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Great Bealings, 
2nd June, 1828. 


* » 

■« « J 


I.. . - J 
% \m been 8fud> that if Prjefaces were ioterdicted, 

ff^m bppks would be pubjiibed. I believe this 
to be true-— (eelingy. that were I prohibited offer- 
ing something introductory and apologeticyl should, 
on this occasion, refrain from appearing in the 
character. of an author, N^t that I presume to 
flatter myself, that if what I have written be un- 
suited for publication, what I may thus prefix can 
render it less so. Nor is it my object to deprecate 
criticism — who, indeed, would think of breaking 
such a literary fly as this on the critical wheel f 
Still I wish to be allowed to exjdain how it has 
fallen to my lot to compile and put forth a work 
that so many olbers are more comfietent lo. I, 
therefore, crave leave to enter on what I conceive 
to be a necessary preliminary explanation,.wbich I 
hope will not be long or tedious* 

M^x an absence of twenty years frbmtaay na- 
-tive county, in regions so remote^ in a line of life 
so active, and in society so general, as to allow 
but little retention or renewal of early local recol- 
lections, I was much struck, on my return, by our 

a S 


provincialisms* The recurriog sQund of a long 
forgotten word, produced a sensation similar to the 
welcome sight of an old friend. There was diis 
difference, perbaps-^^fit few of the latter seemed 
to be altogether lost. I was agreeably surprised 
to find so many still current ; and that so many 
were the words of Shakespeare.* The continued 
hkhk 6t pertlimg this p^tet-^tttiiig iMt)it, and the 
eVeNre'ciihtftig^frei}U(ency df^ Wdrds commoii to'htiii ' 
arid lony (tdtitiiy-folk, induced ^e to noti^ stich 
Words in hoik, afird tfne passage and phrase in 
which they occcirr^d. 'The re^v/k is the book in 
tlie iKeacf^i^sliand. ^Bdt, I did not stop e^acdy at^ 

this pdiht. 'tiU tt&^^ (hat for sev^f at years^ itrhil^ 

• * t .... . • ■ ■• 

* I have Mine pride io recoHecttug that tb« first book 
which I ever purchased with my own inoney, (except of 
ecmiHe Rdhitisoll ClUiioe sod th« Pilgrhb't l^rogress, >g»h€ti 

with sAtdiel oti my hfltki •• 

Crtephigiiiiwfllifigfytoicbo^-^) /in -: 

was SuAKXUPMAieB. Kot, M«ed» a perfeet eopy.' '6^ti 
YheoMdfs atsht tohiniesy at half a n^e aTotanie^ was a 
sufficiently heavy chai|;e, at that time of d»^, on the e» 
chequer of a Cadet Does my reader ask '< when?"— in 
1783— <' Where ?^ At Madras. Having made this little offer- 
ing to pride— or, if yon please, vanity^let me nuke one of 
iiratitode. I^ at or about the same tune, parchatedKamet' 
ElemenUy and Biair^s Lectures--4nd it is to tf?ftjfffqyft|t 
perusal of these works that I owe what little I know, on the 
subjects therein so agre^bly bandied. The Reader may rate 
that knowledge is lowly as he likei— hU judgment will ir6t 
be disputed. v . ' 

this GoUtdiaii wu. in progseai, I Iktle tboii^t of 
priming, and for ttveral jwn more as Uttk of 
ptiMbbio; it;^ I puvposed^ ' at sonle ladefiilite ami 
probiMy reiiiot* period, la print ift for pritatt 
circiitalion among my coavAf and olbtc Iktrmty 
frimd$, TUb may aerte to accmmt for^ and^ if ae^ 
cmtary, I hope to ewnse, an air ot fiimiiiarily ifaat 
may. appear aomelimat too freely and aoretanrediy 
adopted/ in paget not originally intended for ^ 
pobtie eye. Il was not, indeed, till the appearanee 
of Mr. Wilbraham'a Cbediiie Glossary in vol, 
xtx. pf ArchsBoIogia, that I made up my mind lo 
pabKab.wliat I bad collected. % 

'I tbev presuned tohope that tbe veneraUe and 
learned Society of Antiquaries — of wbich I bave 
the omnerited honor of being a Fellow — ^might be 
pceimled on to admit also my poor attempt si* 
milarly to explain die lingnal peculiarities of Suf* 
folk; and T applied myself to aft arrangement 
of my Gcdlection, heretofore in inass ; but soon 
found it expanded to a degree ^irfiolly incompati* 
ble with the limited extent of an article in tbe 
Transactions of the Society in question^ however 
-indulgently it might be disposed. In point of 
imcty notwithstanding the humble— and therefore 
appropriate*— size and appearance of my volume, 
few modern quartos contain so much matter. I, 
of course, mean typographic matter. 

My pursuits and. limiled reading not having 

nit P1RBTACB. 

led me that ^mj, I was unaware liiat so much 
bad been written on local phraseology as I now 
found before the . public. I bad, ind^d, se^n 
Bay-^-and this was, I believe, nearly the eiftent of 
my researches. The recent series of Sc6ttisb 
novels exhibited many word»— I was before awato 
of some— -common to Scotland and Suffolk. And. 
oh looking into Jainiesou's excellent dictionary, I 
found miairy more than I expected. I have, how- 
ever, to lament that my book was printed before 
I was aware of the existence of the quarto edidon 
of that admirable work. But it is, perhaps, as 
well that I did not know of it ; for I might have 
been tempted to borrow illustrations to an iiicon- 
venient length. 

It is curious to see so many words common to 
Scotland and Suffolk — and perhaps intermediatdy 
unknown — more probably than are common to 
Suffolk and Essex. Supposing, as we are;wd 
warranted in, that a great majority of our archaic 
words are of Saxon origin, this seeming anomaly 
may be accounted for. 

Whatever may have been the original language 
of England— or rather, what it was before the com- 
plete conquest of the country by the Saxons — it be«> 
came in the course of time mainly Saxon, or 
Anglo-Saxon; and continued so until; about the 
period of the Norman invasion ; when— say in the 
11th or 12th century— the language of northern 

FiMce ImMm iiitenmMd . widi it|. mi in fact 
ccik$ifMiy MipoMded it. [Bat it) as.iuil to te 
8ii||HMclyiliMi|(tbfi ttiuiBilioaljftoaionfttlaiigfagBito 
alMlbwyor taEyfiotimatfr iolerniiiture; caHiie olbev*^ 
wiae tb^ jgradual and alom. Aad wb •till dipf>. 
coven iotarosting remains. of our old diaieoto fised. 
firady ift tke language of) the; day ;. as ;wdl .aatthac 
liqgmng fading relioa; Ihal i Midi . little >. collaotiofia 
atfthiaiendekyvQur |0iiHment4be^toial:k>«t. o 

Once established in districts so complmfiyely 
reoiote and indulatedi aa;SflotIand and' the eail^ni 
an|^ of EngUuMLf) the diffknkf^ «f ;uasM|i and 
the little distuiliaiice) tlmt.iang|pigfa< aajocaled: 
nasir withfAwn. the MHnisijirafjQQllisiQnaf others:;; 
notflo-manrioatbe probable ^Qotnpa»life;diiratioii. 
of the Saxon goirie^mcnti dvi. infineniie^ account; 
for the long retention of so many of the vocablesw 
of tbathnguaee« EpsfucaodfiniaiHlieoiintka may 
mevae have adapted so maayr $i or if <thq^. did^ idke 
piosimity^ ot the- tepiftati Odr.. the posseasioft o^ 
dliaaiMntctthedrals. and ^asieft Jnt^eoannmiifarj 
tb% and other cfotusbing fpscea, may have, coab-; 
cmred inpurg^ theis dialects o£ what may* hanoat 
beata deemed vulgammsi impuntiesi oi^ anmriri 
GoiBS f omigmdmoaaiiotta.. 

After raadiftg) Bsy^ and jMoiesoi^ , hooest. ojd: 
Tnsate^s cttcioiia '' Fiiie Hnndnsd Poinla,'' fell ia 
my way« Tnsser waas Saffolk farmev«r?and hi^ 
pages 'contain many woeda sttllcvaaent anEKmg ns.,^ 


The only edition duit I htnt seen^ fa thtt of Dr; 
Mator, 8vo. 1812» ' I dUmotbntwidi— hoover 
contemptnouriy Dr* M» may^ if lifing(--W i hope 
he is-— think of such witb-*^tbat he had pr^erred 
the oi^;inal orthography of Tuaser* I have no 
access to an early edition ; but I am strongly of 
opinion diat the indastrioas editor is sometinMV 
in error in his explanation of words, which'pririba* 
biy the original mode of spelling woidd enabfe'US' 
to emend. 

Tttssei^s wori[ is carious bqfond mere Words; 
The mode of husbandry of his day— about 1590^^ 
is Teiy interesting. What a strange diing it H 
that he rc9ates<-^not as a piece of informatiMi Bat: 
afs a' wdl ktewn fiiet-^that <^in Suflfolk wbiit 
ne^nr grew/'— »See of this under article Tatuk)^ 
—of this Collection. 

At Ais period of the progress of my CoOectioDi 
i'porposed to run my eye over some of our early 
poete-^in tiew to call firom them' some illustn*-' 
trations> as I had already done from Sbakespewe: 
Chancer and Spenser, I especially expected would 
not only- yield me some, but possibly d^ive some 
from my work— as I presume to believe that 
Shakespeare may. But the appearance of Arah- 
deac6n Nares's Olossarj^ fdnusbed me with Inore 
Skikratibns from' those, and many^otber authors^ 
than I could, by any exertions of my own, or from 
any other source, have availed myself of. It wiU: 

be •e«D, ihil my pages ere emidied bj WKh cti- 
iMweaiipitter Iran thisTeiy taludbie end enleiiein'- 
iqgi ea wett e»iiiftnicliYe woik; ^etlier or not, 
dieytfeBBct enyiibing in ietani4 
*u31iaieeire4ecli^f of enjioiiroes of obl^tioo. 
GniiVt Provincial Oiossery is itself mosdy e 
coB i pil a |i op-^an<i not e very jedicious o ne - nfr oBi 
Ba^ fiaflcy/ end odier iftilhors easily accessible; 
endi.'>i'.de(ea fab andMiri^ bat-blight. ItwaS'-et 
firi^aQVfdwhat surprised to read- in Groes^s Fr^ 
te% Ifaetff^ tbd Eestcpontrjr sovoely aflbrds e suf« 
ficieney c^ (local) words to form « division"^-«<4o 
disdngiiisb il firoei others. < My opinion was di- 
Mctly-^pposite-^-tQ the length, indeed, of thinlng 
'tkit^Ihul iAnglia vetamed nMre ImgnallooaUsms 
timn'alMAfe otha- poHioos of England ooUectife^. 
It te^prolirible, that my ^ wish wet father tothat 
Aooght.^ The truth may lie between these con- 
flteting oj^mons. But, peihaps, the Reader who 
may^honor thi»'ColleiitfOii with en /eiamiiiBlion, 
may not' de^ such optnion altogedier eitrawiganl. 
The4eeding.wprds in this ColIectite~as: Saffol- 
cismi^^^esiceed two thousand five hundred* 
: Ic 9iay be thought diet I ihave adoiilted words, 
not of loealiussge; but generally known through- 
out £q(land» ^: On exaimios^on this will^ I think, 
be fdend^nol'the case ; or, if so, such admissions 
sve rare.' Jtwitt be found,. that in;Suflblk such 
doubtful iwprcb are used in a .sense different from 

4jbtiifoQttiiiii»i)i>«iMptelMB; w^th9Atk^f'1iim»nt$, 

or ffttseive HhstMbti lroM/flK>iliC(rptfMge^iP 

JwcetoforOfiiUMi^^an ^dmillMM'.tiiAiidkiwdifvm- 

wonb in commoQfiMgef riQ ifiiiffiA iwrfldiiv^d^ 

.tintrGoiiiitr(68,«riik5otdiuid pedha^/MKUntfifiie- 

idiaMyfiudaiown in tbeaAtale iMOw, iMe ■hhjfilw, 

«8 ilifl w t y hinted, of phaobgioal ciiHtBiy ■■dm 

jttbfdeftbeiBaBdoftiie fiwt; my te,iiief|4;^lf 

j«Ter m Attenipt be.aiade^'aiiMi ndimkAwtaSbfrof 

••^ilosepliical ltiflfc»r]rt><<oiu!i cammob/hagint i \i 

iSjh^SUttM Mm^^ periH^;«6t Mi aiimi% JhniB 

<«lio mttaiob; much importmoe ''ta the iproMit' 0f 

iAiMogieal deduolion. B*t, cMHidmg tfan Jite- 

TCBliBgilBttife itf;etyiMkigicil puniiift^.^lhcrfM- 

.QtsK of ^traciog words lro«;lteir'toalsc:t ^lld^ldii- 

.l^imig^ ti^ its cnidlei: ll iajqotrip M w«rid«fdiiMltf 

Aiere bc^'tnftny who find no* ioogjisMteHiWc mainse* 

-meot and inetmction io 4be proeew tnd it* lemlli. 

iThe at)read of cognato knguage is aoen .widi eoiHe 

.•iir|«ise^.ext»Dd^d'indetd| is'lheliiigiMd Gfaui, 

. wbidi in remote «ge» seems : to have :Ooaneciid 

coitttries widdy ditftimt, and, toppBrently, idalost 

unknown) Io 1 1 each, other. India, AoabiayPeisia, 

Greece, Germany, Ehitaio, ' Ruada, and perfups 

•dl ceotiguous raltioas, bare sO' many words ra£- 

.^ly ^mikur in sound and-eense, as to Jeave fitde 

doiAJtithatitins fihaia must hare extended itself — 

Aougliitis^difficuit to eoncem how-^^to and from 

all tbeee jisgicms ;• but nefer, perhaps, at aiQf one 

ptiM ifOMirtiiilyy Towurd tfie reitorttioo of 
«qr wmvliotef sudi lM*dbIe GoUectioM •■ lUi 
piiy yatgWy coHlrib m e. 

BiefieijMwe eould otnl; be oumL^ to writen of 
^MMMM tri^ktue viewed the subjeots of the |Mne» 
teding.perig>Taph^ indudiffg.CoUectioiis of Pioviom 

rieliiwi^ M ao ooiiBportant light. — ■»** ** • 

> I have given very fiew words which 

I hne not aayielf htaid in actual uae^ or imne- 
iHailf Tj fimt othera who have heaad then: endi the 
ffaaies .aie d^nost all gemuBe. Some fpeen hj 
SajPr ^Md otheia after hinii as £a8t conntr^ or 
SMMk woids, I have omitted ; not, on wqmrf^ 
finding aiMhoffity for their present nsage. . 

J» eome few instances, it may perhaps be noted^ 
thai I haive given mere coimptionB or vulgarismsi so* 
obviotta a4 scarcely to rfcquiie explaqation* Such 
aa dlso^ for do^t-^dewin for ddiig. This mvf be- 
tme ; bal as, in the cnrreocy of my woric^ I have* 
n^Mwe than once sud that where a word occursi in 
explanatory phrases^ not readily understood by the 
Reader, diat he is referred to that word> I have 
bean mduced to give such words a phce and an 
explanation; in case such reference should be 

It any be £irther said^ that I have admitted 
amrel^ vulgiarisais in pronunciation. If it be so, 
I.believe they will be found in most oases illustra* 
tiee of a local peculiarity beyond the mere corrup- 



tion. Thus, in Somersetshire, dle«iibttitut»Mi of 
the initial z for s maj be deemed a mere^v^riga- 
rism ; but he would not be an acute observer, who, 
in a topographical work on that countjf, should 
overlook 'such a peculiarity ; or a faithfill recofder, 
who should omit' it. But, if the Reader peraist ki 
the accusation, I shall not be disposed pertina- 

ctottsly to deny it; 

Should it strike the Reader that Ihave noMiade 
die best arraDgement of my materials; I shall ptor* 
hxps admit the justness of his judgment. X-do 
not allude to the alphabetical arrangemenl— itbat 
evidently arraoges -itself ; but to' my own, and the 
borrowed, matter. If it exists, the cause of com- 
plaint may be thus explained. 1 had put togetiier 
my own materials before 1 consisted any other 
source of information. I then added, widiout 
much method, what I could gadier from Shakea» 
peare, Ray, Wilbrabam, Tusser, Nares; fcc. In 
doing this I adde^ aud ihterpolated as I best could, 
such gathered inatier, to and among ray various 
articles; and perhaps not in the very best places-in 
regard to effect. I have, without, as far as I can 
recollect, in any instance, materially omitting what 
1 had written, added and nterpolated the infonna* 
iron thus acquired — ^I hope to. the reader*a edifi&a- 
Uon and amusement. 1 could manage * this no. 
better without re-writing my own materials; which, 
not altogether from indolence, I was unwilling to 


do, and which it is perhaps better not to have 
done. I would not have shirked the trouble of re- 
casting my. own C!ollections, had I felt that I could 
thereby have rendered my book more acceptable 
to ike public. 

It may, perhaps, be remarked that I have swell- 
ed my book unnecessarily, by lengthened quota- 
Uons. This, may be true. But I cannot but feel 
that such a work as this, in such bands as mine, 
must be dull'-very dull. In the hope of rendering 
it npt insufferably so, I have indulged in quoted 
illttstmtion, especially from Shakespeare's fascinat- 
ing pages : and with the like view I have pccasior 
nally dirown in a remark-^if not absolutely odled 
for, still I trust not altogether ini^plicable or unr 
appropriate ; but — serving, it is hoped, to render my 
hock somewhat less repulsive than it might have 
been, had I confined myself to a dry catalogue of 
woi;d8 and a mere explanation* As hinted in an 
earUer paragraph, compression has not been unat- 
tended to. A critical eye may detect some arti- 
fices to that end, not altogether compatible with 
the modern refinements in the appearances of press- 
worlc. A critical reader— if my pi^es be honored 
with such-— may also discern, that matter given in 
late articles, would have been given with more ef^ 
fed, and with less repetition, in earlier. Sudl 
matter, and to a consideraUe extent, was obtaiped 
durmg the progress of printing. Apd 1 may add 


that' much more Has been omitted^ wfakh I deem 
not indirious, in consequence of the extent to 
Which my book has, roost unexpectedly, expatlAlif . 
My long absence, aqd temporary forgetfulness 
of my native provincialisms, are not disqualilying 
points as i future collector of them ; radier indeed 
the reverse. I have ev^n thought absence dmoit 
a secessalry qualification in a compiled of such things 
9B I now present io the Reader. A constant residaat 
beoomes«6 familiar with the local phraseology^ dmi 
he runs con^i(fehiMe ifisft df ceasing to be aware of 
what is 60, add what mfiy be utisnited to a claiii- 
eal tongue. It 'u, indeed, sometimes startlifig^to 
h«ar p^rsbtis <^ edacatbn anwittii^ly us^ qnyat 
and MigramBlatkMl proVincialbmsr. Ev&y^ddi-^ 
Donf'&ii^ki'^sBe under those artkl^s)^::'^nddtktir 
equally uncouth expres^otis, i liaif^ he^iM, in se- 
riotttf paifatlc^-^ilotatfir^ widiontsilrpnse^-^froii^ 
tife KjM of eddeated, f^VelM, ilAd ev%n Ifeeferend 

Td Ibos^ if/h6 im^ mudh considered toj^dgra'- 
filatfar Wbitif and ibcd^ utafc^, AT fa well knowlil 
that ^6stc6mti6^ in Eingland retain' some ^eMiBar 
€^infdns--ol^ Jl^i^iidices, of 8«ip^li9tili(>to^, as th^ 
Itfayb^cdHM-^and'sottd Radices' Rowing 6iilfdf 
ti^A\ Vtt' i^taiii 6dt share, dnd I havtl' ot^basion- 
My toucH«id on ^uit ottmk ; bht'itf •aV do ^1 
dfiiiy ^lail tb c6ll^<ft tfibiii. 

Ai'hTdtllercoudtieli, ^e hate a hdbit 6f ilter- 



wg in ^Kfoottne Ae nmies of f Itldet. F## iteiabce, 
EaU Bergholt we call Batfcl; Burgh, Bath; 
BrmMfwrA, BriJjit; Dunningworth, Duniiftfer; 
Gnmditboigh, Grundsburra ; LoWestoflfe, L«y^ 
tiff; Moso^dea; Millladeo ; Waldringfield, Waii- 
aaful, Scc&e. 

To peculiarity of taiq;uage I may add a remark 
on an extraordinary elevation' and depresskm of 
voice — a •sort of whine-^alto^^tliei' ilncdCed for in 
any emphatic sense, strikingly obsemMe ito our 
common dbcourse. This is not to be described 
in writing; sometimes, indeed, a very every-day 
sort of a speech, so far as the language and intend* 
ed effect are concerned, might be set to music. 
This is not always unpleasing. But in some fami- 
lies a sort of semi^rutit, or strainit^, prevails on 
die most common oi;casioiis. I have heard a yomg 
permi, in repiy to '< whkt'tf o'clock 7^ deliver 
^ half past ^even;'' in' a ton^ <lenothig as mttih 
fmhappiiiess and distress, as might have sufficed 
fad il been the precise moment fixed on for the 
amputation of a finder, or the extraction of a toolli-^ 
though the party was in perfect heal A, and notbilig 
wus'in' fact meant more than met the eaf, in the 
ordinary pdWer of the words. These Kttle mattet^ 
rtrb atrikiiig to foreigners-; who havi^ ferthi^ uoCeA 
fkkt we aite a ^fimthutiVe race of mortafo, abd eat 
no vegiitsMee ^ our meals. See Poohoh, in' the 


I Me generally noticed the preTaleoce ^f Suf- 
folk 'words in Scotland^ and in the '' Scottish 
novels." Touching the latter, I will.indu^ m 
one farther remark. Ju the Pirate, the following 
versfB of a song, sung by the BuccaneefB while 
rowing off from Zetland to their vessel for the last 
time, was quite familiar to m6. I have sung it a 
hui^dred times on the eastern shores of England-— 
though not, nor had I thought of it, perhaps, for 
more than twice twenty years- ■ ■ 

It was a ship, and a ship of fame. 
Launched off the stocks, bound to the main ; 
With a hundred and fifty brisk young men, 
'AH pii^d and chosen every one. 

I do not note this from any peculiar merit in 
the song. '' The thing, we know is neitbernew 
nor rare/^ tic ; but this verse seemed to '' unlock 
the secret cells where memory slept;'' and mi^re 
vemea mabed on my recollection. • It seened to 
excite feelingsr-^'^ theisame in kind though differing 
in degree — " such as Robinson Crusoe felt when he 
discovered the foot-print on the sea-shore. 

I have touched slightly on the prevalenoe.of the 
Saxon ^ in our lingual peculiarities. It is. in that 
language that the source of English, must be sought* 
I Imd thrown together a few borrowed remariss, 
on this prevalence ; but, considering what, in point 
of bulk, is already in the Reader's eye, they may 



well be spared I will indulge in one quotation 
from the Prefoce to Bailey's valuable Dictionary. 

■■ " And hence he, Dr. Wallis, accounts why 
the names of the divers sorts of cattle are Saxon« as oi;^ 
cow, calf, sheep, hog, boar, deer, &c. and yet their 
flesh when dressed for eating is French, as^bee^ 
veal, mutton, pork, brawn, venison, &c. ; the reason 
of which may probably be, that the Norman sol- 
diery forsooth did not concern themselves with pas- 
tures, parks, and the like places, where such ani- 
mals were fed and kept, so much as with markets, 
kitchens, feasts, and entertainments, where their food 
was either sold or prepared for them." 

But it is time to put an end to this desultory 

, " y . ^ «. .* ^.«* 

•vrroxix woass. 



As aa abbr^viatioii ibis letter is used witir as, in 
several modes. — 1st. and oftenedt in the place of 
ke. 2. as or. 3. as okt. 4. as^. 6. as on. 6. 
as a#. 7. Hs have. 8. as of. I will give some 
examples in each of these. 1. as /le. " There *a 
go." — " 'A live 'a hin honse." 

We are usefully reminded of the season of the 
Cackoo by the following homely lines, similar, as 
in respect to the length of the month, to the well 
known ** thirty days hath September/' &c. 

In Aperil — *a shake *as bill, 
Iq May — *a pipe all ilay. 
In June — *a change *as tune. 
In July — awah 'a fly. 
Else in August — awah *a must. 

I will take this early occasion to notice one of 
the most common peculiarities of the Suffolk dia- 
lect ; which is the substitution of the plural of a 
verb for the singular in the third person. Of this 
several instances have already occurred — •** there 'a 
go'' — for " there he goes.'* And many others will 
be noticed in this and future articles. One is 
often surprised to hear this localism from the lips 
ev^n of educated and travelled people. 


As A«, several oloor M writcfs use 'A. I girt 
some instances in Shakespeare. 

*A will make the man mad. Tarn, of ike S, IV* .1. 

Confess, confess, hath he not bit jou here? 
'A hath a tittle gallM rae I confeat. lb] V. S. 

That U ray brother** plea and none of minef 

The which if he can prove,. *a pops me ont 

At least from goodiive hsndred pounds a year. 

K^Jakm, I. 1. 

Who are you ?-— 
One that wilLplay the devil» Sir» with yon* 
An *a may catch your hide and yon alone. 1ft. II. I. 

He is hut a Knight, is *a? K. Hem, 6. IV. 1. 

And th«ti my hnsbaud — heaven be with bit ao«I — 
*A was a luerry man. Rem, 4md J. I. 3. 

And sumelinies comes she with a tithe>pig's tail 
Tickling a parson*s no<»e as *a lies asleep. Ik 

An *a speak any thing against mcy 1*11 take him down 
an *a were lustier than he is. lb. II. 4. 

Shallow. I remember at Mile>end green, there was a little 
i^iTcr fellow^ and *a would manage you his |Mece, thus; and 
'a would about and about, and come yon in, and come you 
in: — ruhf tuh, tah, would 'a say; and bt^nce would *a say; 
and away again would *a go, and again would 'a come: — I shall 
ne'er see such a fellow. K, Hen. 4. P. f. II L 3. 

And so in many other places. 

2. as or* *^ Wutha 'a wool 'a nae." Whether he 
will or not. 

3. as our or at. ** *A*\ go out of 'as farm next 

4. as tf . ''I '11 gi ye a dunt i * the hid 'a ye dew 
so no more.*' This is equivalent to the **an if** of 
some of our old writers. An instance occurs in 
one of the above quotations from Romeo and Juliet. 

5. as on. " Well go 'a Sunday." 

6. as in or at, " 'A live 'a, hin house," 

7. as have^ ** Tow mought as weH *a dunt as 
nut." Yott might as well hxve done it as not. 

8. as of. *A'v a toucb 'a tlve Sheers in iim.** 
He has a touch of the Shife^ in faiii. See Sheeks. 

I wil} take this early occasioiiy albo, to note that 
when> in the examples, I hse a word not familiar 
to the reader, he wHI, taking it as a localism, find 
it explained in its place in this Collection. 

Prefixed to a participle the letter a, in 8fiffblk» 
as in most other cotintics, denotes a continuance 
of action, a crying, a walking, a running, &c. 

In other ways, not readily explainahle, it is also 
in use among us. '* The house is all of a fire." 
** What a plague would yow be a dewin ? " •* What 
a piezen ; " '* What a menden/' are a sort of mo- 
derated imprecations. See Ambndek. 

Aablb. To prosper or flourish/ Fruit, com» 
^c. promising to ripen well, are said to aadh. 
" Ta dont fare ta aadle^^ implies the reverse. It is 
prohably the same word which Ray thus explains, 
•♦ To Adle or Addle^ to eam ; ftom the ancient 
Saxon word Ed-lean, a reward, recompense or re- 
quital.*' £. W. p. ». 

' Tusser usetr the word, dnly once I beliere, and 

* . * • ■ • 

spells it uddBe. 

From May till Oetob^' leave «rapf>tng--*^r why ? ' 
Iq Woodseiti wbateret thou croppest will dk. 
Wlwre irj cuibraces tbe tree very sore* 
Kill.ivj, OK else tree will mddt$ no moKe. p. 151. 

By ** cropping," Tuss^i means, as we do, top- 
ping. ''Woodsere," seems to mean summer-time. 
See Sarx* 

B 2 

^ In Scottish to Adik is '^toinoistai tb/t rootsof 
plants/' J. with the vieir of eausing them to floa- 
rishi sothatifi every case the voijd.seems to have 

1 IcQOw no otber j^^sagc where, this word occurs, . 
nor did I ever heac^of it^ in aiiy other sense, ex^ 
qepiinthecaseof^modcijedc^; and this perhaps 
is no exception, as itpromises« or ^as prosperedi 
too much* <r . 

Aata. Afb^,^AUanm€, aftemoon. This being 
the first occurence of the acute «, for the open 
sound of oo, I wiU remariL that this ia a very 
common and striking substitution in Suffolk. We 
say btOes for boots, nnme for moon, fuk for fool : 
as in more particularly noticed under Butes, where 
many instances of it ^e enumemted. 

Acrbtspirb.. The q[>routing, or chickmg, of 
barley in the process of germinating into malt. It 
iff a|so,Si^ttish J. 

AciUB-^PRrr. Bototoes shooting, when laid up, 
Of^ from reifaiBiBg too long in the ground. Thia 
and the- preceding word are, I believe, interchange- 
able : their sense not being precisely definable. . 

Afearo* An- old apd good word for afraid. It 
is still much used in Suffolk ; as it is i{y Shake- 
speare, and other older writers. 

Art thoo rfeard 
To be the same In thine own act and^valoiira 
- Aathoa art in desire f Haeketh, h 7. 

Fm« my Lord"^ 
A soldier, and rfeard. lb, V. 1. 

Be not ^ford; the itie it f«U of aoiaet. 

Tmitfw III. S, 


Each tf^mbiing letfe, and whistiiog wiaci they hrare, 
Afl ghutl^ bogy doe9 greatiy ihetu aftare. 

Spenter. F. Q, IL iii. W. 

Afferd in Scottish J. 

AmsRMATHB. The feed left on meadows or 
g^rass lands after haying been mown. - We also call 
it Rowens or Roufin$ which see. I'he latter is the 
word written Rou^hiju by Ray, who makes k simi- 
lar to Aftermaths. E. W. p. 14. and gives them 
asi North-country words. Tiisscr has the word 
Aftermath, and it is not, I believe, in very conHned 

A-GAH, The ague. "Theagareniever;" aegne 
and fever. Agoe in Chesliire. W. 

AgiNn. Against, in its several senses. ** 'A 
live over agin the stile." *'Apin next SuBday.' 
" 'A struv agin um as long as *a could." It. is the 
vulgar pronunciation of again. '*Agin an Agiix.^' 

AVe have a common habit of thus pronouncing 
one of the sounds of a, and of the common sound 
of c. Ilin for hen, ind tor end, <&c, of which 
several examples are given under Aninn&, 

Ag(^n. Ago, agone. " Tis three months agon.'^ 

ArNT or Aaint. To anoint; as for the itch, 
&c. It is also used figuratively to denote a drubbing. 
•* ril aaint yar hide for ye," threatens so hearty a 
threshing as shall overspread the offender's skin 
with wales or marks of blows^ as completely as it 
would be covered if rubbed 5ver, or aainied. 

I know not if my countrymen be noted for pug- 
■acious propensities; but our vocabulary is very 



t^opious in words of a thfeatening offentive fttamp. 
/ I will here put down such as immediately occur 

lo me ; that in future articles^ when such recur a 
ready reference to this may be made, and save re- 
petition. Thus beginning with ^tii^y and going on 
alphabetically, we have baste^ bob, bump, ch4>a 
click, clip, cUnk, clout, clunch, crack, dint, ding, 
douse, dunsh, dunt, fan, flick, hide, knap, lace^ 
lather, larrup, lanna, lick, line, lump, pelt, 
pounce, poonch, poult, strop, squ^j, swack, sweat* 
swinge, thwack, thrip, thrum, wap, welt, yerk; 
and others, most likely, which have escaped me, 
in addition to the more common threatening verbs 
active of bang, box, cuff, dress, lash, slap, 
smack, thrash, thump, &c. &c. every where 

In Cheshire the sense first given in this article 
is current, but the word is not so much shortened — 
*' Nomt, to anoint; figurately to beat severely." W. 

Aitch-bone. Pronounced H bone. The edge 
bone, so named perhaps from its hatchet shape. 
'' The H bone <^ beef^" ** An ice-bone, a rump of 
beef. Norf." Ray. E. W. p. 79. It is theOs 
innominatum of the Pelvis. 

AiTAH. The fat about the kidney of veal or 
mutton. It is abo called Nhfoh, and sometimes 
Ear and NeBor. 

A'l or U*iJ>. He wilL See examples in the 
first article. 

A Lady. Lady-day. Our Ludy. . See the fiiyit 

AlAWK« Alawkw. Alack. Alas. Lawk^ and 
Lawkadazy, ate other ejaculations ; the latter, I 
think, ra^er of surprise or pleasure or s^ni* 
pathy, lengthened and modulated to suit the 

Alsoar. Vinegar, made from beer. Ale-aigre, 
like vin-aigre. 

Ale-stall. The horse or stool, on which casks 
of beer, wine, &c. are placed in cellars. I do not 
recollect the word stall applied to any other des- 
cription of horse or stool. 

All-sales. All times. See Sales. 

Allvs. Always. 

Alp or Olp. The bull-finch. Also Blood-alp, 
and Black-cap, Cocker says Alp is a north coun- 
try name for this bird. Ray, among his S. and £• 
country words says, ** Ajo. Alp or Nope is a bull- 
finch. I first took notice of this word in Sufiblk, 
but find since that it is used in other counties, al- 
most-'generally all over England." £. W. p. 69. 
By ** this word '' Ray probably means Alp. Nope, 
I never heard or saw elsewhere. In Scotland 
** Cole-hooding is the Black-cap,^ J. 

Amenden. a sort of oath, equivalent to a 
plague, or a more gross word, now disused. 
"Atnenden take ye.*' — where amenden ar yeow a 
goen? " Sometijmes apiezen — a poison I suppose. 
" What a piemen ar. yeow a dewin." What a rot — 
What a fire — By gom — By goms—- By gosh — V\\ 
be blamed if I dew-^I'd see you fiidda fust— are 
other moderated imprecations or anathemas. 


Aninnd. An end. " 'A reared rifllt up mrimiur 
— said of a horse. " Rise the ladd^ up imtiiiid," 
In several words we substitute the i for e. Thus — 

Bliss for Bless And we hare a ooiinterTaii* 

ing permutation io probablj 
as many cases, and sobstitnte 
e or ee for the sounds ol' u 

Thus we say — 

Bredge for 





































Did not 
Dire ' 








Thi9» Sec. 

and doubtless many others, which do not occur 
to me. 

In some other words the sounds of letters are 
arbitrarily changed.— 

Cheen, for chain— Dreen, Draaii — Keeve, Cdrc 
—Shet, Shut— Cowd, Cold— Cowt, Colt— Gowd, 
Gold^ — Howd^ Hold. The laat four are common 
to Cheshire : and the word at the head of this 
article is there pronounced Aneend, W« 

Biit our commonest, and I think most strikiuj^ 


p^ciiUarity,, is Uie acute if for ooA Ot this 9<^e 
instances are given under BuTES. 

Antrums. Affected airs, . insolences, ' whims, 
dsaggots^ '* 'As in'as antrums this morning/' would 
be said of a rode person as well as of a skittkh 
horse. Toftlrttm^, is a similar w«rd. In Qieshire 
4«<i!tm*and Tanferums, have a like meaning* W. 

' Apibce^* To pieces. '| Ta crumble all 'a 
piecei^." .The word is so used by Chapman^ 
and 3^umoiit.^aid. Fletcher, as cited by Nares. 

« . Apple^Jacjc, qt Apple-John, or Flap-Jack,. 
or Turn -Over. These are various names for the 
same good thing — to wit — sugared apples, baked 
without pan., in a square thin piece of paste, with 
two opposite corners twu'd-over the apple, oxfiip- 
ped, so as to form a 'Uhree square" JTopVodk 
or Twm.o^er.' I do not recollect having beard these 
namea out of Saiffolk,. or out of Suffolk eompimy — 
but l&ey have not. escaped Shakespeare-*-whai 
good ^bmg kas esc|iped him \ He has b<>th Apfh^ 

Drawer* What the devil ha^t tiioa,got there? AppIe<J9ln#4 
thou knowest Sir John cannot endure an A pple-John. 

9d. Drawer, 'Maas/ ilidit aaytl true : the prince once aet a 
diahof AppIe*Johna before him and tY>ld him there weiQ five 
more Sir Johns. K, if. 4. P. 2. II. 4. 

And in Per. Pr. of Tyre — if indeed that be Shake^ 
speare's — 

Thou shalt go home with me, and we'll baVe flesh for holinays> 
fiali for fasting days, and moreover puddings* and Flap-jM»ib 
and thou shalt be. welcome. II. 1. 

'' Flap-Jacks'' — saith a Commentator on tbt9 
passage-r-** a sort of pan-cake.'' In Suffolk,, we 
sfaottld df^Q liinii I doubt, but a " puddeurhiddid 


fellow" who di^ not know a Flftf^jaek from a 

Arrawiqgls. The ear*wig. This unwdcotte 
reptile in the north» according to Ray/ i« called 
'< Forkm-rMm, from its forked tail.'' £. W. p. M. 

Atwin. Atwixt. Between, betwixt. 

AvSL The heard, or awm$ of barley. The <wm 
is said to be avdy if, when dressed for market, a 
portion of the atrant, adhere to the grains. I have 
written the word awnu, as I thkik we generally 
pronounce it ; but Ray among his N. conntry wotds 
has " Awns, Aristae — the beards of wheat or bar- 
ley. In Essex they pronounce it atlt.'* £. W« p. 15. 
In Scottish ''Awns, the beards of com.'' J. 

A*TONCB. Pronounced as one wont, at once. 
Thus Spenser — 

And all cliMee her bentty body raUM. F. Q. II* i. 4f . 

Atblu>ng. Workmen-^re^pcra or mowers- 
approaching the side of a field not perpendkukr 
or parallel to their line of work, will k^mt an un- 
equal portion to do — the excess or deficiency h 
culled '' moetUmg work.'' 

' Ayizbdu Awized. Informed, apprised, ad- 
iFised. '* Ar yeow awiztd ont % " Avised, occurs in 
the Scottish dialect in Guy Mannering, II. 2S5. 
"Are you avised of that ? " Advised is generally 
used by merchants in a like sense; and the French 
ham mriser, nearly the same. 
^ Ax. Ask. Ott/cpo;^, banns of marriage thrice pub- 
lished. Ax, according to Nares, though now a mere 
▼uigarism, is the original Saxon form, and used by 
Chaucer and othefs, of which h^ gives examples. 



Baalamb.— A lambkin: Mcd ckieflj wmd ft- 
BcniUj bj chfldren: also a qoaint mmut for 'wm 
ass — but it hi iheo pronouoced Balam, of obvious 

Babbing. Catching crabs by drawing them to 
tte snrface of the water by a siring baited with the 
mmards of a chicken, or a piece of kit^ &c. and 
let down close to their holes in the muddy sidea of 
a river, creek, &c. A hand net, or more com- 
nnmly with boys, a hat, is then insinuated under 
the victim before he be drawn out of the water. 
This word may not be local. We have all read of 
him, who. 

His hook had baited with a dragon^s tail 
And sat iipoB » rock and hMtd lor wbaie. 

But aU may not know precisely what the diver- 
MOB b. On recollection I am not sure that I have 
not mia-quoted the last line. I have no immediate 
means of deterniiniDg — it may be bd^bed. 

BAcaeLOR's-BUTTONS. The Lychnis sylvesirii ; 
mtnre extensively known by this name than by its 
trivial appellation, the Campion. B. B. is an old 
name. Some reason for its being so called, and 
examples of its adoption by some of our old writers, 
iffe given in Nares' Glossary. 

Backstriking. A mode of plowing, in which 
the earth having been previously turned, is turned 
. back again. 

Tttsser in his monthly directions for the processes 
of husbandry applies ^rike to plowing ; and as he 


was a practical hrmer, meant probably the same 
thkig. This is his terse — 

** Thttth teed, and to farming,'* September doth cry, 

Get plough to the field and be sowing of rye : 

To harrow the ridges, ere ever yc ttnke. 

Is one piece of husbandry Saffolk doth like, p. 16. 

We also call it - Striker-See under that word. 
And under Yann, for an explanation ofwhatTusr 
ser means hy faimmg. 

Bahm, or Bawm, or Barm. Yeast, or £a«< as 
we sometimes call it, and Burgad; not local per- 
Jiaps. Barm is used in Scotland, and Cocker says 
that it is a Saxon word. It occurs in the Midsum- 
•mer Night's Dream. Robin Goodfdlow, among 
other mischievous pranks, is accused by Puck o^ 
being he who sometimes 

<( — ^makes the drink to bear no hmrn/* II. I.- 
Ray has it in a Yorkshire proverb. ** His brains 
will work without harm*' p. 179. And in his 
** Collection of English words not generally used " 
he says that ** Gosgwood, i. e. yeast or baim» is 
nothing but God's good (botmm divmmm) as they 
pronounce the word in Sussex and Kent, where it is 
in use : it is also called Beergood** p. 12. See BUR- 
GAD. And among his S. and £. country words is 
"G<Nr«^oocf, yeast, barm. Kent, Norf. Suff/' £. 
W. p. 77. I never heard such a word : or the Iq1» 
lowing — ** Newing, yeast, or barm. Essex." ib. p. 
82. or ** Rising; yeasty beergood,** ib. 84. Both are 
of obvious derivation. So is his **Sizxmg, yeast or 
barm, Sussex." ib. 85. SeeSizZLS. In Scottish, 
Barmy meiuoiE^ passionate, choleric, from the En- 
glish, harmt yeast. J. 


Back A. Tobacco. *'Achow'a6adbi.'' A 

Backas. The back-hoose, or wash-bouse — or 
perhaps bake-hoase. 

Badqet. The Ba«lger. Also Brock. Budget 
is a commoB name for a cart-horse. The barbaroot 
eostdni of badget-bailiog, is with bulKbaiting^ fallen 
much into disuse in the eastern counties. I do not 
tliink that we have, if. we ever h4|d, the vulgar no- 
tion of other parts of England, touching the legs of 
this animal being shortier on one side than tlie other. 
On this see Nares. G« Under Badger. 

Bapplei>. Standing com, or grass, knocked 
irregularly al»ottt by wind, or stray cattle, would be 
said to be *' 6a^^2ei2 about " — or Imffied, perhaps. 
Nickled, Snaffled, and Waited, are other terms ap- 
plied to the irregular position of standing corn. See 
under those words. I believe hi^ffU might have been 
added to the terms of oftence enumerated undei' 
Aint; for of a man knocking another person, or 
a horse, &c. repeatedly on the head, it would be 
said "'9L baffled em abort the bid." It is an old 
word. See Nares. G. 

Bag. The udder, or milk-bag of a co\r. It is 
perhaps in a somewhat, though not very, difieirent 
sense, that it is used as a verb in the following line 
quoted from Nares, who says *• To bae/ — to breed, lo 
become pregnant"-^ 

Well, Venus shortly bagged, and ere long was Cupid bred> 

Aib. Engl VI. p. 148. 

Bahd. a bird— "bahds-neezen" birds-nesting. 

Balk. Sec Bavk. 



BaIe. Sound :«^iii fhis sMe, '<kll M hile/ 
ihst 1^ ni smswer for it» -or Mm. fiail-^botiliige. 
Thus Lord Byron^ 

I%e dbAiiM diet afwbls ki li0pteless hde. 

It i]» a Saxon ^or-d Itfr son^w. SeeNamt. 6^. 

i»d liall, like erioliet-^^lMr wMh britlif» uMsliy ;'ifl[^ 
ift tMr atfse&ce, llMs^ iHitcad of ilNites and stiiliipi» 
Ibr \fvkkels. 

»AN«. Tl^p0oi««taadli«rdtst kiodofiSafiift 
cheese is so calted. W« are some^M ieader oa aha 
totthjctot <of ch c <! fcC" ^for whit^ of aat oatt sftwtol^ we 
hkfe se?enil otifer names — in^ and m mm ii tt, ai>an| 
4lMi. «*Tiffreertiii<es^iiifiiie<i«ky44ofe''«a<foaMl4> 
tUtofit, and "not very fl«tt«rhig, <ies<*if«km-soiiwliaMi 
gi^en ^ oiir hoitie4liade afidde: tmt is iealdnJOy 
labre api>Ii<saMe to'tbe acwe liqald lof ^iMth ^it is 
liiade. It ^aras this soit of ware, I Itnagiae, •thaCiAw 
pbor tungry soVir was ▼aialy ewieaiiroariiig to laake 
ad impression ao, wbea she a^as tonvmiseiaii^gly 
tiottced by our poet» Sloemifiekly ia ha Farmer'^ 
Boy. He describes our ban^^ asiieii^ 

Too krgieto 8Wftll«rw md too liaid to titte. 

Bard. The beard. '* The *mrd a'l fMiy for <tfae 
shaven" — a coiamon adage, iaBplyiog that 1be|m>- 
'duce will be equivalent to the labotir. 

Bargain. A load of a waggon-^without relef- 
ence to a pnrchase or sale^^simtlar toiJiai^. ^ I 'd 
three bargaiiis oVa that there small iilld " — that is^ 
three waggon loads ; of hay, barley, bats, £cc. - Bar" 
gain, is also an indefinite good quantity, ornttBiber* 
'^IVe a fairish bargain 'a lambs ta year/' 


Barvawi^* The efJd«i(-h^g> or I»i|}s4urd ; «)•• 
BJi^cip^-biiriwy I wbidi ^ee^ Xkifl pretty lilll^ jM^ 
v^r^ uscfi^-i^jie^t^ is Und^rl^ NH^cdeil {^ fm cjpi|4r 
pesfp*. Oii« settling on. a clyld &» Mi'r^jr^ sfsnt 9iv,iBj 
«il^ t)iif ^ vatedidiQa-^ 

Tar house u baRnt deown'an yar cMlden alf goot. 

— It is sure to ffy off on the tiir# reptetftion^ 

JEknmtdoum gites great scope to owr coonty^eti*' 
l^oDix: twang, altogetlier inexpressible iir fype<^ 
6aAn^ deeyaum, comes av near (o if^ as my sItIF in 
orthography wifF a]fbw. 

Ray ra bis S. and E. conntry wrrrd* has Ihit^-* 
" Bishop, th« ffttfe spotted be^He^ commonly called 
the ladf-cow, or iadp- Bird: T hare heard thri insect 
in other places called Golden-inop, and* dboMessm 
other countries it hath other names.** E. W. p. TO. 
'Gotdm-bug is the common Sirffolk name. 

Barnacles. Spectacles — ^hfch are also more 
^bviou^ly c«lled SighU. Barnade and! Batigainitefr 
are Suffolk names for the Solan-goose. ' 

• Barnbd. Housed in the barn. 

Bahn-tard. The straw-yard by the banwlobrs. 

Bar:ra-ptg. The Httfest pig of a Ktter. I * 
nev«r heard the word' harra applied bnt to a pig^ 
and I have no clue to its origin without going fo a 
pedantic distance ; but wilf venture just to notice 
that in tfte atrcient language of IndTa, it meanra 



iwine, as it does also in some modern dialects. We 
describe the youngest of other broods, by otfa^r 
terms — pin baskei, for instance, and pitman to the 
youngest child of a family — fieetf g^, to the " weak- 
est tenant of a nest : " Sec, See. but barra-pig, as I 
have said, e&closivdy, to the smallest and shrillest 
grunter of the litter. In Ray is given as a S. and £• 
country word, one which I never heard — '* A Cad- 
tna, the least of the pigs which a sow hath at one 
fare; commonly they have one which is signally less 
than the rest ; it is also called the Whiunacki" £• 
W. p. 72. See Winnick* 

In Scottish, *' Croat, is a puny feeble child — the 
youngest and feeblest of a nest or of a litter. In the 
S. of Scotland, torig has a like meamng.'* J. 

Barsbl. The time, or season, of sowing barley: 
Barhg iale. See Sales. 

Base. Shreds of matting, with which gardeners 
tie up lettuces, flowers, &c. In Scottish BtLSs is a 
mat used for packing — from the Teutonic bast, eor* 
tex, J. Bas^e, or Prison-base, is a game among 
young people. 

Baste. To beat. Similar to lathering, licking, 
&c, figuratively derived, like ainting, from the idea 
of such a liberal profusion of punition as shall spread 
itself all over the superfices of the offending subject 

Baste is also an operation in sewing. It is the 
doubling down the edge of the article in hand, pre- 
paratory to hemming; or rather when so doubled 
down, running a needle and thread length-waya 


alo^g tikt lioe of wprky. tp k<ee^ it in its proper pbce, 
for a young or unskilful »Q9)pstress. 

In Scottish "JB»isim9 a dr-ubbing/' J. As in the 
i6€»ise first given» 

Batch. The quantity of bread n^ade at one 
baking: and sometimes extended to other pr-oduc«. 
Wfi should sa^ "^h !— ;i pceiity bat€j^ of lambs 'Vor 
<|!iaiRt)y« "& previous batqh of r^ogues.'^ It is not a 
k>i:al word. ShaJke^peare b?9 

Thou crusty ixUch of nature. Troil. and Cress, V. 1. 

In Cheshire the sense of the word is nearly simi- 
lar. W. 

Batlins. The loppings, or stowing of trees, foir 
firing,, or hedging, pr hurdle makipg — when tied up 
into faggots, they are called Savens, Wrongs is 
another najpae for boughs. See Bolb. 

Bavens. Brushwood — faggots— thus happily ap- 
plied by Shakespeare, 

rash bavin wits, 

1Bo«lL kibcficd, and «ofia burned. 

Si. H^. 4. P. 1. Jll. 2. 

" Bavin " 5ay5 ^a Commentator " is brusUwood — 

wJbich fired "—4ie Jundly adds— "burns fi^ercely, but 

is soon ouA.*' f 

Ray notices this ^moog his S.and E. couutjy words. 
*' Bav^n, hrusji-faggots, wijLli tlie brushwood at 
lengthy or in general Brushwood.'' £. W« p. 70. 
^e adds " Nescia an,q, dJ' 

Tusser iwies it-.— 

In stacking of bavin, and piling of logs, 
Mtrite un4er t?hy btivin, a hovel for hogs ; 

And wfaim^f eo/ct^fp M.4ill . a<wj^ the vmn^r 

And that to sttind open, and fall to tht sout4i. p. 189. 



Tusser's " hovel for hogs " — is, I suppose, whsrt 
we call a hag's-hobble. Which see. 

Nares quotes a Hue from " Mother Bombie, 1 594^** 
in which bavins occurs ; and notes that they are stiR 
advertised for under that name, by some of our pub- 
lic offices. 

Bauk. Bawk. Baulk. Balk. The con- 

^ ^'r£^f » i «/^trivance in our Nettuses (or milking halues) for 
' 't 

confining the cow*s head, while being milked. 

*' Bawk up^* is the command, readily understood by 
the obedient creatures, for thrusting their heads into 
the bawk, which is composed of an upright piece, or 
beam, fixed on the floor and to the top framing ; of 
a second piece of the same length and size, and when 
upright about a foot apart from and parallel with 
the other. It moves on a pivot in the floor frame, 
and when released from its top-latch (or catch) falls 
in the framing so as to form an angle of or about 35 
or 40 degrees with Xht right up. As soon as the 
cow has adjusted her head between these two pieces^ 
the inclined one is pushed to the left by the milk- 
maid, to the perpendicular, and having its top-edge 
duly bevelled, it raises a latch, which falls over and 
retains it in that position — allowing the animal a free 
up-and-down ad libitum movement of its head to 
the rack or to the floor — but no lateral or tidofus li- 
berty. When done with, the latch is lifted — ^Ihe 
moveable piece falls to its limited inclination, and 
the animal is free. I have been thus minute, but I 
hope intelligibte, in thb description, because I have 


notrced in different parts of Eiigland, other modea 
of detaining cows while under the operation of being 
milked or sucked, less effectual and simple. The 
number of hawks are, of course, equal to the num- 
ber of cows that may require detention, and are a 
yard, or so, apart. 

Bawking, is also a particular mode of ploughing 
land for fallow, whereby it is laid in ridges or bttwki. 
In this mode the land is not all stirred — a portion h 
passed over. And in this sense of passing over, the 
word b farther applied — for bawk or meer-bauk, h 
also an untilled strip, of about a yard wide, left be- 
tween two properties, or occupants, in the same open 
field, and tilled by neither. Few of these batoks are 
now seen, compared with their frequency thirty or 
forty years ago, when in a field of ten or a dozen 
acres, as many of these unprofitable boundaries or 
divisions might have been seen ; oftener crooked than 
strait; and they must have been great baulks or 
kindrances to farmers in tilling their lands so use- 
lessly subdivided. 

In this sense of passing over, or being baulked, we 
apply the word to one who, in coursing, passes a 
sitting hare, without crying Soho! For this he b 
rebuked for " bawking the hare." *' Why how cum 
yeow to bawk that there hare? '' In Scottish baulk 
appears, as with*us, to be an unploughed ridge of 
land. See T. of my L. 2nd. Ser. III. 6\ 

Cocker, in his dictionary, says " balk is a Saxon 
word, meaning a little land left unplowed." And 


3ttff»H(« Ibe laUer word, fKQvmfW^d hawk9p is opm- 
m^ in tbe ^ame seiiM, Nojt cpjifiQed i^for/Hfpk \mr 
bier* Straight young trees whep ftJled >9re c^e4 
elm^ou^ (uik.i«i9ib» «sb.^aicJb* Whieud dttndinf 
tbey are called gtands. Fir ftatc^ j^pi^<&^» ajod 
•Y^&cf^ art j think, iieaxiy the saiiie* 

Kay Jbkas " M^ike oat 6att<jof good gr^wud/' p^* 75 ; 
aivd again in |p.-3j90 as a Scottish Proveth *'Mahe op 
b9ik€» of good hear-laiujL'' And he notes "AJniii^ 
XAt S^ammunz a|uece of eartik which the plow slipis 
over Without turning np or breaking. It is^ko nsed 
Sox^ narrow slips of land left nnplowed on purpose in 
.thawpioiy couii()ies» between inen'a lands* or souBie 
f^fbfii jconveoience/' 

Among his North country words Bay has *' The 
fiaii or Bwoi: the sainunei^^beaui or Dorsum' 
JMk^m JBou^ poles iaid oxer a stable or othcx 
jhuilding for the sqo^ « JSteiJfu^ and Teutm. JBaH» 
Tmks^ tiqmmr £. W |p. }^. A«d w^bisS. amd £. 
country words we find "A Lyncheit^ ag/Ki^ Sulk 
,to di^de lauds/' ih» p. &j. And in ^ same fage 
** A Mere, a I^ehetJ* (n Scottish '' A Sateip, a 
stcqp of 4and left unploughed txjiro or three leet in 

b«adth/' J. 

R4W. Boy. Sec Bapp. 

R4W DA. To abuse grossly. To bother perhapn. 
To rag, is auotber verb of similar import. See Kaq. 
I ha^e speikd tbe word bt^cda, as it is mostly pro^ 
noiinced. [t migUt be written bor^etr, whic;h would 
approach the Scottish JBourd, to jest, to mock — or 


substantively a scoff^which Jameison derives from 
the French bowrd-'er, of similar meaning ; an abbre* 
viation be thinks of bektmrd-ir, to just with lances* 
behord, or bohard, being a gothic woid used bjr old 
Norman writers. 

In Nares' Glossary^ which is but just come under 
my notice, I find onr two kin words Bawda or Bar' 
der, and Rag, brought together. ** Bcdragg, for 

kardrag^ or bordraging*: border-incursions.^' 

No wailing thf re nor wretcliedaeat is fae^rd — 
No nightly ^oiiro^s, not no hue and cries. 

Spent, CoUn CI, V. 315. 

Yet oft annoyed with sundry hordragingi 
QjT neighbour. Scots. lb, F, Q. II. z. 63, 

Now, with every deference to the learned Arch- 
deacon, who evidently suited his interpretation to the 
.apparent sense of the passages, I aiu disposed to 
think that the Bodrag and Bordraging of Spenser, 
were written rather in the Suffolk feeling of noisy 
abuse, and insult, than in that in which his gloss has 
given it. It is true, we never connect the words as 
Spenser has done : but we should whiningly complain 
of havug been ^'bawder'd and ragg'd in a shameful 

In Scottbh BuUiragg has a like meaning. J. 

Bay. 'I*he divisions, or spaces, between the main 
beams of a barn. Warburton in his notes on a pas- 
sage in Measure for Measure, II. 1. where this word 
.occurs^ says that it signifies 'Mhe squared frame of a 
timber house, each of which divisions or squares, b 
called a bay. Hence a building of so many bays,^* 
I never beard it applied to any buildmg but a barn. 

But Nares thows that ik h^s been m^e- e^iten^Mj 

A 3q«rrer» aesl we call a baj^ !» other paiif* it 
•ppearsio be«ca||ed lirii^r Tbus Cowrjjkr, in.Q9«r.of 
his fables. 

Clim Vd) like a squirrel to his drayf 
Aiitf bcM f bci wiiortlltess prim vtnj, 

lb Mme fMfts^ of Mfclk^ bonktiog oie* lloaMk» 
Ife dtett-dock is callHi Ba^MtMk. 

BbAkbsi. a glm, or 4i iMhiH| ^tesaeU ifciiinil 
possibljr, ftefik its ^Mi/I'^lilft sfmvt^ i»>ii«v cbmestic 
Teasels were npt so yaried as now, and folks drank 
out of what they drew into. Bicker appears to 
be the sane word in S^ottitflh: T hope not from 
ttar ofovions sourcie, Whfdi is not, indeed, litely 
It' SO sober a c^onntry'as j^eottamf. It eecmiB'^^t^ 
(|ueir6!y in Tafes of tnj^ Laki^Rord. is lv anli ^< ; I. 


Wf. it is written Beamier as wt^ us, Init the ancme 
of the diaf ogae in whieb iC (yecnr», is, if 1 r«c0lleet 
right, English. 


in Jameison we find ^ Bicker, a bowl or disb 
fot containing liqnor,'' and words of ¥ke sMud 
amf nignifi^atioo in many Enropean l)Mig«age». In 
Scottish also, as in English, ' the word denoCcs 
'^conten^on, ntAfeJ'^ it may he feared tbal the 
tvp and the eontestioii, hB.¥e eombfaKd in tbeeom- 
pOfiftioH of the varied S€M»e9 of this word. 

Beans. I intrcKiueti this wiofd tt«rely lor iite 
purpose of introduein^ the foll<aFwing<fU€iit»tioafMMn 
Nares' Gtossary. 

Wbiktiatbjeftijfjppf tbis ii^UffiusiAaA^cfi^^^btoftt^^ 

^ / • .- /^' 

« ^ ■ '.t' ^ 


least it is of long standing. 

• j;.^-ftj|arfc I i ^o wt ratlfeff 

fi.^~Y«s, liU 4hHtt Une te«t ia a bliif hUddm, nlUk 
blsdder^ rattle. 

rJMHriu» it mMs dUn: 

That putting all his words together, 
*f|i44iree%liie%e«istB-«m Uue MttMer. 

Thus for Nares. To «Us. I liflfvie 4o #dd ,4«^ 
'^ HhMiUo^ beiM im a W»e Jai44lei^ 4i|#i&|>iad- 
deiv;Mltle*'-^thme rq^«al«||,.» ^ i^-aftot^^ik- 
mm^mogi of fiiiMk«hiHbD]^tip i <«iMii jre<;q|]#0li 
and is still frequently heard. 

Beast. A bullock of apy deccr^ti^— not t 
Huak aiball. ."A cow-beast" — a cow fattening 
for tbe Jmtcber^ — net ¥fhen in luilk or breeding* 

£;eein. a . home-^-a place to be in* '' If I 
4C0uld'but.git 9k beebif I can fishQia4;e for myself.'* 
I will here i^ain Qe4;c*tbat where words occur, not 
xeadify understood by the Ung\tffQlked reader^ he 
is to take them as Sx^fokums; and is -referred to 
such words in this collection. See therefoife FisjH- 


BeestiKS. The. milk of the fhris^t meal or milk^ 
' ing after a cow have calved. It is then reckoned 
Mot 'ftt ibr use. * €)r. Mavor in a note on a passage 
in Tusser — who 'however docs not use 4he -wofd— ^ 
says ' '^ 'Beasiingn, or mifk immediately after calving .% 
in Scotti^ ***4Bewe, Bebtyn, -the first mfllk of a 
cowafter she lias taJlred. Ang. Sax.^ci»f, iyst; 


Tent, binif biest-metek^ (colostram.)'' J« 8^ 

Beetlb. a large, heavy, wooden hammer, 
hooped with iron round its heads, and stndded all 
over with nails, for the purpose chiefly of rwmg 
wood (See Rive) with iron wedges. In Scotland 
an article of the same sort is called Bittle. See 
Pirate, L 128. Tusser, in his catalogue of fieurm- 


itig implements has a plough-beetle. See under 
Goof, verse 11. and note. 

*' Bittiii-^ beetle—]! heavy mallet." Scottish J. 
Nares describes "a three man beetle,'* a figare of 
which is delineated in the Supplement to Shake- 
speare. Vol. I. p. 19(K 

If I do» fillip me with a three-man beetle. 

Hen. 4. P. S. I. f . 

Bbezuns. The milk of the third or fourth 
ineal, or milking, after calving. It is then particu- 
larly sweet and thick, and is deemed strengthening 
by rustics. It is also called BeezHn milk. 

It is I suppose this description of milk that is 
alluded to in these lines of Ben Johnson in his Pan's 
Anniversary — as quoted by Nares — 

So may the first of all onr fells be tbine» 
And both the betitning of otar goats atid kine. 

But the learned Archdeacon gives '* Beestning 
or Beesting as the first milk given by a cow or 
other milch beast. A rustic word, sometime^ 
made in biesting, and even bresting*^* Gl. Such 
first meal or milking, we call Beestins, which see. 


Bb<m>ns. Woni^ iigvdy ideotyei. . ^> The tiiftfdi b 
Is lamentably ^<|7lme/^ . I. :r 

Beholden. OhHd^— 'fa^oif^. '^'^ '<^' l'^ ^' 

B!ent. Ben1[*s, Bbnt£m. Bektles. Smt 
is « course nnporofilable ipraagi the InrtWit j<wt- 
ctiem. Both word and weed, iot it is U^ebet^^r, 
are wdl known beyond SuffoML^ where it is ipcilf- 
ferently called Bent and J?«Jt^#. Btmilei, k a n^^ie 
given to the low sandy flattish land on the sea 
shore, northward of Landguard-fort; iLnd perhaps 
to other parts of the Suffolk coast, blown and 
forced up by winds and waves, where nothing but 
this coarse reedy Bent seems to" thrive or grow. 
Cattle, a hungry ass perhaps exciepted, reject such 
pasturage. I suppose Ithe place is named after its 

only crop, lliis saw is still hekrS— 

The dow slie dew ho sorrow know. 
Until she detic u benten g0, . 

That is, nnltl other food filing, .she be fcrtcd 
to betake. horself to ih^ seeding J3en*/e«, where 
"she finds but scurvy iare. 

JBemt b a Scottish word^ 

Tlie breeze that tremhles tiiroa|h the whistling -benU 

Ley^ens Scenet of Infancy* 

Bent or Starr, on the N. W. coast of England, 
•and especially in Laacashire, is a coaurse reedy 
shrub^-^like ours perhaps — of some importan<:e 
formerly, if not now, on the ^andy blowing l?^nds 
of those counties. Its fibrous roots give some co- 
hesion to the siliciolis soil. By the 15 and IG G. 
II. c. 33* ''plucking up and carrying away Starr, 


miles of the sand hills/' i^aorpiutisUiftle fay^fiiKy 

Looking into Walker's Dictionary I' fttd ''Bcfbt 
giiiss "— itlld «<!BeiJCSirgtiiife''-.^«he1altertnqp^ 
ms ^^Tfeltiki]«'^yh<ii p%ei6i9 fted^on BeKt9, hetdre 

A^ !h fUy'if fitol the ittm-MwierredoidxA (as I 
^^j^foUediot tfie first 'tffiie)\tiUi a sfigttt%lte(ratioii- 

'* ' 'Tfie-pidgeonnerer inosveth wO, ^^ 

. But wheB she doth a bentir^ go. p. 38. 

^ It would appear from, the same authority, that 
in the norths Bents are called Jf^ringk-^eas ind 
jfindle-straws, E. W. p. 67- 

it may not be altogether unnecessary to remark 
that the pigeon we call 2>dir» fot'paoe: we make 
it rhyme to how, though we give it a fengtheiied 

drawling sound — deow, or cleeyow, especially" wfien 

»--■■• » 

it is a final word. Set Dow, 

]&Esi'5W. To put aWay— rto place— ^to dispose 
of-^to stow a;Way. " Where did yoW BetiinD that 
there hahm?" — Also patting a ^reman to bed, 
•' She was bestaived last wfeek." In the first sense 
we 'find the woid in Macbeth— 

' % We heac oar bloody cOQsins are fr<stotoe<2 
tn'BngTaxid and in Ireland III. 1. 

Ahd in Hkihlet, who having kfttedPolonious, says, 

• I will be$tow him, and will answer well 
The dpath I gave him. III. 4. 

Again — . 

^\1rhere the body is besMMdi my Lord, 
We cannot- get fiom him. lb. IV. 3. . 


. 'Gonie, my Xord, we wifl' heUo» yon hi iome "bettex place. 
Fitter for sickness, and £or crazy age. Jf. Hen, 6* III. 2. 


Again in Leax^^ 

Come, father, I-U bettoio jou with a friead, I^ 6. 

Tusser u^es the word, in his directions for. dis- 
j^psjii^ of n^wlj savn^ boardu^g^ wi^ sticks ifitef^ 
])psed that it may season* 

Bestow it and stick it, and lay It aright* p, 23, 

And. all manner of straw and litter ali>out a farm- 

In pit, fall of water, the same to heitote. 

Where lyipg to rot, thereof prpfit may grow.", p, hQ, . 

B£y£K. .Tiie af/^rnooa5»«^A.o£barve3t-ixieo.iyi(L 
otfafic workers. It is probably. dmved fropi th§, 
f tench bouffmr, ^drmket, or from the Jt;ali»n 6ei>er^» 
U^,dnHk—(:x9 tp go fiirther* all, from the. Latin Hz 
b&re; aad ought* therefore, and perha|>s u$uall{ i^u 
coilf)iied to a ticket. — Beveu I take to be this saj^ 
thing, as the^/orstf^^hat i& tal^en about 4 P^ M. In 
mQr« carnivoreur days it may have been a tjnie .of 
meat, and, the. word n^ay be deihicible iron* JBa^^^ 

Ut as noticed: under Cost ABD, yre havq a. iiM!9ir 
heiio( desigi\9^iQos.fof.*th«;4ea(l» tfnd^undfir Ajg^T^ 
^t;w« haiBc not a f^wtlgf^^ntJif qjfthfiii.tfmetf^ 
THio.hasre we no reason to cooQplaio ^^Mi^JAfik 9€ 
leripsto distin^uiili oAf^ of ijl$ o).QSt agrf^.b^9ff4 
iippprUn^ Qp«ratioiji9-r-naipely» e^inff or/e^i^ 

It is amilling-rQot^ m^^, ptr.ifBtly.8Q in tl^e gf;* 
^1^1 tp ajl pMti^. perJiftpfc-b||i.t U is. f tiM ^qmefjinet 
awwqg, «tl^a&t to witi>^«,: tfej. ppictip^ff «►.(% 8qt9j| 
jqf^mfiyT^m 9nd a|^prftntic<is (c^pf n)£i:^ hricW^erfU 
4?^.) turnpd itxU^ a g^tkm^j^'s hqm^errpqr eaa^mlfi 


their full swing, as is— or used to be sometimes tiie 
case — one cannot easily fancy — "on this side the 
moon'* — many more pleasant, social, or agreeable 
assemblages. We will not here speak of work, hut, 
more especially, of food; for being so far from home, 
the Gentleman — or, belter and better still — the AV 
hleman — or his Steward, in view to economy in time 
— that most valuable of all commodities — allows them 
their ineaUr^Xhzt h^Imprtmu-^-^nrrfhrnstt about eight, 
if the servants be up in time — if not the werkmeri, 
as we mast for distinction call them — ^will aceommo- 
itatingly wait in the hall. Item — the *ievener — this, 
as the sound implies, is the interstitial tnaek between 
Ihe prime and the next — Item — noonim which, also 
€iq>laining itself, is a ternary mid-day mouthful, be« 
lore tlie servants dine ; wbicb may be reckoaed — (ad 
k is wholesomest to make a pretty equal dbtribotiott 
«f time) — about two o'clock, when the family are 
out. Item — the fmunses. (we pass over dxKMT as 
a thiagof cottiae). Our ''copious riirt'ric^*-is not 
c^oM merely — bat, Nke our feeding, is emphatic 
tn espreasive, combiaiMg tense with sonnd — (fe^ 
•noMinfofiMiMi as Ihe learned call it. The reader 
will pardon the omission of Greek type oo this l6mie 
suh^ct.) It is therefore scarcely necessary to noto 
that /oorxet refers to the seasonable return of 4 
F. M. Perhaps JBever^£KacA— *2V«ii«A — and iVim- 

• • ' • 

9^n, may in cognation belong to tbe sam^ interest- 
ing period — ^but I am not fully initiated in thin 
specious of free masonry: or they may by {lossibility 
<-*though one of ordinaiy perception or praecosdia 

iiH^»<^ri» " *^w ^ ' m «*«< 

^tj4^ 9f % i^n^ sfibimportaot lopeinliott of 
Feeding* if tli^ «S(m4 i9kh of a n^leman^ or 
gfiAlI^fi^-9 fiHoHy dioe at iSi^e w m. '<» hafd: if 
9iM»e .of thr opmitir^ iadbrUiiaU in qiMttion. nui]r 
Qfi^ <^ut i»iar fipi^hbig,sJ9t<fc (9 a gla^ of «le or 
VJUie-T^ us jjte J^WBMMUn biOl il^ ummthing^dimrti 
bill it vonW «4)is4ireet4o ''make oimtd amitJ^ 
Vp in «dkii(ioaii» theae,' tlia lib^r^Uty of :the£inii|^k^or 
tbe oooaidecftlifin of ihe aecyaiUs foi tiueir Ipsd's rt* 
|lB^ion» nhcMiid aupfirpdd a /bit of. supper, i^hi^— - 
lis '* behaviDg like a gentleman /'-7-BBt> uiiiess tbei 
people be really uilreasoaiiblo;.' k'ismotexpecM: at 

any r^.i^ot a A^* ^HPP^; e*^l?«>t, ifli,4««4, m mUw- 
daysy or on the commencement or completion of any 
important or particular or interesting process of tne 
job. The gentleman must however look pretty ' 
closely, or he wifl be lutky ff tbere be not a fine in- 
the roaster^ bfil for Lowans, or so much in the ' 
pound on (he gross wages of the industrious work^ ' 
wten, for beer. 

Let us now endeavour to enumerhte — omitT^g 
the,r^5jilar ^rf^V%f.t,^nner. an<J occasional s^pp^iTji „ 
wbwpb 9)1 4hc >^<MrJfi k^w vrf— U»« mmM appella- 
tions by ^vhich extra sfimul^ or .tlieir r(?imovaj, ^rp, * 
diatiiiguisbed in oiu* paiis. 'Levener — Noonins — 
Nttnsh — Liinsh*^Nuttsben^B«v«r-^ (whet, 'dnd bttit, 
an4 snup^ a«d sn^ek^ ^wai etutt^y altogether extra 
intcrfK>latir>iis, need not tetegliftiriy redfoiitd ) — and '^ 
Foorze». %ome two ortinofe of tbese may be the ' 

aame^ as before noticed : and there may— mercy 



■^ ... 

Off ire f be ottiers of which I have not hearcf • 

> I« Cheshire and Lancashire, Bagging timet 'm 

'^ the time of the afternoon Lniicheonw'' W 

Honest old' Tusser did not overlook the ^fen^ 
tiality of workmen in the article of diet. I would 
not be understood, in what I say and qttote, as^ 
viewing, ''with disdainfbl smile, t£e long and^ 
amjple feedings of the poor"-^if I msy be allowed 
so to parody a little, Gray's fine line. Would it 
wero ample to aU ! Let us not forget the importance 
of 6ie matter to those whose pleasures are few, and 
nut intellectual 

ThoQgh Devcf- so awih • good hiMwife do-caie, 
l*hat such a» do Jaboar have husbandly fare ; 
' Te( feed them, and ctan tfaear, tiH parse do hick chinlc, 
Kb sppon-meat no belly-fail* laboorera ibink. Tiuter. p. \St^ 

Does he mean that they expect to be grouted 

aSfter all t 
, Nares in his curious and valuable Glossary gives 


a^ different meaning,, as to the time,; from what ob- 
tains in Suffolk^ '' Bevety n and v. An interme- 
diate refreshment between break^t and dinner^ 
Ytoja^bever^ to drink; Span, and Ital. 

Affefitui, — Your gallants never sup, breakfast, nor fretwr 
wHl^out me. Lvrigua. Old Play, V. 148. 

He it none of' thote same ordinary eaters, that wilt' 
devottr ^ree breakfasts, and as roanj dinners, without anjr pre-*- 
judic% to tfieir Severe, driukiugV, or suppers. 

B.imdFL Wem, Hater, I. S; 

In a Sermon printed in 1627, entitled '<The 
Walk of Faith,*' this passa^ occnrs-r-'* Why should 
nqt the Soul have her due > drinks, breakfasts, 
meals, under-meals, beven, and after-meals» as 
well as the Body ? " 


Bezzle, To drink greedily. Happily com- 
pounded of beast, and guzzle. The word like the 
practice is old. In Kares we have Bezzle or Bizle, 
to drink to excess. Todd derives it from old 

— *Sfoot, I wonder bow the inside of a tsTem looks 
now, Oh ! when shall I bi%le» bizle f Honett Whore, Part 3. 

Time will come 
When wonder of thj error will strike dumb 
Thjr hetel'd t^nse. MalecnUwt. Old PL IV. 42. 

i.e. thy besotted understanding. 

That divine part is soakt awajr in sione. 
In sensual lust, and midnight beteling. 

Mor$Um*s Scourge of V, Ub. XI. 5<i(. 7. 

It is also used as a substantive ; a drunkard be- 
ing called ^'foule drunken bezzle J* Skinner says 
perhaps for beastle, i.e. to make a beast of one's 
self.'* Gl. It is but seldom heard in Suffolk, in this 
sense — but since this article was in the press I heard 
the word used in that of to bevel, or to slope; in re- 
ference,, not to the deviation from the perpendicu- 
lar, or the gradual diminiition of the thickness of a 
wiUl; as is commonly understood by bevel; — but 
referring to a set-off, or immediate diminution of 
its thickness. 

Bib. a child's chin-cloth, or pbafore. The 
first is called slaveren-bib. 

BiBBLE. To Tipple — Bebble, in Scottish. J.. 
The etymology is obvious — from bibere, to drink.. 
Lat.. -" Bibbeler or Bibber, one who drinks often/^' 

I perceivo j^ou are no great bybi^r, (fi. e. reader at 
the Bible \ Pa&iphilo. 

'Pai, — Yes, Sir, an excellent good Hibbeler, specially ih- a 
bottle. Gatcoigne^t Work$, Sign, C, 1» Nares* G. 


tide thene tiU I ciim tec jee/' 

small excrescence or protuberance. It souQii^ Uk^ 
« good expressive wocd, and suck a 9Ae is wanted 
in its place in our langu^e. It seems compounded 
of boil and Aki^. 


BiG-iND. Hie greater part. "The Hp-ind of 
an hour/' I note this as a Suffolcism from having 
heard it oo^ ^ce, and that sii^ce tbjb) work was 
in the press. It was applied by a landlady to the 
expected arrival of a stage coach. ' ** 'T'ont be 
here for the H^-ind of an hour.'* 
' Bill. A curved iron ion^-handled implement 
f6r brushing fences — then called a brush-biii. The 
short handled toiol commonly called hook, is some- 
times called bUl'hook, from having a projecting 
hook like the bill of a bird, for catching and re- 
taiining bushes. Tusser has the word biti, and it 
is not I believe local. See under Goof, verse 8.. 
and note. 
Bine-bine. Bye and bye. 
BlNG. A binn. Com bing, chaff bing; recep*^ 
tacles for those articles. 

Binn. The receptacle ^r loose (unsaeked) com,, 
chaff, &c. "A com bin." ♦^The chaff-bin." See 

Bi*nnb. a bind — any thing to tic up a bun^le- 
with— particularly ha^le, or bramble for baven^-r^ 
or what shoves of wheat or beans aer bound. up • 


'Urith. '*Wax feinnd/' a cobler*s sewing stbread/ 
The ivord is sometimes pronounced Bind in the 
usual mode. 

Bishop-barney. The golden bug. See Bar- 
nab be. In Tusser^s ten unwelcome guests in the 
dairy — he enumerates "the Bishop that burneth" 
(pp. 142. 144.) in an ambiguous way, which his 
commentator does not render at all clear. I never 
heard of this calumniated insect being an unwel- 
come guest in the dairy — but Bishop-barney, or 
bumey, and Bamabee, or Burnabee, and Bishop- 
that-bumeth — seem, in the absence of explanation,' 
to be nearly related — in sound at any rate. Under 
Barnabee it will be seen that burning has some 
connection with the history of this pretty insect. 

Blabber. Idly talking — babbling — chattering. 
To blab — to let out a secret. 

Black-jack. The lackered tin mug, commonly 
so called — also Jack, So Tusseir — 

Trcen disbes be homety, tnd ,> et not to lack, 

Where stone Is no laster, take tankard ami jack. p. 260. 

It is probable that the blackjack was formerly of 
leather — of which bombard was another name; or 
another sort of vessel. I surmise this from a pas^ 
sage cited by Nares from Shirley*s Martyred 

His boots as wide as tbe hlack-jackt, ^ 
Or bombards toss*d by the King's guards. 

Black-pudding. Pudding, usually made in 
skins — the chief iiigredient is the blood of swine. ^ 

Blain. a sore on the skin — nbt/ieep. Cocker 
explains Blain, as '' a painful Push or sore.*' But 

f^%^oi|^at 6^. r^rtN^7 8|» s«4j>ei;^ia^ affiectiou— 
Chill-blain, is generally known.;i^ An. imprei^^tUwcy McorcJ, o£ which,, in 
]|iij|^d. fprce, we. have ratjber a, copiojus a,9^oi:t- 
m»nh aA noticed under A3^enj)EN. " Bl(ime vi^^ 
if: I dpnt"— "i;il be blam^d^if I dw^-rore ^yK 
dgajly conuPkCHd^We. s^ft^nings, of very prpphan^ 

. Bi,A«JBU Bi/OJBiR, To, cry alpu^JK" >^a)t, ^ 
i^|(Kr^,yoi¥, dew K^^p"-— sfwd tQ a. i^p^qg or npis^ 
cbildf J3t^« is. rather. aj^liQabl^ to the moamn^ 
Qf a, oow aft^r l^r aev^ed calC— rOne of the dis-, 
qpudl^st of rural, s.ounda : or of th^ w,emicl after he» 
dain : bfit bpth liKordei ar.e in common use. 
. 1-he. firs.t is not w.holly ours.. Elton in a trans- 
lation from Claudian introduces^ it— - 

>^ a Mldliqr started at the blare 

Of trumpets. Specment^ 11^ f9S, 

The words seem, a combination in sound 4|nd 
seitse of bellow and roar. In German, biaerr-en is 
of import similar to our blare. 

Blast. Wheat mildewed or blighted, is said 
to have got the blast, or to be blasted, 

Blazbs. Used as a vulgar comparison for 'any 
thing done v^ry qi^ick^y or furiously. **'A ride 
like blaz.€9»'* 

Bs^iND. Infertile, blossoms, of the ataiwberry» 
gooseberry, oippbd, Stc» are. said to heMiviL AtflQ. 
a nut without a kemeL la Cheshifie. the latto^ is 
tmd to be deaf. W. 



'bl^Kli^-t^ieM. Mifte tditita6iily caHed tie 

Bliss. Bless, Blissed, blessed. I hat) fKxt 

this amolgMr t^lher <>t<li«k£y '€i»ftt)lt *ttt1»«btu- 

' iiib^ bf i.fbi'-e^aB^^oftire^ imder -Ami^^TD/but I 

^ fiBd'm'N#<!s^^NLt*\9«'i^gfti ^tt^te Yobfe 'kwdtMky 

''Blist for JB^Iiik. Thls'is ^He t)f the libiertles 
tfiMght dlio^&BIe inthe 'sixl^mhc^i^lpy^fbf the 


Aod flow th<}^groand^t 
Wher«n it written was," and how himself he fcJUf. 

Bjiawnm IV. to. 46. 

That he had fled, long time he never wist, , 
But when ijetr run he had discover'd it, 
Bii^^If' Torl^uaerinritHltis IfoM^e fifiit. 

Fakf.^Tm^ xrri.,29. 

l^hbB,' A bhtot'terpaimatton to a thil^ that r is 

--'iirfiiatiy'm©re'p6ih^d, A pttfrpt's t^aguetis said 

to be ':Bl(^'htdid 'or- to haVe a^ Blob end. Ai pertfon 

' who hy bitiBghis-oy her nails, iig ore 4he ^tfipeof 

the fingers, would be called BUjh-finger'd. " Hs 

fittgets iir nann but .B/d6«/': The word is some-^ 

•tilnes|irt>lied.hyperboKcally to a blunt needle or 

pin. . . 

Blood- ALP. The bull-fimdi, S^eAcp, 
Blossom. A ewe, when maris appetens. 
Blown-herring. So called, it is said, be- 
canse they are sold by'retai, whfen only partly 
cui^d, from hayiiig been Wncn off their strings by 
wind. Jn SpWktfid, JBIHiwi^co^, ^^eems tabavc 
obtained its name similarly. J* 


Blows. The flowen of Any blo«M>lB» car flower, 
or y^^table. '* Six pound c^f blMD$ to ten galloDs 
of water^*' is the receipt for cowslip t>r peagle 

Blve-Bottle. a dirty, obsceae fly. 

Blunt. At tops» when the top fly away out 
of the hand without i pinning " that*! a bhmtJ' I 
forget if there be much or any difference betweeir 
a Bhmi and a Mull in this matter. 

Bluster Wood. The shoots of fruit-trees or 
shrubs that require to be pruned out. Q. May it 
BOt have been bloMied or dead wood, originally ? 

BLinr or Bliy. Believe. *'I bluv nut." I bf- 
lieve not. 

BOB# '* Bear a bob," — be brisk. Also to gtoap. 
— ^In the latter sense it is more commonly pro- 
nounced Sap — ^which see. '^* Bear a boSy" is also a 
Cheshire phrase. W. Bcb, with us and perhaps 
m other counties^ is llie pear-shaped piece of lead 
at the end of the Une of a carpenter s or mason's 

Sometimes it is used in the sense of aHiilow or 
smack, particulariy oa the mouth. ''A bob i' the 
chops."—- Perhaps Tusser uses it in this sense, 
when detailing the miseries of school^ 

O painful time! for every crime* 

Wfiat touzed earst Wkt baited b€ars! ^ 

What bobbed lips, jjrfiat jerks, what nips! p. 315. 

Jeriss, and nips, are still v^rds and acts with us. 

Bobbish. Well— hearty---brisk. The sanie b 
Cheshire. W, • 


BOBBBBT. Noise^ ttUDBlty disturbBnCJb-^ 1^Mk 
I ^ve certainly be&nh'tliif''woriJhib¥ehil times lately 
vat of true SidTolk'nioatks,' but caimot^ think of It 
titherwise than of recent im[k>rt ; for it is m common 
end extensive use in India in exactly the same Jense. 
It is there used insoiaeWhat of a qufiifnt vuKgar way; 
Bnd is not a dictfonary^word, though its deriVation 
may be easily traced id the langiiages of the feast? 

Bob. Bi^-^bade^offeVed. •' I bod em tew ' 
shiAings forV.'^ So,roi{orri3, In SJcottish ^octe^ 
tmd in German, (of, liave' the same meani^gl. 

jBobcE. Doing any thing unskilfnUy, or in an 
unworkmanlike manner, ^ocfytit'-bunglingly^ '^Dew 
it kiender tidil^ now, an dont malie a Mge ont.'* 

Thus Shakespekr^ 

With this ^e charged agaiti ; b^, otit» alasl 
WiAi1Mot]^1ab<^r sWiin aj^aitist tbe'tfde. 

iL,--liih, '^. A* 3^ I. «h 

We alsottsr. In^teky which is I suppose, a varied . 
)>rf>nniiciatio». So does Shakespeare.— Dr. Johnson, 
thifiks^6€»^4n "the. above passage, a misprhit for 
^fid^.^ But intSuffblk We at once wcognice it as an - 
expi^ssive appippriale word. 

It is not well raended^it is tmt hftchedi T. tf A. IV, S. 

Bo K B> Bulk— body^-^mass^ ** The hoht o* the 
ioad'^-^the^aweU Or protubet^ot part^^of a load '«if 
torn in the straw, or of hay. *' Great hohe of pora'^' 
means much straw'tMirapMrad with ?the probable pro- 
fJucBf^f^l^aim)' *' Ta rise-vtreH Iccording V^ the hoVP 
inefiii»that the inah ^f^ulkforatraw yieiRt^ weU-at < 


In Ray's Proverbs is tbid— • 

Stad tbe cherm to the trout— 
. My bead *s worth all thj bwk. p. 40. 

The cbevin. Cocker says, is the '^Chub-^a fish 
with a great head." 

Bowk is used in Scottish for hdk and body. See 
Glossary to the Antiquary. And in Tales of my 
Landlord, 3rd S. 11. 229, this phrase occurs ''Bon> 
nie bowk of a man's body.** And again in p. 248* 
*' Down he fell, wi a bb bowk abune me.'' In Ja- 
meison many similar meanings are given of Bouk and 
iBuik. . He derives them from the Teutonic beuck, 
iruncus corporis* 

It appears to be archaic — for Rowley ( i. e. Chat« 
terton) in the Tragedy of Goddwyn, uses it in the 
sense of bqdy, 

Goe to — goe to — ^yoa do ne nnderstonde — 
They yetre mee lyffe ; and did mie howkie kepe. 

Perhaps Swift's ** beggar's brat on bulk begot ^ — 
refers rather to the exposed boards in front of stalls 
orshops. — Bulk-heads on ship board are the divisions 
between cabiils, store-rooms, or different parts of 
the ship: but I do not know that boards of any 
description are any where called baulks, or by any 
name approaching to the sound of the word now 
under consideration. See Bavk. 

Nares has **Bulk, body — from the Dutch bulcke, 

- But smotherM it tnthin mj pantiiig huOu Jtich. 3. L 4. 

BoLB. Tbe stem of a tree. We seem to have 
localisms for divers parta of this glory of rusticity. 
As well as bok we call the stem or trunk the righi 


fij»-^the large branches wnmg§ — ibe smaller branches 
^atter^buiheB — ^the lower small branches w^ikf 
boughi — the crooked parts, crotehei — short projecting 
stunted shoots^ $par$ — ^knots* bieit$-^iht bark, pHl 
—branches lopped off, sloioens.^-Among his north 
country words Ray has ''The £oU of a tree» the 
body of a tree, as a thom-boll, &c* BoUimg trees 
is used in all countries for pollard trees, whose 
heads and branches are cut off and only the bodies 
left." £. W. p. 19. See Pollard. 

BoNNKA. Large — strapping-^-apfdied to young 
persons, especially girls. Similar to Sioaehm and 
Wkacken. ''What a BofinAa that there wiawiha 
dew grow,* 

Can this phrase in the following quotation from 
the old marriage ceremony used in and before the 
time of Richard the 2d, have any reference to 
BonnAa in its Suffolk sense ? " IcheN. take the M. 
tomy weddid husbond to ham and to holden^ &c. 
"for bettur for won" Sec. " to be (ondk anil tamm 
at bed and at borde, tyl dethe'' &c. 

BooDL^ The com marygold-^ChyiaiilAeniiMft 
fageium. It is a great plague, to farmers-r-the 
freaieti^ according to IVisser, in these lines-— 

Tbtf Mfhr-weed doth bam, and ttie tbittle doth fret; 
The fitches pall downward both rve and the wheat ; 
The brake and the cockle, be uoiMNne too OMeh, 
Yet like onto boodle, no weed theie is sofeh. p. 15t. 

The May-weed is still known by that name. 
BooLK. See Bullock. 
BooNCic * A bunch. So poonch for punch. In 

B 2 


ii&c «^ Setf Bin^ES, 
t vBpOHi^LE. A 4bii«dle. 

nOniA^aal 'ded -jeew «e» tlmt 4btre^«se A«p^«iider 
> th? gate limb I ''— '' Aah— #tm tMtw." 
' iiMfiP' b al8a;/ik^Aa'w«^» it - is'^'likewise' ]^gBei(piiJor 
'•<J94tlop)^o som^Enst iiidi«Hlial«ct8. 
'^tioHDER. ^TiiiswfHildyiittiiapsyiMFtiiefcgttUHrwiy 
of spelling the wordj' by- which we; efteiMlesigiuite 
mk^^ei* bul^iStit i$ eomnidBlj ^Ued Batlfdai* l:>^ha?e 
giveftlhe explaiialioB'Bndertbat wovd* 
BosKT. Tipsy. 
Botch. See Bodge. 

^<BoaD. ^Rhymiagto ^Imcc^ a weeWl. ^e in- 

' sect thai ioJBres grain and flowerand mall^fe mitts 

' ^aiid gfaBarie$. Such grain iaeaid to-b^ botidmOtm. 

An^tietA' Cyclop.- 1 find ^^iBwirff ■ itfae epithet imder 

' wbicfa^he toeevvf is^iatiBgutsbed-io some eo|Hrti«»'^ 

^•"lakea perbaps froni'Ray^''^jBo<idr, Le. weevUi, an 

insect breediog>in rnalll ^}^orf«'8Bff4< Essex.*' >£«t¥r. 

'p«7l. ^'l^botf lO'Tmser 

Good bread-^orn and dnnk-eorir,' full twenty wetVn kept» . 

Is better. lA^a^n^, M>at,al^^|fy^| i« ft^ppt : 

But foisty the bread-corn, and howd-taten malty 

Foi^ hiMlth or/pr, piftjf t, ^d npi^cKHft.^hoi^ft^ldt,'* ^^HO. 

Best dried', best speeds-Mil^ kepffrowd bieflds. ff»8. 

L<^kept m^ll,sp]ler.CMi^pu,Wed tbciu sMt) 

ThiOQgb hmoii without nauiber/ lose quickly thy malt.^* 259% 

SoUer formerly was in common use, and meant an 
^Bpper apparfmf nt — a loft — it has been derived/rom 

■^ " ^ *wfc»»'— ""-'^S mJ ' '^ f '"^■^ .^ . ^ Vi," ^ ■>^'«*^^^■— —I \ ^mm\Mm^^mimim^im<i0tr^^mmm 


Bout* A turn k plonghing — a ftoul, a farrow; 
or rather the operation of makiiig a farrow. ** Foar 
homii to a yard " means that the plough moves or 
tarns over nine inches of soil in each bimi. 

Some ancient people wrote in the backward and 
forward manner — asually described by the fadkiiiar 
operation in husbandry " from right to left and from 
left to right as ploughmen trace their furrows ^*^ 
This methoil was in use among the ancient Greeks^ 
who called it Boustrophedim Bovorpo^oy. It is said 
to have been disused about 450 B. C. 

Words were sometimes likewise read both ways— 
hence Dipuc was a name of Cupid. The most 
perfect specimen of Binuiraphedon writing now ex- 
isting is the Sigean inscription discovered in the'lVoad 
by Consul Sherard, and published by Dr. Chishull, 
with an elaborate commentarv. 

Any one desirous to trace the descent of the hout 
of the modern Suffolk ploughman, from the Binu^ 
trophedtm of the ancient Greeks, may consult Plu- 
tarch in Solon Vit. — Aul. Gel. Noc. Att. Lib. 2. c. 12* 
Astle on writing pp. 70. 74. De Vaines Diet. Raisou. 
de Diplom : Home's Bibliog. I. 36. 107. 

BowRB or Bov^BR. An arbour — being made of 
boughs-^sometimes Bowrie, Nares, remarks that 
howre formerly meant a chamber — Rosamond's houier 
was such ; but the word seems now not to be used 
in that sense. 

Bracklb. Bracklt. Ripe com, especially 
wheat, is said to hraehU, and to **ifBkt^ hratklyt** 

when, from having quickly ripened, or from other 


miiti^^ifc^iiMi.i i i' h J vrU-' > ' ^rtgT^ iwi, ^ 

■iMhriiWW*' "^ '" 


««auiM,'' tlie'ittiiis>«re!*Jii^tk» tvid «iap7dMg| oH^ 
'Voder AeMsle, or 4iie §ileMiei^«lifuid. 

'Sr AK B8. The ieoiMnoii4nuBe for ^^e feranMeb 

grows so Ittxunantlj' an# beaatif ally «i f^eoroMdy 

*• toils. Hie 'Scotch- cM tbem dratoi-^a verrfoet* 

•>ieal word» *- Ray says lliat^ BmAer is aiword'Df-^rnie- 

(^«al Bse all ovei Epglaad. £i W. p. 19. <bttt I i^ber 

doyi>tit. TfMser lias it 

, A mtakforitm pfime^ and tpsvoige BfX U»9 bf like. 

S^ vndisjr ^Q0Jr-^i«ir8» Hf md mtfi- AiiQ HAder 
Makb. "Broctoi, A)KAB»r^i( Isip^le fmh— 
polypodinm JiHx foemiim* Liim. . lo Sivedeii ^oe- 
-. Aen/' J. 

I am ratber surprised at-Ntrea sayiag thai &^e 
is a word formerly used iii many diffenenf seBse^^but 
: since become obsebets ^r little < known, in fill but 
that of a thickei ox ikoact^-bmh. - He gife^ s^yafal 
a^n^9; and the l^^tfrm* and adds, as tb^.^nse 
now in use, a b:iiuk. Isf owt I wiw, and,. inde«4» Hill 
aqif disposed to think that the Jtr(ii^ w|iere l^ie 
word is known, rarely if ever, npeans a ^tfs&, or 
Hmn-buth* Nor hasyent tinit ineauiog. 

BsA^D or BaANDBi>. Smutty cora^i^Mii .fbe 
Dutch probably — h^mt^ 

Bn ANK. Bnck-wheat — Pofygmiium foffopiffcum. 
**, Brflnh, buck^wheat;. £8is. Sufil In sooi^e €<Nu\tiies 
oflSnghind they caU U Cwjp." ftay, E. W^ P* 7-1. 
Among his S. and £• country words, l\eadds ^'Gr^, 
Darafl, Sl^nffolk. InWoro^ters)^ and otbierc^nnties 
they call Baek-wheat# Ck^' £• W. p. 74. I n^ier 
lieard it so qaljiiedi 


tmjinmw^* IQMto* new, itttnikv tt«<ajiKft'«>r 

snjpH, • 41f e aey ftmn^jieirj are well as ^mn^Hni-Jwv^ 

and span-new and «picit'«» :t/MHi »eic. See lunler 

those '^wairci&. 'In ^eA^wk-Bmrndmem^ mtA 'Btent- 

itmmDfi ^9a€^ i\w smnef-Jvuettom at^ys, as- i/xteib and 

t'fiRA«r9r. 'A tmarias weilas tbc^iiibie iklieacy 
'^eA kiaowiiby diat lunne* . Abaar?i8 also«oiMtJiued 
«'ioail«d a ivimm. 

<^lRAWTCti. 'l\lMk 4bM«l iQid^ (wiftled aiHi fitMiited 

i^fiiecebf faatiei;' wiHoiv^ or i»t her 6exit>l6 y^udg twig, 

'^ifith) which !tbatcher»^x the straw on the roofs of 

t>lfo«ises, staicks, bams^ See. Jo Cheshire these ar* 

tides are niore obviously caHed Thatch-priekg* W« 

• Tabruwick is alsotoi broach a cask/ &c. 

r Brat. To pound any thing in a mortar. I iiad 

^byNares' Gl. that ills from the French braier, mean- 

ing ju,st the same tbiug ) and il seems cofifin^d Wlfcfat 

•'^reci^ sense. He qootes two passages*— 

-^*T«ron1d*grwTe nit to be hmp^d 
I^ a hag^e mortar, wrought to, &c. 

Atbunmori Old PL VII. 161. 
Would \ wf re ^«yV »o mjr own reoriar* if 
I do not call th* in question the next term. 

O^^imty, Old P/. X. 911. 

BrsAK-VP^. The hftppy period of the t:egular 
ll^lidajs of schoolboys. •' Wheu do yeow break-up^ " 

''Vlfa hrcM'V'P last Monday." 

Bred. The flatt and usually circular^ piece of 

board laid on a new ch«ese whiie under pressure. — 

^^[ti'heQMiuU'in wht«h cheeses are made or pressed — 

which is commonly turned oat -a^* one piece o^wo^d 

-*«^«^€al^^/«l^ er ahee8»*iktr--4>r vat>; llir DpeD or 


upper part of which is somethiog larger than the 
bred^ that from its pressure into it, the whey may be 
squeezed out of the cheese. 

Brbdgg. Bridge — as noticed under Annind* 

Brefkust. Breakfast — used by farmers and 
people above the labouring class. — So wapM for wasp 
''^**per anagrammatismnnC* as Ray says. See Shu CK. 

Brew. The field side of a ditch — the brim» 
brow, or berm, as elsewhere called. See instances 
of this peculiarity of proouuciation under Botes. 

Brick-noggi N. An old strong mode of building 
with frequent wooden right-up*^ or studds, filled in 
between with bricks. It is not wholly disused — and 
is sometimes called noggin, 

Brimm. a boar. A sow when marts appetent, 
is said to ''go to brimm^" or to *' be hrimmen.'' Thos 
in Ray " A sow goes to brimme^ i. e. to boar — of lise 
also in the North.'* £. W. p. h. 

In Scottish Brim and Breme, have cognate, 
though not exactly similar meanings. In Suffolk, as 
in other parts. Brim, as an abbreviation of brim- 
stone, perh'dps, is applied to a prostitute. Females 
of the canine species are said to be proud as well 
as salt, when in this predicament. Pembroke in his 
Arcadia, as cited by Nares, .uses brim figurativcfly 
in the sense of proud; or Jierce, as the archdeacon 

judges— Let not pride make thee brim. 

Because tboo hast thy felhow orergooe. 

In Cheshire and Lancashire, Brimming is^ used in 
the sense first given. W. 

Brimming/ UptotheMm— ^*m/«S» 
mer — a bumper. 


•af'^MeA." ''Shafctspeare ^iiies petite i weld. JH kr a 

'."-north-oottatryiiainei alid "fori Ibe^'abianaly'^wbkb' is 

» ifher^ lifctwtse dail«d^A>'P«eej*R1ly. £.»'Wj.|i^t48. 

*' Th&naifflfal is' tfiottynaoiis, -iMndgwr^ ^^Amkifiot 

^\0rfty/^'lb. 100. vTb«-l«sl'>is> ikofr ^m&me'^m^ us; 

J*tot>we:«ay '^a^gfrey^as 8i'l)ttdger"'^-of:«Be wMose 

•Hclid^ is'^'dlvared o^tr-'Witb^tige/' vor «ppraaaUog 


• 'Drogvus. ^Braeafaes. L tmve ilDtnhaard tfhis 
• waM^of soitiiK< years. {f^Cfwm^ffwn'*'-^\^ (Mteve 
'"£ast Angiian-^aod is<a« gobd as^ i^ noi 'belter ^iian, 
**for some years." ~Bothi>are« awkward.) iii'ifeiilier 
times a number of Dutcb- Skates (as we' usM to call 
tliem).or SohayteSy used to frequent the rivers and 
creeks of our eastern' coast, and the Skippers- used 
to wear enormous breeches; "so much tinliiicf ours 
that probably another name was Mhcmfiit expedient 
"for' them; and we caUed them 'jBro^mef, and* gave 
the name occasionally to our own less 'capaciou#*ha- 
'InKments. Talking t>f capacity, the ■Belg%t*2Lt\ic\t% 
adverted to were, not 'ta'^meMioji their ordinary 
conti^nts; equal- to the 'HMmve^ieut conveyabee^f six 
or eight or ten* bottles ^T^heni^h, which the honest 
"Skippers would deliver' tbems^hres (of with grtat 
gravity, one by one, to riic infinite delight '^flbeir 
grinning friends. ' I am M<>t sure > that 'illt^is was 
exactly Hght, eventit'thatday-^and-I spe^k of 
nearly h^lf a century ago-^orn^ron-aswe say), rPhe 
winc^or perhaps, the^, a^the case^may'hi^ve^b^fen 
— or possibly tea-^ was not $6M. Itwasajaresen* — 


and this may have been the '' flattering unetion," laid 
to the souls of those who would not have smuggled. 
The grateful farmer in return presented to bis worthy 
silent friend a load of carrots, or turnips, and the 
amicable account current was readily adjusted. 

BrQkT^aec'g^hra€cor'--hryccan — brigi» — hrooge^ 
ftreeib-^are words of like import, in divers dialects 
from Scotland and Ireland, to Gaul, Sweden, &c. 

Brow n-Stu dt« A half-musing half-melanchply 
listless mood. Or, us Nares better describes it, ** a 
tiM>ughtiess absence of mind." He remarks that this 
singular phrase is far from being new — and quotes 
these lines from Ben Johnson — 

,Faith this hrown'Uwiy^ %vkx% not with jour black. 
Your habit and 3'our thoughts are of two colours. 

Cne Altered. IV. 1. 
BliUFF. Hearty — well, or better, in health. 

^EUM. Broom — growing or made. 

Brcmble. Bramble. ' See under BcTSS. 

Brum B lb-g eld br. A fkrmer^-of course a con- 
temptttous appellation. 

Bru m pbr. ^ One who thievishly lops or $Umgki 
\ trees m the night. See Stow. 

Bru MPS. J The faggots, the produce of such, 

too conmion, work. May these 
words be derived from ** Obrumpent ( Latin) to des* 
troy or break? " Cocker. 

Brunn. Bran. See under BcTBS. 

Bausu. To cut down with an old scythe, or brush- 
bill, nettles, &c. weeds in fences—or brakes<-M)r 
fog in meadows. See Bill. 

A brosh-scjthe and grass-scythe. Ttister. p. 14. 

See under Goof, verse 14.— and note. 


Brussels. Bristles— <' hog's brusseis." An an- 
gry mto is said to ^< brmsel ap"«^or to ''jet 'as bnu- 
sek up like a riied hog.'* 

Buck. The body, w top part, of a wag^gon or 
cart. *' Full, up to the buckM**'^boke^ or body, per- 
haps originally. — See BoKE. A skittish horse is 
said to buck, when disposed to bound, buck-like^ 
*'Th' oud mare buck'd like a cowt*'— "He's a 
Imcker, een't *a?" "'A buck tew much for me." 

"The Buck, the breast. Suffolk. It is used 
for the body or the trunk of the body ; in Dutch 
and old Saxon, it signifies the belly, the buck of a 
cart, i.e. the body of a cart." Ray. E. W. p. 71. 

Buck-basket. The great linen or washing 
basket — so connected with the laughable sufferings 
of our fat friend — Falstaff. In some counties buck'- 
ing means washing, but I do not think we have 
such a verb in Suffolk, See Leech. 

It appears, however, to have been formerly Suf- 
folk ; for among the items of expences at Hengrave 
Hall in 1572 is this, " For a bucking tubbe, iijs. 
viijd.*' Gage's Heng, p, 197. 

Ray quotes a proverb from Chaucer, in which 
the word occurs in this sense; quaintly implying 
th^t a majority of daughters is not desirable — or 
it may peradventure have some other meaning — 

He that hath more smocks than shirts in a buching. 
Had need be a man of good fore-looking# 

BucKER. The bent piece of wood by which 

slaughtered sheep or hogs are hung up by their 

expanded hind legs, before being cut out. The 



liretA is^comnraiily used ^proverbially or;coii^[>ir&*' 
tivdy^' among certaia claases^ "As bent as a 
imckerJ" The following riddle I can reelect aa 
fat%baoiB^ as.1 can jecoileet anyr^iii^if.bat I hwpt 
forgotUw tilife volotioiK- 

A:»ftraight ms m may-pole, -as Iktle^ » piiv-««> 
As bent m a bnckert and as round as a ring. 

