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Full text of "Subversive influences in riots, looting, and burning. Hearings, Ninetieth Congress, first [-second] session"

f ' / 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



y 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

PART 3 
(Los Angeles — Watts) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

NINETIETH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



NOVEMBER 28, 29, AND 30, 1967 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 



"" ""'ir^F LIBRARY 
u JSiiLO Bi THE 
(jNlTHO .STATFS nnVERNMENT 

JUL 30 1968 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
88-083 WASHINGTON : 1968 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 60 cents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Oliio 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana 

JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Chester D. Smith, General Counsel 
Alfred M. Nittlb, Counsel 
(II) 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1123 

November 28, 1967: Testimony of — 

James C. Harris 1129 

November 29, 1967: Testimony of — 

James C. Harris (resumed) 1181 

WiUiam A. Wheeler 1198 

James C. Harris (resumed) 1210 

November 30, 1967: Testimony of — 

Clayton R. Anderson 1222 

WiUiam A. Wheeler (resumed) 1261 

Index i 

(rn) 



The House Committee on Un-American Activities is a standing 
committee of the House of Representatives, constituted as such by the 
rules of the House, adopted pursuant to Article I, section 5, of the 
Constitution of the United States which authorizes the House to de- 
termine the rules of its proceedings. 

RULES ADOPTED BY THE 90TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 10, 1967 

RESOLUTION 

Resolved, That the Rules of the House of Representatives of the Eighty-ninth 
Congress, together with all applicable provisions of the Legislative Reorganiza- 
tion Act of 1946, as amended, be, and they are hereby, adopted as the Rules of 
the House of Reipresentatives of the Ninetieth Congress * * * 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

* * ^ * * * * 
(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

* * * * * * * 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and vui-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (3) 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued" luuler the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any mem- 
ber designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and. for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



(IV) 



SYNOPSIS 

On November 28, 1967, the subcommittee of the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities met at 10 a.m. in Room 311, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C., in continuation of hearings 
on subversive influences in riots, looting, and burning, with particular 
reference to "the Watts riot of 1965 in Los Angeles and activity con- 
ducted by certain groups prior to, during, and after the riot." 

Committee counsel noted that the riot in the Watts area broke out 
on August 11, 1965, and lasted for 7 days. Its toll was 37 deaths, an 
unkno^^Ti number of injured, over 4,000 arrests, 600 buildings des- 
troyed, and an estimated property damage of $40 million. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS 

The first witness was Detective James C. Harris of the Los Angeles 
district attorney's office. Mr. Harris testified that an organization 
called Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist -Leninist), a group whose 
headquarters are located in Los Angeles, had "concentrated on agita- 
tion in the Negro community." 

Detective Harris noted that the leader and founder of the group, 
Michael Isaac Laski, a former student at UCLA, had organized a 
"Marxism Discussion Group" there in 1960. Later, in 1964, Laski 
served as West Coast organizer of the Provisional Organizing Com- 
mittee to Reconstitute the ISIarxist-Leninist Communist Party U.S.A. 
(POC) , a Communist Party splinter group. 

The POC, the Los Angeles detective declared, organized a front 
group for the purpose of racial agitation: Freedom for the People, 
an organization which rejected integration as a solution to the Negro's 
plight in America. Michael Laski also instituted a labor-tyj)e group, 
the Automobile Maintenance Workers' Union, which organized em- 
ployees of Los Angeles carwash businesses. Another POC front was 
the Watts Action Committee, an organization whose "purpose was 
to promote animosity towards the police and other law enforcement 
persomiel." 

Prior to and through the 1965 Watts riot, Laski agitated in the 
predominately Negro Watts section of Los Angeles in the name of 
the POC. 

In September 1965, following the Watts riot and after having been 
expelled from the POC, Laski and a handful of his followers from 
that organization formed the aforementioned Communist Party, 
United State of America (Marxist -Leninist). The main program of 
this new group, according to the witness, continued to be "primarily 
agitation in Watts." 

He continued : 

They have utilized charges of police brutality, the Vietnam issue. They have 
advocated a Chinese political philosophy and the formation of what they call 
the People's Armed Defense Groups in order to oppose alleged police brutality. 

1123 



1124 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Detective Harris told the subcommittee that Laski's group inter- 
mittently published a journal titled Peo'ple's Voice and also Red Flag, 
which contained highly inflammatory articles designed to sustain an 
atmosphere of i-acial tension in the Watts area. Samples of these pub- 
lications were offered for insertion in the hearing record. 

The witness said that the CPUSA-ML also maintained a propa- 
ganda outlet, the Worker's International Book Store, in Los Angeles. 
The bookstore offered literature which advocated a Red Chinese poli- 
tical philosophy and, according to their own letters, all kinds of "revo- 
lutionary magazines, books, and periodicals."' 

The witness then cited a number of examples of agitation on the 
theme of "police brutality" by the CPUSA-ML. He underscored these 
examples with appropriate exhibits. 

Detective Harris expressed the belief that the "intent of the CPUSA- 
ML has been to aggravate" the Negro population in Los Angeles "to 
the point of civil disobedience and to attempt to condition their minds 
to respond in a rebellious way in the event of a contact with a police 
officer." 

In the resumption of testimony the following day, Detective Harris 
offered a number of highly inflammatory documents which were pro- 
duced and disseminated by the CPUSA-ML in the Los Angeles area. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM A. WHEELER 

Mr. Wlieeler, a committee investigator for 20 years, assigned to the 
West Coast since 1951, testified that the Los Angeles Committee to 
Support Grievances of Watts Negroes was an outgrowth of the Com- 
mittee To End the War in Vietnam (CE)VV). The CEWV, in turn, 
was "a united front effort" of "the Socialist Party, Socialist Workers 
Party, Students for a Democratic Society, the Los Angeles W. E. B. 
DuBois Club, and the Young Socialist Alliance," youth arm of the 
Trotskyist Communist organization, the Socialist Workers Party. 

The committee's West Coast investigator submitted for exhibit docu- 
ments prepared by the Committee to Support Grievances of Watts 
Negroes, one of which was headed : 

STOP POLICE REPRESSION OF WATTS NEGROES!! FIRE POLICE 
CHIEF PARKER!! CREATE A CIVILIAN POLICE REVIEW BOARD!! 
ELIMINATE GHETTO CONDITIONS ! ! 

Mr. Wlieeler stated that an organization known as the Congress of 
Unrepresented People rejilaced the Committee to Suj^poi't Grievances 
of Watts Negroes in August 1965. He then testified as to the identity of 
the participants in an August 21, 1965, demonstration sponsored by 
the Congress of ITnrepresented People as members of the Socialist 
Party, Socialist Workers Party, W. E. B. DuBois Club, Communist 
Party, and Young Socialist Alliance. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS — ^RFJStJMED 

Detective Harris, recalled to the stand, stated that the South Side 
Citizens Defense Committee was identified by the Los Angeles dis- 
trict attoriiov's office "as a front of the old-line Communist Party and 
formed for the ])iir))ose of cai)italizino- on the Watts riot." Tlie address 
of the South Side Citizens Defense C'Ommittee was shown to be iden- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1125 

tical to that of the Committee To Defend the Bill of Eights, the suc- 
cessor organization to the old Communist front organization, the Los 
Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

He testified that another agitational group operating in Watts after 
the riot was the Watts Council for Equal Eights, a creation of the 
Provisional Organizing Committee to Eeconstitute the Marxist-Len- 
inist Communist Party. The Watts Council for Equal Eights was 
formed in November 1965. 

Detective Harris stated that the group was involved in agitation at 
the time of the "Deadwj^ler affair in Los Angeles." Deadwyler was a 
Negro accidentally shot by a police officer in May 1966. (As revealed 
in later testimony, a number of Communist organizations seized upon 
the Deadwyler affair in mounting a vociferous racial agitation cam- 
paign against alleged "police brutality.") 

Chairman Willis told the witness that he had made a great con- 
tribution to the committee. He added : 

Mayor Yorty, a former Member of Congress, testified that the minds of the 
people, particularly the colored people in the Watts area, were conditioned for 
a long time to set the scene and to prepare them for the riots. Then yesterday we 
covered, through you, the conditions prevailing during the riots. 

This morning, you and Mr. Wheeler, an employee of this committee, talked 
about the postriot shenanigans going on. 

Now, in short, as I understand it, these nefarious activities started a long time 
ago. They were pursued during the riot and, after the riot, unquestionably under 
one form or guise or another are still going on in the Los Angeles area. 

TESTIMONY OF CLAYTON R. ANDERSON 

On November 30, 1967, a subcommittee composed of Mr. Tuck, Mr. 
Ichord, and Mr. Ashbrook convened in the committee hearing room 
to hear the testimony of Lieutenant Clayton E. Anderson concerning 
postriot activities in the Los Angeles area. Mr. Tuck, chairman of the 
subcommittee, presided. 

Lieutenant Anderson stated that he was employed in the Los 
Angeles district attorney's bureau of investigation, assigned to the 
intelligence section. 

He testified that the Freedom Now Committee in Los Angeles held 
a press conference on February 10, 1966, at which it was stated that 
the purpose of the committee was to stage a demonstration on Febru- 
ary 12, 1966, for "complete freedom for American Negro citizens now 
and immediate withdrawal of all LLS. troops from Vietnam." 

The intelligence section officer stated that key leaders of the Free- 
dom Now Committee were leaders of the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs. 

Lieutenant Anderson said that the demonstration was held as sched- 
uled and was comprised of "less than 100 actual demonstrators," of 
whom about "25 percent" were either DuBois clubs members, Com- 
munist Party members, or former party members. 

The witness revealed that the Freedom Now Committee was appar- 
ently formed especially for the February 12, 1966, demonstration and 
was then abandoned. 

Lieut^inant Anderson told the subcommittee that an organization 
called the Ad Hoc Committee To End Police Malpractices sponsored 
a demonstration at Los Angeles City Hall on September 24, 1964. 
The Ad Hoc Committee, "a front group of the W. E. B. DuBois Club 
of Los Angeles," demanded immediate action to correct police malprac- 



1126 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

tice, mcluding the i-esigiiaition of the chief of police, and the establish- 
ment of a civilian police review board. This demonstration took place 
11 months prior to the Watts riot. 

Another organization which was established after the riot in the 
Watts area was the Community Alert Patrol. Mr. Andereoai noted 
that this group, while not subversive, was a nuisance. The mejnbei'S of 
the Community Alert Patrol had their oars equipped with short- 
wave radios and in turn responded to police calls in order to observe 
any "police brutality." The group never made any charges of police 
brutality agauist the Los Angeles Police Department. 

Lieutenant Anderson discussed the "Deadwyler case," which was 
the accidental shooting of a Negro, Leonard Deadwyler, by a police 
officer on May 7, 1966. Even though the policeman was cleared by 
a coroner's jury, "a number of Communist and extreme leftwing 
organizations tried to capitalize on this accidental killing to foment 
racial discord in the Watts area." 

The Comuiittee To End Legalized Murder by Cops was "formed for 
agitation during the Deadwyler inquest." Key leaders of this com- 
mittee included high-ranlving officials of the Communist Party, U.S.A., 
and the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs. 

The "End Legalized Murder" committee held an miruly demonstra- 
tion on May 17, 1966, in front of the 77th Division police station, 
which mcluded some 350 demonstrators. Among these demoinsitrators 
were a number of well-known members of the Coimnunist Party, the 
W. E. B. DuBois Clubs, and other Communist organizations. 

Lieutenant Anderson told the subconnnittee of the demonstrations 
which took place during the Deadwyler inquest and introduced liter- 
ature and a number of inflammatory handbills which were distributed 
for agitational purposes during this demonstration by the CPUSA- 
ML, the Muslims of the Nation of Islam, and the Progressive Labor 
Party. 

Lieutenant Anderson pointed out that John Wesley Harris, Watts 
area organizer for the Progressive Labor Party, was arrested for 
distributing insurrectional literature at the Deadwyler hearing. 
Shortly thereafter the Committee to Defend John Harris was orga- 
nized — chiefly by members of the Progressive Labor Party. This com- 
mittee Avas endorsed and supported by the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM A. WHEELER RESUMED 

Committee investigator Wlieeler returned to the witness stand and 
testified about an organization called the Afro-American -C^iltural 
Association, apparently fonned in December 1966, and headed by 
black nationalist playwright Frank Greenwood, who had formerly 
been associated with various Communist Party front groujis. 

Mr. "Wlieeler stated that Greenwood has been connected with the 
Black Anti-Draft Union in Los Angeles. 

Investigator Wheeler attested to informatioai concerning a group 
called Self Leadei-ship for All Nationalities Today (SLANT), which, 
was formed on August 19, 196,5, 2 days subseouent to the Watts riot. 

The motto of SLANT is "BROTHERHOOD-UNITY-RESPON- 
SIBILITY-NATIOmVIDE." The initials of this motto spell 
"BURN." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1127 

The founder of SLANT, Tommy Kay Jacquette, a former social 
worker with the Westminister Neighborhood Association, a federally 
funded charity organization, has stated, "change for the Negroes can 
never be brought about without violence." 

The committee investi£v?itor stated that he had also investigated the 
activities of an organization called simply "US." The key leaders of 
US are Ron Karenga, chairman, and Allen Jamal, vice chairman. 
Both men are known to be militant black nationalist extremists. 

The revolutionary philosophy of US as develoiped by Ron Karenga 
was thoroughly documented as Mr. Wheeler read a number of state- 
ments by its militant chairman into the record. 

US was documented to be anti-Semitic in its ipreachments and ex- 
tremely militant in its activities. "On October 19, 1967, five members 
of the US organization were arrested for throwing Molotov cocktails 
in a bakery in the Watts area," the witness said. 

Mr. Wheeler said, in reference to CPUSA articipation in the Watts 
riot: "The Communist Party has been very cautious. It has done 
little or nothing under its own name." He added, however, that both 
the Communist Party and the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs, its youth arm, 
had set up various fronts to "foster racial division and antagonism in 
the Los Angeles area" while attempting to conceal the role of the party 
in such activity. 

The fronts set up by the Communist Party, he stated, included the 
South Side Citizens Defense Committee, the Committee To End 
Legalized Murder by Cops, and the Freedom Now Committee. 

The W. E. B. DuBois Clubs and/or its leaders and members sup- 
ported and took part in the activities of the following racial-agitation 
organizations in the Los Angeles area : 

Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes 

Ad Hoc Committee To End Police Malpractices 

Congress of Unrepresented People 

South Side Citizens Defense Committee 

Freedom Now Committee 

Committee for the Defense of John Harris 

Mr. Wheeler stated : "Finally, as previously indicated, on the na- 
tional level the DuBois Clubs have called for the separation of the 
Watts area from the city of Los Angeles." 

The "Socialist Workers Party issued a statement which, like that 
of the Communist Party, exonerated the rioters * * *." This state- 
ment was published 2 days after the Watts riot ended. 

Investigator AYlieeler commented briefly concerning the activity 
of the Progressive Labor Party in circulating inflammatory literature 
during the Watts riot. PLP distributed posters and flyers titled : "Don't 
be a sucker !" (This pamphlet asked the question : "isn't tiiis a decla- 
ration OF WAR AGAINST THE AFRO-AMERICAN PEOPLE BY THE UNITED 

STATES GOVERNMENT?") ; "BLACK LIBERATION— NOW !" ; "THE 
NEED FOR REVOLTTTION"; "WANTED FOR MURDER— 
Parker the Cop in Watts" (This poster was pattemed after the PLP's 
"Wanted for Murder — Gilligan the Cop" poster which was distributed 
during the Harlem riot of 1964.) ; and, during the Deadwyler affair, 
"WANTED for the MURDER of Leonard Deadwyler— 'BO VA— the 
COP.' " 



1128 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

PLP leader, John Wesley Harris, was indicted for criminal syndi- 
calism for his agitational activities during the Deadwyler inquest. 
The PLP then formed the Committee to Defend John Harris, which 
"has been used not only to assist in Harris' defense, but also to further 
racial discord, and for the distribution of inflammatory literature." Mr. 
Wheeler noted that Harris "has since proclaimed that he is proud 
to be a Communist." 

In his concluding remarks Mr. Tuck stated : 

This hearing has not proved that the Watts riot of August 1965 was instigated 
by the Communists. The record indicates that most of this literature was distrib- 
uted after the riot in an apparent attempt to capitalize on it and incite further 
violence. Some of it, however, was distributed prior to the riot. To have engaged 
in this activity in disturbing the community after the Watts riot is even worse 
than it was before the riot. 

!); ^ iN ^ ^ if! # 

Whether or not Communists and black nationalist elements can be said to 
have played a major role in the initial Watts riot, it is clear that their desire 
and intent is to foment racial violence in this country and that they are doing 
everything possible to accomplish that end. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

Part 3 
(Los Angeles — Watts) 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1967 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American x\ctivities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House Office Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding, 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; Richard H. 
Ichord, of Missouri ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and Albert W. Wat- 
son, of South Carolina ; also John C. Culver, of Iowa, in absence of 
Mr. Willis.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Ichord. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Chester D. 
Smith, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. 
Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness.^ 

Mr. Smith. Will the witness come forward ? 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth? 

Mr. Harris. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Smith. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS 

Mr. Smith. Will you state your name for the record? 
Mr. Harris. I am »James C. Harris. 
Mr. Smith. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Harris. I am a detective in the office of the district attorney, 
Los Angeles, California. 

i|The testimony of the first witness, Mayior Sam Yorty of L.os Angelesi, Calif., is printed 
in part 1 of these hearings. See p. 833. 

1129 



1130 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, as the committee is aware, the hearings 
this week cover the Watts riot of 1965 in Los Angeles and activity 
conducted by certain groups prior to, during, and after the riot. 

The riot broke out on August 11, 1965, precipitated by a police chase 
and arrest in the Watts area of a 21-year-old Negro, Marquette Frye, 
for drunk driving and speeding. The riot lasted 7 days. It resulted in 
a total of 37 deaths, an unknown number of injured, over 4,000 arrests, 
600 buildings destroyed, and an estimated property damage of $40 
million. 

Here again, as was noted in connection with the Harlem riot, it is 
pointed out that notwithstanding the fact that in the south Los An- 
geles area, which includes Watts, there are approximately 576,000 
Negro residents — 40,000 of whom reside in the 2i/^-square mile area 
of the Watts community — the vast majority of these residents did not 
participate in the violence occurring during those 7 days. 

Detective Harris, the committee investigation establishes the exist- 
ence in the Los Angeles, California, area of an organization called 
Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist). Are you familiar with 
the activities of this organization ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. Our office has observed this organization and 

has kept a constant 

The Chairman. Will you name the organization again ? 
Mr. Smith. Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist). 
Mr. Harris. We have kept a constant observation of their activities 
in the Los Angeles area. 

Mr. Smith. When and for what purpose was this organization 
founded, according to your investigation ? 

Mr. Harris. To fully understand this organization, it will be neces- 
sary to go into the background of its current leader and its founder, 
Michael Laski. 

In subsequent testimony, exhibits will be introduced where his name 
is spelled L-a-s-k-y. In all the exhibits I will introduce, the name 
Laski is in fact Michael Isaac Laski, L-a-s-k-i. 

He was born July 14, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York. Our files date 
back to 1959 on Laski when he was a student at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles. During the year 1959, a Socialist Workers 
Party-oriented group called the Eugene V. Debs Club was seeking 
campus recognition. Laski was one of the prime organizers of this 
group. 

When it became evident that the Eugene V. Debs group was not 
receiving campus recognition, it w^as organized into the "Marxism 
Discussion Group." Our records reflect that the first meetins: of the 
Marxism Discussion Group was held on the 2d of October 1960. 

The Daily Brvin, which is a UCLA student publication, dated 
October 6, 1960, reflects that this organization was started by Michael 
"Lnskv," its chairman, and two other students. 

While Laski claimed that the Marxism Discussion Group was es- 
tablished to "clear up misnomers spread by the capitalist press and 
])ourgeoise professors in regard to the nature of socialism," a subse- 
quent issue of the PaiJy Brvrn reports it was denied official recogni- 
tion as an on-campus student orafanizntion. 

Mr. S:mittt. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the Daily Britin articles be 
marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1131 

The Chairman. They may be so marked and made part of the 
record. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. When did Michael Laski again come to your attention ? 

Mr. Harris. In 1964, Laski became the West Coast organizer of the 
Provisional Organizing Committee for the Reconstitution of the 
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party. This was also known as the POC. 

Headquarters for the POC in Los Angeles was established at 9674 
Juniper Street in Los Angeles. Subsequently, the Workers' Interna- 
tional Book Store was opened with the address of 1313 East Firestone 
Boulevard, in the heart of the Negro district in Los Angeles. 

Michael Laski and the Provisional Organizing Committee concen- 
trated on agitation in the Negro community. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the committee investigation has estab- 
lished that in August 1958 a number of dissident members of the Com- 
munist Party formed the Provisional Organizing Committee for the 
Reconstitution of a Marxist-Leninist Party known as POC. This ele- 
ment was considered as extremists of the Soviet ideology at that time. 
In other words, they were radicals of a radical lef twing movement. 

This group was expelled from the Communist Party August 16, 
17, 1958, and on or about September 6, 1958, the POC became a sep- 
arate entity. 

Detective Harris, was all agitation carried out in the name of POC ? 

Mr. Harris. No, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Would you elaborate, sir, please? 

Mr. Harris. Several front groups were organized. One called Free- 
dom for the People was created by Laski calling for the right of self- 
determination for the Negro people. This organization rejected in- 
tegration as a solution to the Negro's plight in America. 

Another was a labor-type organization which Laski called the 
Automobile Maintenance Workers' Union. This was formed to orga- 
nize employees of Los Angeles carwash businesses. Activities by Laski 
and his aides within the Automobile Maintenance Workers' Union 
nearly resulted in a riot at the Rosecrans Car-wash on January 17, 
1965. 

This and others of Laski's activities are set forth in a story which 
appeared in the Lon^ Beach Press Telegram of February 1, 1965. 

Also, in 1964, Laski organized the Watts Action Committee. Its pur- 
pose was to promote animosity towards the police and other law en- 
forcement personnel. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the article he has referenced to 
here be accepted and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 3." 

The Chairman. Let it be so marked and accepted. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 3" follows :) 

Harris Exhibit No. 3 

[Long Beach Press Telegram, February 1, 1965] 

RED CHINA SYMPATHIZERS DEMAND DEAL 

Commie Leader of Car-Wash Strike Asks NLRB Elections 

(By Charles Sutton) 

The Marxist leader of Southern California's turbulent 5-week-old car-wash 
strike has made a bid for union recognition at nine local car-washes in petitions 
filed with the National Labor Relations Board. 



1132 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

The 23-year-old Communist coupled his move with a threat to step up his 
union's apparently weakened strike effort in the wake of a management refusal 
"to sit down and negotiate" with him. 

4: 4: ^,: ^ 

THE PETITIONS, FILED LATE Friday, charge the car-washes with unfair 
labor practices and ask the NLRB to intercede and recognize the striking union. 

(A spokesman at the NLRB office in Los Angeles said that in the event the 
board acts on the petitions, it will order representation elections at the affected 
car-washes.) 

Young Mike Laski's move was understood to be as much a tactical gambit as 
anything else, however. Should the labor board deny the petitions for lack of 
jurisdiction in the dispute, there's the likelihood it will also throw out unfair- 
labor-activity charges filed against the union, the labor leader declared. 

In Laski's estimation, the NLRB probably will rule itself out of the dispute 
on grounds that none of the affected car-washes does a large enough business to 
warrant NLRB intervention under federal law. 

* * * * 

IT IS UNDERSTOOD THE car-washes are taking the position that the board 
does have jurisdiction because the union also is dealing with the Southern Cali- 
fornia Car Wash Association, and its members, in combination, would fall under 
NLRB rules. 

Meanwhile, the young Marxist and four of his aides edged closer to a court 
trial on charges stemming from a near-riot at the Rosecrans Car-wash near 
Gardena Jan. 17, a day after Laski and his Auto Maintenance Workers' Union 
took on the industry in a struggle for union recognition and higher wages. 

With the courts and the sheriff's office breathing down his neck, not to mention 
the car-wash association, Laski acknowledge [sic] that federal officials doubtless 
were taking a close look at the union and its activities, too. 

Laski has made no attempt to cover up the fact that he and other key officials 
of the union are members of a Red Chinese-oriented group, the Provisional 
Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party 
in the United States, or POC. 

While the FBI would say only that it is "not free to discuss the matter," 
it is understood that agents of some federal organization, presumably the FBI, 
have been keeping tab on Laski and other POC people. 

* * * * 

AMONG THE GROUPS POC is active in is a largely Negro organization called 
Freedom for the People, which calls for the "right of the self-determination of 
the Negro people." 

"Its program," explained Laski, "is one of liberation through struggle with 
the white working class." The Los Angeles-area organization rejects integration 
as a solution to the Negro's plight in America, and appears to veer toward a 
separatist answer. 

Earlier this week, Laski said, he tried to make a deal with the industry in 
an effort to get it to drop the riot charges. As a quid pro quo, Laski would 
have called off picketing for six months to a year. 

But sources in the Southern California Car Wash Association made it clear 
they were not about to take up the offer. "It's their necks now," said an em- 
ployer spokesman. 

Ever since the strike began on Jan. 16, the AMWU has been sporadically picket- 
ing seven car-washes in the Gardena-Los Angeles area, but the picketing has 
eased off in the past two weeks. 

At seven other car-washes, employes walked off their jobs but did not picket. 

Mr. Si\riTir, Detective Harris, did Laski continue in leadership of 
POC through the Watts riots of August 11-17, 1065? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, he did ; but against orders of the national head- 
quarters of tlie POC in New York. 

He a<2:itated in the name of tlie POC- throngli the Watts riots in 
Aufjnst 1005. Laski readily adniiUed the i-ole he and his orcfanization 
liave played in a press conference which lie held on October 7, 1065, 
at the carwashers' union office, 1818 East Firestone, Los Anfjeles. 

Mr. Smith. Did your office obtain a transcript of the press 
statement? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1133 

Mr. Harris. Yes. I have a copy of it in which, if you will note, Laski 
called the conference for the purpose of telling their precise role 
prior to and during the Watts riot. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this transcript be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibit No. 4." 

The Chairman. It is accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 4." See pp. 1153-1179.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, this exhibit containing 27 pages, consists 
of Laski's statement to the press and questions by the press together 
with his answers. While I do not intend to quote the entire document, 
I desire to read two or three paragraphs which summarize Laski's par- 
ticipation prior to and during the Watts riot, together with his rejec- 
tion of cooperation with the police. 

Question : 

Now, what was the role of the Communists, the Marxist-Leninists, in the 
Watts situation? 

Answer : 

We have been in the Watts area for better than 2 years. We have been working 
in the Watts district as our primary area of concentration. And this was selected 
prior to our entrance into the L.A. [Los Angeles] area as our target area. We 
concentrated on activity and our agitation in that area. I think Councilman 
Gibson had a rather fair display of some of our propaganda effort. And we as- 
sisted in the formation of such organizations as Freedom for the People, and at 
that time we were operating through the Provisional Organizing Committee that 
would carry on our work. 

We carried out agitation against the Police Department and against the police 
officials as representatives of the ruling class of this country. We went beyond 
that in dealing with the question of job discrimination and a number of other 
particular points. Our main efforts were essentially agitational in order to build 
up our ranks in our category in order to be in a position to take a decisive leader- 
ship to the situation called for 

The Chairman. Who is making that statement and where? 
Mr. Smith. This is Michael Laski, head of the POC. 
The Chairman. That is a pretty frank statement thus far. 
Mr, Smith. [Continuing the quote:] 

We recognized the potential of the Watts area at that time and the history has 
bore [sic] us out in our initial observation. 

Now, with respect to the police, Laski stated in response to a 
question : 

We cannot as Communists be truthful, preach or pledge our alliance to the 
police department because this is a complete slap in the face of all the things that 
we stand for and represent 

The Chairman. Is this a public statement ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. "Wliy is he being so frank as to their objective ? 

Mr. Smith. Because he is anxious to secure adherents and to perform 
the objective of his organization, which is the precipitation of agita- 
tion and trouble for the police department. 

The Chairman. He is making some pretty damaging statements 
there. 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir. 

[Continuing the quote :] 

We represent the interests of the working people and their interests as opposed 
to the state power of the rich of this country, of the ruling class, of the bourgeois. 



1134 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

And for us to say place reliance upon law and order and police that represent this 
ruling class would be hypocrisy on our part. * * * 

Was Laski expelled from POC following the Watts riots? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. Laski 's act of disobedience in failing to fol- 
low the orders of the national POC 

The Chairman. Wliy was he disobedient? For not going far 
enough ? 

Mr. Harris. I don't know why. 

The Chairman. He did a pretty good job, did he not ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir ; he did. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I think I can answer that. 

Pie was expelled for participating or acting against orders of the 
headquarters POC in New York. 

The Chairman. "VYhat were their orders when he did such a good 
job in exploiting the race issue and exploiting the situation? What 
more did they want? Did they expect him to do more than he did? 

Mr. Smith. No, sir. I think it exposed the Communist participation. 

The Chairman. That is why I come back to the statement, he was 
exposing himself pretty far in the frank statement he made. I am 
surprised he did. 

Mr. Smith. I think they expelled him because of his frankness. 

Mr. Harris. On Septemi3er 4 and 5 of 1965, Laski and a handful of 
his followers from the POC formed the Communist Party, United 
States of x^merica (Marxist-Leninist). Laski confirmed this in his 
press conference of October 7, 1965. 

At that time, the Workers' International Book Store, which was 
located at 1313 East Firestone, became the headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) and in late May or June 
1966, Laski moved his headquarters from the Firestone Boulevard 
address to 9122 Compton Avenue, which is the current address of his 
organization. 

Mr. Smith. What has been the main program of the Communist 
Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) ? 

Mr. Harris. Primarily agitation in Watts. 

They have utilized charges of police brutality, the Vietnam issue. 
They have advocated a Chinese political philosophy and the forma- 
tion of what they call the People's Armed Defense Groups in order 
to oppose alleged police brutality. 

The Chairman. That is the situation in Watts rather than nation- 
wide. 

Mr. Harris. I am not aware of the nationwide organizati_on. 

The Chairman. I say, it was primarily engaged m, in the Watts 
area. 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Does the organization have a publication ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. They publish only intermittently a publica- 
tion called the People's Voice. I have an issue here dated September 
27-October4,1965. 

They also publish a document known as the Red Flag. This issue I 
have here is dated January-February 1966. 

Both documents contain the declaration of principles of the Com- 
munist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist). 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibits Nos. 5 and 6." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1135 



The Chairman. They may be so marked. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 5 and 6," respectively. 
Exhibit No. 6 retained in committee files; No. 5 foUows:) 



Harris Exhibit No. 5 



DECLARATION OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY 
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
(MARXIST-LENINIST) 



Thf Communist Party of the UiiiteJ StaUs of Ann-jica 
(Marxisi-Ltninist) is the vangunnl of tho working class of Ih.' 
I'r. leil Ktalr-s of Amcricji, tile liiRlK'st foiin of class onjaiii- 
zalii.n. The aim of the Party is to carry foi-u-iiid thn historical trn- 
<litiona ami contribuiions of the Commuiiisl Party in the Utiit'^l 
Sniles. 



BRIKF HISTORICAI, XOII-.S 

HISTORY OF MARXISM-LF.NJMSM IN 
11 IK r.N'I'JFn STA'IFS.OF a.mi;r)(\ 

The historical stmifcle of the Americari workiiiK iln.s- «;. 
r:eii forward by the foi-matiun of the Commuiii.'it Party T 
l!il:i with the adhcremc and aci'eptance of the Party in t! 
International. With Itss than siver.l hundred members and u.. 
direct attack nf U.S. imperialism, the Party waited an uni"' i,' 
.-irujrt'le aeain.it the capitalist system. Afl«r yoni^ of struiiKle, the 
Party, in 1927. wa.s forced to deal with the prepuce of TrotikyiMii 
within the ranks of the Party and it wat^et] a fierce slruKtile aKainst 
those repiv-senlatives of bourgeois ideoloj;^ within the ranks of the 
Party. 

The C.P.U.S.A. heroically led the working claw in stmuple and 
consistently fought for the rights of the national ^inofities »nd the 
right of selfd('termination of all oppre simI people"*. Jn liiXa at the 
Seventh World Congre.s.s, certain leaders of the Party attempli'il to 
pursue an incon-eet line on the national-colonial iiuMtion. 

This point represent'*! the itiiiial ph i^e .n the de\'-iopmcnt of 
a revi,>-ionist tendency within the Party which came to l>e developed 
under lirowder and finally in 104-1 proceeded to lujuidate the Com- 
niunis^t Paity in the US. A. to ap|iea.se the bourtjeoisie. In 194fi, the 
Communist Party U.S.A. was :'econ.-,titoted in name only. The peri- 
<>d from 1945 to lO.'iC iytw the full implementation of a revisionist 
theory and practice within the Party. Under this e^itualion, it degen- 
erated into a social-denioci-utic Party defaultlnjc in its hititorical role 
us that of the vanguard Party of the workin)? clas-s. In I'.t.^U. the 
i^utyV conversion into a Party of the liberal houri^eoii-ic wa.s all 



PEOPLE;fVOICE 

THf. VOICI Of All THEvpPPBISSCO AND tXHOfTEei 



E. FIRESTONE BLVD. LlTS ANGKLES. CALIF. 90001 



JUBSCKIPTION $5.00 PER YEA^ 
"MO.N'Ii.^V, SKPT 



OCT. 



19GS 



lui ...ijl.t, , Ur,.!,! the centrist leadership of William Z. Foster, 
the corciliator.-j of revisionism within the Party fought to secure a 
fal.se "unity" with the open revisionists. Ky li/jg the conciliators 
alun({ wilh the revi.sionist faction felt secure enough to expel the 
Alarxist-Loninists from the Party. 

In 19.'>8, IVlai-xi.sl. Leninists who had been expelled and others 
.stdl in the Party joined loijrcther to form the Provisional Organiz- 
inp Committee to Kecoiistitute the Marxirt-Leninist Communist 
Party in the U.S.A. (P.O.C.) and began to wage an untiring strug- 
gle .igainst the opportunism of the C.P.U.S_A. which had by this 
time sunk over deeper into the mire of cla.<is coliarobation with thi 
bouig-Miisie. 

The theory of proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the 
proletariat, and the question of whether to make revolution or not 
to make revolution has always been tlie dividing line bctwe<-n Marx- 
isi-Ix-ninist.s and revisionists. The 22nd Congr^^as of the C.P.S.U. 
made clear that there existed two diffei-ent lines within the inter- 
national Communi.st movement on this question of principle. At the 
22d Congress, the r\-visionist line of "'iieacoful coexistence,*' "peace- 
ful cotn|ietilioii,'" and "peaceful transilion" was put forth by certain 
(Continued on Page 2) 




KAKK MARX 



FREDERICK ENGELS 



-083 O — 68 — ^pt. 3- 



1136 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 



INTENSIFY REVOLUTIONARY STRUCGLE! 
ORGANIZE AGAINST U.S. IMPERIALISM! 



PKCLARATION OF TlilC C.P.U.S.A. (M. L.) 
(Cotitinucfl iriim P.igi- 1) 
fi-atiriial J'arlies. As a iv-uH of (In; Z'Znd Van^rctH; mojeyi 
Zionism fully pX|)osoil its urIj- features. The coni«Kiui>ncc «: 
'ui-Shcr e.\|ioMiip of ili<: C.I'.U.S.A. .»n.i it-s cla s collaboration/ 
icies in thi' seivioi' of llm liom irtoisio. 

Since the C.p.U..S.A. couM tli™ rl.iy only ii limilcd rol. 
fiirthcrini; of the houvuroiKic'n in'ir.> f-, it brcamc ini'umbciit 
ihf liourccci-ic in 191)2 in iP.T^ue wiili Troiskyitcs and u-viji 
to civnto th.'ir own "Slar-v'st-Lt-nitiist" oii';(ni7Jiti'«]. 

Siacf 190l', tliern ha.< oiciiri-er an inmisifh-.'ition of Hie 
s!i-u>r!il6 anil tlic national Mruuijli- witiiin the U'sil.'d Slat.-,, 
strn.tr(!;»o' rev.alod i;.<:(lf withn th- M.ir.vi. lI,.'Mini.-t !,"'"U|«. 
thf reaching of a hiarhcr pbnc in th- ti'i. ,1, n^j.. j. ■ I. : ! 
Hcvelrtpni.-nl.^ of Am;usl. VMV>, tho r. \ . 
i!>liip of t!ip rro\iaion:;! Oijianizintr i 
Ih' iKlllcrship of (h- rl:- -n I r-il''i 
this time all Mr ' 

Iht^ hi.vtoric roll 



t i>ol 



This 
With 



Tli 



IKK C.r I S \ fM.-L 



Ri'pp's ntativ.-.- of i', VS. n.- ' 


. ■ . . ■,:. 




ond of SfiitiinbiT 4 .''■. : 




, ^ ,,,,,,! 


the Pouii.l:ng Conff^ri < • 




t!,- r„;i.-,i 


States of Anierioa (M..; ■ 




•:i;.\i, well! 


from tiic Workers On- . . 




:h.' .Vl.nxisl- 


I.ci-ii.i-l.s from Tho TV.. 




tu i:.-e,.n. 


slitut* thr M.ii-xist Lijii: 




1 •:■.! Sli't.-S. 


The Communist Parl> ' ■, 




.^..stl- 


tutcd to rarry forwini th.' .' 




:he 


woikinir c!a-;« of Ihc UniteH .';i. 




! - 


leLiiiun oWigalions t,. !■■-'■ ■ 






Till' <:.P.J',S.A. (M 






.nitiook nf ilialrrtial :\r 






woiM outlrnk of iilon- , 






"ol a ilogm.n, hii( a ki'' 






huild ..^oriali'^m and con : - - - 






ply the principles of .Marxi-inl,. miusi' 




■ y.d creative 


way for the solution Df various prohhii 




lii,' s\vw«\,: 


ami thus contiini"«.-ly rliwlop (In' i' 


. , ^ • ■ ■ 


.m l..'nini>m. 


Crinsc;nuently. the Tarty in il.s .-ictivitK 


;s upliol.is 


il..' principle of 


miegiv-iting the universal trutjis of .Via! 


xi-m-l.tnir,i: 


L-m with tlie ac- 


:unl slrugifle of the workini; ria's. 







Illl- (' IM S \ ( \| I. ) ( ['HOLDS 

rrii-; puixrii-i i;s ov thf 
I.\ ri:KN'AJ 1().\AI, ((UlNH xis'i- 
■ .NJOVI-Ml \ I 

The C.P.U..'5.A. (M.-!..) adiier. - t <s i.i ii,,ll,l.-s 

nf the 1S>,")7 Declaration »rd th,' IDi'ti .'- L\i'hty-one 

<'ommvm:.<t urn! VVnrki.TR' I'aitic' wlii. li ,: u^' folimvs: 

Workers of all counlries unite; woi kers ot tli,. wocld unite 
with the opprcswd peoples and oppressed nationi; opp-wc im- 
perUlism md reaction In all countries; strive for world peaee. 
natiunal liberation, people's dcinoci.icy and sociahsm; conjoli 
date and expaml the i^cialisi cinip; briny the world revolution 
men by st.p to roinplcie victci^i an.l establish a new world 
without Imperialism, without c«pitali«ni and without the ex- 
ploitation of man by man. 

The (;.P,U..<?.A. (M.-L.) fuillu r recnjtniiea th- fundamental 
r!a>i« contrarfi.tions which exit in the coiitenipomry world. Marxist- 
l.ininists hold that th-y ar.-; 

Tl'.e contradiction between the Mcialist camp and the im- 
perialist camp: the .imtr-idittinn between the proletariat and 
the boureeoiaie In the capitalist countries; thi- contradiction be- 
tween the oppressed nations and imperialism; and the contra- 
diction among iinp*ri.Tli«t countries; .ind among monoi^oly 
capitalist grou|i». 



"C<ii>grjtulat.)ry 
Tclci^nini 
Sent to People's 
Republic Of Chin.i 

Thi' Centra! Cominilteo of the 
CoiniMUiiist Party of the Uli:t<vl 
istates of .Vni.^rica (il.irxis^LcTi- 
irii.-t). has M-nt a telcfium to Liu 
Shao-Chi, Chairman of tJio J'eo- 
pKV. Kcpuhlic. of China and to 
Chiiu KnI.ui. Pivniier of the 
Slate Council, con>rrat«latinK 
Ih.' peoiile i.r Chirui on the If.th 
ai.iiiveisjtry of the Chinese I\o- 
I'les Uepublic National i)ay, 
< I. ;..ber 1. VM.r,. 

The tel.-nram r.M.|s: 

■III. '■ I'.U.S.A. (M. I..) waim- 

ih" IV.r.iie's Republic 

: on its Itith anniver- 



I .1 '.'v 'lulieniiry peopl,- 
I be dtfeat«.d.' 

telegram i..; fipned on be- 
.1 Ih' Central Committee 

C.Im;.S.A. (.M. I,.) by it- 
...an. V,-. !1. Sherman. 



People's Voice 

published ireekly 

ll'.in K. Fire.'stone Blvd. 

I.es Angeles, Calif. 9OO01 

Telephone: 587-1918 

lOc PER COPY 

Sutisetiption— $5.00 per year 



Tlnr l'i;OPI.ES VOICE is the 
political organ of all the oppresse<l 
und exploited people in the U.S. to- 
day. It is the fighting organ- of the 
workinp claS-s- daring fo speak the 
truth. 



NOTICES 

Knr further information eon- 

cerninit the Communist Party, 

VS. A. (Marxist-Leninist), write: 

SECRETARIAT i 

1313 K. Firestone Blvd. 

Los Angeles. Calif. 90001 



IM.-I.l 
ert liase.1 



I.e uni!y i.f the international 
8t Leninist theoi-j- and pi.ae- 



The C.t'.^J.S.A. (\f..L.) holds that modem revi.sionism is the main 

- .\ t I f r !r.*^rrin*ior;aI Comintinist and workers movement. The 

'enin.s the schisriatie nctivitiea of the mo^l- 

.'■'» uttemi.t in sprt th;- itit^Tniitional Com- 

II r.-\".-u.rt:Mi i^ the new Roeial prop of imperi.iVsm. It i.s 
. I . RuaV't of the boliri't'oisi.' in the workincr-ela..!s move- 
1' the United Stat-i's, veiisinnism expresses it-wlf in oppor- 
i i\ ii'.d eomplele cnpitnlution to the bourKOoisie. Tiol^kyism 
ni\«ts itself in diffon-nt wajs on diffennt qtiesstions and often 
n:s the ma.-k of ''ultiti-h I'tism," but its essence is th.. opjh.sition 
■evohltlo'i. rejindiation nf revolution - a variety of revisionism. 

The C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) must waire an untinnu slniiicle nKsinst 
iern revisi.iiism and Trotskyism, for without n stnipgle apainst 
.tskj iE.ni and modern rev'sionism any slru^dc against imperinl- 
i.-, hot an idle phrase. The Pnrly must prevent and resist coito- 
1 by boiir'.eoi.s an.l petty bour;;eois ways of rhinkinir and atyles 
ivoik ami (Ttmrd ni>.iinst and .lefent »ne hshiit or "left st " op- 
■uni-t deviation inside the Party. 



fjlj- 



n; xvrioN \L (. olo.mal 

SliO.N; .\ CI..\SS QCESTION 



Our counliy is n multinational state. The Anglo- American na- 
unn oppreiises the Negno an.i Puerto RIcan naliona os dinct col- 
.iiie-. Within the .^nglo-.\merican nation, the American Indians, 
In.. Amerlinn Nejioes, the .MexieaiiAmerican^ an.l th« Puerto Ri- 
. .lis. are :ill oppi-.ssed naiional-minoritiea. 

In the linat analyxis, a national struggle it a question of class 
strui;!;le. 

The flRht for fn^dom by the people of th« coloniaVatid senii- 
cloiiiiil world is the most striking featuir nf our time.'Tbe ini)in«t 
■ .'■ the i-ivolutionnry upsuive of the coloiu'al pt^ople's national Kbora 
ii.ininovcnionis whi.h arc s^vaepinl,' .^sia, Africa, and latin Ameti- 
a i.s he, OS felt within the United Stales. U.S. imperinlisra is the 
most viciout (DH-my of the proplc of the woil.l, the nomher one «x- 
pl.>itor and onpivs.sor, the A»-orld gendiuttie, the si>ui\.« of war in 
modern tiPies. 

Tne Cnmm.inist Party of the Unit«d Sl-ites ol Americi (Man- -, 
(Cwithine.l leiT,... ;) -ait 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1137 



Harris Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 



MARXIST-LENINIST LEADERSHIP IS NECESSARY 
FOR VICTORY OVER U.S. IMPERIALISM! 



DECLARATION OF THE C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) 
(CitnliiiU-xI from Pa^^' '-) 
isi Loninist) pledge's lo Fight (or immfiliale independence f«tr the 
nation i>f Puerto Rivo, lor the Ubeiation and riglit oi bcIlKlilcr 
minafton of tht' Nt'gro nation in the South, ior cgual rights tor ;tll 
tlie naltoua) n>inoritics which is an iniegr^U part of tht* su-u^^-Ip 
Icr the dictatofithip of the proU'larial, d^'niocracy. peace, an? -^-^ 
ci.'Jisrn. 

The CommuniEt Party of the United States of Am.i 
(Marxi!=t-L<'nini?i) pledges itself to fight fur the crcatiim u; i 
hiond anl! -imperialist unirerl front e nccjnpassing all p.ttriotit. 
force; wHlinfj to struggle ami fifiht for the right of self-ihtermin;! 
lion of rhc Nepro nation and for imlepcndi-nce for Puerlu Uim. 
Tin* Communist Pirry nf the United Slates of Ameiica 
(Marxist- Leninist) pledges its fii-ni ;*uppor* for the national Uh- 
ention forces opposing U.S. imperialism in Afiit:::. Asi... .;'nl 
Lntin America. 

Th.' Cninm\mJsl Parfy of thtr United SUilett of A' 
itL» iuni.--l) t.ppo?^,es all Lmidencir^s to great nution iJi ■ 
nlionjili>rn, both of which hamper the unity of the luLioii.i. 
rid firmly upholds proletarian nilernatinnaltsm. Sptrial ai;- ' 
lusl he pHJtt lo th.' pievt'ntion and eorreelion of l<r.diti< ; 
(eat-iiation chauvinism on the jiJirt of P.n*ly tnetuher .. 

The C.P.U S.A. (M.-L.) mu.^t work nntirinj<ly to i-sUAx I 
(•t!»to:>':ip of the pr«l. Uiriat which is tho guaniriUr for (I 
.alisl .■:ais4 in the Uniltd Siati.-.-' of America. 

The Communist Parly of the United States of Amcriia— 
(MjivtKt'Lemnif'l) pledger- to carry forward and lead the strut, 
gle against racial di^crimtnation. for equal rights and for s<Ki<t>i m 

Th<' <::<«n.(mnH-l Pailv of the Unit.d Stat- .s of America '.* 



.h hus hc"\t U' 
. StaW.-j. lniev<,. 
lir-fd by th'- rulmK 
into n'forn»ti-t ch: 



•■^..'Jv^* 



JOSEPH STALIN 




(M.-L.) OPPOSES THE 
■■)\- FASCrSM L\ THE r.S..\. 

of r.ii-cv Uttiwcoii th« imporiitl^t camp and tlie so- 

i-liaiiccil since World Wbi- II. This ha."! Iwl to tlic 

if U.S. mdiiopvly capital. Tll>> forcng of nationnl lib- 

^> thft socijilist cimip aiv in the iiscendency. Fa.scism 

pin;: in the U.S. n.* thi' direct rc^^ult of U.S. monopoly cap- 

■ ; thrralciicil and doiirived of its Houicrt^ of raw material 

I ir.^ (. ni'iii-i.c. Tin- liisi) nf thec' colonics and scjni-col- 

«:■ 'Ih lofitradicliiins aniouf; other imperialist pow- 

' lu • nf U.S. monopDly capital's Rii|ier-prorils, ami 

'. fui-Oitfi the BCnoral crl<i6 of U.S. imp<'r}ali»>i. 

ihc open loniiri-tic dictatorship uf-ihe most rcac- 

auvinistic and m<i9t Intpcrialist elements of finance 

Hic facade of "d.-niocracy" and under the guise of 

' iJk bcmry. •;. Ii !■ innrasinu; its attacks on tlifl most 

1'. ' .v; i iMo.t .-n: ' the Ameriam working class. 

rs. iiMi i. ! (Ii- i ri'f'i ,1 cxtru-legfll means of sup- 

)-.-■ -..mil, uhiih I.i>. li^i ^ :».[(' of sO'CallKl "democracy" 

and "freedom" in t^c United Staler and reveals the inner link be- 
tween the reactionary policies pursued by the U.S. Government 
•It lioni' atid its policies of aggi'Cb.-ion abroad. 

luicif^m li:is otic primary so(urce: U.S. imporialij-m. Racism em- 
analc..i from the nactionary policies pursued by U.S. monopoly cai>- 
iUvl. 'Jlie basis for its eradication can only be the destruction of U.S. 
imi'criHU.>m. 

.Another nspeit of the rise of fascism in the United States to- 
the ciiriveisiou of trade unions into open lal>or fronts of U.S. 
Toly i-apilal. The C.P.U.S.A. (.M.-L.) approaches the trade un- 
. (ion bji.-e<l on a united front from below, with the rank 
. We seek to unite with the mo.^t exploited and oppressed 
-■ of the cias;:. U is essential that the bi^oadest possible united 
.>.k(jiin>L fascism be foimod with all drmoemtic forces in nlJi- 
ft:ili the v.-O'Vini '•'n-.l. 



Illy 



1138 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 



C.P.U.S.A.(M.-L.)- VANGUARD OF THE- 
U.S. WORKING CLASS 



DECLARATION OF THE C.P.U.S.A. (M. L.) 
(Continued from Page 3) 

RlvVOLI TIOX \RY IIIHORV Ml SI' 

UK ri r ixto I'RAcrici-; 

Th^- Coniinuni.-it Party of the Uniteil StaU-s of Ami'rka (Murx 
isl-Leninist) puts into practice all that it »*K'c»cati;rf th(ouj;h thi- uc- 
ttvtiy of tlio Party orjranizations and tnembei^hip umong the mass- 
es and through the conscientious cffoits maiic by the pcujilr undi-r 
its nuidarc*;. For tJiis reason it Ls nece.^sary to coii:itantIy devdi'p 
til" tradition of followinj^ the muss line in Party worlt. Whrther the 
I'.'rty is able to kw correct leadership depends on wliethi-r or n.'i 
the Party will, through annly>is and symhe.'^is, systeniatica'ly eutn 
inariKt: the expi'rience and opinion-; of the nia>-s<'.s, iurn the lesiiltiiin 
ideas into the policy of the Party and as a result of the Party's pr • 
pa^Ttindn ami orKiidzational work amont; the nins.ses. triiii--form it 
into the views and action.^ of the inu-->es thems-eU*-;, testing th ► 
correetnes.s of Parly policy, and (-uppleinentinj; and correcting it in 
the course of mass activity. It is the duty of the Party leadership 
to ensure that in the endless reijetition of this proci*j*s of "coniiiiK 
from the masses and going back to the masses," the Paity mem- 
bers' level of unJerstandins »nd that of the nias.-*s of the iK'opIe 
are continually raised tmd the cause of the Parly and the pe.iple 
is constantly advanced. The Party ard its members ma-^t, thcie- 
fore, maintain close and extensive ties with the workeis, farmei -, 
intellectuals and other patriots, and strive constantly to iniike such 
tics ever stronger and molt widespread. Kvery Party member must 
understand that the intiTcsts of the Party and tho.ic of the ]xople 
are one, and responsibility to the P.->rty and responsibility to the 
people arc identical. Kvery Party member nmst wholeheartedly sene 
the people, constantly consult them, pay heed to their opinions, con- 
cern himself with their well-beiiiL' and strive te help r.-alin' their 
wishes. 

The Communist Party of tji,- tirii.,! .stau.^ of .Amrn, i ("Marv 
ist-Lcninlst) has been rcconstiiui, a ! ruuy "n a M u ; 
basis. The historic task before us ,; ih, tm! I m - i,i ■ 
that it may lead the workinK riar i Mi , ; ii,!i...ii ■, 
latorsliip of the proletariat and uiii t .- ?; ii h: ,; , in. .; s,\ 

ORG.'\NlZA']"l()\ \i. rkiXt ii'i.l s 

(.)F C.IM S.\. (:\|.-1„) 

The or.ijanizational principle of the Cominunist Party of the 
United States of .\mericH (M.-irxist-l.eninist) is democratic cen- 
tralism, which means centralism on the Imsi.^ of democracy and de- 
mocracy under centralized leadership, 1 he Party must take effec- 
tive measures to piomote itmer-Party ilemocracy. encourage the 
initiative and creative ability of all Party members and of all local 
and primary Party orxaiii/ation^ and strenRthen the lively contact 
between the hiRher and lower Party <ir>;ani7.utians. Onlv in this way 
can the Party effectively extend and ."-.ti-.-ngthen its ties with the 
lna8se-i of the people, pive correct leadership and ailapt itself flex- 
ibly to vaiitus concivte conditions and local characteristics. And 
only in this way can Paity life be invigomted and the ci niralism 
and unity of the Party be c<)iisr)lidat<'d and its discipline be volun- 
tarily, not mechanically tjhserve.l, 

li<-mocr.atic centralism drni.nnd,- that eveiT Party orcatiiiation 

should strictly abide bv the piinri|i!e of colleVlive leadii-sbip cou- 
pled with individual icsponibilily an.i that every Party m.-mbcr and 
Party orRaniiation should b<- siibj. el to Party su|Mvisiiin from 
above and from briow. 

DcintKraty within the Parly must not be divorced from cen- 
tralism. The Parly is a united militant organization, welded tn- 
Rether by a tlJscipline which i- ohliRatory on all its members. With- 
out discipline it would be impo.^sible for the Party to lead the peo- 
ple in makiUK the proletarian revolution and overcoming all the 
powerful enemies of the people and build socialism and commnn- 
ism. As thi' hishest form of class orKtmizatien, the Party must strive 
to play a coirect role a--' the leader and core in every asjiect'of the 
country's life .ind must combat any tendency to depart mentali^m, 
W'hich ix'ducs the Parly's role and weakens its unity. 

Solidarity and unity are the vej-y life of the Party, the source 
of its «tren({th. It is the sacred duty of every Party member to pay 
constant atU'iition to the safeii^urdinx of the solidarity of the Parly 
and the consolidation of its uidly. Within the Party no action which 
violates the Party's political line or ortr.inizational principles is 
perinis«ible, nor is it permissible to caiTy on activities aimetl at split- 
tinu the Party or factional activilic', to act independently of the 
Parly, or to place the individual above the collective br»ly of the 
ILlrtv. 




■siHmt, 



MAO TSETUNG 



No polil^aif^l^ly M iK-rson can be free from shortcomings aad 
mistakes it/work. 'iVe Cemniiinist Pai-ty of the Uniti-d States ol 
.Vmerica ( l|.-vxist-L*iiiiisi) and its members must constantly prac- 
tice criticism a&d «cK-criticism to expose and eliminate their short- 
I imings and mistakes so as to educate themselves and the people. 

In view of the fact that the Party strives to play the leading 
lole in the life of the working rla«.~, it is all the more neceasai-y 
that it should moke slrinsent demands on every Party orsanization 
and member and promote eriticiem and self-criticiem; and in par- 
ticular, it should encourage and support criticism from below, imtide 
the Party as well ai criticism of t.lie Party by the masses of the 
people, and should prohibit any suppression of criticism. 

In the ca.se of Party m»'mbcr.s who have committed mistakes, 
the Party should, in the spirit of 'curinR the illness to save the pa- 
tient," allow them to i-emain in the ranks and receive education and 
help them to correct their mi?t;ikes. prrtvide<l such mistakes c.*in be 
corrected within the Ptirty and the errinj Party memlier himself is 
prepared to correct his mistakes. A-- rar t^iose who persist in their 
mistakes and carry on activities iletrimentiil to the Party, it is e»- 
sential to wage a determined sirut;gle against them, even to the 
point of expelling litem from the Party. 

The Communist Party V S.A. (Marxist-I^nlni.st) requires ad 
its members to iiiiice the I'.irly's interests above their personal in- 
terest.-, to be diligent and unpretentiou.s, to study and work liard, 
to unite the broad masses of the p<'ople, and to overcome all diffi- 
culties in order to establish the dictatorship of the pi-oletarint and 
build a modern socialist stJite, and on this basis to advance fowiird.s 
tiK' achievement of the loftiest ideal of mankind— Communism. 

C.\LL FOR THK FIRST 
NATHXNAL I'ARTV COMGRLSS 

The Communist Party U.S.A. (Mnrxi.st-Loninist) declares that 
one year from the date of September .'•, 1905, the Tir.«t National 
Congress will be called at which time all MHrxist-Leninigtjs in the 
United States will be invited to unite on the basis of Marxism- 
Leninism. 

-CENTHAL COMMITTEE OF THE 
COMMUNIST PARTY U.S.A. 
(MAKXIST LENINIST). 

WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITEI SH^M 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1139 

Mr. Smith. Does the Commimist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) 
have a propaganda outlet in the Watts area ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir, the Workers' International Book Store, which 
is now located at 9122 Compton Avenue, where, according to their 
own letters, all kinds of "revolutionary magazines, books, and period- 
icals can be purchased." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the document be accepted and 
marked "Harris Exhibit No. 7." 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. Y" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. What type of material is sold in the Workers' Interna- 
tional Book Store ? 

Mr. Harris. I have two examples here. 

One of them is the Vietnam Courier dated October 17, 1966. And the 
Peking Review. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 8 and 9." 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 8 and 9," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Has the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L) participated 
in any campaign to arouse hatred and resentment of police in the law 
enforcement generally in the Watts area ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. Laski and the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist- 
Leninist) continually attempt to create an issue of police brutality out 
of every situation that arises. 

In March 1966, we had a disorder in the Watts area which last^ed 
2 days and resulted in 2 deaths, 25 iniured, and numerous arrests, in- 
cluding 3 members of the Communist W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

All this was blamed by the CPUSA-ML as resulting from police 
brutality. 

At the height of this Marcli 15-16 disturbance, the CPUSA-ML is- 
sued a news bulletin and leaflet intended to inflame tlie residents. They 
attacked Governor Brown, Mayor Yorty, and Police Chief Parker as 
representatives of U.S. imperialism. And the bulletin stated that: 

The American people will have to organize to fight for their freedom against such 
reactionaries by opposing force with force and by fighting for the destruction of 
the capitalist system which is the source of their oppression. * ♦ * 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos, 10 and 11." 

The Chairman. They are accepted and will be so marked. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 10 and 11," respectively. 
Exhibit No. 10 retained in committee files ; No. 11 follows :) 

Harris Exhibit No. 11 

OPPOSE POLICE brutality AND POLICE VIOLENCE! 

The latest attacks by the police against the working people of Watts reveal 
again the brutal and violent nature of the system of capitalism and U.S. Im- 
perialism at home. It is clear that the oppression and brutality perpetrated against 
the most oppressed sections of the American working class is growing in intensity. 
Yorty and Parker are pursuing the most reactionary policies to suppress the 
people. 



1140 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

The demands of the people are plain ; they are : jobs, lower cost of food, lower 
rents, reduced taxes, and an end to the unjust war in Vietnam of which they are 
being forced to bear the burden. U.S. Imperialism and its capitalistic system can- 
not grant these simple needs of the people as evidenced by the failure of Johnson's 
"War on Poverty" and VISTA programs. 

It is evident that the solutions to the problems of the working people will come 
only when the working people are politically organized for a hard, sustained 
struggle against the source of the oppression — the capitalist system. Only when 
the capitalist system of exploitation is replaced by socialism will the people be 
able to enjoy the full fruits of their labor. Only the destruction of the capitalist 
system of exploitation will bring about the emancipation of the working people. 
And only a people's political organization with strong and unified political or- 
ganization and direction can bring about victory for the people. 

The Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) stands ready to assist the 
people in opposing police terror and police violence. The C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) states 
again the necessity to assist the people in opposing the brutality and violence 
which the ruling class uses against the people. 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: SECRETARIAT, 1313 East 
Firestone Blvd., Los Angeles, 90001. Phone: 587-1918 

Come to PubUc Meetings, sponsored by the Communist Party U.S.A. (M.-L.), 
on alternate Fridays, 7 :30 p.m., at 1313 East Firestone Blvd., Los Angeles, 90001 ; 
phone : 587-1918. Next meetings : March 25 and April 8. 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, will you continue, please ? 

Mr. Harris. In May 1966, one Leonard Deadwyler was accidentally 
killed by a policeman. 

We will deal with this issue separately, but I would like to point out 
that the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) issued leaflets 
against the police. A leaflet issued on 26 May 1966 charged deliberate 
murder of a Negro citizen, stating the position of the CPUSA-ML as. 

Our Party states that the workers can fight against police brutality only by 
organizing into people's defense groups. We must answer the reactionary violence 
of the ruling class by the revolutionary violence of the people. * * * 

Mr. Smith. Are there other illustrations you desire to submit relating 
to police brutality charges ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

In August 1966, the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L), attempted 
to organize a rally at the Watts police station on August 11, using 
what they called the Preparatory Committee for the Commemoration 
of the Watts Uprising. This was a front organization, and the 
CPUSA-ML issued leaflets in the Watts area. This leaflet called upon 
"All groups and individuals interested in the defense of the people of 
Watts against the brutality and the racism of the police" to participate 
in a protest demonstration. 

While we do not know the reason, it is a fact that this demonstration 
did not take place. Yet, the seeds of hatred were planted through the 
distribution of the leaflet throughout the Watts area. 

In May of this year again the CPUSA-ML staged a May Day 
demonstration with the theme being, according to their literature 
distributed throughout Watts: 

Protest against exploiting working conditions and unemployment; protest 
against the US imperialist war in Vietnam ; supiwrt the cultural revolution in 
China, Chairman Mao-Tse-Tung, and the Red Guards ; [and] protest against 
police brutality — support the peoples armed defense groups ! 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
as Harris Exhibits Nos. 12, 13, and 14. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1141 

The Chairman. They are accepted and so marked. 
(Documents marked ''Harris Exhibits Nos. 12, 13, and 14," respec- 
tively. Exhibits Nos. 13 and 14 retained in committee tiles; No. 12 

follows:) 

Hakbis Exhibit No. 12 

YORTY IS A LIAR! 

Last Saturday, Mayor Yorty of Los Angeles called for the arrest of Communists, 
and he singled out the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist), saying "the 
time has come for the arrest and prosecution of persons openly trying to incite 
riot in our city". Mayor Yorty is shouting "red" in a big political grandstand to 
hide the real facts of the situation, in his popularity contest with his close 
associate Governor Brown. We say boycott the elections ! 

It is really the capitalist system, and NOT the Communists that was respon- 
sible for the recent outbreak in Watts in protest to the murder of Leonard 
Deadwyler ; it is really the capitalist system, and not the Communists that was 
responsible for the Watts uprising of August 1965. U.S. imperialism's reaction- 
ary and racist policies — as pursued by their representatives Yorty, Parker, and 
Brown, in oppressing the workers, especially in the minority districts — could 
bring forth only the most violent protest from the people in response to the 
reactionary violence of the bourgeois state apparatus. Mayor Yorty is shouting 
"red" as a smokescreen to cover for the reactionary policies of U.S. monopoly 
capital. Yorty has no more right to arrest the Communists than OflScer Bova had 
to murder Leonard Deadwyler ! 

Yorty, in attacking the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist), shows 
that he knows the difference between our Party and the revisionist Dorothy 
Healey, who is on Yorty's side. It is hard to tell the difference between Yorty 
and Healey — they are both for "lower taxes", "war on poverty", and they both 
support the Johnson administration. Oh, tell us please do, Mr. Mayor, what are 
the differences between yourself and Mrs. Healey. 

The Brown-l'orty-Parker administration has already placed its verdict on the 
Deadwyler case — officer Bova will be defended by the court for his murder of 
Leonard Deadwyler. The inquest is a show trial in which is paraded a score of 
police officers and witnesses, only to come forward with a pre-determined verdict 
in support of the police brutality of the bourgeois state apparatus. 

Our Party states that the workers can fight against police brutality only by 
organizing into people's defense groups. We must answer the reactionary 
violence of the ruling class by the revolutionary violence of the people. As our 
General Secretary, M. I. Laski stated, "Our aim is to lead the working class in 
revolution, we will develop and encourage people's defense groups for the defense 
of the working class against the terror of the ruling class". 

ISSUED BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY U.S.A. (MARXIST-LENINIST) 

For further information, call (213) 569-2542, or write: THE SECRETARIAT 
c/o WORKERS' INTERNATIONAL BOOK STORE, 9122 So. Compton Ave., L.A., 
Calif., 90002. 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, in connection with your investigation 
of Communist Party, U.S.A. (M-L) you have mentioned on several 
occasions People's Armed Defense Groups. 

What are the purposes of such groups, and have any been orga- 
nizationally formed? 

Mr. Harris. In June 1966, a leaflet was distributed jointly by the 
People's Armed Defense Group and the Los Angeles branch of 
CPUSA-ML. This leaflet announced a public meeting on alternate 
Fridays, beginning on July 1, entitled "ARMED WORKERS CAN 
BE FREE." 

The leaflet asked the people of Watts to "organize for defense 
against police brutality." The leaflet charged, and I quote: 

The police, agents of the rich, are paid to keep the poor under direct oppression. 
They are paid to beat and murder workers. * * * 



1142 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

In July 1966, they distributed this large leaflet urging Watts resi- 
dents to support and join the People's Armed Defense Groups. 

I might point out that the photograph shows the banner under 
which the People's Armed Defense Group is mobilized is the Com- 
munist hammer and sickle. 

The CPUSA-ML publication, People's Voice of October 24, 1966, 
carries an article on the People's Armed Defense Group urging sup- 
port. 

In addition, our office has dozens of copies of additional leaflets 
carrying out the same theme. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibits 15, 16, and 17." 

The Chairman. They are accepted and may be so marked. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 15, 16, and lY," respec- 
tively. Exhibit No. 17 retained in committee files; Nos. 15 and 16 
appear on pp. 1143, 1144. 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, have the People's Armed Defense 
Groups met opposition in the Watts community ? 

Mr. Harris. On October 25, 1966, the People's Armed Defense 
Groups held a press conference for the purpose of outlining their 
policy which was to overthrow the ruling class in America by guerrilla 
tactics as outlined by Mao Tse-tung. Wlien the press arrived at the 
press conference, they found it being picketed by approximately 30 
members of an organization calling itself the Sons of Watts. 

I have a clipping from the Los Angles Times of October 26, 1966, 
showing the picket lines and the placards being carried by the pick- 
eters. These signs read "Commie must go" and "Commie get out." 

I have her another article which shows a photograph of the orga- 
nizers of the press conference. They have been identified as M. Egan 
and Jay Thomas. Egan is, in fact, Michael Lustig; and Jay Thomas 
is, in fact, Allen Thomas, who is known by the nickname of "Big 
Popsicle." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these articles be accepted and 
marked as "Harris Exhibits Nos. 18 and 19." 

The Chairman. They are accepted and may be so marked. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 18 and 19," respec- 
tively, appear on pp. 1145-1148.) 

Mr. Watson. You say he is named "Big Popsicle"? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Watson. Does that imply that he is a big sucker? Is that it? 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, in your opinion, what impact has the 
Communist Party, U.S.A. (M-L) had on the community of Watts? 

Mr. Harris. I feel that considering the fact that their primary tar- 
get has been the Negro population in Los Angeles and from the con- 
tent of the propaganda material, I would say that the intent of the 
CPUSA-ML has been to aggravate these people to the point of civil 
disobedience and to attempt to condition their minds to respond in a 
rebellious way in the event of a contact with a police officer. I feel 
that this group has had little support from the residents of the com- 
munity and generally their efforts have been unsuccessful. 

However, in spite of their small membership, they are a continual 
source of agitation within tlie community. I do realize that fanatical 
members of this organization could provoke a major incident, given 
a favorable situation. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1143 



Harris Exhibit No. 15 
ARMED WORKERS CAN BE FREE 



People of Watts, organize for defense against police brutality. 
The police, agents of the rich, are paid to keep the poor under direct 
oppression. They are paid to beat and murder workers. The workers 
must arm to defend themselves against this reactionary violence. The 
People's Armed Defense Group is organizing for the protection of 
workers from police brutality. 

It is the right of everyone to arnn for defense against attack. The 
workers of Watts must use this right. The people can curb the brutality 
of the police in only one way - by defending themselves. 

