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Full text of "Subdivisions of the public lands"

Public lands 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 

J iD zi i 

§^tjt. §optjrig]ji Ifu,. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



NOV 9 mi 



SUBDIVISIONS 



OF THE 



PUBLIC LANDS, 



Described and illustrated, 



WITH 



Diagrams and Maps 



ZB3T J". S, HI C3- O-IIsTS 



Given in Two Parts, 




ST. LOUIS : 

HIGGINS <& CO. 

1887. 



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COPYRIGHT 1887, 

BY 
R. THORNTON HIGGINS. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



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INTRODUCTORY. 



In preparing this volume it has been the endeavor of the 
publishers to give such a synopsis of the public surveys with the 
Instructions and Laws on which they are based, that the youth 
may be able to understand the Legal subdivision of lands suf- 
ficient to describe them, and may from the Maps, Diagrams and 
Instructions learn how to describe, plat, assess, abstract and deed 
any tract of land ; that the Business Man may find sufficient ref- 
erence to Instructions and Laws, together with the Diagrams il- 
lustrating the surveys to determine with certainty whether or not 
his lands have been properly surveyed, located, described, as- 
sessed and deeded. 

The Teacher will find sufficient data with the Maps and Dia- 
grams, to enable him to teach the practical subdivisions of land. 

Part I. contains the origin and extent of the Public Lands, 
and the inauguration of the system under which they have been 
surveyed ; also Extracts from Laws and Instructions, copied from 
the Public Land Records. 

Part II. is intended especially for persons unacquainted with 
the Legal subdivisions of the Public Lands and the Rectilinear 
System of Surveys as inaugurated by government ; it will be 
found exceptionally full in the descriptions and subdivisions of 
the Public Lands ; beginning with the simplest subdivisions of 
the square, all of the government subdivisions of the section are 
given : following which, are given subdivisions that occur in as- 
sessing and deeding, with examples showing correct and erroneous 
descriptions ; also descriptive notes on assessing, abstracting, 
deeding, surveying and platting. 

The Compiling of this Volume has been greatly facilitated 
by courtesies extended from General Land Office, Washington, 
D. C, in examination of original surveys and in copies of original 
documents and plats furnished, also by information furnished and 
courtesies extended by the custodians of the Original Field-Notes 
in the several States, to whom we acknowledge our indebtedness 
for favors shown. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS, 



To teachers unacquainted with the Government surveys the following order of 
presenting this work is suggested, viz : 

Explain to the pupil the origin and extent of the Public Lands of the United 
States; show by what authority Government claimed the Public Domain, and the 
necessity that existed (before it could be sold in parcels) of adopting some sys- 
tem of surveying, by which any tract of land when once surveyed could be read- 
ily found. Illustrate the necessity of establishing initial points at such places 
on the Public Lands that the surveyors would not be compelled to connect their 
surveys across large streams or mountain ranges. This can be done by drawing 
on the blackboard a map of the Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas and Illinois Kivers; 
from mouth of Ohio River draw a line north for Third Principal Meridian; from 
a point on Illinois River (clue north from its mouth) draw a line north for the 
Fourth Principal Meridian; from mouth of Arkansas River draw a line north for 
the Fifth Pnncipal Meridian, with which illustrate the difference between sur- 
veying meridians and meridians of longitude, by presenting the following facts, 
viz : Distance from First Principal Meridian to Second Principal Meridian about 
90 miles; from Second to Third, about 146 miles; from Third to Fourth, about 
70 miles ; from Fourth to Fifth, about 24 miles, they being established at irreg- 
ular distances for convenience in making surveys. 

The Public Lands may be considered as a large field with rivers running 
through it, and the survey of it may be illustrated by the plan on which a 
farmer would plow it; he would lay it off into tracts to suit his convenience, 
and instead of swimming his team and dragging plow and himself across the 
river for each furrow, he would plow what was on one side of the river, then 
cross and plow what was on the opposite side; each side would be plowed 
from a different starting or initial point. So it is with surveying; the surveys 
on opposite sides of the river were laid out from different initial points. 

Maps and descriptive notes illustrating above suggestions can be found in 
Part I., pages 9 to 29. 

From the instructions of Land Commissioner in Part I, page 31, explain the 
system adopted by Government, or so much of it as the pupil may require to 
obtain a knowledge of the method of laying off townships and sections ; for 
pupils not advanced in mathematics it is unnecessary to explain in detail the 
field operations, only the general plan should be given. 

A thorough explanation of the sub-divisions of a square on the Cardinal points 
of the compass should be given as illustrated in Part II. by the first seven dia- 
grams and the descriptive matter accompanying them; next the descriptions 
should be appiied to a section of land, illustrated by diagrams 8 to 25. When 
the regular sub-divisions are understood, examples giving legal descriptions in 
assessing, taxing, abstracting and deeding, as given on pages 27 to 44, should be 
illustrated on the blackboard. 

In following the above suggestions only the theory, or what was intended, 
will have been presented to the pupil; when thoroughly conversant with the in- 
structions, present the changes that have occurred from 1785 to the present time 
by giving the differences; after which, from piges 91 to 151, Part II. , explain the 
surveys made and accepted by Government under the different instructions. 

The actual field operations and the different instructions are presented in 
order that odd-shaped surveys may be understood, examples of which may be 
placed on the blackboard from notes on irregular surveys on page 141. 

Respectfully suggested by The Publishers. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS-PART I. 



Public Lands, Extent of and How Acquired by Government. page. 

Cessions by Original Colonies 9 

Original Boundaries of 9 

Territory Sold without Surveying 10 

Additions to Louisiana Purchase 10 

" " East and West Florida Purchase 10 

-* " Gaudalupe Hidalgo Treaty 10 

" " Texas Cession 10 

" " Gadsden Purchase 19 

United States Map, Showing Cessions .12, 13 

" IS " " Public Lands 16,17 

Russian Purchase, Map of, Addition to Public Domain 12 

System of Surveys. 

Inaugurated by Congress 19 

Rectangular System Adopted 20 

Benefits of the System 20 

Principal Surveying Meridians, Geographical Position given 21 

Names and Location of the Thirty -four Principal Surveying Meridians 
and Base Lines 22-29 

Instructions for Field Operations. 

Present and Early Instructions, Extracts from 30 to 70 

Lands, How Laid Off 31 

Meridian and Base Lines, How Established 50 

Standard Parallel " " 53 

Auxiliary Meridians " " 53 

Townships, " " 54 

" " Sectionized 56 

Mounds, Posts and Corners, How Established 61 

Specimen Field Notes 66 

" Township Plat 67 

Instructions of Edward Tiffin, under which Missouri, Arkansas and Il- 
linois, and parts of Indiana, Michigan and Ohio have been sur- 
veyed 71 to 76 

Synopsis of Land Laws. 

Acts of Congress from 1785 to 1832, upon which the Instructions for 
Surveying are based 77 to 83 




TABLE OF CONTENTS -PART II. 



Subdivisions of the Public Lands, Congressional and Legal. page. 

Subdivisions of a Square on the Cardinal Points of the Compass, North, 

South, East and West .' 4 

A Section Subdivided into Halves and Quarters 12 

" <• " " Eighths and Sixteenths 15 

Congressional Subdivisions ..18, 21 

Legal " (not Congressional) 24 

Fractional Sections 27 

" '• Legal Descriptions of for Assessing and Deeding.... 26 

" " Correct Descriptions of 30 

" " Erroneous " " 31 

Applications of Legal Subdivisions in 

Assessing 29 

Tax Receipt 34 

Abstract of Title 35 

Deeding 39 

Land Surveying. 

Without Instruments 46 

With Compass and Chain 47 

Magnetic Declination of the Needle 51 

Protractor, Diagram of 49 

Platting Surveys 55 

Calculating Contents 56 

Village Platting 64 

Road Plat.'. 64 

School District Plat 68 

Colonial Farm, Diagram of 71 

Military Tracts or Land Grants 71 

Miscellaneous. 

Stadia Measurements 74 

Convergence of Meridional Lines 75 

Subdivision of Townships 80 

Random Lines 81 

Suggestions on Re-surveying 81 

Order of Numbering Townships and Ranges 90 

Maps and Diagrams Illustrating Actual Surveys. 

Ohio State Map and References with Diagrams 92 to 117 

Arkansas State Map and References with Diagrams 120 to 127 

Missouri " " " " " " 127 to 141 

Arkansas and Missouri Irregular Surveys 141 

Mississippi State Map and References with Diagrams.. 141 to 147 

Indian Territory Map 150 

Public Land Strip 151 




GENERAL INDEX.-PART I. 

PAGE. 

Auxiliary Meridians 34, 51 

Base Lines, Geographical Position of 21 

" " How Established 36, 53 

Chain, Length of 37 

Chaining, Process of 38 

Corners, Where Established 41 

" Description 44, 45 

" Erom Early Instructions 42 

" Miscellaneous Markings 47, 49 

Diagram A 52 

" B 67 

" C 44, 45 

" No. 3 63 

" Township Subdivisions 72 

Field Notes, Specimen of Q6, 70 

Gadsden Purchase 19 

Gaudalupe Hidalgo Treaty 10 

Instructions of Land Commissioner 30 

" Early, in Italics 31 

" Erroneous 61 

" By Edward Tiffin 71, 76 

Louisiana Purchase 10 

Lines of Survey, How Marked 40 

" Random or Trial 40 

Land Laws, Synopsis of 77, 83 

Mexican Cession 12, 13 

" Purchase 12, 13 

Meridians, Geographical Position of 21 

" Names of 22, 30 

•' How Established 36, 53 

National Domain, Original Boundaries 9 

" " Contents of 9 

" " Map of 12, 13 

" " Cession by Original Colonies 9 

" " " " Spain 10 

" " " " Mexico 10 

" " " " Texas 10 

" " Purchase from France 10 

" » " " Mexico 19 

" " " " Russia 12,13 

" " Annexation of Texas 12,13 




GENERAL INDEX. 



PAGE. I 

Public Lands, Extent of, How Acquired 9 

" " Sold without Survey by Government 10 

" " Surveyed by Government 16, 17 

" " How Laid Off 31 

Russian Purchase 12, 13 

Rectangular System of Survey Inaugurated 19 

" " Benefit of 20 

Random Lines 58 

Spanish Cessions 10 

Sections, Original Plan of Numbering 31 

" Present " " " 34 

Standard Parallels 34, 53 

Surveys, Prescribed Limits for Closing 60 

Sections, Subdivision of 61 

" Subdivided into Quarter-quarters 65 

Surveyors General, Instructions of 71 

Section, Length of Sides 71 

Sections, Establishment of Quarter Corners 71 

Section Lines, Establishment of , 72 

United States, Original Boundaries of 9, 12, 13 

" " Present " " 16,17 

Texas, Annexation 12, 13 

" Cession 10 

Tally Pins 38 

Township Lines, How Established 54 

" Subdivided into Sections 56, 60, 71, 76 

" Plat of 67 

" General Description of 70 



GENERAL INDEX-PART II. 

PAGE 

Assessing 29 

Abstracts of Title 35, 38 

Area, Rule of Approximation 47 

" Examples for Calculating 61 

Auale, Between two Courses, How Determined 62 

Arkansas State Map with References 120, 121 

" Standard Lines and Guide Meridians 122 

tt f Diagram of T. 19 N., R. 5 E 125 

1 Descriptive Notes of 124 

Compass and Chain Survey 47 

Contents Calculated by Squares 57 

" " " Triangles 57 



GENERAL INDEX. VII 




PAGE. 

Contents Calculated by Latitude and Departure. 57, 62 

" Eule for Calculating 59 

Colonial Farm, Diagram of, with Description 70, 71 

Descriptions, For Assessing and Deeding 26 

" Correct 30 

" Erroneous 31, 32 

Deeding 39 

Deed, Bond for 41 

" General Warranty 42 

" Quit Claim 43 

" Estopple 44 

Descriptive Notes on Platting 55 

Example for Platting 49 

Estoppel, Letter from Thos. T. Gantt 88 

Instructions for Surveying, By Whom Issued 92, 95 

Indian Territory, Map of 150 

" " Survey of 142 

Irregular Surveys, Explanation of 141 

Latitude and Departure, Difference of 52 

Lines, North and South 77 

" East and West 78 

." Compared 79 

Land Grant, Diagram of 70, 71 

Meridional Lines, Convergence of 76, 77 

Missouri State Map, with References 121, 129 

" Guide Meridians 127 

" Standard Lines 132 

tt fDiagram of T. 33 N., R. 1 E 134 

I Descriptive Notes of 135, 138 

lt J Diagram of T. 21 N., R. 33 W 139 

\ Descriptive Notes of 133 

" Irregular Surveys, Explained 141 

Mississippi State Map 143 

" " " References 142 

" Diagram of T. 2 N., R. 1 E 146 

" " " T. 17 N., R. 7E 147 

Needle, Magnetic Declination of 51 

" Daily Variation 51 

" Secular " 52 

Offsets, Tangent to Parallel 52 

Ohio, State Map 93 

" " " References 92 

" Southeastern Part, Survey of 95 

u f Diagram of T. 3, R. 7 97 

I Descriptive Notes of 96 

(t j Diagram of T. 19, R. 7 101 

I Descriptive Notes of 100 



M 




VIII GENERAL INDEX. 




PAGE. 

Ohio. U. S. Military Reservation 10-1 

" " " " Order of Subdivision 105 

" Miami Valley Tract 107 

u f Diagram of T. 2, R. 6 109 

I Descriptive Notes of 103 

" Southwestern and Northwestern 113 

u ("Diagram of T. 4, R. 1. E 112 

I Descriptive Notes of 114 

(l f Diagram of T. 4 N., R. 1 E 115 

(.Descriptive Notes of 114 

Protractor, Diagram of 49 

" Description of 52 

" Use of, Illustrated 53 

Petition, Form of for Roads 66 

Public Laud Strip 142, 151 

Road Plat, Diagram of 64 

" " Descriptive Notes of 65 

Random Lines 81 

Re-survey, Suggestions on , 84 

Ranges, Order of Numbering 91 

Square, Subdivided into Halves and Quarters 4 

" " " Eighths and Sixteenths 7 

Section, " " Halves and Quarters 12 

" " " Eighths and Sixteenths 15 

" Congressional Subdivision and Contents 18, 21 

" Legal Subdivision (not Congressional) 24 

" Fractional, Plat of 27 

Square Foot, Yard, Rod, and Mile 45 

Surveying Land 46 

" Farm 48 

School District, Diagram of 68 

" " Descriptive Notes of 69 

Survey, Record of 73 

Stadia Measurement •. 74 

Subdivisional Notes, T. 6 N., R. 3 E 80 

Section Lines, Re-tracing and Re-locating 85 

Sections, Subdivided into Quarters and Lots.. 86 

Subdivisions, Not Designated, How Made 87 

Survey, Closing of on Standard Line 90 

Seven Ranges, Survey of 95 

Tax Receipt 34 

" " Descriptions 35 

Tables of Measure 45 

Townships, Order of Numbering 90 

Village Plat, Diagram of 64 

" " Descriptive Notes of 65 




f Public Lands of the United States, ] 

Extent of and How Acquired by Government. 

. £S2^8SL-^52 . 

That portion of the national domain subject to legislative 
control and disposition by Congress, and over which the land laws 
have been extended from time to time by special Acts of Con- 
gress, is termed "the Public Lands. " These lands were ac- 
quired by the United States Government by cessions, by purchases, 
and by conquest and treaty, as follows : At the conclusion of the 
revolutionary war, and treaty of peace with Great Britain, the 
national domain contained about eight hundred and thirty thousand 
square miles, and was defined as extending from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the Mississippi River, and from a line on the north of 
the Lakes to the thirty-first parallel, and the south boundary of 
Georgia. The above boundaries remained the boundaries of the 
United States until the year 1803 — (see map of the United 
States, ). The territory embraced 

in the above description outside of the thirteen original Colonies, 
was claimed by the Colonies under grants from Great Britain, 
during their colonial condition; but in the period from 1781 
to 1802, territory claimed by the Colonies, except Kentucky, Ver- 
mont and Maine, was ceded by the several States claiming it to 
the general government, and became public domain. It em- 
braces the following, viz : all of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota, Tennessee, Georgia, Missis- 
sippi, Pennsylvania and Alabama, with exceptions of reservations 
in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, known as follows : the Virginia 



SURVEYS OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

military and Connecticut reservations in Ohio : one hundred and 
fifty thousand acres located near the falls of the Ohio, in Indiana ; 
also holdings of the French and Canadian residents at Kaskaskia 
and St. Vincent. Of the above ceded territory, government sold, 
ceded or granted, without surveying and subdividing, all the public 
domain lying in Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Georgia, and the 
Ohio Company's and Symme's purchases in Ohio, leaving the 
remainder of the State cessions as public lands, which includes 
the following States, viz: All of Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, and parts of Ohio, Mississippi, Alabama and Min- 
nesota. For Territory in Ohio, Georgia and Tennessee not sur- 
veyed by Government, see map on pages 16 and 17, Parti. This 
territor} r formed the base or nucleus of the public lands of the 
United States, to which the following have been added at differ- 
ent dates : The first addition was by purchase from France in 
1803, and known as the "Louisiana purchase ;" this vast tract of 
land, nearly three times the size of the public lands prior to that 
time, and much larger than the United States, as acknowledged 
by Great Britain, was added to our national and public domain, 
and, except the Indian Territory, has been added to our public 
lands. This purchase embraced the entire surface of Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Oregon, Dakota, Montana, 
Idaho, Washington and Indian Territory, parts of Minnesota, 
Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Mississippi and Alabama, containing 
one million one hundred and eighty-two thousand seven hundred 
and fifty-two square miles The second addition was acquired 
by purchase from Spain, in 1819, and known as the "East and West 
Florida purchase," and comprises the present State of Florida. It 
contains fifty-nine thousand two hundred and sixty-eight square 
miles. The third addition was acquired by treaty from Mexico, 
in 1848, known as the "Gaudalupe-Hidalgo treaty." It embraces 
the following States and parts, viz: California, Utah, Nevada, 
and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico and Arizona. It 
contains Hve hundred and twenty-two thousand five hundred and 
sixty-eight square miles. The fourth addition was acquired by 
purchase from Texas, in 1850 ; it embraces parts of New Mexico, 
Colorado and Kansas, also the public land strip west of Indian 



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ORIGINAL REPUBLIC OFTEXAS. 



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SYSTEM OF SURVEY. 19 ^ 

Territory, and contains ninety-six thousand seven hundred and 
seven square miles. The fifth addition was by purchase from 
Mexico, in 1853, known as the "Gadsden purchase." It embraces 
the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico, and contains 
forty-live thousand five hundred and thirty-five square miles. 
All the additions to the national and public domain above de- 
scribed ( except the Indian Territory and public land strip ) have 
been by the several Acts of Congress, surveyed or ordered sur- 
veyed and opened for settlement ; which makes this vast terri- 
tory public lands, the boundary of which, and the boundary of 
the public domain not public lands, which includes Tennessee, 
north end of Georgia, northwest corner of Pennsylvania, Indian 
Territory, and Alaska, are shown on map of the United States, 
pages 16 and 17. See maps showiug purchases and cessions, for 
boundaries of purchases and treaty above described, also for 
addition of Texas and Alaska to the national and public domain, 
Texas being national, but not public ; and Alaska being public as 
well as national domain. 



SYSTEM OF SURVEY 

Inaugurated by Congress. 

The territory ceded by the several States to the National 
Government was organized from time to time into geographical 
divisions by the laws creating them and the lands were ordered to 
be surveyed. The same proceeding took place with purchased 
territory in 1803, 1819, 1848, 1850 and 1853. 

The extension of the surveys being authorized by Congress 
over a district of country, the Commissioner of the General Land 
office directs the surveyor-general of the district to begin the 
same. 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



THE RECTANGULAR SYSTEM OF SURYEY. 

" The land surveys under the United States are uniform, and 
done under what is known as the "rectangular system." This 
system of survey was reported from a committee of Congress 
May 7, 1784. The committee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, 
chairman ; Messrs. Williamson, Howell, Gerry, and Eeas. 

This ordinance required the public lands to be divided into 
" hundreds" of ten geographical miles square, and those again 
to be subdivided into lots of one mile square each, to be num- 
bered from 1 to 100, commencing in the northwestern corner and 
counting from west to east and from east to west continuously ; 
and also that the lands thus subdivided should be first offered at 
public sale. This ordinance was considered, debated, and amend- 
ed and on the 3d of May, L785, on motion of Mr. Grayson, of 
Virginia, seconded by Mr. Monroe, the size of the townships was 
reduced to six miles square. It was further discussed until the 
20th of May, 1785, when it was finally passed. 

The system as adopted provided for sale in sections of 640 
acres, one mile square. In 1800 a half section, or 320 acres 
could be purchased. In 1820 a quarter section, or 160 acres, 
could be purchased. In 1832 subdivisions were ordered by law 
into 40-acre tracts or quarter-quarter-sections to settlers, and in 
1846 to all purchasers. 

THE BENEFITS OF THE PRESENT SYSTEM OF LAND PARCELING. 

" This system of surveys came in at the birth of the public 
domain . It started prior to the opening of the public lands for 
sale in the territory northwest of the river Ohio, in the survey of 
the first seven ranges of townships therein adjoining Virginia. It 
afterward covered the territory south of the river Ohio, and 
thence was applied to the old Natchez settlement, in the present 
State of Mississippi. It now extends over portions, if not all, of 
every land State and Territory in the Union. It has been in 
operation over one hundred years, and has been a faithful friend 
to the settlers on the public domain. 

In the extensive sphere over which the surveys have pro- 
gressed from Florida, on the Atlantic, and westward to the Pa- 

tig 



MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 




cilic, including all the public land States and Territories of the 
Union, with the exception of Alaska, formerly Eussian America, 
the system has worked satisfactorily, furnishing facilities for the 
acquisition of public lands in any region of the country, and 
methods for the restoration of landmarks which may be lost or 
destroyed by time or accident. Adequate means exist in the sur- 
rounding landmarks of the adjacent public surveys, whereby 
missing metes and bounds can be restored in accordance with the 
original field-notes thereof, and the designations placed on town- 
ship plats. Its recommendations to the public, lie in its economy, 
simplicity, and brevity of description, in deeding the premises by 
patent and for future conveyancing, and in the convenience of 
reference from the most minute legal subdivision to the corners 
and lines of sections, and of townships of given principal base 
and meridians. Its greatest convenience is its extreme sim- 
plicity of description. Any person, by its monuments and 
markings, can readily find the tract sought for. It Avas origi- 
nated for land-parceling for sale, and it has answered the pur- 
pose." 



Geographical Position of the Principal Surveying Meridians, 
Base Lines and Initial Points. 



Preliminary to surveying the public lands, surveying dis- 
tricts are established, in which one or more initial points are 
located at intersection of meridians and base lines from which to 
survey the lands of the district. 

INITIAL POINTS. 

Since the adoption of the rectangular system of public sur- 
veys, May 20, 1785, thirty-five initial points have been brought 
into requisition to secure the certainty and brevity of descrip- 
tion in the transfer of public lands to individual ownership. 
From these initial points, townships of six miles square are run „ 



SUKVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



out and established with regular series of numbers, counting 
north and south from the base lines, and from the surveying 
meridians a like series of ranges are numbered, both east and 
west of the principal meridians. During the period of one hun- 
dred years, since the organization of the public land system, the 
following principal meridians and base lines have been estab- 
lished. The intersection of these base lines with the meridians, 
forms the several initial points from which the surveys have been 
made, and from which the townships and ranges number. 

SURVEYING MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 

The First or Eastern Ohio Meridian is the State line between 
Ohio and Pennsylvania ; it starts from the first initial point es- 
tablished for public land 'surveys, which is on the right bank of 
the river Ohio at intersection of above named State line, runs 
north to Lake Erie and is coincident with longitude 3° 34' west 
from Washington. Three base lines are connected with this 
meridian, described as follows ; The first base known as the 
" Geographers Line," established in 1786, runs from first initial 
point west 42 miles, and is the first established line for surveying 
the public domain. The Ohio River is the base from which all 
public lands surveyed from this meridian are numbered. The 
41st parallel of latitude is the base from which the Connecticut 
Reserve was surveyed (but not by Government). All public 
lands lying in Eastern Ohio, except the United States Military 
Reservation, have been surveyed from this meridian. 

The Great Miami River Meridian is the left bank of the 
Great Miami River from the Ohio River to the Indian boundary 
line. The base line intersects the left bank of Great Miami 
River near the confluence of Taylor's Creek, and runs east to 
Little Miami River. It was established by John Cleve Symmes, 
from which to survey his purchase, and was adopted by govern- 
ment for surveys between the Great and Little Miami Rivers in 
Ohio. The territory surveyed from this meridian may be de- 
scribed as follows : All the territory lying between the Great and 
Little Miami Rivers, south and west of the Indian boundary line 
and Virginia military tract. 



Kh 



MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 23 

The United States Military Reservation Meridian, located 
on the west line of the " First Seven Ranges," was established 
from a point forty-two miles west, and fifty miles sonth, from in- 
tersection of Ohio and Pennsylvania State line, with right bank of 
Ohio River, first initial point established, from which point the 
meridian runs north fifty miles, and the base line west to the Scioto 
River. Only the United States military reservation is surveyed 
from this meridian. 

The First Principal Meridian is the State line between Ohio 
and Indiana ; it starts from the confluence of the Great Miami 
River and the Ohio, and runs north between Ohio and Indiana 
to the northeast corner of Indiana. On this meridian there 
are two initial points, one at the intersection of the meridian 
with the Ohio River, the other the forty-first parallel of latitude. 
For the first initial point, the Ohio River is the base line, from 
the mouth of the Great Miami River to a point down the river, op- 
posite mouth of Kentucky River, where the Indian boundary line 
intersects it. From this initial point the southwest corner of Ohio, 
and the southeast corner of Indiana were surveyed. From the 
second initial point a base line runs east to Connecticut reserve ; 
from which is surveyed the territory described as follows : 
North-west Ohio, lying west of Connecticut reserve, and north 
of Indian boundary line and Virginia military tract, except a nar- 
row strip across north end of State, surveyed from Michigan 
meridian. This meridian is coincident with 7°-48' of longitude 
west from Washington. 

The Second Principal Meridian starts from the confluence 
of the Little Blue River with the Ohio, runs north to the northern 
boundary of Indiana. The base line for this meridian commences 
at Diamond Island in the Ohio River, and runs due west to the 
Mississippi River, west of territory surveyed from this meridian 
it is the base for the third principal meridian. All of Indiana 
(except southeast corner ) is surveyed from this meridian. It also 
governs the survey of southeast Illinois (a strip about four ranges 
wide. ) This meridian coincides with 9°-25' 

of longitude west from Washington. 

The Third, Principal Meridian starts from the mouth of 

A3 




SUKYEY OF THE PUBLIC LAXDS. 



the Ohio River and extends to the northern boundary of the 
State of Illinois. The base line for this meridian is the con- 
tinuation of the base line from the second meridian. The 
territory surveyed from this meridian may be described as 
follows : All the State of Illinois lying east of the meridian, 
with the exception of surveys projected from the second me- 
ridian, and west of the meridian, all of Illinois lying south of 
Illinois River. This meridian coincides with 12°-7 — 29" of 
longitude west from Washino'ton. 

The Fourth Principal Meridian begins in the middle of the 
channel of the mouth of the Illinois River, in latitude 38°-52'- 
12" north, and longitude 13°-26'-55" west from Washington ; 
it extends due north through Illinois, Wisconsin and north-eastern 
Minnesota, terminating at intersection of line between United 
States and British America. This meridian has two initial points 
and base lines. The first initial point was established on the right 
bank of the Illinois River, where the meridian leaves the river, 
it is seventy-two miles north of its mouth. From this initial 
point the first base line runs west to the Mississippi River, from 
which, all of Illinois lying west of the Illinois River, and third 
principal meridian, was surveyed. The second base line is on 
latitude 42°-30' (State line between Illinois and Wisconsin ) and 
extends from the Mississippi River to Lake Michigan. From this 
base has been surveyed all of Wisconsin, and that part of Minne- 
sota lying East of the Mississippi River and the third guide me- 
ridian, west of the fifth principal meridian north of the river. 

The Fifth Principal Meridian starts from the mouth of the 
Arkansas River and runs due north to the Mississippi River . From 
this point the surveys extend up the right bank of the river to a 
point due north of the fifth principal meridian, where the meridian 
is again established, terminating at the right bank of the Missis- 
sippi River, a few miles above Dubuque, Iowa. The base line for 
this meridian runs from the mouth of the St. Francis River, in 
Arkansas, due west to the Indian Territory. The township line 
between townships 67 and 68 north is used as a base line for 
Iowa surveys and correction lines, and the 43 D -30' north lati- 
tude (line between Iowa and Minnesota ) is used as a base line . 

— £ & 



MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 




for surveys and standard parallels in Minnesota. All townships 
are numbered from base line in Arkansas. This meridian governs 
the surveys in Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and in Minnesota, all 
west of the Mississippi, and the third guide meridian, north of 
the river, and in L)akota all east of the Missouri River, and north 
of Sioux Indian Reservation. This meridian is coincident with 
13°-55' longitude west from Washington. 

The Sixth Principal Meridian coincides with longitude 20°- 
19' west from Washington, and from the principal base line 
intersecting it on the 40th degree of north latitude (the State line 
between Kansas and Nebraska ) it runs due north through Ne- 
braska to the intersection of the Missouri River (nearly opposite 
Yankton, Dakota ) and* due south through Kansas to the 37th 
degree of north latitude (south line of Kansas). The base line 
for this meridian runs due west from intersection of 40th degree 
of north latitude with Missouri River, across the Rocky Moun- 
tains to intersection of the line between Utah and Colorado. The 
following territory has been surveyed from this meridian, viz : 
All of Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming, all of Colorado, except 
south western Colorado, where the surveys are projected from 
New Mexico and Ute meridians, also that part of Dakota lying 
west of Missouri River, south of Big Cheyenne River and east of 
Black Hills country (the exact boundaries of which are not 
established.) 

The Michigan Meridian, in longitude 7°-16'-08" west from 
Washington, runs from south line of Michigan due north to 
British America, with a base line on a parallel seven miles north 
of Detroit, and extending from Lake St. Clair, on the east, to 
Lake Michigan on the west. This meridian governs the surveys 
in Michigan, and strip across north end of Ohio. 

The St. Stephens Meridian, in longitude 10°-59' west from 
Washington, starts from head of Mobile Bay, near Mobile, and 
runs due north about one hundred and sixty miles, passing just 
east of Saint Stephens in Alabama. It intersects the base line 
on the 31st degree of north latitude and controls the surveys of 
the southern district in Alabama, and of the Pearl River district, 

£ft9l 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LAKDS. 



lying east of the river and south of township ten north, in the 
State of Mississippi. 

The Huntsville Meridian, in longitude 9°-35' west from 
Washington, extends from the northern boundary of Alabama 
due south about one hundred and thirty miles, passing just east 
of Huntsville. The base for this meridian is the 35th degree 
north latitude (State line between Alabama and Tennessee ) 
This meridian governs the surveys of northern Alabama and a 
few townships in Mississippi. (See Mississippi State map.) 

The Washington Meridian (sometimes called the Saint 
Helena ) is coincident with longitude 14°-02' west from Wash- 
ington, and runs from 31st degree of north latitude, due north to 
the Mississippi Eiver, passing a few miles east of Washington, in 
the State of Mississippi. The base line for this meridian is on the 
31st degree of north latitude. The surveys governed by this me- 
ridian are in the south-western angle of the State, between the 
Pearl and Mississippi Eivers, and extend up the Mississippi 
Eiver a few miles above Vicksburg. 

The Choctaio Meridian is coincident with longitude 13°-09' 
west from Washington. It runs from a line of latitude estab- 
lished as the base of this meridian (about 29 miles south of Jack- 
son, Mississippi,) due north to the Chickasaw boundary line. 
The base line runs from point of intersection with the meridian 
due west four ranges, and due east from said point to State line, 
and governs the surveys in the central part of the State, east and 
west of the meridian, and north of the base. 

The Chickasaw Meridian is coincident with longitude 12°- 
16' west from Washington, and runs from the base line which is 
the State line between Mississippi and Tennessee due south four- 
teen townships, terminating near the Chickasaw boundary line. 
The base line for this meridian is on the 35th parallel of north 
latitude ; it extends from the Tennessee Eiver to the Mississippi, 
and governs the surveys in Northern Mississippi. 



The Saint Helena Meridian is coincident with longitude 14° 
08' west from Washington ; it runs from the 31st degree of north 
latitude due south to the Mississippi Eiver, just east of Baton 




MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 27 

Rouge. The base line is on the 31st degree of north latitude. 
This line of latitude is the base for four meridians, viz : Saint 
Stephens, Washington, Saint Helena, and Louisiana meridians. 
This meridian governs the surveys in Louisiana, east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

The Louisiana Meridian, longitude 15° 17' west from 
Washington, intersects the 31st degree north latitude at a dis- 
tance of forty-eight miles west of the eastern bank of the Miss- 
issippi River, and, with the base line coincident with the said 
parallel of north latitude, governs the surveys in Louisiana west 
of the Mississippi. 

The Tallahassc Meridian in longitude 7°-15' west from 
Washington, runs due north and south from the point of inter- 
section with the base line at Tallahassee and governs the surveys 
in Florida. 

The New Mexico Meridian, longitude 29 ° 49 ' 08 " west 
from Washington, intersects the principal base line on the Rio 
Grande del Norte about ten miles below the mouth of the Puer- 
co River, on the parallel of 34° 19' north latitude, and controls 
the surveys in New Mexico, and in the valley of the Rio Grande 
del Norte, in Colorado. 

The Great Salt Lake Meridian, longitude 34°-50'-46" west 
from Washington, intersects the base line at the corner of Tem- 
ple Block, in Salt Lake City, Utah, on the parallel of 40 ° 46 ' 
04" north latitude, and governs the surveys in the Territory of 
Utah. 

The Boise Meridian, longitude 39° 17' west from Washing- 
ton, intersects the principal base between the Snake and Boise 
Rivers, in latitude 43° 26' north. The initial monument at the 
intersection of the base and meridian, is nineteen miles distant 
from Boise City, on a course of south 29° 30' west. This me- 
ridian governs the surveys in the Territory of Idaho. 

The Mount Diablo Meridian, California, coincides with lon- 
gitude 44° 51 ' west from Washington, intersects the base line 
on the summit of the mountain from which it takes its name, in 
latitude 37° 53' north, and governs the surveys of all Central 
and North-eastern California and the entire State of Nevada. 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



The San Bernardino Meridian, California, longitude 39° 
53', west from Washington, intersects the base line at Mount 
San Bernardino, latitude 34° 06 ' north, and governs the surveys 
in Southern California lying east of the meridian and that part 
of the surveys situated west of it which are south of the eighth 
standard parallel south of the Mount Diablo base line. 

The Humboldt Meridian, longitude 47° 08' west from Wash- 
ington, intersects the principal base line on the summit of Mount 
Pierce, in latitude 40° 25 ' 30" north, and controls the surveys 
in the north-western corner of California lying west of the Coast 
range of mountains and north of township 5 south of the Hum- 
boldt base. 

The Willamette Meridian is coincident with longitude 45° 
41' west from Washington, its intersection with the base line is 
on the parallel of 45° 30 ' north latitude ? and it controls the pub- 
lic surveys in Oregon and Washington Territory. 

The Montana Meridian extends north and south from the 
initial monument established on the summit of a limestone hill, 
eio-ht hundred feet hu?h, longitude 34° 37' 53" west from 
Washington. The base line runs east and west from the monu- 
ment on the parallel of 45 ° 46 ' 27 " north latitude. The surveys 
for the entire Territory of Montana are governed by this merid- 
ian. 

The Gila and Salt River Meridian intersects the base line 
on the south side of the Gila Eiver, opposite the mouth of Salt 
Eiver, in longitude 35° 12' 45" west from Washington, and 
latitude 33° 22' 57 " north, and governs the public surveys in the 
Territory of Arizona. 

The Indian Meridian intersects the base line at Fort 
Arbuckle, Indian Territory, in longitude 20° 12' 55 " west from 
Washington, latitude 34° 31 ' north, and governs the surveys in 
that Territory . 

The Wind River Meridian governs the subdivisional sur- 
veys within the Shoshone Indian Keservation, in the Territory 
of Wyoming. 

The Uinta special base and Mtridian governs the surveys of 
the Uinta Indian Reservation, in the Territory of Utah. 




MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES. 29 

The Xavajoe special base and Meridian controls the surveys 
of the Navajoe Indian Reservation, in the Territories of New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

The Black Hills Meridian is coincident with the west boun- 
dary of the Territory of Dakota, on the 27 ° of longitude west 
from 'Washington, and intersects the base line on the parallel of 
44 ° north latitude ; it governs the surveys in the south-western 
corner of the Territory named. 

The Ute Meridian and base line governs the subdivisional 
surveys for allottment to the Ute Indians, in Western Colorado. 

The Cimarron Meridian is coincident with the eastern 
boundary of the Territory of New Mexico, or 25° 57' meridian 
of longitude west from Washington, and intersects the base line 
on the parallel of 36° 30' north latitude, or the north boundary 
of the State of Texas, and governs the surveys in the strip 
of public lands inclosed between the States of Kansas and 
Colorado on the north, the Indian Territory on the east, the 
State of Texas on the south, and the Territory of New Mexico 
on the west. 





SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. ^f 




fe^-. 



J^itctiani of Sand (BoiitiiuMioit^ 

TO THE 

Surveyors General of the United States. 