I do.Bol^ reeoUect baviag heard- the word out of 
Suffo&k, Gumbrel, is a word of like meaning — or 
Beems. to:h«ve boeQ<so» I never saw it but in Ray 
^— who/has'this'prpverb — "Soon crooks the tree> 
thatv good '5^a»6re^ would be^'^'-ftnd he'thus,ex« 
pounds ,the«word — 

*' A gambrel is a orooked piece of wood on which 
foutchersr hang-^p parcases of beasts by the legs, 
from the Italian word gupibaf signifying a leg/'p.9S« 

In JameisoQ I find seveiftil words like bucker de- 
duced fitmi a Teutonic word buck-en to bow, to 
beadi-. Bnt bucker, in the Suffolk sense does not 
app/ear to be Scottish* . 

The word ^am6re/. used above is the same most 
likely, as the subject of. the follpwing article in 
Nve»' Glossary. . . 

''CAMBRT1.S. A word which I cannot find'ac-^ 
knowledge^ in any dictionary, but evidently mean-^ 
ing, in the following passage, legs ; perhaps bowed 
legs particularly, from cambr6, crooked, Freiich« 
in describings satyr k is- said " 

Btft h&*« » v«r y '^feeb goal Mow 

His crookted cambrilr arm*d with hoof^ind hair. . 

VAd«r*»€?tf^*rel or GtfMdrl//^ howev<ar,<lie'll«r^' » 


rectly describes a tucker; only he places it be- 
tween the shoulders, instead of the hind legs. He 
says it is ^' A stick placed by butchers between the 
shoulders of a aheep netwly killed to keep the car- 
case open, ^by .pinioning the forelegs back. 

Spied t^o of them hung out at a stall, with agambrel thrust 

" " r, like a sheep that was new flay 

Chapm. M0M. D*Ol. Act III. end. 

from shoulder to shoulder, like a sheep that was new flayed. 

I do not know the work .'here quoted — but I 
believe the '' two . of them*' ie£er to men, slain and 
exposed in the manner described*^aiid.that though 
the gamhrd onbueker was '* thrast from shoulder 
to shoulder " in :thei|i, it is .not its position In m 
** new flayed sheep." A stmight piece =of stick is 
so thrust by butchei s to expose favourably the in- 
side of a 'bullodc, sbe^, or^^aif while hanging on 
l^e bveker, in ^i^Yk \t lis called a sst. 

** To Qamkril **' — Nares «€mtiniies--r*i6 *' to extend 
with a stidk, in the manner above described — 

X.aj by your scorn and pride* they V« scarry qdalitifls^ 
And niect lue, orlHl box you while I have you. 
And carry you gambriL*d thither like a luittton, 

XJnreasonably ),o^g as ibis ^tkle nuist aj^ear, 
I am induced to lengtbe^ it by a farther qiiotativn 
fromNares, shewing-that :;ffe«c^« ^iri<Jwi^«7a^d 
4j$amlnil are n/early ^li^d. 

** A Ca>ioc|^. a cro<^ed^rce : ^al^o a crooke^ 
J^am, or knee^f tii^^-u^d in sbip^bu>ldiiig, ^c. 
frp^i Kjm, We||bch and £i;$e for crooked. 

Bitter the blossom when the fruit is sour. 

And early crooked that will a camock be. Drayt, Hcl'T, 

But timely, ma'daini crook* the tree that -will be « cam9dep 


Camoch most be» bowed with sleigbt tiot strength. 

Id, Sappho fPk, 1591. 
Full hard it is a eamocke straight to make. 

Engl. Pam. repr. in HeliconiBi, p. 556« 

But I well know that a bitter roote is amended 
with a sweet grafts and crooked trees prove 
good Cammocks, and wild grapes make pleasant 
wine." Euph, and hU Engl. C 3. 

In Scottish we find Camok to mean crooked ; 
Cammock to be a crooked stick, and Cam-noted, 
hook-nosed. J. See under Gambrbl. . 

Buck-heading. Cutting down live fences to 
within two or three feet .of the ground. In Norfolk 
it b called huck-MtaUmg. 

Buck-wheat. See Brank. 

Bud. a yearling calf— when the horns begin to 
bud, 1 suppose. On enquiry I am told that ea/oef« 
male or female, are called Bnd» while between mie 
and two years old — the female then becomes a heifer 
— and after having a calf, she is a cow. The bull- 
calf we also call a hulkin, which see — a " tew yer 
owd bull/' ''a three yer owd bull," &c. are farther 
distinctions that we make. "A hud, a weaned calf 
of the first year. Suff. Because the horns are then 
in the bud." JRoy. £. W. p. 72. 

BUF^T. A comer cupboard, especially one for 
the display of glass or dkeeny. A sideboard. The 
word was much in use in my recollection, but is, as 
well as the thing itself, gomg out of fashion. A low 
square stool we call a huffei ttool It has been sur- 
mised to be a Nonnan-french word — beaufei: hence 
our BeaujfoHen, grooms of the sideboard, or yeomen 


of the heoMfei; wbimsically though not perhaps im- 
approprately altered to Beef-eaien. 

We retain this word in the sense of a Mow or 
stroke : sometimes abbreviated to huff. Nares quotes 
these two instances of its early usage in this sense*- 

There was a shock 

To have huffed oat the blood 

Of aught bat a block. B, Jomon* 

Katheless, so sore a huff to him it lent. ^ P. Q. II. ▼. 6. 

BuFFLSD. Com growing, or, when ready for 
the sickle or scythe not standing, even or gain, 
to be cut, is said to be Imffied or baffled about. It 
seems to have the meaning of confused — for we 
sometimes hear of a stupid, muddled sort of a per- 
son, described as being ^'kienda buffle hiddid/* 
It has also a sense of a blow : — such a one as may 
confuse the unlucky recipient. See Baffled. 

Bui|K. See Bokr. 

BuLKiN. A bull-calf. So Tusser 

Lamb, 6u/c/ttn» and pig — 
Geld under the big. p. 81. 

Nares gives the word, spelled as ioTusser — ^notmg 
that as a diminutive of bull, it ought to be hull-kin. 
He quotes from four of our older writers, who all 
spell it hulchin. See Bud. 

BULL-FIEST. The puff ball, L^copetdon^ called 

in other counties ptuik fiest^ fuz-ball, muUy-puff, 

yroycfteese, and probably by other names. BvUfiest, 

the German Bofiit^ and the Bovista of Dillenius 

are derivable from the idea which gave rise to the 

old name pf Crepitus lupi^ on which Lycoperdon is 

90 ^ an improvemenl as being less intelligible. It 

F 2 


ik tliier C. ffiydnt'euik that iKre AfQ now c ottHiJcHu ^. 
It is esteemed of eAcaiey in eas^is o^ Hasmorpha||6 ; 
and from seeing it' occasionally hung up in stables, 
it may perhaps, like a stone with a hol'e in it, have 
some occuU virtue. 

In Scotland it is called "BUnd-m^n^s-ball, DemT^ 
snuff-box, and Blind-man.' s-een, i.e. eyes; and, ac- 
cording to Linn, an idea prevails through the whole 
of Sweden* that thednstof thisplaxit causes bUnd- 
ircKS;*' J. 

Bullock or B6o£K. To abtii^ or domineer— . 
to bully. Also tt> throb in the case of nrflftmmatioil 
or a PiisA. 

Gdlm or Gah^er, is a wotd of similar import — 
Pritch, another. The following is a genuine speech 
of an old lady. ''I ha goisitch alamentaablepush-, 
an ta boolk sadly, an at night ta itch an ts, pritch, 
an ta gaa-aha." This, as- delivered with the true 
Suffolk intonation, may be set to music. 

BuMBA^Tj^ BuMBRUSH% Words that suffici- 
ently explain themselves — especially to school-boys* 
The former is given by Nares, who quotes a line} 
shewing it not fo be very local or modern* The 
tfeifi^ is pretty universal, 

L shall bimiasle youv yoQ iDockiiupiknave. 

DatnwdniPm. Oiait. 1. ft09: 

B^DMBtET-BeE. Alsb Kinkt^-lree^itit fine Mid-> 
some weh ftnown m^tlifieroixs insect, nam^d donfotfes^ 
from his sonorous, booming, humming, note. Nar^s 
emends Johnson's conjecture, that this w^Updned bee 
was called Kukbte froiu faavii)g nxf sticg: md' sug^ 



^sto hiummiMff as the source of its name ; or htmblef 
as in this line from Chaucer— 

And as a bttore humhleth in the mire. Wife of Bath. 

The bitore is doubtless the Bittern, or Buitle, as 
we call it — sometimes termed the booming Bittern, 
and in Scotland called Mire-drum, See BuTTLE. 

BuMBY. A quag, a quagmire, the contents of a 
privy. Wet insolid land will be thus' described "ia 
qu>il like a bumby*' * **\ bumby, a deep place of 
mire and dung, a filthy puddle/' Ray. £. W. p. 71. 

Bump. A blow, a stroke ; also, as inother parts, • 
the rising of the flesh, in consequence of a blow.' 
This we more commonly call a bunny, (which see) 
especially if on the head. As well as a blow, ge- 
nerally, and in common with so many other words, 
as enumerated under Aint, Bump has a specific 
and peculiar application of its own. The punish- 
ment of a school-boy for telling tales or for any act of 
treachery, coming immediately under the summary 
jurisdiction of his peers, is bumping : and this is 
performed by prostrating the coatless culprit on his 
back, in the immediate vicinity of a large block of 
wood, .or of a wall. A strong boy seizes the right 
ancle and wrist, another the left, and lift him off 
the ground ; and after a preparatory vibration or 
two to give a due momentum, he comes in violent 
contact with the block, a posteriori. This is re- 
peated six or eight or more times, according to the 
enormity of the offence, pr the just resentment of 

the executioners. 


Oa aaotliiaptiQcaiiftHi, ft gnaltltot oa^ fticlifce,ii>pe^ 
ration is inflicted in j«lce« At stftt^d peribds it. is 
usual for pftrish-officers, attended t^ ma^j idly^ 
disposed boys and men, to go a-bounditig,^Hk9t is 
along (and to notice and mark) the bounds of the 
parish. This useful circumambulation is in some case 
annual^ in others biennial, triennial, &c. And at its 
extremities, where a marked tree has generally been 
trained up, boys are soundly bumped, to impre^ 
on their memories, &c, the terminal &ct. A stranger' 
passing at the time, without a due consideration m 
the part of the bounders of who he may be, tans 
au imminent risk of having similar imprematis made 
on his mind, &c. — for it is a sort of saturnalia ; a 
little drink being, perhaps, allowably charged in 
the parish accounts, superadded to the social col- 
lections of the bounders and bumpers, and sometimes 
even of a good-humoured bumpee. ^ 

Bump IS also Scottish, *' a stroke,^ "He came 
bump upon me,'' he came upon me with a stroke. 

Iclendic bompi, a stroke against any object — 
bamp-a, cita ruina ferri. J. 

With us, however, the phrase of coming bump 
upon one, would not mean, as in Scotland, with a 
stroke or blow, but as coming quickly, violently, 
unexpectedly, and not pleasantly; round a comer, 
or at a considerable angle, and jostling, or nearly. 

BuMSHUS. Refractory, insolent. Also Gums^ 
and Rumgumshus^ The first is more common in 


invm. A b0ift^ having ftis tail eUt iyid seared 
oA* close to his bannch is called Imnged, or diin^f- 
failed; or a> ^ftj^ cfocAr. This horrible custom is 
not yet quite disused. I can recollect when crack 
teams of our fine horses were oommonlj seen thus 
abominably mntilat^d ; and I regret to say that now 
and fhen a stallion is still exhibited shamefully 
<* dttrHaiied- of \m fair proportions/' 

feuNKAS. A number o^boys, or other persons, 
collecting confiisedly together. " 'Kinder!— what 
a Suhkiis on em.*' 

Bunks. A rabbit, from httnnp; and conej, per- 
lifi|y3 * and bunj/ fnom the i^hoitness of its tail. See 
dtose artides. 

filTNNY. A rabbit'^'^so Bunks and Coney: also 
the swelling in the head incident to a rap, especially 
fi'om a schoolmaster's ruler. The indentation be- 
tween two such^unni6«><or indeed any such indenta*- 
tion, is a doke, (which see). Hicke's in his preface 
to his Saxon grammar,, cited by Ray, says that 
Bufmy is a Saxon word, meaning, as here, a swell- 
ing from a stroke or blow on the head^ &c. which 
he parallels with the Gothic bangs, and the Ice- 
landish bant a wounds In Essex they call it '' a 
baine on the head/' 

BuN-WEBD— otherwise Bund-weed, or Button- 
vfeed, or Blkebuttim — I believe the cow-parsnip, or 
Heradeumsphondylium — or else the Seneciojacobaea. 
Or does the latter apply more to the Rag-wort, or 
Rag-weed f In Scotland; accordiug. to Jameison» 


Bunewimd, Bnn-wand, Bun-tcede^woA jBtn.-weed^'are 
names of these plants. The latter he thinks to be 
the Poli/f/ convohulus, which^ m Sweden k 
called Binda. 

The herb that we call Bme-weed^ or Bind weed, 
19 perhaps of the Tamus^ or Smiiaxt genus. We 
sometimes call it Bbie-bm, and Bell-bin, It beary a 
bliie, bell -shaped flower. Knot grau is another of 
these troublesome weeds. It is sometimes made use- 
ful for tving up bean shoofs. We never call couch 
grass by this name, as they do in some counties. — 
♦We always call it speargrass. 

Burg AD. Yeast. Ray derives the word hom 
^eer-good; but I see no analogical grounds for 
agreeing with him. We also call it Bohmy which 

Burr. The adhesiye troublesome flower of the 
Arctium lappa , which we appropriately call hurdoek. 
Throwing ^em " in holiday foolery" on girl's cloth- 
ing, or rubbing a handful of them well into the long 
haired (and the odds in my young days were also 
loiuy) scalp of a boy, were common pieces of 
wickedness. The mischief I dare say remains, but 
such has been the exterminating persecntion waged 
since the time I wot of, against the offending race 
of pediculi, that a specimen is now scarcely to be 
met with, except in the cabinets of the curious. It 
is not indeed genteel to sound its name in the pre- 
sence of ** ears polite,'* and I ought perhaps to 
apologize for even writing it. But to return to 


r. — Shakespeare let notbing. ub natuve pati^ — 
How aiimkable m the allusioa to: the quality of tb^ 
burr, la tiiis dialogue. 
MmaUndm How- fall of briafa is this w«rking-dsy worl4 ! 

Cejia. They are bat bum, cousin> thrown on thee in holiday 
fboUry : W ^e walk not in the trodtlen' paths onr vetf pettltoats 
wiJl .catch tliem. 

Rwalind. I could shake them oflf my coat :-^these Jnirrt are 
h) my heart. A$ you take ik !. 31 

Again iti Troilns tihti Cresdda, HI. ±. 

Qor kindred; tttongh- they be* long ere iJiey be woo^d, th^^ 
are constant being won ; they ate Ifktrrfl can tell you^ tbej*il 
stick where they are thrown. 

Tiisser, among the aiiAoyanc^^ to fai'ftl^fi^, in- 
cluded the burr. 

Grass, thistle, and mustard-seed, hemlock, and tfUiT. p. 15^, 

sttid' speaking of the diters pi£^refs df lbi*liiet^il 
property, he sayy 

Lord ! if ye do take them^ whatstnrs? 

How hold they together^ like bum f p. 208. 

lit Seotlaad ^* Bur^ihrissel is the speaf thisUei 
Cdrdtaui lanceolaiUiJ' J. B^rr in Suffolk meato 
also the wen-like rough exerescenbe on old traes> 
dins especially. But we more eommonly caH it 
Mitktf, nf^ich'see. 
Btisc. Bash. <sThar' love tojtfwAi'tfi* sub/' 
Buss. Kiss.t^Tkisr wosd* Nates remarks* tJfta* 
now only used in familiar or " vulgar bnguagd wa$ 
ibrnJieBly thought of luffiei^nt ^ipAiji to rank am^ng 
teagical expressions. But it had already suffiei^d 
aotoie degradation when Herrick wiote this epigram 
upon it— 

KJctfbg and friws^i^ diSfef both in thi^— 

We btme our wautuns, Efut our wives we kiss.'* Work^ p. 219* 


Bi7S8£N BELLY. Ruptured. I can recolkct chil- 
dren in SufTotky drawn, in a particttlar mode, and 
witK certain ceremonies, through a cleft tree, as a 
cure for this malady. Ceremonies similar have been 
noticed among the Hindoos : indeed this superstition 
of forcing a passage through a fissure, or cleft ori* 
fice, is of very extensive prevalence — and in eyes 
and minds prone to mystery, has been viewed in a 
very profound light. But this is not the place to 
dilate on a matter far from uninteresting. 

BUTES. Boots. " Ta We." To boot. *• HI gic 
ye a crown ta bute. This being the first leading word 
under which we have had occasion to notice our com* 
mon substitution of the acute u for the ordinary sound 
of oo, I will here notice such words as occur to me 
in which this striking localism is most remarkable — 
premising tliat names of persons do not escape. Our 
worthy county member is not unfreiiuently styled 
Matter Geweh; nor does the name of the Collector 
of these words always escape similar iruntUmatum. 

Among the words in which the acute « is thus sub- 
stituted, are the following-— cule, culer, dew> fule^ 
guse, hew, lewse, raune, nunc, nuse, shue, shutc, skule, 
smutfae, snuze, stole^ sane, tew, tule. There may 
be several otheit. 

1 do not find that we have followed any role in 
this change of sound, though we are pretty uniform 
and general as to the words changed. It may be 
remaiked, indeed, that no words ending with d^f, k, 
Ufa Pi or r, occur to me as subjected to it* Blood, 


book, brook, coop, door, food, floor, good, groom, 
hoop, hoof, look, proof, poor, roof, room, scoopr 
wood, &c. preserve their rights. Broom, we pro- 
nounce brum, and roof, ruff; but never give those 
words the sound of the acute u. 

L, n, s, and t, final, it will be seen above, are 
subject to the Suffolk penult sound; but not always. 
Wool, full, bull, (sounded alike though spelled dif* 
ferently) foot, loan, moan, root, tone, and are never, 
I think, changed. f 

I am disposed to maintain against respected aa« 
thority, that spoon is never spune. 1 think I never 
heard it. It is sometimes epun^ 

In a few words we change the sound somewhat 
differently. For blowed and crowed, we say blew 
and crew. The first is not local ; and for crew, we 
have the best authority. Mowed with us is mew; 
brow, brew ; snowed, snew ; thawed, thew ; gnawed^ 
goew; owed, ewe. Some of these may be defended 
on analogy. Sundry orthoepic compensations are 
observable among us. Thus, as we say ewe for 
owed, so for ewe we say yow ; and we interchange i 
with ee; deeve fur dive, ship for sheep. Sec. as no- 
ticed under Aninnd. 

In Yorkshire, according to Ray, a vicious pronun- 
ciation, similar to that the chief subject of this ar- 
ticle, is current. ** In some words for oo they pro^ 
nouoce eu; as ceul, feul, eneugh, for cool, fool^ 
enough. In other words, instead of ae, or a, or oa 
they pronounce ee ; as deer for door, fleer for floor. 


nbreed for abroad, ge for go, se for 30, oe for no/' 
E» W, p. 1 ^6. 

Ib Si»ffolk none of these latter ehanges are heard. 
The Scotch, in many if not in the same word3, 
change as we do the sound of 00 Lato ti. Puir, buik, 
nittir, &c. 

I will add noder this aiticle, for the sake of readj 
reference from others, that we have a farther change 
in sound respecting such words as the following — 
boouch, boondle, moontb, poonch; for buDcI^ 
bnndie, month, punch. Broom and roof are noticed 
above : bran vie call brun; bramble, brumble ; a 
mule, mole; musick, mosick. Some other permu* 
tations of sound, « for t , and t for e, are noticed un- 
der Aninnd, as above referred to. 

BuTTAH. Better. "Ah— 'adont know no hUiakJ^ 

Buttle. An acquatic or river bird, described 
nearly as big as a Baknsey — seldom seen. It is long 
legged, and long necked, stands very erect, and has 
a large ybrelo/i, or head tuft, in colour brownish. — 
its note is called blowing, or the <' Balilebhw.' I 
suq}ect it to be the Bittern. 

It is somewhat curious that in the very same hour 
in which I wrote down the above description of the 
Suttle from tlie mouth of a jpersoo who boasted of 
•having once shot one at Bi^tley, nepr Wood bridge'^ 
it is somewhat odd that, without at all looking tor 
Jt, I sihould have •hit on this passage among Ray*s S. 
«nd £• cMiQiry words» 

** A JSviiai, or lii^krq* ^ Ifi^ino Suteo. In ihe 


ttoHii « Jlitre-dhim/' £4 W. p. 72. The BHtvm is 
somewhere called *^ ike boamikg Bkteni/' I suppose 
from some peculiar koUwo note* and hence, perhapfly 
and from its frequenting wet miry places, the. name 
of Mire drum. See under "Bumblb-bse, for some* 
thing that has occurred since the above was written. 

BOTTRics. A tool used by farriers. It b etou^ 
menited by Tasser as one of the iinplentehts that a 
Armer ought to be in possession of. See under 
GooPy verse 4, and note. 

BuTTRY. The place,' even in a tottage, where 
the bread, cheese, bmifer, crockery, ^c. is kept.— » 

Stich keys lay up safe^ era ye tiike ye to re«l> 

Of dairy, ofbuUeryf of cupboard, and chest, p. 068. 

Buzzard. A large species of hawk or kite, others 
vise called the Bald-^ite. We have the plirase '^as 
blind as a buzzard^" and ''a blind bazzard" — wa 
have also *<as blind as a beetle,.'* and "between hawk 
and buzzard" — all these are perhaps in extensive. uae» 
Referring to the sharp-sighted hawk for a compansoa 
of blindness, may seem odd — but the fact is that it 
is the cockchafer or black beetle that has given rise 
to these sayings — and to that of "as dull as a beetle." 
These insects fly very clumsily, and are called buz- 
zards, from their buzzing note. This I learned from 
Nares' Glossary. He gives several amusing quoti^« 
tions in proof. 

By gom — By goMs— By go^h. Improvements 
on grosser oaths : of which softenings we Have many. 
See Amenden. 


BiT THB WALLS. An iinkiiried»eoipM. ''Poor 
lohp. Smitli f' he lie. by the walls.'^ Said' oaly> I 
bcJieVe* of a human subject* 

i|)|aI^ c»iMiUl i|l«-''-rr<$faMi U a, iKrb.«mMlhiQg.n- 

Q^Gi^ X^^eaie: one's aelfir-fiarlicitltijrlyL a chiM^ 
who is commonly invited to.thfLclisir.or.diKirhythil 
wfvsAt am<#8*^t lQWer« ontcn* Alw, hut i«as com- 
num][y, t)i«^fpt(\il9df* I|% sane Baatarp languages 
Kakh (pronounced open and long instead c of ahoit 
and shar|> lihe.the Snfiblh, word)^ means 9qiiy though 
not night soil. It is obviously derived from the Latin 

C«C9. ' 

Cackle. The noise made bv a hen on laying an 

egg. — Also the gabbling of women or children — or 

" . ■ * . . ' 

of^^ very talkative man. Not local perhaps. Hence 

the wholesome advice 'f when ye lab an egg, tho' ta 

be a* gowd, dont cacA:/e"*^against giggling when 

making any relation, though it border on wit or 

bumourJ Thus Tusser hi both senses — 

-as cackling ben with noise bewrays her nest* 

an original word, of which the nnmeanij^ Ja^l^x^^lf 

<J^#?^.«>^jK|d$»[«,Cvt|ftkS^U»fii|.^ "A,^ 
dow, a Jack-daw— Norfolk, In Coj^ig(j^t^i^ cf^ 


HM fMrnOn A-tHmMt" Mf, S. W.ft. 1% What 

Kill craw, "^ and oMtH ndkt baSH4t/a»A nmtt-U 
,j, ^ " Xb«ier. p. US. 


fitactt thinks «i|>ill'lkov^, afntiO tt ife'ylM, 

Kett dore and the ead*w, there finding s smack, 
Witli ai sMitty ikMher, So perish tfcj staek. p.tW, 

f^t at m^ Hid." b»>. <«%, !ll»ff, ir« otA^r tUfr 
nr #brds. 

CiLLA-ibr 'Ckkfi^^ Vaioii). T^ iuHSlEii ^ 
tte land 'nik^^ \i> d% fo^ s^Miei. ^: Xmtl^^^ 
¥eiiibve tfals. It Mcttis to hiiv« mi% 4xte«i«lfd^ IM 
^db. or to b« deHved ttdta \i, of layUg »(■ VSS^ 
ym-ii "caRd(» liVood"-^rydk«<I^i!d Uird^. Hk 

C'AiftfaTBlstt. An iinperkii^i 1^ m\Ai the IBrtf. 
'ij^ Boise b» a tekiii is titnied t(i tile ii^it. ft is e'qUcl- 
"iit^iittdAiH.wttttlhM. fts b'bhil dHv^iv ^ii^rjfi^ 
Walk bU tlw m side br tliii team. tUi J WBM ^^^ ^(3. 
t^rv. CiMmkri UUt it seeNii iib« tb Mm % 

"^mk io ^.^i^di, ii n v^iUiid ^ Uteii lir M 

iMo«!f»»jfi. iind bcciiJfiiifkffj^ ^1^^ %i m($ i8 ifa'^ 
f/ii Ht Simotk l>jj i64 si» coast— ^inb're especiafiy m 

ana Aide— sommmes scnool against scnooj^ or parish 


ti Goab were pitched mt (he distance of 150 or 9M 
jalds from each other — these were generally formed 
of the thrown gS clothes of the competitors. Each 
party has two goals, ten or fifteen yards apart. The 
parties, ten or fifteen on a side, stand in line, facing 
their own goals and each other, at ahont 10 yards 
ilistance, midway between the goals, and nearest that 
of their adversaries. An indifferent spectator, agreed, 
jon by the parties, throws up a ball, of the size of a 
common cricket ball, midway between the confronted 
players,, and makes, ^is escape. It is the object of 
the players to seise and convey the ball between their 
own goals. The rush Is therefore v^ry great; as is 
.sometimes the shock of the first onset, to catch the 
falling ball : — he who first can catch or seize it speeds 
.therefore home pursued by his opponents (thro' whom 
he has to make his way) aided by the jostlings and 
various assistaiices of his own nde&men. If caught 
and held, or in imminent danger of being caught, he 
throws the bail — but must in no case ^ive it — to a 
less beleMgured friend, who, if, it be not arrested in 
its course or he jostled away by the eager ami watch- 
ful adversaries, catches it; and he hastens homeward* 
in like manner pursued, annoyed, and aided — ^win- 
ning the notch (or snotch) if he contrive to carry — 
not throw — it between his goals. But this in a weU 
matched game, is no easy achievement, and oftep 
requires much time, many doublings, detours^ and 
exertions. I should have noticed that if the holder 
of the ball be caught with the ball in his possessioi^ 

IK iKrows it to a conveniept frieDO, itiore free ana ut 
Dre»ui than him^eif. At ffie loss (or giaiD) of a xno^SK^ 
a recommence takes piace» arranging wliieo gives tbe 
parties linfS tSx^t b'r^afft. S^vei' d^ iliil^' 4btcbes 
are the game— and these it will sometimes take two 
or three houni to win. 

It is a most uobte sEntel manlj spoft ; in the whole 
lifile; if ijt iin» \iMiMt to eritfkef; or hantlDg*, or 
hdi%e-racin^. lli^ eagernibss aiid emalatrdn' excitM^ 
and diK^t'^yed id and'by tW coiiipetilo'rs and towmk 
tlK^; arj Air^rikft^* Idde^d ttis vei^ atilhialiAg' to 
see twenty or thirty youths, stripped to the skilt, tltfdt 
dilfffayiiSf tem vdHoAs ebSrfied tlttt thi^ game ndflifts 
of r rti$hh)g with upRft^d eye; breiaU to biieasl*' «^ 
cit^ the ffesc«fi]dii% hall; atid tllf, at once; rttiiniti| 
fall &^ to gnki a pi^t; ami wheb t»^H> gaifldi; 
hfcff fattliig ov^r the stu>iihiiia'g objbct of pursttit(f(&r 
thi gsltlie'isif1Wtfy8]ira)^ed'wh^r«^tli^ gm^ i» ahtUt 
and ^lf|H^I'>) afid afteV much siftifilltif to s^ ite hill 
a^ltt id \ht fl3r, thrown tfo^ a wily distant sideshiaa 
— a'^d s^iited aiid carried tti'tbe eotitrairf diPectidit— 
biCekwkrrfs aild fdrwdrdu peVhaffe half a sboi^e tilDes; 
amid the shouting and roa'Hd^ of h^lf this p<^iikilWd 
of i1» cxStttigmiirs vilte^^s. 

8hhl«tlm<ds a lai^e ibot-bill ^its u^^and th~e 
gaii(lf> was t^h cailf d ''kicltitig damfl''— aHd if plUy^ 
with the shoes oli-» *' savage eaiilj^/' 

The sj^rt and tiahie are very old. Th^ «'C^irijlli% 

pig6t^'' oeclnt Ifl a de^'d'of the 80 H^ 6.^1^dh1fc 



I486. Callam's Hawstead, p. 118. where Tosser is. 
quoted in proof, that uot only was the exercise maoly 
and salutary, but good also for the pightel or meadow. 

In meadow or pasture — (to grow the more fine) 
Let campon be camping In any of thine: 
Which,if ye do suffer when low is the springs 
You gain to yourself a commodious thing, p. 65. 

And be says in page 66, 

Get campers a ball. 
To camp tberewithall. 

Ray says that the game prevails in Norfolk, Saf- 
foik, and Essex; and he derives it from the Saxon^ 
Cmmp, to ttrioe. The Latin CampiUi a field, or» : 
according to Ainsworth, a pkLvnJUldt Qi^y have its 
share in the name. 

. Since this was written a friend informs me that 
thb game fell into disuse in Saffolk, in consequence 
of two men having been killed at Easton alH>iit forty 
Of fift\' ytrars ago, in their, struggles at a grand match* 

In Scotland we find that Camp and Kemp and 
Chmpy, mean to contend; bold, brave, heroical; 
a champion. In ancient Sv/edi&h kaempe, aihleta.— 
In Danish kempe a i^iant. Kemp, Kempm^ and 
Kemper, farther mean in Scbtlish, the act of striving 
for sitpvriorit^, and one who so strives ; but is chkfty 
coafined to the barveht field. J. . 

Ca n k er. The common red field poppy. Papaver ^ 
JRAopa^'^calted also Copperoze. An internal sore or 
blister in the mouth, ibis is likewise calle- ' Canker fret. • 
The Canker is the pest of light land farmers-^there^; 
is no keeping our hedges and fields free from them; 
wheat and pea crops, especially. Surely the com- • 


meotatoTS have mistaken Shakeapcare ia this ppisiagf^ 

I*d rather be a coulee^ in a hedgf tiiau a rose in hit grace. 

M. Ada A. V. I. S— 

when the\ say that "a camker is the canker roit , 
-^"deg ro»e — cyuodHttot or hip" 1l>e antithesis is not 
strong enough ; for the kip is a beautiful and useful- 
thorn: but it is admirable if we take Shakespeare^s' 
Canker, as we do in Suffolk for the Papdcer Rhami. 
'The folhiwing passage is I think farther cunfirina- 
toi^ of this emendation*- 

^HaUpw, ' — but I will lift this down trod Mortimer 
As high i* th* air as thi» ui. thankful king. 
As this ingrate and c<mker*d Bo)ingbn«ke. 

K.Heu, 4, P, 1. hS.' 

Notwithstanding the respected authority of Narea* 
is in favor of the above commentary, I cauuut resist ^ 
retaining the belief that Shakespeare did not mean •. 
'Mhe coinuiou.wjid rose^ or dog-rose, eyiiat6a<oii." : 
S^e Cr/ossary. 

Cankbk fbbt. Cof^r oxydited. A copper 
saucepau lequiring to be tinned is said to have got a ' 
Cankerjret — or the tongue or gums sore or blistered 
-Hespecialty of a child suspected of having idly put 
a copper c<»in into its mouth. Fretten means dufr» 
gui;ed by small ppx^ or by freckles. 

C A V SEY . A causeway, or foot path a little raised*^ 
T)ie first .<>ylUble is much lengtliened^ aud nasally 
d^w|ed aud modulated. ; 

:Cant. CantRAIL. Cantle. A catU is a 
triangular piece uf wo4»d. A sqimre rail sawn into '» 
twoui (he iitie ot Us greatest diameter, that is from 
angle to angle, forms two cmU'Tm\B,^rttmtltfs. We - 

to pwe or set aay tnin)» «rii /'ff^^e^neDce may have 
arisen ibe name of the, op edged rail, or csmtle. 

May not ibis give us a clue to the meaninji^ of a 
passage in Shakes|)earc^ oa whith tbe eOraiHeiitatora 
are undecrdedi. 

. . The grater hhntU <A die if am is idftV 
With yerj ignorance. Ant, 4* C/eop. III« & 

Pope says, " caotle is a puce ^ bimp,**—Johm^- 
son — " Cantle is ratbt r rDmer. CeBsar, in ibis pkkjr,. 
mentions thie iKrfe kobktd tb&tld. Of |6iis trianga- 
iar worM every triumvir had a comer/' Johnson 
was v^ry nearly li^i^M I atti idcitiib^ to fbfbk 
Shakespeare hi^d a Suffolk n^^e^ifcm^U, M^i^Mt 
svfficreut peuiiiity, I admit) cottipat^ t9M f^iUHIVl^ 
r^K M. Atitony, Oct, CaSSiir; dttti M; Mih\l Ukpid^, 
endeavouring to stem the inroads of assVflliufs to si 
rati or butwark ; akid bavltif a Ml in^hft liiind's tyk^ 
saw a asnt ritil--m& i^he& ^\tiA6 (VdWKied (»i AW* 
tdny, the leader in ffae triiiitfviraD^, lAUtis dfii§ 6f fSXi 
partizaos' earll lArk '^ tb^ gmiitf Mkiii^'^lim ^ 
th^dlost powcsrAll of thd timt \iktBbm fofnilUg* tifk 
opposing rail or tniiWark,- tb6 tirlUti^' iM^ti df 

Nares sbys, S" Castle k a pan ^t si^ti^i" vM 
gives several quotations — that a^oVd fyoih A;^ C^ 
among them/ as auihuriliek. Bat f aib'iibt dftf^eii 
to strike out wbat is aboVe oii^cfd. 

Ca>. a ehalleop— a ikUfkmit. " I'll s^i y^bV 
a e^." I wiil do 8( tbiAg* that yiMT 4a>e'dot htikm. 


** There's a cop. for ye."' In Scotland,^ To oc^.to 
fxccl. J. ; 

.. Capfsr. The hardish crust formed on rec^tly 
harrowed land, by the fall of heavy ram, quickly 
absorbed and- evaporated. 

Catper'o. Cream is said to be capper'd wbeiy 
from from the heat of the weather or iqnpurity of ft 
vessel, it coagulate and will jiot readily mix with 
tea. Windy weather is understood to produce thia 

Cappkr-clawino. Fighting and M:ratchiog^-« 
pulling caps. Sometimes Ciapper-clawmg, If oo^ 
were disposed to be very discriminalive the lat^f 
may be supposed applicable, more especially to a 
curtain lecture of a severe sort, where the venom of 
the ton^'ue is brought in aid of the keenness of the 
nails. I heard it lately applied to a wi^ht who had 
been *' whetting hi» sickle*' somewhat loo tVeeiy, in 
anticipatit n of what he might expect on reacliiiiig 
his home and helpmate — ** Ah — \ah — he'll git 
purely clanpeT'Clowfsdmhen 'a git home.*'' So^ Shake* 
speare — 

Now they are eapper'claw^ng one another. Troil, h Creu, v. 4. 

Caat-raoks. . The ^nts in roads. — Cart^trqckf 
perhaps. Thus Ray — "K Cart-rake — Essex. A,Q>f(^ 
track; in some countries called a Cart-rut, but more 
improperly, for whether it be Cart^rake^ ororiginaUj 
dart-trac^t the etyinolQ<r> h m^nifestj bMt ua^^ so 
9( cart-rut" E. W. p. 72. 

l^ARK. A wood with a w:et subsoil. Wet bad 

heard of. It is also a north country wonl. '<''°9L 
iSam'" niyei^milk <«• Si«bTtbW i)'liice ^l^% Viter 
UMilk" fi.Mrv^.'Jli:itM»as "4 WoUB or»)^m^ 
trees, in a moist bogg^ fli^*'Vk--^:-fi^M1liillil 

«Mtai fj(i»»a^. m fitst ll^'.'alU)%.'coiAtyy':tx|$hr(»- 

«dH «f life WdW. 

iMtttu" %dl4tiibi<i It tt iiMAUy 6Utt of Silk 

who has pnkcd^" He 'as cast vp his accotiilltt^.** 
Td'cM^llbi^t!, is tomow tlUi db^ % '4 ^pe 
«8(A)sed ttt ^tikitibftlftf Oiiaatei, tbt ^ (mt^ 

' fh t!h« iiHt teVl&e, 'i itd'd ill Attf^^" tb kiik=t 

• ^ » 

. These yerses too, a pojson on 'eoif I can't abide *en« tBej 

i. 4^ F/. Sf^ Cuf . iv. 7. 

The porter in Macbeth quibbles between this 
sensie of thie word aiid that Which liiiplies tb throw 
% m^bii in t^«^1iii|. ^i^J&ting '4r iii^ i«iite he 

1ii»I<fhitik. h^a^ii^ 

, Thpogli he too}i up mv legs sovetimest yet I made shift to 
only the Suffolk word, biit A ^niioli otftt, b^iCliM. 


^A to prev«Dt it« iayitig b^r to eat its game. 

» I 

fiifttS'in variously disposing. of: a fMece of t»(riog joimrd 
at the ends, oi),tl^e fingers.anfl thunjib^ ofllotfa hands, 
to be taken off in a different form bv both hand) of 
another, of/ the party. Each of these forms has a 
particular name.^-That s^t tjie h^dof this article is 
one — barn-doors; b^twUng/grieen^^^ bouc^glass, pounds 
1^ ();aip)0|ids^ jf^^f^ond, fiddle, 1 recollect arc others. 
A /«!WaRP?^d^ r^s^n^b^ajic^ prigjijjited; tUei^, 

Nsress under. '^&ft/cAe, an oldiwond forrainai^c«v'- 
deems it to be the origin of the^name of this ganie'-^ 
which, however^ he calls . Scratch-Cradle. " But it 

ihe.manger, tha^ held ; the. Holy ; Infiw to ast a cmdU^? 
I cannot say that this is clear to me. 

Caul. I do not introduce this us a Suffolk word« 
but for the purpose of remarking that the old su- 

amiHiig 119^ One for. sale '^ oo^saon^jl^^. tl^^Hgli 
but rarely, advertised in our county newspapers^ 
It it supposed to secure good fDirtuneto^the w€«irer; 
l^nijl to ,hf- a,, pr^^v^tjjir^.frc^^ ,4ro win^j ^ 

Thft. foUowing jqpiot^ti^ttft. b^m^ Nar^j 1. aq|ci^ 
dtioed-to give, thougb several of my preceding 'av>* 
tides have extended to an unexpected length, 

** Cau l. a thin membrancL found encompassinir 

tioiisly- supposed- U^be* a^ tobeft-^f' goodillNrtiuM 


tbroughottt life. These eauls were even imagiAed^ 
to hav^ inherent virtues^ and were sold accord inglyi 
nor is the superstition still extinct, fi>r advertise- 
ments for the sale of them are still nnt ukiroinmos. 
Mr. Todd testifies the same. They are also consU 
dered as pnest- rvatives from drowning, and for that 
purpose are sold to seafaring peojde/* 

Were we not born with cauls upon our heads ? 

Elrnn, O.P. XB. Sit, 

JFor either sheet was spread the anUe 

That doth the infant's fate enthrall, 

W6en it is bom ; by somd eostjl'd ' 

The Ittckie ooieu of the child. 

Uerriehs* Haper, p. 194. 

While this article was in the press (Sept. 1822) I 
saw placarded on the walls of London, addressed to 
captains, merchants, and seafaring people, a child's 
caul to be sold for 15 guineas ! 

Cave. To fall iu, as the side of a pit, ditch, &c. 
usually pronounced Keeve, which see, and Shoshins. 
In Scottish to Cave or J^eve over, is to fall over 
suddenly. J. 

Cavey. Peccavi. ** 'A begun to cry Cbwy/'— 
he begun to knock under — to moderate. 

Caving. The refuse, unthreshcd, unripened 
ears of coin, thrown to fowls, &c. at the barn-door. 
Ca^ing-neve-^VL large sieve with wide interstices to 
retain such, letting the grain tiirough. See Coldbr. 

Cawf. a floating perforated cage or box, in 
which lobsters and iV^iifyyare put, as caught; and 
in which they are kept alive a day or two, or a 
week perhaps, till wanted. This is an Aldbro' 
word, and is probably common to other fishing 
towns on our Eastern coast. 

Caw-hoo — Caw-hoo. The common call or cry 
for scaring crows, f row, <Wvo, and Cawhoo, are 
nearly cognate K^/^'</i/< aitd Kaka are East in* 
diaa names Hot the 3ame bird. AU seem to h^vt 
originated in its cacaphonic note. 



Chaldbr. a chaldron (of cohUy Ume, ^c.) 
The same in the plural " ten chalder.*' "■ xvij 
chalder of seacoles/' occurs in Gage's Hengraye, 
p. 211,. in an inventory of 1630. 

Champ. To bite — to chew or grind with the 
teeth^— or a horse champinff the bit-^an old wprd, 
and not very confined perhaps in its usage. In Nares 
we find " Cuamper, of uncertain meaning. I liave 
found it only in the following passage. Perhaps eaters','^ 

I ((eep* champers in my lioise can shew your 
Lerdfbip somiB pieasore^ Mad Wottd. O. P. V. 33t. 

Our Suffolk word Champ seems to bear out the 
above coojectare, 

. €hap« a }ter9oa**»usualty said, rather disre- 
spectfully. " He's, an idle chap" . " A lolloppen 
chap.^' A chap is also a purchaser, In^ the 'hrsi 
sense Tusser uses the word. . 

Jjtt such luTe enough^ that follow the plougli. 

Give servants no dainties, bpt give him enoughy 

Too many chaps walking do beggar the plough, p. 360. 

This is also a specimen of what is farther noticed 
under Goof) verse 11, and note; respecting the 
above forced rhyming of plough and enough. We 
now write the words, as they are pronounced, pkiw^ 

Chary. Careful, prudent, cautious. Shake* 
speare lias unckary in a contrary scnse^^and chariest 
in this passage, 

. . The chariest maid is prodigal enough* 
If she unmask her beauties io the moon, ilamkt, I»3 

t add another quotation from Nares 

Nor ara I chary of my beautj[*s hue. 

But that 1 am troubled with the tooth^acbe sore. 

George a Grten. O. P. III. 30^ 

Chates or Chaits. Broken victuals^-the re- 
mains of turnips or other food left by fatting sheep, 
«&c. to which leaner or ihore hungry stock is turned 
in " to pick up the chaits," or orts. 

Chats or Chattbb : &usitBS» ProtrodiDg 



l)ii8hes of bbicktboni» &c. ruooing into a field iVom 
the fence ; or the lower straggling branches of a tree, 
which we otherwise call sprawh. Re y has chaU as a 
north country word, meaning keyi of trees, as ash 
cAa/^, sycamore c/ia^«, &c. E. W. p. 22. SeeBoxE. 

Chaw — or Chmo. To chew — "Yow don'i half 
chow yar witluls.*' Nares say^ it is an old form of 
the word jaw — hence chaule^ the jaw^ or jawbone* 
See Chow. 

Chben. a chain. Like dseen for drain, &c« as 
noticed under Aninnd. In Scotland chain is pro- 
nounced chenyie and chenye. J. 

Chbent. China. Both ware and country. 

Chicked. Com — sown or maited^ust sprout- 
ing, or germinating, is said to have chicked. See 


Chill. To warm any thing. *' D*ye love your 
beer chilled?" — that is to be set near the fire, to take 
off the (hill. 

Chisilby. Chimney. So m Scottish. Chhtdm- 
lugp the fire- side. In Cornish^ Tskimbla, a chim- 
ney* J. 

.Ghink. Loosening or separating earth that is 
too compact, is called chinking it, for the purpose of 
laying in quick — or to $traw over the roots of young 
trees^ shrubs, &c. when transplanting them. 

Chittbklins. The mesentery of a pig ; which 
fried, rtnJ eaten with sugar, mustard, and vinegar, 
used to he reckoned a good dish. The frill of a shirt, 
when not crimped, or gathered into close plaits, bnt 
ironed flnf, somewhat resembles it, and is also called 
Chitterlin. When crimped in small plaits, the shirt 
frill ifi said to be Goferd. See GoFER, 

C HOB BY Threshing wlieat, when ncany of the 
grains adhere to the chaff, the corn is said to be 
ckohhy. . . 

Chop. To change -Hrimilur to swap. InCheaUte 


aed ia Scotland, to wpe, bas a K&e "f«^«r. See' 

8WAP. • 

ChoVee. <' a small beetle of ii bright cbe^t 
colour, with a green gilded head and corselet." iSbtfr* 
e^HEUs horticoia. Cullum's Hawstead, I do ilot^ 
think I ever heard the word: 

Chow. To chaw—" 'A can't cAow it" Also* 
used as a substantive, and then equivalent to a quid—- 
** Give as a ckow 'a bakka." See Chaw. 

Chbistmas. Holl^ ; being used at that season 
for decorating churches and houses. It is as com- 
noDiy called Hubm^ which see. 

Chunky. Angry-^threatening — cross An iih- 
pattent parent is dnMy at the noise of his children. 
Snobby is perhaps nearly similar. Chub is the im- 
perative of the verb silence in one of the commonest 
languages of India; and some-connection may be 
fancied b^ earnest etymologists. 

' Chuck« a term of endearment to children, par- 
ticularly girls — altered from CAscA^ . perhaps. Itis- 
so noted by Nares.- 

Cliuii p. A hard log of vood-^the root end of a 
tr«e ; the latter is commonly distinguished by a very 
wnlgar, tho' expressive, word. For a Suffolk word, 
bnatr never heaid it» Ray gives ** Ckuck^ a great chip. 
Ia4>ther conntries they call it a cAtnUr.'* £. W. p. 72. 
We sometimes caM an-irregular lump^ or bkick of 
wood a choek. Chip, ekudk, ckoek, cktmk, chmmp, 
bave a family likeness. See^ under OooF. verfc 11, •> 
and note. 

CiLL Cell— as noticed under An mind. The 

dbor-ct/i^ — window-ct/?, &c. Sec GROUNaEL. 

Clam. See Clammd. 

CiAMBE"R. To climb'— to ascend quickly.^ — 
•.'•<3ome, Qlamber up — clamber up." Pease clamber 
up sticks — boys up trees. - Tuaser «peUs>it climber.- 
Se&'ar q«iot«tieA under Wax. 



CtAliim* Siarved; jor aeafly ao«' Qbackled. 
'' rm clammil ta dead amost.** I never heard . this 
word used, and had doubt of its being a Suffolk 
word ; but an obsej[;yant friend assured me he h^id 
heard it, and gave me the above phrase^ He thought 
it mi ht have arisen from one's fancying ^hat extrepue 
efiaciation would allow of his internals collapsing, 
atid adhering or sticking eiammibf together. I do 
not altogether admit l^e probability of this dertva- 
tioo. Mother friend tells me that clam is used in 
the sense of starvatieii in Deibyshire, and that it 
is Danish^ 

Potatoes put under gt oiitad with a Hmndus raised 
ov^r'them inwinter, we call a clam, also a pie, and 
a clamp. In, Cheshire such heap ia called a liag, W. 
And in, Cheshire and Lancashire, Ckm means 
starved. lb. I . 

Since writing the above^ I find in Ray thisr- 
among his N. country words-7-" Clemd or Clamfd, 
starved ; because by iamine the guts and bowels 
are as it were clammed or stuck, together. Some^ 
times it signifies thirsty, and we know in thirst the 
mouth is very often clammy." £. W. p. 22. And 
C/ebfft, he says is a iirac|u^nt ttae ia 'Lin- 
colnskire,' 6%ai^ing to.gkie tagether^^^wnd asiuanal, 
he goes tt> leameA leogths ferits^qrigw..! In York- 
shire tocleam ot hhtme is:h^ adds t»«pre«d thicks 
*5 h^ cleamed bvtier'on hb har^aii''^^^^ tke.o<^urs 
ai€4aid on as if they were'e&imed on with a ttowd," 
spoken of colours ill laid on u^ a pictare. Jd. 

ftut we have not yet done with this word-»«In 
Nares' Glossary we read *'To Clem to starve: as 
a neuter, verb— 

Hard is th« choice, Mrben -yaliant men mutt eat theii 
armi or clem, B. J<w/«. Every Man out of H, III. 6. 

As a verb active — 

.,X. cannot eat at^^ncs and tifris^ say-r^Wbat, wilt ht ^km ne 
«nd my followers? Ask him an he will clem me; do. go. 

Jrf. PoeUuter, L t, 

4^U»^ mi tf dMi. 


Ctdm in the followiag passage^ seettts to bcthi^ 
same word :' 

— -when my entrails 
Were daamt^d with keeping a perpetual fast — 

Maninger, R&m, Actor. II. t^ 

''I shall be c/amiiMl,'' for starv'd, m still provin- 
cially used in Staffordshire.'* 

In another sense Clam is used in some parts of 
England, but not I think in Suffolk! What in 
b«*ll-ringing is more commonly ^Viw^, that iis strik- 
ing a)i at once, a sort of volley, is else where called 
clamming. See Nares' Glossary, under Clamour. 

In Cockefr's dictionary is^' Clemb*d — old word — 
star?'d, thirsty." ' 

While this 'article was under my pen^I read in 
a newspaper a report of a trial at Lancaster (Augi 
1822) in which' a witness said "she was nearly 
clammed to death/- And in Gage's Hengrave, p. 49, 
the term " Clamp of brick " occurs in a bill, dated 
1530. It seems to mean what we term a Kellen, 
or one burning. In p. 50 is (1535) "Item, paid 
to Hary Bondis, and his men, for setting and burn- 
yng a clamper as apery the by another book xxxijs. 

Since the above was written I heard the expres- 
sion •* wennigh clemin'd,"' used in Staffordshire by 
an old soldier who had lost a leg in the first Ame- 
rican war. He* was working on the n>ads; but 
suspended his labour while " he fought his battle^ 
o'er again." It was among his transatlantic suffer-* 
ings that he was well nigh starved. Now he is pen- 
sioned on a shilling a day; had his earnings 
besides, and seemed very happy. 

CtAMP. A pit for preserving potatoes, carrots, 
&Q. in winter. They, are separated and well 
covered with straw^ and the whole is covered 
smoothly oyer, in a pyramidal or oblong shape, with 
the raised earth, aud xaLled a cmv/.p— sometimes a 
pif. See Clammd. 

C^P, : A bioW, astroke— ". Til gi ye a clap i* the 

H 3 . 


bid, 'a ye dew so bo mpre/' This h oi|e of the 
many terms for offence, enumerated under Aint. 

In Scottish Clap is . a stroke*— dedw ekm, the 
stroke of death. In Belgic» JT/op, a slap, a box on 
the ear. 1. 

Clapper-claw. See Cappbr-clawino. 

Clapping-post* The smaller of a pair, op 
rather of two, gate-posts, against which the gate 
closes or claps. The other is called the hangmig- 
post,' for an equally obvious reason. 

Claw. See Clow. 


Clean. Quite, entirely. '*'A eat *as oats dean 
up." — "Clean through and through" — which, how- 
ev^, we should pronounce *' threw an threw." "'A 
run 'em clean threw the guta." Thus Shakespeare* 

Ronning clean tbroogh the boands of Asia. Com. of £r. 1. 1. 

Clear. To render pure and unsuspected ; in 
this sense: a girl, or other person, whose fi^ir 
name have been aspersed,, commonly comes before 
a justice **' to clear my character." 

Clever. Handsome — good-looking; without 
reference to intellect or talent. ** A clever boss*'— ^ 
A ckver gal." &c. 

Clevers. The tussocks or tufts of course grass 
or roots of rushes, with earth adhering, that are 
turned up by the plough on recent grass lands.--^ 
The word is more commonly pronounced Clmmnuz 
and m Norfolk chdA are so called. 

Click. A blow— •'^ a eliek of the head." Oqe 
of the many offensive homonymes in use among us» 
as enumerated under Aint. 

Clicket. Like CZscXr, and Cladcet^ is applied 
to the garrulity and chattering of women and children. 
** Howd ya tongues — don't keep keepsich a dieketten** 
— is a frequent, but unheeded in proportion to its 
frequency, admonition from a mother, or nurse, or 

Clipt. a cliff. — ^This is perhaps the origibal 


speUing; .denoting something split, or severed^ or 
eUft. In Scotland Cloff is ft nssure, and a ckft 
between hills or of a trce« Icelandic Kioff^ a 
fissure. J« 

Cli NK. A blow. — Stftitlar I suppose to Click, and 
many other word» trader the article thence referred to. 
In boxing, if one boy givie his adversary a severe blow 
— *' That's a clinker," would denote the exultation of 
the friends of the fortunate party: In Scottish Clink 
is also a smart stroke or blow. Jameisou derives it 
from the Tuetoaic Klineke^ of like import. 

CtlNKBRS. White bricks* of the usual size, burnt 
hard for the flooring of stables, &c. 

Glif. a process by which schootboys determine 
the iir'^t choice of sidesmen, innings, drc. at play. Il 
is tlms done-^The two leaders retire six or eight 
paces from each other, face to face — then placing 
one foot straight before the other, heel to toe, one 
cries "toe!" the other "buckle!" Approaching 
each other by alternately bringing a foot forward 
heel to toe, the choice ts determined by the positfon 
of the foot of the last stepper. If it touch or come very 
near the toe of hia adversary, so as not to leave room 
for the ioterppsitibo of the foot» he that cried loe, 
^iQs — if there be not room for the foot, and it 4iver* 
lap toward or to the buckle, he that cries i buckie, 
wins. Since the disuse of buckles this description of 
Siyrtei is becoming obsolete. I do not recollect this 
custom any where else, or having seen the word used 
^in this way. 

Clip with us is also a blow ; or smart stroke with 
a whip, making the lash or lannety go round or enlaet 
or embrace the sufiering party. It is one, as well as 
foce, of our many words denoting offeni^e* as noticed 
under A I NT. — " That's a tlipper* is a sort of term of 
amplification; and would be said of a sharp lie as 
VteW ci!> of a blow. ^ 

In the sense of embracing or encompassing^ Shake* 
speare frequently used Clip — 

Oaationl ihat thoa coold'st remove! 

Tkat JNeptone*! armi who cUppeth tbee about. 


• r 

Would beaf thee from the knowledge of Chy self/ ' 
And grapple thee unto a pagan shore. JT. J«&«. V. & '; 

Yon have all shewn like Hectors. 
Filter the city, clip your wives, your friendl| 
Tell them your feat». . AiA. 4* Cktf. iV. 8. . 

She shall be buried by her Am h oa y t 
No. grave. upon ihe earth shall citp in it. 
A pair so famous. Ih, Sc. last. 

Oy let*p you 
In arms as sound as when I wooM ; in heart 
As raerry as when our nuptial day was done* 
And tapers bttrn*d to bed-ward. Ceriel. I. 6. 

And so in Cjym. II; 3. IF. Tolls. Y. 2. and several \ 
other places. 

Ray has a Proverb ia which this word is ased in . 
the sense of embracing-r-" The a|)e so long eliffp^k 
her young that at last she killeth them." |>. l.« 

In: Scottish to Clif or C%p. is to embrace, from 
the Angjo-Saxon — and to Clip otCiepe. is to call, to 
nanie> from the 4ike source. J.. So that both the 
Suffolk . seu.<»es are retained in Scotland. 

Cocker has ** Cleaped — a Saxon .word meaning 
named J called'' Hence our C/^ in the sense; firs| 
given ; and the ancient 'yclept*. . 

C LOGSOM B. Heavy roads ; when the clayey soil : 
adhere to your shoes, &c, ara expressively de<> 
scribed ^selogsame. 

Clog-whisat. The bearded species of wheat. . 

Clout-t-C LOUTS — Clois. Clout, is a blow — a * 
thump *'ril catch )oew a clout i* the hid" — mean*, 
ing such it one» probabiy, as wHI produce.c/ov/f or 
clots of blood It in also a verb^ equivalent to ctc^ 
^c. a? ni4iced under A int. So in Scotland^ " a clout ' 
is a rutf, a blow; and. to ehml is tu beat» to sirike, , 
proper i\ with the hands — froui.tlie Tuelouic Klots? • 
en, piiisaie." J. 

( Uniis or ( lots, are drops, or a greater .quantity of ,' 
blood, ill a coagulated 8t«\te. Recent or !iquid| it ; 
would be i-.iiied '* a gore of biood/' Sliakespeai^ - 
has goutii. 

And on the blade and dudgeon gcutt of hlobd, Macb, Ut I*. : . 


Thk is tlie fame probably as the French ginittei. 
As in other counties^ chwts with us, are flat pieces of 
iron affixed to the sides, to strengthen the tires of wheels* 

Clow or Claw. To SerHlcb. '' Td a twiddle 
ao I elowed it'*-*-aecouats £ot aa inflamed leg. In 
this sense Ciaw has been exten^vely used. 

''Scratch my breech and Til claw yonr elbow.*' 
Ray. p 154. Chw, is also a slice, of bread, 
cheese, &c. 

Cluck or Clock. The cackling noiso made 
by a hen when she has " laid np her latter,** and wants 
to sef. In Scottish " To Clock, to eluek, to call 
chickens together.*' J. 

Clukch. a thump. See Aint. 

Clung./ Shrunk, dried, shrivelled — said of 
a)>ples, turnips, carrots, ^c. when from their 
juices having been evaporated, their sides collapse. 
Carrots are reckoned more wholesome for horses, 
&c. when a little clung, then when too resh. 

In the sense of shrunk or dried, Shakespeare 
employs the verb emphatically — 

'" Macheth, I f thou gpeekwt fahe, 

Upon .(be next tree thoa thalt bang alive, 
TUl famine cling tbee, V. d. 

Steeven*s says " to cling is tp consume to waste 
' away." But this is nol explaining Shakespeare. 
In the Suffolk sense the passage is infinitely more 
appropriate and impressive than the commentator 
was aware of. Chrng is not commonly, if at all, 
applied to the shrivelled or wrinkled human coun- 
tenance. It is said, under such predicament, to 
be voizzend. 

Ray says ** in the north ebmg means elosed np 
or stopped, spoken of hens when they lay not. 
It is. usuMly said of a^y thing that is shrivelled or 
dried up; from cling'* £. W. p. 33 
^C/»i^, .preservea nearly the Suffolk sense in 
Scothind. ^^Emphj^ applied to the belly after 


■ * > « 

long fasting." J. Crinkled is also a Suffolk word, 
related to a sense of shrivcUed. Crunkled, ia 
Scotlan . 

Clumps. ' Hardish clods of land— -or small 
blocks or chumpg of wood. ** Ciumps of the even* 
ing/' means late. See THREBEaAL. 

CLtJTcH. A covey y or a number, of partridges. 

Cluvvas. See Cleyrrs. 

Coals. " To haul over the coals.'' To call to 
a sdiarp account. The same in Scotland, and itris 
sppposed by Jameison, to refer to the ordeal by fire. 

Cob or Sba-cob. A small species of sea-golL 
Also the flowers or heads of clover containing the 
seed. Separating these from the straw or gtuwa 
(stover) is called cobbing. Cob is likewise a basket 
used in broadcasting ^eed com. " A Cob ; a wicker 
basket ro carry upon the arm. So a Seed-cob or 
Seed-lio is such a basket for sowing." Hay £. W. 
p. 73. . A small, compact, punchy, powerful horse, 
we, as uell as others, call a i^ob. 

A iarj^e sort of nut, we call a cob-hut. It is not a 
very good sott, as the cobble seldom fills the thick 
shell. It is also called bond*nut. Nares savs that; 
Cob, is used in composition to express large — as 006- 
nut, cob loaff &c. In respect to the. iSeorcoft ami the 
horse, we4ind» however, thjit it rather expresses 

Cobble. The kernel of a nut — the stone of 
any wall or other fruit, such as peach, nectarine, 
apricot, cherries: or rather perhaps the meat of 
such stones. SLay says that '' Cobble is a pebble. 
To cobble with stones, to throw stones at any thing.** 
E.'fW. p^. 23. We have no such aease. 

•:CaBinor Cobit. Cupid. SeeSpiNx. 

CoBiRON. The same, I believe, with Andiron, 
These were domestic utensils used by our ancestors 
for receiving and retaining logs of wood to burn in 
their large grateless ckimniei. llfey turned up-in « 

front a foot or mpre, and had, among the qualiig^ 
their to[>s ornamented with the family crest in silver 
or brass. In families without armorial bearings, dog's 
heads were the usual ornament — hence they were 
also called Dogs; as indeed, the> still are, where 
NOW seen. Ray says Cobiron is an Essex and Lan- 
cashire word. C^ W. p. 73. It was also Suftolk, 
though now of course, rarely heard. Andinm, is 
probably, but a corruption of hand iron. In an 
inventory of the furniture, &c. in Heugrave House, 
1G33, are these entries — " Itni, two payer of aud- 
ycwones, with heads and fore parts of copper ; one 
payer being lesse then the other." GagesJHengrave, 
p. 27. In p. 28 is '* one payer of andyems " In 
p. 29 they are called andyoms, and in p. 32 audyrom. 

Cock. A sort of familiar term of accostioj; — or 
sometimes of defiance. '* I sah cock — where aryeow 
a gooenl" "Ah yah, cock — I e ent afeard d yeow 

Cock-a-hoop. This phrase is not easy to ex- 
plain — nor, perhaps, is explanation necessary. I give 
it to shew that it is in use with us, as perhaps in 
most parts of England. " He*s all Cock-a-hoop to 
day'* — means he is in high, Highty, gay, spirits. — 
Whence ran Jbis phrase have come ? Can it be from 
the gaiety of a farm yard cock crowing ou a cask 1 
See Nares, under Cock-on-Hoop. 

Cockerel. A young cock— thas good old nurse 
in Romeo und Juliet, 

it liad npon its brow 

A lump as big as a young cockereVs stone. I. $. 

We should call such a lump a bunny: which see. — 
Shakespeare uses this word again in tl>e Tempest, 
II. 1. See Nares. 

Cock le The Ayrostemtna giikago, which ob- 
trudes itself so much into barley- cropH Shakespeare 
uses this word in a bold arisitocratical figure — 

For the mutabile nink*«cented mvny — I say againy 
In soothiBkg them we Boorish /gainst our senate^ 



Tbe rMUde of rebellion, insolence, seditiony 

Which we ounelTes have ploughed for, lowM and 8G8tter*d> 

Bj nnngling them with u^f^the honor'd. number. Cor. III. 1. 

Cocks. A pastime of children. It is plaved 
with the grown up stems of the hroad-leaved plan-- 
tane (Plantaoo ianceolotitf or P. major,) One 
holds a stem, and the other strikes on it with 
another. Cutting off the head of yonr adversary's 
cock, is of course a winning stroke. The tall erect 
fitems are called Cocks, as well as the amusement. 

Codger. " A familiar expression for a mean 
old person, from Cadger a huckster or low trafficker.*^ 
I have taken this explanation from Nare*s Glossary. 
It is our Suffolk sense of the word. See KiDDlER. 

Coin or Quoin. In masonry the angle or comer 

of a wall. In Nares we read •• Cot^ite-^a comer 

stone I the finish of a building at the angle. Coing, 

old French. 

See ^'ou ^on toignt u* the capitol ? jon comer stone ? 

CorioL V. 4» 

written also Coin and Quoin,^' 

In the edition of Shakespeare before me» it is 
written ** yond' coigne." 

Colder. Light ears and chaff left in the Ca'^ 
ing-sieve, after dressing com. It is also called 
Cuving or the Cavimgs; and Co^, 

Collar-beam The upper beam of a bam ot 
other building ; called also wmd-beam, 

COLLARDS. Coleworts. In Scottish •* Curiies, 
because the leaves are curled.^* J. 

Collogue. To assemble or combine for a bad 
purpose. To colleague I suppose; but the mains 
animus is essential. I have heard the word, some* 
what quaintly, but forcibly^ applied by a farmer fo a 
floc^k of rooks which lie apprehended had a bad de- 
sign on a neighbouring corn field •**" 'Kii»da!^See 
them there toads ooihgueing toother." 

The word is in Nares ; and is explained pretty 
much as above. " To talk closely together, as if 


plotting somethings From Cdhquar, Lat. — ^The 
word is still retained by the lower classes/ ' 

Pray go ib '; and sitter, salve tlie teatter, • 
Collogue with her again, aod all shall be weU. 

. Green's Jit Qttog.,0. PI/ VII. 86. 
Wbj lool< ye, we must collogue sometiroes, furswear soiaetioies. 

Malcoiit. O. P. IV. .94. 

Collier. A black insect> injurious to growing 
beans : named probably from its colour. It would 
be a curious article were the many words collected 
which have the initial sound of Col or Knf, and 
bear a sense of blackness, or darkness. Every 
language would perhaps furnish some. And aH 
may probably be traceable to the Sanskrit Kal, 
meaning time — night — chaos — black— dark — &c. 
sombre senses. 

, CocKER'B or. Scockerd, Timber insolid, from 
the bark or sap running into it. 

Com e. a terra in chuf ning ** Is the butter come ?'* 
^** The butter o'nt come''— "Ta cent come:' 

Come-back. The gallina or guinea fowl. Evi- 
tlently so called from its note. 

CoMM AN DEMENTS. The (ten) commandments. 
Nares gives the word, and thinks he has heard it'so 
spoken by old people. I havfe oijlen, by both old and 
young, but. only 1 think refiBrring to llie decalogue* 
He quotes Spenser 

THe wretched Wotnan, -whom xj^ihappy houre 
Hath now made tbrall to your cotamandenient. F. Q.,I. ii^ 29. 
iVom her ia^'re eyes he took commandement. lb. iii. 9. 

The word is s][)elled in four syllables in Gage's^ 
Hengrave in a Suffolk letter written 1548 — " Not 
doubting the country to be qnyet and raerrye, if th^ 
comyssioners will dyligentKe accompljshe their com- 
anndementsg}ven to tbcra by the King's most honor- 
able councell." p. 137: * And in p. 145 "The Queues 
Maiestie's comandement'* occurs. How the word was 
pfonoanoed, is' not, among the. prodigality of our 
ancestors in letters, easily discernable. 


CoNCiTEi. (Conceit) Belief— fancy. " I dclr 

Coney. The rabbit — this is perhaps pretty uni- 
versal and is a Scripture word. The word is also 
in use among us in the same sense as the like sound 
in Latin. A rabbit we also call Bunny which see 
and Bunkf, The first is an old Suffolkism. 

In the charges at Hengrave Hall in 1572 is '' to 
the warriner for c c coneys del. by him this qrt. 
3diiij«." Gage's Heng. p. IM. 

CoNsiM IT. CoNsiMMED. A moderated impre- 
cation — consume it. O*' others see under Amenden. 
very — extrerael,>— greatly — generally in a bad sense. 
*' Tis consimmed hard.** Equivalent to confoundedly. 

CooFFKN. A Coffin ' 

Coomb or Comb or CooM. Four bnshels. — 
*' A coo9ii-sack." This is not a Suffolk word only, 
but it is perhaps more used there than any where 
else. All our com is sold by the comb. Ray writes 
** A Coomb or Coumb of corn ; half a quarter." — 
£. W. p. 73. Tusser spells it Coom, See under 
Goof, verse 7, and note. 

Coot The water bird commonly called mocr-kem. 

Cop. To throw. In Cheshire and Lancashire, 
Cob. W. Cas/, Ding^ Hull, and other similar words 
are current in this sense in Suffolk. 

Coped. Muzzled. A ferret with its mouth con- 
fined — ^whicli is sometimes effected by needle and 
thread—to set after rats or rabbits, is called "a coped 

CoppEBOZE. The common red field poppy. Sea 
Canker. Rhy, among his north country words, has 
** Coprose, called also Head-work — the Papaver 
rJuBosJ* £. W. p. 24. In Scotland '* Cock-rose, is 
any wild poppy with a red fiower." J. 

Corncrake. The land-rail— Rallus civw. la 
Scotland also. 


Again tb« nuliless weapon sweeps the ground 
And the graj eom-crmk trembles at the sound." 

LeydaCt Se, «f Inf. 

See Crake. 

Cosh. The same, \ believe^ as Colder^ which 

Cosset. A lamb brought up by hand: a pet 
Jamb. See Pbt. The term is exteoded sometimes 
to a child when much iudulged. " Twas cossetted 
tew much by half.'* In the North, Cade seems to 
have the same meaning. Ray thus explains the word» 
*' A cosset lamb or colt ; i.e. a cade lamb ; a lamb or 
colt brought up by the hand. Norf. Suff. The word 
Dr. Hammond in his annotations on the Neiv Testa- 
menty p. 356. .Acts vii. derives from the Hebrevr 
signif>ing a lamb.*' £. W. p. 73. I have 
not access to Dr. H *s annotations, but a reference to 
Acts vii. discovers nothing applicable to any thing in 
this article. 

Nares gives the above meaning to the word Couet: 
which, as he shews, is used by Ben Jonson and Spenser. 
It is perhaps, pretty general almost all over England. 

Cost or Coast. The ribs of cooked meat — par- 
ticularly it would api>ear of roast lamb. "Do you 
chuse shoulder or coast?** This question we hear 
from educated and travelled people : and it is a good 
word ; evidently from the Latin Costa, a rib. In 
Wales Coast is the neck of mutton, lamb, or veal. In 
Scotland " Cost and Coist is the side in the human 
body/' J. Nares confirms this derivation, and quotes 
B. Jonson, who writes ** betwixt the costs of a ship/' 

Costard. The head. " 1 '11 gie yea lump 6* the 
costard.'' So Shakespeare — 

V Tse try w^iether yoar coitard or my bat be the harder. 

Uar. IV. 6.* 

Take him over ihe coitard whh the hilt of tbj^ sword. 
, A. the Srd. I. 4. 

We have several other quaint names for the 
bead — Jowl, Mazzard, Nob, Nowl, Pate, Fowl, 



Pimple, Pipkin, Sconce, among tliem. See under 
those words. Shakespeare has most of them. 

Among his S. and £. country words, Ray has 
** Costard, the head. It is a kind of opprobious 
word, used by way of contempt." E. W. p. 73. 

In Cheshire Posh is the head. W. Not so, I 
think with lis. 

Nares shows that Costard is used by Ben Jonsoa 
wid B. and Fletcher, it occurs five times in 

Cot. a covering for a cut thumb or finger; a 
ihumb'Stall: called also MudkiM, which see. A cot 
is likewise the straight small cross piece which serves 
for a handle or tiller of a shovel or skuppet. See 

Covey. Cover-— for game. 

CowD. Cold. As noticed under BxJTES. And 
the same in Cheshire. W. 

CowD-CHiLL. The cold* fit of an ague, <fec.— 
*''Av got the cowd'Chill now on em." 

Cowlick. The feather of hair that sometimes 
stands almost upright on one side of a child's fore- 
head. It is pronounced keyoiclick. In Cheshire 
cowlick has the same meaning. VV. And in Scot- 
land. J, 

CowT. Colt. So in Cheshire. W. And in Scot- 
kind. J. See under BuTBS. 

OozBY. Snug, comfortable^ warm; feeling til 
e&«e with one's self and all the world. The sam« ia 

Crack. A blow — or a thi^tened blow. "•A 
yeow don't behave no butta Til crack on le ye 'strnes 
yeour alive.'* This may require translating — If you 
behave no better Til cracit on to you as true as you*re 
alive. Of our varied words of threat see under AiNT. 
Itt a crack-*--ia a frice — ^in a jifiy— are equindent 


Cracklik. The hard skin of roast pork, Icei» 
said, to cracAfe when a fracture ruu from side to side 
of a pond. 

Crag. The masses of marine shells (siippqsed to 
he antediluvian) both bivalve and univale — common 
along the coasts, and for eight or ten miles iolaud, of 
Suffolk, imbedded in sand. A " Crag peV* is a valuable 
thing on '<a heavy-land farm*' — the decomposed shells 
and the sand acting chemically and mechanically on 
the land, over which good farmers spread it. But it 
is an erroneous practice to mix it, as we sometimes see, 
with dung. 

Crake. The Corn-crake, which see. The word 
is used also in the sense of boasting or bragging. ** I 
don't crake about my character" — ** Yoii needn't crake 
about .your character." It is in this sense, perhaps,* 
that Tusser declares *' Two good hay-makers — worth 
twenty crakersr p. 168. 

In Scottish, Craik, as well as the name of the Land- 
rail, means also, as a verb, *' to denote the cry of a 
hen after laying.'* J. This is what we, and many 
others, I suppose, call cackling. Jameison derives 
Craik, from the Teutonic Kraeck-en, crepare, stre- 

Nares gives the word in the sense of boasting* brag- 
ing : and shews that it is used by Spenser, and other 
old writers. ^ • 

Crakbr. a child's rattle. A good word — de- 
rivable probably from an adoption of sound — as in 
the Corn-crake, Bumble- bee, &c, A boaster. lo 
Scottish Crakkar is the same ; which Jameison de- 
rives from the Belgic Kraecker, id. See Crake. 

Cram p-«bone. The Patella of a sheep or lamb* 
This charm' is still in use by some few individuals, 
though coniidence in its efficacy has doubtless greatly 
decreased. It is carried in the pocket — the nearer 
the skin the better, of the credulous person, or laid 
under the pillow at night. I have heard that some 

I 3 


dir strong nerve, resolving te prevent tke appk^dfliebr of 
so unwelcome' an assailant as the cramp» have beea 
known so temerarious as to wear the more potent 
spdl of a human patella. But such a defiance of 
natur would iu these more pious days, be thought 
highly profane — and, if ever worn, it was done most 
likely with great privacy and caution. 

Cramp-rings. "The superstitious use of Cramp* 
rings, as a preservative against fits, is not entirely 
abandoned here. A recent instance has occurred 
where niiie yotmg men of Ihe parish each subscribed 
a sixpence, to be moutden into a ring for a young 
woman affected with this malady." Gage's Htngrave. 
ia22, p. 7. 

Etiference is made, on this subject, to Brand'& 
Popular Antiq. 11. 598. Th^ use of Cramp-rings 
in Suffolk, has not come within my notice. 

^Cranch — or Crunsh, or Skransh. To break any 
thing to pieces— especially a stone or bone between 
the teeth. See Skransh. 

Cratch. An old word for a manger — for- 
merly used in Suffolk, but believed to be m>w obsolete. 
In some e»r{y translations of scripture the word is said 
to be used instead of mangeic. It occurs in Popular 
Antiquities, p. 281. See Cats -cradle. Nares in 
his Glossary gives a curious article under Cratch. 
It is from tiie French CrSche — a manger, a crib. 

Creel. A basket — a crate — no< often heard. 
In Scotland — ** an ozier basket — panniers are also 
called creels," J. 

Creeple. - To compress — to squeeze — to put an 
animal to inconvenience bysuch compressure. A stack 
of corn is said to creeple when it assumes^an irregular 
form from irregular pressure. CrippkAWe perhaps. 
l/Vhen it lean on one side it is said to lust, which see. 

Crew. Crowed. "The cock crew." For this 
there is the best authority, though it be now provia- 
cial or vulgar. 


It i$m about to speak when the cock crew. HaMittt 
See under Bu tes. 

Crewdi.e or Cruddle To crouch together, like 
frightened chickens. The same hi Cheshire. W. 

Crewels. VVorkinj^ in a iiner sort of worsted is 
called workins: in crewels. Shakespeare, B. Jonson, and 
Beau, and Fletcher use the word for worsted, as shewn 
by Nates. In an- inventory of the furniture, &c, in 
Hengrave House, A. D. 1603, are these entries •* Itni, 
fower and twenty hye joined stooles, covered with 
carpet work like the carpets, frynged with crewelL 
Itm, iij long cushions of needle work in cretcelL Itni, 
two chayers, covered with like work, and frin«»ed with 
crewelL Itm, one payer of crewell raynes *' Gaye^^ 
Hengrave, pp. 26, 29, 35. The word occurs frequently 
in that entertaining work. 

-^ Crib. The lodging place for calves or children. 
« The Calves' crihr In Cheshire Cauf-kit or CHb. 
W. And, according to Ray, Kidcrow is a Cheshire 
word, meaning "a place for a sucking calf to be in.'* 
£. W. p. 39. Crib occurs in Isaiah. I. 3. 

Crick or Krink. A stiff neck; or the head 
somewhat turned aside thereby, either from a cold, or 
a permanent affection — ** Vs got ?Lkrink V the neck." 
Between these words and Kink and Kench, there is» 
I think, in the sense of a turn or twist, some relation* 

Crinkled. Twisted— irregular — shrunk — shri- 
velled — or crumpled. In Scottish •* to crunkie is 
to cress, to rumple, to shrivel, to contract." J. See 

Criss-cross-row. The Alphabet — also Cross- 
row. In Nares we are told that " the alphabet was 
called the Christ- cross-row because a cross was prefixed 
to the alphabet in the old primers ; but probably 
from a superstitious custom of writing the alphabet 
in the form of a cross, by way of a charm. 'Ilns 
was even solemnly practised by the Bishop in the 
consecration of a church. See Picart's Rei. Cer. 1. 


1 31. It was also called in French Croix de par Dieu. 
It was pronounced cris-cros. Shakespeare calls it the 
And from the crost-Tow pluck tlie letter G. Rich, Sd, I. 1.** 

Crissy. ^ Crisis. "Well! — things are come to a 
fine Crissy" 

C RO CK . — Crocks — Crook-^Hake — Stock — Tram- 
mel, I have put these words in one'arltcle from I heir 
seeming connexion — and that in arficles alphabeti- 
caliv subsequent, what I have to notice thereon may 
be readily and collectively referred to. 

Crock, in Suffolk, is the plate or bricks of a fire- 
back. ** As black as (he crock'* — and *' as black as 
the stock'* are common phrases of comparison. ** As 
black as the crook" occurs several times in Scottish 
phraseology, inT. of my L. In Somersetshire, "She! 
as soon part with the crock as the porridge," J^ay, 
276, seems to refer to the poi — from crockery , per- 
hapjr. Indeed in the same page the following occurs, 
** Where there is store of oatmeal, you may put enough 
in the crock" (pot,) Somerset:'* — and in p. 74, among 
S.& £. countrv v.ords, this — '* \. Crock; an earthen 
pot to put butter or the like in — ab Angl. Sax. Croca, 
Tuet. Krug" (&c. &c. Ray is somewhat too prone to 
such etymologies) <* To Crock; Essex. To black one 
with soot, or black off a pot or kettle, or chimney- 
'stock. This blctck or soot is commonly called crock" 
Cocker says that croc is a Sussex word, meaning " to 
black with soot, or a pot." 

Crocks, with us in Suffolk, are the sooty flakes 
falling from chimney tops, or flitting about a room 
with a smoky chimney. 

Crook — is the name of the well known implement 
so common in the writings of pastoral poets, as apper- 
taining to shepherds. It is of a crosier-like shape, 
for catching sheep by the neck; but is now rarely 
seen. It retains its name. No doubt but it is an 
implement of great antiquity ; and in the Crosier of 
Bishops, or Cardinals, refer to the mystical history 


df our Great Shepherd. Crux, Cruar, Croix, Crosi» 
and Crook, seem cogliate. 

In Scotland Crook is the '' chain terminated by a 
hook snspiended in a cbinmey to serve the purpose of 
the modern crane/* Monastery. I. 136. Suchchftin 
is still s^n in our eottsige chimneys ; and is 1 think 
sometimes called Cro4>k, but of this I am not certaiff. 
It is commonly called Hake ; also TmmmeL 

111 the North, according to Ray, ^'sLGallybawk is 
the iron bar in chimneys on which the pot-hook, 
or recking hang — a Trammel,** E. W. p. 3t-r.and' in 
p. 29. is ''Kitp», pot -hooks/' Of Galfy'^wk, Reck" 
ans, or Kilps, I know nothing farther. Ray speaks 
of tfaenias iftbey were familiar things to him. Jamei* 
son has no such words — ^nor Crock, Hake, or' Tram* 
mel; uor indeed any of discussed in this article. 

A Hake in Suffolk, is, as above noted, the iron on 
which the pot hangs over the fire. The word had 
also another meaning, not connected with our present 
Sabject, and therefore not noticed here. See under 

The Trammel appears to be a sort of flat iron--- 
not a chain, with holes, into which the Hake is 
hooked, a little higher or lower, as wanted. The 
word *Hake, I surmise to be formed from hook ^nd 
crook; and I think the three words are occasionally 
indifferently appl^d to the same hooked — crooked-^ 
hake. Among his S. & E. country words Ray has 
" Cottrel; Cornwall and ■ Devonshire : a Trammel 
to hang the pot in over the fire. Also used in the 
north/' p. t3. **Halet Suflfblfc; i. e. a Tramme/ in 
the Essex dialect/' ih. p. 78. " Trammel, an iron 
mstrHnienl;- hanging in the diimney, whereon to hang 
pots or kettles over the fire — Essex.'* ib. p. 89. 
. Cottrel and Hale are words unknown to me, and 
I believe in Suffolk.. .. . .v 

Croft. A small meadow or pightle neat a 
house. In Scotland Craft, is the word. Jameison 
derives it from the Ang* Sax. Croft-^ like mean^ 


tagh Cocker says it is " a little close/' Ray '' A 
small close or inclosure/' £. W. p. 100. 

I have seen and heard Carafty used as a vessel 
of contents, " a water caraft*' I think ; hut forget 

Nares has '' Croft a small home close in a farm* 
Some derive it from Crypia, but it is pure Saxon. 

•TliU bave I learnt 

Tending my ^ucks hard b^ i*" th' hilJy crofts, Comui.'** \ 

Cromr. a hooked stick or fork — amock-crome 
* — tuniip-cronie — cronie-stick — mud-croom. Tusser 
has dung-cTome, See under Goo p. 

In Scotland Cumtnoek is a short staff with a crooked 
head. J. Such as our crome-stick* 

Crone. An ewe sheep, which has had one Iamb 
or more, and lost her teeth. It b sometimes dis- 
respectfully applied to an old woman. It is used in 
the latter sense by Shakespeare, W, Tale, II. 3.— 
aod Nares gives that as its first meaning, adding that 
** some say it originally meant an old toothless sheep." 
We have no other name for such. See Dans, 

Croonch. Encroach. « * Dont CrooncA" — often- 
est used, perhaps, by boys at marbles, on suspicion 
of, or to prevent, unfair approach. 

Croopbr. a Crupper — we are (en croup) cor- 
rect : — Crupper is the vulgarism. In Scotland Crou* 
pier, though not noticed by Jameison, has a cognate 

Cross-row. The Alphabet. Also Criss-cross- 
row — which see. 

Crotch. Forked — the joined part of any thing 
furcated — the joining of boughs — the thighs, where 
they join, which the French call la fomrche% " A 
croidi'taUy a kite." Ray. £. W. p. 73. 

Tusser says 

A lesson good, save crotcheM of wood — 
However ye lootcb, save pde and trv^, p. T9L 


** Save step for a stOe of tHe crotch of a bough.*' 
p. 138. See Hulva. > 

I ought to notice that a crotch with us is, as 
with Tusser probably and others, a post with a fork 
for receiving the plate, or horizontal piece of tim-r 
ber, on which the lower end of the bearers of a roof 
(of a shed, &c.) rest. 

Crotch ED. Obstinate — ill-conditioned — said of 
a lad, or a horse. Of crooketl wavs, probably — sub- 
stituting: the ch for k, as is soof ten remarked. Crotched 
may perhaps be'^)nlyr?'ooAW, differently pronounced. 

Crowd. Push, or shove — orpre«s. I fence a wheel- 
barrow is called a CVtMi^rra, or Kudburra, orCroicd-a, 
Croud was formerly in use in the sense of forcing- 
it occurs in a medical work r( 1670, whe^e an account 
is given of *• mercury crouded into the crural vein of 
a dog.** it is still commonly used in the active sense 
on occasions of a pressure at the door of a theatre — 
"don't crovod so" is often urged by those. in advance^ 
to the centre and rear ranks. Show, or Skeow, for 
S ove, is of like meaning. 

CnUDBURRA. A wheelbarrow — i.e. a crowd" 
barrow : one that is crowded or shoved along. See 
Cro w D« Kudburra, is however, the more common 

Crumpled. Twisted-Crumpled, crooked. "The 
cow with the cnimp/e>«/ born." Crinkled audCiinkle^ 
crankled are words of like import. 

Crunsh. Crush — squeeze — break — " How a 
crunched the bones.*' See Skbunsh. 

Crunya. Coroner. Query Crownyer? or 
Crowner? as Nares suggests, as a word still in use in 
the lower class of society — thns in Hamlet, Clown. 
Bat is this law? 2d Clown. Aye, marry is't — crownefM* 
quest law. 

Crussbl or SKRDsSEir-the edible cartilage of 
roast veal, &c. 

Cuckoo-flower. Tha bcaatifui wild Lvcit- 


MIS flmculu which appearing about the time of the 
cuckoo*s early note, has probably thence obtained its 
name. Or« possibly from another cause^ noticed 
under Snake-spit. 

Cuckoo-spit, The delicately white frothy mat- 
ter seen in early spring on certain wild flowers, par- 
ticularly on the Lychnis Jlosculi. We as often call 
it Frog-spit, and Snake spit. See under the latter 

CuDixLE. To get together like chickens under a 
hen. Huddh is nearly the same. In Scotland to 
embrace. J. 

CuLCH. See GuLSH. 

CuLE, Cool — ^" 'tis kienda cule this morning.'* 
See a variety of instances of the substitution of u for 

00 under Butfs. 

CURREL. A rill— or drain — or diminutive run of 
water. Compounded probably of current and rill. 
Drindle is nearly the same — and is also the bed of 
&uch a currl, or a small furrow. 

Cushat. The wood-pigeoi) — or as wc call it 
1 give this word somewhat doubtingly— for although 

1 have heard it usv^d lately in Suffolk, it was by a 
travelled person, and Lfear it is of recent importation. 
I say fear, because it is so poetical a name, that I 
cannot but hope it. is our own. 

Walter Scott uses it severaLlimes— last, in Halidon* 

bill — ' . ' 3a silence fuUovr. 

?carc not the bare that*s couchant in her form — 
The cuihat from her oest— brush nCjt, it poSsibte» 
The dew-drop from the Bpray. I. 2. 

One cannot help sometimes letting an etymology 
as well as a pun. In this case the first' may suflicel 
I was dispoved to derive this pretty word from Coo'* 
ehat — that is Cooing Siud^'Cjiattering — as Cvcoc — 
— Whin-chat^ &c. This was however, soraewhaiE 
dtnu^sd Ihy htMug^B, cderect Scot'^ooounee the 

>6ii^d Vtuh'^i — lading all the emphasis oti the first 
^^lable, and. pronouiicing it as rhyming to piwh, I 
shall, stiU, leave my surmise till I hear a better. 
Jameison spells the word, rather uncouthly Cow$chot^ 
'Cuschette, and f^mvschot, as well as Cushat; and 
the bird is also called in Scotland Cuskte-^Wf and 
jameisoQ detrves its name from the Anglo-Saxon 
Cusceote. This is rather against my surmise. 

CusTAR D. Hie term quaintly applied by school- 
boys to the pat on the pulin of the hand, inflicted by 
the pedagogue with an impFemcut called a patter. It, 
is* the Usual punishment for bad or negligent Writing. 
The delicate edible of thistiame, we call, rather grossly, 
bnt perhaps not \*ery incorrectly, gustard. It is 
in sucli great demand in tire Wbitsuu holidays as to 
cause a scarcity of>egg8, aiid consequently a consider* 
«ible rise in price ; of which good hii$sifs take dtie 
fmret bought. 

Cute. Sh rewd — cleveri«— sha rp. A shorlcDing of 
acute " 'A*s a cute chap." The same in Scottish. J. 

Cuts. To drmo ««fs> is to draw lots ; which is 
usually done by each person pnlling out of the 
closed hand of another a piece of paper or straw-, 
«ill of which pieces are of equal length and appear- 
ance visibly, though of unequal lengths. I borrow 
from Nares, Under this word, the following quota- 
tions, to shew the antiquity of this phrase and 

We will draw citts for llie senior. Vom, fff Er, Sc. last 

After supper we drew cuts for a score of apricots; ihe longest 
rut iUii to draw an apricot. Jlla/cont. O. P. IV. 10. 

1 think it beat to draw cuts and avoid roDtenlion. Com. Angler* 

It occurs in the old Scottish song of Bessy Bell 
iand Mary Gray, where tiie lover thus settles hi* 
\vish for both lasses^ — 

Waels me, for baiih I cani^a get. 
To imc by law were st anted, 
I'hen I HI dr&iB ctcct, imd tale my fste> 
Atid be with aue contented^' 


Daabing. Smearing — dirtying — covering ovdr 
— daubing. Daabing is a particular mode of covers 
ing walls of cottages and farm buildings with a com- 
position of clay, a little lime, and straw well mixed. 
It is very durable, lasting forty or fifty or more years, 
dmabed over lath^ hazles, or any sticks with small 
interstices. Ray has a homely proverb referring to 
this process " There's craft in dawbing'* — or (as he 
explains it) "there is more craft in dawhmg than 
throwing dirt on the wall/' p. 93, But I take the 
pith of the proverb to be this — that even in dawbing, 
easy as it may seem, some craft, or skill, may be shewn. 
In Tusser's time, this process was called Tamp'ring^ 
(See under GooP, verse 16, and note) — or it may 
mean only tempering or pi-epariug the clay. 

Daata or Dahter. Daughter. See Fulla. 

% Dab. A' frequent application of a cooling liquid 
on a wetted cloth or rag to an inflamed eye or spot 
is called dabbing it — " dab it often.'' 

The word means also a blow, or pat. " A dab 
i' the chops." But it is not, I perceive, included 
among the variety of offensive manipulations enu- 
merated under AiNT. In Scottish Dab means to 
peck, as birdis do — and a stroke from the beak of 
a bird. J. It has the same meanings in Suffolk. 

Dabcuick. a small inedible water-fowl — called 
also Didapper. ' 

Dabs. Agricultural implements of wood shod 
with iron, for making conical holes to receive the 
seed-corn dropped in by hand. They are used for 
pease, beans and wheat. One is held in each hand 
of the operator, who walks backwards whi\e dabbing* 
It is also called dibbling, and the instrument a dibble^ 
The latter word is used by Shakespeare. 

Dad. Daddy. Father — TVid German. Also 
Bop. The words easiest pronounced, which are labials, 
are those kf most languages found to meau parents : 
Mum, Mam, or Ma— ^Pap, Bop; Pa. • 


* I 

Daffadowndilly. TheDafibdiL 

So Tusser~<« Daffodils, or daffkdoiidillies;* p. ltd. 

Daci«> :The morning dew. In Cheshire *' I^a^g is 
an old word for dew<. . In . Norfolk a shower of rain 
i& called a Dagg for the turnips. Johnson calb it a 
low word ; it is, however, in common use in Cheshire 
and elsewhere: daggle-tailed is also common.*' W. 
Ray, who says it is Anglo Saxon, has this periphrasis 
as he calls it, ** for one drunk.*' ** He is dagg'd," p. 69. 
This may be equivalent to being foggy, a more mo- 
dern '^ periphrasis** of a like preuicamcnt. 

Among his S. and £. country words Ray has " Dag, 
dew upon the grass. Hence daggle-tail is spoken of 
a woman that bath dabbled her coats with dew, wet, 
or dirt.** £.W. p. 74. * We now, I think, say draggk- 
tailed, of such a person. 

In Scottish ** Dag is a thin and gentle rain, also 
a thick fog or mist'. As a verb it means to rain 
gently-^-Icelaoitte dangg, pluvia; Swedish dagg, a 
thick or drisxling. rain.'' J. 

0AHKASHVK. The softenhig, probably, of a 
eommon imprecation. It is - aometuones fiurtber 
Boltened b^ dropping the irst syllabl^^'* Why 
what a na^Avie'^le yow aar" is as superlative im> 
daknaghm. ' See Nashun. 

Daintt. Too particular In the matter of eating. 
It i& very say this, of any one disposed to 
epicurbm' in its usual sense. Also of any well-fed 
horse^ bea^1t,.shc|e(», dog* ^c^ that r^ect any ordinary 
food., ,It i^,.sp,metimes said of a female who hav^ 
refused^everal good ofter^ of marriage, that "she is 
top /^in/j(.?,/It is seldom. Hsed in a good sense- 
though one, not beins hungry* or requiring to have 
the palate tickled, will say of himself, ** I am rather 
dainty *\ This word is so familiar to me, and 1 believe 
all over Suffolk, ihat; 1 was somewhat surprised .to 
perceiv^e N^ves Ixeatipg it rather as an uncommon ope^ 
He phtvifs^ j^pwever, , iths^t it b 'use4 by Sbajiesp^ar^j^ 
Beaumont and Fltttcbeiv ana Spenser. ' ^ /. 

" k2 

Damnifbd. Indeittiiified* ^^Tsmt pawtt ta 

Dakb. Noise -T-^latter< — dkturliQfiee : dia. 

Ray has *' to make a dhm, i. e. a now, which we 
m Essex pronounce Jkme, and is in freqnent use*'^ 
E.W, p. ?iii. 

Dank. Mobt, damp, as to the weather, meadows, 
&c. ** A dank rafty morning/' Shakespeare nsea 
the word in this sa&se in JT. H. the 4*h JP. 1. II. \. 

Carrier. — Pease and beans aro as. dank here as a dog> and 
tliatis the next way to give poor jades the bots. 

Again — 

' ■ 18 it physical 

To walk nfthraocd. and sock up the httmonrs 
0£thRdaakmondng? Jvl. C. ii. 1. 

Again — 

£re the sun advance bis baroing eye^ 

The day to cheer, and nigbt*s dank dew to dry. 

*'JkLnk — ^wet^ rotten^" says a eommentator. 

Dank ling, forgot,, will quickij rot. Tutur, p. 55. 

Id Scottish Dank has a like meaniag. Jameison 
explains this word — " damp— in Bagltsh drndt-^ 
moisture, perhaps nouldiness. la ike mdia^ 
la,nguage of Sweden dmnk'im.** Bank i» a good 
poetical word, and will come again into usie^ 

Now that the fields ace da^ik and roads are mire. MHtmii Sonnet, 

I am sarpiised that this w«rd shmM bafve esi^ 
caped Naares. 

Dans. Yearling laipSis^sidbl as are intended 
at a Year«^o}d to be fatted for the batcher; ' f!armers 
li^ho buy in lambs at the August or Sjeptember fairsj^ 
and sell them in fiie f(Aowiipig spring or early sum- 
mer;^ are s^id to ^* Dan 'em.*' Query, frdm the 
French D'an? 

It would be curious to see at one view the Tariou^ 
names in use in the different coaaties of England, 
for lambs and sheep, to distinguish thetr various 
ages and conditions. I i^ili 'here enumerate such 
as occur to me^ thus used in Suffolk'^ 


SamMd Ewe I take to be ia common uiage 
ev^ry^iwJlei^ for the male and female^ While young 
aind.tiaed the former is called Tup, {pretty: exten-* 
lively ; now, as well as in Shakespear<^'s, and earlier 
days« A young ewe is a Theuve, 
. . Male lambs as soon as cat we call TFecMero-it 
And this name they retain through life. Hog an^l 
Moff^t, distinguish both sexes in their secoiid year, 
or till after their second shearing. One-^hear, Two* 
lA«ar, and Tkree-shearskeep also desote their a^esu 
Shearlandti, or ShearlmgSy mark the period between 
Uie first iBtnd second shearing, or clipping, in both 
sexes. Crone is the name of the breeding ewe after 
she have had lambs and lost her teeth^ and this 
name she. retains through life. When their teeth 
get bador- they have lost them, and they are no 
longer fit for the breeding flock, they are termed 
Old-croneii By some I have. been told' that it is 
the loss of teeth which marks the CranCj in either 
sex. See Grone and Wbdder. 

What I have called Wedders, is evidently but 
another pronunciation of Wethers* Both terms are 
in use, with us — but the first is most common. In 
Jameison we find that "Dminon^ is a wedder in the 
-second year," in Scotland. 

Not being quite certain as to the exact application 
of the term Crane, I have, since that article was 
in the press, made enquiry of a company of '' lamb 
growers,'' as we sometimes call flock-masters-^and 
it is odd — but great differences of opinion were en- 
tertained on the question. Some very intelligent 
men affirmed that a Crone is uece.'^.sarily a ewe — a 
tdothless dam. Others, equally intelligent, declared 
th4t a' tooihfess wedder--if one by accident should 
l^e 'Buffered to live long enough to become toothless^ 
wliich is seldom'the case^ — would become a Crone. 
I must thus for the present leave the question. 

Darnak or Dahnak. A thick leather hedging 
/e/i^hand glove. 

Darn^U A. species of coarse grass^ or weedj 


U is trcniblesome on- stKOBf ' soilB» as it is not 
easjr to ktq^ wheat aiid> rye crops free frma it. 
Fanners OIL those soils will accord with Virgil in 
cdling it Infelix Lolhtrn. Hiere were anciently 
some fiibolous trends connected with this half-* 
grain — ^half»grass : and in modern times it has a 
mixed histery-^for as wdl as being a noxious weed), 
it is Bometimes forced into the service of man. Ita 
seeds have a narcotic quality ; and it is not, or a 
few years ago was not, very uncommon for our 
wonunen who brewed at home, to mix them with 
thek malt. This quality haa not atoecether es- 
caped public brewers, for Stowe remarks it as a 
custom in the time of Elizabeth for the Lcmdon 
iMrewera to do the like» ** to make " as he says *' the 
drinkers thirsty that they might drink the more.** 
Ray seems to have confounded Darnel, Brank, and 
Crap. See under Brank. 

Dash. To snub, or check one's forwardness 
before company. *' Lawk \ how vow dew dfasft one«'^ 
Also an oath— "111 be dasht if 1 dew/' 

Daw, a beetle — SeamA. Particularly the laq^e 
black '*^ shard- born beetle." Nares haa '^Dor^ ^ 
droiae or beetle." 

Vlhat should I care that every dor doth bwi 

lii credulottsears? B,Jan^ CyntJua*^ Revilt, III. ^ 

We pronounce it I think as much J}or as JhuD* 

Dawdlb. a slatternly, untidy, unprofitable 
housewife. Dawdlin, Idung — doing of nothing — 
** How yow dew dmodJe about " b often in the 
mouth of a bustling body, by way of fillip to her 
servant or apprentice. See Owlen— and Nonna- 
ksN. Ray, as a north country word has '* Dawgo$. 
or Sawkin ; a dirty slattering woman." £. W. p. Sdw 
Also Daffi^k, ib. 

In Scottish they have sevend words ^f simflar 
sound and meaning — ** Daddk, is to do nay work 


in a slovenly way« Ikiwdief a dirty slovenly woman : 
JDowdv in old English: — Iclandic dawda, doppa^ 
foemeUa i^ava. — ^To Dawdle, to be indolent or 
•fevenly." J. 

Dawzbt. Stopiied — sleepy — dozey, perhaps. 
** A dawzey hidded fellah." Dozzled is perhaps the 
same word. 

Deai>. Death— to deiu^to death. *' She dol* 
lopp't ar child ta dead** 

Deal. A quantity — and comparativety, a great 
qnantity. ** A deal o* money," is more commonly 
heard than a great deal — or a good deal. The 
epithet is implied. A sort, or a tight, in combi- 
nation, are phrases equivalent to a deal,^ See under 
those words. 

Death. Deaf—" as death as a beetle/' 

: Db0. Did — Dedut-^did not^alsa dmt. 

Debv6. t)rineordip, "/>«ereyarhandin/' So 
heeve — for hive — and in many other instances, some 
of which see under Aninnd. 

Deft. Handy — nimble — dexterous or neat. A 
word not often heard in Suffolk. Nares shews that 
it and deftly, are used by Shakespeare, and other 
writers about his time. 

Delf. a ditch — ^not common — hence to delve,^ 
to dig ; but this is becoming obsolete in Suffolk. — 
In Scottish, A delf is b pit, a grave — ^from the BeU 
gie delve, a pit, delver, to idig. J. 

Dent« The worst of any thing — the pineh. After 
a very loud elap of thunder, a woman ^aid '* *Tis,ali 
over. 1 knew that was the dent of it.** 

Devil's dung. Assafoetida. " Devifs - duilg 
pills." In Scottish Deirs-dang^ accordii^ to Ja* 
meison, has a like appropriate meaning. 

Deviltry. Roguery, wantonness^ mischief. — 
A field or fence over-run with weeds will be said to 
have ** all manner of deviltry in it'* — or " all 
manner of roguery.'' 

104 ' 

. D£VU{f« A species x>f swallow or swift, t^a^ 
ftequents old buildings.. It is I believf^ ihd Hirmdo 

Dew. Do— does. "Dew it rainr' .••!», te 
de,w:' See Butes, 

• ■ 

. DfiWiN. Doing. 

Dibble. The operation of dropping grains of 
corn, wheat, beans, and pease generally, into boles 
made by dibbles or (fa/i«. See Dabs. 
. The operatioa is otherwise called dropping ; more 
commonly so called, and indeed more properiy, for 
dibbling is in strictness making the holes. It ib an 
old word, and more extensively used than I was 
aware of. Among his S. and £• country wordif 
Ray has " A dibble^ an instrutnent to mal^c holes in 
the ground with, for setting -beans, peasCj or the 
like — Of general use." E. W. p. 74. 

Nares notices the word, and describes the tool 
g,s still in use : and shews it to ocdir in Shake- 
speare — 

I*il not put 

The dibble in the earth to set one slip of th^m. Win» T, IV. 3« 

And in Tusser-*» 

. Through cunningy with diibbl^ nkefmrnttocj^t and 8p«d«, * 
By Hue and by leTcl, trim garden is made. 

DiBLES or DiABLES. Difficulties*— distresses 
^^ytatationBr-^JDibles rbymea to libels — Dittblea to 
liable— ^pliable. The etymcrfogy is obvious. 

Dicky. Anirss. lo some counties it is ttAhd 
•Necjdy/ • . - . 

Dicky-bard. The jveneral term for any siinili 
bird — not confined toSii^k, bnt prf^valettt probably 
over most, or all, parts ot* -Eii^innd. I should, not 
have introduced it Init witi) the view of giving the 
following article from Mr. Wilbrahani*s Cheshire 
Glossary — **Jack Nicker — a Gold Finch; why so 
called I cannot conjecture. It is particular, bowevrr, 
to observe the apiH'opriation of christian names to 


•,' . 



many kiods of birds. Thus al I 111 tic tnTdi are bychilflren 
catkd'Dicky-birds. We have i«ck-Snipe» Jack-Daw, 
Tom-Tit, Robm RrdbrMsf, Pelt Pariot« < a Gill- 
hooter-^a Magpie is alwtfjfs called Madge ; a Staftiag, 
Jacob; a Sparrow, PhiKp; adda Raven, Ralph.*' W. 
These names all, I believe, obtain m Suifolk, exaept 
perhaps the last two or three, and the first. In com- 
pensation' we have Jack Curlew, Jenny Wmi» and 
Betty, the consort of Tom Tit. And in the abieiioe 
of Jack Nicker, we have King Harry. 

