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Reprinted 1948 by Amherst College 


At the annual meeting of the Board of Trus- 
tees of Amherst College, August 21, 1826, the 
Faculty presented a detailed Report of the state of 
the Seminary, and the course of instruction, togeth- 
er with some general remarks upon the inadequacy 
of the pre vailing systems of classical education in this 
country, to meet the wants and demands of an en- 
lightened public. The Trustees were so much in- 
terested by this Report, particularly that part of it 
which touches upon the subject of modifications and 
improvements, that they appointed a Committee, 
consisting of the President, the Hon. Lewis 
Strong, and the Hon. Samuel Howe, to publish 
extracts from it, at such time and in such a way, as 
they might think best calculated to elicit inquiry ; 
to subserve the great interests of the College ; and 
to promote the general cause of education. 

At the same meeting, the Trustees passed a re- 
solve, requesting the Faculty to draw up a specific 
plan of improvement, upon the basis of their Report, 
and present it for consideration at a future meet- 
ing of the Board. 


The following extracts are herewith presented 
from this Report. 

*^ Entrusted as we are, under the oversight and 
authority of this Board, with the immediate govern- 
ment and instruction of the College, we have en- 
deavoured in all respects, to pursue an elevated and 
liberal course, in accordance with the just and com- 
prehensive views of its founders and guardians, as 
expressed in the Charter and Laws of the Institu- 
tion. And though it would ill become us at so 
early a period, to claim for our favorite Seminary a 
place in the highest rank of kindred Institutions, 
we shall ever esteem it our honour and happiness, 
to cooperate with the Trustees, in making it more 
and more worthy of public patronage and confidence. 

" The government which we have sought to es- 
tablish and maintain is parental and moral, rather 
than penal. The confidence of our pupils, the 
sway of principle, and the obedience of the heart, 
are in our estimation, incomparably preferable to a 
mere cold conformity to the laws, however exact, 
or universal. 

^^ As it respects the great interests of the College, 
we feel that we have something more to do, »than 
merely to sustain them, upon their present eleva- 
tion. This is emphatically an age of improvement, 
especially in the science of education. Situated as 
we are, therefore, accustomed and even constrain- 
ed by our daily employment, to investigate prin- 
ciples, to examine text-books, to compare the reign- 
ing systems of education not only with each other, 

but with those of past ages, and to consult the pecu- 
liar genius, wants and demands of a great and pros- 
perous Republic, we conceive it to be our duty to lay 
before the Trustees, any suggestions which may oc- 
cur to us, as having a direct bearing upon the per- 
manent interests and more extended usefulness of 
the College. Under this impression, we shall pro- 
ceed to offer a few thoughts upon the great and 
popular question of College reform, which may 
possibly serve as hints or waymarks, should the 
Board think it of sufficient importance to call for 
any further discussion. 

** One fact, we take it, is becoming more and 
more obvious every day. The American public is not I 
satisfied with the present course of education in our I 
higher seminaries. And the great objection is, that 
it is not sufficiently modern and comprehensive, to 1 
meet the exigencies of the age and country in which 
we live. Not that the general voice seems to be 
hostile to the Ancient Classics. Any College may, 
without serious opposition, retain both the Latin and ^,. 
Greek languages for the majority of its sons — may / 
insist more strenuously than heretofore upon the 
study of the abstruse sciences, and may multiply its \. ^ 
requisitions in every existing department, provided 
it will at the same time open its doors to that large 
class of young men, who are not destined to either / 
of the learned professions, and carry tliem through 
a course, which they think better adapted to their 
future plans and prospects. The complaint is, and 
if our ears do not deceive us, it daily waxes louder 
and louder, that while every thing else is on the ad- 


vance, our Colleges are stationary ; or if not quite 
stationary, that they are in danger of being left fiair 
behind, in the rapid march of improvement. 

" Why, it is demanded, such reluctance to admit 
modern improvements and modern literature ? Why 
so little attention to the natural, civil, and polit- 
ical history of our own country and to the genius of 
our government? Why so little regard to the 
/French and Spanish languages, especially consider- 
ing the commercial relations which are now so rap- 
idly forming, and which bid fair to be indefinitely 
extended between the United States and all the 
great southern Republics ? Why should my son, who 
is to be a merchant at home, or an agent in some 
foreign port ; or why, if he is to inherit my fortune, 
and wishes to qualify himself for the duties and 
standing of a private gentleman, or a scientific far- 
mer — why, in either case, should he be compel- 
led to spend nearly four years out of six, in the 
study of the dead Languages, for which he has 
no taste, from which he expects to derive no 
material advantage, and for which he will in 
fact have but very little use after his senior exam- 
ination ? 

