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I HAVE written this book at the earnest request of 
Mrs. Moore. 

The subject was brought under my notice by the 
late Mr. William Longman and Mr. Murray, at the 
instance of Mrs. Moore. They both recommended me 
to write the book, though neither of them was to 
publish it. 

I was at first unwilling to undertake the Life ; the 
state of my health not permitting me to undertake 
much brain-work. BesideSj I was far advanced with 
another book which had been advertised, and which 
I was unwilling to postpone. 

I knew a great deal about Mr. Moore's benevolence 
towards the poor, the helpless, and the orphans ; but 
I thought that some other person, who had know 
Mr. Moore intimately, might have done greater justice 
to the subject. 

I called upon a leading City merchant to ask his 
opinion. He thought it impossible for anything in- 
teresting to be written about George Moore. As to 
his munificence, there were hundreds of men in London 


as good as he ! " What can you make," he asked, 
"out of the life of a London warehouseman?" This 
statement discouraged me,, and I felt disposed to return 
to my former work. 

It was not until Dr. Percival, Head Master of Clifton 
College, called upon me, that I ascertained something 
of the actual life and character of George Moore. He 
spoke of the Man, and not of the Warehouseman. 
He said, in a letter which I afterwards received from 
him, "There is so much genuine character in the 
Cumberland Folk, that I feel sure you will be attracted 
by them ; and I hope you will find that the incidents 
of Mr. Moore's boyhood and early life are sufficiently 
characteristic to enable you to use some of the excellent 
material furnished by the habits and traditions of the 
district. Then, I hope you may find sufficient illustra- 
tions in his middle life, of his really splendid pluck and 
energy ; and again in his later life, of his rare liberality. 
This last trait ought to be very instructive, because of 
its extreme rarity among men who have had to struggle 
as he did. I don't think I have come across any other 
self-made man who had so entirely 'got the chill of 
poverty out of his bones.' " 

I was also encouraged by the Rev. G. C. Bell, Master 
of Marlborough College, who wrote to Mrs. Moore as 
follows : " I am rejoiced to hear that a memoir of 
your husband is to be published ; for the example of 
his life, with its combination of 'self-help' and unselfish- 
ness, well deserves a permanent record ; and it may 
be full of stimulus and encouragement to many. I 


had indeed," he added, " good reason to be grateful 
to him for many substantial kindnesses, made all the 
more precious by the kind of fatherly interest that he 
took in those he cared for. He was, in truth, a large- 
hearted man, whose like I never knew." 

This was, indeed, encouragement enough. I accord- 
ingly went down to Whitehall, George Moore's country 
seat in Cumberland, to look over his papers. I there 
found a story, a romance, followed, alas ! by a tragedy. 
Mr. Moore had written out an account of his early life, 
which I have introduced in the course of the following 
pages. He had also left a Diary, containing a daily 
entry during the last twenty years of his life. These, 
together with his numerous papers, have furnished 
abundant information for his history from its beginning 
to its end. 

Biographers, like portrait-painters, are sometimes 
suspected of painting men as they ought to be, rather 
than as they are. To avoid this objection, I have 
quoted George Moore's own words from his Autobio- 
graphic Notes, and from his Diary ; and thus enabled 
the story to be told as much as possible in his own 
words and in his own way. 

I have said that I began this work with unwilling- 
ness ; but I can add that as I wrote I felt that I had 
to do with the -life of no ordinary man. George Moore, 
in some ways, stands apart from other men. He yielded 
to no hindrances ; he was overcome by no difficulties ; 
he was consistent in his aims, in all the good work that 
he did. This the story of his life will fully show. 


I need scarcely say that I have been greatly helped 
by Mrs. Moore, who has furnished all the necessary 
information, and supplied many of the most interesting 
descriptions in the book. 

I have also been much indebted to the Rev. W. M. 
Gunson, Cambridge ; the Rev. Alfred Gates, Mary- 
port ; James Cropper, Esq., Ellergreen, Kendal ; Alfred 
Chapman, Esq., and many others, for the information 
they have communicated as to the life, habits, manners, 
and character of their deceased friend. 

It has been the one wish of Mrs. Moore's heart that 
a proper memorial of her husband's life should be 
placed on permanent record. I hope that I have 
gratified her wish, and that the public will be satisfied 
with the result. 

S. S. 

LONDON, May 1878. 




The Moores of Overgates Torpenhow Churchyard Cumberland Scenery 
The Border-land The Sohvay Peel Towers The Mosstroopers 
Debateable Land The Graemes The Scottish Keivers Tenure ol 
Land by Border Service Survival of Freebooting Bevcastle Tomb- 
stones The Cumberland Statesmen ; their Thrill and Industry De- 
cadence of the Statesmen The Moores in the Olden Times Thomas 
Moore of Mealsgate Birth of George Moore His home at Mealsgate. 

Pages I 17 



Christening of George Moore His Great-uncle and Godfather Death ol 
his Mother George Moore's Father His Second Marriage The Step- 
mother George jjoes to School Blackbird \\ilson ; his Method of 
Teaching Routine of the School Barring-oot Wrestling "Scots 
and English " Bird-nesting Walk to Carlisle Hunting John Peel 
Hunt with the Dalesmen Harvest Holidays Earns money by shearing 
Harvest Customs Finishes his School education Determines to 
leave home Pages 18 31 



The Battle of Life Apprenticed \vith Messenger, Wigton Sells his 
Donkey Wigton The Half-Moon Inn The Apprentice's Work 
The Tyrant of the Shop Card-playing and Gambling Midnight Ad- 
venture Repentance Life at Wigton Visits Aunt Dinah at Bolton 
Hall The Haunted Room George jent into Scotland Crossing the 
Sohvay Sands End of the Apprenticeship His Sister Mary Deter- 
mines to leave for London The Grey-Goat Inn Influences of a 
Country Boy's Education Pages 3243 




Travelling by Coach Journey to London Arrival at the " Swan with Two 
Necks " Wrestling-match at Chelsea George Moore wins a Prize 
Tries to obtain a situation His Disappointments Obtains a situation 
Removal of his Hair-trunk Enters his situation at Flint, Ray, & Co. 
His love of Cumberland Improves his education Sees his future 
Wife A Serious Difficulty Charged with being a Thief Determines 
to obtain another situation His Success Encounter with the Border 
Cattle-stealer His Sentence mitigated ...... Pages 44 60 



Moore enters the house of Fisher, Stroud, and Robinson Fisher blames 
his Stupidity Things he had to learn, Accuracy, Quickness, Promp- 
titude Country and Town-bred Boys His Self-education at Midnight 
His Improvement Bearing his Brother's Burdens His last Wrestle 
Visit to the House of Commons Becomes Town Traveller Ap 
pointed to Liverpool and Manchester Circuit His Success as a 
Traveller The Napoleon of Watling Street Competition Visit to 
Cumberland Visits the Scenes of his Boyhood Encounter with Grou- 
cock Competition with Groucock Moore leaves Fishtr's for a-Partner- 
ship Pages 61 75 



Beginnings of Groucock and Copestake Change of Premises George 
Moore's Capital His power of work His Travelling Ground The 
Commercial Panic Makes many friends Mr. Brown's account of him 
His determination to obtain orders Selling the Clothes off his Back 
The Pinch of Snuff Rapid Increase of the Business His Christ- 
mases at the Warehouse Difficulty in providing Money Dangerous 
Embarkation for Ireland Crossing Morecambe Sands Escapes with 
his Life Results of the Partnership A Slander raised against the 
Firm Results of the Action George Moore's Marriage . Pages 76 90 



Moore gives up Travelling Extension of Premises Site of John Milton's 
Birth-place Becomes ill Mr. Lawrence advises him to hunt His head 
Phrenologically examined Hunts at Brighton across the Downs His 
first Fox-hunt Terrible Disasters Colonel Conyer's Advice Trip to 


America His Rules on Shipboard New York The Public Institu- 
tions Philadelphia The Solitary System Baltimore River Hudson 
Lakes George and Champlain Montreal Quebec Niagara Boston 
Impressions of America Leaves for England Establishes Lace- 
factory at Nottingham Resumes Fox-hunting Hunts wilh Lord 
Dacre's Hounds with Lord Lonsdale's with Lord Fitzhardinge's 
Great Jump in Gloucestershire Hunts uith Lord Southampton's 
Hounds No wickedness in hunting ...... Pages 91 107 



Moore joins a Life Assurance Society Advises Young Men to Insure 
Cumberland Benevolent Society Gives his First Guinea Becomes 
prominent in the Society His Speech, 1850 Urges Cumberland Men 
to join it Commercial Travellers' Schools Moore's regard for Com- 
mercial Travellers The Institution Founded Moore becomes Treasurer 
Growth of the Institution New Buildings erected Moore travels 
the Country for Subscriptions Mr. Dickens acts as Chairman of 
Annual Dinner Prince Albert opens the Commercial Travellers' 
Schools The "Orphans' Day" Moore's Advice to Boys leaving 
School Pages 108123 



"Auld Cummerland" Moore remembers his old friends VVigton 
Mechanics' Institute Visits Shap Wells Visits Mealsgate Visit ol 
Lord Mayor to Cumberland At St. Bees Visit to VVigton The 
Lawson family Hunting Visit to Brayton Mr. Howard of Greystoke 
Castle Visit to Lord Carlisle at Naworth Castle Ball in Belted 
Will's Hall Visit to Lord Carlisle at Dublin . . . Pages 124 133 



Education in Cumberland Moore endeavours to improve the Schools 
Erects New Schoolhouse at Bolton The old Schoolmasters Thr New 
School at Allhallows Visits the neighbouring Schools Master of 
Pluinbland School Ulcale School liothel School Establishes Per- 
ambulating Library The Stations The Fetes George Moore's Speech 
Villiers, Bishop of Carlisle The Bishop preaches at Allhallows 
The Competitive Examinations Circular of Mr. Moncrieff The 
Revival of Education in Cumberland .... . Pages 134 152 




Extension of Business Knowledge of Character The Busy Man the best 
Worker Moore pricked as Sheriff Pays the Fine rather than serve 
Elected Alderman Appointed Deputy-Lieutenant A Liberal A Free- 
Trader Requested to stand for Nottingham and West Cumberland 
Reasons for not entering the House of Commons Canvasses for Lord 
John Russell Canvasses West Cumberland voters Invitation from 
Lord Lonsdale Lord John Russell Assists Sir Wilfrid Lawson 
A Fox-hunt Residence in Kensington Palace Gardens Visits the 
London Prisons Establishes Brixton Reformatory Lord Shaftesbury 
Marries unmarried People Refuge for Fallen Women Reformatory 
and Refuge Union Home for Incurables London Porters' Benevolent 
Association Sympathy the Secret of Life .... Pages 153 169 



Mr. Moore's Papers as to Religious Life His Illness Repentance His 
Difficulties and Temptations The Rev. Daniel Moore Mr. Groucock's 
Illness and Death Looks for a sudden Conversion The New Birth 
Establishes Family Prayers at the Warehouse Rev. Mr. Richardson 
Family Worship in Milton Street Spiritual Elevation of Cumberland 
Folks Establishes Missionaries Mealsgate and Wigton Scripture 
Readers established House in Kensington Palace Gardens finished 
Mrs. Moore's Illness and Death Purchase of Whitehall Estate 
Memorial Fountain at Wigton Organ presented to Parish Church. 

Pages 170186 


Tour in Italy Lyons Nice Siena Rome Return to London Invited 
to stand for Nottingham Refusal Leaves Royal Hospital for In- 
curables Establishes British Home for Incurables Royal Free Hos- 
pital.; the Freehold purchased Porters' Benevolent Association Ware- 
housemen's and Clerks' Schools Commercial Travellers' Schools 
National Mercantile Assurance Company Ragged Schools Lord 
John Russell's Nomination Young Men wanting situations Letter 
from a Carlisle Draper Pages 187 205 



Destitute Population at the Victoria Docks The Rev. Mr. Douglas col- 
lects Subscriptions Greatness of the Subscription Detraction and 
Envy begin George Moore and Alderman Pakin investigate the 
Accounts The Crowd of Witnesses Report of the Investigators Mr. 
Douglas cleared Mr. Moore's friendship y\ ith all Denominations Home 
Mis-ion Societies Mission at Bow Churchyard Rev. Mr. Rodgers 
engaged as Chaplain National Orphan Home Mixing up of Guests 
Bible-readings Dioce-an Home Mission Theatre-preaching George 
Moore's Diary Extracts from Diary Pages 206 220 




Description of Whitehall and Harbybrow Whitehall the " Fairladies " of 
Redgauntlet Purchase of the Whitehall Estate Mr. Howard's assist- 
ance The House and Grounds repaired Book -hawking by Colporteurs 
Country Towns Missions established Hospitality at Whitehall Re- 
commences Hunting A Wild Spot on the Fells George Moore's Trap 
in the Wood Poor pay of Cumberland Clergy Chapels in the Dales 
Puzzle Hall Clergymen's Stipends Villiers, Bishop of Carlisle 
Leaves Carlisle for Durham Loneliness of George Moore A Friend 
advises him to marry The Lady found George Moore again marries 
Tour in Italy Mr. Adams-Acton's estimate of George Moore. 

Pages 221 234 


Progress of Commercial Travellers' Schools George Moore founds a 
Scholarship Followed by Mr. Stockdale and Dr. Butler Copes take 
Scholarship " Kill your Fox" An indefatigable Beggar journeys 
through the Country Illness of Mr. Moore Arrangement of his Affairs 
The Rev. Mr. Rodgers as Chaplain The Rev. Francis Mor.-e, Not- 
tingham Patronage of Books Invited to represent the City Treasurer 
to the Garibaldi Fund Extracts from the Diary Little Boys' Home 
Mr. Walter's Speech The Outcasts of London Visits London at 
Midnight Treasurer of P'ield Lane Ragged Schools Uses of the In- 
stitution Pages 235252 



George Moore's arrival at his Border Tower The Hall His Business 
His Smoking-room Entertainments Competitive Examinations 
Lord Broueham The Archbishop of York The Romance of 
Cheapside Pleasure and Business Whitehall Picnics Farming 
Shorthorns Bishops and Dissenting Ministers The Wesleyan Chapels 
freed of Debt Entertainments to the Poor and the Widows The 
Household Servants The Missionaries The Young Men from London 
The Porters The Branch Managers Immorality of Cumberland 
Dowager Countess Waldegrave Improvement of Cottage Dwellings 
Cottage Gardens Hunting in Cumberland Accident in Hunting 
Moore's shoulder put out His last Hunt .... Pages 253 271 


Particularity in Accounts Voyage to Antwerp Encounter with Arch- 
deacon Denison Faithfulness and Outspokenness in Religion A Lover 
of the Bible The Emperor of Russia Religious Principle a Power 
Religious Teaching The London Middle-class Schools " Hang Theo- 
logy ! " Controversy with Mr. Tite Religious Instruction established 
Heathendom of London George Moore builds a Church Description 


of Somers Town The Church and Schools Archbishop of Canter- 
bury-elect Moore's Help to Dissenters Mr. Spurgeon Dr. Stoughton 
'i he Christian Community Asked to represent Mid-Surrey in Parlia- 
ment Called a Turncoat Prime Warden of the Fishmongers' Com- 
pany Visits their Estates in Ireland Banquets of the Company 
Moore's Speeches The intense pain in his dislocated shoulder Calls 
upon Mr. Hutton, the Bone-setter Is cured . . . Pages 272 - 295 



Competitive Examinations conducted by the Diocesan Education Society 
The Rev. Dr. Jex-Blake at Wi1on Parting Address of the School- 
masters George Moore's Reply Loss by Farming Magistrate at Wig- 
ton Christ's Hospital Dr. Jacob's Sermon Management of the 
Hospital denounced George Moore elected an Almoner Reforms in- 
troduced Girls' Schools improved The Duke of Cambridge elected 
George Moore's fights His Reasons for removing the Hospital to the 
Country Endowments of Christ's Hospital London School Board 
Jubilee of Commercial Travellers' Schools Founds a Scholarship Its 
Objects Pages 296 309 


Paris besieged by the Germans The Inhabitants Starved Mansion-House 
Fund Provisions sent from London to Paris George Moore and 
Colonel Wortley Their Tourney to Paris Arrival at Great Northern 
Railway The Horses all eaten Conveyance of the Food to Ge vge 
Moore's Warehouse Its Distribution Hungriness of the Inhabitants 
Journey to Versailles Food distributed in the Arrondissements 
The Bon Marche Letters from England about lost friends State 01 
Paris George Moore's Helpers Destruction by the Germans Arch- 
bishop of Paris The Chiffoniers Outbreak of the Commune Assas- 
sination of Darboy the Archbishop Cardinal Manning Destruction 
of Property Distribution of the Mansion-House Funds Mrs. Moore's 
letter from Paris Pages 3 IQ 33^ 



George Moore nominated High Sheriff His duties The Northern Assize 
Sir John Mellor and Sir Robert Lush Geering the Coachman 
Recovery of the Prince of Wales George Moore's Speech The Sum- 
mer Assizes Deaths of old friends James Wilkinson Breeks Con- 
valescent Hospital, Silloth Boarding-out Pauper Children Conference 
at Gilsland Mr. Moore's Paper on Boarding-out Mr. Cropper, Eller- 
greeu Journey into Scotland Interview with ex-Empress of the French 
Days in the Highland- Fisher, the Coach-driver Bishop of Peter- 
tnronrjh The Partners' Lunch Offices at Bow Churchyard Visits to 
Cambridge Professor Sedgwick Asked to represent the County of 
Middlesex Reasons for refusal . , Pages 333351 




Wreck of the Northfleet Widow Stephens's story The Cabmen's Mission 
Cabmen's Supper Visit to the Mission Hall Funeral of Dr. 
Livingstone Dean of Westminster's Letter Church at Somers 
Town Rev. P. S. O'Brien appointed Visitations to the Sick Poor 
Sent to Vichy Visit to Paris His Farm and Shorthorns Sells his 
Shorthorns Miss Rye and Emigration Boarding-out Pauper Children 
The Cumberland Missionaries The Whitehall gatherings Busy Life 
at Whitehall Everybody wants " more" Descendant of an Irish King 
Hospitable Entertainments at Whitehall Visit of the Archbishops 
Fishmongers' Hunt Dinner " Faithful Jack" . . . Pages 352 377 



George Moore's ideas of Duty Sympathy Servants Husband and Wife 
Young Men at Bow Churchyard Some become Clergymen and 
Ministers Students assisted at St. Bees and Cambridge Sends forth a 
good Example Young Men wanting Situations Addresses at the Ware- 
bouse Mercifulness Forgiveness Kindness Life at Bow Churchyard 
Life at Whitehall Illustration of his kindness Helps to Poor Clergy 
men Their acknowledgments Story of a Clergyman Christmas 
Presents to Poor Clergymen His Almoners City and County Mission- 
aries Distribution of Books Disabled Missionaries Christmas^s in 
London and at Whitehall Pages 378398 



Thoughts of Departure Friends dying away Deaths of Mr. Porter, of 
Mr. Howard of Greystoke, of Sir Hope Grant, of Mr. Copestake, 
of Mr! Osborne Arrangement with his Partners Death of Mr. Stock- 
dale Account of George Stockdale Diary of 1876 Begins the year 
with benevolent Gifts Convalescent Hospital at Littlehampton 
Reward of his Servants at Bow Churchyard More Deaths The 
Royal Academy Money-order System of the Post-office Visit to 
Vichy Clerical Aid Education Society Last Visits Conferences at 
Whitehall Many Visitors Last Speech at Wigton Returns to Lon- 
don Education of Poor Boys Assisted by Dr. Percival Visit to 
Muncaster Castle The Shadow of Death The Nurses' Home, Carlisle 
Mrs. Moore's Portrait His last benevolent act Visit to Carlisle 
The accident to Mr. Moore His Death His Burial The Funeral 
Sermons The Memorials The Lifeboat Dr. Butler's Testimony. 

Pa^es 399432 




George Moore's life a succession of Growths Wigton London Recol- 
lection of old friends His Adversities Religious Conversion Re- 
sponsibility His own Household Bow Churchyard Help to the 
Helpless George Moore's name a passport to Success Simplicity and 
Directness His Physique His Portrait A Man of Power His Vigour 
and Determination The Rev. Daniel Moore's estimate His Rebuffs 
"Do Your Best" His Carefulness of Time Promptitude in Emer 
gencies His Moral Courage His Faith in God's Wrd Proper 
Uses of Money Unspoiled by Prosperity Refusals of high Office and 
Honours Love of the Poor Love of Nature Love of Flowers 
Hi; Benevolence His Churchmanship Sympathy his "grandest word " 
Influence on the Character of others United Teachers of Wigton 
Foreshadowings of Death Works unfinished George Moore's 
Epitaph Pages 433 451 

APPENDIX , 452453 

INDEX 454460 




GEORGE MOORE was born at Mealsgate, Cumberland, 
on the Qth of April, 1806. He was the third of a family 
of five. He had two brothers, Thomas and William, 
and two sisters, Sarah and Mary. 

George's father, John Moore, was a man of ancient 
descent, though of moderate means. He belonged to 
the rank of Statesman a title held in as high regard 
in the North as that of the Order of the Garter. " I 
am prouder," says a well-known scholar, "of being a 
Cumberland Statesman than a Cambridge Don!" But 
the Cumberland statesmen, like the English yeomen, are 
fast passing away. 

The old Moores lived at their paternal estate at 
Overgates for more than three hundred years. Over- 
gates is in the parish of Torpenhow, a few miles to 
the south-west of the market-town of Wigton. The 
village of Torpenhow consists of a straggling street 
of little old houses, grey or whitewashed. The ancient 
church, dedicated to St. Michael, stands at the east 
end of the village. The " pellitory from out the wall " 



of Sh'akespeaie 'grows luxuriantly near the churchyard 
gate. People still come from long distances to gather 
it for medicinal purposes. 

Inside the churchyard we come upon the resting- 
places of the old Moores. There they lie, generation 
after generation. The Moores of Overgates ; the 
Moores of Bothel ; the Moores of Highwood Nook ; 
the Moores of Kirkland, and the Moores of Meals- 
gate. They seem to have been a long-lived race. 
Many of them lived to eighty and upwards. Thomas 
Moore of Mealsgate, grandfather of George Moore, 
was buried among his fathers in Torpenhovv Church- 
yard, aged seventy-eight. 

Torpenhow parish is situated on the south bank of 
the river Ellen. The land rises gradually from the 
river until it reaches its highest points at Camphill, 
Caermote, and Binsey. From the high grounds a 
splendid view is obtained, southward, of the Cumber- 
land mountains, Skiddaw towering high above all. 
Bassenthwaite Water lies quietly sleeping under the 
shadow of the majestic hills which surround it. 

The high lands from which we look down remain 
very much as nature left them. The country here- 
abouts is wild and lonely. Scarcely a house or a 
person is to be seen. The land is poor and un- 
cultivated. It is half moor, half inclosed pasture. 
A few Fell sheep and black Scotch cattle grub for 
grass among the roots of the whins and heather. 
Yet it is not without its beauties for the lover of 
nature. The glorious mountains, the far-off sweeps 
of gorse, the wild smell of the heather, the sea air 
from the west blowing fresh against your face, the 
large purple shadows dropped by the passing clouds 
upon the moor, the lark singing over-head, the bumble- 
bee humming close by ; and above all, the infinite 
silence ! That indeed is a picture to be remembered. 


Looking towards the north, over Torpenhow, the 
view is altogether different. In the bottom of the 
valley lies the river Ellen. You see the little farm- 
stead of Overgates, the original home of the Moores. 
Far away, over woods and pastures and cornfields, 
over grassy knolls and winding valleys, over 
clusters of farmhouses half hid in clumps of syca- 
mores, over villages, mere specks of whiteness nest- 
ling among green fields, over stately homes and 
ruined castles, you see the northern border of Cum- 
berland. In the distance the Solway lies in the 
sunlight like a silver strip of brightness. Beyond 
the Firth, the lowlands of Dumfries and Kircud- 
bright stretch away glimmering through the sun- 
shine. Above and beyond them the Scottish moun- 
tains are seen, Criffel standing out boldly and 

The Solway Firth extends inland, between Scotland 
and England, from Maryport to Carlisle. It is in 
many places about twelve miles across. The tide 
runs up and down with great force, especially at 
spring tides. The Solway might be thought a suffi- 
cient protection for Cumberland during the troublous 
times which preceded the union of the crowns of 
England and Scotland. But it was no such protec- 
tion against hungry and warlike people. The Solway 
can be crossed at low tide by horsemen who know 
the secrets of its depths and eddies. For this reason, 
amongst others, the northern part of Cumberland was 
constantly exposed to the depredations of the Scots. 
They waded the Solway, pillaged the villages and 
farmsteadings, and carried off to Annandale and 
Nithsdale all the cattle they could seize and drive 
before them. 

For this reason the people of Cumberland, a few 
hundred years ago, always stood at arms. The 

B 2 


entrances to the villages were defended by a double 
ditch, and by gates fastened with an iron chain. 
This was the case at Wigton. Those who could, 
fortified their houses, and left a space beneath into 
which their cattle might be driven at night. A little 
beneath Overgates, in the valley of the Ellen, there 
are two border castles, or Peel towers, which afford a 
good example of the fortified houses of these days. 
One of these is called Harbybrow, now in ruins, and 
the other is Whitehall, recently renovated and en- 
larged, the country-seat of the subject of this story. 
These border castles stand about a mile from each 
other. It is said that there was once an underground 
road between them. 

The original towers are lofty, square, and massive. 
The walls at the lower part are about nine feet thick. 
They are divided into three stories. Harbybrow 
remains very much as it was. It has an arched 
chamber underneath the old cattle keep. During 
the Scottish raids, the men and the cattle entered the 
tower by the same door. The cattle were driven into 
the arched chamber, while the men fastened the door 
and mounted to the higher stories. If assailed, they 
stood to arms, threw down huge stones, or poured 
boiling water or lead upon those who ventured to 
assail the little garrison. But when the cattle were 
secured, that was rarely done. The mosstroopers had 
no means of laying siege to fortified places. 

In the meantime the country was up. During the 
border raids, people were stationed on the higher 
grounds to keep a strict look out. The names of 
"Watch-hill" and "Beacon-top" still point to such 
localities. 1 The church towers were also used for the 

1 The Cumberland beacons that were lighted up to assemble the sur- 
rounding population to arms were Blackcombe, Munca-ler Fell, St. Bees 
Head, Wovkiugton Hill, Moothay, Skiddaw, Sandale Head End, Carlisle 


same purpose. The country was apt to be ravaged 
for twenty miles along the border. The tenants of 
the manors were obliged, by the firing of the beacons, 
to attend their lords in their border service. If 
requisite, their attendance might be prolonged for 
forty days. There was little or no cultivation of the 
land at that time. Indeed payment of rent was 
scarcely known until after the Union. All that the 
landlord gained from those residing upon his estate 
was personal service in battle or in pursuit, and per- 
haps a share of the spoil taken by rapine from the 
Scotch side of the border. 

The morality of those days was of a very wild 
description. Freebooting was considered a respectable 
profession on both sides of the border. It was like 
piracy at sea, of which neither Raleigh nor Drake 
were ashamed. To be a freebooter or a mosstrooper 
was not considered a term of reproach. The free- 
booter did not keep a "gig," but he kept a pricker, 
on which he scoured the neighbouring county for 
plunder. Every man fought for his own hand, like 
Harry-o'-the-Wynd. If they could not steal from the 
neighbouring border, they stole from each other. 1 They 
were quite as dangerous to their neighbours as to their 
enemies. They were very valiant men too. Many 
were the instances of dash and daring among chem. 
The Elliots, Armstrongs, and Scotts were as daring on 
the one side, as the Graemes, Rutledges, and Howards 
were on the other. Their names have been alike 
immortalised in the ballad lore of the border. 

The Scotch were, however, the hungriest of the two. 

Castle, Lingy-close Head, Beacon Hill, Penrith, Dale Raughton, Brampton 
Mote, and Spade-adam Top. 

1 There is a wild path across the mountains, far south in Cumberland, 
very unlikely to be disturbed by the Scotch mosstroopers, for it is between 
Borrowdale and Ravenglass, siill called "The Thieves' Road." It must 
have been so called from the Lancashire and Cumberland reivers. 


Whenever their food fell short, they determined on a 
raid. Though they were ready, as the Armstrongs were, 
to rob each other, they preferred harrying their neigh- 
bours across the border. 1 They co-'ld then combine 
their personal views of plunder with something like a 
spirit of patriotism. There was a portion of land 
between the two countries which was long known as the 
Debatable Land. It was long a source of contention. 
It was situated north of Carlisle, between the rivers 
Esk and Sark. It belonged neither to England nor 
Scotland. The land was infested by thieves and ban- 
ditti, to whom, in its mossy, boggy, and uncultivated 
state, it afforded a desirable refuge. They robbed alike 
the English and the Scotch. Once, when a battle was 
going on, some of the men succeeded in robbing their 
fellow-troopers of their horses. The inhabitants of the 
Middle or Western Marches were unrestrained moss- 
troopers and cattle-stealers, " having no measure of law," 
says Camden, "but the length of their swords." When 
caught by their enemies, they were dealt with by 
Jeddart justice, that is, they were first hanged and 
then tried. 

The Grammes were among the chief occupants of the 
Debatable Land. A document quoted in the History 
of Ciimberland says, concerning the Graemes of Netherby 
and others of that clan, " They were all stark moss- 
troopers and arrant thieves, both to England and Scot- 
land outlawed ; yet sometimes connived at, because 
they gave intelligence forth of Scotland, and would 
raise four hundred horse at any time upon a raid of the 

1 A saying is recorded of a Border mother to her son, "Ride, Roley, 
ride, the last hough's i' the pot" meaning that the last leg of beef was 
being boiled, and that it was high time for him to go and fetch more. An 
equally good story is told of a Cumberland matron. So long as her pro- 
Visions lusted she set them regularly on the table, but as soon as they were 
finished, she brought forth two pairs of spurs and said, " Sons, I have no 
meat for you ; go, seek for your dinner." 


English into Scotland." And so it was of the Elliots 
and Armstrongs on the northern side of the border, 
which led to the popular saying, " Elliots and Arm- 
strongs, 1 ride thieves all." From these grim borderers 
have descended General Elliot, who so bravely defended 
Gibraltar ; Sir James Graham, one of our greatest 
statesmen; and Sir William Armstrong, the inventor of 
the Armstrong gun. 

When the hungry Scots prepared to make a raid 
southward, they mounted their wiry horses, met at their 
appointed places, and either waded the Solway or 
forded the Liddel or the Esk. They crossed the border 
by secret by-ways known only to themselves. They 
knew every road across the mosses, and every ford 
across the rivers. They also knew every channel of 
escape from Cumberland to the north. The men were 
armed with long spears, a two-handed sword, a battle- 
axe or a Jedburgh staff, and latterly with dags or 
pistols. Each, trooper carried his own provisions, which 
consisted for the most part of a bag of oatmeal. They 
trusted to the booty they seized for eking out their 

So soon as it was known that the reivers were abroad 
that they had crossed the Solway from Annandale, or 
come down from Eskdale or Liddcsdale all Cumber- 
land was roused. The beacons blazed out at Carlisle, 
Watch-hill, Torpenhow, Sandale Head End, Beacon- 
hill, and Skiddaw. The mounted troopers gathered at 
the appointed places, harnessed in jacks, and armed 
with spears and swords. Away they went in hot-trod ! 
So soon as they came upon the mosstroopers the sleuth- 
hounds 2 were set upon their track, and wherever they 

1 In the sixteenth century the Armstrong clan, under the command of 
the English chief, Sir Ralph Evans ravaged almost the whole of the west 
border of Scotland. 

a As late as 1616 there was an order from the King's Commissioners of 
the Northern counties that a certain number of sleuth-hounds (so called 


went they blew their horns to summon their country- 
men to their help. They also carried a burning wisp of 
straw or wood at their spears' point ; l and raised a cry 
similar to that of the Indian warwhoop. It appears 
that those who heard this cry were bound to join in the 
chase under penalty of death. 

The pursuit might last for days or for weeks. The 
regulations of the barony of Gilsland, still preserved by 
the Earl of Carlisle, show the nature of the border- 
service of the tenants. Every tenant was required to 
keep a good, able, and sufficient horse " such a nagge 
as is able at anye tyme to beare a manne twentie miles 
within Scotlande and backe againe without a baite. " 
They were to be provided with a " jacke, steale-cap, 
s\vord, bowe, or speare," and were to be ready " to serve 
the Lord Warden or their officers upon sixe houres 
warninge, in anye place where they shall be appointed 
to serve." They were also required to appoint a watch 
over their farms by day and by night ; and, when a foray 
occurred at night, "the partie that is harried to keepe a 
beaken burning of some height, of intente that not- 
withstandinge all the country be in a fraye the fier may 
be a token where the hurt is done, that all menne may 
know which way to drawe."' 2 

The old statesmen held their lands by border service, 
as appears from the old title-deeds. They were required 
to be ready to follow the fray when the mosstroopers 
were abroad. They must be armed, horsed, and ready 
to fight. In the recital attached to a decree in the 

from their quality of tracing the slot, or track of men and animals) should 
be maintained in every district in Cumberland bordering on Scotland. The 
breed of this sagacious dog is nearly extinct. 

1 A practice borrowed from the Norsemen, who formed large settlements 
round the Solway Firth, as is still indicated by the names of places, and 
especially of headlands. The Highlanders also borrowed their fiery crosi 
from the Norsemen, many of whom became chiefs of the Highland clans. 

B LYSON'S Ma^na Britannia, vol. iv., Cumberland xi. xii. 


Court of Chancery l relating to the Woodvilles or 
Woodhalls, of Waterend, near Cockermouth, it is stated 
that the " plaintiffs (the statesmen) and the other tenants 
there, or their assigns, had time out of mind been seized 
to them and their heirs, by and according to the ancient 
and laudable custom of tenant-right then used, being 
within the West Marches of England over against 
Scotland ; " and further that they held " their several 
tenements by serving upon the said borders of England 
over against Scotland, at their own proper costs and 
charges, within the said West Marches, then and so 
often as thereunto they should be required by the Lord 
Warden of the said West Marches, for the time being, 
or his sufficient deputy or deputies, as well as defending 
the frontiers of the said Marches, as in offending the 
opposite Marches as occasion served." 

The freebooting raids between the borderers of the 
two countries continued long after the union of the 
crowns. Shortly after James I. came to the throne of 
England, he set up a claim to all the small estates in 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, on the plea that the 
statesmen were merely the tenants of the crown. The 
statesmen met to the number of two thousand, at Ratten 
Heath, between Kendal and Stavely, where they came 
to the resolution that "they had won their lands by the 
sword, and were able to hold them by the same." After 
that meeting no further claim was made to their estates 
on the part of the crown. 

But freebooting had not yet come to an end. The 
disposition to plunder had become part of the borderers' 
nature. Mosstrooping continued during the English 
Revolution and the Commonwealth ; and after the Res- 
toration it reached to such a height that it was found 
necessary to enact laws of great severity for the protec- 

1 Dated the 251)1 April, 1597. LONSDALE'S Worthies of Ctimberland ; 
"Memoir of Dr. Woodville," p. 231. 


tion of the more peaceful bordermen. The magistrates 
were authorised to raise bodies of armed men for the 
defence of property and order ; and provision was 
made for supporting them by local taxation. Blood- 
hounds were again used to track the mosstroopers to 
their retreats among the hills. These measures, in 
course of time, had their due effect. Yet it was not 
until some time after the. union of England and Scot- 
land, in Queen Anne's reign, that the border hostilities 
died away, and the inhabitants were left to cultivate 
their land in peace. 

Yet cattle-stealing, and sheep-stealing the survivals 
of the old freebooting system still continued to be 
carried on. Juries were never found wanting when a 
cattle-stealer was to be tried. The punishment was 
short and sharp hanging by the neck. Even in modern 
times it is difficult to induce a Carlisle jury to convict a 
man of murder ; but when the offence is sheep-stealing, 
the-conviction is certain. When Baron Martin crossed 
Shapfell, on his Northern Circuit, he used to say, " Now 
we have got into Cumberland, where we can scarcely 
get a jury to convict a man of murder, even though he 
has killed his mother ; but they will hang a man for 
sheep-stealing ! " 

The story is told of a stranger who visited Bewcastle 
formerly the centre of a wild district for the purpose 
of examining the Runic pillar in the churchyard. On 
looking round among the tombstones, he was surprised 
to find that they commemorated none but female deaths. 
He made a remark to this effect to the old woman who 
accompanied him : " Ou, Sir, do ye no ken what for ? 
They're a' buried at that weary Caerl ! " He found, in 
fact, that the male inhabitants of the district had either 
been transported or hanged at Carlisle ! 

The modern Cumberland Statesmen are the northern 
yeomen of England. They ar men who work hard, 


live frugally, and enjoy an honest independence. They 
are neither squires nor labourers. They stand betwixt 
both. They till their own soil and consume their own 
produce. They sell the cattle and corn which they do 
not require, to buy the household articles which they 
cannot produce. They used to weave their own cloth. 
In olden times, the " Grey coats of Cumberland " was a 
common phrase. But all this has passed away ; and 
statesmen are now sinking into the class of ordinary 
farmers, or even labourers. 

The statesmen of the mountain districts so many of 
them as still remain are a very primitive class of 
people. They know nothing of the rate of discount or 
the price of gold. They have enough of the world's 
gear to serve their purpose. They are uncorrupted by 
modern luxury. They are content ; and happy to 
enjoy the golden mean of Agur. They pass a simple 
and inoffensive life amidst the lonely hills which sur- 
round them. " Go," said one of these statesmen to a 
tourist, " go to the vale on the other side of yon moun- 
tain. You will find a house ; enter it, and say that you 
came from me. I know him not, but he will receive 
you kindly, for our sheep mingle upon the mountains ! " 

These men have no inclination to change, either in 
their life and customs, or in their sheep- farming. " At 
Penruddock," says an agricultural report on Cumberland, 
" we observed some singularly rough-legged, ill-formed 
sheep, and on asking an old farmer where the breed came 
from, he replied, ' They are sic as God set upon the 
land : we never change them !' " These are the people 
whom Wordsworth himself a Cumberland man has 
described with so much character and feeling. 1 

1 Close upon the border, the Cumberland men are rougher and readiet 
than those towards the south. They have scarcely outgrown the moss 
trooping life of their forefathers. Many of them are " Bworder Cowpers," 
dealing in horses and cattle. One of them tried to recommend himself to 
a travelling Scotsman by claiming kindred, affirming that he was a Border 


The state -men of the low-lying districts towards the 
north are of a sturdier character. They have more 
mother wit and back-bone. Their forefathers being 
constantly on the alert to resist the inroads of the Scots, 
have handed down to their sons their fearless resolution 
and undaunted courage. They bear the greatest fatigue 
with patience. They live contented on humble fare, 
though their hospitality to strangers is open-handed 
and liberal. Though not rich in money or land, they 
are rich in character and healthful contentment They 
are satisfied with their social position, and are even proud 
of it. To be " an able and honest statesman " used to 
be one of the highest titles in Cumberland. 

The statesman's household was a school of thrift and 
industry. The clothing was made at home. The 
women wore linsey-wolsey cloth of their own making. 
The young men and lads thought themselves well clad 
if they went to kirk in homespun hodden -gray. Stalwart 
sons and comely maidens were brought up on porridge, 
oatcakes, and milk ; in fact there could be no better 
food. These were occasionally varied with barley ban- 
nocks, Whillimer cheese, potato-pot, a bit of bacon, and 
an occasional slice of salt-beef or mutton in winter. 
What could they require more ? Their sharpness of 
appetite was whetted by the keen atmosphere of the 
mountain air. 

" Come in," said a tenant to his landlord one day, 
" an hev a bit o' dinner afwore ye gang." The landlord 
went in amongst the family, the servants, and the 
labourers, who were about to " set to." Near the end 
of the table was a large hot-pot, containing beef or 
mutton, cut into pieces, and put into a large dish along 
with potatoes, onions, pepper and salt. This was the 
famous Cumberland " taty-pot." The farmer, after help- 
Scot. "Gucle faith, I dinna doubt it," quoth the other ; "for the selvage 
I* aye the warst part o' the web ! " 


ing himself, thrust the dish towards the landlord, and 
said, " Noo ye man help yersel, and hoivk in ! Theer's 
plenty meat at bottom, but its rayther het ! " 

Nor does this food disagree with the well-appetised 
Cumbrians. They are for the most part men of large 
stature. They are big-boned and broad-chested. Their 
firm muscles, well-knit joints, and vigorous hands give 
them great advantage as wrestlers. What they want in 
agility and suppleness they make up for in strength. 

Although the Statesman worked hard and lived on 
humble fare, his wife was a Dame ; his eldest son was 
the Laird ; and when there was no son, his eldest 
daughter was the Lady. Thus, while the statesman 
himself was at the plough, the laird was driving the cattle 
to market, and the lady was working at the churn. 
Getting up in the morning was a great point. The 
Cumberland ballad-maker, when deploring the introduc- 
tion of new customs fifty years ago, when the country 
was " puzzened round wi' preyde," goes on to say 

" We used to gan ta bed at dark, 

An' rose agean at four or five ; 
The mworn's the only time for wark, 
If fwok are healthy and wad thrive." 

The difference between one statesman and another 
consisted principally in character. Where the states- 
man was slow, sluggish, and inert, he gravitated rapidly 
downwards. No changes were made in the improve- 
ment of the farm. The old hive became filled with 
drones. The sons dropped down to the condition of 
farm servants and day-labourers. When the states- 
man borrowed money and got into the hands of the 
lawyers, he never got out of them until the land was 

On the other hand, another statesman, of a better 
sort, would keep the rooftree up by dint of energy and 
forethought He would give his sons a fair education, 


set before them a good example, instil into them prin- 
ciples of independence and self-help, and send them 
into the world braced with courage and the spirit of 
duty. The eldest son became the statesman, like his 
father before him. The second son sometimes became 
a "priest" the ordinary name for a clergyman in 
Cumberland, while the others emigrated to the colonies, 
or entered into the various avenues of business life at 

On the whole, however, it must be confessed that the 
statesmen of Cumberland, like the yeomanry of Eng- 
land, have been rapidly disappearing during the last 
century. Sir James Graham spoke of the cavalcade of 
mounted statesmen who accompanied Mr. Blamire into 
Carlisle, on his appointment as High Sheriff in 1828, as 
" a body of men who could not be matched in any other 
part of the kingdom. The sight they had seen that day 
was such as they could never forget. The yeomanry of 
Cumberland were the finest and purest specimens of a 
set of men, who in all periods of its history had been the 
strength and pride of their country." But the fifty years 
that have passed away since then have seen great changes. 
Wealth is everywhere absorbing landed property. Small 
holdings are disappearing ; small estates are blotted out ; 
and the Cumberland statesman is already becoming a 
thing of the past. 1 

1 "One thing," says Dr. Lonsdale, "is manifest in the history of the 
yeomen, and that is, their gradual decadence, especially during the last 
thirty years. Many a 'canny house,' where yeomen had for centuries kept 
their yule, taught their sons and grandsons the traditions of their home, no 
longer shelter 'the weel-kent folk o' ither days.' Even the naihes of their 
founders are forgotten. This disappearance of names, if not of habitations, 
in many rural districts, brings about reflections of by no means an agreeable 
kind. Among many changes affecting both men and interests in these 
northern counties, there is no change more marked than that arising from 
the purchasing of real estates and the absorption of small holdings of a few 
potato fields or share of pasturage, once the pride of decent folk content in 
their changeless life, by larger landed proprietors. 

' 111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, 
Where Wealth accumulates and Men decay.' " 


During the long period that George Moore's fore- 
elders lived at Overgates, few records of their lives 
have been preserved. They had their part in the 
border raids. They were always ready to join in the 
fray when the mosstroopers were abroad. At the 
western end of Overgates house, there was a con- 
cealed place in which a nag or charger was kept ; for 
in those days a nag was almost as good as a man. 
When the war-cry of " Snaffle, spur, and spear ! " was 
raised, the Moores of Overgates mounted like the rest, 
and galloped off to the meeting-place. The border 
towers and the cattle-keeps were in the valley below, 
almost within sight of the homestead ; and when the 
muster took place, away they went after the " ruffian 

Thus the Moores lived until the troublous times had 
passed away, and peace fell upon the border-lands. The 
young men and women intermarried with the sons and 
daughters of the neighbouring statesmen. For the 
most part they settled near the paternal home. Thus 
there were the Moores of Bothel, the Moores of 
Highwood-Nook, and the Moores of Kirkland all 
in the parish of Torpenhow. In the churchyard we 
read the names of the forgotten dead sometimes on 
a broken gravestone covered with grey lichens. None 
of them seem to have come to any fame in the world's 
history. It was a little circle they lived in. Anxious 
thrift and carefulness were their portion. They lived 
their lives of joy and sorrow, of homely experience 
and of daily work, little heedful of the troubles and 
turmoils of the outer world. They did their duty, 
and then they' went to rest. 

Thomas Moore, a younger son of the statesman at 
Overgates, was born in 1/33- He went to Bothel in 
his youth to assist his brotl er in the work of the 
farm. In 1773 he went to Meals^ te, where he 


purchased a farm of sixty acres, recited in the deeds 
as " the Mealsgate tenement in the parishes of Boltoi? 
or Allhallows." There he lived a careful, frugal, and 
industrious life. Fair, market, and church, were the 
only little breaks in his life of daily toil. He married, 
and had an only son John Moore, the father of George. 
John did not marry until he was thirty-five. We learn 
from the Family Bible that on the i$th of February, 
1800, he brought home Peggy Lowes, the daughter of 
a neighbouring statesman, as his wife. The register 
goes on to say that Thomas Moore was born on the 
27th of January, 1802 ; Sarah on the I7th of January, 
1804; George on the Qth of April, 1806; Mary on 
the 5th of March, 1808; and William on the 3Oth of 
March, 1810. Thomas Moore was now an old man. 
lie lived to see all his grandchildren born. Then 
he passed away and was laid amongst his forefathers 
in Torpenhow church-yard, at the ripe age of seventy- 

The house at Mealsgate lies on the main road be- 
tween Wigton and Cockermouth. It is a house of two 
stories, standing a little back from the road. A brook 
runs through the orchard before the house. It wanders 
along the valley through the Whitehall estate, and 
runs into the river Ellen, near Harbybrow. A few 
scattered cottages lie about the place, constituting the 
village of Mealsgate. 

On entering the Moores' dwelling, you pass at once 
from the outer door into the general sitting-room. This, 
in Cumberland phrase, is known as "The House." A 
large old-fashioned fireplace occupies one end the 
" ingle neuk," round which the family -held their gene- 
ral conclave and told stories of the olden time during 
the winter evenings. At the other end of the room, 
opposite the fireplace, is the Parlour, which is usually 
appropriated as a bedroom by the married pair. Behind 


is the kitchen and the other offices. A staircase of the 
simplest kind leads up to the four small low-roofed bed- 
rooms above. 

Such is the house at Mealsgate in which the subject 
of the following story was born and brought up. 



AFTER the birth, the christening. George Moore of 
Bothel was to "stand for" the child. He was an old 
bachelor, a man of good means, and he meant to " do 
something " for his godson. A large party of Moores 
assembled at Mealsgate on the christening morning. 
It must have been regarded as a matter of considerable 
importance. A chaise was brought from Wigton to 
convey the mother and child up the hill to JBolton 

Chaises were veiy uncommon in Cumberland in those 
days. The roads were unsuitable for wheeled carriages. 
Chaises were called those " queer trundlin' kists on't 
roads." Horseback was the usual method of convey- 
ance ; and women rode on pack-saddles. But on this 
occasion, as the mother was delicate and the child was 
young, a post-chaise was brought from Wigton to convey 
them to Church. The child was baptized in the name 
of his great-uncle and godfather, George Moore. His 
father afterwards said of him that "he had begun the 
world with a chaise, and he was likely to end it with a 

Old George Moore of Bothel, the godfather of the 
child, was as good as his word. When he died, in 1817, 
at the ripe age of seventy-two, he left his godson a legacy 


of ioo/., together with a big hair-trunk. The ioo/. was 
to be paid to him when he reached the age of twenty- 
one ; but by the time it was paid it amounted, with 
accumulations of interest, to about i/o/. It was then 
found very useful. The hair-trunk also had its history. 
It had the letters " G. M." marked in brass nails on the 
top. The hair-trunk went to Wigton, to London, to 
America, and is still in the possession of the family at 
Mealsgate. It is more than 150 years old. 

The earliest recollection of George Moore was a very 
painful one. He was about six years old when his 
mother died. She was laid in the parlour, next to the 
room known as " the house." The boy turned into the 
parlour as usual, went up to his mother, touched her, 
but she did not move ! He saw the cold pale face, and 
the shrouded body. This was his first idea of Death, 
and it left a startling impression on his mind. He saw 
his mother taken away by men in black, followed by a 
long train of mourners ; and he saw her no more. 

The same night he was taken by his father to sleep 
with him in the same bed from which his mother had 
been taken in the morning. The boy was frightened, 
startled, almost horror-struck. He did not sleep; 
he was thinking of his departed mother. The recol- 
lection of that day and of that night haunted him 
all his life. It left in his mind a morbid horror of 
death. It was so strong that he could never afterwards 
see a dead person. His intense vitality recoiled from 
the terrible accompaniments of that mystery which we 
call Death. 

And yet he had nearly his whole life before him. 
Such losses as these must soon be forgotten, or remem- 
bered only with sorrow ; otherwise life would be intoler- 
able. It might be thought that John Moore, who took 
his boy to sleep with him that night, was a hard and 
unfeeling man. But this was not the case. Let George 

C 2 


Moore himself speak of his father's character. " My 
father," he says, "was a fine specimen of the North 
Country yeoman, whose fore-elders had lived at the 
same place for generations. His integrity, generosity, 
and love of truth left influences on my life and character 
for which I can never be too thankful. I have often 
said that I think he never told a lie in his life. The 
only time he flogged me was for telling a lie ; and 1 
never felt so sorry for anything as to have grieved him. 

" His great failing was in believing others too impli- 
citly. His generosity got the better of his judgment. 
He lost a great deal of money by becoming bound for 
friends at public sales of cattle. The purchaser being 
unable to pay, my father had to find the money. Very 
often it was never repaid. Had it not been for the 
thrifty and careful habits of the family, our estate would 
long ago have passed into strange hands. At the same 
time, my father was one of the most straightforward of 
men. He had as great a moral courage as any man I 
ever knew. I can well remember his ordering a man 
out of his house who came in drunk, and reprimanding 
others who had done some bad deed. John Moore of 
Mealsgate was indeed a terror to evil-doers." 

Some five years after his wife's death, John Moore 
married again. The children were growing up untrained 
and ill-tended. There wanted some clever woman about 
the house to look after the bairns while John was afield 
at his work. The consequence was that he married 
Mary Pattinson, sister of the Rev. Mr. Pattinson, of 
Caldbeck. She proved an active and managing house- 
mate. She was a good wife as regarded her husband ; 
but she did not get on very well with the elder children. 
They regarded her as an intruder, and were predisposed 
to resist her authority. " My stepmother," says George 
Moore, "was invariably kind to me, but the elder 
children probably had a strong prejudice against her. 


At all events, as regarded the family, she did not add to 
the happiness of our household." 

At the age of eight, George Moore was sent to school. 
The school to which he went was situated at Boltongate, 
about two miles from Mealsgate. It used to lie at the 
corner of Bolton churchyard, separated from the church 
itself by the parish burying-ground. It has recently 
been pulled down to make room for more graves. To 
that school George Moore walked daily, wet or dry, to 
receive his miserable quotum of "education." 

Very little provision was made in those days for the 
education of the rising generation. Cumberland was 
no better than the other English counties. Any man 
who had a stick-leg, or a club-foot, or a claw-hand, 
thought himself fit to be a teacher. The three R's 
formed the amount of the accomplishment given. The 
teaching was altogether lifeless and humdrum. What 
was knocked into the boys was done for the most part 
by caning and whipping. In George Moore's case the 
teaching was given by a man addicted- to drink. His 
name was Blackbird Wilson. He was called Blackbird 
because he could imitate the singing of any bird in the 
neighbourhood, and especially of the blackbird. Here 
is George Moore's account of him : 

" The master, Blackbird Wilson, was an old man, 
fond of drink. The scholars were sent out to fetch it 
for him three or four times a day. He used to drive 
the learning into us with a thick ruler, which he brought 
down sharply upon our backs. He often sent the ruler 
flying amongst our heads. The wonder is that he did 
not break our skulls. Perhaps he calculated on their 
thickness. His rule was to drive reading, writing, and 
arithmetic into us by brute force. He never attempted 
to make learning attractive. He did not cultivate the 
understanding or endeavour to teach us the good of 
knowledge. Such being the case, I was never fond of 


school. I often played the truant, and rambled about 
whenever I could get away. Indeed I should have been 
much oftener absent, had it not been for the dread of 
the terrible floggings which were then as common in 
Cumberland as elsewhere. My determination not to 
study followed me through my school-days ; and often, 
indeed, have I repented of my folly in not learning as 
much as I could when at school, for I have often felt 
the mortification of being ignorant. My faults were 
those of an energetic and wayward disposition, unhelped 
by a mother's sympathy and solace." 

When Blackbird Wilson retired from the office of 
schoolmaster, he was succeeded by Mr. Allison, a 
humaner and better teacher. The Rev. W. M. Gunson, 
M.A., has furnished the following information as to the 
teaching and routine of the school while he attended it. 
He says, "Dull tradition and immobility are very con- 
servative in isolated country places like Bolton ; and I 
believe that an account of my school-time will accurately 
represent that of George Moore's. The curriculum con- 
sisted of the three R's, with spelling. I have no recol- 
lection of learning anything like grammar or parsing. 
One other thing, however, was carefully taught, the 
Church Catechism. In Lent, every year, we spent much 
time in committing it to memory, and on the afternoon 
of Easter Sunday we were publicly examined in it by 
the clergyman in the church, in presence of the largest 
congregation that assembled on any day of the year ; 
for the parents were there, wishing to hear their children 
acquit themselves well. 

" The arrangements of the school itself were rude 
and rough enough. The fire was lighted in the morn- 
ings, and the school swept out by two of the boys in 
turn, specially told off for the purpose. Their duty 
lasted for a week, at the end of which they had the 
privilege of naming their successors for the following 

CHAP, ii.] BARRING OOT. 2 3 

week. When coals were wanted, the money to buy 
them was raised by levying a tax of twopence or three- 
half-pence each on all the scholars. Many of the 
children, who came from a distance, brought a cold 
dinner with them, and ate it in the school. The time 
that remained at the midday interval was mostly spent 
in bathing in the river Ellen, which runs about half a 
mile from the school. This contributed to cleanliness 
and health, and gave the boys a love of cold water 
which clung to them through life. 

" One of the holidays occurred in harvest time. It 
was secured by a process of barring maister oot. As 
soon as any of the scholars announced that they had 
seen t' first stock, 1 a conspiracy was entered into ; and 
during the midday interval the boys shut themselves up 
in the school, and barricaded the door and windows 
against outsiders. On the master returning from his 
dinner, entrance was denied him. He generally made a 
show of violence to break in, but of course he never 
succeeded. When he found his efforts vain, he called a 
parley. The first condition the boys insisted on was 
freedom from punishment for the barring oot ; and when 
that was promised, they then proceeded to negotiate as 
to the length of the holiday that was to be given. Their 
rebellion being always successful, was, like other success- 
ful rebellions in wider spheres of action, regarded as an 
act of schoolboy loyalty and patriotism, and when it was 
over, all alike enjoyed its successful results." 

The amusements of the boys during play-hours were 
in some respects peculiar to the district. Wrestling, or 
worsling, was their most famous sport. The boys tried 
their strength with each other. They got to know the 
best way of takiri hod ; the chips and the hypes ; the 
buttocks and cross-buttocks ; the back-heeling, the hank 
and the click inside. The wrestling of Cumberland and 

1 The earliest shock of corn cut. 


Westmoreland is well known. The game, as practised 
there, is not so savage as that of Cornwall. There is no 
hard kicking of the shins or legs, and the boys or men 
who have thrown each other continue the same good 
friends as ever. Men of all classes wrestle, statesmen, 
ploughmen, cobblers, labourers, and even clergymen. 
One of the most noted wrestlers in Cumberland was a 
curate the Rev. Abraham Brown. William Richardson 
of Caldbeck, and George Irving, the publican at Bolton- 
gate (whose whisky Blackbird Wilson so much relished), 
were the most noted wrestlers in the neighbourhood. 

The boys began to try their physical powers early. 
They wrestled with each other on the village greens. 
George Moore, like his schoolfellows, often tried his 
hand. He was strong and wiry; tenacious and perse- 
vering. He learnt the various tricks of the art ; and 
before he left school there were few boys who could 
stand before him. 

Another game of the schoolboys was Scots and 
English. This was doubtless a survival of the old 
border warfare. The boys form two parties, which 
respectively represent the Scots and English. They fix 
upon two strongholds, at the distance of from sixty to a 
hundred yards apart. A boundary line is drawn, and 
each party deposits their coats, waistcoats, and bonnets 
at the proper hold. The sport then begins. The boys 
run across the line, and endeavour to make prisoners of 
each other, at the same time that they plunder the 
enemy in the most dexterous manner, without becoming 
prisoners. If they are taken prisoners they are carried 
to a supposed place of confinement, though sometimes 
the prisoners are mutually permitted to pillage for the 
conquerors. The same game is played, with some slight 
variations, on the Scottish side of the Border. 

Among George Moore's other amusements was that 
of bird-nesting. He was accustomed with other boys 


to search the bushes which overhung the Dowbeck burn 
and the trees which skirted the river Ellen. He climbed 
trees that no one else dared to climb. He searched 
the Peel Towers of Whitehall and Harbybrow. They 
were haunted by jackdaws, whose eggs he wished to 
secure. They built their nests in the old wide chimneys 
of the towers. With his usual daring, he had himself 
let down by ropes from the top of the towers to the 
places where the nests were built. Thus he brought 
home lots of eggs, and when he had blown them and 
strung them, he hung them in long rows over the 
mantelpiece at Mealsgate. 

George Moore was an excellent player at marbles. 
He was so successful, that the other boys thought that 
the merit was due to the marbles and not to the player. 
They consequently bought his marbles for a penny 
apiece, though they cost him only five for a halfpenny. 
As he was not allowed any pocket-money, the money 
thus earned was sometimes found very useful. 

For instance, on one occasion, when eleven years old, 
he went from Mealsgate to Carlisle to see a man hanged 
who had passed a forged Scotch note. He was accom- 
panied by another boy. They started early in the 
morning, and made their way to Carlisle, walking a 
distance of seventeen miles. They reached the Sands, 
where the execution was to take place. But the boys, 
being so little, could scarcely see over the heads of the 
people who crowded round the gallows. George, with 
his usual resolution, determined to push himself forward, 
and got as near to the gallows as possible. He pushed 
through amongst the people's legs, and when he got to 
the troop of dragoons who surrounded the scaffold, he 
passed under the horses' legs, and thus got to the front 
rank. He saw all that happened. When the man was 
hanged, George swooned away. When he came to 
himself, he found that some hot coffee was being poured 


into his mouth. He could never afterwards bear the 
taste of coffee. After the execution, he walked home 
again ; thus doing thirty-four miles walking in a day 
a remarkable proof of strength in so young a boy. 

George Moore, though an unwilling scholar, enjoyed 
his truant days and his holidays very much. " Being 
passionately fond of horses," he says, " whenever I 
escaped from school I spent the time in leading the 
horses with the carts of some farmer in the neighbour- 
hood." He had also the ambition of following the 
hounds. One day he got hold of his father's half- 
blind mare and mounted her barebacked. He could 
not take the saddle, for that might be missed. But 
away he went in search of John Peel and his hounds, 
which he understood were to hunt that day over the 
adjoining fells : 

D'ye ken John Peel with his coat so gray ? 
D'ye ken John Peel at tJie break of day ? 
D'ye ken John Peel when he's far, far away, 

With his hounds and his horn in tJie morning ? 
'Twas the sound of his horn brought me from my bed, 
An' the cry of his hounds has me ofttimes led ; 
For PeeFs view-holloa would 'waken tJte dead, 
Or a fox from his lair in the morning. 

John Peel was an enthusiastic and hair-brained fox- 
hunter. His name was very widely known. The song 
from which the above verses are taken is known all over 
the world, wherever English hunters have penetrated. 
It was heard in the soldiers' camps at the siege of 
Lucknow. It is well known in America. Boys whistle 
the tune, or sing the song, all over Cumberland. 1 

1 John Woodstock Graves, the aulhor of D'ye ken John Peel, gives the 
following account of its composition : " Nearly forty years have passed 
since John Peel and I ^at in a snug parlour at Caldbeck among the 
Cumbrian mountains. We were then both in the heyday of manhood, and 



John Peel lived at Uldale, near Caldbeck, between 
Brocklebank Fell and the High Pike, not far from 
Bolton church. Everybody knew him and his hounds. 
They knew where he was to meet and where he was to 
hunt. He had a rare mongrel pack of hounds. They 
were of all sorts and sizes, yet they were good hunters. 
He had an immense affection for his dogs, as they had 
for him. A mutual feeling seemed to exist between 
them. One who knew him said, that if he threatened, 
or even spoke sharply to a dog, he would be found 
wandering and hiding for two or three days together, 
unless he had previously expressed his always returning 
kindness. Whenever they came to a dead-lock he was 
sure to be found talking to some favourite hound as if it 
had been a human being. The dogs seemed to know 
all that he said relative to hunting as well as the best 
sportsman in the field. 

John Peel hunted everything, from a rabbit to a fox. 
Even the sheep were not secure against his hounds. 
Boys used to assemble from all quarters to see the hunt 
start, and to follow it on foot as far as they could. 
Happy were they who, like George Moore, could obtain 
a barebacked horse. For this they would endure any 
punishment. The first hunt of George Moore's with 
John Peel's hounds occurred about the year 1816; 

hunters of the older fashion ; meeting the night before to arrange the earth- 
stopping, and in the morning to take the best part of the hunt the drag 
over the mountains in the mist while fa hionable hunters still lay in their 
blankets. Large flakes of snow fell that evening We sat by the fireside 
hunting over again many a good run, and recalling the feats of each par- 
ticular hound, or narrow breakneck escapes, when a flaxen -haired daughter 
of mine came in, saying, ' Father, what do you say to what .Grannie sings ?' 
Grannie was singing to sleep my eldest son now a leading barrister in 
Hobart-town with an old rant called Bonnie Annie. The pen and ink 
for hunting appointments being on the table, the idea of writing a song to 
the old air forced itself upon me, and thus was produced impromptu, D'ye 
ken 'John feel with his coat so gray ? Immediately after, I sang it to poor 
Peel, who smiled through a stream of tears which fell down his manly 
cheeks: and I well remember saying to him in a joking style, 'By Jove, 
Peel, you'll be sung when we're both run to earth! '" St.ngs and Balladi 
of Cumberland and the Lake Country, by S. GlLPlN. 


though the famous old huntsman lived on till 1854, and 
died full of honours at the ripe age of seventy-eight. 1 

There was another sort of hunt in which George 
Moore took a still keener interest than in the hunt with 
John Peel on a barebacked horse. This was a day with 
the Dalesmen, who are all keen hunters. The shepherds 
look upon the fox as their natural enemy. They are 
not like the low-country hunters, who cherish the fox, 
find covers for him, and regard the unhallowed man who 
kills him as a vulpicide. In Cumberland and West- 
moreland the fox, in lambing time, takes to the hills. 
On his way he robs some auld wife's henroost : and 
when he reaches the higher grounds he begins to worry 
the lambs. The hue-and-cry is got up against him. 
The shepherds collect their collies, and determine to 
hunt the fox and destroy him. 

The cry goes abroad that there is to be a hunt. All 
the runners in the neighbourhood join the shepherds. 
They bring dogs of all sorts, Scotch terriers, retrievers, 
Dandie Dinmonts, Bedlington terriers, bulldogs, grey- 
hounds, foxhounds, and everything that will run. All 
is done on foot, so that the fleetest is in at the death. 
The shepherds soon find out the fox. They know where 
he is by the remains of his last lamb-feast. They track 
him to the adjoining holes, and his smell soon betrays 
where he is. Sometimes he is drawn like a badger ; and 
then he is worried where he is. At other times he hears 
the yelping of the dogs and the noise of his pursuers, 
and hastens away. " There he is ! Yoicks ! " There 
is a terrible run ; up hill and down dale ; through bogs 

1 John Peel possessed a small estate near Caldbeck. He spent the greater 
part of his fortune in keeping up his hounds and harriers. He used to sell 
a bit of hi-; land from time to time to carry on the hunt. At length he 
became much embarrassed. The Cumberland hunters then called a meet, 
and before parting they sang John Peel in full chorus, presenting him with 
a handsome gratuity, which enabled him to shake off his encumbrances 
and to die in peace and quiet. 


and marshes ; over the fell and down into the hollow 
beyond, where the fox is lost in some " borrant." But 
the shepherds are out again next day, and they never 
cease their efforts until they have killed the fox or 
driven him away from the sheepwalks. 

George Moore's school-days were not yet over. Though 
fond of fun, frolic, wrestling, bird-nesting, and hunting, 
he was yet a general favourite. He was such a helpsome 
boy. He thought nothing of getting up early in the 
morning and walking nine or ten miles over the Fells to 
Over Water to get a basket of fish for the family. In 
the autumn, he would walk a long way up Binsey Hill 
for blackberries. During the war time, the necessaries 
of life were very dear. Everything was taxed to the 
uttermost. Poor people could scarcely live. Salt was 
sixteen shillings a stone. This told very heavily on the 
statesmen ; for salt was necessary for many things con- 
nected with farming and cattle-keeping. 

"I was much delighted," says George Moore in his 
autobiography, "when the harvest holidays came. As 
my brother did not pay me any wages, and as I only 
had my meat and clothes, I hired myself out, when the 
home fields were cut, to the neighbouring farmers ; and 
I was thus enabled to get some pocket-money which I 
could call my own. I started at sixpence a day, and 
by the time that I was ten years old I got eighteenpence 
a day. When I reached the age of twelve, being a very 
strong boy, I ' carried my rig ' with the men. I sheared 
with the sickle, and kept time and pace with the full- 
grown shearers. For this I earned two shillings a day, 
with my food. This was considered unequalled for a 
boy of my age to accomplish." 

There were several customs peculiar to Cumberland 
and Westmoreland which were then always observed in 
harvest-time. At the finishing of the corn-cutting, the 
great object of each man was to shear the last shock of 

30 A KURN! A KURN! [CHAP, it 

corn, as it was thought lucky to do so. Therefore each 
tried to hide beneath his feet or at "dyke back" a little 
shock of corn, so as to get the last cut. He who suc- 
ceeded, plaited it at night and hung it up on the beams 
of the house, where it remained until Christmas morning, 
when it was given to the best milk cow. Before leaving 
the field, the shearers all clustered together, and one of 
them said : 

" Blessed be that day that our Saviour was born ; 
Our maisters got his hay Jwused and all his 
corn sJwrn I " 

Then all shouted together " A Kurn ! A Kurn ! 
Halloo ! " That night the Kurn-supper was provided, 
of which butter-sops formed the principal part. This 
was composed of wheaten flour baked on a girdle, like 
oatcakes. It was broken up into small fragments, and 
mixed with butter, sugar, and rum, and afterwards with 
half-churned cream. After the supper; songs were sung ; 
and country-dances and reels were danced to a neigh- 
bour's fiddle. Sometimes even measure was kept to a 
tune given by a good singer, or, better still, by the best 
whistler of the party. 

To return to George Moore's early education. After 
leaving Blackbird Wilson's school at Boltongate, for 
which his father paid six shillings and sixpence a 
quarter, he was sent to Pedler Thommy's school at 
Crookdake, near Leegate. Thommy had been a pedler, 
as his name indicated. Though he had broken down as 
a pedler, he was thought good enough to be a school- 
master. He was not a good teacher, though he was 
much less cruel and drunken than the Blackbird. 

About this time George Moore formed an acquain- 
tance with the Daniels of Newland's Row, Mealsgate. 
One of the boys was a good wrestler, and George had 
many a hard struggle with him on the Leesrig pasture. 


In the evenings, he used to go into their house, and 
there he learnt to knit Joseph Daniels seated at one 
end of the fender, and George Moore at the other, the 
girls sitting by at their wheels. They all went to learn 
dancing together at the Apple-tree public-house at 

By this time George had reached the age of twelve. 
His father sent him to a finishing school at Blenner- 
hasset. He remained there for only a quarter : the cost 
was eight shillings. " The master," he says, " was a 
good writer and a superior man indeed a sort of genius. 
For the first time I felt that there was some use in 
learning, and then I began to feel how ignorant I was. 
However, I never swerved from my resolve to go away 
from home. I had no tastes in common with my 
brother. I felt that I could not hang about half idle, 
with no better prospect before me than that of being a 
farm-servant. So I determined that I would leave 
home at thirteen and fight the battle of life for myself." 



BUT how was the battle of life to be fought ? How was 
George Moore to enter upon the struggle ? Where was 
he to begin ? In a very small way, as with all beginnings. 
A draper in Wigton, called Messenger, having intimated 
to Daniel Wilkinson that he 1 wanted an active boy, 
Wilkinson immediately answered, " I know the very boy 
for you !" : The boy was George Moore. 

Wilkinson, being a friend of the Moores, told them 
that Messenger would come out some day and see his 
proposed apprentice. John Moore did not welcome the 
suggestion. He did not wish his boy to be a draper, 
or anything of the sort. Why should he not " stick by 
the land," as his fathers had done before him ? He 
thought it rather humiliating that either of his sons 
should enter trade. 

Nevertheless Messenger came out to Mealsgate to see 
the boy. Old Moore would not hear of George going 
to Wigton. " If you want a boy take Thomas, but 
leave me George ; he's far the better worker." Thomas, 
however, would not go. He was the eldest son, and was 
heir to the property. If any one was to go, it must be 
George and not Thomas. 

Mrs. Moore, George's stepmother, wished him to go. 
He was a favourite of hers, and seeing his eagerness, 


she strongly advised his father to let him go to Wigton. 
She did not think he could be of much use at Meals- 
gate. He would hang on to the estate ; and after all he 
could never rise much above the rank of farm-servant. 
Besides, George reiterated his determination to leave 
home. He could not get even the wages that he earned 
on the farm. He wanted to do something for himself. 
He would go to Wigton. 

In the meantime Messenger had been looking into 
the lad's face. " L like the look of him very much," 
said he to his father. " He is strong and active. He's 
just the boy for me. You must let me have him." At 
last John Moore, who was an easy, good-natured man, 
and perhaps somewhat under the control of his wife, 
gave way. " Well," said he, " I fear I maun part vvi' 
him ; God bless thee, my lad." It was at length 
arranged that George Moore should be bound apprentice 
to Messenger for four years. 

George made the necessary arrangements to leave 
Mealsgate. He had to part with his donkey, his dearly 
beloved companion. He sold him to John Dobbins for 
sixteen shillings, though he had to wait long for the 
money. Then his clothes and his linen had to be 
arranged. After everything was ready, they were packed 
in the hair trunk bequeathed to him by his great-uncle, 
and sent on to Wigton by the cart. George and his step- 
mother rode thither on horseback, she clinging to him on 
the packsaddle behind. There were many things to be 
arranged at Wigton as to the boy's feeding and lodging. 

Wigton is a small country town, about eleven miles 
west of Carlisle. It used to be celebrated for its hand- 
loom weaving and calico-printing; though these trades 
have now left the place and become absorbed in the 
great manufacturing centres. It is now principally 
known for its weekly markets, and its horse and cattle 
fairs. Its population is nearly stationary. 



Mrs. Moore arranged that George should sleep in his 
master's house and get his meals in the adjoining public- 
house the Half-Moon Inn. It was a very bad arrange- 
ment for a boy brought from 'home, without a friend in 
the place, to have to go to a public-house and get his 
meals. It brought him into contact with the drinking 
part of the population, and put him in the way of joining 
in their drinking habits. He himself says, " My appren- 
ticeship will not bear reflection. My master was more 
thoughtless than myself. He gave way to drinking, and 
set before me a bad example. Unfortunately I lodged 
in the public-house nearly all the time, and saw nothing 
but wickedness and drinking." 

So far as the shop was concerned, George got on very 
well. He was civil, attentive, and hard working. He 
soon made friends with the customers. They preferred 
to be served by him rather than by his master or fellow- 
apprentice. He gives the following account of his 
work: "I had to make the fire, clean the windows, 
groom my master's horse, and dc *nany things that boys 
from our ragged schools nowadays think they are ' too 
good for.' I should have been happy enough, but for 
the relentless persecution and oppression of my fellow- 
apprentice, who was some years older than myself. 
He lost no opportunity of being cruel to me. He once 
nearly throttled me. He tried to damage my character 
by spreading false reports about me, and telling untruths 
to my master. Even now, after so many years have 
passed, I can still feel the burden under which my life 
groaned from the wrongs and misrepresentations of that 

" After about two years this tyrant left, and I became 
head apprentice. I had now to keep the books, serve 
the good customers, and borrow money to pay my 
master's debts ; for by this time he had become very 
unsteady. The only marvel was that in God's good 


providence I did not become a victim to drink myself, 
as I saw nothing else before me. I slept at the shop, 
but got my food at the Half-Moon public-house. Then 
I had to give a glass of spirits and water to all the good 
customers, even if a parcel was bought as small as a 
five-shilling waistcoat. 

" I now considered myself of some importance, 
having an apprentice under me ! He had lots of 
pocket-money, and I had none. We therefore played 
at cards, and I won his money. I did it in fair play, 
having always luck at cards. This gave me a taste for 
play. I kept a pack of cards in my pocket. I played 
at cards almost every night. I went to the public-houses 
and played with men for high stakes. I frequently lost 
all that I had, but I often gained a great deal. I some- 
times played the whole night through. Gambling was 
my passion, and it might have been my ruin. I was, 
however, saved by the following circumstance : 

" I had arranged an easy method for getting into my 
master's house at night, after my gambling bouts. I 
left a lower window unfastened ; and by lifting the sash 
and pushing the shutters back, I climbed in, and went 
silently up to my bed in the attic. But my master 
having heard some strange reports as to my winnings 
and losings at cards, and fearing that it might at last 
end in some disaster to himself, he determined to put a 
stop to my gambling. One night, after I had gone out 
with my cards, he nailed down the window through 
which I usually got entrance to the house, and when I 
returned, and wished to get in, lo ! the window was 
firmly closed against me. 

" It was five o'clock in the morning of Christmas Eve. 
That morning proved the turning-point in my life ! 
After vainly trying to open the window, I went up the 
lane alongside the house. About a hundred yards up, 
I climbed to the ridge of the lowest house in the row 

D 2 


From thence I clambered my way up to the next 
highest house, and then managed to creep along the 
ridges of the intervening houses, until I reached the 
top of my master's dwelling the highest house of all. 
I slid down the slates until I reached the waterspout. 
I got hold of it, and hung suspended over the street. 
I managed to get my feet on to the window sill, and 
pushed up the window with my left foot. This was no 
danger or difficulty to me, as I had often been let down 
by bigger boys than myself with a rope round my waist, 
into the old square tower at Whitehall, that I might rob 
the jackdaws of their nests and eggs. 

" I dropt quietly into my room, and went to bed. 
Soon after, Messenger came up to look after me, and 
found me apparently asleep. I managed to keep up 
the appearance so long as he remained there. I heard 
him murmuring and threatening that the moment I got 
up he would turn me out of the place. This only served 
to harden me. But in the morning the waits came 
round, playing the Christmas carols. Strangely enough, 
better thoughts came over me with the sweet music. I 
awoke to the sense of my wrongdoing. I felt over- 
whelmed with remorse and penitence. I thought of my 
dear father, and feared that I might break his heart, 
and bring his grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. 

" I lay in bed, almost without moving, for twenty-four 
hours for it was Christmas Day. No one came near 
me. I was without food or drink. I thought of what I 
should do when I got up. If my master turned me off, 
I would go straightway to America. I resolved, in any 
case, to give up card-playing and gambling, which, by 
God's grace, I am thankful to say, I have firmly carried 

" I got up next morning, and the good woman at the 
Half-Moon Inn, where I took my meals, received me 
with tears ; as my master had been telling several 


persons that he would turn me away, and have nothing 
more to do with me. She at once sent for two of my 
master's intimate friends to intercede for me. They 
came, and after a good deal of persuasion, Messengei 
consented to give me another trial. From this moment 
my resolution kept firm as a rock. I gave up all card- 
playing and gambling. I was very regular in all my 
habits. I went constantly to a night-school to improve 
my education ; and I thus proved to all the sincerity of 
my repentance. 

" It was well for me, and perhaps for many others, 
that all this had occurred. It has caused me, on many 
occasions, since I have had hundreds of young men in 
my employment, to forgive what I have seen wrong in 
their conduct, and give them another chance. Probably 
I might not have done this had I not remembered the 
down-falling course that I had entered on during my 
apprenticeship at Wigton." 

The rest of George Moore's apprenticeship may be 
briefly told. He won the affection and trust of his 
master, who reposed the utmost confidence in him. 
When the travellers came round for their money George 
had to find it for them. Indeed the business would 
have gone to ruin but for his industry and management. 
Messenger was drinking harder than ever. When on 
the rampage, his apprentice had to do all that was 
necessary to keep the business in order. George had 
often to borrow money from other tradesmen, giving 
merely his word that it would be paid back. At his 
own request he removed his lodgings from Messenger's 
to Nanny Graves's, 1 in Church Street. He took his 
meals there instead of at the public-house. He was 
thus removed out of the way of temptation. 

George knew everybody in Wigton. He was a 

1 Nanny Graves was the mother of John Woodcock Graves, the authoi 
of D'ye ken John Peel. 


general favourite. He used to be seen scampering 
about the place without his cap; first running into one 
house and then into another, asking about the inmates 
" How Betty was ? " " How Nanny was," and " How 
all the bairns were?" He met his young friends on 
"snap-nights," and played games with them. In the 
long summer evenings, after the shop was shut, he met 
them on the nearest green. There they played at 
" set-caps " that is, daring each other to do the most 
venturesome things such as jumping highest, running 
fastest, or throwing the biggest boy. George kept his 
hand in at wrestling, and by the time he left Wigton he 
was considered the best wrestler in the place. 

He had, however, ventured too much. He got wet, 
took cold, and was laid up with rheumatic fever. Then 
Mrs. Smith took him to her house, and nursed him 
carefully. He was ill for about thirteen weeks, and 
when he was able to go about, he was so spent that 
scarcely anybody knew him. George never forgot the 
kindness of Mrs. Smith and her servant Susan. 

He was accustomed, at the end of the week, to walk 
home to Mealsgate to see his relatives. Being of a 
sociable disposition, he had a great wish to extend his 
hospitality to his friends, and he often took one or other 
of them with him. They were not always welcome at 
Mealsgate. The stepmother thought they were in the 
way, or Thomas thought it extravagant to entertain 
" fremd folks." On such occasions, George took his 
friends to Aunt Dinah's at Bolton Hall, where they 
were always made welcome. They were allowed to run 
about the farm, to ride the horses, to bathe in the Ellen, 
and do whatever they liked. 

One day George brought with him a friend from 
Wigton accoutred in boots. Boots were not so common 
in those days as they are now; clogs being more gene- 
rally worn. The two lads walked about the fields all 


day, and, the grass being wet, the boots became 
thoroughly sodden. When night arrived, and they 
prepared to go to bed, the boots had to be got off. 
First one tried, and then another. The whole family 
tried in turn to pull them off, but they would not budge. 
So George's friend had at last to go to bed in his boots, 
tied about in cloths to save the bedding. 

When George slept at Bolton Hall he usually occu- 
pied the Parlour. There were strange rumours about 
that room. It was thought to be haunted. Ghostly 
tappings were heard inside the wall. The little dog of 
the house would tremble all over on hearing the strange 
noises. George was in great dread of the bogle, though 
he himself never heard the tappings. 1 Yet, with the 
strong love of sleep for he always slept well he at 
last went off, heard no more, and was up, bright and 
joyous, in the early morning. 

To show the confidence with which George Moore 
was regarded at Wigton, the following anecdote may be 
related. Mr. Todd, a banker at Wigton, who had often 
advanced money to enable George to meet the claims 
of the travellers as they came round, one day asked 
Messenger to spare his apprentice for a few days, as he 
wished to send him on a special errand of trust. It 
appeared that a cattle-dealer of the neighbourhood had 
a considerable sum of money in Todd's bank ; that he 
had bought a quantity of cattle in Scotland, and de- 
sired the banker to send him the necessary money to 

1 The supposed cause of the tappings was ascertained long after George 
had left Bolton. His uncle, when "sair fresh" one night (that is, pretty 
full of drink), heard the noises, and getting up, vowed that he would stand 
it no longer. He got a pick and broke into the wall. A hollow space 
was f und, and a skeleton hand fell out. This terrified the discoverer so 
much, that he immediately had the wall built up. How the skeleton hand 
got in was never discovered. But a legend had been preserved which stated 
that a stranger was once seen to go into Bolton Hall, and that he never 
came out again. 


pay for them. It was for this purpose that Mr. Todd 
desired the help of George Moore. 

The boy, always ready for adventure, was quite 
willing to give his services, especially to a gentleman 
who had proved so kind to him as Mr. Todd had been. 
A horse was provided, and the boy rode away north- 
ward with several hundred pounds in his pocket. He 
crossed the border at Gretna, and made his way west- 
ward to Dumfries. There he met the cattle-dealer, and 
handed him the money. It was all right. His mission 
had now ended, and he proposed returning to Wigton 
by the same road that he had come. The cattle-dealer, 
however, interposed. " What do you say," he asked, 
" to help me to drive the cattle home ? " " Oh," said 
George, "I have no objections." It was only a little 
addition to the adventure. 

The two remained together all day. They drove the 
cattle by unfrequented routes in the direction of Annan. 
At length they reached the shores of the Solway Firth. 
The proper route into England was by Gretna, though 
the road by that way was much longer. But the cattle- 
dealer declared his intention of driving his cattle across 
the Solway Sands. Here was an opportunity for 
George to give up his charge, and return home by the 
ordinary road. But no ! if the cattle-dealer could cross 
the sands, he could cross. And so he remained to see 
the upshot of the story. 

The tide was then at low ebb. The waste of sand 
stretched as far as the eye could reach. It was gloam- 
ing by this time, and the line of English coast about 
five miles distant looked like a fog-bank. Night came 
on. It was too dark to cross then. They must wait 
till the moon rose. It was midnight before its glitter 
shone upon the placid bosom of the Firth. The cattle- 
dealer then rose, drew his beasts together, and drove 
them in upon the sands. 


They had proceeded but a short way when they 
observed that the tide had turned. They pushed the 
beasts on with as much speed as they could. The 
sands were becoming softer. They crossed numberless 
pools of water. They they saw the sea-waves coming 
upon them. On, on ! It was too late. The waves, 
which sometimes rush up the Solway three feet abreast, 
were driving in amongst the cattle. They were carried 
off their feet, and took to swimming. The horses, upon 
which George Moore and his companion were mounted, 
also took to swimming. They found it difficult to keep 
the cattle together one at one side, and one at the 
other. Yet they pushed on as well as they could. It 
was a swim for life. The cattle became separated, and 
were seen in the moonlight swimming in all directions. 
At last they reached firmer ground, pushed on, and 
landed near Bowness. But many of the cattle had 
been swept away, and were never afterwards heard of. 
Shortly after, George Moore reached Wigton in safety. 

Not long after this event George's apprenticeship 
drew to an end. He remained with Messenger a little 
while longer. Messenger was rapidly going to the bad. 
George Moore could learn little more of his business in 
Wigton. He therefore determined to leave the place 
and look out for employment elsewhere. Where 
should he go ? He could not think of Carlisle. He 
must go to London : that only would satisfy him. He 
had not said much of his intentions at home ; but when 
he at length announced his determination, it came with 
a shock upon his father and his sister Mary. Mary was 
his favourite sister. She was about two years younger 
than himself. When she went into Wigton on market 
days, she always tried to get a sight of George. One 
day she lingered about Messenger's shop, passing and 
repassing the door, but George was busy with his 
customers and did not see her. She went home greatly 


distressed. So, when George announced his intention 
of going to London, she joined with her father in en- 
deavouring to dissuade him from his purpose ; but it 
was of no use. He had made up his mind, for even in 
boyhood he never swerved from his purpose. 

At length, after many heart-burnings, it was arranged 
that George should go to London to see whether he 
could find any suitable employment there. Before he 
left Wigton, his father came in to take his final leave 
of him. He brought thirty pounds with him to pay 
the boy's expenses. He thought it would be enough, 
but if George wanted more he must let him know. 
The parting was very touching. The father grat and 
the son grat, one against the other. At last Nanny 
Graves could stand it no longer "What gars ye 
greet that way ? " she said to John Moore ; " depend 
upon't, yer son '11 either be a great nowt or a great 
soomat ! " * 

At length they parted, George's sister Mary going 
part of the road with him to carry his bundle. The 
hair trunk, packed with his clothes, was already on its 
way to Carlisle. On arriving there, he put up at the 
" Grey Goat " Inn, the usual place* of resort for the 
Wigton folk ; and next morning, at five o'clock, he 
started by coach for London. 

And here ended George Moore's early life in Cumber- 
land. It was a good thing for him that he was born 
and brought up in the country. Though his education 
had been small, his knowledge of men was great. He 
was already able to distinguish character, which can 
never be learnt from books. The individuality of the 
country boy is much greater than that of the town 
boy. His early life is not poisoned by pleasure. He 
is in active and sympathetic contact with those about 

1 A great nothing, or a great something. 


him. He knows every person by name and is ac- 
quainted with their conditions and circumstances. He 
lives in a sort of family feeling of community with those 
about him. 

The country boy, in his earliest years, belongs en- 
tirely to that which surrounds him. He feels a special 
attraction towards animals, by reason of the individu- 
ality of their lives. He is acquainted with birds, with 
the places in which they build, and all their signs, and 
sounds, and habits. He keeps his eyes open, and learns 
many things of deep interest and instruction, which 
colour all his future life. He walks amongst wonders, 
and gathers new knowledge in the life of every day. 
At length he takes part in the work and pleasures of 
man. He ploughs, or sows, or reaps in the fields of 
the home farm. Or he enjoys country sports running, 
wrestling, or hunting the rougher the better, and he 
becomes healthy and robust. In the winter evenings 
he hears the stories of border life, and thus learns the 
lessons of his race. He also will be bold and valiant, 
as his fathers were. 

What old Stilling said to his grandson on leaving 
home, John Moore might well have said to his son on 
leaving Cumberland for London : " Your forefathers 
were good and honourable people, and there are very 
few princes who can say that. You must consider it 
the greatest honour you can have, that your grandfather 
and great-grandfather, and their fathers, were men who 
were beloved and honoured by everybody, although 
they had nothing to rule over but their own households. 
Not one of them ever married disgracefully, or acted 
dishonourably towards a woman. Not one of them 
coveted what did not belong to him ; and they alt died 
full of days and honour." 



FIFTY years ago, it took two days and two nights to 
make the journey from Carlisle to London by coach. 
It was a long, tedious, and wearisome journey. We 
complain of railways now, but what should we say if 
we were driven back to the old stage-coaches ? The 
passenger was poked up in a little box inside, scarcely 
able to move or get breath. If he went outside, it was 
delightful by day, but wearisome by night, especially 
when the weather was bad. He had to sleep sitting, 
with his back to the luggage and the edge of a box 
for his pillow. At a lurch of the coach he woke up 
with a start, finding himself leaning forward or in- 
clining backward, or likely to fall side-long from the 

Railway travellers now consider themselves very much 
aggrieved if they are half an hour late ; yet good- 
natured people of the olden times were quite satisfied 
if they were only half a day late. Though it then took 
two days and two nights betwetn Carlisle and London, 
the journey is now performed, all the way inside, in 
seven hours and a half, with almost unvarying regularity. 
Yet we are not satisfied. 

And yet there was a great deal of pleasure in travel- 
ling by coach fifty years ago. The beauties of the 
country were never out of sight. You passed through 


shady lanes and hedgerows ; by gentlemen's seats, with 
the old halls standing out amidst the clumps of trees ; 
along quiet villages, where the people, springing up at 
the sound of the horn, came to their doors to see the 
coach pass. There was the walk up-hill, or along green 
pastures or bye-lanes, to ease the horses as they crept 
along. There was the change at the post-town, the 
occasional meal, and sometimes the beginnings of friend- 
ship. All this was very enjoyable, especially to young 
fellows on their way to London for the first time, to see 
the great city and its wonders. 

The coach by which George Moore travelled went 
through Lancaster, with its castle perched on the top of 
the hill. Then, by a pleasant drive through moors and 
dales, and by many a pleasant town, though now 
blurred with the smoke of a thousand chimneys, the 
coach proceeded to Manchester. The town did not 
then contain one-third of the population that it does 
now. From thence the coach drove on through the 
midland shires to London. It was fine spring weather. 
The buds were bursting, and many of the trees were 
already green. . The journey was still interesting, 
though towards the end it became monotonous. 
At last, on the morning of the third day, the coach 
reached Highgate Hill, from which George Moore 
looked down on the city of London, the scene of his 
future labours. 

The end of the journey was approaching, and again 
it became more than usually interesting. Hamlets were 
passed ; then cottages and villas. Then rows of streets ; 
although green fields were still dotted about here and 
there. The enormous magnitude of the place already 
surprised the young traveller. The coach went through 
street after street, down Old St. Pan eras Road, down 
Gray's Inn Lane, along Holborn and Newgate Street, 
until at last it stopped at the " Swan with Two Necks/' 


in Lad Lane, Wood Street. After paying the coach- 
man, Moore was recommended to go to the " Magpie 
and Pewter Platter," for the purpose of obtaining accom- 
modation. He succeeded ; and went there, hair trunk 
and all. 

George Moore arrived in London on the day before 
Good Friday, 1825. He was too much fatigued to look 
after a situation on that day. On the following morn- 
ing all the shops were shut. He had therefore to wait 
until Saturday before he could begin to look fora place. 
What was he to do on Good Friday ? He knew that all 
the Cumberland men in London were accustomed to 
have their annual wrestling-match on that day, and he 
accordingly went to Chelsea to observe the sports. 

When he arrived at the place, he found the wrestling- 
green crowded with north-country people, big, brawny 
men, of great girth, noted wrestlers, and amateur wrest- 
lers, mingled with sporting and slightly " horsey " people. 
There were many life-guardsmen and foot-guardsmen ; 
for it must be known that the Border-land, by reason 
of the big men it contains, is the favourite recruiting- 
ground for Her Majesty's body-guards. More life- 
guardsmen have come from Longtown, and from the 
Westmoreland and Yorkshire moors, than from any 
similar localities in the kingdom. 

George Moore found amongst the crowd a young 
Quaker from Torpenhow, who had won the belt at 
Keswick a few years before. They had known each 
other before, and now renewed their acquaintance. 
George, inspired by the event, entered his name as a 
wrestler. He was described by some who were present 
on the occasion, as " very strong-looking, middle-sized, 
with a broad chest and strongly developed muscles." 
His hair was dark and curly, almost black. His eyes 
were brown, and glowed under excitement to a deeper 
brown. His face glowed with health. His bearing was 


free and open ; it might be called abrupt. But he was 
civil to everybody. 

To those who do not know the rules of Cumberland 
wrestling, it may be mentioned that though it is an 
athletic sport, it is conducted in perfect good humour, 
the loser always taking his fall as a joke. It is practised 
by boys and men on the village greens in the north, 
and is not in any way mixed up with betting or drink- 
ing, though it is somewhat different in London. The 
wrestlers stand up chest to chest, each placing his 
chin on the other's right shoulder, and his left arm 
above the right of his opponent. Then they grasp each 
other round the body. There is often a difficulty in 
takiii hod. Each tries to get an advantage in getting 
the under-grip. When both men have got hold, the play 
begins, and they endeavour to throw each other on to 
the ground. The one who touches the ground first and 
is undermost, is the loser. Though force goes for much, 
skill is also indispensable. The " chips," or dexterous 
strokes, are numerous including the hype, the swinging- 
hype, the buttock, the cross-buttock, the back-heel, the 
click inside, and the outside stroke. These would afford 
ample subjects for the illustration of a beautiful athletic 
art. 1 

When George Moore's name was called, he " peeled " 
and stepped into the ring. The first man he came 
against was a little bigger than himself, but George 
threw him so cleverly that the question was asked on 
every side " Who's that ? Where does he come frae ? 
What's his name ? " His name was soon known, and 
as he again wrestled and threw his man, he was hailed 
with the cries of " Weel done, George Moore." The 

1 English sculptors have been imitating the Greek to death. Why not 
give us some English art? Nothing can he seen more lithe, vigorous, and 
muscular than the wrestlers on an English village-green in the north of 


difficulties of the wrestlers increase as the sport goes 
forward. All the weak men have been thrown ; now 
come the strong against the strong. Observe how 
careful ihey are in takin' hod. Each strives to gain 
some advantage over his antagonist. They give and 
take, and bob and dodge round the ring. Then the 
cry rises, " They've haud ! " What an excitement ! 
The men are locked as in a vice ! Every muscle is 
straining and quivering. Then great strokes are played ; 
but it is done so quickly that the " chip " can scarcely 
be seen ; and down goes one of the men, with the 
other over him. 

As the game proceeded, George Moore had a difficult 
fellow to meet. He was a man of great weight a 
well-known champion wrestler, called Byers. He had 
already settled a " vast o' men ; " and now he had to 
settle this youth of nineteen from Wigton. George 
worked his way round about him until he got a good 
grip. Byers tried to grass him by the right leg hype. 
Then George, taking Byers firmly in his arms, threw 
him bodily over his head ! Byers touched the ground 
first, and George was victor. " Weel done, George 
Moore ! " was again re-echoed round the ring. 