DiCKY-Di LVBR. The perriwinklc. The iower- 
Pervinea, Thitson, which see, is another Suffolk word 
for this pretty flower — the shell fish being appro- 
priately cdMed pin-patch. 

Di DAPPER. The small water fowl which we also 
call dahchick. Nares* gives both these names as well 
as Dine-dapper, equivalent, he surmises, to tmal^ 
diver — ^ 

This dandy '-prat, tMi dive-dafptr. Middkton Au,J)r, lY. 372« 

DiDDY. The female breast of milk. Giving a 
cbHd the Diddy is suckling it. The same in Cheshire. 
W. In some dialects of India, dood h milk ; and 
giving a child tbe doodo, has the like meaning as the 
word, now under consideration with us. With etymo- 
Ifogists, vowels are known to stand for nothing — and 
ft has been, rather smartly, said, that with many of 
fbhn consonants stand for very little. To such there- 
fore these w6rds, so distantly used, w3l appear cog- 

^ pibrim 01* BibbLiifs. DucUins, very yonng. 
Bbmediii^ applied' endearingly to children, or any 
^ouhg creatures.' 

Dike. A ditch. The same in Scottish. J. We 
do not use this word as' in Scotland, Holland, &c« 
in the sense of a wall or rampart, or any thing 
raised. Wllb us the word seems merely a^iiihstilu-* 
Aon of a hard for a aoft temihation-'-«m]|ar Id 
4^<(rlr, which see* 


Dj LLs, TdatiS'*— ** A pig to every diU * is a good 
.character £ir a store (or breeding) bow, "Mone 
pigiB ihan di4W is 6aid'of a large family and small 
,meatKS, in .the same iigiirftti?e sense in which a pa- 
.tnot applied a like phrase to his drained countj^.: a title also to a print of dome humour in the 
•JLoiidcAi show windows, where a very promising 
i^ store. beast*'' is gvuntiog and reclining for the ac- 
.jgjiWiirtLodsirtQn bf her rapacious, offspring ; who are 
demctedmore numiecoiis.than her sources of supply, 
in the effigies of certaii^; ministers, placemen, pen- 
sioners, &G. sucking and squabbling, and squeaking 
for the " milk and honey," of the typical treasury. 
Connected with this word Dill^ is perhaps the DiU 
ling of Cocker, who explains it as the same as ^^dar* 
littff, the youngest child, or on§ born when the parents 
are 6ld.'* This we call Pinhasiet I am not aware 
that this word is known out of Suffolk — nor did J 
ever see it in print* In Nares under Dilling, art 
some quotations, seeming to imply relationship. 

SiUHt Hellenes nam^ doth boar the dilling of her motlier. 

PahffUhiaUf, SoBg^ 

Xo make- up- the matoh with my eldest daqg^ter, {iny wifft*^ 
jiillingi >rhoo4 she |pngs,to call ipifdara. - 

"Eastw.Hoe. O.Play. IV. 20^. 

. Kares, however, thinks with Cockier, that the word 
iS( tlie same as dfirlinff, which these quotations,, and 
another which he gives from Drayton, do not oppose* 
But tlie idea of nvritvrci may als9 be infeirr^» . , 

DiLLY. A term at a game called !&ieks^ that has 

beea,f^lli^ into disuse focQiore tlif^ b^lCa centuiy — 
and i$ now. scarcely known in the oounty. This game 
of Cocks was played with pieces of le;jid— *Q0^.yvitb 
the toqgh, tufted> stem of the plantane. See bbCKS. 

, DiLYEKD, Confused— lieayy — unwell— ouj of 

Dine. Tbrow-^like'Gep>er4iuIL' .Also to dash, 
to ride hard. *^ 'A^lapp't spars to Vs boss and awab 
'a went full dingj'* The word also exieuda toa thnin|> 


•oil the head. Lifcc— Dint, Dunt, Dimsii, Arc. See 
AiNT. It is Scottish — •* He gars Ifh ;<tvn wand ding 
hm" Ray p. 294. He also denotes JDhiff as a Verb 
meaning to beat, a north country word. E.AV. p. 26. 
As a S. and £. country word he also gives it in a 
different sense. "To dtng, td sliiig, Essex," E. W. 
p. 74. 

Nares gives the following explanation and quota- 
tions of " Ding — to strike violently doWi», to dash«" 

Brought in a fresli supply of halbardiers, 

W^iiicti paiinch*d his hors« and ding*d him to the ground. 

Span. Trag. O, P. HI. 133. 
The hellish prince, grim PIulo, with his roace, 
Ding down my soul lo hell. Buttle of Alcazar, D. 4. Glcss, 

We have still the word pauncKd in the above sense* 

DiNGLS. A lowisl],.irregular, vale-like, confined 
piece of land. Ray gives it as a north country word, 
meaning *' A small dough or valley, between two steep 
hills." E,\y. p. 2C. It occurs in Halidon Hill* hi a 
like sense, I. 2. In Nares dimble is given as the 
same word. I never heard it. 

DiNJl N. Showery, Weather unlit to hoe wheat 
in — as the. weeds do not die. Mizzle, Smither and 
Smur are other words implying moistiire. Dinjin 
weather, we also cM falling '^nd following weather. 
I suspect some relationship between ding — dunsli — 
dant — dank. 

Di NT. Did not. " What ! did he dew that there T 
« No— 'a dint/' " I dint sah no such thing." 

Dint is also a blow, a thump, similar to dunt See 
AiNT mid Dunt. Also a dent, or indentation, which 
w« however call a dohe. The word Dint, in the 
sense of a blow or wound, I find in Fanshawe's trans*- 
lation of the Lusiad of Camoens. The poet is de« 
scribtng a conEibat between Gania and the red-capped 
Cafires of Africa. It is Gama who relates it. 

• A cloud of arrows and sharp stones th^ raitl 
. And hail upon us, without any »tint; 

Nor were tliese uttered to the air in vain> 
' ' For m this leg I there received a dhiU 


Bm wcl. as pricit with sn^art and with ^adaSlh - 
Made them a xeadj ansMrer, so in piiot 
That (I believe in earnest) with oar raps, ^ 
We made their heads as criihsoa as their caps. 

' Ihittt and Dunsh are words of nearly similar ini'' 
port. tHnt is Scottish. " The dint of a cloth yard- 
shaft.'' Mrnuutery. I. 8. — ^biit it does not occur in 
that sense iu Jaineison's excellent dictionary. 

D I TC H I Na. The copimon term for making fences 
^-v-especialiy of feying out mas A ditches. 

Docimsist: This curious word f never beard 
bat once — and it was then in speaking to the chanc 
ter of a couple of live Cross-bills^ Loxia Curvirostra: 
the owner, who wauled to sell, affirming they were 
** the most docilinst bahds I ev«r see". It is a carious 
instance of the super superlative^ or ultra extreme. 

Dock. The tail; the hinder pari. Pcfdex. Docked, 
as in other counties, means to cut off, to curtaih ** A 
bung dock," means a horse^s tail cut off and seared 
close to his haunches. A villainous custom nowhap* 
pily lapsing into disuse — but which has been suffered 
too long to disgrace our county. See BtJNG. 

DoDDY. Little-*- «imall-^as to bulk, not number. 
/*A doddy bit." Also Totty. 

DoDMAN or HoDMANDoD, whitb see, a snail. 

Dodge. To seek a person or animal trying to 
avoid you. A man will dodge a bare — a haUey^ a 


Dogs. An iron implement used by^sawyekis about 
a foot long and as thick as a thumb, with a point an 
inch long projecting at a right angle at each end. One 
point is stuck into the log to be sawn, the otiter into 
its supporting roller, to keep it steady and firm. The 
ancient Cobirons, seen in old hails and btrates, were 
and are called Dogrt— wircreof sec under Cqbiron. 

Doit. A small Dutch coin that used to be often 
seen on our eastern coasts when our intercourse with 
Holland was more intimate. It was deemed equal 

to half a farthing, and was current as scrch. U was 
Bometimes called Duichdoit, In Jameison we find 
*' Doit; a small copper coin formerly current in Scot- 
land." But I am not aware that such a coin was ever 
struck in England. ' 

DoKE. The indentation made in a hed to lie in 
—the concavity between any two swellings; or small 
risings — (see BuNNY.) The pit or pet or hollow of 
the stomach. See Nuddle. *• A Doke, a deep din( 
or furrow. Ess. SuflP." hay* Ei W.' p. 75. 

Dole. Share— portion' — any thing doled, or per- 
haps, dealed out* 1 think. the word imports a scanty 

DpLLOPT. Badly, or too much, nursed^ See 


DoNKS. At pitch«ha1i\)enny or hussel-cap, is Ihe 
same I believe as Doogs at marbles. See Dooos. 

DoN*T OPEN your mouth tew Wide. An ad» 
monition of an incipient purchaser to the owner of 
the desired ware — not to ask too a high a price ifor 
the sarne^ 

DoNT OUGHT. Ought not. " tie dont ovykt io 
go." If, however, as hath been contended, ought be 
the preterite- of lo oite, this may not, in strictness, be 
a vulgarism, but a reiinement ^*' He dont ought** 
(i. e. doth not met it to himself) **to go.*' But this 
may rather be deemed grammatical trilBing. _ 

DoN*r THiNfe. A very common substitution for 
a positive afhrmation — for do think, ** He cent teW 
year o^vd I dont think*''^** Yow cent a dewin a' too 
good there 1 dont think." This application of two 
aegatives is not unusual even with people of good 
education. '* She is not at home I dimt think," or a 
like phrase, as well as "Dont ought" and "Every 
each" (see those articles) are sometimes heard with 
surprise-^such is the force of example. 

DoogS. a party of two or three or more play-? 



Jflg at mw[hkh: ao4 puttkig two ^ tiicee or More 
l^ach io the riog; be who kiioeka o«t the o^WEiber be 
put in is said to have "^got bis doogst ''I aVk>sC 
tew"—" I a' won tew*' — '* I a' got my doogs" i. c. nei* 
ther won or lost. Doogs is a Burj word. Jkmkf I 
lately beard at Wood bridge in nearly tbe same sesse. 

DooT&D. Timber is said to be dooted wben not 
sound from fissures b^ lightnings wind<sfaakes, or other 
causes. This word is not local^t is u6ed_(doat^d) 
in a sense of decay iii Pike's Exploratory Travels io 
Louisiai^a. The word is spelled dotard in a like sense 
for dead or decayed trees in Cullum's Hawstead. The 
reverend autbofrefers to tbe word so spelled in a sur- 
vey of the possessions of the Archbishopric of Canter- 
bury taken in 1646. Bib. Top. Brit. No. XII. ap. 
p. 54. Thus, dotard, for a decayed imbecile person; 

Doddered sterna t» be the same word. 

Sex it £ucth'with . tbe sanM tree in its decay : for it becomes 
sapless and doddered, onip knoweth not well wherefore. 

StanihuTtei Prose Works. S43. 

And thus in Scott's Halidon Hill' — 

'■ a most notorioQs knare, 
1^'hose throat IVe destined to the dodder'i oak 
Before my .castle. I. 2. 

Dqp. To curtsey* " Dcp a curtsey" to a; girl, is 
equivalent to ''doff your hat" to a boy.: but oeitber 
wotds are now nmch heard. Nafes has " Dop, for 
dipf a very low bow ;** but I do not klP^ the wqrd 
in that sense. . . , 

Coss- The hassock, for kneeling on at cburph. 
Abo the itis^ockst or largie knots, of ctiarse sour ru^by 
grass in bugn^y low lands. The first being, in couo-* 
try churches, usually made o^^egs^ or rushes, baspro«< 
bably given the iiame to the other, to which it, indeed^ 
bears some re>^emblance. To c^oss, is likewise to toss* 
or buU with the horns. In Cheshire a hassock ia 
called Bq9», 4ud Alt. VV, apprehends Grose to be in 
error in calliug ii Dos$ or Poism. As far as regards 
Do^, he appears to be r^ht. In Scottish Jhnh is- 
to pttsbi as a ram, ox, &c. ' J. • 


t>os»BRS. Pftnniers.— I giv^ tfiis word doubtso^iTp 
as to its being Stiffblk. Sec urtdef Pbd. 

Double tom. A double-breasted plougb^ used 
for drawing water-furrows^ lanc|ing up potatoes, tur- 
nips, <^c. in drills or ridges. It is also cilfled a 

J>oyf, The pigeQn-*idoye-«>jB^$F <2Mpy the wood 
pigeon, from the white rlo^ roun^l i\i neek. . Dow- 
house — the dove cote. 

As a S. and E. country word llajr gives *' Culver, 
apigeon or dove — aft A. S. Culfer— 'Columba." E.W. 
p. 74. I never beard €if)b^. 8eeB«!tT. In Scot- 
tish Dow, is the dove ; and Jameison derives it from 
the Ai>glo*Sa«oa dbiw. In 6age*s Hengrave, p. 199f 
we read "For xx culevers xvij /i" — but it i» evident 
from the price that pigeons are not meant. Beiag 
coupled with '* powder and matche,** a species of fire- 
arm is probably designed. 

D(MVPT. A slovenly* alow-paced woman* See 

DowLY or Dwiley. Flannel, &c. for rubbing far- 
Ditnce* SeeTowLBY/ 

Ddwh i^THfi MOVTH. Low Spirited. In the 
dttiBp». Not local perhaps. 

Dowse. . A cuff— a blow. *' 111 *gi ye a dowse V 
tb' chops.** See an enumeration of divers of such 
offensive terms under AiNT. 

In Scottish, according to Jameison, Doyce and 
Douss, are^ tike the English dUmsi, a dull, heavy 
stroke ; a oTdw.' 

Doxy. A girWa mistress-— rather an equivocal, 
if not a disvespectfui word. Nares has some eurioM 
oW quotations under this word — ^tempting r but my 
growing matter reminds me of the smallness of my 
adopted page. 

D0Z2LE&. Stupid— heavy. See Dawzey. 

Draff. Chaff— refuse 8traw*^lMig^«f«sh*-^M¥ilL 



" Urajfe is good enough for swine/' Ray p. 09. 2d5. 
He gives it as a Scotch proverb. Shakespeare has 

Pra/ and husks. K, H. the 4 P. 1. IV. 2. 

In Scottish *' J^rafft gnins^^raff-pock, a sack for 
carrying grains.'' J. "Z>ra^f^hog-wa8h, oranysuch 
coarse liquor. Milton uses the word^ and it can 
hardly be reckoned obsolete.*' Nare$ GL SeveraF 
quotations are given from our old writers who use 
the word-— >by Drayton spelled draugh. 

Draft. A copy of a writing or picture. 

.Dragglb-tailbd. a female untidy about the 
petticoats. Ray calls it Daggle-tailed, and derives 
it from dag, dew. See under that word. 

Dr AN Bs . G rains-^frora brewing — ^what beer has ' 
drained from. 

Drat it. A good humoured sort of half oath« 
An abbreviation perhaps of Od rat it, or Od rot it. 
Rabbit it, or 'Drabbit it — or Ods rabbit it ; are others 
of equivalent meaning, or no meaning. . Of these 
demi-oaths we have a good many, as noticed under 

Draw. A proof of strength and bottom to whkh>' 
thie .Suffolk- breed of cart horse was formerly put. 
** Drawing matches" or *' a drawing" were frequent . 
in former days, but are now perhaps wholly discon- 
tinued. In that entertaining piece of topography^ 
Cullum*s Hawstead, the term ''drawing match^ occur- 
ring, there is this note. 

'' I transcribe an advertisement of these matches 
from the Suffolk Mercury of 22 June, 1724. 

'< On Thursday Jvtly 29 1724 there will be a Drawing at Iz- 
worth Pickarelt for a piece of plate of 45 shillings Talne, and thej 
that will bring five horses or mares may put in for it^ and they 
that can draw f the bent and fairest polls with their reina Qp» 
and then they that can carry the greatest weight over the block 
with fewest lifts and fewest pulls, shall have the said plate, by 
snch judges as the masters of the teams shall choose. You are 
to meet at 1$ o^clock and pot in your names^orelse to be debarred 
from drawing for it) and subscribe half a crown a piece to be paid 
to .the second beat team.** 


>9oiiiiepvrtB <if tlK^ibCNrv, 4h«fmtefiend b^ d4ds 
may peghapg rmolneaiicit m iigiiiitfy>- > • i - 

% itjtie wiik. iptp thf^^^pwind, fvidi . Mockfl irf' wofitl iMkt MbM 
them tp iopeftse 1^/e c^ifficuU j« {The flrs^ -ieff&ru iu«: roAdi fAil^ 
the reins f^steiiea as usual to the cpVar ; but the animal»cai>iittt 
t^he'n so conffiied, pen oat their fulVstreh^th : the reins are there- 
fore afterwards thrown loose on their necks, w^n the;y can eiert 
their utmost powers, which thev.HSually d« by ialiing on dieir 
Inees and di:aWing in^ that attitude. 'Hiatthey may not break 
their kiiees by this operation, the area on which tUe^ diraw is 
strowa wiib fcoft sasd/' p. Se3. ...''. 

The PickareU is still the sigi\ of the pubHe^liome 
fti !xwoTtb. 

DiiAw ctJTSi See Cots. 

DEAirk or Drakb. A species of gnms or iv^d, 
troublesomo in strong sioiU. Lik«dsrFBel it is difficult 
to keep ^heat cleai^ from rt^ 

Drawl.'' A' slow affectef mode of speaking — also 
slowness of motion. ** She's a drawling thing," im- 
plies lack of briskness in a maid-servant^ &c. In 
Scottish it means " to be slow in action. Teutonic 
drael-en, cunctari.'* J. 

I>REBNS« Drains^ in land : the work is called 

Drebp. Drip. Also the fall, or descent in tins 
sense*— " Ifhrec: laches, in a fi>at is suffieieHt dreep for 
pantiles." That is a sufficient fall to carry off rain* 

Dtt£N<6ii« A dr^ink ibr a sick horse. I have had 
occasiouinmaAyinalaiM:e9to notice this intercbafige of 
k and ch. See under Perk, where a few are enumer- 
ated. As elsewhere we use the word drench as a verb, 
implying to we^ thoroughly. See Drouched. 

Dresser.' The ldtcht;iirab1e>orsidie'boatdwbere- 
^011 the cook prepares her meats, &c. 

Dribble. A drop — small rain. DribKn, and 
drizlin, also mean, as ehewhrcte; light rsin. Mfizle, 
BsidSvM»et^.w^'ii^9.n%Tmi9,fH{iU Sfce uudfuttiose 




. DniNi^LE* AjiiMiU$k>wruiiof'wkter;ornUberits 
bed — a drill or svfM^mnow for receiviog seed-corn* 
&c« It differs frpuMi Currel, orOutfl I believe in 
this*— that the latter must be of rtciimfi^ water. The 
word is sometimes heard figarsitivefy ''He is the 
drindlest man I ever did 'business with**— -that is, a 
slow man . See Grip. 

Drippen. The drifipings or gravy of roast meat 
caught in the " Latch pan^' which see. |n Scottish 
we find *' Dreip, to distil in drops, from the Aogio* 
Saxon drffp-anJ' J. 

Driv. Drove. " Ah— 'a drti? a rare trade." "Yow 
dHv yar pigs finely i' the pight." That is Snored. 

Droppbn. The operation of dropping grains 
of wheat, pease, or beans, into holes made by the 
dabs or dibhles. See under those words. Dropperg 
are always women and children ; and as the dibbler 
generally takes the job by the acre, the earnings 
of a family at this work are considerable. It is 
surpriiNng with what quickness and accuracy drop- 
ping is executed by a good dropper. One will 
sometimes carry three holes at once; children sel- 
dom more than one hole : such portion of work is 
called a rocket. ''That is yar rocket:'—** This is 
my rocket.*' 

Drouched. Drenched — with rain. Droukit, In 

Drouth or Drout. Dryness — aridity — ^thirst. 
i>roti^%— thursty, dry. Thus Shakespeare 

Crickets sing at the oven's mouth 

As the blither for their drcuth. Per. P. rfT, III. 1. 

Ray gives it in a Scottish proverb " Drink and 
drouth comes sindie together." p. 285. ** Drouth, 
drought, thirst — droutky^ thirsty" — in Scotland. J. 

Drownded. Drowned. 

- Drug. A vehicle for the conveyance of heavy 
timber. The timber is laid on the Drug, and it is thus 


distinguished from a Jim. The Drug is composed of 
two axletrees and two pair of wheels— the hihder pair 
movable nearer to, or more distant from, the fore 
pair on a pole. The Jim has but one pair of wheels, 
and carries the timber under the axle. See Jim. 

In Scottish we find ** Dmg^ to pull forcibly — a 
rough pull/* J. 

Drugster. a druggist. 

Dubs. Doublets at marbles. A player knock- 
ing two out of the ring cries ** dubs ! '* — to authorize 
his claim to both. So Tribs, Fobs, and Fibs, for 
the following numbers. If the adverse party can 
first cry " Fen-dubs ! " — ^Fen-tribs ! " &c. it averts 
the player*s claim. See Fen. 

Duck. To stoop, or dip the head suddenly. It 
is I believe in extensive use. 

Ducks. Almost any very young small animal; 
said even to chickens endearingly "ah — my ducks-* 
my diddles/' Ducklings when very young are called 

Ducks an Drakes. A boyish pastime, played 
by casting stones onto the surface of a still piece 
of water, slantingly, that they may dip and emerge 
several times. If once, it is '* a duck ** — if twice, 
"a duck an a drake" — if thrice, "a duck an a 
drake an a fie*penny cake" — four times, is ''a duck 
an a drake an a fie 'penny cake an a penny to pah 
the baker." If more than four, " a duck"—" a 
duck an a drake," &c. are added. These distinc- 
tions are iterated quickly to correspond in time, as 
nearly as may be, with the dips of the stone. A 
flattish stone is evidently the best for this sport. 

From this pastime, which however dull in de- 
scription, is animating and not to be despised — 
has probably, arisen the application of the term to a 
spendthrift— of whose approaching ruin we should 
thus speak — "Ah! he 'av made fine ducks and 
*^akes of a's money— that 'a have." As much as 


to »9ij he kas cai$l his means upos the water ; or 
to the winds. 

DuDDLE. The maternal mdulgence which an 
animal — a sow fbr instance — extends to its youngs, 
hy laying along and letting them suck or ran about 
or slomher on her. It is probably extended to an 
infant child, tho' this is oftener caHed €)nddHmg. 
I never heard Duddle but once, and it was then ap- 
plied to the first named animal in the following 
phrase (the teeming old punter had been apparently 
stingy to her squeaking train, and this was the 
defence) " Aa — she fare ta stunt em neeeyeow — but 
,she'l lah down an duddle em«present/' The eu- 
phony of the neeeyeow (now) is not to be conveyed 
thro' the eye. 

Dudgeon. Offence — anger " He took it in dud^ 
ffeon" — now not often heard. It is an old word — 
ami formerly meant a weapon of offence, as viell as 
the feeling, it occurs in Shakes|)eare — and in a 
quotation in this collection under Chut, In Nares' 
Glossary, under Dudgeon, the reader will findai'^ry 
curiotis article. 

DOFFEL. A coarse woollen stuff of which jackets, 
gaiters or buskins are made. A great coat made of 
it is called Wadmul — which see. 

DuMM. The down, or fur^ of a rabbit or hare. 
See Fleck. 

Dumps. Nearly, or perhaps quite similar, to 
"down i' the mouth." "In the dumps" — or "in the 
disniaW — or *' in the dolefuis,'* are like phrases — curr 
rent perhaps almost all over England. In Narea' 
Glossary, tiie woi d dump is curiously bandied. 

Dunderhead. A stupid, dull, fellow : a Mock- 
head. So in Scotland — J. and in most pnrts of Eng- 
land. We shottd most likely say dwndmkid or dm^ 

Dunsh. a shove — a punch. So inSeottish *^Y^ 
iieedna be dunshm that gate." T. of my L. 9 8» Ih 


299. " Dfmch, to push or jog with the elbow.** J^ 
Dunf, Hud Dint^ are umiiar words ; which see, and* 


DuNT. A stroke or blow— especially on the back 
of a rabbit's netk to kill it. Numb— stupid— a sheep 
moping, from a disordered head, is said to be DunK 
A dull boy is said to be •* kiender dunt hidded." — 
Dimt is a blow in Scottish, according to this proverb 
from Ray " Words are but wind— but Bunts are the 
jJevjl.'* p. 307 : and according to Jameison. Dunt 
is with us, as elsewhere, the quick way of pronouncing 
done iU Thus in that most terrible scene in Macbeth 

Lady Af. — Had he not resembled 
My father as he slept, I had dontX It. 2. 

Dint, and Dumhy are words of nearly like meaa- 
iDg, as noticed under Aint. 

DuTFi N. A cart horse's bridle. 

DwiLY. A towel. See Towley. 


Ear. The kidney, or its neighbouring ftt ; par- 
ticularly of roast veal. It is also called Near, or 
Neah-^Aiyahy and Niyah. 

Earnest. A sum given by a master on hiring a ' 
servant. A shilling is the usual sura* It is still a 
notion that if Eameit be not given and taken, it is 
not a complete hiring: that no proof exists, perhapsj^ 
of the parties being in earnest. We usually pronounce 
it amest. The Suffolk sense of this word will* I think 
lead to a better understanding of a passage in Pastor' 
Fido E. 1.— quoted by Nares. 

Earth. One plowing. So two eartbs^three 
clean earths. To ear, according to Nares, is to plow, 
to till. Hence, he thinks, earable, fit for cultivation 
with corn, now turqed to arable; and earth, he de« 
duces from to ear, as tilth from to till. See hi% 
valuable Glossary under these words* 

East. Yeast. See Bahm« 


Ebdi«h« a crop t«keB4Hit of due coufie re called' 
*f aa Eddiib crop" or ''js stolen crop." . The word 
seems to mean a field after a crop is carried off. *'A. 
hezn.eddUk," h often applied to such a one. In Ray 
I find it equivalent to Stubble, Amoiig his S. and £. 
country words, we have **Ersh ; the same that * EdUh, 
the stubble after the corn is cut. Sussex. EdUc\% 
an old Saxon word signifying sometimes tioughing$^ 
Ailtermathes.'' E.W. p. 75. JSc/dis/iseeoas, therefore, 
l^ut a softened pronunciation of the Savon word. 
JRoughing appears to have been of old pronounced as 
liiyming to plowing. See Ro wen. In Ray again we 
have ''A Grattan; an Ersh or Eddish, Sussex. Stub* 
ble, Kent." ib. p. 77. 

In Tusser we have " Edish or Etch" — 

Seed first go fetch— :^or Edith or £tob. 

Soil perfectly know — Drp Eduhye 90w. p. 25* 
Again — 
Where wheat apon Edish ye mean to bestow,-}- 
Let that be thp fy%t of the wheat yexlo A)W. 
White wheat upon pease etch^ doth grow as he woold^ 
Bat fallow is best, if we di^'is we sl^ald. p. 33. 

Etch, occurs again in a quotatioa -uodet Plash* 
, ]Becuannx)nnum, £(ach one of them. Every 
one of them. Eechannonnus, ^ch» and every, nam 
of us. 

' E'ENT. Am not— IS not, " I eW— •* He eenV 
— "She eeqt,**' T'eent, it is liot. 

Ees. YesT-pronounced long and drawling, Is» 
short and sharp, is also Tes. 

Ef^I J. A likeness— ^a strong likeness, " He is 
the very Ejffn of his father." Evidently from the 
Effegies used the century before last , for picture, or 

Ek e out. To use sparingly. Shakespeare writes 
il Eche, and makes it rhyme to Speech, in a passage 
c|*io*ed by Nares. The hard and soft sounds of k 
and ch final, are, as-noticed in other places, frequently 
interchanged. Siee under Pbrk. 

• With, or at, perhaps wa« meant. 

f Bestow, to pi act, to put— See Birrow. 


El&ow-gr£A3e« Hard rubbings or work, wiih 
tbe arms, The ^ame in the Scottish, and probably 
other, dialects. 

Elder. The alder tree. EUer, in Scottish. I 
am not aware that we have the dislike to the elder, 
that was formerly prevalent, in consequence of the 
supposition that this was the tree on which Judas 
hanged himself. See Jew's ear. Nares in his GL 
has some curious extracts from Shakespeare and 
others on this matter. 

Elvish. Tbeivish — mischeivous — notindustHous* 
Applied sometimes to bees in un blooming weather. 
See Stingy and Tetchy. Elvish is evidently de- 
rived from the rural mythology of earlier days, which 
peopled every hill and dale with poetical inhabitants. 
This feeling is not yet quite extinct in Suffolk. 

Em or \5m^ An abbreviation of Aim, and otthem. 

Empub-and. The copulative character, &. 
Nares, in his first article, shows that a per, se, a ; 
O'per 86, ; ^ and' t per se, i : as well as and per se andp^ 
are used by our early English writers. The latter, be . 
justly observes, to signify the cootratrtlon &, substi- 
tuted for that conjunction, is not yet forgotten in thef 
nursery. Empus^mndy howcwer,.! iiever heard or saw 
out of Suffolk. A by itself, a; 1 by itself i, &c. 
were, in my recollection, the mode of t«achi»g'Ortbo- 
graphy in village seh^ob; and are, perhaps, still re- 

Endurable. Durable — lasting. This is not a 
useless word* 

Enow. Sufficient — enough. This is an old and 
a>*good wprd-^and likely to become less and less.ob-^ 
solete; as Scott and some other gqod writers have 
lately used it. In Suflblk, it is I think mostly refer- 
able to number, as it ought tp be — enough should be 
confined to quantity . "Men enow* — *' Corn enoughr 
TIJ '^ well to my ear — and the converse is 

gating. In soif of our old English authors emugk 


is made to rhyme to plough* See something of this 

under GooF — note to verse 11 of a poem of honest 

old Tusser. 

He sometimes makes enaut/h, and plough, rhyme — 

and pUmghings and raughings. But be also uses 

^enow, in reference to number as well as to quantity-^ 

Where twain be'«fiow. be not served with threey 
More knaves in a company, worser they be. p. f65. 

Maids— fritters and pancakes enow see ye make. 271. 

Under Plash and Row en something farther oc- 
curs on the topics of this article. 

Nares says there is no doubt that Enow is now 
obsolete, except in some provincial dialects. I can* 
not help thinking otherwise. It is used by Sir William 

Bones fnpto to fill a cart. Inst, of Menu, 

Ether. Rhyming to whether — as a verb, de* 
notes the operation of running a line of hazel or 
ether flexible wands intertwiningly along the top of 
a hedge, to keep it more finnty within the hedge 
stakes ** Mind you ether it right strong." As a sub- 
stantive, Ethers are the things so used. 

In his Glossarium Northanhymbricum, Ray calls 
it a Saxon word, and spells it Yeather; and notes 
Eathering, as described above, as a Southern prac- 
tice. E.W. p.llS. 

Tasser calls it Edder. 

Save edder and stake— ^strong hedge to make. p« 79. 
The word occurs again in a quotation under Poi^ 


Every each. Every other. "He preach a ser- 
mon everg each Sunday/' See Dont think. In 
Scottish **£verich, every ; everichone, every one.'' J« 

Every futnon. Every now and then. See 


Ewe. The perfect tense of owe. ^'Heetceme 
five pound." See Owe. 

£x. An axe.. A brotui ex — that of the commoa 


size. One nark'ower, longer, and thicker (I am speak- 
ing of the metallic part) for felling trees) or for cleaving 
wood, is called a lump ex. 

ExTRY. Axletree. Axtree> in Scottish. J. So 
in Nares — 

' Such a Doise they make 
As tho* ia sunder heavens huge ax-tree brake. 

Drayt. Mooncalf, p. 476. 


Pags. Or rfags. — a sort of oath, equivalent to 
* faith, and expressions of that sort. Of these mode- 
rated imprecations we have divers, as noticed under 

Fain. Willing— desirous— gladly— ." He'd fain 
have had her." 

Fairing. A present at or from a fair. It has 
been suggested that the word^iire, may have been 
derived from the feasting and good cheer 'formerly 
found at fairs a^id wakes. 

Fan. a quaint word for the frequent application 
of a whip to a horse " Fan um along." Likewise a cohi- 
winnowing implement ; called also Vofiif which see. 

Fanset. See Fawcit. 

Fapes. Gooseberries. •* Fape tart." In Nor- 
folk Thapes, or Thebes. Ray says " Thepes is the 
same with Febes or Feaberries — i. e. Gooseberries." 
Carberry he gives as the north country name. E. W, 
p. 21. Again, '* Feabes or Feaberrie$, gooseberries* 
SufF. Leicestersh. Thebes in Norfolk." ib. p. 76, 

Fape wine was probably much drank by our 
rural ancestors; and not unwisely, for there are 
few wines better. May not this help us to the 
meaning of a word in Shakespeare which has puz- 
zled his commentators. In the M. W. of W, I. 1. 
Bardolph says that Slender was Fap — " meaning I 
believe " — Johnson says *' drunk. The wor.d is not 
however to be found in any of our old comedies." 
And Nares sought it in vain. 



Jap, or Fapey, may fonaerly have meant '* much 
bemvs!l|'Mp gqosebenry, or fape-wine. Asdagg^d 
and foggy, bave, or have had, a like allusioD. — 
See t)AG. 

Fare. Feel — seem — *' How do ye fare ? ** This 
is a good word— "^ind is not' lost to general usage — 
we retain it in Farewell. Fahren — German. This 
may be the same word thus noted by Ray " Far and 
is used in composition, as fighting -jar and in a 
fighting humour." E. W. p. 1?. 

Fare is also a litter of pigs. See Farrow. 

Fareing. Seeming — feeling. *' Ive had sich 
fareings' myself " will be said by an experienced 
dame of the indescribable ailments of a love-sick- 
damsel. We pronounce it faren^ it being usual 
with us thus to terminate words ending in ing, 

' , Farrisee. Pronounced like Pharisee — a Fairy. 
Fairidge in Norfolk. The green circlets in pastures 
we call Farnsee-rings. 

Farrisee rings or Fairy rings. The green 
circles seen in grass ]ands; in and round which it 
has been fancied the fairies, or farisees, dance by 
moonlight. The cause has been variously sought 
by philosojphers ; and in vain, I believe, 'till Dr. ' 
Wollaston ascertained it to be a species of expand- 
ing mushroom. Sheep and cattle avoid it. 

This is not overlooked by Shakespeare-^ 

Ye derai-puppeis, that 

By moon«]ight d« the green sour ringlets make. 
Whereof the ewe not bites. Temp. V, I . 

Farrow. A litter of pifjs — also used as a verb 
to denote the parturition . We sometimes say a^are, 
for a litter. In Ray*s S. and E. country words, we 
find the following article. " A fare of pigs is so 
many as a sow bringeth forth at one time. To far- 
row is a word peculiar to a sow's bringing forth pigs. 
Our language abounds in unnecessary words of this 
and other kmds. ' So a sheep is said to yean, a cow 


to calve, a mare to foal^ a bitch to whelp, &c. — 
AIL which words signify no more than pnrere, tq 
bring forth. So for sexes we have the like super" 
fluous words, as horse and mare, bull and cow, 
ram and sheep, dog and bitch, . boar and sow, &c. 
whereas the difference of sex were better signified 
bj a termination." E. W, p. 75. 

I do not altogether agree >vith Ray that such 
variety of terms, distinguishing the nature of the 
birth, is any fault in our language. To yeaning y foajt- 
ing, &c. he might have added kittle or kindle, as 
applied to the hare and rabbit. 

Farther. Expressive of rcpugaance — or a ino« 
derated oath or vow. *'ril bejfar^Aerif I do" — "I^d 
see you farther first." The same in Cheshire. W* 
1 was reminded of this word" by aeeing it in Mr. W.'s 
Glossary. It is in common use in Suffolk; especially 
among females, who may demur at using a stronger 
asseveration. On examining the expressions given, the 
reader will observe that Ibrsubstitirtion of one word 
(a|;ross one certainly, and though still too much used; 
less so than formerly) will convert this very moderate, 
into a very offensive, oath: — and extending ^artAer 
to a superlative sense, would lead us to sad lengths. 

Fucfc/a is Suffolk for fartlier — and this word used by 
one of a lower class, would of course be so pronounced. 
As observed under several other words we have a 
variety olf moderated imprecations. See Amen DEN. 

Fast and loose. A shuffling, shacking, dis- 
honest feliovs^ — when "there is no knowing whereto 
havelihi^," is' said to be "playing at fast and loose/' 
Nares showisi this to have been the name of an old 
swindling game, by which gypsies and other vagrants 
cheated the uninitiated. He described it ; and gives 
several curious quotations in illustration. As well 
as the phrase above given, we should also feay that* 
such a fellow was ".playing at peep-bo:^* a term 
borrowed from the nursery. See Peep-bo. 



Fat-hen. Mock-weed, or gooiefoot. CActta- 
podium album. It has been derived from Fat-Henry 
bonus Henricus. 

Father Johnson. See Finis. 

Father long legi?. The very long-slender- 
legged spider which makes its i^pearance in the 
month of July ; it is otherwise calleti harvest-man. 
In Norfolk Harry-long-legs. 

Fawcit or Fan SET. The wooden pin and tap 
of a cask. Faucette — French. *' Spicket and 
Fanset." The Fawcet is the tube, the spicket, 
the little spike. Sliakespeare uses fawcet. We 
commonly call it ''Tap and Fansit." Faucet, is a 
pretty general term. In Scotland *' Cock and 
Fail, is a spigot and faucet.*' J. 

Fay or Fey. To clean out the inside of a 
decayed tree^ or a pit or a ditch. " Fay it out." 
Applied to a ditch, outhauling is* a more commotf 
word. Fey is an old and a good word. Tusser 
uses it. 

Such maddy deep ditches aud pits in the field. 
That all a dry sammer no water will yield ; 
Bj fieing, and casting that mod upon heaps, 
Commodities many the husbandman reaps, p. 166. 

At midnight try — foul privies tofye. p. 44. 

Fool privies are new to be cleansed nn6fy*df "^ 

Let night be appointed, such baggage to hide ; 
'Which buried in garden, in trenches a-low^ 
Shall makt very many things better to grow. p. 59. 

In Cheshire, according to Mr. Wilbraham, Fay 
or Faigh is used as a substantive, meaning ** the 
soil before you reach the marl. To Fay^ is to re* 
move it." — Ray says " To fey or feigh it: " to da 
any thing notably. To fey meadows is to cleanse 
them: to fey a pond, to empty it. A north 
country word." E. W. p. 29. 

Feed— Feeding. Grass food. Pasture. "JWrf 
is very short ta year.** 


F]|LLV FiH--*]y£^ iMLkiyi otter chAtigeli of e fo)* t, 
a& noticed under Annind. . Mso the Ml'ordbvp of 
lambs. ",Of the fir$t fell" means of Ihe earliest drop^ 
ping. This must I think be the liieaoiog of the line 
in Jonson*s mask of Pan$ 4nnU9erMr^i>-4nistiiken9 1 
presuhie to thi9k> both by Nafes and Todd. It is a 
promise to Pan—* . . 

So th^ll the fir«tQf<aUoiir/e&beihiiie. • > 

That is the first of th^ fin^t/eZ/T-or fall of lamitt;*-- 
not the first or best hid, • as Todd seems to believe ; 
or the ^vs,i$kiA ot fleece^ aa Nares. 

Fella or Fellbr. The shaft-horse of a' cart 
or tumbril — the ^//er.*^he remaining while it is 
filling, the other horses being taken off to draw the 
filled cart. Also. Thiller and Thill-horse, The 
geer worn by the Feller or Thiller are called Thill- 
Pells, See Thill. 

Felt. A bank, or a field, foul from spear grass, 
or roots of weeds, is said to be ** like B,felt^ or 
" all of Q,felf' — implying possibly tliat the fibres 
are as intimately intertwined as in the felt of a hat. 
In Scotland ye/^ is die " creeping wheat grass.*' J. 
Truck is a word nearly equivalent to felt. 
. FilBfN.. A . preventive • exclamation, -imperatiyely 
us^d to negative or prevent any undesirable action. 
A boy at marbles, )iis taw slipping, crie^ ' " slips 
o.ver again ! " to authorize another attempt ; wbich 
his adversary averts by sooner, or more quickly, 
exclaiming " Fen slips over again." See Dubs. 

Fence. A live, or other hedge, in the common 
sense of keeping stock, &c. in or out of inclosures. 
Also as to keeping wet out of boots, shoes, &c.' — 
" Dew yar bates /cnce? " 

Fey. See Fay. 

Fibs. See Dubs. 

FiEST. See Fyst. 

FiFERS . Fibres — roots or shoots of trees, weeds, 
grain, &c. 



File. Defile. Rendering water turbid — Rile, 
also describes this more commonly. See Rile. — 
*'*XJUe as stuwa" — said of a horse who soils his 
hay. The Scotch have ** She's a foul bird that 
fyles her own nest." Ray. p. 904. This is also 
Suffolk. ** A scabbit sheep files all the fiock."— 
Scottish. Ray. p. 279. Defoul and defile were 
formerly used in the same sense. ** Undefouled ^ 
occurs in Caxton, Legend, 338. So that Jile, 
whence filth, was the same as foul. 

In Lyndsay's dramas of the ancient world the 
word occurs m a cognate sense. 

ASam — Yen, let me hope 
I gaze upon a yision— that the breath 
Of the blasphemer doth noiJUe the air 
So near the courts of Eden. Cam, 

Nares gives several quotations in proof that it 
and fyle are merely contractions of defile. And 
Jameison gives both, showing that in Scottish the^ 
mean to suUy^ in a moral, as well as a physical 

FiLLD. A field. See Mew. 

Finis. On arriving at this part, or word, that 
is jat the end, of a book, boys used, and probably 
Btill do, recite this unmeaning sort of formula — 
made up, it will be perceived, by supposing each 
letter to be the iiutial of a word-*forward and 
backward — 

Father lohnson Nicholas IohnsoQ*8 Son — , 

Son lohnson Nicholas lohnson's Father. 

So that getting to Father Johnson, was equivalent 
to finishing the book. " How far a've ye got ? " "To 
Father Johnson." I marvel if this idle usage be 
known beyond Sufiblk. 

, FiNNlKEN. /Trifling—idling. 

FiRBAUKS. Straight young fir trees, fit for 
ladders, scaffolding, &c. The same I believe as 
Yofers and Spurshers. 

,^*,4>«i. -K^ ^ .' .•>* ....-s*.,,.-— *1>^>~ *--*'> .,, - - - - . ..^■, . 


Fire. This word forms asort of oath. "What 
tijire ar yeow a dewin on" — ^as noticed with other 
regulated imprecations under Amen den. 

FiSHERATE. Provide for — probably officiate — 
** I een't able to fsherate for em all." The word 
occurs in a phrase under Beein. It is very often 

FissLE A thistle. 

Five fingers The appropriate name for the 
dried remains of the star-fish or sea-star found on 
our eastern and other coasts. In Cocker we read 
•• Five fingers, a fish like a spur-rowel, destructive 
to oysters, to be destrayed by the admiralty law." 
Such a notion and such a law, may have existed ; 
though now perhaps, forgotten. It is also a disease 
in turnips, which we call JJanbury, which see. 

Fiz. A flash— a hissing noise— also ^zzle. 
Fiz, fiest, and fuz, are perhaps nearly ahke ia 
meaning. See Fyst. 

Flabber-gasted. Astonished— confosed. — 
*' Fm wholly flabbergasted." Stamm'd, is of like 

Flack. A blow : also flick— lather— kulp— hide 
—and a variety of others, as enumerated under 
AlNT, where, however, /ac^is omitted. 

Flacket. Women's ribbons or loose geer, are 
said to *• Flacket about." It is more expressive 
than flap— the latter word denoting rather an agree- 
able motion— such as the wings of a bird, the 
swinging of a gate or door, &c. A dressy loose 
woman would have the former word figuratively ap- 
plied to her. •* She go flacketen about." 

Flag. Turf— sod— the portion of clover land 
turned at once by the plough. - One hole on a 
flag "—means one row of holes dabbed or dibbled 
on each of such portions for dropping the seed 
wheat into. *'TSvo holes on a/a^"— are also 

128 . 

comtiaon. Cocker has " Flags— a Norfolk word — 
turfs pared off to bum;" Ray — " Flags the sur- 
face of the earth which they pare off to bum, the 
upper turf. Norfolk." E. W. p. 76. " Flag "—in 
Scottish — " piece of green sward, cast with a 
spade." J. 

Flap-jack. The same as Apple-Jacky :which 
see — Since that article was printed Nares', under 
Flap-jack, has come to my notice. Had I seen it 
earlier, I should have omitted a piece of flippancy, 
which any one who may compare my Apple-jack 
and Nares' Flapjack, will think, with me, might 
have been spared. The point, however, that it is 
not a pancake, I cannot give up. 

Flappers. Young rooks (and perhaps other 
birds) just able or beginning to flap or try their 
wings, ere they fly. ** Full flappers" — very near 
flying. " Ar yar rooks fliers?" •* No — but th'ar 
full flappers" — It is then the nick of time for rook- 
shooting. The word is expressive — denoting the 
time when they are trying their strength of wing,, 
just before daring to fly. 

Flats. The smooth, oozey, level shore, left by 
the sea on the Suflblk coast in winter or at spring 
tides— about Bawdsey particularly. 

Fleck. To depitve. " I fleck't him of all his 
marbles " — pluckt, perhaps. Fleck is also the soft 
fur of rabbits or hares — the same I believe as dumm. 

Fleckered. Variegated, of two or more colours, 
descriptive of domestic poultry. Flecker'd — Gay 
— Pied or Piebald — Shell and Spreckled — are terms 
implying nearly the same thing, but are not in 
every case interchangeable 

Flecker'd, spreckled, and gak or gay, seem ap- 
plicable to the feathered race, chiefly— especially 
to domestic fowls and the magpie. 

Shell is descriptive chiefly of the species of duck. 

A horse with much white on his face would be* 


called Pie-iald: and I think, but am not sure, 

A cat is never either flecker'd, pied, or ihelled^-^ 
she may oe gay or gah, as a variegated cow would be* 

And fall of gergon as tifleeken pie. Ordinary. O. P. X. 235>-* 

** means" — Nares says — •'^ full of chattering as a 
spotted magpie." See Gah — Pied — and Shell. 

Pledjers. Young birds just fledged. At a 
more advanced plumage they are called— -young 
rooks especially — Flappers': which see. 

' Fleeches. The portions into which a tree or 
piece of timber is cut by the saw, in its first position 
over the saw-pit. FleecK in the '^singular. When 
turned and ripp*d or rippen'd, that is, cut into smaller 
portions, such portions are called Scant lins, in Suf- 
folk and extensively elsewhere. 1 1 is likely tht^t fleech, 
nudjiitch, 2LndJlicl(, 'dud Jleak, 2Lnd flake, 2indjiank 
may be closely cognate, if not identical — meaning a 
side, or a portion of a side. See Flick. 

Fleer. To look jeeringly or scornfully at one. 
Shakespeare uses it — M. ado about N. v. 1. Jul. Caes. 
L 3. Othello, iv. 1. 

Fleet. A shallow piece of standing water. — 
" Is it deep ? No, 'lis quite ^cf." When deep we 
call such a piece Meer, When very shallow, and 
only the collection of wintry wet. Splashes. Nares 
says Fket is Saxon ; " a small stream." Our words 
Flet, and Fletsker, I take to be related to Fleet. 

Flet. Milk skimmed or Jletted is called flet- 
fgiilk — q. fleeted?! — i.e. made shallower. Cheese 
made of this milk is called Fkt-cheese. The flet- 
ting implement is called Fletting-dish and Skillet. 
See WoNMiLL. In Cheshire ** Fleetings, or Flet-- 
tings, or Fleetmilk, is part of the refuse milk iA the 
process of cheese making. Belg.^^Vlot melchr-^ 
Skinner.'' Etomolog. Ling. Ang." W, 

Fletsher or Fktshard or Fletshud. A young 
l^a-pod, or peskud^ or peascod. This may come 


from the fiatoes^ or fleetness of the early peascod; 
Flaty like a shards or piece of tile or pot. Tiles- 
bard a.ud .Potdhard are both common. Shard 
appears to have formerly meant a broken piece of 
ftny thing thin and flat* "The shard-bom beetle,*' 
means probably borii iinder (or if " shard-6orne,*' 
borne on) such a fraction. See Potshad. 

Flick. The flake er flank oi a bog — the fat oflF 
the ribs — or loins and crop$. It is ti^ualiy ssklted and 
put in a tub, whicli \% called a Powdering tab — and 
the operation " Powdering down." "Dew ye powder 
all ysLT jflick tvL yearl" See Powder. Flick and 
Flitch are perhaps. the same words. Many old words 
beginning or ending in A, and ck, are now softeoeiU 
See Perk. Mr. Steevens, in a note on Shakespeare^ 
says 2i Jleak of bacon signifies a ^tVcA. See under 


Flick is also a blow, like lick; as is noticed under 
A INT. It may perhaps have originated in tlie sense 
first given — a blow applied to th^ flake, or flank, or 
flick, or fleak, or flitch, or side. 

Flicker. To flutter or flitter rapidly, as a bat 
or butterfly. Light glimmering through, the um- 
brage of trees, would be called "a flickering light.*^ 
It is an old, and a poetical word. Nares g^res 
several quotations from Shakespeare, Jonson, and 
others, in which it occurs. > 6. Jonson calls the 
bat Flicker-mouse, and tlitter-mouse. 

Come; I will see the flicker-niouae ; my fly, New Inn, III, 1. 
And giddy flitter-mice, with leather wings. Sad Shep. 11. 8. 

I am inclined to think that I have beard these 
names! in Sufiblk : but if So(, certainly not of many 
years. . . 

.. Flio*it. The second .or third migration from a 
bee-hive. The first only if called a Sivarm, 

Flip. A favorite potation compounded of beer, 
gin/ and coarse' sugar* It used to be the principal 
ingredient iu the festivities of harvest suppers* It i^ 


to be lamented that, since gentlemen have turned 
farmers, and farmers have turned gentlemen (a trans- 
formation that both perhaps begin to kepent) these 
scenes of. jollity and merriment have in loo many 
cases been shifted from the farm-house to the ale- 
house: and have consequently degenerated from 
harmless happiness to debauchery and mischief. 

Flip means also a smart blow— a fillip. In this 
hyperbolical sense it is used by Shakespeare in a lipe 
quoted under Beetle. But I have, I perceive,, 
omitted it in the enumeration of similar offensive 
terms under A int. 

Flocks. The particles that fly about a chamber 
when the beds are made, or blankets, bestirred about. 
Also the wool stuffing of a mattress. 

Plocky. An over-ri|)e, or badly ripened, apple or 
turnip, or orange— when not crisp and juicy under ' 
the tooth — as if it were woolly, or dry and stringy. 

Flop. Pounce, drop— as a hawk on a bird — or a 
clumsy person into a chair. A fall. *' V[\ gi jeow 
a/o/'— ni throw you. ** kfloppt his affections" on 
such aone— quaintly meaning he (ell in love wiih her. 
"She ftoppt down into ar seat '—seated herself un- 
gracefully or scornfully. Flump is nearly similar to 

Flue. The coping of a gable-^ or top end of a 
house, barn, stack, &c. 

Flum p. To fall flatly or heavily *''A M\Jlumpr 
A hawk flumps or flops on a bird. An ungraceful 
person ^Mwps into a chair. "A come down sitch a 
flump!" See Flop. 

Fobs. See Dubs. 

Fog. Coarse sour grass that cattle will not eat, 
till it be frost-nippt— or till little else be left on the 
pasture. So Ray, among his north country words — 
" Fogge ; long grass remaining in pastures till winter." 
E.W. p. 30. 

Nares calls it " rank strong grass"— and says that 
in Yorkshire, cheeses made from it are called fog- 


cbeeses, as in other coauties they are called eddish- 

Foggy. A quaint term for one " somewhat be« 
mused in beer:*' not very clear-beaded. See Dag. 

Following time, A wet season — in which 
showers < follow each other in quick succession. 
** Following season/* is used similarly. It is some- 
times pronounced/a//t7i^. See DiNJiN. 

FooKY. Insolid. When wheat is ripe, or nearly 
so, or reaped, it is said to be Fooky^ when the quan- 
tity of grain is deemed inadequate in quality to the 
promise of the hoke or bulk. Unsound, boggy land 
is said to be Fooky. 

FooLEN or Fooling. The space between the 
usual high water mark in a river and the foot of the 
wall thrown up along its banks, to keep it from 
occasionally overflowiug the neighbouring lands. 

FooRZES. The snack at 4 o'clock. Bevcr, 
'Leveners, Noonins, Lunch, are other expressive 
terms of the like recreation from labour. See under 
Beyer. In Scottish, " Fourhours, is the time of 
drinking tea ; four being the ancient hour for the 
afternoon beverage." J. 

' FoOTEN. , A fee or fine, or present, to he paid 
or given to his fellow workmen, on a novice com- 
mencing any business. ** Shewen the cowt** is an 
expression of a like meaning with "pahen his foot- 

Forcing. Forwarding cattle, poultry,. &c. for 
a speedy market by high keeping. In a like sense^ 
the word is perhaps extensively used in reference 
to fruits in a hot house. 

Forelow. a horse standing in an unfavorable 
position, with his ii;a//i« lower than his rump, would 
be said to be standing forelow : a posture in which 
no judicious seller would allow him to be exhibited. 

FoRETOp. The toupee of a man, or the forelock 
of a horse. 



FoltPBtTS. The onrioui article in Nares' Gfos* 
•ary, under " Forfeits in a barber's shop," reminded 
me that, upwards of forty years ago, I saw a string 
of such rules at the tonsor*s of Alderton, near the 
sea. I well recollect the following lines to have 
been among them ; as they are also in those of Nares» 
6aid to have been copied in Northallerton^ in York* 
•hire — 

First come* first serve^then come not late; 
And when arrived, keep yout state — 
Whoever comes ia boots aud spurs, 
Mast keep his seat->forif he stirs, 
Aad gives with armed heel a kicky 
A piat he pa^s for every prick. 
Who checks the barber iii his tale 
Must pa J for each a pot of ale. 

Nares' •* Rules for seemly behaviour" contain a 
variety of others — but the above are all that I have 
a'))erTect, though some of the others I have a faint, 
recollection of. I dare say both sets were alike. 
The Alderton barber was a stranger — and his rules 
were, I know, new also in those parts. 

Form or Fourm. The seat of a hare. See 
Smouse. Cocker has both words under the same 
meaning. The first occurs under CusHAT, in a 
i|uotation from Haltdon Hill. 

VoRTU ON. In continuation, for an indefinite 
period. '*Come a month on likmg, and if we agree 
you may sidy forth o»." This is a very general idiom. 

FoUREY-LEET. The crossing of two roads- 
four ^ays meeting — or as commonly called " four 
cross ways." Leet is an old term for a meeting. 
** Court leet," a meeting of copy-holders ; but is 
now seldom or never used unconnectedly. Among 
his S. and £. country words Ray has " A three or 
four way leet ; tnvium vel •quadrivium, where three 
or four ways meet." E. W. p. 80. 

FouR-SQUARf. QuadraBgular^-^ubical — die.' 
square. The term occurs frequently in Exodus, in 
the instructions for the ark of the covenant : also 


iu Revelations, XXL 16. But I do not recolJect 
having heard it out of Suffolk. " Three-square" is 
also a Suffolk term, and 1 have heard it in Ireland : 
— meaning shaped like the blade of a bayonet — or 
small sword. FoursqvMre is Scottish, sometimes 
called faurneukiL 

FowM ART. The pole-cat, or stoot, or mouse-hunt, 
or some one of this offensive tribe of vermin. I have 
heard the word in Suffolk; and 1 think but once. 
]n his north country words Ray has '^ Foutnart, a 
fitchet,'* E.W. p. 30. And in p. 96, among local 
words, he writes it ** Fowmart^ a polecat. Maries 
is a noted beast of this vermiilous kind, desired for 
their furs, whence perchance, the polecat might be 
denominated ybtifrtar/, q. fouhnart? from its stink- 
ing smell." " Fowmartf a polecat" — Scottish. J. He 
derives it from old French—^/, fetid ; and merder, a 
martin. Nares shews the word to be spelled ful- 
mart by B. Jonson, ^ndfulimart by Isaac Wafton. 
I suspect RBy's^foutnart to be a misprint. 

Frackshus or Fractious. Crying, uneasy, un- 

.comfortable, jnachild: quarrelsome, ill-tempered, 

in a boy or man. See Teedus. In Scottish, 

" fractions, peevish, fretful, from the Latin 

fractus.'' J. 

Frail. A shapeless flexible mat basket, foi: 
sending presents of game, &c. — without bottom, or 
handle, save two eyelets in the mat. Raisins are 
imported from Spain m frails. It may perhaps be 
merely an unsubstantial, weak basket. In Indija 
and Arabia a package something similar of coffee 
is called Frazzle or Frazil. Frail is also a term 
used by spinsters, in the same sense as ratwie and 
jrazzle: it is otherwise pronounced /raw/, denoting 
that from unskilful hemming, the threads pull out 

Jagging and chicking, or checking, are words of 
similar import in this last sense, among spinsters. 

In the first sense, of a weak basket, Nares gives . 


•everal quotatioDs from B. and Fletcher, and other 
old writers, shewing that figs, raisins, and sprats, 
were, in their, and former days, packed in frailes. 
The word seems to be derived from the Itatian 
fraglit ' and the old French frayely meaning the 
same thing. A package for sprats we call Kit^ 
which see. 

Frank, The large, slow-flying, fish-eating, 
heron, seen probably all over England, on the 
banks of lakes and pools. Our name is probably 
derived from its monotone — which is supposed to 
be like fr aaa nk. It is as commonly with us 
called JEfahnseyi, whicli see. 

I may be deemed fanciful, but I am inclined to 
think that in the following passage in the Mirror 
for Magistrates, the allusion is to the fish crunshing. 
Frank, though Nares^, from whose Glossary I take 
the quotation, says it '< apparently means to eat 
'6r crush with the teeth." 

' A svra.ti—'franching the fish and frie with teeth of brass. 

That is, devouring them as a Frank would* The 
ch and k final are so commonly interchan<i;ed, or 
pronounced alike, as to offer little or no objection, 
to this reading. See under Perk. 

Frap. To beat — not very commonly heard, and 
getting more and more into disuse. It is evidently 
froni the French. This word might have been 
added to the list of similar vocables, given under 
AiJNT. It and its derivatives are shown by Nares 
to have been in use among oar writers, of about 
Shakespeare's day. 

Frawl. For all— in spite of—" 'Al do't frawl 
yceow" — He will do it for all you, or in spite ojf 
you. Frawl mean& also, Uke frail, and frazle, an 
unskillful mode of sewing. 

Frawn. Froafeo. " Vmfrawn ta dead amost" 
See Frore. 

Frazle* In hemming;, cloth is «aid to frazle 


When the thieadi for want of selvage puU out 
length ways. ** Dont rawel your work," dont so 
pull out the threads. Abo to unravel a skein of 
thread, &c, improperly — to entangle. Frawl, frail, 
rawle, tout, and fuzzy, are words closely allied 
in these meanings ; hot I cannot precisely distin- 
guish their differences, if they have any. 

Frebdom. At top^t ^ top being pegged out of 
the ring, its owner gives one spin as a chance to 
his adversaries — " Come, give us yout freedom" — 
or a return for your deliverance from the thraldom 
of the ring. 

Free-martin. Twins of different sexes, or 
rather, it is believed, the female of twin^^calves. It 
is generally known in Suffolk that the Aiartin will 
not breed — both of a sex prove fertile. A curious 
fact. See hereon Hunter in Phil. Trans, vol. LXIX. 
for 1779, and Selections from Gen. Mag. II. II7. 

Fresher. A young frog. In Essex frosh. — 
Hoppentoad is the common name for a toad. 

Fretten. Spotted — marked-— ^M>ci^-;^er/€it, 
marked with the small-'pox^ " Pock-fretten, in 
Cheshire — an old word/' W. Freiten is also 
freckled — in Scottish, faimtickled has the like 
meaning. Canker- fret is a sore mouth. See 
Canker. Fret in Scottish, means to devour. In 
scripture it occurs '' as a moth fre.tteth a garment/' 

Frinjel, also Swinjel. That limb of the 
flail which falls on the corn. The other is the 
hand-staff. We have many names for the hand- 
staff of different implements^ of which see under 
Haft and Tiller. 

Frit. Fright — in this I believe only — ** I wa^ 

Fritters. Pancakes of a smaller size, with 
apple intermixt. The copunon, broad, thin pan« 
eake we call Jroue. 


Frizb. Freezes. *' Ta frizc/' it freezes. It 
rhymes to prize. 

Frog-spit. " The frothy matter frequently seen 
on the leaves of plants." This is the meaning given 
by Jameisou of gowk-spittle ; gowk being Scottish 
for the cuckoo. We have several names for ibis frothy 
matter. See under Snake-spit. 

Froizb. Pancakes. " A pancake with bacon 

intermixt."^ Cocker. We have no bacon in our 

pancakes. WiUi apples intermixt we call them 
fritters. . 

Frore. Frozen — similar to frawn. It is an . 
old poetical word— 

H|s beard all white as spangles/rorg. 
That clothe PlinUmmua*s forests hoar. 

^YixrtotCi Grove of King Arthur, 

Walter Scott also uses it. And Nares shows 
Jrory, the same, he says, as frore, to be used by 
Spenser and Fairfax. 

Fbosted. The operation of turning down tiie 
hinder part of horses shoes in hard frosts to prevent 
slips. '* Ar the bosses frosted?'* Thus, among thi^ 
expences at Hengrave Hall, in December, 1572, is 
tliis item — " For frostitig the cart horses at Thetfonl, 
going with the litters to Rysing for Mrs. Southwell,^ 
vd." Gage's Heng. p. 192. 

Trummety. Wheat boiled in milk, with cinna- 
mon and sngar ; an excellent thing. A saying' 
recommending forecast runs- thus — "When ta rain 
Frummety mind ye heent a dish ta seek.'' It is 
leadily derived itom frumentum. 

*^ J^rumeaiy'' saithold Cocker, " is broth of milk 
and wheats the chief ehtertainment on St. Luke's 
day,' at Hom^fair, kept at Charlton, near Green- 
wich." It is worth enquiry^ if such practice be 
still kept up. 

Tusser knew of the good thing, uid calls it 



Remember thoa therefore, .thpagU I do it not^ 

The «eed-cakes, the pasties^ taidjurmenhf pot. p. 273. . 

Since writing the above, I have caused enquiry 
to be made at Charlton, and learn that although 
Hom-fair is still continued with undiminished fes- 
tivity, frumenty b not among the good things which 
now contribute thereto. * 

Frummicate or Frimmicate. To give one's 
self airs. To be uneasy or fretful at trifles. See 
something of this under Frump. 

Frump, Frumpy, Frumpish, Frumps. The 
first term is of reproach, and generally, applied to 
a cross old woman, ** An old frumpJ" If insolent 
withal, she would be said to be frumpy, or frump- 
iih, or ** in her Jrumps." Fretful, peevish, cross, 
proud, uncomfortable, seem to be the senses in 
which these words are understood. 

Shakespeare — M. W. of W. ii. 2 — useaframpM 
in the sense of unhappy — uncomfortable — Mrs. Ford 
is said to lead *' 2i frampold lii^" with her jealous 

Frummicate^ may with us, have a meaning and 
origin somewhat similar : and so may Cocker's 
** Frumps; taunts, jeers,, flouts.*' 

The^rortugueze have^ from^ — (I know not how 
they spell it ) meaning to jret, or be angry. See 

Among his S. and £. country words Ray has 
**frampald or fiampard; fretful, peevish, cross, 
froward." £. W. p. 76. In another place he spells 

Under the latter word Nares gives a curious ar- 
ticle. His first sense is — vexatious, saucy, pert' — 
and under the first word he shows frump to be 
derived from the Dutch *'frumpelen, to curl tip 
the nose in contempt." 

FUB. At marbles — an irregular mode of pro- 
jecting the taw by a corresponding effort of th^ 


whole handy instead of the thumb only. " Dont 
fub'*—'' ^ofiMen:' Also, to put off deceitfully. 
''Ah yah, baw, I eent to hejiibb'doff so — nutha." 
Shakedpeare uses it in Hen. 4th P. 2. II. 1. exactly 
in this latter sense. 

Fu DDAH. Farther. " Where are yow a gooin?" 
''So far an no fudda,*' is sometimes the rude or fa- 
miliar reply to such a query. It serves also as a sort 
of oath. " ril be fudda if I dew—" TU see you 
fudda fust." Politer people of course, sslj farther* 
We have a great many softened imprecations, as no- 
ticed under Amenden. See Farther. 

Fudge. To stir any thing with the end of a 
stick, &c. " I fudged him with my stick to wake 
him." -^ ^ ^ 

Fule. Fool. "What a/iiZcyeowar." Of this 
common substitution of « for oo, see under BuTES. 

Full A. Fellow. The day on which 1 write this, 
the following conversation passed between me and an 
honest neighbour, a labourer. "Why, that there 
daater 'a ^ars grow a fine swacken gal.'^ — " Ah, she 
dew— she'll be a wappa if she git on tbussens.^' — 
•• Wha's she the pitman, ehl" — " Is — no — why 1 dont 
fare ta know — she*s a twin — I've the fnlla tew ar a 

Fust. First. " HI see yeow fudda,/iM^" What 
in another place I called the hull-fiest, is as often 
called bull-Just. See under Fyst. 

Fusty. Musty — ill smelling. I should not have 
supposed this a provincial word, had I not seen it as 
such in Nares. It is very common in Suffolk. 

FuTNON. Now and then. " Every Futnon," 

which see. Ray calls it a Sussex word, " Fet'n 

anon." It may be derived from future and anon — 

' after and soon — " Every foot anon. Every now 

and then." Culluma Hawstead. p. 200. 

Fuzz. To flash—" Ta/«z/d i' the pan"— A/z. 
- See Fyst. 



Fuzz-BAtL. One of our names for tbe Boll- 
fiest, which see. 

FtrzzY. The ffne ends of silk or cotton, m thread 
or piece, in using or wearing, are distinguished by 
this term. Such ends when they appear make the 
article " wear fuzzy." It is not a very elegant, but 
it is an expressive word. " Consim this here thrid 
— how ta fuzz." See Fkazle. 

Fyst or Fiest. ''A corruption of foist , which 
was a jocular term for a windy discharge of the 
most offensive kind." N. To fizzle, is also recog* 
nised by this author in the like sense. Under Bull- 
FiEST, and Fiz, sufficient is said to show that many 
words beginning with F are cognate in sound and 
sense. In the sense of a small wind or noise, this 
passage in Beaumont and Fletcher ought probably 
to be read — 

— These* are^thiags- 
That will not strike their topsaUs to a/niit^ P&tZortfr. V. 4; 


Gab. Prate — idle talk. Hence " the gift of tbe 
gab,*' applied to a very fluent person. '*Howd 
your gab," is equivalent to hold your jaw. In Scot- 
land gab is the mouth, the taste — also a verb, like 
ours ;. with many derivations. Gob is likewise the 
mouth in Scottish, according to Jameison, as well as 
Irish : but not I think with us. We have, howev^, 
gob (which see) in a sense not remote. We have also, 
like tbe Scotch^ " gibble-gabble, for noisy confused 
talk." J. 

Gad. '' All upon the gad." Roving, frolicking 
— inconsiderately gadding about as if stiing by a gad- 
fly. Shakespeare bad something of this idea of hasty 
inconsiderateness in his mind, when he describes Lear> 
rash resolves — 

All this done 
Upon the gad. Lear, h ft. * 

"To do upon the gad/' saith Johu8on> "is tdicft 


by the sudden stimulation of caprice; as cattle run 
, madding wiien they are stung by the gad-fly." 

Oah. Gay. Gaks, pictures in a book. " Ouy, 
a print or picture, still current in Norfolk/' Nare$» 

Qaudy-^specklcd — applied, like Jleckerd, to a 
fowl, pigeon, &c. ** A gak hinn ;" a speckled hen. 
See Fleck ERD. We should also say a gak cow. In 
Scottish, gairy means streaked with different colours; 
and a gairy cow^ a cow thus streaked. J. 

Gain. Handy — convenient — tractable — profit- 
able. *' That fiird lie kiender gain''—'' I come by't 
pretty gain** Ongain, the reverse — unpromising. 
Gain is given in a like sense as a nortii country word 
by Ray : he says it is " applied to things convenient, 
to persons active; expert, to a way near, short: used 
in many parts of England.*' £.W. p. 31. 

- The word, spelled gane and gayn by Jameison, has 
nearly the like meanings in Scotland as in Suffolk* 

Our word, in a sense of inconvenient, occurs in the 
article Buffled. 

Gal. a vulgarism for girL 

Galkabaw. Thb uncouth word can be ex- 
plained onlj by detailing how it was heard* On a 
girl being asked who she was, she replied a galka* 
haw: meaning, as it appeared on further interroga- 
tion, a girl'cow'boy. The first and last syllables are 
pure Suffolk — the medial, a convenient abbreviation* 
I know not if the compound be legitimatized in our 

Gall'd. Chafed— rubbed—both literally as to 
the, skin of man or beast, the bark of a tree, &c. as 
well as metaphorically — "'A far'd a good deal galVd 
by what I said." Chafe, rub, sore, gall'd, and pro- 
bably other words, are in extensive and nearly com- 
mon use. The latter word occurs in a quotation 
under the first article of this Collection. 

Gally trot. This is the name of an apparition, 
or cacodaemon, that has sorely frightened many pe<»- 


pie in the neighbourhood of Woodbridge. It some- 
times assumes the shape of a dog ; and gives chase 
.to those whose alarm impels then»to run. Its appear- 
ance is soihetiraes as big as a bullock — ^generaHy 
*white — and not very definable as to 'outline. Its 
. haunts are more particularly at a place called Bath- 
slough, meaning a slough or bog in the parish of 
Burgh. But tiKs place in question is not in» or very 
near that parish, nor is there any slough. I can 
make nothing of the name; nor much of the story, 
though I have heard it related by more than cme 
person who had suffered from the apparition* 

Galt. Clay — brick-earth. GaUy; wet, boggy, 
clayey land. 

Galva or Galver. To throb. A push is said 
to galva, or galver, or boolk. See Bollock* 

Gambrel. The crooked piece of wood on which 
*the carcases of slaughtered beasts, hogs, and sheep 
are expanded and suspended ; another name of which 
is bucker. Under that word a long article is gives. 
When that article was printed I had no notion that 
gambrel was a Suffolk word : but. I have since found 
that it is. Some butchers, on being asked the name 
of the article in question, at once called it gambrel 
'■^—others gamhel — others bucker. Others ailirm 
that the articles differ in this — that the bucker is of 
wood; the gambrel of iron :— both used for the 
same purpose, viz. to suspend sheep, bogs, and calves 
—-but not beasts, which are always hung up by a 
straight piece of wood, called a Tree. See under 
that article, for any thing farther that 1 may be able 
to gather <m this matter by the time that the print-* 
iug of this Collection shall be so far advanced. 

Gang. Go — or come, as in Scottish. Gwo is 
nearly similar perhaps, but rather means go, or come^ 
along with me. We also sa^ a — ** dgang of harrows'' — 
and "a gang of feet," for making jelly withal. It is, 
not dissimilarly, given, both as a verb and substantive 
t^y ^dy> among his north country words— thus, <'a 


yang is a row or set, of teeth, or the like. It is in 
this sense a general word all ever England. To gang': 
to go or walk, from the low Diitctj gangen ;hoi\\ 
originallv from the Saxon gan, signify hig to go." 
E. W.^ )>. 32. 

Gant. Scanty. According to Ray, in his S. and 
£• country words, it means ** slim, slender — a word 
of general use." E. W. p. 77. 1 have very seldom 
heard it. 

Garget. A disease in calves and cows. "The 
garget have seized her dug." 

G'ashful. Ghastly — or as in Naies "horrid, 

Gast. a cow not seasonably in calf is said to he 
gast. The appellation is applied also to other infer- 
tile animals, but most commonly to a cow. Among 
tlie items of stock at Heograve Hall, in 1607, under 
the head of "great cattle," we see "gastware of 
the last remaynte ij." Gages Heng. p. 211. Tliese 
I suppose were cows not seasonably in calf. Wai*e 
is a word rather extensively applied in Suffolk, to 
niany articles of store or manufactory. 

The following occur iii " A true and perfect note 
of remembrance of the customes of the parish of 
Campsey-Ash, in the county of Suffolk," in 1602 — 

•* Item — for every gast beast and heifer; gast ware . 
and bud, three half pence a piece." 

And in the pleadings in the Exchequer — M. 1\ 
26, Geo. II. Bishop v. Barliam, in a tithe cause of 
the above parish, is this — " For every gast beast, or 
heifer gast, wear buds. Id. half penny each." 

These passages arie taken from "Collections to- 
wards the History of Elnieswell and Cainpsey-Ash, 
in the county of Suffolk" — forming No. 62 of volume 
V. of that valuable mass of local historical materials 
in 10 volumes 4to, entitled Bibliotheca Topographic a 

What are wear buds? See under Bud and 


I& Scotlisb a cow not in calf is called a Tetty* 
cow. J. 

Gathering or Gahthering. Raking mown 
hay or corn into cock$ or rows for pitching on the 
waggons. Also raking up clean after the pitchers. 
See Gavel. 

G ATI. ESS. Heedless — careless-^thoughtless. 

G ATT BRIDGE. The spindle tree. In Ray's S. 
and £• country words is this — " Gatteridge-iree is 
camus foemhia or prick-wood, and yet gatteridge- 
berries are the fruit of euonymus theophrasii, i. Ci 
Kpindle-tree or louse-berry."- E. W. p. 77. 

Gattiken. Gawky — clumsy — awkward — " A 
great gattiken mawther.*' 

Gavel. To gather mown barley, or oats» or hay, 
with hand- rakes into rows and small loose cock$» 
ready to pitch on to the waggon. I'he persons, gene- 
rally women, who do this are called gavellers, and 
the corn in such rows is said to lie on the gavei, or 
in gavels. The word is archaic, and was much 
in use among our ancestors, in one sense cognate 
.with its present meaning iu Suffolk; in another 
different. Gavel -kind (or gavel- kin — gite*ali-kin 
according to Verstegan) rather meant dispersion than 

Gawky. Awkward— clumsy— " a great gatckg 

GEBorJEE. Fit — suit. Oftcnest used negatively. 
**Ta dont fare ta jec." The same in Cheshire, and 
Lancashire, " from the old word to gee or !o gie, to 
|o." W. We say gee to horses to make them go on. 

Gennetten. An early apple — the same, per- 
laps, or nearly as the margaten. Some of us call it 
juneaten — that is eaten in June ; and quote this to 
prove the comparative lateness of our seasons in tliese 
"degenerate days" — for early as it is, it is rarely or 
never edible in June. Cocker, however, countenances 
this traditionary commendation — ** GennettingSf or 



jtmeHinga, small apples ripe in June;*^ His dictioD- 
VLTj was published about 1700* 

I have beard it said that the Dame is detivable from 
janeiton, a French apple, or fromjunet* 

Gbntles. a maggot or grub found under putre- 
scent matter, used as a bait b^ anglers. " GentU, a 
maggot for fishing/' Cocker. Tusser often mentions 
^geiUils that crawl." pp.142, 144, 162. 

Geuse or GrsE. Goose — in the ordinary sub- 
stitution of the sharp u for oo— as noted unde^ 


Gbw-gog. a gooseberry. Also Guse-gog. 

GiBBLE-GABBLE. Idle, noi^y, talk. See Gab. 

Gifts. Th)e white spots on the finger or thumb 
nails. Mauy of them give rise to certain hopes or 

Gill-hooter. See Jilly-hooter. 
GiM. See Jim. 


Gingerbread dots. Gingerbread nuts, of a 
dumpy form — not flat. 

Gint. Gave it — "I gint em properly" — rated 
him soundly. 

Glade. An open space in a wood, or in a game 
•cover. Siay^ which see, is a word nearly equivalentt 
The first is not a very confined word. See Nares, 

Glead. ^A species of hawk — the same perhaps 
•as puttock. Ray notices *' glead as a term for a kite, 
and thinks it probably derived from gliding'' £.W. 
p. vii. In Scottish "gled, the kite." J. Under 
^lede or glead, Naf^s shews it to be from the Saxon 
glida, ** The glede and the kite'' occurs in Deutron. 
xiv. 13. 

Glent. Gleaned. '* That there filld cent half 

flent;*' also a glimpse — "I just got a^/en/ of him," 
n the latter seuse, glint, is sometimes the word used* 



In Janifison we find both words in these senses — '*to 
glance — a transient view — a moment — from the Teu- 
tonic ^^nto, splendonr.'^ 

Glib, Smooth, slippery. Applied to a smooth 
tongue, as well as to ice, and to other similar matters. 
In Scottish we find ** glib-gabhet, having a glib 
tongue," and ** glad, iknd glid, slippery — glid-iee" 
&c. J. Nares shews glib to be an. old word, of 
extensive usage in senses different from that known 
in Suffolk; but he gives it, as well as glibbery, in a 
smooth slippery sense. 

Glister. Glisten. **Tee nt all gowd that glit- 
t€7\" So Shakespeare — 

Away ! and glister like \\\e god of war, 

Wheu he intendeih to become llie field. K. John, V. 1. 

And Spenser — 

It all above besprinVed was througliont 

With golden aiguilets t^at glisterd bright. F. Q. 

So in Scottish, " Gli&ter, lustre — from the ancient 
Swedish glistra, scintilla." J. 

Gloat. To look very intently, with a gross de- 
gree of desire. It is now very seldom heard. 

Glout. To look or be siilky and ill-humoured'. 
This and gloat, are noticed by Nares> as of probably 
similar origin, and -use. 

Glum. Gloomy — low spirited — sulky. "'A fare 
kiender glum," 

Gnew. Gnawed. In use anciently. See Nonce. 
So crew, mew, snew, tbew, &c. as noticed under 

Gob. A gross bit of fat, or of meat, &c. An 
old Suffolk song, not a very delicate one, I guess, had 
this verse — 

What great gobs of mutton and pieces of fat. 
My mother gave lue when I was a brat. 

Hiis word is also vulgarly used in a phrase almost 
too gross to write " a gob of snot" — mucus nariutn. 
See following words beginning with gob. 


GoBBEN. Talking, chattering, idling — ** Yeow 
tew e'ent a dewin a uawn — you only gogobben about 
all day/' This is somehow deduced from jabbering, 
gibberish, gab, gob. " The gift of I he gab'' we have 
in use, as well as our neighbours. See Gab. And 
perhaps thegulpiag, gurgling vociferation of a turkey- 
0ock is very extensively called ^abiding, and our apt 
name too— Gobble cock, for the bird himself. 

Gobbets. A derivative from, and diminutive of» 
gob. Thus -in Shakespeare^- 

■ like aoibitioos Scjlla. oTergorg'd 

'With gobbets of thy mother's bleeding heart. K, Hen. 6. IV. 1. 

Agdn Meet I an infant of the boiise of York, 

Into as many gebbets vn\l I cut it. 

As wild Medea young Absyrtus did. Jb. V. 9. 

' ** A gob ; an open or wide mouth. Hence to /?o6- 
ble, to swallow greedily or with open mouth. iSob, 
in the south signifies a large morsel or bit ; so we 
say a good gob, i. e. a goo^ segment or part. The 
diminutive whereof is f^obbet; cut \\\\o gobbets, per- 
chance from the Greek xoWlw, xo/tx/xa." Ray, E. W. 
p. 101. "Gappocks, gobbets." Scottish. J. - 

Gab, and all the words here given beginning with 
gob, seem allied : as well as jib, jabber, gibberish, 
&c: See Nares under Gibber. 

Gobble. To eat too fast — ** how yeow dew 
gobble yar wittels." A girl takin-^ stitches too 
long in a hem, would be reproached with a similar 
word: or she would say ** I' hate work, so I gobble 
it over as fast as I can." Wabbie is cognate in 
sense and sound. See it. 

Gobble-cock. A Turkey cock. Bubbly Jock, 
in Scotland. Both derived probably from the caco- 
phonic notes of this odd-mannered bird. 

Gofers. A sort of crimped pie-crust-cake. A 
noted maker lives at Stratford St. Andrews, where 
and whereabouts, this name is general. At the 
inindow of a house near the old theatre at Bury St. 
Edmunds^ is (1B18) a card stuck up with this no- 



tice — ** Gofering done here.*^ On enquiry the 
word was pronounced ** goferin " and was found 
to mean plaiting or crimfing shirt frills or other 
finer sorts of gear. So that the word appears to 
be connected with puffing, puckering, crimping.-— 
Whence its derivation ? I am told (1822) that 
gofering is a word used in London, as descriptive 
of a mode of ** getting up*' frills, &c. not in the 
crimped, but in the open flattened mode : when it 
is like a Ckitterlin, which see. 

GoLDBN-BUO or Gawden-bug. The lady-bird, 
otherwise called Bamabee, which see* 

GoLLOP. Gallop^ GoUappen^ galloping. A 
little phraseological anecdote is pleasantly remem- 
bered of a late eminent medical practitioner, noted 
for his steadiness of pace as well as practice* He 
was urgently called up in the night by a lad from the 
country, to aid his mistress ; and not moving quite 
so rapidly as the lad's dutiful eagerness desired, was 
several times requested to brush on a little ; but in 
vain« He was gently-tebuked by my steady pa^b^d 
friend with — ** Ah yah, baw — If trotten ont save 
her, galloppen ont.'' 

GoM. An imprecation. '* By gom"— or ** by 
goms" — also " by gosh" — Very gross imprecations, 
of which these are probably njiodifications, aresel-' 
dom heard out of the mouths of the Suffolk pea- 
santry. See Amenden — and Farther. 

GoN. Gave — given. '' 'Aheentg'onemnawn;'' 
he has not given him any thing. 

GoocHY. India rubber. 

Good outs. Doing well. " No outs," the 
reverse. ** We made pretty good outs ont." 
(gleaning in such a field) — " We made no outs 

Goof or Goaf. The mass of com in the straw 
in a barn. " Riding the goof," is the work of a bey 
on horse-back, to compress 1b(e corn as thrown on 
the goof, Bailey has the word, which he si^ells 


*' geoff— a mow or rick of hay or corn." ** Gofe 
ladder," is mentioned foy^Tusser as an implement of 
husbandry, as the ladder so used is still called in 
Suffolk. He uses the word (Gove) also as a verb. 

In gov'mg at harvest learn skilfully bow 
Each grain for to lay b^y itself on the roow: 
Seed bariejr the purest gove out of the way, 
All other nigb hand, gove just as ye may. 

** A goffe, a mow of hay or corn. Essex." Ray. 
E.W. |).77. 

Having looked over Tusser since I read Ray, I 
extract at a length, that I can in no other instauce 
find room for, a considerable portion of his Jist of 
implements in what he calls " A Digression to Hus- 
bandly Furniture:" as in almost every line a term 
still in use will be observed. 1 prrfer giving the long 
quotation in this place, and making occasional refer- 
ences to it, to inserting shorter extracts under the 
seemingly more appropriate places, where many of 
the words occur, in my work. In sf>me lines more 
than one required word nill be found — and partial 
extracts would in the end be longer, and much less 
intelligible, than if given, as now, at length. 

To the quotation from Tusser, [ will add a few 
notes on each verse, explanatory of the tern^s used by 
him, and now in use among us; and of such other 
matters as seem to require notice. 

1. Bam locked, gofe-ladder, short pitch-fork and long. 
Flail, straw-fork and rake, with a fan thiit is sfrorni; 
Wing, cartna've and bushel, peck, strike, ready hand. 
Get casting shouelj broom, and a sack with a band. 

1. Almost all the iinpienicuts named in this verse are still so 
chilled in Suffolk, The^un we more commonly call van^ a wick( r 
corn-winnowiiig article. A goose- wing is still used for brushing 
the dust oif corn in the operation of dressing: it. Jt is hI$o a do- 
mestic dusting impleuieut. I do not know thcit a cartnve is now 
used in the barn. The «ti»Af, or itrtek, as we also call it, is for 
striking off the com even with the top i>l the huRhel or peck. A 
casting -siioul, is for casting or throwing corn from side to side 
of a baru^ la which process the heav^' ^rallls go tu the heap, the 

o 3 


S, A pttch-forky a dang-forky neve, ikepy and a bin— 

4. A battrice and ptncen* a hammer and naily 
And apron and scUaors for head and for tail- 
Whole bridle and saddle* whitleather and nail. 
With collar and harness for thillec and all. 

5. A pannel and wantj. pack saddle and ped, 
A line to fetch litter and halters for bead : 
With crotchets and pins to bang trinkets thereon^ 
And stable, fast chained that nothing be gone. 

6. Strong *aile-treed cart that it clouted and shod. 
Cart-ladder, and wimble, with perser and pod. 
Wheel-ladder for harVesty light pitch-fork and tough, , 
Shave, whip-lash well knotted, and cart rope enough. • 

7. Ten sacks, whereof ever j one holdeth a coom^ 
A puiUag-hook handsome for bushes and broom : 
light tumbril and dung-crome, for easing Sir Wagy 
Shouel, pick-azey and mattock, with bottle and bag. 

light ones, dust and dirty fall short. The modem dressing ma- 
chines are so useful that the old mode of casting, brushing, wing- 
ing, skreening, &c. will become obsolete. Under the words 
Pitch-fork, Rake, Skowlf Strike, and Fan, something farther on the 
subjects of this verse will be found. 

5. See Skep, and Bing. 

4. A huttrice is a farrier*s tool, foi paring the bottom of the 
hoof; still used and so called. Of whiuUather, see under 
KNAdtEB. OfnaU I know nothing-— Mavor says it is a collar- 
maker's awl. Of tftiZ/er* see under TflfLL. 

5. I know not what a toatity is, except from Mavor, who sajs 
it is a leather tie. We should call it a whangs which see. Pei, 
a small pannier ; see Pbd. Crctchett are, I suppose, large pegSy 
or spurkeU as we call them. See CaoTCH and SpuaasT. 

6. Wimble is a sort of gimlet or small auger : some say it is a 
centre-bit — Perser, another sort of gimlet — a piercer, probably. 
The pronoonciation of perse for pierce, we retain: and our sail- 
makers and workers in canvas, call a sharp instrument fol making 
eye-let holes a purser — piercer, no doubt. Persons of the name of 
Pearce we call Purse, or shorter Pus ; as we say boss for horse. 
See PuBBB. A Pod, Mavor says, is a leathern bottle to hold 
grease. We have such a word, but I do not see its applicability 
Ueie; unless from its round, belly-like appearance. See Pon. 
A iftave is a well known carpenter's tool ; and the other articles 
named in this verse are also common. Ladden, and uHieeUladdert 
I may note, are the moveable projections* fitted to waggons and 
carts in hay and harvest timesy to increase their capacity. 

7. A cwmiy or comd, is the measure by which all com is sold 


8. A gnnd«toney s whetitone* a hatchet and UU. 
A t'rower of iron for cleaviug of lath. 

11. A ploagh-hcetlet plough -staff, to farther the plovgh^ 
Great clod to asunder that t^reakeih so rough ; 
A sled for a plow, and another for blocks^ 
For chimney in wintei to burn up their docks. 

and bought in Suffolk. See Coomb. Of the <fufi^-cr<»me, see 
Udder CaoMB. Sir Wag, I suppose, par tzceUence, hs being the 
largest carriage on the farm. We still use these turabe ring, 
bungling, machines called waggons ; which, when empty, weigh 
a ton, or more ; with wooden arms to the axle-trees. We are half 
a century behind the Scotch in farming machinery, as well as in 
some farming processes. I have a beautiful Scotch cart and 
Scotch plough on my farm ; but my men will not use them, al- 
though I have offered some handsome temptations. We are so 
unhappy as to fancy ourselves the best farmers in England. In 
regard to corn-crops, we may be among such — but as to green 
crops, we are, I doubt, among the worst. And in regard to im- 
plements, our waggons and tumbrils, compart d with Scotch carts, 
proTC that few things travel more slowly than agricultural im- 

The other articles of verse 7 are still well known. Of Shouelf 
see v. 1, and note, and under Showl. 

8. A- bill. See under that word. Also under Brush. Under 
the former word I have given what X hud to say thereon. The 
lathe-cleaviitg frower, is known among us now by the name of 
thrower: oftenest applied to the implement with which hurdle- 
stuff is cleaved or rtv. SeeRiv. 

11. A pUmgh'beetle, appears to have been a large wooden ham- 
mer, then perhaps, appertaining to the furnitore of a plow, "great 
dodi to asunder.** Such are sometimes still used in Suffolk. 
See fiEBTtB. To our wheel-plows, a plow-hammer, is still an 
appurtenance. Theplough-ttaffU not in use with us. It is ia 
S^sex. A tied is a wooden convenience — a sledge— on which 
wheelless plows are $lid from field to field, &.c. See Slbd. 
It is now seldom or never used for blocks* Docks mean the 
ground ends of trees. We retain it in the same sense of tail 
or nether end. Applied to horses, the word is perhaps general. 
See Bu M o. In reterence to the dosks, or chumps, or nether ends, 
of trees, we do not, in common parlance use dock-end, so often 
as another more gross epithet, which I shall not precisely express 
or explain, for a reason that may be found (though the reader, 
without referring* will be scarcely able to guess wherefore,) Under 
RiNO-Dow, where I have seen occasion to substitute cats-^at/ for 
a less delicate appellative. See also Chump and Helvf. 

To this long oote^ and on this v. 11,. I have still to add a little 


13. Sedge collars for ploagb horset for Jightoess of neck* 

13. A sling for a mother, a bo\r for a boy. 

14. A brush-scythe and grass-scythe» with rifle to stand, 
Ar cradle for barley, with rub-stone and sand. 
Sharp sickle and weeding-hook, bay-fork and rake^ 
A meak for the pease, and to swinge up the brake. 

15. Short rakes for to gather op barley to bind. 
And greater to take up the leavings behind ; 
A rake fur to hale up the fitches that lie, 

A pik^or to pike ibem up handsome to dry. 

' ' ' ■ >k' 

comment on ihe ultimate words — plough and rough. Such at- 
tempts as this to force words of no common reiationshfp in 
sound, though looking alike, into rythmical position, may have 
been the origin of several local and perhaps erroneous modes of 
pronounciation. Enow for enough to make it rhyme to plough 
is allowable and legitimated. See £now. P/oto is indeed so 
obviously a better mode of writing the word, that one is soiprized 
that the other should have been so long retained : especially ps 
we have scripture authority for the emendation " The plowers 
plowed on my back and made long furrows.'* Ps. cxxlx. 3.—- 
Plough and roughs however closely allied to vision, can p.ever, I 
think, become '* sib thegither*' in sound, though we see them made 
so in V. 11. above. Tusser has also ** Stub root so tough — for 
breaking of plough.** p. 8^. And in a quotation under Chap 
we have plough and enough— :in another under Plash the samet 
in combination with plow and cow. See something farther of this 
under Row EN. 

12. Sedge-collars, we now call Seggen'Collars. See Sec. 

13. Mother, This word we pronounce Mawther, which see; 
meaning a girl. But we never give them sling's, or boys, bows* 
for keeping crows or birds off corn, as they appear to have done 
in Tusser^s time. 

14. A bruih-scifthe, we still use. See note on v. 8»and the 
articles thence referred to. Riftle and Cradle, I believe, are a 
sort of basket-work about the insertions of the iron and wood of 
a scythe — used in the Sheers, but not in Suffolk. They carry or 
drive a'ongr, the severed grass, barley, &c. into regular rows, and 
are, I think, good ihings. as scattering trniss, &c. less than scythes 
without such. 'J he t>u^ .s/m/e is indi-KpensHble. See Rub. Of a 
"Meak for the peas**,*' see Makf, and BnAxr, and Swivof. 
IVJavor, in a note on this word, Meak, says that "mcath is a book 
at the end of a handle about five feet louv;;, to AacJ^/e up pease.** 
We never call it meath. 

13. The process of gathering up barley we call gavellin^'j and * 


16. A skottle or screen to rid soil from the corny 
And shearing shears ready for sheep to be shorn; ' 
A fork and a hoolc to be tampring in clay^ 
A lath-hammerf trowel^ a hod or a tray. 

19. Sharp cutting spade, for diTiding of mow. 

With skoppet and skavell, that marsh-men allow; - 

A sickle to cat with, a didall and crome, 

For draining of ditches, that noyes thee at home. 

SI. SoleSf fetters, and shackles, with horse-lock and pad, 
A cow-hou6e for winter, so meet to be had ; 
A stye for a boar, and a hogs cote for hogy 
A roost for thy hens, and a couch for thy dog. 

Goosfe-ORAss. The weed argentina, or gaUnm 
aparine. We cooimonly call it guse-grass* 

* — - 

whatTtttser' calls fitches are what we» I surmise, call gavels* See 
Ga vkl. ** A pike to pike them up,** is a pitch-fork ; still called 
a pike in some counties. See hereon under Pitch-iork. 

16. ** A Shuttle or 5ereett.** I think I have heard the corn • 
screen called a skuttle many years ago, but I do not find it now 
known by that name : the large barn wooden « casting shovef* is 
so called. *' Tampring in clay** is, I imagine, what we call daab' 
ing. Tempering is a necessary preparation. See under those 

.19. OfSkuppet and Scaffle and Crome, see under those words. 
Such things are as well known now as in Tusser*s time, about 
1550. I can make nothing ofttidalL Mavor says it is a triangular 
spade for cutting and banking up ditches. I think itmnst have 
been a draining tool ; as the things enumerated in this verse seem 
mostly, if not all, to be of that description. I cannot but be 
sorry that Dr. Mavor saw fit to modeinice Tusser*s spelling. The 
intelligence and interest of his curious work are, I think, consider- 
ably diminished thereby. I have no convenient access to an early 
editien* To what is said under Crome, I may add that drainers use 
such an implement, for pulling out of the drain, pieces ofjiag, &c. 
that may have fallen therein. 

!21. Tusser makes a distinction between a stye and a hog*8 cote. 
So do we; as will be seen under Hobrlb. Hogt cote, we do not 
use: cote seems to imply an abode-^as in dove-cot, 5ec» 

The reader will perceive that in the verses quoted under this 
article, many tools and implements are enumerated as necessary 
in husbandry, which, from th6 division of labour and multiplica- 
tion of bandy crafts, are no longer so. Of this see something 
under Knackrr. In the omitted verses are many more, which 
faraners now find no occasion to possess. 


Gore. Bloody. " He's all of a gore." Blood 
in a coagulated state is called clouts. See Clout* 

Gosh. A moderated imprecation, like By-gom, 
which see. 

GosLiNS. The beautiful early blossom of the 
salix, which having the same colour, and appearing 
at nearly the same time, as the interesting brood of 
the goose, has obtained the same name. 

GoTCH. A jug or pitcher with one ear or handle. 
It is also Scottish, though I do not find it in Janieison. 
See Ranter. **kgotcK' — accordin«» to Ray, among 
his S. and £. country words — is *' a large earthen or 
stone drinking pot, with a great belly like a jug/' 
E. W. p. 77. o 

Go TO. This phrase is oddly used. A knife, &c. 
"Don't go to open," i.e. is not made to open :.** don't 
go to shut." " Don't go to eat," inedible. " Don't 
go to come out," and so of many verbs passive. "Ta 
don't go ta come off, dew it?" — " Is — ta dew." 

Gow. Come. This used to be verv common. 
It is less so now. Ray hitched it into a proverb, 
" Do not say go^ but gaw — i. e. go thyself along .^^ 
p. 9. Either be did not understand tlie word» or he 
does not use it in a Suffolk sense. With us, it is not 
c6me hither — but come along with me — accompany 

GowD. Gold. So in Cheshire. W. " A gow- 
den guinea." So we say cowd for cold ; houd for 
hold ; cowt for colt, &c. — as noticed, with other 
peculiarities^ under Aninnd. 

GowDENBUG. The golden-bug, or lady-»bird — 
otherwise Bamahee, which see. 

Grace Wijjow. A woman who had " a child 
for her cradle ere she had ^ husband for her bed." 
It ought rather to be grace-Zess. 

Graves. The gross refuse of tallow chandler's 
stuffy not fit to be worked up into candles. 


Green. Throttle — choak. A tight collar is 
said to ^reen a horse. See Quezzen and Quackle. . 
" To grain or grane " is given by Ray among his 
S; and E, country words, and explained *' to 
choak or throttle," E.W. p. 77. 

Greeze. To keep fatting cattle or sheep. 
Farmers who keep fatting stock are called greezers — 
from grazing no doubt. " t dont greeze ta year." 

Grey-beard. The appropriate name for a fine 
large handfK>me stone bottle, holding perhaps three or 
four or more gallons, having its handle terminating in 
a venerable druidic face; In my younger days most 
farm houses and others, near the sea coast of Suf- 
folk, had a grey-beard of Hollands in the closet. 
It was I believe of Dutch make. 1 have not seen 
or heard of one for many years. It appears to have 
been " an old fashioned name in Scotland for an 
earthen jar for holding spirits." Monastery I. 264. 
The same thing, \ dare say, as the Suffolk bottle. 
Of certain East-Anglian transactions with our op- 
posite friends, see something under Brogues. 

Grey Parson. A lay impropriator of tithes — 
as hot wearing a black coat. 

Grift. Slate pencil. 

Grig, The cricket — " as merry as a, grig.*' I 
am not sure that grig is the cricket only. I rather 
think the name is also given to little eels — as it is in 
Cocker. Nares shows that it was originally " as 
merry as a Greek." 

Griul an Grizzle. To siia(rl or snap, " How 
them there tew warment dew grill an grizzle at one . 
another." Said of two quarrdsome puppies gr • 

Grime. Dirt— filthjb " Grimy hands." 

Grinnstun. a grind- stone. 

Grip or Groop. , A small open meadow ^itch. 


for a run of water. '* A grip or gripe,** Ray gives as 
a north-country word — '' meaning a little ditch or 
trench.'' £.W. p. 94. And gripe he says is the 
same as grupe. ib. p. vii. And among his S. and £• 
counti^ words he has "A grippe, or grindlet; a 
small drain, ditch, or gutter,'* ib. 78. We call such 
small drain, a drindle, which see. 

Grist. Com carried to a mill to be fprpund, for 
the consumer, not for sale — also the portion thereof 
retained by the miller for his fee. A ** grist mill" 
distinguishes a mill where such small portions are 
taken in to be ground, from the mill o'f a wholesale 
breaker of com. In Scottish, and perhaps extent 
sively, griit means the miller's fee. 

Grits. See Groats. 

Groats. Oatmeal. The same perhaps as grits. 
Ray says that ** GroaU for great oatmeal is a general 
word." £.W. p. viii. The word is pronounced to 
rhyme with oats. I dare say it is compounded of 
grits and oats. In Scottish — " Groats; oats, with 
the husks taken off." J. 

Gro FT. Growth — ^produce. " Labour now take 
all the groft of the farm." 

Groope. a Grip — which see. 

Grope. In remote country villages there is (or 
in m^ early day, was) a person, generally an old wo- 
man, exclusively possessing the secret of determining 
whether or not a goose were duly impregnated. To 
this end she' gropes in a peculiar mode with her fin- 
ger: — the operation is called gropeing. 1 can recol- 
lect few things that 1 ever more enjoyed than palm- 
ing a gander on a sapient beldame of this description, 
witnessing her sage researches, and listening with my 
wicked compeers to her remarks. A ballad was 
composed on the occasion : the earliest effort, pro- 
bably, of any of the conspirators, at tagging a rhinie. 
Some lines of the compound production still-rafter 
the lapse of niearly half a century-afloat in my recol- 


leqti^P.; but. ace not woxUty of itcord except io. fke 
vplomeofi die bmo* 

I did not expect to bave any more to say on this. 
Vfor^, or that, any one had ever said aught thereon in 
print before me. But t was in error.. The practice » 
is of antiquity, and the word proverbial : for in Ra^» 
p. 193, we read '' Teach your grandarae to grope her 
ducks''~wbicb by some learned and equivalent phrases, 
W€'fi|id*tahtaniduttt to teaching ber'to ''suck eggs.'*" 

Gkoun^el. The weed Seneno vulgarig ; which 
we likewise call Simeon- Also the threshold, of a . 
door^— theground-cid; or ground-silI, as it is spelled ^ 
in Nigel in a Scottish speech of King James. 

GiiouT. A masonic process of filling up. the 
interstices between bricks or stones, by pouring fluid 
mortar over each course or two, to saturation* 

It is also pleasantly applied to one at iable who 
may happen io eat any thing fl\iid late in the meal : 
oir to the " filling up the chinks,"" by drink. To 
this some allusion is made under Bever. 

I QapyTS. The isedin^eiit ^f coflfee, be§r« tfa» &e« 
cs.Ued variously GuUk, Hilk, and «^^ wbieh -s^* 

Gia6»7.c.R. . A. fiw:m^r — *' a.gcewt grower." . ••A 
lambgroweWa flock n^astpr. 

Grub-felling. Felling trees with a portion of 
the voot^^ TJiCr felling axC •*5^d for 4his purpp^^ wc 

OkvBLtNB. ' Laying a child on its beiiY. Annwe 
l&ysa«ei«fing child gmbHus on her lap to quiet it. *-^ 
sah^— dewyeoulah that there child grubUns — 'tull far 
th« b«ittah'faoght." That is ''do you lay that child 
on ils- belly, 'twill fare the better for it/^ 

Grumpey. In bad temper or spirits — similar 
peilkaps to CUfom, or Sttaggy — the latter, howev^r^ 
(which see) is more especially applicable to temper. 
I lalelyheaisd" my stomach fare ikaiB: gnumpejf**^ 
mfading*4>ut o£ sorts— <9holicky,- 


Orutcu. Gruiige. ** He ewe 'em a gruidkJ' 
We learo from Nares, that the former is tbe more 
aackot and original form of tbe word, 

GuLLiON. An acute disorder in horses — cho- . 
lickj perhaps. " The strong gullion'' denotcis the ■ 
severity of an attack. 

Gulp. A gross swallow* as in otha* parts. AWo > 
a young nestling bird» white itb callow. body is dispro>- - 
portionately large. The smallest of such nestlings is 
called Neest gulp, which see. In Scottish *' Goog is., 
an unfledged bird ;*' and " Gulp, a big UMweildy 
child." J. 

GULSH. Dregs, sediment, deposit — of something 
uncleanly — made wines, or beer. Hence heavily or 
heaviness — " 'a fell plumpendicular down — ^gfw/sA.** 
Jig^, hills, and grouts, are words of nearly simil'^ir 
sense; and squish seems also cognate in sense and 
sound. Ill Scottish, ** Glush is any thin^ in the state ' 
of pulp: snow when beginning to melt." J. Nare%. 
under this gross word Gulsh, gives some curious mat- 
ter ; but does not ap|>e»r to have met with the word 
in its genuine Soifolk sense. 

' Gu MBLED. Awaking in tbe morning iKc eyes aib 
said to be gumbled, when not easily opcot^ — or from 
measles orsmjill-pox, 

GuMSHtjN. Chveyn^f talent— used qctamtly^. 
'^ He has some pys^shun in him'' is as much as to say 
ho is no io^^' Thb word seems to be in use in otiiar 
purt^r. Gumption occurs in the Bridal of TriermaJn^; 
Canto I. and in other recent Scottish works. " A« - 
muckle guuipshion as Tammy," i lately read io a ; 
Scotch Magazine. " Gumption^ understanding.'' i' 
Scottish. J. 

GuMSHUS or RUMGUMSHUS. Quarrelsome,, ^-i 
fensive, obstinate. " Come — dont }oii: be rumgum* 
shus" — "A fared kienda rumgumshos" — this would . 
apply to an unmanageable man or horse. BumMbm9'j\ 


is sufficiently oc^ate la sound and senae. Seennder 
jbose articles, 

GusE. Goose — acute «. 

GusEBERRY-FuLE. The Well known delicacy; 
the 00 of which we so commonly change mto the 
acute tt, as noticed under Bvtes. 

GusEGOG. A gooseberry — also gew-gog» 

GusTARD. Custard — which see. Tliis^allbough 
,a vulgar, may be a correct pronunciation, derived 
probably from Gustta — Gusto — hence Gout in the * 
French, and similar words in several other European 

GuzzLB. To drink excessively or often — '' a 
0mzkn fellow.*' Beztle is another simihur wofd^- ' 
sefdora used. 