On the succeeding pages are given the latest instructions for 
surveying the public lands ; they are froiH the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office to the Surveyors General of the different 
Surveying Districts of the United States, relative to the survey of 
the public lands and private land claims, to which are added the 
sections and paragraphs printed in italics to show the changes and 
modifications in the public land system since its inauguration in 
1785, to the present time : they are based on the written and 
printed instructions that have been issued from time to time, and 
from inspection of field-notes of early surveys. To give all the 
decisions, instructions and laws, would make this work too volumi- 
nous, and the following abbreviated plan has been adopted, viz : 
The sections or paragraphs of the present instructions that have 
changed the markings in the field work, or the order of estab- 
lishing surveys, have immediately following them, in italics, all 
the modifications, changes and differences between the present 
and past instructions. 

For changes shown by original field-notes, based either on special instruc- 
tions or on lack of definite instructions, see diagrams and descriptive notes with 
each State. 

Department of the Interior, 

General Land Office, 

Washington, D. C, May 3, 1881. 
Gentlemen : The following instructions, including full and minute direc- 
tions for the execution of surveys in the field, are issued under the authoritv 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




m^ 



given me by sections 453, 456, 2398, and 2399 United States Eevised Statutes, and 
must be strictly complied with by yourselves and your deputy surveyors. 
Very respectfully, J, A. WILLIAMSON, 

Commissioner. 
To Surveyors General of the United States. 
In effect January 1st, 1SS6. 
Forms of oaths, boifds and contracts, omitted. 

1. The public lands of the United States are ordinarily sur- 
veyed into rectangular tracts, bounded by lines conforming to 
the cardinal points. 

2. The public lands shall be laid off, in the first place, into 
bodies of land of 24 miles square as near as may be. This 
shall be done by the extension of standard lines from the princi- 
pal meridian every 24 miles, and by the extension, from the base 
and standard lines, of auxiliary meridians every 24 miles. There- 
after they shall be laid oif into bodies of land of 6 miles square, 
as near as may be, called townships, containing as* near as may 
be 23,040 acres. The townships shall be subdivided into 36 
tracts, called sections, each containing as near as may be 640 
acres. Any number or series of contiguous townships, situ- 
ated north or south of each other, constitute a range. 

Section 2 In this section the instruction to lay of the 
public lands into bodies of land 24 miles square, applies only to 
surveys established since 1879. Early instructions say : " Stan- 
dard lines will be run east and ivest as the case may require." 
Auxiliary meridians and standard parallels (commonly called 
collection or standard lines) are located very irregularly in the 
public land States and Territories. See Section 5. 

The law requires that the lines of the public surveys shall be 
governed by the true meridian, and that the townships shall be 
six miles square — two things involving in connection a mathe- 
matical impossibility — for, strictly to conform to the meridian, 
necessarily throws the township out of square, by reason of the 
convergency of meridians, and hence, by adhering to the true 
meridian, results the necessity of departing from the strict re- 
quirements of law, as respects the precise area of townships and 
the subdivisional parts tiiereof , the township assuming something 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



of a trapezoidal form, which inequality develops itself more and 
more as such, the higher the latitude of the surveys. It is doubt- 
less in view of these circumstances that the law provides (see 
section 2 of the act of May 18, 1796) that the sections of a mile 
square shall contain the quantity of 640 acres, as nearly as may 
be; and, moreover, provides (see section 3 of the act of May 10, 
1800, in the following words : "And in all cases where the ex- 
terior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections 
or half sections, shall exceed, or shall not extend 6 miles, the 
excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or de- 
ducted from the western or northern ranges of sections or half 
sections in such township, according as the error may be in run- 
ning the lines from east to west, or from south to north ; the 
sections and half sections bounded on the northern and western 
lines of such towships shall be sold as containing only the quantity 
expressed in the returns and plats, respectively, and all others as 
containing the complete legal quantity." 

The accompanying diagram, marked A, and the specimen 
field-notes pertaining to the same, will serve to illustrate the 
method of running lines to form tracts of land 24 miles square, 
as well as the method of running out the exterior lines of town- 
ships, and the order and mode of subdividing townships w T ill be 
found illustrated in the accompanying specimen field-notes, con- 
forming with the township diagram B. The method here pre- 
sented is designed to insure as full a compliance with all the 
requirements, meaning, and intent of the surveying laws as, it is 
believed, is practicable. 

The section lines are surveyed from south to north on true 
meridians, and from east to west, in order to throw the excesses 
or deficiencies in measurements on the north and west sides 
of the township, as required by law. In case where a township 
has been partially surveyed, and it is necessary to complete the 
survey of the same, or where the character of the land is such 
that only the north or west portions of the township can be sur- 
veyed, this rule cannot be strictly adhered to, but, in such cases, 
must be departed from only so far as is absolutely necessary. It 
will also be necessary to depart from this rule where surveys 



INSTRUCTIONS OF L4ND COMMISSIONER. 33 

close upon State or Territorial boundaries, or upon surveys ex- 
tending from different meridians. 

Section 2 — Paragraph 4. Section lines established under 
the public land system are surveyed from south to north and from 
east to west, except in the following States, viz: Ohio, Mississippi, 
Alabama and all of Louisiana, east of Mississippi River. For 
establishment of section lines in above-named States, see diagrams 
accompanying State maps. 

3. The townships are to bear numbers in respect to the base 
line, either north or south of it ; and the tiers of townships 
called "ranges" will bear numbers in respect to the meridian 
line according to their relative position to it, either on the east or 
west. 

Section 3 — Applies to all public lands svrveyed, except the 
Miami Valley tract, in Ohio, surveyed from Great Miami River 
meridian, in which the ranges and townships are reversed in their 
order of numbering. Ranges number north from base line, and 
townships number east from the meridian. 

4 . The thirty-six sections into which a township is subdivided 
are numbered, commencing with number one at the northeast 
angle of the township, and proceeding west to number six, and 
thence proceeding east to number twelve, and so on, alternately, 
until the number thirty-six in the southeast angle. In all cases 
of surveys of fractional townships, the sections should bear the 
same numbers as they would if the township was full. 

Section 4. The present plan of numbering the sections does 
not apply to the townships in the seven ranges, surveyed from 
First or Eastern Ohio meridian, and in the Miami Valley tract, 
surveyed from the Great Miami River meridian. Sections in the 
above-described tracts are numbered by commencing at the south- 
east corner of the townships with number one, proceeding north 
with number six in the northeast corner, each tier is numbered 
from south to north, in the same manner ending with Section 36 
in the northivest comer of the townships. 




IF" 

34 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LAXDS, 



The following diagram illustrates the original plan {ordi- 
nance of May 20, 1785,) of numbering the sections • 



36 


30 


24 


18 


12 


6 


35 


29 


23 


17 


11" 


5 


34 


28 


22 


16 


10 


4 


33 


27 


21 


15 


9 


3 


32 


26 


20 


I 14 


8 


2 


31 


25 


19 


13 


7 


1 



The following diagram illustrates the plan adopted by Govern- 
ment for numbering sections in the subdivision of townships under 
the public land system, except in the following tracts, viz: 
" United States Military tract, the Seven Ranges, the Ohio Com 
pamfs and Symmes' purchases, and the Miami Valley tract, all 
located in Ohio : 



6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 



5. Standard parallels shall be established at intervals of 
every 24 miles, north and south of the base line, and auxiliary 
meridians at intervals of every 24 miles, east and west of the 
principal meridian ; the object being to confine the errors resulting 
^ from convergence of meridians, and inaccuracies in measure- 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




ments, within the tracts of lands bounded by the lines so estab- 
tablished. 

Section 5 — Auxiliary Meridians. In the early savveys they 
were only known as correction lines, and were established with no 
regularity. In the more recent surveys there are only six States 
and Territories in which they are established with any regularity. 
In these they are established seven or eight ranges apart. (See 
following classification). 

STANDARD PARALLELS. 

The original field-notes show the standard parallels to be 
established with more regularity than the auxiliary meridians, and 
the greater necessity exists for it, owing to converging of meridional 
lines. In nine of the States they are established irregularly ; in 
three States eveinj ten townships; in sixteen States every four or 
five townships; usually every four townships north and five town- 
ships south of the base line. There are two States, California 
and Nevada, that reverse the order. The standard parallels 
are established every five townships north, and every four town- 
ships south of base line. The Surveyor General of California 
says: " They ivere erroneously commenced, making standards 
every four townships south, and every five townships north from 
base line. There teas no authority for this, but the error once 
made it has been continued to the present day." The following 
classifications of States will illustrate the auxiliary meridians and 
standard parallels, as established in the several States and Terri- 
tories. 

In Ohio, Indiana, Illinois , Arkansas , Missouri, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Alabama, Florida and Idaho, the auxiliary (some- 
times called guide) meridians, and the standard parallels (tailed 
correction lines) are established at irregular distances from base 
and meridian lines, and from each other. 

In Ioiua, Wisconsin and Michigan, the auxiliary meridians 
are established at irregular distances, and the standard parallels 
every ten townships (60 miles ) 

In Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming, the 
meridians are established every 8 ranges (48 miles), and the 



m^L ^ _ jgyj 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS, 



standard parallels north of the base line, every four townships, 
and south of the base, every five townships (24 or 30 miles). 

In Minnesota and Dakota the auxiliary meridians are estab- 
lished every 7 ranges (42 miles), and the standard parallels every 
four townships (24 miles). 

In Oregon, Washington, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New 
Mexico, California, Nevada and Indian Territory, the auxiliary 
meridians are established at irregular distances, and the standard 
parallels north of base line every four townships, south of base 
every five townships, except in California and Nevada, where the 
order is reversed, north of base line every five townships, and south 
of base line every four townships. 

In the above classification, mountains, rivers and other obstacles make exceptions. 

6. The survey of all principal base and meridian, standard 
parallel , and auxiliary meridian, and township lines must be 
made with an instrument operating independently of the magnetic 
needle. Burt's improved solar compass, or other instrument of 
equal utility, must be used of necessity in such cases ; and it is 
deemed best that such instrument should be used under all cir- 
cumstances. Where the needle can be relied on, however, the 
ordinary compass may be used in subdividing and meandering. 
Whenever deputies use instruments with magnetic apparatus only, 
they must test the accuracy of their work and the condition of 
their instruments by at least three observations upon a circumpolar 
star, upon different days, between the commencement and the 
close of surveying operations in any given township. Deputies 
using instruments with solar apparatus are not required to make ob- 
servations of the star Polaris, but they must test their instruments 
by taking the latitude daily, weather permitting, in running base, 
standard, meridian, and range lines, and upon three different 
days during the execution of subdivisional surveys in each town- 
ship. They must make complete records in their field-notes, 
under proper dates, of the making of all observations in compli- 
ance with these instructions, showing the style and condition of 
the instrument in use, and the angle formed by comparing the 
line run with the meridian as bv observation determined. 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 37 

Section 6. In the early surveys a common surveyor' s com- 
pass was used for establishing all lines, the meridian and base 
lines, as well as section lines. The following, from instruction of 
1837, illustrates the inspection necessary at that time, viz : " The 
variation of the needle shoidd be taken (by an observation of the 
pole star ) at least once in every fourth range and township." Now 
only the most improved instruments are alloiued to be used, and 
frequent inspection is required. 

7. The construction and adjustments of all surveying instru 
ments used in the surveying of the public lands of the United 
States must be tested at least once a year, and oftener if neces- 
sary, by comparison with the true meridian, established under the 
direction of the surveyor-general of the district ; and the instru- 
ments must be so modified in construction, or in such a way cor- 
rected, as may be necessary to produce the closest possible 
approximation to accuracy and uniformity in the operation of all 
such instruments. A record will be made of such examinations, 
showing the number and style of the instrument, name of the 
maker, the quantity of instrumental error discovered by compari- 
son, in either solar or magnetic apparatus, or both, and means 
taken for correction. The surveyor-general will allow no surveys 
to be made until the instruments to be used therefor have been 
approved by him. 

8. The township lines and the subdivision lines will usually 
be measured by a two-pole chain of 33.03 feet in length, con- 
sisting of 50 links, and each link being 7 inches and ninety-two 
hundredths of an inch long. On uniform and level ground, how- 
ever, the four-pole chain may be used. The measurements will, 
however, always be represented according to the four-pole chain 
of 100 links. The four-pole chains must be adjusted to lengths 
of 66.06 feet. The object in adding six hundredths of a foot to 
the QQ feet of a four-pole chain is to assure thereby that (j6 feet 
will be set off upon the earth's surface without the application of 
a greater strain than about 20 pounds by the chainmen, thus pro- 
viding for loss by vertical curvature of the chain, and at the same 
time avoiding the uncertain results attending the application of 

^^ — - 'v^ 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



strains taxing its elasticity. The deputy surveyor must provide 
himself with a measure of the standard chain kept at the office of 
the surveyor-general, to be used by him as a field standard. The 
chain in use must be compared and adjusted with this field stan- 
dard each working day, and such field standard must be returned 
to the surveyor-general's office for examination when his work is 
completed. 

Section 8. Length of chain used in public land system 
from its establishment in 1785 to 1880, was 66 feet, since that 
date 66.06 feet. Early instructions were to adjust chain every 
two days. 

OF TALLY PINS. 

9. You will use eleven tally pins made of steel, not exceed- 
ing 14 inches in length, weighty enough toward the point to 
make them drop perpendicularly, and having a ring at the top, in 
which is to be fixed a piece of red cloth, or something else of 
conspicuous color, to make them readily seen when stuck in the 
ground. 

Section 9. From printed instructions of 1837 : " You 
must likewise be provided with a fidl set of tally rods* of iron or 
steel, or pointed therewith, and allow none others to be used but the 
precise number you shall have selected for that purpose." 

The above instructions are given to show, by comparison, the care exercised in the 
present instruction, to avoid mistakes. 

PROCESS OF CHAINING. 

10. In measuring lines with a two-pole chain, every five 
chains are called " a tally " ; and in measuring lines with a four- 
pole chain, every ten chains are called " a tally,'' because at that 
distance the last of the ten tally pins with which the forward 
chainman set out will have been st uck. He then cries " tally" ; 
which cry is repeated by the other chainman, and each registers 
the distance by slipping a thimble, button, or ring of leather, or 
something of the kind, on a belt worn for that purpose, or by 
some other convenient method. The hind chainman then comes 
up, and having counted in the presence of his fellow the tally 
pins which he has taken up, so that both may be assured that 



Sk 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 



none of the pins have been lost, he then takes the forward end of 
the chain, and proceeds to set the pins. Thus the chainmen 
alternately change places, each setting the pins that he has taken 
up, so that one is forward in all the odd, and the other in all the 
even tallies. Such procedure, it is believed, tends to insure 
accuracy in measurement, facilitates the recollection of the dis- 
tances to objects on the line, and renders a mis-tally almost im- 
possible. 

Section 10. In early instructions the detail of chaining 
icas left to the surveyors, and the present instructions have been 
the outgrowth of errors committed at different times in the field 
work. For full, minute and specific instructions this section most 
clearly demonstrates the thoroughness of the present over former 
instructions. 

LEVELING the chain and plumbing THE PINS. 

11. The length of every line you run is to be ascertained by 
precise horizontal measurement, as nearly approximating to an 
air line as is possible in practice on the earth's surface. This all- 
important object can only be attained by a rigid adherence to the 
three following observances : 

1. Ever keeping the chain stretched to its utmost degree of 
tension on even ground. 

2. On uneven ground, keeping the chain not only stretched 
as aforesaid, but horizontally leveled. And when ascending and 
descending steep ground, hills, or mountains, the chain will have 
to be shortened to one-half its length (and sometimes more), in 
order accurately to obtain the true horizontal measure. 

3. The careful plumbing of the tally pins, so as to attain 
precisely the spot where they should be stuck. The more uneven 
the surface, the greater the caution needed to set the pins. 

Section 11. From printed instructions of 1837 : "As the 
measurement by the chain is the principal source of errors in sur- 
veying, you will be careful to attend to your chain-men, that they 
carry the chain horizontally and plumb the pins." 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LAXDS. 



MARKIXG LINES. 

12. All lines on which are to be established the legal corner 
boundaries are to be marked after this method, viz : Those trees 
which may intercept your line must have two chops or notches 
cut on each side of them without any other marks whatever. 
These are called "sight trees" or "line trees" A sufficient 
number of other trees standing within 50 links of the line, on 
either side of it, are to be blazed on two sides diagonally, or quar- 
tering toward the line, in order to render the line conspicuous, 
and readily to be traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, 
coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near 
it, and to approach nearer each other the farther the line passes 
from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the 
lines so well marked as to be readily followed, and to cut the 
blazes deep enough to have recognizable scars as long as the trees 
stand. 

Where trees 2 inches or more in diameter are found, the re- 
quired blazes must not be omitted. 

Bushes on or near the line should be bent at right angles 
therewith, and receive a blow of the ax about the usual height of 
blazes from the ground sufficient to leave them in a bent position, 
but not to prevent their growth. 

OX TRIAL, OR RAXDOM LIXES, 

The trees are not to be blazed, unless occasionally, from indispen- 
sable necessity, and then it must be done so guardedly as to pre- 
vent the possibility of confounding the marks of the trial line 
with the true. But bushes and limbs of trees may be lopped, and 
stakes set on the trial or random line, at every ten chains, to 
enable the surveyor on his return to follow and correct the trial 
line and establish therefrom the true line. To prevent confusion 
the temporary stakes set on the trial or random lines must be 
pulled up when the surveyor returns to establish the true line. 

From Instructions of 1864. 
Sectiox 12. " On trial or random lines, when it is neces- 
sary to lop bushes they should be bent in the direction of the line, 
to prevent mistaking random for true lines." 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 





INSUPERABLE OBJECTS ON LINE WITNESS POINTS. 

13. Under circumstances where your course is obstructed by 
impassable obstacles, such as ponds, swamps, marshes, lakes, 
rivers, creeks, &c, you will prolong the line across such obstacles 
by taking the necessary right angle offsets ; or, if such be incon- 
venient, by a traverse or trigonometrical operation, until you 
regain the line on the opposite side. And in case a north and 
south, or a true east and west line is regained in advance of any 
such obstacle, you will prolong and mark the line back to the ob- 
stacle so passed, and state all the particulars in relation thereto 
in your field-book. And at the intersection of lines with both 
margins of impassable obstacles, you will establish a witness 
point (for the purpose of perpetuating the intersections there- 
with), by setting a post, and giving in your field-book the course 
and distance therefrom to two trees on opposite sides of the line, 
each of which trees you will mark with a blaze and notch facing 
the post ; but on the margins of navigable water-courses, or 
navigable lakes, you will mark the trees with the proper number 
of the fractional section, township and range. 

iJf^lr^The best marking tools adapted to the purpose must be 
provided for marking neatly and distinctly ail the letters and 
figures required to be made at corners, arabic figures being used 
exclusively ; and the deputy is always to have at hand the neces- 
sary implements for keeping his marking irons in order. 

ESTABLISHING CORNERS. 

To procure the faithful execution of this portion of a sur- 
veyor's duty is a matter of the utmost importance. After a true 
coursing and most exact measurements the establishment of cor- 
ners is the consummation of the work. If, therefore, the corner 
be not perpetuated in a permanent and workmanlike manner the 
great aim of the surveying service will not have been attained. 

The following are the different points for perpetuating cor- 
ners, viz : 

1. For township boundaries, at intervals of every 6 miles. 

2. For section boundaries, at intervals of every mile, or SO 
chains. 



42 SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LAXDS. 

3. For quarter-section boundaries, at intervals of every half 
mile, or 40 chains. Exceptions, however, occur, as fully set 
forth hereafter in that portion of the manual showing the manner 
of running township lines and method of subdividing. 

4. Meander corners are established at all those points where 
the lines of the public surveys intersect the banks of such rivers, 
bayous, lakes, or islands as are by law directed to be meandered. 

For description of corners see field notes. 

WITXESS CORKERS. 

A Witness Corner must bear the same marks that would be 
placed upon the Corner for which it is a witness, with the addi- 
tion of the letters W. C, and be established in all respects like 
such Corner. 

If bearing trees are established for a Witness Corner, each 
tree must be marked W. C, in addition to the usual marks. 

ESTABLISHING CORXERS. 

TJie present instructions are very explicit for form and lan- 
guage to be used for corners. The following are from instruc- 
tions of 1850. Posts common to four townships have in addition 
to present markings, on the northeast and southwest faces, the num- 
ber of ranges they face, on the southeast and northwest faces the 
number of townships they face. Instructions for districts formed 
prior to 1850 are for sections only to be marked, leaving off the 
toicnship and range. Instructions of 1815 make no mention of 
corner posts or trees to be marked, except notched. For interior 
section corners prior to 1864 the four corners, instead of two cor- 
ners, icere notched, showing the number of sections from township 
boundaries, (except instructions for 1815, which are for only two 
edges to be notched.} Instructions of 1856 for Missouri and Illi- 
nois are for trees and posts to be notched on the four edges, but for 
stones only on two edges, same as present instructions. Mounds, 
in districts established from 1850 to 1864 had quadrangidar 
trenches around them. See diagram, page 53. The following 
are the size and shape of mounds, from instructions of 1864: 
Township mounds will be -five feet in diameter at their base, and 




* /■ 



3>OC 



INSTRLfCTI0NS0F188i 
ILLUSTRATING MODE OFESTABLISHING 
STONE POST AND MOUND CORNERS. 



7 S 

Co 



^oc 





Tbim&gj timer Sto?w wiQt mound of Move 




Section Cornerstone uithptsandmound of Earth 




' ■- - ■■■■ "■ ' 

Quarter Section Corner wWi mound 'of Earth 





IbwntiiipComerioston. Standard Lmt mtn mound atSione 




- 

~" Section CanierTosi uriffi monad at '[Earth. 




hinrter Section cornet 




mud 'of Earth 



V COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. H1GGIWS. / V ^C 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 




two and one-half feet in perpendicular height. Mounds at section, 
quarter section, and meander corners, will be four and one-half 
feet in diameter at base, and two feet in perpendicidar height. 
Instructions of 1850 for township mounds, six feet base, three 
feet in height; for section, quarter section and meander corners, 
five feet base, an&two and one-half feet in height. Instructions 
for 1856 for Missouri and Illinois: Toionship mounds were five 
feet square at base, tivo feet square at top, three feet high; section 
corner mounds were four feet square at base, two feet square at 
top and two feet six inches high. Quarter-section corner mounds 
ivere three feet six inches square at base, one foot six inches square 
at the top and two feet high. Earlier instructions give dimen ions 
as follows: For section and quarter-section mounds, diameter at 
base two feet, height two feet six inches. For Township mounds, 
diameter two feet six inches at base height three feet. 

The early instructions mention for corners, but two bearing trees 
for any comers previous to 1828, although at township and interior 
section corners, four trees were marked for witness trees. Mounds 
erected before that time were smaller than those now used, having 
no deposit in them for any kind of comer. But since 1828 Dep- 
uty Surveyors have been required to describe in their field notes 
four bearing trees to township and interior section corners; only 
two being so described for cdl other corners. 

MISCELLANEOUS . 

Kock iii Place. 
Sec. 1. When a rock in place is established for a Corner, its 
dimensions above ground must be given, and a cross (x ) marked 
at exact Corner point. In other respects form for stone corners 
will be used. 

Mounds of Earth. 
Sec. 2. Where mounds of earth are raised " alongside " of 
Corners, on N. and S. lines, they must be placed on the W. and 
on E. and W. lines on the N. side of Corner. In case the char- 
acter of the land is such that this cannot be done, the deputy will 
state in his notes instead of " alongside," "S " (on E.) 
Mounds of Stone. 
Sec. 3. In case where pits are practicable, the deputy prefers 




INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER 



raising a mound of stone, or stone covered with earth, as more 
likely to perpetuate the Corner, he will use the form given for 
mound of stone, omitting the words " pits impracticable," and 
adding " covered with earth," when so established. 

Bearing Trees. 
Sec. 4. Where the requisite number of trees can be found 
within 300 links of the Corner point, three (3) bearing trees 
should be established for every Standard or Closing Cor., four 
(4) for every Cor., common to 4 Townships or Sections, and two 
(2) for every Quarter Sec. Cor, or Meander Cor. In case the 
requisite number cannot be found within limits, the deputy must 
state in his field-notes after describing those established, "no 
other trees within limits," and " dug pits in Sees. — &> — ," 
or " raised a mound of stone alongside." 

Stones. x 

Sec. 5. Stones 18 ins t and less long must be set two-thirds, 
and over 18 ins. long, three-fourths of their length in the ground. 
No stones containing less than 504 cubic inches must be used for 
corners. 

Objects to be Noted. 

Sec. 6. Particular attention is called to the " Summary of 
objects and data required to be noted," on pages — and — of 
these instructions, and it is expected that the deputy will thor- 
oughly comply with same in his work and field-notes. 
Line Discontinued at Legal Corners. 

Sec. 7. No mountains, swampy lands, or lands not classed 
as surveyable are to be meandered, and all lines approaching such 
lands must be discontinued at the section or quarter section 
corner. 

Fractional Townships. 

Sec. 8. Where by reason of impassable objects the south 
boundary of a township cannot be established, an east and west 
line should be run through the Township, first random, then cor- 
rected, from one range line to the other, and as far south as pos- 
sible, and from such line the section lines will be extended in the 
usual manner, except over any fractions south of said line, which 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 




may be surveyed in the opposite direction from the Section Cor- 
ners on the auxiliary base thus established. 

Boundaries. 
Sec. 9. When no part of the east or west boundaries can be 
run, both the north and south boundaries will be established as 
true lines. 

Convergency. 
Sec. 10, Allowance for the convergency of Meridians must 
be made whenever necessary. 

Ked Chalk. 
Sec. 11. All letters and figures cut in posts or trees must be 
marked over with red chalk to make them still more plain and 
durable. 

Mode of Setting Corners. 
Sec. 12. Township corners common to four townships, and 
section corners common to four sections, are to be set diagonally 
in the earth, with the angles in the direction of the lines. All 
other corners are to be set square, with the sides facing the direc- 
tion of the lines. 

Size of Posts, etc. 
Sec. 13. The sizes of wooden posts, mounds, and pits noted 
in foregoing descriptions of corners are to be regarded as mini- 
mum, and whenever practicable to increase their dimensions it is 
desirable to do so. 

Corner Materials. 
Sec. 14. In establishing corners, stones should be used 
wherever practicable ; then posts ; and lastly, mounds, with stake 
in pit. 

Examine Instructions. 
Sec. 15. It is expected that the deputy surveyors will care- 
fully read and familiarize themselves with these instructions, and 
all others contained in this volume, and will instruct their assist- 
ants as to their duties before commencing work. Extra copies 
will be furnished the deputies for the use of their assistants. 







SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



BASE LINE. 

The base line shall be extended east and west from the 
initial point by the use of solar instruments or transits, as may be 
directed by the surveyor-general, in his special written instruc- 
tions. Where solar instruments are used, the deputy must test 
said instruments in every 12 miles of line run, by taking the lat- 
itude, or by observation on the polar star ; and in all cases where 
he has reason to suppose that said instrument is in error, he must 
take an observation on the polar star, and if error be found, must 
make the necessary corrections before proceeding with his survey. 
The proper corners shall be established at each 40 and 80 chains, 
and at the intersection of the line with rivers, lakes, or bayous 
that should be meandered, in accordance with the instructions 
for the establishment of corners. In order to check errors in 
measurement, two sets of chainmen, operating independently of 
each other, must be employed. 

Where transits are used, the line will be run by setting off 
at the point of departure on the principal meridian, a tangent, 
to the parallel of latitude, which will be a line falling at right 
angles to the said meridian. The survey will be continued on 
this line for twelve (12) miles, but the corners will be estab- 
lished at the proper points by offsets northerly from said line, 
at the end of each half mile. In order to offset correctly from 
the tangent to the parallel, the deputy will be guided by the table 
of offsets and azimuths contained in this volume. As the azi- 
muths of the tangent is shown, the angle thence to the true me- 
ridian at each mile is readily found, thus indicating the direction 
of the offset line. The computations are made for a distance of 
12 miles, at the end of which observations on the polar star must 
betaken for the projection of a new tangent. The computations 
are also upon even degrees of latitude ; offsets for intervening 
parallels can be readily determined by interpolation. Where off- 
set distances to quarter-section corners exceed 50 links, their di- 




DIAGRAM 
A 

I Fourfli Staridai'tf-PaTaHelJrojtTu \ 




v. 



T.13 ~N. 
H.21E. 

y 

. 3Li32. .33153* 35 36 



Third' Standard, ParaUelJVorfh 






m 



COPYRIGHTED BY R T. HIGGINS 




INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




rection to the parallel can be determined in like manner by inter- 
polation for azimuth. 

Where said distances are less than 50 links interpolations for 
determining directions will not be required. 

BASE LINES. 

The present instructions, for establishing the Base Lines make 
them a line of latitude, in some of the early surveys the Base 
Lines tvere established at right angles to the meridian line and run 
due East and West with a common compass. These Base Lines 
are not lines of parallel but angular lines running East or West 
from initial points between a parallel and a tangent. 

PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN. 

The principal meridian shall be extended north and south 
from the initial point, by the use of solar instruments or transits, 
as may be directed by the surveyor-general in his special written 
instructions. Where solar instruments are used, the line will be 
run in the same manner as prescribed for running the base line 
by solar instruments. Where transits are used, observations up- 
on the polar star must be taken within each 12 miles of line run. 
In addition to the above general instructions, it is required that 
in all cases where the establishment of a new principal meridian 
seems to be necessary to the surveyor-general, he shall submit 
the matter, together with his reasons therefor, to the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office, and the survey of such principal 
meridian shall not be commenced until written authority, to- 
gether with such special instructions as he may deem necessary, 
shall have been received from the Commissioner. 

PRINCIPAL MERIDIANS. 

The Principal Meridians like the Base Lines were established 
in the first surveys with a common compass. 

STANDARD PARALLELS. 

Standard parallels, which are also called correction lines, 
shall be extended east and west from the principal meridian, at 
intervals of every 24 miles north and south of the base line, in 
the same manner as prescribed for running the base line. 

AUXILIARY MERIDIANS. 

Auxiliary meridians shall be extended north and south from 





SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



the base line, at intervals of every 24 miles east and west from 
the principal meridian, in the same manner as prescribed for run- 
ning the principal meridian. 

It is contemplated that these base, principal meridian, stand- 
ard, and auxiliary meridian lines shall first be extended over the 
territory to be surveyed, and that afterwards township and sec- 
tion lines shall be run, where needed, within these tracts of 24 
miles square, formed by the extension of these principal lines ; 
and each surveyor-general will therefore cause said principal lines 
to be extended as rapidly as practicable. 

STANDARD PARALLELS AND AUXILIARY MERIDIANS . 

For establishment in the different States, see Section 5. page 
3 J, also State maps in second part of this volume. In early sur- 
veys they were established with a common compass. 

EXTERIORS OR TOWNSHIP LINES. 

The east and west boundaries of townships are always to be 
run from south to north on a true meridian line ; and the north 
and south boundaries are to be run from east to west, or from 
west to east (according to the location of the township to be sur- 
veyed with reference to prior surveys), on a random or trial line 
and corrected back on a true line. The distance north or south 
of the township corner to be closed upon, from the point of inter- 
section of these random lines with the east or west boundary of the 
township, must be carefully measured and noted. Should it hap- 
pen, however, that such random line should fall short, or overrun 
in length, or intersect the east or west boundary more than three 
chains' distance from the township corner thereon, as compared 
with the corresponding boundary on the south (due allowance be- 
ing made for convergency), the line, and if necessary the entire 
exterior boundaries of the township, must be retraced, so as to 
discover and correct the error. In running random lines tempo- 
rary corners are to be set at each 40 and 80 chains, and perma- 
nent corners established upon the true line as corrected back, in 
accordance with instructions, throwing the excess or deficiency on 
the west half mile, as prescribed by law. Permanent corners are 
to be established in accordance with instructions on the east and 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER 



west township boundaries at the time they are run. Whenever 
practicable the township lines within these tracts of 24 miles 
square, must be surveyed in regular order from south to north i. 
e., the exterior boundaries of the township in any one range lying 
immediately north of the south boundary of such tract of 24 miles 
square must first be surveyed, and the exteriors of the other three 
townships in said range extended therefrom, in regular order 
from south to north, and it is preferable to first survey the entire 
range of townships in such tract adjoining the east boundary or 
adjoining the west boundary, and the other three ranges in regu- 
lar sequence. In cases, however where the character of the land 
is such that this rule cannot be complied with, the following will 
be observed. 

In extending the south or north boundaries of a township to 
the west where the southwest or northwest corners cannot be 
established in the regular way by running a north and south line, 
such boundaries will be rxmwest on a true line, allowing for con- 
vergency on the west half mile ; and from the township corner 
established at the end of such boundary, the west boundary will 
be run north or south, as the case may be. In extending south or 
north boundaries of a township to the east, where the southeast or 
northeast corner cannot be established in the regular way, the 
same rule will be observed, except that such boundaries will be 
run east on a true line, and the east boundary run north or south, 
as the case may be. One set of chainmen only is required in 
running township lines. 

From Instructions of 1837 and 1843, 

EXTERIOR OR TOWNSHIP LINES. 

"All Toivnship boundary lines must be run ivith the compass 
adjusted to the true meridian unless otherwise instructed by this of- 
fice. The variation of the needle should be taken by an astro- 
nomical observation at least once in every Fourth Range and Town- 
ship and the result entered in your Field Booh. Range lines will 
be run north or south as the case may require, and corners for 
quarter sections and sections will be established thereon at every 
half-mile and mile for the quarter sections and sections to the west 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



and not for those to the east of the line, except at Township cor- 
ners.. East and west standard lines will be run, east or west as 
the case may require, and comers established thereon at every half- 
mile and mile for the quarter-sections, sections and, townships 
north of the line, and not for those south of it. All east and ivest 
township boundary lines other than standard lines will be run 
west on random and corrected east from township corner to town- 
ship corner and the excess or deficiency in the length of the boun- 
dary must be added to or deducted from the south boundary of 
Section 31 , west of the quarter-section comer. The section and 
quarter section corners, east of the quarter section corner on the 
south side of Section 31 will be established on the connected line at 
every half mile and mile therefrom. At the intersection of all 
lines (randoms excepted) ivith navigable water courses you will es- 
tablish corners for fractional sections. Wlienever your course may 
be obstructed by impassable obstacles you will state in your Field 
Booh the precise way you may adopt to prolong the line across. 

Manual of surveying instructions prepared for Oregon in 
1851 show the following change, from instructions previous to that 
time, as well as instructions since 1855, viz.: The township and 
section lines south of the base are made to start therefrom and 
close on the first standard parallel south, whereas under present 
instructions such lines are made to start from the first standard 
parallel south and to close to the north on the base. 

From instructions of 1856 for Missouri and Illinois. "Hange 
lines * * * will be run north * * *. Standard lines will be run 
either east or west, as the case may require. * * * jMI other 
east and west township lines will be run west on randoms, and cor- 
rected east from township comer to township corner, etc." 

METHOD OF SUBDIVIDING. 

1. The first mile, both of the south and east boundaries of 
each township you are required to subdivide, is to be carefully 
traced and measured before you enter upon the subdivision thereof. 
This will enable you to observe any change that may have taken 
place in the magnetic variation, as it existed at the time of run- 
ning the township lines, and will also enable you to compare your 
chaining with that upon the township lines. 




INSTRUCTIONS OF L4ND COMMISSIONER. 




2. Any discrepancy arising either from a change in the mag- 
netic variation or a difference in measurement, is to be carefully 
noted in the field-notes. 

3. After adjusting your compass to a variation which you 
have thus found will retrace the eastern boundary of the town- 
ship, you will commence at the corner to sections 35 and 36, on 
the south boundary, and run a line parallel to the range line, forty 
chains, to the quarter-section corner, which you are to establish 
between sections 35 and 3(3 ; continuing on said course forty chains 
farther, you will establish the corner to sections 25, 26, 35 and 36. 

Sectons 1 , 2 and 3. — TJie present method does not apply to 
early surveys made in Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern 
part of Louisiana . For order of subdivision of townships surveyed 
from First or Eastern Ohio, Great Miami River, Choctaw, 
Chickasaw, St. Stephen, Washington and Helena meridians, see 
Diagrams ivith above mentioned States. {Second part.) 

Field notes accepted under present instructions instead of 
running the subdivision of south tier of sections in townships par- 
allel to east line of township as per instruction, they run them due 
north with same variation as the range line. 

The following extract is from Commissioner' 's letter of Nov. 
10th, 1885: * * * " The use of the word parallel in the third 
paragraph is not correct, mathematically speaking ; the intention 
is to have the line run north by the compass, so adjusted as to re- 
trace the range line." * * * * 

4. From the section corner last named run a random line, 
without blazing, due east, for the corner of sections 25 and 36, 
on east boundary, and at forty chains from the starting point set 
a post for temporary quarter-section corner. If you intersect 
exactly at the corner, you will blaze your random line back, and 
establish it as the true line ; but if your random line intersects 
the said east boundary, either north or south of said corner, you 
will measure the distance of such intersection, from which you 
will calculate a course that will run a true line back to the corner 
from which your random started, You will establish the per- 
manent quarter-section corner at a point equidistant from the two 
terminations of the true line. 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



5. From the corner of sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, run due 
north between sections 25 and 26, setting the quarter-section 
post as before, at forty chains, and at eighty chains establishing 
the corner of sections 23, 24, 25, and 26. Then run a random 
due east for the corner of sections 24 and 25 on east boundary ; 
setting temporary quarter-section post at forty chains ; correct- 
ing back, and establishing permanent quarter-section corner at 
the equidistant point on the true line, in the manner directed on 
the line between sections 25 and 36. 