The rich are a snnall minority; they fe^r wi- aii^,cr v,; ;,. ^js,<ir. 
They must hire "legalized" murderers (police) to pro. ect .iheir we^k,.^*\iKi 
selfish interests. The poor are kept "in their place" byu — - V- * nt*''T»\'f 
abuse and attack. "Their place", according to the ca'rji'.i " '^l^^.-'tfj' 

welfare offices or on jobs that barely pay enough'to r aliv^.» -* 

The capitalist ^systein, based on .the exploitation of th .;d''fe"wJ»J 

cannot resolve^the problems of the poor. The rich grow ;it\d remain s' '., ^ 
wealthy^on your poverty. In order td^k.-cp you poor, hungry' jobless jff 
.md without th«- basic necessities of m<' ern lii.^ w.iiich are "rightfully '^^f* 
yours, the rich must use violence. Th.y dcpe;.a on the pbljice^ to .use, '\'-'^ 
brutality against the workers. You ne^ i not take this abuse.'- ' Pd.lipe ,, 

brutality c^n he checked if-the people <i :e arnned in th-ir .iwn Hofense. ' ■ 

• May"! 1 ilyitiiii Police Chief Parker arc rrpr i— in ■ .^ i ^ i- -, wi luc , 
rich d.nd administers of police brutality. They arc not concerned^ with'T^ 
the democratic rights of the people. Miey v.'ill not protect or help you'X ,> 
They are paid to keep you oppressed and exploited. You cannot dep'end 
on these officials of the bourgeois state for help. The workincL class" i-can 
only depend. on themselves. Organized into self-defense grouffs', 'the' ,^"4 
people can begin to protect their rights and iftter.c 
Arrned Defense Group can help you organize self-'defcnse grodp' 

JOIN NOW' COME TO: 
■ 9122 5o. Compton Avenue 
Los Angeles, California 9000Z 
Phone: S69-'2542 

i 
fUP. Lie MEETINGS on alto.-nate Fridays at 8*^ 
.\E XT MEETINGS: July i, .''ily 1"^, July 29. A i-u 

I'rf(.- saniple magazines: Workers' Inti.-rnational E> Store leaturing 

REVOLUTIONARY LITERATURE FRUK'. Ai<OUND >lv* 

THE WORLD - - COME IN ! ' * " '* 

ISSUED PY THE PEOPLE'S ARMED DEFENSE GROUP AND THE 

LOS ANGELES BRANCH OF THE COMM UMST^^ PART Y O F 

i Hr ■ ■'■- ■ -TES OF AMERICA, ( M A R x'lS T - L E NIN IS T ) 



ists-f' -The- l^*<^'pl«?s^i* 
'defense p rofii/s. tJf-"' ff»? 




WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNI i E 



1 144 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 16 



SUPPORT AND JOIN 

PEOPLE'S ARMED 
DEFENSE GROUPS 




Oppose the Reactionary Violence 

OF THE RULING CLASS 

With the Revolutionary Violence 

OF THE PEOPLE! 

For Further Information: Call 569-2542 

or Write: Peoples Armed Defense Groups 

in care of: Workers International Book Store 

9122 So. Compton Ave. 

Los Angeles, California, 90002 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, A2TD BURNING 1145 



Harris Exhibit No. 18 

[Los Angeles Times, October 26, 1966] 




PROTEST ON THE 0UTS5DE— Members of the Sons of Watts carry 
onti-Communist signs as they picket Workers' International Bookstore. 

L L imm OCT 2 6 \m 



1 146 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 18— Continued 



COMMUNIST STORE PICKETED ^^S^ 

Sons of Watts Protest Red 
Plan for Arming of Negroes 



More than 50 Sons of Watts, many 
of them "veterans" of last year's ri- 
oting, picketed a Communist book 
store in Watts Tuesday Mdth signs 
reading "Get Out" and "Split Now" 
to protest literature urging Negroes 
to arm themselves against the "rul- 
ing class." 

Operators of the Workers' Inter- 
national Bookstore at 92nd St. and 
Compton Ave. responded by accus- 
ing the former gang members of be- 
ing "paid police agents" and "run- 
ning dogs of police." 

Billy Tidwell, adviser to the Sons 
of Watts and chairman of last Au- 
gust's Walts Summer Festival , said 
tne protest was launched because 
"the majority of the people in this 
community are very much dissatis- 
fied with the existence of this kind 
of people." 

Pro-Chinese Literature 

The bookstore, an outlet for pro- 
Chinese Communist publications of 
the so-called Communist Party 
U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist), displays 
posters advocating "People's Armed 
Defense Groups." 

Tidwell said the party is small, , 
but that some of its followers have 
passed out "Defense Groups" litera- 
ture while claiming to be Sons of 
Watts. 

"They're clearly advocating arms 
and violence," said Tidwell. "This is 
something we're very much 



against." He said the Communist or- 
ganization is "a white undertaking 
. . . trying to take advantage of des- 
pair in our area." 

Inside the bookstore — at what 
someone termed "Anti-Revisionist 
Intersection" — a Caucasian who 
identified himself only as M. Egan, 
posted a hastily printed sign read- 
ing: 

"L.A. Cops Use Sons of Watts." 
Sign Torn Down 

While two uniformed policemen 
stood nearby, the picketers tore 
down the sign and marked the book 
store front with black spray paint. 

They were persuaded by the offi- 
cers to quit pounding their fists on 
the store. 

Egan, and a Negro who identified 
himself as Jay Thomas, held their 
own press conference beneath por- 
traits of Marx, Lenin, Mao Tse-tung 
and Engels to accuse the Sons of 
Watts of being paid by the police to 
harass them. 

"The ruling class is quite scared," 
said Egan. "At first it didn't take us 
seriously. Now they see the success 
we're having." 

Egan pointed to the presence of 
Mrs. Tiger Slavik, a Caucasian pub- 
lic relations adviser, and to Willard 
Murray. Negro aide to Mayor Sa- 
muel W. Yorty, at the scene as evi- 
dence of "ruling class" instigation of 
the picketing. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1147 



Harris Exhibit No. 19 

[Los Angeles Herald Examiner, October 26, 1966] 




A RETORT ON THE INSIDE— Two who identif.-^ 



1 148 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 19— Continued 



fi€tmn% Sign 

WattsRed 
Bookstore 

Defiant 



The People's Bookstore at 
9122 S. Compton Ave., Com- 
munist literature outlet In 
Watts, remained open today 
after being picketed by more 
than 35 demonstrators who 
said they hoped to drive Itj 
out of business. ' 

Members of the Sons of 
Watts organizations circulat- 
ed petitions yesterday assert- 
ing the firm's operation was 
a violation of a new State 
anti-riot law. 

"We hope to obtain » 
public expression that will 
force officials to close it," 
said Billy Tidwell. a 
spokesman for the Sons of 
Watts. 

Pickets wore sandwich- 

board p lacards with such slo- 

^feans as " We don t need^om: 



mie violence." "Commlei Get 
Out" and "Communsim is a 
threat to Watts." 

The store and adjoining 
reading room bear a sign 
which says: 

'Oppose reactionary vio- 
lence with revolutionary vio- 
lence. Communist Party 
(Marxist-Leninist) U.S.A., Los 
Angeles Branch." 

"To close them may be 
in violation oftheir right 
to freedom of speech," Tid- 
well told reporters, "but we 
want them out of our com" 
munlty anyway." 
TWwell said the petition! 
will be presents to munici- 
pal authorities empowered: 
"to do something about It." , 
M. Egan, who said he j 
was a spokesman for Work- i 
er's International Book 
Store, posted a sign during 
tion, reading: "L.A. Cops 
Use Sons of Watts." 
Two uniformed police offi- 
cers stood nearby as Uie 
demons+^^rators tore down 
Egan's sign and sprayed 
balck paint over the stwre 
front. 

However, officers persuad- 
ed the demonstrators to stop 
pounding on the door of the 
establishment. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1149 

Mr. Smith. In addition to the issues which you have discussed, has 
the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L) been active on the question of 
Vietnam ? 

Mr. Harris. During the last several years, Communist organiza- 
tions have attempted to tie together America's involvement in Viet- 
nam and the problems faced by Negroes living in urban areas. Laski's 
CPUSA-ML has been no exception. 

Through a news bulletin issued on January 10, 1966, the CPUSA- 
ML announced a rally at Los Angels City College for January 14, 
1966. The announced theme of the rally was: "The Need for the Im- 
mediate Withdrawal of LLS. Troops from Vietnam"; "The Need for 
the End of Imperialist Wars of Aggression" ; "Why U.S. Imperialism 
Will Be Defeated" ; and "the Attack by the Los Angeles Police De- 
partment Against the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L) for Its Stand 
Against the U.S. Imperialist Wars of Aggression." 

In addition to the leaflet announcing this rally, I have an issue of 
the Los Angeles Times of January 15, 1966, which contains not only 
pictures of Laski speaking at the rally, but a photo showing him and 
his people being routed by the students who tore up a red flag which 
Laski's group was carrying. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibits Nos. 20 and 21." 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 20 and 21," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, the House is now in session. I suggest 
that we recess until tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Smith. We have only two more questions. 

Detective Harris, does the Communist Party LT.S.A. (M-L) tie 
police brutality also into the issue of Vietnam ? 

Mr. Harris. Well, in December 1965, the CPUSA-:\n. issued a 
leaflet headed "COMMUNISTS ATTACKED BY L.A. POLICE 
AT L.A. CITY COLLEGE!" 

The theme of the leaflet attempts to charge the police with unpro- 
voked attacks against the CPUSA-ML because of its demands for an 
immediate and complete withdrawal of all LT.S. troops in Vietnam. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibit No. 22." 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 22" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Sjhth. Plea«e continue. 

Mr. Harris. They have also distributed a leaflet or leaflets announc- 
ing a May Day demonstration on April 30, 1967, for the announced 
purpose of protesting against the "U.S. imperialist war of aggression 
in Vietnam." 

In an accompanying leaflet, the CPLTSA-ML accuses President 
Johnson of carrying out an imperialist war of aggression in Vietnam. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be accepted 
and marked as "Harris Exhibits Nos. 23 and 24." 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 23 and 24," respectively, 
follow:) 



1150 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 23 



*4' 



Ik At i>Ar demonstratjqn 

t-sUNDAV. APRIL 30^^- '967 I .30 PMh 

PROTEST AGAJNST 



THE U.S. iMI^ERIAliSt -WAR 
OF AGGRESSION IN VIETNAM 







hear: MICHE AL i. L A8KI 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

ESTON W. SIMMONS 

., CHAIRMAN CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

COMMUNIST PARTY U.S.A. IM-Ll 

'^•^^' qnd other© 




ismf 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1151 
Habris Exhibit No. 24 

OPPOSE THE WAR IN VIETNAM— FIGHT FOR SOCIALISM 

We are told by the ruling capitalist class (Johnson Administration) that 
the war in Vietnam is being fought to bring "freedom", "democracy", and "jus- 
tice" to the people of South Vietnam. This is an out and out lie. We have only 
to look around us to see that the very persons who are talking about "freedom" 
in Vietnam are the rich who are : robbing the workers in the United States, 
jailing innocent workers on "suspicion of this or that" whose police are in 
proletarian (the most oppressed and exploited workers) districts such as Watts, 
Bellflower, and East Los Angeles for one reason — to "serve and protect the rich" 
and "beat and oppress the poor". 

The people of Vietnam are fighting for the right to self-determination, the 
right to decide their own political and economic destiny. They demand that 
the United States aggressors (sent by the ruling capitalist bandits of the U.S.) 
get out of their homeland and let them settle the issue for themselves. We must 
support their struggle. 

The U.S. imperialist war of aggression in Vietnam is against the interests 
of the international proletariat — all workers are class brothers and comrades, 
all workers have a common enemy — imperialism. All workers must unite to 
destroy this predatory beast — imperialism headed by the U.S. imperialism. We 
must demand the immediate and complete withdrawal of all U.S. troops and 
puppet troops from Vietnam. 

How can imperialist wars of aggression be ended? There is but one solution, 
destroy the source of war — imperialism. There must be a proletarian socialist 
revolution — organized by the Communist Party, U.S.A., (M L. Why serve in 
the armed forces of the rich? Such as the army, navy, air force, etc. Why be 
a flunkey for the ruling class of the U.S. to oppress other people? Why die for 
your oppressors and exploiters? Why not fight them? Train in the use of arms 
and revolutionary politics so that your enemy — the ruling class — can be succes- 
fully defeated. We have such a program— THE PEOPLES ARMED DEFENSE 
GROUPS— (Members of the PEOPLES ARMED DEFENSE GROUPS are not 
drafted, because their views constitute a political danger to the ruling class.) 
THE PEOPLES ARMED DEFENSE GROUPS ARE THE ARMED FORCES 
OF THE POOR and are the basis for a workers army and for a National Liber- 
ation Army for the Negro Nation in the South and will counter the terror of 
the Klan with the revolutionary violence of the workers. Don't fight for your 
masters so that he can have more wage slaves. 

President Johnson an imperialist, carries out the policies of his class — ^the 
capitalist — to exploit and oppress workers. They use racism as a cover for their 
policies of colonilizing [sic] the Negro Nation in the South (the "Black Belt") 
and Puerto Rico and their semi-colonies — Mexico, the Phillipines [sic]. South 
Korea, South Vietnam, etc. The rich have their flunkeys who support their policy 
of oppression and exploitation, such as Dymally, Greene, Leon Ralph, Gus Hawk- 
ins. Adam Clayton Powell, and their lackeys who use the disguise of being 
"revolutionaries" and against "the Power Structure" such as the revisionist 
Dorothy Healy [sic] (who calls herself a communist) and persons such as Stokely 
Carmichael and Ron Kerenga [sic]. These flunkeys and Toms apologize and 
cover for the police brutality and exploitation of workers. They too must be 
opposed, exposed, and destroyed along with their masters ! 

As Comrade Michael Laski, our Party's General Secretary, said, "the lackeys 
of the ruling class of the government's agencies are against the interest of the 
workers and are there only to buy the militant youth and push the reactionary 
racist line of U.S. imperialism. All class concious [sic] workers must be opposed 
to the imperialist, their agencies and front men". 

The solution to the problems of the working class is proletarian socialist revo- 
lution, the dictatorship of the proletariat and building socialism. 

Oppose the U.S. imperialist war of aggression in Vietnam, join with your revo- 
lutionary working class comrades and brothers in all countries to defeat U.S. 
imperialism and modern revisionists and local Tom's. 

MAY DAY DEMONSTRATION: Sunday, April 30, 1967. 1:30 pm at Will 
Rogers Park, 102-103rd Street, Central Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 



88-083 — 68 — pt. 3- 



1152 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

SPEAKERS: M. I. LASKI, General Secretary, Communist Party, USA, (M-L) 

E. W. SIMMONS, Chairmcm, Central Committee, CP USA (M-L) 

PUBLIC MEETING : 8 :00 pm, April 7, 1967, Peoples Voice Book Store, 9122 S. 

Compton Ave L.A., Cal, Tel: 569-2542. SPEAKER: E. W. SIMMONS, L.A. 

Branch Secretary. "The role of our Party in the coming revolution". 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, does that conclude your testimony 
with respect to the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L) ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

I just want to note one other thing, that on Sunday, May 21, 1967^ 
Laski was arrested for operating a loudspeaker on a Sunday when he 
staged an anti-Vietnam rally at MacArthur Park. 

The Chairman. May I say that the House is in session, as was sug- 
gested by Governor Tuck. 

We will be adjourning in a second until tomorrow morning. 

In the meantime, I want to say that we greatly appreciate your ap- 
pearance before the committee. We all understand it is a most im- 
portant task, and it is a real job to pass the message that you have to 
give us and that your mayor has to give us on to the people. We are 
doing the best we can under very trying circumstances. 

You have made a great contribution and you are a credit to the po- 
lice department of Los Angeles. 

I understand you are attached to the district attorney's office. 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Pay my compliments to all the good law enforce- 
ment officers in the district attorney's office. 

Mr. Harris. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Now we will stand in recess until tomorrow morn- 
ing at 10 o'clock when we will resume the taking of Mr. Harris' testi- 
mony. 

(Wliereupon, at 12 noon, Tuesday, November 28, 1967, the subcom^- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, November 29, 
1967.) 

(Harris Exhibit No. 4, introduced on p. 1133, follows :) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1153 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 

October 7, 1965 

ACTIVITTj Press Conference of MICHABL UiiKI, aeaber of 
the (X)MKUNI3T PAKTT, U.S.A., Marxist-Leninist. 
Introduction by AKNOLD H0P?«AI. 

LOCATIOHi WORKERS • OHOANIZATION OOKMITTSE, CAlt wASHJSH'S 
UVIOI, 1313 E. ?irestonet L.A. 

DATE & TIMEt October 7f 196^1 12i00 Hoon to 1t13 P.M. 

The main reason for this prens conference is to clarify a 
nuBber of points which hare been raised by OoJXBOllXKB 
GIBtiON, and other points which are sure to ooae up in the 
iinmediate future. I*b here, first of all, i& the capacity 
of being a representative of the CoMHUIIST FAHXT of the 
U.S.A., Marxist- Leninist. There, undoubtedly, will be soaui 
confusion in t he prtsa, and in the public's aind as to pre- 
cisrly what organization this aay or aay not be. This 
organization, this party, is the representatiye of the 
working class of this country today. It is that Party which 
carries forward the best tradition of the Anerioan working 
class and its historical struggle. Tou have some stateaenta 
here which ehould have been reproduced in the PEOPLE'S VOIGS 
which I can clarify this history for your purpose. 

The essential pointe that I want to coyer is the nature 
of the struggle in this country, to go precisely to the main 
point of interest that is, and that is the uprising in WATTS 
and the question of our precise role, prior to it and during 
it and the role of CQMhiUHISTS or "leftists" during that 
particular period, since this is undoubtedly what you're most 
interested in. 

First of all, I would like to begin by saying that the history 
of the Btruggle in this country Yvia been quite complex to 
anyone who has followed the CuMMUHIST MoYEMEIiT and its 
developments. Historically, ths moyement since 1956 has had 
a number of very great setbacks, the memberehip of the Party 
aa auch has been reduced tremendously during this period. 
The vitality and the life of the Party has become a questioi 

of grave concern to all CuMMUHISiS in this eountry and inter- 
nationally. 

Now, the COMMUNIST PakTY has been reconstituted and reformed 
as a direct outgrowth of the recent events since 196^ in 
this country, with the intensification of the class struggle 
and the development of further contradictions within the 
CoilliUNIST PAHTz. It became very evident that the present 
historical situation have changed in the favorable dev^pments 
of the stronger revolutionary party in this country and as a 



1154 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«88 Conf., Miohael Laski, 10/7/63 (Page 2) 

roBult of that a niuber of forces began to fold ua with the 
Intention of oarrying forward the best traditions of the 
OOMMUmST PARTI. 

Vow, there has been in e xistenoe, the FRuVI^lLNAL OHOAKIZIKO 

COHMITTEB TO RKCONSTITUTS A MAfiXIST-LfilTINIST PAETT, Prior 
to the reoonatitution of the Party, I was a Hational Committee 
Befflber of this organisation. This organization was founded 
in 1938 of COMMUHIST PAHIT aenbera, menbers of the National 
Conuslttee, K.Y. State apparatus of the Party and nationally, 
a nuaber of other indiTlditala. This particular organization 
did not reoeire 0uoh play at the tiiae. But this noreBent 
carried forward the traditions of the Party froa 1938 to the 
present time, Septenber of this year* 

5ow, in the course of the period froa 1938 to 1963t there 
have been a nuaber of saaller groups being involred and 
dere loped. You* re probably familiar with the FaoQa£Ui^lVS 
LABOR MOVKMMT, later the PHOORBSSIYE LABOH iAfiTT, >diioh was 
an outgrowth of the struggle in part, within the CUMMUVIST 
PARTY of the U.S., but essentially did not represent a 
dif f erexll't t rend within the Party. The only difference between 
the PIP and the Party itaelf ia the emphasis upon stritggle 
within the PLP. The party did not of course eaphasize struggle, 
theoretical struggle. The PLP merely repreeents a group of 
Oofflounists that feel they must make a acre > aotire show of 
themselTes. CUMKUVISTS in quotes, that is. Theoretically 
and politically, they eaaentially are saying that that is 
the old OF. 

low, the struggle progressed rery rapidly ia this country. 
You are faailiar with the Harlea uprising. The Harlea riots. 
This, in itself was a forerunner to what ocoiirred in the 
WATTS eltuation. The Harlea uprising, the Harlea disturb- 
emoe. We were present in that situation and at that particu- 
lar time due to the aisleadership at a nuaber of indiyidvials 
in the PROYI^IOHAL OROANIziNQ COMMITT^. Our presenoe was 
covered to the pr ess entirely, to mention was aade of it and 
the members of our organisation at that time, the POO, were 
withdrawn froa the WATTS sitxiation, witk, excuse ae, froa the 
HARLEM situation. 

With regard to what dereloped here in WATTS, aambers of the 
PRUYIoloMAL OHaAKIk^Iiia OOMMITTliI£, who had particualr riew of 
the struggle aa remaining hidden froa the dtruggle itaelf, 
in other worus, remoring theaselrea froa the riew of the 
press and authoritiee for fear of the distortion of the press 
and the authorities, again existed as a result of the uprising 
in WATTo that we be withdrawn froa the situation and no public 
statements be made. As an outgrowth of this particular 
opportunistic bend or approach to the question, this caused 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1155 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr««s Oonf., Mioha«l Laakl, 10/7/65 (Pag« 3) 

a ••▼er« dlslooatloa within th* PHOVIoIoNAL OiiaANlZlitO 
COK^aTTi£ And to reallz* th« forova, ao that within a 
ahort period of tiaa. laaa than a aonth, tha Marziet- 
Laniniat alaaente within tha PROYI^IuNAL uHa;j}I..INO COMMIT- 
TEB , othar raroXutionary elemanta in tha nation a^X in 
L,A* at a aacret aaatin^ on Saptaabar 4th and 5th to reoon- 
stituta and reaatabliah tha COMMUNIST ?A£TT and braaJc with 
all reriaioniat tranda rapraaantlng tha idaoloKj of tha 
Khruachrita group and Koaygina and tha Brashnaraa and all 
othar rapreaantatiraa of opporttmiaa in thla country. 
Snott^ with tha history, now lat*a gat down to braaa 'boica. 

First of all, tha orlgina of tha upriaini; in WATT6* Ona 
of tha baaio raaaona for thla diaturbanoa* Wa ara to surray 
tha presa, and survay publlo stateaente, ffa hara oona up 
with a rarlaty of reaaona. Tha raaaona wara givan that it 
wnn tha highway patrol that oauaadtha difficulty, that thay 
praoipitatad tha altuatlon. Othora wara giving tha opinion 
that it was not tha Highway Patrol but tha LAPS that pra- 
OipfttaMd tha situation. And than thoaa who want to look 
at tha situation profovmdly, hold up tha auppoaition that 
it 'WRB raally praranting conditions that oaaa to a boiling 
point and that wa auat saak to uproot and xincorar thaaa 
conditions and eliainata thaa. 

WsU, ihara is a little bit of truth in each oils of thaaa 
stataasnta, but tha assantlAl and baaio factor haa baan over- 
looked, and only bnraiy touched on by tha prase. I think ths 
3AV TRAHOISOO CHRONICLE ie tha beat exaapie of atteapting to 
deal with the question. They ea entlaliy described the 
uprising aa a class question, and thla la the eaeentlal truth 
that has been aiaaed and haa not beenraportad accuraataly 
in the preaa. Upriaing in the maTTo aitxiation was not in 
itself and cannot be relegatea as a Hegro question. It ia 
eesentlaliy and b aloally a claas question with Hegroea 
holding that aaotloa of the olaaa participating in tha dia- 
turbnnce in the WATTS area. How to aake the point quite 
clear, no aore poverty put forward by the reactionary JOHH^iON 
Adainlatration oan raaolTe the question, of the t^ATTS uprising 
or prevant siailar upriaAags of this sort froa occurring, 
because to prerent thea froa oocxxrring youlare to go to the 
basic source of difficulty and that la tha oapltallatlc aye- 
tea in thie country. You cannot ellainate poverty in this 
country under the present syatea. That haa been proven ae 
a fact and there will be no adainlatration that can achieve 
that end. The KJOVrlR Adainlatration and ita faaoua atateaants 
were "We will ellainate poverty with, what waft it, two 
ohickens in each pot and a car in every garage. And in lees 
than two years later, a diagraoed struggle to ellainate 
poverty, we had the greatest depreeaion thla country haa seen, 
had ever aeen up to that tias* 



1156 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«a8 Gonf. , Mloha«l Laakl, 10/7/6$ (Pagt 4) 

Historloally, w« ar« in tha sam* general period of develop- 
ment, the intenelflcation of our orieia, at thla particular 
tlaa. And thia ia the eaeential reaaon that you oan hare a 
WATTS derelop. Why oan you hare a WAITS in the nidat of 
Ajoerioan proaperit/f in the nidat of "jaerioan boon, you oan 
hare a WATTS aituation beoauae there are baaio contradictions 

that exiat in the Booiet and which the adniniatration ia 
trying to oorer orer but cannot effectively be covered over* 

One thing that we found very intereating that happened in 
WATTS and the way in vAiioh the preaa and the government dealt 
with the question of WATTS. Thsy did not quite know what to 
do with the aituation. They were a little bit embarrasBed 
at being caught with their pants down, if I may aake such n 
reference. This is precisely what occurred. 

The main excuses put forward were, well, the Negro leadership 
failed to fulfill their function of leadership and were 
acurring around to find out juat what went wrong with the 
choice of Hegro leadership. That perhaps they selected the 
wrong men, were the innediate inplications of this particular 
situation. Anyhow, we find that the • resolved itsslf on 
ths point of, well, lst*t, uh, sines the situation is such en 

enbarrassing one, what oan we do with it. Well, I know 
exactly what was dons with it and you do, too. Ths whcls 
question was distorted as a race question and built into a 
raos question. Built ths entire situation Into White against 
Black and this essentially was a oonplete distortion basic 
politics and the basic real situation that szisted in ths 
WATTS area. This was not Whits sgainst Black. This was not 
a raoial aituation. It was converted and turned into a 
racial situation by the ruling class and by ths prses of this 

country. It was reported in that light and essential eva* 
luation of the questions of the relationships indicate only 
one thing, this was a struggle for equal rights, a struggle 
for squality, a struggls for the eliainations of gross in- 
equalities that existsd in the WATTS district and throughout 
the black belt in L.A. 

And those ineqxialities can bs cited spscifically as Folios 
Brutality, nanely the primary factor. Secondary and under- 
lying causes, ths question of job discrinination and un- 
employaent. the question of inferior housing, the question of 
highsl> cost of food in this district. For the same food 
prices are 9 to 1$^ higher, in ths prsvailing largs aarksts 
and in a nunbsr of small marks ts. Thsss ars ths undsr- 
lying factors that cauasd ths situation. 

low,, what was ths rols of ths Oommunists, the Marxist-Lsnlnists, 
in ths WATTS situation? We have been in ths WATTS area for 
better than 2 years. Ws havs bsen working in the Watts 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1 157 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Fr«a0 Conf., Mlohaal Laakl, 10/7/6$ (Pag* 5) 

dlatrlot aa our prioazy area of oonoentratlon. And thla 
waa aalaotad prior to our antranoa into tha L.A. araa aa our 
targat airea. Wa concantratad on aotlvlty and our agitation 
in that area, I think CuUNCim/UI GIBS014 had a rather fair 
displaj of aoaa of o\ir propaganda effort. And wa aaslatad 
la tha formation of suoh organlzatlona as fRSSDOM ?0H THS 
i£UPIK, and at that tijia wa ware operating through the 
PROVlSluHAi. 0Kt;ANIZlNG Col-WITTBB that would carry on our work. 

Weearrlad out agitation against tha Folic* Capart&aAt and 
against tha police offioials as representatives of tha ruling 
class of this oountry.Wa went beyond that In dealing with 
the question of job dlsorlBlnatlon and a nuabar of other 
partlouleur points. Our main efforts ware essentially agi- 
tational in order to build up our ranks in our category in 
order to be in a position to take a deolslre leadership to 
tha situation called for. Wa recognized the potential of tha 
^ATTS area at that time and the history has bora ua out in our 
initial obsarration. 

No^ there ware a nuaber of incident s prior to the WATTS 
uprisirig which wa participated in. First of all, I think 
Councilxsan GIBSON and HAH5, SuperYlsor HAH5, aade reference 
to their voyage trip Into the WATTij district when they cama, 
I believe with 3UZY WSLCH to spearhead a ooapalgn to clecm 
up and straighten op the garbage pails in ths WATT^ district 
since this was apparently the uource of tha condition of 
WATTS. It looks like the inside of tha garbage can. Thay 
caaa into the district and we organized at that time the 
coordination of tha /HriEDuM PoK THj; PEoPLE and had a recep- 
tion for them and as tha net results of our reception commit- 
tee, they found it expadlent to leave the district before 
they were able to do it eind they made statement a at tha WILL 
ROGERS PARK. Now, thla is esuontlaliy true. a did agitata 
and prsvent thaa from making their statements, sinea tha 
majority of the people, at that time, were opposed to what 
they wsre saying, to what they were bringing forward and thay 
had to leave the area before they had expected. 

More recently, the organization of tha CAB WA6HERS UHIOI 
against symptomatic with the developing sfttuatioa. That tha 
CAR WAoHERS UNION, from its Inceutlon, was known to ba 
CoI'Q'lUNIST Isd with Marx 1st- Leninist a in tha laaderahip of tha 
union. It received a large play froa tha prasa but thia 
could not prevent the davalopaent of a oity-wida oar wash 
strike in January of thla year. That in itsalX, waa aa 
indication of what waa to be developed and what waa eoaing. 
Not the fact, we COMMUNISTI wsre present, but the fact that 
the people were willing to listen to us. The people were 
willing to follow us. This is the decisive point. Tha peopla 
have become fed up. Tha people h^^ve had enoxigh. They have 
reached the pol.t where they no longer will take the "revolu- 
tionary phraaes" of President JoHNoON that characterizes hia- 



1158 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«88 Conf. , Mioha«l Laski, 10/7/65 (Pag« 6) 

8«lf as a reTolutlonarjT* Tor th« psaudo rerolutlonary phrases 
of the OP, for the so-oallsd mllltanoy of OORE, the HAACP. 

All of thsss groups hare blooms l>ankrupt in the nyes of ths 
peopls. And thest oondltlons were what allowed the derelop^ 
Bent of a potential rerolutionary situation in WATTS. Not 
the question of porerty alons* Let ms make this very clear, 
poverty is an esstntial ingredient hut it is not a deoisive 
factor* Poverty has been present in the country since its 
deyelopment and inception* Poverty has been in the world 
sinos there has been a mankind in the recorded history* But 
CoM>(UHISM as a wa^ of means and struggle has not been present 
during all those lean months* The point that is the decisive 
factor at this tine is the presence and development of ths 
OOKiMUNIbT MOVSKENT in this country* 

And, now let me count esuentialiy to the exact degree of our 
participation in the uprising itself* You notice we call it 
an uprising, not a riot* This situation that occurred here 
in August was not a riot, in the sense of a riot as being a 
local disordsr, confined to a particular area and a short 
disturbance* This was a city-wide distimbanee of a prolonged 
nature and it entailed more than just a spontaneous reaction* 
What came forward in the uprising was tho satisfaction that 
only with prevailing conditions in tie WATTS area or the 
City of Los Angeles, or the Police Chief Parker or Mayor 
Torty, but in association with the international struggle 
in this country* This country is, participated in, as an 
oppressor of the people* The realisation of the struggle in 
WATTS was tied to the Vietnamese question* This question is 
reported, and reported adequately* The fact that the people 
viewed their situation as tied to the struggles of other 
peoples internationally* The peoples of the Congo, Dominican 
Republic aid in Vietnam. And that this was an initial phase 
of developing consciousness on the part of the masses in this 
particular district* 

This, we like to think reflects some degree of our agitational 
work in tlrese districts, since we have not only concentrated 
in WATTS but in the ViCHNoH CBNTIiAL district and in aAiiT LOS 
ANGELSS. And the essential aspect of our agitation has been 
to bring to the people's attention the interwrelationship to 
theae other stmggles* This, we feel, came forweurd as an 
outgrowth of the WATT J uprising, and we can point to this as 
ethics of our effectiveness of our agitation, the fact that 
the people have responded to this particular point* How, spe- 
cifically, did he go out onto the streets and urge people to 
deetroy property* K6, we OuhHUKI^To under these circumstances 
did not go out into the streets and urge the destruction of 
property* The destruction of property was the spontaneous 
outgrowth of the struggle* 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1159 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«8« Conf., Micha«l Laaki, 10/7/6$ (Pa«« 7) 

W«, as COMMUnSTii, If wt w«rt to l:ad a reyolutlonary bot«-> 
inent deolBiralj w« would find BK)r« afflolent and batter ways 
to go about the question. But we still refer to the v<aTTS 
uprising an a heroic atru^lt and we recognise it as that. 
But, we do pay attention to the errors that the people conmit- 
ted in the strviggle. ?irst of all, in the lack of politioal- 
ization of the struggle, drawing up specific deBiands, circu- 
lating those demands as part of the prot<<st, and oaliing for 
speclfio action. These points we bring up and we raise theoe 
points which should be taken as lessons. Also the necessity 
for political organization not neoe!. sarily COhilDHloT, but 
political organization of the people. Organisation of the 
people thHt CEm d ireot and turn more eff ioient direction to 
similar outbursts in the future. 

We want to see the e outbxirats transformed from mere explo- 
sions into directed and channeled struggles, struggles that 
can politicalize and expose the relationship of monopoly 
capitalists to the city government, to the state government, 
to the national government and international. I could point 
out, Just in pas- ing, the role of CuRz;, the NAACP, the 
Socialist Workers Party - TrotSiiyite, The OPUSA revisionists 
was a marginal role, if anv. They were not even able to 
participate in the situation. In fact, the declslTS factor 
was their inability to deal with the situation. 

DOROTHY HEALBT and the leadership of the COMMUNIST PAfiTT in 
this ooxintry were Just as much schocked as PRi:^SIL£NT JOHHSON 
over the outburst in the WATTS area. And along with the 
leading elements of the city government here, Infaot, I 
think DOROTHY HEALBY felt a little bit sorry for Police 
Chief PARKBR and Mayor YoRTY than they did for themselves, by 
this unfortvmate ocouxrence. The fact that CORE was proven 
to be no real factor in the community, I think, was demonstra- 
ted here too. And the NAACP and 3NCC the seuae way. 

There are thre* things that really grew out of this uprising. 
First of all, the rejection of non-violence as a meems and a 
method of struggle. This was resoundedly rejected by the 
masees of the people, and their acceptance andwlllingness to 
employ violent methode to fulfill their interests. To oppose 
the violence of the police. Secondly, the rejection of 
integration, as expre 3 8ed by th< se other organizations were 
also an essential point to be drawn from this situation and 
thirdly, the openrejeotion of the "quisling" leadership and 
the helping hands from the Mills, the I)ymallys, the Dick 
Gregory's and the Martin Luther Kings. This I think and the 
party believes is an essential factor involved. The politi- 
cal concentration. There are a nximber of areas I haven* t 
touched on that I'm n\u>e the question and answers will 
bring out. 



1 160 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Presa Oonf., Mioha*! Laskl, 10/7/65 (Pag« 8) 



UUESTIOira AMD ANswms. 
v^estlont 



Answ«r > 



(jueetloat 

Answers 

cjuestioni 
Answer t 
Wusstloat 

Anawsri 



Cjusstlont 
Answer t 

Queatlont 
Answers 



Wliat do you think Is specif loAlly behind UIBoON*a 
charges? 

GIBUOH*u charges are essentia .^ly true in regards 
to his statements about qgLtatioa prior to ths 
uprising itself. The fact that Cilfi^uH doesn't 
take cognizance hlaself is the extent of our 
participation in the uprising. We would, and 
I»ll tell you quite frankly. We would deeire very 
Buch to take the decisiye role, but organiza- 
tionally we were not in the position to take the 
deoislTS roll • If we were in a position to take 
the decisiye role in the uprising it wouldn't 
hare gone the way it did, 1*11 tell you that 
right now. 

OlfiSuH said that you were inyolred in directing 
the day after the riots broke out. Right? 

That is true. This is what he said. 

But you ars in effect saying that you were...* 

We were not there prior to the riot. 

Oorreot, then what you're saying in effect is 
that 61BC)0M did not give you full credit. ... 

Tes. But the essential point that I want to 
clarify is and you nust tinderstand what I aeaa 
by direction. We offered political and ideolo^ 
gical direction. We did not offer spscifio diree« 
tion in the throwing of nolo toy cocktails. Of 
course, as C0M14DMIST3, we say we do not reject 
the use of yiolence to support the interest of 
the people. The queetion is, in what direction? 
We yiew the uprising in waTT5 as a heroic strviggls. 
But there are certain things to be learned by it. 

What specific role did you play? 

Well, I would say we contributed in large part 
to the Ideology or the presence of ideology or 
politicalizatlon that was present. And, as you 
know, was not present to a great degree. 

KoM what was the oechanics of the outbreak? 

tJi^Uiti;^L*^4^!^'»f^M^oMFga4i«Mfae£°5ur 
^SstsH^pfmAt^n the street. In fact, there 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1161 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Preas Conf . , Mioha«l lAakl, 1C/7/65 (Pac« 9) 



are atiU raanants of our posters on th« atroat 
now tvvn If tha buildings era daatroyad* fiM fOC 
poatars. In addition, wa earriad out intanalra 
agitational oaapalgna with TEHnQ KEJISVS, vitk 
Oomninlat laaflata« and publioatlons in tbs 
JQRHAS DOWIS PBOJECTS, Eabasay Oardaaa, tli* 
laparlal Courta and in tha TKBIOl-OJSHTiUL district, 
and tha SASX LOd AfiOKl^^ araaa, of tha projaota. 
Tha oity-rua projaets* Wa agitatad thera, «• 
helped and aaalatad in tha foraation of organisa- 
tions of fEESDon 90& ZU£ P20fLS and wa earriad 
out daaonstrationa and street neetings aAinst 
the polioe and police rapresentatiTcs* ■■if iBBis 
went on for about a jear azid a half* And, if you 
look orar the news iteas of the last year and a 
half you will find soae references to this* 

(iaestiont Wae this agitAtien aerely through your literature? 

Answer! And throiigh our direct contact and through the 
organisation of groups of people* 

Queetiont Vo physical action? 

Answer t lo* 

Queetiont One point ia not clear to ne, M1£S« Sereral 
Interest a hurt told ae that perhaps 1^ of the 
affected comsfunlty was inrolTed in the rioting* 
Do you agree with thia? 

Ahswert I would say that thia ia baaically an Incorrect 
atateaent* It waa a wide, broad eeition of the 
legro coiBBunlty InTolTed. There ia no question 
about thie. Mere analyaia of the arrested indi- 
Tiduala would reflect thie aa representing a broad 
aeotion of the entire coaoninlty. And I*b eure 
that there doee eeea to be a nuaber of people 
inTolTed. Ranging anywhere fron 3 to 25 to 90 
thousand people inrolTcA at any tiae during the 
entire uprising* 

l*d aay, first of all, that the 1)( figuree were 
incorrect* And without a doubt, the oajority of 
the ooaannity being either physical or syapathstis 
supporters* Thsre'a no question about it* 

(juestiont Can I teJce if froa \ibs.\ you said earlier that you 
feel that froa sacking part of the city foras a 
good basis froa whioh to predicate the deaaads 
that you aake on the ao^callsd power structure* 



1162 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4— Continued 
Pr«s« Conf., Miolia*! Laakl, 10/7/65 (Pa«« 10) 



Answer t 1*11 preface it by eajrlng this. The potential 
in that situation is the potential that we want 
to see realised in political directions and 
directions of that struggle* So that we are in 
position to fight against ths rise of fascisa in 
this country. And in the position to oppose 
police brutality. And in position to oppose the 
reactionary order in this country, ws find that 
to be the nost healthy expression at this tias. 
Che best expression we could hare. 

Vtuestiont Sid your people hare anything to do with the now 
faaous "bull horn" incidsntt 

Answer t Vo comment on that question. 

Wuestiont How nany people are in this organ ixation, not in 
the Los Anfieles area? 

Wuestiont In your yarious organisations? 

Answers First of all, you can understand, under pressures 
of security, and in order to aroid widespread 
prosecution that we cannot rereal precise muibers 
or indiyiduals. I cannot. 

Questions Approxisate numbers. 

Answers Approxiaate nuabers? Let*s say IC. OIBdON was, in 
his estiaation, not too far off one way or ths 
other. 

(jueations You said that you fayored yiolence for protection 
against the police. How the hell can I phrase 
this without putting you on ths spot.... Ars you 
aware of any training going on urban guerilla 
warfare, do^it-yourself HotetoT cocktails kits 
and stuff like that? 

Answsrs Well, first of all, I want to get clear that we, 
Cd'O^iUHIbTo, speaking in this capacity as an 
official representatiye of the CP, Marxist- Leninist, 
do not call for the indiscriainate use of Molotoy 
cocktails or force or yiolence. We call for the 
politioalized use of force and yiolence, when in 
opposition for fores and yiolence ussd against 
ths interest of the peopb. I want this to be 
quite clear. We are opposed to acte of terrorisa, 
we are opposed to acts of Anarchisa. We do not 
support, and cannot as Ooaaunists, support indiyi- 
duala. This is not our end, nor is it our aia. 
We seek, first of all, to carry out this struggle 
peacefuxly. We haye always aought to carry this 



SUBVERSIVE INTLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1163 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
?r«0« Conf., Miohaci Laaki, 10/7/65 (Pag* 11) 



WU«stiont 



Azx8w«ri 



guestlont 



Answer I 



•truggltt out pe acefullj. «^« would 1ot« to 
oarrj out thle atrxi^i* in this country throxigh 
dttmooratio ■•ana. W« cannot b«oaus« history has 
proTsa it. It is iBpoBsibls to carry out this 
struggle for ComauniSB under dsmooraey. Tou cean 
only carry this struggle so fair, through parll« 
nentary means. And beyond that point, the ruling 
class shows itself for what it is and we aust 
simply be prepared to defend the interests of the 
people. That is to say, we aust begin to prepare 
and make our own aray. Our own political amy. 
And, if necessary, ara that amy, to protect the 
interests of the people. low, thie aay aeea a 
little blunt to you and it aay seea like perhaps 
I aa aroiding the question, but I*a not. I*a 
pointing out the essential factor, that political 
sTunriral of the oppressed people or oppreseed 
peoples, or working class depending upon its abi* 
lity to defend itself and not on ita relying on 
the police. We cannot aa Ooaanaiata be truthftLL, 
preach or pledge our alliance to the police de- 
partment because this is a coaplete elap in the 
face of all the things that we stand for and 
represent. We represent the interests of the 
working people and their interests as opposed to 
the state power of the rich of this country ^ Of 
the niling class, of the bourgeois. And for us to 
say place rexiance upon law and order and police 
that represent this ruling class would ba liyBO-> 
orisj on our partvy^DCBOUT HSAL£I would say tld.8, 
wa don't. r ^ 

Then, you would regard the campaign you have been 
waging in WATTS the laet two years aa aueeaaafulT 

Initially, yea. It haa aohiered ita objectlTt. 
It haa proTided ua with aaaa baae for organising 
into general aaas organisations and into organi* 
sations which are capable of earryiag on a rariety 
of operations • 

Hana you any of thesa xiaita in training for this 
araj that you aay you auat prepare at rarioua 
times? 

1*11 emswer it with two or three eentenaes and 
that is we hare presently engaged in the foraation 



and developaant of self defense unite and aquafla« 
Theae unite and theae squada oan, in the ttivvir94 
proTide the baaia for liberation araiea* 



1164 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Fr«B8 Conf., Hlohael Laaki, 10/7/65 (Fag* 12) 



(luestlont To go along with this, NIKE, would thee* b« a 
parallel to th« DiilAOOliS yOR DJ^^H^^l 

Answers It would be a parallel for the DhACuNS FUH DEFSiBSS 
In the following way. 3!he wllllngnees for peofle 
to rely on defending their own Intereeta* Ae far 
as anything else, that's where It ende* The DttCONS 
FOR D£7Siro£ hare shown that they cannot put up a 
sustained struggle* They cannot glvenpolltloal 
direction, that they have been hugged to death by 
COiiS. Thoee elements that have persisted In 
struggling Dllltantly hare been arrested and hare 
been able to be bought off and capitulated are 
allowed to operate and cure ''fettered" around on 
tours of the nation \j OoRS and SHOO by the CFUSA 
rerlslonlsts, by the Trotekyltes beoauee they are 
being played up. The question of self defense In 
Itself Is ffleanlngless detached from political 
reality. Detached froa the rerolutlonary struggle. 

Well, we talked of self defense, but In this 
situation we talk of It as a weapon, a tool, for 
political struggle. We say defend yourself so you 
can carry on the struggle. 

Quest loni Then they're not a close liaison with your group? 

Answers We seek to establish relations with all non-Coiiuaunlst 
groups that seek honestly to struggle. We would 
not be opposed to attempting and building relation- 
ships with the DEAC0N3 or with a number of other 
groups. 

You must remember R0B2HT F. WILLIAMS. If you recall, 
aOBERT P. WILLIAMS, he first Initiated In dynamic 
ways the question of self defense and he was 
rather Immediately eliminated basically because 
he Ideologically, logically, politically was 
going In an unacceptable direction of the ruling 
claae of this country. low the Deacone aire 
accepted and tolerated becau^ie Ideology and their 
politics are what we would call tame. How we see^^ 
to work with such people and to show them that 
they honestly want to etruggle and to ahow them 
the correct way to struggle and that Is to go to 
the source of the problem, whleh Is monopoly 
capitalism, which Is U.S. Imperialism. Any struggle 
In this country which Is not an antl-lmperlallsm 
struggle, cannot be successful In resolrlng emy- 
thing. 

Question! Hare you formed any kind of an alliance with the 
MUSLIM3Y 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1165 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«s« Oonf., Mlohaal Laakl, 10/7/(5 (pag* 13) 



An0w«rt All right, ttaat*a a good qucstloa* Th« MUdLIMtf, 
as far as w« aro oonoarnod, tho l«aderahip of tha 
MUSLIMS froB MR. MUHAMMAD all tha way down, 
espaolall7 JOHX SHABAZZ, I ballara It 'a MR. SHABAZZ 
la tha L.A. araa« rapraaant a taotlon of tha B«gzD 
P«tt7 bourgaols, whieh la oonosrnad with aocumula^ 
ting and scraping togathsr whatsTer it oan for 
ita own paraonal gratifications* How, thsy aT9 
building, tha7 ara attaapting to bscoms blaok 
capita 11 at 8 on tha backa of Billtant Isgro 
workara* Oar nain appeal is to win tha ailitant 
Bagro workers to thsir baaio intsrssts which ara 
not balng served by SHABA ZZ or MR. MUHAMMAD. In 
other worda ws seek to separate most definitely 
the reactionary leadership from tha nilitant and 
potentially rerolutionary aasses. 

(Question t Then you are in opposition to the MUSLIM idaologi- 
oally? 

Answers Definitely* But we ara not and we will not object 
to possible flireas of joint struggle that they 
sincerely wiah to promote against monopoly capita^ 
:. .iirli and imparialiM* Tha strength of that position 
doesn't 0004 from ALLAH* It oomes from their 
anti-imperialist stance which they conreniently 
leare at the doorstep of the white man's house* 

wueetioni Do you know whether there has been any alliance 
hare between the Trotskyites cmd the Muslims as 
thsra has been in Harlem? 

AixAwert Another good question* Lst me point out a^ain, 
that you seem to be aware of these things which 
are not gene ally reported in the press* lliat the 
Trotakyltss, •^oialist M'orkers Party and tha 
rerlsionist Oosu&uniat Party headed in this eurea bj 
LUKOTHY H/:aLI>:y are in a close alliance and they 
operate within B-VAO and within CQRB and they seik , 
and they hare had relatione with the MUSLIMS* And 
these relations have been completelar hidden from 
the public and there has been no acknowledgment 
of it, oVriously* They wouldn't deeire to do it* 

Questions Do you take credit for the success of the WAITS 
riot because of your actlYities in the ea*ea? l*o 
you feel that the riot was a result of your 
actirlty*/ Pre-actiTity? 

Anaweri First of all, no matter how much we wo\xld like 
to say that, and no matter how much you would 
liks to rsport it, thoss are not, and they cannot 
be the basic facts of the uprising* The uprising 



1166 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«Be Conf. , Michael Laakl, 10/7/65 (Pa«« 14) 



in WATTiS, watt i" and haa b«en •>'8«ntlally apon- 
tanaoua. It waa cm axpXoalon, an exploalon aa a 
result of the oppre^^elon* presaurea conatantly 
preaent and developing in the capltaliat uyatea. 
When you hare 309( of the population in this area 
unemployed, when you hare inferior houainig, high 
prloes on food, v^t are you going to hare? You*r« 
not going to hare an exploalon neoeaaarlly, if 
GOdS, the NAACP, the reriaioniat CP oan oome into 
theae diatricta and spread their ideology and their 
nonoviolenoe and their Ilea of integration. But 
when they're not present and have withdrawn froa 
the area and W8*re preaent that provides the oir- 
cunstance and the conditions for thia type of 
developaent. Let ma make thia poing clear. It is 
the question of acceptance of non-violenoe. If you 
accept non~violenee, how can you do what's done here. 

VlU£3TI0It In other words, you cure taking advantage of the 
situation. After it occurs, then you are taking 
credit for your activities there as heing so- 
called successful. 

AHSWERt We're not taking advantage of anything. We didn't 
call you, you called us in a aens^. We didn't ask 
GIBSON to make this statement. 6IB30S made this 
statement. hy don't you aak COUHCILHAtf OIBSOH why 
he waited to this point to open his mouth up. we 
would have been willing to state our position 
prior to this uprising, after it, and during the 
upriaing. Vo efforts were made to glean the facta 
from us at that tiae. Ask m, GIBSoN why he decided 
all of a audden to poae his question at this late 
time. 

QUESTloSt All right, why do you think he waited mH this 
time? >hy do you think he waited so long? 

AiluWSRt I think that there are hasioally two reauaona. 

Bither it wae deairable to compile figurea at thia 
point or else he made a slip. A alip that waa im- 
oalled for, as long aa no one elae has made these 
accuaationa and raiaed them, or theae charges. The 
fact that POLIOB ClilBV PARKEH knows more of this 
situation than GIBSOV does, the fact that HATOB 
YORTT is more aware of the situation than GIBdON 
ever waa, and is today emd they haven't said one 
word that OOY^iiNCB BKOWH is aware of it. Vow theee 
are important ^jue^tiona I think you should ask 
these people. hy did they keep the question quiet? 
Why did they hide the facts of participation of 
Oommuniata in thia area? It didn't suit their 
political lives. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1 167 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Fr«a8 Oonf., Nioha«l Laski, 10/7/6$ (Pa«« 15) 

QUSSTK^Is Tou were talking about 60 or 100 people in your 
organization and you sounded ae If you were 
pretty accurate* 

AKi3<-<2Rt Tes, pretty accurate In terae>^of meabers that 

are under our dieclpllne that respond to what we 
would desire to have done In an agitational 
way or in a direct InTolTenent. How, you must 
realize that this does not take a raet number of 
Coizununlats. Tou had 25,000, 30,000 troops sent 
Into SA9T0 IX))!I9(K) on the pretext of something 
like 15 or 25 aotire Communists in a country of 
7 million pso]^* A htxndful* low, if you can 
find anything in President JOHISOH's logic, you 
can find good bass for what GlBbOli put forward 
here* 

gUESTIOVt Mike, oaa we hare a little bit on your personal 
background as fas as how you came to the active 
position you are now in and what your experiences 
are and so on* 

AN:3WERi Wsll, that is the type of question I cannot anawc 
here at this point* I don't desire to answer 
it* I*m here for an interriew and to discuss 
things* 

<UE6TI0Hi That's what ws're here for, MIKB. 

ANoW£Rt I'm not here as an individual , I'm here as an 
official representatlre for the organization* 
I'll tell you that information after the 
interriew, 

QUEoTIOHi Could you go back to what we were talking about 
before about the putting together of the self- 
defense squads* Doss that put you in any 
difficulty with the pr irate armies laws of 
California? 

ANSWER! Well, first of all, you have to find out what the 
new private laws mean* You'd have to have a case 
and I doubt that you're going to get either 01x9, 
I think that they are eo confused themselTes as 
to what they mean by it* That I don't even think 
you're going to get a cass, let alone someone to 
try it* Nothli^s going to prevent you from 
organizing based on those kind of laws* 



vjU£3TI09i You're not concerned about it* 
ANSWiSKi Mot in the slightest* 



1 168 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Press Conf., Michael Laakl, 10/7/6$ (Page 16) 



QUESTION I One further question for olarifioation. You are 
apoarently dootrlnaliy at odds with the OP repre- 
sented by GUS HALL, lX)ROTHT^Hi^U£T and the rest, 
among others. You are apparently at odds with 
the fiH£ZHNEy OP. Are you dootrinaiiy oloae to 
the OHIHBdB 0P9 

ANiiWEHt All right, let me answer that by saying this. 

We. as out statement here indicate, and it is a 
rather concise statement. e view oureelres and 
our peurty as representing the best traditions of 
the reYolutionary Oommti^xst movement, internation* 
ally and nation^illy within this country. We are 
without a question, aligned fraternally with all 
NAfiXiST-LENINIST types who are reeolutely against 
U.S. imperialism, against Communist reTisioniam, 
against Trotskyism. ^9 find the OP of the P£OPl£IS 
HEPUBLIC of CHINA and the ALBANIA* Party of Labor 
and a nxunber of other rerolutionary parties in- 
cluding OP of IND0Ni:3IA, OP of JAPAN, OP of NEW 
ZEALAND as representing this revolutionaj^ trend. 
We believe and feel that we too reflect this civil 
position. 

QUESTION! Did you omit the NUHTH VIETIlAMBdE on purpose? 

Ai^iSWEHt No, because we view their struggle as the most 
heroic strvtggle and we support them along with 

the NORTH KOREANS. 

^<UESTI0Nt MIKE, can on the light of your existing and con- 
tinuing, I assume, work in the areas here, SOUTH 
LOS AN0ELE3, WATTo and so on, do you foreaee more 
outbreaks of violence or agitation in the near 
future? 

ANoWERi We foresee, the PARTY foresees a growth of the 
revolutionary struggle. That, what occurred in 
WATTS in August is for all practical purposes a 
very poor dress rehearsal for what will be taking 
place nationally in a very few number of years. 
A very short period of time. Then, what occvurred 
here in the citv ie merely the beginning. Because 
conditions in this country are going to become 
worse. They're going to become worse economically, 
and they're going to have their political reper- 
cussions. And this period of boom can't last 
forever. You're as well aware of that aa I am. 
The international situation is not becoming more 
favorable. It is becoming more complee by the 
very moment that we even ^it here. And the further 
deterioration of the control of the U.S. monopoly 
capitalist position Internationally is not going 
to help its internal sltuition coupled with the 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1169 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Prese Conf., Michael Laeki, 10/7/65 (P^K« 17) 



gUKaTIoHi 



QUESTION I 
ANSWER I 

',UifiaTloNi 

ANi>W£B t 
yUEbTIOHi 

AHSWERt 



rising struggle of the Hegro people* One question 
I vould Juet like to deal with here* The question 
of what is the essontial character of the struggJe 
in WATTS* Pacta, we say* But it also has a 
national oharaoter to it* That what we deal with 
here in WaTT^, the most exploited and oppressed 
section of the working class but also with membera 
of the Negro national ninority. And they come 
froB a nation of the Jouth. And that nation of 
the South is going to be causing more problems 
for U.U* imperlnliamf towards many problems hs the 
YietnGimese situation is at the present time* 
Ultimately the decisive question Is the class 
struggle and not a national liberation -struggle of 
the South, because that struggle of the South could 
never be successful without an overall class 
struggle and struggle for SocialisB in this country* 
Our objectives are for civil rights in the Afro- 
American Nation, for rights of determination in 
the Negro nation, and for peace and Socialism* 

What do you mean by nation? 

Well, first let me indicate that a nation can 
exist without a state* A people can exiat without 
given state expressions* Or how else would you 
account for the presence of nations in Africa and 
Asia that were nothing but colonies directly undor 
the control of another state, another nation* 

I'd account for them by the other nations that 
controlled them* 

They don*t create nations* Nations are present 

as a result of historical, cultural, and geographic 

consequence, as I see it* 

I don't mean to argue with you, but I think you're 
oomplstslj wrong on that**** 



Well, that's your opinion. 

You say at the time of your founding conference 
of your organization which was held here in Los 
Angeles on September 4th ft 3th, at that tims you 
founded the organization, last month? 



[/.9t5 



We united and unified as MAKXIST-LENINISTS throxigb- 
out the country at that time, yes, on the basis of 
that tims. 



1170 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4— Continued 
Pr«8« Conf., Mlohaal Lasld, 10/7/65 (Pag« 18) 



QUE3TIUHI 
ANSWER I 

WUBSTIoNt 
AmWSLt 

yUE..TIONi 
ANSWERS 
WUEaTIONi 
ANSWER I 

vUESTIOHs 

QUESTIOHi 

ANSWER I 



UUESTIOHl 
ANSWSa I 
WUKoTIONt 

ANSWER t 
QUESTIOHj 
ANSWER I 



How, who la Xh» presldont of yoxir organisation or 
chaixTBaa for It} 

Th« chairman Is W,U. SHERMAI, h« Uvea la s.7. 
and If you wish to aako contact with hla, arrange- 
ment a cem be aada* 

What* a tha alsa of thla party natlonallyt 

Let me aay that we*re not In a poeltlon to 
participate the preciae««**.« 

MIKE, I didn't aak you that 

Wellf I*m not answering your question then****** 

Okay, then 1*11 say you won*t answer* 

I am answering you, but !*■ not telling you 
precise numbers. 

I didn*t ask for precise number* , I*ill accept an 
approximation! happily, •••••and I won*t get it. 

..••••how many people were there and where did 
they meet. 

There were delegates meetings First of all, the 
place and time of the meeting were secret. The 
taumber of delegates, we will reveal at this time 
was in excess of 25. And re pre sent a tires of a 
number of other organizations from throughout the 
country. 

Row many from outside L.A. ? 

The majority of the force. 

Would you say that you are well known in this 
area here? 

Well. I would aay if you went for a walk through 
the Jo.^MN DuWNS PROJECT the people would know me 
there. 

Your failure to get out actively and participate 
physically in the riots, could that have been for 
your own personal safety? 

Ho. We were presents I was on 103rd Street, 
Thursday, ?ridayi In the late morning Just prior 
to the ransacking of 103rd ntreet which took place 
Friday afternoon, of which you undoubtedly are 
aware^ I was there, and I*m still here now. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1171 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Preaa Conf., Mlohaal Laeki, 10/7/65, (Pa«« 19) 



wUBSTIONi What did you do? 

AN.i'VJSRt What did I do? What do you want ■• to say? That 
I had a bomb in one hand and a MolotoT cocktail 
In the other and heared thea? 

yUBaTloNi Did you? (laughter) 

wUESTloHi What did you do? What were you doing? 

A:^:jW£Ri a« I said, our role and our function weui to atteiapt 
to lend political form and content to the struggle 
and direction* 

wUSiSTXONt How did you do It, at that time? 

ANSViKKi 9y pointing out the essential and basic relations 
by political agitation and by r-.aking contact with 
units which had formed spontaneously with the hope 
of developing other groups* And, in that regard, 
we were quite auocesaful* There were a number of 
units that were formed and individuals that were 
{grouped tot^ether and we're working with them 
today carrying on and developing agitation in the 
area* 

wITioTIoNi You said you were on 103rd Street on the day of 
the riots. While you were there, what were you 
doing? 

ANSWER t As I pointed out, politically agitating* 

ANSWER I Well, you see, on lOJrd Street of the WATTii area 
we've been present for over 2 years, e are knowi 
by most of the am^ll groups, you would call them 
fianga of younger Ne^jro workers and unemployed. 
We're known better and weAre in contact with them. 
And these individuals have beenknown to us right 
along* And they were in essential agreement with 
what we had been saying all along* Sow, as to 
whether we told thea to go and do certain things* 
We didn't have to tell anyone to do anything* And 
to grant us the ability to organise and take the 
responsibility for what occurred in a 30 square 
mile area just ooapletely misses the whole point* 
The point is that ideologically, we provided part 
of the basis for what occurred* We did not and 
are not responsible for what occurred* It happens 
the system is responsible for what occurred* 

..iUl^oTlOFi This is the way you expressed it earlier* 



1172 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Press Conf., Michael laekl, 10/7/65 (Page 2C) 



AH^WERt I don't want to eabarrase oertaln IndlTlduals on 
the SOUTHoIDS CITIZMS D£F£]r3£ OBOUF. W«il, I 
would eay that they do proTlde potentialiy the 
basla for arolutionary organization. • • • .yea. 

yU£oTIONi How did you agi.ate politically during the riote 
itself? 

ANSWER! How does one agitate under any cireuaatanoe. 

QUEbTlGNj How did you? 

ANSWERi Well, let me explain just briefly. 

wUESTICNi What specifically did you do during the riots? 

1*11 here to ask, ythRt did you say to tiese people 
while the riote were going on? 

Ai:s\/ERt We pointed out that the necessity to take lessons 

from the conorete situation. The necessity to hare 
tighter organization. .'Ji organization that was 
both that the authorities were aware of publioally, 
politically, a nd an aspect of the organization 
that the authorities could not be aware of and 
oould not eliioinate or eradicate. >e were pusl>- 
ing for the conception of the organization of the 
indiriduals. Pushing for the conception of firet 
building a group of indi^idvial eleaents that can 
defend the interest of the people, that can put 
jior ward a political program that can represent their 
interests. That^s what we oall political agitation. 

wU}S3IXoH} What did you do, stand on a street comer at 103rd 
Street and gather a group together and say, this 
is what we uhould do? 

AKSWsat Our agitation was with the..... Tou see with this 
kind of uprising there is no direct coordination. 
There were email units of individuals that banded 
together and they had a.nominal leader who provi- 
ded direction and expreseion. There wez*e numbers 
of others who Just acted individually. Our main 
effozlB were that we already knew who the potential 
leaders were, we were to get theee elemente 
together and begin to hammer away at the necessity 
for a regular systematic organizing as opposed to 
very loose and indefinite organizational forms . 
Kany people praiee the uprising in the community 
because it is so ill-defined that nobody could 
reaxly put their fin^.er on it. But, we say this 
is the negative side of it. There should have 
been centralized organization and politioalisation. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1173 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Press Conf., Miohasl Laeki, IOA/65 (Pags 21) 



wU£3TIwHt Do you b«li«T« aay direction appeared during the 
course of the riot? There hare been charges froa 
YoHTT, I Beliry^e? 

A2To»Sit Ho, no* There was no ostenslbl* direction aU. 
the way through the period in terms of * 

wUETIi^Bt Like I mentioned earlier, you didn*t hare any 
people on bull horns? 

ANSWMt I didn*t answer that question* 

QUSoIIOSt Can we ask you now about your doctrine? 

AJfSWiiiat Let ne maJce just one point and that is, first of 
all, I want to ciJce it perfectly clear that the 
uprising occurred spontaneously as the resit of 
the people's history. That our function, as Cost- 
nunists, was to provide political for^, expression 
and organisation. And that we strore to do prior 
the uprlElng and attempted to do during the upris^ 
ing* And iiBoedlately after and at the present 
tine we are engaged in atteapting to lend political 
organization and expression under the conditions 
and clrcuBstanoes that prerail. One thing that I 
would like to point out, and that it was in the 
rROVIbl KAL uHGANIZISG COMKlTThE. Elements of ths 
Conmittee were expelled from the Committee after 
the uprising and certain elements of the CoLjd.ttee 
were renoTed from the Committee physically because 
of the fact that they were in a position of capi- 
tulating during the struggle* They refused to 
participate and agitate during the struggle and 
claimed the uprising was nothing more than a group 
of hoodlums and took the Yiew of it that hood Ixims 
should be suppressed by the lATIONAL GUARD. These 
indiriduals represented the rerisionlst tendency 
which hare been eliminated within our I^OVlSlOiiAL 
OaGAiriZlNG COKiMITTSE* 

QUESTIONS Was this before or after or during the re- 
organization of ^ptember 4 and 37 

ANoVTERi 5o, this wao all prior to it. The events of 
August were a stimulus to the derelopments of 
September. In other words, this was clearly 
demonstrated* To wait any longer*. .. Tou see 
the question of the timing elenonts and the 
olrcxuBstances of the reoonstitution went into it* 
We could hare ccLlled for the reconstltutlon of the 
Party in 1959 or 60, but we didn't because we 
felt that there was a particular national charac- 
ter needed in the Party and a level of ♦ and 
ideological understanding. And that's why we 



1174 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Pr«80 Conf., Miohael laski, 10/7/63 (Pa^e 22) 



waited until this point. It waa also a question 
of olaas stru^le and Its intenaifioation, b«oaufi« 
w« knew the part/ has a clasa atru^gl** 

^hUEoTIOH} How many did you piurge? 

AHSWl^i They were very few in nuaber. 

gUESTIOlTt Well, you*re only talking about 60 or 100 before 
all this happened. 20? 30? or S? 

ANSWER: There were easentially 7* 

wUSSTIOSt Something we didn't diaouas. What do you think 

the net effeot of the riot or uprising ia teaching? 
Do you think it vdll improre conditions of people 
in the area? 

AirsWERt Unfortiuaately, the past has attempted to do that, 
but at the present time, it won*t succeed. She 
conditions which exist in the WATTS area, existed 
Before the uprising, exists toaay, and are not 
going to be eliminated over night, if at all. 
Th9y oan*t make <ATTS into a prise or a store- 
front display. It*s Just too large, too many 
people. iou*re dealing with 200,000 or 2^0,000 
people in the immediate Ticinity of WATTS and 
adjacent areas, so you can't m^e that into a show- 
case. 

WUEoTIOHi Is it your Judgment that these conditions make 
the WATTS area a fertile field for your basic 
ideological concepts? 

ANSN£iii Without a doubt. Without a doubt, there will be 
a red belt where there is a black belt very 
shortly. 

QUESTION I Is that your official flag? (points to solid red 
banner on a stand against the wall). 

ANSWi^i Well, that belongs to the Trade Union. 

QUjLoTIOHi To the Trade Union? That is the Oar Washers 
Union? Is there any symbol on it? 

ANSWER I Ho, they ^ust use/red flag which represente the 

blood of the workere that hare been sacrificed to 
the struggle. 

gUESTIONt Are you organising any other groups besides ths 
Car Washers? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1175 



Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Presa Conf., Miohael Laekl, 1«/7/65 (?*«• 23) 



vITliSTlOHt 
ANSWER t 



QUESTION I 
Alf SVTSE t 



QUEbXlLNi 



All JWSR t 



gUESTIoHi 
it6W£Kt 



Ae I polnttd out, the Car Waahers are the aaln 
trade union group. The ?E£RDOh POil TH£ P£OPJ[£ 
and then the self-defense units whloh are 
beginning to fom and expreaalon now. 

So they hare an.v name, the self -defense ^lnlt8? 

They prefer to keep their public aide hidden until 
they orgemlze the other side of thla ooBnlttee. 
Onoe they're organized fully and subatemtlally 
on a basla for sustaining themselyea after you 
want to expose then. And then they'll make them- 
aelrea publlo ao you can try and expose then. 



Are theae groupa largely mat* up of nlnorlty 
racea or a cosbinatlon of both? 

They are of the exploited and oppresaed aeotlon 
of the workjjig olaaa, Mexlcan-Aaerlcan and Negro 
workers. One other thing, the uprlalng In Itaelf 
waa participated in by a nunber of whites. A 
point whloh haa been conveniently bypaased. The 
fact that there were orer 200 "Whltea* arrested 
aa participating In the uprising and rlota haa 
not been corered and brought out. The fact that 
a percentage of those killed, there were a number 
of ^xican-Amerlcana killed by the National Guard 
and Police. These pointa were to be bypaased to 
emphaalze the racial aapecta. 

What do you see aa the poaltlon of the Whites who 
took part In the rioting? Were they members of 
the aame claas as the other rioters? 

They were suffering from the same oppression aa 
the o there. What hi tea do you find adjacent to 
the Negro sections? You find the poor Whites, 
You find.... Let's look at the districta that are 
adjacent to the Negro districta. They're bordered 
by Mexican-Americana and then by the lower section 
of the Whites who turn to their olaaa position, 
the ones new to our area from the South* 

Thanks, you're describing a reporter who la sitting 
here, too. 

You see, that's the advantage, they oan teOce the 
White workers from the .3outh« They can, the 
ruling claas can bribe thes and lift them up. 

?»$p!i»?y ^8;*c48'l48t*fh8 i«»i8TJf^*&ol^ «tffi£n 

the Negro that they can get with the White ruling 



1176 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Press Conf., Miohael Laski, 10/7/65 (Page 24) 



olasfies at this time. If they oeua i^et the ^axae 
turnover, lifting up and lowering of significant 
sectors they feel they can elioilnate the problea 
because they try* The basis of containment of the 
working class is based on bribery at this point. 
The aristocracy of labor. But they can't bring 
those conditions to bear with the Negroes because 
this represents a very strong soxurce of profits. 

^^UESTIoNt I have one more questio i. What do you think the 
net effect on our political spectrum is of the 
efforts of the organizations of the far right 
today? 

ANSWER t The net result is merely going to be generating 

a far left, a very strong, a naturally decisive far 
left. Because, like in anything, when you have 
one extreme the other extreme is going to take form 
and grow. Tou have development in the last 10 years 
of what you call the far right. e don't think 
the far right is a danger, ve view the far midal« 
as a danger. 

gUS^TIOKi Are you saying essentiaxly that a healthy iilBCH 
^OCIiiiTY means a healthier CP? 