, Haapny. a half-penny. Haapens^ half^pence. 
JSaaperth, a half-penny worth. 

Hackle, The fajstening, usually made of hair 
with an eye at one end and a toggle at the other, 
round the fetlocks of a cow to prevent her icom 
iLkking,. when being milked. A shackle 

'i Haperen'. Unsettled — unsteady-*-in actortalk, 
from love or idleness — ^but not necessarily. immoral. 
*^ *A go haferen about.*' — ^In Scottish, haver, is to 
talk foolishly. J. 

' Haft ot Heft: The handle of a knife or other 
small ibql. Of' a hatchet, or axe, helve is the 
handle — of a flail, hand-staff^ot a spade, tillef — 
of a whip; whipstiek—^tf a fork or skuppet, stale. 
Under thflKse several names something forther will 
be fouiid* . Stock is also the holding part of some 
other things, as well as of a gun. 
iE^e is Scottish--* 

l^p pyj ham «til\ stuck to the hefi. Burns, Alloioay Kirk, 
. But Jameison, though he has both haft and heft, 


idber iial: give tldr meimtiig of ridier. 'llayiA«tb& 
following jamoDg his proverbial sentenoes— * 

When all is gope and wftyng left. 

What avails the dagger with the dodgeon-l^/ p.i(. 

Tiiis is quoted, somewhai differently, by. Naie^, 
in his curious article dudgeanfVfhexe h^^ or kajt^, 
b shown to be used by several of our ola authors ; 
but he gives no article uiraer that word. 

tLAHU or Hdwhk. tlie stiibble Of wheat. It 
isj iraked t(^ether in heads, by i^omeii generally, lit 
ICtd; or 18d. an acre. If done before it be a litife 
-ftbsted, it is indil's work ^iih a scythe ; the tdoitt 
not having perished, do not easily come up. Thb 
vifpf of potatoes and of pease we iUso call kahtk — 
«8 well as the miiliant of bcaiis, wheii th^y lia^ 
been cut by the sickle, as they sometimes are ; and 
sometimes pulled up by the roots, what the field 
requires no hakming. The runners of potatoes, 
^ease, stnd strawberries, we call also iSisp ; which 

In Chei^hlre ** iOyTf^^ are the green sterna of 
potatoes. Ranidle Hohtte, in his Academy of M^ 
mory^ cafls theto ttudMHi kifd ^ses the term tb 
carrots aiid turhij^s. Wehie is the G^nkian iSt 
icom, as Aofi» is for straw. Pe«t4ob» is still in 
jise."W. . .-•... 

An^ottg ]Uy*js'S.'iflid£*'eo»ntkiy 'W^tdailie ^c» 
" Aatc/M or halm; stubble, gathei^ .^fttsr.tiba ^Ini 
^Bianed: ab A. S. JEfi^a/m. Hielm.'' £*W. j»^7Q umd 
ifi^. 83, he says pease-straw is otJieil Jrw^^^JU^ 
uijBssex. iSauim occiirs frequently in iVisser, 

WLow hmUm to bum— >To s'tnre tby tmii*' p. 175» 

Mown natOm, tNAag dry-^Nd ll>ii|;ef l«t)lie. lb. * 

G^h<nJke'<hyft^m^WifiIfeV(faftf«rii»'W«rai.(|b. '' l 

The haulm is the straw Ijf llie wheal'6r^ rye, ' ' 

Which once being reaped, they BioW%y *aittr1>y« 'p, 4a5. 

Ule'fiVidently iaeam ^e itutble, niit %e MS«w.; 
^Uhnst or Harn^t. Tfaie lioniet« Hiere is 

a sajiag in Suffolk that f' nine hahnets 'al stiog a 
boss ta dead.** " A h&rnUie. Hornet. Sttff;' 
Ray, £. W. p. 78. I nerer heard hornick^ 

Hahnsbt. The large heron. The iint vowel 
is drawled out in the pronunciation. - It is miao 
called from its monotone, ^ttnA*, or firaamtki H&m-^ 
. ««jf is an old word, and is pei^aps nvha^ Shakespeare 
. meant and wrote, when h^ makes Hamkt say— ^' I 
t^now a hawk from a handsaw ;''; — in which he is 
ifollowed by Ray, p. 196. Spenser, B. Johnson, 
and other English writers of al)out that day, write 
il hern-shaw^ hern-shew, &c. as is shown by 
Nares ; where, and in the commentaries on Shake- 
speare*s passage, a deal of curious matter may be 
found on this Word. Hernghahis an "eastern word 
for a species of falcon^ used in hawking— -meariiBg 
" king of deer*' — antelopes, and other such game 
being so taken. It may have been introduced from 
Persia, where hawking is so ntuch in vogue* . ^n 
Eafet Indian common name for a goose is .AaAns-^ 
cognate with the nnter of the Latins. Hansa is tj^e 
Sanskrit name of a mythological bird ou which the 
god Brahma rides — his consort also rides a goose, 
or a heron, which are indifferently called hahnm ; 
or hahns, for shortness. In Arabia and Abyssinia 
the heron or hem is called aho hannes 
father goose. Hence, the Suffolk word- seems one 
used of old and very extfensively, for .the heron. 
Among the expences of Hengrave'Hall, in l«67'2, we 

read^<^ Payed to for presenting a hernesewe 

aftd a feasant, xij.rf:" Gules' Hengnwe, p. 101. 

Hake. The dentated iron head of a foot- 
plough, serving to adjust the depth tf> which the 
land is to be stirred. Also an irontiook on which 
the pot hangs over the kitchen or cottage fire. Of 
this, sufficient is given under Crock ; which see. I 
might there have added that in Scottish, heUiscruk, 
is the 9ame (rf the " crook for holding vessels over 
a fire.** J* 

P 3 


HALLABAI.QO. Anobe — aiiu{»roar-^aclam6ur* 

Hampkr. To' poiale, petplex/ti^oable. *' Hifs 
'ndlj hampered/' meanfl m uneasy* coofined, circiini-* 
•iaoees. A k>ck hamperdt is when the key cannot 
be fumed or taken out. . t 

Hanbury. The disease to vAikh growing for- 
nips are subjeet, ekmiid by fnseets; it sbewB i^lf fe 
toall globular excrescences on their skin. They 4n 
this state are said to have got the kan-biiry, or idi- 
tMsrry. It h, I beliere, the same that In the n6rth Is 
termed five-fingers — so that hand-herry, mAy be tfte 
' teriki ; though one does not see exactly Why. 

i Hand-smuthe. Well wearing any il^ing, till it 
be smooth as the hand, or thread-bare. Any thing 
vejry smooth. 

Hakdstaff. The appropriate name for tie 
longer limb of the flail — the shorter, which faHs 6n 
cdtn, being csdled frinjel, or twiwfei. We haJIre 
specific names for almost every yariety of tool- 
handle ; — of which see under Haft. In Scottidi, 
** hand'Miaff, is the i»pp<Nr part of a flail." J. 

Hanq. a crop of nuts. **Vy a fairish hang o' 
nuts ta year." 

* ■ 

Hank. The fastening, or latch of a jgate. A 
verb also, *^ Hank Ihe gate." " A hank of thread ;'* 
a skein. Hatdi^ which s^, is ai;iother name jfor the 
catch or latch of a gate or door. In Scottish* ffank, 
is to fasten^ also a skain. J. Hatp^ is another tejrm 
, with us for the fastening of a door; orrather^Itbink, 
of a gate ; formed of a short piece of chdn. It ,is a 
i?erb also, like hank. See Hasp, and Snack. 

Hansel. First wearing a new coat, gown, or 
any thing else, is hanselling it. It is exlensiv^iy 
used, and always in a sense of firj»t using*— or, ini0i^- 
tory««-4;he first coin taken in the day by a pedlar !or 
shopkeeper, is han$el* It is also used jas a verb. . It 
is not a local word* I find it in Cockec's dictionary. 


^8vo. 1724, 3d edit, thus ^' Hansel or handsale, the 
first money taken in a ihornihg." Ih Scottisn, 
vfoinfre^has'a like hieaning. J. 

BPanspeke. a ha^d-spike which we usually call 

Happy is the bride that the sun shine on-*r-faap- 
py is the corpse that the rain rain on. The same is 
given in Ray. p. 272. 

Harber. The Horn-beam. CARPiNUS&e/u/iif. 
It was formerly called Hard-beam. 

Hards. The dalx of coal — aflter underf oing the 
inteiiise h^t of a blacksmfkh s lerge. in ScotkLsd, 
Danders are the refuse of a smithes fire. J. 

HaHe. To hear* '0m2— heard. See Lestlt. 

Mash. Harsh, sfevei'e. "A hash master-' — "a 
fa^ed keinder hash with em." 'Rough — rigid— 
"that towly is so hash.*' 

HA6F« a fastening of a. gate, also a verb. See 
Hank. Hasp wiAMtxp are in Scottish, as with us; 
adawf^orheok; fr<Qfn the German Aespe, and Swedish 
. ha^[i€yoi like i^eaDing* To hesp^^ to fasten. Both 
worc^y accord ing^ to Jameisoo, are also a hank of 
yam; but not so with «s. 

'HAETfliotK. The article on which we kneel in 
< bh^bes; othet^vfee called !>«», whick see. 'In 
SiiOttish, Hassdck is a hri^e round turf nsecl as aseat. 
J. It would appear, from what has been said under 
' JPoMt that the hasaoek is made of rushes. The read- 
ers olspejsser have been pazeled with the word Ao^Ae 
: -^^ islies haske'' — EcL Navetidmr, v. > 14. A cofii- 
meatalor says ha$k€ ia a "wicker ped.'^ Another 
writer, Davison, has the same term ; and Ash defines 
it " any thing made of rushes or wicker," and derives 
}t fi»m the German. From all this 1 think it likely 
that th^ hassock and haske are the same thing : and 
doss being also' the same, hence dossers, peds, or pdn- 
niers. Rush-work and wifcket-work, are eiaisily coi|- 


foandled. See soi&ethiDg farther on the suL^iect of 
this article under Ped and gEGS, 

Haste. Haslet. The pluck or fry — especially 
of a pig. In Scottish it is fraise ; and harigalda. J. 
Nares explains haslet, "the principal entrails of: a 
hog.*' With us it is the pluck. Ue quotes from 
Ozell's Rabelais, a passage where the word occurs — 

lliere was not a hug killed ^within three parbhes of himf 
wlier^f he had not some pare of the haslet and puddings. 

B. iiu c&. 41. 

Johnson, he remarks, has the word, but withobt 
an example : adding that it is not quite obsolete^ and 
is ^(ometimes called hardeU See D'Mietiie Cookery , 

p. 91. . , • 

Hatch. The catch or latch of a d«or. ** Hlitch 
the door:" also a door itself, partteularly a half 
door. Though it be now local, this word has been 
extensively used, both as a substantive and a verb. 
We still hear of a "halfpenny hatch" near London — 
and Shakespeare (P. P. of Tyre, 'iv; 3.) *< *twere not 
amiss to keep oui^ door haielidy 

The commentators on this 'word- i*eeog»bEeiitas 
meaning a Aalfiioor; but, after long notes, spoil* the 
sense of the passage, by not taking it as a verb, 
though the context seems to require it. 

There was a proverb chrrent in $hake£^peare*» day, 
which lie either made or borrowed, by> or ii^ the 
above quotation. Eay preserves it^->" it's good to 
have a hatch before the door/' p. 117* 

Hathatawad. Hitherto-waiHt^trongly ac- 
cented on the penult: to the present ttme, x)r nearly 
to it. Hithefrunto, occurs iii a letter Wntfen 1^1, 
givett iii Gage's H engrave, p: 182 — in the same senfee, 
as regatding lime, as Hathatawad: but I never 

heard it. 

, , ■ < 

H AVE. Has. This is a very common substitution, 
even among educated people, of the ^lur^l .for fhc 
third person singular of a verb. " Mr. Johnson' lie 


tftyniWiihfDo^^ttg, P«rififittiMfiif«ry tisffm* for Hemo^ 
ti&iii6g iupeMtfiotrs drnkmefit^ ktthutches in BtxSo^,** 
made in 1663-4; dipeakingf of B#urid»h, he «aji*s'*'Ttte 
ykk9^ have two Iii(ii|gs." p. 11. " Ordered Ihc par- 
son t6 level the steps in the chancel. He.preaeh bst 
once a day." p. 12. Sec He. 

^AW;miiOf The indelicate throat-clearing, ^a- 
i0eet«rating,.^orts of atiusky persoa^'in tfaemornii^. 
iWhm 8ii|ikes|)efire»» 

gr saviog w« are hoarse, which are the only prologues to a bf^ 

HAy. a hedge or fence. • A quick hay — a Di^ 
ifent^e.^ It is growing obsolete; but hits probably 
^b^ehin ^xtetisive use. Hay-net fs.stiil cobinoti lu 
^ufiblt^* for ^ kedge-net. It may be derived from the 
Tr^nfch Awic, k Itedge. . 

Chaucer, in his 'ItohidUnt off the Aose, ^ii6Ws tto 

that it is at least 500 yeari ^id. Iii the f dlliDf^ing 

tl^sibe.baB'seVeral words that remind us.of -modem 

■>' ■ ' it it in May 
'« . , "^j^M *I things, ginpoth waxea ^hj $ 
' ' ■ :^dr there IS iifeiThert>usken<JrMj/, 
'' : ' -••Ih"!tfay*«itt1«rtn!J»%h'roW««!>ene, ' 
And that it with newe levis wrerte-^- 

We retain toax, in the sense of '^ |frow{ 'aoc)» al- 
though we have not the hard termiBati^n in 6tuA, aa 
abov^, .we have it in some other words. See Perk. 
Tlje k6i^eke df fctetfcer, T^, jJrobAly, 'oxtr r^efe, te rag9» 
'T(tekA%,'i^. See <tEE?f. • ' \ 

' fd ISifcrtiiftr I ^it6Hamit^*mpims hedges, ^cld- 
fiures. J. And in Wares,' hay, fn ftfe hieafning^c^li 
««g^/'«'Hisb6»by B. Jbtfson;»ahtf^ other 'dM tetfglish 
authors— anfd also*o4"^ neft. ' : y- 

H A Y-j AoK. A; Htfle %ird of pdssage Hitft Guilds 
generally jkujreeds, or segs... . *^ 

H Ay-N«i¥, ^A 4ong few ^riet-^fliay 4Wtly or*!forty 


• * 

vards'by one yard hi^-«-pUiced nprislit b]pfltk«t 
along hedges^, or in daj^t cut through whin eot^, 
&c. to prevent the transit of r4bbit9 fifotn side tosidf, 
when bunted by dogs. See Slay. 

Hatsel. The time of hay-harvest. Hay-sale. 


Haze. Land drying after having been turned iip 
by the plough, is left to haze before it be harrowed ; 
or a stiff clay dry bank newly turned up, is not fit 
to be patted smooth (with the back of the spade) **till 
'tave hazed a littie" after being wetted with rain. 

He. We have a strange way ojf interpolating this 
pronoun unnecessarily after naming an individiial— 
which is best explained by examples — " Mr. Smith he 
say/' for Mr. S. s«ys. ** Mrs. Scott she sleep 'a bin 
bed.** " Jack he go to skule.'' " Hew owe th^ 
boss Y* " Mr. Brown he owe it." Touching the verb 
in thc.above phrases^ see Have. .. \ 

Hb AD-STALL. See Stall. :; •, ': 

• Hbent. Has not — have not. " 'A hemi giit 
a wad ta sah for 'as self." See Goff» lor atootier 

Hebve. Hive. To heve a swarm of bees. So 
deeve for dive — like ItaliaQ pronunciation, as noticed 
under Aninnd. 

Heevy. Heavy. i •. " 

' Heft. See Hapt. J 

Heit or Height. A <H>mmand by which ^art 
horses are turned to the left. Ree — leng^eoed into 
JieeeCf with a sl^ake, .causes a movemeut lo the right.. 

See CAMETHEn> ilEE, WOOH* •, ^. ^ 

. Hait and Bee are probably very old woj(<is"*^aiif| 
formerly in more extensive use than now« 

ihev. Mw a cart that charged waa with hay, ; 

^he which a carter drove ibrthe on the way : 

)e|>e was the way, for whidi the cart stiH stodv ; '''-^^ 

Tb« Qflftef smote* and cry^ at he. wqk wa^t^ ^ / / ^ I 


^UeitScotK^HeitBrok! wlMt^^fparcyeforthenont^? 
., *<TUefeu( fetch/* qooth be^ ** body ttiid bones.*' 

Chauctr-^the Frcer'i TaU* 

Scot and Brock are still Suflblk nunies of cart 
hoBses. Of uoue9, a very coiuiiioa word with us — 
see NoNCB. The handle of a large t6ol— an axe, or 
a Spade — as baft or heft is of those of a smaller sort ; 
of a knife or chissel. Helve is an old word. Ray gives 
it is- a Ctiesbire proverb^--" Afraid of the hatcbet 
lest the helve stick hi his eye/' p. 174. 1 have n(*t 
indeed quoted Ray faithfully in rcs])ect of the last 
word — be is here, as io many instances, too gross 
for exact quotatio<i; See Haft. 

Het. Heated. ''Ta /icM th' goof." Also ai^ 
abbfewtioB of haioe ' it, ** I oont bet."" '* Yeow 
siiaot Jiet/' lu the first sense, of heated, het is used 
1>)' dmuper. 

Hew.. Hfxied: also who, **Hew hew theih 
there taluittps/* " John Smith, he liew em.'' The 
usual mode of pronoancing the preteiit of verUs end- 
ing in oot or 0X0, •* He mew that there stu vva." Ewe, 
for owed — snew, for snowed — thew, for thawed. 
" Ta tliew"— " Ta snew," <lc. See Bu res. 

Hew d. Held. " 'A niwa hewd up a*s hid aater." 
Also, who would, abbreviated. See $ wad, for an 

Hlccup-smcKUP. The Hiccough, or hiccup. 
The following charm, thrice repeated, holding the 
breath, is, or used to be, with us, a cure for this 
diaphragmatic convulsion : 

• Hiccup-sniccup™ look up— right op~ 
Tiiree drops in a cup — U grx)d for the hiccup. 

One of Shakespeare's drunken characters. Sir Toby 
Belch in Twelfth Night, used the word "sneckup" — 
interjectively, in an unconnected, and, to the com- 
mentators, in an accountable, sense. On the stage 
Sir^r^by was pfobably represented as freq^entfy 

hiccaping, and was verbaiUy iustnicte<i' lo smardy 
exclaiiii sMelmp^ at e^ch return of tbe" throe; as a 
sort of charm, then welf known, against the recurrence, 
of the symptom. The exctauMtloii is prkrted — the 
instmctton, not. In Beauinoiit »nd Fletcher tire- 
word is also used ; but 1 know not where, as I eite 
from Steevens* notes on Shakespeare, who gives. 90 
reference; It there seems to have a.Q^fii^cetion,witli' 
hicclip or drunkenness. 

Xet yoor £»tlieF go jneoiftttp — he shall neveneiiaiei b<tweett> » 
pair of sheets with me .egain whiUt he Jives. t • . . 

HiCKLE. To ma4se shift with indifftrfnt4|uartcn 
OP lodgings — to double up, as two beds in a romn*' 
To hickle one's self into lodgings»^dr a pig into a 
St J, already Sufficiently occupied* 

HiDi). Head: foremost or best. ** HKijniHir'^-^ 
foreman. '* Hidd beast" — the muster bullock* cow/ - 
&c. of a herd. See under Aninnd and DtFFLBD. 

Hide. To beat " J '11 gi vow a good hiden.'* Of 
many of these offensive threatenings, see uiidev AiHT, ' 

Hide an find. 'I he game better known else- 
where called hide and seek. The phrase is also ap- 
plied to one not willing to be seen. "He's plahen.^ 
at hide an rind." Fast an loose— and Peepbo, are 
terms in that sense nearly equivaleat. See ^hdse 

Higgledy-piggledy. Intermixed —irregnlai:— 
indiscritninateJY — heads and fails, like cuddling pigs. 
We have, as well as others, many phrases, thus formed 
by repeating, with some little variation, the first word 
or syllable. This was remarked hy Ray,/w>ho diili)e 
phrase before us adds — " We have in our language 
many of the like conceited rhyming words, or redu- 
plications, to signify any confusion or luixture^ras 
hurly-burly, hodgc podge, mingle-mangle, arsy yerBy« : 
kira-kam, hub bub, erawly-mauly, liab-nab." p.272. 
To which t^, might have added, of nearly a similfir . 
description, crinQupi-crancam, c£iuk^cfaHk[e» jS|m-r 


Jidtcr-sk^Itef, hi<;cop.-siiicki^ hp^ u^*pocu5t hotefa- 
potefay buggerroiug^r* buiQi-drura, buiii-struiii» hurry* 
skucrygibber-jabber, prittle-pratlle^ shiily-shailyy tit- 
tl«-laltle». topsy-turvy, and pei^hap^ as many raqre 
that niight be ledipu^.to eiiuQierate. In another 
plaoe» he->Iia8 ^iven theae^.as peeuliar to Kent, 
** whipk^* fer yvhaQk^^y or. quUteefor quattee, i«e« 
quid pro quo." E. W* p. 90* 

Mai^y, perhaps .|nost of the above,* are in use in 
^)i^olk» hut I shall not insert. them in separate arti- 
cles. . Undfer Biq^p -mickvp, suid Ho€%u*pocu8, some* 
thjng ^ili be. added. The Scotch have such duplica* 
tions of SQupd i^ 9 greater variety than we southrons. 

HlQKLOWiS. High' shoes, or low boots, 'tightly 
iac^d-in front, .midleg high-^diH^Ung only in their 
tightness and a ■ greater nuinbeF of holes/ from mo* 
■dehi Wellingtons. The lace or thongj weodl Wkmuff^ 
which «ee.^ 

HiOLER^ An itinerairt dealer m small wares. 
The origrn of this name has been variously sought^ 
A distinction has been fancied between a. A^Arr and 
a^ huf^tP'^,}^, this-;— that, the Mgler is a vender of 
edibles — a huckster of wares, Tlie higlers JRitr- 
chaudizc has, by. this description oi etymologists^ 
been restricted to poultry and their appurtenances-^ 
and, to bring the word to bear, it has been confined 
to eggs — lience Eggiet — hence Higler, -But this is 
scarcely i^ir. Others, rejecting tliese li mi tationa of 
the //£^2ers trade, extend it to trav^s also,' and maid* 
taiA tbl^f,\sofaf from one article giving a name to 
this craft» that its name fact derived from 4h^ •• 
variety of his (m^rcbaodjee; which, being made, up 
of small aiiticlei, were rather iudi^n^^iinut^ly niixted 
^up in hi^iPart prjbaskets, .all j^^ 
it vet e» and hepcQ*hia appell^UoUf This is also open 
lo ol^ectiob) Jf: there bemiich djs|inotio|i. I am not 
• «l paaseut nbl^-jtQ point it outtbet^vyeeq the East 


' Kidycar, or between the fotlowmi^, as quoted from 
B?»}''s South and East country words, p. 84 "A Rtp" 

• per; a Pcdder, Dwser, or Badger. Sussex." 

We may suppose the Pedlar and Pedder, to be, 
or to have been, peef-estriaus — the Dorser to have 
carried his pack on his back, dmsalfy — the others 

• ve leave to the greater ingenuity of etunoSogists. 

• Under KioDiER and Ped something ferther occurs 
on this subject. 

HiLD. Held. This would manifestly seem to be 
a mere corruption, or vulgarism — but Nares shows 
that, for the sake of Fh>nie, this ki|id of licence was 
frequeutly taken by Shakespeare, Spenser, and other 

' -writers of that day. It is a very ronimou mode of 
expre$si«)n*iu Suffolk, as noted under AninNd. — 

.But I do not think we ever use hing for. hsiig as 

- appears to have been the case formerly by English 

, and Scotdi authors. ... 

Hills. Lees, dregs, settlings, of betY, wine, Skc. 
Heels, probably, or what remains after heeling, or 
. keeling. Hills, jigs, and guish, are nearly of the 
£ame meaoiitg. See those words. 

H I MPi N. Lame — limping. " Poor'' fulla — 'a go 
him pin about." 

; Hinder. Yonder. " Hinder 'a go." 

HlNN* A ben. Also that,, or ycm. "'A live a 
, hinn house." •* Dew the hi» set ?" for, ** does the 
hen sit I" k a triple specimen of our local phrase- 
• ology. See Aninnb. 

HiPPEDDEHOY or Hobbledehoy or Hoblnfdeklnf. 
** Twixt a man and a boy." In some counties, 
and I believe in Suffolk and Norfolk, tbouffh I 
tieyer heard it, an overgrown lad is said to be hop- 

- pie-high — hop-^pole, perhaps— long and slender. 
Hobble«de-hoy, may be hence derived. Hvddmg 

' is a word pf similar meaning. In Cheshire, ** Xhbbity 
hoy ia an awkward stripling between man mmI b«y. 

' Tusser eaUs it Holfart de Hoighi. I b«Uev^ 


be uttply Hobby the Hoyden, or Robert the Hoy-^ 
dea. The word hoyden is by no means confined 
to the female sex ; anciently, indeed, it ia believed 
to have been confined to the male sex, meaning a 
rude, ill-behaved person. See Todds* Diet, in t&ce 
Hoideb.'' W. 

In Ray i find a hober-de-hofff half a man and 
half a boy. p. 67. And in p. 265. he speaks of a 
phrase as *^ applicable to persons very tall, espe^^ 
cially if they have hopple height, wanting breadth 
proportionable.*' Among his north-conntiy words> 
he has -** a haspat or haspenaid lad ; between a man 
and boy ;\ E.W. p.35. 

Referring toTusaer, I find the following passage^ 
worth quotmg for its quaintness — • 

A man^s age di^i4,e4^ ber<»5cr httve . 

By prenliceships, from birth to grare» 

T'r The first seven years, bring up as a chi1<T« 

14. ' Hie next to learning, for waxing too wHd, 

9tl. The nest keep under Sir de Hoy» 

^ J^ next a^maoy no longer a boy *>^2kc. (ice. p. 198« 

•We retain the verb wax for grow. 
In Scottish, Hobbledehoy (and this is, I think, 
our commonest pronnnciation) is a <' stripKng/' J.- 

Hire. Wc use this word in a way differing,- as I 
was told in the Sheers, from others. We say to hire. 
a farm, or a house, as well as a servant ; wliereas to 
tent a farm or a house, is said, and I believe, jnstly.» 
to be more correct and usu&l* 

His'n. His. Youan, yours. 

HiTCU. A move. *<.Hilch the gotch-:-hitch it. 
this w^ab.** "A hitch uppards/' promotion — a 
move towards London* Hitch is also to hop« on 
one foot. In Scottish ''a hitch is a motion by a' 
jerk — and, metaphorically, augmentation." J. — both, 
in fact, Suffolk senses. 

H IV v 1 N. Heaven. The following as^ervation is 
looked upon in so properly solenin a light, that iH 
applioalkm to afiiisebood wosid tbiow ureal, disrei 




'Hob. The flat side of a fire ^te, for placiag 
a kettle or any thing qn> when taken off the fire*. 

Hob or Nob. Two persons taking a iocial^iBiip 
to^th€r« It it l.belrere an extensivdy^asedplkrase: 
ami its origin has beto.yarioasly sought; HtAkeibr 
iVoMe appears to have been the earlier t^riii-^^. 
sih>ut to see faf tfaer oo •thjis master the read^l: will! dor 
^l t<K cpMolt Nares^ Glossary. 

* Hobble. AplataB'fofhogs, ita^VkoMer,'^ 
•ame probably that Tusserb^ilb hiig^g coTe. *9te 
ifiider GooF» t. 21. and nfote — and 'in iin 'exfaraict 
under Baven, he wHtes **^hovd for- hogs "-i-^ctar 
hog*9'hobble, probably. A AoMM^iff«ra Irom aj^ 
in this, that' it is hot a place for ^iiber fettiog or 
fitrrowing*— but a lodge, without a doojr> for- swine 
to run in and out of at pleasure. A fajQirBe m said 
to be kdbbkd when, to prevent Mar- stfiEtylag, or 
doing mischief, a hind and .fosefpot of the same 
side, are connected by a irope 'orthiHug. When. 
feet pf different .sides are so brought somewhat 
closer together, the beast is said to be Yangled."^ 
See YANbLB. I msLy add 'diat t^ih Us, as else- 
where, *' gettmg ihtb a hobble;'^ Md **t^ttftitfiiitd 
a acrdpe/^ are -^^^. 'And Jn'Sodttt^h, 'a %oW« W 
a state' of pferjilexity. J. ] 

Hobbledehoy. See lEIippspbBEOT. 

Hobbly. Rough — uneven — such as a sUttfpy 
ioaJi quidUy ^s^ii^-^the ufijof^Me^ ^k cwd 
hobbles. Ic^ frozen^tiimdolatTyns oj- ndg^slk (»lKa 
hbbfy. rterice tbe rotigh oaii$ 0f rostic shod i^ 
Harie det|Ved-^r tfaev may haVe ly^re 'given— >tl^' 
uppellative of faotr-^nails. 

fi03BY. 4 ppney. 

Hobby l^ANTAfN^ Hob ^iti| a laateta^Jack n 
imtewr^WAmkhwiifmsfi^ «eeWierw 


HocKBY. A hvrvest-bonie frolic. I never heard 
the word, nor do I thiok it is io use, in Suffbllc^ 
unlesB it be on the very borders of Norfolk, wher^ 
it is said to be still heard. . Id Gage*s Heiigrave. it 
is spoken of, however, as a word and thing still ex- 
taut. I quote the pleasing passage. " The custpni' 
after harvest of cryii^ largesse prevails generally 
among the people in this neighbourhood t but the 
hockay, or harvest-home, sin<fe the introduction ' of 
task-work at the reaping season, begins to fall into 
disuse. When thi:^ good old custom is kept hen) 
with due solemnity, besides the usual homage paid 
to the master and mistress of the house, a ceremony 
takes place which affords much mirth : a pair of 
ram's- horns, painted and decorated with flowers, ii 
carried in triumph roilud the festive board ; and aft 
ihe forester who iiad killed the deer wa^ hopored of 
old with the brick's horns an^ saluted with a ditty 
( As yott Like it. tV. 2.) so the harvest-man of Hen* 
gniv« liaviog finished his Jabours i», erowiied wit h I h« 
rani's-horns, and .greeted with a stmg which has the 
«ame point ai^ th^ ,pther, though more coarsely 
expressed/' p. 7. , 

It is much to^Jbi^ la^uented that h^au)' of our of d, 
innocent, niirth-exciting frolics are so falling intio 
non-observance. Dissent, in its various forms of 
methodism, fanaticism, enthusiasm, <Sfc. ^c. in. the 
holy line; and refin?.nient as to dress, reading, ^c^ 
have been aniong. the causes of this. I wish tliey 
may have intromiced somelhing better than w^^t 
they have super.ceded — bnt I doubt it. I fear w'e 
are become too good, and too wise, to be happy. 
Or rather that cant, and various sorts of humbug* 
have made, or will make, us otherwise. 

In Norfolk, as the merry-making of reapers 

after harvest, there b sjiid to be a game called Hockey^ 

Avd Hock'ZeiL I am told, is.a.ganie or holiday <ia 

Germany — connected with the vintage^ perhaps.*-* 

*-8eeLAROEd, ' 


Wh was Writteii Nkr^^ mlkM^HoO^^gOk &as 

come viKl^r mj e^e. He iM^s tl^t tfM i^ati^F U 
stm* observed ift SilflfbiK/ CaiiiftHti^^e, abd' tlltt 
neighbouritig counties, und^ the cbrrupted ifatiae^ 
of hawkey, hockey, 6t horky.- I am induced, hbW-^ 
ever, to let what I' have said above remain. Nasrfes' 
article, with its references, is intereisting. 

I{oci7^POCU3« A phrase not easify explained^ 
tbo' generally understood*. See Higolbdy-pig* 
GLBBY*. Uke ** Please the pigs,*' the phrase hocm" 
pqcui may be derived from the exposures which the 
reformation led to, or which led to the reformation. 
ffoaU'pocus was probably in derision of the Hoc es^ 
c^rpuM of transuUtantiation. But Nares reasonably 
cpnttends for a different origin* 

HoD^ A woMJen veteelwith a handiie forlioldiilg 
^oals-^also a mortar hesifrd. A brfcUay^f is eattM 
a trowel-«iain<'-4fi9 iabotirer a'-bod-nia»} not ioerfly 
perhaps. We caHa hodman^ a SkJb^ wbseiiseeii 

HoDMAN^DOD. A snail : this word se^ms m unf- 
▼ersal usage ih Snffotk-^and Although noi'oontitfe^ 
to that county, I do not recollect sedng it in. pi[fhf» 
except in the Bath Guide— A^ley Wtis a SttKblk man« 

— '- — ^ as qafel and well. 
And Us rang as a bodtaandod lides in IiHr sHeff.*' 

A snail is also called Dodmati in Suitbft and Nbr- 
foiJu ** A dodvMO^ a shell snail dr hodmandod-^ 
Norfolk/' Ray. E. W. p. 74. 7». "A smgge. a 
siiaiU Sussex.'' ib. p. 06. 

Nares gives ilo article under tio'dmai^dod, biSt h'e 
deems hoddy-pike, to have been synonymous ; a snail. 
And he notes it as reraatkable that Bacon enauaerat^ 
hodmandod or dodman, among fish that cast their 
shells: what he means, Nares addji, is dbbbtffd.— 
These extracts have fallen under my eye sii^e iuj 
remarks on this, not: very inapt, namie/werenlritf^ii. 

Hog. a lamb, male or f)emalc, between oaeand 
two years oid« Ho^ffef, also* A sioiiiar word 


iooi^Si sbfiiewhat whimsically^ to' he so a^^)£«(i 
almost ^11 over England: ''A kog, a sheep of a y^ar 
old^^tlortli ^iouhtryword : used in Northampton and 
Leicefllter shires'; where they also call it a HoggreL" 
Ray. E. W. p. 37. " Hogs; youn<; slieep — North- 
aitipton, York." ib. p. 78i- *fA Tn^fsru; a sheep of 
the first year." ib. 88. .*« A Tkeavi; an ewe of th« 
first year." ib. p. 88. " This is also Suffolk. " A tup- 
hog, is a ram of one year oici ; a gimmer hog, a 
iive' of the sariie age; VL'twinter, is a h6j^ \\\q 
ye!ar old." ib. p. 103. Of thesfe varioDs names 
see soniethin^g under Crone and'D a^s and WBD- 
I>EB. In Scottish, Janieison explains a- //o^' to be 
a yoifog sheep, before Jt has lost its iirst fieece. 

Nares says ** hogrel is a rustic name for a sheep of * 
two years old — at one year, they h(\gs" 

HOG-OVER-HIE. The game of leap frog. 
HoGS-uoBBLE. See Hobble. 

HoLL. A ditch — a dry ditch. To clean' out or 
fey a ditch is called oiit-hblling ( or out hauling) it. 
See Fey. In Scottish Hott, is to excavate. J. 

HoM E. Well — mtich—rootidly— perfectly . '** Is 
the nail home? "—is it driven ap to th^ head. *"I 
gave it' him home." I rated him .rotiDd4y» or Well. 
In Scottish like senses are given hy JameisoH—- 
** dose, urgent." 

HoMBBREDS. YouDg kioe, bred at home, Or 
da 'the premises. 

HoMlft-DONE. Meat fully cooked — well roasted. 
•• Do yoii love your meal home-done or rear?** Sec 
LovBT-and Rear.' In Norfolk, meat Well cook^ 
18 said to be ^' i* Ibe main." Reer meat is in Suffolk 
whimsically said to be "too much under done." 

HoMBSTALL or HoMESTEAD, The farm yards 
and buildings, collectively. 

Hoo. A word not colloquially used — but foond 
not uncommonly terminating naihes of vilfages m 


Suffolk, eituated on a hill. Nares shows that ho§fk 
is Dutch for a bill; and that a place near Plymouth 
iRras so CHlied, aod haw, Sfietiaer ( F. Q. ii* x^ 20.) 
calls it the " western hogh " — Drayton — ( PoUfifibt) 
the Ao6. 

Near VVoodbndge, Hoo, and Daliinghoo, are 
villages in elevated situations. 

Hook. A bill Look — See Bill. 

Hop. This word appears hy a qiiotatioo given 
lyinder Lop, formerly to have meant wood fit for 
hop-poles. 1 never heard it — nor do 1 know that it 
is now in use. 

Hope Helped— "Ta cant be hope"— •*! hope 
him.'* We have the best authority for holpeu — and 
Shakespeare uses Ao/jp- 

Thrce times to day 1 h»lp him to his hone. K. H. the 6th Y. S. 

Siry bow Gams*t that thoa ' 

Have holp to make this rescue. Car, III. 1. 

You have hoip to ravish your own daughter. ]b. IV. 5. 

Ihou art my warrior; I kolp to frame thee. lb. V. 3. 

Holp and holpen are the old preterite and parti- 
ciple of to help — and ure preserve them in hope, 

HopPENTOAD. The toad— hopping toad. A 
yoang frog is calletl Fresher. 

Horn. This word is sometimes used in a low- 
life slang sort of a phrase — "In a horn'* — that r 
scarcely know how to render intelligible^ Oae 
asking another to do any thing, or if he will do so 
. and so, will receive that answer in a contemptuous 
mode of expression — "Is — in a horn." The word 
is pronounced hawn, but I can make nothing of 
either. The phrase implies a decided negative — 
equivalent perhaps, to " Fd see yow fudda, fust," 
or to sometning more emphatic. 

HoRN-pjB. The Peewit or lapwing, 

Iloss*^ Horse« 


'HaviiC. r Alown-rfinff'd'up, d'lBtr^ulngly-Taiqftw 
liMing eatpR .greedily of growing cluver, especially 
when ImA;. ii dpMo l>e hone*. or bkfoH, frqni iti 
r^id ftr^DUlion in. her t>tQiuacb. The word U. 
uitd fe^'Ttnter^ iA « like MDfle— , . '■.',.,, .' 
'' TotQ Ptper bath Anm and [iiiffed op ch«eki. p> M3. ' 

of leather — about a yard lottg-r- thicker thaa'one'a' 
mrm, aa^ usually decorated with long red worsted' 
fringe. ' Alt 'the horses of a team carrying ^bni W 
iua»C<t,''»rwhenever likely to be 9eea by nrnnr^ bfe 
hmaiftedi , Itayjias a sipiilar term among his S.^^d 
fir'cowitry words. : " Behotmch'd, tj-icked/up anjd, 
made fine; a metaphor taken from aliorsesAoHRccj,. 
which is that part of the furniture of a cart-liorse, 
ifhjch lies spread upon bis collar. Essex — ironically 
lised.'^ E.'W.,p.';io; ,■' ■; 

: .HtwzBN. House*. Prgtobly a - regular* oH 
plaral. .: - ;, 

.-ffoWfik HoU. So in Cbetbire^ W.— cuhI itljke 
^nmunciatioa obtains alsq in cold, gqld, spld, Stc* 
■ttowKs. Haws. The berries of the white, ttr 
haw, thorn, Hdwtei, sometimes in llie 'plural. — 
JSPiteadrltaionis'aho^pliedto.tAe oat; wbQoJbst 
tboOtfhg too ear. I-e«inof fiid'thtlt itisaffpliedt* 
dM Mfaer ^niin. We should at thal.tinie sap ainv 
or^hp earing, of wheal (fr barley— but how* or ,lbe 
kmmg .of oals. We have a s 
vtojsd is introduced. . It is faucie 
ticularly stirring and trbiiblesoii 
these times are "Out-sowing, o: 
mowing." We wake the word 
nab wen — sab wen. 

, HowziLlCK. The house-leek. SempervipuBi t«(t- 
toruM — frequently seen on cottage_^^. , Tbis is a 
very ancient usage, as defensative against ligtitniug. 

HvB. A knife or fork or any tttch thing M& 
into the ground^ as a point to lay near in playing at ' 
*' pitch baapny/- or at qnoits, u called. a Aie6,. It- 
nfeans also the point of insertion of the bkde and. 
handle of a knife: "^np to the hub," aknile so stuck, 
into any thing* T^s reminds us of a threat of a 
blackguard in Dublin, "I'll be up to Lamprey in ye/' 
Lamprey was, and perhaps is, a great knrfe cutler ia 
Dublin-^ his name across the blade near the handky 
explains this emphatic threat. 

HucKLE.BONE. The hip bone, or joint. 

Huckster. A pedlar; or Higkr, which aee. 

Huddle. To get close together — ^fike chickens 
under a hen. Cuddle is about the same thing. In 
Cheshire to Suck has a like meaning. W. See 

HuDDRiN. A large youth, or young man, grown 
awkwardly tall. A hobbedehoy, of Hippeddekoy, 
Virhfch see. In Scottish, Hudderin nteans slovenly iu 
person — Huthcrin, a stupid fellow. J. 

HcTDKiN. A cap, or cot, for a cut finger or 
thumb, whether made of that part of a glovc^ or of 
linen — qnery Hood-kin f^—kin to a hood. Co^.and 
iiali are words of similar meaning* - * • 

HiTFF'CAP. Any thing strong, and good in tba 
#^y of drink— -humming ale — good punch» Scc^"^-. 
Nares notices this term as a cant one fw strong 
ale ; and gives a reason and quotes authority for it. 

HuGGER-MUGpER. In a concealed way — not 
manly or fair. Of various phrases of this sort see 
Higgledy-piggledy. Nai'es shows that hugger- 
mugger is used by Shakespeare, and others of our 
old writers. 

Hulk. Taking the iimards out of a hare or 
rabbit is called hulken it. Also a fall: ^* I come 
down sich a ^«tt'''~as if I should shake my in-^ 
n^rds out — ^perhaps. 


HULKIN. A \sLzy ovei^;ro^vii idle fellow--^«ls<s 
somewhat contradictorily, a piece of skin chafed 
off the hand by hard Vork. *' *A worked *tiJl 
kuihtns come off of his hands.*' 

Hull. To throw — hurl — cail — cop — ding — and 
«kj are of nearly similar meaning. 

Hulls. Husks of peas — or shells of nuts, &c. 
The words huU and sheli seem cognate — Hulse is 
shell or pod in German : hullen — to cover. With 
jUs a slight coffin is called shell. " The Aic/« of 
corn, i. e. the chaff or co\'ering ; from Hili^ to 
cover.*' Ray. E. W. p. VIII. I do not think Ray 
very happy here. 

HULVA, HoHy. We call it also Christmas, 
from its being then in full berry and beauty, for 
decorating: our churches and houses. In the fol- 
lowing passage, I think ;vith Dr. Mavor, that 
Tusser meant hulva^ 

Where soil Ss of sand — Quid- set ouf of hand. 

To pkjls Qot full— Add bramble »ud hutl, pp. 30. 105. 

, Dr. M. notes that Chaucer uses huifere, for holly*— 
The wood of the hnlva is very hard, and is es« 
teemed for the stcinjel of flails ; so is the wood of 
the whitethorn, as is noticed by Tusser in these 
discriminating lines — 

Siiveclni» asbj and crab-tree, for cart and for plough, 
Save s'ep foi* a stile of the crutch of the bough : ' 

Save hazel for forks— save sallow lor rake ; 
Save hulver and thorn, tiiereof flail to make* p. 138* 

If the words Crotch mdSalhw be not fomiiar to 
the reader, and he- desire to know, their meaning, 
he will find something explanatory under th^se 
words in this Collection. See also under Plash. 

Humble-bee. The Apis lapxdofna. We call 
, it also Bumble-bee, which see. • ' 

Hume. A hywj?. . Possibly, tfee ear\y pron^in- 
, <k^t¥>»g bom th^ fyt^ek* .< . 

/• <». 


Hunch. A good big slice, or luflsp^ of bread 
or meat. 

Hunkers. The hams or heels — I scarcely 
know which, as I never heard the word used othcr-^ 
wise than as describing a * person squatting or 
sitting on his heels-^a posture not very conunen 
in Europe — but very much so in Asia., A dog or hare 
sittii^g;up on its bind legs, would also be described 
as " sttliug on its hunkers.*' In Jameison, I find 
the word. " Huckie-lnwkie, a play in which chil- 
dren slide down a hill on their hunkerk.,^ ** Hunkers 
-^to sit down on one's hunkers, is to sit with the 
hips hanging down-wards.** 

Hurdle. Moveable fencing with which sheep 
folds are made : called Flake in Scotland. Also a 
verb descriptive of the operation of putting the foot 
of a hare or rabbit through an incision in the 
sinews of the other lee, for the convenience of car- 
riage. This is called '^ Hurdltna the hare/' In 
Cheshire hurdles appear to be called Raddles. W. 
We have Sawn-Hurdles — Rift-Hurdles-^and Wan- 
Hurdles; See RfFT and Wan. Hurdle wan, 
means the 'wands of hazle, &c. fit for such work, 

HugsiF. The convenient case of leather, ' or 
other sort, in which women keep together needles) 
thread, &c. at hand or in the pocket. Also the 
mistress, of a family; evidently a rapid pronun- 
ciation of housewife. Tusser often uses the Suf* 
folk word. . 

• HUT€H.^ A chest The ^' corn- hutch. "—The 
-** floufr-hiitch.'* it is Scottish and used by Walter 

' ' And lafe snatch'd spoils he stowed m ftuic^ apart. . 
, . - . Brid, of TV. n, U2d, 

By Shakespeare abo, P. Henry in tliat ihcom- 

Sarable\scene (the >vhoie act is indeed unique) of 
:. m. <he 4th li. 4. thus tifliicte^ to our friend 
Faistaff, << Why dost thou eotaVene will that tnink 


fit humoursy tbat bolting-hutch of beastUaess^''-*- 
*' The large wooden .trough " savs a. commentator 
*'into trhich the flour pa^es irom th^ holtet^ is 
cftUed the^A«ecA." 

The eye^of tlieraast6r«kindketli'thti hu^h, 
Tb^ eye ^f -ihe mistress fivaileth as nmeh ; 
Which ejre, if K gover^ with wisdom and slciUy 
Hath servant and service^ at pleasure and wiU. 

Tuner, p* xxxr» 

> Where all thing b common. What needeth a hutch t 
Where wanteth a saver, tliere havock is nuch^ 'J6» !?50« 

' Thotig|» soonring V necdfdli- yet-wouring too liiQchy > ' 
Is pri(^e^ yltboftt po^t^ oad i:;qbl]ieth thine biitc%» . J6* Sdd. 

Keither Nares notr Jaitieison notice. the word. 

U YKB. : A brief imperative ^equivalent to be offt 
nwayi <* Come — hyke off J' 

Tm sewer, a redundancy Qommooly posl&ied 
to a reply. " Whafs a clock? "—••I don't know, 
I'm sewer." 

■ ■ • 

Inder. Much — generally in reference to money 
or property. " An Inder of mpney " — " He's worth 
an Inder of gowd." It has been suggested that the 
*' wealth of India'' may have given tbi^ allusion.— 
Inder — or more correctly Indra — is the Hinduiord 
of wealth, but a mythological souvce is pcfrhaps too 
far to hriiig it from--, I lately indeed heard *< We 'av 
sitch an Jnder of ppprJ* , , 

Ingan» Onion — as in Scotland. 

I)9RLiN. A^hint, a surmise. **Cant yeow gi me 
an mklin 'a what Vs coming about.'' — "I ha' got an 
inhUn ont." Thus Shakespeare ~ 

' lean give you JnWmg: * 

Of aa ensning evil. ". AHeii.the8tb. 11. 2. 

Innards. Entrails — intestines — one's inside.-^ 
•*An tnwarcJhurt.'* 

Il^NB, Jlnd. «< Well then-i^tbere's an innd ont.'^ 
Sec Aninnd. 



iss. Yes. See Wool. It rbjine^ to bias. 

fvVA. Ever. So Nivva for nev^. hwr; behtt 
a vowel. " For iwer mi iwm." See Nivva. 

IzzABD. The last letter of oUf al|duibet; 

• ^ABBEK*. Idle confused talk. Like Gab, or G96; 

Jack. A Bltpck-jack^ which see. The lackered 
tin j\lg to ctttted. lil KaHes* Glossary, under Jadk, 
sonie Cttfiotts {nrticttlars will hie found., 

IackAnifs. Ar aflected puppjtsh fovmg man. 
What 18 now called a Dandy. In ifoy y^Mla^f ch^ 
we used to call thete poppies, macaTnmy$» Nares 
writes it Jaekanapn, and shows that such word wai 
use^ by olli* old i)^i)ers^ hi th)e sense hete givelL 

Jack at a ptkcH. A sudden nnexpect^ call 
to do any thing. ** Well — if 1 be'ent set tew regular 
I on*t come Jack at a pinoh.'* 


Jack Robinson. ** Before .you could say Jack 
Robinsonk" is said of any thing done very quickly or 

Jacks*. Thfe turnip %. 

Xag; 'A waggon load of hay* or itraw, orcorn in 
the straw — or of thorns, or bushes^ br whins — ** Twd 
jags an acre." The following item occurs in Cullum*d 
JHawstead~p. 163. " Sejit. 1700.— Carried th^ 
widow Smith one ja^g oiftliornsy b£. 12s. M.'* 

li is ndt applicable to a man*s lioad — or to a icart 
load. In Ray*s Proverbs it is said of a drunken mad 
that *^ He Ims a jag bir Ibad " — p. £S — ^as much as he 
can c^rry. In Chl&sbir& **Jag or Jagf, isaparcel^ 
a small load olf corn. In Norfolk," it is aildid ** it 
is called a Bargain,*^ W; Both terms are common 
in Kbrfolk 9nd Suff[>]k; SlicBAKOAiN; Gi^oseteyl 


(hM ia Noifoft ^/m if a|«fod or iMilof aoj llii^i^ 
itrbe(6er w a nan*! Mck or in ft carrinfe.'' 

Jauhbt. a 4a/« ijvork— in agiicuiliire^ nitam 
Y^bat was forineriy expressed by a '*a. yoking '^^-r- 
VoDe jahoey a day** is when the horses do ibeir 
whole da/s ploughing at once. " Tew jabneys'* is 
leaving off work about noon and resuming it at two 
p*c]ock. Two journies a day used to be the good 
summer practice of Suffolk husbandry — but in these 
times when "mor^ piy and less work" is the ''uni- 
Ye^l ttmst " ft is nearly obsolete. Dicing th^ war 
the scarcity of Fabourers resulting from^ or increased 
1^ the high price of agricultnraT prodoce, rendered 
servants rather dmiy; and "tew jahaies'Vwas ob*- 
jecti^d to b|3f ^ii^ny; Th,e cause has cc«is«d, but not 
the eJSfect;. and the day*s work noWg-.-siMniiier as 
well as winter, usually is from f-past 7^ to frpast 2. 

In Scotland '' Jomeye isa day*s work**-fi!oiii /oar- 
SMSf Freadia J* 

JTAkrs. a privy — its contents we: cal) Bn^mlnip 
tfrhich see. Nares says the term is now almost for- 

gotten. Bat it is not so in Suffolk. •* Jakn ; a 
oiise of offi^^^ — a cacatorium.*' GroBe* 

Jaw. Cbarse t4^ language^— as in. Scotland.-r* 
See G^B. . 

Jazst;. a wig^ aii.articl4 as weHas the word 
BOW growing out of use. We do now and then see the 
lingring relic of former iisage, at market — hut always 
cpyenng a corresponding pate» in resp^t to antiquity^ 
The 1^ so well k'noam formerljr in a flash song, 
^' Your Jaaey pays the garnisb ^ will sopn require t£s 
'*of annotators. 

Jbkkbttbn. See GemnKtten. 

AbKkv-vbkk. The wveo: the reputed consort 
oC. Robin-redbreast. According to Grose, Jenny- 
cmdk is the wren in fkt snotii— ^Mid Jenaj-Meti tbe 



owl in Torksbire. .Under Dici(Y-b.a^d is shown 
•the prdpeiMitrto giVilig CH^tikti ii'arti^sr t6 bUd^. '^ 

Jericho; This word is vaguely used, implving 
ft gi«at>imy offr^-ariier'thatt at( ^*^, • tfa^<i^ific 
pla«r. •^ I VI' see ' you «t» J^cho fcst^-^» prttfy 
nearly the flame, Fsiipposeiis 'M*d'«eeye6w'fM(m 

fust." Sec t^VDDAH: ' .. , i// 


'* ''Jerk. A smart blow^-one of a drawing sort — 
luch as a clip with a whip under a horse's ribs. It 
occurs in a quotation from Tusser^ given under Bob. 
Yerk, I take to be the same word. Of divers otE(<;r 
see under Aint; where^ however. Jirk is omitted. 

j£T« A ladle of « large ^le, for nosing waUIr 
from a pond; «wiU ^m ji eisleni, &c* 

JJKW'sHSABs. A fangus of a beatttlfal bri^tred 
eoloui", ibiindin old foaniks sdfaeting to stiblts. ' Jbl^ 
Heukt JwUie. ' CocW 'says **Jem'>t eatt,&r JtiAii^ 
^ar^-'SB excfesocnce About cldes^ibtft; on Whil^httree 
it b supposed Judas hanged himseUlt IbaseriheMl 
of the fable or fact in ^Suffolk ; thougl\ the former is 
fidt very confined. See Elder, in ^ares. ' 

Jew's- EYE. "'tis wohh ajeir's-cjfc" — means ft 
great deal; or as much as might be ei^tofted from ft 
Jew to save an eye, in danger, Nares shews ,the 
source of the phrase. -i— » ^oj*<o ^ .»; I 

JiECE. A small quantity: a pinch of sniin — or ft 
chaw oftobaebov ^ItifiyitMst^ ftfice-^but'9 s6kie- 
>ime9{MrottOon€ed Jiwl;'* • •' » »" ' * ** *** =:i « ;:t 

*■ fki^Fttt. A ^uidktkh, bustling, unsettled, motion, 
of iir person or thing; a maid undressing an unHu 
child will say, *• don't n#e about ko.*^ »' How you 

Jiffy. — "In a jifly " — the same " as in a trice" 
«• in a crack.'' ; r - - . i .» . > . :\ / ...; . 

« ilQQt. ' DregSi'tnn tearor coffee cop. ' In d fairer 
mfti^.as.of^ easkof- beer^rtlbc. .it woktid be'edlHd 
i?ifM,'ftifli«AiSeetilMfiW4iMsi : There ^mayper^ 


batM be flwre distiiicilkm between Ji^, G^$h, aod 
JRAi tbao I am aware of. Chdih (s, indeed, too 
gross in soond to apply to the iigs of coffee. Sec. in 
a cop; and jigs perhaps too delicate for the gross 
lees of beer or wine. Squish is another stniiiar word. 

J ILLY HOOT.RR. The owK Madge h anotber 
miniefor this interesting bird. Mr. Wilbraham 
writer the .Chesluffe name GU-hooter SLnd.GiU^hooUar; 
apd Madge io that county b a Starling. JiUy hooter 
with ns» is also applied to a PheasaMt^ shot by tfcct- 
df^ni in September. It is bagged and no mose said 
about it. 

JiUyJhwers are said to be so called because they 
blow in July ;• and Jonquils and Jenetteus refer to 
JunQ : do owls hoot most, musically in July 7—if so, 
here, may be the clue to thb Stmbriquet* 

Ray notes Gill'ko^Uer^A a Cheshire name of ihm 
owl. £, W. p. 38# For. some reaoarks on Christian 
names given to birds, see Dick t-b a ho. 

Jt M. A, machine composed of an axle, two wheets 
and^a pole, for moving timber under it. With four 
wheels the timber b laid on, and It is called a Drtig; 
which see. In Norfolk the machine which convevs 
timber fteneat^ is called JiM^ the Drag being called 
JcLck. 'rhe latter being a common »ad extensive 
name for several machines, Jill may have- been 
adopted for distinction, and the origin of Jim. Jtili 
is in uniTersal use in Sulfolk. 

The following epitaph in Hoxne Chureliy^td 1 was 
obligingly ^vored with by a noble and greatly res- 
pected friend — since deceased. 

:Iii memory of William Catling who departed this lif^ Aag^ 
ttf. 180«— aged 20 ^ears— 

i wa» on my jounvey retnrniog homey 

And litile thought what was to be my doom* 

So as the rolling Jim did me control 

The Lord aboye have mercy on my soul. 

Short was my stay, the longer is my rest, 

God took me hence beoanse he thou^t'it best-** 

Therefore dear friends lament for tne no moie* 

I am not lost, but gone awhile before. 


^ I give also tfit note #f.!the:co|»ieft(«dhiw 4>y-llMi! 
beauty of the wiitiog, I judgeto be;tb€ scboolfttHlteiX 
-r-it cqntainiog a proviofsialisnu^ ; 

**,J» Larter*« datj to hU Lordship* htne sent bndosed tlie* 
copy oC Woo. CatUifgVgrav^toQe as requested.** • •! 

JiMMClts. Hiiiges--'of doors, &c. inSofiiers^t- 
fbire. JeoHBies and Jiiimi^ls mean tbe saiiie. ^Srose* 
ip his QlOfiifltiry says il is-a borth > country word. 'If 
has hoeniderived iiomjumeHe^'n twin : ' but it isdkther', 
foirced* Jimbels is ia extensive use for a certain des-' 
cription of hinges, s^eh as ship compasses trav^scSf- 
on, with double pivots, by which they always >pte^ 
s^^t their hdrUMiotaltty. i . . ^ 

..Ray gives JtniAei»:as a iMHrih countiy word — 
iqeaniog : as. In Safiolh^ <f^ jointed hinge^} m other 
parts'' he adds '*Gall^ irin^ hiriges/) 'It h very^ 
likdythatJumiters aiid GimnteUf oh which so miich 
has^libclii written '*ie cognate, in the iieine 6f" 
joints. In Suffialk.Mre jay **» gate is off Ae' joint/ 
— it is the chwc hinge t)\at w^ most commonly call 
Jimmers. . The word ^4?nt?e/ occurs, and I iMslieve 
only ODce^.iR Shjijkespegjrer— |, • ^. . *^ • ' • 

I thiok by some od4 gin^el or devic« 

There arms aie 9^t liki clocks .stil|, .to /«tnke <m« 

A. HeHt 6. I. $. 

''A gimmer^ says Johpson on this passage '*' is a 
piece of jointed work, where one [piece Aioves'wfthin - 
another" — So far right perhapa-^bul is the following 
sat-T-^ wheoce it i$ taken 'at large lor. an engitie. It 
isjio^ by the -vulgar calleda §%m-iruck.^* I think 
Johnson at fault here. Take Sfaakespeave's gimmel ' 
im the sense of oiyrjminer«, meaning that ou which 
any thing hinges, hangs, or turns, and it will do; 
though not, perhaps, very aptly.'; ' 

I have Httle doubt but the word is 'cognate with 
gemini — or gemeUus-^twia, or much . alike. I far- 
ther think Ray is not correct in> giving a similar 
sounding word gimmer a difTerent sense, ** A gimmer" 
lamb " he says ^* is an ewe lainb a gammer lamb— 


gumw^ n s contraction of god^motkcr.'* fe. W. p: 98. 
If the initial of gimmer be pronounced bard, I liaTe^ 
nothing: t;o. say to this d^rjvatioft-^if $oft» I ahoi4d 
suspect, it to mean not a ctoe but a twin lamb. $4*e ' 
Hog. Since this was written Nares* Glossary has 
f^IIenintp jiiy hands, I refer tliereto, uod^r Qemel 
an^ Uimmel, for somethiag farther on this matter/ 

• J^^aOf By JiJ^o^9. ^4. kpown o»thr-80»«» 
times, I think, by St. Jingo, I ws|s n^t aw^re there, 
was.such a Saint, or of thf^. orig^io o(^ the oath;, u(«til 
circurnamhulaling the lake, pftjei^eva, we came to a,: 
town' beautifully situated opposile .Yev^y, called St/ 
GTngouIph,' aiiid pronouhcea like ou^^^jp^fo^ with the 
initial softened. 

Job... a piece of husbandry ." taken." at a^fi,x^d 
oir^st^teii price.' This is called '^working by ,tb^jyb.", 
Sie'e lrA.kvBN- ^Job and jobben . we a)so use iu ^ the • 
s^niSe of striking, or pecking. ^Fo\vI\^ or biVd^ jo6j 
at. any thing hard — or a man pickiiig up a r^ad wjith ^ 
a'mdttbck or pick, j\ib, or jubbing, would aIsoJ[>f^^ 
at^plied to this last operation^ especially if lazily^ 
done, by the day. See Jub. Tussejr applies job- 
}M^' to the pecking df turkie^v.: Ste tinder Wax. 

.JOBANOWLj A, thi<^k-beaft^d fellow, ^qwI\s,9,^ 
na^ie of the liead with us. See under Costard^*^. 
Uf^idc^r Jobbernoulep Nares expls^ins it— -'' ti|ick-.hea^,.. 
block-l^^dj froinjob^^ dull |n Flemish, and.ani^ 
a h^adV !Saxou : used as aa^appella^iva of reprpach«" 
He gives.several quotations frpm old Engij^h writen^.. 
where tbf word pcjqurs; — ^^^mong them this — 

Novmi^lery miller, du$tippiil, 

I^U. clapp^r-claw thy jobbetnonl. , Old P^* 

. P<ml is a Suffolk iwo^d,^ and O&s^a^r-c/atif,. which 
ste. 1 iiave. heard a .miller called du8ig-powl,Aho' 
it did not oQcur t^tine 'till I saw .the terra iii Niarea, 
which' was not 'till after the articlei uuderlX in Cbi»' 
Collection were prmtfed.' 

JooKiBrT* to exchange ; any^ ihm^ ^ vtU as a 

hone, It. does iiot appear to differ, from fiioop, ofu 
Chop^ wjbich see. 

JoGGLB. To disturb by pashing« shakiag; or 
jogging— '? Dont joggle me so"—" How ( lengtbened , 
intd h-jft-a-ow ) yeow dew joggle^ me." 

John Jk Joan. An hermoph(t>dite. (pi^, &c«) 
In Cheshire It is WiUJiU, or WiU-GHL W. Jtt 
the north 'f Serat, used of raen« beasts, and sheep.*' 
Ray. E. W* p. 62. 

JoLLACKS. An appellation^, applied somewhat 
irreverently, and therefore ever improperly to a 
clergyman. ' It has been pleasantly derived from 
jAwlkkn ; as if it were inferible that the ckrgy are 
especially addicted to good eating. 

Joss, A command to a horse to sidle up to a^ 
block or gate that the rider may the easier mount. 
Such block is called Jossenblock, and was formerly 
seen near the door of most farm houses, with three 
or four steps leading to its top, railed in on two 
sides. These conveniences have fallen into disuse 
with the pillion. 

Jounce. The shock of a carriage rinking into . 
deep ruts (or racks) or any inequality, oo the road. 
A jolt generally. Jtim is sometimes used in the same 
sense — especially in Norfolk. *'I was good tidily 
jounced in the TroDy.** "Houncy-jouiicy" in a 
clumsy, jumbling manner. I lately heard this sen- 
tence in an evidence id a court — ** He got htm down 
aud j&uneed on him,*' which the witness explained 
to mean that th^ defendant bore violently and repeat- 
edly with his knees on the assaulted person. An up 
and down motion seems to be understood by the word. 
— ^One geta "a good jfoimctn^r '* on a rough trotting 
l)orse« A lady's feathers on horsetnusk, would be 
described as "joumeimg about/* Surely Shakespene 

wxotejmmce in this passage— 

I was not msdo, a h un c - ■ 
And now I bear a burden like an assy 
Spor-gaQM cad tired hyjamncing BortngbrokK 

Rick. IL V. i. 

^^cy^rWf M Jthis, jWNig^ ipijff ]iimi Jmmo$ rand 

Jau9t)^.were.;s^pp0^mQ«s« : But; biegi«e».90)«Mi|fvM}ly 

prxsa^oD^ or yvo^se thaii nion^/or>P)8ayiiig». t^iyrite 

its happy adaptation. Nares, oa^Mtf^lP^.lMMlMigfe* 
also thinks that ^aun^ was, u^^ /or itiiunpe-rrih^ fatter 
heexpiaips '^tpride barcf.;'. froin./aialcer, oi<i.<Kppnch, 
to work a horse violently.'' TbU is against ikiyread- 
ing — ^but if I be, even now, c^ttvumed; it h ** against 

••'JoWt; The bead. *• Chick byjob?.'^\Cl6set^ 
•gilfcer. ' ' Vi&M^^ mtxisi ^iiUAies'^for the ^hfeid,' Ks 
i^tife^d ttfa^er tosTAltW""' '' '* :'" "^"^' ''''I 

''^' !hjB. ' 'A* pace of a horse between a trot and a walk 
— a sluggish amble* 'VX 'there — how'agojubben 
plong^'' rlt jpems ito .ineiaQ a ,ah^ sq^^ ^f*,V^ WJf^^ 
d^own motion. See Job?. . ' . » 

.|.UM- ^,A h^Wovr. /' 7^ gm eo) aif h a jalk 
ta^kilrd.em s^e.ijia^d/' w^^ 8-4i4.^wcrj^tj^Y«t?>/f* 
<;bUd killed l>y a jHvinc|Tmill ^?uU J[^.49Q,||i|nff <9f^ 
blow, this word is omitted in t|ie list of similar^o- 
cables'tmder'AiNt; ^ . - h:/.X 

JuM. Injury from a fall, of a borse, Arc.-^-or a 
9quee2e^-*t/aYfi6/ probabf^. •** ' Av boss ^^ll* fit>oli tm, 
wi 'a got a sad jumV ' See louNes. ' r * ' k 

! * iuNKET. JUNKETS. Jljj^i^^jhjf^, oY^W^^ 

btovUiotis-^ delicacies'. Getiefalfy used Y^.tlj^iRK in 
a reproachful sense, as if implying waste — or at any 
l«fi-, the «4^iice <ie thrift. > ItwiH-'be sai^ oTa ''fer%at 
botis^,'*^ « Rare d^eWini f— naWn buV luhk^ftlen,"-^ 
e«p«iially*^-'itHosfe*Who do'iiot sh^re in ^tli^' good 
€he€<r. ' In Scotiahd Sunket s^etiis to Imply tte saifte 
^^tid the wotd is sdWetitnes S(y p^Onotiflced'itf Sdf*'' 

folk. • sse stjwM¥v '- • '•♦ ^' • •; :''\"7:'"; 

Shals^peare wrlt^ llie woi4 Junkei, ididf in i}}ft 
Suffolk sense, of extra good cheer. 

'^' Yofc'kDowtttttewimto'mi^jfttnJ^iiilblfedM '' ' 

I am lifapoied U> ihink that in the foUowh^ qoolf • 
^aM from Taner. h« hail jollificatiofi to bis eje-^*aa4 
by Jamkm md Jei^km, did Mt merciy roe;Mi* ^ se'r* 
Tants m general^" a% Dh Atavar^ foi anieasbnibl^i, 
I admit, toiipf M cs / 

D|pli|[ht oof, for pleasure, two lionses to lEoe|», 
%itt tntfge, wkhoot' roeasufc,' vpoin thee do eree |rj;r 
Aflkd Jmikm and J«miyM» ooieit tlSte to^ 
IJo Bake thee^repent itn, ete jfcar ali^ot fo. p* xxXc. 

Ib Nares' Qlossanr we read **JmHkei, or JbieaAe*;. 
a^ tareelmeat or damtji:. Gnmeaf^f ilaliaii. The 
iferb to Junkei is growuig obsolete very fast, if it b^ 
act to already." It is, however^ still used in Suffolk,, 
prose gives StaUate 9b the Suffolk word for a dainty. 

Ka. Quoth — Kaiha — quoth h^. Ka Jaek, sat^ 
Jack — Ku Jim, Sec. 

Ka herb. Look here— Ka there— look tber^-* 
Ka inda orK^nda — look yonder — **K* there now— 
^JL what hae yeeow done?'' — in a fault findbg tone^ 

Kabdaw. The Jackdaw. See Caddaw« 

l^ADS. See KiB. 

Kalmt or Kahmt. Wine or beer or vinesar^ 
in cask or bottle, is said to be AalMy or ooaiaiy whea 
it have a^thicki^ scum on the top. It is also said to 
be mothery ia this state ; and such top gathering is 

ealled the Moiher, which see. 

» • • ' >. . 

K AM.B0CK. Thie dry fibrous stalk of hemp aftta 
having been peeled. It was until lately much injisa 
tp light pipes wijthal. Also the dry 8talk4>f the hem^ 
Ipck. *' Asdryasakambuck" bused proverbially:, 
and sometimes in derbion of legs lacking^a gopdly 
calf— *' His legs are like Kambucks.'* The dry 
hemlock stalk ia aba called K$Xi and KiaK— 

Kbdo. Ksd^t. WeB— hearty-4iai0.**<How 
d?>«ihfet*'~<'Thattky»kiettderAei^y." *'AM^ 


hi9o fur fais v^ars'^-ror '''A farekietiderAiyB|r<^^tm;' 
^'Sidge; brisk, budge; liveiy; SuC i?a^. E. W. 
p. 70. Kedgie iu Scotlish » cheerfliL J« 

Keep. Growing . food for sheep, or dtber Wxi 
stock. *'Three weeks keep.* Also the pluce of 
bne's Tiesidebce. '* Wiiete de yeow keep ? " 

Keeping-koom. The room usually sat or kept 
in hy the family. 

Keevk. T6 cave or fall in; as the side of a pit; 
^fcK &'c. See Cave and Shoshins, Id Cheshire 
*'To ICefeve is to bverlii^rtr, or to lift up a cart so as 
toiitildLd It all at onc^. Ash calls It local." W.— 
TIfe id<ea of an tvalenclte h conveyed %y oiir word 

Kell. a kiln. A l^rick^ell— a malt-kelh Tlie 
tetters e and i frequently ^batiue places — as noticed 
\iiider Aninnd. ^oiu Camberiand a flea is a fly; 
'^nd a fly a S|ea. JiC^U is ,no uoVet pronunciatioo.-^ 
Tusser, iu his directions about maiting says— 

Take heed to the fc«U^Sing out as a bell. |>. S5d. 

!l>t 'Giilct be ungihg, it doili Very well^ 

\o keep ber from sl({eping» and lioming tl^e keU, ib* 

Maltin); Appears to have then been a eoramon do- 
mestic proce^. No malt-tax in those days* 

Kellen. The quantity of bricks, or 'ware of 
that description, b^rnt at one time ; equii^afeul to t 
Mteh of ftrneW. 

' KENctt That )^oVtiou of work which a digger; 
&c» carifcs on, or thro^igh; blefore he recommence; 
ThiliSy if h^ wet<e digging or homing a field and he 
carried it oA si rod w4d'e--^that iAohid be called a 
JfceitcA— when done he begins another keuek or tunn 
I< roay^ cdki4idefiDg the general pk'oneoess as no« 
ticed unw* Perk^ to iillercfiatige ck and k; hate beeli 
kink, which on board ship and elabirb^, means i 
twm or twist in a rope. In Cheshire, ** Kemck is« 
twist or wrebch, a straiii or spi^itt>'' W; ^ Cj»ck^ 
ted Perk^ 


KKRNift>s.* CSrtins ftf oorii — or the pips orapplito 
— <bnt not Ibe kernels i>f fruit stones; these are called 
CMfle, which see. 

Ktx. Drj — hollow;: particalarly a hemlock 
stalk* Also Kuk, * Perhaps Keks, ELn& Kesk, are 
the same — merely a change of the final sound ; like 
waps for wasp. . Kex, ^M, and Kambuck are 
names of a dry hemlock. See under those word& . 
In Walker's Diet. I find kex and kexsy as Staffordf 
shh*e names of the* hemlock, or any other hoUow- 
jomted plant. And Ray says that kex is "a dried 
stalk of hemlock, or of wild cicely" — and he has "as, 
holIoW as a kex,'^ p. 222. Dryness and bollownesis. 
seem implied by \he word. 

Nares has *' kex or kexne-r-z dry stalk of hemlock^ 
and sometimes of other kinds — ^ 

And nothing teems 
But hateftil docks, rongh thistles, kechtiet, burs. 
Losing lydth beauty and utility. Hm. 5. v. t. 

Burr^ which see, is a Suffolk word. 

Keys. The seed of the ash or sycamore trees, 
from tbeir shape and hanging io biincbcs. .In the 
norths. a€f:ordiug to Ray, they are cailled Chmu; 
which see. 

KiCHSL. A fiat Christmas cake, of a triangular 
shape,: with sugar and a few curjrants simwd over 
the top — difiering, only in shape, I believe, from a 
bun. Cocker . sa}s V Kickel is . Saxon — a ki^d of 
cakeorGod^s'Jtic/ter, a cake given to God-children 
wh^n they ask blessing of their God father." 

KiqK. The fasbion^the go. <' That V all Ihe 


• . 

KiOKr^A« hfu^et* 'To-die-— thi» is, I believe, a 
phrase in nse very e&tensiveiy : though *one does not 
readily see the origin iar reasdn of it. 

KickSiTA^s^' Uselei^s ttifies; Also fr^iicbifted 
unsubstantial ' disbe's at^t^l^. "The weird maybe, 
fancied from the quelque choset, of our Norman* 


mifors; sod to have been adopted ui derision bjiw 
ioDtigallican Anglhins. An improved liglit Scotch 
cart was attempted to t>e substituted on a ikrni« for 
onr cumbersome waggons, weighing a ton, with 
wooden esfffees, b«t wi» much opposed hy the 
btgotted workmen, who called it a Kickshaw^ sort 
of a thing. Evidently meaning a gimcrack — as 
defective in utility when compared with onr own. 
Of this see something under Goof, note to verse 7* 

Kid. a small cask, or keg, in which flour is 
kept for domestic current purposes. The larger 
fiour vessel, or chest, is called Hutch, which see. 
We sometimes call the small flattish keg in which 
pickled salmon is kept. Kid; but more commonly, 
I think, Kii, which see. Red herrings and sprats 
are also packed in Kids or Kits: and we sometimes 
call those packages Kades or Cadet, which as we 
learn from Nares, was the original name for the 
Iierring vessel. He says the word Cade is, no 
doubt, as well as keg, from Cadui, notwithstanding 
Nash*s fanciful, or rather jocular derivation — 

• The rebel Jack C«de was the first that devised to put redde 
berriogs in cadei;, ,and frum.him the;y have their name. 

Praise rf Bed Herr, 1599. 

Shakespeare has turned the derivation the con-* 
traQT way. i 

' ' We John Cade, so termed of our ^opposed fatbef— 

• J • • • 

Dick, Or rather of stealing a cade of herrings. 

K. Htn, 6, P.t. IV. «. 

Cade, I jSnd is an old Suffolk word. Among the 
^}(nences of Hengrave Hall, in 157.2, is this item — 
** for yii\ cades red herrings at \ijs. viijcf. the cade 
\\jL xvja.!' Gages Hen. p. 192. , From Cade or 
Kid,, may. be derived the name of the itinerant 
;)ed)ar, Cia)lec| Kiddier, which see. Cocker says 
.b^t Cfljdt is from the Italian, mec^ning *^ 500 her- 
j'i|igs,f lOOQ .Qprats^ a pip^ or two hogsheads.** In 
^jnothei^ ol^ .fljc^onfMry, anoi^ymoVs, is ** Cad, of 



fed-herrings—lJie quantity of 600." In Scotland 
*' Crftnc isa barrel df herrings.*' Ji 

Kidder. See Kiddier. 

* . « 

KiDDiEa or KiDYEii or KipjER. X traveling 
vendor of small wares — a hawker, RckjfitArt or. 
higi^ler ; or, as we sometimes call him, Co^er.--^, 
Bailey has '* Kidder or Kidjer, a seller of corn* 
victuals, Ac." — according to Ray — *' A Kidder is a 
Badger, Huckster ; a carrier oi goods on horse- 
back. Ess. Suff." E, W. p. 79. Grose says a 
Kidder is a forestallcr. What Nares gives under 
Cadge applies to this article — "a round frame of 
Mood, oi^^^'hich the Cadgers, or sellers of hawksj^ 
carried their birds for sale. See Bailey. Cadger 
is also given as a meaning o£ Huckster,' from which 
the familiar term Cpd,ger is iitore likely to be de- 
rived than from any foreign origin. Perhaps the 
modern word Cage niay be the same — those who 
made or used them for haw ks, may have been called 
Haiokers, &nd Cagers, easily changed to Cadgevg; 
and, that being an uncouth word, to Cadger^ Kid-^ 
get', or Kiddier. T^ese cages or frames were mada 
of wicker or rushes (easily confounded) — so were 
Petls or Cades; and I have fancied that hence may 
have been derived -the term (Vi<^ or Pet lamb^-^— 
or Cosseif which see. A Doss is likewise of rushes 
or wicker, otherwise called Hassock, aiiother term, 
as well as Dosser, for a rush or wic^ker convenience 
carried about by the vendors of small wares. See 
Doss, DossEjis, Higgler, and Fed. 

At the risk of being tedious, and perhaps not 
intelligible, I will Venture farther to note anotheif 
coincidence or tWo in the names of things discussed 
in this article, riot apparently connected; or if 
connected, rather unaccountably so. The ybunfi^est 
child of a family we call jn>-man,' andpin-lntatet: 
the youngest is usually the pet-ed ohe-^the fAAit;- 
or cade, as a pet ' is ' else^ here, tfciinc*^! Ifiider 
v^iNNifcK, 6ur tetm for a little sickr-^th^ldi'ttia 




.shown that it is given by Ray and Grose, as a N. 
.country word, . meaning ''a kit or pail to carry 
iuitk in *' — and in another place — ** the smallest pig 
[of a litter." Under BarRA-pig, our name for the 
littlest pi^f a litter, it is again shown from Kay, 
that it is called Whinnock in other parts — also 
Ca<^-nia. We here find Winnick to be a sickly. little 
child — a pi7-man or pet c-r-to be also a kit or pail— 
a kit or cade or cadge to be a rush or straw package, 
a ^ort of basket, or ped — pin-basket and cacf- ma ace 
. shown to be names, in different parts of England, 
'fi>r the same thing. Of pail, or kit, or kid, or cade, 
or ped, or paniiier, or cadge, ov cage, which \ve 
see mean the same thing, it may be noticed that 
they are all made of wicker, or rushes, or straw— 
and it' may have been from the French patVfe, straw, 
that the ** kit or pair* obtained such a i^ame. Its 
.alledged purpose "to qarry milk In^" is rather po- 
siiig, as applicj^ to a strftw fkdkeLge~:^\>ai our kid or 
'ftilf for pickled' salmon, is' pai7 shaped; and It man 
'Eiaving apai/in his mind's eye, and puzzled with 
contrdriely. or conformity of haities and purposes 
(as appears to be our case) may easily fill it, un« 
*fiiuthor\zedlt, with imaginuty milk. Grose has 
'^^Kit, & ^imihg pail^nd frA^^A^e, a scuttle, bas- 
ket," or shallow ped/* ' The 'letters P. and P. ai^e 
•occasionally (Jonfounded. Und^r FRAIL, a flexible 
^V^ak'&a^^ei made of straw (or paille) in vyhich 
sprats are packed, I have noticed that we pack 
them in Ifits-^or jKufe— this in passing without far- 
ther comment^— and the sam<^ as to Doss or Hassock, 
' and Dossers — things made 6f rushes or straw ; and 
the latter befng a ped or pannier. See Hassock. 
'it' may scarcely be allowed me to remark-^it 
^111 ay be deemed' too trifling or remote — that kit with 
tis is a kitten, ttie commonest pet with chiWren-i- 
' a 'dhnittutive of -kitten. 8o mny the' reference to a 
. <]1iotiktlon att'd«f Bar^chpig, showing that tn'Scoi- 
laifd '^ fViMf isa imny feeble' child^the youngest 
'#ftd*fMblest'«f aiiest or MKfer'^'-^ithi; saake aitid^r 

s 2 


nock, or pm-hagket, or cad-ma^ or cade, or pet— 
and that between craot and craie^ tke latter netng 
a weak or Jrail flexible package or cage, or basket, 
or cradle, is a connection of ideas tej^ng to {in- 
fancy, or a pit man, or pixi'ba$kei, or fk, or cocfe, 
orcouet^ orkii, &c. diminutive or endearing, terms. 

There seems no end to names designative of this 
greatly increased and increasing race of itinerant 
vendors of small wares. Grose has " Ripper, a 
higgler, pedder, dorser, or- badger.'* Hipper he 
gives as a S. country word. I can make notbiog ^ 
*it. Sadffer may come fn>m hag; as Cadjer and 
Codjer, seem to have done firom Cad, Cade, Cadge, 
or Keg — and Kidjer from Kid, Or the pedder may 
formerly have been compelled by law to carry a 
badge, as be noW is to carry a licence. 

l^is, I cannot but percieve, is a very desultory 
articles-like its subject — ** a thing of shreds aiicl 
patches."' Allow us then to recapitulate and sb^ 
Ui some synthetic shape» how the names and thin^ 
herein discussed, connect themselves ^vith each 
other — 

1. Barra-p^;» cade, cadma, cosset, croot, kit, 
pet^ pinbasket, pitman, and wianick,. appear taii|m» 
m dmereot ifai-ts of ,£iiglandk the same thing— ^im- 
ply injg infancy and weakness^— (We usually say |m#, 
for pit — hence |»t^-man may be merely the pei-t^, 
pet'ii — OK little, man, as a child is commonly called.) 

2. Cad, cade, cadger cagev cradle, crane, crate, 
dosser, frail, liassock or haske, kid. kit, ped,. and win- 
nick, are nearly the same thing — (not to men^on pail 
or paille, straw) formed of wicker, rusl^ or straw ; ba- 
ing varieddesignalions of a weak, firail^ flexible pack- 
age pannier, pail, or basket ; all nearly connected* 

. some identical, with the infantine names of series 1. 

9« The persons who use the astkles enumerated 

m series 2, are variously called badgers^. cadgers, 

^gftiSi dorian* hawken^ higglets,. ImekstersAid- 

jaosg^paddaia^ pedlaTs» nppeisi wlia,jia,the'said fttfl 


tiinv^kneet,. carry $boot . iiea-ingfl»i sprato, .aHlwHiAi 
(pr(>e]i4ir^» ^^e^ Se« Hiao-LBR* , » 

: 4. The words q^d^, eosset^ emdla* bit^ kitlrti^ 
milk, i^att, faille or9traWy |iet, pig»&Q. of serjefl^ 2«. 
appear t^ ^e tiiianecied with eacii ptJiar^. nior« or. 
ieM temcitftyk'.Hl ^iieir i^ia^kiiisbip to weakness dC) 
inAmc^. ... . -' i 

; But a truce to tiiia triflingr as* s6ine of my rearfejr^ 
will, i doulH. <(^#iH it. T)i« thrills bere di$cuMG(i. 
iiave, bow^iter, puifxieci philolo/^ists ao<^ kxicogra-, 
pber«r wiiicli ma>' rxcu^ llm endeavour lo show bow, 
ia the lapse of tbiie and the nuitation of iaj'guage^ 
words of ve|v comnion useau<i ofdiAWreut origin aud 
weaning, inay becoiiie, cognate in sense aud $ouud» 

KiDDS. Pannier» — or baskets. Sucll as are 
carried about by a Kiddier^ which see, and Kid. 
So Ped» are what Pedlars carry their ware in. Kirf, 
Cad, Cade, Cadge, Kit, and Fed, appear to mean 
nearly the same thing. 

KfENi>ER. Hhyming to finder. As it were — 
rather. -" Kieiwler cowd," rather coki.- " Kienda 
snaf^gy," ratiier crows. It is perbaps, kind a', fur 
kind of-^-u e. inclined to~*8ort of. It is a ver^ com- 
mon term, and often occurs among our examples of 
hMai phraseology.. SceBuFKLKD.DciNT,andKED6B. 

Killer or Keeler. A shallow tub, for wash- 
ing, milk, S^c. \' wash killer"—*' milk killer "— 
"brewing killer." ''While greasy Joan doth Keel 
the pot" I am inclined to think that these last 
merry words in Love's Labour Lost, are cognate 
with our Suffolk term, tho' [ cannot very satisfac- 
torily show their relationship. Commentators do 
not agree a^ to Shakespeare's meaning. (Toldsmith 
says that the wofd is still used in Ireland, and sig- 
nifies to scum the pot. But most of the commen- 
tators incline t<j> the opinion that it signifiei^ to cooV 
—but they do not agree in the mode of " keeling 
ttte pot.'* We ' sometimes call the shallow tuo 


oMfer, ar a«$o«ftHliiia*t«ioiir4MUoii« now eoMMNfufy 
eukr, which is confirmatory of IJhe gloM. There^ is, 
hoireverv mour language a verb to' Aee/, though I 
de BOl know at this moment wh<ire to find it« Jt 
Cfmlfeyn to my mind an idea of torning y thing ont 
frfitshoriEontality — HUmffTi; and whenever fSiink 
of ** greasy Joan '* I see her scouring the pot with^ 
its tiottom- inclined ecmveniently fer that operation ; 
6r keeimff k in the position of a ship rolling so a^ 
to> almost show her keel out of the water. 

' Ray does not give Keekr as a local' word, font hef 
uses it casually, " A twiU^ a heeler to wash- in; 
standing'on three feet." £. W. p. 60. Ourkeeleri^ 
are sometimes raised on three feet, particularly 
those in dairies; but are not neoess^urily so. 

Nares has an instructive article under JCImI.* but 
this of mine is so long, that I can only sefer to it. 

Kilter. The property in a plough of being 
used ndaus (sideways) out of the exact line of 
draught—'^ 'Ta oont kSta ''---or '' ta kilter well.'' 
In his S. and E. country words Ray has " KtUer or 
ITiftor-^frame, order '' £. W. p. 10 — and more ia 
added which I do not understand,, and will not 
quote, denoting that his is the same word, though? 
not explained similarly, as mine. 1 am not snrft 
that the meaning which I have given is the only, or 
even the exact one. Naies has " Kelter; orders- 
good condition, or arrangement. * If the organs of 
prayer be out of Kelter ^ how can we pray ? * — Bat" 
row. "I have not** he adds "met with it else-- 
where. It is said to be provincial and to be 
derived from the Danish.** Grose under the word 
Kelter or Kilter^ gives this explanation, noting it 
as a N. country word, " frame, order, condition. 
H^nce helter-skelter, a corruption isf kelter to hang, 
and kelter order ; i. e. hang order, or in defiance of 
order. *'tn good kelter'* — in ^ood case or con- 
dition.*' I cannot accord in this derivation. See 



KavA iM^KllLV«tti ^Theshivefiii^briiiiaguefif, 
or the *«'kilveriiig li«^t *^ of it^ socc«»ior. See 

KiNDA, £.ook yonder. See Ka here. 


King Hart.y. Tflie'gold-findi. Tcry commod 
m Suif[>lkia a tirild stiiffe. In CKreAIre thiit pretty 
bird h called SiAck N?cker=^and Mr. WilbraHam has 
an interesting note toucliiiig the propensity of giving' 
Christiai] names tovbirds,. ofwhidi see under* Dicky 

KisK. The dry static of the hemlock. It Is F 
believe^a i¥ord mof^ usedin Essex than in Snfiblk. 
See Kex, and KisKY, 

* KiSKY. Dry — thirsty; — from fever or watch- 
ing* or travelling in dusty weather.. In Persian and 
other eastern languages, a similar word has niean'- 
ings denoting aridity. Koashky^i k a dry, burnt 
up plain^*-also rice boiled dry for the table. — 
Hence, that is from a sense of dryness, our Kuky,. 
Kikkf and Kex may, somehow or other, have bee& 

Ki8SiNO'<!RUST. Tbe part whcse two kMtve»o(\ 
noils, join, meet, or kiss^. in tlieoveif. 

Kit. Carrion — especially horse- ftesh for dogs. 
A wheel placed horizontally on an upright piece o^ 
wood, on which such meat is commonly kept for. 
hounds, is called hit-pole. Kit is likewise the mtnfe 
of a straw or rush package for red-herrings or s|>rats^' 
as is. also kid, which see. Kit has the farther mean«' 
ing,. especially as applied to children, v of tHe whole, 
ih this phrase, where however it seems redundant — 
** the whole kit on em.'^ In the army, the c<>ntents 
0f a soldier's knapsaek, his whole supposed property, 
is caHed hts kit ; and hence ourword may hsfve'come; 
Wealso say "the whole tocit on em" — Ibr fdfn/, per* 
haps. Sd^ ill ScoHisb'' A' the Ht^ or Ihe liaiU A^fl^aitf 


Uken logelhef.'*^ J. ; We call a y^Bj^faare » Miy^to 
kittle beiQg the verb whiefad^otes the parturilioa 
of that animal, of a rabbit, &c. See Kittjle. 

As noticed under Kid, Cade is another name for 
a packas'e of herripgs aAd sprats. According to 
Ray " Kit or Whinnockf is a N. country word for 
a pail to canpy milk in." ,£.'W. p. 104, With us 
Winnick, which see, is a very different thing. la 
Scotland a Crane of herrings, is a barrel of theoi, J. 
See under KiDDlBR. 

KiT.'CAT*. A ^ame plaved by boys: easier to 
play than to describe. Three small holes are made 
]fi the ground, trinngularly, about 20 fe«t apart, to 
mark Ibe position of as many boys» who each holds 
a smalt stick, about 2 feet long. Three other boys 
of the adverse side pitch successively a piece of siick, 
a little bigger than one's thumb called cat, to be. 
struck bv those holding the sticks. On its being 
struck, the boys run from hole to hole, dipping the 
ends of their slicks in as they pass, and counting, 
one, two, three, Arc. as they do so, up to 31, which 
is game. Or the greater number of holes <rakied iir 
the innings may indicate the winners as at cricket.-^ 
If the cat be struck and caught, the striking party 
is out, ' and another of his sidesmaB fakes his place 
— if the set .be strong enough to admit of it. If. 
there be only 6i placers, it may be previously agreed 
that three put outs shall end the innings. Another 
mode of putting out is to throw the cat home, aAer 
being struck, and placing or pitching it, into ajb un- 
occupied hole, while the in-party are running. A 
/Certaiti number of misses. (not striking the cat) ma^ 
be agreed on to be equivalent to a put out. The' 
game piay be played by two, placed as at cricket, 
or by four, or I believe more. '[] 

KiT-cAT-CANNio. A Sedentary gfime,. played, 
by iwo^ wMb slatje and pencil, or, pencil and jiaper — > 
like kit-cat,. easier learned than desc^tbied. It is w^nr 
by, thepnrty whp can first gelihree luur k9 (o's^or x '»). 


in a line: the marks beinjn^ made alternately bj the 
players o or x in one of nine spots eqiii^-HBtant in 
three raws » %rtien complete. He vrhb bejg^ kaa the 
advaiUa|^» as he can contrive tq get ^is iifafk i^ the 
middle. . , > 

KiT*KARL. Carelf 8s— qatt of carel 

KiT-POLK. Se^ Kit. 

. Kittle. . Tp produce young— confined^ clueAy 
I tdink to parturient hurea, r^bits, cats» nuctvaiiHi 
** sticfa small aeer." tt is also Scottish, ** to ti^tes ; 
to brine forth kittens." J. He deduces it from the 
Swedisn, or Icetandic.' I do not re<^ollect whence 
i took this line, 

' The hare till kittle on mj bcartk atane. 

It 19 an affecting prophecy of the domeBf-ie' deao- 
lalfon fore-shadowed in Hie moody mind of a nortb- 
em bard oil whom the ^Seer*s sad spirit*^ h«d 
fallen. Kindle is anothei^ Suffolk word of like im- 
port with kittle; or ft may be still more confhied lo 
hares and rabfnts. Shakespeare nsea it in the 
Suffolk sense — * ^ 

Orlando, Are you r native of this pta6e? 

Uosafind^ As the ^iieyf that you see* dwells wtiere she 
U khdled. As ytm Like ii. Ilf, t. > ' 

• . ' . ' ' ' 

The act denoted l^ these worda is described by 

se?ei:aL otbeis, of which see aomething; under Fab-< 

iu>w. We qa^l a young have a kit^ which see. 

Kitty. A kitten. 

KiWA. Rhyming to river, A frank— Cover. 
"Dew squire look in every fht'non whife I'm awah 
■ an give my dame a KiwaV* Said to one of oir 
worthy cdunty thembers, by an uxorious neighboulr, 
about ab'senting himself from home, and desirotfs 
of hearing occasionally firom his rib, without tne 
expense ot* postage .' Mr. Wilbra ham says ** Xivef ; 
verb, and subst. used by \¥fckliffe in his Bf . S. 
Draaplation ef Ibe FlMdms*'-*>i« does not w^ for 


^vihat tit is used. With us it is both vert) and subc- 

' Knack. Aready way of dehif any thiMg useful. 

*'^Kn'Ac1cE3R. a cart-cclfar -knd barness iflaker. 

Query, from nag, or neck, or nick? I am told 

that m soiAe .parts Jbf^Fraaee,. I think paftictdarly 
in Ardennes, a saddler and .collar .maker is 

called ^Uief et Knackeur. Tussejr, who wjrote 
.dbout the middle of the 16th century (IdOap^riTapf) 
^dltidinft the t^orh produce of ajhrin iiit^ ten pot- 

ijons allots '..'.. 

Ofle part for p1oog1i-wriglit,/c&rt-wrighf, hnaclitfp and smTlb. 
p. 193. 

And perhaps it may then have been given in kind ; 

for in the infancy of a^cuHure most people had, 

.and have, a similar mode of shariais; i^ U^^ pjco^uce 

. pf the soil, in India it is stilf exteti»ively the usa^fe 

; to^ali^t portiims in, kind) to |he;iord o£ the af^iip- tp 

. the jBrabmpta or |^i^t, to. the bacd.x>r p^phet,, the 

. tQgisttar or scribe, the watchman, the carpenter, 

the smith, the barber, the wadierman, akid the 


Among his.S. and £• country words Ray has this 
—** Knacker; one that makes collars, and other 
furniture for cart horses." £. W, p. 1f9. He is dis- 
criminating in cpnlimng the name to a maker of 
'ihrnftiire for cart horses. A regular "coach and 
" harness maker" wodld be offended at being called 
a Aritoc^er, as'grievdusriy as a " boot and shoemaker*' 
would at being styled a cobler* 
, J[n, Staffordshire Whitiawer is equivalent to 
^/:?iacAer: in, Suffolk— -sometimes fawer only. This 
^I|ie{itd. derived t^p' not satisfactorily, fron^ whit- 
jj^s^t^ejCi . Tusser*. in his catalogue . of necessaries for 
^^|arineif ,to possess, includes whit-leather^See 
JjOQF, v. 4. and note on v. 21. — and the ta^ver — 
^or worker?) of this ^rtiql.e, njay heuc(^ haye. de- 
' ji^ hp l^ogapiBaen. , .,; 

r^t KiMA«^iiY, Mandy-^iMefiil^ out ♦£ one>- parti- 


c?tH<it- place; ftaviiig a kriaek, perhaps, of 4<^A^ 
t^^verai thmgSi 'In Scottish Knacky, nicans'^tiick 
at repartee, acute, entertaining. J. But "Wfe do 
qot use the word in either of tho$e senses, . 

Kkap. a little thump: between a knoc^k* an^ 
a rap, and hence perhaps, compounded, "A* knap 

on the knuckles." So Tusser— - 

' ■ I* ^ '• 

. Knap bov oa the thumbs— And save liiiu his crumbs, p. ^6l. 

I This IS one of the many stmUar tejrms oft wbicl^- 
we have such a yarietv, as noticed under AlliiT>' in- 
Scottish Knap is a slight stroke. J. Knap, or nap 
is with us also, as with others^ the pile 6i\ clolh^ 
Of the beaver on a hat. 

Knappish. Snappish — ^in.mBn:or doif— spite- 
fill, snarling) So inSeptiiiBh'fhMii the Teutonic, 
kfi^ppen, to bite. J. 

K^fOLL. A little hill— oi* its roundish summit/ 
A pretty general word perhaps. Hay gives it as a 
N, country word. *• A Anoli, a little round hill." 
£. W. p. 40. The sam'e sound, better perhaps 
spelled ^QVPlr which sae^ is. a Suitolk term tor the 
bec^d..; iRay also gives JcaW/ as a Keutit^b «a^me for. 
^ inmij^f ih* p> 7.flL:. Jt is I bi^lijBMe a 'Dutch 
word. ••....• ^ 

Knot grass. A troublesonrfe weed in strong. 
3oils, but not the cpmcA,,oi: as we call U, spear-gr8^ss. 
See Bun-w/eeb. In Scotland the tall oat-grass is 
C;9,lled knot grass» Ours is 1 believe the pQ^gonum 

.♦'KniN^l-K. Td shrivd up— parchmeiit held neai< 
the ftre will. Kringle. • iirinkle, or Orfnkkt whicb 
see, I imagine to be nearly the same. Claimn*^ 
Clungt and Wizzindf are words denoting ishrivelled 
or shrunk, though used dift'erently. See the articles 
under those words. In Scottish, bread btought from* 
Nor%vay, is called .krin^le. Jm j iiti' may bo, beoaUse 
it is dried and shrivelled up. . -i . ' 


• KnlifK. Sbbilar ta Cndfr, wiiic^ see — % tMm 
or twist ill the neck'-^or a i^tiff-neck, ii»4>ved. witU 

Kut>BVRRA or Krubbvrra. a wheell>arrow4 
We also call it Crowda^ or Crowder — Crowd Imrrow. 
See Crowd. A bed i;$ said to be made " Rudburra 
Isshion '' — though I do not exactly perceive why — 
when, lettii^ oft* a practical joke on a friend, you 
90 dispose the sheets, by turning up the foot part 
under the pillow, as to prevent his longttvdiiial 
extension. ' 

KuLP. A blow-^a cuff. Suffolk would seem a 
pugnacious county for its vocabulary is very copious 
in words of this offensive stamp — some of which 
are enumerated under AiNT — but Knlp is not 
among them. Under Cuip, Grose gives. this ex<- 
planation "A kick or blow; fr#m the words mta 
culpa, being that part of the popish liturgy, at 
which the people beat their breasts.** 

Lace. A verb implying to beat, op punish, -vvttfa 
a whip, or something ffexiblej ** Til lov^^ar jacket 
for ye^^that 1 wool " — is this metaphor <H>ntinued 
almost into allegory. Of such threatened manipih* 
lalions see under Aimt. 

Laced mutton. A loose woman. As muiton 
means the saifie, perhaps the preiixture may have 
designaXtid one who had undergone the disciplined 
of being laced or whipped — or it may have referre<f 
to her iinery— or, iu pity to her forlorn condition, 
may have meant lost-sheep. Shakespeare plays 
on thia-^ 

Ay. S\ti I, a lost mtittoQ, gave your letter to her, .a. laced 
Qialton, an^ the^ a laced mattoD, gave-aie^ a losi luuuvut nom 
ijiiing far my. Ulmr. . Two, G. rfV, \.t, 

- See'Kare»« whxttice-.I have taken most xkf thia 
urticle. .•'• • j ' .' ••••.'.... 


L AB Y-B I RD. One of our names for the Golden* 
bug — otherwise called Bama-bee, which see. la 
Scottish this pretty insect is called " Landers, or 
Lady landers, as appropriated to the Virgin Mary." J. 

Lady's smock. One of the early field flowers, 
sometimes called Cuckoo-flower-r-and Canterbury** 
bell — it having the property, like the latter, of 
throwing its seeds to some distance. It is probably 
the same that Shakespeare had in his eye when he 
tied up the pretty bouquet in the last song, in Love's 
Labour Lost. 

— daisies pied, and violets blii«. 

And Ladie smockes all silver white, Sec. 

Lag. As elsewhere, as a verb in its common 
sense ; but sometimes as implying far behind, or too 
late — " He is lag of me." He is not so forward (in 
his work ) as I am. Thus Edgar in Lear**— 

I am twelve or fourteen moonshines 
Lag of ray brother. I. 1. 

VVe also say of a brisk forward lad not easily 
knocked up, or of a stout horse " there's no lag in 
'em.'* Lag or Lag-gootCt is a name of the commoa 
wild or grey-goose. 

Lag A BAG. A lazy one— one disposed to lie a 
bed. Also the hindmost of a drove, &c. as in 

Lah. Lay. See Lah on and Set. So pah 
for pay, sah for say, gah for gay, mah for may, &Cu 

Lah on. To fatten well. "'A lah on purely ** 
— said of a fattening beast, meaus that he thrives — 
that he lays an the fat to the ribs. *' 1 *11 lah on t« 
ye," is a threat equivalent to "Til larrup ye/ &c 
For many terms of like import see A int. 

Lah up Laying nearer the ring at marbles : also 
knowing where a hare is sitting without disturbing 
ber, ia view to a coursing. A ferret is also said to 
*Maiiiip"wheo it seize and stay by an earthed rabbit* 



I:*^II> up. her latHn This h saidl of t^e last kiid 
tgg of w 1^11 oc a. tarbc^, " Shea laid up, her ItUiet 
«tfi4'slur*Ii sune set/' We. ^uroiioiinee tbe last wovd 
qpen woc broad; and it ntay be tke same that Grose 
gives a^ a N, country word, ruther vaguely, thiis — 
•* Zaster, or Lawter, tlilrteen eggs ta set a hen.'*" 

La;* a datwdimg^ cossetted child, hanging about 
itsmolhefi is thus called, rather reproachiogly — * 
f'lts.sucha /.a/"—or " 'Tis a jvoor lailen thing.'* 
Itifkynies to Sal. 

Lamb's leg. A nasal excrementitioiis partickf-^ 
indescribable, except in the language of Spenser^ as 

■draune b^e foorefyngre foorthe 

Lamentable. Though not used very im- 
properly, is used very often. *• Lamenlable bad" — 
" Lamentable lame," &c. — always in a bad sense, 
and the penult lengthened doubh, or more. See 
Begone and Bulluck, where this word occurs in 

Lanna or Lanner. Tbe tlion^ or ia&b of a! 
whip, Soniettniee it» application atso "■ I Ml launa yc»"' 
See many of sucli threatening words under A int. 

In Sctittisl) laijneve h at, hpng; Ji who derives it 
ffVn> the French lani^e* 

Largfs. a eift in harvest time nsnaliy of a shil-. 
ling to the reHpers, whaa>k and ex))(:ct it of visilors 
to tbe harvest field. For this the reapers assemble, 
iu a ring, holdiivi; each other's hant!^, c^nd inrliuin^ 
their heads to the centre. Oue of the piriv — the 
Coryphee — detached a few yards calls loudly thrice, 
*' Holla Lar!— Holla Lar!— Holla Larf— j e e «"— 
lowering fhe voice at the last lengthened syllable.— 
Those in a riiig lengthen out o-o-o^o with a low 
sonorous note and inclined heads, and thenthrowing 
their beads up, vociferate a«4i-a- h ! This is tbrice^ 

repeated, and at the last *< thank Mr. »" so and. 

so •— ^< for his larges ** is inlerpolsited by the ca^er*.. 


kfg Ifti^ges." A iMn tttehf'mg a 8htllittg;'«^ill' ^ |fbtt 
if you '*chuse tohave'tt hall^fed?'' If answered 
in the afHrmative, hecoiteets hfsfelloMr woi4(men and 
they' haiier \i forthwith. OlherWise ttiey /ia//er the 
whele day^s r^eod^s' toward the doaeoftbe e^iitig. 
Tbere are feu rural smiads more ptteiicaA, oncwe 
pleasing, or more af&cting. MorHa'iWodrbaHoeUy'l 
suppose. Some • have suf^posed h to be haUotvtd, 
and have fancied it connected with a halleiuyah« or, 
thanksgiving. **k Largess, Largitio:" — says Ray ^' to 
harvest men who cry a larges so often as there are 
pence given." E. W. p. 79. *rhriceft)r- a ihilfitog is 
the established exchange In StifFoIk. 

It wourd Appear that gtioves were 'formerly giten 
to'barve^t men by their c^mplbyer: ^f ii»^r s^y^ 

Give gloves to thy teapers a largcu to crj^. p. 182. 

