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Full text of "Subversive influences in riots, looting, and burning. Hearings, Ninetieth Congress, first [-second] session"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

PART 5 
(Buifalo, N.Y.) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



NINETIETH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 20, 1968 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee- -on- Un-American Activities 

DEPOSITED U THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

MAR 4 1969 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
88-083 WASHINGTON : 1968 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 30 cents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House or Representatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri RICHARD L. ROUDEBUSH, Indiana 

JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa ALBERT W. WATSON, South Carolina 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Chester D. Smith, General Counsel 
Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

U 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1987 

June 20, 1968: Testimony of— 

Frank N. Felicetta 1994 

Afternoon session: 

Frank N. Felicetta (resumed) 2031 

Herbert Romerstein 2036 

Index i 

III 



The House Committee on Un-American Activities is a standing 
committee of the House of Representatives, constituted as such by the 
rules of the House, adopted pursuant to Article I, section 5, of the 
Constitution of the United States which authorizes the House to de- 
termine the rules of its proceedings. 

RULES ADOPTED BY THE 90TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 10, 1967, as revised April 3, 1968, by House 

Resolution 1099 

RESOLUTION 

Resolved, That the Rules of the House of Representatives of the Eighty-ninth 
Congress, together with all applicable provisions of the Legislative Reorganiza- 
tion Act of 1946, as amended, be, and they are hereby, adopted as the Rules of 
the House of Representatives of the Ninetieth Congress * * * 



Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
* * * * * * * 

(s) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



19. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any i)erson 
designated by any such chairman or member, 

******* 

28. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may, dee^ necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the sub- 
ject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

******* 

IV 



SYNOPSIS 

On June 20, 1968, a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities met in Washington, D.C., to continue its hearings on sub- 
versive influences in riots, looting, and burning. These hearings, part 5 
of the series, concern events related to the Buffalo, N.Y., not of 
June 1967. 

The subcommittee was composed of Representative Richard H. 
Ichord (D-Mo.), chairman; Representative John M. Ashbrook 
(R-0.) ; and Representative Albert W. Watson (R-S.C). 

The first ^vitness was Frank N. Felicetta, police commissioner of 
the city of Buffalo. Commissioner Felicetta joined the Buffalo Police 
Department in 1929 and served in every rank, including captain, to 
which he was promoted in 1950. The witness was appointed police com- 
missioner in 1958 and has continuously served in that position since 
that time with the exception of a period of retirement from 1962 
tlirough 1965. 

Commissioner Felicetta testified that approximately 1 percent of the 
total Buffalo Negro population of 100,000 was involved in the riot 
which took place in Buffalo from June 27-30, 1967. He said that 242 
adults and 17 juvenile offenders were arrested in the course of the dis- 
turbance, and property damage caused by fire was estimated to be about 
$151,000. Other property losses, mainly resulting from thefts, totaled 
$37,000. The witness stated that there were no deaths during the course 
of the rioting, although a few persons sustained injuries. Police re- 
ports indicated that Molotov cocktails were used to start the fires and 
that firearms were stolen from at least one retail store during the riot. 

PRERIOT PHASE 

Commissioner Felicetta testified that on May 3, 1967, three members 
of the Nation of Islam, also known as the Black Muslims, were ob- 
served speaking to a group of about 100 young Ne^oes at a fund- 
raising carnival of the Young Men's Christian Association located on 
East Ferry Street. The witness stated that the men were wearing uni- 
forms of the Fruit of Islam, a paramilitary giiard unit of the Nation 
of Islam. Shortly after these men talked with the yomigsters, the 
youths left the carnival in a group and proceeded to an adjacent block 
where they broke store windows and looted a pawnshop. 

The witness then read excerpts from a highly inflammatory piece of 
literature which was distributed on May 18, 1967, by certain members 
of the Buffalo chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality. This exhibit, 
which was incorporated into the record, stated in part as follows : 

It seems that Wattts [sic], Rochester, New York and other cities don't plan 
their riots nearly as well as Buffalo. Already through careful planning we have 
been able to maintain riotous conditions for two weekends straight. This past 
Saturday, there were so many cops between Jefferson, Humboldt and E. Ferry 
Streets it looked like a P.A.L. convention (That is, with all the 14, 15, 16 year 
oldsters loitering on the corners) . 

1987 



1988 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Who knows, if things are well planned, the kids will have a good time (like 
Ft. Lauderdale). The riots have lasted only for a weekend. Was it the weather? 
By the way kids, what are you doing this summer??? 

The commissioner disclosed that three bookstores operating in the 
Negro district of Buffalo prior to the outbreak of riots were stocked 
with large quantities of "Communist, revolutionary, and black nation- 
alist literature with a strong and inflammatory racial content." They 
were called the A fro- Asian Book Stores and were managed by Martin 
Gonzalez Sostre. The Afro-Asian Book Store on Jefferson Street was 
raided by police on July 15, 1967, and Sostre was arrested for the pos- 
session and sale of narcotics, among other charges. 

At the time of this raid, just 2 weeks following the Buffalo riot, the 
bookstore was offering for sale publications distributed by the W. E. 
B. DuBois Clubs of America, Workers World Party, Youth Against 
War and Fascism, and the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Moreover, 
police found that the bookstore was stocked with literature from Guozi 
Shudian, an official distributor of publications emanating from Com- 
munist China. Commissioner Felicetta read into the record a para- 
graph appearing in one of the books written by Mao Tse-tung which 
was confiscated by police. It stated : "Every Communist must grasp the 
truth, 'Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.' " 

The committee counsel introduced into the record the following ex- 
cerpts from two issues of Workers WorJd^ a newspaper published by 
the Workers World Party, a Trotskyist Communist splinter group, 
relating to the Afro- Asian Book Stores: 

The idea of the bookstore was to prepare Black youth for the liberation 
struggle. [WorTccrs World, March 15, 1968] 

Martin Sostre operated the Afro-Asian bookstore and sold a variety of litera- 
ture for liberation fighters that you could find no place else in Buffalo. His 
customers were the Black youth of Buffalo. They had learned to know and to 
admire this man who wanted them to question, think, and learn. 

And as the rebellion raged many of them took refuge in his store where cops 
on the street could not, for the moment, reach them and where they could, now 
in excited, eager tones as they sensed the potential of the revolt, discuss what had 
happened so far and what could be done. Even as the confused battle went on, 
young men bought books like Negroes With Guns, by Robert Williams and read 
them. [Workers World, September 14, 1967] 

RIOT PHASE 

The witness testified that the Buffalo Youth Against War and 
Fascism distributed a highly inflammatory flyer in the riot area on 
June 29, 1967. Youth Against War and Fascism (YAWF) is the 
youth arm of the Workers World Party. This flyer stated that YAWF 
has condemned the ITnited States Government, the New York State 
government, and the Buffalo government for their "continual repres- 
sion of the aspirations of the black peoj^le." It called for "a demonstra- 
tion of solidarity with the oppressed black people of Buffalo" to be 
held that same day in Lafayette Square, Buffalo, from 6 :30 to 7 :30 p.m. 

According to police reports, the YAWF demonstration was held as 
scheduled at Lafayette Square on June 29, 1967, and was attended 
by approximately 25 persons. Among those who participated in this 
demonstration were Karl Meller, Gerald J. Gross, Jeanette Merrill, 
Edward Merrill, George ProA^ost, Joel S. Meyers, Anna Sterling, 
James Johnson, Rita Johnson, Edward A. Wolkenstein, Rachel Wolk- 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1989 

ensteiii, Naomi Wolkenstein, William Yates, Peter Hartmen, and Ger- 
ald Coles. Commissioner Felicetta testified the theme of this demon- 
stration was that "the disturbances in Buffalo were not a riot, but a 
rebellion, and the police had no right to interfere with the rebellion." 
At this point, the committee counsel presented the following in- 
fonnation about some of the aforementioned individuals named by 
Commissioner Felicetta as participants in the demonstration staged 
by YAWF during the Buffalo racial disturbance : 

Gerald Gross, as chairman of the Martin Sostre Defense Committed, * * * 
wrote a letter to the editor of the magazine Liberator, which was published in 
the November 1J>67 issue. 

Liberator was identified in the initial phases of these hearings as a magazine 
engaged in racial agitation, edited by Daniel H. Watts, and published by the 
Afro-American Research Institute, Inc., in New York City. 

Jeanette and Edward Merrill made arrangements for the appearance of Mark 
Lane in Buffalo when he went to that city in the early part of 1964 to speak 
on the Oswald case. 

George Provost was president of the Buffalo Progressive Citizens of America 
in 15M7 and 1948. The Progressive Citizens of America was the immediate fore- 
runner of the Communist-organized Progressive Party. 

March 9, 1948, it was reported in an issue of the Daily Worker, Communist 
Party newspaper, that he was coehainnan of a delegation of Communist Party 
and trade union leaders [Provost is not a trade union leader] who took a memo- 
randum to the Buffalo district representative of the Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service, protesting the detention of Charles Doyle, who had been ar- 
rested for deportation as a Communist and was then being held without bail on 
Ellis Island in New York City. 

In August 1964 he wrote a letter to a Member of the Senate opposing U.S. 
policy in South Vietnam. * * * 

Joel Meyers. In 1965 Meyers was one of a number of young men of draft age 
who signed a statement opiwsing the U.S. role in Vietnam and saying they would 
refuse to fight if drafted. Various issues of the Workers World in 1967 identified 
Meyers as a leader of Youth Against War and Fascism and an active participant 
in Communist-organized antidraft agitation. 

A December 16, 1967, article reveals that he was then under indictment for 
violating the selective service law by disruption at an induction center. 

Rita Johnson took part in a demonstration protesting the Cuban blockade, 
which was held in Buffalo on the evening of October 25, 1962. 

The hearing disclosed that Martin Sostre played a significant role 
during the Buffalo riot. Commissioner Felicetta read into the record 
an affidavit submitted to the Buffalo Police Department by a 15-year- 
old Negro youth who testified that Sostre advocated the use of Molotov 
cocktails during the riot. The affidavit revealed that Sostre instructed 
Negroes on how to make Molotov cocktails and on how to use them. 
According to the affidavit, Sostre paid the sum of $50 to an individual 
identified only as "Bernard," who in turn gave certain Negro youths a 
few dollars each to throw Molotov cocktails during the rioting. 

Commissioner Felicetta provided the committee with the following 
information with respect to Sostre's background : 

Martin Gonzalez So.stre, also known as Martin X, Martin Ramirez, and Martin 
Santos, has been identified as a former member of the Nation of Islam, also known 
as the Black Muslims. 

Sostre has a lengthy criminal record dealing primarily with narcotics. He was 
born on ^Vlarch 20, 1923, in New York City and is a Puerto Rican Negro. His 
mother, Crescinia Gonzalez, now deceased, was of Puerto Rican extraction. 

He resided in New York City until his entrance into the United States Army 
in 1942. During his Army career, he was arrested for possession of and dealing 



1990 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

in illegal narcotics. He received a dishonorable discharge and has been confined 
almost continuously in various prisons since 1946. 

Sostre was released from prison when his sentence expired on September 18, 
1964 ; and after serving 30 days in ithe Erie County jail on a contempt of court 
charge, he decided to make his future in the city of Buffalo. 

He is considered a cured narcotics addict and has undergone treatment in 
the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. 

Sources indicate that he became a Black Muslim in prison, but later left the 
Black Muslim movement. 

POSTRIOT 

The testimony of the police commissioner disclosed that members of 
the Youth Against War and Fascism demonstrated on July 1, 1967, 
the day after order was restored in the riot area. This demonstration, 
composed of the same individuals who participated in the Lafayette 
Square disturbance on June 29, was held outside the jail in which some 
of the rioters were being detained following their arrest. The YAWF 
demonstration was staged for the purpose of demanding that the 
rioters be set free. 

As the witness previously testified, police conducted a raid on the 
Afro- Asian Book Store on Jefferson Street during the early morning 
hours of July 15, 1967. Sostre was arrested with his girl friend, 
Geraldine Eobinson, and both were charged with possession of nar- 
cotics, sale of narcotics, and for assault upon a police officer. During 
his arraignment, Sostre loudly protested his arrest and argued in court 
that the judges and police were trying to take revenge because only he 
was distributing Socialist-oriented black nationalist literature when 
the attempt to burn down the East Side was made. Sostre told the judge 
that "we're going to break up your world, Whitey, so you'd better 
rot in that chair as long as you can." 

Commissioner Felicetta testified that as soon as Sostre was arrested, 
the Youth Against War and Fascism and the Workers World Party 
immediately came to Sostre's defense and members of both groups 
picketed the Buffalo police station in protest over his arrest. YAWT 
formed an organization called the Martin Sostre Defense Committee 
and used as its mailing address Post Office Box 382, Ellicott Station, 
Buffalo, N". Y. Commissioner Felicetta stated that Gerald Gross, chair- 
man of the Martin Sostre Defense Committee and a YAWF organizer, 
appeared at Sostre's arraignment and offered to vouch for Sostre's 
good name so that he could be released without bail. In spite of these 
efforts, the judge refused to comply and continued Sostre's bail, which 
had been set at $25,000. 

The commissioner then read into the record several pieces of agi- 
tational literature distributed by the Martin Sostre Defense Commit- 
tee. One leaflet disclosed that YAWF had been joined by the Students 
for a Democratic Society, Student Mobilization Committee To End 
the War in Vietnam, and The Resistance in sponsoring a demonstra- 
tion in Buffalo on February 17, 1968, for the purpose of generating 
support for Martin Sostre. 

Throughout his jury trial, which began on March 4, 1968, Sostre con- 
stantly harassed the judge by engaging in disruptive tactics. Sostre's 
trial lasted 3 days and resulted in his conviction. Prior to sentencing, 
the judge remarked : 

Everybody knows from your actions in this court that you are a vicious and 
violent person and you are motivated by nothing more than hate. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1991 

You have now been unmasked, defrocked and your plan to disrupt the jury 
system and pervert our laws has miserably failed. You are, plain and simply, a 
narcotics peddler and you have been preying upon your own people and the 
l^eople of this community. 

Sostre was given a prison sentence of a maximum of 41 years and 
30 days. Commissioner Felicetta said that the sentence imposed upon 
Sostre comprised four separate counts, namely: Count 1, sale of nar- 
cotics, 25 to 30 years; count 2, assault of a policeman, 5 to 10 years; 
count 3, misdemeanor, possession of narcotics, 1 year; and contempt 
of court, 30 days. 

Commissioner Felicetta testified that John Wilson, the national 
fundraising chairman for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Com- 
mittee (SNCC) , was the main speaker at a meeting of young Negroes 
held July 18, 1967, at the JFK Community Center on Clinton Street. 
In quoting from a police report regarding Wilson's appearance at 
this meeting, the witness stated : 

His whole approach was one of hate and to appeal to the worst in the young 
audience. 

He impressed upon the kids that the black men in America don't want 
integration * * * He insulted all white people in the audience and called Dean 
Rusk a "Himkey Fool", Robert McXamara, a hunkey warmonger. He appealed 
to the Negro boys to refuse to serve in the armed services. * * * 

At this point in the hearing, the general counsel of the committee 
read into the record the following information on John A. Wilson, 
which was based on material from committee files : 

•John A. Wilson was born on September 29, 1943, in Baltimore, Maryland. He 
has been active in militant Negro organizations since he was a student at Mary- 
land State College, Princess Anne, Maryland, and served as chairman of the 
Student Appeal for Equality at that college in 1964. 

In 1964 John Wilson was one of six individuals who met in Chester, Penn- 
sylvania, and formed the militant Negro organization called ACT. (This organi- 
zation, ACT, has been described in part 1, pages 917, 918, of this committee's 
hearings on this subject.) 

Wilson has been an active member of SNCO for the past several years and 
has served that organization as its New York field organizer. He has also 
been cited as a national spokesman for SNCC. 

John Wilson was one of a group of Americans who visited with representatives 
of the National Liberation Front and North Vietnam in Bratislava, Czechoslo- 
vakia, last summer. 

When he returned, Wilson served as cochairman of the National Mobilization 
Committee To End the War in Vietnam, which organized the march on the 
Pentagon on October 21-22. 1967. 

In late January 1968, the National Black Anti-War Anti-Draft Union was 
formed. John Wilson was elected its national chairman. 

Commissioner Felicetta provided the committee with information 
regarding a newly devised substitute for Molotov cocktails which he 
identified as "traveling jelly.'' He then proceeded to describe this sub- 
stance in detail. 

Commissioner Felicetta concluded his testimony before the commit- 
tee by making the following statement : 

I have traveled all over this country, attending conferences and seminars 
on civil disturbances in the last couple of years, and many police departments 
throughout the country seem to have similar problems. 

Groups which advocate the destruction of our society have been making the 
police their major target. 

We become natural enemies because of the fact that we are called upon 
when the.se civil disturbances take place, and we don't move in by choice ; we must 
move in because this is our job. So, because we are present there, we become 
the natural enemy. 

88-083 O— 69— pt. 5 2 



1992 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Since many of these organizations cross State lines, perhaps the Federal 
Government could provide the legal tools to cope with these activities. Their 
directions must be reversed. 

In congratulating the witness for his excellent presentation, Mr. 
Ashbrook stated : 

These facts that you have cited make it clear that subversive elements are 
and have been at work in Buffalo in the area of racial agitation prior to, during, 
and since the riot which took place at the end of last June. 

You have shown links between these elements and Peking and Communist 
organizations outside of Buffalo itself. Your testimony and the exhibits you have 
presented have demonstrated that Communists and other organizations are 
actively promoting the dissemination of inflammatory racist literature and that 
groups of this type in Buffalo have the cooperation and support of similar groups 
in other cities. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT ROMERSTEIN 

Herbert Romerstein, a committee investigator, provided the record 
with additional information regarding Joel S. Meyers and Gerald J. 
Gros, both Youth Against War and Fascism leaders who were iden- 
tified by Commissioner Felicetta as having been active in YAWF 
demonstrations. 

With the arrest of Sostre, Mr. Romerstein testified that a number of 
organizations involved in racial agitation immediately came to his 
defense. The committee investigator referred to newspapers published 
by the Workers World Party and the Trotskyist Communist Socialist 
Workers Party which contained considerable amount of propaganda 
material in support of Sostre. 

According to the committee investigator, one of the most interesting 
groups to spring up in Sostre's defense was an organization called 
American Coordination Committee of the Left, of Post Office Box 5, 
Station C, Buffalo. The telephone number of this group was listed in 
the name of Edward A. Wolkenstein, who was previously named in 
this hearing as a participant in a demonstration during the Buffalo 
rioting. 

Wolkenstein had appeared before the committee as a subpenaed 
witness on April 29, 1964, in Buffalo, N.Y., in the course of hearings 
on Communist activity in the Buffalo area and attempted to dis- 
rupt the hearing in much the same manner as Martin Sostre had dur- 
ing his appearance in court. Mr, Romerstein stated that Wolkenstein 
has been identified as a member of the Communist Party, U.S.A., by a 
former FBI informant who testified before the committee that Wol- 
kenstein was expelled from the party because of his support of the 
pro-Peking faction within it. Wolkenstein invoked the fifth amend- 
ment in response to committee questions regarding his activity in the 
Communist Party and concerning the circumstances of his expulsion 
from the party. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, 
AND BURNING 

Part 5 

(Buffalo, N.Y.) 



THURSDAY, JUNE 20, 1968 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10:20 a.m., in Room 311, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Richard H. Ichord (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Richard H. Ichord, of 
Missouri, chairman ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and Albert W. Wat- 
son, of South Carolina.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Ichord, Ashbrook, 
and Watson. 

Staff members presents : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Chester D. 
Smith, general counsel ; and Herbert Romerstein, investigator. 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will come to order. 

We have the following communication from the chairman of the full 
committee, reading as follows : 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Honorable Richard H. Ichord, as Chairman, and Honorable John M. Ash- 
brook and Honorable Albert W. Watson, as associate members, to conduct hear- 
ings in Washington, D.C, on Thursday, June 20, 1968, as contemplated by the 
resolution adopted by the Committee on the 2nd day of August, 1967, authorizing 
hearings concerning subversive influences in the riots, the looting and burning 
which have besieged various cities in the Nation, and other matters under in^ 
vestigation by the Committee. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 20th day of June, 1968. 

And signed by Edwin E. Willis, chairman of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Our first witness this morning, I understand, is Mr. Frank N. Feli- 
cetta. Is that the correct pronunciation, sir ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. 

1993 



1994 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. IcHORD. Police commissioner of the city of Buffalo, New York. 

It is very nice to have you with us, Mr. Commissioner, and Mr. 
Counsel, are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Smith, Will you swear the witness, please ? 

Mr. IcHORD. First of all, Mr. Commissioner, will you please rise 
and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are going to give before 
this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Felicetta. I do. 

