect them with yet earUer agglutinative 
speech. So, too, with the student of agglutination, his analysis carries 
him back to the yet simpler speech of isolation. 

In like manner, in Hke measure, the investigator who begins on 
this bottom level, makes his start in a family of isolating language — 
what may he hope to reach ? Early in his course he will reach mono- 
syllabism, a term frequently but erroneously applied to isolating speech. 
After the monosyllable what is there? There is the vowel, and this is 
in the speech of man because he is an animal and the unmixed vowel 
is the whole speech of the beast. There is the consonant modulant 
whereby man is learning to adapt animal speech to needs which the 
beast can not feel. It is there that speech begins. Only set the Poly- 
nesian speech free from the hindrance and the misleading of the 
Malayan association, and the students of speech may press bravely 
on to the discovery of the beginning of man speech. 



I regard myself as singularly fortunate, I consider it a great factor in 
the awakening of interest in the themes to which these studies of the Pacific 
and Indian seas may lead, that there is an interlacing of the work of Captain 
Friederici with my own. In this work I have made grateful use of his material 
as enriching the phonetic studies presented in this chapter. Later in the serial 
course of these studies I shall be under a great debt to him for clearing the 
way in his briUiant research into the grammar of Melanesian speech. In 
my volume The Polynesian Wanderings I was led to propose a second migra- 
tion track of Polynesian migrants through Torres Straits. Just before this 
chapter leaves my hand I am fortunately in receipt of his comment upon the 
Viti Stream which I have proposed. It is published at page i6 of his third 
volume, Untersuchungen iiber eine melanesische Wanderstrasse (1913). 

"Nachdem somit in grossen Ztigen die ethnologischen und linguistischen Verhaltnisse 
der vier Volkergruppen uberschaut worden sind, die durch die folgende Untersuchung 
miteinander verbunden werden sollen, bleibt mir noch iibrig, kurz den Stand der AulTas- 
sungen zu skizzieren, der zur Zeit des Erscheinens von Teil II dieser VeroffenUichung, also 
im Marz 1912, von den Ethnologen und Linguisten in dieser Frage eingenommen wurde. 



174 THEJ SUBANU. 

"Nachdem man noch vor kaiini 50 Jahren jede melanesische Wanderung fiir hochst 
unwahrscheinlich erklaren zu miissen geglaubt hatte, traten nach einem nicht unbretracht- 
lichen Anwachsen unserer Kenntnisse iiber Ost-Neu-Guinea im Jahre 1889 zwei Ansichten 
zugleich in die Offentlichkeit, von denen eine jede den richtigen Wanderweg der hier sitzen- 
den Melanesier gefunden zu haben glaubte. Die eine stammte von E. J. Hamy, die andere 
von Basil Thomson. 

"Die von Thomson ist schnell erledigt. Wahrend die Motu und verwandten Stamme 
selbst angeben dass sie von Osten kommend eingewandert sind, sagt Thomson dass sie von 
Westen gekommen seien, also durch die Torres-Strasse. Ich wiirde diese durch nichts 
gestiitzte nackte Angabe nicht welter angefiihrt haben, wenn nicht William Chiu-chill kiirz- 
lich in einer umfangreichen Arbeit den Beweis erbracht zu haben glaubt, dass tatsachlich 
ein von Westen kommender Wanderzug durch die Torres-Strasse gegangen sei und auf 
diesem Wege die Neu-Hebriden erreicht habe. Churchill glaubt mit Hilfe sprachlicher 
Untersuchungen zwei M. P.-Wanderstrassen aus Indonesien nach der Siidsee festgesteUt 
zu haben, von denen die eine soeben genannt wurde, wahrend die andere nordlich um Neu- 
Guinea, nordlich von Neu-Pommern durch den St. Georgs-Kanal nach den Salomonen ging. 
Die Dampier- und Vitiaz-Strassen werden von ihm ignoriert. Es ist hier nicht der Ort 
auf die Methode und Durchfiihrung der Arbeit von Churchill einzugehen; ich kann auch 
nicht versuchen, den Beweis zu liefern, dass diese von ihm gewonnenen Ergebnisse nach 
meiner Ansicht nicht richtig sind. Wenn ich jedoch nachweise, dass die Westlichen Papuo- 
Melanesier von Britisch-Neu-Guinea durch die Vitiaz- und Dampier-Strasse gefahren sind, 
imd dann von Osten kommend ihre neue Heimat an der Siidkiiste von Neu-Guinea erreicht 
haben, dann beweise ich zugleich, dass diese Melanesier wenigstens nicht von Westen diu-ch 
die Torres-Strasse gekommen sind, und ich beweise, dass es neben der Torres-Strasse imd 
dem St. Georgs-Kanal noch ein drittes hochstwichtiges Einfallstor in die Siidsee gibt, namlich 
die Meeresstrassen zwischen Neu-Guinea und Neu-Pommern. 

Unter Heranziehung des damals ja nur sparlich fliessenden ethnologisch-anthropo- 
logischen Materials, aber unter sachgemasser Ausnutzung desselben, weist Hamy in einer 
sehr geschickten Abhandlung eine melanesische Wanderstrasse nach, die entlang der Nord- 
kiiste von Neu-Guinea durch die Dampier-Strasse bis in den Louisiaden-Archipel zu verfol- 
gen ist. Schon allein die Vernachlassigung dieser vortrefflichen Arbeit oder des in ihr 
steckenden Materials, das er ja auch selbst hatte sammeln konnen, erscheint als ein Fehler 
in Churchills Methode. Es ist iibrigens nicht allein Churchill dem diese verdienstvoUe 
Arbeit entgangen zu sein scheint. 

I am peculiarly grateful to Captain Friederici for his graceful note that 
I am not the only student of the South Sea who has neglected to make the 
acquaintance of Hamy's work. A circumstance may be mentioned in palli- 
ation of my failure to see the migration possibility of Vitiaz and Dampier, 
At the time when I was first familiarizing myself with the channels of com- 
munication through Melanesia at a period considerably anterior to my friend's 
acquaintance with the now well-policed waters of the Bismarck Archipelago, 
this waterway between Neu-Pommern and New Guinea was a most forbidding 
spot. Access to its northern portal was difficult, to its southern portal equally 
hazardous, the strait itself was all but unknown and its reputation was of the 
worst. As a navigator I formed a distinct impression of the imavailability of 
the passage ; this impression has persisted into my later studies, this confession 
resting more on the sympathetic than on the scientific order of thought. 

I am very glad that Captain Friederici establishes this passage as the 
third of the Polynesian highways. I am thereby better able to adjust in the 
general scheme of travel the Polynesian content of Bonguand kindred languages 
of German New Guinea, including therewith the interesting case of Mannam 
Island. 

Yet I do not consider that my theory of a Torres Strait fairway for Polyne- 
sian migration is thereby contravened, nor does Captain Friederici make that 
claim, for he speaks of the Dampier- Vitiaz as "noch ein drittes hochstwichtiges 
Einfallstor in die Siidsee." I am glad to see that in writing for the Bulletin 
of the American Geographical Society of Friederici's second volume I pointed 
out that his record of the Barriai speech was suflficient to establish this strait 
as an open highway to the Polynesian fleet. 



J 



POLYNESIAN AND MALAYAN. 175 

Whatever the decision may be at which we may arrive in advancing 
knowledge as to the peophng of the Uttoral of British New Guinea, I do not 
think that it will be necessary to regard Torres Strait as closed to Polynesian 
migration. That view is held by Sidney Ray and expressed in his study of 
the vocabulary material contained in Wollaston's "Pygmies and Papuans." 
Yet from the coasts of that region, far to the west of the Gulf of Papua, and 
for which no one would suggest a settlement from the east, I am finding sources 
of the same Polynesian content in speech. Torres Strait lay invitingly open 
before the fleeing Polynesians; we can see no reason why they should not 
follow that course. I contend that we do find linguistic monuments of their 
passage. 



THE SUBANU 

Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk 
OF Mindanao 



Part III. 

Subanu-English Vocabulary 
English-Subanu Vocabulary 
A Partial Bibliography 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



a thou, (ga, iga, ya, nia, niya.) 

dali a manece, go thou up hurriedly. 
toma a lognio song neen, why blamest 
thou him? 

V ca, second personal singular pronoun, 

nominative, always postpositive. 
a- a composition prefix (Visayan ca-). 
c. used singly : 

abagol alisod atalao 

abolo alongas atoc 

abotang 
h. in conjunction with suffix -an or -on; 
abilingan alobungan atandanan 
alanganan aloonan atapusan 

alibutan amatayon atodanan 
alipayan 
aao cacao. (Spanish cacao.) 

aaoan cacao orchard. 
aba alas. 

aba, abagol mo cogool, alas, what great 
pain! 

V abaa, interjection of grief or wonder. 
abagol Cf. bagol. 

abayo {cabayo) horse. (Spanish caballo.) 

abilingan Cf. biling. 

abolo Cf. bolo, 

abotang Cf. botang. 

agen I. 

agom to enjoy. 

pocagagom enjoyment. 

V agom, to enjoy. 
aguanta Cf. nocpigaguanta. 

alaan adverbial modifier used with bisan to 
convey the sense that the word with 
which it is employed is used in a 
sense absolute, see the same usage 
of somala alandon. 
pegotaran sog bisan alaan, headpiece, 
caption. 

alaik 

alaik punanen, alaik sabab, why, rea- 
son, cause. 

alalaat mercy. Cf. laat. 

V alaot, interjection of pain. ~- 
alandon adverbial modifier in the sense of 

alaan, used with somala and less fre- 
quently with bisan, generally post- 
positive, but sometimes precedes the 
word or phrase which it modifies. 

pocaoid somala alandon, to attach, to 
seize. 

di poggolat sog bisan alandon, to elimi- 
nate. 

somala alandon nong molingin, glo- 
bular. 

bisan alandon sogbobaan, to put into 
a basket. 
alanganan Cf. langan. 
alibutan Cf. libot. 



alipayan Cf. lipay. 
alisod Cf. lisod. 
alobungan Cf. lobung. 
alongas Cf. longas. 
aloonan Cf. loon, 
amaaron Cf. aron. 
amatayon Cf. matay. 
amatene Cf. matay. 
ambit to share. 

pogambit to impart. 

V ambit, to share, to hold in common, to 

communicate. 
ami we (exclusive). 

Kolon: hami. Bima: nami. 
amo you. (gamo, lamo, yamo.) 

V camo, second personal pronoun pliu-al. 
-an suffix, see a-, ca-. 

anahau a tree whose long leaves are used in 

religious dances. 
anding goat. 

V canding, id. 

antocos spectacles. (Spanish anteojos). 
Iberian barbarism has treated the semi- 
vowel j after a manner which richly illus- 
trates the possibilities of phonetic degra- 
dation. In present Castilian, which is one 
of the few languages of Europe which car- 
ries the aspirate proximate to each of the 
three speech organs, the j has an h value. 
In Latin America and in California of our 
own continental area an elder phase of the 
Castilian, or a distinct Iberian dialect, has 
prevailed, and we hear for j the compound 
of palatal surd mute with the preface of 
the palatal nasal, ngk; thus vulgo in Cali- 
fornia Los Angeles has become Angkeles, 
and San Jose, stopping a little short of the 
bottom of the palatal column, is Sangk- 
hose. Here, in dominions oversea which 
we have acquired from the errant Spaniard 
we meet once again this mutation clear 
across the palatal tract; the point arising 
in languages of less complex structure will 
be found discussed at some length at page 
20 of Easter Island. 

antosan to bear, to endure, (gantoson.) 
sogmolomo antosan, bearable, light. 

V antos, to bear, to suffer. 
ang an article. 

V ang, nominative article of appellative 

nouns. 
angay to take, (gangay.) 

pogangay nog rongog, slander, defama- 
tion. 
sogmogangay nog dongog, slanderer. 
aoid to grasp. 

pocaoid somala alandon, to attach, to 
seize. 

V haoid, to detain, to seize, to hold. 

179 



180 



THE SUBANU. 



apote {capote) coat. (Spanish capote.) 
apote doon igbongcon noc ponopoton 
nong moreipol gobonong mogonao, 
greatcoat. 
apujungal a forest spirit with the head of a 
man on the body of a pig; it must 
be propitiated by boar hunters. 
aromanan a relative. 
arugo oath. 
aron like, similar. 

tnoni aron noc taliaman, a spear. 
maaron like, the same, identical. 
mananap maaron nog osa, gazelle. 
maaron nog leen noc pomotangon, iden- 
tical. 
hosi maaron noc talloma, javelin. 
gondi maaron, disagreement. 
di maaron, dissimilar. 
pocomaaron, identity. 
amaaron gosaca, identically. 
nong maaron, imitation. 
sogondaay tundongon noc pacanaoron, 
delusive. 
momaaron 

mananap momaaron no guicos, civet 
cat. 
arunaan rich, wealthy, renowned. 

V arunahan, rich. 
asoang enchanter. 

V asoang, wizard, ghost. 
atalao Cf. talao. 

atandanan (a : tondong : an, cf. atoda- 
nan, tondong). 
poctonian noc atandanan, to satisfy. 

V catongdanan, that which is due. 
atapusan Cf. tapus. 

atoc (a : toe) to guess. 

V tagna, to conjecture, to prognosticate, 

to prophesy, to guess a riddle, to 
solve a problem. 
atodanan (a : tondong : an, cf. atanda- 
nan, tondong). 

V catongdanan, obligation, to owe; ton- 

god, to belong, to pertain to. 
atop roof. Cf. gatop. 

poctolo nongog atop, to rain. 

V atop, roof, thatch. Kayan : ato, thatch. 

Bugis: atok, id. Samoa: ato, id. 
atud (hatud) to carry. 

pocoatud, carriage, transport. 
sogmogatod, carrier, conductor. 

V hatod, to carry, to bear. 
au I. 

ayac appetite, liking for food, 
gayac affectionately. 

gayac so gombagol, lovingly. 
mayac to love. 

molonto mayac, inclined to love, of a 

loving disposition. 
ang mayac, lover. 
nogayac lovingly. 

sognigasoy sonnem nogayac, a lover. 

ba interrogative particle. 

maligos ba tugaling, is he worse. 

V ba, note of interrogation. 



baa flood. 

haa noc tubig, overflow of rivers, spate, 
freshet. 

V baha, flood, freshet. 
baag loin cloth. 

baal to make. Cf. balon, binaal. 
pogbaal, to form, to shape. 
socpogbaal, efficiency. 
gaom socpogbaal, faculty of mind, 

efficiency. 
sogmigbaal nog balay, builder, archi- 
tect. 
socsocalhaalan, executable, susceptible 

of being made. 
bonoa noc pogbaalan, workshop. 
baal to work in the fields, to till the soil, 

Cf. balan, binal, beninalan. 
moghaal lamo noc sulal, did you work 

in the orchard? 
moomogbaal, laborer. 
nogmigbaal sog lopa, day laborer, 

farmer. 
sogmigbaal, laborer. 
pogbaal somala alandon, to till the 

soil. 
sogondi mayac mogbaal moglanglaang, 

idler, vagabond, loafer. 

V baol, to till the soil. 
baalbaal Cf. balbal. 

baangan to find, to meet, to encounter. 
baat poghaat, to chain. 

V pagbaat, id. 

baba the edge of a knife. 
baba the mouth. 

tundong sa cabayo nga sangol sog baba, 
bit. 

V baba, mouth. Matu: baba, id. Kayan: 

ba, id. 
baba to carry by land. 

This may be a scrivener's error for bala 
to carry a load (Visayan bala in that sense) ; 
at the same time it is equally possible that 
it is Polynesian fafa to carry on the back. 
baba down, under. 

dien ha baba, from the bottom. 
baboy pig. 

baboy talon, wild boar. 

baboy talon boloog, wild sow. 

bool noc paa nog baboy, slice of pork. 

laneg baboy, lard. 

giiniid baboy, pork. 

V baboy, pig. Bontoc Igorot: Jdfuy, 

boar. 
bacalan 

libong bo bacalan noc tobon nog dina- 

mog bata, a barren female. 
bacoao heel. 
badi a nervous spell. 
badya the Visayan plow, a bent stick drawn 

by carabao, not used by the Subanu. 
baga lung. 

V baga, id. 
baga arrogant. 

pocobaga, arrogantly, loftily, in a dis- 
pleasing manner, offensive. 

V pagcahobag, arrogant. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



181 



baga live coals. 

baga tondong noc abolo no gapoy, igni- 
tion, combustion, burning. 
pagbaga noc potao, to weld iron. 
V baga, live coals. 
baga the shoulder. 

Bontoc Igorot: poko, id. 
bagas Cf. begas. 

bagas mais, meal, flour. 
bagol large, great. 
abagol 

boligan nong nga abagol, a large wild 

bee. 
aba, abagol mo cogool, alas, what great 
pain! 
gom bagol 

gayac so gonibagol, lovingly. 
gontbagol noc palongan noc pogogasan 

somala alandon, trough. 
gotao gombagol noc sopingi, fleshy. 
gotao noc socogan gopia gombagol nog- 

lana, a person of great strength. 
pogogovitan somala nog gare so gomba- 
gol noc lonsod, language, idiom. 
macabagol 

macabagol noc tian, potbelly. 
noctibagol 

soc lupa noctibagol gutnale, glebe. 
nogombagol 
golo nogombagol, lintel. 
milipay yo nogombagol, I am very glad. 
liga nogombagol, blaze, fire light. 
teguib nogombagol, a large chisel. 
calaatan nogombagol, injustice. 
domomog nogombagol, thick heavy lips. 
sogmebagolan 

sogmebagolan nog damomog, thick 
lipped. 
bahagi to part. 
bahal 

dangal bahal, a tree growing in the 
center of the sea. 
bahin part. 

bai lady, princess (Moro). 
bais (embais) beautiful, good conduct. 
bakes a girdle. 

bakes panit, a leather belt. 
bal 

bal nogondi socal so catorongan, injust- 
ice. 
pombaal, to bring false witness, per- 
jury. 
ponbaal, calumny. 
balagon a vine. 

balagon nog bolaan, a creeping vine. 

V balagon, every kind of climbing vine 

or plant which employs tendrils for 
its support. 
balan Cf. baal. 

lopa nogompia balan, arable. 
balan i 

bato balani, lodestone. 

V batong balani, id. 
balat west wind. 
balay house, building. 

balay noc poctonaoan noc potao nog 
melamogampa nog lupa, ironworks. 



balay — continued. 

lopa mogondapa balay gorocan bo po- 
wo/onoM, uncultivated, uninhabited. 

sogmigbaal nog balay, builder, archi- 
tect. 

gosog nog balay, head of household or 
family. 

gampu nog balay, settlement of four or 
five houses, hamlet, village. 

V balay, house, abode of man or beast. 
balbal (baalbaal) enchanter. 

V balbal, witch, wizard, ghost. 
bale ah, alas. 

balian (babalian,walian)men and women 
who perform ceremonies in honor 
of the gods; spirits of the gods. 
bata balian, child spirits. 

ball bad excuse. 

V balibad, to excuse, to free of blame. 
balidya to sell. 

nocpogbalidya, factor, trader, mer- 
chant. 

V baligya, to sell, to trade by land or sea. 

Bima: beli, to sell. 
balidyaan 

bonua nocpogbalidyaan nonogong ma- 
noc, cockpit, place of betting on 
fowls. 
balilid to lie down, to recline. 
baling a cloth girdle or belt. 

baling somala alandon jabas matas bo 
moloctin, bandage. 

V baling, net of coarse texture. 
balingawa spider. 

Bontoc Igorot: kdaowa, id. 
balingdagat shore, strand, seacoast. Cf. 

dagat. 
baled a wave. 

pocdanlag nog balod, dashing of the 
sea, surf. 

V balod, waves of the sea or river. 
baloganan 

gabo pagbaloganan, fireplace, hearth. 
balon Cf. baal. 

malomo balon, feasible. 

socsocalbalon, feasible. 

sogsocalbalon, workable. 

pocolomo balon somala alandon, ability. 
balon provisions, food, ration. 

V balon, provisions. 
bales lie, untruth, fallacy. 

pogdonot sogpoctoon nog balos soc poc- 
cano, to be heathen. 

tontoltontol balos nog mibatog sog lon- 
sod, rumor, little tale, gossip. 

pocbalos, to tell lies. 
baleson impostor, cheat. 
balu 

balu nog lee, a widower. 

balu nog lihun, a widow. 

bata nog balu libun, a widow's son. 
Kayan: balu, widow. 
bandela banner. (Spanish bandera.) 

sogmogoit nog iancfe/a, standard bearer. 
bandi a jar. 
bandian 

lee nog bandian, a wealthy man. 



182 



THB SUBANU. 



banig to soften. 
banta enemy. 
bantug fame. 
bang 

gat bang, to face. 
bangitao alligator, crocodile. 

V balanghitao, id. 
bangot beard. 

poggatad poctolin nog bangot, to get a 
beard. 

V bongot, facial hair. 
bangon fine, blood money (Sulu). 
barong fighting knife. 

basa to read. 

basa 6 sulat, to read. 

maya nia ce pagbasa, read thou quietly. 

V basa, to read. Bontoc Igorot : fasdek, id. 
basa (bosa) to respect. 

sogantol nog basa, irreverent. 
pocgondaay basanon, irreverence. 
pocbasa to respect. 
basac mud. 

socmoglerme nog basac, plasterer. 
basacan mud. 
basting a bell. 
basu a cup. 

basulan repentance. Cf. inunsulan, gui- 
nonsola. 

V basol, to repent. 

bata child, offspring, son, daughter. 

bata noc poraigon gopia bo longaran- 

don, a spoiled child. 
mitondong nog bata, juvenile. 
libong bo bacalan noc tobon nog dina- 

mog bata, a barren female. 
panday negmegbata, midwife. 
bata balian, child spirit. 
bata ilu, orphan. 
bata lagi, a small male child. 
bata tubig, a creek, small stream. 
bata bulan, new moon, the first eighth 

of the moon. 
gektu bata bulan, the second eighth of 

the moon. 
batabata a baby. 

V bata, child. 

batad a custom. Cf. batasan, botasan. 
batang a log. 

batang soong, bridge of the nose. 
batangan 

batangan laget, tobacco box. 
batasan (batad) all the customs of a people. 

socalan igbutasan, to abolish. 

V batasan, custom, law, disposition. 
batasan (bata) mischievousness. 
bate brother-in-law. 

batirol chocolate pot. 

V batirol, id. 

batit young of animals. 

batit utung, young monkey. 
batiti a large bat. 
bato (batu) stone. 

bato balani, loadstone. 

nga binaal bato, to work stone. 

V bat6, stone of every sort. Bontoc Igo- 

rot: bato, id. 



batog to call. 
mibatog 

tontoltontol balos nogmibatog sog lonsod, 
rumor, gossip. 

V batog, to accost, to call birds. 
baton to educate. Cf. toonan. 

V baton, id. 
bawang a place. 

bawang ec daan, doorway. 
gampu nog bawang, village, hamlet. 
baya manner. 

baya gopia, gallantly. 
baya no gotao, human. 
palo baya, humbly. 
sogombaya 

sogombaya nog moloonnog magleinlein, 
a relative. 
bayad fright. 
begas (begus, bagus), husked rice. Cf. 

bagas. 
begelal important men in a village. 
begyaan cultivated field. 
bekna first. 
belagel shoulder-blade. 
belema to-morrow. Cf. lema, luma. 
belen loom. 
belilu 

gagun sinam belilu, sound of a gong 
which summons the midwife to her 
function. 
belintis shinbone, tibia. Cf. lintisan. 
bencong adze. 

V bingcong, id. 

beninalan (b : en : inal : an) cultivated field. 
Cf. binal. 
locao sog beninalan, cottage. 
benoiran (b : en : oir: an) hill. Cf. bod. 

atapusan sog benoiran, hilltop, summit. 
bengawan (b : eng : awan) a place. Cf. 
bawang, bunguan. 
bengawan nog gobal, a place where 
smoke may escape from a house, a 
chimney. 
biag servant, slave. 

biag nog mitom, a black slave. 

V bihag, a slave. 
bibig lips. 

bichara great conferences of the gods and 
balian in the sky, or of chiefs on 
earth. 

bigibigi seed. 

bila friend. 

V abian, id. Kolon, Bima: bela, id. 
bilibili deer, sheep, goat. 

bilin inheritance. 

socmicpongon noc cabilinan nogondi 
socalpogboclagan, patrimony. 

V bilin, inheritance, patrimony. 
biling difficult. 

abilingan (a : biling : an) difficulty. 

sogondaay abilingan somala alandon, 
easy. 

nog abilingan nog micaolang, to facili- 
tate. 

V biling, difficulty, mistrust. 
bilu blue. (? English.) 

gabilunen (ga : bilu : nen) blueness. 



SUBANU-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



183 



binaal (b : in : aal) to make. Cf. baal. 

nga binaal bato, to work stone. 
binabalay a large table or altar. Cf. balay. 
binal field of rice paddy. Cf. baal, beni- 
nalan. 

V bad, a rice field. 

binalan a field just cleared for cultivation. 

binaya footprint. 

bino wine. (Spanish vino.) 

binagel sugar. 

binocot monk, nun. 

gosog sag binocot, abbess. 

V binnocot, hermit, monk, friar. 
binutong (b : in : utong). 

soyon noc sulut binutong, emblem. 

V ibotang, on one side and the other. 
bingcon arm. 

V bocton, botcon, id. 
bingguil 

nocmacabingguil sa gompia nog huot 
poctobe, detractor. 
biring domestic cat. 

bisan adverbial modifier used with a/aan and 
alandon, though, notwithstanding. 

V bisan, though, notwithstanding. 
bitegel necklace. 

bitun a star. 

genit bitun, a meteor, shooting star. 

V bitoon, star. 
bityala lawsuit. 
biyanan the bit of a bridle. 
bo (bu) or, and. 

boangboang (buangbuang) imbecile, fool- 
ish. 
gotao nog boangboang, enchanted. 

V boangboang, foolish, crazy. 
boaya alligator, crocodile. 

V boaya, id. Bontoc Igorot: fudya, id. 
(loan word). 

bobaan a small basket. 

bobaan nog molipotot, a large round 

basket. 
bisan alandon sogbobaan, to put into a 
basket. 
bobo a fool. (Spanish bobo.) 
bobonayan 

bobonayan noc tondo, the space be- 
tween the knuckles. 
bocbaac a little green frog. 

V baqui, a frog. Bontoc Igorot: fakfak, id. 
boclag to separate. 

boclag ondi somogot, defection. 
pocboclag dispersion. 

pocboclag soc gotao nga soay, divorce, 
boclagon 

socniicpongon noc cabilinan nogondi 
socalpogboclagon, heritage, patri- 
mony. 

V bolag, to separate in general. 
bocposon a little whelp, pup. 
bocsoc nail, spike. 

boctasan to hiccup. 

pocolog nog guilid sopogloguinaod boc- 
tasan, to pant, to palpitate. 

bod a hillock or mound of earth. Cf. bulud, 
benoiran. 



bogay (bugay) to supply; a gift. 

bogayan gaco noc tubig, give me water. 
malibogayan giver. 

pagbogay somala alandon, to form, to 

shape. 
socsocalbogayan nog ken, alienable. 
bogguiong a trumpet. 

V bodyong, id. 
bogotondo knuckle. Cf. tondo. 
bogogu ankle. Kolon: bungu, id. Bima: 

bunggu, id. 
bogondaay Cf. daay. 
bogutao a boy at puberty. 
boi to fire a cannon. 

V bohi, id. 

bold wages. Cf. buis. 

gotao sogboid, day laborer. 
Bontoc Igorot: ifu-bowis-an, taxes. 
boktol rump. 
bolaan 

balagon nog bolaan, a creeping vine. 

V bolacan, a climbing vine. 
bolao red. 

poctina noc bolao, to dye red. 

V paolao, red. 
bolibod crown of the head. 
bolic poison. 

bolig to carry by land. 

V bala, id. 
boligan a large fly. 

boligan nong nga abagol, a large wild. 

bee. 
boligan macalintoc, a small wild bee. 
Bontoc Igorot: faolengan, bumblebee. 
bolit to varnish. 

V bolit, id. 

(bollo) pogbollo to tire oneself. 
bolo ferocious, brave, courageous. 
bolo tugaling, ferocity. 
abolo 

pocgangay noc capinlas abolo socog, 

to enervate, to debilitate. 
baga tondong noc abolo no gapoy, igni- 
tion, burning. 
pocabolo tugaling, inhumanly. 
cabolo 

cabolo so posong, courage. 
macabolo brave, courageous. 
(bolobod) sogmogbolobod revolving. 
bolong to heal. 

pomolanon pia nog bolong, gahum. 
sogondaay bolong, irremediably. 
pocbolong to cure. 
bolong to abandon. 
boloog a breeding sow. 

baboy talon boloog, sow of wild swine. 

boloy , , , 

galad nog llayan lanas socpogboloy noc 
sura soc tubigan, a cane enclosure 
for catching fish. 
bombol fur, hair, feathers (not used of 
human hair). 
poctiibo sog bombol nog manocmanoc, 
to become fledged. 
bonal to smite, to strike, to beat. 

pogbonal noc penoto, cutlass stroke. 

V bonal, to beat. 



184 



THE SUBANU. 



bondyag to baptize. 

V bonyag, id. 

bone germ, sprout, bud. 

V binhi, id. 
bono to kill. 

malibonoay sog nga gombata nong 

mieca, child-slayer. 
sogmigbono, infanticide. 

V bono, to assassinate, to slay. 
bono (bunu) enemy, against. 
bonoa place, land. 

bonoa nog napo, field. 

bonoa noc pogbaalan, workshop. 

bonoa noc tubigan, puddle, marsh, 

swamp. 
nila bonua noc tiiian, beehive. 
bonua nocolonan nocpoc tobora, a 

spring. 
hontia noc pogbalidyyan nongong ma- 

noc, cockpit. 
bonua nocpoc picnogan nog bonga, 

place for ripening. 
pogdolan nog biinua, to obscure the 
land. 

V banoa, banua, place. 
bonoal town. 

bontal full, replete. 
bontol to beat. 

pagbontol soc poloaponiopoion, to beat 
cloth. 
bonug to hear. 
bong 

labong yesterday. 
lalabong afternoon. 

