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Full text of "Subversive influence in the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-second Congress, first session ... July 30, August 6, 10, 20, September 10, 14, and 25, 1951 .."

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BVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION 

OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER 

INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR 
AND RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



JULY 30, AUGUST 6, 10, 20, 
SEPTEMBER 10, 14, AND 25, 1951 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 





UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
«9656 WASHINGTON : 1951 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

DEC 10 1951 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman 
HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Washington HOMER FERGUSON, Michigan 

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

WILLIS SMITH, North Carolina ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey 

J. G. Sourwine, Counsel 



Special Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal. 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi HOMER FERGUSON, Michigan 

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

WILLIS SMITH, North Carolina ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

Subcommittee Investigating Subversive Influence in the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food "Workers Union 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
PAT McCARRAN, Nevada ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah. 

II 



CONTENTS 



Statement of testimony of— Pag« 

Solon C. Bell 123 

Daniel Benjamin 86 

Archibald Bromsen 71 

Theodore A. Jackson 55 

Manning Johnson 37 

Bert Jones 25 

Harold Kemp , 15, 54 

Osie Long 107 

Richard D. Maurice 47 

Harold M. Sawyer 149 

Ley ton Weston 1 

m 



REPORT FROM THE SUBCOMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 
SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Hearings were held in executive session in Washington, D. C, re- 
specting subversive influence in the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union which is presently certified by the National Mediation 
Board as the bargaining agent for approximately 2,200 dining car and 
railroad food workers employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad. The 
principal points in the testimony which is herewith transmitted are 
as follows : 

(1) Beginning in 1945, there were formed within the various local 
dining car employees unions, affiliated with the Hotel and Restaurant 
Employees and Bartenders International Union of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, groups known as Committees for a Democratic 
Union. These groups were organized by several Communists under 
the leadership of one Solon C. Bell, who was a member of the national 
food fraction of the Communist Party, and who, at the time, was 
international representative of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees 
and Bartenders International Union. Solon C. Bell was also, at the 
time, chairman of the Joint Council of Dining Car Employees Unions, 
which consisted of the dining-car unions under the jurisdiction of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union. 

The objective of the Committees for a Democratic Union was to 
seize control of the parent organization, the Hotel and Restaurant 
Employees and Bartenders International Union, which has over 400,- 
000 members who are employed principally in railroads, hotels, and 
restaurants. At the convention of the Hotel and Restaurant Em- 
ployees and Bartenders International Union which was held in April 
1947, the slate of officers sponsored by the Committees for a Demo- 
cratic Union was defeated and the constitution of the international 
union was amended so as to prohibit Communists from holding office. 
Thereafter, Solon C. Bell was discharged from his position as inter- 
national representative and was removed as chairman of the Joint 
Council of Dining Car Employees Unions. 

(2) After the discharge of Solon C. Bell as international represent- 
ative of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Inter- 
national Union and his removal as chairman of the Joint Council of 
Dining Car Employees Unions, Bell and his associates met with lead- 
ers of the Communist Party at the party headquarters in New York 
City and formulated plans for a convention to be called for the crea- 
tion of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Unions. At that 
meeting the comrades emphasized the importance of railroad unions 
to the Communist cause and how the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union could spearhead the recruitment of railroad workers 
into the Communist Party. 



VI SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Since the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union was or- 
ganized the policies and activities of the organization have been di- 
rected from the Communist Party headquarters in New York City. 

(3) The following officials of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union were identified by witnesses before the subcommittee 
as Communists: 

Solon C. Bell, president 

Daniel Benjamin, vice president of eastern division 

Osie Long, vice president of midwestern division 

Charles McMurray, vice president of western division 

Howard McGuire, secretary and treasurer 

T. E. Hayes, a midwest representative 

LeRoy Wilson, a midwest representative 

L. B. Christopher, organizer 

Joseph Gardette, organizer 

Thomas Gilmer, organizer 

Robert Rollins, organizer 

Edgar Ruffin, organizer 

Co Van Long, organizer 

Joseph Lavanette, organizer. 
When Solon C. Bell appeared before the subcommittee to testify 
he displayed a contemptuous attitude toward the subcommittee and 
refused to answer numerous questions, the answers to which could 
not possibly have infringed on any constitutional rights. 

(4) Although the only railroad for which the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union is presently certified by the National Medi- 
ation Board as the bargaining agent is the Pennsylvania Railroad, the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union has a number of dues- 
paying members on other railroads and maintains a corps of Commu- 
nists who are in the process of organizing workers on other railroads. 
These other railroads include — 

The Southern Pacific 

Union Pacific 

New York Central 

Illinois Central 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

Chicago Great Western 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

New York, New Haven & Hartford 

Wabash 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
A representative of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union 
is working in close collaboration with Harry Bridges in organizing 
dining car and railroad food workers on the west coast. 

(5) Manning Johnson, who was formerly a member of the national 
committee of the Communist Party and who formerly had been as- 
signed to Communist activity in the railroad industry, testified that 
the transportation industry is of vital importance to the Communist 
Party because (a) control of this industry will enable the Communist 
apparatus to paralyze the whole national economy, and (b) Commu- 
nist Party members in the railroad industry can be used as couriers 
in transmitting communications, documents, and instructions in the 
illegal operations of the party. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION VII 
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

The subcommittee is concerned over the fact which is clearly estab- 
lished by the testimony, that the Communists have gained a foothold 
in the railroad industry. Although the instant testimony reveals ab- 
solute Communist control of only a small segment of the railroad in- 
dustry, plus efforts to expand that control, in view of the importance 
of the railroad industry to the whole national economy, it is impera- 
tive that this Communist control be broken. 

The subcommittee recommends : 

(1) That immediate attention be given to the preparation of legis- 
lation designed to preclude certification as a bargaining agent by the 
National Mediation Board of any organization which is Communist 
controlled ; 

(2) That immediate attention be given to the preparation of legisla- 
tion to amend the Railway Labor Act to require the filing of non- 
Communist affidavits by officers of labor organizations representing 
employees of a carrier; and 

(3) That Solon C. Bell be proceeded against for contempt of the 
Internal Security Subcommittee. 

James O. Eastland, Chairman. 
Pat McCarran. 
Arthur V. Watkins. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAB AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



MONDAY, JULY 30, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the 

Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to call, in room P-36, 
the Capitol, Hon. Willis Smith presiding. 

Present: Senator Smith. 

Also present : Richard Arens, staff director ; Mitchel M. Carter, in- 
vestigator; and Frank W. Schroeder, professional staff member. 

Senator Smith. The committee will come to order. 

If you will stand, each of you, and hold up your right hands, I will 
swear you. 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give in this 
proceeding, wherein it is being conducted by a subcommittee of the 
Judiciary Committee of the United States Senate, shall be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Kemp. I do. 

Mr. Weston. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself by name and occu- 
pation ? 

TESTIMONY OF LEYTON WESTON, INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TIVE, HOTEL AND RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES AND BARTENDERS 
INTERNATIONAL UNION 

Mr. Weston. My name is Leyton Weston, international representa- 
tive of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Inter- 
national Union. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Weston. Since 1947; May. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Weston, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the Internal Security Sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify the Dining Car Employees 
Union ? Tell us about the union. 

Mr. Weston. The Dining Car Employees Union is an affiliate of 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. How many members does the Dining Car Union have? 

Mr. Weston. There are approximately 13,000 represented by the 
AFL. 



2 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. And could you just give us a word of description about 
the union, the functions of the employees who are members of the 
union? 

Mr. Weston. Well, the craft of employees involved have to do with 
the preparing and serving of food on the major carriers throughout 
the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Weston, would you kindly give us a word 
of your own personal background ? Where were you born, and when ? 

Mr. Weston. At Goliad, Tex., March 22, 1898. 

I attended school in the community, until I went to Wiley College, in 
1918, at Marshall, Tex. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly trace, very succinctly, your occupa- 
tions since you became an adult ? 

Mr. Weston. After finishing school, I taught school for 2 years, 
and then worked on dining cars as a livelihood beginning in 1925, 
where I remained until 1935 as a dining-car waiter, when I was elected 
as general chairman of the Dining Car Union, Local 354, at St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Mr. Arens. And how long were you so engaged as the general 
chairman of Local 354 in St. Louis ? 

Mr. Weston. From 1935 to May of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. And what transpired in May of 1947? 

Mr. Weston. I was appointed international representative of the 
Hotel and Restuarant Employees and Bartenders International Union. 

Mr. Arens. By whom were you appointed ? 

Mr. Weston. President Hugo Ernst, of the international union. 

Mr. Arens. With what international union is that affiliated, or is 
that an independent union ? 

Mr. Weston. It is an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Weston, in 1944, did any suggestions come to you 
with reference to a man by the name of Solon Bell, who was with the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, there was some question as to his association 
with persons who were regarded as being leftists during this period. 

Mr. Arens. And who were those persons with whom there was an 
indication that he associated ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, it was his duty to travel throughout the coun- 
try, including the Midwest and the East, and it was reported that he 
was seen in the company of, and did associate with, persons who later 
became known as Communists. 

Harry Reich and Mike Obiermier were persons within our inter- 
national structure, and it was reported that Bell cooperated with Ben 
Davis, in New York, and others of that type. 

Mr. Arens. What was his official capacity at that time, in 1946, and 
by "his," I mean Solon Bell ? 

Mr. Weston. He occupied the same position that I now occupy. 

Mr. Arens. He was your predecessor in this office? 

Mr. Weston. That is right, 

Mr. Arens. And at that time, in 1946, you were affiliated with the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct; as general chairman of one of the 
local unions. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 6 

Mr. Arens. Of local 354? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have occasion to acquire information respect- 
ing a Joint Council of the Dining Car Employees, with which Solon 
Bell was associated ? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Would you just, at your own pace, in your own way, 
furnish the committee with the information you have on that occur- 
rence ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, the Joint Council of Dining Car Employees 
was organized in 1938, 1 believe. 

It was set up as a clearing house for the problems of dining-car 
workers within our international union. 

Solon Bell, who was instrumental in the organization of the group, 
was elected the chairman of the joint council, and he remained in that 
position until about May or June of 1947. . 

Mr. Arens. And what happened then ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, we learned that, prior to the convention at 
Milwaukee in 1947, Solon Bell was spending much of his time associat- 
ing with the left-wingers within our international union in preparing 
a slate of delegates who were ambitious for official positions within 
the international union. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "left-wingers" do you mean the pro- 
Communist element? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I do not believe you have thus far identified Ben Davis, 
whom you alluded to, I believe, in passing. 

Mr. Weston. Well, Ben Davis is the admitted and convicted Com- 
munist who was the former councilman of New York. 

Of course, Bell was reported to have associated with him prior to 
his being elected to the council in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Would you just proceed at your own pace, now, to 
complete the information with reference to this 1947 situation, at 
which time Bell was president of the Joint Council of Dining Car 
Employees ? 

Mr. Weston. In 1947, prior to the convention, there was a meeting 
called of the Dining Car Union, for the purpose of discussing our 
particular problems which were different from the other crafts within 
the international union. 

It became apparent at this preconvention meeting of the dining-car 
employees that Solon Bell had certain ideas with respect to changing 
the personnel of the joint council. 

He maneuvered to have nominated a man who was a delegate, an 
alternate delegate, by the name of John Hargrove, for the position of 
secretary-treasurer of the council. 

He was not eligible under the bylaws of the joint council for a 
position. 

Mr. Arens. Why was he not? 

Mr. Weston. Well, he was an alternate delegate, and the rules pro- 
vided that only delegates could be eligible. The delegate was present, 
but he insisted on this alternate man getting the nomination, and he 
jammed it through. 

Mr. Arens. That is, Bell did? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 



4 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Weston. Of course, this was highly irregular, and au appeal 
was made from his action as chairman of the council to the executive 
board of the international union. 

The executive board of the international union reversed the action, 
declared the election null and void, and recommended that a future 
meeting be held for the purpose of the election of officers for the joint 
council. 

This suggestion was mutually agreed to by the proadministration 
faction and the other faction with which Mr. Bell was aligned at 
that time. 

We left the convention with the understanding that such meeting 
would be held. But before the meeting could be held, Mr. Bell ap- 
peared at the headquarters of the joint council with Mr. Hargrove, 
which was located at 3806 South Michigan, a few weeks after the 
convention, and demanded to occupy the position of chairman. 

Mr. Arens. What city was that ? 

Mr. Weston. Chicago. I am sorry. 

He demanded that Richard W. Smith, who was the secretary-treas- 
urer of the council, relinquish his position to Mr. Hargrove. 

Mr. Smith, of course, reminded him of the arrangement at the con- 
vention, and that his action was contrary to the understanding that we 
had, and refused to do so. 

Following that, Mr. Bell then engaged in legal action for Mr. Har- 
grove to take over the position of secretary-treasurer of the council, 
and sued the joint council. 

He attempted to get an injunction against the joint council function- 
ing, and sued the international union for alleged salary that was due 
him as chairman of the council and to have Mr. Hargrove put in as 
secretary of the council. 

Mr. Arens. Do I understand that Mr. Bell was removed as presi- 
dent of the joint council? 

Mr. Weston. He was not. 

Mr. Arens. Well, then, why did he allege he had a claim for salary ? 

Mr. Weston. He claimed that he had money — he claimed that 
he had been deprived of the position of chairman of the council, which 
was not a fact. 

Mr. Arens. I see. 

Mr. Weston. Of course, he also claimed that he had lost money as 
a result of being deprived of his position. 

Mr. Arens. Well, is it a fact that Mr. Bell was not removed as presi- 
dent of the joint council? 

Mr. Weston. The status of Mr. Bell was that he was to remain as 
chairman of the council, and that Richard W. Smith was to remain as 
secretary-treasurer of the council. 

Mr. Arens. And Mr. Hargrove was not to be installed as an officer 
of the council ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Weston. Well, the suit that Mr. Bell filed against the council, 
and the international union, lasted over a period of several months in 
the Chicago courts. 

Mr. Arens. I cannot quite understand, if you please, Mr. Weston, 
just what Mr. Bell's theory was if he had not been removed. Why 
would he bring a suit ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 5 

Mr. Weston. Neither could we quite understand his purpose, ex- 
cept that I think the injunction provided that the council would cease 
and desist from functioning as a spokesman for the dining-car unions, 
which then would have prevented us from taking any action whatso- 
ever for the 13,000 dining-car employees that were affiliated with 
the A. F. of L. 

We then were engaged in wage negotiations. That would have 
been stopped. We had many pending cases with the National Rail- 
road Adjustment Board, and they would have been stopped. 

It appeared to us that it was a suit of harassment, to embarrass, and 
to create disruption within the ranks of the dining-car workers. 

Mr. Arexs. But the fact is that Mr. Bell had not been removed as 
president of the joint council \ 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Westox. Well, it was during this period that a campaign of 
literature and personal courier began among the dining-car workers, 
and on most of the major carriers. 

Mr. Bell issued a call for a national convention of dining-car work- 
ers at Chicago, in August of 11)47. Such a meeting did occur. 

At this meeting, they did have representatives from some of the car- 
riers throughout the country. However, it was reported that there 
were persons other than dining-car employees, with Communist back- 
ground, who helped to set up the convention proceedings, and all. 

We have here a copy of Link, which, I believe, describes the first 
meeting of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Organization. 

Mr. Arens. Link is, by its appearance here, the publication of rail- 
road workers ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Westox. Well, here is the masthead which clearly identifies it. 

Mr. Arexs. By the masthead, this publication is published monthly 
by the Railroad Committee of the Communist Party, New York. Is 
that correct? 

Mr. Westox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. This publication, with particular reference to the arti- 
cle to which you have alluded, will be received for riling with the 
committee. 

Mi-. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the document which the 
witness has alluded to be marked "Exhibit No. 1" and placed in the 
files of the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1" and filed for 
the record.) 

Mr. Westox. All right, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you happen to know the editor of this publication? 

Mr. Westox. Yes, sir. The editor is Bob Wood, who, we under- 
stand, in addition to being the editor of this paper, was also a con- 
tributor or assistant editor to the Daily Worker in New York. 

Mr. Arexs. That is the Communist publication ? 

Mr. Westox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. All right. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Westox. Following the set-up of the Dining Car Railroad Food 
Workers, we had, appearing among Negro workers, particularly, a 
leaflet, a paper, known as the Negro Railway Labor News. It was 
designated as the official paper of the Negro Railway Labor Executive 
Committee. 



6 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

It went on to emphasize, as can be seen here, the injustices and so 
forth of the Negro which was set up to counteract the Railway Labor 
Executives Association, according to our thoughts, at the time. 

Mr. Arens. You have just handed me a copy of this publication, 
Negro Railway Labor News. 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the document 
which the witness has alluded to be marked "Exhibit No. 2," and 
placed in the files of the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 2," and filed 
for the record.) 

Mr. Weston. I would like to call attention to the picture appearing 
there which gives the comprehensive coverage that the food worker 
representatives had on some of the major carriers throughout the 
United States. 

Mr. Arens. May I pause right here in the theme of your presenta- 
tion, Mr. Weston, to ask you the relationship between the Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union and the 
Dining Car Empolyees Union ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, the Dining Car Employees Union is a part of 
the craft under the jurisdiction of the Hotel and Restaurant Em- 
ployees International Union. 

We have over 400,000 members, comprised of persons who handle 
food and drink on railroads and hotels, restaurants, and what not. 

Mr. Arens. Are the porters on a railroad train, in the sleeping cars, 
members of this union ? 

Mr. Weston. No ; they are a part of the separate international union, 
affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. I see. Now, will you proceed, if you please ? 

Mr. Weston. In 1948, the Dining Car Railroad Food Workers were 
successful in gaining representation on the largest railroad in the 
United States, from the standpoint of dining-car employment, the 
Pennsylvania. 

I think they were certified as the bargaining agent for the Pennsyl- 
vania about April of 1948. 

At the same time they were working on the Pennsylvania, they had 
representatives of the other carriers carrying on a campaign of 
organization. 

They were not successful in gaining representation on the other 
carriers where they were working due to the efforts of our organiza- 
tion to combat the activities. 

But they did have representation elections on the Milwaukee, I 
believe, in 1948. 

They were unsuccessful in their attempt to gain recognition there. 

They also had mediation elections for representation as late as 
1950 on the Delaware & Lackawanna Railroad, at Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Weston, what union is it that Mr. Solon Bell is 
head of now ? 

Mr. Weston. Mr. Solon Bell is the president of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. What is the relationship of that union to the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union? 

Mr. Weston. It has no affiliation with any standard organization. 
It is known as independent. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 7 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Bell's union certified as a bargaining agent ? 

Mr. Weston. They have the bargaining rights on the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have the names of the associates of Mr. Bell 
in his union ? 

Mr. Weston. Yes. 

Following the Chicago convention, there were quite a few repre- 
sentatives appointed on the various railroads, particularly in the East 
and Midwest and West. 

Mr. Bell, at the first and only convention that they have had, was 
■elected as president. The headquarters was at Chicago. _ Osie Long 
was elected a vice president. He was a Pennsylvania waiter. 

Joe Gardette was elected an organizer. He was a Milwaukee 
waiter. 

Ralph Turner, of Chicago, also was elected or appointed as an or- 
ganizer. He was a Milwaukee waiter. 

Joseph Lavanette, of Chicago, was also an organizer. He was a 
New York Central waiter. 

H. Thurman, of Chicago, was also appointed as an organizer. He 
was a Pennsylvania waiter, or cook, I am not sure. 

T. Galloway was an organizer, of Chicago, on the Milwaukee. 

Howard McGuire was appointed an organizer, of Chicago. He is 
a Pennsylvania chef. 

Of course, Mr. Harold Kemp was also an organizer out of Chicago, 
and a Pennsylvania dining-car waiter. 

At the convention, or following the convention, in Chicago, in Au- 
gust of 1947, C. B. Chapman was appointed or elected as a representa- 
tive at St. Louis. He was a chef or cook on the Pennsylvania. 

Co Van Long was appointed or elected as a vice president, of St. 
Louis, Mo. He was a Wabash waiter. 

Following the convention at Chicago, T. E. Hayes, of Omaha, was 
appointed a representative of the food workers. He is a cook on the 
Union Pacific. 

Then, at the first convention, I believe, Oscar Greene was elected 
as the secretary-treasurer of the Dining Car Railroad Food Workers. 
He was from New York. He was a waiter on the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad. 

Later, Daniel Benjamin was elected an international vice president 
of the food workers, at New York City. He is a Pennsylvania chef, 
cook. 

William H. Lockhart was elected or appointed a representative 
of the food workers, at Jersey City, N. J. He is a chef, cook, on the 
Lackawanna. 

Later, R. E. Nicholson became the secretary-treasurer at New York 
of the Dining Car Railroad Food Workers. He is a Pennsylvania 
chef. 

The California representative is C. McMurray, a Southern Pacific 
waiter. 

Some of these people can be identified by leaflets, as their picture 
appears, and they are identified in the leaflet there by name. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed to that, I think that would be the 
next order of business after I clear the record on one matter which 
my mind is not sufficiently clear on at the moment. 



8 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

In 1946, Mr. Solon Bell was the international representative of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union; is that correct? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. That is the union which has, as a subordinate, affiliate, 
the dining-car workers; is that correct? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Then, in 1947, Mr. Bell and his associates organized the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union at Chicago; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Weston. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And which is a competing union ? 

Mr. Weston. A dual union. 

Mr. Arens. Which is a union which competes with the dining-car 
workers' unit of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
International Union; is that correct? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. When did Mr. Bell actually terminate his association 
with the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Inter- 
national Union? 

Mr. Weston. It was in 1947. 

As I recall, the general president, after repeated warnings to him, 
to Mr. Bell, about his association with the Communists and the 
Wallace movement, served him notice that he would not be any longer 
emplo} T ed as an international representative for dining-car employees. 

The dining-car unions were so notified in order that they might 
make a selection among themselves to have a representative. 

His service was terminated, we will say, with the convention in 
April of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. This lawsuit which Mr. Bell instituted, was that prior 
to the time that he had had his services terminated with the inter- 
national, which you represent? 

Mr. Westox. I think it was just following his notice of dismissal. 
I think that he was notified that he was no longer on the payroll as 
an international representative at the convention, but he still remained 
chairman of the Joint Council of Dining Car Employees Unions. 

Mr. Arens. Would you clear the record, if you please, Mr. Weston, 
on what is this joint council, or what was this Joint Council of Dining 
Car Employees? 

Mr. Weston. Well, the Joint Council of Dining Car Employees was 
comprised of the dining-car unions under the jurisdiction of our 
international union. 

Mr. Arens. So Mr. Bell was not only the international representa- 
tive of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Interna- 
tional Union, but he was also president of the Joint Council of the 
Dining Car Employees Union within that international, is that cor- 
rect ? 

Mr. Westox. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record was a little bit vague on that. 

Now, did you have information respecting all of the roads with 
which Mr. Bell's union, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union, have contracts ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, they only have a contract with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 9 

Mr. Abens. Now, Mr. Weston, from the leaflets which you have, and 
from any other information, can you tell the committee about the per- 
sons who are associated with Mr. Bell in the leadership of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union '. 

Mr. Weston. Well, from very reliable sources, it is reported that 
Mr. Bell was very active with known persons in our international 
union such as: Harry Reich, J. Rubin, Mike Cody, and Obiermier r 
Mike Obiermier. 

Incidentally, all of these persons were quite active in the leftist move- 
ment in the 1947 convention. 

I have a leaflet here which indicates the signing of the agreement 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad which appeared in the Daily Worker, 
in about August, I believe, of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the document 
which the witness has alluded to be marked exhibit No. 3, and placed 
in the files of the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked '"Exhibit No. 3," and filed 
for the record. ) 

Mr. Weston. We also have here another copy of Link, under date 
of December 1949, which has the picture of the representative, of 
Thomas E. Hayes, at Omaha. Nebr.. who is the representative of the 
Dining Car Railroad and Food AVorkers. 

Mr. Arens. Link, by its masthead, is published monthly by the 
Railroad Committee of the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this copy of 
Link, which the witness has alluded to, be marked exhibit No. 4, and 
placed in the files of the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked Exhibit No. 4, and filed 
for the record.) 

Mr. Weston. We have here, also, a leaflet which was distributed 
quite extensively by the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers, 
showing excerpts from Negro newspapers which emphasized the in- 
justices and discriminations against the Negro people, which indicates 
that they had quite a bit of influence in getting even better coverage 
than the bona fide railroad organizations. 

It also lists some of the people heretofore referred to as active with 
the Food Workers, and, in addition, it brings in one important repre- 
sentative by the name of Charles McMurray, of oOOO California Street, 
Berkeley, Calif. 

We have it from very reliable sources that this man^ McMurray, is 
in close connection with Harry Bridges' outfit on the coast, and that 
he is advised and is seeking to do among dining car employees on the 
west coast the same kind of a job that is done for the longshoremen out 
in California. 

We suspect that these leaflets also were prepared in the Daily 
Worker press, but, of course, we cannot identify them. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Weston, what is the source of your information 
respecting the activities of Mr. McMurray and his alleged associations 
with Harry Bridges ? 

Mr. Weston. Well, we have dining-car employees who run from 
coast to coast, who are in connection with each other, and it is reported 
by our representatives in that area that there is quite close connection 

89656—51 2 



10 SUBVERSIVE DvFLUEXCX EN" RAILROAD EOOD WORKERS UNIOX 

and collaboration between the Food Worker representatives and the 
left wing elements on the coast. 

M: - Tins leaflet he: e, I respectfully suggest. Mr. Chairman. 

be marked exhibit N . " . and placed in the files of the commit: 

The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. •"•." and filed 
for the recoi 

Mr. West v. We have further evidence of the legal attacks by the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food "Workers, wherein a suit was filed 
against one of the local unions of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees 
for an alleged discrimination ■; _ inst Negro cooks on the Union 
Pacific Railroad. 

Thomas E. Haves appears to have spearheaded this move. The 
case was carried to court. 

It is described in a copy of Link, under date of August 194 

Mr. Art. vs. Mr. Chairman. I respectfully suggest that the document 
which the witness has alluded to be mark > . and placed 

in the files of the commit" 

The document referred to was marked "Exhibi: No * ." and filed 
for the rece i 

Mr. Arexs. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. WBSTOJr. We ate as 1950. a magazine entitled "March 

of Labor, 73 and this is No. 2 for September of 1950. That was widely 
distributed among dining car employees, and wherein Daniel Ben- 
jamin, who is the international vice president of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food W iters, wrote an article. 

It is entitled "I've Been Working on the Railroad." and it is on 
pag 

We have a newspaper clipping from Xew York World Telegram. 
B due that was distributed to our people was identified by a 
staff writer of the Xew York World Telegram by the name of Nelson 
Frank. It must have been about October 191 

Mr. Aeexs. Y - •identified." It was identified as what \ 

Mr. . Mr. Nelson Frank states as follows [reading] : 

John Stuben. ousted as head of A. F. L. I z '< V cal 144 here when 

the membership cleaned out all leftist officers last year, has just returned after 
a month's tour of the country. He tells about it in March of Labor, the maga- 
ane he edit serves as a mouthpiece for pro-Communist unions. 

Mr. Axkns. And it was in that magazine which you now have be- 
fore you in which Mr. Daniel Benjamin had the article \ 
Mr. Wz-?;\. That is dottc I 

Mr. Abkstb. And Mr. Daniel Benjamin is an international officer 
of Mr. Solon Bell's union, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Work- 
Union, is that correct \ 
Mr. Wesioh. That is corre 

Mr. Arexs. The magazine with the clipped newspaper article. 
which the witness has alluded to. Mr. Chairman. I respectfully sag- 
be marked exhibit No. 7. and placed in the files of the commits 
The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 7."" and filed 
for the record.; 

Mr. Westow. Could I call your attention to the cover of the picture 
the front, and we have appearing later here, an 
article I " Sentner, of St. Louis. Mo. 

H - article appears on r _ f this magazine. 

Mr. Abexs. And wi 



SUBVERSIVE rXPLUEXCE EST RAILROAD EOOD WORKERS UNION 11 

Mr. Weston. Well, according to a clipping from the St. Louis Globe 
Democrat, which I have attached here, his description of deportation 
proceedings against Mrs. Sentner. the wife of William Sentner. it 
states as follows [reading] : 

Mrs. Sentner. wife of William Sentner. labor leader and acknowledged Com- 
munist, was arrested last October under the 1950 Subversive Activities Control 

Act. 

That is in the magazine with Mr. Benjamin's article. 

Mr. Arexs. The magazine, together with the two newspaper clip- 
pings which have been attached at the appropriate places in the maga- 
zine, will be marked exhibit 7 and received for filing by the committee. 

Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Weston. We have. also. here, a photostat of a cook now em- 
ployed on the Delaware £ Lackawanna Railroad at Jersey City. N. J. 

Mr. Asens. Did you say a photostat of the a 

You mean a photostat of some document belonging to the cook, 
do you not ? 

Mr. Weston. I have here a photostat of a Communist membership 
card of a cook now employed on the Delaware £ Lackawanna Railroad 
at Jersey City. X. J. 

Mr. Arexs. What name is there ! 

Mr. Weston. The name on here is Herman Bartlett. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did you procure this photostat \ 

Mr. Weston. This photostat was procured as a result of a fellow 
employee on the Lackawanna finding the membership card which he 
loaned to us, and we had the photostat made and returned the card 
to its former position without the knowledge of Bartlett. 

Mr. Arexs. Xow. I see here on one of these photostats. Mr. Weston. 
what appears to be receipts for dues paid, and in certain squares on 
this photostat I see the initials "B. L." 

Do you have information respecting the identity of the person who 
signed those initials and collected the dues ! 

Mr. Weston. We have reason to believe that these initials could 
be those of Bill Loekhart as he is commonly known, who was one of 
the original founders of the Food Workers, and who spearheaded the 
representation campaign that the Mediation Board conducted in Octo- 
ber of 1950. 

We have reason to believe that these initials might be those of Lock- 
hart. His picture appears in some of the former pamphlets put out 
by the Food Workers. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman. I respectfully suggest that the docu- 
ments which the witness has alluded to be marked exhibit Xo. S. and 
placed in the tiles of the committee. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit Xo. S." and tiled 
for the record.) 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Weston, have you. or has the international union 
which you represent, caused to be undertaken a check of various pub- 
lications to ascertain the Communist-front affiliations of Mr. Solon 
Bell? 

Mr. Westox/. Yes. sir: we have. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you have readily available the results of this 
inquiry I 

Mr. Weston. Yes. 



12 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

I have here some information compiled which shows that, according 
to the Daily Worker, of October 12, 1943, page 2, Mr. Solon Bell spon- 
sored for the Joint Council of Dining Car Employees, waiters, at 
which time he was a member of the American Federation of Labor, 
the Bedacht Birthday Celebration Committee. 

Mr. Arexs. That committee was for Bedacht, who, of course, has 
been repeatedly named as a well-known Communist? 

Mr. Westox. That is what I understand. 

Further, in the Daily Worker of August 2, 1948, page 11, Mr. Solon 
Bell was leader of an advance delegation of People's Lobby Appeal 
to Washington, as president of the Dining Car Employees Joint 
Council. 

He was appearing for the Civil Rights Congress, which, I under- 
stand to be a Communist-front or Communist organization. 

Mr. Arexs. Well, it has been so cited repeatedly by official Gov- 
ernment agencies, has it not ? 

Mr. Westox. That is right. 

Further, in the Daily Worker of April 18, 1950, page 9, Mr. Solon 
Bell was vice chairman of a delegation representing the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union for the Progressive Party of 
Illinois. 

There was a leaflet Calling All South Citizens to a Community 
Conference, in Chicago, January 16, 1944, where Mr. Bell was a 
sponsor as one of the South Side Committee for Racial Unity. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you have the date of that conference ? 

Mr. Westox. No ; I do not. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker, on October 17, 1949, page 11, 
Mr. Bell, the president of the Dining Car Railroad Food Workers 
Union, as a signer of a statement in behalf of Communist cases. That 
is while he was president of the organization. 

There appeared, on January 13, 1949, page 6 of the Daily Worker, 
where Mr.. Bell is known to have criticized President Truman's labor 
policy. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker, April 3, 1950, page 4, where 
Mr. Solon Bell was a signer of a statement for an organization set-up 
that was known as the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, the Mundt bill is part of the McCarran Act, is it 
not, which is aimed at driving out Communists ? 

Mr. Westox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. And the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill 
has been cited as a Communist front, has it not ( 

Mr. Westox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Westox. In the Daily Worker of April 30, 1950, page 14, Mr. 
Solon Bell was a sponsor of the National Trade Union Conference 
on Negro Rights. 

On a letterhead, dated September 9, 1949, it is reported that Mr. 
Bell was a sponsor for an organization known as the National Non- 
partisan Committee To Defend the Rights of the Eleven Communist 
Leaders. 

Mr. Arexs. Those are the 11 Communist leaders who were convicted 
in New York City, are they not? 

Mr. Westox. That is correct. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 13 

We also have here a compilation of some facts with reference to 
Daniel Benjamin, who is the international vice president of the Dining 
Car Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed to supply the committee with the 
information which you have caused to be compiled on him ? 

Mr. Weston. On February 8, 1951, page 5, Mr. Daniel Benjamin 
was a sponsor of the Citizens' Memorial Committee for the Martins- 
ville Seven, according to the Daily Worker. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker on February 23, 1951, page 5, 
where Daniel Benjamin was a signer of a statement in behalf of 
Willie McGee, for the Civil Rights Congress. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker of July 24, 1950. page 8, where 
Daniel Benjamin was a signer of a statement against United States 
policy in Korea, with the organization known as the Council on 
African Affairs. 

Mr. Arens. That organization has also been cited as a Communist 
organization, has it not? 

Mr. Weston. I have so heard. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker of January 31, 1949, page 2, 
where Mr. Daniel Benjamin was a sponsor of the Emergency Con- 
ference on the Rigging of Juries. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker January 20, 1950, page 5, 
where Mr. Daniel Benjamin was a cochairman sponsoring the Labor 
Committee To Defend Harry Sacher. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Harry Sacher was one of the lawyers cited for 
contempt in the trial of the 11 Communists, was he not? 

Mr. Weston. That is what I recall, according to the papers. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker, February 20, 1949, page 9, 
where Mr. Benjamin was a delegate representing the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union at the Legislative Assembly and Rally 
To End Segregation and Discrimination, which, I understand, is 
either a Communist or a Communist-front organization. 

On a letterhead of September 9, 1949, Mr. Benjamin appeared as a 
sponsor of the National Non-Partisan Committee To Defend the 
Rights of the Eleven Communist Leaders. 

The Daily Worker of February 6, 1949, page 2, Mr. Daniel Ben- 
jamin was a member of the Provisional Committee for a Democratic 
Jury System. 

In the Daily Worker of May 10, 1949, page 4, according to a press 
release of the Young Progressives of America, under date of June 1, 
1949, Mr. Daniel Benjamin was a member of a panel of advisers at a 
conference June 4 and 5, for the organization known as the Young 
Progressives of America, which I understand to be a Communist-front 
organization. 

According to a list of convention committees, released by the 
Progressive Party at a Philadelphia convention, in July of 1948, 
Mr. Daniel Benjamin was a member of the nominations committee, 
representing the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers, at the 
Wallace convention. 

There appeared in the Daily Worker, June 9, 1950, on page 3, where 
Mr. Benjamin was a signer of a statement in behalf of lawyers for 
Communist cases. 



14 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

The Daily Worker of August 18, 1950, page 4, also describes Mr. 
Benjamin as one of the defenders for William L. Patterson. 

I have a copy here of the Amsterdam News, which contained a re- 
lease by Richard D. Maurice, of New York City, who was one of the 
founders of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers, but who 
broke with the organiatzion. 

The part that is significant in this release is what Mr. Maurice says 
in his article. He was criticizing the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers as being ineffective for dining-car employees. He says as 
follows : Among other charges, he said that Robert Wood, editor of 
the Communist Party's Link, the publication issued monthly in be- 
half of the party's railroad committee, was the actual director of 
the uptown union, referring to the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers organization. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the article 
to which the witness has alluded be marked "exhibit 9" and be received 
for filing with the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 9," and filed 
for the record.) 

Mr. Weston. We have here, also a leaflet distributed by a com- 
mittee on the New York Central for the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers organization, as follows: Thomas Gilmer is listed as 
chairman. This leaflet appeared in 1949. L. B. Christopher is a mem- 
ber of the committee. R. Rawlings is also a member of the committee, 
and Edgar Ruffin was a member of the Dining Car Railroad Food 
Workers organization organizing committee on the New York Cen- 
tral in 1949. 

We find that this same committee, in 1950, apparently broke with 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers, because, under date of 
October 5, 1950, they switched over to the CIO, whose headquarters is 
3452 South State Street, Chicago 16, 111. 

In this leaflet they recommended the CIO for the dining car em- 
ployees on the New York Central for the reason given in paragraph 2 
of this leaflet of October 5, 1950, wherein they say [reading] : 

Now we are convinced that the Communist Party has taken over the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. For this reason, we want no part of 
the food workers. 

This committee, as you can see, is the original committee that 
appeared as a representative of the food workers. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that these two 
leaflets be marked "Exhibits 10 and 11," and filed with the committee. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 10 and 11," 
and filed for the record.) 

Mr. Weston. There is, at the present time, continued activity by 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers on the New York Centrai r 
over the whole system, both in Chicago and in New York. 

They have, in addition to this previous committee just named, the 
following persons active in New York, whom we believe to be under 
the direction of Bob Wood : Langston Edwards. 

Mr. Ajrens. Bob Wood is affiliated with the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Weston. That is right. 

Edwin Gordon, Fred R. Reynolds. John W. Rawlings, B. D. Dean, 
and John B. DeSough. and Charles Kingslev. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 15 

It is reported that this latter named committee, that they met with 
the party members ; that is, the Communist Party members, in New 
York City, and somewhere in the Bronx at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. On which railroad are these people employed, this list 
that you have just read? 

Mr. Weston. They are employed on the New York Central. 

There is this significant fact in connection with this committee: 
There is now pending a mediation election for representation on the 
New York Central. While they have a CIO label, we suspect that 
they are the same original group that is seeking to gain representation 
by indirection. There are approximately 1,700 employees on the 
New York Central. 

We consider the infiltration of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers, whom we believe to be Communist, as a threat to the secu- 
rity of not only the welfare of the dining car employees, but to the 
country. 

There are negotiations going on at this time between the railroad 
organizations and the railroads for a union shop. If a union shop 
is granted, the standard organizations providing for maintenance of 
dues and the requirement to join, it is highly probable that the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers will be treated likewise by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

While they are not affiliated with any reputable organization the 
Pennsylvania management has consistently given to them everything 
that the other unions negotiate for. 

If this occurs on the matter of the union shop, it will mean an 
income of about $10,000 per month to the food workers. 

It is our conviction that this money will be used to promote the 
cause of communism among dining car employees, and thus will 
involve the security of all of these people that might be affected by 
the Communists in their activities. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much for your testimony, Mr. 
Weston. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD KEMP, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name and oc- 
cupation ? 

Mr. Kemp. My name is Harold Kemp. 

Mr. Arens. You have been sworn earlier this afternoon? 