Mr. IcHORD. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK N. FELICETTA 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, will you please state your full name for 
the record. 

Mr. Felicetta. Frank N. Felicetta, F-e-1-i-c-e-t-t-a. 

Mr. Smith. ^^Hiat is your occupation ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Commissioner of police of the city of Buffalo, New 
York. 

Mr. Smith. How long have you served as commissioner? 

Mr. Felicetta. I served as commissioner for 1958 through '61. I 
retired from the department and returned January 1, 1966. 

Mr. Smith. Wliat has been your professional background ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Well, I joined the Buffalo Police Department De- 
cember 3, 1929, and worked in every rank up to and including captain, 
to which I was promoted on January 2, 1958. 

Mr. Smith. Were there disturbances of a racial nature 

Mr. Felicetta. Excuse me. I would like to correct that. 

Mr. Smith. I am sorry. 

Mr. Felicetta. 1958 is when I took over as police commissioner. 

In 1950 1 was promoted to captain. 

Mr. Smith. Right. 

Were there disturbances of a racial nature in the city of Buffalo, 
New York, during 1967 ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, there were. 

Mr. Smith. ^Yliat were the dates ? 

Mr. Felicetta. June 27 through June 30, 1967, when order was 
re-stored. 

Mr. Smith. What is the population of Buffalo, New York ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Approximately 500,000 in the city, and a metro- 
politan population about a million and a quarter. 

Mr. Smith. What is the Negro population of the city ? 

Mr. Felicetta. About 100,000. 

Mr. Smith. That represents what percentage of that ? 

Mr. Felicetta. It would represent about 20 percent. 

Mr. Smith. About 20 percent. What percentage of the Negroes of 
Buffalo were involved in the riot ? 

Mr. Felicetta. All told, I would say about 1 percent. Maybe iy2 
percent. 

Mr. Smith. That would figure about 1,000 or 1,500? 

Mr. Felicetta. That is correct, sir. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1995 

Mr. Smith. Please advise the committee of the number of arrests 
and the extent of the property damage done during the riots. 

Mr. Felicetta. Well, there were 242 adults and 17 youthful offend- 
ers arrested in the course of the disturbances, and property damage 
was estimated to be about $151,000, or a little more. This was damage 
caused by fire. 

There were some other losses, amounting to approximately $37,000, 
in thefts and so on. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any deaths during the disturbance? 

Mr. Felicetta. No, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any injuries during the disturbance? 

Mr. Felicetta. Very few. 

Mr. Smith. Was there any sniping during the disturbances? 

Mr. Felicetta. There was not, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Were any guns stolen in the course of the disturbance ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, there were. I have a report here of a burglary 
at Angert's. Angert's is a store that sells automobile supplies and also 
sells sporting goods, where at approximately 7:53 p.m. on June 27, 
1967, which was the night that our disturbances started, some windows 
were broken at this store, and, incidentally, this store is located within 
the core area, and there were 20 shotguns, 12-, 16-, and 20-gauge, stolen 
from this store. Additionally, there were 12 Grossman pellet guns 
taken. 

Mr. Smith. Were Molotov cocktails used to start fires during the 
riots ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Smith. Were there any other activities that were of significance 
during the disturbance ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, there were. 

There was a fire, either the first or second night, in a building at 
Madison and Peckham Streets, which is right in the core area, and an 
automobile was placed across the street to make it difficult for the fire 
department to reach the scene and to reach the fire. 

Additionally, I have a report here from the fire department where 
there were many, many false alarms of fire, where firemen were pelted, 
where firemen were harassed, and where their equipment was damaged. 

Mr. Smith. Right. Who is the fire commissioner of Buffalo, New 
York? 

Mr. Felicetta. Robert Howard. 

Mr. Smith. And what is his race? 

Mr. Felicetta. He is a Negro, sir. 
Mr. Smith. I see. 

Prior to the outbreak of violence on June 27, 1967^ to your knowl- 
edge, were there any Communist organizations engaging in racial agi- 
tation in Buffalo, or were there any organizations or individuals pro- 
moting racist doctrines, disseminating inflammatory racist literature, 
or engaging in racial agitation ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes. We were aware of a number of instances of this 
type activity. The Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims as they are gen- 
erally called, have a mosque, designated [Muhammad's] Mosque No. 
23, in Buffalo, located in a— formerly a theater building on Broadway 
near Jefferson Street, and it has been active for some years. It is gen- 



1996 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

erally recognized that this organization is highly racist in its doctrines 
and teachings. 

On May 3, 1967, the YMCA, located at 347 East Ferry Street, which 
is in the heart of the core area, held a fundraising carnival. Three 
Black Muslims, wearing Fruit of Islam uniforms and caps, with the 
initials "F.I." on the caps, were observed talking to a group of 75 to 
100 youngsters at the carnival. 

The Fruit of Islam, as you know, is a paramilitary guard unit of the 
Black Muslims. So far as we can tell, these men were strangers in the 
area, and it is not known whether they might have been associated 
with the Buffalo Muslim mosque, or whether they came from some 
other area. 

Shortly after they addressed the group of young Negroes at the car- 
nival, the youngsters left in a group and proceeded to Jefferson Ave- 
nue, about a block away, where they broke windows in a number of 
stores and also entered and stole a large amount of merchandise from 
a pawnshop. 

Police officers took two of them into custody at the scene, but were 
assaulted by the others who managed to free the other two. 

On May 18 a two-page newsletter was issued by certain persons in 
the Buffalo chapter of COKE, C-O-K-E, and I would like to read an 
excerpt from the cover page of this newsletter or flyer : "RIOTS ! !" It 
is headed "RIOTS!!": 

It seems that Wattts [sic], Rochester, New York and other cities don't plan 
their riots nearly as well as Buffalo. Already through careful planning we have 
been able to maintain riotous conditions for two weekends straight. This past 
Saturday, there were so many cops between Jefferson, Humboldt and E. Ferry 
Streets it looked like a P.A.L. convention (That is, with all the 14, 15, 16 year 
oldsters loitering on the corners) . 

Who knows, if things are well planned, the kids will have a good time (like 
Ft. Lauderdale). The riots have lasted only for a weekend. Was it the 
weather? By the way kids, what are you doing this summer??? 

Then they go further, another heading here on "ORGANIZA- 
TION": 

The "black idea" has hit Buffalo and the organizers are not sure just 
how to organize its power, corral its anger, or box its action. The young kids are 
going to hit the streets faster than the organizations can think and find an 
answer even if it is a false one. 

Somehow the committee thinkers have to climb out of their trap and get 
back to the streets and find out what's really happening in the young black man's 
mind. Everyone in Buffalo is busy organizing. Organizing is "in," and civil 
rights is "out." 

A WORD ABOUT OORE 

CORE seeks to help you to help yourself. We meet every Wednesday, 1536 
Jefferson, 8 P.M. Will you be there??? 

I would like to offer this to you. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this flyer be accepted for the 
record. 

Mr. IciiORD. You were reading from the flyer, Mr. Commissioner? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes. sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, the flyer will be admitted and 
incorporated into the record. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1997 
(Document marked "Felicetta Exhibit No. 1" follows :) 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 1 

TV^ ?'m?0'S:L OP "CO;;]' S°:::AK3" 

Is there ar»y good reason v;hy you should read tais newsletter? 
Is thei-e any reason v/hy v/e sl-ould print it? 

The existence of "COR:i S°3.\ks" is imoortant. It is Core's 
MOLfTH. The iaees and policies of CO.^S can only be expressed in 
print. Therefore, "COH^ of^iJAKS" nust be.. 

Wny read this? Simply because "CO.ii: SPj^AP^S" may be the only 
publication in Buffalo dealing in facts. '.Ve , in Buffalo, are 
"['>LL'.S5i::j^" v;ith publications vmich refuse to print all the facts, 
"COiiJi, ijP.'..iiKS" offers you a voice dealinp, in issues of vital 
inportance to the CO.'rUJNITy . 3einf3 the only voice, it is an 
impot*tant and necessary voice. 

The future of "OOHr. S-'JAKS" is You. By reatiinf; it, "COKL 
SP^^aKS" .vTLL grow and become an influential voice for the w.iole 
comnunity. 

RIOTS I I 

It scje'ns that ',/attts, Rochester, Nev; York and other cities 
don't plan tiieir riots nearly as woll as Buffalo. Already through 
careful olanninp we have boen able to 'laintain riotous conditions 
for two weekends straight. This pest Saturday, tnere were so many 
cops betv.'cen Jefferson, Humboldt and E. ?erry Streets it looked like 
a-P.A.L. convention (That is, with all the ll| , 15> 16 year oldsters 
loiterinjT .on the corners). ■ ■ 

' v/ho kdiDws , if thinf-s are v;ell nlanned, the kitls will have a 
pood time (like Ft. Lauderdale). The riots have lasted only for • 
a vfeekend. ',/as it the weather? By the way kij.s, what are you 
doinp this suTiner??? 

OROAMIZATTpM 

The "black idea" has ' hit "Buff alo and the orpanizers are riot 
sure -just hoi-/ to o.-panize its power, corral its anper, or box its 
action. The younp kids are roinf, to hit the streets faster than 
the. orjr.anizat ions can think and find an ansv/cr even if it is a 
false one. 

Sonchow the coTiittee tainkei-s have to climb oiit of their trap 
and f et back to the str^ots and find out v.-hat's really happening 
in tne youn;-, black rnan's -nind. Jveryone in Buffalo is busy 
or/.nr:izinf:, Orranizin.f as "in" and civil ri.phts is "out". 

A .I'M,) ;>BOilL' 'JOKi. 

COUli seeks to help you to hclo yourself, V/e meet every 

■ '.Jednesday, lp36 J-efferson, 6 P.M. Will you be there??? 



1998 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Felicetta Exhi:'! i .\o. 1 — Continued 

POLITICAL NOTES 

C.O.ri.E. would like to call attention to the statenient made by 
Patrolman V/illiam Wagner, President of the Erie Club (Policeman's 
Association) in the Buffalo Evening Mews, May 10, 196?, condemning 
the proposed police reforms recommended by B.U.I.L.D. and its Presi- 
dent, Rev. En-.nanuel. 

Mr. V/agner said: 

"No self-styled vigilantes will tell our police officers 
what to do and hov; to do it - policemen are professional men 
and knov; how to conduct themselves as police officers. They 
have full understanding of the laws and their rules and regu- 
lations v/hich they are required to abide by." 

» 
In reference to Rev. Emmanuel's plan for a 12 to 1$ man patrol 
to gather evidence - including police badge numbers, names and 
license numbers in an attempt to curb recent tension in tne Black 
Community, lir. V/agner said - "My belief is that before they try to 
clean yards of respectful citizens, they should clean up their own 
backyards . " 

I would like to state hero and now that I and my fellow C.G.R.Et 
members resent Mr. V/agner 's renarks and demand that he publicly apolo- 
gize for calling tne delegation from B.U.I.L.D. - self-styled vigi- 
lantes. His language is typical of the racism so prevalent in much 
of the white power structure and their resistance to the efforts of 
Black people to secure justice. ie doesn't seem to understand that 
we are trying to clean up our own baclcyards and one of the first 
things that must go are those racist rats in blue who use their 
police badges as licenses to whip Black people now and ask questions 
later. 

Rev. Eirananuel and the B.U.I.L.D. delegation went through the 
proper channels in presenting their proposals - Mayor Sjdita and 
Commissioner Fellicetta. V/e feel they are just and stand 100 fo 
behind B.U.I.L.D. It is time that Patrolman V/agner knovjs that the 
new Black man is not afraid of his badge or his bullets. The bru- 
tality practicing rats in blue must go. If the police department 
cannot remove them, then the Black Community ^^fill. 

V/illiam Rob.inson 

THE ASSASSINATION OP THE J.F.K. CENTER 

The J.F.K. Center is a disgusting mess. The lack of any plan- 
ning and basic auinnn concern is causing the end of this center. 
There have been many complaints about tlie deteric'tation and lack of 
supervised programs. 

Only those close to this problem know hov; our community is being 
cheated by the power hungry grafters at City Hall. Are ^^fe to sit 
around with a lack of desire ivhilo the J.F.K. Center is buried ? No. 
V/e demand that the dirty hands of City Hall be kept deep in their own 
trousers while the people build their ov;n Center. Is our community 
responsible? No. Are v/e being CHJaTED? Yes, We recommend: 

(1) An advisory board of neighborhood people. (2) Better trained 
people to staff the Center. (3) Pull-time maintenance of Ellicott 
Field. (i|) An outdoor summer progra:a for Ellicott Field. 

Tony Rcdriqueez 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 1999 

Mr. Felicetta There is one other part, of that that I would like to 
read for the record : 

"Somehow the committee thinkers have to climb out of their 
trap * * *.'' — I think I said that. "The brutality practicing rats in blue 
must go. If the police department cannot remove them, then the 
Black Community will." 

It also referred to "those racist rats in blue" and stated that the 
Negro community in Butfalo "is being cheated by the power hungry 
grafters at City Hall." 

Mr. Smith. Now, Commissioner, will you continue your testimony 
on agitational developments prior to the disturbances? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. 

There was a rhythm and blues show at Memorial Auditorium in 
Butfalo on June 24, just a few clays before the outbreak of the 
violence. Some 8,000 to 10,000 young people, perhaps 75 percent of 
them Negi^o, attended this show. 

We had received word that some incidents would be staged there 
to pull police from other areas to the auditorium. There would then 
be wholesale window-breaking, looting, and burning in the districts 
from which the police had been pulled. 

A number of fights did break out at Memorial Auditorium when the 
show had ended. Being forewarned, we did not pull too many men from 
other areas in taking the necessary precautions to deal with any dis- 
turbances at the Memorial Auditorium. 

Some windows in the downtown area were broken by young Negroes 
on their way home from the auditorium. There was no significant 
destruction or violence, however. 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, the CORE flyer you quoted from a few 
minutes ago makes mention of an organization called BUILD. Will 
you explain the nature of this organization ? 

Mr. FELiCEriA. The name stands for "Build Unity, Integrity, Lib- 
erty, and Dignity." It was organized in Butfalo by Richard H. Har- 
mon, a white man, who was sent to Buffalo from Chicago for that 
purpose by Saul Alinsky's, A-l-i-n-s-k-y-'-s Industrial Areas Founda- 
tion. It is a civil rights-type organization which claims to represent 
about 150 groups in the Negro community. BUILD has publicly taken 
a position opposing the use of violence. 

Mr. Smith. Was there any other organization or individual engaged 
in racist agitation, or the distribution of racist literature, prior to the 
riot? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. A man named Martin Gonzalez — G-o-n-z-a- 
1-e-z — Sostre, S-o-s-t-r-e, was operating three bookstores in the city 
of Buffalo called the Afro-Asian Book Store. One of them was at 1412 
Jefferson, another one was on Genesee Street, and a third one was on 
High Street^ — all in the Negro area. 

Visits made to this bookstore at my direction, prior to the outbreak, 
revealed that it was stocked with a large amount of Communist, revo- 
lutionary, and black nationalist literature with a strong and inflam- 
matory racial content. 

I will have more to say about Sostre later. 

Now, however, I would like to introduce samples of literature ob- 
tained during a raid on his store after the riot. 



2000 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

I have here a book from Mao Tse-tung, which was found in his store, 
and on the back it gives the name of the general distributor, Guozi 
Shudian, China Publications Centre, Post Office Box 399, Peking, 
China. The Hong Kong agent is Peace Book Company, 83 Queen's 
Road, Central, and the local agent is Afro-Asian Book Store, 1412 
Jefferson Avenue, Buffalo, New York 14208 [Felicetta Exhibit No 2]. 

I have three other books. One of them is entitled Fidel Castro^ 26th 
of July 1963 [Felicetta Exhibit No. 3]. 

Mr. Smith. Published by whom ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Published by — I don't believe it contains that in- 
formation. Is it in the back? 

The address — "This has been printed and published as a public 
service by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, 799 Broadway, New 
York, N.Y., 10003. Produced with donated labor." ^ 

I have a copy of the March-April 1965 INSURGENT. The editor 
is Carl Bloice [Felicetta Exhibit No. 4]. 

Mr. Smith. I believe that is published by the DuBois Club, is it not? 

Mr. Felicetta. "Published every other month by the W. E. B. Du- 
Bois Clubs of America," yes, sir, in San Francisco, California. 

Then I have a copy of The Partisan magazine, a magazine of Youth 
Against War and Facism, volume 2, No. 1, and the office of the pub- 
lisher of this magazine is 58 West 25th Street, New York, New York. 
[Felicetta Exhibit No. 5]. 

And I also have here Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung 
[Felicetta Exhibit No. 6], and I would like to read just one paragraph 
from page 61 : "Every Communist must grasp the truth, 'Political 
power grows out of the barrel of a gun.' " 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman. I request that these documents be ac- 
cepted for the record. 

Mr. IciioRD. Mr. Commissioner, were these documents gathered in 
the store of Mr. Sostre by the police? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes,. they were, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. They were on sale in the store ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Is there any objection to the admission ? 

Mr. Smith. One more question. 

Where was the Mao Tse-tung quotations published? The red book? 

Mr. Felicetta. Oh, the red book ? '■'■Printed in the People'' s Repuhlio 
of China-.'''' 

Mr. IcHORD. The documents will be admitted into evidence. 

(Documents marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 2 throuarh 6," respec- 
tively. Exhibits 3, 4, and 5 retained in committee files. Title page and 
back cover of Exhibit 2 and title page and excerpt from page 61 of 
Exhibit 6 appear on pages 2001 and 2002.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I would like to introduce 
into the record issues of Workers World which show that according 
to the Workers World of March 15, 1968, "The idea of the bookstore 
was to prepare Black youth for the liberation struggle." And in an 



1 This exhibit contains excerpts from a speech delivered by Fidel Castro on the occasion 
of the 10th anniversary celebration of the 26th of July Movement in 1963. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2001 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 2 

INTRODUCING VOLUMES I-IV 

SELECTED WORKS 
OF 

MAO TSE-TUNG 



English Edition 



Published by 

VOREIGIS^ LA]V6I 

Pcki: . • rjifia 



Distributed by: 

Gl WZI SHUDI A!V 

CHINA -PUBLICATIONS CENTRE 
i'rWuig, ( luna 



2002 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Felicetta Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 
G^nmral Dftlributor : 

GUOZI SHUDIAN 

CHINA PUBLICATIONS CENTRE 
P, O. Box 399, Peking, China 

Hongkong Agent : 

PEACE BOOK COMPANY 

83 Queen's Ru«i. (jamt*^ 



AFRO-ASIAN BOOK STORE ♦ 



1412 JEFFERSON AVENUE # 
BUFFALO, NE^yORK 14>fli 



Il5t« ««!•«««>«-■■•«■ (W t i B ) MM-W 



Felicetta Exhibit No. 6 



QUOTATIONS FROM 

CHAIRMAN 
MAO TSE-TUNG 



rOHl U.N I ANt.l'ACf.S PRI'.SN 
PIKINi; l%<. 



rcvoliy^onary war i«'/\endowcd witj 
mendy 1 power 
thing/ \ clear the 
matic uTic Sino-J 
1 China 




Every Communist muit grasp the truth, 
"Political power grows out of the barrel 
of a gun." 

"Problem! of War and Strategy" 
(November 6, 19)8), Stltcted 
Works. Vol. II. p. 114- 




armed fo''''\^hc 



\. 



61 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2003 

earlier issue of the Workers World, dated September 14 [1967], I 
quote : 

Martin Sostre operated the Afro-Asian bookstore and sold a variety of litera- 
ture for liberation fighters that you could find no place else in Buffalo. His 
customers were the Black youth of Buffalo. They had learned to know and to 
admire this man who wanted them to question, think, and learn. 

And as the rebellion raged many of them took refuge in his store where cops 
on the street could not, for the moment, reach them and where they could, now 
in excited, eager tones as they sensed the potential of the revolt, discuss what 
had happened so far and what could be done. Even as the confused battle went 
on, young men bought books like Negroes With Guns by Robert Williams and 
read them. 

Mr. IcHORD. Counsel, you are reading from an article in the Com- 
munist Z^a^Zy Worker l 

Mr. Smith, It is Workers Worlds of the Workers World Party. 

Mr. IcHORD, Do you wish to have that admitted ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, I request that these documents be accepted for the 
record. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, the documents will be 
accepted. 

(Documents marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 7 and 8," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, was Martin Sostre the sole owner of the 
Afro-Asian Book Store ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, he was. 

Mr. Smith. Was there anything else prior to the riot ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, we did not hear about this until July 21 though, 
several weeks after the riot, but because this could have a bearing on 
the development of the riot, or certain things which took place during 
the riot, I think it should be mentioned here. 

This information was given to us by a Mr. Major Cox, who owns an 
apartment house at 226 Emslie Street in Buffalo. 