V cahapon, yesterday. 
bonga Cf. bunga. 
bongcon 

apote doon igbongcon noc ponopoton 
nong moreipol gobonong mogonao, 
greatcoat. 
booc hair of the head. 

gotao nong motaas nog booc, hairy. 
caloonan nog booc, false hair. 
boocan false hair, hairy. 

V bohoc, hair of the head. Bontoc Igo- 

rot: jook, id. 
boocon to divide. 

sogondi maimo guilaso boocon, indivis- 
ible. 
boogon 

gaan noc potocon boogon noc tonob so- 
mala ala^idon nong mobogbog, cakes. 
bool 

bool noc paa nog baboy, rasher, slice of 
pork. 
boot to judge. Cf. bout, buot. 

malaat nog boot, hatred, displeasure. 
colang sog boot, imbecile. 
pocboot to govern. 
magboot governor. 
pogboot to command. 
sogmogboot commander. 

sopagboot nogogolingon, imperiously. 
bootan judicious, ripe in judgment, 
mature. 
V boot, to judge; bootan, prudent, judi- 
cious. 



bores pregnant. 
bosa Cf. basa. 
bosacan to fall into a pit. 
bosi spear. 

bosi maaron noctalloma, a javelin. 

bosi doon ec somagan, a lance. 
bota a building. 
botang condition. 

abotang (a : botang) ease. 

malaat no abotang, ill at ease. 

V pagcabotang, manner of being. 
botasan habit. Cf. batad, batasan. 

sogmalaat nog botasan, rogue, swind- 
ler. 
mibotasan to accustom. 

V pagbotasan, to accustom. 
botis foot. 

botomicaon boy. Cf. bata. 

bout to desire, to like. Cf. boot, buot. 

boutolon 

pogosig noquito nocpogboutolon, howl- 
ing of a dog. 
bu (bo) and, or. 
bual (bwal) a spring of water. 
buanan fireplace, hearth. 
buangbuang Cf. boangboang. 
buat to emanate. 

buat soc poglibon no gotao, venereal 
disease. 

pigbuatan soniala alandon, germ, 
sprout, bud. 
bugay Cf. bogay. 
bui mountain, forest. 

V boquid, mountain. Bicol: buquid, id: 

Magindano: puked, id. Malay: 
bukit, id. Cf. Samoa: pu'e. 
buis (buhis) tribute, tax paid to chiefs. 
Cf. boid. 
pocstiquit noc paldon sogmigbuis, to 

enroll in a census. 
gantang buhisan, a basket measure of 
rice. 
Bontoc Igorot : fuys, taxes. 
bukar a small table or altar. 
bukid land, field, soil, farm, country (Taga- 
log). 
bukid na sinasaka, land under tilth. 
buklug 

a. A festival propitiatory of the gods or m 

general celebration of some memo- 
rable event. 

buklug puluntu, festival for the aged 
dead or for those long dead. 

buklug pimala, festival for the young 
dead or for those recently dead. 

buklug timala, festival for the infant 
dead or those dead but lately. 

b. a dancing platform. 
buksai war-cry. 
buktin a sucking pig. 
bulac flower. 

V bolac, flower. 
bulan moon, month. 

bata bulan, new moon, first eighth of 

the moon. 
gektu bata bulan, second eighth. 
gektu gulang bulan, fifth eighth. 



SUBANU-EJNGI<ISH VOCABULARY. 



185 



bulan — continued. 

minsan liu gulang bulan, sixth eighth. 
manamat bulan, evil spirits which 

cause the moon to disappear. 
gelektu langit bulan, good spirits which 

bring back the moon and keep its 

face clear. 

V bulan, bolan, moon, month. Bontoc 

Igoro t :/«an, buan, moon, month. 

bulatuk a spirit bird that determines the 
best site for a house; if the bird 
perches on the beams of a new 
house the site must be abandoned. 

bulawan (buluan) gold. 

bulinga egg. 

bulud hill. Cf. bod. (b : ul : ud). 
buludbulud hillock. 
gabuludan (ga : bulud : an) hilly region. 

bunu Cf. bono. 

bunua Cf. bonoa. 

bunga (bonga) 

a. fruit. 

bonua nocpoc picnogan nog bonga, 
I place for ripening fruit. 

h. areca palm nut used in betel chewing. 
c. kidney. 

V bonga, fruit. 

bunguan gateway. Cf. bengawan. 
buot (bout, boot) will. 

paubos nog buot, discouragement. 

colang sog boot, imbecile. 

penonogonan sogogolingong nog buot, 
abnegation. 

culang nog buot, silly. 

V boot, will. 
buta to enroll. 

pogbuta noc pegotaran noc suquit, to 
enroll in a census. 

V botang, to place, to deposit. 
butaal wild boar. 

butang to place, to put. 
j 1 - pocbutang guison, to put into a basket. 

I V botang, to place, to deposit. 

buun a jar valued at 12^ piculs of rice. 

buyo the leaf used in betel chewing. 

buyun swollen neck, goitre. 

ca- a composition prefix (Visayan ca-). 
Cf. a-. 
c. used singly: 

cabolo calongas casamoc 

calingin capintas 

b. in conjunction with suffix -an or -on : 

cabilinan camatayon casayoran 
calaatan capolosan catorongan 
caloonan 
caban box, chest. 

poquipos somala alandon soglogua noc 
caban, to pack into a trunk. 

V caban, chest, box, trunk. 

cabayo (abayo) horse. {Spanish caballo.) 
tundong sa cabayo nga sangol sog baba, 
bit. 
cabilinan Cf. bilin. 
cabolo Cf. bolo. 



(cabolong) poccabolong drunken. 
cahoy tree. 

camote cahoy, cassava. 

V cahoy, tree. 
calaatan Cf. laat. 

(calauat) paccalauat to confess and take 
communion. 

V calaoat, to receive in general, specifi- 

cally to take communion. 
calingin Cf. lingin. 
caliuanag Cf. liu. 

caliiianag no calingin, warped. 
calontinay a large fly. 
calongas Cf. longas. 
caloonan Cf. loon, 
camatayon Cf. matay. 
camote sweet potato. (Spanish camote, 
Aztec camotl, Quichua kumar.) 

camote cahoy, cassava. 
cana to eat. Cf. gaan. 

mi naan cayia, hast thou dined? 

V canon, daily food. Bontoc Igorot: 

kdnek, mdkan, mdngan, to eat. 
capintas Cf. pintas. 
capolosan Cf. polos, 
capote (apote) cloak. (Spanish capote.) 

poclabon sa capote, to cloak. 
carongo arrival, coming. 
casamoc Cf. samoc. 
casayoran Cf. sayor. 
casit to pass. 

pocgondaay casit, impassable, impassa- 
bility. 
Vsaquit, to pass. 
casoon 

casoon guiadman, ability. 
catorongan Cf. torong. 
catubo Cf. tobo. 
caya this, that. 

ulimo caya, return that to. 

V cana, this, that. 
cisabaon Cf. sabao. 
coendoc Cf. ondoc. 
cogool pain. 

aba, abagol mo cogool, alas, what great 
pain. 

V olol, pain. 

colang (culang) to lack, to want. 

colang sog boot, imbecile. 

gongog culang nog buot, silly. 
compinsal to confess. (Spanish confesar.) 

pocompinsal, to make one's confession. 
Vcompisal, id. 
cone-no-gondao to-day. 
conotconot to tuck. 

ming conotconot da ig viste, to purse up 
the gown. 

V conot, to double, to fold. 
congol to dwell. 

picongolan habitation, dwelling, lodg- 
ing. 
pocongolan to inhabit. 

song mopia pocongolan, habitable. 
sogondaay pocongolan, uninhabited. 
pocongolan nog nila noc tioan, queen- 
bee cell. 



186 



THE SUBANU. 



corala Cf. dala. 

pagcorala deficit. 

V pagcaoala, id. 
cota (cotu) wall. 

cota nog lombos lupa, a wall between 
fields. 

V cota, id. 

cotat to swing, to move from side to side, 
cotecote to weary, to molest. 

V coticoti, to weary with unimportant 

details. 
cotooto the stomach. 

V cotocoto, id. 
culang Cf. colang. 

cutao (cu : tao) iron. Cf. potao, tonaoan. 

da no, not. 

sogonda, not. 

sogonda inog, unseasonable. 
da 

ming conotconot da tg viste, to purse up 
the gown. 
daag to gain, to win. 

V daog, to win in battle. 
daan road, path. Cf. dalan. 

casayoran nog daan, itinerary. 
baivang ec daan, doorway. 

V dalan, road. 
daan old. 

lotang nog daan, ancient piece of ar- 
tillery. 

ponopoton nog daan, old ragged 
clothes. 

V daan, any old thing. 

daap not yet. (Visayan pa, yet.) 
ondaapa 

golang guisip nogondaapa mobiaray, 

unliquidated. 
lopa mogondaapa balay gorocan bo 

pomolonan, uncultivated. 
ondaapa mooay, unliquidated. 
daay no, none. 

mananap nong mica daay ngalan, 
animal which has no name. 
daayron there is not. Cf. taron, I do 

not know. 
gondaay no, not. 

gondaay soboton, idiocy. 
gondaay gaom, idiocy. 
bogondaay 

gotao bogondaay gaom, idiot. 
nogondaay 

gotao nogondaay sabuton, idiot. 
nogondaay masin, unsalted. 
lopa nong napo nogondaay magpondo- 
pondo, a plain. 
pocgondaay 

pocgondaay basanon, irreverence. 
pocogondaay 

pocogondaay sonan, ignorance. 
pocogondaay gaom, ignorance. 
sogondaay 

sogondaay dason malaat pigondian, 

unlawful. 
sogondaay motagam, unskilled. 
sogondaay tundongon noc pacanaoron, 
delusive. 



daay — continued. 

sogondaay abilingan somala alandon, 

easy. 
sogondaay atapusan pingoc toban, un- 
limited. 
sogondaay pares, unequal. 
sogondaay ig donia, unequal. 
sogondaay gondoc bo atalao, intrepidity. 
sogondaay sinonan, unskilfully. 
sogondaay miiagam, unskilfully. 
sogondaay pocongolan, uninhabited. 
sogondaay bolong bo sopla, irremedi- 
ably. 
sogondaay pocpasaylo, irremissibly. 
moggondaay 

sog sondalo moggondaay abayo, in- 
fantry. 
sopoggondaay 

sopoggondaay dason, illicitly. 
dacsoc compact, solid, massive. 

dacsoc soc sogod, to stow cargo. 

V dinasoc, sohd. 
dagat sea. 

diuata dagat, a good spirit of the sea 
but harmful if not properly pla- 
cated. 

piisu dagat, the navel or center of the 
sea. 

baling dagat, shore. 

V dagat, sea. 
dagel much. 

madagel many. 

magdagel very much indeed. 
daghan to sell. 
dagom indigo plant. 

V tagom, id. 
daig praise. 

pogdaig to praise. 

V dayig, id. 
dala to carry. 

V dala, to bear, to carry. 
dala defection. Cf. corala. 

V pagcaoala, id. 
dalag yellow. 

poti dalag, the dawn. 
madalag (maralag) yellow. 
dalaga girl, unmarried woman, maiden. 

V dalaga, id. 

dalan road, path. Cf. daan. 

soc tondong nog dalan, itinerary. 

V dalan, road. Bontoclgorot: djdlan, id. 
dali quick, prompt. 

dali a manece, go thou up promptly. 

dali amo din amo manubua, ^ come 

quickly for the hunt, ye spirits. 

V dali, id. 

dalinduman (d : al : indum : an) to re» 
member. 

V domdom, id. 

dalomdom (d : al : omdom) memory. 
pogdalomdom to imagine. 

V panondoman, memory. 
daluan hen. 

daluaji libuyu, wild hen. 
damdam grass mat. 
damomog Cf. domomog. 
danaan Cf. donaan. 



SUBANU-ENGWSH VOCABULARY. 



187 



danao Cf. lanao. 
danlag Cf. domanlag. 

pocdanlag nog balod. dashing of the sea, 
surf. 
danol old ragged clothes. Cf. daan. 
dangal 

dangal bahal, a tree growing in the 
center of the sea {pusu dagat). 
dao to defraud, a thief, pickpocket. 
mogdao a thief. 

tnogdao motoo tugaling, a clever thief. 
pigdaoan theft. 
pogdao to steal. 
sogmogdadao a thief. 

sognietondong sogmogdadao, thievish. 

V caoat, to defraud. 
daoa a maize-like grain. 

V daoa, id. 
dapig faction. 

V dapig, ally, partisan. 

daro a plow, to plow. (? Spanish arar, 
arado.) 
soc lupa noc tibagol gtiinale ho semicoat 
nog daro, glebe. 

V daro, id. 
daromog Cf. domomog. 
dason lawful. 

sopoggondaay dason, illicitly. 
sogondaay dason malaat pigondian, 
unlawful. 
date rich, renowned. 

V date, chief, rich. 
datong 

pagdatong arrival, coming. 
datu (date) a chief. 

datu tondo, second finger. 
dawat dark water, ink. 
dayandayan to embellish, to adorn. 

V dayandayan, an ornament of any sort. 
debaloy 

polog sa goto debaloy bo debaloy, to nod 
the head. 

V sa luyo ug sa luyo (loyo), to one side 

and the other. 

deec 

pogdeec to climb. 

delengan a hearth or earthenware stove 
used by the newly delivered mother 
in order to " dry up the womb ;" the 
patient lies for several days with 
her back to the fire sufficiently close 
to scorch the skin. The same prac- 
tice has been noted among the 
Kayan of Borneo. 

deliai any moment of time. 

deni (dini) here, hither. Cf. dien. 

V dinhi, here. 
deoata Cf. diuata. 
depa a fathom. 

di no, not. 

di poggolat sog bisan alandon, to elimi- 
nate. 

di a moglingalinga soc simbaan, be not 
disorderly in church. 

di maliag song naan nong mogulang, 
my parents do not wish it. 



di — continued. 

di motahap, intrepid. 
di gusay, never. 
di maaron, dissimilar. 
disomama, dissimilar. 
ondi no, not. 

boclag ondi somogot, defection. 
gondi 

gondi gangay, disagreement. 
gondi maaron, dissimilar. 
gondi maglaro, impassable. 
nogondi 

bal nogondi socal so catorongan, injus- 
tice. 
socmicpongon noc cabilinan nogondi 
socalpogbaclogan, inheritance. 
pigondian 

sogondaay dason malaat pigondian, 
unlawfid. 
pingondian dissent. 
pocondi 

pocondi maimo soc sala, impeccability. 
pocgondi 

pocgondi soc pinongi, denial. 
sogondi 

sogondi maglaro, impassable. 
sogondi magalin, imperturbable. 
sogondi maimo gantoson, insupport- 
able. 
sogondi maimo guilason boocon bo 

suayon, indivisible. 
sogondi maimo noc sala, impeccable. 
sogondi maimo noc pasaylon, impar- 

donable. 
sogondi maimo nong morala, inde- 
structible. 
sogondi maimo pomagon, inflexible. 
sogondi maimo posocliyan, immutable. 
sogondi maimo uraman, immutable. 
sogondi moctoo, inflexible. 
sogondi mogbatic, impassable. 
sogondi mayac moghaal moglanglaang, 

idler, vagabond. 
sogondi motaron, unlawful. 
sogondi socalpasaylon, irremissible. 
sogondi somoon, unskilled. 
Bontoc Igorot: adi, no, not. 
dialum within, inside, under. 

dialum noc lubig, under the water. 
Kolon, Bima: di, to, in, at. 
dibabau on, upon. 

dibahau palad, the back of the hand. 
dibabau noc palapa, the instep. 
dien there. Cf. deni. 

dien iposay, there, behold I 
dien ha baba, from the bottom. 
dig 

manunsuma dig nila, to eat wax. 
dila tongue. 

V dila, id. Bima: rem, id. Bontoc Igo- 
rot: djtla, id. 
dilo no, not. 

dilo mopong, dissimilar. 
Vdili, no. 
din hunt. 

dali amo din amo manubua, come 
quickly for the hunt, ye spirits. 



188 



THE SUBANU. 



dinamog 

libong bo bacalan noc tobon nog dina- 
mog bata, a barren female. 
dinampak a jar valued at lo piculs of rice. 
dine to be. 
dini Cf. deni. 

dinoksulan a large fire, a conflagration. 
dipag across. 

pagdipag soc suba so guset, to cross 
rivers on floats. 

V taboc, the other side, across the sea or 

river. 
dipuksaya a female spirit living midway 
between heaven and earth, some- 
times materializes as the birds tibo- 
gok or guinagan. 
diselum early morning. Cf. selem. 
ditaas Cf. taas. 
diuata (deoata, diwatta) god. 

mangampon sog diuata, thank god. 
soc mitondong nog deoata, idolatrous. 
pocdiuata to pray. 

poccadiuata divinity. (See dagat, Ian- 
git, mamanua, matuhud, minubu, 
mitubu, mogolot, sindupan.) 

V dios, the true god; dioata, a false god, 

idol. 
In the Philippines, in whose tangle of 
languages the word is of wide and general 
distribution, it has been suggested that 
diuata derives from Sanskrit deva. Not 
only have we to bear in mind the fact that 
eastward migration is contrary to the great 
westward sweep of the Aryan folk, but 
also that in Indonesia we can trace the 
comparatively modern Indian influence 
(circa 300 B.C.) only as far as Java. It 
seems simpler to derive diuata from Chris- 
tian effort through the Spanish dios. The 
source remaining the same, it is far easier 
for the Aryan folk to carry the word from 
dyaus to Zeus and deus and by means of 
dios in the westward sweep of the world 
than to struggle against the current these 
few eastward miles. The distinction made 
by the Visayan is wholly artificial, and a 
tenuous divarication. 

doctoc to buffet. 

dogo blood. 

sogdogo flux, hemorrhage. 

V dogo, blood. 
doguian 

gayo nog doguian, acacia. 
dolan a cloud. 

pogdolan to overcloud. 

pogdolan nog bunua, to obscure the 
land, to overshadow. 
doma equal. 

sogondaay ig doma, unequal. 
domanlag 

socdomanlag, one who makes impor- 
tunate demands. 
domangop (d : om : angop) to receive, to 
grant asylum. 

V dangop, id. 



domomog (damomog, daromog) the lips. 
songag domomog nogombagol bo marei- 

pol, thick lips. 
sogmebagolan nog damomog, thick 
lipped. 
donaan (danaan) palate, throat. 

V toton, totonlan, id. | 
donaoan puddle. Cf. lanao. 

donding a mud or brick wall. 
donini 

paca momis donini, how sweet this is. 
don lag the day after to-morrow. 

Vdamlag, id. 
donot to follow. 

pogdonot sog poctoon nog balos soc poc- 
cano, to be heathen. 

V nonot, to follow one physically or 

morally. 
donggoan anchorage. 

donggoan tugbungan, port, anchoring 
ground. 

V donggo, to anchor; donggoanan, an- 

chorage. 
dongog reputation. Cf. rongog. 

sogmalaat bo mogangay nog dongog, 
defamer. 

V dongog, to hear, fame, reputation. 
doon leaf. 

doon gahon socpoctibooc no gatas. 
galium. 

V dahon, leaf. 
doon to have, to be. 

V dona, id. 

dope (dupe) rain, shower, to rain. ; 

dope nog guinanat, fine rain, mist. I 

tubig nog dope, rainwater. ' 

pogdope shower, rain. 

toon no pogdope marope, rainy. 
pocodope shower, rain. 
doque to thrust. 

V sontoc, to thrust with a pointed weapon, 
doro to suckle. 

pagdoro nonga gombata, lactation. 
sogmogdoro suckling. 
doso to impel. 

V doso, to stir, to push. 
dosop Cf. sop. 

dua two. 

dua liu, the seventh eighth of the 
moon. 
duapulu twenty. 

V doha, two. Bontoc Igorot: djua, id. 
dubdub breast. Cf. gogdob, gedeb. 

dubdub libun, breast of a woman. 
dugnayan 

dugnayan ig lanas no gotao mapiai- 
guindog, gallantry, elegance. 
dula saliva. 

pocdula to spit. 

V loa, saliva, phlegm. 
dulud knee. 
dulungan hen. 
dunukun a cloth sieve. 
dungus mountain. 

gedungusan (ge : dungus : an) moun- 
tain chain, range. 
dupe Cf. dope. 



SUBANU-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



189 



ec 

bosi doon ec somagan, a lance. 
nana ec pogulimo, when wilt thou go? 
sapauan ec potao somala alandon, to gar- 
nish with iron points. 
bonua nocolonan nocpoc tohora ec ho poc- 

tuan noc tiibig, a spring. 
poctalo nogompia pinili ec talonong tnolomo 
noc paglangay, fluent. 
ecsipan nipple. 
edob Cf. gogdob, gedeb. 
embais (bais) beautiful. 
empetek short. 

tapis empetek, a short skirt, kilt. 

gaan to eat, a meal, food of any sort. Cf. 
cana, menaticaan, quinaan. 

pagandam nog gaan, supplies, provi- 
sions. 

gaan noc potocon boogon noc tonob so- 
mala alandon 7iong mobogbog, cakes. 

V caon, to eat. 

gabang to assist, to defend, to help. 
sogicabang defense. 
sogicagabang defensive. 
mangangabang lawyer. 

V tabang, to help, assist. 
gabasan to cut. 

gabe a tuber, edible when cooked; the taro 
{Colocasia antiquorutn, Schott). 

V gabi, a comestible root cultivated in 

gardens. 
gabiganen smallness. 
gabilunen Cf. bilu. 
gabit to speak. 

pigagabit talk. 
gabo ashes 

gabo pagbaloganan, fireplace, hearth. 

V abo, fireplace. Bontoc Igorot: tjapo, 

ashes. 
gabo event. 

gabo name, our event. 
soc tondong gabo nog mogonao, per- 
taining to winter. 
gabu gray color in the sky. 
gabuludan Cf. bulud. 
gaclop poultice. 

V haclop, id. 
gaco to me. 

bugayan gaco noc tubig, give me water. 
ganpo mo gaco, pray thou for me. 

V aco, I. 
gacsop 

pocoocsop gacsop, imbibition. 
gagao to snatch. 

V pagagao, id. 
gagda to impel. 

V agda, to exhort, to inspirit. 
gagen (gegen) windpipe, thorax. 
gagimut root of a grass used as a medicine 

in childbirth; it is boiled and the 
decoction given to the patient just 
after delivery. 
gagoy soot. 

sogmigagoyan sooty. 
gagun gong. (Malay gong.) 

gagun sinam belilu, sounds of the gong 
which summon the midwife. 



gahon 

pomolanon doon gahon socpoctibooc no 
gatas, galium. 
gaitan to open a trail, path. 

V gahit, gahad, pathway about a plan- 

tation. 
gakpis young. 

gakpis malapati, a young tame pigeon. 
galabao carabao (Tagalog), water buffalo. 
galad fence. 

galad nog llayan lanas socpogboloy noc 
sura soc tubigan, a cane enclosure 
for catching fish. 

V alad, a fence, corral. Bontoc Igorot: 

dlad, id. 
galiyan a small canoe. 
galonaonen Cf. lonao. 
galuas a jar valued at i^ piculs of rice. 
galubalu thumb. 

galubalu gocsud, great toe. 
galunawan a jar valued at 6 piculs of rice. 
gama father. 

gama nog gapo, great grandfather. 

V amahan, father. Bontoc Igorot : dma, id. 
gami we (exclusive). 

gamo (amo) you. 

guindog gamo, stand ye up. 

V camo, you. 
gampo to pray. 

gampo mo gaco, pray thou for me. 
mangampon 

mangampon sog diuata, give thanks to 
god. 

V ampo, to pray. 

gampu village. (Malay kampong.) 

gampu nog balay, hamlet, village, 

settlement of 4 or 5 houses. 
gampu nog bawang, id. 
gandang drum. 
ganit skin (when removed from the animal). 

Cf. panit. 
gansur khaki color; kagansunen. 
gantang a basket holding 2 quarts. (Ma- 
lay.) 
gantang pamukuan, a basket measure 

of rice. 
gantang buhisan, id. 
gantingganting earring. 
gantiu slack trousers in Chinese fashion. 
gantoson to endure. Cf. antosan. 

sogondi maimo gantoson, insupport- 
able. 

V antes, antosan, to bear, to suffer. 
gangas forehead, brow. 

gangay to accede, to agree. Cf. angay. 
gondi gangay, disagreement. 
gangay noc sabot, to accede, to agree. 
lompoc gongaya, to unite. 
pogangay to facilitate. 

V angay, fit, just, right, agreeable. 
gangay 

gangay soc patal, to put balls on bulls' 

horns. 
pocgangay noc capintas abolo socog, to 

enervate, debilitate. 

V pagpahangay, to put balls on. 
gangol wound, ulcer, sore. 

pogangol to wound. 



190 



THE SUBANU. 



eaom mind, knowledge, power. 

gaom socpogbaal, cleverness, efficiency. 

gaom noc motondong sogonauna, science 
of ideas. 

sogdoon ig gaom nog poglioat, genera- 
tive. 

pocogondaay gaom, ignorance. 

gondaay gaom, idiocy. 

gotao gondaay gaom, idiot. 
gaoman power. 

V gahom, power, strength. 
gapal ship. 

gapal layag, sailing vessel. 

gapal gapoy, steamship. 
gapetnen Cf. pet. 
gapid twins. 

Bontoclgorot: dpik, id. 
gapo a parent's parent. 

gaps nog lee, grandfather. 

gapo nog libon, grandmother. 

gama nog gapo, great-grandfather. 

V apohan, grandfather, grandmother. 

Kolon:ow^M, grandfather. Bima: 
ompti, id. 
gapog lime. 

poglomi no gapog somala alandon, to 
whitewash. 

V apog, lime. Kolon: Mpu, lime, chalk. 

Bima: afu, id. 
gapoy fire. 

baga tondong noc abolo no gapoy, igni- 
tion, burning. 
sogmogota nog gapoy, vomiting fire. 
Bontoc Igorot: dpuy, fire. 
gapud a stick. 
gapulonen Cf. pulo. 
gare a chief. 

pogogovitan somala nog gare so gomba- 
golnoc lonsod, idiom, language. 
poggare to command. 

V hadi, hari, king, to rule. Bontoc Igo- 

rot: dli, king. Ilocano: dri, id. 
gasa weak. 

magasa to become weak. 

V gasa, weak, thin. 
gasa a cigarette. 

gasa saguing, a cigarette rolled in 
banana leaf. 
gasalagnen Cf. salag. 
gasi fermented rice beer. 

minoma sog gasi, to drink rice beer. 
pangasi rice beer. 
gasintos collar. 

V asintos, id. 

gasol blue. (Spanish azul.) 
gasoy to define. 

V asoy, to explain, to define. 
gatad to emanate. Cf. pegotaran. 

poggatad poctolin nog bangot, to get a 
beard. 
sogmegatad initiative. 
gatai the liver. 

V atay, id. Bontoc Igorot: dtoy, id. 
gataluknen Cf. taluk, 

gatas milk. 

tondong no gatas, milky. 
pomolanon doon gahon socpoctibooc no 
gatas, galium. 



gatas — continued. 

V gatas, id. 

gatbang to face. Cf. tobang. 

V pagatobang, id. 
gatop (atop) roof. 

poctolo nongogatop, to rain. 

V atop, roof of leaves, thatch. Bontoc 

Igorot: dtep, id. 
gaui custom, habit. 

V gaoi, custom, habit, quality. 
gauid to govern. 

magagauid governor. 
gaus wealth. 

magaus wealthy, rich. 
gawal jacket. 

gawas tight trousers in Sulu fashion. 
gay a maternal uncle. 
gayac Cf. ayac. 
gayam dog. 
gayo tree, wood, timber. 

gayo nong motaas, beam, a large balk 

of timber. 
gayo nog doguian, acacia. 
aloonan nog gayoonan, raft, wooden 
float. 

V cahoy, tree. Bontoc Igorot: kdyao, id. 
gedeb chest. Cf. edob, gogdob, dubdub. 
geding (kuting) cat. 

gedungusan Cf. dungus. 
geeg throat. 

Bontoc Igorot: alogoog, id. 
geg knife, general term, 
gegbad 

gegbad soong, interior of the'nose. 
gegen Cf. gagen. 
gektu 

gektu bata bulan, second eighth^of the 
moon. 

gektu gulang bulan, fifth eighth^of the 
moon. 

gektu gondao, noonday. 
geleg throat. 
gelektu 

gelektu langit bulan, good spirits which 
bring the moon back_and;^keep its 
face clear. 
gelet following. 
gelu pestle. 
gemai boiled rice. 
gemet finger. Cf. goyamet. 
gemisnen Cf. mis. 
genbet a thick coarse cloth used as armor. 

Cf. kinopatan. 
genenkan to run. 
genit 

genit bitun, shooting star, meteor. 
geniya this. 
genlit a small jar. 
getomnen Cf. torn, 
geyen he, she. 

gibas areca nut slicedlfor betel chewing. 
gibasgibas a mouse. 
gibusibus breastbone. 
giget bowstring. 
gigus house cat. 
giham mat (screwpine leaves). 
gikud (gigud) tail. 
gilay eyebrow. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



191 



gilek armpit. Cf. guilid. 
gilugu sister, brother. 
gimukud Cf. guimud. 
gina (ina, guina) mother, aunt. 

V inahan, mother. 
gineng half. 

gineng gohii, midnight, 
ginenga half. 

ginenga minek gondao, afternoon. 
gini this. 
ginit (init) heat. 
ginotau pupil of the eye. 
ginubungan womb, 
ginulai firewood. 
gipianan Cf. pia. 
gita (ita) we (inclusive). 
gitit a young chicken. 
giyud a small fish-net for one or two men. 
goangai 

goangai gocsod, small toe. 
gobal smoke. 

bengawan nog gobal, a place where 
smoke may escape from a house, 
chimney. 
pocagobal much smoke. 
sogmogombal smoky. 
gobe sweet potato. 

gobe mananap, sweet potato. 

V gabi, an edible root much cultivated. 
gobednarol governor. (Spanish gober- 

nador.) 
gobii night; calendar day, since time is 
usually reckoned by nights. 
gondao bo gobii, a day and a night, one 

calendar day. 
gineng gobii, midnight. 
polupungobii evening. 