" Such questions as these, are every day asked, 
by men, whose strong good sense, education and 
standing in society, entitle them to be heard ; and 
it does not satisfy them to be told, even from the 
halls of science, that a knowledge of the Ancient 
Classics is in all cases of pre-eminent importance ; 
that no man can speak, or write English correctly, 
who has not read them ; that the present system 

has the advantage of great age, and the sanction of 
long experience ; that innovations are dangerous ; 
and that, if the young men of this generation profit 
as much by a liberal education as their fathers did, 
the public will have no reason to complain. 

^^ To such admonitions as these, coming as they 
do from some of the highest literary authorities in 
the land, the advocates of reform may lend a civil 
and patient attention : and the profound veneration 
of many for old establishments, may half prevail 
over their better judgement ; but the majority wiU 
be apt still to contend, that in an age of universal 
improvement, and in a young, free, and prosperous 
country like ours, it is absurd to cling so tenaciously 
to the prescriptive forms of other centuries ; and to 
meet every call for instruction in Modem Languages, 
Literature and Improvements, with the cry of innova* 
tion. What, they will ask, are our liberties, and in- 
deed all our civil and religious rights and blessings, \ 
but the fruits of innovation ? 

^^ But however that large class of enlightened 
men, of whom we have just been speaking, may 
differ in regard to the practicability, or expediency 
of modernizing our Colleges, in one thing they are 
entirely agreed. These Institutions do not at pres- 
ent, afford^all the fs^ which they want, fgr 
the liberal education of their sons ; and we are con- 
vinced, that if the Colleges cannot so modify their 
systems, as to meet the public demand, or if they do 
not choose to do it, other seminaries, equal in rank 
and of surpassing popularity, will spring up by their 
side. How detrimental this would be, to the pros- 


perity of existing establishments, especially such of 
them as derive their support chiefly from tuition, we 
need not stop to inquire. Let our Colleges prompt- 
ly lead on in the mighty march of improvement, and 
all will be well ; but let them hesitate and linger a 
little longer, and many of their most e£Scient friends 
will go on without them. 

" That there are serious difficulties in the way of 
such changes and modifications as are called for, is 
certain ; but we hope and believe, that they will 
not be found insuperable. Would it not, for exam- 
ple, be practicable to connect a new and liberal 
course, with that which is now pursued, under the 
direction of a common Faculty, and for the most 
part, under the same teachers, so as not very mate- 
rially to increase the expense, while both courses 
would derive some important advantages from the 
union ? We have nothing matured on this subject, to 
submit to your consideration ; but it does appear to 
us, that something like this is practicable, and would 
be of great public advantage. The amount of study 
required in each course might be the same ; it might 
be left optional with candidates for admission which 
to take; and they might all graduate together. 
More instruction, indeed, would be required in two 
courses than in one ; but would not the number of 
students be sufficiently increased to defray the great- 
er part of the additional expense ? 

*' But whatever may be thought of these sugges- 
tions, there is one new department of great practi- 
cal importance, which it appears to us, should be 
annexed to the College, as soon as the funds will 

any how permit----wejnfiaaLl^^ 
When it is considered how this lies at the very foun-| 
dation of all improvement ; and when so many Pro* 
fessorships have been established in all the other 
sciences, as well as in literature and the arts, it is 
truly wonderful to us, that so little attention ha; 
been bestowed upon the science of mental culture, 
and that there is not, (as we believe there is not) 
and never has been, a single Professor of Educatiotf, 
on this side of the Atlantic. Will it not be an hon- 
our to that College, which shall be the first to sup- 
ply this deficiency, and open a department for the 
thorough education of teachers ? But we have no 
room for detail, or enlargement in the present Re- 
port, and can only add in conclusion, that should the 
Board judge it expedient, to refer the several topics 
which it embraces to a select committee, we fondly 
indulge the persuasion, that much good might re- 
sult from the reference." 