On or about April 1, Mr. Cox said, a Mr. Don Pace, P-a-c-e, who is 
white, and Frederick D. Hudson, a Negro, rented an apartment in this 
building. They represented themselves as VISTA workers. During the 
week of June 26, when the violence broke out, Don Pace paid his half 
of the rent of the apartment and then moved out to another part of 
the city. 

Another Negro, Charles Harris, moved into the apartment with 
Hudson. Although Mr. Cox, the owner, was having trouble collecting 
the remainder of the rent for the apartment, he did not make an issue 
of it because Harris and Hudson said they were going to move out 
about the middle of July. 

Mr. Cox went to the apartment on or about the 16th of July, after 
they had left. In it he found about 25 clean quart bottles and pop l3ot- 
tles. He also found spilled gasoline on the driveway. He then went into 
the apartment and found various items of black power and antiwhite 
literature and pictures and posters pasted on the walls. 

In addition, there was a bar in one room of the apartment, with 
whiskey and beer. ISIr. Cox learned from the neighbors that young 
people from the neighborhood in the 10 to 12 age group were in and 
out of the apartment at all times. 

The interesting thing is that Frederick D. Hudson, one of the two 
men who rented the apartment on or about April 1, was arrested during 



2004 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

the riot at about 7 :30 p.m. on June 28 for refusing to obey the reason- 
able request of a police officer. He claimed that he was helping to quell 
the disturbance and that the executive director of the Community 
Action Organization in Buffalo had urged all Negro males in VISTA 
to get out onto the streets and try to calm down those who were en- 
gaging in violence and destruction. 

Mr. Smith. Now, Commissioner, unless you have something further 
to add on the subject of preriot agitation, we would like to move into 
the period of the June 27 through 30, 1967, disturbance, or the riot 
phase in Buffalo. 

Mr. Watson. Counsel, may we interrupt you at this point? 

Mr. Commissioner, did you ever establish whether or not either of 
these individuals actually was in the employ of VISTA? 

Mr. Fblicetta. I have here an article which appeared in one of the 
Buffalo newspapers, "VTSTA worker claims arrest was a mistake," 
where he admits that he was a VISTA worker : 

A member of the Volunteers in Service to America, VISTA, arrested Wednes- 
day night for resisting an officer, said Thursday that he was on an errand of mer- 
cy when mistakenly picked up by iwlice. Frederick D. Hudson, 19, of Detroit, now 
living at 226 Emslie Street, said he was trying to inform a young Negro of his 
legal rights when police handcuffed him and placed him in a police van. 

He admits that he was a member of VISTA. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Commissioner, that is just a newspaper story, and as 
we all know newspaper articles aren't always true. Did the police 
check that out, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Felicetta. To my knowledge, it hasn't been. It may have been. 

Mr. IcHORD. I will ask the staff. This should be a matter that the 
staff should have checked out, whether these two individuals were 
VISTA employees. 

Does the staff have any information on that ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir, we will check it out, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Have you checked it ? 

Mr. Smith. No, sir, we haven't yet. 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, we would like you to check into these two in- 
dividuals, Mr. Don Pace and Mr. Frederick D. Hudson, and see if they 
were — establish whether or not they were employed by VISTA and 
also as to whether they are now employed by VISTA.^ 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Smith. Thank you. 

Are they members of SNCC, that you just mentioned, Frederick 
Hudson ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, I think I have some proof here. I have some- 
thing that they are members of SNCC. I will probably run into that 
as we go along. 

Mr. Smith. All right. 



1 A letter of Inquiry by Mr. Willis, the chairman of the committee, elicited the following 
information from Padraic Kennedy, acting director, VISTA : 

Frederick Hudson had servMl as a VISTA Volunteer from Feb. 21, 1967, to Dec. 28, 1967, 
at which time he left VISTA to return to his home. 

Donald Pace had also entered into service with VISTA on Feb. 21. 1967, and as of July 25, 
1968, the date of Mr. Kennedy's letter, was still serving with VISTA, being assigned to 
the Community Action Organization of Erie County. 825 Genesee Building. Buflfalo. N.Y. 

Mr. Kennedy's letter also pointed out that VISTA Volunteers do not receive a salary, but 
are provided with an allowance for subsistence and a stipend of $50 per month and are 
generally not deemed employees except for certain technical or administrative purposes. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2005 

Commissioner, did you possess loiowledge of agitation of the type 
that we have been discussing during the period of the riots, indicating 
an attempt to keep it going ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, on June 29 an organization called Buffalo 
Youth Against War and Fascism distributed a flyer in the riot area 
Avhich is highly inflammatory in nature. It alleged that the black youth 
of the city, who it said were in "the vanguard of the stiiiggle,'' faced a 
"completely hopeless situation. The future holds no alternative for 
them but a life of poverty or being drafted to fight in a war against 
their Asian brothers in Vietnam I" 

I understand that this is standard Communist practice today, join- 
ing the issues of civil rights and the war in Vietnam. 

The flyer said that the issuing organization. Youth Against War and 
Fascism, protested, the city officials' quick use of police repression 
against the black people of Buffalo ancl that it condemned the United 
States Government, the New York State government, and city govern- 
ment's continual repression of the aspirations of the black people. 

It ended with the notation that the YAWF was calling for a demon- 
stration of solidarity with the oppressed black people of Buffalo, 
which would be held in Lafayette Square on the same day, June 29, 
from 6 :30 to 7 :30. 

I have a copy of that here. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this flyer be accepted for 
the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. Where was this flyer gathered, Mr. Commissioner? 

Mr. Felicetta. It was pioi5:ed up by our subversive police officers, the 
subversive squad of our department. 

Mr. IcHORD. No attempt was made to establish where it was printed? 

Mr. Felicetta. I think they were passed out in goodly numbers by 
people that are identified with this movement. 

Mr. IcHORD. Tliere being no objection, it will be admitted. 

(Document marked "Felicetta Exhibit No. 9" appears on page 
2006.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chainnan, I would like to state for the record that 
FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, testifying before a House Appropria- 
tions Subcommittee on February 16, 1967, identified Youth Against 
War and Fascism as the youth group of the Workers World Party, a 
Communist splinter group. In addition, testifying before the same 
committee on February 23 of 1968, he further identified the parent 
organization, the Workers World Party, in the following words : 

The Siocialist Workers Party was the first major group to oppose the CJommunist 
Party — U.S.A. for the right to lead an American Ck>mimunist revolution. It is the 
largest Trotskyite organization in the United States, and has been designated 
pursuant to Executive Order 10450 and is a basic revolutionary group. 

* ♦ « * * * * 

Factionalism in the Socialist Workers Party has been responsible for the 
formation of other subversive groups which follow the teachings of Trotsky but 
differ over the means by which the goal of worldwide communism is to be at- 
tained. Among the offshoots of the Socialist Workers Party are the Johnson- 
Forest Group, the Workers World Party * * *. 

Further, Mr. Chairman, I would also like to point out that addi- 
tional information on the Workers World Party and Youth Against 
War and Fascism will be found in Committee Exhibit No. 3, pages 902 
through 907 of part 1 of these hearings. 



2006 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 9 

Buffalo Youth Against War and Fascism 

P. 0. Box 372 

Buffalo, New York 14205 



June 29, 1967 



FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: 



The Black community of Buffalo is rebelling against the same inhuman condi- 
tions that have already caused rebellions in most major cities in the United 
States. Black people in America have long suffered under slavery, racial 
discrimination, KKK butchery, "southern justice" in racist courts, and in- 
human living conditions — both up North and down South! 

The Black masses — especially the youth -- in the city of Buffalo have long 
faced conditions such as joblessness, ghetto housing, police repression, high 
rents, lack of recreational facilities, inferior education, teachers and 
school buildings. The Black youth in particular — who are in the vanguard 
of the struggle -- face a completely hopeless situation. The future holds 
no alternative for them but a life of poverty or being drafted to fight in 
a war against their Asian brothers in Vietnam! 

YOUTH AGAINST WAR AND FASCISM PROTESTS the policy of Buffalo city 

officials who were so quick to use police repression against the 
Black people, but who do nothing at all to alleviate the oppressive, 
inhuman conditions that have long existed in the Black community! 

WE CONDEMN the federal, state and local governments for their 

continual repression of the Black people's aspirations — while 
providing no concrete changes I 

WE PROTEST the fact that the average Afro-American family, accord- 
ing to Labor Department statistics, earns 33,800 a year as com- 
pared to S6,330 for whites. 

WE PROTEST the fact that 10 - 15?^ of the adult Black males, and 

20 - 30% of the Black youth are unemployed in this country; that 
1 out of every 5 Black workers earns less than 360 a week; that 
37% of the Afro-American families live on less thsui ^3,000 a yearl 

WE CONDEMN the shocking fact that in the Mississippi Delta, for 

example, thousands of Black children are today victims of mass 
starvation and disease — this in this so-called "land of plenty"! 

It is an accumulation of these grievances — and not "hoodlumism" as the 
press and city officials have been quick to shout -- that makes a rebellion. 

Let it be understood that the rebellion which began a few days ago in the 
Black community has been long coming — it is a cry of the oppressed for 
justice so long denied! 

It is not the Black people who are the looters; their very lives have been 
looted for centuries by a white, racist system in the United States! 



YAWF calls for a demonstration in solidarity with the oppressed Black people 
of Buffalo : Lafayette Square , Thursday , June 29, fe:30 - 7:30 P. M. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2007 

Commissioner, in addition to distributing this flyer that you refer- 
enced here, did the Buffalo unit of Youth Against War and Fascism 
engage in any other activities during the period of the riot ? 

Mr. Feilicetta. Yes. On June 29 they demonstrated as the flyer 
I have quoted indicated they would, and they also demonstrated on 
July 1, the day after order was restored. This demonstration was held 
outside the jail in which some of the rioters were being detained 
following their arrest. 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, I hand you a reproduction of an article 
published in the July 7, 1967, issue of Workers Wmid^ official news- 
paper of the AVorkers World Party, and ask you if you are familiar 
with this article and if it accurately describes the demonstrations you 
have just mentioned ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir ; it does. 

Mr. Smith. What was the theme of these demonstrations ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Well, the theme was that the disturbances in Buffalo 
were not a riot, but a rebellion, and the police had no right to inter- 
fere with the rebellion. The demonstrators demanded that the rioters 
be freed. 

Mr. Smffh. Mr. Chairman, I request that this item be accepted for 
the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, it will be admitted. 

(Document marked "Felicetta Exhibit No. 10" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, has the Buffalo Police Department iden- 
tified some of the persons taking part in these demonstrations ? 

Mr. Feilicmtta. Yes. Yes, we have. Among them w^ere Karl, K-a-r-1, 
Meller, M-e-1-l-e-r, Gerald Gross, G-r-o-s-s, Jeanette and Edward 
Merrill, M-e-r-r-i-1-1, George Provost, P-r-o-v-o-s-t, Joel S. Meyers, 
Anna Sterling, S-t-e-r-1-i-n-g, James Johnson, and Rita Johnson. 

All of these people were photographed carrying signs indicating 
they were affiliated with Youth Against War and Fascism. 

Mr. IcHORD. Were they Buffalo residents ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. Most of them are. I believe all of them are. 
Either Buffalo or suburbs. 

Now I have some pictures here of these names that I have just men- 
tioned. Additionally at the demonstrations were seen Edward Wolken- 
stein, W-o-l-k-e-n-s-t-e-i-n, Rachel Wolkenstein, Naomi Wolkenstein, 
and William Yates. 

Now, these four that I just mentioned came to the demonstration 
on Thursday, the 29th, in Wolkenstein's car, in Edward Wolkenstein's 
car. 

Additionally, a man by the name of Pete Hartmen passed out leaflets 
at the square; Gerald Coles, C-o-l-e-s; also a woman who was small 
in height and build; two Negros and one Puerto Rican were there. 

At 6 :30 p.m. that night there were 10 people there. At 6 :45 there 
were 17 demonstrators, and at 7 :30 there were 25. 

Just as the picketing broke up, seven or eight Road Vultures from 
Lackawanna, New York, which is a suburb of Buffalo, appeared, and 
it looked as if there might be some trouble, but a traffic patrolman 
broke it up and ordered them to move along. 

Additional information was submitted to me by our subversive 
squad that Gerald Coles and his lady friend were driven to the dem- 



88-083 O — 69 — pt. 5- 



2008 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

onstration by another couple in a car with Ohio license CC4516, 
listed to a Daniel Davis, 2432 Kenilworth Koad, Cleveland, Ohio, 
on a '60 Ford station wagon. 

The word got around to the downtown area the demonstration 
would be held at Lafayette Square, June 29, 1967. Due to the disturb- 
ance on the East Side at this time, some of the merchants downtown 
closed their stores early. They created one of the biggest traffic jams 
that I have ever seen in the city of Buffalo because of the demonstration 
that was scheduled for Lafayette Square, which was attended by only 
about 25 people. 

Mr, Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents and 
pictures be accepted for the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, they will be admitted. 

(Documents and photographs marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 11-A 
and B," respectively. Exhibit 11-A retained in committee files; Ex- 
hibit 11-B appears on pages 2009-2011.) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, the committee's files contain the fol- 
lowing information about the persons named by Commissioner Feli- 
cetta as participants in the demonstrations staged by Youth Against 
War and Fascism during the Buffalo disturbance: 

Gerald Gross, as chairman of the Martin Sostre Defense Commit- 
tee, and the meaning of that designation will be made clear in a few 
minutes, wrote a letter to the editor of the magazine Liberator^ which 
was published in the November 1967 issue. 

Liberator was identified in the initial phases of these hearings as a 
magazine engaged in racial agitation, edited by Daniel H. Watts, 
and published by the Afro- American Research Institute, Inc., in 
New York City. 

Liberator describes itself as the "intellectual voice for black nation- 
alism and socialism" and the "voice of the Afro-American protest 
moveiment in the United States and the liberation movement of 
Africa." 

Jeanette and Edward Merrill made arrangements for the appear- 
ance of Mark Lane in Buffalo when he went to that city in the early 
part of 1964 to speak on the Oswald case. 

George Provost was president of the Buffalo Progressive Citizens of 
America in 1947 and 1948. The Progressive Citizens of America was 
the immediate forerunner of the Communist-organized Progressive 
Party. 

March 9, 1948, it was reported in an issue of the Daily Worker^ 
Communist Party newspaper, that he was cochairman of a delegation 
of Communist Party and trade union leaders who took a memorandum 
to the Buffalo district representative of the Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service, protesting the detention of Charles Doyle, D-o-y-l-e, 
who had been arrested for deportation as a Communist and was then 
being held without bail on Ellis Island in New York City. 

In August, 1964 he wix>te a letter to a Member of the Senate oppos- 
ing U.S. policy in South Vietnam. This letter was placed in the 
CongreHHional Record of August 13, 1964, at the request of this Mem- 
ber of the Senate. 

Joel Meyers. In 1965 Meyers was one of a number of young men of 
draft age who signed a statement opposing the U.S. role in Vietnam 
and saying they would refuse to fight if drafted. Various issues of the 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2009 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 11-B 

Pictures of "demonstration in solidarity with the oppressed Black people of Buffalo," 
June 29, 1967, sponsored by Youth Against War and Fascism. 




1. James Johnson 2. Rita Johnson 3. Anna Sterling 4. Joel Meyers 

5. Edward Merrill 



2010 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 1 1-B— Continued 




1. Jeanette Merrill 2. Joel Meyers 3. Anna Sterling 4. Edward Merrill 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2011 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 1 1-B— Continued 




1. Jeanette Merrill 2. Joel Meyers 3. Edward Merrill 4. Karl Meller 



?_083 O— 69— pt. 5 5 



2012 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

W&rkers World in 1967 identify Meyers as a leader of Youth Against 
War and Fascism and an active participant in Communist-organized 
antidraft agitation. 

A December 16, 1967, article reveals that he was then under indict- 
ment for violating the selective service law by disruption at an induc- 
tion center. 

Rita Jolmson took part in a demonstration protesting the Cuban 
blockade, which was held in Buffalo on the evening of October 25, 
1962. 

Commissioner, do you have any information about the activities 
during the riot of persons associated with the organization BUILD 
that was referred to previously? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir, I do. I have here a copy of a report sub- 
mitted to me by Detective James Plunter, who is a Negro, and he said 
tliat the first Friday of July of 1967 he and patrolman Murchison 
were in the Cold Spring area in front of the Woodlawn Tavern and 
amid Attorney Green and about 15 to 25 people standing there. 
Detective Hunter spoke to Mr. Green, and Mr, Green accused him of 
being the most disliked cop in Buffalo and said that he heard Hunter 
was bragging about how many "coons" he had shot during the 
disturbance : 

My partner told Green he was a liar, because the night before, we were not 
at any cleaners. We had been on Clinton and Jefferson. As we were patrolling 
the area, we were trying to get people to move off the streets, and told some- 
one to go on in the tavern, and Mr. Green, in a loud voice, told them that they 
did not have to move off the streets, and things of this nature, which was in 
direct violation of an officer of a court . 

An attorney should not instruct people to disobey the request of a police 
officer, especially under these circumstances. 

On the next night, Saturday, we were again on Jefferson Street, under di- 
rect orders from the chief, that if there was any interference from any attorney, 
as there was previously, we were to lock them up. We reported the man as an 
attorney and officer of the court, but in.stead of trying to alleviate the condi- 
tions, Mr. Green was creating more of a bad situation, encouraging the peo- 
ple to disregard our requests. 

He was completely out of line, saying all these things in a very loud voice, 
and telling them things he had heard which were at best hearsay, and com- 
pletely unfounded. 

Ray Smith, another lawyer, was on the street Friday night, and was tell- 
ing people he heard the same things about me (while I was in front of the 
cleaners, I bragged about shooting and so on. ) 

He was also very militant, and telling the people standing all around not 
to obey our requests. They didn't have to do what we asked. Both these lawyers 
created more trouble and compounded violations. 

And this is signed by Detective James Hunter. 

Mr. Ray Ellis Green is listed as an attorney, with offices located 
in the Dun Building, and I know he has been active, working with 
BUILD. 

There is no listing for Ray Smith in the court directory of at- 
torneys for 1968. 

Mr. Smitii. Wliat was the role of Martin Sostre during the dis- 
turbances ? 

Mr. Felicetta. The police department has an affidavit from a young 
Negro that Sostre instructed in the making of Molotov cocktails and 
advised them to use — how to use these Molotov cocktails. And I have 
an affidavit here, an interview by an officer of our department, with 
a youngster of 15 years of age. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2013 

The question by the police officer : 

Can you remember when you first talked to Martin Sostre about any of the 
recent disorders? 

[Answer:] It was on a Wednesday. Martin said, are you going to let the white 
people treat you like this. He said why? He said we got as much right as they 
do — It's our freedom. Let's get out there and start these fires. He said don't 
mess with none of the soul brothers and sisters. So everybody went out riot- 
ing. He said we got to make molotov cocktails and get these cars on fire and 
get a couple of these cops with it. Then we would smoke up there. 

[Question:] What would you smoke, cigarettes? 

[Answer:] No, marihuana. They say they are smoking smoke, that's what they 
say when they are smoking marihuana. 

[Question:] How about the molotov cocktails. How, when and where do they 
make them up? 

[Answer:] With gasoline and grease. 

[Question :] How about the wick. What do they use for a wick? 

[Answer:] They use string. They told Bernard spread it all over, then put a 
match to it and throw it so it spreads all over. Bernard lives on Lemon Street. 
I don't know the exact address but I could bring you there. 

[Question:] Where were these fellows when Martin was telling them these 
things ? 

[Answer:] They were at the Woodlawn Tavern, before it was burned. That's 
who burned it. 

[Question :] Who burned it? 

[Answer:] Bernard first threw the bomb. They call it a molotov cocktail. 
They opened the door and threw it in the Woodlawn Tavern and some of them 
threw it at the windows. Martin talks to the younger kids to do this because 
they have more heart and will do what he says. He talked to four boys at his 
place, the record shop, about the fires at the Woodlawn Tavern. 

[Question :] Where did the cocktails come from? 

[Answer:] Well, this is how it all happened. Martin told me and Bernard he 
had molotov cocktails. So then the cops came to the basement of the Woodlawn 
Tavern before it burned and took some hot clothes, a record player and molotov 
cocktails. Martin was mad. He said he just made them. So he made some more 
the next day. He wanted me to help him. Bernard was helping him, but he called 
me sissy. He said, sissy get up, you ain't no brother. He said, you want to be 
like the white people. He said a scared man can't do nothing. I said I'll tell you 
what — a scared man could keep from going to jail, so I walked on out. The next 
thing I knew they stepped out with the molotov cocktails. Bernard threw the 
first one. Poppa opened the door and threw the second one — ^they were throwing 
like mad. They threw about 3 of them in there. 

[Question:] Then what happened? Who else was in Martin's store? 

[Answer:] Orville Gonzales. 