At length he met a man who was " ower kittle for 
him " a noted champion wrestler, also from Cumber- 
land. He was famous for his left-leg striking, and 
clicking inside the heel. After a long struggle George 
went down under his opponent's favourite chip. Never- 
theless he came out of the ring winner of the third 
prize. After the sports were over, the young fellows 
came and spoke to him. They knew that he was one 
of their county-men. His strong Cumberland accent 
could not belie that. Some of them came from his own 
neighbourhood. They insisted upon his going with 
them to the neighbouring public-house, where they 
treated him to drink. 


The whole incidents of the day must have elated the 
lad. Though he had always taken pride in his mode of 
wrestling, his achievements that day constituted him a 
hero. Acquaintances crowded about him. They wished 
him at once to arrange for a meeting, to be held in the 
course of a few days. Betting began for and against 
him, and he observed that some of the lads were taking 

' O 

more drink than was good for them. He was at once 
reminded of his card-playing at Wigton, of his father at 
home, and of the many reasons why he should keep 
himself out of this environment of mischief. He ac- 
cordingly summoned the resolution to tell his nevr 
acquaintances that he could not attend the appointment, 
for it was his determination not to wrestle at the pro- 
posed match. He accordingly left them, much to their 

He retraced his way to the city alone. In the course 
of the afternoon he was told that the inn, indeed the 
very bed in which he had slept, had become notorious; 
for Thurtell, the murderer, had frequented the inn some 
time before. This gave him such a horror, that he 
felt he could not sleep there again. He accordingly 
looked out for a lodging in the neighbourhood. He 
was fortunate in finding one near Wood Street. The 
lodging-house was kept by a motherly body from the 
north ; and her great kindness to the stranger lad 
helped to give him a lasting belief in the goodness of 

On the next morning the Saturday between Good 
Friday and Easter Sunday he set out, full of spirits, 
to find a situation. The result of his day's work was 
very disappointing. He was not only discouraged, but 
provoked. Wherever he went, he was laughed at 
because of his country-cut clothes and his broad 
Cumberland dialect. 

But he consoled himself. He did not expect to find a 


situation at once. He must try again. He would 
begin on Monday morning, and persevere until he suc- 
ceeded. There must be plenty of persons in that enor- 
mous city wanting a draper's assistant. He accordingly 
went out early in the morning, and returned late at 
night. The result was the same utter disappointment. 
Not a person would have him. Some pretended they 
could not understand his northern dialect. Was such a 
lad likely to serve customers ? After his first inquiry 
he was generally shown to the door. 

" The keenest cut of all I got," he says, " was from 
Charles Meeking of Holborn. He asked me if I wanted 
a porter 's situation. This almost broke my heart." 

He himself, however, admits that he was rather 
" green " and uncultivated ; and that there was little 
wonder that the West-end shopkeepers did not give 
him a place behind their counters. When afterwards 
referring to this early part of his career he said, " I had 
no one to take me by the hand. My very appearance 
was against me, for the Wigton tailors were not so 
expert as they are now ; and when I applied for a 
situation it was difficult to convince them that it was a 
place behind the counter that I wanted, and not some 
meaner situation. My dialect too was against me ; for 
though it is pretty broad now, it was much broader 
then. After beating about London for an entire week, 
I began to think myself a not very marketable com- 
modity in the great city." 1 

Still he persevered. He went nearly all over London. 
He entered as many as thirty drapers' shops in one day, 
always with the same result. It was the same in the 
east as in the west. There was no employment for 
him none whatever. He passed amid the roar and 
clatter of the streets pushing his way amongst the keen 

1 Soeech to the boys of the Commercial Travellers' School. 


eager faces of the city, or amidst the careworn crowds 
of people like himself, wanting work and unable to 
obtain it. 

The second Sunday in London came round. He 
began to realise the solitariness and the solitude of 
London. Every house looked black at him. Every 
door was closed against him. He felt himself an utter 
stranger. No one knew anything of his troubles and 
sorrows. And if they knew, they would not have 
cared. What was he among so many ? He thought it 
almost heartless that these multitudes should be going 
about on their errands of enjoyment and worship, with- 
out taking any notice of him. But his was only the 
case of thousands. To those who are friendless, London 
is the most solitary place in the world. 

He must, however, send home his promised letter, to 
tell his father how he was getting on. But when he 
had written his letter, it was so blotted with tears that 
he could not send it. He would wait for another week. 
Early next morning he was at it again. He tried shop 
after shop : " No vacancy ! " " At last," he says, " I 
was in despair. I now determined, as I could not find 
an opening in London, to go out to America. 

" I called at Swan and Edgar's in Piccadilly, and told 
a young man there, of the name of Wood, that I was 
going to take rny passage. He then informed me that 
Mr. Ray, of Flint, Ray, and Co., Grafton House, New- 
port Market, had sent to inquire if any one knew where 
I was. Mr. Ray was born in Cumberland himself. His 
brother owned Lesson Hall, near Wigton. He knew 
about my father's family, and wished to befriend me. 
I went at once to see him, and he engaged me, more 
from pity than from any likelihood of mine to shine in 
his service. My salary was to be 30 a year; and I 
joyfully accepted his offer." 

Thus, while George Moore, in his despair, was lament- 

E 2 


ing that he had not a friend in London, his friend was 
waiting for him and even searching for him. Mr. Ray 
had been informed that the son of his old friend had 
left Wigton foi* London ; and not seeing him nor hear- 
ing of him, he had sent round to Swan and Edgar's to 
make inquiry about him. Cumberland men are generally 
ready to help each other in time of need. Hence 
the timely assistance which Mr. Ray rendered to George 
Moore a kindness which the latter never forgot. 

On the Monday morning after he had been engaged, 
George Moore set out to enter upon his situation. He 
must also get his ancestral hair trunk removed to his 
new quarters. It contained his clothes, his money, and 
all that he possessed. He hired a man from the street, 
the owner of a pony-cart, to carry his hair trunk west- 
ward. After taking leave of the kind landlady, his first 
friend in the great city, he and the man with the cart 
started for Newport Market. At some turn of the 
street perhaps while he was looking about him he 
missed the man, the pony-cart, and the hair trunk. 
Surely never was a poor fellow so unfortunate ! 

He scanned the passing crowd. He tried to see over 
the heads of the people ; but there was no pony, and 
no hair trunk in sight. Again he felt his utter loneliness. 
He sat down on a doorstep almost broken-hearted. No 
one spoke to him ; no one came near him. What was 
he to the bustling crowd that passed him by ? only a 
shivering atom on a doorstep ! In his despair, he 
thought that the man had robbed him, and carried off 
his all 

He rested on the doorstep for about two hours. What 
an interminable torture it seemed to be ! He continued 
to watch the passing crowd. A pony-cart came up ; he 
looked, and lo ! it was the identical man, and the iden- 
tical hair trunk ! The carrier had called on his way 
upon some other errand, and was amazed to miss his 


customer. When he came up, he not only laughed at 
the lad, but rated him soundly for his " greenness " in 
having lost sight of him, and trusted a stranger with all 
his things. 

George was full of delight, and in his exuberance of 
gratitude, he offered the man all the money he had in 
his pocket, which amounted to nine shillings. But the 
costermonger was an honest man. "No, no!" said he; 
" it's very kind of you, but the five shillings that we 
agreed upon will be quite enough." He then handed 
him back the four shillings. George Moore never forgot 
the lesson of that costermonger's honesty. 

His eyes were still full of tears when he entered the 
warehouse. One who was employed there at the 
time remembers his first appearance. " On incident- 
ally looking over to the haberdashery counter I saw an 
uncouth, thickset country lad standing crying. In a 
minute or two a large deal chest such as the Scotch 
servant-lasses use for their clothes was brought in by 
a man, and set down on the floor. After the lad had 
dried up his tears, the box was carried up stairs to the 
bedroom where he was to sleep. After he had come 
down stairs he began working, and he continued to be 
the hardest worker in the house until he left. Such," 
says our informant, "was the veritable debut of George 
Moore in London. Had you seen him then, you would 
have said that he was the most unlikely lad in England 
to have made the great future that he did." 

Everything was strange to him at first the shop, 
the work, the people, the habits, the life. But he was 
willing and eager to learn. He had to begin at the 
lowest rung of the ladder. First he did the drudgery 
of the house ; then he was moved upwards. He was 
always ready to do anything. He became a favourite 
with his companions. Among the young men at 
Grafton House, with whom he became most intim-ite, 


were three Cumberland lad *, t.vo Scotchmen, and one 
Cockney. Those from the midland and southern 
counties thought the Cumbrians generally a rather 
rough race. They spoke of them as "the rude 
barbarians of the north." That was, however, half a 
century ago. 

One of George Moore's companions at Grafton House 
gives us the following recollections of his life at that 
time : " He slept in the same small apartment with 
myself and two others. The room could scarcely be 
considered up to the modern sanitary conditions of 
life and health ; yet we got on very well. He was very 
fond of going to the Serpentine to take an early bathe. 
Many a tussle we had. He called me a 'lazy old 
Scotchman ' for not getting up and going out with him in 
the mornings. But I was no swimmer, and did not like 
to be made the butt of my companion's ridicule. I was 
born at the Lowther Hills, in Lanarkshire, where there 
was scarcely a burn in which we could bathe. There 
was not a good swimmer in the parish." 

" Next to George's integrity and generosity of cha- 
racter, was his love of country and patriotism. He was 
always ' deaving ' us about his native Cumberland. It 
was the finest country, with the noblest scenery, and the 
best, strongest, and most vigorous of men. Cumberland 
men are very clannish. They stick to each other through 
weal or woe. How is it that the natives of a moun- 
tainous region are more patriotic than those of a cham- 
pagne country ? Perhaps this may arise from their 
seeing fewer objects to divide their attention, as well as 
from those objects being of a much grander character, 
and more likely to take a permanent hold upon their 
mind. Be this as it may, I uniformly noticed, during 
my three years' residence in London, that young men 
from Wales, Scotland, and Cumberland pined after 
their native hills and dales; whereas young men from 


the midland and southern counties of England, fell in 
like a gin-horse to their daily work. They were as 
much at home in twenty-four hours as a veritable 
cockney himself. This may probably be a pretty 
correct solution of the common adage that an English- 
man is made by Act of Parliament ; that is, that he has 
no local attachments ; and, provided he is protected by 
the law of the country, and gets enough to eat and 
drink, all places are alike to him." 

And now let us give George Moore's account of him- 
self. " On arriving in London, I obtained a situation in 
a house of business. I soon found that, coming green 
from the country, I laboured under many disadvantages. 
Compared with the young men with whom I was asso- 
ciated, I found my education very deficient ; and my 
speech betrayed that I had not lived in London all my 
life. Indeed it smacked strongly of Cumberland and 
Cumberland folks. The first thing I did to remedy my 
defects was to put myself to school at night, after the 
hours of employment were over ; and many an hour 
have I borrowed from sleep in order to employ it on 
the improvement of my mind. At the end of eighteen 
months I had acquired a considerable addition to my 
previous knowledge, and felt myself able to take my 
stand side by side with my competitors. Let no one 
rely in such cases on what is termed Luck. Depend 
upon it, that the only luck is merit, and that no young 
man will make his way unless he possesses knowledge, 
and exerts all his powers in the accomplishment of his 

When George Moore had been about six months at 
Grafton House, he one day observed a bright little girl 
come tripping into the warehouse, accompanied by her 
mother. " Who are they ? " he asked of one of those 
standing near. "Why, don't you know?" said he; 
"that's the guv'nor's wife and daughter!" "Well," 


said George, " if ever I marry, that girl shall be my 
wife!" It was a wild and ridiculous speech. "What? 
marry your master's daughter? You must be n,ad 
to talk of such a thing." The report went round. 
The other lads laughed at George as another Dick 
Whittington. . ; 

Yet it was no wild nor improbable speech. It was 
the foreshadowing of his fate. The idea took posses- 
sion of his mind. It was his motive power in after-life. 
It restrained and purified him. He became more in- 
dustrious, diligent, and persevering. After many years 
of hard work the dream of his youth was fulfilled, and 
the girl did become his wife. Not, however, before he 
had passed through many trials and difficulties. One of 
these was of a most serious character, and threatened to 
cost him his liberty perhaps his life. He has told the 
story in his own words : 

" At that time it was the duty of the assistants to 
carry out goods on approbation to the best customers. 
It was my lot one day to do this, and I sold some 
articles to a lady of title at her house. I made out my 
own note of the articles, and then copied out the bill 
for her, which I receipted. But I had unfortunately 
made an error, and in copying out her bill made it i 
more than the amount I had received. The lady, on 
looking over it afterwards, found out the mistake in the 
addition, and, thinking that she had paid me the extra 
sovereign, hastened to Grafton House with the bill. 
On reference being made to my cheque-book, it was 
found that the amount entered was i less than the bill 
which I had receipted, on which the lady pronounced 
me to be a thief. 

" At this Mr. Ray was very indignant, and told the 
lady that he did not keep thieves in his house. He 
kindly told me to try and recollect the circumstances, 
and endeavour to clear up the matter. Unfortunately, 


the more I tried, the more I got bewildered. In de- 
spair, I suddenly asked the lady the amount of money 
which she had in her possession when she began to pay 
me. She said she was astonished at my impertinence. 
' And yet/ she added, ' I can furnish you with the in- 
formation which you require. Lord Conyngham gave 
me ,20 this morning. I paid so much to the baker, so 
much to the grocer, and so much to you, and I have so 
much left.' I noted down the figures, added them up, 
and found that they made 21, or a pound more than 
she had received from her husband. 

" I immediately called my employer, and got her to 
repeat the figures. He was satisfied with their correct- 
ness. Providentially, I all at once recollected that I 
had taken down a memorandum of the articles sold- 
I produced this, and found that I had received the 
money according to this memorandum, and not ac- 
cording to the receipted bill which I had left with the 
lady. Knowing my innocence, I boldly asserted the 
fact. My employer was satisfied. Nevertheless, the 
lady left the place in a rage, loudly declaring that 
' the boy was a thief! ' 

"But when her temper had cooled down, and she 
had time to recollect all the circumstances of the case, 
she relented. In the course of the evening, Lady 
Conyngham sent a polite letter to Mr. Ray, stating 
that she was thoroughly convinced that the young 
man's statement was true, and that she hoped the un- 
fortunate occurrence would not in any way militate 
against him. And thus," says Mr. Moore, "ended my 
escape from Newgate." The laws were then most 
severe. Forging, stealing, and shoplifting were punish- 
able with death. Only a short time before, a young 
shopman at Compton House, in the same neighbour- 
hood, had been hanged for an offence similar to that 
of which George Moore had been accused. 


When the lady had left, George at once expressed 
his determination to leave the house. But Mr. Ray 
told him to go behind the counter, to show that he 
was innocent and that not a breath of suspicion was 
raised against him. George took his master's advice. 
The moral courage which he had shown raised him 
in Mr. Ray's estimation. And when the lady's letter 
arrived, showing that she had been wrong in her suspi- 
cions, and that George Moore was innocent, his charac- 
ter was also raised in the estimation of his companions. 
At the same time he was determined to leave as soon as 
possible. He had got a thorough dislike for the retail 
trade. He was unwilling to incur the risk of being sub- 
jected to a similar charge. In answer to the remon- 
strance of some of his companions, he said that " he 
would rather break stones upon the road than remain 
behind a counter." 

A companion of Moore's, on being applied to respect- 
ing the circumstance above referred to, says that he has 
forgotten all about it ; but he adds that " arithmetical 
blunders were so common in a large retail establishment 
like Grafton House that it would be looked upon as a 
very small event. George Moore would have been the 
very last man to have committed such an act. Indeed 
stern, truthful integrity was the brightest gem in his 
character. I often think of him, when I contrast the 
humble ctibut he made in London with the brilliant 
future which he afterwards attained, by reason of his 
own unaided, energetic, and persevering efforts." 

Although about to leave Flint, Ray, and Co.'s service, 
Mr. Ray kindly volunteered to go into the city and 
endeavour to procure a situation for his young friend 
in a wholesale house. He went to Mr. Fisher, a Cum- 
berland man like himself, and after giving George Moore 
an excellent character, he induced him to engage the 
young man at a small salary. The firm of Fisher, 


Stroud, and Robinson, Watling Street, was then the 
first Lace house in the city. George entered it at the 
beginning of 1826, at the salary of 40 a year. In a 
letter to his father, he says he now feels himself to be 
" a made man." 

Before leaving this part of the subject it may be men- 
tioned that, while he was still at Grafton House, Moore 
was reminded of the cattle-dealer with whom he had 
crossed the Solway some two years before. The reason 
of the unusual crossing was now apparent. The border 
cattle-dealer, with the usual weakness of his class, was 
not unwilling to find a stray beast amongst his herd. 
Perhaps he picked them up as he came along. Now, 
however, he had been convicted of sheep-stealing. He 
had more than once been to Falkirk fair and bought a 
few sheep. But it was curious to notice how they in- 
creased from day to day as they proceeded southwards. 
By the help of his clever dog, he contrived to add a 
sheep now and then to his flock. The sheep-farmers 
were however on the alert. They noticed the loss of 
their sheep. They followed the cattle-dealer ; found 
their sheep amongst his flock ; apprehended him, and 
had him convicted of sheep-stealing. The sentence 
passed upon him was transportation for life. 

Transportation was a very different thing then from 
what it is now. Men sentenced were really transported. 
They were not let out with a ticket-of-leave to plunder 
people again. Our cattle-dealer desired very much to 
evade the punishment. He could think of nothing 
better than to write to the young man who had crossed 
the Solway with him two years before. His letter to 
George Moore reached him in a roundabout way. But 
immediately on receiving it, he proceeded to see the 
condemned cattle-dealer. He found the criminal in 
the hulks, chained hand and foot, and amongst the 
most horrible riffraff that he had ever seen. The 


convict was waiting in the Thames for the next ship for 
Botany Bay. What should this young man do, but get 
up a memorial to the Secretary of State to have the 
sentence mitigated. He sent it down to Cumberland, 
had numerous influential signatures attached to it, pre- 
sented the memorial, and actually had the sentence 
mitigated from transportation for life to fourteen years 

During the man's absence, his wife maintained her 
family respectably. She had even saved some money. 
After the lapse of the fourteen years, the cattle-dealer 
returned to Cumberland worse than before. He took 
possession of his wife's money, treated her cruelly, and 
turned her out of her house. Mr. Moore afterwards 
admitted that it would have been better if he had 
allowed the law to take its course. " It was," he said, 
" the worst-spent philanthropic act that I was ever 
guilty of." The man himself died only a few months 



WHEN George Moore entered the employment of Fisher, 
Stroud, and Robinson, in 1826, he found that he had 
still many things to learn. He was but a raw Cumber- 
land lad. He had learnt little of manners. He was 
considered slow. His intelligence had not been awak- 
ened. At school, he was considered dull. He was 
much fonder of bathing than of reading, of hunting than 
of learning. He had a good deal of country conceit, 
which Mr. Fisher soon took out of him by incessant 

" From the fact," Moore says, " of my being engaged 
unseen (a practice I have always avoided) I suppose I 
did not come up to Mr. Ray's recommendations. After 
I had been in the house some weeks, Mr. Fisher began 
to blame my stupidity. He said he had had many a 
stupid blockhead from Cumberland, .but that I was the 
worst of them all. He went on repeating something of 
this sort two or three times a week for several months ; 
until I believed that every word he said was true. The 
conceit was thus entirely taken out of me." 

There were two or three things that George had to 
study carefully. The first was Accuracy. It was 
through his want of accuracy that the disagreeable 
circumstance with Lady Conyngham had occurred. 


His adding up the account wrong by a pound might, 
with a less forgiving master, have got him into gaol : 
it might, in fact, have cost him his life. An inaccurate 
man is utterly unfit for business. He gets himself and 
everybody else into trouble. He cannot be trusted. 
The business man must, above all things, be accurate 
in figures. The inaccurate balance-sheet is worthless. 
The account must balance, even to a penny. If it does 
not, the work must be done over again. Thus trouble 
is caused, business is delayed, and everybody is put into 
a state of annoyance. 

George Moore also wanted Quickness and Prompti- 
tude. Country-bred boys are slow, whilst town-bred 
boys are quick. Time is of little consequence in the 
village ; whilst time is of every consequence in the 
city. In the country you may saunter along half 
asleep ; whereas in the town you must push along wide 
awake. You see the rapidity of London life in the 
streets, where everybody is walking with rapidity, bent 
on some purpose or another. 

It is the same in places of business. Everything is 
concentrated into a few working hours. During that 
time, everybody is working at the top of his bent. 
Hence the rapid movements of the town-bred lad. 
He maybe shallow and frivolous; he may know next to 
nothing out of his own groove ; but he must be sharp, 
smart, and clever. The city boy scarcely grows up ; 
he is rushed up. He lives amid a constant succes- 
sion of excitements, one obliterating another. In fact, 
his reflective powers have scarcely time to grow and 

It is very different with the country boy. He is 
much slower in arriving at his maturity than the town 
boy ; but he is greater when he reaches it. He is hard 
and unpolished at first ; whereas the town boy is worn 
smooth by perpetual friction, like the pebbles in a run- 


ning stream. The country boy learns a greal deal, 
though he may seem to be unlearned. He knows a 
great deal about nature, and a great deal about men. 
He has had time to grow. His brain-power is latent. 

Hence the curious fact that in course of time the 
country-bred boy passes the city-bred boy, and rises 
to the highest positions in London life. Look at all 
the great firms, and you will find that the greater 
number of the leading partners are those who originally 
were country-bred boys. The young man bred in the 
country never forgets his origin. " There is," says La 
Rochefoucauld, " a country accent not in his speech 
only, but in his thought, conduct, character, and manner 
of existing, which never forsakes him." 

George Moore found that he was still without educa- 
tion, at least of that kind of education which enabled 
him to keep pace with his fellows. He therefore con- 
tinued faithfully to attend his night-school, where he 
endeavoured to learn as much as he could. " I found 
in this house," said he, speaking of Fisher's, "a first-rate 
class of young men, principally well-to-do people's sons, 
well-educated, well-mannered, and well-conducted. I 
soon found out my lamentable deficiency in education. 
1 had never cost my father more than 6s. 6d. a quarter 
for schooling, except the last quarter, which cost 8s. 
As our hours were shorter than in the retail trade, I 
went to a night-school, being so much ashamed of my 
ignorance. I frequently sat up studying my lessons 
until the small hours in the morning. I often think of 
those nights as the most usefully spent hours of my 
life. I learnt more during the eighteen months that 
I frequented the night-school than I had ever learnt 
before. If I had not availed myself of that opportunity 
I should never have had the chance again. From the 
part in life which I was destined to take, I must 
often have blushed for my ignorance, and evoked the 


sneers of others, which would have very much galled 
my sensitive nature." 

In after days, Mr. Moore used to say that he had 
two strong reasons for bearing cheerfully and resolutely 
the trials of that time. One was, that he knew the fact 
of his ignorance, and was conscious of how much he* 
had to learn ; hence his laborious nightly studies, some- 
times until two and three o'clock in the morning. But 
the other and more powerful reason was his love for 
Eliza Ray. He had never forgotten his boyish resolu- 
tion when he first saw her. " If I ever marry," said he, 
" that girl shall be my wife ! " This resolution had 
settled down into a firm and steady purpose. Eliza 
Ray was his guiding star. He would be faithful, honest, 
and true for her. He would work night and day for 
her. He knew that if, through any ignorance or neg- 
lect, he was expelled from his situation at Fisher's, he 
would have to relinquish his fondly cherished hopes. 
Hence his settled determination to cultivate his mind, 
to improve his business education, and to win the 
approval of his superiors. 

In the meantime George had been writing to his 
father at Mealsgate, strongly urging him to give his 
younger brother William the best education that could 
be got in the neighbourhood. " It is the best thing 
you could furnish him with in setting out in the world. 
It is better than money. Education will enable him 
to start fair in the world and to push his own way." 
William was accordingly sent to the best schools. He 
was a far apter learner than George had been. He 
had read extensively, and was well versed in literature. 
But he wanted that in which his brother George was 
supreme intense perseverance. He knew much, but 
did little. He could think, but could not work. 

Nevertheless, George had much confidence in his 
brother William, because of his superior education and 


his extensive knowledge. He called upon Mr. Ray 
and interceded with him to take his brother as an ap- 
prentice. Mr. Ray agreed to his wish. William came 
up from Mealsgate to London, and settled down at 
Grafton House. The boy was rather delicate, and did 
not like the confinement. Nor could he stand the 
roughnesses of the place so well as George had done. 
It was part of William's work to carry out and deliver 
the parcels of goods wh-ich had been bought by customers 
during the day. 

William found this work very fatiguing and very dif- 
ficult, because of his want of knowledge of the streets 
of London. His brother at once went to his help. 
As the hours of the wholesale houses are much shorter 
than those of the retail shops, George, when his day's 
work was over, put on an old coat, and went from the 
city to the west end to deliver his brother's parcels. 
Many a winter's night did he walk through wind and 
rain, with heavy parcels on his shoulders, to deliver 
them to the customers, thus literally bearing his 
brother's burdens. 

Mr. Crampton, afterwards his partner, says of him 
at this time : " My friendship with George Moore com- 
menced at the beginning of January, 1827, when I 
found him at Fisher's. We became close companions. 
His friends were my friends ; and so intimate were we 
that I seemed to merge into a Cumberland lad. George 
was very patriotic. All our friends were Cumberlanders, 
and though I was a Yorkshireman, I was almost in- 
duced to feign that I was Cumberland too. I was 
gayer than he, and he never failed to tell me of my 
faults. He was a strong, round-shouldered young fellow. 
He was very cheerful, and very willing. He worked 
hard, and seemed to be bent on improvement. But in 
other respects he did not strike me as anything remark- 
able. Among the amusements which we attended 



together were the wrestling-matches at St. John's Wood. 
The principal match was held on Good Friday. One 
day we vrent to the wrestling-field, and George entered 
his name. The competitors drew lots. George's anta- 
gonist was a life-guardsman, over six feet high. I think 
I see Moore's smile now as he stood opposite to the 
giant- The giant smiled too. Then they went at it, 
gat hod, and George was soon gently laid upon his back. 
By this time he was out of practice, and I do not think 
he ever wrestled again. Besides, he was soon so full of 
work as to have little time for amusement." 

Among the remarkable incidents of George Moore's 
early life was an adventurous visit which he made to 
the House of Commons. The following account was 
written by himself, at the age of sixty-seven, after he 
had been invited to stand for the County of Middlesex 
in conjunction with Lord Enfield : 

" On looking back upon my past eventful life, many 
strange circumstances crowd upon my mind. After I 
had been about two years in London, I had a great 
and anxious desire to see the House of Commons. I 
got a half holiday for the purpose. I did not think of 
getting an order from an M.P. Indeed I had not the 
slightest doubt of getting into the House. I first tried 
to get into the strangers' gallery, but failed. I then 
hung about the entrance, to see whether I could find 
some opportunity. I saw three or four members hurry- 
ing in, and I hurried in with them. The door-keepers 
did not notice me. I walked into the middle of the 
House. When I got in, I almost fainted with fear lest 
I should be discovered. I first got into a seat with the 
name of ' Canning ' written upon it. I then proceeded 
to a seat behind, and sat there all the evening. I heard 
Mr. Canning bring forward his motion to reduce the 
duty on corn. He made a brilliant speech. He was 
followed by many other speakers. I sat out the whob 


debate. Had I been discovered, I might have been 
taken up for breach of privilege. Some men are born 
great ; others have greatness thrust upon them. Little 
did I then dream that I should at a future period have 
the offer made to me of becoming member for the 
City of London, and afterwards for the County of 
Middlesex." l 

To return to George Moore's position in the firm of 
Fisher, Stroud, and Robinson. He had now been for 
some time in the house. He had gained the respect of 
everybody in it. He was attentive, careful, accurate, 
hardworking. All the conceit had been taken out of 
him. Mr. Fisher no longer called him a dunderhead or 
a Cumberland blockhead. On the contrary, he began 
to like the smartness, cleverness, and willingness of the 
lad. At the end of the year, he promoted him to be 
town traveller for the firm. " Then," says Mr. Crampton, 
" the character of the man came out. At first his great 
abilities did not strike me; but when he got scope he 
burst out, and displayed that energy and perseverance 
which always distinguished him. He distanced all 
competitors, and sold more goods than any traveller 
had done before. He gained confidence in himself 
(for he had been tamed by Mr. Fisher), he became 
open and free in his manner, and devoted himself to 
his duties with immense zeal. Mr. Fisher became 
proud of his traveller, and George became proud of 
his firm, declaring it to be the first house in the trade." 

A gentleman still living remembers George's visits 
to his employer. He then held a situation in one of 
the first west-end houses. " My principal," he says, 
"who had the purchasing of the lace goods being 
fond of good living, and not being blest with much 

1 Mr. ^,. ore's visit to the House of Commons mu^t have been made in 
June, 1827. Mr. Canning's speech on the Corn Bill was one of the last 
he delivered : he died on the 8th of August following. 

F 2 


modesty had no objection to an occasional 'high 
lunch.' When Moore called for orders, he welcomed 
him cordially, and suggested, 'We must have a lunch 
to-day ! ' The traveller promptly responded, on which 
the principal, turning to the chief shopman, would say, 
'You know what we want; look through Mr. Moore's 
stock, and don't be afraid of making a good parcel.' 
The lunch was eaten, the drink was drunk, and a good 
parcel was invariably made. Thus at the commence- 
ment of George Moore's career he did not shrink from 
expense, provided he could do a large business." This 
was not a very elevating life ; still it was the life that 
George Moore had been trained for, and which he had 
to follow faithfully and zealously. 

He was found to be too good for town travelling. 
After about eighteen months, his employer sent him 
on the Liverpool and Manchester circuit. He was then 
only twenty-three. Indeed, he had scarcely reached 
manhood. Yet he was selected to occupy this im- 
portant position. The Liverpool and Manchester dis- 
trict had been badly worked, and the business had fallen 
off. He had now to take the necessary means to revive 
and restore it. 

There was only one method Work ! Work ! Nor 
did he spare himself. He worked early in the morning, 
and late at night. Sometimes he "worked" a town 
before breakfast ; making early appointments with the 
drapers beforehand. After breakfast he packed up his 
goods, drove off to another place (for there were no rail- 
ways in those days), and finished his work at a third 
town within the day. 

By this means he soon established a large business. 
That he increased the returns of his employers did not 
surprise them so much, as the shortness of the time 
during which he performed his journeys. This arose 
from his never losing a moment. He had nothing of 


the dawdler about him. When he had -finished his 
work in one town, he was immediately ready to start 
for another. 

He used afterwards to say that the position he oc- 
cupied was very trying, but that it tested the stuff of 
which a man was made. With him " it was a constant 
struggle between pride and sensitiveness," though in 
later years he always considered it to be the best test- 
ing work for a young man, before his promotion to 
places of greater trust. 

George Moore was modest in his success. He claimed 
credit for nothing but his perseverance. His account of 
the matter always was, " The drapers cannot do with- 
out Fisher's goods ; " but his contemporary travellers 
attributed his success more to his powers of persuasion 
and his capacity for work, than to the qualities of his 

At the inns which he frequented, he was regarded as 
a sort of hero. The other travellers used to pack up 
his goods, and thus help him on his way. They took 
pride in his success and boasted of his greatness. A 
young traveller who had just entered the northern circuit 
arrived at the " Star " Hotel, Manchester, while about 
a dozen travellers were helping George to pack up his 
goods. " Who's that young fellow they are making 
such a fuss about ? " " Oh ! It's George ! " " And who's 
George ? " " What ? Don't you know the NAPOLEON 
OF WATLING STREET ? Let me introduce you ! " 

One of his fellow-warehousemen at Fisher's having 
been compelled to leave London on account of bad 
health, accidentally met George Moore at Manchester. 
The young man had by this time recovered from his 
illness, and was again ready for work. George imme- 
diately interested himself in his behalf. He introduced 
him to a thriving Manchester firm, by whom he was 
employed ; and there he settled down and prospered. 


The gentleman is still alive, and is proud to record his 
recollections of George Moore. " Whenever he came to 
Manchester," he says, "I assisted him with his stock in 
the evenings. Through his geniality he drew around him 
a large circle of business friends. These helped him to 
pack up his stock when he was about to set out upon 
his journeys. It was no uncommon thing to see at the 
'' Star" Hotel a dozen or twenty of them with him in an 

" On one occasion, when he was passing along the cor- 
ridor by the bar, an order came from the head-waiter's 
room for ' Two brandies and cold water for No. 47.' 
' Why,' said George Moore, ' that's my number! What's 
the meaning of this ? ' The explanation given was, that 
a friend had called upon the waiter, and had ordered 
the brandies to bs put to Mr. Moore's account, thinking 
that this might easily be done where the account was 
so large and so difficult to check. After ample apologies 
and promises from the waiter to book no more fictitious 
orders for No. 47, Mr. Moore overlooked the offence, 
and continued to use the 'Star' as his hotel while in 

To show the energy with which he carried on his 
business, it may be mentioned that on one occasion he 
arrived in Manchester, and after unpacking his goods, 
he called upon his first customer. He was informed 
that one of his opponents had reached the town the 
day before, and would remain there for a day or two 
more. "Then," said Moore, "it's of no use wasting 
my time here, with my competitor before me." He 
returned to his hotel, called some of his friends about 
him to help him to repack his stock, drove off to 
Liverpool, commenced business next day, and secured 
the greater part of the orders before the arrival of his 

His extraordinary success surprised his employers. 


They had never had such a traveller before. His 
quickness, his shrewdness, his integrity, his honour- 
able dealings,- his knowledge of character, were the 
subject of their constant admiration. He had secured 
their perfect confidence, and they gave him full scope. 
After about six months they began to think whether 
they might not be able to turn his services to further 
account. The business in Ireland had fallen off. It 
had become small by degrees. In fact there was 
scarcely any of it left. The trade had been carried 
off by an active traveller named Groucock, partner in 
a firm which had been recently established. Fisher 
and Robinson accordingly determined to send their 
young traveller to Ireland to bring back their trade, 
and if possible to extend it. 

The order was accordingly sent to George Moore to 
start for Ireland. Before doing so, he took a short 
holiday in Cumberland. It will be observed that he 
always had a hearty interest in his native county, and 
now that he had a little time to spare, he would enjoy 
himself for a few days amongst his friends. He went 
from Carlisle to Wigton. He was amazed at the little- 
ness of the place. When he first saw it he thought it a 
large town ; and so it was, compared with the hamlet 
of Mealsgate. But now that he had been in London, 
walking through miles upon miles of streets to deliver 
his brother's parcels, or taking orders for his employer, 
Wigton seemed to have shrunk into the smallest pos- 
sible dimensions. He could walk from one end of the 
town to the other in a few minutes. He called upon all 
his old friends. They received him with enthusiasm. 
His old master, Messenger, had disappeared. He could 
not maintain his business after his apprentice had left. 
Like the bees, he had winged his way southward. 

But George did not stay long at Wigton. His prin- 
cipal object was to see his father, his brothers and his 


sisters at Mealsgate. There he found the old house, 
the old brook, the old stables, the old trees, the old 
fields. While everything had beer) changing with him, 
nothing had changed there. Age had told upon his 
father ; he was only able to sit in the ingleneuk, leaving 
the entire management of the farm to his eldest son, 

The old man received George with the warmest 
affection. " Weel, George, how art thou getting on ? " 
"Oh, bravely! bravely! I am just on my way to 
Ireland to work up the business there." He looked at 
George's face. It was the same face, but yet it was 
different. George had left the old place a boy ; he had 
returned to it a man. Time had written its lines upon 
his youthful features. They were keen and eager, and 
yet they were joyous. His manner was quicker and 
more active. His London life had evidently sharpened 
him up. He was strong, healthy, and resolute. 

George spent part of his brief holiday in wandering 
over the scenes of his boyhood. He lingered by the 
edge of the stream where he had caught his first fish. 
He wandered along the hedges where he had discovered 
his first bird's nest. He went up to Bolton School, 
where he had been thrashed by Blackbird Wilson. He 
went up and down the banks of the Ellen. He saw 
the fields on which he had shorn. In the evenings at 
sunset he would lean upon his father's field-gate, and 
listen to the faint far-off sounds that came to him across 
the tranquil country. How different from the whirl and 
bustle of London ! 

He visited the burying-place of his fathers at Tor- 
penhow, and called upon his relatives at Overgates and 
Kirkland. But his favourite spots were the old towers 
at Whitehall and Harbybrow, where he had been let 
down when a boy to harry the rooks' nests. The towers 
were still in a state of ruin. He dreaa^t it was then 


only a dream that these towers might yet become his 
own. And yet his dream was fulfilled. 

After a few days of delighful recreation, full of 
reminiscences of the past old thoughts and impressions 
rising up and meeting him at every step he at length 
prepared to start for Ireland. He was accompanied on 
his way by some of his old friends. They went with 
him to Allonby, where they dined together; and then 
they saw him set sail for Ireland. 

Arrived in Dublin, he set to work in right good 
earnest to bring back his masters' business. He had 
now, as he said, a " grand confidence in himself," and he 
was determined to make Fisher's name carry all before 
him. He worked very hard, from morn till night. He 
was up in the morning early, called upon his customers 
during the day, packed up his goods in the evening, 
and set off by the night coach for the next town upon 
his route. For weeks together the only sleep he secured 
was on the outside of a coach ; but he slept soundly. In 
the intervals of his work, when he felt unrested, he 
would throw himself on a sofa and fall sound asleep. 

To sleep well is one of the greatest blessings of life. 
" Sleep," says Sancho Panza, " wraps one all round like 
a blanket." George Moore had the gift, which is com- 
mon in strong men and great natures, of sleeping almost 
at will. When he was worried or overworked he would 
say : " Let me have an hour or two's sleep." A resting 
space was thus put between the pressure of the past and 
the work of the future ; and he came out of his sleep 
again strong, cheerful, and vigorous. 

Whilst travelling over Ireland he frequently met his 
competitor, Groucock, the traveller who had so greatly 
interfered with Fisher's Irish business. He was a young 
man, though some years older than Moore. He is 
described by those who knew him as " of delicate ap- 
pearance, but very clever and shrewd." Before Moore's 


appearance in Ireland, he had taken the lion's share of the 
lace trade ; but now he had a foeman worthy of his steel. 

Moore met Groucock frequently in the course of his 
journeys. Moore worked with greater celerity, and very 
soon divided the trade with Groucock. The com- 
petition between them became keen. Moore worked 
harder than ever, and at last he succeeded in getting 
back all the best customers for Fisher's. " I repre- 
sented," said Moore, " the best house in the world, and, 
with all the buoyancy and ambition of youth, I worked 
hard, and gradually succeeded in taking the largest share 
of the business." 

George once met Groucock at a town in the north of 
Ireland. Groucock invited him to sup with a friend 
after the day's work was over. The invitation was 
accepted. In the course of the evening their plans 
were discussed. George openly mentioned the town 
to which he was next due, and at what hour he would 
start. He afterwards found that Groucock had started 
the day before him, reached Belfast, and taken up all 
the orders for lace in the place. This caused some 
bitterness of feeling between the two travellers. But 
George, not to be outdone, immediately left Ireland 
for Liverpool. He worked the place thoroughly, then 
started for Manchester, and travelled through the great 
northern towns, working night and day, until he had 
gone over the whole of the ground, and returned to 
London full of orders. This in its turn greatly chagrined 
Groucock, who had intended to take Lancashire on his 
way home. 

In fact Groucock found it necessary to come to terms 
with his indefatigable competitor. Through a mutual 
friend, he made overtures to him. He offered him what 
Moore called " the incredible salary of 500 a year," if 
he would travel for his house instead of for Fisher's. It 
was a very tempting offer, for Moore's salary was only 


a year a sum out of which he could barely 
contrive to live. The wonder is that Fisher and 
Robinson had not voluntarily increased his salary, 
considering the enormous business that he had brought 
to their firm. 

But in answer to Groucock's overture, Moore's answer 
was firm and direct. He at once refused the offer. " I 
will be a servant for no other house than Fisher's. The 
only condition upon which I will leave him is a part- 
nership." At length, in self-defence, Groucock yielded 
to his terms, and in June, 1830, at the age of twenty- 
four, George Moore entered as partner into the firm of 
Groucock and Copestake, long afterwards known as 
that of Groucock, Copestake, and Moore. 

Before he left Fisher's he finished one of his most 
successful journeys. He did not say a word to the 
customers about his intended change. He returned to 
London to give up his accounts, and then he made the 
important announcement to his employers of his altered 
position in the trade, 



THE firm of Groucock and Copestake was established 
in 1825. The partners started on a very small scale. 
'! heir first place of business was over a trunk-shop at 
No. 7, Cheapside. One little room contained their little 
stock of goods. There was small space for clerks or 
warehousemen. Mr. Copestake was the principal clerk 
and warehouseman, while Mr. Groucock was employed 
in travelling for orders. 

The business grew by degrees. Mr. Groucock was 
an active traveller. He largely increased the orders, 
and at length the room over the trunkmaker's shop 
became too small. The firm was crowded out by the 
increasing stock. They looked about for more suitable 
premises. They found them at No. 62, Friday Street, 
and took possession of them in 1829 ; believing that the 
accommodation would be sufficient for doing a larger 
business. George Moore was taken in as a partner in 
the following year ; and a removal to more capacious 
premises was soon found necessary. The firm removed 
to Bow Churchyard in 1834, and the premises there, 
with successive alterations and enlargements, still con- 
tinue the headquarters of the house. 

Though the firm had been doing a considerable busi- 
ness throughout the country, their capital in stock, 


fixtures, and cash amounted to only 4,650. To this 
George Moore added ^670, which, he says, " my ever- 
to-be-revered father supplied me with." l The partner- 
ship was to be for three years, during which the junior 
partner was to receive one-fourth of the profits. But at 
the end of that period, if his partners were not satisfied, 
he was to be paid out his share of the capital, and the 
engagement was to cease. 

Behold now our young hero of twenty-four travelling 
partner for the firm of Groucock, Copestake, and Moore. 
His power of work at that time must have been extra- 
ordinary. His perfect health, his iron constitution, and 
his power of will and perseverance, enabled him to get 
through an enormous amount of labour and fatigue. 
Some of his fellow-travellers compared him to a lion, 
others to an eagle. He had the power and endurance 
of both. 

He worked with a will. He was now working for 
himself. He had still his great hope before him. He 
was ever faithful to his first love ; and now, he thought, 
she was coming nearer to him. " I believe," he after- 
wards said, " that I never could have surmounted the 
difficulties and hardships which I had to encounter, but 
for the thought of her. I thought of her while going 
my rounds by day, and I thought of her \\hile travelling 
by coach at night. The thought of her was my greatest 
stimulus to exertion." 

It has been well said that this episode in Mr. Moore's 
busy career shows that the romance of life is not con- 
fined to Belgravia, and that it supplies another to the 
thousand proofs that a pure and honourable attach- 
ment arms a young man against the siren attractions of 

1 His rather raised $ool. by mortgaging his estate. The remaining ijol 
was the money (with accumulated interest) which his great-uncle George 
had Icfc him, together with the hair trunk. 


idleness, and the " pleasures turned to pain," with which 
our crowded cities abound. 

Mr. Moore selected for his travelling ground the dis- 
tricts in which he had before been so successful while 
travelling for Fisher Liverpool, Manchester, Dublin, 
Belfast, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. Mr. Groucock, who 
had few equals as a traveller, selected the midland dis- 
tricts, including Nottingham, where he purchased the 
greater part of the lace sold by the firm. There was 
another traveller for the southern districts, and a town 
traveller. This constituted the whole of the travelling 

The first year's returns were comparatively small. 
Trade was very bad. It was a perilous time. A com- 
mercial panic existed throughout the country. The 
political excitement arising from the Reform Bill agita- 
tion was very great. There was severe pressure for 
money; and many of the weaker houses went to the 
wall. Distress prevailed in Lancashire. Glasgow was 
almost bankrupt. There were disturbances in Spital- 
fields and riots at Barnsley. In the midst of these 
difficulties, trade in lace (a thing that could easily be 
done without) was one of the first to suffer. 

Nevertheless George Moore continued his journeys. 
Whatever could be done, he did. His usual day's work 
occupied about sixteen hours. It must also be observed 
that he worked on Sundays as well as Saturdays. Like 
many other commercial travellers, he occupied his 
Sunday mornings in preparing his accounts and looking 
over his stock. As a rule he was up two nights a week. 
He would merely throw himself on a sofa for a few 
hours' sleep before resuming his journey. The thought 
of resting to take a few hours' pleasure never entered 
his mind. He was occupied with business, and with 
business only. It was work, work, from morning till 


Yet he was of a cheerful and social disposition, and 
continued to make many friends. He was popular 
everywhere. Though he outstripped others in the race 
of commerce, he never made an enemy. At night, when 
he was making up his accounts, his volunteer friends 
came round him and helped him to pack up his goods 
for his next journey. They were always eager to speed 
him on his way. Even the servants at the various inns 
which he frequented ran to help him. 

Mr. Crampton, who was with him at Fisher's, and 
afterwards became his partner at Bow Churchyard, 
says of him at that time " He made personal friends 
wherever he went, and he kept them. George Moore's 
name was a household word all over the country. His 
friends used to keep their christenings and festive days 
till he came round ; and he had god-children enough to 
found a colony." 

Mr. Felix Brown, afterwards one of his branch 
managers, has given the following account of his first 
introduction to George Moore : " The first time I saw 
him was at the Union Hotel, Birmingham, at eleven 
o'clock at night, in the year 1832, when I assisted him 
and his partner to take their stock. I was struck with 
his quickness and kindness ; and as I was constantly 
taking models for my own action in life, I shelved him 
as one. I suppose the good impressions then made were 
mutual ; for in a few days I was engaged to represent 
the firm, when I took the senior partner's journey. In 
my efforts to succeed, I was greatly stimulated by the 
indomitable perseverance of Mr. Moore, and by his 
generous, frank manner of doing business. I soon dis- 
covered that he could do with a moiety of most men's 
hours of rest ; for though his body might be reposing, 
his mind was at work. 

" On my second introduction to him at Dublin, where 
I was summoned to assist him, we occupied a double- 


bedded room. My usual habit was, when I laid my 
head u^on my pillow, to forget the world and its cares, 
and g " to sleep. But on this occasion my companion 
kept tailing to me, I trying hard to keep awake and 
listen. But when I dropped into the stupor of slumber 
I was suddenly wakened up with a voice ' Brown ! 
Brown ! what a fellow you are to sleep!' At this time 
I was a little timid in my new life, and to shake this 
out of me he sent me to call upon his most important 
customers, quietly enjoying his practical though useful 
jokes upon me. 

"Success covers many shortcomings. This being the 
case with myself, I established a confidence with him 
which was never shaken, but strengthened and grew 
until his death. During my forty-five years connec- 
tion with him I observed this consistent attachment to 
those who had worked for him and with him in his 
early life; and when he had attained to eminence, none 
were ever more welcome at his hospitable board than 
the honest, upright companions of his youth. My 
opportunities of meeting him in the early career of the 
house were few, but when we came within a few miles of 
each other in the course of our respective journeys, we 
always embraced the opportunity of meeting. His 
custom was to invite all our customers to dine at my 
hotel, when he made me the star of the evening. 

" During the first ten years I took no holiday. This 
rather surprised him. Being popular on my journey, I 
was unwilling to give it up to any one who might be sent 
thither to relieve me. I told him so. The prompt answer 
was, ' Will you take a holiday if / take your journey ? ' 
I accepted his offer. He took my place, and greatly 
exceeded the returns over the corresponding month of 
the preceding year. He told all my friends that I had 
gone to France, and that on my return they would 
hardly know me because of my French accent and 


manners. I was often surprised at his memory. He 
remembered the smallest incident, whether in business 
or philanthropy. Indeed I shall never forget his kind- 
ness to myself and to all connected with me." 

Mr. Moore had, of course, many rebuffs to encounter 
in the course of his journeys as a commercial traveller. 
With sufficient confidence in his own abilities, he had no 
personal pride. Though rebuffed a dozen times, though 
bowed out of a shop again and again without an order, 
he would call again with his " Good morning," as brisk 
and cheerful as ever. He used to say that it was a bad 
plan to fall out with a customer, however rude he might 
be. He talked with them, he joked with them, he amused 
them, and finally he brought them round to his side, 
which was to order a good parcel. 

Many are the stories still told by commercial travellers 
about George Moore's determination to get orders. He 
would not be denied. If refused at first, he resorted to 
all sorts of expedients until he succeeded. On one 
occasion he sold the clothes off his back to get an order. 
A tenacious draper in a Lancashire town refused to deal 
with him. The draper was quite satisfied with the firm 
that supplied him, and he would make no change. This 
became known amongst the commercial travellers at the 
hotel, and one of them wagered with George Moore that 
he would not obtain an order. 

George set out to try. The draper saw him entering 
the shop, and cried out, "All full ! all full, Mr. Moore ! 
I told you so before ! " " Never mind," said George, 
" you won't object to a crack." " Oh, no ! " said the 
draper. They cracked about many things, and then 
George Moore, calling the draper's attention to a new 
coat which he wore, asked " What he thought of it ? " 
"It's a capital coat," said the draper. "Yes, first rate; 
made in the best style by a first-rate London tailor." 
The draper looked at it again, and again admired it. 



" Why," said George, " You are exactly my size ; it's 
quite new, I'll sell it you." "What's the price?" 
"Twenty-five shillings." "What? that's very cheap." 
" Yes, it's a great bargain." " Then I'll buy it," said 
the draper. 

George went back to his hotel, donned another suit, 
and sent the "great bargain," to the draper. George 
calling again, the draper offered to pay him. " No, 
no," said George, "I'll book it; you've opened an 
account." The draper afterwards became one of his 
best customers. 

On another occasion a draper at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne was called upon many times without any result. 
He was always " full." In fact he had no intention of 
opening an account with the new firm. Mr. Moore got 
to know that he was fond of a particular kind of snuff 
rappee, with a touch of beggar's brown in it. Ke 
provided himself with a box in London, and had it filled 
with the snuff. When at Newcastle, he called upon the 
draper, but was met as usual with the remark, " Quite 
full, quite full, sir." " Well," said Mr. Moore, " I scarcely 
expected an order, but I called upon you for a re- 
ference." "Oh, by all means." 

In the course of conversation George took out his 
snuff-box, took a pinch, and put it in his pocket. After 
a short interval he took it out again, took another pinch, 
and said, "I suppose you are not guilty of this bad 
habit ? " " Sometimes," said the draper. George handed 
him the box. He took a pinch with zest, and said, 
through the snuff, "Well, that's very fine!" George 
had him now. He said, " Let me present you with the 
oox , I have plenty more." The draper accepted the 
box. No order was asked ; but the next time George 
called upon him he got his first order, and numerous 
others followed. 

With George Moore's energy and iaboriousness the 


business rapidly increased. At the end of the three 
years' partnership, he had made himself so necessary to 
the firm, that his services could not be dispensed with. 
He was accordingly made equal partner with the others, 
taking his third share of the profits. " Groucock and I," 
he says, "extended the business so rapidly that poor 
Copestake was often very hard up to pay the accounts 
for lace. I did almost double the business of any other 
traveller on the road. Had it pleased God to lay me 
up for three months, I believe it might have olaced the 
house in difficulty ; but I was as strong as a lion, and 
worked generally sixteen or eighteen hours a day." 

At this time, and for nine years after, Moore had no 
place to call his own, not even a lodging. He was 
travelling about during the whole year, not sleeping 
more than two or three nights in one place. He arranged 
his plans, however, so as to reach London the week 
before Christmas. He looked forward to this day as the 
great event of the year. A large company of friends 
was invited to meet him. The enjoyment and hospi- 
tality of those days, though it might be of a rough and 
simple character, lived long in the recollection of many 
besides himself. Some have said, " There have been no 
Christmases like them since." The gatherings took 
place in one of the rooms of the warehouse in Friday 
Street, and afterwards in Bow Church Yard. Moore 
always slept in a bed made up for him in the house. 
This was his only holiday during the year. 

There were other things to be talked about by the 
partners during these annual meetings. There was the 
position of the house amidst the failures that were con- 
stantly occurring the breakings of banks, the scarcity 
of money, the knowing whom to trust and whom not to 
trust. It was indeed a time of great difficulty, and one 
of peril for so young a house, with so small a capita! at 
its command. Mr. Moore says of^this period, " Al- 

G 2 


though Mr. Copestake never went through the hardships 
that I did, he must have had a great deal of menta\ 
anxiety to provide money. I laboured day and night. 
Our business increased every year. It was my duty to 
initiate the new travellers and drill them into their 
work, and to open out to them fresh journeys. In the 
course of my peregrinations I visited every market-town 
in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, with very 
few exceptions. I also visited the Nottingham market, 
where we had to thank the manufacturers for their always 
unbounded confidence. Groucock and I also travelled 
through most of the towns of Belgium and France to 
buy lace, and to open out operations for the future. 
Independently of this, I worked my own journey single- 
handed. For twelve years I never missed, excepting 
once, starting for Ireland on the first Monday of every 

George Moore looked upon the Irish voyages as his 
rest for the month. So soon as he got on board he 
went to his berth, and slept soundly until the ship was 
in sight of port. It was not, however, always so easy 
to get on board. His voyage was usually undertaken 
from Liverpool ; but sometimes from other ports. The 
passenger-boats forty-five years ago were very different 
from what they are now. There were few steamers at 
that time. Most of the voyages were made by sailing- 
ships. Hence the occasional slowness of the voyages 
from England to Ireland. It sometimes took sixteen 
hours to get across ; though we have heard of a case in 
which it took six weeks to bring a regiment of militia 
from Cork to Yarmouth. 

On one occasion George Moore embarked at Ply- 
mouth for Dublin. The vessel by which he was to sail 
lay at anchor some distance from the shore. It was a 
wild winter's night, and the sea was running high. The 
captain at first refused to weigh anchor, but at Moore's 


urgent request he consented to take him on board. His 
next difficulty was to induce the sailors to face the 
sea in an open boat ; but at length he hired a sufficient 
number of men to row him out to the ship. The boxes 
containing his stock of lace were brought down to the 
shore and hoisted into the boat, lying high and dry 
upon the beach. Moore had a servant with him, much 
older than himself, to look after the boxes. This man's 
fears so far overcame him that he lost all self-command, 
and entreated his master not to endanger his life and 
his lace in that open boat. " Stop behind then/' said 
Moore, " for I am determined to go." He then sprang 
into the boat and signalled to the sailors to start. It 
was, however, thought necessary to lash them together 
with ropes to prevent them being washed into the sea. 

The boat was then launched through the surf, and 
for some moments it was hidden from sight by the 
waves. It was more than an hour before the boatmen 
fought their way to the vessel through one of the wildest 
storms that broke along that rocky coast. Eager and 
friendly eyes watched them until they reached the ship at 
anchor. The lace boxes were hoisted in ; Moore followed 
last ; and at length, when the storm had somewhat 
abated, the ship sailed for Dublin and reached the port 
in safety. 

At another time Mr. Moore had a narrow escape 
from drowning while crossing Morecambe Sands. He 
had been travelling in Cumberland, by Carlisle, Mary- 
port, and Whitehaven. He had arrived at Cartmel, in 
Lancashire, near the head of Morecambe Bay. He 
was driving his own two-horse conveyance, containing 
a large quantity of valuable lace. Being unwilling to 
lose a moment, he determined to make a short cut 
across the sands to Lancaster, where he was next due. 
But he seems not to have known the dangers of the 


When the tide at that part of the coast is low, the 
sea runs very far out. Only a little strip of blue is 
seen in the distance. A large extent of sand and mud 
is laid bare at the head of the bay. From Cartmel to 
Poulton-le-Sands, is about nine miles across. If the 
journey can be accomplished in that way, it saves a 
distance of about fifty miles round the rivers Kent and 
Leven. The sands had long been used as a sort of 
desert highway. It was the custom to have a chartered 
guide, called the Carter, to attend and conduct strangers 
across the sands, which were constantly shifting. The 
registers of the parish of Cartmel show that not fewer 
than a hundred persons have been buried in the church- 
yard who were drowned in attempting to cross the 
sands. This was independent of the numerous burials in 
the churchyards of adjacent parishes on both sides of 
the bay. As late as the spring of 1857 a party of ten 
or twelve young men and women, who were proceeding 
to the hiring market at Lancaster, were overtaken by 
the tide, and the whole of them were drowned. 

George Moore reached Cartmel towards evening. He 
did not take time to inquire as to the state of the 
tide, but drove off at once towards the sands. It was a 
reckless undertaking, as he soon found out. He drove 
along with speed. But he was scarcely half way 
across the sands before he saw that the tide was 
turning. The man who was with him in the carriage, 
jumped out and went back. But George, believing 
that he was on the right track, drove on. The water 
was now approaching. It was coming on like a mill 
race. He flogged his horses as he had never flogged 
them before. The sand shifted under the horses' feet. 
Then he turned them to one side, and drove them where 
their feet held. A mirage rose before him, and he 
seemed to see the land. But it disappeared and reap- 
peared again and again. The situation became terrible. 


The water was now upon him, and the boxes behind him 
were swimming. He drove first this way, and then that. 
The firm ground failed him. He was driving towards 
destruction, for he was driving towards the open sea ! 

At length he heard a loud shout. It proceeded from 
some person to the left. He looked round and discerned 
through the haze a man on horseback shouting and 
waving his hands. It was one of the mounted guides 
stationed on the shore to watch the dangerous tracks. 
The man spurred his horse into the water, suddenly 
turned round, and waved to the man in the carriage to 
come onward in that direction. Moore understood his 
position at once. His horses were now swimming. He 
pulled them round by sheer force in the direction of the 
land By dint of flogging and struggling the horses at 
length touched the ground. They dragged the carriage 
up the bank, and Moore's life was saved. 

To return to the results of the partnership. At the 
end of the second year, George Moore's share of the 
profits amounted to .695. His capital invested in the 
concern was now 848. The income he had made 
by his year's hard work did not amount to much, but he 
was laying the foundations of a large business. For 
some time it doubled itself yearly. All the partners 
had their hearts in the work. They lived economically. 
They put all their spare capital into the concern. Like 
Moore, Groucock was constantly on the road. When 
not travelling in England he was travelling abroad, 
buying lace to supply the constantly-increasing demand. 
Copestake confined himself to the house. He managed 
the finances of the firm. He was an excellent ware- 
houseman. He never spent a day out of the office. 
Mr. Moore says of him : " For half the time that I have 
been a partner with him he never took a day's holiday. 
I never took a day for the first thirteen years during alJ 
the time that I travelled." 


With all these heads and hands at work, the firm 
could not but thrive. The business increased from year 
to year, and yet it was carried on with a comparatively 
small capital. At the beginning of 1832 the firm owed 
14,133, whilst the stock on hand was valued only at 
8,435, though the book-debts and cash in hand 
amounted to 14,406. In tact the firm was trading 
close upon its means, and it could only keep alive by 
turning over its capital again and again in the course of 
the year. Then there were the bad debts, and in such a 
time of mercantile distress they must have been con- 

The position of the firm began to be talked about 
amongst men in the lace trade. One of their special 
rivals made no secret of the matter. He told his friends 
that Groucock, Copestake, and Moore were trading 
beyond their capital, and would soon be unable to meet 
their liabilities. The credit of merchants is a vital 
point. Their virtue, like that of Caesar's wife, must be 
beyond suspicion. Stories like these, whispered about, 
soon affect the credit of the merchant. They cease to 
be able to buy on like terms with others. It was there- 
fore found necessary to put a stop to these rumours in a 
summary manner. An action was commenced against 
a particular slanderer in the Court of Common Pleas. 
The case was tried before Lord Abhiger and a special 
jury. The counsel for the firm was Mr. Thesiger, after- 
wards Lord Chelmsford ; and the counsel for the 
defendant were the Attorney-General (Sir J. Campbell) 
and Sir F. Pollock. 

In the course of the evidence it came out that the 
defendant had gone to the London agent of Messrs. 
Heathcoat, and Co., the large lace manufacturers at 
Nottingham, and informed him that there was a great 
deal of talk in the trade about a lace house in a Church- 
yard. " Do you mean Groucock and Company ? " asked 


the agent. " Yes, it was Groucock and Company." He 
went on to tell the agent that the house could not get 
over the 4th of March, having made a bad debt of 
^2,000 in Sheffield ; and besides, that the great ex- 
pense to which they had gone in travellers and clerks, 
and the many losses they had suffered, rendered it 
certain that they must stop ! The defendant went down 
to Nottingham and propagated the same statements ; 
the result of which was that Groucock and Co. 's traveller 
was prevented buying goods at the ordinary price. 

It was a wily and deep-laid scheme for the ruin of the 
firm. " It is impossible," said Mr. Thesiger, " to esti- 
mate what injury may have been done to the plaintiffs 
by the course which has been pursued. Private credit, 
like public, depends entirely upon opinion. The plaintiffs 
are persons of great respectability ; their trade has 
flourished : but however deeply their roots may have 
struck, and however widely their branches may have 
been spread, still their whole business may be over- 
thrown by the breath of suspicion." 

After a careful summing-up by Lord Abinger, the jury 
gave a unanimous verdict for the plaintiffs damages, 
three hundred pounds. They did not place the amount 
to the credit of the firm, but divided it amongst the Lon- 
don charities. The honour and reputation of the house 
were thus vindicated. The fact of their having been 
assailed in such a public manner by their rival, brought 
many new friends to their help. They were even offered 
numerous sums of money on loan ; but they declined 
to accept these proffered kindnesses. The trial gave 
them an additional start, and they carried on their 
increasing trade more successfully than ever. 

Mr. Moore had in the meantime continued his friend- 
ship with Mr. Ray, his former employer. He saw his 
little rosebud growing up into womanly grace and beauty. 
- At length he told his secret. He was refused. After 


this, an interval of five years passed. Five years is a 
long time in a man's life. It makes ties and breaks 
them. Still he went on remembering her. Like all 
true lovers, he always had doubts as to his success in 
winning her. As he expresses it "he had served for 
her with an aching heart longer than Jacob served for 

At length he heard that some favoured suitor had 
many chances of being with her, which were quite unat- 
tainable for him. Mr. Ray was still most friendly, and 
George continued his visits to the family, when in town. 
With his usual perseverance he at last succeeded. On 
the 1 2th of August, 1840, he led his first love, Eliza Flint 
Ray, to the altar. And thus his boyish resolution was 
at last fulfilled. 



MR. MOORE'S marriage did not greatly interfere with his 
business pursuits. His honeymoon tour lasted only a 
week. He went back to his journeys again. His first 
house in London was at 17, Canterbury Villas, Maida 
Hill, but he was rarely at home. He set out for Ireland 
on the first of every month ; and he continued to make 
his ordinary rounds in the northern towns of England 
during the rest of the month. 

At length, in 1841, after the business of the firm had 
become well established, he partially gave up travelling. 
They had now three town travellers and ten country 
travellers. Mr. Moore confined himself to drilling the 
new men, and introducing them to his customers. When 
a journey was not working well he took it in hand 
himself, in order to give it another push. 

When a traveller was laid up, or went on his holiday, 
Mr. Moore took his journey until he returned. It was 
difficult work for the traveller to do any business on that 
road for some time after. On one occasion Mr. Moore 
took the journey into Wales, and sold so many goods 
that the traveller who followed him had almost nothing 
to do during his next journey. 

The business had by this time so much increased, that 
the premises in Bow Churchyard were again enlarged. 


Houses in Bread Street were bought and included in the 
warehouse. Amongst these was the house erected in 
place of that in which John Milton was born. A bust of 
John Milton stands on the site of his birthplace. The 
house itself was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. 

When George Moore gave up travelling, and took to 
office work, the change of occupation soon told upon his 
health. During his journeys he had lived for the most 
part out of doors. He had breathed fresh air, taken 
plenty of exercise, and enjoyed the best of health. But 
now that he had become a warehouseman, and sat at a 
desk in a stuffy part of the warehouse, breathing impure 
air and taking little exercise, his health gave way. He 
began to be hasty and irritable. From being cheerful, 
he became sombre and melancholy. He had an excru- 
ciating pain in his head. He could not sleep at night. 
He took his business to bed with him, and rose up with 
it again in the morning. Bow Churchyard was his night- 
mare. Everything else was prospering with him. Life 
was the same as before, and yet he could not enjoy it. 
In short, he was ill ; and then he thought of the doctor. 

He consulted Surgeon Lawrence, 1 of Whitehall Place, 
one of the most distinguished men of his day. After 
stating his case, Mr. Lawrence said, " I see how it is. 
You have got the City Disease. You are working your 
brain too much and your body too little." " But what 
am I to do?" asked Mr. Moore. "Well, I'll tell you. 
Physic is of no use in a case such as yours. Your 
medicine must be the open air. You may spend part of 
your time in gardening ; or you may fish, or shoot, or 
hunt ! " "I cannot garden," replied the patient ; " I 
never fired a gun in my life ; fishing would drive me 
mad ; and I think that 1 must take to hunting." " Can 
you ride? " asked Mr. Lawrence. " Not much! I rode 
my father's blind horse barebacked when a boy ; but I 
1 Afterwards Sir William Lawrence, Bart. 


have not ridden since." "Well," said Mr. Lawrence, 
" You had better go down to Brighton and ride over the 
downs there ; but you must take care not to break your 
neck in hunting." 

In the meantime Mr. Lawrence recommended George 
Moore to go to Mr. Deville, the phrenologist in the 
Strand, to have his head examined. Phrenology was 
very much talked about in those days. George Combe 
and James Simpson were its great apostles, and many 
medical men believed in it. Mr. Moore says that Mr. 
Lawrence was not a strong believer, but that he was 
curious to compare the report of Mr. Deville with his 
own impressions as to his patient's brain. Mr. Moore 
walked directly from Mr. Lawrence's surgery to Mr. 
Deville's office, so that there could be no concert between 
them. To those who do not believe in phrenology, the 
report, given below, 1 will be considered a remarkably 
good " guess " as to Mr. Moore's general character. 

1 "This is a large brain, with a good deal of power. If called fairly 
into action and fairly exercised, must take a good station in society, but 
being subject to act with great energy, more particularly under excitement, 
it will require some care not to overwork it. The moral sentiments, the 
feelings and propensities, being nearly equally balanced, everything that is 
likely to excite the latter should be avoided. 

"The intellectual regions being large, you should, with but little effort, 
possess a highly useful general knowledge, and be well fitted for the law, 
the bar, a scientific, mechanical, mercantile, or physiological occupation. 
Kind to the youn^r, and warm and zealous in friendship, it may require a 
little exertion occasionally to hold in check the lower feelings. Anger, a 
little smart if offended, but soon over upon a kindly feeling being shown. 

" Firmness and determination are strong points in the character. The 
views taken and opinions put forward not readily given up ; and if a little 
excited, strongly expressing the views taken, having the power, by a com- 
ma d of words, to put forward and advocate the same ; but a slight modi- 
fication of the feelings manifested at times might be very useful. 

"Those powers fit you to act as a delegate to represent ihe views of a 
body, or others ; being sensitive to proper positions in society, a motive for 
some of the actions, but not stooping to servile means to obtain them. A 
strong sense of honour and justice ; not bigoted upon religion. 

"Not at a loss for words to express your views and language easily. 
History, science, mathematics, mechanics, and philosophy may be readily 
applied to highly useful purposes. Here is power for mirth, humour, and 
imitation, drawing, or something in the arts, though colouring will require 
attention, if not some difficulty. Fond of system and method, with a dis 


Mr. Moore proceeded to Brighton with his wife. He 
hired a horse and hunted with the harriers across the 
Downs. He managed to keep his seat. The horse he 
rode was not frisky, nor were there any fences to leap. 
He hunted two or three times a week, during the month, 
while he remained at Brighton. He now thought that 
he was a sufficiently good rider to follow the hounds 
across country. 

Shortly after his return to London he went to his first 
fox-hunt. The meet was at Chipping Ongar, about 
thirty miles from town. He sent his horse overnight to 
meet Colonel Conyer's foxhounds ; and he himself started 
next morning at six, with two friends. He wore white 
cords, and was rather smartly got up for the occasion. 
The day was fine ; the meet at the cover was most in- 
spiriting men, dogs, and horses sky, sun, and land- 
scape were splendid. A fox was found. Tally-ho ! 
Tally-ho ! and away they went. Moore's first jump 
was over a rotten bank fence. The horse, not getting 
sufficiently forward, tumbled back into a stagnant ditch, 
with Moore under. After great difficulty, man and 
horse were at length got out, the rider covered xvith 
mud, and his white cords blackened. But his pluck was 
up, and determined to go straight, he remounted, and set 
the horse again at the fence. He got over and went on 
at a gallop. 

He had some difficulty in sticking on. The horse did 
not care for jumping. When he came to a hedge, he 
preferred rushing through it, to jumping over it. But 
there were ditches and walls that must be jumped. On 

like to gaudy colours in dress or furniture. Some feeling for poetry and 
music if cultivated. 

'' In conclusion, it is difficult to say what such a brain, with perse\ trance, 
could not do, than what it is capable of doing." 


" January 10, 1844.'' 


such occasions Moore usually went over the horse's head, 
and picked himself together on the other side. He 
mounted again and pushed on, nothing daunted. If 
others could follow the hounds, why should not he? 
Wherever a jump was to be taken, he would try it. 
Over he went. Another tumble ! No matter. After a 
desperate run, he got seven tumbles. Sometimes he was 
down ; sometimes the horse was down ; and sometimes 
both were down together. 

At the end of the run the horse was blown, and 
thoroughly done up. Old Colonel Conyers Master of 
the hounds seeing George Moore's bloody face, his 
smashed hat, his ragged and dirty clothes came up to 
him and said, " Young man, you have much more pluck 
than prudence. If you don't take care you will be 
getting your neck broken some day ; I advise you to go 
home." Of course the Colonel had no idea that the 
young man was merely following his doctor's prescrip- 
tion. At all events Moore went away, for the fox was 
killed and the hunt was over. He concludes his first 
day's hunting experience with these words : " I was 
nothing the worse. On returning to the inn, I changed 
my clothes, and drove home the same night, having 
driven sixty rniles that day, besides the run." 

He adds a few words about bold riding. " Whatever 
other people may say about riding to hounds, I have 
always contended that no man ever rides bold unless he 
has had a few good tumbles. This, my first day, took 
away all fear ; and ever after, if I rode a really good 
horse that I had confidence in, I was generally in the 
right place in the run, and at the end. I always contend 
that more accidents take place with timid riders than 
with bold ones." 

On his next visit to his doctor he was recommended 
to take a long rest, and to try a change of scene if pos- 
sible. Lawrence advised him to go to Australia, or 


America, or the Cape of Good Hope anywhere for a 
long rest. Mr. Moore had not had a real holiday for 
about nineteen years not since he had entered Flint, 
Ray, and Co.'s in 1825. While he travelled for Fisher's, 
his life was full of hard work. He had now been travel- 
ling eleven years for his own house. During that time 
he never had a holiday. He had been burning the 
candle at both ends, and now he was suffering for it. 

He at length made up his mind to set out upon his 
first holiday. His partners were rejoiced at his proposal, 
for they had observed how much his health had been 
failing of late. The journey must be done at once. One 
evening he went home to his wife and said, " You must 
get my things ready: I am going to America to-morrow!' 1 
She was of course surprised. " Why did you not tell me 
before ? " " Well, it was of no use unsettling your mind 
beforehand. Now lam ready to go." His preparations 
were easily made. Commercial travellers are ready to 
start in any direction on a moment's notice. His baggage 
was accordingly got ready, and by cockcrow the following 
morning he was off on his journey to America. 

He sailed from Liverpool for New York on the I7th 
of August, 1844, by the Great Western steamship. No 
subject of interest occurred during the voyage. His prin- 
cipal business was tramping the deck, smoking cigars, and 
consuming meals at the ordinary intervals. " I laid down," 
said Mr. Moore, " the following rules, which I hope to be 
able to keep : Rise at half-past seven, walk on deck till 
breakfast, read at least six chapters in the Bible the first 
thing after breakfast, then walk on deck for an hour till 
lunch, afterwards write for an hour, then walk on deck 
for another hour, then read any books I have till dinner, 
between dinner and tea walk and talk, and take stock of 
the passengers, of whom there are all sorts, then whist 
until ten, and turn in." 

After a pleasant voyage, which extended for about 


fourteen days, the Great Western reached New York on 
the 3 1st of August. Mr. Moore, during his holiday, 
combined business with pleasure. Though he went to 
churches and theatres during his travels, his principal 
visits were to the importers of lace. He had obtained 
letters of introduction from Barings, Overend and Gurney, 
and others, which opened all doors to him. A few notes 
may be given from his journal. He first mastered the 
geography of the City of New York, and then went the 
round of his calls : 

" A long day. Observed with regret the loose mode 
of doing business. All busy. They appear to think 
good times will last for ever. Nearly all have failed at 
one time or another. Bankers discounting liberally at 
present, and all appear to be trying who can sell cheapest. 
. . . Took a turn among the retail shops to see their 
system. Mr. T. A. Stewart, Broadway, and a few others, 
are done upon the London style, but the lower class 
take any prices they can get. 

" Had a long consultation with my old friend and 
fellow-apprentice, Joseph Blane, who is in prosperity, 
esteemed by all who know him, and in possession of the 
best information about the standing of the different 
parties in the dry-goods trade. Had interviews with 
Brown Brothers (the Rothschilds of America), from 
whom I received marked kindness and most liberal offers 
to transact our money operations. . . . Dined with Joseph 
Blane at his house in Broadway. This was one of the 
pleasantest days I spent since I left my own fireside. 
It brought old recollections to my memory that had long 
since been buried scenes of my boyhood, when Blane 
and I were serving our apprenticeship in VVigton." 

During the course of Mr. Moore's visit to New York 
he saw many of the public institutions, more particularly 
the New York Infant Orphan Asylum, with which he 
was very much interested, being himself a subscriber 



to the London Orphan Asylum. He also inspected the 
New York Hospital or Bloomsbury Asylum lor the 
Insane, the Tombs, one of the New York prisons, and 
some public places of rescrt. " One morning," he says, 
" I bought three splendid racoon skins, one of them for 

M r< j 1 of Liverpool, who, when I was about to leave 

my native shore, put a magnificent diamond ring upon 
my finger, as a mark of gratitude, he said, for a disin- 
terested act on my part towards him long, long ago, 
and which he considered had been the ground-work of 
his fortune." 

After remaining about six weeks in New York, Mr. 
Moore journeyed southward to Philadelphia. He there 
called upon the commercial people whom he wished 
to see. He found, however, that they were mostly 
supplied from New York. He was delighted with the 
Fairmount Waterworks, which bountifully provided the 
inhabitants of Philadelphia with fresh water ; the site 
on which they stand commanding a magnificent view 
of the city. He also visited the grave of the immortal 
Franklin, the splendid Gerard College for the education 
and maintenance of orphans, the Pennsylvanian Hospital 
founded by William Penn, and the Eastern Penitentiary, 
where he saw the solitary system in full operation. 

"The solitary system," he says, "is abominable. I 
could not walk a happy man beneath the open sky 
by day, or lay me down upon my bed at night, with 
the consciousness that one human creature was suffering 
this awful punishment, and I the cause of it, or con- 
senting to it in any degree. ... I was much interested 
with one prisoner, who had nearly completed his seven 
years. He stated that he had been guilty of stealing 
one hundred dollars, and that, his conscience upbraiding 
him, he took them back previous to being found out ; 
and still he was sentenced to this frightful punishment, 
I left the place labouring under a feeling of melancholy. 


I next visited the Blind Asylum, where we saw the 
system of reading by raised letters beautifully carried 
out. They take thirty boys and thirty girls upon the 
charity, and educate them so that they can get a living 
in after life. Strange to say, they sometimes get mar- 
ried. I bought some of their work, contributed to the 
charity, and l^ft much pleased." 

His next visit was to Baltimore, the capital of Mary- 
land " the first Slave State that I had ever been in. 
A shudder involuntarily came over me. Having worked 
up my imagination, I fancied every black I saw was 
a slave. Many of them, however, are free. The women 
here, as in Philadelphia, are very handsome, though they 
look rather delicate.". He then went to the Capitol at 
Washington, and from thence again to New York. 
After receiving his letters from home and replying to 
them, he set out for a short journey in Canada. He 
sailed up the river Hudson, and describes the magni- 
ficent scenery as he passed along. He visited Albany, 
Troy, and the Shaker village of Watervleit. Of the 
Shakers he says, " All the possessions and revenues of 
the settlement are thrown into a common stock, which 
is managed by the elders. They are capital farmers, 
and good breeders of cattle ; honest and just in all their 
transactions ; the only class of people, gentle or simple, 
who can resist thievish tendencies in horse-dealing." 

Mr. Moore's next route was along the Champlain 
Canal. The boats had been taken off Lake George for 
the winter. " This fifty miles of road," he says, " was 
the most frightful travelling I ever had. Great black 
bears prowl here. Trees and planks were laid across 
the road to fill up the holes. There were frequent 
openings in the bridges that a horse might have gone 
slap into. After going two or three feet into holes, and 
after many, as I supposed, hairbreadth escapes, we at 
length arrived at White Hall, at the junction of the 

II 2 


canal and lake navigation." Mr. Moore then steamed 
along Lake Champlain one of the most beautiful lakes 
in America surrounded by majestic scenery. He 
reached St. John's, within the frontier of Canada. From 
thence he proceeded to Montreal by railway and steamer. 
At Montreal he called upon his customers, and " found 
them all most civil and polite : indeed I cannot speak 
too highly of them." 

From Montreal he went to Quebec. There was little 
business to be done there. His voyage was for the most 
part one of pleasure. And yet the weather was cold 
and muggy ; winter was fast drawing on. The sail down 
the St. Lawrence was nevertheless most agreeable. He 
went over the most notable sights in Quebec the 
Plains of Abraham, where Wolfe fell, and where a 
paltry monument had been erected ; and over the forti- 
fications, where the ingenuity of military skill had been 
exhausted to produce another Gibraltar. 

He next proceeded westward, to Kingston, Toronto, 
Hamilton, and Niagara. His visit to the Falls was one 
of the great events of his life. It is not necessary to 
give his description. Indeed no one has yet been able 
to describe the impression which Niagara makes upon 
the mind. " It is wonderful to think," says Mr. Moore, 
"that the outpourings of the lakes Superior, Huron, 
Erie, Michigan, and St. Clare covering a surface of 
150,000 square miles, all roll down the 157 feet fall, 
witii sixteen times the force of all the water-power of 
Great Britain." 

From Niagara Mr. Moore went by Buffalo, Rochester, 
and Albany to New York. There he took leave of all 
his friends and customers, and went on to Boston, to 
vicit it on his way homeward. The weather was wet 
and dirty ; a cold east wind was blowing ; and he did 
not see the town to advantage. " The houses," he says, 
"are bright, and have a gay appearance. The sign- 


boards are painted in gaudy colours. The gilded letters 
are so very gilded ; the bricks are sos^rj/red ; the blinds 
and area-railings are so very green. The plates upon 
the street-doors are marvellously bright and twinkling ; 
yet all looks so slight and unsubstantial in appearance. 
The suburbs are, if possible, still more unsubstantial- 
looking. Nevertheless, the city is a beautiful one, and 
cannot fail to impress all strangers favourably." 

Mr. Moore called upon the representative of his house 
in Boston, Mr. Schofield, of Henry and Co.'s, Man- 
chester, " the most decided man of business I had met 
with for many a long day." He was much impressed 
by the Boston merchants. " They are first-rate business 
men," he says ; " no auctions, which I detest ; no over- 
stocks, which will be the ruin of New York ; everything 
is well assorted, and in good condition. In fact I felt as 
if I had been in an English town ; for the men of busi- 
ness here are more English-like than the Americans 
generally." Mr. Moore was pleased with his visit to 
Boston ; the more especially as it opened up a large 
new business connection for his firm. 

He had now done his work; and he was ready to 
leave by the next steamer for England. Before he left 
he made this entry in his notebook : " I am bound to 
add that, during my visit to America, I have met with 
the most open, frank, and communicative people that I 
ever came in contact with ; and also that I frequently 
had occasion to blush for my own ignorance both about 
Europe and America. To use a common expression, 
the Americans are a wide-awake people. Their schools, 
their cheap publications, their thirst for knowledge, and 
their naturally quick perceptions, place them above the 
usual level in society. America must rise, and that it 
will become a great country is my earnest wish and 
belief. " 

Mr. Moore left Boston by the Acadia on the 1st of 


November, 1844, and reached Liverpool in fourteen 
days, _ after an absence of about three months. He 
came home like a giant refreshed. His health was re- 
stored. He had recovered his brightness of spirit, and 
\vas ready again to enter upon his labours with renewed 
zest and vigour. 

One of the first results of Mr. Moore's visit to Ame- 
rica was the establishment of a branch of the firm at 
Nottingham. They also erected a lace-factory in the 
town. It was begun in January, 1845, and finished at 
the end of the same year. The lace manufactured was 
of various kinds and qualities, from twopence per 
dozen yards to fifteen shillings per yard. They also 
manufactured lace edgings, silk and cotton nets, and 
lace curtains a very important article in the trade. 
About three hundred and sixty women were employed in 
the factory, and about thirty men in the warehouse. 

While working at his business, Moore again resumed 
his fox-hunting. In the memoir he has left behind him, 
he says that he was urged to do so by Dr. Lawrence on 
his return from America. His first day's hunting with 
Colonel Conyers had been very disastrous. On that 
day he had ridden a hired horse. Now he would ride a 
horse of his own. He bought a brown mare, six years 
old, for thirty pounds. He sent her down to Brick 
Wall, near Welwyn, Herts, where he hunted with Mr. 
Brand's (afterwards Lord Dacre's) hounds, for five or 
six seasons. There being no railway at that time, Mr. 
Moore drove down to Finchley to breakfast. He arrived 
there punctually at seven. He was never five minutes 
out of time. The servants were so confident of his 
appearance that as the clock struck seven they opened 
the door, expecting to see him descend from his trap. 
From thence he drove to the meet. Sometimes it was 
twenty or twenty-five miles off. After the hunt he re- 
turned to Finchley, dined, and got home the same night. 


Mr. Moore could not but enjoy this exhilarating and 
health-giving exercise. He enjoyed the fresh air, the 
open country, and the rapid movement. There was the 
find by the covert-side, the hunt across country, and the 
brush at the finish. Hunting is a thoroughly English 
sport. It is a sort of mental tonic. It makes men active 
and spirited. It gives presence of mind ; and though it 
may be a sort of self-indulgence, it is constantly teach- 
ing all sorts of self-denial. 1 " The Englishman," says 
Emerson, " associates well with dogs and horses. This 
attachment to the horse arises from the courage and 
address required to manage it. The horse finds out who 
is afraid of it, and does not disguise its opinion." 

Hunting is one of the outcomes of the national cha- 
racter. It brings together, on terms of equality, all 
classes of society. Foreigners can never understand 
how English gentlemen find amusement in riding 
after foxes at the risk of breaking their necks. When 
the late Prince Consort and his brother, Duke Ernest, 
first came to England, they were taken to see everything, 

1 Mr. Moore cut from a newspaper the following paragraph, and inserted 
it in his case-bojk : 

"When a Aeries of 'concerts for the people' was begun in Edinburgh, 
Dr. Guthrie, of the Scotch Free Church, was present to give his counte- 
nance and support to the undertaking. He said, ' I have come here to 
lend my countenance as a minister to innocent amusement. I remember 
when I was a boy at college, and tha was not yesterday, I used to go to 
Duddingston Loch on Saturday afternoon, in winter, and there I saw a 
reverend and grave divine paying at what do you call it? Curling. 
My great ancestor, Guthrie, one of those who were martyrs in the old days 
for Scotland's right and truth, was one of the first curlers in the county of 
Ayr. He was a first-rate fisher, but I could try him at that. He was a 
famous fox-hunter : I have more respect for my neck than to try that. I 
have no sympathy, I have no patience, with that sickly, distempered reli- 
gion that frowns upon innocent amusement. All my life I have had a liking 
for amu-ement. In that Gospel which I have the honour to preach, I find 
nothing forbidding such amusement. I maintain here and though all the 
bigots in the world were here, I would still maintain it that there is 
nothing in the glorious Gospel antagonistic to human nature. Amuse- 
ment is not corruption. Every creature bas its love of amusement. I 
have come here as a minister for the purpose of giving my sanction to this 
amusement.' " 


and amongst other sights they were taken to the hunt- 
ing-field. They thought that every one, as at court, 
would go according to rank, first a prince, then a 
duke, then a marquis, and so on ; but they were greatly 
disconcerted at seeing a butcher's boy riding up to the 
fence and going straight over it before them. 

" I sincerely believe," says Mr. Moore, " that Dr. Law- 
rence was right in the advice he gave me. Nothing 
could have tended so much to restore me to health as 
active outdoor exercise. Before the season was over I 
felt wonderfully recovered. It was also a great pleasure 
to me to meet the country gentlemen who belonged 
to the hunt. They were kind, outspoken, and hospit- 
able. My companion, Joshua Wimbush, having given 
up hunting about this time, I presented him with a 
portrait of himself in hunting costume, as a mark of 
my sincere esteem for him and his valued father, my 
intimate friend, and in gratitude for their invariable 
kindness and hospitality. 

" Lord Lonsdale had now started two packs of hounds, 
and the kennels being at Tring, I resolved to join his 
hunt. I may state that I was the first man that ap- 
peared with his foxhounds in scarlet. I was there the 
first day that he hunted. For some time we had very 
bad sport, as the country had not been hunted for some 
years, and our huntsman did not understand his busi- 
ness. But after another season we got old Morgan, who 
had hunted for Mr. Conyers. From that time we gra- 
dually improved. I now kept two horses, and could 
ride as well as any of them. My friend Mr. J. P. 
Foster, 1 having joined me, we took a leading position in 
the hunt, and great consideration was always shown to 
us by Lord Lonsdale, Mr. Brown, the deputy-master, 
the huntsmen whips, and all the gentlemen of the hunt. 

" In the autumn of 1853 Mr. Howard, of Greystoke 

1 Of Foster, Porter, and Co. 

'. vu.J A GOOD RUN. 105 

Castle, whose hunting-seat was at Thornbury Castle, 
Gloucestershire, invited me to send my horses there, and 
to hunt with Lord Fitzhardinge's hounds. Whatever 
may be said of my lord's character, I amazingly enjoyed 
his hounds, as well as Mr. Howard's hospitality. One of 
the most extraordinary runs we had was over what they 
term the Rhein country. We had a run of about an 
hour and a quarter, during which we had to cross about 
twenty rheins, or water jumps, from ten to twenty feet 

" I rode my old chestnut, one of the best brook- 
jumpers in the world, though he was an awful puller. 
He was sure to get over them far enough. Out of a 
field of upwards of a hundred, there were only six of 
them up at the kill. Indeed I was not up, for at the 
very last jump a farmer got into one of those deep 
rheins, and in pity I stopped to assist in getting him 
out He thanked me much, and told Mr. Howard that 
I had saved his life. Mr. Howard himself got into one 
of the rheins just at the start, arid if help had not been 
at hand he would certainly have been drowned or killed, 
for he got wedged in with his horse, and could not 
easily be extricated. One of the rheins which I jumped 
across was 18 feet 4 inches wide. I believe I jumped 
some wider. On the following day many people came 
to see the old chestnut that had made the Great Jump. 
The consequence was that he and myself got into some 
notoriety. A long account of the run appeared in Bell 's 
Life of the following week. 

" I returned to London, and resumed my hunting with 
Lord Lonsdale's hounds. 1 spent many pleasant days 
in this hunt, never failing to meet my valued friend 
Mr. Foster. As there were four packs of hounds within 
twenty miles of Tring, we occasionally varied our expe- 
rience, and sometimes hunted with Baron R rthschild's 
hounds, as well as with Lord Southampton's. Indeed I 


may say that I have hunted with nearly all the packs of 
hounds within sixty miles of London. 

" I could relate many good runs that I have taken a 
good place in, but one will suffice. In 1857 I was out 
with Lord Southampton in his best country. There was 
a field of about two hundred. As I had distinguished 
myself in a run with the same hounds three years before, 
upon my old chestnut, by simply following Jem Mason, 
I determined again to follow this excellent leader. We 
had a run of an hour and twenty minutes, and out of 
all this large field there were only Jem Mason (the first 
whip), myself, and Peter Rolt, up at the kill. All the 
rest were a long way behind. 

" Hunting is considered by some to be a low sort of 
pastime. But this is a great mistake. You meet with 
some of the most polished and refined gentlemen in the 
land. I do believe that a man who thoroughly under- 
stands hunting, and can get across country, can do most 
things well. It is one of the best of our national sports ; 
and who would do away with these ? It has influenced 
our character ; and produced a race of hardy and daring 

" Without egotism, I may say that I did some good in 
Lord Lonsdale's hunt. They all knew that I hated 
lying, swearing, and loose conversation, and my presence 
had perhaps some influence in checking these things. I 
was instrumental in getting up a large subscription for 
the Herts and Beds Infirmary, and another for the 
agricultural societies of all the districts through which 
we hunted. 

"In my conscience I do not believe that there is any 
wickedness in hunting. But I must in candour acknow- 
ledge that hunting on Saturdays makes one think, when 
sitting in church on the following day, of the meet and 
tne run, rather than of the service and the sermon. I 
have always considered hunting was necessary for my 


health, and I think so now. If I could have kept my 
health without resorting to it, I might have employed 
my time more valuably in doing good to my fellow- 
creatures. But it is in this as in so many other things : 
' Honi soft qui mal y pense;' Evil to him that evil 



BUSINESS and hunting did not altogether absorb the 
energies of George Moore. He had opportunities of 
engaging in other work. He hunted two days a week 
in winter. But what was he to do with his surplus 
energy in summer ? There were a thousand things to be 
done in London, by those who would take the trouble 
and pains to do them. When Mr. Moore's partners 
found him entering upon some new work, they would 
say : " He has got another safety-valve." 

One of the first things which he did, after giving up 
travelling and settling down in London, was to become 
the director of a life assurance society, of which he 
afterwards became the trustee. He did not accept the 
office without giving his fair equivalent of services. He 
was not a mere honorary director. He did not think 
that he had done his duty by eating his lunch and 
drinking his sherry. He did his best to increase the 
business of the office. He besought his friends to insure 
their lives. When customers came up from the country 
he took them to the office to get them to make their 

He had many conversations with the young men 
employed in his warehouse. "Is your life insured?" 
he would say. No ' " " Then you must do it at once." 


If they were married, he urged tt upon them as an indis- 
pensable duty. "You must insure for the benefit of 
your wife and children. Remember it is one of the 
most self-denying acts you can ever have it in your 
power to perform." 

The insurance society with which Mr. Moore was 
connected, was the National Mercantile Association. 1 
He requested the travellers for his house to act as 
agents for it. The travellers, being constantly on the 
move, and paying their periodical visits to all the large 
towns in the kingdom, succeeded in bringing a large 
amount of new business to the society. This was cer- 
tainly doing a good work ; for the man who succeeds 
in inducing another to insure his life, to a certain extent 
secures his widow and children from want in the event 
of the insurer's death. In order to induce the travellers 
to work for the office, Mr. Moore and his colleagues 
introduced a clause into the articles of the association 
providing that a certain share of the profits should be 
appropriated to the support of the Commercial Tra- 
vellers' Schools, with which Mr. Moore had already 
become intimately associated. 

Another of George Moore's Safety-valves was the 
Cumberland Benevolent Society. This was the first 
charitable association with which he was connected. 
When he first came to London, and while he was in 
receipt of a very small salary, he subscribed to it his 
first guinea ; and he continued ever after to be a mem- 
ber of the association. The origin of the society is 
scarcely known. It appears, from the old minute-books, 
to have been formed about the year 1734, by a number 
of gentlemen from Cumberland, who met for the pur- 
pose of talking over the scenes and reminiscences of 
their early life. 

From a social meeting, it gradually became converted 

1 It has since been amalgamated with another company. 


into a benevolent institution. In the year 1812 it was 
resolved that a fund should be formed for the relief of 
distressed persons of Cumberland and their families 
who were resident in the metropolis. Such was its 
position when George Moore gave his first guinea to the 
institution. This, his first act of benevolence, was like a 
grain of good seed cast into the ground. It sprang up 
afterwards into a tree of goodly fruit. 

As Mr. Moore prospered, he increased his subscrip- 
tions. He became prominent in the society, not only 
for his liberality, but for the active part which he took 
in the annual festivals given in support of the insti- 
tution. At the dinner of 1850, when he officiated as 
steward, his health was proposed. His speech, in 
answer to the toast thanking him for his services, is 
worth giving : 

" He said it was ungenerous to call upon him for a 
reply, as he had distinctly and emphatically declined to 
appear to-night to take any part in the oratory. He 
could not, however, but appreciate the intended com- 
pliment, looking at the multifarious positions he held, 
perpetual steward for the anniversary dinners for the 
last twelve years, committee-man, trustee to their funds, 
and occasionally master of the ceremonies at their balls. 
Although he had on the present occasion mustered a 
dozen friends to indulge in the cup of unalloyed charity 
that peculiar beverage, which, the more it is indulged 
in, the more healthy does the appetite for it become 
yet he could not be expected on many more occasions 
to have such a force of benevolent spirits to rally round 
him. He had been favoured by Providence to assume a 
commercial position, which enabled him to assist, and 
generally to succeed, in placing Cumberland youths in 
comfortable situations. To those aspirants for com- 
mercial honours in the city of London, his first advice, 
on procuring situations for them, was ' When you can 


afford it, give a guinea to the Cumberland Benevolent 
Institution ; it will mark your position ; it will make 
you feel that you have taken your stand as a philan- 
thropist. It will raise your own moral power of action, 
in feeling that you have a stake in the well-being of 
your once prosperous, but now fallen and unfortunate 
fellow-countrymen.' The more they were blessed with 
success in this world, the greater was their responsibility. 
Property has its duties as well as its rights. Take from 
me," he concluded, " one kind word of gentle reproof 
although at this late hour it may not be considered in 
good taste that we have each and all of us this duty 
to perform towards our less fortunate fellow-creatures. 
And mark my parting admonition. It is better for you 
to become bankrupt by charitable contributions here, 
than to become bankrupt by ill deeds hereafter." 