8i>tliat '* haHering " apfM^ars «lso of laM standing. In 
Htepdirts 4f'SufibH{'b0r4&t-iiig iMi Norfolk, «heMttifet« 
iog^of the' harvest men, sometimes <wttb their wlvei 
at the parish alehouse, to "'SpienU'44i)pir4arg^s'^ottey ^ 
(a UnivH'sal «u«tom ) is ottHed ^Bxiickey, -whidi see«-~ 
See also Cullum's Uawstead. p. 227. 

The word'i4in^6s«Wtts formerly in efictenaive usage 
— and is not even now very confined^ though the 
above custom is^beli^vedto^^be'loe^il. 

In the household book of the djEurl.of NoMbiHtf' 
bedaiid, A P 15^2, ,print«d in ^he 4ih vul. of the 
Af^tiq. R^p. tiiere is this entry — "item — ^^SlyXord 
liseth and.accustomytb to gy,f yerely upon .new yere's 
day to bis Lordship's officer of Armes, Arrold* or 
Pursy vaunt, for crying Larges beifore his Lordship 
ihe ^iid new yore's d^ay, as upon '«thfe Ttijrh day fol- 
lowing after, ^X s. I\)r ati • &Ayr p. 257. A tid in $. 
824 df the s^arae' volume, it Is said that *"theiierc- 
hiony erf crying Larj^es, %> the Heralds is still ^ke|5t 
tjp a"t the creation of %rights'of the'Oart^r Jirid of 
fhteBdtb.'' By cretltioQ is pf ob^bly me^tit itt^t Jtla- 
iioki'or fbvestiture; 



. 8iiakei|ieare uses the word, more than oocej I 
4are sajy 'though one place only now oecurs to me. 

■ over and beside 
Signer Baptists's liberality* 
I *11 mend it with a largeis. T.rfiheSh, I. f . 

In Scottish Larges means liberality. J. It has 
the same meaning in other parts; bnt in Suffolk it is 
ttsed only in the way first noted. 

Larrup. To beat — similar to lace, lather, and 
so many other words, some of which are enumerated 
imder AiNT. ^ 

Lash or Lashy. Wet — as applied to a meadow, 
indicative of the quality of its feed, causing young 
cattle to be la$k. Very young clover, or very early 
feed on wet pasture is said to be " tew lash " for cattle. 
The word occurs under Hoven, It may have the 
same origin as Lax. Autumnal grass is said to be 
hsh for horses— -or to make them iashyi — that is, acts 
as an aperient. In Ireland a horse in that pr€»dica- 
ment is siud to have "got the btxJ' JRelaied may 
be the fburce of the latter. 

In Tusser we have "A medicine for the cow-fliiL*"* 

Seeth water,- and plamp therein plenty of aloes, ^ 

Mix chalk that ii dried, in powder with those ; 
Which 8o, if ye give, with the water and chalk. 
Thou niakest the lax fro thy cow away walk. p. 40« 

See Lax and Skutta. 

Lastbnest. Most lasting. Oak we should say 
is the lastenest wood-— or the most endurable. We 
have some rather curious superlatives — mott docil- 
tmt, for instance. 

Latch. To light or fall on any thing — a cat is 
said proverbially to ''alius latch on her legs." The 
falling catch of a doon or gate — " Latch Uie door." 
See Hamk and Hatch. The pan into which the 
tbippen or gravy of roasting meat falls or drips we 
call JLat^-jKM, which see. I am disposed to think 
that Shakespeare had the idea of falling or dripping 


iflrliifliliifitl^lfeniie periled ^t]li9{pQs•age*ill^he<Mid•^ 
summer Night sDnsam-f^ 

Biitbast tiu^ jet kficfi^d the Atbenitii*s e^es 
*Whh the Love-juice? 

The ifrders'to.Puck ^J^re to»nmit'\he nyeajot tint 
Athenian. And the comiufqliutors f^re .di^H}9$4 
to clerive the wqrd. faich frofn tbe. French /e^ni^r, to 
'lickqr'lacker-^hut it-is jllpiib^f^l. l*uck |et,ifij{l*ljie 
love-juice — dropped, it; iiud, ,9«,v^ sjipuld .s^y, it 
latched, in the Athenian's eyes. 

Xhe Mrrtrd o^Jctfrs ag4ii!*»lh ^Mtt^b^th, 'alltJ ^pm 

Bttt I Have words 
'Tbvt'would-bb thEwied out in- the desert air, 
Wjierc iiearUi^ i^Quld,Dtft Uueh tiietu. Hi. .4. 

fSiflcetthis was ^vritteu Nares'-'Oiossacy <hu«.becii 
^pttbiished. (He wasinotaWiare'of our 'Oxi^liHgvSuffdHc 
iseiue of the Y^rb>; and s«iys k) Imteh is U>,Gttt«h 

. i Li^iMm -VA N . The i drippiag pan — 4Jie ^mvy or 
drippen of roa^tMieBLt'latebmff'in it. See>-<^LAT<iii 


*LuirTH^-R oriLuTU^. To heat. It.iwitysbe.ln 
-hmtk^r, ' or ^trap 'oae-^or to 'beat one till io a 'latkisr 
of sweat. A much hedledi4i<irse is:a»kl ta be ** ailof 
2L lather,'* Of » vdriety of WieseMriking vocables, 
see under A int. in ^cottisih to katiter 'is to lash 
lo flog. J. In the north ** j£i<iith^}\ to* heat, r^'ii 
leather you heartily." Grose. 

Lathy. Thin, in pers6n or Appearance. This 
would be said of mah, 4voii>an, horse, or he«»i — 
f jpneaaiAg as* tbio, jor i^fuder <aS) a lath. 

L A vftoCK. The iterk^as in ^Sootlatid : ^tiot <<k)«i' 
<json,wt|h tts. 

Law. Lawk. Lawkus or Aiawk — or ^i^itiufk^ 
4^ji^ — EjaiGttlaUcMis of surprise or :pleasure»or ^lu- 
|»aUiy — ^lenglbened ^td wodidatted; to suit the opcsi- 
.Aioi^ M 4s Mtif^ed wa^ Ahwk. We -^om^^ts 


ezdaim Lawi! — as in Cheshire, accordiog fo Mr« W« 
who says that the Anglo-Saxon is La. 

Lax; A flux in cattle — more commonly called 
Loih: which see. The final sound was transposed 
by oar old writers, who called it lask, as is shown 
by Nares. See Waps. 

Later. A field of clover or grass — ^it being " laid 
down''— also young white thorn, or other small 
shrubs or trees laid in to fences. See Spring. 

Lat-overs far medkn. A reproving reply to 
an ill-timed curiosity or inquisitiveness on the part 
of a child— in answer to ** what's thati "" What we 
otherwise call Appk-jack, and Turn-over, we some- 
times call Lay-over — and Grose uggests that the 
edible so designated may formerly have been made 
of medlars^ as well as of apples ; and that hence 
may have arisen the reply now under discussion. I 
have nothing better tp ofier. See Apple-jack. 

Leantoo. a penthouse — a slopmg projection 
from the eaves of a barn, bouse. Sec, 

Learn. For teach, is perhaps too common a 
substitution of a passive for an active verb, to call 
for notice as a localism: we may just observe in pas- 
sing that Desdemona is made to say — 

My life and edacatton both do /earn me 
How to respect yoo. OtkcUt, I. S. 

But such little barbarisms grate sadly on the car. 

Leastt. Dull wet weather. 

(.BATHER. See Lather. 

Led. Lid — a pot-led. The interchange of i and 
€, is common— of which see under Aninnb. 

Lbece. Lice. So meece for mice, Sie. See 

Leech or Letch. A wooden vessel, containing 
about a gallon* the bottom pierced with many small 
boles^ for holding wood ashes, for the purpose •£ 


making wasbinjB^ lye. Water is |»oured on the ashes 
and is softened by filtration into a tub beneatli. in 
his S. and £. country words Ray has *' A Letch or 
Zech ; a vessel to put ashes in to run water through, 
to make Lee or Lixivium for washing of clothes. A 
Buck." E. W. p. 80. Of " a Buck " see BUCK- 


Leef. Leeve. Lief. Lever. Leefer. Words 
of comparison — as willingly — as readily — " I'd as 
leeve go as stay." Rather — in preference — "I'd 
lever go than stay." This is an Archaism. ''I had 
lever thy neck were in a baud " — occurs in a piece 
of old poetry called "Syr Gougliter" wriitea before 
the invention of printing. See Gen. Mag. Vol. X. 
p. 370. Falstaff, describing his " ragged regiment/' 
says " they had as lief he^r the devil as a drum."— 
K. H. the 4. P. 1. IV. 2. Again— 

She, good souly has as lief see a toad, a very toad, at 
see him. Rom, end Jul. II. 5. 

Again — 

I had as lief noi he, as li\e to be 

In awe of such a thing. Jul, C. I. ^» 

It is also Scottish. 

l*d liefer lie a year my lane, ^ 

Than lie an hour wi joa. Old Scottish Song, 

Ray» among his S. and E. country words, has this 
article, *' As Leeve or Leve; as willingly, as good, 
spoken of a thing equally eligible. Lever^ in Chau- 
der rather, though this comparative be not now in 
use with us." £. W. p. 80. With us, it is now in 
,use.* I should think that Tusser in the following 
. passage, uses it in the sense of rather — comparatively. 

Let sheep fill flank — Where corn is too rank : 

In woodiaiMl lever — In champion never, p. 145. 

In Scotland, according to J. Lief or leif, is wil- 
ling — Lever, rather, as in Suffolk. Spenser uses 
lever in the same sense. F. Q. I. ix. 32. as is shown 
by Nares ; and that Shakespeare and B. Jonsou uses 
it adverbially, as lief, in the sense of willingly. 


We "^oiuelimestny 'Til as \\\'\ior zs4emf, or m 
leave.: aiid Nares siwMrSitiiat'tiiis 4ilsb occufs riDoiin 
oidptay. . Orose, as S. couatny ^rords has **Leef^at 
Ziefy mllmgiy* I ka^'M^ieefmot ^&." At)(] as a 
N. count ry^word "JJevery rather. Frotn tke i&ixoa/^ 

Leet. Meelir.g — a place of nieetiDg — not very 
common. SeeFouiiEY leet. 

Left or L? pr. A gate which, havhig no bing^s^ 
is lifted into holes in the lift posts, A Left-gate, 
«wHigson hioges or joints, and is lifted into boles or 
niches in the clapping po$t. Also a trick or iach at 
uhist or other gantes at cards. ** The odd lift" — 
**two by tacks." A ** lift of pales" is the quantity 
between two posts — called also a loop. **A L^t, i. ^. 
a stile that n.«y be opened tike a gate. Norfolk."-^- 
JFtay. E. W. p. 80. See Loop, 

Leg-bail. To run away from one^s creditors, 
or other urgent enquirers^. &o ki Scotlaad. J. and 
perhaps pretty extensively. 

Lestly. Hearing clearly. *• I hard 'em as lastly 
as Ihare yeoW speak." 

Letch. See Lbscu. 

'Levener. The mim^A before -noon-^See Bevbr. 
Foor^ts, 'Luncb, Nooninp, Nuoch, are otiter^words, 
meaning .an iiUer&titial snap . bet-ween iiieals. rJn 
Scotkwid, *' Elleven hours, a Uwcheoii." J. 

liEWco^B. A window prdjectmg in the roof-^ 
generally a " Lewconie window" — but the word -is 
•irpplied to the gftbfe end of a heuse, and Itas -beffQ 
• lirenee perhaps extended to a peaked window.**^ 
Derived possibly from an old Norman word Lncame, 
a garret win(fow It occurs in the beginning of Le 
Diabie boiteux, and in t4tie deeds (he word is same- 
times seen, spelled Lucum. Since writing the pre- 
ceding, i: hai^e seen the term *'Lucame witidows/'in 
Tttcner's Tour in Normandy, vol. L p. 188, where 
it secDts lo a4iply lo windows ia tb^ roof. 


Xbwbr. a handspike. 

Li b. a basket for holding seed corn. A seed /»fr« 
I am in doubt of this word being now ased in Suffolk. 
See Cob and Maund. 

Li CBN ESS. Licence^-to marry, shoot, &c«— 
^Tbat there fulla^heent taken out a lieeneig ta shute 
tayear, have 'a? " 

Lick. A blow— a besting. " A good licken "— 
*^a lick i' the hid." Flick, is also a blow, but less 
frequently used than lick. See under Aint. 

At a recent rustic merry making, the aged scrapet 
was unable to hold out as long as the juvenile dancers; 
a bucksome damsel exultingly exclaimed, *' We have 
fairly licked the fidler." In Scottish "To lick, to 
strike, to beat.'' J. 

Libf; See Leef. 

Lio. Lift — lug — pnlL One noticing the ex- 
ertion renuired to raise water by hand out of a deep 
well, said "'Tisagood tight lig '*—" A good tidy 
lig/' implies the same thing. 

LiGOBB. A night hook laid in for a pike or eel* 

Likely. Good looking. '' A likelv young 
fellow.'' **A likely gal." It is, I think, confined to 
humanity. And as we say love for like — see Love — 
so we here perhaps by likely mean lovely : or one 
likely to be fallen in love with, or to make a lavora- 
ble impression. 

Li MM. Likeness — fondness. ^'I am a limm for 
roast beef "-^" She is sich a limm for gin." 

LiMPEY. Lithe — not stiff. Linen not suffici- 
ently starched in the wash, is said to be ftmpy. 

Line. To thrash, or beat — " Til line ye "—like 
rope's ending on board ship. To lace one, has a like 
meaning. Of many of these words See under A I NT. 
To line, is to beat, in Scottbh. J. 

Lino. The turf of heath or heather. It is cut 


for fuel, and to lay in drams in nret land. t/iAge 
iail^ffiRdi, and^listfir^rin Daiu^i, are names forh«afll]. 
laSocrttisi) Ling is a species of rush, or tfara k»m^ 
grass. J. 

-biKics. ^auMges'<-'f0Fy i^imera] — frmn- being so 
formed -and "faung Aip 'olnin-ilikeifiieu tfirarrniade. f 
never heard this olberwi^e than as a Soffatli \vord;->»^ 
It cloes not occur in Ea>as a local* word; -but 'be 
Vses it pamiska^, as we shouid say^ under **Rops^ 
guts — In the Sauth the guts prepared and cutout for 
biack:puddings or Imks, are called Ropes" £.'W« 
p. 51. 

rLi NTY, Lazy. '' Ab ! he's but a JLinty OQe.*'<^-" 
T|iis is not common but I have heard it lately. 

Lissome. The. same, I believe, stsJdihe, if Mich 


Lithe. Supple— .flexible — said of an ^active lad 
—soft, leather, &c. •' As liihe ^s'lutha." Lissome,^ 
is^ of like in^port : lithesome. or li^tsona^, probably. 
In Cheshire, Lick^ome, or Lissome, is Lightsomet 
pleasant, agreeable. Lhsotne often means actite^ 
agUe^ nhe ^5Jnl« 'as 'fi'^e. W. *We • ha^^ no wkth 
word as binge in thi^ sense. -In Cbashice LUke^ b 
^sed as a verb. '* To liihe the, pot " •isaa put think* 
enii^gs>into it. W. This is not Suii'olk. Ray-anioqg 
bis 8. an/1 £. country words has '' Xt^Aer, Jight, ^ex- 
ible,;— »l;.z,y, slothful." E. %. p. 80. I never heard 
it in the latter sense. 

Liv orXiEVR. See Lebf. 

Loach. '*We callalittleifisbbythisn^mey.odiev* 
wise groundling : 'it is a species ol'tiie Cobitu. We 
call it also Stone-loach, 

Shakespeare could not have been tbinkiug of the 
fi4h merriy when he permed 'that m6i$t htitnorous 
scene, the 1 of Act'!!, of the first Tftrt of'K.'Henry 
4 — Which surely np mortal 'but he could ever have 
written — 

^d'^arrier, 'Why they w&l altew tv ne'er a jort*n, •nd 


tben, M>e, we leak in jour chimney ; aqd jour cliambcHie br^ed^ 
fleas like a loach, 

l^ares, however, in a curious article under this 
ward^ thinks, with Malone, that the loach is a 
very prolific fish. Hence a clue to Shakespeare's 

Lob. a clumsy> tall lad, not erect in his per- 
son. A tired, or heavy headed horse, would be 
Sjiki to •* lob 'as hid- '* •^* A lob of a fiillwv/' iii^ns 
a>eh)wn — a lubber. Loh-eock is used siuiilarlj. 

Shakespgeare has lob — • 

A rid \ lieir poor jades 
hob down their lieads, dropping the hide and hips. 

lUn. V, IV. 3« 

LoB^^-pouND. The bridewell. InNares' (jlo§- 
s«ry t>ntier this word mid Lob, sonic <]iiotati(>n$ are- 
given sJtowiiig them to ha^'e been in U6e among our 
eadier writers. 

Loft. Aii upper Jipaflment, not used as a ^o-^ 
mestic room. " A liay loft " — ** A cock loft *' is itf*t 
a p^ace for pouhry^ but rather a 5iuaU lumUir roo^n. 
The word is not kical. 

LoGG ER. The irr{'p;u!ar nwHon of a wheel round 
its axle. When it dcA late from the p<?rpendic«hir of 
the plane of its axis, it i^ said io h(/gcr. I know of 
no other word to exprcbs this rotatory irregularity, 
except Wablilcy and this is not so precise, or well 

Lollop. 'I'o Iounq;e, idlinc: away, time. "He's 
but a lolloppen sort of a chap.** 

Lone-woman. A widow, without cftildrcn. A 
melancholy^description of humanity. An aged single 
woman would similarly describe herself. 

Loop of pales or Lift. The quantity between 
two posts. See Left. An^ong his S. and E. coun- 
try words Ray has "A Loop, a rail of pales, or bars 
joined together like a g^te, to be removed in and 
out at pleasure," E. W» p. 80w^ 


Lop. The faggot wood of a tree ; as shp is the 
undenvood of a grove. '* Top and lop" means all 
of a tree except the parts that come into measure 
as timber. There seem to be many local terms fot 
the different members or parts of a tree as noticed 
under Bole. Shakespeare uses lop — * 

From every tree, U*p, bark and part o* ihe timber. 

K. Hen. ihe &• I. i* 

And a commentator notes — '* Lop signifies the 
branches of a tree. The word is still used in leases, 
&c. All timber trees, top and lop." In Cheshire 
Lop is the perfect tens^ and participle of the verb 
to leap. W. 

The word occurs frequently in Tusser, in the 
sense first given — both as substantive and verb. — 
See a quotation under Pollard. ^'^ 

"April 8. 1749. Be it remembered that John 
Green has agreed with the feoffes for Combs Lands 
for a timber tree and hop of the same, and the hop 
wood of all the pollard trees as has been formerly 
cropped or lopped, growing," &c. This is taken 
from *' History of Elmeswell in Suffolk"-— in the 
same work and part, p. 11. quoted and referred to 
at length under Gast. 

" Hop of the same,'' and ** hop wood " probably 
mean stuff At £oi hop-poles. Hops were fonnerlv 
grown in great quantities in and about £lmeswell» 
Combs, Stowmarket, and in other parts of Suffolk. 

Lords and Ladies. The early species of Arum; 
coniniou in meadows or old grassy banks. 

Love. Like — prefer — ** Do you love cold apple 
pie.^ " — or strong tea, or roast pig, «!fec. Thus Tusser 
says of ca I tie — 

Serve theiu vriih liay while ihe straw stover last 

Then Uwe they no straw — they had rather to fast. p. 60* 

So in the Two Gen. of Verona. HI. 1. 

' Speed. Item. She hath no teeth. 

iMunee* I care not for that» for I love crusts* 

See Likely, and Homb-done 


An item patinto a.brickltyer^sorcar^ 
IMnter'ft biiU meaning an allowante of lo jimdi in 
the pound in lieu of beer to fait workmen; fho' pro* 
bably the job has been lengthened out to the greatest 
possible eitent in view lo the four meals a day which 
the procrastinating knaVea look fw in ** in-doot'' 
iRTork. • SeeBKVKS. . • ! 

LowBT. Threatening to be ^et---overcftst. 

Lows. Low le?el land. 

LudsoMB. A heavy road is expressively said to 
be/tcMome.. . . - . 

LuMMUCKEN. Large, heavy, awkward ; apptie4 
moatly'to a boy or man^— sometimes t^ a horse.-— 
Lumbersome 13 a word of like meaning. These 
remind us of Gay^s Lubberkin. Ltanmachen is also 
applied to a fall* ** 'A cum lummaken down staint 
from top to bottom.'^ 

. LVMF^ Ab ym^ as in the usual sense of » large 
awkward bit, thb word b one of the. many which 
in Suffolk* imp^ B^floao or thump. ** Lump on 
tew urn," '' Give u«a a right good Umpen. Of 
this redundancy of offensive epithets aee under 
AiNT. Lannp alflo implies a clumsy, cor awkward 
fall. " 'A com deown sich ia lump." Hence Ltunp- 
ex, ia our name of a narrow long Uaded felling-axe. 

LTTMPit. ' MThit^ bricks burnt hard for flooring. 

Lunch., J^uncheon. An extra meal— between 
others — mostly in the forenoon or betWeeiibreakfa^it 
and dinner. See Bever. Limc&eoit. is also a lump 
of meat or bread, or cheese. In Essex, according 
to Ray ^' A iSf^v //, ; is a luncheon;, a great piece of 
bread, cheese, or other'victuals." £. W. p. d7. 

Lunnunners. We thus distinguish the citizena 
jof our vast metropolis. There it nothing that I can 
rcpiember farther back^ than the contempt (I hef 
nardon) which I was taught to entertain for the igno* 
ntnce of the LuMmin^, compared with ounefvea. 


i» one p»rtieiilai.: >It .uraa their preSer6tk§ long, 
straight; iregnlarly siiaped caxrotoy to the treated 
erv^led^ tkratuSilin diminutive ones, which we (who 
ItUfidoursblTds.oaceor twice every-daywijth thehivlr 
arti'cb while in season) knew; bvthe.beetef allteet^ 
to 'be so mucli -superioir. > .To : see bur people pick 
out ship loads of the well shaped roots, to sekdto 
town, * rc^ecting^ for us^ as it were, those above 
described, so much superior, was a standing joke ; 
and, as I have said, excited both our contempt tod 
pity; ; ' : ;- .^ . . ! ^ 

Lure. Rhyming to skewer — a handspike: li 

Lusr. An inclination— a list — " ta lust lament- 
ably *' is dedcripfive of a stack out of its perpendi* 
cular. ' I suspect that this was the original mode 
bf protiouncing the word which oAr fastidious ears 
have euphonicaliy and I admit profitably changed 
to Hht, in the sense of (ncUnimg-, withmg^ deitifmg, 
fanpying^ Ac; 

Thn» in 6ur PsAlm 73. v. 7. " Their eyes sweit 
li^fth fatness : and they do even what they hun:* 

SoinTusser — 

i S('W timely thy wliite-i»lie«t» •oi*' fyef ip the dostk 

'^^^■^ . . ^Ijet see4 Jiave \^ lotigpag^ kc mU ha«t- bar hui: 

.ItihinMftrytvuttefW ^Tn M* tnd to her i 

Good haswiferjr <MtctAf~Beyself for to stir. p» SS7. * 

' LlTTHA. Leather Binding an exchlinge of 
articles betSveen schooj-boyaf, the following formula 
renders it itrevocable. ** WbaV Var shews made on? 
Lutha. Bahii, bahn for ivvi, nivver ouchange, no 
1noi:e.'' To luVii, 6t laiHer, is id beat. ''S^e L ATRKit. 

Lyen. The place in which one lies-— -as teem is 
^ place to bem: See Beein. A servant under 
Viitaniination touching a burglary^ in ansWef to k 
«al»slti!cin of how'he d^^ he give 

*any alai'm when We heard the roblifert ? 'litdd **N6— 
I kept my Itfen and ihuck,"* » . . ) 


the ojp!eiution of dibb^irnff ,s^€l corby aad falls pS, 
in lumps 80 ai to leave tnf^ botes irr^giilat in'j^'4p(^f 
it is said to fnaambhs. In digging strong land.sildd, 
when it rfticl^ to the spade. - ' . - ^ 

first sj^Uapl^ 18 much l^^hened ^nd.modulf^ed.— , 

Vi.f^^^p^A ^yf^9^^ j^}'^^''i^'^ 4 'Vtif«»»i«ife 

^gprumWe.or flutter, . , , ^. },,... ..,,,i;; 

Ma AWL or Mowl. A iii'oic6-»to/fK2ai|i»>iewth 
thrpvfP^ out ky moles* also ^mauj^-pii^. . 'J^iwser 
spells it 9^pwl-r- ,< . / |., '. ; ;. 

StrlkBoff the nbwls-^Of delving mowls. p. 103. 

iee lindeir BffoLDWARP and PLA$"Ht. '" ' ' " 

Madok. Mao. Mbg. A magpie. Madge in 
Cheshire. W. in Kent, Ha^egten Ray E; W, p. 78.^ 
In an old anonymous dictionary I perceive ^^ Mddge-\ 
kovjlei\ ^ soft of owl." The propensity to giving^ 
ChHstian nam^s to birds is noticed uiidei- DlctCY^ 
BA^D, , ' 

.t Magioak ,BfXiB<Cw.. A. jpleasant drawiBg-r0ome 
eit^efliii^'atBiisem^nt. 'See under Movbai^l,' 4br a 
%8t bfmanj^ of bur juvenile sports, ; . ; 

.^«,. .^^^^ay--fQ fiffib foir.prays. s|* fof.wy v *ph 

Maidbn. hate, a delicate, trcMtttaMi spiiMM( 
of 9ras,> or tem^ ^^t^dm^g^ivn^TneMokiuaui: ?/ / ] 

' MUtiir; ' « 'good "driI---on tfie' wholeJ -"'H^V 
,-j»^y WeH ?ifehaVed^1*'thfe nukinl'" liuNotfbltiWtf iir 
1M bot^lftiiig pa^ts of Sn|ftj»ik, under-i'oil^Y^d'|h««t is' 
i»i.rf l^o W '^in (he mkiij*^-^" the meat^iTtWlrttth?'^ 
"Hoii^ tlbhe** li^aiis suipciently roa?f^H: " 4p«>ttfe' 
litipbH&t^rtliKf^ef !ree t{oME;-poNfc, <ind fCEARi'''-'^^^^ 

Mar b. a tort; of, long ps^ndied book to gather ufk 
ripe pf»fe,at^|iji:y^t, TJic lopjcr^^ipn. i^ ail}f^mflkjfff. 
A pea-niaks, is Ihe cotiimon naioe for the'impleinelit^ 


In Raj I find '* A Meqgnar MetJk, a petie-book, 

' JLmifik for tbe peases uid to swia|;e up the' brake, p. 14, 

Sec mid^r Goof, verse 14, iio,d note ; and BA>tK;£s.^ 
Tfe also use the word WAre, as i^h^kespeare does : , 

Now* Sir, what make you l^er^? .4#»3^<^ ^- *f * ^ V / 

and, ii^ aeyeral other psUa^iges, /^r what are'j;pu 
doiogi or what brought yoa here? Ottie^s'of our 
old authors use the word siipjlarly', as' h s^ipwu W 
Kkres. Id the meaoing first gfven f find in an old 
anonymous dictionary* ''A mmc or meag, a tool tor 
nidiw^pefie, brake, ^Z' 

Make-covvt. To intend— tb reckon ^<ih a^' 
thing. *' I make count t^ dew it a' SundiiV. *' '" - 

Mallarb. The male w^d,du£kTT*not load l 

Mammock. To cut iand hack victuals waste* 
fully. To crumble bread, unthriftily. Milton uses the 
word in a like sense, in his " CQQsiderations touching 
the Jifi^Uest means to remove He^esij^s, ^ul, ^f \\^ 
Church.^ * ■ ' '■ ^^ ^ ^ 

But while Protestantib to aroid the doe labours o^ nn^- 
Mta^gtSuAttsnu r«Ugieiw nfe cooXeotti^VM^ if hiTtlvd^tfst, 
«« '^tlier jp the \^k$ oC % Clergyi0#n, md t<) U^p f^ t^mm hfi 
scraps and mamnMcAa, as be t^ispen^? it in |ii^^^Simda^.'s»/}oks 
they will be always l^ming^ aiu! uerer knowing. '&c. * ' '' * 

'^ I* aaold didionatyi aBonyfliiau6;is-'«'A^sNdiiblM^il. 
a piece or scrap." And in Cocker **MumMkit^' 
pieiec»,>ffi«gifieiils*^V / .• / - /^u;'' 

Mammt-. Or mujuflty,. of mam,, er.iMaiii,«B'«|do 
motiier. In mos^t languages thia sound yeferi^ f^ am- 
ternitjf, it being the most oimpfey the eaai^i^' aihL 
t^elore the earUeati ^%ct at art^ulatim. ; i|% 
Scottiah, *f fiavii^if > . a chikiidi tei;i^ fgc .no^^i^^r^ . j^ 
imz^ * mi^w^ife. , ftom tbe JeutoMe ^fliife,, Oie 
breaae J. A j^Ty. ofd |pflM^ ^oi)g. ifn^jtlefli 
•* Jool^ey .to the Fair^" h^ thja^ line— ^ 

My dad and mam is £^t'asleepl 

Manner. Rich mould of any k^id collected, or 

i- ' <-. 

■>* »;• 

ASH. MashfsV Feu kiHfV^pedtalty if'iieUf 
sea or a river — innrsn^s.. * . . 


fiU- for tfa^ purpose^ of Seine mixed wit n mnckloi 
^iwnSi tor maiuire. Diuaui" up me brw (or a-V w^ 
chII it (Jiey/reu)) i>i ditches tp be so mixed ^Uerinea 
** maniierjn up. ,. , i ,f . - i . 

Martin* See Fr^bmahtiit. , ^ , \A io 

'Mar VELA. B^s* marbted. 

tlie sei 

Maul. A large iran 4i«in^m^r ivUh wt^ich.biit-r 
chers sUy- ^-asis.- . A wi^uHea ope.4'or V r;i^40j;i; uf 
blocks" is cAilei( .p^ei/e, .whioU *ee. The. hi//// n 
souieHiues called >«e//, as ii is iu Scotland, .fltaliet 
may probwbi) be a diiiiinutiye of //la//. '' 3lell, a 
maliet or 'beetle. Alalieus.'* * Ray, as a N. couiifry 
word, p. 44. A»d in p. 102.^ — he says *• Mell; a 
wwileli sledfl^e or beetle: ab, Anj». 8a?{. w^//, c/ffx, 
from the,exi»et Mseinblauce.of tbe head ami faamhe 
to a cross." '• . . i Vi ' "> 

' To maul a person, itiipHeii severe blows» . xarh 
perhaps as a $naU won Id i atiiet . in Skott ish , Malimf^ 
is an injury, a hurt; meil, a viaul; a btow .v»i$ii ft 
piaul^ f toni malf-^euai J. ,•'/;," 

^ Spenser uses .the word in b^th^wr-.Suft'Mlk seiiiie^ • 
<rfa iarge.koii hammer tind as ^ vetb — - ■ . -A 

Ef<8oenpiLone of thu5e viHvih«'<4l() {I'tm rap • ' ''^ 

lipvuiU!head -piece with ItU iron 9kaU, t\ Q. IV. v^ 4]&'.v 

*-^ aitd'with mV&hty }W{ '" 

The nioiuter mercileMc: luade-biiii to Mi^ Hi I. xW.'oif « 

But tlie «iic( Steele aeisM nor, ^wli^te tt "«!*«« fii'chf, 

Upon lbt» (»ndt but somewtieie short did fall, 

And Jighiing on his burtta*s(Uci(i^, iiUu<^6itu'«|id:m^/J,'Y 

: ' . . / . ! ii^. V. ii.- 3. 

See >Jares, under M^{1, '.''-/' 

MavNJ). a lar^e aoH ef iMiskfit out of ;ivhHihiip.e(l 
poru. i» isowli: by bniadfak-H^iKv .laige 'ope» .b^^ki 
perhaps. The word may have^sdinecoiuie/^lk^^Wjlh 
MaundtiarTburpi^iHy;; i|^^ 

Inbutcu out of such baskets. Ray, dmong his uurth 

u 3 ' 


fpoontiy woidsy sajs '' A wuamd is a h|UH)-bi|sket 
with two lids: Saxoti Mand^-Xiermnn I^aiidi.** — 
JB» W. p. 43. Oiic nuiund has no lid. Ray» in his 
S. and C country words/ has farther, '' A Leap of 
Xi6» half a bushel. Suaaex. In Essex a Seed leap 
or Lib, is a vessel or basket to carry corn in, on the 
arm to sow. Ab A. SaaBon Saed-leemt a seedrbaskft" 
E. W« Pf dO. In an inventory of nirniture in Hen« 
grave Hall in 1630, we find '*one little rounde deej[^ 
mawnde for herbs. ** A hand basket/ the author 
notes. Gage^i Hem. p. 37* 

Nares says " Mawid, a basket, from the Saxon. 
The word is also Dutch and old French.'' 


A thoQsand favon from a mawtd she drew. Shaketpettre. 

With a nunind charged with hoosebold perchaadis*. Hatf. Satf 

Behold for as the naked Graced «tay 

TVith mamnd$ of roses §at to strew the way. Htrriclu 

"Hence Maunday Thursday, the day preceding 
Good Friday* oo which the King distributes alms to 
a certain number of poor persons at White-hall, so 
named firom the mannds in which the gifts were con- 
tained. To mmimd is to beg^" GL 

Mavis. The thrush — as in Scotland, and in 
fnany of our lold English poets. Tkroeiie is 
likewise a poetical, and a Suffolk, name of the 
thrush. See Throstle. Nares says that the 
maoii is properly the song thrush, as distinguished 
from the screech-thrush or large missel-thrush.— 
Heoce this distinction-— 

The thruah replyes> th^ mtwk descant plajrs. 

Sptm, EpWuiL I. 81* 

We call the larger bird missal-thnish, sometimes 
missletoe-th'rush ; we do not apply the name of mat^w 
to both. The term missletoe- thrush is dot, I find* 
peculiflir to us* In an old anonymous dictionary 
Is << A miiHe-lnrd, a kind of thrush that feeds on 
ilBistktoe, or misseUtoe."^ 

Maw. A gud— an abbrerialSoii. of Mawiher^ 

^ .^ 


which see-^and Mawkin» It is also, as elsewhere^ 
the stomach, or paunch. In Cheshire maw is the 
stomaQh. ** Ft is I believe pretty general. Maw- 
bound, in that county means, in a cow, costive- 
ness.'* W. Ray refers it to the stomach in this 
Proverb. ''That is not always good in the mavo 
that is sweet in the mouth." p. 134. See Cast. . 

Mawkin. ■ A scare-crow — any thing dressed up 
to excite fear. In an old anonymous dictionary, is 
'' Maulkin or Mawkin, an oven- mop, a scare-crow, 
a nasty wench." Ih Cheshire " Mawks is a dirty 
figure, or mixture. Ash calls it colloquial." W. 
Under Mdlkin, Nares says that it is " a diminutive 
of Mary; of ma/ and kin, used generally in con- 
tempt. Hence, a stuffed figure of rags was, and 
in some places still is, called a malkin. It signified 
likewise a kind of mop made of rags for coarse pur- 
poses, which was probably so called' from perform^ 
ing the tasks otherwise belonging to Molly. Mul- 
kin and mankin are the same. See Minshbw.— i- 
Other derivatiotts have been attempted, but with 
nrach less probability." Shakespeare uses MaUcm 
more than once, I have had occasion to quote it in 
a passage under Rbek, which see. 

As we use the words Maw and Mawfher for a 
ffirl, and call a scare-crow a Mawkin, Nares*^ de- 
rivation is thas strengthened. 

Mawskin. The stomach, or rather the paunchy 
of a calf. It is used to contain, or to make, reimeti 
an acetous liquid by which milk is turned to curd 
in the process of cheese-making. 

Mawther. a girl, used familiarlvi or rather 
contemptuously: and generally applied, to one just 
^own or growmg to womanhood; as hobble-de 
hoy, in lads. In Ray's Collection of Proverbs h^^ 
spells the word Modhdher in this homely string of 
adages. " In the East part of England they use 
the word Moihther for a girl« and they have 0m 




fond old «a we, wetiches a.rt tinker's l>itclies,^tr/^« 
are pedlar's trulls, aud modhdhers are honest men's 
daughters/* p. '58. It would thus seem that maw* 
ther er 'moihther was not always a degrading ap- 

Shakespeare has walkin in our sense of mawther. 
See Mawkin and ll££K. Ray has rather a long 
article iu p. 81 of his S. and £. country words on 
tbis-^-** A MocUier^ or Moddrr, or Mothtiier, a girlj 
or young wench ; used al) over the eastern parta of 
England. Ess. Suff. Norf. Camb» Vnvm the an- 
cient Danish word Moer, qvomodo ( saith Sir JT. 
Speiman in Gloisario)'' ^c. &€. learnedly tracing 
the term fiom the Scaldic woer, to the Norfolk 
mother^ over ground that 1 will neither attempt to 
follow him, or to lead the reader. 

Tusser s|)ells the word Mother; of which see 
under Goof, verse 13, and note. 

It has not escaped Nares, from whose Glossary 
1 quote the following — '^ Mawtker, a girl. The 
word is still used in Norfolk and SuHblk ; some* 
times corrupted to mother. Its conneciion with 
>i'orfo}k is here marked : 

P. I am a tnoiAer'that do want a wrvice. 

Qu, O thooi*t a Xorft'Ik woman (cry iUm mercv) 

\\'licre luaidk are nutthtrs, and methtn are maids. 

ii, Bromc^s Engl, JUi.or. iii. ]. 

Written also modder: 

IrVhAt? will i^hillis then consume, her youth as an ankress« 
$coriiin| daiuticj Veiiu* ? Will PhilHs be stiH a nUdder, 
JfiUii uot ^ana to be calPd by the deare-swecste name of a in«f her ? 

A. Fi^unct^i Ivy Church, A« 4. b. 

■ ■ '■ Away ! you talk like a i'ou|tth mouther. 

B. Ji>n. AUh. IV. 7. 

Kastrel says it to his sister. 

And Richard says to Kate, in Blobmfield's Sof^ 
folk ballad, 

■ When oace a gii?g1ing mntrther you, 
And I a red-faced chubby boy. Rural Tal'er. 18(0?. p. 5; 

* May. The hawthorn — especiixHy when in blow 

0r*limfrf^pr^Mi7 &fm the pcvio4 or moslki ^ 
its usual efflorfso^iiiQt. Ift the Nofflth^ the iMwMiMk 
afip^urs tp.bear the like name*. The followin||p is a 
^auticlje sux^g about the sUtiets of Newcastle eiirij^ 
on May-ds^-mora by persoQp lieawg gsu&aadm.QS. 
bunches of May to sell, (but it is jriyri^ hloim in 
Suffolk so early as May-day)—" 

Tve ,l^n four lon^ milei fropn hfupey . , 

)Ve been gAfhertiig gftriiiftdt gayt' ' ' 

Vp €tM wMb «ad take yaat Hay^ fop. AM^ p.fift 

Bfibon probltbly alluded to fK>iiiethiiig of this sort 
irhen he describes 

• Zepbyr with Aaron flaying* 

At he met her once a Majring. liAUitgM,' • ' 

Stow, in his survey of London tells us, ^Ihaton 
May-4lay4n:1be momng the citizens ased to walk 
into a^ sweet meadpws and green woods, there to- 
r^iHCo ikw spirits with the beauty and savof r o£ 
sme^t B^^T^.J* And he quotes frpm Hall an a^. 
cHHUit of Heiiry Y Ulth lidiug a Mupni^t frpn^ 
Q»ei9#W<¥b to Shooter's HiU with Q* Ka^h^rijfiQ^ f^r. 
Compaq^. by mjft^y lord^ and Mdi^.. And tha^ 
*titmy iiaiifib* and sometiiiuBs two or three parishes 
mm% .l»gP*§r» hpid their ^aeveral MajfiftgB. and 
did fetch in Maypoles« with diverse warlike shpwa. 
ifriti^goodtaiBchers^ morris dancers, an4 other ^de- 
▼ipef^j fQr j^B^Mm^ all the d^y k>ng^; and, t^wardi^ 
«.W*iRg Upey h^ stag« ptey* and bqne^res iuf the 
streets." p. 73..; .« ' l ' . 

.J(j[|^7iiufihrit ia to be I^mei^edvtbat, the. innocent 
i^^tiqitieA of our ioref^tli^Tis should in the laps^ of 
years degenerate into iateiii|iefane^ profligajgr, and 

MA|T. WE^n* A troMblesome low tkcrida peren- 
ial weed with a white flower, resembling wjld 
dii|ttoniile; - 'See Bi6oDL& 

MazzARP* . The head — " E * yeow dont take 
care baw ni gee ye a lunip i' tl^ma^zard.'' AIao 

aoder tli<» laiter word. Hios HBinlet-^ < '> 

Cbapl^ss — and knocked about the majsard With a sexton*8 
sftader-whv does he svtfer this rode knave now to knock him' 
aoout tlie flcooee, &c. V. 1. . ' '* 

' And in Othiello^— 

_ « > * J 1 

LetmegOt Sir, orjl 11 knock ^roa^jircr. the funscrrf. IT, S. 

'* Maxzardsl blacl cherries. West Country/*— 
Jhm.'E. W« /p. 81. Not so with us. We call the 
Utile Mack cherry the Pdkteadj not from aay 
reference to the head, but from a village of that, 
name near Ipswich, where this late cherry is said 
to grow.ab.undantly. See Nares, . ^ 

' Mbau a milking— that is me milking^. " ^le 
gon a pail brim full at a me^l." If this w^rd be- 
now local, it appears not to have been so formerly.' 
In the Tale of a Tub, Lord- Peter, m ridicule of - 
.some PeY^ish' miracle ii^ mlide to swe^r, that he ''had' 
tt^Wteth^e which gave as ibuch milk ktn mtAtf- 
as<vfoiilrf fill three thousand '<(hHftJ5l»fts:'* Aef. 4i' »'^ 

A ib^tt^ sort 6f cheese htiftde^ia %fl^1« cnlM' 
Wonmel cheese-^^-this uiust b^the liew ni% of 'enM'.. 
meal or mtlking. See WoKmKl. ^' . '^:b 

in Ch^htre^ *f Meal is the appointed tioie when: 
a*cd^ls^ilked« .^Sbe'give^ so ttiuch at a meaK* 
Angk> Sa^dn, 3Aiel; pottioi ant^paliomii^inporiil/ 
Shmner Diet. Sax. Lat. Ang.*' Wi* • 

Nai^says that '^mea/e is still.used in the boim* 

S' fb^ the quantity of milk giveif by a cow at one 
lkin^.'^~ Wc find it in Brown's Pastorals : 

Each ii)iepherd*s daoghter with her cleanly peale, , 

\¥*B oeme a field to milk the moraing's meaie, 'B. l! - 

' * ' • r ^ • # 

Mealy-mouthed. Shy — mo4est-r*in tluq».ip«9iae^ 
chiefly, as descriptive of one who is 8U|)pp8<;4 to 
have missed a desirable acquisition from backward-, 
ftc^i^in asHing* The phrase is iiot local perhaps.' 


U is Kotteiimes applied to. one of .a. ver^ «oft or 
delieate mode of speaking, in some such boraely 
phrase as this — ** Ah, yah ! she's a mealy-mouthed 
'an — she fere as if better would *i4t melt in her 
mouth, but cheese woud'nt choke her.** 

Me£CB. Mice. »^o leece for lice; heeye for 
kive, as a^erb* Of divers of these variations, see 
under Aninnb. 

M&ER. A smajr, d«ep> lake, or piece of water, 
jf^pec'^ty if a rivulet,ruhs in and out of it. A stag- 
liaut shallQw pieceSve qali a /Vcc^. which see. — 
Jteer, is also a boundajry, but i$ getting into disus.e. 
Meer^bauk, xne sometimes hear, which means a 
division, or ridge, betv^een lands. See Bauk. We 
sometimes spell it men-e^ and such pools give names 
to the neighbouring hamlets— Rushmere is a village 
•near Woodbridge ; Livermere and Sicklesmere, near 
Bury, where also is Hushbrook. In Scottish mn-e 
is a boundary, derived by Jameison from the Ang. 
.Sax. .]^ear«« In our northern couijties som^ of 
.their b<^utifa) lakes retain this name. 
. Nares shows that it is used by Spenser and others 
of our old poets in the sense of a boundary or di- 
.virion : also meentone'^^ 

He (a baylve) know- Uow to bounder land, niicl cou .i« it a 
Jl^ynqua^^QCt^ta /euffivea NM;t'e*t0fu;. i$UiitoH$talU Cb«r. ^0, 

•'Tfife fui-foos Ttiim. that, on t&e Cambrian side, • •• 
JJuili 6bropsbire as u m^ar Iroui WmeHord dhUla, 
' ' ' . ^^ , Di'Uijlon, PoUj0ib. 1. 80r. 

*' Meet' stones, what,*«liyi(les lands between the 
several proprietors." Cocker, 

M£E2i*BAUK. See Bauk and MfiKR. 

- MfiBVB. Move.> <^* Let it 'bide^^if ye take it 

^arwah t*ul oiily4>e ti meeve eginn." hi thii, and 

most examples, I give a genuine speech. liUd nbt 

expect that this was ^any thing but a vulgarism.-*- 

Nared, however, shows thai it is archaic-*-" Meve 


lit Mheve, for to move. Hiifl oecutw only in tile 
older writii^s — 

I could right «eli 
Ten tjqieft aoouer aU that hare beleyveds 
Than the teuth part of all that he have meved^ 

Four Pi. OU PUy. 1 9i. 

- A pledge job did require wfaeA Damon his tuit did metM» 

DammmtdPitkUm, 0. PL L f04. 

O mightie Idnge* let some pittieyoor noble Irarte merve* tb, t4tm 

' Mbll. a mill. Sofelfy for fill, &c. Mnlln, a 
iQiUer. Mell is also a name of a large iron ham- 
mer or Matr/, ivhich see — and under ANIK)«D for 
sundry interchanges of i and e. 

., Menden. See Amenden— the a l>eing a pre- 
fixture of enforcement to petty, or pretty, oaths, 
as they have heen deemed. " What a menden ! — 
what a piecen I " equivalent to ** what a p— ** put 
into the parts even of genteel comedy in the last 

Mew. Mowed. "1 mevr that there fiUd." So 
snew for snowed — thew for thawed, &c. In refer- 
ence to similar words, such as knew and blew as 
preterites of the verbs, mew is analogous. Knowed 
IS used in Suffolk for knew. We say gnew for 
gnawed. See Gnew. 

Mewer. Modest^-nnassnoHng-^-HleBiure. W 
the latter word it is probably an abhreviaticHi. 

Mewse. The beaten path of a hare through a 
fence. Thus, Ray in a Proverb exemplifies the 
iiiioWn cunning of a hare-^ 

find jon without an excuse, 
• And find * hare without a flMijtf. p«-168.' 

liares shows that this iift an old poetical word. — 
:1ft is he says "the opening in a fence or thiekfi 
throvgh which a hare cnr other beast of sport is acr 
-eustomed to pass: M^H, French.'' 
. The pr^Kvert) above quoted firom Ray^ U given as 


t>ne in FaU«r*8 CoUebtibii, No. 6081— and in, How- 
el's it rubs tltttSf^-^ 

Take a hare without a mutCf 

And a knave without excuse* 

And hang them. Eng. Trov* p. IS* 

It seems a favourite, for'Nares quotes ft in ano« 
llier form — • 

*Tis as hard to find a hare without a ntiMf, as a woman without 
kscuse. Greene'8Thkvti'failAng(mt,i^ci HaW- Misc. VIII. 387, 

' The Wiord occurs In .Several other of our old 
authors.' Commentators liave be^en puzzied by the 
applicatibni of'the epithet ;;«tcA to it — and the 
leaniei^ Archdeacon is in doubt about it. Were he 
aware of bur Suffolk use and sense of that word, 
ikis doubt would probably be removed. See Quick. 
In an old dictiohary, anonymous, is *' A muse or 
mu^t, the place through which a hare goes to re« 
lief.'' In Sutfbik smewse:, which see; has the same 

MiDDAH. A meadoW. Of 'th6 common substi- 
tution of i for e, and e for i, see under Aninnd. 

MiDDLESTKD. The central part, or threshing 
floor of a' barn, betwieen ihe two gafes. The word 
** middenstead " occurs in nearly the same sense in 
Scottish. T. ofmj/ L 3rd Ser. HI. 268. 

Sfed seems to mean place-7-we S2iy home- sted for ^ 
farm yard, or home-siall. Nares informs us that sted, 
or stead, in Saxbii, means place.. 

Milch. Milk — but only in the sense of a milcli 
cow — •* a good wi/cAer," is our common character, 
when commending our cattle. Another instance of 
the tendency to interchange ch and k, as noticed un- 
der Perk. In Cheshire " melch means inild, soft; 
perhaps from milky either through the medium of 
the. Anglo-Saxon meolc, or the Belgic melk.'^ W. 

Mild. A mile—^tew mild,- two miles, &c. 

MiN* Men. Wimmih, women-^a common sab* 
stitufion, of which see under Aninnd. 

Mine. My house— ^my farm. *' I kope stine to 


aee yon at mUnt** yl i|fish Td »icb a miickle^at 
mine** — a farmer would say of a dtsirable siiickr 
heap. See Ours. 

Ml NO. To mingle or miip — especially the ingre- 
dients for making bread. Thus among the expen- 
diture at Hengrave Hall, in 1607> is this item, 
" Rie, del. to minge with wheate to make mistlen for 
seed, Vco ijbs" Gages* Hengrave, p. 208. Co means 
coomb, which see. In Scotland, lo ming, or meng, 
is the same, to mix, from the Anglo-Saxon meng-an, 
J. And Nares — " ming or minge ^ to mix. ' 

which never mmgt 

With other streams* Sir A. Gecrge*t Imcom, 

She carries it fyne and minget it thick. DranU 

For the perfect tense of this verb, we say mvng. 
" She mung up that bread.'' 

MiNlFER-PiN. The smallest sised pin, of the 
common sort; 2\so minikin-pin. Minikin, in other 
dialects, has a sense of small, delicate. Nares says, 
it is a diininitive of min, which in German, Scotch, 
&c. means small. 

And for one blast of thy nuniTrtn month 
< lliy sheep* shall tak^ no harm. K, Lear, III. 5. 

He adds that min, moim, and all this family of 
words, seem to come from minor* 

Minikin. See Minifbr, 

Mint. To endeavour, to strive. *• I see what 
he is minting at.'* '* Dew them there young tul- 
kies pick yet f •* No^ they mint at it now an ten.** 
So Ray and Grose, as a north country word — ** To 
mint at a thing, to aim at it, to have a mind to it." 
E. W. p. 44. And in Scottish, " To mint at, tp 
aim at, to attcinpt — from the German meintHy tn- 

tentioJ* J. 


MiRE-DRUM. A name, but I am in some doubt 
if a Suffolk name, although I have been told so, of 
the bittern. We call it, I know not why. Buttle, 
which see/ In Scotland it is called mire-lumper, 
from mire, Jameisou says, and the Icelandic bomp-a. 


to strike Ugainst. Grose gives mtn-drwrnt ts t Nor- 
folk na^e of the bittern. 
. MxssELTHRusH. See Mavis. 

Misses. The usual way of speaking of one's 
wife — " my misses;" or of addressing a woman, es- 
pecially a matron—" prah take a pinch misses.** — 
For mifitresSf no doubt. 

Mitts. Worsted gloves with a thumb an4 no 
jGngers. With fingers they are, or used to be, mit« 
tehs ; but the words and the articles are going out 
of use. . 

' Mizzle. Small rain, mist—'* A Scotch mist, 
that will wet an Irishman to the skin,'' is a commoa 
saying among us — meaning something more than a 
mizzh. Smifher and Smur are other terms of like 
import ; implying something short of positive rain. 
In Cheshire also, mizzle is " small rain. Dr. Ash 
aid mits the verb to ntizzle, but rejects the substan* 
tive." W. We admit both. " Dew it rain ?" No— 
" ta mizzle." In the north haze seems to have, the 
same import. ** It hazes — it misies, or rains small 
rain." Ray. 'E.'W. p.SB. In Scottish, dmklin 
means '" a slight shower ; a dacklin of rain.'' J. See 
Bag:' ^' To mizzle, to rain in small drops." Old 
dictionary, anotiymous, 

'' Moii.: 'Libour, toil. " Toil and mott "— Tur- 
riioil. P6or old Tusser uses the word, when he 
relates that he took a Suffolk wife, and a Suffolk 
^Anii taiid^'firsl devised his book." 

• ' ; 7hea4ookIwifi^,<Biid1i^iBy Uf«, 
i I*! • Jo Soffolk toil : 

/.: .; ; Tber^ wt^ Ifalo, mvself to train, 
' : . ■ To jearn too long, . the fafmer*s song. 
For* hope of peir, like worldly elf, 

To moil and toil. p. S19. 

He proceeds r4ther ki a dolorous strain, to give 
a farther '^Sketch of hits life," in which he highly 
eomjrtiments Suffdlk, : and Ipswich particularly, 
rather at the ^xpeoseof oiut sister couaty. He los^ 
his first wife at Ipswich, and married his second in 



Norfolk^ . Qk " Skf^h'' is bi^y amiising;*-aiid* 
though tempted to make an.exUact^ I must not do 
it hefe. 

Moik is ant old name of the hard-worked animal 
that we call mole — a muU ; and hence Nares thinks 
may have come the word in the sense first given 
above. In an old dictionary, anonymous^' 1 find 
^'Amail, a great mule, a beast of burden."' And 
in Grose is " Moyle, a mule — Exmoor direct. To 
moyley, or moyle and toil : to labour hard like a 


Mole, A mule, reversing th« o and tiT-in refer* 
ence to mune^ guse, &c. as noticed under BuTES. 
A mole we call maawU hi Scotland a mule is called 
mulL J. Our old writers call this useful animal 
moile, as is shown in a curious article by Nares, See 
Moil, in this Collectioq. I find, from the same in-, 
structive and amusing Glossary, that mole for mule 
is not altogether our vulgarity. . ** Mooks perhaps 
fur mules. I confess I do not understand the liue 

in which this word occurs — 

* " • j,» — '■ 

Content the (tbee) Daphoei mflcki take ni«dfl^«; but'inefl^ 
luiow moole§ to catcb. Wamer^s Ai^. png, 'p. IL pi 41. 

l^erhaps mul^ tat^ mad ^t8| b^t j^t tm^ Jiupow hoj^ jtQ. 
catch them. N. 

In an o)d dictiofiary, anonymous, is f' Ma^- a 
disease in sheep/ t know not if this n^ay tena ta^ 
cicar .up the obscu^ty in Warner. 

MoLEWARP or MowLWARP. The'^artb, puft»: 
or warp'd, o.r put, o»it» by a m,oIe; ire also call 
such heaps mole-jjmts. Shakespeare and others of 
our old writers call the purblind animal itself by 
the name of mdld-wai-p* ' Thus Hotspui^^ in the Ist 
P. ofK.H, Vlli 

I cannot chaose: soinetiQes be augers me 
Iflfith' telling nie of the fa^-tfuny ai)<i the ant. 

Steevens qa this passage quotes the Mirror for) 
Magistrates to shofw dK orign of Hotspur^a 

'iSpeevua' ' • *- ... ..It. .•.^. •• 


y/hum "MerUn aoth i mould -warpe .tiir ^eX^* 

. Mauld-wdrp^ if^uqt ;ij,i>aj|^ i«|pie.foT.a'm.oie-^but 
In 3;U^lK,wc aiifjajs. apply it to the "bilts, or puts. , 
lo.Scottish **Modtfw^rt^TM6dpvart, is a mole, froni 
the Angy^ Sax. mo/i/terra,' and wr»t'^(in, versare 
lostro* J* 

Nares, .Bp^tling the word mold-ttarp, siys it is a 
mole« fl[^piii,the.^axohy.'ti^cQiDjg the luould. Soine- 
iinifis mQuldiwarp — , 

Comfort thyself Vuh other men's misfortunes^ as the mouldi' 
warpe in ^sop tofd the fox. JBurU Anat, of MeL 310. 

We do not pronounce this word so hroad and open 
as we do^- the name of the animal, which we call 
ttiuawL In Bedfordshire, according to Grose, the 
mole is called moulde-rat. This differs hut little in 
sound from thj^ Saxon wrot, or the Scottish wart. 
On ainot)ier termination warp, I may note that it is 
a word that in some parts of England means an aN 
hivial deposit of unctious or argillaceous matter ; 
sandy or silicious deposit being called silt, 

MoNTH^S-MiND — IS still occasionally used; but 

in the sense of strong desire or inclination — not of 

being reminded^ as was the case formerly, when 

Hi'<»sesor prayers recurred at tbe intervals of mouths, 

&c. for the repose of souls departed in papacy. We 

s^y» *' Vy^ a monika-mind" to do so and so. Mind 

for remeuibeF is common in Scotlaud, — 

" Frstorium here praetorian there I— 1 mind thebiggen ont.** 

- Antiquary. 

In;G*age'8 H engrave, we read that "Thomas Usher, 
In the tst 'year of Hen. Vltl. cjifected that no public 
moit/ftVmoi^f should be' had for him, but onlv a se* 
cret one, and left six shillings.ttuiltiitbtp^nce to the 
l^gh altar at Hengra^e.'* — Gags's Hen. p. 6o. and 
Tn p. 1*12". is a very cnriotis account, entitled ** Coosts 
laid out at the monthes-mind, 1540." It is interests- 
is^ to -M^^libw uaifioriiihf the human mind is acted 
ou in unconnected countries^ Ail the .WMld o>'ei« 


pMfaapi, wlieK prints h^f^" the aseeddMGjty yoo will 
find usages^ .(Jii^ilar! to, the monthVmfndi,' weekV 
Qiindy yearVmind, ^c^ of papacy, Amppg . the 
Mahommedaii^ Hiki4%ds; iind tiAier femotfi |]^op1e». 
the like' credulity,^ as to the efflfcacy 6f pAicidair' 
interpositions' between the iiomr and his Saviour^; 
may be noied. ' The Hindus especially liave* vica- 
rial expiations at the recurrence of stated peridds-^ 
ireeks^ fortnights, months— ahd^ for the rich, years-^ 
nor do the dead, or rather their heirs and property, 
escape even then. Seven years, and t believe even 
longer, are the^rich held in mind bythe tenacious 
Brahman. But, here again all agree — " no pence 
no paternoster.'* This, however, is no place for 
such speculations. 

Nares, under this word, gives a curious article^ 
shewing, of course, the superstitious usag^ ; and 
adds-r-'' but month' a-mind is much ifiore commonly 
used, and is not yet quite disused, in the sense of an 
eager desire or longing.*' He shews that it occurs 
in Shakespeare, and others of his time^iu that sense. 

I see yoa have a monthH-mind to them. Two G, of V, I. $» 

And if a trampet souud, or drum beat, 
Wbb hath not a montVf-mtnd to combat. 

Budilwu, P. I. Cfeiit.«« 

Moo or MoE. The lament of a cow after her 
calf. Caliban uses the word, '* like apes tjiajt md 
and chatter at me." Temp. II. 2. It here appears 
to mean tnaulhe, or mock ; in Scottish mow is a 
word of like meaning; and to mue or moo Jameison 
gives in the first sense—-'* to, low as a cow, from 
tl^e German mUp ^qx vaccae naturalis; muh^en^ 
mugire." See Blarb; and Nares under M0e» 

MOODA. Mother. . , i . 

MooNTH. Month. So poonch for punchy 
boon^h for bunch, &c^ ' 

MoosicK. Mnaick-T^-aha imiaicai instomients^ 
as noticed imder Aefes*. . ..j ... .3 

^' V. 

, Mo^^^T/ h t«rm oCifeiidea CT a a it tQ ayoung girU 
Mi^t voA'Mdfsey^ are^ shown by ^reai t» be of 
the same family^**^' Often i}9«d^te girt&by way oif 
^Kteamiieiit..' UvU&Uy tb^ lojlonriiig. 
passage — ". • : .., 

' Ai f u our tfla>iiphah} caUing ^inilUrly upon our muse, I. 

But will jou weett 
My little muse, my prettie moppe^ 
*:' •' 'If w«i shall kigates change our stuppe, 

•'Otiose ra« a, sweet. > 

Unclersliinding by th?s woVd fflbppe a little prety larfy, or ten- 
d^ youfig things For to we call iittle fishes' that tie not coiua tot 
tkek fuUt growth m<i]^»fs,^ as wliiting-iiioppe3» guruavd-moppes., 

Puitfnh. Arte of Eng> P^fis. 1^4. 

^^ Moppet,'* Nares adds ** was used* in the^same way 
as moppe, and hardly yet obsolete." With us P^pr* 
pet, is also, in use, in a like seftse. . > .. 

In an old dictionary, anoaympus, .1 find <* Mop^^ 
pet or Mopsey, a little young infant.'' 

MopsiCAL. Low*spfiritied, drooping, mophig. 
Cocker sayjs '* Mopncafy niop«yedj which cannot 
see distinctly*" 

Moral. Model/ most likely; originally; but 
n^ineantng likeness or similarity. "The very 
moral on em." " The very moral of his tat."— » 
7)bisrj( $ind fcom Nares is.pot altogether ouT,ywn 
corruptiofi-^'' 7ll<»ra/ was also sometii^es . C9At 
founded with piod^h ^i^d used for it ; and I believe 
stili is by the ignorant-^ i • • \ ^ 

, Fooles ba they that invdgh .^gaizttt Mahomet^ ; . .t 
. , Wbo^S/ but 4 mortal of loy^s rooparchie. ^ . 

H, Const* Decade 4^ Sonn, 41 

Mob^B Rio4a,T UPPEii. Mofe upright. 

MoftT,' Mortal, Mortashus, Mqrtashu^* 
'these words are used in the sense of man^, much, 
exteedingiy — " A fnort of folks.'* * Sort, is 1 be- 
lieve, nearly equivalent—or it may b^ much, rather 
than many ; quanti^' jitter Ih^n oamber^ JS^hi 



is another sittiihir word — " What a mortal sight on 
em.** **l am mortal hongry" — or "I zmwwrfSf^ 
$hu$ hungry." '^Tberfi was a mortMhm sight 'a 
lieople at the fair/' I am not aware of any differ- 
ence between these two words. An old Norfoilt and. 
Suffolk saw may be given here. — '* One is none — 
tew is some — three is a sort — four h a inert." It 
would seem hence that mart implies sopnething be- 
yond sort. This may have been current when the 
notation of the East Anglians went not much far- 
ther. We have other terms of amplification — dak* 
nathun, taknashuHj and waundy ; softenings mostly 
of a grosser word. *' What a tahnaihun fute yeow 
ar." See under those words. 

In Cheshire — '* Moriacious-^mortn] ; — martaciout 
bad." W. 

Johnson noticed this class of words. On this 
equivocal passage in Aayou Uke if, II. 4. — 

We that are true lovers, ran into strange capers; but at all t$ 
f^^riul in nature, so is ali natvre ia love tnortal m follj — ' 

he notes ** mortal from mart, a great quantity^ is 
used in the midland counties, as a particle of am« 
plification ; as mortal tali, mortal little.*' Wc 
should also say, " he*s a mortal little fellow of his 

/ Mother. The thi«k toagh glutinous scum on 
vinegar or beer in bottles, &c. " It's all motliery." 
In Scotland '* the mother on beer, &c. b the lees 
working up." J. Under the article Kalmy, 1 have 
noted that beer, &c, in that state, is the same as 
being i/to/Aer^; but since that article was printed, 
I am told that I was wrong. Kalmy or Cammy, i^ 
descriptive of white small parttcks^idlucfa collect on 
pickles, if left much exposed to air,, .or on beer or 
vinegar ; such particle^ are called the Cam, In an 
old dictionary, anonymous, I find .** MotkeVy the 
dregs of oil, wine, &c." • 

. MoucaT, Might . See Moot. 


MousB HVNT. A sort of wea«el 6r pole-cat. ^It 
is ibimd in corn. stacks and. stack yards, and is less, 
a||§pr% lo(A;ad on^han others of that tribe, 'as the 
farmers ihin|L Its chief foodand game are mice^(or 
ni^eeoe as. we call them) and not poult^ It is a; 
spall species, brcnvn on the back, tl^ belly white* 
Sto^t, Stint, «Slink, Fitchet, Fptpnuirt, are names, 
of lather of th^se vermin. See under the latter word* , 
;• Shakespeare. u$e& the compound word rather,; 
eQiiiyocaliy--«s is shown by Nares-^^who says t^- 
'^ Lady Capulet does not exactly mean a Mnter of ^ 
mice/' hut evidently alludes to a different olyecl, 
<^ pursuit; such as is called mMise^only in playful.. 
ep<i«arinent : . . ^ 

^ Aye, yoa have been s-fliouje-*Attnt in your- ttiBB, . . . 
Bit I will watch you fr^m. such w^t^jSiliig now. 

ilom. end /«2tet, IV. 4. 

• • * 

** Hie commentators say that in some coonticls a 
tveasel is called a numse-himil' N* : . > . 

On this ps^ssage Steepens /sa^fs that mmmei, ivnm\ 
once a ^term of endearuent-apptted to alroman-4»iHi . 
iii'MainkV** ' • - * ^ 

I^ocb waritoh oil Vodr che^kV call'yoa hw motue-, 

^]^ut.^y.l£Vte learned arifl much regretted friend 
ax^d ^jie^jpour 0r. Henley, in his .notes on Shakes- 
peare,, ^ys the mou$e'hwat is th^ martin. 

.. MOxTT or MouGHT. Might. "Yeow mou^as 
well a' duntas nW This -is Itn oid English mofda 
of spelliiKg: fn Stow's Annais < bkidk lt*te^) it is 
mOst^ • S4. 'speUsedy- Thie ^BoctttiA^ ha» rmkkt: for : 
mijfhtlnttfi!^ I^anie'«en$e(. J^ - And Nietrets -i^maHca^ 
that •• mife, for tni^t, properly bdbngs to a mota > 
ancient tiihe th&nthdt to which this iw««k(hi8G16»i^ 
sary) tefers^ . • "' •.•?.••••.•.• . ,.• 

' I^oV mifte ye uridirii^.d; Speni. IF, Q. "VI. tiU. 4^: * • > 

' Falrfex 6ias mought, which is still provincial— ^ 

Yo('W<|aH whh death -then di^stiae though he mwgku , 

r.Tauo: xin, 70." If. 


Move all. A juvenile game^ something like 
nrf lady's toilette. We haye, and n6 doabt^ so 
Itave other counties, a great variety of araysing 
games, active and sedentary. I once intended to 
endeavour to describe them, but so many years have 
dapsed since I was much of a performer, that after 
tfyingmy hand, very unsatisfactorily, attwo or three,I 
resolved to relinquish the attempt. SeeCAMP. Ducks 
and Drakes Kit-cat. Kit-cat-cannio. Ifound 
that to enable me to describe them intelligibly I must 
relearn them — ^the latter indeed, seemed, the easier of 
the two. I must therefore be content, and I hope it 
will content my reader, if I give a catalogue of sucli 
pastimes. Omitting games so universal as Cricket^ * 
Leap-frog, Marbks, &c. — ^we have All the birds 
in the air, and All the fishes in the sea — Bandv» 
Ban'dv-wicket, Base-ball, Brandy-ball, Bubble-hole^* 
Butt m liie park (this I suspect to be the same as 
Frog in the middle) Blind-hob, Blind-man s-buff, 
Bobf'cherry, Bos, Bnck buck how many horns do I 
hold up ?--^Cros8 questions and crooked answers^. 
Cross bars. Cat after the moiise — Dropping the 
letter, Dum crambo, Dutch concert — English and 
Frencb-^F^ench and English (different games) — 
Frog in the middle (se^ Bull in the park) Follow my 
leader. Foot ball. Five stones — Gull— Handker- 
chiefs, l\fLts, Hide an' find. Hie cocolorum jig, 
Hitchy cock ho, Hocky, Hog.over hie. Honey pots. 
Hop* scotch. Horny hie, Hot cockles. Hunting the 
hare,' Boat the Whistle, Hunt the s4ipper-^I , 
spy; I«T-Jack*s alive, Jaok be. nimble. Jib job Jere-. 
mtidih^-Kick the bucket^My lady*s toilet, IVfagi-. 
cal inttsicj^Niddy noddy. Nine holesTr-Oranges 
aad'klttQOs-^nsoner's base. Poor tanner. Prison . 
bars, Plum pudding and roast Seef, .Puss in. the, 
corner — Rakes and ^oans. Robbers— Salt eel, Snap 
dragon, Snap apple — Thread iug thetailor*s needle, 
Tom Tickler's ground. Three jolly butchers — 
What's my thought like? Work at one as 1 do. 

There are doubtless many more juvenile sports 


und pttstimes that do not occur to roe — but the 
al>ove may suffice. It U not unpteasipg thuv to see 
at a glance such a variety of recreations tending to 
excite innocent gaiety among our young peoples- 
He is no friend to his fellow creatures who desire 
to curtail them; on the contrary I hold htm a bene- 
. factor to his county who introduce a new sport 
among us. 

Muck. Farm yard manure, or other compost, 
•also any thing untidy. '' How yeow haave put yar 
clothes. on — why yeow look all of a muck." Indi- 
viduals subject, like our fat friend Sir John, " to 
perpetual dissolution and thaw," would in the dog- 
days exclaim '* O lawkus ! I 'm all of a muck."->~ 
And it cannot be denied that this phrase, indicative 
of a high and moist personal temperament, b\ which 
Mrs. BruiQ introduces herself to the audience, is 
still heard among us oftener than oue would, con- 
. sidefing the progress of refinement and sentiment- 
ality, he led to expect. In exemplification of this 
progress I may note, that my chambermaid takes 
Tkeon and Aspasia in numbers from an itinerant 
bibliopole; a work which from its title I presume is 
of a very refined and sentimental sort. 

Muck is given by Rav aa a Lincolnshire and N. 
country word, of similar meaning as in Suffolk, and 
perhaps all over Elngland. In the Slieers, however, 
and in Scotland, dung is the more common \erm for 
what we call muck. We never use the more gross 
word ; nor do those we advert to confine its mean- 
ing to stercoraceous matter. In Scotland both words 
are in use-^'' To muck; to carry out dung; from the 
ancient Swedish mock-a, stabula purgare." J. It 
is a verb also with us. From this gross word may 
probably have been derived MuekitgOf a keichief. 
See under that word. 

A muck-heap, or midden, as the Scotch term it, we 
call Muckle, which see. A crooked fork for pulling 
the article out of carts on to heaps we call muck- 
crome. S%e CitOMB*. 


MUCKINJA or MccKiNjBR. A handkercfaief, 
iespeciffllya child'd — a ciiio ciolh— ^' Muckendeiv a 
haixikerchtef/' Johnson. 

Kerchief appears formerly to have been the ivord 
for the neck clothing — nben refinemeut e&tended 
the con^ienient article to the hand, 1 he compound 
word ' eiiplains itself. AVr A-A<ifii/-kerchief is e?i- 
dently an erroneous compound, though until of late 
not uncommonly used. > Out of all these m«(*Atf|;fr 
may have been put together ; or may the.- French 
maefwire have had any share in it? In Cheshire 
muckinda is explained to be " a dirty napkin or 
pocket handkerchief. In Orlus Foeabulmiim,"i$e 
nave muckeder^ mete cloth or towel. Littleton has 
muckin^erJ' W; On the whole I am inclined %o 
ll^k that muck may formerly have tireatit unseemly 
secretions, or generally any thkig uncleanly; and 
the word under considemtion, br one sounding like 
it, a receptacle for the same, as noticed under Muck. 

Among Ray's S. and £. country Words we read 
** A muckinder, a cloth hung at children's girdles to 
wipe their noses on, from mueus narium; from 
which word comes also our English Word mnck, used 
especially in the north. MULcksmt up to the Huekeon 
— Devonshire. ** Dirty up to the knuckles." E. W. 
p. 82. 

' In Nares I find the following, article — " Mvakin- 
der, a jocular term for a handkerchief, from miicA, 

Be of g*)od comfort, take my muehindety 

And dry thifle eyes; B. Jon; Tale (fT. Ill* 1. 

We^il have a bib for ttpoilkig of thy doublet. 
And a. f ring'd fHuehefvUr- hang at thy girdle. 

' ' ... B.andm, CapU III. 5. 

Muckiter teems to be a* con-uption of the same 

iOfiely upon hUntudciUr aftd tmnd he had- an T. 
Bj* frliich^I.did suppose his name was FerdiQand. 

,* < Weake$t goes ta WM 

MuckUer^ wiping thing, WUhjinU Diet, . 


In fiarratt's Alveartt, muckeUr is referred to bib ; 
but Cotgrave says. ** a muckender is a bavarette, or 
muckettf'" N. In an old diet, aiiony. is *' Muchen* 
^er, a child's handkercluef." 

MucKLE. A heap of muck, or compost — muek^ , 
hill, no doubt. See iVluCK. It is called midden ixi 
Scotland; and miskin ' in other parts of Britain.-— 
Nares isays that the word is properly mixen^ Saxen* 

• • * • * t 

And would you mellow my youug pretty mistress 
Ini such a mishen. B, an4 Fi, Nigftt-W^er. iil 1. 

* • » * - • 

This is another instance of the transposition of 
letters, as noticed under Waps. 

Mud-croom! a small crooked-tined fork used =• 
for removing pieces of turf, &c« when draining land. 
See CroMe. ' 

Muddle. To confuse, perplex, disturb, tum- 
ble about. ; ^ woman nicely dressed, would repress 
•any rough approach with. ** don't muldle.m^"-rror.. 
^' how yeow devi' muddle one." ^ ** Muddles an<^ 
troubles ''-^perplexities and djidiculiics» Sec MUi>- 


&I u D*D LE p . , FJea ted aud liaj f tired w ith exercise 
or work, confused— " l)f«nis'd in beer." A wo- 
man fdriffwed with many cbi drcu would sav ** I'm 
muddled ta dvAxd aiuost.*' — Mop.sical, Owley, and 
Waped, ani wonis of the siinio sort, thotigh mud- 
dled is oftenest used, and is ri'ftuTiblc more to the . 
clfects of drink. ** A liire alhis to be half mud«- , 
died." To an old diet. niAni. I find **to muddle, to • 
rout with tb^e bi.t ay gee^jc do — to fuddle or. make 
tipsey." Fou, fuddled, muddled, may have been 
mixed u^> somehow togetlier. Muddy is quaiintly 
used for a stale of inebriety^ an<l in several East 
Indian dialects mud means the same thing. With 
us the term is doubtless from an idea of thickness^ 
want of clearness. So foggy. means ijot sober-^. 
See Dag. ' To one alioiit to gender water, b^r> ,or : 
aaj litjufd, turbidt we should say ** don't muddle 



it/— or "jdon't puddle it " — evidently meaning; 
doii't make it thick or muddy, or like puddle See 
Muddle, Buffled, and Puddle. 

MuDJEN. Clay fit, or used, for the purpose of 
mixii^g with rubble, or chalk' rubbish, and straw, 
forbuilding cottages, garden walls, &c. 

Mull. At tops— if the top fly away out of the 
hand without spinning it is a mulL ** Tha's a mull 
— yow lah in." The penalty is depositing the faulty 
top in the ring until pegged out by the adversaries. 
A blunt is I believe nearly the same thing as a 

Mulla. Mellow, ripe — •* mulla pears." Also 

Mulsh. A thick mixture of earth and water for 
moistening roots of shrubs and plants when re- 
moved or transplanted. The word is also appOed 
disparagingly to any thick, slabby, semi- liquid. — 
*' Mulch: straw, half rotten." Ray, E.W. p. 82. 

MuLTA or MuLTER. Land laid in ndges (or 
ringes) exposed to the air and frost, that it may 
become pulverized and fine, when next ploughed, 
is said to multa — or '* to be laid to multa." 

MuLLY-GRUBS. Fancied or non-descript ail- 
ments — ill humours, affectation. ** Why yeow fare 
to ha' got the muU^-grubs and can't eat chopt hay," 
is a common taunt at persons afllicted with such 
tantrums. In Scottish muUy-grub, moUi-grub, 
molli-grunt, and molli-grant, have the same mean- 
mg of ''whining, complaining, from the Icelandic 
mogl-a, murmur, and graun, os et nasus." J. 

Mum or Mummy. Mother. This appears a 
convenient abreviation, corresponding with dad. — 
" Where's your mum? — " Where's your dad? Sec 

MuNE. The moon — like guse for goose, chang- 
ing in many word3 the oo into the acute u, aa 


noticed under Butes. We retain an old dislike to 
a new moon on Friday . and, in our own way, per- 
petuate it by the recollection of an old sa^ iug — 

— — — 'Friday's munt 
Come M hen ta wool, cvoje tew sane. 

Or TT -J » ! 

Friday s mnue 

^ __, Once ill seven year cume lew sane. 

See Wool. ^ 

MuNG. The past tense of to Ming, whicli see. 

MusHARUNE. A Mushroom. Toadscap is the 
distinction between the inedible and edible tribos of 
fungi. It appears, by a quotation in Nares to have 
been formerly called mushrump — 

But cannot bear a 'night«gro\vn m%ahrump, 

Snch a one as my lord of C^ •rnwail is, . . 

Shouid bear us down of the nobility. Erfw. IT. O. Pl.ii. 236. 

MusSY. Mercy. " Mussy on us." 

My lady's toilet. A pastime mostly, playted 
by young ladies — for a list of a variety of such, for 
males and females, active and sedentary, see under 



Na. Pronounced as in nation — not, no, '' Wuthar 
'a wool *a na," whether he will or not. See MouT. 
Thb sound seems one of negation in many lan- 
guages ; throughout Europe and beyond it. 

Nabble. Nibble. Corn growing near a cover, 
will be vabbled by the hares, &c, 

Nacker. Generally spelled Knacker, which 
sec — a cart-collar and harness maker. Grose gives 
Nacker as a Norfolk word, for this craft. 

*Nall. Under the article Goof, note to verse 4, 
I have said that 1 knew not this word. But on en-^ 
quiry since I am told that it is still in use with us, 
as the name of an awl. And the far-searching Nares, 
gives the same quotation from Tusser that I have 
referred to above — and another from B. and FL« — 
adding, '* Nawl, an awl ; by a familiar and easy 
transmutation, a nawl instead of an avsV^ Ol this 
sec under NoPE, and Nottamy. 



There sliali be no more sboe-mendfng ; 
£ver^ man shall have a special care of his own aoii, 
Atid m hit pocket carry his two confessors^ 
His liDgel and his uawL Woman Pleat'd. IV. 1. 

Nancy. A small lobster. " Have you any 
lobsters? " — '• No, we've only Nancys." 

Nannaken. See Nonnaken. 

Nap. Or rather perhaps Knap, which see — 
a little thump, a rap. • 

Napper. The head. We have ma^y names 
ftr the head, of which see under Costard ; where» 
however, I have omitted Napper, 

Nashun or Nation. Many — much — great — 
*' A nation sight of folks." '' What a nashun fule 
yeow ar." Mart, Mortation, Sight, Sort, are 
members apparently of the same family. See Mort. 
Nashun means also one's own town or neighbour- 
hood. A lad was lately hired out of the parish of 
Alderton near the sea; and for the first time cros- 
sed the intervening heath, of several miles in ex- 
tent, to enter his service at Wood bridge. The boy, 
under a strong feeling of nostalgia, was wretched : 
imd' to the. enquiries of his 'fellow servants could 
only say "I fere to be out of my nashun*'—^ 
the first syllable long and modulated. His.appe* 
tite and health declined, and his maladie -du V^^ys 
o>uld. be rcmovded only by sending him home. — 
Nashun, is sometimes substituted^ as above, for 
^ JDahnation, which see^ Native, the last syllable 
acute, and .rhymiiig to Jive, and both syllables 
pronounced lon^, is used pretty much as Nashun, 
or N^tioii. Thus a servapt n^aid wiH<decline going 
with her mastery faiuily lo a new nsitlt^uce twenty 
'or thi;*ty miles, from her own parish arid pareAts, 
' fif^i Tiling^ to go so far from her na-tive, 

NatHA or Nutha, Neither. See CocK. 

Natuer a' both. Neither of both — not ^her 
of any t\Vo ihinffs — some<im6», hoMeyer, of more 
than two. ' • 



Native. See Nashun. 

Natur. Providence — destiny. "Contrary" — 
strongly accenting the medial ** to natur.". 1 was 
trying to explain to rather an intelligent farmer, 
how lightning was brought from a cloud, as prac- 
tised by Franklin and others, but he was shocked 
at the impiety of the attempt ; saying it was ** con- 
trary to natur." Some of us are predestinarians, 
and think vaccination, and indeed all attempts to 
arrest the progress of disease' or to change its 
character "contrary to , natur." See CramI>- 


Nawn. Nothing. **'A cent good for nawn."- — 
See GoN. 

Near or Xeah. Tlie rame, I believe as Aijjaft, 
jEar, and A7j,yzA, which sec. 

Neat. Horned catlle. The folhiwins: is a 
quotation from Nare's Glossary ** Neat — Horned 
x^attle of the ox species. Pure Saxon. In Scotland 
corrupted Utnolt and noict. See JaweLon, 

And vet ihe stoer thi, heifer and tlie citlf 
Are all callM veat. ^V'n}t. Tnle. ii. *-^. 

Shakespeare there puns upon it; the same word 
afforded a quibble also to Sir John Harrington : 

The pride of Octlla now is urown ».o trewt, 

Sb<*. seeks to be sirnmnM G dia the veat : 

Bui who her merits s>h:dl and uianneis scan, 

IVlay thiuk ihe term is due lo her good man. 

Ask you, which way ? Meihinks your wiis are Wuil. 

My shoemaker re»:olve yon can at full, 

A^tar* leather is b.>lh oxe-hide, cow, tind bull. 

Epigrams^ B. iii. 48. 

That is, he was to be considereii as a neat, a 
horned beast. The word is now obsolete, but is 
sufficiently illustrated by Dr. Johnson, y cat-herd, 
is also well known." 

We now seldom hear neat-herd iu Suffolk, but 
neat beasts and neat cattle, are very common coiii-, 
pounds. The cow-house we call Nettus, i, e. «ea^• 



house; as we call the back^house, Hackf^t^ See 
those words. Neat's-foc^-oil, is, I suppose, a ge- 
neral term. 

Neb. The bill or beak of a bird — the point or 
nib of a pen-^also quaintly the human jiose. So 

How she holds up the neby the hil),* to Mm ! 

And arms ber with the boldness of a wife 

to her allowing husband. WiiUer't Tale. I. f . 

Ray says that ** Neb is of frequent use, tho' not 
for the nose of a man, yet for the bill of a bird, 
and metaphorically for the point of a pen, or the 
long and slender nose of any vessel/* £. W. p* viii, 
Nares shows that Drayton uses the term " sharp- 
neb'd hecco,** meaning the woodpecker. ' 

In Scottish '* Neb is the nose ; used ludicrously 
lang-nebbit, sharp-nebbit — from the Anglo-Saxon 
neb, Icelandic nef, nasus. It is also the beak of a 
fowl." J. 

Neest. Nest— "A hahd's neest.'* In Cheshire 
Neest is the same, and boys go bird *s-neezing. W. 
or, as we call it, ^aAdVneezin. 

NEESt-GULP.. The weakest bird of a brood. — 
The youngest or weakest pig of a litter is called the 
barra-pig — the youngest of other animals^ pitman 
or pinbaskei. A weakly animal is also called IFtft- 
nick. See under those words. In Cheshire '* the 
least of a brood is called Ruckling.^' W. 

NEEZ£N,or6aAc2Vn6eztn^— eeeking bird's nests. 

See Neest* 

Neezle. Insinuating one's self into something 
snug or desirable — from nestle, no doubt The 
same in Cheshire. W« And in other counties pro- 

Nettled. Provok'd, anger'd. " 'A was rude 
timmy — 'a nettled me." As if stung by a nettle. 
This avenging weed is the source of other figurative 


phta^es, that are better unexplained. See Naret 
under Nettle. 

Nettus, or Nettas. The building wherein 
cows are milked. Neat-house perhaps. See of this 
under Bauk, and Neat. We learn from Nares 
that in the days of Massinger, the Neat-home was 
a celebrated garden and place of entertainment at 
Chelsea. The garden was famous for musk -melons. 

The lieat'liouie f()r mnsk -melons, and the gardens 

Where we traffic for asparagus, are to ine 

In the other world. Matting, City Mad. III. 1. 

Kewiltry. An Annuity. But I suspect it to be 
only an individual vulgaxism, and not a word in use. 
1 have heard it but once —and it was thus — ** Well, 
how is poor naabor Smith V " Purely well — why 
he*s come into a newiltry." I "was thus once puz- 
zled by a labourer lamenting that his son.wps 
" draawn for the Oakleys/' meaning, I found onon- 
quiry, the Local Militia. 

News'd. Published in the newspapers. " Ta 
tnah as lyell be news'd a*tonce." New8 and Oath, 
as verbs, are I should think peculiar to Eastern 

Nice. Wc say "what a nice man" — meaning 
pleasant, agreeable, without adverting to any idea 
of daintiness or delicacy or particularity : in which 
senses we also use the word like other people. 

Nickled. Wheat is said to be nickled, or nick- 
lei^ when root-fallen or partially beaten down by 
hail, &c. so as not to come gain to the sickle — or 
when the stem is too weak to support the ear.-^ 
Snaffled has nearly the same meaning. Waited is 
a term somewhat similar, descriptive of the irregular 
standing of other corn, or of grass, &c. but mean* 
rather a regular inclination. Shuckled is another. 
Sec under the words in Italics; and Baffled. 

NiFFLiN. Whining, unhappy — said of a child — 


" a poor nifflin thing/' ft is aUo used in the sense 
of trifling, but not rhyming to ihat word. Nares 
eives several quotations and references showing that 
Nijie, is, used by Chaucer and others in the sense ot* 
a tj-ifle: from a Norman, word ni^e. Hence Nijling, 
trifling — 

F»>r a poor nifling toy, tliat's worse than nothing. 

Lady Alimony. £. 5. b. 

These words were perhaps pronounced nijfle^ 
for Nares adds " A nijffling fellow is sometimes said 
even now, in contempt and means probably the same. 
The expression is current in Devonshire." 

Nigger. The neighing of a horse — or -rather 
the fondling welcome of a mare to her foal ; or 
of two friendly horses after a separation— or 
the eagerness of a horse hearing the corn rustling 
in the sieve. The word occurs in a like sense in 
Nigel. ** Ye needna nigber that gait, like a courser 
at a coup of corn." Snigger is sometimes used 
with us iu nearly a like sense. 

In Scottish according to Jameison *,* nichery veig- 
her, (guttural) nicker, to neigh — An^'lo Saxon 
gnaeg-eUy I eel. hnaeggia, id. or to laugh iu a loud 
and ridiculous manlier." 

.Niggle. A short affected, mincing, pace, or gait. 

*' Ka there — how she niggle along " Also to make 

^ spare, ** We make but poor outs of our'lowahs — we 

niggle it out as well as we can." See Good-outS. 

Nares thus explains this word — '* to trifle or play 

with, also to squeeze out, or bring out slily — 

I had but one poor penny, and ihflt T was obliged to nisgh out. 

Honest M'h. X). PI. ill. 42i^. 

Nine-holes. " A rural game," says Nares, 
** played by making nine holes in the ground in the 
angles anil sides of a square, and placing stones and 
other things upon them according to certain rules," 

This is, , I believe, accurate as far as it goes, of 
our Suffolk game: a hole in the middle is necessary. 


Nares. quotes several authors to show the antiquity 
of the game — among them Herrick, 

Haspe playes of nine«bolesy and *ti& known he geto 
Many a .tester bj his game^ and bets* p. 178. 

He shows that the nine-mens'mcrrice of our an- 
cestors was but another name for nine-holes, 

Ninej a favourite and mysterious number every 
.where, prevails in games. We have/ like others, 
ntne-pms, which we rather unaccountably call ten- 
pins, or rather Tempins, which see; although f 
never saw more than nine used in the game. For 
an enumeration of the names of some of our rural 
juvenile pastimes, see Movball. 

Ninny. A simpleton — also Nmny-hammer. 
and Nincum-poop — used extensively, perhaps, and 

Nip. *' To press any thing betw^n the finger and 
thumb, Bot using the nails ; or With an instrument 
that is flat, as tongs or the! like. To press between 
things that are edged is called pinchmg.*' I have 
taken this word and explanation from Ray's Englbk 
Words, p. viii. The word is used in Suffolk, .1 be- 
lieve, exactly as explained by Ray. It had esca|)ed 
me.' It occurs in Tusser, perhaps in a like sen^e, 
in a passage quoted under Bob. 

iKivvA or NjivviR. Never— evidently only a 
vulgarism. So ivva for ever. The following phrase 
is, or used to bfc, often heard, in the way of putting 
off the expectant interrogatories of a child as to 
when such and such a hope might be realized:— 
•* Tomorrow come nivva — when the dead crow fly 
over the river." 

The first p(Nrtion of this *• Tomorrow confie never" 
I find in Hay, p. ^68, but the poetical termination 
seems to be our own. 

' IjJiYAH or'NEAR. Rhyming to Jire and lear, the 
fat Surrounding the kidney of a roast loin of veal, 
or mutton. AJsp the kidney itself. There art va- 


rious ways of pronouncing these words, A yah. Ear, 
and Nia. 

NoAH*s ARKS. Clouds in an aikite form which 
sometimes spread extensively in the heavens. It U 
believed among us that such a cloud immediately 
preceded and prefigured the deluge— and we still 
confidently expect rain on its re appearance. I will 
note that the figure or form of the cloud, iirhich is that 
of a joined parenthesis () or o is, or has been, among 
all nations and people. East and West, of the most 
mysterious import. Volumes have been written 
on the properties and allusions of this nfystical 
diagram, and many more may be written, before 
the subject, which I think a very interesting one, be 

Nob. The head. See under Costard for several 
Suffolk names for the bead. 

Nobble. A bit — off a loaf, ^c. *' I cut her a 
great nobble off the loaf, and she axed me if wce'd 
any warmin that ad eat it, for she would^nt.'' Thb 
was said of a sturdy; thankless beggar. 

Noble. The navel. 

Noddle. The head — not local perhaps. We 
have many names of the head, of which see under 
Costard: where, however, I have omitted this. 

Noddy A Simpleton. In which sense Shake* 
speare and other of our old writers use it — 

S, — She did nod, and I said, I. 

P.— A.nd that set together i^ no4^y, 

iS^'-Now yoa have taken the pains to set it together, take it 
for your pains. Two G. of F". I. 1, 

We have also, like our ancestors, a ganie call- 
ed noddy, the same, I believe, which we call niddy' 
ngddy; another name of which is the Lord 
Mayor of Coventry. It is played with cards, and 
differs intirely from cribbage, pairs, one- and thirty, 
quiii2e, vingt-un, all of which have been surmized by 
'Commentators on the passages in which this game ii 


meptiooed by our old writers^ to be the same. Nares 
gives a curious article on this matter. Uuder Move- 
all 1 have enumerated some of bur games, but 1 
have not inchided games on the cards. Playing at 
the game under our notice, great emphasis is laid ou 
the final syllable — niddy-noddee ; and the vocal 
parts are sometimes, among familiar friends sung or 
chaunted ; affording considerable amusement. But 
few months have elapsed since I made one at a very 
merry game at niddy-noddy — and as so much has 
been said hereon, I will endeavour briefly to des- 
cribe it. 

Any number can play — the cards are all dealt out — 
the elder hand plays one, (of which he hath a pair or 
a prial^ if a good player) — saying or singing " there's 
a good card for thee/' passing it to his right hand 
neighbour — the person, next in succession who holds 
its pair covers it, saying *' there's a still better than 
be*' ; and passes both onward — the person holding the 
third of the sort (ace, six, queen, or what not) puts 
it on with " there's the best of all three": and the 
bolder of the fourth crowns all with the emphatic — 
•* And there is Niddy-Aoddeee* — He wins the tack, 
turns it down, and begins again. He who is tirst out 
receives from his adversaries a fish (or a bean as the 
case may be) for each unplayed card. 

I do assure the reader that, however dull in des- 
cription, this is an animating and a mirth-exciting 
amusement: and is a good game with young folks, 
being very easy. I trad nearly forgotten to note that 
the fourth player, in some parties, for the last or win* 
ning card, substitutes the slow chaunt of *< and 
there's the Lord Mayor of Cov-en-treee." 

Noggin. Building, with bricks, between the 
studs or upright timbers. It is also called Brick' 
noggin, which see. 

In Cheshire *' the filling up the interstices between 
the timber-work in a wooden building with sticks 
and clay is called the noggingj' W. 


tt is a very old and durable stile bf building. Tlift 
wood seems to outlast the interstitial niasoury. It 
prevailed I believe over most parts of England, but 
is not much adopted in modern tinies. Sometimes 
, the timber is laid diagonally lustead of perpendicu- 
larly. The town hall of Aldborougb is an ancient 
specimen of of Noggin. In Normandy, it is?i very 
common stile of building, and in parts of France,Ger- 
manv, Swisserland and the Netherlands. The word 
does not occur iu Gage's Hengrave; but the follow- 
ing quotation refers to the stile; which is now rarely 
seen in London. The item is among the expences or 
payments at Hengrave Hall in 1574. *• For plaster- 
ing and whitetiin^ the fore front of my mr. his house 
in Coleman street »nd the court, with the blacking 
the timber work, XIrJA*. Vj//." p. 202.. 

In Staffordshire, and probably iu the neighbouring 
shires, this mode of building is called Paney — from 
resembling the jtanes of windows. Some very elabo- 
rate -and lofty specimens, in patterns,^%vith the timber- 
work blackened, as heretofore in Colemaii street^ are 
still seen in Statlbrd, and other towns in that quarter. 
It is not inaptly named after the tracery ov pants of 
windows. In Scottish, pans is de4$cribed by Jamei- 
sou as a similar slile of building. 

Na MATTERS. The first syllable of matters 
open and ling— not very well. •* 1 don't fare no 
luattei's." ** 'A dcn't behave to me no matters." 

Nonce. See Noonce. 

NoNNAK, Light irregular work, or jobs,^ little 
better thvui idling. ** 'A cent able to dew a day's 
work — 'a nonnwk about now and ten," -. 

NoNNAKEN. Idliu*!, dawdling. See Dawi>le. 
NunnakeHi is sometimes heard. "Come, store, 
store, don't keep nannaken yar time, awah." Saw-- 
neyken, is a similar word. 

NoNNAKS. Jibes — ^^fcars. ** Corne^ none 'a yar 
noeaaks now," 


NoONCB. Purpoftely — design^dly-^-for the pnr- 
)>o»e ; generally in a bad sense. " 'A did it for the 
Boonce'' or maliciously. It is archaic, but not used 
exclusively in a bad sense, as in Suffolk. 

Chaucer often uses it, spelling it nones. 

The miller was a stout man for the nonet. 

Fall big was he of braon and eke of bones. Can. TaUt, 

Again in a quotation under Heit. 

In Ritson*8 Metrical Romances, the following* 
couplet occurs in a ballad detailing some of the 
exploits of our Richard in Palestine — this was eat^ 
ing a Saracen^s head— 

The Kkig ate the flesh and gnew tlie bonety 
And ^rauk well after for the nonet, 

GntWy which see, is also Suffolk. 

In a tittle dialogue called ** 'Tis merf)' wbell 
g-ossips meet," printed in 1609, this verse occurs 
m the confession, or rather boAsting, of one of 
Jthem — 

Then if he s<ees me out 6f paiienco once. 
Then do I sigh to grieve hiiu for ihe 'nona«» 

I never heard the word out of Suffolk, where it 
is in every day use. But, somewhat curiously, after 
the common disuetude of centuries, it is aow again 
coming into literary usage. It has lately been a- 
dopted in modern parlance by one of our iea;ding 
quarterly vehicles of criticism— and again in a dia- 
logue of the time of the Crusader in lvanhoe^--aot 
in a bad or complaining seuse. " I fear '' said the 
Black Knight *f that there is no one here qualified 
to take upon him for the nencet ^^^ character of 
Father Confessor." II. 190. 

U is now likely to be again restored, if not in 
speech, in the pages of legendary writers. Junius^ 
Skinner, Walker, Johnson, and other Lexicogra* 
phers have.son^e discussions on this v>'ord. Walkci 
calls it ** obselete*' — but says "it is still used in fa- 
nsitiar eonversation.** 


U occurs several times in Shakespeare. The King 
in Hamlet sa^s, , 

Wben he caMs for driiiky 1*11 have ptcfenr*d bim a chalioe fur ^ 
Oie nonce, h hereon but sipping, &c* iv. 7. 

Paint. Our ▼iaort. we will change ; and Sirrah, I have caaet 
of bucJ^ram for \he nonce, to inma»k our noted outward gar* 
nients. 1. K, H. 4. i t. 

On this passage T^rrwhtt nofes^— " That is, as I 
conceive, /or fAe ocrasion. This phrase, whirh was 
very frequently, though not always very precisely, 
lised by our old writers, 1 suppose to have been orir. 
ginally a corruption of corrupt Latin — from fro-- 
nunc, I suppose came for the naciir, and so far ihe^ 
nance , just as from ad-nunc came a-iioii. The Spa- 
nish entonce- has been formed in the same manner 
from til func." 

Far the n^nee^ occurs again in K» H. 6. ii. 3. fn 
Scottish . *' Nane$, or Nanjifs : for the nanys, on 
purpose. From the Swedish gothic naenn-m, to pre* 
vail with one*s self to do a thin^ *' J. 

Since the preceding was written Nares* Gloasaiy 
has come into my hand : he notes that the word, 
which he spells nance and nonet, is of doubtful ety- 
mology — and quotes passages where it occurs from 
Shakespeare, Drayt<»n, Bishop Latimer, and the 
Mirror for Magistrates. 

We give the oo a full open sound — and variously 
pronounce the word nooncet nwmei, and noamt, 

NooNlNi^. The lunch, or nunch, about noon~- 
the snac^ at other times of the day have significant 
names. — See Bevbr and Nunch. '* Nooning, re^^ 
pose at noon — a cant word.*' Walker, 

Nope. I am told that this is a Suffolk name of 
the bull-finch, but I never heard it. We call it 
Alp or Olpf and by other names. See Alp. I 
quote tha following from Nares. 

"Nope, a butt'Jinch. 'RubictUa, a bull-finch, 
a hoop, and bull-spink, a nope.* MerreU*$ Pinax. . 


p. 170. ' One of many provincial names given to 
that Tnrd. 

p To pltilomel (he next* the linnet wr prefer. 

And bjr that warbilng bird the wood-lark piace we then, 
The red -spar row, the nopty the red4)rea«), and the wreUt'v 
The yellow-pate. Drajfi^ PolyoLb. x\\\, 915. 

*' By the red-sparraWf he probably meant what is 
now called the reMnparrow: The yellow-pate is 
ihf^:yeUmp-hamme$\\\ > 

• 'I he la»t' named bird we call the YMlhhammanty 
which see. We have the reed-sparrow, bnt no 

I may tfote» that olp^ if pronoanced ope, fts if 
smnetimes is, may be the origin- of nope ; an. ope; 
and a nope, differ as little as possible. So it has 
been surmized that en awl^ and a nail, are the same. 
See Nall, and Nottamy. Spink seems to be a 
name for th^ finch tribe, pretty extensively; but 
not so, I think, with us. The chatiinch we call 
SpinXi which see. 

Nottamy or Nottamizb. A skeleton. " 'Tis 
nawn but a Nottomize"— " He's wasted to a Not-, 
tamy." Said of a very thin horse, or of a wasting 

It is probable that Ottomy, or Attomy, which 
occur in our old writers, are the same corruptions' 
Off anatomy. An otaniy, or a notama\, are as tike 
as possible. Similarly an ope and a nope ; an awl 
and a nawl, have been confounded. See Nall and 
Nope. Nares, under Atomy , gives a quotation 
from Shakespeare, to our present purpose—* 

JM., Goodman deathy go<iduian bones, 
Hotr. Thou aUmitf thiiu. t K. Hen, 4. v. 4. 

Nous. Sense, understanding, cleverness. ''Ah, 
'a don't want for nous." This is good Greek as 
well as good Suffolk->9oiw» 

Nowanten. Noiv and then — occasionally. — 
See Mint and Nonnak. 



Ho^u The head. It is said to be a Saxon 
word : heace Knoll for a head land or a moimd of 
earth. We have a great many quaint names for 
the head ; of which see under Costard. 

Shakespeare uses nowli for head— 

An atsea nowl I fixed on hit head* Mid* N, !>• Hi. t. 

And Tusser — 

Strike off themwIi^Of ddVWlg mottU. p. 103. 

In Scottish <' Know; a liUle hill, from the Teu- 
tonic knolU, a hiilock.'^ J. Jobamowi, which see, is 
a thick-headed fellow. 

As well aa in Shakespeare this word is found 
among other of our early authors.— -I take the fol- 
lowing from Nares. 

Then came October full of merry gtee* 

And jet his mmU was totty of the rauit 

W'hich hettas treading. &pen$. F. Q. VII. Tii. 89. 

I mean the bantard law.brood, which can mollifie, 

AH kinds of causes in their craftie n^les, . < 

Mirr, Mag, p. 407. 

Nozzle. See Nuzzle. 

Nub. The back part of the neck, jusf under the, 
occiput. Nudd/e in 1 believe the same; tlie nape as. 
it is called elsewliere. As well as nape, we also say 
the scvff or skmff of the neck ; all I fancy mean the 
same part. See Nuddlr. 

NuDDLC. The nape of the neck ; which we call 
also the A'ii^, Sknff, emd Skiuff, which see. Ihe 
foliowiog is a popular cure for the ague. "Cut a 
lock of hair from the nuddle of the neck and hang 
it in the doke of the stummock." See Doke. But 
Ihe charm is not good without certain words and 
ceremonies that I have forgotten or am ignorant of. 
fiuddle is also used in a sense of stooping to a tire- 
some degree. Reaping wheat which was waited or 
laid, I lately heard a man say ** twas sich nvddlin 
work." Another would perhaps have said nmdlin,- 
heating, tiring, peq7le.\ing. 

Nudge. To jog one: a man snoring would be ' 



nudged by bjs wife with her elbow, or vi. ver,. If 
differs from fudg^. The latter is rather to poke or 
disturb with a stick. 

Nu M POST. A deiifness or disorder in the ear or 
head. — " Numpost i 'the hid/' An imposthumt pro- 

NuNCH. The same, perhaps, as Lunch. launch- 
eon, and Luncheon,' are old words This Tnajr 
have been noonckeon, or noornins — See the fatter 
word. " Nttncion — an afternoon's repast.'* Cotkcf, 
1724. 3rd £(i ** Noomkun, written, also Nunvh- 
ion; a repast taken at noon, usually between other 

Harvest folks, with cutdi and cluiited creamei 

With cbcese mid butter cakes, tuid fatt> euow, — 
On sheaves oi come were a( th« ir tiotmshutis close. 

BrOM^n, hrit. Hunt. P. «. p. ^. 

Nuncliion is in Hudibras. See Johnson/' . Nares' 67, 
The word enow, as a noun of number, i^ in coir}<* 
mon use with as. See Enow iii this Collection : 
and in Walker's tlictionary. 

NtJNR. Noon — Autauune, afternoon. Olie of 
the substitutions of the acule u for oo, as uoiiced 
under Butts. 

Not. Not. "I'd rutha nut." 

NUTH A. Neither. It rhymes lo mother. See 

Nuzzle. Applied to any thing done with the 
nose. ** Let um alone, hell nuzzle it out" — would 
be said of a dn^ keenly seeking g^rime or vermin. 
One dispo>e(l to pry about his neighbours concerns, 
or as the vulgar phrase is *' poking liis nose about," 
would be said to be " alius a nuzzlin about.*' Tlie 
nozzle of the bellows and the spreading top of the 
candlestick, we are apt to caii the nozzle. The 
word is also used in the sense of nestle^ or nursh — 
thus a child nestling close to, or in its mother's 
breast, would be said to nuzzle there. 



Oat-pug HT or Flights. The light chaff of 
oats, used sometimes for the stuffing of bed pick' 
tin, or ticking, in the lack of feathers. 