V gabii, night. 
goboc to run. 

gobol gray. Cf. gobal. 
mogobol gray hair. 
kagobolnen (ka : gobol : nen) a gray- 
haired person. 
gobonong 

apote doon ig bongcon noc ponopoton 
nong moreipol gobonong mogonao, 
greatcoat. 
gobot factious, disorderly. 

V gobot, to disorder, to entangle. 
gocabgocab to fan. 

goclac blaze, firelight. 
gocsip a small wedge. 

V sipsip, id. 

gocsud the foot. Cf. pocsod. 

galubalu gocsud, great toe. 

goangai gocsud, little toe. 

goyamet gocsud, a toe. 
godaay (gondaay) Cf. daay. 
godlod to hide. 
gogba 

gogba nog lupa, to survey boundaries. 
gogbag to disjoin, to partition. 
gogdan notched log used as steps to a house, 

ladder. 
gogdob (edob) chest, breast. 

gogdob lee, breast of a man. 
goglon deglutition, swallowing. 



goguis white. 

V ogis, id. 

goit (quit) to carry. 

pocogoit carriage, transport. 
sogmogoit carrier, conductor. 

sogmogoit nog bandela, standard 
bearer. 
socnaquit carried. 

socsinipit socnaquit, carried in the 
arms. 
naquit 

sogmocsogao nong naquit, weeper. 
gola 

gola maimo, to be able to contain. 
golang 

golang guisip nogondaapa mobiaray, 
unliquidated. 
golas sweat. 
goiat 

di poggolat sog bisan alandon, to elimi- 
nate. 
goles sand. 

V balas, id. 

golitao (go : li : tao) bachelor, unmarried 
man. 

V olitaoo, bachelor, less properly widower. 
golo head. 

golo nogombagol, lintel. 
polog sa golo debaloy bo debaloy, nod 
of the head. 
goloan pillow. 

V olo, head, top. Bontoc Igorot: olo, 

head ; olaoan, pillow. 
gomalin to admit to the house. 
gombagol Cf. bagol. 
gombata (go : mbata) children. 
gomog (gomoc, gomot) hand. 

soc pongol so gomoc, leprous (when the 
hand is mutilated). 

V camot, hand. Kayan: kama, id. 
gomolang Cf. gulang. 

gomot hatred, displeasure, to detest. 
socalpoglogomutan, abominable. 

V domot, hate. 
gompia Cf. pla. 
gompoti Cf. poti. 
gompulo Cf. pulo. 
gonagona idea, thought. 

so gonagona, ideally. 

pogonagona, to conceive an idea, to 
think. 

pagonagona somala alandon, to judge. 

tontol nocpigonagona moc nga gotao, 
fable. 

poclabon sacquionaona, to dissemble. 

gumauna, to remember. 

pocolaen sa gunagona coendoc, amaze- 
ment. 

gunaguna, imagination. 

sogmogunaguna, imaginative. 

sogsocalgunagunaon, imaginable. 

gonaguna, thought. 

gaom noc motondong so gonaguna, 
science of ideas. 

pagonaguna, imagine. 

V honahona, thought, reasoning power. 



192 



THE SUBANU. 



gonas low tide. 

poglogonas rising tide. 

V honSs, low tide. 
gonda gland. 
gondaay Cf. daay. 
gondao Cf. ondao, 
gondemaqui 

gondetnaqui nongog, enchanted. 
gondi Cf. di. 
gondoc Cf. ondoc. 
gonlo enchanter, wizard. 

V onglo, wizard, witch. 
gonom six. 

gonompulu sixty. 

V onom, six. Bontoc Igorot: imw, enim, 

. id- 
gonopo cousin. 
gonos (gounos) blow as wind. 

gonos nong marisa, bad weather, gale, 
tempest, storm. 
Vonos, gale. 
gonto to hiccup. 

V pagonto, id. 
gonu 

poctobo soc gonu soc mga lee, to have a 
beard just growing. 
gongaya to unite. 
gongean deficit. 
gongog fool, enchanted. 

gongog culang nog buot, silly. 
inongogongog, foolish in act or speech. 

V hongog, fool. 
gooay rattan. 

Vooay, id. Bontoc Igorot: wiie, id. 
good near. 

pogood, accessible. 

V dool, to draw near. 
goot Cf. goit. 

pogoot to carry in a cart. 

V hacot, id. 
gopa bagasse. 

V opa, id. 
gopao to grow bald. 

V opao, bald. 
gopia Cf. pia. 

gopia very, a superlative. 

motaas gopia, elevated. 

menaticaan no came inoctod gopia, 

minced meat. 
hata noc poraigon gopia, spoiled child. 
gotao noc socogan gopia, a person of 
great strength. 
goroc to sow seed. 

lopa mogondaapa balay gorocan, un- 
cultivated. 
gosaca very. 

amaaron gosaca, identically. 
gosay order. 

sogindagosay imperturbable. 
paggosay to judge. 
pagusay counting. 

V hosay, to set in order, to solve riddles. 
gosig to bark. 

sopoggosig no quito, barking. 
socmoggosig maloong, barker. 
pogosig no quito noc pogboutolon, 
howling of a dog. 

V osig, to bark. 



gosinS a temporary house used in childbirth. 
gosod to obey. 

socsomocol so nga gosod, dissenter. 

V sogot, to obey. 
gosog chief. 

gosog sog hinocot, abbess. 
gosog nog lonoon, a chief. 
gosog nog balay, head of the house- 
hold. 
gosomnen Cf. som. 
gotao (gutao) (go : tao) person, man. 

buat so poglibon no gotao, lues venerea. 
pocboclag soc gotao nga soay, divorce. 
picponnongan nonga gotao, a crowd. 
mitondong no gotao, human. 
poglogotaoan 

poglogotaoan pisala noc paroquia, 
parishioner. 
gounos Cf. gonos. 
govitan 

pogogovitan 

pogogovitan somala nog gare so gomba- 
gol noc lonsod, language. 
pogovitan 

pogovitan nog latin, identical, the 
same. 
goyamet finger. Cf. gemet. 
goyamet gocsod, a toe. 
Bontoc Igorot : komaot, id. 
goyan to accede, to agree, to pay deference. 
pegoyonan (pe : goyon : an) accord, 
resolution. 

V oyon, id. 
gua outward. 

sa gua, outwardly, externally. 

V goa, far; sa goa, externally. 

guak (quak) the crow. Cf. gwakgwak. 
gubat war. 

V gobat, to make war. 
guda horse. 

gugat vein, artery, blood vessel. 

Bontoc Igorot: uad, vein, artery. 
guging rump. 
gui- verb-formative prefix. 

V gi, gui, a particle which forms passive 

verbs in the present or preterit. 
guiadman Cf. doma. 

casoon guiadman, ability. 
guibid iguana. 

V ibid, id. 
guibog appetite. 

guibogan fguibog : an) dainties. 

V ibog, id. 

guicoran (gui : cod : an) chair. Cf. guing- 
cod. 

V lingcodan, bench, chair. 
guien he, she. 

mipanas guien, he has fever. 
tauago mo guien, call thou him. 
posoloron mo guien, tell him to come 
in. 

V guini, he, she. 
guilan they. 

posobaton mo guilan, make them 

answer. 
lompoc nga gotao nog minalsa guilan 

somocol noc ponuan, faction. 

V sila, nila, iia, they. 



SUBANU-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



193 



guilas share. 

pocguilas to distribute. 

sogondi maimo guilason, indivisible. 
guilat to lighten. 

V quilat, lightning. 
guilid flank, side. 

pocolog nog guilid sopogloguinaod boc- 
tasan, to palpitate, to pant. 

V quilid, id. 
gulling to imitate. 

sopoconongguiling, imitation. 
sogmonongguiling imitator. 
pocponongguiling 

pocponongguiling noc pomotangon nog 
megleenleen pocomotood, to identify. 
socsocalpononggulingan, imitable. 
guilos cat. 

mananap momaaron no quilos, civet. 

V iring, iding, id. 
guimood 

laroon nog guimood, ulcer, wound, 
sore. 
guimud (gimukud) that soul which lives 
under the crown of the head and 
never dies. 
guinagan a bird in which the female spirit 
dipuksaya sometimes materializes. 
guinago 

pocponong sotnala alandon guinago, to 
form, to fashion. 
guinale 

soc lupa noctibogol guinale, glebe. 
guinanat 

dope nog guinanat, fine rain, mist. 
guinaoa 

a. the breath. 

b. that soul which lives in the breath and 

dies with the body. 
pocolog nog guilid sopogloguinaod boc- 
tasan, to pant, palpitate. 

V guinhaoa, breath. 
guindog to stand. 

guindog gamo, stand ye up. 
poguindog to step on. 

V tindog, to stand, to be erect. 
guinocsip adzing. 

V sinapsap, chips, splinters; sapsap, to 

work wood with adzes. Bontoc 
Igorot : sapsap, shavings, chips. 

guinogdoban hysterical. 

guinolal 

sog tinangonan noc sa lamin guinolal 
antocos, spectacles. 

guinom to drink. Cf. gunimom, poinom. 

V inom, id. 

guinonsola to repent. Cf. inunsulan, 
basulan. 
guinonsola soc posong, repent with all 
your heart. 

V hinoisol, id. 
guingcod to be seated, to sit. 

poguingcora sit you down. 

V lingcod, id. 
guionaona Cf. gonagona. 
guipos (ipos) to look. 
guiscuelaan (g : escuela : an) school. 

(Spanish escuela.) 
guiscuelaan noc poctoonan, school. 



guisip to count. 

golang guisip nogondaapa mobiaray, 
unliquidated. 
paguisip counting. 

V isip, to reckon, to number. 
guisoc 

megolos guisoc, to fly into a rage. 
guison to put into. 

pocbutang guison, to put into a basket. 
guison bisan alandon sog bobaan, to 

put into a basket. 
pogguison soc bariles, to put into 
barrels. 
guit Cf. goit. 
guito (ito) dog. 

bata ito, puppy. 

pagosig no guito nocpogboutolon, howl- 
ing of a dog. 
sopoggosig no guito, barking. 

V ido, dog. 

gulai chief of the diuata langit. 
gulang (golang) old. 

gektu gulang bulan, the fifth eighth of 

the moon. 
niinsan liu gulang bulan, the sixth 
eighth. 
magulang old, aged. 
mogulang parent, elder. 
gomolang (g : om : olang). 

gotao no gomolang, old man. 
gomolanggolang, of ripe age and under- 
standing, mature. 

V golang, elder brother, any person past 

middle age. 
gulen a large jar. 
gulingan Cf. gulling, 
gulipun (ulipun) slave. 
gulu teacher. 
gululu an herb medicine administered in 

childbirth. 
gulungan cage. 

Bontoc Igorot: kolong, cage, chicken 
basket. 
gumanoc egg. 

sumada na gumanoc, to eat the egg. 
gumang hermit crab. 
gumauna Cf. gonagona. 
gumi hair on lip and chin, beard. 
gum pan bait. 
gumut a heavy article of clothmg like a 

blanket. 
gunagona Cf. gonagona. 
gunaguna Cf. gonagona. 
gunimon drink. Cf. guinom, poinom. 
gunsulaki a jar valued at 32^ piculs of rice. 
gunsulee a jar valued at 150 piculs of rice. 
gunud meat. 

gunud galabau, beef. 

gunud baboy, pork. 
guroc to plant. 
gusa Cf. osa. 
gusay always. 

di gusay, never. 
guset a raft. 

pagdipag sac suba soguset, to cross 
rivers on floats. 
gusuk a rib. 
gutao Cf. gotao. 



194 



THE SUBANU. 



gutek the thinking power, thought, reason, 

brain. 
Bontoc Igorot: iltek, brain. 
gutung (utung) monkey. 
guyo to urinate. 
gwakgwak flying spirits of evil (manamat) 

human in size, feed on men. Cf. 

guak. 
gwasay a grubbing mattock; blade 13 inches 

long, 5 inches wide at the cutting 

edge and tapering back to about 

an inch, helve very similar to the 

American axe; axe. 
Bontoc Igorot: wdsay, axe, adze. 

hatud Cf. atud. 

hilamon a digging knife, smaller than the 

pes. 
huopongon 

songa gotao aron huopongon, to form. 

ica 

V ica, ig, a particle of future passive 

verbs. 
icagabang Cf. gabang. 
ictubig Cf. tubig. 

'2 ... 

ming conotconot da tg viste, to purse up 

the gown. 
iga thou. 

igbongcon Cf. bongcon. 
igbutasan Cf. batasan. 
igdoma Cf. doma. 
iggaom Cf. gaom. 
iglanas Cf. lanas. 
Iglua Cf. lua. 
iguen to impel. 
iin he, she. 
ilan they. 
ilig 

sogpacailig leaning, inclination to one 

side. 
ilu 

hata ilu neg libon, orphan girl. 
impit exactly. 

V hingpit, exactly, perfectly. 
imud 

imud soong, septum of the nose. 
ina (gina) mother, aunt. 

JBontoc Igorot: ma, mother. 
inangkag dried. 

inangkag seda, dried fish. 
inda no, not. 

soginda gosay, imperturbable. 
indamanta let us try. 
init (ginit) to heat. 
ininit heat, warm. 

panas minit, to be feverish. 
minit togaling, very warm, hot. 
pacpinit to warm. 

V init, mainit, minit, id. 
Inobangan to defend. Cf. gabang. 
inoctod 

menalicaan no came inoctod gopia, 
minced meat. 
Inog ripe, mature. 

sogonda inog, unseasonable. 



inog — continued. 

pacainog ripeness, maturity. 
picnogan 

bonua nocpoc picnogan nog bonga, a 
place for ripening. 
sogmecpeinog that which ripens. 

V hinog, ripe. 

(inom) poinom to drink. Cf. guinom, 
minoma. 
pocpoinom nong milo, to give poison. 

V inom, to drink. Bontoc Igorot: Inumek, 
mainum, manglnum, id. 

inongogongog Cf. gongog. 

inu spinning room. 

inunsulan (guinonsola) to repent. Cf. 

basulan. 
ipos (guipos) to look. 

mita ipos, to see at a distance. 

dien iposay, there, behold. 
isa one. 

ita (gita) we (inclusive). 
ito Cf. guito. 

jabas 

baling somala alandon jabas matas bo 
moloctin, bandage. 

ka- prefixed to cardinal numerals forms 

ordinals. 
Malay: ka, id. 
kagobolnen Cf. gobol. 
kaingin forest land cleared and burned over 

for plantations. 
Mindoro: caingy, id. 
kakud a jar valued at 12 J piculs of rice. 
kalamonte the golden scepter used by the 

guardian spirits of property. 
kalau the hombill. _ 

kaliguan a jar valued at 125 piculs of rice. 
kanuku finger nail. 

Bontoc Igorot: koko, nail. 
kinopatan cloth. Cf. genbet, ponopo- 

ton. 
kisanggulang the fighting knife of a giant. 
kogon a grass of rapid growth, 6-8 feet high. 
koingai little finger. 
kulagu hair of the body. 
kulambu mosquito bar. (Sulu.) 
kulis the lines of the palm. 
kulintangan a musical instrument of nine 

small gongs on a wooden frame. 
kumpau a fathom. 

kumpau matagas, a measure of value 

of gongs, jars, brasses and durable 

goods, twice the value of malinnt. 
kumpau maliniU, a measure of value 

of cloth and perishable goods. 
kundungan a jar valued at 7^ piculs of rice. 
kutapi a musical instrument resembling a 

guitar with hemp strings. 
kuting (geding) cat. (Sulu.) 

laang to walk. 

moglanglaang 

sogondi mayac mogbaal moglanglaang, 
idler, vagabond. 

V lacat, to walk. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



195 



laat bad. 

calaatan (ca : laat : an) wrong. 

calaalan nogomhagol, injustice. 
malaat bad, ugly, iniquitous. 

malaat nog boot, hatred, displeasure. 

malaat nog palag, misfortune. 

malaat no abotang, ill at ease. 

malaat tugaling, evil-doer, corrupt. 
nogmalaat fallacy. 
moglaat prejudicial. 
poalat wickedness. 
poglaat to damage. 

nog metagam nog /)og/aa^,mischievous- 
ness. 

sogmaglaat nog dongog, slanderer. 

sogpacalaat tugaling, iniquitously. 

V daot, bad. 

iabanan to aid, to assist, to help. 

V laban, to intercede for another, to 

acquit of blame. 
iabian 

mga gotao socalpalalabian, rabble. 
j palalabe to abuse. 

I V labi, superior, more than, pride. 

labo 

pocolabo to fall. 
labon to cover. 

poclabon to garnish with iron points. 
poclabon sac guionaona, to dissemble. 
poclabon sa capote, to cloak. 

V labon, to cover over. 
labong yesterday. 

labong ec labong, day before yesterday. 
labuyu Cf. libuyu. 
ladawan image, picture. 
laen different. 

pocolaen sa gtinagona, amazement. 

V lain, distinct, different. 
laga price. 

pacponoog sog laga, to cheapen. 
pacpalaga somala ala7idon, to estimate. 
Bontoc IgoroV. Idgo, price (from the pur- 
chaser's point of view). 
laget a chewing mixture of tobacco, areca 
nut and betel leaf. 
batangan laget, tobacco box. 
lagi husband, male. Cf. lee. 

bata lagi, a small male child. 
sapi lagi, ox. 

V lalaqui, male, man. Kayan: laki, el- 

derly man. Tagalog: lalaqui, male. 
Bontoc Igorot: laldki, id. Malay: 
lakilaki, man. Java: laki, man. 
Macassar : laki, manly ; kalaki, man. 
I ages 

malagos lean, thin. (malangas, 
Christie.) 
naa malagos tugaling, yes, he is worse. 
lagoy to scatter. 

poclagoy dispersion. 

V pagcalaguio, dispersion. 
laguas petticoat. (Spanish enaguas.) 
lainpai small plate, saucer. 
lagagunum a war chief of several settle- 
ments. 

lakas a cigarette. 

lakas mats, cigarette wrapped in com 
(maize) husk. 



laknit a small bat. 
lalabong afternoon. Cf. bong, 
lalag Cf. dalag. 
lalas hot. 

malalas hot, peppery, pungent. 
lalis to wrangle, to fight, to be obstinate. 
malali yamo mocsasa, be you quiet. 

malalison factious, quarrelsome. 

V lalis, to contradict, to argue, to plead, 

to fight. 
lamin 

sog tinangan noc sa lamin guinolal 
antocos, spectacles. 
lamnen all, everything. Cf. lonan. 
lamo you. 

magbaal lamo noc sulal, did you work 
in the orchard? 
Vcamo, id. 
lamot to play. Cf. megleymet. 
lana 

gotao noc socogan gopia gombagol nog 
lana, a person of great strength. 
lanao (danao) lake, marsh. 
miglanao ic tubig, lake. 

V lanao, danao, lake, marsh. Bontoc 

Igorot: tjdnaom, water. 
lanas 

dugnayan ig lanas no gotao mapiai- 

guindog, elegance, gallantry. 
galad nog llayan lanas socpocbolog noc 
sura soc tubigan, a cane inclosure 
for catching fish. 
I an ay an a young sow. 
landasan a sketch. Cf. laraban. 
laneg lard. 

laneg baboy, lard of the wild hog. 
Bontoc Igorot: lanib, lard. 
lankep embroidery. 
lansang nail, spike. 

V lansang, id. 
lansuk candle. 
lantaka cannon. 
lanut hemp, fiber, jute. 
langaan door. 
langag throat. 

langag a bird which builds a sand mound to 

cover her very large reddish egg. 
langan to delay. 

alanganan (a : langan : an) to delay. 

V langanlangan, to interrupt, to stop 

work, to delay. 
langau a fly. 

V langao, every species of fly. 
langay 

poctalo nogompia pinili ec talonong 
molotno noc paglangay, fluent. 
langit sky. 

diuata langit, good spirits of the sky 
who drink only spring water. 

gelektu langit bulan, good spirits of 
the moon. 

V langit, sky. 

laraban (? laraoan) Cf. landasan. 

laraban nga ologan somala alandon, 
emblem. 

V ladaoan, image, picture. 
lare king. Cf. gare. 

V hari, id. 



196 



THE SUBANU. 



laroon sickness. 

laroon nog guimood, ulcer, wound, 

sore. 
laroon migalin, syphilis. _ 
laronon (laro : n : on) sick. 
maligat nogpog laronon, he is very 
sick. 
lasag a shield. . . ^ , . 

Ilocano: kaldsag, id. Bontoc Igorot: 
kaldsay, id. 
latin the same. . 

pogovitan nog latin, identical, the same. 

V linatin, identical. 
lauas body. 

V laoas, id. 

layag a sail. •, tvt i 

Tagalog, Pampangas ; layag, id. Malay : 
layar, id. Cf. Samoa, la. 

layo distant. 
malayo far. 

V layo, at a great distance. 
lee man. . 

lee nog tapolan, rogue, swmdler. 
babi nog lee, widower. 
tiuan nog lee, drone. 
gaps nog lee, grandfather. 

V lalaqui, male, man. Malay laki, male, 

man, married man. 
leeg (leg) neck, throat, front of the neck, 
(gleeg, Christie.) 

V liog, neck, throat. 
leen Cf. laen. 

socsocalbugay nog leen, alienable. 
maaron nog leen noc pomotangon, 
identical. 
leenleen men, people. 

V lainlain, id. 
leg Cf. leeg. 
legdey jacket. 
leinlein Cf. leen. 

sogomhaya nog moloon nog magleinlein, 
a relative. 

V calainan, difference. 
lelenaan bottle. 
lelenguan joint. 

leletek hollow under the knee. Cf. taktuai. 
lema to-morrow. Cf. luma, belema. 
lepet meal, ground grain. 
lerme (? lomi) to spread. 

socmoglerme nog hasac, plasterer. 
leyag Cf. Hag. 
liag happy. 

maliag to wish, to like. 

di maliag song naan nong mogulang, 
my parents do not wish it. 
Malay: nya, joy. Formosa: mc, id. 
llbac fault-finding. 

poglibac slander, calumny. 

V Hbac, to criticise, to detract. 
libaliba to astonish. 

poclibaliba, id. 
libang to embarrass. 

V libang, id. 
libang to hush children. 

V libang, id. 
libon Cf. libun. 

1 ibon compact, solid, massive. 



libongan peaked house-ridge. 

V ibobongan, ridgepole; bobong, thatch. 
libot around. 

poglibot so nga linonsoran, to measure 
around. 
alibutan (a : libut : an) the world. 
malipotot (maliputut) round. 

V libot, to encircle, to surround, to go 

around. 
libun (libon, libong) woman. 

libon noc poloponan, pregnant. 

bata nog balu libun, a widow's son. 

balu nog libon, widow. 

ponopotan sapis soc nga libon perealon 
sogduma noc tapis, skirt. 

buat socpog libon no gotao, lues venerea. 

libong noc tobon nog dinamog bata, 
barren woman. 
libut Cf. libot. 
libuyu (labuyu) wild. 

limansud libuyu, wild cock. 

daluan libuyu, wild hen. 
liga flame. 

liga nogombagol, blaze, firelight. 

V siga, a flame, to blow a fire. 
ligo to bathe. 

poligo id. 

V ligo, id. 

liingan the acts which are prohibited to 

widowers and widows. 
liluk tattooing. 
lima five. 

limapulu fifty. 

V Bontoc Igorot, lima, five. 
limalima a jar valued at 5 piculs of rice. 
limansud domestic rooster. 

limansud libuyu, wild cock. 
limayas a smooth spear head. 
limbong to defraud. Cf. lingbon, linun- 
bogan. 
sogniicalimbong delusive. 
molimbong impostor. 

V limbong, to rob, to defraud, to cheat, 

to trick. 
limukun a bird of evil omen; when seen or 

heard it postpones work. 
linagami (1 : in : agami) wild spinach. 

V dagami, straw, stubble. 
linao fair weather. 

V linao, id. Sulu: malano, id. Bontoc 

Igorot: alinoao, shade. 
lines (1 : in : es) to dissolve. 

poglines sog quinaan, digestion. 
poglines somala alandon sog tobig sog 

vino, to dissolve. 

V hilis, to digest, to dissolve. 
linok bay, gulf. 
linonsoran Cf. lonsod. 

lintisan the leg below the knee, shin. Cf. 
belintis. 
lintisan sising, a ring for the shin. 
lintoc 

boligan macalintoc, a small wild bee. 
linug earthquake. 

linunbogan (1 : in : unbog : an). Cf. lim- 
bong. 
soglinunbogan sogpiglologosogan, de- 
luded. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



197 



lingalinga to distract. 

di a moglingalinga soc simbaan, be not 
inattentive in church. 

V lingaolingao, to distract, to divert 

attention. 
linganay bell. 

V linganay, id. 

lingbon fallacy. Cf. limbong. 
linggit arm ring. 

lingin rounded, bent, globular, spherical. 
calingin (ca : lingin) to twist. 
caliuanag no calingin, warped. 
somala alandon nong molingin, glob- 
ular. 

V lingin, rounded, twisted. 
lingulingu a jar valued at 12^ piculs of rice. 
lioat to procreate. 

sogmoglioat generating. 

sogdoon ig gaom nog poglioat, genera- 
tive. 

V lioat, to have descendants, to descend 

from. 
lipay to be happy. 

alipayan (a : lipay : an) joy, happiness. 
malipay (ma : lipay) happy. 

long na malipay, why are ye merry? 
milipay enjoyment, to comfort. 

milipayyo nogombagol, I am very glad. 

V lipay, to be happy, contented, to re- 

joice, to comfort. Bontoc Igorot: 
paley-atjek, to make glad. 
lipu arrow. 

lipu pana, id. 
lisan a metal scraper. 
lisod difficult. 

alisod (a : lisod) misfortune. 

V lisod, calisod, difficulty, misforttme, 

inconvenience. 
litobong a blow, stroke. 

V hagbong, id. 
liu Cf. caliuanag. 

tninsan liu, third eighth of the moon. 
minsan liu gulang bulan, sixth eighth 

of the moon. 
dua liu. seventh eighth. 
Hut left. 

bingcon dig Hut, left arm. 
llayan canes. 

Vcaoayan, id. 
load a cocoanut shell used to stir boiling 

rice. 
lobung to bury. 

alobungan (a : lobung : an) a grave. 
poclubung to bury. 

V lobong, to bury. 

lobungan supper, evening meal. Cf . bong. 
locao (lucao) (? Spanish lugar.) 
locao sag beninalan, cottage. 
pacpanilong sag locao, to withdraw 
into barracks. 
locpog to pound, to bruise. 
pocalocpog pounding. 
locud Cf. logud. 
log 

pocolog to move. 

pocolog nog guilid sopogloguinaod boc- 
tasan, to pant. 



log — continued. 

polog sa golo debaloy bo debaloy, nod of 
the head. 

V lihoc, to be uneasy, ill at ease. 
logalin (log : al : in) 

paglogalin to alter. 

V lain, different; paglain, to alter. 
logmo to blame. 

toma a logmo song neen, why blamest 
thou him? 
logoc bay, gulf. 

V looc, id. 
logong to thunder. 

V logon, id. 
logua 

poquipos somala alandon soglogua noc 
caban, to pack into a trunk. 
logud (locud) back. 

V licod, id. 

lolan load (of ship, cart, beast of burden). 
poclolan somala alandon, to ship cargo. 

V lolan, load. 
lolat to hope. 

V holat, id. 
loletoec a bird. 

V toad toad, a bird which continually 

nods its head. 
lolid to fall into a pit, cripple. 

V lolid, cripple. 
lologosogan deluded. 
lombo fat. 

malombo (ma : lombo) fat. 
poclombo to grow plump. 
lombos to divide, to separate. 

cota nog lombos lupa, a wall between 
fields. 
lomi to varnish. Cf. lerme. 

poglomi somala alandon, varnishing. 
poglomi no gapog somala alandon, to 
whitewash. 
lomo able, easy. 
molomo easy. 

molomo mayac, inclined to love. 
poctalo nogompia pinili ec talonong 
molomo noc paglangay, fluent. 
pocolomo facility, easiness. 

pocolomo balon somala alandon, ability. 
sogmolomo easy. 

sogmolomo antosan, light, bearable. 
sogmolomo moc sogao, weeper. 
lomo to educate. 
lompoc to gather, to accumulate, to unite. 

V tapoc, id. 

lonan all, every. Cf. lamnen. 
lonao green. 

malonao (ma : lonao) id. 

galonaonen (ga : lonao : nen) green 
things. 

V lodhao, green (color). 
lonoon 

gosog nog lonoon, a chief. 
lonsod (lunsud) village, region, country. 

tontoltontol balos nog mibatog sog lon- 
sod, rumor, gossip. 
Pogogovitan somala nog gare sogom- 
bagol noc lonsod, idiom, language. 
linonsoran (1 : in : onsod : an). 



198 



THE SUBANU. 



lonsod — continued. 

poglibot so mga linonsoran, to measure 
around. 

V longsod, \-illage, town, any place of 

human residence. 
longarandon 

bata noc poraigon gopia ho longaran- 
don. spoiled child. 
longas pretty. 

alongas to embellish. 
malongas (malungas) beautiful, good, 
paalongas kindness. 
looc lungs. 
lood 

poclood to kneel. 
\' lohod, id. 
loon much, many. 
pocoloon, id. 

pocoloon noc sabao, succulence, juici- j 
ness. 
Vdaghan, much, many, 
loon to place. 

aloonan nog gayoonan, raft, wooden 
float. 
caloonan a bunch of flowers or fruit on 
one stalk. 
caloonan nog booc, false hair. 
caloonan somala alandon noc tinongol, 

spun fiber. 
socpocoloon mepono, a filler. 
\' loon, to place, to set some things on 
others. 
loonan a crowd, 
loop to fill. 

V locop, id. 

loot a knife used by women. 
lopa ^^lupa"* earth, land, soil. 

nogmigbaal sog lopa, a day laborer. 

lopa nogompia balan, arable. 

lopa nong tiapo nogondaay magpondo- 

pondo, a plain. 
lopa mogondaapa halay gorocan bo 

pomolonan, uncultivated. 
cota nog lotnpos lupa, a wall between 

fields. 
soc lupa noctibogol guinale, glebe. 
lupa nong morotnos, a marsh. 
gogba nog lupa, to establish bounda- 
ries. 
\' lopa. earth, world. 
lopong exact, just. 

somoglopong equalizer. 
sopoceglopong identically. 
\' topong. equal, alike. 
lopugu tired. 
loroon to pass. 

pocgondaay loroon, impassable. 
lotang to fire a cannon. 

lotang nog daan, an ancient piece of 
artillery-. 
\' lothan, any firearm, discharge of fire- 
arms. 
lotao to float. 

somala alandon nogmiglotao, floating. 
\' lotao, id. 
loto to cook, to stew. 
moloto decoction. 