Mr. Kemp. Yes, sir, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Identify yourself, if you please, by occupation. 

Mr. Kemp. I am a waiter on the Pennsylvania Railroad, on a leave 
of absence. 

Mr. Arens. What occasions your leave of absence ? 

Mr. Kemp. It is for the purpose of organizing the Pennsylvania 
Railroad dining car employees back into the AFL organization. 

Mr. Arens. Well, then, you are presently engaged as an organizer 
by the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Interna- 
tional Union ? 

Mr. Kemp. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly state where you were born and 
when? 

Mr. Kemp. I was born in Boston, January 12, 1907. 



16 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. And are you married ? 

Mr. Kemp. I am married and living at 5544 Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a brief resume of your employ- 
ment since you reached adulthood? 

Mr. Kemp. I have been working as an employee on the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad since April 10, 1937, as a dining car waiter. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time been a member of the Dining 
Car Employees Union? 

Mr. Kemp. I became a member of the Dining Car Employees 
Union, Local 370, a subordinate local of the A. F. of L., Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union, in 1937, 
shortly after I entered upon my present employment. 

I remained as a member until late in 1947 when I aided in the 
organizing of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Who is president of that union ? 

Mr. KEMr. Solon C. Bell is president of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kemp, you are appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you? 

Mr. Kemp. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Just proceed, if you please, to supply the committee 
with the information you have. 

Mr. Kemp. Early in 1945, a sister local union, Dining 'Car Em- 
ployees Union, Local 351, became involved in internal difficulties 
arising out of the attempt of a group of members to take over all 
official positions in that local union. 

The international union took notice of this situation, and assigned 
international vice president, George E. Brown, to supervise the 
pending election of officers of local 351. 

The group of members of local 351 who were then attempting to 
take over the local union were led by Ralph Turner, Joseph Gardette, 
Harrison Brooks, Tom Gilmer, and Joseph Lavanette. These persons 
called themselves the Progressive Committee for a Democratic Union. 

Later, I learned that all of the people named above are or were at 
the time members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kemp, how did you learn that Mr. Ralph Tur- 
ner, Joseph Gardette, Harrison Brooks, Tom Gilmer, and Joseph 
Lavanette are or were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. I learned that these people were members of the Com- 
munist Party by their invitation to inviting me to the party. 

Mr. Arens. Did all of them participate in the invitation? 

Mr. Kemp. They all, at some time or other, have asked me into the 
party. 

Mr. Arens. Asked you to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did they identify themselves to you as members of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. Ralph Turner, Joseph Lavanette, and Joseph Gar- 
dette, and Harrison Brooks, identified themselves as members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. To you? 

Mr. Kemp. To me. 

Mr. Arens. When was this? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 17 

Mr. Kemp. This was in 1945 or 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you at the time that these identifications 
took place ? 

Mr. Kemp. I was in Chicago, I was a member, at that time, of 
local 370. 

Mr. Arens. And did they make their identification to you in 
Chicago ? 

Mr. Kemp. They made the identification in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Was that while you were on your run, or at some other 
place ? 

Mr. Kemp. At the meetings, at our meetings we were holding. 

Mr. Arens. Your local? 

Mr. Kemp. Of our local. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Kemp. During the course of the election in local 351, these 
persons conducted themselves in such a manner as to cause their sus- 
pension from membership in the local union. 

Charges were preferred against them by International Vice Pres- 
ident Brown, who was in charge of the local union. 

In an effort to secure support for their cause, the above-named 
persons contacted the members of other local unions. 

They accused the local officers, the international vice president and 
other international officers of being dictators, traitors to the workers 
on railroads and tools of the bosses. 

With the assistance of my local chairman, Osie Long, of the Chi- 
cago district of local 370, a committee for a democratic union was 
established in my local union. I became a member of that committee. 

Similar committees were established in other local unions of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union. 

I later learned at the Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago that the 
formation of such committees was to rally the workers around the 
struggle of the masses against exploitation. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt you there, if you please, Mr. Kemp? 

How did you happen to attend the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago ? 

Mr. Kemp. I was invited to attend the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago by our local chairman, Osie Long. 

Mr. Arens. That school has been identified as a Communist school ? 

Mr. Kemp. As a Communist organization. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir; proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Kemp. During the remainder of 1945 and through 1946, regular 
meetings of these committees were held. At each of the meetings, 
one or more of the organizers, named above, attended. 

The then president of Dining Car Employees Union, Local 370, 
Theodore A. Jackson, also attended some of these meetings, and ad- 
vised that he had organized similar groups in New York City among 
members of local 370 employed on the New York Central, Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western, and Pennsylvania Railroads. 

Our international union was scheduled to hold its general conven- 
tion in April 1947. Every meeting of the committee for a democratic 
union devoted a substantial amount of time in planning for the 
convention. 



18 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

The committee for democratic union was particularly interested in 
electing their candidates to the offices of general secretary-treasurer, 
and international vice president at large for dining-car employees. 

C. T. McDonough, of San Francisco, Calif., was selected for the 
position of secretary-treasurer, and Solon C. Bell, of Chicago, was 
selected for the position of vice president for the dining car employees. 

Mr. McDonough was not a Communist, but it was the opinion of 
the Communists that McDonough could be controlled. Mr. Bell, on 
the other hand, was, and I believe still is, a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. What makes you believe that Mr. Bell was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kemp. In my first meeting in New York, I was introduced to 
a man by the name of Otto Wangarrin. I was introduced to this man 
in Chicago and New York, at which our meetings were held in the 
Communist headquarters at 35 East Twelfth Street, on the ninth floor, 
New York City. 

Solon Bell was there with me. 

Mr. Arens. Now, let us pause there again, if you please. 

Mr. Solon Bell is now president of the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union, is that correct ? 

Mr. Kemp. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do I understand that you attended meetings at 
the Communist Party headquarters with Mr. Solon Bell ? 

Mr. Kemp. I did, and others. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that? 

Mr. Kemp. That was in 1947. 

Mr. Arens. In New York City? 

Mr. Kemp. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the Communist Party headquarters which 
you referred to, the one in Chicago or the one in New York ? 

Mr. Kemp. In New York, at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York 
City. 

Mr. Are"ns. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Kemp. During the period the local chairman of my local union. 
Osie Long, persuaded me to attend the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago. I attended three or four classes only, and the subjects dis- 
cussed dealt with contract negotiations, collective bargaining, and 
workers' education. 

Under this last topic, a Mr. Ray Hansberry, later identified to me 
as a member of the State committee of the Communist Party in Illi- 
nois, lectured on the formation of "progressive" committees in trade 
unions in order to "awaken the workers and enlist their aid in the 
struggle against exploitation and Wall Street imperialism." 

Mr. Arens. Who identified Mr. Hansberry to you as a member 
of the State committee of the Communist Party in Illinois? 

Mr. Kemp. Mr. Solon Bell. 

Mr. Arens. And where was that ? 

Mr. Kemp. That was in Chicago, 111. I later met him at the Com- 
munist headquarters at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. You met Mr. Hansberry there ? 

Mr. Kemp. I met Mr. Hansberry there. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 19 

Mr. Kemp. Mr. Hansberry stressed, the importance of railroad 
workers in this struggle and urged us to create more and more of 
these "progressive committees" in every railroad labor organization in 
the entire country. 

Mr. Hansberry further stated that railroad dining car employees 
was a good place to begin. A substantial majority of these workers 
were Negroes. It would not be necessary to create issues among them 
as they knew all about discrimination and low-paid jobs. 

He ended his discussion with an invitation to the entire class to 
join the ranks of those progressive forces in our country who were 
fighting the workers' battle. 

Mr. Osie Long, district chairman of my union, Dining Car Employ- 
ees Union, Local 370, brought a Mrs. Louise Patterson, whom I have 
heard described as a "good comrade," to our union meetings in Chicago. 

Mrs. Patterson represented herself as "field representative of the 
International Workers Order" a fraternal and benevolent organiza- 
tion of the working masses. 

The Attorney General of the United States has, I believe, listed the 
International Workers Order as a Communist front organization. 

Mrs. Patterson lectured to our union meeting on the "Jim Crow 
policies" of the "capitalist" insurance companies. She told of the "fat 
salaries" of their officers and invited membership in the IWO where 
Negroes and whites alike were accorded the same benefits. 

Together with several other members of my local union, I joined 
the IWO and attended several of its meetings. 

At such meetings, we were shown films of the "beautiful life" of 
the Russian workers, and were lectured to about the exploitation of 
Wall Street toward American workers, and the discrimination of the 
Negro people in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Where were these films displayed ? 

Mr. Kemp. At the Du Sable Community Center, Forty-ninth and 
Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

For about 2 years, from 1947 to 1949, I remained a member of the 
IWO. 

In March of 1947, together with other members of the commitee for 
a democratic union, I attended a meeting at the home of Joseph Gar- 
dette, 62 East Sixtieth Street, Chicago, 111. 

The general convention of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees 
and Bartenders International Union was to be held in Milwaukee, 
Wis., in April 1947. 

The dining car employees local unions affiliated with that interna- 
tional union were holding a pre-convention meeting. 

The committee for a democratic union wished to exert its influence 
upon the dining car locals and to get them to support the slate of 
the Communists. 

A. M. Harry Reich, then president of Cooks and Pastry Cooks 
Union, Local 89, of New York City, met with the committee for a 
democratic union to help us plan to "capture" the support of the din- 
ing car local unions. 

At this meeting, Joseph Gardette and Ralph Turner were selected 
to attend the convention at Milwaukee to contact the delegates in 
furtherance of the candidates we supported. • 

Following this meeting at the home of Joseph Gardette, Harry 
Reich was invited by Solon Bell to address the meeting of the Joint 



20 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Council, Dining Car Employees at their headquarters, 3806 South 
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Bell was at that time chairman of the Joint Council, Dining Car 
Employees, the railway employees department of the Hotel and Res- 
taurant Employees and Bartenders International Union. 

When Ralph Turner, Joe Gardette, and Harrison Brooks attempted 
to enter the joint council meeting, International Vice President 
George E. Brown requested Solon Bell, chairman of the joint council, 
to ask them to leave. They were, however, permitted to remain until 
Harry Reich had concluded his remarks to the meeting. 

Turner, Gardette, and Brooks, together with one Oscar Greene, re- 
fused to leave the meeting and it became necessary to recess and call 
the police to have them ejected. 

Vice President Brown stated that he had placed charges against 
Turner, Gardette, and Brooks for subversive activities and interfer- 
ence with an international officer in the discharge of his duties dur- 
ing election of officers in Dining Car Employees Union, Local 351, 
and, pending the hearing on these charges, they were suspended from 
the union and, therefore, not permitted to attend its meetings. 

Prior to the arrival of the police, we left the headquarters of the 
Joint Council of Dining Car Employees and the committee for a dem- 
ocratic union held a meeting at the Du Sable Community Center, 
Forty-ninth and Wabash Avenues, Chicago, 111. 

The community center, I believe, has been listed by the United 
States Attorney General as a Communist front. 

The Committee for a Democratic Union, at its meeting, and under 
the leadership of Oscar Greene, an organizer of the Communist Party 
in New York, decided to picket the meeting of the Joint Council, 
Dining Car Employees. Photographers of the Chicago Defender, 
a Negro weekly newspaper in Chicago, took pictures of the picket line 
and published them in the paper. 

Things did not go so good for the committee for a democratic union 
at the convention of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bar- 
tenders International Union. 

Their candidates were soundly defeated and the constitution of the 
international union was amended so as to prohibit members suspected 
of being associated with the Communist Party from holding office. 

Solon Bell was discharged from his position as an international 
organizer, and removed as chairman of the Joint Council, Dining Car 
Employees. 

Jay Rubin, president of the Hotel Trades Council of New York 
City, Mike Obiermier, secretary-treasurer of local 6 of New York 
City, Charles Collins, vice president of local 6 of New York City, and 
Harry Reich, all met with the committee for a democratic union dur- 
ing the convention and supplied the committee with money to resist 
the firing of Bell. 

Mr. Arens. Where did this money come from ? 

Mr. Kemp. This money came from the local trade board there in 
New York, the Hotel Trade Council of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Kemp. Mike Obiermier was at that time under indictment by 
the United States Department of Justice, and was later convicted 
for denying that he had ever been a member of the Communist Party 
in filling out naturalization papers. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 21 

Charles Collins was later removed from office as vice president of 
local 6, after trial, upon charges of Communist activity. 

Harry Reich declined to seek reelection as an officer in local 89, and, 
therefore, escaped the embarrassment of Communist charges. 

Upon close of the convention, the committee for a democratic union 
met in Chicago at the Southway Hotel. It was then decided to seek 
an injunction against the international union to prevent Bell's removal 
as chairman of the Joint Council, Dining Car Employees. 

Harry Reich and J. Rubin were notified of this decision, and Harry 
Reich came to Chicago from New York and retained attorneys to 
handle the lawsuit. 

A further meeting was then scheduled at Jay Rubin's offices in New 
York City. Solon Bell, Oscar Greene, Osie Long, William Lockhart, 
and myself attended this meeting. 

Bell then informed Rubin of his intention to withdraw from the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union, 
and to organize an independent union of •dining-car employees. 

Rubin and Reich disagreed with this plan, stating that nothing 
could be gained by running away and that in their opinion it would 
be best to take their losses with good grace and organize for the next 
convention. 

Bell had the support of Long, Greene, and Lockhart, and could 
not be changed. Rubin then gave Bell $300 and told him that was 
for transportation back to Chicago, and from then on they were fin- 
ished with Bell and dining car workers. 

That evening a meeting was held at Theresa Hotel, Seventh Avenue 
and One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street in New York City. Bell, 
Greene, Long, Lockhart, and myself attended. 

At this time, I was introduced to an Otto Wangirrin or Wangarrin, 
and a Robert (Bob) Wood. I later learned that Otto Wangarrin was 
organizer of the railroad unit of the Communist Party, and Robert 
(Bob) Wood was editor of the Railroad Worker's Link, a monthly 
paper published by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. How did you learn that? 

Mr. Kemp. I learned that by the names being connected on the 
paper. 

Mr. Arens. How did you learn about Otto Wangarrin being or- 
ganizer of the railroad unit of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. By attending a meeting on Lenox Avenue, in one of the 
Communist Party headquarters on Lenox Avenue, where Negro and 
white workers meet together. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you how you happened to be attending these 
Communist meetings? Did you ever join up with the Communists? 

Mr. Kemp. No ; I didn't. 

I attended these meetings from our previous meetings from the 
Theresa Hotel. After we got through with a meeting, we would go 
to the other meetings which Otto Wangarrin had arranged. They 
invited us in, to sit in, and show us how these things could be organ- 
ized, how workers could be organized, how the dining-car employees, 
could be organized through the Communist Party, and what tactics 
we should use and what we should talk about. 

Mr. Arens. Were they trying to get you into the party ? 

Mr. Kemp. Otto and Bob Wood, at that time, had never asked me 
personally to become a member of the party, but they have suggested 



22 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

that I would — they have, quoted that I would be a good member 
for the party and could be assigned to do work in the railroad 
industry. 

Lenox Avenue is in New York City. 

Mr. Schroeder. You do not know the number of it, do you ? 

Mr. Kemp. It was near One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street. 

Mr. Arens. Let us revert to the meeting which was held, accord- 
ing to your testimony, at the Theresa Hotel in New York City. 

Mr. Kemp. This meeting ran far into the night and the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union was born. Plans for the calling 
of a convention during the summer of 1947 were adopted, and Wan- 
garrin and Wood undertook the responsibility for the organization 
of the convention and attendant publicity. 

Prior to the convention, several meetings of the Committee for a 
Democratic Union were held at Solon Bell's home, 5942 South Park- 
way, Chicago, and also at Joe Gardette's home. 

At these meetings, I met - Charles McMurray of Oakland, Calif., 
who described himself as a Communist of long standing and a veteran 
of many workers' battles. A Thomas Hayes of Omaha, Nebr., also 
attended these meetings. Both Hayes and McMurray are dining-car 
employees of the Union Pacific Railway Co. 

At one of these meetings, Solon Bell informed the Provisional Com- 
mittee for a Progressive Dining Car Employees Union, as we now 
called ourselves, that a meeting had been arranged in New York City, 
during either June or July of 1947. 

Solon Bell, Joe Gardette, and myself attended this meeting. We 
were joined at New York by William Lockhart and Oscar Greene. 
The meeting was held at the national headquarters of the Communist 
Party at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York City. 

At 10 a. m. on the morning of the meeting we entered the build- 
ing on the Twelfth Street side, took the elevator to the fifth floor, 
and then walked through the corridor to Thirteenth Street and took 
another elevator to the ninth floor. 

There were, in addition to Bell, Greene, Gardette, Lockhart, and 
myself about eight others present at this meeting. Only three of 
them were known to me; they were Otto Wangarrin, Robert Wood, 
and Ray Hansberry. All during the course of the meeting they re- 
ferred to each other as "comrade." 

The entire meeting was devoted to the importance of the railroad 
unions to the Communist cause and how the proposed new union, 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union, could spearhead 
the recruitment of railroad workers into the Communist Party. 

After two or more hours of this, I asked them when we were going 
to discuss wages, hours, and working conditions of dining car 
employees. 

I stated that this was the only question I was interested in — not the 
building of the Communist Party. 

Otto Wangarrin and Oscar Greene addressed me as "Comrade" and 
told me that I did not understand. 

They attempted to explain that these things went hand in hand. 
Only through the Communist Party could our union be made strong — 
so the building of the party was at the same time building our union. 

After leaving 35 East Twelfth Street, we went to the New York City 
offices of the International Workers Order at 124 West One Hundred 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 23 

Twenty-fourth Street. There I was introduced to Mr. Archibald 
Bromsen, an attorney, who Bell explained was to be counsel to the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Bromsen seemed well informed as to all the plans of the coming 
convention, at which time the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union was to be created and during the discussion brought up the 
name of David Rothstein, an attorney at Chicago who would be 
associate counsel in that city for the new union. 

I later learned that Attorney Bromsen was named at a hearing in 
New York City by a witness for the Government, Manning Johnson, 
as a fellow traveler. 

The convention of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union was held in Chicago, August 24, 25, and 26 at the Parkway 
Community Center. Solon Bell presided at all sessions of the con- 
vention, but attorneys Dave Rothstein and Archibald Bromsen, who 
were in attendance, directed every move. 

The following officers were elected : Solon Bell, national president ; 
Mrs. A. Lockhart, national president, ladies' auxiliary; Archibald 
Bromsen, counsel ; D. Rothstein, associate counsel ; Co Van Long, vice 
president; Oscar Green, secretary-treasurer; Joseph Gardette, vice- 
president; Osie Long, vice president. 

Following the convention, a New York Central, Milwaukee, and 
Pennsylvania Railroad district was created. Mr. R. D. Maurice, a 
dining car employee of the New York Central, was appointed by Solon 
Bell as president of the New York Central district. 

Daniel Benjamin, a chief cook on the Pennsylvania Railroad, was 
appointed vice president at large. 

Thomas E. Hayes, of Omaha, and Charles McMurray. were ap- 
pointed as district representatives on the Union Pacific Railroad. 

Theodore Jackson was appointed as president, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road district, and Leroy Wilson, Howard McGuire, R. E. Nicholson, 
William Lockhart, H. Thurman, T. Galloway, Thomas Gilmer, and 
Joseph Lavanette as organizers. 

Oscar Greene was later on expelled from the union for misappro- 
priation of its funds, and Howard McGuire was appointed to succeed 
him. 

Exhaustive campaigns were then launched on all railroads where the 
newly created union had their appointed organizers at work. 

With the aid of Robert Wood and the Communist Party at New 
York, a heavy concentration was made upon the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. 

Wood drafted and printed leaflets, using the facilities of Link 
and the Daily Worker in an effort to destroy the AFL dining car 
local union then representing Pennsylvania dining car workers. 

Archibald Bromsen then gave free legal service, and Communist 
Party members distributed the leaflets, Link and the Daily Worker, 
at railroad yards and stations along the line of the railroad. 

The entire resources and facilities of the Party under the direction 
of Otto Wangarrin and Robert Wood were enlisted and effectively 
used to propagandize the Pennsylvania dining car employees to leave 
the AFL and join the new Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union. 

Their efforts were successful, and by February 1948 they had taken 
the representation of the Pennsylvania workers away from the AFL. 



24 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

The food workers union, then under Bob Wood's direction, began 
an active campaign to recruit Pennsylvania dining car employees into 
the Communist Party. 

Communist leaflets and literature was openly distributed at union 
meetings. 

The Wallace campaign became the union's major work. 

Wages, hours, and working conditions were entirely forgotten while 
the officers of the union attended the Philadelphia convention of the 
Progressive Party. 

Money of the union that should have been used for collective-bar- 
gaining purposes was diverted toward the election of Henry Wallace 
for President and the recruitment of dining car employees into the 
Communist Party. 

Repeated attempts were made by Solon Bell, Osie Long, Ralph 
Turner, and William Lockhart to persuade me to join the Communist 
Party. 

I refused each time and questioned the influence of Bob Wood, 
Archibald Bromsen, and the Communist Party over the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

All my arguments fell upon deaf ears, and in disgust I left the Com- 
munist-dominated union and returned to the AFL. 

Mr. Arens. May I just ask you, do I understand you to say that 
Solon Bell, the president, Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union, solicited you to join the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kemp. Solon Bell, Ralph Turner, William Lockhart solicited 
me to join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Then, if Solon Bell solicited you to join the Commu- 
nist Party, do you feel that he is a Communist ? 

Mr. Kemp. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did he ever identify himself as a Communist to you? 

Mr. Kemp. Not by presenting a card, no. 

Mr. Arens. What did he say when he solicited you to join the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. He addressed me as a brother, and a good comrade, and 
I should now become a member of the party in that I have gone 
through the different channels of the meeting, and et cetera. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Kemp. All persons I have named, except Mr. R. D. Maurice, 
are still active among dining car employees in the furtherance of 
Communists' aims. Inroads have been made on the Union Pacific, 
New York Central, and the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Railroads. 

The A. F. of L. union on the Union Pacific has been harrassed by 
trumped-up lawsuits charging discrimination of Negro cooks, and 
the Communist element on the New York Central continued its 
activity. 

Mr. R. D. Maurice has also left the food workers union and is ac- 
tively engaged in counteracting their propaganda on the New York 
Central. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much for your testimony today. 

(Whereupon, at 4 p. m. Monday, July 30, 1951, the hearing was 
recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



MONDAY, AUGUST 6, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
or the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, or the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 : 30 p. m., in room 
P-36, the Capitol, Senator Willis Smith presiding. 

Present : Senator Smith. 

Also present: Kichard Arens, staff director; Frank W. Schroeder, 
professional staff member; and Mitchel M. Carter, and Donald D. 
Connors, Jr., investigators. 

Senator Smith. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bert Jones will be the witness today, Senator 
Smith. 

Senator Smith. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
shall give in this proceeding being conducted by the subcommittee of 
the Judiciary Committee of the United States Senate will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERT JONES, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly idenify yourself by name and briefly 
by background and occupation ? 

Mr. Jones. My name is Bert Jones. I was born in Terre Haute, 
Ind., November 4, 1910. Since December 14, 1924, I have been em- 
ployed as a dining-car waiter in the dining car department, Chicago 
district, New York Central Railroad. On about March 1, 1943, I 
secured a leave of absence from the New York Central Railroad in 
order to accept an appointment as an organizer in the Dining Car 
Employees Union, local 351, of Chicago. Local 351 is a subordinate 
local union of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
International Union, A. F. of L. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, you are appearing today before the Internal 
Security Subcommittee in response to a subpena which was served 
upon you ? 

Mr. Jones. I am. 

Mr. Arens. In 1944, if I may invite your attention to that period 
of time, were you elected president of local 351 of a union dealing 
with dining-car employees? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I was. 

25 

89656 — 51 3 



26 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify the union more specifically? 

Mr. Jones. It is known as the Joint Council of Dining Car Em- 
ployees Union, Local 351, a subordinate local of our international 
union. 

Mr. Arens. Where does this local operate ? What is its jurisdiction, 
if you please ? 

Mr. Jones. Its jurisdiction is confined by the various railroads 
which we represent. 

Mr. Arens. What railroads do you have contracts with ? 

Mr. Jones. The Santa Fe Railroad. That is, the Atcheson, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, with their headquarters at Chicago and a district at 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

We also have the New York Central line west of Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. What is the occupation or employment of the members 
of your local ? 

Mr. Jones. They are dining-car cooks, waiters, bartenders, and 
parlor car and train attendants. 

Mr. Arens. How many members do you have in the local ? 

Mr. Jones. Approximately 3,700. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, beginning with the term of your office in 
1944, do you have information respecting certain activities by some 
members who were causing you trouble in the local? 

Mr. Jones. From the very beginning of my term in office a group 
of members in local 351 consisting of Joe Lavanette, a New York 
Central waiter, Joseph Gardette, a Milwaukee Railroad waiter, Har- 
rison T. Brooks, a Milwaukee Railroad waiter, Ralph Turner, a Mil- 
waukee Railroad waiter, J. T. Jones, a Burlington Railroad waiter at 
that time, Tom Gilmer, a New York Central dining car waiter, D. S. 
Bright, a New York Central waiter, Charles Buck, a New York 
Central waiter, William McBeth, a New York Central waiter, ap- 
pointed themselves as a committee known as the Committee For a 
Democratic Union and were quite active in union affairs. They at- 
tended every meeting, always voted together, and were always request- 
ing the support of the local union for some community program, like 
housing, education, and health activities. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. Each of them was always volunteering his services to 
the local union on sick activities or for organizing work without any 
charge for such services. In every way they conveyed the impression 
that they were honest, sincere trade unionists who were interested only 
in building their union and of cooperating with their officers. I had 
known and was quite friendly with Theodore Jackson, president of 
our sister local union, No. 370, of New York City, for several years. 

Mr. Arens. That sister union was a dining car union, was it not? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir; it was. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. Jackson was also system chairman of local 370 on 
New York Central's lines east. The duties of our positions in our 
respective local unions threw us in frequent contact with each other. 
When in New York City I stayed at Jackson's home. When in Chicago 
Jackson stayed at my home. 

During these visits together Jackson always talked to me about the 
Committee For a Democratic Union. He told me that they were the 
progressive force in local 351 and as long as they were in my corner 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 27 

I could run local 351 without opposition. Jackson told me that he had 
assisted in organizing similar committees in local 370 and that he 
headed the committee on the New York Central Railroad's line east 
and that on the same order Osie Long headed a similar committee in 
the Chicago district on the Pennsylvania Railroad and William Lock- 
hart headed the committee on the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Railroad in New York. 

Jackson also told me that Solon Bell, then chairman of our inter- 
national union, railroad department, Joint Council of Dining Car 
Employees, directed the activities of all committees on our railroads 
and was assisted in this work by Harry Reich, president of local 89, 
of New York City, and Mike Obermier, president of local 6 of New 
York City. Both locals 89 and 6 are subordinate local unions of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union. 

During the year 1944 the Committee for a Democratic Union con- 
tinued their activities in local 351. D. S. Bright on several occasions 
during this period asked me to join the committee, and when it be- 
came obvious to him that I would not join the committee he began 
to change its attitude toward me. 

Mr. Arens. That is, the attitude of the committee toward you ? 

Mr. Jones. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to this time, prior to the time that you refused 
to join the committee, I take it that the Committee for a Democratic 
Union was supporting you as president of the local, is that right ? 

Mr. Jones. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. In 1945 the general executive board of our international 
union held a meeting in Los Angeles, Calif. Concurrent with the 
executive board meeting our joint council also met. In our member- 
ship meeting the Committee for Democratic Union forced the elec- 
tion of Harrison T. Brooks as an observer to the joint council meet- 
ing. As president of the local union I opposed, this election as a waste 
of the union's funds. The committee, however, had packed the meet- 
ing and prevailed over my objections. Ralph Turner and J. T. Brooks 
went to the meeting as observers of the committee. 

At Los Angeles Theodore Jackson introduced me to Mike Obermier. 
Jackson brought Obermier to my room at the Regal Hotel in Los 
Angeles and left us together. During this visit Obermeier talked of 
the work of the progressive forces in our international union and 
their, plans to take over key positions in the national office. He told 
of the importance of the vote of dining car local unions at our gen- 
eral convention in furtherance of this program and of the part in this 
for me if I would only join these progressive forces and become a 
member of the Communist Party. I rejected Obermier 's invitation 
and our meeting ended. 

Later, during our stay in Los Angeles, Jackson, Solon Bell, Ralph 
Turner, J. T. Jones tried to get me to change my mind and join the 
Communist Party. I still refused. 

Mr. Arens. May I inject this question? Did Mr. Mike Obermier 
identify himself to you at the time you say he solicited you to join 
the Communist Party as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. He did. He said that "I am a member, and you have 
no fear to become a member." 



28 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Did Mr. Solon Bell at the time he solicited you to join 
the Communist Party identify himself as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. No ; he did not identify himself, but he sent one person 
by the name of D. S. Bright and told this D. S. Bright to tell me that 
he had sent him. 

Mr. Arens. Who was D. S. Bright? 

Mr. Jones. D. S. Bright was a waiter from the New York Central 
Railroad Co., and also he ran against me for system chairman of lines 
west of the New York Central. 

Mr. Arens. Was D. S. Bright affiliated with the Committee for a 
Democratic Union? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Did Ralph Turner identify himself to you as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; he did, definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Ralph Turner ? 

Mr. Jones. Ralph Turner is a waiter on the Milwaukee Railroad, 
at that time was a member of our local union, local 351. 

Mr. Arens. Was he also affiliated with the Committee for a Demo- 
cratic Union ? 

Mr. Jones. He was. 

Mr. Arens. Did J. T. Jones identify himself to you as a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Arens. Was J. T. Jones at that time affiliated with the Com- 
mittee for Democratic Union ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. This was the break between the Committee for Demo- 
cratic Union and myself. From then on the members of that com- 
mittee became a source of trouble at every meeting. Many of the 
members of local 351 became disgusted with the conduct of these 
people during union ineetings and remained away. This gave the 
committee control of the meeting and they were able to put all of 
their members upon the election committee to supervise and conduct 
the election of officers in local 351 in March of 1946. Prior to the 
meeting in Los Angeles, Calif., I had appointed Thomas Gilmer as 
my assistant on the New York Central Railroad, but he now openly 
boasted that since I had turned my back on the Communists, that a 
Communist would be elected as the next president of local 351. 

Mr. Arens. When was this, if you please ? 

Mr. Jones. This was along in approximately March or April. 

Mr. Arens. Of what year ? 

Mr. Jones. Of 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. Theodore Jackson also urged me to change my mind 
before it was too late. He pointed out that with himself, Obermeir, 
Reich, and Lockheart in New York City, and with Long, Turner, 
Gardette, Lavanette, Brooks, Gilmer, Jones, and Bell in Chicago, 
we could lock up the two local unions. I still refused to join the 
party. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you if Theodore Jackson at any time identified 
himself to you as a member of the Communist Party ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 29 

Mr. Jones. No. Jackson would always refer me to Mike Obermier 
and had Mike Obermier to tell me that it was O. K. 

Mr. Arens. What was O. K. ? 

Mr. Jones. For me to become a member of the Communist Party, 
because Jackson was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. I am not quite clear on that. Who is it, if any one, who 
identified Theodore Jackson to you as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Jones. D. S. Bright. 

Mr. Arens. Whom you have previously alluded to in your testi- 
mony? 

Mr. Jones. That is right, and Mike Obermier. 

Mr. Arens. I see. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. At the union meeting in April of 1946, at which time 
nominations for election of officers was held, the Committee for a 
Democratic Union attempted to take over the meeting. International 
Vice President James Blakely of Chicago was present. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. James Blakely, of Chicago, was international vice 
president of the 

Mr. Jones. Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders Inter- 
national. The fifth district vice president was his title. 

Mr. Arens. I see. Proceed. 

Mr. Jones. The committee called him a gangster and a dictator 
and accused him of attempting to keep the membership from electing 
progressive officers. Because of the conduct of the committee mem- 
bers in this meeting, I adjourned the meeting before any nominations 
were placed into the minutes. We then telephoned the general head- 
quarters of our international union at Cincinnati, Ohio, told the gen- 
eral president of the situation, and arranged a conference at the general 
office. International Vice President George E. Brown, in charge of the 
railway department of our international union, was called in from 
Washington, D. C, to attend this conference. The general president 
recognized the seriousness of the conditions in local 351 and placed 
the local union under trusteeship with Vice President Brown as trustee. 
Under Vice President Brown's supervision, nominations were held and 
in the following elections the entire slate of the Committee for a 
Democratic Union was defeated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall who was then on the slate of the Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Union at the time of the election under the 
trusteeship of Vice President Brown ? 

Mr. Jones. For the Progressive Party for president of local union 
351 the name of Joseph Lavanette was placed as a candidate. 

Mr. Arens. You have identified Lavanette as a man who told you 
he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jones. Definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. 

Mr. Jones. You mean to fill the other offices ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Who were the other candidates on the ticket of 
the Committee for a Democratic Union ? 

Mr. Jones. For vice president, Joseph Gardette. 

Mr. Arens. Have you identified Joseph Gardette as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. I have. 



30 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Abens. Proceed. 

Mr. Jones. For general chairman, Fred Smith. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you identified Mr. Fred Smith as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. I know for assistant chairman the employees representa- 
tive, Delmer S. Bright, was running. 

Mr. Arens. Have you identified Mr. Bright as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Jones. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Joxes. For trustees, S. W. Springer, who is not now connected 
with the railroad department. 

The committee, incidentally, through Ralph Turner, Harrison 
Brooks, and Joe Gardette and J. L. Picket, started action in the courts 
to enjoin the election. While the case was pending Theodore Jackson 
again approached me with a request that I join the Communist Party. 
I refused once more. D. S. Bright sent to my home by Jackson with 
another invitation to me to join the party, and again I refused. The 
committee lost their lawsuit and Vice President Brown filed charges 
against Brooks, Turner. Lavanette, and Gardette, and suspended them 
from membership pending trial. 

The action of Vice President Brown was the signal for increased 
activities upon the part of these communistic committees everywhere. 
Leaflets spread in railroad committees over the entire county, in which 
Vice President Brown, the general officers of the international union, 
and officers of local 351 were described as gangsters, traitors of the 
workers and the Negro people. All these leaflets were signed "The 
Committee for a Democratic Union,'' and their statements were re- 
printed in the Daily Worker in New York, the People's World in Cali- 
fornia and Chicago, and in the Omaha Herald. 

Theodore Jackson again approached me to join the Communist 
Party. This time he identified Osie Long, Solon Bell, Ralph Turner, 
Joe Gardette, J. L. Picket, Harry Reich, Mike Obermier as being 
Communists and stated that at the coming convention of the interna- 
tional union in 1047 the party would take over key positions in the 
general offices. When this was accomplished the charges against 
Turner, Brooks, Lavanette, and Gardette would be dismissed and all 
of them reinstated. Jackson also told me that the Communists would 
have plenty of money to put over their program. I still refused to 
join and told Jackson never to mention the Communist Party to me 
again. Since that time our friendship has ceased, and, while at the 
1047 convention, although we were no longer on friendly terms, I 
observed that Jackson did have plenty of money. 

Mr. Aiiexs. Could you elaborate on that a little bit with respect to 
the money which you say you observed Jackson had at the 1047 con- 
vention ? 

Mr. Joxes. Jackson told me prior to the convention that he was 
going to have plenty of money by his associates. 

Mr. Arens. Did he indicate to you where he was going to get it? 

Mr. Joxes. He said that Solon Bell had a connection to get the 
amount of moneys that he wanted, any amount that he wanted. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 31 

Mr. Arens. Did lie give any indication to you where Solon Bell or 
where he was going to get the money ? 

Mr. Jones. No ; he didn't say where Bell would get it, but I know 
Jackson had it because Jackson had sufficient funds to take a flying 
trip to Salt Lake City to attend some meeting that he regretted that 
I couldn't attend because I wouldn't join the party. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed. 

Mr. Jones. The Communist slate was defeated at the convention 
and Vice President Brown placed charges against Solon Bell and 
Jackson, charging them with subversive activities. Bell and 
Jackson, together with other members of the committee for a demo- 
cratic union, organized the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union. Constantly, these people distribute Communist leaflets, the 
Daily Worker, and a Communist news letter by the name of "Link," 
among the dining-car employees. With several girls, one Fred Smith 
Smith, a waiter from the Illinois Central Railroad, quite recently 
circulated the Stockholm peace petition among the New York Cen- 
tral employees and distributed leaflets condemning the United Na- 
tions action in Korea. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say awhile ago, and I want the 
record to be perfectly clear on this 

Mr. Jones. Surely. 

Mr. Arens. That after the 1947 convention of your union in which 
the slate of the Committee for a Democratic Union was defeated, that 
a labor organization was formed by Solon Bell and Mr. Jackson and 
others who were the leaders of this Committee for a Democratic Un- 
ion ; is that right ? 

Mr. Jones. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do vou have the names of the officers of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jones. The name of Solon C. Bell as president. 

Mr. Arens. Have you identified Solon C. Bell as a Communist? 

Mr. Jones. Definitely I have. 

Mr. Arens. Who are some of the other officers, and would you list 
their names for the benefit of the record state whether or not they are 
to your knowledge or have been to your knowledge members of the 
Communist Party 

Mr. Jones. Charles McMurray is definitely a Communist. Theo- 
dore Jackson 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, if you please, Mr. Jones. I don't believe 
you indicated the office which Mr. McMurray holds. You said Mr. 
Solon Bell was president. 

Mr. Jones. Mr. McMurray is an organizer for the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union on the west coast, I think, with head- 
quarters at Oakland, Calif. 

T. A. Jackson at that time was a former president of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers. 

Mr. Arens. What is your statement with respect to his Commu- 
nist connections. 

Mr. Jones. T. A. Jackson is definitely a Communist. 

W. Lockheart is a representative of the Food Workers Union and 
is definitely a Communist. 

T. E. Hayes, a representative of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers, is definitely a Communist. 



32 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Howard McGuire, secretary and treasurer, is definitely a Commu- 
nist. 

Osie Long, vice president of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers, is definitely a Communist. 

Joseph Gardette, an organizer for the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union is definitely a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose this question just so the record may be 
clear ? When you say these men whom you are identif yng are defi- 
nitely Communists, are you basing your conclusion on the fact that 
they have identified themselves to you as members of the Communist 
Party when they solicited you to join the party? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Jones. Daniel Benjamin, its eastern vice president, is definitely 
a Communist. 

Oscar Greene, former secretary and treasurer of the Food Workers, 
is definitely a Communist. 

Joseph Lavanette, an organizer for the Food Workers, is definitely 
a Communist. 

Thomas Gilmer was an organizer for the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers, definitely a Communist. 

L. B. Christopher, an organizer for the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers, is definitely a Communist. 

Robert Rollins, an organizer for the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers and definitely a Communist. 

Edgar Ruffin, an organizer for the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers, definitely a Communist. 

Leroy Wilson, a representative, is definitely a Communist. 

Co Van Long, an organizer and definitely a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others ? 

Mr. Jones. Not that I could identify that I have had personal talks 
with. 

Mr. Arens. This group, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Work- 
ers Union, the officers of which you have identified as Communists, 
is certified by the National Mediation Board at the present time as a 
bargaining agency for what lines? 