The funds of the institution did not, however, increase 
so rapidly as Mr. Moore desired. The number of indi- 
gent Cumberland men receiving pensions was increased 
to forty-five ; but there were many deserving applicants 
who were turned away year after year. Mr. Moore tried 
to put his rich Cumberland friends to shame. He said 
at one of the dinners, that there were four firms in one 
street in London chiefly composed of Cumberland men 
whose returns amounted to between two and three 
millions sterling a year ; and yet some of them had not 
sent them a farthing towards the benevolent fund. They 
seemed to have found it easier to make money by trade 
than to spend it on charity. He regretted to say that 
he knew many a Cumberland man in London who was 
literally " rolling in wealth," and had more money than 
he knew what to do with, who had never favoured them 
with his presence, nor even allowed his name to appear 
in their list of subscribers. 

Mr. Moore accordingly found it necessary to do some- 
thing to replenish the funds of the institution. He called 


a meeting of his countyrnen at his office, the scene of 
so many works of benevolence, and urged them to 
assist him in restoring the efficiency of the society. Mr. 
Ferguson, M.P., afterwards referring to this meeting, 
says : " There was not much talking, but a good deal of 
action. Mr. Moore headed a subscription list with a 
donation extending to three figures, and a strong bar- 
rier was thus erected against the threatened danger of 
decline. " The tide was turned ; the institution was 
saved ; and Mr. Moore to the end of his life continued 
one of its most indefatigable supporters. 

But a still more important Safety-valve was George 
Moore's connection with the Commercial Travellers' 
Schools. He could not but take a deep interest in this 
institution. He himself had won his spurs as a com- 
mercial traveller. His extraordinary success in that 
capacity had been the foundation of his fortune. In 
one of his notes he says : " As a body, I entertain the 
highest regard for the commercial travellers. They 
were the companions of my early struggles. I have 
always sympathised with them. I know the risks which 
they run, the temptations to which they are exposed, 
and the sufferings which they have to undergo. They 
spend most of their time away from their homes and 
their families. They are exposed to every change of 
weather, from the heat of summer to the storms of 
winter. They are liable to be cut off by bronchitis and 
lung diseases. When they die in the service of their 
employers, what is to become of their children ? They 
have been able to save but little money, for they are for 
the most part badly paid. Here, then, is a fine oppor- 
tunity for charity to step in and help to save the little 
ones deprived of their father's care." 

Such was Mr. Moore's idea of the necessity of a 
charity for the maintenance and education of the 
children of Commercial Travellers. The subject had 


for some time been talked about. The idea of forming 
an institution originated with John Robert Cuffley, a 
commercial traveller well known " on the road." He 
was warmly supported by Mr. George Stockdale, Mr. 
Roberts, and a few other travellers. They called upon 
Mr. Moore and placed the matter before him. He at 
first doubted whether commercial travellers would be 
induced to combine to support such an institution. But 
he said to the deputation, " Go on ; try what you can do 
to raise money and collect subscriptions, and call upon 
me again." 

They went on. They collected in a few months about 
2,000, and they then called upon Mr. Moore. He was 
now ready to go heartily with them, and to give to the 
society the full influence of the firm in which he was a 
partner. A public meeting was held at the London 
Tavern on the 3Oth December, 1845, with George Moore 
in the chair. The meeting was highly successful. Mr. 
Moore undertook to be the Treasurer of the institution, 
and Mr. J. Masterman, M.P. for the City of London, 
consented to be chairman. From that time, the success 
of the project became assured. Mr. Moore devoted 
himself heartily to the work ; and it was mainly by his 
energy and widespread influence that the institution took 
root, grew, and flourished, with a rapidity unexampled 
in the history of any other Orphan charity. 

The rules of the institution were drawn up and passed 
at a general meeting of the subscribers held in the 
following year. The first election of 'twenty children 
(boys and girls) took place in June, 1847. Premises had 
already been secured at Wanstead for their accommoda- 
tion. During the next year, thirty more children were 
elected ; and in the first annual report, published about 
the autumn of 1848, the names of these children were 
published. At the second annual examination of the 
children, held at the London Tavern, it was stated that 



within a period of two years from the opening of the 
schools, sixty children were provided for within the 
establishment, which number will be increased by twelve 
more. It was also urged that Irom the rapidly increas- 
ing claims upon the bounty of the charity it was necessary 
to obtain larger premises than the institution at present 
possessed, and an earnest appeal was made to the com- 
mercial body, urging them to co-operate in the raising 
of a building fund that should be sufficient to provide 
the requisite accommodation. 

Mr. Moore at once set to work to raise the requisite 
money for the purpose of building the new institution. 
To use his own words : " I made the institution a part 
of my business. I canvassed the various houses in 
London for funds. I travelled to Bristol, Manchester, 
and Liverpool to summon meetings of the commercial 
men, and appeal to them in favour of the charity." 

At the annual examination of the pupils in 1849, Mr. 
Moore stated that at least fifteen thousand pounds would 
be required to proceed with the erection of the new 
buildings. At the anniversary festival in December, 
1850, Mr. Moore, in forwarding his subscription (for his 
doctor had prevented him attending the meeting), 
addressed a letter to the Lord Mayor, who was in the 
chair, in which he said : " I hoped, as treasurer, that 
I should have had the pleasure of reporting that we had 
raised the whole of the building fund, whereas we have 
only raised one-third of it. Will you, with your usual 
eloquence, stimulate your guests to form deputations fur 
the purpose of canvassing Liverpool, Leeds, Bradford, 
and the other large towns, where, I have no doubt, the 
merchants and travellers will respond to the call in the 
generous and noble manner that Manchester, Bristol, and 
Glasgow have already done. Thus we should soon have 
a building without a farthing of debt, which, as treasurer 
I have a great ambition to achieve. Will you tell the 


commercial men of the United Kingdom that only a 
tenth of their number have subscribed, and tell those 
also who have not yet subscribed, that their treasurer, 
as an old traveller, feels humiliated that every com- 
mercial traveller in England cannot afford to give his 
guinea a year. A very little economy (three farthings a 
day) would enable the institution to educate, maintain, 
and clothe the orphan children of every deceased brother, 
and to make the widow's heart rejoice." 

In this way he urged onward the progress of the 
institution. He would not be resisted. He had taken 
the thing in hand, and it must succeed. He bore down 
every opposition. He encouraged some and shamed 
others into generosity. He told the commercial tra- 
vellers that, no matter what their salary, they ought to 
subscribe to the schools ; if not, they were v^ry poor- 
hearted creatures indeed. He told their employers that 
they did not pay their travellers with sufficient liberality, 
for the calling of a commercial traveller was a very hard 
one, especially when they travelled on commission. At 
a public dinner at Manchester he said that he knew of 
several melancholy instances of destitution which were 
not the result of improvidence or prodigality, but from 
the most inadequate payment to meet the expenses of 
the road. 1 

At length sufficient money was obtained to enable the 
schools to be built. Mr. Moore at first dreaded setting 
the architects to work. He was in favour of purchasing 
some old mansion, which might be turned into suitable 

1 A commercial traveller, referring to this statement in a letter to the 
Sun, said "Mr. Moore, I am sure, will receive the best thanks of all 
travellers for his kind consideration ; the more so from the fact of his being 
himself a principal, and for many years a traveller, and, to his credit, the 
architect of his fortune by indomitable application and industry. I have 
known him many years. Ofttimes do I recollect him leaving his bed 
before sunrise in the spring of the year, continuing hard at work until the 
cock announced early morn a^ain ; so that he is the very best authority for 
everything that a traveller requires and desires." 

I 2 


premises. But, fortunately for the institution, the London 
and North- Western Company were desirous of selling 
a piece of land at Pinner for the purpose of encouraging 
building in the neighbourhood. This piece of land, con- 
sisting of twenty-five acres, proved to be an excellent 
investment; as it might afterwards have been sold for 
twice the money. The original estimate of the building 
.was .15,000, but to suit the limited means of the 
institution, the architects reduced it to 10,000. 

The foundation-stone was laid on the 2oth of July, 
1853. It was intended that Prince Albert should have 
laid the first stone, but he was prevented from being 
present by indisposition. This greatly marred the 
enjoyment of the day. John Masterman, Esq., M.P. 
for the City, performed the duty in place of his Royal 
Highness. Mr. Moore deposited the coins, the chairman 
laid the first stone, and Dr. Vaughan, then Head Master 
of Harrow, delivered an impressive prayer. 

At the dtjeuner which followed, the health of Mr. 
Cuffley was proposed, and in replying, he said that 
though he congratulated himself on the fact of having 
been one of the original founders of the school, and 
one of the first list of 230 who made up 2,300 guineas 
to begin with, the institution would never have reached 
its present prosperous condition had it not been for the 
unremitting exertions of George Moore, the treasurer. 

Renewed exertions had still to be made to increase 
the funds of the institution. Mr. Moore continued to 
be the head and front of the movement. He made 
special journeys into the country to collect money. He 
trusted a good deal to the anniversary dinners of the 
institution. He invited all his friends to attend them. 
He called upon them beforehand, and set down the 
sums they were to give. He was declared to be " an 
indefatigable beggar ; " but he did not mind the nick- 
name, provided he could get the necessary subscriptions. 


For the purpose of inducing his friends to attend the 
anniversary dinners, he endeavoured to secure the best 
and most popular chairman. He had a great friendship 
for Charles Dickens, and on two occasions Mr. Dickens 
consented to act as chairman at the anniversary dinner. 
He also succeeded in securing Lord Lytton, Mr. 
Thackeray, the Duke of Cambridge, and successive 
Lord Mayors of London. 

Mr. Forster, in his Life of Dickens, says that "of 
all the societies, charitable or self-assisting, which his 
tact and eloquence in the chair so often helped, none 
had interested him by the character of its service to 
its members and the perfection of its management so 
much as that of the Commercial Travellers. His 
admiration of their schools introduced him to one 
who acted as their treasurer, and whom, of all the 
men he had known, I think he rated highest, for the 
union of business qualities in an incomparable measure, 
to a nature comprehensive enough to deal with masses 
of men, however differing in creed or opinion, humanely 
and justly. Mr. Dickens never afterwards wanted 
support for any good work that he did not first think 
of Mr. George Moore : and his appeals were never 
made to him in vain." l It is singular, also, that Mr. 
Dickeris should have adopted his title of " The Un- 
commercial Traveller" from his visits to the Com- 
mercial Schools, and from his taking the chair at 
the anniversary dinners of the institution. 

1 Mr. Forster adds in a note, "If space were available, Mr. Dickens's 
letters would supply many proofs of his interest in Mr. George Moore's 
admirable projects ; but I can only make exception to his characteristic 
allusion to an incident that tickled his fancy very much at the time. ' I 
hope,' he says, (25th of Augu t, 1853.) 'you have been as much amused as 

I am by the account of the Bishop of 's visit to my very particular 

friend Mr. George Moore's schools. It strikes me as the funniest thing I 
ever ?aw his addressing those unfortunate children concerning Colenso. 
I cannot get over the ridiculous image I have erected in my mind of the 
shovel-hat and apron holding forth, at that .'afe distance, to that sage 
audience. There is nothing so extravagant in Rabelais, or so satirically 
humorous in Swift or Voltaire.' " 


The first of the dinners at which Mr. Dickens pre- 
sided was given in commemoration of the foundation 
of the schools at Pinner. Mr. Dickens delivered one 
of his best speeches. He described the old travelling 
and the new the travelling by coach and the travel- 
ling by railway and the imperfect domestic relations 
of the commercial traveller. " It is to support the 
school for their orphans," he said, " founded with such 
high and friendly objects, so very honourable to your 
calling, and so useful in its solid and practical results, 
that we are here assembled. It. is to roof that building 
which is to shelter the children of your deceased friends 
with one crowning ornament the best that any building 
can have namely, a receipt-stamp for the full amount 
of the cost. It is for this that your active sympathy 
is appealed to for the completion of your own good 

It may be mentioned that during the previous weeks, 
Mr. Moore had been engaged in making strenuous 
efforts to raise the requisite sum of money to complete 
the building, and pay for it in cash. He had visited 
the principal commercial towns. On the night before 
the anniversary dinner, he had been at Manchester. 
Tlrs will explain the reference made by Mr. Dickens, 
when proposing the health of Mr. Moore, " A name," 
he said, " which is a synonym for integrity, enterprise, 
public spirit, and benevolence. He is one of the most 
zealous officers whom I have ever seen in my life. 
He appears to me to have been doing nothing during 
the last week but rushing into and out of railway 
carriages, and making eloquent speeches at all sorts 
of public dinners in favour of this charity. Last even- 
ing he was at Manchester, and this evening he conies 
here sacrificing his time and convenience, and exhaust- 
ing in the meantime the contents of two vast leaden 
inkstands, and no end of pens, with the energy of fifty 

CHAP, viii.] MR. MOORE'S REPLY. 119 

banker's clerks rolled into one. But I clearly foresee 
that the treasurer will have so much to do to-night, 
such gratifying sums to acknowledge, and such large 
lines of figures to write in his books, that I feel the 


greatest consideration that I can show him is to propose 
his health without further observation, leaving him to 
address you in his own behalf." 

Mr. Moore briefly referred to the results of his 
operations in the provinces, and more particularly at 
Manchester. "It was a remarkable fact," he said, " that 
a charitable dinner had never before taken place at the 
town of Manchester. He supposed that many gentle- 
men would expect that, having been on a perigrination 
to Manchester, he would have to report the accession of 
something like 1,500 new members and 12,000 sub- 
scriptions. But he could assure them that he had no 
such results to announce. He had only obtained 158 
annual subscribers, and 1,150 in donations. He hoped 
that people in the country were not jealous of them, 
looking upon their schools as a piece of metropolitan 
centralisation. On the contrary, he should feel much 
obliged by their provincial friends taking the whole 
thing into their own hands. This was not a London 
school, but a National school, established for the benefit 
of commercial travellers all over the country. It was 
therefore the bounden duty of every commercial traveller 
to support it. He wished the gentlemen from the 
provinces to know that on this occasion they had not 
rejected one child ; and he could tell them another 
thing, which repaid him for all his anxiety, and that 
was, that the children, after they had been boarded and 
educated, had all been provided with situations. It had 
fallen to his lot to provide for a good many. He had 
spoken of the gloom that was hanging over commercial 
circles. He hoped it would soon pass away ; but it 
must be remembered that the rapid transit by railway 


was calculated to alter the prospects of commercial 
travellers. His opinion was, that although these gentle- 
men might be styled the ' ambassadors of commerce, 1 
and were the means of filling the warehouses with 
customers, many of the commercial houses were not 
sufficiently grateful for that result." 

The Schools were opened on the 27th of October, 
1855. Prince Albert was present on the occasion. The 
children, a hundred and forty-two in number, were 
ranged at the entrance of the Schools to receive His 


Royal Highness. The band of the Coldstream Guards 
played the National Anthem. An address was read 
by Mr. Roberts (of Longmans and Co.), to which the 
Prince returned a suitable answer. The children sang 
the Old Hundredth Psalm. Dr. Vaughan, Head Master 
of Harrow, offered prayer. The children then sang 
" God save the Queen " ; after which the Prince, amidst 
great cheering, declared "the building opened." 

After the presentation of purses, the Prince carefully 
examined the building. No place escaped his notice. 
He expressed himself greatly satisfied with the arrange- 
ments, and said that he had received some valuable 
hints for the Wellington College, then in course of erec- 
tion. After consenting to become patron of the schools, 
and presenting 100 guineas to the building fund, His 
Royal Highness left Pinner amidst enthusiastic cheering. 

The day was considered a red-letter day in the history 
of the institution. In commemoration of the event of 
the Prince's visit, the last Wednesday in October of 
each year is called " The Orphans' Day," when a collec- 
tion in aid of the funds of the Schools is made in the 
commercial-room of almost every hotel in the kingdom. 1 

1 At a meeting held on the 27th December, 1857, at which Mr. 
Thackeray was in the cliair, Mr. Moore said, " Some had objected to the 
contributions arising from the Orphans' Day ; but the-e subscriptions were 
really obtained from those who did not subscribe regularly to the funds of 
the institution. These simultaneous calls, as some gentlemen were pleaded 


The Schools were built at a cost of about 2 5 ,000 Two 
hundred children (boys and girls) were fed, clothed, and 
educated in the institution. The education was for the 
most part of a practical character ; but where a boy 
showed particular merit he was enabled, by the scholar- 
ships that were afterwards established, to proceed to the 
City of London School, and ultimately to Cambridge or 
Oxford. It was Mr. Moore's great pleasure, : n future 
years, to go down to Pinner on the examination days, 
and to exhort the boys who were about to leave school 
as to their conduct in after life. They stood up before 
him, and he gave them their farewell address : 

" Do not," he said on one occasion, " let your want of 
success depress you ; but struggle on. Labcur hard 
and continuously, and you will win in the end. Do 
not allow a rebuff or a comparative failure to check 
your exertions towards the attainment of ultimate suc- 
cess. When I came up to London, a poor lad, without 
a friend in the world, people's hearts did not seem to be 
so large as they are now. Instead of having situations 
found (as I am happy to say is the case with most of 
you), boys in those days had often to beg in vain for 
employment. After beating about London for an entire 
week, I began to think myself a not very marketable 
commodity in the great city. At length I got employ- 
ment. I had to submit to many rebuffs. The artificial 
estimate I had formed of myself completely vanished. 
All nonsense was effectually taken out of me. To per- 
severe and conquer all difficulties appeared to me a duty. 
I determined that no one should henceforth justly call me 
stupid ; and ultimately I had my re.vard, for I was ap- 
pointed to one of the best situations in the firm I had 

to call them, were not from those who paid their guinea a year, but from 
the grumblers on the road, those who never subscribed : and he believed 
that about eight out of every ten of the children win had been recipients 
of the benefits of the institution were the orphans of those who had never 
subscribed to it at all." 


entered a commercial traveller to the principal northern 
towns. This formed the first stepping-stone to my pre- 
sent position. I therefore advise you, young men just 
entering into life, never to be daunted by difficulties. 
Persevere ! persevere ! and you will be sure to conquer 
in the end." 

On another occasion, remembering how he had once 
been nearly ruined when at Flint, Ray, and Co.'s, through 
his want of knowledge of arithmetic, he said: "Book- 
keeping is the very key of your position. The records of 
the Bankruptcy Court show how many colossal fortunes 
are wrecked ; how many growing prospects are blasted, 
through ignorance of this vital part of commercial know- 
ledge." He urged the boys to observe the strictest in- 
tegrity in all their dealings ; to think not merely of 
their earthly master, but of the Divine Being from whom 
nothing could be concealed. He also urged them to 
recollect that in any moment of temptation, not merely 
their own character, but the reputation of the institution 
that had done so much for them, was at stake. He ad- 
vised those who had received prizes not to be too much 
elated at their success, and not to be led away by the 
idea that knowledge by itself could command success 
without thorough honesty and perseverance. At the 
same time he assured those who had not got prizes that 
they ought not to be discouraged ; but that they might 
rest assured that integrity and earnest perseverance 
would be sure to command success, whatever station 
of life they might be called upon to fill. 

On another occasion he said : " You are about to enter 
upon the battle of life, in which perhaps the competi- 
tion has never been so severe as at present. Whatever 
abilities you may have, you may be assured that you 
never will succeed unless you are in earnest." He re- 
commended them to study the value of time, and to 
remember that time was money, not only for themselves, 


but for all with whom they might have dealings ; and 
he assured them that perseverance and punctuality 
would ever bring success and reward, even though 
great abilities were wanting. " Don't," he said, " depend 
upon your relatives and friends. There is nothing like 
individual responsibility. If you have self-respect, and 
trust to your own resources, by God's strength you will 
succeed. ' God helps those who help themselves/ " 

After the institution had been in existence for about 
twenty years, it was a proud thing for George Moore to 
say that, " with a single exception, no child educated in 
that school had turned out badly. They had gone out 
into the world and maintained the character of the 
institution. He hoped that that would be the case fot 
many long years to come," 



IN the midst of his prosperity, George Moore never 
forgot " auld Cummerland." His mind was always 
turning back to the home of his birth, and to the 
scenes of his boyhood. The very name of Cumber- 
land had a charm for him. When any Cumberland 
lad called upon him at his office, he welcomed him 
cheerfully, asked him to his house, and often got him 
a situation. 

We find amongst his letters an invitation to a young 
man near Wigton to come up to London. Mr. Moore 
had been devoting a good deal of his time to find out 
for him a situation. " Come up," he says, " by the first 
cheap train. You can see the Great Exhibition, as it 
closes on Saturday week j 1 and if either of your sisters 

wished, they might accompany you. Mr. , late of 

the Wigton bank, whom I am trying to get a situation 
for, lives at a boarding-house near by. You can dine 
with me every day till I get you placed ; and your 
sisters also, if they accompany you. . . . Assure your 
mother from me that I will always take an interest in 
you so long as you deserve it, but no longer. I have 
found out from experience that I cannot assist those 
who will not assist themselves. I need not say that 
1 The letter was written in September, 1851 


when you come to London I hope that you will attend 
a place of worship twice every Sunday, and read at 
least one chapter of your Bible daily. Always act 
unto others as you would expect them to act towards 
you. I must say, however, that I have great hopes of 
you, or I would not have taken so much time and used 
so much influence in endeavouring to place you in a 
good house." 

George Moore never forgot any of his early friends. 
If he could do anything for them, or for their children, 
he would spare no efforts. His old master, Messenger, 
for whom, notwithstanding his failings, he had a great 
respect, failed in business after his apprentice had left 
for London. His breakdown was one of the numerous 
instances of the effects -of drink. Messenger came up 
to London, where he obtained a situation. Then his 
health failed, and he was obliged to give up work. He 
applied to George Moore, who maintained him while he 
lived, and paid his funeral expenses at his death. He 
helped in the same manner the fellow-apprentice who so 
often thrashed him, and once nearly choked him, while 
serving his apprenticeship at Messenger's. The man 
broke down in the world, and appealed to his fellow- 
apprentice. George Moore had long ago forgiven him, 
and was only too glad to help him in his time of need. 

When a new building was erected at Wigton for the 
accommodation of the Mechanics' Institute, George 
Moore did not forget the place in which he had spent 
so many years. At the first meeting held in the new 
building, a letter was read from him to the Secretary, in 
which he said : " I think I cannot commence the new 
year (1851) better than by sending you a cheque for ten 
guineas for the Wigton Mechanics' Institute. The remi- 
niscences of my boyhood, and all that concerns the town 
where I made my entrance into commercial life, are dear 
to me. I am not insensible to my many deficiencies and 

r2 6 SHAP WELLS. [CHAP. '*. 

imperfections caused in some degree by my lack of op- 
portunity for learning during my school days and appren- 
ticeship. Impress upon the minds of the apprentices 
how valuable they may make their hours of recreation, 
and how they may make them useful in influencing 
their future destiny in life. To those who have spent 
part of their time in public-houses, in frivolous amuse- 
ment, and in idle gossip, I would say, let them endeavour 
to cultivate learning and science; and, above all, the sub- 
lime truths of the Gospel. God speed your meeting ! " 

George Moore was induced to pay his visits to Cum- 
berland when harassed with his violent headaches. 
Indoor life did not agree with him. He must have 
plenty of exercise, and breathe the fresh air of the 
mountains. A favourite place of his was Shap Wells, 
in Westmoreland. The Wells, which have strong medi- 
cinal properties, are in the very middle of Shap Fells'. 
The hotel stands alone near the Spa, many miles from 
the nearest villages. The moorland country is here 
seen in perfection. Nothing but heather and rocks, 
and mountain streams forcing their way in many inter- 
rupted channels amongst them. There is not a tree 
visible, except the few stunted fir-trees near the hotel. 
The change of seasons in the landscape is observed only 
by the varying beauty of the mosses in spring time, and 
by the purple carpet of heather in the autumn. Some 
consider the place a wilderness of heath and rocks ; but 
to Moore it was a paradise. He delighted in the strong 
wind blowing fresh over the mountains. The complete 
change, perhaps, more than the waters of the Spa, did 
him a world of good. 

Mrs. Moore usually accompanied him on those occa- 
sions ; for she had relatives to visit near Wigton. Mr. 
Moore sometimes took the Cockbridge Inn, at Meals- 
gate, and filled it with friends whom he had invited from 
London. On one occasion his partners, Mr. Copestake 


and Mr. Groucock, accompanied him. They were taken 
over Mr. Moore's favourite haunts, to the Peel Towers 
at Whitehall and Harbybrow, to Torpenhow, to Bas- 
senthwaite Water, and to Skiddaw. 

His brother Thomas, the Statesman, was working on 
at Mealsgate in the old way. He was cultivating his 
bit of land ; and sometimes found it hard to make the 
ends meet. Thomas was amazed at his brother's " ex- 
travagance," bringing these Londoners in post-chaises 
from Carlisle, and giving them such feed and drink for 
nothing at the Inn. It could only end in one way. 
" George," he said, " is sure to brek ! " Thomas could 
not believe that the profits of any trade could bear 
such a terrible outlay. "Yes," he said, "George is sure 
to brek, and then he maun come on the parish ! " 

But a great event was in store for Cumberland ; no 
less than a visit from the Lord Mayor of London ! In 
1854, when Alderman Sydney was Lord Mayor, Mr. 
Moore induced him and the Lady Mayoress to accom- 
pany himself and Mrs. Moore on a visit to Cumber- 
land. The affair caused quite a sensation throughout 
the county, as the inhabitants had never seen a " real 
live Lord Mayor" before! The party first arrived at 
Low Wood Inn, Windermere. They spent a few days 
there. " We drove," says Mr. Moore, " in an open car- 
riage and four to Patterdale Hall, the seat of William 
Marshall, M.P. From thence we were rowed on the 
lake to Lyulph's Tower, the romantic resort of Henry 
Howard of Greystoke Castle. On the following day 
we went to see some Cumberland wrestling on the 
island near Low Wood. The people were wonderfully 
astonished to see the London Lord Mayor looking just 
like other people and taking such an interest in their 

" At St. Bees I invited the West Cumberland 
magistrates and gentry to meet him at dinner. On 


the following day, the Cumberland and Westmoreland 
Agricultural Society held their meeting at Whitehaven ; 
and there we went, the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress 
being the observed of all observers. I introduced hun- 
dreds of all ranks and grades to them. The agricultural 
dinner took place in the evening, Sir James Graham in 
the chair. When the health of the latter was drunk, he 
replied with his usual spirit. But he said one thing, 
which made me very nervous. After eulogising the 
beauties of the county and the qualities of the people, 
he said that his friend Mr. Irton, M.P., by his side, had 
told him that the people of Cumberland ' were very fond 
of drink ! ' This caused an uncomfortable sensation. 
Although the statement was true, yet this was not per- 
haps the best time for uttering it. However, Sir James 
Graham with his good tact turned it off with a jest, and 
all ended well. 

" We next proceeded to Sir Wilfrid Lawson's, Bray- 
ton, where we received every hospitality. They are the 
kindest people in the world, and I shall never forget the 
consideration shown to me by each member of their 
family. Sir Wilfrid Lawson and most of his family are 
teetotallers, but the Lord Mayor pronounced his wine 
the best he had ever drunk. Next day we rode to 
Allonby, a delightful watering-place. We proceeded 
from thence to Wigton, the town where I served my 

A deputation from Wigton had waited on the Lord 
Mayor at St. Bees, to request his presence at a public 
dinner to be given to himself and to his friend Mr. 
George Moore. His Lordship could not attend the 
public dinner ; but he agreed to spend a few hours with 
the townsmen of Wigton. The dinner therefore assumed 
the form of a banquet. The two guests, on approaching 
the railway station from Brayton, found an immense 
concourse of people assembled. A carriage and four 


awaited them. The streets were lined with people, who 
cheered them as they passed. On arriving at the inn, 
Mr. Moore introduced his distinguished guest to all the 
notabilities of Wigton. 

The proceedings went off well. The health of Mr. 
Moore was proposed by Mr. Reed, an old friend. In 
reply, George told the old story one of which he was 
never tired the story of his own life. A few extracts 
from his speech may be given : 

" I assure you that I scarcely expected or wished that 
any honour of this demonstration should be paid to me, 
but to my worthy friend the Lord Mayor of London. 
This evening carries my mind back to the time when I 
first migrated to the metropolis from this town. It is 
just thirty years ago, for I am now forty-seven. If you 
knew the troubles, difficulties, and anxieties that I have 
gone through, you would be convinced that a great deal 
depends upon one's own efforts. It is often said with 
reference to a man who has improved his position, 
' What a lucky fellow he is ! ' But depend upon it, if 
you were to rely upon luck, you would in the end find 
yourself very much mistaken. I may say that 1 attri- 
bute much of my success to having had proper ideas 
instilled into me by my parents. My father was known 
to many in this company ; he was a man of probity, an 
honest Cumberland statesman, who always spoke the 
truth and despised what was not straightforward. * * * 
I left London to visit you with as much buoyancy of 
spirits as ever a schoolboy left school. And if Provi- 
dence spares me, I shall always be glad to meet you 
in my native county at least once a year." 

Mr. Rigg, in responding for " The Town and Trade of 
Wigton," expressed the hope that more of the appren- 
tices would achieve the distinction that Mr. Moore had 
done or, as he was going to say, GEORGE Moore, for 
that was the name by which he was best known in 



Cumberland." To which Mr. Moore replied, "Ay, 
always call me that if you please." 

The next day the Lord Mayor went to Mealsgate. 
" There," said George Moore, " is the place where I was 
born." It was a fine feature in his character to main- 
tain his early attachments to venerate his father, to 
love his relations, and to do all that he could to help the 
people of his neighbourhood. How many self- raised 
rich snobs are there who deny their birth-place, forget 
their relations, and, looking down upon their early life 
as a thing to be forgotten, aspire to rank amongst the 
higher classes of what is called " society." 

On a future occasion Mr. Moore paid a hunting visit 
to his friend Sir Wilfrid Lawson, whose son (the present 
baronet) was master of the Cumberland foxhounds. 
He went down in November, and had some memorable 
hunts. The meet was at the Brayton kennels. The 
master "held hard" until the arrival of the officers 
of the Carlisle garrison. The field consisted of thirty- 
five riders, well mounted and ready for the fray. A 
neighbouring fox cover was beat, and signs were heard 
of the game being afoot. A deep chorus was wafted 
from the further side. The inspiring " tally-ho ! " was 
sounded, and Reynard stole away, the hounds crashing 
after him through the whins. After crossing Aspatria 
Road, the fox made for the plantations round Brayton, 
crossed the lawn before the Hall, where Sir Wilfrid 
Lawson, on his favourite chestnut, showed in front. The 
huntsmen in pursuit took the heavy dropleap into the 
park. The fox sped away to Crookdale Mill, over 
the Leesrigg pasture, and on to Bolton Common. He 
crossed to the right by Well-rash and the How to 
Bolton Gate; thence on to the ridge of the hill to 
Sandalc, Fauld's Brow, and the mountains thereabout. 
He took refuge in a quarry in Rush Fell, but was speedily 
dislodged, when, aftqr a very short view, he was pulled 


down, after an hour and fifty minutes of very hard 

Mr. Moore says : " I greatly enjoyed this visit. I 
had never hunted in Cumberland since I rode my 
father's old horse, bare-backed, after John Peel's harriers. 
Wilfrid Lawson is an excellent master, civil and obliging 
to all ; not what I would call a bold rider, but he always 
knows his way, works his hounds well, and shows excel- 
lent sport. We had an excellent run, that appeared 
in Bell's Life. What added much to my pleasure was 
that I had trodden every yard of the ground in my 
boyhood, and had not seen many parts of it since 
then. It was a real delight to me to be well up 
all through the run, and when the WJw-hoop ! came, I 
got the brush." 

George Moore was already a great favourite in Cum- 
berland. He was proud of his county, and his county 
was proud of him. Wigton had welcomed him with 
enthusiasm. The country gentry invited him to their 
houses. Men of both sides of politics showed him 
marked courtesy and kindness. " I have not forgotten," 
he said, "my own position. I have sprung from the 
people and I hope I have done them no dishonour. I 
also trust that with all my worldly prosperity I have 
never forgotten the poor relations surrounding the place 
of my birth." 

On one occasion he was invited by Lord Carlisle to 
visit him at Naworth Castle, one of the hoary places of 
antiquity in the north. The Castle is a characteristic 
specimen of a great border fortress, when war was the 
normal condition of the northern counties. Here "Belted 
Will " of whom Lord Carlisle was so proud kept his 
garrison of a hundred and forty men, and held the 
border, while he reigned in a state of peace. He was the 
terror of the moss-troopers and the scourge of the Scotch 
freebooters. Fuller, the Church historian, says of hin), 

K 2 


that " he sent many of them to that place where the 
officer always does his work by daylight." 

On the present occasion, however, the entertainment 
was of a more peaceful character. A number of the 
neighbouring gentry had been invited to Naworth to 
witness the sports at Talkin Tarn. A regatta took place 
on the lake. There was afterwards a bout at wrestling, 
which Mr. Moore greatly enjoyed. " Lord Carlisle," he 
says, " in his usual easy, good-humoured way, made every- 
body happy about him. In the evening we dined at 
Naworth Castle, about twenty in number. I shall never 
forget the thoughtful, kindly way in which the Earl in- 
troduced me to his mother, the Dowager Countess. At 
the end of a sumptuous entertainment we were about to 
retire I thought to the drawing-room when Lord 
Carlisle, putting his arm in mine, took me with him, 
and from behind a screen we saw the full length of 
Belted Will's Hall, about eighty feet long. There we 
saw some fifty or sixty in what seemed curious cos- 
tumes, dancing at full swing. I had heard the music 
before, but I thought it was outside, on account of the 
company staying in the castle. I was surprised at the 
sight, and could scarcely believe my eyes ; the livery of 
the servants dancing looked like old court-dresses. It 
seemed like a scene in fairyland. As we walked along 
the ancient hall and approached the dancers, Lord 
Carlisle asked me if I would join in. ' Yes,' said I, ' by 
all means.' He then introduced me to Mary, 'the 
dairymaid,' and away we went. I had never seen so 
good a sample of buxom Cumberland lassies before. All 
the company joined in the dance, his lordship included, 
and we kept it up till a late hour. 

" To see the kindness and courtesy of his lordship to 
all his domestics did my heart good. How they, one 
and all, must have loved him ! Afterwards, when Lord 
Carlisle was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, I 


spent a delightful morning with him in Phoenix Park. 
I joined him at a distinguished dinner, which he gave 
the same evening. Each gentleman present must have 
felt that Lord Carlisle paid a special attention to himself, 
for he was kind, cheerful, and considerate to every one. 
Among the pleasant things he said to me was, that he 
was sure his brother Charles would be delighted that 
I had dined with him. 

" I must say that the Hon. Charles Howard has shown 
me unvarying kindness, and T feel a real attachment to 
him. Many a happy day have I spent with him at 
Greystoke Castle ; and indeed to him and other members 
of the Howard family, I can never be grateful enough 
for their interest I may say their friendship." 

Such were amongst the pleasant days that George 
Moore spent in Cumberland while he was merely a man 
of business, and before he had become possessor of a foot 
of land in the county. 



IT must not be supposed that Mr. Moore devoted him- 
self wholly to amusement during his summer holidays 
in Cumberland. He was a cheerful whole-hearted man, 
ready to enjoy himself and to take part in the pleasures 
of both old and young. 

During the early part of his career, he had visited 
Cumberland at irregular intervals. He remained for a few 
days visiting the lakes and the mountains, and returned 
again to his business in London. But when he was able 
to remain for a longer period, and to live for a month or 
two at Mealsgate, he was able to investigate the moral 
and social condition of the place where he was born. 

In the summer of 1852 Mr. and Mrs. Moore made 
a considerable stay in Cumberland. Being already 
interested in the education of the children of com- 
mercial travellers, he proceeded to make inquiries as 
to the education of the children in Mealsgate and the 

He found that education was making no progress. 
It was no more advanced than when he left Cumber- 
land. There was no desire for better education, and 
very little for more knowledge. The schools had done 
well enough for their fathers and grandfathers. Why 
should not the children be left to learn their A B C in 


quiet ? Why bother them with certificated masters and 
new methods of instruction ? 

In fact the country-folks were asleep. They were 
droning on in the old way. Everything was in a state of 
stagnation. While the world outside was undergoing 
rapid movement, the world in this little bit of England 
was standing stock-still. The schools were there, but 
nobody looked after them, neither gentry, clergy, 
statesmen, nor ratepayers. 

Such was the state of things when George Moore came 
down to Alealsgate to take his holiday. He was one of 
those men who could not be idle. If there was no work 
ready at his hand, he made work. He was of an active, 
persevering, indefatigable temperament. Here was work 
to be done, and he immediately set to work to do it. 
He would stir up the indolent stagnation of his neigh- 
bourhood, and rouse the people into activity. He would 
infuse into them some of his own energetic spirit. 

His first effort was to secure the erection of a new 
school-house at Bolton, in lieu of that at Boltongate, 
where he had received his first instruction from Black- 
bird Wilson. How he succeeded will be best told in 
his own words : 

" As I have already confessed, I was ashamed of my 
education when I first entered the house of Fisher and 
Co. During my visits to Cumberland I observed with 
grief and sorrow that no improvement had taken place. 
The people, though shrewd and intelligent, have great 
narrowness of thought. Perhaps this is not to be won- 
dered at, as they scarcely ever travel beyond their 
market town. I had often heard my revered father say 
that he had never travelled further than to Gilsland 
Wells, or to Carlisle, a distance of fifteen miles. I also 
found the people very suspicious of foreign dictation. 
They did not like to have their schools, any more than 
their farms, interfered with. The schools, of course, were 


very bad. Most of the schoolmasters were composed of 
men who could not succeed in any other occupation. 
They were for the most part disabled by accident or 
demoralised by drink. 

"The yeomen and farmers nevertheless liked the 
schools, partly because they had been educated at them, 
as well as their fathers before them. People in local 
districts, far removed from towns, wish their institutions 
to spring up naturally among themselves, and to be the 
growth of their own class. It does n'ot matter how bad 
they are ; they do not wish them to be interfered with. 
This I found to be my first great obstacle. They shied 
at my benevolent notions. They kept me at a distance. 
They did not see why they should subscribe for a new 
school when they had an old school of their own. They 
knew the native education which they had received ; but 
they knew nothing of the national education which I 
desired to introduce amongst them, under the periodical 
examination of Her Majesty's Inspectors. 1 I may also 
observe that the mistresses' schools, or dames' schools, 

1 We must here state the opposite view of the case. The writer was an 
intimate friend of George Moore's. "Although education," he says, "was 
at that period very low in Cumberland, and is, in its present transition 
state, not very hi ,'h now, it was easier, before the Church or the Govern- 
ment undertook the education of the people, for a clever youth to get 
advanced in a commercial and mathematical education than it is at present. 
There was free trade in schools, and there was always some schoolmaster 
in a village, or not far off, who could take a pupil far on in mathematics, 
and in an English education. One of these noted men, was a predecessor 
of George Moore's schoolmaster at Boltongate. This man was Robert 
Elliot. He could teach navigation, and had the character of making 
' grand ' scholars. When a boy made a mistake in fractions, Robert u>ed 
to say he was lil.e a butcher at Maryport, who had made a deal of money, 
but who, like hi n, did not know much about fractions and decimals. One 
day a friend asked him if he would take a share in a ship that was building 
in the harbour. The butcher replied, ' He didn't mind.' ' Would he have 
a sixteenth ? ' ' O wounds ! ' said he, ' it's far too much for me, a third or 
a fourth is quite enough ! ' " Notwithstanding this defence of the old 
system, it must be observed that these grand teachers, such as Robert 
ii-lliot or Dr. Hilton, were quite exceptional. It should be remembered 
that Robert Elliot was succeeded by Blackbird Wilson, a bad teacher as 
well a< a drinker. 


were no better than those of the masters'. They were 
even worse. 1 

" The old masters saw that my new system would re- 
volutionise theirs. The trustees of the endowed schools 
knew very well that they had never taken the slightest 
interest in their management. And the clergymen, 
whose duty it was closely to superintend them, scarcely, 
if ever, entered the buildings. The masters were en- 
gaged without any testimonials. They only took to a 
schoolmaster's life when they could do nothing else. 
So that a want of capacity seemed to be the only quali- 
fication necessary fora schoolmaster. I found that those 
who ought to have taken the lead and management of 
the tchools the landowners, the farmers, the clergymen 
w-^re all alike. They either could not or would not 
find time to enter into the depths of the subject of edu- 
cation. Nor could they examine the claims of those 
who made application for the office of teacher. They 
knew less about education than about any other subject. 

" In my native parish, that of Bolton, containing 
I, ICO inhabitants, there were three schools. Two of the 
masters were addicted to drink. They had no books, 
and had no proper method of teaching. The third was a 
poor fellow, a collier who had fallen down a coal-pit. His 
leg was badly broken, and had to be cut off. This acci- 
dent was his only qualification for the office of school- 
master ! I must always express my gratitude for the 
way he behaved when he found out what I was striving 
at. He said to me, ' Mr. Moore, I know I'm not fit to 
be a schoolmaster, but how am I to live ? ' I said, ' If 
you will come to London I will get you a situation ; and 
if you do your best, I promise you I will never let you 

1 One of these dames is still remembered by many now living in the 
pari-h of I or( enhovv. The book used in the school, after the sptlling 
'oouk, was the New Tes auient. When a child came to a word the mistress 
did not know, sne would say. "Spell it, call it summ'at, and go on." 


want.' He trusted my word, and with great persever- 
ance on my part, I succeeded in getting him a situation. 
He has got on step by step entirely by industry and good 
conduct, and for many years he has been a trusted and 
valuable clerk of the Great Eastern Railway Company. 
I really feel a great pride in his success, and am always 
pleased to welcome him to my house. 1 

" I may here observe that I would have built the new 
school at Bolton myself. But I have always found that 
if I can induce other people to subscribe, I enlist them 
in my favour to some extent, or at all events avoid their 
opposition. Accordingly, I personally canvassed all the 
parish. I did not despise a shilling subscription, pro- 
vided I could make a friend or neutralise an opponent. 
The best freeholders in the parish consented to become 
trustees. An excellent school, with a schoolmaster's 
house, was erected at a cost of about 6$o. I selected 
a good teacher from the National Society's Training 
School. I fixed the fees at about half the rate of the 
old schools, and relied upon an annual subscription to 
make up the deficiency. 

" It is scarcely necessary to speak of the vexatious 
opposition which I experienced in getting the school 
built and set to work. After it was opened, the poor 
master and his wife were perplexed and worried by the 
parents, who would not have their children taught in 
classes, but separately and individually, as under the 
old system. Many took their children away on this 
account. But we held on. With God's blessing and 

1 A friend of Mr. Moore's gives the following recollection : "It \\as a 
treat to hear George Moore's tales of the past, in striving to polish the 
crude habits and customs of his native countymen by introducing a better 
sysieni of education, and his constant stirrinys-up of the old conservative 
do-nothing parsons. There are many who will re-collect how he would tell 
of a \\ooden-legged schoolmaster of the olden type, for whom he was 
compelled to procure a more mechanical limb, the thumping spoke of a 
cart-wheel being a hindrance to the man's getting urufuable employment in 


the master's Christian spirit, all opposition was even- 
tually overcome. I shall ever respect this good man, 
John Moorby, for the difficulties which he encountered, 
the prejudices which he reconciled, and the admirable 
manner in which he performed the duties of his calling 
as teacher of the young." 

Mr. Moore was by no means satisfied with what he 
had done at Bolton. He had only begun his work, and 
was determined to go forward with it He was very 
much in favour of doing one thing at a time, and doing 
it thoroughly. He proceeded to visit all the schools in 
the neighbourhood, for the purpose of ascertaining their 
condition. He went more p... ticularly on examination 
days, when he took a number of prize books with him, 
which he gave to the most proficient scholars as rewards 
for their past labours, and as stimulants to their future 
perseverance. In this way he visited the grammar- 
school at Uldale, and the free school at Bothel, in the 
parish of Torpenhow. On these occasions he addressed 
the children, impressing upon them the necessity of con- 
stantly attending school and of strict attention to their 
duties ; for there the foundations of their future destiny 
were to be laid. 

It was always a joyful day for the children when 
George Moore attended the school, for, after the exami- 
nation, he provided the scholars with an abundant tea- 
feast. After tea he would take the children into some 
adjoining field, where he "scrambled" nuts and sweet- 
meats among them, and gave small prizes for races and 
other gymnastic amusements, in which the children, boys 
and girls, eagerly contended. 

About the year 1853 Mr. Moore was appointed trustee 
of Plumbland School, and with the determination to be 
thoroughly posted up in the details of every institution 
with which he was connected, he made frequent visits to 
the school to ascertain its actual condition. Plumbland 


had always been considered the best school in the dis- 
trict. Its endowment amounted to about .87 a year. 
The master was Andrew Bell, the " father of Cumber- 
land schoolmasters." Mr. Moore, at his first visit, was 
pleased with the smartness of the scholars, and requested 
permission to have a public examination of the school. 
This took place in August, 1854, the Rev. W. M. Gun- 
son, of Bagrow, officiating as inspector. The examina- 
tion was eminently satisfactory. Mr. Moore made a 
distribution of prizes, and promised to revisit the school 
for a similar purpose in the following year. It has been 
stated that " the idea thus dropped into his fertile brain 
soon developed, until, what was at first but the natural 
gratification of a desire to make himself acquainted with 
his new responsibility, ended in the Competitive Scheme, 
which gave so great a stimulus to education in the 

Another school was wanted at Allhallows, adjoining 
Bolton. The parish was very small, containing only 
abov:t 250 inhabitants. The Rev. W. M. Gunson in- 
forms us that it was he who first suggested the building 
of this school. He began to solicit subscriptions from 
the landowners and farmers towards the erection. There 
were of course many objectors. They said, " We shall 
never get thirty children to the school, and then how can 
we pay the master ? " Nevertheless, the subscription 
was set on foot. On Mr. Gunson's mentioning the 
scheme to Mr. Moore, he at once took it up warmly. 
He offered to pay half the deficiency in the money that 
was rcqu : rcd, and, as a matter of fact, Mr. Gunson and 
Mr. Moore paid, in equal shares, about four-fifths of the 
cost of the building. 

Like most good efforts, the scheme met with success. 
The people of the neighbourhood had seen what an 
ornament Bolton school and schoolmaster's house were 
to the parish, and they knew how much good the new 


schoolmaster was doing. When Allhallows school was 
built and opened, it was soon filled with children. There 
were about- two acres of ground in connection with the 
school, which were worked by the scholars themselves. 
It was laid out in small plots ; and the master had a 
portion for his own use. John Green was a certificated 
teacher, and he proved an excellent schoolmaster. His 
wife, to the astonishment of the parish, taught the girls 
sewing. Such a thing had never been known in the 
neighbourhood. The number of pupils grew to between 
sixty and seventy ; for the excellence of the teaching 
attracted scholars from the neighbouring parishes, 1 

Among the other schools. in which Mr. Moore took a 
special interest, were Bothel school and Bromfield 
school. These were both endowed. When Mr. Moore 
first examined Uldale school, above referred to, he found 
that it was ill-contrived, badly ventilated, and without 
conveniences of any sort. " After a great deal of per- 
severance," he says. " I got the Committee of Council 
on Education to confirm a plan for enlarging and im- 
proving the school. They had seen, by the report of 
Her Majesty's inspector, that I was in earnest about 
improving the education of Cumberland. They showed 
me a great deal of consideration and gave a good grant 
of money. The school was thus greatly improved, 
and the teacher was stimulated to new efforts by the 
regular annual inspection. Since then, the improve- 
ment in this school has been quite marvellous. 

" Bothel school was the worst of the lot, miserably 
small for so large a parish, badly ventilated, and filthy 
in the extreme. The deed of the London property 
the rental of which formed the endowment of 50 

1 It may be remarked, that within the ground attached to the building, 
there stands a stone pillar with an inscription, stating that there had pas ed 
the famous military road connecting Ellenborou^h (Maryport) with Old 
Carlisle, two of the fortified sites on Adrian's Wall from sea to sea, 

A D. CXX. 


had been lost. It had not been seen within the 
memory of man. This was a formidable opposition 
to any alterations or improvements. After three or 
four years' perseverance and hard work, we have got 
the school greatly enlarged, and an excellent master's 
house built. We have received a new deed through 
the Charity Commission and the Committee of Council 
on Education. The school is now under regular in- 
spection, and is doing a great deal of good. The 
education given in it is a credit to the county." As 
for Bromfield school, Mr. Moore adds : " I have tried 
hard to get this school renovated, but up to this time 
I have not achieved anything, except to get the school 
placed under Government inspection." This, however, 
was accomplishing a great deal 

We must now interrupt this record of Mr. Moore's 
educational achievements, by referring to the move- 
ment which he initiated for carrying on the education 
of boys and girls after they had left school. Every 
one knows that only the beginnings of education are 
learnt at school. In the country, boys and girls leave 
at about twelve years old, just as they are beginning to 
acquire the first outlines of knowledge. And unless 
they continue their education after they have left school, 
they continue children intellectually throughout life. If 
they have not the power or the means of forwarding 
their own education, they must be helped. George 
Moore was one of those who helped them liberally : by 
libraries, reading-rooms, and evening-classes. He 
founded the Perambulating Library, a simple, cheap, 
and efficient method of maintaining adult education in 
the country districts, and of keeping reading people 
in contact with the pure and healthy literature of the 

The idea of the perambulating library was not new. 
But George Moore did not mind whether it was new 


or not. He found it suited for his purpose, and he 
adopted it. It may be mentioned that the system 
of itinerating libraries was founded in 1817 by Samuel 
Brown, of Haddington. He was a man of pure mind, 
of great perseverance, and worked zealously throughout 
his life for the good of his fellow-creatures. He began 
his system with a library of 200 volumes. These were 
increased from time to time until they reached 3,850 
volumes. The number of branch libraries throughout 
the County of East Lothian was gradually increased, 
until there was not a village and scarcely a hamlet in 
the county that was not supplied with a stock of 
valuable books. Thus the invaluable habit of reading 
was not only developed, but fostered and kept alive. 
The writer of these lines remembers with thanks the 
good effects of the library upon himself. When a boy, 
labouring under ill-health, he rummaged and read the 
books of nearly the whole library, and thus laid 
the foundations of a considerable amount of useful 
knowledge, But to. return to George Moore's opera- 

In the year 1851 he resolved to establish his peram- 
bulating Hbra vy. He did so in conjunction with Mr. 
Richard /\bbatt and Mr. J. P. Foster. He made a 
journey from London to Cumberland for the purpose 
of starting the scheme. He called a meeting of the 
clergymen and laymen likely to take part in the work. 
The rules were adopted, the books were bought, and the 
library was set in operation. It embraced nine villages, 
situated somewhat circularly. These were selected as 
the Stations. A librarian was appointed in each of 
them, to-give out the books to the subscribers, who paid 
a penny a month, or a shilling a year. The names 
of the villages or stations were Ireby, Torpenhow, 
Bothel, Mealsgate, Crookdake, Bolton Low Houses, 
Boltongate, Sandale, and Uldale. A neat case of new 


or fresh books was delivered to each station every six 
weeks by a paid messenger. 1 

The perambulating library proved a great success. 
The books were nearly always out. The country people 
were thus induced to read good books. At the end of 
the first year's operations, in 1852, a grand//tewas held 
at Kilhow, while Dr. Cowan was president of the asso- 
ciation. About six or seven hundred people were 
present. After several speeches had been made, the 
company danced on the lawn, and the evening finished 
with fireworks. Another entertainment of a similar 
character was given at Grange, High Ireby, in the 
following year. This also was attended by a great 
number of people. There were the usual speeches, 
tea, dancing, and fireworks. 

But the most important fete was held in August, 
1856, when Mr. Moore became president of the institu- 
tion. On this occasion the new president determined 
to outshine all previous efforts to entertain the people 
Dr. Cowan kindly permitted him to use the grounds of 
Kilhow for the purpose. 

The magnificent scenery by which Kilhow is 
surrounded, the hills and valleys, with Skiddaw in the 
distance, rendered the day one of great delight. 
There seemed to be a general holiday in the neigh- 
bourhood. People came from all the villages where 
the perambulating library had its stations. But many 
came from greater distances. The road to Kilhow 
was crowded with omnibuses, carriages, phaetons, 
cabs, and other vehicles. The mayor of Carlisle was 
there, and many of the neighbouring gentry; with 

1 This messenger was John Sanderson, a noted walker. In 1822 he per- 
formed the feat of walking 150 miles in 48 succes ive hours. He accom- 
plished it two hours within the time, and did the last four miles within an 
hour. John Sanderson was long seen on the roads, with a case of books in 
a light vehicle, running them to the next station, dressed in a scarlet 
hunting-coat of George Moore's. 

ciJAi'. x.] GEORGE M^Oi<.E AT K.ILHUW. 145 

pedestrians almost innumerable. The Warwick Bridge 
brass band attended, and played to the dancers on the 
lawn. Some fifteen hundred persons took tea in the 
marquee which Mr. Moore had caused to be erected, 
and refreshments for about two hundred persons were 
provided in the house. 

Several speeches were delivered ; Mr. Moore, as 
president of the library, taking the first place. After 
referring to his election as president, and to the fact 
that the society emanated from himself and one or two 
others, he said that if he had lived in the county he 
should have attended to the duties of the office with 
more zeal and ardour. " However, having been elected 
your president this fine summer's day, I shall feel 
happy to do my duty to the best of my power. I wish 
to remind you that you are assembled here as working 
men in particular. Nobody works harder than I do. 
Some of you may think it very pleasant for me to 
come here and make speeches. Perhaps you may 
think that I have got into my present position by 
accident. There you are very much mistaken. I can 
assure you that it required a great deal of hard work, 
anxiety, determinatipn, and wear and tear of brain. 
All have the same chance and opportunity that I had 
when I left this part of the county. Many of you, 
indeed, have been far better educated than I was ; and 
if I had received a better education I might have been 
able to do more good and have effected much greater 
improvements. But since I left my native county I 
have used every means to improve myself ; and yet 
I have not done half enough. There is nothing more 
calculated to improve the mind than reading good 
books ; and I hope that each gentleman here, and 
especially the clergy, will use their best exertions to 
induce their neighbours to become subscribers. I can 
only say that unless you are anxious to improve your 



minds, you will do nothing. God only helps those 
who help themselves ; and unless you assist yourselves, 
and help yourselves, no other person can possibly help 
you. Such has been the result of my long experience 
in the commercial world." 

Mr. Moore stated in the course of his speech that 
he expected that the Bishop of Carlisle (Villiers) would 
have been present on the occasion; but that he would 
certainly preach at Bolton parish church on the fol- 
lowing Sunday. Mr. Moore had invited the Bishop 
to come over to Bolton during his visit to Cumberland, 
and his Lordship gladly complied with the request 
The event caused a great excitement in the neighbour- 
hood. A bishop had never preached in Bolton church 
before. Most of the parishioners had never even seen a 
bishop. Hence the concourse of people that crowded 
Bolton Church on that wet Sunday morning. The 
Bishop preached a sermon which made a great im- 
pression. Mr. Moore says, " His powers of preaching 
are great. He is most persuasive. He shows the 
greatest firmness with the greatest kindness. I think 
him the most large-hearted Christian gentleman I ever 
knew. He is also very honest and straightforward in 
his opinions. I think it the greatest blessing, that he 
is sent to my native county to regenerate it ; and with 
God's blessing he will." 

A mutual friendship sprang up between the Bishop 
of Carlisle and George Moore. The Bishop visited 
him in London, and in the following year George 
Moore visited the Bishop at his residence at Rose 
Castle. He was greatly pleased at the open-hearted 
reception at the free and easy manner of the family 
towards him, and at the " impressive family worship." 
George Moore had, however, a little business to do 
on this occasion. He wished his lordship to preach 
at Bothel, in aid of the school funds, and to accom- 


pany him on his journey. They started early on 

" It was a lovely morning," says Mr. Moore. " We 
had a pleasant drive of sixteen miles. Whilst going 
along, the Bishop (as I thought jokingly) asked me 
what he was to say in his sermon, as he always 
preached extempore. I said he was to tell them that 
the school was a disgrace to the country, that it was 
without ventilation or any conveniences, that it was 
enough to engender not only disease but all sorts of 
immorality that the sin of the neighbourhood was 
illegitimacy and drunkenness. We reached Bothel, 
and he preached to a crowded congregation. To my 
utter astonishment, he told them exactly what I had 
suggested. But he put it most judiciously, honestly, 
and forcibly. He made a great impression. I acted 
as pew-opener, and wedged every seat full. After the 
sermon there was a good collection. 

" After dining at Mealsgate we proceeded to All- 
hallows Church. His Lordship was to preach there 
in aid of the Church of England Education Society, 
a society in London, which had given several grants to 
both Allhallows school and Bolton school, and in 
which both the Bishop and myself were deeply inter- 
ested. Allhallows Church is perhaps the smallest in the 
county. On our arrival I found the churchyard was 
crammed. I inquired why the doors of the church 
had not been opened. The reply was that the church 
was full ! I was delighted, because I had calculated upon 
this ; and the Bishop and I had come to an under- 
standing, that if the people were too numerous to get 
admission to the church he would turn out and preach 
to them in the churchyard. On inquiring of him 
what I could do, he said, ' Bring a table and a chair, 
and put them in a situation out of the glare of the 

L 2 


" I got all arranged, and looked round. I think it 
was the grandest sight I ever saw. There must have 
been from eight to nine hundred people sitting on 
the gravestones, or on the grass plats in the open 
air, with the hills of Cumberland and the woodland 
scenery in the distance. The bishop preached a most 
powerful and forcible sermon, and made a deep impres- 
sion on the people. He was as much pleased as I was. 
It was the first sermon he had preached in the open 

George Moore long continued to take the same 
interest in the Cumberland schools. He visited them 
yearly. He gave prizes, addressed the children, and 
treated them to tea and sports after the examinations. 
At length he resolved to extend the principle, and not 
only to make the children of one school compete with 
each other, but to bring the various schools together 
and make them compete with every other school. 
"In August, 1857," he says, "I suggested to Her 
Majesty's inspector that we should have a monster 
examination of all the schools in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Allhallows. When the examination 
took place, the schools were nine in number. More 
than thirty boys and girls from each school underwent 
examination. Prizes of books were awarded to all the 
successful candidates. The examination passed off with 
great falat. Many of the surrounding gentry were 
present, as well as the neighbouring clergymen. After 
the examination, I gave a luncheon at Mealsgate to 
between seventy and eighty of the gentry and clergy 
of the district. I gave tea to about five hundred 
children and their parents, and supper to seventy or 
eighty trustees and their families, and to others who 
took an interest in education. 

" It is extraordinary how much good results from 
bringing all these people together. Parents and 


children take the greatest interest in the proceedings. 
Education is thus popularised among the people. 
The success of this meeting induced me to suggest 
to the Rev. G. R. Moncrieff, Her Majesty's inspector, 
that he should issue a circular in anticipation of a 
similar examination in August, 1858." 

The circular was issued by Mr. Moncrieff. It 
began : " The success of the examination recently held 
at Allhallows school has induced Mr. George Moore of 
London to propose to me to hold a similar examination 
next year. The undermentioned are the regulations." 
Ten children were to be sent from each school 
certificated by the master. The subjects for examina- 
tion were the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of St. 
Mark ; reading, arithmetic, mental arithmetic, writing 
from dictation, writing from copy, geography, English 
grammar, and (for girls) needlework. The prizes were 
to be ten shillings to each successful candidate, and 
gift-books were to be distributed amongst the whole 
body of children. 

The competitive examination of 1858 greatly out- 
shone its predecessor. The Bishop of Carlisle, Her 
Majesty's inspector, the clergymen of the district, and 
about three thousand people of the neighbourhood, 
were present. The pupils of the various schools 
mustered about 800 strong. Without regard to the 
spacious marquee, brought by Mr. Moore from London, 
and to the banners and mottoes with which it was 
ornamented, we proceed to the examination of the 
scholars themselves. The actual examinations had 
occupied several days of hard work. Then came the 
closing day, when the pupils had to be finally examined 
and the prizes had to be awarded. The preliminary 
viva voce examination had begun at an early hour in 
the morning. During the whole of the day, the school- 
room was crowded. The zeal and care of the inspec- 


tors were only equalled by the attention and assiduity 
of the scholars. Then came the final reward, when 
the whole party proceeded to the Green, where the 
Bishop of the diocese called the successful candidates 
before him. 

Some time previously, amidst an immense crowd of 
spectators of all ranks and classes, the names of the 
successful scholars, and of the specially successful 
schools, were read out, and a list of the prizes that 
were to be awarded. The latter consisted of everything 
that could be thought of; and it was no slight task, 
as time passed on, to find prizes that would differ and 
be attractive from year to year. Watches, sewing- 
machines, china tea-services, teapots, desks, and books 
were the favourites for the masters. It was much 
easier to provide a variety for the scholars. 

After the Bishop had distributed the prizes to the 
successful candidates, the Old Hundredth was sung 
by the assembled multitude ; the Bishop addressed the 
audience, and also, in a special manner, the children. 
A few more addresses were delivered, and the meeting 
separated. 1 

George Moore had now given a fair start to the 
school education of Cumberland. The Bishop called 
it "a revival." He had generously assisted in the 
building and enlargement of the schools. He had insti- 
tuted a system of competitive examination. He now 
desired that the Diocesan Education Society should 
take up the work and carry it on throughout the county. 
Accordingly, at the meeting of the society, held at 
Carlisle a few days after the examination at All- 
hallows, Mr. Moore offered an annual subscription of 

1 A few years later, the number of schools competing (they were called 
in Cumberland " Moore's Lot '') had become so great that the Lords in 
Council on Education decided that the Government inspectors must no 
Ion ,er be allowed to go on with this examination unless they chose to do so 
during their holiday. 


a hundred pounds, and such further help as might be 
necessary, to encourage improvement in the schools 
of Cumberland. The offer was accepted, Mr. Moore 
stating that, "as long as he was spared the Allhallows 
examination should be kept up. It was the most 
decided way of stimulating all parties scholars, parents, 
friends, squires, clergymen, and above all schoolmasters. 
They could have no conception how it would act 
upon the parents of the children. In fact that was the 
pivot upon which the success of the whole scheme 

There can be no doubt as to the great benefit that 
was conferred upon the rising generation by the ener- 
getic action of George Moore. There were few resi- 
dent landowners in the neighbourhood ; the clergy had 
before taken little interest in education ; and the farmers 
rested strong in the conservative notion that " what 
had satisfied their fathers would do well enough for 
them ! " George Moore returned to his native county 
after a life of hard work, and roused them all up. 
The clergy were induced to take an interest in the 
schools, and the farmers were at length compelled to 
look after the education of their children. Not only 
were the schools properly built and inspected, but 
Sunday-schools were also established in many parishes. 
Sunday-schools had not existed, there before. The 
attendance at church was greatly increased. A new 
life was infused into the district. Boys and girls found 
a new interest in life, and these boys and girls were yet 
to be the men and women of Cumberland. 

"There is no work," says George Moore, "that I 
have ever undertaken that has given me greater satis- 
faction than the result of my design to raise and 
better the schools, by giving them a higher standard 
to aim at. The schoolmaster has been reached through 
the medium of the pupils ; for the success of the latter 


at the examinations, proved the very best advertise- 
ment for the teacher. His energies were awakened, 
and he set to work to improve and raise the character 
of his scholars. The experiment proved the motto of 
'helping others to helj themselves.' The parents 
observed the schools which had succeeded best at the 
examinations ; and they could not be content with 
a lower means of instruction when a better was within 
their reach." 

Such was the work in Cumberland on which George 
Moore spent his holidays. We return again to his 
beneficent work in London. 



THE work done by George Moore in Cumberland was 
only holiday-work. The greater part of his time was 
spent in London. His business required a great deal 
of attention. When he gave up travelling in 1841, 
the firm employed ten country travellers and three 
town travellers. But now, in 1852, it employed seven- 
teen country travellers and ten town travellers. The 
premises had again been considerably enlarged, and 
an entrance made into Cheapside. It was found neces- 
sary to open branches in the larger towns of the 
kingdom. The expense of conveying a huge bulk 
of stock from one town to another, runs away with 
profits. Hence warehouses were taken in Manchester, 
Liverpool, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Plymouth, Bristol, 
Brighton, Norwich, and Portsea. Warehouses had been 
established in Glasgow, Dublin, and Paris, about six 
years before. 

In carrying on a large business of this kind, know- 
ledge of character is essentially necessary. The most 
successful merchant is not the man who personally 
works the hardest but the man who possesses the 
greatest powers of organisation, whose experience 
and knowledge, combined with common sense, enable 
him to discern character and select the men best fitted 


to carry out his operations. George Moore was great 
in these respects. His insight into character seemed 
almost to be the result of instinct. He had a rapid 
power of judging whom he could trust. And he rarely 
made a mistake, either in the heads of departments, 
or in the partners who from time to time were intro- 
duced into the firm. 

One would have supposed that with such a large 
and rapidly-increasing business, George Moore would 
have had little time to attend to the organising of 
charitable institutions. But it was with him as it is 
with many other hard-working business men. If you 
wish to have any good work well done, go to the busy 
man, not to the idle man. The former can find time 
for everything. The latter can find time for nothing. 
Will, power, perseverance, and industry enable a man 
not only to promote his own interests, but at the same 
time to help others less prosperous than himself. 

In the midst of his many labours Mr. Moore was 
"pricked " by the Lord Mayor, in June, 1852, as Sheriff 
of London. Mr. Grissell, the well-known contractor, 
was " pricked " with him. Mr. Moore was then so 
much occupied with the benevolent institutions which 
he had started, as well as with his own business, that 
he could not indulge in the luxury of holding the office 
of sheriff. It would have involved him in many civic 
dinners. It might have led to a knighthood. It might 
have led to the office of Lord Mayor. But he could 
not give up the works of benevolence which he had 
undertaken to prosecute, nor could he give up the 
additional time from his business, which holding the 
office of sheriff would have involved. He accordingly 
declined the offer. Mr. Grissell did the same ; and 
the fines of .400 each, or ^800 in all, were levied 
from the recusants, and paid into the funds of the 


More honours were offered to him, which for the 
same reasons he refused to accept. He was unani- 
mously elected alderman by the liverymen of Cord- 
wainers' ward, and a second time by those of Bread 
Street ward. He refused to serve in both cases. " I 
once thought," he says, " that to be Sheriff of London, 
or Lord Mayor, would have been the height of my 
ambition. But now I have neither the ambition nor 
the inclination to serve in either office. To men who 
have not gained a mercantile position, corporation 
honours are much sought after; but to those who 
have acquired a prominent place in commerce, such 
honours are not appreciated. At the same time I 
am bound in gratitude to say that I have always re- 
ceived the most marked courtesy and consideration 
from the corporation, even although I did not feel 
disposed to join it." 

In the same year that he was " pricked " sheriff, Mr. 
Moore was nominated by the Lord Mayor, at the 
request of Lord Palmerston, and appointed to the 
Lieutenancy of London. He accepted the office, which 
involved no extra labour ; but " up to this day," he says 
(February 10, 1858), "I have not got my regimentals 
nor my court-dress." He was also invited to represent 
the electors of Nottingham in Parliament. He had 
many opportunities of being sent to Parliament un- 
opposed. But he invariably refused. He was of 
opinion that Parliament should be composed of the 
best, wisest, and most highly educated men in the 
country. He always averred that he was not one of 
such men. 

He was not a bigoted politician. He never took an 
extreme side. He did not like sudden changes of any 
sort. He was a moderate Liberal. He wished rather 
to repair the breaches in the constitution which time had 
made, than to pull it down by radical changes, and 


endeavour to reconstruct it upon no very certain foun- 
dation. He thought that the best of all things to adopt 
was to educate the people up to the highest standard ; 
so that they might be fitted for whatever privileges 
Parliament might think proper Lo confer upon them. 
Such was the course which he himself adopted in his 
endeavours to improve the education of the rising 

Mr. Moore was however a strong friend of free 
trade. As early as 1845, when Mr. Cobden was 
agitating the country in favour of the county regis- 
tration movement, and urging people to buy freehold 
qualifications, so that they might vote for county 
members of Parliament, Mr. Moore and five others 
bought a small freehold in Middlesex, and during 
twenty years and upwards they all voted for free- 
trade candidates. Mr. Moore stuck to the free- 
trade movement, and when the corn laws were repealed 
the firm of Copestake, Moore and Co., were amongst 
the largest subscribers to the Cobden Fund. 

Besides the repeated invitations to stand for Notting- 
ham, where he could have commanded a large amount 
of support, he was also invited to stand for West 
Cumberland. "On this occasion," he says, "had I even 
felt the inclination to accept it, I believe that I could 
not have succeeded, as in that quarter they think 
more of landowners than of rag-merchants. However, 
I never could get my own consent to go into the House 
of Commons. First, because if I had gone there, I 
could not have rested satisfied with being a silent 
member. It is my nature to make myself master of 
all that I have to do with. Then the business of the 
House of Commons would have occupied much of my 
time. It would have acted detrimentally to me in taking 
me from my own business, to which 1 was in a measure 
bound, and in which 1 have so large a share. Not to 


have done my share of work, would have been dishonest 
in principle. And secondly, because I knew my value 
to the many charitable institutions to which I am so 
warmly attached. Apart from my business pursuits, I 
considered this to be my proper sphere of usefulness." 

Mr. Moore, however, warmly assisted in canvassing 
for his political friends. Thus he took an active 
interest in the return of Lord John Russell and the 
other Liberal candidates for the City of London in 
1852. He also canvassed the Cumberland voters in 
London, and took down with him forty-four East 
Cumberland freeholders to vote for Mr. C. Howard 
and Mr. William Marshall. This he did without a 
shilling of expense to the candidates. " This hard 
work," he says, "almost knocked me up. We won 
the election by a large majority. At the dinner given 
by the members I felt so ill that I was obliged to 
leave the table, and therefore could not make the two 
speeches that were assigned to me. I returned with 
Mr. Howard to Greystock Castle, and the quiet soon 
restored me. I afterwards went to Shap Wells to 
meet Mrs. Moore. The waters there always benefit 

" What was my surprise, when at Shap Wells, to 
receive a visit from Lord Lonsdale. He invited 
me to stay with him at Lowther Castle. I had 
been determinedly opposed to his candidates. I had 
come down from London expressly to assist in 
returning the Liberal members. I was so much sur- 
prised, that I declined the invitation ' No,' said he, 
' I have come over expressly on purpose to invite 
you.' ' If that be the case/ said I, ' I shall do myself 
the honour of visiting you.' On my arrival at the 
castle I found it was filled with the opposite party in 
politics. They could not make out how it was that I 
should be there, and 1 must confess that at first I did 


not feel quite at home. But his Lordship's and Colonel 
Lowther's kindness, and indeed that of all the party, 
soon made me feel as easy as a glove. I felt 
myself a little in the way when politics were the topic 
of conversation. But to Lord Lonsdale's credit be 
it said, that he never, either directly or indirectly, 
hinted at making me a convert. I have since felt 
that it was a most friendly act to invite me to his 
house, when the heat of the party contest had scarcely 

At the General Election of. 1857, Lord John Russell 
again stood for the City. He had become somewhat 
unpopular at the time, for what reason he did not 
know. At first he thought of giving up the seat, and 
trying another constituency ; but, on second thoughts, 
he determined to stand. He sent his nephew, Mr. 
Russell, to Mr. Moore, to ask if he would be deputy- 
chairman of his committee. By all means ! George 
Moore threw himself heart and soul into the contest. 
A large meeting of voters was held at the London 
Tavern, when Lord John made a magnificent speech, 
and created a deep impression "on the electors. Mr. 
Moore seconded a vote of confidence in him, which 
was agreed to. Mr. Moore also seconded his nomination, 
and worked hard for him until he was returned. " I 
entertained," says Mr. Moore, " his Lordship and Lady 
Russell, and his friends, at Bow Churchyard. The 
large crowd that followed him excited a great sensation. 
He was decidedly the popular candidate. Owing to his 
old friends and colleagues turning against him, he got a 
great deal of sympathy ; as Englishmen do not like to 
see a man victimised. 1 have always been an ardent 
admirer of Lord John, and he was pleased to think that 
on this occasion I had been instrumental in securing 
his return. 

" On the same night," he continues, " I started for 


Brayton to assist Wilfrid Lawson in his contest for 
West Cumberland. I never had such a hard week's 
work in my life. On the first day, Monday, William 
Lawson and I were at Crookdake at half-^ast six in the 
morning. We had two excellent hunters under us, and 
went straight across Leesrigg pasture, jumping all the 
fences to Allhallows and Torpenhow. After canvass- 
ing with energy, we finished the night by arriving at 
Brayton at 10 o'clock P.M. The following day was 
the nomination day. Wilfrid drove me to Cocker- 
mouth. He was the popular candidate, though not the 
candidate to win. There I had a rencontre with my 
friend George Bentinck. He told me that I had no 
business to make such a dead stand against their party. 
However, after a paper war we got reconciled again, 
and were as good friends as ever. 

" I found that all the farmers voted with the 
landlords. They were not allowed to think and act 
for themselves. The screw was put on in every shape. 
Out of a large constituency, Wilfrid Lawson was beat 
by about 250 votes. I took charge of the polling 
booth at Bolton, my native place. I did not throw a 
chance away. But there is no satisfaction in elections. 
They cause strife, heartburnings, and all sorts of evil. 

" The election was over on the Friday. We had an 
excellent day's fox-hunting on Saturday. I started for 
London the same night, very much tired with my hard 
week's work. I paid the entire expenses of the 
London canvass, and the expenses of such voters to 
Cumberland and back as could not themselves pay the 
cost of the double journey, and I got a great deal of 
abuse from the yellow 1 papers ; and "thus ended the 
West Cumberland election." 

In the year 1854, Mr. Moore removed his residence 

1 Yellow papers. In most counties yellow is Whig ; but in Cumberland 
it is Conservative. 


from Oxford Terrace to a mansion in Kensington 
Palace Gardens. He always regarded this as an 
extravagant step. He had lived very happily in a 
small house. Why should he remove to a larger one ? 
Nevertheless, the site was bought and the build- 
ins: was begun. The house cost him about double 

o tj 

the estimate. "Although," he says, "I had built 
the house at the solicitation of Mrs. Moore, I was 
mortified at my extravagance, and thought it both 
wicked and aggrandizing mere ostentation and vain 
show to build such a house. It was long before 
I felt at home in it, nor did it at all add to our happi- 
ness. I felt that I had acted foolishly. But, strange 
to say, a gentleman offered to take the house off my 
hands and to give me three thousand guineas profit. 
I made up my mind to accept this offer ; but my dear 
wife had taken such an interest in the house that we 
could not decide to sell it. I accordingly declined the 

" As our young men and women at Bow Churchyard 
had been instrumental in helping me to gain the wealth 
for building such a house, I determined that they 
should be the first to visit us. We gave a ball to 
about 300 of our own people, and allowed the young 
men to invite their female friends, to equalise the sexes- 
After the dancing there was a grand supper. We gave 
a second ball to all the porters and their wives, the 
drivers, and the female servants. There were about 
two hundred in all. We employed omnibuses to 
bring them to the house and send them away. They 
got abundant refreshment, and danced to their hearts' 

" After this we kept a great deal of company. The 
house was looked upon as a work of art. All our 
friends expected to be invited to see it and partake of 
our hospitality. We accordingly gave a large dinner 


weekly, until we had exhausted our numerous friends 
and acquaintances. My wife kept an account of above 
eight hundred who dined with us. But happiness does 
not flow in such a channel. Promiscuous company takes 
one's mind away from God and His dealings with men; 
and there is no lasting pleasure in the excitement." 

We return to Mr. Moore's philanthropic work, which 
was really the crown and glory of his life. It will 
be remembered that he was fined .400 for refusing 
to accept the position of sheriff. 

Notwithstanding this act of injustice, he thought it 
right to perform some of the duties which are supposed 
to belong to the office. " Although," he says, " I did 
not eat any of the civic dinners, I determined to visit 
every prison in London." He first visited the new 
City prison at Holloway. He was received by the 
Rev. Mr. Cohen, the chaplain, who took him over the 
gaol. Mr. Cohen says, " He took the most intense 
interest in the whole place, and in the inmates thereof. 
He was making a tour of the prisons and reformatories all 
over London. His practical view of things led him to 
suggest the establishment of a reformatory for discharged 

Mr. Moore says that he was struck with the fact, that 
when he inquired of the chaplains what became of the 
poor fellows after the expiration of their term of im- 
prisonment, their answer was, " They can do nothing but 
return to stealing, as nobody will employ them." " I at 
once determined," says Mr. Moore, " with God's help, to 
establish a Reformatory for young men. I enlisted my 
valued friend, James Cunliffe, banker, in the cause ; and 
we immediately took large premises and grounds at 
Grove House, Brixton Hill. 

" I called upon Lord Shaftesbury to consult him on 
the subject. I was much pleased with my visit and the 



great encouragement which I received. Experience has 
convinced me that Lord Shaftesbury is the most zealous 
and persevering philanthropist of the day. He is 
always ready for every good work, and I never knew 
any man who could get through so much. He never 
tires of doing good. He has extraordinary tact and 
ability as a chairman ; and he has perhaps had more 
experience in that position than any living man. His 
kind and courteous manner, his large-heartedness, and 
his zeal in every good movement, will give him an im- 
perishable renown, and an everlasting inheritance with 
his Heavenly Master. 

" Lord Shaftesbury consented to be our president. 
We engaged Mr. as governor. And now my 
anxieties and troubles began. This person had been 
in the City Mission, and was inspector of Ragged 
Schools. But, in my opinion, he was the worst man of 
business I ever knew. With all our endeavours, we 
could not get the establishment to work satisfactorily. 
We certainly got it filled with young men, but the 
governor had not the slightest moral influence over them. 
They caballed ; they became insubordinate ; and the 
whole affair got into disorder. In fact we found that 

Mr. was a hypocrite in disguise, and we got rid of 

him, pretty well sickened with the work. 

" But I am not in the habit of giving up things in 
this way. Persevere has always been my motto ; and I 
determined to try again. We had a long lease of the 
premises, and I felt that we must do something to 
establish the work on some firmer foundation. I felt 
however that I had undertaken a job that I could not 
manage by myself. I lost my excellent friend James 
Cunliffe by sudden death ; and my other colleagues 
rarely came to my help. The whole burthen was thus 
thrown upon me. 

" But Providence very often steps in at the right time 


to help us. On looking about, I found that Mr. C. T. 
Jenkinson and Mr. Joseph Moore lived close to the 
reformatory, and that they were willing to join me. 
Mr. Bowker also rendered me the greatest assistance, 
giving up much time to it ; and to their invaluable 
superintendence I am indebted for the increased suc- 
cess which for some time attended the work. We have 
been fortunate in our new governor. He was young and 
inexperienced at first, but he improves every year. I 
may now say (November Qth, 1857) that this has been 
the most interesting work that I have ever been engaged 
in. You can observe the good you are doing. You 
have ocular demonstration of it. When the men come 
in, they look like fiends, sunk in sin and degradation ; 
but when we train them to work and send them out, 
they are altogether changed in outward appearance, and 
also, I trust, in soul and in spirit." l 

One of the most remarkable and almost unique 
forms in which George Moore displayed his benevo- 
lence, was in marrying people who were not, but who 
ought to have been, married. The City Missionaries, 
with whom he was in constant communication, found 
multitudes of men and women living together without 
the ceremony of marriage having been performed. 
The women were in a disreputable social position. The 
children were growing up illegitimate. In order, there- 
fore, to protect the women and give them a tie upon 
their husbands, as well as to give their future children a 
legitimate start in society, he paid the marriage fees of 

1 This passage was written in 1857. The reformatory was then flourish- 
ing, and, it was hoped, doing good. Mr. Moore was the soul of the work 
so long as it lasted. He visited it often, and gave freely. He also exerted 
his influence to induce others to help him. It existed for about ten years. 
But the second manager proved no better than the first ; and his mal- 
administration eventually wrecked the institution. Besides, the lease of 
the premises was up. The buildings were falling to pieces, and the Refor- 
matory was at length closed. Mr. Moore u<ed to say in later years " that 
this was the only work he had begun and given up." 

M 2 


thousands of persons. He did this for about twenty 
years. It was all done privately. The clergymen who 
performed the ceremony knew nothing of the donor of 
the marriage fees. The people who had been married 
never knew their benefactor. The whole of the work 
was done through the City Missionaries, who kept the 
matter secret. 

We have before us a letter to George Moore, dated 
August 4th, 1854, in which the missionary says: "I 
find on inquiry that we have 7 or 8 yet in hand of 
the wedding fund. Constant demands are being made 
upon it; but I have found it needful to check incon- 
siderate applications. Glad should I be if all were 
married who are living together in an unmarried state. 
But I am wishful that the means we still have should 
be applied to the assistance and relief of those who see 
and feel that they have done wrong, and who had not 
the means of doing right." Mr. Moore continued to 
help these people to get married, to the close of his 
life. We find from his accounts that he paid more 
than five hundred pounds for marriage fees. 

His connection with this undertaking revealed to 
him one of those dreadful things in cities that lie 
almost unheeded about us, the demoralisation of 
multitudes of women who, in their right position, 
should be the safeguards of society. He cordially 
concurred with his friend Mr. Robert Hanbury, M.P., 
in endeavouring to establish a refuge for fallen women. 
The work was full of difficulties. It could only be 
done through the medium of women themselves. And 
yet how few respectable women are there who will con- 
descend to come into communication with the lowest 
of their sex ! Mr. Moore, at one of the meetings of 
the Reformatory and Refuge Union, offered to give 
a hundred pounds annually for the first two female 
missionaries who would work amongst the fallen. " With 


God's help," he says, " I am determined to persevere 
in this good cause. But it is more difficult to grapple 
with than any matter I have ever undertaken. Mr. 
Hanbury is as zealous as myself. We may do some 
good. At all events we can place those whom we re- 
claim in homes and refuges. They are to be pitied and 
cared for. The rascality of man is cruel, disgraceful, 
and abominable. How many men are there who make 
the destruction of poor unsuspecting girls their study. 
If there be men who are to experience the curse of God, 
it is they." 

One who knew Mr. Moore at this time says of him : 
" It must have boen soon after the Reformatory and 
Refuge Union was established that I first knew George 
Moore. His brusque business-like way of discussing 
the questions which were proposed at the committee 
marked him in my mind as an exceptional character. 
When the introduction merged into an acquaintance, 
and afterwards into a friendship, I was increasingly im- 
pressed by the downright thoroughness with which he 
carried out whatever he put his hand to. No half-and- 
half measure met with his support. Like a sturdy 
blacksmith, he struck with the sledge-hammer of his 
honest opinion, caring little how the sparks of his 
bluntly-expressed views might fall on those around 

" George Moore's desire to be useful in his day and 
generation was greatly strengthened by his pecuniary 
resources. He gave ungrudgingly, but never without 
satisfying himself that it was for a sound and well- 
matured object. Such a plan must have often involved 
him in great trouble ; but if it were more generally 
adopted by other rich philanthropists, it would to a 
great extent prevent much mischievous almsgiving." 

One of George Moore's next objects was to endeavour, 
in conjunction with others, to establish a home for 


Incurables. "The same year," he says, "in which I 
resolved to do some good to my fellow-creatures, I 
visited the hospitals, and found that many patients were 
turned out as Incurable, hospitals being for the cure of 
diseases, and not for the accommodation of those who 
could not be cured. These destitute creatures had no 
prospect before them but starvation or the workhouse. 
To persons brought up in respectability, this was almost 
equal to death. I was glad to join with James Peek in 
assisting Dr. Reed in his project for founding a hospital 
for incurables. I was. made a trustee of the institution. 
As the candidates for election were all visited by the 
committee, I had the opportunity of seeing many cases 
of woeful misery ; men and women who had been well 
brought up, prostrated and broken down by incurable 
diseases ; in many cases starving from want of the 
common necessaries of life ; strangers to everything like 
comfort or luxury ; and with no prospect before them 
but protracted dying and the grave. My dear friend 
Charles Dickens has given a vivid account of these poor 
neglected suffering creatures ; and he has called all 
benevolent spirits to assist in establishing a home for 
the help of the incurables." 1 

The institution was not however established until 
some years later. When Dr. Reed called upon Mr. 
James Peek on behalf of the Asylum for Idiots, the 
latter suggested that the establishment of an asylum 
for incurables would be a noble wind r up to his life ; and 

1 In an article published in Household Words, August 24th, 1850, Mr. 
Dickens says : 

" It is an extraordinary fact that among the innumerable medical chanties 
with which this country abounds there is not one for the help of those who 
of all others most require succour, and who must die, and do die, in th ju- 
sands, unaided. It is indeed a marvellous oversight of benevolence that 
sympathy should have been so long withheld from precis ly the sufFererj 
who most need it. Hopeless pain allied to hopeless poverty is a condition 
of existence not to be thought of without a shudder. It is a slow journey 
through the Valley of the bhadow of Death, from which we save even the 
greatest of criminals." 


he offered five hundred pounds as a beginning. At a 
second visit Mr. Peek offered to double his donation. 
At the same time Mr. Moore was ready, with several 
others, to aid Dr. Reed in his benevolent efforts. A 
small meeting was held in the Egyptian Hall, Mansion 
House, when a few friends of Dr. Reed formed them- 
selves into a committee. Funds were gradually collected, 
and the institution was started. The first home was at 
Carshalton, and the next at Putney House, Upper 
Richmond Road. Every bed was full. The applicants 
for admission continued to increase. Dr. Reed worked 
to his utmost on behalf of the institution, and its success 
at his death crowned the self-sacrificing and philan- 
thropic labours of his life. 

Another institution in which George Moore took a 
special interest, an institution which, in fact, originated 
with himself, was the London General Porters' Bene- 
volent Association. He called the porters of his own 
establishment together and laid the matter before them. 
The object of the institution was to relieve disabled 
porters, and their wives and families in event of their 
death. He said that he had been as much obliged to 
porters during his long commercial life as they had 
been to him. He had never been defrauded by them ; 
they had conscientiously adhered to their trust ; and 
they were well worthy of their reward. They had seen 
many benevolent institutions started for affording relief 
and assistance to necessitous widows and education and 
maintenance to their orphan children. Why should 
they not have a similar institution for the benefit of 
Porters ? Would they help him to establish this institu- 
tion ? Their universal reply was, " Yes ! " 

"Then," said he, "you must immediately set to 
work; you must collect subscriptions; you must invite 
your fellow porters to join you ; and when I see that 
you are in earnest, come to me again, and we shall 


launch the Porters' Benevolent Association at a public 
meeting!" The porters found many persons willing to 
help them merchants, travellers, and porters them- 
selves. The first public meeting was held at the Shaftes- 
bury Hall, Aldersgate Street, on the 9th December, 

1857. Upwards of seven hundred porters were present. 
A committee was elected to frame rules for the govern- 
ment of the Association. 

The Association was fairly launched at a public meet- 
ing held in the London Tavern, on the i6th February, 

1858. George Moore took the chair. He had sum- 
moned all his friends to be present, and there was a 
goodly array of London merchants and warehousemen 
on the platform. About twelve hundred porters were 
present. " A more gratifying scene," says Mr. Moore, 
" I never beheld. I made a speech to my mind, which 
I seldom do. I inaugurated and launched the institu- 
tion to my own satisfaction, and to that of all present. 
I have a great regard for this class of men, and no one 
can know them better than I do, from my long experi- 
ence of their value. We ought to bear one another's 
burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ. I have now 
resolved to work this institution well, and to start no 
other. I think that I have now my work fairly laid 

The resolution " to start no other institution " soon 
broke down. He could not be idle. It was like Sir 
Walter Scott saying, " Kettle, kettle, don't boil ! " The 
kettle will boil, notwithstanding all resolutions to the 
contrary. Mr. Moore did not stop here. His help was 
never wanting where ignorance had to be educated or 
fallen humanity reclaimed. His large heart and liberal 
hand were always ready to help on every good and 
noble work. 

" The riches which God has given me," he says, 
" may, if rightly used, be a blessing to many ; but, if 


otherwise, they may only prove a curse and a snare." 
He did not take so much pleasure in giving as in doing. 
What he gave, he gave with fellow-feeling and sympathy. 
One of his maxims was, " Sympathy is the great secret 
of life." At Kilhow he said, " If the world only knew 
half the happiness that a man has in doing good, he 
would do a great deal more. We are only here for 
a time, and ought to live as we would wish to die." 

George Moore had discovered what many people 
never find out, that man's duty in the world is not 
merely to " get on " without regard for others, or to 
spend his accumulated money on mere selfish gratifica- 
tions ; but to help those who want help, to instruct those 
who want instruction, and to endeavour to lift them up 
into the higher light of civilization and Christianity. 
Every year he wrote the following words in his pocket- 
book. They became ingrained in his soul, and to a 
certain extent, formed his creed : 

" What 1 spent I had : 
What I saved I lost : 
What I gave I have." 



MR. MOORE left amongst his papers many passages 
relating to his religious life. In the early part of his 
history he thought very little about religion. He was 
satisfied to do the work of the time without thinking 
much of the life to come. To him, as to many others, 
the words might be applied, " Rejoice, O young man, 
in thy youth ; and let thy heart cheer thee in the days 
of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thine heart, 
and in the sight of thine eyes ; but know thou, that for 
all these things God will bring thee into judgment." 

The philanthropic efforts in which he had been 
engaged arose for the most part from the promptings 
of a benevolent heart. This was especially the case 
with the Commercial Travellers' Schools, to which he 
devoted so much of his time and attention, and also 
with the Cumberland Benevolent Institution, to which 
he gave his first spare guinea. His life had been one 
of prosperity. He had suffered no great sorrow. The 
societies with which he was connected prospered like 
himself. He had " troops of friends." He was solicited 
to occupy the highest offices. Everything went well 
with him. 

And yet much suffering awaited him. Dear friends 
fell away from him one by one. He began to think of 


the uncertainties of human life, and then he thought of 
the future. 

In 1850, he spent three months at Shap Wells and 
St. Bees. His nervous system was at that time much 
shattered. He said he felt as if his brain were worn 
out. He could not bear the sight of a book or of a 
letter. The very moaning of the ocean oppressed him. 
The pain in his head was intense. Once he could 
sleep at will ; now he could not sleep at all. He was 
greatly depressed in his mind. He thought upon his 
past life, and felt how much better his life might have 
been. The following passages from his papers will 
illustrate this point : 

" I have always been obliged to act from sudden 
impulse, never having had time to think or mature my 
thoughts. I have always been obliged to act as 1 
thought, or my poor brain would have been over- 
whelmed with the variety of subjects I had to deal 

" In looking back upon my past life, I have a great 
deal to deplore and repent of. In my struggling days, 
when I travelled and worked on Sunday and Saturday, 
and sometimes all night, I scarcely ever heard the Word 
of God. I did not understand the scheme of salvation ; 
yet, strange to say, I had a sincere belief in the efficacy 
of prayer. 

" I was a popular traveller, and was much courted 
both by customers and brother travellers. At that 
time of day, the dinner hour was one, and the mis- 
chievous pint of wine was the daily allowance, with 
hot suppers and grog at nights. I often thank God 
that I did not become a drunkard. My temptations 
were very great. All customers that came to see my 
stock of goods were invited to drink, no matter at what 

"During my travelling days I had no time to think. 


At night I tumbled into bed without asking God's 
blessing, and I was generally so tired that I fell asleep 
in a few minutes. 

" It was not until I gave up travelling that I 
regularly went to any church, and then I attended 
the ministry of the Rev. Daniel Moore. For the first 
time I felt my conscience pricked. About this period 
my brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Ray, died suddenly. 
This was a great blo\v. I felt that in the midst of life 
we are in death. But the Spirit of God was not 
in me. I had no peace of conscience. God wrestled 
with me, and sorely afflicted me. When I was at St. 
Bees, in 1850, I gave up all hopes of ever being well 
again, and I then for the first time felt my real 

" It pleased God gradually to restore me to health. 
For a long time afterwards I felt my brain giving way if 
I worked too hard. I never hoped to be able to attend 
to business again. I have always had a great pleasure 
in business ; and felt that it might have shortened my 
days if I gave it up. So, on my recovery I continued 
to take part in my business as before." 

Mr. Moore's next great blow arose through his busi- 
ness connection. He says, " I had no sooner recovered 
my health so as to be able to attend to business than my 
worthy partner Mr. Groucock broke down. His illness 
gave me great concern. His complaint was ossification 
of the artery near the brain. The Rev. J. O. Jackson, 
and afterwards Mr. Bowker, travelled with him ; and 
changes of scene of all sorts were tried both at home 
and abroad, but with no avail. His health gradually 
declined, and he died in 1853." 

Mr. Moore had many religious conversations with" Mr. 
Groucock, whose thoughts had latterly almost entirely 
dwelt on religious subjects. Their mutual friend, Mr. 
Hitchcock, of St. Paul's Churchyard, had taken many 


occasions to speak with Mr. Moore as to the importance 
of not neglecting his soul's interests while occupied 
with the cares of this life and the anxieties of a great 

Mr. Moore says, after one of these interviews, " How 
I long to realise the forgiveness of sins, as promised in the 
words, ' He that spared not His own Son, but delivered 
him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also 
freely give us all things ? ' and ' This is a faithful 
saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus 
came into the world to save sinners.'" His thoughts 
were thus strongly directed to the state of his mind 
and heart. 