[Question :] Do you know who burned the place across the street, the Florida 
Food Market? 

[Answer:] Bernard burned that too. He came back and told me so. 

[Question :] Where and when did he tell you this? 

[Answer:] That night at Lemon and High Sts. He said that he burned it 
down that night. 

[Question :] Now, how about the Pine Grill? 

[Answer:] I don't know about that. Martin told me that he tried to, but they 
couldn't succeed. 

[Question :] What other places did they burn or loot? 

[Answer :] The bicycle shop and the gun shop on William Street. 

[Question :] Who got these? 

[Answer :] George Eli. 

[Question :] Where does he live? 

[Answer :] He is in jail now. 

[Question :] Who else was there? 

[Answer:] A boy named "Bo" who lives at 449 Monroe Street. 

[Question:] How do you know that these two were responsible for this 
looting? 

[Answer :] Because I was there. 

[Question :] How did they burn it? 



2014 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

[Answer:] They didn't actually burn it . . . they kicked the windows in. 
Then they ran in and took the guns. They heard the gun shoot and they thought 
it was the cops, but it was the man in the next shop that fired the shot, but 
they ran. 

[Question:] Do you know where they got the molotov cocktails in this 
instance? 

[Answer :] They didn't use the molotov cocktails here. 

[Question :] What did they do with the guns, and where are they now? 

[Answer :] I don't know. 

[Question:] Now, how about the liquor store across the street (Steinhart 
Liquor Store). Did you say that Martin was talking about burning it down. 

[Answer:] Yes. He was talking about that to Bernard. Bernard is really the 
ring leader. 

[Question :] Do you know of others that may be involved? 

[Answer :] If you wait for a while I could get the information. 

[Question:] Did you ever see Martin with other people that may be possibly 
Black Nationalists from out of town. What does Martin say he is? 

[Answer:] He says he's like Malcolm X. He has tried to get in contact with 
Martin Luther King. He wrote to him trying to bring him here, but Martin 
Luther King didn't come here. He then tried to get this fellow Carmichael to 
come here for the riots, at least that's what he said. 

[Question :] Was he disappointed when Martin Luther King didn't come? 

[Answer:] He didn't care much about Martin Luther King. The one he really 
wanted was Carmichael, although he wrote to Martin Luther King. You know 
if he couldn't get one, he wanted to get the other. 

[Question:] Do you know anything about the narcotic activity he is in- 
volved in ? 

[Answer:] I have seen this white "Gerry" in the store and he is selling a $5 
bag of marihuana in yellow paper bags. 

[Question :] What did Martin pay the kids to throw the bottles? 

[Answer:] He pays Bernard $50.00 or something like that. Then Bernard 
gives these other fellows a few dollars each when they throw the molotov 
cocktails. 

[Question :] Does Martin buy any merchandize [sic] from the addicts? 

[Answer :] He buys anything that they have .... hot stuff and all. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that this affidavit be accepted 
for the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. Without objection, the affidavit will be accepted for the 
record. 

(Document marked "Felicetta Exhibit No. 12" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Commissioner, Mr. Martin Sostre is the one who 
'operated bookstores ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir; that is right. 

Mr. IcHORD. Is he still operating stores ? 

Mr. Felicetpa. No, sir; he is in jail. 

Mr. IcHORD. He was arrested after the riots ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, he was, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. And charges are now pending against him? 

Mr. Felicetta. There is one charge pending against him, but he has 
been convicted on two or three counts in the same indictment as the one 
pending. 

Mr. IcHORD. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Counsel, how much longer will the hearing require? That was 
three bells. 

Mr. Smith. I have at least another half hour, maybe a little more. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Director, can you come here a moment ? 

(Discussion off' the record.) 

Mr. IciiOKD. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2015 

Mr. Watson will ^o make the rollcall, and as soon as he returns, I 
shall leave for the rollcall. 

(At this point Mr. Watson left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, can you give the committee any back- 
ground inforaiation on Maiiin Sostre? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir; I can, sir. 

Martin Gronzalez Sostre, also known as Martin X, Martin Ramirez, 
R-a-m-i-r-e-z, and Martin Santos, S-a-n-t-o-s, has been identified as a, 
former member of the Nation of Islam, also known as the Black 
Muslims. 

Sostre has a lengthy cnminal record dealing primarily with nar- 
cotics. He was bom on March 20, 1923, in New^ York City and is a 
Puerto Rican Negro. His mother, Crescinia, C-r-e-s-c-i-n-i-a, Gonzalez, 
now deceased, was of Puerto Rican extraction. 

He resided in New York City until his entrance into the United 
States Army in 1942. During his Army career, he \yas arrested for 
possession of and dealing in illegal narcotics. He received a dishonor- 
able discharge and has been confined almost continuously in various 
prisons since 1946. 

Sostre was released from prison when his sentence expired on Sep- 
tember 18, 1964; and after serving 30 days in the Erie County jail on a 
contempt of court charge, he decided to make his future in the city of 
Buffalo. 

He is considered a cured narcotics addict and has undergone treat- 
ment in the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Ken- 
tucky. 

Sources indicate that he became a Black Muslim in prison, but later 
left the Black Muslim movement. 

Sostre operated an Afro- Asian bookstore at 1412 Jefferson Avenue, 
Buffalo, and the other two that I testified to before. 

Mr. Smith. Do you have a copy of the arrest record of Martin 
Sostre? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, I have, sir. I have a copy of the arrest record. 
I have a photograph of the subject and this lengthy report, his record, 
of seven or eight pages.^ 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request this document be accepted for 
the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. The document will be accepted. 

(Document marked "Felicetta Exhibit No. 13" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Smith. Were other outside agitators observed in Buffalo during 
the disturbances? 

Mr. Felicetta. On July 2, 1967, State police stopped an Ohio 
car in East Aurora, which "is a town about 18 niiles south of Buffalo. 
Three young Negroes were in this car, who admitted being in Buffalo 
during the disturbances. They were Willie Shank, W-i-1-l-i-e 
S-h-a-n-k, Leroy Williams, and Michael I^e Early. 

I have here a report on this incident, where they were stopped 
by State Trooper Kron in an Ohio-licensed car 3384PF, and in the 
car were Willie Shank, age 19, of 539 South Euclid Street, Day- 



iThis record reveals that Mr. Sostre had been arrested on approximately eight occasions 
since 1944 and has spent approximately 16 years of his life in jail. Charges against Sostre 
included attempted grand larceny, disorderly conduct, sale and unlawful possession of 
narcotics, felonious assault with a knife, homicide, and contempt of court. 



2016 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

ton, Ohio; Leroy Williams, age 19, of 800 Dennison Street, Dayton; 
and Michael Lee Early, age 21, of 225 Huron Street, Dayton, Ohio. 
The above three admitted being in Buffalo during the disturbances. 
We sent a letter to the police in Dayton, the Buffalo Police Depart- 
ment did, and tliey sent back this reply : 

In response to your request, we are enclosing copies of the local records on 
the three subjects you were inquiring about. 

Although Willie Shank was the only one arrested in connection with our 
riot last Septemlber, all three subjects are well known to our Detective Section, 
and the opinion there, is that they are agitators and will foment trouble whenever 
the opportunity presents itself. 

I have here a copy of a report of arrest of "Willie Shanks," where he 
was arrested 6/15/67 in the investigation of inciting to riot in [Day- 
ton] Ohio and charged with disorderly conduct. And he was wath 
some other fellow^s there at the time. Then "Willie Shank, Jr.," again 
arrested September 1, 1966, inciting to riot and disorderly conduct. 
He has a very extensive record for a young man. I have copies of 
his criminal records here.^ I have a copy of a criminal record of Leroy 
Williams ^ and also of Michael Early ,^ and I have a picture of Willie 
Shank, Jr. 

This is quite a lengthy file. If you want me to go into it a little deeper 
than that 

Mr. Smith. I think it will be satisfactory if we accept the file for 
the record. 

Mr. Chairman, I make a request that we accept this documentation 
for the record. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, it will be admitted. 

(Documents marked "FelicetJta Exhibit No. 14" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, in a letter to this committee from the 
police department, city of Dayton, Ohio, dated June 6, 1968, the com- 
mittee is informed that on 2-7-68, Leroy Williams was arrested in 
Dayton on an armed robbery warrant and was convicted on a charge 
of breaking and entering, daytime, and that he was involved in the 
racial disturbance, in that city, of 9-20-67. 

He is now serving a sentence in the Ohio State Reformatory of 1 to 
5 years at Mansfield, Ohio. 

Mr. Chairman, in reference to the arrest of Willie Shank in Dajiion 
on June 15, 1967, I would like to state the following information for 
the record: Dayton, Ohio, was the scene of 2 nights of vandalism. 



1 The arrest records use the names "Shank" and "Shanks." His signature on another 
document, however, is "Willie Shank." The record also reveals he was observed in the act 
of fightinR andi attempting to get other persons to engage in disturbances. On .Tune 15. 

1967, Shank was involved in a racial disturbance in Da.vton and charged with disorderly 
conduct, fined $50 and costs, and sentenced to .30 days in iail. Both the .30 days' sentence 
and $25 of the .^50 fine were suspended, and he was committed to the Correction Farm to 
serve the remainder of his fine. According to a letter to the committee from the Dei>art- 
ment of Police, Cit.v of Dayton, Ohio, dated June 6, 1968, Shank had also been arrested 
in September 1966 during a racial disttirbance, and that case was disposed of in a similar 
manner to the above. The report also stated that Shank has an extensive record with that 
department as a .iuvenile offender. 

- Leroy Williams, according to the referenced Dayton Department of Police letter of 
June 6, 196S. has an pxtensi\(> iuvenile offender record. He was arrested on Feb. 7, 

1968, in Da.vton on an armed robbery warrant, which was reduced to breaking and enter- 
ing, daytime, for which he was tried, convicted, and sentenccfl on Feb. 29, 1968, to 1 
to 5 .vears, which he is now serving in the Ohio State Reformatory. The report stated he 
was involved in the Dayton racial disturbance of Sept. 20, 1967. but that no charges 
were filed against liim. 

3 The Dayton Department of Police reported no record of Michael Lee Early being in- 
volved in any racial disturbances in that city. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2017 

looting, and arson on June 14-15, 1967. Before order was restored, at 
least seven buildings had been damaged or destroyed. Damages were 
set at $125,000 to $150,000. Newspapers reported that 120 arrests had 
been made, many of them juveniles. Six people were injured, but no 
deaths were reported. 

The police and city officials placed the blame for the incidents di- 
rectly on H. Rap Brown. The new head of SNCC had been invited to 
speak in Dayton by W. Sumpter Mcintosh, organizer of a group called 
the Ohio Freedom Movement. Brown delivered an inflammatory black 
power speech at the Wesley Community Center on Wednesday eve- 
ning, June 14. It was over at about 9 :15. The first violence was reported 
by the police at 9 :30, 15 minutes later. A white man had been dragged 
from his car and beaten a few blocks from the center. 

According to reports of the speech, Brown had urged the crowd of 
about 200 to "take the pressure off Cincinnati."' The Cincinnati riot- 
ing was then in its 3d day. Brown is also reported to have told the 
Negro groups, "How can you be non-violent in America, the most 
violent country in the world ? You better shoot that man to death . . . 
That's what he has been doing to you." 

After this speech Brown's aide, Willie Ricks, told reporters that 
he had — Brown had — come to Dayton, "to make white men get on 
their knees.'' 

Jim Fain reported in the Dayton Daily News that the violence was 
not widespread and that it did not involve any appreciable segment 
of the Negro population. He said it was caused "by a few young peo- 
ple, operating as 'hit-and-run' squads, who had been whipped up 
earlier by an outsider, H. Rap Brown * * *." 

A youth patrol was organized and was credited with helping to 
quell the disturbance. No other triggering incident was reported. 

Now, Commissioner, since order was restored in Buffalo in the 
beginning of July 1967, have you had continuing or additional racial 
agitation and related incidents? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, the arrest of Martin Sostre; I would like to 
talk about that next. 

We began this investigation just a little before the middle of July of 
1967, where we knew that this man was actively involved in the sale 
of narcotics, and in cooperation with the State police and the Federal 
Bureau of Narcotics, a place was set up across the street from this 
bookstore from which photographs were taken of those persons who 
were going to this bookstore at 1412 Jefferson Avenue. 

I have the film here and, with your permission, I will leave it with 
the committee, provided I get it after you get what you want from it. 
I wish it would be returned to me because there is one case still pend- 
ing in court against Martin Sostre and his girl friend. 

Mr. Smith. Thank you. 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, Mr. Counsel, why don't you look over the ma- 
terial that he has and then see that it is returned. 

Mr. Smith. Right. We will do that. 

Mr. Felicetta. Anyway, after securing a search warrant on the 
evening of July 14 of "67, the premises were entered in the early 
morning of July 15, and Martin Sostre and his girl friend, Geraldine 
Robinson, were both arrested for possession and sale of narcotics and 
for assault upon police officers. 



2018 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Marked money used in the transaction — in both transactions, there 
were two of them — was found on him and on her. And the buy just 
prior to the time that the police went into the pLace to make the 
arrest was made bj^ an informant with marked money, plus a Negro 
State trooper that is not familiar to those living in Buffalo, and they 
were arraigned, they were charged, as I said, with possession of nar- 
cotics, sales of narcotics, and for assault upon a police officer. 

On July 17 they were both arraigned before a city court judge, 
and bail was set at $5,000 on the Robinson girl; and Sostre, because 
of a prior felony conviction, had to go to a court of record. 

From that point on, this became a most difficult case for the judge. 
I have an article here, Saturday, October 7, the Buffalo Evening Newfi, 
1967 [Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-A] : 

A defendant, accused of selling narcotics said in County Court Friday that 
he was "being legally lynched" and demanded to act as his own lawyer. 

Martin Sostre, operator of the Afro-Asian Rook store, 1412 Jefferson Ave., 
loudly protested to Judge Frederick M. Marshall — 

Who, incidentally, is a county court jvidge, which is a court of 
record — 

that "the lawyers have taken my money, my witnesses have been intimidated by 
your white goon squads, and you have refused to set a reasonable bail." 

Mr. Sostre, asked repeatedly by court attendants to lower his voice, refused 
to stop talking for nearly 10 minutes until Judge Marshall told him : "You've 
said enough." 

His answer was : 

"No, I haven't," the defendant argued, but later fell silent. Judge Marshall 
said he silenced Sostre because "you are saying things which may tend to 
prejudice your case." 

Sostre said : "I have made a surs'ey of all the inmates in the County Jail and 
none of them have $25,000 bail." 

It goes on to say : 

He is in jail on charges of selling narcotics on July 14 and 15. The bail orig- 
inally was $50,000 but was lowered to $25,000 by Judge Marshall. 

Sostre argued that his bail was set high because "you crackers are attempting 
to take revenge against me." 

He argued in court that the judges and police were trying to take revenge 
because "I was the only one distributing Socialist-orienated [sic]. Black Nation- 
alist literature when we tried to bum down the East Side." 

"But we're going to break up your world, Whitey, .so you'd better rot in that 
chair as long as you can," the defendant told Judge Marshall. 

The defendant appeared in court after writing a letter to Judge Marshall 
in which he requested permission to act as his own lawyer, relieving attorney 
Herald Price Fahringer. 

Herbert H. Blumberg, who appeared for Mr. Fahringer, told the court: 

"I believe that the records will show that we have received $400 from this 
defendant, most of it being paid by his associates. For this, I believe the records 
will show, we rendered considerable legal service." 

Judge Marshall assigned attorneys Joseph D. Mintz and Ray Ellis Green to 
help Mr. Sostre defend himself and set the trial for an indefinite date next 
week. 

The next article that I have here is 



Mr. IcHORD. ]Mr. Commissioner, at that point, the Chair will have 
to declare a brief recess in order to answer the rollcall. 

The committee will be in recess for a few minutes. 

(A^Hiereupon, at 11:27 a.m. the subcommittee recessed and recon- 
vened at 11 :55 a.m., with Representatives Ashbrook and Watson pres- 
ent at time of reconvening.) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2019 

Mr. AsHBROOK (presiding). The subcommittee will resume. 

Mr. Felicetta, we will continue with your testimony. 

Excuse the interruption, but you know how this is. 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. Thank you. 

An article in the Buffalo Evening News, Tuesday, October 10, 1967 
[Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-A], wherein "Sostre Wins Right For Re- 
view of Bail In Narcotics Case," and I don't believe it is necessary, 
unless you want me to, to go into detail, but I do want to bring out some 
quotes here, where Sostre asked the judge, Jacob A. Latona, who was a 
county court judge, now retired, he said : 

"I wish to request that you disqualify yourself . . . You are nothing but a 
racist bigot in judicial robes," the defendant told the judge. 

"Judge Marshall" — Excuse me. This is Judge Marshall I am talking 
about, not Judge Latona — 

Judge Marshall refused to disqualify himself. 

Sostre said the fact that "not one other person in Erie County Jail has $25,000 
bail . . . proves that you are using me as a scapegoat." 

Referring to the bail, Sostre told the court : "I wouldn't leave Buffalo. Buffalo 
is my home. I want to be here when Detroit comes to Buffalo." 

Judge Marshall said he refused the motion and he also refused a motion to 
change the venue of the trial. 

Sostre came before the judge seeking a bill of particulars as to the exact 
charges filed against him and the name of the police informant who allegedly 
bought marijuana from him in July. 

Judge Marshall granted his request for information but denied the request for 
a change of venue on the grounds that the request must be made to the Appellate 
Division in Rochester. 

On Monday, Febniary 26, 1968, the trial of Martin Sostre was sup- 
posed to commence, but it was temporarily adjourned, and at that time, 
during the calendar call, comedian Dick Gregory, who was in Buffalo 
on some other matter, came to the courtroom and he told newsmen that 
he was there to observe the Sostre proceedings at the request of Sostre's 
defense committee, who suggested he visit the court to take a look at 
the situation. 

Gregory said in the court that "police look for a scapegoat in every 
city in the country where there has been rioting." 

Gregory said that he suggested to Sostre's defense committee that 
they call in the United States Department of Justice to determine 
whether there had been any civil rights violations in this case. 

Gregory said if there is no satisfaction there, he will return to 
Buffalo later for meetings and rallies to inform the community of 
the type of proceedings that are going on. 

Gregory told newsmen that Sostre's bail was "excessive" and said 
this was "a very horrible case. It is important to focus nationwide 
attention on it to force the GoA-ernment's hand." 

Gregory said he had no idea when he might return to Buffalo for 
the rallies if the plea to the Justice Department failed, but said he 
planned to get in touch with Stokely Carmichael, the militant civil 
rights leader. 

On March 4, 1968, the trial of Martin Sostre began in Erie County 
court before Judge Frederick Marshall. 

Contrary to previous tactics of ranting and raving in the courtroom, 
Sostre told Judge Marshall that he refused to participate in what 
Sostre described as a legal lynching and Sostre made no attempt to 



2020 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

examine prospective juroi's or cross-examine any prosecution wit- 
nesses. 

At the conclusion of each prosecution witness' testimony, Sostre en- 
tered one blanket objection to their entire testimony and continued to 
repeat that he would not participate in this case and said, "I will sit 
here and read some of my papers, I have a lot of work tO' do here." 

The prosecution rested their case on March 5, 1968, and Sostre still 
had not cross-examined any witnesses. 

Sostre then told Judge Marshall that he had four witnesses he claims 
were in his place at the time of the sale of Exhibit No. 2, which is the 
exhibit that refers to this case, and that they will prove to the court 
that these proceedings are a sham. 

Judge Marshall then adjourned the case until March 7, giving 
Sostre time to produce his alleged witnesses. 

There were no witnesses, as there were not four individuals in the 
premises at the time of the purchase of Exhibit No. 2 as described by 
Sostre. 

During proceedings both days, the Martin Sostre Defense Com- 
mittee picketed the Erie County Courthouse with placards saying, 
"SOUTHERN JUSTICE— NORTHERN STYLET Another one, 
"Free Martin Sostre From This Legal Lynching," and there were 
others. (See Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-B, pages 2023, 2024.) 

Also during the proceedings the courtroom was filled to capacity, and 
many interested observers liad to be turned away at the cloor. A sub- 
stantial portion of the spectators was comprised of members of the 
Martin Sostre Defense Committee. Their names have already been 
given. 

During the first day of trial, as Sostre was being led from the court- 
room, members of his defense committee stood up in the courtroom 
and applauded as he was being led out by the sheriff's deputies. 

On the 2d day of the proceedings. Judge Marshall warned the spec- 
tators he would not put up with any more outbursts. 

Now, I have an article, again from the Buffalo Evening News, on 
March 5, 1968, wherein seven witnesses tell their part in the raid on 
Sostre's store. 

I could go into all of this, if you care to. I don't believe that it is too 
important. 