Mr. Jones. For the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 

Mr. Arens. How many members are there of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Jones. Approximately 1,800. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting any recent nego- 
tiation between the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union 
and the Pennsylvania Railroad? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. They have concluded an agreement with the car- 
rier since they have been the bargaining agency. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of the agreement, do you know, just 
in general terms? 

Mr. Jones. It is a working agreement, rules, rates of pay. 

Mr. Arens. Does the agreement call for a closed shop ? 

Mr. Jones. No, it does not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, when you were solicited by these men whom 
you have identified as Communists, who were at that time in the Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Union, were you solicited also to join the 
Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I was. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 33 

Mr. Arens. What is the Abraham Lincoln School? 

Mr. Jones. The Abraham Lincoln School is a school that teaches 
subversive activities in labor unions. 

Mr. Arens. Who solicited you to become affiliated with the Abra- 
ham Lincoln School? 

Mr. Jones. Thomas Gilmer, Harrison T. Brooks, and Solon Bell. 

Mr. Arens. Was any reference made in your conversation with these 
men respecting the payment of your tuition and your expenses while 
you would be attending the Abraham Lincoln School? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. I replied to them that I would like to attend the 
school, but I did not have sufficient funds, and Thomas Gilmer told 
me that Solon Bell could get sufficient funds from his connections. 

Mr. Arens. May I just pose this question : If you were all this time 
adverse to their suggestions that you join the Communist Party, why 
did you suggest to them that you would like to attend the Abraham 
Lincoln School? 

Mr. Jones. I was attempting to draw them on to see how far I 
could go with them and how much more information I could get with 
respect to their connections. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time accept membership in the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time accept enrollment at the Abraham 
Lincoln School ? 

Mr. Jones. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. The Abraham Lincoln School has been identified as a 
Communist organization by the Attorney General of the United 
States, has it not? 

Mr. Jones. It has, and that is why I knew that they taught subver- 
sive activities in labor organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, do you have in your possession certain leaf- 
lets which were published by the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify those? If the chairman 
please, we will have them marked as exhibits and inserted for the 
record with the committee. 

Senator Smith. As part of his testimony? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. That will be known as exhibits 1 and 2. 

Mr. Jones. As exhibit 1 I want to have incorporated in the record 
this one, and as exhibit 2 I would like to have this one recorded. 

(Documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2" and 
filed with the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, I notice on exhibit 2 at the bottom left-hand 
corner of the exhibit a notation reading "uopwa-34." Do you have 
any way of identifying that notation? 

Mr. Jones. My identification would be that it is the United Office 
and Professional Workers of America, and I identify that 34 as per- 
haps the local number. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Jones, when Mr. Charles McMurray would 
arrive at the west coast, do you have any knowledge that he met with 
Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Jones. Yes; I do. 



34 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you have any knowledge that any other of these 
dining-car waiters would meet with Harry Bridges when they would 
arrive on the west coast? 

Mr. Jones. Solon Bell would meet with him, and McMurray. 

Mr. Schroeder. That is Charles McMurray, that you just men- 
tioned ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. He would meet with him. 

Mr. Schroeder. And Harry Bridges is the well-known labor leader 
on the west coast who is now under deportation proceedings? 

Mr. Jones. That is correct. 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you know of any other of the dining-car work- 
ers, when they would arrive on the west coast, that would meet with 
Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Jones. On several occasions Mr. Theodore Jackson would go 
out to the west coast to converse with Mr. Bridges and would bring 
back certain information for one Robert A. Wood, who was one of 
the editors of the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Schroeder. And the Daily Worker is the Communist Party 
paper on the east coast? 

Mr. Jones. It is. 

Also we would like to put on the record that he is the publisher of 
the Link, in the railroad department. 

Mr. Schroeder. And the Link is printed by the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Jones. It is. 

Mr. Schroeder. In New York City. 

Mr. Jones. In New York City. 

Senator Smith. Has he explained what the Link is ? 

Mr. Arens. It is in the record by a previous witness, who identified 
it. 

Mr. Connors. Mr. Jones, you testified that the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union bargains only for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Does that same union have members on other railroads, or 
is their membership confined only to the Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Jones. They have members in their Communist activities in 
other groups. 

Mr. Connors. Can you name some of the other railroads on which 
they have members ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes; the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
the New York Central, the Illinois Central, the Delaware & Lacka- 
wanna, the New Haven, the Wabash, the Union Pacific, the Santa Fe, 
the Southern Pacific, and the Great Western. 

Mr. Connors. You have identified a number of individuals who 
are employed as dining-car waiters or as bartenders and the like as 
Communist Party members. Have you knowledge concerning the 
possible transmission of Communist Party documents or Communist 
Party papers by any of those people whom you have so identified? 

Mr. Jones. I don't have any papers or documents that I could sub- 
mit. 

Mr. Connors. Do you have any knowledge concerning whether 
these people whom you have identified as Communists did in fact 
carry messages or documents for the Communist Party in this coun- 
try from one city to another ? 

Mr. Jones. They did. I saw cards with names of these individuals 
on them that they carried concealed in their purse. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 35 

Mr. Connors. How did you happen to see those, Mr. Jones ? 

Mr. Jones. Mr. Thomas Gilmer and D. S. Bright and Solon Bell 
would show me their cards. 

Mr. Connors. These are Communist Party cards you are talking 
about ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Connors. Did you ever see any messages from the Communist 
Party of one city or of one district to the Communist Party of another 
city or another district which these people carried acting as couriers? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much, Mr. Jones. We appreciate your 
testimony. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that Mr. Jones be released 
from subpena. 

Senator Smith. Very. well. We will so understand. 

(Whereupon, at 3:20 p. m., the subcommittee recessed subject to 
the call of the Chair.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAK AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 10, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security 

Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Homer Ferguson presiding. 

Present: Senator Ferguson. 

Also present: Richard Arens, staff director; Frank Schroeder, pro- 
fessional staff member; Donald Connors and Mitchel M. Carter, in- 
vestigators. 

Senator Ferguson. The committee will come to order. 

Will you raise your right hand, Mr. Johnson? Do you solemnly 
swear in the matter now pending before this subcommittee of the Ju- 
diciary Committee of the United States Senate that you will tell the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ; so help you God ? 

Mr. Johnson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MANNING JOHNSON, CONSULTANT AND ANALYST, 
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZA- 
TION SERVICE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name and occupation. 

Mr. Johnson. My name is Manning Johnson. At the present time 
I am employed as a consultant and analyst by the Department of Jus- 
tice, Immigration and Naturalization Service. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Johnson, for the purpose of identification, you are 
a member of the Negro race ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly give us a brief resume of your 
personal history? Where were you born and when were you born 
and give us a word respecting }^our education ? 

Mr. Johnson. I was born in Washington on December 18, 1907. I 
attended the Elijah P. Lovejoy Elementary School, Robert Gould 
Shaw Junior High School, and the Armstrong Technical High School. 
All of these schools are located in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a brief resume of your occu- 
pations and vocations since the conclusion of your formal education ? 

Mr. Johnson. I went to work for the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 
dining-car service after graduation from high school. 

37 



38 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Approximately when was that? 

Mr. Johnson. In 1926. From my dining-car job I went West, 
finally winding up in Alliance, Nebr., where I managed a restaurant 
and pool hall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever join the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; I did ; upon my return to the East in 1930. 

Senator Ferguson. How long did you remain a member ? 

Mr. Johnson. I remained a member of the party until 1940. 

Senator Ferguson. Those were the days when you had cards? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you take an oath ? 

Mr. Johnson. Not when we joined the party in those days. We 
had to take a pledge later on in the party, in the middle thirties. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you recall what that pledge was ? 

Mr. Johnson. I don't at this time. 

Senator Ferguson. Instead of oath I meant pledge because I under- 
stand they do not believe in God, so they would not want to take an 
oath as we understand it. 

Mr. Johnson. That is correct. The pledge is printed in the Com- 
munist Manual of Organization, written by J. Peters. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you know Peters ? 

Mr. Johnson. I knew him very well. I worked for him for a num- 
ber of years in the party. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify him, please ? 

Mr. Johnson. J. Peters was a Communist international technical 
expert working with the organizational department of the Communist 
Party of the U. S. A. He was responsible for the Communist under- 
ground apparatus, specifically the handling of secret codes, the use 
of mail drops, the methods to be employed in the use of the mails to 
prevent detection by the postal authorities, the recruitment of persons 
into the espionage apparatus of the party, advising and teaching the 
units of the party how to work during conditions of party illegality. 

Mr. Arens. They had larger cells and units during that time ? You 
got to know more people ? 

Mr. Johnson. They did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You got up pretty well in the ranks if you got to know 
Peters. 

Mr. Johnson. I was a member of the national committee and a 
candidate for the political bureau. 

Mr. Arens. Now you were recruited in the party by whom and 
when? 

Mr. Johnson. I was recruited in the party by Otto Hall. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr. Johnson. That was in 1930. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Johnson. In Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, to tell of your party activities 
and experiences. 

Mr. Johnson. In 1932 I attended the Secret National Training 
School for the Communist Party, city of New York. The school was 
located on the second floor of the national headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party, 50 East Thirteenth Street. The course lasted for a pe- 
riod of 3 months. The course consisted of an intensive and extensive 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 39 

course in Marxism and Leninism. That is the strategy and tactics of 
world revolution. 

After I finished my course in school, I returned to Buffalo, N. Y. 
Shortly after my return to Buffalo, I was appointed by the political 
bureau of the Communist Party to the position of district organizer, 
a position which I held until 1934. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you to be district organizer ? 

Mr. Johnson. I was to be district organizer of district No. 4 with 
headquarters in Buffalo, N. Y. The Buffalo district geographically 
covered all of the western part of New York State, starting from 
Ithaca and Utica west. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you hold that position ? 

Mr. Johnson. I was district organizer until the middle of 1934, or 
shortly thereafter. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, with your description of your 
Communist Party activities. 

Mr. Johnson. In 1934, either in the summer or fall, I was trans- 
ferred, by order of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, 
to New York City. Upon my arrival, I was assigned to the position 
of national Negro organizer for the Trade Union Unity League. The 
headquarters of the Trade Union Unity League was located at 799 
Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Could you pause right there for just a moment to 
identify the Trade Union Unity League? 

Mr. Johnson. The Trade Union Unity League was the American 
section of the Bed International of Labor Unions, which was headed 
by a leader of the Russian Communist Party by the name of Lozofsky. 
Its program was identical with that of the Communist Party. It 
consisted of (1) the formation of revolutionary industrial unions; 
(2) the formation of revolutionary opposition groups within the 
American Federation of Labor, the Railroad Brotherhoods, and in- 
dependent unions ; (3) its program was definitely one of class struggle 
which had as its ultimate objective the destruction of the Govern- 
ment of the United States and the establishment of the Soviet form 
of government. 

Mr. Arens. Where were the headquarters of the Trade Union 
Unity League? 

Mr. Johnson. The headquarters of the Trade Union Unity League 
was located at 799 Broadway. Incidentally, they published a maga- 
zine as their official organ called Labor Unity. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed, if you please, with your career in the 
Communist apparatus. 

Mr. Johnson. In 1934 I was placed on the National Negro Com- 
mission of the National Committee of the Communist Party and also 
on the National Trade Union Commission of the Communist Party. 

May I say here at the time the National Negro Commission was 
called the National Negro Department and the Trade Union Com- 
mission was called the National Trade Union Department of the 
Central Committee. It was just a change in names that came about in 
1938 when the new constitution of the Communist Party of the United 
States of America was adopted. I say that from the point of view 
of clarifying that for the record. 

At the Communist Party convention in 1936 I was elected to mem- 
bership on the national committee. I have also served on a number of 



40 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

other committees such as the New York State committee; the New 
York State Trade Union Commission, and so forth. 

There is one other position I would like to make reference to which 
I held in Buffalo, N. Y., and that is district agitation and propaganda 
director and was a member of the district bureau and district com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Johnson, what was the party line with re- 
gard to Negroes in America at the time you were active in the Com- 
munist apparatus? 

Mr. Johnson. The party line with regard to Negroes in America 
consisted of the employment of such strategy and tactics that were 
necessary in order to bring about in these United States an independ- 
ent and autonomous Negro republic in the black belt. The black belt 
is the old Cotton Belt of the South. 

The achievement of this objective, according to party policy, is to 
be accomplished by an armed rebellion against the constitutive author- 
ity in the region of the black belt ; the seizure of governmental power, 
uniting of this area into a single political unit, and establishing there 
a Soviet form of government. 

Armed rebellion of the Negroes, according to their program, is to 
be a part of the general Communist revolution in America. 

Mr. Arens. Where was this program of the Negro question adopted 
and how was it adopted ? 

Mr. Johnson. The program on the Negro question in America was 
adopted at the Sixth World Congress of the Communist Interna- 
tional held in Moscow in 1928. This program was further enlarged 
and developed at subsequent meetings of the executive committee of 
the Communist International. The Communists consider the Negro 
people in America the most potential revolutionary minority. 

Mr. Arens. What is the basis for that view ? 

Mr. Johnson. The basis for this conclusion is the inequities that 
exist in our social system in relation to the Negro. The Communist 
strategy is to utilize the just grievances of the Negro in order to sub- 
vert him ; that is, to sink their claws in him and use him for the pur- 
poses of revolution. And not only for the purpose of revolution but 
for the support of the foreign and diplomatic policy of the Soviet 
Government. 

In order to bring about the subversion of the Negro, they have 
sought to infiltrate the existing Negro organizations and gain control 
of them for the party. They also establish transmission belts or front 
organizations that have an attractive program. The attractive pro- 
gram of these front organizations is used as a means of baiting Negroes 
into them. 

Once they have succeeded in getting them into these organizations, 
they proceed to indoctrinate them with regard to the Communist 
Party program. 

The major emphasis of the party is placed on the organization of 
the Negro industrial worker into the ranks of the party and to use 
him to organize and gain leadership over the Negro sharecroppers, 
tenant farmers in the agricultural regions of the South. The Com- 
munist Party strategy for revolution in the United States calls for 
the infiltration and control of the workers in the basic and key indus- 
tries of our Nation. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 41 

Incidentally, the Negro plays an important part in the industrial 
set-up of our Nation ; consequently, every effort is made by the Com- 
munist Party to contact the Negro industrial worker. They use a 
special appeal based upon his grievances such as upgrading, equal 
pay, elimination of any discrimination that possibly may exist in an 
industry in relation to him. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean when you refer to the basic and key 
industries ? 

Mr. Johnson. When I say basic and key industries I refer to in- 
dustries such as steel, mining, railroad, marine, communications, auto- 
motive, chemical, and industries generally. All of the Communist 
activities i» these key industries have as their objective, control over 
the majority or the decisive sections of the workers in these industries. 
This is a necessary prerequisite to the carrying out of their ultimate 
objective — the overthrow of the Government of the United States. 

The control over the majority or the decisive sections of the workers 
in these industries enables the party to paralyze the national economy 
through general strikes, series of general strikes and armed revolt 
against the Government, The transportation industry, particularly 
railroad and marine, are vital because the movement of supplies and 
troops during a national emergency could easily be sabotaged by crip- 
pling and tying up all of our transportation generally. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent does the party or at least did the party 
when you were in the apparatus concentrate on railroad centers ? 

Mr. Johnson. At the time I was in the party the party concentrated 
mainly on the key railroad centers such as Chicago, Omaha, and 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. Now did you in the experience that you had in the Com- 
munist apparatus have occasion to work with Communist Party mem- 
bers employed in the dining-car service ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, I did. In 1934 when I was assigned to work 
with the Trade Union Unity League I had as a part of my party activ- 
ities work with the Communist Party members employed in the dining- 
car industry, an assignment which I continued to carry out up until I 
left the Communist Party in 1940. 

Mr. Arens. Now do you have information respecting other persons 
who were in the dining-car industry who to your knowledge are or were 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. Among those that I worked with during that period 
were Theodore A. Jackson, Solon C. Bell, W. Lockhart, MacFarland, 
George Brown, Halton H. Henry, Edwin G. Beaston, and a number of 
others whose names I cannot recall at this time. I met from time 
to time with these Communist Party leaders at unit and Communist 
Party fraction meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Have any of these men to your knowledge left the Com- 
munist Party in a manner similar to the way you have left the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. George Brown, Halton H. Henry, and Mac- 
Farland quit the Communist Party and have been combating the 
Communists and Communist influence in the dining-car field on a 
national scale. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Johnson, I submit to you now an exhibit which has 
been previously incorporated in this record and identified as "Exhibit 

89656 — 51 4 



42 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

3" and ask you if you can identify any of the persons whose photograph 
appears in exhibit 3. 

Mr. Johnson. In exhibit 3. I can identify the picture of Solon C. 
Bell. 

Mr. Arexs. He is identified in that exhibit by what title? 

Mr. Johnson. National president of the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union. 

I also identify the picture of Theodore A. Jackson, who is also a 
member of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Who was Solon C. Bell when you knew him? What 
was he doing? 

Mr. Johx~sox\ Solon C. Bell was on the staff of the international 
union, that is the Hotel and Restaurant Employees International 
Union and the Bartenders' International League of America affiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a member of the national food fraction ? 

Mr. Johx~sox\ He was a member of the national food fraction of 
the Communist Party. He was an active organizer of the AFL 
international union among dining-car workers, particularly in the 
western sectors of the country. 

George Brown. MacFarland. Halton H. Henry. Theodore A. Jack- 
son, and I also were members of the national food fraction. 

In addition to these Xegroes. all of whom were Communist leaders 
in the dining-car field, there were also a number of white Communists 
who were active in the international union who were also members 
of that particular fraction, such as J. Rubin. Michael Obermier. Bill 
Albertson. Salvatore Gentile. Carl Hacker. George J. Ballam, Harry 
Reich, Samuel Kramberg. Isaac Himmelfarb. Irene Short. Harold 
Roberts, and others whose names I do not recall at the present time. 

The national food fraction met periodically in the city of New 
York. Most of the meetings were held in the Hotel Edison Annex 
and occasionally at other places that I cannot at this time recall. 

Mr. Arens. Could you pause to identify the national food fraction? 
Bv the word "fraction" do vou mean a segment of the Communist 
Party I 

Mr. Johx-son. Yes. A fraction is an organization of the party con- 
sisting of Communist Party members who are members of an 
organization. 

Mr. Arex's. In other words, the national food fraction would be the 
unit of the Communist Party which was operating within the food 
industry; is that correct? 

Mr. Johnson". It would not be the Communist Party unit. A frac- 
tion is different from a Communist Party unit. A fraction is a group 
of party members who are members of an organization. They are a 
part of any organization in which they may be a member of. For ex- 
ample, the members of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees Inter- 
national Union are organized into a general fraction, and they are 
organized also on the basis of local fractions, that is, groups of them 
who are members of a given local union of the same international. 

Mr. Arexs. In other words, it is an organization within an 
organization '. 

Mr. John-son*. That is correct. 

Mr. Arex-s. It is the Communist organization within another 
organization ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 43 

Mr. Johnson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed, if you please? 

Mr. Johnson. The national food fraction coordinated and directed 
the Communist Party activities of all of the local factions within the 
international union/ The dining-car employees locals are affiliated 
with the Hotel and Restaurant Employees International Union. The 
Communist Party leaders, whom I have mentioned, were responsible 
for carrying out the Communist Party line among the dining-car 
employees in particular and the other workers in the international 
union in general. 

We met as a Communist Party fraction prior to conventions of the 
international union where party policy was expressed, drafted reso- 
lutions to be introduced, chose officers we were to support or not to 
support, and decided the position that we as Communists should 
take on policies recommended by the general executive board at the 
convention. It was the policy of the party to support those recom- 
mendations of the general executive board that served the interests of 
the party and to oppose those which did not serve the interests of the 
party. 

The most important phase of our work was recruiting of dining- 
car employees into the party, the building up of the Communist 
fractions in the dinning-car locals oil a national scale, and coordinating 
and directing all of their activities in conjunction with the general 
activities of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet from time to time with the Communist 
Party unit in the dining-car industry? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. From time to time I met with the Communist 
Party unit in the dining-car industry and also with the dining-car 
fraction which I have mentioned before. The dining-car unit of the 
party consisted of members employed in the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
New York Central, Lehigh Valley, Xew Haven-Hartford, and other 
lines. 

Mr. Arens. Where did the unit meet ? 

Mr. Johnson. The unit met from time to time in Harlem, in the 
homes of individual members of the unit. Harlem is a part of the 
Borough of Manhattan in the city of Xew York. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the active participants in the unit ? 

Mr. Johnson. Theodore A. Jackson. W. Lockhart, MacFarland, 
Halton H. Henry, and occasionally George Brown. 

Mr. Arens. What was your work with this unit ? 

Mr. Johnson. My work with this unit consisted of rendering assist- 
ance in the solution of problems that arose in the union and the re- 
cruiting of dining-car employees into the party and the conducting 
of Communist Party campaigns amongst the dining-car employees. 

Mr. Arens. You have previously in your testimony today identified 
Theodore A. Jackson as a man who to your knowledge was a member 
of the Communist Party \ 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Does the party place importance on the railroad 
industry S 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. The railroad industry is of vital importance 
to the party. 

Mr. Arens. Why i 



44 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Johnson. I might cite two reasons. First, because it is a link 
that ties up every city, hamlet, village in every State in our Union. 
Control of it by the party would enable them to paralyze the whole 
national economy. You can imagine for a moment the tremendous 
confusion that would be created on a national scale, the automatic 
closing down of thousands of industries that depend on railroads to 
transmit or bring to them supplies in order to operate. 

Mr. Arens. What about the use of the railroads or persons employed 
on the railroads as couriers ? 

Mr. Johnson. During the period of illegality of the party, the party 
members in the railroad industry become extremely important from 
the point of view that they can be used as couriers in linking up and 
coordinating the work of the illegal party apparatus on a national 
scale through the deliverance personally of communications, docu- 
ments, and instructions from the underground leadership of the party. 

Mr. Arens. Is that actually being done ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is what I was taught, at the time that I at- 
tended the national training school, would be done if and when the 
Communist Party of the U. S. A. would be declared an illegal party 
or driven underground through repressive measures such as we find 
in the present situation. The railroad worker becomes increasingly 
important to the party. 

This instruction with regard to the use of railroad employees as 
couriers was given to me and the other students during the course of 
a lecture by J. Peters on legal and illegal methods of work. The 
dining-car employees were instructed by the party to assist the party 
forces in the various cities to recruit railroad workers generally into 
the party. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of this recruiting ? 

Mr. Johnson. The purpose of this recruiting was to organize Com- 
munist Party fractions in the locals or lodges of the various railroad 
brotherhoods, both the operating and non-operating brotherhoods. 
The fractions in these organizations were formed for the purpose of 
capturing control of units of the railroad brotherhoods and eventually 
at the conventions capturing national control or, if not national con- 
trol, to be in a position to influence the national policy of these or- 
ganizations. 

Mr. Connors. Mr. Johnson, is it your testimony then that the rail- 
road workers form a channel of interparty communication on an in- 
ternational scale that the Communist Party leadership desires to 
keep vigorous and intact? 

Mr. Johnson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave the party? 

Mr. Johnson. I left the Communist Party in 1940. 

Mr. Arens. What precipitated your break? 

Mr. Johnson. There were a whole series of incidents, but the 
culminating one was the Nazi-Soviet pact that was signed on August 
23, 1039. I couldn't reconcile myself to the acceptance of the Com- 
munist position on that pact. In the first place, the pact was signed 
by Stalin in keeping with, of course, what I later came to realize was 
their policy to decide and tell us what we must accept and what we 
must not accept. 

The Nazi-Soviet pact was signed by Stalin because it served the 
interest of the political bureau of Russia without regard to the previ- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 45 

ous program that had been worked out at the Seventh "World Con- 
gress in 1935 in Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. I take it then that you came to the realization that the 
program which the Communist Party advertises publicly was mere 
window dressing for the international conspiracy to foster the ends 
of the Soviet Union ; is that correct \ 

Mr. Johnson. Yes; I realized that the Communist Party of the 
United States of America is only a tool of the political bureau of 
the Communist Party of Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Arens. After you broke with the Communist Party could you 
give us very briefly a resume of your activities from the standpoint of 
assisting this Government in supplying information to the various 
intelligence agencies of the Government? 

Mr. Johnson. Shortly after my break with the Communist Party, 
I assisted the Government in a number of ways through supplying 
them information with regard to the Communist Party, their acti- 
vities generally. 

Mr. Arens. Were you not for a period of time undercover agent 
for the Federal Bureau of Investigation '. 

Mr. Johnson. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Arens. What period of time ? 

Mr. Johnson. The latter part of 1941 until February of 19-44 when 
I went into the Navy. 

Mr. Arens. Have you served as a witness on behalf of the Govern- 
ment in certain of its cases against Communists? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Could you just briefly allude to one or two of those 
cases ? 

Mr. Johnson. I testified in the Gerhardt Eisler case in Washington, 
D. C. 

Mr. Arens. That was a deportation case ? 

Mr. Johnson. That was a case involving the use of false passports. 

Mr. Arens. Criminal action? 

Mr. Johnson. Criminal action ; yes, sir. 

Also in the Harry Bridges case. The Harry Bridges case related 
to periury on the part of Bridges in connection with his application 
for citizenship. 

Mr. Arens. I believe you mentioned, and if you did not, I think 
the record should reflect, that you are presently engaged as a con- 
sultant to the Immigration and Naturalization Service on problems 
of Communist aliens? 

Mr. Johnson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much, Mr. Johnson, for your testi- 
monv today, and you are excused from your subpena. 

(Whereupon, the hearing was recessed to reconvene at the call of 
the Chair.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



MONDAY, AUGUST 20, 1951 

United States Senate, 

Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration 

of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary. 

II ashing 'ton, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 : 20 p. m., in the old 
Supreme Court room, the Capitol, Senator Homer Ferguson pre- 
siding. 

Present: Senator Ferguson. 

Also present : Richard Arens, staff director ; Frank W. Schroeder. 
professional staff member; Mitchel M. Carter and Donald Connors, 
investigators. 

Senator Ferguson. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. If the chairman please, the first witness is Mr. Richard 
D. Maurice, but you might also swear Mr. Theodore A. Jackson, who 
will also be a witness. Will you gentlemen kindly stand and be 
sworn. 

Senator Ferguson. Will you hold up your right hands. You do 
each solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth before this Subcommittee of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of the United States Senate, so help you God ? 

Mr. Maurice. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD D. MAURICE, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Maurice, would you kindly identify yourself by 
occupation and residence? 

Mr. Maurice. I, Richard D. Maurice, residing at 350 Manhattan 
Avenue, apartment 6B, New York City, was born at Chicago, 111., on 
June 14, 1900. I began dining-car service with the Atlantic Coast- 
line Railroad as a waiter in 1910. I have been employed in the same 
capacity with the New York Central Railroad since June 20, 1943. 

Senator Ferguson. You prepared this statement to bring in here? 

Mr. Maurice. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ferguson. Go ahead. 

Mr. Maurice. Following my employment with the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad, I joined dining car employees, local 370, at New York 
City, which has jurisdiction of the dining-car employees of that car- 
rier. Beginning with 1946 there developed within my union certain 
conflicts, which resulted in an effort on my part, to take corrective 
measures. 

47 



48 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

It was under these conditions that I learned of the Communist in- 
filtration among dining-car employees. 

Mr. Arens. Would you let me ask you to kindly identify the Dining 
Car Employees Local 370 ? What is its affiliation ? 

Mr. Maurice. American Federation of Labor. 

Senator Ferguson. What was your trouble that you wanted to get 
straightened out? 

Mr. Maurice. We had quite a bit of trouble, not the proper repre- 
sentation, and we wanted to change the bylaws and the membership 
drew up certain bylaws, and the organization ignored them and put 
through their own bylaws, and it was just a regular conflict. 

Senator Ferguson. You say then that you found that it had been 
infiltrated by the Communists ? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right. 

Senator Ferguson. Would you tell us about that? 

Mr. Arens. Could we go off the record, Senator ? 

Senator Ferguson. All right. 

(Off the record.) 

Senator Ferguson. Go ahead. 

Mr. Maurice. In the latter part of 1946 I was approached by Oscar 
Greene, who indicated to me that he was interested in the solution of 
dining-car problems. He appeared well versed on labor and organ- 
izing problems. His services at that time were accepted and we formed 
a committee of dining-car workers from several railroads called the 
rank and file. 

It was early in 1947 that Oscar Greene came to my house and fully 
convinced me to follow his leadership in the solution of our affairs. 
He boasted of the necessary connections, financial resources, and 
organized support. It was about this time that I was introduced to 
Robert Wood, editor of Link, published by the Communist Party for 
railroad workers. 

Mr. Arens. Robert Wood is also affiliated with the Communist 
Daily Worker ; is he not ? 

Mr. Maurice. Well, he was. I understand he has been suspended 
since that time. 

Mr. Arens. He was at least at the time you are talking about, back 
in 1947 ? 

Mr. Maurice. Yes; and editor of the Link. He was chairman of 
that railroad committee and editor of the Link. 

Mr. Arens. And for purposes of identification in the record, the 
Link is the magazine or paper which carries on its masthead that it 
is published by the Communist Party ; is that correct? 

Mr. Maurice. That's true. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Maurice. Oscar Greene and Robert Wood began the prepara- 
tion of leaflets at 35 East Twelfth Street, New York City — that is the 
Communist headquarters — for distribution to dining-car workers. It 
was then I learned that Robert Wood in 1946 had secured employment 
as a dining-car waiter on the Lehigh Valley Railroad for Oscar Greene 
in order for him to become a dining-car employee. It was about then 
when I began to remember the disruptive actions of Oscar Greene in 
the meetings of local 370 to encourage revolt. 

It was in 1947 that Oscar Greene and Theodore A. Jackson, who 
was the president of local 370, approached me to send a telegram 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 49 

signed by 50 or more employees to the forthcoming convention of the 
Hotel and Restaurant and Bartenders International Union, which 
was to meet at Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Arens. Would you pause right there to identify the Hotel and 
Restaurant and Bartenders International Union? What is its 
affiliation? 

Mr. Maurice. A. F. of L. 

Mr. Arens. Is that organization still in existence? 

Mr. Maurice. Oh, yes, it is. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Maurice, the local with which you were affiliated, 
namely, the Dining Car Employees Local 370 at New York City, is 
an affiliate of the Hotel and Restaurant and Bartenders International 
Union ; is that not correct? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right, 

Mr. Arens. Which in turn is an affiliate of the A. F. of L. ? 

Mr. Maurice. That's right, sir. 

The contents were to insist that the rank and file organization 
represented dining-car workers. I refused to become a party to the 
move, It was during this period that Theodore A. Jackson was to 
take a trip on a mission Oscar Greene and Robert Wood were 
interested in, that Jackson and Wood had a serious quarrel as to whom 
Jackson should see and talk with. Robert Wood reminded Jackson 
that it was well understood that he (Wood) was in authority. 

The split in the ranks of dining-car workers at the Milwaukee 
convention was planned for the most part by Robert Wood and Oscar 
Greene. 

Following the convention in 1947 I met Osie Long, who was a 
chairman of local 370, at 309 Lenox Avenue, New York City. This 
was a Communist headquarters or school where Oscar Greene was 
an instructor. Osie Long urged me to support the program and 
leadership of Robert Wood and Oscar Greene. Immediately there- 
after I met Solon Bell, Osie Long, Harold Kemp, and Oscar Greene 
at a meeting place on One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Street, New 
York City, to set in motion a permanent organization. 

Each of us donated $5 to begin with. During this period Oscar 
Greene and I met with Attorney Archibald Bromsen at his office, 
Seventh Avenue and Thirty-fourth Street, He was the legal adviser 
and took part in our plans to raise money for organizing purposes. 
We also planned a call for a convention of dining-car workers at Chi- 
cago for August 24 or 25, 1947. All of these matters were directed by 
Robert Wood, with whom we met frequently at his home, or at 35 
East Twelfth Street, New York City. It was agreed that all details 
for the convention at Chicago were to be worked out by Solon C. Bell, 
Oscar Greene, Osie Long, Joe Gardette, Harrison T. Brooks, Tom 
Gilmer, Joe Lavanette, Ralph Turner, William Lockhart, and Attor- 
neys A. Bromsen and D. Rothstein. 

I was not able to attend the day session of the meeting of August 
24. I was present at an evening meeting at the Southway Hotel. 
Among those present were : Solon C. Bell, Joe Gardette, Ralph Turner, 
William Lockhart, and Attorney A. Bromsen and several nonrailroad 
persons who identified themselves as members of the Communist Party 
of Chicago. 



50 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE UN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. I want to be sure the record is clear on this point. Is 
it your testimony that Solon Bell, Joe Gardette, Ralph Turner, Wil- 
liam Lockhart, and Attorney A. Bromsen all identified themselves 
each and severally as members of the Communist Party of Chicago? 

Mr. Maurice. No ; I wouldn't say that. 

Mr. Arens. What is the fact ? We want to get the record absolutely 
correct. 

Mr. Maurice. The fact is that these men that I have just named are 
and were railroad men, except Bromsen, who was an attorney, but 
these other men were not railroad men, but I judged from the action, 
the conversation — all they talked about was the party, and comrade, 
and good fellowship, and so forth, that they were Communists. 

Mr. Arens. You mean that the nonrailroad men who were at this 
meeting identified themselves, so you conclude, as members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Maurice. That's correct, and I was told later by Bill Lockhart 
that they were all Communist members. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Maurice. On August 25 Solon C. Bell, Oscar Greene, assisted 
by Attorney Bromsen, directed the activity. Attorney D. Rothstein 
also took part. The theme of the meeting was to gain a foothold in 
the railroad industry. The name suggested by the Communist mem- 
bers at the night meeting of August 24 was adopted, thus the food 
workers began. Oscar Greene nominated Solon C. Bell for president, 
Solon Bell nominated Oscar Greene for secretary-treasurer, and both 
Bell and Greene nominated A. Bromsen as legal adviser. All were 
elected. 

Mr. Arens. When you refer to the food workers, you are alluding to 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers of America; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Maurice. That's correct. 

Following the Chicago meeting it dawned on me that what started 
out to be a protest group of dining-car workers had been converted 
into a Communist campaign. I reviewed the matter with two fellow 
employees, Dudley Washington and Robert Sales. Washington 
agreed with my conclusions, but Sales, who appeared to have knowl- 
edge of what was occurring, suggested that we could rid ourselves of 
the Communists within our ranks at a later date. 

Later I became president of the New York district of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. Among New York Central 
dining-car workers I raised much money. It was turned over to 
Oscar Greene, secretary-treasurer. It was agreed the money would 
be used to get representation on the Pennsylvania Railroad and then 
the food workers would assist in organizing the New York Central 
into the food workers. 

Mr. Arens. When you say that the money was to be used to get 
representation on the Pennsylvania Railroad, you do mean, do you 
not, that the money was to be used in order to win the election? 

Mr. Maurice. Exactly. 

Mr. Arens. So that the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
of America would be certified as the bargaining agency with the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad; is that correct? 

Mr. Maurice. That's right, sir. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 51 

After the food workers won representation on the Pennsylvania in 
1948 disagreement arose over money matters. 

Mr. Arens. Did the food workers win the election? 

Mr. Maurice. Oh, yes ; they did. 

Mr. Arens. And were the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union certified as the bargaining agency to negotiate a contract with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And did the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union negotiate a contract with the Pennsylvania Railroad ? 

Mr. Maurice. They did. 

Mr. Arens. And is that union now the certified bargaining agency 
for dining car and railroad food workers with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road? 

Mr. Maurice. They are. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Maurice. Oscar Greene, secretary-treasurer, was accused of 
mishandling the funds of the organization. A general meeting of 
the membership was called to settle the issue at New York City. At 
this meeting Oscar Greene defended himself by declaring that : First, 
the Communist Party had assisted financially to get the food workers 
started; second, that the brains of the Communist Party was respon- 
sible for winning the Pennsylvania ; third, that the Communist Party 
had furnished Link and effective leaflets without charge for dining- 
car workers ; fourth, that Bell and Bromsen knew well and good the 
Communist Party policy ; and, fifth, that as a Communist he did not 
have to take the insinuations of other Communists. He resigned and 
was later succeeded by R. E. Nicholson and Daniel Benjamin became 
international vice president of the food workers. 

Due to my objections to the Communists' running of the food work- 
ers, Robert Wood, Attorney Bromsen, Daniel Benjamin, Solon Bell, 
and others heretofore mentioned, began to have meetings without me. 
I was included in a meeting on One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Street, where Robert Wood called or had to be called to publish the 
paper The Negro Railway News, and these are the two copies of the 
Railway News. 

Mr. Arens. These documents will be marked "Maurice Exhibits 
1 and 2" and be received for filing with the committee. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Maurice Exhibits Nos. 
1 and 2" and filed for the record.) 

Mr. Maurice. These are also the minutes for that same organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. The document will be marked "Maurice Exhibit 3"' and 
and be received for filing with the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Maurice Exhibit No. 3" 
and filed for the record.) 

Mr. Maurice. At that time he remarked that certain employees of 
the Pennsylvania had found out he would not bite them. Solon Bell, 
Daniel Benjamin, and Attorney Bromsen were designated a part of 
the staff. 

On several occasions I had disagreements with Robert Wood over 
material in leaflets or papers published without consulting dining-car 
employees. He remarked he knew best what to say and what was good 



52 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

for them. This took place either at 35 East Twelfth Street, the Com- 
munist headquarters, or at the home of Robert Wood on Eighth Ave- 
nue in Xew York City. 

Mr. Ajkens. Am I to understand from your testimony that these 
meetings with reference to the policies and procedures of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food "Workers of America took place at the Com- 
munist Party headquarters in New York City? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Maurice. There are the second minutes of that same meeting 
there. 

Mr. Arens. The document will be received as "'Maurice Exhibit 
No. 4" and filed with the committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Maurice Exhibit No. 4' r 
and filed for the record.) 

Mr. Maurice. In August 1948 I was prevailed upon to attend a 
New York Central membership-drive meeting in Chicago. "When I 
went to the hall where the meeting was supposed to have taken place, 
I found the place deserted. Later I was informed the meeting was 
being conducted at the White Sox Baseball Park. I had provided 
the Chicago committee with 500 leaflets for this meeting. When I 
arrived at the park I found to my amazement, instead of a New York 
Central membership-drive meeting the meeting was a Henry Wallace 
political meeting. 

The entire organizing committee who had pledged to work to build 
a strong dining-car union for the benefit of all dining-car men and 
their families were acting as ushers at the political meeting; passing 
out the leaflets I had sent them with political propaganda printed on 
the other side. 

This incident convinced me that the top officers of the food workers' 
union were using the money which we had collected in the form of dues 
for political purposes allied with the Communists. 

During my association with the Communist Party members I was 
never solicited for membership. I might add here, if I may, that while 
I was not solicited for membership there was what might have been 
a proposal for membership. Bob Wood offered me $30 a week if I 
would attend the Jefferson School 2 days a week for 6 weeks. 

Mr. Arexs. The Jefferson School is the Communist school in New 
York City? 

Mr. Maurice. Yes. That might have been leading up to the 
membership. No one came out and asked me to join the Communist 
Party. 