Among his most intimate friends, to whom he opened 
up his anxieties and conflict of soul, were the Rev. 
Daniel Moore and Mr. Bowker, of Christ's Hospital. 
He was much helped by both of them. He also had 
letters and conversations on sacred subjects with Mr. 
Moggridge (Old Humphrey). Of the latter he says, 
"How I envied his mind and heart! Yet he lives on 
only a scanty pittance. He called "upon me once when 
I was in a desponding mood. How he comforted 
and supported me! He was one of the most lovable 
old men I ever knew. His mind was as pure as the 

Mr. Moore continued greatly depressed. He suffered 
almost as much as Mr. Groucock had done. He after- 
wards thanked God that he had not been left to die in 
that state of melancholy. Nor did he as yet see his 
way clearly. The world was too much with him. To 
use his own words, " I only enjoyed a moderate share oi 
worldly religion. My works were greater than my faith, 
and I had no peace, and little happiness, save in excite- 
ment. I had never felt any gratitude to God for my 
prosperity, nor for my many worldly blessings." He 
regretted also " his irritable temper, his quickness at 


retort, and his i-nconsiderateness for other people's 
feelings." He desired to throw these things off like 
a garment. His spirit was willing, but his flesh was 

" I trust," he says in another passage, " that I am 
beginning to see and feel the folly and vanity of the 
world and its pleasures. Oh that I could feel that I had 
at length entered the strait gate, and was travelling the 
narrow road that leadeth to eternal life ! As Newton 
says, I know what the world can do and what it cannot 
do. It cannot give or take away that peace of God 
which passeth all understanding. It cannot soothe a 
wounded conscience like mine, nor enable me to feel 
that I could meet death with comfort. I feel a constant 
conflict of conscience with inclination, of the desire to 
do right against the promptings of evil. I feel that I 
am unstable as water poor, weak, and simple. If I 
could realise faith in Jesus, I should be wiser and 
stronger, and abound in grace." 

In this way did George Moore strive and struggle for 
peace to shine on his inner life. He regretted deeply 
that he had never been instructed in the knowledge of 
the Bible in his youth ; and that for many years he had 
paid little attention to religious matters. The only 
thing he realised was the " knowledge of his depraved 
heart." He prayed for the new birth ; he longed to be 
converted ; he hoped for some special signal of his 
change. He expected that after this, he would be no 
longer a prey to doubts, fears, or temptations. He says, 
" I have been earnestly praying for the last two years 
for God to give me some sudden change of heart, but no 
sudden change comes. I read and hear of some whose 
wills are given up to God, and that they have com- 
munion with Him. I do not experience this, and 
sometimes think that it is no use trying or praying." 

Sometimes he could not sleep at night from anxiety, 


but would rise and pray for help from above. He 
vexed himself about difficult and perplexing questions 
of doctrine, such as election and predestination ! He 
invited his friends to tell him what they meant, but he 
could get no insight. " I do not understand the doc- 
trine," he says ; " it is a mystery. But this I know, that 
" Christ died for all men.' " He sometimes thought 
that God had hidden His face from him. He sought 
repentance with tears. God did not appear to answer 
his prayers. " If He hears my prayers," said he, " He 
does not answer them. He has said, ' Come unto Me, 
all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give 
you rest.' But I get no rest no peace of soul. Yet I 
must persevere, for God is the same yesterday, to-day, 
and for ever." 

At length comfort came to him. Light began to dawn 
on his soul. " I am determined," he says, " for the future, 
not to perplex my mind with seeking for some extra- 
ordinary impressions, signs, or tokens of the new birth. 
I believe the Gospel. I love the Lord Jesus Christ. I 
receive with confidence the promise that ' He that 
heareth My word, and believeth on Him that sent Me, 
hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemna- 
tion, but is passed from death unto life.' ' 

And again, " The new birth must be a change of 
mind, from ungodliness to belief in and worship of God, 
through our blessed Mediator. This is expressed in 
the Old Testament by the promise of God : ' A new 
heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put 
within you ; and I will take away the stony heart out of 
your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. * * * 
And cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall 
keep my judgments, and do them * * * ; and ye shall 
be my people, and I will be your God.' " 

Without further analysing his self-revelations, we may 
return to Mr. Moore's works of benevolence and mercy, 


which were, in fact, the actual outcome of his struggling 
faith and his believing soul. He had often thought of 
improvi ^ the spiritual condition of the young men in 
his employment. He remembered the time when he 
himself had served in London, with no one to care for 
him. He had no guidance, no direction, no home in- 
fluences to guard him against evil courses. Provided he 
did his day's work, it was enough ; he might do as he 
liked with the rest of his time. 

It was the same in most warehouses at that period. 
The young men were allowed to take their own course. 
They went to theatres and other night resorts. They 
amused themselves in the evenings as they best could. 
At the premises in Bow Churchyard, the young men 
got up a stage and scenery, and performed plays. 

To raise the character and improve the spiritual con- 
dition of the persons employed by the firm, Mr. Moore 
proposed to establish family worship at a quarter to 
eight every morning. His first difficulty was to obtain 
a suitable room for the purpose, as every portion of 
space in the warehouse was fully occupied. He spoke 
to his partners on the subject ; and though they thought 
it would not -work well, they willingly agreed to every- 
thing that he proposed. At last he resolved to turn 
four or five beds out of a room, and begin family 
worship there. 

It was sometime before there seemed to be any 
prospect of success in the movement. " A failure on 
this subject," says Mr. Moore, " would have been very 
unsatisfactory to all parties concerned. To attempt to 
force young men to be religious would probably have 
had a diametrically opposite effect. I knew that if I 
had asked our old hands to attend, and they had 
refused, it would have placed us mutually in a wrong 
position. I therefore consulted some of those that I 
thought were well disposed, and they readily agreed. 


For some time a good many attended, one of the older 
men doing the duty. The numbers fluctuated. At times 
there were very few ; at other times none at all ; and 
at last the meeting for morning prayers almost expired. 

" As I was determined with God's blessing to con- 
tinue them, and as one of our young men had studied at 
St. Bees for the ministry the Rev. Mr. Richardson l 
and as I had got him a curacy at St. Andrew's, Black- 
friars Road, I engaged him to attend to the morning 
prayers at fifty guineas a year. I now considered it my 
duty to insist upon all the apprentices regularly attend- 
ing family worship." 

The Rev- Mr. Richardson commenced his duties 
as chaplain on the 28th of January, 1856. It was 
announced that he had been one of the young men 
employed on the establishment, as it was supposed that 
this would have less the appearance of interference. 
The attendance was voluntary, with the exception of 
the apprentices. The service was at first commenced in 
a small room, but it was soon found necessary to 
enlarge the accommodation. The service consisted in 
reading the Word of God, with a short exposition, and 
prayers, all within a quarter of an hour. 

That the service was successful, the following petition 
of the employes will show: "The young men who 
habitually attend morning prayer in the establishment 
are desirous to see their numbers increased ; and in 
order to secure this desirable object they beg to suggest 

1 Mr. Richardson says, " My note of introduction to Mr. George Moore, 
in January, 1850, at once secured me an appointment in the establishment 
at Bow Churchyard. When I afterwards left and went to St. Bees, I 
wrote to Mr. Moore in reference to an address made by Mr. Groucock to 
the young men. Mr. Moore replied, ' I am glad to hear from you at St. 
Bees, more particularly as it is to be hoped the Spirit of God has moved 
you to a calling so sacred and responsible. . . I shall with great pleasure 
take upon myself to present you with Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary on the 
Bible, in Mr. Groucock's name.' " The Rev. Mr. Richardson is now vicar 
of St. Benet's in the East. 



most respectfully to the firm that the hour of attendance 
should be altered to eight o'clock, thereby affording an 
opportunity to those who live .out of the house, and 
others who would find it more convenient to attend at 
that time than at a quarter to eight." 

The privilege was at once conceded by the partners. 
The attendance rapidly increased. The young men 
began to take a special interest in the undertaking. 
Many of them helped Mr. Richardson in his Ragged 
and Sunday-schools. A young men's mutual improve- 
ment society was started, as well as a Sunday-morning 
Bible-class. The moral atmosphere of the place im- 
proved, and yet Mr. Moore was not satisfied. " I may 
here acknowledge," he says, in 1857, "that notwith- 
standing all my anxiety to benefit them, I do not appear 
to be able to do all the good that other people do. I 
suppose it is a false delicacy on my part, perhaps a 
want of moral courage. Yet, when I take the chair at 
a lecture, which takes place as often as they like, I 
generally take the opportunity of urging the young men 
to pursue a godly, moral, and straightforward course in 
life ; and they invariably receive my advice and admo- 
nitions with the greatest kindness." 

Besides the young men of the house, there were the 
young women to be attended to. Mr. Moore had 
great difficulty in getting them to attend family wor- 
ship ; but with the same perseverance, he induced them 
to attend Mr. Richardson's service. He also got the 
City Missionary whom he had by this time appointed, 
to conduct family worship to the workwomen in Milton 
Street. Notwithstanding all his efforts, Mr. Moore 
says : " I am ill at ease with what I have done. I have 
fallen far short of my endeavours. I feel the great 
responsibility that rests upon me. I wish them all to 
feel that they have souls to be saved. We have great 
mutual respect one for another. I always recollect that 


I was a young man myself, and I might have been a 
servant yet, but for God's help." 

Referring afterwards to the progress made in the 
attendance at family worship at Bow Churchyard, he 
says, " The chaplain now reports most favourably of the 
large attendance abprayers. He says that the seed he 
is sowing will in due time produce good fruits. I 
find that I have not got on so well with the young 
women at our house in St. Andrew's Hill. Although 
I have made many vigorous efforts to increase the 
number of attendants, I must still persevere. If I 
cannot drive them, I will do all in my power to lead 

" I can say without egotism that all the people in our 
employ are perhaps better cared for in these respects, 
than in any other establishment. There is a mutual 
regard between the employers and the employed, which, 
I think, is an example to the commercial world. We 
seldom have a case of dishonesty or drunkenness. They 
all attend places of worship, and I believe that a high 
tone of morality prevails throughout the house." 

At the same time that Mr. Moore was attending to 
the spiritual improvement of the young men and women 
in his employment in London, he was deeply impressed 
with the idea of raising the spiritual standard of his 
native county-people in Cumberland. Besides the schools 
which he had built, and the competitive examinations 
which he had provided for the benefit of the rising 
generation, he felt that much had yet to be done for the 
elevation of the adult population. As far back as 1850 
he had thought and felt much about the ignorance pre- 
vailing in the districts near which he was born. Many 
of the inhabitants never went to church, and the clergy- 
men were seldom seen within their doors. Pastoral 
duty was almost unknown. There were some excep- 
tions, especially where the clergymen had been appointed 

N 2 


during recent years ; but as several of the parishes had 
non-resident rectors, there were few to whom the parish- 
ioners could turn for spiritual help. Much had been done 
to awaken an interest in religion by Sir Wilfrid Lawson 
of Brayton, who had organised evangelistic services in 
his own neighbourhood. 

Mr. Moore resolved at his own expense to appoint 
a lay missionary for his native village of Mealsgate. 
The County-town's Mission found an excellent man for 
his purpose in John Heritage. George Moore thus 
speaks of him and his labours : 

" The people were so ignorant that it was to be ex- 
pected he would meet with many rebuffs and even insults ; 
but he was armed with the power of the Holy Spirit, and 
visited them house by house. Had the people 'known 
that I had been the means of sending him, they would 
have abused me as they did him. Many wondered who 
had sent him, and for a long time they believed that he 
had come to get money out of them. At first no one 
showed the poor man any sympathy except my brother. 
Indeed he had not the countenance or support of a single 
individual of standing. But in spite of many discourage- 
ments, he laboured away faithfully, zealously, and honestly, 
and some seeds that have been sown will doubtless bear 
fruit. It filled my heart with gratitude to God to see 
the Sunday-school at Quarryhill filled with children. In 
the case of many of them, this was the only education 
they received. Until this good man went amongst them, 
they had never heard of a Saviour's name. Who can 
tell the good that these poor children may do to their 
ignorant parents ? I have always thought that a child 
with knowledge is the best of missionaries in a poor 
man's home. 

" I was so much pleased at the success attending the 
first missionary, that I next thought of Wigton, where I 
had served my apprenticeship. The place was then in 


a dark state. I asked help and advice from friends in 
Carlisle, but they gave me little encouragement. My 
partner, Mr. Groucock, had just died and left the Town 
Mission Society $oo. They therefore made me a grant 
of 20 for three years ; and with some further help from 
Cumberland men residing in London I got another 
missionary appointed. 

" Emboldened by this success, I held a meeting of 
three or four friends in Carlisle, and proposed that we 
should establish a Scripture Reader in every market 
town in the county. They thought I had gone mad ; 
especially after hearing of the difficulties I had encoun- 
tered at Mealsgate and Wigton. Some promises of help 
were made at that meeting, but they were never fulfilled. 
Still my motto, then and always, has been ' Never 
despair.' I got the County-town's Mission to promise 
me 20 the first year, provided I could get four more 
missions established in as many places. The first kind 
friend who came forward to my help was Thomas Scott 
of Brent House, Penrith. The next was Mr. Wilson of 
Broughton Grange, who in like manner promised to raise 
the means for establishing a missionary at Maryport 
and the collieries in the neighbourhood. The next was 
Mr. Fisher of Woodhall, for Cockermouth. And the last 
was Mr. Wilson, who promised the means for establish- 
ing a missionary at Whitehaven. My friend John Grey 
also established a Scripture Reader at Workington. 

" Some time after, Peter James Dixon established a 
missionary at Longtown. Thus we went forward until 
I had got eight men at work. The Hesket Caldbeck 
mining district was next thought of, and through the help 
of Mr. Howard of Greystoke Castle, a missionary was 
appointed. The excellent Bishop of Carlisle, Montague 
Villiers, gave me his cordial sympathy and help. 

" I must acknowledge," says Mr. Moore, " that God 
raised up men to assist me in a marvellous manner I 


never saw the direct working of God so manifest in any 
work I ever undertook ; and I never knew a mission 
more blessed in its result. The great point is to get the 
right men in the right places, for unless a Scripture 
Reader is steeled with the Spirit of God, he can be of 
little use in his sacred calling. I have always kept them 
well supplied with Mr. Ryle's and other tracts, and 
monthly periodicals. I sent as many as twenty pounds' 
worth of tracts at a time. I had the Band of Hope 
Almanacs framed, and given to poor people, conditional 
on their putting them up in place of the filthy and abomin- 
able prints which hung about their rooms. Each mission 
was supplied with a good library. The books were lent 
very largely, and were instrumental in doing a great 
deal of good." 

Again, he says, with reference to the opposition which 
he encountered " I am bound to say, although I do it 
with sincere and heartfelt regret, that in establishing 
these missionaries they were in many instances strenu- 
ously opposed by the clergy. This was to me incom- 
prehensible. In business we like to get men to do our 
work well. If we be servants, we like to see our master's 
work done well. Is not expounding the Word and 
prayer doing the work of our Master ; and why should 
not clergymen help Christ's servants in doing this work ? 
I believe in my conscience that missionary work is the 
best way of getting at the poor, the degraded, the out- 
cast, and the drunkard. The missionary easily gets at 
the people, face to face. The clergyman often only 
preaches to them. He is not able to elicit their opinions, 
or to get at their hearts. It is a melancholy fact, but 
true, that the poor in this country are not a Church-going 

To return to Mr. Moore's personal affairs. Though 
his house in Kensington Palace Gardens was finished and 
occupied, it took a long time to furnish it properly. At 


this time Mrs. Moore who had been long ailing, was 
now very ill. She suffered greatly during her journey 
from Shap Wells to London. She then took to bed, and 
remained there for many months. 

" Her dreams of happiness in her new house," says 
Mr. Moore, "have been sadly marred by her severe 
affliction. The great anxiety she went through during 
its building and furnishing have not been repaid ; she 
has ceased to enjoy these splendid rooms. Now it 
appears like a wilderness. During my melancholy fore- 
bodings of God's providence to us, I wonder what is 
ordained for the future. What a blessing it is that the 
future is unknown to us poor mortals ! . . . I have never 
seen the use of hoarding up money. We may gather 
riches, but can never know who is to spend them. God 
preserve me against the sin of covetousness. It is a 
curse that eats out the heart and dries up the soul of a 

Everything was done for the restoration of Mrs. 
Moore's health. The best physicians and surgeons were 
called in and consulted. They declared her to be 
seriously ill. The anguish of her husband cannot be 
described. He had served for her twice the length of 
time that Jacob had served for Rachel, and now the 
great sorrow of the world was to come upon him. She 
was to be taken away, and he was to be left desolate. 
Mr. Moore says : 

" A few days after Sir Benjamin Brodie's opinion of 
the helplessness of her state, my dear wife began to 
settle her worldly affairs. She gave away all her jewellery 
as keepsakes to her valued friends. Their letters of 
thanks nearly broke my heart. She gave away every 
article of her dress. She gave me a list of poor pen- 
sioners that are to have quarterly allowances so long as 
they live. She dictated and signed twenty letters that 
are to be sent to some of my valued friends, with a copy 


of my portrait. 1 She wrote down the names of friends 
that are to receive a letter after she is gone to her rest. 
She arranged the mourning and presents for our servants. 
She had the names written down of the gentlemen who 
are to attend her funeral. She left a book full ot memo- 
randa to be carried out after her death. In fact, it is 
more difficult to say what she has not arranged, than 
what she has. One thing, however, she has not told 
me, but it is written down for my guidance. It is that 
I must place her remains where I wish my own to be 
placed ; as it is her earnest wish that we should lie 

It so happened that Mr. Moore had just completed 
the purchase of the Whitehall Estate in Cumberland. 
It occupies the greater part of the parish of Allhallows, 
Mealsgate, where Mr. Moore was born, is very near the 
parish church. He had long desired to buy the estate, 
and so soon as it was offered for sale, he purchased it. 
He had now the place he most desired to possess in 
Cumberland. Amongst other pleasant things in pros- 
pect, he wished it to be the summer residence of his 
wife ; but, alas ! it was now to be her tomb. A private 
mausoleum in Allhallows Church belonged to the 
estate ; and there the burial-place was prepared. 
. Mrs. Moore died on the 4th December, 1858. Her 
remains were conveyed to Cumberland. On arrival at 

1 This is Mrs. Moore's last letter : " DEAR SIR, Some time ago a 
number of gentlemen formed themselves into a committee and subscribed 
a large sum, unknown to Mr. Moore, for the purpose of having his minia- 
ture taken by the distinguished Cumberland artist Carrick, and presenting 
it to me. It was very much against Mr. Moore's wishes, but having been 
urgently solicited by myself and by the subscribers, he at last reluctantly con- 
sented. The subscribers afterwards kindly presented me with several im- 
pressions, and knowing the respect you bear to my husband, I have great 
pleasure in presenting you with his portrait. With kind regards, believe 

"Dear Sir, yours truly, 

"E. F. MOORK. 


Carlisle, Mr. Moore slept in the Station Hotel. It 
seemed strange to him, that while in his comfortable 
bed, his dead wife should be laying cold in the railway 
truck outside, within sight of the hotel windows. The 
funeral party set out on the following morning, and 
arrived at Leegate Station on the nth December. 

When the body was lowered into its place at All- 
hallows churchyard, Mr. Moore fairly broke down. 
" The thought struck me," he afterwards said, " that my 
poor corruptible body would be the next to lie in the 
same place ; and I ejaculated a prayer that our spirits 
might be again found in the region of bliss, where the 
wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest." 

Mrs. Moore was long remembered in the neighbour- 
hood by those who had experienced the blessings of her 
bounty. She used to say that she took more pleasure 
in administering to the wants of the poor than in visiting 
the affluent and the wealthy. A splendid monument 
was afterwards erected by Mr. Moore to her memory at 
Wigton, in the shape of a memorial fountain. Mr. 
Woolner was the sculptor, and Mr. Knowles the archi- 
tect. The general design is that of an obelisk, imposed 
upon a massive pedestal of polished granite. The height 
of the whole is about thirty-two feet. The four bas- 
reliefs, executed by Mr. Woolner, are in his finest style. 
They are inscribed on each side of the square block of 
granite, eight tons in weight, forming the die of the 
pedestal. The subjects are, Feeding the Hungry, 
Clothing the Naked, Comforting the Afflicted, and In- 
structing the Ignorant, The water fountain which 
forms part of the monument, is skilfully worked into 
the design. The architecture of the memorial almost 
puts to shame the humble shops and dwellings by which 
it is surrounded. It is situated at the end of the street 
in which Messenger's shop is situated, where George 
Moore served his apprenticeship. 


In the month following Mrs. Moore's death, Mr. Moore 
presented an organ to the parish church of Wigton. It 
was opened on the 26th of January by the organist of 
Carlisle Cathedral. The full cathedral choir assisted on 
the occasion. The Bishop of Carlisle preached in the 
morning, and the Rev. Mr. Simpson of Carlisle in the 
evening. The shops and places of business were closed 
as a compliment to Mr. Moore, and the church was 
crowded at both services. The organ bears the follow- 
ing inscription : 

" In gratitude to Almighty God, and in remembrance 
of early days, this organ is presented to the parish 
church of Wigton (the town where he served his ap- 
prenticeship) by George Moore, A.D, 1859." 



GEORGE MOORE had lost what was dearest to him on 
earth. He had lost her who had been his helper in 
youth and his companion in riper years, who had 
watched over his success and enjoyed his prosperity. 
His first thought was, that he was left solitary and 
alone in the world. He felt as if he could have no 
further joy in life. He prayed for spiritual help and 
spiritual comfort. A fortnight after Mrs. Moore's death 
he writes in his diary : " I feel that God's grace is 
giving me more power daily to sustain my drooping 
Spirits. I do not wish to refrain from sorrow, or hide 
realities from myself. I do not wish tribulation to 
work insensibility, but I want patience and patience 
not forgetfulness, but experience not unconcern, 
but hope." 

His old malady, sleeplessness, came back. He got 
up in the morning between four and five, lit his own 
fire (not wishing to disturb the servants), and read and 
wrote. This threatened again to injure his health. His 
medical advisers ordered him to leave home and busi- 
ness for a time, and take recreation in a foreign tour- 
At length he determined to visit Italy in company 
with Alderman Sidney and young Mr. Copestake. 
The last thing he did before leaving London was to 


visit the Royal Free Hospital, in Gray's Inn Lane. 
He was then the chairman of the board of manage- 

The party started on the 3Oth of December, and 
reached Paris on the following day. . . " I could have 
wept," says Mr. Moore, " at my lonely position." But 
time works wonders. New sights and new scenes, day 
by day, occupied his attention. At Lyons, he called 
upon Mr. Milsom, silk merchant, a gentleman who had 
for many years devoted himself to the maintenance of 
the Vaudois churches, more particularly those situated 
in the high Alps of Dauphiny. After an interesting 
conversation with Mr. Milsom, during which Mr. Moore 
gave him some help for the poor Vaudois, the party left 
for Avignon, Aries, and Marseilles, where they first saw 
the Mediterranean, sleeping under its deep blue sky. 
Touching at Cannes, Mr. Moore called upon his old 
friend Lord Brougham, who gave him a hearty wel- 
come. Lord Brougham riveted him by his conver- 
sation for an hour ; asked about the progress of the 
competitive examinations at one of which he had 
delivered the prizes and sent him off full of en- 

At Nice he visited Count Guichiardini, who explained 
to him the improvements which he had made in the read- 
ing of the Scriptures at Florence, and the great progress 
which Italian Protestantism was making throughout 
Italy. Mr. Moore afterwards called upon his customers 
at Nice, and found them " a seedy lot." By way of 
Spezzia and Carrara, he reached Florence, and there 
he had " a delightful conversation " with the Rev. W. 
Gordon as to the progress of the Italian and Vaudois 

The party reached Siena. There they heard that 
the brigands were out. Tb^y had attempted a robbery 
during the previous n : g' t. " \Ve may thank our stars," 


says Mr. Moore, " that we have escaped. We started 
early and ascended a steep hill. At the top we had 
a splendid view. Shortly after descending the hill on 
the other side, we entered the Campagna of Rome. 
When we first saw St. Peter's we gave three cheers. 
We reached the long-wished-for Rome late in the 

Rome is a city past description. The very word of 
Rome is a mighty name. What processions of nations 
it has seen ! Consuls, emperors, and popes have 
governed it. Generation after generation have left 
their marks there triumphal arches, palaces, baths, 
forums, theatres, and above all the Coliseum. " I was 
quite amazed, bewildered, and astonished with Rome," 
says Mr. Moore, " it is an almost incredible city. I 
was reminded of the early apostolic times. In one 
place I saw where St. Paul's hand had been chopped 
off; in another where he had been suspended and 
tortured, head downwards ; and in another where his 
body lay." 

" Ah ! little thought I, when in school I sat, 
A schoolboy on his bench at early dawn, 
Glowing with Roman story, I should live 
To tread the Appian. . . or to turn 
Tow'rds Tiber. . . or to climb the Palatine." 

So says Rogers. Mr. Moore was wholly absorbed 
by the sight of the Roman remains. He had the 
honour of being accompanied through the city by 
Monseigneur Howard, one of the handsomest and 
courtliest of men. He pointed out the most wonder- 
ful things in Rome, and gave him an entree to the 
best society. Mr. Moore visited the Pope's gardens; 
ascended the dome of St. Peter's; attended St. Peter's 
at the Festival of the Purification of the Virgin ; saw 
High Mass at the Church of the Jesuits, when all the 
Cardinals in Rome were present; witnessed the Car- 


nival ; saw St. Peter's and the Vatican by torchlight, 
and the Coliseum by moonlight the Coliseum, the 
monarch of all views, desolate within, but glorious 

The tour included a journey to Naples by the Pon- 
tine Marshes, the ascent of Mount Vesuvius, a visit 
to Pompeii and Herculaneum, and a voyage to Capri. 
After returning to Rome the party separated. Mr. 
Moore set sail for Marseilles and arrived in London 
on the 2$th of March, having been absent for about 
three months. His health was greatly improved, and 
he was again ready for work. 

On his return to London George Moore found two 
letters and a telegram inviting him to stand for Notting- 
ham. Mr. Walter intended to retire and offer himself 
for Berks. The Liberal electors of Nottingham ac- 
cordingly met to arrange for their next representative. 
Four gentlemen were put to the meeting, and on a 
show of hands being taken for each, the choice fell 
upon George Moore. His name was again put to the 
meeting, and he was unanimously selected. On the 
message reaching him, he was greatly disconcerted. 
He had many other things to attend to, which had been 
neglected during his absence. We give his own words : 

" I am sorely perplexed about Nottingham. Every 
one urges me to accept it. If I am to be a member 
of Parliament, this appears to be the time and the 
opportunity. But I feel that my abilities are not 
equal to the task. My education is deficient." At 
length he enters these words : " I decline standing 
for Nottingham, though I am almost certain of being 
returned. My objections are : 

" i. That my education is not equal to the position ; 
and I have a great dislike of public speaking. 

" 2. That I can do much more good in other ways 
than by representing Nottingham in Parliament 


"3. That it would keep me more and more from 
serving God and reading my Bible." 

In his letter to the Nottingham committee he advised 
them to decide upon electing Mr. Samuel Morley. On 
the day after his refusal he enters in his diary, " I have 
been severely condemned to-day about Nottingham. 
Certainly such a chance will never occur again. But I 
have a higher motive than mere ambition. Worldly 
honours are golden fetters for the soul." 

Mr. Moore returned to his labours of love. He was 
at this time Treasurer to the Cumberland Benevolent 
Society, Treasurer to the Commercial Travellers' Schools, 
Trustee to the Warehousemen's and Clerks' Schools, 
Trustee to the Cord wain ers' and Bread Street Ward 
Schools, Trustee to Nicholson's Charity, Governor and 
Almoner of Christ's Hospital, Trustee to the Penny 
Bank in Milton Street, Chairman and Trustee of the 
Young Men's Christian Association in Marlborough 
Street, Chairman of the General Committee of the 
Royal Free Hospital, Trustee of the Metropolitan 
Commercial Travellers' and Warehousemen's Associa- 
tion, Member of the Board of Management of the 
Royal Hospital for Incurables, Trustee of St. Mat- 
thew's Church, St. George's in the East ; and also 
trustee or chairman of the various institutions in 
Cumberland to which we have already referred. 

On the same day in which Mr. Moore declined to 
stand for Nottingham, he attended a dinner of the 
Royal Hospital for Incurables, an institution in which 
he had taken a great interest. His position as member 
of the board was not without some disagreeable re- 
sults. On the 3Oth of July, 1859, he writes in his 
diary, "I attended a meeting of the board, and pre- 
vented a quarrel about the proposed site for the 
building." The site was afterwards a source of great 
discord. The founder of the institution desired that 


the permanent building should be erected at Coulsden, 
on the side of a bleak hill. Mr. Moore went to see 
the place, and was not at all satisfied with it It was 
not, he thought, fitted for the residence of incurable 

He also found that the estate was without water. He 
sent his private secretary to the place to bring him two 
bottles of water, one from the valley underneath the 
estate, and another from the opposite hill, for the pur- 
pose of being analysed. The result of his inquiries 
was, that Coulsden was not the site for an hospital for 
incurables. He stated his opinion without reserve at 
the board. A majority of the directors were of the 
same opinion. The minority determined to appeal to 
the subscribers ; and a meeting was held at the London 
Tavern for determining the site. The following is from 
Mr. Moore's diary : 

" A most exciting meeting at the London Tavern. 
The room was packed with two hundred ten-and- 
sixpenny votes, just purchased. They swamped the 
majority of the board. They will now build at 
Coulsden. 1 As I have conscientious objections to 
that place, I retired from the Royal Hospital." 

Mr. James Peek, Lord Raynham, and others left 
with him. They were not, however, disposed to relax 
in their efforts to provide a permanent home for the 
incurables. They took immediate steps to raise another 
home, for which there was abundant room. After can- 
vassing their friends for subscriptions, they held a meet- 
ing at the Mansion House. The following is again from 
Moore's diary, 2oth July, 1861 : 

" I have exercised the talent God has given me at the 

1 After all, the Royal Home was not built at Coulsden. After Dr. 
Reed's death, Melrose Hall, Putney Heath, was purchased, and has since 
been largely extended. It is a most valuable institution. At his death 
Mr. Moore left it a legacy of two thousand pounds, and the directors have 
set apart a portion of the building as " George Moore's Ward." 


Mansion House to-day. I made a forcible speech in 
seconding a resolution to form the British Home for 
Incurables. I felt in earnest, and God gave me words. 
I hope He will prosper this undertaking." 

A large sum of money was collected, and numerous 
annual subscribers were obtained. The British Home 
for Incurables was then started at Clapham Rise. Mr. 
Moore was appointed treasurer. Mr. Peek says of his 
efforts : " He took a very active part in the institution, 
and adhered firmly to it to the end of his days, lending 
both his purse and his personal efforts to its success." 
Thus two homes for incurables were established, both 
of which continue to help the sick and unfortunate, and 
to extend the blessings of mercy and charity to those 
who cannot in any respect help themselves. 1 

Mr. Moore was fully occupied with many other things 
after his return from the Continent. He worked for 
others more than for himself. He rose early, and after 
a ride on his favourite horse Zouave, he frequently went 
to Bow Churchyard to join his young men at family 
worship. It did his heart good, he often says, to see 
the numbers that were present. The young people 
were cheered by his attendance. They saw that he was 
in earnest. In the forenoon he had his business to 
attend to, letters to write, and orders to give. But he 
was often drawn away from his business by other things. 
His partners, he often says, were the best of men, and 

1 The secretary to the institution informs us that the British Home for 
Incurables has been a great success. " Since November, 1861, there have 
been elected to the benefit of the Home 124 in-patients ; and 270 pensioners 
of 20 a year have also been elected. I remember on one occasion, a few 
years ago, when Mr. Moore was in Cumberland, I wrote to him asking 
him to accept the office of steward at the festival dinner. By return of 
post I received one of his characteristically concise notes, which usually 
came to the point at once, saying that if I would persuade nine other 
gentlemen to give a hundred pounds, he would give the tenth. I am happy 
to say that the work was accomplished, though without such an incentive I 
should never have got together in the short space of six weeks so large a 
sum from so limited a number of gentlemen," 



never interfered with his doings. He could easily add 
an hour or two to his day's work. 

Whether in town or country, whether in sorrow or in 
joy, he was perpetually at work. When a society or 
institution was getting short of funds, the promoters 
endeavoured to enlist him. He was not so much inter- 
ested in the affairs of the institutions that were thriving, 
as about the institutions that were failing and going 
down for want of funds. Everybody concerned in 
charitable institutions in London knew that Mr. Moore 
was one of the most indefatigable of beggars. 

Yes, a great deal of the charitable work of London 
is done by begging. The bulk of men are so busily 
engaged in money-making that they have no time to 
think of anything or anybody else. They enter the 
City in the morning ; they are engaged in business all 
day ; and they leave it in the evening for their pleasant 
home in the country, little thinking of the wretched, 
forlorn, neglected thousands, who suffer tke blackest 
bitterness of poverty in the richest city in the world. 

For nearly twenty years of his life, George Moore, 
went round amongst his friends, and amongst many 
who were not his friends, and implored them for money 
on behalf of the charitable institutions of London. 
With his friends he was often very abrupt. When he 
entered their offices they knew what he was about. 
They saw it in his face. " What is it now, Mr. Moore?" 
" Well, I am on a begging expedition." " Oh, I know 
that very well. What is it?" "It's for the Royal 
Free Hospital an hospital free to all, without any 
letters of recommendation. I want twenty guineas." 
" It's a large sum." Well, it's the sum I have set down 
for you to give. You must help me. Look sharp!" 
The cheque was got, and away he started on a fresh 

But he often visited those who were not his friends, 


men rolling in wealth, but who had never subscribed a 
farthing to any charitable institution men of a single 
idea, Money, and how to make the most of it, men 
bound up in selfishness and utterly regardless of the 
misery of their fellow-creatures. On such occasions 
George Moore was met with rebuff after rebuff. This 
sickened him for the day ; and he went home tired of 
his work. But he returned to his begging next day, 
until he had made up the sum that he wanted. " I 
must not be discouraged," he' said ; " I am doing Christ's 

The Royal Free Hospital, to which attention has been 
called, was founded in this way. In the winter of 1827 
a wretched girl, under eighteen years of age, was seen 
lying on the steps of St. Andrew's Churchyard, Holborn 
Hill, after midnight, actually perishing from disease and 
famine. All the hospitals were closed against her, 
because at that time letters of recommendation were 
required before patients could be admitted to the public 
hospitals, and then only on certain specified days. The 
girl died two days after, unrecognised by any human 
being. This distressing event being witnessed by the 
late Mr. W. Marsden, surgeon, he at once set about 
founding a medical charity, in which destitution and 
disease should alone be the passport for obtaining free 
and instant relief. On this principle the Free Hospital 
was established in 1828. Look at me: I am sick, 1 
am poor, I am helpless, I am forlorn ! Such were the 
patient's credentials. 

When the cholera broke out in 1832, the Free 
Hospital threw open its doors to all persons afflicted 
with that dreadful malady, notwithstanding that the 
other hospitals had closed their doors against them. Her 
Majesty the Queen became its patron, and commanded 
that in future it should be called the Royal Free 
Hospital. It struggled on from year to year. It had 

O 2 


great difficulties to contend with, the greatest of which 
was its want of funds. It was in this state when George 
Moore took it up. 

" I joined it," he says, "at the urgent request of my 
late dear friend Dr. Rice of Christ's Hospital, simply 
because it was in difficulties. I have continued to stick 
to it because it is free to all who are poor and destitute, 
without any order of admittance. I am sure that this 
hospital is less abused than any other in London, as 
every applicant undergoes a strict ordeal of inquiry into 
his circumstances and position ; whereas at other hos- 
pitals the orders from governors get sadly abused, and 
many people who are able to pay get their medical 
attendance for nothing ; the tendency of this arrange- 
ment being to pauperise the population. 

" The Royal Free has struggled hard, and yet has 
done immense good. On Christmas Day, 1856, I 
resolved, after going over it, to raise a thousand guineas 
for the hospital on the following conditions : That I 
would give a hundred guineas, and my partner, Mr. 
Copestake, another, provided the committee would find 
the remainder. The proposition failed. The committee 
could not find the eight hundred guineas. I then deter- 
mined in June that I would raise the money myself. I 
made my subscription two hundred, and I personally 
begged for the remainder. With Mr. Copestake's sub- 
scription, it made eleven hundred guineas. I have often 
said that faith without works is dead. If the Royal 
Free is to remain ready with eight beds unoccupied for 
want of funds, it is an everlasting disgrace to this 
wealthy London. I cannot conceive any excuse that 
the most niggardly miser can have for not giving his 
money to an hospital like this." 

This, however, was only the beginning of Mr. Moore's 
work for the hospital. It was the last institution that 
he had visited before setting out for the Continent. It 


was one of the first that he took up on his return. A 
few days after, he took the chair at the quarterly 
meeting. He writes in his diary on the i8th April, 
1859, " Had a hard day's begging for the Royal Free 
Hospital, with Mr. Nicholson " (the secretary). In the 
following May, Lord Carlisle, at his request, took the 
chair at the annual dinner, when a large sum was 
obtained. He induced the Fishmongers' Company to 
vote a grant of a hundred pounds, and ten pounds 
annually to the hospital. Indeed the Fishmongers' 
Company bled very considerably in support of the 
charities with which Mr. Moore was connected during 
the time that he was on the court. 

To pass on to the close of Mr. Moore's connection 
with the hospital. In 1863 he resolved that the free- 
hold of the land should be purchased; for the large 
ground rent, as well as the interest on the mortgage, 
were a heavy annual charge upon the funds. A special 
appeal was made, and George Moore set \o work to 
beg the requisite money. In working for the purchase, 
he used to say that he wore off the soles of a pair of 
boots. On the /th of April he says, " I am persevering 
to get the money to buy the freehold of the Royal 
Free. Morrisons have sent me a hundred pounds. If 
I did not think it Christ's work, I should not submit to 
the unpleasant duty of begging." And again, on the 
I /th, he says, " Had a long day canvassing for money 
for the Royal Free. I think that few men would take 
the trouble and unpleasant office of begging money 
that I do." On the 24th he says, " Canvassed the 
west-end bankers for the Royal Free. I am worrying 
myself every day about it." On the 1st of May he 
says, " I have collected myself ^"4,300 for buying the 
freehold of the hospital, and obtained about four hun- 
dred annual subscribers." On the 6th of May Charles 
Dickens took the chair, when the result of the appeal 


was made known, and an additional large subscription 
was obtained. After this the Royal Free Hospital got 
into comparatively easy circumstances, and it is now 
one of the most valuable institutions in the metropolis. 1 
Mr. Moore's usual practice in helping any insti- 
tution that was in difficulties, was to set out with his 
own liberal subscription, and then to ask others to give 
the same amount ; or he would offer a subscription 
towards raising a certain sum, provided the remaining 
subscriptions could be obtained from others. For in- 
stance, when he heard that the British Orphan Asylum 
was languishing, and that there were fifty or sixty 
orphan children wanting admission of whom the 
governors could only elect four he wrote to an ener- 
getic friend on the committee, proposing to give a 
hundred guineas, provided nine others would do the 
same. The members were thus roused to exertion. 
They did not like to lose Mr. Moore's offer, and they 
set to work to raise the remaining sum. At the end 
of four months Mr. Moore's energetic friend called upon 
him with his list made up. "Thus," he says, "by 
making a hard bargain, a thousand guineas was raised 
for the institution." 

1 In the report of the hospital for 1877 it is stated : " In the year 1863, 
mainly through the zealous exertions and personal influence of the late 
George Moore, Esq. (then chairman of the committee), the freehold of the 
hospital was purchased from the Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe, at a cost, 
inclusive of incidental charges, of .5,265 los. yd., the whole of which sum 
having been raised by a special appeal, the property of the hospital, dis- 
encumbered of interest on mortgage, and of annual rental, was vested in 
trustees. " In another passage, the following words occur : ' ' Mr. Moore 
for many years filled the office of chairman of the general committee, and 
he was an active member of the committee and of the weekly board, as 
well as one of the trustees of the hospital. It was whilst filling the office 
of chairman of the committee, in 1863, that Mr. Moore suggested the 
expediency of raising funds for the purchase of the freehold of the hospital ; 
and, as many of the governors of the hospital are aware, it was mainly 
owing to his zealous exertions and personal influence that this important 
work was accomplished. Mr. Moore's liberality towards the charity did 
not cease with his life ; for he bequeathed a legacy of ^3 ooo to the hospital, 
which is directed by his will to be applied in some way that may yield a 
permanent benefit to the institution." 


In this way he induced others to take part in his 
begging for money. There were, however, many cases 
in which he alone could do the work. For instance, the 
London Porters' Benevolent Institution had for the most 
part originated through his influence ; and after he had 
taken the chair at the London Tavern to inaugurate it, 
he felt bound in honour to see it established, and free 
from its difficulties. Thus we find him, shortly after his 
return from the Continent, canvassing the large houses 
for the Porters' Benevolent Association. He got about 
600. A few days later he says, " I canvassed the 
city for the Porters' Benevolent Association. Got Mr. 
Walker and Mr. Morley to finish the wholesale houses;" 
and two days afterwards, he adds, " I concluded the 
canvass for the porters." 

Mr. Moore also took a great interest in the Ware- 
housemen's and Clerks' Schools. In fact, this insti- 
tution, like the Porters' Benevolent, was started in his 
warehouse. The subject was mooted by Mr. Richard 
White as early as December, 1853. His object was to 
have a school for the orphan children of the warehouse- 
men and clerks, such as the Commercial Travellers had 
at Pinner. Mr. White enlisted the sympathies of the 
young men in the house, and the influence thus created 
extended to the other houses in the city. Funds were 
gradually collected. Some of the wholesale houses 
gave handsome subscriptions. Mr. White was made 
deputy-chairman of the board. In 1854 six children 
were selected for maintenance and education. The 
number gradually increased as the funds increased, until 
now it supports about 250 children yearly. 

Although Mr. Moore helped the institution liberally, 
and cheered it on through every difficulty, when he 
found that it had got into safe hands into those of Mr. 
Leaf and Mr. Morley he abstained from the active 
r.:anagement of its affairs. He let well alone. He 


visited and examined the schools. He attended the 
private and public meetings of the institution, and 
helped in it in all ways, by speeches and contributions. 
On the 3<Dth November, 1859, he enters in his diary, "I 
attended the Warehousemen's and Clerks' Schools for 
five and a half hours. Made a speech which prevented 
me from sleeping. The money announced for the 
building is 6,000. He refused to take the chair at 
one of the annual dinners, " because," he said, " if I 
accept the invitation, I shall be called upon to take the 
chair at all sorts of charitable institutions. I am not fit 
to undergo the speaking, or to endure the sleepless 
nights that follow the dinners." 

Of all the orphan schools with which he was con- 
nected, the Commercial Travellers' was his first love, as 
it continued to be his last. Whenever he had an after- 
noon to spare, he went down to Pinner to visit the boys 
and girls. He took with him many distinguished friends : 
the Bishops of Carlisle, Durham, Ripon, and London, 
amongst others. Charles Dickens took great interest in 
them. He was twice the chairman of the anniversary 
dinners once in 1853, and again in 1859.* Mr. Dickens 
was an excellent chairman. His speeches were graphic 
and eloquent, and they were always well reported. This 
tended to give a considerable impetus to the institution. 
All the influences which Mr. Moore could exercise were 
employed for the benefit of the Commercial Travellers' 

1 On this occasion Mr. Moore sent out four hundred letters, signed by 
himself, urging his friends to attend and support the institution by their 
subscriptions. The following is Mr. Dickens's letter in answer to Mr. 
Moore's invitation to take the chair: " MY DEAR MR. MOORE, My 
public engagements are so numerous, and I am so much occupied, that I 
believe nothing less than your note would have induced me to undertake a 
chairmanship. But I have a great respect for you, and I know what a good 
and well-ordered society that is in whose behalf you exert yourself. So I 
am at its (and your) disposal for the next dinner; but I have to stipulate 
that it must not take place on the 23rd December or on the 1st of January. 
Ever faithfully yours ; CHARLES DICKENS." 


A circumstance may be mentioned in proof of this. 
He had at one time been a director of the National 
Mercantile Assurance Company. As it required too 
much of his time, without any corresponding beneficial 
result, he gave up the directorship, but afterwards 
became a trustee. At an early period in the history of 
the company, it had been arranged in the trust deed 
that, on account of the large amount of business 
brought in by the commercial travellers, one-sixteenth 
of the profits should be given over to the Commercial 
Travellers' Schools. Mr. Jenkin Jones, the manager, 
finding that, in course of time, this sixteenth migh^ 
amount to a very large sum, insisted (after Mr. Moore 
had given up his directorship) upon its being converted 
into a subscription of a hundred guineas annually. This 
was agreed to. 

Shortly after, the manager made arrangements to 
transfer the business of the office to the Eagle Insur- 
ance Company. Mr. Jones made very good terms for 
himself, but not for others. It was found that he 
had not informed the Eagle of the hundred guineas 
annual subscription to the Commercial Travellers' 
Schools. On ascertaining this, Mr. Moore at once 
called upon Mr. Jellicoe, the manager of the Eagle, 
and informed him, that as trustee, he would, unless 
the subscription were continued, "stop the amalga- 
mation." Mr. Jellicoe at once saw the justice of 
the arrangement, and the annual subscription was 

It would be impossible to give an account, in detail, 
of the enormous amount of work that Mr. Moore 
accomplished during this part of his life. Scarcely a 
day passed during which his time was not fully occu- 
pied, with business, with correspondence, with inter- 
views, with beggings for charities. He went from 
one meeting to another ; from an orphan charity school 


to an hospital ; from a bible society meeting to a 
ragged school tea ; from a young men's Christian 
association to a working man's institute. 

He attended to the wants of the poor in his own 
locality. There was a very wretched district at that 
time in Kensington, since swept away to make room 
for Baron Grant's house and grounds, to which he 
devoted a good deal of his attention. Mrs. Bayley, 
the author of Ragged Homes, and How to Mend Them, 
had established day and Sunday-schools and mothers' 
meetings in this poor neighbourhood, and she worked 
hard to improve the people. Mr. Moore was always 
ready to help her with his pen, his presence, and his 
purse. He often took the chair at the tea-meetings of 
the Ragged School, and spoke to the poor people from 
his heart. 

Mr. Moore also supported the Working Men's In- 
stitute at Kensington, started by Mrs. Bayley. He 
took the chair at the first meeting, and made a long 
speech. The institution still thrives. Though it was 
" a pill to take the chair " on any occasion, he was 
repeatedly called upon to preside at Bible-Society meet- 
ings, at Ragged-school meetings, and at meetings of 
young men's Christian associations in Exeter Hall and 
at Marlborough Street. 

From these works he was occasionally called away 
by political or social movements. On the 2/th of June 
he seconded Lord John Russell's nomination for the 
City ; after which Lord John, the Lord Mayor, and 
a large party lunched with him at Bow Churchyard. 
His connection with politics induced his friends to 
urge upon him to represent some constituency in parlia- 
ment. His friend Mr. Hanbury asked him, in 1861, 
if he would stand for Marylebone ? " No," he replied, 
" I can make better use of my time than that. There 
are many abler persons than myself willing and 


anxious to enter parliament ; but how few there are 
who are willing to help the ragged and orphan children ? 
That is my work. No, no, let me remain as I am." 

But again he was requested to represent a consti- 
tuency in parliament, and this time it was the highest 
constituency in England the City of London. His 
answer was the same as before. He declined the honour 
with much respect. " I do not think," he says, " that 
I have either the brains or the education required to 
represent the City. Indeed, I had no idea that I 
should be considered strong enough for the place." 

Another characteristic of George Moore may here 
be mentioned. He was the constant resort of young 
men wanting situations. If he could not provide for 
them in his own warehouse, he endeavoured to find 
situations for them amongst his friends. He took no 
end of trouble about this business. After his young 
friends had obtained situations, he continued to look 
after them. He took down their names and addresses 
in a special red book, kept for the purpose, and re- 
peatedly asked them to dine with him on Sunday 
afternoons. He usually requested that they should 
go to some church or chapel in the evening. We 
find repeated entries in his diary to the following 
effect : 

"Dined twenty-two of the boys that I had got 
situations for ; besides the people that were staying 
in the house. I never forget that I had no one to 
invite me to their homes when I first came to London." 

He used to give these yovng men good advice. He 
told them that he would never forget them. And he 
held out to them the importance of conducting them- 
selves well in the situations that he had obtained for 
them. They must do it, he said, for their own honour 
as well as for his. 


It was, no doubt, well for these young fellows to 
know that they were not left alone in London ; but 
that there was a good man at their back, who was 
ready to justify them and encourage them in all that 
was right and excellent. 

The following letter represents George Moore's kindly 
disposition towards young men. It came to the author 
of this book quite unsolicited. The writer of the letter 
had heard that a memoir was in course of preparation, 
and he desired to bear his testimony to the goodness 
of George Moore. 

" When I went to London, I had some difficulty in 
obtaining a situation. I then applied to Mr. Moore, 
who had already received a letter as to my character. 
He told me that there were more hands in his own 
place than he had work for ; ' but,' said he, ' keep up 
your spirits, and I'll get you a place.' Accordingly he 
wrote for me a letter of recommendation to a draper 
at Blackheath. He said, on giving it to me, ' If you 
do not succeed, come to me again, and I will give you 
a letter until you get a place.' He asked me how 
much money I had. I told him I had just received a 
post-office order for three pounds. He said, ' You can 
have the loan of two or three pounds now, or come to 
me when you have finished your three pounds.' He 
next asked if I had dined. I answered ' Yes. ' ' Well,' 
said he, ' Cumberland lads can always take two dinners ; 
follow me.' He led the way through the warehouse 
to a private room, where I dined again. When leaving 
me, he said, ' Any time you are passing, come in and 
dine with the young men, lots of whom I am sure you 
must know. ' I remember his words well, for they were 
the only kind words spoken to me while I was seeking 
for a situation in London." 

It may be added that the letter of recommendation 


which Mr. Moore wrote to the draper at Blackheath 
immediately secured an appointment for the young 
man. Many years have passed since then, and the 
writer of the above letter is now a v prosperous man 
in the city of Carlisle. 



IN the beginning of 1856, Mr. Dickens called attention 
in his Household Words to the rapidly increasing popu- 
lation in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Docks, 
situated at the easternmost end of London. The 
district being separated from London itself by the 
East India Docks and the River Lea, Mr. Dickens 
designated the district as " London over the Border." 

The population consisted of an agglomeration of the 
refuse of London. They were the sediment or dregs 
of the great city. They had been pushed eastward 
by the vast mass of struggling life in London, across 
the River Lea, into the Essex marshes. The navvies 
and labourers went first, to excavate the docks and 
build the quay walls. Warehouses and manufactories 
followed, with a teeming mass of miserable people, 
willing to work at anything, so that they could but 
earn a scanty pittance to live upon. They lived by 
the manufacture of vitriol, of patent manure, and of 
other foul-smelling productions, which the health-loving 
city had driven away by nuisance-laws beyond the Lea 
to the untenanted Essex marshes. 

When the docks and warehouses had been finished 
houses were erected for the occupation of the inhabit- 
ants. Everybody knows what London contract cottages 


are. They are erected by the hundred, of the worst 
and cheapest materials, of mud scraped from the 
streets and burnt into brick, of half-rotten wood put 
together in the most slovenly manner, offering a very 
poor protection against the winds and storms of winter. 
The ground on which these miserable dwellings stood 
had only recently been reclaimed from the Essex 
marshes. Some of them appeared to be built on 
islands of liquid filth ; and in wet weather the roads 
were literally impassable. All the diseases arising 
from malarious exhalations ague, fever, rheumatism 
were constantly present in the district. 

The Victoria Dock constituted the centre of the 
population. The people who lived in the contract 
cottages, endeavoured to obtain some of the irregular 
employment which docks always furnish. None but 
the very poor lived there, except, perhaps, the keepers 
of ginshops and beerhouses. There was no church, 
no chapel, no school, no workmen's institute nothing 
that was in any way calculated to improve or uphold 
the moral and physical condition of the population. 

In 1857 tne Bishop of London appointed a clergy- 
man to take charge of the place. An iron church was 
built and fitted up, and the clergyman, Mr. Douglas, 
began his operations under the greatest difficulties. 
He could scarcely find a house fit to live in ; but at 
length he settled down next door to a labourer. Well- 
to-do workmen would not live in the district. When 
they had done their day's work, they fled into some 
healthier place to sleep in. When there was no work 
at the docks, there was nothing but poverty in the 

There being no such thing as resident gentlemen in 
the neighbourhood, and no parochial charities to fall 
back upon, the clergyman, in one of his direst extre- 
mities, determined to appeal to public opinion. In the 


course of one of the constantly recurring periods of 
destitution, when the cry for food and fire was frightful, 
Mr. Douglas inserted a letter in the Times appealing for 
help. 1 The editor supported the appeal in a leading 
article. Nothing could have better helped Mr. Douglas 
in his merciful intentions. The public responded heartily. 
Some sent money for food ; some for clothing ; some 
for a school for young females; some for the building of 
a new church. People of all classes and orders contri- 
buted men, women, and children. Two touching little 
notes were received from West Wickham. One of them, 
in a child's round hand, reads thus: A da and her brother 
send a small gift for the distressed around the Victoria 

Mr. Douglas did the best that he could for the imme- 
diate relief and employment of the poor. He gave 
coals, food, clothing, and money to the most destitute. 

1 Times, 23rd December, 1859. In the leading article which supported 
Mr. Douglas's appeal, the following passages occur : " Probably never in 
this world and. if Dr. Whewell's theory is to be believed, never in the 
universe was there, far and wide, such prosperity, comfort, and happiness 
as are brought by this Christmas to some hundred thousand homes. There 
are blazing fires, abundant cheer, brothers and cousins, youthful prizemen, 
dancing girls, games and forfeits, contented servants, and everything that 
love and money can bring together in this happy isle. . . . Read Mr. 
Douglas's account of his Londoners over the Border poor fellow-townsmen 
pushing, or rather pushed by the glacier-like pressure of this vast mass of 
struggling life out into the Essex marshes. Compare the scenes he pictures, 
with those we started with : and then answer whether progressing pros- 
perity has not a poor cousin of its own in the form of progressive misery. 
. . . There is a battle with the marsh ; it is the oldest fight of all with 
chaos itself. ... A tone of distress pervades the narrative, and saddens 
the very flow of the words. One may perceive the restlessness of fever, the 
flush of the ague, consumptive weakness, and mental prostration invading 
the very mind of the man who witnesses and describes these sad scenes. 
No doubt the faithful pastor must suffer this martyrdom. The hopeful 
Church expectant knows the danger, and looks for the rough and rash 
enthusiast to bear the brunt, and stand the infection of misery. . . . Clergy, 
working curates, Scripture-readers, the light infantry and riflemen of the 
Church, are wanted for this work. The pre s, too, must help them ; for 
how else shall they be heard ? . . . But for the present, industri .-us 
people are there, sick, famished, and dying, even at this Christmas. \Ve 
write in the confidence that Mr. Douglas will soon be able to do something 
for them." 


He employed a number of young women to make gloves, 
and others to make shirts. He employed boys to cut 
firewood and split laths. The boys were enrolled as 
cadet volunteers, and were drilled by a sergeant thrice 
a week. Without some such provision, hundreds of 
them must inevitably have become thieves and vaga- 
bonds. An industrial kitchen was started, in which 
women were taught to cook food properly ; and a soup 
kitchen was also established for the relief of the very 

By the end of 1860 as much as ; 14,000 had been re- 
ceived by Mr. Douglas. His most sanguine hopes had 
never reached one-tenth of this magnificent bounty ; and 
yet it had been realised and greatly exceeded. " The 
distribution of charity since last winter," he said, in 
another letter to the Times, " has relieved much distress, 
and probably averted great evils ; but it has not, to my 
certain knowledge, pauperised a single individual. The 
best proof of this js the eagerness with which my poor 
people avail themselves of every opportunity for work 
which is afforded them." 

And now began the voice of detraction and envy. 
Here was a clergyman with 14,000 in his possession, 
doing what he liked with it; using so much for a parish 
church ; so much for a school; so much for a parsonage. 
Was this to be allowed to go on ? Certainly not. Let 
us see how much money he has received, how he has 
expended it, and what balance remains. Perhaps he 
has spent the money for his own purposes. At all 
events, let us know ; let his accounts be examined and 
audited. Such was the tone of the letters which ap- 
peared in the newspapers. 

Mr. Douglas then appealed to Dr. Tait, Bishop of 
London, to institute an inquiry into his accounts, and 
to ascertain the actual disposal of the money intrusted 
to him by the public. The Bishop requested Mr. Moore 



to undertake the inquiry by himself. Mr. Moore hesi- 
tated to undertake this responsibility single-handed ; but 
at the same time he expressed his readiness to enter upon 
the inquiry in the interest of the public, provided he was 
associated with some gentleman of acknowledged repute. 
The following occurs in his diary: "The Bishop of 
London has prevailed upon me to undertake the investiga- 
tion of the charges made against the Rev. Mr. Douglas. 
I have chosen Alderman Dakin as my colleague. The 
affair is exciting great interest. God give me wisdom 
to come to a right decision ! " 

The inquiry began and lasted for about a fortnight. 
Mr. Moore started at nine in the morning for the Vic- 
toria Docks, and worked for about twelve hours daily at 
the accounts. " It is a most trying inquiry," he says in 
his diary : " there is a great deal of bad blood ; and the 
accounts are complicated. My task is appalling. But 
with God's assistance, I shall get through." 

The accounts were very complicated for this reason : 
Mr. Douglas had done the whole of the work himself. 
He had no committee, no secretary, no bookkeeper to 
help him. He had received hundreds of letters with 
contributions, and had entered them anyhow. He was 
one of those clergymen, of whom there are many, who 
know little about business. He was afraid to pay a 
large sum for a professional bookkeeper, thinking it 
would be spending money that was intended for the 
poor. Hence the complication of the accounts. 

The commissioners had accordingly to go over the 
whole of the affairs in detail, the moneys that had been 
received and the moneys that had been expended. Mr. 
Moore's private secretary attended to take down the 
minutes of the commissioners. Everything that had 
been done since the appearance of Mr. Douglas's letter 
in the Times was taken into consideration. The person 
who had publicly challenged the appropriation of the 


money was present, attended by his solicitor ; so that 
nothing was left unattended to. The contributions in 
cash, and the letters accompanying them nine hundred 
in number were read and considered. Mr. Douglas 
also submitted his statements of receipts and expen- 

Numerous witnesses crowded the doors, anxious 
to give evidence in favour of their pastor; and many 
of them were examined and cross-examined. The 
accounts for coal, provisions, glove-making, wood-cutting, 
soup-kitchens, needlewomen, and clothing, were gone 
into in detail. The memoranda of minutes taken at 
the several meetings, and the statement of accounts, 
amount to about a hundred closely-written pages, so 
that it is impossible to give any sufficient abstract of 
them. The whole interest centred in the balance-sheet ; 
and to the astonishment of those present, and of the 
public, they balanced to a shilling. 

A report was prepared and sent to the Bishop of 
London, containing the result of the commissioners' 
examination- 1 While entirely acquitting Mr. Douglas 
of the malversation of funds with which his enemies had 
charged him, the commissioners added : " We deem it 
our duty to express a feeling of regret that Mr. Douglas, 
who seems to have been actuated by the best motives in 
all that he did, and to have displayed great energy, 
labour, and self-denial, should not have thought it neces- 
sary to associate himself at the outset with some well- 
known men of business to share his responsibility. 

" It is our decided opinion that no single individual 
should alone undertake the office of almoner for the 
public ; and the great use of the present inquiry may 
be to show the danger and anxiety to which any one 
may be subject who unwisely undertakes such an office. 

1 The report appeared in the Times, 4th February, 1861, and was 
followed by a leading article on the following day. 

T 2 


We are accordingly glad to observe in Mr. Douglas's 
letter, published before his administration had been 
challenged, that 'as soon as possible all these branches 
will be placed in the hands of a committee of manage- 

"We would estimate character more by the amount 
and activity of its virtues, than by its freedom from 
defects. We have felt it right, in the impartial dis- 
charge of the anxious duty committed to us, to point 
out some defects of administration which indeed Mr. 
Douglas has himself admitted to us but we unhesi- 
tatingly affirm our belief in the purity of his motives 
and in the honesty of his conduct ; and we trust he may 
be spared for many years to labour in a district where so 
much requires to be done, and for the accomplishment 
of which he seems to be peculiarly fitted." 

Mr. Moore returned to his City work, to his Reforma- 
tory and Refuge Union, to his meetings for fallen women, 
to his Bible societies, to his milliners' dressmakers' and 
needlewomen's meetings, 1 to his Royal Free Hospital, 
and to his various orphan and ward-schools. He did 
not mind the particular class of men with whom he 
worked, provided they were good Christian men. He 
worked with Churchmen, Dissenters, Methodists, Catho- 
lics. " I often thank God," he said, writing to his sister 
in April, 1860, "that I am not a bigot in religion, as I 
have really little choice between the Church of England 
and the Dissenting bodies. But as I have been brought 
up a Churchman, I stick to it. Many of the Bishops 
and clergymen are my most intimate friends, yet I have 
the greatest respect and affection for the Rev. Samuel 
Martin, Independent ; Dr. Brock and Baptist Noel, 
Baptists ; and Mr. Arthur and Dr. Punshon, Wesleyans. 

1 On the 1st of June, 1858, he says, " I attended the meeting of the poor 
worn-out milliners, dressmakers, and needlewomen. I must work in this 


As long as men preach Christ, I am with them, heart 
and hand." 

George Moore took a particular interest in the Home 
Mission Societies. He held that clergymen and minis- 
ters were not enough for the work there was to be done 
in London. The ignorant, he said, must be excavated 
from the mass of sin and wickedness. He held that city 
missionaries, who could see the people face to face in 
their unexplored dens, were the best of all men to do 
the work. Here Churchgoers, who paid for a pew,and, 
did their fashionable weekly Churchgoing, were not the 
people whom he respected, so much as those who came 
out of the regular ruts, and helped the uncivilised by their 
sympathy, by their good advice, and by their good works. 

He continued to take the deepest interest in the spiri- 
tual condition of the young men in Bow Churchyard. 
He obtained the best of lecturers. On one occasion 
Miss Marsh addressed a crowded meeting in the dining- 
hall at Bow Churchyard. The attendance at morning 
prayers increased after that event ; but shortly after it 
slackened. Then he called in Dr. Brock to consult with 
him as to what should be done to improve the attend- 
ance. Next morning Mr. Moore attended family wor- 
ship, and found only thirty out of about three hundred 
young men in the house present. " We must make much 
greater efforts," he said, " but refrain altogether from 
making the young people hypocrites. Every thing .must 
be done voluntarily." 

The whole affair was under a cloud. It was sleepy, 
lingering, and becoming useless. He then called in the 
Rev. Mr. Rodgers, and had a long discussion with him 
and the Rev. Mr. Richardson as to the reorganisation 
of the scheme. A few nights later, the Rev. H. Stowell 
Brown addressed a crowded meeting. Mr. Moore took 
the chair, and informed the audience that he had ar- 
ranged with Mr. Rodgers to assist Mr. Richardson in 


the discharge of the spiritual duties. He afterwards 
spoke to all the fresh young men, and told them that he 
expected they would attend family worship. He writes 
in his diary : " I am deeply anxious to get the service 
at Bow Churchyard arranged before I leave for Cumber- 
land " ; and on the following day he enters : " To Bow 
Churchyard at 8 A.M. Mr. Rodgers prayed and ex- 
horted. I am now determined to have him." From 
this time the attendance gradually improved, until at 
length, as we shall find later on, the institution became 
firmly rooted and established. 

Among the numerous charities, hospitals, orphanages, 
schools, and missions, which Mr. Moore helped with his 
mind, and hand, and purse, may be mentioned the 
National Orphan Home. He first became connected 
with it in the year 1861. We find him writing in his 
diary on the 24th of April : " Went to the National 
Orphan Home, Ham, to finally organise and set in 
motion all the improvements. I never worked more 
earnestly for any institution than I have done for this." 
The object of the charity was to receive orphan girls, 
without distinction as to religion, into a home where 
they could obtain a plain English education and prac- 
tical instruction in the kitchen, house, and laundry, so 
as to fit them for domestic service. 

Mr. Moore stuck to this institution throughout his 
life. He was a member of the committee and helped 
forward every means for promoting the objects of the 
Orphan Home. He used to supplement the funds on 
the occasion of the anniversary dinner. He often begged 
for the institution. There was in his word " My friend," 
which all who remember him will recognise an appeal 
which could not be refused. His last munificent act 
for the Home was to head a list with a thousand guineas, 
provided four thousand more could be obtained. He 
begged for the rest, and filled up the list. 


The secretary of the institution informs us " That it 
was not only in the institution itself that he took an 
interest, but in the welfare of the officers connected with 
it. It was his annual custom to invite the different 
secretaries of the societies with which he was connected 
(and they were large in number) to his hospitable 
board ; and take the opportunity of showing the in- 
terest he took, not only in their temporal but their 
spiritual welfare." 

After the death of Mrs. Moore, he felt very lonely in 
his magnificent mansion. " I feel very desolate," he 
says in his diary, " and have no one to care for me but 
Christ." Again he says, "I retired to rest, depressed 
with my lonely condition. Here I have no continuing 
city. Let me seek one that is to come. What matters 
about my lonely condition ? It cannot be for many 
years, for life is fleeting." Sleeplessness again beset him. 
He enters these words, after one of his sleepless nights : 
" The sound of cock-crow, heard in the early morning, 
serves to remind us of many profitable reflections, 
associated with the example of those who have gone 
before us, as well as with the duties that devolve upon 

At length he again began to entertain company. The 
first friends that he invited to his house, after the death 
of his wife, were his old Cumberland chums in London. 
Some of them had risen in the world, whilst others had 
made very little progress. Yet they spent a pleasant 
evening together, talking of old times, and canny 
Cumberland ways. Perhaps they compared, some with 
gratitude, others with regret, their different social 
positions. Many subsequent dinners succeeded. The 
house was often full of company. Sometimes Mr. Moore 
gave up his bed, and had to sleep in a neighbour's house. 

He curiously mixed up his guests Bishops, Business 
men, Dissenters, Methodists, and poor friends from 


Cumberland. On one occasion we find him entertaining 
the Bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Brock (Baptist), the Provost 
of Queen's, the Rev. Mr. Martin (Independent), Pro- 
fessor Cope, the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson, and others. The 
number usually entertained was twenty-four. He had 
often five dinner parties of this number within a fortnight. 
He followed up with a dinner to " nineteen of the boys 
that I have got situations for." 

His house was used for many purposes. He had 
Bible-readings and expositions every alternate Monday. 
He took the greatest and most characteristic interest in 
these simple gatherings of fifteen or twenty persons, 
principally men, for the study of the Bible. His friend 
Mr. Bowker, of Christ's Hospital, presided over them, 
and George Moore often says in his diary, " these meet- 
ings are the happiest evenings of my life." 

The Kensington Auxiliary Bible Society, the Pure 
Literature Society, the Book-hawking Society, the Open 
Air Mission, the Diocesan Home Mission, and the Theatre 
Preaching Commitee, frequently held their meetings at 
George Moore's house in Kensington Palace Gardens. 

The Diocesan Home Mission was established in the 
summer of 1857, chiefly through the instrumentality of 
Dr. Tait, then Bishop of London. The object of the 
Diocesan Home Mission was to provide the means 
of the Gospel for thousands of persons in London 
who could not be reached by the ordinary parochial 
machinery. Amidst the spread of buildings in the 
neighbourhood of London, whole masses of people be- 
came congregated together, without a school, without a 
church with nothing but a gin-shop. The Licensed 
Victualler is very watchful of these new settlements. 
He is there long before the school and the church. Hie 
bright gas-lit gin-shop is the best-frequented place in 
the neighbourhood ; and he often makes a fortune and 
retires, before the church has made its appearance. 


It was, as we have said, to supply the defects in the 
parochial system that the Home Mission was established. 
Its object was to infuse a missionary character into the 
Church, and to bring the people under the influence of 
religious ministrations. In connection with the objects 
of the Home Mission, were open-air preaching in sum- 
mer, and theatre preaching in winter. If the people, said 
the clergy, can't come to us, we must go to the people ; 
we must find them in their popular resorts, and endea- 
vour to make them listen to the Gospel. 

The first open-air service was begun in Covent Garden, 
and conducted by Lord Wriothesley Russell. It was 
followed by other services, conducted by clergymen and 
members of the mission. Thus multitudes of people 
were enabled to hear the Gospel who had never heard it 
before. Churches, in the opinion of many of the lower- 
class Londoners, are for the well-to-do, or for those who 
have got Sunday clothes. Indeed, few know much of the 
ignorance, the recklessness, the thriftlessness and the 
degradation of the neglected classes of London. During 
winter, preaching in the open air is scarcely possible. 
The cold and biting weather drives everybody within 
doors. It was accordingly determined to hire the 
theatres for Sunday preaching. 

Mr. Moore threw himself into this movement with all 
the energy of his nature. He was present at the first 
committee. He attended one theatre after another on 
Sunday afternoons, took the chair, and gave out the 
hymns. He appeared on all sorts of stages, mostly in the 
poorest parts of London at the Pavilion Theatre, the 
Victoria Theatre, the Garrick Theatre, the Sadler's Wells 
Theatre, the Standard Theatre, and others. The best 
preachers in London took part in the work, and on 
many occasions from three to four thousand persons 
were present at the services. 

Mr. Moore not only used his own house for the promo- 


tion of these and other efforts, he also used the dining- 
room at Bow Churchyard. We find him, while the 
theatre preaching was going on, inviting a large party, 
about a hundred in all, to dine there. Among them were 
Lord Shaftcsbury, Lord Ebury, the Honourable A. Kin- 
naird, Robert Hanbury, Esq., R. C. L. Bevan, Esq., 
Samuel Morley, Esq., and about seventy of the most 
eminent ministers and clergymen of all denominations. 
The Earl of Shaftesbury, in returning thanks for his 
health, which had been proposed by Mr. Moore, said that 
"with regard to the amount of good which their excel- 
lent host had so kindly represented him as doing, the 
fact was, that Mr. Moore himself was doing a much 
greater amount of good, though his modesty would not 
permit him to allude to his efforts for the social and 
spiritual welfare of his fellow-men. Mr. Moore was 
doing incalculable good, unseen and unknown, except 
by those who were the subjects of it, whilst the good 
that he himself was doing was on the surface, and was 
consequently seen and known to all men." 

One of the most singular things in Mr. Moore's life, 
was his Diary. No matter how busy he was whether 
in the warehouse, or at charities, or at meetings for 
various purposes he found time to write down a short 
account of his day's work, and often of his thoughts and 
experiences of life. He continued to do this for about 
twenty years, whether well or ill, whether at home or 
abroad. We are thus enabled to ascertain his everyday 
life, and his everyday thoughts. Some of the extracts 
from his diary have already been given, but a few dis- 
connected thoughts may also be added. 

" I wish," he says, " that my faith was as strong as 
my works ; and I also wish that the works of many of 
those with whom I have to do were as strong as their 
faith. With some faith is everything, and works 


" The trouble we expect scarcely ever comes. How 
much pain the evils cost us that have never happened." 

" How often clouds and darkness overshadow our 
minds. They clear away like an uplifted fog, and you 
see the clear blue sky above them." 

" All sorrows, follies, errors, committed towards us 
by other have their edges wonderfully softened off by 

" When a man is faithful and true in small things, 
depend upon it that he will be faithful and true in great 
things. Great principles depend upon small details." 

" ' Godliness is God-likeness.' It is seated in the 
heart. Godliness makes a man content with his cir- 
cumstances. Godliness is not carelessness. No one 
is so rich as to be at liberty to be extravagant. God- 
liness does not remove the curse of labour, but 
dignifies it." 

" A man has just as much Christianity as he has 
Humility. Oh, God ! give me more humility. Enable 
me to keep myself in the background. But I must 
live for others as well as for myself." 

" Better be wrong in the effort to do right, than be 

" There is no greater mistake than in investing 
religion with gloom. Wisdom's ways are ways of 
pleasantness, and all her paths are peace." 

" The enchantments of the world are dangerous to 
the spiritual health, as tending to stupefy the soul, and 
bring it into captivity and spiritual lethargy." 

" The grand interpreter of the Word of God is 
common sense." 

" How often have I found that apparent adversity 
has worked far greater happiness than the greatest 
prosperity. He that sows in tears shall reap in joy." 

" That which is wanted to hold together the bursting 
bonds of society, is not so much kindness, as sympathy" 


" In the present life we can only judge a man by his 
works. Hereafter, when the councils of the heart are 
made manifest, works will be judged by the man him- 
self. ' A man's life consisteth not in the abundance of 
things he possesseth."' 

" I am convinced that profuse chanty to the poor, 
given indiscriminately and without inquiry, does no real 
good. It fosters idleness. It rears up a class of pro- 
fessional mendicants. It promotes dissolute habits 
amongst beggars, and enormously increases the evil 
it is meant to relieve. Like Lord Brougham, I think 
that Drink is the mother of Want and the nurse of 

It may be stated that Mr. Moore makes frequent 
mention in his diary of the benefits which he received 
from attending the ministrations of the Rev. J. W. 
Reeve, of Portman Chapel. " He makes the scheme of 
salvation," he says, " much plainer to me than any one 
else." In another place he says, " He is one of the 
best companions one can have. He makes the house 
bright by staying in it." And so on, all through the 



WHITEHALL is an old Border tower in the parish of 
Allhallows, about six miles south-west of Wigton. It 
is situated in a green valley on the banks of the 
Dowbeck, a little burn which runs into the River 
Ellen about a mile further on. Within sight of White- 
hall is another old border tower, Harbybrow, a very 
picturesque object in the scenery of the neighbourhood. 
These towers were erected about the end of the fifteenth 
century, as strongholds against the inroads of the Scots. 
Whitehall in early times belonged to the Border 
Percys. The Salkeld family next occupied it, and 
from them it descended to the Northumberland 
Charltons. Its proprietors had always been Roman 
Catholics. They were strong Jacobites, and sym- 
pathised with, if they did not actually take part in, the 
risings in favour of " The King over the Water " in 
1715. Any one who has read Redgauntlet will 
remember the incident of young Alan Fairford being 
confined in " Fairladies," where he had an adventure 
with Father Buonaventure. There is reason to believe 
that Whitehall is the " Fairladies " x described by Sir 
Walter Scott. 

1 "They had not," say? Sir W. Scott, "proceeded a pistol-shot from 
the place where they parted, when a short turning brought them in front of 


After the union, when the Borderers had no further 
need for strongholds, a house connected with the tower 
was erected, most probably by the Salkelds, for the 
purposes of residence. Their arms are still to be 
found on the building, and their initials are "carved on 
almost every doorhead. But in course of time, the 
place fell to decay. The owners went to live on their 
estates in Northumberland. The house and tower 
remained in their partially ruined state until quite 
recently. The old hall of the building was used as a 
cow-shed and granary. Another part of the building, 
which forms three sides of a square, was occupied as a 
residence by the steward of the Charltons. 

Whitehall is close to Mealsgate, where George Moore 
was born. It was his pleasure, as a boy, to fish in 
the Ellen, and wander about the valley in which 
Whitehall and Harbybrow are situated. It will be re- 
membered that he climbed the Peel towers, and harried 
the jackdaws' nests in the old chimneys, or in the 
hollow places of the walls. Every spot of the ground 
was known to him. His forefathers had lived in the 
neighbourhood from time immemorial, and their 
descendants the statesmen still farmed their own 
small estates at Overgates, at Kirkland, and at Meals- 
gate. George Moore was much attached to the place. 
When he became a prosperous man he often thought 
of buying the Whitehall property, especially after he 

an old mouldering gateway, whose heavy pinnacles were decorated in the 
style of the seventeenth century, with clumsy architectural ornaments, 
several of which had fallen to decay and lay scattered about, no further 
care having been taken than just to remove them out of the direct approach 
to the avenue." After the men proceeded up the avenue, Fairford found 
that they were "traversing the front of a tolerably large mansion-house." 
" At last, by ascending some stone steps, decorated on the side with griffins 
or some such heraldic anomalies, he attained a terrace in front of the place 
of Fairladies ; an old-fashioned gentleman's house of some consequence, 
with its range of notched gable-ends and narrow windows, relieved here 
and there by an old turret about the size of a pepper-box." Redgautttltt t 
Ch. xv. 


had made it his custom to pay an annual visit to 
Cumberland, to look after the schools he had built 01 
helped to build, and to preside at the competitive 
examinations which he had established. 

At length, in 1858, the Whitehall estate, which now 
included Harbybrow, 1 was offered for sale. He had 
now the opportunity of having a " stake in the hedge," 
in his dear Cumberland. He could thus realise the 
words of Wordsworth 

" When wishes formed 
In youth, and sanctioned by the riper mind, 
Restored him to his native valley, here 
To end his days." 

" On the 7th October," he says, " I arranged about 
purchasing the Whitehall estate. I hope I shall not 
put my trust in land, yet I think I am justified in 
buying it. I have worked very hard for all that I have 
gained." At length he bought the Cumberland Border 
Tower and the estate over which he had shorn when 
a boy. 

But a great deal had to be done before he could enter 
into possession of his Northern Home. Mr. Moore was 
under great obligation to his friend, Henry Howard, of 
Greystoke, during the rebuilding of Whitehall. 

Mr. Howard had advised that the best architect, and 
the most famed for the restoration of old places, should 
be employed. Mr. Salvin was accordingly persuaded 
to undertake the work. During the next three or four 
years Mr. Howard not only saw the plans, but con- 
stantly went over to Whitehall to judge about the 
alterations. George Moore speaks of him as my " head 
clerk of the works;" and at another time, "I owe 
everything to Mr. Howard. What anxiety he has 

1 The Border tower of Harbybrow, about half a mile from Whitehall, 
was formerly in the possession of the Highmores. It is the scene of one 
of the later Border Ballads. 


spared me about this building . This is another proof 
of the many services I have received from him during 
seventeen years." 

Two hundred navvies were employed to remake the 
terrace and replace the bowling-green. The ruined 
buildings were repaired. The cows were turned out of 
their byres ; and the old hall restored to its former 
uses. The old rooms and the old rafters were carefully 
preserved. New rooms were built on the old founda- 
tions. The outline of the whole was preserved, as far 
as possible, so that the entrance by the forecourt, the 
square tower to the east, the gables to the west front, 
and the bastions of the terrace wall, should look as 
they had done to the possessors of Whitehall for 
centuries past. 

All this occupied several years. But in the mean- 
while George Moore continued his annual visit to 
Cumberland to carry on the competitive examinations. 
This usually occurred in July or August. 

When he began school examinations, he had no wish 
to keep the direction of them in his own hands. His 
object was to influence opinion, and to get them estab- 
lished, extended, and taken up by the Diocesan Educa- 
tion Society. He accordingly rejoiced when they took 
up the religious part of the scheme, and extended them 
to all Cumberland. 

Another movement that Mr. Moore started at this 
time, was Book-hawking by colporteurs. The Peram- 
bulating Library was doing good work, but Mr. Moore 
desired to see the benefit of reading good books more 
widely extended. This could only be done by sending 
men about the country with books for sale. They 
might also in some sense be made missionaries, as 
was the case with the colporteurs who kept Protes- 
.tantism alive in France during its long period of 
persecution under the Bourbons. 


Mr. Moore gives the following account of his con- 
nection with the book-hawkers. " I was on the com- 
mittee of the Pure Literature Society, and one of its 
principal working supporters. This circumstance brought 
under my notice the great good that was to be done by 
book-hawking societies. I resolved to start two book- 
hawkers for Cumberland, giving them ^25 each for the 
first year. Cumberland people are very slow to adopt 
or support any new projects. Numerous objections 
were raised to the scheme. Many thought that books 
were of no use to working people. They said that a 
rural population was better off without education and 
information. Others feared the dangers of the book- 
hawkers as missionaries." 

Nevertheless, a book-hawking society was started in 
Cumberland. It was supported chiefly through the 
influence of Mr. Moore. From the report of 1858, we 
find that 635 Bibles, Testaments, and Prayer-books, 
had been sold during the year, and 1,598 copies of other 
books. The Bishop of Carlisle took the chair at the 
first meeting, which was held at Carlisle. After some 
discussion, Mr. Moore observed that so far from seeing 
any necessity to relax their efforts, he saw great cause 
for encouragement in the number and character of the 
books sold. They could not expect great success all 
at once. They must walk before they could run. 
Almost every county in England supported a book- 
hawking society, and it would be a disgrace to Cumber- 
land not to do the same. As for talking about with- 
drawing one of the hawkers, he should be ashamed of 
the county which gave him birth were he to do so. 
He urged that instead of reducing the number, the 
society should go on increasing them. Instead of 
withdrawing one, he moved that three others be ap- 
pointed, which was done accordingly. 

We quote this, merely to show the thoroughness 



with which he proceeded with his work. If a scheme 
was good, and worthy of support, why not urge it 
on by every possible effort ? He stirred up the people 
about him. He called them into activity, and made 
them work with himself. In the same way he 
urged on the County Town Mission in Cumberland, 
which he had instituted. The local clergy were in- 
different to it at first. "Some of them," he said at 
Wigton, "are like dogs in the manger; they will not 
work themselves, nor let others work." But he called 
in his friend the Bishop of Carlisle (Villiers) and the 
Dean (Dr. Close), They helped, him to establish the 
Country Towns Mission ; and the local clergy then 
followed their example. 

The Bible Society was one of his most cherished 
objects. For about twenty-one years he invariably 
took the chair at the local meetings held in Allhallows 
School. He summoned friends from a distance to 
attend it Bishops, Deans, and Clergymen, with minis- 
ters of other denominations. The meetings were very 

He was made justice of the peace, and attended the 
sittings of the magistrates at Wigton. He was present 
at the meeting of the Archaeological Institute at Carlisle, 
and contributed various objects of antiquarian interest. 
He was made chairman of the Wigton Agricultural 
Society, though there he was not in his proper element. 
One day he accompanied Mr. Howard of Greystoke 
Castle to the Penrith Cattle Show. At the dinner 
which followed the exhibition, he was called on to make 
a speech. " I could not speak about cattle," he says, 
"but I brought in my favourite subject, Education, and 
worked it well. At least, so the speech reads in the 

It was a good time for the school-children when 
Mr. Moore went down to Whitehall. Indeed it was 


a good time for everybody, rich and poor. He stirred 
everybody up. The first thing he did was to look 
after the schools. He came down about the time of 
the competitive examinations. Indeed he never missed 
them. Crowds of children came to Allhallows School 
to be examined. He had the Bishop and Dean of 
Carlisle, Lord Brougham, and others to distribute the 
prizes. There was luncheon, tea, and supper for all, 
numbering often 1,500 or more. 

There was no end to the hospitality at Whitehall. 
One day he received the Rifle Volunteers. "They 
came along the road playing a lively tune. They and 
the farmers, about four hundred in all, got a good hot 
dinner. I carved for all." Every time he was at 
Mealsgate, while the reconstruction of the house was 
going on, he gave the workmen an entertainment before 
he left for London. He also provided for their religious 
instruction, and sent the missionary whom he had ap- 
pointed, with interesting books and periodicals likely to 
be of use to them. 

Mr. Moore returned to his old amusement hunting. 
He had sold his horses some years before, when he 
was in great sorrow ; but now he could resume his 
wonted exercise. " Mr. Howard," he says, " tempted 
me this morning to ride one of his horses. I felt 
as much at home in the saddle as ever ; but I got 
a good tumble to remind me of olden times. I 
really enjoy the hunting. It does my health so much 

He also hunted with his friend Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 
master of the West Cumberland foxhounds. " I rode 
my bay mare to-day. She nearly pulled my arms off. 
Yet we had a splendid run an hour without a check. 
I kept a good place." 

The estate also had to be shot over ; but though Mr. 
Moore could hunt, he was not much of a shot. He 

Q 2 


invited his friends down from London to shoot over 
the grounds. Sometimes he went out by himself. He 
says in his diary (i3th August) : " Rose at 5 A.M. and 
ascended the mountain ; I came to a village called 
Watendlath, the most primitive place I ever saw in 
Cumberland. I entered one of the houses. There was 
no fire-place, but only logs of wood and turf burning 
on the floor. I ascended the moors. The birds were 
very wild, and I only got a brace and a half. Drove 
back to Mealsgate very tired." On the ist of September 
partridge-shooting began. 

One day, when he was accompanying his friend 
Colonel Henderson through the Waver wood, on a 
partridge-shooting expedition, a curious ramshackle 
object appeared before them. It seemed to be a sort 
of big drosky with a long broad trunk at the back end. 
"What is that?" asked the Colonel. "Why," said 
George Moore, " that is the trap which I have driven 
into every market town in Great Britain and Ireland ! " 
In fact it was the carriage in which George Moore 
had travelled through the country while achieving his 
success as a commercial traveller. 

There was one thing that struck Mr. Moore very 
much during his visits to Cumberland, and that was 
the low rate of pay of the clergymen. Every one re- 
members the story of the Rev. Robert Walker, curate 
of Seathwaite, Cumberland, whose stipend amounted 
to only seventeen pounds ten shillings yearly. He 
could not live upon that ; so he kept a school, tilled 
his glebe, and spun yarn for home use. And yet he 
married and brought up a family of eight children. 
He maintained one of his sons at Trinity College, 
Dublin, until he took orders and entered the church. 

In the olden times the chapels in the Dales were 
very small, affording room for about only half a dozen 
families. The stipends were so small that they could 


not maintain a clergyman, and the curacies were often 
held by unordained persons. These were, however, 
afterwards admitted to deacon's orders without any 
preliminary examination. The pay was often not more 
than three or four pounds a year, and the Reader used 
to maintain himself by other occupations, such as that 
of clogger, tailor, or grazier. 

The times were very hard for statesmen in those days, 
and still harder for clergymen. They were subject to 
poverty and even to actual distress. It is difficult to 
understand how they contrived to live and bring up 
a family. There was a gentleman called Marshall, 
parish priest at Ireby. His stipend was only 35 a 
year. Yet upon that he married, brought up a family, 
and gave his children a good educntion. He and his 
daughters built their own house. The daughters tall, 
handsome girls led the horses which carried the stones, 
and Marshall himself did most of the building. The 
wonder was how they contrived to build it. They called 
it Puzzle Hall, but no one could solve the puzzle. It 
remains Puzzle Hall to this day. 

The stipends of clergymen were still very low 
almost at starvation point when Mr. Moore began his 
inquiries as to their temporal condition. He makes the 
following entry in his diary (Aug. 22, 1859) : 

"To my astonishment I find from the Bishop that 
he has in his diocese eleven livings under 50 a year; 
nine under 60 ; sixteen under 70 ; twenty-six under 
80 ; twenty-one under 90 ; and thirty-five under 
100; that is 118 clergymen with an average income 
of about 83 a year ! Is not this melancholy ? It is 
a satisfaction to me that I have given 500 to augment 

George Moore determined to ventilate this question. 
At a meeting at Allhallows School, he made a speech 
which was reported in the newspapers, protesting against 


the small stipends paid to clergymen. A Mr. Sheehan 
of Cork, seeing the report of his speech, wrote a letter 
to the Wigton Journal in which he said, " I know for a 
positive fact that Mr. Moore has upwards of seventy 
porters in his establishment, and the half of them are 
receiving more pay than seventy curates in England and 
Ireland." No doubt this is true. A writer in Black- 
wood's Magazine says, " The secret records of the 
Clergy Aid Society could tell many a piteous tale of 
dumb and inarticulate suffering of which the world hears 
nothing and suspects nothing." 

Mr. Moore communicated on the subject with Vil- 
liers, Bishop of Carlisle, and sent him sums of money 
from time to time in order to relieve the more distressed 
clergymen. In the Bishop's answer to his first donation 
he says, " In two cases during this present week your 
present has enabled me to help poor clergy ; and I do 
believe that I have carried essential comfort to homes 
which I really could not have done without your kind 
assistance. I cannot help letting you share the plea- 
sure. . . . The hiring question is still exciting much 
interest. ... I am hoping to stir up sermons for work- 
ing classes in Carlisle during Advent." In another note 
the Bishop says, " One line to thank you for your prompt 
and liberal reply to my note regarding Allhallows. It 
is a joy to think that the Lord has not only given you 
the power but the will also thus to serve Him." 

Two years after the date of this letter the Bishop 
accepted the see of Durham, and made arrangements 
for leaving that of Carlisle. When informing George 
Moore of the intended change he said, " Now, my dear 
friend, I cannot allow this opportunity to pass without 
again and again returning my warmest thanks for the 
increasing kindness and noble generosity I have expe- 
rienced at your hands. I am afraid there are no George 
Moores at Durham." 


During George Moore's visits to Cumberland he had 
always received the Bishop's cordial support. The 
Bishop saw that Moore was in earnest in his efforts to 
improve the education and advance the spiritual wel- 
fare of the people. An earnest man was the delight of 
his life. A warm friendship had sprung up between 
them, which death alone severed. To a certain extent 
the two friends were alike in character strong, cou- 
rageous, straightforward, and unflinching in the pursuit 
of their respective objects. They were alike manly, 
cordial, and popular. Their intimacy, however, did not 
last much longer. The Bishop did not hold the see of 
Durham for more than a year. After a painful and pro- 
tracted illness he died on the 8th of August, 1861. 
George Moore's name was among the last words he 

The arrangements for the repair and reconstruction 
of Whitehall were now proceeding rapidly. The house 
would soon be ready for George Moore's reception. 
But he was alone. He had no wife and no children. 
One day he went to see an intimate friend. " How 
blessed he is," said he, " amidst his lovely family. I 
wonder whether he has a coffin in any cupboard." 

Mr. Moore felt an increasing sense of loneliness. He 
could only relieve himself by inviting numerous friends 
to dinner. " I seem to be afraid," he said, " of being 
alone." Again he says, "I fear I am bringing more 
anxiety upon myself by establishing a second house at 
Whitehall. All my thoughts are centred in Whitehall 
the plantations, gardens, fencing, and such like." At 
his large, beautiful mansion in Kensington Palace Gar- 
dens he said, " I feel very lonely, with no one in the 
house but myself." At length Whitehall was finished, 
and on the 2nd of October, 1861, he dined in the Hall 
for the hrst time. 

Some of Mr. Moore's friends hinted to him the neces- 


sity of marrying. He was so social and affectionate in 
his nature, that solitariness at home depressed him very 
much and was specially unfitted for him. When he 
entered his house, tired with his day's work, there was 
no one to cheer him, no one to sympathise with him, no 
one to lean upon. No matter how faithful the friends 
were who came and dined with him, they did not light 
up his home with joy. When they had departed and 
the last man had left the door, the host was left solitary 
and joyless. One day at Whitehall he writes in his 
diary, " All this afternoon and evening I have had time 
to think. When shall my solitary state be changed ? " 

One of his intimate friends wrote to him from Brieg 
in the valley of the Rhone, when on his way to the con- 
ference at Geneva, giving Mr. Moore his confidential 
views on this and other subjects. Indeed, Mr. Moore 
seems to have asked him for his advice. "I have often 
thought," said his counsellor, " that you might like a 
partner for the remainder of your earthly career. If you 
find one of God's sending, she would no doubt add much 
to your happiness, share all your cares, and spare you 
much trouble. . . . Wait for a little till she falls in your 
way, and do not allow yourself to be looking out for 

Some months after the receipt of this letter, George 
Moore found one on whom he could firmly set his affec- 
tions. In his diary he speaks of her as his " castle in 
the air." 

He invited her relations, the Wilkinsons and Dents, 
who were then in London, to dine at his house. " I like 
them very much," he said, " but they are awful Tories." 
He sought the lady out, and took her to the private view 
of the Royal Academy. He found many opportunities 
of seeing her. His affections were at length deeply en- 
gaged. He visited her family in Westmoreland. At 
last he secured the long-prayed-for and long-hoped-for 


consent. " I never," he says, " felt so grateful to God in 
my life." 

It would be out of place to enter into the details of 
this union. It may be sufficient to state that the young 
lady was Agnes, second daughter of the late Richard 
Breeks of Warcop in Westmoreland. That she proved 
a right loyal and noble wife will be found in the course 
of the following narrative. 

The marriage took place in St. Pancras Church on the 
28th Nov. 1861, when they were married by the Rev. J. 
W. Reeve. The newly-wedded pair proceeded on a 
tour through France and Italy. 

While at Rome, Mr. Moore made the acquaintance of 
Mr. Adams-Acton, the sculptor, which afterwards ripened 
into a friendship. Mr. Moore made the round of the 
studios with him, and purchased several works of art. 
Mr. Adams-Acton looks back to that period with much 
interest. He says : 

" I well remember my first interview with George 
Moore at Rome. I was impressed with the sturdy terse- 
ness of his manner, and the way that he looked into, and 
electrically read your character. He had also a fearless 
way of probing you, and never parted from your com- 
pany without knowing more about you ; but withal, his 
talk was always savoured with kindness and good 
humour. He had a taste for art, and had always a 
desire to possess the very best works of the best masters. 
He accompanied me to some of the best studios in 
Rome, and on each occasion he purchased works of 
interest and beauty. 

" He seemed also to enjoy, as few men do, the society 
of every class of people-; and he had the quickness and 
perception to make every one about him quite at ease. 
He expressed as much interest and pleasure in the 
society of artists and their works, as he would have done 
with men with whom he had been engaged in matters of 


business all his life. I remember on one occasion, in 
connection with M. Dasulavi, a very celebrated landscape 
painter in Rome, getting up at one of the old Roman 
osterias in the Trastevere, a dinner as nearly as possible 
the same as those enjoyed by the Romans of old. Mr. 
Moore entered into the spirit of the occasion as few men 
would have done ; and M. Dasulavi spoke of him after- 
wards as a man of wonderful elasticity of temperament." 
After a tour of about four months, Mr. Moore and his 
wife returned to London. 



MR. MOORE immediately recommenced his charitable 
work. Mr. Masterman, M.P. for the city, having died 
during his absence, he was offered the presidency of 
the Commercial Travellers' Schools. But he declined 
the honour. " I am very useful now as Treasurer," 
he said, " and I prefer the useful to the ornamental." 
He continued to give his utmost support to the institu- 
tion. He took many of the bishops of London, 
Ripon, Bath and Wells to Pinner, to examine the 
scholars and award the prizes. 