ANSWSxi So, we're not saying that. We're aaying that the 
BIRCH SOCIETY and the far right are symptomatic 
of developments within this society and that we 
Qdon't want to see a BIRCH JOCIETY. We do.x't even 
weuat to see the J0H1R50H Administration, or a Gui,D- 
kVATER Administration. e want to se worker's con- 
trol, but that this society is going through a 
particular phase of its development. The degener- 
ation which brings about the formation of a right 
ar;d a left and the dajiger does not stem from the 
right, it stems from the pre^ient aoministration 
and the present politics of that administration, 
both Democratic and liepublioan. This bi-partisan 
monster is the real sovirce of the problems that 
face the Hegro people and face the peoples of the 
rest of the world. >«e are not going to be drawn 
into this idea of the great boggie-man of the far 
right. The far right is only there because there 
is a Democratic and ^^•epublican Party that represents 
monopoly capital. The fight against the reasoning, 
you heard ail the BliiCHiu^li abexird phraves about 
ROCKJ37SLLKR being a Communist by the BIkCH oC'CIi':TY. 
And all those horrible things that JiloiiNliuWjiK 
either as a foolish man is supposed to have done. 
W«ll, these elements in the feur right are merely 
pointing out the policies and positions of mono- 
poly capital. Tney cannot understand them, because 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1177 



' Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Ckjntinued. 

Preea Conf ..Michael Laski, 10/7/65 (Pa«« 25) 



aUE3TI0Nj 
ANSWEHi 



WUESTION: 
AKoWER I 

ANSWER 2 



the7 esQentlally and ledologlcally are from the 
petty bovirgeola* They Tiew the atteapts of muno- 
poly capital to make arrangezcents with the Soviet 
Union ae capitulation as serring the Interests of 
Couaunisffl. They don't view th'^t as making acooaato* 
datlons for the survival of monopoly capital and 
as perversion of existing Socialist States, because 
of their own position. 

K1K£, you sees to view the position of both the 
far left and far right as symptot&atic of the dis- 
integration of capitallsa. 

As the intensified contradiction of » yes, essen- 
tially that is. 

How do you view the boviet aoiainlstration with 
our own two party system? You seem to be anti- 
KRUSHCKKV and anti^BE£ZHU£Y. Do you oppose the 
CP of the Soviet Union? 

We look for a struggle to develop within the CP ct 
the .soVlKT UNION and we in fact feel very confi- 
dent that the Communists, the rank and file of the 
CP of the iJoVIET UNIoL will eliminate revisionist 
leauership. There will be an Intense stinig^le as 
a manifest result within the party. 

How old are you, lUiJS? 

I'm 25 years old. 

Where are you from? 

Sew York City. I think that's where all the 
Communists come from. I have a Jewish background 
and that's also what most Coomxinists are. 



yUJ::.:'i'I^Ni Can we have a spelling of your full name? 

ANSWER I No middle Initial, Just M. LASKI. ("That sounds 
strongly revolutionary", from a reporter) 

^UiJSTIONt How long have you been out here, KI££? 

ANSWER I I've been out here 11 years. 

-,cUESTloNt Consistently? 

ANSWEiit I have mobility, I visit various places to find 
out what's going on, but my residence is in the 
vsATTS district, I live in the WATTS district 



1178 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Press Gonf., Michael Laski, 10/7/63 (Pags 26} 



and I*ve reuided there for over a year. I an 
registered to vote at the school right over here* 

xU oTIONt How about your educational background? •Speaking 
of school? 

A^.'dWKiii (lie previous ciuestion) I 'a not regie tered as a 
Comcunist, but ao "declines to state". We'll be 
running people from this dletrict for political 
office that should prove moat interesting. 

WUEJTIONt As Communista? 

ANSWiSHt As Com unists. W« may have to regi.'iter then as 
Independents or Democrats , not as Commiuiists in 
order to get them 02i the ballot. But the Deao-> 
oratio Party would diolaia the fact that the 
Decocrata we put forward are really Communists. 
We will admit that they are Co.jnunists and then 
see whiit happens. 

iUEJTIOJft How about running iiepublicans as Communists? 

AK^iWERt It makes no difference, we*re Just concerned with 
getting them on the ballot as Comciunlsts whether 
we have to say they're I^emocrats or Republicans 
to do it. We'll do it. I want to prove a point 
with regard to the elections heret that the Comnun* 
ists in the v/A'fT^ District can pull a significant 
quantity of the votes, as you saw with lAYLOH 
rum'.ing in the district to the north of here. 

Will be nothing to what you see when we get a 
Communist candidate on the ballot in the near 
future, b-^cauee you're going to see a tremendous 
reaction, a political reaction, against the 
Democratic and Republican Parties. 

\Ui;STIONi Are you a second generation Communist, MIKE? 

AN'oWSRt Ho, I'm a firet generation Communist. I'm a first 
Commie of the family. 

gimjTIuN: The only thing I w as curious about was your educa- 
tional background. 

A:.'i3W;:Ht I withdrew from UCLA after 2 years in the school. 

wUE^TIuHt Tou're an admitted drop-out then? 

ANSWiSli You can check my record, £ind if you're really 

interested, you will. And you will find out that 
I left because of political reasons and thit I 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1 1 79 

Harris Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 
Preea Conf. , Michael Lnski, 1C/7/C5 (Pa^e 2?) 

hAYe b«en banned from returning to Thaxter Hall 
on the grounds of pnrticip-iting anu leadinif a 
Bucoeaaful struggle at Thaxter Hall ag4ln8t the 
authorities there and the acceptance of the 
Constitution they attempted to crau down the 
throata of the atudento. But th«it'8 my, • • 
In other words you eouid say I've been a consis- 
tent troublemaker. 

yUE;)TIjNt How did you «;et into CommunisB? hat attracted 
you to it? 

ANoWiiHi hat attracted you to the pret 8? As a matter of 
fact, nothing attracted me to it, I sort of fell 
into it and found I wne happy after I got there. 

^jUBJTIoNi Weil, I la^de a definite decision, I selected 

the eourse ^ wna going to take and I didn't fall 
into it. 



W.H. 3HEHMAN (Page 18) 

9/19/64 io3ue of Tv^CrflN lists the above subiect as 
editor of the MALLtiT, director of the INoTlTUTE FuR 
tk;GIAL THOUGHT, and a participiint in the WjiiT C0A3T 
VACATI'/N oCKC OL, 8/29 to 9/7. 

1/28/65 iui3ue of TOOJIN lists the above subject as 
director of the I .J. TllU.i; ?0i{ j>jCIAL THv^UGHT which 
has a new militant publication called Bi^GK FxAG 
operating out of S.F. 

EXHIBIT #1 - 9/27-10/4/65 issue of the PEO?iB«S VoICE (The 
Voice of all the ('p.)ro88ed and Exploited!;, 
1^13 E. P'ir^^stone Blvd., L.A., Calif. 90001. 

EXHIBIT #2 - 8/20/65 & 8/27/65 iesuesof the PEKING REVIEW, 
A weekly magazine of Chinese Hews and Views, 
published in China. 

NOTES ( * } Indicates that words or phrases were omitted 
because they were not understandable. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

Part 3 
(Los Angeles — Watts) 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 29, 1967 

United States House or REPRESENTATI^^ES, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10:20 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; Richard H. 
Tchord, of Missouri; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and Albert W. 
Watson, of South Carolina; also John C. Culver, of Iowa, in absence 
of Mr. Willis.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Ichord, 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Chester 
D, Smith, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. 
Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Harris, you have been sworn. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, Avhen we adjourned yesterday, Detective 
Harris was completing his testimony on tlie Connnunist Party U.S.A. 
(Marxist-Leninist), He has two more documents which he desires to 
discuss relating to the current activities of that organization. 

The Chairman. Two more what, did you say ? 

Mr. Smith. Two more items. 

The Chairman. All right. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS— Resumed 

Mr. Harris. Just yesterday I received from my own office in Los 
Angeles two copies of a document, one distributed in July of this 
year headed "U.S. Imperialist Youth Draft." It is signed by the Los 
Angeles branch of the Communist Party LT.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist). 
I quote from a portion of it : 

We oppose US imperialism and its war of aggression against the people of 
Vietnam. We oppose the US imperialist draft by fighting to put an end to the 
capitalist system. * * * 

1181 



1182 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

They wind it up by saying : 

DOWN WITH U.S. IMPERIALISM AND ITS RUNNING DOGS! 

LONG LIVE THE CAUSE OF INTERNATIONAL WORKING CLASS 
SOLIDARITY ! 

LONG LIVE THE INTERNATIONAL MARXIST-LENINIST FORCES, LED 
BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA ! 

JOIN AND SUPPORT PEOPLE'S ARMED DEFENSE GROUPS! 

READ AND DISTRIBUTE PEOPLE'S VOICE— TUB VOICE OF ALL THE 
OPPRESSED AND EXPLOITED 

(At this point, Mr. Willis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Haeris. The second document was distributed in November 
1967 by the CPUSA-ML, and it attempts to "build the August 11th 
movement to oppose imperialism." I want to quote a little bit of this 
document, also. It says that : 

"The non- violent and pacifist approach was rejected" in the Watts 
uprising; that "integration was decisively rejected by the people as a 
social solution to their exploitation and oppression"; and that "the 
most decisive, important lesson to be learned from August 11, 1965, 
is the concrete need for revolutionary political direction which em- 
bodies the concrete needs and interests of the working class — present- 
ing a clearcut line of struggle for the total and complete defeat of U.S. 
imperialism." 

This again is signed by the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist- 
Leninist) , 9122 South Compton Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these exhibits be received 
and marked "24-A and B" in connection with Detective Harris' testi- 
mony on the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) . 

Mr. Tuck (presiding) . LTnless there is objection, and the Chair hears 
none, it is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 24-A and 24r-B," respec- 
tively. Exhibit 24-A retained in committee files; 24-B follows:) 

Harris Exhibit No. 24-B 

We Must Build the August 11th Mov^ement to Oppose Imperialism ! 

The importance of August 11, 1965, must firmly be remembered and understood 
by the people. The Watts' uprising was far more than a riot. It represents for 
the American proletariat a new level of struggle against U.S. imperialism. 

The significance of the Watts' uprising rests on the following points : 

1) The non-violent and pacifist approach was rejected decisively. The people 
showed their determination to answer the oppressive violence and force of the 
police and state by waging a tit-for-tat struggle in the streets. The people showed 
their willingness to struggle with nothing more than their hands against the 
well armed state apparatus. 

2) Integration was decisively rejected by the people as a social solution to 
their exploitation and oppression. It is not possible to integrate the poor with 
the rich, to integrate the exploited with the exploiters. Integration has meaning 
for the bourgeoisie, for the rich, and not for the working people. Integration 
is a ruse to assimilate the American Negro bourgeoisie with the rest of the 
American bourgeoisie, under the pretext of assimilation of all Negroes in the 
American nation. With the failure of "integration," U.S. imperialism has dropped 
that hoax and adopted the "Black Power" hoax to divide workers on the basis 
of "color" as the last line of defense for U.S. imperialism. This new line props 
up the reactionary nationalists as the mainstay of the capitalist system in the 
U.S. by calling for "Black" capitalists, as Floyd McKissick of CORE, along with 
Stokely Carmichael and Adam Clayton Powell who are leading spokesmen for 
this new imperialist ruse. 

3) The rejection of the U.S. imperialist lackeys such as Martin Luther King, 
Roy Wilkins, and the strongest advocates of non-violence and integration, reveals 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1183 

clearly that a decisive break was made with the bourgeois leadership of the 
civil rights' movement, and a decisive division had developed along class lines. 
What other lessons must be learned from the Watts' uprising? 

1) The attack on U.S. imperialism lacked a direct political expression. It was 
not politically expressed as a list of political demands on behalf of the people 
against U.S. imperialism. 

2) There existed no organised anti-imperialist movement to provide a basis for 
the leadership of the people of Watts and, nationally, against U.S. imperialism. 

3) Most importantly, there was an absence of a Marxist-Leninist Party to pro- 
vide the basis for the political and ideological leadership of the masses. Without 
such direction, a mass anti-imperialist organisation could not be successful 
nor could an anti-imperialist united front successfully carry out the struggle. 

The most decisive, important lesson to be learned from August 11, 1965, is the 
concrete need for revolutionary political direction which embodies the concrete 
needs and interests of the working class — presenting a clearcut line of struggle 
for the total and complete defeat of U.S. imperialism. 

The heroic struggle of the people of Watts on August 11, 1965, sums up clearly 
for us the nature of the problem facing the American proletariat and the national 
liberation struggle in the U.S. today. Concretely stated, it is a need for a specific 
line of political struggle against U.S. imperialism and its lackeys, and for a spe- 
cific form of organisation which fosters that struggle, and in which the masses 
may join and participate. 

We Must Build the August 11th Movement to Oppose Imperialism ! 

The PEOPLE'S VOICE, Volume 1, Number 1, on Monday, August 23, 1965, 
called for the formation of the August 11th Movement as the People's weapon 
against U.S. Imperialism. 

The formation and development of an August 11th Movement, taking as its 
point of inception and basing itself on the lessons of the heroic Watts' uprising, 
can and will serve as the basis for forming a mass national organisation of 
the people against U.S. imperialism, while carrying out a concrete line of class 
struggle and opposition to U.S. imperialism. The August 11th Movement must rep- 
resent the concrete application of the revolutionary, mass political line of the 
Party of the proletariat, and form its organisational embodiment so that the 
people may have the widest possible opportunity to play an active role in over- 
throwing U.S. imperialism. 

What Must Be the Basis of the Political Line foe Such a Movement 

1) The movement must firmly and resolutely without reservation oppose and 
fight for the total and complete destruction of U.S. imperialism. This means that 
our brothers and comrades in Africa, Asia, and Latin America must be com- 
pletely supported in their struggle against U.S. imperialism (i.e. the Vietnamese 
people, the Arab people, the Congolese people, and the Dominican people). 

2) The movement must fight for the equal rights of all the national minorities 
and nationalities in America without hesitation, and resolutely oppose all forms 
of discrimination. 

3) The movement must fight for the right of self-determination of the Negro 
nation in the South (the Black Belt) and Puerto Rico. This means to support the 
complete right of national liberation for the Negro and Puerto Rican nations 
which includes their right to secede, federate or amalgamate. 

4) The movement must resolutely oppose all agents and lackeys of U.S. imperi- 
alism. There must be no joint action with the political and ideological agents of 
U.S. imperialism: the modern revisionists (CPUSA), the Trotskyites (SWP), 
and their conciliators (PLP), nor with the direct political expression of imperi- 
alism, the Democrats and Republicans, whether liberal or conservative. For it is 
impossible to oppose imperialism and defeat it by collaborating with its agents. 

5) The movement must support the struggles of all working people for their 
emancipation from imperialism. 

Who Should be Encouraged to Join the August 11th Movement? 

The membership should be open to all working people who endorse and support 
its program. 



B-083 O— 68— ptt. 3- 



1184 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Where Should the Movement Concentrate and Organise Its Activities? 

The movement should concentrate its organising among the most exploited and 
oppressed sections of the working people, especially among the areas of the 
Negro, Mexican-American, and Puerto Rican national minorities. It must and 
should encourage the broad participation of wide sections of the people. 

What Kind of Activity Will the August 11th Movement Carry Out? 

1 ) It must carry out the widest possible education of the people to its program. 

2) It should seek to educate the people culturally and in practical matters of 
their interests. 

3) It must help to train the people in their active defense. It must take an 
active hand in training its members in self-defense, and assist in the formation 
of People's Armed Defense Groups which will also form part of its activity. 

The Communist Party, U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist), seeks to foster the develop- 
ment of the August 11th Movement precisely to further the struggle against U.S. 
imperialism, and to bring about its destruction. We call upon our members, sym- 
pathisers, and friends to actively assist in the formation and development of the 
August 11th Movement nationally, and to carry the line of the Party to the masses. 

Towards Building an Anti-Imperialist United Front 

The Party supports and fights for the development of an anti-imperialist united 
front comprised of all class forces opposed to U.S. monopoly capital in order to 
oppose U.S. imperialism and the rise of fascism. The C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) is taking 
decisive steps to foster such development. The Party and August 11th Movement 
will play a decisive role in bringing about such a development. 

The C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) calls for the commemoration of the deaths of our 
martyred working class comrades and brothers who were shot down by the U.S. 
imperialist national guard and police. The U.S. imperialists have, on the other 
hand, called for a "darkle" carnival — the Watts' Summer Festival — to humilate 
[sic] the heroic people of Watts and to cover up for the police and national 
guard murder of the 34 workers in Watts in August 1965. Our Party views the 
imperialist sponsored "Watts' Summer Festival" as a direct provocation against 
the proletariat. 

We will be conducting activities, along with the August 11th Movement, in 
commemoration of our martyred dead and in opposition to the imperialist carni- 
val. As we stated in the first issue of our newspaper, the PEOPLE'S VOICE, on 
August 23, 1965 : "We pledge to carry forward the struggle that our dead brothers 
and comrades have begun ... In their memory we pledge to destroy U.S. 
imperialism !" 

Martyred Negro and Mexican-American Workers Murdered in August 1965 
By Police and National Guard 

Homer Ellis, 35 Calvin Jones, 31 George Adams, 45 

Leon Posey, 21 Charles Shortridge, 18 Thomas Owens 

Carrol Shaw, 30 Alfred O'Neal, 23 Carlton Elliot, 17 

George Fentroy, 21 Andrew Houston, Jr. Leon Cauley, 31 

Curtis Gaines, 24 Willey Hawkins, 35 Paul Harbin, 53 

Joseph Maiman Aubrey GriflSn, 38 Miller Boroughs, 31 

Joe Horn, 20 Frederick Hendricks, 19 Albert Flores, 40 

Carlos Cavitt, 18 William King, 40 Charles Smallej^ 

Joseph Wallace, 29 Juan Fuentes, 30 Neill Love 

WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE! 
POWER TO THE PEOPLE ! ! 

DOWN WITH U.S. IMPERIALISM ! ! 

Issued by the COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE U.S.A. (MARXIST-LENINIST) 

9122 SOUTH COMPTON AVENUE 

L.A., CALIF. 00002 

213-569-2542 

Mr. Smith. Were these exhibits distributed in the Watts, Los 
Angeles, area? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1185 

Mr. Harris. Both were distributed in the Watts area ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, committee investigation has revealed 
that an organization called the Watts Action Committee operated 
in the Watts area prior to the riot in the summer of 1965. 

Has your office explored the activities of this organization ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

The Watts Action Committee was formed approximately August 
1964. It apparently phased out when Laski left the Provisional Orga- 
nizing Committee for the Reconstitution of the Communist Party in 
September of 1965. The Watts Action Committee was a front for 
the POC. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I think it is interesting to note at this 
point that this was just a couple of weeks after the Harlem riot of 
July 18, 1964, and that POC headquarters is in New York. Michael 
Laski was one of their West Coast leaders. 

What was the general purpose or objective of this committee? 

Mr. Harris. From our investigation, it appears that it was primar- 
ily an organization designed to stimulate animosity against the police 
in the south Los Angeles area which, of course, includes Watts. 

Mr. Smith. On what do you base your conclusions? 

Mr. Harris. On their activities and their printed literature. 

Mr. Smith. What form did this antipolice activity take ? 

Mr. Harris. I have two exhibits here. 

The first is a poster headed "This Man Says : YOU Committ [sic] 
More Crime And Violence Than Anyone Else." It has a picture of 
former Police Cliief Parker. It says : 

If You Want Respect, Justice And Honesty From The Police. If You Know 
Of Any Cases Of Police Brutality Call 

Watts Action Committee 

LO 9-0785 

STOP POLICE BRUTALITY! 

The second exhibit is a photograph of two posters which were 
posted in the Watts area. The posters read, "Civlian [sic] Police Ee- 
view Board, Remove Chief Parker, Watts Action Committee." It has 
the telephone number of Logan 9-0785. 

The second reads, "Arrest Cops for Brutality. Remove Cheif [sic] 
Parker, Watts Action Committee." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these exhibits be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 25 and 26." 

The Chairman. They will be so received and marked. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 25 and 26," respec- 
tively, appear on pages 1186 and 1187.) 

Mr. Smith. I note from the two exhibits you refer to telephone 
number Logan 9-0785. 

Can you tell the committee the subscriber and address of this 
number ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. That is a published number. At the time the 
exhibit was received and the photographs made, the subscriber to 
the number was Robert M. Stewart, at 2477 East 111th Street, Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Can you further identify Robert M. Stewart ? 



1186 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 25 



This Man Says: 

YOU CommittMore Crime And 
Violence Than Anyone Else 




But What Are The Eatts 

50°; OF THOSE ARRESTED FOR FELONIFS BY PARKER'S COPS /RE 
RELEASED *"ITHOUT TRIAL BUT STILL HAVE ARREST RECORDS 
RESULT: JOB DISCRIMINATION 



NEGROES AND MEXICAN AMERICANS ARE DEPRIVED OF THEIR 
RIGHTS, EVEN THEIR LIVES, BY POLICE VIOLENCE AND BRUTALITY 
YET NO POLICEMAN HASEVER BEEN BROUGHT TO TRIAL FOR THEIR 
ACTS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST MEwBERS OF OURCOMMUNITY 

Iff Yoif V)faiitReiSj»ect, Justice And Honesty 
From The Police. Iff You Know Off Any Cases 
Off Police Brutality Call 

Waiis Atfion Commifiee 

LO9-0785 

STOP POLICE BRUTALITY I 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1187 
Harris Exhibit No. 26 




Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. His full name is Robert Morris Stewart IV, 
born November 10, 1942, in Glendale, California. To my knowledge, 
he is not known to be in the Los Angeles area at this time. 

Mr. Smith. Has Robert Stewart had any connection with any or- 
ganization which will be of interest to this committee? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. I have a copy of a letter dated October 28, 
1961, addressed to "Comrade Stewart" and the letter is signed by 
"M. I. Lasky," who is now head of the Communist Party U.S.A. 
(Marxist-Leninist) . 

Mr. Laski in the letter states : 

Now to the reason for this communication. Your statements to me concerning 
the Agricultural Workers has caused me to realize with you the great value your 
presence in their midst has for the parties [sic] growth. * * * 

Then he sets out a plan of action to establish a front group called 
the Agricultural-Workers- Aid-Committee. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 27." 

The Chairman. It is received and may be so marked. 



1188 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 27" follows :) 

Haeeis Exhibit No. 27 

October 28, 1961. 

COMEADE StEWAET : 

I hope your tasks in the northern area are proceeding with the greatest degree 
of efficiency. I hope you attempt to spread your influence as rapidly as possible 
by demonstrating your zeal for the organizational attempts of the workers. 
(Enthusiasm is your sword which you must direct with your intelligence to its 
given mark. Allow contemplated actions to direct you and do not allow yourself 
to be moved by the enthusiasm or forcefullness [sic] which may lead in another 
direction. Remain adament [sic] in your immediate objectives. Enought [sic] 
with these thoughts which I state as much for you as for myself.) 

Now to the reason for this communication. Your statements to me concerning 
the Agricultural Workers has caused me to realize with you the great value your 
presence in their midst has for the parties [sic] growth. The following is a plan 
of action : 

(a) I will establish a front group called the Agricultural-Workers-Aid- 
Committee whose purpose is to aid the organizational drive of all farm work- 
ers by : 

1. Securing financial aid for all aspects of their organizing. 

2. Publicity in order to secure favorable public support. 

3. to coordinate all efforts of ther [sic] groups to help the organiza- 
tional drive. 

(b) This group will provide its own funds and will be capable of supply- 
ing the party with many sympathizers and militant possible members. 

(c) The object is to spread the A.W.A.C. across the state in all populous 
areas with chapters at first in Los Angeles County Area. 

(d) The group will spread rapidly because of the potential liberal and 
semi-radical support which will be given in the various areas of publicity : 

1. Radio coverage— KPFK-FM. 

2. Newspaper articles. 

3. Local leaflets. 

In order to aid me, you must obtain from the main organizer; (1) a letter of 
his official support for the Agricultural Workers Aid Committee immediately or 
such a letter from an official member of the Union Organizing Com. (2) the sup- 
port of the Union for the A.W.A.C. as its official or semi-official Committee of 
sympathizers in the state. 

Before I can carry out any publicity campaign, I must have an official letter 
of support from the Union obtain this through any means ! ! You may use any 
story in telling how you heard of this Committee and why you are asking for 
the letter and their official endorsement of the Com. as their aid apparatus. I 
will proceed to establish the Committee so that its control will be only in the 
hands of our sympathizers. 

I have heard nothing from W. in Mexico City or fromC. itself. 

Send necessary letter within the week. I expect your immediate reply. 
Comradely, 

M. I. Lasky. 

P.S. — Do not use my name in referring to how you found out about the 
Committee's existence. You may use the name of W. I. Laaski — as the repre- 
sentative of the forming A.W.A.C. in Los Angeles when mentioning the organi- 
zation to the union representatives. 

Also send any of the unions [sic] latest press release and any of its latest 
publications. 

I have secured a job on a full time bases [sic] with a highly reactionary man- 
ager who would fire me if ever received the inkling of an idea that I was very 
pro-labor. 

Mr. Smith. With what organization was Laski affiliated in 1961? 

Mr. Harris. He was with the Provisional Organizing- Committee. 

Mr. Smith. Did the Watts Action Committee organize any 
demonstration ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. Our files reflect that the Watts Action Com- 
mittee staged at least two demonstrations protesting alleged police 
brutality. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1189 

Mr. Smith. Wlien did the first demonstration take place? 

Mr. Harris. On April 10, 1965. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any exhibits related to this demonstration ? 

Mr. Harris. I have some photographs of the participants and their 
placards. Some of those placards read, "PAEKER MUST GO!"; 
"RACIST COPS & WHITE JURY [equals] LYNCHING"; 
"STOP SHOT GUN JUSTICE"; "STOP SQUAD CAR EXECU- 
TION"; "END POLICE SADISM"; and "STOP Beatings & Kill- 
ings by POLICE !" 

The Chairman. You are reading from what now? 

Mr. Harris. From placards carried by the picketers. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these photographs be 
accepted and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 28 through 36." 

The Chairman. Am I correct that these demonstrations occurred 
just a few months before the riots occurred ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir ; they did. 

The Chairman. The photographs will be gladly received. 

(Photographs marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 28 through 36," 
respectively. Exhibits Nos. 28 and 30 follow; balance retained in 
committee files.) 

Harris Exhibit No. 28 




1190 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 30 




Mr. Smith. What was the date of the second demonstration? 

Mr. Harris. The second demonstration occurred April 24, 1965. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any exhibits to submit regarding this dem- 
onstration ? 

Mr. Harris. I also have photographs of some of the demonstrators 
and their signs. Some of these signs read, "Will We Have To BUY 
protection"; "PROTECTION FROM PSYCHO COPS OR 
SELF DEFENSE"; "TO PROTECT and SERVE"— this was a 
motto of the Los Angeles police — under that they liave "BOOK- 
MAKERS"; "STOP SQUAD CAR EXECUTION." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these photographs be ac- 
cepted and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 3Y through 41." 

(Photographs marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 37 through 41," re- 
spectively. Exhibits 38 and 40 appear on pages 1191 and 1192, respec- 
tively; balance retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, committee investigation establishes 
the existence in the Los Angeles, California, area of an organization 
called Freedom for the People. 

Are you familiar with the activities of this organization? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1191 
Harris Exhibit No. 38 




Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. Freedom for the People was also a front or- 
ganization created and controlled by the Provisional Organizing Com- 
mittee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of which Laski was 
the Los Angeles leader when the Freedom for the People was 
operating. 

Mr. Smith. We have heard testimony about Michael Laski. 

Do you have a document which establishes his leadership in the 
Provisional Organizing Committee to Eeco'nstitute the Marxist- 
Leninist Communist Party ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. I have a document announcing a public debate 
"CHRISTIANITY vs. COMMUNISM," and M. I. Laski is identified 
as the West Coast chairman of the Provisional Organizing Committee 
to Reconstitute a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be accepted 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 42." 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 42" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. For what purpose was the organization created ? 

Mr. Harris. The Freedom for the People was simply a front for the 
POC. From research, it appears to have been organized to agitate 



1192 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 40 







solely in the field of police brutality, in the field of civil rights, and of 
attempting to prepare the minority masses for revolution. 

I have a document here headed "Freedom for the People" which 
was received March 12, 1965. 1 would like to read portions of it : 

FREEDOM FOR THE PEOPLE believes: 

The Johnson administration and the white ruling class that they represent 
want to continue the enslavement of the Negro people. 

4: Hi ^ ^ 4: 4: :|c 

We, the fighters for national liberation of the Negro Nation, agree fully with 
the statement made last year by our Chinese brothers through their Chairman 
Mao Tse-tung : 

"On behalf of the Chinese people, I wish to take this opportunity to express 
our resolute support for the American Negroes in their struggle against racial 
discrimination and for freedom and equal rights ... I am firmly convinced that, 
with the support of more than 90 per cent of the people of the world, the Ameri- 
can Negroes will be victorious in their just struggle. The evil system of colonial- 
ism and imperialism grew up along with the enslavement of Negroes and the 
trade in Negroes, and it will surely come to its end with the thorough emancipa- 
tion of the black people." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1193 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 43." 

The Chairman. That may be done. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 43" and retained in com- 
mittee £Qes.) 

Mr. Smith. When did this organization come into existence? 

Mr. Harris. The first newsletter printed by the Freedom for the 
People is dated January 1964. I have a copy of Volume I, Number 1. 

Mr. Smith. Would you describe a few points about it, please ? 

Mr. Harris. They say that this is the first publication of the paper 
and "written on behalf of the Black Working People." They announce 
a general meeting of the Workers' Council and of the Freedom for 
the People Committee at 1780 East 103d Street. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 44." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 44" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. S]snTH. Do you have an address for this organization? 

Mr. Harris. Yes; 1780 East 103d Street in Watts. 

Mr. Smith. Did this particular address house any other organiza- 
tion? 

The Chairman. I am not familiar with the significance of Watts. 
Is that a particular area within Los Angeles, or is that a suburb or 
subdivision or what ? 

Mr. Harris. It is a south-central area of Los Angeles, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. It has been well delineated as a separate area over 
the years? In other words, it did not acquire the name of "Watts" 
just because of these riots ? 

Mr. Harris. No, sir. 

Mr. SanTH. Did this particular address house any other organiza- 
tions ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. This building located at 1780 East 103d Street 
was rented under the guise of the Automobile Workers' Maintenance 
Union, which Laski also controlled. He rented the building on Jan- 
uary 22, 1964. However, he kept this address only one month and 
vacated the premises on February 22, 1964. 

Mr. Smith. Where did they move to? 

Mr. Harris. They moved to 9624 Juniper Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Is this still in the Watts area? 

Mr. Harris, Yes, sir ; it is. 

Mr. Smith. Does the address 9624 Juniper Street have any par- 
ticular meaning? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. We have determined that this address at that 
time was occupied by Michael Laski and Arnold Hoffman. Now, 
Hoffman is a coleader with Michael Laski in the Communist Party 
U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist). 

Mr. Smith. AVhat evidence do you have of Freedom for the People 
agitating in the Watts area? 

Mr. Harris. I have a flyer obtained March 12, 1965, headed "FREE- 
DOM FOR THE PEOPLE," with a subtitle "who do the police 

PROTECT AND SERVE?" 



1194 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

I would like to read a portion of this : 

FREEDOM FOR THE PEOPLE fights against the source of our oppression ; 
the white ruling class and its colonial enslavement of our Negro Nation in the 
South. We call for the right of the Negro Nation to self-determination and for 
the equal rights of the Negro national minority. We know that the white ruling 
class and its faeist [sic] police will continue to oppress us until we are organized 
to fight back. We know that we will never be free until U.S. Imperialism is dead. 
We must help to destroy this enemy of all the oppressed peoples of the world. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you: Those words could come out of 
the Daily Worker. That is purely a Communist line; is it not? 
Mr. Harris. Yes, sir; I recognize it, too. [Continues reading:] 

The unity of the Negro people with the oppressed peoples of the world in 
their fight against U.S. Imperialism is the only real solution. FREEDOM FOR 
THE PEOPLE is the beginning of the struggle for national liberation. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 45." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 45" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Continue, please. 

Mr. Harris. Next, on November 26, 1964, a demonstration was spon- 
sored by Freedom for the People in front of the Watts police sub- 
station at 1519 East 103d Street. The demonstrators carried signs 
which read: "WE DEMAND THE RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMI- 
NATION FOR THE NEGRO NATION AND EQUAL RIGHTS 
FOR THE NATIONAL MINORITIES" and "The POLICE IS the 
ARM Of the WHITE RULING CLASS." 

The Chairman. Sir, what is your idea of the meaning of the term 
"Negro nation"? 

Mr. Harris. I think Mr. Laski was attempting to involve those 
people in his local area. I don't know whether he had envisioned 
leading the Negro nation or the total Negro minority ; I don't think 
he did. He was attempting to involve the local Negro population. 

The demonstrators were chanting. Some of their chants were: 
"Down with the U.S. imperialists"; "death to the FBI"; "we want 
freedom for the people"; "down with the killers of unarmed men"; 
"racist police" ; "killer cops go home." 

Mr. Smith. Did Freedom for the People have a publication ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. They published a one-page legal-sized bul- 
letin titled Freedom for the People. I have the first issue here, Volume 
I, Number 1, dated January 1964 [Harris Exhibit No. 44]. 

(At this point Mr. Willis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Harris. This is a second edition of Freedom for the People, 
dated May 8, 1964. This is also identified as Volume I, Number 1. 

The publication dates were most irregular. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked as "Harris Exhibit No. 46." 

Mr. Tuck (presiding). Hearing no objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 46" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, this issue claims that : 

This paper is published by the poor working people of Watts for the people who 
are beginning to rise and fight against the rich men of America. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1195 

Is this factual or has your investigation established that its pub- 
lishers were an extremely small band of militant Communists? 

Mr. Harris. Well, the poor people of Watts had nothing whatsoever 
to do with this publication. The Communists attempted by this pub- 
lication to include the poor people of Watts in their subversive 
programs. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any other demonstrations ? 

Mr. Harris. On December 10, 1964, they held a demonstration, or 
the Freedom for the People held a demonstration in front of the Watts 
substation at 1519 East 

Mr. Smith. Is this a police station ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes; a police substation, at 1519 East 103d Street. 

The pickets carried signs which read : "The POLICE IS the ARM 
Of the WHITE RULING CLASS" and "WE DEMAND THE 
RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION FOR THE NEGRO 
NATION AND EQUAL RIGHTS FOR THE NATIONAL 
MINORITIES." 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Counsel, may I interrupt at that point ? 

I have before me the "Brutality" poster which follows the form used 
in the Harlem riots. This has a date on it, issued April 1965. There are 
photographs which have been introduced into evidence showing white 
people — all of them appear to be white — carrying signs such as 
"PARKER MUST GO !" ; "STOP SHOT GUN JUSTICE" ; "RAC- 
IST COPS & WHITE JURY LYNCHING"; all carried by white 
people; "END POLICE SADISM"; "STOP Beatings & Killings by 
POLICE!"; "STOP POLICE BRUTALITY." And then we have 
additional photographs which you have just introduced into evidence, 
getting closer to the time of the riot in Watts. 

What was the date of the Watts riot ? 

Mr. Harris. August 11, 1 believe it started, sir, 1965. 

Mr. IcHORD. It extended over how long a period of time ? 

Mr. Harris. I think it was 4 days. 

Mr. Ichord. Let me ask you this : Do you have any local statutes, any 
State statutes, governing incitation to riot ? 

Mr. Harris. There is a California law, I believe, Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. Ichord. Were there any arrests made of any of these people un- 
der the State statutes ? 

Mr. Harris. Not to my knowledge ; no, sir. 

(At this point, Mr. Willis returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Ichord. Of coiu'se, it woiild be a matter of judgment by pros- 
ecution officials as to whether the time might not be too remote. But 
the acts were near to the period of August 4, closer to the riot. There is 
more proximity of time and there could be some basis for prosecutions. 
This is one of the thmgs. Detective Harris, that is outside your juris- 
diction that I am concerned about. 

The Congress has considerable pressure on it to pass legislation 
primarily dealing with the keeping of the peace. One, when he is look- 
ing at all the riots occurring over the United States, is moved to pass 
such legislation. But the thing that bothers me is that there is con- 
siderable danger, if the Congress does so, in destroying the basic con- 
cepts of our federal system of government. That is, w'hose responsi- 
bility is it to keep law and order ? It is primarily the responsibility of 



1196 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

you, the police officers in Los Aaigeles, the prosecuting officials, and the 
■judges. 

This is too large a nation ; our Nation is too large and diversified for 
Federal officials to perform those obligations. If we do so, then we must 
necessarily set up a national police system. IVlien we set up a national 
police system, I fear that could very well have thrown democracy out 
of the window. 

There are numerous stories in the 'newsj)apers ; many people are 
talking about the necessity of such legislation. I am sure that there is 
room for such legislation, but I am concerned about the consequences. 
Certainly, there appears to be the need for more local people to be 
concerned about what is going on at the local level. 

Go ahead. I am philosophizing. But there were no arrests or 
attempts to obtain convictions under local statutes, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Harris. No, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Will you continue, please ? 

Mr. Harris. Again referring to the demonstration of December 10, 
1964, the demonstrators were chanting : "Down with the cops in Watts 
and all the world"; "down with the hired gun slingers and LBJ"; 
"down with killer cops." 

I have a couple of photographs of the signs carried by the pickets. 
They read, "The POLICE IS the ARM Of the WHITE RULING 
CLASS" ; and I have already read that one. 

On February 18, 1965, Freedom for the People sponsored another 
demonstration against alleged police brutality at the Watts substa- 
tion, Los Angeles Police Department, and this, of course, is in the 
Watts area. Practically the same signs were on display again. 

I have three photographs which I would like to leave with you. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these exhibits be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 47, 48, and 49." 

The Chairman. They will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Photographs marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 47, 48, and 49," respec- 
tively, appear on pp. 1197 and 1198.) 

Mr. Harris. Our investigation indicates that Laski apparently 
abandoned this organization after the December 10, 1964, demonstra- 
tion. There is no record of any activity by the organization subsequent 
to that date. 

It is significant because it demonstrates that Laski, as he has 
claimed, was agitating in the Watts area prior to the August 1965 riot, 
in this case through a front group. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, this concludes the testimony concerning 
subversive influence in the preriot phase in the Watts area. 

I ask that Detective Harris be temporarily excused so that I might 
call Investigator Wheeler to deal with activities during the riot. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Thank you very much, Detective Harris. 

Mr. Harris. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. I repeat, we are very grateful for your appearance 
and contribution. 

Mr. Harris. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Wheeler. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Wheeler. I do, sir. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1197 

Harris Exhibit No. 47 



h^ POL ICE 

ARM 

: Of +^>e 

' U)H\TF 

RULING 

CLRSS 

F.FTP 

P=9 





Harris Exhibit No. 48 



,^ 




/J^^/O 



1198 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 49 




TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM A. WHEELER 

Mr, Smith. Mr. Wheeler, you are an investigator for the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, are you not ? 

Mr. Wheeler. That is correct. 

Mr. Smith. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Twenty years. 

Mr. Smith. You are the West Coast investigator for the committee ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. I have been on the West Coast since 1951. 

Mr. Smith. Committee investigation establishes the existence in the 
Los Angeles, California, area of an organization called Committee to 
Support Grievances of Watts Negroes. 

Are you familiar with the activities of this organization ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, I am. 

This particular committee functioned for a short period of time 
during the Watts riots of August 11-17, 1965. Prior to the forma- 
tion of this particular organization and also subsequent, there was 
active in Los Angeles a committee known as the Committee To End 
the War in Vietnam. The Committee to Suppoi-t (xrievances of Watts 
Negroes was the outgrowth of this Committee To End the War in 
Vietnam. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1199 

The groups active in both committees were the Socialist Party, So- 
cialist Workers Party, Students for a Democratic Society, the Los 
Angles W. E. B. DuBois Club, and the Young Socialist Alliance. 

This was a united front effort by these groups. They did form this 
organization. 

Now, a representative of the Committee To End the War in Viet- 
nam contacted Michael Hannon of the Socialist Party in Los Angles 
and made arrangements for a meeting to be held at the Socialist Party 
Hall at 837 South Park View, Los Angeles, on the night of August 
13, 1965. This was the third day of the riots. All present, as far as 
has been determined, were members of the Committee To End the 
War in Vietnam. 

As a result of this meeting, the Committee to Support Grievances 
of Watts Negroes was formed. 

It was determined or decided at this meeting that a demonstration 
in front of the police administration building would begin at mid- 
night that night, August 13. The demonstration did occur and lasted 
from midnight until 2:30 a.m. It ended August 14 at 2:30 a.m. The 
theme of the demonstration was police brutality. 

Later the same day, August 14, from noon to 3 p.m., the second 
demonstration took place, sponsored by the Committee to Support 
Grievances of Watts Negroes. Again the theme was police brutality. 

Mr. Smith. Were the demonstrations successful ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Actually, they were not too successful and tliis was ap- 
parently due to the violence that was then occurring in Watts. 

This particular committee that we are discussing made a telephone 
campaign to obtain as many people as possible, but there is a lot of 
fear among these people. Most of the police were in the Watts area. 
They were afraid of reprisals by some right wing organizations and 
they had insufficient police for protection of their picket line. Due to 
this, they actually could not gather too much strength or too much 
force. 

However, they were afraid to go into the Watts area. Most of these 
people were white; in fact, they were all Caucasians. However, they 
felt that they had to respond in some way to be of some assistance or 
some help during the riots. Therefore, they came up with this commit- 
tee and they charged the police with police brutality downtown at the 
main administration building, and this was their offering during this 
period of time of this particular committee. 

Now, after the demonstration of the 14th was called off around 3 
p.m., another meeting was held at the Socialist Party Hall. It was 
decided to have another demonstration at the main administration 
building at 1 p.m. on August 21. Of course, this meeting took place 
during the riot. However, this demonstration occurred 4 days after the 
riot. The demonstration on the 21st was sponsored by the Congress of 
Unrepresented People. 

Mr. Smith. Did the Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Ne- 
groes distribute any inflammatory material ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I have one document here, Mr. Chairman, that was 
printed and distributed by the Committee to Support Grievances of 
Watts Negroes. It is headed "STOP POLICE REPRESSION OF 
WATTS NEGROES ! ! FIRE POLICE CHIEF PARKER ! ! CRE- 
ATE A CIVILIAN POLICE REVIEW BOARD ! ! ELIMINATE 
GHETTO CONDITIONS ! !" 

8S-08aO — 68 — pt. 3 6 



1200 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Of course, here again, like all demonstrations, they link the social 
conditions along with the police brutality. This is signed "COMMIT- 
TEE TO SUPPOKT GRIEVANCES OF WATTS NEGROES, 837 
South Parkview, Los Angeles," and it is dated August 13, 1965. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 1." ' 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned Michael Hannon. 

Can he be further identified ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

I refer to Michael Boyd Hannon, who was born October 21, 1936. 
He was a Los Angeles police officer. He was found guilty of charges 
brought against him for conduct unbecoming a police officer. After 
a hearing, he was dismissed from the police department. This sen- 
tence was reduced by Chief of Police William Parker to 6 months' 
suspension. 

Hannon became increasingly active in the civil rights demonstra- 
tions and anti-U.S. Government demonstrations and on one particular 
demonstration held at the Los Angeles Federal Building on May 8, 
1965, he carried a sign protesting United States policy in the Domini- 
can Republic. The sign read "WHAT KHRUSHCHEV DID TO 
HUNGARY JOHNSON IS DOING TO THE DOMINICAN RE- 
PUBLIC AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY." 

I have a photograph of Michael Hannon carrying the sign if you 
desire it for the record. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the photograph be ac- 
cepted and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 2." 

The Chairman. It will be accepted and marked accordingly. 

(Photograph marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 2" appears on page 
1201.) 

Mr. Smith. Continue, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Michael Hannon is no longer with the police de- 
partment. 

Mr. Smith. Did he make any speeches anywhere else? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. He has given speeches throughout the country. 
I can refer to one specific example which was reported in the Daily 
Bruin, September 29, 1965. 

Now, the committee files reflect speeches in other localities and also 
other recorded activities that are similar to the photograph that was 
presented as Exhibit 2. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 3." 

The Chairman. It will be accepted and so marlced. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. I will read a little out of it. He was quoted :"'... 
we talked about being an occupation army in a foreign country . . .' 
This is the description of police behavior in the Watts area as de- 
scribed by Michael Hannon" — this type of statement charging the 
police department as being an occupational army and similar state- 
ments, throughout the country. 

Mr. Smith. What is Hannon's present occupation? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1201 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 2 




Mr. Wheeler. The Los Angeles Herald-Examiner of June 4, 1966, 
reports Hannon's resignation from the police department. He passed 
the California State Bar examination and he is now a practicing at- 
torney in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Mr, Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 4." 

The Chairman. It may be so received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned that Michael Hannon was a member 
of the Socialist Party. You are not referring to the Socialist Workers 
Party, are you ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, sir ; I am referring to the Socialist Party headed 
by Norman Thomas of the U.S. It has not been declared a subversive 
organization. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any exhibit to submit in connection with 
that? 



1202 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes; I have an exhibit of the Los Angeles Herald- 
Examiner of May 8, 1966, which states that he is the Los Angeles 
chairman of the Socialist Party. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 5." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Was there any other additional activity by the Com- 
mittee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Not really too much. 

I have a newsletter. It is dated October 1965 and is issued by the 
South Bay Community Eelations Council. I would like to refer to 
page 3 of this particular document. It is an announcement; "COM- 
MITTEE TO SUPPOKT GRIEVANCES OF WATTS NE- 
GROES" is the heading. The address is 837 South Park View, L.A., 
telephone number 662-4937, James Gallagher, and underneath is: 
"NEEDS : Volunteers to acquaint groups with action to be taken in 
white communities." 

Now, as far as I know, this program was not carried out. We have 
no evidence of any effectiveness of this program at all. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 6." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Can you give me any further information concerning 
James Gallagher? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

He is identified as James Joseph Gallagher, born July 3, 1934. He 
is likewise a member of the Socialist Party. This can be documented 
by a document dated February 17, 1967, where he is identified on the 
letterhead as an associate of the New Left School in Los Angeles. 
He identifies himself as a member of the executive board, Los Angeles 
Socialist Party. 

This letterhead is interesting. Among the sponsors are the Reverend 
Stephen H. Fritchman, in Los Angeles, who has appeared before the 
conmiittee on two separate occasions and has pleaded the fifth amend- 
ment when asked about Communist Party membership and other ac- 
tivities. We have John Howard Lawson, who is a screenwriter. He 
appeared before the committee some years back. 

Mr. Smith. He is one of the famous Hollywood 10, is he net? 

Mr. Wheeler. He is one of the Hollywood 10. 

He availed himself of the first amendment and became a test case 
which went to the Supreme Court. It was one of the cases we did win, 
and he did serve time in prison for contempt of Congress. 

Then we have Dorothy Healey, who, of course, is chairman of the 
Communist Party of the Southern District of California. 

We have Theodore Edwards, who is the chairman of the Socialist 
Workers Party. 

We have Darrel Meyers, Los Angeles chairman, Young Socialist 
Alliance. 

We have John Haag. He identifies himself as Los Angeles area 
chairman, W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1203 

And we have others here, too. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 7." 

The Chairman. It may be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 7" appears on page 1204.) 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned the Congress of Unrepresented People 
which was to sponsor a demonstration focusing on police brutality on 
August 21. 

Did this demonstration take place? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

The organization of Congress of Unrepresented People evidently 
replaced the Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes. 

To repeat, this occurred at a meeting held on August 14, 1965, after 
the demonstration in front of the police administration building spon- 
sored by the Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes. 

The meeting was held at the Socialist Party Hall, 837 South Park 
View, Los Angeles. 

It was decided at this meeting to disband the Committee to Sup- 
port Grievances of Watts Negroes and rename the organization "Con- 
gress of Unrepresented People" and further decided to hold a demon- 
stration on August 21, 1965, again charging police brutality. This 
demonstration was held shortly after the Watts riots of August 11-17, 
1965. 

Now, approximately at this same time and before, there were meet- 
ings being held in Washington, D.C., to form a group with the same 
name, "Congress of Unrepresented People," which I will discuss fur- 
ther along in this testimony. 

The Los Angeles group was to work in conjunction with the group 
in Washington, D.C., on another project. However, they encompassed 
this project that we are talking about now in their programs. 

Mr. Smith. Did the Congress of Unrepresented People distribute 
literature in regard to their demonstration of August 21, 1965 ? 

(At this point, Mr. Ichord left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

I have a document which is an exact duplicate of the text of Ex- 
hibit 1 introduced in the testimony concerning the Committee to Sup- 
port Grievances of Watts Negroes. It is in a little different format, 
but the text is the same. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chainnan, I request that this exhibit be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 8." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 
(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 8" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The organization, the Congress of Unrepresented 
People, began picketing the police administration building at approxi- 
mately 11 a.m. on August 21 and faded away in the early afternoon. 
The picket line was directed by James Gallagher, whom we previously 
discussed in testimony concerning the Committee to Support Griev- 
ances of Watts Negroes. 

Now, the following signs were displayed at this particular demon- 
stration: "Parker Must Go"; "Poverty Must Go"; "Brutes Breed 
Brutality"; "Police Brutality Breeds Violence"; "End Ghetto Life"; 
"Help Your Brother Stop Police Brutality"; "Fire Parker"; "Parker 
Out"; "Six Days, 33 Dead"; "Police Brutality Breeds Police State"; 



1204 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 7 




}^S • t9(i{>taM 73147B5 



ASSOCIATES* 



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r«fe(u«ry Utta, 1967 



"An> XBEM WAS AM BB. Ap» XHBlUt WAS A BMnmn, TBB 



A airacle of crsaclon mA r«ar«atlaB. Va «xt«t. Ue are h«re. In 
tb« «nclo*ed brochure yen «<Mi •«• whae we ara thla time. A lot th4 
H«iv*ywiM«iw ' a«B«. A llttla dlfferant. >a have «ad« a apaolal affort to be "rel* 
cc-.utiw of ■F.iiMf."; wto^ ^wn ^teto our ttoa an4 plao«» To ba "worthwhile" to our audlaoce, 
tt.«u<i,««D«T««iic^),«.jj>jk^^^^^^^^„ ^jj ^j y^ latareated U underatandlnc and coomunlca- 
R»v. Stephen H. Frttchmfiint;. Wa hop* to have you ta our claaaea. We hope you hope to have 
Mmouf. n™t unH.ri.n ci«ij>^„y £r leodB and co-workera In our claaaea. Ihla tioe and place 
Richjrt Lichtmaf Meda a aore advanced you. 

f^lnm. Cmtar (or tht (tinly of 

0-wr.tic iMuurtkv,. „y^ y^y^ jjy ^ gj^^jip ^ icuooL WAS Loer' 

Irving Laucks 

inatntriaiKi. fxk>w. canttr (Ar tfechool la a device for ClM tranaference of knowledge and under- 

««.yofi>.mocr.ticiMm.rtj^j,^j^jjg^ ^^ P^g ^jj^gj ingredients are sourcea of knowledge and 

Jotiti Howard Lawaon recipleota with under atandl^gt However, also, needed are certain 
*"***' "halpa" Co that tranaferatw*. Such aa the rent for a place. Such 

Rav.fiaul Sawyer •^ aa printing and adda to glva notice of the tliiM and place. Such 
HMiur. v>ii.y unHartaiv aa atamps to apread the prlstlng to give the notice of the tlaw 
*•**""•'=*•""' and place. V 

j^Oatnet Geiiaghw^ Kncloaed la a return envelof^. would you help provide our moat 
-un!li.*«s^llr^^ ''«»i« naceaalty, atampa. Vould you encloae one dollar, atlck It 
ahut, drop 16 In the mail Mk* It will reach ua. That Ic atamp 
Dorottiy H«»!«y '^ will carry It to ua, aeatadaod all. /jid we will pay the poat- 

% m ^ &»m ClifOffll* Chairman,- -, . ^ . ' ^^^ . ._ ^ m ^^ \ ^ «. - 

conmiunin Party offlce 4c Bose In gratltud*. (Or you can add the 4« staap, but 

It really la not neceaaary.) And for a dollar you can have helped 
TlMcdof* Fitwards'^^ ua reach the "end, the beglitnlng, the SIXTH aeoester." 



orp«r 



Marfaret Thon 

Loa <Ug> ? — Chairman. 

I Oamocratic Sociaty 



*««**********#***** 



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Oarral Mtytrt 

Ixa Anflalaa Chairman, 

YoMK todallct AHIanca 

John Haas ^ 

Lm Anaalaa Araa Chairman, 

«*. C. B. Ovasli Ctubi of Amartca 



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Jim Garrett 

Uw Anc*'** P^(() R«|>rM*ntatlv«. 

ttutf*nt Non Vtolvnt^oordlnstlng Commirt«« 



fM^ntCoon 



BE^iERT APTHEKER 

WEMMDAT, MARCH 8th, Spm 

apeaklng on 
AMERICAN rtRIGM POLICY - ACCIDEMI OR INTENT 



at 



8162 W, IKUtCSE AVE. (The Aah Grove) 
Don Smith 

chairTpan. Le«*«^aia.coR^g,^ ^q l^ going to be In towH, and we managed to ^et hio for that 
Doti Whaaldin '^ tixie and place and aubject. We felt that that is a very pertinent 
Chairman. Paaadan^coKE question to the antl-wsr uoderatandlng. In Dr. Apthcker's opinion, 

la the D, S. going from blunder to blunder, or does the U.S. do all 

those thlnga od purpoae. M? 



Hugh Manes 
, CMI Ubartlaa Ano{ 



Anomay 



OavM rinkel < 
' CM) Ubartlaa Anomay 



Hope all the above IntaraaM you aa much as It doea me. 
See you around <• - 



Auguat Maynudea 
(atill temporary director 
*at tli3c of founding, Sel 65, 

ar. tittad %w iaantfficallon only, arxl do rvdt lmf>ly aupeart ^ Iha NEW LEFT SCHOOL by •T\i froup manllonad. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1205 

"No More Harlems"; "Watts Eiot for Freedom"; "Investigate the 
Cause, Not the Effect." 

Mr. Smith. Who actually participated or attended this demon- 
stration '? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, practically the same as the demonstrators in 
the demonstration sponsored by the Committee to Support Grievances 
of Watts Negroes. 

There were the Socialist Party, the Socialist Workers Party, the 
W. E. B. DuBois Club, the Young'Socialist Alliance. 

Mr. Smith. Can you identify, by names, individuals present who 
are, or were in the past, members of the organization you just testified 
to? 

Mr. Wheeler. Steve Roberts, a member of the Socialist Workers 
Party. 

There is John Haag, the chairman of the W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

There is Raphael Konigsberg, one-time member of the Communist 
Party and a fifth amendment witness before this committee. 

Dorothy Healey, chairman of the Southern California District of 
the Communist Party. 

There were other individuals who participated in the picket line and 
demonstration who have not been publicly identified, and therefore 
their names probably should not be placed in the record at this time in 
public session. 

I have several pictures here of the demonstration if you desire them 
for the record. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the exhibits be received 
and marked "A^Hieeler Exhibits Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12." 

(Photographs marked ""^Vlieeler Exhibits Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12," 
respectively, follow :) 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 9 




1206 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 10 




Wheeler Exhibit No. 1 1 




SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1207 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 12 




Mr. Smith. Will you describe the pictures, please? 

Mr. Wheeler. These are pictures of the pickets and the signs that I 
previously d,escribed. They speak for themselves, and I previously 
identified the placards and what is written on the placards. 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned a handbill which we have received as 
Exhibit 8, which bears the name of the organization Congress of Un- 
represented People, that is similar or almost identical to one which was 
originally issued by the Committee to Support Grievances of Watts 
Negroes. I note on the document the following telephone numbers: 
269-6167, 225-4856, 392-2892, 387-3902. Can you identify the sub- 
scribers of these numbers ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

The first number, 269-6167, is a published number for the Socialist 
Workers Party at 1702 East Fourth Street, Los Angeles, California. 

The second number, 225-^856 — I have the identity of the subscriber 
of this number. However, there is little recorded subversive activity 
on his behalf, and therefore I do not believe that it warrants placing 
the name in the record unless the chairman so directs. 

The Chairman. I agree with your suggestion. 

Mr. Wheeler. 392-2892. This number is a published number for 
John R. Haag, whom we have discussed, who is the DuBois Club 
member. 

387-3902. The records of this number have been destroyed by the 
telephone company; the identity of the subscriber is unavailable. 

Mr. Smith. Can you give any further identification of John Haag 
other than what you have stated ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, he is well documented in the committee files. 
He has been very active in Vietnam Day demonstrations and practi- 



1208 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

cally every demonstration we have had in Los Angeles for the last 2 
or 3 years. His residence was in Venice, California. He is out of the 
DuBois Club now — several years back. As I stated from this exhibit 
which was first introduced, he was head of the DuBois Club ; he was 
Los Angeles area chairman, W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America. And 
in that position, of course, he was quite active and also quite vocal 
throughout the Los Angeles area. 

Mr. Smith. Has the organization under discussion participated in 
any other demonstrations ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. On Tuesday, August 6, and Saturday, Au- 
gust 7, 1965, the Congress of Unrepresented People held a march which 
they titled "Hiroshima Day Torchlight Parade." This parade was actu- 
ally held on the 6th. The parade was scheduled to start at 7 p.m. from 
South Park, 51st and, Avalon Streets, to Exposition Park. The march 
actually did not start, however, until around 8 p.m. 

Now, again, this march was through the Negro district in Los An- 
geles, however slightly out of what we consider the Watts area. The 
parade terminated at Exposition Park at approximately 9 p.m. 

At 9 :40 p.m., John Haag was more or less the informal master of 
ceremonies and was the first speaker. Now, another who also spoke 
at this particular function was Carl Bloice. The final speaker was 
Jimmy Garrett. 

Mr. Smith. Can you further identify the individuals who spoke at 
the meeting at Exposition Park ? 

Mr. Wheeler. We have previously discussed John Haag, 

Carl Bloice is an identified member of the Communist Party, orig- 
inally from Los Angeles. He was later a reporter for the People's 
World in San Francisco. People'' s Worlds of course, the committee will 
recognize as the Communist organ for the Communist Party on the 
West Coast. He is at present the Washington, D. C, reporter for The 
Worker^ which is the East Coast Communist Party publication. 

Mr. Smith. How about Jimmy Garrett ? 

Mr .Wheeler. Jimmy Garrett was born December 31, 1942, in Dallas. 
He was at one time Los Angeles field representative of SNCC and 
associate of the New Left School. 

I refer back to the previous exliibit on the New Left School which 
was introduced as Exhibit Number 7, which will document this. 

Mr. Smith. Does his name appear anywhere else, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, he has been active in SNCC; there is no 
question about that. 

Mr. Smith. Who is Barry Weisberg ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I have a document here concerning the meeting we 
have under discussion sponsored by the Congress of Unrepresented 
People and I will read the last paragraph. Tliis document is legal size 
and was circulated to promote the Congress of Unrepresented People 
demonstration, meeting, or whatever you want to call it, August 6-7. 
1965. And on the bottom it says, "For any further information con- 
tact Jimmy Garrett or Barry Weisberg care of SNCC." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 13." 

The Ceiairman. It will be received and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 13" follows :) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1209 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 1 3 



K' 



COHC 



•Ik 

■'. PEOPLE 



... .:: issus uf oiiR - ' :: 3; 10 — .mot destroy 

. '-j^xC.^-S HAV^ RAISr:: -- •■ IC^ E! P-C/rZSTS ON 

1XC::,7T E>; TOKJJ! ": ZA; , : VOICES HAVE NOT BEET'I HCARO. 

'^-R COr'C?Jt;?S y.'iRIEDr -.'I-a'PLOYiiEMT, P0V3RTY '■.'AH, RACIAL 
-ISlYIOr: BY liiE TOUSS mJC SRICAN activities COr-'ITTSSS, 

r.^.. .;. . ......;r/, a::d UKDSiccRATic naticn/.l Govoy^aws. 

SP^.'J^lOMiy. IN THE lOS A?=0EL'C.5 Ak-:a, "li; AS CITIZENS HAVE DiCUFO) 
CHiH MK-D" /Uil) CCWCSSiiS THRa^GH S "^IK":^, SIT-U'lS liARGIiSS CIVIL 
j.r30D"I'T':l!C:-:, A^.•D T.fvROUGH F ■rriTICi\'JMG Ol'R KATIONAL AJID KCAL 
krxn. 'S:,?!TATIVEo. HiSCAUKE OW ^.TTSTTS AT OFFICIAL R .DRESS HAVE 
no; bee:! HEEDED A:;".) because of THE 'JRSiHCY CREATED BY INCREASED 
E'?GAL;VlIOi; Cr THE :AR IK' "I^^5A;■■, '."E CALL FOR A LOG ANGELES CONGRESS 
C? ■r'^-:.PRES?; :TSD PEOPLE TO BE HELD W CONTECTIOM V.'ITH THE NATIOLAL 
rtSlii'TiLY OF UiviR-^PR^S-ilTSD PEOPLE IN • .ASHINGTOf; D.C. , AUGUST 6-9, 1?65, 

a:id also coii'CiiJiiis ith sr i:.af coNpg-.Eiccss to be hsjd ij' san --a cisco, 

CHICAGO, DETROIT, ME''/ YORK CITY, Ai'D PHILPEiPHlA. 

m, V.'ANT n U?'DERSTOOD THAT THIS COt.'GRESS IS JUST A EEGINl.'lI'G. THE 
WORKSHOPS LISTED BELO" 'VILL BE C^OTEK D ARO' ND '.'AYS TO BEGIN DIALOGUE 
LEADING TOr.'ARD SPECIFIC ARE/iS OF '■ORK AMD SXTEtHJUW THAT VORK OH A LONG 
TERIA BASIS DEEP lUTO THE CCirUIJITIES OF SOUTHEPJ'I CALIFORNIA. OliR AU. 
IS NOT TO DI3::i?ATS THE '.ORK OF AiVf ORGA^'IZATIUN W iMIY FISIK. THE 
ATTEIPT IS TO BROADBi THAT WCRK BOTH III TER::S OF FA'-;TICI?hTIOH Ai'^D DEPTH. 
OUR EXPECTATIONS ARE MOT VAST IN TERi'S 07 TF.E '^UAI.TITY OF PEOPLE 
PAKTICIPATirG. HO .-EVER, i3 AR '. VERY CFTL ISTIC ..BOiiT THE CiUALITY OF 
THE DIALOGIiE. V.E EXi-ECT PARTICIPATION tHO;: THE POOR, rX)CTORS UPOiERS, 
PROFE SORS, ST! DEMTS, il LISTERS, POLITICAL ACTIVlSi'S, Py\CE 'ORK-flS, 
CIVIL RIGHTS 'ORKEfvS, A3 BROAO A BASE AS 13 'OSS]bL'.. IXY OIJ-: !iliO 
'ISHES TO CONFRONT THIS COl'KTRY AS A^■ UplREP'rs:'::f:TED PERSOJ'; AHP HnVE HIS 
VOICE iV'Ji^T). IS irviTSD TO ATTSKD AK^Y OR Al L OF TBI;". COrOH^S-. 



PROPOSED P^^O'ir-'Aln 
Friday nif;ht, Aupuat 6 
Hiroshin-; Day Torchlight Pimdc to begin -it ? p.n, .-;t South P-rk (Sl^t 
Street :;nd Av.-lon .. Ivd, in the: Nogi'o connunity) end to proceed to 
Exposition Pirr:, Following the p^r-de there \7ill b'j :ui all-night 
"Spenk for Yo'.irs'air" scoak-in. Every one is invitjd to sj eak, 

S-it-irdaV, August 7 

f'.orr.ln^ ird ol'ternoon: Workshops or. such proposed topics r^s '.',-ir on 

Poverty orogran, ' -ir in VictnaTi, Diccrininiticn in jobs^ uneriplojiiont 
and Ai;tori-.ti'jn, HUAC, ihB-ths Taft-Hartley anit labor 1 17, problen? 
of l:r.-ift-age iouth, v-onen's r.ights, and police abuses, 

E-/oningr Topical entertainment and singing 

Sunday, AU(?i3t 3 

' ; riy ni"<".'rnoon: V/^rkshops on topics niantioned above to 

I.-tions 7;hich ra.ay be rtddrcssed to the General Assembly. 
• s ->ro- nd throe soccif ic arens of ".vork: 

: J tv Organizing, Community Discussion, and Direct Action, 

Late -.-t^rnocn: General Assembly of the Congress. Presont.ntion of 
ro^y'l'i'-i'r.n:- pr.d declarations of positive ai^*ion to nike peace live, 
and 1.0 build cotirsunities of people aroun.-' v.-crk -.rhich they think 
rijcarangful. 

The entire progran is subject to change according to the 
iTishc.'; of tne participants in the Congress of Unrepresented Peoples, 



For any further information contact Jimmy Garret t or 

VVeisbcrg care of SNCC at [|62-6878, address 660$ Hollywood Blvd. 



1210 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Go ahead. 

Mr. Wheeler. To go back to the question, Barry Weisberg was a 
SNCC member. In October 1967, which would be last month, he was 
here in Washington, D.C., at the Institute for Policy Studies, 1520 
New Hampshire Avenue, Northwest. 

Mr. Smith. Do you know the present whereabouts of James Garrett ? 

Mr. Wheeler. As of November 29, 1966, according to the Los 
Angeles Tiines^ James Garrett was present at a black power conference 
at Berkeley and he represented himself as president of the Bla<jk 
Student Union, San Francisco State College. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any exhibit in connection with that? 

Mr. Wheeler. I have the Los Angeles Times. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 14." 

The Chairman. It may be so received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 14" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I will now ask that Investigator Wheeler 
be permitted to step aside to be recalled later. 

I now recall Detective Harris. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Wheeler. 

As a good, old workhorse of this committee, we appreciate your 
testimony. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS-^Eesumed 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, committee investigation has estab- 
lished the existence of the South Side Citizens Defense Committee. 

Has your office made inquiries concerning the South Side Citizens 
Defense Committee? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir ; we have information on that organization. 

Mr. Smith. When was the organization created ? 

Mr. Harris. It was formed immediately after the Watts riots in 
August 1965. It was identified as a front of the old-line Communist 
Party and formed for the purpose of capitalizing on the Watts riot. 

Mr. Smith. What was the purpose of the organization? 

Mr. Harris. With reference to this question, I would like to show 
you a copy of a leaflet which I will read from. This leaflet is headed 
"KNOW YOUK EIGHTS!!!" 

THE SOUTH SIDE DEFENSE COMMITTEE is a group of citizens formed 
to help you get legal assistance for your relatives jailed during the mass arrests 
that took place in the South East part of Los Angeles, 

If you have a relative in jail and want to co-operate with others to protect his 
rights, fill out this form and mail or bring it to : 

THE SOUTH SIDE CITIZENS' DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

326 West Third Street, Room 318 

Los Angeles, California, 90013 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 50." 

The Chairman, It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 50" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith, Where was the South Side Citizens Defense Committee 
located? 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1211 

Mr. Harris. Again referring to the document which was just sub- 
mitted, it was at 326 West Third Street, Room 318, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Again, is that in the Watts area ? 

Mr. Harris. No, sir ; it is not. 

Mr. Smith. Does this address have any particular significance? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. It was at that time and still is the current ad- 
dress of the Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights, which is the suc- 
cessor organization of the Los Angelas Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born. 

The Chairman. That is the old-hat front organization; isn't it? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, it is. 

The Chairman. It is one of the oldest in the business. 

Mr. Harris. This organization in Los Angeles is headed by Rose 
Chernin, who has been identified as a member of the Communist Party 
before j^our committee and has also appeared as a witness before your 
committee. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, Rose Chernin Kusnitz, which is her mar- 
ried name, is a publicly identified member of the Communist Party 
who was a witness before the committee in 1956 and who refused to 
testify, invoking the protection of the fifth amendment in regard to 
membership in the Communist Party. 

I note from the exliibit that there are several organizations listed 
to telephone for information other than the South Side Citizens De- 
fense Committee. The first is the "Hugh Gordon Book Store," 4509 
South Central, Los Angeles.^ 

Would you describe this bookstore ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. It is recognized as a Communist Party book- 
store and an outlet for Communist propaganda in the southwest por- 
tion of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. One of the organizations listed is the ILWU-Local 26, 
5625 South Figueroa, Los Angeles. 

Do you have knowledge of this union ? 

Mr. Harris. Local 26 is a part of Harry Bridges' International 
Longshoremen's Workers Union. The ILWU was expelled from the 
CIO in 1950 because the policies of the ILWU — and I quote — "are 
consistently directed toward the achievement of the program and the 
purposes of the Communist Party rather than the objectives and poli- 
cies set forth in the CIO constitution." 

Mr. Smith. Who is the head of the South Side Citizens Defense 
Committee ? 

Mr. Harris. The person identified as the executive director on docu- 
ments which I have is Hursel Alexander. Mr. Alexander is identified 
as Hursel William Alexander, born March 17, 1914, In Nebraska. 

The first document I have here bears the signature of Hursel Alex- 
ander, identifying him as executive director. The letter is headed 
"Letter of Authorization." 

The next document is dated September 14, 1965, and is a motion by 
the South Side Citizens Defense Committee, authorizing the opening 
of a checking account. This document also identifies Hursel Alexan- 
der as the executive director. 

I have another document which is a press release dated August 24, 
1965. This also identifies Mr. Alexander's connection with the 
organization. 

1 Listed in telephone directory as "Hugli H. Gordon Bookshop" and "Gordon Book Shop." 



1212 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Mr, Chairman, I request that these exhibits be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 51, 52, and 53." 