V loto, id. 



loya ginger. 

V loyaloya, an herb resembling ginger, 

good fodder for carabao. 
lua a tear. 

ig lua, shedding tears, weeping. 

V luha, id. Bontoc Igorot: /j«i, id. 
luang hole. 

luang talinga, the orifice of the ear. 
luay married. 
lubing wild cat. 
lucao Cf. locao. 

lucao nonguinca, hole in a wall. 
ludan a hut, shanty. 
lugbas to pierce. 

soquit nong milugbas, a hole bored 
from side to side. 

V lapos, to pierce. 
lulu granar%-. 

lulu tongalang, cylindrical baskets of 
rattan, 5 x lo feet long, used for the 
storage of crops. 
luma to-morrow. Cf. lema, belema. 

\' ogma, odma, id. 
lumbia sago. 

lunai a resin which is biuTied to attract wild 
bees that they may guide the 
hunters to the nest. 
lunsud Cf. lonsod. 
lupa Cf. lopa. 

lupag poison used to kill an enemy. 
lusung mortar for hulling rice. 
Bontoc Igorot: luson, id. 

ma- formative prefix. 

V ma-, prefix which forms adjectives from 

abstracts, forms verbs neuter and 
intransitive. 
maa (naa) yes. 

V 00, id. 
maal elevated. 
maasasala Cf. sala. 

maca- vmaa-") formative prefix. 

\' maca-, prefix which forms future verbs; 
also with the doubling of the first 
two letters forms nouns of agent 
or adjectives of possibility. 

macabagol Cf. bagol. 

macabolo Cf. bolo. 

macalintoc Cf. lintoc. 

madagel Cf. dagel. 

madaFag Cf. dalag. 

maen the whole areca nut, not sliced for 
chewing. 

maga- Cf. maca-. 

magagauid Cf. gauid. 

magalin to disturb. 

sogondi magalin, impertiu'bable. 
\' balhin. to move from one place to 
another. 

magasa Cf. gasa. 

magatus one hundred. 

Tihu: dtus. Iliwaki: itus. Mahuan: 
r&iu. 
magatus bo sepulu, no. 

magaus Cf. gaus, 

magbaal Cf. baal. 

magboot Cf. boot. 

magdagel Cf. dagel. 



SUBANU-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



199 



mageleabed the upper arm. 
magimpang a pair (of hands, feet, ears). 
maglaro passable. 

sogondi maglaro, impassable. 
tnagleinlein Cf. leinlein. 
magpondopondo Cf. pondopondo 
magulaung Cf. gulang. 
maimo able, (ma : imo.) 

gala maimo, able to contain. 

sogondi maimo guilason boocon, 
%-isible. 

pocon-di maimo soc sala, sinlessness, 
impeccability. 
\' hino, to make, to be able. 
mainit Cf. init. 
malaat Cf. laat. 
malagos Cf. lagos. 
malalas Cf. lalas. 
malali Cf. !alis. 
malalison Cf. lalis. 
malapati a tame pigeon. 

gakpis malapati, young tame pigeon. 
malat Cf. laat. 
malayo Cf. layo. 
maliag Cf. lia'g. 
malibogayon Cf. bogay. 
malibonoay Cf. bono, 
maligai spirit house. 
maligat ver\-. 

maligat nogpog laronon,he is very sick. 
maligon compact, solid, massive. 

V maligon, id. 
maligos 

maligos ba tugaling, is he worse? 
malilang gunpowder. 
malimatay, Cf. matay. 
malinao lemon. Cf. lonao. 
malinut Cf. kumpau. 
maliolaon Cf. clang, 
maliondocon Cf. ondoc. 
malipay Cf. lipay. 
maliputut Cf. libot. 
malisogon Cf. sogao. 
malobay weak, feeble. 
malogou difficult. 
malombo Cf. lombo. 
malomo excrement of a child. 
malomo Cf. lomo. 
malonao Cf. lonao. 
malonca idler. 
malongas Cf. longas. 
maloong 

sogmoggosig maloong, barker. 
maloot generously. 

\' lolot, generous, freehanded. 
malungas Cf. longas. 
mama to chew. 

mama sog mamaen, to chew betel. 
mamaen betel prepared for chewing. 
mamanua 

diuata mamanua, good spirits which 
live in great trees and drink rice 
beer. 
mamis Cf. mis. 

mamatud a daylight ceremony with a 
lighted torch to awaken the soul of 
the dead. 



managat fisherman. Cf. polomongwit. 

V mananagat, id. 

manak paternal uncle. 
manamat evil spirits which devour the souls 
of the human joints and cause a 
man to take to his bed; they may 
even take away his breath-soul; 
three classes are known as munluh, 
sarut and gwakgwak. 
manamat bulan, evil spirits of the 
moon which cause it to disappear. 
manamu 

manamu sog manuk, to eat the 
chicken. 
mananap 

gobe mananap, sweet potato. 
mananap maaron nog osa, gazelle. 
mananap momaron no giiilos, civet. 

V mananap, any kind of animal. 
manatud wild pigeon. 

manaul a fish-catching bird. 
mandawan full moon. 
mando to make. 

sogmimando manufacturer. 
manece to go up. 

dali a manece, go thou up quickly. 
manisan third finger. Cf. palamanis. 
manoc ^manuk) fowl. 

manoc nog pogone, cackler. 

pogone nong mga manoc, to crow. 

tondongsongang manoc, gallinaceous. 

bonua nocpog balidyaan nongong ma- 
noc, cockpit. 

V manoc, fowl. Bontoc Igorot: monok, 

chicken. 

manocmanoc small fowl with open eye. 

poctubo sog bombol nog manocmanoc, 
to become fledged. 

manon 

sogmocsamoc sa manon no gotao, mo- 
lester. 

manubu spirits which control htuiting; 
they are described as creatures 
with reddish or yellowish eyes, 
black complexion and woolly hair. 
Christie appositely suggests that 
thus is preser\-ed a dim memory of 
the former Negrito autochthons, on 
which compare the jnanahune {The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 22). 
dali amo din amo manubua, come 
quickly for the hunt, ye spirits. 

manunsuma to eat. 

mangampon Cf. gampo. 

mangangabang Cf. gabang. 

mangud green, unripe. 

manguidaap glaucous. 

maomao 

song mogmaomao somala alandon, fal- 
sifier. 

mapalam mango, (manpalam, Christie.) 

mapia Cf. pia. 

mapiaiguindog Cf. pia, guindog. 

dugnayan ig lanas no gotao mapiai- 
guindog, elegance, gallantry. 

maralag Cf. dalag. 

maranaya (moronaya) slope, declivity. 

V hanayhay, id. 



200 



TH^ SUBANU. 



marisa 

gonos nong marisa, bad weather. 
marongot irritated. 

V maligotgoton, irritated, annoyed. 
marope Cf. dope. 

masalag Cf. salag. 

masalagtau a deputy chief (wa^c/ag, great; 

tao, man). 
masin salt. 

V asin, id. Bontoc Igorot: asin, id. 
mata the eje. ^ ^ _ 

V mata, id. Bontoc Igorot: nidta, id. 
matagas Cf. kumpau. 

matalao Cf. talao. 
matamot modesty. 

matansa an herb medicine used in child- 
birth ; the leaf is crushed and rubbed 
on the patient's abdomen during 
labor. 
matas Cf. taas. 
matay to die 

amatayon (a : matay : on) death. 
amatene death. 

camatayon (ca : matay : on) death. 
pocamatay (poca : matay) death. 
malimatay (mali : matay) ceremony 
of causing the souls of the dead to 
ascend into the sky. 

V matay, patay, death; camatayon, 

fatal disease; pagcamatay. to die. 
Bontoc Igorot: Idoy, edoy, odoy, 
death ; mapadoy,killed;mamaddyak, 
I am dying. 

matia lard of the wild hog. 

matogos (matugos) attentive, diligent. 

matubud 

diuata matuhtid, good spirits of the 
mountains which drink only coco- 
nut water. 

matugas hard. 

V tiga, hard, tough. 
maya inactivity. 

maya nia ce paghasa, read thou 
quietly. 
mayaba long. 
mayac worthy. 

sogondi mayac mogbaal moglanglaang, 
idler, vagabond. 
mayac Cf . ayac, 
meaon dwarf. 

soc tolipaon meaon, dwarfish. 

V mayahon, id. 
mebang left. 

bingcon dig mebang, left arm. 
medelem deep. 
meebog poor, needy. 
megleenleen Cf. leenleen. 
megleymet to romp, to play. Cf. lamot. 
megolos 

megolos guisoc, to fly into a rage. 
melamogampa 

balay noc poctonaoan noc potao nog 
melamogampa nog lupa, iron works. 
melanau Cf. lonao. 
melenin smooth. 
menaticaan Cf. gaan. 

menaticaan no came inoctod gopia, 
minced meat. 



meneg to sew. 
mesequin 

mga gotao nog mesequin, rabble. 
metagan Cf. tagam. 
mga plural article. 
mi- composition prefix. 

V mi-, formative particle of present and 

future active verbs. 
mibotasan Cf. botasan. 
mica demonstrative pronoun. 
micaolang Cf. olang. 
micia small. 
migalin 

laroon migalin, lues venerea. 
migbobolong drunkenness. 
miglanao Cf. lanao. 
milipay Cf. lipay. 
milo poison. 

pocpoinom nong milo, to give poison. 
pocmilo to poison fish. 
milugbas Cf. lugbas. 
mimug ripe. 
mina first. 
minalsa 

lonpoc nga gotao nog minalsa guilan 
somocol noc ponuan, faction. 
minanukan a jar valued at 2^ piculs of rice. 
minatung Cf. tong. 

lay minatung, who has come in? 

V mianhi, to come hither. 
minek 

ginenga minek gondao. afternoon. 
minit Cf. init. 
minolo na he is gone. 
minoma to drink. 

mitioma sog gasi, to drink rice beer. 
minsan once. 

Bontoc Igorot: mammgsan, id. 
minsan liu third eighth of the moon. 

minsan liu gulang bulan, sixth eighth. 
mintobo Cf. tobo. 
minubu 

diuata minubu, good spirits of the 
mountains which drink only coco- 
nut water. 
ming 

ming conotconot da ig viste, to purse 
up the gown. 
mingopos Cf. obos. 
mipono Cf. pono. 
mipupus the dark of the moon. 
mirapai a blow given with the snout of a 

beast. 
miremi to come. 

nano a miremi, when camest thou in? 
mis sweet, palatable. 

mamis (momis) (ma : mis) sweet. 
pacamomis (paca : momis). 

pacamomis donini, how sweet this is. 
gemisnen (ge : mis : nen) sweetness. 

V tamis, sweet, agreeable to the taste. 
misauta often. 

miskinan poor. 

mita ipos to see at a distance. 

V quita, to see, to look. 
mitagam Cf. tagam. 
mitom Cf. tom. 
mitondong Cf. tondong. 



SUBANU-ENGI.ISH VOCABULARY. 



201 



mitubu 

diuata mitubu, good spirits of the 
mountains which drink only coco- 
nut water. 
mo postpositive pronoun of the second 
person singular. 

V mo, genitive second singular. 
mobabaan to bewitch. 
mobiaray 

golang guisip nogondaapa mobiaray, 
unliquidated. 
mobogbog 

gaan noc potocon noc tonob somala 
alandon nong mobogbog, cakes. 
moc 

tontol noc pigonaona moc nga gotao, 

fable. 
moc sugooa tundong songuca noc sala, 
weep for your sins. 
mocsasa Cf. sasa. 
moctoo to bend. 

sogondi moctoo, inflexible. 
moctuman Cf. tuman. 
mogbaal Cf. baal. 
mogbatic to pass. 

sogondi mogbatic, impassable. 
mogdao Cf. dao. 
moglaat Cf. laat. 
moglanglaang Cf. laang. 
moglingalinga Cf. lingalinga. 
mogmaomao Cf. maomao. 
mogobol Cf. gobol. 
mogolot 

diuata mogolot, good spirits whose 
i home is in the sea, yet vengeful 

j when neglected. 

mogonao (mo : gonao) cold. 

soc tondong gabo nog mogonao, per- 
taining to winter. 

V bognao, tognao, cold. 
mogulang Cf. gulang. 
molimbong Cf. limbong. 
molingin Cf. lingin. 

molio (mo : lio) crooked, curved. 
pes nog molio, a sickle. 

V balico, crooked, twisted. 
molipotot Cf. lipot. 

molo (muru) face, cheek. 
molobay indolent. 

gotao nog molobay, lazy. 
moloctin narrow. 

baling somala alandon jabas matas bo 
moloctin, a bandage. 
molomo Cf. lomo. 
moloon 

sogombaya nog moloon nog magleinlein 
a relative. 
moloto Cf. loto. 
momaron Cf. aron. 
momis Cf. mis. 
momoc to soften, 
i momoc posol, id. 

V homoc, to soften, to mellow, to miti- 
' gate. 

mondoc Cf. ondoc. 
moneec to go up. 
monepes Cf. nepes. 



morn spear. 

moni aron noc taliaman, a spear. 
monlogos iniquitous. 

V mamomogos, id. 
monoog to descend. Cf. ponoog. 

monoog ya, come thou down. 

V naog, noog, manaug, to descend. 
moo to labor. 

moo mog baal, laborer. 

V moo, to toil for hire. 
mooay 

golang guisip ondaapa mooay, not 
liquidated. 
mopayat Cf. payat. 
mopia Cf. pia. 
mopong like, similar. 

dili mopong, unlike, dissimilar. 

V topong, equal, like. 
morala to destroy. Cf. corala. 

sogondi maimo nong morala, inde- 
structible. 

V oala, to destroy, to ruin. 
morein 

morein iposay, there, behold! 
moreipol thick. 

ponopoton nong moreipol, coarse cloth. 
songag damomog nogombagol bo morei- 
pol, thick lips. 
mori to come, to go. 

mori niya, come thou here. 
morito ya soc convento, go to the con- 
vent. 
moromos Cf. romos, 
moronaya Cf. maranaya. 
mosocog Cf. socog. 
mosom Cf. som. 
mota eye humor, lippitude. 

motaon (mota : on) blear-eyed. 
pocpongimotacan tearduct. 

V mota, lippitude; motaon, blear-eyed. 
motaas Cf. taas. 

motagam Cf. tagam. 
motahap Cf. taap. 
motalao Cf. talao. 
motaon Cf. mota. 
motaron Cf. taron. 
motas Cf. taas. 
motobang Cf. tobang. 
motondong Cf. tondong. 
motoo wise, understanding. 

mogdao motoo tugaling, a clever thief. 
motood (motuod) true. 

pacpangirongo nong motuod, to abjure. 
pocomotood (poco : motood) truth. 

pocponongguiling noc pomotangon nog 
megleenleen pocomotood, to identify. 

V matood, true. 

munlu gigantic evil spirits (manamat) of 

the forest. 
muru Cf. molo. 
musalabungkas a large neckerchief or 

shawl worn about the shoulders. 
musing dead coals. 
musop Cf. sop. 
mutuon Cf. toon. 

na he, she. 

V (Haraya) na, he. 



202 



THE SUBANU. 



naa (maa) yes, there, take it. 
naan 

di maliag song naan nong mogulang, 
my parents do not wish it. 

mi naan cana, hast thou dined? 
nada chastity. 
name our. 

V namo, id. 
nanaan unhappy. 
nandao Cf. ondao. 
nano when. 

nana ec pogulimo, when wilt thou go? 
nano a miremi, when earnest thou in? 

V (Hiligayna) cano, sano, id. 
napo arable soil. 

bonoa nog napo, field. 

lopa nong napo nogondaay magpondo- 

pondo, a plain. 
pacanapo tugaling, evenness, prairie. 

V napo, sandy soil, river flats. 
naquilit to imagine. 

sogmogunauna sognaquilit, imagina- 
tive. 
naquit Cf. goit. 
nati the young of animals. 
neen thy. 

song neen, to thee. 
negmegbata Cf. bata. 
nenau now. 

nenau gondao, to-day. 
nepes thin. 

monepes (mo : nepes) thinness. 

V nipis, manipis, pagcanipis, thin, 
niathou. (niya.) 

maya nia ce pagbasa, read thou 
quietly. 

mori niya, come thou here. 
nigasoy 

sognigasoy sonnem nogayac, lover. 
niguan bee. 

V ligoan, id. 
nila wax. 

nila honua noc tiuan, beehive. 
pocongolan nog nila noc tioan, queen 

cell. 
manunsuma dig nila, to eat beeswax. 
niug coconut fruit. 

tubig niugniug, water of the coconut. 
niugao coconut grove. 
Bontoc Igorot: inyug, nlyog, coconut. 
niya Cf. nia. 
niyo you. 

sofig niyo, to you. 

sabot tamo uglonan niyo, answer all of 
you. 
no 

caliuanag no calingin, warped. 
buat socpog libon no gotao, lues venerea, 
noc 

bugayan gaco noc tubig, give me water. 
magbaal lamo noc sulal, did you work 
in the orchard? 
nocmacabingguil Cf. bingguil. 
nocolonan Cf. olonan. 
nocpigaguanta 

piran nocpigaguanta somala noc tibaan, 
ignominy. 



nocpogbalidya Cf. balidya. 
nocpogboutolon Cf. boutolon. 
nocputuonan Cf. putuonan. 
noctapis Cf. tapis, 
noctibagoi Cf. bagol. 
nog a particle. 

V nga, a particle which joins nouns and 

adjectives or the several parts of a 
sentence, and has the value of a rela- 
tive. 
nogale 

sogsomacay nogale togotan nocponoan, 
stowaway. 
nogayac Cf. ayac. 
noglana Cf. lana. 
nogmalat Cf. laat. 
nogmibatog Cf. batog. 
nogmigbaalCf. baal. 
nogmiglotao Cf. lotao. 
nogogolingon Cf. ogolingon. 
nogombagol Cf. bagol. 
nogomolang Cf. gulang. 
nogompia Cf. pia. 
nogondaay Cf. daay. 
nogondi Cf. di. 
nogonnos 

pocaolog nogonnos, flux, tide. 
noguintolo Cf. tolo. 
nolom 

nolom sog lopa, fur seal. 
nong a particle equivalent to^nog. 
nongmoromos Cf. romos. 
nongmotong 

somala alandon nongmotong, bristly. 
nongog 

gondeemaqui nongog, enchanted. 
nongong 

bonua nocpog balidyaan nongong ma- 
noc, cockpit. 
nongguiling Cf. guiling. 
nonguinca 

lucao nonguinca, a hole in a" wall. 
nooc down. 

monoog (mo : nooc) come'down. 
ponooc (po : nooc) go down. 
noquito pertaining to. 

noquito noc tiuan, pertaining to bees. 
numungini now, at this time. 
numunggitu now. 

V ngalan, a name. Bontoc Igorot: nga- 
dan, ngatjan, id. 

ngisi a tooth. 

V ngipon, id. 

obos low. 

pagobos to fall. 
pahubus humility. 

paubus nog buot, discouragement. 
mingopos to decrease. 

V obos, to bow, to prostrate. 
ocdoc to pound, to bruise. 

pogocdoc pounding. 

V docdoc, to beat, to bray. 
ocom to judge. 

pogocom to judge. 
sogmogocom a judge. 

V hocom, judge, magistrate. 



SUBANU-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



203 



ocsop to drink. Cf. gacsop. 
sogmacaocsop imbiber. 
pocoocsop imbibition. 

V sopsop, to drink, to suck. 
octuban to complete, to finish. Cf. tobos. 

sogondaay alapusan pingoctoban, un- 
limited. 
ogasan 

gomhagol noc palongan noc pogogasan 
somala alandon, trough. 
ogboc to nail. 

V ogboc, to thrust into. 
ogolingon 

sopagboot nogogolingon, imperiously. 
oglod to hoard. 
ola 

pogola noc salapi, to waste, misspend. 
maliolaon dilapidator. 
oiang to destroy. 
micaolang 

nog abilingan nog micaolang, to facili- 
tate. 
socmicaolang obstructor. 

V olang, impediment; macaolang, in- 

convenient, hindrance. 
ologan 

laraban nga ologan somala alandon, 
emblem. 
olonan 

bonua noc olonan nocpoc tobora, a 
spring. 
olungoban burial cave. 
ombos later on. 
ondaapa Cf. daap. 
ondao day. 

soc mopayat soc sala ondao, ephemeral. 
nandao now. 
gondao sun, day, daytime. 

gondao noc pocponudya, day of judg- 
ment. 
co7ie no gondao, to-day. 
nenau gondao, to-day. 
ginenga minek gondao, afternoon. 
salan go7idao, day after to-morrow. 
gektu gondao, noonday. 
sumibang gondao, sunrise. 
sindep gondao, sunset. 

V adlao, sun, day. Kolon: ando, id. 

Tagalog: arau, id. Baliyon, Baju: 
lau, id. 
ondl Cf. di. 
ondoc fear. 

coendoc amazement. 
gondoc fear. 

sogondaay gondoc, intrepidity. 
mondoc fear. 

sogondi mondoc, fearless. 
maliondocon (mali i ondoc : on) cow- 
ardly. 
ticas maliondocon, pickpocket. 

V hadloc, fear. 
one to crow. 

pogone to crow. 
manoc noc pogone, cackler. 
pogone nong mga manoc, to crow. 
onsa what, what thing. 



ontod to ascend. 

pogontod to climb. 
ontoran to complete, to finish. 
ooao 

pogooao to become rancid or oily. 
orol deglutition. 

osa (gusa) deer; a Chinese pottery jar, so 
called from its ornament. 
mananap maaron nog osa, gazelle. 

V osa, deer. Bontoc Igorot: o£sa. id. 
osisang vinegar. 

V cosisang, id. 

paa (pa) leg. 

bool noc paa nog baboy, slice of pork. 
puunpaa (puun : paa) leg above the 
knee, thigh. 
1 V paa, foot, leg, paw. Kolon: paa, thigh. 
paalongas Cf. longas. 
pacainog Cf. inog, 
pacamomis Cf. mis. 
! pacanaoron Cf. aron. 
pacano (poccano) heathen. (Spanish pa- 
gano). 
pogdonot sogpoc toon nog balos soc pa- 
cano, heathen. 
pacapayat Cf. payat. 
I pacasicol Cf. sicol. 

pacasococ Cf. sococ. 
■. paccalauat Cf. calauat. 
I pacpalaga Cf. laga. 
j pacpanilong Cf. panilong. 
! pacpinit Cf. init. 
pacponoog Cf. noog. 
pacpoyo Cf. poyo. 

padang a tall grass of rapid growth. Cf. 
kogon. 
padangan (padang : an) a grass field, 
meadow. 
pagandam 

pagandam pamotangon, to supply. 
pagandom 7wg gaan, supplies. 
pagas quickly. 
pagbaga Cf. baga. 
pagbaloganan Cf. baloganan. 
pagbasa Cf. basa. 
pagbontol Cf. bontol. 
pagcorala Cf. corala. 
pagdatong Cf. datong. 
pagdipag Cf. dipag. 
pagdoro Cf. doro. 
paghat (pahat) ladder, steps. 
paglangay Cf. langay. 
paglogalin Cf. logalin. 
pagobos Cf. obos. 
pagonagona Cf. gonagona. 
pagoquion spiritless, dejected. 
pagsontoc Cf. sontoc. 
pagtingil Cf. tingil. 
paguisip Cf. guisip. 
pagusay Cf. gosay. 
pahat Cf. paghat. 
pahubus Cf. obos. 
pakanen stem, branch. Cf. panga. 
palad (palag) fortune, luck, happines3. 
malaal nog palag, misfortune. 



204 



THE SUBANU. 



palad (palag) palm of the hand. 

dibaban palad, back of the hand. 
Bontoc Igorot: talad, palm. 
palaksan a bowl. 
palalablan Cf. labian. 
palamanls index finger. Cf. manisan. 
palapa (pala : paa) sole of the foot. 

dibaban noc palapa, instep. 
palay unhusked rice. 

Bontoc Igorot: palay, id. 
paldon master. (Spanish padron.) 

pocsuquit noc paldon sogmigbnis, to 
enroll in a census. 
palina a fragrant resin burned as incense in 

religious ceremonies. 
palobaya (palo : baya) humbly. 
palon to extinguish. 
pocpalon, id. 

V palong, id. 
palongan trough. 

V palongan, id. 
palos skein, hank. 

V palos, id. 
pamotangon 

pagandam pamotangon, to supply. 
pamuku tax, tribute paid to chiefs. Cf. 
buis. 
gantang pannikiian, a basket measure 
of rice. 
pan a the bow. 

lipu pana, arrow. 

V pana, arrow, to shoot an arrow. 
panas fever. 

panas minit, to be feverish. 
mipanas guien, he has fever. 

V hilanat, fever. 
panday carpenter. 

panday potao, blacksmith. 
panday negmegbata, midwife. 

V panday, to work at one's trade. 
pandayan (panday : an) ironworks, forge. 
pandiawal a bitter vine. 

panilong (ponilong) to admit to the house, 
to grant asylum. 
pacpanilong sog locao, to withdraw 
into barracks. 

V panilong, to admit to the house. 
panimolang depressed. 

pocpanimolang, to become low- 
spirited. 
panit skin (when on the animal). Cf. ganit. 
bakes panit, a leather belt. 
pulo panit, a red or brown skin. 
pansal a wedge. 

panungo a chief superior to a timuai. 
panga a branch. Cf. pakanen. 

tongdug panga, a half-grown monkey. 
panganen (panga : nen) a branch. 

V sanga, id. Bontoc Igorot: panga, id. 
pangangdan the light. 

pangasi Cf. gasi. 

panggu turban, handkerchief, (pang-vu, 

Christie.) 
pangirongo 

pocpangirongo nong motuod, to abjure. 
panglamugan a dye. 



pares equal. (Spanish par.) 

sogondaay pares, unequal. 
pasagdan to abandon. 

V pasagad, id. 
pasawit a large fishnet. 
pasaylo pardon. Cf. poylo. 

sogondaay pocpasaylo, irremissibly. 
sogondi maimo noc pasaylon, unpar- 
donable. 

V pasaylo, to pardon. 
pasek a post. Cf. pasoc. 

pasobong false hair; hemp fiber or grass tied 
in a woman's hair for adornment. 
pasoc to nail. 

pasub the measure of a large jar of rice beer. 
pat (upat) four. 
patpulu forty. 

V opat, four. Bontoc Igorot : ipat, apat, id. 
patal 

gangay soc patal, to put balls on. 
patay (matay) to die. 
pocpatay to die. 
pocpatay bisan toyiogbata nong mica, 
infanticide. 
pogpatayon (pog : patay : on) death. 

V patay, anything dead. Kolon : pahdtt, 

to kill. Bima: hade, id. 
patik tattooing. 

Bontoc Igorot : fatek, tattoo. 
patod brother. 

V patod, id. 
patubuun a domestic animal. 
paubos Cf. obos. 

pay at to delay, late. 

mopayat late. 

pacapayat delay. 

socmopayat soc sala ondao, ephemeral. 
payung umbrella. 

Bontoc Igorot, Ilocano: pdyong, id. 
pedes sunshine. 
peed to slander. 

pocpeed slander, defamation. 

sogpopeed defamer, slanderer. 
peen 

pocpeen to alter. 

V baihon, physiognomy, appearance; to 

alter. 
pegotaran origin, beginning, germ, sprout, 
bud. (pe : gatad : an.) 
pegotaran soniala alandon, initiative. 
pogbuta noc pegotaran noc suquit, to 
enroll in a census. 
pegoyonan Cf. goyon. 
peinan to distinguish. 

socalpeinan distinguishable. 
penongonan 

penongonan sogogolingong nog buol, 
abnegation. 
penoto (penoti, penuti) knife, cutlass. 
penote nogombagol, machete. 
pogbonal noc penoto, cutlass stroke. 
pensa 

poquison soc pensa somala alandon, to 
store. 
perealon under, beneath. 

ponopotan sapis soc nga libon perealon 
sog duma noc lapis, petticoat. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



205 



pes chopping knife, 14-inch blade, head 
round or square. 
pes tiog molio, sickle. 
pet bitter. 

umpet bitter. 

gapetnen (ga : pet : nen) bitterness. 
pia good. 

gipianan (gi : pia : nan) benefit. 

gompia (gopia) (go : pia) good conduct. 

mapia (mopia) (ma : pia) good. 
song mopia pocongolan, habitable. 

nogompia well. 

suguiton nia nogompia soc sulat, write 
well thj' page. 

sagompia 

HOC macabingguil sagompia nog buot 
poctobe, detractor. 

sopogopia ignominiously. 
picnogan Cf. inog. 
picongolan Cf. ongolan. 
picpongonnan Cf. pongon. 
pictoonan Cf. toon, 
pigagabit Cf. gabit. 
pigbuatan Cf. buat. 
pigdaoan Cf. dao. 
pigonagona Cf. gonagona. 
pigondian Cf. di. 
pila ant. 

pilac to launch a ship. 

pilak a fighting companion, ordinary soldier. 
pilak silver money (Sulu). 

Bontoc Igorot: bilak, money. 
pilaten eyelid. 
pileka eyelash. 
pili to elect, to choose. 

V pili, to elect, to choose, to select. Bon- 

toc Igorot: pillek, mapUi, id. 
piiong impeded, cripple. Cf. pitong. 
pimala 

bnUug pimala, a festival for the young 
dead or those recently dead; for- 
merly men were sacrificed but now 
a cock suffices. 
pimoctong Cf. tong. 

pimola borage, wild spinach, creeping vine. 
Cf. pomolanon. 
pimolaen a garden. 
pimonan 

gotao pimonan, merchant, factor. 
pinili (pinuli) good. 

poctalo nogompia pinili, fluent in 
speech. 
pinilian to abdicate; wicked people. 
socpinilian wicked. 