Mr. Smith. I think w^e can accept that later in the documents. 

Mr. Felicetta. Thank you very much. 

Sostre continued to refuse to cross-examine prosecution witnesses 
upon resumption of the trial. Sostre refused to place any defense into 
evidence with respect to his four alleged witnesses whom he said would 
prove his case to be a sham. 

Extensive investigation conducted by the attorneys assigned to rep- 
resent Sostre and by the Legal Aid Bureau failed to locate any such 
witnesses, and their efforts to locate same were placed into the court 
record. 

Sostre refused to make any summation to the jury and stood mute. 

The prosecution summed up, the jury was charged, and after de- 
liberating for slightly more than 1 hour, the jury returned a guilty 
verdict against Sostre on all three counts. Sentence was set for 
March 14. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2021 

As in the previous days of trial, the courtroom continued to be 
packed to capacity with members of the Martin Sostre Defense 
Committee. 

Due to anticipated trouble from his committee, the courtroom was 
also packed with armed policemen and deputy sheriffs, who were both 
in and out of uniform. This was at the request of the trial judge. 

Sostre, being led from the courtroom after his conviction, shouted to 
his friends, "Is anybody surprised? Don't forget, if it can happen to 
me it can happen to you," making reference to his previous allegation 
that he was being framed in this matter. 

There is still one count pending against Martin Sostre, I won't go 
into that, however. I don't want to prejudice that case. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Could I interrupt you ? 

You said sentencing was on March 14, but I didn't hear what you 
said his sentence was. 

Mr. Felicetta. He hasn't been sentenced yet. I will get into that, 
sir. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Oh. 

Mr. Felicetta. Prior to the impaneling of the jury, Sostre continued 
to harass Judge Marshall, calling him a biased judge. Sostre was told 
by Judge Marshall that if he made that unfounded remark once more, 
he would be cited for contempt of court. 

Sostre repeated the remark, and Judge Marshall then cited him for 
contempt of court and said that he would sentence Sostre on the con- 
tempt charge upon conclusion of the proceedings. 

He continued to make derogatory remarks and refused to observe 
Judge Marshall's instructions to conduct himself in accordance with 
the rules of criminal procedure. 

Upon Judge Marshall's orders, Sostre was gagged by court attend- 
ants. 

Prospective jurors were then brought into the courtroom and ex- 
amined. The gag was removed from Sostre, and he was allowed to ex- 
amine jurors. 

He spent the next couple of hours examining jurors, asking them 
questions regarding "the unlawful war in Vietnam," their views on 
open housing, whether or not they socialized with Negroes, whether or 
not they worked with them, and whether or not they lived with them. 

Sostre was cut short on most of his questions, and they were with- 
out a doubt objectionable under the law. 

Sostre told Judge Marshall the only way he could show the biased- 
ness on the part of the jurors was to bring out these questions. 

I have an article here, again from the [Bufalo Evening] News, 
March 12 ["Sostre to Dispute Felony Convictions At Sentencing," 
Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-A]. And honestly this is not premeditated. 
We have two newspapers in Buffalo, but it seems that the Neios is 
getting all the articles in here : 

Martin Sostre said Monday he will challenge the constitutionality of his March 
8 narcotics conviction and a similar 1952 conviction Thursday, when an Erie 
County judge is expected to sentence him. 

The move is expected to slow, but not halt, the sentencing of Sostre, 44, opera- 
tor of the Afro-Asian Bookstore, 1412 Jefferson Ave. 

The disclosure came as County Judge Frederick M. Marshall advised the de- 
fendant of his right to have a lawyer at sentencing. Sostre refused the court's offer 
as he has throughout the trial. 



2022 SUBVERSIVE INFLTJENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Judge Marshall also notified Sostre that he will be charged with the 1952 con- 
viction for sentencing purposes. The judge could levy a 291/2 to 30-year sentence 
for the heroin sale conviction and an additional 10-year sentence for the second- 
degree assault conviction if Sostre is adjudged a second felony offender. 

Sostre is expected to counter th.it the felony convictions reported against him 
were obtained in violation of his constitutional rights. The argument, if made, 
will be decided by Judge Marshall, who presided over the trial. 

Sostre was convicted Thursday in a jury trial on charges of selling heroin to a 
police informant last July 14, and slashing a policeman during a raid on the book- 
store on July 15. 

He also was convicted of possession of heroin. Sostre remained mute through- 
out the trial. 

On March 18, 1968, a hearing was resumed for the purpose of 
determining whether or not there was a 1952 conviction. 

On this date the jury reported they found Martin Sostre, defendant 
in this case, to be the same Martin Sostre that was convicted in Bronx 
County, New York, in 1952 for a felony narcotics charge and that 
he was a second-felony offender. 

Throughout the proceedings Sostre continued his usual courtroom 
antics, and upon the determination of the jury. Judge Marshall im- 
posed sentence. 

Judge Marshall stated that he rarely commented prior to a sen- 
tencing of a defendant but that he was going to make an exception 
in this case. He then stated, and I quote : 

Everybody knows from your actions in this court that you are a vicious 
and violent person and you are motivated by nothing more than hate. 

You have now been unmasked, defrocked and your plan to disrupt the jury sys- 
tem and pervert our laws has miserably failed. You are, plain and simply, a nar- 
cotics peddler and you have been preying upon your own people and the people 
of this community.^ 

Sostre was then sentenced as follows: Count 1, sale of narcotics, 
25 to 30 years; count 2, assault of a policeman, 5 to 10 years; count 
3, misdemeanor, possession of narcotics, 1 year ; contempt of court, 30 
days. 

Judge Marshall ordered the terms of imprisonment to run consecu- 
tively. 

No date had been set for the trial of Martin Sostre wdth respect 
to the other count in the indictment. 

Now, there was a young lady arrested, his girl friend. Martin Sostre's 
girl friend was arrested at the same time that he was, a girl by the 
name of Geraldine Robinson. 

I have her record here [Felicetta Exhibit No. 16]. I would be glad 
to leave it with the committee, but that case has not been tried as yet. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request the document be accepted for 
the committee files. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Without objection, it will be put in the record. 

Mr. Watson. Mr. Commissioner, did you say that this case has not 
come to trial against this woman ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Geraldine Robinson?. No, sir, it has not. 

Mr. Watson. Is there anything in the record that we have just 
inserted, or that information, that might prejudice her case ? 

Mr. Felicetta. No, sir. It is a record of her arrest, and it is the 
only arrest she has ever had. 



1 Buffalo Courier-Express, Mar. 19, 1968, p. 19. 



SUBVi^KSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2023 

Mr. Watson. Just for background, nothing relating to the present 
onarges against her ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Absohitely nothing, sir. 

Mr. Watson. All right. 

Mr. Smith. That is right. 

Have you completed? 

Mr. Chairman, I request that the documents and photographs the 
commissioner has used here be accepted for the record. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Without objection, they will be accepted and made a 
part of the record. 

(Documents concerning Sostre arrest and trial records and photo- 
graphs of picketers marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 15-A and B," 
respectively; arrest record of Geraldine Robinson marked "Felicetta 
Exhibit No. 16." Exhibits 15-A and 16 retained in committee files; 
Exhibit 15-B follows:) 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-B 
Pictures of March 5, 1968, picket line at Martin Sostre trial 




1. Karl Meller 2. Geraldine Robinson 3. Robin McCubbins 

4. Jeanette Merrill 5. Edward Merrill 6. Gerald Gross 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, has there been any relationship between 
Martin Sostre and Youth Against War and Fascism, in addition to 
the fact that Sostre's bookstore sold copies of the Workers World 
Party paper and the Youth Against War and Fascism magazine? 

Mr. Felicetta. As soon as Sostre was arrested, Youth Against War 
and Fascism immediately came to his defense, as did the Workers 
World Party, in their publications, and members of both groups 
picketed the police station in protest against the arrest of Sostre. 



2024 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 
Felicetta Exhibit No. 15-B — Continued 




1. Gerald Gross 



2. Edward Merrill 
5. Karl Meller 



3. Jeanette Merrill 4. Geraldine Robinson 
6. Robin McCubbins 



Among those on the piCKet line were Gerald Gross, Jeanette and 
Edward Merrill, and George Provost, mentioned earlier on another 
picket line, and one Kobin McCubbins, M-c-C-u-b-b-i-n-s. 

In addition, Gerald Gross, an organizer for Youth Against War 
and Fascism, appeared at Sostre's arraignment and offered to vouch 
for his good name so that he could be released without bail. The judge 
did not accept this offer. 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner, what defense apparatuses — did you have 
some documents? 

Mr. Felicetta. I have some of the copies of defense committee 
material. 

The Youth Against War and Fascism committee then formed a 
Martin Sostre Defense Committee, with the address as Post Office Box 
382, Ellicott Station, Buffalo., New York 14205. 

I have several copies of this paper. It is real long, and I will read 
any part of it, or I will 

Mr. Smith. Just use your own judgment in summarizing whatever 
you care to summarize. 

Mr. Felicetta. Well, we have a picture here in connection with this, 
which shows a group on February 17, 1968. They were demonstrating 
in front of the Erie County jail, where Sostre was being held, and 
amongst them are some of those whose names I have just mentioned. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2025 

I have here also a slinger that was distributed, focusing attention 
to the fact that there is going to be a demonstration on Saturday, 
February 17, 1968, at 12 noon to 2 p.m. : 

Demonstration begins at Erie County Jail (10 Delaware Avenue) at 12 noon, 
followed by a marcb to the Federal Court Building (Niagara Square), and will 
culminate with a street meeting at Lafayette Square. 

Spmisors: students for a democratic society, youth against war and fascism, 
student mobilization, resistance 

I would like to read some of this, with your permission. 

It is headed in bold print: "RESIST THE GOV'T. REPRES- 
SIONS! ! support: dr. spock, rap brown, ferber, sostre!" 

The Ferber mentioned here is Michael Ferber, who was a Buf- 
f alonian who was recently convicted in Boston. 

Mr. Smith. On what charge? 

Mr. Felicetta. He was convicted for burning draft cards, or con- 
spiracy to burn draft cards. 

Mr. Smith. All right. 

Mr. Felicetta. And it goes on : 

As the U.S. Government expands its warfare against the peasant guerrillas 
of Indo-China, spreading its murderous bombings to Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, 
Burma, and China, the national liberation movements of the Asian peoples have 
hit back hard, winning victory after victory. Simultaneous with its war escala- 
tion, the U.S. war-makers have attempted to intimidate the anti-war movement 
by escalating its repressions against it. The movement must now take the of- 
fensive and fight back against all state originated repressions. Like the Asian 
people are doing, we must hit back hard and win victory for our movement. 

They have got, '■''Johnson — War Criminal^ Spook — HvmmnitaTiarC'' : 

Recently, the U.S. Government indicted Dr. Benjamin Spock, pediatrician 
and world-famous author, Michael Ferber (of Buffalo), graduate student at 
Harvard University and others of "conspiring to counsel against the draft." This 
attempt to deprive leaders of the anti-war movement of their constitutional rights 
of protest is actually a move to cover the war crimes of the U.S. Government. 
The Johnson Administration stands condemned before world opinion for its war 
crimes against the Vietnamese people ; ill-treatment or deportation of civilian 
population, murder or ill treatment of prisoners of war, wanton destruction of 
cities, towns, and villages — in violation of the Nuremberg Tribunal, Johnson 
criminally has Metnamese babies deformed by napalm, while Spock, baby-doctor 
hero of thousands of American mothers, seeks to end this mass murder. 

A heading now, '■'• Black Liberation Fighters Attacked'''^ : 

The Afro-American people have long demanded social justice from the white 
power structure of the U.S. Their appeals have been met with terror, lynch-mobs, 
police savagery, frame-ups, and sadistic killings. Now their most outspoken lead- 
ers have either been killed (Malcolm X, Medgar Evers) or exiled (Paul Robeson, 
Robert F. Williams) or framed (Le Roi Jones, Rap Brown, Max Stanford, etc.) 
In Buffalo, Martin Sostre — owner of the Afro-Asian Bookstore and outspoken 
anti-war critic and Black liberation fighter — was brutally beaten, framed and 
his store smashed in the summer of 1967. He is still being held a prisoner in 
Erie County Jail. The anti-war movement must support these brave liberation 
fighters for Black self-determination \^'ithout reservation ! 

Another heading, '•''Escalate Anti-War Agitation^ Militant Resist- 
ance'''' : 

It is clear that the best way to fight back against repression is for the move- 
ment to e.scalate its activity. We must not only show explicit support to victims 
of rei)ression, but must continue the mass struggle against the war in the streets. 
We must continue and increase our efforts to galvinize [sic] and mobilize the 
anti-war sentiments of the people by street demonstrations, anti-war street meet- 
ings, and acts of military resistance at induction centers. 



2026 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

9 

Mr. Smith. If I may interrupt one moment, Commissioner, did I 
hear you correctly, that they were charging that Sostre had been bru- 
tally beaten 'I 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Apparently by the jwlice? Is that the implication? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Was that true? 

Mr. Felicetta. The opposite is true. He assaulted four police offi- 
cers that went in to make the arrest with a legal search warrant. 

And the officers knew ahead of time that they were going to be faced 
with this situation, because this man is known as a very, very vicious 
individual. 

Mr. Smith. And they used only the necessary restraint to prevent 
the assault ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Tliat is correct, sir. 

The defense committee, on April 15, 1968, sent out another slinger, 
which says : 

For over eight long months, Martin Sostre — courageous Black liberation 
fighter — was held in Erie County Jail, a victim of Buffalo's racist, white power 
structure and scapegoat for the '67 Black uprising in Buffalo. 

On March 5, 1968, Martin Sostre was forced to trial without the benefit of his 
four witnesses. After 3 days of kangaroo justice, his sham frame-up trial ended 
and he was convicted. On March 18, he was sentenced to a maximum of J^l years 
and SO days at Attica State Prison (30 miles from Buffalo). AVithin one half 
hour after his sentencing, he was rushed to Attica Prison, but at 7 :30 A.M. the 
following morning, he was transferred to Green Haven State Prison at Stonn- 
ville. New York (about 400 miles from Buffalo) I This is an obvious attempt to 
isolate him from his community, his friends and his sui>i>orters ! 

Martin Sostre did not si>end his last days in Erie County Jail resigned to 
the legal lynching prepared by the racist hangmen ! Instead he was busy pre- 
paring his application for a Certificate of Reasonable Doubt (for appeal bond) 
which, by the way, the petty officials have to this day — almost one month later — 
prevented him from mailing (their excuse being that money and stamps be- 
longing to Martin have not been sent to Green Haven Prison from Attica Prison 
where Martin had stayed overnight) ! 

Among Martin's last wishes before he was convicted and sentenced was that 
in addition to continuing the struggle against racism and militarism, that an 
Afro-Asian Bookstorc-in-Exilc be established to carrj^ on the struggle for which 
he had fought so courageously. An Afro-Asian Bookstore-in-Exile — with 
periodic bookfairs at U.B and other places — he felt would serve not only to 
lieep the sitmggle against frame-ups and kangarooism alive, since once he got 
sentenced and sent to prison, there would be a tendency for people to forget 
the case due to lack of publicity in the local press. In addition, it would serve 
as an outlet for revolutionary. Black liberation literature and anti-fascist litera- 
ture condemning racism and militarism. Too, he felt it would serve as a fund- 
raising vehicle to finance the cost of his appeal and the functioning and activities 
of his Defense Committee. 

Official notice of appeal has been filed by Martin's appeal attorney, Mr. Clar- 
ence M. Maloney, a prominent Black attorney. The Martin Sostre Defense Com- 
mittee has retained Mr. Maloney, and efforts are now under way to prepare the 
necessary legal documents for appeal. 

Your help is urgently needed. Funds for costly appeal preparation, legal fees, 
necessary trips back and forth from Buffalo to Green Haven Prison by INIr. 
Sostre's attorney for necessary consultation in preparing the appeal brief, for 
subscriptions to local and national newspai)ers for Martin so that he will not 
be isolated from world events which are moving at such a rapid pace, for food 
packages to Martin (he is allowed only one 15-lb. package each month), for 
the trial costs for Martin Sostre's co-defendant, I\Ir.s. Geraldine Robinson, whose 
trial is yet to come (MSDC has retained Mr. Maloney to represent Mrs. Robinson 
also), etc., etc., etc. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN KIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2027 

HELP THE DEFENSE COMMITTEE IN ITS STRUGGLE TO FREE 
MARTIN SOSTRE! THE STRUGGLE IS NOT YET OVER; IT HAS 
REALLY JUST BEGUN, AND WILL CONTINUE UNTIL MARTIN 
SOSTRE IS FREE! 

DON'T LET MARTIN SOSTRE LANGUISH AND ROT IN RACIST 
AMERICAS JAILS! DON'T LET THE 400 MILES BETWEEN HIM AND 
US BE AN EXCUSE FOR INACTIVITY AND APATHY! 

MARTIN SOSTRE'S CONVICTION AND VICIOUS SENTENCE MUST 
BE PROTESTED! 41 YEARS AND 30 DAYS IS "LIFE" NO MATTER 
HOW YOU PUT IT!! HELP BY REDEDI GATING YOURSELF TO GIVE 
REVOLUTIONARY AID AND ASSISTANCE TO ALL BLACK LIBERA- 
TIOX LEADERS— LIKE MARTI X SOSTRE— WHO ARE FRAMED IN 
THEIR REBELLION AGAINST OPPRESSION! 

THE CASE OF MARTIN SOSTRE IS ONE OF A CHAIN OF FRAME- 
UPS AGAINST MILITANT AND COURAGEOUS BLACK LEADERS 
THROUGHOUT THIS COUNTRY. EXTEND YOUR HAND IN SOLIDAR- 
ITY AND SUPPORT ACROSS THE MANY MILES! HELP FREE 
MARTIN SOSTRE BY SUPPORTING THE ACTIVITIES SPONORED BY 
HIS DEFENSE COMMITTEE. GIVE GENEROUSLY TO THE MARTIN 
SOSTRE DEFENSE FUND ! REMEMBER : ANY AMOUNT THAT YOU GIVE 
IS SMALL IN COMPARISON TO THE PRICE THAT MARTIN HAS AL- 
READY PAID ! 
DID YOU KNOW? 

— that Martin Sostre while an inmate at Afctioa Prison some years ago was 
mainly responsible for all the legal work that resulted in the Muslims' 
right to worship inside the prison walls. 
— that during Martin's recent sham trial, he was ordered physically gagged 
with a towel by Judge Frederick M. Marshall whom Martin had referred 
to as a "biased judge." In a recent meeting before the Western New York 
Section, Society of Colonial Wars and two other ultra-conservative or- 
ganizations, Marshall stated that he was "sick and tired of the long hairs, 
beatniks, the ultra-liberals, the unwashed, the exhibitionists." He con- 
tinued, "And I despise their marching, their singing, their bleating, rabble- 
rousing, placard-carrying and card burning." * * * it seems very clear 
to us that these utterances reek of the very bias, hate and contempt for 
anything progressive that Martin saw so clearly in Marshall. 

I would like to say that 

Mr. Smith. IVIr. Chairman, I request that these documents be ac- 
cepted for the record. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Without objection, they will be received in the 
record. 

(Documents and photoo;raph marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 17-A 
and R," respectively. Portions of Exhibit 17-A and Exhibit 17-B 
appear on pages 2028-2031.) 

Mr. Felicetta. I would like to make one comment regarding this 
most difficult trial that Judge Marshall went through. 

He leaned backwards to make certain that that man's constitutional 
rights were protected in every instance. 

And this man Avas there for only one reason : to disrupt this system. 
And because of this Judge Marshall became ill. It was a very, very, 
most difficult case to try. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at tliis time, I request the committee 
stand in recess until after lunch, when we will continue with testimony. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The commissioner Avill be back at that time? We have 
some questions. 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir. He will resume his testimony at that time. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The committee will stand in recess until 2 p.m. 

(A^Hiereupon, at 12 :25 p.m., Thursday, June 20, 1968, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 



2028 .SUBVIOKrtlVIO INM.mONCIOS IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Im'.i ici r lA I'.xiiiitri No. 17 A 

RBSiST THE GOV'T, 
RCnESSiONSff 

SQppott: df. $poek, t$p btown, fetbeh sostte! 

Fl i':ht Bi>ck Al^■l1,l■l".t l^oproaqlona 

As tho II. o. novorn.riont ©xp.'inrlij Itn wirfnro a ■niimt thn peos.int 
r;u9rrillon of Iiido-China, (jpre'i'Htic; ih.T mur'lorou'j bombjri'';.'? l,o Thailand, Lnon, 
Sui.lbodln, Bui-mii, ami China, tlio national liberation .lovoiiipnt? nf tlip ■'\sian 
i.eonlfn h.ivo hit bacli hard, wiiiiiini' victory aitur victory. Timultoneouo with 
it"i WTr oon.'vl'ition, tho U. S. w.ir-rankora h\\'i nttemptefl to! i ntiraidate the 
.■int:l -'.v;ir movomnnt by ©aoalatinp; itn rooroaaions U|,ainat it. Tho movoment 
must now tnko the offonnivp und f U^ht back againet all state oric'iiiatod ro- 
proOiiionpi. M)to tho Aninn (;<'0|lo ■iri- doliif, wc r.iURt hit bade hard and win 
victory for our inovt^rmnt . 