Sections 4 and 5. — " Random lines are to be run due east" 
The folloiuing is from General Instructions to Deputy Surveyors, 
Dated 1837 : " Where a township is not rectangular it may be 
convenient to deviate from the cardinal points in running ran- 
dom lines in order to intersect the corner run for. There are no 
objections to this mode but the exact course at which you run must 
be stated in your field notes." 

6. In this manner you will proceed with the survey of each 
successive section in the first tier, until you arrive at the north 
boundary of the township, which you will reach in running up a 
random line between sections 1 and 2. If this random line should 
not intersect at the corner established for sections 1,2, 35, and 
36, upon the township line, you will note the distance that you 
fall east or west of the same, from which distance you will cal- 
culate a course that will run a true line south to the corner from 
which your random started. If the north boundary of a town- 
ship is a base or standard line, the line between sections 1 and 2 
is to be run north as a true line, and the closing corner established 
at the point of intersection with such base or standard line ; and 
in such case the distance from said closing corner to the nearest 
section or quarter-section corner on such base or standard line 
must be carefully measured and noted as a connection line. 

7. In like manner proceed with the survey of each successive 
tier of sections, until you arrive at the fifth tier ; and from each 
section corner which you establish upon this tier you are to run 
random lines to the corresponding corners established upon the 
range line forming the western boundary of the township ; setting 




INSTRUCTIONS OF L4ND COMMISSIONER. 59 

as yon proceed, each temporary quarter-section corner at forty 
chains from the interior section corner, so as to throw the excess 
or deficiency of measurement on the extreme tier of quarter sec- 
tions contiguous to the township boundary ; and on returning es- 
tablish the true line, and establish thereon the permanen t quarter- 
section comer. 

Sections 6 and 7. — The instructions in these sections represent 
one of the three important changes in the Public Land System 
since its adoption in 1 785. The three important changes are the 
following, viz: 1st. A change in mode of subdividing townships; 
for illustration see Diagrams ivith Ohio Map. 2d. A change in 
subdividing the north and west tier of sections represented by these 
sections (6 and 7). 3d. The establishment of correction lines — 
dividing the public lands into squares twenty-four miles across, the 
object being to confine the errors resulting from converging of me- 
ridians and inaccuracies in measurements tvithin the tracts of 
lands bounded by the correction lines. Present instruction in Sec- 
tions 6 and 1 are to subdivide the north and west tier of sections 
into sections by running lines to the section corners established 
when the exterior lines of townships ivere run, etc. Under this 
instruction the following territory has been surveyed, viz : All the 
public lands surveyed west of the Mississippi River except Missouri 
and Arkansas. East of the Mississippi Piver the following has 
been surveyed from this instruction: Florida, Wisconsin and 
north two-thirds of Michigan. Instructions for Arkansas, Mis- 
souri, Illinois, Indiana, west part of Ohio and south part of 
Michigan were to subdivide the north and ivest tier of sections in 
each township by running lines due north to the township line and 
due west to the range line; establish corners at points of inter- 
section and note the distance to the nearest section corner. Tliis in- 
struction in effect made two sets of corners around each township. 
The plan adopted in the first surveys in Mississippi, Alabama, 
Eastern Ohio and Louisiana, made three sets of corners on town- 
ship lines. For subdivision of townships see Diagrams 

8. It is not required that the deputy shall complete the sur- 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS, 



vey of the first tier of sections from south to north, before com- 
mencing the survey of the second or any subsequent tier, but the 
corner on which the random line closes must have been previously 
established by running the line north on which it is established, 
except as follows : Where it is impracticable to establish such 
section corner in the regular manner it may be established by 
running the east and west line east or west, as the case may be, 
on a true line, setting the quarter-section corner at 40 chains and 
the section corner at 80 chains. 

9. Quarter-section corners, both upon north and south, and 
upon east and west lines, are to be established at a point equi- 
distant from the corresponding section corners, except upon the 
lines closing on the north and west boundaries of the township, 
and in those situations the quarter-section corners will always be 
established at precisely forty chains to the north or west (as the 
case may be) of the respective section corner from which those 
lines respectively start, by which proce dure the excess or defi- 
ciency in the measurements will be thrown, according to law, on 
the extreme tier of quarter-sections. 

PRESCRIBED LIMITS FOR CLOSING AND LENGTH OF LINES 
IN CERTAIN CASES 

1. Every north-and-south section line, except those termi- 
nating in the north boundary of the township must be eighty 
chains in len<rth. 

2. The east-and-west section lines, except those terminating 
in the west boundary of the township, are to be within eighty 
links of the actual distance established on the south boundary 
line of the township for the width of said tier of sections, and 
must close within eighty links north or south of the section corner. 

3. The north boundary and south boundary of any one sec- 
tion, except in the extreme western tier, are to be within eighty 
links of equal length. 

4. The meanders within each fractional section, or between 
any two meander posts, or of an island in the interior of a sec- 
tion, must close within one chain and fifty links. 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




5. In running random township exteriors, if such random 
lines fall short or overrun in length, or intersect the eastern or 
western boundary, as the case may be, of the township, at more 
than three chains north or south of the true corner, the lines must 
be retraced, even if found necessary to remeasure the meridional 
boundaries of the township. One set of chainmen, only, is re- 
quired in subdividing. 

LIMITS FOR CLOSING. 

The following is from General Instructions to Deputy Sur- 
veyors in 1837: "It is not thought advisable to prescribe any 
limit of measurement within which a survey shall close; but having 
made allowance for the inaccuracy or obliquity of adjoining sur- 
veys, an excess or deficiency of a close in course or distance of a 
toionship line of more than five chains; of a section line of more 
than one chain; of meanders of a section of more than one chain, 
fifty links, would be sufficient to cause a distrust in the accuracy of 
the survey." In later instructions the above limits became the pre- 
scribed limits for closing until instructions of 1881 . 

SUBDIVISION OF SECTIONS. 

Under the provisions of the act of Congress approved Feb- 
ruary 11, 1805, the course to be pursued in the subdivision of 
sections is to run straight lines from the established quarter-sec- 
tion corners — United States surveys — to the opposite correspond- 
ing corners, and the point of intersection of the lines so run will 
be the corner common to the several quarter-sections, or in other 
words, the legal center of the section. 

ERRONEOUS INSTRUCTIONS. 

The following from Appendix of Instructions issued from office of the Sur- 
veyor General in 1856, for the States of Illinois and Missouri, is here inserted, for 
the reason that many surveys in Illinois and Missouri have been and are now 
being made under this instruction, believing it in accordance with law. The fol- 
lowing will show the object of giving the instruction which the Surveyor Gen- 
eral states "is not positive directions to County Surveyors." 

APPENDIX. 

"Numerous and repeated applications having been made to the Sur- 
veyor General, by county and United States Deputy Surveyors and other 



If g r — i fcg 



•^ 62 SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

interested in the Public Surveys within the District of Illinois and Mis- 
souri, for information and directions as to the proper method of making 
re-surveys, renewing missing corners formerly established, and subdi- 
viding Sections, regular, anomalous, and fractional , the answers to ichich 
would occupy much time and delay other public business, it is deemed ad- 
visable to publish, for the information of those concerned, a brief state- 
ment of the system adopted by the General Land Office for the surveys of 
the public lands, together ivith such other information as the records shoiv 
to be most needed by those engaged in the re-tracing of old surveys, or di- 
viding the public lands according to the sales made thereof by the officers 
of the United States ; and more especially necessary since it is known 
that a large portion of the early surveys, both in Illinois and Missouri, 
were carelessly, and, in some cases, erroneously executed. 

In the incorrect surveys above alluded to, the Township lines are not 
alioays straight, the measure frequently being more or less erroneous, and 
it is impossible to frame instructions so minute in detail as to meet every 
case, and enable a deputy or county Surveyor to do equal and exact jus- 
tice to all parties concerned. After cdl that* might or could be said, much 
ivill depend upon the judgment and experience of the Surveyor on the 
ground. 

It is not intended, by ivhat is here recommended for renewing miss- 
ing cornei*s or subdividing Sections, to give any jiositive directions to 
county Surveyors. Tins office has no control over them whatever, but it is 
believed that the information here given will enable the Surveyor in most 
cases to do justice to the parties interested, ivithout any father correspon- 
dence with the Surveyor General on the subject." 

The following statement shows law of 1805 to be overlooked, 

[23.] 

"None of the Acts of Congress, in relation to the public 
lands, make any special provision in respect to the manner in 
which the subdivisions of sections should be made by deputy sur- 
veyors. 

TJie following plan may, however, be safely adopted in re- 
spect to cdl sections, excepting those adjoining the north and west 
boundaries of a township, where the same is to be re-surveyed." 




INSTRUCTIONS FOR MISSOURI AND ILLINOIS. 




[24.] 

Subdivision of Interior Sections. 

DIAGRAM No. 3. 

REGULAR SECTION. 





. 


79 1 80 






A 


B 

© 160 a. H 

SEC. 


o 
§40 a. 


40 a. 1 

CM 


c 

N 


O 


g A.160 
10 1 


00 

o 

a. °~ 

o 

CM 


d 

CO 


D K 

• o 
O oo 


E 
A.640. 

oo 

80 


L F 

00 

160 a. d 
20 


d 

JO 


G| 


F 


H| 






a 



[25.] 
"The surveyor should have descriptions of all the established 
corners of the section to be subdivided, in order to identify them, 
and find the place where each corner post, stone or mound, had 
been set. Then begin at a quarter section corner, on a north and 
south line, say at D, from which run east on a random line, set a 
temporary post at 40.00 chains, note the distance to the point 
where said line intersects the last boundary of the section, and the 
distance it fcdls north or south of the quarter section corner at F t 
Then, by means of offsets from the random, run a true line from 
the corner at F to that at D, and at equidistance between them 
establish the corner E. Then, by first running randoms as afore-* 
said, make a straight line from E to B, and from E to H, and 
you have the section divided into quarters. But should it be neces- 
sary td subdivide any of the quarters, say, for example, the north- 
east quarter, into four forty acre lots, and the southwest quarter 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



into two equal parts, then, in running the random line east from 
D to, F, temporary posts should be set at twenty and sixty chains, 
to mark the points lettered K and L, and the corners should be 
established on the true true line, from F to D, so as to place the 
corner L at average distance between F and F, and the corner K 
at average distance between F and D. In like manner the comer 
at M should be equi-distant between F B ; equi-distant between 
B C ; N~ equi-distant between C F, and I equi-distant between M 
N, and straight lines from I to O, and I to L. TJie corner at P 
should be equi-distant between G H, and a straight line run be- 
tween P and K. ' ' 

[26.] 

"Tliis method of first running a line from JD to F is consid- 
ered preferable to basing the work on, the north and south line H 
to B, for the reason that the corners at D and F are on the north 
and south lines, all of which, except those intersecting the 
north boundary of a township, are 80.00 chains in length, and 
have the quarter section corners thereon precisely at 40.00 chains ; 
whereas, what are called east and west lines, excepting those in the 
west tier of sections, are never due east and taest, at the vari- 
ation assumed, unless a random line, ivhich has to be first run, 
happens to strike the corner run for." 

To subdvide Section 10 into quarters in the diagram, number 3, on page 75 
according to present instructions and the law of Congress, lines should be run as 
follows: Straight lines should be run between ~F and D, and between B and H" 
and the point of intersection of these lines would be the legal centre of the sec- 
tion. In the subdivision of the northeast quarter into forty acre tracts, straight 
lines should be run between L and O, and between N and M, the intersection of 
which would be the legal centre of the quarter. See Law. 

In the subdivision of fractional quarter-sections where no 
opposite corresponding sections have been or can be fixed, the 
subdivision lines should be ascertained by running from the es- 
tablished corners due north, south, east or west lines as the case 
mav be, to the water-course, Indian boundary line, or other ex- 
ternal boundary of such fractional section. 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




The law presupposes the section lines surveyed and marked 
in the field by the United States deputy surveyors to be due 
north and south or east and west lines, but in actual experience 
this is not always the case ; hence, in order to carry out the spirit 
of the law, it will be necessary, in running the subdivisional lines 
through fractional* sections, to adopt mean courses where the sec- 
tion lines are not due lines, or to run the subdivision line parallel 
to the section line when there is no opposite section line, 

Upon the lines closing on the north and west boundaries of 
a township, the quarter-section corners are established by the 
United States deputy surveyors at precisely forty chains to the 
north or west of the last interior section corners, and the excess 
or deficiency in the measurement is thrown on the outer tier of 
lots, as per act of Congress approved May 10, 1800. 

In the subdivision of quarter-sections the quarter-quarter 
corners are to be placed at points equidistant between the section 
and quarter-section corners and between the quarter corners and 
the common center of the section, except on the last half mile 
of the lines closing on the north or west boundaries of a township, 
where they should be placed at twenty chains, proportionate 
measurement, to the north or west of the quarter-section corner. 

The subdivisional lines of fractional quarter-sections should 
be run from points on the section lines, intermediate between the 
section and quarter-section corners due north, south, east or west, 
to the lake, water-course or reservation which renders such tracts 
fractional, 

When there are double sets of section corners on township 
and range lines the quarter corners for the sections south of the 
township lines and east of the range lines are not established in 
the field by the United States surve} T ors, but in subdividing such 
sections said quarter-corners should be so placed as to suit the 
calculations of the areas of the quarter-sections adjoining the town- 
ship boundaries as expressed upon the official plat, adopting pro- 
portionate measurements where the present measurements of the 
north or west boundaries of the sections differ from the original 
measurements. 



SPECIMEN FIELD NOTES No. S. 



FIELD NOTES 

OF THE SURVEY OF THE 

Subdivision and Meander Lines 

OF 

Township No. 6 North, Range No. 34 East, 

OF THE 

Principal Base and Meridian of Montana Territory, 

As Surveyed by WALTER W. de LACY, U. S, Deputy Surveyor, 
Under his Contract, No. 87, Dated July 3, 1880. 



Survey commenced August 6th, 1880. Survey completed August 16th, 1880. 

Preliminary Oaths of Assistants omitted. 



Chains. Preliminary to commencing this survey, I ran west on a blank line 
on the south boundary of Sec. 36, and at 39.97 chs. found the % sec. 
cor. and at 80.01 chs. found the sec. cor. As the east boundary or Sec. 
36 crosses the Yellowstone River it was not re-run. My compass will 
therefore run the same line as the exterior boundaries, and the chaining 
practically agrees. 

Survey commenced August 6, 1880, with a Burt's improved solar 
compass. 

I commenced at the cor. to Sees. 1, 2, 35, and 36, on the south 
boundary, which is a sandstone 30X8X 2 ^ ins firmly set in the ground, 
with one notch on E. and 5 notches on W. edges, and pits 18X18X12 
ins. in each sec. f>% ft. dist. with mound of earth 2 ft, high, k% ft. base 
alongside. Thence I run North bet. Sees. 35 and 36. 
Va. 18° 30' E. 
20.00 Enter scattering timber. Alexander's house bears N. 31° W. 
31.00 Leave scattering timber. 

40.00 Set a post 3 ft. long, 3 ins. square, with marked stone, 12 ins. in 
the ground, for 34 sec. cor., marked 3^ S. on W. side, dug pits 18X18X 
12 ins. N, and S. of post, 5>£ ft. dist., and raised a mound of earth 1>£ 
ft. high, ?>y 2 ft. base, around post. 
Alexander's house bears S. 53%° W. 
52.70 Enter brush. 

53.82 Right bank of the Yellowstone River. Set a post 4 ft. long, 4 ins. 
square, with marked stone, 12 ins. ka the ground, for meander cor. to 
fractional sees. 35 and 36, marked M. C, and 
T. 6N. on S., 
R. 34 E. S. 3fi on E., and 

S. 35 on W., faces, dug pit 3 ft. square, 12 ins. deep, 8 Iks. S. of 

post, and raised mound of earth 2 ft. high, 4)£ ft. base around 

post. 

There being an island on line on N. side of channel, I send a flag across, 

and set it on line bet. sees. 35 and 36, on bar S. of Island. I then go 





COPYRIGHTED BY R T. HIGSINS 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 69 



across to flag and run a base line W. 11.14 chs., to a point from which 
meander cor. on right bank bears S.37°50' E., which gives for dis- 
tance across the river to edge of bar 14.34 chs. I then run north from 
flag 66 Iks., to south bank of island, making the whole distance 53.824- 
14.34+0.66 chs., or 
68.82 To south bank of island, which point I established by setting a post 4 ft. 
long, 4 ins. square, with marked stone, 12 ins. in the ground, for me- 
ander cor. to fractional sees. 35 and 36 on S. bank of island, marked 
M. C, and * 

T. 6 N. on N., 
R, 34 E. S. 36 onE., and 

S. 35 on W. faces, dug pit 3 ft. square, 12 ins. deep, 8 Iks. N. of 
post, and raised a mound of earth 2 ft. high, 4j^ ft. base, 
around post. 
Thence continue on line across island, enter brush. 
72.50 Leave brush, enter timber. 

80.00 Set a post 4 ft. long, 4 ins. square, with marked stone, 12 ins. in the 
ground, for cor. to sees. 25, 26, 35 and 36, marked 
T. 6 N. S. 25 on N. E., 
R 34 E. S. 36 on S. E., 
S. 35 on S. W., and 

S. 26 on N. W., faces, with 1 notch on S. anclE. edges, from which 
A cottonwood, 12 ins. diam., bears N. 12%° E. 180 Iks. dist., 

marked T. 6 N., R. 34 E., S. 25 B. T. 
A cottonwood, 18 ins. diam., bears S.82°E., 154 Iks. dist, 

marked T. 6 N , R. 34 E., S. 36 B. T. 
A cottonwood, 10 ins. diam., bears S.29^°W., 56 Iks., dist., 

marked T. 6 N., R. 34 E., S. 35 B. T. 
A cottonwood, 10 ins diam., bears N.46^°W., 119 Iks. dist., 
marked T. 6 N., R. 34 E., S. 26 B. T. 
Land level. 

Soil, rich loam — 1st rate. 
Timber, cottonwood and willow undergrowth same, 12.30 chains. 



East on a random line, bet. sees. 25 and 36. 

Va. 18° 20' E. 
This line is wholly on the island. 
1.33 A cottonwood, 20 ins. diam. 
21 .50 Leave timber. 
31.00 Enter timber and brush. 
35.00 Leave timber and brush. 
40.00 Set temporary i^ sec. cor. 
47.50 Enter timber. 
53.00 Leave timber. 
61.00 Enter brush. 

66.00 Leave brush, enter scattering timber. 

79.54 Intersect the east boundary of the township at 58 Iks. N*. of the cor. to 
sees. 25, 30, 31, and 36, which is a post 4 ft. long, 4 ins. square, firmly 
set in the ground, marked 
T. 6 N. S.30on N. E., 
R. 35 E. S. 31 on S. E., 
R. 34 E. S. 36 on S. W., and 

S. 25 on N. W., faces, with 5 notches on N. and 1 notch on S. 
edges, from which 

A cottonwood, 20 ins. diam., bears N.30K°E., 166 Iks. dist., 
marked T. 6 N., R. 55 E., S. 30 B. T. 

A cottonwood, 24 ins. diam., bears S.39 E., 67 Iks. dist., 
marked T. 6 N., R. 35 E., S. 31 B. T. 




A. cottonwoocl, 24 ins. diam., bears S. 39° E., 67 Iks. dist., marked 

T6N. R. 35 E. S. 31B.T. 
A cottonwood, 14 ins. diam., bears S. 89>£ W., 170 Iks. dist., 

marked T. 6 N., R. 34 E., S. 36 B. T. 
A cottonwood, 16 ins. diam., bears N. 23° W., 40 Iks. dist., marked 
T. 6N., R. 34 E., S. 25 B. T. 
Thence 1 run 

N. 89° 35' W. on a true line, bet. sees. 25 and 36, with same va. 
39.77 Set a post 3 ft. long, 3 ins. square, with marked stone, 12 ins. in the 
ground for % sec. cor., marked 34 S. on N. face, dug pits 18X18X12 
ins. E. and W. of post, 5)4 ft. dist., and raised a mound of earth 1% ft. 
high, 3>£ ft. base, around post. 
79.54 The cor. to sees. 25, 26, 35 and 36. Land level. Soil, alluvial — 1st rate. 
Timber, cottonwood and willow, undergrowth same, 36.50 chs. 

August 6, 1880. 
******** * * * 

The section lines in the remainder of this township are surveyed according 
to instructions on page 58. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

This township contains nearly every variety of land from plains to moun- 
tains, and the soil ranges from alkali to rich loam. The soil of the bottom land 
along the Yellowstone River and on the island is generally rich, black loam, 
capable of producing abundant crops without irrigation. The soil of the remain- 
ing portion of the township, except the alkali flat in sees. 23 and 24, and the 
mountainous land, can nearly all be classed as second rate, is covered with an 
abundant growth of rich nutritious grasses, and will produce crops without irri- 
gation. In the southwestern portion of the township only the grass is more 
scanty, and irrigation may be necessary. 

Cottonwood timber is found along the Yellowstone River, on the island, and 
some scattering along the creeks. The mountain is covered with a dense growth 
of pine and fir timber, many of the trees being very large. 

There is one limestone quarry in sees. 8 and 9 which affords excellent build- 
ing stones, and, from surface indications, it is probable that large bodies of 
limestone and sandstone underlie other portions of the township. Iron ore was 
found in section 3. 

The township is well watered by the Yellowstone River, which runs through 
the southeastern portion, and many small springs and brooks. The eastern 
end, comprising only a small portion of Lin's Lake, is included in this township. 
This lake is about ten miles long, and its greatest width about four miles. The 
water is clear and pure, and varies in depth from 10 to 200 feet. 

The town of Williamsburg is the county s at of Custer County, contains a 
court house, two churches, two hotels, several stores, and about 50 dwelling 
houses. Its estimated population is 300. 

There are two settlers in sec. 35, and one each in sees. 16, 17, 19 and 25. 

James Parker has fenced a portion of his desert land claim, in sec. 36, and 
is boring an artesian well to bring water upon it. 

WALTER W. De LACY, 
U. 8. Deputy Surveyor 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




EDWARD TIFFIN'S INSTRUCTIONS OF 1815, 

UNDER WHICH SURVEYS H&VE BEEN MADE IN OHIO, INDIANA, MICH- 
IGAN, ILLINOIS, ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI. 



Edward Tiffin was United States Surveyor General for Northwestern Terri- 
tory from 1815 to 1825, and the following Instructions for Deputy Surveyors was 
received with letter of July 26, 1815; they are now on file in General Land 
Office, Washington D. C. 

[Copy of Instructions received by publishers Sept. 1, 1885, through courtesy of Com- 
missioner.] 



INSTRUCTIONS EOR SUB-DIVIDING TOWNSHIPS. 

1. When the township lines are completed, you must begin the survey of 
sections at the southeast corner of the township and move on in continued pro- 
gression from east to west and from south to north, in order that the excess or 
defect of the township as to complete sections may fall on the west and north 
sides of the township, according to the provisions of the Act of the 10th of 
May, 1800. 

2. Each side of a section rauit be made one mile in measure by the chain, 
and quarter section corners are to be established at every half mile, except 
when in the closing of a section. If the measure of the closing side should vary 
from 80 chains or one mile, you are in that case to place the quarter section cor- 
ners e qui -distant, or at an average distance from the corners of the section, but 
in running out the sectional lines on the west or north side of the township, you 
will establish your quarter section posts or corners at the distance of half a 
mile from the last corner, and leave the remaining excess or defect on the west 
or north tier of quarter sections, which balance or remainder you will carefully 
measure and put down in your field-notes, in order to calculate the remaining 
or fractional quarter section on the north and west side of the township; also in 
running to the western or northern boundary, unless your sectional lines fall in 
with the posts established therefor the corners of sections in the adjacent town- 
ships, you must set post and mark bearing trees at the points of intersection 
of your lines with the town boundaries, and take the distance of your corners 
from the corners of the sections of the adjacent townships, and note that and 
the side, on which it varies in chains or links, or both. 

3. The sections must be made to close by running a random line from one 
corner to another, except on the north and west ranges of sections, and the true 
line between them is to be established by means of offsets. 

4. In fractional townships on rivers it will be necessary to vary from the 
foregoing rules, and the lines must be continued from the rectilinear boundaries 
of the township, which may be parallel to the river, perpendicularly to those 
boundaries till they meet the river. The sections, however, must be made com- 




SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LAXDS. 



plete on the sides of the township bounded by straight lines, and all excess or 
defect of measure must be thrown into the fractional sections on the river. The 
measure of the lines from the last entire sectional corner should be made very- 
exact, in order to calculate the fractional section with exactness. 

ILLUSTRATION. 

Begin at N, the southeast corner of the township, and run west 40 chains, 
and establish the quarter section corner at n of section 36, if it be not already- 
established, continue 40 chains further and establish the corner at O of sections 
36 and 35 ; from O run a true north course 40 chains and mark the quarter sec- 
tion corner. 

Between 35 and 36 continue 40 chains farther on the north line and 
establish the corner 25, 26, 35 and 36. From this corner run a random line for 
post or corner of M, without blazing; at the distance of every 20 chains on this 
line set up a stake or post, or mark some other mark on the random line; if you 
strike the post or corner M exactly, you have only to blaze the line back and 
establish the quarter section corner, which you will take care to establish at the 
average distance between the corner at M and the corner between 25, 26, 35 and 
36, but if running for the post M you fall north or south of it, you must note the 
departure or deviation in your field book, and return on the true course, ob- 
serving to correct it by means of offsets from wour marks made on the ran- 
dom line. 

Aa Bb CcDdEeFfG 





43.10 40 


c 


Iks S 


381 


— -^ 




81121 


§ 1118 




y 

Y 


11. 
s.6 ^ 6 

6 "1 


50 oi 

s.5 "* 

5 


6 


s.4 

4 


oil 

•«5< r. 

1 


• 
s.3 

3 


oi ! 

-* 6 

1 


s.2 
2 


^6 


s.l 

1 


S 
H 




43.50 40 








1 








| 




X 


s.7 


5 


s.8 5 


s.9 


5 


s.10 


5 


s.ll 


1 
5 


s.!2 


h 


X 


6 




5 


4 




3 




o 


1 


1 


I 


























w 
W 


s.18 
6 


i 


s.17 
5 


4 


s.16 

4 


4 


s.15 
3 




4 


s.14 
2 




4 


S.13 

i 


l 




44.10 401 






1 




f 








Iv 


T 


S.19 3 


s.20 3 


S.21 


3 


S.22 


3 


s.23 


3 

1 


s.24 


k 


v 


6 


5 


4 


1 


3 




2 




> 






44.20 40. 


1 




















L 


u 


s 30 2 
6 1 


S.29 2 
5 


S.2S 
4 


2 


s.27 
3 




2 


s.26 
2 




2 


S.25 
1 


1 


I 


43.80 40 




I 




1 




i 










M 


t 


S.31 


1 


S.32 1 

1 


S.33 


!■ 


S.34 


1 


s.35 




1 


s.36 


m 

V 




r s s 




r R 




q 


Q 


P 


I 


> 


o 


(J 




n 





From the corner of sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, run due north one mile, set- 
ting the half mile post as before at 2 on the line from O to F; return south 
to O and establish at o and P your quarter section and section corners; then 
run north from P and establish quarter section and section corners as before 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




and run a random line from the section corner on the line P E to the 
corresponding corner on the line O F; proceed in this manner till you 
arrive to the last corner towards the western boundary of the township 
from M to U, viz: between sections 29, 30, 31 and 32; from this corner 
run west and at the distance of 40 chains from it establish the quarter sec- 
tion corner at 6 in the line, from M to U; continue west till you intersect the 
town boundary, suppose at U, note carefully the distance of the point of inter- 
section from the last section or quarter section corner, and also the distance of 
this point from the section corner of the adjacent township post west of you, or 
the distance of U from M and on which side it lies, viz: either north or south; 
at the point of intersection U, set the section post or corner and take bear- 
ing trees. 

In this manner you will proceed until your township is completed, observ- 
ing always to move either in a range of sections from that at the southeast 
corner of the township to the western boundary, or from that section to the 
northern boundary, but when you shall have completed the sections to the north 
boundary of the township you will proceed from the last section corners, es- 
tablish quarter section corners at 40 chains from them, and continue north until you 
intersect the town boundary in the same manner as on the western side of the 
township, observing to note the distance at which you intersect the north boun- 
dary from the section or quarter section corner which you left last. Also you 
will be careful to note the distance of the point of intersection from the corner 
of the section of the adjacent township and whether it be on the east or west 
side of it; then the distances from 6 to F or from 6 to E on the lines O F and P 
E must be carefully noted in your field notes and also the distance from F where 
you intersect to O the post on the town above and on which side, whether east 
or west. 

5. Great care must be taken that the north and south lines be run accord- 
ing to the true meridian as required by law, and the east and west lines be run 
at right angles to them as far as it is practical in closing, but if on running on a 
true east and west line you find the post you are running for lies very ranch to the 
north or south of the lines, you are then to mistrust the measure by the chain, 
and if possible, the line on which the posts are established must be remeasured; 
also in running a meridional line by the compass, if you find the measurement 
of the closing lines of the secticns, that is an uniform convergency or diagonally 
of these lines; you may then reasonably mistrust the accuracy of the direction 
of your lines by the needle. In such case it will be well to endeavor to run par- 
allel to the meridian adjacent on which section closes in order that it may con- 
tain a just or legal quantity, viz: 640 acres or one mile square. 

6. As the measurement by the chain is the principal source of errors in 
surveying, you will be careful to attend to your chainmen, that they carry the 
chain horizontally and to prevent their losing a tally rod; you must be provided 
with a set of them, pointed with iron or steel, and to allow no other to be used 
but the precise number, which you shall have selected for the purpose. 

7. In meandering rivers you will take the bearings according to the true 
meridian of the river, and note the distance on any course where the river in- 
tersects the sectional lines, and the calculations of the contents of the fractions 




are to be made by the tables of difference of latitude and departure, and returned 
on your plats; but the quantity or contents of the whole section only are to be 
put down; in all the other sections and each of them is to be accounted one 
mile square or 640 acres, unless your closing lines deviate very much from 80 
chains, in which case you will be very careful to put down their true length on 
your pi .its. 

8. You must frequently, while in the field, attend to the correction of your 
chain; for this purpose you should be provided with some measure taken from 
the standard chain in the Office of the Surveyor General. 

9. All random lines, as well as the true, are to be noted in your field book 
at the time of running them, and are to be kept in the order in which the work 
is executed, also you must be careful to note the variation of the random lines 
from the corners or posts which they were intended to strike. 

10. All courses of whatever lines must be taken with the sight of your 
compass set to the variation and estimated according to the true meridian, for 
which purpose the variation of the needle at the place where your survey must be 
taken or previously known and your compass regulated to it before you com- 
mence running the lines. 

11. No lines of whatever description are to be run, or marks of any kind 
made by any person but yourself, or who may be under the immediate inspec- 
tion of yourself or some deputy surveyor duly authorized from this office. 

12. Any considerable departure from these instructions will be considered 
as a forfeiture of the conditions of the contract, or any claim for payment; and 
loose, inaccurate or precipitate work will not be admitted, either as it respects 
surveys in the field or their returns on paper. 

13. You will take care that your posts be well driven into the ground and 
that there be one or two sight trees marked between every quarter section cor- 
ner, also at the section corner that there be marks for every section corner 
where t ley corner. 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEPUTIES. 

1. You will provide a good compass of Rittenhouses construction, having 
a nonius division and movable sights and a two-pole chain of 50 links; the chain 
must be adjusted by the Standard Chain in the Office of the Surveyor General, 
and it will be of importance that both it and the compass be frequently exam- 
ined in the field in order to determine any errors and irregularities which may 
arise from the use of them. 

2. Whenever you may be obstructed by insuperable obstacles, such as 
ponds, swamps, rivers, creeks, &c; you will take the necessary offsets, or work 
by a traverse or trigonometry, in order to ascertain the distance on any line 
which is not actually ran. 

3. The courses of all navigable rivers, which may bound or pass through 
your district, niust be accurately surveyed and their width taken at those points 
where they may be intersected by township or sectional lines; also the distance 
of those points from the sectional corners and from the commencement of any 
course where you are meandering the river; you will likewise not fail to make 
special notice of all streams of water which fall in your way, with their width 

k-.and course from whence they appear to come or run. 



4. All townships or sectional lines which you may survey are to be marked 
in the manner hitherto practiced in the surveys of the United States lands, viz: 
all those trees which your line cuts must have two notches made on each side 
of the trees where the line cuts; but no spot or blaze is to be made on them, 
and all or most of the trees on each side of the line and near it, must be marked 
with two spots or blazes diagonally or quartering towards the line. 

5. The posts must be erected at the distance of every mile and half mile 
from where the town or sectional lines commenced (except a tree may be so 
situated as to supply the place of a post) which post must be at least three 
inches in diameter and rise not less than three feet. All mile posts must have 
as many notches cut on two sides of them as they are miles distant from the 
town or sectional line commenced, but the town corner posts or trees shall be 
notched with six notches on each side, and the half mile sectional posts are to 
be without any marks ; the places of the posts are to be perpetuated in the fol- 
lowing manner, viz: at each post the courses shall be taken and the distances 
measured to two or more adjacent trees in opposite directions, as nearly as may 
be, which trees, called bearing trees shall be blazed on the side next the post and 
one notch made with an axe on the blaze, and there shall be cut with a marking 
iron on a bearing tree, or some other tree within and near each corner of a sec- 
tion, the number of the section and over it the letter T, with the number of the 
township and above this the letter K, with the number of the range, but for 
quarter section corners you are to put no numbers on the trees; they are to be 
distinguished by the mark %S. 

6. You will be careful to note in your field book all the courses and dis- 
tances you shall have run, the names and estimated diameters of all corner or 
bearing trees, and those trees which fall in your line called station or line trees, 
notched -'S aforesaid, together with the courses and distances of the bearing- 
trees from their respective corners, with the letters and numbers marked on 
them as aforesaid; also all rivers, creeks, springs and smaller streams of water, 
with their width and the course they run in crossing the lines of survey, and 
whether navigable, rapid or mountainous; the kinds of timber and undergrowth 
with which the land maybe covered; all swamps, ponds, stone-quarries, coal 
beds, peat or turf grounds, uncommon, natural or artificial productions, such as 
mounds, precipices, caves, &c; all rapids, cascades or falls of water; minerals, 
ores, fossils, &c; the quality of the soil and the true situation of all mines, 
salt licks, salt springs and mill seats, which may come to your knowledge, are 
particularly to be regarded and noticed in your field books. 

7. In all measurements the level or horizontal length is to be taken, 
not that which arises from measuring over the surface of the ground when it 
happens to be uneven and hilly; for this purpose the chainmen in ascending or 
descending must alternately let down one end of the chain to the ground and 
raise the other to a level, as nearly as may be, from the end of which a plumb 
should be let fall to ascertain the spot where to set the tally rod or stick; and 
where the land is very steep it will be necessary to shorten the chain by doub- 
ling the links together, so as to obtain the true horizontal measure. 

8. Though the line be measured by a chain of two perches, you are, notwith- 
standing, to keep your reckoning in chains of four perches of one hundred links 



SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. 



each, and all entries in your field books and all your plans and calculations 
must be made according to the decimal measure of a chain. 

9. Your courses and distances must be placed in the margin of your field 
books on the left, for which purpose it should be large and your remarks made 
on the right in the following manner: 

ciTwa Between sections 35 and 36 township 4, range 6. 

20. 30. a. white oak 20 inches in diameter. 

37. 10. a. stream 30 links wide S. E. 

•iO- — • Set half mile post, from which a B. oak 18-inch diameter bears 

S. 50 E. 40 links and a sugar tree 15 inch diameter bears N. 10 3 W. 

34 links. 

CHATNS, LINKS. 

80. 00. Set post corner of section No. 25, 26, 35 and 36, township 4, 
range 6, from which a white oak 10 inch diameter bears S, 78° 30 
E. distant 20 links, and a hickory 15 inch diameter bears N. 50° W. 
37 links distant. 

EAST. 

chains.links. Between No. 25 and 36, township 4, range 6, on a random. 

16. 40. a brook 30 links wide, course S. 20° E. 

40. 00. Set temporary quarter section post. This half mile over broken 

land, timber, oak, ash. &c. 

64. 30. A stream 25 links wide, course S.E. 

79. 90. intersected N. and S. line 20 links south of section corner, hilly 

land, soil rich and good for farming, timber, oak, hickory, poplar, 
ash, &c. 

WEST. Between sections 25 and 36, township 4, range 6. 
chains.links. On true line. 

39. 95. Moved temporary post to the average distance for i^ section cor- 

ner, from which a black jack 10 inch diameter bears S. 50 = E. 100 
links, and a white oak 19 inch in diameter bears N. 25° W. 40 links. 

55. 00. A white oak 14 inch in diameter. 

79. 90. Section corner. 

In this manner you must enter all courses and distauces in your field book, 
the date must follow the close of each day's work, which field book, written 
with a fair hand, of each township separately, or a true and fair copy, together 
with the original, you will return to the Office of the Surveyor General. 

10. The plat of each township and fractional part of a township must be 
neatly and accurately protracted on durable paper, by a scale of two inches to a 
mile, or forty chains to an inch, and must be in such measure and projections in 
every line and part as actually was determined by measurement in the field, a 
compass having the true and magnetic meridian, and the scale by which the lines 
are laid down, are to be placed on the southeast corner of the plat. 