The Chairman. They will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 51, 52, and 53," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files. ) 

Mr. Smith. Will you continue with the document you have ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

I have here a transcript of a KLAC news "special report" broad- 
cast of Wednesday, August 25, 1965, and Thursday, August 26, 1965. 
The subtitle is "Communist Post-Kiot Activity." This transcript is 
a report of an interview between the commentator, Fred Parsons, and 
Hursel Alexander. Mr. Alexander was asked by Parsons if he were a 
member of the Communist Party. Alexander does not answer the 
question at all. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, for the record, between 1940 and 1955, 
Hursel Alexander has been identified in the files of this committee as 
a member of the Communist Party under oath by several witnesses. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that this exhibit be received and marked 
"Harris Exhibit No. 54." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 54" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. In regard to Exhibit 54, what, in your opinion, is the 
significance of this document ? 

Mr. Harris. In Mr. Alexander's use of such phrases as "criminal 
neglect," "contempt and brutality," this, in my opinion, is an attempt 
to inflame minds and to generate an antipolice attitude. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any additional documents of this nature? 

Mr. Harris. I have a news release dated September 3, 1965, which 
is in the same tenor as Exhibit 54. 

Generally, they demand that the court release every person who has 
been held in jail and stop compounding the injustice with injustice. 
Further, that "this [action] may provoke further rebellion." There- 
fore "' LET MY PEOPLE GO'*! ! ! !" 

Now, I have another press release of March 16, 1966, and this bears 
the name of Mrs. Clara James as executive secretary. 

Mr. Smith. Of what organization ? 

Mr. Harris. Of the South Side Citizens Defense Committee. 

Mr. Smith. Thank you. 

Mr. Harris. Generally, this covers the arrest of four persons and, 
according to this statement, the "police in the Watts area are bullying, 
arresting without cause, and brutalizing innocent Negroes." 

I also have a flyer, which is undated, which has a heading of 
"LET MY PEOPLE GO !" This is the motto of the South Side Citi- 
zens Defense Committee. 

Mr. Smith. Mr, Chairman, I ask that these documents be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 55, 56, and 57." 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos, 55, 56, and 57," re- 
spectively. Exhibits 55 and 56 retained in committee files; No. 57 
follows:) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1213 
Harris Exhibit No. 57 

«rS 'J 'T" ''T' '*> ";' "I ■'T' '■'•»' ■'■«•■' '«T*'Si''<' -'J- -'*■ ''<^- -:' 'ivA 



L H N' 



I I GO 



ft? 

fi?3 More I li a n t lii r f y .'I u ■ are J eo d . 

G)-P;f Hiindrtds ot us oie wounded. 

^^ Thousands of us ore in j o i ' . 

ji5^ Are mO'>t ot those people t^riniinals? 

^- ^ 

■liC'-^ / Tij! The y ore r«b els. The >■ rebelled afjoinst criminal 

R?j ( ditl.'ns - agolnst the contetnpJ, the neg.t..t, the e>4>loitation , 

^?'" ''"^ brutolity which fios been our life 







Many, perhaps the rrwjority, of tiiose iucked into the huje 
o olico droo Mfct were not even taki'.i ,/,irt In the uprising. 
They were onlookers. 

Boil is so hiyh that few hove bc^u releaseo. So many 
ore behind bars that Ihcy can'i-t fin J lawyers, or, if the/ 
do, the lowycrs ore so overwoil.ed tliot there is too little 
time to get the facts and plan an adcqiate defense. 

To make matters worse, more people ore being arrested 
every day as police enter our homes (v/ithout worrants) end ^ 

choi'je us with looting if we cannot immediately produce proof 
of ov.nership of any new-oppeoring Items. 

STO P HOUNDING US I 

We mutt (fond op for our rights, our dignity, our humanity. 

We most demar>d that the P.LAL criminols be tackled - the 
employ«nwho refuse us jobs, the schools that deny us edu- 
cation, Hi« landlords who won't rent to us, the police who 
insult ut, beat us, shoot us. 



.PHONF, 



WRITE. . . CALL UPON 



i^:A' 



Mayor Yorty...City Council men. . .members of the Board ol 
Supervisors. 

DEMAND ftELEASf vjf the prisoners end COMPENSATION 
to the families of those who were klllea by police ood guoid^- 
m«n, and to the wounded. 

It^JSIST thot Our "city fathers" act to chonge tiie condifloris 
, which ore os unbearable as ever. 

^. ' THIS IS OUR LIFE, OUR STRUGGLE. WE MUST ALL TAKE PART, 
:'-A' 'ATTfiND ONE OF THESE MEETINGS OF FAMILIES AND 
«. NCIGHBORS OF VICTIMS: - 

/Thursday, Aug. 26, 8 p.jri. - Mosonic Lodge, 1131 W, Man- 
• Chester, Los Angeles. 

•Wrielcy, Aug- 27, 8 p.mr, -Westminster NoighborKjod Cen-. • 
■;»«■', I0I25 Beocli St., Watts area; ^- ' • 

•SoJurdoy, Aug. 28, 2 p.m. - Secorjd BopUst Church, 2412', 

X. Griffith, Loi Angeles. 
'Auspicet; South' SIdo Cl.tiie^if' Defense .Committee,' 356 W.-fti^ * 
., 3rd St., RpQm 318, L-:*. 13. ..MA 5-2160, ..MA 5-2169. ••> 



Mr. Smith. Did the South Side Citizens Defense Committee always 
continue to operate out of 326 West Third Street, Los Angeles? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir; they did. However, in September 1965, they 
opened a second office at 102031^ Compton Avenue, Los Angeles. This 
is in the Watts area. 

I have two documents here to substantiate the second location. The 
first is a letterhead of the organization showing the officers, and Hur- 
sel W. Alexander is again reflected as the executive director. The sec- 



1214 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

ond is a flyer which I received October 25, 1965, headed "JUSTICE ?" 
It says : "HOW? WHERE? WHEN ?" and advises all those who were 
"unjustly arrested to plead 'NOT GUILTY' and demand 'TRIAL 
BY JURY.'" 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these exhibits be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 58 and 59." 

The Chairman. They may be received and marked accordingly. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 58 and 59," respectively. 
Exhibit No. 58 retained in committee files; No. 59 follows:) 

Harris Exhibit No. 59 




HOW? 



JUSTICE? 

WHERE? 



WHEN? 



MMAND YOUt mOHm 

On WednewUy, August 1 1, • rebc&km nupted ia our i^icdc 
c«Ued "WATTS", antJ spilled over wto aoffJbomt com- 
munities. This was the resuh irf centuries of oppmiuoo tad 
eKplohsticMi desisned to ke^ the black man a riav* in om 
form or other. It was touched off by the kind of police pcr- 
tecutioa of Negroes that we have protest agaimt for years 
and years. 

It wiO take decades to evahiate the real signiSciAce of this 
historic event Meaotiroe, we deniandiustice for the victims 
of this rebellkxi NOW. More than 4,000 Negroes have been 
arretted. More than 500 of these are chikfen. More than 
i,OOP lie vMNinded in hospttab and homes. 

So fir, ib people arc repotted dead — 32 Negroc*, 3 
Whites, I Japanese. More are reported missing. The jails are 
still packed with the victims of this rebellxM. 

WHO W1USIT IN JUOOIMINT ON 
mm MIN, WOMDi, AND CNKOtM 

Can they be judged by those who remained kkUfferem to 
their plight and meir protests against injustice for so many 
yean? 

WHOTNM HAS AltONTMMn 

Cn (hey have proper iriah for so ihany people caught ia 
ckcnmstaiKcs beyond their control? 

Allimtl BMHIGH, 

uwTiRf , jvoen, jwotf, coutm 

Bmb if there were, how couM they try aad jadge people 
can^ up in such a rebelUon? 



NOT ewLTvai 

Hial they are the victn» of the deq^rooted p wj adlct tmi 
hatred generated by Mated ottciah, brutal pdBce bKtimad 
hosdk news alcdia. 

•ijr MY pioru oo** 

We demand thai Sbeae victka* of Iha rctelSaa te kMd Im- 
me^Uattt]/, aad those already tentenced be pm4mif t4 tMtml 

PtOnz OM, we adviae aU then ottjastly tm mi id fkai 
*tlOTOUILTr* 



IMS WOULD M 
MOCKMY Of JU8TICI! 

We rieciare to the whole wide world that these people are 



•*1IIAl tY JIMY*' 

and ae attorney to d^ead then with aSdueprocesiflClnar. 
We piedflt am tapi^on to ^ these victtais of the nMHaa; 
aad we aeaMad ptoper coeapwaation to the Ida of al tinae 
afhodkdialL 

wwn A iitfu HNP A mMO iu m 

MAKI APHONf CAili 

Let onr WUjnr. <wf CMsf of foioe, oar LeglW 
Oovcnor. oar CoMreeiBea. oar Saaelon. Md 

dtM know how aw fstl about aB tUt h^aidoe. 

Oct your CteKk. lodge, uaioa 19 denm) iaiiic* for fte 

vietee of Ibia rebcUoo. 

VOa. IKroRMATIOK AND HELP CXKrACT: 

1HB SOirniSIDB CntEBNT UBFENffi OOMMirnBk 

102QSH t. OoiBplaa, Loe Aarlet, an. 

Pkon; S«I^U 

126 W. M 9l Rooaa 918 Los Aagitm, CMK. N013 

MA»1«9.S-2I<0 



Mr. Smith. Did members of the South Side Citizens Defense 
Committee participate in any other activities? 
Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1215 

On January 28, 1966, Joan Clara James spoke at a meeting of the 
free press forum on "The Big Frameup in Watts and South Central 
Los Angeles." 

Then on February 12, 1966, there was a picket line protesting police 
brutality at the 77th Street police station. This station has the 
immediate jurisdiction over the Watts area. 

This demonstration was cosponsored by the Student Nonviolent 
Coordmating Committee, the W. E. B. DuBois Club of Los Angeles, 
and the South Side Citizens Defense Committtee. 

The South Side Citizens Defense Committee circulated petitions to 
be sent to Governor Brown. The language heading the petition is 
interesting. It says: 

We the undersigned relatives — mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters — and friends 
of those who rebelled in Los Angeles against criminal conditions — against the 
contempt, the neglect, the exploitation, the brutality which have been our life, 
DEMAND THE RELEASE of the prisoners and COMPENSATION to the 
families of those who were killed by police and guardsmen, and to the wounded. 
And we INSIST that you act to change conditions which are still as unbearable 
as ever. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked as "Harris Exhibit No. 60." 

The Chairman. It may be received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 60" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Detective Harris, committee investigation has estab- 
lished the existence of an orj^anization in the Watts area known as the 
Watts Council for Equal Rights. 

Has your office investigated this organization ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir; we have. 

Mr. Smith. Would you describe the organization, please? 

Mr. Harris. The Watts Council for Equal Rights was another crea- 
tion of the Provisional Organizing Committee for the Reconstitution 
of a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party. 

I want to point out that this is the organization with which Michael 
Laski, about whom I have previously testified, was affiliated until his 
expulsion in September 1965 following the Watts riots. 

Mr. Smith. When was it formed? 

Mr. Harris. The post office box which they used was 72301, and 
this was opened on November 3, 1965. 

Mr. Smith. In what post office station is this box located? 

Mr. Harris. According to several documents, it is in the Watts area, 
Watts Post Office Station. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the committee has subpenaed the appli- 
cation for this box for the Watts Council for Equal Rights. I would 
like to have it introduced in the record as Harris Exhibit No. 61. 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 61" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. I note from the exhibits that Sandy Smith signed as 
the applicant. Can you tell us who he is? 

Mr. Harris. His full name is Samuel L. Smith. Sandy is his nick- 
name. 



88-08SO — 68-^t. 3- 



1216 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

He resided in the Watts area. Our records reflect he is a member 
of the POC. Smith was born on November 10, 1912, in Macon, North 
Carolina, and is currently residing in Chicago. 

Mr. Smith. From the application, I note the name "Nelson Peerey." ^ 
Peery was the person entitled to receive mail through the box. Can 
you tell us who Nelson Peery is ? 

Mr. Hareis. Yes, sir. Peery is also a member of the POC. He also 
resided in the Watts area. 

Mr. Smith, Who is the present head of POC? 

Mr. Harris. This organization has not been too active since Michael 
Laski left in September 1965. It is currently hard to determine who 
is the head. 

Mr. Smith. Does the POC or the Watts Council for Equal Rights 
maintain an office? 

Mr. Harris. No. 

As far as we are able to determine, they work out of the homes 
of the individual members. 

Mr. Smith. Was the Watts Council for Equal Rights active m the 
agitation in Watts ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir ; it was. 

I have several documents here. The first was distributed m the 
Watts area in May 1966. I will read several sentences from this 
document which was distributed, probably prepared as a result of 
the Deadwyler affair in Los Angeles. 

The Police Department is preparing to provide us with more funerals to at- 
tend. The qualifications for getting murdered nowadays seem to be 1) be a 
Negro and 2) be apprehended by the LAPD (L-arceny A-busive P-rejudiced 
D-eadly). 

Cops have license to shoot and kill as they see fit. The 'oflScial' Negro leader- 
ship belongs to the Government, the government belongs to the most reactionary 
anti Negro, anti colonial imperialists in the country. * * * 

There are other inflammatory remarks which if you wish I can read 
into the record. 

This document is headed "Watts Council Bulletin" and bears the 
address "Watts Equal Rights Council, Box 72301, Watts Station." 

Mr. Smith. Would you read some of the items on it, please? 

Mr. Harris. All right, sir. 

Mr. Smith. A few descriptive items. 

Mr. Harris. It says : 

Three hundred and twelve days after the beginning of the Watts uprising, 
we find ourselves getting ready to attend another funeral. The Police Depart- 
ment is preparing to provide us with more funerals to attend. * * * 

Living is getting to be more and more of a risk for the people of Watts. * * * 
One killer cop is not responsible for the murder of Deadwyler. It is not the 
first time that this form of terror has been seen by the Negro People. * « * 

Mr. Smith. Was the "Watts Council Bulletin" a montlily publica- 
tion? 

Mr. Harris. It was ])ublished only intermittently and was — in fact, 
we were only able to find two coj)ies of the bulletin. The second was 
received in August 1966 and attacks the U.S. Government as Fascist. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be re- 
ceived and marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 62-A and 62-B." 



1 Correct spelling "Peery." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1217 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 62-A and 62-B," re- 
spectively. Exhibit 62-A retained in committee files ; 62-B appears on 
p. 1218.) 

Mr. Smith. What did the Provisional Organizing Committee do 
to agitate in the Watts area ? 

Mr. Harris. They were pretty consistent in their agitation. How- 
ever, prior to the riot, Michael Laski was the central figure, and 
his project at that time was organizing the carwashers' union. This 
attempt was a failure. 

I have a document here that was issued by the POC which I will 
read, which describes what their actual objective was. 

The Chairman. I don't remember what the initials POC mean. 

Mr. Harris. Provisional Organizing Committee for the Reconstitu- 
tion of a Marxist -Leninist Communist Party in the United States of 
America. 

The Chairman. That is just a few letters for a very fancy and odd 
name. 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

This document which I have described says : 

We are fighting to organize the workers into revolutionary labor unions, to 
fight U.S. imperialism, and to work for the abolition of the wage system. The 
fight is advancing throughout the world ! THE FIGHT IS OURS— HERE AND 
NOW ! All of the working i>eople — Black, Brown, and White — will win this fight ! 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this document be received 
and marked "Harris Exhibit No. 63-A." 

The Chairman. It will be received and marked. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 63-A" appears on p. 1219.) 

Mr. Smith. Is the POC still in existence ? 

Mr. Harris. The last material we picked up being distributed in 
Watts was on or about February 26, 1966. 

This particular document I 'have is headed "RESIST THE FAS- 
CIST DANGER." It is quite inflammatory. I will quote one 
paragraph : 

The August uprising in Watts saw the State forces (the police and National 
Guard) pass from traditional police brutality to fascist terror characterized by 
military law, the indiscriminate clubbing and shooting of men, women and 
children — ^the attempts to organize white goon squads to attack the Negro com- 
munity etc. The state turned to these fascist tactics because the strijggle of the 
people had become more militant, more conscious and more revolutionary. 

Now, this document states it was printed by the POC, Post Office 
Box 72306, Watts Station in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document be received 
and marked Harris Exhibit 63-B. 

The Chairman. It may be so received and marked accordingly. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 63-B" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. SivHTH. Do you know the subscriber of this post office box ? 

Mr. Harris. I know that mail was received at this box number for 
Vcmguard, which was the publication for the POC. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the post office box applica- 
tion ^ be marked "Harris Exhibit No. 64," when received from the Post 
Office Department. 

The Chairman. That will be done. 



1 The application for P.O. Box No. 72306 is signed "Nelson D. Peery." 



1218 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 62-B 




The Ne^ro workors of Clevolnnd, Ohio have token tho atrugclo Dgolnst 
faaoiat oppression and oxploitotion to the atroota. 



\ 



Tho lovol of atrugglo that bagon in TTatta haa aproad acroas the oo\intj^ 
GhuiaL-i •' ChlcQgo - Clovoland have become aroaa of great atrugglo. As in 
Tiatta, tho workora rejected the agonta of thoir oppressors. Tho Unole Toma 

did r.ot daro Ioovg the protection of the polioo and Gunrdsmen to attompt 
to itii'luoaco tho Torkcra, 

Tho atato la quietly Inyinp; the ground work to intensify tho oppression 
of the Kogro massea* L,B»John80n, chief of tho iraporlQllata nnd spoksman 
for tho ruJiig class has Tvnrnod the Kegro people thut they constitute lOJJ 
of tho popuiution and tho ronaining 90;^ could oppose them. Johnscn end 
all his reactionary supporters are wrong. Ho is among tho lOJJ who are 
^eing oppossod, p'lrroundod and defeated by tho 90;i of the 'vorlds populatioa 
that includes tho Hegro people of Amoricai 

Johnson has stated "The alternative to self discipline ia tyranny". Thia i» 
a thinly violod threat to tho Nogrc pooplo and tho colored tuinoritiea that 

if they continue the fight-back, the government will intensify thoir 
fasoiat repression, L.B.J, ia saying to tho opprossod peoples— 'either give 
up your fight for equality, or we will oruah you', Johnson ia wrong. Tho 
peaplt will not give up tho flight for equality- and they canxiot bo crushed. 

The Victts ExiuqI Righta Council, along with tho Councils in Chicogo and 
Cleveland are determined to carry this fight on to tho very end, ^a do not 
and will not accept Johnsons formulo of supporting tho brutal aggressive 
vlolonco of the polioo and condomming tho defensive. Justified violence 
of the masses, 

A main tactic of the ruling class, through the press, radio, etc, is to 
attempt to isoloto the Negro masses so thoy might be more eoaily ottaoked. 
The Negro fbople, fighting for ©quality and National Liberation cannot 
bo isolatod. Tho uprioings of the Puerto Rlcan and Moxlcon Amorioan 
miner itios prove this. The wholo world wide struggle of tho ooloniol 
and Boml-oolonial people prove that It is the American imperialiste— heodod 
by L.B.J. " not the Kogro peoplo who ar» b«oommlng isolotod, 

Tho bravo suetolnod struggle by the Kogro workers of Cleveland is another 
link in the chain that leads to tho unity of the opprossod and the eventual 
distruotlon of fascist Amorlcan Imperialism • 



For further information oontacti 



The Tatts Equal nights Coun cil 

Box 7Z30l V.atts siation 

Loo Angeles, Collfornit 






SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1219 

Harris Exhibit No. 63-A 
lUX J0A!f ik965 - ?9 IffiABS OP BEVOLUTIONAHl' THADITTOK ! 

In •very •cnantrf. May Day Is celebrated as International Lalxjr 
Day to eonmaaerate the struggle for the 8 hour day. whlc^hted reached 
Its peak In the U.S. on May 1, In Chicago. There, 80,000 workers pa- 
raded calling for an end to the 10 and 12 hour work day then preval- 
ent In Industry. 

A few days later, the Chicago police arrested the labor lf»Aaers 
In what was known as the "Haymarket Riot,* on charges of "Inciting 
to riot" and "murder". Pour of the union leaders were convicted and 
hanged. They were killed for leading the working people In a fight 
for a better life. One of the labor leaders, August Spies, sorreotly 
stated In court, "If you think by hanging us you can stc.-.r c-^X the 
labor movenent . . . the movement from which the downtrodder:: millions, 
the millions who toll In want and misery, expect salvatlm - If this 
Is your opinion, then hang us.' Here you will tread ui-oi u spark, but 
here and there, behind you and In front of you, and ev it-ywhere, ^ 
flames blaze up. It Is a subterranean fire. You can not put It out. 
Today, the bosses still use the same "riot" charges. They did so 
against our own union leaders (A.M.W.U.-Car Washers' Union). 

The International Worklngmens Association called upon the work- 
ing people of all lands to celebrate May Day with demonstrations to 
show the strength of the labor movement and to demand the end of the 
capitalist system. Since then, the working people have freed them- 
selves and taken power In the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and a num- 
ber of countries In Europe and Asia. They have seized power and est- 
ablished states controlled by the people and led by the working class 
In a fight for socialism. 

Today, the socialist countries and the national liberation move- 
ments In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, together with the revolu- 
tionary labor movements, are leading the fight against htn b-a-rlness, 
banks, trusts, monopolies (imperialism) especially afr.^.'.r-.r.'r. I',:--, Im- 
perlallsTTi - the enemy of the people of the world. 

The U.S'. government has set-up May 1st to be cclerr-st-d as law 
■dcx* and as '""loyalty day". We working people know tl -.1 th^ir law ls_ 
trfjre to protect the white ruling class and their lo/alty Is loyalty 
to that class. Our loyalty Is to the working class I /Je continue to 
celebrate May 1st as May Day - International Labor Tayi 

We are fighting to or»inlze the workers In-;: vs /olut J. cnary labor 
, \inlons, to fight U.S. Imperialism, and to work lor the at- :.l*-lon of 
,' the wage system. The fight Is advanxJlng thrca.^hout the world] THE 
t FIGHT IS OURS - HERE AND UOWJ All oi the woi'vlng people - black. 
Brown, and White - will win this flghtl 

CELEBRATE MAY DAY - INTERNATIONAL LABOR DAY 

with the PROVISIONAL ORGANIZING COWDETTEE 
TO RECONSTITUTE THE 
MARXIST-LENINIST COMMUNIST PARTY, U.S.A. 

Including speakers from: WORKERS' ORGANIZING COMMITTEE 

A.M.W.U. - CAR WASHERS' UNION 
FREEDOM POR THE PEOPLE 

SATURDAY MAY 1, 8 pm at 1313 E. FIRESTONE BLVD., L*A. 



1220 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 64" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, this concludes all of the testimony to be 
received from Detective Harris. 

The Chairman. Mr. Harris, you have made a great contribution to 
the committee. 

Mayor Yorty, a former Member of Congress, testified that the minds 
of the people, particularly the colored people in the Watts area, were 
conditioned for a long time to set the scene and to prepare them for 
the riots. Then yesterday we covered, through you, the conditions pre- 
vailing during the riots. 

This morning, you and Mr. Wheeler, an employee of this committee, 
talked about the postriot shenanigans going on. 

Now, in short, as I understand it, these nefarious activities started 
a long time ago. They were pursued during the riot and, after the riot, 
unquestionably under one form or guise or another are still going on in 
the Los Angeles area. 

Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. You are right, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. Mr. Harris, this will conclude this part of your testi- 
mony. We appreciate your appearance. 

The committee will recess until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Harris. Thank you, sir. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :45 a.m., Wednesday, November 29, 1967, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Thursday, November 30, 
1967.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

Part 3 
(Los Angeles — Watts) 



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 30, 1967 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 :20 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. William M. Tuck (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

( Subcommittee members : Representatives William M. Tuck, of Vir- 
ginia, chairman ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; and John M. Ash- 
brook, of Ohio.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Tuck and Ichord. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Chester D. 
Smith, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. 
Appell, chief investigator. 

Mr. Tuck. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I would like to continue with the post- 
riot activities in the Los Angeles area. 

We have our witness, Lieutenant Anderson. 

Mr. Tuck. Will you raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to ^ive before 
the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothmg but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Anderson. I do. 

Mr. Tuck. I might say that the committee is constituted to be com- 
posed of the gentleman from Missouri, gentleman from Ohio, and 
myself ; and a quorum is present. 

The letter authorizing the subcommittee for today's hearings 

follows : 

November 29, 1967. 

To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 

Director, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck, as Chairman, and Honorable Richard 
Ichord and Honorable John M. Ashbrook, as associate members, to conduct hear- 
ings in Washington, D.C. on Thursday, November 30, 1967, as contemplated by 
the resolution adopted by the Committee on the 2iid day of August, 1967, au- 
thorizing hearings concerning subversive influences in the riots, the looting 

1221 



1222 SUBVERSIVE ESTFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

and burning which have besieged various cities in the Nation, and other matters 
under investigation by the Committee. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 29th day of November, 1967. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

TESTIMONY OF CLAYTON R. ANDERSON 

Mr. Smith. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Anderson. Clayton R. Anderson, 

Mr. Smith. Your residence and employment? 

Mr. Anderson. I am a resident of Los Angeles County, California. 
I am a lieutenant in the district attorney's bureau of investigation, 
assigned to the intelligence section. 

Mr. Smith. Lieutenant Anderson, are you familiar with an organ- 
ization known as the Freedom Now^ Committee ? If so, what was the 
composition of this committee and when was it formed ? 

Mr. Anderson. Our records show the first meeting was held January 
24, 1966. Among those present at that meeting that would be of interest 
to this committee were John Haag, who was at that time head of the 
W. E. B. DuBois Club in Los Angeles; a William Taylor, whom you 
will recognize as being a member of the Communist Party in Los 
Angeles and a member of the district committee of the Communist 
Party, Southern California District. He was a former resident of 
Washington, D.C. 

Dan Bessie was also present. He has also been a member of the Com- 
munist Party and active in youth work. He appeared before this com- 
mittee on October 20, 1959, at which time he pleaded the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Smtth. What was the prime purpose of this organization ? 

Mr. Anderson. On February 10, 1966, they held a press conference 
at the Ambassador Hotel. I have a copy of the results of that press 
conference, which was originally taped. The conference opened with 
a Thomas Settle conducting the conference. He described the Freedom 
Now Committee as follows : 

The Southern Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam and the 
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee have issued a call for a demon- 
stration on the birthday of Abraham Lincoln under the slogan Freedom Now — 
Withdrawal Now. That is to say, complete freedom for American Negro citizens 
now and immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops from Vietnam. The newly 
formed Freedom Now Committee is ansvvering this call with, a demonstration 
and rally on February 12th. The demonstration will take place at the 77th Street 
"Precinct" and the rally will take place at the Greater Tabernacle Baptist Church. 

Mr. Smith. Wlio is Thomas Settle ? 

Mr. Anderson. Thomas Settle is identified as Thomas Archibald 
Settle, born July 3, 1947, in Chicago. In March of 1966 he was the 
vice chairman of tlie DuBois Club and he was attending functions of 
the Vietnam Day (^ommittee, Students for a Democratic Society, and 
Peace Action (^ouncil. 

He was also a supporter of Dorothy Healey in her political cam- 
paign of May 1966, at whicli time she ran for county assessor in Los 
Angeles County. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1223 

Mr. Smith. Who were the officers of the Freedom Now Committee? 

Mr. Anderson. According to a newsletter of the Freedom Now Com- 
mittee, dated March 22, 1966, the cochainmen were Bob Freeman and 
John Haag. The executive secretary was Thomas Settle. The financial 
and recording secretary was Arvilla Jackson, and the corresponding 
secretary was Carol Colmnbo. 

Mr. Smith. Did anyone else participate in this press conference? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes; Franklin Alexander, former national chair- 
man of the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs, and also John Haag. 

Mr. Smith. I note from your reading of Settle's press conference 
statement that the 77th Street police station was selected for the 
demonstration. 

Why was that ? 

Mr. Anderson. That same question was asked by the press at this 
press conference. 

At that time, Mr. Settle answered and I will quote : 

One of the other things which we are concerned with is, of course, local 
issues which are the police malpractices and the city problems concerning the 
war on poverty, et cetera, and we hope to be able to unify the actions and 
thoughts of the people in this area who are greatly concerned with police 
brutality * * *. 

And then he goes on to other things. 

Mr. Smith. Did the Freedom Now Committee have an address? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. I have a press release announcing the demon- 
stration, dated February 7, 1966, giving Post Office Box No. 18976 
and also telephone number HOllywood 6-8466; also a throwaway 
flyer announcing the same demonstration, giving the same box and 
phone number. 

I also have a news article from the Los Angeles Times, dated 
February 11, 1966, reporting a planned demonstration by the Free- 
dom Now Committee. 

This committee is also known as the Freedom Now — Withdraw 
Now. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents be received 
and marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3." 

Mr. Tuck. They will be so received and so marked. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 3," respec- 
tively, appear on pp. 1224r-1226. 

Mr. Smith. Was this demonstration a success? 

Mr. Anderson. The demonstration was held. Just how successful 
it was is hard to gauge. The theme, according to the signs carried 
by the pickets, was protesting the war in Vietnam and police 
brutality. 

There were actually less than 100 actual demonstrators. The 
picket signs were delivered to this demonstration in an automobile 
registered to John Haag. 

Mr. Smith. Did you make a survey to determine how^ many Com- 
munists participated in this demonstration ? 

Mr. Anderson. In coupling the W. E. B. DuBois Club, Communists, 
and former Communists together, a good estimate would be 25 per- 
cent. There were also members of the Communist Party (Marxist- 
Leninist) and Socialist Workers Party present. 



1224 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Anderson Exhibit No. 1 

freedom now committee 

P. 0. Box 13976 
Los Angeles, California 90018 

telephone Ho 6-8/166 (24 hour service) 



PRESS RELEASE 

February 7, 1966 
Lincoln Day - February 12, 

In the anti-imperialist tradition of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln Day this 
year will be marked by a series of nation— wide Freedom Now demonstrations, 
enphasizing support for the civil rights struggle in our country and an 
end to the war in 'Vietnam, on the basis of full recognition of the right 
of self determination for all people. 

In Los Angeles, the demonstration will begin with a picket line in front of 
the 77th police precinct, oh 77th St. between Main St. and Broadway. This 
will be followed by a walk to the Greater Tabernacle Baptist Church, 4155 
McKinley Ave., for a Lincoln Day Rally for Peace and freedom. 
The rally will open at 2:00 P.M. with the following speakers: John Lewis, 
of 3NCC, Bill Williams, Dr. Carlton Goodlett arei Assemblyman Marvin Dymaliy. 
The planning of tho diBonstrvtions bagaa lact f&ll wh«n the Southern Co- 
ordinating Conmlttee held a meeting with the Vietnam Day CoOKlttee in 
Washington D. C. 

The objective of the nation-wide demonstrations has been broadened by tho 
refusal of the Georgia legislature to penalt Julian Bond to take the seat 
to which he was elected by a vaat najority of voters in his district, the 
raeiat murder of Samuel Younga In Tuskegee, Alabama and the increasing di- 
version of funds from the war on poverty to support our aggression in 
Vlettiaa. 

The refusal to seat Julian Bond le a deflnete attenpt to castigate freedom 
of speach and to dictate the policies and t«ctlcs of the Civil Rights 
movement as well as an attenpt to force Negroes to support, against their 
own interests, Aaerlcas effort to reooscitAte Oolonlall^m and Its corollary 
of white suprenecy. In its opposition to the Vietnam war, SNCC correctly 
stated in its resolution on Vietnam, adopted by the 23 member executive 
cooBilttee and mm approred without dissent by more than 130 SNCC field 
secretaries which states In part. 'V* believe the U.S. govertsaent has bean 
deceptive in clalas of ooneem for the freedcn of the Vletnaaieae people. ^ 
just as the goTermant has baea deoapiiv* In M«<»4r^ ooocem for the freedea 
of the colerad pMfdla in MMh ether eeantriaa •• the DoHlnican BapubJ i c, tha 
Congo South AfMea Bwdaala and la tha 0^. Itaedf. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1225 



Anderson Exhibit No. 2 



STARTS At WtoO AM AT THE 77th STREET 
POLICE PREONCT (77th St. between Main Si. 

and Broadway) 



LINCOLN 
DAY 



For Peace 




RALLY 



AND^ 



Freepom . 



SATURDAY FEBRUARY 12J966 - 2:0C RM. 
AT 
GREATER TABERNACLE BAPTIST CHURCH 
4155 McKinley Ave. 

PRINCIPLE speakers: 

Dr. CarHon Coodlett SiM Wllll«.nis 

Assemblyrr.an Marvin Dyrr-aHy ^'o^" ""^^'^ 

The d€nion.<jtration and rally is in support of demon^-tratiom. being 
held throughout the nation, in support of the struggle for Peace 
and Freedom which is best expressed in the following quote taken 
from the resolution adopted by SNCC Jan. 6th and approved b.y 

more than 130 field secretarie.'^ «• th-i 

"IVe recoil vrith horror at the inconsistency of tnxs^^^^ _^ 
supposedly free society where respon5iMl ity ^o.^J^/" 
equated with reapoiisibility to 1 pnd oneself to '^^ ^]' 
tary aggression. We take note of the fact that more 
than 16$ of the draftees from this country are 
Negro- caJled on to stille the libei-ation of Vlftnam, 
to preserve a "democracy" whicli does not eaa.-'C lor 
them ftt home". 



Ausp: FREEDOM NCTV COMKITTEE 
P.O. Box 189'('6 
Los Angoles Calif. 90018 



Telephone HO 6-8466 
(24 hour service ) 



1226 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Anderson Exhibit No. 3 

[Los Angeles Times, February 1 1, 1966] 



Rally to Urge 
Rights, End of 
Viet 'Intrusion' 



"Freedom Now" and 
•Withdrawal Now" will be 
co-slogans of a Lincoln Day 
rally here Saturday to sup- 
port the civil rights struggle 
and to urge an end to Ameri- 
can "intrusion" in Vietnam. 

The two issues are close 
parallels, members of the 
Freedom Now Committee in- 
sisted Thursday during a 
press conference at the Am- 
bassador. 

"We fail to see," said com- 
mittee member Tom Settle, 
"how a young Negro can be 
Asked to end his life in a du- 
bious war by a government 
which doesn't give him his 
rights in his own country." 



Freedom Now Committee 
members at the press confer- 
ence included representa- 
tives from the Women's 
Strike for Peace, the Los An- 
geles Committee to End the 
War in Vietnam and the 
Congress of Racial Equality. 

Saturday's demonstration, 
scheduled to begin in front of 
the 77th Street Police SUtiwi 
and move to Greater Taber- 
nacle Baptist Church at 4155 
McKinley Ave., is one of sev- 
eral to be held around the 
Hj^tion. 

Listed as speakers are As- 
semblyman Mervyn M. Dy- 
mally (D-Los Angeles); John 
Lewis, national chairman of 
the Student Non-Violent Co- 
ordinating Committee, and 
Dr. Darlton Goodlett, physi- 
cian and publisher of a Ne- 
gro newspaper in San Fran- 
cisco as well as a member of 
the World Council of Peace. 



Mr. Smith. You introduced information from a press release that 
a rally was to be held from the Greater Tabernacle Baptist Church. 

Was that rally held at this church ? 

Mr. Anderson. No. The pastor of that church learned of the makeup 
of the rally and the committee and denied use of the church to them. 

Mr. Smith. Where was the rally held ? 

Mr. Anderson. Well, it was then announced the rally would be held 
at the Victory Baptist Church. However, this pastor likewise learned 
of the nature of the group and refused permission to use the church. 
Ultimately, the rally was held in the parking lot of the Victory Bap- 
tist Church. 

Mr. Smith. Wlio was the principal speaker at this rally ? 

Mr. Anderson. Dr. Carlton Goodlett. 

Mr. Smith, Can you tell us who Dr. Carlton Goodlett is? 

Mr. Anderson. At the time of this rally, he was the candidate for 
Governor of the State of California and he is the publisher and editor 
of the San Francisco Sun Reporter. 

Mr. Smith. Was anyone else at the rally who would be of interest to 
the committee? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. Dorothy Healey, chairman of the Southern 
[California] District Communist Party, was there; William Taylor, 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1227 

whom we have discussed; Rose Chernin Kusnitz, also an identified 
Communist and active in front organizations ; and also members of the 
W. E. B. DuBois Club, the Communist Party, and the Socialist Work- 
ers Party. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any others ? 

Mr. Anderson. Franklin Alexander was there; Mimi Alexander, 
Frank Beyea, Robert Eugene Duggan, John Haag, Raphael Konigs- 
berg, Samuel Kushner, Michael Laski, Pierre Mandel, Barbara Nestor, 
Steve Roberts, and Frank Spector were there. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, for the record I would like to state the 
following with respect to these individuals he has named : 

Franklin Alexander was former chairman of the W. E. B. DuBois 
Clubs of America. 

Mimi Alexander attended a number of meetings of the party's 
Southern California District Council or Committee in 1959 or 1960 
and participated as a delegate from the Moranda Smith Section of the 
party in the November 1959 session of the Southern California Dis- 
trict convention. She was a witness before this committee on April 25, 
1962, and invoked the fifth amendment. 

Frank Beyea was chairman of the Peace Action Council of Southern 
California, sponsor of the Spring Mobilization To End the War in 
Vietnam. In 1952, he was publicly identified as a Communist Party 
section organizer from San Fernando Valley, California. On April 25, 
1962, he appeared before this committee and pleaded the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Robert Eugene Duggan was elected a member of the national com- 
mittee at the Communist Party's 18th National Convention, New York, 
June 22-26, 1966. 

John R. Haag, June 1966, was chairman of the Culver City, Cali- 
fornia, W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

Raphael Konigsberg has been publicly identified as a member of the 
Communist Party in 1952. On June 29, 1955, he refused to testify about 
membership in the Communist Party, invoking the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Samuel Kushner was a top functionary of the Communist Party for 
the last 30 years. 

Michael Isaac Laski — Mr. Chairman, we have already dealt with 
Laski at great length yesterday. Let the record note that. 

Pierre Mandel was bom in Russia, active in the Communist Party 
of France before entering the United States in 1948. He attended 
meetings of the Southern California District Council of the Commu- 
nist Party in 1958 and 1959. He was a delegate to its conventions in 
1959, 1960. He appeared before this committee on April 26, 1962, 
where he invoked the fifth amendment in response to questions regard- 
ing his Communist Party activities. 

Barbara Nestor is the mother of Dorothy Healey, a longtime Com- 
munist. 

Steve Roberts is a leader of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 
Roberts appeared before the committee on April 27, 1962, and invoked 
the first and fifth amendments in response to questions relating to his 
activities with both Fair Play for Cuba Committee and the Socialist 
Workers Party. 



1228 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Frank Spector, a member of the Communist Party whose indictment 
under the Smith Act was dismissed in December 1957. He now operates 
Communist Party bookstore in Los Angeles, California. 

Lieutenant Anderson, was any other material distributed by the 
Freedom Now Committee? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, there was. 

I have copies of two flyers they distributed. I would like to read a 
portion out of each. 

One is headed "Freedom Now — ^Withdraw Now." At the bottom it 
says, "subscribe to the SPARTACIST." One paragraph says : 

SPARTACIST is a revolutionary socialist organization. We believe in mili- 
tanlt struggle for basic social change. This, we believe, will ultimately mean the 
establishment of a socialist society under the control of all the people. 

The second flyer is headed "Freedom Now — Withdraw Now! !" A 
portion of it reads : 

Police brutality was exposed to its nakedness of gestapo like tactics by the mur- 
der of 31 Negroes by the police and 2 by the national guard. This expression was 
also opposing the discriminatory hiring policy of the 77th police precinct which is 
in a predominantly Negro community with a staff of over 200 and only five (5) 
Negroes employed. The people of Watts and its surrounding community feel that 
Negroes, who are more than 85% of the population, should be predominant in 
the police department, fire department and other city service jobs and functions 
for the area. * * * 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be ac- 
cepted as Anderson Exhibits 4 and 5. 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that they be accepted and so marked. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 4 and 5," respectively, 
appear on pp. 1229-1233.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the Spartacist reference by Lieutenant 
Anderson is a publication of the Spartacist League. 

I would like to state for the record that information from the 
committee's files concerning the Spartacist League reveals that it 
began as a small group of dissident Trotskyite Communists expelled 
from the Socialist Workers Party in December 1963 after 3 years 
of activity within the SWP in favor of a less "centrist" and more 
purely Trotskyite revolutionary course.^ 

Whom would you credit with the direction and creation of this 
committee ? 

Mr. Anderson. The evidence would indicate the W. E. B. DuBois 
Club was certainly the most active organization. 

Haag, Settle, and Alexander, the key leaders of the group, were 
or are all members of the DuBois Clubs of America. 

In addition, there would be Communist Party support indicated in 
the presence of Taylor and Bessie and other Communists that were 
observed. 

Mr. Smith. That is Dan Bessie ? 

Mr. Anderson. Dan Bessie and William Taylor; yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Is this organization still in existence? 

Mr. Anderson. No; this organization was organized apparently for 
this one demonstration. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any additional material on activities on 
behalf of the W. E. B. DuBois Club of Los Angeles relating to their 
participation in racial agitation? 

1 See also Committee Exhibit No. 3, part 1, pp. 907-909. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1229 

Anderson Exhibit No. 4 

Freedom Now- Withdraw Now 

Spartaclst vholeheartedly endorses the slogan being raised by the 

Freedom Now Conunlttee in response to the call sent out by S.N.C.C^ and 

the Southern Coordinating Committee to End the War In Vietnam. 

The war in Vietnam Is not an isolated issue. It is not simply a 
moral question of war vs. peace, hawks vs. doves. Nor is it a question 
of an otherwise "good" government engaged in one naughty activity. 

The government which wages war on the people of Vietnam in the name 
of Freedom and which drafts young Negroes to fight in the name of Free- 
dom which they don't even have themselves is the same government which 
is responsible for the deaths of Civil Rights workers in the South by 
refusing to enforce its own laws. 

This same government, "our" government, seeks to strangle the 
unions with "wage and price levels" while looking the other way as in- 
dustry sneaks around them with price hikes. This again in the name of 
an Illegal and immoral war in Vietnam. 

Even by the standards of Johnson, 20'^ of the American population 
is living in poverty. Yet the miserly "war on poverty" (ineffective as 
It is) threatens to be washed away in the tide of war expenditures. 

Each day brings new indications that the government intends to use 
this war, not only to maintain its oppressive and dictatorial regime In 
South Vietnam, but also to stem the tide of labor unrest in this coun- 
try and to stifle the militant struggle being waged by the Negro people 
in this country for Freedom Now. 

The time has come for those who are concerned with world peace to 
join with the Civil Rights and Labor movements in a common effort: It 
is in this way that we will be able to get at the basic social problems 
Involved and work together to eliminate them. As long as the peace 
movement continues to orient towards students and intellectuals (valu- 
able as they may be in raising and publicising the issues), the peace 
movement will not be in a position to attack the root causes. 

SPARTACIST is a revolutionary socialist organization. We believe In 
militant struggle for basic social change. This , we believe , will ulti- 
mately mean the establishment of a socialist society under the control 
of all the people. 

For more information about SPARTACIST write: 
SPABTACIST, P.O.Box l*05l*. Terminal Annex, Los Angeles, Calif. SODS'* 

SUISCRIK TO THE 



SPARTACIST 

• iMMt M« tt isuM sua 



Cify-r- 



ZotM_ 

(Mmm nUKT PMnly) 



1230 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Anderson Exhibit No. 5 



FREEDOM 
WiTHDRAVV 




The beacon of hope for Freedcan begins with TOO, 
in your own home, conxrjnity and country and i3 ' 
guided throiigh many channels which lead to Full 
Ecoccmic. security. Social and Political EQUALITY 
for all: vAiere Brotherhood Week is 52 weeks a year, 
and \*iere human dignity is afforded to all mankind. 

The iqirising of Watts and South Central Los Ang^ss^lugvlst, 1965 
was one channel many people felt wo\J.d be a direc^Jod ^^n^ /police' 
brutality; poverty; and against the gouging parct^eeaL_af_food sioroa 
and other businesses that inflated prices on many litems even though 
more than forty percent of the population was on ;lelfare. It was an 
expression of protest against such business that had continued these 
practices which kept the people of the community continually deprivated. 
It was also an expression of the demand for Ten the removal of Chief of 
Police Parker who has demonstrated his contempt for the Negro, Mexican- « 
j\merican and other depressed people. Police brutality was exposed to^ 
its nakedness of gestapo like tactics by the murder of 31 Negroes by 
the police and 2 by the national guard. This expression was also 
opposing the discriminatory hiring policy of the 77th police precinct 
which is in a predominately Negro community with a staff of over 200 
and only five (5) Negroes engjloyed. The people of Watts and its 
surrounding community feel that Negroes, who are more than 85^ of the 
population, should be predominant in the police department, fire 
department and other city service jobs suid functions for the area* 
Also, merchants doing business in the area MUST employ Negroes in 
their establishments in just ratio. 

According to the McCone report, \rtiich is sustained by the 
Presidents Budget program, a drastic cut on funds which would be 
given to the War on Poverty have been transferred to escalate the 
war in Vietnam; Even though B% of the people of South Vietnam 
are in support of the National Liberation Front and are opposed to 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1231 



Anderson Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 



^i^lija government of General Ky which is controlled by the United Stat«, 
■'? • fw:^ cut back of the -war on poverty budget places the people of the 
; - nlted States at the bottom of the toetom pole. It means a vast 
: .-jticrease in the investments.* in tH*- iicplaiients of war and against the 
-War- on Poverty Prograaa, an increase thct-can only '•ome about through 
{I pro|:crtianato decrease in the ejqpecditurea in the, cidjainal, div- 
ersion 'cf national resources and of men to do the djrty work for the 
' Johnson aiairiatration which is bein^; carriod out in Vietnam, where 
, the Unit-id states soldiers are busy kiHinf; !n?n women and children 
' *Ao have riser, in behalf of Freedctn for thcaselves as did our- fore- 

- fathers in the Revolutionary War^d as v;e are now fightir.^ for our 
Freedom hero at home, 

;^' The United States government, at the ena of the Geneva Agrees 

'''^ ments Conferaice, declared that the United States would not use fore 
V oj. the threat of force to interfere with the armistice 
■^agreements, approved the principle of free elections. 
\ vand promised that the United States would act to ( 

- _ prevent further agression in the area. 
',-,._,- The Gtweva Agreeiants call for: 

-f 'X« Cease-fire; 

"' 2. Recognition of Vietnam, Laos and 
Cambodia ad three seperate 
independent staJces; 
3« Establishment of a provincial 
military demarcation line at the 
17th parallel in Vietnam, the 
Vietnam forces to begin regrouping 
to the North and the French and 
associated forces to the South) 
4. Ra-settlement of civilians in x,he 

military aoneJ of their choice; 
5« Political and civil liberties for those who iiad taken part on 

either side in the militairy struggle; 
6. No foreign military base to be established in any of the three 
countries, and no cotamitmaits to foreign military blocs; 
- 7« No militarT' reinforoemants of men or material to be sought 
f or obtained from abroad; 

ft* Fr9« election for a united Vietnam Government to be held not 




1232 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Anderson Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 

, later than July 1956, on the basis of electoral arrcingemienta to 
be drawn up not later than July, 1955; -^ 

9. An International Comnission for supervision and control. ^ 
The United States intei^vention in Vietnam has prevented the people of 
Vietnam from holding elections as was stipulated in the Geneva Agree- 
ments thus, the Vietnamese people are deprived of the ri^t to choose 
their ovm government - thereby preventing the right of self-determin- 
ation for the Vietnamese people. While in Georgia, today, Julian 
Bond has been deprived his right to be seated in the Georgian 
Legislature after winning an election by 85/f .of the voters in his 
district. Also, in Harlem Bill £pton*3 name was left off the ballot 
— thus preventing the people of Harlem from making their own, choice* 
The Julian Bond, and Bill E^too cases and the denial of the right of 
the Negro people to register to vote, in parts of the South, point up 
the fact that Negi^es have been denied the right to determine their 
own destinjr and the people whom they wish to represent them in the 
government of the U.S. 

"The rockets red glare, the bwnbs bursting in air, gave proof 
through the night that our flag vras still there". 

The Onited States flag waves in the Vietnamese winds as 
pompouily as Governor Wallace's Confederate flag waves in the storm • ' 
winds over Alabama State Capitol. While many of the people of this 
covintry sit and watch it all on TV - all about the War in Vietnam, 
and they say either "Tsch, tsch, isn't it frightening?" or some 
say iiLet's bomb the hell out of them-. THM is a man or woiqan or 
a small child or a pet dog, cat or bird. 

Let the people decide their own affairs both in Vietnam and in 
this country. A basic flaw in the policies of the Administration 
in this eity and the Federal Government is that too many of our 
leaders, both military and political, have succumbed to the anti- 
democratic disease which, has raged in the South and in South Los 
Angeles for decades. 

They have a tendency to underestimate the little peopfLe of 
this globe, the th«L brown the black and the yelloti peojiLe. The 
Administrations glory in our tend technology an(l weapons o^ death 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1233 



Anderson Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 

is almost frightening. They think we frighten these people 
into submission both at home and abroad, that vfe can bc^ib 
and kill abroad and at home we are beaten, attacked by dogs, 
bombed and killed; but still we simg, and will continue to 
to sing 

"WE 3HAa OV HICOME 

BL ACK AND WHI TE TOGETHER WE SHikLL OVERCOME 

AT HOME AMD ABROAD WE SHALL OVERCOMES 






^-X" 



^. 



-^~<?^/- 







y 



1234 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

There was a demonstration on September 24, 1964, at the Los 
Angeles City Hall on Spring Street in Los Angeles. This was spon- 
sored by the Ad Hoc Committee To End Police Malpractices, with 
an address of 1230 Cabrillo Avenue, Venice, California. 

The purpose of this demonstration was to demand immediate action 
to correct police malpractice, including resignation of the chief of 
police at the time, William H. Parker, and the establishment of a 
civilian [police] review board. 

Mr. Smtth. What was the Ad Hoc Committee To End Police 
Malpractices ? 

Mr. Anderson. This was a front group of the W. E. B. DuBois Club 
of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Can you identify the occupant of the address you 
referenced ? 

Mr. Anderson. Wlien the pickets left the area, the picket signs were 
put into a vehicle bearing license number lOS 711, which is registered 
to a 1959 Buick, four-door. The registered owner of that vehicle is 
eJohn R. Haag, 1230 Cabrillo Avenue, Venice. 

Mr. Smith. Sole owner? 

Mr. Anderson. He is the sole owner of the vehicle. 

Mr. Smith. Is that the John Haag we have already identified as 
chairman of the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of Los Angeles? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned picket signs. 

What was the wording on these placards ? 

Mr. Anderson. Among others : "Protect and serve whom ?" "Mayor 
Yorty, we want a civilian police review board"; "Guardians, not 
guards" ; and "No more Harlems." 

This demonstration lasted from 1 :30 p.m. until 3 p.m. 

During the picketing there was chanting by the participants, "Chief 
Parker must go," 

Mr. Smith. Was this pre- Watts riot activity? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, this was. 

I have a document here entitled SPUR, which was an official news- 
letter of the DuBois Clubs of America. This particular issue is dated 
August 25, 1965. I would like to quote from this newsletter : 

Poverty in this nation is real ; so real that the people of Watts, who live with 
it every day, finally declared war on it and its cohort — police brutality. 

Another quote : 

For six days and nights the Watts district of Los Angeles was the battle-ground 
for a class war. Tens of thousands of Negro people let loose the frustration 
and the anger of years of jwverty, unemployment, and discrimination. When they 
battled the Los Angeles police department, they took on one of the most 
brutal instruments of racism. 

Another quote : 

Liberals by the score are moaning that the cause of civil rights has been set 
back 100 years, but if the cause of civil rights was set back it was because the 
L.A. police decided to use the methods of race suppression so popular in South 
Africa. 

In another quote : 

In fact it was the police, not the Negroes, who were guilty of barbarism and 
unwarranted savagery. * * * 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1235 

In another quote : 

The removal of the racist Police Chief Parker has been a demand in the 
L.A. area for years. In Watts his name stands for police brutality. * * * 

Another quote : 

Club members in L.A. and S.F. have been distributing leaflets in both Negro 
and white neighborhoods explaining what happened and why * * *. 

That refers to DuBois Club members. 
Another quote : 

The Battle of Watts was a frustrated attempt to bring poverty, and racism 
to an end. We cannot disassociate ourselves from that battle. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I would like to request 
acceptance of Anderson Exhibit 5-A that he has just quoted from. 

Mr. TtJCK. Is is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 5-A" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Anderson. Another document that I have was issued hj the 
W. E. B. DuBois Club of Los Angeles in November 1965. This is en- 
titled "THE FIRE THIS TIME." It was written by Ron Ridenour, 
Anne Leslie, and Victor Oliver. 

Mr. Chairman, this document deals mainly with social problems. 
However, there are several items worth quoting, I believe. They are 
germane to this inquiry. One quote is : 

Despite that admission, abuses both physical and verbal of Negroes by the 
L.A.P.D. are an every day occurrence. A point in case is the "incident" which 
started the violence. On August 11, 1965, Mrs. Ilena Frye, a Negro, was (accord- 
ing to 20 eyewitnesses whose sworn aflSdavits are in the hands of Negro author- 
lecturer Louis Lomax) beaten with rifie butts by oflBcers, then carted off to jail 
for "interfering" with the arrest of her son on a drunk driving charge. This was 
described by the police as "a routine arrest." 

In one portion of the book, starting on page 9 and ending on page 12, 
the W. E. B. DuBois Club recommends 24 points that would tend to 
solve the problem of racial disturbances. The followdng recommenda- 
tions included in these points might be of interest to the committee : 

1. WE DEMAND THE REMOVAL of CHIEF of POLICE PARKER from 
office. 

5. WE DEMAND that there be established in the City of Los Angeles a Citi- 
zens' Police Revieno Board, composed of elected members from city councilmanic 
districts, to investigate and act upon any and all complaints of police malpractice. 

6. We demand that white policemen employed at the 77th precinct be replaced 
by Negro officers. 

The balance of the recommendations refer to other social problems. 
I would like to quote the last paragraph from the document on page 
14: 

The Negro revolt will eventually do more to bring true democracy to these 
United States than any other single factor in the life of the nation. When the 
masses of whites realize this and furtlier recognize that the Negro revolt is ex- 
pressing the needs and demands of all working people, then we can combine and 
accomplish these demands. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be ac- 
cepted and marked "Anderson Exhibit 5-B." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 5-B" and retained in 
conmiittee files.) 



1236 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Anderson. The next document is headed "POVEKTY FRUS- 
TRATION DEATH." 

It was printed and circulated some time during what we call the 
second Watts riot, approximately March 18, 1966. 

I would like to read this entire document for the record. It is a one- 
page document : 

Twelve people in a two room flat ; poverty ; unemployment, and police 
harassment. What does this lead to? 

During the past four days in South Los Angeles i>eople have been dying ; meoi, 
women and children have been beaten ; stores have been looted and buildings 
burned. Violence has been the mode. 

Do you not wonder why? Do you not wonder why blood flows? why young 
people throw bricks ? Why the streets are teeming with th'ousands of restless and 
frustrated people? It has been suggested that the cause is the heat ; it is not the 
heat that is to blame, but ourselves. We are at fault ; for it is we, the citizens of 
Los Angeles who have allowed police brutality to exist. Who have allowed dis- 
oriminaJtion socially, economically, and politically. Who have mot demanded a 
civilian police review board to control police injustices. Who have not demanded 
the removal of Police Chief Parker who condones police malpractice. Police Chief 
Parker has even gone so far as to suggest that our National Guardsmen can learn 
more in Watts than in siunmer camp. Is he suggesting that our National Guards- 
men be allowed to PRACTICE ON OUR CITIZENS? 

We are not in favor of violence ; we do not condone whait is hapipening in 
Watts, but we are trying to explain why the violence has erupted, and that the 
condition in Watts is our fault. Because of this, we demand the following four 
points : 

1. An end to police malpractice and brutality. 

2. A civilian Police Review Board. 

3. The expulsion of Police Chief Parker. 

4. Social and economic reforms (anti-poverty funds), that loill elim,i/nate the 
getto [sic]. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
as Anderson Exhibit 5-C. 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 5-C" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Anderson. I have a document which is an article, a copy of an 
article from the Chicago Svm-Times^ dated June 21, 1966. It quotes 
Franklin Alexander, who was then the national chainnan of the 
W. E. B. DuBois Club of America. He was proposing separating Watts 
from the rest of the city of Los Angeles and setting up a separate city 
government. 

Mr. Smith. Was this plan ever carried out ? 

Mr. Anderson. No; it never got out of the talking stage. 

Another quote from Alexander in the same article : 

Another feature of the Watts project will be establishment of a police observer 
corps * * *. 

Autos equipped with two-way radios and waving white flags from their an- 
tennas will follow policemen through the ghetto area, scene of last year's riot. 
Club workers will photograph patrols, he said. 

Mr. Smith. Was the police observer corps ever set up? 

Mr. Anderson. No, sir; but an organization was set up called the 
Community Alert Patrol. 

This organization was not considered Black Muslims or subversive, 
but more of a nuisance than anything else. They equipped cars with 
shortwave radios which picked up police calls, and they responded to 
the police calls to the scene where the call originated. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1237 

They were to observe any police brutality if an arrest was effected 
by the Los Angeles Police Department. They never did make any 
charges of brutality against the Los Angeles Police Department. 

This Community Alert Patrol received an OEO grant, as I recall, 
close to a quarter of a million dollars. However, this grant was ada- 
mantly opposed by the Los Angeles Police Department and Mayor 
Yorty of Los Angeles, as well as the Governor of the State of Cali- 
fornia, and shortly thereafter OEO withdrew the grant. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Counsel, at this point, Lieutenant, what was the 
name of this group setting up the automobiles to answer police calls 
in order to check on police brutality ? 

Mr. Anderson. That was the Community Alert Patrol. 

Mr. IcHORD. Community Alert Patrol? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Did it receive an OEO grant in the name of the Com- 
munity Alert Patrol? 

Mr. Anderson. It did not ultimately receive the grant. The grant 
was never delivered. It was canceled, but in the name of Community 
Alert Patrol the grant was okayed. 

Mr. IcHORD. Are you familiar with the alleged purposes of the 
Community Alert Patrol? Was the application made for purposes 
other than following police cars to check on alleged police brutality ? 

Mr. Anderson. As I recall, the stated purpose was to help the police 
in the Watts area and to be somewhat of a vigilante corps. However, 
there were previous documents in which they stated their purpose was 
to follow the police and observe their actions. 

Mr. Ichord. Was this prior to or following the Watts riot? 

Mr. Anderson. I believe this was after. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you. 

Mr. Tuck. Did the organization actually get the grant? 

Mr. Anderson. No, sir ; it did not. 

Mr. Smith. But it was only by the protest of the Governor and Mr. 
Yorty ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Anderson. There was a very strong protest by the mayor, 
Mayor Yorty, the police department, and the Governor of the State, 
which apparently effected the cancellation of the grant. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document that the 
witness quoted from be accepted as Anderson Exhibit 5-D. 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be so marked. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 5-D" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Ichord. I have one more question, Mr. Chairman, if I may. 

Lieutenant, were there identified Communist members who were 
members of this Community Alert organization ? 

Mr. Anderson. No, sir; not that we were able to identify. 

Mr. Ichord. Did you obtain a list of the members of that organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Anderson. I don't have a list with me. There is a list in our 
files, I believe. 

Mr. Ichord. What kind of people did they consist of? Were there 
any who had criminal records ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir, there were. This was not a very formal or- 
ganization as far as membership and screening of their members, and 
so forth. They installed their radios in any old car they happened to 



1238 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

have, and Whoever happened to have a car and could afford a radio 
was one of the troops. 

Mr. IcHORD. Go ahead, Counsel. 

Mr. Smith. Lieutenant Anderson, in 1966 a Los Angeles citizen, 
Leonard Deadwyler, died as a result of being shot by a policeman. 

Has your office maintained records on the Leonard Deadwyler case ? 

Mr. Anberson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. What was the background of the Deadwyler case ? 

Mr. Anderson. During the late afternoon hours of May 7, 1966, black 
and white police units pursued a vehicle containing two men and a 
woman in the south central area of the city of Los Angeles. After the 
police succeeded in stopping the suspect vehicle, an officer was lean- 
ing in the passenger side of the vehicle with a drawn revolver, at which 
time the vehicle lurched forward. 

As a result of the lurch, the officer was thrown off balance. His re- 
volver discharged, and the bullet struck and killed the driver of tlhe 
vehicle, who was Leonard Deadwyler. 

Mr. Smith. Was an inquest held in the case ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. An inquest was held by the Los Angeles 
County coroner's office which lasted 8 days, between May 19, 1966, and 
May 31, 1966. This inquest was the longest inquest into a single death 
in Los Angeles County. There were 49 witnesses who testified. 

Mr. Smith. What was the result of the inquest ? 

Mr. Anderson. The coroner's jury found the death of Leonard Dead- 
wyler to be accidental. 

Mr. Smith. Did the accidental killing of Deadwyler foment trouble 
in the Watts area ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir ; a number of Communist and extreme left- 
wing organizations tried to capitalize on this accidental killing to 
foment racial discord in the Watts area. 

Even before the coroner's inquest or the jury was convened, the Stu- 
dents for a Democratic Society organized a rally on May 13 at the Los 
Angeles police administration building. In a leaflet which was widely 
distributed to announce the rally, the Students for a Democratic 
Society accused the Los Angeles Police Department of : " ( 1 ) ," and I am 
quoting : 

needlessly and carelessly murdering Mr. Leonard Deadwyler on Tuesday, May 10, 
1966. 

The date they had in their flyers was incorrect. 

(2) generally using tactics and methods which are not suited to the "crime." 

(3) flagrantly disregarding the human beings whom they supposedly "protect" 
In the pursuit of "law and order." 

(4) generating themselves the crime and lawlessness from which they claim 
to "protect" us. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request thait this document be received 
and marked as "Anderson Exhibit 5-E." 
Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 
(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 5-E" follows:) 

Anderson Exhibit No. 5-E 

WE ACCUSE! 

The Los Angeles Police Department of : 

(1) needlessly and carelessly murdering Mr. Ijeonard Deadwyler on Tues- 
day, May 10, 1966. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1239 

(2) generally using tactics and methods which are not suited to the 
"crime." 

(3) flagrantly disregarding the human beings whom they supposedly 
"protect" in the pursuit of "law and order." 

(4) generating themselves the crime and lawlessness from which they 
claim to "protect" us. 

Let us first suppose that this was not a racial murder. Questions : (1) w'hy was 
a police oflicer confronting a "speeder" with a drawn and cocked .38 pistol? (2) is 
immediate execution the accepted penalty for trafl5c violations? Let us now look 
ait it more realistically and suppose this tvas indeed a racial murder. In an inter- 
view by Donald McDonald of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institution, 
Police Chief Parker stated : 

"(Race relations) has been a problem, but I don't think it is as Mg a problem as 
some might believe it to be. I don't want to mention any names here, but I have 
been told by leaders of two of our large minorities that, after close observation 
of our department's work with minority groups, they have found nothing they 
can criticize." 

Parker stated this prior to the riots in Watts. Does this indicate ignorance on 
Parker's part, or perhaps on the part of the entire Police force? Does Parker 
seriously expect thinking citizens to believe that Watts happened over night? Is 
it a possibility that Parker, far from being ignorant of the situation, was quite 
aware of the seething racial unrest existing in Los Angeles and merely mis- 
calculated the ability of the police and National Guard to crush any manifesta- 
tions of this unrest? 

In any case. Chief Parker's abilities of judgment were far from commendable. 
Now it is apparent that this lack of judgment, far from being just less than 
meritorious, is far from even safety ; for when a civilian not only must give up 
hope of police protection but must indeed seek protection from the ix)lice there 
is a serious flaw in the system. 

THINK ABOUT IT! 

Friday, May 13 there will be another demonstration at the Police Administra- 
tion Bldg., 150 N. Los Angeles Street for 3:00 to 6:00 p.m. Contact S.D.S. 1332 
Miramar Street L.A. Phone : 46&-2466 
1966. 

Mr. Anderson. A committee was also formed which called itself the 
Committee To End Legalized Murder by Cops. 

Mr. Smfih. What was the address of this committee ? 

Mr. Anderson. The same as for the South Side Citizens Defense 
group, 102031/^ Compton Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Wlio were the organizers of the Committee To End 
Legalized Murder by Cops ? 

Mr. Anderson. This organization which was formed for agitation 
during the Deadwyler inquest, as far as we know it is no longer in 
existence. However, it may just be dormant because patterns of 
organizations of this type show that they reactivate from time to time 
to fit any need which may come up. 

Our investigation discloses there was a committee of four that started 
this organization. The nominal head was a Willie Frank Brown, who 
was born April 5, 1921, in Mississippi. As far as we can learn, Brown 
has no definite subversive record. 

Another organizing member was Franklin Delano Alexander, born 
May 4, 1941, m Illinois, who, of course, was a former national chair- 
man of the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America, and I am sure is in 
your files. 

Another organizing member was Charlene Mitchell, a member of the 
National Committee, Communist Party, U.S.A., and sister of Franklin 
Delano Alexander. 



1240 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

The fourth one was Kendra Claire Harris, who was bom June 28, 
1946, in Los Angeles. She is the wife of Franklin Alexander. She was 
arrested on March 16, 1966, at 2 :30 a.m. for being drunk. At this time 
she was in the company of Franklin Alexander. This arrest took place 
at the approximate time and in the vicinity of the Watts riot number 
2. At the time of her arrest, she gave her occupation as a committee 
organizer for the W. E. B. DuBoisClub. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, for the record it should be noted that 
Franklin Alexander, recently national chairman of the W. E. B. Du- 
Bois Clubs, was recently expelled from the Communist Party for 
stealing funds from the W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

How did the Committee To End Legalized Murder by Cops foment 
trouble ? 

Mr. Anderson. On or about May 15, 1966, leaflets titled "WE 
CHAKGE MURDEK !" were distributed in the Watts area and in the 
south central Los Angeles area, announcing a protest at Will Rogers 
Park, 103d and Central, on Tuesday, May 17. The Deadwyler inquest 
was scheduled to begin on the 19th. I have a copy of that leaflet here. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document be accepted 
as Anderson Exhibit No. 6. 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 6" appears on p. 1241.) 

Mr. Smith. Did the demonstration as announced in Exhibit 6 take 
place? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. The demonstration took place on May 17. The 
demonstration began at Will Rogers State Park with approximately 
200 Negroes in attendance. This could best be described as an agita- 
tive rally. 

The demonstration then proceeded to march to the 77th Division 
police station, carrying signs and singing and in general protesting 
police brutality in the Deadwyler shooting. This mob was unruly in 
the demonstration in front of the police station, but no major difficulty 
ooourred. 

The crowd dispersed in about an hour. There were approximately 
350 people who participated in front of the station. 

Mr. Smith. Did investigation by your office reveal that known Com- 
munists took part in this rally ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. Members of the Communist organizations did 
take part in this rally on May 17. Some of them that were there were 
Kendra Harris, whom we previously mentioned; Dorothy Healey; 
Barbara Nestor, the mother of Dorothy Healey ; William C. Taylor, 
whom we previously mentioned; and Charlene Mitchell, wliom we 
previously mentioned; Robert Duggan, who was chairman of the 
W. E. B. DuBois Clubs in Los Angeles; and Allen Zak, who was an 
officer in the W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

Mr. Smith. Did anything else occur on the evening of May 17? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

In the evening of May 17, following the rally, an outbreak of 
violence and looting occurred at 85th and San Pedro Streets, in tlie 
south central Los Angeles area. A liquor store was looted, two news- 
men were beaten, and bricks were thrown at police. Several amests 
were made at this time. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1241 
Anderson Exhibit No. 6 



MuROE/^ COMES ON TfiC £D(rf OF SUMMER; 

LEONRRD DERDWYLER wf^s murdered, 

KILLED DERD,DERD,OERO, FOR RUSHiNG Hi5 
PREGNRNT WIFE TO THE HOSPITAL. 

VOU TOO CRN BE SHOT RND VOUR 
MUROER GO FREE UNLESS you PROTECT 
YOURSELF. FflMILIES fiND FRiENOS BY 

PROT^SmsmShURDER. 

The OFPiCERS spy ""THE GUN WENT OrF"; QuT 

WE CRmOTGOrORIT/ RNVBODVcRN 
GET IT /v£xr Tine/ 

Mrke sure thrt Derdwvler^s 

MURDERER IS NOT CUT LOOSE ; THPT THIS 
KILLER COP 0£ RRfKESTEORNO P/fOSECUTiO 
JFOR HIS CPlME,ThELRW ENFORCEMENT 
OFFICER MUSTBEM/IOE TO SERVE RND 
PROTECT US NOT TO BERT RNO KILL US. 

PDDTrQT ^rWiiiROOERSPm 
nwjiLJi m^i-cENWL 

COMMITTEE TO BSD LEGALIZED MURDER BY COPS '' 

TEL # 569-6814 Labor Donated 



1242 suBVERsrv'E influences in riots, looting, and burning 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any newspaper clippings of the demon- 
stration and disturbance? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir, I do. I have the Los Angeles Herald-Ex- 
aminer of May 18 and 19, 1966, describing the distur'bance at 85th and 
San Pedro Streets. 

I also refer to the Los Angeles Times of May 19. 1966. This article 
is captioned "New Watts Violence Pro\'ides Backdrop for Inquest 
Today." 