Johnnon -- War Criminal , Spoclt — Humanitarian 

Rpooiitly , tho U. S. Oovornmi«nt indicted Hr. i^en.lnrnin ^pock, podi- 
atrioiun uid world-famoua nuthor, IHchiel Ferber (of Buffalo), (graduate stu- 
dent "it Harvard Univcraity and othcrn of "conopirimr to counool aftninct tha 
drHft." Thio attom'it to derrivo loadora of th» anti-war raovonent of their 
oonfltitMtion«l ri hta of protest in actually a move to cover the vjar cri.noa 
of thi; n. S. Oovornmont. Tht; Johnaon Ad'tiinl (jtr i tion standi; condemned before 
world opinion for ito war crimen a c ; 1 'i r; t tho Viotnaniose •loonle: ill-trcatnent 
or deportation of civilian ponnl-xtion, murder or 111 treatment of priaonoro of 
war, wanton doHtruction of cltlen, to','n«, and villa/res — in viol.ition of the 
N'lirombori; Tribunal . Johnnon orlmlnnTly has; Vietnumoae bnbiea deformed by nu- 
rialm, while Suock, baby-doct r h«ro of th.Mifiand:- of Amorioan mothern, seeki to 
ml llii:i mans murder. 

Black Liberation j'ifthtura At backed 

Thii ACro-Amorionn people have lon;r demanded social .ju-itice from the 
whilto power structuro of tho U. 3. Their appeals have been met with terror, 
lynch-mobs, polioo nnvacnry, fraiiifl-ups, and aadi.Ttic killlnpe. Now their moat 
outtipokon loadora havo either been killed (Ilulcolra X, Modgar avera) or exiled 
(I'aui l^obo.ion, Kohart F. 'Mlliama) or frai,\od (LoHoi Jonea, Hap Brown, Max Stan- 
ford, etc.) Ill Buffalo, Martin ooetro -- owner of tlie Afro-Aaian Bookatore and 
outnjiokon anti-wnr critic and Black libor.ition fij^htor — waa brutally beaten, 
frnmpd and bin atoro umanhod In the r.unmor of 196?. He ia atill boliir held a 
nriaonpr in ISr'e County Jail. Tho anti-war movoMent muat aupport those brave 
liberition fightora for 'Hack sol f-dotormination without reaorvation! 

Kacalato Anti - War Agitation . Militant Roaiataiiee 

It iii clear that tlic bof)t way to fljJiht back ai'-aiust ronreHoion is 
for tho movomi;nt to escalate it.s activity, '.'o mu.st not only ahow explicit 
ounport to victims of roproursion , but muat continue the masa atruftf^le a/^ainat 
the war in tho otroets. Jo mur.t continue and increnoo our offorta to galvin- 
izo and mobiliKo tho anti-war :iontimont!i of the people by otreet deraonatrationa , 
anti-war atroot moot inj-ri, aiui ,u-t;: n r ;;il\t, uit nv.-i ;:tance ..it induction contera. 

protest iriDICT>iF:t!TS OF STOCK, RAP BUO'^N , FijRBEiJ , S0ST:<E AND OTIUjlW! 

demand IMJIHUIATS and UNCONDTTHXIAI., '-.'TrHPWA .'AL of ^LL U. S. THOQP:; FUOM VliSTNAll I 

demonsh^t^ Saturday, february 17 , 12 noon - 2p.m. 

Kciu'u ai-a t I on boi;!na at ;',r1i' Jouiity Jail (lu Dolawaro Avonue) at 1..' noon, 
followed by a march to tho Fodoral Court 'luildinn (Niar.ara Squ.iro), and 
will c\iiminato with a al.root mo(>l:ini'; at Lafayotte iiquare. 

aponf'Ors : aludont.'i for a domocratic oociety, youth aKalnnt war and faacir.m, 
atudont mobiliaatlou, roaiatance 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2029 



A 
I! 
T 
I 
N 

S 


S 
I 

n," 

R 
E 



Fki.ICK.I TA l'",\iii»i I No. 17 A ('onliiiucd 

DEFENSE COMMIITEE 

p.o, box 382 ellicott station 
buffalo f new york 1^205 



April 15', 1968 

For ovor eight long months, Martin Sootre -- courageous 
Black liberation fighter -- was hold in Erie County Jail, a victim 
of Buffalo's racist, white power structure! and scapegoat for the '6? 
Black uprising in Buffalo. 

On March 5, 1968, Martin Sostre was forced to trial with- 
out the benefit of hie four witnesses. After 3 days of kangaroo jus- 
tice, his sham frame-up trial ended and he was convicted. On March 1? 
he was sentenced to a maximum of k\ years and 30 days at Attica State 
Prison (50 miles from Buffalo). Within one half hour after hia sen- 
tencing, he was rushed to Attica Prison, but at 75 30 A. M. the fol- 
lowing morning, he was transferred to Green Haven State Prison at 
Stormville, New York (about ^tOO miles from Buffalo)! This is an ob- 
vious attempt to isolate him from his community, hia friends and hia 
supporters! 

Martin Sostre did not spend his last days in Erie County 
Jail resigned to the legal lynching prepared by the racist hangmen! 
Instead he was busy preparing his application for a Certificate of 
Reasonable Doubt (for appeal bond) which, by the way,, the petty of- 
ficials have to this day -- almost one month later -- prevented him 
from mailing (their excuse being that money and stamps belonging to 
Martin had not been sent to Green Haven Prison from Attica Prison 
where Martin had stayed overnight)! 

Among Martin's last wishes before he was convicted and sen- 
tenced was that in addition to continuing the struggle against racism 
and militarism, that an Afro-Asian Bookstore-in-Exile be established 
to carry 'on the struggle for which he had fought so courageously. 
An Afro-Asian Bookstore-in-Exile -- with periodic bookfairs at U. B 
and other places -- he felt would serve not only to keep the struggle 
against frame-ups &nd kangarooism alive, since once he got sentenced 
and sent to prison, there would be a tendency for people to forget 
the case, due to lack of publicity in the local press. In addition, 
it would serve as an outlet for revolutionary. Black liberation li- 
terature and anti-fascist literature condemning racism and militarism. 
Too, he felt it would serve as a fund-raising vehicle to finance the 
cost of his appeal and the functioning and activities of his Defense 
Committee. 

Official notice of appeal has been filed by Martin's appeal 
attorney, Mr. Clarence M. Maloney,a prominent Black attorney. The 
Martin Sostre Defense Committee has retained Mr. Maloney, and efforts 
are now underway to prepare the necessary legal documents for appeal. 

( con t ' d . ) 



2030 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Felicetta Exhibit No. 17-A — Continued 

Your help is urgently needed . Funds for costly appeal prepara- 
tion, legal fees, necessary trips back and forth from Buffalo to Green 
Haven Prison by Mr. Sostre's attorney for necessary consultation in pre- 
paring the appeal brief, for subscriptions to local and national newspapers 
for Martin so that he will not be isolated from world events which are 
moving at such a rapid pace, for food packages to Martin (he is allowed 
only one- 15 lb. package each month), for the trial costs for Martin Sostre's 
co-defendant, Mrs. Geraldine Robinson, whose trial is yet to come (MSDC 
has retained Mr. Maloney to represent Mrs. Robinson also), etc. etc., etc. 

HELP THE DEFENSE COMMITTEE IN ITS STRUGGLE TO FREE MARTIN SOSTRE! 
THE STRUGGLE IS NOT YET OVER; IT HAS REALLY JUST BEGUN, AND WILL CONTINUE 
UNTIL MARTIN SOSTRE IS FREE! 

DON'T LET MARTIN SOSTRE LANGUISH AND ROT IN RACIST AMERICA'S 
JAILS! DON'T LET THE 400 MILES BETWEEN HIM AND US BE AN EXCUSE FOR INAC- 
TIVITY AND APATHY! 

MARTIN SOSTRE'S CONVICTION AND VICIOUS SENTENCE MUST BE PROTESTED! 
kl YEARS AND 30 DAYS IS "LIFE" NO MATTER HOW YOU PUT IT!! HELP BY REDEDI- 
CATING YOURSELF TO GIVE RETOLUTIONARY AID AND ASSISTANCE TO ALL BLACK LIBE- 
RATION LEADERS — LIKE MARTIN SOSTRE -- WHO ARE FRAMED IN THEIR REBELLION 
AGAINST OPPRESSION! 

THE CASE OF MARTIN SOSTRE IS ONE OF A CHAIN OF FRAME-UPS AGAINST 
MILIT'ANT AND COURAGEOUS BLACK LEADERS THROUGHOUT THIS COUNTRY. EXTEND YOUR 
HAND IN SOLIDARITY AND SUPPORT ACROSS THE MANY MILES! HELP FREE MARTIN 
SOSTRE BY SUPPORTING THE ACTIVITIES SPONSORED BY HIS DEFENSE COMMITTEE. 
GIVE GENEROUSLY TO THE MARTIN SOSTRE DEFENSE FUND! REMEMBER: ANY AMOUNT 
THAT YOU GIVE IS SMALL IN COMPARISON TO THE PRICE THAT MARTIN HAS ALREADY 
PAID! 



DID YOU KNOW? 



that Martin Sostre while an inmate at Attica Prison some years ago 
was mainly responsible for all the legal work that resulted in the 
Muslims' right to worship inside the prison walls. 

that during Martin's recent sham trial, he was ordered physically 
gagged with a towel by Judge Frederick M. Marshall whom Martin had 
referred to as a "biased judge." In a recent meeting before the 
Western New York Section, Society of Colonial Wars and two other 
ultra-conservative organizations, Marshall stated that he was "sick 
and tired of the long hairs, beatniks, the ultra-liberals, the un- 
washed, the exhibitionists." He continued, "And I despise their 
marching, their singing, their bleating, rabble-rousing, placard- 
carrying and card burning." (Buffalo Evening News, 4-5-68) It 
seems very clear to us that these utterances reek of the very bias, 
hate and contempt for anything progressive that Martin saw so 
clearly in MarshaHl. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2031 
Felicetta Exhibit No. 17-B 




Demonstrations at Erie County jail, 10 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, New York, 

February 17, 1968 



AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, JUNE 20, 1968 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:30 p.m., Hon. John M. Ash- 
brook presiding.) 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The subcommittee will come to order to continue 
with the testimony of Police Commissioner Felicetta of Buffalo. 

Thank you for returning. 

Mr. Felicetta, Thank you. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Counsel, do you have further questions? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK N. FELICETTA— Resumed 

Mr. Smith. Commissioner Felicetta, at this morning's session you 
made mention that certain persons were members of SNCC. Does 
SNCC have a chapter in Buffalo and, if so, do you have any informa- 
tion on it? 

Mr. Felicetta. We have some confidential information that George 
Harris is now chairman of the Buffalo branch of SNCC and that 
Frederick Hudson, who was referred to in this morning's testimony, 
will be program chairman of SNCC. 



2032 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

During the disturbances in 19()7, both of these people were working 
for VISTA, and then, also during the disturbances, as I testified, 
Frederick Hudson was arrested and later discharged. 

Additionally, I have a report here from Floyd J. Edwards, who 
at the time that this report w\as written, which is August 1, 1967, was 
an assistant chief of detectives. Since that time he has been promoted, 
by virtue of his standing on his civil service list, to the rank of captain. 

I will read his report: 

On 7-18-67, I spoke to a group of young Negroes at the JFK Community 
Center on Clinton St. The main speaker at this meeting was a young Negro, 
about 25 yrs. named John Wilson, the fund raising chairman (National) for 
SNOC. He is from Chicago, Illinois. His whole approach was one of hate and to 
appeal to the worsit in the young audience. 

He impressed upon the kids that the black men in America don't want inte- 
gration, we want our own, now . . . He insulted all white people in the audience 
and called Dean Rusk a "Hunkey Fool" 

Mr. AsHBROOK. A What ? 
Mr. Felicetta. Hunkey fool. 

— Robert McNamara, a hunkey warmonger. He appealed to the Negro boys to 
refuse ito serve in the armed services. He told all, that the Negro doesn't need 
whitey conservatives, or liberals, ours is a black man's problem and the black 
man s^hould solve it alone, by taking what we want. 

I also have here a copy of The Spectrum^ dated February 20, 1968, 
which is the newspaper at the State University of New York at Buf- 
falo, which contains the information that was in a leaflet that I pre- 
sented this morning regarding the protest when Dr. Spock and 
Michael Ferber were indicted, and also it makes mention of: 

"In Buffalo, Martin Sostre . . . was brutally beaten, framed and his store 
smashed. * * * The anti-war movement must support these brave liberation 
fighters for Black self-determination without reservation." 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that these documents be ac- 
cepted for the record. 

Mr. AsiiBRooK. They will be received for the record. 

(Documents marked "Felicetta Exhibits Nos. 18 and 19,"' respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Proceed. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, at this point I w^ould like to read into 
the record the following information on John Wilson, based on mate- 
rial in the committee's files : 

John A. Wilson was born on September 29, 1943, in Baltimore, Maryland. He 
has been active in militant Negro organizations since he was a student at Mary- 
land State College, Princess Anne, Maryland, and served as chairman of the 
Student Appeal for Equality at that college in 1904. 

In 1964, John Wilson was one of six Individuals who met in Chester, Pennsyl- 
vania, and formed the militant Negro organization called ACT. (This organiza- 
tion, ACT, has been described in part 1, pages 917, 91S. of this committee's 
hearings on this subject.) 

Wilson has been an active member of SNCC for the past several years and has 
served that organizatidn as its New York field organizer. He has also been cited 
as a national spokesman for SNCC. 

John Wilson was one of a group of Americans who visited with representatives 
of the National Liberation Front and North Vietnam in Bratislava, Czecho- 
slovakia, last summer. 

When he returned, Wilson served as cochairman of the National ^Mobilization 
Committee To End the War in Vietnam, which organized the march on the 
Pentagon on October 21-22, 19G7. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2033 

In late January 1968, the National Black Anti-War Anti-Draft Union was 
formed. John Wilson was elected its national chairman. 

Commissioner, have there been any further disturbances in Buffalo 
since the one that be^aii on June 27 through 30, 1967^ 

Mr. Felicetta. The only other one worth while mentioning was a 
little trouble that we had on A])ril (> of this year. It only lasted 
1 night, where a group of yomigsters were given permission to con- 
duct a prayer service in the downtown area, and after they broke up 
and headed towards their neighborhoods again, they proceeded to 
break some windows along our main street. It lasted 1 day. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, this concludes the staff interrogation of 
Commissioner Felicetta. 

Mr. AsiiBRooK. Thank you, Mr. Counsel. 

I was interested in at least one point that I thought might be ex- 
panded, if you have the facts at your command right now. 

You made reference to instructions in Molotov cocktails. We have 
had tliis come up at various hearings, various aspects of the riot situa- 
tion in various cities. We have had it in Harlem ; we had it in Newark, 
New Jersey. 

Could you tell us the extent to which this was involved in the move- 
ment in Buffalo, the advocacy and the instructions in the use of 
Molotov cocktails^ 

While they have not been used yet, it has been our experience where 
there is exhortation to violence, sooner or later it follows. And if we 
have a pattern throughout the country of advocating the use of such 
devices and instruction in their use, it is our fear that sooner or later 
we might have these very dangerous, destructive items used. 

Different than guns, that we are talking about now^, this would 
really be something that could develop into terrorism, so anything 
that you could add to the record would be most helpful at this point. 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

In talking to — I read a report attributed to one of the voungsters 
who was involved in throwing some of these Molotov cocktails, and 
he was asked how this came a1x)ut and he stated that it was customary 
for the kids to secure gasoline by going to the gas pumps after the gas 
stations were closed and draining the hoses, because there is always a 
certain amount of it in the hose after the mechanism is shut off. 

He also said that because the gas stations wouldn't sell gasoline in 
containers during these times, that their friends would fill their tanks 
with gas, and these kids would drain it from the tank. 

He also said that they would pick up bottles, preferably pint bottles, 
and fill the contents with gasoline and put some sort of a wick-— it 
could be rope or it could be multiple strands of string — and seal it with 
vaseline or grease, light it, and throw it. 

Off the record for 1 second, please. 

(Discussion oft' the record.) 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I w^ould see no reason w^hy that shouldn't be on the 
record. 

If you want to, proceed and summarize that for the record. 

Mr. Felicetta. All right. 

Information has reached us that a new substitute for Molotov cock- 
tails is now being used, and it is referred to by many names, but one 
of the names that I know it by is "traveling jelly." 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Traveling jelly ? 



2034 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. Felicetta. Traveling jelly. It is, as I understand it, a plastic 
container to be held in the hand with two or three chemicals, separated 
by plastic, in the container, and one of them, I understand, is a metal. 
And just as soon as the separators or the case is fractured or cracked, 
a chemical reaction takes place when these substances mix and they 
burn violently. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Going back to what you said earlier in your state- 
ment, there were actual instances, then, of Molotov cocktails being 
thrown ? 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, there were. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I take it they were directed at buildings, rather than 
at groups of people. 

Mr. Felicetta. That is correct. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. In this case, used as fire bombs ? 

Mr. Felicetta. That is correct. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Further on this same matter, because it is of some 
interest, we see it everywhere, and, of course, it is the type of thing 
we don't see great evidence of now, but as long as they are talking about 
it, preparing for it, and exhorting the use, we must figure that sooner 
or later it will be used, as with Molotov cocktails. You have given us 
a statement that they were used in some instances. 

Do you have any record of dynamite being used in any instance? 

Mr. Felicetta. No, sir, we do not. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Well, Mr. Commissioner, we have another vote over 
there. 

I am wondering if you have any general statement you would like to 
make in concluding your very fine and illuminating testimony. 

Mr. Felicetta. Yes, sir, I do have. 

Because I felt that you would ask me this question, I prepared some- 
thing while I was having a bite to eat. 

I have traveled all over this countiy, attending conferences and 
seminars on civil disturbances in the last couple of years, and many 
police departments throughout the country seem to have similar prob- 
lems. 

Groups which advocate the destruction of our society have been 
making the police their major target. 

We become natural enemies because of the fact that we are called 
upon when these civil disturbances take place, and we don't move in 
by choice ; we must move in because this is our job. So, because we are 
present there, we become the natural enemy. 

Since many of these organizations cross State lines, perhaps the 
Federal Government could provide the legal tools to cope with these 
activities. Their directions must be reversed. 

That's all I have to say on that statement. 

A closing statement, however, Mr. Chairman : I came to Washington 
here yesterday afternoon and I met with Herb Romerstein, and around 
7 o'clock last night I came to the office adjoining this hearing room, 
wherein I met Director Francis McNamara and your general counsel, 
Chet Smith. 

Oftentimes, those of us who have staff don't realize that they are 
dedicated people. Maybe you don't know how dedicated these people 
are, but I want to say this, and it may be a little embarrassing to those 
that are going to hear me say this. I stayed here until about 1 :30 this 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2035 

morning with these three gentemen that I just mentioned, preparing 
the testimony that was going to be given here this morning. 

Mr. Romerstein and myself left here, and we went to my hotel room, 
where we worked another hour in getting everj^hing shaped up so 
that we could do it with not too much waste of time. 

And I certainly want to thank them for being so generous to me, 
being so kind, and they made my stay here a very, very happy one. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Commissioner Felicetta, I certainly appreciate your 
kind comments for the men who work behind the scenes — quite often, 
as you point out, without a great amount of glory and quite a bit of 
condemnation by unthinking people — for this committee. 

We have recognized this for a long time and we are glad that you 
do, and as far as your testimony is concerned, I want to thank you for 
coming to Washington to testify in these hearings. 

It is obvious that you have done a lot of careful work in the prepara- 
tion for your appearance here, and the committee is very grateful for 
that. It will be veiy obvious in the printed record. 

I would point out that we will bring the printed record to the atten- 
tion of other Members of this body, so you have added to the permanent 
record of facts that we are compiling regarding this very serious prob- 
lem in our country. 

These facts that 3'ou have cited make it clear that subversive elements 
are and have been at work in Buffalo in the area of racial agitation 
prior to, during, and since the riot which took place at the end of last 
June. 

You have shown links between these elements and Peking and Com- 
munist organizations outside of Buffalo itself. Your testimony and the 
exhibits you have presented have demonstrated that Communists and 
other organizations are actively promoting the dissemination of in- 
flammatory racist literature and that groups of this type in Buffalo 
have the cooperation and support of similar groups in other cities. 