I attribute this to my expressed critical attitude and lack of interest 
or sympathy to the party principles. I refused. Finally as time 
went on and the facts accumulated that the food workers were just 
a front for the Communists and a detriment to dining-car workers, 
it became my conclusion that I should actively oppose the move. 

I resigned as president of the food workers' union April 4, 1949, or 
thereabout, but I had been inactive since August 1948 other than 
signing checks. 

The incidents leading up to my resignation were : 

One. Greene's statement that the union was and had been from the 
start Communist-controlled. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 53 

Second, during my absence from the city, Greene and Benjamin, 
under the supervision of Robert Wood, called a special meeting of 
men they could control and elected a secretary and treasurer. R. E. 
Nicholson, a man whom the party could control. 

Unfortunately, the food workers still retain a corps of dining-car 
representatives on various railroads. T. E. Hayes and Charles Mc- 
Murray on the Union Pacific; Turner and Gardette of Chicago on the 

Milwaukee; Long, Benjamin, Nicholson, Leroy Wilson, and Mc- 
Guire on the Pennsylvania; Gilmer, Lavanette, and Rollins on the 
New York Central; Lockhart and Bartlett on the Lackawanna. 
These and others still follow Solon Bell, whose full time is now de- 
voted to the program as previously described. 

While. Robert Wood of New York City is reported now suspended 
from the Communist Party, he or others dictate the policy of the 
food workers. I cannot emphasize too much the part played by 
Robert Wood, who, could pick up the telephone and call people in city, 
State, and National positions and get things done. 

There has been some talk about T. R. Jackson being a member of 
the Communist Party. If this is true, his comrades were pretty rough 
on him. They were no better to him than they were to me. They 
have been gunning for Jackson since the early part of 1947, to my 
knowledge. We had a meeting at my home when Benjamin and 
Greene made an outright demand on Jackson to quit the A. F. of L and 
join the rank and file. Jackson refused. He also told them they 
were foolish to pull out of the A. F. of L. and try to start an independ- 
ent union. 

Jackson ran for local president of the food workers' union in 
1950. Robert Wood set the stage to have as few men vote as pos- 
sible, which would give them control of the election ; 72 out of 415 
men voted, but Jackson won out with 48 votes. By this time Robert 
Wood had been suspended from the Communist Party, but his plans 
were still working. Through their Communist trickery they re- 
fused to allow Jackson to take his seat as president. 

From what I gathered from Jackson's conversation he has a source 
of valuable information regarding the Communist activities in the 
food workers' union which he is willing to give voluntarily. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jackson will be our next witness, so we will receive 
his information at that time. 

Mr. Maurice. In addition to my above statement there are pic- 
tures of food-worker activities which appeared in papers printed 
and distributed by the Communists for the food workers. Here is a 
letter from Oscar Greene to Solon Bell. I believe this is the one 
where he tried to get Bishop Sheilds to attend. 

Mr. Arens. That letter will be marked "Maurice Exhibit No. 5" 
and filed with the committee. 

(Maurice Exhibit No. 5 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Maurice. Here is a letter from Oscar Greene to Joe Gardette 
and another letter from Oscar Greene to Solon Bell. 

Mr. Arens. These documents will be marked "Maurice Exhibits 
6 and 7" and filed with the committee. 

(Maurice Exhibits 6 and 7 were received in evidence.) 

Mr. Maurice. And the minutes of the Negro Railway Labor Ex- 
ecutive Committee proceedings in 1948 presided over by Attorney 
Bromsen. 



54 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. That document will be marked "Exhibit No. 8" and filed 
with the committee. 

(Maurice Exhibit No. 8 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Maurice. The delay of relating these facts before your honor- 
able committee was occasioned by my serious illness. I trust they 
will serve a useful purpose to stamp out the menace of communism 
now established among dining-car employees. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much for your testimony, Mr. 
Maurice. 

Mr. Maurice. If it is permissible I would like to make a state- 
ment that isn't in the testimony here. In May, following my resig- 
nation, the executive board of Chicago sent Tom Gilmer to me and he 
tried to get me to come back into the organization. Prior to that I 
received a letter from Osie Long asking me to come back — he is 
the vice president — and they wanted me to attend the executive board 
meeting, which I refused to do, but agreed to write Tom Gilmer a 
letter, in time for him to read to the executive board, and that if they 
agreed to the letter that I was willing to come back and work for them, 
that is, if they agreed to do their own thinking and leave the Com- 
munists completely out of control. 

However, I got these letters here. I also got a copy of the letter 
that I sent to Tom Gilmer. I have the minutes of that executive board 
meeting where they agreed to the letter, and later on Mr. Bell came to 
New York with the intention of living at the Theresa Hotel on the 
money that we were to collect from the New York Central, which I 
refused to allow him to do, and they brought out an attack on me 
accusing me of misusing funds, and so forth, and this is, of course, my 
answer back to them, if you would like to have it. 

Mr. Arens. That document will be received for filing with the com- 
mittee and marked "Maurice Exhibit No. 9." 

(Maurice Exhibit No. 9 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you wish to say anything else? 

Mr. Maurice. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Maurice, you are appearing before this subcom- 
mittee today in compliance with a subpena; are you not? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And the subpena was issued by the subcommittee and 
served upon you in New York ? 

Mr. Maurice. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much for your testimony. 

FURTHER TESTIMONY OF HAROLD A. KEMP, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kemp, you have been previously sworn. Will you 
kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Kemp. Harold A. Kemp, organizer for local 370, New York 
City. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Kemp, I hand you a picture of a group of 
dining-car workers who attended a convention in Chicago, and will 
you identify some of those on this picture as members of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Kemp. I identify from left to right Joseph Gardette, Calvin 
Long, Oscar Greene, Solon Bell, Osie Long; and from left in the third 
row from the front is Ralph Turner, Howard McGuire; and on the 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 55 

front seat, front row left, is Heywood Fowler and Bill Lockhart, 
that is, William Lockhart. 

Mr. Schroeder. Now, Mr. Kemp, it is yonr testimony that the per- 
sons you just named in this picture are members of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Kemp. To the best of my knowledge they are. 

Mr. Schroeder. To the best of your knowledge they are. Do you 
know the date this picture was taken ? 

Mr. Kemp. That was taken on August 24 or 25 in Chicago, 111., at 
the Communist center on South Parkway. 

Mr. Schroeder. What year ? 

Mr. Kemp. 1947. 

Mr. Schroeder. Thank you very much, Mr. Kemp. 

This picture will be known in the record as Kemp Exhibit No. 1 
and filed with the committee. 

(Kemp Exhibit No. 1 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, our next witness, who has been sworn, 
is Mr. Theodore A. Jackson. 

TESTIMONY OF THEODORE A. JACKSON, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jackson, would you kindly identify yourself by 
occupation and residence? 

Mr. Jackson. My name is Theodore A. Jackson. I reside at 321 
St. Nicholas Avenue, apartment 2, New York City. I am employed 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad dining car department, where I have 
seniority, some 23 years. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of a labor organization ? 

Mr. Jackson. Not at present. 

Mr. Arens. What labor organization have you been a member of? 

Mr. Jackson. I was president of local 370 of the Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees and Bartenders International, A. F. of L., for 13 
years. Going into the thirteenth year. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been affiliated with any other organization? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. Recently when the Hotel and Restaurant lost 
the election on the Pennsylvania Railroad, local 370, I sent in a letter 
of resignation to them stating that they no longer held agreement 
on that road, and I was going to unite myself with the group who had 
the contract and had been certified by the railroad, and that is the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. What period of time was that when you disassociated 
yourself from the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
Union, A. F. of L., and made your affiliation with the Dining Car and 
Railway Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. The date I don't have, but I can identify it in this 
way. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that? 

Mr. Jackson. That was in 1949. I think the certification for the 
new food workers union came in 1949 or 1948. I think it was the 
last of 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get the record clear. You were affiliated with 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union, A. F. of L. 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 



56 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Abens. Until the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union was certified as the bargaining agency for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Ajrens. And then tell us what happened. 

Mr. Jackson. I sent in a letter to them saying that I would no 
longer be with them because they were not the spoken party on the 
property. 

Mr. Arens. You sent the letter in to the Hotel and Restaurant 
Employees and Bartenders International Union? 

Mr. Jackson. Hotel and Restaurant, in to Mr. Ernst's office. The 
reason for sending it there was because I did do some organizing for 
them locally. I worked part time for the national office when they 
gave me assignments, and I got no reply from such letter. From 
then on I was a rank-and-file member of the food workers union 
while working on the railroad, and also in the meantime — I didn't 
identify that originally, but I think I can insert it here, that I am 
the chairman of the board of the Railroad Social Club, which em- 
braces all the railroad men and it is a meeting place for railroad men, 
and by being there I am in contact with a lot of the railroad men, 
and that is a club owned and operated by the employees of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad ; a few of the New York Central men. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held office in the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. In the year of 1950 they had an election for the office 
vacated by the resignation of Maurice. That office was vacated and 
went unfilled for quite a number of months. I can't say exactly. 

Mr. Arens. By Maurice, are you referring to 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. R. D. Maurice, who just testified. He resigned 
and that office was held vacant and the employees got after me and 
said. "'You run for the office," and I refused because I told them that I 
couldn't act best in their interests because I thought definitely the 
organization was controlled by people — I didn't say Communists, but 
I said by people — that the membership had no control of, so under 
the constitution, which I have a copy of here, they have a right to 
draft a man, so they drafted me while in my absence and while I was 
out of the city and out of the State on another assignment, and when 
I returned to the city, why, I was notified that I was elected, and when 
I was elected I prepared a statement which you can use as an exhibit, 
a statement that I prepared with recommendations in that statement 
of what I thought should be done, and they informed me that I 
wouldn't be installed, and 1 asked them why. They told me because 
the bylaws didn't provide for installation. 

Mr. Arens. Who was "they"? 

Mr. Jackson. That means Mr. Benjamin, who is now the vice presi- 
dent of that district and has supervision over that local set-up in New 
York, and Mr. Bromsen, the attorney, and Mr. Nicholson, who is the 
secretary-treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. This document which Mr. Jackson just submitted will 
be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 1" and be filed with the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 1 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Arens. Then you were elected president of the New York dis- 
strict of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union, but you 
were never seated? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 57 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Who is it that kept you from being seated as president? 

Mr. Jackson. I offer as exhibit 2 a statement from the vice presi- 
dent, Mr. Daniel Benjamin, that he objected to me coming into the 
organization even though I was elected and said that he would not 
work with me, and appealed to the board to give him some powers over 
me, and I marked that as Exhibit No. 2, if the committee so accept. 

Mr. Arexs. That will be received in the record. 

(Jackson Exhibit Xo. 2 was received and filed with the committee.) 

Mr. Arexs. Who is it that kept you from assuming the presidency 
of the local \ 

Mr. Jackson. Would you allow me to read that statement ? I think 
it will bring it out. 

Mr. Arexs. All right. 

Mr. Jacksox. This statement was submitted at the first board meet- 
ing that I showed up after I was elected and notified. The statement 
says [reading] : 

Members of the Executive Board: 

Listed on the agenda, for discussion, is my decision to resume employment 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. This decision was reached after careful 
deliberation and not as a matter of pique or caprice. 

Prior to the recent election of local officers it was necessary that I perform the 
duties of the local president along with my own. 

With the election of local officers it means that either the local president will 
have to be put on the ground to perform his duties or that I will continue to 
stay on the ground and work as in the past. 

Since Brother T. A. Jackson was elected to the office of local president it will 
be impossible for me to continue in the capacity of national vice president doing 
the work of local president which should be done by Brother Jackson. 

As all of you should know Brother Jackson has been campaigning for office 
in this union long before he had the courage to be identified with it. 

This union was formed in August 1947 * * * Brother Jackson, who was 
then president of local 370, opposed its formation but joined it in rather ques- 
tionable circumstances in June 1948. 

Among Jackson's campaign material was the charge, by innuendo, that while I 
was a good fellow in the sense that I was likeable, I was not competent and 
needed the benefit of his experience. 

As you will recall, Brother Jackson launched an attack upon my integrity 
in the instance where his nomination was not accepted at the night of nomina- 
tions. That the charge was later proved to be false does not repair the damage 
that was done. 

In view of these facts it is my feeling that were I to continue on the ground 
in the capacity of national vice president and local pi'esident, any work accruing 
to the local president and done by me would furnish Brother Jackson with the 
kind of material he so expertly exploits. 

In reaching my decision to go back on the road I have given very careful 
consideration to many of the questions that might disturb you and other 
members of the organization. 

However, due to the false position in which I would be placed, I am con- 
vinced that my going back on the road will serve the best interests of all. 

Damkl Benjamin, 
National Vice President. 

Mr. Arexs. To whom did Benjamin submit this? 

Mr. Jackson. To the executive board of the food workers union. 

Mr. Arexs. What does the executive board of the union do? 

Mr. Jackson. They accepted it and tabled it for discussion and 
action. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the executive board preclude you from taking your 
seat as president? 

S9656— 51 5 



58 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. He had a meeting with them in 
my absence and they supported him. 

Mr. Arens. Who is on the executive board ? 

Mr. Jackson. I submit to you a list here of the executive board 
members, which, it is my contention for the record, do not function 
because the names of these men — some haven't ever attended an execu- 
tive board meeting. That is the list of the executive board members 
that is supposed to function. They are all rank and file men and they 
work on the road and some of them don't even attend meetings and 
never have. 

Mr. Arens. The document will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 3" 
and received for filing with the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 3 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when the executive board passed a 
resolution keeping you from the office to which the membership had 
elected you ? 

Mr. Jackson. No. 

Mr. Arens. But you are an executive board member? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right; I am supposed to preside. It was 
through this discussion of who shall preside at the- meetings — at the 
time I was elected I claimed I should preside instead of Benjamin, 
and at a membership meeting after that question came up as to 
whether Jackson should take his seat or not, so they put a vote on 
the floor and it was 12 to 7 to sustain Benjamin. 

Mr. Arens. Under the rules and regulations, the bylaws of the 
union, can the executive board overrule the will of the membership 
on the election. 

Mr. Jackson. This is a copy of the bylaws. It makes the execu- 
tive board the rule of the body under this set-up, and that is the 
ruling of these bylaws. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do after they refused to seat you as 
president ? 

Mr. Jackson. After that when they refused to seat me as presi- 
dent I asked for the address of men so I could write a letter, and 
they refused to give them to me, and then I proceeded to Chicago 
and I wrote a letter to Mr. Bell and went to Chicago to see the sec- 
retary of the national group to see why they couldn't prevail on them 
seating me. I was received by the secretary, Mr. McGuire, and he 
told me that he would do everything in his power to see that I was 
seated, but Mr. Bell would have to direct the action. The letter was 
sent to Mr. Bell, which I have a copy of here, and I have no response 
or no answer from it whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. That will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 4" and 
received for filing by the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 4 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Jackson. When I got back from Chicago I found a letter signed 
by Nicholson, who was the treasurer, the secretary-treasurer of the 
food workers union, accusing me of going to Chicago without per- 
mission from Mr. Benjamin and carrying on meetings in Chicago 
and having a meeting with Osie Long, which is also one of the vice 
presidents 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Benjamin is the eastern vice president of the union? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens Is there a president of the eastern union? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 59 

Mr. Jackson. I don't know. I doubt it. I doubt that. I'm com- 
ing up to that now. After I returned from Chicago I was presented 
with a registered letter of charges against me, and in answering the 
charges I drew up a letter answering the charges, which I submit 
to you for an exhibit. 

Mr. Arens. That will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 5" and re- 
ceived for filing with the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 5 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Jackson. The outcome of the charges was that they sent me 
a letter saying that I was expelled from the organization as an officer 
and as a member, and I wrote an appeal to them again to reopen the 
case. That I haven't heard anything from. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jackson. In 1935 and 1934 when the organization was first 
formed up until 1939 and 1910 I was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Who solicited you to join the Communist Party \ 

Mr. Jackson. George Brown, who is now the international vice 
president of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
International Union. 

Mr. Arens. And Mr. Brown has broken with the party, has he 
not? 

Mr. Jackson. I understand he has. 

Mr. Arens. When did you break with the party ? 

Mr. Jackson. I broke with the party around the time Browder was 
kicked out ; in other words, was changed over. 

Mr. Arens. It was in the early forties then ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct, around 1939 or 1910, on the possible 
way they were operating, and I was opposed to the set-up. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Robert Wood ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who is he? 

Mr. Jackson. Robert Wood came into New York I think from 
some worker party. Formerly he was the Robert Wood from the 
Oklahoma book cases. That was way back some time around 1935 
or 1936. They jailed a lot of people who were party members who 
had these books out there and it wasn't proper and he was jailed. 
Later he came out and he came east and the Communist Party placed 
him in charge of railroad-work activities. 

Mr. Arens. He was a Communist Party member ? 

Mr. Jackson. No question about that. 

Mr. Arens. And he was editor of Link for a while ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was he also affiliated with the Communist Daily 
Worker ? 

Mr. Jackson. I read articles in the Daily Worker about him, with 
his name signed to them. 

Mr. Arens. When you were a member of the Communist Party 
what contacts did you have with Robert Wood? 

Mr. Jackson. I was not a member then. I didn't know him other 
than the Oklahoma book cases ; that is all. 

Mr. Arens. What have been your contacts with Robert Wood \ 

Mr. Jackson. Since the 370, the turmoil that in 370 while 1 was 
president 



60 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. You are speaking of local 370 ? 

Mr. Jackson. Local 370. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bar- 
tenders International Union, A. F. of L. ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is right. My contact with Bob Wood grew 
when the executive board of the 370 in which I presided over refused 
to follow out, we would say, the dictates of the membership. In 
meetings assembled the members voted on certain bylaws. They 
voted for a certain way the money should be handled, and the execu- 
tive board, under the guidance of their secretary, Claude Mason, 
they ignored everything the membership would propose, and on 
December 18, 1946, they had a big, general membership meeting, which 
I presided over, and the men present at the meeting raised the question : 
Why wasn't the bylaws that the membership had approved put into 
action? And all of the executives, under the direction of Mason, 
with the exception of myself, opposed the membership. It was quite 
a turmoil. Some of the membership walked out and that's when 
Bob Wood walked in, when, I say, into handling the men that had 
walked out. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Mr. Jackson. Bob Wood told the men that after they had tried 
in every respect, the executive board of local 370 would not follow 
the orders, there was nothing for them to do but build another organi- 
zation. In the meantime the executive board so directed the secre- 
tary — I imagine the international as well — that all communications 
coming in and out of the local had to be approved by them. 

Mr. Arens. What local are you speaking of? 

Mr. Jackson. Of local 370. The reason for going to Bob Wood — 
I am trying to say this : That the local 370 under the direction of the 
board and under Mason's opposition to me prohibited the officers or 
the membership from getting their side over to the membership. Noth- 
ing could come out of that office without him approving of it, and 
he wasn't going to approve anything but his side. The result was 
the men had to look to some source for communication, and Bob Wood 
offered us that source. He also gave us leaflets, and where we didn't 
have money he made it up, and leaflets were sent out to the men saying 
that the organization is folding up and let's build a new one, and what 
not. 

Mr. Arens. I want to get one thing clear. Was Bob Wood active 
in this 370 local, A. F. of L., during the time you were a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jackson. No, sir ; he was not. 

Mr. Arens. Did he come in before or after you were a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jackson. He came in after I was a member of the Communist 
Party. I left the Communist Party before I knew him. 

Mr. Arens. To whom did you pay your dues when you were a 
member ? 

Mr. Jackson. I paid George Brown. He used to collect all the dues 
from all of us. 

Mr. Arens. What was his position then ? 

Mr. Jackson. At that time they called it units and fractions. I 
think he was a fraction or unit leader. Manning Johnson was also 
attending at that time. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 61 

Mr. Arens. Did Brown initial your cards for dues? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Was he your party superior? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Off the record.) 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, getting back to the time when you left 
the presidency of local 370 of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees 
and Bartenders International Union, you intimated that Robert Wood 
discussed the formation of a new union with you at that time. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Carter. Was that the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. That was the name later. The name wasn't at that 
time. They named it later in Chicago. 

Mr. Carter. Were other men in the same position as you recruited 
at that time by Mr. Wood ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Carter. Could you name some of those other individuals who 
were active in the development of the organization of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. Oscar Greene was one and William Lockhart 
was another one, and several rank-and-file men on the New Haven. 
I just can't recall all of their names, but the meetings were held in a 
railroad meeting hall, railroad center, and they weren't called Com- 
munist meetings. They were called railroad meetings. In other 
words, they formed what we called a railroad suborganization. At 
the same time I was president of local 370 of the Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees and Bartenders Union and I worked with them be- 
cause there was no other way to get any results for the men after 
the executive board had overruled the membership. 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, would you give for the record the approx- 
imate date at which time you left the presidency of local 370 of the 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International 
Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. It was in August. I think the letter is dated in 
August 1948, right after the election. I sent a letter in to them to 
that effect. 

Mr. Carter. Did you assist in the organization of the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union at Chicago? 

Mr. Jackson. The only time I assisted in the dining car and food 
workers organization is after I sent in my letter resigning from the 
hotel and restaurants. Then the membership in Chicago, along with 
the membership in St. Louis, sent for me to come down there, not as an 
officer, but only as a rank-and-file man, and Bell appointed me as an 
organizer to go to St. Louis and work for the rank and file. 

Mr. Carter. You mean Solon C. Bell, the president of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. That's correct. 

Mr. Carter. About what date was that ? 

Mr. Jackson. Well, I have an exhibit here showing the date. I can 
tell you the exact date. The date I left was the 30th of May. That was 
Memorial Day, and I stayed until Labor Day. 



62 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Carter. What year ? 

Mr. Jackson. That was 1949. 

I wish to file for the benefit of the committee a newspaper report of 
my activities. 

Mr. Carter. That will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 6" and 
accepted for the files of the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 6 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, did you ever attend the Abraham Lincoln 
School in Chicago ? 

Mr. Jackson. I did as a guest, not as a student, not enrolled, but 
as a guest. 

Mr. Carter. When was that ? 

Mr. Jackson. That was in 1946. 

Mr. Carter. And for what period of time did you attend ? 

Mr. Jackson. Oh, two or three classes; being a visitor there and 
being there at that time I attended as a visitor. About two or three 
classes, I would say, three at the most. 

Mr. Carter. Who suggested that you attend the Abraham Lincoln 
School in Chicago ? 

Mr. Jackson. I went as a visitor there with Osie Long, but he didn't 
suggest that I attend. I think one of the Communist Party men who 
is now deceased — his name was Kay Hansberry — he suggested that 
I attend. He was a known Communist, but is deceased. 

Mr. Carter. Was Osie Long in attendance at the school at that time ? 

Mr. Jackson. He was. I went with him to that school. 

Mr. Carter. At that time you attended these classes did you know 
the Communist Party was using it as a means of educating its mem- 
bership ? 

Mr. Jackson. I heard so, but I didn't know. It was branded. I 
heard that. 

Mr. Carter. And did you hear that before you attended the school, 
or after? 

Mr. Jackson. After I attended the school. 

Mr. Carter. How large were the classes? 

Mr. Jackson. On some nights it was pretty large. I think one night 
it was around 60 or 70. Then again one afternoon, I think, I was 
there, there were about 40, mostly trade-unionists and trade-union 
officials in the Chicago area. I met some of the officials, like presidents 
of the union and vice presidents of the union, and secretaries, and busi- 
ness organizers of different unions around the Chicago area. 

Mr. Carter. A moment ago, Mr. Jackson, you discussed the place of 
one Robert Wood in the development of the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union. To your knowledge was Mr. Wood associated 
with Archibald Bromsen, who was the attorney for that union ? 

Mr. Jackson. Definitely. Definitely he was associated with him, 
because he referred to him at all times, and he claims he was adviser 
not only to him, but to the railroad pension fund as well. There is 
a group called the railroad pension group that is trying to revise the 
pension bill, and he is an adviser to that group. 

Mr. Carter. How did Mr. Wood refer to Mr. Bromsen? 

Mr. Jackson. As our attorney, as the party's attorney. There is 
no question about that. 

Mr. Carter. And by "party" you mean the Communist Party at- 
torney ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 63 

Mr. Jackson. That's right, 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, do yon have information concerning other 
associations of Boh Wood or Robert Wood with the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, I do ; and it is in connection with a raffle which 
was held by the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union in 
which they gave to its members a prize, a fur coat and a television 
set, and at the meeting where these prizes were presented to the win- 
ners Bob Wood brought in the prizes. As a matter of fact he brought 
in the certificate for the fur coat of the store where it could be pur- 
chased, and also the television set that was put up in the meeting 
as exhibits for the men and here is one of the raffle tickets. 

Mr. Carter. The ticket will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 7" 
and accepted for the files of the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 7 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Carter. This Bob Wood that you are referring to is the same 
Robert Wood who is the editor of Link, the Communist Party rail- 
road newspaper? 

Mr. Jackson. That's correct. 

Mr. Carter. A moment ago, Mr. Jackson, you referred to difficulties 
that were arising in local 370, which was one of the reasons why you 
left that local and later became affiliated with the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union. Would you care to discuss that at 
this point? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; I would. I have in my hand this letter, and 
it's written to the secretary-treasurer, Oscar Greene of the food 
workers. It is to the effect that the employees of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad — which name was Jackson, W. E. Jackson, in charge — was 
dissatisfied with the decision, the way it was handled by the union, 
which was a general complaint that a lot of the members of the union 
had made, and he was dissatisfied with the decision and he had to 
go get a lawyer to handle his case. This lawyer was named Archibald 
Palmer, and his case was handled and he was put back to work and 
Palmer wrote a letter stating [reading] : 

I would like to state during my chairmanship, being president of the local 
370, that a number of these cases where the executive board of 370 through the 
direction of Claude Mason and supported by Brown and the executive board 
of the international, where the reprisals were brought on the employees in the 
method of not handling their cases properly because they expressed opposition 
to the way the Board was handling the decisions in overruling the membership. 

Mr. Carter. This letter will be marked "Jackson Exhibit No. 8" 
and accepted for the files of the committee. 

(Jackson Exhibit No. 8 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Carter. And if I understand you correctly, Mr. Jackson, the 
statement you have just made is in justification of your position in 
leaving local 370 of the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bar- 
tenders International Union and going with the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. I wouldn't say exactly that. I will say this : That 
where I joined the food workers union I was not a party to the forma- 
tion of them, but I joined them after they had come to power, but my 
leaving of local 370 was a direct result of the way the affairs were 
conducted by the local and international and then later I joined the 
food workers union because they had the jurisdiction. 



64 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Carter. And by the "jurisdiction" you are referring to the fact 
that the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union were the 
certified bargaining agent for the Pennsylvania Railroad upon which 
you were employed ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, while you were active as the president 
of local 370 and since your activity and difficulties in the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union, have you met any individuals that 
you can definitely name as Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Jackson. I can say that Ralph Turner of Chicago — I think 
he works in Milwaukee — and William Lockhart — Lockhart is vice 
president now of the food workers union. He works on the Lacka- 
wanna Railroad. 

Mr. Carter. And by the food workers union, are you referring to 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right. And Bob Woods, who is the editor 
of Link. 

Mr. Carter. To your knowledge is Daniel Benjamin a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jackson. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Carter. Do you know who the associates of Benjamin are that 
are Communist members ? 

Mr. Jackson. Lockhart and Bob Wood, and I have seen Ralph 
Turner with him in the meetings, him and Nicholson both. 

Mr. Carter. And by Nicholson, you are referring to 

Mr. Jackson. The treasurer of the food workers union. 

Mr. Carter. You are referring to R. E. Nicholson, secretary-treas- 
urer of the Dining Car Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, do you have anything else you would 
like to present to the committee at this time? 

Mr. Jackson. I would like to submit to you a newspaper dated 
1947, named the Pittsburgh Courier, where an article was published 
on the stand I took on the rank-and-file issue at that time. 

Mr. Carter. You are referring to the issue in local 370 of the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, and the formation of the rank-and-file, which 
later turned out to be the food workers union. 

Mr. Carter. That newspaper article will be marked "Jackson Ex- 
hibit No. 9" and accepted for the files of the committee. 
(Jackson Exhibit No. 9 was received in evidence.) 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Jackson, you attended the Milwaukee conven- 
tion: did you not? 

Mr. Jackson. I did. 

Mr. Schroeder. Did you receive any funds from any source to pay 
certain expenses or for certain expenses of the convention? 

Mr. Jackson. I did. 

Mr, Schroeder. Whom did you receive those funds from? 

Mr. Jackson. From the Progressive committee, made up of local 
union officers and members of the New York, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, and eastern district, for the purpose of fighting the present 
regime at that time of the international, which was Mr. Hugo Ernst. 
The money was raised with what we called a slush fund to combat the 
money that was used by the international to put over their man. The 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 65 

issue was the present Secretary-treasurer, Miller, and one that we 
wanted from California by the name of McDonough, and that money 
was raised by raffling off two cars and giving bazaars and what-not, 
and I participated in raising that money in New York, and I was 
given some of that money by request at the convention to procure rooms 
and board and pay for drinks and entertainment for our delegates. 

Mr. Schroeder. Was that the convention that the Communist ele- 
ment took over ? 

Mr. Jackson. That was the convention where they were supposed 
to take over. The ones who opposed the convention was called the 
Communists. The international won out, but I was with that pro- 
gressive group. 

Mr. Schroeder. That was the Solon Bell group ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. Osie Long's group ? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right. 

Mr. Schroeder. And Benjamin? 

Mr. Jackson. Benjamin wasn't in there at that time. 

Mr. Schroeder. Came later ? 

Mr. Jackson. Came later, after the formation of the rank-and-file, 
I would like to add that I was chairman of the entertainment com- 
mittee, in other words, of the delegates of all of the dining car men, 
and we had what we called the Dining Car Council of all the records, 
and I was eastern regional director of that council, and they set up a 
chairman for that group to handle housing and what-not? I made 
a trip prior to the convention and at the convention it was my job 
to see that we had meeting rooms and what-not for the whole dining 
car group. It was through those funds that we were able to combat 
the international, in other words, to fight the present regime. 

Mr. Schroeder. And start this rump union ? 

Mr. Jackson. It started after that. 

Mr. Schroeder. But that was the fountainhead of the contention? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. In other words, if you allow me 
to say this, if we had been successful in getting our man in and getting 
some of the things done, and the bylaws, at the time, most likely we 
would have stayed in there, but after we lost out and came out, Bell and 
the other group, which I had nothing to do with and wasn't taking a 
part of, went into court and I think it was settled out of court. Then 
the formation of this other group started after that. 

Mr. Schroeder. Is it not a fact that certain Communist func- 
tionaries that were not dining car workers attended that convention 
or were around the fringe of that convention to agitate trouble? 

Mr. Jackson. I understand that that was so. That's correct. I'll 
tell you one man I knew was a Communist there; Albertson. 

Mr. Schroeder. What is Albertson's first name? 

Mr. Jackson. It is A. Albertson, I think. I imagine you could 
consult the records. 

Mr. Schroeder. Was Mr. Robert Wood in attendance at that con- 
vention in Milwaukee? 

Mr. Jackson. Absolutely not, and I wasn't having any part with 
him in it whatsoever. 

Mr. Schroeder. But he had his lieutenants there? 
Mr. Jackson. I imagine he did because we had quite a time con- 
vincing the men to follow the orderly procedure that was laid down. 



66 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Schroeder. Is there any question in your mind that the Din- 
ing Car and Railroad Food Workers Union is Communist- 
dominated? 

Mr. Jackson. I couldn't say. I wouldn't like to say, but I can say 
this: That they are dominated by someone that has tremendous in- 
fluence in there, and whether it is these known members or not that 
I have given the names, I don't know, but there is someone that has 
influence. I wouldn't like to say that the Communists are responsible, 
but I know these known Communists that I gave you the names have 
been very active. 

Mr. Schroeder. They are powerful individuals in directing the 
function of this union ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. There is no question about that. 

Mr. Schroeder. Then that leads up to the point that there must be 
grave doubt in your mind that the union must be Communist- 
dominated. 

Mr. Jackson. "Well, the reason for my expression there is this : That 
there are a number of men who follow those people that I feel that are 
not Communists and they are very outspoken to the point that they feel 
that everything we do they call us Communists, and we are not Com- 
munists. That is why I wouldn't come out and say that all of the men 
are Communists, but I would say that the men that I have outlined here 
and their names are dominant figures in this organization and have 
very powerful influence. 

Mr. Schroeder. But the union is infiltrated ? 

Mr. Jackson. There is no question about that. That I say, yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. By Communist functionaries and members ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Carter. A moment ago, you referred to Albertson as being a 
Communist in attendance at the Milwaukee convention. You are 
referring to Bill Albertson ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; formerly from New York, and I understand 
assigned to Chicago. 

Mr. Carter. And you knew Bill Albertson as a member of the 
party at the time you were a member of the party ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Carter. So you are certain that he was a Communist 

Mr. Jackson. They published his picture in the Daily Worker. He 
was definitely known as a Communist functionary. 

Just one more statement I would like to make in connection with the 
question you asked me about the convention in Milwaukee. The bone 
of contention at the convention with the group that was in opposition 
to the present regime over the election of McDonough versus Miller, 
who is now the treasurer, was the fact that in all conventions since 
1938 the international left it up to the council, the Joint Council of 
Dining Car Employees, to select their own man who would head them, 
lead them. At that time it was Brown, and Brown was not willing to 
go along with things that we thought would be of benefit to us, and we 
put up Bell against Brown. We met prior, like all other groups in 
internationals, prior to the opening of the convention. Three days 
prior we met, and we have our election on our last day and we voted in 
Bell over Brown. The exact vote was 13 to 7, a roll-call vote, and we 
selected Bell over Brown, and the international took exception to it, 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 67 

and when we handed in our list which they had always been accepting 
our man, because they left that up to us, they told us they were not 
going to accept it and they were going to run Brown against Bell, and 
naturally Bell couldn't win, so he declined on the floor, and that was 
the bone of contention as of the people as a whole, and I want to em- 
phasize this year that by being the chairman of the delegation and by 
being able to secure rooms for rank and file men who had never been 
to the convention before, and to secure food for them, they were able 
to get a clear picture of the convention which they had never had 
before. 

Before, we officials just went and came back and brought reports, 
so it was through some of those officials like Gardette and several more 
with them that they went back and that they went out to the member- 
ship for the formation of this new organization and asked me to come 
in it, and I refused to take part in it at that time. 

Mr. Carter. In your reference to your candidate or your choosing 
Bell as a candidate, you are referring to the Joint Council of the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees and the Bartenders International Union ? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right. 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Jackson, you are appearing before the subcommit- 
tee today in compliance with a subpena, are you not? 

Mr. Jackson. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Carter. And the subpena was issued by the subcommittee and 
served upon you in New York? 

Mr. Jackson. That's correct, sir. 

Mr. Carter. Thank you, Mr. Jackson, for your appearance before 
the committee today. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Chairman, we would like to call Mr. Maurice 
back to testify further. 

Senator Ferguson. Very well. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD D. MAURICE, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y.— 

Resumed 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Maurice, you have been previously sworn? 

Mr. Maurice. Yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Maurice, would you inform the committee of 
any knowledge you have regarding Archibald Bromsen ? 

Mr. Maurice. Well, I had quite a deal with Bromsen and most any- 
thing you say about a Communist, unless he comes right out and tells 
you, is what you have gained from seeing or hearing and, frankly, I 
believe that Bromsen is a hundred percent Communist. I have reason 
to believe it, his association with Bob Wood, and I have gone to him 
many times and he referred me to Bob Wood. 

One particular case that I can never forget — we have a member on 
the New York Central who was a very good dining-car man and who 
worked with the committee and who paid his dues by the year, and he 
was outspoken along with myself on the Communist activities in the 
food workers. We objected to some of the leaflets that Bob Wood put 
out. We objected to a lot of things that was being done at meetings 
and the way they were holding secret meetings and calling in certain 
people, and Bromsen was there, so of course while they couldn't do 
anything to me directly, this man. Sammy Salter — Sammy Salter is 
his name — had a little trouble on the railroad and Bromsen was being 



68 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

paid by the year to represent all members of the union, and they didn't 
like Sammy's outspoken way with the Communists and neither did 
they like mine, but they figured, in my opinion, here's a way to get rid 
of one of these men who opposes the Communist Party, and Bromsen 
refused at first to represent Sammy, and after I had quite a heated 
argument with him about it and Mr. Jackson also went down there 
with Sammy to see him about it, he agreed to represent Salter. 

Now, he was being paid by the union to represent all union members, 
and I know he was being paid because I was signing his checks, but 
when Sammy went up there to be represented he charged Sammy 
Salter, a man who had paid his dues in advance for a year, $350 to 
represent him in a case not in court, within the New York Central, and 
that is the statement I really wanted to bring out because it proved 
that he was hoping that Sammy Salter would not be able to pay the 
$350 — that is what I thought and that is what I told Bromsen — and 
that he would be railroaded out of his job. 

Mr. Schroeder. Did the officials of the union protest to their at- 
torney for charging this extra fee? 

Mr. Maurice. They did in a mild way, that they would pay Sammy 
Salter his money back, but he never got a dime. When we brought it 
before Bell and the rest they said, '"Well, we will get his money back 
and we will pay Bromsen," and Bromsen never paid Sammy and the 
union never paid Bromsen, but Sammy paid Bromsen $350 to repre- 
sent him, where he was being paid by the union to represent all mem- 
bers of the union. 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you have any other testimony you wish to give 
regarding Mr. Bromsen? 

Mr. Maurice. No ; that is all I have. 

Mr. Schroeder. We thank you very much, indeed. 

I would like to recall Mr. Jackson. 

TESTIMONY OE THEODORE A. JACKSON, NEW YORK, N. Y.— Resumed 

Mr. Jackson. I would like to make a further statement. Bromsen 
got out a book which I would say was very educational to the men about 
accidents. So many of our men got hurt and didn't think they were 
entitled to anything, and so he brought this book and put it out under 
the head of the union and while he didn't advise you to bring all your 
cases to him, he intimated as much, and what he is practicing now is 
one thing, and I say the reprisal on me, because any time a fellow gets 
hurt and has a pretty good case and money coming in and it isn't di- 
rected to him, he sort of puts the heat on the boys. That has hap- 
pened to me and a lot of men and their wives called on me when the 
men got hurt, and I told them to select a man of their own or they 
could go to one of the New York Central, but it seems like Benjamin 
and Long directed all of the boys to Bromsen. 

Naturally he takes his amount, what the court allows him to get, 
but he is very vindictive when something happens and he don't get 
those cases. 

Mr. Schroeder. What do you mean by "putting the heat on"' you ? 

Mr. Jackson. I say this: I claim it was at his instance that I was 
not seated. It was through his assistance that Benjamin wouldn't 
allow me to be seated after I was elected. I sat in several confer- 
ences with the railroad while thev were negotiating the contract. The 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 69 

employees demanded that I be there because they wanted to take a 
precaution that the contract that local 370 had, the part of it that 
was good, they didn't want experienced people to bargain that away, 
and by a draft or petition they insisted that I sit on the committee, 
and then I was sent to St. Louis while they were negotiating, and. 
I attended several meetings and in these conference meetings Mi\ 
Bromsen resented me very much, and when I came back from St. 
Louis to resume in the mediation with the Government, Bromsen told 
me I was no longer a member of the commitee and made me leave 
the bargaining table. 