V pinilian, the wicked. 
pinit Cf. init. 

pinobalan a working knife used also in 

fighting. Cf. baal. 
pinongi 

pocgondi soc pinongi, denial. 
pinoquit 

socpinoquit leprous, 
pintas brave, fierce. 
pintasan ferocious. 
capintas (apintas) brave. 

pocgangay noc capintas abolo socog, to 
enervate, to debilitate. 

V pintas, id. 



pinugulan the wrist. 
pinuli (pinili) good. 

socpinuli, id. 
pinuti Cf. penoto. 
pinggan a plate for food. (? gaan.) 
pingoctoban Cf. octuban. 
pingondian Cf. di. 
piran shame. 

nog piran, ignominiously. 
piran nocpigaguantasomala noclibaan, 
ignominj'. 
pisala 

poglogotaoayi pisala noc paroquia, pa- 
rishioner. 
pisaligan 

pisaligan noc comerciank, factor, mer- 
chant. 
pitangan fish basket. 
pitong to cripple. Cf. piiong. 
pitu seven. 

pitupulu seventy. 

V pito, seven. Bontoc Igorot: pilo, id. 
po hortatory prefi.x. 

V pa, prefixed to verbs gives them the 

signification to seek, to demand, to 
procure the action of the root. 

poalat Cf. laat. 

pobianan 

ttigaya noc pobiana}i noc tubig, water 
conduit. 

poc- verb formative prefix. 

V pag, paga, id. 
pocabolo Cf. bolo. 
pocagagom Cf. agom. 
pocagobal Cf. gobal. 
pocalocpog Cf. locpog. 
pocamatay Cf. matay. 
pocaoid Cf. acid, 
pocaolog 

pocaolog nogonnos, flux, tide. 



pocbalos Cf. balos. 
pocbasa Cf. basa. 
pocbiyan to pass. 
pocboclag Cf. boclag. 
pocbolong Cf. belong, 
pocboot Cf. boot, 
pocca formative prefix. 

V pagca-, prefix formative of abstract 

nouns, verbal nouns and infinitives 

passive. 
poccabolong Cf. cabolong. 
poccadiuata Cf. diuata. 
poccasala Cf. sala. 
pocdanlag Cf. danlag. 
pocdiuata Cf. diuata. 
pocdula Cf. dula. 
pocgangay Cf. gangay. 
pocgondaay Cf. daay. 
pocgondi Cf. di. 
pocguilas Cf. guilas. 
poclabon Cf. labon. 
poclagoy Cf. lagoy. 
poclibaliba Cf. libaliba. 
poclolan Cf. lolan. 
poclombo Cf. lombo. 
poclood Cf. lood. 
poclubung Cf. lobung. 
pocmilo Cf. milo. 



206 



THE SUBANU. 



poco formative prefix. 

V pagca, a particle wherewith are formed 

abstract nouns, verbal nouns and 

infinitives passive. 
pocobaga Cf. baga. 
pocodope Cf. dope, 
pocogodaay Cf. daay. 
pocogoit Cf. goit. 
pocogondaay Cf. daay. 
pocolabo Cf. labo. 
pocolaen Cf. laen. 
pocolog Cf. log. 
pocologya Cf. pocoloya. 
pocolomo Cf. lomo. 
pocoloon Cf. loon, 
pocoloya (pocologya) weak, infirm. 

V pagcaloya, id. 
pocomotood Cf. motood. 
pocondi Cf. di. 
pocongolan Cf. congol. 
pocoocsop Cf. ocsop. 
pocoromos Cf. romos. 
pocpalon Cf. palon. 
pocpanimolang Cf. panimolang. 
pocpangirongo Cf. pangirongo. 
pocpasaylo Cf. pasaylo. 
pocpatay Cf. patay. 

pocpeed Cf. peed. 

pocpeen Cf. peen. 

pocpoc a stroke with a cutlass, a slash. 

pocpoli Cf. poll. 

pocponicol Cf. ponicol. 

pocpono Cf. pono. 

pocponongguiling Cf. gulling. 

pocponudya Cf. ponudya. 

pocpongimotacan Cf. mota. 

pocpongompig Cf. pongompig. 

pocposinao Cf. posinao. 

pocposoon Cf. posoon. 

pocpoylo Cf. poylo. 

pocpuasa Cf. puasa. 

pocpuli Cf. pull. 

pocquilas Cf. guilas. 

pocquipos Cf. quipos. 

pocsaloy Cf. saloy. 

pocsambag Cf. sambag. 

pocsicay Cf. sicay. 

pocsindilsindil Cf. sindil. 

pocsobblag Cf. sobblag. 

pocsobo Cf. sobo. 

pocsocay Cf. sacay. 

pocsod foot. Cf. gocsud. 

pocsoganan Cf. sogao. 

pocsogo Cf. sogo. 

pocsolog Cf. solog. 

pocsopang Cf. sopang. 

pocsopoc Cf. sopoc. 

poctaab Cf. taab. 

poctago Cf. tago. 

poctalo Cf. talo. 

poctare Cf. tare. 

poctina Cf. tina. 

poctobang Cf. tobang. 

poctoboson Cf. tobos. 

poctolin Cf. tolin. 

poctolo Cf. tolo. 

poctoman Cf. tuman. 

poctontal Cf. tontal. 



poctontol Cf. tontol. 
poctontong Cf. tontong. 
poctuan Cf. tuan. 
poctuba Cf. tuba, 
poctubo Cf. tobo. 
pogambit Cf. ambit, 
pogangay Cf. angay. 
pogangol Cf. gangol. 
pogbaal Cf. baal. 
pogbaat Cf. baat. 
pogboclagon Cf. boclagon. 
pogbogay Cf. bogay. 
pogbollo Cf. bollo. 
pogbonal Cf. bonal. 
pogboot Cf. boot, 
pogbuta Cf. buta. 
pogdaig Cf. daig. 
pogdalomdom Cf. dalomdom. 
pogdao Cf. dao. 
pogdeec Cf. deec. 
pogdolan Cf. dolan. 
pogdonot Cf. donot. 
pogdope Cf. dope, 
poggare Cf. gare. 
poggatad Cf. gatad. 
poggolat Cf. golat. 
pogguison Cf. guison. 
poglaat Cf. laat. 
poglibac Cf. libac. 
poglibot Cf. libot. 
poglines Cf. lines, 
poglioat Cf. lioat. 
pogliquimo to form, to shape. 

V paghimo, to form, to make, to fashion. 
poglogomutan Cf. gomot. 
poglogonas Cf. gonas. 
poglogotaoan Cf. gotao. 
poglomi Cf. lomi. 
pogocdoc Cf. ocdoc. 
pogocom Cf. ocom. 
pogogasan Cf. ogasan. 
pogogovitan Cf. govitan. 
pogola Cf. ola. 
pogonagona Cf. gonagona. 
pogone Cf. one. 
pogontod Cf. on tod. 
pogooao Cf. ooao. 
pogood Cf. good, 
pogoot Cf. goot. 
pogosig Cf. gosig. 
pogovitan Cf. govitan. 
pogpatayon Cf. patay. 
pogsocasoca Cf. soca. 
pogtolog Cf. tolog. 

pogugba to whitewash. Cf. gapog, lime. 
poguindog Cf. guindog. 
poguingcora Cf. guingcod. 
poguit Cf. goit. 
pogulatay Cf. ulatay. 
pogulimo Cf. ulimo. 
poinom Cf. inom. 
poll to revoke. 

pocogondaay pocpoli, irrevocability. 
poligo Cf. ligo. 

poloaponopoton clothing. Cf. ponopo- 
ton. 

paghontol soc poloaponopoton, to beat 
clothes, 



SUBANU-ENGUSH VOCABULARY. 



207 



polog Cf. log. 

polomongwit fisherman. Cf. managat. 

poloponan 

libon noc poloponan, pregnant. 
polos gain, profit. 

capolosan (ca : polos : an) gain. 

V polos, id. 

polupungobii evening. Cf. gobii. 
pomagon flexible. 

sogondi maimo pomagon, inflexible. 
pombaal Cf. bal. 
pomoctong Cf. tong. 
pomolanon a plant. Cf. pimolaen. 

pomolanon pia nog bolong, galium. 
pomolanon doon gahon soc poctibooc 

no gotas, galium. 
lopa mogondaapa balay pomolonan, 
uncultivated. 
pomotangon the same. 

maaron nog ken noc pomotangon, 

identical. 
pocponongguiling noc pomotangon nog 
megleenleen pocomotood, to identify. 
ponbaal Cf. bal. 
(pondopondo) magpondopondo. 

lopa nong napo nogondaay magpondo- 
pondo, a plain. 
ponicol Cf. sicol. 

pocponicol to set the feet firmly for an 
effort. 
Vpanicad, id. 
ponilong Cf. panilong. 
ponno to complete, to finish. Cf. pono. 

V pono, to fill, to augment, to complete. 
pono (punu) to fill. 

mipono 

mipono noc sayop, evil doer. 

socpocoloon mipono, filler. 
songmipono full. 

pocpono noc tubig somala alandon, to 
fill with water. 

V pono, to fill, to be full of, to be skilled 

in. Bima: feaw/>owM, to fill. Bon- 
toc Igorot: piinek, id. 
pono close, solid, massive. 
ponoan (ponuan) governor. Cf. poon. 
sogsomacay nogale togotan noc ponoan, 

stowaway. 
lompoc nga gotao nog minalsa guilan 
somocol noc poniian, faction. 

V ponoan, governor, lord. 

ponolud the farewell or final ceremony of a 

buklug. 
ponongangan father-in-law, mother-in-law. 
ponongguian model. 

V panigingnan, model, type, sample; 

ingon, like. 
ponooc (ponoog) to go down, to come 
down. Cf. monoog. 
pacponoog sog laga, to cheapen. 

V naog, id. 
ponopoton clothing. 

ponopototi nog daan, old and ragged 

clothes. 
ponopoton nong moreipol, coarse cloth. 
poloaponopoton (poloa : ponopoton) 

clothing. 

V panapton, clothes. 



ponuan Cf. ponoan. 
ponudya to judge. 

gondao noc pocponudya, judgment day. 
pongol to mutilate. 

socpongol so gomoc, leprous. 

V pongol, to mutilate. 
pongompig Cf. goinpulo. 

pocpongompig, to dye red. 
pongon to unite, to gather, to accumulate. 
picpongonnan no nga gotao, a crowd. 
socmicpong07i noc cabilinan nogondi 
socalpocboclagofi, patrimony. 

V ipon, to join, to unite, to dwell. 
pongong to hold. 

pocpongong to attach, to seize. 

pocpongong sotnala alandon giiinago 
bo songa gotao aron huo pongon, to 
form, to draw up troops. 

macapongong obstructor. 

V pogong, to hold, to catch, to seize. 
poon leader. Cf. ponoan. 

poon sog mololison, leader of rebels. 

poon sog lunsud, chief. 
popia cap, hat. 
poporenion 

poporenion mo sog asa-real, tell him to 
come to the palace. 

V paanhion, to bid come here. 
poquicot to chain. 

V hocot, to make a net. 
poquison 

poqmson soc pensa somala alandon, to 
store. 
poquit detractor. 
pord hunger. 
poraigon (poraygon) flattering. 

bata noc poraigon go pia, spoiled child. 

V padayigon, a vain and presumptuous 

person. 
porang to cure meat with salt and smoke. 

V bolad, to dry in the sun. 
porongporong a crown. 

V podong, a garland, crown, turl)an. 
porot old and ragged clothes. 
posinao varnish. 

pocposinao varnishing. 

V pasinao, id. 
posobaton Cf. sabot, 
posocliyan to change. 

sogondi maimo posocliyan, immutable. 
posol 

momoc posol, to soften. 
posoloron Cf. solot. 
posong heart. 

guinonosola soc posong, repent with all 
your heart. 

cabolo so posong, courage. 

V tagiposoon, heart. 

V tagiposoon, heart. Bontoc Igorot: 

poso, id. 
posongu a religious ceremony at the end of 
the year and the beginning of the 
new year. In these ceremonies 
good luck and success are detcT- 
mined by the phases of the moon, 
the grouping of the stars, the throw- 
ing of a rope and its resultant con- 
tour when it lies upon the ground, 



208 



THE SUBANU. 



posongii — continued. 

the twirling of a rattan and the 
position at which it comes to rest. 
(posoon) pocposoon to ascertain. 
posui chick. 

potao iron. Cf. cutao, tonaoan. 
panda y potao, blacksmith. 
pagbaga noc potao, to weld iron. 
sapauan ec potao somala alandon, to 
garnish with iron points. 

V pothao, iron. 

poti (pole, puti) white. 

poti dalag, the dawn. 
gompote (go[m] : poti) white. 
pocpoti (poc : poti) to whiten, to 
bleach. 

V poti, white. 
potocon 

gaan noc potocon, cakes. 
potol to cut, to divide. 

V potol, id. 
poylo Cf. pasaylo. 

pocpoylo to pardon. 

V saylo, id. 

poj'O from side to side. 

pacpoyo to swing, to move from side to 
side. 
poyoan (puyuwan) a small bed. 
puasa to fast. 

pocpuasa fasting. 

V poasa, fast. 

pugan a tree with a large banana-like leaf. 
pulas fire-making by friction of wood. 
puli 

puli musop, again. 
pocpuli to repay. 

V balos, again. 
pulo red. 

pido panit, red or brown skin. 
gompulo (go[m] : pulo) red. 
gopulonen (go : pulo : nen) redness of 
the sky. 

V pola, red. 

puluntu ceremony of raising the souls of 
the dead. 
puluntu nog malimatay, the ceremony 
of causing the souls of the dead to 
ascend into the sky. 
buklug puluntu, a funeral ceremony 
for the aged dead or for those long 
dead. 
pulut boiled rice offered on the altars of the 

gods. 
pumutul lemon, 
punanen 

alaik punanen, why, the reason. 
puntian Cf. tian. 
puonan 

socpuonan to waste, to misspend. 

V pohonan, business capital, interest. 
pusilau rain, a light shower. 

pusu navel. 

pusu dagat, the navel or center of the 

sea. 
tian noc pusu, calf of pusu we find an 
In this use of tian noc the leg. 
interesting, yet not exactly ehicidatorv, 



pusu — continued. 

parallel in Efate, where the calf of the leg 
is dominated as here by terms proper to 
the abdomen. In his work Oceanic La-n 
guages. Dr. Macdonald (s.v. ate) points 
out that uateau natore, literally kidneys of 
the shin, designates the calf, and that the 
same use is extended to atevae in Samoan, 
the liver of the leg or calf, and to aterima 
in Tahiti, the liver of the arm or thick part 
of the arm. Upon this matter I have 
made such note as the data suggested ( The 
Polynesian Wanderings, page 321). It is 
proper to mention that the arrival of this 
new material may open the subject for 
further discussion; certainly this instance 
of the description of leg anatomy in ab- 
dominal terms is very interesting. We 
should observe that in tian noc pusu both 
nouns pertain to the belly ; there is nothing 
to suggest the leg, as is the case in Efate, 
Samoa, and Tahiti. 

Bontoc Igorot: haosig, navel. 

puti Cf. poti. 

putok grain. 

putuonan Cf. toon. 

mutuon na noc putuonan, did you 
study the lesson? 

puunpaa the leg above the knee, the thigh. 
Cf. paa. 

puyuwan (poyoan) cradle, hammock. 

quak (guak) the crow. (Visayan, awak; 
Magindano, kuak; Sulu, wak; Taga- 
log, wak; Malay, gagak; Yakan, 
u-wak.) 

quilas (guilas) to share. 
pocquilas to impart. 

quina- formative prefix. 

V quina- a composition member of pre- 

terit verbs. 
quinaan (g[qu] : in : aan) food. 

poglines sog quinaan, digestion. 
quinaanglan (quina : ang[o]l : an) to need, 

to lack. 

V quinahanglan, id.; hangol, poor, 

needy. 
quipos to pack. 

pocquipos to barrel, to store. 

pocquipos somala alandon sog loqua 
noc caban, to pack into a trunk. 

V hipos, to hoard, to store up. 

romos wet. 

moromos (mo : romos) wet. 

lupa nong moromos, a marsh. 
pocoromos (poco : romos) moisture. 
rongog (ronug, dongog) to hear. 

pogangay nog rongog, defamation, 
slander. 

sa an article. 

V sa, nominative article with proper 

nouns. 
sa one. 

V osa, id. Bontoc Igorot; ha. id. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABUI.ARY. 



209 



saa a sprout, shoot. 

songoc saa mintoho noc salalis, a bunch 
of flowers or fruit on a single stalk. 

V saha, shoot, sprout. 

saac to ask, to question, to inquire. 

V socna, to inquire, to ask. 
saayan Cf. sacay. 

sabab because, reason, cause. (Arabic.) 
alaik sabab, why, the reason. 

sabao juice. 

pocoloon noc sabao, succulence, juici- 
ness. 
sogdoon cisabaon, juicy. 

sabay to dance. 

V sabay, id. 
sabilino onion. 

sabot (sabut, sobot) to understand, to 

comprehend, to agree. 
gangay noc sabot, to accede, to agree. 
sabot tamo uglotian niyo, answer all of 

you. 
saboton 

gondaay saboton, idiocy. 
gotao nogoyidaay saboton, idiot. 
posobaton mo guilan, make them 

answer. 

V sabot, to understand, to comprehend, 

to agree, 
sac Cf. soc, sog, sag. 
sacay (socay) boat, ship, vessel. 
pocsacay embarking, shipping. 
pocosacay id. 
saayan vessel, boat. 
somacay (s : om : acay) 

sog somacay nogale togotan noc ponoan, 
stowaway. 

V sacay, boat, ship, to embark, to sail. 
sacguionaona Cf. gonagona. 

sacog parishioner. 

V sacop, id. 

sag Cf. sac, soc, sog. 

pacpanilong sag locao, to withdraw 
into barracks. 
sagatad impostor. 
sagompia Cf. pia. 
saguing banana. 

gasa saguing, a cigarette wrapped in 
banana leaf. 

V sagu i n g, id . Bontoc Igorot : sdking, id . 
saguit (suguit) to write. 

suguiton nia nogompia soc sulat, write 
well thy page. 
sala sin, evil doer. 

songuca noc sala, thy sins. 
pocondi maimo soc sala, impeccability. 
sogondi maimo noc sala, impeccable. 
maasasala sinner. 
poccasala to sin. 

V sala, sin, fault, error. 
sala (sa, isa) one. 

socmopayat soc sala ondao, ephemeral. 
salabuk one. 

salabuk tondo, first finger. 
salag (salang) a nest. 
salag great. 

masalag (ma : salag) large. 

tubig masalag, a river. 



salag — continued. 

gasalagnen (ga : salag : nen) great- 
ness, magnitude, a person great in 
mind or power. 
salalis 

songoc saa mintobo noc salalis, a bunch 
of flowers or fruit on a single stalk. 
salamin looking-glass. 

Bontoc Igorot: sUming, id. 
salan 

salan gondao, day after to-morrow. 
salapang fish spear (Sulu). 
salapi money, coin, silver. 

timod noc salapi, to hoard. 
pogola noc salapi, to waste, to mis- 
spend, to squander. 
salapian (salapi : an) rich, renowned. 
lee nog salapian, wealthy man. 

V salapi, money. Bontoc Igorot: salapi, 

half peso. 
salau earth, ground. 
saleg floor. 

salidingan bunches of long strips of anahau 
leaves carried when dancing around 
the altar. 
saliling a deputy chief. 
salomaya a tree under whose shade spirits 
rest and sleep when they come to 
earth. 
saloy to buy. 

pocsaloy merchant, factor, to sell. 
somaloy (sunialui) (s : om : aloy) to 
buy. 
salumnenka to rob, to steal. 
salwal trousers (Sulu). 
sama similar, like, equal. 

sama gotao, fellow creature. 
sopocsama identical. 
pocsama identity. 
somogsama to equalize. 
somama (s : om : ama) similar. 
di somama, dissimilar. 

V sama, equal, like, similar. Kolon: 

sama, with. Bima: sama, id. 
sambag to exhort. 

pocsambag to instruct. 
senombagan (s : en : ombag : an) to 

instruct. 

V sambag, to counsel, to exhort, to in- 

struct. 
samoc to weary, to vex, to molest. 
casamoc to embarrass. 

sogmocsamoc sa manon no gotao, mo- 
lester. 

V samoc, to discommode, to distress, to 

vex, to molest. 
sanduk wooden spoon. 
sansang blunt, dull. 

V sangsang, id. 

sangay to adorn, to embellish. 
sangol , . ^ 

tundong sa cabayo nga sangol sog baba, 
bit. 
sangyawa breeches reaching to the knee, 
saoan perhaps. 
sapasapa brook, rivulet. Cf. suba. 



210 



THE SUBANU. 



sapauan to garnish. 

sapauan ec potao somala alandon, to 
garnish with iron points. 

V sapao, to put one thing upon another. 
sapi a cow. 

sapiai a mat of split bamboo. 
sapingi Cf. sopingi. 
sapis 

ponopoton sapis soc nga libon perealon 
sog diima noc tapis, petticoat. 
sapulu ten. 

sapulu bo sala, eleven. 

magatus bo sapulu, no. 

V napolo, ten. Bontoc Igorot : polo, po'o, 

sinpo'o, id. 
sarol a hoe. (Spanish azada.) 
sarut pygmy evil spirits (manamat) of the 

forest. 
sasa 

malali yamo mocsasa, be you quiet. 
sasac suffocating heat. 
sawa wife. Cf. soay. 

Kayan, hawa, id. Cf. The Polynesian 
Wanderings, page 306. 
sawan cup. 
sayop evil, deceit. 

ntipono noc sayop, evil doer. 
soc sayop, uncertainty, mistake. 

V sayop, lies, deceit. 
sayoran to define, to explain. 

casayoran (ca : sayor:an). 
casayoran nog daan, itinerary. 

V sayod, to explain, to define. 

sebat hunting spear with detachable head. 
seda fish. Cf. sora. 

inangkag seda, dried fish. 
seel heel. 
seilad sickle. 
selang (solang) chin. 
selem Cf. diselum, siselem, suansolom. 
sell pepper plant and fruit. 
semicoat 

soc lupa noctibogol guinale bo semicoat 
nog daro, glebe. 
senombagan Cf. sambag. 
sengguil senor. 
siam nine. 

siampulu ninety. 

V siam, nine. Bontoc Igorot: slam, id. 
sibulan a jar. 

sibulansibulan a small jar. 
sicay to sprinkle. 

pocsicay noc tubig, to sprinkle water. 
siclat storeroom. 

V siclit, to store things in a secret place. 
sicol, pacasicol to set the feet firm for an 

effort. Cf. ponicol. 

V sicad, id. 

sigeban (siguban) water jar, bamboo water 
tube. 

sigitan a bamboo musical instrument re- 
sembling a guitar with strings of 
split bamboo raised over bamboo 
bridges. 

siguban Cf. sigeban. 

sigupan pipe, cigarette. 

Bontoc Igorot: songyopan, pipe stem. 



silong underneath. 

socsilong below, to go down. 

V silong, under, below. 
silup pipestem. 

sinam 

gagun sinam belilu, sounds of a gong 
which summon a midwife. 
sinantan a jar valued at one and one-half 
piculs of rice or three fathoms of 
cloth. 
sinapang gun, musket (Sulu). 
sinasaka 

bukid na sinasaka, land under culti- 
vation. 
sinbaaji (simbaan) church. 

di a moglingalinga soc sinbaan, be not 
disorderly in church. 

V singba, to perform an act of worship; 

singbahan, church. Bontoc Igo- 
rot: simfan, church (loan word). 
sindep 

sindep gondao, sunset. 
sindepan the west. 
sindil to argue. 

pocsindilsindil dissertation. 

V indig, to argue, to dispute. 
sindupan a good spirit of the sea, but venge- 
ful if neglected. 

sinipit 

socsinipit socnaqnit, carried in the 
arms. 
sinonan Cf. sonan. 
sipa a ball. 
sipoon a cold. 

V sipon, to have a cold. 

siselem morning after sunrise. Cf. dise- 
lum. 
sising finger ring. 

lintisan sising, a ring for the leg below 
the knee. 
Bontoc Igorot: slngsing, id. (loan word). 
sitguag to disseminate. 
siyu (siu) elbow. 

Bontoc Igorot: slko, id. 
siyuan shuttle. 
so an article. Cf. sa. 
soay wife. Cf. sawa. 

pocboclag so gotao nga soay, to divorce. 

V asaoa, wife. Bontoc Igorot: asawa 

(ay lalaki, ayfafayi), husband, wife. 
sobblag yellow. 

pocsobblag to become yellow. 
sobo (subo) to boil. 

pocsobo ebullition. 

socmocsubo boiling. 

V sobo, to extinguish fire with water. 
soboton Cf. sabot. 

soc preposition. 
soca Cf. sogao. 

socal (socsocal) prefix indicating the possi- 
bility of the action of the stem. 
socalan 

socalan igbutasan, to abolish. 
socalpoglogomutan Cf. gomot. 
socaltogot Cf. togot. 
;Socay Cf. sacay. 
■socmectuman Cf. tuman. 



SUBANU-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



211 



socmicaolang Cf. olang. 
socmitondong Cf. tondong. 
socmocsubo Cf. sobo. 
socmoggosig Cf. gosig. 
socmopayat Cf. payat. 
socnaquit Cf. goit. 
sococ Cf. sogao. 
socog strong, strength. 

gondaay socog, feeble. 

pocgangay noc capintas abolo socog, to 

enervate, debilitate. 
gotao noc socogan gopia, a person of 
great strength. 
mosocog a tall robust person. 

V cosog, strength. 
socorolaag illuminative. 
socpogbaal Cf. baal. 
socpogboloy Cf. boloy. 
socpongol Cf. pongol. 
socpuonan Cf. puonan. 
socsilong Cf. silong. 
socsinipit Cf. sinipit. 
socsocalbaalan Cf. baal. 
socsocalbalon Cf. balon. 
socsocalbugay Cf. bugay. 
socsocalpononggulingan, Cf. gulingan. 
socsomagang Cf. somagang. 
socsomocol Cf. somocol. 

socsool Cf. sool. 
soctinalicala Cf. tinalicala. 
soctolipaon Cf. tolipaon. 
soctontol Cf. tontol. 
sog a preposition. Cf. soc. 
soganagana by and by. 
soganan Cf. sogao. 
sogantol 

sogantol nog hasa, irreverent. 
sogao (sugooa) wailing at funerals. 
sogmolomo moc sogao, weeper. 
moc sugooa tundong songuca noc sola, 
weep for your sins. 
pocsogao to shed tears. 

pocsogao pogsocasoca, crying, weeping. 
pocasogao act of weeping. 

sogmocsogao nong naqiiit, weepers. 
malisogon weeper. 
socsocalpocsoganon lamentable 
pacasococ act of weeping. 
sogbobaan Cf. bobaan. 
sogboid Cf. boid. 
sogboot Cf. boot, 
sogdogo Cf. dogo. 
sogdoon Cf. doon. 
sogduma Cf. doma. 
soggo to hiccup. 

V sodoc, id. 
sogicabang Cf. icagabang. 
sogindagosay Cf. gosay. 
soglinunbogan Cf. linunbogan. 
sogmacaocsop Cf. ocsop. 
sogmaglaat Cf. laat. 
sogmebagolan Cf. bagol. 
sogmecpeinog Cf. inog. 
sogmegatad Cf. gatad. 
sogmetondong Cf. tondong. 
sogmicalimbong Cf. limbong. 
sogmigagoyan Cf. gagoy. 



sogmigbaal Cf. baal. 
sogmigbono Cf. bono, 
sogmigbuis Cf. buis. 
sogmimando Cf. mando. 
sogmitoiac Cf. toiac. 
sogmocsamoc Cf. samoc. 
sogmocsogo Cf. sogo. 
sogmogangay Cf. angay. 
sogmogbolobod Cf. bolobod. 
sogmogboot Cf. boot, 
sogmogdadao Cf dao. 
sogmogdoro Cf doro. 
sogmoglioat Cf. lioat. 
sogmogocom Cf. ocom. 
sogmogoit Cf. goit. 
sogmogombal Cf. gobal. 
sogmogota 

sogmogota nog gapoy, vomiting fire. 
sogmogsosulat Cf. sulat. 
sogmogtabo Cf. tabo. 
sogmogunaguna Cf. gonagona. 
sogmololison Cf. nioiolison. 
sogmonongguiling Cf. guiling. 
sogmoquit Cf. goit. 
sognaquilit Cf. naquiiit. 
sognigasoy Cf. nigasoy, 
sogo (sugo) to order, to define, a command- 
ment. 

pocsogo to command. 

sogmocsogo commander. 

V sogo, to command, to order, to define. 
sogod cargo, lading. 

dacsoc soc sogod, to stow cargo. 

V sooc, id. 
sogodaay Cf. daay. 
sogogolingong 

penongonan sogogolingon nog biiot, 
abnegation. 
sogombaya Cf. baya. 
sogonda Cf. da. 
sogondaay Cf. daay. 
sogondi Cf. di. 
sogpacaillg Cf. ilig. 
sogpacalaat Cf. laat. 
sogpaon a slap. 

V sagpa, id. 
sogpiglologosan Cf. lologosogan. 
sogpopeed Cf. peed, 
sogsocalbaion Cf. balon. 
sogsocalgunagunaon Cf. gonagona. 
sogtinangonan Cf. tinangonan. 
soguset Cf. guset. 

solang Cf. selang. 
solo Cf. sulu. 
solog to pack. 

pocsolog to pack into a trunk. 

V solod, to enter, to go into. 

solom Cf. diselum, siselem, suansolom. 
solot to enter. 

posoloron mo gnien, bid him come in. 

V solod, to enter. 
som sour. 

mosom (mo : som) sour. 
gosomnen (go : som : nen) niiything; 
sour. 
somacay Cf. .sacay. 



212 



THE SUBANU. 



somagan a weapon. 

bosi doon ec somagan, a spear. 
somagang to block, to obstruct. 

socsomagang obstructor. 
somala adverbial modifier. Cf. alandon. 
somama Cf. sama. 
sombag to answer. 

V tobag, id. Bontoc Igorot: sumfad, the 

answer. 
somocol factious. 

socsomocol so nga gosod, dissenter. 