And that's what I mean when I say you add to the record that we 
have been compiling, because it does tie together in very definite form, 
which will take shape even more lucidly when it is all presented and 
all completed. 

But I want to congratulate you for your excellent presentation. I 
wish that not only all members of the committee, but all Members 
of the Congress had had an opportunity to hear your testimony, and 
the printed record will certainly brin^ it to their attention. So I thank 
you for the committee and for the entire Congress. 

Is there nothing else to come before the committee ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir ; we have one more witness. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. One more witness. We had probabl}^ better recess, 
then. 

Tliank you again. Commissioner Felicetta. We certainly appreciate 
all you have done. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until 3 p.m. 

(Whereupon at 2 :45 p.m. the subcommittee recessed and reconvened 
at 3 :07 p.m., with Mr. Ashbrook presiding.) 

Mr. Ashbrook. Very well. 

Mr. Smith, Mr. Chairman, I would like to call to the stand Mr. 
Herbert Romerstein, investigator for the committee. 



2036 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
will ^ive will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT ROMERSTEIN 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Be seated, please, and state your name. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. My name is Herbert Romerstein. 

Mr. Smith. What is your employment ? 

Mr. Romerstein. I am an investigator for the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Romerstein, were you, as investigator of the com- 
mittee, assigned to work on this hearing concerning racial agitation 
and disorder in Buffalo? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir, I was. 

Mr. Smith. Have you developed information which supplements 
that given to the committee by Commissioner Felicetta? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir; I have developed some additional informa- 
tion to supplement the testimony of the commissioner. 

Mr. Smith. Would you please proceed to present your information? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. 

There were two persons mentioned by Commissioner Fe^licetta as 
active in the demonstrations on behalf of Martin Sostre at the time of 
liis trial and active in demonstrations during the racial disturbances in 
Buffalo. These were Joel Meyers and Gerald Gross. I would like to 
present some additional information concerning them. 

The two newspapers in Buffalo last year — I think the Courier- 
Express and Neios, 7-20-67 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 1-A], reported 
that: 

Joel S. Meyers, a member of the Buffalo executive committee of Youth Against 
War and Fascism (YAWF), will appear in Federal Coxirt Wednesday to answer 
a charge of violating the Selective Service Act. 

Meyers, 23, of 484 Fourth St.. was arrested Wednesday in his home by F^I 
agents who charged him with refusing to submit to induction into the armed 
forces. 

It goes on to describe the arraignment of Meyers and says : 

Neil J. Welch, special agent in charge of the Buffalo FBI oflSce, said it was 
necessary for his men to force open the door of Meyers' apartment after he 
refused to admit them when told they had a warrant for hi.s arrest. 

Welch explained that Meyers, a native of Brooklyn who moved to Buffalo 
about two years ago, was ordered to appear at Ft. Hamilton, N.Y., for induction 
last May 4. 

A similar story appeared on 7-27-67 in the Buffalo Evening News 
[Romerstein Exliibit No. 1-B] and identified Meyers again as a mem- 
ber of Youth Against War and Fascism. 

Articles have appeared in Workers Worlds the publication of the 
Workers World Party, the parent organization of Youth Against War 
and Fascism, signed by J. — that is the initial — J. Meyers. 

One article on August 27, 1964 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 2], is typi- 
cal of the type of agitation that has been conducted by this group. 
The headline reads, "Cop Shoots 2 Kids, 2 Days in a Row," and this 
is, as I say, typical of the antipolice department agitation, the cam- 
paign against the police. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2037 

The same newspaper of July 30, 1964 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 3], 
carries anotlier article by J. Meyers, entitled, ''(xOP's No, 2 Fascist 
Picketed in Buffalo,'' and the adjoining story is sort of interesting. It 
is entitled "Youth Chairman Protests Arrest of Epton and Injunc- 
tion Against Demonstration in Harlem,"' and it says that : 

The chairman of Youth Against War and Fascism today protested the police 
ban on the Harlem Defense Council march and demanded the release of two 
arrested leaders of the proposed action. 

And comments in this vein. 

I would like to refer back to part 2 of this series of hearings, m 
which a police officer testified that William Epton of the Progressive 
Labor Party was enjoined from organizing a march at the time of the 
Harlem riot and was arrested when he attempted to lead that march. 

This was Youth Against War and Fascism coming out in support 
of the Progressive Labor Party which organized agitation in Harlem 
during the Harlem riot. 

Mr. Grerald J. Gross, another participant in the demonstrations in 
Buffalo, both on l>ehalf of Sostre and during the riot, received a let- 
ter from the city of Buffalo Department of Parks, signed by Stanley 
J. Stachowski — that is S-t-a-c-h-o-w-s-k-i — addressed to Mr. Gross in 
his official capacity as chairman, Youth Against War and Fascism, 
241 Trenton Avenue, Buffalo, New York, and this relates to a request 
by Mr. Gross for Youth Against War and Fascism to hold a street- 
corner meeting against the war in Vietnam on February 17, 1968 
[Romerstein Exhibit No. 4] . 

Also, on Meyers, the publication. Workers'' Poioer No. 4 [Romer- 
stein Exhibit No. 5], a publication of the Workers' Party of Mary- 
land, without a date, on pages 8 and 9, contains a story concerning 
Joel Meyers, a member of Youth Against War and Fascism, who 
created a disturbance when he reported for induction when he was 
ordered to by Selective Service. 

That is all on these two. 

Mr. Smith. Mr, Chairman, I request that these documents be re- 
ceived for the record. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. They will be received and made a part of the record. 

(Documents marked "Romerstein Exhibits Nos. 1 through 5," re- 
spectively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Please continue. 

Mr. Smith. WTiat else do you have, Mr. Romerstein ? 

Mr. Romerstein. With the arrest of Martin Sostre, a number of the 
organizations that have been involved in racial agitation immediately 
came to his defense. 

We have two issues of The Crusader, December 1967 and March 1968 
[Romerstein Exhibits 6-A and 6-BJ. 

Mr. Ashbrook. That is the Robert Williams publication? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir; this is Robert Williams' newsletter which 
he has prmted in China and sent into the United States and dissemi- 
nated here. 

Mr. Smith. Is that smuggled in ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Well, at the present time they are being sent in un- 
marked envelopes, in the sense that they have no return address, but 
directly from Peking, China, to recipients in the United States, and 
are being carried by the United States Post Office. 



2038 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

These envelopes, interestingly enough, don't even bear a regular 
postage stamp, but a stamped postage stamp, in the sense that it miglit 
be called a franked envelope from the Red Chinese, and is carried 
into the United States through the regular postal channels. These 
also come in in bulk and are then disseminated to the various racist 
groups by the members of Revolutionary Action Movement and other 
such organizations. 

Both of these issues of The Crusader carry similar statements, which 
I would like to read. It is short : 

AN APPEAL : SUPPOKT FRAME-UP VICTIMS 

Fascist forces in the USA are now endeavoring to create a national state of 
hysteria. Consequently, many Afro-American militants who refuse to sell out 
and who cannot be intimidated are being framed and imprisoned. A vicious 
campaign is being waged to destroy effective and potential ghetto leaders. Chief 
among these are Max Stanford, Rap Brown, Leroi .Tones and Martin G. Sostre. 
Many others are framed in Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, Newark, Detroit, 
Cleveland, in the South and on the West Coast. As a matter of collective security 
all anti-fascist forces and partisans of justice must stir themselves and give fi- 
nancial and active support to these victims of fascist kangarooism and tyranny. 
Oppose the court mob with massive resistance ! 

As I say, both issues of The Crumder carry approximately the same 
text. 

Now, of course, the Workers World Party and its youth affiliate, 
Youth Against War and Fascism, and its newspaper, Workers 
World^ carried a considerable amount of propaganda material on be- 
half of Martin Sostre. 

I would like to read some of the headlines, and in some cases quote 
from the articles themselves. 

Workers World of Aua-nst 3. 1967 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 7-A] : 
"Buffalo Frame-Up Of Black Militant." It says : 

In the wake of last month's rebellion Buffalo police and federal agents made 
a midnight raid on the Afro-Asian Bookstore on July 14. They beat up and 
arrested the owner, Martin Sostre, 44, and charged him with inciting to riot, 
arson, second degree assault, and possession and sale of narcotics. 

I would like to point out that Robert Williams didn't bother to 
say that Sostre was arrested for narcotics distribution. He just yelled, 
"Frame-up !" But in the course of the Workers World agitation, they 
do admit that in fact he was arrested for selling narcotics, and since 
they make a distinction between lieroin and marijuana, let me point 
out that it was heroin that Mr. Sostre was selling. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I might also point out that they failed to mention 
that Sostre in fact attacked the police officers, who had a legal warrant. 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. As a matter of fact, a police officer who 
is personally known to me and who was one of those who attempted 
to subdue Sostre, w^as knocked to the ground and his jacket torn 
as he attempted to place handcuffs on Sostre, who made quite a scene 
before he was subdued. 

The issue of Workers World of August 17, 1967 [Romerstein Exhib- 
it No. 7-B], carries : "Letter From A Buffalo Prison — A Black Frame- 
Up Victim's Reply," in which Martin Sostre himself sends a letter 
to "my dear Brothers" and describes what he was doing. He says : 

By accusing me and our Afro-Asian Booksihop of being the center of dope, sub- 
versive, Marxist. Socialist, Communist activities — and of organizing the June 
"riots" in Buffalo — and then proceeding to destroy the only Black bookshop in 
the community (the only shop where you could purchase the works of J. A. 
Rogers, Frederick Douglass, DuBois, Robert F. Williams. Malcolm X, Richard 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2039 

Wright, Nathan Hare, Le Roi Jones, etc.) the white oppressors have dealt the 
Afro community a serious blow ! 

Let me point out, sir, that I have been in Buffalo, and you can pur- 
chase the legitimate writings, which are interspersed with the ex- 
tremist writings in this quotation, in any of the Buffalo bookstores. 
You can certainly find books, as I have seen, by Richard Wright. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Frederick Douglass. 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. And Frederick Douglass, yes, sir. 

You will not find, I think, the writings of Robert F. Williams in 
any legitimate bookstore, and certainly Sostre was disseminating 
them. He says : 

Ours was the only shop where one could purchase THE LIBERATOR MAGA- 
ZINE, BLACK BELT, AFRO-AMERICA, BLACK DIALOGUE, THE PARTI- 
SAN, GOLDEN HERITAGE, AFRICAN OPINION, PEKING REVIEW, CHINA 
RECONSTRUCTS and many other publications from Africa, America and 
Asia. 

The last two, of course, Peking Review and China Reccmstructs^ are 
both official propaganda organs of the Red Chinese Government. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. This is the letter that Sostre himself wrote to the 
'Workers World? 

Mr. RoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir, which they published in their own publi- 
cation. 

Then on October 20, 1967, another headline, "The Story of Martin 
Sostre. Fighter for Black Liberation Is Frame-Up Victim" [Romer- 
stein Exhibit No. 7-C]. 

On November 16, 1967, "Fight to Free Martin Sostre, Framed Black 
Leader, Continues" [Romerstein Exhibit No. 7-D]. 

Once a^ain, on November 30, 1967 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 7-E], 
the headline, "Liberation Fighter Gives Judge Lesson on Bail. 'It's 
for the Rich,' Sostre Argues in Own Case," and it describes the agita- 
tion by Sostre during the bail hearing and the insulting remarks 
made to the judge. 

On December 16, 1967, once again, "Martin Sostre" — 

I am sorry. 

A statement is made by the Workers World [Romerstein Exhibit 
No. 7-F] that they should, "Send Xmas Greetings to a Black Libera- 
tion Fighter," specifically, Martin Sostre. 

On January 18, 1968 [Romerstein Exhibit No. 7-G], they reported 
that : "Martin Sostre Tells Racist Judge To Resign in 'Sanity Test' 
Frame-Up." 

One of the judges in the course of the A'-arious proceedings on 
Sostre suggested a sanity hearing for him, and he felt that that was a 
racist remark and that the judge should resign. 

On March 28„ 1968, Workers World [Romerstein Exhibit No. 
7-H] carried the "Court Statement of a True Liberation Fighter," 
which went into detail about Sostre's sentencing and on the agitation 
by Sostre in the courtroom at the time of the sentencing. They quote 
him as saying, "I am not following any fascist rules !" And he said 
to the judge, "Waive my rights, just like you are waiving the rights 
of the dissenters, framing up those who oppose the rule of fascism." 

He also said : 

We must expose fascism. Dissent has come to the courtroom, just as it has come 
to all levels of society, in the streets, in the universities, in the homes .... 
Black militants and their white allies have been framed up because they dis- 
sented from the rule of fascist goon squads. 



2040 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

Now, sir, this campaign by Sostre in the courtroom is directly 
parallel to the program that the Communist Party has advocated 
for many years in regard to court cases. That is, pack the courtroom 
with sympathizers to yell and shout and carry on as they have, of 
course, at hearings of this committee. The defendant in the criminal 
case insults the judge and insults the jury in order to be cited for 
contempt. He can then say that he is being persecuted for defending 
himself. The concept is to make the courtroom a forum for revolu- 
tionary propaganda, to talk over the head of the judge and of the 
court, to appeal to the people on the street, to demonstrate against 
the court, system, and to break down the whole concept of law and 
order through the courts. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Then he quoted the People's World., and so forth, 
or what you have said. 

T think we all recall Judge Medina's trying weeks of taking this 
type of pimishment, but they did not succeed in that case, and I 
trust they won't succeed in any of these others. 

Mr. KoMERSTEiN. Yes, sir. They didn't succeed in the Sostre case. 
They convicted him and gave him a stiff sentence on his drug 
peddling. 

Once again, on April 25, 1968, Workers World [Romerstein Exhibit 
No. 7-1] appeals : "Aid Needed for Framed Liberation Fighter," and 
once again, this is for Sostre. 

On May 23, 1968, Workers World [Romerstein Exhibit No. 7-J] 
reports that an "Afro- Asian Bookstore in Exile Aids Jailed Libera- 
tion Fighter," and reports that : 

For over a month now, the Afro-Asian Book Store in Exile has been set up 
several times a week on the University of Buffalo campus. Members of the 
Martin Sostre Defense Committee are staffing it and arrangements have been 
made with several publishers who are replacing stock of Martin So.stre's orig- 
inal store which was destroyed by the police. 

Then it goes on to describe the Sostre case. 

A rather interesting piece also apj^eared in the same issue of Workers 
World, May 23, 1968, entitled " 'University Authorities' Exposed, De- 
nounced at Buffalo U. Big Character Posters Work in U.S. Too." 
This refers to what the Red Chinese call big character posters, which 
they post on the walls denouncing people. 

Let me read from the story : 

The idea for adapting the dazihao (big character) wall poster media to the 
American political scene, as both a method of political expression and a counter 
to the controlled mass-media, was firt^t conceived of and put into practice by 
Martin G. Sostre, a Black Liberation leader who was recently framed-up and 
sentenced to 41 years because of his political activism in Buffalo, New York. 

It says further : 

Members of Youth Against War and Fascism who had been close to Martin 
Sostre and active in his Defense Committee put forward the idea of utilizing the 
dazibao media up at the campus of the State University of N.Y. at Buffalo — along 
the lines initiated by Martin Sostre. The wall posters could be a mode of ix>litical 
expression for the anti-war students as well as a weaix>n for political agita- 
tion. * * * 

And it goes on in this vein. 

Of course, the posters in Red (^hina have been very widely discussed 
in the press, and here is the application again of a Red Chinese tech- 
nique in the United States. 

Sostre has also received the support of other such organizations. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2041 

The Socialist Workers Party is the group that the Workers World 
Party split from originally and is an organization on the Attorney 
General's subversive list and has been described in part 1 of this series 
of hearings.^ They also carried a story in their newspaper, The Mili- 
tant^ of April 8, 1968, in support of Sostre [Romerstein Exhibit No. 8]. 

A magazine is being distributed on the campus of Buffalo Univer- 
sity, or the State University of New York at Buffalo, called the In- 
sight er [Romerstein Exhibit No. 9] — and I suppose that the term 
"insighter'' is meant lx)th ways. It is spelled I-n-s-i-g-h-t-e-r, but "in- 
citer" is what it is. It carries an article in its issue of January 29, 1968, 
in support of Martin Sostre and, on the front page, a list of the license 
plate numbers of unmarked police cars in the city of Buifalo, to aid 
the various extremist groups avoid arrest when they carry out their 
activities. 

One of the most interestmg groups to spring up in the Sostre defense 
is a group called the American Coordination Committee of the Left, 
operating from Post Office Box 5, Station C, Buffalo, New York, and 
giving a telephone number of 884—8370. This telephone number was 
checked and turned out to be the phone number of Edward A. Wolk- 
enstein, W-o-l-k-e-n-s-t-e-i-n, of 158 Oxford Avenue, Buffalo, New 
York. 

Mr. Wolkenstein appeared as a witness before this committee on 
April 29, 1964, and agitated before the committee in much the same 
way that Martin Sostre agitated in court. Mr. Wolkenstein had been 
identified by an FBI undercover agent as a person that he had known 
in the Communist Party and who had been expelled from the Commu- 
nist Party on the orders of Benjamin Davis because of his support for 
the pro-Peking position within the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wolkenstein refused to answer any questions concerning the 
testimony of the FBI undercover agent, but carried on considerable 
agitation in the hearing room. 

His wife jumped up to help him. She had to be escorted from the 
hearing room. 

It made the front pages of the Buffalo paper, which is, of course, 
the type of publicity that they were anxious to get. 

Here is a picture in the Buffalo Courier- Express of April 30, 1964, 
headed "Marshals grapple with Mrs. Edward A. Wolkenstein and her 
daughter in the hearing room" [Romerstein Exhibit No. 10]. And the 
stories relate how Wolkenstein agitated, how he shouted at the chair- 
man, how he insulted everybody in sight, and so on. 

This is a technique that they have adapted from their courtroom 
techniques for use at hearings of congressional committees. 

There is one other matter that I wish to call the committee's atten- 
tion to that is not directly related to Buffalo, but rather broader than 
that. 

The Communist Party, U.S.A., held a meeting of its Negro Affairs 
Commission in New York on October 14 and 15, 1967. The main report 
to this meeting was made by Claude Lightfoot, one of the national 
leaders of the Communist Party and the head of their Negro Commis- 
sion. It relates to the question of violence and racial agitation. 

Mr. Lightfoot points out that : 

Throughout the Smith Act trials we Communists never renounced force and 
violence per se. We said that at certain historical moments the necessity for armed 
struggle may be present. * * * 



1 See pp. 899-902. 



2042 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

And while he points out in this speech that this is not yet the time 
for guerrilla warfare, which of course has been advocated by the Chi- 
nese-oriented Communist groups, he does say this : 

The present wave of violent actions in the black ghettos by black people is of 
a defensive nature, and the right of the black people to defend themselves even by 
force o(f arms should be supported by all in the country who stand against in- 
justice. * * * 

This is open advocacy of racial violence in the cities, although the 
Communist Party is not yet prepared to advocate the type of guerrilla 
warfare that the Peking-oriented Communists are prepared to ad- 
vocate. This type of open advocacy of violence by the Commmiist Party 
is indicative of the type of actions that they wish people to take, and as 
we have seen in a number of cities, people have taken such action after 
being agitated by these people. 

Mr, AsHBROOK. Mr. Romerstein, would you state again for the 
record the source that you are reading from ? 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir. This is a full text of the speech of Claude 
Lightfoot to the national Negro Commission of the Communist Party, 
published as a pamphlet by the Communist Party under the title, 
BLACK POWER and LIBERATION— a communist view. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Now, what was the date of that publication ? 

Mr. Romerstein. The publication itself is dated December 1967, but 
the speech was made October 14 and 15, 1967 [Romerstein Exhibit 
No. 11]. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. That is Mr. Lightfoot of the Communist Party of 
Illinois, I believe. 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir, he had been, but he is now in New York, 
operating as a national officer of the party. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. He was national committeeman for Illinois and 
evidently has been moved up. 

Mr. Romerstein. Yes, sir, he has been chairman in Illinois and has 
been moved higher. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Do you have anji^hing else for the record ? 

I might add at this point that that has obviously been circulated 
throughout the country by the Communist Party, as what might be 
called their battle plan, in an effort to differentiate their advocacy of 
black power, using militance wherever they possibly can, to distinguish 
from the Peking variety of the Communist Party. 

I think we can see that they will use and manipulate any group, 
whether it be white or Negro, to their advantage, if at all possible, 
and I think while they say it is not yet the time, there is every indi- 
cation that they may not be far from that time when they advocate 
such force. 

Anything else, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I request that all the documents referred 
to by Mr. Romerstein be received for the record. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. They will be received and placed at their appro- 
priate points. 