You will note from the article that the Committee To End Legalized 
Murder by Cops is credited with the demonstration at Will Rogers 
Park set. forth in the leaflet previously submitted. 

Mr. SinrrH. Mr. Chairman, I request that tiliese documents be ac- 
ceipted and marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 7, 8, and 9." 

Mr. Tuck. Tliey are accepted and will be so marked. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 7, 8, and 9," re- 
spectively, and retained in committeie files.) 

Mr. Smith. Please continue with your account of the Deadwyler 
case agitation. 

Mr. Anderson. Due to the disturbance of May 17, a close surveil- 
lance was maintained over the Watts area on the 18th. However, the 
district was relatively calm and there were no unusual disturbances. 

On May 19, the inquest was scheduled to begm at 10 a.m. in Room 
500 of the old Hall of Records in Los Angeles. Prior to the start of 
the hearing, there was a crowd of milling and unruly spectators, mostly 
Negroes, that began to fill the corridors outside the hearing room and 
attempted to force their way inside. 

Several altercations broke out between the sheriff's deputies who were 
attempting to control and quell the mob and some of the members of 
the crowd who were screaming and pushing to squeeze about 400 
people in the hearing room, which was able to accommodate only about 
150 people. 

When finally partial control was obtained, an annomicement was 
made that the proceedings would be moved to Department 12, Room 
215, in the new county courthouse. 

The unruly, abusive, and threatening attitude of the crowd con- 
tinued, however, in the new and larger courtix)om. Tlie aisles were 
filled with people, and the LAPD refused to allow their officers to 
testify until the aisles were cleared. 

When this rebellious crowd refused to moA'e uj)on official notification, 
Ernie Smith of the black nationalists was allowed by some unknown 
pei-son to assume the judge's chair and from the rostrum lie directed 
the crowd at approximately 11 :40. The crowd reacted to his directions 
and requests, which were supplemented by John Pratt of the World 
Council of Churches. 

While Smith was on the bench, he took advantage of that opportu- 
nity to slander law enforcement generally and the proceedings in 
particular. At this time the proceedings were adjourned until 1 :55, 
due to continuing agitation both inside and outside the courtroom. 
There were agitatore in the corridor outside the courtroom and on the 
mall outside the building who were provoking the crowd by threaten- 
ing violence and passing out inflammatoi'y handbills. 

On May 20, the agitation continued but the crowd control and 
security was much more positive. During midmoming, the crowd 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1243 

outside the courtroom forced itself into the hallway, and agitators 
began an obscene tirade against the sheriff's deputies who were present 
for crowd control. This agitation required a clearing of the corridors 
by approximately 125 Los Angeles County deputy sheriffs. 

The handbill distribution continued, and members of the Communist 
Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) were distributing a handbill entitled 
"REACTIONAKY VIOLENCE MUST BE MET BY REVOLU- 
TIONARY VIOLENCE !" 

I would like to quote some of the paragraphs in this handbill : 

The murder of Deadwyler was i)erpetrated by the police in accord, with the 
ruling class' policy to oppress the working i>eopLe. * * * Governor Brown (also 
a representative of the bourgeois state) has demonstrated his racist and reac- 
tionary sitance by calling into "Watts the National Guard for the mass murder of 
workers. 

The Communist Party of the United States of America (Marxist-Leninist) 
urges the formation of people's defense groups, and points out that the only 
way to oppose reactionary violence is with revolutionary violence. As was stated 
by M. I. Laski, spokesman for the Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist), 
"Our aim is to lead the working class in revolution, we will develop and en- 
courage people's defense groups for the defense of the working class against the 
terror of the ruling class." * * * 

They also say : 

The brutality and the violence of the bourgeois police against the workers 
has again been demonstrated to the working class in Los Angeles with the 
police murder on Sunday May 8, of Leonard Deadwyler, 25 years old * * *. Mr. 
Deadwyler was murdered while driving his pregnant wife to the hospital. * * * 

On Monday, May 24, full-time, live TV coverage was commenced 
covering the hearing, and at that time the crowds began to lessen. The 
inquest continued with TV coverage until May 31, at which time the 
coroner's jury amiounced a verdict of accidental homicide. 

During this entire period handbills were being distributed by vari- 
ous organizations attacking LAPD. One handbill entitled "YORTY 
IS A LIAR !" was passed out by Michael Laski.^ I would like to quote 
a portion of this handbill : 

Our Party states that the workers can fight against police brutality only by 
organizing into people's defense groups. We must answer the reactionary vio- 
lence of the ruling class by the revolutionary violence of the people. * * * "Our 
aim is to lead the working class in revolution, we will develop and encourage 
people's defense groups for the defense of the working class against the terror 
of the ruling class". 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Counsel, at that point I observe that the leaflets 
advocate revolutionary violence. 

Do you recall any of them directly advocating or urging them to 
take up arms? 

Mr. Anderson. Some of them have said we must arm for defense. 
They always throw in the phrase "for defense," which changes the 
meaning somewhat, legally, in our State anyway. 

Mr. IcHORD. You mean legally there would be a difference between 
arming for defense and taking up arms? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

Another pamphlet or paper that was being passed out was from 
the Muslims of the Nation of Islam. They passed out this paper 



ifThis was previously introdiuoed as Harris Exhibit No. 12. See p. 1141. 



1244 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

which is entitled "STOP POLICE BRUTALITY!" A quote from 
the front page of that paper is : 

We want an immediate end to the police brutality and mob attacks against 
the so-called Negro throughout the United States. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that tliese documents be ac- 
cepted and marked "Anderson Exhibits 10 and 11." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 10 and 11," respec- 
tively. Exhibit No. 10 retained in committee files; No. 11 follows:) 

Anderson Exhibit No. 1 1 



Ubihammad speaks ^ 



We want an immed 
police brulality and mob ait 
so-called Negro ihrougttoul ih 
We believe Ihat the Fecle 
should Intercede to see that 
women tried In while courts 
In accordance with the laws 
or allow us to butid a new 
selves, dedicated to justice 
liberty. 



ate end to m* 
cks against tb* 
e United Slates 
ral governmem 
black men and 
receive Justice 
of the iBBd — .^ 
nation for omt'* 
freedom aM^ 



WE BELIEVE ihni we who declare*- 
ourselves to be riuhtrous Muslims should no%^ 
uarlicipale In wars which t;ikes the llv** •T 
humans We do not believe this nation alKiuW' 
force us to taltf p.irt 'n urn wars, foe w 
have nothing to gaii- 'rum ii uiilr.vi Am.*^^ 



As ionx as wv aie not allowed <• M-^ 
tabllsh a state or territory of our <>«•. WJK 
demand not only equal justice under the lt«* 
of the United States, but equal empioymeol^ 



opportunities— NOW ' 



Muhammad- : 

STOP 
POLICE 

BRUTALITY! 



HEAR MORE ABOUT THIS SUBJECT SUNDAY 2:00 P.M. 



mVM^MMAD'S MOSaue Ho. 27 

S606 SO. iROAPWAY SUMPAY I.-OOpJit. 



o^ 



We do not believe that sMer 400 years < 
free or pearly free i.ibor. tweat snd Mood 
which has helped America become rich an^- 
powerful. that so many thousands of blAfk/ 
people should have to subsist on relief. enSM 
Itv or live In iX)or houSri ^ 

We want the government of the United ' 
Stales to exempt our people from ALL tax» 
lion as long as we are deprived of equal 
ju-stice under the laws of the land 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1245 

Mr. Anderson. The Progressive Labor Party was also active in dis- 
tributing inflammatory leaflets. One of these leaflets is a poster-type 
leaflet with a picture of the late Chief of Police William Parker. It 
is entitled "WANTED FOR MURDEK— Parker the Cop in Watts, 
Progressive Labor Party." 

Another document or leaflet passed out by the Progressive Labor 
Party is entitled "WANTED for the MURDER of Leonard Dead- 
wyler: — (a member of the concentration camp) 'Bova — ^the — cop' (a 
guard in the concentration camp) ." 

Bova is just one cop in the police department. They must be all wiped out 
before there is complete freedom. South Los Angeles- Watts is one big concentra- 
tion camp in which its citizens are subject to systematic extermination. 

Another leaflet was passed out, also by the Progressive Labor Party, 
entitled "THE NEED FOR REVOLUTION." 
I would like to quote a portion of this leaflet: 

It is these big industrialists and their spokesmen like Yorty and Brown who 
must be defeated. 

They can't be defeated by pleading and begging. Any nation has the right 
to revolution and self-determination. REVOLUTION IS NECESSARY. They 
must be totally replaced. Revolution means a complete overthrow of the system. 
NO ACCOMMODATION ! ! NO COMPROMISE. The community must be organ- 
ized block by block. There must be a block leader for each 20 houses who organ- 
izes for defensive and offensive actions. * * * 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be ac- 
cepted and marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 12, 13, and 14." 

Mr. Tuck. They will be accepted and so marked. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exliibits Nos. 12, 13, and 14," re- 
spectively. Exliibit No. 12 retained in conuiiittee tiles ; Nos. 13 and 14 
follow:) 



Anderson Exhibit No. 13 

MaNTED -for ^e 



nmmsi of 



Leoncird^beadugier : - 



(a member of th6 concentration camp 



(a guard in the ooncentration^cam^L 



»„»+ ?°^^f^ ^"^^^ °'^^ ^°P ^^ ^^^ police department. They 
S^,!th T.« « "^r^ ?:^^ ^^^°^^ *^°^^ i^ complete freedom. 
which i?s Tdtltt^^"-^^ 't°"^ ''^^ concentration camp in 
Which Its cxtizens are subject to systematic extermination. 



1246 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Anderson Exhibit No. 13— Continued 

+-f+'WE MUST lEAHN TO DEFEAT THE E'TEMY BEFORE WE ABE AIL 
SXTBRJ'IINATED. 

-t-H-THE liEMBERS OF THE CONCEKTRATIOW CA)-IP COI BE WIPED OUT 
BY HU1:GER also, that's why UNEia>LOYMENT I.. HIGH. 

South Los Angeles is a big industrial r.:)n)plex. There 
are factories that employ thousands ri^t ;n o'le backyards — 

(General llotors on Alameda and Goodyear or. i.^ antral just to 
name two large ones)— of our homes. 

Black people maike up 80^ of the South Xp,.a. area. 
Black people should make up 80?^ of the work force in the 
South L.A. Area. 

+++WB SHOULD Bi, ABLE TO WORK >VHiRE WE LIVE, 

The slogan should be raised: 
-H-+"IF 80f» OP US DON'T WORE HERE, YOU DON'T PRODUCE." 
Production can be stopped. 

Murder by cops and death by uhemployment are methods of 
systematic extermination, 

+++THIS EXTSRijIN.\TION ISN'T GOING TO BE STOPPED BY GOING TO 
THE C0T15!X OF THE Ea'TEPJ.INATOR AS ADVISED BY -O?'!;: ■^rEO'i^O" 
POLITIC X-lNS Ai'lD PKCACHBRS. 

■^ +++GE0P.C-E WASHINGTON AND THE A^ERICAN REVOIUTIONARKS NEVER 
WENT TO Klira GSOR&PJ'S COURT FOR JUSTICE. 'ilJ.Y SL'ASHED KING 
GEORGE'S COURT. THE JEWS 1IEV2R aSKED TO GO TO HITLER'S 
COURT. 

+-t-fTHE CONCENTRATION CAriP lUJST DEVELOP ITS OWN COURT Pi^T) ITS 
OV/N METHOD OF TRIAL 

These slogans must be raised: 

"BRING P/iIlIvBR, YCRTY, AND BOVA TO TRIAL TOR MURDER — IN 
A COIIHT Oli" THE PEOPLE." 

"DISARM THE GUARDS IN THE CONCECTRATION CAIIP". 

"IP 8094 OF US DON'T WORK IN THE FACTORIES, YOU DON'T PRODUCE!!!" 



Progressive Labor Party 
399-6819 

Anderson Exhibit No. 14 
THE NEED FOR REVOLUTION 

". . . Shall the millions forever submit to robbery, to murder, to ignorance, 
and every unnamed evil which an irresponsible tyranny can devise, because 
the overthrow of that tyranny would be productive of horroi'sV We say not. 
The recoil, when it comes, will be in exact proportion to the wrongs inflicted ; 
terrible as it will be, we accept and hope for it . . ." 

Frederick Douglass 

—1856 

There are 50,000 luiem ployed black workers in the South Los Angeles Area. 
Eighty percent of the South L.A. area is black yet black i>eople make up Olily some 
5% of the jobs in factories right in the neighborhood like General Motors; on 
Alameda and Goodyear on Central. Contrary to the lies preached by the capital- 
ists and their ajxvlogists, 1X)% of the jobs in these factories can be done by illit- 
erates. How niiu-h training does it take to put a wheel on a car in an assembly line 
or turn a bolt. The retraining program IS A FRAUD i ! ! 



SUBVERSIVE nO'I.UETTOE& EST KMMDSF, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1247 

Between 1960 and 1965 the average white family income in Los Angeles rose 
14% — but the black family's income fell 8%. 

Every killing that happened at the hands of the cops during the August 
rebellion was ruled "justifiable homicide." Was it justifiable to shoot people in 
their apartments or anywhere? 

Why? — The cops, Yorty, Parker, Brown, and the whole lot are paid to protect 
the interests of the rich white imperialists. Those who own factories like GM and 
Goodyear. South L.A. is a big industrial complex with enough jobs for everyone in 
the area. The national guard was really sent in to protect the big industries, not 
the ismall comer stores, liquor stores, and pawn shops. 

It is these big industrialists and their spokesmen like Yorty and Brown who 
must be defeated. 

They can't be defeated by pleading and begging. Any nation has the right to 
revolution and self-determination. REVOLUTION IS NECESSARY. They must 
be totally replaced. Revolution means a complete overthrow of the system. NO 
ACCOMMODATION ! ! NO COMPROMISE. The community must be organized 
block by block. There must be a block leader for each 20 houses who organizes for 
defensive and oflEensive actions. Maps must be constructed of the whole neighbor- 
hood. 

We must not fear revolution but we must welcome ic. 
". . . Revolution is bloody, revolution is hostile, revolution knows no com- 
promise, revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way. 
And you, sitting around here like a knot on the wall, saying, I'm going to love 
these folks no matter how much they hate me. No, you need a revolution. . ." 

Malcolm X 

—1964 
Welcome revolution — Organize for Revolution. 

Progressive Labor Party 

399-6819 or WE 3-0463 

Mr. Smith. Further, Mr. Chairman, I think for the record it should 
be noted that these leaflets which he has quoted from, "Wanted for 
Murder — Parker the Cop in Watts," are almost identical to the leaf- 
lets passed out by the Progressive Labor Party in New York during 
the Harlem riots when it was, "Wanted for Murder — Gilligan, the 
Cop." ^ 

These three later documents were distributed by the Progressive 
Labor Party. 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir, they were. 

Mr. Smith. Can you identify the individual who distributed them ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. Those were distributed by a John Wesley 
Harris, a male Negro, who was born October 30, 1930, in Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

Mr. Chairman, I have another document announcing a meeting to 
be held Saturday, December 10, 1966, headed "forum, on — BLACK 
LIBERATION and criminal syndicalist law." The meeting was 
to be held at the First Unitarian Church in Los Angeles. This leaflet 
identifies John Harris as the Progessive Labor Party organizer in 
Watts. 

This meeting was sponsored by the Committee to Defend John 
Harris. 

Also on the same program with Harris, according to this leaflet, 
were Frank Greenwood, who on the leaflet is identified as a "noted 
play write [sic], author of 'Burn, Baby Burn', & head of the Afro- 
American Cultural Assoc." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the information concerning the Afro- 
American Cultural Association will be entered into the record later. 

Mr. Anderson. Another speaker mentioned on this same leaflet is 
Rose Rosenberg. She is described on the leaflet as an "attorney, 
fighter for liberties & veteran of the Mississippi freedom rides." 

88-083 — 68— pt. 3 9 



1248 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this document be accepted and 
marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 15." 

Mr. Tuck. It will be accepted and so marked. 
(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 15" follows :) 



Anderson Exhibit No. 15 



CRIWIINJAL SWDICAUST \Mi 

^-.- n rr _iQi Lcar iQTTDRNAEV , Tl&WtX ioC 

U&FRTIF^ ^ UETERAKi of H<> MlSSlSSlPP'l 
FREEDOM ^vDES, 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1249 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any other documentation concerning the 
distribution of literature at the Deadwyler inquest ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. I have a number of photographs which can 
be presented for the rebord if you care to have them. These are photo- 
graphs, taken at the hearing, of John Harris handing out leaflets; 
Arnold Hoffman, who is handing out leaflets ; and Eston vVilliam Sim- 
mons, who is handing out leaflets. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these photographs be 
accepted and marked as "Anderson Exhibits 16-A, B, and C; 17; 
18-A and B ; and 19." 

Mr. IcHORD. What was the time ? Do you have the date ? 

Mr. Anderson Yes, sir. That was May 26, 1966. 

Mr. Tuck. 1966? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. This was during the Deadwyler inquest. 

Included in these pictures is a picture of Michael Laski and Eston 
Simmons and Arnold Hoffman, who are associates of Michael Laski. 

Mr. Tuck. These pictures will be admitted as part of the record and 
so marked. 

(Photographs marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 16-A, B, and C; 
17 ; 18-A and B ; and 19,'' respectively. Exhibits 16-A, 17, 18-B, and 
19 follow ; balance retained in committee files.) 

Anderson Exhibit No. 16-A 




Arrow indicates John Harris 



1250 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Anderson Exhibit No. 1 7 




Anderson Exhibit No. 18-B 




SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES m RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1251 



Anderson Exhibit No. 19 




Mr. Smith. To your knowledge, were any other known Communists 
at the inquest? 

Mr. Anderson. There were other members of Communist organiza- 
tions observed there, including Franklin Alexander, Kendra Harris, 
and Allen Zak, all of whom we previously mentioned. 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned the Committee to Defend John Harris. 

Will you describe this committee ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

John Harris was indicted under the State of California Penal Code 
section dealing with criminal syndicalism for distribution of radical 
literature at the Deadwyler hearing. He was indicted by the Los 
Angeles County grand jury on September 20, 1966. We subsequently 
arrested him. He was arraigned and pleaded not guilty. At the present 
time the constitutionality of the law is being appealed to a higher 
court and the case has not yet come to trial. 

I have a copy of the grand jury proceedings if you would wish them 
for the record. 

As a result of the indictment of Harris, the Committee to Defend 
John Harris was formed. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Anderson Exhibit No. 20." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 20" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Who is chairman of the Committee to Defend John 
Harris ? 



1252 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Anderson. The chairman of the committee, according to a docu- 
ment that they were handing out, is Jean "Pestanna." ^ Tliis document 
was received June 1, 1967. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, information has already been entered 
into the record concerning Festana. 

Mr. Anderson. There were other documents passed out at the same 
time calling for support of black militants and support of John Harris. 

I would like to quote from one of them entitled "SUPPORT JOHN 
HARRIS!'": "Harris and PLP" — meaning the Progressive Labor 
Party — 

have actively defended the right of Black people to seek liberation by whatever 
means necessary. In organizing support for the Vietnamese people in their fight 
against U.S. imperialism, Harris and PLP have opposed one form of the extermi- 
nation campaign again Black Americans. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be 
accepted and marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 21, 22, and 23." 

What is the address of the Committee to Defend Jolm Harris ? 

Mr. Anderson. According to one of the documents just submitted, 
it lists Post Office Box 121, 308 Westwood Plaza. This is a post office 
box listed to Arley T. Hicks at UCLA. 

(Documents marked "Anderson Exhibits Nos. 21, 22, and 23," 
respectively, follow:) 



Anderson Exhibit No. 21 



/m IxIwT RtiBEKT rnCH , AUTHOR OF 

LATIN AP'ICRICnr-TTM0m4Y44A«D»Nfi, 
m>re«SOR OP lAHM AMERICAN +«««TO(?V AX ^:AU1=b«?NiAr 
SrWE <S0UjE5E. at LOS AHSEUeS, 4 RE<ieNT 

TWweue? TO -me t)ominican Rtpusuc. 

AACKUffilXriOll^A. 

■a&MN-HARe?,P«»RESS\VE LABOR fPf!V< ORaAMllZEK »M 
3Xm4 U5S AM6ELES, UMbER INbtCtMei^ mR'CJ^IAlNf^L- 
SOIWCALKm" F6K V«5 l^yOLUnONA«?<' ACTIV\T1£S. 

MllvPL^ CRCwi 440USSEIN HOUSSEIK-NAARDt) 
OF IRft,M, FACES DEPORTWnOtvi fC^ H15 

cldlTTV|a>l- fecn%sfama-VeJ -vadical [a^eir 
</ff?fff6cv^/£» s/iu^e>f/r//££ 2936, m/. S^f STT 



■Hhr- 



A^ 



1 Correct spelling "Pestana." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1253 

Anderson Exhibit No. 22 

fp— !.;ar.;n>a i^v.vii fAwv okoa:! t..v i.< WATta OH tniAL row If Bitiifi^ fyf]i^Al.lnyt 

SUPPORT BLACK- MILITANTS 

Ch S«pt*Bk«r 29, 1966, John Hairz-is, DiHOtant 91set( iMder uhI ft«gr«Mlv* 
tAi^r rautiyt^reaMccr in Vtatto, uaa orresiad «n tha ebarco «2 crlalnal 
aycdleallM. Rla "erino*' •• pacuing eue leaClaKs at tha C«ad«yl«r |B4UMt| 
polnttns vut that tha eop vho etict Dcadvyle? w«a a qusdero' aat datMmwtaig 
tita ayatea thai eractes ^bji »l<2c;ai" oin)^. 
Jaha new facaa 16 years In prteoa. 

Via Cif^idMl Syndle«riU '£o!/ 14 ki iali!bl-LBt>ar ;Uv paffDoa'!;R '?l«, M0 
«as taat imW ta eonvtet Vara labor orcaniaaro In tlM SMsaacRSa Vallay tn lt3}, 

bi Oauxi, Ttiasday, Itovcabcr 2Cth, at ViOO A.H.ftftani** atecsnagrt «tU 
C^esett a iesbfelon to halt ^^ prteaadinea' Wi t(^ teala thai Cb« Uw la 
casecacteG^lonat. 

LST ta7; VUBLIC KNOW THAT YOU SUPPOBT JOMM HABUtS AHD AU. OWCOS WO Alt 

ncmta AOMxat the ireniMUiiiY o? a systim tciica legamzp "omeuv uuito 

C7 £3Aa raOSU, AH) IKPUSOtQ THOSE VTiiO PBDIEST fBU IKnBTieS. 

Sfiow \ooR Q)ur>v>oRt - - ' 

ffngi^TOJI IZ tj^T^ or JPSTICE. 211 W. XeopU St., Us APfiOlcS • acSAV^ IWr« tSai 

,C^5jiJiJi£_£2k'; _.i:£l — .'-pEPARiiCtit io5 »- hcarikc scf ro& ttoo 4^ 



lABOR DONATED- by the CormlCtca Co Dcfeftd Jolin Harris 
1169 Miilcn Avenao, Ics Ansoles 



1254 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Anderson Exhibit No. 22 — Continued 












o 












for 'the defense of 

^3ohh, Harris -• 

ACCUSED Cr«miAal Sai^cl»C9/»%^' 





\,00 tboa^ort 



on TRID V Nic^Hf- 
, November 1< 

(G23 S Qf'anvil/e kt 
■ Apf^3 ... 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1 255 

Anderson Exhibit No. 23 

SUPPORT JOHN HARRIS I 

XCVLMUER 29 vVILL MARK Ihc bet;ir.iiiiius ol the proceedings of the first use of the State of' 
Ciiliforniirs "Criminal Syndicalist" law since 1937. This law, which was passed in 1919, states 
that il is ille^jal to speak or leaflet so as to advocate "change in industrial ownership" or to 
"effect Dolitical change" by so-called criminal means. It is an anti-labor law which was last used 
lo convict farm labor organizers in the Sacramento Valley in 1937. The law was written to deal 
with revolutionary socialists and is a candid reflection of the undemocratic essence of American 
sdcioiy. in which all power and wealth is concentrated into the hands of a tiny ruling class. 

FOR BLACK LIBERATION 

Now it is being used to intimidate those who speak out against the countless inhumanities and 
;icts of brutality committed in the name of "freedom" at home and around the globe. This particu- 
lar charge of "criminal syndicalism" is being directed against John Harris, a Progressive Labor 
Party organizer in Watts. He was arrested because he fought police brutality and for Black Lib- 
eration. He was arrested because he opposes the U. S. Government's genocidal war in Vietnam 
and has urged his Black brothers not to fight for the imperialist enemy. He was arrested because 
he is a communist, a revolutionary, a member of the Progressive Labor Party and proud of it. 
He was arrested because he has not equivocated but has said outright that the U. S. imperialist 
.system must be destroyed and replaced by a socailist system. 

The arrest of John Harris is part of a general political attack on the Afro- American people 
by Johnson's Government and its racist agents across the country. Similar acts of fascist like 
suppression have taken place in Atlanta, Philadelphia and Detroit. The blows are especially 
aimed at the most militant and vocal elements in the Black ghettoes of America. 

AGAINST U.S. AGGRESSION IN VIETNAM 

The Progressive Labor Party stands clear in its opposition to the systematic extermination 
of Black people in the U.S. and supports their demand for seU-determination, the right to decide 
(Their own future. Harris and PLP have actively defended the right of Black people to seek 
liberation by whatever means necessary. In organizing support for the Vietnamese people in their 
fight against U. S. imperialism, Harris and PLP have opposed one form of the extermination 
campaign against Black Americans. 

The defense of John Harris is to defend Black people's right to seek liberation, every Ameri- 
can's right to oppose U. S. aggression in Vietnam, the right of revolutionaries to organize and 
speak out against a system of oppression. In the fight against imperialism an injury to one is 
an injury to all. 

The outcome of the Harris indictment and of the November 29 proceedings are a vital concern 
to all Americans who cherish social justice and the right to dissent. 

STOP THE PROCEEDINGS! 

In Los Angeles Superior Court November 29, Harris' attorneys Frank Pestana of the National 
Lawyers Guild and Al \Virin of the American Civil Liberties Union will present a motion seeking 
to halt the proceedings on the basis that the "Criminal syndicalist" law is unconstitutional and 
violates the defendant's right of free speech. 

This is just the beginning of a long process of legal and political maneuvers that will be 
carried out by the ruling class in the Harris case. Your support, both moral and financial, is 
urgently needed to insure victory in this case. Please send contributions and statements of 
support as soon as possible to: Progressive Labor Party, P.O. Box 19724, Los angeles 19, Calif. 

PROTEST THE HEARING NOVEMBER 29! 
Picket line begins at 8 a. m. outside the Hall of Justice, 211 W. Temple Street, Los Angeles. 

"Si«s&' 



1256 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the committee through subpena has ob- 
tained the application for Post Office Box 121. I ask that it be marked 
as "Anderson Exhibit No. 24." 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 24" follows:) 

Anderson Exhibit No. 24 



FOR 

POST OFFICE 

USE ONLT 



L , HC KCfS I PtXiOO j 0»r£ BOX OPtNtO 



OArC BOX OPtNLO ' OATC BOX ClOSCO I BOX NO 



APPUCAMT PLEASE NOTEi Complrtton of tttii mpplicatlon ngnifia vour iviltingnat U> comply fUk sU iMWtal 
rulf nlsHot to I'm renting «nd ut0 of Port Offtct boxet. 



naif rcuoD* to ih« renting «nd ff of rmt U/ftr* boiw. 



HOME AOORESS (A^e.. ((r***, onrf mm) 



UNIVERSITY AOOflESS ( htMdtnet I Offlct I 0«p«tm«nl 



Sj^y^^'^'^^i^ ^<y/^. 



SIGNATURE OF APPLICANT j OATE Of APfLICATION 

PORM *OS IP (M IM 

Mr. Smith. Who is Arley Hicks? 

Mr. Anderson. Arley Hicks, according t« a UCLA Daily Bruin 
article of 5/2/67, at which time she was running for some student office, 
states that she is a representative and a member of the Progressive 
Labor Party. She is also known as Arley Timms. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this item be accepted and 
marked as "Anderson Exhibit No. 25." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 25" appears on p. 1257.) 

Mr. Smith. In addition to the defense of John Harris, does this 
committee have any other purpose ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. 

According to some of the documents submitted, they appeal and 
arouse sympathy for the black militants and the Communists. They 
also attempt to develop support for what they call the wor-ld move- 
ments of national liberation. 

Mr. Smith. Does your investigation indicate that the Committee 
to Defend John Harris is Progressive Labor Party organized and 
controlled? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir, it does. 

Mr. Smith. Did they also use Post Office Box 19724, Rimpau Station, 
Los Angeles, in behalf of the defense of John Harris? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir, they did. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1257 

Anderson Exhibit No. 25 
[Daily Bruin, May 2, 1967] 

Arl9y Hicks 

U('J>A and other universities in this 
country train us as technicians and 
apologists for the big buisiness who run 
this inhuman society Real edocationwill 
con-.e only witii .sociaiisni In ihe rnt-an 
time, as your representative and its a 
member of the Prot,'re>-.srv e Labor Party. 
I will fight for the foiiowing: 

1. Complete severance of the I'm- 
versity war machine (including KOTC, 
military and war industry recruitment, 
SS System, and course structure); and 
immediate withdrawal of troops from 
Vietnam. 

2. Textbooks priced beiow cost; text- 
book rental system, and a return to the 
25c hamburger 

3. An end to discriminatory hiring 
and enrolhnent [;rut uces. 

4. Two dollar an hour minimum 
wage for ail campui. >obs. 

5. Elimmatioii of jj<irking fees for stu- 
dents and unrestricted free parking near 
campus. 

6. Abolition of all ties with CIA front 

?frt)U{) — NSA. 

7. Student opinion on course content 
i'ud professors qualifications should be 
so!i!r(d, iT.ade public and given due 

Wfiighl. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the committee siibpenaecl the application 
for Post Office Box 19724, and I ask that it be marked "Anderson 
Exhibit 26." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 26'' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. I also desire that the record show that those author- 
ized to receive mail at this box were "Diane Hirsch, John Harris, Jim 
Dann, Phil Taylor, Progressive Labor Party 'Spark-Chispa.' " 

Mr. Tuck. The record will so show. 

Mr. Smith. Was the Committee for the Defense of John Harris sup- 
ported by other oi:ganizations in a united front action ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. 

The Afro- American Cultural Association, a black nationalist or- 
ganization; the Freedom Now Committee, which we have discussed; 
Veterans For Peace; Southern Califomians for New Politics; the 
L.A. Committee To Defend the Rill of Rights; the Non-Violent Action 
Committee; the Fifth of July Committee; the UCLA Vietnam Day 



1258 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Committee ; the L.A. Students for a Democratic Society ; the Movement 
for a Democratic Society ; and the W. E. B. DuBois Club. 

All these organizations I have named indicate their support in a 
leaflet issued by the Conunittee for the Defense of John Harris and 
distributed in October 1966. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Anderson Exhibit No. 27." 

Mr. Tuck. It will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 27" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Did the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs go further than endorse 
the Committee for the Defense of John Harris ? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes: after the finding by the coroner's jury of acci- 
dental death, the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs began a vigil at the central 
police station in Los Angeles in June 1966. This was announced in a 
leaflet which was widely distributed and among other things charged, 
and I will quote from the leaflet : 

The decision by district attorney, Evelle Younger, not to press charges against 
Officer Bova is no surprise to us. This is not the first such incident to occur 
in the minority community to be followed by the almost automatic "'excusable 
homicide", and we believe it is not the last. Only a few months ago a white 
motorist was shot and killed in a similar incident in the minority community. 
Last August 36 Negroes were shot down in the streets of south Los Angeles. 
In not one case was there evidence submitted that the person killed was armed 
or constituted a threat of bodily harm to anyone. Yet in every case where a police 
officer killed an unarmed citizen the verdict of "justifiable homicide" was handed 
down. 

They go on : 

In each of these incidents of neglect and abuse of citizens of this city we 
charge Mayor Yorty with the responsibility. On the basis of the daily provoca- 
tions by policemen that occur in the minority communities both before and after 
the Deadwyler incident we allege that Yorty is seeking to make political gains 
by provocating an uprising in south L.A. and thereby gain support from the 
white community for putting it down. He apparently believes that the solution 
of the turmoil in south L.A. is to invoke the greatest degree of violence, and 
that will give him the ticket to the State Governor's office. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 28." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 28" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Did POC likewise continue agitation in spite of the 
coroner's jury finding? 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. 

I have a leaflet entitled "THE EESSONS OF THE DEAD- 
WYLER CASE," which still charges deliberate murder, and it states 
in part : 

First of all, the meaning of the murder : The killing of Deadwyler was an ex- 
tension of the killings in August and September. This murder is furtlier proof 
of the fact that in Watts, the method of controlling the Negro people has i>assed 
over from reactionary Capitalist Democracy (class justice and class law) to open 
fascism, (ruled by unrestricted terror, killings and beatings). This murder is 
further proof that Watts is occupied by Government fascist troops and police. 



SUBVERSrV^E INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1259 

There is no law above the will of the cops and the National Guard that has 
been quietly convoyed in. We are under a brutal fascist military occupation with 
all the consequences and implications. 

This was passed out by POC. 

Mr, Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 29." 
Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 
(Document marked "Anderson Exhibit No. 29" follows:) 

Anderson Exhibit No. 29 

THE LESSONS OF THE DEADWYLER CASE 

The legal offical [sic] book on the Deadwyler case is closed. The people have 
yet to make their judgment. At this point, the fighting workers of Watts must 
draw some concrete lessons from this experience. 

First of all, the meaning of the muruer : The killing of Deadwyler was an ex- 
tension of the killings in August and September. This murder is further proof 
of the fact that in Watts, the method of controlling the Negro people has passed 
over from reactionary Capitalist Democracy (cla.ss justice and class law) to 
open fascism, (rule by unrestricted terror, killings and beatings). This murder 
is further proof that ^Vatts is occupied by Government fascist troops and po- 
lice. There is no law above the will of the cops and the National Guard that has 
been quietly convoyed in. We are under a brutal fascist military occupation with 
all the consequences and implications. 

Secondly : This murder further exposes the unity of the courts and the cops. 
Both the courts and cops are part of the State machinery. This machine has as 
its sole purpose and oppression of the masses. It functions solely for the benifit 
[sic] of the ruling class. 

Thirdly : The whole concept of democracy is being shown in its true light. 
Democracy has never been any more than a smoke screen to cover the inequality 
of peoples and classes. Now it stands throughly [sic] exposed as the political 
covering for murder and mass oppression. 

The Inquest had two basic purposes. 1) to confuse the whole issue, to inject 
a multitude of 'legal' questions to cover up the crime, to present the question 
of the law being above all class and national antagonisms. A purpose of the 
inque.st was to pre.sent the state as impartial. The 'threats' of the KKK on the 
'right' and the 'Black extremists' on the 'left' aided this impression. Actually 
it is the cops — part of the states armed forces — that do the killings and the 
courts — the legal arm of the state — that backs them up and sets them free. 
Secondly, the inquest was a savage warning to people of Watts that any cop 
has the right to shoot any Negro or any minorty [sic] worker and the total force 
of the state will back him up. It must be seen that today, all the terror organ- 
izations — the KKK, the White Citizens Councils ; the Minute Men etc are simply 
symbols. Today, their functions are carried out by cops, supported by the courts. 

During this struggle it was again shown who are the friends of the people and 
who are the friends of the enemy. The state has used the tactic of building up 
his loyal opposition, and attempting to silence his real enemy. The authorities 
have gone out of their way to publicize the leaflets and statements of the Trot- 
skyites, the revisionist so called Communist Party and the clique of ix)lice .spies 
and provcatuers [sic] who call themselves Communists. Why have the authorities 
publicized their program and shown their leaflets on T.V.? Only becau.se it was 
in the best interests of the authorities. On the one hand these traitors support 
the Toms with calls for peaceful demonstrations and petitions, and on the other 
hand they call for violence from the Negro people (in either case, nightfall finds 
them safely tucked away in Torrence and San Franando [.sic] Valley). The 
Authorities want the unorganized, unarmed disunited Negro workers to attack 
them — in that way they believe they can kill off the fighters terrorize the com- 
munity and destroy the movement. 

P.O.C. has always called for mass confront ration [sic] with the enemy. That 
confrontration [sic] must have the form and slogans that reflect the ideological 
level of the masses at any time. Today POC calls on the workers of Watts to 
"Organize in order to fight." There is no other path. Organization must be based 
on the reality of the whole police, legal and political apparatus of the state as 
the enemy. 



1260 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

The ruling class and their state has declared war on Watts. It is obvious that 
if we are to fight back, we must have an organized disciplined political army. 
It is clear that individual actions, or disorganized action by small groups will 
only aid the enemy and provide the excuse for intensifying their fascist terror. 
The real fighter, the honest revolutionary today fights for the ideological con- 
viction and organization of the masses. The real heroes today organize in order 
to fight to win. 

The force and scope of the Negro peoples movement is arousing and activating 
all the national minorities. Unable to defeat the Negro workers in Watts, the 
state has been forced to escalate their war against the people and have turned 
their guns on the Mexican American minority. The courts have attempted to 
impose the fascist genocidal policy of 'sterilization'. The police have utilized their 
fascist policy of 'felony stop'. The whole state apparatus has intensified the 
terror against the Mexican- Americans. The Mexican American workers are fight- 
ing back. They are exposing their Uncle Toms and compradores. They have 
stopped the police from beating and illegally arresting their brothers. The 'official' 
sell out leadership will not be able to hold the Mexican American workers in 
check. 

The objective unity of the Negro and Mexican American American minority 
has been a fact for over a century. The political fighting unity is a matter of 
immediate practical inevitability. Brothers in class, brothers in toil and exploita- 
tion brothers in oppression and discrimination, the unity of the Mexican Ameri- 
can, the Indian, the Puerto Rican and the Negro will lay the basis for the unity 
of the whole working class. 

The workers of Watts are in the front trench in the struggle of the Negro 
people for liberation. They are in the front [t]rench in the international struggle 
of the oppressed people against fascist United States imperialism. The eyes of the 
world are upon us, our allies number in the billions — on with the struggle. 

VANGUARD, 

BOX 72306 WATTS STATION 

LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 

Issued by the Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute a Marxist 
Leninist Communist Party in the United States — Write Vanguard. 

Mr. Smith. I have one question. 

You mentioned further back the charge that Deadwyler was rushing 
his pregnant wife to the hospital at the time he was shot. 

Was that charge found to be true ? 

Mr. Anderson. His wife was pregnant. She didn't deliver the baby 
until several weeks later. It might have been 3 months later, 2 or 3 
months later, that the child was delivered. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, that concludes Lieutenant Anderson's 
testimony at this time. 

I would like to recall Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chainnan, before Mr. Wlieeler is recalled, I have 
some questions I would like to ask the lieutenant. 

Lieutenant, we received in evidence numerous documents printed 
and distributed by Communist groups and radical re\'X)]utionaiy groups 
during the time leading up to the Watts riot, also the photographs of 
such groups participating in protest demonstrations. And the nntui-e, 
the form, the content of these publications and leaflets ha\e shown 
beyond a reasonable doubt that these groups were making a. veiy 
strenuous effort to foment discontent and racial di.sorder by cliarges 
of police brutality and other charges of alleged discrimination and 
deprivation. They also contained calls for action and incitations to 
revolutionary violence. 

Do you have any evidence of the activity of these gix)ups during the 
time of the riots ? What liap])ened to tlieni during the time of the riots ? 

Mr. Andj^rson. The riot situation being what it was, we were unable 
to employ our standard intelligence operations at that time. In many 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1261 

cases, we don't know just where they wera Many of them, like Michael 
Laski or other Caucasian people, stayed out of the area completely, 
out of fear. 

Mr. Tuck. The riot was so successful that they could have easily 
withdrawn and phased out. 

Mr. Anderson. There was nothing for them to do at that point. I 
would imagine it was entirely successful as far as they wei'e concerned. 

Mr. IcHORD. Approximately how many arrests were made during the 
Watts riot? 

Mr. Anderson. I believe somewhere in the neighborhood of 4,000. 

Mr. IcHORD. Tliat is my memory, 4,000 or 4,500. 

I suppose thait among those people arrested you probably did have 
members of the radical Negro revolutionai-y groups, no doubt. 

Mr. Anderson. Yes. 

Mr. IcHORD. Nearly all the arrests made were Negroes, I suppose, 
because they were the ones actually doing the burning. 

Mr. Anderson. Yes ; almost all of them. 

Mr. IcHORD. And leading the rioting. 

Then you have no knowledge of direct participation by any of these 
groups containing white members ? 

Mr. Anderson. During the actual riots ? 

Mr. IcHORD. During the actual riots. 

Mr. Anderson. No ; there was no need. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Tuck. Thank you very much, Lieutenant Anderson. 

Mr. Anderson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Wheeler, will you resume the stand ? 

Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM A. WHEELEIU-Resumed 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, committee investigation establishes the 
existence in the Jjos Angeles, California, area of an organization called 
Afro- American Cultural Association. 

Are you familiar with the activities of this organization ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. This is a comparatively new organization. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have an address for the organization ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

I have a document which reflects the address to be 5907 Fourth Ave- 
nue, Los Angeles, California. 

(At this point, Mr. Ichord left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Smith. Who occupies this address and who subscribes to the 
telephone ? 

Mr. Wheeler. The address is the home of Frank Greenwood. He is 
also the telephone subscriber. 

Mr. Smith, Will you further identify Mr. Greenwood ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Greenwood makes his living as a playwright. He 
has w ritten several plays. The two best known are "If We Must Live" 
and the play "Burn, Baby, Burn." Neither of these plays could be 
considered a financial success. They are presented mostly to leftwing 
circles and groups and sponsored by groups on college campuses that 
could be considered questionable in their political affiliations. 

The play "If We Must Live" is based on the story of Eobert Wil- 
liams and the people of Monroe, North Carolina. As the files reflect 



1262 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

h^r^ in our committee, Robert Williams was indicted for kidnaping a 
white couple in Monroe, North Carolina, during a racial disturb- 
ance in August 1961. He fled to Cuba where he broadcast anti-Ameri- 
can radio programs and is now in Peking, China, where he writes 
propaganda for Red China and prints an anti-American bulletin. He 
also broadcasts anti-American propaganda from Peking. 

"Bum, Baby, Burn" is a play based on the Watts riot; of course, 
giving the rioters a favorable position. "Burn, Baby, Bum" is presented 
by the Afro group called the Touring Artists Group, which evidently 
was formed around 1958 by Frank Greenwood, who was listed as its 
director. 

Greenwood's background shows a close affinity to Communist causes. 
Our indices disclose numerous references to Greenwood's activity. 
However, the following should probably be recited to classify Green- 
wood's background. 

Mr. Chairman, I have a list here of nine items which are well docu- 
mented. If you would desire for me to read them into the record, I 
will. They are from the People's World and other organizations. To 
save time, they could be entered into the record. 

Mr. Smith. May I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that we receive this for 
the record as Wheeler Exhibit 15 ? 

Mr. Tuck. It will be received and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 15" follows :) 

Wheelek Exhibit No. 15 

(1) Frank Greenwood is shown as entertainer at ball honoring the 35th an- 
niversary of the U.S.S.R., November 7, at Hungarian Cultural Center, Los Ange- 
les, sponsored by American-Russian Institute in article in Baily People's World, 
October 28, 1952, p. 6. 

(2) Frank Greenwood is listed as entertaining at Negro History Week cele- 
bration on February 21, with Touring Actors' Group, sponsored by L.A. Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born, in article in People's World,, February 
15, 1958, p. 11. 

(3) F. Greenwood listed as directing Touring Artists Group in presenting 
play at May Day celebration, sponsored by Communist Party of Southern Cali- 
fornia, in article in People's World, May 10, 1958, p. 3. 

(4) Frank Greenwood is listed as head of cultural program at the People's 
World party, Saturday night (May 23), People's World, May 16, 1959, p. 3. 

(5) Frank Greenwood to entertain at 23d anniversary celebration of the 
People's World, People's World of March 4, 1961, p. 3. 

(6) Frank Greenwood to be on program at People's World anniversary cele- 
bration March 19, 1961, at the Park Manor Ballroom, 607 S. Western Avenue. 
Meeting under the auspices of Southern California Committee for the People's 
World. Handbill attached to letter dated March 6, 1961. 

(7) Frank Greenwood to speak in opposition to the Vietnam policy^ at teaciir 
in at UCLA as part of the International Days of Protest declared by the Na- 
tional Coordinating Committee To End the War in Vietnam. This meeting is 
cosponsored by the West Coast Professors Council on Peace. People's World, 
March 19, 1986, p. 3. 

(8) Frank Greenwood to be on platform as guest at antiwar meeting on 
"Vietnam and the Impending Invasion of China," January 15, Los Angeles. 
'National Guardian of January 7, 1967, p. 11 (ad). 

(9) Frank Greenwood to be platform guest on January 15, 1967, for Los Angeles 
Committee To End tlie War in Vietnam. Militant, January 9, 1967, p. 2. 

Mr, Wheeler. However, Frank Greenwood's political leanings in 
recent years have favored black nationalism. He is now in fact a black 
nationalist. His status with the Communist Party at the present time 
is not clear. He came under attack from the Connnunist Party for his 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1263 

play "Burn, Baby, Burn," which to a degree is considered to be anti- 
Semitic. 

Mr, Smith. When was the Afro-American Cultural Association 
organized, to the best of your knowledge ? 

Mr. Wheeler. The first document we have concerning the Afro- 
American Cultural Association has previously been presented in the 
record as Anderson Exhibit 15. 

Greenwood is identified in this exhibit as head of the Afro- American 
Cultural Association. This document is dated December 10, 1966. 

Mr. Smith. What is the format of the Afro-American Cultural 
Association ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Of course, it claims to be a cultural association. 

I have two exhibits announcing a series of lectures. The first an- 
nouncement states lectures will be held — the first lecture will be held 
Smiday, June 18, 1967, and will continue every Sunday through July 
16, 1967. The titles of these lectures are "Is It True Wliat They Say 
About The Christian Bible?" Then "UNITE OR PERISH." This is 
a discussion of an article from the Liberator. It was to be held on Sun- 
day, June 25, 1967. All these events were to be held at Greenwood's 
home. 

Now, the Liberator is edited by Daniel H. Watts, who is a militant 
black nationalist. He has been a speaker at a rally sponsored by the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee on November 17, 1960. In 1961, he 
was sponsor of the Monroe Defense Committee, which, of course, sup- 
ported Robert Williams. At a rally on October 5, 1961, he spoke on be- 
half of Robert Williams. He has a number of references contained in 
our files. 

I have a copy of the Liberator here published by the Liberation Com- 
mittee for Africa. The address of the Liberator is 244 East 46th Street, 
New York. It gives the identity of the other members of the staff. It 
seems to be somewhat international in flavor. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 16." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 16" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Continue please. 

Mr. Wheeler. The lecture on Sunday, July 2, was concerning 
"MALCOLM X : EVOLUTION OF A REVOLUTIONARY." 

All these black nationalist groups adopted Malcohn X as a patron 
saint and are quoting him veiy extensively in his remarks. However, 
Malcolm X made a trip to Mecca in April 1964. He was there about 
a month and returned in May 1964, the latter part of May. Upon his 
return, he had changed his outlook; his militancy had changed to 
more cooperative, more leniency. 

However, this seems to be forgotten by the black nationalist groups 
who failed to take this into consideration and quote his violent state- 
ments prior to his turn over to a more peaceful attitude and presenta- 
tion of his movement. 

Now, of course, he was assassinated on February 21, 1965, by three 
members of the Muslim sect who were later convicted and I believe 
are now in prison. 

On Sunday, July 9, some African speaker, name to be announced. 

88-083 O — 68^pt. 3 10 



1264 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

It seems that this organization has more of an international flavor, 
also. 

On Sunday, July 16, 1967, the topic was "BLACK HEROES OF 
THE PAST : II" and it names some of the individuals that they are 
to speak on. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 17." 

Mr. Tuck. It may be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 17" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Now, the second document also lists a series of lectures starting 
July 23, 1967. The first lecture is "An African Views the American 
Civil War." This gentleman was from Kenya. 

On July 30, 1967, the topic of the lecture was "What's Happening 
in the Congo and Nigeria ?" 

Mr. Smith. Who was the speaker there ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Brother Frank Greenwood, who, of course, was head 
of the organization. 

On August 6, 1967, the topic was "Black Nationalism : Revolution- 
ary and Reactionary." Now, the speaker on this date is John Harris, 
whom the previous witness, Lieutenant Anderson, discussed in full. 
He is a member of the Progressive Labor Party. 

The next date, August 13, 1967, the topic is "Wliich Road to Black 
Economic Power." 

The last lecture that I have recorded 

Mr. Smith. Who spoke to that ? 

Mr. Wheeler. This was a debate. 

The Reverend J. Patterson versus Cecil Mclntyre. 

On August 20, 1967, "Harriet Tubman, the Black Moses," was the 
talk. 

Mr. Smith. I request that this document be received and marked 
"Wheeler Exhibit No. 17-A." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 17-A" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Do you have anything in addition to add? 

Mr. Wheeler. Not really concerning this organization. 

However, Mr. Greenwood is connected with another organization 
in the Watts area called the Black Anti-Draft Union. This organiza- 
tion distributed a leaflet in the Watts area prior to President Johnson's 
appearance at the Central Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles on June 23, 1967, 
appealing for demonstrators in the Watts area to participate. 

I quote from the leaflet. On the top it says Lyndon Johnson would 
be in Los Angeles on June 23 [1967]. It says, "Tell it to LB J— HELL 
NO. . . . BLACKS won't go! !" 

Then, further: 

We must demonstrate against the Governments policy of drafting black people 
to kill & die in a war that is not in our interest. Our interest is fighting for free- 
dom right here ! ! ! 

Come join the demonstration 

And then it gives a place for them to meet and instructions, and 
"Sponsored By— BLACK ANTI-DRAFT UNION, P.O. Box 73573, 
Los Angeles 90003." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1265 

This particular post office box is rented by John Wesley Harris, 
218 West 82d Place. It was rented on 12/15/66, which would also tend 
to give the date that the organization came into existence. 

Again, this is the John Wesley Harris that Lieutenant Anderson 
discussed and is a member of the Progressive Labor Party. 

On the other side, the telephone number, AXminister 3-3212, is a 
published phone listed to Frank S. Greenwood, 5907 Fourth Avenue, 
Los Angeles, California. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have the identity of the other persons listed, of 
the persons listed to the other two phones ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir, I have. 

Do you want me to put them in the record ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. 750-8007 was a published phone, the subscriber being 
James Dann— D-a-n-n — 218 East 82d Place, Apartment 2, Los An- 
geles, California. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, Dann was identified on a previously 
entered exhibit. 

Mr. Wheeler. The third phone, AD, which would be Adams, 
5-2747 is a nonpublished phone, the subscriber being Freddie Ander- 
son, 715 West 45th Street, Los Angeles, California. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit 18." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be so received and marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 18" appears on p. 1266.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, as an investigator for the committee on the 
West Coast, did you make inquiries into an organization known as Self 
Leadership for All Nationalities Today ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Smith. Did your investigation disclose the date of its inception ? 

Mr. Wheeler. It was f oiTned on August 19, 1965, 2 days subsequent 
to the Watts riot. 

Mr. Smith. Wliat is the short title ? 

Mr. Wheeler. It is commonly called "SLANT." 

Mr. Smith. Wlio is its founder? 

Mr. Wheeler. Its founder is Tommy Ray Jacquette. He was bom 
Tommy Ray Henson — H-e-n-s-o-n — on December 13, 1943. His title is 
executive director. 

Mr. Smith. Wliat is his occupation ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Tlie last position I know he held was that of a social 
worker for the Westminister Neighborhood Association. 

Mr. Smith. Wliat is the Westminister Neighborhood Association? 

Mr. Wheeler. It is a federally funded charity organization, perhaps 
the largest in the Watts area. However, the funds for the Westminister 
Neighborhood Association have been suspended, and the Westminister 
Neighborhood Association is under investigation for misappropriation 
of funds. This all occurred within the last 2 weeks. 

Wliether Mr. Jacquette is presently employed or not, I do not know. 

Mr. Smith. Does SLANT maintain an office and address ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Originally it maintained an address at 8501 South 
San Pedro Street, Los Angeles, California. 

Mr. Smith. Wliat is the general purpose of the organization ? 

Mr. Wheeler. The original purpose of the organization on the sur- 
face appeared to be to seek legitimate goals for the Negro. They went 



1266 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 18 

/ ^/ //// aJ7 /7 ^ // /^ ^. J 




{y-lc^£>v| -5j>lt 23^51 cd- (jC-ntur^i Cin^ ^dia - >ea^ btvfrl^ k.Us-^ 



Wt MUST DEIVIOKI STRAT A AGAimST 

Thti 6CvEi<'NMEMTS POL-ICy or 

f D^C m A WAR T\MT \S \^OT' \M OUI^ 

iNTeRcsn OUR iNie^t^esr is riGnTiNc^ 



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P. O 3ox: T3^i3 
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PUONE : Ay- 3 3ZI2- 
AD ^2747 



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SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1267 

into some details and prepared brochures and went to a lengthy effort 
to put up a budget, and so on and so forth. I believe they probably 
anticipated being federally funded, from looking at the material. 

However, the general tenor and objectives gradually changed. Let 
me first read from a document headed "SELF LEADERSHIP FOR 
ALL NATIONALITIES TODAY." 

In the print is a motto, "BROTHERHOOD-UNITY-RESPON- 
SIBILITY-NATIONWIDE." 

If we take the first four alphabetical letters from each of these words 
from the motto, we conclude with the word "BURN." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 19." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 19" appears on p. 1268.) 

Mr. Wheeler. With reference to Exhibit 19, I have another docu- 
ment from SLANT. This motto was evidently by design. It is a repro- 
duction of a card on which is printed the motto "B.U.R.N." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this docmnent be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 20." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 20" appears on p. 1269.) 

Mr. Smith. Do you have any further information concerning 
SLANT? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. SLANT was represented at the First- Annual 
Message from Malcolm X at the Garden of Prayer Church, 5326 South 
Central, on 2/20/66, at 5 :30 p.m. This meeting was sponsored by an 
organization known as "US." US will be the subject of a different pres- 
entation. Jacquette was a featured speaker. SLANT was represented 
at the US-sponsored KUZALIWA Services for Brother Malcolm X 
on Sunday, May 22, 1966, at the Masonic Hall, 1133 West Manchester 
Avenue. The guest of honor at this event was Mrs. Malcolm X. The 
slogan used was "Freedom, By ANY Means Necessary !" 

Tommy Ray Jacquette was arrested on May 23, 1966, with others 
for robbery. I bring this out because at the time of his arrest he was 
wearing a yellow "T" shirt with a caricature of Malcolm X on the 
front. This type of distinctive "T" shirt was worn by members of US. 

Jacquette in a speech presented on Monday, July 11, 1966, and re- 
ported in the Daily Bruin of July 15, 1966 — I might state that the 
Daily Bruin is the publication of the University of California at Los 
Angeles — I quote now from the Daily Bruin of the date previously 
referred to : 

The next speaker was Jacquette from SLANT which he explained means "self- 
leadershlp for all nationjalities today." 

The motto of SLANT is BURN, Jacquette said. This means "brotherhood, unity, 
responsibility, nationwide." Jacquette explained that his group was presently 
involved with education and job training in the Negro ghettos, but said that he 
was in favor of Negroes "getting whatever they need by whatever means 
necessary." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 21." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 21" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Continue, please. 



1268 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 19 

SELF LEADERSHIP f On ALL NATIONALITIES TODAY 
MOTTO: BROTHERHOOD -U,MTY-RtS?ONS I 6 I L ITY-NAT I ONW I Dt 



S.L.A.N.T. vmOs formed in August of Nitictcon S ixty-f i ve . .( ; S'65) in the 
South Los Angeles area by a noinbor of persons v<ho oocame deep!/ distrubed 
over the plight of our people throughout the ration, especially the pliqnt 
of those in the Los Angeles and surrounding areas. It was decided that the 
sense of brotherhood and unity should be increased among our people, and that 
we should concern ourselves locally and nationally In all instances whore 
our rights are involved. 

Other purposes of S.L.A.N.T. arc: 

1. bringing the youth together with a new sense of .purpose unri identity, 
and thus decreasing school dropouts by showing them that l^jt people 
need their knowledge and education as (Tiuch as they themselves, and 
converting the negative force of "gongs" into a positive one con- 
structive force for our pe'op 1 e . 

2. building a feeling of dignity and pride upon the realization of the 
contributions of Afro-Americans and our African brothers to the world. 

5. Cultivating and strengthening the principle and practice of "Sclp-Help" 
as a people. 

k. destroying the myths and misbeliefs that made our people think that we 
have nothing in common with Africans. 

5. to bring the citizens into full par t I c i pe t i on In tnc decisions and 
activities which determine his social and econo^rilcal welfare. 

6. to achieve full communications with 'jiectcd and sppolnteo o^'flclals at 
eve ry 1 eve 1 . 

7. to promote full and fair employment opportunity for all citizens, 
including programs of apprenticeship and on-the-job training designed 
to qualify workers for their highest employ~ent potential. 

8. eliminate expoitation through mass cofiimun i cat i on . 

9. to promote • better, relationships among the law enforcement officials 
and the community it serves. * 

10. to protect all, through efficient factual information. 

11. to be able to define and speak for ourselves, instead of being def+ned 
and spoken for by others. 



We the members of S.L.A.N.T. have formed this organization to help extend 
and accelerate this work. 

S.L.A.N.T., |_To»nmy R. Jacquette, Executive Director / 

8501 So. San Pedro Street - - Los Angeles, California 90003 - - 750-5010 

750-50'+8 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1269 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 20 



r 



-i ' t I ■! r •.»..■. k 'f 



(motto) B. U. R. N. 
Brottehood 



Unity 



HaBpoiiBibility 

Nattawide 



L 



J 



Mr. Wheeler. The Laguna Beach, California, South Coast News of 
May 22, 1967, describes Jacquette as "a young black nationalist from 
Watts" and further reports he was scheduled to give a speech on black 
power on Thui-sday, May 25, 1967, in Laguna. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 22." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so accepted and will be so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 22" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The Santa Ana Register of Au^st 10, 1967, reported 
a speech by Jacquette in Fullerton, California. I quote from the 
article : 

Two weeks ago Thomas R. Jacquette stood in the pulpit of a Fullerton church — 
damning "white racist America's government"' for exploiting him and his people 
to the point of armed rebellion. 

In Fullerton, before an almost all-white Council of Churches Commission 
on Church and Race meeting, Jacquette cited a long tale of discrimination, 
deprivation and mistreatment of the Negro in America, as justification for a 
chilling prediction of future armed uprisings, of burnings and killings by his 
followers. 

"Martin Luther King and the so-called Big-Four Negro leaders don't speak 
for us," Jacquette said. "They are part of the establishment and have as much 
to lose as the honkies (white people). We have nothing, and nothing to lose." 

Jacquette told the churchmen he and other "Black Power" advocates (the 
23-year-old Negro is listed as executive director of "Self Leadership for All 
Nationalities Today," which operates in Los Angeles under the slogan "Burn") 
are determined to be free of white "exploitation, deprivation and mistreat- 
ment" — or they'll burn America down. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit 23." 

Mr. Tuck. Is is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 23" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The Los AngeUs Times of September 26, 1967, re- 
ports a visit of a presidential aspirant to Los Angeles and a visit to 



1270 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Watts and his conversation with Tommy Jacquette. Jacquette had this 
to say : "change for the Negroes can never be brought about without 
violence." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit 24." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 24" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. That concludes the presentation on this particular 
organization. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, in your investigation as committee in- 
vestigator on the West Coast, were you directed to investigate the 
activities of an organization which identified itself as "US"? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. This is a rather long one. 

Mr. Smith. Who are the leaders of US ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Kon Karenga is chairman and Allen Jamal is vice 
chairman. 

Mr. Smith. Who is Ron Karenga ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Karenga was born Ronald McKinley Everett on 
July 14, 1941, Parsonburg, Maryland. He is a graduate of UCLA, 
holding a bachelor of science degree in political science, and he re- 
ceived his M.A. in September 1965. Our information is that he has 
studied for a doctorate degree in linguistics. His linguistic studies 
favor the African languages and he is proficient in the Swahili 
language. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, for the record, "Swahili" is — 

a generic name for inhabitants of the coasts of East Africa and the island of 
Zanzibar. They are of Bantu stocli with an Arab infusion, a handsome, intelligent 
people of no marked racial type. Their language, KiSwahili, or Swahili, is a 
Bantu tongue modified by Arabic. It is a lingua franca understood, along the 
coast, from Aden in the north to Durban in the south ; and inland, throughout 
Uganda, for a short distance into the southern Sudan, over the basin of the 
River Congo, and throughout Nyasaland. 

This is taken from Encyclopedia Americana, 1948 edition. 

Mr. Tuck. Suppose we suspend for 5 minutes to enable me to call 
the Capitol. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Tuck. Proceed. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, who is Allen Jamal? 

Mr. Wheeler. The true name of the subject is Allen Eugene Don- 
aldson, born March 28, 1931, in Boston, Massachusetts. Our records 
disclose he is a former member of the Muslims of Islam and was so 
registered as Allen 2X in August 1961. 

I have a letter regarding Donaldson's or Jamal's Muslim connec- 
tions, dated June 13, 1961. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 25." 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered to be received and will be so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 25" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Smith. What is his position or occupation? 

Mr. Wheeler. He is a typesetter by trade. 

Mr. Smith. What is the current address of US ? 

Mr. Wheeler. 8211 South Broadway, Ja)S Angeles, California. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1271 

Mr. Smith. What does US stand for? 

Mr. Wheeler. The alphabetical — well, the alphabetical letters of 
US have no further meaning. 

I have a blank membership card. I have a motto here that I would 
like to explain before I put this in the record. 

The organization, US, desires to represent the Negro masses 
throughout the United States, although it has just recently originated 
in the Los Angeles area. This motto reflects that the Negro is every- 
where in the United States and "US" is the Negro himself. Now, the 
motto is "Anywhere we are, US is !" 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit 26." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 26" follow^s:) 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 26 

BOX 132, COU^TOiti'^AXrc, 

Ron Karen ga, 
Chattznlir 




'^nywhete we~ are, US h !" 
Alien Janul 

1HA}>6^ 934-6570 



Mr. Smith. What is US and what is its political philosophy ? 

Mr. Wheeler. US is a militant black nationalist organization. Tliis 
is dociunented by its leader, Ron Karenga ; documents printed by US 
and described as such in newspaper and magazine articles. 

I will quote a few excerpte from a speech to a white audience by 
Ron Karenga, which was recorded in the Santa Ana Register^ a Cali- 
fornia paper, on September 3, 1967: 

Costumed like Black Muslims, eig'ht stone-faced bodyguards escorted speaker 
Ron Karenga to the rostrum . . . and. in short order, he smilingly insulted almost 
everyone as he espoused Negro separatism and outlined the "cultural approach of 
his black power group, designated US." 

In answer to a question, he said : 

"You are not a black man and can never be one. Our membership is for Ne- 
groes only. Whites and blacks must not mix in marriage or anywhere else. Each 
must stay in his own world but have equal social rights." 

"We are here to educate the Negro first — as to his culture, his history, and Ms 
pride in race. Black is black. White is white. They cannot meet." 

From the same article : 

He explained also the role of the late Malcolm X as a sort of patron saint of 
the US faith. 



1272 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Karenga advised Negroes to abjure Christianity. 

"Don't look for religion in the sky. Look for it in yourselves." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be accepted and 
marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 27." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 27" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. From the Daily Bruin, dated 7/15/66, an article 
states : 

"We're not African, and we're not American," Karenga said. "We're Afro- 
Americans. We've got our own history, culture and set of values. We've got soul." 

Mr. Smith. Mr, Chairman, this document has previously been 
marked "Wheeler Exhibit 21." 

Mr. Wheeler. The Los Angeles Free Press of September 2, 1966, in 
an article titled "A Talk with Ron Karenga — Watts Black National- 
ist," the following is quoted : 

Ron Karenga is the leader of probably the most influential of all the many 
black nationalist organizations in Los Angeles. The organization, called US, was 
formed in February of this year, but already its members play important roles in 
many other community organizations. 

This would date the origin of the organization in February 1966. 
Another quote from the article : 

"We are peace loving, but we are not non-violent * * *." 

Again from the same article : 

"I think that SNCC is the greatest. But I don't know if SNCC is a civil rights 
organization anymore. I think that everyone is realizing that it is useless to talk 
about civil rights when the white boy is the one who can give them to you in 
terms of his controlling the power citizenship. * * * 

"As far as SNCC is concerned, we will be working closer with it in the future. 
What we would like to do is set up cultural and educational programs wherever 
they need them. We hope we can be an asset to them in developing similar cul- 
tural programs to ours across the country. This again is reflecting back to our 
first principle, Umoja, which is functional unity." 

A question was asked, "What is your position on the SNCC state- 
ment recommending that Negroes not fight in Vietnam ? " 

"This follows the pattern of SNCC of being dynamic and outspoken. We try 
to stay away from political stands since we are a cultural organization, however 
we are forc*ed by the political community in which we live to express our posi- 
tions on things. So what we say about the draft is this : a man would be a fool 
to defend a government in Vietnam which refused to defend him in Georgia. 
Alabama, and Mississippi and in the streets of Los Angeles. I don't think that 
the white man can expect us to be fighting in Japan and nmning in Georgia." — 

This must be an error in the document, but he says "Japan" — 

"I was under the impression that whatever the state asks me to do, it must do 
that same thing for me. NOW 1 ask for protection from the state and the state 
hasn't given me protection, so I don't feel that I can protect the state." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 28." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 28" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1273 

Mr. Wheeler. From The Saturday Evening Post of July 16, 1966, 
and from an article titled "The Ugly Mood of Watts,'' the US organi- 
zation is discussed : 

The name "US" is not an acronym. "US is the black people," Karenga says, 
and then quotes the US motto: Anywhkre we are, US is. Karenga, in fact, is 
everywhere in Watts, lecturing, threatening, cajoling, educating. * * * 

From the same article in The Saturday Evening Post : 

Each Saturday US sitaffers drill some 30 youngsters in black history and 
in the rudiments of Swahili from a "Run, Jim, Run" reader that Karenga trans- 
lated from English. As part of their exercise program, the children, aged 3 to 14, 
are given close-order military drill by an instructor wearing a Malcolm X 
sweatshirt. * * * 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this article be accepted 
and marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 29." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be accepted and so marked. 
(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 29" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. At the inception of US, it appeared that US fol- 
lowed the philosophy of the late Malcolm X, whom Karenga has ex- 
plained as sort of a patron saint of US faith. Further documentation 
of US and the Malcolm X philosophy will be presented in the record 
in chronological order. 

However, later in 1967 Ron Karenga had developed his own phi- 
losophy and his own teachings. During the early stages of US, mem- 
bers wore "T" shirts with the caricature of Malcolm X with the word 
"US" imprinted on the "T" shirt. This, I understand, will be elimi- 
nated and a new identification of members will bear a caricature of 
Karenga. 

I have here a recent publication setting forth the philosophy of 
US, which is the teachings of Karenga. This docmnent is broken down 
into the following parts and was printed in the year 1967. The parts it 
is broken into are : 

(1) Black Cultural Nationalism 
'2) Revolution 
|3) Politics 
1 4) House System 
;5) Art 
6) Religion 
(7) Liberals 

Under the heading of "Black Cultural Nationalism" is additional 
proof of the type of organization I have previously described. I quote 
several paragraphs : 

Blacks must develop their own heroic images. To the white boy, Garvey was a 
failure — to us he was i)erfeet for his time and context. To the white boy 
Malcolm X was a hate teacher — to us he was the highest form of Black Manhood 
in his generation. 

The Seven-fold path of the Blackness is to Think Black, Talk Black, Act Black, 
Create Black, Buy Black, Vote Black, and Live Black. 

There are many other quotes from this section which can be placed 
in the record later if the counsel so desires. 



1274 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. I think that will be sufficient. 

Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted and marked 
"Wlieeler Exhibit No. 30." 

Mr. Tuck. The docmnent will be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 30" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. In your testimony, you mentioned one section in Ex- 
hibit 30 as "Revolution." 

Will you comment on this section ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

It appears from analyzing this section that US is preparing for and 
is conditioning members of their race for violent revolution in the 
United States, not in the immediate future, but AVhen the people asso- 
ciated with US or affiliated with US are conditioned for such a move- 
ment. The words of Ron Karenga are self-evident. I quote from the 
booklet : 

The revolution being fought now is a revolution to win the minds of our peo- 
ple. If we fail to win this we cannot wage the violent one. 

Sometimes brothers get so hung up in the myth of revolution that they talk 
about bringing America to her knees and can't even wipe out one police station. 

A revolt is an attempt to overthrow the system ; while the revolution is the 
complete overthrow of that system. 

A lot of brothers play revolutionary ; they read a little Fanon, a little Mao 
and some Marx. Although this information is necessary it is not suflScient for we 
must develop a new plan of revolution for Black people here in America. 

You can't fight a revolution on a local level. It has to be fought through a 
national struggle. 

******* 

We must believe in our cause and be willing to die for it and we should stop 
reading other peoples literature and write our own and stop pretending revolu- 
tion and make it. 