I know by that that there are reprisals. I haven't given Mr. Brom- 
sen any cases, and you usually let people select their own lawyers, and 
definitely he has a pretty good business to handle these cases. Per- 
sonally I don't think that is a proper way to conduct himself. 

Mr. Carter. You mean that Mr. Bromsen uses influence with union 
officials to obtain cases of ordinary workingmen against the railroad? 

Mr. Jackson. That is correct. 

Mr. Carter. Thank you, very much. 

Senator Ferguson. The committee will recess at this time. 

(Whereupon, at 4:10 p. m., the hearing was recessed subject to 
the call of the chairman. ) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration 
or the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 p. m., in room P-36, 
the Capitol, Senator James Eastland presiding. 
Present : Senators Eastland and Watkins. 

Also present : Kichard Arens, staff director ; Frank W. Schroeder, 
professional staff member ; Mitchel M. Carter and Donald D. Connors, 
Jr., investigators. 

Senator Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Bromsen, will you stand, please, and raise your right hand? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 

before the Judiciary Committee of the Senate of the United States 

is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 

•God? 

Mr. Bromsen. I do so swear. 

TESTIMONY OF ARCHIBALD BROMSEN, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself by name and resi- 
dence ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am Archibald Bromsen, I live at 309 West Ninety- 
fifth Street, in the Borough of Manhattan, city and State of New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. What is your occupation or vocation ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am a lawyer. 

Mr. Arens. And how long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I have been engaged in the practice of law in the 
.State of New York since 1939. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you educated ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was educated in the city of New York. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you procure your law degree? 

Mr. Bromsen. In the State of New York. 

Mr. Arens. At what university did you graduate, to procure your 
law degree? 

Mr. Bromsen. I attended New York University Law School in 
rthe city of New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate? 

Mr. Bromsen. I did, sir. 

71 



72 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. With whom are you associated in the practice of law? 

Mr. Bromson. I am an individual practitioner. I have one attorney 
working for me. 

Mr. xVrens. Who is he ? 

Mr. Bromsen. A young man by the name of Ira Gammerman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bromsen, you are appearing today in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any contact or affiliation, professionally 
or otherwise, with the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am their general counsel. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Since the organization of the union. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that ? 

Mr. Bromsen. That would be sometime in, I believe, 1947. 

Mr. Arens. And who engaged you as general counsel of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers' Union ? 

Mr. Bromsen. The union so engaged me as general counsel at its 
first organizing convention. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Bromsen. That convention was held in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in the convention in Chicago ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the present officers of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bromsen. The president of the union is Solon C. Bell. The 
union has a number of vice presidents, each one assigned to a geo- 
graphical division. The president of the eastern division — the vice 
president in charge of the eastern division is Daniel Benjamin. 

The vice president assigned to the Chicago division is one Osie Long. 

The vice president in charge of the western division is Mr. Mac- 
Murray. 

The vice president in charge of the St. Louis region is one LeRoy 
Wilson. 

There may be one or two other officers, but I don't presently recall 
their names. 

I am sorry — the secretary-treasurer of the union is one Howard 
McGuire. 

Mr. Arens. How many members are there in the union ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I could not accurately even estimate that for the 
committee. The union operates on a regional basis, and I would not 
know how many members, for example, there were in the western divi- 
sion, nor could I accurately state how many we have in the St. Louis 
or Chicago region. 

Mr. Arens. What precipitated the formation of the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bromsen. As I understand it, the dining-car men had been sub- 
jected to a long series of abuses, both in the course of their employ- 
ment and in their relations with the union which then represented 
them, which was the Dining-Car Council of the Hotel and Restaurant 
International. 

The dining-car men, who are chiefly Negro workers, had been find- 
ing their working conditions becoming more and more onerous. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 73 

They were being afforded less and less service and less and less pro- 
tection by the dining-car council of the A. F. of L., and there was a 
complete lack of democracy or opportunity for expression in the 
various locals, such as 351 or 370 in the dining-car council. 

There had been numerous attempts on the part of these dining-car 
men in their own union to straighten out matters, to have honest offi- 
cers elected, who would honestly and properly service the men. But 
these efforts had proved fruitless. 

The dining-car council was, as the men put it, the tail of the kite of 
the international. 

The dining-car council consisted only of a very loose and unim- 
portant amalgam of the so-called dining-car locals, and no attention 
or help or service was given to this so-called dining-car council by 
the A. F. of L. 

In addition, not only was representation that they had by these offi- 
cers of the A. F. of L. incompetent and at best disinterested, but the 
A. F. of L. bartenders' international itself was engaged in raiding the 
jobs of these men, driving them, in part, out of the industry and re- 
placing them with white bartenders, taken in and put into the jobs 
of these men. 

For example, on the New Haven Railroad, men with, as much as 15 
and 20 years of experience, men who had put their entire mature adult 
working life into the service of the railroad, were displaced under an 
agreement signed by the bartenders' international whereby, these 
Negro dining-car men were displaced by white girls, taken and hired 
right from the streets, as men referred to outside employment, and 
dining-car men, as I remarked, were driven out of the industry. 

The same thing, for example, took place on the Union Pacific, where 
they had the system which the man called the ''alphabet soup set-up." 

On the Union Pacific, for example, dining-car men, primarily, let 
us say, chefs and cooks, who had been with the road as much as 20 
and 25 years, were being displaced by white cooks, hired off the street, 
who were then given ratings. 

They would classify the men "B" and "C." They would classify 
new white cooks as "A" and "AA." 

They inaugurated a system whereby no Negro cook or chef could 
work, regardless of how many years seniority he had, as long as a 
cook classified as "A" or "AA" was available. 

But the classification did not refer to ability or merit. It referred 
merely — it was a euphemistic designation of white or colored. 

The same thing took place later on in the Chicago & North Western, 
and this is part of a tendency which has been growing more and more 
in the industry. 

The men were very concerned about their jobs and concerned about 
the fact that they were tied to an international which was itself not 
merely allowing but actually fostering and forcing the stiuation upon 
them. 

Mr. Arens. Were you connected with the international? 

Mr. Bromsen. No, sir; I was not. 

Senator Eastland. Is the present union CIO or AFL? 

Mr. Bromsen. It is an independent, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. You may proceed. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you know Solon Bell prior to the time 
that you became affiliated with the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union ? 

89656—51 6 



74 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bromsen. I knew Solon Bell — and this is to the best of my recol- 
lection — a short time after I began working with the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union. I can't tell you exactly how long. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a recollection of the occasion upon which 
you first made his acquaintance ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am afraid — I am not sure. It was either on a visit 
of his to New York, or possibly at the convention. However, I am 
reasonably certain I knew him well before the convention. That is 
my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Who first solicited you as general counsel of the Dining 
Car and Kailroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was first confronted by a group of dining-car men, 
rank-and-file men, who came to me for professional advice and 
assistance. 

Mr. Arens. Who were they ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Now, in answer to that question, because of some par- 
ticular circumstances, which I would be glad to mention, I think I 
must decline to answer on the grounds of a privileged communication 
between client and attorney. 

Ordinarily, there might be some question as to why the identity of 
the specification of the persons who constitute the client would be with- 
held, but I can state to the committee that when this rank-and-file 
group came to me, one of the matters about which they were insistent 
was that their identities not be revealed for twofold reasons: first, 
they were then members of the union against the leadership of which 
they were in opposition; secondly, they were employees of railroads, 
and they were afraid that there might be retaliation made against 
them. 

However, if I might just consult with my attorney for the moment, 
perhaps I may be able to give you more. 

Mr. Arens. May the attorney kindly identify himself for the pur- 
pose of the record. 

Mr. Rand. Harry I. Rand, 729 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, 
D. C, a member of the bar of the District of Columbia. 

While I have been asked to identify myself, may I ask just this 
question? Are we going to have a copy of the minutes? Are they 
transcribed or published ? 

Mr. Arens. The minutes will be transcribed. The disposition of the 
minutes and the proceedings here today will be up to the decision 
of the Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Mr. Rand. May I ask one further thing? I am somewhat embar- 
rassed. I do not know the Senator, and I do not think I met you. 
I think you are Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. The Senator presiding is Senator Eastland, of 
Mississippi. 

Senator Eastland. The privilege does not extend to the refusal 
of naming a client. 

Mr. Bromsen. Senator, if I may consult with my counsel for a 
moment 

Senator Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must, Senator, respectfully decline to answer on 
the ground that I believe this to have been a privileged communica- 
tion between client and attorney. I recognize that what you say, 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 75 

Senator, generally prevails ; the identity of the client is not privileged. 

However, in the first meeting which took place at my office, as I 
recall it, it was an admonition of the meeting that the presence of the 
persons there would be held confidential. 

Senator Eastland. That does not change the law, though, and the 
reason that you give would prevail no longer, because the railroad 
could not retaliate against those men now. 

Mr. Bromsen. The confidence having been imparted to me, Senator, 
within the relationship, I do not think that 

Senator Eastland. It is governed by the statute. 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't think, Senator — and I say this respectfully — 
that I am not at liberty to violate the confidence placed in me at the 
time of the formation of the relationship. 

There has never been any direction to me that I may now violate 
that then-imparted confidence. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest to the chairman that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to who it was that 
solicited him to become engaged as the general counsel to the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Senator Eastland. Yes ; I think he should answer the question. 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the ground already given, and on the further ground that, under 
the law and under the Constitution, I may not be compelled to bear 
witness against myself. 

Senator Eastland. Did you commit some crime? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was about to answer as to that question, Senator, 
that I would respectfully decline to answer that, and in declining 
to answer that question, I would like to, perhaps, state to the com- 
mittee, that I rely on my constitutional privilege against being com- 
pelled to testify against myself, without any implication that my an- 
swer may be weighted either affirmatively or negatively against me, 
nor be taken as any implication of either guilt or innocence of any 
crime, or as to the nature of the answer. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know Earl Browder ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the same reason ; the Constitution affords me the right not to bear 
witness against myself, and I would repectfully decline to answer, 
for that reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that your answer to the question, as to 
who it was that engaged you as general counsel of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I believe, Senator, that I answered that when I was 
retained as general counsel for the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union. I told you that I was retained as general counsel for 
the union at the Chicago convention. However, I believe there is some 
confusion as to the question, and I would like to get it cleared. 

The question I have refused to answer is not who retained me as 
general counsel for the union, but it was who were the persons who 
came to me and asked me to represent this rank-and-file group which 
later became the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that your answer to the question as to the 
identity of the persons who first came to see you with reference to the 
formation of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union 
would tend to incriminate you? 



76 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bromsen. I feel that it is, first, privileged under the client- 
attorney relationship, and I must respectfully decline to answer the 
question, resting on my rights under the fifth amendment and under 
the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that the answer to that question would 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I feel, Mr. Arens, that there is a possibility that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer any specifica- 
tions as to why it might tend to criminate me for the same reason. 

I might, perhaps, and I am doing this, I assure you, in a desire to 
be cooperative with the committee and to save the time of the com- 
mittee, I might perhaps make this very brief statement as to the 
question you have asked me, and such similar questions which may 
follow. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question. Why do you contend that 
the answer to the question with reference to the people who came 
to see you would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline, Mr. Arens, to specify 
why it might tend to incriminate me. 

The specification in itself might force such disclosures, or might 
set in motion a chain of events that might tend to incriminate me, and 
1 cannot specify. 

Senator Eastland. What are you guilty of ? What are you afraid 
of ? Have you betrayed your country ? Is that what you are afraid of ? 

Mr. Bromsen. No, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Are you an American ? Were you born in this 
country ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was born in this country, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. And you* are afraid to answer questions that 
might aid this committee in getting people who are traitors to their 
country ? 

Mr. Bromsen. No. I would like to answer, Senator, so that you do 
not misunderstand my position in this matter. 

Senator Eastland. Why do you not come out and tell the truth, 
then, and be frank and open and aboveboard, if you do not have any- 
thing to hide ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am trying, Senator, to be both honest and frank 
and aboveboard. 

Senator Eastland. Why do you not answer the questions, then. 
You know very well that the question does not come within a mile of 
giving you the privilege. 

Mr. Bromsen. I would like to explain to you, Senator, why. 

Mr. Arens. Was Solon Bell present at that meeting? 

Senator Eastland. Let him go ahead and explain. I want to 
hear it. 

Mr. Bromsen. I am informed that this committee 

Mr. Arens. You are reading now from a prepared statement, are 
you? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am referring to it; I am not reading exactly. 

Senator Eastland. Who prepared that statement? 

Mr. Bromsen. I did, sir. with the aid of my counsel and with Mr. 
Benjamin. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 77 

Senator Eastland. Who is Mr. Benjamin? 

Mr. Bromsen. An officer of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers' Union who will appear here this afternoon. 

1 am informed that this committee has been authorized by Congress 
to make a study, and investigation of the operation and enforcement 
of the Internal Security Act, which has commonly been referred to 
as the McCarran Act. 

Senator Eastland. I do not care that the record be cluttered up 
with that. I am not going to permit it. 

Mr. Arens. Was Solon Bell present at that session ? 

Mr Bromsen. I would like to say, Senator, that I think the record 
ought to show that I have offered and am offering to make as clear 
as possible to this committee why I decline to answer the questions 
addressed to me. 

Senator Eastland. Just put it in the record, if you have a state- 
ment that you have written. I will let it go in the record. 

Mr. Bromsen. I will submit this, then, with the Senator's permis- 
sion, and make it a part of the record, as to the reasons for my de- 
clination to answer the question. 

(The matter referred to is as follows :) 

On advice of my counsel, I must respectfully decline to answer that question. 
In doing so, I rely on all my legal and constitutional rights and privileges, in- 
cluding the protection accorded me under the fifth amendment. 

Since I will probably be asked similar questions and may have to decline also 
to answer those, I should like to explain in some detail why I am forced to take 
this position. 

My counsel tell me that this committee has been authorized to make a study 
and investigation of the operation and enforcement of the Internal Security Act 
(the so-called McCarran Act), and other laws relating to espionage, sabotage, 
and the internal security of the United States. 

My counsel tell me also that the committee is authorized to investigate intt 
the extent, nature, and effects of subversive activities in the United States, in- 
cluding espionage, sabotage, and infiltration by persons representing foreign 
governments, Communist organizations, and subversive movements. 

I understand, too, that I have been subpenaed here to testify because your 
committee is interested in determining whether my union, the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers' Union, is a subversive organization, or controlled by 
subversive organizations. 

I am convinced that my union is a democratic trade union, controlled by no- 
body but its members. Nevertheless, in the setting of this investigation, and 
under these circumstances, I must decline to answer this question and similar 
questions, exercising the rights which the Constitution gives me, and particularly 
the privilege which prevents a person from being compelled to be a witness 
against himself. 

I have carefully discussed the nature of these privileges with my counsel. I 
understand that they are part of the American tradition and that they are in- 
tended to protect the innocent as well as the guilty. 

I understand also that when a person calls the privilege into play, no inference 
either as to guilt or innocence can fairly be drawn from the fact that he does so. 

Therefore, when I decline, as I must respectfully do so here, to answer your 
questions, I do not intend any implication whatever from my refusal. 

Senator Eastland. Are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Again, Senator, I must respectfully decline to an- 
swer the question, resting on my Constitutional rights, particularly 
those under the first and fifth amendments. 

Senator Eastland. That is, of course, evident, that if you were 
not a Communist, you would be glad to say that you were not a Com- 
munist. 



78 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully differ with you, Senator. The 
implication of law is that my refusal to answer bears no reference, 
whatsoever, either way. 

Senator Eastland. I want to ask you this question : From your 
observation, is this union Communist-dominated? 

Mr. Bromsen. From my observation, Senator, this union is operat- 
ed and controlled by democratic processes provided in the constitu- 
tion and bylaws. 

Senator Eastland. Wait a minute. You answer my question "Yes"" 
or "No" ; and then explain. 

Mr. Bromsen. I do not believe it to be, sir. I believe it to be run 
and operated and controlled by its membership. 

Mr. Arens. Is Solon Bell a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Eastland. What are the grounds? 

Mr. Bromsen. On the grounds that I must respectfully decline to 
answer the question, lest it tend to incriminate me, and on the ground 
that I am not compelled to furnish testimony against myself. 

Senator Eastland. Against yourself ? To ask you if another man 
is a Communist ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Eastland. He asked you if Solon Bell was a Communist. 
He did not ask you if you were a Communist. 

Mr. Bromsen. I think, Senator, that a statement by any man that 
he knew and worked in relationship with persons known to him to be 
a Communist, might tend, in these times, and under the purpose of 
this committee and under the laws that exist, might tend to be crimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that Solon Bell was a member 
of the Communist Party and, in 1945, his Communist book number 
was 59939, and I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Bromsen. I decline to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Robert Wood? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must decline to answer that question on the ground 
that it might tend to criminate me, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is or was Robert Wood connected with the Daily 
Worker? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must decline to answer that question, resting on 
my rights under the first and under the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet with Solon Bell and with Robert Wood 
to form this union? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds that it might tend to criminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the record 
be cleared, so that the chairman orders and directs the witness to an- 
swer these questions. 

Senator Eastland. I will order him to answer the questions. 

Mr. Bromsen. I will respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any persons in this group who met with 
you to form this union who, to your knowledge, were not members 
of the Communist Party ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 79 

Mr. Bromsen. I am sorry, sir, I must respectfully decline to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly explain, for the purpose of the 
record, how your answer, with respect to persons who were not 
members of the Communist Party could possibly tend to incriminate 
you? 

Senator Eastland. Let the record show that I want him to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Bromsen. Perhaps, sir, I do not yet completely understand the 
question. May I have it read back ? 

Mr. Arens. I will repeat the question. 

Were there any persons in this group who met with you in the for- 
mative period of the union who, to your knowledge, were not members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Then, sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the grounds that a specification of knowledge as to who 
were not Communists might indicate that I knew, if there were any 
such, who, present, were members of the Communist Party, and sucn 
knowledge might tend to criminate me and would compel me to bear 
witness against myself. 

. Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest to the chairman that the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Rand. I think the record will show, as I recall, that the Senator 
ordered him. 

Senator Eastland. I am ordering and directing him again, to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Bromsen. I most respectfully must decline, Senator, on the 
grounds stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the National Lawyers Guild? 

Mr. Bromsen. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of the National 
Lawyers Guild? 

Mr. Bromsen. I d'on't recall exactly. It would be at least 5 years, 
and probably more. 

Mr. Arens. What committees have you served on in the National 
Lawyers Guild? 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't believe I ever served on any committee. I 
think I once volunteered on the labor law committee, but I don't think 
I ever was active in any way on the committee. I think I was going 
to be, and then never was. That is my best recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Were you counsel for the Negro Railway Labor News ? 

Mr. Bromsen. The Negro Labor Eailway Executive Committee? 

Mr. Arens. The Negro Railway Labor News. 

Mr. Bromsen. The Negro Railway News, sir, that is the organ. I 
was counsel for the committee, and, to the extent that that would make 
me counsel for the publication of the committee, the answer would be 
"Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever affiliated, or are you now affiliated, with 
the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was a member of the American Labor Party for a 
number of years, and I am not sure whether I still am or am not. I 
don't think I am current on my dues, nor have I attended any meet- 
ings, but I think I probably still am a member. 



80 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Eastland. Have you attended any meetings of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline, Senator, to answer that 
question, on the ground that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever affiliated with the Dental Nurses Union? 

Mr. Bromsen. I was their attorney, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you know, of course, that the Dental Nurses Union 
is an affiliate of the Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians, 
do you not ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I didn't know it was still in existence, Mr. Arens, 
but at one time it was so affiliated. 

Senator Eastland. What other organizations do you belong to, sir ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Well, some other that I belong to, Senator, would 
be the NAACP. 

Senator Eastland. What is that? 

Mr. Bromsen. That is the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored Peoples. 

Mr. Arens. You are not, of course, colored. I think the record 
should show that, too, sir, as a purpose of identification. 

Senator Eastland. Let him answer it. 

Mr. Bromsen. What is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. You are not of the colored race ? 

Mr. Bromsen. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is your affiliation with the NAACP ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I hold membership in one of the chapters. It is the 
20 West Fortieth Street— that would be the address of the NAACP 
which issued the membership. 

Senator Eastland. Give us the other organizations to which you 
belong ? 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Senator Easstland. On the record. 

Mr. Rand. Am I being directed to sit elsewhere now, by the 
Senator ? 

Senator Eastland. I am going to let him sit there a while, but I do 
not like, after every question, to have a long conference between them. 
It does not look good. 

Mr. Rand. I am just calling the Senator's attention to the fact that 
it is not with respect to every question. There are some questions with 
respect to which Mr. Bromsen has replied and responded, I think, 
rather fully, without consulting with me, as the Senator will note. 

Senator Eastland. I have not seen it, if it happened. But go 
ahead. What were the other organizations? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the grounds' that the constitutional privileges afforded me do not 
require me to bear testimony one way or the other. 

Senator Eastland. What other organizations do you belong to? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the ground that I am not compelled to bear witness against myself, 
and on the further ground that under the first amendment I have the 
right to associate myself with whomever I choose, and under the fifth 
amendment, that I am not compelled to bear witness against myself. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 81 

Senator Eastland. You have the right to associate yourself with 
whom you choose, that is true, but then you have not the right to 
refuse to tell who those associations are, what organizations they are. 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully differ with you, Senator. I want 
to give the committee as much information as I possibly can, but 
I must respectfully decline to answer that question on the ground 
that I may not be compelled to bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Have you named all of the nonsensitive organizations 
that you belong to ? 

Mr. Bromsen. What does "nonsensitive" mean ? 

Mr. Arens. "Nonsensitive" would be an organization membership 
in which would not prompt your mind to feel that you might be 
testifying against yourself. 

Mr. Bromsen. I believe I also belong, for example, to the American 
Automobile Association, but I do not think you would be interested 
in that. I just at the moment don't recall any others. If I do in the 
course of testifying 

Senator Eastland. All right. 

Now, you say that the NAACP and the American Automobile 
Association are the only two organizations that you belong to or are 
affiliated with? 

Mr. Bromsen. I didn't say that, sir, and I want the record clear. 

I said those are some of the organizations that I belong to. As to 
whether or not — not that I do — but whether or not I belong to any 
other organization, I refuse to testify. And by that I do not want it 
to be indicated 

Senator Eastland. What other non-Communist organizations do 
you belong to ? 

Mr. Bromsen. As the Senator has formulated the question, I would 
have to decline, because there would be the implication that I belong 
to a Communist organization, and, as to that, I have refused to testify 
one way or the other. I have neither admitted nor denied. I have 
simply refused to testify as to that, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Well, I order you to testify. 

Mr. Bromsen. I respectfully decline to testify. 

I want to make sure what I am being ordered to testify to, Senator. 
If I can help, I want to ; I certainly want to help. 

Senator Eastland. I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bromsen. Will you repeat the question, Mr. Stenographer ? 

(The record was read by the reporter. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would like to respectfully suggest that 
counsel make his objections on the record. I do not know what is 
transpiring there in the long conversations. 

Senator Eastland. I do not want counsel to be making objections. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed. 

Mr. Bromsen. To the extent that your question, Senator, might 
indicate by listing for this committee non-Communist organizations 
I belong to, that there be any implication therein that I belong to 
Communist organizations, I would respectfully decline to answer, 
under my constitutional privileges. 

Mr. Arens. Are there other organizations that you belong to, other 
than the organizations that you have described here, namely the 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples and 



82 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

the American Automobile Association, and the Lawyers Guild, and 
the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. May I have that question repeated, Mr. Stenog- 
rapher ? 

(The record was read by the reporter. ) 

Mr. Bromsen. I am sorry, but I must respectfully decline to answer 
that question, on the previously taken grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you listed all of the organizations that you be- 
long to ? 

Senator Eastland. Let him go. That record is all right. 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the ground that, by so doing, I may be compelled to bear witness 
against myself. » 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a Communist Party school held in the 
vicinity of One Hundred and Fifty-third Avenue and Prospect Ave- 
nue in the Bronx in New York City ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the grounds previously stated to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that in 1939 you were listed as a 
Communist Party member, and I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
previously stated to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been attorney for the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the ground that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be possible for the Young Communist League 
to hire a non-Communist attorney? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the ground that by so doing I might be compelled to bear witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known Solon Bell ? 

Mr. Bromsen. About 4 or 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. On the record. 

What contracts does the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union have at the present time? 

Mr. Bromsen. One contract, sir, with the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. That covers how many workers ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Approximately 2,200 workers. 

Mr. Arens. Now, the Dining Car and Food Workers Union is 
certified at the present time by the National Mediation Board as the 
bargaining agent to contract with the Pennsylvania Railroad within 
the dining car and railroad food workers group; is that not true? 

Mr. Bromsen. We are certified as having the right to represent the 
workers, to negotiate such contracts, and we do have such a con- 
tract now. 

Mr. Arens. How long does the contract run ? 

Mr. Bromsen. It runs until either side demands, as they may under 
the Railroad Labor Act, for modification of the contract. There is 
no fixed period under the contract. 

Mr. Arens. Who certified it ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 83 

Mr. Bromsen. The National Mediation Board, which deals with 
railroad workers. 

Mr. Arens. Does the union in its bylaws, or in its constitution, or 
any of its rules and regulations, preclude from membership in the 
union a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. The union bylaws and constitution provide that the 
union shall be open to membership of all persons, regardless of race, 
color, creed, or political belief. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Osie Long is a member 
•of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question, 
resting on the constitutional privileges I have enumerated and men- 
tioned to this committee before. 

Mr. Arens. What is your remuneration or compensation as general 
counsel for the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bromsen. Well, that, sir, breaks down in theory and practice. 
Theoretically I am paid $1 per year, according to each dues-paying 
member that we have in the eastern district, that is, the New York 
district. In practice I submit bills regularly, based on that amount, 
and they pay as they can. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your income from representing the 
union in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Bromsen. Approximately, my retainer payments from the union 
in the past year, going back a year from today, would be approxi- 
mately — maybe four or maybe five hundred dollars, possibly six, 
although I would doubt it went that high. 

Mr. Arens. Who is William Albertson? 

Mr. Bromsen. You will have to identify him. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of William Albertson ? 

Mr. Bromsen. No ; I know no man named William Albertson. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a man by the name of William Albertson 
who was instrumental in the formation of this union ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the Communist Party has 
assisted this union, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union, 
financially ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds previously stated to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly state, for the purpose of the record, what are 
all the sources of finances which, to your knowledge, have been received 
by the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union in the course 
of the last year. 

Mr. Bromsen. May I have a moment ? 

As far as I know, the union in the past year has received dues, 
payments for life insurance with members; they raised money from 
a dance, and occasional contributions from members. But I would 
know of no other contributions made to the union, other than from 
these sources. I just don't know of any. 

Mr. Arens. What contributions, if any, has the union made in the 
course of the last year to the Communist Party cr to Communist 
fronts ? 

Mr. Bromsen. None that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. What contributions has the Communist Party ever made, 
financially, to the union, either in the process of organizing or since 
its organization ? 



84 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the previously stated grounds. 

Senator Eastland. I want you to answer that question. 

Mr. Browser. I must respectfully refuse to, Senator, on the grounds 
that any information I might so have would be privileged, as between 
client and attorney, and on the further ground that, under the Con- 
stitution, I am not required to give testimony or bear witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. How could a contribution by the Communist Party,, 
if any, to the imion, possibly incriminate you ? 

Mr. Bromsen. It is not practice, sir, to specify the particulars as 
to how that might or might not criminate me, or tend to criminate 
me, but let me perhaps give you an example. 

If any attorney of your committee, for example, represented a 
union, the implication of the question might tend to indicate, had 
received contributions or support from the Communist Party, and 
if there were any basis — I don't know — but if there were any basis 
to the implication of the other question you asked before, that the 
Young Communist League would retain only an attorney who would 
be a Communist, then there certainly might be the tendency, and the 
possibility, to incriminate, that the union that received such support, 
were that the fact, from the Communist Party, that such a union's 
attorney himself might be criminated in whatever misconduct might, 
were that the fact, be involved. 

Under those circumstances, I must respectfully decline to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you fear criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bromsen. On the ground that answering the question might 
tend to criminate me. 

Mr. Arens. What connection did the Communist Party, to your 
knowledge, have with the contract of the Railroad and Dining Car 
Food Workers Union, with the Pennsylvania Railroad? 

Mr. Bromsen. Well 

Mr. Bromsen. May I have the question again, Mr. Stenographer. 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

Senator Eastland. I do not want any notes written over there. 

Mr. Bromsen. To my knowledge, I am answering the question. 

Senator Eastland. I mean, you are not writing him a note, sir? I 
am talking to your lawyer. 

Mr. Rand. I am merely writing down, Senator, for the record, those 
questions that I can write down, which my witness might decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Bromsen. I am sorry. After this colloquy, may I again have 
the question? 

(The pending question was again read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Bromsen. The contract signed with the Pennsylvania Railroad 
grew out of a series of negotiations between representatives of the 
union and representatives of management of the railroad, based on a 
series of demands submitted to the railroad, which demands were 
first submitted to the membership of the union for their agreement, 
voted on for approval for submission, then negotiated, and then, with 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 85 

the assistance of a national mediator from Washington, agreement 
was arrived at and the contract terms were then brought back to the 
membership. 

At successive meetings, it was voted on by the membership. 

Mr. Arens. Now answer the question. What contracts, what dis- 
cipline or control, did the Communist Party have over the negotia- 
tions, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Bromsen. None, that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. What is the publication known as The Link? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question, 
sir, on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. It is a Communist publication, is it not? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must respectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. And it was the propaganda barrage laid down by the 
Communists in undertaking to cause this contract to be negotiated; 
is that not correct ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I have given }^ou, sir, the factors that went into the 
making of the contract. 

Beyond that, I must refuse to answer on the ground that it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Then there must be some factors that you have not 
talked about ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I must refuse to answer that, sir, for the precise and 
specific reasons that have already been given to this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Who is paying your lawyer — your lawyer here — for 
appearing today? 

Mr. Bromsen. I think that would be privileged, but I have no ob- 
jection in saying that I am going to be paying my lawyer. 

Mr. Arens. How did you first come in contact with him? 

Mr. Bromsen. I met Sir. Rand in school. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Bromsen. N. Y. U. law. 

Mr. Arens. When did you first tell him that you were coming down 
here to appear? 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't probably think that would be the business of 
this committee. 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter for the committee to determine. Would 
you kindly answer the question ? 

Senator Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Go ahead. 

Mr. Bromsen. The question was, if I am right, When did I first tell 
him I was coming down here ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bromsen. I think it was a Thursday. 

Mr. Arens. What Thursday? 

Mr. Bromsen. About 1 week ago, on a Thursday. I think it was 
two Thursdays ago. That would be about — it was either Thursday 
or Friday. 

Mr. Arens. How long has he been in the practice of law here in 
Washington ? 

Mr. Bromsen. You will have to ask Mr. Rand that, I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he was formerly employed 
by the Government? 

Mr. Bromsen. I believe he was. 



86 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he was formerly employed 
by the Department of Justice? 

Mr. Bromsen. That sounds familiar — it could be. 

Senator Eastland, Did you know he was in the private practice 
of law? 

Mr. Bromsen. Yes; I did. 

Senator Eastland. How did you know that '. 

Mr. Bromsen. Because I have met Mr. Rand several times when he 
has visited New York. We have had lunch together, or a couple of 
drinks together, and we have talked "How is business?" "How is it 
in Washington ?" "How is it in New York ?" 

Mr. Arens. Is he connected with the union ? 

Mr. Bromsen. No ; he doesn't represent the union. 

Mr. Arens. Is he representing you today, personally ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Arens. Is he representing you today, personally ? 

Mr. Bromsen. I want to correct my answer. When you asked me if 
he represented the union, I thought you meant was he a regional coun- 
sel for the union. The answer is "No." When you ask me if he repre- 
sented me today, the answer is "Yes," and he represents the union, 
for purposes, with me, before these proceedings. I thought you meant 
he is one of the regular counsels of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Who is paying for his representation of the union here 
today? 

Mr. Bromsen. I hope the union will pay him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you engage him on behalf of the union, to represent 
the union? 

Mr. Bromsen. I did. 

Mr. Arens. How much did you agree to pay him ? 

Mr. Bromsen. We have agreed on no specific retainer. It will 
depend on how much time and work he has to put in. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any Communist he has represented? 

Mr. Bromsen. I don't know of any of Mr. Rand's clients. 

Mr. Rand. Other than those referred to? 

Mr. Bromsen. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the counsel 
be sworn, if he is going to testify. 

Mr. Rand. All right. I don't care to make any statements, then. 
I am sorry, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Will you please come in, Mr. Benjamin ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DANIEL BENJAMIN, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Identify yourself, if you please, by name and residence. 
Mr. Benjamin. My name is Daniel Benjamin. My residence is 840 
Dawson Street, Bronx, N. Y. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 87 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I am. 

Mr. Arens. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Benjamin. My present occupation is the national vice presi- 
dent of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Who is president of the union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. The national president is Mr. Solon C. Bell. 

Mr. Arens. And what is your area, or the jurisdiction over which 
you preside as vice president ? 

Mr. Benjamin. The eastern, or New York area. 

Mr. Arens. How many employees of the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union are under your jurisdiction in the eastern 
area ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Is that in relation to membership only, or just the 
people who work on the railroad ? 

Mr. Arens. The membership in the union — how many are there? 

Mr. Benjamin. The membership in the union is — I would make a 
rough guess and say about 700. 

Mr. Arens. Seven hundred ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many in toto, in the aggregate, in all of the 
branches of the union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Would this include the different districts of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. I couldn't give you a very comprehensive answer 
on that, because I haven't any figures. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best estimate? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, roughly, I would say close to a thousand. 
That is a rough guess. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I was born in the British West Indies. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I first came to the United States around about 1924, 
I think. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I am now. 

Mr. Arens. How did you become a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Benjamin. By naturalization process. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Benjamin. It became final in 1946. 




went to Barbadoes. That is an island in the British West Indies, also. 

Mr. Arens. Now, when did you become vice president of the east- 
ern division of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Benjamin. Around 1947, 1 think it was. 

Mr. Arens. How did you become vice president ? 

Mr. Benjamin. By way of an election. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the election held ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, to my best knowledge, the election of officers 
was actually held in Chicago, but they deferred the election of a vice 



88 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

president for the New York area, because there were not enough 
representatives from New York at that particular place. 

Mr. Arens. Were you one of the organizers of the union? 

Mr. Benjamin. I helped to organize it ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who participated with you? 

Senator Eastland. What year was that? 

Mr. Benjamin. This was in 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Who participated with you in organizing the union? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, it was generally a rank and file affair, but I 
can remember some of the names off-hand, because it was not a regu- 
lar union organization thing, it seemed, from the rank and file situ- 
ation. 

Mr. Arens. Who all organized the union is what I want to know. 
Solon Bell was one of them, was he not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I knew that he was one, out of the Chicago 
area, by having been told, but I didn't meet him at the time we 
started organizing in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Who organized with you in New York, to form this 
union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. In New York, there were active people, like 

Mr. Arens. Give the full names. 

Mr. Benjamin. C. F. Askew. He was one. 
Gene Austin, commonly called — his name is Philip Austin, but he 
is commonly called Gene Austin. 

There was Cokey Boyd, and there were a number of such people, 
who held no title, but were merely /"'ssatisfied members of the exist- 
ing union. 

Mr. Arens. Was Robert Wood one of them ? One of the organiz- 
ing members? 

Mr. Benjamin. Would you kindly identify Robert Wood, of whom 
you are speaking? 

Mr. Arens. He was a newspaperman and editor. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, Senator, I would have to decline to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Arens. Decline to answer the question ? Why? 

Mr. Benjamin. Yes; under my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Was Robert Wood a member of the group that or- 
ganized this union in New York? 

Mr. Benjamin. I have already stated, sir, that I have declined to 
answer, and gave the reason for my declination. 

Mr. Arens. And the chairman has ordered and directed you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Benjamin. With due respect to the chairman, I still have to 
insist that I must decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. When did you first know that you were going to come 
down here and testify? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall the exact, date, but I was served a 
subpena more than a week ago. I don't recall exactly the date on 
which it was served. 

Mr. Arens. Who have you discussed this testimony with? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, as a union officer, I discussed it with the other 
officers. 

Mi-. Arens. Who? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 89 

Mr. Benjamin. And with counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Who ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I discussed it with, as far as officers go — we only- 
have one other officer in New York, and that is R. E. Nicholson. 

Mr. Arens. What is he ? 

Mr. Benjamin. He is the local financial secretary-treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. You discussed it with him, did you ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I did. 

Mr. Arens. And who else did you discuss your testimony with? 

Mr. Benjamin. With counsel. 

Mr. Arens. With whom? 

Mr. Benjamin. With counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Who ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Counsel for the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Who? 

Mr. Benjamin. Mr. Bromsen, for one. 

Senator Eastland. And who else ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, we tried to retain Mr. Rand to give legal 
counsel at this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. You say 3 r ou tried to retain him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. We all did. 

Mr. A ..xs. Who is "we"? 

Mr. Benjamin. The union and myself and Mr. Bromsen. 

Mr. Arens. How man}' people, now, tried to retain Mr. Rand ? Let 
us have their names. 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't give on all the names, but I say in behalf of 
the union, we did. 

Mr. Arens. Give me the names. Who all tried to retain Mr. Rand? 
Let us have their names. 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't quite understand how to answer the question 
than to say the union, that is, I represented 

Senator Eastland. What individuals ( You say that several of 
you tried. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, Mr. Rand was only supposed to represent Mr. 
Bromsen and myself at this hearing. 

Senator Eastland. Who was it that attempted to hire him on behalf 
of the union ? That was the question. 

Mr. Benjamin. Mr. Bromsen and myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did you pay Mr. Rand any money ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I couldn't answer you that question yet, be- 
cause I don't know. 

Senator Eastland. How much did you agree to pay him? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know that either. Whatever the fee is, we 
will just have to pay him. 

Senator Eastland. Have you an agreement to pay him a certain sum 
of money ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, that detail we would leave to Mr. Bromsen, 
who is the attorney for the union. 

Mr. Arens. Was Bromsen active in the formation of this union in 
New York City ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Mr. Bromsen? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Yes ; he helped us with the rank-and-file work, such 
as sometimes helping to draw up leaflets. 

89656 — 51 7 



90 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Who is it that was with you that went to Bromsen's 
office to get this union started down there ? You went here, did you 
not? 

Mr. Benjamin. "Well, I didn't go to Mr. Bromsen's office to get the 
union started. 

Mr. Arens. Well, in the process of organizing the union, you went 
to Bromsen's office, did you not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Certainly. 

Mr. Arens. Who else went there with you ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I couldn't recall all of the people that went 
there. 

Mr. Arens. No — tell us some of them, though. 

Mr. Benjamin. I will have to decline to answer that question, too. 

Mr. Arens. Decline to answer the question as to who formed the 
union ? 

Senator Eastland. Who went with you? You testified that you 
went. Now, he asked you who went with you. There certainly 
couldn't be any privilege there, and I order him to answer the question. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I feel that I have a right to decline. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I can't give you the why and wherefore, be- 
cause it is a legal matter, really. 