V socol, to dispute, to argue. 
somoctoloan 

somoctoloan noc suhanon, peasant. 
sonioglopong Cf. lopong. 
somogot 

boclag ondi somogot, defection. 
somolondon seldom. 
somoon skilful. 

sogondi somoon, unskilled. 
sompoyan to complete, to finish. 

V sompay, id. 
sonan to know. 

pocogondaay sonan, ignorance. 
sinonan (s : in : onan) 

sogondaay sinonan, unskilfully. 
sondalo soldier. (Spanish soldado.) 

sog sondalo moggondaay abavo, infan- 
try. 
sonnem 

sognigasoy sonnem nogayac lover. 
sonsol to burn. 
sontoc to strike, to slash. 

pagsontoc stroke of a cutlass. 

V sontoc, to stab, to lance, 
song a particle. 

song neen, to thee. 
song niyo, to you. 
son gag 

songag domomog nogombagol, thick 
lips. 
songibu thousand. 
songuca thy. 
sool down. 

socsool fallen. 

V sahol, to cheapen. 
soong no.se. 

balang soong, bridge of the nose. 

imud soong, septum of the nose. 

gegbad sootig. interior of the nose. 
soong point of the knife. 
soot dance. 
sop 

dosop also. 

puli mjisop, again. 
sopagboot Cf. boot, 
sopang fat, fleshy. 

pocsopang to grow plump. 

V sopang, fat. 

sopingi (sapingi) the cheek. 

V aping, id. Bontoc Igorot: Iping, cheek 

near the temples. 
sopla remedy. 

sogondaay sopla, irremediably. 

V sompa, to give medicine, to take pre- 

cautions. 



sopoc anger. 

pocsopoc to fly into a rage. 
sopoceglopong Cf. lopong. 
sopoconongguiling Cf. gulling, 
sopocsama Cf. sama. 
sopogloguinaoa Cf. guinaoa. 
sopogopia Cf. pia. 
soquit 

soquit nong miliigbas, a hole bored 
from side to side, 
sora (sura) fish. 

poctuba soc sora, to poison fish. 

V isda, fish. 

sosombagay quantity given and received. 
soyon 

soyon noc sulut binutong, emblem. 
suansolom in the morning. 
suayon 

sogondi maimo guilason suayon, in- 
divisible. 
suba river. Cf. sapasapa. 

pagdipag sac suba so guset, to cross 
rivers on floats. 

V sobd, river, to go by stream. 
subanon 

somoctoloan noc subanon, peasant. 
subo Cf. sobo. 
subungan knife haft. 
sucle to barter. 
sugo Cf. sogo. 
sugooa Cf. sogao. 
suguiton Cf. saguit. 
sulal orchard. 

magbaal lamo noc sulal, did you work 
in the orchard? 
sulat (sulut) to write. 

suguiton nia nogompia soc sulat, write 
well thy page. 

soyon noc sulut binutong, emblem. 
sogmogsosulat writer, clerk. 

V solat, to write. Bontoc Igorot, Ilocano: 

sulddak, id. 
sulidat spoon of wood or metal. 
suling bamboo flute. 
sulu (solo) light, sunrise, torch. 

V solo, a torch. Bontoc Igorot: sillu, id. 
sulut Cf. sulat. 

sumalui Cf. saloy, somaloy. 
sumibang 

sumibang gondao, sunrise. 
sumuda to eat. 

sumuda na gumanoc, to eat the egg. 
Sunday a bamboo comb. 

Sunday gaan, a fork. 
supla to blunt, to dull. 
supoc to tire oneself. 
suquit 

pocsuquit noc paldon sogmigbuis, to 
enroll in a census. 

pogbuia noc pegotaran noc suquit, cen- 
sus. 
sura Cf. sora. 
sunk (suk) jacket, shirt. 

j taab rising tide. 
' poctaab id. 

1 V taob, id. 



SUB AN U- ENGI. ISH VOCABULARY. 



213 



taap to suspect. 

di motahap, intrepid. 

V tShap, to suspect. 
taas up. 

ditaas up, over. 
matas tall. 
motaas 

gayo nong motaas, any large timber. 

gotao nong motaas, a tall robust person . 

motaas gopia, tall, elevated. 

gotao nong motaas nog booc, hairy. 

V taas, up, above. 
taassondao midday, noon. 
taba to be fat. 

tabal sermon. 
tabian talker. 

V tabi, to speak much. 
tabing the hip. 

tabo to revolve. 

sogmogtabo revolving. 
taboc to consent. 
tacho stewpan. (Spanish tacho.) 
tadjau a jar valued at 5 piculs of rice. 
tagam habit, custom; to accustom. 

mitagam (metagam, motagam) ha- 
bitually. 
sogondaay mitagam, unskilled. 
nog metagam nog poglaat, mischiev- 
ousness. 
tagana to elect. 

V tagana, id. 
tagek juice. 
taginop a dream. 
tago to store. 

poctago, id. 

V tago, to guard, to store, to hide. 
taktuai the knee. Cf. leletek. 

talabi a drum used in religious ceremonies. 
talam a brass serving platter. (Malay.) 
talao fear. 

atalao timid, coward. 

sogondaay atalao, intrepidity. 
matalao (motalao) cowardly. 
ondi matalao, intrepid. 

V talao, fear. 
talawan spear. 
tali a rope. 

tali noguintolo, 3-stranded esparto 
rope. 
taliaman a weapon. 

moni aro7i noc taliaman, a weapon. 
talinga the ear; handles of a jar or jug. 

luang talinga, the hole in the ear. 

V dalonggan, the ear. 
talip the bladder. 
talloma Cf. taliaman. 

bosi maaron noc talloma, javelin. 
talo language. 

poctalo to speak. 
talon wild. 

baboy talon, wild boar. 
taluk purple. 

gataluknen (ga : taluk : nen) a large 
mass of purple. 
talun betel box. 
tarn a where. 

tama sogmogsosidat, where is the 
clerk? 



tambugu button. Cf. tumbaga. 

tambun stack of straw. (Malay.) 
tamiang a spirit bird which determines the 

best site for a house. 
taming a round shield. 
tamisac mud. Cf. basacan. 

V pisac, id. 
tamo 

sabot tamo uglonan niyo, answer all of 
you. 
tampalasan naughty. 

V tampalasan, to be a rogue, immoral. 
tampoling to buffet, to slap. 

V tam paling, to slap with the back of 

the hand. 
tanud thread. 

tao Cf. cutao, potao, tonaoan. 
tao Cf. gotao, golitao. 

V taoo, person. Bontoc Igorot.takao, id. 
taod to respect. 

V tahod, to honor. 
tapi altar. 

tapis skirt. 

tapis empetek, a short skirt, kilt. 
moglong tapis, apron worn by women. 

V tapis, an outer garment of women. 
tapolan lazy, idler, vagabond. 

lee nog tapolan, rogue, swindler. 

V tapolan, id. 
tapus to end. 

atapusan (a : tapus : an) end. 
sogondaay atapusan, unlimited. 
atapusan sog benoiran, hilltop. 

V tapes, to finish, to conclude; catapo- 

san, end. 
tare 

poctare to put balls on. 
taron good, right. 

motaron (mo : taron) just, lawful. 
songondi motaron, unlawful. 

V tadong, good, right, just. 
taron I do not know. 
tatung tin. 

tauac to call, to summon. 

tauago mo giiien, call thou him. 

V taoag, to call. 
tay who. 

tay minatiing, who has come in? 
tee needle. 
tee excrement of a child. 

V tai, excrement in general, particularly 

human. Bontoc Igorot: tae, id. 
teguib chisel. 
Vtigib, id. 
telinting backbone. 
telipusud brother. 
teneb wild honey. 
tenite to salt and smoke meat. 
tenga half. 

tenggab bamboo flute (longer than suling). 
tian (tiyan, puntian) belly. 

macabagol noc tian, pot belly. 

tian noc pusu, calf of the leg. 

V tian, belly. Kolon: tiya, id. Visayan: 

tian, belly. Magindano, Ilocano. 
Tagalog, Sanguir, Ahtiago: tian, id. 
Pampangas: atia?i, id. Wayapo; 
tihen, id. Morella: tiaka, id. Ba- 



214 



THE SUBANU. 



tian — continued. 

tumerah; tiava, id. Wahai: tiare, 
id. Caimarian: liamo, id. Lariko, 
Avvaiya : tia, id. Menado : iijan, id. 
Wayapo: tihen, id. vSaparua: teho, 
id. Marina, Nggao, New Georgia, 
Treasury Island: tia, id. Maori, 
Tahiti, Marquesas, Mangareva: 
tia, id. 

tibaan 

piran nocpigaguanta somala noc ti- 
baan, ignominy. 

tiboa stomach. 

tibogok a bird in which the female spirit 
dipuksaya sometimes materializes. 

tibooc wholly, entirely. 

V tibooc, id. 
ticas to defraud. 

ticas maliondocon, pickpocket. 

V ticas, to rob meanly. 
tigom to gather, to accumulate. 

V tigom, id. 
tigomoamo flattering. 

tigul a cigarette wrapped in nipa leaf. 
timala 

bilking timala, a festival for the infant 
dead or those recently dead. 
timba good, well. 
timod to unite. 

timod noc salapi, to hoard. 

V tigom, to unite. 
timondoan Cf. tondo. 
timpa betel box. 
timpas wry-mouthed. 
timuai a chief. 

Una to dye. 

poctina noc bolao, to dye red. 

V tina, to dye. 

tinabagen a grooved spear head. 

tinaguilo stepchild. 

tinalagan a heavy short spear with short 

blade. 
tinalicala (t : in : alicala). 
soctinalicala to chain. 

V talicala, a chain. 
tinangonan 

sogtinangonan noc sa lamin guinolal 
antocos, spectacles. 
tinayan a bridge. 
tinee intestines, bowel. 
tinhug (tiungo) nape, back of the neck. 
tinina to weave. 
tiningog Cf. tingog. 
tinongol Cf. tingol. 
tinugsog a young pig just weaned. 
tingala to marvel. 

poctingala to astonish. 

V tingala, id. 
tingil to bear. 

pagtingil to carry. 
tingilan spinning wheel. Cf. tingol. 
tingog talk. 

tiningog id. 

V tingog, voice, to talk, to salute, to bray. 
tingol to spin. 

sogmogtingol spinner. 

bonua noc poctingolan, spinning room. 



ti n gol — continued 

tinongol (tin : on : gol). 

coloonan somala alandon noc iinoyigol, 
spun fiber. 
tioan (tiuan) a bee. 

nila bonua noc tiuan, beehive. 
tiuan nog lee, drone. 
noquito noc tiuan, pertaining to bees. 
pocongolan nog nila noc tioan, queen 
cell. 

V potiocan, bee. 
tiroo unhappy. 
titai a bridge. 
tiuan Cf. tioan. 
tiungo Cf. tinhug. 
tiyan Cf. tian. 
toay glaucous. 
tobang fresh. 

motobang unsalted. 

V tabang, unsalted, insipid. 
tobang to look. Cf. gatbang. 

poctobang to face. 

V atobang, to become visible, to look at. 
tobe Cf. tabian. 

nocmacabingguil sa gompia nog buot 
poctobe, detractor. 

V tabi, to speak much, loquacious. 
tobig Cf. tubig. 

tobo (tubo) to sprout. 

catubo (ca : tobo) life. 
poctobo germination. 

poctobo soc gonu soc mga lee, to have a 

beard just showing. 
poctubo sog hombol nog manocmanoc, 
to get feathers. 
m in tobo 

songoc saa mintobo noc salalis, a bunch 
of flowers on one stalk. 
tominobo to germinate. 
Visayan, Matu: tubu, to grow. Kayan: 
tubo. id. Malay : tumbuh, id. Mala- 
gasy: tomboh, id. Samoan: tupu, id. 
tobod a spring. 

tondong noc tobod, spring, fountain. 
bonua nocolonan nocpoc tobora, spring. 

V tobod, to spring from, to gush. 
tobon 

libong ho bacalan noc tobon nog dina- 
mog bata, a barren female. 
toboro Cf. tobod. 

tobos (tubus) complete, perfect, to finish. 
Cf. tapus. 
poctobosan achievable. 

V tapos, to complete. 
toclop to nail. 

tocsocan a case for buttons and thread. 

V tohogan, id. 
togaling Cf. tugaling. 
togaya Cf. tugaya. 
togot to permit. 

socaltogot susceptible of exemption. 
togotan 

sogsomacay nogale togotan noc ponoan, 
stowaway . 

V togot, to grant permission. 
togubung rat. 



SUBANU -ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



215 



toiac leaning. 

sogmitoiac inclination to one side. 
tolin gain. 

poctolin to acquire. 
poggatad poctolin nog bangot, to get a 
beard. 
tolipaon 

soctolipaon nieaon, dwarfish. 
toHsan rascal. 

tolisan tugaling, rogue. 

V tampalasan, rogue, rascal. 
tolo three. 

tali noguintolo, 3-stranded rope. 
tolopulu thirty. 

V tolo, three. Bontoc Igorot: tola, id. 
tolo (tolu) to drop, to drip. 

poctolo nongogatop, to rain. 

V tolo, a drop of any liquid. 
tolod to impel, to push. 

V tolod, id. Bontoc Igorot: itoludko, id. 
tolog sleep. 

pogtolog to go to sleep. 

V tolog, id. 
tolong to burn. 
torn dark. 

mitom black. 

biag nog mitom, a black slave. 
getomnen (ge : torn : nen) blackness 
of night. 

V itom, maitom, black. 
toma why? 

toma a logmo song neen, why blamest 
thou him? 
toman Cf. tuman. 
tomanan to improve. 
tominobo Cf. tobo. 
tonaoan (t : on : ao : an) 

balay noc poctonaoan noc potao, iron- 
works. 

V tonao, to smelt metals. 
tondo to educate. 

timondoan (t : im : ondo : an) dis- 
ciple. 

V todio, to instruct, to teach. 
tondo finger. 

salahuk tondo, first finger. 
datu tondo, second finger. 
bobonayan noc tondo, space between 
the knuckles. 
bogotondo knuckle. 

V todlo, torlo, finger, toe. 
tondong (tundong) to pertain. 

tondong noc tubig, pertaining to a 

river. 
tondong noc tobod, a spring, fountain. 
tondong song ang manoc, gallinaceous. 
soctondong gabo nog mogonao, wintry. 
soctondong nog dalan, itinerary. 
mitondong (metondong) 
mitondong no gotao, human. 
mitondong nog bata, childish, juvenile. 
socmitondong nog diuata, idolatrous. 
sogmetondong sogmogdadao, thievish. 
gaom noc motondong so gonauna, 

science of ideas. 

V tongod, to pertain. 



tonob 

gaan noc polocon boogon noc tonob so- 
mala alandon nong mobogbog, cakes. 
tonogbata Cf. bata. 

pocpatay bisan tonogbata nong mica, 
infanticide. 
tontal to marry. 

poctontal marriage. 
tontol conversation 

tontol noc pigonaona moc nga gotao, 

fable. 
tontoltontol balos nog mibatog sog Ion- 
sod, rumor, gossip. 
poctontol to converse. 
soctontol detractor. 
tontong to burn. 

poctontong id. 
tong why? 

tong na malipay, why are ye merry? 
tong harm. 

pimoctong to molest. 
pomoctong hostile. 
tongalang basket. 

lulu tongalang, a large basket for crop 
storage. 
Bontoc Igorot: alang, granary. 
tongdong to face. 
tongdug 

tongdug panga, a half-grown monkey. 
tongos to wrap up. 
tonggab to drink. 

V tongab, id. 
too to believe. 

V too, id. 

toon (tuun) year, time, a two-crop season, 
crop and harvest. 
toon no pogdope, rainy, showery. 
Bontoc Igorot: taaowin, year. 
toon to teach. 

mutuon na noc putuonan, did you 
study the lesson? 
pictoonan (pic : toon : an) disciple. 
guiscuelaan noc poctoonan, school. 

V toon, to teach. 
toos signal. 
topoc to unite. 
torong just. 

catorongan (ca : torong : an) justice. 
bal nogondi socal so catorongan, in- 
justice. 

V tadong, catadongan, justice. 
tuan master, sir. 

poctuan noc tubig, spring. 
tuba a shrub. 

poctuba soc sora, to poison fish. 

V toba, a shrub whose fruit is used to 

poison fish. 
tubig (tobig) water. 

pocpunu noc tubig, to fill with water. 

soc tobig, rising tide. 

tugaya noc pobianan noc tubig, water 

conduit. 
tondongnoc tubig, pertaining to a river. 
poctuan noc tubig, a spring. 
poglines somala alandon sog tubig, to 

dissolve. 
pocsicay noc tubig^to sprinkle water. 



216 



THE SUBANU. 



tubig — continued. 

baa noc tubig, overflow of rivers. 
tubig nog dupe, rainwater. 
miglanao ic tubig, lake. 
poctubig to fill with water. 
bonoa noc tubigan, puddle. 

V tobig, water in general. 
tubo Cf. tobo. 

tubus Cf. tobos. 

tugaling (togaling) very, a sign of the su- 
perlative. 
malat tugaling, evil doer. 
maligos ba tugaling, is he worse. 
malagos tugaling, he is worse. 
bolo tugaling, ferocity. 
tolisan tugaling, rogue. 
pocabolo tugaling, inhumanly. 
sogpacalaat tugaling, iniquitously. 
pacanapo tugaling, evenness. 
minit togaling, very warm. 
tugaya (togaya) a gutter, spout; to make a 
canal. 
tugaya noc pobianan noc tubig, water 
conduit. 
tugbungan 

donggoan tugbungan, anchorage. 
tugol to strengthen. 
tulaan bone. 
tulag to disjoin. 
tulakh Adam's apple. 
tuman (toman) to obey, to comply. 
toman, a filler. 
moctuman amo poc, put yourselves in 

a row. 
poctoman noc atandanan, to satisfy, to 
comply with what is due. 
socmectuman, full. 

V toinan, to comply; complete, perfect. 
tumbaga copper. Cf. tambugu. 

V tombaga, id. 
tundaan a small boat. 
tundong Cf. tondong. 
tungdong reason, motive. 

V tongod, id. 



tungkaling a bell to frighten birds away 

from crops. 
turung hat, cap. 

tutusan a cigarette wrapped in paper. 
tuyo intention. 

V toyo, id. 

tuyo to weary, to molest, to vex. 

V toyo, to inconvenience, to annoy. 

ubi a tuber edible when cooked. 

V obi, id. 
uglonan Cf. lonan. 
ulatay wait. 

pogulatay mo, wait. 

V holat, to wait. 
ulihan pulpit. 

V oali, to preach; oalihan, pulpit. 
ulimo 

ulimo caya, return that to. 

nano ec pogulimo, when wilt thou go? 

V oli, to restore. 
ulipun Cf. gulipun. 
umpet Cf. pet. 
upat four. 
uraman to change. 

sogondi maimo uraman, immutable. 
utung (gutung) monkey. 

viste clothing. (Spanish veste.) 

walu eight. 

walupulu eighty. 

V oalo, eight. Bontoc Igorot : walo, id. 

ya thou. 

morito ya soc convento, go thou to the 

convent. 
monoog ya, come thou down. 

V ya, id. 
yamo you. 

yaua (yawa) devil. 

V yaoa, id. Tagolog : yaua, id. 
yaung a cup. 

yen he. 



ENGLISH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



abandon 


bolong. pasagdan. 


argue 


sindil. 


abbess 


gosog nog binocot. 


arm 


bingcon 


abdicate 


pinilian. 


upper arm 


mageleabed. 


ability 


pocolomo balon somala alan- 


armlet 


linggit. 




don. 


armor 


genbet. 


abjure 


pacpangirongo nong mo- 


armpit 


gilek. 




tood. 


around 


libot. 


able 


maimo, molomo, socal-, soc- 


arrival 


carongo, pagdatong. 




socal-. 


arrogant 


baga. 


abnegation 


penongonan sogogolingong 


arrogantly 


pocobaga. 




nog buot. 


arrow 


lipu. 


abolish 


socalan igbutasan. 


artery 


gugat. 


abominable 


socal poglogomutan . 


ascertain 


pocposoon. 


abuse 


palalabe. 


ashes 


gabo. 


acacia 


gayo nog doguian. 


ask 


saac. 


accede 


gangay, goyon. 


assist 


labanan, gabang. 


accessible 


pogood. 


astonish 


libaliba, poctingala. 


accord 


pegoyonan. 


asylum 


panilong, domangop. 


accumulate 


pongon, tigom, lompoc. 


attach 


matogos. 


accustom 


mibotasan, tagam. 


attentive 


pocaoid, pocpongong. 


achievable 


poctobosan. 


aunt 


gina, ina. 


acquire 


poctolin. 


axe 


gwasay. 


admit 


panilong. 






to the house gomalin. 


baby 


batabata. 


adorn 


dayandayan, sangay. 


bachelor 


golitao. 


adze 


bencong. 


back 


locud, logud. 


adzing 


guinocsip. 


backbone 


telinting. 


affectionatel> 


' gayac. 


bad 


laat, malaat. 


afternoon 


lalabong, ginenga minek 


weather 


gonos nong marisa. 




gondao. 


bagasse 


gopa. 


again 


pull musop. 


bait 


gumpan. 


against 


bon6. 


bald 


gopao. 


aged 


magulang. 


ball 


sipa. 


agree 


gangay, sabot, goyon. 


banana 


saguing. 


ah 


bale. 


bandage 


baling. 


aid 


labanan. 


banner 


bandela. 


alas 


aba, bale. 


baptize 


bondyag. 


alienable 


socsocalbogayan nog leen. 


bark 


gosig. 


all 


lonan, laninen. 


barker 


socmoggosig maloong. 


alligator 


bangitao, boaya. 


barking 


sopoggosig. 


altar 


binabalay, bukar, tapi. 


barracks 


locao. 


alter 


paglogalin, pocpeen. 


barrel 


pocqnipos. 


also 


dosop. 


barren 


tobon nog dinamog bata. 


always 


gusay. 


barter 


sucle. 


amazement 


pocolaen sa gunagona, coen- 


basket 


bobaan, gantang, gantanj 




doc. 




buhisan, lulu tongalang. 


anchorage 


donggoan tugbungan. 


fishbasket 


pitangan. 


and 


bo, bu. 


bat 


laknit, batiti. 


anger 


sopoc. 


bathe 


ligo. 


animal 


mananap. 


battle 


lelenaan. 


ankle 


bogogu. 


bay 


linok, logoc. 


answer 


sabot, posobaton, sombag. 


be 


dine, doon. 


ant 


pila. 


beam 


gayo nong motaas. 


appetite 


ayac, guibog. 


bear 


antosan, gantoson. 


appoint 


ngalan. 


bearable 


sogmolomo antosan. 


apron 


moglong tapis. 


beard 


gumi, gonu, bangot. 


arable 


lopa nogompia balan, napo. 


beat 


pagbontol, bonal. 


architect 


sogmigbaal nog balay. 


beautiful 


bais, erabais, malongas. 


areca nut 


gibas, maen. 


because 


sabab. 

217 



218 



THE SUBANU. 



becloud 

bed 

bee 

beehive 

beer 

beginning 

behold 

believe 

bell 

belt 
belly 
below 
bend 
beneath 
benefit 
betel box 
chewing 

bewitch 

bird 

bit 

bitter 

bitterness 

black 

blacksmith 

bladder 

blame 

blanket 

blaze 

bleach 

blear-eyed 

block 

blood 

blood money 

blood vessel 

blow n 

blow V 

blue 

blueness 

blunt 

boar 

wild boar 
boat 
body 
boiling 
bone 
bottle 
bow 
bowels 
bowl 

bowstring 
box 

betel box 

tobacco box 
boy 

brace the feet 
brain 
branch 
brave 
breast 
breastbone 
breath 
breeches 
bridge 

of the nose 
bristly 



pogdolan. 

poyoan. 

niguan, tioan, boligan. 

nila bonoa noc tiuan. 

gasi, pangasi. 

pegotaran. 

dien iposay. 

too. 

basting, linganay, tuiigka- 

ling. 
bakes panit, baling, 
tian, puntian. 
socsilong. 
moctoo. 
perealon. 

calongas, gipianan. 
talun, timpa. 

bunga, buyo, laget, mam- 

aen, gibas, maen. 
mobabaan. 
manoc. 

sangol sog baba, biyauan. 
pet, umpet. 
gapetnen. 
mitom, getomnen. 
panday potao. 
talip. 
logmo. 
gumut. 
goclac, liga. 
pocpoti. 
motaon. 
somagang. 
dogo. 
bangon. 
gugat. 
litobong. 
gonos. 
bilu, gasol. 
gabUunen. 
sansang, supla. 
baboy. 

baboy talon, butaal. 
sacay, tundaan. 
lauas. 

socmocsubo. 
tulaan. 
lelenaan. 
pana. 
tinee. 
palaksan. 
giget. 
caban. 

talun, timpa. 

batangan laget. 
boto-micaon, bogutao. 
pocponicol, sicol. 
gutek. 

panga, pakanen. 
bolo, macabolo, pintas. 
gogdob, edob, dubdub. 
gibusibus. 
guinaoa. 
sangyawa. 
tinayan, titai. 

batang soong. 
nongmotong. 



brook 


sapasapa. 


brother 


patod, telipusud, gilugu. 


brother-in- 


law bate. 


brow 


gangas. 


bruise 


locpog, ocdoc. 


bud 


bone, buat, pegotaran. 


buffet 


doctoc, tampoling. 


builder 


sogmigbaal nog balay. 


building 


balay, bota. 


bunch 


caloonan. 


burn 


sonsol, tolong, tontong. 


burning 


baga tondong noc abolo no 


bury 


gapoy. 
lobung, poclubung, olungo- 




ban. 


button 


tambugu. 


buy 


saloy. 


by-and-by 


soganagana. 


cacao 


aao, aaoan. 


cackle 


pogone. 


cage 


gulungan. 


cake 


boogon. 


calf 


tian noc pusu. 


call 


tauac, batog. 


calumny 


ponbaal, poglibac. 


canal 


tugaya. 


candle 


lansuk. 


cane 


Uayan. 


cannon 


lotang nog daan. lantaka. 


to fire 


boi. 


canoe 


galiyan. 


cap 


popia, tuning. 


carabao 


galabao. 


cargo 


sogod. 


carpenter 


panday. 


carriage 


pocoatud, pocogoit. 


carrier 


sogmogoit, sogmogatod. 


carry 


goit, poquit, socnaquit,atud. 




baba, dala, tingil, bolig. 


cart 


pogoot. 


cassava 


camote cahoy. 


cat 


guilos, geding, kuting, hir- 




ing, gigus. 


wildcat 


lubing. 


cause 


alaik punanen, alaik sabab. 


census 


pocsuquit noc paldon sog- 




migbuis. 


chain 


pogbaat, poquicot, tinali- 




cala. 


chair 


guicoran. 


change 


posocliyan, uraman. 


chastity 


nada. 


cheapen 


pacponoog sog laga. 


cheat 


baloson. 


cheek 


sapingi, sopingi, raolo. 


chest 


gogdob, edob, dubdub; ge- 




deb; caban. 


chew 


mama. 


chick 


posui. 


chicken 


gitit. 


chief 


gosog, gosog nog lonoon, 




timuai, panungo, gare, 




datu, begelal, poon, sali- 




ling, masalagtau, lajagu- 




num. 


child 


bata. 



EJNGLISH-SUBANU VOCABUI.ARY. 



219 



childbirth 


gululu, matansa, gosina. 


counting 


paguisip, pagusay. 


chimney 


bengawan nog gobal. 


country 


bukid, lonsod. 


chin 


selang. 


courage 


cabolo so posong. 


chisel 


teguib. 


courageous 


bolo, macabolo. 


chocolate pot batirol. 


cousin 


gonopo. 


choose 


pili. 


cover 


labon. 


church 


sinbaan. 


cow 


sapi. 


cigarette 


gasa, lakas, sigupan, tigul, 


coward 


atalao. 




tutusan. 


cowardly 


motalao. 


clerk 


sogmogsosulat. 


cradle 


puyuwan. 


clever 


motoo. 


creeper 


bolagan nog bolaan. 


climb 


pogdeec, pogontod. 


cripple 


lolid, pitong. 


cloak 


capote; poclabon. 


crocodile 


bangitao, boaya. 


close 


pono. 


crooked 


molio. 


cloth 


genbet, kinopatan. 


cross 


pagdipag. 


clothing 


ponopoton, poloapomopo- 


crow 


quak, guak; pogone. 




ton, viste; baag, gantiu. 


crowd 


picpongonnan nonga gotao, 




gav^ral, gawes, gumut. 




loonan. 




legdey, musalabungkas, 


crown 


bolibod ; porongporong. 




porot, salwal, sangyawa, 


crying 


pocsogao. 




suuk, tapis, apote. 


cup 


basu, sawan, yaung. 


cloud 


dolan. 


cure 


pocbolong; porang, tenite. 


coals 


baga. 


curved 


molio. 


dead coals 


musing. 


custom 


batad, batasan, gaui, tagam. 


coarse 


moreipol. 


cut 


gabasan, potol. 


coat 


apote. 


cutlass 


penoto. 


cock 


limansud. 






cockpit 


bonua nocpogbalidyaan no- 


dainties 


guibogan. 




ngog manoc. 


damage 


poglaat. 


coconut 


niug. 


dance 


soot, sabay; anahau, sali- 


grove 


niugao. 




dingan. 


milk 


tubig nong niug. 


daughter 


bata. 


shell 


load. 


dawn 


diselum, poti dalag. 


coin 


salapi. 


day 


gondao, gobii. 


cold 


mogonao; sipoon. 


day after to-morrow salan gondao. 


collar 


gasintos. 


daytime 


gondao. 


comb 


Sunday. 


death 


amatayon, pocamatay, pog- 


come 


minatung, mori. 




patayon. 


come down 


monoog. 


debilitate 


pocgangay noc capintas 


comfort 


senombagan, milipay. 




abolo socog. 


coming 


carongo, pagdatong. 


deceit 


sayop. 


command 


pogboot, pocsogo, poggare. 


declivity 


maranaya. 


commander 


socmocsogo. 


decoction 


moloto. 


commanding 


sogmogboot. 


deep 


medelem. 


commandment sogo. 


deer 


bilibili, osa. 


communion 


paccalauat. 


defamation 


pogangay nog rongog, poc- 


compact 


dacsoc, libon, maligon. 




peed. 


complete 


ontoran, octuban, ponno, 


defamer 


sogmaglaat bo mogangay 




sompoyan, tobos. 




nog dongog. 


comprehend 


sabot. 


defection 


boclag ondi somogot, dala. 


comply 


tuman. 


defend 


gabang, inobangan. 


conduct, good pia, gompia. 


defense 


sogicabang. 


conductor 


sogmogatod, sogmogoit. 


defensive 


sogicagabang. 


conduit 


tugaya. 


deference 


goyon. 


confess 


paccalauat, compinsal. 


deficit 


gongean, pagcorala. 


conflagration 


dinoksulan. 


define 


gasoy, sayoron, sogo. 


congratulate 


tugaling sac sala gotao ton- 


defraud 


dao, ticas, limbong. 




dong sa gompia noc palad 


deglutition 


goglon, orol. 




sama gotao. 


dejected 


pagoquion. 


consent 


taboc. 


delay 


alanganan, payat. 


contain 


gola. 


deluded 


soglinunbogan sogpiglologo- 


conversation 


tontol. 




sogan. 


cook 


loto. 


delusive 


sogondaay tundongan'-'noc 


copper 


tumbaga. 




pacanaoron, sogmicalim- 


corrupt 


malat tugaling. 




bong. 


cottage 


locao sog beninalan. 


depressed 


pocpanimolang. 


count 


guisip. 


desire 


bout. 