11. The following certificate must be inscribed on your plat and signed 
by you: 

Pursuant to a contract with, and instructions from Surveyor 

General of the United States, bearing date the clay of I have ad- 
measured, laid out and surveyed the above described township Tor fractional 
part), and do hereby certify that it had such marks and bounds, both natural 
and artificial, as are represented on said plat and described in the field notes 
made thereof and returned with the plat into the Surveyor General's Office. 
Certified this day of 



INSTRUCTIONS OF LAND COMMISSIONER. 




METHOD BY WHICH TO CALCULATE THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN TIER OF FRAC- 
TIONAL QUARTER SECTIONS. 

You will commence, say at the northeast corner of the township, the length 
of the line from G to g being 40 chains, as established in running the exterior 
boundary of the township ; you will proceed by adding the length of the line 
from 6 to F on the line from O to F which is 42 chains to the length G. g 40 
chains and divide it by tv\o, which will give you the length of the line from the 

A a 2.00B b C1.50 o D4.00 d 1.50E e 3.00 F f G 



42.00 




o 
q 


| 
















c 
c-i 






SEC 


6 




SEC.I5 




Sec 


X 




SEC 


3 




SEC.I2 


6 


Seo. 


1 








79100 




SO 


00 




80 


00 




80 


00 




80 


00 



41.00 





Sec 


7 


X 






yo 

w 


40.0016 


Sec 


18 


W 






3,90 


40.50 


6 


V 








Sec 


19 


V 






1,50 


41.20 16 


u 


1 




Sec 


30 


U 






1,50 


41.00 


6 


t 








Sec 


31 


T 







Q 



H 



centre of the section to f on the town boundary, which being 

h added to the length of the line G.g and divided by two will give 
you the length of one of the lines required for calculating the 
N.E. quarter of section No. 1; then the length of the line from 

1 G to f being 40 chains, and the south boundary of the section 
being 80 chains, the len <th of the line H to I is 40 chains— the 

1 length of the line from G to f— therefore there is no necessity 
for additions or divisions, as the line from I to f is parallel to 
the line G.H; then by multiplying those two sides together and 

K cutting off as many decimals as there are in the sums multiplied 
and dividing by 10, you have the contents of the N. E. quarter of 

k section 1 in acres and decimal parts of an acre. You will then 
proceed to calculate the N.W. quarter of the same section by 
taking the length of the line from the centre of the section to f , 

L as found in your former calculation, to which add 42 chains, the 
length of the line from 6 to F, and divide by two, which gives 
you the length of one of the lines required. Then as the line 
from O to F intersected the town boundary 3 chains east of the 
section corner, the length of the line from F to f is only 37 

M chains which, added to 40 chains (the length of the south line of 
the southwest quarter of section 1) and divided by two, will aive 
you the length of the line from 6 to the centre of the section, 
which being added to 37 and divided by two, will give you the 
length of the other line required, which you will calculate in the 

S same manner as above. 



As the length of the line from F to f is only 37 chains, the length of the line 
from e to F must be 43 chains: the length of the line E to e is 38.50 chains; 
the length of the line from d to E 41.50 chains, etc; the quarter section cor- 
ners not being placed at the average distance between the section corners except 
when you strike the corners of the sections established in running the exterior 
lines of the township. 



syhstoipsis 



Land Laws of the United States. 



From Instructions Issued at 



General Land Office, Washington, D. C 



Ma\ 3, 1881, and May 13, 1883. 



The present system of survey of the public lands was in- 
augurated by a committee appointed by the Continental Con- 
gress, and consisting of the following delegates : 



Hon. Thos. Jefferson, Chairman, 
Hon. Hugh Williamson, 
Hon. David Howell, - 
Hon. Eldridge Gerry, 
Hon. Jacob Bead, 



Virginia. 
North Carolina. 
Ehode Island. 
Massachusetts. 
South Carolina. 



On the 7th of May, 1784, this committee reported "An or- 
dinance for ascertaining the mode of locating and disposing of 
lands in the western territory, and for other purposes therein 
mentioned." This ordinance required the public lands to be di- 
vided into " hundreds " of ten geographical miles square, and 
those again to be subdivided into lots of one mile square each, to 
be numbered from 1 to 100, commencing' in the northwestern cor- 



nel 



, and continuing from west to east and from east to west con 




SYNOPSIS OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 




secutively. This ordinance was considered, debated, and amend- 
ed, and reported to Congress April 26, 1785, and required the 
surveyors " to divide the said territory into townships of 7 miles 
square, by lines running due north and south, and others cross- 
ing these at right angles. * * The plats of the townships, re- 
spectively, shall be marked by subdivisions into sections of 1 
mile square, or 640 acres, in the same direction as the external 
lines, and numbered from 1 to 49. * * * And these sec- 
tions shall be subdivided into lots of 320 acres." This is the 
first record of the use of the terms " township " and "sec- 
tion." 

May 3, 1785, on motion of Hon. William Grayson, of Vir- 
ginia, seconded by Hon. James Monroe, of Virginia, the section 
respecting the extent of townships was amended by striking out 
the words "seven miles square" and substituting the words 
" six miles square." The record of these early sessions of Con- 
gress are not very full or complete ; but it does not seem to have 
occurred to the members until the 6th of May, 1785, that a town- 
ship six miles square could not contain 49 sections of 1 mile 
square. At that date a motion to amend was made, which pro- 
vided, among other changes, that a township should contain 36 
sections ; and the amendment was lost. The ordinance as finally 
passed, however, on the 20th of May, 1785, provided for town- 
ships, 6 miles square, containing 36 sections of 1 mile square. 
The first public surveys were made under this ordinance. The 
townships, six miles square, were laid out in ranges, extending 
northward from the Ohio river, the townships being numbered 
from south to north, and the ranges from east to west. The re- 
gion embraced by the surveys under this law forms a part of the 
present State of Ohio, and is usually styled " The Seven 
Ranges." In these initial surveys only the exterior lines of the 
township were surveyed, but the plats were marked by subdi- 
visions into sections of 1 mile square, and mile corners were es- 
tablished on the township lines. The sections were numbered 
from 1 to 36, commencing with No. 1 in the southeast corner of 
the township, and running from south to north in each tier to No. 





FIRST CONGRESSIONAL LAND LAWS. 



36 in the northwest corner of the township, as shown in the fol- 
lowing diagram : 

DIAGRAM No. I. 



36 


30 


24 


18 


12 


6 


35 


29 


23 


17 


11 


5 


34 


28 


22 


16 


10 


4 


33 


27 


21 


15 


9 


3 


32 


26 


20 


14 


8 


2 


31 


25 


19 


13 


1 7 


1 




The surveys were made under the direction of the Geog- 
rapher of the United States. It further provided that the first line 
running north and south should begin on the Ohio Eiver, at a 
point due north from the western terminus of a line run as the 
south boundary of the State of Pennsylvania, and the first line 
running east and west should begin at the same point, and extend 
through the whole territory. The act of Congress approved May 
18, 1796, provided for the appointment of a surveyor-general, 
and directed the survey of the lands northwest of the Ohio Eiver, 
and above the mouth of the Kentucky Eiver, "in which the 
titles of the Indian tribes have been extinguished." Under this 
law one-half of the townships surveyed were subdivided into sec- 
tions "by running through the same, each way, parallel lines at 
the end of every two miles, and by making a corner on each of 
said lines at the end of every mile," and it further provided that 
the "sections shall be numbered, respectively, beginning with 
the number one in the northeast section and proceeding west and 
east alternately, through the township, with progressive numbers 



SYNOPSIS OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 




till the thirty-sixth be completed." This method of numbering 
sections, as shown by the following diagram, is still in use : 

DIAGRAM No. 2. 



1 6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 



The act of Congress approved May 10, 1800, required the 
"townships west of the Muskingum, which * * * are di- 
rected to be sold in quarter townships, to be subdivided into half 
sections of three hundred and twenty acres each, as nearly as 
may be, by running parallel lines through the same from east to 
west, and from south to north, at the distance of one mile from 
each other, and marking corners, at the distance of each half mile 
on the lines running from east to west, and at the distance of 



each mile on those running from south to north. 



And 



the interior lines of townships intersected by the Muskingum, and 
of all the townships lying east of that river, which have not 
been heretofore actually subdivided into sections shall also be 
run and marked. * * * And in all cases where the exterior 
lines of the townships thus to be subdivided into sections or half 
sections shall exceed, or shall not extend, six miles, the excess or 
deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from 
the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in 
such township, according as the error may be in running the lines 
from east to west or from south to north." Said act also pro- 
vided that the northern and western tier of sections should be 




FIRST CONGRESSIONAL LAND LAWS. 




sold as containing only the quantity expressed on the plats, and 
all others as containing the complete legal quantity. 

Act of June 1, 1796, XL S. Statutes at Large, vol. 1, p. 490. 
The act approved June 1, 1796, " regulating the grants of 
land appropriated for military services," &c, provided for di- 
viding the " United States Military Tract," in the State of Ohio, 
into townships 5 miles square, each to be subdivided into quarter 
townships containing 4,000 acres. 

Act of March 1, 1800, U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. 2, p. 14. 
Section 6 of the act approved March 1, 1800, amendatory of 
the foregoing act, enacted that the Secretary of the Treasury was 
authorized to subdivide the quarter townships into lots of 100 
acres, bounded as nearly as practicable by parallel lines 160 
perches in length by 100 perches in width. These subdivisions 
into lots, however, were made upon the plats in the office of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and the actual survey was only made 
at a subsequent time when a sufficient number of such lots had 
been located to warrant the survey. It thus happened, in some 
instances, that when the survey came to be made the plat and sur- 
vey could not be made to agree, and that fractional lots on plats 
were entirely crowded out. A knowledge of this fact may ex- 
plain some of the difficulties met with in the district thus sub- 
divided. 

The act of Congress approved February 11, 1805, directs the 
subdivision of the public lands into quarter sections, and provides 
that all the corners marked in the public surveys shall be estab- 
lished as the proper corners of sections or subdivisions of sections 
which they were intended to designate, and that corners of half 
and quarter sections not marked shall be placed as nearly as pos- 
sible " equidistant from those two corners which stand on the 
same line." This act further provides that " The boundary 
lines actually run and marked * * * shall be established as 
the proper boundary lines of the sections or subdivisions for 
which they were intended ; and the length of such lines as re- 
turned by * * * the surveyors * * * shall be held and 
considered as the true length thereof, and the boundary 




SYNOPSIS OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 




which shall not have been actually run and marked as aforesaid 
shall be ascertained by running straight lines from the established 
corners to the opposite corresponding corners ; but in those por- 
tions of the fractional townships, where no such opposite or cor- 
responding corners have been or can be fixed, the said boundary 
line shall be ascertained by running from the established corners 
due north and south or east and west lines, as the case may be, 
to the * * * external boundary of such fractional town- 
ship." 

The act of Congress approved April 25. 1812, provided 
1 'That there shall be established in the Department of the 
Treasury an office to be denominated the General Land Office, 
the chief officer of which shall be called the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, whose duty it shall be, under the direction 
of the head of the Department, to superintend, execute, and per- 
form all such acts and things touching or respecting the public 
lands of the United States, and other lands patented or granted 
by the United States, as have heretofore been directed by law to 
be done or performed in the office of the Secretary of State, of 
the Secretary and Eegister of the Treasury, and of the Secretary 
of War, or which shall hereafter by law be assigned to the said 
office." 

The act of Congress approved April 24, 1820, provides for 
the sale of public lands in half quarter-sections, and requires 
that " in every case of the division of a quarter-section the line 
for the division thereof shall run north and south * * * and 
fractional sections containing 160 acres and upwards shall, in 
like manner, as nearly as practicable, be subdivided into half 
quarter-sections, under such rules and regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of the Treasury ; but fractional sections 
containing less than 160 acres shall not be divided." 

The act of Congress approved May 24, 1824, provides 
" That whenever, in the opinion of the President of the United 
States, a departure from the ordinary mode of surveying land on 
any river, lake, bayou, or watercourse would promote the public 
interest, he may direct the surveyor-general in whose district such 
j^N land is situated, and where the change is intended to be made 




FIRST CONGRESSIONAL LAND LAWS. 



under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe, 
to cause the lands thus situated to be surveyed in tracts of two 
acres in width, fronting on any river, bayou, lake or watercourse, 
and running back the depth of forty acres." * * * 

The act of Congress approved April 5, 1832, directed the 
subdivision of the public lands into quarter quarters ; that in 
every case of the division of a half quarter-section the dividing 
line should run east and west, and that fractional sections should 
be subdivided under rules and regulations prescribed by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury. Under the latter provision the Secretary 
directed that fractional sections containing less than 160 acres, 
or the residuary portion of a fractional section, after the subdi- 
vision into as many quarter quarter-sections as it is susceptible 
of, may be subdivided into lots, each containing the quantity of 
a quarter quarter-section as nearly as practicable, by so laying 
down the line of subdivision that they shall be 20 chains wide, 
which distances are to be marked on the plat of subdivision, as 
are also the areas of the quarter quarters and residuary fractions. 

The two acts last above mentioned provided that the corners and contents 
of half-quarter and quarter quarter- sections should be ascertained, as nearly as 
possible, in the manner and on the principles directed and prescribed in the act 
of Congress approved February 11, 1805. 

From the foregoing synopsis of Congressional legislation it is evident — 

1st, That the boundaries of the public lands established and returned by 
the duly appointed Government surveyors, when approved by the surveyors 
general and accepted by the Government, are unchangeable. 

2d. That the original township, section and quarter-section corners estab- 
lished by the Government surveyors must stand as the true corners which they 
were intended to represent, whether the corners be in place or not. 

3d. That quarter-quarter-corners not established by the Government sur- 
veyors must be planted equidistant and on line between the quarter section 
and section corner. 

4th. That all subdivisional lines of a section must be straight lines, run- 
ning from the proper corner in one exterior line to its opposite corresponding 
corner in the opposite exterior line. 

5th. That in fractional sections where no opposite corresponding corner 
has been or can be established, any required subdivision line of such section 
must be run from the proper original corner in the boundary line due east and 
west, or north and south, as the case may be, to the water-course, Indian res- 
ervation, or other exterior boundary of such section. 



# 



PART II. 



DIAGRAMS 



AVITH 



DESCRIPTIVE IsTOTIES, 



ILLUSTRATING THE 

Legal Subdivisions of Land, 



WITH 

STJGG-BSTIOITS 

ON 

SUBDIYIDING, PLOTTING, ASSESSING »» DEEDING, 

ALSO, 

MAPS AND PLATS 

ILLUSTRATING 

EARLY SURVEYS. 



-fcr 




DIAGRAMS 

N? I N?2 

ETortfi Xorth 



A SQUARE 



» 



NORTH HALF 

Abbreviated N.Ysl ) 



SOUTH HALF 

Ab brei ' iated S 2 z 



South, 



South 



NP3 
North 



JIFSTJLUF 

JMreviate&JU^z, 



EASTti^iLF 



Abhre viaied E. J /z ' 



tt 



n? 4 

ISfortlh 



I 

I 

WORTH HE ST I NORTHEAST 

I 

QUARTER QUARTER 

AbbreviatedXWyA Abbreviated XE ^ 
J 



I 

I 

SOUTH TIES T | SOLTHEAST 

QUARTER QUARTER 

(Albre viatedS. K x '± ^Abbreviated SE. */* 
I 



South, 



South 




COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. H1GGINS 




4? 




8 Legal or Congressional Subdivisions 



OF THE SQUARE 
-^FOR LAND PARCELING.^-- 



The square represents the form adopted by Government for 
surveying and subdividing the public lands, and the basis of the 
public land system lies in the fact that the subdivisions of a 
square can be readily located and described when divided into 
halves and quarters, or subdivided into half-quarters and quarter- 
quarters on the cardinal points of the compass, north, south, 
east and west. 

The following diagrams give, the legal subdivisions of the 
square as designated by Congress for locating lands. First is 
given the square with the sides designated by the cardinal points 
of the compass. Next is given the divisions and subdivisions of 
the square into halves, quarters, half -quarters and quarter-quar- 
ters, these are the legal subdivisions used by government for lo- 
cating parcels of land. 

Diagram No. 1, represents a square having equal sides with 
the top marked North, the bottom South, the right side East, the 
left side West. 

Diagram No. 2 represents the square divided into two equal 
parts called halves, by a line running east and west, designated 
as the North half and the South half. When it is written for le- 
gal purposes it is usually abbreviated thus ; NJ- and SJ. 

Diagram No. 3 represents the square divided into two equa 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 




parts, by a line running north and south, designated as the East 
half and West half, abbreviated EJ and W£. 

Diagram No. 4, represents the square divided into four equal 
parts called quarters, by lines running north and south and east 
and west through the center of the square. The square between 
north and east is designated as the northeast quarter, the square 
between north and west the northwest quarter, the square be- 
tween south and east the southeast quarter, the square between 
south and west the southwest Quarter, abbreviated thus ; NEJ, 
NWj, SEi and SWJ.- 

Diagram No. 5, represents the square with the quar- 
ters subdivided into half -quarters, the quarters are subdivided 
into two equal parts by lines running north and south through 
the centers of the quarters. In the northeast quarter the sub- 
divisions are designated as the east half of the northeast quarter 
and the west half of the northeast quarter, written thus : EJ of 
NEJ and W£ of NEJ. In the southeast quarter they are 
designated as the east half of the southeast quarter and the west 
half of the southeast quarter, written, EJ of SE^ and WJ of 
SEJ. In the northwest quarter they are designated as the east 
half of the northwest quarter and the west half of the northwest 
quarter, written thus: EJ of NWJ andWJ of NWJ. In the 
southwest quarter they are designated as the east half of the 
southwest quarter and the west half of the southwest quarter, 
written thus : E>£ of SWJ and WJ of SWJ. In each subdivision 
will be found the abbreviations written on the diagram. 

Diagram No. 6, represents the square with the quarters 
subdivided into half -quarters by lines running east and west 
through the centres of the quarters. The abbreviations are 
marked on each piece, in the northeast quarter, the two half -quar- 
ters are designated as the north half of the northeast quarter and 
the south half of northeast quarter, written : N£ of NEJ and 
SJ of NEJ, the same division is made of each quarter, 

Diagram No. 7, represents the square with the quarters sub- 
divided into sixteen quarter quarters. Each quarter is di- 
vided in same manner as the square in diagram number 4, by 
running lines north and south and east and west through the 




EIAGRAMS 



N°5 

Forth 






^ % '/4 \*> C^ 



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-S 



^ kj 

^ ^ 
w 
^ 

-x ^ 

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N°6 




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Sec 15 Sec. 15 




H W Wi ! urw. 






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Sec 15 Sec. 15 
WVz SW.^4 W J /z S£ J * 




Sec 15 \ Sec. 15 




*a W/vi 1 <s F '/a 






tf-% <5'.ft:^ :i S J/ 2 SE 1 /* 




Sec. 15 Sec 15 



South 



South 



N?7 

JSfort'h, 




wwy± 


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if l h 


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"'A 


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s w x ± 


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s w-y± 


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S E +± 



j 



Soxztli 
REFERENCE 
TUnes dividing squares in to i 4- „ 
*4dnto ± s and *C/e _ 



/0J[ 






COPYRIGHTtO BY R. T HICGINS. 






SUBDIVISION OF A SQUARE. 



centres of the quarters, these lines subdivide each quarter into 
four quarters. In the northeast quarter these subdivisions are 
designated as follows : Northeast quarter of the northeast quar- 
ter, written: NE J NEJ (of, being implied) the northwest quar- 
ter of the northeast quarter, written : NWJ NEJ, the southeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter, written : SEJ NEJ and the 
southwest quarter of the northeast quarter, written SWJ 

NEJ. In the southeast quarter they are designated as the north- 
east quarter of the southeast quarter, written : NEJ SEJ. The 
southeast quarter of the southeast quarter, written : SEJ SEJ, 
the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter, written : NWJ 
SEJ, the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter, written : 
SWJ SEJ. The northwest and southwest quarters are subdi- 
vided in the same manner as the northeast and southeast quar- 
ters. The written abbreviations on each piece are used when ap- 
plied to land descriptions. Should this diagram seem complicated, 
draw a square, mark on it in the center NEJ, put north on top, 
south on bottom, on the right east, on the left west, subdivide it 
into four equal parts, and write out the description of each quarter 
as in Diagram 4. You will then have the subdivision of the north- 
east quarter, to each description must be added northeast quarter. 
Proceed in same manner with the northwest, southeast and south- 
west quarters. 

The subdivisions given in the seven preceeding diagrams are 
the legal subdivisions of a square as designated by Congress for 
land parcel ing. Government in subdividing the public lands ap- 
plies it only to sections of land, except in early surveys in Ohio, 
in which half and quarter townships were sold. 

Practice on the following examples until familiar with the 
subdivisions of the square into halves, quarters, half-quarters, 
and quarter-quarters, 

FIRST EXAMPLE. 

N^-NE^ SEi^-NEi^ SWi^-NEi^ NWi^ SE14 NJ6-SW& 

S^-SW^. 

SECOND EXAMPLE. 

N Ei^ W>4 NK -SEi^ SK-SEi^ NEI4-SW34 W}£-SW& 

-SE14-SW14. 

rid 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTKATED. 



THIRD EXAMPLE. 



E^-NE% W^-NE^ N^-NW^ S^-NW^ E>^-SE^ W%- 

FOURTH EXAMPLE. 

1st Description NE^-NW^ 9th Description NW3^-SE^ 

2nd " NWi^-SWi^ 10th " NEi^-NE^ 

3rd " SE^-SE^ 11th » 8W^-NW^ 

4th " SW^-NE^ 12th " SE^-SW^ 

5th " S¥>4-SW^ 13th " SE^-NE^ 

6th " SE^-NW^ 14th " SW^-SE)£ 

7th " NW^-NEi| 15th " NE^-SW^ 

8th '< NE^-SEi^ 16th " NW^-NW^ 

Description numbers from one to sixteen are prefixed merely to assist in 
proving the example. 

To prove the above example, first draw a large square ; 
divide it into quarters, next subdivide each quarter into quar- 
ters. You will then have 16 squares ; write north on the 
top, south on the bottom, east on the right, west on the left of 
the square. In each square write the description belonging to it. 
When completed place on each square with the description the 
number of the description. Thus, on the NEJ NWJ place 1, on 
the NWJ SWJ place 2, and so on to number 16 on the NWJ 
NWJ, add these numbers together from top to bottom, from 
rieht to left and from corner to corner. The sum of each row 
of numbers will be the same. 




K- 



12 



' w r r~ 






LIAQHAMS 



N?8 

J? or tit 



Section^ 
15 

One Square J file 



N°3 

Worth. 



4yw 



Section 15 
— 45 

S./2 

Section 15 



■So air 



South. 



N? 1 ) 

Worth 



R Sectioitlo 



1-- 



E'.ft 
SectionJS 



South. 



N9II 

Worth, 






N.W.'A 

Section Id 



S.W.'A 

Section IS 



N.E.'A 

Section 15 



m 



S.E./4 

Section 15 



REFERENCE 
Section* Lines _ _ _ ___ 



'South, 



Jim 'dividing Sec. into fy & % . 



^ ■ * „ ^ 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. HISGINS. 



<5 



• 



SUBDIVISION OF A SQUARE. 13 



The Legal Divisions and Subdivisions 
of a Square, Applied to a Section. 



Government in surveying and describing the Public Lands 
calls each square mile of land a section and designates it by a 
number. The subdivisions of the square given in the seven pre- 
ceding diagrams will apply to any section by adding the section 
number to each division or subdivision. 

The following diagrams are drawn on the cardinal points of 
the compass as in first seven diagrams : 

Diagram No. 8, marked Section 15, represents a square 
mile of land, the sides of which are each one mile in length. 

Diagram No. 9, represents Section 15 divided into north and 
south halves, which are designated as the north half of section 
15, and south half of section 15 ; written thus, NJ Sec. 15 and S£ 
Sec. 15. 

Diagram No. 10, represents Section 15 divided into east and 
west halves, written WJ Sec. 15, and EJ Sec. 15. 

Diagram No. 11, represents Section 15 divided into quarters, 
the descriptions are written on each quarter ; abbreviated they 
are written, NE| Sec. 15 ; NWi Sec. 15 ; SEJ Sec. 15 ; and SWJ 
Sec. 15. 

Diagram No. 12, represents the four quarters of Section 15 
divided into east and west halves by lines running through the 
centers of the quarters north and south. 

In the northeast quarter the subdivisions are designated as 
east half of the northeast quarter Sec. 15 and west half of the 
northeast quarter Sec. 15. In the northwest quarter the sub- 
divisions are designated as the east half of the northwest quar- 
ter Sec. 15 and west half of the northwest quarter See. 15 In 
the southeast quarter the subdivisions are designated as the 
east half of the southeast quarter Sec. 15 and the west half of 





SUBDIVISION AXD SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



the southeast quarter Sec. 15. In the southwest quarter the 
subdivisions are designated as east half of the southwest quarter 
Sec. 15, and the west half of the southwest quarter Sec. 15. The 
descriptions required for deeds are given on each subdivision, ab- 
breviated as generally used. 

Diagram No. 13, represents the four quarters of Sec, 15 di- 
vided into north and south halves by lines running through the cen- 
ters of the quarters east and west. In the northeast quarter, the 
subdivisions are designated as the north half of the northeast quar- 
ter Sec. 15 and the south half of the northeast quarter Sec. 15. 
In the northwest quarter the subdivisions are designated as 
the north half of the northwest quarter Sec. 15 and south half 
of the northwest quarter Sec. 15. In the southeast quarter 
the subdivisions are designated as the north half of the southeast 
quarter of Sec, 15 and the south half of the south east quarter of 
Sec. 15. In the southwest quarter the subdivisions are desig- 
nated as the north half of the southwest quarter Sec. 15 and 
the south half of the southwest quarter of Sec. 15. The abbrevi- 
ations are written on each piece. 

Diagram ]\ T o. 14, represents the four quarters of Section 
15 divided into quarters by lines running through the centre of 
each quarter both north and south and east and west, each quarter 
section is subdivided into quarters. In the northeast quarter the 
subdivisions are designated as the northeast quarter of the north- 
east quarter of Sec. 15 ; the southeast quarter of the northeast quar- 
ter of Sec. 15 ; the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of 
Sec. 15, and the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of 
Sec 15. In the northwest quarter the subdivisions are designated 
as the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of Sec. 15, the 
northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Sec. 15, the south 
east quarter of the northwest quarter of Sec. 15, and the south 
west quarter of the northwest quarter of Sec. 15. In the south- 
east quarter the subdivisions are designated as the northeast 
quarter of the southeast quarter of Sec. 15, the northwest quar- 
ter of the southeast quarter of Sec. 15, the southeast quarter of 
the southeast quarter of Sec. 15, and the southwest quarter of 
the southeast quarter of Sec. 15. In the southwest quarter 



15 



DIAGRAMS 





N912 


• 


Forth. 


^ 


I i $ 


^ 


^ ' 


bS-r&q!a 


^ 




W-b ^N 






'* « * !- * $ ' 


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H 


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Worth, 






2TYz JSTWV^ 
Sec. IS 



WVz JE V4r 
Sec 15 
h 



t£W* j ttrEr^ 



Sec 15 



SVz JVEY4 
Sec 15 



5S 1^ """~L,«!7 



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Sec 15 



SMY* 1- 

i 

I 

i 



SYz SWY4 
Sec. IS 



— S.E.fr 
SYz S.&Y4 
Sec. 15 



South 



South, 



N° 14- 
Worth 



nwv± . j\rwn 

Sec . IS 

w \ 


KEVi.NW^ 1 

Sec.16 

j Sec Id 


IfEYi.JTElk 
S'ec.lS 


N,\ 


V./4 j N.E 


J/4 


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c ,_ IsWY+.jrzYi 
oec lo % 

Sec.15 


Sec.15 


WJY^.SWYi 

S'ec.lS 


we^.swyA^ 

oec Id j 

Sec 15 

\FV r- r 


IZEYf.SEYt 
Sec.15 


o.V 


V.V4- j tyrt 


7^A 


SWY4 SJri-t 
Sec. 15 


SEYt.SfFYt 1 

SWVi.SEYk 

Seel j 1 


SE&t.SE'H 

Sec 15 




cSV> 7 / ?7/ 





REFERENCE \ f ine ?/'''?"■'' f ec :'"'" ** - ■ 



■ hk;.;:n^. 



o 



18 



fc? ^-^ "*» 









IDI.aGlH.iLM: 



#? /5 



~z 



SECTIO^ T S-25,26,35&36 

Explanation on Page 19 



Xo 



rtlo 



80 ch, 

N.'A 

3Z0A. 

Sec . 

-2& 



s.y 2 

320^1 



N.W.'A 

160^1 



N.E'A 



Sqc . 
-35 



160^1 

40 ch. 



S.E'A 

160^4 
4-0 ch. 



40 ch, 



4-0 ch 



3Z0^i 



320^- 



Sec. 

36 

640^4 



80c7x/ 



T o ^\rn_ sTtl±j> 



•So-ath^-. 



Xiri-e 



REFERENCE 
Sectiorvliines _ ____, 



JTz'/ft? <2^t t/S^ <£?r. z>?& Vz&Vl. 



W.'/2 215 E.'/ 2 3 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. HIGGINS. 



»» g 






SUBDIVISION OF A SECTION. 




the subdivisions are designated as the northeast quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Sec. 15, the northwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Sec. 15, the southeast quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Sec. 15 and the southwest quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Sec. 15. The abbreviations are written on each 
piece. 

The foregoing subdivisions are the legal subdivisions recog- 
nized by Government in deeding and describing lands, repre- 
sented in amounts by 160,80 and 40 acres. 




■ « ♦► 



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE NUMBER OF ACRES 

IN EACH LEGAL DIVISION OR SUBDIVISION 

OF A SECTION OF LAND. 

Diagram N~o. 15 represents sections 25, 26, 35, and 36, 
four sections of land located in the southeast corner of a Con- 
gressional township. 

Sectio7i 36 is represented as a square containing 640 acres, 
the sides of which are each 80 chains or 320 rods. Government 
in deeding a section deeds it by its number, adding the number 
of the range and township in which it is located. 

Section 25 illustrates a section divided into east and west halves 
each containing 320 acres the sides of which are 40 by 80 chains ( or 
160 by 320 rods. ) The descriptions when abbreviated for assessing 
or deeding are E£ sec 25, 320 Acres, and WJ sec. 25, 320 Acres. 

Section i?# illustrates a section divided into north and south 
halves the sides of which are 40 by 80 chains (or 160 by 320 rods) 
each half containing 320 Acres. The descriptions of which areNJ 
Section 26, 320 Acres and SJ Sec. 26, 320 Acres. 

Section 35 illustrates a section divided into quarters by lines 
running through the center of the section, N., S., E. and W. 
Each square represents 160 acres the sides of which are each 40 
chains or 160 rods in length. The following are the descriptions of 

rid 



20 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

the quarters: Northeast quarter of section 35, containing 160 
acres abbreviated thus : NEi Sec 35, 160 A. The abbreviations of 
the other quarters are NWi Sec. 35, 160 A. The SWi Sec. 35, 
160 A., and the SEi Sec. 35, 160 A. 

Diagram No. 16, represents Sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, di- 
vided into 40 and 80 acre tracts. Sections 25 and 36 are subdi- 
vided into 80 acre tracts, and sections 26 and 35 are subdivided 
into 40 acre tracts. In each section one-half of the subdivisions 
have the abbreviated descriptions and number of acres written 
on them, the other subdivisions are left blank as examples to be 
filled with descriptions and number of acres. In sections 25 and 36 
the 80 acre tracts are each 20 by 40 chains (or 80 by 160 rods.) 
In sections 26 and 35 the 40 acre tracts are each 20 chains, or 80 
rods square. The descriptions of the subdivisions of the north- 
west quarter of Sec. 25 for deeds are Ei NWi Sec. 25, 80 A., 
and Wi NWi Sec. 25, 80 acres. The descriptions of the subdi- 
visions of the northwest quarter of sec. 26 for deeds are, NEi of 
NWi of Sec. 26, forty acres, the SEi of NWi of Sec. 26, 
forty acres, the SWi of NWi Sec. 26, forty acres and the NWJ 
of NWJ of Sec 26 forty acres. In the southeast quarter of Sec 
26 add to each abbreviation the number of the section. 

In section 35 the NE and SW quarters have abbreviated de- 
scriptions written on each subdivision. The subdivision of the 
southwest quarter, when written on deeds or tax receipts would 
be SEi of SWi of Sec. 35, containing 40 acres. The NEi of 
SWi of Sec. 35 containing 40 acres. The NWJ of SWi of 
Sec. 35 containing 40 acres, and the SWi of SWi of Sec. 35 
containing 40 acres each of the 40 acre tracts, are 20 chains 
square. One-half of the quarters in this diagram are marked off 
into 40 and 80 acre tracts for examples. Draw square, as in 
diagram, and fill in abbreviated description on each subdivision. 
Length and breadth of each piece are given in rods or chains. 



^*-4*»-«^- 



,24 



xr 



* n Ht ' •m 



_ft?_4 | JO.JL 



A I 7/: 



Sec 36 J.O_A_ 



SYe SYtJWY-tSW 
Sec 36 JOA 



NP/7 

Explanation on Page 25 
Se\c 

•8fe— — r 



H 



MA 






itf.^ 



■ifl?^ 



.f/4 



/^ 



J0_^ 



£e7zj 






jw^/ 



Sec.36 JOA 



Si 2 2Ffi SEte SWYi 
Sec 36 lO^L 

S£¥* 



SWWSEta 

SiFXtScc.36 

10A 



$E4bS0B4k 
MA 



ter 



N.W/ 



20A 






Jfn 2TJE Ya 
SEY'± Sec 36 
ZOA 

N.E14 



20 A 



SYztfEVdSEIJL 
Sec 36 20 A 



-S.W* 



SE**Sec36 

ZOA ' 



South, 



T O TV^JTL SlTLip 

)Zine dividing Sec.into -Y& 

RttZ.RZUZEViZi7ierfiv7c7m<7 J/ 47nto 40A:tr/icts 

\Lau dirzdijuj 40A. tracts intolO&20A 



20A 



ZOA | 

X.1 n. e 



£4 



5A 



SA 



5A 



WM^ 



JA 



JA 






^ ^ ^j 
5l 



SWYtSec.2S 
JA 



SWUSecZS 
JA 



SA 



SA 



11 






N.g'A 

WY2 SW^lTEYd 
SWY4.Sec.2S 



5.A 



SnSWYdMEn 

SW1± Sec.25 

~XMNEY±SW^ 
SWY± Sec 25 



SA. 



SYzKE^SWY^ 
SWYtSec 25 






*3 






^ 






SA 



SA 



SrE^ 



SA 



SA 



Center of 
Sfc. 

-25 



SWYiSec .25 
SA 



SHITE YtNEVt 

SW-XtSec.ZS 

SA 






1^ 






k -\ Z- A. 

Explanation 

on Page 25. 

REFERENCE 

Iiine dividing Section, 

into I'd 

Line dividing l y 4- into 

40A tracts 

Zine dividing 40 A tra cts 
into S Acres 



Soxcth, 



COPYRIGHTED BY Ft. T. HIG6INS. 



— -*- 






<p>> 



1$ 

SUBDIVISION OF A SECTION. 25 



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE SUBDIVISION OF A 
SECTION INTO 5, lO, AND 20 ACRE TRACTS. 




Diagram 1 T represents the south half of Section 36. The 
south half of section 36 is subdvided into ten and twenty acre 
tracts. In the southeast quarter, which is subdivided into 
twenty acre tracts, by subdividing each forty acres into halves, 
one-half of the subdivisions are left blank for examples, to fill 
with descriptions, and number of acres. To subdivide the south- 
east quarter, draw a square, letit represent the southeast quarter, 
mark north, south, east and west on the margin, in correct 
position, and in the center mark SEJ, divide it into quarters, 
and each of these quarters into halves. From the abbreviated de- 
scriptions given in the diagram you will be able to determine de- 
scriptions of the blank subdivisions. For the southwest quarter 
of section 36 draw square and subdivide as before, with this ad- 
dition, divide each half into halves. The abbreviated descrip- 
tions will be found on diagram. Locate the following descrip- 
tions : WJ of EJ, of SEi of SW.JSec. 36 ; SJ of N£ of SWJ SWJ 
Sec. 36 ; SEJ of NEJ of SWJ Sec. 36. To determine the num- 
ber of acres in each piece, multiply the denominators of the 
fractions of each subdivision together, and divide 640 (number 
of acres in a section), by the product, the result obtained will be 
the number of acres for each subdivision. 

Diagram 18. — This diagram represents the southwest quar- 
ter of Section 25, divided into tracts of five acres each. The 
northeast quarter and the southwest quarter, of the southwest 
quarter, as marked on the diagram, have the number of acres and 
section, with abbreviated description of each tract marked on it. 
The northwest quarter, and the southeast quarter are divided into 
&ve acre tracts without descriptions for examples. To subdivide 
a section into five acre tracts draw a large square on the cardinal 
points of the compass ; let it represent a section ; divide it into 
quarters by running lines through the centre, north and south 
and east and west, the square between south and west will repre- 



26 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

sent diagram 18, the southwest quarter. Subdivide this quar- 
ter into quarters, as above described, each of which will repre- 
sent forty acre, tracts. Subdivide each quarter-quarter, or for- 
ty acre tract into quarters as before, each square will repre- 
sent ten acres ; subdivide each ten acre tract into halves, as in 
diagram. This will complete the subdivision of the southwest 
quarter into ^ve acre tracts. Subdivide each quarter in same 
manner. 