Oath. We ase this word rather singularly* I 
think, as a verb,—" 'Tis true— I'll oath it." Ano- 
ther of our verbs is unusual. See Nbwsd. 

Obstropolus. Obstreperous. I qu«te the 
following as a humourous illustratioo: but do not re- 
fer to my authority, as the less it is known the better. 
'* I was going my rounds* and fouud this here gem- 
man werry ebstropolost wheteof I comprehended 
him as an auspicious parson." 

Occasion. *' Gone for his occasion," or *' on 
his occasions " in a particular sense of neecssitjf, not 
demanding further explanation. 

Od bat it. Od rabbit it. Moderated impre- 
.cations, of which we^ and others, have many. Od 
rot it, od rot tie it,drot it, &c, among them ; of which 
some notice is taken under Amenden, 

Qr. We use this preposition in, I think, an nnu- 
sual way — redundantly — " I missed of him" — "Taste 
of it." — " He is leaving of him." 

Of a fire. On fire— "Twas all of afire in 
a moment." 

Off-corn. Light grain — not fit either for mar- 
ket, seed, or grinding. It is nsuaily given to poul* 
try, or other stock. So Tusser — 

Such off'Corn as cumeth give wife to her fee ; 

Feed williiiglj^ such as do help to feed thee. p. S62. 

Old nick. The devil ; pretty generally perhnps. 
For the origin and spread of this name Nares may 
be profitably consulted under Nicholas. 

' Old* scaatch. Satan — so named, probably, 
from his formidable claws, as popularly depicted, 
and recognized^ Owd Scratch, Owd Nick, is our 


pronunciation. Owd an, for Old one, par exeellence, 
IS another name of this polyononious personage. 

Old Sow. That species of millepedes which, on 
being touched, or interrupted, roils itself up in the 
shape and size of a pill. It is sometimes swallowed 
as a cure for the ague. 

O L D -w I r c H . That species of cock chafer which 
the boys spin bv tke hard !!>hedth of it^ win^, on a 
pin. The unfortunate name ma)', perhaps, have led 
^o the practice ; and to a diminished feeling of com* 
misseration for the sufferings of the spinnee. This 
sluggish stupid animal is sometimes called buzzard, 
which see ; and daw, another uame for a beetle. 

Good faitb, I am no wiser than a daw. 1 K, H, 6. ii. 4, 

Olp. The bull-fittch, pronounced soraetimet 
Ope, This interesting bird b also called Nape, 
which see ; and Alp, 

On. Of—" The whole toot on em."' Also the 
privative particle un, as showed in several articles 

On CHANGE. Uuchange — change or rechange. 
Like unloose, this word seems to have a redundant 
syllable. In clinching a bargain between two 
boys, the following formula renders it irrevocable. 
" Wha*s yar shues made onl" — Ans, ** Luthar*' — 
** Bahn-bahn for ivva — mver ouchange no more." 

On DENIABLE. Undeniable— Undisputed. "An 
ondenyable loot path." '* An oudenyable plant" — 
plenty of young clover, carrots, corn, &c. In Che- 
shire, undeniable \s " good; with which no fault can be 
found. An undeniable road is not only a long esta- 
blished road, but also one in perfect repair." W. 
This is precisely our Suffolk sense. 

One-sh BAR-SHI P. A sheen between one and 
two years old : Shearling: or Shear land, is another 
name for a sheep— (or Mp, both in the suigular and 
plural with us>--of a year old. Of this sec under 


Okoain* Unsteady — unprofitable — UDprouiising 
—unhandy: See Gain. 

On POSSIBLE. Impossible. Unpos$ible we com- 
monly* use ; as did our ancestors. 

Onsensed., Senseless, from a blow — faiuting^ 
&c. Also elemented, from insanity. 

Ontoward. Unsteady — similar to Ongain, 

Open. Not spayed — a sow or a cow-^especially 
the former. 

Oranges and Lemons. A juvenlje pastime, 
playable by both boys and girls. I believe it is 
nearly the MHnie as piumb-puHding and roast beef. 
See under Moveall for a catHlogue, and why I do 
not attempt a vatalogue raiaonuee, of our variety of 
sportive gaities. 

Orai ion. a public talk, a noisy rumour. One 
lately arraigned tor theft, Siiid he intended to res- 
tore the goods that he pretended to have found — as 
he *• expected there would be an oration about 
4bem, sunt" 

Orts. Rhimin^ to shorts. Leavings, frag- 
ments, of turnips, &c. left by sheep or cows. Shake- 
speare uses it. 

lis some poor fragment, some slender art of bis rcDiamder. 

r.o/*il. iv. S, 

Again. — 

The fractions of her faith, ortt of her lore. 
The fragments, scraps, the bits and greasy relics 
Of her o'er eaten faith. Tro. ^ Cr€U» v. 2. 

Ray has this economical Proverb, " Evening arts 
are good morning fodder.*' p. 103. And in p. 283»t 
he gives it as a Scottish Proverb. Jameison gives it 
at a verb. "To Ort; to throw aside provender: 
orda in Irish, a frifgmenf .'* • 

Nares says '* Ort ; a scrap or trifling fragment of 
any thing; of obscure derivation. It is sufficiently 
illustrated by Dr. Johnson and his last Editor, who 


laark it as obselete. I think, however^ tfatitit it not 
quite disused. It is seldom fouod in the singular. 

Let him have a beggar^s orti to crave. 

sSakes. Rope of'Lucrcee. 551* 

Sancbo had in a short time choked bimaeif with the ingurgi- 
tated reiiques and ortt of the Canon's provision. GayL Fut* 

I am not aware of much, if any, difierence between 
0rt9 and Chaie8, which see. The singular is not 
heard. In an O. D. A* I find " Oris, mammocka 
or scraps of meat" Mammuck is a Suffolk word* 

OuD or Own. Old — So gowd, cowd, for gold, 
cold, &c. See Aninnd. 

Ours. Our house. '* We shall be glad to se^ 
you at ours." See Mine. 

Oirr A HEART. Worn out, as applied to land— 
or down hearted, to a man. Land over -cropped, 
requiring rest, tilth, and manure, would be so de- 
signated. I was reminded of this phrase by seeing 
it in Tusser — who * though, not aware of the import- 
ance of alternating white an<t green crops, had 
found out that two successive white crops, was 
un{N:ofitable. husbandry. 

Where barley ye sow after rjc or else wheat. 

If laud be unlusly the crop U not great: 

So lose je your cost, to your corsie and smart. 

And land (overburdened) is clean out of heart, p. 3dw 

Agaili — 

Who slacketh his tillage a carter to be. 

For grOat got abroad, at bome shall lose three ; 

And so by his doing he biiugs out rfheetrt. 

Both land lor the comj and his horse for the cart* p. 108. 

Corsie is a strange word to me. By ** groat got 
abroadt" he means lettmg horses to work for others, 
in neglect of one's own land. 

Out a the wah. Out of joint— the shouldet, 
ancle, wrist, &c. — something wrong. ** *A put 
Vs sheowda out o* the wah." " I think ytow sf 
"■'erry much out a the wah if ye sah so/' 



QuiVAXT. Tbe bariris, or siMi, ^f a pair hav- 
iqg been tbrice published, they are said to be out' 
axi' See Sibsit. 

Out-haw L. To scour out or clean, or fe^ a 
ditchf or pond. See Fay. 

OoTS. See Good outs, and Pooa outs. 

Ov£R6ivE. To exude or ferment; or becom- 
ing moist. Gingerbread losmo: its crbpness in cfamp 
Iveather, or salt or sujitar becomin;^ moist, are daid 
to overghf — or frost breaking up lit NoHblk, frost 
breaking; up, or a tendency to thaw, is said to /or- 
giv€. The wcrds have probably a common origin-^- 
though whence I know not. 

Oyerpker. Projecting, as a coping brick, or 
the eaves of a house. Eviciently pveriookp in which 
sense Shakespeare uses it in Coriolanus, ii. 3. 

■ The fluftf on antique time wuulu lie «n«wcj>t» 

And mouniaiiMus error be too bigUj heaped 
For truth to iwerpeer. 

Again, in 1 K. Hen 6. i. 4.' 

In yonder tower to everpeer Ihc city* 

And again in 3. K, JUem, B, finely typifying prM- 
trate monarchy — 

Tbiis yields the cedar to the axes edge, 
Whose aniiS gave shelter to the princel,y eagle» 
Voder whuse shade the ram pins lion slept ; 
Whose top-branch over petr*d Jove's spreading tree» 
And kept low shrolM Irom winter's powerful wind. t. 2» 

Thus Nares. " To averpeer ; to peer over, or over- 

— — The pageants of the sea 
Po over-peer the petty traffickers. M* rf V,h 1, 

OvERWART. Ploughing lund across* Sec 
Wart. The proper word is, no doubt, Oeerthwart: 
under which Nares gives /several illustrative quota- 
tions. He explains it '* cross, contradictory, contra- 
ry'. It. i»-- rather' extraordinary," he adds "that 
this word which appears to have been in great favor 


with many of his contemporaries, is if of once used 
by Shakespeare." 

OWD Shub Ad old shoe; which I introduce for 
the purpose of uoiiciug that we slflt retain the 
phrase of ** throwing an owd shue aater one" for 
good luck. 1 do not suppose that the ciistom is ac- 
tually io use» if it ever was. I quote the following 
from Nares. . 

Shot'OUt. To throw an old shoe after a person was consider- 
ed as lucky. This superstition Is not ^e t I believe exUnct. 
I have formerly known examples of it. 

Hurl after an uM shoe. 

1*11 be merry what ever I do. 

B. Johm, Matqiie cf Gipsies, VI« B4. 

» ■ * • 

He gives several other qijotations shoyving the 
prevalence of tbej piirase; and refers to others in 
Brand's Pop. Antiq. 4lo.,IL 490. 

1 mav here add that I have seen a horse-shoe nail- 
ed on a^cottage threshold as a preservative against 
a witch — the idea bein«; that she could not step 
over cold iron. We retain a number of popular 
superstitions that might, perhaps, be profitably col- 

Owe. Owns — possesses, " Hue owe that there 
hossl" — " Mr. Johnson he owe it." See He. It 
is as common a word in Suffolk as in Shakespeare. 

What art thou that keepett me from the house I owe 9 Com, tfEr. 

I am not worthy of the wealth I otet. 

Aid W. that Ends W. ii. 5. 

Tills is no sound that the earth owes. Tempest* 

AH perfections that a man may owe* L, L» L, ii. .1. 

■ I That ail the miseries which nature owes 
Were mine at once. All's W, that JEnds \V, iii, 3. 

He died 

^ As one that hath been stuHieii in his death. 
To throw away the dearest thing he ow^d. 
As 'twere a careless trifle. Macbeth^ i. 4. 

You make me strangQ . 
Even to the disposition that I owCf 
When now I think you can behold sach Mghts> 


And. ktep tho natural ruby of vour cliedu* 
Whiie mine are blanch'd with &ar. lb, ili, 4. 

Be pleased then 
To pay ibat doty, which you truely owe 
To him that imes it. K, John, ii* 2. 

I will not harm thine eyea^ 
For all the treasure that thy unde ovei. lb. iv, i. 

Bear our hack*t targets like the men that owe them. 

JmU 4* CtMfw ir. 8. 

Not poppy nor mandragora^ 
Kor all the drowsy svrups of the world. 
Shall ever nied*cine thee to that sweet sleep^ 
Which thou otoedett yesterday. Othello ill* 9. 

Where were you bred? 
And how achie^ d yon these endowraentsy which 
You make more rich to owef P. P. rfJ^fre v. 1. 

Lend less than thou owest — Lear 1. 4. 

So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called. 
Retain that dear perfect i^iiy which heowti 
Without that title. R. j- J. u 4. 
FaUtaff—SiTT&h, what says the doctor to my water? 
Page. He said, Sir, the water itself was a good healthy water 
— it)ut. for the party that owed it,, he might have more diseases 
than ^e knew of. S. JT* H. 4. i* 1. 

Aiid in twenty other passages. 

Nares gives examples of the use of this word from 
Shakespeare, B. &. Fl. Massinger, Pembroke, 
and Drayton, in the sense of " to own, have or 
pbssess." He adds ** This sense is extremely coin* 
nion in Shakes|>eare tind all his contemporaries. So 
in the authorised translalion of the Bible — Acfaxxi, 

So shall ihe Jews at Jerusalem^ bind the man that oweth thii 

This, and many olher old words, have heen tacit- 
ly changed in the modern edition; but I find otueik 
here as late as 1708.*' 

Ewe, which see, is our perfect sense of the verb 
to owe, 

OwLEN. Prying — examining. Owiing — like an 
owl. Of an inquisitive, prying, idle person it Will 
be said ** *A go owlcii about," 


OwLGtutLBRiN. The same, or neaily at Ouflm^ 

OwLT. Half stupid, tired» ** I 'a bio op all nigjbt 
aa fare kienda Qwly this morning/' Disposed to 
tMpe perhaps, as an owl is said to do in the djay 
lime. " The moping owl does to the moon cqm- 
plain.'' But I do not like to hear my favorite bird 
spoken of disparagingly • See Muddle. 

Own. Acknowledge:— in this sense-r^a paii|Qi]k|>, 
neglecting his or its offspring is said not to owf% i(* 
Aj/QWp for instaj^ce, refusing to snckle itsi l^b^-* 
** She o'ont own it." A ferret refusing to go.i^;i^: 
a rabbit's burrow — it will not go iq if there be no 
rabbit in it — " *a o'ont own it." I lately heard thf^ 
following said to a neglected child lly its granc)* 
father, " If yar dad o'ont own ye, Jack bawb|, t 

In the Ed. Rev. toI:131. p. 18, it is remarked oi^ a 
Scottish idiom, " that the verb to own is not u^ed. 
in.l^giand, in the sense which it bears here; name- 
ly, to support or Uf favor. It is not to be found in 
Jameison. This Scottish acceptation of the word 
is. easily derived from one of it^ £aglish^ significa-. 
ti.ons, in wliich it is synpnymous with to atww." 

It is true that in Engliuid generally the above 
verb is not in usage-rrbut it is extremely common 
in SuiFolK, in the; sarnie sen^, or very nearly, aa ia 
Scotland, i thiiik the above etymology by no mea^a. 
bappy. ** He owns it" — i. e. acknowleages it for 
"his own. '* He, won't owii it," or coofesa it to. be. 

OwT. Ought- See Paj. 


OxTJER. Tbe.arm pit. 

Oynt, or Ai»t, which see — to anoint. So, or 
0yhntg in Scottish* J. 

Oystbr^ One is really sometimes at a loss how, 
to explain words so as not to offend the delicate 
sens^ji^itttic^, of on^'s. readers* The wqrd uoiw under 
consideration, M^k^Qok and l^gmb'ifr/l€gf is. scarceisp 

2 a 


describable. It is^ in brief^ a gross, tbick^ viscid, 


Pa. An abbreviation of pa-pa. Prett^f general 
perhaps. It is sometimes rather comic to hear a 
great chuckle-headed lout — ^pna-ing his father — or 
fnaa-'ing his mother. Out of their teens, it is, per- 
haps, as well if yoiing ladies even were to drop this 
apparent affectation of infantine phraseology. But 
it is not affectation. It is merely a continuance of 
a habit. 

Paddock. A small piece of pasture, near home» 
It is also a toad, of which see under Pod dock. 
The first is the name iu Scotland, though not ^iven 
by Jameison; who has, however, Paddock-sio^it the 
Agmneus in general, especially the varieties of the A* 
Jifhetdrius, Tuetonic, Paddon-sieel, fungus. And 
he has Pade as Scottish for a toad; from the Ang. 
Sax. Pade and German Padde, id. 

Pah. a monitory exclamation to a child to avoid 
stepping into any thing unseemly in its path, or 
generally to avoid any thing unbecoming.' It is 
also a particle of reprehension, consequent on 
certain untidy infantine occurrences; re-iterated 
during the process of shifting the unsavoury swad-^ 
lings. Pronounced less open and broad than in the 
preceding sense it means pay ; so sak for say ; lah 
for lay. Pah is sometimes equivalent to a blow, or 
a beating, " That's right— paA um right well." In 
Scottish " Pay, a drubbing." J. 

Pah MAC ITT. Spermaceti. So Shakespeare— 

And telling me the aovereign*tt thing on earth 

W as parmacity for an inward bruiz^. 1 . K* Hok 4. i. 5. 

PAHPU3. Purpose, ** I cum a pahpns.*' See 

Pah-tard. The straw yard. Qu.fromP«f/fe.^ 
or from Pah, uncleanly. See under the latter. 


Paj or Pa|ij. ^ Pronounced very short. , A purg«- 
in all its senses; substantive and verb. *' *AV 
taken a paj this mawnin» an 'a fare but kiender 
tuly." This is evidently ^ reply to an enquiry into 
a neighbours health. The tbUdiM'ing is a whole- 
some piece of advice as to fallowing a field. " Ta 
owt ta be stored ahly an then lah ta paj.** I dp 
not know if this requires translation ; but if ta dew, 
the following is the same in common Englbh, with 
an interpolated gloss-—'' It ought to be stirred 
(ploughed) early » and then lay to purge'* (itself 
of weeds, to be ploughed in at the second ploughing.) 
Of a horse we should say " *a*v got a Pahjen, 'a 
eeent well.** Or " 'A'v got the Skuttas." The 
effect in man or beast without medical cause is ajso 
called, as elsewhere perhaps, tharragonimble. See. 

Paeava. Idle, deceptive talk — '* Come now; 
none of yar palava." The word has got into yery 
extensive use from Spain, through Ei^lanCf, to the 
shores of India ; and to the interior of Atnerica. In 
ScotUsh **Palaver, idle talk. Spanish, pahtbra,'^ J. 

PamiiSkas. See Pramiskas. 

Pamments. Thin square whitish bricks, for 

Pample. Trample. Sheep, footing or tramp- 
ling, over a new bank, &c. as they are wont, are 
said to ** pample it about.*' 

Pane. A portion or slip of measured work set 
out fQr labourers to.dig. " Have you done digging 
in the orchard 1 ** No — we are on the last pane.** 
Kench, is a word something similar. 

Pannikin A little vessel or pan for warminig 
children's pap, &c. A diminutive of pan : like lamb« 
kin, bul-kin, &g. and Shakespeare's canniken in 

Pat* a stroke ; used somewhat hyperbolicalSy ; 
as '^ a pat i' the head*' is sometimes a sjcrious matter. 



It u more especially the puhbhment inflicted by a 
t>edagogoe ou the palm of unruly boys, with an 
iinplement contrived for the purpose, appropriately 
called a pattet\ Custard is a quaint name for this 
species of pat ; which, I > find; I have sufficiently 
lioticed under that word. In Scotland '* Pawmie, is 
a stroke on the hand with a ferula." J. 

Pate. The head — one of our names,and I believe 
not a very confined one, as noticed under Costahb. 

Pavnch. We hse this word as a verb as well as 
k- substantive. '* Pauneh that rabbit" — but we 
hM, a hare. See Hulk and Wezzen. Paunek'd 
decurs in a quotation under DlNO. 

Paupussbs. Paupers — a sadly increasing shoaL 

Pawhts or P AHTS. Flat pieces of board, about 
a loot square, fastened 'on tiie feet by -stiiogs or 
&esga» to enable the wearer to walk over soft hhmI 
or oece at low wat^ ia rivers, whea fttapatchiaii^ 
babbiag for erabs^ &c. See Bab»ing. The w«f(A 
is 9oiNeti»ies pronounced fWfsv and Po^^ kk 
Cheshire and Lancashire the verb ** Pot^ or Pawi is 
to kick with one foot." W. Fn Scottish, ^' P^aut, 
to paw^^a stMi^ rft tire ground widi ^ie feot^ — 
Tuetonic, paite, the paw of a beast/' J. 

PaWkY. a* awktvard, tall, «im->eft4egged lad, 
or maa. 

Paxwax. The strong tendinous ligament, or 
aponeari^ffi, in i^t nedc of brotvi^ag ammafs.«— 
Lig^dli<>tatiim auc/hae-'-^Hespeelally that (xiittion in a 
neitk of Veal. Kay ds^ys this word is cotnpt&ti all 
over England. Unnteas uses it. 

pAt f tit ft MPPlERtftGfE. k Bchool bo>f hstvkig 
oa a aew suit of clothes is s^ubfected to have a but- 
«^ pall^ ^offuntesa he <^'pay the pepperMge," by 
giving a douceur to his play fellows.j 

ffeAOift, The eotfsfip. PtagU nvtee is ii vcYy 
dclitiotts btftetitgtr. '* A% yufta as a peagle" it 



ftaid of a sallow atrabilious person. " As blake 
( i. e. yell6w) as d paigle " is given* by Ray, as a 
Yorkshire proverb, p. 277. Among his S. and E. 
country words he has " A Paigle, a Cowslip ; in 
Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk : Cowslip with us 
signifying what is elsewhere called an OxslipJ' — 
E. W. p. 83 1 never heard Oxslip in Sxrifolk, but 
I have heard it asserted, tho' not well supported, 
that the Peagle is, not the Cowslip, but the yellow 
butter-cup. Tusser, among his **strewing-herbs," 
enumerates ** Cowslips and Paggles,'* p. 121 — and 
in p. 125, among *• Herbs and Flowers, for windows 
and pots " are " Paggles, green and yellow/^ But I 
do not exactly see what he means. 

. Under Pagk, or Paigky Narcs has, '* A cowslip. 
Gerard particularly applies the name to the double 

Biue-belU, pagles, pansies, culanuiith. B. Jent, Miisq, 

In an O. D. A, is " Paigles, or cowslips." 

Peakin. Sickly — said mostly of a drooping 
child.- " Peaking, that is of a sickly constitution,*' 
Old. Diet. An. 

Pea-make. See Make. 

Peasen. Pease. Peason occurs very often in 
Tusser. It is perhaps the Saxou plural. Although 
peas be a sutlicieutly analogous plural oi pea^ some 
anomaly has crept into our old writers in thin mat- 
ter, as is shown by Nares — a pease, is used by 
Spensar, and B. & Fl. and others. But I must bo 
content to borrow the following r|uotatiou only — 

A green goose nerves Easter with gooseberries drcst; 

And Julv afTbid us a dish of green peason ; 
A collar of brawn is a new-vear's tide feast; 

But sack is lor ever and ever in season. 
£sto perpttua, H» Crompton, 

r Peckish. Hungry — an inclination toward the 
peck-loaf, perhaps. 

Pej>, a basket — a pannier — hence, perhaps, 

^2 A 3 

. 270 

fti'lsLf, or one wlio travel a foot, with such a basket. 
D Korwich an assemblage whither women briu; 
ttteir small wares of ei^s^ chickens, &c. to sell, is 
called the Ped-market. In Dorsetshire, panniers 
are called dorsers — dorsal possibly, from being car« 
lied on the back. Ray says " Dorsers are peda or 
jmainter« carried on the backs of horses, on which 
higlers used to ride and carry their commodities. 
li seems this homely, but most useful instrument, 
was either first found out, or is the most generally 
used, in this county, (Dorset); where fish jobbers 
bring up their fish in such contrivances, above an 
hundred miles, from Lime to London." p 240. 
In his N. country words he has ** A whisket, a bas- 
ket, a skuttle or shallow Ped.^* E. W. p 66. See 
iSilOLEEi. Tusser uses Ped, See GoOF. verse 5. 
In Scottish " Pedder, a pedlar, from the barbarous 
latin pedar-ius, nu<lis ambulans pedibus/ J. 
Nares'explains '* Ped, a basket" and illustrates it with 
this quotation. ** A haske is a wicker ped» wherein 
they used to carry fish." Gloss, to Spenser, He 
adds that ped occurs in Tusser. See Todd — and 
that " Johnson derived ped-lar from petty-dealer, 
by contraction : it is more probably from carrying a 
ped. Minshew from afler an pied, still worse." Gl. 

tJnder former articles I have said enough, per- 
haps too much, on this subjeet. See HigleR, and 
^ KlIiplER. If these should uot suffice, the reader 

may profitably consult Nares, under Dossers. From 
his article Pinbouke, I will, boviever, make one 
other short extract, as bearing on the latter part of 
my article last referred to. It is he says, **a sort of 
vessel. When Moses brought water out of the rock, 
the Israelites, says Drayton, ran to catch it, and 

In pail d, kits, disbes hasonst pin'boukes, boWls, 

Their scorched bosoms merriij they baste. Mates, B. iii.*' 

Peel. The long-handled shovel with which 
bread, &c, is thrust into a hot oven, or taken out. 


It h aji oldm^rd, as appears in Kares^ who quotes 
thi» passage from B. Jonson^-^ 

O, he has those flashes df Ms oven-^a notable hot bakeri 
when he plied the peei. Bart, Fair. \\\. 1, 

Pe£p-b6 a nursery pastime^ in which a child is 
amused by the alternate hiding and exposure of the 
face ; " suiting the word to the action." The term 
h extended to the occasional obscuration of a debtor^ 
or of one accused of any thing rendering bis visibi- 
lity inconvenient. '* He's playing at Peep boo " 
'' Fasi and loose/' is another term of equivalent 
force, as noticed under that article. Another is 
" Hide an find" which see. 

Peewit. J" € crested plover, or lapwing, evi- 
dently from its p, 3^ing note : so in Scotland ^'Pee- 
wit, from the sound, or allied to the Swedish u^ipa, 
a lapwing." J. We also call it Horn-pie. I sup- 
pose the following entry among the expences at 
Bengrave Hall in 1574, refers to this interesting 
bird, which, however, I did not imagine was car- 
nivorous. *' For iij livers for the puets and the 
other mewed fowls yjd." Gage*s Hen. p. 202. 

Pbg\ a quaint word for a blow or thump ; and 
especially for that operation m boxing, which in 
certain societies in London is called Jibbing, and 
chancery ing. We use peg in another sense :-^ 
** Come, peg off," be off, away. The word is 
similarly current in Scotland : and is derived, in itft 
first sense, by Jameison, from the Icelandic />tacA-<^, 
frequenter puugo. This word peg, is omitted in 
its pugnacious sense in the list of offensive vocabltait 
given under Aint. 

Pelt. A word of offensive import, like so many 
enumerated under Aint. " Til gic ye a pelt i' th^ 
bid." Also to throw, annoyingly, as in oth^i* 

Peltry. Skins— *' A dealer in peftrj^.'' Cocket 
has " Pelt the skin of a dead sheep." In Scottish 

272 • 

" PeUryt vile traab, frpip the Swedish paUor, old 
ragt, or pelt, a skin." J. 

Pend. Pressure, strain, force, stress* " There's 
the pend": the point of pressure. 

PbnNiXWAgtail. The water-wagtail. Mota- 
cilhi boarula. 

Pe n n ywi n kle. The highly flavoured little shell- 
fish called else-where perriwinkle; and hy uS) more 
commonly and more appropriately. Pin-patch, 
which see. 

Pensey. Complaining, sickly, dull, thoughtful^ 
from the French penser, probably. 

Pentis. a pent-house or lean-to. Also a can- 
vas or tarpawlen to lay over stacks when being raised, 
or corn oh a waggon. This word I imagined to be 
a mere vicious pronunciation of pent-house — but 
Nares shows that we have authority for it — 
" Pendice, a pent house or covering; pentice, 
Italian; Peniive was also used, which makes it 
probable that pent-house is only a corruption of this* 

And oVr there heads an iron petiitVevast 
Thej built b^ joining man^ a shield and targe. 

Fairf. Ta%, xi. S3. 

''Again in xviii, 74. where penftc/ip also occurs, atf 
synonymous with it." G/. 

Pepper. A quaint verb, implying a thumping* 
We should, indeed, pronounce it pupper, or puppa^ 
as we are apt to drop this liquid final, unless before 
a vowel. " Tha's right — pupper 'em right well.** 
Among the offensive words enumerated under Aint, 
this is omitted. 

Pep.peridge. The Barberry. I perceive no 
connexion between this word and '' Pay the pep- 
peridge," which see. Pepperidge is a botanical 
name of the Berberis. Linn, Gen. 442, ** Pepr- 
peridges^ Barberries — Essex. Suffolk. Ray^ E. Wl 
p. 83. 


IPRltK." A perch for fowls; also a verb» to pei^ch. 
Id Scottish to parh^ is the same. Under several 
articles io this Collection 1 have referred to this 
article for examples of a frequent change, or inter* 
change, of the k and ch^ initial and final of words* 

I will therefore, here note a few of such examples 
Those in italics mark that such words have furnish- 
ed articles in this Collection, and examples of this 
osage. Akes, aches — busk, bush — See Hay* 
church, kirk— chin-cough, kiuk-cough — chum, kern 
and quern — chop, cope — crotch, crook — crotched, 
crooked — carte, chart — cfrencA, drink — dtke^ ditch—* 
drauched, droukit — eke, each— ^w'A, flitch — ^fork, 
forcfae — kink, kerich — kerris, cherries — kist, chest— 
milch, milk-^notch, nock. See S notch. Pike, 
pUch— -planch, plank — pitch, and pickkv, pitchy— 
pdk)p, p^uch, fM>che — planshci , plaiik — p^k, fuseech 
---re^ifey, reechy — akr^ek, screech, or shriek — sic^ 
such — thatch, thack — &c. &c. A recollectidQ 
of sueh inierchatigvs may, baply, somettmes aid an 
etyinologist In his derivations. 

Spenser has perke, as is shown ]i>y Nares, who 
thinks that it means peisi; perhaps from perking up 
the bead. 

They woont in the wind wagge th0ir wiggle tables, 
Pefke V9 a peacocks Shep* Kal, 

" See Todd's Johnson. Mr. T. thinks it is still 
in use among the vulgar, but^' continues Nares " I 
much doubt it.'' GL 

We still use perk in the sense of arrogance, or 
disdainful airs. "There she was — perked up,*^ would 
be said of a such assumption in a woman. In an O. 
D, A.. I find, " io perk up, to lift up the head, or 
appear lively." We should in this sense say of the 
convalescence of a sick person — "Ah, 'a fare to 
perk up a little," 

Per LIN. The piece of timber which ruds along 
under the middle part of the spars or bearers of a 
rdof^ to gire such bearers addttiobal atreagth. Or 


if the roof be deep, the. .central ends of the beaiserf 
rest an. the PeriitiM 
. Perrymedoll. The Campanella|)2^«mii2(iii«. 

Peskad. Peascod. When young, before the 
pease are full grown, we call it FieUher, which see^ 
^-Peascod, is, I believe used extensively : and was 
of old. I cannot but think that Shakespeare wrote 
shelf d peascod in Lear, i. 4. and not, as it is now 
printed sheaVd peascod — that is a peascod with the 
pease out — the hull or shell merely. See Hulls. 
Shakespeare's figure is aptly and bitterly applied 
to poor Lear's sad condition by the fool. It is how- 
ever sheal'd in the folio edition of 1623. Ray haa 
** Swads ; pods of pease or the like pulse." S. & £• 
Country words, p. 88. I do not thmk that swad is 
now known among us in that sense. 

Under the article Peascod in Nares, we read 
^* The shell of pease growing or gather^: the cod. 
being vh^it we now call the pod. 

I r«aiember the wooing of a pea9eod instead of her. 

At ytm L. it iL 4. 
In peascod time, when honnd and home 
Give ear till back be killM. EngUmeTt Helicon, 

Hence^^ he adds, confinnatorj of my sarmize a 
8heaVdpeascod{Lear i. 4)means an empty husk." Gh 

Pet. Pit — in the mode of our frequent inter- 
ehange of e and », as noticed under Aninnd*' 
"The pet-filld "—the pit field. We have also Pet 
in the common sense of sl favorite, or cosset: sl pet 
lamb, one neglected by its dam, and brought up by 
hand ; a petted or spoilt child. Shakespeare spella 
it^^ea^ — 

' A pretty peat. T. rf the Shrew, i. 1. 

Qsing it in the sense of a spoiled child ; and John- 
son derives peat or pet as a word of endearment 
from the French petit, as if it meant " pretty little 
thing." In the old play of King Leir (not Shake- 
speare!*) the word occurs — 

Gwieril, I mawel Regan, how you can endore 

To fce that proud pert p«it> our jooDgest uftefi ifcp. 


StecvenV deems the word of Scotch extraction, 
snd quotes a proverb of that country — 

He has fault t>f a wife who marries mam's pet. 

In the north, according to Raj, 

A pet and a pet laroh* U called a cade lamb, E. W, p. 48. 

See Cosset, and Kiddi br. In Scottish '* To pet, 
to fondle^ to treat as a pet/' J. 

In the sense of j96^, Nares shows that peat is 
used by several of our old writers; among them 
Shakespeare — 

A pretty peat / *tis best 
fut finger in the eye; — an she knew why. T» of the 5. i. 1. 

Petebman. The name by which we.formerly 
called, and perhaps do still, call, the Dutch fish- 
ing vessels that frequented, or frequent, oifr eastern 
coast and portsT-particularly, as far as I am con- 
cerned, Ba.wdsey-ferry, and Holiesley-bay* They 
^ere also called Peter boats. 

From Nares I find these terms noit local*—' 

Peter-mem, a familiar term for a fisherman on the Thames; 
from the occapation of St« Peter. 

Yet his skin is too thick to make parchment ; twoald make 
good boats for a Peter^man to catch salmon in. 

EoMtward Hoe. O. PI. W. 9t7. 

Moreover there are a great number of other kind of fishermen 
belonging to the Thames, called Hebbermen, Peterment and 
Tiawlermen, HowePt Loniinop. 

♦* I have also " Nares adds, ** seen Peterboat for 
a fishing boat." 

Phiskby. SeeSpiNx. 

Pick. The appropriate name of a pointed mat- 

PiCRLiN or Pickling. A- cpaise sort of bed 
ticking : also the operation of re-gleaning a wheat 
stubble — such stubble having been gleaned is called 
a pickle, or picklin field. So it seems to be still 
used in Scotland. 

Thou most pitkle in thine ain poke nook. 

r. of my Land. 2d. Ser. IIL 74. 


See Poke. Jameison has "Pickle, a grain of com, 
a small quantity." 

PiCKAREL. A young pike. Under the article 
Draw, it appears that this fish, on a sign-post» in 
Suffolk, has long vibrated in unison with the feel* 
ings of the thirsty traTcller. • 

Nares observ,es, among other things, under the 
word Pickerell, that " Isaac Walton speaks (^ a 
weed called pickeral weed ; because, according to 
Gesner, pikes are bred in it, by the help of the 

Pickarel-weed is still well known in Suffolk and 
Cambridge — and the idea that the sun*8 heat helps 
tiiie breeding of pike iii it, is common. Not how* 
ever, that the weed and warmth are alone suffidenl 
to effect that end. 

Pie. a sort of barrow raised over potatoes, or 
beet, fleetly buried in alternate layers of straw, for 
preservation in winter. We also call it Clam, In 
Cheshire it is called a Hog, from its occasional 
resemblance probably to a hog's back. W. 

Pied. Variegated— party coloured. ** The 
pied mare," Horn-pie. Mag-pie, the daisy pied, 
and such words may have had their origin in this. 
Possibly the Pea-fowl, may have come from the 
pied or coloured fowl, tho* it seems usually 1 think 
confined to two colours. Fleckered is another Suf- 
folk word of nearly, similar import, but extend mg 
to more than two colours; and it is nqt I think, 
applied to a pie-bald- horse So that pied seems 
to mean of two colours— ^cAcr'd of ^ore. Sec 

1 was once disposed to think that in , the gross- 
abuse which •tjloster applies to the Bishop of 
Winchester (I. K. Hen. 6. i. 3.) Shakespeare wrote 
"Pied priest," that is leprous, scabrous, dii^co- 
loured, from disease, instead of " PieFd priest," 
as it is now printed. It is however pield in the 
folio edition of 1623. 


• % 

Th^ otktt and reputaliQn of the Prelate who« ai 
^loster tells him " givs't \vhores indulgencie^ to sin*' 
may have indelicatelj influenced the ducal vitupe* 

* On tke vwt^s ** piei 'd priest," an annotator writev 
^ Ciii pelle», ve\ pili omnes ex morbo aliquo, pne- 
MTtiin h ln«< venerea, defluKernnt*" And on the line 
mioted, Pope notes that "the public stews were 
ibrmerly nndev the district of the Bishop of Win- 
chester.'' But Shakespeare probably meant shonr 
or bald: for in Scottish pedd is still used in tiie 
latter sense. See.PiLi^. 

FijSZEl^, A sort of oath» V Why, baw, what a. 
fdezen ar yeow a dewinJ' See Am ekD£N, " M 
piezetLon em." This is the same oath that is qnoted 
from Ben. Jonson under Cast, In another article«» 
I have noticed the seeming grossness of our preder 
cessors in using indelicate oaths and excLamations,, 
and in tolerating tliera in senleel parts on the stage* 
In respect,, however, 16 thai more immediately ad- 
verted to, it ought to be recollected, that th^smuU- 
pox was until lately called tlie poxt^, from its pock$- 
or pustules. This is fully confirmed by Nares; who 
-:givea many illuitrations,. among them what follows-^ 

Thus, savs Dr. Faniier, D<iviK)U has a canzonet on his "Lady^s 
sickness ot tlw pna©;'* aiKl Dr. Dowiie wriii's to his sister "At 
iity return from K«nt, I found Pcgge had ihe ji^MW*— I bunbljr 
thttuk God it lias »cN imieb disfigured ber,^ 

, *' But," the Aiutbor of the Glosswy adih, ** I fi««» 
the ladies did not quite discard the expressioi^ whnr 
i t hud blained. a much cua rser men niug« Use reooii**- 
cilea strange things/' 

Pks'^'M^k, or » p^^'hwokr-^^n^ person oftrryin^ 
Huot her straddling on his back. Cocker*de-hoy^ m- 
Scotland, is oairying one on the i^ioulders. J. 

1. h«.vf. beiA^ it called pi^k-backi and I think 
Soutbeyin onet of hi^humiaurou^ tale« cal)« it ** 9^^ 
pie a pack*" Perhaps it may be on tbe pic^ at 
pmh ox hig^bufiuct of J^h^ba^ ;: or m9^ hax'a od^ 
nated in the idea of a higfa-shouldered or Hump- 

2 B 


Hacked person having a pe^ or load tbereoa. — - 
Some spmal deformities have certainly a peak-hkt 

Pigeon's milk. By way of quiz or hoax, aa 
unsuspecting lad is sent by his wicked playmates to 
a shop, generallv, I think, a shoemaker s, for tew 
pumiath ( two pennyworth) of pigeon's Vnilk, or of 
itun-upyle ( which see.) A good strapping by the 
interrupted and initiated artist, is the usual resoH 
of thb piece of waggery, 

PiO-lRON. A flat piece of iron, which the cook 
interposes between the fire and meat roasting, when 
she wants to retard, or put back that operation. It 
is hung on the bars by a book. 

Pill. Peel, or bark — ** pilled," peeled. — 
" Orange pill." '* Pi!l it "—orange, apple, &c. 
" What business are you I" — *' I'm a bark pillcr 
by trade." See Wan. In this sense the word is 
used in Ray's proverbs, p. 41. " Pill a fig for your 
friend and a peach for your enemy," as a translation 
of the Italian, " Al amico cura li il fico; al inimico 
ilpersico"— but I cannot say that I gather the wit or 
aptness of the saying. Nares, however, since this 
was written, has fully taught me. A poisoned fig 
was notoriously employed, in Spain particularly, for 
secretly taking off an obnoxious person. He gives 
several r.urious illustrative allusions to this fatal fig. 
The proverb is used probably in a derisory sense. To 
peel is now becoming a quaint or vulgar word in the 
sense of strip : in which it is given by Nares ; who 
says **peeVd, stripped or bald, whether by shaving 
or disease. Hence applied to monks and mother 
ecclesiastics — 

Peel*d, priest! 1. K, Hen. 6. i. 3. 

♦'Skinner derives Pttf-^ror/tcA from peel 'd-gar- 
Itdk, a person whose head was smooth Hked peel 'd 

gillie.^ OL / .... 

Under my article Pibd> I have sunmied that m 


\ht speech above quoted, Shakespeare may have 
writteo *'pied priest;" not pierd, as it » in the 
editions to which I have access. Nares, we sco 
abOTCy quotes it peeVd, And pilled^ he explains, 
bare, as if picked or stripped^quoting Coryat in 
illustration — 

The ostriches neckes are much longer than crane?, and pilled f 
haTing none or little feathers about them. Also their legs ure 
.fiUti and b^re. 1. 89. Hepr. 

In an O. D. A I find '' Pilled, bare of hair, or 
that has the wool shorn off." See Poll. 

Pillow-beer. A pillow case, or cover. This 
is I believe not local-^tho' I do not recollect havino* 
heard the name out of Suffolk. In the inventory 
of fupiiture at Hengrave Hall, in 1603, we iind "two 
pillow 6eres, wrought all over with black siiike.'' 
Gage's Hen. pp. 32. 33. A bier we call byer, 
rhiming to fire. 

Pimple. One of our variety of appellations of 
the head — of which some are enumeriatted under 
Costard. One can scarcely imagine a reasonable 
derivation of this word; unless from an extreme 
hyperbole; degrading the noblest part of the human 
figure to a comparison with the meanest eruption 
on its surface. 

Pin-basket or pitman. The last child of a 
family, or the siuallest of a brood or litter. See 
Barra-pig, Nebstgulp, and Winnick» also 
under Kiddibr. In Scottish, " Poek'$haking$f the 
youngest child of fi family.*' J. 

Pinch. Any thing severe, or pressing ; as is 
usual elsewhere* • but not 1- think so common as in 
Suffolk* Shakespeare uses the word, just as we d<^-— 

' There cannot be a piin^ in death 
More sharp tjian this. Cymbelate. i. 2* 

We have a queerish term ** Jack at a pinch/' 
which see. 

Pinfold. Sheep fold--peii-fold. 

2 b2 


Pinole. To eat a little, withdut'i^ppet^. *^l 
liee'nt no stummacb for my iivittels. 1 je^t pmglg 

Pin of the throat. This pkcaae I tieraar 
^eard used but in describii^ « rdaxed alate of tht 
umtla^ thus — '' The pin of the throat is down."' 
And the disease is sometimes called the " the pin.'' 
A disorder so called by Shakespeare is ssud by bis 
commentators to be of the ^e. Tins i» the pas* 
sage — 

This is the foaUfiend Flibbertigibbet — ke begins at cnrftftr 
and walks *ii)l the first cock — he gives the web and the pitt— 
•quints the eye^ and make» the hase-lip \ ndldews Ibe white 
vbeat* and hurts the poor creatare of eaftiL Iaw^ m, 4% 

Nares in his article Pin and Weh snfiicienflT il- 
lustrates the term. In an O. D. A. I find ** Ptn^ 
a web in the eye." 

' Pin-patch. Tlie perriwinkTe— shell fish— Ttd-i^ 
littoreiis. We sometimes call it Penny winkh. 

Pipe. A charge, of powder or shot, for a fmv4- 
in^ piece. Some 30 or 40 years ago, the couvcni- 
ences of patent powder-flasks and sliot-belts, with 
, suitable charges, wei'e not juuch used among us^j 
arid we carried our powder in ou<^ !>ag, and our sliot 
in another, with the bowl of a tobacco pipe in one 
or both. Now every gunner, poachers included, 
pdsaessfike conveniences above- nwiftwned; but -the 
temi pipe is sometitnes still Jwranl to express "^he 
qtiantum of a charge, though tlie tfiinj be, in feet, 
no long-er used. Of a long du«k-gwn I latdy Iteartl 
it said ** she'll carry tew |>ifpes o4* each..'* A gtrt n 
^ Iways fenduJAe. 

Pipkin* One oi our "I'arious names for the ht^ 
-^aa eftumetated nnder Co^TAHD. It is the name 
also of an earthen domea^c uienni« An aptitude 
to getting cr^Ksked may, peradventtife, stmiehow or 
other, have eomiected the idt» of kpoth wiA- the 
name : though one does not readily tee wby ib^ 
head should hut tbua. called^ 


PisTBBiL. A pbtol. 

Pitch-fork. A long fork with two tines, used 
for pitching corn in the straw, hay, &c. into wag- 
gons. Those who thu!« use it are catled •pitchers — 
those who unioad the same into the stack or Goof, 
are called unpiichers. See Goof, v. 1. and note. 
In Devonshire, the pitch-fork is called pike. Se« 
Rake. In Yorkshire pitch is pronounced picki 
thatcfaf thack; cXie^x, kist, &c, Ray, £. W. p. 126« 

Pith. In the common medullary sen^e, as ap^ 
plied to vegetation, we of course, have pith — but we 
abo use it in the sense of courage, birength, n>an«-' 
hood — "'A 've nojotVAin eni,"jn'ill be said of aslug^ 
gish, spiritless, man or horse — ** 'A want pith."— - 
So Othello— . 

For since tbe«te arms of mine had seven jears pkh^ \. $• 

In Scottish -" Pieht, pith, force ; from the Ang.' 
Sax .pitha, id." J. 

Pitman. See Pinbasket There is an Italian 
proverb — primo porco — ultimo cane — the first pig 
— the last pup. 

Placket. A petticoat: but I have not heard 
the wor^J of many years, and do not, on enquiry, 
find it now recognized. I should altogether have 
forgotton and omitted it, had not its occurrence in 
Nares, who amply illustrates it, recalled it to my 
recollection. He says ** generally an uuderpetti- 
coat" — and this 1 think it was with us, and pro- 
bably still is, though I cannot ascertain the tact. 
Among Nares' illustrations are these — Love is ad^* 
dressed by Shakespeare — 

Ltegtf of all loiterers and malcontents, 

Dread prince of ptacktUf king of— &c. X. L. L. iii. 1. 

Is there no manners left anions roaidai? will they wear their 
pUiekiU, where ibey should wear their faces ? WinU T. ir, 3, 

Xf the maides a spinning goe. 
Burn the flax and fire the toe» 
Scorch their placktth H&rrich p« i^4* 



Mr. Bt«evefii quotes an aathor vJio iniTrti it tbe •^Mnig of 
the petticoat (in Lear» iii. 4.) Bailey says it was the fore-part of 
Ifae Mift or pettioMt } bat it was neklier. It is aonctioes wed 
lor « fenal^y the wearer cfmflmtkett as petticoat now u* 

Was that btare heart nnde tr* pant iar a fioehet f 

Bm and FL Hmm, Liemt» I*. J» 

On farther enquiry, since the above was wrktcai, 
I learn that the word is not now understood f9 
mtan a petticoat, but a shift, or as my inferramt 
expressed it^ a smock: he knew it in that sense 
iMoe years ago in Norfolk. And in an O. D. A. I 
find '' Plaehetf the fore-part of a woman^s pettieoait 
•— & piece of armour that covers the breast-plale.'* 

Plansher. The^fioor of a bed room ; especially 
the part near the bed'sfoot. This word is evidently 
from the French pZancAer, a floor — a board — a plank. 
A paled gate, we called a planehed-gate:^ as does 
Shakenpeare — M. for M. iv. 1. 

Nares shows that others of our old writers use tlie 
won I, iu our and the French meaning. We soaie- 
tinies pronounced it plamhard. This word affords 
another instance of the substitution of the bardTor 
the soft ch, as noticed under Perk. 

Plash. To cut down a quick fence when grown 
old and stubby, and intertwiuing some of the lower 
branches. — It includes also the operation of out- 
howling the ditch and heightening the bank. 

Tusser in his " February's husbandry,** directs 
plashing lo be done. — I will quote two or three 
other verses, containing words which are explained 
in this Collection. 

** Eat (i)etch ere ye plow — with bog sheep and cow.. 
Boy follow the plough — and hanovr (2) enough. 
Sow pease not too thin — ertf ploogb ye set in ; 
tate lown^ sore noyeth — late ripe, l)og (9)»ir&!feth,, 
C«t Tines wid osier — pUuh hedge of enclosure. 
'do strike olF the (4) nowli — of delving (5)mtft9iit. 
loo wet the land — let (d)motf>Miill stand. 
Trench meadow and(6} rtt/ge—<7)rf3|/cc, quickset and hedge. 
To C8)pio(inot foil—add bramble and {9)hulU' p. 101. 

Of fht words in italics numbered^'^Sce of 1. un- 


der EtUkk. 1L vodtr G#^, £nnr, tnd Roufm. 
S. Siiy. 4. 3fotfi. 5. Moowf. 6. Hedge. 7. 
IMbi. a. Flai. 9- ^k/^h. 

I wiT!» on this word, add a quotation from Harts — 
•• To piask — to interweave branches of trees. 

For nature loath, ao rare a jewel's wracke* 
Seem'd as she here aad there bad pimh*d • treew 
If possible to binder destinjr* BrotsnCf BriL PasU VLtSOm 

Jufansun qaote» Evel^'it for it. Also for what we now eall Itf 
^flasht that is to dash water about with a noise. H«U6e> p^«ib» « 
shallow pool or collection of water— 

* He leaves 

A shallow p/asft to plunge him in the deep. T. oftheS.i. 4.**^— -Oi. 

Such shallow pools we call Splashes, which see. 
So in Cheshire. W. See Pulk and Pleach. 

Play the rogue. To be anuo^ing-^jokiog 
pracficall)' — not uecessarilv, viciously. 

Pleach. Is described to be a branch of whitr«» 
thorn brought down and laid horizontally in a fence 
to thicken a weak part. It is notched (or stiotched) 
at the point of tact with the earth which is loosened! 
to encourage the pleach to strike root, and t6 whicll 
it is kept fixed down bj a hooked (or croinc) sticky 
or peg. I'his operation is called pleachiftffi and 10 
more used in Norfolk than in Suft'olk^ and is thertt 
wore talked of thcin used. 

Shakespeare uses the word several times, a& b 
shown by Nares, who explains it to mean to int6r- 
twine, or weave together. 

- And bid her sttal into the pleachfd bower. 
Where honey-suckled, ripenM by the sun, 
Forbid th« sua to enter. AL ad^ ab, N» i. 4. 

Please the ptgs. A quaint vulgar exprM^ 
sion; corrupted probably, from pjx, the veMei In 
which the host, or consecrated elements, are kept iH 
papisc chapels. From tlie extravagant revercnei 
with which the pyx and its superstrtions- eonttitt^ ftlF« 
adored^ the i]]it<erate nrny eosHy^ have, Iik« XhfAt 

■ > W" ■^■^^a^M^^^^^B^ 


bettera/c6fifoaiided Ibeir Cretter with a wafer; and, 
aided by the tempting alliteration, said ''please the " 
pj% : " not in the loose nnd rntber reprehensible man- 
ner of those VI ho, satirically perhaps, adopted the 
expression under consideration it is not local. See 
something more of this under Hocus pocus. 

Plot. A 8|M>t — a place — a plat. Pretty gene- 
rally in use perhaps. " A grass-plot.** " Dew yeow . 
•tah I that that there plot, till I come back." We also 
say a " sore plot.'* The word occurs frequently in 
Ray and Tusser. See a quotation under Plash. 

Nares shows it to be used in the sense oiplac^ 
by Shakespeare and B. and Fl. 

A pretty plot we*ll chose to build upon. 2. Hen. 6. i. 4* 

This little plot V Ih* country lies most fit 

To do his grace such serviceable uses. Noble Gent, iii. 1.. 

Plow. A field ploughed — but not seeded. *'Mr.. 
Smith's plow." 

Plum. Right up and down. Also in a line 
straight with another ; that is in prolongation, not * 

Plump. A smart blow — a plumper. " *A gon 
em a right good plump i' the bread-basket." AU, 
thou|:h I ha%'e given nhat I thought a sufficiently 
long list of such terms of oftence under Aint, thisj^ 
and man\ others are there omitted. See AiMT. in 
the Addenda, or Appendix. 

Plumpandikkalla. Perpendicular, straight, 
upright, right down. " A floppt PlumpandikkeUa 
down— gulsh." See Flop. 

Plum pudding and roast beef; I do not offer 
these as local words or things — heaven forbid. ' It 
is here meant only as the name of a pastime, nearly, 
the same 1 think, as *' English and French.'" Would 
that all these names and things were oftner plea* 
•aatly associated. The names of a Tariety of out 
javenile games are enumerated under Moveall^ 


Poo. The beliy-'Kir paiuidiy of a tnft'o tlii|U>9etf 
io obesity* Such a one woiikl say " I am 'a gitten 
^nda poddy*** Podjelt nearly the ftamci but 
|ierhapB of a lees rotund desdnption. Tusser fuei 
jBod^ and Mavor think it means a box or perhaps a 
leaUier bottle to hold cart-implementi or grease. 
It may have been so called from its shape, ^ee 
wider <iooF» verse 6. and note. 

Fog RAM. A ivow! that has not been much 
lieard till of late years, though I believe it not 16 
be of recent coinage: indeed I am pretty sure I 
bave seen it somewhere. It is now generally ap« 
l^edby vulgar church- men to. dissenters ofdiJBfe- 
reat denominations. Not however to papists^ 
jewsj or quakers. The remark that the mutual ran- 
cour of coniKcting sects is inversely as their degree 
«f difference, hol(fs good all the world over. Chris- 
tians hate each other more than they do Jews or' 
Malumimedans. And the laiHer, however iiivetetaie 
4kigaiilst Ohristians, are yet stUi more so mutuatly, 
in regard to* scctarial difference: though in faci 
such difference be unimportant, ami cocnpromisittg 
no point of faith, beyond who was^ tbe fittest ini» tn 
succeed Mahommed in the Khalifint, or chrH and 
|Hiivtifical supremacy* £vmi the tokrant Hindus, 
wka admit ao-fivoselytesy aiid aver ibat all mankimi 
are more or less Hindus^ have had desolattng w«n 
among then>selves on points c^ faith and practtce ; 
aa^hate each other with considerable intensityi 
greatly ekceeding what they feel towards Chris tiaUK^ 
<Mr Mahommedans. It has been reserved for the 
Hindus to carry on merciless wars of exteiminatkA 
on a question of physiological function* Yetiiiicii 
are points of history and 1 believe of fftct. The ori- 
ginal, question was whether their Jupiter or Juno 
were the m6st potential in the infancy, or beibre 
the in&incyj of society! 

PoKB. A bag— rle«s than » ^oomb sack^ It fk 
littie^e pefhap$ than tkt s^tibstitHtiodk af tfte A 


ibr the soft eh as noticeH under Perk — in poneh, or 
tpoehe, tbo' it is not used in Suffolk in the same sense 
with pouch or pocket. In other counties probablj 
it is — " Foote from his poke A shilling took." — 
It is a very common word in Suffolk for any bag. 
.•* Pudden poke," which see. " Pig in a pdke," is 
common every where — even where the alliteration 
does not hold — the French say •* chat en poche." 
Ray has this Proverb, ** when a pig is proferred, 
hold up the poke/* p. 146. A Scottish malediction 
runs — " Sarie be your meil poke an ay your fist 
r the nook of it." Kay. p. 304. Again, ** ye breid 
o'the miller*s dog— ye lick your mouth, or the 
pok be open" — ib. p. 308. See Picklin. Among 
'his North country words, he again discusses this 
more elaborately than is usual with him. 

A pofce, a sack or bag. It is a general word in this sense all 
over England, tho' mostly used ludicrooalj, as are gan/f and 
hadf &Ci because borrowed of the common people. Hence 
p0c2cet. a little poke ; and the proTerbs " to bay a pig in a 
poke*' and ** when the pig is proferred hold up the poke*** Mr. 
Brokesby informs me that with them in the East Riding of York- 
shire, the word tuck is appropriated to a poke that holds four 
bushels, and that pt^e is a general word for all measures ; hence 
miwt'ft^i or three-bushel pckct &c." £. W. p. 49. 

Keal and met-poke, are new to me. 
, Nares notices to potchy or poche^ as nearly allied 
to poke, in the^lsense of to thrust at with a pointed 
instrument, it occurs in Shakespeare, Coriol. i. 10. 

I may note that poke^ as a verb, we use signifi- 
,cative of a thump — ^< 111 lend you a poke V the hid." 
This did not occur to me when I wrote the list of 
similar words given under Aint. That list might 
have been nearly as long again. See Appendix 
under Aint. 

Poll. The head ; not local perhaps. We com- 
iionly pronounce it powl: and a hornless cow or 
sheep we call ** a powled cow" — " a powled ship." 
A pollardi or Htcwed tree We calf^^* a powled tree.*' 
See Pollard. Poto, is the heiCd in Scottish. 

Nare* shows that poll is an old word, meaning 


to curtail the head of its ornament; and to itrip or 

pillage. _ . . ^ - ^ 

Pilling and polling U grown out of reqaest nnee plam pilfer* 
ing came into fashion. WinwootTt Hem* 

I should, hoMrever, be disposed to read this pas- 
aage, peeling ^ ( or, as we now call it, pilling ) the. 
stem, and pollings the head of the oaks; and not in 
the general sense of pillage. See PiLL. 

And when he polled his head (for it was at every years* end 
that he polled ity because ihe hair was heavy on hiiby therefore • 
he ptAUd it) he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred 
shekels after the king*s weight. 2« Sanu xiv. 26. 

Neither shall the priests shave their heads nor suffer their 
iocksto grow longi they shall only poll their heads. 

£seXe. xliv. f f ; 

And by these polled locks of mine, which while they were long, 
were the ornament of my sexe, now iu their short carls the tesU- 
nonie of my servitude. Pemb, Arcad* 187. 

** Powler, for poller ; that is one who p^Us or 
cuts the hair. 

i2« I know him not ; is he a deaft barber? 

G. O y ea ; why he is mistriss Lamia^s powler. 

' Pronwi and Cauandra," 0i, 

Pollard. A tree having had its leading shoot 
and branches lopp'd off when young — Polled, See 
PowLED. This barbarous custom has destroyed 
much of the beauty of Suffolk, and of other coun- 
ties. A century ago few landlords thought of the 
Talue of timber ; and tenants did as they pleased. 
As indeed, in this particular, they still do — for it is 
lamentable to see fine young trees with their tops 
recently lopp\i. It is easily accounted for — the 
lopping of a stow'd tree, or the stowins, are the 
tenant's — if left as timber ,the tree will be worth 
the landlord*s notice. See Stow. It is an oldish 
word : it occurs in the sense of a. poli'd tree in a 
lease dated 1638, as noticed in Cullum*s Hawstead. 
The word Pollard is used by Ray» who seems to 
deduce it from BolL £• W. p. 18. See Bolb* 

Ttisser appears to mean the same thing by Pift 


imgeri a wond I nmter mw or hearcl el8ewlicre^-«> 

Now !op ifor thy fuel, old poUatger growOf 
That liiuder Uie cornt or the grass to be mown; 
In lopping, and felling* save edder and stake, 
Thioe^hedgefly as needeifa« to tneod or to make* pi» 9% 

JEdder, we commonly c^l Ether, which ace iwNl 
LpP. " Pollard'' according to Narea, meaiui '' mtf 
thing that i^ polled, or atripped al the top;, mnalljp* 
api>iied to trees. Here to a stag, ox rather. ta a mdfi, 
jocularly compared to a stag : 

1. C« He has no hurnsy Mr, has he ? 

9. C. No, bjr, he's a pollard. B. 4^R PhiUuUr, t. 4. 

^ A dipped coiiif*' he adds,, ** was also called a 

In an O. D. A. I find ** Polders, old trees loppedL*^ 
and ** Pollard, a stag that cast his h^/' meaning, 
I suppose, his horns, ** Pollard or PaUmuftr^ • 
tree that has been often lopped." 

PoLLYWiGGLE. The tad-pole— in Noxfolk calL» 
ed potladU. 

PoNlSH. Punish — like boonch — poonch — for 
bunch — p\inch, Sec, as noticed under Botes. 

Poonch. Punch, so boonch fot bunoh — 
boondle. for bundle. In compensation we say bram 
for broom — ruff for roof. See under Butes. - 
Poonch. h also a gentle fHish or nudge with the 
elbow — but is not altogether confined ta such ; iot 
** a poonsh *i th guts," is no joke. This is one of 
the many words of like offensive import enumerated 
under AiNT. In Scottish, " to punch, to jog 
with the elbow ; from the. Swedish bunh-a, cum 
tfonitu ferire." J. 

Poor oi?ts^. Making poor outs out — or b«- 
outs<^doing badly. See Good outs. 

Poor tanner. A juveuiie uastime* See 


POOTY. Putt^. 

Poppet. A term of endearment to a young 
gifi: timillMr to Moppet, which see. 


PoFPLli* To Gamble about, with a quick mo-* 
fioQ-^tuch as an apple, or a small bit of wood, &c. 
in water. A poplar is sometimes called a popple, 

PoRTMANTLB. A portmanteau. In Scottish 
pock-mmUeaUt a cloke, bag. J. In both cases, it 
is I suppose, Apoke for the mantle, or manteau, or 
cloke« I find, unexpectedly, that we have some 
authority for our pronunciation ; for in an O. D. 
A. is ** partmantle, a cloke-bag.*' 

PosB. **A cold in the head." Ratf. I give thisi 
word in some doubt of its being now in use. Ray 
has it among his South and East country words — 
adding to the preceding quotation, " that causes a 
running at the nose/' £. W. p. 83 This is pre- 
cisely my idea of our woid. 

Under Pose, Nares says — 

A cold or deHusioa from the head, (he medical name of which 
is car^^d, under which word Kersej thus defines h — •• Th« th^'if^ 
the failing down of a sharp, salt, and thick bumoari out of the 
head, upon the nostrils, mouth, lungs,*' kc» 

Bjr the pose in th^ nose — And the gout in thy toes. 

B. aud Fl. Chances, v. 5. 

Me^g yesterday was (rouh)ed with a pote, 

V\ hich this uigtit hardened, todders up her nosr. 

Herrick* p. 5jl. 
■ grows 
Tlie agite, cough, the pgronv* the ^e» Htiiwodd* 
Ia Polwhele's Cornish vocabulary it occurs as pause. G<. 

Since tbi? was written, I learn thkt pese i^ 
still in use in Suffolk ; but now mostly confined 
to the disorder in horses, incident to a cold. And 
in an O. D. A. I find *' A psfffe, a cold in a horse's 
head " — and '' P^se, a rheum in the head.'' 

Pot hooks and hAngbrs. Very indifferent 

Pqtshad. a broken jAece of earthen-ware« 
Pet -shard. This word occurs in scripture. Job 
in his unseemly distress took a pot shard to 
scrape himself withal.. Tile-shard is also used ii^ 
Suffolk, for a piece of tile. See Flbt sher^ for 

i c 


Sp€tistt, A« quoted by Narts, cdlte \t pi^^litii^. 

I'hifcy hrw*d their helmet an<l plaies Asunder brake. 
As they liiif I pirififrtffe^i befell, /"i Q. v»* I < 37. 

P©\jLt or POWT. \ bfrtw— a tlhttrajK ^ A g<rtt 
M A right gooti pcmt i* the hid." Sefe nnAtt Mjit. 

In an O. D. A. I find •* to p&tt oAr6, t6 hesitife 
bang him." 

PouNCp. A thump on the head One of oitr 
Aiany words of like import, of which a list is giv^n 
under Aii<9T. P<yunce is not so often nsf^d as inott 
of the others. It may be the sam^ word or n<&^Iy 
inpoonch, which see. 

Pout or poult. A youn;; turkey, fit for the 
table but not full grown — a turkey-poult In Scot- 
tish, ** Pout is a young partridge, or moor-fowl ; 
from the French poufet, a pullet " J. Pouk or pout 
19 a blow or thump. See Ain r. 

PowoER« Lonf su|ir*ar beaten fine is calTed poit^ 
der sugar. Putting pork, ^^e. into a tub with salt 
for future use is called *' powdering downy The 
recepilacle is a "powdering tub." See Flick. 

Though I never heard this M^oni u^eH in the sense 
oipresertmg out of* Suffolk, it lias been s(» used. — 
Lord Bacon in his advice to King James lotirhing the 
bequest ot Mr. Sutton, for lounding the Charter 
House School, has the following cirrienis, and not \ 
tcry happy, passage. 

This act uf Mr. Suttun seemeth to roe as a sacrifice without 
•ftlt; liavifi^ the materiMlsof a good intention, but n^' pdwHit^ 
with any such odi names am) insiirotions as may preterre die 
i^me from beco'iuiii: corrupt, or at least troiA becoming ansa-' 
yoarjr and ut ii r!e use. 

It is still more curious to see Bacon ofiposing the 
f6iiildati<in of this schcot on actassical basis, '' Fest too 
iiHm^ should be brought up scholars, so as to rcrt> 
fliejplough of its laliourers." This unhappy alkgdjr 
^ meon^i ( which a fmifster would 8«y saYOioMh 6f 
UriMiiB^) may, ptndveftttire, tave 8tigg«0ted tlmt 

iKell I^BM^R fe^W 9f Pr. loiiosop, as r/ecorded by 
his ^^fi^tifabl^ biograiUier. " Q^ii^ig 9sH^d 14s 
IJftjfliQP pf « ^prt^jMj p<J^i)i" { I qiiole Tnini «i,eiftory 
not having al this lupiUien/ to th^ work ) " Le 
said *^VF It has oot ^ali ifiuiiUgh ro keep it tVoni slink- 
log;' Bitl feriilUTtiii;;; perhaps that lhi<' phrase was 
foo undignified, inuiiediatety repratfd ihe >fiiiim€tit 
in the ftillowini; jmi^ipo^^ phraj^edlni^y, 'Sir it .has 
i|ot vhality 9u£[iciei|t tp preserve it frpin put refaction J' 

But to retuni to Suffolk— :e\ery farm hov^ae aa^i 
thrifty family have their powdering tuh^ and we find 
theart^le and the process uiore than once mentioned 
ill Shakespeare, la Mei|sure fur Measure, lii. 2» 
speaking of a procuiess-p- 

Clown. Truth, ^ir, she hath eaten up all her beef, and u 
^endf in |he lub. 

Lticio. Why *tis good'-.k b right. Ever yoor fresli whore 

TJ|i* i» iptplligible, bMt JobosoM ipay «ot hiive setp 
II in tb^ right sens^ v^ti^ti he vv^t^i on this p^MVfi» 
i^ Xbfi method ^ f ur^ (qt veii^rfal f^^nlphli|lt8 id 
0Eftf»iy ciaiied the pawderi^ tub.'' It was so calle4» 
BO doubt, and is perhaps so still — as well as *' pick- 
ling tub/* Bat I doubt if 'Shakespeare so meant it. 
in the following pas9age he hits off exactly our Suf- 
folk word—" £niboweird ! " — exclaims honest John 
FalrtafF— - 

EmboMreird! — if thou embowell me to day 1*11 give thee 
leave to potodtr me, and eat me too. tnraorrow. 

1. K. Hen* 4. v. 4. 

In the north *^ Kimnel or KemUn is b, powdering 
iubJ* Ray. E. W. p. 39. *^T<> powder^ to season 
vithsalt. O. D. A. ./*To sprinkle with «alt— to 
|i^t meat in any way* Hence a povpdering tUb for a- 
Hfssel in whicb thipg9 ar.- salted Also /you^d^eil 
tiptU fpr ^Ite^l be^f. These words are hardly 
obsolete." Narea. 

|9 SuflTplk* wh^r« tb0 words are as cqib^ob is the 
l^nuticc^ wt do not,, I think, apply powder^ to any 

2c 2 


process save salting meat in a tub for store; or 
60 describe any tub bnt its recipient. See Salt. 
B. and Fl. allude to the operation in this passage — 

— — Thej come with chopping knivesy 
To cat me into raiids. and strioira* and so powder me* 

WiUg. a. T. t. 

Rtmdi, which see, is a Suffolk word. 
Fowl. The head. See Poll. 

Fowled. So pronounced, but written /»oUSed; 
without horns. See Poll. 

PozY. A nose-gay. 

Fbah. Pray. This pronunciation obtains in 
most words of like sound. Lah — mah — pah — ^sah 
— &o. Prah^ we sometimes use redundantly. — 
*' Well John, how are yow? — '*Pure well, thuiky 
Sir ; prah how^de yeow dew, prah." 

PrAMIskas or Pamiskas. One is sometimes 
startled nt this word (promueuous)^ in the sense of 
unintentionally, by accident, casually. In the lapse 
of years, 1 think it likely to become a legitimate 
•English word, however curiously it be now applied. 

Pray, or Praise, or Prize, or Pnf. To lift any 
thing with a levcr-^the lever is called a' prag, or 
lewer. " Pray away " — u'praise perhaps. To pray 
a door or lid open, is to o|ien it with a hands|^iise^ 
qr lever of any sort. In Scotti&h ** To prize up, to 
force open a lock or door : from the French presset, 
to force." J. 

Presbnt. Presently. See DuUDLe^ for an 
example. . 

Prial. Three cards of a sort, at the game of 
commerce particularly: a corruption, probably, 
of pair royaL Under the latter term, Nares con- 
firms this derivation, and gives many quotations, in 
illastration of the word. 

Primino. Pruning the lower, or n^asA-bonghs 
of a tree. 



FbjuuiV NSRllT* Fieff>)e»t3r«.r coDfusioD--dis- 
trest-Mi^ri^y no doubt, 8oi|]«how from pf^munire. 

Prints. Newspapers. So ia Scottish. J. 

Prison bars.' A school-boy's gam^. J have 

fiveii a list of a M&rt of these amiisewents under 
fQVKALL., ' ■ . ' 

P|iiRoNER> BASK. A juvenile sport, See 


pRifc^, A d«t|fate(j )[Mtnini^p( to strike nn^ 
lipid eel^. Al<$o fi b^i^yv pointed irop fuf paaki^g 
Ifpief. in Ib^ ^i*r|h fpf bi^rdle Maj^^j, ^l? Ti^i? 
if o^Uj^^i ^ fold'rpriifli. \ho il|i? ji(fji^li4^n of thrpb- 

|^in^pi?ii«bH»g- *'T«i bo/>ik, ^1 fij ii£ii 9jid t? priKfe," 

^i^ k,f 4 ^^»h 0r fepil. ^^ Bu LjLppK. 

Prog A 9pike, a goad^ a prc^; espeeiall^f^ at 
tile end of a stick used bjf drovers " A pronged 
fli^.*' In Scottish frrog, a sharp point. 3* With 
us it is alsO) a» elsewhere, a qfiiaint term fos Jbed. 

JPnoup. Fjoi — i^i the sense of vS^jL. !--• which j^ee, 
and Brimm. 

pj^y, Se# Pray. 

Pecii:ER. Coiiftision^frigfii— in di«faabilifl«^l I 
was nil of a pucker/' 

Pue^KTS. " Nesjs of caterpillarf. Sjissejfe/' 
Ray. S. and E. country words., p. ^3. f have 
i|ea>d it in Suffolk— buj; have doubt of if s lenuine^s 

. Pxjci^-.FI^^T The species of I^^poperdpn, njpije 
con)i|)onJy BuU^^t, whicli hee, Un icr tbis J^'^U)^ 
of Puck-fiats !N.tres notice> its other Hnmes ofptiff' 
fist, puff-ball, juz'bad, and puck- f fist. He says 
thatltis nietat»liorieull) a term of reproach, equiva- 
lent lo ** »He fungus '* — *^ scum of the earth." 

But th^t this puck-fisf. 

This noirenal ratter. B. ^ FL €utt. of Country, h 9. 

San|zar s gooje, Ariosto a pjstdffiit'io me* 

WMf9t^$Sclerific£^.u. i. 



Wbftt pride 

Of pampet'd h\ooi has moonted op tfalt fmekfinst^ 

MiddUt. More Dit. than W. iv. 3. 

PUDDEN*HIDDED. Stupid, thick beaded. See 

PVUDEN POKE. A very small bird ; so named, 
no doubt, from its oest being similar to the almost 
discarded article, once in stich general use in Suffolk. 
I conjecture the nest was originally so called ; and 
the bird the " Pudden poke bird " — but being rather 
long, it has been conveniently, tho' not very cor* 
rectly, abbreviated. We hear constantly oi the 
'* Pudden' poke*6 nest," which is perhaps the most 
curiously elaborated of any similar production of 
the feathered tribe. The Pudden-poke la^fs 15 or 
30 beautiiul ^gs, nearly resembling pearls. I crave 
tQ he allowed one line of lamentation over the 
article . so unmeritedly discarded, the ** Pudding 
.Poke," which I hope the reader requires not to be 
told was a long taper bag, in which that esteemed 
'edible was boiled of yore — and much better boiled 
than it ran be in the round form of the present 
iashioo. Ry the time that the centre of a round 
podding "is enough/' the circumference is boiled 
to insipidity. We ma\ regret the departure of (he 
• days when the pudding, of ample Iqpgitude, was 
turned out into the savoury browned " latch-pan ; " 
and, garnished with hard dumplings, came.smoak- 
ing to table as the first dish ! The expressive old 
saying " You must eat another yard of pudden first," 
i. e. before you be man enough to do so and so, nufll 
soon be obsolete, and unintelligible. See LATCH* 


Puddle. A dirly pool, or small piece of water*^ 
*< As thK^k as puddle,'* is a common phrase, not con- 
fined, perhaps, to the eastern part of the kingdom. 
Also a veib, to render water turbid, similar to 
Muddle and Bile, which see. ** Don't puddle the 
water.^ Used likewise in a sense of mental pertnr- 

r 295 

batioD"— *' What a puddle he is in*'*— or of a duil in- 
tellect ^'Apiiddle-hiddid fulla.'^ Thus Desdeiuona 
says of her sable lord's moodiness — 

Something .^ureot state — some unhatched practic<l| 
Hath puddled bis clear spirit* Othello, in. 4. 

PUDDUCK. A toad. Scottish also— 

As mini as Maj puddocks. Annals trfthe Parith* p»d81. 

and again by the same author in Sir Andrew Wylie. 
.II. 8. It seems a current word nnd phrase in Soot- 
land. Shakespeare has Paddock, which the com'- 
mentators agree is a toad. Cocker has Paddoeky 
which he sav& is Dutch, and means *' a frog or a 
toad" ** A Paddock^ a frog. Essex. Minshew 
deflectit k Behf. Padde, J^o. A Paddoek, or 
Puddock, is also ii little park, or inclosure." Ray. 
E. W. p. 83 

I quote thf following from Nares. *' Paddock, a 
toad ; used b> Drydeu ; but perhaps not since — 

Woaid from a paddock from a bat. a gib» 
Such dear cODcerniiigs hide. Hamlcu iii. 4. 

Ko certainty ; a March (marsh) frog^ept thy mother, 

Apd thou art but a vaoiiiKtt'paddoek* 

MoMingtrp Very Woaum, itt. 2. 

Sometimes a frog : — 

Paddoekes, todes» and watersnakes. 

Ckapmanf Cos. and Pomp. 

Iz. Walton talks of ^* the padock or frogpadockf which usnaliy 

keeps or breeds on land, and is very large, and boney and big. 

Part I. ch. viS. 

By Shakespeare it is made the name of a familiar 

Paddock calls — Anon, Anon. Hacb. i. l.*-N. GL ^ 
I do not think that we ever call a frog by this 
name. A young frog we call ^resAer. In an 0» D. 
A. is ** Paddock, a huge toad." See Paddock and 


The notion that a toad 'Mhough ugly and veno- 
moos wearsyei a precious Jewel in his crown," is not 
a Suffolk persuasion— but we, in common with 
Shakespeare, believe that spiders and toads *' suck 
tbe poboB '^ of the earth^a sentiment put into the 


fine ipetcii ff ll^ioiisHr4 If., eo hw In^wg in 

Wf epingt smiling, pp^t T tllMy a^ f iirtii : 

Feed not Ihy 8ov»Teicn*8 fws my i>entle e.artb j 

But let thy ^pid^^8 that nuck up thy Tenoro, 

And heavy gtiitrd toaHs, lie in th^ir way. P, f . iii. f. 

PI706T. Thick, wiiriii» muiveY ur«ather^«-pre- 
cedinga t«iiipe<it. ^' Pnizgy hands'* clirt%, clammy. 

F9LLEH Poultry in general. In olclisL irritcn 
it b not unusual to »ee kens for poultry. We tlaxKe, 
in fact» DO sfiecific naitae for ihe conimoD domestic 
fiml. Between pullet and hea, I suppow, PmikM. 
baa b^n formed. Tuiaer uses the word — 

1/Vhere pnUm use nightly to perch in the yard, 

Thew IwO'legged fo^ct keep watches aad ward. p. tt^. 

The word is not now, t think, much In use, th<^' 
I have heiird it lately. The practice hinted at, is 
not obselc'te. Fmtr- legged foxes, we have noqe of 
about Wood bridge. 

Pullen, like peason, may perhaps, be an old Anglo 
Saxon plural of fowl or poulte; the faud » being 

^^PuiUtin or PuUen, poultry. A word still used 
in the north." Nares. He quotes from old plays — 

A rogue, thit has fed upon me, and the fruit of my %vit, like 
fuUen from a pantler*si chippiogs. Mistrjei of Inf i/tarr. 

Shf; pan do pretty well in the p.iMry, aii(( kppws )»ow fuUen 
•Ifpuld be ciaiumM. B. & F. 6cortt^'. Ladjf. v. 3. 

Py tK. A Utile utm^dmg poqI, Qf apkiihu or pud- 
dle of water— a diminutive — Poolkin, perhaps^ It^Ke 
Bulfcii|» Lambliin, or Ho^dkui. $ee Hi)DfaN. 

Pulk i« a aorth-oomatry word, weaning, aecerd-* 
iag to Ray, ** a hole af staiidini: water, ^\m a 
alougii oir pla^ of som« de|4fa.'* £ W. p. 49. Sfe 

PtJLTBRKOTS, Offal, or refuse, of hemp or tow 
Mt -worth spinning. 

f\l^^lS^ . To be»t 9o^dly, wUb th^ ^^ pm\' 



or basket hilt of the sword. This word is omtKed 
in the very incomplete list of similar words given 
under Aint, See luider that word in the Appendix* 

. PVMMBLTREE. A whipi»letree for two or more 
horses. Pandletree is I believe another pronuncia- 
tion of it. 

PUMMT. Soft, unstable, insolid, as boggy 
ground : generally used comparatively — " soft as a 
pummy.*' It does not appear what is specifically 
meant by the word. *'AI1 of a pummy/* I have just 
heard, as descriptive of the crushed, rotted state 
of the bottom of a heap of over-ripened pears. 

PiTNNAH or PoNNATH. Pennyworth—" Six 
pnnnar a haapens." 

Punch. A blow — as noticed more particularly 
under Poaneh. 

P V NOLB i>. Wheat, from mildew, or other canse> 
not bein^ plump grained^ is said to be pungled-^ 
sometimes pingled. 

Poppa. Pepper. Puppa-box, a pepper castor. 

PXJRDY. Proud— ostentatious. " 'A fare so big 
and so purdy tha's no speaken tew em." 

PVRE. Very— in a good seime. ** Purewell.*' 
Purely — very welL See Lah on, and Pa ah. 

Purse This is our pronunciation of pierce; and 
of Pearse a man's name: it is indeed generally short- 
ened info pf*s» as we say boss for horse. A sail* 
maker's ne<;dle is called a purser: as remarked in a 
note on verse & of article Goof, in this Collection* 

Pursy. FVit, short, dumpy, and' rather hard- 
breathing. In Scottish, '' short-breathed and fat : 
from the old French, pourcif, id.'^ J. 'In an (>. D. 
A." is •• Pursy ^ over fat, short winded.** 

PUKH. A boil. See BuLLOCK. 

Puss IN THE CORNER. Au active bustUqg b* 
door pastime — not local perhaps.^ See under 
Moveall for a list of such recr^tions. 


g^t^ is to {H»sh. tp IhfHst. Jf. He9«9 pr<A9l»l>« Pur 
l«f^JW/f •' M^^'4l fi Hiolt) pmH fprlli, or .q^K 

FUTTAH or PUTTEn. There are sone words 
ifkMk are fiiS^euh to expiain otherwise than bjt 
giving them id a phrase or speech. Thb is one m 
Ibeiii.' It sc^ms to in/eao a sort uf iaternie<iikif , or 
rnqBiaitiveBeaa, or iat^feoeDce The fiillowiiig ^f 
t/ko ^enuiae acrouat oi' an even-tempered cpok of 
ber master's too often repeated diiections, adviea^ 
Ac. ** I let Vm dew jest aa *a iik^et-^'a no ptitteA, 
jnUtakt mtiev about-r^alawkusl I doa t iiikui 'eni.'' 
TIms «esfiivi to be the saiii^ ^qfd that } %(( ii) ap O* 
D. A. " \ pudder^ a bustle or noist:; ^s to ii^al^^ Of 
kisey « jgreai |i!^^(i^ ^bam 1 rifles." 

Put fuck. A large species of hawic. Puttock* 
)i«M, or Futloek-hftwk. Sh^espe^pe t^ket |he 
namf^, in a degT»c4iikg sep^, tko' to ha ^ira» il ia 

tn comparison with an eagle — 

Am) did avoid a puttocft. CjrmMmg. !• f . 

The commentators agpre^ tha^ putfpcl^ is the l^|t^,t 
Warwick's fine speech in A. Hen. 6. ill. i, puts 
iajeed the thing beyond dispute — 

Whp Hj^f^s the heifer dead and^bleedijig Gresbf 
And sees fast bj a butcher with an axe» 
Bat isill aiitpect ^was he who made the sUoglitet? 
M^ho fiiwU {he partridge in the pi^«o|(*t {Kefl* 
]9 tit will iniiigine how tb«^ bird was deat)^ 
AltliQugh the kite spar with unbloade4 beak. 

Ti|Sft^r ws^s th^ wpfd, jggwatiyely, and Wt Vfry 

9sch ravening jnat^$ for victuals fia rriijn* 

Woald have fi ^o4 n^ipr, to jmttock with biii). p« J29^. 

Some complexiiy h^ arisen betw0e|i thf wfSfds 
p^/tt9eh» fwUo^kf ^d pattdacL The t|¥9 la^r 
QTf ^e (Pftd witb m* IM W«U as with Sbak^P^Wcu 
See PuDDo^^ {a an O, 0« A* 18 ^'Pntiock, « 

Pytle or PiGHTLE. A sfmall iTiisadoW. 

Q. , 

IIUilEC^K liE. Ti) aui)t>€ate or ehoak-^patrtkularlj 
Irf llfiilk •* igt>4ng itife wrong Way"— «)r by siivc^k — 
*^ Ffti Ijttaf&y^d ta d<^ a ftmst/' S<Miietitiilrd ^^- 
^^ 'IV> ^r^ft id 16 sttfTdcfate by mratigultfticAB^ 
Secj ^k2x&teN ii^thdfite is the <,*«iMinott l«r«^, 4M 
1 suppose^ ^r tbe obtuse guttural note af <• dack ; 
and tieatce, eombitiTiip^ sound ii^ith senile, we diefsig' 
illft^ 1%re faUlhig ^ngultus ofsemi>sullocation. 

QUAie. ^Soft, shaking, wet !a^d. A qua^tefke* 
In the North " mizztf, a quagmire " l?«^, -E-. W. 
p. 44 In Deyoftshife— jf?*i'^/e»/i^ar. ib ^9, In 
Scotland "quhaive^ a marsn» a qoa^mire *"J. Quabbe 
is an old term tor the same as is shown by Nares. 

OuAGGLE. vSee Quackle. 

Quail Wet, insolid land, that treinbles und«r 
ttie foot, will be said to quail: — if very mil eh, "to 
quail like a bumby'* See BuMby. An ill made 
baked custard is said to qtiaily when it is insolid 
with a liquid deposit. In an O. T). A* is ** ti»quail, 
to curdle, as milk may do." Ihe "^'ord seems to 
have its f)ri<;in in a sense of quaking, or shaking 
through fear; in which it appears in b^th ancient 
and modern authors— by mitient, .1 nifeaii to Spieirk 
like a Suftotk man, of two o/three centurieli agen» 
Thui Shakespeare— 

•Do ihWsudcleiily— 
And let iu>i search aiui in<|ui8iiion quailf 
To bring 4uaiii these iuclisn ruaawa^s. As You L» tX. li. 5* 

In this, quaii seems to stand in a sense of faik. 
Again-^more directly in the Suffolk sea3e* 

Ih\ dciugh'er 

For whom my heart drops, h!o(td. antl my false tpiritt 
Quail lo remember. Cymbttine v. 5. 

"Quail " saith Steevens on this passage **is tb sink 
into dejfectibn. The word is common to ttiany 
attth6t« ; ftmong the ttsi to Staayfautiity inhis ti^hs- 


latioB of the second book of the JEnied.^— '* With 
nightly silence was 1 quailed, and greatly with hor^ 
ror/' Old Tusser uses it piously'— 

Make xeady to God-ward^ let faith nerer fuaiU p. 9TS. 

Bat even as earthen potSj wiih every fillip fails; 

So fortune's favoor flits, and Jame with honor quitU$» ib$. 

It seems to be coming again into use in a sensr 
of Allure, or disgrace. — Walter Scott uses it; and' 
a Poet of our own, of whom we are desenredljr 
proud, in hb spirited address to the Gallic Eagle--" 

Fame's favorite minion — the theme of her stonr^- 
Howquaiitd is th^ pinion— how sulled itsgloiy .— B. Btrfm. 

Poems by an ilmatCMV 

Nares illustrates the verb in the senses of to oveN 
power, or to faint^ 

For as world wore on, and waxed oldy 

So virtue qiMiUd, and vice began Co grow. 

Toner, and Gtsm. O. PI. ii. 185* 

Spenser, he adds, used it often in both ways : and 
quayed, for quailed or subdued. 

Quandary. An unpleasant predicament — a 
primmifiefy. It has been derived from that state 
of perplexity which may induce a Frenchman to 
say ^'qu en diraijc'? What shall I say? 

Quarry. A pane of glass. Also an angular, 
or case- bottle. Quarrel used to have a like mean- 
ing of four square, as is shoMrn by Nares, who de- 
rives it from the French carreau, a square — applied 
to many things of th&t shape : and among them, 
especially to "a square or lozenge of glftssi aa 
i^ed in the old transom or transenne windows.** 

The.lozenge is a most beautiful figure» being in bis kind aqoad- 
rangle rover:»t. with his point upward, like to a quarrtU of glass. 
PuftenA* B. it. ck» II. 

QuEBCH or Squeech. An untilled, rough bushey 
comer or irregular portion of a field — with or with- 
out trees or underwood. *' Queach" according to 
Cocker is ** an old word — a quick set hedge ; , a 
thick bushey plot of ground.*' See QuiCK. In an 
O. D.'A. 1 find *' a queach a ihickj bushy, plot 6^^ 

iSroMd;" NtBMUBdcr'9««MA,>mpfaiu»itatIiiek«t. 
.'fto\C*UB tn-fau dwtiowu^i^'jticaeA (a.thiekc^) 

■^Theie belli nd Mine jHtich 

Jlejirnki bii .gall, and ridtelk with hii hiod. 

lO'tlwaaniigtiaf tbewodd, idankind had no other luibitalian 
i.thtnnaudarfiDTM.aiid.biHh; ^aeacha. 

. Heicell, LoadiKtp. Mt. 

iWabaweabo QtecreA in the sense of, $gueak 6r 
i*ifteck: more particularly applied, I think, to th^ 
itMrtHKnidktg agonies of a tjying or terri^ed hare. 
iNwei'pbowS'that it, or a word nearly similar, ,^^ 
«sed by )enl BacM, in the same sense — 

I have aUo heard i/uea*^ in this sense, of ((^e.^^A— 
such change of termination being .Qwinton, m 
noticed. under Pe^k. . A yariety x>[.yi/f>^^.pi awf- 
ly a like acute s^und are to |>e ffiuigd^tp, Wlf^- 
uate in sense also—queek, queecb, shriek, skrcech, 
ckrecb, squeek, sqiteel. 


Qu^SSE^. To sjinothci or cboak. Jtitecrasto 
differ from quackle, in as far, ea quexam-.M ap^jjed 
to the smolher^ig or choakin^ of \vee(l3 Ijy ,C()^r- 
ing tl^ein wi(h 'sand or eartb. A^ ^ 
gtutckt't/, but not '^wsjren'rf— weeds may be ^ucs- 
zat'4, .wot ,giitw(iid. , .GxeenV.agKin diffierS' from 
both. A. man. cannot b« said to be green'd by 

n. -As^^ifi 
QVMk.'. fining jfhK* M bl ttd n ) tw r »<Ji>lMH>it 


making a IWe fence ; called also ^ying aad Lager. 
The W6rd QictcA is mostly confined to tke joong 
haw and sloe thorns, though young oaks laid in 
with them will be also called quick: oak quick. 
Spring is likewise applied to young whins, otjwnm^ 
OT gene — ^these two words are scarcely known in 
Sunolk. A *' quick-set-hedge/' is not confined to 
the eastern parts of England, though I am iroi^ 
aware that the word qmiek is similarly applied omdi 
lieyond them. Thtekset-hedge, is also with ui» a 
Kve fence of white or blackthorn : but it is aoiriosr 
so much used as formerly. Cocker says ttat 
" Qkeaek is an old word for a thick -set hedge." It 
is remarked in another place how interchangeable 
the cA and k are. See Pbrk. Quick is easuy de- 
mable antithetically as opposed tocfeoil— *^A quick 
fence — a dead fence.*' Queech and (iuick and 
Qmiekeei and Tkickset, ^av have been jumbled to- 
getiier. In Cheshire, Quick is explained—*' Qntok- 
set. Quicks are plants of quicksets.** W. See 
fiuther of this in Nares* Glossary. 

QuiNCH. I think this word was fomerl^ known 
to liie ; but I had forgotten it. Seeing it m Nares 
in the sense of to wince, or trincA, reminded me of 
my supposed old acquaintance : tho* of its pieseai 
usage I am not aware. 

Quite. Quiet— peace— rest. A mere corrup* 
lion of the first: as Nares notices queuie to ' 

To whom Cordelia dkl •oOMede, not laigiihig long in fwrcftu 

Wmm. Alb. &^. |k 6$. 

Quiver. To shiver or shake with cold or fear. 
We also use the word in a sense of briskness, smart- 
ness—*** He*s a quiver little fellow." • We should, 
indeed, in our distaste of the r final pronounce \% 
ijuima. Under the first article in this Collection, 
thip word occurs in a quotation fr6m Shakesptare^ 
in our Sufolk tease of an igilf^ aimUa fello«r. 


£jkBBET. Od rabbet it. A good humoureu 
sort of a 4emi-oathy of whicb we bave many* S^ 
under Ambnden, and Od. 

Race. Of ginger — and perhaps of other spices : 
a«malt portion, a pieee *' Race of ginger" is not 
local ; we see it in dictionaries, and Shakespeare 
uses it several times ** Razes of ginger'^ also.-— 
IK. H 4 ii. 1. Oil which Theobald says that 
** Xace means no more than, a single root: but « 
r0xe is the ladian t^rm for a bak of it** One caa- 
«ot help smiimg at seeing a word explained as being 
'•tlie Indian term." ** The Earopeaa tem,** is aot 
ao vague.. 

Nare^, under Nutmeg, quotes this passage— 

And I will give thee 
A glided notmeg, and h race of ginger. Affect, Sheph* C« f . 

aftd under Raxe, iibows that some have fimcied;* 
Uagt auantity implied by that term. Nares* how- 
0ver» aoes not thmk that the .words are really dif» 
jletent, both bemg derived from the Spaaisli tisyir, 
meaning a root. 

Rack. Low, drifting:, heavy, dark, rainy, 
sleirt^* clouds, passing with the wind. It is a fine 
poetical word, and is so nsed by several of our 
winters— thus in Scotland 

—^— tbe hooded firoe 
CHoiIm ott elraiig windt the ttotm, end, tcMaroing bigh^ 
KMci the dim ragk that fwcepe tlie darkened skjr. 

L€ifden*$ Sctnet ef Ii^mu^ 

Le«f€ Bot n nuk behind. Ttmp, iv. 

Bnt it is too fine a woird to be only once us^ by 
Sbnfcsiptart how beautifully he applies ii in these 
j ytss sg es, and probably hi others— 

llwIwbWh it now a kane even witb a tbongbt 
The weh diiliiDBt, aad Stalct Ithidlitiiict, 
JbuslitislniMlir. 4»^ i Chop, fv. it. 


A* we often see agwnst^Atme thower* 

A sileuce m the heavens — the rack stands tUH, &c 

HoMtet; it J; 

A probably origin' of M0ck 'lai lAniei at iJMdei^ 
BEEKy which see, and RoK^ 

Nares show» that it i» foitnd ia B. wad Fl;\ aid 
B'en, Jonson, adding that it is aot now in use* i4 
h, however, in use with us. 

Rack i» also a verb with u»— meaning to dectfii 
wine, &c. " Back k off clear." 

Ra€& and Manqbk. Exiyavagaait h<MKi^-k^^ 
ing : likened to catUe" kaviiig^ betli rack and miiiigef 
siqniAuousfy filled at oace-^a skniittr fignrfe a^- 
'HgktmgtlK' candid aH boA ehds.' Nar^er ^kow^ 
that the term, in the sense of living without n^i^MSnt, - 
is ofjoAd standing. 

Racket. A seldom heard term for a blow—- 
when heard, generally m this s^nse, *' 'a'|^n-'em a 
right good racketten^ — the meaning is mdefinite^ 
a«d' AHy «^eiW i iSi^Mi^f, M i^ aif H htstfaUf. ft 
i5r« Ston^ word^ ^kHmg A ^ttif stro^, to6f* 
d^^^ by J^memn tidm tH^lftdgic r^ldte!Si, t6 6^. * 
Ttii9^o#d)» i^6t iUcMMr^ iff tfitf Rsldf sinftftiiC wt^f^ 
given undw Aint, 

Ra<>ks. The yiitoy or rnekoy or tradks jpeAkpfp 
ot wheels on roads.- €>aft-*nielMr^ iiHie^*nidMi 
The^.Seottish has a ten» betwecte rack ««d rsf'^*' 
*^ llaty cart-rat : from the TeiMonk fuH^ hk^maMm^ 
and the Swedish, ro^te a path." J. 

R^Fi^B. T9 ^tii^ «h«f \M±^f ^tt^f&y Ste. I^an 
oven. TM xv<f66eti ItstitMttit \^ftK which this i» 
dimt is cafled the ttajflen pole. Brushing off ripe 
walnuts is also called ndffifn '^. -Ressei or 
Russel is also used for the latler operations I* Ae 
Kpitk^ our jkajffien-pple, bears the tecoftOi m 
of a '* a Frugge^', the pole with whioti: they 
ashes in an oven.'' Ray, £. W. p. 3'1, 

RArt'T. A wmdy, cold and wet ttoming, or 
day. ^< l^a 4re kleddai mfty thn moAkig A 


BAt. To abiia6--or kawda, which see— *"*A 
figged me to." In Scottish ** Rag means to rally 
Id reproach," anri '^ BulUrag, to rally in a con- 
Ifaiptuous way, to abuse one in a hectoring nian-r 
ttK**" J. The learned author deduces the tatter 
I^Uable from the Icelandic raegia, to reproach. 

In a newspaper report of a trial at the assizes at 
Btfeler, July. 1822, 1 observed ^the term buUg-rug 
o$ed by a witness ; and it was explained to meaa. 
ailtfe* And in an account of the humours of Donny-- 
brook fair in the Dublin Morning Post of September. 
yfiH^ the term halhg ragged occurs as Irish, and ia. 
cx|^lained to meau scolded in English. These in* 
stances of the use of the term in Devonshire^ 
Scothind, and Ireland, occurred since the article 
^Boxoda was printed off. 

An imcoutn word in Nares seems to have relation*' 
ship with bawda, and rag, " Hibaudrtnu, or 
ribftudred; obscene, filthy. Ribaldrous, Coles.'^, 
Ribauderie, old French. Ribandrie, was also used 
in £nglish. 

A tibaudrau$ and filthie tongue. Barreti's Alvearie. 

Yon rihaudrid nag of £g3'pty 
Whom leprosy o*er lake. Ant. j* Cleop, iii. 8, 

Ragweed or ilAGwoRT. The Satecfo^co^ea ? 
6tt B9NWEBD. It is called b^ both names in Scot^ 
land, and perhaps pretty generally, intermediately. 
But the names of weeds,' unlessvery well known, are 
but vaguely determinable by enquiry of rustics. 

Rain. " Well, naaba, bow d ye fare ? "—« Why 
I Ve got the rimmtttis, and ta rain over me lament- 
abJy.^' To reign or tyrannixe. perhaps. 

Rakb *'Tliin a9 a mke" is n(»t an infrequent 
comparison with us: %vlii€h I should, unaided, have 
thought meant simply as the slim handle, or stafe as 
we dallit, oV the rake. On thU passage in Coria^ 
lanus. i. 1— us rereDge this witli our pllces €re we become rtihti-^ 



Cdmihtillldoft hutte, Ml t Mm^ tot 0«im Mdf- 
Msljf) pot f6rtli A d^l of tHimltigi St^ttMlb Iml 
thiok. h(t on tb^ liulhor*s itl^Aing, Wbick ill (Sttflblk ' 
w« should Utt) ift '* As pl^tta 9^ ^ pike Maff/' aUcf IeMWI^ 
tHe prbv^k^h **< tbtu to a r»k)s" lo te a^ old as dhakc^' 
^pearle's day» And that h)^ ¥^feri%fi ftietiel> to the t*)^ ' 
b«idlied tool. The ab6ve ptirad« occni-ritig: id Ike 
Uvelling sf^eech of a rli^tic radical iaconfiribatd^f ^ 
Ike homeliness 61' the ^tlilsh^n. 

I ma% note that Hie long bandied tool tbat Wi^' 
call 9 pHi^ f&He-^^hieh mSh — used, it afipears, tt^ to- 
ddM tipike, and is still so called in DevtmsUfib^ 
bdttg little else thaB th^ not tmcviaimoB inteiThai%* 
of Ike hard A aitd eft ; of* wkich see Under PcRlt. 

In Tusker ve find i^Are tised both for the iAi|ite- 
ment and the action. See under Ck>op» verse Id, 
and note. 

, Railes and ROANift. Ah out door juvenile sport* 
See under Move all for the names of many of such 
pastimes current in this and doubtless other cow* 
ties. This game is often called Rakes only, and 
IS the same probably that in an Q. 1). A. id thus 
alluded to — " To play Reaks, to domineer, to show 
mad prknks "- -for our sport is very boisterous and 
rtteey — the jest of it is to be carried domineeKingly 
hmne, a pig-bttck, by €be less swift wight ¥4io you 
maiy be so happy as to catch. 

llA^tfP. Bendifig a piece of iron upwurds to 
adapt it to wood-work, of a gate, Sfc. is esAKed- 
ranjMHg it, *' Ta oont ^w sooms, you must mttp 
it." It is a FrwQich word,rafii/ier-^-e» ran^p— beiiee 
our rampant, and the Scottish ^amp^ing, as «|>h 
plied to soldiers and blustering people; explained 
hy Jsnneison to mean to prance about with niry. It 
is an English (lictionary word, with several deriva-* 
tions; primarily of a sense of raising, islevatrng^ 

In a sense hot altogether dissimilar, Naresrshowa 
r^tnpe to be used by our early writers. He explains 
it ** a rampiDgy or rampiadt creatiife ; an ifii{&diBtet 


vn>tlM, a lutttot CSole Inmslatefl it^ gtastatrix, 

ttUft fyt Ott tbee, thoa rampe, thou ryg» with all that take 
thy ptfl. Om*. GAfi O. Ft. il 13. 

Althofigh she ^i« a liMtjf bouncing t«mj»«, tomdwliat like 
GMfilDtfta or Maid Mariaa. Oabr. AarMy, 

What Tittlets tbllow fiacehui* campes? 
Fools, fidlerai pmtAvft, pimps. «nd rampts, 

Lyljf, ^apho and PA, ui, 1, 

MtttOB use* romp as a subatantirv for the spring or attadi q( 
alion. i>am$. Agon. v. 13^; and the verb to ramp, for to spiing 
vipt P. L. i^. 549. 6M. 

Has d^ At tfie conduit I of the art icfr Powder, 
I flot«^ in3r MM liiat rand wfts a SiitfVilk word. It 
iras brought to my rec\»lkfction b^ Nares, ibr Thmdr 
ntot Iteard it of tiMMiy years. On euquir\ I &id it 
ireU kni^fiv incked in comiivmi use, among tkm- 
craft. It is the narrow piece of leather interpos^di 
between the keel and quarter, as the weit is between 
the sole and upper leather — the rand and wek being; 
stitched to the superior and inferior portions, strength- 
en the work. 

A rand of beef is defined by Kersey to be < a long fleshy piece, 
cttt Mt between cbeilank a&d the buttooic.* Cole tuaaslates it 
<^arf -c^imMMB bubalorum caruosa' probably sdmeiUng liice a 
beef-steak.** Gl 

M«re8 then .gives the quotation from B. and BL 
wbkch I have borrowed in the •article Pitwder^ ^ad 
attlds ** it is supposed to be derived f^oai the Saooou 
randt meaiuag a border, which wits techoiciilly. 
applied also by shoemakers to the seam of n 

In an O. D. A. I find *"Rand, ibe aciamof a Aot 
—a rand of beef ; a piece cut <Hit between the flank 
and the buttock.*' In the sense of a piece uf beef^ir 
of a shred of leather, the <iquoted.piiS!«a^e i^ suffici* 
•ntly ap|4ira4ile--4Hit 4iot in ^at ot a sMm, whidi 
I^te^dttpQsed to think tfaeipoots B. a«d Fi^'dii iiot 
vnumoi 4hiak oC 

ttJinnnr. The Idog^iuMed, MHaH-ejfea, fetid, 
shrew er field nmuit^mm^^traitem, .'ffcaceany 


ttrmg long noted ii called raimyHBOied. ^ Tht 
rasny-nosed plough *' describes an adminble impfeio 
ment which f procured from Leith; but usele«8iy» 
for noiK« of m} sapient workmen will Jiyandle it. Ifi^ 
share projects more than the Suffolk ploitish. *'The 
ranny-nosed sow.** A wt)niaa is likewise* somtHaics 
so described if full in tbe promontory. 

Ranter. A large jug to draw beer iiito«-»a 
smaller jug to place on the table is called GoTCll. 

Rap and Rend. " 'A spend every thing. 'a can 
rap and rend"— -that is aH he can get. It is proba- 
bly rip and rfiuf-^botb words meaning to tear or 
woite. See Rbnd: and Rip. 

Rasp. The steel of a tinder box ; eq;»ecially if 
the purt on whtcli the flint strike, be rongb, like a 
iile« or rasp. 

RATTtES The alarming singuitvs in the throat 
that indicate speedy dissolaiion. 

Ravlb. To pull out the threads unnecessarily in 
beniniing cloth. " How yow dew ror/e your work."* 

Ravvle. To confuse, or entangle, a skein of 
thr^d or sifk. Ravel, and wmwoel have indeed 
become figurative verbs extensively in our language. 
TIhis in Scottish " Speak her fair and canny, o^ w«*ll 
have a ramieWd hasp on the yarn wiadles/' Ptrate. 
L il6« And in Jameison '* Ravelled — a ravelled 
hesp— a troublesome or intricate business." 

Steep — that knits up the ruvet *i sleeve of care. 

Macbeth, li. 3. 

that is smooths the ruffled or mihemmed sleeve of 
the figurative garment of care. Agaia in this 
paasage — 

Must I do eo^ must I rani out 
/> My weaT*d upioilies? t K. Heu, W, U 

It is noteasy to acctirately explain such words* 
Thb of raoe/» or rawle, is scarcely to be distiii)*. 
gtiished from Frmtle, Fuxof, Tomt, (sec thoie WohIs) 
however aajpoatical the latter may be. 


Rbac9« See RbjbciI. . 

• *" ' . . . . ■ 

Bbaa 0^ Rbsr. fiCeat "U^m^xch imder dpoe" 
is called' r«er. ' When sufficiently « or ptiAaysi tea. 
lQucb» roasted it is said to be Hmne'done^ whicbsi^* 
Kifres sfaoWs^ tfiis tt> be an old word ** Riare^ un^ii^* 
di-essed;'not yet duite disused as applied ta meat,. 
fitnx tbe'Sa«on; nrere — 

There we complaine of one roire'roasted chick* 

meat worse cook*t nere mskeffus siolr. Haf, Zip. iV. 0.' 