220 



the; subanu. 



destroy 


morala. 


easy 


malomo, molomo, sogon- 


detest 


goraot. 




daay abilingan. 


detractor 


nocmacabingguil sa gompia 


eat 


cana, gaan, sumuda, ma- 




nog buot poctobe, poquit 




namu, manunsuma. 




soctontol. 


ebullition 


pocsobo. 


devil 


yaua. 


educate 


baton, lomo, tondo. 


die 


matay, patay. 


efficiency 


socpogbaal. 


different 


laen. 


egg 


bulinga, gumanoc. 


difficult 


biling, malogou. 


eight 


walu. 


difficulty 


abilingan, lisod. 


eighty 


walupulu. 


digestion 


poglines sog quinaan. 


elbow 


siyu. 


dilapidator 


maliolaon. 


elder 


mogulang. 


diligent 


matogos. 


elect 


pili, tagana. 


dine 


cana. 


elegance 


dugnayan ig lanas no gotao 


disagreement 


gondi gangay.gondi maaron. 




mapiaiguindog. 


discouragement paubos nog buot. 


elevated 


maal, motaas gopia. 


disciple 


pictoonan, timondoan. 


eleven 


sapulu bo sala. 


disjoin 


gogbag, tulag. 


eliminate 


di poggolat sog bisan alan- 


disorderly 


gobot. 




don. 


dispersion 


pocboclag, poclagoy. 


emanate 


buat, gatad. 


displeasing 


pocobaga. 


embarrass 


libang, casamoc. 


displeasure 


malaat nog boot, gomot. 


embark 


pocosacay. 


dissemble 


poclabon sac guionaona. 


embellish 


alongas, dayandayan, san- 


disseminate 


sitguag. 




gay. 


dissent 


pingondian. 


emblem 


laraban nga ologan somala 


dissenter 


socsomocal so nga gosod. 




alandon, soyon noc sulut 


dissertation 


pocsindilsindil. 




binutong. 


dissimilar 


di maaron, dilo mopong. 


embroidery 


lankep. 


dissolve 


lines. 


enchanted 


gondeemaqui nongog, gonlo 


distinguish 


peinan. 




gotao nog boangboang. 


distinguishable socalpeinan. 


enchanter 


asoang, balbal. 


distract 


lingalinga. 


encounter 


baangan. 


distribute 


pocguilas. 


end 


atapusan; tapus. 


disturb 


magalin. 


endure 


antosan, gantoson. 


divide 


boocon, potol, lombos. 


enemy 


banta, bono. 


divinity 


poccadiuata. 


enervate 


pocgangay noc capintas 


divorce 


pocboclag soc gotao nga 




abolo socog. 




soay. 


enjoy 


agom. 


dog 


guito, ito, gayam. 


enjoyment 


pocagagom, milipay. 


door 


langaan. 


enroll 


pocsuquit noc paldon, pog- 


doorway 


bawang ec daan. 




buta. 


down 


baba, sool, nooc. 


enter 


solot. 


come down 


monoog. 


entirely 


tibooc. 


go down 


ponooc, socsilong. 


ephemeral 


socmopayat soc sala ondao. 


dream 


taginop. 


equal 


pares, sama. 


drink 


inom, guinom, gunimon, 


equalizer 


somoglopong, somogsama. 




minoma, ocsop, tonggab. 


estimate 


pacpalaga somala alandon. 


drip 


tolo. 


evening 


polupungobii. 


drone 


tiuan nog lee. 


evenness 


pacanapo tugaling. 


drop 


tolo. 


event 


gabo. 


drum 


gandang, talabi. 


every 


lonan. 


drunken 


poccabolong. 


everything 


lamnen. 


drunkenness 


migbobolong. 


evil 


sayop. 


dry 


inangkag. 


evildoer 


mipono noc sayop, sala, 


dull 


sansang, supla. 




malat tugaling. 


duty 


atodanan. 


exact 


lopong. 


dwarf 


meaon. 


exactly 


impit. 


dwell 


congol. 


excrement 


tee, malomo. 


dwelling 


picongolan. 


excuse 


balibad. 


dye 


panglamugan, pongompig. 


executable 


socsocalbaalan. 




tina. 


exhort 


sambag. 






explain 


sayoron. 


ear 


talinga. 


external 


sa gua. 


earring 


gantingganting. 


extinguish 


pocpalon. 


earth 


lopa, salau. 


eye 


mata. 


earthquake 


linug. 


humor 


mota. 


ease 


abotang. 


pupil 


ginotao. 



ENGLISH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



221 



eyebrow 

eyelash 

eyelid 

fable 
face 

facilitate 

faction 

factious 

factor 

factory 
faculty 
fair weather 
fall 

fallacy 
false witness 
falsifier 



fame 

fan 

far 

farm 

farmer 

fast 

fasting 

fat 

father 

father-in-law 

fathom 

three fathoms sinantan. 
fault finding libac. 



gilay. 

pileka. 

pilaten. 

tontol. 

mole; gatbang, poctobang, 

tongdong. 
nog abilingan nog micao- 

lang, pogangay. 
dapig. 

gobot, somocol, malalison. 
gotao pimonan, pisaligan, 

pocsaloy, nocpogbalidya. 
beta. 

gaom socpogbaal. 
linao. 
labo, pagobos, socosol, bosa- 

can, lolid. 
bales, lingbon, nogmalat. 
pombaal. 
songmogmaomao somala 

alandon. 
bantug. 
gocabgocab. 
malayo. 
bukid. 

nogmigbaal sog lopa. 
puasa. 
pocpuasa. 

malorabo, sopang, taba. 
gama. 

ponongangan. 
kumpau, depa. 



fear 
feasible 

feast 

feather 

feeble 

fellow 

fence 

ferocious 

ferocity 

festival 

fever 

feverish 

field 



ondoc, gondoc, talao. 
malomo balon, socsocalba- 

lon. 
buklug. 
bombol. 
malobay. 



galad. 

bole, pintas. 

bole tugaling. 

buklug. 

panas. 

panas minit. 

bukid, bonoa nog napo. 



cleared for tilth binalan. 
cultivated begyaan. 



paddy field 
fierce 
fight 
fifty 
fill 
filler 
find 
fine 
finger 

index finger 

second 

third 

little 
fingernail 
finish 



binal. 
pintas. 
lalis. 

limapulu. 
pono, loop, 
socpocoloon mepono. 
baangan. 
bangon. 
tondo, gemet, goyamet. 

salabuk tondo, palamanis. 

datu tondo. 

manisan. 

koingai. 
kanuku. 
octoban, tobos. ponno, som- 

poyan. 



fire n 

fire V 

firelight 

fire making 

fireplace 

firewood 

first 

fish 

fishbasket 

fisherman 

fish fence 



fishnet 

five 

flame 

flank 

flattering 

fledged 

fleshy 

flexible 

float n 

float V 

flood 

floor 

flour 

flower 

fluent 

flute 

flux 

fly 

follow 

following 

food 

fool 

foolish 

foot 
sole 
instep 
to brace 

footprint 

forehead 

forest 

forge 

fork 

form 

fortune 

forty 

fountain 

four 

fowl 

fresh 

freshet 

friend 

fright 

frog 

fruit 

full 

funeral 

fur 



gapoy, dinoksulan. 

boi, lotang. 

liga, goclac. 

pulas. 

gabo pagbaloganan, buanan 

ginulai. 

mina, bekna. 

sora, esda, suda. 

pitangan. 

managat, polomongwit. 

galad nog llayan lanas soc- 

pogboloy noc sura noc 

tubigan. 
giyud, pasawit. 
lima, 
liga. 
guilid. 

poraigon, tigomoamo. 
poctubo sog bombol nog 

manocmanoc. 
gotao gombagol noc sopingi 

sopang. 
pomagon. 

aloonan nog gayoonan. 
lotao. 
baa. 
saleg. 

bagas mais. 
bulac. 
poctolo. 

suling, tenggab. 
sogdogo. 

langau, boligan, calontinay. 
pogdonot. 
gelet. 

gaan, balon. 
colang sog boot, gongog, 

bobo. 
boangboang. 
gocsud, pocsud, botis. 

palapa. 

dibaban noc palapa. 

sicol, pocponicol. 
binaya. 
gangas. 
bui. 

pandayan. 
Sunday gaan. 
pogbaal, pogbogay, pogli- 

quimo, pocpongong. 
palad. 

patpulu, upatpulu. 
tobod. 
pat, upat. 
manoc. 
tobang. 
baa noc tubig. 
bila. 
bayad. 
bocbaac. 
bunga. 
socmectuman, songmipono, 

bontal. 
buklug pimala, timala, po- 

nolud, puluntu, sogao. 
bombol. 



222 



THE SUBANU. 



gain n polos, tolin. 

gain V daag. 

gale gonos nong marisa. 

gallantly baya gopia. 

gallantry dugnayan ig lanas no gotao 

mapiaiguindog. 

garden pimolaen. 

garnish sapauan. 

gateway bunguan. 

gather lompoc, pongon, tigom. 

generating sogmoglioat. 

generative sogdoon ig gaom nog pogli- 

oat. 

generously maloot. 

germ bone, buat, pegotaran. 

germinate tominobo. 

germination poctobo. 

gift bogay. 

ginger loya. 

girdle baling, bakes. 

girl dalaga. 

giver malibogayon, mayac. 

glad milipay. 

gland gonda. 

glaucous toay, manguidaap. 

glebe soc lupa noctibogol guinale, 

semicoat nog daro. 

globular lingin. 

go minolo, morito. 
go down socsilong. 

go up monoog. 

goat anding, bilibili. 

god diuata; bichara. 

goitre buyun. 

gold bulawan. 

gong kulintangan; gagun. 

good pia, bais, malongas, pinuli, 

taron. 

gossip tontoltontol balos. 

govern gauid, pocboot. 

governor magagauid, magboot, po- 

noan, gobednarol. 

grain putok. 

granary lulu tongalang. 

grandfather gapo nog lee. 

grandmother gapo nog libon. 

grasp aoid. 

grass padang, kogon. 

grave alobungan. 

gray gabu, gobol. 

gray hair mogobol, kagobolnen. 

great salag, gasalagnen, bagol. 
great-grandfather gama nog gapo. 

greatly tugaling. 

greatness gasalagnen. 

green lunau, galunaunen, molu- 

nau; mangud. 

ground salau. 

guess atoc. 

guitar sigitan, kutapi. 

gulf linok, logoc. 

gun sinapang. 

gunpowder malilang. 

gutter tugaya. 



habit 
habitable 



tagam, gaui, botasan. 
song mopia pocongolan. 



habitation picongolan. 

habitually mitagam. 

haft subungan. 

hair booc, bombol, kulagu. 

false hair caloonan nog booc, boo- 
can, pasobong. 

hairy gotao nong motaas nog booc, 

boocan. 

half gineng, ginenga, tenga. 

hamlet gampu nog balay, gampu 

nog bawang. 

hammock puyuwan. 

hand gomog. 

palm palad. 

back dibabau palad. 

lines of palm kulis. 

left dig mebang. 

right dig liut. 

handkerchief panggu. 

hank palos. 

happiness alipayan, palad. 

happy lipay, liag. 

hard matugas. 

harm tong. 

hat popia, turung. 

hatred malaat nog boot, gomot. 

have doon. 

he guien, geyen, iin, yen. 

head golo. 

nod polog sa golo debaloy bo 
debaloy. 

heal bolong. 

hear rongog, bonug. 

heart posong. 

hearth buanan.gabopagbaloganan. 

heat init, sasac. 

heathen pacano. 

heel seel, bacoao. 

help gabang, labanan. 

hemorrhage sogdogo. 

hemp lanut. 

hen dulungan. 

wild hen daluan libuyu. 

here deni. 

heritage socmicpongon. 

hermit crab gumang. 

hiccup soggo, gonto, boctasan. 

hide V godlod. 

hill bulud. 

hillock buludbulud, bod. 

hilltop atapusan sog^enoiran. 

hip tabing. 

hither deni. 

hoard timod noc salapi, oglod 

hoe sarol. 

hold pongong. 

hole luang, soquit. 

honey teneb. 

hope lolat. 

hornbill kalau. 

horse abayo, guda. 

hostile pomoctong. 

hot malalas, init. 

house balay. 

birth house gosina. 

spirit house maligai. 

to admit to panilong. 



ENGUSH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



223 



howling 

human 

humbly 

humility 

hundred 

hunger 

hunt 

hunting spirits manubu. 

husband lagi. 

hush libang. 

hut ludan. 

hysterical guinogdoban. 



pogosig no quito'nocpogbou 

tolon. 
mitondong no gotao, baya 

no gotao. 
palobaya. 
pahubus. 
magatus. 
pora. 
din. 



I 


agen, au, gaco. 


L idea 

ideally 
■ identical 


gonagona. 


so gonagona. 


maaron nog leen noc pomo- 




tangon, latin, sopocama. 


identically 


sopoceglopong. 


identify 


pocponongguiling, pocomo- 
tood. 


identity 


poco maaron, pocsama. 


idiocy 


gondaay gaom. 


idiot 


gotao gondaay gaom, gon- 




daay saboton. 


idiom 


pogogovitan. 


idler 


sogondi mayac mogbaal 




moglanglaang, malonca. 




tapolan. 


idolatrous 


soc mitondong nog diuata. 


ignition 


baga tondong noc abolo no 




gapoy. 


[ ignominy 


nocpigaguanta, piran. 


ignominiously sopogopia. 


ignorance 


pocogondaay gaom, poco- 




gondaay sonan. 


iguana 


guibid. 


ill at ease 


malaat no abotang. 


illicitly 


sopogondaay dason. 


illuminative 


socorolang. 


image 


ladawan. 


imaginable 


sogsocalgunagunaon. 


j imagination 


gunaguna. 


imaginative 


sogmogunaguna. 


i imagine 


pagonaguna, pogdalomdom 


imbecile 


boangboang, colang sog 




boot. 


imbiber 


sogmacaocsop. 


imbibition 


pocoocsop gacsop. 


imitable 


socsocalpononggulingan. 


imitate 


guiling. 


imitation 


sopoconongguiling, nong 




maaron. 


imitater 


sogmonongguiling. 


immutable 


sogondi maimo posocliyan. 




sogondi maimo uraman. 


impart 


pogambit, pocquilas. 


impassability pocgondaay loroon, pocgon- 




daay casit. 


im passable 


sogondi mogbatic, sogondi 




maglaro. 


impeccable 


sogondi maimo noc sala. 


impeded 


pilong. 


impel 


doso, gagda, tolod, iguen . 


imperiously 


sopagboot nogogolingon. 



imperturbable 

impostor 

importunate 

improve 

inactivity 

inattentive 

incense 

inclination 

indestructible 

indigo 

indivisible 

indolent 

infanticide 

infantry 

inflexible 

inheritance 

inhumanly 

iniquitous 

iniquitously 

initiative 

injustice 



ink 

inquire 

inside 

instep 

instruct 

insupportable 

intention 

intestines 

intrepid 

intrepidity 

iron 
ironworks 

irremediably 

irremissibly 

irreverence 

irreverent 

irrevocability 

irritated 



jacket 
jar 



javelin 
joint 
joy 
judge 

judgment 
judicious 
juice 
juiciness 



sogondi magalin, soginda- 
gosay. 

baloson, molimbong, saga- 
tad. 

socdomanlag. 

tomanan. 

maya. 

moglingalinga. 

palina. 

sogmitoiac, sogpacailig. 

sogondi maimo nong morala. 

dagom. 

sogondi maimo guilaso boo- 
coon. 

molobay. 

sogmigbono. 

sog sondalo moggondaay 
abayo. 

sogondi maimo pomagon. 

bilin. 

pocabolo tugaling. 

malaat, monlogos. 

sogpacalaat tugaling. 

pegotaran, sogmegatad. 

bal nogondi socal so cato- 
rongan, calaatan nogom- 
bagol. 

dawat. 

saac. 

dialum. 

dababau noc palapa. 

pocsambag. 

sogondi maimo gantoson. 

tuyo. 

tinee. 

ondi matalao, di motahap. 

sogondaay atalao, sogon- 
daay gondoc. 

potao, cutao. 

balay noc poctonaoan noc 
potao, pandayan. 

sogondaay bolong, sogon- 
daay sopla. 

sogondaay pocpasaylo. 

pocgondaay basanon. 

sogantol nog basa. 

pogondaay pocpoli. 

marongot. 



gawal, sunk, legdey. 

bandi, genlit, gulen, lingu- 
lingu, buun, kakud, kali- 
guan, kundungan, galu- 
nawan, dinampak, gun- 
sulee, gunsulaki, lima- 
lima, galuas, minanukan, 
sinantan, sigeban, sigu- 
ban, sibulan, tadjau. 

noctalloma. 

lelenguan. 

alipayan. 

paggosay, ponudya, boot,, 
ocom, pagonagona. 
day gondao noc pocponudya. 

bootan. 

tagek. 

pocoloon noc sabao. 



224 



THE SUBANU. 



juicy 


sogdoon cisabaon. 


lippitude 


mota. 


just 


lopong, motaron. 


liver 


gatai. 


jute 


lanut. 


load 


lolan. 


juvenile 


mitondong nog bata. 


loafer 


sogondi mayac mogbaal 
moglanglaang. 


kidney 


bunga. 


lodestone 


bato balani. 


kill 


bono. 


lodging 


picongolan. 


kilt 


tapis empetek. 


loftily 


pocobaga. 


kindness 


paalongas. 


log 


batang. 


king 


lare. 


loincloth 


baag. 


knee 


dulud, taktuai. 


long 


mayaba. 


hollow 


leletek. 


look 


guipos, ipos, tobang. 


kneel 


lood. 


looking glass 


salamin. 


knife 


geg, hilamon, kisanggulang, 


loom 


belen. 




loot, penoto, pes, pino- 


love 


mayac. 




balan, pinuti, barong. 


lover 


sognigasoy sonnem nogayac. 


edge 


baba. 


loving 


malomo mayac. 


point 


soong. 


lovingly 


gayacsogombagol, nogayac. 


haft 


subungan. 


low 


obos. 


know 


sonan. 


low tide 


gonas. 


I do not know taron. 


luck 


pal ad. 


knowledge 


gaom. 


lung 


baga, looc. 


knuckle 


bogotondo. 










machete 


penoto nogombagol. 


laborer 


moomogbaal, sogmigbaal. 


magnitude 


gasalagnen. 




gotao sogboid. 


maiden 


dalaga. 


lack 


colang, quinaanglan. 


maize 


mais, daoa. 


lactation 


pagdoro nonga gombata. 


make 


baal, mando. 


ladder 


paghat, pahat, gogdan. 


male 


laki. 


lading 


sogod. 


man 


gotao, lee. 


lady 


bai. 


mango 


mapalam. 


lake 


danao, lanao. 


manner 


baya. 


lamentable 


socsocalpocsoganan. 


manufacturer sogmimando. 


land 


bonoa, bukid, lopa. 


many 


loon, madagel. 


language 


talo, pogogovitan. 


marriage 


poctontal. 


lard 


matia, laneg. 


married 


luay. 


large 


bagol, masalag. 


marry 


tontal. 


larynx 


tulakh. 


marsh 


bonoa nog tubigan, lopa 


late 


payat, ombos. 




nongmoromos, lanao.mig- 


launch 


pilac. 




lanao ic tubig. 


lawful 


dason, motaron. 


marvel 


tingala. 


lawsuit 


bityala. 


massive 


libon, dacsoc, pono, maligon. 


lawyer 


mangangabang. 


mat 


sapiai. 


lazy 


molobay, tapolan. 


grass 


damdam. 


leader 


poon. 


cycas 


giham. 


leaf 


doon. 


mattock 


gwasay. 


lean a 


malagos. 


mature 


bootan, gomolanggolang ; 


lean v 


toiac. 




inog. 


leaning 


sogpacailig. 


meadow 


padangan. 


left 


dig mebang. 


meal 


gaan ; lepet, bagas mais. 


leg 


paa, lintisan. 


measure 


poglilDot so mga linonsoran. 


lemon 


malinao, pumutul. 


measures 




leprous 


socpongol so gomoc, soc- 


liquid 


pasub. 




pinoquit. 


dry 


gantang. 


lien 


balos. 


linear 


kumpau, depa, sinantan. 


to tell lies 


pocabalos. 


meat 


gunud. 


liet' 


balilid. 


to dry 


inoctod. 


life 


catubo. 


to cure 


porang, tenite. 


light a 


sogmolomo antosan. 


medicines 


gagimut, gululu, matansa. 


light n 


solo, pangangdan. 


meet 


baangan. 


lightning 


guilat. 


memory 


dalomdom. 


like a 


sama, aron, mopong. 


merchant 


gotao pimonan, pisaligan, 


likev 


bout. Hag. 




pocsaloy, nocpogbalidya. 


liking 


ayac. 


mercy 


alalaat. 


lime 


gapog. 


merry 


lipay, malipay. 


lintel 


golo nogombagol. 


meteor 


genit bitun. 


lip 


domomog, bibig. 


midday 


taassondao. 



ENGLISH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



225 



midnight 


gineng gobii. 


nipple 


ecsipan. 


midwife 


panday negmegbata; belilu, 


no 


da, di, daay. 




gagun. 


nod 


polog. 


milk 


gatas. 


noon 


gektu gondao, taassondao. 


milky 


tondong no gatas. 


nose 


soong. 


minced meat 


menaticaan no came inoctod 


bridge 


batang soong. 




gopia. 


septum 


imud soong. 


mind 


gaom. 


interior 


gegbad soong. 


mirror 


salamin. 


not 


da, di, daay. 


mischievousness nog metagam nog pog- 


not yet 


daap. 




laat, batasan. 


now 


nandao, nenau, numungini 


misfortune 


malaat nog palag, alisod. 




numungitu. 


misspend 


socpuonan, ola, pogola noc 
salapi. 


nun 


binocot. 


mist 


dope nog guinanat. 


oath 


arugo. 


mistake 


socsayop. 


obey 


tuman, gosod. 


model 


ponongguian. 


obscure 


pogdolan. 


modesty 


matamot. 


obstinate 


lalis. 


moisture 


pocoromos. 


obstruct 


somagang. 


molest 


cotecote, pimoctong, samoc, 


obstructer 


macapongong, socmicao- 

lang. 
pocobaga. 


moment 


tuyo. 
deliai. 


offensive 


money 


salapi, pilak. 


offspring 


bata. 


monk 


binocot. 


often 


misauta. 


monkey 


gutung, utung, tongdug 


oily 


pogooao. 




panga. 


old 


daan, gomolang, magulang 


month 


bulan. 


on 


dibabau. 


moon 


bulan. 


once 


minsan. 


new 


bata bulan. 


one 


sa, isa, sala, salabuk. 


full 


mandawan. 


onion 


sabilino. 


dark 


mipupus. 


or 


bo, bu. 


morning 


siselem, suansolom, diselum. 


orchard 


sulal. 


mortar (rice) 


lusung. 


order n 


gosay. 


mosquito bar 


kulambu. 


order v 


sogo. 


mother 


gina, ina. 


origin 


pegotaran. 


mother-in- 


aw ponongangan. 


orphan 


laata ilu. 


motive 


tungdong. 


our 


name. 


mound 


bod. 


outward 


sa gua. 


mountain 


dungus, gedungusan, bui. 


over 


ditaas. 


mouse 


gibasgibas. 


overflow 


baa. 


mouth 


baba. 


overshadow 


pogdolan. 


much 


dagel, loon. 






mud 


basac, tamisac. 


pack 


solog, soglogua, quipos. 


musket 


sinapang. 


paddy field 


binal. 


mutilate 


pongol. 


pain 


cogool. 






pair 


magimpang. 


nail 


bocsoc, ogboc, lansang, pa- 


palatable 


mis. 




soc, toclop. 


palate 


danaan. 


fingernail 


kanuku. 


palm 


palad. 


name 


ngalan. 


lines in the palm kulis. 


nape 


tinhug, tiungo. 


palpitate 


poolog nog guilid sopoglo- 


narrow 


moloctin. 




guinaoa boctasan. 


naughty 


tampalasan. 


pant 


pocolog. 


navel 


pusu. 


pardon 


poylo, pasaylo. 


near 


good. 


parent 


mogulang. 


neck 


leeg, tinhug. 


parishioner 


poglogotaoan pisala noc pa- 


necklace 


bitegel. 




roquia, sacog. 


need 


quinaanglan. 


part 


bahagi, bahin. 


needle 


tee. 


partition 


gogbag. 


needy 


meebog. 


pass 


pocbiyan, casit, loroon. 


nervousness 


badi. 


passable 


maglaro. 


nest 


salag. 


path 


daan, dalan, gaitan. 


net 


giyud, pasawit. 


patrimony 


bilin, socmicpongon. 


never 


di gusay. 


peasant 


socmoctoloan noc subanun. 


night 


gobii. 


people 


leenleen. 


nine 


siam. 


pepper 


seli. 


ninety 


siampulu. 


peppery 


malalas. 



226 



THE SUBANU. 



perfect 


tobos. 


quick 


dali. 


perhaps 


saoan. 


quickly 


pagas. 


perjury 


pombaal. 


quiet 


malali yamo mocsasa. 


permit 


togot. 


quietly 


maya. 


person 


gotao. 






pertain 


tondong. 


rabble 


mga gotao socalpalalabian, 


pertaining to 


noquito. 




mga gotao nog mesequin. 


pestle 


gelu. 


raft 


aloonan nog gayoonan, gu- 


petticoat 


lagiias, tapis. 




set. 


pickpocket 


dao. 


rage 


megolos guisoc, pocsopoc. 


picture 


ladawan. 


rags 


danol, ponopoton nog daan, 


pierce 


lugbas. 




porot. 


pig 


baboy, buktin, tinuksuk. 


rain n 


dope, pusilau. 


pigeon 


malapati, manatud. 


rain v 


poctolo nongo gatop. 


pillow 


goloan. 


rainwater 


tubig nog dope. 


pipe 


sigupan. 


rainy 


toon nog dogdope, marope. 


pipestem 


silup. 


rancid 


pogooao. 


pit, to fall into lolid, bosacan. 


range 


gedungusan. 


place 


bonoa, bawang, butang. 


rascal 


tolisan. 


plain 


lopa nong napo nogondaay 


rasher 


bool noc paa nog baboy. 




magpondopondo. 


rat 


togubung. 


plant n 


pomolonan. 


ration 


balon. 


plant V 


guroc. 


rattan 


gooay. 


plasterer 


sogmoglerme nog basac. 


read 


basa. 


plate 


lainpai, pinggan. 


reason 


alaik punanen, alaik sabab, 


platter 


talam. 




gutek, tungdong. 


play 


lamot, megleymet. 


rebel 


sogmololison. 


plow 


badya, daro. 


receive 


domangop. 


plump 


lombo, pocsopang. 


recline 


balilid. 


point (knife) 


soong. 


red 


pulo, bolao, pongompig. 


poison n 


lupag, mile, bolic. 


redness 


gapulonen. 


poison V 


pocpoinom, poctuba. 


region 


lonsod. 


poor 


meebog, miskinan. 


relative 


sogombaya nog moloon nog 


pork 


bool noc paa nog baloy, 




magleinlein, aromananan. 




gunud baboy. 


remedy 


sopla. 


post 


pasek. 


remember 


gumauna, dalinduman. 


potbelly 


macabagol noc tian. 


renowned 


arunaan, salapian, dato. 


poultice 


gaclop. 


repay 


pocpuli. 


pound 


locpog, ocdoc. 


repent 


inunsalan, guinonosola. 


pounding 


pogocdoc. 


repentance 


basulan. 


power 


gaom. 


replete 


bontal. 


powerful 


gasalagnen. 


reputation 


dongog. 


prairie 


pacanapo tugaling. 


resin 


lunai, palina. 


praise 


pogdaig. 


resolution 


pegoyonan. 


pray 


gampo, pocdiuata. 


respect 


basa, taod. 


pregnant 


boros, poloponan. 


revoke 


poll. 


prejudicial 


moglaat. 


revolve 


tabo. 


pretty 


longas. 


revolving 


sogmogbolobod. 


price 


laga. 


rib 


gusuk. 


priest 


balian. 


rice 




princess 


bai. 


unhusked 


balay. 


procreate 


lioat. 


husked 


begas. 


profit 


polos. 


boiled 


gemai, pulut. 


prompt 


dali. 


beer 


gasi, pangasi. 


provision 


balon. 


ricefield 


binal. 


puddle 


bonoa noc tubigan, donaoan 


rich 


arunaan, dato, salapian, 


pulpit 


ulihan. 




magaus. 


pungent 


malalas. 


ridgepole 


libongan. 


pup 


bocposon. 


right 


dig Hut; taron. 


pupil (eye) 


ginotau. 


ring (arm) 


linggit. 


purple 


taluk. 


(finger) 


sising. 


purse 


conotconot. 