Fractional Sections Subdivided into Lots 



-WITH- 



Legal Descriptions for Assessing and Deeding 



Diagram 19 represents the northwest corner of a township, 
in which the fractional quarters are lotted according to plan 
adopted for a majority of the townships in Missouri, Illinois, 
Indiana, Arkansas, and some of the other States. There are 
many exceptions in these States, as will be seen by reference to 
the township diagrams, with each State. In all cases where 
government designates, and patents a piece of land by a number, 
instead of the description, the number should be used in assess- 
ing, deeding, and in abstracting. Previous to law passed by 
Congress, making subdivisions when subdivided on the cardinal 
points of the compass and described as halves and quarters, legal 
descriptions ; land descriptions contained the lengths and bear- 
ings of the lines, or the boundaries by calling for corners and 
owners names adjoining. In this diagram the quarter sections, on 
the west and north of the township, are lotted, and in deeding 
should be deeded as lots ; for example. In Section 18 the south- 
west quarter is designated by government as Lot 1, southwest 
quarter, and Lot 2, southwest quarter, instead of east half of 
southwest quarter, and west half of southwest quarter ; usually 




27 



:xx: 



7 



ixx: 



DIAGEAM. 
JVo. 19 
Explanation on Page 26. 

TownsTirp 1 North, Bang e J2 West, of the 2™* Principal ler. 
Township , North ) ~ i -'* ri - e 




DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ASSESSING. 20 % 

the west half of Sections 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, and the south- 
west quarter of Sec. 6 are divided into lots by lines running 
north and south as in Sec. 18 ; and the north half of Sections 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, divided into lots by lines running east and 
west as in Sec. 5. Each quarter lotted by government should 
be described in £he same manner. This diagram has been in- 
serted to illustrate the correct descriptions of land to be used in 
assessing, abstracting and deeding, and the following descrip- 
tions are from the subdivisions given in the diagram. 



ASSESSING. 



Assessing is placing a valuation on property or profits of 
business for the purpose of taxation. In each county or asses- 
sing district the assessor uses his discretion as to the value placed 
on all property, which is usually less than the real value or less 
than the price for which it could be purchased. In each state at 
regular intervals, of one or more years, all property subject to 
taxation is assessed by persons elected for that purpose. The 
folio wing notes on assessing are confined to real estate descriptions. 

Before commencing the assessment, the assessor should be 
furnished with complete township plats, showing the amounts of 
land sold in each quarter section, and all lots designated on original 
plats should be marked on each fractional quarter section. 
Blank township plats subdivided into forty acre tracts are needed, 
on which each tract should be checked as assessed ; it will save a 
great amount of labor in making final books. Grouping together 
a number of pieces, some of which are fractional should be 
avoided ; descriptions of fractional pieces should occupy a sepa- 
rate line, otherwise some difficulty will be experienced in tellino- 
when each section has been correctly assessed. On the following 
pages 30 and 31 are given a correct and erroneous assessment of 
lands in Diagram 19, page 27. 



30 



SUBDIVISION" AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



CORRECT DESCRIPTIONS 

FOR ASSESSMENT OF 
Sections 5, 6, 7 and 18, T. 10 N., R. 12 W, 



No. of Acres 


SECTION 5. 






See Diagram 19, Pa^e 27. 


80 


EJSEi 


J. B. Jones. 


40 


Ei Lot 1, NEi 


a a 


80 


Wi SEi 


S. B. Hayes. 


40 


WJLotl,NEi 


Eobt. McCulloch 


82 


Lot 2 NEi 


a a 


70 


Lot 1 NWJ except SWi Wi 


a a 


82 


Lot 2 NWi 


J. S. Thornton. 


160 


SWi 


J. B. Wheaton. 


10 


SWi Wi Lot 1 NWi 

SECTION 6 


a a 


160 


SEi 


J. B. Wheaton 


40 


Si Lot 1 NEi 


a (( 


40 


Si Lot 1 SWi 


a a 


40 


Ni Lot 1 NEi 


A, L. Peterson. 


81 


Lot 2 NEi 


a a 


79 


Lot 1 NWi 


John Ellis. 


79 


Lot 2 NWi 


a a 


40 


Ni Lot 1 SWi 


E. F.Williams. 


77 


Lot 2 SWi 

SECTION 7. 


a a 


120 


EJ SEi and SWi SEi 


L. B. Bozzola. 


40 


SJ Lot 1 SWi 


a a 


40 


NWJ SEi 


Henry Bewig. 


40 


Ni Lot 1 SWi 


a a 


77 


Lot 2 SWi 


a a 


38i 


SJ Lot 2 NWi 


a a 


90 


All NEi S of Beech Cr. 


R. Stewart. 


70 


All NEi N of Beech Cr. 


J. B. Wheaton. 


80 


Lot 1 NWi 


W. A. Hobson. 


38i 


Ni Lot 2 NWi 

SECTION 18. 


a a 


120 


Ei SEi and SWi SEi 


I. B. Dunbar. 


40 


Si Lot 1 SWi 


it .6 


40 


SEi NEi 


a a 



CORRECT AND ERRONEOUS DESCRIPTIONS. 



m 



No, of Acres 


SECTON 18 Contimiec 


l. 


40 


NWJ NEi 


J. Sandford 


40 


NJ Lot 1 SWi 


a a 


78 


Lot 2 SWi 


a a 


39 


WJ Lot 2 NWi 


a a 


120 


WJ NEi and NEi NEi 


E. B. Hall. 


40 


N-J Lbt 1 NWi 


a a 


40 


S£ Lot 1 NWi 


C. C. Wood 


39 


E£ Lot 2 NWi 


44 44 



ERRONEOUS DESCRIPTIONS 

Of Sections 5, 6, 7, etc. 

(Frequently used in assessing.) 

No. of Acres. SECTION 5. 

120 EJ, SEJ, SEi, NEJ, J. B. Jones. 

80 W part of SEJ, S. B. Hayes. 
122 WJ and NEJ-NEJ, Robt. McCulloch, 

70 Part S J NWi. 

81 NJ NWi, J. S. Thornton. 
170 SWi and part of NWi, J. B Wheaton. 

SECTION 6. 

240 SEi, SJ, Si, NEi, SEi SWi, J. B. Wheaton. 

121 NJ NEi, NJ SJ NEJ, A. L. Peterson. 
158 NWi, John Ellis. 

117 WJ and NEi SWi, E. F. Williams. 

SECTION 7. 

160 EJ and SWi SEi, SEi SWi, L. B. Bozzola. 

iq*a 5 NWJ SEi, WJ and NEi „ „ . 

195 * ] SWi, SWi NWi, Heni y BeW1 ^ 

90 Part of NEi, R. Stewart. 

70 Part of NEi, J. B. Wheaton. 

118J EJ and NWi NWi, W. A. Hobson. 

SECTION 18. 

9nn 5 EJ and SWi SEi, SEi T ^ n , 

200 I SWi, SEi NEi, L B * Dunbar - 

1Q7 5WJ and NEi SWi, NWi T g a* a 

197 I SEi, WJ Wi NWi, J * Sandford ' 

160 WJ and NEi NEJ, NEJ NWi, E. B. Hall. 

39 SEi SWi, EJ WJ NWi, C. C. Woods. 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED, 



ERRONEOUS DESCRIPTIONS ON PAGE 31 ILLUSTRATED. 

First is given the assessment of Sections 5,6,7 and 18, with 
correct descriptions. On page following is given the same sec- 
tions, with erroneous descriptions. The descriptions on page thirty 
are definite legal descriptions, by which each piece can be exactly 
located, and the lot numbers conform to original patents from 
government. The erroneous descriptions on page thirty-one are 
such as are frequently used in assessing, and sometimes in deed- 
ing. As a rule lot one is full, and two is the fraction ; to deed, 
or assess these lots, as the east and west halves, or north and 
south halves, would not be correct. The descriptions, as desig- 
nated by government are the correct descriptions. 

To readily comprehend the difference between correct and 
erroneous descriptions, the following is suggested : From Dia- 
gram 19, Page 27, draw off the description of each piece as you 
think it should occur in a tax receipt, after completing it, com- 
pare it with the correct and erroneous descriptions on pages 30 
and 31. 

The following are the errors in the descriptions of Section 5, 
on Page 31 : The first description (120 acres) should give the 
number of the lot, and be described in two parts, giving the lot 
description separately. The second description (80 acres) should 
state WJ instead of W. part. The third description (122 acres) 
should give the lot numbers and be in two descriptions. The 
fourth description (70 acres) should state what part so that a defi- 
nite location can be had (land cannot be sold for taxes unless it 
can be located by the description) The fifth description (82 
acres) should give the lot number, the erroneous description would 
lose one acre of land. The sixth description (170 acres) should give 
location of 10 acres separate from the 160 acres and the subdi- 
visional part of lot. See correct description. 

Section 6. The first description (240 acres) should be in 
three descriptions and give the lots separately. The second de- 
scription (121 acres) should give lot descriptions separately. The 
third description (158 acres) should be given in lots. The fourth 
description (117 acres) should be given with lot numbers. 




DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ASSESSING. 




In assessing a city or town, the assessment should commence 
with Lot 1 in the original town, and if there are blocks, with 
Block 1, and proceed in consecutive order with the lots in each 
block, and in consecutive order with the blocks. Each addition 
should be assessed separately, taking the lots in consecutive 
order ; following which, the assessment of the outlets and small 
pieces should be made. If there are a number of small pieces 
without numbers, in and around the city, which are hard to de- 
scribe, and on which they refuse to pay taxes, because not prop- 
erly described, as is frequently the case, the following plan is 
suggested for assessing, viz : The assessor should plat so much of 
the city or town, as to show the location of the pieces, (showing 
the blocks and lots they join,) mark it, assessor's plat, and num- 
ber the lots consecutively, beginning with number one. Have 
plat recorded as assessor's plat, and in assessing write lot num- 
ber, and after it, " assessor's addition." If you use number of 
acres with lot number, and exact amount is not known, place 
before each number of acres the word about. 

The above suggested plan, wherever tried, has proved a 
remedy against refusal to pay taxes on account of indefinite de- 
scriptions. In assessing Spanish grants and irregular shaped 
tracts, give such a description that the tracts can be located. 
The original number, or name given, must be added to the de- 
scription. When a military tract or a grant is subdivided into 
small tracts make a plat of the tract or grant, and place a number 
on each subdivision, (it is not necessary to survey it ; plat it from 
the deeds,) have plat recorded as assessor's plat and assess as 
described above. Assessments should be put on a strictly busi- 
ness basis. They are not complete unless every piece of land 
can be located by the description. This is a necessity, not only 
as a protection to the Counties, against those who refuse to pay 
taxes, but it is due the men who pay their taxes, to have every 
description a definite legal description, without which, a tax title 
is not worth the paper it is written on. 

In Sections 7 and 18 the same class of errors exist, which 
will be seen by comparing the descriptions with the diagram. 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 




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DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON TAXING. 




TAX RECEIPT DESCRIPTIONS. 

The descriptions in tax receipt on page 34 are from Dia- 
gram No. 19 and represent the farm of J. B. Wheaton, lo- 
cated in Sections, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The first description is south- 
west quarter of Sec. 5, that is: one-quarter of 640 acres (a sec- 
tion), which is 160 acres. The next description is southwest quar- 
ter, west half Lot 1, northwest quarter Sec. 5, that is one-quarter 
of one-half of Lot 1 ; one-quarter of one-half equals one-eighth, 
and Lot 1 is 80 acres ; hence we have one-eighth of 80 a?res, 
which is 10 acres. The next description is southeast quarter of 
Sec. 6, same as southwest quarter of Sec. 5, 160 acres. The 
next description is south half of Lot 1, northeast quarter Sec. 6, 
Lot 1, is 80 acres ; one-half of 80 is 40 acres. The next descrip- 
tion is south half Lot 1 southwest quarter Sec. 6, same as Lot 1, 
northwest quarter, 40 acres. The next description, all northeast 
quarter north of Beech Creek, Sec. 7, 70 acres ; this is considered 
an indefinite description, as creek is liable to change, but is gene- 
rally used. The next description is northwest quarter of Sec. 8, 
160 acres. Following the lands in Diagram 19 are the descrip- 
tions of lots and outlots in the town of Hermitage, from Diagram 
27 page 64. The description of all lots should give number of 
lot, number of block, and name of addition, (if it is not the 
original town.) Outlots should show number of acres. 



ABSTRACTS OF TITLE, 



Abstracts of title are short extracts taken from deeds, wills, 
decrees of courts, or other legal conveyances, and from mort- 
gages, judgments, liens, and all legal papers affecting the title, 
of the property. These extracts, or abstracts of conveyances, 
should show the character of each legal paper affecting the title. 




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SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



whether an absolute or conditional conveyance, also the ac- 
knowledgments and records of each with their dates ; the names and 
residence of all parties legally connected with each conveyance. 
The property set forth should be accurately and minutely de- 
scribed, and any irregularity or omission should be noted. The 
records should be examined for the following, viz : Deeds, Or- 
ders, or Decrees of Courts, Wills, Titles by Descent, and Encum- 
brances among which may be mentioned Mortgages, Judgments, 
Dowers, Taxes, Liens, Leases and Rents . 

PUBLIC LAND ABSTRACTS. 

In abstracting the public lands the title is not traced back of 
the patent from government, it being conceded that the treaties, 
purchases and cessions to the national government carries abso- 
lute title ; and the abstracts should show a chain of title from 
the government patent to the present owner. When patent is 
not recorded, the entry in original entry book, is considered suf- 
ficient evidence of ownership. In a perfect title, the transfer 
from each party should be a Warranty Deed, or its equivalent, 
and all encumbrances cancelled or satisfied. 

ABSTRACT OF FARM ILLUSTRATED. 

On pages 36 and 37, is given the abstract of title to 
J. B. Wheaton's farm of 410 acres, situated in Clark county, 
Illinois. For plat of farm see Diagram 19. This abstract of 
title is traced from United States patent to J. B. Wheaton, with 
exceptional notes given at foot of abstract. Beginning with 
land in Sec. 5, the original patent embraces the southwest quarter 
of Sec*, 5, and Lot 1 northwest quarter, but in subsequent trans- 
fers only ten acres of Lot 1 is sold ; this tract shows an un- 
broken title. The lands in Sec. 6 show a mortgage, which was 
subsequently released. One piece was erroneously described, as 
shown in abstract, and one acknowledgment fails to show whether 
the grantor was married or single. In the erroneous description 
southeast quarter, southwest quarter Sec. 6, if surveyed by that 
description, a strip would be cut off the west side of the tract and 
given Lot 2. See erroneous descriptions for assessing, page 
thirty-one. 



DEEDING. 



Deeding in law is a formal written expression of something 
done by the party or parties from whom it proceeds ; in the fol- 
lowing it will be applied only to the conveyancing of real estate. 

In the general forms for Bond and Deeds on pages 41 to 43 the 
descriptions are from diagram 19, and are here inserted to show 
the correct descriptions for fractional as well as regular subdi- 
visions of the public lands. 

The public land system of surveys and descriptions may be 
termed "the practical part of geography ,'" for no other part of 
geography can be put into such general use by the " land own- 
ers " of this country as the subdivisions and descriptions of the 
public lands. Every year the land owners are called upon to de- 
scribe their lands and to pay taxes on those descriptions, for 
State, county, school and road purposes. Besides this every 
home must be surveyed, described and deeded, and it is of great 
importance that every person who expects to own a home should 
understand thoroughly the descriptions used in the public land 
system of surveys, and be able to determine for himself not only 
the descriptions of his own home, but of any tract or parcel of 
the public lands. The law makes it every man's duty to furnish 
to the assessor a correct description of his lands ; the wrong de- 
scriptions furnished the assessor, and the wrong descriptions in 
the deeds have been the loss of many homes. The basis needed 
is a correct location and a correct description ; without this, all 
labor is lost. 

In the accompanying deeds we call attention to the correct 
location of the lands deeded, in Diagram 19, and to the correct 
descriptions as shown in abstract of title on pages thirty-six and 
thirty-seven. In deeds the following should be carefully given 
viz : The proper names, the consideration, and legal descriptions 
The acknowledgments should be properly attested. 





SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



LEGAL DESCRIPTION FOR DEEDS. 

In the public lands the following is necessary for a legal de- 
scription, viz : First, the section, or fractional part, as designated 
by government on original patent, adding, more or less, fractional 
part of, or lot number, whenever it occurs in the original patent ; 
next, the number of the township and range, the name or number 
of the surveying meridian, and the number of acres. Land 
grants, military tracts, and irregular shaped pieces should be 
deeded by metes and bounds, that is, give the length and the 
bearings of the sides, to which should be added number of 
acres and original name or number. Deeds for town or city lots 
should show size of lot, number of lot, and name of the original 
town or addition, with name of count v and state added. 



DIRECTIONS RELATING TO THE PURCHASING OF LAND. 

"First, see the Land ivhich thou intend? st to buy 

Within the Seller's Title clear do lie: 

And that no Woman to it doth lay claim, 

By Dowry, Jointure, or some other Name 

That may it cumber* Know if bound or free 

The tenure stand, and that from each Feoffee 

It be released. Tliat the Seller be so old 

That he may lawful sell, thou lawful hold: 

Have special care that it not Mortgaged be, 

Nor be entayled on Posterity. 

TJien if it stand in Statute, bound or no, 

Be well advised ivhat Quit rent out must go, 

Wliat Custom Service hath been done of old, 

By those who formerly the same did hold; 

And if a Wedded Woman put to Sale, 

Deal not with her unless she bring her Male; 

For she doth under Covert-Baron go, 

Atho' sometimes some trafflque so (ive know) 

Thy Bargain being made, and all this done, 

Have special Care to let thy Charter run 

To Thee, thy Heirs, Executors, Assigns, 

For that beyond thy Life securely binds, 

These things foreknown and done, you may prevent 

Those Things rash Buyers many Times repent, 

And yet ivhen you have done all that you can, 

If you'll be sure, deal with an Honest Man.'''' 




FORM OF BOND FOR DEED, 



BOND FOR DEED. 

Know all Men by these Presents, That Peter Atwill, of East 
St, Louis, of the County of St. Clair and State of Illinois is held and 
firmly bound to Joel B. Wlieaton, of the City of St. Louis and State 
of Missouri, in the sum of Three Thousand Dollars, to be paid to said 
Joel B. Wlieaton, his Executors, Administrators or Assigns, to the pay- 
ment whereof he binds himself and his Heirs, Executors and Administra- 
tors, firmly by these presents. Sealed with his seal and dated the Fourth 
day of March A. D. 1884. 

The Condition of this obligation is, that if lie the said Peter Atwill, 
upon payment of Two Thousand Dollars, and interest thereon, as agreed 
and promised by said Joel B. Wlieaton, agreeably to this promissory 
Note, dated March 4, 1884, and made payable as follows, to-wit: 
§2,000. St. Louis, Mo., March 4, 1884. 

One year after date for value received L promise to pay 
Peter Atwill, or order, Two Thousand Dollars with interest. 

{Signed) J. B. Wheaton. 

Shall convey to said Joel B. Wlieaton, his Heirs, Executors, or Assigns, 
FOREVER, the following described Real Estate, situated, lying and being in 
the County of Clark, and State of Illinois, to-wit : SWi Sec. 5, 160 
acres, and SWi of W\ Lot 1, NW\ Sec. 5, 10 acres, lying in 
T. 10 1ST. R. 12 W. 2d P. M. containing in all 170 acres, 
more or less, according to the United States survey thereof. 

By Warranty Deed or Deeds in common form duly executed and ac 
knowledged, and in the mean time shall permit said Joel B. Wlieaton to 
occupy and improve said premises for his own use, then this obligation shall 
be void, otherwise it shall remain in full force. 

Signed, Sealed and delivered in presence of Samuel Paywell. 

Peter Atwill. [seal] 

State of Missouri, } 

City op St. Louts, J Be it remembered, That on this 4th clay of 

March A. D. 1884, before the undersigned, a Notary Public within 
and for the City of iSt. Louis aforesaid personally qme Peter Atwill, who 
is personally known to me to be the same person whose name is subscribed 
to the foregoing instrument of writing, as party thereto, and acknowledged the 
same to be his act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. 

In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my official 
seal at my office in City of St. Louis in said State, the day and year first 
above written. 

My term of office as Notary Public will expire Jan. 1st, 1887. 

For plat see Diagram 19. page 27. J. J. Jones. 



42 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



GENERAL WARRANTY DEED. 

This Indenture, Made on the Fourth day of March A. D. One 
TJiousand Eight Hundred and Eighty Five, by and between Peter 
AtwiU, ( Widower,) of East St. Louis, Illinois, party of the First 
Part; and Joel B. Wheaton, of the City of St. Louis, in the State of 
Missouri, party of the Second part. 

Witxesseth, That the said party of the First Part in consideration 
of the snm of Two Thousand Dollars to him paid by the said party 
of the Second Part, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, does by 
these presents Grant, Bargain and Sell, Convey and Confirm, unto the 
said party of the Second part, his heirs and assigns, the following described 
Lots, Tracts or Parcels of Land, lying, being and situated in the County of 
Clark and State of Illinois, to-wit : The S Wi Sec. 5, 160 acres, 
and SWi of Wi Lot 1, NWl Sec. 5, 10 acres lying in T. 10 
JS/~. It. 12 W. 2d F. M., containing in all 170 acres, more or 
less, according to the United States survey thereof. 

To Have and to Hold the premises aforesaid, with all and singular the 
rights, privileges, appurtenances, immunities and improvements thereto belong- 
ing, or in any wise appertaining unto the said party of the Second Part, and unto 
his heirs and assigns, Forever; the said Peter AtwiU, hereby covenanting 
that he will Warrant and Defend the title to the said premises unto the said 
party of the Second Part and unto his heirs and assigns Forever, against 
the lawful claims and demands of all persons whomsoever. 

In Witness Whereof, The said party of the First Part has hereunto set 
his hand and seal the day and year first above written. 

Signed. Sealed and Delivered in Presence of us, 
Leander Smith, > 
Addison Walters. 5 

Peter AtwiU. [seal] 

STATE OF MISSOURI, 1 

r SS. 

City of St. Louis, J On this Ninth day of March 1 885, 

before me personally appeared Peter AtwiU, (Widower,) to me known to be 
the person described in and who executed the foregoing instrument, and ac- 
knowledged that he executed the same as his free act and deed. And the said 
Peter AtwiU further declares himself to be single and unmarried. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in the City of St. Louis, the year and day above 
written 

My term of office as Notary Public expires July 4th, 1888. 

Thomas Bryan. 

For plat see Diagram 19, page 27. 




FORM OF QUIT CLAIM DEED. 




QUIT-CLAIM DEED. 

This Indenture, made on the 2nd day of November, A. D. One Thou- 
sand Eight Hundred and Eighty-six, by and between John B. Lamb, of the Coun- 
ty of St. Louis, and State of Missouri, party of the First Part, and W. W. Ward of 
the County of Scott, and State of Missouri, party of the Second Fart, 

Witxesseth, That the said party of the First Part, in consideration of the 
sum of One Thousand Dollars, to him paid by the said party of the Second Part, 
the receipt of which is hereby acKiiowledged, does by these Presents, Remise, Re- 
lease, and forever Quit-Claim unto the said party of the Second Part, the following 
described Lots, Tracts, or Parcels of Land, lying, being and situate in the 
County of St. Louis and State of Missouri, to wit: All of Lot 2 in Survey 999, 
bounded and described as follows: Beginning at a marked stone at the northwest 
corner of Survey 999 (for location and description of stone see original field notes 
and plat); thence N. 69° 30' W. one hundred and twenty rods to a limestone rock 
marked with a +, mound of stone alongside; thence S. 20° E. one hundred and twenty 
rods to a sandstone, on south line of survey 999, from which an oak tree 1 6 inches 
in diameter bears N. 73° W. 89 links; thence W. one hundred and twenty-eight 
rods to mound of earth from which an ash tree twenty inches in diameter' bears N. 
43 3 E.117 links; thence JV. 20° W. seventy-five rods to beginning, containing seven- 
ty-three acres more or less: also the following lots situated in the town of Hermitage, 
viz. : Lots iVo. one (1), two (2), three (3), four (4), five (5) and six (6), in original 
toivn, and lots one (1), two (2), eight (8) and seven (7), in Block No. 1 Jucksotfs 
addition. 

To have and to hold the same, with all the rights, immunities, priv- 
ileges and appurtenances thereto belonging, unto the said party of the Second 
Part, and his heirs and assigns, Forever; so that neither the said party of the 
First part, nor his heirs, nor any other person or persons for him or in his 
name or behalf, shall or will hereafter claim or demand any right or title to the 
aforesaid premises, or any part thereof, but they and every of them shall, by 
these presents, be excluded and forever barred. 

In witness whereof, The said party of the First Part has hereunto set 
his hand and seal, the day and year first above written. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered fSEAX.l 

in Presence of us : ' J 

, „ n John B. Lamb TSeal.! 

Samuel H. Owens, c J 

Allen McDowell. I *- AJj '^ 

J [Seal.] 

STATE OF MISSOURI, \ 

County of St. Louis. J * On this third day of November, 1886, before me 
personally appeared John B. Lamb, to me known to be the person described in 
and who executed the foregoing instrument and acknowledged that he execuled 
the same as his free act and deed. And the said John B. Lamb farther declares 
himself to be single and unmarried. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in Clayton, the day and year first above written. My 
term of office expires Jan. 1st, 1 88 ■*. S. Ford, 

Notary Public. 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED 



ESTOPPEL DEED, 



This Indenture, made on the 3rd day of November, One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and Eighty-six, by and between W. W. Ward, of Scott County, 
State of Missouri, and Henry Chomeau, of St. Louis County, State of Missouri. 

Whereas a survey has been made by John Irwin Moore, of a tract of land in 
survey 999, the plat and*description whereof are recorded in plat book No. 4 of 
the office of Becorder of Deeds for St. Louis County, State of Missouri, at page 39, 
and whereas W. W. Ward and Henry Chomeau have several interest in the tract sur- 
veyed, the portion owned by W. W. Ward being represented on said plat by the figure 
at the angles of which are the letters A. B. C. D. and the portion owned by Henry 
Chomeau being in like manner represented by the figure, at the angles of which are 
the letters A. B. E. F. Now W. W. Ward and Henry Chomeau believing the said 
survey to be correct do mutually declare, covenant and agree that they accept the same 
as a true and correct representation of their respective interests in said tract of land; 
that they invite the world to deal with each of them on the basis of the correctness of 
said survey, and that they and those claiming under them will never impeach or dis - 
turb the said survey. 

In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and year 
first above written. 

Signed in presence of us: 

FBANCISR.SHEPHEBD, W. W. WABD, [Seal.} 

JOHN S. HIGGINS, HENB 1 C HOME A U. [ Seal .] 

State of Missouri, County of St. Louis. S. S. On this 3rd day of November, 
1886, before me a Notary Public within and for said County, personally appeared 
W. W.Ward and Henry Chomeau to me known to be the same persons described 
in and who executed the foregoing Instrument and acknowledged that they exe- 
cuted the same as their free act and deed. In Witness Whereof, I have 
hereunto set my hand and affixed my Notarial seal at my office in St. Louis the 
day and year last above written. My term of office expires 4th of March, 1888. 

George Matthews, 

Notary Public. 




LONG AND SQUAKE MEASURE. 




LINEAR MEASURE. 

Linear measure is used in measuring lines or distances; the unit is the yard. 



12 inches make 1 foot, abbreviated ft. 

3 feet make 1 yard, " yd. 

5>2 yards, or 16% feet, make 1 rod, ab....rd. 



320 rods make 1 statute mile, abbrev'd..m. 
6 miles make 1 Congressional Town- 
ship, abbreviated. Tp. 

SURVEYOR'S LINEAR MEASURE. 

The unit is the chain of 66 feet (4 ro^s) in length, and consists of 100 links. 
(Government surveyors add six hundreths of a foot to overcome the vertical 
curvature of the chain. 

7.92 inches make 1 link, abbreviated Ik. I 4 rods, or 66 feet, make 1 chain, abv'd..ch. 

rd. I 80 chains make 1 mile, abbreviated m. 

SQUARE MEASURE. 

144 square inches make 1 square foot, abbrev'd....sq. ft. 



25 links make 1 rod, 
DIAGRAMS. 



20. 
Square Foot. 
1 Ft.=12 In. 



21. 

Square Yard. 





1 Yd.=3 Ft. 


CO 


_L 


— 


r^ 


~~\~ ' 




m 


i 





22. 

Square Rod. 
1 Rod=by z Yards. 



i 

1 

o 


- 















23. 

Square Mile. 

1 M.=320 Rds. 




640 Acres. 



9 square feet make 1 square yard, " ....sq. yd. 

30^ square yards make 1 square rod, " ....sq.rd. 

160 square rods make 1 acre, tl a. 

10 square chains make I acre, " a. 

100,000 square links make 1 acre, " a. 

640 acres make 1 square mile, " ....sq. m. 

36 square miles, or 23,040 acres, 

make 1 Township, " Tp. 

A Square Foot is a square, the sides of which are 
each a linear foot (12 inches) in length, and is equal 
to 144 square inches. 

A Square Yard is a square, the sides of which are 
each a linear yard (3 feet) in length, and is equal to 9 
square feet. 

A Square Bod is a square, the sides of which are 
each a linear rod (5)4 yards) in length, and is equal to 
3Ci^ square yards. 

A Square Acre of Land is a square, the sides of which 
are each 12.64+ rods in length, and contains 160 square 
rods. 

A Square Mile is a square, the sides of which are 
each a linear mile (320 rods) in length, and is equal 
to 102,400 square rods, or 640 acres. It is denominated 
a section by Congress in describing and deeding public 
lands. 

A Congressional Township, so called because estab- 
lished by act of Congress, is a tract of land 6 miles 
square, containing 36 square miles, or sections. 

The above definition of a Congressional Townshhip is 
what was intended by the law ; but the Townships, as they 
are surveyed, conform to the above description only so far 
as converging of meridional lines and inaccurate surveys 
Avill permit. 




SUBDIVISION AXD SURVEY ILLUSTRATED . 



LAND SURVEYING. 

Land surveying is the art of measuring: land and delineating 

it on paper. In the first part of this volume will be found very 
explicit instructions to-United States Deputy Surve}^ors for Public 
Land surveys, and the following remarks on land surveying are 
intended to be supplementary to those instructions for persons 
unacquainted with the use of instruments, by illustrating how to 
read the Compass in determining angles, and the use of the Pro- 
tractor in platting them on paper ; three methods of calculating 
the contents of a piece of land from the surveyors notes are 
given, to which are added directions for farm, village and school 
district platting. Also notes on stadia measurements, diagrams 
with descriptive matter, illustrating the converging of meridional 
lines, and an explanation on random lines and the subdivisional 
notes of a township. 

SURVEYING WITHOUT INSTRUMENTS. 

Under this head only distances by pacing or walking will be 
considered. A sufficiently accurate measurement may be had of 
a four-sided field for fencing, plowing, or seeding, by walking 
across one side and one end of the field at a uniform pace, and 
counting the steps. First, you must learn to walk in a straight 
line ; this may be done by choosing two objects in the desired 
line ; let the first object keep the second hid from view. Before 
reaching the first object choose a second one in same manner and 
proceed as before. Second, you must ascertain the length of 
your step. Do not attempt to pace three feet at each step, but 
take natural steps, and ascertain what length they are. Should 
you desire to learn to pace a certain distance take the length of 
the English military pace, two and a half feet, and practice 
walking on some measured distance ; for instance, a house fifty 



APPROXIMATE AREAS. 



47 



feet long will be twenty steps ; a house seventy-five feet long will 
be thirty steps ; a house 100 feet long will be forty steps. 

APPROXIMATE AREAS. 

To ascertain the contents of a field, which you find to be 
sixty-six paces on the end and 528 paces on the side, each pace to 
represent two and a half feet, multiply sixty-six by two and a 
half, which gives 165 feet for length of the end ; next multiply 
528 by two and a half, which gives 1,320 feet for length of the 
side. Multiply 1,320 by 165, which equals 217,800, divide this 
amount by 43,560 (the number of square feet in an acre,) the 
result obtained will be five acres. Hence the following : Multi- 
ply separately the number of paces across one end and one side 
of the field by the length of your pace, multiply these two amounts 
together, and divide the product by number of square feet in an 
acre ; 43,560. If accustomed to pacing three feet the work is 
very much simplified by multiplying the number of paces across 
the end by number across the side, and dividing the product by 
the number of square yards in an acre, viz : 4,840, the result will 
be the number of acres. A field 6Q by 528 paces (if paces 
were three feet in length,) would contain seven and one-fifth 
acres. 

The following is added for yard measurements, viz : If a 
field is 100 yards across the end, each forty-eight and two-fifth 
yards along the side make an acre : 



If 


150 


yards, 


each 


32 A 


yards 


make 


an 


acre 


If 


200 


a 




24 i 




u 


" 


t< 


If 


220 


a 




22 




l< 


<< 


a 


If 


250 


1 1 




1? 2 £ 5 




«' 


it 


it 


If 


300 


i 




16 A 




It 


" 


a 


If 


350 


i. 




13 II 




a 


(( 


it 


If 


400 


it 




12 A 




t. 


it 


i. 


If 


440 


it 




11 




u 


it 


n 



SURVEYING WITH COMPASS AND CHAIN. 

Before describing the survey of field in diagram 25 a few. 
-. suggestions on the defects of the compass and the inaccuracies of 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED 



a chain measurement, may be of use in determining how nearly a 
survey should close to be considered an accurate survey. 

Government surveyors in running around a section are 
allowed about 105 feet as the extreme limit for closing surveys, 
that is, the north line of a section must be within eighty links 
of the south line in length, either eighty links more, or eighty 
links less, making 160 links (or 105.6 feet) as the differ- 
ence between two lines that could be established by the sur- 
or, and have it approved by government. The discrepancies 
can be attributed both to the compass and the chain. See page 
60, first part, for closing distances of surveys. For daily and 
secular changes and variations in the needle, see second part of 
this volume. These changes cause a lack of correctness in the 
compass, which is its most serious defect. Another defect is, 
the part of a circle to which the needle points cannot be read with 
precision, as the needle has considerable thickness, and cannot 
quite touch the circle. Prof. W. M. Gillespie says : " Notwith- 
standing these defects the compass is a very valuable instrument, 
from its simplicity, rapidity and convenience in use ; and though 
never precise, and seldom correct, it is generally not very wrong." 
For instructions in chaining see page 38, first part. The prin- 
cipal source of error in surveys is the chaining, and the instruc- 
tions for chaining are very explicit ; an illustration of errors in 
the government surveys resulting from chaining over rough 
ground is given in diagram 46, the excess of 143.78 chains (about 
one and three-quarter miles) on the east line of the township is 
caused by careless chaining over a distance of thirty-six miles. 
See description with diagram. 

SURVEY OF FARM IX DIAGRAM 25. 

Let Diagram 25 Page 49 represent the farm to be surveyed 
1, the starting point. Prepare three columns, head them Stations, 
Bearings, Distances, as in Diagram 25. Place the compass at 1, 
take the bearing to 2 ; in taking the bearings ; keep the north end 
of the compass from you, and place your eye at the south com- 
pass sight, on the inside of the graduated circle the compass is 
marked N. S. W. E. which will determine the north and south 



Jt 














4 - 








& 


s> ^ 


^ 


^ 


<5i 


< 




^ 


"3 




g 


^ *< 


> 


* 


^ 


| 

.£ 


4* 


=c 


* 


-c 


is 





> 


••- 


^ 


> 


^ 


^0 


h: 


> 


Xj 


pq 


fe 


Ni 


«0 


^ 


< 


J 




?> 


n 


•$ 


>- 


"I i i 





MAGNETIC DECLINATION. 




end of the compass, read the degree that the north end of the needle stops at, 
v\hich has been found to be 6; place the two letters found on the inside of the 
graduated circle nearest the north end of the needle with this number 6, as in 
diagram 25. N. or S. should always be placed before the number, and E. and 
W. after the number of degrees, thus N. 6° E. Place number of station in first 
column and the bearing in second column. You will observe that E. and W. on 
the compass are reversed from the cardinal points of the compass; this is done 
for convenience in reading the bearings. The advantage will be seen by Keep- 
ing the north end of the compass ahead in the line of sight, and reading from 
the north end of the needle. Measure the distance from 1 to 2, as per instruction 
on page 39 (first part of this volume) ; distance is represented as 3.40 chains; 
place it in the third column; next place the compass at 2, take the bearing to 3, 
and read compass, as before, N. 84° E. measure the distance from 2 to 3, 2.90 
chains. Next place compass at 3, take bearing to 4, reading compass as before, 
S. 43° E.; measure distance from 3 to 4, 4. GO chains; place compass at 4, take 
bearing to 5, which is S. 15° W. ; measure the distance 4.30 chains; place com- 
pass at 5, take bearing to 1, which is N. 54° W.; measure distance 6.50 chains, 
placing each of the stations, bearings, and distances in their columns; this will 
complete the survey of the field sufficient to calculate the contents by either of 
the three methods shown in this work. 

THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION OR VARIATION OP THE NEEDLE. 

The magnetic declination at any place is the angle which the compass needle, 
when it is correctly constructed and freely suspended, makes with the true me- 
ridian. The true meridian is fixed, but the declination varies because the di- 
rection in which the needle points is in a continuous state of change. 