The only thing that will make us invincible is for us to fight — to fight for our 
freedom and not our personal selves — to fight to get back the freedom we lost in 
1565. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point, for the record the individ- 
ual mentioned as Fanon, from whom they take their teaching, is as 
follows : 

Dr. Frantz Omar Fanon was born m Martinique and educated in 
France. A psychiatrist, he died of cancer in 1961 at the age of 37. His 
major work was printed m French in 1961 and translated ihto En- 
glish in 1965 under the title T/ie Wretched of the Earth. This book 
established Fanon as one of the most significant theoreticians on colo- 
nial revolution. Together with essays on guerrilla warfare by Mao Tse- 
tung and Che Guevara, The Wretched of the Earth supplies revolu- 
tionaries with the tecluiical and ideological inspiration needed for cur- 
rent and future re^'olutions. 

Continue, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. This continues imder the heading of "Revolution" : 

Blacks live right in the heart of America. That is why we are best able to 
cripple this man. And once you understand your role you won't talk revolution, 
but you'll make it. 

******* 
When the word is given we'll see how tough you are. When it's "bum", let's see 
how much you burn. AVhen it's "kill", let's see how much you kill. When it's 
"blow up", let's see how much you blow up. And when it's "take that white girl's 
head too", we'll really see how tough you are. 

******* 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1275 

You cannot have a revolution without direction, and that direction can only 
come through an ideology developed for your own situation. 

****** ^ 

You must have a cultural revolution before the violent revolution. The cultural 
revolution gives identity, purpose and direction. 

We must gear the money going from the church to the support of the revolu- 
tion. Revolution cannot succeed without finance. 

No revolt is i-solated. When Blacks revolt in any section of the country it is an 
expression of the entire nation of Afro- America. 

******* 

I remember my mother used to tell me — if you're bad the devil will get you. I 
didn't knovt' that until the cops came. 

******* 

Talking general truisms is necessary but not suflBcient. To say the white man 
is the devil is not enough. What are you going to do about it? 

******* 

Violence in itself without consideration for time or circumstance is as in- 
adequate as non-violence. 

******* 

Black people need a revolutionary school where they can be educated rather 
than trained. 

******* 
We need Black Power to offset white power. 

Mr. Smith. You mentioned a section on politics. 

Do yon have any connnent to make on this particular section ? 

Mr. Wheeler. In this section, there is no position on any political 
party. However, there are several interesting quotes which are as 
follows : 

It is an Afro-American proverb that the only time Blacks are citizens is during 
war time and tax time. 

******* 

The devil has three means of controlling Blacks : 

1. Missionary 

2. Mercenary 

3. Military 

Mr. Smith. By the reference to the devil, does he mean the white 
man? 

Mr. Wheeler. They are referring to the white man when they use 
the word "devil"' ; yes, sir. 

"Negroes" have been trying to adapt to America since they got here. We say 
that now America will have to adapt to the Black man. 

******* 

If Black people want to build a Black nation they have to have a w^ll to do so. 
No nation can exist without a will to exist. 

******* 

In terms of conflict and movement, all of it should be to obtain Black Power, 
which is the means to obtain three things : self-determination, self-respect and 
self-defense. 

******* 
It is no longer a question of being an American but of being free — and legisla- 
tion will never make us free. 

******* 

The cultural nation provides self-determination, self-respect and self-defense. 
That is also the concern of Black power. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, you mentioned one of the headings in 
this Exhibit 30 is "House System." 



1276 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Will you describe what is meant hj this particular title? 

Mr. Wheeler. Karenga, in his writing here, is endeavoring to 
strengthen the home, which he feels is the basis and the strength of 
any revolutionary or political movement. 

Mr. Smith. We also have a heading entitled "Art." 

Do you have anything specific to say on this subject? 

Mr. Wheeler. Here agam he is teaching Negro culture, and all art 
should be created by Negroes of talent reflecting Negro culture. There 
are several quotes from this section which are interesting, the first 
being: 

We need a new language to break the linguistic strait jacket of our masters, 
who taught us his language so he could vinderstand us, although we could 
hardly understand ourselves. 

I would like to state that Karenga is teaching Swahili to his mem- 
bers, and the members of his organization are adopting Swahili names 
like Ron Karenga, who adopted that particular name, and also Allen 
Jamal, and there are others who are doing the same thing. 

Continuing under the "Art" section, it states : 

All art must be revolutionary and in being revolutionary it must be col- 
lective, committing, and functional. 

Mr. Smith. You testified to another heading, "Religion." 

Do you have any comment on this section? 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, I can quote Karenga again from the booklet : 

Christianity is a white religion. It has a white God, and any "Negro" who 
believes in it is a sick "Negro". How can you pray to a white man? If you 
believe in him, no wonder you catch so much hell. 

****** tf 

The Christian is our worst enemy. Quiet asi it's kept it was a Christian who 
enslaved us. Quiet as it's kept it's the Christian that burns us. Quiet as it's 
kept it's a Christian that beats us down on the street; and quiet as it's kept, 
when the thing goes down it'll be a Christian that's shooting us down. You 
have to face the fact that if the Christian is doing all this there must be 
something wrong with Christianity. 

Another quote: 

Jesus said, "My blood will wash you white as snow". Who wants to be white 
but sick "Negroes", or worse yet — washed that way by the blood of a dead Jew. 
You know if Nadinola bleaching cream couldn't do it, no dead Jew's blood is 
going to do it. 

I would like to point out at this time that Ron Karenga has estab- 
lished his own religious sect. It is called the Kuwaida religion. In 
reference to this, I refer to an article in the Los Angeles Thnes of 
May 22, 1967. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this article be received and 
marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 31." 

Mr. Tuck. The document will be received and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 31" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The address of this religious sect is the same as the 
office of US, 8211 South Broadway. There is a photograph accompany- 
ing the article here showing Karenga where he is marrying a number 
of people who belong to his sect. 

Mr. Smith. Under the topic "Religion," the word "Jew" was men- 
tioned. What is the position of US on the Jewish faith? 



SUBVERSIVE ESTFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1277 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, in the booklet we have had under discussion, 
Exhibit 30, the word "Jew" is mentioned on two occasions in a deroga- 
tory manner. However, US is considered an anti-Semitic organization. 
The following information has been developed : 

Investigation of this organization included the obtaining of an in- 
terview with Allen Jamal by a law enforcement agency in March 1966. 
Jamal is quoted in this report — 

All whites are bad, Jews are worse and the police who he referred to as the 
Beasts are the worst of all. This includes colored policemen. * * * 

Now, later in March 1966 Kon Karenga was interviewed by the same 
agency and the following is quoted from the intelligence report : 

Karenga asked if either one of us were Jewish. When we replied in the negative 
he stated that was good as it would make it easier to talk to us. He expressed 
the anti-semitic statements previously espoused by Jamal and claimed that the 
business and store burnings in the Watts and colored areas were directed against 
Jewish owners and that if any 'Anglos' were victims it was because the people 
had foimd it difficult to differentiate. 

Mr. Smith. From your testimony, the last heading in this booklet 
[Exhibit 30] is "Liberals." 

Do you have any comment to make on this subject ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Of course, it has been established that this orga- 
nization is black nationalist and has no desire for any cooperation 
from the Caucasians. Therefore, they would be against any liberal 
assistance or aid in the US program. 

I will quote several paragraphs from Exhibit 30 : 

Brothers must watch out for whites who are rebelling against their own 
society and uses the wave of Black revolution to push their cause. 

^ ***** * 

America was born in violence and they tell us to be non-violent. If you con- 
demn us for violence, let your own history condemn you. 

Mr. Smith. Is there any connection with US and the Communist 
movement? 

Mr. Wheeler. It appears from the format that some of the prin- 
ciples and ideologies are based on Marxism. However, tliis is a black 
nationalist organization and any direct cooperation would be in the 
negative sense. However, as pre\dously stated under the topic "Revo- 
lution" in Exhibit 30, Karenga says it is necessary to read Mao and 
Marx. But there is no Communist domination of the organization. 

However, Allen Jamal appeared at a press conference sponsored by 
the W. E. B. DuBois Club, held March 8, 1966, at the Los Angeles 
Press Club. When interviewed by th& press, Allen J amal had this to 
say: 

"US" is an organization that is primarily interested in the black people in the 
movement and, since the movement is named after a black intellectual, Mr. 
DuBois, we are naturally concerned with him and that he is not used in an 
improper light, and the attack on the people within the DuBois Club who happen 
to be black, regardless of the political implications or regardless of what they 
might be, we are interested that they don't get hurt. Now, Mr. Ron Karenga, 
who is chairman of US, has instructed me to tell you this today, and if there 
are any questions I will be glad to answer them, but this is whalt I am here for — ■ 
to instruct that if you label them Communists or if you label them anything — 
you are not going to kill them, because we will stop that. We follow Malcolm X 
principles right up to the line and go eveh further than he did. Since he left us 
we have to go on even further. 



1278 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES EST RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Now, a question was asked by a news reporter. The question, "Even 
further than what?" 

The answer, "Whatever the situation calls for and by any means 
necessary." 

Mr. Smith. How effective has the US organization been in the Watts 
area? 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to refer to the Los Angeles Times of May 
18, 1967. Ron Karenga called a press conference and called for a holi- 
day for the Negroes to observe the anniversary of the death of Mal- 
cohn X, who was killed on February 21, 1965. He called for Negro 
workers to stay away from work and Negro students to stay away from 
school. He called this holiday Kuzaliwa Day which, according to the 
Times, means "birth" in the Swahili language. 

A number of leaflets were distributed in the Watts area in various 
schools requesting Negroes to stay away from schools and jobs, 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 32." 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that the same be received and so marked. 

Mr. Smith. And Wheeler Exhibit 33. 

(Documents marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 32 and 33," respect- 
ively. Exhibit No. 32 retained in committee files : No. 33 appears on 
p. 1279.) 

Mr. Smith. Was Karenga's holiday successful ? 

Mr. Wheeler. In regard to this question, I refer you to the Holly- 
wood Citizen-News of May 19, 1967, and I quote : 

A Los Angeles Board of Education spokesman said absences were running be- 
tween 20 and 30 per cent at high schools in the south-central part of the city, ap- 
proximately double the normal rate. 

Manual arts, VTashington, Dorsey, Jordan, Fremont and Jefferson High Schools 
were among those affected. 

I would also like to refer you to the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner 
of May 19, 1967. From an article captioned "1500 Excused From High 
School to Honor Malcolm X," I quote : 

An estimated 1500 Negro students at Ck)mpton High School were excused from 
classes today in honor of Malcolm X, slain Black Muslim leader. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these two documents be 
received and marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 34 and 35." 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that they be accepted and so marked. 

(Documents marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 34 and 35," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. The next exhibit is a leaflet headed "US invites YOU 
to attend its KUZALIWA Services for Brother Malcolm X." The 
guest of honor is Mrs. Malcolm X. Featured speakers are listed as : 
Ron Karenga, chairman of US; Tommy Jacquette, executive direc- 
tor of SLANT; Ernie Smith, chairman of Afro- American Citizens' 
Council ; Robert Brock, president of Self -Determination Committee ; 
Frank Greenwood, chairman of Afro- American "Culture" Associa- 
tion ; and Abdel, Church of Resurrection. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 36." 

Mr. Tuck. It will be so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 36" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1279 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 33 



A 



■jtar*M« «• f' w ^•' 



BROTHERS ^ SISTERS 



rnoKt, NMr i9 

18 



Malcolm X's Birthday 

OR 

KuZALIVA-THE B<RTH 

UNDB* THZ ICA'.«AIOA RELIGION THIS IS A NATIONAL HOLIDAY FOR 
BLACK PEOPLZ. THE AIUVOCATES Of OS OaCAKI lATrOW HONOR THIS 
6IKAT APROAMERICAM WHO LIVED AMDTJIED FOP^fffTTEOPLE . 
m SATi 

STAY HOME FROn SCHOOL 

AND JOBS 



BLACK BROTHERS, PRACTICE UMOJA - UNITY AND JOIN US IN 
CBLBMMTXHG THIS HOLIDAY. 

08 Culture C«nt«r *Bl*ek« muat writ* their own hintorv, 

• 211 S«. Broadway hommt tb*ir own bar*** tkixd d«vAlop 

Loa Angalea, Calif. thair *<wn haroic liaag** and heroic daeda. 

Ph.: 753-9591 

-Naulana Rao Karanya 
P«ua4tor - Chairman 



88-083 O - 68 - Pt. 3 - 11 



1280 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr, Smith. Has the US organization participated in any demon- 
strations or other type of agitation activity ? 

;Mr. Wheeler. US sponsored a Black Leadersliip Conference begin- 
ning on February 18, 1967, at which Stokely Carmichael spoke. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this docimient be received 
and marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 37." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 37" follows :) 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 37 




"Anywhere we are, US la" 

V 

US BLACK LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE 

Date: Saturday, Pebmary 18, 196? 

Location: Masonic Temple, 1050 B. 50th Street, Los Angeles, California 

8:30 - 9:00 a.m. Registration - coffee and donuts 

9:00 - 9:20 a.m. Introduction and Scope - Herb Carter, 
L. A. County Human Relations Committee 

I. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION 

9:20 - 9:50 a.m. A. Major Presentation: 

"Organizational Models" - Earnest Preacoi-" 

9:50 - 10:30 a.m. B. Response; 

1) Organizing and Training Youth as Leaders - 
Walt Breraond, Social Action Training Center 

2) Techniques of Disruption - Earl Anthony, 
Fillmore Action Committee 

3) Organizing the Student - Marianna Waddy, 
Black Students* Union 

4) Welfare Rights Organization - 

Johnnie Mae Tlllmon, ANC Mothers Anonymous 

10:30 - 11:15 a.m. C. Workshops ; 

Bremond, Anthony, Waddy and Tlllmon - 
Preacely will float 

II. POLITICAL MOVEMENT 

11:15 - 11:^5 a.m. A. tfe lor Presentation: 

"The Black Politician: Possibilities of Power" - 
Willard Murray, Special Aaaistant to the Mayor, 
Los Angeles 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1281 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 37 — Continued 

11:45 - 12:25 p.m. B. Response: 

1) The Black Party: An Alternative or Myth - 
Ken Simmons, Black Independent Political 
Action Party 

2) Alliances and Coalitions: Left and/or P!Jr;:-il 
Danny Gray, H-VAC 

3) Third World Relations: PoGsibllltief a ^2 
Re.'illtli'S - Robert Brock, Self-Deterraination 
Commitce'} 

12:25 - 1:30 p.m. C, VorkL^nops af.a Lurch : 

"Im-Tions, Sr-ay"^ Erock - flurray will ilo^jL 

*♦ Lunch will be .;crved In the work';,hop3 to 3a"e 
tine! 1 1 ! I : i 

III. ECONOMIC 0KGANI2ATI0N 

1:30 - 2:00 p.m. A. Major Presentcttlon: 

"Towards a United Black Fund" - Robori. Reynaln, 
Department of Labor 

2:00 - 2:40 p.m. B. Response; 

1) Co-operatives: An Economic Alternative - 
Lou Smith, CORE 

2) Job Development: The Bootsti-au Moaei - 
Robert Hall, Operation Bootstrap 

', ) Youjii- People in Poverty Agencies: Bjrdor.s 
and Benefits - Tommy Jacquette-Hallfu, SLAMT 

2:40 - 3:40 p.m. C. workshops and Coffee Break (10 minutes) 

Smith, Hall, Jacquette-Hallfu - Reyaals will CIca: 

IV. CULTURAL MOVEMENT 

3:40 - 4:10 p.m. A. to J or Presentation: 

"A Theory of Black Revolution: A Cultural 
Approach' - Ron Karenga, Founder-Chalrriian o;' US 

4:10 - 5:10 p.m. B. Response: 

1) Black Lltoi-ature: Protest and/or 
Communication - Abdul Karlm, Black Dialogue 

2) The Black Theatre: Revolutionary 
Possibilities - Frank Green-vood, Afroamt-rlcar. 
Cultural Association 



1282 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 37 — Continued 

3) The Black Actor: Catchln' Hell In Holly^.-ocd 
Ivan Dlxlon, noted and acconiplished Llack 
actor, star of Hogan's Heroes 

V. CONCLUSION 

5 : 1 - 5 : 20 p . in . A . "a Move to Action" 
B. Announceme nts 

VI. AIXrCU RK'^'CSNT 

VTI. kVIEB SET (:-''arty, >j,1k, etc.) Untlij:;;.'.'' 



US' SECOND ANNUAL D HABI HU OBSEHVANCa FOR BROTHER MALCCM X 

Date: Sunday, February 19, 196? 

Location: Masonic Temple, 10^0 E. iiGth Street, Los Angeles 

Time: 2:30 - 4:30 p.m. 

Some Speakers Invited: 

Roy Ballard, Black Panther Party, San Francisco 
Tommy Jacquette-Hallfu, SL/vNT 
Bob Simmons, Young Men for Total Democracy 
Robert Brock, Self-Determlnatlon Committee 
Ernie Smith, Afroamerlcan Citizens Council 
Doug Allen, Soul Students 
Abdul Karlm, Black Dialogue 
Ron Karenga, US 

and many more who wish to show honor and 
reverence for Brother Malcom X who gave the 
greatest sacrifice (Dhablhu) 



PUBLIC INVITED 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1283 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 37 — Continued 



FREEIJ 



FREi 



'PRBEDOM 3Y.AKT MEANS NECEGSAHY" by MAiaCLK X 



IIS 2ND ASinJAl DHAIIKD (SACRIFIOE) MSKORIAL 

Theiae: "The KesBago of Mnloolm X" by Maulana R'-n 7.ar:r.(:i 

?ounder - CiiaVrman 
03 Organs ;jLiloii 



-.">.•■' — Speakers: North And South 

AbJul Karlm, Slack Plalo^jue - Scrth 

tiotert Brock, Self- Dotermlnat Ion Comailttee 

- South 
-Hoy iiallArd, Blsok Panther Party - North 

John Floyd, Organization of African 

Studies - South 
3oi) Simons, Youoc Men for Total 

Democr-iey - South 
To-nny Juoquette-Hallfu, SLANT - South 



Suada/, February 19, 1967, 2:30 ?.M. 
1050 S:\st 50th Street, MA301.XC TE-l?Xr 
Los kmr- les, Oallfnmin 




-nv xc IK7ITSD I I ! 

"If It l3 wrong to be violent defending black woaen fr.i b1 
• chlliircn and black babies and black men, th-jn It Is vrr .. 
America to draft us and make us violent abroad in defe-. 
- Malcolm X 



Mr. Smith. It is noted from this exhibit [a flyer advertising a "Con- 
ference '67 'survival' "] that it beare the address 8563 South Broadway, 
Suite 210. 

Do you know who occupies this address ? 

Mr. Wheeler. This was the headquarters of the Black Confer- 
ence Committee, which evidently organized this Black Leadership 
Cx)nference. 

According to a press release dated August 11, 1967, US sponsored 
a coalition of groups to commemorate the many black people who died 
in the Watts 1965 revolt. 



1284 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Mi\ Chairman, may we accept these docmnents as 
Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 38, 39, and 40. 
Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 
(Documents marked "Wlieeler Exhibits Nos. 38, 39, and 40" follow :) 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 38 



CONFERENCE '67 

^^ • Iff 

survival 



STOKELEY 
CARMICHAEL 

FLOYD 
McKISSICK 

>f 

Rev. JAMES 
BEVEL 

>f 

RON 
KARENGA 




PEOPLE 



DICK 
GREGORY 

>f 

JULIAN 
BOND 

>f 

LeROI 
JONES 

>f 

JOHN 
SHABAZZ 



FRIDAY, MAY 26,8:00 P.M. | 


SATURDAY, MAY 27,9:00 A.M. - 


7:00 P.M. 


SUNDAY, MAY 28,11:00 A.M. - 


6:00 P.M. 



JEFFERSON HI SCHOOL 

1413 EAST dliT STREET REGISTRATION (For 3 Days)-$5.00 

FOR INFORMATION CALL 750-3673 

REGISTER NOW - 8563 SOUTH BROADWAY SUITE 210 "* 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1285 
Wheeler Exhibit No. 39 





"Anywhere uc apu, VC io" 

INVUES ALL BLACK PEOPLE TO CELEBRATE UHURU (INDEPENDENCE) 
TlAY/ AUGUST ifn^HE FIRST DAY OF THE AUGUST REVOLT IN LOS ANGELES 
1965. WE MARK THIS AS THE TURNING POINT IN BLACK HISTORY, THE REVOLT 
THAT LED TO OTHER REVOLTS: (SAN FRANCISCO, CINCINNATI, HARLEM, TAMPA, 
CAMBRIDGE, DAYTON, PORTLAND, NEWARK, DETROIT, MILWAUKEE AND NOW, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

LAST YEAR, IN THE YEAR OF BLACK POWER, ONLY LOS ANGELES CELEBRATED 

UHURU DAY - BUT it was not a watts revolt or a los angeles revolt, 

BUT A black revolt BELONGING TO ALL BLACK PEOPLE AND CALLED THE AUGUST 

REVOLT .SIMPLY FOR DISTINCTION. 

WE URGE ALL TO CELEBRATE THIS DAY AS WHITE AMERICANS CELEBRATE THE 

'ITH OF JULY - INDEPENDENCE DAY. FOR AS MAULANA RON KARENGA SAYS, 

"only WHEN WE HAVE DEFINED OURSELVES INSTEAD OF BEING DEFINED BY OTHLRS 

CAN W- CALL OURSELVES FREE!" 

WE SUGGEST THAT A RALLY BE HELD ON THE WEEKEND TO ALLOW MAXIMUM 

PARTICIPATION, PREFERABLY SUNDAY, AT 5:30 P.M., 0]i AUGUST 13, FOR A 

UNITED MOVE. THE THEME SHOULD BE "THE nEANiNG Qr THE REVOLT." FiNAi.LY, 

WE SUGGEST THAT THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF YOUNG PEOPLE BF INVOLVED, FOR 

THIS IS THE YEAR OF THE YOUNG LIONS AND ALREADY IT's THEIR WOPLD. 



U s 

8211 SO BROADWAY 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 900 

753-W61 - 753-.Ui&2 



1286 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 40 



PRESS RELEASE August 11, 1967 

Ron Karenga 
755 1461 



The :ileck Conaress, a eolation of South Central groups co.n^osed 
of US, SLANT COREf CcHnniunlty_Al«aft Patrol, Rlack Students Union 
Black Panthat-^arty FreecJoro Draft Moxeaignt anrt others is sponsorino 
a Uhuru Day Rally (freedom day) August 13, 1967 to commerate the 
many black psopla who died in the August 19C5 revolt. 

The rally will be held at £211 So. 3roadvay at 5:33 P.'!. The 
topic will be "The Real Meaning of the Revolt." SneaJters 
scheduleo to appear are Pon Karenga, John Floyd (Black Panther 
Party), Levi Kingston (Fresdom Draft Party), Senator lerv. Dymally, 
Charles Knox - Representative for Congressman A. H. Hawkins, 
Herb Carter - County Director of So. Central Kum«m Relations 
Commission, 3ro. Crook - COTmnunity Alert Patrol, and 
"Rap n. Brown" - St!CC. 

vie feel that it is extremely imnorteint that black people under - 
steuid the significance of the rally. '7e knov/ that things in the 
black comraunity really have not changed. Institutions like the 
L.A.P.D., which make token concessions, are only at best a small 
beginning. 

The Fire Department which claims to be recruiting black people , 
have not yet changed their requirement ' and in tan years have only 
recruited 56 black men. The -''alfare Department is investigating 
so called "frauds" and they themselves are the biagest frauds of 
all. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1287 

Mr, Smith. Has the US organization participated in any violence? 

Mr. Wheeler. On October 19, 1967, five members of the US organi- 
zation were arrested for throwing Molotov cocktails in a bakery 
in the Watts area. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any further disturbances during the month 
of October 1967? 

Mr. Wheeler, There have been disturbances created at the Manual 
Arts High School in Los Angeles, which is a predominantly Negro 
high school. The main factor involved was the opposition to a 
Caucasian principal. A minor riot occurred on October 20, 1967, with 
33 being arrested. Members of US were present, although there is no 
conclusive evidence that they instigated the riot. 

These Manual Arts difficulties were reported in the L. A. Times of 
the 21st of October and October 27, 1967. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be re- 
ceived and marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 41 and 42." 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that they be received and marked. 

(Documents marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 41 and 42," respec- 
tively. Exhibit 42 retained in committee files; No. 41 appears on 
pp. 1288-1290.) 

Mr. Wheeler. An article appears in the Santa Ana Register of 
November 24, 1967, and it refers to the Black Youth Conference. 
This conference had to do with a meeting of some 200 delegates and 
they were to meet to consider whether or not Negro athletes were to 
boycott Olympic Games. This meeting was held in Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia. It says, "A short time earlier, a disturbance involving 50 young 
followers of militant Black Power leader Eon Karenga," but the re- 
ports on this have not come in from Los Angeles as yet and actually 
the degree of disturbance is not known. However, they were present 
at this Black Youth Conference. 

Referring back to the article in The Saturday Evening Post 
[Wheeler Exhibit No. 29] which said they were all over Watts partici- 
pating in every demonstration — which they certainly were, and they 
are everywhere in Watts — in every organization and in every demon- 
stration and where there is any difficulty, they are certainly there. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this item be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 43." 

Mr. Tuck. It is ordered that the same be accepted and so marked. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 43" appears on p. 1291.) 

Mr. Wheeler. In the Watts area and around, there has been in- 
flammatory literature distributed that bears names which we have 
been unable to check out ; in other words, they are fictitious. 

This flyer was distributed in the Watts area in the spring of 1966. 
According to the legend on the flyer it was prepared and circulated by 
"Negros for Freedom Now." As far as I can determine, no such or- 
ganization exists in Los Angeles. I do not definitely know who distrib- 
uted it. The message on this flyer, however, is so violent and so in- 
flammatory that I believe the full text should be made a part of the 
hearing record and, with the chairman's permission, I would like to 
read it at this time. I wonder if you would like to read it, Mr. Smith. 
I am getting read out. 



1288 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 41 
[Los Angeles Times, October 21, 1967] 



33 Arrested on Second Day 
of Manual Arts Disturbance 



BY JOHN KENDALL 

Times Staff Writer 



Widespread violence threatened to 
erupt again Friday at Manual Arts 
High School and in the predomin- 
antly Negro neighborhood around it. 

But except for a few cases of bot- 
tle-throwing, several minor fires and 
one police sweep, there were no ma- 
jor incidents. 

For the second straight day, a 
highly mobile force of scores of 
policemen stood tactical alert and 
moved vigorously against groups of 
young men who collected on streets 
in the area. 

By nightfall, police had arrested 33 
aersons, 13 adults and 20 juveniles, 
m charges ranging from failure to 
disperse to arson. Things were quiet 
5 long the glass-strewn section of 
Vermont Ave. but authorities still' 
«ratched for trouble. 

The most serious incident came at 
aid-afternoon when bottles were 
thrown at police and the officers re- 
sponded with nightsticks. There 
were no serious injuries reported. 
■y Bottles were thrown at passing 
cars and some windows were broken 
in stores. Arson was susjyeoted In late 
evening fires that caused minor dam- 
age to several stores on S. Vermont, 

Trouble began in the early after* 
noon Friday outside the high school 
at 4131 S. Vermont when police and 
a group of juveniles clashed at 42nd. 
St. and Vermont. 

White - helmeted, baton - carrying 
police blocked off Vermont Ave. in 
froat of the school. 



Traffic was routed around the 
area. When crowds gathered, officer^ 
swept down the sidewalks eight 
abreast lo clear the streets. 

Outside the zone, groups of Negrqi 
youths wandered the streets pasi 
stores doing business as usual* ^U| 
the air was tense and police expect- 
ed trouble. 

Just behind the Sports Arena on 
Hoover St., officers moved against 
an estimated group of 70 or 80 
youths, several of whom had robbed 
two elderly Negro women, according 
to a security guard. 

Sixteen persons were arrested by 
members of a large police contin- 
gent from a nearby police field 
headquarters. 

Vermont Ave. was opened to 
automobile traffic at 2 p.m., 10 
minutes before a class at Manual 
Arts was scheduled to be released. 

Some of the students moved into 
Exposition Park near the County 
. Museum of Natural History for a 
rally cailled by the Black Congress, 
a group of Negro community dr-r 
ganizations. 

Speakers representing black mill-, 
tant groups spoke to a crowd of 
about 200, criticizing the police and. 
school board. 

The meeting lasted about an hour 
and broke up when members of the 
audience heard a radioed police 
report that the area was to be 
cleared. ' 

As the rally participants wa,lked 
back toward Vermont Ave., they 
encountered a truck stopped by 
police, who were questioning ia half- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1289 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 41 — Continued 



dozen red-shirted occupants—iiiem- 
bers of the Afro-American Organiza- 
tion, TJS 1 • 

Pressure began to build 'around 
the truck as officers searched the US 
members, checked for possible char- 
ges against them and wrote a 
citation for riding on the back of a 
loaded truck. 

Extra police were called in, and 
four or five patrol cars parked 
across the street at 39th and Menlo 

A-iro , 

Officers Confront Group 

The officers confronted perhaps 
175 Negroes sitting on the grass 
around Mrs. Margaret Wright, 45, of 
12041 S. LaSalle St., chairman of the 
United Parents Council. 

For six weeks, Mrs. Wright has led 
efforts to have Robert F. Denahy, 
Manual's Caucasian principal, fired 
from his job. 

Instructions were radioed from the 
nearby police command post to 
arrest the group if they ignored a 
warning to break up. 

Mrs. Wright complained bitterly 
of the police show of force. 

The crowd dispersed shortly before 
3 p.m. and moved back toward the 
high school, about four blocks away. 

The bulk of students of Manual 
streamed out of the school shortly 
after 3 p.m., and police turned their 
attention to that area. 

Two bottles were thrown at police 
cars which moved in front of the 
school shortly after classes broke up, 
and a crowd began to collect at 
Caldonia's, a hot dog stand across 
the street from the high school. 
Crowd Gathered at Corner 

About 250 persons gathered on the 
corner at 42nd and Vermont at 3:30 
p.m. Taunts were shouted at police 



and several bottles were .thrown 
toward a rank of officers. 

Suddenly the officers charged into 
the crowd -swinging their clubs. 
Several persons were struck. The 
crowd broke and dispersed. Officers 
swept south and then north again in 
front of the school. 

The back of possible resistance 
had been broken, and at 4 p.m. a; 
school district security officer inside ; 
Manual Arts reported the area had ' 
quieted. 

It had been a nervpu-s day for 
students within the scho(5lXA.lmost 
1,800 were absent, along witJi 30 of 
the normal teacher cohiplfiment of 
180. 

Inside the troubled school,^ Princi- 
pal Denahy talked with reporters. 

"This is all part of the big mov& 
for black power," he said. "And 
they're not going to back off. : 

"A handful of people are upsetting 
the education of 3,700 students. The 
children are frightened, and parent? 
are becoming aware the education of 
their children is being interfered 
with. 

"Our kids have withstood this 
pres^re for six weeks but it can't 
go oh too much longer. We have a 
dedicated staff of teachers but if 
they can't teach they will leave." 

The Black Congress has accused 
Denahy of being an ineffective 'ad- 
ministrator. It has demanded that 
he quit. The school board has back- 
ed Denahy. 

The tense situation first erupted 
in violence Thursday when crowds 
of young Negroes rampaged along a 
20-block stretch of Vermont Ave. 
Nine persons were injured and at 
least 30 were arrested before the 
disturbance was halted. 



1290 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 41 — Continued 




DISPERSING CROWD— Police move along 42nd Sf. 
toward Vermont Ave as they clear the area across 



from Manual Arts High School, lefi .c^i, oi Cfovvd 

that gathered at Caldonia's eating place at right. 

Times photo l)y Kay Graham 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



1291 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 43 
[Santa Ana Register, November 24, 1967] 




Negroes 
Olympic Games 

Athletes Aim To Show World 
That U.S. 'Oppresses' Them 



LOS ANGELES (AP) - A 
group of Negro athletes, includ- 
ing two members of San Jose 
State College's world-record mile 
relay team, voted Thursday to 
boycott the 1968 Olympic 
Games in Mexico City. 

The vote, taken of 200 paitici- 
pants in a Black Youth Confer- 
ence, was unanimous, a spokes- 
man said. 

A short time earlier, a distur- 
bance involving 50 young follow- 
ers of militant Black I'O'wej- 
leader Ron Karenea and a small 
leftist group was quelled by po- 
lice. 

Several shots were fired, and 
a man identified as Michael 
Lasky was beaten by the mob 
be{(>re police, arriving in 20 
squad cars fescued him. Lasky 
has described himself as a local 
Communist party leader. 

Two youths were taken into 
custody. No other injuries were 
reported. 

The fighi occurred outside the 
Second Baptist Church in which 
the Black Youth Conference was 
being held. 



Prof. Harry Edwards of San 
Jose State, m announcing the 
decision to boycott the Olympics 
said U.S. oppression of Negroes 
"is as bad as that of South Afrt 

"America has to be exposed 
for what it is," he asserted. 

Edwards, an associate pro- 
fessor of sociology who was in- 
strumental in arranging the con- 
ference, said Negro athletes in 
the United States have been ex- 
ploited. Their plight, he said, 
would be taken to the United 
Nations. 

Although the 200 who attend- 
ed the meeting were students 
from universities and colleges 
of several western states, Ed- 
wards said he has talked by 
telephone and written Negro 

thletes throughout the United 
States who have assured him 
they will abide by the decision 
made Thursday. 

Track and basketball stars of 
several universities attended 
the closed-door meeting, Ed- 
wards said later. He estimated 



30 college athletes took part in 
the decL<;ion. 

"This is Uncle Sam's last 
ihance," said Edwards. "We're 
going to put this question before 
the world." 

Among athletes at the meeting 
were Lew Alcindor, basketball 
star of UCLA, teammate Mike 
Warren, and Tommie Smith and 
Lee Evans, members of the 
world-record mile relay team 
from San Jose State. 

Smith also holds the world 
record of 19.5 seconds for 200 
meters and 220 yards set May 
7, 1966, in San Jose. 

Evans ran with Smith on the 
team which set a world record 
of two minutes, 59.6 seconds in 
the 1,600-meter relays July 27, 
1966, at Los Angeles. 

Edwards led a protest charg- 
ing discrimination against Ne- 
groes in the San Jose College 
community which resulted in 
cancellation of San Jose State's 
football home opener with the 
University of Texas, El Paso. 



1292 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. [Reading:] 

Negro people ! The time for action is now ! If you are really full up with those 
white cops — ^if you are tired of being pushed, around — kill the white devils. 
Every holiday weekend is your time — ^save your bottles and make fire bombs. 
Where you live you find buldings [sic] with special marks so burn them — do not 
make big gangs — 6 or 7 is enough — drop your bombs and fire too [sic] main 
roads oft bridges — turn on fire faucets — turn in fire alarms — throw fire into 
grass fields — get on roof and drop fire on cop cars — put on fire all power sta- 
tions — drive by and throw fire at white crowds — ^put wire across roaids — spill 
garbage — dont [sic] get tore up or you will get caught — ^bum burn bum — when 
it is dark is best — kill the white devils befor [sic] they Mil you — follow your 
leaders — they will lead you to freedom — whites must die 

Mr. Chairman, may this be entered as Wlieeler Exhibit 44 ? 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Dociunent marked ""WHieeler Exhibit No. 44" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wheeler, in these hearings we have presented evi- 
dence of racial agitation and the distribution of inflammatory litera- 
ture by various groups prior to the time of the Watts riot in August 
1965, during the Watts riot, and since that time. 

This has been done to demonstrate certain of the factors in the 
development of a riot in which there is subversive influence, as out- 
Imed by authorities who have testified before the committee. The re- 
sult of this is that the activities of certain organizations have been 
presented at different times, rather than consecutively. As concerns 
certain Coniniuiiist organizations, it would be desirable to bring to- 
gether at this time all the activities in the area of racial agitation un- 
dertaken by them. Would you, therefore, summarize the activities of 
this type engaged in by the Communist Party in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. The Communist Party has been very cautious. 
It has done little or nothing under its own name. This is because at 
its 1959 convention, the last one it held before the outbreaks of the 
first, riots, it had assumed a position of opposing violence; it liad 
dropj^ed its support for a separate Negro republic in the South and 
it had gone on record, in words at least, of formally endorsing integi*a- 
tion and equal rights for Negroes. 

On August 17, 1965, the day the Los Angeles riot ended, the South- 
ern California District of tlie Communist Party issued a statement 
which opened with the following words : 

We charge Mayor Yorty and Chief of Police Parker Avith immediate responsi- 
bility for the tragic death of 32 i>eople and the imprisonment of over 2,000. 

This statement alleged that for years competent observers had 
warned that great poverty and "ruthless police brutality in Watts and 
the Central district had produced an intolerable condition." It also 
accused Police Chief Parker of subscribing to a "Nazi-like theoiy of 
the master race.'' 

The release absolved the rioters of all responsibility. It said: 

Let the recriminations be directed to the vandals in police uniform w1m> hrciak 
into homes without warrants, who use the most alnisive and violent gostJip) 
methods against law-abiding citizens if they are colonel. Let the accusing finger 
be pointed at Mayor Yorty and Chief Parker * * * . 

Continuing: "It is Chief Parker who fans the flames of further 
violence * * * ." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1293 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
as Wheeler Exhibit No. 45. 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 45" appears on pp. 1294, 
1295.) 

Mr. Wheeler. On August 25, 1965, William C. Taylor, member of 
the district committee of the Southern California District of the 
Communist Party, gave a radio talk in which he took the same basic 
approach to the Watts riot as the party had taken in the press release 
from which I have just quoted. He justified the rioters. He blamed the 
riot on the mayor and chief of police of Los Angeles. He alleged that 
the Watts riot was touched off by an incident "of police brutality and 
lack of respect for Negro women." He, too, compared Police Chief 
Parker to a Nazi. The speech was inflammatory, clearly designed to 
arouse Negro resentment against the police and the city administration. 

The Communist Party printed the text of Taylor's radio talk, along 
>\dth its official statement of August 17 and an editorial from The 
Worker on the Watts riot, in a booklet entitled "'WATTS' UP- 
SURGE—A COMMUNIST APPRAISAL." 

These items — ^the August 17 release, the Taylor talk, and the booklet 
I have just mentioned were the only things the party did in its own 
name except carry a similar campaign in the People's World. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 46." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 46" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. By no means, however, do they indicate the full 
extent of Communist Party activity in racial incitement in the Los 
Angeles area. 

The South Side Citizens Defense Committee was a Connnunist front 
directed, as previously indicated, by Hursel Alexander. Significantly, 
at one meeting of this group, it was announced that it had the assistance 
of the National Lawyers Guild, which has been cited as the "legal 
bulwark" of the Communist Party. 

The Committee To End Legalized Murder by Cops was another 
front created by the Communist Party, with support of W. E. B. 
DuBois Club members, for the purpose of racial agitation. Dorothy 
Healey, Charlene Mitchell, William Taylor, and Robert Duggan were 
some of the known Communists taking part in this group's operations. 

Robert Duggan and Franklin Alexander, members of the W. E. B. 
DuBois Club, were active in their support for the Committee To End 
I^egalized Murder by Cops. 

Party leader Dorothy Healey, Raphael Konigsberg, and Carl Bloice 
were some of the Communists active in the Congress of Unrepresented 
People. 

The Communist Party, as previously indicated, took an active part in 
the agitation on the Deadwyler case. 

Finally, the Freedom Now Committee, as the testimony indicates, 
was another front through which the Communist Party has sought 
to create and foster racial division and antagonism in the Los Angeles 
area. Some of the known Communists associated with that committee 
and its activities included William Taylor, Dan Bessie, Dorothy 
Healey, Rose Chernin Kusnitz, Frank Beyca, Robert Duggan, Raphael 



1294 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 45 

FOR IMMEDIATE PRESS RELEASE 
AUGUST 17, 1965. 

LOS ANGELES:- The Ccmiunist Party of Southern Calif oml« Issuad th« follov- 
ing statement; 

"We charge Mayor Yorty and Chief of Police Parker with iimadiate respon- 
sibility for the tragic death of 32 people and the imprisonment of over 
2,000. 

All competent observers have warned for years that the combination of 
extreme Poverty and ruthless police brutality in Watts ajfid the Central 
district had produced an intolerable condltioh. Mayor Yorty and Chief 
Parker admit that over a year ago they conferred with Governor Brown 
on the use of National Guardsmen, thereby confessing that their sole 
answer to these conditions was more policing action. 

TTie Federal War on Poverty funds have been held up by Mayor Yorty 's 
playing politics with human misery. "j.d e' - • -■•^<^-^'i«- >--;s powp'- ""^1i<"ics, 
the funds allocated would barely skim the surface of the enormous needs 
in a community where over 305^ of the residents are jobless. 

The National Guard costs $300,000. per day. If the total amount that 
the Guard will cost had been allocated to alleviating misery and squalor, 
32 people would be alive today. But both domestically and internation- 
ally, our society will spend more to crush people who rebel against in- 
tolerable conditions rather than deal with the root cause. 

Chief Parker has a long history of demonstrating his Nazi-like theory pf 
the master race. A few years ago he denounced the MexiCcUi-American peo- 
ple as a "wild tribe''. This week he compared ♦"he Negro people to 'inonkeys 
in the zoo". He boastfully described the present situation, with the 
National Guardsmen here, by saying "we're on top; they're on the tottom'' 

It is not surprising that the resulting social upheaval has included acts 
of looting and burning of businesses. As distinct from a civil rights 
demonstration with its organized political demands, this was a spontane- 
ous uprising in which all elements of an oppressed community participated. 
No one applauds these acts; they are meaningless expressions against the 
white ''power structu ; :;•'. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1295 

Wheeler Exhibit No. 45 — Ck)ntinued 

(Press Release Cont'd) page 2. 

But each day organized society conmits more serious acts of violence and 
vandalism against the body and spirit of the Negro. Let the tears be 
shed over the hopeless lives which poverty produces in most of Watts. Let 
the recriminations bft direci«d to tbPVa.-Kiais ^. police uniform who break 
into hemes without warrants, who use the most abusive and violent gestapo 
methods against law-abiding citizens if they are colored. Let the accus- 
ing finger be pointed at Mayor Yorty and Chief Parker who have obstructed 
all efforts to alleviate the worst aspects of these conditions. 

With all the loose and provocative talk about anarchy or race-riots, the 
facts prove otherwise. At this time, 32 people are dead, 28 of v/hom are 
Negroes shot by police or National Guardsmen. It is Chief Parker who fans 
the flames of further violence when he approves of whites carrying guns. 
In view of his continued acts of violence and provocative suggestions for 
future vigilante action it is cxbal ther^ ,c r be no prospect frir low in 
this area while he remains as Chief of Police. 

V/e joiii with others in demanding immediate allocation of funds to provide 
jobs for the unemployed in the area. Put the funds to work in Watts to 
provide for the necessary low-cost housing, hospitals (there are none in 
the area now), schools, under the direction of the residents there. 

i;ci.ablish a Citizens Inquiry where the people of Watts and Central can 
testiry to the conditions which provoked this explosion. Let the white 
cit-izens understand that no community is an island unto itself. As long 
a3 the social and economic conditions are ignored or tolerated, the tinder 
is rrc^T.z lor future cxt/j.^jsj._i._. 

KstraLliiih autnentic civilian cor.trcl over the police with a Citizens 
Revipv; Board. '' 



30 - 



88-083 O - 68 - Pt. 3-12 



1296 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Konigsberg, Sam Kushner, Pierre Mandel, Barbara Nestor, and Frank 
Spector. 

Dan Bessie and Pierre Mandel have both appeared before this com- 
mittee and taken the fifth amendment when asked questions concerning 
Communist Party membership and related activity. 

Mr. Smith. What about the W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, the activities of this group should really be con- 
sidered with those of the Communist Party because the DuBois Clubs 
are generally recognized as the party's current youth organization. 

First of all, during the Watts riot itself, the DuBois Club put out 
the flyer, "POVERTY FRUSTRATION DEATH." 

The August 25, 1965, issue of SPUE, the DuBois Club's West Coast 
publication, contained inflammatory literature on the Watts riot and 
was distributed in the Watts area. 

Next, the DuBois Clubs prepared the inflammatory booklet, "THE 
FIRE THIS TIME," released in November 1965. 

Wlien the Deadwyler case developed, the DuBois Clubs put out an 
agitational flyer on it. 

During what is termed the second Watts riot which occurred in mid- 
March 1966, the W. E. B. DuBois Club circulated a flyer in the Watts 
area headed "POVERTY FRUSTRATION DEATH." They also 
created a front titled the "Ad Hoc Committee To End Police Mal- 
practices," which demonstrated against the Los Angeles Police Depart- 
ment, claiming police brutality. 

In addition to doing all of these things in the name of the DuBois 
Club or the front group in Los Angeles, they engaged in more or less 
covert racial agitation through various fronts, some of which it actually 
controlled. The DuBois Clubs and/or its leaders and members sup- 
ported and took part in the activities of the following racial agitation 
organizations in the Los Angeles area : 

Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes 

Ad Hoc Committee To End Police Malpractices 

Congress of Unrepresented People 

Soum Side Citizens Defense Committee 

Freedom Now Committee 

Committee for the Defense of John Harris 

For the most part, these were the same organizations in which the 
known Communist Party members I have previously mentioned were 
active. / 

Finally, as previously indicated, on the national level the DuBois 
Clubs have called for the separation of the Watts area from the city 
of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Has the Socialist Workers Party, the Trot sky ist Com- 
munist organization, been active in the area of racial agitation in Los 
Angeles ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes; but not to the same degree the other Com- 
munist groups have. They more or less like to organize and stay in the 
background. 

On August 19, 1965, 2 days after the Watts riot ended, the Los An- 
geles Socialist Workers Party issued a statement which, like that 
of the Communist Party, exonerated the rioters, attacked Mayor 
Yorty, Police Chief Parker, and the police in general, holding them 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1297 

largely responsible for the riot. It described the riot as a "rebellion" 
and called for the release of all those arrested during the riot. 

On the national level the Socialist Workers Party published a 
pamphlet entitled "WATTS and HARLEM, the rising revolt in 
THE BLACK GHETTOS." This pamphlet, published by the Socialist 
Workers Party's then official publishing house, Pioneer Publishers, 
was a collection of four articles originally printed in the party's of- 
ficial newspaper, The Militant. 

This pamphlet was distributed in the Watts area. Again, in typical 
Communist fashion, it defended the rioters, absolved them of all 
blame, and held the police and the city administrations responsible 
for the violence. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 47." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 47" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Wlieeler, hearings held by this committee several 
weeks ago reflect that the Progressive Labor Party played a major 
role in inciting the riot which took place in Harlem, New York City, 
in July 1964. 

The name of the Progressive Labor Party has been brought out a 
number of times in these hearings concerning Los Angeles. 

Would you now summarize its activities in the area of fomenting 
racial hatred, disorder, and incitation to violence in the Los Angeles 
area? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, they have circulated literature. Of course. Lieu- 
tenant Anderson has already presented literature that has been dis- 
tributed by John Wesley Harris and other literature by the Progres- 
sive Labor Party in Los Angeles. I have additional information here. 

First, I would like to mention two small pamphlets published by 
the Progressive Lal:>or Party and distributed in the Watts area and 
other areas of Los Angeles. Tlie first is titled "Don't be a sucker!" 
I have several quotes. 

This summer the bosses and their political stooges in Washington and in local 
areas are working overtime to promote race wars. * * * 

The following statement appears in this pamphlet : 

Now they want us to be bigger suckers than ever. They want us to fight our 
Black brothers at home. Bosses have been making the biggest profits off of the 
backs of Black workers for over a century. The bosses love this. They want to 
keep it that way. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this item be received and 
marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 48." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 48" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Wheeler. At another point in this pamphlet this question is 
asked : 

IS THAT not a clear GALL FOR THE WHITE POPULATION TO 
UNITE WITH THE POLICE AS VIGILANTES AND POSSES TO HUNT 
DOWN THE BLACK PEOPLE? ISN'T THIS, ALONG WITH THE OTHER 
STATEMENTS BY THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS FLUNKEYS, AND THE 



1298 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

FOUNDATION BEING LAID DOWN BY THE NEWSPAPERS— ISN'T THIS 
A DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST THE AFRO-AMERICAN PEOPLE BY 
THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT? 

They answer their own question. "Yes, it is." 

I have a second pamphlet published by the Black Liberation Com- 
mission of the Progressive Labor Party and distributed in Watts. It 
is called "BLACK LIBERATION— NOW!" The inside cover fea- 
tures pictures of Bill Epton and John Harris, the Harlem and Watts 
organizers of the Progressive Labor Party, respectively. Bill Epton 
has been indicted and charged with inciting the riot in the Harlem 
riots. John Wesley Harris has been indicted for criminal syndicalism 
in the State of California, which also was gone into by Lieutenant 
Anderson. 

The second sentence in this pamphlet states that the United States 
Government and State and county and city administrations in large 
northern industrial areas of this country, "are preparing a reign of 
terror against the Afro- American people this summer. They are delib- 
erately planning to start a so-called 'race war.' " 

This statement sets the general tone of this pamphlet which is clearly 
intended to arouse fear, hatred, and resentment b^ Negroes against 
whites, against Federal and local government, against the FBI and 
the American institutions generally. It harps on police brutality and 
states that the United States govermnental system must be replaced by 
what it calls socialism. It also states that, "The U.S. ruling class is not 
going to give this to us. The only way we are going to get it is to take 
it." 

Mr. Smith. What is the title ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe I mentioned the title, "BLACK LIBERA- 
TION—NOW!" 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this item be received and 
marked as "Wheeler Exhibit No. 49." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 49" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Will you continue, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Progressive Labor Party distributed three 
highly inflammatory posters and flyers in the Watts area, as previously 
mentioned. They were "THE NEED FOR REVOLUTION" and the 
poster, "WANTED FOR MURDER— Parker the Cop in Watts," 
which was really identical to the poster it distributed in Harlem at the 
time of the 1964 riot, with no change except the substitution of the 
name and picture of Parker for that of Gilligan [Anderson Exliibits 
Nos. 14 and 12, respectively]. 

The third was the flyer "WANTED for the MURDER of I^eonard 
Deadwyler— 'BOVA— the COP\" [Anderson Exhibit No. 13]. 

John W. Harris, the Progressive Labor Party organizer in Watts, 
distributed these flyers at the Deadwyler inquest and was indicted for 
criminal syndicalism for doing so. 

The Progressive Labor Party then established the Committee to 
Defend John Harris. This committee has been used not only to assist 
in Harris' defense, but also to further racial agitation and the distribu- 
tion of inflammatory literature. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1299 

The Progressive Labor Party poster, "Uncle Sam wants YOU 
nigger,*' which was distributed in the Harlem area, was also distrib- 
uted in the Watts area. 

The Progressive Labor Party has held a forum on "PLP and Black 
Liberation," with the discussion led by John Harris. A film from 
North Vietnam, "Tlie Threatening Sky^,'' has been shown at the forum. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be re- 
ceived and marked ''Wlieeler Exhibits Nos. 50-A, B, and C."' 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 50-A, B, and C," 
respectively. Exhibit 50-B retained in committee files; 50-A and 
50-C appear on pp. 1300 and 1301.) 

Mr. Wheeler. A Progressive Labor Party flyer announcing a New 
Year's Ea^c party held at the end of last year urged "Support Black 
Revolutionai-ies," with specific reference to John Harris. It suggested 
that the New Year be brought in with "more agitatin' & troublemakin'." 

This is dated December 1966. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that the document be received 
and marked "^AHieeler Exhibit No. 51."' 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 51" appears on p. 1302.) 

Mr. Wheeler. On the national level again tlie Black Liberation 
Commission of the Progressive Labor Party published a brochure en- 
titled "THE REVOLT IN WATTS AND THE COMING BAT- 
TLE." This featured a map of the "ghetto" area of Los Angeles and the 
factory concentration in and around that area. Like other Progressive 
Labor Party literatiu'c, tliis brocliure was also designed to arouse 
Negro resentment and liatred of wliite people and of government, in- 
dustry, and police. It ended with the following, statement: 

The black people of South L.A. jwssess a weapon more powerful than twenty- 
two thousand grins I And black people can choose their own time and places 
of battle ! 

This brochure was reproduced in the May 1066 issue of iSpark, the 
West Coast Progress! \-e Labor publication. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be accepted 
and marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 52." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wheeler Exhibit No. 52". See pp. 1305-1308.) 

Mr. Wheeler. I have a little to add concerning John Wesley Harris 
for the record, additional material that was being typed and it has 
just arrived, 

Mr. Smith. Will you present it, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Thank you. 

John Wesley Harris, Progressive Labor Party organizer and chair- 
man of the Los Angeles PLP, is a 24-year-old native of Birmingham, 
Alabama. Harris joined the Freedom Riders when they went to Birm- 
ingham in 1960. Later, when a student at Howard University in Wash- 
ington, D.C., HaiTis became chairman of the Howard Univei'sity 
chapter of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, com- 
monly known as SNCC. 

In 1964 and part, of 1965 Harris served as project director for 
SNCC in Indianola, Mississippi. During this time he was arrested in 



1300 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 50-A 



.<3f^>^"<S?7 




"•■■■■<<*<M,W*# 



IJecome a member of 
the world's highest paid 
black mercenary army ! 

Fight for Freedom 
... (in Viet Nam) 



nigger 



Support White Power 
— travel to Viet Nam, 
you might get a medal! 

Receive valuable training 
in the skills of killing off 
other oppressed people ! 



(Die Nigger Die — you can't die ' 

fast enough in the ghettos.) 

So run to your nearest recruiting chamber! 



Issued by: HARLEM PROGRESSIVE LABOR CLUB, 336 Lenox Avenue, New York 10027 
For additional copies atfnd to: Progressive Labor P^rty: Chicago : 2049 North Dayton SI. , 
L os Angeles : 218 East 82nd Place, San Francisco : 3362 18th Street, California 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1301 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 50-C 



'^fTDlf ! ,- 



^ / I ( ! '^'-, ,;?', -i-'-V. '■ ^ i'l 



! k::-' 









r # i^t; .J iy' 






- 


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t 




rp, 


-4-' 
1 I 




,1 



y 






A/-nu^ 



y^V . /■' ,- >'^i^'"^ <-y ' • ^'--^-^ - >t^- 










1302 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 5 1 




— Bfiop^ in t: 1^6 i'^e'A/\ie<5r^ 



H 






^hti. 







ts 


























-Help us'1Jei(?nd Tohn Marrls^i-'.^^^ri^eci 



-\, 



(v u^ 



^i bis. LU. (>(- LU^s^er>^ Av2.) 




SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1303 

October 1964 and twice in February 1965 on charges of disobeying 
police and disturbing the peace. 

Shortly after the August 1965 riots in the Watts area of Los Angeles, 
Harris moved to Watts. In December of that year Harris joined the 
Progressive Labor Party. He has since proclaimed that he is proud 
to be a Communist. He has served as a Los Angeles chairman of PLP. 
According to his defense committee literature, he joined the PLP be- 
cause he was impressed with tlie work of Bill Epton, Harlem PLP 
organizer, who was convicted for criminal anarchy. 

Since coming to Los Angeles he has been employed at times at 
LTCLA as an examination reader and teacher's assistant, sociology de- 
partment. 

On September 20, 1966, Harris was arrested and charged with crimi- 
nal syndicalism. He was subsequently released on bail. 

In November 1966 he took part in a black power conference in 
the Watts area which featured Stokely Carmichael. He has also joined 
a steering committee for Southeni Calif ornians for New Politics. Har- 
ris has also urged Negi'oes not to fight in Vietnam and opposes the 
draft. 

I have a copy of a PLP brochure which contains some biographi- 
cal material on Harris and the oganization. 

I want to introduce this document in the record. It is headed, "SUP- 
PORT BLACK REVOLUTIONARIES, Defend John Harris .... 
arrested for 'criminal svndicalism.' " It is signed by or has typed in 
the name "Progi-essive Labor Party, P.O. Box 19930, Los Angeles 19, 
California." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this document be received 
and marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 53." 

Mr. Tuck. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Wlieeler Exhibit No. 53". See pp. 1309-1312.) 

Mr. Smith. My. Chairman, that concludes the testimony to be re- 
ceived in this session of hearings. 

Mr. TrcK. Mr. Wlieeler, on behalf of the committee I wish to 
thank you and commend you in the highest terms for your work in 
assembling this information and ])resenting it to the committee. 

We appreciate also the cooperation of the laAv enforcement authori- 
ties, the district attorney's office of Los Angeles County. 

The subcommittee has listened to factual testimony about inflam- 
matory racial agitation in the I^os Angeles area for 3 days. 

It is clear bevond doubt that prior to the Watts riot, during the 
riot, and ever since the riot Communists have been agitating in the 
central Southside area, and particularly the Watts area, of Los An- 
geles. They have been distributing inflammatory literature in the area 
which, without question, is designed to inflame the residents against 
the police, against the city administration, and against the Federal 
Government and which is designed to encourage resentment and rebel- 
lion and inflame passions. 

We do not know precisely how many copies of the numerous pieces 
of inflammatory literature introduced in this hearing were actually 
distributed in the Watts area. We do not know just how many people 
received copies and the exact effect they had on these people. Nor- 
mally, of course, any group distributing flyers of the type we are 
discussing can, and does, have thousands of copies printed at little 



1304 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

cost. Many have been run off on mimeograph machines, Avhich makes 
the expense of producing them practically nil. 

It is therefore reasonable to assume that many copies of these items 
were distributed in the area and that they must have had considerable 
impact, at least on limited segments of the population. And it is well 
known, of course, that it takes very few hotheads and professional 
agitators to start a riot. 

This hearing has not proved that the Watts riot of August 1965 
was instigated by the Communists. The record indicates that most of 
this literature was distributed after the riot in an apparent attempt 
to capitalize on it and incite further violence. Some of it, however, 
was distributed prior to the riot. To have engaged in this activity in 
disturbing the community after the Watts riot is even worse than it 
was before the riot. 

I believe the evidence substantiates Mayor Yorty's testimony, the 
conviction and belief he has been expressing for several years, that 
there has been in Los Angeles and other cities a deliberate condition- 
ing of people in an effort to create a situation in which it is easy for 
a riot to be triggered by a simple arrest or some other seemingly minor 
incident. 

Wliether or not Communists and black nationalist elements can be 
said to have played a major role in the initial Watts riot, it is clear 
that their desire and intent is to foment racial violence in this country 
and that they are doing everything possible to accomplish that end. 

In conclusion, in the name of the subcommittee, I wish to thank 
Lieutenant Clayton Anderson and Detective James Harris of the Los 
Angeles district attorney's office for their testimony. They have made 
factual, detailed presentations which were a credit to them and the 
office for which they work. 

As the chairman said the other day, they have really made a sig- 
nificant contribution to this inquiry. 

I also want to thank and congratulate Mr. Wheeler, the committee's 
dedicated and able investigator in Los Angeles, for his presentation 
and the Avork he has done in preparation for these hearings. 

The subcommittee will now adjourn, to be called again upon the 
order of the chairman of the committee. 

(Wliereupon, at 1 :30 p.m., Thursday, November eSO, 1967, the sub- 
committee recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.) 

(Wheeler Exhibits Nos. 52 and 53 introduced on pp. 1299 ancl 1303, 
respectively, follow :) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1305 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 52 



THE REVOLT IN WATTS 
AND THE COMING BATTLE 



5c 




..1S"3«&i£tr32s:^- 



Published by the Black Liberation Commission of the Progressive Labor Party 
336 Lenox Avenue, New York, New York 10027 



1306 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 52 — Continued 



LOS ANC.KLKS— In the summer of 1965, 
u-hen the black ghetto of South Central Los 
.\ngeJea (soon to be intemadonaUy known 
as Watts ) exploded in angry rebellion, thou- 
sands of national guardsmen were deployed 
to the area. Waving machine guns and auto- 
alic rifles, driving in army trucks and jeeps, 
they poured into the area. 

Some were deployed to guard small busi- 
nesses and stores. What was not mentioned— 
either in the newspapers then or In the in- 
vestigations afterwards— was that the heaviest 
guard was sent in to protect the most vul- 
nerable point of U.S. imperialism at home: 
heavy industrial plants. 

It is not surprising that the American people 
have been told nothing but lies and half- 
truths about the Watts Rebellion ot 1965— 
truth is a rare commodity in this country. 
If the facts were known concerning the mag- 
nitude and the origin of the misery in which 
the black people of Watts live, the mark of 
doom would be put on those who live by 
profiteering on this misery. The truth about 
l".S. imperialism's greatest weakness would 
serve as a guide to powerful mass action, 
which could cost the rich white imperialists 
a thousand bmes more than the $40 million 
property damage and international disgrace 
for its racist barbarism, which resulted in the 
police and army terror of August, 1965. 

These are the facts. 

The rebellion covered the predominantly 
black area (of 46 to 56 square miles ) known 
as South (.entral Ix)s /Xngeles (commonly 
called South L.A. ). The entire area came to 
be known as Watts, because Watts was the 
starting point of the Rebellion and Is 92 per 
cent black. A 3 square mile segment of a 
huge black ghetto. Watts Is one of many 
neighborhoods, induding Avalon, Central, 
l*^position, CIreen Meadows, Horence, Wil- 
lowbrook, and other units ofthe46~56square 
mile area. 

But these subdivisions arearti&cial, existing 
only on maps or in custom. There are no 
boundaries except on paper; black people 
in South UA. for the most part live in one 
continuous land area, in a continuous popu- 
lalion concentration. 

Within the total area there are 576.000 
black people— about 80 per cent of the popu- 
lation of the ghetto. Mexican Americans make 
up another 10 per cent, so that as much as 90 
per cent of the population is "non-white." 

'Vhe boundaries of the overall ghetto 
roughly extend from Adams Blvd. and Wash- 
ington St to the north; ItosencraijB Ave. to 
the south; Alameda St. to the east; and \'an 
Ness SL and Crenshaw Blvd. to the west. 
With this information the man in the street 
can pinpoint the black ghetto of South l,.X 
on a Los /Vngeles street map, which can be 
obtained free at a gas station. The study of 
the map is of great strate^c Importance. 

VAST UNKMPLOYMENT 

There are about 50,000 unemployed black 
workers— and this figure does not include the 
young people who have never had a job^nd 
therefore are not in the official unemploy- 
ment figures. I 'nemployment Is three times 
higher than the overall dty rate. 

That's only part of the story: 

* The average black man's wage Is only a 
little more than- half of whal.the white worker 
earnH; 

* Between 1960 and 1 966 theaverage white 
tamlly Income rose 14 per cent— but the 



black bml]y*8 Income fell 8 per cent; 

• Tlie vast majority of employed black 
people are service and domestic workers, or 
wo/k at otherlow-paying menial occupations. 

Rents in the ghetto are exorbitant Two- 
thirds of the mostly wood-frame houses are 
owned by absentee white landlords who re- 
fuse to make repairs on their over-prk»d 
buildings, so the buildings are gettingsteadily 
worse. Coupled with the reduction in income, 
ghetto rents rose 14 per cent in the 1960-65 
period. 

MEDICARFT-LA. STYLK 

Medical facilities are appalling. The eight 
private hospitals in the ghetto have Just 454 
beds! Oily two of thehospitals meet minimum 
standards of professional quality. The two 
public hospitals— County General and Har- 
bor General— ere both outside the area, too 
distant and difficult to reach. There are three 
times as many doctors to serve the white 
communities as there are for the black (106 
per 250,000 for blacks; 318 per 250,000 
for whites). Medical fees are sky-high. 

The death rate is far greater in the black 
community than in the white. For example, 
the infant mortality rate (from birth to one 
year) is 150 per cent higher for black people 
than for whites. 

Ghetto schools are no more than institutions 
of Ignorance. Teachers, teaching methods, 
and facilities are inferior. Average reading 
ability for fifth grade black students is ranked 
at approximately 20; for white I^A. students 
it is 50. In the eighth grade, black students 
are ranked at 14-a decrease— while whites 
remain at 50. IJeventh grade high school 
students: black about 28, white about 70. 

Two-thirds of all black ahidents who enter 
high school will drop out Is that surprising? 
Even if they finish, they would graduate as 
functional iUiterates! iVrhaps more impor- 
tant, they know that the old song and dance 
ro\itine about "finish high school and you will 
get a better job" is a fraud. Most graduates 
can't find work at all. much less a "better" 
job. Approximately 25 per cent of allsbt-year 
old black children aren'lenrolledinschool— a 
year after they're supposed to start TTiey 
don't even get the chance to drop out! 

TRy\NSPORTAT!ON: U ORSE THAN N.Y. 

Public transporation is worse than inade- 
quate. The only form of public transportation 
in the whole area is buses that run only on 
the larger streets. Fares are high (25c); many 
black workers spend a dollar and more just 
to travel to and from work. There are so 
few' buses that It is not unusual to wait 45 
minutes for one. 

A car, then, Is absolutely essential In the 
ghetto, just as it Is In all of \^X But only 14 
percent of the black families own a car, while 
50 per cent of the families in Ixm .Vngeles 
County as a whole own one. This Is not juat 
a measure of the poverty of black families; It 
Is a dearlndlcationofthedegreetowhich they 
are locked within the confines of the ghetto. 

The prices for food, clothing, home appU- 
ances and furniture In the gheho are much 
higher than prices in the City as a whole. The 
merchandise !?• inferior, and the predomt- 
nantly white merchants cheat the people with 
crooked Installnneni plans. Trappol within :he 
ghetto walls, the black Inhabilanbt are forced 
to submit to (his robbery! 

The 540 million in property damage from 



the August Rebellion is a drop In the bucket 
compared to the millions stolen by these cor- 
riipt merchants each year! The black rebels 
were only taking back a token, symbolic 
amount of what they have had stolen from 
them! 

The people have no rights that a white cop 
is bound to respect .^ot a week passes without 
a black man, womanorcbildbelngshotdown 
or brutally beaten by the racist cops who are 
there to protect the privileges of those who 
profit from the misery. 

(n short, the ghetto Is a cheap-labor con- 
centration camp for black people— a black 
colony of poverty, exploitation and bru- 
tality— In the richest country In the world It 
stands as a symbol of the racist treatment 
given to 22 million Afro-Americans by U.S. 
Imperialism— the leader of the so-called "free 
workL" The same type of "freedom" the U.S. 
Is attempting to force onothercolored peoples 
of the world (such as the Viebiamese and the 
Domink^ns): with gun barrels and napalm 
bombs.. 4ind systematic exterminaioa 

OCCUPYING ARMY FOR 
INDUSTRIAL PROTECTION 

But the meaning of the August Rebellion 
only begins with the above facts. 

The black ghetto of South L.A. la the hub 
of a manrunoth Industrial complex. Not only 
Is the ghetto surrounded by heavy Industries, 
but there are industries In the heart of the 
ghetto where thousands upon thousands of 
white workers are employed 

This is the fact that the rich white imperieJ 
ists and their apologists (like former CIA 
chirf John jMcCone) would not reveal in their 
"reports" on the rebellion. Black workers have 
be«i systematically excluded from Industrial 
in the heart of the black ghetto! I'hey are 
denied the right to work where they live. 
WTiUe factory smoke pours through their 
windows, poisoning their children, black 
workers are forced into the misery of unem> 
ployment White workers must travel 20 and 
40 miles down leeways into the heart of tiie 
black ghetto, while the factory worker living 
under the factory windows Is unemployed 
In a ghetto in which there is an 80 per cent 
black population, the ghetto industries hire a 
mere handful of black workers. 

What Is U.S. imperialism's plea? What Is 
the plea of Its apologists with their phony re- 
ports on the Rebelllott? Can they claim that 
they dkJn't know that 5louth (.A. was an In- 
dustrial area? Can they say that they dkJ not 
know tfiat. If black workera were given ghetto- 
factory Jobs In proportion to their percentage 
of the gheito population, that there would be 
no unemployment among black ghetto work- 
ers? 

Of course they are aware of this fact, but 
they have done everything poeslbletoconceal 
It An Industrial Zone Map, published by the 
American Industrial Real KjtateAssn..canbe 
obtained-free-from the L.A. Chamberof Com- 
merce (404 Bixel St. I-A ). The map shows 
a massive Industrial complex In the north- 
western comer of the ghetto. 

There is another in ihesouthwestemcomer, 
and on the eafltem border there Is still another 
industrial complex, h edso shows the indus- 
trial concentrations throughout theentlreghet- 
to. 

It would have been ueva.4tating for the Im- 
perialists to reveal this fact concerning the 
systematic exclusion of black people from in- 
dustries within their ghetto. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1307 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 52 — Continued 




^B FACTORY 
lU^oL^ ♦ CONCENTRATION 



A portion of the Industrial Zone Map» showing factory concentration and South L. A- ghetto boundaries. 



•NEW JOBS' FRAUD 

'ITie big noise about ■■retraining" the black 
man so he can get a job is a sham, a fraud 
and a stall. Anyone with any experience m 
factory work knows that from 60 to 90 per 
cent of the jobs can be performed by an in- 
experienced iUlterate. lYaining for many com- 
plex jobs take all of a week or two. Most of 
the jobs require a mere demonstration anO 
one day's work experience. 

At Ihe General Motors automobile assembly 
plant on the western border of the ghetto, 
5,000 workers are employed almost all of 
them white. The work is broken down to its 
smallest component jobs. A worker turns a 
screw and the next worker does something 
else. How much knowledge does it lake for 
one man to hoist a transmission in place 



while another worker screws in four retaining 
bolts? An illilerote can put a wheel on a car 
so that the next worker can screw on five 
bolts lo hold the wheel in place. 