(shin) 


lintisan sising. 


push 


tolod. 


ripe 


mimug, inog; bootan. 


put 


guison, butang. 


ripeness 


pacainog. 


quarrelsome 


malalison. 


rising tide 
river 


poglogonas. 
suba, tubig. 


question 


saac. 


rivulet 


sapasapa. 



ENGUSH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



227 



road 


daan, dalan. 


side 


guilid. 


rob 


salumnenka. 


to one side 


sogpacailig. 


rogue 


sogmalaat nog botasan, to- 


from side to side cotat, poyo, debaloy. 




lisan, lee nog tapolan. 


sieve 


dunukun. 


romp 


megleymet. 


signal 


toos. 


roof 


gatop. 


silly 


gongog, culang nog boot. 


rooster 


limansud. 


silver 


salapi, pilak. 


rope 


tali. 


similar 


aron, mopong, sama. 


round 


maliputut, lingin. 


sin 


sala. 


rumor 


tontoltontol. 


sinner 


maasasala. 


rump 


boktol, guging. 


sister 


gilugu. 


run 


genenkan, goboc. 


sit 


guingcod. 






six 


gonom. 


saffron 


lalag. 


sixty 
skein 


gonompulu. 
palos. 


sago 


lumbia. 

layag. 

dula. 

masin. 

maaron, latin. 

goles. 

poctoman noc atandanan. 


sketch 


landasan. 


sail 

saliva 

salt 

same 

sand 

satisfy 


skilful 

skin 

skirt 

sky 

slander 


sinonan, somoon. 
ganit, panit. 
tapis, 
langit. 

pogangay nog rongog, pog- 
liboc. 


saucer 
scatter 
school 


lainpai. 

lagoy. 

guiscuelaan. 


slanderer 

slap 

slash 


sogmogangay nog dongog. 
tampoling, sogpaon. 
sontoc, pocpoc. 


science 


gaom. 


slave 


gulipun, ulipun, biag. 


scraper 


lisan. 


sleep 


tolog. 


sea 


dagat. 


slender 


peed. 


seacoast 


balingdagat. 


slope 


maranaya. 


see 


mita ipos. 


small 


micia. 


seed 


bigibigi, goroc. 


smallness 


gabiganen. 


seize 


pocpongong, pocaoid. 


smite 


bonal. 


seldom 


somolondon. 


smoke 


gobal. 


sell 


balidya, daghan, pocsaloy. 


smoky 


sogmogombal. 


senor 


sengguil. 


smooth 


melenin. 


separate 


boclag, lombos. 


snatch 


gagao. 


septum 


imud. 


snout 


mirapal. 


sermon 


tabal. 


soften 


momoc posol, banig. 


servant 


biag. 


soil 


baal, pogbaal, napo, bukid. 


settlement 


gampu. 




lopa. 


seven 


pitu. 


soldier 


pilak, sondalo. 


seventy 


pitupulu. 


sole 


palapa. 


sew 


meneg. 


solid 


libon, maligon, dacsoc, pono 


shanty 


ludan. 


son 


bata. 


shape 


pogliquimo, pogbaal. 


soot 


gagoy. 


share 


guilas, ambit. 


sooty 


sogmigagoyan. 


shawl 


musalabungkas. 


sore 


laroon nog guimood, gangol 


she 


guien, geyen, iin. 


soul 


guimud, guinaoa; puluntu. 


sheep 


bilibili. 


sour 


mosom. gosomnen. 


shield 


lasag, taming. 


sow n 


baboy talon boIoog,Ianayan 


shin 


lintisan. 


sow V 


goroc. 


shinbone 


belintis. 


spate 


baa noc tubig. 


ship 


gapal, sacay. 


spear 


bosi, moni, noctalloma, sa- 


shipping 


pocosacay. 




lapang, sebat, talawan 


shirt 


sunk. 




tinalagan. 


shoot 


saa. 


spearhead 


limayas, tinabagen. 


shooting star genit bitun. 


speak 


gabit. 


shore 


balingdagat. 


spectacles 


antocos. 


short 


empetek. 


spherical 


lingin. 


shoulder 


baga. 


spider 


balingawa. 


shoulderblade belagel. 


spike 


bocsoc, lansang. 


shower 


dope, pusilau. 


spin 


tingol. 


shuttle 


si yuan. 


spinach 


linagami. 


sick 


laronon. 


spinner 


sogmogtingol. 


sickle 


pes nog molio, seilad. 


spinning room inu. 


sickness 


laroon. 


spinning wheel tingilan. 



228 



THE SUBANU. 



spirit apujungal, balian, bulatuk, 

dipuksaya, diuata, ge- 
lektu, guinagan, gulai, 
gwakgwak, kalamonte, 
mamanua, manamat, ma- 
nubu, matubud, minubu, 
mitubu, mogolot, munlu, 
salomaya,sarut,sindupan, 
tamiang, tibogok. 

spirit house maligai. 

spiritless pagoquion. 

spit pocdula. 

spoiled child poraigon. 

spoon sanduk, sulidat. 

spout tugaya. 

spread lerme. 

spring bual, tobod, tobora, poc- 

tuan. 

sprinkle pocsicay. 

sprout pegotaran, saa, tobo, bone, 

buat. 

spun tinongol. 

squander pogola noc salapi. 

stack tambun. 

stand guindog. 

standard bearer sogmogoit nog bandela. 

star bitun. 

steal salumnenka, pogdao. 

steamship gapal gapoy. 

stem pakanem. 

step poguindog. 

stepchild tinaguilo. 

steps paghat, pahat, gogdan. 

stew loto. 

stewpan tacho. 

stick gapud. 

stomach cotooto, tiboa. 

stone bate. 

store tago, poquison, pocquipos. 

storeroom siclat. 

storm gonos nong marisa. 

stove delengan. 

stow dacsoc. 

stowaway sogsomacay. 

strand balingdagat. 

strength socoa. 

strengthen tugol. 

strike bonal, sontoc. 

stroke pogbonal, pagsontoc, poc- 

poc, litobong. 

strong socog. 

succulence pocoloon noc sabao. 

sucking pig buktin. 

suckle doro. 

sugar binagel. 

summit atapusan sog benoiran. 

summon tauac. 

sun gondao. 

sunrise sumibang gondao, sulu. 

sunset sindep gondao. 

sunshine pedes. 

supper lobungan. 

supply bogay. 

su ppl ies pogandam nog gaan, pogan- 

dam nog pomotangon. 
surf pocdanlag nog balod. 

survey gogba. 



suspect taap. 

swallowing goglon. 

swamp bonoa noc tubigan. 

sweat golas, mamis. 

sweetness gemisnen. 

sweet potato gobe, camote. 

swelling buyun. 

swindler lee nog tapolan, sogmalaat 

nog botasan. 

swing pacpoyo, cotat. 

syphilis laroon migalin. 



LctUIC 

tail 


uiiiciuiiiiiy, uuK-ai. 

gikud. 


take 


angay. 


tale 


tontoltontol. 


talk 


pigagabit, tingog. 


talker 


tabian. 


tall 


mataas. 


tattooing 


liluk, patik. 


tax 


pamuku, buis. 


teach 


toon. 


teacher 


gulu. 


tear 


lua. 


to shed tears sogao. 


tear duct 


pocpongimotacan. 


tempest 


gonos nong marisa. 


ten 


sapulu. 


thank 


mangampon. 


the 


ang. 


theft 


pigdaoan. 


there 


dien iposay. 


they 


guilan, ilan. 


thick 


moreipol. 


thief 


dao, mogdao. 


thievish 


sogmetondong sogmogda- 




dao. 


thigh 


puunpaa. 


thin 


malagos, nepes. 


think 


pogonagona. 


thinness 


monepes. 


thirty 


tolopulu. 


this 


geniya, gini. 


thorax 


gagen. 


thou 


a, ga, iga, ya, neen, nia,niya 


thought 


gonagona, gutek. 


thousand 


songibu. 


thread 


tanud. 


three 


tolo. 


throat 


geeg, geleg, leeg, langag 




donaan. 


thrust 


doque. 


thumb 


galubalu. 


thunder 


logong. 


tibia 


belintis. 


tide 


pocaolog nogonnos. 


low 


gonas. 


rising 


poglogonas, soctobig, poc- 
taab. 
baal, pogbaal. 


till 


timber 


gayo. 


time 


toon. 


timid 


atalao. 


tin 


tatungo. 


tire 


supoc, pogbollo. 


tired 


lopugu. 


tobacco box 


batangan laget. 



ENGUSH-SUBANU VOCABULARY. 



229 



to-day 

toe 

small 

great 
to-morrow 

day after to 

tongue 

tooth 

torch 

town 

trader 

transport 

tree 

tribute 

trough 

trousers 

true 

trumpet 

trunk 

try 

tuck 

turban 

twice 

twins 

twist 

two 



cone no gondao, nenau, gon- 
dao. 

goyamet gocsud. 
goangai gocsud. 
galubalu gocsud. 

lema, belema, luma. 
-morrow donlag, salan gon- 
dao. 

dUa. 

ngisi. 

sulu. 

bonoal. 

nocpogbalidya. 

pocogoit, pocoatud. 

gayo. 

pamuku, buis. 

ogasan, palongan. 

gawes, gantiu, salwal. 

motood. 

bogguiong. 

caban. 

indamanta. 

conotconot. 

panggu. 

kadua. 

gapid. 

calingin. 

dua. 



ulcer 

umbrella 

uncertainty 

uncle 

uncultivated 

under 

underneath 

understand 



unhappy 
uninhabited 



unite 
unlawful 



unlike 
unlimited 



unmarried 



unripe 
unsalted 

unseasonable 
unskilled 

unskilfully 

untruth 

up 

to go up 
upon 
urinate 



laroon nog guimood, gangol. 

payung. 

socsayop. 

manak, gaya. 

lopa mogondaapa balay go- 

racan bo pomolonan. 
baba, dialum, perealon. 
silong. 
sabot. 

understanding motoo. 
unequal sogondaay ig doma, sogon- 

daay pares, 
nanaan, tiroo. 
lopa mogondaapa balay go- 

racan, sogondaay pocon- 

golan. 
lompoc, gongaya, pongon, 

timod, topoc. 
sogondaay dason, sogondi 

motaron. 
dilo mopong. 
sogondaay atapusan pingoc- 

toban. 
golitao, dalaga. 
unpardonable sogondi maimo noc pasay- 

lon. 
mangud. 
nogondaay masin, moto- 

bang. 
sogondi inog. 

sogondaay mitagam, so- 
gondi somoon. 
sogondaay sinonan. 
balos. 
ditaas. 

moneec. 
dibaban. 
guyo. 



vagabond sogondi mayac mogbaal 

. . moglanglaang, tapolan. 

varnish lomi, bolit, posinao. 

vein gugat. 

venereal disease buot socpog libon no 
gotao. 
gopia, gosaca, tugaling, ma- 

ligat. 
sacay. 

samoc, tuyo. 
gampu nog balay, gampu 

nog bawang, lonsod. 
bolagan nog bolaan. 
osisang. 



very 

vessel 

vex 

village 

vine 
vinegar 



wailing 

wait 

walk 

wall 

want 

war 

war cry 

warped 

waste 

water 

wave 

wax 

we 

weak 

wealth 

wealthy 

weary 

weather 

weave 

wedge 

weep 

weeper 

weeping 

weld 

well 

west 

west wind 
wet 
whelp 
when 
where 
white 
whiten 
whitewash 
wholly 
why 

wicked 

wickedness 

widow 

widower 

wife 

wild 

boar 
will 
win 
wind 

to blow 

west 
windpipe 
wine 



sogao. 

pogulatay. 

laang. 

cota, donding. 

colang. 

gubat. 

buksai. 

caliuanag no calingin. 

ola, socpuonan. 

tubig. 

balod. 

nila. 

gita, ita, gami, ami. 

gasa, malobay. 

gaus. 

arunaan, lee nog bandian 

magaus. 
cotecote, samoc, tuyo. 
gonos nong marisa, linao. 
tinina. 

gocsip, pansal. 
pocsogao. 

socmocsogao, malisogon. 
iglua. 

pagbaga noc potao. 
timba. 
sindepan. 

balat. 
romos. 
bocposon. 
nano. 
tama. 

goguis, poti. 
pocpoti. 

poglomi no gapog, pogugba. 
tibooc. 
alaik punanen, alaik sabab, 

toma, long, 
pinilian. 
poalat. 

balu nog libun; liingan. 
balu nog lee; liingan. 
soay, sawa. 
libuyu, talon. 

butaal. 
buot. 
daag. 

gonos. 

balat. 
gagen. 
bino. 



230 



THE SUBANU. 



wise 


motoo. 


wrap 


tongos. 


wish 


Hag. 


wrist 


pinugulan. 


within 


dialum. 


write 


saquit. 


wizard 


gonlo. 


writer 


sogmogsosulat. 


woman 


libvin. 


writing 


sulat. 


womb 


ginubungan. 


wry 


timpas. 


wood 


gayo. 






work 


baal. 


yam 


ubi. 


workable 


socsocalbalon. 


year 


toon. 


workshop 


bonoa noc pogbaalan. 


yellow 


maralag, dalag, pocsobblag 


world 


alibutan. 


yes 


maa, naa. 


worse 


maligos tugaling. 


yesterday 


labong. 


worthy 


mayac. 


you 


amo, game, lamo, yamo 


wound 


laroon nog guimood, gangol. 




niyo. 


wrangle 


lalis. 


young 


batit, gakpis, nati. 



LIST OF MODERN BOOKS OF REFERENCE FOR EXAMINATION AND READING ON 
THE SUBJECT OF AMERICAN OCCUPATION OF THE PHILIPPINES. 

1. Our Conquests in the Pacific, by Oscar K. Davis (American), 1898, i vol. 

2. The Story of the Philippines, by Amos K. Fiske (American), 1898, i vol. 

3. The Expedition to the Philippines, by Frank D. Millett (American), 1899, i vol. 

4. The PhiHppines and Round About, by Maj. G. J. Younghusband (English), 1899, ivol. 

5. The Inhabitants of the PhiHppines, by Frederick H. Sawyer (English), 1900, i vol. 

6. The Report of the Schurman Commission on the Philippines (American), 1900, 3 vols. 

7. Annual Reports of the Philippine Commission, 1900 to 1912, 47 vols. 

8. Bamboo Tales, by Lieut. Ira L. Reeves, U. S. Army (American), 1900, i vol. 

9. Aguinaldo and His Captor, by Murat Halstead (American), 1901, i vol. 

ID. The PhiHppine Islands and Their People, by Dean C. Worcester (American), ist edition 
1898, 2d edition 1901, i vol. each. 

11. Pronouncing Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary of the Philippine Islands, by 

Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department, Washington, 1902, i vol. 

12. The Katipunan or The Rise and Fall of the Filipino Commune, by Francis St. Clair 

(American), 1902, i vol. 

13. Oriental America and Its Problems, by Theodore W. Noyes (American), 1903, i vol. 

14. The U. S. Census Reports of the Philippine Islands, 1903, 4 vols. 

15. Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion, by Najeeb M. Saleeby (Armenian-Ameri- 

can), 1904, I vol. 

16. The Gems of the East, by Henry Savage Landor (English), 1904, 2 vols. 

17. The New Era in the Philippines, by Arthur Judson Brown, D. D. (American), 1904, i vol. 

18. The Philippines and the Far East, by Homer C. Stuntz (German-American), 1904, i vol. 

19. The Negritos of Zambales, by William Allen Reed (American), 1904, i vol. 

20. The Bontoc Igorot, by Prof. Albert E. Jenks (American), 1905, i vol. 

21. The Naboloi Dialects, by Otto Scheerer (German-American), 1905, i vol. 

22. The Bataks of Palawan, by Lieut. Edward Y. Miller, U. S. Army (American), 1905, i vol. 

23. The Philippine Experiences of an American Teacher, by William B. Freer (American), 
1906. 

' 24. Under Spanish and American Rules, by C. H. Forbes-Lindsay (Enghsh), 1906, i vol. 

25. The Philippine Islands, by John Foreman, F. G. R. S. (English), ist edition 1890, 2d 
edition 1899, 3d edition 1906. 

26. The Philippine Islands from 1493 to 1898, by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander 
Robertson (Americans), 1906, 55 vols. 

, Hand-book of the Philippine Islands, by Hamilton M. Wright (American), 1907, i vol. 

28. History of the Sulu Archipelago, by Najeeb M. Saleeby (Armenian-American), 1908, 

1 vol. 

29. The Batan Dialect, by Otto Scheerer (German- American), 1908, i vol. 

130. The Subanuns of Sindangan Bay, by Emerson B. Christie (American), 1909, i vol. 

31. The West in the East, by Price Collier (American), 191 1, i vol. 

32. My Impressions of the Philippines, by Miss M. E. Fee (American), 1910, i vol. 

133. American Occupation of the Philippines, by James H. Blount (American), 1912, i vol. 
[34. Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by Theodore Benfey, London, i vol., 1866. 

Malay-English and English-Malay Dictionary, by Sir Frank A. Swettenham, London, 

2 vols., 8th edition, 1909. 

^36. Malay Grammar, by W. G. SheUabear, Singapore, i vol., 1899. 

1 37. Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language, by Lieut. W. E. W. MacKmlay, 

U. S. Army, Washington, i vol., 1905. 
[38. English-Sulu-Malay Vocabulary, by Andson Cowie, London, i vol., 1893- 
[39. Malay-English and English-Malay Dictionary, by William Marsden, London, i vol., 

1812. 
[40. Colonial Administration, The Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, Washmgton, 

I vol., 1903. 231 



232 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

41 EI Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagalog, by T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Paris, 1 vol., Paris, 1887. 

42 English-Arabic and Arabic-English Dictionary, by F. Steingass, London, i vol., 1882. 

43 Colonial Administration, by Prof. Paul S. Reinsch, New York, i vol., 1905. 

44 Worid Politics, by Prof. Paul S. Reinsch, New York, i vol., 1903. 

45. The Magindanao Moro Dialect, by R. S. Porter, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, Wash- 

ington, I vol., 1903- 

46. The Magindanao Moro Dialect, by Capt. C. C. Smith, U. S. Army, Washington, i vol., 

1907. 

47. Tagalog-English and English-Tagalog Dictionary, by Charies Nigg, Manila, i vol., 1904. 

48. The Native Tribes of the Philippines, by Prof. Ferdinand Blumentrit, Berlin, i vol., 1890. 

49. The Peopling of the Philippines, by Rudolph Virchow, Beriin, i vol., 1897. 

50. Proceedings of the Smithsonian Institution, 1898 to 1910, Washington, 13 vols. 

51. Annual Reports of the American Army in the Philippines, Reports of the War Depart- 

ment, Washington, 1898 to 191 2, 21 vols. 

52. Modem Egypt, by the Earl of Cromer, New York, 2 vols., 1908. 

53. The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China and China, by J. Thomson, New York, i vol., 1875. 

54. The Island of Formosa, Past and Present, by J. R. Davidson, London, i vol., 1903. 

55. Diccionario Espaiiol-Bagobo, by M. Gisbert, Manila, i vol., 1892. 

56. Diccionario Tiruray-Espanol, by G. Bennasar, Manila, i vol., 1892. 

57. Biblioteca Filipina, Washington, 1903. 

58. Civil Government under Military Occupation, by Magoon, Bureau of Insular Affairs, 

War Department, Washington, 1908, i vol. 

59. The First Grammar of the Language Spoken by the Bontoc Igorot with a Vocabulary 

and Texts, Mythology, Folklore, Historical Episodes, Songs; by Dr. Carl Wilhelm 
Seidenadel, Chicago, 1909- 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

a, noun-formative 107 

primordial demonstrative 155 

absorption of alien speech 77 

Acuna, Father Pasqual de, mission 

pioneer 37 

a'e 109 

Aeta autochthons 4,92 

in Misamis 6 

restricted to Surigao 7 

afi 104 

agi 105 

agriculture 15 

ala 1 09 

alelo 108 

alimago 107 

alphabet 55 

altar 33 

ao-final 70 

'apa 120 

'ape 121 

appulse 68 

apugaleveleve 108 

arithmetic 151 

arrow 112 

Arze, Bishop Don Pedro de, Subanu 

mission 37 

aspiration 64, 83, 105, 109 

asu 106 

ate 106 

attributive, part of speech 113 

o'm 105 

'au 121 

autochthons 4 

6-mutation 87, 96 

balian 32 

banana 19 

Bantu 58 

Barrows 3 

barter 7, 11,28 

basket 16 

bath 27 

Beach-la-Mar 77 

beard 26 

bellows 24 

betel chewing 20 

big-plenty 162 

blood atonement 41 

blood-brotherhood 9. 11 

Blumentrit, Ferdinand 2 

Bohol II 

Bontoc Igorot 92 

Bopp, Franz loi 

bow 26, 112 

burial 32, 38 

burnt designs 23 



PAGB. 

camote o 

Campo, Father Juan del.. .. ......] ,7 

cannibalism ::^ 

carving 24 

cave burial JZ 

celibacy 29 

Chao Jukua ' . ' ' jq 

characteristics [] 26 

chief 

childbirth ;;;;;; j, 

Chinook jargon -, 

Christianity [\ ,5 

Christie, Emerson Brewer j 

Chu-Fanchi j q 

cigarette 20 

circumcision 27 

cleanliness 27 

closed syllable 64 

closure organs en 

cloth 23 

clothing 26 

cock-a-doodle-doo 60 

Colin, Father Francisco 9 

color 26 

Combes, Father Francisco i. 4. 37 

community 25 

community-house 115 

composition 55, 66 

consonant formation 57 

consonantal modulants 127, 155 

constriction, vocal organs 59 

cooking 23 

counting 28 

country-dance 170 

crane posture 27 

Crawfurd, John 4, 103 

crop storage 16 

cry, animal 60 

ctjture, laggard 12 

customs 26 

d-mutation 69, 86, 96 

Dampier Strait 174 

Dapitan n 

datu 24 

decimal numeration 152 

defecation 27 

demonstrative, part of speech 113 

design 23 

determinant compound 127, 155 

digging stick 15 

diphthong, final 169 

discovery 8 

disease 31 

diuata 32 

divorce 41 

233 



234 



IND^X. 



PAGE. 

dowry 29 

dream 30 

duplication phenomena 65 

dye 23 

ear ornament 27 

ear piercing 27 

excreta 27 

/-mutation 104, 1 16, 136 

fa 163 

fa'a I" 

fafa 109 

fafine 1 10 

fale "2 

family 25 

fana "2 

fanua "3 

farming i5 

fatu "5 

Felix de la Encamacion, Father Juan 52 

fence ^9 

festival 33 

fetii "5 

Figueroa. Captain Rodriguez de . . . . 36 

figure-four posture 27 

fill "7 

fine "o 

finger-count 50 

fire-making 24 

fireplace 24 

fitu 166 

foe "7 

folk-lore 30 

food crops 18 

forest destruction 16 

formative members 72 

Forrest, Captain Thomas 3 

Friederici, Captain Georg 112, 173 

fuga 1 1 7 

funeral 38 

g-dropping 61 

g- mutation 84, 95 

g-prefix 67 

gafulu 168 

garbage 22 

giant 7 

gods 32 

Gomez, Father Caspar 37 

gong 66 

government 24 

grave 39 

guides 20 

Gutierrez, Father Pedro 37 

/?-mutation i37 

habits 26 

hair 26 

Harafora 3 

hee-haw 60 

Hirth, Friedrich 10 

homestead law 17 

house 21 

human sacrifice 34 

Humboldt, Wilhelm von loi 



PAGE. 

i, primordial demonstrative 155 

ia 118 

i'a 118 

image 33 

implements 17 

incest 40, 41 

incision 27 

Indian vocables in English 172 

inhumation 39 

inu 119 

infix 73, 102, 146 

inversion 66, 90, 104 

isu 119 

i'u 119 

iva 167 

jag 49 

jargon speech 77 

Jesuit missions 36 

^-mutation 84, 95 

^-prefix 67 

kaingin 15 

Kalibugans 13 

kana 124 

kangaroo 50 

kappation 69, 116 

Kipit 7 

Krooboy jargon 78 

kumi 124 

Moss 87 

/-mutation 81, 93 

la'a 125 

labials 63 

ladder 21 

lafa 124 

lagi 125 

lago 125 

lalo 125 

lano 126 

lau 126 

le 126 

leai 128 

Lefevre, Andre 99 

Legaspi, Miguel Lopez 11 

legends 30 

lima 164 

Unguals 64 

lingual mutation 69 

linguo-labial mutation 63, 86 

linguo-palatal mutation 63, 86 

Wo 129 

lips, voice character 63 

lip-reading 63 

loan material 74 

logo 129 

Lopez, Father Juan 37 

lua 130 

lua 159 

m-formation 60 

m-mutation 82, 94 

ma conditional formative no, 130 

maga 131 

Magellan, Ferdinand 8 



INDEX. 



235 



PAOS. 

ma'i 130 

Malay invasion 93. 98, 107, 172 

3\Ialayo-Polynesian speech family. . .99, 170 

nialemo 131 

mama 131 

manifi 132 

manino 132 

manu 132 

marriage 29, 39 

Masibai Moros 6 

masima I33 

mat 23 

niata I33 

mate I34 

mathematics 151 

mati'u'u i34 

matou 135 

medicine 34. 39 

metal workers 24 

micturition 27 

migration lines 89 

Mohammedanism 10 

moo 60 

Morga, Governor Don Antonio 36 

Moros 7.13 

Moro Exchange 7.28 

mourning 41 

muli 135 

Miiller, Friedrich 100 

mute, prefaced 71 

myriad, diffuse plurality 162 

myth 30 

n-mutation 61, 82, 94 

name secrecy 29 

7iamu 135 

nasals 59 

Nawang 7 

necklace 27 

negative 126 

neigh 60 

Negritos 9- 

Negro-English jargon 78 

net 24 

ng-mutation 61, 81, 94 

nifo 136 

viu 138 

nose, speaking through 59 

numeration 151 

'oe 122 

offerings 32 

OHO 165 

onomatopoeia 60 

open syllable 64 

orthography unsystematized i 

Otazo, Father Francisco 37 

oti 134 

Oyolava 50 

/j-mutation 86, 97 

palatals, Subanu 64 

palate, voice character 63 

Paliola, Father Francisco 37 

panungo 25 

Papiraiento jargon 78 



PAOB. 

paradeictic, part of speech 113 

Parado, General Gonzalez jj 

parts of speech j j ^ 

ptisa ,5', 

Pastell, Father Pablo c 

Pe 139 

Pedrosa, Father Adolf o 37 

pepelo 140 

phonetics 55 

physique 2O 

Pidgin jargon 77 

Pigafetta, Francesco Antonio 8 

pile-house 21 

pili 140 

pillow 23 

po 139 

po 1 40 

polyandry 29 

polygamy 29 

Polynesian, early inhabitants of Ma- 
laysia 172 

Polynesian Wanderings 173 

pottery 23 

prayer 33 

preduplication 66 

prefaced mutes 71 

pregnancy customs 40 

prefix 72 

priest, see balian. 

priest-chief 24 

prosthesis 104 

pu'e {bid) 1 84 

puga 1 40 

pupula '4' 

pusi 1 4 ' 

quarantine 3 1 

quinary numeration 152, 161 

r-mutation 80 

r-d-mutation 70 

religion. . 32 

Retana 5 

ring 27 

Ronquillo, General Juan 37 

^-mutation 83, 96, 137 

5-ii-niutation "o 

sola N ' 

sago '9 

Salceby, Najeeb M 2 

salt »3 

Samoan kingship 48 

vSarsali, Father Fabricio 37 

schools -^^ 

sea '^ 

sedentarv posture 23 

sefulu "^'^ 

selu '42 

semivowels .'>9 

Sharif Mohamad Kabungsuwan .... 24 

shoot "^ 

shrine -^-^ 

Sicatuna ' ' 

si-u '"' 

slavery •^' <^- 7 



236 



INDKX. 



PAOS. 

small-plenty 162 

snare 24 

sonant 61 

Spanish loan words 74 

spirit 32 

splay-foot 26 

stair 21 

stove 24 

strength in speech 69, 88 

Subanu census 8 

origin of name i 

primordial Visayan type 89 

residence i 

tribal subdivisions 7 

Subanu-Bontoc afl&liation 97 

Subanu-Visayan common speech ele- 
ment 78 

filiation 77 

Polynesian content . 1 70 

subjection 31 

suffix 72 

sulu 142 

susu 142 

susunu 143 

syllables 64 

/-mutation 69, 85, 96 

ta conditional formative no 

Tabunaway 7. 24 

tae 143 

tali 143 

taliga 143 

tama i44 

tapioca 19 

tasi 153 

tatalo 144 

tatou 145 

tattoo 27 

Tellez, Father Pedro 37 

thatch 22 

thousand, diffuse plurality 162 

tia {tian) 213 

Ufa 146 

timuai 24 

Timuatea 147 

tind 1 46 

tinae 1 46 

tobacco 20 

toe 26 

togo 146 

tolu 160 

tongue, voice character 63 

tools 17 

tooth filing 28 

trade-speech 77 



translation principles 

transUteration, Saleeby system . 

tree burial 

tree-houses 

Tregear, Edward 

tribal ward farms 

trocha Tukuran-Lintogud 

tui 

tui. . 

Tukuran-Lintogud trocha ..... 

tulu 

tumu 

tupu 



ufi.. 
uila . 
ule. . 
uli. . 
ulu. 
uta. 
uti.. 
'utu . 



PAxm. 

47 

2 

39 

22 

102 

18 

4 

146 

147 

4 

147 

147 

48 

148 
148 
148 
149 
149 
149 
149 
149 
124 



va a 150 

vae 150 

valu 167 

vegetarian diet 21 

village life 24, 25 



Visayan dictionary . 

in Mindanao 

settlement area .... 

Subanu relationship . 

Vitiaz Strait 

vocabulary pitfalls 

sources 

vowel loss 

production 

vowel-diphthong mutation . . 



weaving 23 

Weyler, General Valeriano 4 

Whitney, William Dwight 100 

world, ideas of 114 

woman balian 33 

laborer 26 

woodcraft 20 

word force 69, 88 

tabu 116 



Xavier, St. Francis. 



yaller dog 

Yesindeed Island . 



37 



Zamboanga . 



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General Library 
RB 17-60ot-8,'61 University of California 
(C1641sl0)4188 Berkeley