The declination is called "West" when the north end of the needle points 
to the west of the true meridian, and it is called "East" when the north end of 
the needle points east of the true meridian. In order to give an idea of the 
amount of the declination at present observable within the limits of the United 
States we instance the following places at or near which it reaches extreme 
value, which are given to the nearest whole degree : 

AtEtston, Me., the declination is 18° west. 

At the mouth of the Rio Grande, Texas, 8° east. 

At San Diego, Cal., 14° east. 

At Si'ka, Alaska, 28° east. 

At Fort Yukon, Ala., 36° east. 

Th* daily variation.— It has been found that at about the time of sunrise the 
north end of the needle has a slow motion towards the east which soon ceases. 
The needle is then said to be at its eastern elongation; its north end then be- 
gins a retrograde motion towards the west, and at about one o'clock in the af- 
ternoon reaches the point at which it is said to be at its western elongation, 
after which it again turns back towards the east. 

The average position of the needle for the day is called the mean magnetic 
meridian. 

At about six o'clock in the evening (and for about an hour before and after), 
thorughout the year, the position of the needle coincides very nearly with the 
mean magnetic meridian, and this, therefore, is the time most favorable for 
making observations to obtain at once the mean declination. 




SUBDIVISION ANT> SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



Tlie secular variation of the magnetic declination is a subject of the greatest 
importance to surveyors. It manifests itself by a gradual change in one direc- 
tion, which at first increases slowly, then more rapidly, diminishing again after- 
ward until the needle becomes stationery and subseqently returns by similar 
changes to its former position, the whole period extending over nearly two and 
a half centuries. Thus it will be seen by a table given below that at Philadel- 
phia the declination was 8%° west in 1700, whence it diminished until in 1800 it 
reached a minimum 2.1° (2° C), and will increase again to 6.S° in 1880. At 
present all along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts the effect of the secular variation 
is to increase west declinations, or to decrease east declinations by from 2' to 5' 
but on the Pacific coast the effect is opposite in direction, viz., increasing east 
declinations by from 1' to 3'. 

In Alaska, however, we have indications of a decrease of east declinations. 

Table showing the difference of latitude and, departure in running 80 chains at any 

course from 1 to 60 minutes. 



Min- 




Min- 




Min- 




Min- 




M:n- 




|Min 




utes. 


Links. 


utes. 


Links. 


utes. 


Links. 


utes. 


Links. 


utes. 


Links. 


utei. 


Links. 


1 


2% 


11... 


25% 


21 


....49 


31 


-721/, 


41.... 


- 95% 


51.... 


.119 


2... 


4% 


12 


28 


22 


....51% 


32 


....74% 


42... 


... 98 


52.... 


...121% 


3 


7 


13 


30% 


23 


....53% 


33 


77 


43... 


..iook 


53... 


-.123% 


4 


9K 


14 


32% 


24 


... 56 


34 


-79% 


44 


• 102% 


54.... 


...126 


5 


11% 


15 


35 


25 


....58% 


35 


....81% 


45 


..105 


55.... 


...128% 


6 


u 


16 


37% 


26 


....60% 


36 


84 


46 ... 


107% 


56. 


..130% 


7 


16% 


17 


39% 


27 


.. 63 


37 


86^ 


47 


.109% 


57.... 


..133 


8 


18% 


18 


42 


28 


--65% 


38 


....88% 


48 


..112 


58 


...135% 


9 


21 


19 


±±K 


29 


....67% 


39 


... 91 


49 


-H4K 


59 


-137% 


10 


23% 


20 


46% 


30 


....70 


40 


93% 


50-. 


.116% 


60 


...140 



Table of 



s from Tangent to Parallel, Given in Feet. 



L. 1M. 2M. 3M. 4M. 5M. 6 M. 7 M. 8 M. 9 M. 10 M. 11 M. 12 M. 

30°.-0.39..1.54....3.47....6.17....8.64....13.88....18. 89....24. 67....31.23....38.55....46.65....55. 52 
35°..0.47..1.87....4.20....7.47..11.68....16.81....22.89....29.89....37.83....4e.71....56.62....67.26 
40 o ..0.56..2.24....5.03....8.95..13.93....20.11....27.40....35.78....45.29....55.91....67.65....80.51 
45°..0.67..2.66....5.99..10.65..16.64....23.96....32.61....42.59....53.91....66.54...80.53....94.84 
50 o ..0.79..3.17.-7.12..12.6 8..19.80....28.52.-38.82....50.70....64.17..-79.22.-95.86..114.08 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROTRACTOR. 
Descriptive notes illustrating the use of the Protractor in 
laying off or measuring angles. The root of the protractor is a 
circle divided into 360 degrees, in its use it represents the com- 
pass, for with it the angles determined by the compass can be 
accurately laid down on paper. There are three principal forms 
of the protractor, viz : the rectangular, the semi-circular and the 
circular. The rectangular consists usually of a thin rectangular 
piece of ivory, or metal, three edges of which are graduated from 
to 180 degrees by portions of radii, converging to the middle 
of the fourth edge as a centre. It is used only where an approxi- 




Ik 

< 

r 
r 



DIAGRAM 

7VQ 2G. 

THE USE OFPROTRACTOR 

Illustrated. 
scryotzve Uptes on Pttge 55 
FIELD NOTES 



Stu 


Searings 


Distances 


1 


,T6' °J5" 


3.40 en 


■} 


ir<y^°j? 


2.90 


3 


S43°'E 


4. 60 


fc 


SJJ °w 


4. 30 


5 


IT 54 W 6. JO 




PLATTING SURVEY. 



mation to accuracy suffices. The circular aucl semi-circular pro- 
tractors, with or without arms, are graduating circulars and arcs, 
usually paper, metal or horn. They sometimes have one or 
more straight edged arms turning about the perforated centres, 
and carrying verniers for the accurate reading of their arcs. 
The reflectory protractor is the three-arm circular protractor 
improved. Diagram 24 represents a semi-circular protractor, 
the complete circle divided into 360 degrees, radiating from a 
common centre, is shown, to illustrate from whence the degrees 
from to 180 on the arc of the protractor are obtained ; also the 
centre point from which all degrees are marked. The semi-cir- 
cular protractor is used in diagram 26 to lay out the different 
bearings, it being considered sufficiently accurate for common 
field platting. 

In platting put the dot represented in diagram 24, as the 
centre of the circle over the station from which bearing is to be 
platted, and the two 0-0 or 180 on the protractor, on a line drawn 
through the station north and south. When the bearing is either 
northeast, east or southeast put the circular side of the protractor 
to the east or right of the station.- When the bearing is north- 
west, west, or southwest, put the circular side of the protractor 
to the west, or left of the station. When the bearing is northeast 
or northwest count number of degrees from north end of pro- 
tractor ; when southeast or southwest count from south end of 
protractor. 

PLATTING SURVEY WITH PROTRACTOR. 

Diagram 26. illustrates the use of the semi-circular pro- 
tractor. In platting the survey in this diagram the first station is 
so chosen that the paper will contain the survey (with top of 
paper marked north ) From the first station lay off the 
first bearing, from field notes in diagram, N 6° E ; by placing 
the protractor on the paper in such a position that the line 
drawn through the two zeros (0-0) and the centre of the hori- 
zontal side of the protractor will be north and south, and the 
centre point over the first station, with the figures ninety on east 
side of station ; see diagram 26. As the bearing is east of north, 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 




count from zero on north end of protractor, six degrees, as 
graduated on the circular edge, at which, place a dot on the paper, 
from station 1 draw line of indefinite length through dot ; at point 
in line representing 3.40 chains from scale of plat put 2, at which 
point place protractor in position as before, the second bearing 
is N 84° E, count from north end of protractor 84°, at which 
place a dot and draw line from 2 through the dot, lay off 2.90 
chains from scale of plat, at which place 3, place protractor 
in position at 3 as before ; the third bearing is S 43° E, as 
this bearing is southeast, count from south end of protractor 43°, 
at which place a dot, draw line from 3 through dot and lay off 
4.60 chains from scale of plat, at which place 4; place pro- 
tractor in position at 4, as follows : Place the horizontal side of 
the protractor N and S Avith the centre dot over station 4 ; the 
fourth bearing is S 15° W ; as the bearing is southwest place the 
graduated edge of the circle to the left or west, as in diagram ; 
count from the south end of the protractor 15°, at which place a 
dot; lay off 4.30 chains as before, marked on diagram 5, 
place protractor in position at 5, as in diagram, as the fifth bear- 
ing is N 54° W, count from north end of protractor 54°, at which 
place a dot ; a line drawn from 5 to 1 should pass through 
dot and measure 6.50 chains on scale of plat, closing the survey. 
If the plat should not close, measure on the plat from point 
where survey stops to first station ; find what distance that repre- 
sents on the ground ; multiply that distance by the length of the 
first course and divide by the sum of all the courses, and the 
quotient will be the distance to move the second station parallel 
to line connecting the first and last points, that do not close. 
To ascertain how far to move each corner multiply the distance 
the survey will not close, by the distance the station is from first 
station and divide by sum of all the courses, the quotient will be 
the distance to move the corner. 

CALCULATING THE CONTENTS. 

There are many methods of calculating the contents of a 
piece of land from the surveyors notes. In this volume only 




TO CALCULATE THE AREA OF LAND. 




three methods will be presented, viz : by squares, by triangles 
and by latitudes and departures. 

TO CALCULATE THE CONTENTS BY SQUARES. 

After platting the survey to a scale, as in diagram 26, which 
should be accurately done, draw on a sheet of transparent paper, 
large enough to cover the plat, parallel lines at right angles to 
each other, one chain apart, to the scale of the plat, lay this on 
the plat and count the squares. To calculate the fractional parts, 
cut off one of the squares, subdivide it into twenty-five squares by 
parallel lines ; lay this on the fractional parts and you will have an 
approximate calculation of contents. The squares can be drawn 
on the plat, as in diagram 26, if preferred. Divide whole num- 
ber of squares by ten, the result will be number of acres. 

TO CALCULATE THE CONTENTS BY TRIANGLES. 

Draw straight lines across the plat in such a manner as to di- 
vide the plat into angles, either by running straight lines, between 
corners, or from some point within the survey to the corners, 
making all the triangles as nearly equilateral as possible. See 
diagram 21. Calculate the contents of each triangle separately, 
by measuring the base and perpendicular height (separately ) 
with a pair of dividers, apply it to the scale and multiply the 
number of equal parts it includes, by the number of chains, rods 
or feet which each represents ; for example, if the plat is on scale 
of six chains per inch, and line is four and three-quarter inches in 
length ; six multiplied by four and three-quarters equals twenty- 
eight and one-half, the length in chains of the line in the field. 
For each triangle multiply the base by the altitude, and divide by 
two. Acid contents of the several triangles together ; if the scale 
is given in chains divide by ten, the number of square chains in 
an acre. If the scale is given in rods divide by 160, the number 
of square rods in an acre If the scale is given in yards divide by 
4840, the number of square yards in an acre. If the scale is 
given in feet divide by 43560, the number of square feet in an acre. 

TO CALCULATE THE CONTENTS BY LATITUDE AND DEPARTURE. 

The Latitude of a station is its distance north or south of 
some line running east or west. The Longitude of a station is 
. £& 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



its distance east or west of some line running north and south. 
The distance which one end of a line is due north or south of the 
other end is called its Latitude. The distance which one end of 
a line is due east or west of the other end is called its Departure. 
To calculate the Latitude and Departure for any bearing from 
Traverse Table, ; if bearing is less than 45° read 

from top of page and left side, if more than 45° read from bot- 
tom of page and from right side. The distance from 1 to 9 in- 
clusive on top and bottom of the pages may represent any unit of 
measurement, such as chains, rods, yards, feet, etc. For ex- 
ample take the bearings and distances in Diagram on page 49, 
the first bearing is 6° and distance 3.40 chains, find 6° in left 
hand column. Lay rule across the page just above or below the 
line and in column marked 3 on top of page, find the latitude 
opposite 6°, 2984, and the departure, 0314, next the latitude and 
departure in column 4 ; place them one figure to the right, as 
shown in the following latitudes and departures for the example in 
diagram 25, add together and point off three more decimals than 
found in each distance ; when an occurs in the number, the lat- 
itude or departure for next figure is placed two figures to the 
right. 



Bearing. Latitude. Departure. 

6° 2984 0314 

Distance. 3978 0418 



Distance 
6.50 



3.8209 



Bearing. Latitude. Departure, 

84° 0209 1989 

Distance 0941 8951 



3.40 


3.3818 


0.3558 


2.90 


0.3031 


2.8841 


Bearing 

43° 
Distance 

4.60 


2925 

4388 

3.3638 


2728 
4092 

3.1372 


Bearing 

15° 

Distance 

4.30 


3864 

2898 

4.1538 


1035 
0776 

1.1126 


Bearing 
54° 


3527 
2939 


4854 
4045 









5.2585 



After calculating the latitudes and departures arrange ten 
columns, and head them as in following example ; in the first col- 

j& 




RULE FOR CALCULATING AREA OF LAND. 




umn place the number of the stations, in the next the bearings, 
in the next the distances, in the next all the north latitudes marked 
+, in the next all the south latitudes marked — , in the next all 
the east departures marked -j-, in the next all the west departures 
marked — , find the double meridian distances and the double 
areas from the folloVing rule, and place them in the last three 
columns, as in example : 



Station 


Bearings. 


Distances, 
Chains. 


Latitudes. 


Departures, j Double Areas. 




X + 


s - 


E + 


' W— 1 D.M. D. 


North + 


South — 


1 


N6°E 
N84°E 
S43°p; 
S15°W 


3.40 3.38 
2.900.30 
4.60, 

4.30: 


3.36 
4.15 


0.36 
2.88 
3.14 


j + 0.36 

H- 3.60 

+ 9-62 

1.11| + 11.65 
5.26 -4- 5.28 


1.2168 
1.0800 




2 




3 


32.3232 


4 




48.3475 


5 


N54°W 6.503.82 


20.1696 














1 21.70 7.50 


7.51 


6.38 


6.37 




22.4664 


80.6707 















Contents 2.91 acres 22.4664 



2)58.2043 



Square chains, 29.10215 



TO CALCULATE THE AREA OR CONTENTS OF LAND. 

If the sum of each adjacent pair of distances perpendicular 
to a meridian (Departures ) assumed without the survey be 
multiplied by the northing or southing between them, in succes- 
sion, round the figure in the same order, the difference between 
the sum of the north products and the sura of the south products 
will be double the area of the tract. 

The meridian distance of a course is the distance of the 
middle point of that course from an assumed meridian. 

Hence the double meridian distance of the first course is 
equal to its departure. 

And the double meridian distance of any course is equal to 
the double meridian distance of the preceding course, plus its de- 
parture, plus the departure of the course itself, having regard to 
the algebraic sign of each. 

The meridian assumed must pass through the most easterly 
or westerly station, to ascertain which, make a rough hand sketch, 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



and the first course must count from this meridian in calculating 
double meridian distances ; if survey is balanced the double meri- 
dian distance of the last course, as well as the first, will equal its 
departure, and its coming out so, is a test of the accuracy of the 
calculation of all the preceding double meridian distances ; the 
double meridian distances are used instead of meridian distances 
to avoid fractions. 

The following amounts marked D. M. Station 
D. in the margin opposite each station are 
the Double Meridian Distances, for example 
given above. They are found by a continual 2. 
addition and subtraction, having regard to 
the algebraic signs plus and minus. The 
Double Meridian Distances are multiplied by 
the corresponding latitudes, and the contents 
of the field obtained, as directed in the fol- 
lowing rule. 

To find the area— 



3. 



+ 0.36 


D. 


M. 


D. 


+ 0.36 








+2.88 








+3.60 


I). 


M. 


D. 


+2.88 








+3.14 








+9.16 


I). 


M. 


D. 


+ 3.14 








—1.11 








+ 11.65 


D. 


M. 


D. 


— 1.11 








— 5.26 










5. +5.28 D. M. D. 

1. Multiply the double meridian distance of each course by 
its northing or southing. 

2. Place all the plus products in one column and all the 
minus products in another. 

3. Add up each column separately and take their differ- 
ence. 

This difference will be double the area of the land. 

In balancing the work the error for each particular course is 
found by the proportion. As the sum of the courses is to the error 
of latitude (or departure ) so is each particular course to its cor- 
rection. 

When a bearing is due east or west, the error of latitude is 
nothing, and the course must be subtracted from the sum of the 
courses before balancing the columns of latitude ; and so with the 
departures, when a bearing is due north and south. 

The following example is given to illustrate the application 
of the preceding rule, where the errors in latitude and departure 
are considerable and necessitate balancing. 




BALANCING THE SURVEY. 




EXAMPLE FOR CA.CULATING THE AREA. 



X 


Courses. 


Dist. 
Chains 


Diff. 


Lat. 


Departure. 


Balanced. 


D.M.D 

+ 


Area. 

+ 




O 

a: 


N 

+ 


S 


E 

+ 


W 


Latitude. 


Departure 


Area. 


1 


N46K° \V 

N51%°E 

East 

S56°E 

#33^ W 

N74K°W 


20.00 
13.80 
21.25 
27.60 
18.80 
30.95 


13.77 
8.54 


B 


10.84 
21.25 
22.88 


14.51 


+13.88 
+ 8.61 


—14.56 
+10.81 
+21.20 
+22.82 
—10.36 
—29.91 


14.56 
10.81 
42.82 
86.84 
99.30 
59.03 


202.0928 
93.0741 




■-> 




3 








4 




15.44 
15.72 




—15.29 
—15.63 
+ 8.43 




1327.7S36 


5 




10.31 

29.83 


1552.0590 


fi 


8.27 




497.6229 














Sums 


132.40 


30.58 
tiling... 


31.16 
30.58 


54.97 
54.65 


54.65 
Error in 








792.7898 


2879.8426 






792.7898 


Error in Noi 


. 0.58 


0.32 ] 


Westing. 2)2087.0528 



Answer— 104 A. 1R, 16 P 1043.5264 

TO BALANCE THE SURVEY. 

From the sum of the courses subtract the course, the bear- 
ing of which is east, thus, 132.40—21.25=111.15, for the cor- 
rection of the latitude of the first course we have the followino; 

o 

proportion, viz : As the sum of courses 111,15 is to the error in 
latitude, .58, so is the first course, 20.00, to the correction, which 
is, .11, as the error is in northing we add it to latitude of first 
course, 13.77 making 13.88 for corrected latitude of first course 
placed in 8th column. Find corrected latitude for each course 
in same manner, adding when the sum and latitude are the same 
names, and subtracting when they are of different names. Errors 
of latitude and departure take name of the less column. For the 
departure corrections proceed in same manner, except use 132.40 
as sum of courses, for proportion. 

TO TEST THE ACCURACY OF THE COURSES. 

At each station a fore-sight and a back-sight should be taken 
to determine whether or not there is local attraction ; if the back- 
sight does not agree with the first or forward sight, this rule may 
be followed : " When the back-sight is greater than the fore-sight 
subtract the difference from the next-fore sight, if that course 
and the preceding one have both their letters the same, or both 
their letters different ; or add the difference if either the first or 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



last letters of the two courses are different. When the back sight 
is less than the foresight, add the difference in the case in which 
it has just been directed to subtract it, an.d subtract it where it 
was before directed to add it. 



TO DETEKMINE THE ANGLE BETWEEN TWO COUESES, 



N 46° 


W 


N 


15° 


W 




31° 




N 


19° 


w 


N 


49° 


E 




68 c 




N 


43° 


W 


S 


12° 


W 


180°- 


-55 c 


= 125° 


N 87° 


W 


S 


33° 


E 



When the first and last letters of the bear- 
ings are alike the difference of the bearings is 
the angle between the courses. 

When the first letters are alike, and the 
last letters different, the sum of the bearings 
is the angle between the courses. 

"1 When the first letters are different, and last 
1^ letters alike, the angle between the courses is 
to 180°, minus the sum of the bearings. 



equal 



"| When both the first and last letters are dif- 

l ferent, the angle between the course is equal 

,o I to 180°, minus the difference in the bearings. 

To apply the above rule to courses taken around the field in- 
stead of connecting at a single point, reverse one of the two 
bearings between which you desire the angle included. Thus in 
example, on page 49. The first two bearings are N 6° E and N 
84° E. 

N 6° E "| By reversing the second bearing we have 

S 84° W I 102°, the angle included, as shown in mar- 

180°— 78°= 102° j £ m * 

The interior angles included in a survey of a field when 
added together should equal twice as many right angles as the 
figure has sides, less two. 




VILLAGE AND ROAD PLATTING. 




DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON VILLAGE PLATTING. 

Diagram 27. — This diagram represents a village consisting 
of original town, an addition and out-lots. In laying out a village 
plat, the scale should be decided on first ; next draw to the scale 
the outside boundary of the original town, lay out the streets, 
next the alleys, and last subdivide the blocks into lots, these 
lines should be drawn with hard pencil, proceed in the same 
manner with each addition, to which add the out-lots and small 
pieces. The difference between original and additions can be 
shown, as in diagram, or can be colored in different colors, which 
should be done before inking. After laying out all the line work 
in pencil, the plat is ready for inking, which should be done with 
a ruling pen and India ink. First draw the heavy lines of the 
plat, which are shown in diagram, on the north and east sides of 
the street (south and west sides can be used if preferable.) 
These lines should be double the width of lines on opposite side 
of the street. After completing the heavy lines draw the light 
lines of the streets, next ink the alleys and lot lines ; with a com- 
mon writing pen add the lot and block numbers, and write or 
print in name of streets, original town and additions. 

If the plat is wanted for making deeds, or for use where 
measurements are required, the length of each lot should be 
given, as in Jackson's addition. 

If necessary to draw plat from record, trace the lines on 
thin paper, put number of feet on each lot, street or alley, to 
assist in drawing to right scale. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ROAD PLAT, DIAGRAM 28. 

This diagram, on page 64, represents a road plat to accom- 
pany a petition for a new road and a change in the road. To 
make a plat as represented in diagram, first draw the section 
lines, (2 inches square for a section will be very convenient ) di- 
vide the sections into quarters, fill in the farms from tax receipts 
or assessors books ; if no survey has been made of the road, mark 



66 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

it on by inspection, as near as possible, and locate the houses on the 
forty acres on which they stand, by inspection show where road 
connects with existing roads. This plan will show the lands the 
road passes through, and who is to be benefited. Give an ap- 
proximate description, thus : Beginning in county road on north 
side of southeast quarter of Section 5, T. 1N.,R. 3E., thence 
west to centre of Section 5, thence south about twenty-five rods to 
stream, thence across southwest quarter Section 5, on north side 
of stream in southwest direction to northwest corner of church 
lot, thence in a westerly direction across SE and SWJ of Section 
6, intersecting county road on range line at J. B. Jones' house. 
If road has been surveyed the bearings and distances should be given. 
In making plat for change of road, as in Sections 7 and 8 in 
diagram, show the old road and the proposed new one, and give 
description, as in the following petition. 

FORM OF PETITION FOR CHANGE OF ROAD. 
Petition can be used for new road with little change. 
To the Honorable County Court or to the Honorable Board of 

Supervisors, as the case may be, of County of the 

State of . 

We, the undersigned citizens of township, would re- 
spectfully ask your honorable body to make the following change 

in road leading from to , the change is made for the 

purpose of cultivation, (avoiding culverts, or for making better 
road, as case may be,) the change asked for is in Sections 7 and 
8, T. 1N.,E. 3 E. Beginning in the southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 7, at angle in the road near Mrs. Gr. B. Cole's house, thence 
in a northeasterly direction to quarter section line, about 160 
yards west of school-house, thence east on quarter section line to 
intersection of county road in east half of Section 8, just north 
of J. Silliman's house. 

If survey has been made give bearings and distances. 
As citizens living in the immediate vicinity and interested in 
having good county roads, we will ever pray, etc. 

NAMES. NAMES. 

ED. PARKEE. W. W. CAETEE. 



68 



No. 29. 

Explanation on Page 69 



Plat o 

Township 37 . 



f School Di 



80 



j 80 



Turxne v 

m 



J. 

Sel 

1W 



■^ 



J.ZM* 



H. 
\'ers 



Jas.ttfjfiarp 

110 

80 

'— —218 J. 



80 



ST 



23^ ant, 



\ No.56 



— 1 1|5 



120 
(Vreggs 



! ! 



Tfrm rn 

Tinder 



160 
J.B. 



—Mr 

B B.flo\bso?C 



Williams 



v^ 



80 



40 



40 

JE.B 



J.Bo 

4 



T. 

Dodge 

80 



80 



80 
rown 



us ma n> 

80 



160 
J.B. 
Wheaton/ 



"2£r 



Z10 ;:■ 

JLaxmTf 
School 



so 

R.R organs 



1! ^fl? 



JT Tinder 

zoo 

r»n L 



;?£> 



Step} i z 



60 



0. 
nson 



j ifoy* ^ 



PT 



4£ 



6 s . <? o\'per 






^y 






Pearson^ } 



6^. 
Crow 

80 



0. T. Hedges 

24-0 



E 



=2 






Underwoods 

2,40 



H. 

10 



^^80 \ 



Hod 



leij 

160 



^^ 



^# 



3*5 



REFERENCE 



SectionZine — 
Section Iftzmber 
FarmZrne 



\jPuilicJtocul 



O o [Propose dHoad 

[Houses . . 



IVumber of Acres ., 



12 OjBoundarg of School Dist^. „._».._-.. 



60PTRI6HTED BY R. T. H166IMS. 



NOTES ON SCHOOL DISTRICT PLATTING. 




DESCRIPTIVE NOTES FOR PLATTING SCHOOL DISTRICT 
No. 56, DIAGRAM 29. 

Having first determined on the number of sections to be 
contained in the school district, choose such a scale that the 
paper will contain the work. A scale of two inches per mile will 
be found very convenient and of sufficient size to admit of num- 
ber of acres and owners names being written on all pieces of 
forty acres, or larger. First with pencil draw heavy lines across 
the paper two inches apart, so as to form squares, measuring two 
inches on each side. Each square will represent a section ; sub- 
divide each square into four quarters by drawing light pencil 
lines through the centre of the squares from top to bottom, 
and from right to left. Mark on the sides of the paper 
North, South, East and. West, and in centre of the large 
squares the section numbers. Draw off the farms and put 
owners names on, as in Diagrams 29 or 28, either from the clerks 
school register, tax receipts or assessor's books ; if you experi- 
ence any difficulty in locating small pieces follow instructions 
with Diagram 7, afterwards locating the quarter on the plat; 
make a small square dot, as in diagram, for the houses when 
possible to locate them, as that will show who are best accom- 
modated in the school district ; locate the school-house lot. 
After locating the lands locate what roads you can (you will 
know what lands the roads run between ) draw a light line par- 
allel with the section or farm line, making a double line, and 
through farms draw a double line for roads, if there are pri- 
vate roads running directly to the school-house it is important 
to show them. In this diagram the school-house is on a 
private, or neighborhood road. In locating the houses and 
streams no measurement is necessary, locate them by inspection. 
Draw the boundary of the school district by dash and dot. 
Should you desire to finish the map with ink you will need a rule, 
a cake of India ink and a drawing pen. With drawing pen, draw 
two light lines parallel to each other for the roads ; next the private 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



roads, with two parallel dotted lines ; next draw the boundary line 
with a dash and dot ; next the section lines, with a heavy line, 
and last, the farm lines, with" a light line. With a sharp pointed 
pen,ink the houses, next ink number of sections, write in names 
of owners, and number of acres. 

COLONIAL FARM. 



Diagram 30, page 71, represents the shape of a farm of 108 
acres, taken under the old colonial order of surveys, in ye olden 
times. It is here inserted to illustrate the odd shape of farms in 
the original colonies, where there were no established government 
surveys. In many cases the imperfections in the descriptions 
render it impossible to locate the farm from the deed, and parole 
evidence is often used to find the exact corners and boundaries. 
The direction and distance are frequently omitted, and the corners 
only described, as follows : " Running from top of ledge joining 

— — lands to centre of pond on line, thence with 

said line to a chestnut stump near a spring," &c. This lack of a 
definite description, or the many courses and bearings, where a com- 
plete survey has been made, when compared with the Public Land 
System, for either deeding or assessing, illustrates the simplicity 
and convenience of the system inaugurated by government, and 
described in this volume. 

MILITARY TRACT OR LAND GRANT SURVEY. 




Diagram 31 illustrates three land grants, or tracts, with the 
number of the survey, number of acres, and the bearing and 
length of the boundaries given. In the division of survey No. 
999 the subdivisions are numbered as Lots 1 and 2 ; this should 
be done in all cases by the surveyor, where lots are irregular, 
and the plat should be recorded with the lot numbers. The 
advantage of all irregular shaped tracts being designated by 
a number when laid out by the surveyor should not be over- 
looked ; the survey must be made a matter of record, after 



71 




ECO CQ * 

O - 6m I 

< O O ■§ 



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<*% 



6^ 



^Y£ 



o. 



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< 






^<^ South 79 Rds. 




t «, 












& *> _. 






6 o, ij 






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<£ ^ 






0> ^ 




< 






: 


^<^0%K> 




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^ \ 




■ 


o 


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tf 




\ ■% A <£ 


cc 

01 





H 

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Z.^5 



tf> 



01 ££* 

§ S ^j 
<S !s a> 

^ to S 



s< 



.*2 



**F 



"J^l 



SURVEY OF MILITARY TRACT. 




which the description, either in an assessment, or tax receipt, can 
be greatly simplified by using the number. The surveys in each 
congressional township should commence with Lot 1, and number 
in consecutive order. For deed description of Lot 2, in survey 
No. 999, see Quit Claim Deed on page 43, it gives the starting 
point, bearings and lengths of lines, description of corners, num- 
ber of acres, number of survey and number of lot. In making a 
deed of an irregular shaped piece, a plat of the land should ac- 
company it when possible, although not an absolute necessity to 
a complete description, yet in many cases it would prove of great 
value in avoiding errors. By following directions on page 52 for 
using protractor any official with little practice will be able to fur- 
nish with each deed a plat of the lands deeded. 

RECORD OF SURVEY. 

Division of Survey No. 999 tp. Co. 

State of , survey made in Jan. 1886. 

Survey of line between Henry Chomeau and W. W. Ward, 
as shown on accompanying plat in Diagram 31, page 71 : Begin- 
ning on south line of survey number 999, 128 rods east of south- 
west corner of said survey, starting point marked A on plat, 
where set sandstone 18x9x^0 inches, on which I place a -(-, from 
which a white oak 18 inches diameter bears N35°E. 135 links dis- 
tant ; a walnut 15 inches diameter bears N 60°W.400 links dis- 
tant; run thence N.20°W. intersected north line of survey at 120 
rods, marked B on plat; set limestone rock 20x11X36 inches, 
marked with a -f, no bearing trees, put mound of stone along- 
side ; thence ran S.69°W. 120 rods on line of survey to 
NW corner of the survey, where I found marked stone with 
witness trees. In the division of survey 999 the east part is 
designated as Lot 1, and the west part as Lot 2. Recorded on 
surveyors record, page — . Variation of needle 7°. 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED, 



SURVEYING WITH TRANSIT AND STADIA, OR STADIA 
MEASUREMENTS. 



In Stadia measurements the instruments used are the ordi- 
nary field transit with vertical circle, and a graduated rod or 
board, called a Stadia. There are two methods of making these 
measurements. Only the one adopted by the United States 
Coast Survey, who have given the greatest attention to Stadia 
measurements, will be described here. This may be called the 
two-hair method, for on the field end of the telescope, in addition 
to the usual horizontal and vertical cross-hairs, two horizontal 
hairs are placed parallel with the central one and equally distant 
on each side from it. These two extra hairs are so placed that 
if a leveling rod is held 100 feet from the telescope they will en- 
close one foot of its length. With this as a constant (1 foot in 
100 ) a table can be made, and any distance that the Hod may be 
from the instrument can be precisely measured by reading its 
face, i. e that is, if the hairs take in 2J feet of a rod, the rod is 
225 feet away ; 3J- 350 feet away. For elevation the vertical 
an^le is read on the vertical circle of the transit when the tele- 
scope is directed towards a point of the Stadia rod as far from 
the ground as the telescope is above the stake over which it is set. 
By this measurement, the compass, chain and level, for horizontal 
distances or elevations are dispensed with, and the slow and labo- 
rious process of chaining over rough ground and leveling up and 
down hill are avoided. 

For accuracy the telescope must be of sufficient power to 
read the Stadia rod correctly, and the starting point for the 
stadia measurement, a point as far in front of the object glass as 
is its focal length (in ordinary field transits from 10 to 16 inches 
in front of centre of instrument ) This distance must be added 
to each stadia sight. No definite comparison can be made be- 
tween the stadia and the compass and chain surveys as made by 
government, for government uses them for different surveys ;the 




COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. HIGGINS. 



CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIONAL LINES. 77 

former for topographical surveys, the latter for land surveys. 
The few comparisons that have been made are greatly in favor of 
the Stadia measurements. 

CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIONAL LINES. 

Diagram 32. — This diagram represents the relative position 
of the auxiliary meridians and standard parallels, with reference 
to the principal surveying meridians and base lines ; it also repre- 
sents the converging of north and south lines and the curvature 
of the parallels of latitude. 

NORTH AND SOUTH LINES. 

In the diagram the centre meridian line of the page is shown as 
a principal surveying meridian, and the positions of the first and 
second auxiliary meridians west are given. The north and south 
lines, converge as they extend north from the base line, which is 
shown at bottom of the page, and parallel to the base line, the first 
and second standard parallels north are shown as lines of latitude. 
From position of these lines as given, the necessity of establish- 
ing standard parallels from which to lay out the townships and 
sections to prevent them from becoming too narrow is apparent. 
An illustration can be had from the public land surveys, made 
from the fifth principal meridian, which governs the surveys in 
Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and western part of Minnesota. The 
base line for this meridian runs east and west through Arkansas, 
immediately south of Little Rock. When this base line was sur- 
veyed township corners were established every six miles, from 
which range lines were run north. If these range lines were con- 
tinued due north to British America, distance about 1 ,000 miles, 
without standard parallels, the townships would be only four 
and seventy-eight hundredths miles wide, instead of six miles, as 
laid out on base line, but in the original survey the government 
surveyors established, between the base line and British America 
thirty-three standard parallels, besides using the following rivers 
and lines to close surveys on, viz: Arkansas, White and Mis- 
souri Rivers, and State lines between Arkansas and Missouri, 
and between Missouri and Iowa. On each standard parallel the 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

townships were laid out six miles wide, for the surveys north of 
the line (except the first standard parallels north of the above 
named rivers and lines, from which surveys were made south to 
the rivers or lines ) In establishing surveys these thirty-three 
standards are the same as thirty-three base lines, for the town- 
ships on each were laid out in same manner as on the first base 
line, from which the townships number north to British America, 
from 1 to 164, inclusive, and south to Louisiana State line, from 
1 to 20, inclusive. The lines extended south of the base would 
diverge in same manner as those north of it converge. 

EAST AND WEST LINES. 

True east and west lines are lines of latitude, as represented in 
the diagram, and are not at right angles to the meridian lines, except 
at the equator. A true east and west line (parallel of latitude ) 
and a line running at right angles to the meridian line (marked 
tangent) are shown on diagram to illustrate their relative posi- 
tions in reference to the meridian line. The tangent is a straight 
line run at right angles to the meridian from which offsets are 
made to the parallel line. See table True east and 

west lines are curved lines, but in the public land surveys they 
are marked by corners and blazed on trees, as angular lines. On 
standard parallels offsets are made every half mile from the tan- 
gent to the parallel, these corners are subsequently connected by 
lines run either with transit or common compass, which makes 
the lines established as east and west lines, a series of short, 
straight lines, with the corners on the parallel lines. A line run 
with a compass, east or west, is neither a parallel of latitude nor 
a tangent, but a line between the two, if the stations on a com- 
pass line are only ten or twenty rods apart, and from each sta- 
tion a line is run either east or west, the line will conform very 
closely to a parallel of latitude, but if the stations on the com- 
pass line are four or six miles apart the line will run nearer a 
tangent. A true east and west line is a curved line and cannot 
be run with a compass or any other instrument by direct sights, 
except on the equator. 





LINES COMPARED. 





NORTH AND SOUTH AND EAST AND WEST LINES COMPARED. 

For illustrating the difference between true east and west 
lines, and due east .and west lines, suppose a compass to be placed 
at southwest corner of a township marked A in diagram 33, 
page 81, from which southeast corner of township can be seen, 
a flag placed at C would be shown by the compass at A to be 
due east, while B would be true east, by a true east and west line 
is meant a line running parallel to the equator. Suppose the 
compass to be changed to C it would show D to be west. As this 
township is located in Montana, C would be about 25 feet south of 
B, and D about 50 feet south of A ; while B is true east from A, 
and A true west from B, C is due east from A, and D due west 
from C. As a further illustration suppose a compass to be placed 
at each section corner on the east line of the township, from B to 
F, as shown in diagram 3 3, with their sights turned north and 
south, a line run due north from compass at B should pass 
through each compass sight. A compass placed at any point on 
this line, when extended either north or south would retrace or 
extend the line as a straight line, by running due north or south. 
Next suppose the sights of each compass to be turned east and 
west, and straight lines drawn through sights of each, both east 
and west, to an indefinite length ; these lines would converge, 
going either east or west (in same manner as north and south 
lines converge from the equator ) the lines run east would all 
cross the equator at the same point, viz : 90 degrees east of the 
line of the township where compasses were set, and the lines run 
west would cross the equator 90 degrees west of the line. Should 
you change the compasses to points on these lines, either east or 
west, the lines could not be retraced to starting point, nor ex- 
tended as straight lines by direct bearings, east or west. Each 
change in the compass, either east or west, changes the bearing 
of the line. From the above it can be seen that a north and 
south line can be run as a straight line, while an east and west 
line changes its direction at each station. 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



Notes on Subdivision of T. 6 N,, R. 3 East, Montana Meri- 
dian, Showing the Importance of North and South Lines, 
and the Use of Random Lines, etc. 