(Documents marked "Romerstein Exhibits Nos. 6-A and B, 7-A 
through J, 8, 9, 10, and 11," respectively. Exhibits 6-B, 7-A through 
7-J, 8, 9, and 10 retained in committee files. Front and back pages of 
Exhibit 6-A and excerpts from Exhibit 11 follow :) 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2043 

ROMERSTEIN ExilIBIT No. 6-A 




THE 




%^ 



NEWSLETTER 



ROBERT F. WILLIAMS, Publisher -IN EXILE - 



VOL. 9 — No. 3 



DECEMBER 1967 



WHY I PROPOSE TO RETURN TO RACIST AMERICA 

On July 28, 1967, I wrote a letter - . - 

to the Union County, North Carolina 
Clerk of Court which simply stated: 
"Even though I have never been 
officially informed as such, I under- 
stand from press reports that I am 
under indictment in Union County. 
Inasmuch as I contemplate an early 
return to Monroe, will you please be 
so kind as to inform me specifically 
of the charges and statutes under 
which I am indicted? Also please 
inform me as to what amount of bail 
bond your office will require." 

This inquiry was carried by one 
of the wire services and was very 
widely circulated internationally. As 
a result of this somewhat unex- 
pected turn of events, many friends 
and interested parties wrote to me 
directly expressing disbelief. My 
close friends are expressing serious 
concern for my welfare. There is 
an almost unanimous chorus of 
voices from abroad warning me that 
almost certain death awaits me if I 
return to the so-called free world. 

The smaller segment not completely convinced that the U.S. is totally 
controlled by incorrigible homicidal maniacs, as far as black men are 
concerned, merely warn me of certain long-term incarceration as the 
power structure's method of gagging and emasculating me. 

Who can say that either assumption is wrong? Above all, I would be 
the last one to dignify or place faith in the racist American legal system. 
It is the touchstone of hypocrisy, the great tragedy of a schizophrenic 
society that honest and sincere citizens of the self-proclaimed guardian of 
democracy and law enforcer to the entire world are convinced that such 
a state is incapable of dispensing simple justice unincumbered by racism 
and a spiteful spirit of vindictiveness. Yes, so is the nature of American 
justice for its non-Anglo-Saxon peons and captive people. Only the rich 
and the powerful can afford to have faith in the legal system of the 




R. Williams 



2044 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

RoMERSTEiN EXHIBIT No. 6-A — Continued 



AN APPEAL: SUPPORT FRAME-UP VICTIMS 

Fascist forces in the USA are now endeavoring to create a 
national state of hysteria. Consequently, many Afro-American 
militants who refuse to sell out and who cannot be intimidated 
are being framed and imprisoned. A vicious campaign is being 
waged to destroy effective and p>otential ghetto leaders. Chief 
among these are Max Stanford, Rap Brown, Leroi Jones and 
Martin G. Sostre. Many others are framed in Philadelphia, New 
York, Chicago, Newark, Detroit, Cleveland, in the South and 
on the West Coast. As a matter of collective security all anti-fascist 
forces and parti.sans of justice must stir themselves and give 
financial and active support to these victims of fascist kangarooism 
and tyranny. Oppose the court mob with massive resistance! 



critical ju.stification of a fascist war in Vietnam on the basis of America's 
love and commitment to universal democracy and social justice. The 
Monroe Court-in, seminar on kangaroo justice, conference and encamp- 
ment should be planned to coincide with the coming U.S. farce called 
elections. The Monroe campaign must also he "the beginning of a drive to 
effect the release of all political prisoners incarcerated inside America. 

The outline presented herein is tentative. Suggestions are now being 
received and urged. All just-minded individuals are asked to make sug- 
gestions, present more detailed plans, to volunteer and submit names 
of persons believed to be qualified for specific tasks of organization, 
publicity international liaison, fund raising, legal bureau, coordination, 
logistics, security, etc. Persons wishing to join in the preparation of the 
crusade or to make positive offers for the movement can contact me 
dirertly bv using the addre*;'; of THE rRTT«;Ar>KR nr ran write me in 
rar'^ <^f Attornev ConraH T t ■■•nr. /jf>i Brn;^riwav — <%nitp 9H. New York. 
N. Y. 10013 USA. 

Yes, I propose to return to confront the racist kangaroo justice of 
Monroe, North Carolina, USA, because the ultimate mission of the 
freedom fighter must be to wipe out all forms of unbearable social 
mjustice. The ultimate aim of a Revolutionary Black Nationalist must be 
to forge the closest possible unity based on common heritage, common 
suffering and a common faith of common resistance in a common en- 
deavor to overturn a common tyranny. The Revolutionary Black Na- 
tionalist must turn his first attention to those who suffer most as brothers 
in travail and are most victimized by an alien and restrictive society, 
however, in the final analysis, the Black Nationalist's struggle is a front 
of the universal struggle for the liberation of all mankind, for human 
dignity, peace and justice in a prosperous people's world. 

"The oppressed peoples and nations must not pin their hopes for 
liberation on the 'sensibleness' of imperialism and its lackeys. Fhey will 
only triumph by strengthening their unity and persevering in their 
struggle." 

— Mao^ Tse-tung 

A very MERRY CHRISTMAS and a fighting NEW YEIAR! Make sure 
and see to it that Soul Santa brings you a do-it-yourself survival and 
liberation kit. In the cool peace of the Yuletide remember the battle 
of the coming long hot summer. 

THE CRUSADER has survived racist attempts at economic strangulation. 
KU KLUX KLAN harassment and a license conspiracy in the racist USA. 
It has survived exile in Cuba and attacks by International liquidatlonists. 
Now it is struggling to survive a fascist ban invoked by U.S. Postal 
authorities. Help the indomitaljje CRUSADER to reach all who would be 
interested. Order copies to pass along. KEEP ON PUSHIN'! 

Robert F. Williams, 1 Tai Chi Chang, Peking, China 
• — PRINTED IN CHINA AS A PERSONAL JOURNAL — * 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUE]\CES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2045 

ROMERSTEIN EXHIBIT No. 1 1 



BLACK 

POWER 

and 

LIBERATION 

A COMBffUMIST VIEW 



By Claude Lightfoot 



50 cents 



2046 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

RoMEKSTEiN EXHIBIT No. 11 — Continued 




ABOUT THE AUTHOR 



Claude Lightfoot was bom in Lake Village, Arkansas in 
1910. At the age of seven, he moved with his family to. 
Chicago, where he has lived most of his life. Among his most 
vivid childhood memories is the Chicago race riot of 1919, 
which he witnessed at close hand. It left an indelible imprint 
on his memory and had far-reaching effect on his later think- 
ing and activities. 

In the twenties he joined the youth group of the Garvey 
movement. He dropped out of high school, then decided 
to return but was instead drawn into the mounting struggles 
for jobs and relief that followed the 1929 crash. He joined 
tlie Communist Party in 1931 and has been an active and 
prominent figure in that organization ever since, holding 
nimierous posts of leadership. At present, he holds the posi- 
tion of Secretary of the National Committee in charge of 
the Department of Negro Affairs. 

He is the author of many articles and pamphlets. 

The present pamphlet contains the text of a report j)re- 
sented at a National Conference of the Communist Party of 
the United States, called by its Negro Affairs Commission 
and held in New York on October 14-15, 1967. 



Published by New Outlook Publishers 
32 Union Square East, Room 801 
New York, N.Y. 10003 

December, 1967 «^^ ^os printed in the U.S.A. 



SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 2047 

RoMERSTEiN EXHIBIT Nc). 11 — Continued 

BLACK POWER 

and 

LIBERATION 

A COMMUNIST VIEW 
By CLAUDE UGHTFOOT 

Where We Stand Today 

It has been historical, as well as current, experience that a 
coalescence of struggle of black and white at the grass roots 
level is the main prerequisite for social advance in our coun- 
try. Yet, at a time when the nation faces unprecedented prob- 
lems such as war and peace, the growth of a fascist danger 
and new economic difficulties, to many people black and 
white unity has become a dirty word. Germs of disunity, germs 
of a cancerous nature, are circulating in the body of the Amer- 
ican people, and unless radical surgery is performed, many 
of the vital organs will be lost, if not the entire body. Patent 
medicines no longer suffice to meet this growing crisis. 

To help unravel the reasons for this situation, we shall 
discuss the character of the present period, look into what is 
new in racism, define the nature of the present wave of black 
nationalism, discuss methods of struggle required for today, 
estimate the Communist Party's position on the Negro ques- 
tion in the last nine years. And finally, we shall determine 
what the vanguard role of the Party is in the circumstances of 
today. 



2048 SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCES IN RIOTS, LOOTING, AND BURNING 

RoMERSTEiN EXHIBIT No. 11 — Continued 

:ti ***** * 

of the 1950s, we were hounded, persecuted and prosecuted 
as being in league with a foreign power to overthrow this 
government by force and violence. Over a hundred and thirty 
Party leaders were convicted under the Smith Act. Many of 
them served several years in jail. Some of the young radicals 
may not remember this period, known to history as the rra 
of McCarthyism. Perhaps some of them were too young u> 
know what went on. But in any case, they should ponder 
over the experiences of those years, which can be useful as 

guide to action today. 

Throughout the Smith Act trials we Communists never 
renounced force and violence per se. We said that at certain 
historical moments the necessity for armed struggle may be 
present. But we held that we were not guilty of a conspiracy 
to employ force and violence, nor were we guilty of teaching 
and advocating the necessity of the overthrow of the govern- 
ment by force and violence. Furthermore, we stated, we seek 
a socialist change through peaceful means. But if the major- 
ity should support such a change and if it should be- 
come impossible to solve the problems by peaceful means, 
if the ruling class should block the channels of democratic 
expression, we would unhesitatingly call for the overthrow 
of such a government by all possible means, including armed 
struggle. To this approach American Communists still hold. 

The present wave of violent actions in the black ghettos 
by black people is of a defensive nature, and the right of the 
black people to defend themselves even by force of arms 
should be supported by all in the country who stand against 
injustice. However, it is one thing to defend oneself from 
attack by all necessary means, and it is another to choose 
this way as the main method of battle. As Communists 
pointed out in various Smith Act trials, there may well come 
a time when other forms of struggle must be supplemented 
by armed struggle. But this should not be dealt with as if it 
were a universal necessity. It is a matter of time, place and 
circumstances. 

Before anyone begins talking about the necessity for armed 

******* 

26 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Anything else, Mr. Counsel ? 
Mr. Smith. I have no further questions. 
Mr. AsHBROOK. Thank you very much. 
Anything else to come before the subcommittee ? 
If not, we will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :33 p.m., Thursday, June 20, 1968, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Alinsky, Saul 1999 

B 

Bernard 1989, 2013, 2014 

Bloice, Carl 2000 

Blumberg, Herbert H 2018 

Bo 2013 

Brown, H. Rap 2017, 2025, 2028, 2038, 2043 

C 

Carmichael, Stokely 2014, 2019 

Castro, Fidel : 2000 

Coles, Gerald 1989,2007 

Cox, Major 2003 

D 

Davis, Benjamin (J.) 2041 

Davis, Daniel 2008 

Douglass, Frederick 2038, 2039 

Doyle, Charles 1989, 2008 

DuBois 2038 

E 

Early, Michael Lee 2015,2016 

Edwards, Floyd J 2032 

Eli, George 2013 

Emmanuel 1998 

Epton, William 2037 

Evers, Medgar 2025, 2028 

F 

Fahringer, Herald Price 2018 

Fain, Jim 2017 

Felicetta, Frank N 1987-1993, 1994-2085 ( testimony ), 2036 

Ferber, Michael 2025, 2028, 2032 

G 
Garvey 2046 

Gonzales, Orville 2013 

Gonzalez, Crescinia 1989, 2015 

Green, Ray Ellis 2012, 2018 

Gregory, Dick 2019 

Gross, Gerald J 198&-1990, 1992, 2007, 2023, 2024, 2036, 2037 

1 



ii INDEX 

H Page 

Hare, Nathan 2039 

Harmon, Richard H 1999 

Harris, Charies 2003, 2031 

Hartmen, Pete 1989, 2007 

Hoover, J. Edgar 2005 

Howard, Robert 1995 

Hudson, Frederick D 2003, 2004, 2031, 2082 

Hunter, James 2012 

J 

Johnson, James 1988,2007, 2000 

Johnson (Lyndon B.) 2025,2028 

Johnson, Rita 1988, 1989, 2007, 2009, 2012 

Jones, LeRoi 2025, 2028, 2038, 2039, 2043 

K 

Kennedy, Padraic 2004 

King, Martin Luther 2014 

Kron 2015 

L 

Lane, Mark 1989, 2008 

Latona, Jacob A 2019 

Lightfoot, Claude _• 2041, 2042, 2045^2047 

Lynn, Conrad J 2044 

M 

Malcolm X 2014, 2025, 2028, 2038 

Maloney, Clarence M 2026,2029,2030 

Mao Tse-tung 1988, 2000-2002, 2044 

Marshall, Frederick M 2018-2022,2027,2030 

Martin X. (See Sostre, Martin Gonzalez.) 

McCubbins, Robin 2023, 2024 

Mcintosh, W. Sumpter 2017 

McNamara, Robert (S.) 1991,2032 

Medina (Harold R.) 2040 

Meller, Karl 1988. 2007, 2011. 2023, 2024 

Merrill, Edward 1988, 1989. 2007-2011. 2023, 2024 

Merrill, Jeanette 1988, 1989. 2007-2011. 2023, 2024 

Meyers, Joel S 1988, 1989, 1992, 2007-2012, 2036, 2037 

Mintz, Joseph D 2018 

Murchison 2012 

O 
Oswald 1989, 2008 

P 

Pace, Donald 2003, 2004 

Poppa 2013 

Provost, George 1988, 1989, 2007, 2008, 2024 

R 

Ramirez, Martin. (See Sostre, Martin Gonzalez.) 

Ricks, Willie 2017 

Robeson, Paul . 2025, 2028 

Robinson, Geraldine 1990, 2017, 2018, 2022-2024. 2026. 2030 

Robinson, William 1^S>8 

Rodriqueez, Tony ^^^ 

Rogers, J. A 2038 

Romerstein, Herbert 1992,2035,2036^2048 (testimony) 

Rusk, Dean 2032 



INDEX 111 

S 

Santos, Martin. ( See Sostre, Martin Gonzalez. ) Page 

Sedita (Frank A.) 1998 

Shank, Willie, Jr 2015,2016 

Shudian, Guozi 1988, 2000-2002 

Smith, Ray 2012 

Sostre, Martin Gonzalez (also known as Martin X, Martin Ramirez, and 

Martin Santos) 1988- 

1992, 1999, 2000. 2003. 2012-2015, 2017-2030. 2032, 203&-2041, 2044 

Spock, Benjamin 2025, 2028, 2032 

Stachowski, Stanley J 2037 

Stanford. Max. (See Stanford, Maxwell Curtis. Jr.) 

Stanford, Maxwell Curtis, Jr. (Max) (alias Allah Mahammad)i 2025, 

2028, 2038, 2044 
Sterling, Anna 1988, 2007, 2009, 2010 

T 
Tse-tung, Mao. ( See Mao Tse-tung. ) 

W 

Wagner, William 1998 

Watts, Daniel H 1989,2008 

Welch, Neil J 2036 

Williams. Leroy 2015, 2016 

Williams. Robert F 1988, 2003, 2025, 2028, 2037-2039, 2043, 2044 

Wilson, John A 1991,2032,2033 

Wolkenstein, Edward A 1988, 1992, 2007, 2041 

Wolkenstein, Mrs. Edward A 2041 

Wolkenstein, Naomi 1989, 2007 

Wolkenstein, Rachel 1988, 2007, 2041 

Wright, Richard 2038, 2039 

Y 
Yates, William 1989, 2007 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A 

ACT 1991, 2032 

Afro-American Research Institute, Inc 1989, 2008 

Afro-Asian Bookstore-in-Exile 2026, 2029, 2040 

Afro-Asian Book Store 1988, 

1990, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2018, 2021, 2025, 2028, 2038 
American Coordination Committee of the Left 1992, 2041 



BUILD. ( See Build Unity, Integrity, Liberty, and Dignity. ) 

Black Muslims. ( See Nation of Islam. ) 

Buffalo Youth Against War and Fascism ( see also Workers World Party, 

Youth Against War and Fascism) 1988,2005-2007 

Build Unity, Integrity, Liberty, and Dignity (BUILD) 1998, 1990 

C 

CORE. ( See Congress of Racial Equality. ) 

China Publicattons Centre 2000-2002 

Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) 1989, 

2005, 2008, 2040-2042, 2047 
National Structure : 

Department of Negro Affairs 2046 

National Committee 2046 

Negro Affairs Commission 2041, 2046 

Negro Commission 2041, 2042 

National Conventions and Conferences : 

National Conference, October 14-15, 1967, New York City (called 

by Negro Affairs Commission) 2046 

Community Action Organization 2004 

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1996-1999 

Buffalo, N.Y., chapter 1987, 1996. 1997 



iv INDEX 

F Page 

Fair Play for Cuba Oommittee 1988, 2000 

Foreign Languages Press 2001, 2002 

Fruit of Islam. ( See entry under Nation of Islam. ) 

H 

Harlem Defense Council (HDC) {see also Progressive Labor Movement) 2037 

I 
Industrial Areas Foundation 1999 

J 

Johnson-Forest Group 2005 

K 
Ku Klux Klan 2044 

M 

MSDC. (See Martin Sostre Defense Committee. ) 

Martin Sostre Defense Committee (MSDC) 1989, 

'1990, 2008, 2020, 2021, 2024, 2026, 2027, 2029, 2030, 2040 

N 

Nation of Islam (NOI) (also known as Muslim Mosque, Inc., and Black 

Muslims) 1987, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2015 

Fruit of Islam 1987, 1996 

National Black Anti-War Anti-Draft Union (NBAWADU) 1991, 2033 

National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (also knov^^n as 

National Liberation Front of South Vietnam) 1991,2032 

National Liberation Front (of South Vietnam). (See National Front 

for the Liberation of South Vietnam. ) 
National Mobilization Committee To End the War in Vietnam 1991, 2082 

O 
Ohio Freedom Movement 2017 

P 

Peace Book Company 2000, 2002 

Progressive Citizens of America 1989, 2008 

Buffalo 1989, 2008 

Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) (or Party (PLP)) 2037 

Progressive Party 1989, 2008 

R 

Resistance, The 1990, 2025, 2028 

Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) 2038 

Road Vultures 2007 

S 

SNCC. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.) 

Socialist Workers Party (SWP) 1992, 2005,2041 

Society of Colonial Wars : 

Western New York Section 2027, 2030 

State University of New York : 

State University at BufPalo 2040, 2041 

Student Mobilization Committee To End the War in Vietnam 

(SMC) 1990,2025,2028 

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 1991, 2017, 2031, 2032 

Buffalo branch 2031 

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 1990, 2025, 2028 



INDEX V 

U 
United States Government : 

Justice Department : Paw 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 1989, 2008 

V 

VISTA. (See Volunteers in Service to America.) 

Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) 2004, 2032 

W 

W. E. B. DuBois Clubs of America (DOA) 1988, 2000 

Workers' Party of Maryland 2037 

Workers World Party (WWP) 1988, 

1990, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2023, 2036, 2038, 2041 

Youth Against War and Fascism (YAWF) 1988-1990, 

1992, 2000, 2005-2012, 2023-2025, 2028, 2036-2038, 2040 

Y 

YAWF. ( See Workers World Party, Youth Against War and Fascism. ) 
YMCA. ( See Young Men's Christian Association. ) 

Young Men's Christian Associaition (YMCA) 1987,1996 

Youth Against War and Fascism (YAWF). {See entry under Workers 
World Party. ) 

PUBLICATIONS 

A 

African Opinion 2039 

Afro-America 2039 

B 

Black Belt 2039 

Black Dialogue 2039 

Black Power and Liberation — ^A Communist View (pamphlet) 2042, 

2045, 2047 

C 

China Reconstructs 2039 

Crusader, The 2037, 2038, 2043, 2044 

D 
Daily Worker 1989, 2008 

F 
Fidel Castro, 26th of July 1963 (book) 2000 

G 
Golden Heritage 2039 

I 

Insighter (magazine) 2041 

Insurgent (magazine) 2(X)0 

L 
Liberator (magazine) 1989,2008,2039 

M 
Militant, The (SWP newspaper) 20il 

N 
Negroes With Guns (book) (Robert F. Williams) 1988, 2003 

P 

Partisan, The (magazine) 2000, 2039 

Peking Review 2039 



Vi INDEX 

Q 

^ Page 

Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung (book) 2000, 2002 

S 

Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung (book) 2001 

Spectrum, The (newspaper) 2032 

W 

Workers' Power (magazine) 2037 

Workers World 1988, 1989, 

2000. 2003. 2007. 2012. 2036. 2038-2040 

o 



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