Mr. Arens. Well, then, why are vou declining to answer the ques- 
tion ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Because I have been advised that wherever I am in 
doubt about such a question that might lead to any possible incrimi- 
nation against myself, that I should decline. 

Senator Eastland. But you testified that you went there. 

Mr. Benjamin. I am still testifying that I vent there. 

Senator Eastland. All he asked you was: Who went with you? 
If you incriminate, you incriminate yourself, if there is any chance of 
that matter. You placed yourself there. Now, who went with you? 

Mr. Benjamin. I will still have to stand on my answer. 

Senator Eastland. You refuse to answer that question ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I respectfully decline; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did Solon Bell go with you '. 

Mr. Benjamin. He must have, from time to time. 

Mr. Arens. Well, then, now you have told us about one person. 
Who else was there with you in organizing this union? ■ 

Mr. Benjamin. I didn't say that Solon Bell was there when I first 
went there. I said he must have, from time to time. 

Mr. Arens. What we are trying to get from you, Mr. Benjamin, 
are the names of the people who were active in the organization of 
this union. 

You stated, in effect, that you went to Mr. Bromsen's office in the 
process of organizing this union. Is that not true? 

Mr. Benjamin. I did say that I went to Mr. Bromsen's office, that 
is true. 

Mi-. Arens. Now, who else went there? We want the names of the 
people that organized this union. 

Mr. Benjamin. I Fnfortunately, sir, you asked for the names of the 
people that organized the union early in the investigation, and I gave 
you those I could remember, to the best of my knowledge. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 91 

Mr. Arens. Who all organized this union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I will have to ask the stenographer to repeat, if he 
may, the names that I gave before. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us all now, all the names of those who organ- 
ized this union. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, to put the question that way, I couldn't tell 
3 T ou the names of all of them. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me the names of those that you do know. 

Mr. Benjamin. I gave you Askew, C. F. Askew, Philip Austin, 
Cokey Boyd — as far as I can remember, Nicholson did start sometime 
after it was 

Mr. Arens. How about Oscar Greene? 

Mr. Benjamin. Oscar Greene was also a member of the organizing 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. How about Robert Wood I 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I declined to answer that question about 
Robert Wood before. 

Mr. Arens. Was he one of the organizers ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I still decline to answer the question, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Is Robert Wood a Communist ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Are you a Communist? 

Mr. Benjamin. That question I have to decline, also, to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Robert "Wood was editor of the Communist Daily 
Worker, was he not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. In relation to Robert Wood, and who he was, and 
his activities, et cetera, I have to decline to answer that question. I 
have already declined. 

Mr. Arens. You are only going to decline to answer questions, are 
you not, that might tend to incriminate you? Is that not correct? 

Mr. Benjamin. Or any other question that I feel that I have the 
right or the privilege, under the fifth amendment, to decline. 

Senator Eastland. What is the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Pardon me, sir. 

Off the record, is this the Senator over there ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes, and I am running the hearing. What is 
the fifth amendment ( 

Mr. Benjamin. I wanted to address you properly. 

Senator Eastland. I know, but what is the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I couldn't give you the fifth amendment, but I was 
instructed by counsel that I have that privilege, under the fifth 
amendment, to decline to answer certain questions, any question that 
I feel might get me in trouble later on. 

Mr. Arens. How would it get you in trouble? How would it cause 
a criminal prosecution against you, to tell us about Robert Wood ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know about a criminal prosecution. It is 
possible that that could happen under the Smith Act or the McCarran 
Act. for that matter, as far as I am told, and, if that is so, then I have 
to be careful that I don't put myself into that position. 

Senator Eastland. Why do you have to be careful that you do not 
put yourself in that position ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Because I don't want to be put in any position that 
I get myself in trouble unnecessarily. 



92 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Eastland. Then, in other words, you are guilty, but you 
do not want to say anything that might give the Government a case 
against you. Is that it ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Not at all, Senator. I didn't say that. 

Senator Eastland. That is what you meant, was it not ? 

What organizations do you belong to? 

Mr. Benjamin. Organizations? 

Senator Eastland. Do you belong to the NAACP? 

Mr. Benjamin. I am a member of the NAACP ; yes. 

Senator Eastland. What other organizations? Do you belong to 
the American Labor Party? 

Mr. Benjamin. No. 

Senator Eastland. Do you belong to the Republican Party ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No. 

Senator Eastland. Do you belong to the Democratic Party ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Senator — no, I am not a member. Did you ask 
me the Republican Party, did you say? Is that what the Senator 
asked me ? Was I a member of the Republican Party ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir ; I am not. 

Senator Eastland. What other organizations do you belong to? 

Mr. Benjamin. I belong to an organization on the railroad, called 
the Club Victory. That is the name of the organization. 

Mr. Arens. You belong to the union too, do you not? 

Mr. Benjamin. And the union — yes. 

Senator Eastland. What other organizations ? 

Mr. Benjamin. As far as organizations go, let's see — the Dining 
Car Railroad Food Workers' Union is one; the Club Victory is the 
other, the NAACP is another. It is possible that you might say that 
I am or was a member of the Progressive Party at the time that Henry 
Wallace ran for President. 

Senator Eastland. All right. 

What other organizations ? Is that all of them ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is all that I can recall. 

Senator Eastland. That is every organization that you belong to — 
those you have listed ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is all I can say that I belong to. 

Mr. Arens. Are there some others that you do not belong to that 
you are not telling us about? 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't tell you about any more because I don't 
belong to any more. I don't hold membership in any of them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever belong to a little club in the Bronx, the 
Bronx Club there ? 

Mr. Benjamin. The Bronx Club ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Not that I know anything of. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been at a meeting back in 1948, at the 
Elk's Hall in Harlem, in New York City? 

Mr. Benjamin. The Elk's Hall, did you say ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, a little group in the Elk's Hall in Harlem, New 
York City, that met on June 26, 1948 ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That doesn't strike anything at all in my memory — 
neither does the name of the club that you speak of here. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 93 

Mr. Arens. Were you not a member of the Bronx Club of the Com- 
munist Party in New York City ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I refuse to answer that particular question. 
Senator Eastland. He has already answered that. If the file or 
report shows that he is, he is guilty of perjury. 

You just testified, you just listed the organizations that you be- 
longed to, and you said that was all of them. 

Go ahead. Ask him another question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a delegate to the Communist Party Conven- 
tion held in Elk's Hall in Harlem, New York, on June 26, 1948 ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir. 

Senator Eastland. You were not? 

Mr. Benjamin. I was not. You said a delegate to this particular 
thing? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Benjamin. Frankly, I don't even know where this hall is that 
you are talking about. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the New York State Communist Con- 
vention held on July 16, 17, and 18 at Webster Hall in New York City? 

Mr. Benjamin. Not that I can recall. It may be possible that I 
might have gone there, but I don't recall any such incident. 

Mr. Arens. What makes you think that you might have gone there? 

Mr. Benjamin. Because I have been to Webster Hall on one occa- 
sion, and possibly two, because, at the time that Mr. Wallace was run- 
ning for his campaign, there were several meetings that I attended 
at different times. 

Senator Eastland. Well, if you had gone to the New York State 
Communist Convention, you would have remembered it; would you 
not? 

Mr. Benjamin. That would depend, Senator. I don't recall ever 
having gone to anything like that. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the 11 Communists, concerning whom you 
joined in a protest? 

Senator Eastland. What kind of a protest ? 

Mr. Arens. Published in Link. 

Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall, as of now, joining in any protests 
with the 11 Communists. If you could refresh my memory 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that the Communist Party 
publication for railroad workers, known as the Link — you know that 
publication; do you not? 

Mr. Benjamin. I have seen it. 

Mr. Arens. In its October 1948 issue, on page 3, it listed you, Mr. 
Benjamin, Daniel Benjamin, as one of the officials of the Railroad 
and Dining Car Food Workers Union who were protesting the arrest 
of the 11 Communist Party leaders. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is possible. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you protest that arrest ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, because I felt that, when I was spoken to, 
that there should be some appeal made in the manner in which it was 
handled, and the evidence that was given, et cetera, et cetera. 

Mr. Arens. W T ho spoke to you about that ? 



94 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I really can't recall exactly who did. 

Mr. Arens. What did you know about the case that made 3-011 want 
to protest it? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, yon road these things in the papers, and you 
hear about them on street rallies, et cetera. 

Mr. Arens. How did you register your protest against the arrest 
of the 1 1 Communist leaders ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Either by signing a petition 

Mr. Arens. Who circulated the petition? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I don't know. People come to you on the 
street. Sometimes they don't identify themselves. 

Mr. Arens. But you know you did sign the petition, protesting the 
arrest of the Communist leaders ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I would have to say "Yes." 

Senator Eastland. Do you belong to the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't think that I do. 

Senator Eastland. Do you belong to the Council of African 
Affairs? 

Mr. Benjamin. In answering these questions, when I say I don't 
think I do, it is possible, by either taking out a subscription, or some- 
thing of the kind. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not that organization the Sen- 
ator just asked about, the Council on African Affairs, has been cited 
as a subversive organization by the Attorney General ? 

Mr. Benjamin. It has been recently, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Abraham J. Isserman ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know anything about him ; any more than 
reading about him in the paper. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign a statement protesting the disbarment 
proceedings against Abraham J. Isserman and Harry Sacher last 
year? 

Mr. Benjamin. I did. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to do that ? 

Mr. Benjamin. At the time, Harry Sacher represented several 
unions. I don't recall just which one it was, but I felt if a union 
lawyer was going to be disbarred because he represented anybody, 
then that should be protested. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Harry Sacher now, by the way? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Harry Sacher represented the 11 Communists, was one 
of the lawyers for the 11 Communists, in New York City, was he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. To my understanding; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't say qualifiedly — I mean, a straightforward 
"Yes" or "No" — because, in the process of subscriptions or something 
of the kind it is possible that I could be recorded as a member of the 
Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in April of this year, represent your union in 
a rally on the Save Willie McGee issue of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Benjamin. No; I never represented my union anywhere. 
When I go to something like that, I go as an individual. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to that rally on behalf of Willie McGee, in 
April of this year? 

Mr. Benjamtn. Where was that held, sir? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 95 

Mr. Arens. In St. Nicholas Arena, New York City ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I attended that rally; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you speak at the rally ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Bill Patterson was there; was he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, maybe he was. 

Mr. Arens. Was Ben Gold there 1 

Mr. Benjamin. I honestly don't recall all the speakers who were 
there. It is possible that he might have been there, but I attended as 
a spectator. 

Senator Eastland. You know him, do you not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Ben Gold? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. I have heard him speak. I have seen him. 

Senator Eastland. You know him, then ? 

Mr. Benjamin. When you say "know him," I must say this: I 
know him from seeing him and having heard him speak. 

Senator Eastland. All right. Did you see him there? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall actually whether he was there, or 
whether he spoke. I remember this : At one meeting, there was some 
speaker who was scheduled to appear, and I think it was the Willie 
McGee affair, and he didn't show up. Now, I am not sure just which 
one it was. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know Earl Browder ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir ; I don't know him. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know William Z. Foster ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't say that I know him either, any more than 
knowing he is a public figure. 

Senator Eastland. Did you ever see him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall that I have actually seen him. 

Senator Easteand. Did you ever talk to Earl Browder ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir; I have never seen him at all, other than 
seeing his picture in the paper. 

Mr. Arens. What is the publication, the Link ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, as I know it, it is a railroad paper, published 
under the sponsorship of the Communist Party, that is my informa- 
tion, or as I understand it- 
Mr. Arens. Do you subscribe to it ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I did. 

Senator Eastland. Do you subscribe to the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Benjamin. I did at one time. 

Senator Eastland. When did you quit ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, it ran out, and I never bothered to renew it. 

Senator Eastland. When was that ? When were you a subscriber 
to the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Benjamin. This has been a couple of years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Now, you signed a paper, did you not, condemning the 
United States in the Korean conflict back in July of 1950? 

Mr. Benjamin. Not in such language, not that I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. Well, did you sign a statement entitled "A Protest and 
a Plea," with reference to the United States participation in the 
Korean conflict? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall exactly the way you put it, sir. 



96 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arexs. "What is it that you signed, then, in July of 1950, with 
reference to the United States participation in the Korean conflict? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall the exact language. I will say this : 
At the time of the Korean conflict, I felt it would be unwise to start 
any such thing as a full-sized war on account of such a situation. 

Mr. Arexs. And what happened? "What did you do? 

Mr. Benjamin. It is possible that I might have signed some such 
protest, 

Mr. Arexs. I put it to you as a fact that you signed a protest issued 
under the auspices of the Council on African Affairs, condemning 
the United States for its participation in the Korean conflict. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't answer it on the way you put it, sir. I said 
it was possible that I might have signed such a thing, but as far as the 
language you read, I just can't record that as a fact, because actually 
I can't remember what the petition is. 

Mr. Arexs. What is the Council on African Affairs? 

Mr. Benjamin. As I know it, it is an organization that disseminates 
information about Africa and its affairs, et cetera. 

Mr. Arexs. It is an organization that has been cited as a sub- 
versive organization by the Attorney General of the United States, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Bex.jamix. That I learned later. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Who has been present with you at Communist 
meetings ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. I don't recall that I ever actually attended any 
Communist meetings, except the one, it is possible, at Webster Hall, 
and that is a place where they were packed with people. 

_ Senator Eastlaxd. Did you go there as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party or as a private individual ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. I just went there as a private individual. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Everybody there were Communists, though, 
were they not ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. I couldn't assume that, since I was invited as a 
private individual. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Who invited you? 

Mr. Bexjamix. I don't quite recall now. I met so many people in 
those days. 

Mr. Arexs. You were a delegate to the Communist Party conven- 
tion in 1948, were you not ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. Xo, sir. As I said before, I wasn't a delegate to 
any such thing. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Was that the State convention, now, or some 
other ? 

Mr. Arexs. The Xew York State convention. 

Mr. Benjamin. The only time I have been a delegate, really, to 
anything, was when I was a delegate to the Progressive Party conven- 
tion in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arexs. Who designated you as a delegate to the Progressive 
Party convention in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Bexmamix". As far as I know, the executive board, or some 
such arrangement. I don't know just who did. I received word from 
them that I was appointed as a delegate. 

Senator Eastlaxd. The executive board of what ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 97 

Mr. Benjamin. The national executive board of the Progressive 
Party, I assume, because that was where I got the literature that I was 
a delegate, and would I attend, and I told them I would. 

Senator Eastland. Solon Bell is a Communist, is he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know anything about Solon Bell to tell you 
anything like that. I couldn't tell you that. 

Mr. Arens. Robert Wood is a Communist, is he not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know anything about these things. 

Mr. Arens. Wait a minute. Is not Robert Wood a Communist? 

Mr. Benjamin. I just told you, sir, the only way I can tell a man 
is a 

Mr. Arens. Do you not know it as a fact that Robert Wood is a 
Communist ? 

Senator Eastland. What is your judgment now as to whether or 
not he is a Communist? 

Mr. Arens. We are not asking about you, we are asking about these 
fellows. 

Mr. Benjamin. I understand that, too. 

Mr. Arens. How about Wood. Is he a Communist ? 

Senator Eastland. Ask him what his judgment is. In your judg- 
ment, is he a Communist ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I wouldn't want to pass judgment on him or any- 
body else, and I tried to declare, when you asked me the question the 
first time, by refraining from answering. Now then you are back to 
the same question again. 

Senator Eastland. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Senator Eastland. On the record. 

I want you to answer the question : Is Robert Wood, and also Solon 
Bell, a Communist? . 

Mr. Benjamin. May I speak just for a minute off the record to you, 
Senator ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. Off the record. 

Mr. Arens. On the record. 

Mr. Benjamin, in your judgment, is Robert Wood a Communist? 

Mr. Benjamin. Again, I say that I can't answer the question under 
my rights, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You understand, I am not asking about yourself, I am 
asking you about Robert Wood. Is that correct? 

Senator Eastland. Let the record show that if he wants to make 
that reason, I guess that is up to him. 

Mr. Benjamin. Am I expected to answer that ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. I want you to answer that. I want the 
record to show that I order you to answer that question. 

Mr. Benjamin. I said I can't answer, on the ground that I feel I 
have the right to refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Eastland. How long have you known Mr. Bromsen? 

Mr. Benjamin. I met him in 1947. 

Senator Eastland. Were you one of them that employed him as at- 
torney for the union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No; I wasn't there at the meeting when he was 
employed as an attorney for the union. 

Senator Eastland. How was it that he was employed ? How did it 
come about that he was employed as an attorney for the union? 



98 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know, but my best recollection is that this- 
all happened in Chicago, in 1947. when the first convention was held 
out there. I don't know. I met him in 1947, after they had formed 
the national organization, out in Chicago. 

Senator Eastland. Did you know him before the organization was 
formed ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know who suggested his employment as 
an attorney for the union? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know that either. 

Mr. Arens. Osie Long was out there in Chicago for the formation 
of this union, too, was he not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I think he was. He works out of Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Robert Wood was there too, was he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Mr. Arens, I was not there in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Well, you knew Osie Long was there. 

Mr. Benjamin. I said I assumed that he was, because he works out 
of Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. How about Robert Wood? Do you assume he was 
there, too ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I wouldn't assume anything of the kind. 

Mr. Arens. How about Oscar Greene '. Was he out there? 

Mr. Benjamin. He was. At least he told us he was out there, be- 
cause he left New York to go out there. 

I mentioned before he was one of the people that started the break- 
away from the old union here in New York, and this all happened in 
Chicago, after we had started the breakawav from the union in New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. Is he still affiliated with the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir; he was expelled. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr. Benjamin. To the best of my recollection, that was in 1948. 
I think that was directly before the elections were held, or directly 
after, but I am almost sure that it was in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. What is he doing now? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. He is teaching school now, is he not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I said I haven't seen Oscar since the expulsion. 

Mr. Arens. You were editor of the Negro Railway Labor News for 
a while, were you not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I was. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Citizens Memorial Committee for the Mar- 
tinsville Seven? 

Mr. Benjamin. What is it ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sponsor that organization ? 

Air. Benjamin. It is possible I may have lent my name to such an 
organization. 

Mr. Arens. Who got you to do that ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Again, sir. I received a telephone call, and if I 
am in sympathy with the project I tell them "All right, go ahead and 
use my name." I was in sympathy with the Martinsville seven. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 99 

Senator Eastland. Is it your testimony that you do not know who 
solicited you to sign that as a sponsor ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. No; I said I don't recall. You see, I am in the 
office, somebody calls up. Possibly, in most cases, or rather, I would 
say, in every case, they give me their names over the telephone. If 
I am in sympathy with the project, I just say "All right, go ahead." 

Senator Eastlaxd. In this case, did someone telephone you '. 

Mr. Benjamix. I wouldn't state that as a positive fact, that it was 
a telephone call, or that it was a personal thing, but I will say for the 
fact that when I am in sympathy with something like that, if I am 
asked, I just give my consent. 

Senator Eastland. Answer this question "Yes" or "No" : 

Do you remember who solicited you to become a sponsor for that? 

Mr. Bexjamix. Senator, would you repeat the question \ You are 
asking me : Do I remember who told me? 

Senator Eastlaxd. Yes. 

Mr. Bexjamix. No; I really don't remember, and that is honest. 

Senator Eastlaxd. That is what I want. The answer is "No ; you 
don't remember.'' 

Mr. Arexs. "Were you a delegate to the legislative assembly and 
rally to end segregation and discrimination against Negroes \ 

Mr. Bexjamix. What was that specifically about. If it has to do 
with Stuyvesant Town. I would say "Yes."' 

Mr. Arexs. If it has to do with what ? 

Mr. Bexjamix. Stuyvesant Town. 

Mr. Arexs. Where is that \ 

Mr. Bex'jamix. That was a project in New York that there was a 
lot of demonstration against. 

Mr. Arex's. And were you a delegate to the legislative assembly and 
rally in reference to Stuyvesant Town? 

Mr. Bex t jamix\ I don't know that I was a delegate. I know I sup- 
ported that movement. 

Mr. Arexs. What did you do to support it ? 

Mr. Bex~jamix\ Well, for one. I signed petitions. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Who solicited you to do that \ 

Mr. Bexjamix-. Anybody who might have been on the committee 
at that particular time. 

Senator Eastlaxd. Do you remember who solicited you X 

Mr. Bexjamix*. I remember a letter coming specifically over the 
signature of Paul Ross, because I think he was chairman of something 
of that same committee. He was one of the persons who was evicted 
or was about to be evicted. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Provisional Committee for a 
Democratic Jury System I 

Mr. Bexjamix". I don't recall that. 

Mr. Arex'S. I put it to you as a fact that you were a member of the 
Provisional Committee for a Democratic Jurv Svstem in New York 
City. " ' 

Senator Eastland. In 1049. 

Mr. Arexs. In 1949. 

Mr. Bexjamix-. Well, that I can neither affirm nor deny, because I 
don't recall it at this point. 

Mr. Arexs. "Were you a member of the panel of advisers at a con- 
ference sponsored hj the Young Progressives of America in June 
of 1949? 



100 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall that one, either. 

Mr. Arens. And were yon a member of the nominations committee 
of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia in 1948 ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Of the nominations committee? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't think I was. 

Mr. Arens. Were yon connected with the Progressive Party's con- 
vention in Philadelphia in 1948? 

Mr. Benjamin. I was a delegate there. 

Senator Eastland. The Progressive Party released your name as 
a member of its nominating committee. 

Mr. Benjamin. I said I don't recall that I was there. It is possible. 
I don't know. 

Senator Eastland. Did you go to meetings ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I attended some of the meetings on the labor panel 
at the time that I was there, but, as far as the nominating committee, 
I don't recall that right now. 

Senator Eastland. Did you ever defend William L. Patterson ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is also possible. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know Patterson ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I have met him. 

Senator Eastland. When did you meet him the first time ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall that now. 

Senator Eastland. About how long ago ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I really don't recall. I put it in the neighborhood 
of 2 years, or 21/2 — something like that. 

Senator Eastland. What has been your contact with him since 
you first met him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No other contact than if there was any projects like 
the Willie McGee case or the Stuyvesant Town case, like that, that he 
was interested in, and I was similarly interested in. 

Senator Eastland. About how many times have you seen him since 
you first met him? 

Mr. Benjamin. That would be quite difficult to really answer cor- 
rectly, that is to say, just how many number of times. 

Senator Eastland. What is your judgment? 

Mr. Benjamin. I would place it around six at the most. 

Mr. Arens. He is executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, 
is he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. I think he is. 

Mr. Arens. You know he is, do you not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I don't know that for a fact, other than see- 
ing it on the literature, or something like that. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know Benjamin Davis? 

Mr. Benjamin. Other than what I have read about him? I know 
that he was one of the 11 Communists that were tried and sentenced, 
and I have heard him speak at street-corner rallies, and so forth. 

Senator Eastland. Have you met him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, it is possible that I might have, but I don't 
recall any specific instance where I met him, that is, not that I can 
recall, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know a man named Eobert Thompson? 

Mr. Benjamin. Which Robert Thompson is this? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 101 

Senator Eastland. The Communist. The Communist leader in 
New York State. 

Mr. Benjamin. I wouldn't say I know him, I know of him. I have 
heard him speak, too. 

Senator Eastland. Did you ever meet him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Not that I can recall. 

Senator Eastland. The 11 Communists that were tried and con- 
victed — you know of them — you know who they are, do you not ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I read the papers, Senator, and I have heard 
some of them speak from time to time. 

Senator Eastland. Where did you hear them speak? 

Mr. Benjamin. In street-corner rallies or sometimes in halls. As 
a matter of fact, right downstairs, under where our office is on Lenox 
Avenue in New York, there are always public rallies going on, and 
they went on all through the election campaign, and most every party 
speaks on that corner. 

Senator Eastland. Were they Communist rallies ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, all of them — the Republican Party, the Dem- 
ocrats, the Socialists, the Communists, the ALP, everybody holds 
meetings. And for your information, this is between One hundred 
and twenty-fifth and One hundred twenty-sixth Streets. 

Senator Eastland. What I am trying to get at is where you heard 
him speak. Was that at a Communist rally % 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, possibly, sometimes it might have been. As 
a matter of fact, I would have to say yes at least one of them was, 
because a great banner on the top said "Sponsored by the Communist 
Party." 

Senator Eastland. You say you have to say "Yes." I don't want 
you to take that attitude. I want you to be plain-spoken and just tell 
us the truth, not what you have to say. That will not do. 

How many Communist rallies have you been to ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That would be more than difficult to answer. 

Senator Eastland. Why? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, because you pass along the street and there 
is a rally, and you stop, and then you have attended one. 

Senator Eastland. I would say I could have attended one like that. 
But about how many have you been to — what is your best judgment? 

Mr. Benjamin. Frankly, I couldn't give you any estimate, because 
up there in the Bronx they have them, and in Manhattan, they have 
them, and I live in Manhattan and work in the Bronx. 

Senator Eastland. Have you attended 50 ? 

Mr. Benjamin. It would be difficult for me to even give you an 
estimate, because some of them that I might think would be Commu- 
nist rallies wouldn't have to be Communist rallies, and therefore, I 
would be stating something I am not too sure of. 

Senator Eastland. Is that your only contact with the Communist 
Party, to attend those rallies that you described ? 

Mr. Benjamin. How do you mean that, Senator, my only contact? 

Senator Eastland. Is that your only contact with the Communist 
Party, to attend those rallies, or have you had other contacts with 
the party ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't quite understand the question. I am going 
to have to refuse to answer it again, on the same grounds that I stated 
before. 



102 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Here again it involves something that I don't quite comprehend 
legally, and since I am without advice of counsel, I have to use this 
means. 

Senator Eastland. Is it true that your sole contact with Ben Davis 
wa s to hear him speak ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Senator, you ask a question difficult for me to 
answer. 

Senator Eastland. Was that your answer a few minutes ago, that 
your sole contact with Ben Davis was to hear him speak ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't recall that I put the answer that way. 

Senator Eastland. What did you say, then ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I am afraid I will have to go back to the 
record to see precisely what the answer was, because I certainly 
couldn't tell you right off. I know I did tell you that I have heard 
him speak, and I have seen him. 

Senator Eastland. That is right. You stated that that was all you 
knew about him, and I ask you if you had any further contact with 
him? 

Mr. Benjamin. Senator, if that is what the record says, I am afraid 
I will have to let it stand. 

Mr. Arens. Is it not a fact that you have had conversations with 
reference to union affairs, with Ben Davis ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I didn't say that. 

Mr. Arens. I say : Is it not a fact that you have ? Have you not 
had conversations with Ben Davis? 

Senator Eastland. About union affairs. 

Mr. Arens. About union affairs. 

Mr. Benjamin. On this, Senator, I will have to decline again on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Ben Davis was a leading member of the Communist 
Party, was he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Based on information in the newspapers, I would 
have to say "Yes." I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. You knew that from other sources, than from the 
newspapers, too, did you not? 

Senator Eastland. Wait a minute. That is privileged. I am not 
going to make him answer that. That is a privileged question. You 
do not have to answer it unless you want to. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in the Communist Party's head- 
quarters on Thirteenth Street in New York City ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That I am going to refuse to answer, too, for the 
same reason. 

Senator Eastland. You are going to have to answer the question, 
because you can go there, and it does not mean that you are a Com- 
munist, and it does not mean that you are incriminated, to go there. 

Mr. Benjamin. Senator, you make it very difficult. But I am going 
to have to refuse, on the same ground 

Senator Eastland. I am going to have to order you to answer that 
question. I Avant you to answer that question. It does not mean that 
yon are a Communist. I could have been there. 

Mr. Benjamin. May I say something to you off the record, please? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. Off the record. 
(Discussion off the record) . 

Mr. Arens. On the record. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 103 

You can tell us whether or not you have ever been to the Com- 
munist Party headquarters at Thirteenth Street there in New York 
City, Benjamin? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir. I am afraid I have to claim the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. You are not afraid of Bob Wood, are you ? 

Mr. Benjamin. The only thing that I am afraid of is getting my- 
self in a lot of trouble that stems, really, from something I know is 
meant to be trouble. 

Senator Eastland. You are going to get in trouble now if you do 
not answer that question. You are to determine what you want. 

Mr. Benjamin. Do you want me to answer the question if I am 
afraid of Kobert Wood? 

Mr. Arens. Robert Wood, yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Is this the same Robert Wood that you had refer- 
ence to all along ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't have any fear of anybody. I haven't done 
anybody wrong, including him. 

Senator Eastland. Your answer is that you are not afraid of him? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Does he issue any orders to you in the course of your 
work ? 

Mr. Benjamin. In the course of my work? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, since that can be construed to mean a number 
of things, I decline to answer, under the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever have any conversations with Henry 
AVinston? 

Mr. Benjamin. With Henry Winston? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Again I would have to decline to answer that one 
for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Henry Winston ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, from what I have just read and admitted here, 
lie is one of the 11 Communists who were convicted. 

Senator Eastland. Is that all you know about him, what is in the 
papers? 

Mr. Benjamin. I will have to decline to answer that one, too, 
Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Do the pullman porters belong to your union ? 

Mr. Benjamin. The pullman porters ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir ; they don't. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Gus Hall ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I know that he was one of the 11 — I can't even re- 
member the names of all the 11 of them, but I think he was one of 
them. 

Mr. Arens. Well, do you know him ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I can't answer that question either. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a Communist ? 

Senator Eastland. You mean you cannot answer that question? 
What is your reason that you cannot answer it ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I have to depend on my privileges, under the 
fifth amendment, to refrain from answering the question. That is 
what I meant b}^ that, sir. 



104 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Gus Hall was in the high command of the party, was 
he not? 

Mr. Benjamin. Sir ; that is part of the same question. I will have 
to refuse to answer it, on the same grounds. 

Senator Eastland. Are dining car waiters used to carry messages 
over the country? 

Mr. Benjamin. That is not their line of work at all. 

Senator Eastland. Answer my question. Are they used to carry 
messages and information over this country? 

Mr. Benjamin. Not that I know of. Their only function — dining 
car waiters, you said ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. The only function that I know that they have on 
the roads that I am familiar with is, is to serve food there. 

Senator Eastland. Do you mean to tell me that some of them are 
not used to carry Communist dispatches over this country ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I couldn't answer that question at all. 

Senator Eastland. Why ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Because I haven't that knowledge. The only thing 
I know about a dining car waiter is that he is supposed to serve food 
and drinks, et cetera, on dining cars. That is his work. 

Mr. Arens. What is your salary ? 

Mr. Benjamin. My salary with the union, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. My salary is $350 a month, and that includes ex- 
penses. 

Mr. Arens. What other income do you have ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't have any other income. 

Mr. Arens. Now, how about your outgo. What do you contribute 
to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Benjamin. That question I have to refuse to answer. 

Senator Eastland. That question is privileged. 

Mr. Arens. What contributions do you make to the various organi- 
zations ? Could you tell us that ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I have made contributions to any number of or- 
ganizations, depending on who it is, and that sort of thing. There 
are not too many. I can tell you that. 

Mr. Arens. Does the union preclude from membership, members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, sir; part of the constitution states that all per- 
sons are eligible, and I am not quoting this verbatim, mind you, all 
persons are eligible who are employed on the railroads in the capacity 
that we represent, without regard to their race, religion, or political 
beliefs — something of that kind. 

Mr. Arens. Does the union preclude from the holding of an office 
in the union a member of the Communist Party ( 

Mr. Benjamin. No; not that I know of. There is nothing in the 
constitution that provides for the exclusion of anybody from running 
for office. 

Mr. Arens. Who wrote the constitution of the union, do you know? 

Mr. Benjamin. No; I don't know that. 

Mr. Arens. Did Bromseu write it '( 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 105 

Mr. Benjamin. I don't know that, You see, when the constitution 
and the convention was held, I wasn't there. I was in New York. I 
was still working on the road at the time. 

Senator Eastland. Were you a waiter ? 

Mr. Benjamin. I was a cook. 

Senator Eastland. What railroad? 

Mr. Benjamin. Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Arens. This union has a contract with the Pennsylvania, does 
it not? 

Mr. Benjamin. It has. 

Mr. Arens. And it is certified by the National Mediation Board as 
the bargaining agent to negotiate with the Pennsylvania Railroad; 
is that not correct ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Yes ; it has. I think Mr. Lawrence Farmer was the 
mediator. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now, or have you ever been a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Benjamin. Senator, I have to refuse to answer that question on 
the claim of the privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you disassociate yourself from the Communism 
Party prior to the enactment of the Smith Act in 1940? 

Mr. Benjamin. I have to refuse to answer that question, too. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had any trouble with the operators of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad with reference to literature which you brought 
onto the premises of the railroad ? 

Mr. Benjamin. Operators \ 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Benjamin. Do you mean the dining car department heads? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Benjamin. Well, I will relate the incident, and you tell me 
whether it was trouble or not, because I don't consider that I had any 
trouble with them. 

At the time that we were organizing the dining-car men, I was still 
working on the road, and I appeared over there one day with some 
literature, and Mr. Robinson 

Mr. Arens. What was the literature that you brought on there? 

Mr. Benjamin. Dining car union literature. 

Mr. Arens. It was Link, was it not? The Communist publication? 

Mr. Benjamin. No, no, no. This was some mimeographed sheets. 

Mr. Robinson called me in his office and told me that he didn't want 
me distributing any literature on the property. That was the only 
time that any supervisory officer in the railroad had ever spoken to me 
about literature on the property. 

Mr. Arens. You were ejected from the property, were you not? 

Mr. Benjamin. No; I wasn't. 

Senator Eastland. Is that all ? 

Mr. Arens. That is all I have, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Thank you, Mr. Benjamin. 

Do you want to excuse Mr. Benjamin? 

Mr. Arens. I would suggest that he be retained under the subpena, 
subject to the call of the chairman. 

Senator Eastland. That will be all for today. 

( Whereupon the hearing was recessed to reconvene at the call of 
the Chair.) 

89656 — 51 — —8 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1951 

» United States Senate, 

Internal Security Subcommittee or the 

Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 154, 
Senate Office Building, Hon. Herbert R. O'Conor presiding. 
Present : Senator O'Conor. 

Also present: Richard Arens, staff director; Frank W. Schroeder, 
professional staff member; and Mitchel M. Carter, investigator. 

Senator O'Conor. I am acting by authority of the chairman of 
the Judiciary Committee in swearing in the present witness to testify 
before the Judiciary subcommittee. 

Now, will you kindly raise your right hand ? 

In the presence of the Almighty God, do you swear that the testi- 
mony you are about to give before the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth? 

Mr. Long. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OSIE LONG, OF CHICAGO, ILL. 

Senator O'Conor. Will you state your full name ? 

Mr. Long. Osie Long. 

Senator O'Conor. What is your address ? 

Mr. Long. 5407 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Senator O'Conor. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Long. Dining-car waiter. 

Senator O'Conor. For what period of time have you been so 
engaged ? 

Mr. Long. For 16 years. 

Mr. Arens. What is your connection with the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union, Mr. Long? 

Mr. Long. I was elected vice president of the Chicago region. 

Mr. Arens. When were you elected ? 

Mr. Long. During the first convention, which was held in Chicago 
in 1946. I think it was in April; I am not certain. 

Mr. Arens. And you have served continuously since 1946, as vice 
president ? 

Mr. Long. In name only. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by that ? 

107 



108 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Long. Well, in order to maintain the organization in their 
official status, I have remained as vice president. But, as such, I 
haven't had any duties to perform, because the organization hasn't 
been able to function. 

As a result, I am on the railroad now, working, and I am still 
carried as vice president. 

Mr. Arens. Well now, you are vice president of the Chicago area ?' 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And there is also a New York area; is there not? 

Mr. Long. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Where is the next area ? 

Mr. Long. Well, we have an organizational committee on the west 
coast. • • 

Mr. Arens. What is that area called ? 

Mr. Long. It is called the west coast region. 

Mr. Arens. Now, you are the vice president of the Chicago area?' 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Who is vice president of the New York area ? 

Mr. Long. Daniel Benjamin. 

Mr. Arens. And who is vice president on the west coast? 

Mr. Long. Well, they haven't set up an organization out there as- 
yet. We don't have a vice president. 

Mr. Arens. Now, who are the officers who run the organization, the 
over-all officers? 

Mr. Long. The president is Solon Bell. I am vice president of the 
Chicago region. Daniel Benjamin is vice president of the New York 
region. I am trying to think of the fellow's name down in St. Louis, 
who is serving out an unexpired term. I will think of his name in a 
second. It is Leroy Wilson, as vice president, in St. Louis. 

Mr. Arens. Now, how many members do you have in the Chicago' 
area, over which you are vice president? 

Mr. Long. I can only estimate. I would say roughly about 300. 

Mr. Arens. And how many do they have in the New York area ? 

Mr. Long. I am not able to say how many they have in New York.. 
I would say close to 500. 

Mr. Arens. How many do they have out on the west coast? 

Mr. Long. I don't know ; that is only a committee working out there. 
They are organizing on the Southern Pacific. 

Mr. Arens. Who is working on the Southern Pacific to get that 
railroad organized ? 

Mr. Long. Solon Bell. 

Mr. Arens. Anybody else? 

Mr. Long. Well, who formed that committee, I don't know, because 
it was taken care of by the men out there on the west coast, You see, 
each region operates independently of the other. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I understood you to say a little while ago, Mr. 
Long, that although you are vice president of the Chicago region, you 
are vice president, as you said, in name only. 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union has a contract with the Pennsylvania Railroad, does it not? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How did that contract come to be ? How did it come 
to pass? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 109 

Mr. Long. We negotiated the contract with the Pennsylvania. We 
won an election, and the National Mediation Board authorized this 
organization as bargaining agent. We entered into an agreement with 
the railroad to change the contract from the old contract to the new, 
the old contract which was in existence under the Hotel and Restau- 
rant International. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Hotel and Restaurant Inter- 
national? 

Mr. Long. I was. 

Mr. Arens. Were you one of those who helped form the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who were those who participated in forming the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Long. I would say that I was most instrumental of all the men. 
Mr. Bell, who was the most mature of all of us, and knew more about 
organizing than any of the rest of us, spearheaded it. I think I had 
the membership. I more or less had the membership on the Penn- 
sylvania. I had been representing them for almost 10 years under the 
old organization. We were guided by Mr. Bell, and the membership 
followed me. 

Mr. Arens. What was the lawyer's name that worked with you 
on that? 

Mr. Long. Mr. Bromsen. 

Mr. Arens. What was his first name? 

Mr. Long. I think it was Archibald. 

Mr. Arens. Archibald Bromsen? 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did he help form the organization, too? 

Mr. Long. He never worked with us. He was employed by the 
eastern region. 

Mr. Arens. By "us," you mean the Chicago group? 

Mr. Long. Yes. He didn't help us. I never met Mr. Bromsen 
until after our organization was formed. 

Mr. Arens. Was Robert Wood instrumental in the formation of 
this union, the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Long. I heard that he had something to do with it here in the 
East. He was certainly interfering with the organization, I found 
out later on, but officially he had nothing to do with the organization. 
That is one of the things that I was at odds with some of the officers 
about, because he constantly interfered with the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any difference with Solon Bell over 
Robert Wood's interference? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Mr. Long. Well, we had an executive board made up of dining-car 
workers, men who worked on dining cars; and we were supposed to 
be the policy-making branch of the organization. 