At the anniversary dinner of 1863 he had the plea- 
sure of stating that of the two hundred and eighty- 
five boys who had left the school, only one had turned 
out badly. Those who had gone into business had 
done well ; and all those who had gone to the Oxford 
Middle-class Examinations had passed. When they 
considered the number of children who had not been 
merely saved from ruin, but who had been fairly 
started in life, surely they had a portion of their reward. 
It was also pleasant to find that the boys who had left 
them did not forget the benefits they had received, for 
several were now subscribing five guineas annually for 
the benefit of the institution, and some of them had 
given ten guineas to be life-governors. 

Mr. Moore gave ten pounds annually for the purchase 
of books, which were distributed amongst the best 


boys and girls of the schools. The " George Moore 
Prizes " were usually presented by some distinguished 
scholar, or by some dignitary of the Church. The 
object of presenting them was to reward general good 
conduct and perseverance, as exhibited in the results 
of a written examination. 

Mr. Moore's substantial help to the institution had 
been so great that the subscribers desired him to sit 
for his portrait, to be hung up in the hall as a memorial 
of his services. The portrait was painted by Sir Daniel 
Macnee (now President of the Royal Scottish Academy), 
and was presented at the annual examination of the 
schools in June, 1864. The honour, Mr. Moore says, 
was forced upon him. 

In commemoration of the event, Mr. Moore established 
a scholarship of 7$ a year. The sum was applied 
to the support and maintenance of a scholar for at 
least three years at a higher class school. His object 
was to bridge over the gap between the common schools 
and the Universities ; and the result showed that he 
was correct in his anticipations. Mr. Stockdale, chair- 
man of the committee of management, followed with 
another scholarship of the same amount. At one of 
the annual meetings, held in 1872, when the Rev. Dr. 
Farrar conducted the examination, Dr. Butler, head- 
master of Harrow, who was present simply as a visitor, 
was so much struck with the singular ability of one 
boy, who was about to leave the schools, that he made 
a voluntary offer to pay for a third scholarship for three 
years, to enable this boy to be sent to a higher class 
school. This third scholarship was afterwards con- 
tinued by Mr. Copestake, George Moore's partner, and 
is now called the Copestake Scholarship. 1 

1 George Moore also offered to found a scholarship in connection with 
the Warehousemen's and Clerks' Schools. Mr. S. Copestake and Mr. 
Charles J. Leaf proposed to do the same, but for some reason or other the 
offers were refused. 

CHAP, xvi.] " KILL YOUR FOX." 237 

At a recent annual dinner of the Commercial 
Travellers' Schools, the late William Longman, Esq., 
publisher, occupied the chair. George Moore could 
not attend, being confined to the house by a bronchial 
cold. But he wrote a letter to Mr. Longman, which 
was read to the meeting. He said : " I have most 
pleasant recollections of our rides across country some 
years ago, when you were never behind. I only hope 
that on this occasion you will be able to ride the 
Travellers hard, and kill your fox'' The chairman 
explained that by killing your fox Mr. Moore meant 
that he should get good subscriptions, which he did. 

Mr. Hughes, in replying to the toast of " Success to 
the Commercial Travellers' Schools," spoke of the 
energetic character of his partner, George Moore. 
" When he saw a thing that wanted to be done, he 
endeavoured to do it promptly and efficiently. If 
Temple Bar had been in Bow Churchyard, he would 
have had it removed long ago. If Mr. Moore had 
been an architect, the new Law Courts would have 
been finished long since. If he had been an engineer, 
the Straits of Dover would have been tunnelled before 
now ! " 

Mr. Moore went about on his different works of 
charity and mercy. He went from the east to the west, 
begging for the charities in which he took an interest. 
He enlisted others in his service. He made them help 
him. "No recruiting officer," said one of his friends, 
" ever had a keener eye for a smart-looking recruit than 
he had for a lively worker in his charitable objects." 
Mr. Foster says of him, " Of all the persons I ever 
knew, he had the greatest power of extracting talents 
from others. No matter what it was, he would make 
them either work for him,. or work with him. He could 
never tolerate drones." 

As he begged from all, so he was begged of by all. 


An open purse is always assailed. Beggars saw his 
name on the various charity lists, and inundated him 
with applications for money. " I am worried," he says, 
"more and more every day with begging letters. To 
investigate all these cases is entirely out of my power." 
For it must be stated that he never contributed to 
any object without thorough investigation beforehand. 
Even when he went to Cumberland, parcels of begging 
letters followed him. At Whitehall be says : " In this 
lovely place I have received packets of all sorts of 
applications for money. I really feel astonished at 
some people's assurance." 

During one of his rapid visits to Cumberland in 
1862, to look after the reconstruction of the buildings 
on his estates, he invited the sons of his farmers to 
go up to London and see the Exhibition. He paid 
their expenses, and entertained them at his house in 
Kensington Palace Gardens. The young fellows had 
never had such a treat before. They saw the Exhi- 
bition, and went over London, seeing the sights of 
which they had so often heard. Mr. Moore arrived in 
London a few days after they had started. " I found," 
he says, " all my farmers' sons happy and grateful." 

He varied his labours in London with journeys on 
the business of his house. He went down to Liver- 
pool and visited all his customers. He says : " I really 
feel as well up in business as I ever was in my life. 
Suppose I came to grief, I could still work up a busi- 
ness, and make it prosper." " I make it an invariable 
rule in every town I visit to pay my respects to our 
customers. I have done this to-day, and received 
everywhere a kind reception. I hope I shall never 
forget the bridge that carried me over." 

Towards the end of 1862 Mr. Moore took cold at 
one of his city meetings, and was laid up for some 
time. The cold took the form of inflammation of the 


lungs, which was succeeded by pleurisy. Mr. Ray, 
his brother-in-law, and Dr. Gull attended him during 
his illness. His life was for some time despaired of. 
Mrs. Moore attended him during this trying time with 
rare devotion. She wrote up his diary for him. " My 
mind," he said one day, " wanders over all the world 
to my friends, to Cumberland, back again to London 
to my past sins, to Whitehall, to our rides last 
summer, and then to the future." He uttered these 
words with a rapidity truly alarming, probably under 
the influence of delirium. Then he muttered a great 
deal about his traveller's life how he used to be away 
the whole year, coming to Bow Churchyard only at 
Christmas, constantly travelling, working his brain 
night and day, because there was a report that the 
house was breaking, and he knew that the blame 
would fall upon him, as he had introduced so many 
new plans. 

Such dreams as these rushed through his mind : just 
as the whole events of one's past life start up before 
us in some moment of intense suffering or peril. By 
and by his dreams passed away. As the bells of old 
Kensington Church rung out the old year and rung 
in the new, George Moore fell into a profound sleep, 
which lasted many hours. It was the turning-point 
from which his convalescence began. He rapidly grew 
better. His medical attendant called one day and gave 
him a strong lecture about the absolute necessity of 
giving more rest to his brain and more healthy exercise 
to his body. The advice was listened to, and was 
followed to a certain extent But so soon as he had 
got rid of his weakness, he returned to his old work. 
A brain like his could not be idle. 

He reflected on his narrow escape. " I have been," 
he said, " in the valley of the shadow of death. I 
have got up some steps of that ladder which reaches 


to the heavens." He went to his senior partner, Cope- 
stake, to arrange with him about private affairs, in case 
God should take either of them, or both. Nevertheless, 
he continued his old rounds in the city, until sleepless- 
ness again followed him home. One day he notes the 
following : 

" I attended the British and Foreign Bible Society 
Committee ; then the Fishmongers' Company, on ac- 
count of the Prince of Wales's reception of the 
freedom ; then the Committee for Theatre Preaching, 
and the Commercial Travellers' Schools Committee. 
Had a bad night." No wonder ! 

To get rid of his city work for a time he went down 
to Cumberland for a holiday. He went in February. 
Tha weather was fine, and he enjoyed the planting and 
laying out of his grounds. He was not, however, very 
much satisfied with the people. " I fancy," he says, 
" that the folks down .here do not think they have any 
souls. The churches are comparatively empty." Before 
he left, he started another colporteur, 

He returned to London in time to see the Princess of 
Denmark, the future Princess of Wales, make her entry 
into the city. About a thousand persons were at Fish- 
mongers' Hall to see the Princess pass. It was a scene 
that will never be forgotten in England. 

His young men had next to be .attended to. He 
got up one morning at 6.30, and went into the city to 
prayers, in the midst of fog and darkness. The Rev. 
Mr. Rodgers was now conducting family worship to 
about a hundred daily. Several associations had been 
started for the benefit of the young men and young 
women. There were Devotional meetings, Bible classes, 
a Mutual Improvement Association for adults, and a 
Self-help Association for apprentices. The library con- 
tained more than a thousand volumes, and was supplied 
with upwards of forty daily and weekly newspapers, 


besides periodicals. Lectures were delivered by men of 
high position and influence. 1 

We ought also to state, that Mr. Moore took the same 

O ' 

pains with his employes at Nottingham, as he had done 
\vith those at Bow Churchyard and Milton Street, 
London. The Rev. Francis Morse, vicar of Notting- 
ham, himself undertook the office of chaplain at the 
factory. He said prayers, and gave a short exposition 
from scripture every morning. Mr. Moore expressed 
his gratitude to him for the earnest and loving interest 
which he showed in the work. 

Another feature in Mr. Moore's character was his 
extensive patronage of religious books. He took edition 
after edition. He ordered books by the hundred and 
the thousand, to give to his young men, and to send to 
the missionaries throughout the country. He bought 
endless copies of Miss Marsh's books. He sent a copy 
of Arthur's Italy to every library in Cumberland. He 
ordered thousands of Ryle's Exposition of St. Luke, 
which he distributed all over the country. The Memoirs 
and Remains of Dr. M'Cheyne was a special favourite. 

On the death of Mr. Western Wood, M.P., in 1863, 
Mr. Moore was again invited to offer himself as candi- 
date for the City. A deputation of Liberals waited on 
him, and urged him to stand. Many others, indepen- 
dent of politics, offered their support. Even the secre- 
tary of the Conservative Registration Committee in- 
formed him that in the event of his coming forward 
they would not oppose him. No ! he would not stand. 
He could not leave his charitable work ; he could R*>t 

1 Among the lecturers at Bow Churchyard, we find the names of the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of London, Winchester, 
Peterborough, and Carlisle, the Rev. Baptist Noel, Dr. Brock, the Rev. 
Newman Hall, the Rev. J. C. Ryle, Capt. Trotter, Miss Marsh, Mr. 
Stevenson Blackwood, the Rev. J. Bowen, Dr. Allon, Dr. Parker, the 
Rev. HughStowell Brown, the Rev. R. Macguire, the Kev. Mr. Arthur, the 
Rev. Mr. Braden, the Rev. Mr. Maclagan, Dr. Stoughton, Dr. Cutrmings, 
Professor Fowler, and others. 



leave his business. He was still of opinion that he 
would not be in his right place in Parliament. " Let 
them get younger men men educated as statesmen 
should be." Instead, therefore, of offering himself as a 
candidate, he went to the Guildhall and spoke in support 
of Mr. Goschen, who was returned. Mr. Moore writes 
these words in his diary, " How strange is the wheel of 
fortune ! Who could ever have thought when I left 
Wigton, that I should have been asked to represent the 
City of London in Parliament ?" 

On the day after the election he visited a number of 
poor people. He visited fifty-three of the pensioners 
of the Fishmongers. At 7 P.M. he attended a Bible 
reading at one of the dormitories of the establishment in 
Charterhouse Square, and afterwards visited the Por- 
ters, a hundred in number, to establish classes for their 
mental improvement. Besides these classes he took 
steps to establish a library at 49, Bow Lane, for the 
use of the porters of London. One day was, however, 
so like another in his city work, that it would weary 
the reader to give an account of his labours in detail. 

While engaged in these works he entered the follow- 
ing words in his diary : " There are many seasons when 
I am devising, planning, scheming, and arranging. But 
I have only been rough-hewing as yet. The mason is 
not a sculptor. My life contrasts greatly with that 
of many Christians, whose whole lives are full of 
perplexity, anxiety, and care. But I am not suffi- 
ciently grateful for all my blessings. When I die 
I shall carry nothing away. My memory will soon be 
forgotten. The good deeds I have done (and they are 
but few) will not descend after me. Every day I feel 
more and more my unworthiness. I have nothing to 
rest upon but Christ, yet surely that is enough for me." 

Mr. Moore was already treasurer of many institutions, 
and now he was appointed treasurer of Garibaldi's 


Fund ! Many will remember the extraordinary sensation 
produced in London by the reception of Garibaldi in 
April, 1864. Mr. Moore was somehow drawn into the 
demonstration. He went to Nine Elms Station, with 
the self-constituted committee, to receive him. He sat 
with him in the open carriage in which he proceeded 
through the streets of London to the Duke of Suther- 
land's palace. He invited him to dine with the 
Fishmongers' Company. He contributed a hundred 
guineas towards- buying him an estate in his own 
country. But Garibaldi was too independent to receive 
money from his entertainers. Accordingly George 
Moore divided his intended donation between the 
Church Missionary Society and the Pastoral Aid 

All this occurred amidst much business and many 
meetings. The day after Garibaldi's reception, Mr. 
Moore attended the annual dinner of the British Home 
for Incurables, where the purse collected by him was 
the heaviest. The day after, he took the chair at the 
City Mission Meeting at Kensington. He was still 
attending the Committee of the Royal Free Hospital ; 
the Boys' Refuge ; the Ragged Schools ; and other 
societies too numerous to be mentioned in detail. 

A few entries may be given from his diary : " I 
visited all the model lodging houses in London. We 
can do no good for the souls of the poor until we have 
got their bodies properly housed. I afterwards attended 
the first meeting of the Boys' Refuge. 

" God often reads us the story of our lives. He 
sometimes shuts us up in a sick room, and reads it to 
us there. I shall never forget all that I learnt this time 
last year [during his attack of pleurisy]. 

"There is a crook in every lot, and a briar beset- 
ting every path of life, from youth to age. Is not life 
full of trouble ? We exchange only one scene of trial 

K 2 


for another. But so long as God directs, we cannot 
go wrong. 

"Called upon the Duke of Cambridge at 12 noon. 
Posted him well up about the Travellers' Schools. He 
asked me all about my business in the City, and said he 
was astonished how it could be so easily managed. 

"The Duke of Cambridge [on the following day] 
took the chair at the Travellers' Schools dinner. He 
did capitally. I did badly. I told him all I knew. 
He recollected it, and made my speech." We got 
^1,170. I made every exertion that man can do. 

"Bought 752 of M'Cheynes Memoirs, and 500 of 
Bonar's Way of Peace. Gave them to each of our 
young people, and to the country town missionaries. I 
am always watering other people's vineyards. Let me 
not neglect my own ! " 

Among the new things that he began to support 
during the years 1865 and 1866, were the Little Boys' 
Home and the Field Lane Ragged Schools. He began 
his donations to the former in 1865, and continued his 
support to the end of his life. 1 He arranged with Mr. 
Hanbury and others for the purchasing of the land 
for the Home at Farningham, in Kent. He sent out 
numerous letters to his friends urging them to sub- 
scribe. In one of his letters he says, " There are 
ten Family Homes at Farningham with their groups 
of thirty boys in each, making 300 in all. Besides 
the home training which is given them, they are 
educated by efficient teachers, and trained to industrial 
work by which they may earn an honest livelihood. 2 

1 In 1866, Mr. Moore gave .200 towards building the Little Boys' 
Home, and in 1870 Mrs. Moore gave ^1,000 to build the last House. In 
1876 Mr. Moore left ^3,000 to the institution. 

2 The Home has its workshops, in which are carried on the various 
trades. First, home : second, education : third, industrial training. All 
boys over ten years of age are half-timers, attending school and work 
alternately. The trades are superintended by the Fathers of the Houses, 
<md embrace breadmaking, printing, shoemaking, engineering, bookbinding, 


I wish you to understand that we take in children that 
are not eligible for any other institution. They are 
too young for any of the refuges, and too destitute for 
any of the orphan asylums. We want about ^"2,000 
a-yea-r to carry on our work, besides our present sub- 
scriptions." The result of this application was that 
a considerable additional subscription was obtained. 

The institution was principally founded for the pur- 
pose of affording a home to ragged boys who were in 
danger of falling into crime. It was founded on the 
plan of the Miiller Orphan Asylum at Bristol. It 
consisted of a series of houses over each of which a 
house-father and house-mother presided. One of these 
houses was provided by Mrs. Moore, and is called the 
" George Moore Lodge." Several boys were sent by her 
from Cumberland to this Home. 

Mr. Walter has well described the kind of boys who 
enjoy the advantages of the Home. 1 " They come," he 
said, " from the highways and byways, the streets and 
the alleys of this metropolis and other crowded 
thoroughfares they come from the hedges and lanes of 
remotest country districts, from the wilds of Cumberland 
and the moors of Cornwall they are what lawyers 
called in olden times the flotsam from the wrecks which 
drift past us in the great tide of human existence." 

And again, in contrast with the district schools for 
pauper boys, he said : " The characteristic of this 
institution was that it was a Home ; and a home was 
what no child could afford to be without. In that word 
rested the whole secret and charm of the institution. 
They might, perhaps, remember not very long ago that 
Lord Beaconsfield, on another occasion in which he 

tailoring, gardening, painting and glazing, carpentering, farming. The 
woikshops form part of a large central building, which also contains the 
needle-room, the laundry, the swimming bath, and the superintendent's 

1 At the annual dinner, 1877, Mr. Walter, M.P., in the chair. 


was equally interested, described home as the unit of 
civilisation a very happy expression, as he thought. 
It was the unit of civilisation, because it was the centre 
of all those domestic affections which make men, 
women, and children what they are. In fact, all the 
ideas and associations which impart joy to youth, rest 
and comfort to manhood, and peace and consolation to 
old age, cluster round the word. That was the key of 
this institution, and certainly it was a most happy name 
to have selected for it." 

Besides attending to the orphan boys of London, 
Mr. Moore gave a good deal of his time and attention 
to the outcasts of London. No one knew better than 
he did, the misery and wretchedness of the lowest dregs 
of society. He knew the rich and he knew the poor 
the luxury and seeming brilliant gaiety of the upper 
ten thousand, and the misery and wretchedness of the 
lower ten hundred thousand. He knew the "whited 
sepulchres, which were beautiful without, but within 
full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness." 

He knew London by night as well as by day. He 
knew it from the East to the West. Many a time 
he went down to St. George's-in-the-East, and to 
Wapping, to look after the poor. He accompanied the 
missionaries into the lowest dens of London. Scarcely 
a day passed without his being engaged in doing some 
good work for the destitute ; and yet he grievously 
complained of the little he could do compared with 
what he ought to have done. 

One day he enters these words : " Again I went out 
amongst the poor with the missionary, and relieved 
them. Such dreadful filth, rags, and poverty ! " How 
little could he do to uplift them from their wretchedness 
and misery. He saw what social neglect had done 
for these poor creatures, debased physically and 
morally. As for religion, they had never heard of it. 


The pale cheeks, the stunted bodies, and the weary 
eyes of the children, haunted him. He could not get 
rid of the sight. He was summoned, however, to make 
new efforts on their behalf. 

One night he went, accompanied by a superin- 
tendent of police, by the permission of his friend 
Colonel Henderson, through some of the lowest parts 
of London. What sights he saw ! Poor ragged souls 
searching for somewhere to sleep ; drunkards, making 
night hideous ; wretched women plying their un- 
hallowed trade. They passed through casual wards, 
and saw life in its vilest conditions. 1 He was shocked 
to find human beings in such degradation. Reckless- 
ness and vice lay huddled together. Faces haggard 
with woe and brasen with iniquity, were turned up for 
a moment to the solitary light which gleamed dimly in 
the apartment. The thieves' lodgings were still worse. 
There he saw festering masses of criminals, gaol-birds 
and others, living by c*ime. All this was lying close 
under the surface of the civilisation of London the 
richest city in the world ! 

To George Moore it seemed that the only true way 
of teaching these people was to get hold of them when 
young, to bring the children of the poor into schools, 
and thus get them under better influences. Hence his 
support of ragged schools, and ragged school brigades, 
in all parts of London. Hence also his support of 
orphanages, especially for the poorer . classes. And as 
these people would not go to church, he strenuously 
supported the city missions, so that the poorer classes 
might be visited at their own houses and brought under 
religious influences as much as possible. 

1 This subject was afterwards referred to by the Lord Mayor at a meeting 
at the Mansion House. He said Mr. Moore had visited by night the West 
London Union, at Battle Bridge, and informed him of the result of his 


In June 1866, Mr. Moore was requested to become 
Treasurer of the Field Lane Ragged Schools. Many 
years before, he had given fifty guineas to start the first 
ragged school in London. Since then he had generously 
supported them. Day by day throughout the year he 
sent (with the consent of his partners) the surplus pro- 
visions of his warehouse dinner, which supplied substan- 
tial meals to a large number of ragged children 
perhaps the poorest to be found in London. 

The reason why Mr. Moore consented to become 
treasurer may shortly be explained. It was found that 
the number of annual subscribers had fallen off, and that 
the institution was getting into debt. The Committee 
proposed to get the help of some leading member of the 
aristocracy ; but one of them said, " No no ! let us get 
the help of some hard-working, practical man : let us go 
to George Moore ! " The suggestion was unanimously 
approved, and a deputation waited upon him at his 
counting-house. Though already hard pressed by work, 
when the circumstances connected with the institution 
were made known to him, he at once consented to accept 
the treasurership, and went a-begging accordingly. 

We have before us the pass-book in which he entered 
the names of the new subscribers. He himself started 
the list with 100 annually. This was an example for 
others. Barclay and Co., Rothschilds, Mr. S. Morley, 
followed him. Some houses of great wealth and influ- 
ence followed very lamely, and many contributed 
nothing. But the result of the begging was a consider- 
able increase in the funds of the institution. 

The objects of the institution may be briefly men- 
tioned. It included baby schools (creches), infant schools, 
boys' and girls' schools, night schools for girls, and also 
for men and boys in situations. There was an industrial 
school for girls, where they learnt to sew and make 
clothes. There was also a mother's class, to sew and 


mend clothes. The building was a refuge for the home- 
less poor, men and women. Young women were kept 
there until situations could be obtained for them. The 
institution contained a penny bank ; Bible classes ; a 
ragged church, where as many as from 700 to 900 people 
attended ; a prayer meeting ; a youth's mutual improve- . 
ment institute ; and other excellent arrangements. 

To show the depths of society to which the ragged 
schools descended, it may be mentioned that the parents 
of the children educated there included beggars, street- 
singers, street-salesmen, porters, hawkers ; in a word, the 
migratory and helpless poor of London. The men and 
women who frequented the Refuge included those who 
had been overwhelmed by misfortune, but who had never- 
theless maintained integrity of character ; and who, but 
for the temporary help of the refuge, must have sunk 
down in hopeless despair. Bible instruction was given 
every evening by voluntary teachers, most of whom were 
engaged in mercantile establishments in different parts 
of the metropolis, and who therefore had many oppor- 
tunities of providing destitute persons with employment. 

The Refuges were still more useful as regarded young 
women, reduced by sudden illness, misfortune, or want 
of employment, to utter destitution. During the first 
year of George Moore's treasurership, 1,800 respectable 
young women took refuge in the institution. Over 800 
of these found situations, employment, or were restored 
to their friends. What the fate of these young women 
might have been but for the refuge, need .hardly be sug- 
gested. It acted as a friend in need to those who, but 
for it, were never at any time in their lives more in need 
of a friend. 

At one of the meetings held shortly after George 
Moore became treasurer, he said that there were five 
free schools, in which twelve hundred boys and girls were 
educated without charge, and through which, since their 


opening, 20,000 children had passed, of whom 4,000 had 
been placed in situations, thereby gaining their own 
living. Another feature in the report was the class of 
young girls of from ten to sixteen, half of whom were 
already able to earn their livelihood. Then there was 
, the mothers' class, in which sewing and mending clothes 
were taught, but the main feature of which was religious 
instruction in a word, Bible truth. At the ragged 
church, 200,000 souls had already come under the in- 
fluence of the Gospel. During the previous year, nearly 
15,000 persons had benefited by the institution. These 
were great facts. Experience was the best test of truth. 

The Rev. Dr. Brock followed Mr. Moore, and related 
some interesting facts. One was that of a man originally 
taken from the " gutter," who after training in a ragged 
school, went to South Africa, where he became a respect- 
able member of society, and eventually a Wesleyan 
preacher. Another case was that of a young man who 
was trained in the schools, and went out to Canada. 
Hearing that his sister had become a fallen woman, he 
got six weeks' leave of absence, came over to London, 
waited in the Hay market until he met her, and carried 
her out with him to Canada. There she married, and, 
with the exception of her brother, was the happiest in 
the land. 

But the institution was still in difficulties. At the 
beginning of 1870 it was 2,000 in debt. George Moore 
sent round a circular amongst his friends, and followed 
it up with a personal visit. " Long experience," he said 
in his circular, " teaches us that the most effectual means 
of relieving poverty and preventing crime is to educate 
the young in the habits of usefulness and industry before 
they have become hardened in idleness and crime." He 
earnestly requested all his friends to visit the institution, 
and make themselves acquainted with the nature and 
utility of the works carried on. 


He devoted several days to going the rounds of his 
friends. The result was that by one great effort he 
cleared off the debt. On the 26th of May he said at 
the annual meeting that he was happy to be able to 
inform them that the institution was entirely out of debt ! 
He did not like debt as regarded either private or public 
institutions, and he had determined to wipe it off, and 
get them out of their difficulties. He had collected more 
than 2,000, and obtained from four to five hundred 
new subscribers, many of whom had previously enter- 
tained a prejudice against the schools and the refuges. 

Thus, whatever George Moore undertook to do, he did 
thoroughly. He spared no pains and shirked no labour 
in effecting his objeet. Many thought it an undignified 
thing on the part of a rich city merchant to go about 
amongst ragged and filthy people; amongst thieves, 
tramps, and vagrants ; even though it were to elevate 
their idea of duty, and lift them up into a higher life. 
He himself said, he felt that nothing could reach to the 
depth of human misery, or heal such sorrow as theirs, 
but the love of Jesus the Good Shepherd who yearned 
over them with Infinite Pity, and had given His life for 
the sheep. 

It was not so much the amount of money as the 
amount of thought that he gave to these afflicted people. 
The poor and the destitute were constantly in his mind. 
He could not sleep for thinking about them. The weary 
eyes of the hungry children haunted him. Lowest of all 
beneath the tramps, the beggars, and the helpless 
were the miserable women whom he met on his way to 
the midnight meetings. What could he do to reclaim 
them ? He did what he could, and yet he was often 
thrown back by the fruitlessness of his work. 

But he had many encouragements. His labours did 
not sink into the ground. He shed a sort of sunshine 
amongst those he worked for. He diffused blessings 


around him. He had the love of all ; and love is growth. 
A little kindliness will produce a great deal of happiness. 
Even a friendly grasp of the hand will help a struggling 
man upward. It is sympathy that is so much needed. 
This was the maxim under the influence of which George 
Moore worked. And thus he lifted up many of his 
poorer fellow-creatures making them holier, happier, 
and better. " Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of 
the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto 



GEORGE MOORE'S life was many-coloured. He led a 
town life and a country life. After tramping the city 
in search of subscriptions, he went down to Cumberland 
to ramble over the Fells. When oppressed with brain- 
work, he started for Brighton, and had a gallop over the 
downs with the harriers. When wearied with his Com- 
mittees, he would set out for Tring, hunt with Lord 
Lonsdale's foxhounds, and be in at the death with the 

Among the happiest days in George Moore's life were 
the days of his arrival at his Border Tower in Cumber- 
land. He was then seen at his best. He enjoyed with 
almost child-like feelings his north-country home. He 
was there, in true English phrase, really jolly. Instead 
of sitting in his London office, oppressed with business, 
or correspondence, or worry, he was in the midst of the 
scenes of his boyhood, and amongst the friends whom he 
loved. Everybody knew of his coming, and all who 
could, welcomed his arrival. 

When George Moore's flag was up, everybody knew 
that great things were coming. The children of the 
neighbourhood, more than all, welcomed his arrival ; for 
were not the competitive examinations coming on, and 
with them the prizes, the books, the sweetmeats, and the 


tea-feasts ? He had scarcely settled down in his country 
home, when friends and acquaintances gathered round 
him : Archbishops, bishops, deans, nobles, artists, squires, 
clergymen, dissenting ministers, farmers, merchants, city 
and county missionaries, schoolmasters, great men from 
London, and small men from everywhere. 

There was no end of things to be done at Whitehall. 
The farmers had to be visited, and the repair of the 
farmsteadings looked to. His own home farm was in- 
spected, and the state of the shorthorns inquired into. 
The gardens/the plantations, the fencings, the outbuild- 
ings, had to be seen, and various orders given about 

There were numerous meetings to be attended after 
his arrival. The Perambulating Library was still on foot, 
and he presided at the annual meeting. He went to 
Carlisle and took an active part in the Book-Hawking 
Society. He attended the schoolmasters' conference 
at Wigton. He summoned conferences of Scripture- 
readers to meet at his house. On these occasions, 
addresses were given in the hall. 

The hall is a grand old place. The walls are wains- 
coted with oak as in border times, and adorned with 
armour, spears, steel jacks, horned heads, flags, and 
banners. How different were Mr. Moore's assemblies 
in the hall from the scenes in the olden times, when the 
cry of the men-at-arms as they set out on their border 
forays, was " Snaffle, spur, and spear ! " 

Although Mr. Moore went down to Whitehall for 
recreation, he worked almost as hard there as he did in 
London. He was inundated with letters. One day he 
says, " The letters I receive are really astonishing, and I 
have to answer them all myself." After breakfast he 
retired from the hall into the smoking-room with his 
bundles of letters. This was his own room. It was 
fitted up with an escritoire, shelves full of books, and 


other suitable furniture. Over the quaint old-fashioned 
oak fireplace was a piece of metal work, fastened into 
the wall, containing the old saying : " How much pain 
the evils have cost us which have never happened." 
This was the place in which he stored his numerous 
books for prizes, for county missionaries, and for distribu- 
tion amongst people of all classes and ages. Here he 
had the photographs of his dearest friends, the pictures 
of the Pinner schools, and the sketches of his favourite 

He usually occupied this room in the morning from 
ten till two, rarely allowing himself to be disturbed 
from his work. Those who wanted him knew they 
would find him there, though they could scarcely 
reach him because of the numerous letters which he 
had answered, and that were strewn about the floor as 
thick as snow-flakes. He sometimes wrote from thirty 
to forty letters in a day. " Indeed," he said, " I work 
harder here than in London." In the same room he 
gave audience to his tenants, to his outdoor servants, 
to the labourers on the estate, and to the village 
missionaries labouring in the surrounding district. 

In the smoking-room also hangs an illuminated 
tablet, on which is inscribed the address on charity 
written by St. Paul to the people of Corinth. At the 
head of the tablet, in large bright letters, are the 
words, " Charity never faileth ; " and at the end, " Now 
abideth faith, hope, and charity, but the greatest of 
these is charity." The words were, in fact, a true 
illustration of Mr. Moore's character. He took them 
to heart, and tried to work them out into fact. To do 
gcod and to communicate was the joy of his life. 
" The more I give," he said, "the more I get." 

The house was always full. One party succeeded 
another. It emptied and filled from week to week. 
One day he records : " All the beds and dressing- 


rooms are filled. Two bishops, the high sheriff, the 
chancellor of Carlisle, and many more. My dear wife 
much fatigued." No wonder ! Then the partridge- 
shooters came, and the house was again " brim full of 
guests." He had a long day's shooting with them, 
during which he walked for eight hours. 

In August, 1864, the competitive examinations were 
at their zenith. He owed the suggestion of this parti- 
cular examination to the Rev. G. T. Moncrieff, Dr. 
Simpson of Kirby Stephen and the Rev. Canon Hodg- 
son. The two first arranged all the details, set the 
papers, and had all the labour of the examination. 
Without their knowledge and assistance the thing could 
not have existed ; and Mr. Moore always acknowledged 
that these men deserved all the credit of the scheme 
and the success of its working. In that year the prizes 
were given by Lord Brougham. Though a veteran in 
years, his intellect was as unclouded as ever, and his 
conversation was remarkable for its satire and keenness 
of observation. He gave proof of his powers when 
giving an address to the schoolmasters and others after 
the prizes were distributed. He made a quotation from 
Milton on the blessings of peace, but his memory failed 
him at the two last lines. He stood silent, with lips 
apart and outstretched hand for what seemed moments 
of suspense, and then repeated two lines of metre which 
fitly took the place of the right lines. 

After dinner that evening, there were many present 
who wished to hear Lord Brougham converse ; but he 
was tired and reserved. George Moore asked him if he 
thought the Empress of the French had much influence 
over her husband in Church matters. " She has just the 
influence," he replied, " that every woman has on her 
husband : she nags, nags, NAGS, till she gets her own way." 

In August, 1865, the prizes were presented by the 
Archbishop of York. The Bishop of Carlisle, the Lord 


Mayor of London (Alderman Hale), Dr. Percival (Master 
of Clifton College), Sir Wilfrid Lawson, and other dis- 
tinguished persons were present. Sir Wilfrid, in the 
course of his speech, said that Mr. Moore, when he 
came down among them in Cumberland, acted very 
much the part of a despotic monarch. They lived, 
while he was present, under what he called a mild 
despotism. This day, and the ceremonies connected 
with it, were, as he might say, one of the "time- 
honoured institutions of the county," and it must be 
very gratifying to Mr. Moore to observe how popular 
and how successful that useful and time-honoured 
institution had become. 

The Archbishop, after presenting the prizes, made 
an excellent practical speech on education, and on the 
system established by Mr. Moore of competitive ex- 
aminations. He then proceeded : " The reason why 
so many parishes in this country have no schools is, 
that the inhabitants don't take an interest in education. 
They don't value it ; their minds are not right on the 
subject. The upper classes are content with a low 
standard of knowledge, and they allow the lower 
classes round about them to remain uncultivated and 
untaught. Now, Mr. Moore has done his best to stir 
up in the country round about a great interest in edu- 
cation. He knows that as soon as men's minds are 
directed to the difference between a being thoroughly 
untaught in everything and a being properly instructed 
in the knowledge of God and in the knowledge of the 
world around him, all people with common hearts and 
with common good feelings will set their minds to work 
to remove the ignorance, and lead the people out of 
darkness into light. 

" I think it is a beautiful thing that a man immersed 
in business to an extent hardly any of us can conceive, 
yet finds time every year to come here. He does not 



say he is very busy, that he has a headache, or that he 
wants to go abroad ; but he comes here every year for 
ten years, and busies himself about these poor children 
whom we have looked upon with such interest, and to 
whom he has given a pleasure that will never be for- 
gotten by them as long as they live. I call that recol- 
lection of the home of his childhood, which has often 
shone upon him in the hours of business, and given him 
the greatest pleasure, a beautiful romance of real life 
a romance of Cheapside as good as any other romance, 
and I, for one, feel the greatest interest in it." 

Besides examining boys and girls, Mr. Moore ex- 
amined cattle and sheep. He was beginning his herd 
of short-horns. He went to all the cattle-shows. He 
gave prizes for horses, donkeys, and shepherds' dogs. 
He was asked to take the chair at the dinners follow- 
ing the cattle shows, and on those occasions he made 
speeches. In 1865, for instance, he presided at the 
dinner following the Cumberland Cattle Show, the 
Wigton Farmers' Club, the Wigton Cattle Show, the 
Cottage Gardeners' Meeting, and the Cumberland 
Agricultural Society. "After four nights of conse- 
cutive speaking," he said, " I am entirely pumptout!" 
But he was not yet done. The Bible Society's Meet- 
ings came round, and he attended them at Wigton, 
Allonby, and West Newton. 

Nor did he forget his business in the midst of his 
speechifying. From Whitehall he started for Glasgow 
to look after the branch there. In 1863 he set out for 
Aberdeen, where he " found all in an uproar ; an ap- 
prentice, a porter and his wife, being in prison for 
stealing goods, and another person for receiving them." 
Having put matters straight, he returned to Edinburgh, 
where he called upon his customers ; after which he 
attended the meeting of the Social Science Association 
and dined with Lord Brougham. During the time he 


stayed in Edinburgh he resided with Mr. Cowan, now 
member for the city. 

Living at Whitehall was a sort of perpetual picnic. 
Mr. Moore was the soul of every entertainment. He 
had a happy knack of making all his guests heartily 
welcome. At breakfast-time he would take no refusal 
for the specially cured ham, or the little trout taken 
from the River Ellen, " the best in the world," of which 
he was justly proud. When Sir Thomas Chambers 
visited him, George Moore said, when he was helping 
the guests, " You do not press the article. There, I will 
give anybody a penny who will eat this egg ! " By his 
cheeriness he always made the breakfast one of the 
pleasantest meals of the day. 

Those who had the pleasure of visiting Whitehall 
will recollect the enthusiasm with which excursions to 
the surrounding scenery were planned, or the picnic 
organised on some fell-side or mountain-top. One day 
a pleasure party would be at Caldbeck, where they 
climbed the rocks to gather parsley-ferns. Another 
day they went to Bassenthwaite and rowed on the lake ; 
or they ascended Skiddaw, from whence they had a 
glorious panorama of the Cumberland lakes and the 
Cumberland fells. 

Then there was the drive back to Whitehall in the 
twilight, when George would tell stories of the olden 
times, when highwaymen were hanged for stealing a 
leg of mutton, and of the days of his boyhood, his 
hunts with John Peel's " scratch pack," his schooldays 
with Blackbird Wilson, and of the Bogles at Bolton 
Hall. He would rivet the attention of his listeners 
too while he told his tales, and his cheeriness spread 
quickly over all about him. 

Nor was a walk with him over the farm without 
interest. He had erected model byres for his short- 
horns, under the direction of his friend Mr. Fos/-<ir of 

S 2 


Killhow. He had brought water some distance from 
the River Ellen, and had at great cost placed a turbine 
wheel to work all the thrashing and other machinery 
of the farm. His fields by extra cultivation yielded 
heavy crops. His herd of shorthorns was improving 
from year to year, and was becoming well known. He 
delighted to show his improvements and his failures 
to his visitors. Or he would take them into some 
farmhouse to sup curds or have a dish of tea, and 
would talk to the mistress in pure Cumberland dialect 
of her lad's prospects, the lad probably owing his start 
to Mr. Moore's finding a situation for him. 

His considerate care for the wants of his guests, 
his disposition to consult their wishes, and that perfect 
freedom which is the great charm of an English house 
of the higher sort, rendered a visit to Whitehall one of 
the most delightful of pleasures. It is said that to know 
a man as he is, you must travel with him or live with 
him. Those who knew George Moore merely as a man 
of business or as an attender of charitable committees, 
did not really know him. It was only at Whitehall, 
in the midst of his guests, or when " frisking over his 
own soil," as he called it, that you could know the 
thorough geniality, joyousness, and hospitality of the 
man as he really was. None ever left Whitehall no 
matter of what class or condition without carrying 
away with them some very pleasant and abiding recol- 
lections of the welcome which they had received from 
both host and hostess. 

Though he had many dignitaries of the Church to 
visit him and receive his hospitalities, he did not for- 
get the Dissenting ministers. Every year a party of 
them dined with him at Whitehall. He was greatly 
indebted to them for the missionary help which they 
had given him. He was told that the Wesleyan 
chapels were very much in debt. He offered to give 


twenty per cent., provided the people would bestir 
themselves to pay off the remainder. In numerous 
instances great efforts were made, and most of the 
chapels that had been sadly burdened with debt 
became free. 

" Mr. Moore informed me," says a Wesleyan minister, 
" that he made his gifts towards Wesleyan chapels con- 
ditional, that he might stimulate others to deeds of 
liberality. His generosity in this case encouraged our 
people to renewed efforts, and many a sinking cause 
was stimulated into new life. He often sent me parcels 
of books for the use of our Sunday-schools, and many 
a suitable volume for our local preachers. George 
Moore's name will ever be a household word among 
the Wesleyans of Cumberland." 

George Moore was like the good old English gentle- 
man, who, " though he feasted all the rich, he ne'er 
forgot the poor." The very poor folk and old widowed 
women were warmly welcomed at Whitehall. There 
was an annual feast for these old pensioners. At tea 
he always waited on them with his wife ; and gifts of 
tea, clothes, and money, were distributed to each of 
them. He received them separately in his smoking- 
room, where their special circumstances or troubles were 
listened to, and he frequently refers to it in his diary 
" Had our old women's tea-feast the happiest day my 
wife and I spend in Cumberland." It was always the 
last entertainment before he returned to London for the 

The servants of the household were not neglected 
during Mr. Moore's stay at Whitehall. No one was 
kinder to those of his household than he was. One 
day he mounted each of his men-servants to go to the 
hunt at Brayton, but "Geering (the coachman) came to 
grief." Another day he sent every servant in the house 
to Keswick to see the lakes and the mountains. The 


schoolmaster and his mother accompanied them. Dur- 
in their absence, George Moore and the Rev. H. Harris 
taught the children in the school, and Mrs. Moore and 
the visitors cooked the dinner. " I taught the children 
all day," he says, "and my wife and Louisa Groucock 
cooked the dinner, and some one else made the beds, 
and we all were tired to death at night. I shouldn't 
care for it often ; but I do rejoice in giving pleasure to 

Among the various persons whom Mr. Moore invited 
to Whitehall were the city missionaries of London and 
the county missionaries of Cumberland. He paid their 
expenses during their holidays. Rooms were appro- 
priated for them at the home farm, and also by Mr. 
William Lawson, at his farm at Blennerhasset. He 
treated them as he did his wealthier friends. He cut 
out many excursions for them. He sent them up the 
fell-sides ; drove them to Bassenthwaite, and made it a 
real holiday for them. 

They were most thankful for the treat They felt 
that " their lines had fallen in pleasant places." On one 
occasion, when the city missionaries and their wives had 
returned to their labours in London, they wrote a con- 
joint letter of thanks to George Moore. They said, 
" We beg most gratefully to acknowledge our thanks 
for your great kindness in affording us the means of 
three weeks' rest in Cumberland. Our observations of 
nature of the rivers, lakes, hills, and valleys espe- 
cially of Mount Skiddaw and the Bay of Allonby, have 
greatly tended to enlarge our views of the wisdom and 
power of God. Our visit to Cumberland has also given 
us the opportunity of having much intercourse and 
fellowship with each other, for which we feel truly 

Another of the Cumberland missionaries on his return 
home wrote as follows : " Having fairly got to work 


again, refreshed and enlightened by our delightful con- 
ference at Whitehall, I desire to express my gratitude 
to you for affording us such a favourable opportunity 
for meeting to confer with one another upon subjects so 
important to us as teachers of so many others. It gives 
us the opportunity of knowing our own littleness, which 
often becomes an important element in our usefulness. 
Altogether, too, it is always a profitable season for us, 
though an expensive one for you. But never, I am 
sure, will your princely kindness be bestowed upon men 
more grateful in return than the poor Scripture-readers 
of Cumberland. All of us have carried away a feeling 
of gratitude to you and your worthy lady for your 
kindness and countenance to our gathering ; also to 
your household servants, who were all so courteous 
and polite. I am sure, sir, you have all our prayers. 
God bless you ! " 

Mr. Moore also invited many of his young men from 
Bow Churchyard to Whitehall to share in its enjoy- 
ments. Most of the young Cumberland fellows, for 
whom Mr. Moore had got situations in London, called 
upon him in the course of their holidays. One of them, 
for some time in his employment, says, " Since a boy I 
have known him intimately. I can yet feel his grasp 
of my arm, with 'Well done, Blinraset/ 1 when I took 
a prize at his first competitive examination. To me 
he was always the same kind, blunt George Moore of 
Whitehall and even of Bow Churchyard. His first 
greeting removed all embarrassment. His character at 
Bow Churchyard was only partially known amongst the 
employes, but to those who had the privilege of visiting 
him at home in Cumberland he showed the most un- 
bounded kindness. He has often told me that he 
considered it a mark of disrespect if any of the young 
men from London neglected to call upon him at White- 
1 Blennerhasset, a village in Cumberland. 


hall and dine with him, no matter how many lords, 
bishops, or commoners were there. All were alike 
welcome, and once inside his house, he soon made you 
feel it." 

There was often a very mixed assembly at Whitehall, 
of Bishops, Scripture-readers, warehousemen, farmers, 
city missionaries, Sunday-school children, pensioners, 
and Statesmen. One day, when the children were play- 
ing about, Thomas Moore came up the fields, covered 
with hay, and the hay-rake over his shoulder. George 
Moore introduced him to the Bishop of Carlisle as his 
brother Thomas, the distinguished Statesman ! And 
statesman no doubt he was, though not of the Par- 
liamentary order. 

Amongst those who were invited to the Hall, were the 
porters from Bow Churchyard. Some of the elder porters 
came first, and 'amongst them John Hill, the oldest in 
the establishment. During tbfcir visit, Mrs. Moore went 
out one morning, and was crossing the park, when she 
came upon a venerable person, standing on a rising 
ground, staring about him with astonishment at the 
gardens and buildings. " Are you looking for some- 
body ? " asked Mrs. Moore. " No," said he, " I am just 
looking round about, and thinking what a fine place it 
is, and how we helped to make it ; I have really a great 
pride in it ! " With tears in his eyes, old Hill told how 
he had worked forty years for the firm ; how they had 
.all worked hard together. " I was the only porter 
then," he said. "All has changed now. We are the 
biggest firm in the city. And yet," he continued, " those 
days do not look so far off either." John went up to the 
top of the Peel Tower, at Harbybrow. He looked along 
the valley to Whitehall ; and round the surrounding hills. 
It was a grand estate. " Yes," he said, " WE did it." 

Mr. Moore sent his invitations far and wide. He 
asked an old friend and fellow-helper, the branch 


manager at Bristol, to come and visit him at Whitehall. 
"No," said Mr. Brown, "trade wants close attention 
at present, and I can't take a holiday this year." By 
the next post a letter arrived from Mr. Moore, inviting 
him and his wife to Whitehall, and inclosing fifty 
pounds to pay their expenses, " in order," he said, 
"that you may have no excuse for not coming." Mr. 
Brown and his wife accordingly went, and, while there, 
enjoyed the house and estate as f they had been their 
own. When parting, Mr. Moore presented his friend 
with a vase which he admired, as a remembrance of 
the visit. 

George Moore was much distressed about the little 
good that he could do for his native country. " I went," 

he says, " to the Rev. Mr. about his school. I am 

determined to get one built in his heathen parish." 
He was amazed to find a clergyman protesting that he 
" had no time to look after his schools." Another day 
he says, " I do not appear to be able to do any good in 
Cumberland. Ignorance prevails ; and yet when such 
clergymen as Lyde of Wigton and Schnibben at Brom- 
field are doing their utmost, good results must follow. 
Wigton has privileges that were unknown in my day. 
The lads won't make use of the reading-rooms and 
libraries as they should. If they only knew how they 
will regret this afterwards, they would be wiser." 

A great stir was roused in 1865, by a letter addressed 
by Dr. Percival of Clifton College to George Moore, 
on the morality, or rather the immorality, of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland. Dr. Percival was himself a 
Westmoreland man, and, like George Moore, was an 
ardent admirer of his native county. Yet here was a 
blot upon the morality of both counties, revealed by the 
Registrar-General's returns, which he thought ought to 
be obliterated. Eleven out of every hundred children 
born in Cumberland and Westmoreland were illegiti- 


mate. The Times published the letter and followed it 
up with a leading article on the Modern Arcadians of 
Cumberland. "How is the matter to be remedied?" 
said the writer. " We know of no agency capable of 
reaching it except publicity. Let it be clearly under- 
stood and widely made known that the labours of 
clergymen, schoolmasters, and scripture readers are 
thwarted and defeated by conditions of life in these 
counties which ought to be curable." 

The following is from George Moore's diary : " Had 

three hour's talk with Mr. H. as to illegitimacy. I 

find that he does not like my doings. Still he was kind 
and sensible. He said I had raised the anger of some 
of the upper ten thousand. He believed that if I 
persevered, I should lose my political influence. This I 
am prepared to lose. Excelsior! must be my motto." 
In the midst of these inquiries, Mr. Moore went to 
Carlisle, to see the hiring fair. " I was shocked," he 
says, "to see men and women bought like sheep in a 
market, and engaged without knowledge, or references, 
or character." 

Numerous letters appeared in the local newspapers. 
The subject was taken up at the conference of the 
Evangelical Union at Keswick. George Moore was 
blamed for publishing Dr. Percival's letter, and for 
throwing dirt upon Cumberland and Westmoreland. 

George Moore himself was doing the best that he 
could to remedy the evil. The building of schools in 
his native district, the improved education which he 
had sedulously fostered, the extension of Sunday 
schools, the appointment of missionaries who visited the 
poorest of the people and ministered to their spiritual 
welfare, the establishment of working men's reading 
rooms where pure and wholesome literature was circu- 
lated, were among the means which, if rightly carried 
out and earnestly persevered in, were calculated to 


foster morality and elevate the sons and daughters of 
toil into a better and purer life. 

The Dowager Countess Waldegrave, an old lady of 
eighty, came to his help. She attended George Moore's 
competitive examination at Wigton, and addressed the 
pupils and their mothers on the subject of their social 
duties, especially upon thrift, carefulness, and simplicity 
in dress. She had watched through a long life, the 
increasing tendency of English girls to wear fine and 
often tawdry dresses. She told the girls that they 
spent more than they could afford in unnecessary and 
useless finery, and that they did not look well after all. 
She had also a word for the mothers, who had so much 
influence in forming the characters of their children, 
especially of the girls. Nothing, she said, could be done 
without the help of the mothers. It was quite true, 
what Lord Shaftesbury had said : " Give me," said he, 
" a generation of Christian mothers, and I will undertake 
to change the whole face of society in twelve months." 

Another important .subject occupied Mr. Moore's 
attention while in Cumberland, the improvement of 
cottage dwellings. He held that morality begins in the 
home ; and that if you would have society pure, you 
must improve the conditions in which people live. You 
must provide abundant space for sleeping accommoda- 
tion, plenty of pure air, and good drainage. Unless 
these are provided, moral and spiritual influences can 
have but little effect in raising people out of the mire 
in which they have lived. In a letter to the Wigton 
Advertiser, Mr. Moore said " The crowded condition 
of a large number of the labourers' cottages, and the 
pernicious influences they create, are a scandal to the 
proprietors, and would sap the morality of any class of 
people. It is a moral cancer, and education itself is of 
little use while these evils exist." 

In attempting to improve the labourers' cottages of 

268 NIMKOD AGAIN. [CHAP. xvn. 

Cumberland, Mr. Moore was beginning at the beginning. 
To encourage this object and to give the people a pride 
in their homes, he started a competition of cottage 
gardeners. Mr. Potter, his head gardener, was one of 
the chief judges on these occasions. After receiving 
their prizes, the cottagers were entertained in George 
Moore's hospitable mansion. 

George Moore continued as ardent a hunter as ever. 
He had a strong fibre of joyousness in his nature, which 
firmly touched the solid earth. His love of athletic 
sports showed an amount of animalism in him which 
was no bad foundation for a superstructure of practical 
morality and virtue. Nor was it inconsistent with reli- 
gion. His knowledge of men and human nature was 
great. He could work with all and sympathise with all. 
He was no narrow bigot. He had a heart as wide as 
the world. 

At the same time he sometimes became jealous of his 
love of sport. Was the devil, in this way, trying to draw 
him away from better things?. Not at all! It was 
wholesome, it was healthy. He delighted in taking a 
good gallop, because it was good for his constitution, 
and worked off his nervous energy. 

When he went down to Cumberland he knew the 
ground thoroughly, and hunted with more delight than 
anywhere else. One morning in October he met the 
hounds at Westward Parks ; he had them all to himself, 
except the huntsman. Three days after he met the 
hounds at Brayton. They killed the fox, and George 
Moore got the brush. But he did not forget his social 
duties. The same evening he went to see his poor 
pensioners at Boltongate, visited them, and gave them 

On another day he met the Cumberland hounds at 
Waverbridge. " Found a fox in my covers, and ran him 
to earth at Brayton. Found again, and ran him back to 


my covers to earth. Bolted him again, and killed him 
in the open. I never rode better." A few days after 
he went to a hunt breakfast at the Honourable P. Wynd- 
ham's. The pack found and killed two foxes. " I 
hunt," he says, " not only for pleasure, but for my 
health. The exercise does me great good. I really do 
not see any harm in a gallop with the hounds, if I did, 
I would not go out again." 

But again he hesitates about it, and asks, " Is it con- 
sistent with my profession ? Taking the chair at a 
young men's meeting, attending prayer and Bible read- 
ings, and then hunting ?" Again he says, " Had a good 
gallop with the hounds ; killed two foxes. Is this my 
sin, my besetting sin ? If I thought it were, I should 
never hunt again." 

One day he goes out to meet the hounds. " My new 
horse, Bold Boy, on seeing the hounds, rose up on his 
hind feet. I threw myself off, thinking he might come 
down upon me. However, I mounted again, and had 
a capital gallop." Again, " I met the hounds at Crofton 
Hall ; ran three foxes. I must have ridden nearly fifty 
miles. I make my health my excuse. The fresh crisp 
air does me good. I am always at home when on 

In March, 1867, he met with an accident which put 
a stop to his hunting for a time. The meet was at Tor- 
penhow. From thence they went to the top of Binsey, 
a heathery fell to the south of Whitehall. There they 
found a fox, and viewed him away. Always anxious 
to keep up with the hounds, Mr. Moore rode fast down 
the hill. But his bay mare got her foot into a rabbit 
hole, and the rider got a regular cropper. He found 
that his shoulder was stiff. Nevertheless he mounted 
again, and gallop _J away. The hounds were in full cry. 
He kept up pretty well, though his shoulder was severely 


Next day he entertained a dozen friends, amongst 
whom was the master of the hunt and Frank Buck-land. 
Nothing was talked about but fox-hunting. " I think," 
says Mr. Moore, " I must make yesterday my last 
day's hunting." Shortly after he consulted a celebrated 
surgeon at Carlisle about his shoulder. The joint was 
pronounced to be "all right;" though the muscles 
were found to be strained and hurt. Nothing could be 
done for the pain but to grin and bear it. 

Notwithstanding the intense pain in his shoulder, Mr. 
Moore hunted once more. The year after his shoulder 
had been injured, he invited the Cumberland Hunt to 
meet at Whitehall. About sixty horsemen were present. 
They breakfasted in the old Hall, and then proceeded 
to mount. Mr. Moore was in low spirits, because of the 
pain in his shoulder. At first he did not intend to join 
his friends. But Geering, his coachman, urged him to 
go, and Sir Wilfrid Lawson joined in his persuasions. 
At length Mr. Moore's favourite horse, Zouave, was 
brought out, and with his arm in a sling, and a cigar 
in his mouth, he consented to mount. Mrs. Moore and 
Lady Lawson ascended the tower, and saw the brilliant 
red-coats ride away through the park. 

The array of horsemen passed on to Watch-hill and 
found a fox. He was viewed away, and went across 
Whitehall Park, close under the wall of the west-front 
garden, followed by the hounds and riders. It was a 
sight not often to be seen. The day was splendid, 
although it was in November. The sun was shining, 
and the red-coats, jumping hedges and fences amidst 
the green fields, brightened up the picture. The fox 
went up the hill, out of sight of the gazers from the 
tower, and was lost in Parkhouse cover. 

Again the hunt proceeded to Watch-hill, and found 
another fox. Away it went, almost in the same direc- 
tion, passing through Whitehall Park, with the hounds 


and hunters at its heels. There was a slight check at 
Park-wood. Then it took straight away for Binsey, 
went up the side of the hill and passed on to Snittle- 
garth, and was lost at Bewaldeth. 

It grew dark. No more could be done that night. 
No fox had been killed, though the hunters had got a 
splendid run. Mr. Moore returned home with his arm 
in his sling, though nothing the worse for his day's 
exercise. "It was," he says, "a very enjoyable day. 
I -do like a day's hunting, I always feel more light 
s-nd buoyant after it." 

This was his last hunt 1 



ON his return to London from Cumberland, Mr. Moon 
found plenty of work waiting for him. " I am now a 
City man," he says on one occasion ; " I find three 
drawers full of letters, reports, and applications for 
money. I have the best of partners, who let me spend 
three or four months in Cumberland at my will." 
Indeed Mr. Moore had now been working hard for 
the firm for nearly forty years, and was fairly entitled 
to an occasional rest. 

Nevertheless he stood to his work as usual. His 
reappearance at Bow Churchyard was the signal for 
bustle and hard work. It seemed to set the whole gear- 
ing in quicker motion. The word " George Moore has 
arrived ! " passed like magic from mouth to mouth. It 
found every man at his post, from the smallest errand 
boy to the oldest in the firm, at " attention ! " When 
George Moore was in the house, he was a sort of pater- 
nal despot. His influence was great over all who came 
in contact with him. His will was never disputed ; and 
he never abused his power. 

One of the young men who served under him now in 
Iowa, America says of George Moore, " He was the 
most particular man in small things that I ever saw, and 


no doubt this was a great cause of his success. Few 
men could find out a flaw in the accounts which he 
audited, quicker than he did. He was very apt at 
figures, and his decisions, like his movements, were quick 
and correct. I may mention an instance. I was engaged 
in making out the private accounts against the firm 
George Moore's account amongst the rest. To show 
how strict and business-like this merchant prince was, 
and it marked his character all through, he found that I 
had debited his account with 3d. for a ''bus to Euston/ 
for which we had no voucher. 

" We had to keep a voucher for every penny paid out ; 
and though hundreds of such items occurred through- 
out the year, we had no voucher for this. Mr. Moore 
audited the accounts, and though he went over hundreds 
of pounds, he stopped at the threepence for the 'bus to 
Euston. ' Where's the voucher for this ? ' he asked. ' If 
the account be threepence wrong, it might as well be 
three hundred pounds wrong. Find the voucher !' We 
hunted together two of us for three days, without 
effect. We searched through every letter and voucher 
for a year back. Every drawer was ransacked ; and still 
no success. The search was at last given up as hopeless. 
Mr. Moore was told that the voucher for threepence 
could not be found. He was furious ; he refused to pass 
the accounts ; and we couldn't balance. 

" I then recollected a circumstance which had occurred 
jome time before. Mr. Moore had sent to Bow Church- 
yard for a fish, which he requested to be sent to Euston 
station by a porter. Mr. Moore was in a hurry ; he was 
going down to Whitehall. He hadn't time to give the 
porter either a ticket or the money; but promised to 
send it, or give it on his return. The man neglected to 
ask him for it ; and the clerks, knowing the expenditure 
to be right, had debited it to him without a voucher, 



thus infringing one of the strictest rules of the firm. 
On the circumstance being mentioned to him, he at once 
admitted its correctness ; but at the same time he gave 
the clerks a sound lecture for their inaccuracy." 

Among the new objects which he attended to at this 
time, besides those already mentioned, was the Christian 
Community, the Haverstock Hill Orphan Asylum, and 
the Industrial Dwellings Company founded by Alderman 
Waterlow. He took a particular interest in the latter 
company, as its object was to erect cheap buildings for 
the labouring classes. As has already been said, he 
held that without the solid foundation of a healthy 
home, all the efforts made to raise the lower classes 
from their depraved condition, would for the most part 
be comparatively fruitless. 

During the absence of his wife at Ems for the benefit 
of her health, Mr. Moore visited Charles Dickens at 
Gadshill, and enjoyed himself there for several days. 
"I was delighted," he says, "to find that Charles 
Dickens was sound upon the Gospel. I found him a 
true Christian without great profession. I have a great 
liking for him." 

Mr. Moore afterwards proceeded to join his wife at 
Ems. He went by steamer to Antwerp. During the 
voyage he encountered a distinguished-looking clergy- 
man walking the deck. He soon made up to him, and 
the two entered into conversation. They first spoke 
about general topics, and then proceeded to talk about 
the work of the Church. They found that they held 
very different views as to Church policy, and yet they 
were very much pleased with each other. " Who can 
this be ? " thought George Moore. " I know most of 
the Low Church divines. This must be one of a dif- 
ferent order." At last he took the liberty of asking his 
fellow-traveller's name, at the same time giving his own. 


The stranger proved to be Archdeacon Denison. The 
latter has kindly furnished the following recollections 
of the voyage : 

" It was easy to see that we were of very different 
I might say of opposite schools in the matter of the 
religious life. Such differences there must always be, 
and there is no larger field that I know of for the 
exercise of 'charity. ' I had much talk with Mr. Moore, 
and it left a lasting impression upon me, not more 
lasting than comforting. I found a man ready and 
glad to extend to me all the respect and kindliness 
which I was ready and willing to extend to him, one 
who had done great things for himself and for his ; and 
who had not been content to rest there, but had done 
great things to his fellow-men wheresoever he came into 
contact with them. I looked upon him and listened to 
him, with all our wide difference, with the respect, and I 
will add with the love, that is always won by a character 
and life like his. I parted with him with regret, and 
the day has always lived among my happy memories." 

" I never knew a man," said one who knew him well, 
" whose religion was more thoroughly a part of himself." 
He was not ashamed of the views which he held, but 
was ready, on suitable occasions, to speak out his mind. 
When dinirg with a friend, one of the guests ventured 
to ask in general terms, " Surely there is no one here so 
antiquated as to believe in the inspiration of Scripture ? " 
" Yes, I do," said George Moore, from the other side of 
the table, " and I should be very much ashamed of my- 
self if I did not." Silence followed, and the subject was 

The ladies went to the drawing-room, and the gentle- 
men followed. " Can you tell me," asked the non-believer 
in inspiration, of a lady, " who is the gentleman who so 
promptly answered my inquiry in the dining-room ? " 
" Oh, yes ! He is my husband." " I am sorry," said he, 

T 2 


"you have told me that so soon, for I wished to say 
that I have never been so struck with the religious 
sincerity of any one. I shall never forget it." 

One thing astonished George Moore, as it did many 
others, to see clever men assuming the cast-off garb of 
Tom Paine, and going about the country teaching 
atheism under the name of "Science." "There are 
many proud philosophers," said he, " strutting about 
amongst us, telling us that it is of no use to pray to 
God, as He cannot and will not alter the laws of nature. 
In my belief, such philosophers are mere blasphemers." 
And again : " My theology is utterly untouched by the 
plague of rationalism. I have no wavering about the 
inspiration of the Word no picking and choosing amid 
alleged myths no paring down of the atonement." 

Mr. Moore was a great lover of the Bible. He cir- 
culated it far and wide. He sent thousands of copies 
to Cumberland, to be distributed amongst the people. 
He circulated it through the lower parts of London by 
the hands of the City Missionaries. He made presents 
of it to his young men and women, to his porters, and 
to the poor people whom he entertained. He tried to 
introduce it into the bedrooms of every first-class hotel 
in Paris. He succeeded in ten cases ; but failed in 

When the Emperor of Russia was in London in 1867, 
George Moore, with two members of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, waited upon him to present the 
" Bible of every land," and to express their congratu- 
lations upon his Majesty's providential preservation from 
the wicked attempt made upon his life during his visit 
to the Paris Exhibition. To this address, the Emperor 
said : " I thank you from my heart for the sentiments 
which you have now expressed to me. I have been 
profoundly touched by them, and I beg that you will 
make this known to all your countrymen. I sincerely 


thank you for waiting upon me with this address." 
Laying his hand upon his heart, he again said, " I 
have been deeply touched by the sentiments you have 

Religious principle had been a great power in George 
Moore's own life. He wished it to be a great power in 
the lives of others, and he did what he could to make 
it so. Works distinctively Christian were very dear 
to him. Beginning with children and youths, he was 
immovably resolute as to the supreme importance of 
their religious training. He insisted upon having Scrip- 
ture reading in every school whose councils he directed. 
He cared comparatively little for what is called denomi- 
national teaching. He liked the Prayer-book, but he 
loved the Bible. The daily Bible-lesson was a sine qua 
non of his help. Thus, when the Middle-class schools 
were established, Mr. Moore joined hand and heart with 
other wealthy merchants of London in furthering the 
success of the undertaking. 

He was called upon at the end of 1865 and informed 
of the intention to start a series of middle-class Schools 
in and about London. The scheme was so entirely in 
conformity with his views of bridging over the gap be- 
tween the day-schools and the universities, that it at 
once met with his support. He promised to give a 
thousand pounds on one condition that the religious 
education was to be conducted in the same manner as 
in the City of London School. The same condition was 
required by Alderman Hale, then Lord Mayor. 

Dr. Abbott, Head Master of the City of London 
School, informed him that prayers were read there every 
morning and evening, that the Bible was read and the 
knowledge of the boys tested by examination in every 
class of the school. The sons of Jews and Roman 
Catholics who objected to the religious instruction 
given, were of course exempted. This was quite satis- 


factory to Mr. Moore, and he accordingly attended some 
of the meetings of the Middle-class Education Com- 

One day he was absent : there had been many pro- 
posals made for and against, when the honorary secre- 
tary, a clergyman, gave his opinion of the discussions 
that were going on about " sound religious instruction," 
by uttering the expressive formula, " Hang theology, let 
us begin ! " " These terrible words," says the Saturday 
Review, " were duly read by Mr. Moore in the Standard 
of next day and his resolution was at once taken. 
Whether the hanging of theology is or is not sanctioned 
by the Bishop of London, it is not, it seems, adopted in 
the City of London School, and accordingly Mr. Moore 
assumed that the stipulated condition had been dis- 
regarded, and that he was therefore freed from his bar- 

A controversy took place between Mr. Tite and Mr. 
Moore. The former demanded the promised subscrip- 
tron : the latter refused, because the condition on which 
he had promised the subscription had not been com- 
plied with. Besides, Mr. Moore ascertained that reli- 
gious instruction was altogether disregarded. " I am 
in a position to state," said one who knew, " that no 
class in the Middle-class School begins or ends with 
prayer, nor is the Bible used in any way. There is no 
approximation existing, or likely to exist (so far as pre- 
sent experiences go) towards religious instruction in that 

Mr. Moore stuck to his point. It was not a matter 
of money with him, but a matter of principle. He 
declined to pay a farthing until the promised condition 
had been fulfilled. In the course of the correspondence 
Mr. Moore said that " education, without direct religious 
teaching, is a mere delusion. It is like launching a ship 
on a dark night, in a storm, without helm or compass. 


It is professing to train immortal beings that they may 
run the race of life and obtain a happy hereafter, and 
yet not giving them any rule how to run so as to 

The strong, clear, direct common sense, which had 
gained him his reputation as a man of business, guided 
him throughout He saw that to talk about a good and 
complete education, from which religion was purposely 
excluded, was sheer nonsense; that teaching morals 
without religious practice, was merely building upon a 
foundation of sand. In his Diary, he says : " The 
Bishop has given me liberty to publish his letters for 
my vindication in the case of the middle-class schools. 
Tite, M.P., has been bullying me for months for the 
money I promised conditional on their being identical 
with the City of London School. I hope I am not 
mistaken in standing out. If I am wrong it is very 

The correspondence was published. Mr. Moore was 
inundated with letters approving of his conduct. The 
newspapers were full of articles and correspondence on 
the subject. It was at last found necessary to fall in 
with his wish. The Bishop of London visited the 
schools, and examined the arrangements. He informed 
Mr. Moore " that the head master now gives religious 
instruction to each boy whose parents do not claim that 
he should be exempted. These religious instructions, 
which occupy the first hour of every day, are com- 
menced by prayer given by a clergyman of the Church 
of England. This is the arrangement which, I am 
assured, has been adopted in consequence of, or at least 
following upon, the correspondence of last summer, and 
I think they are wise and good." 

This assurance was perfectly satisfactory to Mr. 
Moore. He went himself to visit the schools. He 
enters this memorandum on the subject: "May 5th, 


1868. I have this morning heard the Rev. Mr. Jowett 
give two lessons at the Middle-class Schools which lasted 
an hour and a half. This was my second visit. I am 
bound to say that I have no longer any hesitation in 
paying the thousand pounds, which I have done to-day. 
I thank God that I have fought this fight manfully, 
and have succeeded in getting the Bible and prayers 
into these schools. This has been accomplished by 
perseverance. I felt it was my duty, or I could never 
have fought the battle single-handed against the Council, 
composed as it was of the first men in the city." 

It may also be mentioned that Mr. Moore supple- 
mented his gift to the Middle-class Schools by investing 
five hundred pounds in the name of the Corporation 
for the encouragement of the study of Holy Scripture. 
There is a half-yearly examination on the subject, and 
the income arising from tne amount is expended in 
prizes for the boys who distinguish themselves. 

While this controversy was going on, Mr. Moore 
was occupied in erecting a church in the northern part 
of London. He had, from the first, been on the com- 
mittee of the Bishop of London's Fund. Something 
had been accomplished, but a great deal more remained 
to be done. George Moore modestly says in his 
Diary : " I spent three hours to-day with the Bishop 
of London's Fund ; but I don't think myself useful." 
In June, 1866, he invited a distinguished party to his 
house in Kensington Palace Gardens, to receive state- 
ments of the work which had been done, and of the 
further help that was required. The Bishop of London 
and Lord Shaftesbury were the principal speakers. In 
the course of the Bishop's speech, he said of one 
district : l 

1 The distnct was at Spitalfiel<?s, in the east of London. The facts 
above stated are for the most part taken from the Report of the Rev. 
R. H. Hammond, then in charge of the district referred to by the Bishop 
of London. 


" Not one person in a hundred habitually attends a 
place of worship. Of the 228 shops in the district, 212 
are open on Sunday ; though about 70 are closed on 
Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Not half the Gentile 
population can read ; half the women cannot ply a 
needle. One mothers' meeting has seventy members, 
half of whom, though living with men and having 
families, are unmarried. Nine families out of ten have 
but one small room in which to live, eat, and sleep. 
Not one family in six possesses a blanket, or a change 
of clothing. Not one in four has any bedding beyond 
some sacking, which contains a little flock or chopped 
straw. Not one in twenty has a clock; not one in 
ten has a book. Many of the houses are in the most 
wretched condition of filth and dirt. The walls, ceil- 
ings, floors, and staircases are broken and rotten. 
Drunkenness, brawling, blaspheming, and other sins, 
are fearfully prevalent. Forty-three lodging-houses 
accommodate two thousand lodgers, who pay from 
threepence to sixpence a night. Some are occupied 
by poor hard-working people, gaining an honest liveli- 
hood, while others are called 'thieves' kitchens,' the 
lodgers living by theft, burglary, and other criminal 

What a picture of London in the nineteenth century ! 
London, the richest city in the world London, 
with its mercantile wealth London, with its gaiety, 
its luxury, and its enormous expenditure ; and yet 
London, with its seething mass of want, wickedness, 
and crime lurking underneath a mere whited sepulchre, 
beautiful outward, but within full of dead men's bones 
and all uncleanness ! 

George Moore knew well enough the condition of 
London in its lowest aspects ; but this picture of it by 
the Bishop moved his heart, and immediately suggested 
the question What can I do to remedy this terrible 


spiritual destitution ? An attempt had already been 
made to erect a new church in Kensington, where 
the people were rich enough to build any number of 
churches. But could not something be done for an 
utterly lost neighbourhood, such as this ? His resolve 
was at once made. "Do you find the site and the 
place," said George Moore to the Bishop, " and I will 
find the money." 

A place was pointed out It was at Somers Town, 
a poor and long-neglected district. It lies north 
of the New Road, between Euston and King's Cross 
Stations. It contained some fifteen thousand people. 
A walk through the main street in which the Sunday 
market was held was enough to impress one with 
the semi-barbarism which prevailed in the neighbour- 
hood. Care and poverty were written on every face. 
Rags and dirt abounded. The food offered for sale 
was coarse, and the manner of buyers and sellers was 
no better. 

Into this modern heathendom, the Committee of the 
Diocesan Home Mission had been urged to introduce 
the Gospel. Two centres of missionary labour had 
been established, and some successful work had been 
done. But it was not enough. The cry still was, 
" Come over and help us." Such was the state of 
things when George Moore took the matter up. A 
few days after the interview at Palace Gardens, he 
went to Somers Town to examine the district. He 
says in his Diary : " I walked over the worst district 
in London. Fifteen thousand population. No one 
pays more than 30 rent a year. I decided at once 
that I would build a church here for the Diocesan 
Home Mission." 

No sooner said than done. Lo " Somers provided 
a freehold site for the church in Chailton Street. An 
architect (Mr. Newman) was employed, who prepared 


the design of the building. Contracts were entered 
into, and the church was finished and ready for opening 
by the end of 1868. Schools were afterwards added. 
Accommodation was provided in the church for about 
a thousand people and in the schools for over a thousand 
children. The latter received day-school instruction on 
week days, and Sunday-school instruction on Sundays. 
Mr. Moore spent 15,000 on the buildings ; and he also 
subscribed 250 a year to carry on the parish work 
necessary in so poor and miserable a locality. The 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners granted an endowment 
of .300 per annum to the vicar of the new church. 
The work was a great and a happy one, as the results 
afterwards proved. 

The style of the church is simple, but chaste. It is 
in the early English decorated style. Mrs. Moore pre- 
sented the finely-carved pulpit, which bears the follow- 
ing inscription : " The gift of Agnes, the loving wife of 
George Moore, who built this church for the glory of 
God." The organ was presented by Mr. Copestake, 
and the font by Mr. George Stockdale, both intimate 
friends of Mr. Moore. The church was opened and con- 
secrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury-elect, on 
the 23rd December, 1868. It was his last official act 
as Bishop of London. 

After the morning service, the Archbishop and some 
sixty or seventy ladies and gentlemen, lunched with 
Mr. Moore at his house in Kensington Palace Gardens. 
On that occasion Mr. Moore stated that the church 
which had been consecrated that day owed its existence 
to the fund which his Lordship had been instrumental 
in forming. He had done what he could to supply the 
spiritual wants of the neglected population of Somers 
Town. There were hundreds of wealthy men in 
London who could do the same for other districts. Let 
them come forward, and take their fair share in the 


work. The Archbishop-Designate followed Mr. Moore. 
He said : 

"I do not know that there could be a more appropriate way of 
ending my connection with the diocese than in consecrating this 
church. We have been engaged now for a great many years in the 
very important work of endeavouring to increase the means of 
spiritual instruction in the destitute parts of London. We have 
always tried to bring before the consciences of those whom God 
has blessed with wealth, the duty of assisting their poorer brethren ; 
and of the many notable instances which, in the course of the last 
few years, we have had to record of persons who have come for- 
ward to assist in this work in destitute places, there is none that is 
more satisfactory to my own mind than the particular instance 
which has brought us together here to-day. Here we see a man 
whom God has blessed with wealth, and whom he has raised to a 
great post through the influence of commerce, recognising the re- 
sponsibilities that lie upon him and looking out, not for a place in 
which he is personally interested, but for a place which has no 
particular claim upon him except its poverty and destitution ; and 
that is the very thing we have been endeavouring to force upon 
men's consciences for a number of years past. I am not going to 
praise my good friend Mr. Moore, for I know that to do so would 
be distasteful both to him and to Mrs. Moore. I have known him 
for many years. Our connection began in Cumberland, where we 
joined together in good works, especially in regard to education, 
which was perhaps the first thing that brought us together. Dur- 
ing the time I have been in London Mr. Moore has been a great 
supporter to me in works of this kind, and I trust that for many 
years to come he will in this great city show forth the example of a 
man who uses God's gifts for the good purposes for which God 
has given them." 

Mr. Moore followed. He said that "he did not wish 
to claim any credit for building the church, and that if 
anybody owed any gratitude to God, he was the man. 
When he first came to London he never expected to. be 
able to do so much ; and he thought he might honestly 
say that what he had done he had done disinterestedly." 

It may be mentioned that, in connection with the new 
church, funds were appropriated for the support of 
national schools, Sunday schools, church choir, maternity 
society, general missions, district society for visiting the 
poor, coal club, clothing club, parents' tea, school treats, 
temperance society, and penny bank. 

CHAP, xviii.] LARGENESS Of HEART. 285 

With regard to the latter institution, it may be men- 
tioned that, in the poorer districts, there is no bettei 
method of checking intemperance, the curse of modern 
society, than by inducing young as well as old to save 
their spare pennies in a penny bank; for whatever is 
deposited there is so much money rescued from the 

A week after the consecration of the church at Somers 
Town, the confirmation of the new Archbishop of Can- 
terbury took place at St. Mary-le-bow, Cheapside, close 
to the warehouse of Mr. Moore and his partners. After 
the ceremony, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Bishops of Oxford, Gloucester, Ely, and the Bishop-elect 
of London, with many of their chaplains, lunched with 
Mr. Moore and his partners in Bow Churchyard. 

Nor did Mr. Moore confine his help to the Church of 
England. He was large-minded and heart-whole. " If 
any of my fellow-Christians," he said, "live in Church of 
England Square, Wesleyan Street, Independent Road, 
Baptist Lane or Brethren Row, I am still to love them, 
and to seek their welfare." 

He took the chair at Mr. Spurgeon's Tabernacle, and 
helped the Orphanage by a liberal subscription. "I 
went to Mr. Spurgeon's in the evening," he said. " What 
a wonderful sight ! He sent for me, and I introduced 
my friends to him." 

When the Rev. Morley Punshon was about to set out 
for America, Mr. Moore was requested to take the chair, 
and he had the pleasure of presenting him with a purse 
of seven hundred guineas, which had been collected 
amongst Mr. Punshon's friends. 

One of his warmest friends was the Rev. Dr. Stough- 
ton, who took part in his Bible-readings, and often lent 
him his schoolrooms at Hornton Street for his Christ- 
mas dinners. " Dr. Stoughton," he said in his diary, 
" is a living Christian. He speaks well of all denomi- 


nations. Thank God there will be no denominations in 

Mr. Moore frequently took the chair at Dr. Stough- 
ton's chapel, at the meetings of the schools, and of the 
Young Mens' Missionary Association. 

On such occasions he had to make a speech. This 
was a great burden to him, for speaking at public meet- 
ings often prevented him from sleeping at night. Yet 
he cheerfully undertook the work, thinking it to be his 
duty. " I have often," he says, " made stern resolutions 
not to overwork myself, and to take more relaxation, 
but NO is not learnt in a day." 

Among the institutions in which he took a great in- 
terest was the Christian Community, founded by the 
Rev. John Wesley in 1772. Its objects were to visit 
and preach the Gospel in workhouses, lodging-houses, 
asylums, public rooms, and in the open air. George 
Moore was attracted by the work. Its object was to 
find the lost and raise up the fallen. The members of 
the Community visited the hospitals, the female refuges, 
and even the lowest threepenny-a-night lodging-houses. 
George Moore helped them liberally . with his purse 
and with his voice. On one occasion, when the anni- 
versary of the community was held in Shaftesbury Hall, 
Aldersgate Street, Mr. Moore presided, and made one 
of his best speeches. 

" He was heartily glad that he had fallen in with such a 
society. He liked their principle: it was aggressive. They 
did not wait for the people to come to them : they went 
to the people themselves. The good the Community had 
done would never be known by the world. He advocated 
their having a hall of their own. At present they had 
not a place to put their heads into. He thought it was a 
great shame to London that such a self-denying society as 
this should be crippled in its onward progress and good 
works for want of funds. Why, as to funds, they had not a 


fourpenny-piece to give to any poor creature who might 
solicit their alms. He thought all could do something to 
help so great a cause. Many people thought they could 
do nothing in consequence of their position being humble, 
and their means so small. He believed that all could 
do something, no matter how little it was. He knew 
many men in the City who seemed to him to do nothing 
else but work, eat, drink, and sleep. They never thought 
or cared for anything else ; they never cared for anybody 
but themselves. On the other hand, some men wanted 
to do too much. They promised to attend to ten or 
twenty things, but neglected them -all. He believed, 
however, that mere money, unless it was given for the 
love of Jesus, would be as filthy rags in the sight of 
God. He looked to the heart, not to the action. The 
Bishop of London's Fund had become a very fashion- 
able thing, and many persons gave money because it 
was the fashion ; but there their work ended. . . . He 
was desirous of seeing the gulf that stood between the 
rich and the poor lessened, and he was of opinion that 
mutual advantage and benefit would arise to all by their 
more frequently mingling together." 

In 1867 Mr. Moore was appointed justice of the peace 
for the county of Middlesex. This was done at the in- 
stance of Lord Salisbury. He took his seat on the bench, 
and attended to the administration of justice. He also 
frequently attended the committee to administer relief 
to the poor at the Mansion House. This was during the 
Winter of 1867, when great starvation existed in the east 
end of London. "The Mansion House distress fund," he 
says, " occupies a great deal of my time. And yet I 
like this work. My correspondence constantly increases. 
All sorts of applications for money and advice." 

About this time Philip H dined at his house. 

" He is a Roman Catholic," said he, " but he is safe for 
heaven." And again he writes, " There is a strange ten- 


dency in human nature to take trusts as possessions, and 
gifts as rights. We see it in everything. We live on the 
wealth of another : we rest on the work of another." 

In July, 1868, he was again asked to .represent an im- 
portant constituency in Parliament. He was requested 
to contest Mid-Surrey along with Sir Julian Goldsmid. 
"The only condition," said the letter of invitation ad- 
dressed to him, " that would be required, would be to 
support Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church policy." It was 
stated that if he consented to stand, his return was 
certain. He declined, not only because his numerous 
engagements prevented him, but because he did not 
support Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church policy. The 
party might be trying their hand on the English 
Church next. He wished the Church to be reformed, 
not destroyed. He accordingly declined to propose 
Mr. Crawford for the City, and Lord Enfield for Mid- 
dlesex. He writes in his Diary : " I am called a turn- 
coat. My Liberal friends assail me. These friends of 
tolerance are rather intolerant. I must go their way, 
and not mine. I will not vote for any man that wishes 
to destroy the Irish Church. Thank God, I have a 
conscience left. My Liberal friends don't see this." 

In June, 1868, Mr. Moore became prime warden of 
the Fishmongers' Company. He had been elected on 
the court about twelve years before, and regularly at- 
tended the meetings of the company. The Fishmongers 
is one of the oldest guilds in the City of London. Origi- 
nally its use was to protect the rights of the merchants' 
ships and boats bringing fruit and fish from the southern 
seas. It had special rights on the waters of the Thames, 
and to this day appoints two persons, the company's 
" meters," who prevent the landing and sale of unwhole- 
some fish within the jurisdiction of London. The com- 
pany had always been associated with the Whigs and 
Liberals; consequently George Moore had become early 


identified with its interests. When he Was elected on 
the court, he took frequent opportunities of pointing 
out the good objects to which the funds of the company 
might be devoted. He regarded it as a source 1 from 
which money might be obtained for beneficent objects. 
The court was always most generous in yielding to his 

He did not do the work connected with the Fish- 
mongers' Company in a perfunctory manner. He did 
it thoroughly, as was his wont. The company had a 
large number of pensioners. He did not trust to the 
reports of visitors, but visited them himself. He spent 
whole days in going about from house to house. One 
day he visited about sixty poor people, pensioners of 
the Fishmongers. Then, the company had large estates 
in Ireland. He determined to look into their condition 

During one of his summer visits to Whitehall, he 
resolved to make his Irish journey. He went by Silloth 
to Dublin, to visit his branch establishment there. 
"Many old and living scenes," he says, "were repro- 
duced in my mind. It was often my resort in olden 
times." He next went to Killarney, and proceeded 
northwards by way of Athlone and Enniskillen taking 
the opportunity of calling upon his customers in all the 
towns that he passed through. 

1 Among the subscriptions which Mr. Moore obtained from the Fish- 
mongers' Company were the following : 

A hundred guineas for the British Home for Incurables. 

A hundred guineas for Mr. Spurgeon's Orphanage. 

^"50 for the Neapolitan Refugees. 

;ioo and jio annually for the Royal Free Hospital. 

too for the Great Northern Hospital. 

^500 for the Bishop of London's Fund. 

Fifty guineas for Mrs. Meredith's Home for Female Convicts. 

y> for Bread Street Ward Schools. 

^50 for the Little Boys' Home. 

Fifty guineas for Cabman's Benevolent ; the same for Cabman's Mission. 

Twenty-five guineas for Workshops for the blind. 

And ;i,ooo for the Middle Class Schools. 


He then arrived at Londonderry. From this point 
he visited the estates held by the Fishmongers. He 
visited the farms and the farmers ; the two dispensaries 5 
the Catholic church, and the two Presbyterian churches. 
But most of all he visited the schools. He had one of 
his competitive examinations at Ballykelly school. He 
gave the children prizes, and entertained them at tea. 
There were eight schools in all to visit, with the same 
objects. He was not pleased with the manner in which 
the schools were conducted. He had come fresh from 
his own schools in Cumberland. "I am quite con- 
vinced," he said, "that we are here upon a rotten 
system. The examination by the Board is a farce, and 
also by the Church of England inspectors. I had a long 
consultation with the Northern Board at Ballykelly. 
The Rev. Mr. Edwards thereon roughly agreed with me 
about the system that it was inefficient." 

Mr. Moore next visited the tenantry. At Walworth 
he walked through five or six hundred acres of wood. 
He then lunched with George Cuther, one of the best 
and largest farmers. On Sunday he attended the 
Ballykelly church, and heard an excellent sermon from 
the Protestant preacher. After looking over the slot 
embankment, erected to inclose a hundred acres of land, 
and visiting all the remaining farmers on the estate, he 
returned by way of the Giant's Causeway and Belfast, 
and embarked for Morecambe Bay, which he reached 
after an absence from England of about three weeks. 

The usual splendid banquets of the Company were 
given during his Prime Wardenship. There was the 
Liberal Ministerial Banquet, at which the Prime 
Minister (Mr. Gladstone), and nearly all the principal 
ministers were present. On that occasion Mr. Gladstone 
was presented with the freedom of the Company. Mr. 
Moore distinguished himself by the vigour of his 
speeches. In proposing the health of the Army, he 


said : " There is an old maxim, but experience has not 
proved its wisdom in practice ; it is, ' if you wish to 
preserve peace, prepare for war.' I am or a dif. /ent 
opinion ; if you wish to preserve peace, prepare for 
peace. Nations that are constantly arming, adopt the 
readiest means to promote war, and nations that have 
made great preparations foi war are very apt to test the 
efficiency of their army." Arid with a broad hint to 
certain men very much given to foreign interference, he 
said : " I hope the day has gone by when Ministers are 
perpetually discussing the affairs of other nations un- 
asked, instead of attending to their own." 

In the course of his Prime Wardenship, he had one 
particular banquet, at which the two Archbishops were 
present, six Bishops, and many leading clergymen and 
ministers, of whom the Rev. Mr. Binney was one. On 
the 24th of June, 1869, he says: "I presided over the 
Fishmongers' banquet for the last time. Thank God, 
it is over !" 

While he was Prime Warden, he was suffering from 
the intense pain in his shoulder, caused by his accident 
in the hunting-field in March, 1867. He had consulted 
the most eminent surgeons. They could find no cure 
for the pain in his shoulder. Some called it neuralgia, 
others rheumatism. Some recommended a six months' 
sea-voyage ; others strapped up his shoulder with plas- 
ters, and told him to keep his arm in a sling. At length 
the pain became unbearable. Sometimes the shoulder 
grew very black. The dislocation forward, which it 
seems to have been, interrupted the circulation of the 
blood. On the yth December, 1868, he writes with 
difficulty in his diary: "I was struck down with neural- 
gia at the Middlesex Hospital, when on a committee for 
selecting a clergyman. I had my shoulder cut open to 
insert morphia : pain very bad ! " 

He was taken home in a cab by the late Mr. De 

U 2 


Morgan, surgeon. When he entered his house, he clung 
by a pillar, as if he were drunk. He could scarcely get 
up to his bedroom, and there he dozed and rambled ; 
but the pain was somewhat relieved. He called in one 
of the most eminent surgeons in London, but, as Mr. 
Moore writes, " he did not understand my shoulder." 
Another surgeon was called in, and still another ; but 
the result was the same. It was with great difficulty 
that he could attend the consecration of his church in 
Somers Town, with his arm in a sling. " The shoulder," 
he says, " is not so black as formerly, but the pain is 
more acute." Then the first physician in London was 
called in, but he could only say, " It is a most painful 
affection of the shoulder joint." The patient already 
knew that. But the physician as well as the surgeons 
could do nothing for him. 

He went about, though looking very ill, to the Field 
Lane Refuge, to the Industrial Dwellings, to Christ's 
Hospital, to the Court of the Fishmongers. He even 
travelled down to York to stay for a few days with the 
Archbishop. On his return to London, he attended a 
meeting of Christ's Hospital " about a reform in the 
mode of education in the school." A few days later he 
says, " the neuralgia came on fearfully all day, and at 
night I was in torture." Mrs. Moore " rushed off in the 

brougham to fetch Dr. , that he might see my arm 

at the blackest" Still nothing could be done. Then 

Mr. came, and plastered and bandaged up my 

arm." The patient could not write ; it was with difficulty 
that he could sign a cheque. His wife then became his 
amanuensis. At a banquet at the Fishmongers', he was 
seized with one of his furious paroxysms of neuralgia. 
A surgeon was sent for, who came and gave him 

At length he could bear his pain no longer. He had 
been advised to go to a well-known bone-setter. No 1 


he would not do that. He had put himself in the hands 
of the first surgeons of the day. Why should he go to 
an irregular practitioner? At length, however, he was 
persuaded by his friends. As the surgeons had done 
their best, why should he not try the bone-setter ? He 
called upon Mr. Hutton at his house. He looked at the 
shoulder, " Well, he would try and put k in." This was 
new comfort. Mr. Hutton recommended his patient to 
buy some neat's-foot oil, and rub it in as hot as he could 
bear it. "Where can we buy the stuff?" asked Mrs. 
Moore. " You can take a soda-water bottle and get it 
at a tripe shop in Tottenham Court Road." " We have 
not got a soda-water bottle with us." " You can get 
one at the corner, at the public house ! You might get 
it at a druggist's," he continued, "but he will charge you 
three times as dear." 

The neat's-foot oil was at last got ; the shoulder was 
duly rubbed with it ; and the bone-setter arrived at 
Kensington Palace Gardens to do his best or his worst. 
He made Mr. Moore sign a paper before he proceeded 
with his operation, in which the former agreed to be 
satisfied whether failure or success was the result. 
Hutton took the arm in his hand, gave it two or three 
turns, and then gave it a tremendous twist in the socket. 
The shoulder-joint was got in ! George Moore threw 
his arm out with strength, straight before him, and said, 
" I could fight," whereas a moment before he could not 
raise it two inches. It had been out for nearly two 

Mr. Moore was taken to task by his professional 
friends for going to a quack about his shoulder. " Well," 
said he, " quack or no quack, he cured me, and that was 
all I wanted. 'Whereas I was blind, now I see.'" 

After presenting a bust of Lord Brougham and a 
silver claret-jug to the Fishmongers', in memory of his 
prime wardenship, he set out for Cumberland, and in- 


vited Mr. Hutton to join him at Whitehall as a friend. 
When "his benefactor," as he called him, arrived at 
Whitehall, he gave him a hearty welcome, and sent him 
away rejoicing. Mr. Moore was no more troubled with 
his shoulder. 

Hutton died very soon afterwards, and Mr. Moore 
remarks in his diary that he was as much struck by his 
unworldliness as by his skill, for he refused to take any 
fee additional to the ^5 that was at first asked. It was 
with great pressure that Mr. Moore prevailed upon him 
to take ;5 more. 

During his repeated accessions of pain, he entered, or 
made Mrs. Moore enter, many memoranda in his diary, 
of which we subjoin a few : 

" We must wait till the day dawns and the shadows 
flee away, to know how wise and suitable every dealing 
of God is with us." 

" I am ashamed to think that I sometimes doubt 
whether God hears my prayers, they are so poor, so 
weak, so spiritless. I thank God my faith is as simple 
as a child's." 

"I have sorrows to go through, but they will only 
prove joy afterwards. Whom our Master loveth, He 
chasteneth. ' No cross, no crown.' As I suffer, so I 
shall enjoy." 

" Prayer is the mightiest influence men can use. 
Like the dew in summer, it makes no noise. It is 
unseen, but produces immense results." 

" Exercise is the secret of a healthy body, and active 
working for God is the secret of a healthy soul. He 
that watereth others shall be watered himself." 

"This is the last July Sunday I may ever see. This 
wasting frame may sink beneath the sod. This busy 
hand may then be still. Every day I get warnings ; so 
many of my old friends are passing away." 

"'Just as I am, without one plea,' a poor unworthy 


sinner. Christ takes me as I am without money, or 
price, or works. Oh, my works are nothing ! " 

" It is a great trial to my faith to reconcile man's 
liberty with God's sovereignty; and yet no one can 
read the Bible without seeing both plainly." 

" Christ does not uproot human feelings. He only 
directs and elevates them. It is right for a man to be 
ambitious of success, to be ambitious of usefulness in 
His good service." 

" What is the unpardonable sin ? Is it a clear 
intellectual knowledge of the Gospel, with a deliberate 
rejection of it, and a wilful choice of evil ? " 



THE revival of education in Cumberland had so far 
succeeded. It had started from a small beginning. At 
first it embraced only the neighbourhood of Mealsgate. 
From thence it had extended to the neighbouring 
parishes. When the Competitive Examinations were 
begun, the whole of the adjoining schools were in- 

But now that the thing had got fairly established, 
George Moore desired that it should stand by itself. 
He was anxious to get rid of the responsibility of getting 
up and undertaking the competitive examinations. He 
attended a meeting of the Diocesan Education Society 
at Carlisle, where he carried all his resolutions, for the 
purpose of organising a competitive examination in 
every rural deanery in the diocese. 

George Moore took a special interest in the last com- 
petitive examination held at Wigton. Two hundred 
and eighty prizes were given away to masters and 
scholars, who came from all parts of the county to re- 
ceive them. The Bishop of Carlisle (Waldegrave) exa- 
mined the scholars in Scripture, and presented the prizes. 
The meeting was held in a large marquee, capable of 
accommodating a thousand people, yet many could not 
find admission, and crowded round the entrance. 