It has ahready been stated, that the whole sub- 
ject was recommitted to the Faculty, and at a spe- 
cial meeting of the Board, Dec. 6, 1826, called for 
the express purpose of receiving and acting upon 
some specific plan of improvement, the following 
Report was presented, and, after much discussion 
and some amendment, was ordered to be printed. 

Crentlemen of the Trustees^ ^ 

In compliance with a vote of your Reverend and 
Honorable Board, duly communicated by the Secre- 
tary, we have the honor to submit the result of ou? 



1 / 



deliberations, upon the expediency of new modeling 
and extending the present system of academic in- 
' struction and study in this College. Every one 
knows, how much easier it is to find fault than to 
amend ; to point out existing deficiencies than to 
supply them ; and we shall not attempt to conceal, 
that the imperfectly digested plan now presented, 
has cost us more thought and discussion than we 
had anticipated. At the same time, if it can be 
carried into successful operation, as we believe it 
can, in all its essential provisions, the advantages 
which it profiers, might well be purchased at a far 
dearer rate. What we propose, in discharging the 
duty which the partiality of the Board has devolved 
upon us, is to offer a general outline of our plan, ac- 
companied with such reasons and remarks, as we 
have thought needful for its illucidation and de- 
fence. The plan is somewhat extensive, and em- 

L Preparatory studies* 

II. The present classical and scientific four years 

III. A new course, equally thorough and elevated 
with this, but distinguished from it by amore mod-- 
em and national aspect ; and by a better adapta- 
tion to the taste and future pursuits of a large class 
of young men, who aspire to the advantages of a 
liberal education. 


tV« A df^partment devoted to the science and art 
of teaching ; but more especially at first, to the ed* 
Qcation of School-Masters. 

v. A department of theoretical and practical 

The final result of much discussion with 
regard to preparatory Indies is, that the terms 
of admission should remain as they are ; that 
the present amount of Latin and Greek should 
be required for both courses ; and that no divergen- 
cy should be recognised or encouraged, till after the 
initiatory examination. Once received to full and 
honourable membership^ and with the two courses 
before him, let the student consult the wishes of 
his friends and his own inclination, and take his 

If he prefers the course now established id the 
seminary, he will find a rich reward in the study of 
the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew^ Languages ; An- 
cient and Modern History and Geography ; Gram- 
mar, Rhetoric and Oratory ; Mathematics and As- 
tronomy ; Experimental Physics and Natural Histo- 
ry ; Anatomy ; Intellectual and Moral Philosophy ; 
Political Economy and Theology. We think that 
in the new contemplated arrangement, it b best to 
retain this course without alteration ; 

1 . Because it still holds its place in our most 

* Hebrew or Greek, at his option, during a part of senior 


distinguished public seminaries, after long and thor- 
ough experience ; 

2. Because, though powerfully assailed from 
many quarters, particularly in the department 
of languages, it continues, if we mistake not, to 
maintain its popularity with a majority of those who 
are best qualified to judge* in the case; And 

S. Because we regard it, upon the whole, as 
well entitled to the estimation in which it is held. 

But we cannot discover in this long established 
course, liberal and thorough as it is, any legitimate 
claim to exclusive patronage and regard. To say 
nothing here, of some of the more practical branch- 
es of education which it scarcely glances at, but for 
which there is an increasing public demand, we ob- 
serve, that while for want of time, it passes hastily 
over several of the later and more popular sciences, 
it does not profess to lead the student a single step 
within the bright enclosures, of some of the richest 
and widest fields of modem literature. Elevated 
and comprehensive as it is, therefore, nobody can 
doubt, that it leaves ample room for genius and in- 
dqstry to range and gather affluence, without its 
ample limits. Under the impression, however, that 
there is not space enough left for a new and liberal 
parallel course of four years ; or that something 
short of this is demanded by the public, much has 
been said in favour of annexing a partial course to 
each of our Colleges. Now we do not believe that 
any such plan will satisfy an enlightened commu- 
nity. Well informed men, who have the means of 
carrying their sons through College, will hardly con* 

13 . 

sent to send them, to study English Literature and 
the Sciences for two or three years, and take a cer- 
tificate merely, when for a little more expense, a 
diploma may be had at the end of a full and liberal 

For these and other reasons, our decided and 
unanimous judgment is, that if a new course is in- 
tanoduced, it ought to proceed on a most liberalj 
8cale» By whatever name it may be called, itl 
should be fully equivalent to the course which we 1 
now pursue* It should fill up as many years—* 
should be carried on by as able instructors — should 
take as wide and elevated a range — ^should require 
as great an amount of hard studyy or mental disci- 
pline, and should be rewarded by the same acade- 
mic honors. 