We would sit down and agree on first one policy and then another. 
From time to time Mr. Bell made trips to New York and he would 
come back and would always change what we had previously decided 
upon. 



110 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

As a result, we always were at odds with one another, and I have- 
no way of determining that Robert Wood was the influence, but that 
is my personal opinion. 

Mr. Schroeder. Your personal opinion is that Robert Wood was- 
interfering with the formation of this union ? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Now, this committee you were talking about, was that 
the Provisional Committee for Progressive Dining Car Employees 
Union ? 

Mr. Long. I wouldn't know about that. We had no such committee- 
Mr. Arens. Now, can you give us a little further explanation as 
to your statement that you are vice president in name only? 

Mr. Long. I mean by that that I am unable to actually do any work 
for the organization, excepting in an advisory capacity, because 1 am 
on the railroad every day. In fact, I haven't even been in our office- 
in Chicago in months. 

Mr. Arens. Who runs the office in Chicago ? 

Mr. Long. It is being kept open by McGuire. 

Mr. Arens. What is his full name ? 

Mr. Long. Howard McGuire. 

Mr. Arens. Who is he ? 

Mr. Long. He is the national secretary and treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Was he appointed by Solon Bell ? 

Mr. Long. I don't know whether he was appointed or elected. I 
don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Wasn't he nominated by Solon Bell at the last meeting 
of the group ? 

Mr. Long. At the last meeting ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Long. No; he has been serving as secretary-treasurer for some- 
time. A fellow named Greene, from New York 

Mr. Arens. What is his full name ? 

Mr. Long. I don't know his first name. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Oscar Greene ? 

Mr. Long. Yes — Oscar Greene. He was elected secretary-treasurer 
at the convention. Oscar Greene I had never seen in my life before, 
and I don't know him. He was supposed to be a dining-car worker 
on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. I only met him as a dining-car 
worker. 

Mr. Arens. Now, how many members are there of the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union working on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad ? 

Mr. Long. You mean on the system basis ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Long. Well, I would say approximately 1,000 members. 

Mr. Arens. Well, how many members of the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union are not on the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
with whom you have the contract, but are on other roads ( 

Mr. Long. I don't know. At one time we had quite a few members 
on the Milwaukee Railroad. But we lost an election over there, and 
we lost the membership. Now, I don't think there are any members 
over there, maintaining their membership, their paid-up membership, 
witli the possible exception of Ralph Turner. He would be the only 
one, though, I would think, who was positively paid up. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 111 

Mr. Arens. Who is Ralph Turner ? 

Mr. Long. He is the waiter in charge on the Milwaukee Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a member of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union % 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have members on any other roads ? 

Mr. Long. Not that I know of in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Well, how about the East ? 

Mr. Long. I wouldn't know about the East. 

Mr. Arens. How about on the coast ? 

Mr. Long. On the coast reports have come to me that approxi- 
mately 300 or 400 men are paying dues on the Southern Pacific. 

Mr. Arens. That is, paying dues to the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Long. In California. 

Mr. Arens. But you don't have a contract with the Southern 
Pacific ? 

Mr. Long. No. We are organizing there. 

Mr. Arens. And Mr. Solon Bell is out there right now, at the 
present time, organizing on the Southern Pacific ; is that right ? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What do you know about Robert Wood ? 

Mr. Long. I don't know anything about him. I only met him 
twice in my life. 

Mr. Arens. Where were those two times ? 

Mr. Long. The first time I met him I was in New York at the con- 
vention. It was not a convention, it was a meeting with the Penn- 
sylvania management. At that time, Greene had just been 

Mr. Arens. You mean Oscar Greene ? 

Mr. Long. Yes ; Oscar Greene. 

He had just been elected an officer of our union, and Greene was 
escorting me around New York City. I don't know too much about 
New York. He carried me to a place on the East Side of New York, 
which I eventually found out was the Communist headquarters. He 
had some business with Robert Wood there. That is where I met 
him. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I think the record ought to be clear on this : 

Is it your testimony — and if I misconstrue it in any way, please cor- 
rect me — that when you went to New York City, Oscar Greene took 
you to the Communist Party headquarters in New York City ? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And there Oscar Greene had some conferences with 
Robert Wood ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Long. He had some business with Robert Wood there. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the presence of Oscar Greene when he 
had this conversation with Robert Wood ? 

Mr. Long. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. What was the substance of the conversation? What 
did they talk about ? 

Mr. Long. That I don't remember. It was very informal. It 
had to do with something that he was writing for him, or something. 

Mr. Arens. Something that who was writing for whom ? 

Mr. Long. That Wood was writing for Oscar Greene. 



112 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. And that was in the Communist Party headquarters 
in New York City ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. He was the editor at one time of a Communist Party 
paper, wasn't he ? 

Mr. Long. He was. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of that paper, do you recall that? 

Mr. Long. The Workers Railroad Link. 

Mr. Arens. It was the Link, was it not ? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did Robert Wood participate in the affairs of the 
Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Long. Not as I know of. 

Mr. Arens. But you do know that he and Greene were in con- 
sultation? 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. That is, Oscar Greene? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did Oscar Greene ever solicit you to join the party? 

Mr. Long. Oscar Greene didn't; no. 

Mr. Arens. Who did? 

Mr. Long. Well, on several occasions I have been asked to join the 
Communist Party. There was a man in Chicago at one time con- 
nected with the Hotel and Restaurant International whose name was 
Flore — Ishmel P. Flore. 

These men have an indirect way of contacting. 

Mr. Arens. What men do ? The Communists, you mean ? 

Mr. Long. That is right. He told me that a man named Ray 
Hansberry wanted to see me. I asked him who Ray Hansberry was, 
and he never told me. But one day we were leaving the union head- 
quarters. He was driving a car and he offered to take me home. 

Mr. Arens. When was this, by the way ? 

Mr. Long. This was several years ago. 

Mr. Arens. About 1945 or 1946 ? 

Mr. Long. Much earlier than that. 

Mr. Arens. 1943 or 1944? 

Mr. Long. About 1941 or 1942, I would say. He stopped off on 
Fifty-third Street, somewhere between Calumet Avenue and Indiana 
Avenue, and he asked me to come up with him upstairs. I saw on 
the door something about the Communist Party. 

Mr. Hansberry and somebody else was there, and he introduced me 
to Mr. Hansberry. He told me that he had been trying to contact 
me for some time and he told me that I was a progressive person and 
was working in the interests of people who worked on the railroad, 
and therefore I should join the Communist Party. 

I told him that I wasn't interested in any phase of politics, that I 
was only interested in dining-car workers as such, and the conditions 
under which they worked, and that that was my sole interest in labor 
organizations. I told him that I wasn't interested in any kind of 
political activities whatever. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell us about the next time you were invited to 
join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Loxg. It was by this same person, Ray Hansberry. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 113 

Mr. Long. It was in New York City. He left Chicago — I don't 
know when — but I finally found out that he was in New York. I was 
attending an executive board meeting of local 370. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Long. No. This is the Hotel and Restaurant International 
Organization. 

Mr. Arens. That was the old organization ? 

Mr. Long. That is right. Mr. Bell was in New York for some 
reason — I don't remember what. 

Mr. Arens. Solon Bell, the president of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Long. Yes. We were stopping at the same hotel and he took 
me by this same place on East Twelfth Street in New York. 

Mr. Arens. You mean the Communist Party headquarters? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get the record clear at this point. Who took 
you by the Communist Party headquarters ? 

Mr. Long. Mr. Bell. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell did? 

Mr. Long. That is right. He had business over there, which I don't 
know the nature of. He left me to talk with Ray Hansberry. 

I talked with him at length. He talked about the political situation, 
and he finally ended up again by asking if I was ready to join the 
party. Again I told him that I wasn't interested in politics and that 
I would never join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell us about the next time you were solicited to 
join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Long. Those are the only times that I have been asked to join 
the Communist Party. I think they eventually understood that I 
wasn't interested in communism or the Communist Party, and they 
never bothered me again. 

Mr. Arens. How about Solon Bell? Did he join the party? 

Mr. Long. I couldn't say. I don't know whether he ever joined the 
party or not. I never asked him ; he never asked me that. 

Mr. Arens. How about McGuire? Do you know whether he ever 
joined the party? 

Mr. Long. I doubt it very seriously. McGuire isn't interested in 
politics at all. 

Mr. Arens. Now, who is it in this Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union, to your knowledge, that has joined the party? 

Mr. Long. I couldn't swear that anybody has joined the party. I 
have my suspicions. I opposed certain sections in our organization,, 
who tried to bring outside activities into the organization. 

Mr. Arens. What sections of the organization ? 

Mr. Long. Eventually, I fell out with Greene, and eventually they 
put him out of the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Will you give us his full name ? 

Mr. Long. Oscar Greene. I was bitterly opposed to him. He tried 
to gain control of the organization, and I was generally opposed to 
the New York office of our organization, not because I knew that they 
were being influenced by outside groups, but because they were con- 
stantly in conflict with us, which made me suspicious that they were, 

Mr. Arens. How about Benjamin? 

Mr. Long. That is the man I have reference to. 



114 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Daniel Benjamin and Nicholson. What is Nicholson's 
first name '. 

Mr. Long. Yon will have to refresh my memory. We all called 
him Nick. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever attend the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago? 

Mr. Long. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you attend that school ? 

Mr. Long. I think I attended there 6 weeks. I took a course there 
in collective bargaining. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Workers Order? 

Mr. Long. No — the IWO, yes. I had an insurance policy with 
them. 

Mr. Arens. How about Mrs. Louise Patterson? Did you ever have 
any association, contacts, or dealings with her? 

Mr. Long. I only met her. At one time we had meetings at the 
Du Sable Center, and she was in charge there. We used to rent space 
there for meetings only. 

Mr. Arens. Did you introduce her for a speech ? 

Mr. Long. I don't think I have ever introduced her for a speech — 
possibly Mr. Bell has. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Long, did you attend the organizing convention 
of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union in Chicago in 
1947? 

Mr. Long. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the principal organizers there at the con- 
vention in 1947? 

Mr. Long. Mr. Bell, myself — Daniel Benjamin wasn't there. Oscar 
Greene was there, I believe ; I am not certain about that. There were 
men there from St. Louis. There was a man named Long from St. 
Louis. I don't know his first name. It is Co Van Long — I had never 
met him before. 

Mr. Arens. Who was the other one ? 

Mr. Long. I don't know the man who was with him. 

Mr. Carter. Was Archibald Bromsen the legal adviser at the con- 
vention? 

Mr. Long. Well, there wasn't any legal adviser, no legal advice to 
give at the convention. He came out to help at the organizing of the 
union. He was more or less a representative from the East. At that 
time I had never seen him before. He and Oscar Greene were 
together. 

Mr. Arens. Where did the money come from to organize this 
union ? 

Mr. Long. As far as I know, it came from dining-car workers. 

Mr. Arens. Greene had a good bundle of money, didn't he, when 
he was out there? 

Mr. Long. That is right. I don't know whether he had it out there 
or not, but the explanation that was given to me was that he received 
funds from organizations in New York to assist in the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Who received funds? 

Mr. Long. Greene. 

Mr. Arens. The explanation given to you was that Oscar Greene 
received funds from other organizations in New York? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 115 

Mr. Long. Other unions in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did lie tell you what unions there were in New York 
that gave the money' 

Mr. Long. No; I never saw any of the money. He was found 
guilty of confiscating some of that money. 

Mr. Arens. Oscar Greene was? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What happened? 

Mr. Long. Well, they kicked him out of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know William Albertson ? 

Mr. Long. William Albertson — no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Long, what is your appraisal, on the basis of your 
intimate association with Solon Bell, of his activities? 

Mr. Long. Well, I would say that Bell is sincere in what he is try- 
ing to do. so far as the union is concerned, but my sincere belief is 
that he is more interested in politics. 

Mr. Arens. What do you know about his association with 
Communists ? 

Mr. Long. Well, I don't know anything about his association with 
Communists, other than what I have already told you. He carried 
me to Communist headquarters on one occasion. He was associated 
with Ishmel Flore, who was a known Communist. 

Mr. Arens. What was Bell's association with Flore? 

Mr. Long. Well, they worked together in the Hotel and Restaurant 
International. Bell was an organizer, and Flore was chairman of 
the joint council. He was secretary-treasurer. Flore was eventually 
•dismissed from the council for Communist activities. 

That is all of the association I have with Flore. In addition, Flore 
tried to maneuver me into the Communist Party, not that he himself 
tried to get me to join, but he introduced me to a man who tried to 
get me to join. 

Now, that is the way it has always been. These people that you 
work with directly don't push you, but they will invite you to a meet- 
ing allegedly for one purpose, and at that meeting somebody will con- 
front you with an invitation to join the party. That is the way they 
"work. 

Mi-. Arens. On the basis of your experience in this organization, 
and in the light of your statement that you are vice president in name 
only, do you have any information to submit to the committee with 
reference to tactics of others in the union, to divest you of the full 
functions of your office as vice president of the Chicago region ? 

Mr. Long. Nothing tangible. As a group they have always over- 
ruled me. 

Mr. Arens. By "they" you mean Solon Bell and his clique ? 

Mr. Long. Practically all of the officers from the East. We were 
bitterly opposed. 

Perhaps you know that the Chicago area and the New York area 
were bitterly at odds, and caused a division in the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Was Benjamin among that group? 

Mr. Long. He was. He and I are still bitterly opposed to one 
another. It is because he is trying to gain control of the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Who is ? 



116 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Long. Benjamin. But he can't gain control of it, because I 
have a greater following. As a result, there has been this division 
created. 

Now, it is my belief that Benjamin is guided by forces outside the 
organization, but I can't prove that. I am unable to prove that, be- 
cause, in the first place, I have no jurisdiction in New York. My 
district is in Chicago, and my activities are confined to Chicago. We 
clash in the executive board meetings. They have bled the Chicago 
district white. They have no funds out there with which to operate. 

Mr. Arens. The eastern division has bled the Chicago division 
white? 

Mr. Long. Yes, sir. We cany two responsibilities out there — we 
carry the responsibility of a local office and the national office, without 
any financial aid from New York, where the larger part of our mem- 
bership exists. Chicago is just a small area, by comparison. They 
have just a few men on the Pennsylvania in the district here. 

About 300 men is all we have that you can depend on for dues pay- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do with your dues ? Do you submit some 
of them to the eastern group? 

Mr. Long. No; what little dues are collected in the district it is 
necessary to use there for operational purposes. Now, New York, 
having a larger membership and a much larger collection of dues, is 
able to carry their financial responsibilities, while we are not able 
to do so in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. What does Benjamin get as a salary ? 

Mr. Long. His salary was $350 a month. I am not certain, but I 
think his salary has been raised. 

Mr. Arens. What is Solon Bell's salary? 

Mr. Long. They have not provided any salary for Bell, except in 
the constitution. We have never been able to pay him. New York 
refused to help him. 

Mr. Arens. What is the source of his income? How does he main- 
tain himself? 

Mr. Long. That I don't know. He must have some other means of 
making money. 

Mr. Arens. Does he have plenty of money to get around with ? 

Mr. Long. No; he seems to be in financial difficulties all the time, 

Mr. Arens. Who is paying for his journey out to the coast to organ- 
ize out there? 

Mr. Long. Out on the west coast, the west coast organization is re- 
sponsible for whatever money he gets. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Long, what are your relationships at the present 
time with Solon Bell, the international president? 

Mr. Long. None. 

Mr. Arens. Well, are they friendly relationships, or unfriendly, 
or how would you characterize or describe your relationships with 
him ? 

Mr. Long. Well, I have no personal grievances against him. 

Mr. Arens. How about your official connections? 

Mr. Long. As to official connections, he is very sore at me because 
I am not active in the organization. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 117 

Mr. Arens. Has he in any sense undertaken to undermine you in 
your work out there? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what respects ? 

Mr. Long. Well, he tried to gain some influence among my own men 
in Chicago, and win them over, so as to give him a following. 

You know, he comes from the Union Pacific Railroad. The men on 
the Pennsylvania knew absolutely nothing about him; because we 
had no membership on the Union Pacific — Bell had no following in 
the organization. He always knew that I held the influence in the 
•organization, and he has tried to win this influence from me. 

He tried to influence the men to follow him. 

Mr. Arens. Who got you to attend the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago ? 

Mr. Long. Bell did. 

Mr. Arens. That is a Communist school, is it not? 

Mr. Long. It has been listed as a Communist school. Now, when 
I was going there, I took one course, in collective bargaining. 

Mr. Arens. A 6-week course? 

Mr. Long. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did Bell pay your tuition? 

Mr. Long. No ; I paid it myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did Bell get any of the other boys of the union to 
.attend that school? 

Mr. Long. He attempted to, but I don't think that any of the men 
were interested. 

Mr. Arens. But he got you to go there ? 

Mr. Long. Yes ; I went there for the sole purpose of learning some- 
thing about the work I was required to do. I didn't know any place 
else to get it. 

During the time I was there, you could see indications that it was 
a Communist outfit, but nobody ever approached me on any political 
matter. I only attended this one class on collective bargaining. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Long, I gather from what you say there that 
there is a split between yourself and the Chicago division on the one 
hand, and the eastern division, on the other hand ? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Now, who are the powers who, at the present time 
actually, in fact, control the eastern division ? 

Mr. Long. Well, without doubt, it is Benjamin 

Mr. Arens. Is that Daniel Benjamin? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. He is the vice president of the eastern division? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Solon Bell and Benjamin are very close, aren't they? 

Mr. Long. No; there is some division between them that I don't 
understand. 

Mr. Arens. How does Archibald Bromsen fit into the picture here? 

Mr. Long. Mr. Bromsen is the chief attorney for the organization. 
Now, where his influence fits in, I don't know. He pretends to me that 
he cannot control Benjamin, but it. doesn't add up. 

Mr. Arens. Now, what I would like to have you tell us is, who it 
is that controls Benjamin and Solon Bell, and Bromsen, and what is' 
■behind them? 

Mr. Long. That is what I have never been able to find out. 



118 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Now, is there anything behind them ? 

Mr. Long. Except that I suspicion that it is the Communist Party. 
Now, I can't tie that in, because I don't have any facts to go on, ex- 
cept that I know that Bell or Benjamin will not yield to the executive 
board of the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Do Benjamin, Bell, and Bromsen undertake to steer 
the organization along Communist Party lines? 

Mr. Long. "Well, I wouldn't say that that was true of Bromsen, be- 
cause I haven't been associated too much with him in the organization 
itself, except in legal matters. I have sat in conferences with him 
with management. 

Mr. Arens. Well now, how about Solon Bell and Daniel Benjamin? 

Mr. Long. So far as Bell is concerned, definitely he has attempted 
to bring political matters into the organization. 

Mr. Arens. By ''political matters" do you mean the Communist 
line, and the Communist program? 

Mr. Long. Well, I guess you could call it the Communist program. 

Mr. Arens. What would you call it? 

Mr. Long. I wouldn't know whether it was the Communist program 
or not, except that all indications are that way. 

Mr. Arens. Now. how about Daniel Benjamin? 

Mr. Long. Benjamin hasn't introduced any political ideas in the 
organization, that I know of, at our board meetings. That is the 
only association I have had with him. 

Now, I have read something about him in the newspapers, where 
he has involved himself in political activities from time to time. 

Mr. Arens. By "political activities" do you mean Communist Party 
activities? 

Mr. Long. Well, they call them Communist Party activities, such 
as the National Negro Congress, which I think has been branded as a 
subversive group. I think he took part in these Communist activities 
here in New York at the time the 11 men were on trial there. Those 
are the indications that I speak of. 

Mr. Arens. You mean the 11 Communist leaders who were on trial? 

Mr. Long. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your testimony that the leadership of the eastern 
division of this union took part in activities on behalf of those Com- 
munists ? 

Mr. Long. Well, I read in the newspaper where he was present at 
some rally that was being held about that. Now, those are the indica- 
tions that I speak of, of what Bell has been trying to bring to the 
organization. He has tried to bring that into our meetings in Chi- 
cago, and the men have resented it, openly resented it. He has always 
had to limit his activities in Chicago in the organization, because the 
men wouldn't accept them. 

Mr. Arens. Now. Mr. Long, is there anything else you would care 
to say '. 

Mr. Long. Yes. For nearly 15 years, we had been organized within 
the American Federation of Labor as an auxiliary unit. Being a part 
of the railroad industry, we were organized within the structure of 
the Hotel and Restaurant International, which is not a railroad 
organization. As you can see, this is a poor set-up for a railroad 
organization, where the parent organization was subject to one law, 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 1 19 

presently the Taft-Hartley law, while, as a railroad organization we 
were bound by the Railway Labor Act. 

That put us in a very poor light for bargaining with management. 
At best it was a very poor affiliation for purposes of collective bargain- 
ing with management. 

The top structure of our organization, a hotel and restaurant group 
that knew nothing about railroads or railroad problems, had the last 
to say as to whether or not we would sign an agreement, whether or 
not we could employ an organizer, and how much money we could 
maintain to operate on. 

So, at best, the Hotel and Restaurant International was a very poor 
representative for the railroad workers. 

During the days that Mr. Flore was president of the Hotel and 
Restaurant International, we were able to exist after a fashion, be- 
cause he didn't interfere with our activities at all. He allowed us to 
handle our own affairs, because he admitted that they knew nothing 
about them. 

Shortly after Mr. Flore's death, the bartenders' union at Chicago 
gained control of the Hotel and Restaurant International. According 
to Cnicago newspapers, they are controlled and dominated by the 
Capone gang. That is when the real difference came in about our or- 
ganization, and we went to Milwaukee to the convention to try to get 
from the Hotel and Restaurant International the right to handle our 
own affairs, because we knew more about them than they could ever 
know, because they were interested entirely in the hotel organiza- 
tion. 

At the convention we attempted to displace our national vice presi- 
dent, George Brown. 

Not having enough votes to actually vote him out of office in the 
convention, they put him on the administration slate there, and natur- 
ally, he was elected, because the Hotel and Restaurant International 
hi d 240,000 members at the time, while we only had about 7,000 or 
8,000. If every dining car worker in the country had voted against 
him, he would have been elected anyway. 

So you can see that under this set-up there was no possibility of 
us ever being able to elect an officer of our own choice. 

Even after we were unable to displace George Brown as our vice 
president, we asked that we be allowed to handle our own affairs, em- 
ploy our own organizers, and do our own negotiating with manage- 
ment, because we had a very peculiar industry in which we were 
employed, not just a railroad industry, but a very unique industry, 
within an industry. 

We were the dining car industry, operating within the railroad 
industry. If you do not work in the industry, it is just something a 
layman knows nothing about. 

So, when w 7 e were denied any rights whatsoever within the Hotel 
and Restaurant International, I was convinced that the dining car 
workers, in order to solve some of the problems that they had, had to 
establish their own dining car workers' organization on a national 
basis, within the railroad industry, and under the Railway Labor Act. 
That is the same way in which all of the railroad men are organized 
today. That was our purpose in insisting that we create a new or- 
ganization. 



120 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Now, that was our purpose in establishing the organization. Solon 
Bell was kicked out of the Hotel and Restaurant International at 
that convention. 

He was eventually kicked out of the joint council; and he supported 
my contention that eventually the dining car workers would have to 
organize their own union, just the same as all the other crafts in the 
railroad industry have organized their own union. 

We joined our forces together, after we both left the Hotel and 
Restaurant International. 

I think I should say at this point that after we left the convention, 
we called a meeting of all dining car workers in the Chicago area. It 
was a large meeting, held at the Community Church on Forty-first 
Street and South Park. It was there that I publicly denounced the 
Hotel and Restaurant International, and told the dining car workers 
that it was impossible for dining car workers to exist under the Hotel 
and Restaurant International, and that they could serve no interests 
whatsoever for us, and that we eventually would have to leave it. 

We hoped to improve the conditions under which we worked. 

As a result of that, George Brown, vice president of the Hotel and 
Restaurant International, preferred charges against me, and I was 
ordered to come to Cincinnati to stand trial by the executive board of 
the Hotel and Restaurant International. 

Of course, I just didn't go. I ignored it, and I was eventually sus- 
pended from the Hotel and Restaurant International and was kicked 
out of my own union, local 370. I didn't quit ; I was put out. 

As the result of that, the membership in Chicago followed me out. 
The membership in New York was already disgruntled. 

In connection with my being kicked out without a trial and with- 
out a hearing, the membership there had had a large meeting, in 
which they reviewed some bylaws which the executive board was try- 
ing to force down their throats, and which had been endorsed by the 
president of the Hotel and Restaurant International. 

Because they were trying to force these bylaws down the member- 
ships' throats, and these bylaws gave the executive board dictatorial 
powers, the membership in New York quit. That was about 1,800 
men. 

They had already organized there in New York without my know- 
ing, a committee to reorganize a new organization. It eventually 
ended up that way. 

The committee was originally organized to clean up the old Hotel 
and Restaurant International Organization, but eventually that com- 
mittee began working to create a new organization of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. They tied in with us here in Chicago. 

After all our organization was set up, we won the bargaining rights 
on the Pennsylvania. 

I would like to say here that all of the officers of our organization 
were men who worked on dining cars, and it was organized on the 
property of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

The organization had a wonderful start. We were getting popu- 
larity and following, not only on the Pennsylvania, but throughout 
the whole railroad industry. 

It was at this time that in various sections of the country men began 
to move in to try to gain control of the organization, and I have had 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 121 

to try to fight not only communism within the organization, but I 
have had to fight people who wanted to come in and just gain control 
of the organization for personal reasons, for personal gain. 

I would also like to say that this is not unusual. You will find 
Negro people being exploited in their communities by politicians, 
ministers, the groceryman on the corner, and even people from our 
own race. 

The Negro people, being a large minority group, represent a very 
fertile field for profits of various kinds. The housing situation creates 
;i means by which Negroes are exploited in their communities. 

You will find the Communist Party busy in all of the Negro dis- 
tricts, attempting to influence the large numbers of Negro people, 
because Negroes have problems. 

But you will not find Negro people interested in communism. You 
will find that true on the railroads. You will find that dining-car 
workers are not interested in communism, and they don't want any 
part of it. 

You will generally find Negroes, as a group of people, loyal Ameri- 
can citizens, who are looking forward to the benefits embodied in the 
Constitution of the United States of America, and in the Bill of 
Rights. 

Regardless of their reverses, they still believe that America will 
afford them the greatest benefits. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Long, we thank you very much for the fine coopera- 
tion you have shown at this hearing. We will stand in recess, subject 
to the call of the chairman. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 30 p. m., Friday, September 14, 1951, a recess 
was taken, the subcommittee to reconvene upon the call of the chair- 
man.) 



89656—51- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAR AND 
RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration 
of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary. 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Arthur V. Watkins, presiding, 

Present : Senator Watkins. 

Also present: Mr. Richard Arens, staff director; Frank W. Schroe- 
der, professional staff member; Mitchel M. Carter and Edward R. 
Duffy, investigators. 

Senator Watkins.- The committee will resume its session. 

Mr. Arens. The witness today, if the Senator please, is Mr. Solon C. 
Bell, and I respectfully suggest that Mr. Bell be sworn at this time. 

Mr. Sawyer. Before he is sworn, may I make the motion to quash 
the subpena ? 

Senator Watkins. We will not entertain such a motion. This is 
not a court. 

Mr. Sawyer. I understand, but I want the record 

Senator Watkins. We make the record, and not you, sir. The 
ruling is that you cannot make such motion. This is not a court. 

Will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give in the 
matter now pending before this subcommittee will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Bell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SOLON C. BELL, CHICAGO, ILL., ACCOMPANIED BY 
HAROLD M. SAWYER, ATTORNEY AT LAW, SAN FRANCISCO, 
CALJF. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, if you please, by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation. 

Mr. Sawyer. May I consult with the witness ? 

Senator Watkins. The witness is able to take care of himself. If 
he gets into difficulty^ we will permit him to ask you. 

Mr. Sawyer. I think occupation is objectionable and I want to 
instruct him how to answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. You please keep quite, and when he asks you 
for advice, we will let him consult with you. But you are not going 
to be permitted to run this committee or hearing. 

123 



124 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Sawyer. I have no desire to do so. 

Senator Watkins. You are not to tell the witness what to say. 

Mr. Sawyer. But I do have the right to consult with him as to 
what his answer shall be. 

Senator Watkins. You do not. We do not allow anyone to consult 
with a witness as to what his answers shall be. He is the witness, 
not you. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, so that the record may be clear, 
that the counsel to the witness identify himself. 

Mr. Sawyer. Yes. Harold M. Sawyer, 240 Montgomery Street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 

Senator Watkins. All right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, if you will kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Bell. May I have a chance to discuss this question with my 
lawyer? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, you have had an opportunity to discuss this 
matter with your lawyer on the trip from the coast, have you not? 

Mr. Bell. No ; I have not. 

Senator Watkins. Did ycu not travel together ? 

Mr. Bell. We traveled on the same train but not together. 

Mr. Arens. You have been sitting waiting for the hearing to start 
this morning for some time. 

Mr. Bell. We just come from the train. I just come from the train 
here. I have not had an opportunity to discuss it with him like I 
want to. 

Senator Watkins. What is the question? Repeat the question, 
please. 

Mr. Arens. I merely asked the witness to identif y himself by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Senator Watkins. Let us take it one at a time. What is your name ? 

Mr. Bell. My name is Solon C. Bell. 

Senator Watkins. Where do vou live? 

Mr. Bell. At 5942 South Parkway, Chicago, 111. 

Senator Watkins. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Bell. I would like to discuss this question with my lawyer 
before I make the answer. 

Senator Watkins. Do you not know ? Do you have to ask him to 
find out what your occupation is? 

Mr. Bell. The point I am asking for is do I have to make an ex- 
planation of what I want to discuss with him? 

Senator Watkins. Certainly. You are the witness. We are not 
asking your lawyer to testify and tell you whether you can talk or not. 

Mr. Bell. I ask the privilege to speak to my lawyer concerning a 
question that was asked me by this committee. 

Senator Watkins. You turn to him and speak to him, then. 

( AVitness consulted with counsel. ) 

Air. Bell. In answer to the question, what is my occupation, I am 
advised by my attorney to decline to answer the question, claiming 
privilege under the fifth amendment to the Constitution, as well as 
the first amendment; that by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Senator Watkins. Do you have an occupation? 

Mr. Bell. I have answered the question. 

Senator Watkins. Do you have an occupation? That has not been 
answered. I am not asking you what it is. Do you have one? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 125 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds be- 
cause it is the same question. 

Senator Watkins. It is not the same question at all. I direct you 
to answer it, and you are ordered to answer. 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. It has got to be more than just a mere idea in 
your mind it might incriminate you to ask you whether you do have 
an occupation or do not have one. 

Mr. Bell. Do I have the privilege to answer or not answer under the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution? 

Senator Watkins. You have the privilege to claim it, but whether 
you will answer or not answer will finally be determined by a court. 

Mr. Bell. I claim that privilege. 

Senator Watkins. There is punishment for contempt. The ruling 
of this chairman^' is that that is not a question that could possibly 
incriminate you, that is, to ask you whether you do or do not have an 
occupation. I am not asking you what it is. I am asking you, Do you 
have an occupation? 

Mr. Bell. I answered the question. 

Senator Watkins. No; you have not answered the question. 

Mr. Bell. I said I refuse to answer, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. Whether you claim it or do not claim it, it is the 
ruling of the Chair that it is not a question of that kind, and I have 
directed you to answer, and you have refused, and the matter will be 
taken up elsewhere. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, are you president of the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food AVorkers Union ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bell. Because I am claiming privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Why do you claim the privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Bell. That by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. What makes you feel that your answer to the question 
as to whether or not you are the president of the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union would tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Bell. I should have made a statement, but due to the shortness 
of time I had to prepare to get here, I have not made a statement, but 
I would like to make through my attorney an oral statement at this 
time. 

Mr. Arens. Just please answer the question as to why you feel that 
your answer to the question as to whether or not you are president of 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union would tend to 
incriminate you. 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that. I have my reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to why he feels his 
answer to the principal question as to whether or not he is president 
of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union would tend to 
incriminate him. 

89656 — 51 10 



126 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE LN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Watkins. You are directed and ordered to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Bell. I will answer it to the best of my ability. No. 1, I 
received a subpena from this committee, not knowing what I was com- 
ing here for to be investigated for or what the issues were. It is my 
understanding that this is part of a pattern to smear and to make peo- 
ple submissive and fear the consequences and attempts to break down 
trade unions. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get that impression ? 

Mr. Bell. I got it, No. 1, from newspapers. I got it, No. 2, from 
personal experiences and reading of court cases and committee hear- 
ings that have been held. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please answer the question as to why you feel 
your answer to the principal question as to whether or not you are 
president of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union would 
tend to cause a criminal prosecution of you. 

Mr. Sawyer. Mr. Chairman, if I do not object to any question, it 
is because I submit to your ruling. But please let it be understood 
that my failure to object is not a waiver of the objectionable character 
of the question. 

Senator Watkins. Your statement has gone into the record, but it 
does not change it in the slightest. You are not testifying. This is 
the witness [indicating]. It is not a court hearing. He is not 
charged with any offense or anything of that sort. He is merely 
required to come here and give such information as he possesses to 
this committee, to aid the Congress in the performance of its duties. 
For that reason we do not permit the attorneys to conduct themselves 
as they would in a court. You are not facing a court. It is purely 
an investigation that we have been authorized by the Constitution 
and by law to perform. 

Mr. Sawyer. I want it understood that my silence is not a waiver, 
but is merely a submission to the Chair's ruling. 

Senator Watkins. Whatever your reasons are, you have already 
stated them and that can be in the record. We will let you under- 
stand that, notwithstanding your objections, this is not one of those 
tribunals where you have the right to object to this and that and the 
other. We have permitted as a matter of courtesy largely witnesses 
to bring their counsel with them and to advise them if they want 
to claim immunity under the fifth or first or any other amendment 
to the Constitution. But at the same time we have to conduct this 
hearing as we are permitted to conduct it. He is not charged with 
any offense. He is merely here required to answer such questions 
as the Congress thinks it needs to help it perform its duties in the 
matter of legislation, and see that the law is enforced. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, would you kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. Didn't I answer it to the best of my ability ? I answered 
your question to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Arens. The question is, Mr. Bell, Why is it that you feel that 
your answer to the question as to whether or not you are the president 
of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union would cause 
or might cause a criminal prosecution against you. 

Mr. Bell. Didn't I answer it? 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again, if you did. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 127 

Mr. Bell. Do I have to repeat it? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; you do. 

Mr. Bell. Why ? I answered it once. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the questions which are propounded. 

Mr. Bell. Why do I have to answer them twice ? 

Senator Watkins. If we did not get it clearly, we certainly have a 
right to ask you again, and there is no reason why you should refuse 
to repeat the answer. 

Mr. Bell. I think I said very specifically I lost faith in the work 
of this committee when I received a subpena without being notified 
what I was being called for. 

Mr. Arens. How does that involve any criminal prosecution of you? 

Mr. Bell. Let me answer the question and then you can ask 

Mr. Arens. You are not running this hearing, Mr. Bell. It might 
just as well be understood. 

Mr. Bell. I am not trying to. You asked me to answer the ques- 
tion and I tried to answer. I don't want to be interrupted and asked 
a million questions. 

Mr. Arens. You are not running the proceeding. The chairman 
is running the proceeding. We propose here and now to do our duty 
to the best of our ability. Do you understand that ? 

Mr. Bell. I am going to answer every question I possibly can. 

Senator Watkins. You try and answer the questions when coun- 
sel asks them. 

Mr. Bell. I don't want to be coerced. 

Mr. Arens. There is no coercion here, let us understand that. 

Mr. Bell. No ? I don't know ; not the way it is going. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed with the answer as to why you feel that the 
answer to the principal question, namely, whether or not you are 
president of the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union would 
possibly tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Bell. The answer to the Dining Car and Railroad Food Work- 
ers position there that you name has nothing to do with answering 
the first question you asked. I objected to that question. 

Senator Watkins. You have a feeling if you should say that 
you are president of that union that would incriminate you; that it 
would involve a criminal offense and possible prosecution ? 

Mr. Bell. I gave my answer to the question. 

Senator Watkins. Do you have that feeling ? 

Mr. Bell. I have that feeling. 

Senator Watkins. That ought to be enough answer. He probably 
knows that outfit better than anyone else and if he think that to be 
president of it would involve a criminal prosecution, it must be some- 
thing worth looking into. 

Mr. Bell. I didn't say I was president of it. I said I refuse to 
answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. We have the answer. There is more than one 
way to answer a question, sir. If it needs to be established some other 
way, I would not press further on that now. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, do you have a pass to ride on the railroads ? 

Mr. Bell. I think I may have, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have or do you not have ? 



128 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, based upon claiming 
privilege under the fifth and first amendments of the Constitution that 
by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. You understand that your refusal to answer these 
questions is at your peril. Do you understand that ? 

Senator Watkins. You might be prosecuted for contempt of the 
Congress in refusing to answer a proper question. 

Mr. Bell. I know that. 

Senator Watkins. I am warning you that if you refuse to answer 
a proper question 

Mr. Bell. What is a proper question ? 

Senator Watkins. The questions we have been asking, I submit, are 
proper. 

Mr. Bell. Am I allowed the privilege under the fifth amendment 
of the Constitution ? 

Senator Watkins. You have been given that privilege, and you 
have been ordered to answer, and you have not answered. 

Mr. Bell. Do I have to give reasons why I want that privilege? 

Senator Watkins. Yes; you do. 

Mr. Bell. Doesn't it explain within itself? 

Senator Watkins. You do not have to go any further. 

Mr. Bell. What does the fifth amendment give you the privilege 
of ? Doesn't the fifth amendment explain when you ask for that priv- 
ilege, what it is for, and et cetera ? 

Senator Watkins. You cannot make a blanket claim on everything 
and expect to get by with that; that you cannot even tell where you 
work and what your occupation is unless your occupation is that of a 
criminal, and of course that would incriminate you, if that is the case. 

Mr. Bell. That is a court case. If I have committed any crime — 
if you are investigating crime — that is different. 

Senator Watkins. We are investigating whatever we seek to inves- 
tigate here under proper resolution of the Congress. We do not 
intend to argue with you. You can either answer or not. 

Mr. Bell. I ask for the privilege of not answering. Whether it 
is extended, that is up to the committee. 

Senator Watkins. And you still claim it under the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Bell. The first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a pass on the railroads? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privilege under the fifth and first amendments 
of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
he has a pass to ride on the railroads. 

Mr. Sawyer. I think he might answer that question 
Mr. Bell. Yes ; I have a pass. 

Mr. Arens. Does this pass entitle you to go any place in the United 
States on the railroads ? 
Mr. Bell. No ; it does not. 

Mr. Arens. Would it entitle you to a trip from the west coast 
to the east ? * 

Mr. Bell. No. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 129 

Mr. Arens. Over what roads does it give you 

Mr. Bell. Over the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. Does it have any connections with the Pennsylvania to 
some other road ? 

Mr. Bell. No ; it does not. 

Mr. Arens. How far west does the Pennsylvania go ? 

Mr. Bell. Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Now, when you were served with the subpena to ap- 
pear before this committee, when was that ? 

Mr. Bell. Friday. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do about it ? 