The Rev. Dr. Jex-Blake, Master of Rugby, was pre- 
sent, and made an excellent speech. He said, " He 
was too happy at school as a boy, and his school recol- 
lections were too fresh and pleasant, not to be thoroughly 
at home with the boys ; and his own present work at 
Rugby was too intensely interesting for him not to be 
thoroughly in sympathy with the masters. He could 
particularly sympathise with them when they had to 
struggle against those who ought to be their best friends, 
the parents of children, who grudged their children's 
time, and who would not permit them to receive a good 
sound education. He knew how hard the mere routine 
of a teacher's work was, but he must believe in culture 
for its own sake. He had recently seen a pleasantly- 
written article in the Quarterly on Westmoreland,, in 
which he came across a proverb, which he feared he 
would spoil in quoting. It was lamentably one-sided, 
and something like the following : ' Nobbut gie us a 
guid skeulmaister, and a varra moderate parson will deu? 
He believed in the good schoolmaster, but not in the 
moderate parson. He had been told that the increase 
and progress of education in this county had been very 
great. He was certain that he who was now at the 
head of the diocese was most zealously determined to 
maintain and work up the education to the highest pos- 
sible standard in God's sight. Still schoolmasters could 
do a great deal. He instanced Scotland as a country 
which had been greatly benefited by the common spread 
of education. What was it that enabled so many Scotch- 
men to attain far higher positions than those from wlrch 
they originally came ? It was the kirk and schools of the 
country, her sturdy faith in a sturdy Protestantism, and 
a sturdy education." 

One of the most interesting events of the meeting was 
the presentation of a parting address of the schoolmasters 
of the district to George Moore, which had been beauti- 


fully illuminated on vellum for the masters by a lady in 
Wigton. It was as follows : 

" DEAR SIR, We, the undersigned teachers, whose pupils 
attend from time to time your competitive examinations, beg to 
fulfil the desire, long cherished in our hearts, of testifying how 
highly we appreciate the deep interest which you take in the cause 
of education generally, and in our own schools in particular. The 
present occasion being one of more than ordinary interest, has 
been thought a fitting time for doing so ; but we assure you that 
this address is not presented as a mere matter of form : it is a 
spontaneous proof of our heartfelt gratitude for numerous benefits 
received at your hands. 

" We desire to express to you our sense of the obligations under 
which we lie for your uniform kindness, hospitality, consideration, 
and sympathy ; and to assure you that to your cordial aid in divers 
ways much of the success that has attended our labours for the last 
few years is exclusively due. We feel especially grateful for your 
great boon to the cause of education the Wigton Prize Scheme 
in which such deserved prominence is given to religious instruction, 
assuring you that its good effects cannot be over-estimated. It has 
created a spirit of generous rivalry among teachers, and infused a 
more lively interest in their studies into the minds of the children 
by supplying a stimulus in the shape of emulation, prizes, and 
rewards, such as exist in the great public schools. 

" Thus a great impulse has been given to the work of education ; 
a higher standard has been reached, a higher tone induced, and 
greater mental vigour developed ; schools have increased in num- 
ber, and the evils of irregular attendance have been modified. 
Nor are the good effects confined to our schools. The large num- 
ber of valuable books which you distribute every year provide the 
recipients with the means of carrying on their education after 
leaving school, and also supply their parents with a great induce- 
ment to employ their leisure hours in reading. 

" As schoolmasters we are glad of the privilege of sending 
candidates to your competitive examinations, and feel it an honour 
to be thus connected with you in a common cause. The only re- 
ciprocal service in our power we now offer the tribute of our 
esteem and respect. Long may Mrs. Moore and you live to be the 
objects of regard and channels of blessing to all around you, con- 
tinuing to carry on the plans of benevolence supported by your 
princely munificence. That God's richest blessing may rest upon 
her and you. and also upon your labours of love, is our fervent 
wish and prayer." 

The address was signed by fourteen schoolmasters. 
Mr. Moore replied to them as follows : 

" I beg to thank you most cordially for your address, and for the 
kind mention you make of my wife and myself in it. The desire 


to help forward in some measure, however small, the education of 
the children of my native county has been very dear to me ; and 
it is very gratifying to have your sympathy and your approbation 
of my efforts. When I look round on you all, and see what an 
intelligent and earnest body of men are here as schoolmasters, I 
feel thankful indeed that it is so. 

" Not many years since the idea was somewhat prevalent that 
any man was good enough for a schoolmaster. I can recall many 
instances of men who had broken down in other walks of life 
(perhaps as colliers, having unfitted themselves for a coal-pit life 
by breaking a leg) being made schoolmasters, assuming the re- 
sponsibilities of educators of youth, and no one was surprised at 
the assumption. This state of things, thank God, has now gone 
to that prison house of the past from which there is no recall. 

" For my part, I confess that I hold no man fit for the office who 
has not something of the missionary in him. He must have a large 
portion of the spirit of Him who 'went about doing good.' In 
other words, he must give himself to his vocation as a man who 
feels that it is one of those works which are to be undertaken with 
a willing heart and fervent spirit, and for no selfish ends. 

" The Bishop of London the other day, in a correspondence on 
the Middle-class School, gave the following axioms, which he says 
he inherited from Dr. Arnold, if he did not receive them before he 
came under the influence of his great authority. First, That a 
system of mere secular instruction is not education. Secondly, 
That there can be no real education without religious teaching, 
and that such religious teaching must be based on doctrine in the 
highest and purest sense of that word. Thirdly, That when 
circumstances make people rest satisfied with a system of mere 
secular instruction in any educational institution, they consent to 
act under a great disadvantage, to which they ought not to subject 
those whom they would instruct without a proved necessity, and with- 
out taking other means to fill up the deficiency. Fourthly, That 
it is quite possible to give a sound Christian education and instruc- 
tion, based on the great Gospel verities, which shall include the mass 
of English children, even those who do not belong to the Church. 

" I am sure you understand that I do not underrate storing your 
pupils' minds with all knowledge this is your work ; but I feel 
that education without religious teaching is a mere delusion, and 
will have no abiding influence on your scholars. 

" I thank you especially for what you say of the good brought 
about by my prize scheme. When I look back at the twelve years 
we have now worked together, and at the discouragements I first 
met with, I must say I am grateful for what you say. Many then 
said it would end in the masters being mere 'crammers of a few 
boys to obtain the prizes,' without any solid and honest education. 
We have lived down this unjust reflection, for I was sure you would 
always do justice to the work to which you have been called. 

" You know I have always spoken the truth to you, sometimes 
very plainly. Now I wish that such a thing as a drunken school- 


master was a thing unknown ; thank God, there are but very few of 
them left. Many of you labour in some remote village, where you 
are almost the centre of intelligence to those you teach, perhaps to 
their parents also. From you might flow the influence to raise ihe 
tone of morality and sobriety around you. The mo~t frequent cry 
we hear now in the newspapers is of the ignorance which prevails in 
all our rural agricultural districts ; I hope that this cannot be said of 
this part of Cumberland. You have no doubt many difficulties and 
trials, and schoolmasters have always had my real sympathy. They 
seem so often to have to fight their battle singlehanded, and sincere 
and earnest as they may be, disappointments and failures and 
sorrows must be a part of their work. 

" But -we are apt to dwell too much on the burden of our lot. My 
own tlieory of hfe is, that it would be worth nothing if it were not 
for work, and duty, and responsibility; and surely yours is a noble 
work. When you consider the numbers of the next generation 
over whom you have such influence, is it not a noble life-work ? 
You are nearly all young men now before me many scarcely in 
your prime ; see to it that when you are old your recollections of 
your school may not be mixed with bitter regrets for opportunities 
wasted and the good seed unsown, as it might have been, on the 
living souls daily around you. ' He that sleepeth in harvest is 
a son that causeth shame.' Many of you know and love your 
Heavenly Father, and desire to work to please Him. Be not then 
sons that sleep over your work, but labour hard, that when, at the 
great fore-gathering, you have to give up your account, you may 
bear many sheaves with you rejoicing. 

"And now let me, in conclusion, again thank you for your kind 
address. The meetings which I have had with you in connection 
with the prize-scheme have been a source of great interest and 
pleasure to me from year to year ; and though disappointments 
and anxieties have not been wanting, the results and improvements 
have been a full reward. I feel that now the competitive scheme 
has in a great measure done its work hereabouts. The new revised 
code (paying for results) has partly superseded our work, and the 
little encouragement given to me by My Lords of the Committee of 
Council on Education, who say : ' H. M. inspector must employ 
about it no tune except such as is left to his own disposal,' has 
put a great barrier in the way of its continuance. But, however it 
may end, be assured individually of my help and sympathy, as 
much as is in my power, and of my cordial good wishes." 

Mr. Moore was not so successful with his farming as 
with his schools and missionary work. " I am beginning," 
he said on one occasion, " to understand something about 
farming. It gives me an object for exercise ; for I am 
constantly going about to see how things are going on. 
Hut as for returns, it proves a very poor affair." In 1867 


he had a balance-sheet prepared. He found he had 
lost 1 57 on his home farm, besides the interest upon 
^300 for draining. Certainly a very bad pecuniary 
result of his farming industry. 

While at Whitehall Mr. Moore attended the bench of 
magistrates at Wigton, and, with Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 
endeavoured to the best of his power to keep down the 
licences for public-houses. At first they failed, but at 
last they succeeded in rejecting most of the new licences. 
There was much reason for checking drunkenness in the 
neighbourhood. One day he enters in his diary, " At- 
tended a funeral. The man drowned himseM". A sad 
affair. He is the third given to drinking who has died 
within three weeks." 

Another day he says, " At Wigton on the bench. 
Had nine cases of ' drunk and disorderly.' Very sad ! " 
And again he says, " Went to see a school. The Rev. 

Mr. was half drunk. He insulted me and hurt my 

feelings very much." This was enough to make him 
despair. One day he says, " I had a long discussion 

with Mr. about the immorality of Cumberland. 

I encouraged him to get the Ritualists to try their hand, 
as the Evangelicals had failed." Yet he went; on ap- 
pointing Scripture-readers and county-town Missionaries 
as the best methods of reaching the population. 

When he returned to London, he was much occupied 
in endeavouring to get reforms introduced into the 
schools of Christ's Hospital. Mr. Moore had become a 
governor of the institution when a comparatively young 
man. In September, 1854, he attended the annual 
sermon delivered in Christ Church, Newgate Street, by 
Dr. Jacob, the newly-elected head grammar master. 
The sermon astonished Mr. Moore. He said, " It was 
the most extraordinary exposure of bad management 
and supposed grievances that I had ever heard of in any 
public establishment." 

302 DR. JACOB'S SERMON. [CHAP. xix. 

The text of the sermon was, " Through wisdom a 
house is builded ; and by understanding it is esta- 
blished." Dr. Jacob proceeded to give his idea of the 
" understanding " by means of which this great charity 
was managed ; and he did so with no flattering words 
nor empty compliments. His whole object, he said, 
was for the good of the hospital. The governors 
themselves did not know the facts connected with the 
education and discipline of the place, and it was there- 
fore necessary for those, like himself, who did know, to 
tell the whole truth. 

The preacher held that the intellectual discipline of 
Christ's Hospital was behind that of the public schools 
of the age ; " that a large mass of the boys were found 
unable to compete with the scholars of a well-conducted 
national school ; that the various subjects which were 
specially needed for a good modern education, and to 
fit youths to play their part well in the stir and struggle 
of commercial life, were not taught at Christ's Hospital ; 
and that modern languages, various branches of 
practical or applied science, physical and historical 
geography, English composition, elementary art, were 
all but absolutely interdicted." l The moral and 
religious condition of the school was also eminently 
defective. In other schools of a similar character, boys 
generally resided under a master's roof, and were under 
his humanising and Christian influence ; whereas at 
Christ's Hospital the boys were entirely removed from 
the master's sight and charge except during the actual 
hours of the schoolroom. The masters were not required 
to have either work, care, or interest in the moral 
training of the children. 

"It must be added," said Dr. Jacob, "that the 
absence of day-rooms which might be used out of school 

1 Sermon preached in Christ's Church, Newgate Street, on St. Matthew's 
Day, September 2ist, 1854, by the Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., p. 15. 


hours for numberless wholesome purposes, the absence 
of a library, which would encourage a taste for reading 
and voluntary improvement, and keep many a boy from 
idleness and vice, the absence of almost everything 
which might develop and strengthen the better feelings 
and tendencies of boyhood, help to encourage some of 
the worst habits, and to throw boys upon the gratifica- 
tion of their lower appetites as their only source of 
pleasure ; than which nothing can be more prejudicial 
to all moral good. . . . Earnestly do I hope and pray 
that all who are engaged in the government of this great 
and noble house may duly feel the sacred responsibility 
of their position, and may rise with willing hearts and 
hands to encounter all the difficulties which impede the 
full development of its great resources, and keep it so 
far behind the requirements of the age." 

This was a bold and honest sermon. But it was a 
dangerous course for Dr. Jacob to adopt at the com- 
mencement of his mastership. The sermon acted like 
a bombshell thrown in amongst the governors and 
almoners. Some were angry, some were indignant, 
some thought they had been insulted. "The first thing 
I did," says George Moore, " on returning home, was 
to write a strong and forcible letter to the treasurer. I 
requested that the almoners should publish the sermon 
on the following grounds : First, that if the sermon 
was true, the almoners were not worthy of the con- 
fidence of the governors ; and, second, that if the 
sermon was not true, Dr. Jacob ought to be dismissed." 

The treasurer was indignant at George Moore for 
writing such a letter, and the almoners were still more 
indignant at Dr. Jacob for preaching such a sermon. 
The fat was in the fire all through his doing. The 
almoners gave Dr. Jacob notice to quit. Many of the 
governors thought this hard treatment. It seemed like 
hushing up abuses. They claimed that a full investi- 


gation should be made before dismissing the master. 
Dr. Jacob published his sermon, so that it might be 
carefully examined and considered. George Moore 
worked hard amongst his friends to get them to be 
present on the day of battle. Dr. Jacob also urged all 
the governors, whether in town or not, to be present on 
the occasion. 

"We had a large meeting on the 2ist of November," 
says Mr. Moore, " to determine whether Dr. Jacob 
should be dismissed or not, and the almoners were 
beaten -by a large majority. They would not, however, 
resign. They organised their forces, and determined 
upon a second trial of strength, not merely for the 
dismissal of Dr. Jacob, but also upon the point of 
whether the almoners were to be a self-elected body 
for the future ; and upon that point they got a majority. 
By this time, however, the hospital had got into dis- 
order and confusion. No authority existed. Insubor- 
dination prevailed everywhere. It was impossible to 
introduce or carry any reforms in the hospital. The 
almoners at last voluntarily consented to divide with 
the governors the election of the succeeding almoners. 
A reconciliation was thus effected. Russell Gurney, 
Esq., Alderman Wire, and myself were elected, three 
of their most determined opponents during the recent 
discussions. I at first declined to accept the office, 
being so much occupied with other engagements ; but 
my friends anxiously urged me to accept it as a duty, 
and I at last consented. I am bound to say that I 
have found this a very pleasurable duty. The almoners 
are composed of some of the first men in the city ; and 
I have ever found them amenable to rea>n, and 
anxious to carry out all legitimate reforms." 

Mr. Moore at once proceeded to make himself 
acquainted with the duties of his office. He inspected 
Christ's Hospital, saw the reforms that were necessary, 


and endeavoured to get them introduced. He visited 
the schools connected with the hospital at Hertford. 
" I made myself," he says, " thoroughly acquainted with 
the girls' school ; and am determined to have it put 
upon a better footing." The school certainly wanted 
looking after. It had been allowed to go to sleep, like 
many other things connected with the institution. 
There were only about forty pupils there when Mr. 
Moore first visited the school ; and the education given 
was comparatively inefficient. But after an increased 
interest had been taken in the school, the attendance 
rose to about two hundred, and the education and 
training given to the girls became greatly better. 

At the death of Alderman Thompson, President of 
Christ's Hospital, it became necessary to elect a new 
President. It had been usual to elect the Lord Mayor 
of London, on such a vacancy taking place. On this 
occasion, however, the majority of the almoners pro- 
posed to elect the Duke of Cambridge as president. 
George Moore was opposed to this. He was of opinion 
that the officials might get hold of the Duke, Ko-tou 
to him, and thus obstruct all necessary reforms. He 
therefore opposed his election. The Duke was never- 
theless elected by a large majority ; and George Moore 
was defeated. " I am bound to say," he afterwards 
observes, "that I am not at all sorry for this. The 
Duke is a shrewd, clever chairman ; he has great 
authority ; he knows the value of time, and pre- 
vents unnecessary discussions. At the same time, he 
encourages improvements and alterations, showing the 
strictest impartiality. He thinks for himself on all 
subjects, whereas the presidents of most institutions 
lean to the powers that be. Such officers are merely 
nominal ; they are not real presidents. 

" We have introduced many improvements. Great 
care is exercised in the admittance of boys ; so that 



none but the children of needy parents are admitted. 
We have just dealt most rigorously with Mr. - - for 
offering a presentation for sale. We have deprived him 
for ever of another presentation." l 

Mr. Moore regularly attended the almoners' meetings. 
A discussion arose as to whether the Hospital should 
not be removed to the country. The Duke of Cambridge 
took one side ; George Moore took the other. On the 8th 
December, 1868, the latter says in his diary :-^-" Atten- 
ded Christ's Hospital. The Duke in the chair ; he made 
a long speech. I replied, and did pretty well. The 
Duke very civil to me, as he always is. We got a 
majority of one." 

The majority of one by no means settled the 
question. The fight, as George Moore always called it, 
was renewed again and again. He was of opinion that 
as the school consisted exclusively of boarders, thf 
arguments for its removal to the country were over- 
whelming. In 1870, the ancient foundation passed 
under the scrutiny of the Endowed Schools' Commission. 
Mr. Moore was one of those who proposed that a 
scheme should at once be drawn up for their approval. 
In the midst of various other work, the subject was 
uppermost in his thoughts. He attended thirty-three 
meetings of the committee of almoners, when eleven 
members out of thirteen agreed to the draft scheme. It 
was submitted to the governors on the 5th of April. 
" I had a desperate fight to-day," he says, " at Christ's 
Hospital. I never made a better speech. We adjourned 
the debate about removing the Hospital out of town." 

1 Mr. Moore himself made a presentation to one of his warehousemen in 
Bow Churchyard. He presented himself before the court and was asked, 
"Can you maintain and educate this hoy?" "Yes, I can," frankly 
answered the warehouseman. "Then we cannot admit him." Thus 
George Moore's own pre>entation was rejected by the rigidness of the rules 
which he himself had laid down. Of course, these rules are very often 


ntime Ge rge M re made arrangements 
struggle. He published a long fetter n 
he Ttmes urgmg the governors to come up to vote on 
he 2 7 th, when the adjourned debate was to be resumed 
'again threw himself into "the fight" with all the 
intensity of his nature. He made a stirring speech 
giving eight good reasons in favour of the removal of the 
ospital to the country. He wound up in the following 
characteristic manner : _ 

"I beseech you, governors, not to be led away by the 
prestige of voting with His Royal Highness and the 
Treasurer It will be infatuation on your part not to 
support the eleven who have met thirty-three times 
1 with much patience and care have produced this 
excellent scheme." 

The confirmation of the report was put to the meet- 
mg, and it was rejected by a majority of fourteen votes. 
Iffy-seven voted for the removal, and seventy-one 
against it. I expected," says George Moore, "two to 
one against us." There seems to have been some - 
feeling of soreness amongst the almoners, as he adds two 
days afterwards: "We had a meeting at Christ's 
ospital. I made a good speech about peace All 
were pleased-particularly the Duke of Cambridge I 
threw oil on the troubled waters." On the night of the 
great fight, Mr. Moore went to Ned Wright's thieves' 
supper, and was much interested by his address 

He had another interesting day at Christ's Hospital 
arned my resolution," he says, "which was 
seconded by Russell Gurney, that Christ's Hospital 
should be sold when we could get a good price. On the 
e day, the Duke of Cambridge lunched with Mr 
Moore at Bow Churchyard. Sir Hope Grant, Colonel 
lenderson, the Bishop of Carlisle, and others, were 
present. < The Duke," he writes in his diary "has 

X 3 


shown me unvarying kindness, although I have always 
been the ringleader of the fights at Christ's Hospital." 

Mr. Moore continued to work for Christ's Hospital 
during the rest of his life. About three years after the 
above contest, he settled ;i,ooo in new 3 per cent, 
annuities, as a conditional endowment for providing 
prizes for the boys and girls who exhibited the greatest 
proficiency in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. 
The court, in acknowledging the gift, offered him- their 
cordial thanks for the liberal gifts of money which he 
had on previous occasions entrusted to the head master 
for the same purpose. Two years later, he made a gift 
to Christ's Hospital of a thousand pounds, to be invested 
for the benefit of the Rev. W. Hetherington's excellent 
charity to the Blind, which is connected with the institu- 

In November, 1870, Mr. Moore was strongly urged 
by many of his friends and amongst others, by the 
Right Hon. W. H. Smith, now First Lord of the Admi- 
ralty to offer himself as a candidate for the London 
School Board ; but he decided to decline the position. 
He was overwhelmed with work of all sorts, educational 
and otherwise. " My motto," he said, " is, whatever is 
worth doing at all, is worth doing well ; and the duties 
at the board will absorb a great deal of my time. 
Besides there are numerous candidates in the field, all 
declaring for Bible teaching in the schools. I have 
already done a good deal of educational work ; let 
younger men take their share. " 

The first Jubilee of the Commercial Travellers' 
Schools was held in 1870. George Moore had now been 
treasurer for twenty-five years. He had seen with 
pride the growth of the institution. He had worked as 
hard for it as if it had been his own business, bringing 
in a large income. Indeed the labour which he had 


voluntarily given, would, if exerted for himself, have 
produced a fortune. 

Mr. Moore distinguished the Jubilee year by estab- 
lishing his scholarship and prizes of the united value 
of eighty-five pounds a year. For establishing the 
scholarship, his objects were as stated on the tablet 
erected in the school : First, to stimulate and encourage 
the children while they remain inmates of the institu- 
tion, in an earnest and diligent pursuit of religious and 
secular knowledge ; and, Secondly, to provide a means 
whereby boys possessing great natural ability and 
energy of character, may, on their leaving, proceed to 
one of the public schools of a higher grade, and con- 
tinue their studies for a further period of three years, 
with the hope of their afterwards obtaining, through 
means of other scholarships, the highest educational 
advantages of the country. 

He consented to take the chair at the Jubilee dinner 
held in December. He was then reminded of the 
deaths of many of his old friends. Old faces had gone, 
and new faces had come. What could he say now ? 
Only what he had said before. It was a quarter of a 
century since he had taken the chair to organise the 
schools. Now their benefits were extended far and 
wide. They had saved many children from the work- 
house ; and they had raised many boys to high positions 
and influence. Twenty old pupils had become annual 
subscribers and ten life-governors. "We are all 
travellers," he said, " and every step we take conveys 
us nearer and nearer to our journey's end." 
Such was George Moore at the end of 1870. 



AT the beginning of George Moore's diary of 1871, 
the following words occur : " My heart is sick at the 
carnage and death which this war is now causing 
throughout France. We have not heard from the 
managers of our Paris house for two months. We 
do not know whether our people are dead or alive ! " 

Paris was then besieged by the Germans. The net- 
work of iron closed round the city on the igth of 
September, 1870, and the citizens were left, in the 
words of Bismarck, to "stew in their own gravy." 
The city had been scantily provided with food, and 
starvation soon began to be felt. Horse-flesh was 
nearly eaten up. Cats and dogs were scarcely to be 
had. Rats and mice were eagerly consumed. 

A system of rations was provided by the govern- 
ment. Long queues of starving women were to be 
seen waiting at the butchers' doors, for their quarter of 
a pound of meat. Though the frost was biting, the 
women would wait for a dozen hours, half-clad and 
unsheltered, on a cold winter's morning. Sometimes 
they took up their station the night before, so as to 
be ready for the first opening of the shop. 

Fuel, like everything else, was scarce ; and people 
lay in bed to keep themselves warm. Hence the rapid 


increase of deaths. The mortality amongst children 
was fearful. At every step an undertaker was seen 
carrying a little deal coffin. Adults were conveyed to 
the cemetery in handcarts, for the horses had mostly 
been eaten. Starvation had done its work, and Paris 
at last surrendered. 

In the meantime a large subscription had been got 
up in London, under the presidency of Alderman 
Dakin, Lord Mayor. The committee consisted of 
men of all ranks and denominations. London wept 
for Paris. A fund of about ; 120,000 was raised to 
provide for the immediate wants of the people when 
the gates were opened. George Moore was one of 
the active members of the committee. " The French 
distress," he says, " gives me a great deal of work." 
" Thank God," he says on the 28th of January, " there 
is an armistice in France. I fear I shall have to go 
over to distribute the Mansion-House fund. If I go, 
it is as an act of duty." On the 3ist he says: "The 
Lord Mayor and many others made me promise to go 
over to Paris. I started at a quarter to 8 A.M. amidst 
a very severe frostj with snow upon the ground. May 
God take care of my darling wife in my absence ! " 

The party consisted of George Moore and his clerk, 

Colonel Wortley, and a French lady, Madame M , 

who had been separated from her husband during the 
siege. The commissioners took with them seventy 
tons of food and 5,000 in money. They travelled 
by Newhaven and Dieppe. All the other routes to 
Paris were closed until the terms of peace could be 

On arriving at Dieppe next morning they found no 
porters ready to receive them. The inhabitants did not 
know that the blockade of Paris had been raised. The 
town was held by the Prussians, \\ho had possession 
of the railway and public offices. The day passed 


without any carriages or waggons being provided. At 
length the directors of the railway were found. They 
promised that a train should start next evening at 
eleven. Another day passed. They contrived to start 
at night amidst a terrible scuffle. They were anxious 
to be first in Paris with the food. As George Moore 
afterwards said : " I think I should have died had I not 
been first in Paris." 

They had, however, many difficulties to encounter. 
The rails had been torn asunder, the bridges had been 
blown up, and the line was in most cases only tem- 
porarily repaired. The waggons with the food from 
London were the first to pass. The train arrived at 
Amiens at 6 A.M. There had been terrible fighting at 
this place. The station was much knocked about. It 
was all dirt and confus : on. The buffet was closed, 
and nothing was to be had to eat or drink. 

A speculator in flour had, by some means or other, 
got three or four of his waggons placed before the 
London waggons. The train was stopped at every 
station and referred to the German commandant. He 
looked at the credentials and allowed the train to pass. 
It reached Creil at two o'clock in the afternoon. After 
stopping for two hours it "was allowed to pass over the 
creaking temporary bridge, scarcely finished. Crawling 
along the engine stopping, watering, and groaning 
away the train at length reached Chantilly at five 
in the evening. There it was shunted into a siding 
and waited for three hours, until the Grand Duke of 
Mecklenburg had passed in a special train. The party 
then got through St. Denis, and finally arrived at the 
Paris station at eleven at night. They were rejoiced to 
find that theirs was the first train that had arrived in 
Paris with food for the poor beleaguered Frenchmen ! 

The station of the Northern Railway was deserted. 
Not a porter was to be seen. The station was in total 


darkness, although the moonlight made the huge bal- 
loons standing in the square of the station look quite 
ghost-like. The streets were empty. The city seemed 
to be deserted. The party walked on for about three 
miles to the Boulevard Malesherbes. The lady, who 
had accompanied them from London to ascertain the 
fate of her husband, found that he had left that morning 
for London in search of her ! 

The commissioners were up early next morning, and 
presented their credentials to Jules Ferry at the Hotel 
de Ville. They were accompanied by M. Andre, Mr. 
Moore's banker, a deputy-mayor. After a long inter- 
view it was decided that the food should be supplied to 
twenty arrondissements in proportion to their population 
Up. to this time, a little bit of black bread had been 
distributed, and a piece of horseflesh about the size of 
a walnut, so that the wants of the inhabitants in the 
respective districts were well known. It was also de- 
cided to open a depot in a central situation ; and, to 
save expense, George Moore threw open the warehouse 
of Copestake, Moore, and Co., in the Place des Petits 

And now came the difficulty of getting food to the 
people. Getting the food from London to Paris was 
nothing compared with this. Fifty thousand horses had 
been eaten. Those which remained were dry, scraggy, 
and uneatable. They were only used for dragging about 
the cannon. George Moore felt vexed, angry, and in a 
rage with the men in office. He says in his diary, " I 
felt as if the lives of thousands depended upon our 
efforts." He went from Jules Ferry to Jules Favre ; 
then to Picard, " a jolly fellow," who seemed more at 
ease than the others ; then to General Trochu, whom 
he found greatly depressed. At last General Vinoy 
allowed some of the artillery horses to be employed to 
drag down the stores to the Warehouse. 


Two days after reaching Paris, the food was ready for 
distribution. Crowds of people assembled in the Place 
des Petits Peres. " Never," says George Moore, " did 
I see such an assembly of hollow, lean, hungry faces 
such a shrunken, famine-stricken, diseased-looking 
crowd. They were very quiet. They seemed utterly 
crushed and hopeless. It is now ten days since the 
armistice began, and yet there is no food in Paris ex- 
cept what we have brought. There is still the black 
bread, made of hay and straw and twenty-five per cent, 
of the coarsest flour. Well may the poor creatures 
look pale ! 

" We went about the markets. There was positively 
nothing to see, except a few dead dogs and cats no 
flour, no vegetables. Hundreds, perhaps thousands of 
old people, little children and ladies, have died of 
hunger. The sufferings of the little ones will never 
be forgotten. For four months there was no milk 
no fat except at fabulous prices no fuel, no light. 
Indeed they have died in vast numbers. 

"Paris has been surrendered because of the hunger 
of the whole city. The words of Nahum seem to be 
fulfilled, ' She is empty, and void, and waste ; and the 
heart melteth, and the knees smite together, and much 
pain in the loins, and the faces of them all gather black- 
ness." There is no fuel for fires in Paris, only here and 
there a little damp wood can be found, and is burnt. 
We have telegraphed urgently for fuel ; Wortley and I 
suffer very much from the cold." 

George Moore himself made a repast of horse-flesh at 
the house of his banker. He had expressed great disgust 
with the food at the time of his arrival ; but the banker 
had nothing better to give him, and it was only after 
he had dined, that M. Andre told him what he had 
eaten ! 

The distribution at the warehouse was now in full 


operation. It was constantly crowded. One evening, 
after the daily distribution had been made, and the 
warehouse was closed, George Moore went to look after 
the arrangements for the following day. He found a 
long queue waiting at the warehouse door. He went in 
and asked, " If the poor people have not got their food. " 
"Yes ! Those at the door are waiting for the distribu- 
tion to-morrow morning ! " He at once had the doors 
opened, and a distribution was made to all who were 
present. They were mostly women some of them 
ladies with veils boys for sick parents, and old, haggard 
people, ghastly with hunger. George Moore never forgot 
these dreadful scenes. 

The food was distributed as follows : " Each person 
gets a good ration, enough to last a family of five or six 
for a week ; cheese, milk, bacon, coffee, Liebig's essence 
of meat, biscuit, salt, rice, sugar, and Batty's preserved 
meat." Arrangements were made to issue provisions at 
the several depots all over Paris. The mayors were 
elected during the siege, and were a rather low class of 
men. " Some of them," says George Moore, " are a bad 
lot. We are a good deal worried by them. We go 
about from early morning till twelve at night ; but in 
some cases I don't believe their reports. But now that 
we see our way, we are keeping the distribution much 
more in our own hands. We have sent to the Arch- 
bishop of Paris, to the chief Rabbi, and to the French 
pastors, a good deal of food, to be distributed privately 
by the Sisters of Mercy and other ladies among the 
better class. We find the small shopkeepers, clerks, 
and such like, are those who have really suffered the 
most les fauvres kontetix, who are ashamed to beg. 
We have arranged a special place for them, at 2, Rue de 
la Bienfaisance." 

During his visit to Paris, Mr. Moore went about seeing 
the ravages made by the siege. He went to Versailles 


to see Mr. Odo Russell, an old friend. He found great 
crowds of people at the Bridge of Neuilly. He passed 
through St. Cloud, which was almost entirely destroyed. 
He breakfasted with Mr. Russell, in the very room where 
Wellington and Bliicher so often dined. On the same 
evening he was back at the warehouse. 

The elections were then going on, and disturbed the 
work of distribution. The means of locomotion were 
very bad. Many of the locomotives of the Northern 
Railroad had been destroyed. There was still a great 
lack of horses and waggons. George Moore got a very 
strong letter from Baron Rothschild to the manager of 
the Chemin de Fer du Nord, of which he was chairman, 
to facilitate, as much as he could, the conveyance of food 
to Paris. 

" We had a large meeting this evening (9th February) 
at Eugene Plon's, the printer and publisher. Twenty 
gentlemen were present. They all agreed to look after 
the Mairies, in conjunction with M. Yriarte, and see to 
the proper distribution of food. M. Plon's son speaks 
English, and told me of all that was said." 

Next day he met the Archbishop of Paris. " He is 
most grateful. I find him a particularly gentlemanly 
man. He is to be appointed chairman of the committee 
we leave behind to carry on our work. Our warehouse 
is crowded from morning till night. We are doing an 
enormous amount of good. We have opened a private 
store for the better class people. I get sometimes fifty 
letters a day, and send them there to be executed." 

On the nth February, he makes this entry: " Hard 
at work getting food sent to the private gentlemen we 
have appointed, who are all in earnest. We sent a ham 
each to Creton, Dr. Herbert, Marshall, Dr. 1 and Odo 

1 Dr. Russell, who was with the German army at Versailles, in returning 
his thanks, said, " What a glorious pig that must have been! My only 
difficulty and it is a great one relates to the cooking of his upper hind 
leg; for there is not in my kitchen any vessel that will hold half of it 


Russell, Laurence Oliphant, Madame Mallet, Madame 
Andre, and one to An Bon Marches son. We also sent 
one each to M. Thiers, General Trochu, Jules Favre, 
and Mr. Wallace. The crowds at our warehouse increase 
every day. Our visit has been greatly appreciated by 
all classes, who vie with each other in paying us respect. 
I cannot speak too highly of our staff of young men at 
the warehouse ! " 

On the 1 2th : " The crowds at the warehouse in- 
crease. This we keep exclusively for women. There 
is a queue of ten or fifteen thousand waiting there to- 
day ; they have waited all through last night. I felt 
heart-sick when I saw them. It was one of the wildest 
nights of sleet and fearful wind ; and, starved and ex- 
hausted and drenched as they were, it was a sight to 
make a strong man weep. We are straining ourselves 
and all about us to the utmost. I believe we were 
just in time; a few days more and the people would 
have been too far gone ; many were hardly able to walk 
away with their parcels. After waiting with wonderful 
patience, when they got the food many of them fairly 
broke down from over-joy. I have seen more tears shed 
by men and women than I hope I shall ever see again." 

One of the principal depots the Bon Marche was 
selected near the Bourse. The crowd there was quite 
as great as at Mr. Moore's warehouse. Some ten 
thousand people bivouacked in the streets during the 
night, waiting for the opening of the depot in the 
morning. The queue extended, four or five deep, for 
more than half-a-mile. The people, who were mostly 
women, had come from all parts of Paris from Belville, 
from Vaugirard, from the Faubourg St. Antoine. The 
pavement was occupied on both sides with recumbent 

Thanks for your putting the difficulty in my way. ... I hope to see you 
on my return to London, in the good time coming, with peace and healing 
on its wings." 


figures, lying in rows wrapped in blankets. The corre- 
spondent of the Times visited this scene at midnight. 
He asked one of the women when she expected to 
arrive at the door of the warehouse where she would 
receive her portion. " The day after to-morrow morn- 
ing," she replied. "What! are you prepared to pass 
two successive nights in the street ? " " Pourquoi pas f " 
she said, "all the others do it." At the head of the 
column, he found those who were to be first served in 
the morning. " How long have you been here ? " he 
asked of a lady-like young woman in black, evidently 
of a superior class to those by whom she was sur- 
rounded. " Since nine o'clock yesterday morning," she 
replied. She had actually been thirty-nine hours in the 
queue ! 

" We continue," says George Moore in his diary, "to 
look after people in a good position of life. They will 
not send for food. We have to find them out. I took 
food to a countess who lived six stories high, and to 
Mrs. O'Connor, who lives eight stories high. Her 
husband has good landed estates, but he cannot get a 
penny of rent. It tries my wind to get up these stairs, 
but, thank God, I am equal to my work. Colonel 
Stuart Wortley is indefatigable in going about alone to 
people's houses, and giving them food and money. He 
has been written to by some of the highest class, 
begging for food to be sent to some relative in great 
need. We now feel that we have got master of our 
work. God be praised ! I have little time to read the 
Bible, but I read the gist Psalm every morning, which 
is a great support to me." 

The Honourable Alan Herbert was often with him. 
He had remained in Paris during the siege, working 
with devotion at his profession in the hospital ; he 
knew the needs of the better classes, and how it was 
possible to meet them. Dr. Herbert said of this time, 


"What struck me most was Mr. Moore's informal and 
generous way of doing things ; it was a surprise to the 
French people, but specially delighted them." 

Mr. Moore was inundated with letters from England, 
from wives asking him to look after their husbands, 
from fathers to look after their daughters, from exiled 
French people of all classes inquiring about the safety 
of their relations. Most of these letters were addressed 
to Mrs. Moore in London, and forwarded by her to her 
husband in Paris. One of these letters runs thus : " I 
am very anxious about one of M. de Bergue's brothers. 
He belonged to the National Guard. He has a wife 
and two children one a very delicate creature, my 
godchild. I shall be very grateful if Mr. Moore will 
make inquiries after them, as they must have suffered 
a great deal." Mr. Moore found them out, and helped 

Another lady writes from Carlisle inquiring after her 
husband, also in the National Guard. She had been 
residing in Normandy on account of her health when 
the war broke out, and she was unable to return to 
Paris. She was now in Cumberland with her friends. 
" I have written to him," she said ; " I have sent money 
to him, and I have despatched a box of provisions to 
him, but I can hear nothing of him. I suffer the most 
horrible fear and anxiety. I am very ill, and know not 
what to do." After giving her husband's address, and 
inclosing a note to him, she goes on : "I scruple, dear 
sir, to ask so much of you ; but in my great misery I 
must throw myself on your pity and kindness." 

The person inquired after was found out and helped. 
His letter to Mr. Moore was a sort of general hurrah for 
England. " Vous etes, vraiment, la Grande Bretagne, 
et du reste, j'ai parmi vous, gentleman d'Angleterre, 
des amis de coeur. . . . Vous avez etc admirables 
Anglais dans tous les temps. Mais, avant tout, comme 


race supe"rieur, noble et geneVeux race, permettez a un 
Fran^ais qui vous respecte et qui vous aime, de vous 
exprimer sa profonde reconnaissance pour vos bontes. 
Hurrah for England!" 

Another lady, who had been relieved, writes as 
follows to her friend in Switzerland : " I went on 
Monday, but there was no possibility of approaching 
Mr. Moore's bureau ; so I came back and wrote a short 
note, inclosing yours. An answer arrived, telling me to 
be there at 7.30 next morning ; for I was really starved 
to death. Oft" I went with a bag, not knowing what I 
should get, accompanied by Desire (her husband) to 
help me. When I got admittance I was greatly recom- 
pensed for my trouble ; for not only did your good 
benevolent friend provide me with good provisions, but 
gave me 25 francs into the bargain. He really must 
be, as you say, one of the best of men a real Christian, 
able to feel the pains and sorrows of others. You must 
know that all this was done in the twinkling of an eye, 
for thousands of people were waiting to be supplied. 
You cannot tell what misery we have endured night and 
day. We have seen nothing but cannon balls and shells 
flying through the air. We have been reduced to utter 
destitution, being nearly always without fire, though the 
winter has been so severe." Another lady, residing in 
Paris, writes as follows : " I have lost my husband here, 
and am without funds to return, which I am anxious to 
do immediately. Will you kindly, on receipt of this, 
send me some money to the inclosed address." 

About sixty thousand pounds' worth of food had 
been got into Paris, and it was distributed as fast as 
possible in forty different depots. One of the effects 
of tlie distribution was, that the health of the city 
rapidly improved. Fever and small-pox were less fatal 
in their attacks. Food was now coming into Paris, but 
the prices were still high. On the I2th, Mr. Moore 


gave instructions to issue double rations. The crowds 
round the depots continued as great as ever ; but the 
destitution and starvation were disappearing. More 
food was exposed for sale in the markets, and the people 
began to look more cheerful. 

The crowds were still great at the Bon Marche* and 
Grand Conde two of the largest shops in Paris. On 
the i /th February some 8,000 people were seen crowd- 
ing round the entrance of the latter place packed like 
sardines in a box all struggling to reach the door. A 
detachment of the National Guards was there ; but 
they proved of little use. The scene was fearful, 
women were screaming and fainting, and had to be 
handed over the heads of the people without their 
portion of food ! Thus all their labour had been in 

" I had with me," says Mr. Moore, " Colonel Wortley, 
Mr. Mallet, Oliphant of the Times, Mr. Landells Mar- 
shall of the Telegraph, and the Honourable Alan Herbert. 
We vainly tried to keep the people back. We loudly 
supplicated them to stand still, as all should be served ; 
but it was of no use. The surging mass grew still 
denser. At last we were forced to pull the front ranks 
through the door to save them from being crushed to 
death. Five unconscious women were borne in upon 
our arms. We brought them to life again with aromatic 
vinegar and stimulants. It was a regular fight for food. 
If they had not been in extreme want, such a fight 
could never have taken place." 

"On the 1 8th," Mr. Moore says, "the food is still 
coming in. The convoys report themselves. We have 
had Lieutenant Wood, son of Lord Halifax, Captain 
Green, of the Hussars, Harry Bourke, brother of Lord 
Mayo, and Mr. Louis Davidson, a cousin of the Roth- 
schilds. They have all stuck to their waggons, and 
brought them right through. I must confess that the 


military officers, who had volunteered as convoys, were 
very successful in getting their waggons on rapidly. 
Two others (of the civilians) came to me and complained 
that ' they could not get through.' One had left his 
provisions in charge of some one at Amiens ; and 
another, rather nearer Paris. I ordered them back with 
a very few words, and told them not to come to me 
again till they had got their waggons into Paris, and 
could report so." l 

On the I gth he writes : " Now that we have mastered 
the details of our operations I feel greatly more at ease. 
I can never sufficiently thank God for all His blessings 
to me preserving my health, and giving me clear judg- 
ment. I rise eaTly, go to bed late, and sleep soundly. 
Madame Mallet's, in the Boulevard Malesherbes (where 

1 Since trie publication of the first edition. Mr. Louis Davidson has sent 
us the following account of his services in respect of the conveyance of food 
to Paris : 

"I left London at midnight on the Saturday, arrived at Folkestone 
early on Sunday morning, was detained there until the afternoon, during 
the loading of the ship with the provisions, and arrived at Boulogne after 
a most stormy passage on Sunday night. On the following day, I had the 
greatest trouble to procure the necessary labourers to fill the trucks with 
the provisions, although they were lying alongside the vessel in the harbour, 
and the men were told the food was most urgently needed in Paris. I, at 
lenyth, with the help of the agents of the South Eastern and Northern of 
France Railways, succeeded in hiring a number of men to do the work (by 
giving extra pay) and left with my convoy on Monday ni^ht. I was in the 
train until the Wednesday night, and, on arriving at the goods depot, 
found that all waggons were to be detained there, and that the food was to 
be sent into Paris as the railway authorities chose to direct. The officials 
were so overcome by the extra work of the last few days, that I found all 
the clerks asleep at their desks, an-1 it was with the greatest difficulty that 
I could obtain a promise that my. convoy should be sent quickly into Park. 
Finding that I could do no more, and being naturally anxious to report 
myself to Mr. Moore, I availed myself of an engine which was going to 
the Paris Station du Nord, where I arrived early on the Thursday morning, 
having thus been three nights on the road from Boulogne, during the 
greater part of which time 1 occupied a second class compartment, suosi.-t- 
ing upon the provisions I had most fortunately brought with me from 
England. Most of the foregoing facts, which are well-known to my 
friends, must have escaped the recollection of the late Mr. Moore, who, 
far from 'ordering me back,' perfectly appreciated the causes which had 
delayed the arrival of my convoy, and expressed himself as being very 
well pleased with my services, which, he observed, contra ted favourably 
with those rendered by certain others of the convoy staff." 


Mr. Moore lived during his stay, and of whose kindness 
he often speaks) is crowded every morning from 8.30 to 
10.30. I make a point of seeing every one. I answer 
all letters. Sometimes I write fifty a day. I am deter- 
mined, so far as I am concerned, that no one shall go 
away unserved. The people have been hungered for 
five months, and now our food is telling upon them. 
Their gratitude is unbounded." 

Food was now coming in from various quarters. The 
English government sent a large quantity of biscuits 
and preserved beef; the Society of Friends and other 
private persons were also sending food to Paris and the 
neighbourhood. Money was supplied to enable the 
people to take their things out of pawn, to buy garden 
seeds, and for other purposes. On Wednesday, the 
22nd February, the police called at Mr. Moore's depot, 
and ordered that the distribution of food should cease, 
as the crowds that assembled round the door blocked 
the thoroughfare. On this Mr. Moore says: "We put 
on all steam, and determined to keep open all night as 
well as during the following day. All the streets round 
the warehouse were blocked with people. The food was 
all ready for distribution. We calculated that we ran a 
party through in half a minute ! The French people 
were astonished at our energy. They cheered me. I 
remained till one at night, and left them in full swing." 
The warehouse was closed on the evening of the 23rd. 
Up to eight o'clock they had distributed food to 96,500 
persons. The remaining provisions were divided 
amongst the committees of the Archbishop of Paris, the 
Jewish Rabbi, and the Protestant pastors. 

Mr. Moore and Colonel Wortley proceeded to visit 
the villages in the neighbourhood of Paris. The pooi 
people were tilling their private and market gardens, 
but they said they had no seed. All their property had 
been destroyed : all their money had been spent : and 

Y 2 


they had barely enough to live upon. " Upon ascertain- 
ing this," says Mr. Moore, "we decided at once to 
order ;i,ooo worth of seed to be sent to them from 
London. We have formed a bond of union with 
ihe gentlemen composing the War Victims Fund, and 
will cooperate with them as to the distribution of 
the seed." 

To give an idea of the robbery and pillage that had 
been going on round Paris, Mr. Moore mentions the 
following circumstances : The Germans had destroyed 
the Graveyards, and torn up or tumbled down the 
Tombstones. When they took possession of a town or 
a village, they rooted up the ground, in order to find the 
treasures which, they thought, the inhabitants had left 
behind. Thus, the most wanton destruction was perpe- 
trated. In one case a poor fellow who had returned to 
his home, found that the deed box which he had buried, 
had been dug up and rifled, and that all his deeds and 
railway scrip had been taken away. The man declared 
that he had been totally ruined. This was only one out 
of a thousand similar cases. 

Mr. Moore refers in his diary to Mr. W. B. Norcott, 
who assisted him during this time. Mr. Norcott well 
remembers the occasion. He says " It was my privi- 
lege to be associated with Mr. Moore on a memorable 
occasion the relief of Paris and I can never forget the 
indefatigable way in which he set us an example. His 
energy of purpose, early and late, was something won- 
derful. He was ever at his post, directing what was to 
be done, establishing depots of relief in different parts 
of the city, organising an efficient staff to carry out his 
plans, and personally superintending the distribution of 
food at each store, so as to include the greatest number 
of the starving poor. On one occasion we worked all 
through the night, with Mr. Moore at our head. I fear 
his self-sacrifice at that momentous time led to his 


subsequent ill-health. But the memory of his acts will 
not soon be forgotten by the poor of Paris." 

The v/ork of the commission was now at an end. The 
markets were becoming filled with food, and the price 
was falling from day to day. It is true the people were 
still without money, but the commissioners could not 
supply that. They cleared the central depots of pro- 
visions, and distributed them amongst the various arron- 
dissements. They had done their best and were now 
prepared to start homewards. Before they left Paris, 
they received many thanks and congratulations. M. 
Thiers entered his note of thanks in Mr. Moore's memo- 
randum-book. The Archbishop of Paris was full of 
gratitude. He said, in a letter to Cardinal Manning : 
" I ask them (the commissioners) to be the interpreters 
to the English people of our gratitude, and I should be 
very thankful if you made known to our friends of the 
Committee how much we appreciate the generosity of 
which we have been the object in our irreparable disaster. 
Physically I have not suffered much, but the moral 
tortures caused by the state of my unfortunate country 
nothing can express." 

The Chiffoniers, or ragpickers of Paris, also sent in 
their letter of thanks. 1 But perhaps the prettiest thing 
was done by a French girl. One morning, when Mr. 
Moore and Colonel Wortley were getting into their 
carriage, to go the round of the depots, they found on 
the seat a bunch of flowers, with a little note saying that 

1 The letter was as follows : 


" ^'a etc une grande consolation pour nous apres les rudes epreuves 
que nous venons de traverser dans ce siege si douloureux, de voir nos freres 
d'Augleterre nous donner une preuve si grande de leur charite fraternelle 
envers la \ ation Franchise, et surtout envers nous Parisiens. 

" C'est le cceur rempli de la plus prof.mde gratitude que nous vous 
adressons nos remerciments bien sinceres pour votre magnifique don, et que 
nous prions Dieu qu'il se souvienne qu'ayant eu faim, vous nous avez donne 
a manger. Soyez done henis. Et soyez persuades que le souvenir de nos 
freres de Londres ne s'effacera jamais de notre coeur." 


it was the only way in which the young girl who left 
them could show her gratitude to the English who had 
saved her mother and herself from starvation. 

The commissioners left Paris on the 28th of February, 
and arrived in London on the following day. They 
were received back with many congratulations. They 
gave in their report to the Mansion House Committee, 
and received a unanimous vote of thanks. George 
Moore went back to his ordinary work of business and 
charity. He felt very much worn out. He had been 
sustained throughout by his pluck and energy. But the 
reaction had now occurred. He writes in his diary : 
" I cannot recover from my weariness. I dream all 
night about Paris, and cannot get sound rest. During 
the daytime I suffer much from aching bones. " 

Mr. Moore, like many others, was presented with the 
National Order of the Legion of Honour ; though he 
valued far more the thanks of the Paris Chiffoniers. He 
was accustomed to give entertainments in London to 
the French exiles, both before and after the siege. In 
January, 1871, Mr. Moore gave a liberal entertainment 
to more than a hundred French refugees, in the rooms 
of the London City Mission, Greek Street, Soho. After 
the siege, the exiles presented an address to Mr. Moore 
at Kensington Palace Gardens ; accompanied by a blue 
portemonnaie made for Mrs. Moore by a German and 
embroidered by a Parisienne. After the presentation, 
about ninety of the refugees were entertained to supper. 

But Paris had not yet got rid of her agony. The 
Germans had scarcely left the city ere the Commune 
broke out. Belleville was let loose. The scenes of the 
old Revolution were repeated. The soldiers sided with 
the people. Generals Thomas and Lecomte were seized 
and shot. The prisons were crowded. Chaplains were 
prohibited from offering their last services to the dying. 
An exception was made on one occasion. The permit 


allowing a priest to be passed into a prison, concluded 
thus " He says he is the servant of somebody called 
God [le nomme Dieu]." The Archbishop of Paris, the 
Cure of the Madelaine, and a crowd of other ecclesi- 
astics, were lodged in the Conciergerie. The plate and 
the valuables in the churches were siezed. Women were 
turned into furies. They broke into the Tuileries, tore 
down the hangings, attired themselves in wreaths of silk, 
and proclaimed, amidst the wildest excitement, " Liberte", 
Egalite, FraterniteY' 

The Communist organ, the Montague wrote thus : 
" Our dogs that used only to growl when a Bishop 
passed, will bite him now, and not a voice will be 
raised to curse the day which dawns for the sacrifice 
of the Archbishop of Paris. . . . Darboy ! tremble in 
your cell, for your day is past, your end is close at 
hand." A few days after, on the 24th of May, the 
Archbishop was assassinated, with six other hostages, 
in the prison -yard of La Roquette. Before his death, 
the Archbishop stept forward and said, " Do not pro- 
fane the word Liberty ; it is to us alone it belongs, 
for we shall die for liberty and faith." After these 
words he was shot down. 

Cardinal Manning, in writing to George Moore on 
the subject of the Archbishop's death, said : " I feel 
sure that you have shared with us our sorrow and our 
joy about the dear Archbishop of Paris. It is indeed 
a horrible crime ; but he died nobly like a true pastor, 
in the midst of his flock. I thank you for all that you 
have done for him." 

After the French army had regained possession of 
the city, it was necessary for Mr. Moore and Colonel 
Wortley to go over to Paris again to finish their work. 
On this occasion they were accompanied by Mrs. Moore 
and Mrs. Wortley. They were amazed at the destruc- 
tion of property. The ashes of the Tuileries and the 


Hotel de Ville were still hot. Some seventy thousand 
men were employed by government to remove the ruins. 
Although most of the public places had been burnt, 
George Moore's warehouse was safe. When the crowd 
of Communists came up to fire the building, they were 
reminded that it was the warehouse of the "Anglais" 
who had brought the gift of food to Paris ; and they 
passed on. For the sake of the English, the church of 
Notre Dame de Victoire was also spared. 

Frightful scenes' were to be seen in the streets. 
Women were prodded along at the point of the 
bayonet to the prisons at Versailles young girls, old 
hags, poor careworn-looking men, boys so young as 
only to be fit for infant-schools all declares. Their 
hands were tied behind them with ropes, and they 
were driven along through the streets, which were 
full of soldiers. The Tuileries gardens were full of 
dragoons, with their horses picketed beside them. The 
Champs Elysees was a camp. A mass of soldiers 
crowded the steps of the Bourse. The churches were 
still closed. No priests dared be seen in the streets. 
Firing from the windows at the soldiers was still of 
daily occurrence. Every night was occupied in re- 
moving and burning the dead, who had been hastily 
buried where they fell, in the squares and little patches 
of gardens throughout the city. 

" The second siege of Paris," said George Moore, on 
writing home, " has been much more lamentable than 
the first. The devastation of private house property is 
double or treble more than I expected. The week's 
fighting has destroyed hundreds of houses in the out- 
skirts. It is really melancholy to see the ruin that has 
been brought upon innocent people. 

" Colonel Stuart Wortley and I are perplexed how 
to dispense our ^25,000 from the Mansion House 
Committee. We must dole it out in small amounts, 


as we have found out so many channels for it. The 
charitable institutions which abound here are drained 
dry, as the Government has not been able to give them 
anything since the commencement of the first siege, 
and private subscriptions have been almost nil. It is 
sad to visit Orphan Asylums, Convalescent, Deaf and 
Dumb Homes for old men and women, hospitals of 
all kinds, and many other establishments, all pining 
for funds. 

" The cruelty and wickedness of the Commune 
towards them has been villainous. They would have 
destroyed most of them if they had been left two or 
three days longer. They gave the inmates of an institu- 
tion called the Good Shepherd for Fallen Women ten 
minutes' notice to quit, and then set fire to the build- 
ing, which contained 150 young women ; and there 
are many other cases of equal cruelty." 

Mrs. Moore wrote home to her friends as follows : 
" Mrs. Wortley and I are in hourly dread of seeing 
some horror that we shall never forget ; for everything 
seems so unsafe and unsettled. We have some very 
kind friends, more especially the Mallets and the 
Andres ; and we wives must always feel grateful to M. 
and Madame Henri Mallet for being so good to our 
husbands on their first visit. M. Henon has placed 
his carriage at our service, and it helps us very much. 
We spent a day at Versailles at ' Les Ombrages.' This 
is the country-seat of Madame Andr6 (mere}. It was 
occupied by the Crown Prince of Prussia during the 
siege. He was much more considerate than many of 
his officers in the way in which he treated the contents 
of the house, for nothing has been wilfully damaged. 
He turned all the family portraits with their faces 
to the wall, ' feeling bored,' he said, ' at having whole 
generations of Andres looking reproachfully at him.' 

" Yesterday Col. Wortley had to go to St. Denis on 


the business of the Fund and to make inquiries about 
the needs of some institutions there. He got out to 
walk by a short cut, and Mrs. Wortley and I who had 
gone with him, were driving alone in the carriage. We 
had to cross the lines, through both French and Prus- 
sian outposts ; for the Germans are still investing St. 
Denis and the suburbs, within two miles of Paris. 
After leaving the French sentries, closely adjoining the 
Prussian lines, we drove for about a mile through a road 
perfectly deserted no grass anywhere all, as far as we 
could see, was destruction and ruin. The place was full 
of sand heaps and rubbish. It was so hopeless that I 
said, ' Doesn't it seem as if all the rubbish in the world 
was "shot here " ? as if it had been given up to " beating 
carpets " from generation to generation ?' Immediately 
afterwards the horses reared straight up and nearly upset 
the carriage. There seemed to be no reason. Francois 
tried all means strong language and stronger punish- 
ment ; but the horses swerved round, and set off gallop- 
ing towards Paris. He turned them at last, and brought 
them to the same spot, when they reared and shied, as if 
they saw something, and again turned round. I managed 
to get out, but Mrs. Wortley showed great pluck. She 
afterwards said that she was afraid the horses, carriage, 
and driver would come to grief, and as it would be on 
our behalf, she determined to face it out. As she did 
not come out of the carriage while the fight was going 
on, I got in again ! The coachman three or four times 
turned back, and then drove fast towards the place. The 
horses were tractable till we got back to the spot where 
they had first turned ; and there they each time reared 
and swerved. At last Franois had to lead them on, 
covered with foam and trembling all over. In a few 
moments we came upon the most awful smell of burnt 
hair, and I don't know what something too sickening. 
The horses' senses had been finer than ours ; and I don't 


wonder at their refusal to go on. Who knows ? Per- 
haps, like Balaam's ass, their eyes were opened, and a 
multitude of ghosts withstood them ! 

" You can judge of my horror afterwards, when Baron 
A. Rothschild said, on hearing of the road that we had 
been, ' You should never have been taken there ; that 
is the place where every night they are obliged to bury 
or burn the dead who fell during the fighting of the 
Commune, and who were then so hastily buried ! ' 

" The other night we dined at Phillipe's Restaurant, 
near the Bourse, and on our way back to the Hotel 
Chatham I noticed a chiffonier at work among the little 
dust-heaps, which are swept out nightly into the streets. 
I had never seen one busy before, and we stood a mo- 
ment to watch the patience with which he probed among 
the rubbish by the light of his little candle, as if for some 
treasure. Having caught up a little scrap of paper, or 
leather, or cotton stuff, he would, with a dexterous jerk 
of his long hook, throw it into the sack on his back. 
While standing by, Colonel Wortley asked the man if 
he had received any of the English gift. He said, ' No ; 
not any.' While we were talking to the rag-picker, a 
few men, some with white aprons and paper caps, some 
with blouses, gathered round, and they heard Colonel 
Wortley express surprise that the man had never had 
any of the 'don anglais,' as it was called. The by- 
standers at once began abusing the man, accusing him 
of not speaking the truth, and becoming much excited. 
The chiffonier then said, ' Out, en fe"vrier ! fai re$u le 
don anglais ! tout le monde en a ! ' He excused himself 
by saying that he thought the gentleman was speaking 
of a gift come now. I thought it very satisfactory, as 
showing that the food had filtered down to every one. 
Even the stray chiffonier whom we met was made to 
acknowledge it" 


The remaining money was at length distributed 
amongst deserving societies and charities Catholics 
and Protestants having their just share. The work 
was now accomplished, and the Commissioners finally 
returned home. 



THE strain and fatigue which Mr. Moore had gone 
through during the relief of Paris told upon his health. 
The unusual work tried him, both in mind and body. 
He could not get rid of the horrors he had witnessed. 
He would start up in the night calling out, "Do you 
not see that woman dying? I must go to Versailles." 
His face began to look worn. His hair became greyer. 
He looked depressed. His usual cheerful and buoyant 
energy disappeared, and he became listless, self-absorbed, 
and melancholy. 

This was to a certain extent caused by a feeling of 
disappointment. He had formed so good an opinion of 
the French character, from their patience, self-control, 
and courage during the time of their privation, that the 
outburst of lawlessness and frenzy which immediately 
followed their relief from pressure, was to him a painful 
surprise and a great disappointment. 

There was however a busy year before him, and he 
threw himself into his work as a relief from his troubles. 
In the beginning of 1872 he was appointed High 
Sheriff of Cumberland. His name had been suggested 
by his influential friends the Howards. Twenty years 
before, he had been elected Sheriff of London and 
Middlesex. But now that he was nearing the end of his 


labours, he felt proud to accept the office of High 
Sheriff of Cumberland, his native county. 

The Queen's precept appointing him to the office 
required him "to take custody and charge of the said 
county, and duly to perform the duties of sheriff during 
Her Majesty's pleasure." It used to be one of the 
duties of the high sheriff to levy men in arms for the 
defence of the county against the inroads of the Scots. 
George Moore would doubtless have been as willing as 
his ancestors to mount to the war cry of " Snaffle, spur, 
and spear," and defend their possessions at the sword's 
point. But these days had long passed away. The 
office of High Sheriff was no longer warlike. It had 
become festive and social. Judging from the large 
number of accounts left behind, accompanied by long 
bills, it appears that Mr. Moore's reign as High Sheriff 
consisted in a great measure of lunches, dinners, enter- 
tainments, and banquets. 

Mr. Moore was much gratified by the fact that the 
judges, Sir John Mellor and Sir Robert Lush, were his 
personal friends, and that they had for his sake specially 
arranged their progress so as to be present at the 
Northern Assize. It was a pleasant time to him 
altogether. He took much personal interest in all the 
details necessary to give dignity to the reception of the 
judges. His coachman, who had been thirty-five years 
in his service, took charge of everything relating to the 
beauty of the carriage, harness, and such like ; but Mr. 
Moore himself was resolute about cockades not being 
worn, although they are usually thought indispensable 
to a high sheriff's livery. He had seen nearly everybody 
else, so soon as they got promoted to some little honour, 
putting cockades on servants' hats, but he would have 
none of them for his serving-men, though he had been 
on the Lieutenancy of London for more than twenty- 
five years. 


It may be mentioned here that though George 
Moore was a particularly loyal man, he never went to 
Court, although on one occasion he had been asked to 
go to a levfa by one of the members of the Royal 
Family. " No, no," said he ; " Court is not the place 
for Warehousemen." 

The assizes were held at Carlisle on the 2Oth of 
February. The occasion was marked by the state and 
dignity with which Mr. Moore performed the office of 
high sheriff. There was the grand entry of the judges 
into the city. The high sheriff met Mr. Justice Lush 
on his arrival at the citadel station, and, preceded by 
richly caparisoned heralds and trumpeters, conveyed 
his lordship in a chariot drawn by four bright bay 
horses. Geering, the high sheriff's coachman, was 
master of the situation. He handled the ribbons in a 
manner that elicited general admiration, and if neces- 
sary, he could have turned the four-in-hand round a 
half-crown piece. And then, what a grand thing he was 
doing ! He was driving in state the Cumberland lad 
who had gone to London without a friend, who had 
worked hard and made his way in the world, and had 
now come back to his native county to take his part 
among the best, and enjoy his honour and dignity. It 
was a combination of the story of Whittington and 
Warren Hastings in one ! But, compared with the 
latter, George Moore's hands were clean. 

The judge was driven to his apartments in Lowther 
Street. Mr. Justice Lush opened the commission in the 
afternoon, and subsequently attended Divine service in 
the cathedral. The sermon was preached by the high 
sheriff's chaplain and brother-in-law, the Rev. T. H. 
Chester, vicar of South Shields. On the following day, 
Mr. Justice Meller, in addressing the grand jury, of 
which Lord Muncaster was foreman, said that it afforded 
him especial pleasure and satisfaction to revisit the 


county of Cumberland when his excellent friend Mr. 
George Moore was high sheriff. Mr. George Moore, he 
continued, was a gentleman universally esteemed, whose 
career and, he might add, the manner in which he had 
performed the duties of high sheriff, were a credit to his 
native county. The bus' ness then proceeded. The 
assize was longer than usual. Mr. Moore had a recep- 
tion, at which the gentry of the county attended. Then 
there were entertainments at Whitehall. In fact nothing 
could be more festive and delightful than the manner in 
which the high sheriff performed the hospitable duties of 
his office. 

During his shrievalty, he summoned a county meeting 
at Carlisle, for the purpose of presenting an address of 
congratulation to the Queen on the recovery of the 
Prince of Wales. The meeting was crowded ; every 
person of influence in the county was present. Mr. 
Moore was very nervous before making his speech ; but 
he made a good one. He rejoiced in being able to 
declare his earnest convictions. " I call the recovery of 
the Prince," he said, "a miraculous recovery, because he 
was on the very verge of the grave. I believe that the 
Prince's recovery was in a great measure due to the 
universal prayer of all classes of the people, of all 
denominations, from one end of the country to the 
other. It convinces me more than ever that God rules 
everything. When all hopes appeared to be gone, when 
we waited hourly, almost momentarily, for the sad news 
of his death, the Lord was with him, the gleam of hope 
was shed into his sick room, and he was saved. It may 
be that his affliction was a blessing in disguise. May it 
prove so. The Prince is anything but an idle man. I 
speak from experience. He has taken the chair on 
many occasions for institutions in which I am very much 
interested, at great sacrifice to himself. It must have 
bcca very irksome to him to have to discharge those 


duties once or twice a week, but he always came forward 
to alleviate distress, and he displayed an amount of 
charity which nobody ever knew anything about. Pro- 
vidence overrules everything for good. The Prince's 
illness has aroused a feeling of loyalty in this country 
that must be very satisfactory to us all. It must be 
most gratifying to the Prince to see that he possesses 
the warm love and affection of the people of this coun- 
try. Such a display as that which took place last week 
in London has never occurred in any other country. 
Thousands and tens of thousands of people assembled 
along seven miles of streets : there were 2,000,000 of 
people there to welcome him and his beloved mother. 
What a contrast the scene of last week presented to the 
great hardships which I witnessed in Paris twelve months 
ago ! When I reflect upon the difference of the two scenes 
it is a perfect marvel to me. I attribute it a great deal 
to the fact that in our beloved country we read and love 
the Bible, whereas in that country it is the want of that 
most blessed of all books that keeps the people in their 
present state ! " 

One of the high sheriff's duties is to take the neces- 
sary proceedings for returning members of Parliament. 
On the death of the Earl of Lonsdale, the Hon. Henry 
Lowther, who represented West Cumberland, succeeded 
to the peerage, and a vacancy occurred in' the represen- 
tation. A writ was issued to the sheriff ; the necessary 
steps were taken, and Lord Muncaster was returned 
without opposition. The election took place at Cocker- 
mouth. It was the last election in England at which 
the candidates presented themselves and addressed the 
electors from the hustings, after the old usage. 

The summer assizes took place in July. On that 
occasion the high sheriff gave a dinner to above two 
hundred persons, barristers, magistrates, and friends, 
not forgetting his farmers and poor relations. Many of 



his Cumberland fr'ends in London came down, to be 
present at the parting dinner of the high sheriff. 

His life was at this time clouded by the death of some 
of his dear friends. They were falling away from him 
one by one, friends who had worked with him, sympa- 
thised with him, and loved him ! "When my own work 
is done," he says, " and my energy exhausted by reason 
of age, I pray that I shall not be disposed to murmur at 
the approach of death. To me ' to live is Christ, to die 
is gain.' I think upon this subject every day of my life." 
But even these partings from the friends who had gone 
before him could not be endured without human sorrow. 

One ill-fated morning the news arrived at Whitehall 
of the death of his brother-in-law, James Wilkinson 
Breeks, in India, at the untimely age of forty-two. He 
was a man whom George Moore loved with all his heart. 
He was one of those distinguished men who maintain 
with dignity the rule of England in that far-off country. 
He was kind, courteous, and just. He was beloved by 
the natives as well as by his brother civilians. As Civil 
Commissioner in the Neilgherry Hills he won the respect 
of all with whom he was connected, by his high abilities 
as well as by the manliness of his character. He be- 
friended the poor and needy ; he devoted himself, like 
a true Christian gentleman, to the care of the people 
committed to his charge ; and his death was crowned 
with the love and tears of many. 1 

1 Mr. Moore was not singular in his regard for James Wilkinson Breeks. 
In India, the affection with which his memory is cherished is something 
extraordinary. To the natives in his own district he was, in their simple 
words, ''a. father," the soul of all that was good and useful to those about 
him an eminent example of a constantly good and Christian life a rare 
example of those qualities which, if commonly practised, would make this 
a better and happier world George Moore says of him in his diary : 
" It is difficult to realise that Jim Breeks is dead. I never loved any man 
more. He more than came up to anything that I had heard of him ; and 
I heard of him from my wife from morning till night ! My faith is strong, 
but it is impossible to understand why he of all men should be taken ! 
Who will be called next?" 


Another friend, whose death Mr. Moore deplored, was 
Mr. Hasell of Dalemain. PI is kindness and courteous- 
ness were only equalled by his judgment and discretion. 
He was an ideal representative of the old county family 
of England. He left many a grateful remembrance in 
the homes of Cumberland. 

But these hours of sadness did not affect George 
Moore's application to work. He could not be happy 
unless his spare time was occupied in some work of 
charity and benevolence. "The day is always thirteen 
hours long," he used to say, " if we wish to make it so." 
And again, " I owe nothing to genius, but if I give double 
the time and labour, I can do as well as others." There 
were a great many things that George Moore still wished 
to do for Cumberland, and some of them had scarcely 
as yet been begun. 

Amongst those in which he took part that year was 
the enlargement of the Convalescent Hospital at Silloth. 
Some years before, he had sent an anonymous gift of 
250 towards the hospital, but now he desired to take a 
more prominent part in the proceedings. On the 8th 
of August he took the chair at the general meeting of 
the society. The Convalescent Hospital owed its exist- 
ence and success to the exertions and fostering care of 
the Rev. Chancellor Burton of Carlisle. The Hospital 
stands on a grassy bank on the Solway, with pleasant 
slopes running down to the water. It is the choicest 
spot in all Silloth for situation. Besides having all the 
day's sunshine, it is sheltered by a rising ground from 
the boisterous south-west gales. The building is one- 
storied, simple and unpretending in appearance, but 
suggesting comfort and snugness. It was not thought 
necessary to have men and women completely separated. 
They have separate tables for food, but can meet in the 
walks and on the grassy slopes, and chat together on the 
seats on the grounds overlooking the Solway. Mr 

Z 2 


Moore was at this time proposing to establish a conva- 
lescent home at Littlehampton, and he always quoted 
Silloth Home as the model that he would like to follow. 

But a still more important movement which he was 
the chief means of instituting in Cumberland was that 
for boarding out pauper children. We do not know 
when Mr. Moore took up the subject of poor-law admi- 
nistration ; but we find from his diary that on the 3rd 
of May, 1870, he waited on Mr. Goschen, Chairman of 
the Poor Law Board, to ask for powers to board orphan 
children out of the union. Shortly after, we find him 
inviting the Wigton poor law guardians to dine with 
him at Whitehall, in order to discuss the boarding-out 
system. In his diary of I4th August, 1870, he says " I 
had a most satisfactory day yesterday. I was accom- 
panied by four of the Cockermouth guardians to board 
out pauper children. We placed twelve orphans with 
most respectable people. " We infer from this that Mr. 
Moore's application to Mr. Goschen had been successful. 

Mr. Moore's idea was that children should, if possible, 
be rescued from all pauperising influences. He held 
that pauperism was degrading to men, and especially to 
children. He desired to get children out of workhouses 
and bring them up in healthy homes. There they would 
be placed under family influences and trained like other 
children. They were not to continue degraded because 
of the faults of their parents. He held that it was 
necessary to separate the children altogether from 
pauperism and its degrading influences. To quote his 
own words : " The leading principle of the boarding-out 
system is to restore the child to family life, to create 
around it natural relations and natural ties. Under 
these conditions physical and moral health is improved, 
the natural affections are brought into play, and the 
child enjoys the liberty and variety of a home-life. 
Thus sympathy is produced, the true basis for religious 


principles in after life. Family life is the means which 
God has instituted for the training of the little ones, and 
in so far as we assimilate our method to His, so far will 
be our success." 

While Mr. Moore was high sheriff a conference on 
poor-law administration was held at Gilsland, formerly 
a great mosstrooping centre, and there the whole subject 
was discussed. Poor-law administrators came from all 
parts of the country, but especially from the four 
northern counties of Northumberland, Durham, Cumber- 
land, and Westmorland. It would occupy too much 
space to reprint the paper which Mr. Moore read in full, 
but a few extracts may be given to show his views on 
the subject : 

" For many years," he said, " my heart has yearned for work- 
house orphan children. About three years ago I determined to 
build an orphanage on my estate for the reception of all the 
orphans in the unions in the county of Cumberland. Messrs. 
Cory and Ferguson, architects, Carlisle, prepared plans for the 
reception of fifty, and on such a scale that, if needed, they could 
admit of its benefits being extended so as to accommodate one 
hundred orphans. The ground was staked out, and I was just 
about to advertise for tenders for the building of the home, when 
I heard that the Carlisle Union had decided to adopt the boarding- 
out system ; and, as I had calculated upon this union as the 
medium for securing nearly half the supply to fill the home, I felt 
at once that my occupation was gone. I then resolved to see if 
this system could not be adopted generally throughout the county 
unions, and I met with a most cordial response from the Cocker- 
mouth Board of Guardians ; the only difficulty they saw being the 
finding of suitable cottagers to take the orphans. I was persuaded 
that the right people with whom the children could be placed were 
to be found ; though I, to some extent, realised the difficulty of 
fixing upon them, as they should be people whose motives had a 
higher aim than the mere pay of about three or four shillings per 
week. The discovery of suitable cottage homes to receive the 
orphans, and of ladies to visit them regularly, is, however, not by 
any means so difficult as may be supposed by some persons. This 
I can now assert from personal experience, as amongst small shop- 


keepers, labourers of long known exemplary character, and married 
servants from respectable families, many such homes are to be 
found. Adhering to the resolve I had made, I set on foot a 
searching inquiry for some miles around my own neighbourhood, 
and ascertained myself about those persons who from time to time 
.had applied for orphans ; and then, on an appointed d?,y, at my 
request, the chairman, vice-chairman, and a sub-committee of 
guardians of the Cockermouth Union accompanied me to each 
cottage to judge for ourselves ; and I think we placed about a 
dozen that day. I have often thought since that it was the happiest 
day's work I ever did ; for I was truly thankful to help in making 
so good a start. . . . 

.... The great thing to be wished for, is to deliver these little 
ones~from a helpless pauper spirit. Every child that is brought up 
in a workhouse seems to me in heart a pauper, and he leaves it 
almost useless. Family life is God's own method of training the 
young, and no other preparation can so well fit them for their lot 
in life and for their dispersion amongst the ranks of honest industry. 
May we not confidently hope that, if these children associate from 
almost infancy with other children, share the same food, sit on the 
same form at school, learn the same lessons, play the same games 
and, above all things, are cared for by some good honest foster- 
mother, they will be inspired by a wish to earn an honourable and 
independent living, and lose for ever the stigma of the workhouse 
child. As for the girls, little need be said. The workhouse, even 
under the best auspices, must be a sad place for them ; for sup- 
posing (which is almost impossible) that they could be kept entirely 
from the worst specimens of their sex, yet they are but, as it were, 
parts of a machine entirely wanting in any individual care or 
tenderness ; so that their love has no outlet, their feelings are 
blunted, they become without shame, and in most instances, as 
ruined women, return to claim a place for themselves and their 
miserable offspring in the union where they passed their early and 
dreary years. It is gratifying to learn that, even thus early in the 
experiment, instances are not wanting of the increased brightness 
and happier look of the girls, and that already there is an affection 
subsisting between them and their foster-mother, and one hopes 
that these children have found a friend and counsellor, some one 
to love and to think of, and to strive to please when separated by 
and by to work their own way in life's battle. But besides the 
physical and moral training of the children being better attained 
by contact with the sympathies of men and women, I am sure that 
they will be better fitted to become useful servants, or good wives 


and husbands, than if brought up in utter ignorance of small homes 
and thrifty domestic ways. . . . Finally, not to prolong this paper, 
and trespass further on your patience, I would remark that the aim 
and end of this system is to absorb these children into the general 
population, by having first fitted them for active life, by making 
them sharers in a working man's home, and associating them with 
his family, under the individual care of the foster-mother. I think 
this will make them much purer and better, more likely to become 
honoured members of society here and better prepared for the 
world to come." 

This paper created much interest. A discussion took 
place upon boarding-out, in the course of which nearly 
every speaker approved of the recommendations which 
George Moore had made. Having once made an im- 
pression, he was not the man to let the thing drop. He 
proceeded at once to recommend the guardians of all 
the parishes over which he had an influence and one 
might add, that his influence extended all over Cum- 
berland to carry out the practice of boarding-out the 
orphan girls. 

Mr. Cropper of Ellergreen, who read a paper on 
" Vagrancy " at the conference, says that it was about 
this time that he became acquainted with the remark- 
able character of George Moore. He says he found to 
his surprise that whilst other people had been merely 
discussing the subject, George Moore had actually 
succeeded in finding homes for all the orphan girls of 
two neighbouring workhouses, and was prepared to tell 
of the success of his operations. " When I heard," says 
Mr. Cropper, " of his prompt carrying out of the work, 
I knew at once the power that he possessed ; for it is no 
easy matter to induce half-a-dozen boards of guardians 
to carry out any particular course, or to find so many 
cottagers willing to accept a fresh addition to their 
family." l 

1 Those who wish to inquire further into the subject of boarding-cut 
paupers will find it admirably treated in Pauperism and the Boarding-out of 


The subject of pauper boarding-out is by no means 
calculated to increase the interest of a biography. But 
we could not overlook the subject, as it so completely 
illustrates the character of George Moore. He brought 
a fresh, strong, earnest, common-sense mind to bear 
upon the matter. " Here," he said, " is a good work to 
be done ; let us set to at once, and do it" Up rose the 
functionaries of red-tape, and said it could not be done 
" It would excite opposition ; it was something entirely 
new; and, above all, it would cause great expense!" 
George Moore swept aside these arguments like cob- 
webs. " It shall be done," he said ; and he forthwith 
began the work. He led, and others followed. 

Shortly after the above meeting at Gilsland, Mr. 
Moore went into Scotland with Mrs. Moore and her 
sister, Mrs. Chester, for a change of air. This short 
tour was made memorable by an interview which he 
had with the ex-Empress of the French at Dunkeld. 
Mr. Moore was staying at the Birnam Hotel, and whilst 
there a note came to him from Count Clary, expressing 
a wish on the part of the Empress that he should come 
to see her as soon as possible. The Empress was 
travelling incognito, with the Prince Imperial and a 
small suite. When Mr. Moore arrived at her hotel, 
he found her ready to receive him in her apartment. 
She was simply dressed in a waterproof and hat, and 
prepared for her journey to Blair Athol. He was 
much struck with her great grace of manner and her 
beauty, though sorrow and anxiety had left their traces 
on her countenance. 

The Empress inquired eagerly about his recent visits 
to Paris, as the representative of the Mansion House 
Fund ; and she showed much feeling as he told her of 
the scenes and sufferings which he had witnessed. Their 

Pauper Children in Scotland, by John Skelton, Advocate, Secretary to the 
Poor-Law Board in Scotland. 


conversation was in English, and therefore limited in 
extent ; as she could not understand as much as she 
could speak. At the last she said sadly, "Alas, they 
care not for me now : they care not for me ! " The 
interview was melancholy. " She shed tears of grati- 
tude," says Mr. Moore, " for what England had done 
for France after the siege." 

The few days which he spent in the Highlands 
refreshed and cheered him. He enjoyed everything. 
He was a pleasant companion to travel with. He 
never raised up difficulties. While he had been a 
traveller, he had to put up with all sorts of accommo- 
dation. He was the same still. He had not been 
spoilt a bit. He made the best of everything, and 
looked at so-called obstacles with joy and cheerfulness. 

It had been the intention of the party to proceed 
from Dunkeld to Braemar by coach ; but when the 
morning came, alas ! the rain was coming down in 
sheets, in floods ; the wind blew in gusts and hurri- 
canes. It was impossible to go out in such a day. 
The outside places of the coach had been taken and 
paid for. Mr. Moore got up at five, and went to the 
Post Office, from whence the coach was to start. He 
told the coachman that it was impossible to take 
the ladies through such weather ; but if any other 
passengers were willing to take the places, they were 
welcome to them. 

Mr. Fisher, the son of the landlord, who was about 
to drive the coach, gave back the money that had been 
paid for the places. " You are a strange fellow," said 
Mr. Moore ; " you are the first Scotchman I ever met 
who refused money when he had a right to it." Fisher 
laughed, and rejoined, " Well, it isn't a day that I 
should like to drive you and your lady to Braemar." 
" Why ? " " It's because you are George Moore. I 
have heard of you all my life, and I wanted to see you. 


I'm very sorry that it's such coarse weather that I 
can't drive you to Braemar!" "How did you know 
anything about me ? " " You went into the Commercial 
Room last night and were recognised by some of the 
travellers. One of them let me know, and I saw you 
two or three times yesterday." 

Mr. Moore asked Fisher to come and see him in 
London, either at Kensington Palace Gardens or at 
Bow Churchyard. Some time after, -a tall, strong, fine- 
looking fellow called at Bow Churchyard and asked 
for Mr. Moore. He was shown to his room, and 
was instantly recognised as the son of the Dunkeld 
landlord. George Moore presented him with a pipe, 
which Fisher still preserves amongst his treasures. 

Mr. Moore could not spend more than a fortnight in 
Scotland, having previously arranged to be present at a 
conference of the County Town Missionaries at White- 
hall, and to attend to other local business. The party 
went by rail to Inverness, then by the Caledonian Canal 
to Ballachulish, and from thence by Glencoe, Invernan, 
and the Trossachs to Callander. Next morning they 
went by Perth and Stirling to Carlisle, and reached 
Whitehall in the course of the evening. 

He had a heavy fortnight's work before him. Two 
days after his return he attended the Diocesan Church 
Extension Society, at Carlisle, where he moved the first 
resolution. The next day he took the chair at the East 
Cumberland Agricultural Society, where he had to 
make the usual chairman's speeches. Then he attended 
the Carlisle Diocesan Conference, where he spoke to 
express his approval of a paper of the Rev. Dr. 
Simpson's on the evils attendant on statute-hirings in 
Cumberland and Westmoreland. He attended ten 
public meetings during the fortnight. 

"After all," he said, "I should not like to live in 
Cumberland all the year round." And again, " I do 


but little good in Cumberland compared with London." 
In London he met men with larger sympathies. He 
had a much wider scope of action. All the orphanages 
he helped were in the neighbourhood of London. He 
had seven or eight hundred young persons in his 
employment for whom he considered himself largely 
responsible. Then the activity and stir of life of 
London interested him. All the great men of England 
visited London, and many of them came within reach of 
his influence. 

When the Bishop of Peterborough visited London, 
Mr. Moore invited him to lecture to his young men at 
Bow Churchyard, and a most eloquent lecture he 
delivered. On another evening the Rev! Mr. Fleming 
lectured on Livingstone ; the Rev. Dr. Moffat, Living- 
stone's father-in-law, was present, and addressed the 
meeting. Thus an immense interest was given to the 
lectures, which were greatly enjoyed by the young men 
of the association. 

It was Mr. Moore's practice, on such occasions, to 
have a large gathering of friends to dine at six o'clock, 
before the lecture. He invited all the lads, in all ranks 
and stations, for whom he had got situations, or to whom 
he had given advice or assistance, to join these dinners 
and lectures. Nothing pleased him more than to see 
the dining-room so crowded that all the waiters were in 
despair. Then his enjoyment was complete, and his 
cheerful laughter and sunny temper spread light 
amongst the guests, until they seemed to feel and enjoy 
the occasion as much as he did. 

The partners' lunch, or mid-day dinner, was one of 
the institutions of the house. It was held in some far- 
away place up stairs, and many rooms full of goods had 
to be passed through before it could be reached. A 
very motley congregation was sometimes to be found 
there. A Cumberland schoolmaster, an aide-de-camp of 


Garibaldi's, a London missionary, a noted Cumberland 
athlete, an Australian merchant, the chaplain of the 
house, a Dissenting minister, a Cumberland lad wanting 
a situation, an eminent bishop, and sometimes a peer, 
were found around the same board, mixed up with 
country drapers and their wives. 

One who knew George Moore well gives the following 
recollection : 

" The most noticeable instance of pleasant incongruity that ever 
came under my attention happened in this way. I had been 
closeted with Air. Moore for a short time in the glass sanctum 
where the great merchant worked, when an employ^ announced 
the arrival of a certain great lord of the Western country, in com- 
pany with a well-known pillar of the Church. 'Ask them to wait 
a bit,' said Mr. Moore, and we went on with our talk. When it 
came to an end, the usual invitation to the partners' dinner 
was given and accepted, and I duly found my way up stairs. 
Before long the peer and the canon also put in an appearance, 
sitting, if memory serves, in close proximity to a Nonconformist 
divine and a commercial gentleman from the United States. On 
the oppo?ite side of the table was the wife of a linendraper in a 
small way of business down in the West country. When the earl 
and his clerical confrere had withdrawn, this lady always a 
favoured guest on account of her native humour remarked, 
" Well, they won't believe me at home when I tell them that I 

dined w/th great Lord F , and found him very pleasant 

company." 1 

Besides the various work connected with his business 
at Bov; Churchyard, he was beset by numberless appli- 
cants for situations or for money. The secretaries of 
various institutions with which he was connected visited 
him there. Sometimes long queues of people waited 
to see him. Nearly all of them "wanted something." 
Some tried to force their way to his private room. It 
was situated at the end of a lane of inclosed clerks' 
desks ; and before it could be reached there was a sharp 
turn to tho left. At the end of the rows of desks his 
faithful secretary, Mr. Hough, was seated ; and no one 
escaped his observation without running the gauntlet of 
1 Article in the Globe. 


his inquiries. Some were not allowed to proceed 
further ; others were permitted a chance if they waited 
for an audience ; all who had made an appointment were 
allowed admission to the private room. 

Mr. Moore was forced, as it were, into punctuality. 
Every minute was precious to him, not only to him, 
but to those who wished to see him. Nothing tried his 
temper so much as sleepy-headed people, v:ho did not 
know the value of moments ; who came languidly late, 
some ten minutes behind time. One day he wrote in 
his diai y : " I have not a moment to call my own. I 
fear my temper is not so good as it was ; for I have 
been twice irritated to-day. Lord, forgive me ! " 

He was himself most punctual in his engagements. 
He was never a moment too late. It was the same 
whether it was an important engagement or a visit to a 
friend, or an appointment to meet his wife at a picture- 
gallery. He was most punctual also in his reply to 
letters. He answered them by return. He often said 
that if he could not answer his letters at once, he would 
" be mired, or go mad." 

When an opportunity offered, he would visit his 
friends in the country. Sometimes he went to Cam- 
bridge to see his friends at the University. In May, 
1872, he went for a few days to stay with Dr. Guest, 
Master of Caius College, the celebrated Anglo-Saxon 
scholar. He had many pleasant remembrances of Cam- 
bridge. He had visited his Cumberland friend, Mr. W. 
M. Gunson, there in 1853. Mr. Moore was so much 
pleased with the place, that from that time he was a 
constant visitor. It was by his advice that his partner's 
only son, Sampson Copestake, went to Cambridge, and 
passed through the regular university course. 

During his visits to Dr. Guest in 1872, he met with 
many kindnesses. He and Mrs. Moore paid a visit to 
Professor Sedgwick at his rooms. He was then very ill, 


and seldom spoke or roused himself to see any visitors ; 
but when George Moore and his wjfe called, he was de- 
lighted to see them, and began to talk of past days, and 
of his early life amongst the Fells of Yorkshire. His old 
fire rekindled; his face glowed with enthusiasm ; and he 
spoke with eagerness of the North and its associations. 
It was almost the last spark in his life. A few weeks 
after, he died. 

George Moore had scarcely got rid of the office of 
High Sheriff of Cumberland, when he was again asked 
to offer himself as a candidate for the representation of 
an important constituency in Parliament. He had already 
refused Nottingham, Marylebone, the City of London, 
the County of Surrey, the County of Cumberland ; and 
now he was asked to represent the County of Middlesex. 
His views on the latter proposal must be stated in his 
own words. The memorandum is dated February, 
1873 :- 

" Having received a letter from Lord Enfield, Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, stating that he 
wished to see me, I was full of curiosity to know what 
could be his errand. He came, and to my surprise he 
said that he had consulted some of his colleagues and 
many friends in the county, and they had unanimously 
agreed that I should be asked to be his colleague in 
standing for the County of Middlesex at the next 
election. He stayed a long time, paid me many com- 
pliments, reminded me that I had proposed him at the 
last general election, and said many other kind things. 

" How passing strange does all this seem to me ! 
When I look back upon my past life, many curious 
memories crowd upon me. Some forty-three years 
since, when I came to London and was with Fishers, 
I got my half-holiday to go and see the House of Com- 
mons. I remember how I surreptitiously got into the 
House, and actually sat down in the seat of Canning ! 


I little thought at that time that I should be offered a 
seat for both the City of London and the County of 
Middlesex. But now that I can get into the House 
freely and openly, I do not care about it. On cool re- 
flection, I have resolved to decline the proposition ! 

"My d-iys on earth/' he added, "are fast drawing to 
a close. Weeks and months pass away as if by magic. 
My old friends are dying, I myself must be prepared 
for following them ; it may be in a moment. I cannot 
allow any worldly honour to be fixed upon me, to the 
detriment of my eternal interests. 

"Then, people estimate my abilities far too highly. 
These are only very moderate ; and my imperfect edu- 
cation would make me a coward in the House of Com- 
mons. I shall be sixty-seven next month. I ought to 
give up all worldly excitement, and prepare for another 
and better state." 

He therefore wisely declined the distinguished honour 
offered to him of representing Middlesex in Parliament. 
He knew very well that no similar offer would again be 
made to him. 



ONE of Mr. Moore's principal reasons for declining to 
become a member of Parliament was because he felt 
it to be his duty to continue his help to the benevo- 
lent associations with which he had become identified. 
There were many rich and ambitious persons anxious to 
become members of Parliament ; but there were very few 
who were willing to give their time and money to assist 
the orphanages and charitable institutions from which 
no honour was to be derived. George Moore therefore 
continued to labour at his self-imposed duty to the end 
of his life. 

At the time when he was declining to become member 
of Parliament, he was one of the committee engaged in 
getting up subscriptions for the help of the passengers 
and seamen who had been wrecked in the Northfleet, off 
Dungeness. We find long memoranda in his hand- 
writing relating to the numerous meetings held on the 
subject. The claims of a number of persons had to be 
considered. George Moore occasionally differed from 
the committee. For instance, he objected to give to the 
captain's wife one-seventh of the whole amount subscribed 
while a "comparatively small sum was divided amongst 
the other bereaved persons. Besides, the captain's 
widow had 50 yearly from the Privy Purse, and 


of her own. Mr. Moore divided the meeting on the 
question, but he was beaten. 

The case of Widow Stephens, described by a draper 
of Fraserburgh to George Moore in a private letter, was 
a painful one. In some respects it reminds one of the 
story of Enoch Arden. She had been married to two 
brothers. Both had served their apprenticeship at the 
same time. Both had courted her at the same time, 
and both married her the last after a widowhood of 
about four years. Her life had been a chequered and 
eventful one. When a girl she lost her father, a ship's 
carpenter, by an accident in China. Then her mother 
died. The first Stephens she married died at sea ; and 
the second Stephens was drowned in the NortJifleet, a 
month after her second marriage. Such are the troubles 
which sailors' wives have to undergo. 

From an early period Mr. Moore took a deep interest 
in the London Cabmen's Mission. His commercial 
activity had early brought him into contact with the 
cabmen. They all knew the warehouse in Bow Church- 
yard and his house in Kensington Palace Gardens. 
These men were exposed at all hours to all weathers. 
They had little time to spend with their families. They 
were employed on Sundays 1 and Saturdays. They 
often bore a bad reputation, though they were perhaps 
more sinned against than sinning. 

One day a cabman drove George Moore from his 
house to Euston Square. He gave the driver a shilling 
over the fare. The cabman returned the extra money. 
Mr. Moore had already discovered a Scotchman who 
had returned him his fare, though he had a right to it. 
But to have an excess fare returned by a London 
cabman, who had no right to it, was something still more 

1 As early as 1861 Mr. Moore offered a prize of 20 for the best essay on 
the evils connected with Sunday cab-driving. It was won by a hansom- 
cabman, named John Cockrarn. 

A A 


extraordinary. " How is this ? " he asked. " Well, you 
have paid me more than the fare, and you are George 
Moore !" said the cabman. Mr. Moore was in a hurry 
to get off by the train, and said nothing at the time, but 
merely asked for the cabman's number. He afterwards 
found that the cabman's name was Cockram, and that 
he had won the prize essay for 20 which had been 
awarded to him some years before. 

On his return to London Mr. Moore sent for Mr. 
Cockram, and ascertained that the money he had 
obtained for the prize had proved the nest-egg of good 
fortune. First he had bought a horse and a cab. He 
-had increased these from time to time, until he had 
become the possessor of about a hundred horses and of 
numerous cabs. He never used these on Sundays. 
Mr. Moore asked him, "What can I do to help the 
cabmen ? " " Well, sir, you must do as that gentleman, 
Sir Hope Grant, has done, and ask some of them to 
supper!" "Very well," said George Moore, "they can 
come to the schoolroom near here, and they shall have 
the best possible supper." " No, sir," said Cockram ; 
" that would not be the same thing. If you want to do 
any good to them, .^you must ask them to j^our own 
house. You must show them that every man's hand is 
not against them." " Very well," said Mr. Moore; "it 
shall be done as you say." 