In presenting to the Trustees an outline of thk 
parallel, or rather equivalent course, we find consid- 
erable difficulty in giving it a sufficiently distinct 
character of its own ; arising chiefly from the many 
coincidences which our plan contemplates, and we 
ought perhaps, thus early to premise, that should it 
be adopted, experience will doubtless ere long sug- 
gest important modifications and improvements. 

In the department of Languages, an entire sep- 
aration is proposed, by substituting the jmodem for 
the ancient, provided however, that in the new 
course, Latin may be taken instead of the Spanish, 
at the option of the student when he enters College. 
Thus, with the knowledge of Greek and Latin, 
which all who enter will be required to bring along 
with them, it is thought they may in four years, so 


hi master the French and Spanish, as to read and 
write, and even speak them with considerable readi- 
ness and fluency. Shoold room hereafter be found 
for German, or Italian, or both, so much the better ; 
but we deem it inexpedient to begin upon so broad 
a scale. The adoption of our general plan, will 
make the two courses more distinct in the depart* 
ment now under consideration, than in any othef« 
But the new course will differ from the old in several 
important respects, which are yet to be mentioned : as 

First. In the prominence which will be given to 
English Literature, than which no subject has high-* 
er claims upon the American scholar, or can more 
richly reward his diligence. We do not mean to 
attach any blame to the Colleges, for having done 
comparatively so little hitherto, in this department, 
for who can teach every thing in four years ? But 
we believe the time has come, for the more critical 
study of some of the admired classics in our own 
language, by a portion at least, of the liberally edu- 
cated in every College. 

Second. The new course will differ essentially 
from the old, in the attention which will be given to 
French and Spanish Literature, by connecting this 
branch of study, with the recitations and other ex- 
ercises in these two rich and popular languages. 

Third. In Mechanical Philosophy, by introducing 
some such text book as, ^' Nicholson^ s Operative Me- 
chanic and Machanist;^^ and by multiplying and va- 
rying the experiments, so as to render the science 
more familiar and attractive. 

Fourth. In Chemistry and other kindred branches 


of Physical Science, by showing their application to 
the more useful arts and trades, to the cultivation 
of the soil and to domestic economy. ^ 

Fifth. In a course of familiar Lectures upon cu* 
rious and labour saving machines ;— upon bridges, 
locks and aqueducts ; and upon the different orders 
of architecture, with models for illustration. 

Sixth. In Natural History, by devoting more 
time to those branches which are now taught, and 
by introducing others into the course. 

Seventh. In modem History, especially the his- 
tory of the Puritans, in connection with the Civil 
and Ecclesiastical history of our own country. 

Eighth. In the elements of Civil and Political law, 
embracing the careful study of American Constitu* 
tions. To which may be added Drawing and Civil 
Engineering, together with some other branches 
perhaps, which are not specified in the foregoing 
enumeration. Ancient History, Geography, Gram- 
mar, Rhetoric and Oratory, Mathematics, Natural, 
Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, Anatomy, Po- 
litical Economy and Theology, will, upon the plan 
here recommended, be common to both courses. 
This plan may be presented at a glance in the fol- 
lowing illustration. 

Two friends set out the same day from Boston, 
or New York, for the City of Washington. But as 
they have not precisely the same objects in view^ 
and are led by curiosity, or business to visit differ- 
ent places lying a little off from the general route, 
they make their arrangements before they com- 
mence the journey, where to separate and where to 



meet again—- when to travel in company and when 
to take different roads and conveyances ; but so as to 
advance with equal speed, and reach the seat of 
Government on the same day. Thus would we 
have, not two distinct classes of the same standing ; 
but two divisions of the same class, advancing 
through four years in their respective courses, now 
in company, and now by separate paths ; but under 
such an arrangement, as shall bring them both out 

To encourage and reward uncommon proficien- 
cy in either course, provision might be made for ex- 
tra recitations in both. Thus, for example, the re- 
gular student in Greek and Latin, might employ his 
spare time in the study of French and Spanish ; 
while another might pass over from the new to the 
old course, and take lessons in Latin, Greek, or He- 

We are fully aware, that the outline which we 
have thus hastily sketched, requires much filling up ; 
and that it will be found no easy task, to select 
text-books and spread out the new course in all the 
details of four years' study. But it can be done ; 
and should this part of our plan be sanctioned by 
the Trustees, any aid which we can lend will be 
most cheerfully afforded. 