Mr. Bell. What did I do about it? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Bell. I take it up with my lawyer, Mr. Sawyer. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do about communicating with the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Bell. He did that for me — through him. 

Mr. Arens. What was done ? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know. All that was done you will have to ask 
him. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what was done ? 

Mr. Bell. I know what he told me was done. 

Mr. Arens. Either you or your lawyer sent a telegram to this com- 
mittee refusing to appear unless you were furnished travel expenses 
and subsistence in first-class transportation to appear before the com- 
mittee, is that correct? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know. You will have to ask him. I didn't see 
the telegram. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign a telegram or authorize a telegram to 
be sent over your signature to the committee saying, and I quote : 

I have been subpenaed this afternoon to appear before your committee on 
September 25, 1951, at 10 o'clock a. m. I am wholly without funds to cover 
my travel expenses together with subsistence from the time I leave here until 
I return. I am therefore requesting you to arrange with the United States 
marshal, Northern District of California, Southern Divi«ion, to provide me with 
first class transportation and subsistence from the time I leave here until I 
return, assuming both trips will be made with all reasonable expedition. Please 
reply fast wire to me care of my attorney, Harold M. Sawyer, 240 Montgomery 
Street, San Francisco. 

Solon C. Bell. 

Mr. Bell. I went to see my attorney after the subpena was served 
on me. The gentleman who served the subpena, I think his name 
was — I have forgotten his name — it was served in Oakland, Calif. I 
told him, I said, "What is the rules and regulations for going to Wash- 
ington or how am I going to get there?" And he told me to see the 
marshal and told me where to go. I went and saw my attorney and I 
suppose he carried out the instructions of the marshal. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. You did not send this telegram, is that correct? 

Mr. Bell. It was sent for me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you authorize it? 

Mr. Bell. He told me he was going to send a telegram. 

Mr. Arens. Did you authorize it? 

Mr. Bell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid your attorney's expenses here to Washington? 



130 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges under the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel that the answer to the question as to who 
paid the expenses of your attorney to appear here in Washington 
might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Bell. Yes ; it may. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bell. Under the terms of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Watkins. You are directed to answer. However, I think 
the answer is very clear. It is his judgment that if he told the truth 
about it and answered the question, it might incriminate him. 

Mr. Arens. Are you paying your attorney's expenses? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you not paying your attorney's expenses here? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges under the fifth-. 

Senator Watkins. That is clearly not one that will incriminate you. 
You have a right to hire a lawyer. 

Mr. Bell. I am not answering. 

Senator Watkins. You are not answering. You are showing your 
contempt for this committee. 

Mr. Bell. No. The committee is showing its contempt for me in 
my opinion. 

Mr. Sawyer. I would like to cut this short. I paid my own 
expenses. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if the lawyer is going to testify 

Senator Watkins. If you want to testify 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't care to be sworn, but I thought I would help 
the committee to that extent. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if the attorney representing Mr. Bell 
is going to testify, I respectfully suggest to the chairman that he be 
sworn. 

Senator Watkins. Let it stand in the record. It is not going to do 
any harm. Go on with the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. You heard your attorney say he paid his own expenses 
here. Do you have a contractual arrangement with your attorney 
whereby you will reimburse him for his expenses ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest to the chairman that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. You are ordered by this committee to make an 
answer to that question. 

Mr. Bell. May I ask a question, please? 

Senator Watkins. If it is something with respect to your rights, 
you may do so ; yes. 

Mr. Bell. What I do personally, what emphasis does it have on this 
committee? 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter for the committee to determine. 

Mr. Bell. And it is a matter for me to determine whether I should 
incriminate myself. 

Senator Watkins. You have claimed the protection of the fifth 
amendment, and that being the case, you have been directed to answer. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 131 

It is the judgment of the chairman of this committee that is not a 
question that would incriminate you in any way, or should not, and if 
3'ou refuse to answer, we are making a record which will probably be 
presented to the proper district attorney for handling by the enforce- 
ment machinery of this country. I am warning you now that you 
are putting yourself in a position where I think you are guilty of 
contempt. 

The district attorney and a jury might not agree with me, but in my 
judgment you are guilty of contempt already, because you have showed 
a contemptuous attitude and refused to answer questions that could 
not possibly incriminate you. The committee is entitled to know. 
We have a mandate of the Congress representing all the people of 
this country to make these investigations to protect the internal 
security of the country. If you do not intend to comply as a citizen, 
there is only one thing to do, and that is to use whatever remedy is 
left under the law. 

Mr. Sawyer. Mr. Chairman, may I be heard on that for a moment ? 

Senator Watkins. You may not. 

Mr. Bell. I don't see how this committee can make all these 
accusations 

Senator Watkins. You answer the questions "Yes" or "No" or 
claim your privilege. 

Mr. Bell. I claimed my privileges twice. 

Senator Watkins. You refuse to answer. Let the record show. 

Mr. Arens. Is there an organization known as the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, so that the record may be clear, 
that the chairman order and direct the witness to answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. That particular question you asked, he may not 
know. You may ask him if he knows that there is such an 
organization. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not there is an organization 
known as the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union % 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution, that by so answering it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

Senator Watkins. Clearly whether he knows there is one or not 
could not possibly incriminate him. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Bell. If I believe that it might incriminate me, if I believe 
that, don't I have a right to my belief ? 

Senator Watkins. That does not give you a defense, sir, just be- 
cause you may believe it. It has actually got to be incriminating. 

Mr. Bell. That is the only defense I have — my belief. 

Mr. Arens. Do you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. Bell. I stated the position that I have taken. I refuse to 
answer 

Senator Watkins. The record will show that he does refuse. He 
will not comply with the request of the chairman. 

Mr. Bell. That is not my answer. 

Senator Watkins. What is your answer ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer. 

Senator Watkins. That is just what I said, you refused. 



132 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges under the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution, that by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. What were you doing on the west coast ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution that by so answering it may 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see Harry Bridges when you were on the west 
coast ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privilege 

Senator Watkins. Do you know Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges 

Senator Watkins. Do you think it might incriminate you if you 
should admit that you know him ? Is that right ? Is that what you 
claim? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not there is an individual 
known as Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Bell. I still refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to either affirm 
or deny this fact, that your mission on the west coast was in conjunc- 
tion with some organizing work on behalf of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union in which you were engaged in a co- 
operative enterprise with Harry Bridges. 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the fifth and first amendments of the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. You are directed by the committee chairman on 
behalf of the committee to answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. I have answered it, sir. 

Senator Watkins. The record shows he declined. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Bell. I was born in Eureka, Kans. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Bell. 1891. 

Mr. Arens. And kindly trace for the purpose of the record your em- 
ployment since you became an adult. 

Mr. Bell. Well, I was a waiter on the railroad. 

Mr. Arens. What railroad ? 

Mr. Bell. Union Pacific Railroad. 

Mr. Arens. And about when was that ? 

Mr. Bell. From 1921 until about 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Now, proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Bell. Prior to employment on the railroad, I worked in Colo- 
rado Springs as a waiter, headwaiter, at the El Paso Club. I worked 
prior to that in Salina, Kans., at a country club as a steward. 

Mr. Arens. Now, bring us on down from 1947. You said for a 
period of time you worked on the railroad in a dining car. 

Mr. Bell. I said I refused to answer that question, and I still refuse 
to give the answer to the question that you first brought out. 

Mr. Arens. What caused the severance of your 

Mr. Bell. Where I am now employed, I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Did your present employment start in 1947? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 133 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. You are directed and ordered to answer that 
question. It seems to be a proper question. 

Mr. Bell. I answered it, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Watkins. You now refuse in spite of the order that has been 
given. You can answer that "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Bell. Didn't I answer the question % 

Senator Watkins. The order has been given, since you have made 
your answer, directing you or ordering you to answer that question. 
What is your response to that order ? 

Mr. Bell. Mr. Chairman, I answered the question to the best 

Senator Watkins. Do you refuse ? 

Mr. Bell. I asked for the privilege under the fifth amendment. 
Whether you deny me that or permit me to 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. The question was asked of you 
and you refused to answer, and I ordered you to answer. Now, do 
you refuse in spite of the order ? 

Mr. Bell. No. I want to know first whether you grant the privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution not to answer. 

Senator Watkins. I apparently did not when I ordered you to 
answer. 

Mr. Bell. I want you to say it. Then I will understand it. You are 
not going to grant me the privilege. 

Senator Watkins. I am not granting you this one. As chairman 
of this committee, on behalf of the committe, I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Bell. If it does, Mr. Chairman, you don't think — I want to 
know whether it does or doesn't. You said you don't think. I want 
to know. 

Senator Watkins. The ruling of the Chair is — and of course you 
are intelligent enough to know when I ordered you and directed you — 
that I denied your claim that it was under the fifth amendment. I 
ordered you to answer in spite of your claim. Do you refuse to answer 
since I ordered you? You can answer that "yes" or "no," whether 
you refuse or do not refuse. 

Mr. Bell. I claim privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Watkins. You refuse. The record will show that the wit- 
ness refuses to answer, notwithstanding he was directed and ordered 
to do so. 

Mr. Arens. What caused the severance of your employment on the 
railroad when you were a dining-car waiter up until 1947 ? 

Mr. Belt,. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 
_ Mr. Arens. Were you engaged in some criminal activity at the 
time? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Senator Watkins. That might incriminate him. I think that is 
one that might incriminate him, if he admitted that. 

Mr. Bell. What does the committee infer when it says it might in- 
criminate me. That is a slur. I don't care for those slurs. 

Senator Watkins. It stands on its face, Mr. Bell, when you are 
asked 

Mr. Bell. I didn't come here to be slurred. 



134 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. We are running this, and if you 
get too boisterous, you can be taken care of just the way you will be. 

Mr. Bell. You have already taken care of me. I want to know 
whether I have to be insulted by this committee or not. 

Senator Watkins. This committee is not insulting you; it is di- 
recting you to answer questions. 

Mr. Bell. It is insulting me. It is stating very emphatically that 
I am a crook, that I am a criminal, and I don't like that. 

Senator Watkins. The record shows for itself that your conduct 
all the way through has been utterly contemptuous. 

Mr. Bell. I am an American citizen as good as anyone. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. He does not have to answer that. The claim in- 
dicates clearly what it is. 

Mr. Arens. What was your income in the course of the last year? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges under the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Hotel and Res- 
taurant Employees and Bartenders Union, AFL? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges. 

Senator Watkins. That is one that the Chair rules could not in- 
criminate you, and you are directed and ordered to answer. 

Mr. Bell. I don't think that the law requires me to tell where I 
have been and who I have been with and what I have been associated 
with and all that sort of thing. I am claiming privileges under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution, not that I have done 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. I will explain to you that you 
are entitled to claim it if you honestly and sincerely think and believe, 
and there is some ground for the belief that to answer that question 
truthfully might incriminate you. But there are many questions — 
it does not make any difference what we have asked you — practically 
every answer is that you claim it might incriminate you, and some 
of them are so clearly nonincriminating that it could not be possibly 
true, so that shows your utter contempt of the Congress. I am warn- 
ing you that you could be probably indicted and prosecuted and 
probably convicted on that kind of a record for contempt of the Con- 
gress. 

Mr. Sawyer. I ask to be heard on that issue. I don't think it is 
fair 

Senator Watkins. We are not going to permit you to argue. This 
is not a trial. You are permited to be here as a matter of courtesy 

Mr. Sawyer. I understand that, but I respectfully suggest that the 
chairman is distorting the law. 

Senator Watkins. Whether I am or not is not your particular pre- 
rogative to argue. 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't think the witness should be subjected to a dis- 
tortion of the law. 

Senator Watkins. That is a matter of opinion whether we distort 
the law or not. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 135 

Mr. Sawyer. I refer to the Rogers case in the Supreme Court. 

Senator Watkins. I do not care to what you refer. We are not 
going to argue the law with you. We are here on a simple investiga- 
tion. It is not a trial. He is not charged with anything. We are 
trying to get some facts from him that might help us. He refuses 
on the ground that it might incriminate him. 

Mr. Sawyer. Under advice of counsel. 

Senator Watkins. All right, you have advised him not to answer, 
and that can itself be taken care of at the proper time. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, have you ever gone under any other name 
than Solon Bell? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges 
under the Constitution, fifth amendment. 

Senator Watkins. That might incriminate him if he had an alias. 

Mr. Bell. That is another slur. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name "Claude Burton ?" 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever institute or cause to be instituted a legal 
action against the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders 
International Union? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Robert Wood? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer, claiming privileges under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. You are directed and ordered to answer that 
question. Clearly whether you know a man by that name could not 
possibly incriminate you. You refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Bell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to either affirm 
or deny the fact that in 1945 your Communist Party book number 
was 59939. 

Mr. Bell. What is your question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you either to affirm or 
deny that your Communist Party book number in 1945 was 59939. 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges 
under the fifth and first amendments of the Constitution that by so 
answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the southside section of the Com- 
munist Party in Chicago in July 1942 ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege, on 
advice of my attorney under the fifth amendment of the Constitution, 
that by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Abraham Lincoln Lodge of 
the Communist Party in Chicago in 1943 ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer this question on the advice of my at- 
torney, claiming privileges under the fifth and first amendment of the 
Constitution, that by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a meeting of the railroad workers unit 
of the Communist Party in Chicago on May 23, 1942 ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question on the advice of my at- 
torney, claiming privileges under the first and fifth amendment of 
the Constitution that by so answering it may incriminate me. 



136 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Who is Max Bedacht ? 
(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not there is an individual by 
the name of Max Bedacht? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privileges 
under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution, that by so 
answering it may incriminate me. 

Senator Watkins. I now direct and order you to answer that ques- 
tion. It is clearly one where the mere knowledge of knowing a man 
could not possibly incriminate you. Do you refuse to answer that? 

Mr. Bell. I have answered it to the best of my ability. 

Senator Watkins. Do you refuse to answer it after the order has 
been made? 

Mr. Bell. I answered to the best of my ability. 

Senator Watkins. And you now refuse; that is your answer? 

Mr. Bell. I answered it to the best of my ability. 

Senator Watkins. You do now refuse to answer, notwithstanding 
that I have directed and ordered you to answer. The record will show 
that he so refused. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in jail? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been arrested ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question, claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been convicted of a crime ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a meeting of the Chicago chapter of the 
National Negro Congress on May 26, 1944? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question claiming privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution, that by so answering it 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not there was a group or or- 
ganization known as the Negro History Week Unity Celebration? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question, claiming privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment to the Constitution, that by so answering it 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question, claiming privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever hear about the 11 Communists who were 
convicted down in New York City ? 

Mr. Bell. Will you state your question again, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not 11 Communists were con- 
victed down in New York City last year, that is, 1949 or 1950 ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer this question, claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. Will you answer, do you know or do you not 
know? 

Mr. Bell. I answered the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Watkins. You refuse to answer. You just refuse to an- 
swer. It does not make any difference what the question is, you refuse 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 137 

to answer and you claim all of your protection under the fifth amend- 
ment. Is that your attitude ? 

Mr. Sawyer. Mr. Chairman, I do not think you can say that when 
we have not had all the questions asked. He must answer them as 
they come along. 

Senator Watkins. He has refused practically everything that has 
been asked of him, the most simple questions that could not possibly 
incriminate him. 

Mr. Sawyer. The Circuit Court of Appeals of the Ninth Circuit 
differs with you. 

Mr. Arens. You are not running this committee. You are present 
here at the grace of this committee. 

Mr. Sawyer. I am not trying to run it. 

Senator Watkins. Please desist. If the witness wants advice from 
you, he can turn to you and we will permit that. We will not permit 
you to argue the matter and state objections or anything of that kind, 
because this is not a court. 

Mr. Arens. Now will you answer the question? 

Mr. Bell. I answered the question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a sponsor of a National Labor Conference for 
Peace in Chicago in 1949? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges un- 
der the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution, that by so an- 
swering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. The Daily Worker of August 2, 1948, on page 11, de- 
scribes you as a leader of an advance delegation of People's Lobby 
Appeal sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress, which came to Wash- 
ington in 1948. Do you have any comment on that? 

Mr. Bell. I am not responsive. I don't edit the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think that the Daily Worker was mistaken ? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know whether it was mistaken or not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Washington before? 

Mr. Bell. Yes, many times. 

Mr. Arens. What were the occasions on which you came to Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Bell. I worked here. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you work here ? 

Mr. Bell. I was working on the trains. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Bell. I told you. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me again. 

Mr. Bell. I told you where I worked. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me again. 

Mr. Bell. I told you I worked for the Union Pacific dining-car 
department for a number of years. 

Mr. Arens. Up to 1947. 

Mr. Bell. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been to Washington since 1947 ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully ask that the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer the question. 



138 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Watkins. You are directed to answer that. It could not 
be a crime to come to Washington. It could not incriminate you. 

Mr. Bell. I have answered the question to the best of my ability. 

Senator Watkins. You refuse. 

Mr. Bell. I answered to the best of my ability. 

Senator Watkins. The record will show the witness' attitude in that 
he refused to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a sponsor of the National Communist Com- 
mittee to Defend the Eights of the 12 Communist Leaders? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. When did you first meet your attorney here today, who 
has identified himself on the record ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. Do you honestly believe that to tell when you 
first met him would be a crime? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know when I first met him. I don't know the 
minute when I first met him. 

Senator Watkins. That is not the point. If you do not know when 
you met him, you can answer that way, but you are refusing to answer 
at all and showing complete contempt for the committee. 

Mr. Bell. The committee is showing complete contempt for me. 

Senator Watkins. Your conduct would entitle the committee to 
have some rights 

Mr. Bell. Why should I respect the committee when the committee 
does not respect my rights ? 

Senator Watkins. That is a question the court will determine later 
on, whether it has or not. • 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known your lawyer, Mr. Sawyer? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Sawyer a Communist ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment to the constitution. 

Mr. Arens. How much have you paid Mr. Sawyer in the course of 
last year? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges un- 
der the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Watkins. I think, Mr. Arens, that this witness has shown 
by his entire attitude that he does not intend in any way to cooperate 
with this committee. As far as I am concerned, I do not think we 
ought to run the hearing any further. 

Mr. Arens. That is perfectly agreeable with us, Mr. Chairman, 
speaking for the staff. 

Senator Watkins. That is the way I feel about it. There is just 
no use when the witness will not cooperate or try to do his duty as I 
think the law requires him to do. If he is going to claim everything, 
even his occupation and all the rest of it, might incriminate him, of 
course, we might just as well stop the hearing right here. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in recess. 

(At 11 : 05 a. m., a recess was taken subject to call of the Chair.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 139 
AFTER RECESS 

(The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2:30 p. m., in room 
G-46, the Capitol, Senator James O. Eastland presiding.) 

(Present: Senators Eastland, Jenner, and Watkins. Also present: 
Mr. Richard Arens, staff director; Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff member; Mitchel M. Carter and Edward R. Duffy, investigators.) 

Senator Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF SOLON C. BELL, CHICAGO, ILL.— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, are you president of the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Bell. Claiming privileges under the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Senator Eastland. Proceed and ask him all the questions, and I 
will order the witness to answer them. 

Mr. Bell. Because whatever my answer may be, it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bell, do you know anything about some four or five 
men who arrived in the Senate Office Building this morning who were 
associates of yours ? 

Mr. Bell. No ; I don't know of anyone arriving at the Senate Build- 
ing this morning. I was in the committee room. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of or have you learned since the hearing 
this morning of the arrival of four or five men who are or were asso- 
ciates of yours ? 

Mr. Bell. Who are or were associates of mine ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Bell. I don't know how to answer that, so I will refuse to 
answer it, claiming privilege under the fifth amendment to the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you used any other name other than Solon Bell 
in your life ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question claiming privilege under 
the Constitution of the United States, the fifth amendment, that if I 
do answer it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that you have used the name "Claude Burton". 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you now employed ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer, claiming privileges under the Consti- 
tution of the United States, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What were you doing out on the west coast ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a man to your knowledge by the name of Harry 
Bridges ? 

Mr. Bell. "What is the name again? 

Mr. Arens. Harry Bridges. 



140 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Bell.. I refuse to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
that fact that in the recent past you have been on the west coast in 
consultation with Harry Bridges in the proces of organizing a dining 
car and railroad food workers union on the west coast. 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privileges 
under the fifth and first amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Where is your home ? 

Mr. Bell. Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. When were you last there ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you on the west coast ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. What is your income ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges under 
the fifth and first amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Senator Jenner. Are you a criminal ?• 

Mr. Bell. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 
By so answering it may incriminate. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
that fact that in 1945 your Communist Party book number was 59939. 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid your lawyer ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer that question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Senator Jenner. Has this witness been sworn to tell the truth? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Did you ever attend the Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Bell. I was born in Eureka, Kans. 

Mr. Arens. Up until 1947, where were you employed ? 

Mr. Bell. I gave that testimony this morning. 

Senator Eastland. I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. You order me to answer it? 

Senator Eastland. I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. I did answer it. 

Senator Eastland. I am ordering you to answer his question. 

Mr. Bell. I did answer it. 

Senator Eastland. I order you to answer his question. I do not 
want any argument about it. 

Mr. Bell. Mr. Chairman, what do you mean? Didn't I answer 
correctly ? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 141 

Senator Eastland. I have not heard your testimony and I want that 
question answered. 

Mr. Bell. I first worked at the Salina Country Club as a steward, 
Salina, Kans. 

Mr. Arens. What year, please. 

Mr. Bell. I can't remember the year, I am an old man. 

Mr. Arens. Is that prior to 1947 ? 

Mr. Bell. No, no, no, I don't remember all the places that I have 
worked, to tell you the truth, so I can't answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. In 1947 you were employed on a dining car as a waiter, 
were you not? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, not being too clear just 
exactly what years and claiming privileges under the Constitution, 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees and Bartenders Union, A. F. of L. ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, claiming privileges under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received any funds in the course of the last 
year from the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union ? 

Mr. Belt,. Will you ask the question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Have you received any funds from the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards Union in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question. 

Senator Eastland. I want you to answer that question. The privi- 
lege does not come within a mile of applying to that question. 

Mr. Bell. How is that? 

Senator Eastland. Your privilege does not come within a mile 
of giving you the right to refuse to answer that question. I want 
you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. Have I received any money from whom ? 

Senator Eastland. Ask him the question again. 

Mr. Bell. I don't know who he is talking about, No. 1 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the last year, have you or your organi- 
zation through 

Senator Eastland. What is his organization? 

Mr. Arens. He is president of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union, but he will not answer any questions about that. 

Have you or your organization in the course of the last year received 
any funds from the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union ? 

Mr. Bell. I can't answer your question because I don't know who 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union is. I don't know what you 
are talking about. 

Senator Eastland. Do you deny that you have received any funds 
from it ? 

Mr. Bell. You may have a stool out here saying I did, I don't know. 

Senator Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Bell. What do you want me to say ? 

Senator Eastland. I want you to answer the question. It is an 
answer "yes" or "no," and answer it. The answer is "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Bell. I can't answer "yes" or "no" because I don't know what 
he is talking about. 

Senator Eastland. Ask him the question again. 

89656—51 11 



142 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Have you or has your organization, the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union, in the course of the last year 
received any funds from the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union ? 

Mr. Bell I can't answer the question. I further ask privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member or affiliated with the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union, 
A.F.ofL.? 

Mr. Bell. That is a matter of record, isn't it ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever bring a legal action against the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Eastland. You decline to answer something that is of 
record in the courts of this country. 

Mr. Bell. I am forced to do 

Senator Eastland. I am going to let you decide. 

Mr. Bell. I am only asking for the privilege, and to be made to do 
something against my will is force and violence. I ask the right of 
the Constitution of the United States, and here I am denied it. 

Senator Eastland. You refuse to answer that question ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Robert Wood? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any contacts with the paper called the 
Link? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Robert Wood has had 
any part in the organizing of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a convention in Chicago on September 
2, 1947, at which time the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers 
Union was organized? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Archibald Brom- 
sen, a lawyer? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know who the officers are of the Dining Car 
and Railroad Food Workers Union, other than the president? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what contracts the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union has? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Senator Eastland. Are those contracts illegal? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 143 

Mr. Bell. I don't know, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. I want you to answer the question, then, if you 
do not know. If they are legal contracts, you have to answer. 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever belonged to 

Senator Eastland. Wait a minute. Do you still decline to answer 
that question? 

Mr. Bell. What is that? 

Senator Eastland. The question he just asked you about the con- 
tracts your union had. 

Mr. Bell. The contracts my union had ? 
. Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Bell. I have no union. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Dining Car and Kailroad 
Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, claiming the privilege of the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union is certified as the bargaining agent to bargain with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad on behalf of dining car and railroad food 
workers ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, sir, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever belonged to a union or to a workers' 
organization of railroad workers? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. What organizations do you belong to ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I think the witness ought to be 
ordered to answer that question. 

Senator Eastland. He is ordered to answer all of them. 

Senator Jenner. There is nothing wrong with the question. There 
would not be anything to incriminate him. If he belongs to any 
illegal organizations or Communist organizations, he can leave them 
out. 

Senator Eastland. I do not know whether he can leave them out 
or not, but I want the record to show now that I am ordering him to 
answer each and every question asked of him, rather than go through 
the form of an order each time. The record will show that the rule 
applies to every question asked. 

Senator Watkins. Was that order made before these questions were 
asked ? 

Senator Jenner. Yes, he has been ordered. 

Mr. Bell. Mr. Chairman, I would like for the record to show as well 
that those questions I have objected to or declined to answer, all of 
them I have stated that I declined to answer, claiming privilege 

Senator Eastland. It shows that. 

Mr. Bell. Under the first and fifth amendments of the Constitu- 
tion, that by so answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a married man ? 

Mr. Bell. Yes, I am married. 



144 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Senator Jenner. Have you any children? 

Mr. Bell. Three. 

Senator Jenner. How old are they ? 

Mr. Bell. They are different ages. 

Senator Jenner. I assume that. 

Mr. Bell. I couldn't give you the exact ages to the year, but they 
are all grown, married. I got grandchildren. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Osie Long ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege as 
previously stated 

Senator Eastland. Let the record show he is ordered to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Daniel Benjamin? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, claiming privilege under 
the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any of the officers of the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Senator Eastland. I order you to answer that question. 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name Thomas E. Hayes ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, claiming privilege under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Harold M. Sawyer? 

Mr. Bell. Yes, I know Mr. Sawyer. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Mr. Sawyer? 

Mr. Bell. He is my attorney. 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Sawyer affiliated with the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union ? 

Mr; Bell. I do not know. You will have to ask him. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know as a fact whether or not he is associated 
with the Dining Car 

Mr. Bell. I wouldn't know whether he is a member or not a mem- 
ber. You would have to ask him. I wouldn't know his business. 

Senator Eastland. Is he the attorney for that union ? 

Mr. Bell. He is attorney for me, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Is he the attorney for the union also? 

Mr. Bell. I think he is attorney for the union. 

Senator Eastland. Do you think it or do you know it ? 

Mr. Bell. I said 1 think he is. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know whether he is or not ? 

Mr. Bell. I couldn't tell you definitely whether he is or someone 
else is. 

Senator Jenner. Are you paying him to act as your attorney ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Jenner. Is the union paying his fee for you ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution, that it may incriminate 
me. 

Senator Jenner. Where does he live, that is, Mr. Sawyer? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Did you ever see him before you came here? 

Mr. Bell. Yes. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 145 

"Senator Jenner. Did you have business dealings with him ? 

Mr. Bell. I saw him in his office. 

Senator Jenner. Where is his office ? 

Mr. Bell. 240 Montgomery Street. 

Senator Jenner. What city? 

Mr. Bell. San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he has represented a num- 
ber of Communists? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know who he has represented, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Howard McGuire? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Charles MacMurray ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Who is T. A. Jackson? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anybody who is not a Communist in the 
union ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Oscar Greene? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that, sir, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Thomas Gilmer? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of L. B. Christoffer? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer it, sir, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. What were you doing on the west coast? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, sir, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave for the west coast? You live in 
Chicago ; do you not ? 

Mr. Bell. I gave you my address. 

Mr. Arens. Do you live in Chicago? 

Mr. Bell. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave Chicago to go to the west coast? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer, sir, claiming privilege under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You were on the west coast when you were served with 
a subpena to appear before this committee, were you not? 

Mr. Bell. I was served in Oakland, Calif. ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long had you been in Oakland, Calif., prior to 
the time you were served with this subpena? 

Mr. Bell. I wouldn't know exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Were you there as much as a day ? 

Mr. Bell. I think it was a day or so, something like that. 

Mr. Arens. As much as 2 days ? 

Mr. Bell. I don't know exactly. 

Mr. Arens. As much as a week ? 

Mr. Bell. I said I don't know exactly. 



146 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Was it as much as a month? 

Mr. Bell. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Was it as much as 3 months? 

Mr. Bell. I do not know, sir. 

Senator Eastland. W T hat is your best judgment as to how long you 
were there ? 

Mr. Bell. I couldn't judge, because just guessing is bad business. 
I want to be exact when I tell you something. 

Mr. Arens. What town were you in prior to the time you were in 
Oakland? 

Mr. Bell. What is that? 

Mr. Arens. What town were you in just immediately prior to the 
time j'ou arrived in Oakland, Calif. ? 

Mr. Bell. I refuse to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
Under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did anybody accompany you to the west coast when 
you left Chicago to go to the west coast ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in Washington before ? 

Mr. Bell. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many times? 

Mr. Bell. I wouldn't know, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been here as many as a dozen times ? 

Mr. Bell. I couldn't say how many times. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been here less than 100 times? 

Mr. Bell. I couldn't say how many times, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Do not raise your voice at him. Just answer 
his question. 

Mr. Bell. I am trying to. 

Mr. Arens. What organizations did you represent when you came 
to Washington before? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in the Capital before ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in New York City ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming the privil- 
ege under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Communist Party headquarters 
on Thirteenth Street in New York City ? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth and first amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever go to Communist Party headquarters in 
New York City with Osie Long? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer the question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth and first amendments of the Constitution that by so 
answering it may incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been outside of continental United 
States? 

Mr. Bell. I think I was across the border once in Detroit, just going 
across the line from Detroit arid across the line in Portland, just across 
the bridge, to say I have been in Canada. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 147 

Mr. Arens. What were you doing in Detroit? 

Mr. Bell. I was working on the cars at that time. 

Mr. Arens. What cars? 

Mr. Bell. Dining car. 

Mr. Arens. What road? 

Mr. Bell. Union Pacific. 

Mr. Arens. What year? 

Mr. Bell. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was it prior to 1947 ? 

Mr. Bell. I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work on the Union Pacific after 1947? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave the Union Pacific? 

Mr. Bell. I decline to answer that question, sir, claiming privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Eastland. Are there any further questions? 

If not, you may be excused. 

(Thereupon at 3 :15 p. m., the hearing recessed.) 



SUBVEBSIVE INFLUENCE IN THE DINING CAE AND 
BAILROAD FOOD WOKKEES UNION 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1951 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administation 
of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal. 
Security Laws or the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. 0-. 
The subcommittee met at 3 : 15 p. m., pursuant to call, in room G-46, 
the Capitol, Senator James O. Eastland presiding. 
Present: Senators Eastland, Jenner, and Watkins. 
Also present: Mr. Richard Arens, staff director; Frank W. 
Schroeder, professional staff member ; Mitchel M. Carter and Edward 
R. Duffy, investigators. 

Senator Eastland. The committee will come to order. 
Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
the subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United 
States Senate is the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth,, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do, but I object to being sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD M. SAWYER, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name and occupation. 

Mr. Sawyer. Harold M. Sawyer, attorney at law. 

Mr. Arens. Where is your residence ? 

Mr. Sawyer. Outside of San Francisco, in Marin County. 

Mr. Arens. Who is associated with you in the practice of the law ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it invades my right of a free association under the first amendment, 
and my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Furthermore, I do not recognize the present committee as legally 
constituted if there is in fact in its membership any person who is 
elected as Senator from a poll State where a substantial portion of 
the inhabitants are disfranchised. 

Senator Eastland. We are ordering you to answer the question. 

Mr. Sawyer. I refuse upon the grounds already stated. 

Senator Eastland. Let the record show that each and every ques- 
tion that is asked him he is ordered to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sawyer, are you associated with a man by the name 
of Gladstein? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds that I have 
already set forth. 

149 



150 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE EST RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. Are you associated in the practice of law with a man 
by the name of Mr. Anderson ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the ground already set forth. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Gladstein sentenced to 6 months on a con- 
tempt charge by Judge Medina during the trial of the eleven Com- 
munists in New York? 

Mr. Sawyer. It is my understanding that he was. 

Mr. Arens. What is Mr. Gladstein's full name? 

Mr. Sawyer. I think it is Isadore Richard Gladstein. He is known 
as Richard Gladstein, however. I am not sure of the latter. 

Mr. Arens. Do you represent the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you represented the Dining Car and 
Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the ground already given. 

Senator Eastland. Who is the president of that union? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds already given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any of the officers in the union ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already given, and also it is an attempt to invade the privacy of rela- 
tion between attorney and client. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid your expenses to Washington ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I paid them. 

Mr. Arens. From whom do you expect to receive reimbursement? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you represent Solon C. Bell ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known him ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever represented any Communists? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Solon C. Bell is a Com- 
munist? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. What is your retainer fee or your remuneration from 
the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where Solon Bell was when he was served 
with a subpena to appear before the Internal Security Subcommittee 
of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate ? 

Mr. Sawyer,] I do not. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 151 

Mr. Aeens. When did you first see him in conjunction with this 
appearance ? 

Sir. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you prepare for him a telegram to the subcommit- 
tee shortly after he was served with his subpena to appear? 

Mr. Sawyer. I did. 

Senator Watkins. I would like to ask the witness. Which bar are 
you admitted to practice before? 

Mr. Sawyer. I was admitted to practice first in New York. I 
moved to Oregon and I was admitted to practice in all the courts in 
the State of Oregon. I moved to San Francisco and I was admitted 
to practice in all the State courts of California, in all the Federal 
courts and in the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, as 
well as the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Senator Watkins. Are you now in good standing as a member of 
the bar in each one of the States you mentioned ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I doubt I am in New York, and for the reason I do 
not think they accept members of the bar who are absent from the 
jurisdiction and not actively practicing therein. 

Senator Watkins. Are you a member of the Lawyers Guild? 

Mr. Sawyer. I am. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of the Lawyers 
Guild? 

Mr. Sawyer. Several years. I can't tell you exactly how long. I 
was one of the early members. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held office in the Lawyers Guild? 

Mr. Sawyer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What office have you held ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I was for two terms president of the San Francisco 
chapter, and during the same period of time I was national vice presi- 
dent for the Pacific coast area. 

Mr. Arens. Who was president while you were national vice presi- 
dent for the Pacific coast area ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I think Judge Gutknecht, of Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the Lawyers Guild has 
been cited by agencies of the Government of the United States as 
subversive ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I understand that that is the fact, but it is also done 
without any hearing or any judicial determination of the fact. 

Senator Eastland. Is it in fact subversive? 

Mr. Sawyer. In my opinion, no. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not it has a number of Com- 
munists in it ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't know that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not certain associates or 
friends of Solon C. Bell have today arrived in the Capitol or in the 
Senate Office Building? 

Mr. Sawyer. No ; I am not sure of that. If they have they came 
in on the same train as I did last night. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information on that at all ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I know that the crew who brought the train in are 
presumably still here, but I have not seen them. 



152 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. When you say still here, you mean in Washington or 
in the Senate Office Building ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I think in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not any of them actually came 
to the Senate Office Building? 

Mr. Sawyer. I think one of them did. 

Mr. Arens. What is his name ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any way by which you can identify him? 

Mr. Sawyer. Well, it would be difficult because I have only seen him 
once or twice, and I have no personal acquaintance with him. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you see him ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I saw him in room 457, if he is the person I think he 
was. He evidently came there for the purpose of listening to what 
was going on and was told he would not be admitted. So I assume 
that he was one of the members of the train crew, and a member 
probably of the union. But that is all assumption on my part, deduct- 
ed from the circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in the organization of the Dining 
Car and Railroad Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Sawyer. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. What contracts has the Dining Car and Railroad 
Food Workers Union? 

Mr. Sawyer. I only know by hearsay. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Wokers Union has a contract with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road? 

Mr. Sawyer. I understand that it has. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not the Dining Car and Rail- 
road Food Workers Union has been certified by the National Media- 
tion Board as a bargaining agency to bargain with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I assume that it has, but I do not know the fact per- 
sonally. 

Mr. Arens. What was Solon Bell doing out on the west coast? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he was in contact with 
Harry Bridges while he was on the west coast ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Who accompanied Solon Bell to the west coast, do you 
know? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whom he saw while he was on the west 
coast? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what his business was on the west coast ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds already stated. 
It is an invasion of a confidential relationship between attorney and 
client. I would like to tell the committee right now that all I know 
about the food workers and their officers and the personnel of the 
union is knowledge and information that has come to me strictly in 
my capacity as attorney for the organization, and I am not going to 
answer any questions about the organization because I consider it an 
invasion of the confidential relation between attorney and client. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 153 

Mr. Arens. Do you think there is an overriding equity here in the 
interest of the United States Senate in undertaking to investigate facts 
to protect the internal security of this country ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in New York City in conjunction 
with your professional activities ? 

Mr. Sawyer. Many times. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in New York City, did you ever go to 
the Communist Party headquarters? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer upon the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Bromsen ? 

Senator Eastland. Would that invade your relationship of attor- 
ney and client ? 

Mr. Sawyer. No ; it would not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Archibald Brom- 
sen? 

Mr. Sawyer. I think I will decline to answer that on the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Archibald Bromsen was 
instrumental in the formation of the Dining Car and Railroad Food 
Workers Union ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he has any affiliation or 
association with the Dining Car and Railroad Food Workers Union ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated. 

Mr. Arens. What was Mr. Solon Bell's income last year? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a pauper? 

Mr. Sawyer. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. I hand you a document which I shall mark "Exhibit 
1," and ask you if you can identify that document? 

Mr. Sawyer. It appears to be the original of a telegram which I 
sent Senator Eastland, at the request and under the authority of Solon 
Bell. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this exhibit 
be received for filing with the committee so it can be identified in this 
record. 

Senator Eastland. It will be received. 

(The document referred to was marked as "Exhibit No. 1" and filed 
with the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you know a man by the name of Charles Mac- 
Murray ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of T. A. Jackson? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of T. E. Hays? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated ; also that is an attempt to invade the privacy of a re- 
lationship between attorney and client. 

Mr. Arens. Do you represent Mr. T. E. Hayes? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated. 



154 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE IN RAILROAD FOOD WORKERS UNION 

Mr. Arens. What organizations do you belong to ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question upon the ground 
already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to a church ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I don't believe I do. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any golf clubs? 

Mr. Sawyer. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do vou belong to the American Automobile Associa- 
tion? 

Mr. Sawyer. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. You belong to the Lawyers Guild. 

Mr. Sawyer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other fraternal organizations or societies 
or asociations that you belong to ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I decline to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated. It is too comprehensive. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Sawyer. I say it is too comprehensive. 

Senator Eastland. Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. Arens. No. 

Senator Eastland. You may be excused. 

(The hearing was closed.) 

X 



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