Many of thtsc jobs are now performed. by 
white UUterates iwlth "superior educations") 
whose reading ability ends with the morning 
picture ni-wspaper. ITiis is living proof of the 
fraud being perpetrated against unemployed 
black people, who are considered "unpre- 
pared" to become workers. 

The Goodyear Rubber Corp. plant, smack 
in the heart of the ghetto, also employs about 
5,000 workers, including the handful of 
blacks. .And this is true for a mxiltitude of 
factories in the ghetto that employ hundreds 
or thousands of men. 

Retrain for what'.'* If black ghetto workers 
were given the factory jobs from which they 



have been excluded, nol only would black 
unemployment be eliminated but black work- 
ers would make twice what they arenow mak- 
ing in the menial jobs Into which they have 
been forced. 

W^y havethey beenexdudedsystenrvatically 
from these jobs^ ITie answer is clear. Indus- 
trial automation and agricultural mechaniza- 
tion are eliminating hundreds of thousands 
of jobs every year. \\'hereas mdustrialization 
created more jobs than it eliminated, auto- 
mation eliminates more than H creates. Work- 
ers are being driven out of the factories and 
off the farms. The population is growing; at 
the same time, the job market is shrinking. 

The simple tnith Is that the black worker 
is being uaed by the rich bosses to absorb 
the first and most devastating blows of the 
impending crisis. V^'hite workers also are 



1308 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 52 — Continued 



being affected by unemployroenUbut these 
effects have been cushioned by Torcing the 
black man on the bottom lo take the full 
weight That's why the black unemployment 
rate is three times greater than that of whites. 
This allows the white workers to hold onto 
their fading "American dream"" a little longer 
at the ey.pense of the black m^n, who is al- 
ready living the nightmare. 

The imperialists would rather starve and 
exterminate black workers— through police 
brutality and use as "<»nnon fodder" in 
Vietnam— than take the chance of white work- 
ers becoming revolutionary. What would 
happen if the TV tube went out (or white 
workers, if theircaurswererepossessed'/Would 
Johnson's fine words about the Great society 
smooth the wrinkles of hunger? Would they 
be satisfied with Anti- I^overty !*rogra m 
crumbs or job training frauds? No! .And that 
is why black workers are belngsystematically 
excluded from factory jpbs in South UA. 
White workers are being forced to play the 
role of parasites. This is the racist solution 
that the rulere of .America are imposing with 
their "flreat Society"! 

The {Standard of living for white workers 
historically has been kept up by U.S. im- 
perialism's robbery of Its various colonial 
holdings in I^tln America, Asia and ^Vrica. 
Tlie wars and intrigues being carried by I .s. 
imperialism against the colored peoples of 
the world are merely an attempt to continue 
the privileges of robbery and murder, and an 
army of white workers is being used for this 
purpose Would white workers be willing to 
die in south Vietnam if their wives and child- 
ren were starving at home? No! 

The rulere of this country cannot reveal 
these reasons for excluding black workers 
from factory jobs, because it is clear that, if 



it is now the black worker who must suffer 
for the "holy" name of profits. It will be the 
white worker before long. 

U.S. IMPERIALISM'S GREATEST KEAR 

The greatest fear of the imperialist enemy is 
that the black people in the Suuth L.A. ghetto 
will shut down the factories, stop production, 
and demand 80 per cent oftheindustrlaljobs, 
because they are 80 percent of tht ghetto pop- 
ulation—and demand tobeeniployed— NOW I 

Iliis would be a direct attack on the real 
enemy. These factories are completely vul- 
nerable and canbeshutdownwithaminlmum 
of preparation, personnel and effort Oncethe 
weakest flank of the enemy is discovered, a 
million ways will be found to focus the full 
strength of resistance so that every blow drives 
straight to his heart (his profits ). 

When workers want to better their pay and 
conditlonB they strike! They bring the wheels 
of production to a screaming halt. This brings 
profits to a halt 

The oppressor's greatest fear is that black 
people in South L.A. will raise the slogan: 
"IF WE DON'TWORK, YOU DON'T RUN!" 
Instead of the $40 miUlon dollars inproperty 
damage Incurredduring the August Rebellion, 
billions upon billions would be lost when in- 
dustry stopped because of the fight for jobs 
by black workers. The merchant is a minor 
enemy who can be taken as a mere diversion. 
He is a small bandit who sell^ what the 
foctories produce. But If the fight for jobs 
meant a halt in production, i! would mean 
stopping the beating heart of the real enemy. 
It would be the basis for a vast black resis- 
tance movement, capable of uniting all black 
workers in South L.A., and capable of creat- 
ing a mass nnlili<'j»l sea so that resistance 



leaders may be secure in the bosom of the 
people. 

THE PRICE OF CRIMES 

The enemy fears the development of a vast 
political sea, founded onthee.v;posureof every 
crime that has been committed against black 
people. All these crimes di^russed above, and 
the day-to-day murders, would then become 
part of the Immediate political consciousness 
of the black people. Having identified the real 
enemy and his weakest point, the black peopk' 
would have a definite purpose and direction of 
struggle. lOvery act wuuld havf political 
meaning and would further serve to unite 
black people in the pride of their new-found 
power lo confront the enemy wiji awesome 
strength. I'here would be no begging for 
crumbs when you can take frorn the enemy 
more than he would be willing to -give in a 
million years. Hopelessness and frustration 
would be dispelled. 'Vhe revolutionary poten- 
tial of the black masses would be heightened 
immeasurably. Instead of aiming to mi>N, 
those who defend our black men, womtn and 
children against racist extermination cam- 
paigns—would aim to hit! We would dare to 
win! _ 

This, then, is what the enemy really fears. 
He fears the price he will have to pay for his 
crimes! He is at home herein America. I. very- 
thing he possesse!) Is right here. It is not as 
easy as mu/dering colored peoples 5,000 
nviles away, llie battle will be brought right 
to his doorstep— right to the source of his 
profits. 

The black people of Suuth LA. possess a 
weapon more powerful than twenty-two thou- 
sand guns! And black people canchoo>c(helr 
own lime and place.>< of battle! 



FIND OUT NOW! 

Atlanta, Watts, Harlem. . .Where the struggle 
began, where its going. Read: 

The Plot Against Black America - 10< 
Notes on Black Liberation - 25« 
Pre-Civil War Black Nationalism - 25< 
We Accuse 
(Bill Epton's Speech to the Court) - 25' 

SEND ORDER TO: 
PROGRESSIVE LABOR: G. P.O. Box 808, Brooklyn 1, N. Y. 




4> 


••...«•«..••• 




tsJl 




- A 


^ 




:* 


^mf^"^^' 


^ 




*^^S^ 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1309 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 53 



SUPPORT BUCK REVOLUTIONARIES 

John HarriB, ProgresBive Labor Party organi- 
z-^r in Watts faces 1 to 14 years as a "criminal 
syndicalist". His crime — passing out leaflets 
at the Deadwyler inquest pointing out that the 
cop who shot Deadvyler was. a murderer and more- 
over denouncing the system that creates such a 
']egal" murder. 

At 5:30 p.m. September 20, 1966, six plain- 
clothesmen broke into the house where John Harris 
lives. Although claiming to have a warrant they 
-efused to show it. They handcuffed John Harris 
and then ransacked the apartment throwing things 
around, ripping down pictures and causing other 
i-image. They carried off boxes of personal pro- 
perty of the three people who live there as 
■'evidence". They also took PL literature that 
vas stored there. For example, they took 250 
copies of the new PL magazine, copies of Spark 
and Free Student . They also took books and 
notes for classes, all this as "evidence". 

T i?> ^CRiNAlNAL SiHliCAlJlSfA?'' Th. criminal syndicall3» 
law states that is is illegal to speak or leaflet so as to advocate 
"change in industrial ownership" or "effect political change" by sc- 
called criminal means. A Grand Jury meeting secretly apparently 
decided this is what John was doing, and set the bail at S15,0CKj. 
Crininal syndicalism is an anti-labor law passed in 1919 ac^ 
'^ as last used to convict farm labor organizers in the Sacramento 
Val? p-w in 19"7. The lav ^p n° a : *c^ -^ ■ ". vi*h — ''v<:'.''.""*:ior;f.r^ ■'''j? - 



^^f 


r 


■Lt-j^'/J 


% 






R- 



1310 SUBVERSIVE rNTLUEIsrCES EST RIOTS, LOOTINrG, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 53 — Continued 

dlTided society. Like the anti-riot portions of the proposed Civil 
li^ts law, it is intended as a weapon against those irtio call for fun- 
danental change. Such was John's offense. He questioned the "Justice* 
of the Deadwyler bearing and advocated revolutionary solutions. In 

80 doing be was in perfect tune with the mood of the black comm\inity 
of South Los Angeles. Clearly, a "criminal syndicalist" is someone 
who represents a view dangerous to America's rulers. ("Tou have 
your freedom \intil you need it," says Bertrand Russell.) 



''/^ IS "^bMNAUReis? 



Wi 



John Harris was bom and rai'?^ 
Birmingham, Alabama, the son of a steelworker. From his earl:." ^*. 
.v.rs, he was exposed to systwoatic racial oppression and injustir 
nr'd he early detennined to fight it. VQien in I960 the freedom rid 
■'} to town he joined with them. Later in college he became chsd 
. of the Howard University chapter of SNCC. In 1964 he left acho-: 
- work in the South where he was project director for SNCC in S .:^ 
■.over County, Mississippi — stronghold of the Ku Klui Klan. 

5? re he was arrested and beaten by the cops and his home was attr 
i '.he Zlan. From his one and a half year's experience in Missis '. • 

oncluded that more basic changes were necessary. He left the 
: : vh and came to Los Angeles shortly after the Watts rebellion, 
':r./;; seen the effects of the police riot and having heard abou* 
t 'satic police murder of scores of black citizens, he decided •■'" 
clitical work in Watts. In December, 1965, impressed with tb = 
' Bill Epton and the program of the Progressive Labor Party 
..aed PL and became a revolutionary communist. 

HY ^IS A^RESTT NOW? m fact, they are arrest in- 
' . to scare and terrorize PL members and others who protest co - 
t ens in the black ghetto. Although John is not guilty of any 
rl»;:;.nal or illegal act, he certainly is guilty of protesting the 
• r*"';ched living conditions in Watts. He has spoken and written 
■ "iciut the fact that real income in Watts declined &ji since I960 

•:." rising in the rest of L.A. He has passed out leaflets whic'" 
r.iitto.1 out that in Watts is one of the biggest concentrations of 
.■(^j^tr/ — yet black TeOT.>le living there aren't given jobs in thes' 
rirr.tT, and th'-.-'. ■..h-rrT ■■ -^n '/J'r ":-! :r'>D.o;' ".'."t there. He hag cor.F*;art? ;• 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1311 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 53 — Continued 



J, f^h'i't. 

4, 'I- ■:'■ " 



u 




worked to axpoee the outrages of Yorty's brutal cops in Watts v)..- 
coDstantly murder and maim black people, the Deadvyler case betn-: 
OEly one example. He has publically denounced the war in Vietr. -- ■. 

u'-sjed his black brothers not to fight in that war. He has tol- 
-.'' oppose the draft and warmly supported such people as Richmond 

. 7 who refused to be inducted on the grounde that they are a c 

r :rity and shouldn't fight the colonial master's dirty var agaii 
'olcred people of Southeast Asia. What is more, John has held 
•. P°<5S which sought to get at the root cause of U.S. oppressir - 

' . home and abroad. He has not hesitated to nane the real erie_ ; 
J. iaperlalism, and has stated unequivocally that imperialisin ■ 

-i 13 country must be replaced by asocialist system. He has atpo' o 

;:•' iy that he is a coaimuniat and proud of it. For this he was 
ir'-ested on "criminal syndicalism". 

In Harlem, late in 1964 Bill Epton, chairman of Harlem PL. wr 
-^c'.ctffd for "criminal anarchy" ~ his crime - trying to organize a 
^^, /-racciul demonstration to protest the murder of black people durinf-r 
f. the "police riots" that srjsiner. K year lat^r he was found guilty; 
||-~he i. new out on $25. C u-<neT in Philodeiphie . 

<^' ?g. TKCC woT'iere ■'■' ^- j,H>e.--s63in^ dyrjajaite ant- 



88-083 O - 68 - Pt. 3-13 



1312 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Wheeler Exhibit No. 53 — Continued 

held on hu«e ball. Their crime — organ iela« in the hlaok coBBunity. 
Hext it was the turn of the Atlanta cops who, after brutally sup- 
pressing a protest by black citizens of another police murder, 
arrested Stokely Carmichael for inciting to riot. His crime — advan- 
cing the slogan black power. How in Los Angeles John Harris is 
arrested for criminal syndicalism. Tomorrow, no doubt, it will b^ 
somebody in San Prancisco. And the "crime" will again be the samr - - 
organizing the black community around a militant program. 

It is clear Johnson Is ordering his local stooges to begin t. 
m*ionwide ro\ind-up of all black militants who refuse to sell out 
V. -TPuse rebellions in black ghettos are harming his war effort, 
l.:cugh the charges are serious and the bail huge, we declare that 
\- 9. real guilty ones are Johnson and company for pursuing the ger.-'- 
• ■ ■ al war against Vietnam; . Torty and the police who daily are br -■ 
t?') ".y murdering and maiming black people; the General Motors an.' 
Vc -dyear plants in South L.A. who poison the air of Watts but r-?:"' 
ti; hire its residents. We must expect that as we get more ef f • . 
:.n our protests, repression such as this will get worse. But '•,' 
n't stop us, on the contrary we will redouble our efforts! 

^5»W ^!£ iO^^'S ^ Politically, all honest people 
^.^terosted in building a truly Just society must break from the ''■ti' 
P'-rtr" farce conducted by the American ruling class. Work to fre? 
t.':.?os3lve3 and others from the illusions of this system. It was > 
thio "lesser evil" Brown that this frame-up was concocted. Reco£" 
tfcji-. ir. the black ghettos the battle has already been Joined. TV' ,. , 
. against imperialism is a class war. The victory of the Viet- -- 
jp." ■ uid the struggles of all other colonial peoples ia a part - 
■^ c L^cial struggle against the "free enterprising" system of <??,'j.'\- 
•::. c -uid war. 
■ nally: Support the program and work of John Harris and the Pv r 
'. ibc'^ Tarty, Money is desperately needed. 

Progressive Labor Party 

P. 0. Box 19930 

Los Angeles 19, California 

Fcr infonns'tio''. on PL foru.T3 <--.au cla'r^ser, writs to th^ above 
address. 



hmr 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Paee 

Abdel 1278 

Adams, George 1184 

Alcindor, Lew 1291 

Alexander, Franklin Delano 1223, 1227, 1228, 1236, 1239, 1240, 1251, 1293 

Alexander, Hursel William 1211-1213, 1293 

Alexander, Mimi 1227 

Allen, Doug 1282 

Allen 2X. (See Donaldson, Allen Eugene.) 

Anderson, Clayton R.. 1125, 1126, 1222-1261 (testimony), 1264, 1265, 1297, 

1298, 1304 

Anderson, Freddie 1265 

Anthony, Earl 1280 

B 

Ballard, Roy 1282, 1283 

Bessie, Dan 1222, 1228, 1293, 1296 

Bevel, James 1284 

Beyea, Frank 1227, 1293 

"Big Popsicle". {See Thomas, Allen.) 

Bloice, Carl 1208, 1293 

Bond, Julian 1224, 1232, 1284 

Boroughs, Miller 1184 

Bova (Jerold M.) 1127, 1141, 1245, 1246, 1258, 1298 

Bremond, Walt 1280 

Brezhnev (Leonid I.) 1155, 1168, 1177 

Bridges, Harry 1211 

Brock, Robert 1278, 1281-1283 

Brown (Edmund G.) 1139, 1141, 1166, 1215, 1237, 1243, 1247, 1312 

Brown, Frank 1239 

Brown, H. Rap (Herbert Ceroid) 1286 

C 

Carmichael, Stokely 1151, 1182, 1280, 1284, 1303, 1312 

Carter, Herb 1280, 1286 

Cauley, Leon 1184 

Cavitt, Carlos 1 184 

Chernin, Rose. (See Kusnitz, Rose.) 

Chou En-lai 1136 

Columbo, Carol , — 1223 

Crook 1286 

D 

Dann, James (Jim) 1257, 1265 

Deadwyler, Leonard 1125- 

1128, 1140, 1141, 1216, 1238-1243, 1245, 1249, 1251, 1253, 1258- 

1260, 1263, 1298, 1309, 1311 

Deadwyler (Mrs. Leonard) 1260 

Debs, Eugene V 1130 

Dcnahy, Robert F 1289 

Dixon, Ivan 1282 

Donaldson, Allen Eugene (also known as Allen Jamal; Allen 2X) 1127, 

1270, 1271, 1276, 1277 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Douglass, Frederick 1246 

DuBois (W. E. B.) 1277 

Duggan, Robert Eugene 1227, 1240, 1293 

Dymallj^, Mervyn M. (Merv.) 1151, 1224 i, 1225', 1226, 1286 

E 

Edwards, Harry 1291 

Edwards, Theodore 1202, 1204 

Egan, M. (See Lustig, Michael.) 

Eisenhower (Dwight D.) 1176 

Elliot, Carlton 1184 

Ellis, Homer 1184 

Engels, Frederick (Friedrich) 1135, 1146, 1147 

Epton, William (Bill) 1232, 1298, 1303, 1310, 1311 

Evans, Lee 1291 

Everett, Ronald McKinley. (See Karenga, Ron.) 

F 

Fanon, Frantz Omar 1274 

Fentroy, George 1184 

Finkel, David 1204 

Fitch, Robert 1252 

Floras, Albert 1 184 

Floyd, John 1283, 1286 

Foster, William Z 1135 

Freeman, Bob j 1223 

Fritchman, Stephen H___ ' 1202, 1204 

Frye, Marquette 1130 

Frye, Rena 1235 

Fuentes, Juan 1184 

G 

Gaines, Curtis 11 84 

Gallagher, James Joseph 1202-1204 

Garrett, James (Jim; Jimmy) 1204, 1208-1210 

Garvey (Marcus) 1273 

Gibson (John) 1133, 1153, 1157, 1160, 1162, 1166, 1167 

Gilligan (Thomas R.) 1247, 1298 

Goldwater (Barry) 1176 

Goodlett, Carlton 1224-1226 

Graham, Ray 1290 

Gray, Danny 1281 

Greene 1151 

Greenwood, Frank S 1126, 1247, 1248, 1261-1265, 1278, 1281 

Gregory, Dick 1284 

Griffin, Aubrey 1 184 

Guevara (Ernesto) "Che" 1274 

H 

Haag, John R 1202, 1204, 1205, 1207, 1208, 1222, 1223, 1227, 1228, 1234 

Hahn 1157 

Hall, Gus 1168 

Hall, Robert 1281 

Hannon, Michael Boyd 1199-1201 

Harbin, Paul 1184 

Harding, Timothy 1252 

Harris, James C 1123- 

1125, 1129-1179 (testimony), 1181-1198 (testimony), 1210-1220 

(testimony), 1304 
Harris, John Wesley 1126, 

1128, 1247-1249, 1252-1257, 1265, 1297-1299, 1301-1303, 1309, 

1310, 1312 

Harris, Kendra Claire 1240,1251 

Hawkins, A. H . 1286 

Hawkins, Gus _ . _ 1151 

Hawkins, Willy 1184 

1 AppearH as "Marvin" In'these references. 



INDEX iii 

Page 
Healey, Dorothy (Ray) 1141, 

1151 1, 1159, 1163, 1165, 1168, 1202, 1204, 1205, 1222, 1226, 

1227, 1240, 1293 

Hendricks, Frederick 1184 

Henson, Tommy Ray. (See Jacquette, Tommy Ray.) 

Hicks, Arley T. (also known as Arley Timms) 1256, 1257 

Hirsh, Diane 1257 

Hitler (Adolf) 1246 

Hoffman, Arnold 1153, 1193, 1249, 1250 

Hoover (Herbert) 1155 

Horn, Joe 1184 

Houssein-Mardi, Houssein 1252 

Houston, Andrew, Jr 1184 

J 

Jackson, Arvilla 1223 

Jacquette, Tommy Ray (Thomas R.) (bom Tommy Ray Henson) 1127, 

1265, 1267-1270, 1278, 1281-1283 
Jacquette-Halifu, Tommy. (See Jacquette, Tommy Ray.) 
Jamal, Allen. (See Donaldson, Allen Eugene.) 

James, Joan Clara 1212, 1215 

Johnson, Lyndon (B.) 1140, 

1141, 1149, 1151, 1155, 1159, 1167, 1176, 1192, 1196, 1200, 1201, 

1218, 1229, 1264, 1266, 1308, 1312 

Jones, Calvin 1 184 

Jones, LeRoi 1284 

K 

Karenga, Ron (born Ronald McKinley Everett) 1127, 

11512, 1270-1274, 1276-1279, 1281-1284, 1286, 1287, 1291 

Karim, Abdul 1281-1283 

Kendall, John 1288 

Khrushchev (Nikita Sergeevich) 1155, 1177, 1200, 1201 

King, Martin Luther 1182, 1269 

King, William 1184 

Kingston, Levi 1286 

Knox, Charles 1286 

Konigsberg, Raphael . 1205, 1227, 1293, 1296 

Kosygin ( Aleksei) 1155 

Kushner, Samuel (Sam) 1227, 1296 

Kusnitz, Rose (Mrs. Paul Kusnitz; nee Chernin) .__ 1211, 1227, 1293 

Ky (Nguyen Cao) 1231 

L 

Laski, Michael Isaac (Mike) ^ 1123, 

1130-1134, 1139, 1141, 1149, 1150 S 1151-1179, 1185, 1187, 1188, 
1191, 1193, 1194, 1196, 1215-1217, 1227, 1243, 1249, 1250, 1261, 
1291 

Laucks, Irving 1204 

Lawson, John Howard 1202, 1204 

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 1137, 1146, 1147 

Leslie, Anne 1235 

Lewis, John 1224-1226 

Lichtman, Richard 1204 

Liu Shao-ch'i 1136 

Lomax, Louis 1235 

Love, Neill 1184 

Lustig, Michael (also known as M. Egan).-.. 1142, 1146-1148 

M 

Maiman, Joseph 1184 

Malcolm X 1247, 1263, f26"7, 1271, 1273, 1278, 1279, 1282 5, 1283 



' Appears as "Healy." 

- Appears as "Kerenga." 

3 Appears as "Lasky" in some references. 

* Misspelled "Micheal" in this reference. 

' Incorrectly spelled "Malcom" in this reference. 



Iv INDEX 

Page 

Malcolm X, Mrs 1278 

Mandel, Pierre 1227, 1296 

Manes, Hugh 1204 

Mao Tse-tung 1138, 1140, 1142, 1146, 1147, 1192, 1274, 1277 

Marx, Karl 1135, 1146, 1147, 1274, 1277 

Maymudes, August 1204 

McCone, John 1230, 1306 

McDonald, Donald 1239 

Mclntyre, Cecil 1264 

McKissick, Floyd (B.) 1182, 1284 

Meyers, Darrel 1202, 1204 

Mitchell, Charlene 1239, 1240, 1293 

Muhammad, Mr 1 165 

Murry, WiUard 1146, 1280, 1281 

N 
Nestor, Barbara 1227, 1240, 1296 

O 

Oliver, Victor 1235 

O'Neal, Alfred 1184 

Owens, Thomas 1184 

P 

Parker, William H 1127, 

1139, 1141, 1143, 1158, 1159, 1166, 1185-1187, 1189, 1190, 1195, 
1199, 1200, 1203, 1205-1207, 1230, 1234-1236, 1239, 1245-1247, 
1292-1296, 1298 

Parsons, Fred 1212 

Patterson, J 1264 

Peery, Nelson D 1216 ', 1217 

Pestana, Frank 1255 

Pestana, Jean 1252 2 

Posey, Leon 1 184 

Powell, Adam Clayton 1151, 1182 

Pratt, John 1242 

Preacely, Earnest 1280 

R 

Ralph, Leon 1151 

Reynals, Robert 1281 

Ridenour, Ron 1235 

Roberts, Steve 1205, 1227 

Rockefeller 1176 

Rosenberg, Rose 1247, 1248 

Russell, Bertrand 1310 

S 

Sawyer, Paul i.. 1204 

Settle, Thomas Archibald (Tom) 1222, 1223, 1226, 1228 

Shabazz, John 1165, 1284 

Shaw, Carrol 1184 

Sherman, W. H 1136, 1170, 1179 

Shortridge, Charles 1184 

Simmons, Bob 1282, 1283^ 

Simmons, Eston William 1150, 1152, 1249, 1251 

Simmons, Ken 1281 

Slavik, Mrs. Tiger 1146 

Smalley, Charles 1184 

Smith, Don 1204 

Smith, Ernie 1242, 1278, 1282 

Smith, Lou 1281 

Smith, Samuel L. (Sandy) 1215 

' Incorrectly spelled "Pecrey" in this relerence. 
2 Incorrectly spelled "Pestanna" in this reference. 
'Appears as ''Simons." 



INDEX V 

Page 

Smith, Tommie 1 29 1 

Spector, Frank 1227, 1228, 1296 

Stalin, Joseph (Josef) _ 1137 

Stewart, Robert Morris, IV 1185, 1187, 1188 

Sutton, Charles 1131 

T 

Taylor, Phil 1257 

Taylor, William C 1 178, 1222, 1226, 1228, 1240, 1293 

Thomas, Allen (also known as Jay Thomas; "Big Popsicle") --- 1142, 1146, 1147 
Thomas, Jay. {See Thomas, Allen.) 

Thomas, Norman 120 1 

Thorpe, Margaret 1204 

Tidwell, Billy 1146, 1147 

Tillmon, Johnnie Mae 1280 

Timms, Arley. (See Hicks, Arley T.) 

Tubman, Harriet 1264 

W 

Waddy, Marianna 1280 

Wallace (George C.) 1232 

Wallace, Joseph 1184 

Warren, Mike 1291 

Watts, Daniel H 1263 

Weisberg, Barry 1208-1210 

Welch, Suzy 1157 

Wheeldon, Don 1204 

Wheeler, Harvey 1204 

Wheeler, William A 1124, 1126-1128, 1196, 

1198-1210 (testimony), 1220, 1260, 1261-1312 (testimony) 

WUkins, Roy 1 182 

Williams, Bill 1224, 1225 

Williams, Robert F 1164, 1261-1263 

Wirin, Al 1255 

Wright, Margaret 1289 

Y 

Yorty, Samuel W. (Sam) 1129, 

1139, 1141, 1143, 1146, 1158, 1159, 1166, 1173, 1205, 1206, 1213, 
1220, 1237, 1243, 1246, 1247, 1258, 1292, 1294-1296, 1304, 1311, 
1312 

Younge, Samuel 1224 

Younger, Evelle (J.) 1258 

Z 
Zak, AUen 1240, 1251 

ORGANIZATIONS 



AMWU. {See Automobile Maintenance Workers' Union.) 
A.W.A.C. {See Agricultural-Workers-Aid-Committee.) 

Ad Hoc Committee To End PoHce Malpractices 1125, 1127, 1234, 1296 

Afro-American Citizens' Council 1278, 1282 

Afro-American Cultural Association. _ _ 1126, 1247, 1248, 1257, 1263, 1278, 1281 

Agricultural-Workers-Aid-Committee (A.W.A.C.) 1187, 1188 

Albanian Party of Labor 1 168 

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 1255 

American- Russian Institute 1262 

ANC Mothers Anonymous 1280 

Automobile Maintenance Workers' Union (AMWU) 1123, 

1131, 1132, 1153S 1157 S 1174, 1175, 1193, 1219 

1 Appears as "Car Washers Union." 



INDEX 



B 



BURN. (See Brotherhood-Unity-Responsibility-Nationwide.) Pase 

Black Anti-Draft Union 1126, 1264, 1266 

Black Conference Committee 1283 

Black Congress (see also US, CORE, Community Alert Patrol, Black 

Students Union, Black Panther Party, and Freedom Draft Movement) _ . 1286, 

1288, 1289 

Black Independent Political Action Party 1281 

Black Muslims 1236 

Black Panther Party 1282, 1283, 1286 

Black Student Union (San Francisco State College) 1210 

Black Students Union 1280, 1286 

Brotherhood-Unity-Responsibility-Nationwide (BURN) 1267, 1269 



CEWV. (See Committee To End the War in Vietnam.) 

CORE. (See Congress of Racial Equality.) 

CPUSA. (See Communist Party of the United States of America.) 

CPUSA-ML. (See Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist).) 

Committee for the Defense of John Harris. (See Committee to Defend 

John Harris.) 
Committee to Defend John Harris (see also Progressive Labor Movement), 1126- 

1128, 1247, 1248, 1251-1253, 1256-1258, 1296, 1298 

Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights (Los Angeles) 1125, 1211, 1257 

Committee To End Legalized Murder by Cops 1126, 1127, 1239-1242, 1293 

Committee To End the War in Vietnam (CEW^O (see also National Co- 
ordinating Committee To End the War in Vietnam) 1124,1199 

Committee to Support Grievances of Watts Negroes 1 124, 

1127, 1198-1200, 1202, 1203, 1205, 1207, 1296 

Communist Party, China 1136, 1168 

Communist Party, France 1227 

Communist Party, Indonesia 1168 

Communist Party, Japan 1168 

Communist Party, New Zealand 1168 

Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) 1124, 

1126, 1127, 1131, 1136, 1153, 1158, 1159, 1164, 1166, 1168, 1183, 1205, 
1210-1212, 1227, 1228, 1259, 1296. 
National Conventions and Conferences: 

Eighteenth Convention, June 22-26, 1966, New York City 1227 

TOistricljS * 

Southern California District.. 1202, 1205, 1222, 1226, 1262, 1292, 1294 

District Committee 1222, 1227, 1293 

District Council (see also District Committee) 1227 

Moranda Smith Section 1227 

States and Territories: 
California: 

Los Angeles County 1222, 1292 

Communist Party, Soviet Union 1168, 1177 

Congresses: 

Twenty-second Congress (October 17-31, 1961, Moscow)... 1135, 1136 

Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) (CPUSA-ML) 1123, 

1124, 1126, 1130, 1134-1142, 1146, 1149-1153, 1156, 1157, 1162, 1168, 
1169, 1176, 1182, 1184, 1187, 1193, 1218, 1223, 1243. 
Founding Convention, September 4-5, 1965, Los Angeles, California. 1136 

Los Angeles branch 1141, 1143, 1148, 1181 

National Structure: 

Central Committee 1136, 1138 

Secretariat 1136, 1141 

Congresses : 

First National Party Congress 1138 

Community Alert Patrol 1126, 1236, 1237, 1286 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 1211 

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1158, 

1159, 1164-1166, 1182, 1226, 1281, 1286 

Congress of Unrepresented People 1 124, 

1127, 1199, 1203, 1207-1209, 1293, 1296 



INDEX vii 

D Page 

Deacons for Defense 1164 

E 

Eugene V. Debs Club (see also Marxism Discussion Group) 11 30 

F 

FFTP. (See Freedom for the People Committee.) 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 1227, 1263 

Fifth of July Committee 1257 

Fillmore Action Committee 1280 

Freedom Draft Movement 1286 

Freedom Draft Partv 1286 

Freedom for the People Committee (FFTP) 1123, 

1131, 1133, 1157, 1161, 1175, 1190-1197, 1219 
Freedom Now Committee (also known as Freedom Now — Withdraw 

Now) 1125, 1127, 1222-1226, 1228, 1257, 1293, 1296 

Freedom Now — Withdraw Now. (See Freedom Now Committee.) 

G 

Gordon Book Shop. (See Hugh H. Gordon Bookshop.) 

H 

Hugh H. Gordon Bookshop 1211 



ILWU. (See Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International.) 

Institute for Social Thought 1179 

International, III (Communist) 1135 

World Congresses: 

Seventh World Congress, July 25 to August 20, 1935, Moscow 1135 

International Workingmcns Association 1219 

J 

John Birch Society 1176 ' 

John Harris Defense Committee. (See Committee to Defend John Harris.) 

K 
Ku Klux Klan 1259, 1310 



LAPD. (See Los Angeles Police Department.) 

L.A. County Human Relations Committee 1280 

Liberation Committee for Africa 1263 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International (ILWU) 1211 

Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 1125, 1211, 1262 

Los Angeles Committee To End the War in Vietnam (see also Committee 
To End the War in \'ietnam and National Coordinating Committee To 

End the War in Vietnam) 1198, 1226, 1262 

Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) 1 126, 

ll.-)5, 11.-^7, 1196, 1235, 1237, 1238, 1242, 1243, 1286, 1296 

M 

Marxism Discussion Group (see also Eugene V. Debs Club) 1123, 1130 

Minute Men 1259 

Monroe Defense Committee 1263 

Movement for a Democratic Society 1258 

N 

NAACP. (See National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People.) 
N-VAC. (See Non-Violent Action Committee.) 
Nation of Islam . 1126, 1164, 1165, 1243, 1263, 1270 

' Appears as "Birch Society." 



vm INDEX 

Page 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).. 1158, 

1159, 1166 
National Coordinating Committee To End the War in Vietnam {see also 

Committee To End the War in Vietnam) 1262 

National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (also known as Na- 
tional Liberation Front of South Vietnam) 1230 

National Lawyers Guild 1255, 1293 

National Liberation Front ( of South Vietnam) . ( See National Front for the 
Liberation of South Vietnam.) 

New Left School 1202, 1204, 1208 

Non-Violent Action Committee (N-VAC) 1 165, 1257, 1281 

O 

OEO. (See United States Government, Office of Economic Opportunity.) 
Organization of African Studies 1283 

P 

PLP. (See Progressive Labor Movement (or Party).) 

POC. (See Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the 
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party U.S.A.) 

Peace Action Council J 1227 

People's Armed Defense Groups 1123,1134,1141-1144,1146,1151,1184 

People's Bookstore 1 148 

Peoples Voice Book Store 1152 

Pioneer Publishers 1297 

Preparatory Committee for the Commemoration of the Watts Uprising. 1140 
Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) (or Party (PLP))... 1126-1128, 1154, 1183, 
1245-1248, 1252, 1255-1257, 1264, 1265, 1297-1299, 1302, 1303, 
1308-1310, 1312 

Black Liberation Commission 1298, 1299, 1305 

Harlem branch or chapter 1311 

Harlem Progressive Labor Club 1300 

Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Leninist 

Communist Party U.S.A. (POC) 1123, 1125, 1131-1136, 1154, 1155, 1157, 

1161, 1173, 1185, 1188, 1191, 1215-1217, 1219, 1258-1260 
National Committee 1154 

R 
Red Guards: 1140 

S 

SLANT. (See Self Leadership for All Nationalities Today.) 
SNCC. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.) 
SWP. (See Socialist Workers Party.) 

San Francisco State College 1210 

Self-Determination Committee 1278, 1281-1283 

Self Leadership for All Nationalities Today (SLANT) / 1 126, 

1127, 1265-1268, 1281-1283, 1286 

Socialist Party 1124, 1199-1202, 1205 

Socialist Workers Party (SWP) 1124, 

1127, 1130, 1159, 1183, 1199, 1201, 1202, 1205, 1207, 1223, 1227, 

1228, 1296, 1297 

Sons of Watts 1142, 1145, 1146, 1148 

Soul Students _:jl'-l2_.___ 1282 

South Bay Community Relations Council 1202 

South Side Citizens Defense Committee 1 124, 

1127, 1172, 1210-1215, 1239, 1293, 1296 

Southern California Car Wash Association 1132 

Southern Californians for New Politics 1257, 1303 

Southern Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam 1222, 1224 

Spartacist League 1228, 1229 

Spring MobiHzation Committee To End the War in Vietnam 1227 



INDEX ix 

Page 

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 1 159, 

1164, 1208-1210, 1215, 1222, 1224-1226, 1229, 1272, 1286, 
1299, 1311 

Howard University chapter 1310 

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 1124, 1199, 1222, 1238, 1239, 1258 

T 
Touring Artists Group 1262 

U 

United Nations 129 1 

United Parents Council 1289 

United States Government: 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 1132 

Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) 1237 

US 1127, 1267, 1270, 1271, 1273, 1274, 1276-1283, 1285-1287, 1289 

Black Leadership Conference, February 18, 1967, Los Angeles, 

Calif 1280, 1283 

V 

Veterans for Peace 1257 

Vietnam Day Committee 1222, 1224, 1257 

W 

Watts Action Committee 1123, 1131, 1185-1188 

Watts Council for Equal Rights 1125, 1215, 1216, 1218 

W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America (DCA) 1124-1127, 1202, 1205, 1207, 

1208, 1223, 1227, 1228, 1234-1236, 1239, 1240, 1258, 1277, 1293, 1296 

Los Angeles, Calif 1124, 1125, 1199, 1215, 1222, 1228, 1234, 1240 

West Coast Professors Council on Peace 1262 

Westminister Neighborhood Association 1127, 1265 

White Citizens Council ■ 1259 

Women's Strike for Peace 1226 

Workers' Council 1193 

Workers' International Book Store 1124, 

1131, 1134, 1139, 1141, 1144, 1145, 1146 » 

Workers' Organization Committee 1153 

Workers' Organizing Committee 1219 

Workers Organizing Committee (M.-L.) 1136 

World Council of Churches 1242 

World Council of Peace. {See World Peace Council.) 

World Peace Council (also known as World Council of Peace) 1226 

Y 

Young Men for Total Democracy 1282, 1283 

Young Socialist Alliance 1124, 1199, 1202, 1205 

PUBLICATIONS 

B 

Black Flag 1179 

Black Liberation — Now ! (pamphlet) 1298 

Burn, Baby, Burn (Frank Greenwood) (play) 1247, 1248, 1261-1263 

D 

Daily Bruin (UCLA student publication) 1130, 1200, 1256, 1267, 1272 

Daily Worker 1194 

F 

Fire This Time, The (booklet) 1235, 1296 

Free Student 1309 

G 

Ghana, End of an Illusion (Robert Fitch) 1252 



1 Appears as "Workers' International Bookstore." 



X INDEX 

I 

Page 

If We Must Live (Frank Greenwood) (play) 1261 

L 
Liberator (magazine) 1263 

M 

Mallet 1179 

Militant, The (SWP newspaper) 1297 

Muhammad Speaks (newspaper) 1244 

P 

Peking Review 1139, 1161, 1179 

People's Voice 1124, 1134, 1135, 1142, 1153, 1179, 1182-1184 

People's World 1208-, 1293 

R 

Red Flag 1124, 1134 

Revolt in Watts and the Coii^ing Battle, The (brochure) 1299, 1305-1308 

S 

Spark (newspaper) 1299, 1309 

Spartacist 1228, 1229 

SPUR (newsletter) 1234, 1296 



Threatening Sky, The (North Vietnamese film) 1299, 1301 

Tocsin 1179 

V 

Vanguard (POC publication) 1260 

Vietnam Courier 1139 

W 

Worker The _ _ 1208 1293 

Wretched of the EsiTth, The (Dr.Frantz dmar Fanon) (book) _ .///. ' 1 274 



O 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

PART 3-A 



^;,,, 



<^A. 



(Los Angeles — Watts) %^ 






,y^ — " 

%\ 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

NINETIETH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 28, 1968 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use- of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
88-083 WASHINGTON : 1968 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfBce 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 25 cents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana 

JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa ALBERT W. WATSON, Soutli Carolina 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Chester D. Smith, General Counsel 
Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1815 

June 28, 1968 : Testimony of— 

James C. Harris 1819 

Index i 



The House Committee on Un-American Activities is a standing 
committee of the House of Representatives, constituted as such by the 
rules of the House, adopted pursuant to Article I, section 5, of the 
Constitution of the United States which authorizes the House to deter- 
mine the rules of its proceedings. 

RULES ADOPTED BY THE 90TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 10, 1967 

RESOLUTION 

Resolved, That the Rules of the House of Representatives of the Eighty-ninth 
Congress, together with all applicable provisions of the Legislative Reorganiza- 
tion Act of 1946, as amended, be, and they are hereby, adopted as the Rules of 
the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Congress * * * 



Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

4: 4: * >i= * * 4: 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 

(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 

(3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee. or1[)y any mem- 
ber designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* s|: >;: ^J: si: * :I: 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House .shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, tlie subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such coiiinittee : and. for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

Detective James C. Harris of the Los Angeles district attorney's 
office, who had testified before the committee in November 1967 
during its hearings on the 1965 racial disturbances in the Watts area 
of Los Angeles, appeared again as a witness before the Committee on 
Un-American Activities on June 28, 1968. His testimony concerned 
matters pertaining to the Black Congress and a rally it had sponsored 
on February 18, 1968, at the Los Angeles Sports Arena. 

Mr. Harris stated that although spontaneous incidents have sparked 
riots and racial disturbances, it is also true that dissident groups have 
caused hard feelings between the races by deliberately planned actions. 
One such action, he said, was this Black Congress rally. 

Mr. Harris testified that the Black Congress is a "coordinating 
organization composed of about 28 groups" which "encourage mem- 
bership on the part of any black group of 10 or more members who are 
involved in social change." Its director is Walter Bremond. The rally 
which it sponsored at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on February 18, 
1968, was, according to Detective Harris, an "action which clearly 
shows the intent of the sponsoring group to foster * * * in will 
between the races." 

The witness testified that in early February 1968, Irving Sarnoff, 
an identified member of the Communist Party, who is also the chair- 
man of the Peace Action Council in Los Angeles, "was in contact with 
Stokely Carmichael, and Carmichael agreed to appear in Los Angeles." 
Sarnoff was working in conjunction with the Black Congress, according 
to Detective Harris. 

The purpose of the rally was to raise funds for the Huey P. Newton 
Defense Fund. Newton is a member of the Black Panthers in Oakland, 
Calif., who was then luider indictment, and has since been convicted, 
of murdering a policeman. His defense attorney, Charles E. Garry, 
has been identified as a member of the Commimist Party. 

Mr. Harris presented as an exhibit a flyer which advertised the rally 
and named such noted militants as Stokely Carmichael, Bobby Scale, 
Maulana Karenga, Reies Tijerina, and Betty Shabazz, the wife of 
the late Malcolm X, as speakers. Miss Shabazz, however, did not 
appear at the rally, according to Detective Harris. He pointed out 
that Walter Bremond served as master of ceremonies. 

Detective Harris then quoted brief excerpts from the speeches made 
by several rally speakers, including: 

James Forman, then a national director of the Student Nonviolent 
Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the first speaker. He told of the 
existence of a "mutual defense pact" and warned of "instant and 
pro tractive retribution" if any black leaders were assassinated. 

Bobby Seals, chairman of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, 
declared that "Every black man here must have a shotgun in his home 
to defend himself and his family against the racist Gestapo 
police * * *." 

1815 



1816 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Reies Tijerina, the leader of the militant Mexiran-American Federal 
Alliance of Free City-States, declared that "The white man is an 
enemy of justice, an enemy of mankind * * *." 

Ron Karenga, leader of US, called on the audience "to get white 
people fighting each other . . . Let them shoot each other * * *." 

H. Rap Brown, a national leader of SNCC, stated that "Black 
people, if they are going to be free, must begin to seize power. You 
better get your gun, brother. * * * You've got to arm yourselves. * * * 
The only politics we can be concerned with is the politics of revolu- 
tion. * * * We not only talking about destroying a power structure — 
we're talking about ruination of a system." 

Stokely Carmichael told the audience: "If this country burns down to 
the ground, we rejoice and we dance * * * In order to educate our 
people, it means that we must take over the schools — nothing less — 
take them over by any means necessary. ..." 

Regarding Black Panther member Huey P. Newton and his forth- 
coming trial for murder, Carmichael stated, "If you oft brother Huey, 
we oft fifteen honkie cops." "Oft," Mr. Harris explained, means 
"to kill." 

The white news media, Detective Harris said, did not cover the 
rally because they would have been required to pay $1,000 in order 
to be admitted to the arena. The rally was, however, covered by the 
West Coast Communist Party newspaper, the People's World. The 
February 24, 1968, issue of that publication carried a page-one report 
of the proceedings written by Gene Dennis. The article was entered as 
an exhibit for the record. Dennis estimated that approximately 4,000 
persons had attended the rally. Detective Harris testified that 3,000 
would be a more accurate figure. 

The request for the use of the Los Angeles Sports Arena for the 
Black Congress rally was made on February 8, 1968, by Mrs. Bobbie 
Hodges, local chairman of SNCC. Mr. Harris testified that she had 
presented a letter requesting the arena for February 18, 1968, and a 
check in the amount of $1,000 signed by Ayuko Babu. 

According to Mr. Harris: 

Babu is Anthony C. Ashley, an officei* of the Black Student Union, a member of 
the National Conference for New Politics, on the national executive board of this 
group, a guest speaker before the New Left School in Los Angeles, -a central 
committeeman of the Black Panther Political Party, and a participant in many 
demonstrations in Los Angeles, particularly in anti-Dow Chemical Company 
agitation at Cal-State, L.A. 

Ashley is a male Negro, born 16 July 1943 in Amarillo, Texas. 

Committee counsel then asked Mr. Harris if he could name the 
individuals who had "furnished the money" for the appearance of the 
speakers. 

The witness testified that Mr. John Pratt had given a check in the 
amount of $1,000 to Walter Bremond; Helen Travis, an identified 
member of the (^ommunist Party, liad remitted a cashier's check in the 
amount of $2,000; and Kenneth W. Rottger had made payable to the 
L.A. Memorial Coliseum Commission a check for $10,000. Copies of the 
checks were entered as exliibits for the record. Mr. Harris also testified 
in reference to tlie Rottger check : 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1817 

I also have a letter dated the 21st of February 1968, wherein the receipt of this 
money is signed for by Kenneth Rottger, and a copy of a letter directed to the 
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission, where the rally was held, which 
instructs them to return the $10,000 check to Kenneth Rottger. 

Detective Harris provided additional information pertaining to 
the background and activities of Mr. Pratt, Mr. Rottger, and Mrs. 
Travis. 

He concluded his testimony by naming 22 of the persons known 
to have attended the Black Congress rally. Seventeen of the 22 were 
known Communist Party members. Background information on 
these individuals extracted from the committee's files was entered 
as an exhibit in the hearing record. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND 

BURNING 

Part 3-A 

(Los Angeles — Watts) 



FRIDAY, JUNE 28, 1968 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House Office Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and Richard 
L. Roudebush, of Indiana.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis and Roude- 
bush. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Chester D. 
Smith, general counsel ; and William A. Wieeler, investigator. 

The Chairman. In view of the fact that other members of the sub- 
committee appointed to conduct these hearings cannot be present today, 
the Chair wishes to announce that he has designated a new subcom- 
mittee consisting of himself, Mr. Tuck, and Mr. Roudebush to conduct 
these hearings. 

Mr. Roudebush, will you preside? 

Mr. Roudebush. Our first witness this morning will be Mr. James 
Harris, detective, Los Angeles district attorney's office. 

Mr. Harris will testify about the Black Congress held in Los Angeles, 
February 18, 1968. Mr. Harris, do you have any objection to taking an 
oath? 

Mr. Harris. None, sir. 

Mr. Roudebush. Would you stand, please ? 

Mr. Harris, do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Harris. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES C. HARRIS— Resumed 

Mr. Roudebush. Detective Harris, you testified before the commit- 
tee last November, I believe it was, when we held hearings on the Watts 
riot and race relations in the Los Angeles area. I understand you have 

1819 

88-083 O— 68— pt. 3A 2 



1820 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

supplemental information to present to the committee this morning. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. 

Mr. RouDEBusH. Mr. Counsel, will you proceed with the interroga- 
tion? 

Mr. Smith. Will you give us your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Haeris. James Harris. I am an investigator with the office of 
the district attorney, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Harris, you have testified before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities on November 28 and 29, 1967; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Smith. Since your appearance before the committee last No- 
vember, are there any matters you believe should be brought to the 
attention of this committee ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, Mr. Smith. Although incidents of a spontaneous 
nature have in the past triggered riots and other racial occurrences, 
it is also known that specifically planned actions have been taken 
by certain dissident groups which have fostered ill feelings between 
the black and white races. 

One such action which clearly shows the intent of the sponsoring 
group to foster this ill will between the races occurred in Los Angeles 
in February 1968. In early February 1968, Irving Sarnoff, who is the 
chairman of the Peace Action Council in Los Angeles, was in contact 
with Stokely Carmichael, and Carmichael agreed to appear m Los 
Angeles. 

Sarnoff was working in conjunction with the Black Congress, This 
rally which they had planned was to be held at the Los Angeles Sports 
Arena on February 18, 1968, and its purpose was to raise money for 
the Huey P. Newton Defense Fund. 

Mr, Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to state for 
the record that previous testimony has been entered in the record by 
the Honorable Mayor Sam Yorty of Los Angeles on November 28, 
1967. His testimony shows that Irving Sarnoff and the Peace Action 
Council were the primary organizers of the march and demonstration 
that occurred when President Johnson appeared at the Century Plaza 
Hotel in Los Angeles on June 23, 1967.^ This demonstration developed 
into a minor riot. 



^ See p. 851 of pt. 1 of these hearings. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1821 

Mr. KouDEBUSH. Without objection, that will be noted. 

Mr. Harris. I have liere a flyer which advertises a mass rally to be 
lield February 18, 1968. It is interesting to note that welfare recipients 
were able to enter for a lower price than everybody else. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be received 
for the record. 

Mr. KouDEBusH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Han4s Exliibit No. 65." See page 1822.) 

Mr. Smith. Some of the speakers were Stokely Carmichael, Bobby 
Seale, Eeies Tijerina, and Maulana Ron Karenga. Were there addi- 
tional speakers ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, there were — James Forman, H. Rap Brown, Moc- 
tezuma Esparza were also to speak. Betty Shabazz, who is the wife 
of the late "Malcom X," did not appear. Walter Bremond was master 
of ceremonies. Bremond is the director of the Black Congress. 

Mr. Smith. Is Maulana Ron Karenga the same person who is the 
head of tlie organization US of Los Angeles, about which considerable 
testimony has already been received into the record from last No- 
vember ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir, he is. "Maulana" means '"teacher" in Swahili. 
His true name is Ronald McKinley Everett. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Harris, you mentioned the Black Congress. Will 
you further describe this organization ? 

Mr. Harris. It is a coordmating organization composed of about 28 
gToups. They encourage membership on the part of any black group 
of 10 or more members who are involved in social change. 

They have sponsored demonstrations and circulated leaflets calling 
for the defense of Rap Brown. I have one here which is cosponsored by 
the Black Congress, SNCC, SDS, the Dow Action Committee, and the 
Internal Repression Committee of the Peace Action Council. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be received in 
the record. 

Mr. Roudebush. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 66." See page 1823. Ex- 
hibits Nos. 65 and 66 follow:) 



1822 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 65 




niim 





FED^ iO# IVOO Huay P. Newton Defense Fund 

SPORTS ARIENA SUN SRM. 



STOKEIY CARMICHAEL ] 
Bobby Seale Betty Shabazz 

Reies Maulana 
Tijerina Rarenga 



lUElFnilE STUDEnrS 



GEn. 



Tickets:^1.50 ^2.00 ^S,00 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1823 

Harris Exhibit No. 66 




announcing:: ! J important freedom event: 
demonstration; picket: t-iail-in! 



'■HaR R : New federal Buildinq 

aX) North I^s Ancieles Street 
Los Angeles, California. 

WHEN: Wednestiay, March 20th, 1968, 
from 10:00 A.M. to 7:00 P.M. 



3PUCIAL NOTE: March 20th narks 
."'Ir , E rown ' s Birthday: 



II. R.\P BROWN 
Chainnaii of Student Non- Violent Cuordinating Commillc 



LET RAP RAPf 

H. RAP BROWN i.s being hcl<l in a Louisiana jail for 
exercising his right to freedom of speech here in Los An- 
geles. His purpose in coming to Los Angeles was to sec 
his lawyer, which was not in violation of any travel re- 
striction. He is also being falsely acciised of intimidating 
a Negro F.B.I, agent. 

A majority of the obligation for freeing Rap Brown 
lies with the people of the West Coast. Rap felt that 
speaking on the West Coast in defense of Huey P. Newton 
was worth any consequences he might suffer. 



Kr. ."Jainsey Clark, Attorney General 
Justice Department 
Washington, D.C. 

Sir: Ho RAP BROWN is being punished 
for his beliefs, not for his actions: 



Signed 



(come when you can , go when 

you must: ) 



•r.lAT: SUPPORT- IN -ACT ICW FOR 



H. RAP BROli.'N 



® 



''AYS TO HELP: Write the Attorney General 
to free RapBrown; V.'rite Rap Brown to 
sncourage him; send funds to the L.A. 
address below. 

POR CONVENIENCE: You can sign this 
Leaflet and mail it right on the spot. 



Remember) He did not break or violate any travel 
restrictions. He is being piuiished because he raps against 
our oppressor, the United States government! 

You must help him by contributing to the H. Bap 
Brown Defense Fund. 

AMERIC.V WE WILL GO DOWN 
FOR H. RAP BROWN 

Send money to: H. Rap Brown Defense Fund 
4223 West 25* Street 
-Los Angeles, California 9001 ' 



Mr. H. Rap Brown 

Parish Prison 

New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Dsar Mr. Srowm: We join you as an act 
of solidarity in your struggle for 
freedom for yourself and for black 
[leoples of the world. 



Sigi^ed 



Leaflet circulated by i 



SLACK OONCiRESS, SNCC, SOS, DOW ACTICW COMMITTEE and 
INTERNAL REPRESSION COMMITTEE of the PEACE ACTION COUNCIL. 






1824 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Do you have a summary of what was said by the featured 
speakers at this rally ? 

Mr. Harris. I do, sir. The first speaker was James Forman, who was 
a national director of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commit- 
tee. His statements included the following : 

We want to say publicly that we have a mutual defense pact and if you 
assassinate any of these black leaders, you must be prepared for instant and 
protractive reti-ibution. We are talking about selective, directive, protractive 
retributions on police stations, on fire stations, on power plants, on war fac- 
tories ... all over this country. 

Forman then indicated that a merger of SNCC and the Black 
Panther Party for Self-Defense had taken effect and that he was at- 
tempting to establish "operational unity" leading to a brotherhood 
of black people. 

He admitted that he was the minister of foreign affairs and that 
Rap Brown was the minister of justice of this new operational unit}) 
group. 

The next speaker was Bobby Scale who was the chairman of the 
Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland. He stated : 

Every black man here must have a shotgun in his home to defend himself and 
his family against the racist Gestapo police who occupy our community like a 
foreign troop. 

The next speaker was Reies Lopez Tijerina. Tijerina is a leader in 
a militant Mexican-American group. He stated : 

The white man is an enemy of justice, an enemy of mankind, and he is also 
po'isoning the minds of the public. 

Tijerina leads the Federal Alliance of Free City-States % an organi- 
zation that has laid claim to 100 million acres of the Southwest. The 
group alleges that the U.S. stole this land after the treaty of Guada- 
lupe-Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War of 1848. 

Mr. RouDEBusH. Is that the same Tijerina who was here with the 
Poor People's March? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir, the same individual. This group has threatened 
guerrilla warfare in New Mexico. He has been accused of assaulting 
United States officers in New Mexico. 

The next speaker was Ron Karenga, also known as Ronald Mc- 
Kinley Everett. He is the militant leader of US, a black organization. 
He stated that "black power emanates from political office, commu- 
nity organization, coalition and alliance, and disruption." He^dvocated 
the power of disruption and stated, "Bring up controversial issues 
like the war in Viet Nam . . . , and like all tliem otlier things they are 
doing." He said, "These things have to be brought up to undermine 
the white man as a very corrupt and vile thing." 

Karenga further stated : 

Let's talk about how to get white people fightling each other . . . Let them shoot 
each other ; let them march and picket and confront each other, and after it's all 
finished, we will have a better world. 

He stated, "Yeah, we're against violence, right, uh luili, right, but 
after sundown anything might happen." 

1 Formorlv known as Federal Alliance of Land Grants ; since Ivnown variously as Feder- 
ation of Free City States, Confederation of Free City States, and Political Confederation 
of Free City States. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1825 

Mr. Smith. For the record, Mr. Chairman, Ronald McKinley Eve- 
rett, also known as Ron Karenga, of the organization US was the 
subject of testimony before this committee on November 30, 1967. 

Mr. Harris. The next speaker was Rap Brown, who was a national 
leader of SNCC. He stated : 

Black people, if they are going to be free, must begin to seize i)ower. You better 
get your gun, brother. I don't care if it ain't nothing but a BE gun with poisoned 
BB's. America has shown us that she don't respect anything but counter force. 
You've got to arm yourselves. There is no political structure in this country 
that's relevant to black ijeople. The only politics we can be concerned with is 
the politics of revolution. This is our country. It was built on our backs by our 
labor. We've built the country up; we'll burn it down if they don't hurry up 
and come around. You got to get beyond the racist pig cop, you see, because he 
is a tool of the man who really controls this system. We not only talking about 
destroying a power structure — we're talking about ruination of a system. Black 
people cannot afford to become capitalists. 

The next speaker was Stokely Carmichael. He stated generally : 

We go to China. We go to Cuba. We go to Africa. We'll go wherever we want 

to go and if the honkie don't like it. he can go to hell So that day when we 

talk about our survival, we do not talk about this country, which is America, 
which is white people ; we talk about our people — nothing else. That's all we care 
about. If this country burns down to the ground, we rejoice and we dance. . . . 
It's foolish to assume that the vote is going to do anything for black people. . . . 
In order to educate our people, it means that we must take over the schools — 
nothing less — take them over by any means necessary. . . . We need an ideology 
for us that deals with the problem of racism, which is above exploitation. 

In relation to Huey P. Newton, a member of the Black Panther 
Political Party for Self-Defense in Oakland, Carmichael stated, "If 
you oft brother Huey, we oft fifteen honkie cops." 

Mr. Smith. What does "oft" mean ? 

Mr. Harris. This means "to kill." 

Carmichael continued : 

And if anybody in the black community says anything about it, we oft him too. . . . 
We nuist organize groups. We must organize groups which will, when they come 
down against us, have the maximum damage against them and the minimum risk 
to us. That means we organize little groups. When they oft us. that group ofts a 
number of them. If they get caught, it's a small group. . . . Our major enemy is the 
honkie. . . . We have people today who are Willing to oft (kill). We do not want 
to oft our own people. . . . But if any black man talks to any honkie about what 
we do in our own community, we are going to kill him. . . . We must be concerned 

with our people. The hell with this country. Let's be concerned with 

our people. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Harris, were the news media admitted to this rally ? 

Mr. Harris. Not exactly, Mr. Smith. The white news media were 
offered an opportunity to attend for a fee of $1,000. 

Mr. Smith. Did anyone pay such a fee ? 

Mr. H.\rris. No, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Was the rally covered by any other press organization ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir, the Peoi}le\s IFoVZrZ, "the West Coast Communist 
newspaper, carried an article written by Gene Dennis on Saturday, 
February 24, 1968, on the front page. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be received for 
the record. 

Mr. RouDEBusH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 67" follows:) 



1826 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 67 

Sfoke/y; Rap chart 
^strategy of survival' 



By GENE DENNIS 

OAKLAND - A "strategy for 
black survival" based on a 
"Black United Front" was the 
line laid down by nnilitant lead- 
ers of the recently merged Stu- 
dent Non-violent Coordinating 
Committee and the Black Pan- 
ther Party for Self-Defense be- 
for a cheering, chanting, large- 



ly black crowd of 6,000 in the 
Oakland Auditorium last Satur- 
day (Feb. 17). 

The program outlined by Sto- 
kely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, 
James Forman, and Bobby 
Seale in the Oakland meeting— 
and again Sunday afternoon be- 
fore 4,000 people in Los Angeles 
— calls for: 




Jeffrey BUnkforl photo 

STOKELY CARMICHAEL IN OAKLAND 

"Black nationalis'm ia our ideology . . ." 



• Development of all-class ra- 
cial unity in the black commun- 
ity, and alliance with Mexican 
Americans, Puerto Ricans, and 
American Indians. 

• International solidarity with 
the national liberation move- 
ments and colort-d peoples of 
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. 

• Recognition of the white 
power structure and its racist 
institutions as the main enemy. 

• Rejection of socialist and com- 
munist ideologies in favor of 
militant black nationaUsm 
grounded in "a communal way 
of life." 

• Armed protection of black 
communities and maximum re- 
taliation when the ghettos and 
its leaders are attacked. 

• Rejection of electoral action 
except as an organizing tool. 

ALL-OUT DRIVE 

The tenor of both meetings 
and the content of the program 
reflects a political shift arising 
out of the growing conviction in 
the ghettos that the white power 
structure is about to launch an 
all-out drive to exterminate the 
black community — perhaps be- 
ginning this summer. 

"The survival of black peo- 
ple," said Carmichael at the 
meeting, billed as a "Birthday 
Benefit" for jailed Panther lead- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1827 
Harris Exhibit No. 67 — Continued ' 



i 



PEOPIX'S 

WORLD 



Los Angeles *« Final Price Ten Cents 

VOL. 31, NO. 8 SATURDAY. FEBRUARY 24, 1968 



er Huey P. Newton, "is our aim 
— nothing else. We built this 
country and we're here because 
we were needed. But when 
we're no longer needed our peo- 
ple are going to 'disappear' 
just like the red man who was 
wiped out by the white man. 
Look how they are sending our 
brothers off to die in Vietnam. 

"For 413 years our people 
have resisted. They have re- 
sisted so this generation could 
carry out what must be done." 

Brown, who came to Califor- 
nia despite a court order confin- 
ing him to New York City, 
charged the nation's police with 
preparing for genocidal attacks 
on the Rhetto.^ 

'Last summer in Watts," he 
said, 'they took 1,000 kids and 
sent them to a military camp 
in the country. Next time they 
may not come back. What are 
you gonna do then?" 

NEW TACTICS 

"We will meet the repres- 
sion," said Forman, "with a 
new strategy, new tactics. We 
will build a brotherhood of black 
people to withstand the repres- 
sion. We need a mass poUtical 



party. Us He'd niggers are get- 
ting together. 

"We, as a people, are not 
frig'.itened by the attempts to 
ass.TSsinate our leaders. There 
will be retribution. We will des- 
troy war factories, blow up po- 
lice stations, destroy power 
plants, and take retribution 
against governors, mayors, and 
the white pig cops that occupy 
our community — and if Huey 
Newton is not set free, the sky's 
the limit!" 

And the crowd roared its ap- 
proval. 

"V/e are not outnumbered." 
said Bobby Seale, Panther chair- 
man, "we are outorganizcd. 
NoH t^a itc going to get down 
to the nits and the grits. The 
Black Panther parly for Self- 
Defense is a revolutionary par- 
ty. Racism must be stopped!" 

Seale outlined the Panther's 
10-point program for full em- 
ployment, draft resistance, self- 
defense, decent housing, mean- 
ingful and relevant education, 
and trial by peers. 

"We hate the oppression we 
live in," he said. "We're tired 

(Ctmtimued on bock page) 



-083 O— 68 — pt. 3A- 




1828 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Harris Exhibit No. 67 — Continued 

Black militants spell out 'survival' strategy 

(Continued from page t) 

of the cops beating us over the 
head . . . Now is the time to 
put a shotgun in your home." 

In both meetings, the black 
speakers minimized or rejected 
alliances with whites and ad- 
dressed themselves to the black 
section of the audience. 

"I will not deny," said Car- 
michael, "that whites are op- 
pressed. The difference is: they 
are exploited, we are colonized 
. . . communism and socialism 
is not an ideology suited to 

black people, period. It speaks 
to the class structure, we're not. 
We're facing racism. No matter 
how much money you make 
you're still a nigger . . . 

"We must organize our own 
people — organize our sweat, 
our blood, our life for national 
liberation — and black nation- 
alism is our ideology. We are a 
beautiful race, our people can 
do anything!" 

Both Carmichael and Brown 
put down electoral action. Car- 
michael called the vote "a 
honky's trick" whose only value 
was as "an organizing tool to 
bring our people together.' 

"The only politics relevant to 
us," said Brown, "is the politics 
of revolution . . the only dif- 
ference between Lynch'em 
Johnson and George Wallace is 
one's wife got cancer. 

"There's no such thing as a 
second class citizen. Either 
you're free or you're slave . . . 

"Chairman Mao says the 
power is in the barrel of a gun. 
fAlUance with whites) is a lux- 
ury we cannot afford. The man 
will kill you because you're 
black. 

"There must be a revolution 
of the dispossessed — the Mex- 
ican American, Puerto Rican, 
and black people. We are the 
vanguard of that revolution be- 
cause we are the most dispos- 
sessed." 



Jeffrey Blankfort photo 

H. RAP BROWN IN OAKLAND 

"We are the vanguard of the revolution . . ." 



UNITED FRONT 

Carmi(.hael called for forma- 
tion of a Black United Front — 
"Every Negro is a potential 
hhmk man ... we must have an 
tindving love for our people . . . 
there will be no 'n-fighting in 
the black community" — which 
will 'linok up with our 900 mil- 
lion black brothers across the 
world — in Africa, Asia, and 
Latin America." 

In building black unity and 
fighting for black liberation, he 
said, "we must get ready for 
the marines . . . there will be 
maximum damage to them and 
minimum damage to us." 

At the Los Angeles meeting 
in the Sports Arena, Carmi- 
chael lashed out against the 
U.S. State Department's use of 
paispf^rt control to prevent 
black people from talking with 
their brothers elsewhere, and 
insisted no one is going "to stop 
us from going to China, Cuba, 
Africa, or any place in South 
America " 



As in Oakland, he scored U.S. 
aggression in Vietnam and called 
for the victory of the Vietnam- 
ese people. 

Sharing the LA. platform 
ivith Carmichael, Brown, For- 
man, and Seale, were: Reies 
Tijerina, leader of the Alianza 
land ;:;rant movement; Mocte- 
suma Esparza, United Mexican 
American Students: Maulana 
Karenga. US — a black na- 
tionalist group; and Walter Bre- 
mond. Black Congress. 

Karenga repeated the call for 
black unity on the grounds all 
blacks are part of the "class of 
the dispossessed," and urged 
the Natl. Assn. for the .Ad- 
vancement of Colored People, 
the Urban League, and others 
to build black unity congresses 
across the nation. 

THE THE DISPOSSESSED 

Tijerina wop the support of 
the overwhelmingly black audi- 
ence as he spoke of "a deep 
communication between your 
faces and my heart." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1829 
Harris Exhibit No. 67 — Continued 



He called the U.S. pretense of 
Hghtirg for democracy in Viet- 
nam 'a rotten lie," and called 
on "all good whites" to join the 
blacks, Indian."; and Mexicans to 
reshape American societj' 

In Oakland. Peace and Free- 
dom party leader Bob Avakian 
told the crowd, "Black oeople 
have forced us to face the real- 
ity of what America is all about. 
Black people are the vanguard 
and our inspiration. Watch us 
with a suspicious eye and see 
if we don't deliver." 

Charles Garry, Newton's at- 
torney, predicted the Panther 
would be found 'not guilty" if 
tried by "an impartial jury of 
his peers." 

Ron Dellums, black member 
of the Berkeley city council, 
told the Oakland meeting, "Not 
only are Huey's rights and his' 
life at stake — but so are those 
of every black man, woman and 
child. Every black politician 
must now stand up and say 
where he is." 

RESOLUTION DUE 

Dellums said he was introduc- 
ing a resolution before the city 



council Tuesday (Feb. 20) de- 
manding Newton "be freed im- 
mediately." 

Eldridge Cleaver, Panther 
minister of information and 
chairman of the Oakland meet- 
ing, announced Newton definite- 
ly would be a candidate for Con- 
gress in the Seventh Congres- 
sional District in the June prim- 
ary — Whether he runs as a 
Panther write-in or as a Peace 
and Freedom candidate remains 
to be decided, but he will be a 
candidate. 

And it was Cleaver who also 
made official the SNCC-BPSD 
merger. Rap Brown, national 
SNCC chairman, is now the 
Panther's minister of justice; 
James Forman, SNCC director 
of international affairs, is now 
Panther minister of foreign af- 
fairs. And Carmichael, by voice 
vote of only black participants 
at the meeting, was proclaimed 
Prime Minister of Afro-America. 

"The merger has taken place," 
said Forman, "but it will take 
several months before it is 
final. The reason for it is unity 
to withstand the repression." 



1830 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Smith. Would this seem to confirm that the PeojyJeh World 
reporters were admitted to the rally ? 

Mr. Harris. It would appear as such. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. How many persons attended the rally ? 

Mr. Harris. The People^s World article reported some 4,000 per- 
sons, but I feel this is an exaggerated count. My estimated would be 
closer to 3,000. 

Mr. Smith. Would not the fee for the rental of the arena be con- 
siderable ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, there would have been required a considerable 
deposit. 

Mr. Smith. Do you know how the deposits were made ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Smith. Please continue, then. 

Mr. Harris. On February 8, 1968, Bobbie Hodges, a young female 
Negro giving an address of 4227 West 25th Street in Los Angeles 
and identifying herself as the local chairman of the Student Non- 
violent Coordinating Committee at 7228 South Broadway, which, as a 
matter of interest, is also the headquarters of the Black Congress, pre- 
sented a letter requesting the use of the Sports Arena on Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 18, for what she called a "community rally." 

She also presented a check in the amount of $1,500, signed by 
Ayuko Babu. Babu is Anthony C. Ashley, an officer of the Black 
Student Union, a member of the National Conference for New Poli- 
tics, on the national executive board of this group, a guest speaker 
before the New Left School in Los Angeles, a central committeeman 
of the Black Panther Political Party, and a participant in many 
demonstrations in Los Angeles, particularly in anti-Dow Chemical 
Company agitation at Cal-State, L.A. 