We appiy the wpsd to meat (»Bly: andt/not a9( im-. 
an 0^ D. A. to au egg^" &ere4}oiJied^ half. bail«it» 
as a r^re-boiied egg." ,' i 

Bi^D,, Rid, m the sense of a nddaMie««-*^ i.c4«ld 
hardly get red on em.'' Several of these substilit- 
tions are'spficed ooder Aninna* Bacirsvd— bed* : 
ridden. *' Bed-red. women " occurs in p. 11.. ^f the 
same part of SU. T^p. Bni. aa is nefefreid to at 
length, under Gast. In Scottish fte49 has, ^mang 
many 6!(htrs, the sense ftrst given, of a rtddance." J« 

Redge, IUdge*-%f pHwIghed Uad^ev fl^a hbis^' 
It tofli> SpcAed and pcoooiMMed by TiMieB iii a qiib- 
tatiofrttiidef JHmk^ Awl is again so sfx^tod; wb«r#' 
pronunciation is indi&rena in p. lOa. of his ** Five 
hundred PokitSr'' 1ft Nosfolk ridges oi \smA sire 
called rigs. 

Red -INKLE. CommoB red tape with ithieb 
bundles of papera are usu^Ujp tied. 

Beb. Au impdratWe, c^ninMiidiBg the leadltigf' 
hone of a team to tarn or bear to the right. H^ ' 
and Camether, turn or iucline them to the (eft. See- ■' 
thole wdrda. ** Riddle me^ riddle me ree ** is there* 
fore. Riddle me ri^bi. 

' Rbbcr. Stretch, not only jn the sense of ''reach 
forth thy hand," &c. but a^ extending the sfze of 
atiy ^thfng. ff vonr hat be too small it will '* reec/k 
V the wearittg.'' A pair of small shoes require to be 

rmthed: We {isrther use the w'ord as iti tms qiiotst^ 

If . ... • • • . ' 

t^oQ from an O. D. A. '' Terdeh or readu to haivb, 
to h»9t a molioD to vomit.'* See Cast— -HaWkiKcs 
— *ttKl Rbbk* 

Rbei>* a woody or a woody piece or strip, of 
laod. Squeecb, Shaw, Dingle, and other words 
wfaiefa do not occur to me, mean nearly the same 
thing. SeeSQUBBCH. 

Rbbk. 8team, of a teakettle, or of a hot faouae^ 
or the exhalation of a muck heap, or of a heated 
staick. *' Ahiwk ! how that there muckte dew retkJ^ 
The profuse penpiration of a man. Shakespeare 
uses it in all these senses — 

As totefol M the mfc of a lime kiln. M. W, ^ W. »!. J. 

Sb', 1 would »dTite ^ou to shift a shirt ; the nolenoe ef actiOA 
hate OMde ycNt r<dk as a sacrifice. Cymieline. iii. S. 

Yon common cry of cars ! whuse breath I bat« 
• Asfvifco'Uieconmoafeos. C^rMknus. iil. S, 

' JTon re&ember, how onder my oppression I did nalk. 

JT; H. a. fi. «^ 

That 11 atmggled till Iriehed; figuratively. 

In Suffolk we have a way of aoAening the hard A-, 
to €k» Shakespeare has done so with this word-» 

The kitchen malldn pins 
Her richest lockram fouad her reecAy neck. CsriaL ii, t* 

i?eec&y ki«es. . Hamiet. iii. 

are said by Steeveos to mean smoky ; mtt sui^« 
$mohf in the common sense; hot n/fra-tram, reJt- 
UI0:' a very potential mode and figure, albeit not 
oirer delicate. SomeUiing like our anccir, perbapa, 
which see. 

I do not think that w^ have the word.»ai!Am for 
Htchen weneh, our word is mawther. We call a 
Marecroio, a mawkm. See Mawkin, and MaWf 


'' A Reek^' says Ray, " aignifies, not a smoak* but 
a steam arising from any liquor or moist thing 
heated."* £. W. p. viii. And as a north foiintry 
' word he say § ySookg, i$ wia^s « varatioa 9f ifialott 


for ftd^. Betk » a gtaenil word for tteani or 
>tpoiir.'* E. W. p. 61. 

In Sdotlish, Reik, seems to mean nnoke-Hnattve, 
amoky. Hence the endearing applicatioa of ' Auld 
Rdkie/ to RHinburgh Jameison derives the worda 
from the Anglo Saxon ree an and the Swedish rock, 
smoke. Retk is also ia Scottish, equivalent to our 
reocA — a farther instance, in addition to Shakes- 
peare's reeciiN for reek^ or reekini^, of the frequent 
motation of the hard and soft eh: w noticed under 

With us the past or perfect tense of this verb 
feeky is Ruek, which see. In vScottish r(Uc, rawk, 
rmk, rook, are words meaning a thick nasi or fog ; 
from tlie Icelandic rak-ur^ buinidus-^Teutootc rooeki 
▼apour. J. Our word Raek^ which see, b praba-*, 
bly hence descended — and Roke. 

Nares explains " /^eecAy, as "smoky, blaek with 
smoke ; from recan. Saxon. The same word from 
which to reek is i^ade ; written also reeky , as ia 
Bom. ^ Jul. iv. 1." 

Rbbn. To droop the head. An ear of ripened 
com is said to reen when it droop from its weight. 
*'Ta doon't reen" is therefore an nnpromising cha- 
racter of a field of uncut com. This figurative 
qrithet may have been derived from the position of a 
horse's head when tightly reined up. The reins of 
a bridle we call rseiif— and the worse than useless 
operation of tight-reining up draught horses we call 
reemng them up. 

Aa observant lady, hearing the above surrofse, 
added **so barley is said to bridle, exactly in the^ 
same sense/' 1 never beard the expression. 

Under the article Hay, I have veferrad lo this, 
but on looking back 1 perceive no good leasoo fov 
having done so« » . . 

RsiKS. Rems, i$t a bridle, &e. See Rmk. 
RbM^^ SeeRsAJt* . ] 

RSBSTT, Ba<)oii somewhat ttoeid^ or ru$ty^ as 


'w6 diherwise call it. I had si^ppsedrit i^ odn;m[itiaii 
of ours; but N^res .shows that it us notjio local. 
tHe.Q^tes r^astif as apparently the saiae w^fd^ 
rusty, which- is tfow used; aad quotes (T^ser-r- 

hRj flkches a mI livg. 
Tbrougli foUy Loo beiutl^, 
' Mttch bacon is reesty. Nopem. Aht. 

Other old^riters have reezed, ajad rwjQ^'m.^)^ 

Reffej. Refuse. Sheep picfied out of^ilot, 
^henrsokl, as inferiov-^i-florpieking/tbefm cwt is .^said 
to te *^to rt^ej 'cm;** .The rejgP^ ^e of « course 
field at an inferior, price. In buving a Jot, .saj'>0f 
10(Kahtep, a .barj^ainwili be made ^rso much: a 
Jieadt hut tOrbe allowed to rejgffj a certain number. 

Rend. To tear, or rip. "Rend it ta hits.'' 
6ee?I^Ai» and Rend. Hot to cut Thus Tus§er — 

1^7ot reiid off, but cut off, ripe bean with a kniOsy 
' Borhiiidering-etaik of hervegetlye life. p. JlTl. 

RENDEtu «Tlie opeHfttioitof iDfilting fat/0P.jttiet 
for<th«t^piifposeof ptr^B^rvalioo, iscaiUBd nmietingitu 
So in JScotti»h " To rind^or-f^md^ tO'di^s0iff«jaQg^tfat 
substance by the h«at ofr the;£re, tafoo ticn^for-r^be* 
landic, liMdf, liquef|icere." . J. , In '.ChAriWre utu^ 
Lancasbii^ "To r^mdeVr. is 4o separate, >ordiip«ti«» 
It. is c^miH^nly u^ed asiinitbe^ilirii^ * iQir§mhtm6tt] 
whicl^.jifii^ break it iO/»iec€)$»ti<kaiMei iit« iiiid.iM^ 
it down.'* W. In SnfFoIk ue have.ttheiMii) HiifiiiOt 
ther ^%9fiSQ;,.dfLai4ng the >mofff}ir! um>r•:l»thiug»^or 
over briQkrWor^ ^4o rend^riit sm#oib»!tft<SHlled-i)rt«n 

RENtdkr or Ru^NNEi. :,Wbe aetduldws liquid^e- 

a. calf, for the purpose of turning mill^ dr ^i^&m 
intoicwrdf tponaKa ^h^^^itbM. ■Iii'^ottiA IfMid 
x>r Rede, the fourth stomach o^^^^f^^^k^ed^Etfii^n- 
net" J. i\ RptpetoT jRupaeif, V/c^Vf s vm^„ |iacd 
td turn milk for cheese curds." O. D. A. * 


Resh. Fresh — recent. Carrots are sometimes 
too reth for cattle, when just taken up, with all 
their moisture in them. They are more wholesome 
ivhen a little clung. See Clung. Green clover, 
when recently cut is also too resh, for kine, &c. 

Ressle. The operation of brushing ripe wal- 
nuts off the tree with a long resselHng fiole. . 1 do 
not recollect having heard this word applied tn any 
oilier instance. May it be from the rustling noise 
of this wre»tiing-^ke process 1 i think 1 h9,ve heard 
it also called rafflen the walnuts. See Raffle, In 
Scottish, *' Reissil or rm/e, means to make a loud 
clattering noise — to beat soundly, from the Teu- 
tonic rysseZ-eit — Aug. Sax. hristl-an, crepere,&c." J. 

Rib ROAST. To beat — a figure or flourish bor- 
rowed from the same source as to ba$te. Of uuiny 
of these threatening or offensive applications see 
under Aint ; wheie, however, rH^vasiiug is omit- 
ted. This is no new thing. In an O. D. A. is *'To 
ribroast one ; to cudgel or bang him soundly/* 

Riddle. A sieve with large interstices for sept-^ 
rating corn from the cosh or colder. Riddle is 
Scottish, as appears by a proverb quoted under 
Sibrit, it appears to be Irish also; tor in a -piece 
of low ' Irish humour, at which l haye laughed 
hearl;ily> a woman cheapening a remnant of cloth 
and urging its coarsness, is made to say ** you may . 
riddle bull-dogs through it.". Kay, in a note 
rather too long and learned to extract, <leduces it 
from the Anglo Saxon hriddel. E. W. p. 84. 

Rife. Abuiida'nt— plentiful. I have heard tile 
word in this sense, in Sufiblk ; but it is Ihtre, I be-., 
licve, less cc^nmion fluui in some other pails of Eng» 
land. Narei> shows its origin in a Saxon word ; iirid ^ 
that it is used by Milton and several other authors. ^ 
Kares seciiis to think it no\\ obsolete. 

2 E 



RiPT. Kiven-'OT BpMt, Of cleft ; notoawo. "Rift 
hurdles "^— made of split or riven, not ofsaum, stuff. 
See Rive. Hurdle. Wan. Shakespeare uses 
the word in this sense, in a fine figure — 

wars'twixi ^oiriwaiii wuuiH he 

As if the world should cleave, and i hat shiin men 
Should solder up the ri/jT. Ant 4> Clenp. iii 4, 

Rig. RfOJ]LLON« An animal half-castrated* 
Cooker has ridgil-- Ray, riggilt, £. W. p. 108.— 
Jwneison, Riglan—Rigkmdr^kn O. D* A.. Rig^^ 
lUdgeling, or Rid§el — all of the same meaning. 

Right. Th the sense of effectual, complete, 
very, ihis word occurs in many of our old writers.-^ 
right good — ri«;ht well — right hot. &c. — generally^ 
but not always, in a good sense; for we also say 
right rotten. It occurs in Scripture — 

Then shoald Jacob rejoice, and Israel should be rigki glad. 

Ptmlm. 58. V. 8l 

W^ also use it in a more peculiar sei|se — inthatof ' 
ought, incumbency — " He have a right to pay his 
debts *'^«-" He have a right to be hung* and don*t 
ooght til be pardoned**' This last is a curioas 
ti9ple specimen of our local |>hraseology. He have 
— a right— dpnt ought. See DoNT ought^ andv 

Right on. Downright — in this sense '« He*s ft 
right on devil.*' This was said of a very wild, vi* •^ 
cious youlh— •* a very devil." 

Right ups. Any thing perpendicular— es- 
pecially the timber in a building, or the stems of 
trees— uprights. The boughs of trees are called* 
Wtimgs, to distinguish them from the Higki mp$. 
See IVrongs and Bole. 

RiLB. To disturb— to anger—'* don*t you rile 
the water.'* Of an irritab;e person it will be said» 
** 'A was lamentably riled." This word seems to 
haire been traasphmted to America. ** We were 


mightily roiled " is ihc ^^pressiott of an Amei'rcatt; 
which IS explained by Mr. t'earbn to mean vejued. 
Sketches, p. 9. See FiLfi and PtJDDLE. 

Kiut. The dado of a room. *' Dust the 

IUhk. Hoar 4t09t — ''a rimey uorning/* when 
ibeifoisi biPeaks fknitiagly iato mist. Rimer was 
tlye Saxon god of %leet and frost. It is Scot- 

And in tlie maiidiM -himg his cold dRiop bdd-| 
His rtmtf lock** b^ -blabU oi' winter tost. 
And stiff *nitig garments rdttlitig iu the iroit. 

LeifdeH's Sr. of Infant^, 

** Rime» a tof, a white dew, a mist." Cf^ker.-^ 
"A Rime^ a falling mht that dtssolvea by degrees.*' 
p. D. A. 

RiMMims. The iheamatuim. 

Ring -DOW. The wood*pigeon— evidently from 
it4 beautifully decorated neck. Dow^ we rhyme ta 
how ; or - rather pronounce it deou?, like yeoicr^ for 

rou. We had a saucy sort of a vulgar |)hrase tbilt 
recollect as far back as 1 can recollect any thing; 
and which is, 1 doubt not, still kept up in the same 
circles. It is this-r-'* Cuckoo, Ring <le4»w — Cat's tail 
Idas yeow." ^ I admit, however, thdt I have modi* 
fied one member «>f this sentence. In the original 
catVtotV WHS expressed iu a iesa» delicate periphrasis* 
And I Will farther confess that although, out of 
respect to uiv readers, I have chastened the moriy 
saw, 1 do not think that in other points I bare 
amended it It has to my perception lost some of 
its raciness with all its grossness. See under (GrOOF^ 
verse 11, and note. 

Rknos. a vow—*" plaat em in ro^^," or 

Rmo-FiNOBlt. As elsewhere, the third finger 
of the left band. We have a persuasion that this 



fiog«r was thus selected, becaase an artery comes 
direct to it from the heart-— a distinction enjoyed by 
DO other di^it. This is not a peciili<ir belief — as we 
learn from Nares — wlio sa^s — " Sir Thos Browne 
has a whofe chapter on this finger of the left baud, 
which he thus begins — 

An opinion ihere is which magnifies the fourth finger of the 
left hwidf presuming tberan a eordUl reUtUon, ihat a paiticatir 
▼essel> nervH, or artery, is conferred thereto from the heart, and 
therefore that especially hath the honour to hear our ring|s: 
which not only Chiistians practice in nuptial contracts^ but ob- 
lerred by heathens, &e. PietuiodMiOf IV. ir. 

" He, however/' Nares adds, " contests the fact 
of such cointuunication with the heart, b^ anatomic 
cal discussion; and gives from Macrobius a much 
better reason for the choice of this finger, on either 
baud/' Gl. 

The curious reader will, no doubt, be edified, by 
this better reason, if he see fit to examine the works 
referred to. 

RtP. To tear or rend any thing lengthways : k 
piece of cloth into threads, or a piece of wood inti> 
lalhs. The word, and rippen^d, occur under 
Fieeehes. " A rip of a fellow** is one in the high 
road to ruin — a roue. *• Rip and renH," extrava- 
gant. '• He*il come to no good — h^'s all rip an 
rend," or rap an rend, which see. fn Scottish, rip 
"means any thing* base or nseless — also an ozier 
.liTasket. J. This latter sense of the word f was not 
aivare'of when my earlier articles nip:gler, Kiddier, 
'and Ped^ were pritited ; or it would have ^served me, 
as shewing what I was at a loss for ; a source of the 
Vord ripper, as applied to a pedlar, &c. which is 
liot, however, in Jameison. 

Nares, under Rippar or Ripier, has an article so 
mucKto niy porpose, on this latter Subject, Uiat I 
am induced to give it at length ; although i hatre 
already been tedious with my owji lucubrations 
bcf cou. " It ip/'' he saj 3 — 


-^IVom r^ Litfti->8 pttmn wlio hntigi fish from the coast to 
sdl in the intcsrfor. Mitah Cowell, in his Law Dictionarj, 
though hfe calls them rip&rii, derives the nanie " hJUetUa mul 
im.4ef)ehmrti9 pitcihtu fftatAtur, in English n tipp.'* Th«otlier 
etj^m Joti^ seems preferable. He and others quote CamdcA tot 

I can send you spetdier advertisement of her constancy by the 
noit fipkr thbt rides that way with mackdrel. 

. ITid. reon, OiPLti 157. 

libe a Hppitr^$ legs rowl'd up 

In boots of hay.fopes. Chap^ Bu$ty D'Amb, £. t, 

Intheyere i&At, t\m*tippan .i»( Rie» and other places aolde 
their fresh fi«h in Leadenhull market. 

Stow^s Land. 1509. p. 147. 

V^'here now yoc're fain 

lo hire a ripptr*t mare. B» ^ FL SobU Gmt. ▼. 1* 

Hence. Nares adds, perhaps the famitiar terra of a r^, for a 
bad horse; such as rtpiers used. Rip is still provincial, for a 
kind of basicet to confine a hen. 

On enquiry I find that we have the word In t)M 
last git en sense — but pronounce it n6; and ta well 
98 the open- worked hen ^age, it iiHians also a 
basket in which oranges, lemons, &c« are hawked 
about ; and perhaps several other sorts of bpen^ 
worked baskets. 

Of a bad horse we say, '* what a rip "— -er of aa 
unproniisijig lad, " a precious ftp." 

JfliHO O. D. A. is " Mipletf one that brings^ fish 
firom the sea coasts, to sell in the inland parts." T 
suspect Jtipler to be a misprint for Rippn-: as I 
never saw the word elsewhere. 

In the same work is another name, similar aj^fpa* 
rentlyto one class nf the persons who, under Kiddier, 
are shewn to have so many appeflaf loos — ** Tfantert 
or ripiers, n sort of fishermeir/' 

And in Nares we have — 

Tp t fin i^ or iroHi. To trafkk in an itinerary manner like a 
pedlar. Bailey, and some others, con^e it to the carrying of 
^sb I but it is Mleged to hare been general. 



And had ^otne trawuing merchant, to hif nr«9 
' That trafficked both by water and by fire. 

BaiCs Satired, IV. ii. 

TriHinteri, persons who so traffick. Blount deacribes theia 
thji*: — 

Biparti— those that bring fish from iW sea-side. in Wales,, to 
the midland Elsewhere called ripieri. Giostographia, , 

" But this," Nares adds, ** is too limited aa »c- 
cOQul of them/' GL 

Ripe. Re.idy, prepared, matured for any parti- 
cular purpose. Tliiff is perhaps a pretty general me- 
taphor. Nor is the verb to ripe for to ripen con- 
fined to us. We lay our apples " np chamber to 
ripe." So Donne, as cited by Nares — 

»| ill df ath OS lay 

To ripe and mellow there, we're siobborn clay. 

Ripper. See Rip. 

Risp. The green straw or mnners of growing 
pease, and of potatoes. We also call both by the 
common name of Hahm, which see. 

RiST. A rising, ascent, or swelling, in land, a 
road, &c. Also a rise in price. " Com ha'^ got a 
iittlc rist.'* Like Riz, \ had supposed Rist to be 
a yulgrarism of our own, but Nares again show^ 
^al we have authority for the word — 

— where Rother hath her rist 

Ibbcr and Crawley hath. Drayi* Polyatb, xxvi. p. 1176. 

Riv. The preterite of the verb rive Thi^ 
rhymes to neve. The other to Aire. SeeRiVE. 

Rive. To split— "to rive blocks" of wood. See 
Rift. Slift. Slivver. Ray has these Proverbs — 
" Airs lost that's put in a riven dish.*' p. 161. *« He 
rives the kirk to thatch the quier. Scottish " Bwe 
is a ,fine expressive word — more so than split. 
Rocks and blocks are riven: boards are split: nitts, 
cracked; heads, broke: so that itt completion of 
climax, our language requires riven, or as we call 
it riv. The latter word we rhyme to live, RivB 


to Am. Sbaki»pe«r^ a«et the word ia a bold 

. . ■ : Ten ifaaasand French bare ta'en the sacrament 
Torive their dangerous artillery 
tJpon no Christian soul biut Talbot. K. H. the C, !▼« $» 

■'' Jtive^ says a tame commeDtator ** seems here to 
mean to charge their guns so much as to endanger 
their bursting or riving,'' 

The Scottish has '* Hive, a rent or tear, from the 
Icelandic ryf." J. but not, it would appt^ar^ aa a 
verb. Nares notes it as a verb» to spliL; and says 
^hat it cannot be reckoned obsolete, though not at 
j>resent in common use. Spenser uses it for th^ 
participle rioen — 

That seem'd a marble rocke asunder «ould have rive, 

F. Q. V. xu si 
As we say riv, which see. " ; . . 

Riz. Risen. " Candles is riz.". We ^re -not 
very particular in our numbers. Nares shows that it 
is not a mere corruption of ours. " Risse, used by 
B. Jon. for risen — 

When you have penetrated hills like atr, 

Dived 10 the bottom of th** sea like lead. 

And rii9e again> like cork. Masq. of Fort, Ttfei.** — 

ROBBBR$«^ A youthful sport;. See Moi^e- 

•ALL.- ■• ' . ■ ' ■ . .t 

Rock— or Rock of Gibraltar. Cakes of inspis^ 
sated treacle, streaked, somewhat curiously, with 
iight Hues of flour, are sold under these names in 
Suffolk, and in various parts of England. 

RocKF.T. A portion, or stent. In tabbing or 
dibbling corn each child or woman has one or twd 
vows of holes' to drop after the dabberj such por- 
tion is called the rocA:e/ of each person. See Dap?* 

• ' . • •• •■• • 

Rod. Rode. '' 'A rod the host ta dead a'mo»t/' 
So bodior bid. •.....-'•, 




ROEB. Or SeU'^roke, wbkh see — a cold fog or 
mist, which sometimes rapidly spreads itself OTer 
the vicinity of oar eastern' shores. It wiil reach 
eight or ten miles inland ; and is an unwelcome ri- 
sitor, as well from the uncomfortableness of the 
ibeling it excites^ sa that it U supposed to he hurt* 
fid to herbage. It is sometimes, from that idea^ 
ealled a blight It has, i dare say, some relatiotw 
•hip to Haek^ aad Reek. See under those 

RoRZLT or Rawslt. A jeravelly sub-soil thinly 
covered with mould. ** Thin skinned ** land. I 
did not expect to have found thb word, or such a 
one, in print : but Ra\ has it among hb S. and E* 
country words. ** HoeU or Roriiiy ; soil — land be- 
tween sand and clay, neither lig^t nor heavy." — 
£. W. p. 84. 

RossBM. Rosin. 

Rot. Rot it--Od rot it-r'Drot it— III be rot- 
are tempered oaths or asservations* substituted for 
others of a more gross sort. Of this improved de- 
scription we have a variety^ as noticed under 
AlfSNDBN, and Mort. 

R^OT-GUTt Bad small beer-*-'' poor iwi'gui 
stuflf.'' For the svtke of a wretched rhyme» this re- 
proacbfiii verse is remembered — . 

Beer-a-bomble — 
*Tweol bust yar gvts, of /re t'al make ye tvmble, • 

RouN dlT. . Scolding. ** I gave it to him roundly.** 
i.e. rated or scolded him severely. In this sense 
Ibe King in Hamlet bids the Qneen be rmmd with 
nett son. 

Rout. Coarse grass, which looks brown iuid 
aare in the meadows in spring. It differs ttom F^ 
in this, that the latter is green and sour. 

ftmwm. A seab. Also a mode of plosf^g, 
aeariy similar 4perhapB to baulking. See Bavb.«- 


** Three clean earths and a rove" is a stipulation ta 
an ontgoing tenant in a lease dated 1740. Cullum's 
Hawstead, p. 217. The Scottish " Reif, or ref^, 
an eruption on the skin, from the Ang. Sax. hreof, 
scabies.** J. ma^ be the same word^ or nearly. We 
however, confine rove to a «ra6. Jameison adds 
that "the itch is by way of eminence** — a ' bad 
eminence/ I tarow — ''called the reif.** 

^ ROWEN or RowiNS. The aftermath, or latter- 
mathe, or after-grass of mown meadows. The samb 
word probably which Ray writes rougkins, E. W. p. 
14 — and in p. h4. anion^ his S. and E. country words, 
lie -has *• Rovgkings ; latter- grass, after-mathcs.** 
See under Goof, vt*rsc 11 and note, and under 
'•Plash.' Tusser spells it rott^^ Am, but it is evident 
he means it to be pronounced rowing or rowen*~'for 
be jmake.^ it rhyme to ploughing ; and indeed he 
more than once .spelis it so. 

Which ever ye sow— That firtt ««t4ow : ^ 

The other forbear-r-For rototn to spare, p. 17tf . 

Com carried, let such- as be poor go and glean; 

j&nd after thy cattle, to mouth it op clean; * 

Then spare it for rowfin till Michael be pasty 

To lengthen thy dairy no better ihou hast. p. 187. 

fit here extends the meaning of the word to ihc 
after produce of corn fields, as well as of. grass 
lands. See EPDISH and Enow. 

Rub. . The gritty, silicions aggregate with which 
f the Jitsl;y mower whets his. scythe/' . It occura in 
verse 14, of a quotation from Tusser, under 

RuBBLB. Chalk rubbish. The refuse of a lime 

Ruck. An inequality — but in a confined sense. 
** A ruck in tfielied'* means the bed clothes lying 
Mneven. . It is also ^ verb about equivalent to rumple 
and wUp-^x rather to crewi which meajus (though 


I bave omhted to notice it in its place) 1o tndev m 
-mark in a piece of paper or sifk, by folding. Alio 
tbe perfect or preterite of to reek. 

" A ruck like a boss.'* An aiupHfiration of a nMn 
l>eing entretnely beated ; of which »ee q. %, under 

Ruckf in Oheshire, is explained " to j^et close, 
or buddle to»etber as fowls do/' W. I do net 
think it is equivalent to kuddk w4ib us. In Cbcsbire 
And Lancashire, Ruek^ w a substantive, meaiu a 
kBop. W. We have nu such meaning of it. Bat in 
the sense of sitting close -or squatlinj^ we ahoijJd 
'sav of a hare, or ol a isAn— ** she ruck'd dottn*^'— - 
"a rnck'd down." Cart-iruoks, we soinetimes »^ 
ior mcki. See Hacks. In an O. D. A. is <' Tc 
rmk, to squal down.'* 

RuiN^LE. A fiiiiif4ire of red ochre and pitdi, 
with which in Oxfordshire and other counties wea* 
ther boarding is snMared and protected. The term 
h, 1 beheivey known in Suffolk ; where a similar mix- 
ture is called UoHpr or tuer ; rhyming to dtacr. Ti* 
▼er is also with hs ochfe it«elf. Ray has *' Rmd, a 
sort of blood St one, used in marking sheep, from 
the red colour." p. 103. SeeTBbVA. 

In an O.D.A. is *" Rmddle^ a sort of red 

RiTDOUCK. I give this «iord doubtingly, for 
m Suflbtfi name of the Robin red- breast, as this fii* 
votidte bird is called in other c^iimties; and by se- 
seral of onr poets — ^tbus Shakenpeare — 

The ruiiuoek woultl. with charitable bHtf 
£ring t^ee ail this. Cjfmb. iv. ft. 

And Spenser — 

The thru&h repli«*Aj the mavis descant playt« 
Tile uus«;l sl)rill»9 the ruddock warbles sdft. 


These I quote from Narcs, who adds that the 
gotdM^ruddoek b the gold-^finch. 


In an O. D. A. is ** Ruddode, a bird ; a land 
I toad/' I suspect the latttT ineaning should have 
been under Puddock, whicit see 

RuDLE. A beverag^e eompose^l of warm beer 
and gin with sugar, and a slice of lemon peel. 

Rux. Repent. " You'l rue it if you Hew," 
This is not, 1 believe, a local sense. The Scotch 
spelt it rew, as a verb and suhstautive — repent, re- 
pentance, pity, from the AngI Sax. hreoive, poeni- 
tentla. J. The name of the herb of sadness is 
probably hence. I should rather have said the kerb 
of grace: so our forefathers termed it, as we learn 
/rom Nares; conjectured to be so called because 
used in exorcisms against evil spirits. And he suf- 
ficiently illustrates by quotations both herb and 

RuELBONB. ' 1 have noted this word as one 
formerly known to me ; but 1 do not find it now 
known by others It has been thought to be the 
same as the Warrel-bone^ which see. 

Rttinatr. Tt> ruin. We sometimes hear thia 
iinweicome word, and ruinaied, used in a very in- 
teresting description or relation, that I shall not dU 
late on. Tbe\ are not local in their usage or very 
particular in their application. 

RUMOUMSHUS. Out of humour — quarrelsome, 
tetchy —boisterous See Gumshus and Bumshus. 
Fn Scottish an equally uncouth word Ramgunshoch, 
means rugged; derived from the Icelandic ram-r, 
fortis, and gunni, vir pu^nax J. In that dialect 
RumgumptioUy and kummilgfimtion, have the 
meaning of common-sense — as Gumshun, which 
aee» has with us. 

Rumple. To ruffle, or derange, clothes, Sx. 
to crease them, by laying them away carelessly. 

Run-counter. A man or beast, doing what 


one would not have liin), is said to rtm^eeunter — to 
act contra, no doubt. In Nares, under Hunt-counier, 
our similar phrase occurs, iu a quotation fr6m 
SliaH^speare — 

A buuiKi tt>ai ru*i» coiaUer. Com.afEr. W, 9, 

Runt An olistinate old cow — and sometimes 
applied to an iti-ronditioned woman. See Runty. 

Runty Obstinate— angry— ill-willed. It is 
applied to persons as well as to beasts. " An old 
Hunt" is Suffolk and Scottish for an ill-conditioned 
old woman. Runt is the name iu both for a small, 
stinted, hard-fed, race of beasts from the high- 
lands of Scotland, of Fifeshire, and of Wnles ; and 
is probablv the origin of the word. Being not so 
well used as a more profitable breed, they are pro- 
bably less tractable. Shakespeare^s — Aroint thee— 
rump -fed Tonyon, ( Macb. i. 3 ) reminds us of some- 
thing Runty, though \ cannot precisely eiipfaiti 

Mr. Wilbraham, in his Cheshire Glossary, so ' 
often referred to, has the following article on these 
words — •* Rynt^ roint, runt, to get out of the way. 
Rynt thee, is an expression used by milkmaids ic a 
cow, when she has been milked, to bid her get out , 
of the way. Ash calls it local. It is used by ' 
Shakespeare, and puzzles the comraentators. Po«* 
sibly it may owe its origin to, the old adverb aroirn^, 
/P^^ found in Promptoriuni parvulorum Clericoruni, and 
^ J^'zjj^^^^ exijlained by remote, scorsuni ; or from n/- . 
/- 1 ^ ^ ^ 2>aa or rumean, Anglo-Saxon, to get out of the** 
^'czf'way. Hym thysum men setl, give this man place. - 
Saxon Gospels, Luke c. 14. v. 9." 

In . Jameison we find, among othier meanings, ! 
'* Runif a contemptuous designation lor a female,, 
more generally applied to one advanced in life, * 
^th auld prefixed — also an old cow ; on6 that lias 
giTcn over breeding : from the German rhidc, An * 
ox 'Or cow." J. . ♦ 



Saace. Rhyming with bra$$. Sauce^ not nier^y 
oyster^ apple, &c.« accoropaniments to c6d'«head# 
or goofe— *hut vegetables generally. Turnip or cab- 
bage is saaee to '' biel'd beef/' It is our term 
too for rudeness or insolence of speech^ saycinem* 
"Come, now, don't give us any a*yar 9aace!* . 

Saanteren. Idling, loitering,. sauntering. The 
latter word is common and general enough — ^and the 
practice implied J>y this class of words, is now (1823) 
getting also, too common and general in this here- 
tofisr^' industrious county. But let that pass. Our 
pronunciation is somewhat singular, as I have eiidea* 
voured to shew, in the mode of spelling the word. I do 
^6t think that I should have introduced it at all, not 
being local, but for the sake of giving the following 
Quotation from . Ray's S« and £. Country Words. 
'' To santer about, or go soMiering up and down. It 
is derived from saincte ietrc, i. e. the holy/iand, be- 
cause of old time, when there were frequent expe* 
ditions thither, .many idle persons went from place 
to place upon pretence that thev bad takeOf or in* 
tended to take) the cross upon tnem and to go thi- 
ther. It signifies to idle up and- down; to go loi- 
tering about.*' E..Wi. p. 84. 

Dawdlin,> Ndnnaken, Nonnaken, Sawneyken, and 
others of like import, are terms with which "we re- 
prove, idle/ unprofitable chaps.. » , .' . 

S^AZ or Sars. Neighbours, friends, in' a fatniliaiL 
way, fr<>m a farmef to his workmieo, bespeaking tb^if 
attention — ''I sah, Saaz." Probably SiVa; said, how*^ 
ever, 'sometimes to women. /'Cup, Sars— rs|0re, 
store— cup, cup,'* The. latter perhaps an abbrevia- 
tion of come-up. — It occurs frequently in the' recent 
Scottish novels, addressed both to men and women. 

Safe. . A smaller larder, usually of canvas or 
wire, for keeping meat, and broken vjctuais in-^«i^ A 
meat-safe." . 

3 F 

•»i' t » »«^' 


Sag or Seg. To bend, decliDe, droop. A roof 
binding or sinking from^ insufficient strength* or 
decay ip the rafters^ is said '* to sag i' th* middk.'' 
Oite (fecit Aitig in bealtb or years is, poetically, said to 
$ag, •* How is neijghbour Jones ?'^ '* Why, *a fare 
Kragy^— but 'a begin to sag, keinder«^' 
- It niay Be derived from segj^ a reed or rusb^ pro^ 
verbially easy to bend, as well as an emblem of dry-r 
ness; which latter' sense the word implies in several 
BiitbpeBn tongties. See Se& Shakespeare use^ the 
word ift m Samik sense — 

"^ The mind X sway by, and the heart I beari 

Ihril iitf?«rai^s^with doobt, norsliake with ftar. 

' ' fife Scottish has ** to iegg, to pull down, thm the 
ledandic sig'^a, subsidere, and to sey^^, to sink.'^ 3. 

Nares says *' Tb sagg, to bang down, aa oppressecl 
irtth weight ; totwagls nqwused, and is perhapa 
more proper^ To ^gg on,' to walk heavily •* We 
never nse itvagg ib the sense oi'iag; but it is a Stif- 
Mk <word. Iq addition tp* the passage above quoted 
from Macbeth^ Nares gives several others — 

-p— which wbea t'bio!!w, . 
niws to the iagghig due milk vvhite as snow. 

'Whtm Sir HdWlaad Rmset-eoat,. tiieir di|d, got$ «^ky«Nr 
eveiy day in his romid gascoynes o^ whiSs cottea. 

DTtfffiyPiem Femal. is Ctes. IjU¥Lt5. 

Dad is ooromonfly^used by us for fiither: 
In an O. D. A. is '' to iag, to hang down on one 
si4e''*^aQd "^ to ma^ to l&rce down, or ti» bear 
downwards aa %wesgUt does/' The latter i« more 
oiKienaa of ^og . ■ 

^ Ssur Says. '^Mr. Johnsoii^he sah;*^ Mr. Jobn- 
•OA* saya. We hive a habit of interpolating a re- 
dundant p^bnouQ before a verb active in tbe third 
person* See Hb. 

Sm.B8. S^ls; Titne; season. Hays^l,. the time 
dF bay^^making. Barsel, or barley sale, iScSoioetimes 
beard. AU sales, at all times. '' He's a sbadking 


Mhw A iibout nil salc8 o' the nigfat*' — ^ftpplkri>lc 
fo a 8ii8pe«ted poacher, or to a aeiVant 6f Vrregtihrr 

*^8t!iPcirtSetil, time or aeaipn. '« It is a flir teeMW 
y^vi to cvme .at/ i. ^6. ' a fair season or t rrae ; spdlum 
ironically to them that eonie lst«. Bmex. M. A.S* 
Sml, time — * What seel of day ^ what time of day..^' 

Since this was written I heavd this ^vestion pi^t 
by one farmer to another* enquiring the character, 
of a servant — '« How are his sceh V* 

. SauiOw/ a species of sadix* vetj profttaUe to 
gfiow in moist if^rooads^ lor liurdles or any rough 
iMxrk. One species* is stalled the walemsalldw* It 
is an old, and probably i^ot a very local ward.^ 
The yellow hue of its flower may' have been the ori^ 
gin of the word, descriptive of a sickly couiplexiontf 
Such flowers we call godins, which see« See Hulta, 
wl^^re Tusser recoi^inends the Sallow for radces., We 
g^O^f atty make Qur rake-heads, and teeth of /it, , . 

Salt* A bkeh :(d»g or fox) >is said to be sidi 
vben in heat, it is srpplied -otily^ I bdieve, tothtf 
canine sspecies; trniew, in-bviterness end *grosancii 
df^liaiityTitupeMitively to « woman. Thus Shakes- 
peaft >pulstft Hit||»'tke mioudi of Fkmpey in a very 
onergeiic' speebh~ 

— ^May all charms of Ittte 

Sott Cleopatra, soflaii. thy fvao'dlipl " 

Let witchcraft join wilh beauty— 4a8t with botli. 

Again*— / 

' . Were they as prime as foaiSi as bet as/iDoakaQfs, . 
I As ioi^ as wolves in. pcide. .Oiihffkv^ iii^JS. 

▲gain in Timon's bitter anathema, addressed. to Uaa 
beautiful Fbrynia and Tiaiatidpa-*- 

Be a wifaore sflll ! They tove thee fiof 4faat lise thee; ' 
Owe them diseases, leaving with thertbeir hub > 
Make ase of thy mit boors : sesaoa the slaves • 
For tnbi and baths ; bring down, rose^cheeked youth 
To^e tub-fast and the diet; T.ofA,\v,ii 

2 p 2 • - 


I wiH nol qaote the long aoaoUtions od lbi» 
i|»eecbx bqt jiMt notice that the " tob-fast and the 
diet" have made the term*—" i'tbe powdering lab'^ 
— -V i' th' pickling tub'^^n aliosion to Ihe cnrative 
process in Shakespeare's day, current phrases from 
that tipoe^ ta this* . See Powpaa. 

Salt ebl. One of oar numerous recreations, of 
which a list is given under MoveaiL This is some* 
thing like hide and find. The name of Salt eel may 
have been given it from one of the points of the 
game, which is to haiie the runaway individual' 
whom you. may overtake, all the way home with 
your handkerchief twisted hard for that purpose. 
Salt eel implies^ on board ship, a rope's ending, and 
on. shore, an equivalent process. "^ Yeow shall have 
taU eel for supper,'' is an emphatic threat,, referring 
to the back rather than to the belly. 

Sampler or Saamplbr. The A. B. C, &c. witik' 
generally some religious verses, and the name and 
age of the ingenious artist, which girk of most 
ranks were, a certain number of years ago, expeclrd 
to .work on canvas at school, to oe framed and huagf 
up and admired at home. Such things are still ez-^ 
taut, though hot, I believe, still worked. The name 
is probably from the French exemplaire, a copy, a 
pattern. **Sdmplar" says Cocker, is '' an exemplar 
or pattern of needle work." 

Sanlaks. Sand-lands. See Woodlanos. 

Sappy. Silly, shallow-pated. A sap-scull. This 
word is derived from the outer portion of timbef 
next the bark, being less solid and weaker ttem the 
inner. The weak insolid part we call the sap. In 
squaring timber by the sawyers, such outer portions 
are cut off as inferior, and are called slabs. If a 
sufficient thickness of slab be not cut off, and a por-* 
tion of the sap be left in the squared timber, we call 
such timber cockered or scockered* See Slab. 

tn Cheshire ** sapy means foolish ; perhaps only 
sappy ill pronounced. Sap-scull is common, W^ 

Sapscvu.. a siliy shattow fellow* . See S^ami^i' 

SuR^ or Sbab* WUheuedt itj. An 0l4» /gnod, 
fK)^ical w(»rd» sUliin ^eaevtl live id •Suffolk. It^ 
used by many of : our old writers* •and will be ner 
stored again to our poetry.* It is a Saxon word. ' 

The flowing beauti&il Unes of Sbabispeaip are 
in.every Tccoliection-^ 

. I bave livedioDg enoncfb^ ' 

Hy inay of life is fallen into the $ear^ the yellow le^^ 

VKy «rowiiilDth tMr my eye4ialls. /&» ir. a. 
Thkt Wg blinds "Aie^ as if dried -up by liot iron ;"tlie 
teU and extensive mode of practising thia bariMril^ 
4>n royal competitors, real or apprehended. Mittoh 
-In faisi^eidas has *'I?y never aere/' And Seott 
in bii Bridal of Trierroan^ ^'Brushwood fiert,^|l. 
Ml. Ray, amonjg bis S. and R country 'words; btts 
" iear, dry ; opposed fo green ; spbken iSfily 6f 
wood, orlbe parts ,of piant^^ fro(D tKe Qf^;j^^^ 
aridus. Hence perhaps wood*sear** . E, W,*p- l5. 


Nares writes the word» like most of our authors 
wllo use it, ** Sear, dry, withered. Saxon. As k 
substantive, a state of dryness. Hence to sctfr, still 
in use, is to dry up a wound by the force of ftre.^ 
He adds the foUowiog illustrations— 

Old age 

Whicsbi lika«Mr traas, is seldom aeea sffeeted* 

my -body .bndding aow no more i §ear .winlSr 
Bath seal'd that sap up. iff. Jtf^m^ TtmuUf u. 5. 

Nooiie<^y and mid-aigbt shaUtat once be saeoe ; 
Trees at one time shall be boUi sere andgreene. ,., 

.Bfmck, p; 6«l< . 

Yet shall t|iy sap be shortly dry Ai)d smt. 

So beanty paep'd through hittiee of •Mffia>s(|e^ . ' 

, Saiuiont. a Sermon. -So in Chesbve. ' W* 

3f3 ■ 


Sjoa, See Saaz. 

• ^AYiN-TRBB. The Jutiiperus sabiiMi of Linn. Sup- 
'posed to have the powe^to procure abortion. Ljtt 
tays something to that purport of it. ' 

And when I look 
To gath^ fmityfind notbing bat the mnim tree* 
Too frequent in nnnne's orchards, and there pl|uited^ r 
By all conjecture, to destroy fniit nther. 

MiddUtoH'B Gume^fChm, C. 1» b. 

.The. above is from Nares. The notion, whether 
true or false I know not, tbat the Savin potscssea 
the quality ascribed to \i, is in full force in 8<iffblk; 
•A few years ago, my gardener pointed out the plant 
to me, witb ^n expression of abhorrence ; and said 
thiat it ought to be eradicated by act of parliament. 
I had never before seen the lowly plant— not a tree-— 
.nor heard its bad character. Its character is not, 
howerer, universally bad ; for in an O. D. A. is '' Sa- 
vine, an herb good to cure ulcers.^' 

Sawnit. a silly, half-witted, ide Ioat--^hence 

Sawnetk^n. Idling, lounging, sauntering.^ 
'' Heow yeow dew go sawneyken about." Daw^in, 
nonndken, and manterai are words of similar import* 

6awzles. Slops or drinks, given injudiciously to 
srck. persons. 

Sat. a taste, growing into a^abit. Cows having 
broken into a field of clover, pigs into potatoes, &c., 
will have *' got a say on't," and be not eauly kept 
out. It is also applied to any early irregularities. 

I never heard this word out of Suffolk, where it is 
still (Common. It occurs in the following passage in 
Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth : 

The splendid hunt then eoncloded according to the esUk* 
btished laws of the chase, by the ofTering of the knife, to the 
piincess or first lady of the field i and her iM»g *smjf (so 
printed, I know not whence taken) of the buck, with her 
own ftlr and royal hand. 

' S(W or sak is aho substituted for says or said, in 
the tbitd person singular — *' John he say — ,** as is 
usu^l among us, and as is explained iinder Havb and 


Sam. Looking latterly ever Ray, I find it among 
bisS. and £. country words, at in the following qao- 
tation — *' Say of it, i. e. taste of it. Suffolk. Say 
for assc^, per apkoeresin, assSy from the French eh* 
iayer, and the Italian ossaggiaTe, to try,- or prove, 'dr 
attempt; all from the Latin word«apto, which signU 
fies also to taste." £. W. p. 84. Li Scottish is "sey 
or, say, a trial ; an attempt of any«kind." J. 

Nares has a long, and as usual, an instructive ar- 
ticle on this word. In his second sense he ap- 
proaches our Suffolk meaning, as it is fairly given 
by Ray. 

*Say for assay, test or specimen. ' A «ay a Specimen : soy 
^Uf deliba Blud, prsKba.' • £. Co/m. Tims to gia ikM toy 
at court was for the royai taster to declare the goodness of 
^e wine or dishes* i 

Or to take 

A iay of fenison, or stale fowl by yonr nose. 

It appears formerly to have meant, as well as 
taste, or relish, as in Lear, v. 3 . , 

And that my toogoe some aay of breeding breathes,. 

.any attempt or effort, especially i^ first.; to try, in 
general ; even, as Nares remarks, to try (fhe fitne«i 
of clothes*^ 

• « 

Sh' admires her ennning ; and incontinent, . 
'Stt^ei on herself her manly ornament. 

Sfflv. Dubari, p. 2f 9. 

'Our existing assay-master is hence derived. 

ScAU> BEAD. Scurfy or scabby-headed, and con- 
sequent partial baldness. Nares shows that the older 
.word i^scalh V^ed by Chaucer and in the authorized 
version of the Bible ; derived from skalladur, - bald^ 

A dry icaUf a leprosy on the head. Lemt. ziii. 30. 

ScaU implies other diseases. See Scaly« 

ScALLioN. 'Ashatot. ' Not, perhaps, a confined 
word ; certainly not very modern, as is shown by 
Nares, who sufficiently illustrates it. 

SsMLf^ A shabby meftn feUow« A vagtie tirm, 
•dcfived probably from .ibe ditoredtt IncideDt to H 
diiease fdm^erly called seoU, or scald ; notpfeetself 
•cvnfined to what we now call ioald*head. ft aaay he 
-inferred from this qnolalion from Mastinger : 

My three coon codliogs Ihat look parboird, 
As if they came from Capid^t moJkHmg home. 

Of Ibis something under Pisd and Powdbr. 

ScAiiBi^B. A word raAer. v^uelj.. ^^^> tor somi^ 
thing done irregularly. I have heard it used inBfi 
order to one harrowing bind« " drive (aster; scamble 
i^ about'' — meaning tcaticr perhaps. And I bm^ 
•baard ^it also as descriptive «f an aakward, looae 
mode of a horse carrying his legs when trotting. 
This may be likewise a sense of scattering, ppposed 
to closeness. In this sense I recollect once meeting 
with the word in a translation of Tayernier's trafrk: 
describing an Indian city, it is called '' a great tcamr 
bling city. And in an O.D. A. it occurs in exactly 
the same sense— ^' A scambling town ; a town in 
(Which the houses stand at a great distance one froai 

Nares illustrates the word by sereral quotataona> 
in a sense apparently of acf«in6^ 


' Scant. This is not an uncommon word; }too 
common in-deed as well as in wojd. We use it as 
a substantive and verb. " I am scant of sftivva ta 
year.'' " He should not be scanted of pocket mo- 
ney." Sometimes as an adverb: "I scant knew 
him.'*^ So in Hamlet, 

He's fat and SMKi of breath, y. f , 

Be somethiog $eaiiiir of your maiden presesce. Id* 'y 5. 

Therefore I icaiU this breathing coarte^. M. ^ F. v, 1. 

Sc^v^iu See Skapfbl. 

ScocKERD. Timber insolid, from being sappy, is 


said to be soockir% or cockered. Sec that word, 

'Sconce. The head, for which we have many 
names, as noticed under Costard. Sconce U several 
timet used by Shakespeare : 

Most I go shew them my anbarbed morm 7 CiirM» iit* 8* 

Again in a passage ijuoted under Mazzabd. - '" 
SoFanshawe — 

IV mfiisecl ^oyson werkuig in his momci JJmad^ yiii. 51. 

< In this selne>'saith Nares, it is perhaps still occa- 
sionally used in fatrilliar language. . < 

ScoliB. ^ To mark any thing, especiiilly with a 
slashing sort of mark. The carcase of a slain sheep 
is scored with the knife; living sheep are scored 
with odire. Of a man who may hapfy chop on ta 
two dinrtersj it is whimsicallysaid. he must be chalk- 
ed or scored oq the back. To scotch, is a word near* 
ly similar. 

Scot. A Scotch beast or bullock. 

Scotch. To notch, or cut. Thus Macbeth—: 
We've seoieVd the snake, not kiird it. iii. f. 

With us it farther means to mark with stripes. 
*' Scotch him on the back," is so to chalk a man. 
To score is equivalent in the latter sense/ See that 
word. Nares under Scotch, says, to score or out in 
a slight manner; and in addition to the above quo- 
tation, gives 
He scotched and notch'd him like a carbonado. CwioU iv. 5* 

In an O. D. A. is *^ to scotch, to cut ; as to scotch a 
Ssh to the bone/' ? 

ScoTCH-HOB. The game pretty generally played' 
in England, by hopping and kicking a- bit of tile 
from M to bed of a diagram of this fashion. 


1 1 


is In Oilier |>ftrts.cdM icMiNfc^dk But In Sdvl- 
landy the game is described by JameisoniODder its 
noftbero name of pa^//. 

• Soiyim. The op^rattmi t»f ekMiitig, '^IMitg'Wxi 
ditches^ wet or dry. Thtis ifi'^&«iie% Hetigrtire,' 
amsttig<tiiee]£peiMe»>of the ^Hsdliiv: ilMft ia^iia iMa 
"for upo^rvi^ lii^. r^nidef of ditahing w^k'^l <he 
mill, at ij(2. the rodde, xxaP p. 192^ 

.i8ciuh«» IMratdii M0i«iev A^i^ wpsftti'VibBIt 
froDi it« bvrnnigh; abAjTj a bbt fMNn hi^ c«^y* 
book, or a pimple, on bis leg. ** Ijetit dooe $ JM0^ 
ToU'^cntb it ;" or c^u; would perhaps he more like* 
Jj in^e latter case. See Clow. 

Seiuo. The neek. ** A scrag of mvttdB ;~ the 
^n^end of the neck. ^Tbe scrag enrd/' • SettLg^ 
means a thin person, particnlarly if thin aboot the' 
basom. In Gotland, crag is the neck. J. 

Scraps. As well as in the common sense, fhk 
word is in Suffolk particularly descriptiTC of ithe 
small pieces of fat pork remainiug after the opera- 
tion of boiling for the purpose of extracting the lard 
for store Tor domestic use. Some gross-feeding per- 
sons like those remaining die-shatped pieces, friM. 

ScitANSH. See Skranch. 

. Seavir. See&uiorF. 

• ^8<?wff . Se« ShcRvrr. 

ScCLLERT. The room, or place, where pfates, &q' 
drodkery iti dbmestic use, are W'asfaed. Shtmoii, used 
so ibe t»e '^ppeUation of the hard-worked girl who 
washed them ; but as it had a disrespectful, and tn 
Wifeeling sound, it is propeviy disuse^* 

Sccrr. The taH or brash of a hare or nibbit. I 
think I have heard itdso called fud\ as It iii in Scot- 
land. &cut is a Sbakesperian word, and is perhaps 
common all over England. 

Sbar, See Sars. 


. SmrBOKS*: A.fl)ger oust «uddeiilj& ftpljproadilDg 
firoia, tl^e-direjetion of the sea; not unconntacNi! m 
i))e enatem coaat*, A l«dy linguist bedring this wmA 
vaei foi^jtbe fifpyk.tiatie in company, amusingly iomh 
gined it cognate with the 4BfW 6f Italy* See Bos^i 

San^T. A thin, tean» long-legged lorse-^^atcad^ 
f4 to Knan^ and other aaimak oceasioilidly : likelTmiH 
ning tip to leed^ asit were* 

. S9,w^ Apart of a cart or ptauffh harnesa. The 
^ppden^extperior oC the eoUar. (m the saane meanft 
ing also in regard, to times^. ae Sulal, whidi .see« 

. Scih^ Ssos», Roshea, reeds, aedges {. *' js seggen* 
boi^m'd. cbAir^'' ** A t^ggen collar/' a. collar mads 
of sqiii^; ao: economical substitute fof th^ common 
qplla^j^ ,usfd.abo,.lfiom ita dryness, and buoyiuum 
(yjboji^i .lfar)iMng< tO' a«viim» who thnist their heU 
and arms through ; but it is a bad way oCleaniiag.p 
S>r if the-qoUar dip downwards, it i^ aptjto sub^[i|eq;e, 
rnstea4 of keeping up, the bead. . '' A se4sf^co\\i^Ti*\ 
J^seir, "ff 13. See uiac^er Goof , verse 1% ai^d Dfii,e*i 
' It does not appear in Jamie^on^f Dicj^ionafy that. 
ie^ is a Scottish name of the ruMi; ihougb bu|liS^g^ 
as well as the Cheshire meaning, is "tl^e great csyb^, 
tail or reed*mace, Typha latifolia :of iUnn/* In- 
Cheshire a bull cut, when full gro^n, is called a J^^/^ 
dso in Lancashire and Scotland. W. 

I do not think that we have the thataense^r 
Nates e^plaias Segs, as sedges, o^ the water flower de 
luce, from the Sa](on«^nd thus illustrates tl^e word : 

, --.<-: TbfH pa his legs 
](4M fetters hang the and^r-||p>wing m$8^. Bfjf* Ppgt* iL i%,, 

——Stiff, raak balnuh, aod the sharpen'^ rcie<}>. . 

. Drittff, Jiif9U$» 

Hid io the Borgeif £ist by the river's side. 

fVeakestgois io W. C. 4 b. 

I wove a coffin for his cone, offers 

That with the wind did wave. €wiielia, 0« P. ii. 966. 

• Sbkbtta. An e^cuior ; not an executioner. 
^ Senshun, See ^M^^it,. 


7 Set. a. ganie at whist. ''What do we piay a 
set?" The m^^and points are-stiU unknoirn at 
some card tables. We say set for $it, as noticed in 
some variety of words under Aninnd. "Dew that 
there owd hiq set >"* '* No ; she )ah/' 

-,' Set*fa8T. In use — not at liberty. ''Retch me 
the black jrack." " You cant bet ; 'tis set fast ; s'fiill 
a burgad.'' Sometimes/os^, without the pre6x. 

I- Set-*ope. ' Any things by which a gate or door, or 
any thing on jimmers, is set open, or kept .Open. 
" The gate oont keep back; the set-ope is gone.'' 

• Settee. A sopha, or moveable window-seat ; in 
more, modern language called, I believe, conversa- 
tion stool. I have not heard the word of many 
years, and beiieve it is going out. t What geAtieder 
peq>le called settee, more lowly f(^ would perhaps 
call settle^ which see. 

'. Settle. The long circular wooden bench or seat 
of a public house kitchen, with a high back, to In* 
crease the comforts of the fire-side. The same in 
Scotland. The word occurs frequently in Tales of 
my Landlord, Ivanhoe, the Monastery, &c. In the 
hitter named novel, I. 134, it is the fire-side seat of 
a private house : it is sometimes ' so with us. A^ a 
N. country word, Grose has " Ssttle or Lung-settle, 
a long form with a back and arms, usually placed in 
the chimney corner of a farm house." 
' When I first, which was lately, heard the word in 
Suffolk/ 1 thought it local, as I did not recollect ever 
having heard or seen it elsewhere ; but I have since 
fi^tiently inet with it. It occurs in Bracebridge 
Hall, ii. 153. 

Naressays ** Settle for a bench, though used by 
Dryden, is how little known. Johnson quotes this 
instance : 

A commoD settiU drew for either guest. 

In Ezskiel, Naies cootifiiies, xUii. 14, 17, settle seejns to 
be used for a kind of tedge or flat portion of tlie altar.-^The 
clearest account of the settle seems td be iu the assembly's 


lMmeUtioii»-^< Tlie fabrickdf it seims to be thiiii^ one cubit 
high was the basis/ or ibot; «r bottbtne, bosome, or MRle:-— 
from thence two cubits to the round ledge, or biencb, or tetik 
of a cubit broad, that went round about it.' In Ezek. zlv. 
19^ the- ^ four corners of the uUleotl^ altar' are mentioned. 

A smaller piece of furniture of a superior .sort in 
private houses, affording accommodation fpr two or 
three, we.U8ed to call in Suffolk settee, ,- .See that 

In an O. D. A. is " A settle, or settle*bed, a kind 
of bed to be turned up.'' What we now more com- 
monly call a bureaurbed, froiir its. appearance wben 
not in use, we sometimes call a settkbed. 

Sbw. Toooiseout. Water, from wet land^^blobd, 
fromabound«up wouEid. ^ Ta sew out, stamminly''*^ 
i.e. it oozed or flowed out surprisingly. 

Shack. The corn left in a barley or pea field, 

after the crop has been carried. Pigs ^nd poultry 

are then turned in " to shack." ''Tha's good shack 

in that there fUld.'' '' A shackeil fellow'' describes 

one who has no fixed home, or hangs too much on 

his. friends. He is sometimes.caUed a sAac^afta^^. 

Yoke -seldom thy swine while shtuk time do last. 

For divers misfortunes that happen too fast. Ihttser, p. ft9* 

" Shaktime, or Shaketime, is after harvest, wh^n 
mast/&c. is to be picked up." Mavor, on the above 
passage. I do not accord with this etyfnology. 

Shackaback. See Shack. 

• • •, ..,....• . • ^ 

*Shanks's nag. On foot. Shankies nag> in Scotr 
tish. .' 

Shannt. Wild, frolicsome, unroiy (notfVomvice}^ 
high spirited, romping, joyous, flighty. Or one 
step beyond these, bordering on mental insolidity. 
In the north, '' shandy, wM." , Roy, E. W. p. 53. in 
Scottish, «Aan, silly. J. , ., 

Shard. A^broken?pi<ce: of tile or pottery. See 
Flbtsher and PoTSHAD'. • . v. . 

Shakespeare writes ahmed-foorne In this wett known 
passage : 



MiuAdk. lire the bat hath flowb 

His cloUter'd flight ; ere to black Ilecate^ sammoDSy 
The ahard-bonie beetle, with his drowsy hnra. 
Hath roDs night's yawnuig peal, there shall be done 
A deed or dreidfiil note* |ii* f . _ 


Often to oar comfort shall we find 
The sharded beetle, in a safer hold, 
Thaa is the fhll-winged eagle. cymfeifti^ HI. S. 

That is, says Steevens, the beetle hatched among 
shards or broken tiles. 


They are his shard^ and he their beetle. 

Ani, tmd CU9p4 ill. i* ' 

This rather obscure and afifected passage, seems 
to Imply shard-^ne, not bom. It is applied to ihi 
shuAing adulation of Lepidus toward bis co-trium<r 
▼irs, M. Antony and Oct. Csesar. 

The industrious Ray has got this word into one <^ 
his proverbs : • 

When Tom's pitcher's broken I sbitfl have the aftMrds. 

p. 874. 

Nares aaya /' Shardr a fragment of a pot or tile ; 
henc^ potsherdt vn'xiXtn pouhtard^ in the early edi* 
tions of the Bible. Job, ii. 8, &c. From the Saxon, 
or from the Flemish schaerde. 

For charitable prayerSf 
SlmrdSf flints, and pebbles, shoald be thrown upon her. - 

Hamkt^ v. 1. 

C9wAard appears to mean only the hard scales of dried 
cow-ddng. " ilie hamWe-bee takettt no scorn to lodge in 
a cow's roole fftord." Sllard-6orM«, Nares adds, isnottber»> 
fore ' b€im among shards,* as Dr. Johnson once supposed, bat 
carried bv ikaTdi^ 

111 Scriptare it is written s/iimi. 

So that there shall not be fonnd in the baming of it (t)ie 
p6tter's vessel) a Wl«i^d, to take fire from the hearth, or to iaka 
water withal oat of the pit. /AnoA, xxxi 14. ' 

Thon Shalt evcfii drkik it> and sadk It out, and tiiov jhalt 
break the sherds thereof. Esuk, xxiiL M. 

Zn both these passages, Kbes adds, it was sftf^rds inthe 
early editions. 


' SbARHiNG. A eonftised noisei adiD> abuzziog; 
such as is made by chattering er unruly childroi. 
V What a sharmin them there children dew. keep/' 
I suspect it is the same as swarming, being borrowed 
from the confused noise of bees in that curious ef- 
(cftt of domestic economy : for .both worda are ap- 
plied (though one sees not why) to tbe operation of 
climbing a boughless tree« and to leaping over a g^te 
with but a sUght touch of the hand. 

Shaw. A small wood or erove ; one lying open 
to a fieldy seems mostly thus designated. " A $haw, 
a wood that encompasses a close. Sussex. Ab* A. S. 
Seuwm umbra ; a shadow.'' Ray, £. W. p. 85. In 
Scottish^ schaxv, sckagh, a wood/ a grove. J, Ac- 
cording to Naresy "snaw is a thicket^ or small wood. 
The word is still in use in StafTordsbire, and .is fre- 
quent in the composition of names, as jUdarshaw, 
Gcntkshaw, &c. 

Thither to seek some flocks or h^ds we wemty 
Perhaps close hid benea^ the greea-wood thmo, 

Fwf. Kitivy viii. St. 

' We have several other words for a small enclosed 
thicket — Dingle, reed, queech, squeech, among 

' SsBAR. To reap corn, or to clip sheep. 

Although reap, and clip, or cut, are now the verbs 
most commonly applied to operations on field, 
fleece, or poll, yet our ancestors oftenest used shear, 
variously spell^ sheer, sheir, shere, as is shown by 
Nares. The Thursday before Easter, called Maun- 
day Thursday, was called Sheer Thursday, from the 
custom of shearing or shaving the beard on that day. 
The name is thus accounted for — 

For that hi old fader's days the people wonld on that day 
shere theyr hedei, and clyp theyr berdes, and pool theyr 
heedeSi and so midce them honest ayenst Easter day. 

Old Bmily^ cited in Boume'e Pop. AiO, 1. 1S4. 

Shore is our past tense of th^ ve^rb. 3^ PQi^t« 


: . Sheablakd. a lamb or sheep a year old ; also 
shearling. See Dans. 

Shed. A sheath of a knife, &c. ; the praepatiaoi 
of a horse. 

Sheer. Wh(A\j, exclusively, pare, absolutely. 
*' He- did it by sheer strength/* or " out of sheer 
mischief.'* In one of these, senses, director figura- 
tive, this passage of Sbi^Lespeare must be read--- . 

Tbon sheer, immacolatey aod silver foantaiOy 
From whence this stream, through mnddy passage^ 
Hath held his cnrrent. K,R,tke 9i: r\ 5. 

Steevens, on this passage, says that " sheer, is pure, 
transparem** Pure it may be, but tiot, I thiiik, in 
any pther than a figurative sense. '* Out of pure 
mischier* would do as well in Suffolk as '* sheer mis- 
chief.'* I question if the word by Shakespeare or in 
Suffolk was ever used for transparent. We should 
certainly say «* sheer through** for " clear through** 
or ** right through ;'*^ bat still not apply it to trans- 
parency or transhiseoce. 

I confess, however, that the respected authority of 
Hares being directly against me, I have less confi- 
dence in my own i:eading. 

Sheer, he says, clear and transparent, like par« 
water. The srnse of the word is hardly expressed 
>n Dr. Johnson's first definition or examples. After 
the above quotation from Shakespeare, Nares gives 
these from Spenser*s F. Q. and Golding's Ovid, Metm 

Who, having viewed in a Ibnntain sh»s 
His face, was with the love thereof begayrd. 

F. Q. III. iu 44. 

• • • 1 

The water was so pure and sheers* Gold. 0» M, iv. 

*' In the metaphorical sense of pure and unmixed^ 
it is," Nares adds, " still used ; as sheer sense, sheer zv- 
^ument. In the sense of quick, clean (as an adverb) 
it is preserved by the usage of Milton. See JohntonJ* 

' Sheers. Shires ; the counties of England ending 
with shire, excluding Suffolk, Norfolk, and £ssex«> 


The farmers of these three countiesi especially of the 
two former, are disposed to think disparagingly of 
the talents, stock, and implements of the neighbour- 
ing and distant shires. This is remarked by Mr. 
Wilbraham, in his Glossary of Cheshire ivords. 
" A'v a touch a' the sheers in 'em/' ts a very male^- 
voleAt character to give of a horse, and is not safely 
to be uttered loud enough to be heard by a Suffolk 

[ Shell. Pied. Shell-duck, phelUhorse. It differs 
from flecker'd, I believe, in thi^ — that shell (or sheld) 
is pied, of two colours ; fle^ker'd is gay, of more 
than two ; but I am in doubt if this hold universally 

In th^ sense ofhusk, we commonly use ludl. See 
under that word. Our old writers have shdk and 
hheal as a verb, in the like sense, as is shown by 

That* s a sheoFd peascod. I^or, i. 4. 

In saying this, the Fool points to Lefir, meaning to say that 

he was an empty useless thing. Gt, 

\< , 

In an O. D. A. is " Swad^ a peascod-shell.'' 
The following quotation from Nares will explain 
our word sheH in the meaning first given. 

Sheld^ as explained by Coles, is ' interttinctus^ ditc^fir^^ i. e» 
Spotted, variegated in colour: which explains both theld' 
tippUy and /rtj^la, a chaffinch ; and also sheldrake, a well- 
known name for a beautifully coloured dock'. 

It was my purpose ;to have given here*--nor under 
Shell-duck, which see-*-6ome extravagant relations of 
•the Shell-duck, or Scotch-goose, or Barnacle-goose, 
or Bargander, from Giraldus, fol. £d. 1588; add from 
the commentators on the passage in the last scene of 
Act iv. of the Tempest. JBut my intended little book 
having swelled to its present unexpected bulk, and 
threatening farther unlopked for expansion, I mus't 

' The shell-fish, so well known to seamen, 'called 
^Barnaeks — Lep^s anatrfera — ar^ not on-iy supposed 



lo turn to gteae, but divers ^eye-witnesses to tbe fea- 
thers thereof and to the process of transformation 
fiiay be quoted. That very singular species of Lepas 
ipay well. from its appearance gi?e rise to wooder-r 
ment f and hence sppae of the most monstrous fiibks 
that ignorant admiration ever gave rise tcu •: - * 
. I mayr pote that Sheldrake is a comipw m^tn's 
name in Suffolk ; Shelduck, never. I have written 
this word,' as we pronounce it, shell ; but shcld ap^ 
pears to be the correct mode, as above. Grose has 
'**$held, party-coloured, flecked, or speckled ; thence 
sheld-^veke, and zheld-tosfV* 
' Something farther on this party* colon red matter 
will be found uuder the articles Bay, Fleckered, Gah, 
Pied, Shell-duck, Skew-bald, and Tree-goose, of this 

• Sqell-duck. Tbe Anas tadorpa. This variegated 
species of duck is seen remote from water on arid 
heaths, wh^re they breed in deserted rabbit holes. 
In Norfolk, and on the borders of Suffolk, it is aJso 
'called bay-duck. " Sheld, flecked, party-coloured ; 
Suffolk. Shel-drake,' ^nd sheld'fowle I Sussex.** Ra^ 
E.W. pl85. See Shell. 

Shelyb. To remove tbe surface of land with a 
shovel. Vou shove or shelve it, which is different 
from * the operation of diggin|^ with a spade. Wt 
say sheov^for shove, and shoml n>r shovel, Tusser ha^ 
hoi\i showi ^nd sholve. See Showl. . . ... 

Sreow or Show — rhyming to nowi Shore, posh ; 
crowd. See under the latter word. A to final for r, 
is not an uncommon substitution with us, as dow for 
dKyoe: but we have hot extensively adopted the vul- 
garism of the initial w for r. In Scottish, to schow, 
is to shove. J. It appears to be pronounced shov^, 
being derived from the Belgic scuf. See Showl. 

Sheowda. The shoulder. This being merelr a: 
vulgar pronunciation, I should not have noticed it> 
but having said that whenever an UAintelligible word 


occurred it might be considered as Suflblkj and 
found in this Collection ; and this word having oc- 
curred in a' local phrase, and being, perhaps, not im- 
mediately intelligible, I have given it a place and an 

Shepherd's Sun-dial. The scarlet pimpernel.— - 
Anagallis arvensis. 

Shet. Shut. See many changes in pronuncia- 
tion under Aninnd. 


' Shew or Shue. A shoe. So mune for moon ; fale^ 
scbule, gewse, bute, &c. as noticed under Butes. 

Shewen the cowt. Shoeing the colt — a quaint 
phrase for the social exaction of a fine, oh the intro- 
duction of an associate to any new ofiBce. If he 
meet his companions at a periodical dinner, a bottle 
,of wine, or a bowl of punch, in a certain rank of 
life, is a common iine on the colt's health being 
drank. *' Pahen his footen'' is an equivalent phrase 
and practice. 

Shews. Shoes ; in the cotnmon change of the oo 
for the acute u, as noticed under Butes. See Lutha. 
'' Ah, deeow, hull an owd shew aater me for good 
luck.'' The superstition of throwing an old shoe 
•after one, we retain in phrase, but I am in doubt if 
We practise it ; as probably our ancestors did. See 

«0WD SliUE. 

Shill. Shell. Cockle'shills — Shells in general; 
which we also call cockle-taps. As noticed of many 
words under Aninnd, we say skilled for shelled. 
V Shill the pease." «' Ar the beans shill'd ?" 

Shim. A white mark, of a particular shape, other- 
wise called a blaze or a star, on a horse's forehead. 
We have shimmer, in the sense of shining — and say, 
" the stars shimmer." So in Scottish " to shimmer, 
to shine." J. In Essex the Hobby lantan is called 
shim, " To shimper; io shimtner, or shine." Sussex. 
Ray, E. W» p. 58. , 


Aod banberks with tiitir bornisbed fold 
That «fct«m^d fiiir aBd free. 

SeotVs Lard of the Isks, 

I The dewe-droppe «&u»mer<(A in the raye. 


These meapings are all traceable to the Saxon 
schima, splendour, brightness ; and thence^ perhaps, 

to the Arabic t^rtjt shems, or the equivalent Hebrew 

tt^DtS^ sJiemcsh — the sun. 

Shingle. The small stones upon the sea-beach, 
rounded by attrition. On the eastern coasts the accu- 
mulated mass is immense. 

Ship. Sheep, in the singular or plural. Shakes- 
peare puns on this pronunciation — 

Twenty to one then he is shipped already^ and J have 
played the sheep in losug him. I\m Gen, qf Fer» 

The adage ** to lose a ship for a haaporth of tar,*' 
will apply both to the animal and the vessel. Our 
substitution of i for ee, and the converse, is noticed 
intmany instances under Aninnd. 

Shive. This word we have altered to shiver, or 
shivva. See Shiver. I do not think that we. have 
shive in the sense of a slice off a loaf, &c. 

Shiver. This is not an uncommon or local word ; 
but in Suffolk we use it somewhat singularly, and 
quaintly, and hyperbolically ; not to say poetically, 
in the sense of a piece or, slice, A boy will say, 
" Come give us a shivva" off a cake or loaf. And I 
rather think that in strictness the fragment should 
be broke, not cut, off. Sliwa is nearly the same. 
Shakespeare uses the word, or one closely cognate, in 
the sense of ati, I cannot I'efrain from quoting, at 
needless length, the passage in which it occurs. 

She is a woman, therefore may be woo'd ; 
She is a woman, therefore may be won-; ..* 
She is Lavioia, tberefSTre most be lov'd» i|i. 
What, man ! more water glideth by tbe mill 
Then wots the miller of, and easy His 
Of a cat loaf to steal a shive. Tit. And, ii. 1. 


The last line bas given rise to a proverb, or was 
thence derived, which Ray has preserved. It is very 
significants-meaning more than meets the eye. ' 

• Tis safe taking a skive of a cut loaf. p. 48. 

The like may he said of the penult, which Ray has 
also given — '' Much water goes by the mill, the 
miller knows not of* — and he quotes an Italian 
adage of like import. " Assai acqua passa per ft 
moHno che il molinaio non vede.^' p. 136» 

In a prudential maxim the word likewise occurs 
among Ray's Proverbs. " Give a loaf and beg a 
Mve.*' p. 192. 

■ In Scottish " scheave is a slice^ from the Belgic 
sphi/f, a round slice." J. 

' Shock. A shoof, or sheaf of corn ; also to place 
the sheaves of wheat recently sheared, upright to 
dry, which is called *' Shockin the shooves." Shock 
is. a scripture word for a sheaf. 

Like as a shock of corn cometh in his season. 

Jf(,v. S6# 

In Suffolk, it is seldom that any other corn but 
wheat and beans are shocked; oats are sometimes. I 
never saw barley so harvested. But it was not 
unusual, it appears/ in Tusser's time. 

The mowing of barley, if barley do stand, 
Is cheapest and best, for to rid out of band : 
Some mow it, and rake it, and set it on cocks, 
Some mow it, and bind it, and set it oi\shoek$. p. 185. 

Shod. A shed. " The cart-shod." Also, as in 
, other parts, shoed. Dry-shod — wet-shod. The lat- 
ter is pronounced wet-shud. 

Shoof. A sheaf of wheat — ^also Shock. Shooves 
'in the plural. See Shock. 

' Shoovek. a calf or colt is said to be shoovin, 
when parting with its early teeth ; trees putting forth 
their leaves are also shooven, 

SnonE. The preteirite of shear, which see, It ia 

more usiial with us to apply sheariDg to wheat, than 
reaping, " He heent shore tew acres as yit." 

Sbobtnimg. Saet> or hutter, in cake> crustior 
bread. Cakes so made are called diort-cake. 

Shoshins. Aslant, sloping — ** Dew yeeow cut that 
there dreen shoshins athelse t*al keeve/' In commOd 
English — do you cut that drain sloping, or else it 
will cave or slip. 

SaoT or Shoat. A young swine. In Cheshire 
" shoat or shot is a young pig between a sucker and 
a porker. It is also a term of contempt when applied 
to a young person." W. We have it not in the 
latter sense. " A sheat a young hog, SuffbIL In 
Essex, shote, both from shoot" Ray, E. W. pw 85. 

Among the stock ^t Hengrave Hall in 167Q, under 
the head of *' Sowes — Hoggs-^Shotts** is this enlry-^ 

Sowes of the last reBaynte, ▼iij->hoggs, zij— shotts, xljiij. 

G^s How P« <1^* 
In Scottish shott is an ill grown ewe. J. 

ShouL See Showu 

Show. See Sheow. 

Showl. Rhiming to owl — a shovel or skuppit. 
Thus, in that minor classic, '* The death .of cock 
robin," a work, whatever may be its metrical merits, 
which excites as much interest, perhaps, as any 
poem in bur language — 

Who'll dig bis grave ?— 

I, said the owl, with my spade and showl^ 

And ril dig his grave. 

Showl is an old word. It is used by Tusser, who 
also calls it sholve, — See under Goof, verses 1 and 7. 
It is likely I think, as well as sh&oel, to have derived 
its name from the mode of using it. You do not dig 
with a sh6vel; you push, or shovCt or sheow^ or 
shehe loose soil or corn with it. You dig with a 
spade. See Shelve. 

As in Scottish .to schoxv, is to shove, so schule or 
shool is a shovel, from the Belgic school, id. J. See 


Sh£ow. I find ihowl, in a ^iiiotation ia Nares* ufidct 
piner, an old name for a pioneer-— • 

My pinert e|ce were pre8twi|h jMo/ and made. 

Jftr. ilf<v. p* 18t. ' 

Sbrags. The ends of sticks— ^f the birchen twigs 
in a broom ; or of whins or furze. *' Yar brum o^ 
ta ha' fine shrags:'' This was said to a man about 
to dress recently thrashed barley for market. The 
clippings of live fences. 

Shravyel. Dry, sare, faggot-wood. The same, 
I believe, as shruff. Shravel occurs in this sense 
in Cullum's Hawstead, p. 216, in a lease dated iii 

Shrike. The Lams exaibitor* We call it also the 
Butcher-bird — appropriately named from its habit of 
impaling snails, small birds, and other victims, or^ 
thorns before it devours them. It is called the mur^ 
dering pie in other counties. Shrike is not ^ very 
confined name; it was given probably from tW 
shriek 6t screetch of the incubating female, by wbicb 
it is supposed 'to endeavour to deter from approach. \ 

Shruck. Shreeked. '' Askruck like a stuck pig.'' 
Among the words which somehow have suffered 
mutation, of tlie k and ch, are probably shriek and 
screech. See Skreek. 

Shrufp. Light sare wood, sticks, reeds and coarse 
grass; called also shrtff'Stuff, usually claimed by 
hedgers as their perquisite. It is the same, I believe, 
as shravvel ;' ahd perhaps' tbe same also as <' Scruffy 
little sticks, coals, &c. which poor people gather for 
fewel on the sides of the river Thames." O. D. A. 

S^ucx,. Shook-^-shaked. '' 'A shuck' 'a's bid.'- 
** A gon it a good shuck." See Lybn. 

Shuck, is also a husk, or shell, or. hulL V A 
situck, aa h^sk or shell, as bean-Mttc^«» be^n-sbejls, 
per fLhagrammatifmUm rS husk« forte" Rn^, K W..p». 
85.;. Qn' Ray's notion of transposition, we haYe^ 


bitfkust . for. breakfast — wapa for wasp, &c. See 

Shucklsd. Growing beans are said to be shackfd 
wben beaten down by hail or wind. Bqgied, mckied, 
mi^d, and waited, are other words alike descriptive 
of other growing grains so beaten down. Thos there 
appears to be separate names fo» every variety of 
agricultural phenomena in the *' Copious rhetoric'' of 
Suffolk. Nickled is root-fallen. WaUtd, inclined 
or beaten down. See those words. 

Shug. Shake ''Shug it right well.'' A labourer en* 
deavouring on a frosty day to clear a plot of ground 
from spear^grass, by forking it> said ** ta ont shug^." 
Shuck, which see, is the past tense of the verb; but 
we are not precisely uniform in its application. 

Sht. Wild> starting. A shying-horse. Said also 
of a young timid girl. It is likewise descriptive of 
the peculiar appearance of one's hair when receatly 
cut. *' Shie or Sh, apt to startle and flee from you, 
or that keeps ofi; and will not come near. Ital* 
Schito, &c.'' Ray. £. W. p. 85. Also to throw. 
See Sky. 

SiBRiDGE. See SiBaiT. 

SiBftm banns of matrimony. This word has 
been derived from Sih, said to mean akin ; and to 
imply, that by banns the parties have a right to be- 
come akin, that is> sib^right. Some say it is rib^righi, 
tbe right to take a rib. Ray has this proverb : — 

Ai mnch«t66^d ssseive and riddle that grew in the same 
wood. p. 226. 

And he says that *' sibb*d means akin,, and that 
in Suffolk the banes of matrimony are called gibbc" 
ridge," which is correct ; though nhrit be most com- 
mon. Both are in extensive use. Sibrit is said in 
Sir Thomas Browne'f tract " Of Languages" to be 
a Norfolk word. Sir Henry Spelman derives it from* 
sib, akin ; and byrht, manifest : hence, be says> to 
bruiii to divulge, to spread abroad* Ray derives it 


fremafc and Hki% '* ^ Or ijfhbe/^ he s^ys^ ^^ri.^n 
afickni 8«xoift> wevd aigoifyf 11^ kinidred;' i^jmce^^ 
fmtty.- SihbeHigey 4X ftbbdred ; the btnen of tna-! 
trimonj. Suffolk. i}|» A» S.-«0i s^t,^ Ray.' E.' W;*' 
pp# 53^ 85* 

Nares has Rpt Sibri$ m bit Oloisary* He -siiffi^t 
ciently iliustratea $ih and aiMtfd>'in the tense.*^" 
kiosman. St6 is also ScottUb,. " Sib^ nhh: re|«^Ud 
by blood — from the Ang^. Sax^ fih^ consanguiojeoqs ; : 
dhman, a relation \ sibms, propinqi|ity of bloody |:e- 
lation.*' J. It occurs twicer in itbe sense of r«latian» 
sbip«in Scottish polloquialismin Guy Mannering^, II« 
183, 219. It occurs also in the Antiquary; III. 75j 
** By the religion of our holy church, they are ower 
•Hib thegither/' .Agai'n> " they may be brought to 
think themselves sale sibb as tio christian lai^ KriU 
peniHt them wedlock/' And in the Glossary; «tS5 
is explained " related ^o/' I do not find, howevef/ 
that ^ihrit or siMdge is Scottish. 

In Cheshire and Lancashire, sibbed is adverbially 
cncrent in the«ense.of related to~of kin to. - '' Sib 
oit »bbe is a good old word for relationship, slill re- 
tained in gossip, 4>T Godrs sib, Sibbe^ affinitcLf, Tetito*-^ 
nic.'' W. When the sibrit have been thrice published^' 
we say the parties are aui-'Oat, which see. 
I Afl^r all, the word b deduced from thelMgisiiing 
of tti|6' banns, a^thevMsedito be published in Laliii-^ 
'' Si quis s^iveret, &c.. If any one kndwsi '&e.> 
This bappy derivation ^as suggested to me Ixy a 
learned and reverend friend. 

■ * 

[ SicB or Sit<;h^ Such*-^'' Sich a sight ori em !'' 
Such a. number of th^em. The Scotch dassfcally re» 
t)iin the hard final, and say sic. See under Pbrvl. 

Our final sound i^ always 8oft*-*^cil. Nmcv 
shows that Spencer writes it sike^^ 

Bat sike fancies weren foolerie. Skep, KuL 
Spelt also, he says, sich^- ■■',•• 

SiDUU To move or incline right' or left^'to one 
side.- It is I 'believe also a north' cotintry word. I 
have made use of it in the article Joss. 


SiDus.. Sideways, on one side, boI itnight — ' 
''Kiender sidoiu/' inclining to be crooked. Or, 
" Sidoos kiender/' in which the fint syllable ia 
lengthened and stroiigly. accented. . 

Sight. Many — much. '' What a sight 'of peo- ' 
pie!'' ''Sich a sight of money \" Similar to mort and 
t^t, which see. '' A nashiin sight.'' 

Sights. Spectacles — glasses. Barnacles is another 
name for them« as noticed under that word. Since 
it was printed, I hare read it in the Fortunes of 
NIgeL -'What d'ye lack? What d'ye lack?— clocks, 
watches, barnacles ; barnacles^ watches, clocks ?" I 
suppose sights are meant. 

SiLE. Soil — ^flight soil. ' '* Sile : filth, because 
usually it subsides to the bottom." i^qy. £• W. p. 
85. I do not recognise the wherefore of Ray's, be*- 

Siller. Cellar — as noticed of many other si mi- ' 
larly sounding words under Aninnq. 

Silt. Sand left on meadows by a land flood, or on 
a road, by the washing of rain. In some parts of 
England, soil, and night soil, are called Siith: noil' 
think with us. 

SmsoN. The common name of the groundsel-* 
the senaio vulgaris, which we also as commonly call 
scnshuih of classic origin probably. " Simson,' 
groundsel — Senecio. Essex. Suffolk." Ray, £. W.' 
p. 85. We also call it groundsel. 

Sin. Seen ; also since. Sin Michaelmas. A 
week sin. We should thus awkwardly express our- 
selves — '' I seed um about tew weeks agon, an I 
hee'nt sin um sin." . With sundry other words, I 
was disposed to reckon this a mere vulgarism of ours, 
but Nares again corrects me. In its second Sense 
Spenser uses it — 

Silly since; a northern teriD. 

Knowinr bis voice, aUlioyigli not heard long nn; 
bhe siiU<l«u wai| revived iberewithall. , JR Q» \f, zi^ 


'. ^S^ is stilt comnC in Scotland, in tlie tame MOM* Ol. 

Sjnnable. a syllable. ''Wahids /a tew sinna- 

SisEiuRA. A hard cruel blow. *' *A gon em sich 
a iiserara 'a the hidd/' I have fancied that this 
may be traced to the cruel act of the scripturaUael 
on the unhappy Sisera, as related in Judges, iv. 21. 
This word might have been added to the list of 
thumping Toca3>le8 given under Aim. 

SiTHE. A sigh. In Scottish sike. 

SixEA AN Sevens. To leave things tit iixes atid 
sevens, is equivalent to leaving them in disorder. It 
is commonly with us thus extended — ^' At sixes an 
^sevens, aa the owd 'oman left her hou9e.'' This. is 
DO new phrase. Nares shows that the fynl men^ber 
of it is used by Shakespeare — 

rAll is evtD. 

And every thing is left at six and mmr. Rlch»JL il. S« 

He thinks it may have been taken from the game 
of backgammon ; and gives a fair reason for it. A 
writer in' the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. li. p. S67, 
quotes the whole of our extended phrase as givevt 
above, and in our sense of negligence and disorder. 
At whist, the parties being at six and seven, it i« 
very common to hear the extended proverb, though 
not very applicable. f 

Sizzle. The half hiss, half sigh of an animal; of 
an owl for instance. Also the effervescence of brisk 
beer, &c. through a cork. Or the alarming hissing 
of lightning very near one. Itay says that yeast is 
calldl sizzing from the sound of the working beer, 
E. W. p. 85. Since this was written I heard the 
word thus used — " If we heen't rain in anothef 
week we shall be all sizzled up.'' This evidently 
meant bums up, as it was spoken in a season of fearfm 
aridity, and it led me to conclude that this word it 
derived from the noise made by the sudden deeom* 

3 h3 

" ^^J P > -^^-"^W^ 

p<ositioD^rOf.iif^(irfaeA>i»ppti€At»'hol^i^ :It is 
usually api>Ued to juidden (Evaporation, , or to* ftpme 
^oiind reminding one of it— sometbing hissing .<^r 

hot. See Babm and Fiz. 

''.,'• ■ '. .... 

. ' SkXf^ei.. a spnall spa4e Qri«kuppetu9e4, in drain- 

Jhgj.and in out-hstwtipg or narrow boitoqied 

' ditches. It diners from a spade, in. not tapering tb- 

irard the edge, and in having its sides slightly turned 

lip. It has a cot for ;ihe handle like a.scuppiU • I 

never heard the word hut in SufTolk, nor saw it but 

in Tusser. It is nain^ among his list* of* draining 

ili^b. aSee uyndeit GootP» verte 19; lie spelk it ^sifca- 

SjEfitr.^^ A hiow-*a Wofd Which might bav^ bieea 
acKl^ii to the numefoiis offensive vocables in Which 
iour lingual peculiarity abounds, |^iven under Ain^. 
In Scottish, '' to 9kelf, to striite With the open hand, 
to beat, tCMdcob;'' /J. 

SkEP. A basket without a lid, with short ^bandies. 
"A bushrt sk^p." ''A bee skep." In Scotlaad 
ihe latter is, I beliieVe, usi?d for bee-hive. I have 
•0een, but I forget Where, this Scottish saying, " my 
liead is bizzing like^ bees cisp," which is probably 
ibe samfe word ; but I do hot think shep is much in 
use oiit of Suffolk, where it is universal lit the sense 
•here givien. Ainbng Ray's S. and E. country words 
1 find '' A ikip or Seep, a basket, but not to tkr^y iA 
lOie hand; a bec-^kip, a bee-hive." E.Wi:p;86. 
^y is right— a common hand-basket is nev^irealled 
-^Bep* Tus^r uses^ the word& See Goof, vevse-d. 
. jjp.theinyecitory.rf fuKnitiire> &c.'in Uerigra^e 
'g^ in ; L«03, we find '\ Me ^iv^pe. to |mt in iaild.^' 
i/jA.badket/'.-notQs the author. GageVBengrave, 

;I«ii&)otii(A '' "^tp, :.« JbieeHhive m^Kk of rtwirted 
liirM«^r^ld(Siif«diah 9haisppr(h% «cdi (ftsielv^GMlie, 

Jn^nLQ-iD. A^is^'«iip^,:%^fiat:and JHroAdtbaabit 


lo winnow corn/' Thi9 we call Pan and Van, which 
see* ,»< 

Skewbald. Pie^hald, as a horsci &ۥ- In Cheshire 
*' tktw or skewbald is a piebald horse/' W. We 
have several other words for variegated animals.^ as 
noticed under Sbbll. Skew-bald is not often heard; 
and I am not sure that it is applied to any thing but 
a horse. 

Skillet. The thin brass perforated implement 
used for skimming or fietting the cream off milk. 
See Flet. 

Also a small brass saucepan on feet, used for boil- 
ing preserves, &c. The latter sense is not local. 
Shakespeare bad the domestic utensil in his eye, 
when he made Othello exclaim — 

Let housewives make a ekUlet of my helm. i. S, 

In Sussex, according to Ray " stujhet is ai pomei, 
or skillet." E. W. 87. . I find " pasnet a skillet," in 
an old anonymous dictionary — but never heard or 
saw stt^fhet or posnet, in any other places. 

Skink. To spy, or peer abfout ; to sky through a 
telescope : quaintly for squint, but not in a cross 
eyed sense. Also to shine or glimmer, as a glow- 
worm. In Scottish to skinkle, to sparkle. J. Spy, 
sky, skime, skink, squint, squink, &c. are related in the 
sense of seeing, and not exactly definable perhaps 
as to their several meanings. . See Sky and Squink. « 

Skip-jack. A pert puppyish sort of a whipper- 
snapper fellow. It is also a skipping toy for. chil- 
dren made of the merry •thought bone of a goose. 
The. bone itself with the meat on it is also caHed 
skip-jack; and I can recollect the time when this 
portion was so desirable, that to avoid partiality at 
taMe, we lads Used to take our turns to being helped 
to this savoury joint; in view, however, more to the 
future osseous sport than to the fleshy flavour. 

Skite.. Merdis.aspergere. The same word* per-9 
haps, as the/' Conskite or Conskitt" of Nares. 



TImt gcipe^M^ 4tniiir all, ctmMe tU. 

^ - " ' • Az. B. 5, ch. 11. 

The company began to stop tbeir noge; for he had «on- 
tkSlhd hiihMff wMi vmn angnirii and petplezitr. 


I do. not tfalfifc we have the prefior. The word 
poder eoiidtderattob is ratlrer ^imintly used, or tfs 
Uk 9fjLCBikp( to be 40iiiewlMit dedicate in expressvon— ^ 
not chusing to sound so gross a word as the rbyme 
to d^e Uit^T^ Nares. I think skiu ia a word used 
% Putcbqien. See soo^thiog of tbjs under $il99T4» 
tn Scottish " to skiic, to eject any liquid forcibly — 
frpOi tbe Ice^ndic ^^ttfh id- and the Swedish 9kiji 
t^fxjxpx^t ventrejm; ajso the dang of ^ fowl.'' J« 
1^ initi^^ '^ and ^h are often interdiangeable. In 
an O. D. A. is " to squitter" another pronunciation of 
tbe verb, implyiofi: what need pot be further ex- 

SKft4N$|f. Hie apt of cl^ewing or munching any 
thing that sounds short under the tQotb> green ap- 
ples, raw carrots, hard biscuits, &c. '' How 'a dew 
skransfa em" Also grinding any bard substance 
bdween the te^th, buch as a stdne in a mifkciel-pie. 
Cran^h is sometimes snbstitnted, and ^Cnmsh. In 
Scotland ** to crinch the teetb'' is to grind or gnash 
with th^ra. Jamieson dedbecd it from the French 
grmc-er U^ dents. And crump, he explains ^* to ikiake 
a crashing noise in eating what is bard and brittle t 
crumpie being any thing hard and brittle/' He has 
abo Hatitl^ Explanatory of the ^noise made by a:doe 
in eating. In an O. D. A. is << to scranck, to crach 
or break any thing between the teeth/' Here mp^ 
pears a considerable family of words-^^amA^ crvncK 
skransh, acrunsh, tkranshlin, skrunshlen, which are nox* 
ticed in their places in this Collection-^besides 
erinch, crump, hansh, &c. — I have omitted cmaip; bint 
it is a Sufifoik word in this ^ense. 

Srreek. Shriek, skreech. A sooiewliat curiorri 
iaMnce of orthographical and orthoe|^ical permu- 
tation,, of. which some notice is taken trnder Pbbk. 

F *«*"ui».. f><i.ifr^i\M^JP''^rf<iJr^-T',if:^^^* *«w.rvi»"" 


Tlius in Scottish shrdgh^v screik, is to shreds, from 
the ancient Swe^dish skrik-a, vociferari. J. In an 
O. I). A. is " to screak or screek, to make a noise 
like a door that has rusty hinges, or the drawing of 
a saw/' In Cheshire and Lancashire, strike Is to 
iBhfiek out loud. See Queech. 

Skreet. Half a quarter of a sheet of writing 
paper. I know not if the Scottish '* skreed to ren<^ 
or the act of rending, or the thing that is torn 
oHT* J. b^ related to our $kreet, which, seems to be 
a thing reht or torn off. 

Skkiggle. To struggle, to wriggle. "'Aketched 
an arrawiggle kn ta skriggled ah got awah.^ ^ A 
skrigglen eel." To me it seems a Very expressive 
word— it differs from both struggle and wriggle; 
being indeed a participant in both. 

\ Srrimp. Scanty, short. So in 'Scottish '' jM'mp, 
scanty, narrow ; contracted ; applied to clothes : or 
as a verb to straighten, as to food of money, and, 
in a general sense, from the ancient S#edish 
4krunp-a, corrugari.'' J. 

SKMiiGtt. Scr^w, shrink; ki this sense, sbdep 
clipped in cold weather are said to $kringe th^r 
bocks up. 

Skrowi. To push one, to sqikeeze one by pre» 
ing, '* Don't skrowj so/' Crowd seems to be nsarlf 
At same word, except l!hat it may more especial^ 
be limited to shoveing, tad not extended to-sqae^z^ 
ivg. Sqwefd, is about equivalent to Sbtatufd, . 

Skrvce. a truce ; )an imperative' demtfhdin^ ^ 
eessation of play. A boy having lost the bill/ cries 
skrUde, skruce; or wanting breathing time, or a C^s* 
sation from any cause. 

Skruff. The back part of the neck, the occiput. 
*' 'A seized am by the skriiff a^ the neck, and shuclk 
am right well/' In Cheshire, skuffi is the back of 
the neck. W, In Scotland cuff. J. 

Skuffzhd skruff mean scurf With us ; so ra Scottish, 
<' scntfe, a thin crust of any kind, fVom the ancient 

P'^ ". wm* ■ '^^^B— wu^i 1.^^81— ^—^otf^' i^"^ca^^gwEPc^^ 


Swedish «ilroc/l the scurf of a wound/' J. We say 
sci(f of the oeckj as often as skruff. See Nub and 
NuDDLB, other names of the same part. 

Skrunchlen. a diminutive green shrivelled apple 
stunted in its growth. Such are shrivelled, and 
crisp, and sweetish, before the crop be ripe. Munch- 
ing them, or raw carrots, is called " skraanchen em,'' 
or " skruncheri em." See Skransh. . 

Skrummage. a battle, a fray ; probably skirmish. 
" I think I hard a skrummage at sea." In Scottish 
sctymmagc is a skirmish. J. 

l^ituMSHUs. Skrewing, stingy, in an avaricious 
sense. I never heard this word. It was furnished 
to me by a friend. 

Skrusslb. The hard skin of a roast loin, &c. of 
pork, or the edible cartilage of a breast of veal, &c. 
The former is also called Cracklin and Crussel, as per* 
haps are both. 

Skuff. See Skruff. 

Skulb. School, in the accustomed mode of sub- 
stituting the acute u for double o. So in Scottish 
Schuk. See Botes. 

Skvfpit. a shovel or spade, of uniform width, 
the sides turned a little inward. A spade tapers to- 
ward the cutting edge. The tiller handles too differ 
—the scuppit having merely a cot on the top of the 
tiUer thus T, and the spade having the top of its 
tiller, perforated y, which is called an eye tiller* 
The Scuppet is sometimes used for digging, as well 
as the spade, but is i\pt so suitable for flag or strong 
Jand* For turning over muckles, or shovelling or 
scooping, it is more suited. The word has been de* 
rived, not inaptly, from scoop-it. Tusser writes it 
skuppet. See Goof. v. 19, and note. A fikafiel is a 
smaller implement, differing both from spade and 
skuppit, as described under that word. 

Skurrt. Haste, impetuosity. *' What a skurry 
you ar in.*' " Gently, gently, no hurry-skurry." . 


Shakespeare uses skirr, in a sense implyUig 
briskness^ baste. 

^end ont more horsesy Mrr ibe country round. . 

'Scour, perhaps/ in our present inilitary s^nse. 

Skutchineal. Cochineal. This is an M, and 
probably was a general mode of pronouncing the 

Skutta. Skitta. Smitter. These words are 
pretty nearly the same; and imply a lashness or 
diarrhoea, especially in a horse br eow. SkUitas is 
.the name of the ailment. '' Av got the $ktata$t'* 
&c. Pq; and Pqfen apply to the same clasa of iiHes;- 
tinal. derangement. See Paj add SkItb. Under 
iiASB, and Lax, something &rtber of this matter fiCr 

Srottlei As mentioned in the note to ftne 16 
-of the quotation fVom Tusser given under Goop, I 
am pftftty sur^ that we were used, near the* tea, to 
edit the skneen for dressing corn, a skuttk, as.TViMr 
does i but I do not fihd the word now recbenised in 
the neighbourhood ef Woodbridge. The wdl known 
article for ic6ntftining the coals for immediate use-, 
we like others call by this name— -also the large 
luting shovel used in barns, generally shod or 
riMmfed, at bottom with brass, for moving threshed 
com ; and particularly for ca$Hng it from side to 
tide of a barti, the whole length of the dresditog 
floor, that light grains and dust may fall sholrt, aiid 
be separated from the heavy Marketable grain. 
Tusser calls it *' castim shoneV' in verse 1 of the 
quotation hboVe referred to. See Showl. 

Skutt. I never heard this word, but I ain told 
that it is in use in the sense of small — in irregular 
sihiill pieces. 

SKy. To look, or peep, probably to spy. A 
telescope is called a skyen-glass. *' Sky about." 
'' Less av a sky,'' let me look. To slt^, is also to 


throw— timilar to cail, cop, ding, hull, Bhy, &c. 
In Norfolk to skime is to look asquint. See Skink. 

Slaava, Spittle, saliva. Slaaverin Inbp a bit of 
doth under a child's chin. It is more vulgarly 
called slobberin bib. Muckinfa, which see, is ano- 
ther name for this article. The word saltva, seems 
to be the parent of a large family of words, of which 
see something under Slobber. 

Slab. A bricklayer's labourer. He that in other 
parts is called a hodman, to distinguish him from a 
trowelman. To the slabs and apprentices ia assign- 
ed also the important process of making the mortar ; 
and to this may be ascribed, with other concurrent 
causes, the little durability of modern masonry. In 
point of fact, we — I Speak of Suffolk — have lost the 
art of making mortar, and the art of using it. Our 
walls are supported by their weight and by bond 
timber ; not by any principle of adhesion in the 
mortar. Our chalk^lime is comparatively bad ; we 
are cv^less as to using it fresmy burned or stale, 
and we are equally indifferent what description of 
sand be used, and the quantity. All these are im« 
poptant points ; so also are the Quantity of water, 
and the quantity of labour, mixed up with the in- 
gredients. I may safely say, that generally four 
times as much water as is necessary is used, and 
not not one quarter of the labour, in the admixture. 
And when the compound, such as it is, is got toge- 
^ther, it is very improperly used. A little of it is 
laid round the outer edges of the bricks, leaving 
considerable interstitial space in the interior of the 
wall, so that water is in time admitted ; and if it 
lodge and freeze there, no masonry can resist its ex- 
pansive force; and down comes the wall. Or if it 
stand, it requires collateral support and frequent 
pointing. But all this is irrelevant, and I confess out 
of place. 

As in other counties slab means also the outside 
cut of a piece of timber, sawn into boards, fit only 


for ordinary rough work. And in the sense of a ^ 
thick liquid, we should use it like Shakespeare:*— 

Make the grael thick and aldb. JtfM. iv. ]« 

But this is not common. Slabby, pappy, danby^ are 
nearly of the same meaning, and referring to the 
hands, &c., imply that they are in a dirty, uncom- 
fortable, puggy^ grifiuy, state. 

Tusser spells the word slap, as applied to the 
outer cut of timber. 

Save tiap of thy tunber for stable and stye. p. t5. • 

Nares has ** Slab, a contraction of slabby, havinfj^ 
an adhesive and glutinous moisture like wet clay ;^' 
and quotes the above illustration from Macbeth. 

Slabber. See Slobber. 

Slabby. Dirty, as applicable to the hands— 
pappyf daaby, slappy, muggy, puggy, are other ex- 
pressive descriptions of the like state of discomfort ; 
not however meaning dirty merely, but clammy 
withal. See Slappt and Slobber. 

Slade. a small open hanging wood ; also called 
reed, shaw, &c. In Scottish, a hollow, a den. 
Slaid, a valley. J. Sladc is seldom heard with us, 
and those who think they know the word confound 
it with dingle and squeech. See those words. Nares 
has "Slade, a valley, from the Saxon. Drayton 
uses it. I have not remarked it in others. 

Down throof^ the deeper «2ad«s.*'—Polyo26. xiv. 

And satyrs that in tHadea, and gloomy dimbles dwell. Id* ii. 

Slam. To shut a door violently, or to let it slam 
to of itself. We, however, more commonly use 
bang. " Don't bang the door 30" 

Slammxkcn. a gawky, dawdling, untidy wench. 
" A great ' slammakin, mawther.'' In Scottish 
*' ilammikin, a drab." J. 

Slappy. firead insufficiently baked is so called. 
Also douy, doughey. Slnppy likewise means dirty. 
See Slabby. 


. StASHtir. A word meanings daftbing, smashing, 
spunkv, applied to young fellows and girls, like 
several Qlhen.; soQie. «rf wfaMbaie cauoMntod under 


Slat. Slttle, either that used at school, orto roof 
houses, or what is found among coals. All are in* 
deed the same article. . Slaii are. dark blu^ baidish 
oo;Ee left dry by the ebb of the sea. 

Slay. A lane or way cut through a whfn, or 
brooor, or other' cov^f,^ for the purpose of admitting 
a vehicle to receive and convey away the ftggots or 
cuttings; or for admitting a range of hSjmU to 
catch rabbits, hunted from side to side of the cover 
by dogs ; or for gunners to place themselves in, to 
shoot or thnf them as they dart across. See Hat 
and Hatnet. 

Slbd. Any thing without wheels, in, or on, which 
another is drawn or slid ; a foot plough to and from 
the field. A sledge probably. Thus in Hamlet :— 

When in an angry parle. 
He smote the sledded Polack on the ice. i. 1 

is said by the cominentators to be the sledged Po^ 

landers, ^ 

A skd for a ployigli an4 another for blocks. - Ttmetf^. IS*. 

See under Gooe. verse. 11, and note. 

The 5^i£ for blocks is a sledge*hammer, or what 
we call j3^ pa^l^, which see. Narts fuUy iUwttates 
the wor4 ip both sepses. I do not think that we 
now call a beetle, sled, 

^ Fitch bare of silver and cast golden sleis^ Brownet ^*^* 
Poll. II. iii. 

Upon an ivory alsd^ 
Thoo shalt be drawn, among the frozen poles. 


In the latter sense it is from the Dutch sleiidc^ or 
the Danish slaed. 

Sleeper. The dead stub of a tree, in a baok;,«&c. 
Also^ the beams under barn, and other i}9oni; . See 


Slbkvelbss. Unsuccessfiil, in this sense^ and 1 
never heard it in any other— a sleeveless errimd. 
Booties is another term nearly similar. The latter 
might be traced to some probable source ; but sleeve^ 
less has puzzled a great many commentators, as may 
be seen in Nares' Glossary. 