The Board will recollect, that in our first Re- 
port, we ventured to express a decided judgement, 
in favour of ajieio departrnj^iU-for sySitdmBtiQ^ in- 
struction in the science of education ; and all our 
subsequent thoughts on the subject, have conspired 
to strengthen the opinion which we then entertain- 


ed. Indeed, we look at this chasm, in the most 'y/ { 

complete and popular systems of an enlightened age, j^ 

with increasing wonder. Why has it been suffered i A 

so long to remain, or rather why to exist at all in \ "" 

our public seminaries? No respectable College 
would think itself organized, without a department / 
of Natural Philosophy, and another of Chemistry— 
nor without Professors in Rhetoric and the Lan- 
guages ; and yet, how few who enjoy these advan- 
tages in College, expect ever to be practical Chemists, 
or Philosophers, or Critics. How then can the most 
distinguished and useful literary institutions in the 
land, go on from year to year without a single instruc- 
tor devoted to the science of education, when three 
fourths of their sons expect to be teachers, in one 
form or another themselves, and when the primary 
schools, academies and higher institutions of learning, 
require twice, or thrice as many thousands to supply 
them, as are wanted for all the learned professions 
together ? Every third or fourth man we meet, is, 
or has been a school -master ; but who among a thou- 
sand of the best qualified, was ever regularly instruct- 
ed himself in the science and art of teaching, for a 
single quarter ? And to rise still higher, who that 
daily gives lectures, or hears recitations in College, 
does not find reason to regret, that when he was a 
student, the analysis of mind was so little known or 
thought of, with reference to the science of educa- 
tion ? Who, in short, is so old, or so wise, that he 
would not gladly take his place as a learner, under 
a competent Professor of this noble, but strangely 
neglected science ? 








We feel confident that the time has come to 
supply this great desideratum. The public is not 
only prepared for it, but loudly demands it, and 
will, we are perfectly assured, rejoice to see the 
Trustees of this College, acting definitively on the 
subject. Nor, if we judge correctly, will an enlight- 
ened community be satisfied with any but the 
most comprehensive and liberal views, in the estal>» 
lishment of this new department. To occupy the 
whole ground, will require, 

1 . Much time and talent in the selection, revis- 
ion and compilation of elementary school-books. 

2. An experimental school, consisting of young 
children, under the entire control of the depart- 
ment, where students may have opportunity to learn 
the art of teaching frcMn example, and in which new 
methods of instruction may be tried, and the results 
carefully recorded. 

3. Adequate provision for the systematic in- 
struction of school-masters, in all the branches of 
education, which they may have occasion to teach 
in our primary or district schools, together with the 
theory of teaching and government. 

4. An able and connected review, cnt rather se- 
ries (Previews, of all the popular systems of educa- 
tion now in use, particularly in our own country, 
with free and critical remarks upon College text- 

5. A course of lectures annually by the profes- 
sor, on the science of education, for the particular 
benefit of the regular members of College, but which 
other young men, wishing to qualify themselves for 
teaching, might be permitted to attend. 


Less than this, ought dot to satisfy public ex- 
pectation from the department, when time shall 
have been allowed, and means provided for its com- 
plete organization. But we do not think it neces- 
sary to occupy the whole ground at once. Let the 
system be introduced gradually, and with ultimate 
reference to -the most ample enlargement. As the 
first and most urgent call is for good teachers in the 
common schools, let arrangements be made, as soon 
as practicable, to receive a limited number of young 
men, and put them upon such a course of study, as 
when successfully completed, will entitle them to a 
certificate from the department. 