An invitation was issued to two hundred London 
cabmen to take supper at Kensington Palace Gardens, 
preference being given to those in the neighbourhood, 
to teetotallers, and to the younger men most under the 
influence of temptation. Not only the invited made 
their appearance, but a large number of the uninvited, 
who swelled the number to about double the expected 

When the cabmen sat down, their suspicions were 
somewhat aroused by the appearance of a tall, military- 


looking officer behind them serving out the beef and 
plum-pudding. "D'ye see the guv'nor?" asked one 
cabby of another, pointing back with his thumb to 
the gentleman behind them. In fact it was Colonel 
Henderson, the Commissioner of Police ! No matter ; 
the supper went on blithely. Mr. Moore was in his 
element, hurrying from place to place to see that his 
guests had plenty. The speeches which followed were 
short and to the point. Lots of anecdotes were told, at 
which the cabmen laughed heartily. Mr. Moore gave 
them good advice, and warned them against the evils of 
drunkenness, 1 which they took in very good part. 

1 Among Sir Wilfrid Lawson's humorous rhymes, which he sent to Mr. 
Moore, is the following : 

"Mr. Moore, at his banquet to the cabmen, gave them special warning 
against the evils of drunkenness." Record. 

"Now all you young fellows take warning I pray, 
And attend to the word which I'm going to say : 
I advise one and all that you never get ' tight," 
We merchants and clergymen don't think it right. 

" It's a very bad thing : it deprives you of wealth, 
It injures your morals, and ruins your health ; 
It's bad for yourselves, for your children and wives 
In fact, you know well, it's the curse of your lives. 

" Then drink only sparsely of spirits and beer : 
The advice which I give you is truly sincere. 
In each street, as you know, there's a palace for gin, 
With an owner, all burning to have you come in. 

" There are publics and beer-shops set down everywhere, 
In yard and in alley, in street and in square ; 
The magistrates licen e these places each year, 
And the country gets rich with its tax upon beer. 

" And the brewers how pious they are to be sure ! 
They get plenty of money to give to the poor ; 
And the clergy have shares in the joint-stock concerns, 
From which every year they get famous returns. 

" And no one objects, when things go on so well, 
Except that poor idiot, Sir W. L. 
You see we're obliged thus to tempt you all round, 
For money must somehow or other be found. 

A A 2 


Colonel Henderson satisfied them by his manner and 
his speech that he was by no means their enemy, but 
had a strong desire to improve their condition. At the 
end of the proceedings, after the Doxology had been 
sung, Mr. Moore stood at the door, tipped the cabbies 
each with a new shilling ; gave them a copy of Bunyan, 
and a British Workman Almanac ; and' bade them all 
" Good night, God bless you ! " 

About two years after the above entertainment, a 
Mission Hall for the cabmen was established near Kings 
Cross Station ; Mr. Samuel Morley, M.P., laying the 
foundation-stone. The minister and superintendent of 
the mission has given the following account of Mr. 
Moore's first visit to the hall : " One Sabbath evening, 
as we were holding an open-air service, we observed two 
gentlemen very near to the preaching-stand ; and when 
we gave out a hymn, they joined in singing it heartily. 
At the close of the meeting we gave a cordial invitation 
to those present to come with us into the London 
Cabmen's Mission Hall. In proceeding thither, the two 
gentlemen told the missionary who they were. The 
one was George Moore, and tne other was his friend Mr. 
Stockdale. They both sat and listened to the Gospel, 
as we gave it in our plain, outspoken manner ; and at 
the prayer meeting which followed the service, Mr. 

" And that rich men should pay Oh ! that never would do 
When the tax is so easy collected from you. 
How well we are governed, my lads, only think ! 
There's twenty-five millions of taxes on drink ! 

" And this drink keeps our prisons and workhouses going, 
And asylums for lunatics filled to o'erflowing ; 
'Tis a glorious thing, is this wonderful drink, 
At least so we merchants and clergymen think. 

" So, I'll only conclude the same way I began, 
With a warning most special to every young man. 
There's only one evil you're called on to funk, 
You may drink night and day only never gel drunk I " 


Mocre gave us a warm address, and wished us God- 
speed ! " He afterwards sent the mission two donations 
of 50 each ; and a third of .100 just before his death. 
He provided a cabmen's rest, on the Kensington Road, 
close to the end of the Broad Walk in Kensington 
Gardens. It was supplied with every requisite for 
human comfort. The cabmen took their meals and 
coffee there. It was a snug place, and proved a cozy 
shelter from the winter's rain and snow. 

We turn to another subject. At the beginning of 
1874, it became known that the remains of the great 
African traveller, Dr. Livingstone, were on their way 
from Zanzibar to England. His numerous friends in 
London were anxious that his body should be interred 
in -Westminster Abbey. This would involve some 
expense, but no one was willing to find the money. Mr. 
Russell Gurney brought the subject under the notice of 
the House of Commons. He said, " It had transpired 
that there were no funds available wherewith to give 
effect to the general wish of the country. The family 
of Dr. Livingstone were without the necessary means ; 
and on an application being made to the Geographical 
Society, it had been ascertained that they had no funds 
which they felt at liberty to employ for the purpose. . . 
The expense of interment would be very small, but 
there were none to whom they could look for the funds 
except to the Government ; and he was quite sure that 
in incurring the small outlay which would be required 
the Government would be doing an act that would be 
welcomed by the whole community." 

The proceedings connected with this affair were 
conducted in a rather shabby way. Why go to the 
Government at all, when the expenses of the interment 
were to be so "very small"? When George Moore 
heard of the difficulty, he said : " Let me bury the noble 
dead I What ! bury him like a pauper out of the public 


taxes ? No ! Let me defray the expenses of interring 
the indomitable, valiant, self-denying hero ! " 

But this was not to be permitted. The Government 
at last said its say. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
in replying to Sir Wilfrid Lawson, said that the Treasury 
had at first promised .250 for the funeral of Dr. Living- 
stone, that sum having been estimated to cover all 
expenses. It was afterwards found that a larger amount 
was required. " A wealthy merchant in the City had 
offered to pay the expenses ; but the Treasury felt that 
to accept this offer would not be in accordance with the 
wishes of the country." 

At last the remains of the hero were interred in 
Westminster Abbey, side by side with the great men of 
the country. Men of title, men of science and letters, 
took part in the ceremony. The Queen sent " a tribute 
of respect and admiration " in the shape of a beautiful 
wreath of the choicest flowers to deck the bier of the 
noble dead. 

It was still left for George Moore to affix the tablet of 
black marble which lies over the grave of the illustrious 
traveller. The admirable tributary inscription was com- 
posed by the large-hearted Dean of Westminster. The 
Dean, in a recent letter to Mrs. Moore, says : " I well 
remember the circumstance of Livingstone's funeral. 
When there appeared to be a difficulty in carrying out 
the object which the nation had so much at heart, it was 
understood that one private person had undertaken to 
defray all the expenses; and though this proposal at 
once stimulated the Government to step in, and with a 
becoming sense of the occasion to supersede such an 
intervention, yet there was not a less grateful feeling, 
and I may add that there was no surprise, when it was 
felt that George Moore was the unknown benefactor. 
He afterwards laid down at his own cost the splendid 
slab and the long inscription which remains the sole 


memorial in the Abbey of the Great Traveller, the 
memorial, I may also say, of one of the most generous 
and genuine examples of public spirit and munificence 
that our generation has seen." 

We now return to Mr. Moore's church at Somers 
Town. The Rev. Mr. Worsfold was the first clergyman 
appointed to the charge. He had found it up-hill work. 
It told upon his health, and he was forced to go abroad 
to recruit his strength. Mr. Moore went to the church 
one Sunday, and found the gallery shut up. The body 
of the church was half empty. This was a great blow 
to him. " My church at Somers Town," he said, " has 
not yet been a success. The clergyman meets with 
many discouragements ; we cannot get the people to 
come to the services." Nevertheless, the schools were 
successful. They were filled with large numbers of 
children, and were doing good. 

Mr. Worsfold returned to England, and accepted a 
country living more easy to manage. The responsi- 
bility was then thrown upon Mr. Moore of finding a 
successor. From the nature of the parish, it was diffi- 
cult to find the right man. He went from one church 
to another to hear the best preachers. He went to 
Stepney, Deptford, Mile End, Kennington, Kensington, 
Old St. Pancras, and Hornsey. At last, when he had 
almost given up hope, he found the man he wanted in 
the fashionable church of St. George's, Hanover Square. 
He consulted Canon Fleming of St. Michael's, and with 
his strong recommendation, he suggested to the trustees 
to offer the living of Christ's Church, Somers Town, to 
the Rev. Philip S. O'Brien an excellent preacher, and 
an able, hard-working clergyman. Mr. O'Brien accepted 
the offer ; and from that time has gone on labouring, in 
the face of many difficulties, at what is real missionary 
work in London. 

In the month of February, George Moore was visited 


by the Rev. Canon and Mrs. Ryle ; he writes in his 
diary : " Our dear friends the Ryles arrived ; very glad 
we were to receive them. Thank God he has recovered 
from his severe illness. He is one of the salt of the 
earth. May he long be spared to work for Christ ! " 

Mr. Moore continued to attend the meetings of 
Christ's Hospital. On the resignation of Mr. Foster 
White, from over-work, he was asked to become 
treasurer. But his hands were already full, and he 
could not accept the office. He however induced his 
friend Mr. Allcroft to accept the office, which he con- 
tinues to retain. Mr. Moore was however elected one of 
the five almoners to meet the Endowed Schools Com- 
missioners with respect to the future government of the 
institution. He accordingly went on frequent depu- 
tations to negotiate with the commissioners. 

Though getting older, he felt himself as full of work 
as ever. " I must work as well as pray," he said ; 
"there is no happiness in an idle life." And again, 
" Enable me to persevere to the end of my days." 
" Faithfulness in little things is a true test of character. 
A little thing well done proves what a man's habitual 
state is." " Let life go as it may, there will always be 
a strength underlying it, if we have come to Christ." 
Here is his commercial view of a Christian " It pays 
to be a thorough Christian. It pays to repent and be 
converted. It pays to serve Christ. It does not pay in 
money, but it does in true happiness." 

One day, after visiting the sick poor, many of them ill 
of typhus and scarlet fever, he writes in his diary : 
" How many mercies have I to be thankful for, com- 
pared with the eighty families I have visited to-day 
with the city missionary ! " The visit was made in the 
middle of January, during a severe frost. He went 
about from door to door, distributing help and money. 
Again he adds : " Outward gifts are subjects of thanks- 

CHAP, xxn.] VISIT TO VICHY. 361 

giving, but not of rejoicing. There is a better joy, the 
heart moulded unto the will of God. This was our 
Lord's joy oneness of will with God. ' My meat is to 
do the will of Him that sent me.'" 

These are merely a few of the extracts taken from 
his diary, which is rich in similar thoughts. The sense 
of d nty always overcomes any personal efTorts. This 
was characteristic of him through life. He used to 
say that "It wasn't that he was brave at all; but he 
hadn \. time to think of anything but what had to be 
done f and what must be done, through whatever 

At length he was compelled to call a halt. Nerves 
of iron could not go on lasting for ever. He was 
beginning to feel the effects of the wear and tear of 
life. He consulted Mr. Erichsen, who ordered him at 
once to Vichy, in the centre of France. It was with 
great difficulty that he could tear himself away from 
his London work ; but still he must go. He went, 
accompanied by Mrs. Moore and her sister, and his 
old friend Stock-dale. He derived great benefit from 
the waters and the baths. He drove about the country, 
and sat in the open air. He was always a lover of sun- 
shine; he never found it too hot, when other people 
were exhausted. His mind lay fallow, while he enjoyed 
enforced idleness. He made the acquaintance, while at 
Vichy, of the Rev. W. Gordon, the chaplain of the 
English Church, and of Mr. Porter, a Devonshire squire, 
and with them he took part in some Bible Readings. 
After a stay of three weeks he returned to London, 
greatly benefited in health. 

While at Paris he called upon the friends whom he 
had made in 1871, during the Relief of Paris, the 
Andres, the Mallets, the Rothschilds. They always 
welcomed him on his arrival. A carriage, with English 
horses, was placed at his disposal by a French gentleman; 

362 AT WHITEHALL. r ci:.\f. -rxn. 

and more than once, when he took his seat, a rose, a 
bunch of mignonette, or a forget-me-not was thrown in 
by some poor-looking ouvrier. One day a lovely bou- 
quet was laid in the carriage for Mrs. Moore, with these 
words attached to it : " Reconnaissance a Madame 
Moore et a Monsieur Moore, d'un inconnu, qui n'a pas 
oublie a Paris le devouement avec lequel il a prit part a 
nos infortunes." 1 

Mr. Moore's first visit to Vichy was in May, 1873. 
He went through his ordinary hard work during the 
year ; but with the accession of spring he began to feel 
seedy, tired, and exhausted. He consulted his physi- 
cians, and they again ordered him to Vichy. The baths 
and waters again did him good, and he returned to 
London once more full of health. 

Towards the end of summer he went down to White-? 
hall. That was always a great event to himself, to 
his friends, and to the people of the neighbourhood. 
The young people looked forward to his examinations 
and his tea feasts. The many charities in which he 
took an interest required his attention and also his 
support. He took his seat on the bench at Wigton, 
and tried to keep down drunkenness by refusing all 
new licences. He had his pensioners to look after, at 
Bolton Low Houses, Mealsgate, and elsewhere. He 
went on to Carlisle to visit the hospital, of which he 
was a large benefactor. He went to Silloth to visit 
the Convalescent Home, the enlargement of which was 
then under consideration. 2 

1 The following paragraph appeared in a London newspaper in 1873 : 
"A few days ago a lady who was accompanying a Frenchman in a walk 

through Kensington Palace Gardens observed that her companion took off 
his hat on passing Mr. George Moore's house. She asked him the reason, 
and he replied that he should always do so whenever he parsed that house. 
We need hardly supply the key." 

2 In 1874 Mrs. Moore gave .1,650 to the Carlisle Infirmary, Silloth. 
A fund was established, called after her name, under the direction of the 
Charity ; and patients \\ ere to be sent from the Cumberland Infirmary to 
the Convalescent home. 


Then there was his farm to look over. At first he 
had taken a great pleasure in farming, when " frisking 
over his own soil ! " But his tune had changed. He 
had had many losses and worries. He had discovered, 
as regarded the farm itself, that like most gentlemen's 
farms, it never paid. Mr. Moore then took to short- 
horns. He bought some splendid animals, and the 
results seemed satisfactory. But we see throughout his 
diary that they also caused him a good deal of dis- 
comfort. On one occasion a cow died which cost him 
.700. Other cows dropped their calves. When the 
beasts were so valuable, this was a great loss. 

At last Mr. Moore determined to sell his shorthorns. 
On the 29th June, 1875, he writes: "I lost three 
shorthorns worth a thousand pounds. I am heartily 
sick of shorthorns. They have been a great anxiety 
to me ; I am in dread of their getting the foot-and-mouth 
disease." At last the shorthorns were advertised to be 
sold on the Qth September, 1875. The sale was a 
great affair. All the great shorthorn men in England 
were present. The Earl of Bective, Lord Skelmers- 
dale, Sir Curtis Lampson, Sir R. Musgrave, and Mr. 
Graham, with shorthorn buyers from America, Canada, 
Nova Scotia, and New South Wales. A lunch was 
given before the sale, to whet the appetite for short- 
horns. Sir Wilfrid Lawson presided, Mr. Moore's 
nearest neighbour, and one of his most intimate friends. 
Moreover he is a man who knows the good points of 
a beast as well as of a teetotaller. 

Sir Wilfrid, after drinking the health of " The 
Queen," proposed that of the worthy host. " Let 
me call him," he said, "King George. All that I 
will say of him is, that we know him as a good friend, 
kind neighbour, and a generous, I will say, a munificent 
benefactor to any good work which is carried on in 
his neighbourhood. But when Mr. Moore is in the 


country he must have some amusements, as well as 
attending to good works. In an evil hour a friend 
came to him and said, 'Mr. Moore, take to farming!" 
Mr. Moore took his advice, and rapidly began to dissi- 
pate his well-earned fortune. The farming didn't pay, 
and his friend came to him again, and said, ' Mr. 
Moore, take to shorthorns ! ' Mr. Moore took his 
advice, and I know from my intimate acquaintance 
with him, that the shorthorns have been a source of 
the deepest anxiety to him from that moment to this. 
I hope that all of you, good bidders, whom I see from 
every part of the kingdom, will assist in taking that 
weight from his mind and transferring that weight to 
his pocket ! " 

Mr. Moore, in returning thanks, said that at first he 
had been rather intoxicated with his success in selling 
his shorthorns. He thought that money was to be made 
faster in shorthorns than in Bow Churchyard. But he 
frankly confessed that he had not been so successful in 
the shorthorn world as in the commercial world. If he 
could have remained in Cumberland all the year round, 
it might have been different ; but as he was bound to 
be in London more than half the year, things got wrong 
when he was absent He was constantly getting letters 
saying that there was a dead calf or some other mishap ; 
and one thing and another kept him in a state of per- 
petual conflict. " But," he concluded, " as you are now 
anxious to get to the ring, I hope you will be as blithe 
there as you are here." 

The sale then began. It proved very successful. 
Some of the shorthorns sold at a loss ; others at a profit 
A cow bought for 900 guineas three years before, now 
brought only 59 guineas ; whereas another, bought from 
the Duke of Devonshire in the preceding year, was 
sold to Sir Curtis Lampson for 2000 guineas, and her 
calf, two and a half months old, was sold to the Duke 


of Devonshire for IOOO guineas. The list of cows, 
heifers, and bulls, with their respective pedigrees, was of 
considerable length, and need not be given here. Suffice 
it to say that the sale was remarkably successful, and in 
one day transferred the weight of anxiety from George 
Moore's mind to his pocket. On the succeeding Sunday 
he put a hundred guineas into the plate at Allhallows 
church, as a thank-offering; and he gave fifty guineas 
to his servants at the farm for their services. 

Mr. Moore had much benevolent work to do in Cum- 
berland at this time. He was diligently assisting Miss 
Rye in -her efforts to induce poor girls to emigrate to 
Canada : paying half their expenses. Miss Rye had 
established a home at Niagara, called " Our Western 
Home." The girls were carried from England across 
the ocean to this home. From thence about eight 
hundred had, in 1873, been drafted out amongst farmers 
and others who were willing to afford them a permanent 
home, and bring them up as useful and industrious 
members of society. Mr. Moore succeeded in sending 
out many of these destitute girls, and it was a great 
comfort to him to find that they were all doing well. 

Mr. Moore continued to assist the Boards of Guardians 
in their efforts to board out pauper children. Another 
meeting of the Poor Law Conference of the northern 
counties was held at Carlisle in August, 1875, when Mr. 
Moore read a second paper on the subject. It is full of 
interest, and full of facts. But we can only give a few 
extracts : 

" My practical experience as to the working of the 
system since reading my paper at Gilsland, in 1872, has 
convinced me that the right people with whom to place 
the children can be found. In fact, there are more 
suitable cottagers to receive them than there are orphan 
girls to place out. My experience has convinced me that 
we can find a high standard of cottagers willing to have 


the children, God-fearing people, who have a higher 
motive than mere profit. I feel strongly that no child 
ought to be placed in any home where we do not know 
the people to be not only respectable, sober, and moral, 
but who distinctly make a profession of religion. 

" My wife and myself have made it a duty to visit 
unexpectedly those children placed out in the Wigton 
union ; and we are fully capable of bearing testimony 
to the healthful and happy appearance they possess, 
and the tidy and comfortable homes in which they are 
placed. It has interested us to observe the strong feel- 
ing of attachment that has already grown up between 
them and their foster-parents. I could mention many 
more places where children are boarded out, and I have 
not heard of one where it has been a failure. 

" I am alive to the necessity which exists for super- 
vision of the homes of these children. Independently 
of the regular official visits of the relieving officer, it 
seems to me that the Guardians in each district ought to 
consider it a part of their business to look in occasion- 
ally and see them unexpectedly ; and I am sure the 
ladies in the district would cheerfully undertake this, if 
so requested, for they are ever ready in works of love. 
Who can overrate the good influence which their kind- 
heartedness and delicacy of feeling would exercise over 
the future lives of these poor orphans ? Fatherless, 
motherless, and alone ! As one of the greatest writers 
of this age says : ' There is no hopelessness so sad as 
that of early youth when the soul is made up of wants, 
and has no superadded life in the life of others.' We 
shall always have the poor with us, and the direction 
which our efforts should be aimed at, is to supply, 
as best we can, the home influences which pauper 
children have lost. This is the object of the system 
to give the children of the parish the inestimable 
advantage of home-life and home-affections which it 


is simply impossible to secure to them by any other 

" As I said in my former paper, our object is to absorb 
these poor children into the general population, having 
first fitted them for their life, by their having themselves 
been the sharers of a working man's home, having 
associated with his family in its joys and sorrows, having 
had the individual responsibility of being a member of 
it. Proficiency in reading, writing, and arithmetic is 
essential, but far less essential than a practical know- 
ledge of the every day work of common life, enabling 
them to take care of themselves, how to be helpful to 
others, how to perform their part in the world upon 
which they are to enter. The great school of in- 
struction for this kind of knowledge is of divine insti- 
tution the Family ! So entirely do we take this for 
granted as a matter of course, that we are often apt to 
forget the wonderful educating influence of domestic life. 
In the home circle, the child learns on a small scale what 
he has to practice at large, in after years ; he is brought 
into relation with persons of different ages and sexes ; 
his wits are sharpened and his judgment is matured by 
a great variety of personal experiences ; in fact, he 
learns common sense." 

In conclusion he said : " I can but say, for myself, 
that each year only deepens my conviction of the neces- 
sity for the adoption of the system ; and I feel sure that 
all thoughtful men, who know something of the needs 
around them, if they rightly understand the boarding- 
out system, would be the first to bid it God-speed." 

Mr. Moore's collected papers contain many letters 
relating to the question of boarding-out. Many of them 
are from persons stating that they are willing to take a 
pauper child ; showing that he took a personal interest 
in finding them out in his own district. One is from a. 
guardian near Newcastle, stating that he has got the 


B ard of Guardians to adopt the system of boarding- 
out. H~ says, " Rural Boards require a good deal of 
hammc:ing before they will take up any new plan. 
But vvh;n once welded into shape, and the material is 
good, they retain the good impression." The guardian, 
as might be supposed from his words, was an ironman. 

George Moore himself says, in one of his memoranda : 
"After urging the Wigton Guardians for four or five 
years, amidst a good deal of opposition, I have at last 
got them to agree to board out pauper children. I have 
now got my way with all the Unions in Cumberland. 
I have never been more in earnest in any work that I 
have ever undertaken." 

It will thus be observed that Mr. Moore was as busily 
employed in Cumberland as in London at Whitehall 
as at Bow Churchyard. He had no sooner got down to 
his country-home, and settled his books and papers, 
than he began to arrange the work that had to be done. 
He first visited the schools, and then he arranged for a 
meeting of the Scripture readers. He had the greatest 
sympathy with schoolmasters and missionaries. He 
thought that they had a great deal to try them, and 
that they were very little appreciated. Hence his visits 
to Cumberland were eagerly looked forward to ; as the 
schoolmasters knew that they would be treated with 
respect, encouragement, and with the honour that was 
really due to them. 

It will be remembered with what difficulty Mr. Moore 
had established his first missionary in Cumberland in 
1850 how the missionary was rebuffed, opposed, and 
hindered, not only by the common people, but by most 
of the persons of influence, how George Moore himself 
had been twitted as a " Methodist " and sometimes 
abused as a "fanatic." All that feeling had now passed 
away. The missionaries were at work all over the 
country. When George Moore went down to Whitehall 


in 1875, he had a conference of twenty-eight missionaries 
to meet him. 

The conference lasted for three days, during which 
George Moore lodged and entertained the missionaries. 
He combined their coming with the five or six annual 
Bible meetings, at which they were present, and took 
part in the proceedings. One of the days was appro- 
priated to the "Whitehall feast," when the school- 
children, "Moore's lot" as they were called, and all the 
neighbours, from far and near, sometimes numbering 
more than a thousand, came to tea. To the young 
people, this was regarded as the grandest feast in 

It was one of the first things done after George 
Moore's arrival at Whitehall ; and sometimes before 
the household had become fairly settled down. But 
George Moore never thought anything impossible. He 
inspired those about him to work with a will ; and the 
servants tried to outvie one another in carrying out his 
wishes. The time chosen for these entertainments was 
when the moon was at its full, and when the gardens 
were at their best. He wished the missionaries and 
the cottagers to see Whitehall in its glory. He never 
would hear of any suggestion of waiting until the fruit- 
gathering was over, or till the beauty of the lawn, the 
gardens, or the grounds, had passed. 

So when the roses where in their fullest bloom, when 
masses of Gloire de Dijon were clustering on the walls 
of the house, when the lilies were shining fair and white 
against the yew hedge of the bowling-green, then was 
the time for the meetings to be held. For some days 
before George Moore went round the country inviting 
guests. He called at every farmhouse and cottage for 
miles and miles about. So special was he in his invi- 
tations, that on one occasion, when the assembly had 
met, he observed that the grandmother of one family 

B B 


was not present. He at once remembered that he had 
not called upon her. Suspecting the cause of her non- 
appearance, he immediately sent off her grandchildren 
to bring her. When she made her appearance, he did 
not forget to apologise to her, and to laugh at her for 
being " so touchy." His thoughtfulness, his attention, to 
the oldest and poorest, won their hearts. His extra- 
ordinary memory helped him to remember the veriest 
trifles in their lives. He asked them about their boys, 
about their grandchildren, and how they were getting on 
in the battle of life. He could also tell them of many 
of their children, for whom he had got situations in 
London and elsewhere. 

George Moore was always in his element at these 
Whitehall gatherings. The old hall was filled with long 
tables made for the purpose, at which seventy-five per- 
sons could be seated at a time; and the tea and cakes 
went on from three till seven. He seemed to be every- 
where now pressing the old women to a third cup of 
tea the centre of all eyes and sympathies. Then he 
would be outside amongst the children at " scromallys," 
scattering about sugar-plums and hunting-nuts, the girls 
and boys running after him, and scrambling about him 
to gather up the sugary shower. Then he would be 
seen far off amongst the pastures, initiating the races. 
He always started the boys himself. " Off with your 
clogs, lads," he said ; " when I was like you, I raced in 
my stocking feet." In the evenings, fire balloons, of 
curious shapes, were floated away from the top of the 
tower. After the boys and girls had left, a hot supper 
was provided for sixty or seventy friends. And thus 
the great day passed away. 

Next day was entirely given up to the conference of 
the village missionaries. Mr. Bowker always conducted 
these meetings. He prepared and arranged suitable 
subjects for consideration, a copy of which was sent to 


each missionary about a fortnight before the meeting. 
At ten o'clock the men assembled in the Old Hall. 
Clergymen and laymen took part in the proceedings. 
The Rev. J. C. Ryle, Mr. Justice Lush, Mr. Wilson, the 
Rev. F. Morse (vicar of Nottingham), Dr. Stoughton, 
Dr. Moffat (father-in-law of Dr. Livingstone), and Mr. 
Smithies, were present in July, 1875. The handling of 
the meeting was ably done, and though questions of 
doctrine were not excluded, the subjects kept upper- 
most were of daily life and practice. So minute and 
searching were the questions put by the chairman, that 
more than one of the missionaries afterwards remarked, 
" How strict Mr. Moore was in his inquiries : he observes 
things that we never expected would be noticed." In 
short, the meetings were full of wise counsel, as well as 
of sympathy and encouragement. 

His ordinary daily life in Cumberland was almost as 
busy as it was in London. He was always at work. The 
only rest he took was in changing from one work to 
another. He sometimes said he wished he could be 
idle, but he found that to be impossible. He never had 
any spare time. The first thing he did in the morning 
was to open his batch of letters. They would amount 
to forty or fifty. They were about every conceivable 
thing, about Bow Churchyard, about missionaries, 
about salaries, about shorthorns, about schools, about 
Bible societies, about horses, about situations for people's 
sons ; but principally about money. The whole world 
wanted money. Shoeblacks, convicts, schoolmasters, 
clergymen, emigrants, travellers, working lads, servants^ 
vagrants, missionaries, scripture readers, all wanted 
money! The Reports he received were innumerable. 
The societies which sent them, like Oliver Twist, in- 
variably " wanted more ! " When it was known that 
he had built a church at Somers Town, all the church 

B B 2 


builders in England were at him. They all wanted 
money. 1 

When he received his morning's post, Mr. Moore shut 
himself up in his library immediately after breakfast, 
and proceeded to open his budget. He went through 
them all, and decided upon the answer, making a note 
upon each. Then he proceeded to answer them one 
by one. When he had written a letter he threw it on 
the ground, and there it lay until gathered up for the 
post. The consequence was that before two the floor 
was mired with letters, and any approach to his table 
without treading upon them was rendered impossible. 
When his private secretary, Mr. Hough, was with him 
the correspondence was much more easy. 

Sometimes during his later years he grew tired and 
weary. It required much tact on the part of Mrs. 
Moore to induce him to give less time to his corre- 
spondence. Sometimes she endeavoured to get him to 
lie in bed for two or three hours longer ; and when he 
did so he would get up and come down " like a giant 
refreshed," and went to work again with his corre- 

Then he was very much interrupted by callers ; the 
farmers wanted to see him about draining and manure ; 
schoolmasters wished to talk over the improvement of 
their schools ; missionaries desired to tell him of the 
progress of their work ; clergymen called about their 

1 Among the curious letters which he received was one from a distin- 
guished person in Ireland no less than a descendant of the ancient Irish 
kings. The gentleman, having a certained that the church at Somers 
Town had cost over ,16,000, and that the clergyman's name was O'Brien, 
proceeded to assert his claims. He divided the cost of the church by 
eight, and found that tne result was ^2,000. He wrote to George Moore 
and said that he had eight sons, that if he sent them ,2,000 each he would 
bring them up as eight living temples to the Lord, and to reverence the 
name of their benefactor ; but (he concluded with this threat) "if you do 
not, then I will bring them all up as Roman Catholics ; for the education 
at Maynooth is very much cheaper than at any Protestant institution." 
Of course this letter remained unanswered. 


schemes of usefulness ; young men wanted advice or 
a helping-hand ; parents came with their lads to beg 
him to get " spots " for them ; so that his mornings 
were a good deal broken in upon. It is a wonder how 
he kept his patience; yet he was never disconcerted 
nor impatient. Perhaps he rather spoiled his Cumber- 
land neighbours. They took so much for granted. 
They seemed as if they had a right to his services. 
But he knew best. He was sowing seeds of kindness 
which have since borne fruit far and wide. 

There was a sort of routine of enjoyment at White- 
hall that was regularly gone through. After all the 
school gatherings and public meetings were finished, 
the shooting began. Friends came from London and 
elsewhere in September to shoot over the estates, 
though Mr. Moore did not shoot himself. In the after- 
noon he usually rode or walked out ; but even these 
rides and walks were very frequently made subservient to 
some purpose of benevolence and kindness. He would 
call upon the cottagers when they were ill, or upon some 
old woman to ask about her health or her comfort. 

It is difficult to give an impression of the cheerfulness 
and brightness of his home life. In the afternoon he 
was always ready for anything. The clear, loud tones 
of his voice seemed to bring good humour and freshness. 
As a friend said of him, " He seems to bring a flood of 
life into the room." The dinner hour was very enjoyable. 
George Moore was a host in himself. He made every 
one comfortable. None were forgotten. He brought 
forward the shy by addressing some question to them 
on a subject with which they were acquainted ; and he 
thus not only got information, but pleased the guest, 
who had an opportunity of doing his best. He himself 
amused and interested his friends by telling them stories 
of his early career his troubles, his difficulties, his ob- 
stacles, and how he surmounted them all. When 


questions of religion, morals, and politics were raised, 
he took a keen interest in the discussion. His own re- 
marks were racy and to the point. Before the conver- 
sation closed he would do ample justice to his opponents. 
If anything was said of those who were not present, he 
would speak of them in kindness and moderation. The 
Archbishop of York has told us that he never heard 
George Moore speak a harsh word of anybody ; and he 
would always put in a kind word for the absent. 

The hospitable gatherings at Whitehall were not 
limited to men of any particular station in life. Men 
of high rank, dignitaries of the Church, old friends and 
new, hard workers in the fields of benevolent labour, 
were alike made welcome. 

It was one of George Moore's peculiarities, that when- 
ever he had an Archbishop staying with him, he invited 
the clergy and curates, far and near, to visit him. On 
these occasions, the lawn was covered with black-coats. 
The clergymen were introduced to the Archbishop one 
by one. None were forgotten. If any curate was shy, 
and slunk away into a corner, George would find him 
out. He would take him by the arm, and bring him 
forward, saying, " I want to introduce my friend the 
Rev. Mr. So and so;" sometimes adding, "Who knows 
but that he may be an Archbishop some day ? " 

Mr. Moore had given up hunting for some years, but 
his love of horses, and of good riding, was as strong as 
ever. He had himself been one of the boldest and 
straightest riders ; and he continued to take pleasure in 
hearing of the Meet. The young Howards of Grevstoke 
or Sam Foster of Killhow kept him well-informed, when 
he was in London, of all the runs of the Cumberland 
fox-hounds. In Nov. 1875, Mr. Moore writes in hi*- 
diary, " The Prime Warden of the Fishmongers' Com- 
pany has given me carte blanche to invite all Masters of 
the Hounds to a banquet at the Fishmongers' Hall or 


the Qth of December next" The Foxhunters came up 
to London accordingly, and duly enjoyed their Banquet. 1 
Three days after, seventeen of the M.F.H. dined with 
George Moore at Bow Churchyard. 

1 Sir Wilfrid Lawson has thus commemorated the event : 

The Banquet is spread in the Fishmongers' Hall, 

And the guests are all gathered around ; 
The Masters of Hounds, both the great and the small, 

Amid the gay throng may be found. 

There's the Major just fresh from a run at Blindcrake, 

In the midst of the fast falling snow, 
Where our fox took a line when at last forced to break 

Half a mile just as straight as a crow. 

There's the Squire of Dalemain from the Ullswater Hunt, 
Where the hounds are as swift as young eagles ; 

There's Parker who gallantly rides in the front, 
There's Harry who runs with the beagles. 

There's the jovial George Moore at the head of the Board, 

At one time no rider was bolder ; 
But in taking a steep six-barred gate he was "floored," 

And now he's laid up with a shoulder. 

But he still loves the chase in his warm-hearted way, 

Though on horseback unable to follow ; 
And his pulses beat quick on a fine hunting day 

When he hears the bold Major's view halloa ! 

There's Sam who rides Sultan so steady and strong, 

Never known to shy, stumble, or pull ; 
Ere Sam buys another 'twill be pretty long ; 

For his money's all spent on a Bull. 

There's Lamplugh who steers such a swift dashing steed 

(For daring what youngster can match him ?) 
That you'll hardly believe when 1 tell you indeed 

I myself, on some days, can scarce catch him ; 

Which is strange, as you know my swift pace in the chace 

Regardless of mud, stones, and rocks ; 
And how always I'm first to arrive in the place, 

Where I'm certain of heading the fox. 

But though I can beat both fox, huntsman and hound, 

And leave them behind me like winking ; 
At the Fishmongers' Board I d >n't dare to be found ; 

For I know they can beat me at drinking ! 

Well, well, just keep steady whatever you do, 

Shrink the sherry and stick to the soup ; 
And then each will be able to ride and run through 

In good time for the Major's who-hoop 1 

37 6 ANECDOTE OF "jACK." [CHAP. xxn. 

Such is a brief sketch of George Moore's life at 
Whitehall. But before we conclude, we must describe 
an incident connected with the life of his favourite dog 
Jack. This was a thoroughbred bull-dog, much under- 
hung ; and, though rather ferocious-looking, as gentle 
as a kitten to those whom he knew. Jack's devotion to 
his master was quite touching. Mrs. Moore once saw 
him get up a wall quite eighteen feet high, by scratch- 
ing up with his paws and hanging on to the projecting 
pieces of stone with his teeth, in order to get to his 
master, who was overlooking some building on the 
other side. But though kind to those about him, he 
was suspicious of strangers, and savage to other dogs 
that came about the place ; and many were the serious 
adventures that took place in consequence. Jack never 
began the fight, but if another dog growled at him, or 
insulted him, he gave no quarter. Mr. Moore had 
been two or three times bitten in trying to separate the 
dogs, but as he really loved Jack, he gave him, as was 
his wont, " one more chance. " 

At length the last chance came. One day, some 
ladies called at Whitehall bringing a little mongrel 
terrier with them. The dog went into the yard, and 
occupied itself with barking and snarling at Jack, 
beyond the length of his chain. Jack was of course 
very much provoked, but he was tied and could do 
nothing at that time. He could only show his feelings 
by suppressed growls. In the afternoon, Jack was 
loosed to go out with his master. He first went to the 
study door to make his greetings. Then he went to the 
bowling-green to find out the strange aggressor. He 
found him, and at once pinned the mongrel by the 
throat. No one could separate Jack from the dog. 
At last his master was sent for, and, with great effort, 
he separated them by force. He had to strike the dogs 
to make them loosen their hold, and Jack was terribly 

CHAP, xxn.] "FAITHFUL JACK." 377 

hurt. Yet he crawled to lick his master's feet. George 
Moore went into the house quite unmanned. He shed 
bitter tears over his faithful dog, and could not sleep 
that night. 

But the order was given that he must be shot. It 
was carried out next day. He was buried, and a stone 
was put over his grave, with the inscription, " Faithful 



GEORGE MOORE had a great idea of duty. " If I have 
one thing," he says in his diary, " it is an imperative 
sense of duty." He was always possessed with the 
full sense of " doing his duty." He wished to do it ; 
and he prayed to God to help him to do it. But what 
duty ? People have so many notions about duty. 
They vary according to their virtue, morality, and 

There is a worldly-wise duty the duty of being 
respectable ; to work diligently all the week and go 
to church on Sundays ; or to enjoy the self-satisfaction 
of a comfortable home and mix in what is called " the 
best society." Such is the morality on which many 
respectable people fatten and flourish. 

This was not, however, George Moore's idea of duty. 
First, he knew his duty to God ; but, outside of that, 
or rather part of that, he knew his duty to man. His 
prosperity in life was not due to himself. He could not 
enjoy all his possessions himself. There were numerous 
others to participate them with him. There were the 
hordes of neglected poor the orphans, the sick, the 
destitute. Could he not help them ; could he not do 
something to lighten their load ; could he not introduce 
them to the light of civilisation; if not to the better 


light of Christianity itself? Surely this was a larger 
creed and a loftier code of duty than that of modern 
worldly-wise respectability ! 

In the first place, let us see what he did with those 
immediately about him. No man could be a more 
loving and affectionate husband ; though this is by no 
means an uncommon thing. We have, however, omitted 
numberless entries in his diary, showing that his 
happiest days were those which he spent in the company 
of his wife. Many men may also treat their servants as 
well as he did ; though that is perhaps still less common. 
He treated them as members of the same family. The 
bond which united them was not money-wages, but 
sympathy. " Sympathy," he once said, " is a word that 
should be written in letters of gold. It is the best word 
in the English language. It must be good for those 
who are about us to see that others sympathize with 

Servants are too often treated as necessary evils. 
They have to bear all sorts of caprices and querulous- 
nesses. If a kindness is vouchsafed, it is done as if 
from a superior to an inferior being; and servility is 
expected in return. It is forgotten that servants have 
such possessions as feelings, affections, sympathies. 
And yet they have within their power the thousand 
little atoms of which the sum of domestic happiness is 
composed. They are about us in health and sickness ; 
in festivity and sorrow ; ministering to our wants, our 
comforts, and our luxuries. 

George Moore always remembered how much the 
well-being of his family depended upon those who lived 
under his roof. " Of this I am well assured," he says in 
his diary, " that a good master and mistress will seldom 
be afflicted by bad servants. The ruled are generally 
what the ruler makes them. Woe unto thee, oh my 
house, when thy master and mistress forget their duty, 


and when those who rule in thee care not for those who 
serve ! " 

The husband, however, cannot rule a house by him- 
self. He must be effectually and cordially supported 
by his wife. And this was the case in George Moore's 
house. Both' treated their servants affectionately, and 
were served honestly and faithfully. Mrs. Moore, how- 
ever, gives the chief honour to her husband. "The 
whole household," she says, " felt his influence. Faith- 
ful service was always liberally acknowledged. All 
seemed to vie with one another to please him ; though 
he always would be obeyed implicitly. Two out of 
three of the principal household servants, whose names 
he so liberally mentioned in his will, had been with him 
for upwards of twenty-five years." 

Nor was he less kind and sympathetic with the young 
men and women who lived at the warehouse in Bow 
Churchyard. He treated them as if they belonged to 
the same family with himself. He often went down to 
meet them at family worship in the mornings. He 
provided religious instruction for them. He founded 
libraries and news-room for them. He got some of the 
most distinguished and influential men of the day to 
lecture to them. All these arrangements were made by 
himself, though with the consent of his partners. The 
following memorandum is found amongst his papers, 
pinned to a printed notice of the lectures, classes, 
mutual improvement meetings, and Bible classes carried 
on at Bow Churchyard, in 1874: 

" I have always felt a great interest in the souls of the 
people I employ. I have tried for many years to for- 
ward the objects contained in the inclosed programme. 
I have never been satisfied that I did my duty, though 
I must honestly say that I have tried to do it. I cannot 
get so many to prayers in the morning, or to the Bible 
classes, as I could wish. We have no drunkenness in 


the house, and I believe a better conducted number of 
young people does not exist in the City. 

" I see every one we engage, and I specially ask them 
to come to prayers, and to go regularly to church or 
chapel. I give them a good book, with the rules of the 
house, and a guinea card for admission to the Young 
Men's Christian Association in Aldersgate Street. 

" I find that many of our married men with large 
families and comparatively small salaries had borrowed 
money of the firm, which was a clog about their necks. 
I have paid them all off out of my own pocket, with a 
remonstrance not to get into debt again." 

The classes, lectures, and societies, established at 
Bow Churchyard proved of great use to the young men. 
They furnished them with sound instruction, and gave 
them a high object in life. They tended to make them 
members of one family. They united them in morning 
and evening prayer. Young men risen from the ranks con- 
ducted the Bible classes and devotional meetings. This 
led some of them to turn their thoughts to the ministry. 
Six of them became clergymen of the Church of Eng- 
land ; four became Dissenting ministers ; and two went 
abroad as Missionaries to the heathen. 

We find George Moore helping them to higher posi- 
tions. Some he assisted to go to St. Bees, and others 
to Cambridge. It is Southey, we believe, who says that 
we know a man's character better by the letters which 
his friends address to him than by those which he him- 
self pens. If this be so, George Moore must have been 
the benefactor of thousands. It would be impossible to 
give a tithe of the private letters which he received from 
young men whom he helped with his bounty, especially 
those whom he helped while in poverty, or when at 
college. It would be unwise to publish these letters, 
because they are from men who are now holding high 
positions in society. 


We may, however, give one or two extracts. One 
clergyman says, " I owe a great deal to you, and am 
proud to acknowledge that my present position is entirely 
owing to what you have done for me in the past." 
Another, whom Mr. Moore had liberally helped while at 
St. Bees, and who had become a curate at Preston, says, 
" Thanks to you that I am now in the ministry. I trust 
that my conduct will be such that you shall have no 
reason to regret having extended your kindness and 
interested yourself in my behalf." 

Another student, who had obtained Mr. Moore's help 
through the instrumentality of the Bishop of Carlisle, 
writes as follows : " I beg to acknowledge with deep 
gratitude your very kind liberality to me, by which I am 
spared the necessity of continuing in my secular em- 
ployment, while preparing for ordination at Christmas 

next Being an entire stranger to you, I am the 

more touched by this act of disinterested kindness." 
One more extract. A student at Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, thus writes : " Allow me to return you my warmest 
thanks for the cheque which you so kindly sent me this 
morning. I am also exceedingly obliged to you for 
having secured the Exhibition for me. For such ex- 
treme kindness I shall always cherish a most grateful 
recollection. With all this valuable help I feel stimu- 
lated to pursue my studies with increased vigour." 
This gentleman is now a much-esteemed rector of a 

It may be added, that Mr. R. H. Allpress, who first 
obtained George Moore's scholarship at the Commercial 
Travellers' School, was afterwards further educated at the 
City of London School, where he gained the Saddlers' 
Guild scholarship for mathematics. " Without your 
munificent gift," said Mr. Allpress to Mr. Moore, " I 
should never have gained the scholarship, and con- 
sequently I should nave had no chance of enjoying the 


advantage of a university education, to which I am now 
looking forward." 

George Moore was by no means indiscriminate in his 
help. The Rev. W. M. Gunson, M.A. Cambridge, in- 
forms us that he was liberal in helping young men to 
pass through the regular university course. " At the 
time of his death, I know that he was helping two 
present students of this university ; and though I was 
not his almoner, he never sent the money without ascer- 
taining through me that they were conducting them- 
selves well, and living economically, which was a sine 
qud non of his helping them. The very last letter I 
received from him concerned these two youths, about a 
week before the accident which removed him. This 
was one form of his beneficence which, I believe, is very 
little known." 

Besides the influence which Mr. Moore exercised 
upon those who were students at the universities for 
the ministry, it was equally great upon those who 
entered from his house upon the practical business of 
life. After being trained in the firm they went out into 
the world to set up for themselves. They carried with 
them the power for good which they had received while 
under the instruction provided for them by their old 
master. They carried with them the example he had 
set before them. They became centres of influence, 
from which good seeds and kindly acts extended far 
and wide. One of them, writing from Edinburgh, 
says : " In my very small circle and with my limited 
means, I try to emulate your example. I had rather 
be a second George Moore than a Royal Duke ! " 

He was never weary of helping young men. He 
often thought of the hard times he encountered when 
he first came to London ; and he determined, so far as 
he could, to make things somewhat better for those who 
followed him. Crowds of young men visited him, for 


situations, for advice, for help of various kinds. " It is 
remarkable," he says, in one of his memoranda, " the 
number of Cumberland young men who call upon me 
every day. I certainly engage a great many, and those 
I cannot engage I try to get situations for. To-day one 
called who had served his apprenticeship at Wigton. 
He said that he had been in London a month, and 
must return next week, as his money was nearly done. 
Then he burst into tears. I sent him up to get his 
dinner. When he came down I gave him a letter to 
a house that might possibly engage him. I cheered 
him up by promising him a dinner every day until I 
succeeded. Another, from Penrith, has just come in, 
under similar circumstances ! " Then he proceeds to 
set forth his own difficulties when he first came to 
London his rebuffs, his trials, and his troubles, until 
he was engaged at Grafton House. 

He obtained situations for hundreds of young men 
about London. He wrote to the heads of firms, or he 
himself went about asking situations for them. Some- 
times he obtained situations with drapers, or grocers, or 
general warehousemen. When he failed he would 
apply at the Railway Clearing-house ; and there he 
frequently succeeded. Nine young men are there at 
present who obtained their situations through him. 
One of them writing to Mrs. Moore, says, " Most of us, 
especially myself, owe our position, and can almost 
date the beginning of our real lives from the time when 
his influence and kindness placed us in the situations we 

now hold We feel assured that no greater 

monument can exist to perpetuate his memory, and 
keep his name in lively remembrance among us, than 
Christ's Church, Somers Town, upon which we can daily 
look as we sit at our desks." 

Nor did he lose-sight of the men whom he had be- 
friended. He invited them to his house in Kensington 


Palace Gardens, and sometimes to Bow Churchyard, 
when he had much pleasant talk with them and gave 
them much good advice. All this tended to uphold 
them in life. They always felt that they had a friend in 
him willing to help them if needful. These evenings at 
Bow Churchyard must have been very agreeable. Mr. 
Moore generally had some distinguished speakers to 
address the young men. He himself often spoke. A 
favourite subject of his was Sympathy. On one occa- 
sion he said, " He wished particularly to impress upon 
them the value of time, in order to make the best pos- 
sible use of it. He had no doubt that all of them might 
employ, their leisure time more profitably than they did 
at present, and he admitted that this applied to himself 
as well as to others. He repudiated the notion that the 
employer, as such, was less beholden to the employed 
than they were to him. They were all made of one flesh 
and blood, and there ought to be a proper sympathy 
between employers and employed. If he could not feel 
that there was sympathy, he would not care to carry on 
business at all. There might be some in the City of 
London who did not feel that sympathy for those in 
their employ, but for all such a day of reckoning would 
be sure to come, when they would be sorry that they 
had not done their duty in the position in life in which 
it had pleased God to place them." 

Although Mr. Moore was strict in business, he was 
always merciful. He required punctuality, accuracy, 
and diligence. These he thought he had a right to ask 
for. Of course there were failures, as there must be 
while men are human. But when failures occurred he 
was always ready to forgive. He was merciful and kind 
to the erring, the foolish, and even the dishonest. In 
two cases of large defalcations on the part of local 
managers, he interfered to prevent prosecution, appear- 
ing to think only of the wives and children whom the 

C C 


defaulters had left destitute. The debtors of the firm 
often received from him that merciful consideration 
which enabled them to look up again in hope, and to 
start afresh in the hard race of life. 

The recollection of his own early struggles made him 
very compassionate towards others. The confidence of 
himself and his partners was often abused ; but in deal- 
ing with such cases he did not forget the painful and 
heartrending scenes of misery and ruin which he had 
seen while visiting the prisons of London. One more 
opportunity ! was the decision he generally arrived at. 
Give him another chance ! And in this way he saved 
many an erring soul from ruin. 

" I feel very grateful indeed," said one person, u for 
the opportunity you Lave so kindly afforded me, of doing 
what I can to regain your confidence and esteem, which 
my recent conduct must have forfeited. I have, sir, 
well considered the step I now take and though it be 
at your request that I take it, permit me to say that I 
had before resolved upon my present course. Unhappy 
experience has proved to me the truth of the preacher's 
words ' Wine is a mocker ; strong drink is a delusion 
and a snare.' Under its influence I committed acts for 
which I now feel inexpressibly ashamed acts which, 
but for your considerate kindness in permitting me to 
remain in your employment, might have ruined my 
prospects for life, and left a stain upon my character, 
which I might never have washed away. Your be- 
haviour to me has left a deep impression on my mind, 
which I hope I may never outlive. These, sir, are the 
considerations which induce me to declare, that from 
this time, it is my firm intention to abstain from all 
intoxicating drink whatever, and may God approve 
and support me in my resolution." 

The facts of the Case were, that this young man had 
come from a far-off county ; that, probably unaccus- 


tomed to indulgence, he had taken too much drink ; 
and that, in this state, he went into the st-eets got into 
a row, and struck a policeman. He was seized and 
taken to prison. Next day he was brought before the 
magistrate, and sentenced to a fortnight's imprisonment. 
The notoriety given to the circumstance by the public 
papers, led the firm very justly to take a serious view of 
the matter. They were at first disposed to dismiss the 
young man from their employment. But after a few 
days, George Moore interceded. " Give him one more 
opportunity !" It was granted, and hence the preceding 
letter. The young man became a thorough abstainer, 
and fully justified the confidence reposed in him by his 

One of the greatest proofs of consideration he could 
give to his young men, was to invite them to his house 
at Whitehall. Sometimes he had from thirty to forty 
young men visiting him during the holiday season. If 
they were taken ill, he sometimes sent them down to 
Cumberland, to their own homes, for a change of air. 
One such visit we may mention, in the words of the 
writer, who is now far away, in Dubuque County, Iowa. 
After stating that no biography, however well written, 
can describe the living George Moore, he goes on to 
say : " It might almost be said that he lived two lives 
the business life and the private life. Mr. Moore at 
Bow Churchyard and George Moore at Whitehall were 
two separate characters. Few of the many who received 
his ever-hearty welcome, and the firm, manly grip of his 
hand at Whitehall, knew anything about the king he 
was at his place of business how all wills bowed to his, 
what a change his presence wrought, from the basement 
to the garret overlooking Bow-bells. Speaking-tubes 
conveyed the magic word " George Moore" throughout 
the house. Like magic, too, the house was put in order. 
There was a shaking amongst the dry bones. The 

C C 2 


loose joints rattled into their place. The sleepers 
awoke. Smart young men looked even smarter; and 
all the machinery worked noiselessly and well. 

" When George Moore came round, he could scan a 
department at a glance. No flaw could possibly escape 
his never-resting eye. He was quick and decisive in 
action as in word. Who ever saw him sit still or stand 
still for a moment ? His chair had a pivot, so that body 
and mind could swing round to the subject at once. 
He spoke quickly and wrote quickly. He might be 
said to be impulsive in his utterances, yet he seldom 
failed to hit the mark. Nothing like an impossibility 
ever dawned upon him. I remember how furious he 
used to be at any one who said he ' couldn't do it ! ' 
' Couldn't,' he said, ' What d'ye mean, man ? I don't 
know what ye mean. There's no such word. It isn't in 
the dictionary. Go, and do it at once!' He could 
brook no defeat. 

" An incident will illustrate this decisive trait in his 
character. I had been sometime suffering from an 
ailment, and finally had to undergo a painful operation. 
Unthinkingly, I omitted to tell Mr. Moore. I left the 
firm, and took lodgings near the surgeon's house. 
About a week or so after the operation, and while I 
was just able to walk, a rap, almost like a policeman's, 
rang through the house. The door was banged open, 
and a quick firm step mounted the stairs, almost fright- 
ening my good old nurse out of her senses. In stepped 
George Moore ! ' What's happened ? What are you 
doing here? Why didn't you tell me?' 'Thank 
you, sir, the doctors have ordered me not to move 
for at least a fortnight, not to eat any meat, and to 
lie perfectly still.' I told him this. Do you think it 
baulked him ? Not a bit. His mind was made up. 
' Doctors' orders ? Fiddle-de-dee. Doctors know 
nothing. Get back to Auld Cummerland, my lad, and 

CHAP, xxiii.] A LIVING TRAIT. 389 

come to me at Whitehall ! ' That night, I dined off 
beefsteak, and next night I was speeding on my way 
home at George Moore's expense, in a carriage labelled 
' Engaged/ with soft cushions and every comfort that 
could enable me to rest during my three hundred miles 

" That, sir, was the living George Moore, with a will 
of his own and a heart of gold ; and faint will all 
efforts be to re-copy him. His hospitality at home was 
unbounded. That motto at Whitehall was no sham. 
Every one looked WELCOME into your face servants, 
as well as master and mistress. 

" Whilst at home for my holidays, I often went to see 
him. One morning, he had been very busy, and I 
was helping him. As we walked from the dining- 
room across the hall, there was an inquiry at the 
outside door. Mr. Moore went forward. ' Well, my 
friend (his usual greeting to rich or poor) what is 
it ? ' The man was long in coming to the point ; 
and I knew by George Moore s nervous twitching of 
his fingers and quick glancing of his eyes, that he did 
not know much of anything the man said. Suddenly 
snatching the man's arm, he pulled him inside. 
' Newbold ! Newbold ! ' he shouted. His trusty butler 
was at once at his side. ' Give this man something 
to eat and drink ! ' Thus saying he passed the man 
on to Newbold. With a quaint, dry smile, Newbold 
took a firm grip of his arm, and, notwithstanding 
several attempts at remonstrance, marched him off to 
the pantry. The whole scene was so ludicrous, and 
yet so full of meaning, that I shall never forget it. 
The man was not a beggar. Who he was, George 
Moore couldn't quite make out. But he was a man 
evidently in want. Newbold took up the cue of his 
master, and supplied his wants. And the man went 
away from Whitehall with the impression that he 


had at all events seen George Moore, and enjoyed hia 

" Years ago, on the first day of grouse-shooting, I 
dined amongst a rather motley crew of Bishops, M.P.'s, 
great city financiers, and poor clerks like myself; 
for George Moore was no respecter of persons. He 
had procured, at no small trouble, a single brace of 
grouse. He said, ' Here's some grouse, and I want 
everybody to have a taste of it.' There were at least 
thirty of us. Mrs. Moore's gravity couldn't stand 
that. But he was equal to the occasion. To use a 
Yankee phrase, he never backed out. We all either 
tasted grouse or stuffing. 

" Mrs. Moore poked a good deal of fun at him for 
speaking so loudly in church, when showing a friend 
to a seat ; remarking that Mr. Moore couldn't whisper 
if he tried. ' No, my dear/ said he, ' I cannot whisper. 
I never could whisper. I hate whispering. It isn't 
honest.' Unlike most men, when speaking in public, 
he had the happy knack of giving over when he had 
done. He spoke concisely and to the point ; and his 
speech very often ended with ' Well, my friends, I 
believe that's all ; ' or ' I think I'm done.'" 

Mr. Moore did a great deal in the course of his life to 
help poor clergymen. Applications came to him from 
all parts of the country, from Ireland as well as 
England. He was a sort of universal referee when a 
clergyman was in want He had correspondents all 
over the country. Sometimes he received his recom- 
mendations from a neighbouring clergyman. Then he 
proceeded to make inquiry ; and if found necessary, he 
sent his help liberally. One clergyman in Derbyshire, 
who had just secureed a curacy at ;ioo a year, had 
nothing left after meeting the expenses of his ordination. 
He wrote to George Moore, saying that he had nothing 
to subsist upon until his first quarter's salary was due, 


On receiving Mr. Moore's help by return of post, he 
said, " I lack words adequately to express my thank- 
fulness for your great kindness." Another clergyman in 
Wiltshire, who had been injured by a railway accident, 
and was struggling with many difficulties, in maintaining 
himself, his wife, and seven children, had his case 
brought under the notice of Mr. Moore, who sent him 
some help through a friend. The clergyman's answer 
was " I am indeed thankful to the anonymous donor 
of .10 for my private use, and 10 for the education of 
my children Amidst the many cares, perplexities, and 
pressing needs of our children and home, these opportune 
gifts are to us a gleam of sunshine at this season, and 
they fill us with gratitude to a gracious God who in His 
providence disposes the hearts of his people to such 
deeds of mercy." 

Letters such as these might be multiplied to any 
extent, but there is one letter which must be given, as 
it contains a story in itself: "Your very great and 
opportune kindness has been of much service to me. 
My daughter has thereby been sent to Casterton Clergy 
Daughters' School. Without it she could not have been 
sent. My whole income has been derived for several 
years from my stipend as curate, and it has never been 
more than 125 a year; and were it not for the kindness 
of the people in' making me a presentation, I could not 
have met the demands which a family of seven children 
entail. The eldest is fourteen years old, and she is the 
one you have kindly assisted in educating. Yours is 
the only kindness I have sought. I did so for two 
reasons. First, because of your very great bountiful- 
ness and benevolence towards every good work ; and 
secondly, because of my very pressing need. Through 

the kindness of Mr. H , your aid was readily granted, 

and the debt of gratitude which is due can never be 
fully repaid. 


"As you desire it, and as your great kindness 
demands it, I will briefly state the reason for my 
present circumstances. Sixteen years ago, I com- 
menced life on my own account, by purchasing a good 
business in a thriving place. I was most successful, and 
everything prospered with me. But it pleased God in 
His mercy, to bring me to a knowledge of myself as a 
lost sinner ; and afterwards by His good Spirit to find 
pardon and peace in a crucified Saviour. This led me 
to devote myself to His work as a Sunday-school 
teacher, and to do everything I could do to serve Him. 
I was deeply impressed with the great need there 
was in our Church of truly evangelical ministers ; and 
as my heart burned with gratitude and love to God 
for His great mercies to myself, I determined to 
enter the ministry, and devote myself wholly to His 

" The step caused me a great sacrifice. My business 
was worth more at that time than any living I could 
ever hope to have in the Church. The struggle was 
great, and at last I sold everything, and went to college. 
There I was very successful, and came out first in my 
term. Good Bishop Waldegrave encouraged me to 
come into his diocese, and by him I was ordained to 

the curacy of . Had his life been spared, I should 

not now have needed help. God has owned and 
blessed my labours ; and though I have had at times 
much anxiety respecting the education of my family, I 
have not regretted the step I have taken. 

" The money I had saved in business I expected 
would have enabled me, together with my stipend, to 
meet the wants of my family. But part of it has been 
lost, and the rest I have been compelled to use. My 
father-in-law was so indignant at my conduct that I 
have not even had a letter from him since I gave up 
business. My own father is not able to do much. 


The ages of my children will render them dependent 
upon me for some time. You will think my family 
large and my income inadequately small to meet their 
every want. But I have much to be grateful for, as 
they are healthy and intelligent. For all your kindness 
accept my best and warmest thanks." 

At Christmas time, George Moore remembered the 
poor clergymen of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 
Many of them were very poor. They had to dress like 
gentlemen, for they were gentlemen. They were also 
scholars. Many of them had large families, and most 
of them had small stipends. Their average pay did 
not amount to the wages of iron-puddlers, engine- 
drivers, or mechanics. George Moore had a list made 
out every year, a few days before Christmas. His 
first almoner was the Hon. S. Waldegrave, while 
Bishop of Carlisle, who sent cheques of 5 or 10, 
according to the needs of the recipients, through Messrs. 
Williams, Deacon, and Co. His next almoner was 
Archdeacon Cooper, of Kendal. And lastly he sent 
the cheques through Mr. Matthieson, of Fuller, Banbury, 
and Co., Lombard Street. They were sent as from a 
" Lover of Evangelical Truth." George Moore's name 
was never mentioned. How much these Christmas gifts 
rejoiced the hearts of the poor clergymen and their 
families, may be understood from the following extracts 
from their letters of acknowledgment : 

One said " Please return my very sincere thanks to 
the giver. It will enable me to do much which I 
otherwise could not do. At present there is a large 
influx of labourers into my parish. They are employed 
on the Settle and Carlisle Railway. I am endeavouring 
to do all that I can for these people. But schools for 
the children, cases of distress, supplies of books, &c., 
require much more than I am able to do out of my 
small living, which is not more than 40 per annum 


net. Such presents therefore help me much in carrying 
on this work, and especially at this season of the 
year. " 

Another says " I never stood in more need of help 
than now, owing to the loss I have suffered this year 
through a solicitor in Carlisle. I am now in my 8ist 
year, and am obliged to have two curates in my large 
parish, seven miles by four. We have four full services 
every Lord's Day in three places of worship ; so that 
such kind gifts are very acceptable. May God bless 
the kind donor." 

Some thanked their unknown benefactor for helping 
them to pay their Christmas bills and their doctor's 
fees. " This is indeed a most opportune gift, as it finds 
me in very straitened circumstances, mainly owing to my 
poor wife's protracted illness." One says, it " helps to 
remove anxious care at this season of Christmas for 
those who are already under sorrow." A joyful father 
says, " I accept it as a token that our little one, born on 
New Year's Day, will be provided for by our Heavenly 
Father." Another vicar says, "If I am not permitted 
to know who my kind benefactor is, please return my 
sincere thanks. Philippians iv. 1 1 14." 

One says, " The contribution was a mercy laid at my 
door. I have need to be thankful for it. I pray, too, 
that the giver may have the blessing of ' the liberal 
soul." Another "It has come to me at a time of 
much anxiety, as I have a large family, and my aged 
and infirm mother is entirely dependent on me. My 
wife also has been sick and under medical treatment 
during the whole of the past year." 

One self-denying man said, " Although I have need, 
yet there are poorer clergymen in the neighbourhood 
than I am : give it to them ! " Another said, " I am 
not above receiving this kindness, but there are many 
curates with large families much poorer than myself. 


Therefore I will readily, with the consent of the kind 
donor, hand over the gift elsewhere." 

These Christmas gifts were repeated during so many 
years that those who had been accustomed to receive 
them looked out for their arrival by the Christmas post. 
One who was overlooked says " I was taught a bad 
habit in expecting to receive something every Christmas 
Day, when I had no right whatever to receive it. It was 
therefore with blank looks that my poor wife met me on 
my return from the morning service on Christmas Day 
with the words, ' No blue letter with a big red seal for 
you to-day ! ' and we sat down to our Christmas dinner 
with less gladsome hearts than usual." We believe that 
it was afterwards made " all right " with this deserving 

Nor did Mr. Moore forget the City Missionaries, with 
whom he had been so intimately associated for so many 
years. He sent each of them a bright new sovereign on 
Christmas Day, and they were four hundred and eighty 
in all. He sent two-and-a-half sovereigns each to 
twenty-five missionaries in Cumberland. He accom- 
panied his gifts with a good book. He was perpetually 
giving books. He sometimes had as many books as 
would stock a bookseller's shop. He gave away about 
2,500 of the Rev. J. C. Ryle's Expositions of tlie Gospels. 
He sent books to all the city and county town mission- 
aries. He sent them to missionary stations abroad, 
and amongst others to Sierra Leone. 1 He circulated 
extensively M'Cheyne's Memoir and Remains, Dr. Bonar's 
Way of Peace, and Winslow's Ministry of Home. 

1 We find among the Whitehall papers a letter dated " Freetown, Sierra 
Leone, October I3th, 1875." The writer, W. J. Leigh, says, "I beg to 
return you my warmest thanks for the books you have been pleased to 
pre-eut to myself and all the local preachers of the Freetown circuit, 
through Mr. Waimsley. The books were distributed by him on the nth 
instant at 7 P.M., when a special preachers' meeting was convened. The 
chapel where we met was crowded to excess. Before the distribution of 


Amongst Mr. Moore's papers we find a letter from 
Mr. J. Robinson, one of the secretaries of the City 
Mission Society, thanking him for his gift of a thousand 
pounds for the Disabled Missionary Fund. "May I 
express," says Mr. Robinson, " my personal gratitude for 
this donation. It cheers my esteemed brethren in their 
labours to have some assurance that in old age and 
infirmity they will not be left destitute." 

Mr. Moore, in conjunction with Mr. Stockdale, made 
a similar arrangement for the benefit of the missionaries 
in their native county. The following is from George 
Moore's diary, 26th February, 1875: "Gave John 
Martin instructions to press on a deed for the disabled 
Cumberland missionaries. Stockdale and I have settled 
three thousand on them." 

George Moore's Christmases in London were full of 
work. "When thou makest a feast, call together the 
poor." He gave teas and suppers to all sorts of people. 
Sometimes to the poor children in Whitechapel ; some- 
times to the stone-breakers at Kensington workhouse ; 
sometimes to poor exiles from France and Germany. 
One Christmas he says : " The frost has lasted for three 
weeks. The distress is very great amongst the poor at 
Kensington. Newbold (the butler) is hard at work 
distributing coals, bread, meat, and money." But his 
greatest pleasure was in spending Christmas at Field 
Lane Ragged School. For some years past, on Christ- 
mas Eve the Ragged School boys with their band came 
to serenade him at his house in Kensington Palace 
Gardens. But the great event was the dinner of next 
day. On those occasions he took part in distributing a 
dinner of roast beef and plum-pudding. George Moore 

the books, Mr. Walmsley gave an address relative to the dirties of the 
local preachers, and also expressed your kind feeling to us. Such a 
meeting we shall not soon forget. I am sure the books will be read by the 
whole of our preachers, and be the means of doing much good. I am very 
thankful for the great kindness you have shown to our race." 


was amongst the carvers, and Mrs. Moore, with many 
other ladies, helped to wait on the guests. 

Nor were those nearer home neglected. At the house 
in Bow Churchyard, he gave a fine Cumberland ham to 
every married man in the establishment. They were 
upwards of two hundred in number. He also gave a 
book, of a religious tendency, to the seven or eight 
hundred employes of the firm. During the last year of 
his life he sent out seventeen thousand British Work- 
man's Almanacs to all parts of the kingdom. 

The first Christmas and the last which Mr. Moore 
spent in Cumberland since his boyhood was in Decem- 
ber, 1875. He had been busily engaged in London, and 
went down to his country home for rest. He reached 
Whitehall exhausted and worn out, but "grateful to God 
for all His mercies." Two days after he says, " The re- 
action has come. I am done up, and laid in bed, sadly 
out of sorts. I am glad I have got back to my dearest 
wife ; she watches over me like an angel." 

The fresh country air revived him. He was soon able 
to go out, and attend the Way Warden Meeting at 
Wigton. The farmers came to pay their rent at White- 
hall and have their rent-dinner with him. After a visit 
to Sir Wilfrid Lawson and his lady at Brayton Hall, he 
returned to spend a quiet Christmas Eve with his dear 
wife. He was very anxious that Christmas Day should 
e kept like " a real old one." All his nearest relations, 
mostly in humble life, were invited to be present. 

After the Christmas dinner was over, the party sat 
round the hall fire, talking over the old Christmases. 
They looked back to the buoyant times of their youth, 
and reflected upon the past. After all, they said, there 
are no Christmases like the old ones. George Moore 
sprang up in his quick way, and stood in front of the 
fire. " Yes," he said, " we all cling to the old customs. 
There are no mince-pies like those I had when I was a 


boy ! There are no old folks' nights, nor young folks' 
nights. Yes, we are getting too old for that. But the 
ch Idrcn can now get a good education. Their souls are 
cared for. That is the best of all things." 

On the last night of the year Mrs. Moore had a 
Christmas-tree ; it was the first ever seen at Allhallows. 
There were a hundred and seventy-five visitors that 
night, consisting of the guests in the house, the neigh- 
bours, the labourers, their children, and the servants. 
After every one had got their Christmas gift, there were 
games and dances for them in the hall. George Moore 
seemed greatly to enjoy it. The amusements were 
finished up with the favourite country dance, Sir Roger 
de Coverley, in which every one took part. 

George Moore winds up his diary for the year 1875 
with the words : " Where shall I be this day next year ? 
I hope I shall be better prepared to die." 

Alas ! he was dead before next Christmas arrived. 



GEORGE MOORE had now reached his seventieth year. 
He had seen much of the world's chances and changes. 
He had suffered his share of the world's troubles and 
sorrows. He had seen his friends depart one by one. 
He felt that the time was fast coming when he too must 
die. The thought seemed to be always in his mind. 
" Let me be ready, ready ! " he often said. 

One of his friends in Scotland, whom he had never 
seen since he was a boy at Flint, Ray, and Company's, 
but with whom he had kept up a correspondence, says 
in a recent letter : " Strange to say, in the last note I 
had from him, he said he was preparing for the great 
change that awaits us all. I do not infer from this that 
he had any premonitory notices of death, but having 
just attained to the period of life allotted to poor 
humanity, he must certainly have felt that his time was 
coming next, or next." 

His friend Richard Porter, with whom he had climbed 
the hill of perseverance, had already died. Robert 
Hanbury, who had been associated with him in many 
works of benevolence, had died suddenly. "I loved 

400 MR. HOWARD SIR H. GRANT. [CHAP. xxiv. 

him," says George Moore, " for his simple faith." His 
intimate friend, Mr. Howard of Greystoke, had also 
departed. In one of Mr. Moore's memoranda he says : 
" The death of my most valued friend, Mr. Howard of 
Greystoke Castle, lias cast a great gloom over my 
spirits. I spent part of seventeen summer holidays 
there. He took me up, and introduced me thirty-five 
years ago, when I was not among the gentry of Cum- 
berland. He always behaved to me like a true friend. 
He was a man of rare common sense and discrimi- 
nation, and I benefited much by his advice and counsel. 
He took upon himself the entire superintendence of the 
rebuilding of Whitehall." George Moore's attachment 
to Mr. Howard in some respects altered his life. It 
brought him into contact with men of a different kind 
and of a higher culture than those whom he had been 
accustomed to meet. This broadened his views and 
enlarged his life. 

Another friend and hero departed. General Sir 
Hope Grant was a man after George Moore's own 
heart. There was the same earnestness and strength 
of purpose alike in both ; and this drew them together 
in mutual friendship. Sir Hope and Lady Grant had 
paid a visit to Whitehall in the autumn of 1*874. He 
had brought with him his violoncello, and drawn forth 
the echoes of the old Hall with his sweetest music. 
In October, Sir Hope had been able to walk without 
fatigue over the Caldbeck Fells, and through heavy 
turnip-fields, for five or six hours a day ; but before the 
early springtime came the great warrior had laid him 
down to die. George Moore says in his diary : " We 
have lost one of our most valued friends, Sir Hope 
Grant. I never had a more manly, sincere Christian 
in our Cumberland home. He was the sort of man I 
liked. God knows who is to be next. I am losing 

CHAP, xxiv.] DEATH OF rfR. COPESTAKE. 401 

all my friends. May I be as well prepared for death 
as our dear friend Sir Hope Grant was." l 

But death was coming still nearer him. In 1874 his 
partner, Mr. Copestake, was taken away, and in 1875 
Mr. Osborne. "I shall never forget," says Mrs. Moore, 
"the shock he received when the sad news of Mr. 
Copestake's sudden death was brought to him by 
William Osborne on horseback." They had been 
faithful partners for about forty-four years. There 
never had been a wrong word between them during 
all that time. George Moore had never known a man 
like his partner for amiability, modesty, patience, kind- 
ness, and common sense, 

Mr. Moore repeatedly alludes to his partner in Viis 
diary. He said, on the day of his death, " Indeed, I 
am stunned. I feel it most deeply. I feel as if I had 
lost my right arm ; and a severe wrench it has been. 
I never knew a man like him ; and yet he always kept 
in the shade." On the day of the funeral he says, " I 
have this day followed to the grave one of the best 

1 Some beautiful lines appeared in Punch at the date of Sir Hope Grant's 
death. We quote a few stanzas : 

" So frequent falls the heavy hand of Death, 

Time fails for wreathing each fresh funeral crown ; 
Men, whose own hair is gray, read with drawn breath 
Of loved and honoured suddenly struck down. 

" O well for England that when living names 

Pass to the death-roll in her Book of Gold, 
'Tis rare that search finds stain to soil their fames, 
Proudly in that proud fellowship enrolled. 

*' One whose pure life had no need to divide 

The Christian and the Captain well-content 
Tc pray with his own soldiers side by side j 
Vet boy for harmless sport and merriment. 

" Who lived full in the rude camp's watchful eye 

Unblamed, beloved, respected ; who lay down 
To well-earned rest, as one for whom to die 
Is humbly to exchange ife's crosj for crown." 

D D 


and most aimable of men. I was his partner since 1 
was twenty-four years of age." 

One of the present partners informs us that on the 
death of Mr. Copestake the whole interest of Bow 
Churchyard fell to George Moore. He had the power 
of appropriating the profits of the business, subject 
of course to the adjustment of the various capital 

The increased value of the freeholds also fell to him. 
He alludes to this in his diary. " We finally finished 
our partnership to-day, I hope to the satisfaction of all. 
I have volunteered to give up all Mr. Copestake's shares 
to my partners. I have also given the new firm about 
^45,000, the increased value of the freeholds which fell 
to me at Mr. Copestake's death." George Moore was 
evidently engaged in making up his own accounts. 

His most intimate friend next died George Stock- 
dale, of the Stock Exchange. Mr. Stockdale was a 
Cumberland man. He had been a commercial traveller 
in the early part of his life ; hence his connection with 
the Commercial Travellers' Schools. Mrs. Moore says, 
" Mr. Stockdale was, in some ways, my husband's most 
intimate friend. Their friendship dates very far back, 
when George was the boy traveller for Fisher's. They 
first met at a town in Lincolnshire, when Stockdale saw 
the ' Napoleon of Watling Street," as they used to call 
the young traveller. George Moore was in a back 
room, surrounded by young men from the drapers' 
shops, helping him to pack up his goods. Stockdale 
was struck with his energy and cheerfulness, and from 
that moment he never lost s : ght of him. They would 
appoint a place to meet some six months or even twelve 
months hence ; and they never once missed their meet- 
ing. Then George became a partner with Groucock 
and Copestake, and Stockdale entered the Stock 


" Mr. Stockdale always reminded me of Boswell with 
Johnson ; for he worshipped my husband, and could 
never see anything but perfection in all that he said 
and did, except in the matter of politics. Stockdale 
was a Conservative, while George was a Liberal ; and 
yet, amidst their stirring discussions of the times, the 
difference never severed their friendship. In everything 
else he followed my husband as closely as possible. 
He was never happy when long separated fronT him. 
He was with us for weeks together in Cumberland, and 
he called upon us two or three nights every week when 
in London. He was with us every Saturday night. 
There was a special chair in the library allotted for 
him. He went to every public meeting where George 
intended to be present. He seemed to follow him like 
a shadow. I have heard people who knew of their 
friendship say 'There's Stockdale: George Moore 
cannot be far off.' 

" George Stockdale was one of the first who joined 
the little band who met at Kensington Palace Gardens 
on Monday evenings for the Bible readings; and he 
attributed his interest in higher things to George's 
influence. So far as his means allowed, he helped 
in all the things that George took an interest in. He 
did very much for the Commercial Travellers' Schools, 
of which he was the chairman. He used often to 
say to me, ' Do get your husband to tell me what 
he wants to get done, and I will try to get it 

" The illness of such a friend could not fail to be an 
anxiety. In the spring of 1875 his health began to 
fail. My husband had joined the committee who re- 
ceived Moody and Sankey on their religious mission. 
He took the greatest interest in their work, and from 
the first believed in its sincerity and success. His 
friend insisted on going to one of their first meetings 

D D 2 


it Exeter Hall. Tha crowd and heat were terrible, 
and Mr. Stockdale increased the severe cold from 
which he was suffering at the time. He came to us, 
however, on the following Saturday as usual ; when we 
were shocked at his appearance. We persuaded him 
to go home and send for the doctor. He did so, but 
his life could not be saved. He sent for us only three 
days after, to take leave of us both. His last words 
were, ' I want to thank you for having made my life 
so happy.' " 

A day or two after his death George Moore thus 
described him " There are many who knew some- 
thing of his character. He always took the best view 
of every one's conduct, and tried to attribute the purest 
motives to the actions of others. Through all the years 
of the very closest intimacy, I have never heard him say 
an unkind word of any one, or do anything which one 
would have had him do otherwise. His hand and heart 
were always open and ready. He was a bright example 
for the rising generation ; for he won a really good posi- 
tion entirely by his own good conduct, and the habits 
of self-denial and self-restraint which were early learnt 
in his Cumberland home, and which he afterwards care- 
fully practised." 

These deaths of his old friends could not but affect 
George Moore. They did not alarm him, for he was 
ready to die. He begins his diary of 1876 with the 
following entry : " It may be that I have entered on 
the last year of my mortal career. If so, what have I 
to rescue me when stripped of all that I can now call 
my own ? I do believe that Jesus will go with me 
through the dark valley, and that I shall have abundant 
entrance into the presence of God." 

On the following day he adds : " I have felt this New 
Year's entrance with more reverence and awe than I 
ever did before." The opening of the New Year had 

CHAP, xxiv.] THE LAST NEW YEAR. 405 

always affected him, but this year more than any other. 
He had never written any entry like this before, though 
there are abundant records in his diary of self-exami- 
nation, and one might almost say of exaggerated self- 
condemnation. He spoke of not serving God more, 
and not giving up his will to serve Him more entirely. 
But from this time the shadow of his speedy death 
begins to fall upon much that he said and did. 

" The New Year," he said, " must always seem solemn. 
It comes with the unknown, untried future. It brings 
back the memory of vows broken, of promises to one's 
self unfulfilled. How fast time flies ! Months pass away 
as days did formerly. I may be taken away at any 
moment !" He usually began the New Year as he had 
ended the old, by some munificent bounty. " I have 
started this year," he says, in 1874, "by giving a thou- 
sand pounds each, to Christ's Hospital for prizes, to 
the Bible Society, to the Missionary Society, and to 
the Carlisle Infirmary." 

At the end of January, 1876, he returned to London. 
He occupied himself as before. He divided his time 
between business and beneficence. Four days after his 
return he informed the Committee of the Royal Free 
Hospital that he had bought a Convalescent Hospital 
at Littlehampton, partly for the use of their patients. 

A little later he says, " I am much troubled about 
the Convalescent Hospital that I bought at Little- 
hampton. They will not confirm the purchase because 
they object to the building being used for such a 

Nevertheless the house was purchased, a suitable 
matron was chosen, and the hospital was almost ready 
to be started, when the Duke of Norfolk refused to 
transfer the lease to the trustees of the Convalescent 
Hospital. Being bent on his purpose, Mr. Moore never- 
theless set apart in his accounts a sum of 15,000 to 


establish a convalescent hospital somewhere, if not at 
Littlehampton. It remained there at the time of his 
death ; but the law of mortmain prevented the money 
being applied to the purpose for which it was intended, 
and it went to the estate. The house at Little- 
hampton was sold by George Moore's trustees, 'so 
chat his desires in this direction were eventually 

There was another matter that George Moore desired 
to accomplish before winding up his accounts with the 
world. It was to reward those who had been so long 
in his service at Bow Churchyard, and who had so 
zealously helped to make his fortune. " I am pro- 
ceeding," he says in his diary, " to make large presents 
to each of our employe's that has lived above five years 
in our service. I have long wished to do this, and 
Mr. Copestake (the son of his old partner) willingly 
joins me in giving away between thirty-five and forty 
thousand pounds out of our private money, to our old 
servants. They have done much, by their industry 
and probity, to enable us to do so. It is one of the 
best acts of our lives." 

All who had been with the old firm for five years 
received a donation of 50, and an additional ^"50 for 
every other five years' service. In more than one 
instance the gift reached ;i,ooo. No distinction 
was made as regards position in the firm, That had 
already been acknowledged in the usual way by suc- 
cessive rises of salary. The reward was for fidelity 
of service. Even the porters, with one or two excep- 
tions, received the same measure of acknowledgment 
as the heads of the different departments. Nearly 
^"40,000 were thus disbursed. This was the last act 
George Moore did for those employed in the firm at 
Bow Churchyard which he had loved so well. 

In April, 1876, another old friend of Mr. Moore's 


died Mr. Nicholson Hodgson, M. P. for East Cum- 
berland. As before, great pressure* was brought upon 
George Moore to come forward and represent the 
county. But no ! He had firmly made up his mind not 
to enter Parliament. He suggested however that the 
younger son of Mr. Howard of Greystoke should : be 
requested to stand. Mr. Stafford Howard consented. 
George I Moore proposed his nomination : he diligently 
canvassed for him ; and his satisfaction was great 
when his friend was returned by a considerable majority. 

He returned to London, and dined at the Royal 
Academy Banquet on the 2Qth of April. He had often 
done so before, and he appreciated the honour very 
much. He presented to the Academy Cope's picture 
of " The Council," which had been painted for him. 
This picture had much interested him, and he was 
delighted when it was transferred from his friend 
Mr. Cope's studio to form part of the permanent col- 
lection of the Royal Academy. It represents the 
" Hanging Committee " in conclave, accepting and 
rejecting the pictures sent in for exhibition. The 
portraits of the leading R. A.'s are excellent. Mr. 
Richmond, R.A., observed of the gift, " It is pleasant 
all round ! " 

In May 1876 the Government appointed a commis- 
sion to inquire into the money-order system of the Post- 
office, and Mr. Moore was requested to become a member. 
Although his hands were full of work, he consented 
When the commission met he was immediately appointed 
chairman. He writes in his diary, " Whatever I under- 
take I like to do well. But what I do now costs me all 
that I have. I cannot take things easy. This Post- 
office business has cost me much labour and thought. 
The object is to reduce the expense and make the work 
equally effective." 

Mr. Moore proved, as usual, an excellent chairman. 


He was short, sharp, and decisive. He kept the wit- 
nesses to the point. Whenever they rambled away into 
unnecessary talk, he at once brought them back to the 
question. Much time was thus saved. Mr. Moore at- 
tended every meeting. The first was on the 4th of 
May, and by the i/th the committee were ready for 
arranging the report. 

In the meantime he was occupied with many other 
things. He was still anxious about the success of his 
church at Somers Town. 

On the 22nd of May he enters in 'iis diary: "Found 
eight hundred children in the schools at ' No Man's 
Land,' Somers Town. The church is better attended. 
I cannot but feel that I did a good work in building the 
church and schools. It has been a great anxiety to me, 
but I am getting my reward." And on the 23rd : 
" Every day I live, I feel more and more my responsi- 
bilities. God has given me means, and I want to give 
them back to Him. I am pledged for 6,000 to assist 
Evangelical curates, and ;i 2,000 to improve education 
in Cumberland." 

On the 25th of May, he says : " I have not a minute 
to call my own." On the following day he enters these 
words : " I attended a meeting at Portman Chapel at 
9.30; the Fine Arts Gallery at 10.15; the Industrial 
Dwellings at II ; the Post-office Commission at 2; 
the Little Boys' Home at 4 ; and the City Mission at 
5. Thankful to be home to my dear wife at last. 
We had to go out to dinner after all." Mrs. Moore says 
that this was to Mr. S. Morley's. " It was the last time 
we were out in London." 

The strain of work began to tell upon his health. 
He consulted Mr. Erichsen and Sir William Gull, who 
ordered him at once to Vichy. This cast him down a 
great deal. " But," he says, " I am most grateful to 
God for all His mercies. When I look within I am 


humbled." And again, "All is for the best : but it is 
a gloomy prospect for me and my dear wife to be exiled 
at Vichy for three or four weeks. But I cannot refuse 
taking my doctors' joint opinion. We had our last 
Bible-reading. A gieat company was present." 

Before he left for Vichy he took an acitve part in 
organising the Clerical Education Society. He had 
often heard clergymen of different views deploring 
the increasing difficulty of finding curates of religious 
views. The Keble College at Oxford had opened 
the way for earnest High Churchmen to study and 
have a University training at less expense th?.n 
usual ; and Mr. Moore desired that there should- be a 
similar opportunity for young men of Evangelical 
views. The opinion of Canon Hoare greatly com- 
mended itself to him : " That they must be men taught 
of God, and of good common sense and vigorous under- 
standings. " 

There were then two societies little known, and 
languishing for want of funds. Mr. Moore determined to 
persuade them to amalgamate. He visited the trustees 
of both societies, and at length they agreed to take his 
advice. He assembled them at his house to dinner ; 
and it was resolved that the united society should be 
called " The London Clerical Education Aid Society." 
He gave ^"6,000 towards the enterprise; but he did not 
live to work out the experiment. A few days before his 
death he was occupied in sending out letters to young 
men whom he thought likely to be serviceable in the 

Mr. and Mrs. Moore set out for Vichy in the com- 
pany of the late William Longman and his family. 
They reached Vichy on the 6th of June. George Moore 
formerly disliked the monotony of life at that place. 
But on this occasion he was more content. He used to 
sit for hours having what the doctors called "bains 


de soldi." He admired the blueness of the sky and 
the slanting of the sunbeams through a golden mist 
between the branches of the trees near the Allier. 
What he could not bear was the croaking of the frogs, 
which on dry hot nights was simply dea fening. The 
Longmans lived in the same hotel. Mr. Longman had 
often hunted with George, and they had many talks of 
old times. Mr. Moore was sometimes very much 
depressed, but the powerfulness of the waters in some 
measure accounted for this. 

At Vichy he began an innermost sort of diary, prin- 
cipally on religious subjects. On the iQth of June he 
wrote as follows : " I must not forget that I am three- 
score years and ten. My time here below must be 
short : still I feel an unwillingness to die. I suppose I 
shall be plucked away against my will at the last. I 
believe I shall be with Christ, which is far better." And 
again: "This unwillingness to die is spiritual rebellion. 
I ought to be free from this. Can I not trust God for 
the future ? I ought to be free, I can be free, I will be 
free. I have no doubt of my Heavenly Father's love. 
Christ says, ' Him that cometh unto me, I will in no 
wise cast out.' " On June 24th, he says, " I have 
thought a good deal about death lately. I have tried 
to realise in my soul that there is nothing to fear, if one 
is certain to be with Christ. Wherever or whenever I 
may die, may I know that Death is a vanquished foe, 
and that I may not fear." 

Mr. Moore reached London again on the 2/th of 
June. The report of the money-order commission was 
agreed to on the 29th, and sent in a few days later. At 
this time everything seems to have been done by him 
once more. He had had his last Bible-reading. He had 
paid his last visit to Vichy. Before he left London he 
paid another last visit. " I took a long drive," he says, 
to Finchley, where my first wife lived. I saw the house 


which I once loved for its inmates. Then I visited the 
churchyard, where my father and mother-in-law lie 
buried. It brought back many strange feelings to my 

He went down to Whitehall, and arranged for a con- 
ference of thirty Scripture-readers at his house, and for 
the five Bible-meetings that were to be held in the 
neighbourhood during the following week. The usual 
entertainments were given. When the Missionaries 
left, he says, " I gave them all a new hat, a bundle of 
tracts, a copy of Baxter's Saint's Rest and Cecil's 
Remains, and bade them all Good-bye. Some of us 
will never meet again." It proved indeed a long Good- 
bye ! 

He had a great deal of work to do. He was still full 
of vitality. " I have no sooner," he says, " got out of 
one class of work than I have to prepare for another." 
On the 27th of July he got together at Wigton a con- 
ference of deputations from all the Young Men's 
Christian Associations in the North of England. Mr. 
Moore took the chair, and occupied it from ten in the 
morning until ten at night. The meeting was occupied 
with discussions as to the extended usefulness of the 
associations. Mr. Moore was much pleased with the 

Visitors came and went. Whitehall was full, fuller, 
and fullest. Sporting friends came in August to shoot 
the grouse on the Cumberland fells ; and in September 
to shoot partridges in the Whitehall covers. In the 
midst of his company, George Moore attended his 
various meetings. On licensing day, he sat on the 
bench at Wigton. He attended the Board of Guardians 
and continued to take an active interest in the board- 
ing-out system. He went to Carlisle to take the chair 
at a public meeting in support of the workshops for 
the blind. 


Among the various visitors to Whitehall in August 
were Mr. Moore's young partner Mr. Copestake, who, 
with Mr. Tarn, had many a long -walk in pursuit of 
grouse on Caldbeck fells. For the first time since 
he had had possession of Whitehall his brother-in- 
law, Charles Ray, had been prevented from paying 
him a visit. To the last he had retained the warmest 
affection for each member of that family, and he 
alludes to the disappointment it was to him, that not 
one of the Rays or Sievekings had been at Whitehall 
that year. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thompson came to him from his Leeds 
branch, "a most faithful servant," he says, "who has 
been with the firm for twenty-five years ; " Mr. Routledge 
the publisher, one of Mr. Moore's staunchest friends ; 
the Rev. Henry Chester, his brother-in-law, and family, 
from South Shields ; the Rev. Canon Ryle ; and Mr. 
Spurgeon, the famous baptist preacher, from London. 
It was a singular mixture. Many of the visitors at 
Whitehall were High Church, Low Church, Broad 
Church, and sometimes No Church. "Ryle and 
Spurgeon," says George Moore in his Diary, " got on 
capitally. Indeed Spurgeon gets on well with every- 
body. Henry Chester is quite in love with him ; they 
have found out many things on which they agree. 
There is nothing like getting men of different opinions 
thrown together. Spurgeon is a remarkable man. 
He has such a memory, such good humour, and such 
spirits ', and he is a giant for work." 

Mrs. Moore says " Mr. Spurgeon interested George 
greatly. His wit and humour delighted him. One day, 
seeing what influence he had on the farmers and people 
about, Mr. Spurgeon said to me, ' You are a queen, for 
your husband is king of Cumberland.' 'Oh! no,' said 
I, ' he is not that ! ' ' No,' was his quick reply, ' he is 


On the 2nd of September three of the young men 
from Bow Churchyard arrived, and spent the day at 
Whitehall. " I took them," says Mr. Moore, " a long 
drive by the fells and the mountains. We have had 
fifty Cumberland men from Bow Churchyard this year, 
and these were the last." Again, the last. 

Towards the end of the month (2oth September) he 
took the chair at the meeting of the Agricultural Show 
at Wigton. He occupied the place against his will ; 
but being there, he had to make his speech. It was a 
sort of lamentation over the decay of the class to which 
he originally belonged the statesmen and yeomen of 
Cumberland. He said, " he had a very warm side to 
his native county, and it grieved him not to see farmers 
in greater force there. If for nothing else, they might 
have come to support a poor feckless chairman like him- 
self. He had been proud of the ' grey coats ' of Cum- 
berland ; but where were they all gone ? In his parish 
there were only two or three of the old yeomen left. 
Railways, telegraphs, and other affairs were driving 
things to such a pitch that we were all going wild, and 
if people did not keep pace with the times they must 
go. He supposed <Jiat the grey coats had not been 
keeping pace with the times, and that they had been 
obliged to sell their property. It gave him much con- 
cern to see that farmers now are not In so good a posi- 
tion as they once were. He hoped he had done his 
duty as a chairman." It was the last occasion on which 
he was to occupy the chair. 

He went to London for a few days his last visit. 
He was advancing salaries during the day, and inviting 
old friends to dine with him at night. He went to 
Christ's Church, Somers Town, to see how it was 
getting on. He invited the secretaries of the benevolent 
institutions in which he was interested, and the nume- 
rous young men for whom he had obtained situations, 


to dine with him at Bow Churchyard. There were over 
fifty in number on that occasion. 

He visited the Christian Community Hall, which he 
had helped to build. He saw many of the City Mis- 
sionaries, and encouraged them in their work. He was 
still paying the marriage fees of poor persons who were 
living together without the necessary ceremony. The 
City Missionaries found them out for him. The number 
had of late years considerably decreased. During the 
last year, only eighty-four couples had been married. 
He wrote across the paper containing the names of the 
married couples, with the receipt for his cheque, the 
words, " I have paid for more marriages than any man 
in England, and it is well-spent money." 

Mr. Moore left London on the 3Oth of September, 
and went home by Warcop, Kirkby Stephen, Holker, 
and Barrow. He visited Whitehaven and Cockermouth, 
and reached home on the /th of October, " right glad to 
get back again ; Home, sweet Home!" 

One of the last subjects that occupied Mr. Moore's 
mind was his desire to organize some method by means 
of which poor boys of Cumberland and Westmoreland 
might enjoy the benefits of a higher class education. 
The system of national sc'.iools, while it improves the 
primary education of the whole mass by bringing all up 
to a sort of level, actually represses the real genius of a 
very clever boy. Under the old system, a learned 
schoolmaster took pleasure in pushing a boy upwards. 
To him the clever boy was a source of special delight 
and interest. He taught him Greek, Latin, and Mathe- 
matics at bye hours, which often elevated him to a high 
rank at the grammar school or the university. 