Ashley is a male Negro, born 16 July 1943 in Amarillo, Texas. I 
have here a copy of the letter prepared by Bobbie Hodges, a copy of 
the check presented by Mrs. Hodges for Ayuko Babu, and some docu- 
mentation on Babu. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request these documents be received for 
the record. 

Mr. RouDEBusH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 68-A, B, and O," 
respectively. Exhibit 68-C retained in committee files; 68-A and B 
follow:) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1831 
Harris Exhibit No. 68-A 



5 ^0 











1832 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 68-B 



''.:'.-STt:f:i:;v^T;^::^v:s/sr\ 


!^ _ 




.-«,-, 


.- 










'^i 




■ ■- 








1 
































■»l.*«P««Ot M,t»»« «*YU«.t »W ■TOM.rt -««MM«» 



2 '> i^nf\Tuaes 
- —TT^ 



\\ier) 










2651 SOUTH WESTERN AVef4UE et 27th 
LOS ANQELES, CAUIFOR H^A 



»i:ia2 2»oa«,oi: oi-o 




i ? S"* /OOOO 150000/ 



Mr. Smith. Mr. Harris, who are the individuals who furnished the 
money for the appearance of these speakers? 

Mr. Harris. One of the individuals was identified as John Pratt. 
He gave a check to Walter Bremond, the chairman of the Black Con- 
gress, in the amount of $1,000 drawn on the Security First National 
Bank, Fifth and Bixel Branch, Los Angeles. I have a copy of that 
check. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request the document be received into 
the record. 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 69'' follows :) 

Harris Exhibit No. 69 



jdH>r-kil%ATT 



^•■'-■.^ 




QAxUBli 




-^. ' ' ^, . „ , - i \^ 9-^ 



i^scaearrv FiRst $Jatiwal Bank. 










SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1833 

Mr. Harris. I also have a copy of a cashier's check in the amount 
of $2,000, drawn on the Lincohi Savings and Loan Association at 
6211 Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood, California. The remitter in 
this instance was Helen Travis of 6324 Primrose Avenue, L.A. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be received for 
the record. 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exliibit No. 70" follows :) 

Harris Exhibit No. 70 




LINCOLN SAVINGS G5 -0068 92 -^ 



2 20 



AND LOAjN association 



■-., ■'o-^.nS 7.<^oo.of) 



LINCOLN SAVINGS 



!^ Colisp 



'-''-r-L^ , . ■.^.l-.>::sg:-:/ - 

jk ii'0 500E.aR2ii' •: I a jo-ooiijtjupogj ^ao_5a_iii; ; ■ /ooooaooooo.'' 

^^,;.,J?;— — ^-T— — ■,iOsi*HSELES.00WNTO»;< flE.010K*C MEAD OFFICE. UNION BArjK LOS ANSELES. CALIFORNIA - .'.,'*-• .^'' 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, for the record, information from the 
committee files indicate that Helen Travis has been identified as a 
member of the Communist Party in testimony by Milton Santwire on 
August 4, 1955. Mrs. Travis formerly wrote for the Communist news- 
paper, the Daily Worker^ under the name of Maxine Levi. 

On August 30, 1950, the committee interrogated her regarding evi- 
dence that she had transferred $3,700 to a money drop in Mexico 
City in an effort to finance the release of a Stalinist agent who had 
been imprisoned for the murder of Leon Trotsky. Mrs. Travis invoked 
the fifth amendment in response to questions regarding these activities, 
in w^hich she had been engaged under the name of Helen Levi Simon. 

Mr. Harris. I also have a copy of a $10,000 cashier's check made pay- 
able to the [L.A.] Memorial Coliseum Commission by Kenneth W. 
Rottger. This check was given to coliseum officials by Walter Bre- 
mond. I would like to introduce that one. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be received for 
the record. 

Mr. Roudebush. Without objection, it is so ordered. 



1834 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 71" follows:) 



Harris exhibit No. 7 1 



WILSHinE & CRENSHAW DRANCM j^-q GVPOfi? 

SECURITY FI RST NATIONAL BAN K 



Feb. 16, 1968 



16-366 
1223 



PAYToTMr- - -L. A. Memorial Coliseum Coniinission - - - glO,OOOoOO 



OHOEM Of . 



Dollars 



AUTNOPItZI.0 moNATunc 



CASHHEES CHECK y) '^^,^^,^1,^l 

i:iEE3'"OEi&6»:i7E"' 560 BD In" /ODD IGODOOO/ 

Mr. Harris. With reference to that latest exhibit there, I also have 
a letter dated the 21st of February 1968, wherein the receipt of this 
money is signed for by Kenneth Eottger, and a copy of a letter di- 
rected to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission, where the 
rally was held, which instructs them to return the $10,000 check to 
Kenneth Rottger. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request these documents be received 
for the record. 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 72 and 73," respectively, 
follow:) 

Harris Exhibit No. 72 

February 21, 1968 



Receipt is hereby acknowledged for return of Ten 
Thousand Dollar ($10,000.00) deposit made in accordance 
with Paragraph #26 of License and Operating Agreement #310, 
by and between Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission 
and Walter Bremond. 

Said monies returned by check payable to Walter Bremond 
and Kenneth W. Rottger. 



Signed 




SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1835 

I Harris Exhibit No. 73 

February 16, 196S 
Los Angeles, Ca. 

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission 
Los Angeles, Ca. 

Contract for rent of L.A. 
Sports Arena, Sunday, 
2-1B-6S, by Walter 
Breraonc, Licensee. 

Dear Sirs: 

This letter is to instruct you to return the bond of Ten Thous- 
and Dollars ($10,000.00) herewith paid to you, upon completion 
of the conditions for which the bond was posted, to: 

Kenneth W. Rottger 
4031 Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, Ca./^005. 



Signed: 



Walter Bremond, Licensee 
Accepted: L.A. Memorial Coliseum Commission 
By: 



Mr. Harris. Kenneth Rottger has also been identified as a member 
of the board of directors of tlie Southern California Library for So- 
cial Studies and Research. I have here a copy of a document from the 
Department of State of California, Division of Corporation Records, 
dated November 25, 1966, which was filed by that organization, and it 
shows the purpose of the group is "to accumulate and make available 
material on the subject of Marxism and related and associated subjects 
to all scholars and students interested in the subject." 

These incorporation papers reflect that the directors of this corpo- 
ration are Robert W. Kenny at 1557 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles; 
J. Stuart Innerst of 5840 Camino de la Costa, La Jolla, California; 
John Caughey of 1897 Mango Way in Los Angeles; Emil Freed of 
9031/2 South Orange Grove Avenue in Los Angeles ; and Kenneth W. 
Rottger. 

Robert W. Kenny is currently a superior court judge in Los Angeles 
who has a long record of Communist -front group activities. I would 
like to introduce this. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request the document be received in 
the record. 

88-083 O— ©8— pt. 3A, 4 



1836 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. EouDEBusH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 74" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to enter for 
the record information from the committee's files about Emil Freed. 
He has been active in the Communist Party since 1934. In 1938 and 
1940 he was a candidate for Congress from California's 15th Con- 
gressional District on the Communist Party ticket. In 1943 he was a 
member of the machinists' branch, Communist Party, and in 1944 a 
member of the California State Commission on State Leadership. In 
1945 he was a member of the California State Committee of the Com- 
munist Party. He is, by occupation, a professional Communist. 

Mr. Smith. Will you further identify John Pratt? 

Mr. Harris. John Pratt is an attorney, not licensed to practice iaw 
in California, but who maintains offices at 1411 West Olympic Boule- 
vard, Suite 501, in Los Angeles. He is the executive director of the 
Commission on Race and Religion, Southern California Council of 
Churches. 

He has been identified as a deputy registrar and sponsor of the 
Peace and Freedom Party in California and was a sponsor of the 
Peace Action Council rally of June 23, 1967.^ 

He has been advertised as a guest s,peaker at the First Open Air 
Symposium on Political Action which was sponsored by the New Left 
School in Los Angeles, which is a Marxist-oriented school [Exhibit 
No. 75]. 

He also testified in a "hearing" which was sponsored by the Southern 
California Committee on Vietnam Hearings. I have an excerpt from 
the Los Angeles PeojAe^s World of Saturday, December 2, 1967, identi- 
fying him as a speaker at this latter hearing [Exhibit No. 76]. 

I also have a list of sponsors of the Peace and Freedom Party and 
a list of their deputy registrars [Exhibit No. 77] . 

I have a copy of a Peace Action Council publication which adver- 
tises the Friday, ^\Xi\Q 23, 1967, antiwar demonstration at the Century 
Plaza Hotel in Century City, wherein he is mentioned [Exhibit No. 78]. 

Also, John Pratt, as a representative of the Southern California 
Council of Churches, assisted in the dispatching of the contingent of 
Los Angeles persons to participate in the Poor People's March in 
Washington, D.C. I have hei'e an excerpt from the Los Angeles Times 
of 5-9-68. It indicates that those travelers from Los Ano-eles will be 
quartered in private homes or hotel rooms arranged by the Southern 
California Comicil of Churches and that John Pratt, representing this 
group, said the churches have set up a nationwide Telex system for use 
of the travelers so that each bus can be tracked at all times by the 
Southern Christian Leadership Conference headquarters in Los An- 
geles [Exhibit No. 79]. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request these docimients be received 
for the record. 

Mr. Roi'DKHL SIX. AVithout objection, it is so ordered. 

(Documents marked "Harris Exhibits Nos. 75 through 79," respec- 
tively. Exhibits 75, 76, and 70 retained in committee files. Exhibits 77 
and 78 appear on pages 1839-1843.) 

Mr. SMrrn. Mr. Harris, do you have knowledge of the l)a('kground 
of Kenneth Rottirer ? 



Johnson demonstration, Century Plnza Hotel. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1837 

Mr. Harris. Yes, sir. I know that Kenneth Kottger was born on 
October 30, 1906, in New York. He is a sponsor of the Los Angeles 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, now known as the Los 
Angeles Committee for Defense of the Bill of Rights, and operates a 
bail bond office for the latter coimiiittee in Los Angeles. 

He Avas the writer of a letter, along with his wife, Betty Rottger, 
opposing United States policy in South Vietnam on August 9, 1964, 
which letter was printed in the Congressional Record of August 13, 
1964, at the request of Senator Morse. 

Mr. Smith. Is Helen Travis further known to you ? 

Mr, Harris. Yes, sir, her name is Helen Maxine Levi Simon Travis. 
She is married to Robert Carroll Travis and was born September 3, 
1916, in New York City. She is the current publisher and distributor of 
a newspaper called Counterdraft^ which is an antidraft publication 
in Los Angeles. I have a copy of it here. 

jNIr. Smith, Mr. Chairman, I request the document be received for 
the record. 

Mr. RoLT)EBUSH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 80" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. PIarris. She has been publicly identified as a member of the 
Communist Party and has been identified with many Communist 
Party fronts. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Harris, to your knowledge, were there many known 
leaders of the Communist Party, the AV. E. B. DuBois Clubs, or similar 
groups in attendance at tlie rally that you described a few moments 
ago? 

Mr. PIarris. There were, sir. But I have one more document I 
would like to show you in regard to Plelen Travis. She is an instructor 
at the New Left School in Los Angeles, which I have mentioned here- 
tofore. She is shown as the former chairman of the Los Angeles Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee, and it indicates that she is a professional 
instructor in the "techniques of planning, designing and producing 
effective leaflets for conununity organizing, organizational bulletins, 
newletters and tabloids." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be receiA'ed for 
the record. 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Harris Exhibit No. 81." See pages 1844-1847.) 

Mr. Harris. Now in regard to your earlier question, there were 
identified at the rally on February 18 the following persons: Dan 
Bessie, Ben Dobbs, Sarah Dorner, Rose Chernin Kusnitz, Bob Dug- 
gan, Emil Freed, Arnold ]Manuel Hoffman, Michael Laski, Frank 
and Jean Pestana, Robert Arthur Nieman, Irving Sarnoff, Frank 
Spector, Allen Zak, John AVesley Harris, Donald Wheeldin, William 
C. Taylor, Charles H. Mosley, Reverend Stephen Fritchman, Ken- 
neth and Elizabeth Rottger, Frank Wilkinson, Tassia Freed. 

]Mr. Smith. ISIr. Chairman, 17 of the people named by the witness 
have been identified or are professed officials or members of the Com- 
munist Party, U.S.A., or other Communist Party organizations. An- 
other has invoked the fifth amendment before this committee. 

Permission is requested to place background data from the commit- 
tee's files into the record on these individuals. 



1838 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Without objection, such request is granted. 

(Docmnent marked "Harris Exhibit No. 82." See pages 1848-1850.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, that ends my interrogation of the 
witness. 

Mr. RouDEBUSH. Mr. Harris, I want to say on behalf of our com- 
mittee that we are indeed grateful for your coming to testify and I 
feel, as one member of this committee, the testimony that you have 
given here today will be a great help in the safeguarding of your 
country. 

We are very grateful to you, sir. 

Mr. Harris. Thank you, Mr. Roudebush. 

Mr. Roudebush. If you have nothing else to say, Mr. Harris, we 
will dismiss you. 

Thank you, sir. 

^ ^ V ifi y SgC ^1 

Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m., Friday, June 28, 1968, the subcommittee 
adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair. 

(Harris Exhibits Nos. 77, 78, 81, and 82 introduced on pages 1836- 
1838 follow:) 



1 The subcommittee then continued with the testimony of Edward S. Montgomery on the 
subject of the San Francisco riot. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1839 

Harris Exhibit No. 77 

M(viV K) RK(;iSTF.R INW) THK 
IM:A( K ANi) KRKKDOIVI PARTY 



I II veil cilhcr .irc ;ilrc;idv rctsisliTcil In iciic in Calil'Drnia or ;irc L-liglhlc In ropislcr 
mil viiic. ^'ii 111 ;iny dcpulj rc(:i>lr;ir ol viiicr>. There urc hunclrcils nf such deputy 
u■^•l^U;ll^ in ihc cnunlN iniin\ h;ivc tables siu up in stores, parks, public buildings 
liui il Mill cm"! Ilnd one Ihen po to your city hall or else call PI AC'l- AND IRF.K- 
|)()M headquarters (.^9'>-2()IX) By law. anv deputy registrar who is registering \(>nu' 
people miisi register n// eligible people who come to him at that time. 

' 1 1 Mill ire already repistereU to vote, lell the deputy registrar that you wish lo 
it-ri'giyiir 111 order lo change political afniiation. If you are not registered now. lell 
ihc dc|nil\ registrar that \ou wish lo register lo vole. 

' Kc).'isiralion l.ikcs only a lew minulcs The deputy registrar asks you for informa-. 
iiiHi on Mitir name, adtlress, and so on. and ivnlesdown your answers. 

,\t(>SI IMI'OHI AST When the depuiv registrar asks you to state your political 
iHili.iiiun. :iiis»ci ••PKACK. AM) KRKKDOM." Do not give anv other name. Tor 
lA.iinplc. c\en il vnu arc no« regisiered as a Democrat, do not answer "Demoeral." 
Do noi .insvicr Independent. Be sure lo answer "PEACi: AND FREEDOM." 



4 W lien legisiralion is done, ihe depuu registrar gives you a voter's stub with 
ioiir II. line, .iddrcss. occupation, and poljiical alfilialion. Be sure your political 
illiliaiion IS i-iicn as l>KA( K ANI) KREKIK)M. IK IT IS NOT YOU ARL NOT 
Kl (lis; I RID IN nil l>hACT \NI) VR\ I DOM PARTY. 



(PARTIAL LIST OF SPONSORS) 

(Profession or Organization for Identification Only) 



Hut5el W Ali;«,inr1pi 

Pal Arnold Vrilley Pome Crntni 

Roger r)«rkli'v_Jun(' 23rri Movement 

Sj(Una Raiklev Polilnal Prisonei (FSM) 

yvilliam Beasloy. PAC executive Member 

Mark Billing 

Barbara Briit>ii Diali Ciiunseloi 

( li.irli-, Bnll.n PholrKltaiiticr 

I'.ol H.it.r.l niodsky, UCLA 



>il (II. 



I, Ml. I Hll.'.l.iwsky 

liilniiii Biili.ii Atioiiicv 

Pi of Anili.iwChorw.nl, UCLA 

Wuiuliow Colpninii N VAC 

(ii'iif'va (~ (.;ii|i(>lnnr) 

(.iM,ilil(:<>|p"l.iiiil 

11,11, V H n.'inr.iiolii'. M D , LJSC 

lol.n (l.-W.lri> 
IhriMi.r, M rj.inphy 



111 (I 



Wai 

I. ( nil. inks 



.1SI€I 



Mlifn 
'Mill I I 
ly (illll 



■il liMrlll 



(■.0111,1 ,llill.-?:iril Mov«il 
unci Cl.lV, N VAC 

'in firaySOn Ailist 



IISD.MI 



iKlm.itr 



Jack H.iMipton 
Michael Hannon Ann 
fred Hoffman 



Prof A E Hurd UCLA 

Robert Ignega, Writer 

Bruce Ingram 

Jay Jamieson. Poet 

Prof Lawrence C Jorqensen 

Joe Karpsak 

Arnold K Kaye. Editoi Wew IV»if 

Ronald Kenner. Journalist 

Jean Kidwell. Attorney 

Lin Kissane Probation Officers Union 

(PiesidenI) 
Gordon L L Allemdnrt 
David Lawrence. FOR 
Winona Sctilihs Teacher 
John P Seward 
Stephanie Furniss 
William H Smith Jr Engineer 
Don Long 

Richard R Clark. Student 
Margaret Feigin Welf.ire Administrator 
Lynn Poricr Vietnam Summer Project 
Felix Anthony 
Eiiene Anthony 

Ruth Shapin Orange County Peace Center 
Carl Swallow, Teacher 
Dr Frenk Lindenfeld 
Steve Lippman. Student 
John D Mallett. Mathematician 
Hugh Manes, Attorney 
Jane (Marcus 
Dr Michael Marcus 
Deena Metzqer. Poej 



Edward Mohtz, Jr . Teacher 

Robert Carter McDaniel, Attorney 

Or Robert Niemann, UCLA 

Sherman Pearl. Coordinator Angry Arts 

Frank Pestana, Attorney 

Alice Powell 

Richard M Powell, Writer 

John H Pratt 

Michael Reclam 

Guy Saperstein 

Prof C Wade Savage, UCLA 

Mario Savio. Political Prisoner (FSMI 

Robert Schwarcz, Language Processing 
Researcher 

Ralph Shroyer, Teacher 

William G Smith, Attorney 

Bob Stewart Watts Action Committee 

Jon Tavasti. Social Worker 

Charleen Thygeson. Social Worker 

Jack Weinberg Political Prisoner (FSM) 

Prof Joseph Weinstein, UCLA 

Silvia Wolf 

Frank Wolfe, Editor, Provo 

Curtis Zahn. Writer, Artist 

Richard Zarlow 

Bob Ellsworth 

Roselyn Katz Angry Arts 

Dr Charles P Sohner, El Camino College 

Howard Feldman. SCNP Steering Com- 
mittee 

Paul Landwehr 

Richard Sullivan 



1840 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Harris Exhibit No. 77 — Continued 

■ (J;:;. /wGluU-G COUNTY PEAQ. MIB FREEDOM PARTY 

■•'-- ^ r.DGXl.TRATI.K' DRIVE 



ADI'JWISTRATIVZ COMMITTEE 
Address and Home List 



CIIAlKljAM OF TTTi: AuMINISTR/iTIVF-. COMMITTEE 

Mi.-hrH<^l L^ Schon 

Haiio oilCross - 1140 S. Pasadena Ave., Pasadena, 91105, phone SY 9-8859 

(jfl i cd'&aJi^as - Call fomi a ^Institute of Technology, Pasadena 

phone jiu i-717i ext» W82 

vTr.i:-tj;i\[Rn/\N of tic'aw-iinistrative committee 

11. I<r.r,D Dctzgcr, H.D. 
>M]i<:<j addrcuL; - ^20 W. Pico Blvd., Los togelaa 90019 phon»- RE 1-0707- 

if tio answer call "KE 1-2101 

PlKJJCTo;- OP FIHANCi: 
'Com ijorrison 

o'xi ,jdiiro33 - 20^10 Pacific Coast 'lighwayv, Kalibu .pi>one »»S6-2<^'jit 



DliUICTO'K OF PUiJLICITY 
SherrndTv E,,^arl 
Home address - 423 BayStreat, Venice phone 396-8800 

T^^.p' DII?ECT0R-r3(» £>fiPANSION ANO PEVELOPMENT 

,■ trohn Ilaag. '• \ . . 

Home addresc - 912 Pacific Avenue, Venice, 90291 phone 392-2892 
•»" • 

Voodrow ColOTiea^^ 

Hoino address - M163 S. tjentral Ave., Los Angeles 90.011 phone AD 2-9618 

or 588-«006 

OFFICE f'jV'AGER 
Daphne ilahone 
Home addrciis - 826 Angelus Place, Vetii'ii 90291 - ph<9ne j»2StfU^: 

DIia:CTOk OF ri'GISTRATIONS -' :. 

Cd Pearl 
Horte address - 2707 6th St. phone EX 2-rt86 

or Ash Grove - 8162 Melros* ^v«« phCTia QL 3->Z0l<^ ■ 



LLGAL ADVISOR y\JID DIRECTOR OF LEGAL SERVICES''-, 
tiichaol Hannon 

Momt> address - 2026 Redesdale St. , Los i'\ngele3 90039 ph' 
^Ifico iddress - 1725 W. Beverly Blvd, L.A. 90021* phof 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1841 

Harris Exhibit No. 77 — Continued 



^^^HOH 


Dcnic Gillman 


*/b0U05 


tiary Johnson 


90U05 


Karun Molson 


•)0U05 


Jennifor Thomas 


T0U05 


Larry Baptist 


90'l05 


Larry Doc Pearson 


901+05 


John Williams 


<tOU05 


Barbara Zaleska 


'jo'tnr 


'iosetnary Reich 


00UO5 


Ruth Steward 


00405 


Bthyl Chamberlin 


sj'90i+05 


Col loon Kirby 


/JOUOS 


Robert Schwarz 


V90U05 


Ld Perrl 


90501 


Hike Horrera 


00606 


Fern Palmer 


90731 


Laraino Arian 


91001 


Carol Sarkisran 


11001 


Trannr. Hurley 


01024 


Martha Vidican 


9102U 


Duane Vfaddel 


91021+ 


Jchn AlltT 


91024 


Don Damett 


91024 


Tulita Allttn 


91040 


iiolly Obar 


91042 


John Pratt 


91103 


Don Hoffman 


91103 


Raoul Savoie 



1847 h 12th St. Ex5-8C50 

2S19 Ji 4th St. S.M. 396-6315 

611 '' Oc«an Park, Sll 399-37eu 

625 A Pi<jo S.U. 399-1031 

609 Ashland S.M. 396-2362 

622 Ashland S.M. EX9-5566 

2708 3rd St. S.II, 399-5072 

12»+ C Pacific 396-9194 

2405 34th St. S.M. 392-4778 

2011 - D Ocean Park S.M. 396-652U 

2702 6th St. S.U. EX6-3025 

25 36 5th St. #2 399-8787 

2501 Pico Blvd. S.M. 451-0973 

2707 6th St. SM EX2-1886 

2424 Gromarty Ave., Torrance 328-G479 

7716 Hestm^ Ave., Iftiittier 0X9-5935 

1919 S. Cabrillo, San Pedro 832-9411 

319 \1. Ventura . 791-1495 

297 Loma Alta , Altadena 797-4322 
664 Holly Trail Path, Si«n>a,Hadre 355-7599 

/ Storsevant , Sierra iladre 355-6317 

255 :^. Hcrmosa, Sierra Iladre EL5-682o 

375 E. Grasidviow Ave., Sierra 355-7597 

Hadre 

255 N. !;ermo6a. Sierra Madre EL5-6820 



8220 Grenoble, Sunland 
Cr l^lf 3 

1777 Oxford, Pasadaiui 
557 Prospect, lasadena 



353-5773 



797-8186 
792-4315 



*v^- 



1842 SUBVERSIVE INTLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 78 

ST;0P World War III NOW... 

while there is time. 



"Wc iiiiiivli to clr;iin;i(i/c the world-wide hope that the United States remove its troops from 
VictiKini so that tiic Vietnamese can determine their own future in their own way." A.J. Muste 



Friday June 23, Pres. Johnson is coming to LA. to witness a massive 
anti-war demonstration at the Century Plaza Hotel, Century City. 



Cheviot Hills Park is located on Motor Ave., Va block 
south ot Pico Blvd. Century Plaza Hotel is located on the 
Avenue Of The Stars, one block east of Motor Ave., 
between Pico Blvd. and Santa Monica Blvd. 

The march route v*fill be from the park to the hotel. 



12 noon: Student Mobilization 
Committee "Peace-ln' 
Cheviot Hills Park 

6 p.m.: Assembly for March 

Cheviot Hills Park 

7 p.m.: March and Rally 

Century Plaza Hotel 

nationally prominent speakers 
and entertainers. 

We demand an immediate end to the war in Vietnam 

an end to the senseless slaughter of thousands of Gl's 
an end to the mass murder of Vietnamese 

We request that you wear white, the Asian color of mourning, 
and black armbands to mourn American deaths. 

As ihi.- w;ji 1 1 iiclly licstroys in Vietnam, so it denies hope to millions in the United States. The need for 
ilcioiit hiuni's. (.jiuihly education, jobs and fair empli)ymcnt are brushed aside. Our cities smother in 
smoke and (irimc. sii angle iii traftic. Our slums continue to rot. Streams and rivers are'polluted, and 
tJK- very an' wc breathe is fouled. Our vast wealth could in a short time eliminate the.se ills. It goes 
instead to nuirdcr and destroy. War contracts and the draft corrupt our campu.ses and laboratories. 
.Ami. as the war continues the ultimate danger of nuclear holocaust hangs over all. 

// yoii recc-hf more than one copy, pais il on. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1843 
Harris Exhibit No. 78 —Continued 

Tell LBJ: 

Stop World War III 

NOW! 

End the war 

in Vietnam 

Demonstrate 

June 23 

Century City 



Sponsors (Partial List), Supportini Organizations: 



Peace Action Council, 555 N. Western Ave. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 90004 - HO 2-8188 





C«orr 


1 W Cumminf^ 


St»nle' 


Soph" DiividtoP 


Mo".i 


IIphIiiic Davis 


Raphji 




Martin 




Mrs /i 


naviij Diiniufi 




(URCnf H Diion 








Mr« Kf(ir<l Fde'fumlir 


M. & 1 


HulhEhtlKh 




SlrphfR R 1 van-. 


Robert 




Beriie 


M.UnntfhP. 


Irmia. 



City & State Phone 

D I can offer housing □ I need housing 

n I can help build the demonstration, call me. 

n Enclosed is my contribution. 

The Peace Action Council of Southern California announces its Vietnam 
Summer plans and organizing drive to begin (ull force immediately fol- 
lowing June 23 We ask all affiliated organizations and individual sup- 
porters to start planning now to support and vuork with us this summer 
to create the greatest pressure on the administration to date for an end 
to the war in Vietnam 



*l6frl Maltl 


Mn Aiica Po««ll 


Helen Seidera 


ion Mandtl 


Richard M PoMtll 


E*e Send ion 




JOftnH Pratt 


Ltonerd L Shenkan 


S*'0|*rfiK MankM 


Soph't Pratt 


Mr ft Mn Ljmn Shoemaker 


Mo<>'« wwin 


Chatiti H Pratt 


Warc-eSiiveritein 


ior<'>l M*Mn 


OfMli r Pwccian- 


RayL Simpton 


M'l CiMyiMalicw 


AMiRadu 


Oon Smith 


0< D«.-d MeikPt 






ff«nc«i Meaiom 


Carlrude R«*d 


Profeiior Bernard i Somer 


Taylor Mtaiom 


Richtfd Rtlitttr 


Leonora Somen 


Mei Mctkf 


SMI Raldar 


Mr ft Mrs Sidney Spiegel 


S'T^on ft JMn MartdtHon 


iurtt Riant 


Etfilh K, Spiegler 


Otena M«tigar 


Menrjr Rilajr 


H A Stemgart 


H Reed Met/|er. M 


M.lton 1 Roem«r. M D 


Evelyn Stern 


0o':))hr8 MUiufflcMck 


Dav'd L Roian 


Cene Stone 






CUylon L SlouMer 


Donald Morlyt 


Nancy Roiter 


Mn Nma Sluart 


Mf 4 Mil E Morton 




Ermi Thompton 


Myman Mofcowily 


Bettr Rottger 


Marvin Treiger 


Mri Efl.Ih M Mouldar 


Kenneth W Roltgar 


Oorothy J Tomblm 




Sylvia Rubmitein 


William Tosh 


Shoier Neitor 


Allen RupMrtberg 


Jane E Tnven 


Cdvaid Ntmier 


ki\n Ruth 


Paul N. Trivtrt 




JohnM Ruih 


Evelyn Velton 


n Newbr. J' 


John S*eg«r 


Mn Rose Vo4lmer 


Ihada Nawimtn 




Helen Voil 


Oo'othji Newmi'li 


Roit Salli 


Fred Walih 


Frederick M NicAolat 


Marion Simpler 


Anne Welttn 


A|for> Naentor MD 


Emma Stylm 


Henrjr Waimsn 


Irene NMard 

Date Itn't Odtrman 


Paul Schachter 


Donald C Wheeidm 


Pauline C Schmdtcr 


A M. White 


Sharon L Oderman 


Mfi. Bealrlct M Schoen 


Brian D. White 


Btnnet Otan 


Or Hai H Schoen 


Ruth E Wienber 


Harold Ono 


Haiei Schroder 


Frank Wllhlnton 


Prettofl D Orem 


AltMrtH Schrul, MD 




PaulW Orr 


Roalyn B Schuldenlrai 


Lena WlMlami 


Violel Orr 


RoCr^M J Scnwattf, Ph D 


C Wilton 


Cenevteve H Ot'und 


W.lliam Scot! 


S Wolh 


Mr Claire W Pairrter ^ 


Mr ft Mn. Frenhlln t Schroeter 


David L. Wollrich 


loiepn P«pe 


Cvairn F. s«iii, n o 


Slanko Yelicti 




Jo Seidita 


Edith S. Zerbin 



1844 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 81 



PACULTY-PALL1967 

•MIKE AGNELLO 

Jfu'slcologist and conductor; director of the iJeo-Renaiasance Singers. 

CHARLES BRIITON 

Photographer and designer for civil rights and peace inoveraent action 
in Los Angeles area for past five years. 

aEM DOBBS 

Organizational Secretary, CPUSA, Southern California Dlwtriot 
PIERRE MANDEL 

Veteran L^bor and community organizer. School coordinator. 

ED MORITZ 

One of the initiators of Southern Califomians for New Politics; 
Instructor in hiMianitles - socio-political science; active member SDS. 

JERRY PALMER 

Radio Amateur, Ph D candidate in medical-physics at UCLA; active in 
the Vietnam Day Committee and SDS at UCLA. 

ARLEENE RICH/\RDS 

Student of Martha Graham; attended Julllard School of I.iisio. 

WILLI/U1 G. SMITH 

Attorney and Secretary of California Ckapter of National Lawyer's 
Guild. Member of the California State Bar and the Bar of U S Supreme 
Court. 

LEWIS J. STOI'Ei'.IAN 

Director of the Marxist- Leninist Emancipation Circle. 
?IELEN S. TRAVIS 

Journalist; former cha^^irman of Los Angeles Pair Play for Cuba Committee 
MIKE YUEPP 

Graduate -Reaching assistant, UCLA, and teacher of Russian & Chinese* 
DON WHEELDIN 

Past chairman of Pasadena CORE. 

STATEMENT OP PURPOSES 

TIIE NEW LEPT SCHOOL is a non-sectarian, socialist-oriented Institution 
founded to enrich the dialogue among thinking Americans. Welcoming all 
who seeV new answers to today's questions, its intention is to go beyond 
existing educational programs by focusing on problems inherent in present 
society and on solutions alternative to those of the power structure. 

THE NEW LEPT SCHOOL takes the position that free inquiry exists only 
when the examination of such alternatives is possible. The School 
consequently rejects nar-"0w approaches, and afTlniis tl^ validity of all 
serious socialist thought. Its faculty represents diverse - and often 
conflicting - Idealogical positions; its student body will Include both 
socialists and those wishing to examine socialist thought. 

THE NEW LEPT SCHOOL is intended to fill a gap in existing education, 
serving those whose criticism 6f economic privation, of racial injustice 
and of t-.he quality of life In a mass society has led them to a desire 
to understand the nature of present society and the possibilities of 
social change. 
~Por~fur"ther~informa"Eion~wriTEe~to:~NEW~I^7 'Jc!T00L~c7o~PTerreTiCrndeT P ~ 
.'ex 29069, L A 90029 or call 661-1448. Advance Enrollment accepted by 
i.iail with accompanlng check. TUITION: 
Unemployed ;|p 2.50, and all additional cj 
and scholarship contributions are urgj 
In all areas of planning and researcK 




oyed ;|p 14. Student § 6.00 
ses $ 2.00. Financial help 
ly needed as well as volunteers 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1845 



p p; P L E 

P A 1-^ T ! C 1 

C N U I T I 

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AND D £ S 



Harris Exhibit No. 81 — Continued 

AVE THE '•RIGHT AND OBLIGATION 

ATE i H SHAPING THE D E C I 5 I C N 5 

No OF ECn^:0^'IC POLITICAL AND 

lOTENCE t.'HICH AFFECTS THEIR L 
I N ! E S. 



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1846 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 



Harris Exhibit No. 81 — Continued 

ORGAni^ING SKILLS 



DRAPI COUNSELING /iKJ RESISTANCE 

Historic background of the development of drafted 
armies. History of early draft resistance. The 
development of concientous objection. The meaning of 
paSii"is(!/.S Past and present movements for the abolition 
of the draft. New methods in the fight against the 
draft. 

Analysis of current draft laws. Deferments or exemptions • 
students or occupational - dependency and hardship -CO. 
exemptions - medical and psychiatric - and non-cooperation 
exemption methods. 

William G. Suiith - Instructor 



lEAFLBT AND PJ.IgHLBT WRITING - J-VSSTJi RELATIONS 

The techniques of planning, designing and producing 
effective leaflets for community organizing, organizational 
bulletins, newsletters and tabloids. The sldll of writiM 
news releases for newspapers, newscasts and other fortna oi 
communication. 

Helen S. Travis - Instructor 



Gj ^APELC DESIGN - PHOTOGRAPHY - FILMS & BrrTraff "9 "*^!?^ 

Designing for effective leaflet and pamphlet printing - 
Poster design - Newspaper and magazine photography - 
Printing types and layout - Nowsreels and short film 
making - Planning and producing traveling panel exhlMte 
(history of the civil rights movement, politioal agtlon« 
etc.) 

Charles Britton - Instructor 



EIi^CTRONICS WORKSHOP 

Basic electronics, radio communications and electronic 
countermeasures with application to the needs of the 
movements . 

Jerry Palmer - Instructor 



liTt of self-defense 

Mike Yueff - Instructor 

RESEARCH WORKSHOP 

Methods and skills of scientific research to serve the 
needs of community organization, carapaigns, and organizing 
drives. Radical research for new conceptual and visionaiy 
perspectives. The ■formation and bvilding of a research 
library. Collection of oral documentation. 

Pierre Mandel - Instructor 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1847 



Harris Exhibit No. 81 — Continued 

CONCEPTUAL 



MARXISM 



Introductory course giving a survey of the Marxist under- 
standing of Philosophy, History, Political economy of 
social change and understanding present society. 
Provides necessary vocabulary and foundation for further 
study. 

■Ben Dobbs - Instructor 



ORIGPr. PgACT AMI NATURE OF RACISM IN THE O.g. 

Racial basis of slavery. Institutionalized racism. 
Racism - a tool of imperialism. Racism and sax, labor, 
religion, inter-racial relationships. The dehumanizing 
factor of racism in American society. Anglo-Saxon 
superiority. The role of white radicals vs. racism; 
Parallel and/or United action in white communities of 
America. Build humanizing and civilizing committees. 

TBA 



gqi^lUUAL LIVINC 

Past, present, and future human action and interaction 
in communal living. Experimental, provocative tests 
of human attitudes. 

Mike Agnello - Instructor 



HISTORY OF THE ANARCHIST MOVEMEMTS 

History of the j'jiarchists Movements from their philoaophiOAl , 
psychological, and literary sources to contemporary 
organizations such as SDS, Provo, and Catholic Workers 
Movement. Depth study of great thinkers such aa Godwin, 
Thoreau, Balcunin, Malatesta, and Goodman. Close attention 
to the S/lI-CNT in Spain, the JMV in the U.S., and Rusoiaa, 
Italian, and French movements. 

Ed Moritz - Instructor 



PEOPLE'S WARFARE 

Early Slave Revolts - Early Guerilla Warfare. Why, 
When and How of armed struggle. Theories of Revolution. 
The Russian experience. Tho rich experience of the Chioese 
Revolution. The Thought of Ifeo. European Guerilla 
Warfare and Resistance. The Cuban experience and Che 
Guevaxa. Urban Guexilla Warfare ir. U.E. Revoljtion 
on the African continent. Comparisons of theories of 
Gueril-la Warfare . 

Lewis Slioneham - Instructor 



1848 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Harris Exhibit No. 82 

DANIEL BESSIE 

Daniel Bessie served as chairman of various Labor Youth League clubs in the 
Santa Monica, Calif., area in the mid-1950's. He has also attended meetings of 
the Youth Commission of the party's Southern California District. 

Bessie was a delegate from the Santa Monica area to the Los Angeles County 
Communist Party convention in January 1957. He also attended the November 
1959 session of the Southern California District convention, which elected him 
a delegate to the 17th National Convention of the Communist Party. 

BEN DOBBS 

Ben Dobbs joined the Communist Party in November 1933 at the age of 21. 
In 1938 he was State administrative secretary for the Young Communist League. 
In 1948, 1949, and 1950 he was labor secretary of the Communist Party in Los 
Angeles County. Dobbs has also served as administrative secretary for the 
Communist Party's Southern California District and as a member of the execu- 
tive board of the Southern California District Council. He is the current execu- 
tive secretary of the Communist Party of Southern California and is running 
for Congress on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket. 

SARAH DORNER 

Sarah Dorner was identified as a member of the Communist Party by a witness 
who has aijpeared before the Committee on Un-American Activities in execu- 
tive session. This was stated in the committee's report on Communist and Trotsky- 
ist Activity within the Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee, 1962, p. 1528. 

ROSE CHERNIN KUSNITZ 

Rose Chernin Kusnitz has been identified as a member of the Communist Party 
by at least four witnesses in testimony before this committee. She was a Smith 
Act defendant and was convicted on August 5, 1952, of conspiring to teach 
and advocate violent overthrow of the United States Government. She was 
fined $10,000 and sentenced to 5 years in prison. The case was ai>i)ealed, how- 
ever, and the Supreme Court reversed the conviction. Mrs. Kusnitz was set free. 

Mrs. Kusnitz has served as the executive director of the Commvmist-front 
organization, the Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, now 
known as the Los Angeles Committee for Defense of the Bill of Rights, since its 
inception in 1950. She was a delegate to the second convention of the Southern 
California District of the Communist Party held in two sessions in November 1959 
and January 1960. She was elected to the party's top district committee at the 
January session. The district convention also designated Mrs. Kusnitz as one 
of its official representatives to the party's 17th National Convention in New 
York in December 1959. 

ROBERT EUGENE DUGGAN 

Robert Duggan was one of the new youth members elected to the National Com- 
mittee of the CPUSA at its 18th Nationajl Convention in June 1966. 

He was president of the W. E. B. DuBois Club at the University of California in 
1966. 

EMIL FREED 

Emil Freed has been active in the Communist Party since 1934. In 1938 and 
1940 he was a candidate for Congress from California's 15th Congressional 
District on the Communist Party ticket. In 1943 he was a member of the ma- 
chinists' branch. Communist Party ; in 1944, a member of the California State 
Commission on State Leadership; in 1945, a member of the California State 
Committee of the Communist Party. He is by occupation a professional 
Communist. 

ARNOLD MANUEL HOFFMAN 

Arnold Hoffman is a member of the Comnuinist Party U.S.A. (Marxist- 
Leninist). He openly proclaims that he is a Communist. He did so at his trial 
for inciting to riot and trespassing on March 2, 1965. 

Hoffman had l)een expelled from the Communist splinter group, the Provisional 
Organizing Committee, along with Mike Laski. The POC publication. Vanguard, 
denounced them as "Agent-Provocateurs." 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1849 

In 1967 Hoffman furnished $110 bail for Michael Laski who had been arrested 
for using soimd equipment withoiit a permit. Newspaper reports identified Hoff- 
man as press secretary of the Communist Party U.S.A. (M-L). 

MICHAEL LASKI 

Michael Laski became the West Coast organizer for the Provisional Organizing 
Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party U.S.A. in 1964. 

The Provisional Organizing Committee, or POC as it was more commonly 
known, was organized in 1958 by a group of hard-core Communists who had been 
expelled from the Communist Party, U.S.A. 

Subsequent to the riot in Watts in August 19'o5, Laski was expelled from the 
POC, according to testimony of James C. Harris. 

In September 1965 Laski and a handful of followers formed the Communist 
Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) and he became its general secretary. 

FRANK PESTANA 

Frank Pestana was identified as a idember of the Communist Party by four 
witnesses in testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities. David 
Aaron, A. Marburg Yerkes, William G. Israel, and Milton S. Tyre testified that 
they had known Mr. Pestana as a member of the lawyers' group of the Com- 
munist Party in Los Angeles. 

JEAN (MRS. FRANK) PESTANA 

David Aaron and A. Marburg Yerkes identified Jean Pestana as a member of 
the lawyers' group of the Communist Party in Los Angeles during testimony 
before this committee in January 1952. 

IRVING SARNOFF 

Irving Sarnoff has served as a member of the district council of the Communist 
Party of Southern California. He has been extremely active in Communist youth 
organizations. In 1956 he was labor director of the Los Angeles County Labor 
Youth League, a member of the executive committee of the Labor Youth League, 
and in 1957 was a delegate to the California State Labor Youth League conven- 
tion. Sarnoff was also a delegate to three Communist Party conventions in 1957, 
the Los Angeles County convention, the California State convention, and the 
Southern California District convention. 

FRANK E. SPECTOR 

Frank Spector came to the United States from Russia in 1913. He has been 
a resident of California since 1921. 

Spector has been identified as a Communist by several witnesses in testimony 
before this committee. He was convicted of violations of the Smith Act, but was 
freed by a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court on June 17, 1957. Frank Spector 
has l)een under order of deportation for yeai-s ; however, the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service has been unable to secure travel documents for his entry 
into the Soviet Union. Therefore, Si^ector is allowed to remain in the United 
States as a Communist alien. 

JOHN WESLEY HARRIS 

John Harris is an open member of the pro-Peking Communist Party, the 
I'rogressive Labor Party. He has been a PLP organizer in the AVatts area and 
was arrested on September 21, 1966, on the charge of criminal syndicalism for 
the distribution of revolutionary literature. 

DONALD C. WHEELDIN 

Donald Wheeldin was identified as a member of the Communist Party by Robert 
Carrillo Ronstadt on April 25, 1962, in executive session of this committee. The 
testimony was subsequently released. 

Wheeldin was a high functionary in the California Communist Party; a 
member of the party's State coordinating committee ; member of the executive 
board. Southern California District Council; and member of the Southern 
California District Minorities Commission. 

On March 26, 1958, Wheeldin resigned from the Communist Party and the staff 
of the West Coast Communist newspaper, the Daily People's W&rld, a position 
he had held since July 16, 1950. 



1850 SUBVERSIVE INTLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

In reporting Mr. Wheeldin's resignation from the party, as well as the resig- 
nation of other Ckjmmunists who left at that time, the committee stated : 

"Committee investigation indicates that these resignations do not in- 
volve renunciations of communism, but a renunciation of the national 
committee's high-handed procedures. Many 'dissenters' now constitute 
an unorganized element in our society which continues to advance com- 
munism in the United States." 

[NOTE : Ronstadt was an undercover operative in the Communist Party from 
1947-1954.] 

WILLIAM C. TAYLOR 

William C. Taylor was chairman of the Communist Party's Maryland State 
organization in the early 1940's and chairman or organizational secretary of the 
District of Columbia party apparatus in the period 1946-49. 

In 1049 Taylor moved to Los Angeles and was immediately assigned the chair- 
manship of the Minorities Commission for the Los Angeles County Communist 
Party. 

Taylor was chairman of the Southern California District's Negro Commission 
and was a member of its executive board when the second district convention 
convened in late 1959. He continued to serve on the board until its technical "dis- 
solution" in 1961. Taylor attended both sessions of the second convention of the 
Southern California District of the Communist Party and was designated a 
member of the area's delegation to the 17th National Convention of the party 
in New York in December 1959. 

The People's World in March 1964, in publicizing his candidacy for Los Angeles 
County supervisor, boasted that Taylor had been a "Communist for the past 35 
years." 

FRANK WILKINSON 

Frank Wilkinson was identified as a member of the Communist Party by Anita 
Bell Schneider in public hearings of this committee on December 7, 1956. He was 
also identified by Robert Carrillo Ronstadt in executive session on April 25, 1962. 
The testimony was later made public. 

Wilkinson was subpenaed to testify before the committee on two occasions. He 
was totally uncooperative. The second time he was asked to testify, Wilkinson 
not only refused to answer all but a few of the questions asked, but declined to 
invoke the fifth amendment for doing so. 

He was cited for contempt and convicted of that charge by a Federal district 
court in Atlanta and sentenced to a year in prison. He was released on bail 
when he appealed the conviction. On February 27, 1961, the Supreme Court up- 
held the contempt conviction of Frank Wilkinson, and on May 1, 1961, he began 
serving his prison sentence. 

TASSIA (MRS. EMIL) FREED 

Tassia Freed was identified as a member of the Communist Party by Anne 
Kinney, William Ward Kimple, and Anita Bell Schneider in testimony before 
this committee. 

Mrs. Freed joined the Communist Party in 1936 and has devoted her time to 
the Communist program subsequent to that date. Since joining the Communist 
Party she has held various positions on the club and county k'vel. In 1944 she 
was press director, Hollywood Club, Northwest Section; in 1943 she was a mem- 
ber of the central executive committee of the Communist Party, iLos Angeles 
County. 

Mrs. Freed was a delegate to two Communist Party conventions in 1957, the 
Los Angeles County convention on January 5-6, and the Southern California 
District convention on April 13-14. 

STEPHEN H. FRITCHMAN 

On September 12, 1951, Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman appeared before a sub- 
committee of the Committee on Un-American Activities in Los Angeles, Calif., 
at which time he was questioned regarding Communist associations and orga- 
nization.s. In answer to all questions iR-rtaining to Communist activity, Mr. Fritch- 
man declined to answer, using the fifth auu^ndmeut as a basis. On December 7, 
1956, Mr. Fritchman again appeared before the committee and invoked the first 
and fifth amendments. 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Aaron, David 1849 

Adler, Dora 1843 

Agnello, Mike 1844, 1847 

Albert, Sidney P 1843 

Alexander, Hursel W 1839 

Allen, John 1841 

Allen, M. D 1843 

Allen, Tulita 1841 

Amlin, Charles : 1843 

Anthony. Eirene 1839 

Anthony, Felix 1839 

Arian, Laraine 1841 

Arkin, V 1843 

Arnold, Pat 1839 

Ashley, Anthony C. (also known as Ayuko Babu) 1816,1830,1832 

Ashwood, Shirley G 1843 

Avakian, Bob 1829 

Axler, Gueri 1843 

Axler, Yvonne 1843 

B 
Babu, Ayuko. {See Ashley, Anthony C.) 

Baker, L. E 1843 

Baptist, Larry 1841 

Barkley, Roger 1839 

Barkley, Sylvia 1839 

Barnett, Don 1841 

Beardsley, Helen M 1843 

Beasley, William 1839, 1843 

Beck, Linda 1843 

Bennett, E. Kenneth 1843 

Berg, Michael 1843 

Bergstrom, Evert 1843 

Berkowitz, S 1843 

Berland, Jim 1843 

Berland, Murray 1843 

Bernard, Linda 1843 

Bessie, Daniel (Dan) 1837,1848 

Bettington, Blanche 1843 

Beyea, Frank 1843 

Biberman, Edward 1843 

Billing, Mark 1839 

Blumen, Bessie 1843 

Bouchard, Pauline M 1843 

Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr 1843 

BradOAv, George 1843 

Brand, Harry 1843 

Breckwith. .Tohn T 1843 

Bremond. AValter 1815, 1816, 1821, 1828, 1832-1835 

Briehl, Walter 1843 

Brisker, Sydney H 1843 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Brittin, Barbara -*- 1839 

Brittin, Charles 1839 

Britton, Charles 1844, 1846 

Brodsky, Robert 1839 

Brooks, Paul 1839 

Broslawsky, Farrel 1839 

Brown, H. Rap 1816, 1821, 1823-1829 

Brown, Janet 1843 

Browne, Arnold 1843 

Buch, Fred 1843 

Buhai, Harriett 1839\ 1843 

Burleson, Anne 1843 

Burleson, Mrs. F. R 1843 

Burleson, Frank R 1843 



Callender, Clarence N 1843 

Cameron, Kenneth 1843 

Carmichael, Stokely 1815, 1816, 1820-1822, 1825, 1826, 1828, 1829, 1831 

Carnap, Rudolf 1843 

Carrick, Ralph C 1843 

Caughey, John 1835 

Chamberlin, Ethyl 1&41 

Chapman, Margot Elaine 1843 

Charnofsky, Harold 1843 

Charnofsky, Jennifer 1843 

Charwat, Andrew 1839 

Christensen, Clementine 1843 

Cimring, Annette 1843 

Clark, Ramsey 1823 

Clark, Richard R 1839 

Cleaver, Eldridge 1829 

Cleeves, Montague 1843 

Coleman, Woodrow 1839, 1840 

Cook, Bruce 1843 

Cook, JefE 1843 

Copeland, Geneva O 1839 

Copeland, Gerald 1839 

Cox, Cindy Ann 1843 

Crockett, Nch-ma 1843 

Cronbach, Robert 1843 

Cummings, F. W 1843 

D 

Davidson, Sophie 1843 

Davis, Beatrice 1843 

Day, Mrs. Jonathan C 1843 

Dellums, Ron 1829 

Demopolos, Harry B 1839 

Dennis, Gene 1816, 1825, 1826 

DeWare, John 1839 

Dilman, Alice 1843 

Dilman, David 1843 

Dixon, Eugene K 1843 

Dobbs, Ben 1837, 1844, 1847, 1848 

Dorner, Sarah 1837, 1848 

Doyle, William 1843 

Duggan, Rol>ort Eugene (Bob) 1837. 1848 

Dunphy, Thomas M 1839 

E 

Edgecumbe, Mrs. Robert 1843 

Ehrlich, Ruth 1843 

Ellsworth, Bob 1839 

Encimer, Paul 1839 

Esparza, Moctezuma 1821, 1828 

1 Appears as "Harriet" In this reference. 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Eubanks, Mary C 1839 

Evans, Stephen R 1843 

Everett, A. L 1843 

Everett, Ronald McKinley. (See Karenga, Ron.) 

F 

Felier, Milton 1843 

Feigin, Margaret 1839 

Feldman, Howard 1839 

Feldon, Arthur 1843 

Fisher, Joseph 1843 

Flanigan, Alan E 1843 

Flick, Arnold L 1843 

Flint, Letitia A 1843 

Flint, Peter L 1843 

Flotho, Mary 1843 

Flotho, Paul 1843 

Flynn, Marsh 1843 

Ford, Judith 1839 

Forman, James 1815, 1821, 1824, 1826-1828 

Fox, Daniel N 1843 

Fox, Genieve R 1843 

Frank, Barbara 1843 

Frank, Justin A 1843 

Freed, Donald 1839 

Freed, Emil 1835-1837, 1848, 1850 

Freed, Tassia (Mrs. Emil Freed) 1837, 1850 

Freeman, Albert V 1843 

Freeman, Mrs. Albert V 1843 

Friedman, Jay W 1843 

Fritchman, Stephen H 1837, 1850 

Furnish, Taniora 1843 

Furniss, Stephanie 1839 

G 

Garry, Charles R 1815, 1829 

Geffner, Mrs. Rudolph 1843 

Gehr, Harmon A 1843 

Gehr, Isabel A 1843 

Gilbert, Robert S 1843 

Gillespie, Tony 1839 

Gillman, Denis 1841 

Glass, Judith 1843 

Gluck, E. Robert 1843 

Goddard, H 1843 

Goldman, Gertrude 1843 

Goldsmith, Martin M 1843 

Gordon, Harriett 1843 

Gorney, Roderie 1843 

Gottlieb, Marion 1843 

Gould, Josh 1839 

Graham, Martha 1844 

Gray, F. Daniel 1839 

Grayson. Marvin 1889 

Green, Juliet 1843 

Greenfield, Robert J 1843 

Greengard, Robert J 1843 

Greenspan, Ethan 1839 

Gustafson. Margaret 1843 

H 

Haag, John 1839, 1840 

Hackler, Charles K 1843 

Hall, Adele 1843 

Hall, Martin 1843 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Hamilton, Hugh J 1843 

Hampton, Jack 1839 

Hannon, Michael 1839, 1840 

Harper, Willard 1843 

Harris, Edith Anne 1843 

Harris, James O 1815-1817, 1819-1850 (testimony) 

Harris, John Wesley 1837,1849 

Harris, Linda 1843 

Head, Don L 1843 

Helfman, Sydney 1843 

Henry, Burton 1843 

Herrera, Mike 1841 

Heussenstamm, George 1843 

Heussenstamm, Mary 1843 

Hirsch, Leonard B 1843 

Hirschfield, Jenny 1843 

Hochheiser, J. S 1843 

Hochheiser, Mrs. J. S 1843 

Hodges, Bobbie 1816, 1830, 1831 

Hoffman, Arnold Manuel 1837,1848,1849 

Hoffman, Don .' 1841 

Hoffman, Fred 1839 

Horach, Rita A 1843 

Horn, Mrs 1843 

Home, Anne Marie 1843 

Hurd, A. E 1839 

Hurley, Franna 1841 

I 

Igriega, Robert , 1839 

Ingram, Bruce 1839 

Innerst, J. Stuart 1835 

Israel, William G - 1849 

J 

James, Robert C 1843 

Jamieson, Jay 1839 

Jancsek, Elizabeth 1843 

Joback, Elizabeth 1843 

Johnson (Lyndon B.) 1820, 1828, 1842 

Johnson, Mary 1841 

Jorgensen, Lawrence C 1839 

Joyce, Allie R 1843 

Joyce, Clarence C 1843 

Judge, Bernard 1843 

K 

Kales, Sally R 1843 

Kalish, Donald 1843 

Kamins, Maurice L ^ 1843 

Karenga, Ron (born Ronald McKinley Everett) 1815, 

1816, 1821, 1822, 1824, 1825, 1828 

Karpsak, Joe 1839 

Katz, Roselyn 1839 

Kaufman, Rose 1843 

Kaye, Arnold K 1839 

Keddie, Nikki 1843 

Kelley, Mrs. Abraham B 1843 

Kenner, Ronald 1839 

Kenny, Robert W 1835 

Kernberger, Phyllis H 1843 

Kidwell, Jean 1839 

Kilgore 1831 

Kimple, William Ward 1850 

Kinney, Anne 1850 

Kipness, George G 1843 



INDEX V 

Page 

Kirby, Colleen 1841 

Kissane, Lin_ 1839 

Kohls, Jonquil 1843 

Kohls, Stanley 1843 

Kominsky, Morris 1843 

Konigsberg, Raphael 1843 

Kozak, Martin 1843 

Kress, Zelda 1843 

Kroll, Lawrence S 1843 

Kroll, Margot 1843 

Kusnitz, Rose Chernin 1837, 1848 

L 

L' AUemand, Gordon L 1839 

Lancaster, Anne 1843 

Landwehr, Paul . 1839 

Landy, David <^ 1843 

Landy, Mrs. David 1843 

Laski, Michael 1837, 1849 

Lawrence, David 1839, 1843 

Ledger, Robert M 1843 

Leeds, Ben 1843 

Lenel, Irmgard 1843 

Leon, Arthur 1843 

Levi, Maxine. {See Travis, Helen Simon.) 

Levine, Mrs. Edward 1843 

Lifland, Archie 1843 

Lifland, Rosamond . 1843 

Lindenfeld, Frank 1839 

Lippman, Steve 1839 

Lipton, Gary 1843 

Litten, Carol H 1843 

Long, Don 1839 

M 

Mahone, Daphne ^ 1840 

Mahr 1831 

Malcolm X 1815, 1821 

Mallett, John D 1839 

Maltz, Albert 1843 

Mandel, Jon 1843 

Mandel, Pierre 1844, 1846 

Mandel, Seymour 1843 

Manes, Hugh 1839 

Mankau, Sarojam K 1843 

Mao Tse-'tung 1828 

Marcus, Jane 1839 

Marcus, Michael 1839 

Marth, Mollie 1843 

Mason, John R 1843 

Matlow, Gladys 1843 

McCarroll, Aleg 1843 

McDaniel, Robert Carter 1839 

McDonald. Douglas S 1833 

McDonald, Florence 1843 

McKnight. Russell L 1843 

McLain, Clara 1843 

Meakes, David 1843 

Measom, Frances 1843 

Measom, Taylor 1843 

Meeks, Mel 1843 

Mendelson, Joan 1843 

Mendelson. Simon 1843 

Metzger, Deena 1839, 1843 

Metzger, H. Reed 1840, 1843 

Millumchick, Dorothy B 1843 



vi INDEX 

Page 

Montgomery, Edward S 1888 

Moritz, Ed 1844, 1847 

Moritz, Edward, Jr 1839 

Morris, William 1843 

Morrison, Tom *. 1840 

Morse (Wayne) 1837 

Morton, Donald _,__ 1843 

Morton, E. D 1S43 

Morton, Mrs. E. D 1843 

Mosoowity, Hyman 1843 

Mosley, Charles H 1837 

Moulder, Edith M 1843 

Muehling, Charles A ^ 1843 

Muste, A. J 1842 

N 

Nelson, Jennifer 1841 

Nelson, Shirley 1843 

Nemzer, Edward 1843 

Nemzer, Gretchen 1843 

Newby, N. D., Jr 1843 

Newman, Theda 1843 

Newmark, Dorothy 1843 

Newton, Huey P 1815, 1816, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1827, 1829 

Nicholas, Frederick M ^ 1843 

Nieman, Robert Arthur ' 1837 

Niemann, Robert 1839 

Nisenson, Aaron 1843 

Nygard, Irene 1843 

O 

Obar, Molly 1841 

Oderman, Dale Lewis 1&43 

Oderman, Sharon L 1843 

Olan, Bennet 1843 

Ono, Harold 1»43 

Orem, Preston D 1S43 

Orr, Paul W 1843 

Orr, Violet 1843 

Oslund, Genevieve H 1843 

P 

Palmer, Claire W 1843 

Palmer, Fern 1S41 

Palmer, Jerry 1844, 1846 

Pearl, Ed 1840, 1841 

Pearl, Sherman 1830,1840 

Pearson, Larry Dee 1841 

Pepe, Joseph ' 1843 

Peppe, Jack A 1843 

Pestana, Frank 183f, 1839, 1849 

Pestana, Jean (Mrs. Frank Pestana ) 1837,1849 

Porter, John W l&i3 

Porter, Lynn 1839 

Powell, Alice 1839, 1843 

Powell, Richard M 1839,1843 

Pratt, Charles H 1843 

Pratt, John H 1839,1843 

Pratt, John M 1816, 1817, 1832, 1836, 1841 

Pratt, Sophie 1»43 

Pucciani, Oreste F 1843 

R 

Radu, Ann 1843 

Radu, John 1843 



INDEX vii 

Page 

Reclam, Michael 1839 

Reed, Gertrude 1843 

Register,' Richard , 1843 

Reich, Rosemary : 1841 

Reider, Saul 1S43 

Riane, June 1843 

Richards, Arleene 1844 

Riley, Henry 1843 

Roebuck, Mary 1833 

Roemer, Milton I 1843 

Ronstadt, Robert Carrillo 1849, 1850 

Rosen, David L 1845 

Ross, Joan 1843 

Rosser, Nancy 1843 

Roth, Max 1843 

Rottger, Elizabeth (Betty) (Mrs. Kenneth W. Rottger) 1837 

Rottger, Kenneth W 1816, 1817, 1833-1837 

Rubinstein, Sylvia 1843 

Ruppersberg, Allen 1843 

Rush, Ann 1843 

Rush, John M 1843 

S 

Saeger, John 1843 

Saltz, Michael 1843 

Saltz, Rose 1843 

Sampler, Marion 1843 

Santwire, Milton 1833 

Saperstein, Guy 1839 

Sarkisran, Carol 1841 

Sarnoff, Irving 1815, 1820, 1837, 1849 

Savage, C. Wade 1839 

Savio, Mario 1839 

Savoie, Raoul 1841 

Saylin, Emma 1843 

Schachter, Paul 1843 

Schlihs, Winona 1839 

Schlindler, Pauline G 1843 

Schneider, Anita Bell 1850 

Schoen, Beatrice M 1843 

Schoen, Max H 1843 

Schon, Michael P 1S40 

Schroder, Hazel 1843 

Schroeter, Franklin E 1843 

Schroeter, Mrs. Franklin E 1843 

Schrut, Albert H 1843 

Schuldenfrei. Roslyn B 1843 

Schwarcz, Robert 1839 

Schwartz, Robert J 1843 

Schwarz, Robert 1841 

Scott, William 1843 

Seale, Bobby 1815, 1821, 1822, 1824, 1826-1828 

Segal, Evalyn F 1843 

Seidita, Jo 1843 

Seidita, Nicholas V 1843 

Seldere, Helen 1843 

Sendson, Eve 1843 

Seward, John P 1839 

Shabazz, Betty 1815, 1821, 1822, 1831 

Shapin, Ruth 1839 

Shenkan, Leonard L 1843 

Shoemaker, Lynn 1843 

Shoemaker, Mrs. Lynn 1843 

Short, Marion. 1834 

Shroyer, Ralph 1839 



viii INDEX 

Page 

Silverstein, Marcia 1843 

Simon, Helen Levi. (See Travis, Helen Simon.) 

Simpson, Ray L 1843 

Smith, Don 1843 

Smith, James H 1843 

Smith, William G 1839, 1844, 1846 

Smith, William H 1839 

Sohner, Charles P 1839 

Somers, Bernard J 1843 

Somers, Leonora ^-- 1843 

Spector, Frank E 1837, 1849 

Spiegel, Sidney 1843 

Spiegel, Mrs. Sidney . 1843 

Spiegler, Edith K 1843 

Steingart, H. A 1843 

Stern, Evelyn 1843 

Steward, Ruth 1841 

Stewart, Bob 1839 

Stone, Gene 1843 

Stoneham, Lewis 1844 \ 1847 

Stouffer, Clayton L 1843 

Stuart, Nina 1843 

Sullivan, Richard 1839 

Swallow, Carl 1839 

T 

Tavasti, Jon 1839 

Taylor, William C 1837, 1850 

Thompson, Erma D 1843 

Thygeson, Charleen 1839 

Tijerina, Reies Lopez 1815,1816,1821,1822,1824,1828,1829,1831' 

Tomblin, Dorothy J 1843 

Tosh, William 1843 

Travis, Helen Simon (Mrs. Robert Carroll Travis; nee Levi; also known 

asMaxineLevi) 1816, 1817, 1833, 1837, 1844, 1846 

Travis, Robert Carroll 1837 

Travis, Mrs. Robert Carroll. (See Travis, Helen Simon.) 

Treiger, Marvin 1843 

Trivers, Jane E 1843 

Trivers, Paul N 1843 

Trotsky, Leon 1833 

Tse-tung, Mao. (See Mao Tse-tung. ) 

Tyre, Milton S 1849 

V 

Velson, Evelyn 1843 

Vidican, Martha 1841 

Vollmer, Rose 1843 

Vost, Helen 1843 

W 

Waddel, Duane 1841 

Wallace, George (C.) 1828 

Walsh, Fred 1843 

Walters, Anne lg43 

Waxman, Henry 1843 

Weinberg, Jack 1839 

Weinstein, Joseph 1839 

Wheeldin, Donald C. (Don) 1837, 1844, ~1 849, 1850 

White, A. M 1843 

White, Brian D 1843 

1 Appears as "Lewis J. Stoneman" in this reference. 
- Incorrectly spelled "Rieies." 



INDEX ix 

Page 

Wienbar, Ruth E 1843 

Wilkinson, Frank 1837, 1850 

Wilkinson, Jo 1843 

Williams, John 1841 

Williams, Lane 1843 

Wilson, O. O 1843 

Wolf, Sylvia 1839 

Wolfe, Frank 1839 

Wolk, S 1843 

WoUrick, David L__ 1843 

Y 

Yelich, Stanko 1843 

Yerkes, A. Marbiirg__ 1849 

Yeuff, Mike 1844, 1846 

Yorty, Sam 1820 

Z 

Zahn, Curtis 1839 

Zak, Allen 1837 

Zaleska, Barbara 1841 

Zarbin, Edith S 1843 

Zarlow, Richfxrd 18*1) 

ORGANIZATIONS 

B 
BPSD. (See Black Panther Party.) 

Black Congress 1815-1817, 1820, 1821, 1823, 1828, 1830, 1832 

Black Panther Party (known variously as Black Panther Political Party ; 
Black Panther Political Party for Self Defense ; and Black Panther Par- 
ty for Self-Defense (BPSD)) 1815,1816,1824-1827,1930 

Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. {See Black Panther Party.) 

Black Panther Political Party. (See Black Panther Party.) 

Black Panther Political Party for Self Defense. (See Black Panther Party.) 

Black Student Union 1816, 1830 

C 

CORE. (See Congress of Racial Equality.) 

California State Commission on State Leadership 1836, 1848 

Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) 1836, 1837, 1849 

Districts : 

Southern California District 1848 

District Structure : 

District Council 1848, 1849 

Executive Board 1848, 1849 

District Commissions : 

Minorities Commission 1849 

Negro Commission 1850 

Youth Commission 1848 

States and Territories : 
California : 

Coordinating Committee 1849 

Los Angeles County 1848 

Central Executive Committee 1860 

Minorities Commission 1850 

Northwest Section : 

Hollywood Club 1850 

State Committee 1836, 1848 

District of Columbia 1850 

Maryland 1850 

Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) 1848,1849 

Confederation of Free City States. (Sec Federal Alliance of Free City- 

States.) 
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) : 

Pasadena, Calif 1844 



X INDEX 

D I"aee 

Dow Action Committee 1821, 1823 

F 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee : 

Greater Los Angeles Chapter 1837, 1848 

Federal Alliance of Free City-States ^ (formerly known as Federal Alliance 

of Land Grants) 1816,1824 

Federal Alliance of Land Grants {see also Federal Alliance of Free City- 

States) 1824 

Federation of Free City States. (See Federal Alliance of Free City-States.) 

H 
H. Rap Brown Defense Fund 1823 

Huey P. Newton Defense Fund 1815,1820,1822 

L 
Labor Youth League : 
California : 

Los Angeles County 1849 

Los Angeles Committee for Defense of the Bill of Rights 1837, 1848 

Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 1837, 1848 

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission 1816, 1817, 1832-1835 

N 

NAACP. (See National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

(People. ) 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 1828 

National Conference for New Politics 1816, 1830 

National Executive Board 1816, 1830 

National Urban League, Inc 1828" 

New Left School of Los Angeles 1816, 1830, 1836, 1837, 1844, 1845 

P 

PLP. (See Progressive Labor Movement (or Party).) 
POC- (See Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist- 
Leninist Communist Party U.S.A.) 

Peace Action Council of Southern California 1815, 1820, 1836 

Internal Repression Committee 1821, 1823 

Peace and Freedom Party (California) 1836, 1839, 1848 

Political Confederation of Free City States. (Sec Federal Alliance of Free 
City-States.) 

Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) (or Party (PLP)) 1849 

Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Lenin- 
ist Communist Party U.S.A. (POC) 1^8, IMd 

S 

SDS. (See Students for a Democratic Society.) 

SNCC. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.) 

Southern California Committee on Vietnam Hearings L 1836 

Southern California Council ofOluirches 1836 

Commission on Race and Religion 1836 

Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research 1835 

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) : 

Lo.s Angeles, Calif 1836 

Student Mobilization Committee 1842 

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 1815, 

1816, 1821, 1823-1826, 1829, 1830 

Los Angeles, Calif 1831 

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 1821, 1823 

' Variously liiiown a.s redoration of Free City) States, Confederation of Free City States, 
and Politl<?al Confoderaitlon of Free City States. 
- Appears as "Urban League" in this reference. 



INDEX xi 

U Page 

US 1816, 1821, 1825, 1828 

United Mexican American Students 1828 

United States Government : 

Supreme Court 1848, 1849 

W 

W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America (DCA) : 

University of California 1848 

Y 
Young Communist League : 

California 1848 

PUBLICATIONS 

C 
Oounterdraft (newspaper) 1837 

D 

Daily People's World 1849 

Daily Worker 1833 

P 
People's World 1816, 1825, 1827, 1830, 1850 

V 

Vanguard (POC publication) 1848 

o 



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