The details of instruction, study, examinations, 
tuition fees and the like, we purposely omit in this 
Report ; our object being simply to present an out- 
line of the improvements contemplated in the gen- 
eral plan. It is obvious to remark, however, that 
a department for the education of school-masters, of- 
fers some advantages by being connected with a re- 
spectable College, which cannot be enjoyed at so 
cheap a rate, in a separate institution. Competent 
professors in Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Natur- 
ral History and Rhetoric, commodious lecture-rooms 
and costly apparatus, are already provided for other 
and higher purposes ; and the aid of most of these, 
is very important, if not essential, to every man 
who is to assist, in educating the children and youth 
of this great republic. A literary atmosphere too, 
exists in the precincts of a College, which though 
free as common air, is never formed at once, but rs 
gradually and expensively created. 


The last addition or improvement, contemplated 
in our general plan, and which we ask leave to sug- 
gest, for the consideration of the Board, is a depart- 
ment of theoretical and practical Mechandcs. This 
wuuliIlLSbrd exercise and amusement to many of 
the students, and to a few of the more ingenious and 
active, some pecuniary advantage. We should ex- 
pect much greater advantage however, from a judi- 
cious arrangement of appropriate studies, connected 
with a course of practical lectures upon mechanics, 
during a part of one of the collegiate years. 

For a considerable time, at least, the skill and 
industry of this department might be profitably 
employed, in furnishing the College rooms upon a 
uniform plan; in keeping all the buildings and 
furniture in constant repair ; in making some of the 
more common articles of philosophical and chemic- 
al apparatus ; as also many curious models in ma- 
chinery, for the use of the professors in other de- 
partments. Here would be ample scope for the 
exercise of all the mechanical ingenuity in the 
Seminary ; and surely, it would be no disadvantage 
^o^n^ professional man 1n after life, to have 
learned how to drive a nail^ or put on a lock, or 
use ai planer or ^at saw, when he was a student in 

^ But it will be seen at a glance, that our plan of 
multiplying the branches of Education in this Col- 
lege, cannot be adopted without adding to the 
present number of buildings and instructers ; and 
of course, to the expenses of the Institution. 
Gladly would we point out the ways and means 


^ defraying these expenses, were it in our pow- 
er ; but we fear that in this emergency, our finan- 
cial skill will be of very little use to the Board* 
Can it be, however, that if the improvements whidi 
we have recommended, shall meet the approbatios 
of an enlightened public, the necessary funds will 
long be wanting ? Our confidence in this regard 
wamy be misplaced. But of one thing we are cer- 
tain. Though our present labors are not unusual- 
ly light, we are prepared to take upon ourselves ad- 
ditional burdens, for the sake of advancing the inter- 
ests ofjqund and useful learning in the College, by 
enlaiging^ the sphere of study and instruction. We 
can only add, that the new system, should it be adopts 
ed, would doubtless increase the number of students, 
and of course the amount of income from tuition: and 
for the rest, we cannot permit ourselves to believe, 
that an institution which has already shared so rich- 
ly in the prayers and largesses of an enlightened 
christian community, will be denied the means of 
support and extension, whenever its. wants and 
its plans for increasing usefulness, shall fairly be 
made known to the public. 

All of which is respectfully suhmittedf in behalf 
of the Faculty. 

H. Humphrey, President. 
Amherst College^ Dec. 5, 1826. 

It has already been stated, that this Report was 
ordered to be printed, and it should have been add- 
ed; at the same time, that it was adopted by the 
unanimous vote of the Trustees. They did not in- 


tend, howeveri to pledge themselves by their rote, 
to any immediate or specific course of measures ; 
but to express their cordial approbation of the gen- 
eral plan, and their design of incorporating the new 
course, substantially as drawn out in the Report, 
with the present four years system, and to add the 
(ii^partment of Education^ as soon as they can ob- 
tain the necessary means. The Mechanic depart-' 
ment they deem of less immediate consequence ; 
but as worthy of a fair trial, whenever the funds of 
the College will permit. 

Neither the Faculty nor the Trustees suppose, 
that the contemplated changes and improvements, 
are all that would be desirable, if the Institution 
could afford to make them. The new system is 
graduated upon the moderate scale of present abili- 
ty, and the confident expectation of further encour- 
agement to go forward. And the Trustees fondly 
cherish the hope, of one day seeing the Seminary 
^hich the Legislature has committed to their care, 
become worthy of the title prospectively given to it 
in the Charter, an University. In the mean time, 
they will do w^at they can, to cherish its growth 
and increase its usefulness.