But now the certificated master has no time for special 
nstruction. Hs is paid by results, and these depend 
upon the standard education of the mass of his scholars. 
George Moore saw this ; for he was constantly thinking 


about education. He had, three or four years pre- 
viously, wished to do something by himself. He had 
asked many persons of high educational authority for 
their suggestions. They all gave him good advice, and 
took much trouble about his suggestions for a scheme. 

It was, however, to Dr. Percival, head-master of 
Clifton College, that Mr. Moore owed the working out 
of a practicable plan. Dr. Percival's early life, his dis- 
tinguished honours, and the high position he occupied 
in the educational world, enabled him to ascertain the 
weak places and the difficulties of the proposed scheme, 
and how the money endowed might prove of the best 
possible use. At length, after much time and pains 
had been given, and many consultations and meetings 
had been held, after Dr. Temple, Bishop of Exeter, 
had been consulted and given his advice freely and 
fully, the plan was at length determined on. It was 
drawn up in a rough draft by the Education Depart- 
ment and printed. All that was wanted was the final 
settlement and George Moore's signature. Twelve 
thousand pounds was the amount of money which he 
had set apart for the purpose. And thus the matter 

In the beginning of November, Mr. and Mrs. Moore 
paid a visit to Muncaster Castle. When the invitation 
was received, he said : " Yes, let us go : it will be our 
last visit." The " nearness of eternity " was constantly 
referred to in his diary. It was forming the under- 
current of his thoughts. He was parting at this 
time from his old friend and ne : ghbour, Mr. Foster, of 
Kilhow, and he felt it much. Mr. Foster had, on 
account of ill-health, been ordered to a warmer climate. 
On the 2nd of November George Moore writes : 
" I have seen Foster, the companion of my youth, for 
the last time. I shall never see him again in this 


On returning from Muncaster Castle, he arranged 
to pay a visit to Mr. Thompson, of Whitehaven. He 
writes of him as "one of the men for whom all my life 
I have had the greatest respect. I have often tried to 
get him to come to see us at Whitehall, but have not 
succeeded ; so I was determined to go and see him." 
This was his last visit, and he now returned to Whitehall 
for the last time. 

On arriving at Whitehall he found, as usual, a num- 
ber of letters requiring an answer. On the nth of 
November he writes in his diary : " A long day of 
letter-writing. Heaps of letters awaiting me as usual 
a good many begging letters. At first these letters 
rile me, but after a little thought, I feel it is God's 
money I have to give away." 

One evening Mrs. Moore was playing the Schlum- 
merlied of Schumann. It was -one of George Moore's 
favourites. He was sitting opposite the piano. Mrs. 
Moore looked up, and saw an expression of intense 
melancholy on his face. He was wrapped in thought, 
and seemed to be looking far away. She stopped 
playing, and spoke to him : " Come and sit in your 
own chair. Is anything the matter?" He answered: 
" I never felt so melancholy in my life." He afterwards 
said, " An indescribable feeling came over me. I never 
telt anything like it before. Perhaps it was your play- 
ing. You must never play that song again." Was it 
the shadow of the parting that had fallen on his heart, 
unconsciously to them both ? 

Mrs. Moore says that about this time he often spoke 
of'this and that having been finished, done with, and 
"ended." There seemed to be a tenderness and a 
meaning about all that he did. One of his last letters 
was to his sister-in-law, Mrs. S., who had lost her only 
daughter under peculiarly sad circumstances. His last 
words in the note are : " It is just when all seems dark 

CHAP, xxcv.] THE LAST SUNDAY. 417 

and broken down that God's help is needed, and if you 

pray for it you will be comforted We do not 

meet as often as we used to do, dear A , but you 

know my love is as strong as ever, and as one grows 
older, one perhaps thinks most about early happy 

He sometimes spoke suddenly and unexpectedly to 
people, asking them abruptly, " Are you ready to die ? " 
At other times he would say, " There is really nothing 
worth living for, but working to do good. He never 
talked much about religion, nor of doctrines nor deno- 
minations. In one of the entries in his diary he says, 
" I always thank God that I am no sectarian. I belong 
to all the Christian people in all the world. I" heartily 
wish that they all belonged to one denomination the 
universal Church of Christ." 

"By their works ye shall know them." He never 
forgot that. He thought that a man's life should tell 
what he was. And yet, if any one had faith, he had. 
He lived, as seeing One that is invisible. He writes 
" I seem to have got rid of all the doubts which once 
troubled me. I see, though it be in a glass darkly." 
He had faith too, as a moral quality ; and this enabled 
him to see all that was noble in others. He always 
believed in the motives of others being good. He 
never had anything but a kind word to say for the 
absent. Of him, as of few, could it be said, " He 
thinketh no evil." 

On his last Sunday at Whitehall, he attended All- 
hallows Church in the morning, when the Rev. H. 
Harris preached. As he went down the garden, he 
called the faithful Potter to him, and said, " Be sure 
to look after the poor people when I am gone." Next 
day a meeting was to be held at Carlisle about the 
Nurses' Home. Mrs. Moore, being a member of the 
committee, intended to be present. But Mr. Moore 

E E 


at first declined to go, having an engagement at Aspa- 
tria. Mrs. Goodwin, however, had again urged him to 
be present. She sent him the first annual report. He 
then saw that the object of the meeting was to consider 
the question of having one or more nurses in connection 
with the institution, set apart for helping the poor who 
were without help. This settled him to alter his plans 
for the day. 

Early on Monday morning he said to his wife, " I 
have been thinking about that Nurses' Home, and I 
think I ought to go. I felt no interest about it so long 
as I thought it was only to have nurses for the rich, but 
now it is different." Mrs. Moore tried to dissuade him, 
saying that "he was not expected to be there." But 
he went down stairs, and sent away the groom to put off 
the other engagement. At breakfast he said, "I must 
go ; it will be the last time I shall be in Carlisle." 
" Don't talk nonsense ! " said Mrs. Moore ; " what do you 
mean ? " "I mean that I shall never be on a platform 
there again." 

The post came in. There was a letter from G. F. 
Watts, R.A., to whom he had been sitting for his 
portrait in London. He intended it to be his wife's 
birthday present. He had sent the cheque for the 
portrait before it was finished. Mr. Watts expressed 
his surprise at being paid for the work before he had 
had his final sittings. George Moore gave the note to 
his wife. " There," said he, " you've got your birthday 
present before the day ! " He proceeded to say, " I 
want you to write to Percival, and ask him if he can 
arrange for a meeting next week. I must have one 
more reading of that scheme (the scheme for the higher 
education of poor boys in Cumberland) ; then it will be 
possible, and we can get it fairly launched." Yes, this 
desire of his, which he had so often thought about, and 
which had become stronger and stronger in his mind, 


was to become possible, but not as he thought. It 
was the offering which a multitude of mourners were to 
lay upon his grave. 

There was also a short letter which he had himself to 
write. It was addressed to Mr. Hough, his private 
secretary at Bow Churchyard. It was written on the 
back of a doctor's certificate, certifying that a young 
man was suffering from acute rheumatism, and " unable 
to obtain the requisite amount of nourishment required." 
Mr. Moore's note was very short : " Please call upon 
Fursman, and give him a sovereign or two for me. Also 
a bottle or two of wine from B. C. Y., if it will do him 

The aid, which was sent, proved most seasonable. 
It helped to save the young man's life. 

Mr. Maore remained in his library to prepare some 
.brief notes of the speech which he intended to deliver 
at the meeting of the Nurses' Institution at Carlisle 
These are the notes : 

Metropolitan National Nursing Association. 

Dr. Siev eking is tJie Chairman of the Medical Sub-Committee. 
Has the support and sympathy of the Medical profession. Mr. 
Rathbone a great helper. 

The Association does not work in connection with any particular 
CJnirch or denomination. 

We hive engaged Miss Lees, a friend of Miss Nightingale, who 
was at Metz with ths Germans. 

We are going to have three Homes Bloomsbury for centre. 

The Report. To have a, trained nurse to attend exclusively to 
the Poor at their own homes, FREE. 

Make moderate charges for the middle classes, artisans getting 
good wages, and small shopkeepers. Rich to pay 2 a week. 

To receive patients into the Homes who wish to remain in Carlisle 
under medical attendance. 

It is well to be afflicted if we can believe it. 

It is our duty to work as if all depended upon us, and to think 
that all depends upon God. 

I was sick and ye visited me, and inasmuch as ye did it unto 
one of the least of these my brethren, so you did it unto me. 

There is a divinity that shapes our ends, rough hew them as we 

E E 2 


The carriage was now at the door. Before entering 
it, Mr. Moore called to his wife descending the stairs, 
" What is that passage in St. Matthew ? " " Do you 
mean, ' I was sick and ye visited me ' ? " " No ! " he 
said, "I remember: 'Well done thou good and faithful 
servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.' " These 
were the last words that passed between husband and 
wife in that happy home. 

They drove off to the station, and reached Carlisle 
about mid-day. George Moore had $o in his pocket, 
probably to give as his contribution to the fund. The 
meeting was to be held at two. About half-past one 
Mrs. Moore and her sister went shopping, while Mr. 
Moore with Mr. Steele, of the Carlisle Journal, pro- 
ceeded down English Street. While standing opposite 
the Grey Goat Inn, two runaway horses, which had 
escaped from a livery stable in Lonsdale Street, came 
galloping along at a furious pace. Mr. Steele had left 
the causeway, and was upon the pavement when the 
first of the two horses passed between Mr. Moore and 
himself. The second, a few yards behind, was close 
upon Mr. Moore. He made a step towards the channel 
to get out of the way ; but it was too late. He was 
struck by the hinder part of the horse, and knocked 
down. He fell on his right side and struck the ground 
heavily with his head and shoulder. 

He was taken up insensible, and carried into the Grey 
Goat Inn. It will be remembered that fifty-two years 
before, George Moore had slept in the same house. He 
was then a mere lad, on his way to London. He had 
slept at the Grey Goat during the night, and started by 
coach on the following morning. Many years had 
passed. He had worked his way onward and upward. 
He had returned to his native county, a prosperous, 
large-hearted, benevolent man. He had now come to 
Carlisle for the last time, and was taken into the very 


same place where he had slept before, and where he 
was now to die. 

It was ascertained that fourof his ribs were broken 
one of them in such a manner as to have necessarily 
injured the lungs. There was also a comminuted 
fracture of the right collar-bone. He was severely 
bruised about the head, and his system had necessarily 
sustained a severe nervous shock. He experienced great 
difficulty of breathing, and complained of severe pain 
in the back. 

In the meantime Mrs. Moore and her sister had 
gone to the Town Hall, where they expected to find 
him, and to attend the meeting of the Nurses' Institu- 
tion. " I was struck," says Mrs. Moore, " with the 
strange way in which people looked at us, and the kind 
of awe there seemed to be on the crowd outside. Dr. 
Barnes came up to me, looking very pale, and said, 
' Mrs. Moore, I want to speak to you.' I said, ' Is 
anything wrong ? ' ' Mr. Moore has had a little 
accident, and is asking for you.' I said, '.Oh, those 
horses ! ' ' Yes,' he answered. He took us to the Grey 
Goat Inn. It seemed that when George left us he went 
to a music shop, and asked for a song for me. He 
could not remember the name, but he whistled and 
hummed the air till they recognised it. The song was, 
' The Harp is now Silent,' by Kiicken. Messrs. Scott, 
of Carlisle, afterwards sent it to me, as showing me the 
last thing George had done.' 

" When I reached the inn there was great confusion. 
They took me from room to room, and at first they 
would not let me see him. There were present the 
doctors, Mr. Page, Mr. Leckie, and Dr. Barnes, and 
many other gentlemen, showing great concern and 
alarm. Presently, Mr. Page came and said, ' Can you 
be very quiet, and not excite him ? ' I don't know 
what I said. I was not likely to excite him. I was 

422 MRS. MOORE'S ACCOUNT. [CHA?. xxiv. 

turned to stone. Then I heard him calling very loudly, 
' Wife, wife, where's my wife ? ' When I was admitted 
to the room, he kept on- saying, 'My wife would take 
ma from these men if she would come.' He did not 
recognise me at first. He knew my voice, and kept 
saying, ' I hear her voice, why does she not come ? ' 
Thank God ! a conscious look came into his eyes at last, 
and then he knew that I was with him. 

" I believe that from the first, the doctors knew there 
was no hope. They did not say so to me. They only 
said his ribs were broken. Nothing could have been 
more devoted than the attention of Mr. Page and t>r- 
Barnes ; but, as we knew him best, I proposed that Sir 
William Gull should be sent for. I proposed it to him- 
self also. He said, ' Not unless the doctors think it 
very serious.' Sir William Gull was sent for, and so 
was Mr. Copestake. Both arrived at four o'clock next 
morning. By that time he had become colder. His 
breathing was very laboured. I began to have no hope. 
He could not speak much. It was cruel to ask him a 
question. The doctors gave him ether constantly, and 
Brand's essence of beef and brandy, but he could scarcely 
swallow. They said, ' You had better ask him if he has 
anything to say to you.' I did so, and he said ' Yes, a 
great deal, but I must wait till I can breathe.' 

" He had so often talked of death while in health, 
and of wishing to be told he was dying, and that he 
hoped I would say three texts to him ; l so I felt that I 
must tell him. At first I said, ' George, darling ; we 
have often talked about Heaven. Perhaps Jesus is 
going to take you home. You are willing to go with 
Him, are you not? He will take care of you.' He 
looked wistfully in my face, and said, 'Yes! I fear no 
evil. . . He will never leave me nor forsake me.' 
Several times after, he said a word or two, expressive of 
1 The texts were St. John iii. 16 ; Psalm 23 ; and St. John v. 24. 


the same trust. He was soon past much speech. But 
he knew perfectly that he was dying, and his faith 
failed not. 

" Rest in the Lord ! although the sands 

Of life are running low ; 
Though clinging hearts and clasping hands 

May not detain thee now ; 
His hand is on thee Death's alarms 

Can never work thee ill ; 
Rest in His everlasting arms ; 

Rest and he still." 

" Sir William Gull was very kind. He sat with him 
and me alone, from nine till nearly twelve o'clock. I 
think he was quite conscious. He knew his sister, and 
his old servants when they arrived, though he could not 
speak much. By and by the terribly laboured breathing 
grew quieter. He was fast nearing the end of earthly 

"Meantime, when it became known throughout 
Carlisle that the accident was of an alarming nature, 
the sympathy became very manifest. Crowds blocked 
the square in front of the Grey Goat all night Police- 
men were placed by the Mayor to keep them quiet, and 
to prevent them coming under the window of the bed- 
room where he lay. The people seemed stunned that 
the one Cumberland man universally beloved, perhaps 
more than any other, should be dying in that room, of 
an accident received in the streets of Carlisle. 

" The Grey Goat Inn was to have the sanctity, as it 
were, of comprising two of the greatest events of his 
life. He had slept there in 1825 ; and now, in 1876, he 
was brought to die there. Neither of his homes was to 


have the memory of his death. From the little dark 
room, looking into the court of the small commercial 
inn, George Moore's spirit passed away into the hands 
of God who gave it. He died at twenty minutes to 
two o'clock in the afternoon of the twenty-first of 
November, just twenty-four hours after the accident." 

424 THE FUNERAL. [CHAP. xxiv. 

The feeling in the City of London, during his death- 
stroke, was intense. Telegrams conveyed hurriedly the 
news of his condition. When the last telegram arrived 
" George Moore is dead," strong men broke down and 
wept. Bow bells were tolled on that November after- 
noon from three till four, and spread the mournful news 
far and wide. 

An inquest was held on the body in the course of the 
afternoon, when a verdict of " Accidental Death " was 
returned. The fees of the jury were presented to the 
Nurses' Training Institution. Mrs. Moore, accompanied 
by her sister, Mrs. Chester, and the Rev. Henry Chester, 
returned to Whitehall in the evening. The body shortly 
followed, accompanied by Mr. Copestake and Mr. New- 
bold. It was laid in the large oak-room, forming the 
central floor of the old Border Tower, in which George 
Moore had taken so much pride. 

The funeral took place on the following Saturday. 
Friends, known and unknown, attended unbidden from 
all parts of the country. It was the last honour they 
could pay him. The coffin was borne from the oak- 
room to the courtyard. It was taken on twelve men's 
shoulders and carried up the gravel walk leading to the 
church of Allhallows. The crowd was something quite 
unequalled. Rich and poor, old and young, thronged 
the walks. The churchyard was quite full, so that 
numbers could not enter the church at all. The wind 
and rain were terrible, as if the very elements were 

The pall-bearers were the Archbishop of York, Sir 
Wilfrid Lawson, Colonel Henderson, C.B., Mr. F. J. 
Reed, Mr. S. Copestake, and Mr. S. P. Foster. On 
reaching the churchyard, the body was received by the 
Bishop of Carlisle, the Rev. Canon Reeve, and the Rev 
H. H. Harris. The burial service within the church 
was read by Canon Reeve, George Moore's old friend 


and pastor. That at the vault-side was conducted by 
the Bishop of Carlisle, who also pronounced the 
blessing. The assembled multitude then sang, " Safe 
in the Arms of Jesus." The coffin was completely 
hidden with wreaths of rare and beautiful flowers, 
sent as loving memories. The body was afterwards 
placed in the mortuary chapel, within the church of 

After the funeral, men whispered to each other about 
the great loss they had sustained. Each felt as if he 
had lost an individual friend, a man who could help 
him in time of need as nobody else could. Yet they 
were all different, in character, in education, in social 
position. The Archbishop, the Bishop, the High 
Sheriff, the Lord Lieutenant, the Squires, the clergy, 
the farmers, the labourers, mourned alike over their 
common friend. Each recognised something in him 
different from others. His benevolence was naturally 
the first point in his character that touched the crowd of 
mourners. " How much has he done for Cumberland !" 
said one. " No," said another, " it is not merely for 
Cumberland : he was a national man and a national 
worker." Another spoke of his originality, which broke 
out in so many ways of generosity and liberality. Then 
he was as humble as the humblest. And with this 
manner of talk, the vast crowd of mourners separated, 
and went to their respective homes. 

Funeral sermons were preached on the following 
Sunday; at Carlisle, at Wigton, at Allhallows, at 
Bromfield, at Christ's Church, Somers Town, and 
elsewhere. A few days after Mr. Moore's death, the 
Bishop of Carlisle preached a sermon in connection 
with the Mission Services in the Cathedral. He 
could scarcely speak for tears. He said, " We have 
lost one whom, according to human estimate, we 
could least afford to lose : an earnest-hearted servant 


of the Lord Jesus, who devoted his clear head, his 
mighty energies, and the princely wealth which, by 
his own power and industry and God's blessing on 
them he had earned, to the furtherance of godliness 
and to the welfare of his brethren : a man standing 
almost by himself at least I never saw any one like 
him ; a man whom all will miss, from the very highest 
to the very lowest : a man whose place it seems 
almost impossible to fill: a man, I may add, con- 
cerning whom it is the less necessary I should say 
much, because all here knew him well. Yes, George 
Moore has been taken from us ! He rests from his 
labours, and his works do follow him; and he leaves 
to us all the noblest and best of legacies the memory 
of a holy life and the precious possession of a good 

The French Journals referred to the death of Mr. 
Moore in terms of deep gratitude for the services 
which he had given five years before, when Paris 
was stripped of food. The Journal des Dttats said 
" C'est avec un regret profond que nous enregistrons 
la mort d'un homme dont les Parisiens reconnaissants 
n'avaient point perdu le souvenir. Pendant plusieurs 
semaines apres la levee du siege de Paris, M. G. 
Moore ne cessa de presider, dans ses bureaux de 
la rue de Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, aux distributions 
de vivres faites a des milliers de pauvres gens affames. 
Beaucoup d'entre eux ont dft la vie, tant a ses 
genereuses donations qu'a sen zela devoue et a 1'habile 
administration dont il fit preuve dans ces circonstances 
penibles. Ce serait done de la part des Parisiens faire 
acte d'ingratitude s'ils ne payaient pas un tribut de 
regret a cet homme de bien." 

Letters of condolence poured in upon Mrs. Moore. 
They came from all parts of the kingdom ; as well as 
from France and America. The institutions which he 


had helped during his life, thirty-eight in number, sent 
copies of the resolutions passed by their respective 
boards and committees. The united secretaries of the 
Commerc'al Travellers' Schools, the Home for Little 
Boys, the Warehousemen's and Clerks' Schools, the 
London City Mission, the British Home for Incurables, 
the Field Lane Ragged School, the Cabmen's Mission > 
the Reformatory and Refuge Union, the Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum, the Female Mission to the Fallen, the 
Pure Literature Society, and the Orphan Working 
School, sent in their words of condolence. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society warmly 
acknowledged his merits. He had been an unfailing 
supporter of that great institution. The letter of the 
secretary said : " Earnest in purpose, frank and free in 
the expression of opinion, firm and unshaken in the 
maintenance of what he deemed essential principle, 
prompt and vigorous in action, and deeply moved by 
the conviction of his personal responsibility in the 
appropriation of the resources God had entrusted to his 
stewardship, he was foremost in every enterprise calcu- 
lated to ameliorate the physical and spiritual wretched- 
ness of his fellow-creatures ; never failing, however, to 
place the British and Foreign Bible Society in the 
front rank of those institutions to which he accorded 
the largest measure of his sympathy and help. His 
place in the wide field of enlightened philanthropy and 
Christian effort will not be easily filled ; and in many 
circles it will be felt that a power and an influence has 
been withdrawn from the Church which to human view 
could ill be spared in such a period as that through 
which the world is now passing." 

Public meetings were held in London and Carlisle for 
the purpose of erecting a suitable memorial to the 
memory of George Moore. At the meeting held in 
London, his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury 


occupied the chair. Bishop Claughton, Lord Hampton, 
the Hon Arthur Kinnaird, M.P., Sir Sydney Waterlow, 
M.P., Mr. S. Mo/ley, M.P., Sir A. Lusk, M.P., the 
Rev. Dr. Stoughton, Colonel Stuart Wortley, Colonel 
Henderson, Mr. Alderman McArthur, and many others 
were present. The room was so crowded that the 
meeting had to be removed to a larger hall. The Arch- 
bishop feelingly referred to his intimate knowledge of 
the life and character of Mr. Moore, and gave utterance 
to the general feeling that it is well to commemorate 
such excellences as those of which he was so illustrious 
an exemplar. 

Mr. Morley, in moving the second resolution inviting 
subscriptions, observed that he looked with great doubt 
on memorials. The greatest monument that could be 
erected to George Moore was, that he maintained to the 
last the simplicity of his character, and that any memo- 
rial should be simple and genuine like himself. All 
knew Mr. Moore to be a sincere, ardent, and liberal 
supporter of the Church of England ; but his generosity 
was not confined to that. All that he required was that 
his money, as he often playfully said, should have " a 
good return." 

The public meeting at Carlisle was presided over by 
Lord Muncaster, M.P., the Lord-Lieutenant of Cum- 

At this meeting the question of the memorial was 
discussed. Was it to be a statue, a monument, a tower, 
a building, an institution ? No, it was to be none of 
these. It will be remembered that George Moore had 
completed a scheme for the purpose of helping the 
poorer boys of Cumberland to a higher education. The 
scheme had been arranged with the help of Dr. Percival, 
and only wanted Mr. Moore's signature at the time of 
his death. Twelve thousand pounds had been set aside 
for the purpose of carrying it out It was one of the 

ciixr xxiv.] PUBLIC MEETING AT CART.ISLE. 429 

last desires of his life to bridge over the gap between 
the elementary schools and the higher class schools. 
Death only prevented his carrying out his project. 
And now was the opportunity for h:s friends to take up 
his unfinished work, and carry it out to completion. 

The Bishop of Carlisle clearly pointed out the neces- 
r/ty for such a memorial. It should be something which 
tended to help his poor brethren onward in the world 
which George Moore had just left ; something that would 
be entirely in accordance with George Moore's own 
feelings of what should be done for the poor boys and 
girls of Cumberland. " When we consider," he said, 
"what Mr. Moore's intention was the last monument 
which he himself, as it were, intended to erect as a 
memorial to himself, and which he was only prevented 
by death from erecting and when, as I shall show you, 
the memorial has the express approbation of Mrs. Moore, 
I think that really we need not argue the matter 
any further." 

And this was the form that the memorial assumed. 
The subscriptions amounted to about ^"8,300. It was 
to be appropriated as follows : Sixteen scholarships of 
$ each, tenable for two years ; eight exhibitions, four 
for $o, and four for 40 each, tenable for four years, 
subject to various conditions. Such was the scheme 
which Mr. Moore intended to be carried out, and such 
was the scheme which the memorialists carried out, in 
conformity with his intentions. It was the proper 
crowning of the life and labours of a good man. 

There were other memorials. A marble tablet, con- 
taining his medallion likeness, was erected in Carlisle 
Cathedral, " to perpetuate his name and example, and 
as a tribute of love." The epitaph was composed by 
the Bishop of Carlisle. The people of Silloth, in recol- 
lection of his good works in the neighbourhood, placed 
bells in the church, every ring of which reminded them 


of George Moore. The chimes were to peal. a hymn 
which was one of his greatest favourites. At Wigton a 
beautiful window was placed in the church in grateful 
remembrance. He is there represented as the good 
Samaritan ministering to the man who was wounded and 

The employes of the firm at Bow Churchyard also 
presented their memorial. They subscribed upwards of 
five hundred pounds. They first thought of erecting a 
marble tablet in St. Paul's Cathedral, but they finally 
determined that their memorial should be something 
that George Moore himself would have admired. They 
presented a lifeboat to the National Lifeboat Institution. 
It was placed where it was likely to be of the greatest 
use at Porthdinllaen, near Pwllheli, on the wild and 
rocky coast of Carnarvonshire, North Wales. It is 
named the " George Moore Memorial Lifeboat." 

By a strange coincidence the first crew saved by 
the " George Moore " lifeboat was that of the schooner 
Velocity, bound from Silloth in Cumberland! It was 
on Sunday evening, the 24th of March, 1878, in a 
heavy gale and blinding snowstorm, that the crew of 
the gallant little boat succeeded in saving all the lives 
in the schooner, which was in great distress off 
Porthdinllaen Bay. 

The supporters of the Commercial Travellers' School 
could not forget his services. About six weeks before 
Mr. Moore's death, Mr. Hughes, his partner, had con- 
sented to take the chair at the following anniversary 
dinner of the institution. As it was found necessary to 
enlarge the school -buildings, by adding above fifty beds, 
and also an infirmary, laundry, and swimming-bath, 
Mr. Hughes proceeded, with great vigour, to collect 
subscriptions. As the institution had already proved 
itself to be one of the most successfully managed 
schools in the country, he was received by his friends 

CHAP, xxiv.] DR. BU1LER OF HARROW. 431 

in the most generous manner. The result was, that 
he was able to announce at the dinner the largest 
subscription (1 7,000) that had ever been made for 
an institution of the kind. The committee then de- 
cided to call the new erections the " George Moore 
Memorial Buildings." 

The infirmary stands near the road from Pinner to 
Stanmore. In its central gable stands a bust of Mr. 
Moore, executed in Delia Robbia ware. It is of an oval 
form, with blue background, and a surrounding of fruit 
and flowers in colours. Beneath is a bas-relief, re- 
presenting Mr. Moore seated, distributing prizes to the 

Dr. Montague Butler, Master of Harrow, was present 
at the annual dinner. He was an old and faithful 
friend of the schools. He had conducted many exami- 
nations there. He said that " from his heart, as one 
who resided near the schools, he could testify to the 
great ends which they were calculated to promote. The 
institution seemed now possessed of all the elements 
of strength and prosperity. He would not dwell on 
that topic, as he wished to say a few words of admira- 
tion for the character of their late treasurer. George 
Moore was not merely an active and enterprising 
worker, but he was a rare man in other respects. He 
had never met one so true in life's simplicity, or who 
so well carried out the Christian principle of doing 
good to his fellow-creatures. Often when in his pre- 
sence, the eulogium of Burke on Howard had occurred 
to him ; for he inherited the spirit of philanthropy in 
almost an equal degree. Mr. Moore was one of those 
self-made men of whom the English nation might well 
be proud. He always acted with great self-denial and 
with a gentleness and amiability towards those with 
whom he came in contact which was particularly note- 
worthy. Sometimes it happened that philanthropic 


men, busy with great schemes, were irritable in little 
things. But George Moore was always found self- 
sacrificing and amiable to the humble, as well as to the 
great ; and his ability always to sympathise with others 
made him more than ordinarily noble. He would thank 
God for having known a man of his simplicity of 
character, and yet of such a largeness of heart. As 
the head-master of Harrow, he could not forget that 
that institution owed its foundation to a humble yeo- 
man, and it had now celebrated the 3OOth anniversary 
of its birth. It would, no doubt, be the destiny of 
their institution to survive through the ages, and count- 
less thousands would look back with gratitude and 
admiration to George Moore as its founder." 

There were many other more humble memorialists, 
men and women, who could give their tears but not 
their money. Allhallows Church is not far from the 
high road. It was easy to reach George Moore's tomb. 
Many came from long distances to look at it, and to 
think of the man that lay below. His good acts, great 
and small, had left living influences in their hearts. 
They could not see him any more, but they could lingei 
where his body lay. 

" Only the actions of the just 

Siucll sweet and blossom iu the dust." 



GEORGE MOORE'S character is best known by his life 
and works. Everything that he did was part of himself. 

His life was a succession of growths. At first he was 
in no respect different from the other country boys at 
Mealsgate and Bolton. The education he received at 
the village school was of the slenderest kind. The first 
thing he did, when he had the power, was to introduce 
what has been called the " educational revival " of Cum- 

His apprenticeship .at Wigton was a period of trouble 
and sorrow, and yet it was full of trust and respon- 
sibility. His knowledge of men increased, and with it 
his knowledge of character. Afterwards, in passing 
through Wigton, he would say, " This town reminds me 
of the many careless, thoughtless days I spent here, all 
for the world, for I never thought of God." 

Wigton was too small for him. He went to London 
to seek his fortune. He slept on that memorable night 
at the Grey Coat Inn, where he afterwards died.. He 
started next morning by coach. He was two days and 
nights on the road. He little thought that in about 
thirty-four years he should return to Carlisle in less than 
eight hours, to buy the lands on which he had played 
when a boy. 

F F 


A young man accompanied him on the coach. It was 
one of the features of his character never to forget 
those who had been his friends in youth, however poor 
they might be. This young man got a situation in 
London like himself. But he went down in the world, 
and George, who had risen, helped him to raise himself 
up again. We have a letter before us written about five 
months before George Moore's death, in which this 
companion of his youth says, " I am quite at a loss to 
express my thanks to you for your kindness to me, not 
only on the present but on previous occasions. You 
have now placed me in a position that I trust, if I am 
spared for a few years, to be able to keep for the 
remainder of my life. " 

We have already related the account of George 
Moore's difficulties in obtaining a situation in London ; 
his engagement at Flint, Ray, and Company, and the 
resolution he early formed of marrying his master's 
daughter. Perhaps this early resolution contributed to 
save and raise him. He worked on with diligence, 
application, and sobriety, in the meantime improving his 
education by attending a night-school. He went from 
one situation to another, always commending himself by 
his vigour and energy, until at length he became a 
partner, and actually married his master's daughter. 

From this point all was clear before him. He built 
up a business, which constantly widened and extended. 
But a serious misfortune befell him. His partner became 
seriously ill and died. Wealth, omnipotent in life, is 
useless in death. So the dying man felt, and Mr. 
Moore felt it too. Time had now new interests and 
duties, and life new purposes and hopes. Shortly after 
his wife died, after a long and lingering illness. He 
had loved her, and grievously mourned her death. 

These two events, coming so close together, opened 
an entirely new phase in Mr. Moore's character. After 


earnestly seeking, he at length found comfort. He had 
thought little of religion before, but now it became the 
mainspring of his life. He found that Christianity 
required of him love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentle- 
ness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance, and, above 
all, charity. " Though I bestow all my goods to feed 
the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and 
have not charity, it profiteth me nothing." " Pure 
religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, 
To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and 
to keep himself unspotted from the world." This formed 
the key to George Moore's future life. 

Sir Arthur Helps wisely says " After a certain age, 
when the character is formed, there are only two things 
which can greatly affect it, sorrow and responsibility. 
If one could weigh the motive power that affects the 
mind, it would be found that one ounce of responsibility 
laid upon a man, has more effect in determining his 
conduct, and even his character, than tons of good 
advice, lay or clerical, or hundredweights even of good 
example." George Moore had had sorrow enough, and 
he now discovered his responsibility. 

He looked to those of his own household. He 
regarded the young people who served him as belonging 
to his family. They had left their homes. Their 
characters were in course of formation. He considered 
it his duty to do for them that which their fathers 
and mothers would have done. Hence the beginning of 
the family prayers at Bow Churchyard, and the meetings, 
lectures, and personal attention which he constantly 
gave, to ensure the proper up-bringing of his young men 
and women. 

He next instituted a Benevolent Institution for the 
Porters in his employment. In his memoranda we find 
a reference to this work. " All true Christians," he 
says, "whatever their denominational distinctions may 

F F 2 


be, are bound to one another by ties of the most sacred 
and enduring nature, and are conscious of a natural 
interest in each other's welfare, which gladdens this 
earthly life and renders the prospect of a life to come 
more pleasing and blessed." 

Then he went outside of his own household. He took 
an active part in establishing schools for the orphans of 
commercial travellers. He had been one of them 
himself, and well knew their trials and temptations. 
Lord Lytton said of him at one of the anniversary 
dinners, that George Moore threw himself, heart and 
soul, into services of that nature, with as much ardour as 
if he were building up a fortune for his own children ! 

He next went on to reformatories for released 
prisoners and to refuges for fallen women. He became 
connected with twelve different orphanages, of which he 
was a liberal helper. He helped the ragged children of 
the streets, the diseased, the blind, and the forgotten. 
But above all, he helped on the work of Education. 
" We must begin at the beginning," he said ; " every 
boy and girl born into the world is entitled to a fair 
start in life." Hence his great efforts to help on 
Education in London, and more especially in Cumber- 
land. This was long before the Education Act was passed. 

His goodness became extensively known. One of the 
first questions asked about any proposed charitable 
scheme was this : " Has George Moore been spoken to 
about it ? " His name was almost a passport to success. 
If the scheme was such as to approve itself to his judg- 
ment, he went into it with his wonted vigour and 
determination. Whatever he believed in, he was full of. 
and must pour out to all he met. His friends knew that, 
meeting him, they would have a clear-cut impression of 
what was on his mind at once before them. He 
went direct to every matter he had in hand, business, 
philanthropy, or education. 


The first elements in his character were simplicity and 
directness. As in hunting, he " rode straight," so he 
was in life. He was prompt, energetic, earnest, concise, 
doing at once what he had to do. He never cavilled 
about trifles. There was no shuffling about him no 
humbug. The only thing he could not tolerate was the 
drone. He held strong opinions on most things, and he 
adhered to them firmly. He never did anything by 
halves. He went into it body and soul, with the whole 
of his nature. He went straight to the point. When he 
had settled a thing, he left it as something done. When 
two sides of a question were presented to him, he was 
quick to decide ; and he was usually right in his 

The successful merchant is not merely the man who is 
most fertile in commercial combinations, but the man 
who acts upon his judgment with the greatest prompti- 
tude. Mr. Crampton, George Moore's partner, says, " I 
never knew him make a mistake in judgment." 

He was abrupt, spoke loudly, and sometimes so 
rapidly that people who did not know him asked if he 
was a foreigner. His physique was, to a certain extent, 
the counterpart of his character. His keen brown eyes 
had a dauntless look ; they were eager and penetrating. 
A Cumberland old woman, in her curious dialect, said 
that " His eye would fetch a duck off a pond." A 
tender look would sometimes come into his eyes in 
moments of feeling, which showed how sensitive his 
heart was. His mouth was firm and powerful. The 
form of his head, with its abundant hair, was refined, 
though indicating much strength of will. 

Towards the end of his life, the lines of his face 
became very much softened down and refined, as may 
be seen from the portrait prefixed to this volume. One, 
who knew him early in life, said that he should not have 
known him from his last photograph. 

438 HIS PHYSIQUE. [CHAP. xxv. 

He was of sturdy Cumberland build, which had been 
tried in his youth in many a famous "worsle." His 
short, sudden manner, and his decided tone of voice 
which never lost its grand Cumberland accent, gave one 
the impression of a man of uncommon energy. His 
whole aspect was expressive of the frankness and 
strength of his character. It was impossible to be in 
his company without the sense of being in the presence 
of a remarkable man. 

He was a man of power, and yet he used it bravely 
and wisely. He was daring, yet prudent. His manner 
was cheerful and frank, yet often very impressive. 
Many who thought they knew him the best, yet knew 
him the least. He exhibited great self-control, not only 
over his habits, but over his feelings. 

He never tried to attempt what other men could do as 
well as himself ; but when a charity was in difficulties, 
and seemed to be falling to the ground, he then stept in, 
and raised it up again by his vigour and determination. 
In this way he bore up the Field Lane Ragged Schools 
and the National Orphan Home. " Never attempt what 
is impossible to carry out," he said ; " but if you have 
decided that it is possible, then never give up then death 
or victory ! " 

His individuality was quite unique. His manner, 
speech, abrupt gestures, characterised only himself. 
He sometimes asked strings of questions with a naive 
simplicity. The sharp-pointed utterances indicated an 
impatience to get at the object he had in view. His 
power lay in direction and organisation. Then he had 
a wonderful faculty in getting others to work for him 
and with him. " He seemed to me," says one who 
knew him, "to dwell but little on details, perhaps 
losing flius some of the enjoyment of his work as well 
as of its benefit to himself. He seemed to have always 


something fresh before him, and to be ready very 
quickly to turn the page." 

The Hon. Charles Howard, M.P. for East Cumber- 
land, says of him : " It always seemed to me that 
Mr. Moore was the most thorough man I knew in all 
that he undertook ; and whatever was the abject, 
whether it was business, fox-hunting, canvassing at 
elections, acts of charity, or services of devotion, his 
heart was always in his work. He was never satisfied 
until he had accomplished all that he had proposed to 
do. I have no doubt that this quality of earnest per- 
severance and shrewdness of character accounted for 
George Moore's success in life ; but they would not 
have gained for him the love and affection that all 
felt for him, were it not for his warm heart and his 
genial nature." 

Some people misconceived him. They called him a 
Fanatic ; others called him a Methodist. They said 
he was running after other people's business, and not 
minding his own. But he never neglected his business. 
If he did not do it with his own hands, he had the gift 
of insight into character, which enabled him to select 
the men best fitted to do his work. 

He was sometimes rebuffed when going about to 
collect money for the charities he was interested in 
though his persistence usually carried all before him. 
Sometimes the money-getting merchant would look up 
from his desk and growl, " What do you want ? " 
"Well, my friend, I want 10 for the Field Lane 
Ragged Schools." "Ragged Humbugs! Let people 
work for themselves, and there would be no need for 
ragged schools. I began without a penny " " Stop ! 
let me go ; I have called upon the wrong man." And 
away he went to some more charitable soul. 

These rebuffs did not baffle him ; his enthusiasm was 
too great for that. Difficulties did not daunt him. His 


life had been a long conquest of difficulties. He was 
one who never shrank from duty when it was difficult, 
nor refused it because it was trivial. This was one 
secret of his progress. " Do your best," he would say, 
"do your best always; do your best in everything." 
This was the lesson of his life. Besides, he was never 
ashamed of being in earnest. Nor was his enthusiasm 
confined to any pet project. It was large, and embraced 
a thousand objects, yet they never clouded his common 

The power of his name became more valuable than 
the power of his money. The prudent were at once 
convinced of the worth of that which he had taken in 
hand. His name brought to his assistance the time, 
labour, sympathy, and money of a crowd of friends and 
helpers. Mr. Morley said of him : " In a city where 
wealth was accumulating so fast, it is refreshing to see 
a man who, not by giving only, but by hearty personal 
service, recognised the responsibility which was thrown 
upon him." The Bishop of Carlisle said, " His loss to 
this diocese alone is simply unspeakable ; but it may be 
hoped and believed that his memory will long be found 
a tower of strength to the many good works which for 
so many years had his countenance and support." And 
Captain Bayly, of Trinity House, with whom he had 
been associated in many good works, said of him : 
" There are thousands who feel that life is sadder and 
the world poorer, because he is no longer in :t. " 

It was a marvel how he found time to attend to such 
a multitude of interests. An extraordinary capacity 
for business, as well as an exact attention to punctuality, 
with an aptitude for grasping the leading principle, and 
a wonderful memory, enabled him to do an amount of 
work with cheerfulness and composure, which would 
have overwhelmed many a more gifted but less per- 
severing man. " I think his memory," says Mrs. Moore, 


"was quite unusual. He never seemed to forget the 
smallest thing that he said he would do. Yet he kept 
no regular memoranda. Very few things were written 
in his pocket-book. But instead of this, he would write 
a word on the back of an envelope, anyhow, sometimes 
upside down, curiously, irregularly ; and the envelope 
would be used for days, until it was a complete network 
of black strokes and hieroglyphics. I really never knew 
him forget anything, or any engagement." 

Having so many people under him, he had often 
occasion to find fault. Unpunctuality, loss of time, 
negligence, laziness, galled him exceedingly. Hence 
his reproof was firm and strong. But when any one 
got into trouble he was always ready with an excuse. 
" Give him another chance, he will do better next time." 
" Nay, nay," he would say, " never turn your back upon 
a friend, however far he may fall down, for then you 
lose all chance of doing him good : stick to him, and 
then perhaps you may be able to make him better at 
some time." When dealing with others he would say, 
"Never seek to mak nought into summat." He was 
absolutely fair. His fault-finding never left a sting. 
He was not carried away by feelings or prejudices, by 
likes or by dislikes. 

He was a man of great promptitude and coolness in 
emergencies One night he heard a hansflm cab driving 
up to his door in Kensington Palace Gardens. He 
had been dreaming that Bow Churchyard was on fire, 
as it really was. Before the hansom stopped he had 
got on his boots, and in two minutes he was in the 
cab. Before starting, he asked the butler for a cigar, 
and drove off as cool as if he had been going to break- 
fast, though such tremendous risks were at stake, as the 
premises could not at that time be adequately insured. 

He was also a man of enthusiasm. " I recall," says 
one who knew him, "his excitement of interest in the 


relief of Paris after th? siege. ' I think I should have 
died,' he said, ' if I had not been the first man into 
Paris.' The whole story of his visit at that time filled 
up one of the most interesting evenings I have spent 
with him ; and it added, I think, though he was so 
much the worse for it, a permanent enjoyment to his 
life. When in Paris, he said the gist psalm contained 
his ' marching orders.' " 

It requires a good deal of moral courage, in these 
days of doubt and unrest, to avow boldly what one 
thinks, more especially as regards religious matters. 
The divorce of mind and speech, between thinking and 
saying, is very prevalent in modern society. It is con- 
sidered the " hall-mark " of modern civilisation. Yet 
George Moore was never at fault in this respect. 
When such subjects were introduced, he spoke out 
clearly and distinctly. He unhesitatingly avowed his 
religious faith, whether in society, business, or amuse- 
ment. To some it might seem inconsistent. But be 
that as it may, it was in him to tell out, in due season, 
his sense of dependence on God's Word ; and whether 
agreeing with him or not, men liked, as they always 
do, to meet one so true to his convictions, and so 
unfettered in his avowals. 

"The foremost feature in George Moore's character, 1 * 
says one of his intimate friends, " was the admirable 
simplicity of his faith in God's Word. There was no 
ostentation or prejudice about him. He was a bright 
example of a brave, uncompromising religious man. 
He had a firm grip of the Truth as it is in Jesus ; and 
he commended by his catholic consistency the cause of 
the Gospel, which he so dearly loved, to all those with 
whom he came in contact. The guiding principle of his 
life obviously was to occupy the talents committed to 
him, as one who would hereafter have to give an account 
of his stewardship," 


" There was much," says another, " in George Moore's 
progress through life, to foster arrogance or even vain- 
gloriousness. I like, therefore, to recall his remarks to 
me one morning in London, on some meetings where 
Christian Perfection was the topic. He said he could not 
get hold of it at all, as the speakers did ; but he added, 
that he was going to take lodgings in their neighbour- 
hood for a week, and humbly trusted that he might 
learn something of what they knew." 

Mr. Moore valued money at its proper price. "The 
parsons," he once said to a meeting of children at 
Wigton, " will tell you a good deal about money. They 
will tell you that it is the root of all evil. But my 
opinion is that it is a good thing to make plenty of 
money, provided you make a proper use of it." This is 
what he himself did. During some years, he gave away 
more than he made. In other years he gave away 
more than he had spent upon himself. During the last 
three years of his life he gave away an average of six- 
teen thousand pounds a year ; and, at his death, he left 
a large sum to various orphanages and hospitals. 

He entered in his diary that he did not wish to die a 
rich man. "The money," he said, "belongs to God; 
let me give it back to Him." He made a fortune, he 
gave away a fortune, and he left a fortune. As he used 
to say, " Whatever I give in good works, it all comes 
back again." "There are many in these days," says 
Mr. Rathbone, M.P. for Liverpool, "who have achieved 
making a great fortune, but few know how greatly to 
spend one. Mr. Moore ever spent liberally, and, what is 
far more valuable, he gave with sympathy and conscien- 
tiousness, not to do harm, but assured that he should 
do real good, while gratifying his own warm feelings 
and ardent generosity." 

" There was one thing," says the Rev. Mr. Schnibben, 
vicar of Wigton, "with which I was especially struck in 


his character, and that was his utter forgetfulness of 
self in the arrangements which he was continually mak- 
ing for the good of others. It always seemed to be a 
great source of happiness to himself when he had an 
opportunity of making others happy. He never grudged 
any trouble or inconvenience in seeking to advance the 
welfare of others. Rich and poor were alike welcome 
at Whitehall. The house seemed to be open to all 
comers, and all went away happy and contented. He 
was very large-hearted in his sympathies ; and his 
thoughtful character and business habits manifested 
themselves in the bestowal of his princely charities." 

George Moore was utterly unspoiled by prosperity. 
He refused many honours which others would have 
clutched at. He was elected Sheriff of London, and 
paid the fine rather than accept the office. He twice 
refused to be alderman for his ward. He six times 
refused to be member of Parliament. All these might 
have led to titles. Once he says in his Diary, " I am 
sadly cast down by hearing that an injudicious friend 
has applied to get me made a Baronet. I have stopt 
the application." 

One of the Royal Princes specially invited him to 
attend a levee, but he did not go. He would never con- 
sider himself anything but a statesman's son. " You 
may think yourself," he said to a friend, " belonging to 
the Upper Ten ; but I do not." Perhaps he was, like 
Diogenes, too proud of his humility. At all events he 
was quite content to be known as GEORGE MOORE. 
" The people in Cumberland," he said one day to a 
friend with evident pleasure, " always call me George 
Moore." " Yes," said the other, " except that they 
often leave out the Moore." 

Nothing pleased him better than to go into a widow's 
cottage, sit down in her chair, "sup curds," or partake 
of her haver-bread and milk. When alone at Whitehall, 


he cared for nothing so much as cock-broth, potato- 
pot, herb-pudding, or some other old-fashioned Cumber- 
land fare things which bon vivants would have turned 
up their noses at. Of course, when visitors or strangers 
were present, the best of everything that could be pro- 
cured was bestowed upon them lavishly. He altogether 
disliked display, either in his house, his dress, or the 
dress of his servants. The latter never wore cockades, 
even while he was High Sheriff of Cumberland. That 
office was one, indeed, that he could not refuse ; perhaps 
because it gave him more influence among the people, 
and enabled him better to carry out his views with 
respect to the boarding-out of pauper children. 

He was a lover of nature, but he specially loved the 
hills, and fells, and dales of his dear Cumberland. 
While sitting in his London office, he would often dream 
w of them, and wish he was back to them again, and to 
the haunts of his early boyhood. When he summoned 
his friends about him at Whitehall, he would take them 
up to the top of his old Border tower to survey the 
wide-spreading prospect. He took them to Harbybrow 
to visit the old Warriors' tower. Or he would drive 
them to Caldbeck Fells, or over the Derwent to Bassen- 
thwaite lake, where he would -tell them the local tradi- 
tions of the places, learnt in his boyhood, and remem- 
bered ever afterwards. Nothing was without interest 
for him among the scenes of his youth. 

He liked having young people about him. He 
said they had always a softening influence upon him. 
The little children used to cluster round him at the 
Whitehall feasts. He knew them one by one. He 
not only knew them, but he helped to educate them. 
He did all that he could to give them a fair start of 
the world. 

He was fond of flowers, especially wild flowers. He 
introduced cottage gardens in his neighbourhood, and 


tried to induce the cottagers to grow the old-fashioned 
flowers. The sweetwilliam, southernwood, mint, and 
lavender, were his favourites. His prizes for flowers 
were among the great events of the summer days at 
Whitehall. He did a great deal in the way of quiet 
unostentatious kindnesses. Wordsworth says that these 
are the best portions of a good man's life 

" His little nameless, unremembered acts 
Of kindness and of love." 

The Archbishop of York said of him : " George 
Moore was benevolence at every pore." He also added, 
" He never said an ill word of anybody. When any- 
thing severe was said of his opponents, he was always 
ready to find an excuse for them." Another friend, the 
Rev. Mr. Puxley, of Kimbolton Vicarage, says, " What 
struck me, not once or twice, but invariably, in my 
intercourse with him, was his settled purpose never to 
speak ill of any one. I knew instance upon instance 
where his kindness had been met with ingratitude, and 
where he had been unjustly maligned ; and when others 
were sneering at and abusing those who had done him 
injustice, he refused to join in the conversation or en- 
courage those who were .blaming his opponents, even 
though he had just cause for indignation. This struck 
me over and over again. I used to ponder over it, and 
wished that I could imitate him " 

George Moore used sometimes to speak about his 
position in the Church. At a meeting of the Clerical 
Education Conference at Carlisle in August, 1874, the 
Bishop said that " if a man was a Churchman, he did 
not understand how he could help being a High Church- 
man. If a man called himself a Churchman, and then 
qualified it by saying he was Low, it was to take away 
the benefit/' George Moore immediately got up and 
said that he himself was a Low Churchman, 'some 


people called him a horrid Low Churchman, and a 
very weak brother in the Church. But his faith was 
much wider than his creed. In fact he sympathised 
with, all who loved Christ, and preached Christ. 

On one occasion, when a lady of distinguished family 
had left the English Church and gone over to the 
Roman Catholics, some of her friends complained, in 
Mr. Moore's hearing, of the great pain she had caused 
them by the course she had taken. " Yes," said he ; 
" but you speak as if all the pain belonged to you. Do 
you ever think of the agony which it must have caused 
her to leave the Church in which she was born ? I 
have often thought what pain that poor woman must 
have suffered before she could have brought herself to 
take the step. Don't you ever think of that ? " There 
was certainly great insight into character and great 
human sympathy in these words of George Moore's. 

" Sympathy," he used to say, " is the grandest word in 
the world." It overcomes evil, and strengthens good. It 
disarms resistance, melts the hardest heart, and draws 
out the better part of human nature. Sympathy is the 
old truth on which Christianity is based : " Love one 
another." It contains within it a gospel sufficient to 
renovate the world. Judge Talfourd lamented the want 
of sympathy with his dying breath. " If I were to be 
asked," said he, "what is the great want of English 
society, so as to mingle class with class, I would say, 
in one word, the want is the want of sympathy." Hence 
sympathy was George Moore's grandest word. He 
showed it in everything, in his kindness to his servants, 
to his young men, to orphans, to the poor and the 
destitute. Frankel has said with truth, that the truest 
sympathy with suffering is often found in the man who 
does not himself suffer. 

He was always ready to help a poor friend. A little 
help given when a man is on his beam-ends, and thinks 


the world is utterly neglecting him, is the best help of 
all. It lifts him up again, and gives him a renewed 
belief in the worth of human nature. It often sets him 
on the right track again. But George Moore was not 
satisfied with that. He invited the friend he had helped 
to h:s house, gave him the best advice, and watched 
over his well-being nd well-doing. Thus while he 
helped others, he was adding to his own happiness. 
For kindness may be regarded as a moral savings' 
bank, in which a man may store up happiness for 
others as well as for himself. In the words written 
in his pocket-book : 

" What I spent I had, 
What I saved I lost, 
What I gave I have." 

He felt that what he gave he had, for it was turned into 
the treasure of affection which was given back to him 
from many hearts. 

Remark, also, how this conduct on his part affected the 
characters of others. " The influence of his character," 
says one whoknew him well, "has had a lasting effect upon 
mine. But this is a mere drop in the ocean compared with 
the blessing his life has been to his day and generation. 
I have called my eldest child after him. I have hung his 
portrait over my study mantelpiece, and also over my 
dining-room. How much more shall we all value his 
memory !" Another says, " On the occasions when I was 
brought face to face with him, his common sense, his 
ability, his unpretendingness, and his practical godliness, 
made a great impression upon me; so that I thought 
that I had never met with such a Man as that before. " 

Another friend of Mr. Moore's, Mr. Bowker, said, 
" His honesty of purpose and singular transparency of 
mind were striking features in a character combined of 
no ordinary materials. And this was the charm of his 


life causing him to be respected and beloved by all 
manner of people, from the highest ranks to the most 
humble. Men and women of intellect and culture, of 
rank and station, as well as those of less-known walks of 
life, all thought and spoke well of him, all respected him. 
How many will miss his liberal help, his generous assist- 
ance, in all the forms of helplessness and misery ! We 
may bless God that his life was so effective, and so 
permanently useful." 

The United Teachers' Association of Wigton laid 
their memorial upon his tomb. They said, " A gap 
.has been made in the ranks of Christian heroism ; and 
who shall fill it up ? What a proud claim to admiration 
to know, that he turned aside from the splendid attrac- 
tions of civic and parliamentary honours which were 
pressed upon him, and chose rather to devote himself to 
works of charity and benevolence in a less brilliant 
sphere ! And how clearly do we trace in every action of 
his life the grand outlines of his estimable character 
his singleness of mind, his largeness of heart, and his 
all-embracing charity. In his deeds of kindness he 
knew no creed nor caste. Above all, however, we as 
teachers proudly call to mind his fervent zeal, unflagging 
energy, and untiring labours in the cause of education. 
He deemed no trouble too great, and no expense too 
much, to spend in the high endeavour that sound learning 
and true religion might abound and flourish. And now 
that his career of usefulness is ended, and his kindly 
voice is hushed for ever, we, who are working in the 
cause he loved so well, desire to be permitted to record 
our humble tribute of respect and veneration to the 
memory of departed worth the noble philanthropist, 
George Moore ! " 

Though still strong and healthy in his seventieth year, 
he seemed to have many forewarnings of death. He 
saw the end drawing nearer and nearer. The fore- 

G G 


shadowings which Mrs. Moore relates, are very remark- 
able. " I shall never stand on that platform again," he 
said, when starting on that fateful journey to Carlisle. 
He advanced step by step to the verge of the unknown 
land with awe and wonder, but with supremest hope. 
And then the fatal blow came. But he was not unpre- 
pared. He was thoughtful and calm in the full face of 
death. He had committed the safe-keeping of his life 
to his Redeemer ; and he knew that God would take 
him to Himself. 

George Moore died before his intended works of 
benevolence were completed. He had many things in 
his mind that he meant to accomplish. One of these 
was to benefit the clever boys in the Northern elemen- 
tary schools, and help them on to higher class schools in 
England ; and the other was to erect a Convalescent 
Hospital at Littlehampton. The first of these has been 
accomplished by the memorial subscription of his friends- 
Is there no rich London merchant to take up the other 
and carry it out to completion ? 

Indeed, George Moore, like everybody else, could 
only make beginnings. Where he left off, others begin. 
We can finish nothing in this life ; but we may make 
a beginning, and bequeath a noble example. Thus 
Character is the true antiseptic of society. The good 
deed leaves an indelible stamp. It lives on and on ; 
and while the frame moulders and disappears, the 
great worker lives for ever in the memory of his race. 
" Death," says the Philosopher, " is a co-mingling of 
Eternity with Time. In the death of a good man, 
Eternity is seen looking through Time." 

Theodore Monod said that he would like the epitaph 
on his tombstone to be " Here endeth tJie First Lesson ! " 
Brief but happy ! But the epitaph on George Moore's 
tombstone could not be dismiseed so briefly. It was 
erected in Carlisle Cathedral by the Moore Education 


Trust, established by public subscription, " to perpetuate 
his name and example, as a tribute of Love." George 
Moore is thus described : 








" IT is not easy," says the Rev. Daniel Moore, " to single 
out, from the group of George Moore's many-sided excellences, 
that which especially made him a power among men. But a 
power he unquestionably was, and all felt it. A great work taken 
in hand, with George Moore at the head of it, was an assured 
and achieved success. In the presence of his sharp and incisive 
words of confidence, men of fearful and misgiving hearts could 
speak only with ' bated breath ; ' and, as fast as they cropped 
up, the difficulties were laid low by the strong arm of his 
energetic will. Who shall say to what extent at the root of this 
success, of firm self-reliance on his part, and of strong con- 
fidence on the part of those who were to work with him was 
the knowledge that, whatever our dear friend undertook, he 
undertook for the Divine glory ; and, what was more, that he 
always took the All-wise into counsels, by secret prayer, before 
he ventured on a single step. 

" Of course, there were present the human elements of 
success also. A wide and varied experience of men and things, 
a keen and discriminative insight into human character, a 
watchful and cautious heed-taking to the prevailing tendencies 
of the age, like the men of Issachar ' who had understanding 
of the times ' and withal a fertility of resource and expedient 
equal to any new emergency : these are qualities often honoured 
of God to the success of an undertaking, even though there 
should be wanting, in its authors, those higher religious con- 
siderations which, in all important projects, ever actuated our 
dear friend. 


" With regard to the forftis of good works to which Mr. Moore 
gave a uniform preference, if I were to describe them by one ex- 
pression, I should say that they were those which put within 
the reach of fortune's less favoured children the means of self - 
elevation. He had no faith in the inevitable permanence, in 
any of God's creatures, of a low and dust-trodden condition. 
The reptile state was not a normal state of Humanity, and if 
man, woman, or child had the misfortune to be born in such a 
condition, he would have them lift themselves out of it as soon 
as they could. Hence the heartiness with which he threw 
himself into the Ragged School movement, Mothers' meetings, 
Lectures for Working Men, meetings of Cabmen at his own 
house, with any other exceptional scheme that might be 
suggested for benefiting those whom our older and more 
established agencies for ameliorating the condition of the 
humbler classes, had either overlooked or at least failed to 
reach. With the late Charles Kingsley, he felt that there was 
no human ' mud ' which was not worth caring for, or which 
would not abundantly repay the pains and cost of husbandry 
for noble uses. Enough for all of us, who hold his memory in 
honour, to know, that to few more than to our lamented 
friend, could those words of the patriarch be applied ' When 
the ear heard me, then it blessed me : and when the eye saw 
me, it gave witness to me : because I delivered the poor that 
cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him : 
the blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me, 
and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy." 


ABBATT, Richard, 143 

Abbott, Dr. 277 

Academy, Royal, 407 

Accident in hunting, 269; cured, 293 

Accuracy, 61, 122, 273 

Action against a rival, 83 

Adams-Acton, Sculptor, 233 

Adrian's Wall, 141, note 

Albert, Prince, and Commercial Travellers' 

Schools, 116, 120 
Alderman, Moore elected, 135 
Allcrofi, Mr.. Christ's Hospital, 360 
Allhallows' Schojl, 140, 148 ; Chuich, 147 
Allpress, R. N. 382 
America, trip to, 96 102 
Annandale, 3 

Andre, M. 313, 314, 317, 361 
Archaeological S ciety, 226 
Armstrongs, Border, 5, 6 
Arthur's Italy, 241 
Atheism and Science, 276 

BALI.VKELLY Schools, a,|o 

Baltimore, U.S. 99 

Barnes, Dr. Carlisle, 421 

Barrin' t'maister oot, 23 

Banquets, Fishmongers' Company, ago, 

Bassenthwaite Water, a 

Bay ley, Mrs. 202 ; Captain, 440 

Beacons in Cumberland, 4 

Bees, St. 171 ; students helped at, 381, 


Begging Expeditions. 116, 194, 506 
Benevolent Institutions, Cumberland Be. 

nevjient, 109 ; Porters' Benevolent, 167, 

Bevan, R. C. L. 218 

Bewcastle Churchyard, 10 

Bible Society, British and Foreign, 226, 

4^5. 427 
Bible, love of the, 276 ; meetings at 

home, 216. 403 
Birth, the new, 174 
Bishop of T.nrr'on's Fund, 280 
Blackbird Wilson n 

Blake, Rev. Jex, 297 

Blane, Mr., New York, 97 

Blennerhasset School, 31 

Boarding out pauper children, 340 ; papers 

thereon, 341 3*3- 3^5 
Boggle at Bolton Hall, 38 
Bold riding, 94 
Bolton Hall haunted, 39 
Bolton Schools, 21, 135. 137 
Bonar, Dr. Way of Peace, 395 
Border Towers, 4. 221 
Border service of Statesmen, 8, 9 
Book-keering, uses of. f,6. 122 
Books circulated by G. Moore, 241, 395 
Book-hawking in Cuinbeiland, 225 
Boston, America, 101 
Bothel, Moores of, 15 
Bothel School, 141, 146 
Baurke, H. at Paris, 321 
Bowker, Mr. 163, 172, 216, 370, 448 
Bow Churchyard, 76 ; Chnstmases at, 83 ; 

enlarged, 91 ; family worship at, 176, 

213; classes and lectures at, 241, 381; 

partners' mid-day d.nners at, 3 17, 348 ; 

applications at, 348 ; rewards to servants 

at, 406 

British Home for Incurables, 193 
British Orphan Asylum. 198 
Brixton Hill Reformatory, 161 
Breaks, Miss Agnes, Warcop, 233 
Breeks, James Wilkinson, news of tLo 

death of, 338 
Brock, Dr. 2:3, 216, 250 
Brodie, Sir B. 183 
Bromfield School, 141 
Brougham, Lord, 188, 227, 256 
Brown, Felix, and G. Moore, 79, 265 
Brown, Rev. Stowell, 213 
Brown, Samuel, 143 
Burton, Rev. Chancellor, 339 
Butler, Dr., Harrow, 236, 431 
Bworder Coupers, n 

CABMEN'S Mission, 353: supper, 354; 

shelter, 357 

Cambridge, Duke of, 241. 305307 
Cambridge, students helped at, 382 
Cambridge, G. Moore's visits to, 349 
Canada, G. Moore in, 99 



Canning's speech on Corn Bill, 66 

Canterbury Villas, Maida Hill, 91 

Canvassing West Cumberland, 159 

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 285, 428 

Carlisle, Karl of, 131, 197 

Carlisle, ace. dent at, 420 ; memorial meet- 
ing at, 428 ; marble tablet at cathedral, 
429. 4S 1 

Carlisle, Bishops of, Percy, 429 ; Villiers, 
146, 181, 186, 230; Waldegrav, 2561 
296 ; Dr. Goodwin, 429 ; Reminiscences, 

Carlisle, Dr. Close, Dean of, 226 

Carlisle Infirmary, 362 note, 405 

Cartick, Cumberland artist, 184, note 

Cartmel, Morecambe Bay, 85 

Cattle-dealer, adventure with, 39 41, 59 

Cattle-stealing, 6, 10, 59 

Chaises in Cumberland, 18 

Chaplains at Bow Churchyard, 177, 213, 

Character, insight into, 43, 154 ; summary 
of, 433 451 ; Georsre Moore's, 453, 454 

Charltons of Whitehall, 222 

Chelsea, wrestling at, 46 

Chester, Rev. H. 335, 412, 424 

Chiffoniers of Paris, 325, 331 

Christmases, George Moore's in London, 
83 ; presents, 393, 396 ; in Cumberland, 
39.7 . 

Christian Community, 274, 286 

Christ's Church, Somers Town, 282, 359, 
372, note, 413 

Christ's Hospital, 301 ; Dr. Jacob's ser- 
mon, 302 ; George Moore almoner, 304 ; 
opposes Duke of Cambridge, 305 ; the 
fight, 306 ; endowments to the hospital, 
308, 405 

Church of Ireland, position of, 288 

City-bred boys, 63 

City disease, 92 

City Missionaries, 163, 217, 262, 276. 393, 

City of London, G. Moore asked to repre- 
sent, 241 

City of London School, 277 

Clerical Education A.d Society, 409 

Clergymen in Cumberland, 179 182, 230 

Clergymen, letters from, 382, 390 

Close, Dr. Dean of Carlisle, 226 

Cockbridge Inn, 126 

Cockermuuth, 159, 340 

Cohen, Rev. Mr. 161 

Commons, House of, G. 1 Moore's visit to, 
66 ; refusals to enter, 156, 190, 241, 288, 

35 1 

Colporteurs in Cumberland, 224 

Commercial Travellers, 61, 76, 91, 112 

Commercial Travellers' Schools, 109 ; 
founding of, 112 ; raising funds for, 114, 
116, 118; Prince Albert opens the 
schools, 120; visitors to, 200. 235; 
Moore's scholarship, 236, 308 ; jubilee 
of, 308 ; memorial at, 430, 431 

Commune at Paris, 326 329 

Competitive examinations in Cumberland, 
140, 148, 149, 224, 296 

Convalescent Hospital:'., at Sillcth, 339, 
362 ; at Lit^lehampton, 405, 450 

Conycr, Col. Master of Foxhounds, 94 

Cope, Mr. R.A., his picture of "The 
Council," 407 

Copestake, Mr. 76, 83, 84, 87, 196, 240, 
260 ; his death, 401 

Copestake, Mr. S. 236, note, 383, 349, 412, 

Corkram, Mr. cabman, 353, note ; 354 

Correctness in accounts, 61, 273 

Cottage dwellings, improvement of, 267,274 

Cottage gardens, 267 

Country boys' Lfe, 43 ; country-bred boys,6a 

County Towns Mission in Cumberland, 180, 
226, 262, 395, 396 

Crampton, Mr. recollections of Moore, 65, 
79, 437 

Criftel, 3 

Cropper, Mr. J. of Ellergreen, his opinion 
of Mr Moore, 343 

Cross, Fiery, 8, note 

Cuffley, R. J. , and Commercial Travellers' 
Schools, 113 

Cumberland, High Sheriff of, 333 

Cumberland, Benevolent Society, 109 

Cumberland, beacons, 4 ; clannishness, 
54, 65 ; G. Moore's early visits to, 126, 
130 ; representation of, 156, 159 ; mis- 
sionaries established in, 180; Arcadians 
of, 265 

Cunliffe, James, banker, 161 

DAKIN, Alderman, 210, 311 
Dales, foxhunting in the. 28 
Dales, chapels and churches in the, 228 
Dalusavi, landscape painter, 234 
Dame's schools, 136, 137, note 
Daniels, the, of Mealsgate, 30 
Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, 316, 327 
Davidson, Mr. Louis, his account or his 

services in the conveyance of food to 

Paris, 322, note 
Debateable land, 6 

Death, foreshadowings of, 410, 416; of 

old friends, 400 ; of George Moore, 423 

Denison, Archdeacon, his recollections of 

a conversation with George Moore, 275 
Destitution, spiritual, of London, 280, 281 
Deville on phrenological development, 93 
Devonshire, Duke of, 364, 365 
Diary, G. Moore's, 218 220, 241, 294 ; at 

Vichy, 409 
Dickens, Charles, and G. Moore, 117, 197, 

200, 274, 

Diocesan Education Society, 158 
Diocesan Home Missi >n, 216, 282 
Dissenting ministers at Whitehall, 260 
Distribution of fool in Paris, 310 et seg. 
Dixon, P. J. Workingtou, 181 
Douglas, Rev. M. 209 
Dublin, Moore's arrival in, 73, 289 
Duty, G. Moore's ideas of, 378 

EAGLE Insurance Co. 201 

Education in Cumberland, 21, 134, 296, 

414, 418 

Education, religious, 277 435 et seq. 
Elliots, border, 5 
Ellen, river, 2 
Empress of the French, 256; Mr. Moore's 

interview with the, 344 
Endowed Schools' Commission, 306, 360 



English, the, and fox-hunting, 103 
Epitaph, George Moore's, 432, 451 
Erich^en, Mr. 361, 408 
Examinations. See Competitive 
Essex M.irshes, population in the, 206 
Evil speaking, 466 

FAMILY Worship at Bow Churchyard, 176, 

193, 213 

Farming, G. Moore and, 300 
Farningham, Little Boys' Home at, 244 
Farrar, Dr. 236 
Ferguson, Mr., M.P. 112 
Fetes of Perambulating Library, 144 
Fiery Cross, 8 

Field Lane. See Ragged Schools 
Fisher, Strotid, and Robinson, 61 
Fisher, Woodhall, 181 ; Dunkeld, 345 
Fishmongers' Company, Prime Warden of, 

288 ; hunt dinner, 374 
Fitzhardinge's fox-hounds, 105 
Fleming, Rev. Mr., lectures at Bow 

Churchyard. 347 
Flint, Ray, and Co. 51 
Food relief of Paris, 310 
Foster, J. P. 105, 143, 237, 259, 415 
F >x-h rands, Cumberland, 26, 130, 227, 268 
Freebooters in Cumberland, 5-10 
Free-trader, G. Moore a, 156 
French, Empress of the, 256, 344 
Funeral of Mrs. Moore (li. Ray), 185 
Funeral of George Moore, 424 ; funeral 

sermons, 425 

GAMBLING at Wigton, 35 

Garibaldi in London, 243 

Geering, coachman, 261, 270, 335 

George Moore Lifeb at, 430 

Germans besieging Paris, 310 ; their plun- 
der, 324 

Gilsland, meeting at, 341 

Girls, elevation of English, 267 

Gladstone, Rt. Hon. W. E. 290 

Globe, extract from article in the, giving 
account of Partners' mid-day dinners at 
Bow Churchyard, 347, 348 

Gordon, Rev. W. 188, 361 

Goschen, Mr. M.P. 242, 340 

Graemes, Debateable Land, 5 

Graham, Sir J. 8, 14, 128 

Grant, Sir Hope, 307, 354 ; death of, 401 

Graves, John Woodstock, his account of 
the composition of the ballad of "D'ye 
ken John Peel," 26, note 

Great Western Steamship, 96, 97 

Green, Capt. , at Paris, 321 

Grey Coats of Cumberland, n, 413 

Grey Goat Inn, Carlisle, 42, 420, 423, 433 

Grey, Workington, 181 

Groucock, G. Moore's competition with, 
71-75 ; death of, 172 ; bequest of, 181 

Groucock, Copestake, and Moore, 75 

Guest, Dr. , Master of Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, visited by Mr. Moore, 349 

Guichiardini, Count, 188 

Gull, Sir W. 408, 422 

Gunson, Rev. W. M., account of Bolton 
School, 22; Plumbland School, 139; 
Allhallows School, 140 ; on students at 
Cambridge, 383 

Gurney, Russell, M. P., Recorder of Lon. 

don, 304, 307, 357 
Guthrie, Dr., on amusements, 103 

HAIR-TRUNK and its adventures, 19, 33, 

42, 52 

Hale, Alderman (Lord Mayor), 257 
Half Moon Inn, Wigton, 34 
Hammond, Rev. R. H. 280, note 
Hanbury, Robert, M.P. 164, 218; and 

Lit;Ie Boys' Home, 244 
Hanging at Carlisle, 35 
" Hang Theology," 278 
Harbybrow Peel Tower, 4, 25, 72, 221, 223 
Harvest customs, Cumberland, 29 
Hasell, J. Dalemain, 339 
Heathendom of London, 246, 281 
Henderson, Col. 227, 307, 356 
Herbert, Dr. Allan, at Pans, 316, 318, 321 
Heritage, John, Missionary, 180 
Hetherington's Charity for the Blind, 308 
High Sheriff of Cumbrrland, 333 
Highwood Nook, Moores of, 15 
Hill, John, at Whitehall, 264 
Hitchcock, St. Paul's Churchyard, 173 
Hodgson, Canon, 256 
Hodgson, Nicolson, M.P. 407 
Home Missions, 180, 182, 213 ; diocesan, 

216 ; county, 225, 405 
Homes for working people, 2^7, 274 
Hospitals, Royal, fur Incurables, 166, 

191 ; Royal Free, 193, 194, 405 ; British, 

for Incurables, 193 ; Convalescent, for 

Silloth, 339, 362 ; Convalescent, foi 

Littlehampton, 339, 405 
Hot-trod, pursuit in, 7 
Howard, the Hon. Charles, M. P. for East 

Cumberland, his opinion of Mr. Moore, 


Howard, Mr., Greystoke Castle, 105, 181, 
227 ; death of, 400 

Howard, Stafford, M.P. 407 

Howard, Monseigneur, 189 

Hughes, Mr. James, 237, 430 

Hunting, John Peel, 28 ; Dalesmen's, 28; 
Sir W. Lawrence recommends, 92 ; G. 
Moore's firsthunt, 94; cont'tiues. 102-107; 
pleasures of . 103-106; hunts in Cumber- 
land, 130. 227 ; fears the pleasures of, 
269 ; the Last Hunt, 271 

Hutton, bone-setter, 293 

IMMORALITY in Cumberland. 265 

Incurables, Royal Hospital for, 166, 191 

Incurables, British Home for, 193 

Individual responsibility, 122, 123, 438 

Infirmary at Carlisle, gift to, 405 

Influence of character, 438 

Inspection of Cumberland schools, 135, 136 

Inspiration, a non-believer in, 276 

Insurance, Benefits of Life, 108 

Ireby, 143, 144 

Ireland, G. Moore in, 71, 73, 84 

Ireland, Church of, 288 

Irish kings, descendant of, 372, nott 

Itinerating libraries, 142 

Italy, tours in, 188, 233 

JACK, George Moore's dog, 376 
Jackson, Rev. J. O. 172 



Jacob, Dr. . sermon on Christ's Hospital, 


Jeddart justice. 6 
Jelhcoe, Mr., Eagle office, 201 
Jenkinson, C. T. 163 
Jex-Blake at Wigton, 297 
Jones, Jenkin, 201 
Jowett, Rev Mr. 280 
Jump, the great, in Gloucestershire, 105 

KENSINGTON Palace Gardens, 160, 182, 

280, 283 ; cabmen's dinner at, 354 
Kilhow, 144 

Kirkland, Moores of, 15 
Knowles, architect, 185 
Kurn supper, 30 

LABOURERS' cottages, improval of, 267, 274 

Lampson, Sir Curtis, 364 

Lawrence, Sir W. 92, 104 

Lawson, Sir Wilfrid, 128 ; Moore hunts 

with, 131, 227 ; on mild despotism, 257 ; 

rhymes of, 355, 375 ; speech on short- 
horns, 363 
Leaf, Mr., and Warehousemen's and Clerks' 

Schools, 200 
Lectures at Bow Churchyard, 213, 241, 


Levees, George Moore and, 444 
Liberals and il-Liberals, 288 
Library, perambulating, 142 
Library at Bow Churchyard, 241 ; in Bow 

Lane for porters, 242 
Life-boat, the George Moore, 430 
Life Insurance, 108 
Little Boys' Home, 244 
Littlehamptcn, Mr. Moore establishes a 

convalescent hospital at, 405, 450 
Liverpool and Manchester round, 68, 78 
Livingstone, Dr. his burial, 357 
London, G. Moore's arrival in, 46 
London, Bishop of, 207, 278, 280 
London at midnight, 246 
London Clerical Education Aid Society, 


London School Board, 308 
London, temporal and spiritual destitution 

of, 281 

London, G. Moore asked to represent, 203 
Londonderry, Fishmongers' estates at, 290 
Londoners over the Border, 206 
Longman, William, 236, 409, 410 
Lonsdale, Earl of, 8, 105, 106 
Lush, Sir R. at Carlisle, 334, 371 
Lord Mayor visits Cumberland, 127 

M'CHEVNK'S Memoir and Remains, 

241. 244, 395 . 

Mallet, M. Paris, 317, 321, 322, 329, 361 
Manning, Cardinal, 325, 327 
Mansion House Fund, 311, 328 
Marriage, G. Moore's, go; second, 233 
Marriage fees paid by G. Moore, 163, 414 
Marshall Mr. L. at Pans, 321 
Marshall, W., M.P. 127, 157 
Marsh, Miss, 213 
Martin, Rev. Mr. 216 
Martin. John, 306 
Marylebone, representation of, aoa 
Masterman, J., M.P. 1x3 

Mealsgate, Cumberland, i, 16, 133, 180 
Mellor, Sir John, at Carlisle, 334 
Memorials. fountain at Wigton, 185 ; at 

London, 427; at Carlisle, 428; at Wigton, 

430; George Moore lifeboat, 430; at 

Pinner, 431 
Memory, 440 
Merchants' and Travellers' Association, 

Merchant, qualities of successful, 153, 437, 


Messenger, Wigton, 32 
Methodist chapels cleared of debt, 261 
Middle-class school, London, 277 
Middiesex, G. Moore asked to represent, 


Mission, cabmen's, 353, 354, 357 

Missionaries, City, 163, 182, 213 

Missionaries in Cumberland, 180, 225, 262, 

Missionary Society, 405 

Moffat, Rev. Dr. 347, 371 

Moggridge (Old Humphrey). 173 

Moncrieff, Rev. G. T. 149, 256 

Money-order Office, Mr. Moore and, 407 

Money, proper uses of, 443 

Montreal, 100 

Moody and Sankey, 403 

Moore, burial-place of the Moores, 2 ; of 
Overgate, i, 15; of Mealsgate, 15; of 
Bothel, 18 ; John (George's father), 15, 
19, 20, 32, 33 ; Thomas (George's 
brother), 32, 127, 263 ; \\Mliam, 64 

Moore, George, birth of, i, 17 ; christen- 
ing, 18 ; death of his mother, 19 ; his 
father, ib.\ school-days, 21; wrestling, 
23 ; the school-boy game of Scots atid 
English, 24; bird -nesting, ib. ; marbles, 
25; walk to Carlisle, ib,; hunts with 
John Peel, 26: harvest-holidays, 29; 
determines to leave home, 31 ; appren- 
ticeship at Wigton, 32 ; cr sslng the 
Solway Sands, 40, 41 ; determines to go 
to London, 42 ; journey to London, 45; 
arrives in London, 46 ; wrestles at 
CheUea, 46-49 ; obtains a situation at 
Flint, Ray, and Co., 51 ; resolves to 
marry his master's daughter, 55 ; a sad 
mistake in arithmetic, 56 ; engaged by 
Fisher and Co., 58 ; commercial travel- 
ler, 61 ; partner and traveller, 75 ; his 
marnage, 90 ; hunting, 94, 102107 ; tr.p 
to America, 96-102 ; Cumberland Bene- 
volent Society, 109 ; Tra- 
vellers' Schools, 112 ; his advice to boys 
leaving school, 121 ; visits to Cumber- 
land, 124, 134; encourages education in 
Cumberland, 135 ; perambulating lib- 
rary, 142; Politics, 153; pricked 
Sheriff of London, 154 ; Brixton Refor- 
matory, 161 ; marriage fees paid, 163 ; 
Reformatory and Refuge Unit n, 164; 
R.oyal Hospital for Incurables, 166; 
Porters' Benevolent Institution, 167 ; re- 
ligious life, 170; establishes family 
prayer at Bow Churchyard, 176 ; mis- 
sionaries established in Cumberland, 179; 
Mrs. Moore's illness and death, 183; 
buys Whitehall estate, 184 ; tour in 
Italy, 188 ; invited to stand for Not- 



tingham, igo; British Home for In- 
curable?:, 191 ; Royal Free Hospital, 
io,s ; Warehousemen's and Clerks' 
Schools, 199; invited to stand for City 
of London, 203 ; obtains situations for 
young men, 203 ; Londoners over the 
Border, 206; National Orphan Home, 
214; theatre-preaching, 217: Whitehall, 
Cumberland, 221 ; establishes book- 
hawking in Cumberland, 224 ; mide jus- 
tice of the peace. Cumberland, 226; 
sends help to ths clergy, 229 ; his lone- 
liness, 231 ; marries Miss Agnes Breeks, 
233 ; founds a scholarship, 236 : illness. 
239; his favourite books, 241; invited 
to represent the City, ib. ; supports the 
Little Boys' Home, 244 : treasurer of 
Field Lane Ragged Schools, 248: life in 
Cumberland, 253; immorality in Cum- 
berland, 265 ; accident in hunting, 269 ; 
his last hunt, 271 ; his accuracy in ac- 
counts, 273 : voyage to Antwerp, 274 ; 
distributes the Bible, 276 ; middle-class 
schools, 277 ; erects Christ's Church, 
Somers Town, 282; supports dissenting 
movements, 285; the Christian commu- 
nity, 286 : appo.nted J.P. for Middlesex, 
287 ; requested to represent Mid-Surrey, 
288 ; Prime Warden of Fishmongers' 
Company. 288 ; rights of fishmongers, 
288; the banquets, 290, 291; George 
Moore's shoulder put in, 293 ; address 
to schoolmasters, 298 ; his farming, 300 ; 
Christ's Hospital, 301 ; refuses to be- 
come a member of the London School 
Board, 308 ; endows Commercial Tra- 
vellers' Schools with scholarship, 309; 
relief of Paris, 310; presented with the 
Legion of Honour, 326; High Sheriff of 
Cumberland, 333 ; Convalescent Hospi- 
tal, Silloth, 339; boarding-out pauper 
children, 340; papers thereon, 341, 365 ; 
declines to represent Middlesex, 350 ; 
wreck of the NorthJJeet, 353 ; supper to 
cabmen, 354; Dr. Livingstone, 357: 
S mers Town Church, 359 ; visits the 
sick poor, 360 ; visits to Vichy, 361 ; sells 
his sh rthorns.363; assists Miss Rye, 365; 
boarding-out pauper children, 365; life 
at Whitehall, 369; ideas of duty, 378; 
sympathy, 379, 385 ; mercifulness, ib. \ 
invitations to Wh tehall, 388 ; helps poor 
clergy, 390; his almoners, 393; helps 
missionaries, 395 ; Christmases, 396 ; 
deaths of old friends, 399; Convalescent 
Hospital, 405 ; rewards his old servants, 
406 ; appointed to examine money-order 
system, 407; )u*t visit to Vichy, 409; 
help to Clerical Education Aid Society, 
409 ; organises a method for ra sing poor 
tK.ys to the highest educational advan- 
tages, 414 ; v.sit to Muncas er Cattle, 
415 ; foreshad >wings of death, 416 : the 
Nurse's Home last visit t.j Carlisle, 
420; the fatal accident, 420: George 
Moore's death, 423 ; the funeral, 424 ; 
funeral sermons, 425 ; memorials, 427 ; 
his character, 413 451 
Moore, Mrs. ( Ray) 55, 64, 77, 99, 
183 ; her' death and mern jrial, 184, 185 

Moore, Mrs. (Agnes Breeks), 233, 839, 
245, 270, 274; Christ's Church, Simers 
Tiwn, 283; at Paris, 327; on George 
Moore's death, 421 

Moore, Rev. Daniel, 173 ; his reminis- 
cences of George Moore, 452 

Moore, Joseph, 163 

Morecambe Bay, crossing, 85 

Morley, Samuel, M.P. 191, 200, 218, 356, 
408. 428, 440 

Morse, Rev. F. , Nottingham, 241, 371 

Mosstroopers, Cumberland, 48 

Muller Orphan Asylum, 244 

Muncaster, Lord. 335, 337; castle of; 415 : 
presides at public meeting for memorial 
to Mr. Moore, 428 

NAPOLEON of Watling Street, 69 
National Mercantile Assurance Co., 108, 


National Orphan Home, 214 

Naworth Castle, 132 

Newbold, butler, 389, 396, 424 

New Years, opening of, 404 

New York, 9699 

Niagara. 100 

Nice, 188 

Norcott, Mr., his testimony to Mr. Moore's 
work at Paris, 324 

Norfolk, the Duke of, 405 

Northjleet, wreck of, 352 

Northe~n Assize, Carlisle, 334 

Nottingham, branch at, 102 ; representa- 
tion of, 156, 190 

Nurses' meeting at Carlisle, 418 

O'BRIEN, Rev. Mr. 359 

Oliphant, Mr., at Pans, 317, 321 

Open-air preaching, 217 

Orphans Commercial Travellers* Schools 

(see Commercial); British Asylum, 198; 

Warehousemen's and Clerks' Scii ,- Is, 

199; National Orphan H me, 214; 

Little Boys' Home, 244; Haversack 

Hill Orphan Asylum, 274 
Organ presented ts Wigt >n Church, 186 
Osborne, Mr. (partner), 401 
Outcasts of Lond ,n, 246 
Overgates, Moores of , i, 3, 15 

PAGE, Mr. Carlisle. 421 

Panic of 1831. 78 

Paris, the Kible in, 276; relief of, 310 
326; Archbishop of, 316, 325. 327: 
second siege of, 328 

Parliament, G. Moore invited to enter, 
155, 156, 190. 202. 241, 288, 350 

Partners' mid-dav dinner, the. an institu- 
tion at Bcw Churchyard, 347 ; miscel- 
laneous company which sometimes 
attended the, 347, 348 

Pattinson, Mary, 20 

Pauper children, boarding-out of , 341 343 

Pedler Thommy's school, 30 

Peel, John, a famous Cumberland hunts- 
man, account if, 26 28. note 

Peel towers, Cumberland, 5, 27 

Perambulating library, 142 

Peek, James, 166, 192 

Percival, Dr. 257 ; on immorality in Cum- 



bcrUnd, 265 ; on education of poor boys, 

4 T S- 428 

Percy, Bishop, Carlisle, 429 
Peterborough, Bishop of, 347 
Philadelphia, U.S. 98 
Phrenology, 93 
Physique of G. Moore, 437 
Picnics at Whitehall, 259 
Plumbland school, 139 
Politics of G. Moore, 156, 202, 288, 350 
Porter, Richard, 399 
Porters' Benevolent Institution, 167, 199, 

Porters' visit to Whitehall, 264 

Portraits of G. Moore, 184, 236, 418, 429 

Potter, George, 268, 417 

Prisons of London, Moore visits, 161 

Promptitude, 62, 372, 442 

Prussians in Paris, 310 

Public houses kept down, 301 

Punch, extract from a poem which ap- 
peared in, on the death of Sir Hope 
Grant, 401, note 

Punshon, Dr., and G. Moore, 285 

Pure Literature Society, 225 

Puxley, Rev. Mr., on G. Moore, 446 

Puzzle Hall, 229 

uickness, 62, 63, 237 

RAGGED Schools, Field Lane, 248, 396 

Railway Clearing-house, 384 

Rathbone, Mr., M.P. for Liverpool, his 

opinion of George Moore, 443 
Ratten Heath, meeting at, q 
Ray, Mr. (Flint, Ray and Co.), 51, 57, 65, 


Ray, Eliza. See Mrs. Moore 
Ray, the Rev. Mr., 172 
Raynham, Lord, 191 
Redgattntlet, 221 
Reed, Dr. Andrew, 166, 192, note 
Reeve, Rev. Mr. 220, 233, 424 
Reformatory, Brixton Hill, 161 
Reformatory and Refuge Union, 164 
Relief of Paris, 310 
Religious life, G. Moore's, 170 ; opinions, 

434, 442, 446 
Religious education, 277 
Reminiscences of G. Moore, 453, 454 
Responsibility, sense of, 434 
Rewards to old servants, 406 
Rheins, Gloucestershire, 105 
Rice, Dr. 196 

Richardson, Rev. T., 177, 184, note, 213 
Rifle volunteers, Whitehall, 226 
Ritualists, 275, 361 
Robinson, Mr., City missionary, 396 
Rodgers, Rev. Mr. 213, 240 
Rome, 189, 233 
Roman Catholics. G. Moore on, 287, 328, 


Romance of Cheapside, 258 
Routledge, Mr., at Whitehall, 412 
Royal Free Hospital, 193, 194. 405 
Royal Hospital for Incurables, 166, 191 
Rothschild, Baron, Paris, 316, 331, 361 
Russia, Emperor of, 276 
Russell, Lord John, 158, 202 

Russell, Lord Wriothesly, 217 

Russell, Dr., at Versailles, 317 

Russell, Odd, at Versailles, 316 

Rye, Miss, G. Moore assists, 365 

Ryle, Rev. Mr. 181, 241, 360, 371, 395, 413 

Salkelds and Whitehall, 221 
Salvin, architect, 223 
Sanderson, John, 144, note 
Scenery, Cumberland, 2 
Schnibben, Rev. Mr., on G. Moore, 443 
Schools in Cumberland, 21, 134, 135, 138, 
et seq.. Sunday-schools established. 151, 
180 ; erected at Somers Town, 283 ; 
Fishmonger's, Ireland, 290; City of 
London, 277 

Schoolmasters, G. Moore and, 297, 449 
Scholarship to Commercial Travellers* 

Schools, 236, 309 
Scots and English, game of, 24 
Scottish raids .into Cumberland, 3 5 
?cott, Thomas, Penrith, 181 
Scripture-readers, established in Cumber- 
land, 181 ; meetings of, 411 
Sedgwick, Professor, 349 
Self-education of G. Moore, 55, 63 
Self-elevation, Rev. Daniel Moore on, 
_ 453. 454 
Servants, sympathy with, 379 ; rewards to 

old, 406 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 161, 218, 267, 280 
Shap Wells, Westmoreland, 126, 171, 183 
Sheep-stealing in Cumberland, 10 
Sheriff, pricked Sheriff of London, 154, 

High Sheriff of Cumberland, 333 
Shorthorns, G. Moore's, 258, 363; sale of, 


Shoulder, dislocation of, 269, 291, 293 
Siena, 188 

Sieveking, Dr. 412, 419 
Silloth Convalescent Hospital, 339, 362; 

bells at Silloth, 429 
Simpson, Dr., Edinburgh, 396 
Simpson, Rev. Mr., 186 
Simpson, Dr., Kirby Stephen, 256 
Situations for young men, 203, 384 
Skelton, John, his pamphlet on Pauperism 

and the Boarding-out oj Pauper children 

in Scotland, 343, note 
Skiddaw, 3, 259, 262 
Sleep and sleeplessness, 73, 80 
Sleuth-hounds in Cumberland, 8 
Smith, Mrs., Wigton, 38 
Smithies, Mr. 372 
Somers Town, destitution of, 282 ; Christ's 

Church erected in, 283, 359 
Solitary system, the, 98 
Solway, the, 4, 7 ; crossing the sands of, 40 
Southampton's, Lord, hounds, 136 
Spitalfields, the moral and social condition 

of, a sad picture of Lond n in the nine- 
teenth century, 280, 281 
Spurgeon, Rev. Mr. 285, 412 
Stage-coach travelling, 44 
Statesmen, Cumberland, t ; Border servica 

of, 8 ; characteristics, 10-14 
Stephens, widow, Fraserburg, 353 
Sailing's advice to his grandson, 43 
Stipends of Cumberland clergy, 248 

460 INDEX. 

Stockdale, George, 120, 235, 356, 361, 396 : Walter, Mr., M. P. 190 ; on Little Boy 

his death, 402 Home, 244 

Stoughton, Dr. 285, 371, 428 Wareh usemen's and Clerks' Schools, 200, 

Suffering, description of, 170 236, note 

Surrey, G. Moore declines to represent, Waich towers, Cumberland, 4, 5 

288 Watendleth, Cumberland, 228 

Sydney, Alderman, 127, 188 Waterlow, Alderman, 428 

Sympathy, G. Moore on, 169, 379, 383, Watts, G. F., portrait of Moore, 418 

385, 447 Wesleyan chapels, relieved of debt, 261 

Wesleyan Christian Community, 286 

TEACHERS' Association, Wigton, 297,449' Westminster, Dean of , on Livingstone, 358 

Thesiger. counsel for the firm, 88 White, Foster, 360 

Th.ers, M. yj, 325 White, Richard, 199 

Thieves' Road in Cumberland, 5 Whitehall, Peel tower at, 5, 25, 72 ; G. 

Thompson, Mr., Whitehaven, 416 Moore purchases the estate, 184, 223; 

Thompson, Mr., Leeds, 412 described, 321, 222; rebuilding of, 224; 

Thornbury Castle, 105 life at, 253, 369 

Times, extract from leading article in, Wigton, Cumberland, 33, 71, 128 ; mission- 
descriptive of Londoners over the border, aries at, 180 ; Mechanics Institute at, 
208, note 125, 266; memorial fountain at, 185; 

Tite, Mr., controversy with, 278 recollections of, 411 ; memorial window 

Todd, Mr., Wigton, 40 at, 430 

Torpenhow, parish of, i 4 ; Moores of, Wilson, Blackbird, teacher, 21, 30 

I 16 Wilson, Mr., Broughton Grange, 181 

Traveller, commercial, 61, 75, 91 Wilson, Mr., Whitehaven, 371 

Travelling by stage-coach, 44 Winslow's Ministry of Home, 395 

Trochu, General, 313, 317 Wire, Alderman, 304 

Wood, Lieut., at Paris, 321 

ULDALB school, 141 Woolner, sculptor, 185 

Woisfold, Rev. M. 359 

VICHY, G. Moore's visits to, 361, 409 Wortley, Col. Stuart, relief of Paris, 329 

Victoria Docks, neighbourhood of, 206 Wrestlers, noted, 23 

Villiers, Bishop of Carlisle, 146, 181, 186, Wrestling, schoolboy, 23 ; at Chelsea, 46 ; 

226, 230, 231 at St. John's Wood, 66 

WALES, Prince of, his recovery, 330 YORK, Archbishop of, at Wigton, 256, 374, 

Waldegrave, Dowager Countess of, 267 446 

Walker, Rev. R. , story of, 228 Young men at Bow Churchyard, 176, at J 

Wallace, Sir R., Paris, 317 841 ; at Whitehall, 263, 382 


000 953 557 6