The field-notes of this township are given in first part of 
this volume. The township was surveyed by Walter W. deLacy, 
in 1880, with a Burt's improved solar compass. A thorough ex- 
amination of the field-notes w T ill show, that the interior section cor- 
ners in the township were established by measurements on north 
and south lines, except corner at Sections 7, 9, 17 and 18 ; that 
lines run either east or west, except between Sections 2Q and 35, 
20 and 17 and 8 and 17, were run as Random lines to find section 
corners from which to establish true lines, not as east and w T est 
lines, but as straight lines, from one, section corner to the other, 
and that the topography on east and west lines has been given on 
the random lines instead of on the true line. 

In Diagram 33, page 81, the numbers marked on the section 
lines are the page numbers in first part of this volume, on which 
the survey of each section line can be found ; the dotted lines on 
the plat are to represent the Random Lines. 

Commencing at corner of Sections 35 and 36 on the town- 
ship line they ran north between Sections 35 and 36 ; variation 
18°30'E ; at twenty chains enter timber ; at 31 chains leave scatter- 
ing timber ; at 40 chains set J section corner post, marked JS, on 
the west side ; at 52 chains and 70 links enter brush ; at 53 chains 
and 82 links intersect right bank of river ; the markings of the 
post M. C. are for Meander Corner, the other markings, T. 6 
N. on S., E. 34 E., S.36 on E. and S.35 on W., stands 
for : Township 6 North on south face ; Range 34 East, Sec- 
tion 36 on east face and Section 35 on west face ; at 68 
chains and 82 links south bank of Island, set post ; marking 
same as on right bank, except T. 6 N. is on north face 
instead of south face ; at 72 chains and 50 links, or sometimes 
called 72 and fifty-hundredth chains leave brush, enter timber ; at 
80 chains set post ; this post was set in the ground with the edges 



i-y 



f 



81 J 



DIAGRAM 
Wo, 33 
CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP. 



IN 



MONTANA. 



Han do m J,ine s 
of 
TownsTiip OXortli ,Ha7ige 341Zast of'tJie3Ibntana^ 31eridian. 

T o w tx . s 1x1 p Line 

JTaAth 




gr 



THE USE OF RANDOM LINES. 




North, South, East and West, and the markings taken from the 
field-notes stand for the following: Township 6, North, Section 
25 on Northeast face ; Range 34, East, Section 36, on Southeast 
face ; Section 35 on Southwest face, and Section 26 on Northwest 
face of the post, with one notch on the South edge and one notch 
on the East edge, to show that the post stands one mile from the 
South and East sides of the township ; the marks on the trees, 
in addition to the Township, Range and Section on which they 
stand are B. T. , standing for bearing-tree. (After establishing the 
line between section corners, the quality of the soil and the kind 
of timber is given) thence East on random line represented on 
diagram by the dotted line, at 79.54 chains ; intersected range line, 
58 links North of the corner. By reference to the field-notes you 
will see the topography is given on the random line. To estab- 
lish the true line it was necessary to calculate a course that would 
intersect the section corner ; the random line run enabled the sur- 
veyor to readily determine the bearing. 
See table, showing difference of latitude and departure, 
etc. From table you will see 25 minutes represents 58 % links, 



subtracting 25 minutes from 90 degrees we have N89°35'W as the 
bearing for the line established as the true line. The lines run 
North are each 80 chains, except through North tier of sections ; 
of the East and West lines, only five are 80 chains in length, they 
were run as straight lines between corners established on the 
North and South lines. In running random lines East, only two 
in the township intersected at the section corners. In reading 
over the field-notes of the subdivision of this township trace the 
lines on Diagram 33, and on Diagram B in first part. 

Following the field-notes is a general description of the 
township, which may be considered from a disinterested stand- 
point, and as a rule may be taken as a fact ; in addition to the 
general description, the soil and timber is given on each section 
line, from which a fair description may be had of the public 
lands. From the page numbers on the section lines in diagram, 
you can trace the survey of the township and determine the direc- 
tion the lines were run ; in tracing the page numbers on the 
.w diagram refer to the field-notes until familiar with the survey 



K 



SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



and you will experience no difficulty in determining the surveys 
of the townships which follow, or understanding the survey of 
any township when you have the original field-notes. 



SUGGESTIONS ON RE-SURVEYING AND SUBDIVIDING 
THE PUBLIC LANDS, 



In re-surveying the public lands, the corners and lines must 
be located by county surveyors, where original survey placed 
them, see law. That is, the same class of errors made 

by government surveyors, must be committed, or an allowance 
made for them by the county surveyor. 

If original lines were run with a common compass and chain, 
to resurvey the lines with the same instruments, and in the same 
direction, the lines will more nearly conform to the old lines than 
lines run and measured with more precise instruments. While 
the transit is more precise and correct than the compass (see 
stadia measurement, page 74), the compass will continue to be 
the instrument used, to retrace the lines originally established with 
it, and where land is not too valuable, it will be used in sub- 
dividing. Its easy transportation, the lesser cost, and its rapidity 
and convenience in use will recommend it to surveyors, especially 
so as long as their work is not made a matter of record. Where 
precise surveying and measuring is demanded more improved in- 
struments than the compass and chain must be employed. Sur- 
veyors who attempt to retrace the government surveys should be 
not only good surveyors but good guessers and good hunters. A 
good guesser to guess where the original errors were committed, 
and a good hunter to find the corner in the locality where he 
guesses it to be. Many persons are unnecessarily exacting about 
the lines of their farms, more from a misunderstanding of the 
correctness of a survey made with a compass and chain, or a 
knowledge of the law and instructions governing the original sur- 
veys than a desire to add a few feet to their possessions. A 
perusal of diagram 46, and the descriptive notes with it, will 
illustrate how the lines, called east and west lines, were run from 



RETRACING AND LOCATING LINES. 




one section corner to the other as straight lines, and will desig- 
nate the hues which were established by government, and those 
which were only designated on the plat, for county surveyors to 
establish. On the diagram page 134 the dotted lines were not 
run by government surveyors, but designated on the original plat 
for future subdivisions of the sections. Attention is called to the 
odd shaped lots in the north half of Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 
also to Section 31. In Section 1 there are 1650 acres of land. 
The north half of the section is subdivided into 15 lots. The 
original plat gives the length of each quarter section, on the north 
and west sides of the township, and the amount of land in, and 
number of, each lot ; all of which are not given in the field-notes. 
Before commencing a survey provide yourself with a copy of the 
original plat of the township and such field-notes as will enable 
you to fully identify the corners, and length of lines in the im- 
mediate neighborhood. x 

RETRACING AND LOCATING SECTION LINES. 

In retracing and locating the section lines surveyors are not 
called upon to run North, South, East and West lines, but are to 
make their lines and corners conform to the original surveys, no 
matter how erroneous they may have been made ; whether estab- 
lished according to law or instructions, or not ; the acceptance of 
the survey by government and the subsequent sale of the land by 
the plat, establishes the survey. 

EAST AND WEST SUBDIVISIONAL LINES A FAILURE. 

Government after nine years trial, from 1796 to 1805, in 
establishing east and west lines in the subdivision of townships, 
recognized them as impracticable, and used straight lines run 
from section corners to section corners established on north and 
south lines, except in the west tier of sections in each township, 
in certain States. See page 59, first part. Missouri and Ar- 
kansas being the only States west of the Mississippi Eiver in 
which the west tier of sections are subdivided by lines running 
west, except on correction lines. Diagram 46 illustrates the im- 
practicability of using east and west lines, see west tier. The fol- 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



lowing is suggested, viz : Locate corners, when you can, by north 
and south lines, run the straight lines in the same direction as the 
originals were. 

TO SUBDIVIDE SECTIONS INTO QUARTERS AND LOTS, AS DESIGNATED 

ON ORIGINAL PLAT. 

In the interior sections of a township (which includes all ex- 
cept the north and west tiers of sections), run straight lines from 
quarter section corners to corresponding quarter section corners. 
In the north and west tiers subdivide by proportionate measure- 
ments, according to the areas given on the plats. The areas given 
on the plats may not have been calculated according to instruc- 
tions, viz : To consider the quarter section lines in Sections 1, 2 5 
3, 4, 5 and 6, as running parallel to the east line of each section, 
and in Sections 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31 as parallel to south line of 
each section, or they may not have, been calculated as contem- 
plated by some of the State laws, as in Missouri, for instance, 
where law is ; 

Sections 27 and 28 from Wagner's Statutes of Missouri, 1870. 

Section 27. — " The blank quarter section corners on the west 
side of fractional Section 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are required to 
be established the same distance north or south of the quarter sec- 
tion corners, to Section 1, 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36, as the corres- 
ponding fractional section corners south thereof are north or 
south of the section corners above named." 

Section 28. — " The blank quarter section corners on the 
north side of fractional Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, are required 
to be established the same distance (after taking into consider- 
ation the length of the south boundaries thereof, as established 
by the deputy United States surveyor,) east or west of the quar- 
ter section corners, to Sections 31, 32, 33, 34. 35 and 36, as the 
corresponding fractional section corners east thereof are east or 
west of the section corners above named." 

But in all cases the original plat from which the lands have 
been sold must govern. The length of the lines and the areas 
given, will enable the surveyor to determine how to proceed with 




S(V5 
SUBDIVISION OF QUARTERS. 87 

the survey. If the areas have been calculated to run the 
quarter line to the quarter corner on the north or west, or to 
a point equidistant between the section corners ; or parallel 
to east line ; the quarter section corner should be so placed as 
to suit the calculation of the areas of the quarters. 

TO SUBDIVIDE QUARTERS AND LOTS NOT DESIGNATED ON 
ORIGINAL PLATS. 

In subdividing quarters and lots not marked on original plat, 
make subdivision in accordance with the laws, which can be found 
in this volume, and see that the instructions of the 

surveyor-general under which the original surveys Avere made are 
carried out, found in first part, except in the instructions of 
1856, for Illinois and Missouri, for subdividing interior sections. 
(See page 61, first part. ) In this instruction the law of Congress 
of 1805 was overlooked, and the statement that there was no law 
on the subject was a mistake. To what extent surveys in Mis- 
souri and Illinois have been made, under this instruction, it is im- 
possible to tell, as the subdivisions made by surveyors have 
not been recorded as a general thing, but became the private 
property of the surveyors making them, and in many cases 
no notes of the surveys were kept, the importance of having 
a record, of every survey made, cannot be overestimated ; a public 
record of all surveys would be of great value to the different 
counties. That the subdivisions made under instructions of 
1856 are erroneous there is no doubt, for the instructions were 
merely advisory to county surveyors, and being wholly at vari- 
ance with the law they could have no force. Where these sur- 
veys have been the established survey for years, the courts will 
have to decide to what extent they are binding. There are a 
number of surveyors in Missouri to-day who subdivide sections 
under instructions of 1856, believing that the instructions govern- 
ing the original surveys will be sustained ; and the decision of the 
Supreme Court of Missouri, which is: " Where the statutes of 
this State conflict with the regulations of the U. S. Land De- 
partment * * * the latter must govern," has confirmed that 
belief. If the instructions of 1855 had not been at variance with 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 




the law when made, this rule would hold good, but the law of 
Missouri and law of Congress are the same for subdivision of in- 
terior sections ( ) Hence the importance of sub- 
dividing an interior section according to the law. Owing to the 
fact that no two surveys exactly agree, and that the discrepancies 
arising in chaining, and the changes in the variation of the needle 
make the lines uncertain, the following is suggested, viz: 
When a survey is made, see that it conforms to the law, that no 
mistakes are made on the ground in measurements, and have per- 
manent corners erected. Make a public record of the survey, 
and if the lands are valuable, or valuable improvements are to be 
made near the line, there should be an agreement or deed entered 
into binding each party interested, to the lines established by the 
survey. To parties desirous of establishing permanent lines the 
following opinion and suggestions are commended. They are 
from the pen of Hon. T. T. Gantt,-as shown by the following 
letter : 

St. Louis, December 26, 1885. 
Messrs. Higgins & Co: 

Dear Sirs: You ash me whether two (or more) parties inter- 
ested believing in the correctness of a survey, which may, how- 
ever, possibly be erroneous, may, as between, or among, them- 
selves, confer upon it the qualities of unchangeableness and va- 
lidity. In my opinion this may be done. The controversy most 
likely to arise, in the absence of a convention between the parties, 
would be respecting the true location of the boundary between con- 
terminous proprietors. It has been repeatedly decided that if the 
parties, under standingly agree upon such a line, neither will be sub- 
sequently at liberty to show that it is erroneous. Such an agree- 
ment need not even be in writing, but the imprudence of neglecting 
the best, which is also the easiest mode of authenticating it, is ob- 
vious. Such a deed as the following will mutually estop the 
parties to it, viz : 

" Whereas a survey has been made by , of a tract of 

" land in , the plat and description whereof are recorded in 

Record Booh or Plat Booh — , of the ofice of Recorder of 



NUMBERING TOWNSHIPS AND RANGES. 




" Deeds for County, State of , at p. — ., and whereas 

il A, and B. have several interest in the tract surveyed, the por- 
" Hon owned by A. being represented on said plat by the figure 
" at the angles of which are the letters [m, n, o, ***] and the 
" portion owned by B. being in like manner represented by the 

" figure at the angles of which are the letters . Now the said 

"A. and B. believing the said survey to be correct, do mutually 
" declare, covenant, and agree that they accept the same as a true 
" and correct representation of their respective interests in said 
" tract of land: that they invite the world to deal with each of 
" them on the basis of the correctness of said survey: and that 
" they, and those claiming under them, will never impeach or dis- 
" turb the said survey. In testiinony ," &c. This instrument 
should be signed, sealed, acknowledged, and recorded, as directed 
by law respecting conveyances of real estate. It had better be 
executed in duplicate: tho" being recorded this will not be essential. 
Very respectfully , your ob't. serv't, 

Thos. T. Gantt. 

See Estoppel Deed, page 44, arranged from above opinion. 



ORDER OF NUMBERING TOWNSHIPS AND RANGES 
FROM INITIAL POINTS. 




The following diagram illustrates the manner of numbering 
the townships and ranges from the different Initial points estab- 
lished in the Public Land Surveys. Each square represents six 
miles square, a congressional township of thirty-six sections ; the 
first six miles, either east or west of the meridian line, is called 
Range 1, the next six miles Range 2, and so on. The first six 
miles, either north or south of the base line is called Township 1, 
the next six miles Township 2, and so on. This is the plan 
adopted, except in early surveys in Ohio ; in the Seven Ranges the 
townships do not number from the base, from which they were 
surveyed, but count from the River Ohio ; and in the Miami VaL 




90 



SUBDIVISION AND SUKVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



ley tract the townships count east from the meridian, instead of 
north and south . For further description see Ohio State map 
references. 



DIAGRAM No. 34. 



T2N 
R3W 



TIN 
R3W 



TIS 
R3W 



T2S 
R3W 



T2N 
R2W 



TIN 
R2W 



TIS 
R2W 



T2S 
R2W 



T2N , T2.N 
RIW«j RIE 

M 1 



TIN H^TJN 
RIW I RIE 



I BASE^ __ __JjJ 

"2 " "l "J 1| 
TIS^TIS 
RIWH RIE 

1 



T2sg| N T2S' 
RlWg, RIE 



T2N 
R2E 



TIN 

R2E 

pfE 

" 2 
TIS 

R2E 



T2S 

R2E 



T2N 
R3E 



TIN 
R3E 

"~3~ 
TIS 

R3E 



T2S 
R3E 



The following diagram illustrates the relative position of 
townships lying East of a Meridian and on a Standard line. The 
townships 011 the North side of the Standard line jog to the East 
owing to converging of meridional lines, see page 77. Town- 
ships West of a Meridian jog to the West in same manner as 
those in diagram jog East. 

DIAGRAM No. 35. 





30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 4 


30 


- 
29 


28 


27 


26 


25 




31 
6 




32 

5 


.1 


33 
4 


N 


34 
» A 

3 


R 


35 
D 

2 




36 


U 


31 

6 


L 


32 
5 


- , 


33 
4 




34 

3 




35 
2 




3C 
1 




7 


S 


9 


10 


11 


r 5 
12* 


7 


8 


9 


10 


13 


12 





SURVEYS UNDER DIFFERENT INSTRUCTIONS 
ILLUSTRATED. 



The following Maps, Diagrams and Descriptive Notes illustrate the actual sur- 
veys made and accepted under the different Instructions which were first issued 
by the "Geographer of the United States," and subsequently by the Surveyors 
General and Land Commissioners. The several Instructions under which the 
Public Lands have been surveyed were issued from time to time, as defects in 
the field operations demanded, or as the Surveyors General and Land Commis- 
sioners thought expedient. 

SUBDIVISION OF TOWNSHIPS INTO SECTIONS. 

Subdivisions of townships into sections in Ohio, Missouri, Arkansas and 
Mississippi are illustrated by diagrams 36 to 50; diagrams 42, 44, 46 and 47 illus- 
trate the subdivisions of townships into sections in Illinois, the greater part of 
Indiana, west part of Louisiana and south part of Michigan ; diagrams B and 33 
illustrate the subdivisions of townships into sections in the other "Land States" 
and the Territories. (See instructions on pages 68 to 72, part i). 

SECTIONS SUBDIVIDED INTO LOTS. 

Early Instructions make no mention of the manner of subdividing the frac- 
tional sections into lots, or the order of numbering them. The lotting and 
numbering was done in the office, under the immediate supervision of the Sur- 
veyor in charge of the work. The lots are not mentioned in the original field 
notes, and the only record of them is on the official plats, as accepted by Gov- 
ernment. The lotting has been done so irregularly that no general system can 
be given that will illustrate all the subdivisions in the several States and Terri- 
tories ; but the following classification of the States will serve as a guide in 
determining descriptions of land, viz : in the Public Lands west of the Missis- 
sippi River, except Missouri, Arkansas, and part of Louisiana. There are no 
duplicate lot numbers in a section, and in the above described territory the fol- 
lowing is a legal description, viz: Lot 1, Sec. 4, T— , R— ; while in Missouri 
and Arkansas, and the Public Lands east of the Mississippi River, except Wis- 
consin and parts of Michigan and Florida, the legal description should state the 
quarter section. (See diagrams B, Part I. and 46, Part II.) . The Original Plats, 
as filed by Government, are the official records for size and number of lots. 

In subdividing sections into 40 acre tracts for the Indians, Government sur- 
veyors establish but three lines, viz : One line dividing the section into north 
and south halves; next each half is divided into north and south halves. The 
north and south lines are not run. This is done to save labor, by order of Land 
Department. 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED . 



Ohio State Map References, 



The Public Land System was first inaugurated in this State 
in 1786, by Thos. Hutchins, Geographer of the United States, by 
the establishment of the first initial point and first base line for 
surveying the lands belonging to government. This initial point 
was established on the right bank of " the River Ohio " at the 
intersection of the State line between Ohio and Pennsylvania. 
The law under which it was established provided that the first 
line run north and south, should run from this point, and the 
first line run east and west should begin at the same point and 
extend through the whole territory. (For ordinance see first 
part of this volume). The meridian running from first initial 
point north to Lake Erie, was the first meridian established for 
designating the location of lands. This is called the First or East- 
ern Ohio meridian, to distinguish it from the First Principal me- 
ridian. 

One is the line between Ohio and Pennsylvania, the other 
the line between Ohio and Indiana. The first surveys were 
under the personal supervision of the " Geographer of the 
United States," (Thomas Hutchins), assisted by ten surveyors, 
appointed from different States. The geographer was ordered 
to survey the public lands into townships, and to report to the 
board of treasury each seven ranges, as soon as surveyed. The 
" first Seven Ranges" was ordered laid off between the river 
Ohio and a line run west from first initial point ; subsequent acts 
ordered tracts, of seven ranges laid off, viz : one on the river Ohio 
east of the Sciota River, one west of the Great Miami River, and 
one north of the first seven ranges. This ordinance gave rise to 
the term " the Seven Ranges," as designating the first lands sur- 
veyed. The geographer gave instructions for field work for first 
surveys. After appointments of surveyor-generals each survey- 
or-general gave instructions for the territory or district over 



LOCATION OF THE SEVEN RANGES. 

which he had jurisdiction ; following this plan the Commis 
sioners of the General Land Office issued instructions, which have 
been changed and perfected, from time to time, thereby insuring 
more complete and uniform surveys. Following the description 
of the several tracts of Ohio, that have been surveyed from the 
different initial points, are townships, with descriptive notes to 
illustrate the subdivisions, under different instructions. 

The public lands of Ohio have been surveyed from six differ- 
ent initial points, and may be described in tracts, as follows, viz : 
Southeastern Ohio, including the Seven Kanges, the United 
States Military tract, the Miami Valley tract, Southwestern and 
Northwestern Ohio, including the Michigan strip. They are de- 
scribed and bounded, as follows : 



SURVEY OF SOUTHEASTERN OHIO, INCLUDING THE 
SEVEN RANGES. 

Surveyed from First or Eastern Ohio Meridian. 

The first tract of land laid off and subdivided into townships 
of six miles square, and subsequently into sections of one mile 
square, is located in the southeastern part of Ohio, and known as 
the " Seven Ranges, " bounded as follows, viz : Beginning at a 
point on the river Ohio, due north of the southwest corner of 
Pennsylvania, (the first initial point established for surveying 
the public lands) thence west forty-two miles, thence south to 
river Ohio, thence up said river to beginning, In surveying the 
Seven Ranges the north boundary (running west from first initial 
point) was used as a base line for establishing surveys from, but 
not for numbering. In surveying this base line west from first 
initial point a section corner was established every mile, and a 
township corner every six miles. The first six miles was called 
Range one ; the next, Range two, Ranges three, four, five, six 
and seven, were established in regular order. From each of these 
township corners, range lines were surveyed south to the river 
Ohio, and township corners established every six miles, making 
fractional townships on the river. The townships do not num- 
ber from base line south to the river, as surveyed, but commence 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



in each range on the river with the fractional townships as number 
one, and number north in regular order to the north line of 
the Seven Ranges, and subsequently, were continued north to the 
south line of Connecticut reserve. The river Ohio runs in a gen- 
eral southwest course from first initial point to the mouth of Sci- 
oto river, this causes an irregular number of townships in each 
range. See numbers on south line of Connecticut reserve, (state 
map.) In the first range there are 9 townships ; in the second 
range there are 13 townships, etc. The Public Lands of Ohio 
that have been surveyed from First or Eastern Ohio meridian, in 
same manner as the Seven Ranges may be described as follows : 
viz : All of southeastern Ohio, lying south of Connecticut re- 
serve and east of Scioto river, except the United States military 
reservation. The Ohio company's purchase was surveyed from 
same point and sections numbered same as Seven Ranges, (but not 
by Government.) It occupies Ranges 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 
15 and 16, along the river Ohio, and townships number in these 
ranges from the river in same manner as though Government had 
surveyed them. The United States military reservation is treated 
as a blank in numbering townships in Ranges, 8 to 21, inclusive. 
For subdivision of Township 3, Range 7, a township of the Seven 
Ranges, see diagram No. 37. For subdivision of Township 19, 
Range 7, East of Scioto river, see diagram No. 38. 

Townships and Ranges located in Southeastern Ohio, from First or Eastern 
Ohio Meridian, are not usually marked Township North and Range West, as there 
axe no Townships South, or Ranges East. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 3 R 7., 
FIRST OR EASTERN OHIO MERIDIAN, OHIO. 

Diagram 37, on page 97. 

The numbers in this diagram on the section lines are the 
page record of original field-notes (on file at Washington,) of 
survey and subdivision of Township 3, Range 7, East of Scioto 
River, one of the Townships of the Seven Ranges. Instruc- 
tions at time of subdivision of townships in the seven ranges 
and public lands adjoining were to first subdivide the townships 
into blocks containing four sections. This was done by running 



97 



Xo. 37 

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 

OFTHE SEVEN RANGES, 



— - IN —- 



See Page !N? 96 

773 R. 7- Bast of the Scioto Jliver 

FIRST OR E^STJERJT OHIO 2IERJBJA2T 



Town sT\ijp 



JYbrths 




Town sTrii/p 



Son tli 



iixi_e \ 




RE FERENCE 

Section-Line 

Section ^iu niher 

Order of Siibrfi tiding township 




26 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T HISG1NS ^JV^V V \ :' 




NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION. 




lines north and south and east and west, at the end of every two 
miles, counting from township corners. In this diagram these 
lines have only one set of numbers on them. Subsequently the 
blocks were subdivided into sections by first running random 
lines from section corners, through them each way, and after- 
wards correcting- them by establishing the true line. On this 
diagram the number of page record is given to illustrate the 
direction the random and true lines were run, and at what points 
temporary corners were established. The following description 
of the subdivision of this township conforms to record of page 
numbers from 453 to 489 inclusive, marked on the diagram. In 
tracing the numbers on diagram, where two numbers occur on a 
line, the less number is the page record for the random line. 
Beginning at southeast corner of the township they ran north 
two miles, (recorded on page 453), returning to southeast corner 
they run west two miles, thence north two miles, (page record 
454 and 455) ; from southwest corner of Section 7 ran west 
two miles, thence north two miles ; from southwest corner 
of Section 19 ran west two miles, thence north two miles ; 
from southeast corner Section 3 ran west six miles, thence north 
two miles ; from southwest corner Section 21 ran north two miles ; 
from southwest corner Section 9, ran north two miles ; from 
southeast corner Section 3 ran north two miles, thence west 
six miles, thence north two miles to northwest corner of town- 
ship ; from southwest corner Section 23 ran north two miles ; 
from southwest corner Section 11, ran north two miles ; from south- 
east corner Section 5 ran north two miles to northeast corner 
of the township, thence west six miles to northwest corner 
of township. The survey above described completes the di- 
vision of the township into blocks of four sections each. In 
subdividing the blocks into sections, the first lines run through 
the blocks, both north and south, and east and west were 
random lines. The first line was not corrected back and true 
line established, until the second random line (at right angles to 
first), had been run. This is necessary to properly locate the 
centre section corner in each block, without a second adjustment 






SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 




of corners from first line, as shown in Diagram 38. In the sub- 
division they commenced on south line of township at corner of 
Sections 13 and 19, ran north four miles ; from corner of Sections 
4, 5, 10 and 11 they ran north two miles ; from corner of Sections 
11, 12, 17 and 18 ran west four miles ; from corner of Sections 
16, 17, 22 and 23 ran north two miles. In the subdivision the 
above described lines are random lines. The next line ran was a 
true line between Sections 23 and 24, and 17 and 18, ran from west 
to east. For completion of subdivision see consecutive numbers 
from 479 to 489. In the division of the townships into blocks of 
four sections they established section corners every mile, and in 
the subdivision of these blocks they ran lines from section cor- 
ners to corresponding section corners on opposite sides of the 
block. All townships in the seven ranges have sections numbered 
same as in diagram, viz : Section 1 in the southeast corner ; Sec- 
tion 36 in the northwest corner. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T, 19., E. 7., 

FIRST OR EASTERN OHIO MERIDIAN, OHIO. 

Diagram on page 101. 

Diagram N~o. 38. This diagram represents the survey and 
subdivision of Township 19, Range 7, east of Scioto River. 
The numbers of the page record of original field-notes (on file at 
Washington,) are placed on the section lines in order of subdi- 
division, and number from 437 to 468 inclusive. Beginning at 
southeast corner of the township they ran north on random line 
six miles ; recorded on pages 437 and 438 ; thence south on true 
line, correcting this line back to southeast corner, recorded on 
page 439 ; thence west six miles (on south line of township), 
thence north two miles, returned to corner of Sections 32 and 33 
on township line, ran north two miles ; from corner of Sections 34 
and 35 on township line, ran north two miles, thence east two 
miles ; from corner of Sections 22, 23, 26 and 27, ran first north 
two miles, returned and ran west four miles, thence north two 
miles ; from corner of Sections 20, 21, 28 and 29, ran north two 
miles ; from corner of Sections 12 and 13, on range line ran west 
six miles, thence north two miles ; from corner of Sections 8,9, 
16 and 17, ran north two miles ; from corner of Sections 10, 11, 




5 I 



II * 



i 

44 r 



DIAGRAM 

JVb. ,?<5\ 
CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 
EAST OF THE SCIOTO RIVER 




-^ IN **- 



Z7 



^L 



Explanation on Page 100 

Township 19, Range 7 

FIRST OR EASTER* OHIfrMERIDIAX 

TowiLstiip „ /, 

^ Ji, ortlv 



i 

■4-63 
4-65 



j 4-60- 



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46Z ° 



3 45; 



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465 



18 



17 

457 
-4-5(3- 

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4-63 
465 



48 16 



457 
■458- 

4.63 



463 
465 



19 



20 **ff 21 



10 



15 



457 
-458- 
4 6S 



22 



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29 **5 28 



64 27 4 *^ 



455 
-455 
464 



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4-64 



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I 



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REFERENCE 



Section Line ; 

Section TSwniber ... 

Older tfSubdnidmgtoivnship 



*59 

4-eo 

468 



14 



457 
458- 
468 



23 



35 



Line 



4-53 
-460 
468 



12 



sis 
1 1 



13 



457 
■458- 
468- 



24 



"1 

I 
I 

438 
439 

I 

I 

-i 

I 
i 

437 



O/J * 66 

*■" 457 



455 I -55 

.456' 456 

467 J-£-> 



36 






11 



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Line 



COPYRIGHTED BY R T. HIG6INS 



NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION. 103 

14 and 15, ran north two miles ; from northeast corner of town- 
ship, ran west six miles to northwest corner. The above described 
survey (recorded on pages 437 to 454 inclusive), divided the 
township into nine blocks, each containing four sections, with 
section corners established every mile on lines run. These blocks 
were subdivided into sections, by running lines from section cor- 
ners through the blocks north, south, east and west to corres- 
ponding corners . The subdivision commenced at corner of Sec- 
tions 25 and 36 on range line,thence west on random line six 
miles (recorded on page 455), returned east six miles on true line 
(recorded on page 456) ; from corner of Sections 13 and 24 on 
range line, ran west six miles on random line, returned east six 
miles on true line; from corner of Sections 1 and 12 on range 
line, ran west six miles on random line, returned east six miles 
on true line. In running- the random lines through blocks west, 
they established temporary quarter section and section corners ; 
returning east on true line they placed the corners in position on 
true lines. The blocks were next divided north and south, begin- 
ning at corner of Sections 5 and 6 on township line, thence south 
six miles on random line, (recorded on pages 460 and 461), 
thence north six miles on true line) , recorded on pages 461 and 
462) ; in running the random line south, temporary corners were 
marked ; on the true line run north, they were established as true 
corners, and the quarter section corners on east and west lines 
adjusted. For example take block containing Sections 29, 30, 
31 and 32 ; in running true line north, they commenced at corner 
of Sections 31 and 32, on township line, ran north establishing 
quarter section corner equidistant between section corner and the 
center corner at intersection of the lines for the centre of block, 
then readjusted the quarter section corners on the east and west 
line, which had been placed in position north and south by true 
line run east, but not east and west (the readjustment caused the 
quarter section corners to be moved after being established on 
true line). This plan of subdividing often confuses the county 
surveyors in determining the legal corner in centre of each block, 
for a corner was marked on random line run west, one on true 
line run east, one on random line run south, and one on true line 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED, 



run north ; and for each quarter section corner on east and west 
lines three corners were marked (first two corners were not al- 
ways obliterated). Each of the blocks was subdivided in same 
manner as one above described ; for continuation of subdivision 
of township, see consecutive numbers from 462 to 468. 

In Diagram No. 37 the subdivision of the blocks, by running random lines 
through blocks both north and south, and east and west, before establishing the 
first true line, simplifies the subdivision, as the readjustments of the quarter cor- 
ners on true liues are not necessary. 

UNITED STATES MILITARY RESERVATION, 

Surveyed from United States Military Reservation Meridian. 

By act of June 1st, 1796, the following tract of land was 
surveyed, viz : "Beginning at northwest corner of Seven Ranges, 
thence due south fifty miles along ]the western boundary of the 
Seven Ranges, thence due West to the main branch of the Scioto 
River, thence up the main branch of said river to the place where 
the Indian boundary crosses the same, thence along said bound- 
ary line to the Tuscaroras branch of the Muskingum river at the 
crossing place above Fort Lawrence, thence up said River to the 
point where a line run due west from the place of beginning will 
intersect the said river, thence along the line so run to place of 
beginning." 

ORDER OF SUBDIVISION. 

"The Surveyor General shall cause the said tract to be divided 
into townships of five miles square, by running, marking and num- 
bering the exterior lines of the said townships, and marking cor- 
ners in the said lines at the distance of two and one-half miles 
from each other, etc." 

By this act the above described tract was granted in one- 
quarter townships on warrants for military service, except salt 
springs and three several tracts of land containing 4000 acres 
each, at Shoenbrun, Gnadenhutton and Salem, being the tracts 
formerly set apart by an ordinance of Congress for the society of 
United Brethren, for propagating the Gospel among the Heathen. 





105 



JVo. 39. 

Township in the Unite cL State s 
Military Re seTvation 

*- IN — — 

OHIO 



X 



7 



Explanation on Page 104- 
ToivnsTvip J\ r 93, Rcuxi/e 2 'Military tract 

T o A\rri- sTnrL jp (JVb r tTv) Xii rL e 





SURVEY OF MIAMI VALLEY TRACT. 107 

By Act of March 1st, 1800, the townships were to be divided 
into quarters by running straight lines from the quarter section 
corners established on the township boundaries to corresponding 
quarter section corners, whether the interior lines thus extended 
shall be parallel to the exterior lines of the said township or not, 
and the exact quantity expressed in the plat and survey returned 
by the Surveyor-General shall be considered the area. 

The initial point for this reservation is the southeast corner of 
reservation, from which the base line extends West, and the me- 
ridian extends North, and from which the Kanges and Townships 
were laid out and numbered. Some of the townships were sub- 
sequently divided into lots. For division of Township 3, Range 
2, see diagram 39. 

MIAMI VALLEY TRACT. 

Surveyed from Great Miami River Meridian. 

This tract of land, called the "Garden of America," in south- 
west Ohio, lying between the Great and Little Miami Rivers, 
west of Virginia Military Lands, south of Indian boundary, 
and north of river Ohio, was sold to John Cleve Symmes. 
The original purchase contemplated one million acres ; only two 
hundred and forty-eight thousand five hundred and forty acres of 
the land was patented to Symmes and his associates. The re- 
maining portion reverted to government, became public lands, 
and was surveyed under the public land system. During the 
period the tract was held by Symmes he laid out into townships, 
not only what was patented to him, but established north and 
south lines in a portion of the one million acres that reverted to 
government, Act of Congress, March 3, 1801, provided "That 
the lines thus established should be used up to seventh range, 
and north of the seventh range the surveyor- general was to lay 
it off according to such uniform rule and method as in his opinion 
would best secure the rights and interests of those who were en- 
titled to pre-emption." The order, or system adopted by Symmes 
for numbering the townships and ranges was accepted by the sur- 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED . 



veyor-general for subdividing into townships the Miami Valley 
tract. This order reverses the ranges and townships. Ranges 
count north from base line and Townships east from meridian line. 
The base line for Symmes' survey runs from the initial point on 
the Great Miami Kiver (near mouth of Taylor's Creek), east to 
Little Miami River, passing about seven miles north of Cincin- 
nati ; the Great Miami River is the meridian. Symmes surveyed 
from this base line three ranges north, and one and a fraction 
south. The north line of Symmes' purchase is shown on State 
map, with heavy line ; it runs east and west, near Lebanon. For 
subdivision of a township in this tract into sections, see Di- 
agram No. 40. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 2, R. 6, 
GREAT MIAMI RIVER MERIDIAN, OHIO. 

Diagram on page 109. 

Diagram No. 40. This diagram represents the numbering 
and subdivision of Township 2, Range 6, east of Great Miami 
River. Townships surveyed from Great Miami River Meridian, 
like those in the Seven Ranges, are numbered by commencing at 
southeast corner of the township with number one, and ending in 
northwest corner with number thirty-six. For establishment of 
north and south lines, by J. Cleve Symmes, see description of 
Miami Valley tract on page 107. The line described, as line 
between Ranges 6 and 7, is the north line of this township, and 
is known as the Ludlow correction, or base line, (in this tract 
ranges count north from base line). The north and south lines 
through this tow r nship were established by J. Cleve Symmes' sur- 
vey, in which corners were established every mile ; these corners 
were used by government, except the corners on the north line of 
the township. Israel Ludlow having established a correction line 
between Ranges 6 and 7, from Great Miami to Little Miami 
Rivers, his survey was used for the north line, causing the small 
sections on north side of the township. In subdividing and 
establishing east and west lines they commenced at the north- 
east corner of the township ; thence west to section line run 
by Symmes, (marked number one on range line) ; thence south 



109 



xx: 



»z 



No. 40 

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 
BETWEEN GREAT& LITTLE MfAMI RIVER 



-*- IN — - 



©HI® 



Explanation on Page 108 
Town. ship ZE. Range 6J[ r . East of Or eat Miami TiiverMer. 
_RcLin_ee JVbrtJi , X.in_e 




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U^-— ^ 5.arvS e ^' //7/ l,ir^|r--^>^-^_ 



R E FERENCE 

Section. 'Line 

S ection Number ., .. . „ . 
Order of Subdividing township 



I 



>x 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. HIGGINS. 



JL 



30<Z 



112 



If 



JSTS- 



JVo 41 

COKCRESSIOXAL TOWNSHIP 

w IN — 



1 1 H WIS? 11 1 QUO 



Explanation on Page 1 14 

TownsliTp 4, TtangelEaSt, Iftl^'incipaZMer. 

TcrvxriT sTrti/p (JTortTh) Xiirxe 




10 



! 3e 



11 



12 



16 +9 15 



714 



13 



21 so 22 



23 Jtf 24^ 



•28 



26 



33 



34 



35 



36 



REFERENCE 

ScctioTvIinz 

| SectionYumber 

i OrdpjoI'Subdividwgtoiniship , 



Xln_e 



26 

J0 



( 



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COPYRIGHTED BY R.T. HIGGINS. 



SURVEY OF WESTERN OHIO. 




on section line between Sections 6 and 12 to section corner 
for Sections 5, 6, 11 and 12, (marked two on line), thence east 
to southeast corner of Section 6 on township line, marked three 
on line, from corner of Sections 5, 6, 11 and 12, ran south 
one mile, thence east one mile ; from corner of Sections 4, 
5, 10 and 11 ran south one mile, thence east one mile, marked 
on diagram 4, 5, 6 and 7 ; from corner of Sections 1 and 7, 
on range line they ran north three miles, marked on diagram 8, 
9 and 10 : next ran line between Sections 2 and 3 ; next between 
Sections 1 and 2. By following the numbers consecutively from 
1 to 68 you can determine the order of subdividing the township. 
In the survey by Symmes but little attention was paid to east and 
west lines. Running over rough ground, through thick under- 
growth of bushes and briars, together with carelessness in chain- 
ing, caused the odd shape of east and west lines in this township. 

SOUTHWESTERN AND NORTHWESTERN OHIO. 

Surveyed from First Principal Meridian. 

These portions of the State were surveyed from the First 
Principal meridian, (except a strip about ten miles wide, running 
from Lake Erie west, surveyed from Michigan meridian). Start- 
ing on the right bank of the Ohio River, at mouth of Great 
Miami River, the first principal meridian runs due north, termi- 
nating at the northeast corner of Indiana. It forms the bound- 
ary line between Ohio and Indiana. This meridian has two base 
lines ; the first is the Ohio River base, and extends from mouth 
of Great Miami River to mouth of Kentucky River ; from this 
base line is surveyed a tract of land on the north side of the 
Ohio River, lying in Ohio and Indiana, bounded by the Great- 
Miami River and the Indian boundary line. For numbering and 
subdividing townships from this base line, see Diagram 41. 

The second base line is the forty-first parallel of north lati- 
tude, from which Northwestern Ohio has been surveyed ; it em- 
braces the seventeen ranges lvins: west of Connecticut Reserve 
and north of Indian boundary line (except strip above men- 
tioned), For subdivision of townships from second base line, see 
Diagram 42. 




114 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 4, R. 1, E., 
FIRST PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, OHIO. 

Diagram on page 112. 

Diagram No. 41. This diagram represents the subdi- 
vision of Township 4, Eange 1, East, First Principal Meridian 
surveyed from the Ohio River, as a base line. The townships 
surveyed from this base are established in regular order, and 
the original field-notes in giving number of township leave off 
North, as there are no townships south of base. The subdivision 
of this township was in 1805 ; they first divided it into nine blocks 
of four sections each, and subsequently subdivided the blocks into 
sections. Commencing at corner of Sections 24 and 25, on range 
line, they ran west two miles, from corner of Sections 34 and 35, 
on township line, ran north two miles, thence west two miles, etc. 
The order of subdivision of the township is represented on 
diagram by consecutive numbers, from 1 to 60 inclusive, placed 
on each section line, instead of the number of page record. In 
subdividing the blocks they ran random and true lines, and moved 
the quarter section corners in same manner as in Diagram 38. The 
subdivision of townships established from the First Principal Me- 
ridian, north of Indian boundary line, is a decided improvement 
over the plan just given. See Diagram 42. The change is cred- 
ited to Capt. Jared Mansfield, aided by the advice of Thomas Jef- 
ferson. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 4, N., R. 1, 
E., FIRST PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, OHIO. 

Diagram on page 115. 

Diagram 42. This diagram represents the subdivision of 
Township 4, North, Range 1, East, surveyed from the First Prin- 
cipal Meridian and the forty-first parallel of latitude, the base 
line for northwestern Ohio. This township is located in Defi- 
ance county, west of Defiance (the county seat). In the prece- 
ding diagram the subdivision of Township 4, Range l,East, from 
same meridian, is given ; it is located in Butler county, west of 
Hamilton, (the county seat,) both are Township 4, North, Range 
1, East. The difference made on the original field-notes is, North 





115 



m 



DIJIGRJLM 
No, 42 

* CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 

IN 

Explanation on Page 114 
Toivnsliijj 4JVojt7t, Tl any e 1 East ,1 VI*M. 



I 



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JSTorth. 



Lix » 



10 36 



-39 



11 



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12 



18 



17 



1G *7 15 36 14i # 13 



19 



20 



21 



22 . ^ 23 23 2* 



30 



29 



28 4-3 27 32 2G 2/ 



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at 



31 



32 az 33 



34 J0 35 



36 



Town sln-ip 

$ Section Line 



'South. ) 



REFERENCE | Section lumber 

i Onieraf Subdividing township 
9Sma», — - 



26 



COPTRIGHTE0 BY R. T. H16GINS 



LANDS NOT SUKVEYED BY GOVERNMENT. 117 

is left off from all townships surveyed from the Ohio Kiver base. 
The subdivision of this township represents the order in use in 
present instructions of Land Commissioner, except in closing on 
the township lines on north and west sides. Commencing at the 
corner of Sections 35 and 36, on south line of township, they ran 
north one mile on^true line, thence east on random line to range 
line, corrected line back, establishing the true line as a straight 
line from corner of Sections 25 and 36 on range line, to corner 
of Sections 25, 26, 35 and 36, (establishing straight lines from 
corner to corner in the subdivision of a township, instead of at- 
tempting to establish east and west lines, was a long step taken 
in the right direction), thence north one mile on true line, thence 
east on random line to range line, and corrected back as before ; 
the subdivision was continued across the township in the same 
manner ; running the last line between Sections 1 and 2 due north 
to township line, instead of making it eighty chains (one mile) ; 
each tier of sections was subdivided in same manner, shown on 
diagram by consecutive numbers, from 1 to 60, marked on the 
section lines in order of subdivision ; in the last tier of sections on 
the west, the lines were run due west to range line and corners 
established. By running the lines due north and west to the 
township lines, as the surveys seldom coincided with the other 
townships, two sets of corners were established on township 
lines. 

LANDS NOT SURVEYED BY GOVERNMENT, 



In addition to the public lands of Ohio there are four tracts, 
located in different parts of the State, viz : 1st. Ohio Company's 
purchase; 2nd. Symmes' purchase; 3rd. Connecticut reserve; 
4th. Virginia Military lands, 
been described above. 





tit 



tT*t 



liii^s 



- 



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SURVEYS OF ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI. 121 ^f 



Arkansas and Missouri State Map 
References. 



The early surveys of Arkansas and Missouri were made 
under one General Instruction, and from the same meridian, the 
Fifth Principal Meridian, The State of Iowa and greater part 
of Minnesota were surveyed from the same meridian, but not 
under same instructions. Arkansas and Missouri are the only 
States west of the Mississippi River surveyed under the early in- 
structions of E. Tiffin, United States Surveyor-General for 
Northwest territory, bearing date of 1815 ; they were made 
applicable to Missouri Territory, which at that time contained 
the present States of Arkansas and Missouri. 

FIRST SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF MISSOURI TERRITORY. 

William Rector was surveyor of Illinois, Missouri and Ar- 
kansas from 1814 to 1824. In 1815 the Fifth Principal Me- 
ridian was surveyed from mouth of Arkansas River north to the 
Missouri River, a distance of 317 miles, 35.76 chains, and subse- 
quently continued north to the Mississippi River. The Base Line 
for this meridian was surveyed from mouth of St. Francis River 
west to Arkansas River in 1815, from Arkansas River west to 
range nineteen west in 1818, thence west to west line of the State 
in 1837, 1838 and 1841 ; the initial or starting point at crossing of 
meridian and base lines and from which the lands were surveyed 
and numbered in Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa and part of Minne- 
sota, was, when established, fifty-seven miles sixty and one-half 
chains north, from mouth of Arkansas River, and twenty-six 
miles and thirty chains west from mouth of St. Francis River. 
Since that time the Mississippi River has changed westward at 
both the mouth of Arkansas and St. Francis Rivers ; Beulah Lake 
at the mouth of Arkansas River was at that time the main river ; 
the mouth of St. Francis River is now about one mile south of 



122 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

the base line. After establishing the initial point they proceeded 
to lay off the lands into townships six miles square, which were 
subsequently divided into sections. As the surveys progressed 
correction, or standard lines, were found to be a necessity ; they 
are now called Guide or Auxiliary Meridians and Standard Par- 
allels. 

STANDARD LINES AND GUIDE MERIDIANS IN 
ARKANSAS. 



In surveying the State, the Arkansas and White Kivers were 
used to close surveys on, which makes the standard lines in north 
half of the State irregular, and while the townships number 
across the river, the sections in most cases do not connect, and in 
a few cases duplicate sections occur on opposite sides of the river. 
The dates of the establishment of the standard lines are given to 
show the small amount of territory laid off directly from the 
base line, which is a strip from twenty to thirty miles wide on 
the north side of the line. 

STANDARD LINES AND GUIDE MERIDIANS NORTH OF BASE. 

North of base line and east of White River, the following 
established standard lines are marked on the State map with heavy 
lines, viz : One surveyed in 1828 from the Fifth Principal Me- 
ridian, west to White River, between Townships 4 and 5 north ; 
one surveyed in 1816 from the meridian east between Townships 
5 and 6 north, across Crowley's ridge to the bottom lands, a dis- 
tance of thirty-six miles ; one surveyed in 1816 from meridian 
east between Townships 12 and 13 north to St. Francis River, 
and extended west to White River in 1817 ; another was surveyed 
in 1816 from meridian east to St. Francis River, between Town- 
ships 17 and 18 north, and extended west toWhiteRiver, in 1817. 
Between White and Arkansas Rivers there are two Guide Meridi- 
ans ; one surveyed from Base Line north to White River between 
Ranges 9 and 10 west ; this was surveyed from base line north to 
old Cherokee boundary in 1818 and 1819, and continued to White 
River in 1829 ; from this guide meridian a standard line was sur- 
veyed west to Arkansas River in 1818, between Townships 5 and 




ARKANSAS CORRECTION LINES. 123 

6 north, and extended east to White Kiver in 1819. The other 
guide meridian was surveyed from Arkansas River north to 
White River in 1829, between ranges 15 and 16 west ; from this 
guide meridian three standard lines were run west to State line ; 
one between Townships 10 and 11 north, surveyed in 1829, one 
between Township's 13 and 14 north, and one between Townships 
16 and 17 north ; the last two were surveyed in 1831 ; a standard 
line was surveyed from same meridian east to White River, be- 
tween Townships 14 and 15 north, in 1829. Between Arkansas 
River and base line there is one standard line, surveyed from 
Arkansas River west to State line, between Townships 4 and 5 
north ; this was established in 1825 ; (the base line was not com- 
pleted to Indian Territory until 1841, long after the lands along 
the Arkansas bottoms and around Ft. Smith had been sec- 
tionized). 

GUIDE MERIDIAN AND STANDARD LINES SOUTH OF BASE. 

South of the Base the Standard Lines are established with 
more regularity than those north of it. The Fifth Principial Me- 
ridian south of the Arkansas River could not be made available 
in the surveys in Arkansas, without connecting them across the 
Mississippi River, fox the meridian extended south, would be in 
channel of, or east of Mississippi River, except at one point, 
(south of Belle Island.) Recognizing the impracticability of 
establishing the surveys in the south part of the State from this 
meridian, the government surveyors esablished a Guide Me- 
ridian, from which all of the State, south of the base line and 
Arkansas River (over one-third of the State,) was surveyed ; this 
Guide Meridian was established from base line south, to south 
line of State, between Ranges 12 and 13 west ; it was surveyed 
from base line south ninety miles in 1818, from thence to State 
line in 1827 ; from this Guide Meridian the following standard 
lines were established, viz: One between Townships 4 and 5 
south, surveyed west to State line in 1818, and from guide me- 
ridian east to Arkansas River in 1825 ; one between Townships 8 
and 9 south, surveyed from guide meridian east to Arkansas bot- 
toms, a distance of fifty-four miles ; in running tins standard line 

<d3 




124 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

the compass was not properly adjusted, and the line was estab- 
lished too far north (this error is the cause of the short sections 
at Pine Bluff and the long sections immediately south of this 
line) ; a standard line was established in 1818 between Townships 
10 and 11 south, from guide meridian west to State line ; a stand- 
ard line was established between Townships 15 and 16 south, 
surveyed west to Red River in spring of 1819, continued to State 
line in 1840 ; it was surveyed from guide meridian east to Lake 
Chicot in 1818, from Lake Chicot to Mississippi River in 1823 ; 
in that year they surveyed up and down the river laying out 
townships and sectionizing them ; during that time the east line of 
range 1 west, which is the Fifth Principal Meridian, was estab- 
lished, but the detached portions of it, south of Arkansas River, 
were not surveyed until 1835, when it was found to be about four 
miles west of the meridian, north of the river. The Ranges are 
numbered from the Fifth Principal Meridian, but the surveys 
were made from the Guide Meridian above mentioned. For 
subdivision of Townships into Sections, see following diagram : 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 19, N., R. 5, 

E., FIFTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, ARKANSAS. 

Diagram on page 125. 

Diagram 44 illustrates the subdivision of Township 19, North, 
Range 5, East of Fifth Principal Meridian : Beginning at corner 
of Sections 35 and 36 on township line, thence north one mile, 
establishing quarter section corner at 40 chains, and section 
corner of 25, 26, 35 and 36 at 80 chains, marked 1 on section 
line ; thence east on random line in search of corner of Sections 
25 and 36, established on range line when exterior lines of the 
township were ran, when found, they ran a straight line from it, 
to corners of 25, 26, 35 and 36, establishing quarter section cor- 
ner on line equidistant from section corners ; thence north one 
mile ; thence east on random and corrected back as before. The 
north and south lines were run due north, and section corners 
established one mile apart ; the east and west lines were run 
between two corners as straight lines. The survey was continued 
north in same manner until line between Sections 1 and 2 was 
reached, which thev ran north to north line of township, estab- 



* 



rxx: 



lib 



yoc 



* 



No. 44. 

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 
IN 



Explanation on Page 124 
TowrishiplSJrortti, Hang & 5JEast, FiltfuPritw^dlMer 

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6- -'- -St- -' - -5 - -'- -j+- - —4--- -j£- -*- --3-- -— 27 - -'-- -2 



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I 



R E FERENCE 
Section line . . 

Section dumber . ., , 

Order of Subdividing township 



2xX 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T HIG6INS. 



X>C 



GUIDE MERIDIANS AND STANDARD LINES. 127 

listing the quarter section corner at 40 chains and the section cor- 
ner on township line, leaving the excess or deficiency north of 
quarter corner. Each tier of sections was surveyed in same man- 
ner except the west tier of sections, which was subdivided by run- 
ning a line from each section corner due west to range line. 
Running lines due" north and west, to north and "west sides of the 
townships, made double corners on township lines. The only 
States surveyed under this instruction lying west of the Missis- 
sippi River are Missouri and Arkansas. The first tier of sections 
was not completed before commencing the second tier, for order 
of survey as shown by page record, on file at Washington, see 
consecutive numbers from 1 to 57 inclusive, annotated on the 
plat on the section lines ; the swamp or lake in southeast corner 
of township makes fractional quarters. For irregular surveys, 
see Missouri diagrams. There was no general plan adopted for 
lotting the fractional sections, or pieces, in the early surveys. 
In this township the fractional quarter sections on the north and 
west sides of the township are subdivided into fractional forty 
acres or quarter-quarters ; around Cache swamp the subdivisions 
are irregular ; they were laid off on the plat by the surveyor, as 
he thought would best suit the purchasers ; the dotted lines on 
the township plat were not surveyed by government surveyors, 
but drawn on the original plats, to designate the position and 
amount of each piece for future subdivision. In this township 
the fractional pieces were not lotted, but sold as parts of frac- 
tional quarters. 



GUIDE MERIDIANS AND STANDARD LINES 
OF MISSOURI, 



The original field notes of the Surveys of Missouri do not 
show any of the Range lines of the State to have been established 
as Guide Meridians ; as the Range lines from which the surveys 
were laid out, or on which they closed, were not designated by 
any name, they cannot be determined from the original field notes, 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



except by date of establishment or by determining the direction 
of the Random Township lines ; but in the establishment of the 
Standard lines nearly all are so designated on the notes. 

The Fifth Principal Meridian was established on the west 
side of the Mississippi River to avoid connecting the surveys across 
the river, but if extended from starting point, either South to 
south line of Arkansas or North to British America, it would 
cross the Mississippi River several times ; at those points from the 
mouth of the Arkansas River South, and from Townships 53, 
North to British America, where the meridian is East of the 
Mississippi River, the surveys were not connected across the river, 
but they were laid out from a Guide Meridian, established West 
of the river. The Fourth and Fifth Principal Meridians are 
about twenty-five miles apart, one established on the east and one 
on the west of the Mississippi River, but they both cross the Mis- 
sissippi River twice in the great bend in Eastern Iowa ; one, the 
Fourth, a few miles above Davenport and Rock Island, the other, 
the Fifth, a few miles below ; but no surveys are made from the 
Fourth, West of the river, and no surveys are made, from the 
Fifth east of the river. 

GUIDE MERIDIANS OF MISSOURI. 

The Principal Guide Meridian of the State, is the one gov- 
erning the surveys in Northeastern Missouri, from Missouri River 
north to Iowa State Line. The Fifth Principal Meridian termi- 
nates, in Missouri, on the right bank of the Mississippi River, in 
Township 53 North, but the surveys are laid out from the Me- 
ridian North to British America ; this necessitated the establish- 
ment of a Guide Meridian, to obviate extending the Fifth Princi- 
pal Meridian on the East side of the Mississippi River, and con- 
necting the surveys across it. 

The establishment of this Guide Meridian and the surveys 
north of the river was done in the following manner, viz : In Jan- 
uary, 1816, Government surveyors started on the Fifth Principal 
Meridian at corner of Townships 46 and 47 North, and ran West 
forty-eight miles (8 Ranges) ; from this point in April, 1816, they 



129 





GUIDE MERIDIANS OF MISSOURI. 





established the First and Principal Guide Meridian of the State, 
as follows : First they ran South to the Missouri River, returned 
and ran North twenty-four miles, (4 Townships) to township line 
between Townships 50 and 51 North ; They next ran West 30 
miles, (5 Ranges) to range line between Ranges 13 and 14 West. 
In July, 1816, they continued the Guide Meridian North, from 
Township 50, between Ranges 9 and 10 West, to Standard line 
between Townships 55 and 56. In August, 1816, tlKyy commenced 
at corner of Townships 52 and 53 on range line, between Ranges 
18 and 19 West (the date of establishing line shown on state map 
from Townships 50 North, R. 13 West, to this point is not given 
in original field notes) ran thence North one township ; thence 
West one range ; thence North two townships to corner of Town- 
ships 55 and 56 North on range line between Ranges 19 and 20 
West; from this pointin November, 1816, two surveying parties 
started, at same time, to establish the Standard line across the 
State on North line of Township 55 N. ; one surveyed East to the 
Mississippi River, one West to the old State line (Range 33 
West) and subsequently it was extended to Missouri River. 

In April, 1818 they continued the Guide Meridian North from 
Townships 55 North, between Ranges 9 and 10 West, to the stand- 
ard line between Townships 62 and 63, from this standard line 
they ran the Guide Meridian North to State line, between Rang- 
es 8 and 9 West. This Guide Meridian between Ranges 8 and 9, 
and 9 and 10, from Missouri River North, to Iowa State Line, 
takes the place of the Fifth Principal Meridian, in establishing 
surveys, but not in numbering the Ranges. 

The Guide Meridians are designated on the State map with 
heavy lines running from one Standard parallel to another. 
The following explanation of original surveys made of Townships 
30, 31, 32, 33 and 34, from Meridian West to State line, will il- 
lustrate the use of the Guide Meridians and the cause of some 
of the townships being too narrow, while others are too wide, viz : 
In the Townships above mentioned the survey of Ranges 1, 2 and 
3 West, connect with the Fifth Principal Meridian ; Ranges 4, 
6, 7, and 8 connect on Guide Meridian between Ranges 4 




SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



and 5 West; survey of Ranges 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 
connect with Guide Meridian, between Ranges 8 and 9 ; survey of 
Ranges 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29, con- 
nect with Guide Meridian betwen Ranges 24 and 25 ; survey of 
Ranges 30, 31, 32 and 33 connect with Guide Meridian between 
Ranges 31 and 32, and the exterior random lines of these Town- 
ships were run East in the following Ranges, viz : 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 and 32, andin 
the following they were run West, viz : 4, 9, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 30 and 31. 

STANDARD LINES IN MISSOURI. 

The principal standard lines are marked on the State map of 
Missouri with heavy lines, and are located as follows : One between 
Townships 22 and 23, from the Mississippi River West to White 
River, and continued west to State line, except across Range 
20 ; one between Townships 24 and 25, from Fifth Principal Me- 
ridian west to west line of the State ; one between Townships 
27 and 28, from meridian east to Mississippi River ; one between 
Townships 29 and 30, from meridian west to State line, east 
of meridian, it is a standard line from Range 7, East, to Missis- 
sippi River ; one between Townships 33 and 34, from meridian 
east to Mississippi River; one between Townships 34 and 35, 
from meridian west to State line ; one between Townships 39 and 
40 runs across the State from Mississippi River to west line of 
State. The following county seats are located in the first tier of 
townships north of the line, viz : Hillsboro, Vienna, Tuscumbia, 
Warsaw and Butler. A standard line is located between Town- 
ships 42 and 43, from meridian east to Mississippi River, west 
of the meridian it is a standard line from Range 9 West, to west 
line of State ; one between Townships 44 and 45, from Missouri 
River w T est to State line ; one between Townships 47 and 48, 
from Range 19 West to west line of State. 

STANDARD LINES NORTH OF MISSOURI RIVER. 

A standard line runs between Townships 46 and 47, from 
meridian West to Range 10 West ; one between Townships 55 



4 134 




DXJLGEEULAA 

No. 46 

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP 

-— IN — 




MISSOURI ^ 

Explanation on Page 135 
To WThsMp 33 JSToTtJv, BangelZas t, 5W P.M. 

5f (Jfo rifiM PARALLEL |1 %\M)ItTH 




REFERENCE 
Section Xifie 

Section-Member , ,,„„„„.,, 26 

Order oi ^Subdividing •township „ , 30 

fyiarterSections Sdotlin es 

ZotMnribers „ ,, ■»,.„. „ „(3) - 



COPYRIGHTED BY R. T. HISSINS 



NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION. 




and 56 across the State, from Mississippi River west to Missouri 
River; one between Townships 60 and 61, running from Range 
10 West to Missouri River ; one between Townships 62 and 63 
from Mississippi River west to Range 17, West, and one between 
Townships 65 and 66, running from Range 13, West, to Mis- 
souri River. In addition to the standard lines the Missouri River 
and the State lines between Missouri and Arkansas, and between 
Missouri and Iowa, are used to close surveys on. Instead of using 
White River in this State, as in Arkansas, to close surveys on, 
government surveyors closed their surveys on both the east and 
west sides of Range 20, West, from State line north to standard 
line between Townships 24 and 25. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVrSION OF T. 33 N., R. 1 
E., FIFTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, MISSOURI. 

Plat of Township in Diagram 46. 

This diagram not only illustrates the subdivision into sec- 
tions of Township 33, North, Range 1, East, of Fifth Principal 
Meridian, but illustrates the manner of lotting an irregular shaped 
township ; the irregularity was caused by a closing of the govern- 
ment surveys on the Fifth Principal Meridian and a Standard 
Parallel. The following manner of surveying and establishing 
the meridian, standard parallels and township lines, by the origi- 
nal surveyors, will explain the odd shape of this township. In 
the year 1815 the Fifth Principal Meridian was established from 
the mouth of the Arkansas River north to the Missouri River; 
from this meridian running east to the Mississippi River there 
were established standard parallels or correction lines, at inter- 
vals of thirty-six miles, or less, the object being to confine the 
errors resulting from converging of north and south lines and in- 
accuracies in measurements, within the tracts of lands bounded 
by the lines so established. The north line of this township is a 
standard parallel and was run due east from the Fifth Principal 
Meridian, and established before the townships were laid out. 
The township in this diagram lies between the two stan- 
tard parallels running east from Fifth Principal Meridian, one 
on north side of Township 27 and one on north side of 



136 SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 

Township 33, North ; the east line of it was surveyed over 
the rough broken lands bordering on Black Eiver and its tribu- 
taries ; the surveyors were not as careful in chaining as the law 
contemplated, and the discrepancy illustrates the importance of 
using great care in measuring over rough ground. The range 
line, six miles east of the Fifth Principal Meridian between the 
tw T o standard parallels (thirty-six miles apart), measured thirty- 
seven miles, two hundred and fifty-five rods and three links, 
a difference of one mile two hundred and fifty-five rods and three 
links, in a distance of thirty-six miles. The subdivision of the 
township into sections was in 1822, commencing at corner of 
Sections 35 and 36 on township line ; they ran due north on true 
line, established quarter section corner at 40.00 chains and corner 
of Sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 at 80.00 chains ; thence east on ran- 
dom line to range line, wmich was intersected 20.57 chains north 
of corner to Sections 25 and 36, established when range line was 
run ; from corner of 25 and 36 ran a straight line between Sec- 
tions 26 and 36 to corner of Sections 25, 26, 35 and 36 estab- 
lishing the quarter section corner equidistant between the section 
corners, the topography is given on the random lines, which in 
this case is a quarter of a mile from true line on one end. In 
this State the topography is given on random lines ; the present 
instructions are to give topography on true line ; thence due north, 
establishing the quarter section corner at 40.00 chains, and sec- 
tion corner to Sections 23, 24, 25 and 26 at 80.00 chains ; thence 
east on a random line to the range line, intersect 21.35 chains 
north of corner to Sections 24 and 25, ran a straight line from 
corner of Sections 24 and 25 to corner of Sections 23, 24, 25 and 
26, establishing quarter section corner, equidistant as before; 
thence due north one mile, establishing corners as before ; thence 
east on random line and corrected back as before. As the law 
did not require the survey of the east tier of sections to be com- 
pleted before commencing another tier, they next commenced at 
corner of Sections 34 and 35 on township line ; ran due north one 
mile ; thence east on random line correcting the line back and 
establishing section and quarter section corners, as in east tier, 





NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION. 137 

just described. Each tier of sections was surveyed in same man- 
ner, except the north tier of sections, instead of establishing the 
section corner at 80.00 chains, (one mile), they continued north 
to township line. In the west tier of sections, instead of running 
to section corners, on the meridian line, they ran the section lines 
due west and noted the distances they intersected the meridian 
line, south of the section corners, which distances are annotated 
on the plat along the Fifth Principal Meridian ; the numbers on 
the section lines from 1 to 60 designate the order of establishing 
the section lines ; number 1 is placed on first section line surveyed, 
number 2 on second line surveyed, and so in consecutive order to 
60. In illustrating the surveys of Missouri, the township in this 
diagram was selected to demonstrate the importance of the north 
and south lines, as compared with the east and west lines. From 
the north and south lines all the interior section corners were 
established , they also determine the lengths and bearing of the 
east and west lines (except in west tier of sections). In establish- 
ing the north and south lines, they ran due north on true lines, 
establishing quarter corners every 40.00 chains and section corners 
every 80.00 chains, except in the north tier of sections. In the east 
and west lines they ran east on a random line in search of the 
section corner ; when found they established a straight line 
between the two section corners, regardless of distance or direc- 
tion, and placed the quarter section corner equidistant, except in 
the west tier of sections, which was subdivided by running a true 
line due west, and establishing the quarter section corner at 40.00 
chains, throwing the excess or deficiency in the west half of the 
section. The lottings in this diagram and the one following, illus- 
trates the irregularity with which the lots are numbered, and 
show the importance of the Original plats as a record, as well as 
the Original field-notes. The laying off and numbering of the 
lots were not done in the field, and are not recorded in the Origi- 
nal field-notes, but were drawn and numbered on the Original 
plat in the office, after the field work was completed. Diagrams 
46 and 47 illustrate the fact that lots have been established in 
different parts of townships as occasion required, or the survey- 





SUBDIVISION AND SURVEY ILLUSTRATED. 



ors thought best. The light dotted lot and quarter section Knes 
on the diagram, were not surveyed by government, but were des- 
ignated on the plat for future subdivisions, which should in all 
cases be followed. 

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON ORIGINAL SUBDIVISION OF T. 21 N., K. 
33 W., FIFTH PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN, MISSOURI. 

Plat of Township in Diagram 47. , 

This diagram illustrates the subdivision of Township 21, 
North, Range 33, West. The government surveyors commenced 
at the northeast corner and proceeded south and west, leaving 
the lottings and fractions on the south and west sides, instead of 
north and west, as is usual. The diagram further illustrates the 
fact that lots may be laid off by government surveyors in any 
part of a township, should the occasion require. This township 
lies in the southwest corner of the State. The boundaries were 
established from south to north, closing on the south and west 
sides of the State lines, hence the reason for beginning at the 
northeast corner to subdivide the township. Beginning at corner 
of Sections 1 and 2, on township line, they ran line between Sec- 
tions 1 and 2, south, establishing quarter section corner at 40.00 
chains, and section corner to Sections 1, 2, 11 and 12 at 80.00 
chains ; thence east on random line to range line, corrected line 
back, establishing true line a straight line between corner of 
Sections 1 and 12 on range line and corner of 1, 2, 11 and 12, just 
established ; thence south, establish quarter section corner at 40.00 
chains, and section corner to Sections 11, 12, 13 and 14, at 
80.00 chains ; thence east on random line to range line, cor- 
rected back as before For order of subdivision see consecutive 
numbers from 1 to 60 on the section lines. In the survey of the 
south tier of sections they established quarter section corners at 
40.00 chains, leaving the excess on the south line, which is the State 
line. The west tier of sections were surveyed in usual manner. 
The lots in Sections 1, 6 and 9, were laid out on the township 
plat and designated by government surveyors by numbers, in- 
stead of subdividing those sections into 40 and 80 acre tracts. 
The quarter section and lot lines shown on the diagram with 




f 



^ 



139 I 



diagram 

No. 47. 

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP, 



MISSOURI 



Explanation on Page 138 

Tow nship 212forth, Range 33 West, of the 5 QP.M. 
T o win. sTnirp (JVb r tli^ ) 




CT4.TT 7 (So~vuths) 

31 REFERENCE 

Section line 

SectionJSumber 

Order of Subdividing township 

OuarterSections& Lot Lines. 

lotNunibers 



XINE 






IRREGULAR SURVEYS. 




dotted lines, were not surveyed by government, but designated on the original 
plat to guide the county surveyor in laying off each lot. In subdividing a town- 
ship, government surveyors established at each section corner a monument of 
some kind to designate the exact location of the corners, and equidistant from 
these corners, on each side of an interior section is established a quarter section 
corner, making four section and four quarter section corners to guide county 
surveyors in subdividing the sections. A section subdivided into 80 acre tracts 
(all running one way) requires seven corners to be established in addition to the 
government corners; if divided into 40 acre tracts, it requires seventeen subdi- 
visional corners to be established. From the subdivision of this township, rep- 
resented by numbers from 1 to 60, and from description given of the random 
lines, the direction of the random lines can be readily determined. In Missouri 
and Arkansas, in subdividing townships, the north and south lines were run 
without random lines. All east and west lines (except lines dividing the west 
tier of sections and fractional lines) were run east as random lines, and estab- 
lished as straight lines from corner to corner. 



IRREGULAR SURVEYS. 



Duplicate Townships and Sections illustrated by Missouri and Arkansas Surveys. 

The Government Surveyors, in making surveys from the Fifth Principal Me- 
ridian, found it impracticable to connect their surveys across the Arkansas, Mis- 
souri and along parts of the White and St. Francois Rivers, and the surveys 
were accordingly extended to opposite sides of the rivers independently, except 
as they connect with the Meridian or Base lines. 

The discrepancies arising from converging of Meridional lines and inaccurate 
chaining are shown in the duplicate sections along the rivers surveyed from the 
Fifth Principal Meridian, and in the duplicate townships in Missouri and Arkan- 
sas given as follows : Townships 17 and 18 N. Range 12 W. in Arkansas, and 
Townships 48 and 49 N. Range 15, 16 and 17 W. in Missouri. 

The following explanation of Duplicate Township Numbers around Boonville, 
Missouri, and the survey which places fractional Township 48 N. on the north 
side of fractional Township 49 N. in Ranges 15, 16 and 17 W., will suffice to 
show the cause of duplicate Township or Section numbers wherever they may 
occur, viz: By reference to diagram 45 (Missouri State map) the survey estab- 
lishing fractional Township 49 on south side of river can be traced by the heavy 
black lines, as follows: The surveyor ran from Fifth Principal Meridian west, 
between T. 39 and 40 N. thirteen ranges to Guide Meridian; thence north to Mis 
souri River; thence we^t on Standard line between T. 44 and 45 N., from which 
Townships 45, 46, 47, 48 and fractional T. 49 in Ranges 15, 16 and 17 W*. were 
surveyed north to the river. 

The survey of fractional Township 48 north of the river was as follows : The 
surveyors ran from Fifth Principal Meridian west, between T. 46 and 47 N. eight 
ranges; thence north and west as shown on Missouri State map by heavy lines 
to T. 56 N. Range 20 W. From Standard line between Townships 52 and 53 N., 
Townships 52, 51, 50, 49 and fractional Township 48 N., in Ranges 15, 16 and 17 



W., were surveyed south to the river, the lines of which are about one mile too 
far north and three miles too far west to correspond with the surveys on the 
south side of the river. This discrepancy was caused partly by inaccurate chain- 
ing and partly from the converging and diverging of meridional lines. The 
townships bordering on the south side of the river (as a rule) are less than six 
miles wide, while those on the north are correspondingly more than six miles 
wide, those on the south side of the river having been surveyed from a standard 
line north to the river, while those on the north side were surveyed from a 
standard line south to the river. (See diagram 32 for converging and diverging 
of meridional lines) . 

The jogs in the ranges and the duplicate sections along the Missouri Eiver 
in the western part of the State are shown in Higgins & Co.'s large sectional 
map, by numbering the sections in the north and south parts of the same town- 
ships, the jogs in which are about three miles to the west on the north side of 
the river. 

See large sectional map of Missouri for shape of T. 51 N. R. 31 W.; 
a' so for section numbers in Taney and Howell counties, the former county 
containing townships about ten miles and sections about four miles in length; 
the latter contains a range over seven miles wide (which is a very rare occur- 
rence west of the Mississippi River). The odd shaped surveys in Townships 
22, 23 and 24 N. Range 20 W., and Ts. 21 and 22 N. R. 10 W. were caused by the 
survey being made from the lines established in Arkansas and closing on lines 
established from standard lines in Missouri. (See heavy black lines on maps, 
pages 120 and 129, Part II,. for standard lines). 

The duplicate sections along St. Francois River in T. 21 N. R. 9 E. were 
caused as above described. In Township 10 N. Range 3 W., Jackson County, 
Arkansas, there are three fractional sections of the same number, caused partly 
by inaccurate surveys and partly by the fact that the surveys west of the river 
were made from the Guide Meridian between Ranges 9 and 10 W. instead of 
connecting across the river from the Fifth Principal Meridian. (See Higgins' 
large sectional maps of Arkansas and Missouri for irregular surveys above men- 
tioned) 

MISSISSIPPI STATE MAP REFERENCES. 

Mississippi was surveyed from five different initial points. (See State map, 
page 143). The numbers on section lines in diagrams 49 and 50 show order of 
subdivision of the townships into sections. 

INDIAN TERRITORY NOTES. 

The Indian Territory has been partly surveyed by Government from the In- 
dian Meridian. (See map on page 150). The object of the survey seems to have 
been for a division of the lands to the Indians in severalty; for no portion 
of the Public Domain has been subdivided into quarter and quarter-quarter sec- 
tions, with corners established on the ground, except the following described 
parts of the Territory, viz: Townships 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 N. in Ranges 8, 9 and 
10 W., and Townships 1, 2 and 3 in Range 11 W. have been surveyed into 160 
acre tracts (quarter sections), and the following reservations have been sub- 
divided into forty acre tracts (quarter- quarters), viz: Pottawatomies, Sac and 
Fox, Quapaws, Peorias, Ottawas, Wyandottes and Senecas 

PUBLIC LAND STRIP. 

This strip of land lying north of Texas, west of Indian Territory, south of 
Colorado and Kansas, and east of New Mexico, is surveyed from the Cimarron 
meridian. (For extent of surveys see map on page 151). It is not opened to 
settlement, and is called "no man's land." 




n:\ 




50 



1 








151 



;