Slift. a slip off a growing plant or shrub, rent;, 
not cut offi It is a good word, and not superfluous 
in our language. See Slivya. 

Slim. Slender, slight, lathy— a person or animal. 
^* As slim as a greyhound.'' In Scottish, slim^ 
slight J. 

Slink. Lank, slender; combined with awkward- 
ness. " A long slink of a fellow." So in Scottish, 
slinkiep tall and slender, lank — from the Baiiisb, 
siunken, lank^ scraggy. J. 

Slit. A short rent iu any thing, a gown, petti* 
coat, &c. A longitudinal hole. If the rent extend 
throug^h to the edge or selvage of the j[<own, &c., it 
woul(f he called a shred, or in shre^. A roundish 
hole is not a slit. 

Sliver. See Slivya. 

Slivyer. See Slivya. 

Slivya. Slivyer. Sliyer. A sharp small splin- 
ter, or piece, rent, ript, or torn off, from deal parti- 
cularly ;" which is said to be a s/tt^ery wood. ''I 
ha' got a slivva in my finger ;" or, *' I ha' sliwa'd 
my finger." . " 'Tis broke all ta slivva6," would be 
«aid .of wood riv longitudinally into fibrous shreds 
by lightning; but it would not be said of the angu- 
lar fragments of a shiwered dish or bowl. Thus 
Shakespeare, exactly in the Suffolk sense, though 
figuratively ; ■ . . . t 

' She that herself will aliver aiid disbraoch 
From her material sap, perforce must wither. 

Lear^ iv« 2. " 

The word thus used we make rhyme to qmver ; 
but in the sense o(9l slice, we ssijslicer, rhyming id 

3 I 


\dher. " A iHver bff the oyw''— in tfais mmci IbMigh 
.tomewfafit quaiBtljTy we ^Usa umiAiv0er: wbioh^ee. 

" «S&N9p/' m Cocker is md to be " an old weid 
neaiiiig ft gfood piece 0fMe«L" 

Taner teems to apply kloa bk>ck» ^^picoeaoffm 

lV%ea.lf09t wiU aot «iiiieff la diktt and to kedga. 
Then aet tbee a heat with thy beetle and wedge ; 
Once hallowmaas come, and a fire in the hall, 
Snch «[teer« do well finr to lie by thewaN. p. 58. 

Nares thinks «iti?tfr requires no exemplifjing. Mr. 
*Todd has shown> he says, that both verb and sub* 
stantive are good old English; and that they are 
eertainly not altogether obsolete. As a subatanlive, 
sRver occurs in Hamlet, it. 9, and as a verb in Mae* 
beth, as well as in the above quotation from Leaf. 
The passage in Hamlet has the word in our Suffolk 
aense. It is In the (d^oeen's acconnt of Ifae sad fate 
^ poor Ophelia, so villainously ilUnsed* as i caMiol 
help thinking, by her equivocal son-^ 

Hkere on the pendant boaghs her eoronet weeds 
Clambering to hang, an envions Uher bfoke ; 
When down her weedy trophiea^and heraelf. 
Fell in the weeping brook. iv.'7. ' 

Clambering, I may note in passing, is hbW we 
slMukl describe the wild act of the nkihappj. girl. 
See Cb^iaan. 
In an O. D. A. is " a sliver, a liin slida.'' 
Perhaps ditfoer is the rigllt promncia^n in ibesfc 

Slobber. SLoafi£iaiT. SLOBBBimi. To i6 any 
thh^ in an un-tidy, or nn-workmanlike manner. 

It is a groBsness, derived from Slaava, which 
see. A slobberin-bib is the piece of cloth under 
the chin of an infant. 

Kissing children in a fullBome manner, would be 
deacjnibea in one of these Words, by a person not ad- 
miring such a^actke. Wet, boggy, clumpy land, 
would be caQm sloBhety, or 4lulil^. See Blub. In 

Seoaish ^'9tMtr, a doTwiIy fellow -h-. fie«Mn the 
TeutMiio sUMdr^m, to dabher.*- J« SlMei^ is «xr 
plasncd by Nareb to mean Bloppy, wet. SUMcr, he 
say«» it a coritiptkm of slaven 

Tbu*, adverting to the English pover in France, 
Sbakeipeare makes Bourbon tay> 

---^ If tb^ march aloDg 
Uaibugbt withal, I will lett my dukadom 
To buy a aioMflry and dif ty iarm 
la that aook-»|iotten isle of Albioa. Zf€ii. V. ilL 5» 

This is a very extensive and old family of dirty 
words. . Iq aq 0» I>. A. artfi " A «/al(« a puddle ; 
the outside, sappy, board sawB off a pieei of tim- 
ber To sliMcr, to daub with foul wat^ ; to drivel. 
Slabiip, full of puddles or dirt To ^hibker over^ 
tfO<io a thing carelesaly.'' 

Aa noticed under 4iia«^o> a corruption doubtless .of 
saUmi, that is the. parent of tbis uncleanly set of 
v^rda-«if extending to slab, shtfy^ ^bber, ihpffiyt, 
shbbery, $lobberin^ tkverin, sl^, ilubb^, sluS^^ 
shMeHn, dop, $lofP9% ftc. Of some of wbieh, seo 
under Stua. Ptrrbaps slwh, aluskjf, siud, du^f^M 
Mkm^ %htmpy, &c. may foe cousin -german ; and mUu^ 
slauernt && not very distant relations. 

Many of the foregoing words will be found in 
their ptocea in this Collection. 

StooN. The sloe. «' I sab, bawh« where ar yeow 
a gooen V* '* Why a sloonen.'' That is^ gathermg 

" Her eyes are as bUck as slo(m8.'\ They are 
called slahns in Northamptonshire. The sloe, the 
reader requires not to be told, is the fruit of thq 
black- thorn, or pr inito 9pmo$a ; of which quick fences 
are made. See CIuick. 

SL0P4 The white ben^peo smock frock (or loose 
outer shirt) worn by labourers, especially by horse- 
drivers and shepherds. Also a -wood or grove of 
small extent, whence underwood, likewise called 
slop, or slop-wood, or lop, is occasionally or periodi- 


cally cut, for firing, * hurdles, brawichi^, &c. See 
Lop. Shakespeare uses ' the word as an article of 
dress ; and the commentators think it means ''large, 
wide-kneed hreeches J" " and hence/' they say, 
" the siop shops took their name/' But, as Shakes- 
peare uses the word, I helieve, in this sense only 
once, and then applies it to Ctqnd, I think them not 
happy in their elucidation. Whoever heard of 
pupid iix"Urge, wide-kneed breeches ?" 

The passage in Shakespeare is sufficiently ob- 
scure ; it runs thus — 

O rhymes are guards on wanton Capidli hose : 
Diftfigure not his slop. JLcwe*s L. !#• iy. 3. 

• Hose and a Slop, may not, perhaps, be deemed a 
much more appropriate dress for " wanton Cupid*^ 
than the "large wide-kneed" inexpressibles of the 
commentators— but, in truth, the Suffolk '* smqck- 
frock/' or short slop, sometimes now worn by Suf- 
folk lads, is not much unlike Cupid's classic vest. It 
e'oroes but just below the middle — is occasionally 
deen of milk white hempen stuff, and neatly em- 
broidered or stitched over the shoulders, round the 
wridt-bands, neck, bosom, &c. : it sits rather doae^ 
and is a very becoming pretty outer garment. 
' A note of Steevens's, thbugh not on this word, ex- 
plains it, as used by another author of about Shakes- 
peare's day, and may amuse my^ as well as Steevens's 

Among OascoSgne's poeqas, I find one enthled, * dmitceU 
given to Maisier Bmiholomew WUhipoU a HttU brfors bis lai* 
ter jowmey to' Getme, 1672.' The following lines may, per« 
haps, be acceptable to the reader who is corions enohgh to 
enquire about the fashionable follies imported in that age. 

NoiMT, S|r, if I shall see yonr mastership 

Come home disgois'd, and clad in qoaiat array ;-• 

As with a pike^tooth byting on your lippe ; 

Yonr brave mostacbios tiirn*d the Tnrkie way ; 
^ A coptankt hat made on a Flemish blocke ; 

A night-gowne cloak down trailing to yonr toes ; 

A slender slop dose crouched to your dock; 

A cartolde slipper, and a short silk hose, &c« 

Theuxicurrent words in tfa^e above quotation, cop^^ 
iankt, cu) tolde^ &^, are amply illustrated by Narcs, 

Sun. Tbe marks nf « bar^s fiedl od tte i^ : 
calM oko ber Jb^tm. SpofUoKw tell ««» Wv*- 
ever, that in strictness, . sA^ h applicabfe .oi4f ll> 
tbe impHnt of a deer's feet. Bui, as Su0*olk can no 
longer boast of stag-hounds, we are fain not to df0p 
all relics of the «port, aod apply »ht occasiooallyto 
tb« mark, that the times still leave us, 

Nares gives several quotations ; ail applicabk to 
the deer only» 

Slow-Wosm, Off Sht^Worm. The harmless rep- 
tile, which in other counties is called the bUnd tmyrm. 
A commentator on this passage in Timon of Athens, 

iv. a 

-^-^ The black toad, and nd^r falim, 
The gilded neat, and eyeless venom'd wonn 

says the ^' eyeless venom'd worm, is the serpent^ 
which we, from the siAaliness of his eyes, call the 
hUnd worm, and the Latins Cadlia** It may be 
so ; but, in Suffolk, we do not believe that this rep- 
tile isrenonMus. The detif-adder is another Eng- 
lish name for it* In the Linna&an system it is toe 
anguis fragilis. '^ Blind worm, called also slow worm* 
A little snake, with very amall eyes; still mucb 
dreaded by the common people, tiiough perfectly 

Newts and blind womu do no wrong. — Mids. N. D. IK 3. 
Adder's fork and blind worm'% sting. — Mtu^^ iv. !• 
The small-eyed slow-worm^ held of many blind. 

prajfton's N4mh*8 Flood, p. 1538. iVorvi' Gl. 

Slub. Slubber. Mire, mud, the thick puddle 
on roads. ** How slubbery ;** or, *^ how skisby the 
poftds are.'* '* The roads are all of a idub,'* or 
sludge, or slush. Wei, poachy ground, recently 
trodden by cattle, is said to be slubhy, or all of a 
shib. Sludge is also a composition of day and 
water, for moistening the roots of plants and young 
trees, when undergoing transplantation ; similar to 
Muhh, which see. Shib is used as a verb. Walls 
raised from the ooze of rivers require to be slubVd 



dver, that is, the interatitial chinks or fissures caused 
by cTaporation, require to be filled up with more of 
the stub, or alluvial deposit. 

Id one of these senses Shakespeare has the word 

Yoa mnst, therefore, be content to tiliibber the gloss of 
yonr new fortnoes with this more boiftteront and stab£i»m ex* 
pedttion. OtkeUo^ i. 3. 

Tusser uses a similar word for uncleanly, untidy; 

III hiitwifey nnskilfnil, to make her owa eheese, 
Thrdiij^ tmsting of others, hath this for her fees — 
Her milk-pail and cream-pot so slabbered and sost, 
That hotter is wantmg, and cheese is half lost, p. 141 • 

In our sense of skishy, the Scottish has 

SZos&y, applied to work that is both wet and dirty; to 
fhsA, to give a slabbering kiss. To sMtbeff to swallow so as 
to make a noise with the throat ; from tiie ancient Swedish 
$lubbr-a^ avide deglatire ; Danish slai6ive, raollia ingargitare. 
Slush j plashy groond ; snow in a state of liqnefaction. J. 

Nares, under Slubber, explains it " to do any thing 
in a slovenly way. Johnson says, perhaps from 
lubber; rather, probably, from slaver, as in its other 
senses^ like slabber and slobber, 

. SlMer not business for my sake. — HI. ff F. ii. 8. 

With my vain breath, I will not seek to dMer^ 
u Her angel-like perfections. Mtmi DetU, O. P. v. ft6X 

See odore of this under Slobbeb. 

Sludw Sludge. Thick puddle, or mire, on roads, 
&c., nearly similar to Slub and Slush, which see. 

Slump. Wet, boggy. Such a meadow is said to. 
be shtrnpy. Ray gives it as a north, south, and east 
country verb. " To slump ; to slip or fall plum 
down in a wet or dirty place.^' £. W. p. 55. In 
Suffolk, we should say, " I sluropM into the ditch 
up to the crotch'' — or ''I cum in sich a slump!'' 
Ray adds, somewhat pedantically, though not inaptly, 
that " it seems a word made/>^ onomatopomn, from 
the sound.'' ib. p. 86. See under Slub. 



Slush. Like shh and Mlud, which 9^, is the thick 
wet on roads« after much rain or snow. Slush hdlso 
hog-wash, or any thing grossly uncleanly. ' Slus^ is 
a* regular derivative; a state of alushincss. Under 
slobber, sufficient is said of this uninviting class of 

Slut. A slattern — an untidy woman. In Scottish 
*' slute, slovenly ; from the Teutonic slodde^ sordida 
et inculta mulier : slutlrie, slovenly.'' J. Under 
Slobber, it has heen surmised, perhaps incorrectly, 
that slui may he a member of an extensive I'ace of 
uncleanly vocables. 

Smalb. The form or seat of a hare; also-^mtVe. 
See Smewse. 


Smash. ^ A confused loud noise or crash. A blow, 
especially such a one as may crush something. 
Smasher, one who so strikes ; or figuratively, a swag- 
gering, bullying fellow : or a smashin slashin fellow* 
All to smashes — to shivers. So in Scottish, " smash, 
to shiver, to beat severely — from the German schmeiss^ 

en, to beat." J. 


Smashen. Slashing, dashing; a young fellow 
likely to' make a smash or noise. See Spanker. 

' Smewse. The same I believe as mewse and smouse : 
the beaten track above ground of a hare through a 
fence or bank. The underground way of a rabbit 
through a bank is called ihroushot, w bat I had to 
say on this matter, I have, I see, given under the 
earlier article Mewse. 

' Smicket. Shift— chemise. A delicate pronuncia- 
tion of smock; but never applied to the smock-frock 
or slop, of men. See Slop. Smicket, occurs under 

Smile. The same, I believe, or nearly, as Smale ; 
the form or fourm, or seat of a hare. See Form. 

Smiter. One who does any thing with energy ; 
or in a striking mtinntr. I have heard it applied to a 


divine* who preached wilh unusual unction-^'' He 
a smiterJ* A sort, I suppose^ of a knock-me-dowo 
9rator« Such a ooe> possibly, as Wesley spo^e of 
with fx>inp)acency, when with more point than de« 
eency, he commended him for *' flashing hell-fire in 
the face^ of a congregation of reprobates. Or al» 
luded to in Hudibras— * 

When polpitt dram ecdesifutiCy . 
Was beat with &ty iostead of a stick. 

Smither. L4ght small rain; a Scotch mist* per- 
haps, or something short of it. " Dew it rain V*-^ 
** No, ta smither.'' Smur is nearly similar ; an 
euphonic abbreviation probably of the other. Miz- 
tfe is of like import ; and dribble, and cfnWe, and 

' Smovs. a Jew. I can discern no relationship 
between the Israelite and the traek of a hare through 
k thicket or fence, which we also call smause, 

Smouse. The same, I believe, as Smewse, or 
"MewMc; the traek of a hare through a fence, on 
which I have sufficiently dilated under Mewsb. 

Smur. Small rain y similar, perhaps, to smither. 
So in Scottish, ** Smurr, or drizzling rain. Teutonic 
smoot, fumus, vapor." J. Dribble, drizzle, and spitter, 
are other terms for small light rain. Dingin, I have 
aJso heard applied to wetti^b weather. 

Snacic. a generk name for a hasty snap or 
mouthfuP between meals. Bever, levener, lunch, 
n90ninB, firms, are specific varieties j all are, in re- 
ference to regular meals, interstitial. It is labourers 
chiefly to whom these varied periods of refpeshment 
are habitual ; and never perhaps, stre all observed, 
except in harvest time. In Scottish, " snack, a slight 
repast/' J. Also snatch; the words are, indeed, 
but another instance of the bard and soft termina- 
tion, noticed under Perk. Of our various names of 
extra feeding, see under Sever. 

' Snacks. To share ; " to go snacks" in any tbing,^ 


particularly in edibles, is to share and share alike in 
a hasty participation. See SnaCk. 

* Snaffled. Ripe corn, wheat particularly, par- 
tially beaten down by wind or hail, so as to make it 
ihoiie difficult to be reaped, or, as we call it, to thear. 
It IS the same, I believe, as nickled. Baffled, buffled, 
shuckled, and waited, are other words of nearly like 
import : and something is said under each of those 

Snaggy. Snappish, short, ill-humoured, snarly. 
*' How is a* this morning ?" " Kiender snaggy." 
f Why he's got the snags." " How is your wife, 
neighbour?" " She's kiendah snaggy: we has got 
a great wash about." We make wash rhyme to lash. 
In Scottish, " to snag, to snarl ; snaggy, sarcastical. 
Icelandic, snagg-a, Utigare." J. 

' Snags. The shortened parts of pruned boughs or 
shoots. Hence may arise the word snaggy, explained 
in that article as applied to temper ; or thence this 
may have been derived. That mode of pruning 
which leaves the snags is called snag-pruningi in di»« 
tinction from close pruning. In Scottish, sruj^s are 
small branches lopped off from a tree. J. In an O. 
D. A. is ** a snag, a knot, a nob, or bunch." 

Snake-spit. Small masses of delicately white 
frothy matter, seen on leaves of weeds or wild 
flowers, in the spring mostly ; popularly believed to 
be the saliva of snakes. We sometimes call it, as in 
other counties, cuckoo-spit, from being seen, pro- 
bably, about the time of the first appearance of that 
welcome bird ; or rather of first hearing its cheer- 
ing note. Frog-spit, and toad-spittle, are other names 
for this froth, the origin of which, has considerably 
puzzled rustic, and indeed, other philosophers. Its 
popular names will show the results of the lucubra- 
tions of the first description : and those of the latter 
inay be settled and reconciled by the following pas-* 
sage from that very instructive and entertaining 
work, Booth's Analytical Dictionary, 



fVooi$an or FirothtfUt m a sane gtvett to a sort of white, 
frotb found, in tLe springy on the feaves of certain plants. 
In some coonties itiscalted toad-spiltte ) butnort geiie> 
callly cpcluNiMvitrfroa the onctfot boKef that it WU ^ 

Sittk of that bird; and htnce, also, different plants on whicb 
is froth is more nsnally fonud, have been called eackow- 
llowers. These are particoIarTy the Lychnis JtoscuHp Mea- 
dOw«piiik, or Ragged-Robins; and Car famine prmiemi*. 
The oomnoo eatolmy, or com campioBi (Silbiib wtgUcafyk 
likewise a nsoal receptacle for the Frotiispit, and on that a<H 
connt has had the name of spattinic-poppy. Neitlier toadil 
nor cnckows have, however, any thing to do with this fi'oth« 
It is exuded in the manner of excrements, by the htrra of an 
insecCf (CiCADA4|piiM<iria,) called the frog«bopper, ^feMob is' 
jomoliniea not nnappropriately termed the ika-grasshopper; 
w although it is only aboat a quarter of an inch longy tt wil^ 
clear Ase or six feet at a suigle spnng. The froth, whichi 
completely covers the insect, is sapposed to be its protection 
firoin tte heat of the son, as well as from its enemies* The 
Cicada of the Latins, and the TeU^^ of the Greeks^ lived 
among trees^ and are therefore erroneously translated by our 
ivord Grasshoppers. In warm countries they are the moat 
noisy of all insects; but the notes of some of the species are 
extremely mnneal The Oatcb in Snrkiam call them lyie^ 
players> beeause their sonods resemble those of a vibratiM 
wire. Aiiacreon describes this creature as the emblem of 
felicity, ever yonns and immortal, the oflfrpring of Phi^buSy 
and the darling of die Affnses. The Athenians Kept them in 
cages, (as is yet done in some conntriea,) for the sake of tMr 
tone, and called them the Nightingales of the nymphs. Ai 
in the CMC of birds, they are the males only, that sing; and 
hence Xenarchus used to ascribe their happidese to thorliav* 
Ing sileiit wives. 

The classical elegance with which so popular and 
bamble a subject is handled in the above quotation, 
baa tetnpted me to the indulgence in a longer extract 
than 1 can oHen afford. 

In Scotland the frothy substance in question is cal- 
led gowk's-spittle : gowk is the cuckoo. 

Woodsare occurs in the above quotation from 
Booth, as a name of the delicate froth under our no- 
tice. I never heard or saw it elsewhere so applied. 
It has other meanings, of which see under tnat ar- 

Snap. A sn^ck, which see. Also any sharp. 


quicks »lMrt tnotiM. «* Siiftp yowr iviitp." '< Snap 
ycMT rje" in Scottish^ 5« to $nop^ to eat faastay-^- 
to lay hold of suddenly— in a snap, in a momeat. 
Belgic, met etn map^ ld^-*-andecil Swedish^ mmpp-a, 
' to catch hastily*^ l» 

Snap Apple. A mirth exciting^ frolic ; in whidi 
catching, or rather not catching, an apple in your 
moutb, WhHe twiHing on a stick suspended «n its 
centre, with a candle at the other end of it, is iIk 
jet of the sport. Bob-cherry, is I beUeve^ nearly 
the «ain«. See under Moybxlu 

Snap-Dra«ok. An evening, domestic, wintry 
frolii: among yoUng folks. Raisins are put. into a' 
large diah with bnuidy, which is set fire to. The 
party stiad round the table, and boldly snap out 
and eat th^ blazing plums^. This must be done 
.ijuickly aa holdly--^adng it optional whetb^ you 
bum ybur fingers or your mouth. A little <ak flung 
int6 the weaJKoed flaaie» he^htens the joUitj, by 
gtviiig a irery cadaverous aspect to the happy faces; 
^ad hai fardier, Ibe good effeqt of averting any risk 
of the iiquxn* being drank. Nares, under ^ap^ 
4ra^, describes the apoit siaiilar^; and fives se- 
veral quotations from Shaktespeare and othe ra» 4i4ioir- 
ing its antiquity and spread. 

Skap toua £?rB« Wink, or squinja — not, however, 
precisely d wMc, but. tlie act of nictitation ; for 
which* in commoo iparlanee, I do not know of any 
verb in our language. U is a word scarcely known 
bat to aHalomista. To vfctiiaic would be thought 
pedantic, and what eke ha«re we ? See Squink. 

StiASft, of SwESst. The snuff of a candle or lamp. 
This is an old, anA was not always a local, word. 
Lord Bacoii tises ft, though I cannot refer to tbt 
place. Browne, in his Vulgar Brrors, inti«odiioeB 
the word in tka foNowfng pedaatic pasaage : 

The fangous particles aboat the wicks of candles ind|- 
t»te a W)kt and punkas air ; widch Inaikis 4he avohitkiii of 
Ilia light and faviUpas pa«ti«la$, imhciflettpan tbey stitl&e vpaa 


This i& C* pbikwoph V run mad/') to account for 
whlit is pc^ularly cafled a,.Thirfin the candle — which 

Among bis south and east country words. Raj 
has " snaste, the burnt week or snuff of a candle, 
p. W,p..55— :86. 

We call it sneest oftener than snast. 

Snatch. A mouthful between meals-— a snocl; abd 
a snap are similar terms. Thus Tusser, 

Call servants to breakftst, by day<«tar appear; 

A muick and to work— feUows tarry not here. p. t49. 

See of this .class of words under Bever. 

Sneck. The latch or catch of a door. Also to 
make it catchy or fast. " Sneck the latch/' It is 
sometimes pronounced snack and snick. Hasp, hesp, 
and hatch, are other names for the latch or catch of 
a door. See those words. In Scottish "sneck, snick, 
the latch of a doot, a small bolt — to sneck the door, 
to fix it by a latch. Teutonic, snack-en, captare.^' J. 

Nares says, that Cole has a snatchet for the fasten- 
ing of a window. This is little else than the difie- 
rence in sounding the hard or soft ch, as noticed 
under Perk.. In an O. D. A. is ** a snacket, a kind 
of hasp for a casement.*' 

Sneeser, or Sneezer. A severe blow. Such, a 
one as may make a man sneeze perhaps. It also, in 
a like figurative mode, means a dram. There is no 
end to «ang names for the last, article. Who, un- 
initiated, would suppose that *' a kick i the guts," 
could mean such a thing? This is a Jeu demot, for 
stomachic. Reverting for a moment to sneeser, I may 
note my recollection of the term in a humorous 
Irish song, entitled, " The Night before Larry was 
stretched,'* descriptive of the valedictory visits of his 
cpndoling qomrades, who 

.Helped their poor friend to a iwamr 
To warm bis gob ere be died. 

In the first sense^ the wcnrd might have been in« 
eluded amone others of like meaning* given in the 
early article Aint. 

Sne^pt. , Snappish* cbudi^> as applied to a 
maiij a do^, &c. In Scottish inisty, saucy in lan«. 
guag(e or demeanor. J. . 

Snbuze. Anoose, arunnirfgJtiMit. 

sonkirt il^itli^kKf^ ^alogy of our tongue.. We have 
MKyfor Mowe4> kiKW'Sof ^nowed^fCtsAS fo orovt d^ 
&^;\^Xt^p m Su$<9il]c^ we follow it /up ^itk/^inew^ 

(J«nua;i^y^ 1^,} ihis.phra«e^o«corfed. ^' Tifr.%«|Q«B 
WfiMif^ t%.he >se^9^.-, Tathewi tb^Qiaw^iiH ai^ria 
Hmw^^f^'^f^^^" -Se^ under B«vi«ik •. 

• StffBbtJfi ;'i;nd^r^ H)ebcur^9}*tcwo>,- 1 haVettn^ 
tted'to 6£fer a ftfadifig'of a' passage ifi iShak^floeare.' 
I had not'then seeti'Wh^t'KllrisS'has giiren under Ills 
9Lrii^$fiieek99*:yfhff^iht rireryfidly^afid amaN«Vly 
Ulusti^kt^est' thQ ytpv!^. -^ it isr probaUe than tinyrCMH 
jediii^'is faDcifttl,: but -I «»< j>ot'>quUeri<con«i'nGeA 

' SftY^-EN* • Whhiiog, Mtoitlpkirtilig/ tUiM^. - A 
sitkly <dhild^3M>Mld be eall^^fiK ]^6or fttMl^kvuMfig^.*^ 
The same as anivoilin perhaps. 

' 't9Nt<n;fift*^ SN^GfiKfof. fixuHfrig/^oasfiflg.-i {jeer- 
ing. ''- ^'6ne6i^en an.sntggerten/'' speakhig e^tltfimpi 
tuously of i)N:lters> and iralu^ing- i>kie'# ^^fi-^gkMHfc^ 
tl»0|'^eHe bear fit gather an the -sense (^Jaugbifg^ki a 
jeeriiiftfvay^'or gigfuiling dtsi:esp<9etfii]l]r<i . Intan (X 
D. A. is " To snicker ormggcr,. to laugh 4a one^ 
sleeve/' JViJggtfr— 'Which see, is nearly similar. 

. Shiv^' To «urtail^-Hto»^8horten*«i4iut a- piece; ofit 
^'Snip K.ofi^'' This \i, i]^ierhaps,* « onminonftseMfe 
4f tbe^wordi; atid^bbnc^, actattoristalMi'MN^.i lA 
aiiO. D«iA. is/'AiMj^;ia iittle4^v« me Bi9$f^ki£ 
it— to snip off-— to cisl off nHh m jt^.^* Bm in 
SulTolki. we use the wp«dr4g«ratiiwly# fyrtcheckd, 
sMhM^ tnipp9€L *' The fnikl ^ha siniplt tbfeiki -^tabh 

2 K 


nups.'' ''The cowd wutha snjp the chickens.'' 
And alio in the sense of checking, rebuking ; equiva- 
lent to muhhing, a word we are not without. See 

In the latter sense Falstaff uses it ; but Shakes- 
peare ipeUs it sneap. • 

Hy Lord, I will not undergo this mmj^ wiaoat rsply. 

Pope, in his notes, says it is " a Yorkshire word 
for rebuke.** Steevens, that "sneap signifies to check; 
as children are easily tneaped; herbs and fruits 
sneaped with cold weatheP'^* exactly as we «se 
jftsp. Ray, among his north country words^ has 
''to enape, or meap; to check ; as children easiljr 
siieaped; herbs and fruits sneig>ed with cold weather. 
It is a general word all over £iiijg;land/' £. W. p. 55. 
But, if so general, why give it as a localism ? 

Snips. A low sort of a brisk unmeaning answer, 
implying a decree of impertinence in the question ; 
though it mostly centers wholly in the reply. '* What . 
were you saying ?" Snipe. The Scottish has m^, 
a sai^asm ; m^'tart in speech. J. And the learn- 
ed author quotes Icelandic words nearly similar in 
sound and sense. 

Snip Snap Snorum. A game at cards — some- 
thing like Pope Joan. Of many.of our juvenile re- 
creations, see their names under MoveaU* 

Sniwel. To cry or whine. " A snivvilen child*' 
or ''fellow,^' means one sickly, or poor^hearted. 
Sfdffien is, perhaps, the same word. 

Snood. That part of an angler's line to which 
the hook is affixed. It is sometimes made of hair. 
Has it any connection. with the interesting and poe- 
tical. Scottish word mooc^— that beautiful portion of 
Highland costume ? so unpoetically called also codi" 
«m(my. Snoodi in Scottish^ is • 

. A ahort hair line to wbich a fisbing^hook is tied| as well 
as the fillet with which the hair of a yonng woman's head is 


.lk>«iidBp-*-firoiii the ancknt Swedish Mod, fiiiiicBloi, moto 
twist ; and the Ang. Sax. mi»d, yitla* J. 

Ooe can easily see how such articles, though 
seemingly remote, may become connected in the 
mind of an ensnared swain. 

Snooze. A noose— the same as mewse. 

Snotch. a notch. " Cut a snotch inH.'' Also, 
I think, a knot. At cricket or bandy-wicket, we 
say' so many snotches. In Scottish, nock is a notch 
— *-a common variety of termination as is noticed 
under Pbrk. Nock is an old word, and used by 
many of our writers, in this sense, as is shown by 

Snub. To rebuke — to check. See Snip. Under 
Sneapy Nares says, probably the same as to sneb,smb, 
or «tf^, to check or rebuke; which come from the 
Swedish snubba. 

Smodjb. To 9nudfe over the fire, means to creep 
dose to it. ," I heent bin ^ut — I ha' bin smidgin 
over the fire all day.'* *' 'A cent well — ^'a set^$m4g*9 
up i the corner all day.'' Nares, under this word, 
gives first the sense of. a miser, or curmudg^n ; 
and, afler divers illustrations of that sense, adds — 
" Herbert has the verb to snudge, meaning, .ap- 
parently, tp lie snug, which may probably, be the 
origin of the word." 

It may — but in our copious vocabulary, we have a 
verb applicable to that act also — we say snuggle, for 
lying snugly, or creeping close together in bed in 
cold weather, &c; 

Snuggle. To lie snug in bed — or to get ploj^e 
together in bad weather. Or a nurse hugging at 
child warmly and kindly, would be said to snuggle it. 
Cuddle, Duddle, and Huddle— see under those words 
—have each their appropriate application. See 
also Snudjb. In an O. D. A. is " to snuggle, to lie 
close together in bed." 

So^. To wipe or suck up any liquid. "Sob it up" 

2 K 3 


fall/' The word ^clake^)ofi4i^wir&y aod th« naM>* 

cat svfab. , It is^opaelin^es sounded lop. 

$oio>Vr. Sftndj^ iorrefeceiiceitq ootouc '' Soodj 
hidded" " A sondy cat^-^iBduiiog'to emr^iii^ 

SooiNs. '.S&^r^rio that' or. tto manner. vYdw 
QUlttdo'l^'^ainj'' or«M«£seR«/' 

Sqf. .^SoTCfsr. 'Wet^bog^y,2 Swampy.; applied to 
landt-^n thia «en<e!-**< Ibere^s .nd getting oo te't--^ 
'tiajatt^f-A aop" Land in' this t^ppu state, when nol 
too nuttch «o,jia thought by aocne to.. be in the 
vioat Jar«mbler coadtiian for receiving seed.* This 
persuasion has been banded down to us, and is per-* 
peMiftled \ff ibis profcrb— 

^SSfxm i tb* MQf — ^*t'iil be beevy a top.** 
Skp^^nd floppy are 9ae»Hy equivalent. 
We use the words, the subject of this article, like 
otb^<^. Such as B scp V tbe^pan — tops ut^ithps 
lOTxlilBk p^oplcj qieauiog grue1/%. liquid, thin diet* 

^ doKB. Very — exteediog. '^Tis a sore little to 
bi^e on wodi^'^^-^i phrase Which I have just heard: 
Il^is^ 'pMM9ly> a sense of sony. Hiekle, evidently 
mo a no ' to^tnake ^bift wHb, though I have not given 
that -a on o e under the article. Ttigglc, which see, 
mtb an VMf to have 'been nsed as hkkle-, 

SoRBEL. Chestnut-coloured^ as applied to a horse ; 
though not well described by either word. I ana 
hot aware that sorrel as a colour refers to any other 
animal or thing. The Suffolk breed of cart-horse is 
uniformly sorrel, and some two score years ago was 
aa imiformly so described— now chestnut u ^ome^ 
times used. *' The sorrel horse" is not an tmcom- 
rnon sign for an ale*house ; but, I never saw it out 
of Suilblk, or heard the appdiation. 

Since this was written I observe in Aubrey*r 
Lives, wdtten about 1680, the word used in a de- 
scription of the person of Butler, author of liudi* 
braa^«<-*' a head of soriell haire." And, in Cage's 



Hengrkre^ p. 5« we read of " Buclu^ Sores, Sorre2r, 

I^yketU, Does, and Fawnes/' It appears^ then, 

(1587,) to have described some sort of deer. 

In an O. D. A. is *' the sorrel colour — in horses Is 

lighter than a[ light bay, inclining to a yellow/^ In 

Scottish, " sore, a sorrel or reddish colour. French 

saure, id/* J. 

Sort. Many — much. «' A sort of loads.'' "What 

a sort of people !*' . Sort is used in this sense both 
by Spenser and Shakespeare, but I cannot refer to 
the passages. Nares' most entertaining and instruc- 
tive Glossary comes in here, as in so many other in- 
stances, to my aid. He is not, however, quite right 
in saying that sort is out of use — in Siiffolk We hear 
it every day. He gives, among others, the follow- 
ing illustrations : 

Remember whom yon are to cope withal — 

A tort of vagabonds, rascalf, and runaways. Rich. IIL v*^. 

A fori of poor folks. B. mid Fl, Beggars Bushf ii. 1. 

Some mile o' this town, we were set upon 

By a sort of country fellows. B, Jons. T.qf a Tub^ ii. 2. 

We have several other terms of nearly similar 
signiRcation as sort; importing much, many. Such 
as a deal, mart, nashun, sight, &c. — see. under thqse 
words. There is one of this class of a very upcouth 
appearance and sound — it is Bunkos, which see. 

Sour Alb in Summer. A comparison of degrada- 
tion.' '''A mend like sour ale in summer''— Uiat is, 

gets worse and worse. 


SowjA. Soldier. The name also of the shell- 
fish, whelk or whilk. ' 

We have a curious old sortes fihulara, if such a 
phrase may be tolerated, by which the destiny of 
school-boys is fore-shadowed. On a first appear- 
ance with a new coat or waistcoat, a comrade pre- 
dicts your fate by your buttons, thus : sowja, sailor, 
tinker, tailor, gentleman, apothecary, plow-boy, 
thief— beginning at top, and touching a button, like 

2 K 3 

"^■i^BW^ — "■ '■■ ■ "■" '■* 


irjogjping a bea^i ^ eac^^Uhet. That irh}dp'a|»- 
p)i§t t0 ^le lower l;i#t!OQ iai yo^r itfoijaited 6t 
threatened ^vocation |o Ufi$« 
AoAjtb^r xfi^rf^ givafi tfa^ 60iirw-HlDker» tailor, 

licacry, tbi^f. 

Young ladies gather similar results ^ t6 the ito* 
tion and character of their future husbands; by 
taking hold, in lack of buttons, pf a bead of their 
own or sehool-fdlow^s necklace, touching and pass- 
ing one onward to the end. The tallying of the 
last bead with the word, denotes that which ^'omkies 
or mars them ^nite/' 

Soy^f^. To seize a swjine by the ear. ** Wppl 'jA 
spwie a bog V* is a frequent euqu^y into tbe f^^ 
Iifications of a dog ; tbough one does not peepeiyje 
any manifest advantage in possessing it, oUierw.J9f 
than ^ a jroar^ of ^oyir^ge. A I9V , bred npioiigrd 
will attack th^ f.^m^ dpq^tcrfori; but thjs i|.«Q| 
genuine sowlezns^ and a boy would blush to own sfi 
bsc^ an aain^aL {(: is a i^e^l^i^^^^ jf^sH^. )|tf 
operation must be expressed ; as it will puzzle the 
reader wHboiH it to describe the process of se&ing^a 
hog % ike ear, otherwise tfatn' by such ^ circumlocti- 
toryphrase.' Shakespeare happily uses the word in the 
exae# StifiEblk seiTse. '* He^l go, he says, and sowte 
the porter of' Rome's gate by the ears** Coriolarms, 
iv.^ The last three words would be redundant to 
a Sqfl^k au.dieace. '* To sovilc" says a taftie, i^aiH 
rant commentator (ignorant I memi pf Suffolk ^hra>* 
seology) " is to pull^ to drag" Among his north 
eonntry ' words ^his occurs in Kay; and his explana^ 
tion I will give at length—^ 

** To «oio{ op9 by the ears, lincolodike^ i.e. 4ute9^jnmni* 
tfi vellere ; eredp a sow^ i. e.^ Jure$ arriipere et txUerif^ni ni^im^ 

This b?i^ proved^ tougb«ul9Jc»it to^comnientatGira, 
who have tugged atin. vaiiw Nares eten, caii 
make but Uttte. of tbi$. wpcd« He fnrt^tsiies me 


w4^. ftioAct? illiMtraitiof^ ftom Hejrwood^ citei by 
Steevens— * 
yeB»wm«oifiembytl^ec^iartius,' IiMM^«.|^f|0M. 

. y|i4^ J4^l^> Niire« givei «• « Lincoliu^^ 

leia^ hiii» by Ihelag." 

3otrsE. A blbw-^about 4^qiiiraient to a dowse, I 
iUppolse. I bave omitte<i iowse kmohi' the otber si- 
hiilar vocables enumerated iinder A)nt. So ndany 
are omitted there, although I thought the list pt^tty 
copious, that as many more perhaps have occurred 
since that article was priuted; and tbey will'.bc 
found under Aint in the Appendix. ' . 

In an 0. B. A. is '* a sovfse, ^ great blow^^o 
sowse or dowse onet to bu0et him sopndly/' ^ ^ ,' ^ 

Spaob. To measure ground by pMes,' ^^<Th 
jest thahty rod— I spaced it/' In ScMtisb, '* to 
space, to measure by paces.'' J. 

Spade-bone. The blade-bone, or edge, pr etch- 
bone ; that is, the shoulder bone — partiQuIarly of 8 
joint of mutton. The spade-bone of the right Sboid'^ 
der of a ram was formerly used in divuiaMofns] . as 
we learn in Nares by a passage cited from Dray ton.^ 
Other authors allude to it. We appeaa ^<k h«ft 
Teamed it from the Dutch ; but I never hefar4: ia 
Suffolk of any necromantic property in this^b^ine. 

By the shonld^r of a rani from off the right sld# par'd, 
which usually the^ boll, the spttde^honibpug^^t^d, 
Which wfaea' the wizzard lakes, and gasins thereupon. 
Things long to come foreshowes, as things Tong^bhe'agone. 

Spahs, or Spars* Spurs. '' Butes and sp^hf." 
IVe hiive a saying that I do not recollect having, 
heai^ or seen elsewhere.; — *' A spar 'i tb' hid^^ is 
wath tew *i tli* heel :" implying evidently, th^ " tJhe 
race is not always to the surift/' Spars occurs' in a 
phrase in the earlier article Ding. 

Spalt. Short-graiped| brittle wood*; 8dppy> unfit 
to be used for aidurabk work. Grose gives ^oU as 


a Norfolk word — '' wood grown brktie through 
Aryncss." , ~ . . ' 

Spank. A blow, especially with the open hand, 
d poitaiofi. It in alio a verb threatening such ap* 
plication,aUider its vutgarest deoomination. ^fkndc* 
ing means large, fine ; generally, if not always, in a 
good sense ; a spanken gal, a spanken fulla, &c. See 
Spankbh. In the first sense, thb word might have 
been included among other similar ones enumerated 
in the early article Aint, 

Spakker. Large, strong, lusty. " A spankin 
gal." " A spankin boss.'' *' She's a' spanker, i' 
fags.'* Seldom said in a disrespectful sense. We 
have several similar words'; a bonnka, a smashen 
gal, or amacken, idashen, smashen, whacken, wap- 
pen, &c. We usually drop the g in pronouncing 
such epithets as these. 

Span-new. Quite new. Ray gives this among 
his S. and £. country words. " Span-new, very new, 
that was never worn or used. So spick and span" 
new." E. W. p. 86. 

Under this word Nares shows that it is used by 
our old writers ; and that the commentators are at 
aloss for any satisfactory derivation of it. It occurs 
in: Httdibras, in Chaucer, and in B. and Fl. In the 
latter thus — 


Am I not totally a spoMuw gallant, 

Pit for the ehoicest eye ? . False One, iii. SL 

In Chaucer — •' 

tale was aie spen-newe to begin. Tro. and Cress, iii. 

Under Bran-new in this Collection, that compound 
appears about equivalent to ^an^new. Bran-span* 
neuf» and spkk an ^an-new, also in use in Suffolk, 
ar^ perhaps superlatives— or super-superlatives, to 
which we are sotnewhal prone. We say lasienest, 
for most lasting; lessest, and sometimes lessesi- little,' 
for smallest. See Docilisist. Under Spick an Span 


ject of this artidie. . .' r ; 

Sparsj or'SBAriSf SpujCB — ^^as well thq impetfi;^, as 
the short small twigs projecting a few inches from 
the bohf OP the.bocrgbs of trees; )^rtiCttlarly« I 
think, the |»e^r*tree. Pope, in hU a^notatiofM on 

Shak^4p^ar«» s^ys/on « pa^ng^ in Cyinbeliocvlv* S* 
that jpurrifrta old word lor thejSfoerof ti tM?.^ This 
is the passage— •« . 

I do note. 

That grief and patience, rooted in him both, 

Mingle tbfix^ffma together* 

I would, however, suggest transposing ifiecopama 
from afte r ' hotli, to tile precedi n g Him, ' A spar way, 
like a MdU'Toad, means where there is' rooni and 
right to nWe, noi to drive. In Sussex, '' A whapfl^' 
way is where a cart and horses cannot pass-^hy 
horses only." Ray, E. W. p. 90.. 

Spat. The cartilaginous inembrane by which ati 
OjJFiter adheres to its shells. Cocker says, *' the 
spawn of oysters." 

Spear-crass. The coarse sour grass so trouble- 
some to light land farmers; called couc/T, squitch, 
ind quitch, m other counties, it is the triticum re- 
pans. The Scotch call it rpnnachs. J. 

Sp£Ke. a spike. . Hand-speke — which we mpr^ 
comm6nly call lewer, for lever. 

;/ SpBK^N. The diminutive of speke. A small 
spike, or l^irge. nail. The peg of a boy's top we call 

^vtm. To e^rpend or use. '' To spend aH the 
8t«»ver; straw, and 'turnips on the land," used to be a 
eoinmon covenant in leases. In this sense FalstaiF 
says to the unwilling recniit — 

Go to — peace,'Monldy— you shall go, Moaldy^lt is time 
Ton were $pent 2 £. H, the Fourth, iii. 1. 

M^w, ^ miliiariy man ^mvii rf^^y expended* So 
Toise^, in his <' Septembers Abstract," or advice-i- 


NoW| friMid^ as ye wiili, Go M¥«r thy M ; 
IRieii iriend shall come^ To be soie of some. 
Thy ponds renew, Pnt eels in stew. 

To leave 'till Lent, And then to be sjwiif . p. ff. 

And in " December's Husbandry/' thus— 

Both salt fish and ling fish (if any ye have) 
Throngh'Shlf^g and drying, from rotting to stTO ; 
li^t.winter with moistness do make it releaty 
And pnt it in hasardy before it be ifieiil. p. 61* 

Again, in March — 

New leeks are in season, for pottage fitll good, - 
And spareth the milcb-cipwy and purgeth the blood : 
These having, with peason, for pott^ in Lent^ 
Then sparest both oatmeal and oread to be spmi. 

p. t$f, 

Peason is still a Suffolk word for pease, in the 
plural. Spent, for expended, occurs very often in 
Gage's Hengrave, in curious old accounts of expen- 
diture of Hengrave Hall. 

Spere. Sphere. We are apt to drop the medial 
h* See Spins. 

Spebit^ A ghost, the soul, lightning. A spirit. 

Sperkbt. a wooden, hooked, large peg, not 
much curved, to hang saddles, harness, &c, on. 
** Spurget/* according to Ray, '* a tagge, or piece of 
wood to hang any thing upon ;" but we always pro- 
nounce the k. It is like perk, but the latter is sup- 
ported at both ends for fowls to perch on. Tussers 
crotchets I take to be the same. See under Goof, 

I do not recollect hearing sperket out of Sufiblk ; 
or seeing it any where except in Grose's Provincial 
Glossary, where he gives l^mrkit, as Suffolk for a 
peg ; and under the word Nemis, another which I 
never heard or saw elsewhere, he gives the following 
explanation and illustration-^ 

t, for fear ; S^foUc* Manther, gang thejpiieu 

iato the vannceroofy bring isy hi&t firom off the sfmmi^a^ 


the door tfter you vends the eat shonld get in and eat the 

This he thus translates, and it required translation 

Oirly girl, go np stairs into the garret^ and fetch my haf" 
hwxk oif the peg ; shot the door for fear the cat should get 
in and eat the dainty. 

Grizzen and vaunceroof may, as well as nemis, be 
Suffolk words for aught I know, but I never heard 
them. Of mawMer ^vAsunkct^ see under those words. 

Spert. a sudden, unpremeditated action. *' 'A 
did it on the spert." " *Twas only a spert.'* In an 
O. D. A. is *' A spurt, or ftpirt ; a sudden turn or fit.'f 
The more modern word spree, seems nearly of the 
s^me meaning. 

, Spick an Span. The same, I believe, as bran* 
ifan : meaning quite new, or without speck, perhaps. 
New is postfixed; bran-span-new — gnck an4 span 
newi sometimes span-new, -See under th^t word.* 
This has been derived from the Italian, '*^ic€4Ua 
da la spanna/' which although literally : meaning. 
'* snatched from the hand,'* is equivalent to our 
"fresh from the mini" « . 

I^mk and span is not peculiar to Suffolk, but it is 
common there ; so is branrspan, which see. ., > 

Under Spick and span new, Narea explains it '* qujte 
new ;. an expression not entirely disused ;*' and showa^ 
that it is used .by B. Jonson, and others> and. 1i|ie> 
failure of all who have attempted to. trace its jBourc^e^. 

Spicket and Fansit. The spigot and fawcit of 
other parts. See Fawcit. 

Spiflicate. a low quaint word ; " I am wholly 
spiflicated'* — surprized, astonished, stamm*d : which 

» * • • . 

Spile. A peg at ttie end of a cask of liquor. J^ifc^ 
hole; the receptacle for the same. On the top it is, 
as elsewhere, the v6nt-peg. I^le is also a pile, 
driven in wet foundations, or in embankments ; or 

for cdviHg A6vm ttesidieiof asandbr cT^y pit. it it 
likewise our pronunciation of spoiL 

Spilling thb Salt. This ominous accideolkiiA 
a^Ur ^U to Us full fcrce an^^g us,; l>ut ^be thceatfuMd 
reHilt i»aj,b^ in. part ^i^ett^ ji^owmg ^Mvimi^ 
the spilled article over your left sbqcilderw ' Tfad>f8i^ 
portant» all-pervadiiig> article of salt« has been long 
held in nnystic reverence/ or in some superstiti^iif 
regard, very, extensively ; half the world ot^r per^ 
haps. -This may be accounted for. It is a point of 
some little curiosity to inquire into the antii(|oity,of 
the idle feeling incident to the omen first noted. /If 
it ever has been done I know riot where. Biilhe. 
Latin or Greek classical writers make any mention 
of it? The earliest allusion to it that lean call to 
raind is in the Last Supper by Leonardo: da ViiU:!, 
where Judas is heedlessly upsetting the sate^cellai^- 
Anoth^rof our littloisaperftitions has some reftreoce 
to the subject of that immocta^ picture.- I' hav^ 
known^ ahd now. know, persons in gentaeil Kft^ Wh6 
did^and do/^not sit down to'ta^le unmofi^d niritb 
twelve othfers. And so far is this feelhiff ^carr4ad that 
one of the thirteen is requested to wne at 4 sifl^' 
tfift>le! Th^ last sad supper adverted to' may )^irily 
have furnisbed ma4;erials for this wsperstilnbn. >'Oo^ 
notion is tteit ^ne-bf tbirteenso^'partakinj^/- Will die 
€t^' the -expiry of the year. The m^anher of lb6 
d^atti iis^hilppily liot foreshadowedr-^it is not ttedes- 
tai^f hedrf^HsA. tfc^e^lso may bavj ai4se»'die 
$bri|i^,. 0f itbie ;dev.irs; d^en^ , Thiif J.n .Sc#(i|h, 
" DeiVs dozen, the number th,i<teej^: appar^igl^y 
fi:cH|]n the idea that the thirteenth is the devil's lot/' J* 

Thijrteen^ is likewise called a ifaker^s dozen, * In 
viilgar eyes this tradesman is too often contemplated 
in connection with the devil. 
" ISikTH. The «pill, overflowings, waste. -Tbus 

. Oar vaaltBoave wept ... 
With drookeD ^k 6f wine. T. tf A, M. ft. ' 


SlNiipLfi. ' Gfowiikg* eom 'm.]mA to ^^iadlt whenrii 
first shoots up its pointed sheatb^ previous! jf lb tli0d^ 
Tdn^melit of ^tic ear. ' % • ^ . n 

Spinnt. a small^ longish; i rregiilar piece of mM'^ 
ovetgrovfh with brushwood, for gsAne. Nires undiet 
Sjpim^t, explains, it a sjinaH wood; ftom tlie Lliti^litfitf- 
hettttn :. ind quotes B. Jotison tis «n ekampfe or its 

use — . - •' 

A .siftyr lodgedf in a little, «ptfief , by Wl^i6h her nuneity and 
Ihe prince were to come; adtaticed bte bead abote tUb 
MMKMii woadering) &€.' The Stthfr^ ttjnwqae* ' 

J^spitmy» Nar^s addsy has sUU the sam^^^meaDing 
in sever af counties : and probably ^inct mal^, have 
been pronounced nearly like it. ^ 

i:Sri^& Thi^ .i^liaffinoh. The origia of tbi3,.ap« 
peltatipi^ is difficplt. to i^iagjne, anji wbt)ld per^apf 
bf3 .impossible to trace.. Hiis^ it iMrue, is our yr^y 
of, prpnigiviacihg- the name, of: the liiebao .qaonster ; 
b^tlhis helps us little. . We, d^ pot, patter .much in 
Egrptiaix lore> and ace not ,very accurate, it^^ur myr 
iMogical e^unctatip^u Cobid^.vft read>.,.i^Q4 . >» 
spj^akix^g without book we. say Cobit, perhaps i a^ 
the puzzling -i^ame of bis consort we . usqajly pro? 
nounce PhUky. Until lately, indee*d, such heatbeaish 
naO^es were nearly unkaowa,am)»ng:U9( .but the 
extension, of our military arni« the interchange of 
militia regiments, the prevalence of Sunday and nar 
tional schools, and noyels, and circulating libraries, 
have gone near to level the current literature of town 
and .cpimtry. 

Bewicke I perceive calls the Gpldfinch, Qold-^s^. 
And in Jamieson I find Goud-spink is the same \n 

In an O. D. A^ is a nameiof the cbafiinch, which 
I tieverheard, or saw elsewhere-r-*' ShcMapie, or qihaf- 
fittchj a. singrng bird.**' May it be- from our sense of 
sheU, Or ahdd, i. e. pkd, of tioo cobors, as thechaf*' 
finch is, and other -finehes of more-^and a- corrupt 
tion or ihodification*of fl^, ora^f In the samcr 



liook;' is " tiAm, the gfeen-ficich''-*-aQd ** spmk; a 

Birds, in difierent counties . get diflSerent names ; 
but BO genus bas> I thtnk> obtained, so many designa-: the finch — ^Fbingilla: and no species so 
many as the chaffinch — F. aelebs. 

Under the articles ij^, and Nope, instances of this 
may be seen referring to the bull-finch ; whicb« how- 
erer^ ornithologists do not class as of the F. 
The Warwickshire name of the go)d-finch« is very 
odA^prou4''tailor. I do not know that the local Ta* 
rieties in ornithological nomenclature were ever col- 
lected. It would; I think, with ety moieties, be a 
Curious article ; or rather work' See something of 
this under Dickt*bahd. 

' Spit. A spade depth. " Spit deep." *' I spit- 
ted it** — dug it with a spade. " Tew spit deep*'— 
two spades de^p. ** Yow may spit it/' that is, dig 
it with a spade :— ^r, if the ground be so hard, dry, 
or gravelly as to require previous picking, *' Yow 
can't spit it.'' A blade, is sometimes used for mi. 
« A bfade deep"— or, " I drew it a blade." We 
say, *' draw it tew spit deep." In Derbyshire, drqft 
seeibs to mean the same as our qnt, i. e. a spade 

In an O. D. A. our sense 6[ Uiis word occurs— 
'^ A spii-^deep, as much ground as may be digged up 
With the spade. A spiiier, a spade." 

Spitter. Small rain — br the commencement of 
a shower. Dribble, drizzle, mizzle, smither, smiir, 
are other terms indicating something short of actual 
rain. In Scottish, '' ipitierp a very slight shower." J. 

Splashes. Shallow accumulations of water from 
wintry wet, in the low-parts of meadows. or flmAcf* 
Plashes has the same ineaning: also in Cheshire, 
W. The words Tnay be derived from boys p^«ftm 
or splashing about . in such convenient aiid safe 
places, at play,, or^when bathing. Qther pieces, of 
water we call Fleet, Meer, Plash, and Pulir^§et 
under those words. 


Spong. An irregahr« narrow, projecting part of 
a field, whether planted or in grast. If planted, or 
running to underwood, it would be called a squeech 
or queech. Spirmy is another indefinite word ap-» 
plied like dangle, reed, shaw, &c. to irregular bushy 
plots or pieces of land. 

Spoon-puddens. Otherwise called drop^dumplingt 
— both are good names, of a good thing. 'JThey are 
manufactured by simply dropping spoonfuls of bat- 
ter, with or without currants, into boiling water. 

^ Sprank. a flaw or crack, or split, in a rail or 
other piece of wood* In this condition it is said to 
be qfranked* 

Sprat-barley. The speciea of barley with very 
long beards or awnis, or auns. The Hordeum vul' 
gare of Linn. 

Sprawls — or SpraaowU — if thcTcader can imsigiue 
the pronunciation of such an assemblage of letters ; 
in expressing which, the mouth must open and 
close, and suffer distortion to the extent almost of 
circumgyration. It means straggling* sprawling 
branches of trees, shrubs, -&c. Shakespeare had this 
figure in his mind when he wrote 

A halter, soldiers, haDg him on this tree:; 

And by his side his fruit of bastardy^- 

First bang the child, that be may see it mratBif 

A sigbt to Yex the father's soul withal. Tii. And. ▼. 1. 

Spray-Bricks — or Splay-Bricks, are made with a 
bevil for reducing the thickness of a wall. They 
are otherwise called set-off bricks. I believe our 
names are from display, though that may not be 
deemed the most appropriate term. 

Spreckled. Speckled; especially a variegated 
ben ; or; as we say, a gah hin. Under the articles 
Fkckcr'd, Gah, Pied, and Sheli, sufficient is said on 
this subject. I will just note, that to these nearly 



synonymous wotds in i»e amoi^ ut, may be added 
fnmt^tea, ffpeckkd for speckled/^ 

Jacob, the patriarke, by thelTorce of imagioadoD^ made 
pictded'huhhB'. \sLsUutpeckted roSi$ before his tfbeep. . 

' ' » ■■. 
It is also used by Isaac Walton. See Todd* 
f Jn.xScottieh gprechkd, means ^peckied^;' from tbe 
ancient Swedish ^eci^/o^^ id. J. 

Spi^ee. I had put this clown for a Suffolk word, 
as I first heard it there ; but I find that it is a flash 
word inflAndDn:^ and i>robab}y alf over £ng4and, 
since ihe spread ' of Tom and Jerry ism . My npte of 
it runs thus : " A frolic — something spirited or heed- 
less — done in fun , or tnerriment.*' " Lets have, a 
sprei/* Trom jBsphV probablyf And this is, I 
sirp^ose, pretty much the meanfug of the word 
every where. We have spert, which see, in nearly 
the same aenae. 

'Spring. Young white-thorn .quick — called sprimg, 
perhaps, from the tisual season for planting, or lay- 
ings it for quick-fences. We also call it Layer, which 
see, and Quick, Other young, three or four year 
old, stutf of that solrt, is "aUo catleia ^prtnigf- Black- 
thorn spring — whin-spring 6r layer, or quick, al- 
most indifiPerentiyi If tbewsond sA£^, used abov%, be 
strange to the ret£der,'90 used, 'he is referred to that 
word in thi&lCoUectibn, for instancf^s of its extensive 
usage among us. As well as for layer, we should 
adopt the term spring fcft a' l^viitte-thorti or haw- 
tborii at any age. 

I do not tliink that spHng is much known to our 
lexicographers or comnientators in the Suflblk sense 
— ^^though some of our oW writers appear to me to use 
the word as we should. The following, f^r instance, 
is perfectly intelhgibte to every Suffolk m^n, who 
would i)iot suppo#ie« as sqme have« that a wood was 
meant, though it may have been — . 


— Ualen it were 
The nightingale among the thicli leav'd iprtii^, 
That sits alone in sorrow, and doth sing 
Whole nights away in monrning. Fktek, FaUV, Shtp* t. 1. 

We at once see her in a hawthorn, among the 
thick leav'd spring. 

I hare taicen the above quotation from Narea^ 
who gives many illustrations of the word under our 
consideration, but none in its most obvious Suffolk 
sense. The white or haw-thorn, we adso call May, 

Sprite. See Wood-Sprite. 

Spud. A small weeding spade at the end of a 
stick — long or short. 

Spun. A spoon — not often heard except in com- 
Ibination mih/ull — ^spun-fidL 

Spuns. Spoon — in the usual mode of substitut- 
ing the acute, ti for oo ; but, in this word, it is the 
seldomest used of any with oo. I am inclined to 
think that spoon is very rarely, if ever,- so pror 
nounced; but I have been over-ruled in this opinion 
by positive judgments to the contrary. At any rate, 
nuine, gewse, Mcule, fule, bute, shue, are much more 
commonly heard than spune. Of this^ see under 


Spunk. Tinder — ^touchwood — also a spark. It is 
Scottish in the latter sense; and spunHe, is in that 
dialect, as well as in ours, and others, <'a lively 
young fellow — mettlesome.'^ J. We do not at all 
confine it to a young fellow, but extend it in the 
sense of spirited, smart, amorous-^asily irritated or 
moved. See Spurk. In an O. D. A. is <' «pofi^ or 
iptmit, touch wood — spunk, half rotten ^ood ; a match 
for guns.** 

Spurk. Brisk, smart: in this sense, ''Come, 
spurk up, here's your sweet-hart a coming.*' I be- 
believe spunk up was the term of jore \ and, indeed, 
it is still heard ; but generally we have become too 


fastidious to tolerate so gross a pbrase. See Spunk. 
" To gpurk lip ; to spring, of^brisk up." jRoy, S. and 
B.couQtry words, p.86. 


Spurshers. Straight young fir-trees, the samey I 
beliefe,, as fipbauks aoa g<ifers. Staddle and stimd 
jBLve pf^fa^^n^es of y 9Ung grpwi ng trees. See under 
those wor<u. 

SailAj^-'pronouqced. short. To scourge, or whip, 
or punish. *' 'A gon em a right good sqiu^gn, an 'a 
desarvM it.'' A boy's whipping-top we call a 
tquajm top. This word sQuaj, swad, and py,we 
pronduhced Very short w many similar words' of 
offensive import, see under Aimt. 

SaiiAHE* To put one*s self in a bbxiog attitude — 
to ofiend by that attitude. <^ 'A squared at me, and 
i gon em a poonch i'the guts." It is not, I believe^ 
an uncommon word in that sense. In the following 
passage, Shakespeare probably meant the same 
^itig; or perhaps, the neitt stage of a quarrel— >- 

' 'And now, th^y never meet, hi grove ot greeii, 
By-fbatttaiD cliean'or spliilgiedstttiight isheetty 
BiKtthey do MqtMte. < > ' Bhd. N» D. ii. 1« 

Qdcc by mishaii,' two poets fell a Mnorw^. 

BarringL Ep. u 97. 
I haye taken these quotations from Nares, who 
gives many other illustrations of the word, as a verb 
and substantive ; and derives it from the French, te 
quarrer, or contrecarrer. 

$^UA^< Spla3h-<-to which, as a verb, it rhymes. 
.Children are enjoined not tp dabble in wet, by 
"Bont fi^a^A about," , 

SauAT^ SavATTED. Settled-^-composed—derived 
probably from the squatting or settling of a bare on 
her foorm. Sqttai pills;, opiates, or composing, or 
settling pills. " Ah-that al squat 'em." It is whim-^ 
sical to see some of our East Anglicisms lejg^timated 
in the back settlements of North Americai where 
settlers are pretty generally called squatters. Such 


Wofdi wetk pfobftbly earried tbither by ftome of our 
eiriy fti^grtinti. 

mres> under 3naf, ^howi it to haVe beeil of yore, 
of the lAtne iniiaitiogv and applied to the siUing of a 
baiiaf beiogtiie say«» o^ly a icorniption qf tqua^ 

la tfae sense first given of settled^ or rather per* 
hapa fiatiated> be quoled'— . 

Bntto the stoma^U qn§U^ mitk /dai^^e^, all delicates 
9eem qaeasie. Muplmetf c. S. b. 

< ■ * 

•— * in tbe first coarse, when your stoannAefa was 
not qwUted^ with other daintier hxe, Brit, Bi^U ii. 439. 

Suaich is given by Nares^ as another probabk 
€0tf Option of squai, in a sense of flatness-"* 

It & like a baA>er's chaiir/ thai: Atk aH btitto<:k« ; tiie ois^ 
bttttdoki the puOek'haitto^kf the brawn^bnttoek, or any bnt^ 

S4t7BficH. A sort of irr^olarly shaped eecrtier or 
projiection of a field, untill'd, and overgrowit^ wttb 
bushes, &c. as a cover for game. It is^ liko called 
^tch. Dingle, redd, shaxv, slade, $pinny, and spwig, 
are dtbec terms for- duch small coverts or pieces. ' 

Squeej. About equivalent to akrou^e. '* l*m 
squee^d a most ta dead." A variety of i^qiieesfe. ' 

SauEftL. Toahrieki or cjryjoud^^to squei^. A 
sportive; rather than a painful elevation of voice. It 
is also Scottish in a like sense — 

Arround him pressing, kissing, speeling^ 

Transportedi laughin, dafiin, squealing^ Bla$kwood^^ Ufag, 

SauENCH. To quench'!— fire or thirst. < i' . ; 

SouEZZBND. Choked — sqflbcated. " Yow'J squez- 
2ei> us ta deafd.'^ Whe» referring to tbe choking or 
killing of weeds, the word jonore coininonly liaed is 
^tt62ze7i|i which see. 

SauiNic. Sqtiitti— 'Wink. ** Sfltiinlc yout e]^i*^--^ 
" Sbap youf eye"— the act of nktitatioti, fei* wbfcii 
we seem to want a colloquial word. Ih Cb^ljire 
sken is to squint. W. See Squinny. For lirant of a 


definite verb in this C9se, there are a ▼arieiy of words 
expressive of ocular obliquity. Among them askew, 
peer, pink, winkj sky, snap, squint, squinny, sqiiink, 
sken, and scarcely one precise in its meaning. 

Squinny. ' Lank, thin, narrow. Squit^^gua, a 
thin person.' Also to look askew or jeeringly; with 
the eye-lids nearly closed. Thus poor old Lear— - 

Dost thoQ sgiit^' at me f iv« 6. 

'I do not find' that the commentators have made 
any thing of this word, though it seems rather in- 
viting. Aikew, squink, $ky, squy-winnikin; and 
squmr^, appear to have lent and borrowed some- 
thing to and from each other. In the sense of thin, 
shrivelled, squm^ and vnzzend, are, I think, nearly 
synony mous*-^r whzend, may refer more to the eN 
fects of age on the face. Chmg and iaringle are other 
members of the same family. Under the above 
words distinguished by italics, something will be 
found on this matter. 

, Nares merely gives " Squirmy, a colloquial change 
of the verb to squint;** and the above quotation 
from Lear. 

SaujzzEND. Squeezed — rumpled — crumpled. 
<' Lawk, how yeow haave squizzind that cap" — so 
squeezed it as to have» as it were, squezsoid, or 
crushed or destroyed it. 

SauLSH. A person falling heavily, is said to 
" come down squish/' It seems only a variety, and 
not a very elegant one, of gukh. As Ray says of 
«/ttmp, it seems to be per onomatcpoeian. 

^ SauTwiNNiKEN. Awfy — gorging — askew — not 
straight. The last portion is sometimes pronounced 
wanniken. See SauiNNT. 

Staddle. What any thing stands on — the stones 
or supports of a corn-stack — the horse for casks, &c. 
Bay, aa a north country word, says it is '' the bot- 
tom of a corn-mow, or haystack.'^ E. W. p.. 51. 

ThusTusser — 


fSntiNnrk go ttii(liell» •. iBre timlMr 3rt'ftU t 

Tbe stnlgmtt ye t^iM^w, For 9Utddki Ui grow. p. iSSt 

Abd in p. 197, he uses It an arverb also«*-be b givihg 
directions about " stadling of woods''*^. 

Then see it W'elliiliEufied, wiifioutaii^ within.' 
I^are grawing^for. dSad/ei , the Jikedt and best. 

He here means young trees to be stands, -or stM- 
<^«; and indeed thesfe twio. words seem in many 
cas^ riearhy syttbnymoui. S^e Stand. Nares thus 
has it — 

i ^cuUtfy a .snppoft^. .Saxon. T7ae|d ^y Sg^iiser for astaflT. 
Olifelvanfl^Ji?4ewnbeda8^^ ' .v., 

'- — his weak steps governing, 

-And aged licabB on cypresse stadlelumX. F. Q. i. tL li. 

Sfoitttf/Kares'toontiooeByis i^sed by Tusser and others, for 
a^KHng'grdwing tree, left in a wood after catting, . SkulUid 
now nsea, I think, for tl^ stone supports en which a rick it 
raised. Ash explains it of the wooden frame which rests on 
those legs, which seems partly confirmed by Fragm. JsUiq* 
p. f86, where it is called a Derbyshire word* 

I think Ash is in errof. My idea of staddle, or 
stadle, is of something standing* In an O. D. A. is 
" staddles, young tender trees. Sucb, in thinning 
woods^ are left to tiller ; which see. Bed- stead, may 
bave arisen from the sense o^ Support, See St£ai>. 

Stale. The long wooden handle of a rake or long 
fork— not of a common short three tined muck-fork 
— or of a spade or skuppet. These are called tilkr; 
which. 8ee. In Cheshire, " steU or steal, is the stalk 
of a flower, or the handle of a rake or broom : stele^ 
Anglo-Saxon. Ash calls it local.*' W. 
' In Scottish, **steil, a handle, as of a plough — ^from 
the 7«nitboic steel, caudex.** J. . 

1 coiiclnde the steel, in the following quotation, 
whicl^ I borrow from Narcs' article " Shak-fork, a 
bay-fo|rk^ a fork for shaking up the grass/' is tbe 
aame as, our word — 

lik'st'a ttrawne scare-tarew in tiie new«Bowoe6eld, 
Rear'd on some sticke tiie tender come to shield* 
Or if that semblance suit not eyerie deale, 
' Itike a broad ^ak-forke, with a slender steel, ' 

HalU Ai»HU. 7. 


I may note that asdoiig our ^pet-ktms we hate 
lasienest, for most \9AXMi'^\ Hkest, for lilost like i Us- 
test, for smallest — sometimes leatett, and leuest'Kttk, 
Sefe DociLisisT. 

Nares under Stde, says it is the stem or stalk of 
any thing, from the Saxon, sula. The Dutch is the 
same. Both perhaps from <m}X9 — 

The ttalke or «foa2c thereof (of barley) it tmallar than the 
wlkeat stalke. B, Gouges UeredwMM^ foU 98. 

Thus also the stem or body of an arrow— 

A sbaftha^ three principal parts, the ifele, the fetbers^ and 
the bead. » AmhmCs ToxopAsltt, p. 161* 

Among, his S. and E. country words, Ray has, 
'"the stfial of any thing; i«.e. nuoMiJbriwn, The 
handle, or pedkulus, the foot-stalk: d Bdg, tied, 
stele. Teut. stiel, petioltts** E. W. p. 87. 

In an O. D. A. is '' the snetuh, or handle of a 
$cythe — a stalcj the round of a ladder — and ihesieal, 
or handle of a spoon." I do not think we hare 
either of the words in those senses. Stawk is some- 
times heard in Suffolk, for the handle of a whip — a 
Whipstawk, and perhaps of other articles— altered 
from stick, or stacke, probably. We see above that 
ataUce and steale, or steal, are synonymous In more 
than one author. Among so many unimportant 
names, precision cannot be looked for. 

I will enumerate some of thog« v«rietic» tjf nam^s 
of tool-handles — cot, haft, hrft, helve, stale, stawk, or 
stock, tiller. All these are current in Suffolk ; and 
under those words in this Collection, sufficient will 
be found on the subject. Swake may be added for 
the handle of a pump, and handstaff, for the longer 
limb, or holding moiety, of a ffail. And just as V 
was sending this page to the press a final inquiration 
led me to the knowledge of another discriminative 
name of a tool-handle in use among us — in strict- 
ness, a long pitch-fork handle is not tne stale, but the 
sheath. This may be the same with the in^aM of the 
O. D. A. The handle of a scythe we commonly call 


Stall. At well fts fbr tbe <iit]8ioii of a %t»ble, we 
use this word very differently.' Alc'StaU, for the 
stool, or. horse, on which. beer-casks stand,, One 
does not see how the place for a horse, and a horse, 
came thus to be confounded. A covering fbr A cut 
fin^i*, we call a thumb-staU. Cot and Hudkm — see 
under those words — are other names for the last 
named article. Head^stall, for the frontlet of a 
horse's bridle, is I believe common almost over £ng^ 
land. Jamieson explains it to mean in Scotland, 
y the band that forms the upper part of a horse's 
€ollar/* The house and buildings of a farm, we call, 
collectively, homestaU, or homestead. 

Stall, is sometimes, though but rarely, confounded 
with stale, the handle of a tool ; for which we have 
several names. See Stale. 

Stam. To surprise, to astonish, to confound. 
" Fm wholly stamm'd." " He's a stammin felfeh." 
This is a very common word ; but I do not recollect 
me<eting with it any where, save in Suffolk colloquy. 
jCaMbled, and jlahhergasted, ^irhich see, are other 
uncouth terms, denoting surprise, or confusion ; and, 
perhaps, astonishment. 

. Stand. The early active little^ fish, . otherwise 
called Tantickle, and Stickleback, from its sharp dor*- 
sal fin probably. The upright position pf that fin 
may have given its other name. In Cheshire it is 
called Jack Sharp. W. . , 

S^tand is also a young tree, unpolled. Staddle, 
which see, is nearly the same. See Pollard. A 
beer cask, not made in the usual barrelled form, but 
set on ils smaller end, we also call a standi " a beer 
barrel set on end," is so called in Scottish. J. 

. Stand-still. A stoppage; a cessation. "Things 

are come to a stand still." 

• . . . » ^ 

Stank. Adam; a bankto retain water. ''St^nk 
it up." Ray gives tbe word in tbe sameseiisfu E»W. 
p.; 87.. In Scottish, /' stat^ is a pool or pond,"* J. 
I^are^ has this article — 


A dk»§ or AMdie. << Fertjeay ngMiH vectttb** C«i€t. A 
•take, or wooden bar, or p<»t. - 

Aq inuDdatiop that oVerbeanth^ bailie . ' 
,And bonods ofallre)igioo; ifspine«#«Mcib * 
Bhe^ their emergent heads; K&e Seth'i fiim*d stone; 
Th' are monameiil^ of iJhy. devoiiMi gone* ; 

Fieldb«r*« l^l^r. p. l«f « 

Wttb us a itaxik is not necessarily of wood : rather 
indeed^ otherwise. Such' a gtake, or posit^ncit' A 
liar^-^aa Narea adverts to-^we call a jifti^ wbieb see'^ 
or Dewel in the Appendix. 

Star. Stare. *' Starring eyes.'* *' J3[ow ycoii 
dew sitar at one." " A starred fike a stuck pig/* 
This sad simile is used on another occasion, ^e 
Stuck. ' , "* 

Startly. A starting, shying horse^ is !^b9 appror 
priately designated. , r 

Sta VN,CH.. To stop; ;a. bleeding — or le^l^gr^ii* 
inan« beast, cask^ &c; Stini is a ?erb ol'li^e iiiipj»n« 
bu^ confined mostly to the stoppage of a hemorrhage, 

Sttawk* . Or Sioek^ &iA handle of a wbip^; and 
perhapa' of aome cftber implements-r"^' wmfek 'set 
under Stale, 

Stat». Stead^-^^sedate. ^^ A staid woUMftl*' I 
havH* not met with thia word in thia senser save in 
awOiD. A; where ia *^ «#^tf ^grave, .si^rif^aii sdlter/^ 

' St^ad. Aid, assistance, usefu]iness : in this sehsie. 
" It stood me fn some stead" — ih'iteadpf something 
pos^bly. •'JPhe word does not occiir to me in any 
other pl^rase in that sense. iBut we use if in one or 
iW6 instances for place-^-a hoiiiestead, or home^stalt 
S^e under the latter word, ^nd MiDDLfesTEAb, and 
STEDDEtr. '^'Bed'htedd fi^ tiniversal, in the setlse ofu 
support; orsi4mdrK»^a4diei^ Se^ undet the hater. 

Stbdded. Suited— enifagcd; ^t feaii't'*^t no 
work'^the farmera are uRs^ded.'^ SAd a»d d^d 
are ^ised by Shakespeare inifae dense of Mt^e, heip* 
A>m.*«»4 ^» (H. 3i 4)ihell0,'\. B. T6 stand on« 
in some sted or ifead,\s stilMi»use'4n Sullblk* See 



Stblts. Stnt8->-a8 noticed under Aninnd ; with 
many other similar substitutions of e for i, and the 

Stent. An aHotted portion — a day's work — a 
9tint, but not in a sense of curtailment; "Fellen 
a score load a day is our stent,^' The word siented ' 
occurs in a Scottish quotation under Cuts, in a 
sense of limitation or restriction. '' Stent ; a task, a 
stint." J. 

We may on this word, as in most others, accord 
with Nares, who says. 

Stent, probably for ttint, a mere change for the sake of 
the f byme, or else an abbreviation of extent* 
Eon^thins that in the cart first went» 
Had even now attain*!) his journey's itent, 

Mir. for Mag, p. S56. 

—^ and cursing never stent 
To sob and sig[1i» lb. p. S6U 

Stetch. The ploughed portion of land between 
two furrows, which is greater or less, according to 
the heavy or lig^ht quality of the soil. In strong 
lands, we go eight furrows to a stetch, which is 
called *' eight furrow work/' The reader (though 
happily no farmer) will probably know that what the 
plough makes at every bout is called a Jurrow till 
filled up by the next botu. See Bout. 

Stickleback. A little prickle-back fish, other- 
wise called Stand and Tantickie-^whxch see. 

Stid. Stead — instid. See Sturrupyle. 

Stifey. Rhyming to «fr(/Jry. Stifling — sufiK>catin^. 
— " how stify the room is.^ Stithy is a similar word. 

Stiff, See Stith. 

Stingy. Snappish^waspish — unruly — ilKtem* 
pered-*-quarrelsome — said of a dog, or of bees, of 
men or women, or a penurious person. The word ori- 
ginates doubtless from sting — the g having become 
soft by the accidents of time and usage, and from 
lingual analogy. The propensity of bees to hoard 
and resent is proverbial. Sharp, unsettled weather, 
inclining to raVh, would also be called stingy : such 
probably as one would be prone to qaarl'el with. 



Aivi it }p curious, that in Cl^eahirf, *' Htigiqu^ i^. a 
terin applied to weather tliat imfitedeii the bawts&t^ 
but it is probably only a cant term, and not a Mrue. 
county word/' W . The sense is, vre see, common ,to 
bottf '^ese 'dbtant counties, but, perhaps, not inter- 
medfaftely: 'Ray says '* stingy means pinching, sor- 
did, narrow spirited. I doubl whether it be of an-* 
cietit Use or original, and rather think it to be' a 
newly c6i lied word." E. W. p. ix. 

It has occurred in some of our articles— ^e under 
DuddU and Tetchy. 

Stint, ^ee Stoot, and Stunt. 

Stith. Rhyming to piM. A smithes anvil. Siiify,* 
a blacksmith's shop. These words are common in 
Suffolk, are archaic* and have been extensively in 
use.' 'Stithy occurs in Shakespeare as a verb — 

By tlijsjforge tbat stUh^d Ma» hu belv. 


And in Hamlet as a substantive — 

My iiiifigiDatioDs are aa fool as Volcan** «ltliby. iii. S« ' 

" Stithy,'^ €ay the icommentators, " is= a smith's 
anvil ;" bat, under correction, they are wrong. Stiih 
\s the anvil'Stithy h\9 sh(^. The poet is very cor- 
rect—a smith's anri/ is rarely, if ever,ybi*l-^tii8 shop 
always. So it was, we may infer, with Vulcan. 

The words oqcur, I believe, several times in the 
^' Scottish .Qovek." I have noted it but once, where. 
I confess it countenances the commentators. " Xbe 
iron was never forg'd on stithj^ that would baud 
her.'' Pirate, I. 115. On stithy must hi^ the anvil, 
not the shop. 

Again in Halidon Hill, we have a like phrase^^^ 

Never did armourer temper steel on Hiihy, 
Tiiat made sqv^ fence agaiost an English arrow ; 
A cobweb gossamer were guard as good 
. Against a wasp-sting. i. 9. 

Some of our blacksmiths corrupt the word to stiffs. 

Ray gives the word stithy as of nortli country, and. 
his authority is in favour of Shakspeare's coninaenta- 
tors ; but, I will let my opposed opinion stand^ as it 
is not given presumptuously. 



<^Asrf%, an aiivrl, a piwiiicl. A. 8 J* (ivfcjjiidrg,] be- 
lie ve, Anglo-Saxon.) *'«$ywMv, rigidnBf duna. Quid enim 
incude duriu»T* /?ay, E. W. Dr. 58. . . , 

I expected to have fouud stithy in Jamiedon ;; but 
do not in tbe meaning of ai) anvil*. Hejias "study, 
stuthy, styddy, an anvil. IcelandJc^ sttdiay incus.'' 

Kares affords us ibis : 
Xsliiht or ttith^ an anvil ; from rtib- hard^ Saxon. 

VVbose hammers bet still in tUat Ijvjely brain, 
As on a «^i^/ie. Swrreyi:8 Poems^ E.J. 

And strake, with hammer on the tiii^^' 
A.catining sniith to be. Tuherv^lei (1570) c. 31/ 

" Stithy,'*' h^ adds — in aid, bd it noted^ pf'jPy 
I'eading; of a passage in Hamlet, atready quoted — 
^ M this shop e^nrtsdningthe anvih now called staiit^y^ 
from stith** Nares quotes the said passage ;. also 
that from TroiL and Cress, iy. 5^ in Ulu^ration.Qf the 
verb "to stitl^, to employ an i^nvil/' 

I inay note, in passing, ih^ibet, quoted abovie^om 
Surrey 8 Poems, for beat, is a Suffolk idioiti. SS) we 
say.fter (whieh. see) ^ heaied; and tbut \A an O, 
p. Aw i» " a 9titl^, a smith's anyiU" 
. It niiay, .perhaps^ be thought that I go rather out 
if my way j: aad, if so, I crave excuse, when I 
fiote, that as we sometimes say stiff ^qv stiih, as 
mentioned above ; so, if we suppose others tO/h^ve 
conversely used tith for stUh, in the se^se of siif or 
strong, we shall restore some passages in our ancient 
authors that are not otherwise quite intelligible — 

- ■: She*« good mettle, 

Of a good stirring striBiin too : she goes /i^A»8lr« . 


Then take a widow, 
A good stanch wench that's iktL Id, Mem. Thi^M. I}« f . 

I have taken these two quotations from WiWts; 
who says, " Titli : seemingly put for light or strong.** 
The reader will see how in the above passag^es tith 
may, withoat altering the sound, haVe hdtn put 
for stifh. 

Stithe. Rhyming to tithe. Hot — oppresive— as 
applied to a crowded, ill. ventilated room. /' Tbe 
/ttiihf b very oppressive." — *' The room is very stithy" 

2 M 2 


SHfey is nearly the same word ; the t in both pro- 
nounced open acute and long. 

Stithy. See Stith — ^in the sense of an anvils 
or smith's shop ; and Stitrb, in the sense of the 
oppressive beat or closeness of a crowded room. 

Stock. The plate, or place, at the back of the 
lire, or immediately above it. " As blkck as the 
stock" is a very common comparison. See Crock. 
It appears to mean also the handle — we sometimes 
hear of the whip'Stock or whip^stawk, but it may only 
be a variation of stick, or stalk. See Stale. Grose 
as a N. country word, has "siowk, q. stalk, the 
handle of a pail.'' 

Stodjt. Thick — clayey — clogsome. Such as » 
heavy road. 

Stomas^ An entire horse. 

Stond. Stand. " Stond still — ^wool ye"^— scold- 
ing dijiffiin horse. 

Stone dead. Quite dead — as dead as a stone. 

Stoot. a species of pole-cat or weazle — that per- 
haps, which we also call mausehunt, which see. Stnii 
is another name for it in Suffolk and other counties ; 
and it is also appropriately called Stink, Stint is, I 
believe, a name among us for a species of plover— 
''mallards, curlews, teafes, knothes, plover, and 
siintes," Gage's Hengrave, p. 195. This quotation 
refers to 1573. 

Stoke. Stir. Stored, stirred. ** 'A cent storen 
az yit." lie is not stirring, as yet : that is, not up. 
Another specimen of the use of this word occurs 
iinder Nofanaken and Pa/. 

Store, applied to a domestic animal, especially to 
a sow, means one kept for breeding. '' A store sow.." 

Thus Tusser — 

Sow ready to fare — Craves huswife's care. 
Leave sow but five— Tbe better to thrive. 
Wean snch for «f ore-— As sack before. p. 8t. 

Repeated in p. 95. 

Of one sow, together, few rear above five. 
And those of the fairest, aqd likest to thrive. 


Ungelt of the best. Keep a conple for ttore. 

One boar pig and sow pig, that sucketh befbr?# p. 95. 

We retain the persuasion that the pig which, sucks 
the fore dill is the bes^. See Dill^* The last bori^« 
called Barrq'pig, which see'---is the wi^^kfi^ I^n4 
sucks behind. These preferences are p^phdbly 
(grounded in experiencey and are of entensiye pfeva* 
lence. See Pitman. 

. Stoves. Pronounced Stuvoa, which see.- 

< Stooch. Stoughins. Under Stpw and St&wins, I 
hdve gi^n what I have to say of these words. The 
headinor of this article is merely a variety in «pel- 
liog'^like Roughings for Rawens, 

Stound. To long— rtodesire — to pine-after. Beasts, 
&c. tired of turnips in spring; are ^s^d to ''^ stound. 
afler grass food." Recently weaned childr^en i" stound 
after the breast^," The word has also a meanj];ig of 
time — but is, I think, then generally Siowids^ which 

Stounds. Time— in this sejase :. ';I was axt; some 
stounds ago.'^ J never heard the word, Jbut I un4er- 
stand it is in use in high Suffolk — ^fhat is to the 
northward o^ and about, Framlingham. In Scot« 
tish " siound, a small portion of tijue. Teutonic 
siund, tern pus, momentum.** J. 

Nares thus explains and illustrates the word! — 

Stound, Time, moment, occasion, exigence. iV t^^aace- 
rian word, in which author it bears this sense. 8t;unb. Saxbb. 

O, who is that which brings me happy choyce 
- Of death, that here lye dying ewery stmmd, 

Spttu, t\ ft. I. \^«. 38. 

His legs could bear him but a little slound. 

In the MifTj fvr M^ia. itis wiiUen attmme, 

When once it felt Hie wbeete 

Of slipper fortuue, stay it aiight no »tomne, p. 44(>. 

' Sxpw. Rhyming to now. To out the boughs of 
a pollard tree close to the head^ . The cuttings are 
called stawins. See Pollard. When stolen the 
stawins are called. Bi^mps, the thievA Jfrumpers^ 
which see. In Scottish "to stcrw, Uow^, stdo; to 
crop, to lop— *«^owi», stolen." J, See Stowi|«s. 

2 ^ s 


Stowins. The loppings of a pollard-tree. To 
stow a tree is to lop it. Under Batlin^ and Bole, 
this word Stowins occurs. When these loppings 
are thievishly cut in the night they are called 
£rump8— *the knaves Brumpers, which see. Under 
Stow, we see that siawin means stolen. The word 
under consideration I do not recollect to have met 
with any where else. 

Stradlins— or Stradiegs. Stradling — especially the 
position called pig-back. In Scottish ^ to striddk, to 
straddle. Danish <^cf/-a, pedihus divaricare— ^/n'ii?«-. 
leg$ — Hride'lmgis, astride." J. 

Strapper. Great — applied particularly to a well 
grown girl. '' She's a strapper.'' '< She's a spank- 
er"— or "a wapper," are nearly equivalent. See 
those words. 

Streek. To iron clothes — a common pronuncia- 
tion in some of its senses of Strike, which see. 

Strinklin. a sprinkling I suppose — ^hut gene- 
rally used with us hyperbolicaliy, meaning not 
scanty. " A pretty strinkliog of turnips," meanr 
a goodish phnt all over the field. '< A pretty strink- 
lin of partridges/' or of hares, or apples, means a 
fair promise, or rather above it. It is also used as a 
verb in the sense of sprinkle. 

Strike. A bushel measure : also the flat or 
round implement by which all the grain above the. 
rim is struck off. We also call it streek. Knowing 
meters receive with a round strike^ and issue with a 
flat one. In strictness, strike in the first sense, 
means rather the contents than the measure itself. 
" A strike of barley,"' or of malt, &c. Komstreiche^ 
is a Teutonic word for a corn -measure, according to 
Ray, who explains, under his north country words — 
" A strike of corn, a bushel, four pecks." R W. p. 59. 

Strike is also a mode of plowing. We call it l4ftck» 
striking, which see. Tusser notices it. He also notices, 
the implement under that name. See Goof, verse 1. 
In an O. D. A. is '' a strike, a measure o^ four. 
bushels, tbe same as strickle and stritchel" 

Stroke. Used in the sense of considerable-^ 
great. *' A good stroke of business." 



Strook. Struck. " 'A strook em right hard." 
This is an old and a good word. In the Morte 
d'Artfaur> as quoted in a modern popular work, the 
word occurs in an eulogy over the body of a gallant 
knight ; " and thou were the kindest man that ever 
strook with sword." 

Strop. To beat — to strap — but the threat need 
not be confined to, or be carried into effect by, a 
strap or strop. It is one of the many threatening 
words wliich abound in our local vocabulary, aa 
noticed under Aint. " 'A yepw dont mind ye'U 
catch a good stroppin'^ 

Strow. To strew. " Let's strow the waah over 
with flowers/' is the way in which we join in this 
Epicurean chorus. The operation of spreading re- 
cently mown grass is sirowwin it. Similar perhaps 
to tedding in Scotland. 

Stru's. Ajs true as — thus used in combination. 
" Stru's yeowr alive." See under Crack for an ex- 
aoiiple, and under Hiwin for another. 

Struv. Strove. See an example under Aginn, . 

Stry. To spoil — ^waste — injure, ^^troy, perhaps, 
abbreviated from destroy, Stryance, the Habiltty of 
being stry'd. *' Ta lie ta stryance;'* I recently heard 
said of a carrot-field exposed to depredation. . The 
following speech of a deceased neighbour, a gross 
feeder, is remembered, but is not, perhaps, worth 
recording. He fancied, that taking gravy out of a 
dish with a spoon, was bad practice ; (and, in refer- 
ence to hot gravy and a cold spoon he was not 
wrong,) and was used to tih or keel the dish, and 
pour the gravy on his plate. A waiter brought him 
a spoon, but was repulsed with — " A spune I no- 
why yeow fule 't'al stry the drippen." 

Confirmatory of its being an abbreviation of de^ 
stroy, we may quote from Shakespeare, Antoi^y'is 
speech to his fascinating ruin — not, to be sure, very 
intelligible on the whole — 

O, whitlier bast thon led me» Egypt? See 

How I convey my sliame oat of thine eyes 

By looking back on what I left behind, 

Siroyd in dishonour. Ant. and deep* iii. 9^ 



In th€ north, strtuhion for destruciioD, aeems Ex- 
actly equivalent to our 9tryance, " It lies in the wajf 
of 9trmhionf i. e. in the likelihood of being destroyed/' 
JRajf, £. W. p. 59. Tusser uses stroy — 

Di(: garden, 4ht>y mallow, now may ye at ease, 

And set, as a dainty, thy rnocival pease. p. 88. 

If shepherd would keep them from gtroying of oom^ 

The walk of his sheep might the better be borne, p. 140. 

And, again, in a quotation under PUuk. In Scot- 
tish " to stray, to 'eslroy/' J. 

Strtance. See Stry. 

Stub. A small old. post — the part of an old post 
left in the ground — old ends of trees in hedge rows, 
Sic.-^these we also call sleepers. " Stub em up.'* 
** Stub and grub em up.** Tusser uses the word very 
oflen, in the latter sense. As a boundary, a post is 
called a Stulp, which see. 

•\ StucK. Killed, or nearly so. *' *A starr'd as if 'a 
was stuck^' — would be said of one whose looks de- 
noted the extreme of amazement, or fright. Hie 
idea is borrowed from the horrible operation of kill- 
ing a. hog; '', 'A shruck like a stuck pig»^ is anoUier 
)^rase of comparison, borrowed from the same too 
fimiUaar source^ See Star. 

Stupf. Medicine, of any sort of liquid-— not used 
disparagingly, " Doctor's ^tufF.'' " M^ve you aeen 
the doctor ?" *' Is — 'a V sent me some stuff, ta dew 
it woth.*' Wbod for building, making gates, pates, 
&c. IS also in th« mass called stuff. ** Ta oont dew 
la nrake em tew then — His best ta take 5^ enough.** 
^'There's 5/«(^ enough in that there barn 14> makfe 
tew.^* ** Garden stuiF^ is also common. I have 
Indeed heard vegetables, or what we otherwise caH 
saace, called for at a " good man's feast,** by the ap- 
pellation of garden stuff. 
" 'On this passage in Othello, i. 2 — '• 

logo. Though in the trade of war I have slain meBy 
Yet I do hold it very stuff o*the conscience 
To do no conff iv«d murdeir — 

Johnson says — 

This expression to common readers seems harsh. '* Staff 


of Uie conaci^iice'' h^ubtiame or esBime of the coitfcienee. 
Siii^ is a word of gr«at force io the Tentooic UagaagM. 
The elements are called in Dutch horfd itofftn^ or kuAaiigk, 

Iago*s speech is not at all '* harsh'' to me, alheit a 
*' common reader.'' In the Suffolk and Dutch sense 
of materials, it seems to read smoothly. It is against 
my conscience — against the very matter or consti- 
tution of my conscience to premeditate murder. By 
the elements, Johnson means the papal host. As in 
Suffolk, stufis here manifestly used not in a dispa- 
raging sense.. And we also use ftead (or hid) gene- 
rally par excellence* " Hid post/' &c. See Hidd. 

We likewise say " household stuff/' for fqrniture ; 
io does Shakespeare, in that most amusing mad-cap, 
Petruchio. We do not indeed apply the term quite 
so extensively as to our xtnves^^ 

She is my goods, my chattels ; sheis my honse^ 
My hmudiold stuffs my field , my barn, 
My horse, my ox, my ast, my any thing ; — 
And here she staDds--tottch her whoever dare. 

T, qf the Shrew, id. t, 

> ' 

In the sense first given, we find an item of ex* 
penses at Hengrave Hall, in 1573 — 

To the potieary for certain poticary stuffe Ibr my nT, and 
my m"*. lix*. xd. — Gag^i Hn^» p. 199. 

Stole. Stool — in a sitting, &c^ sense, in aU its va- 
rieties — verb and substantive. 

Stulp. a short stout post, put down to mark a 
boundary, &c., or driven into the ground for any 
purpose. In the sense of a meer or boundary, detvet 
is a more common word ; which, however, I have 
omitted in its place in this Collectron. See under 
that word in tlie Appendix, In Scottish *' stoop, a 
post fastened in the earth." J. Also in Nares, who 
gives precisely the »ame words, as a quotation from 
Ray's N. C. words, adding, •* He derives it from the 
Latin stupa** 

It may be known ; hard by an ancient stoop^ 
Where grew an oak in elder day« decayed « 

. TaiUT. aod Giim. O. PI. ii. 201. 

Stoop and Stulp, are evidently closely cognate^ if not 
identical. Under the latter word, Nares has this — 

Stvipes^ QfBui Posts, stompsy or something of that ku^^* 


• ^ Brtdgciivlirae^wifMir^fto ealMdiP I^dM Brf^ge^ ^idk 
hMl^' M a pHntipil jpart 6f tf^a^ fimnfe, and begiimedt at 
the fftdl^ dH Ihie stfuth end by Sobthwarke", he.'^^SMfe'i 
fjfmd* p« 167. 

L Thia word^ Nares adds, is repeated ia tlie impreved edition 
h^ Stowe himself, and* again by his continuator Styrpe^ but 
withoot any intimation of its meaning. Gl, 

^ Itg meaning is well understood among tis,> where 
it ia ti very common word. Stubf has a similar signH 

" SroMMAeR. The stomach — but I incli^ the 
word \ti this CoQection, because we ase it \ti raiher a 
airtgtrhror quaint sense; thus, of a man ib #hom 
som^tbf ftg unpleasant hath occurred, we should say; 
^ Ah, 'a cant stununuck it*' — or " Let um slummuck 
that if 'a can" — equivalent to fufmUaWy perhaps, or 
digest, at others sometimes put these i^rases^ 

Stun. A stone — xoeight ; not a pebble. 

Stunt^—Stunty— Stunted — Sti*tei>. Stopped, 
curtailed, short. A tree or a child stunted in its 

Nmrse, And, pretty fobl, it stinted and said-eye. 
. Mut. AtAsimt tbee too. I pray thee, niifse,,si^ I. 

- : With ds, stt/taty means also cross, snst^y. " *A fare 
kiender stunty this morning,'' See Duddlb. Runty 
ipight be substituted in the last speech. Stinted we 
also apply in a particular case to mares,, in a sense 
q{ held, retained. 

. In liincolnshire, according to Ray, stunt means 
stubborn, fierce, angry, from the Ang. Sax. stunta^ 
stunt; stuUus,fatuus, &c. E. W. p. 59. 

< . In the sense of stop([iing or checking, we sboukl 
apply the word stint, in this case — '< 'A bled stam- 
minl^, an 'a coudnt sHnt it,'' for staunch it — exactly 
in the sense of this, among many illustrations o{ stint 
in Nares-T- 

The blood stinted a Mle wbca be was Jaid< > • < 

' i North^s Phtttrch, 

in the article Dudd/e, above referred to s^uni is 
used ib the sense of snub or snip. See those articles. 

StimfcurvLB. Stirrap-oil. A wag sends a greeii^>* 

— • w- -w - 


horn to the cobbler's or knacker's for a lumpatk qf 
aurrupyle. The' artist bei ng vp' to it, gives the shig- 
glen wight a good dose of the " sturrup lutM in stid/* 
Send iug for pigeon's miTk^ is another ^oodjokepf 
old staiidinjg;., ' See Pigeon's Milk. 

In Scotland a similar sort of tangible jocularjtv 
maybe presumed from Jamieson's, explanation of 
"<5il of hazel — -a sound drubbhiff." 

^TvVvx — gr Stover, Clover Qiad^ into hay — but 
we ^'arely i^onfound a '* hay* stack*' and a ''^^^c^ of 
stuvva."; The latter .appear; ngtp be confined ,tp( 
clover ; or extended sopnetijmes .to ^a^fpip aq4 Qjther, 
artificial grasses. It is an old' word. > 

Thus Shakespeare — 

Ceres, most bounteons lady, tby ricii leas ^ 

Of wheat, rye, barley, vetches, oats. ai],d pease ; 
Tliy turfy mootitains where Jive ttibbliDg sheep, ■ 

And flat meads tbatoh'd with itwer^ tbem to keep — > 

Tempeatf iv« l^ 

The poet .seems not to make the distinction that' 
we do : in his day, but little was known of-airtifietal' 
grasses. Nor .is the distiqction very perceptible in 
Tusser — for the same reason probably. Ho often 
use» the word. 

Tbresb barley, as yet bnt as need sfaatl reqaire^ 
Fresh threshed. for stover, thy cattle desire — p. U7. ' '^' 
Serve rye-'strawout first, then wheat-«traw and pease. 
Then oat*8traw and barley ; then hay if yon plQ&se : 
But serve tiiem vvitb bay/ while the straw s<0wr la^t, 
Then love they no straw— they had rather t^o fi^stV j). (50» 

The word, hve.'is 'used -aboVe, by Tusser, in its ■ 
still retained Suffolk- sense. See Love. ^ 

Ray, among his S. £. country wprd^^ has 

Stover; fodder for e9ttle ; «traw» or th>e Ji^e. . Eiuext ; 
From the I'rench estouver ; /ouer^ according to Cow'el. Spel- 
man rednoas it from tbe French estoffe, materia, and etftoffer, 
necesfaria eufpeditwe. p. 88. . . < . . i 

Under 'S^ot^^r, in N^res, we have whHt fp1lov?9-r-: 

Fodder, and provisions of .all sorts for cattle; from ^ulwoen; > 
law term) wbich^ is so explained in the Law dictionaries. 
Both are derived from estowsier^ in the old French^ defined ^. 
by Roqnafort 'Mliiiiivenance, n^cfessit^, provision detaiif' 
ce qni est n^cessaire.^ . 

In addition to some of the illustration's given 


• • • ' • . 

laibove, Nares has the following quotatidn from 
Drayton — 

And others from their can, are biuily about 
' To draw odt sedge and reod, for thatch and siovet fit. 

PolyoUf. XKXf, p. 115&. 

I have not the means of referring to the above 
quotation from Drayton — but I conjecture that by 
car, he means, 'as ^e do by that word^ a boggy, low 
wood— especially an alder car. See CAimii Such 
places may furnish sedge and reed for thatch, but 
not stover in our sense of that word. Does Drayton 
mean fit for thatching a stover st>ck ? Sedges we 
call Segs, which see. 

Sty — or Styney. A troublesome little excrescence 
or pimple on the eye-lid. We fancy that the ap- 
plication of gold, especially of a gold ring, and more 
especially of a wedchngoring, is a cure. 

Nares teUs us, that it is from a Saxon word — and 
shows that both the w6rd and the fancy above, are 
found in B. and Fl. 

I have a sly here, Chilax. 

Chit I have no gold to cure it ; not a penny. / 

Afad,Lo«.v. 4. 

There is a Hie grown o'er the eye o* th' bull. 
An» Put a gold ring iu's nose, and that will cure him. 


Stye, The place for hogs — a pretty general word 
perhaps. Under Hobble, it is shown that we have a 
distinction in pig's apartments. In the Exmoor 
dialect^ according to Grose, " Looze is a hog-stye.^' 
Of the disease in the eye, see Sty. 

Suckers. A longish sort of a sweety, enjoyed by 
children, in the mode denoted by the name. 

SucKLiN. White or Dutch clover. Also the 
honey-suckle. • ^ 

SucKREL. A sucking colt. The word is scarcely 
ever applied to any thing else. 

Sugar. Not sAugar as commonly pronounced in 
England, and so written — shukker — x^ihrough Asia, 

So we say ^ewer, for sure — not shuvt. 



SuMFUN. Something. It is sometimes used in 
rather a strange phrase Our expressing to another 
that he would l)eitc*r plca^ed. had some-, 
thing else been done, would say — " ih ; if ye'd 
done so and so, Vd a said sumfun te ye:'* that is,- 

something commendatory. 


SuMMAT. Something — somewhat. ^ 

SuMMERLAND — or Summerlaj/, Fallow land — 
ploughed and laying through the summer ; or, if 
suited to the plant, till turnip sowing, time, uncrop- 
ped. " Making of summerlands," is one of the 
heaviest operations in farming. 

SuNE. Soon. " Yeow ar tew sune.*' This is 
one of our usual* substitutions of the acute u, for the 
00, as noticed under Bdtes. 

SuNKET. A child sickly and unpromising is so 
called — " Ah ! *tis a poor sunketing thing." The 
word sometimes means good cheer — but junket, is 
then more common. See Junket. In Scottish^ 
Sunkit appears to mean food — 

The bom that now bUws tlie shepherd to his aunkit on t)ie 
hill side, had it been sec to a Lyddal's lip would have touted 
ont two hundred helmets^ with as many bauld Lyddals and 
HalUdays, all on their barbed steeds, with their mail coats 
on ^ and their swords by their sides. 

Twelve TcUes of Lyddalcrosa, Lon, Mag. 

SunketSf provisions of whatever kind. J. 

Suncate occurs as a Suffolk word, in a quotation 
under Sperket. 

Supernaculum; A word well known, and occa* 
sionally heard in social circles in SuSblk— generally 
understood to mean little else than an excellent bot- 
tle — something supercurious. Few of us, I ween, 
were, aware of its origin, which Nares shews in a 
very curious article, copiously illustrated by quota- 
tions of passages iix which the word occurs, ^ It is a 
kind of mock Latin, intending to mean, on tlie nail; 
and is thus explained in a quotation from- Pic^oe 
Pennilesse — 


410 • 

Dtinkiiig Mfer magmbtm; u de^iu of diiaking, new cove 
oat of Frftunce^ which is, after a man hath tamed np the bot- 
tom of the cop» to drop it on hu noQe, and to make a pewfo 
with that is l«ft; which if H slide, and he eaimet nalce it 
stand OU) by reason ther's too ranch, tie mnst drinlc afaio for 

The whole schoole (I mean sdkofa hibmdi) follow that way 
to a drop, whidi is called in Ae most aothentic and empha- 
tical word they^ha? e, tupe r - n a tulmm ^ 

G€$'$ Fiti. NoUif p. lOS. 

It is thus described, without being named, in a book of odd 

Hee tooke upbu cop of twelve quarts — and then hee set it 
to his BUoutli, stole it off eTcry drop, save a little remaindei^ 
which hee was by custom to set upon his AumbA nailci afid 
it ofl^ as he did.— XKse. ^a JVc» IfWId, p. 5S. 

It has, Nares adds, been the subject of a reg^nr 
discussion, in a little tract printed at Leipsic in 1746^ 
4to. entitled ** De Supemaado Anglorum/' The de- 
rivation is there thus stated ; *' Est vox hybrida, ex 
Latina prepositione 9upcr et Germano na^l (a nail) 
composita. And he refers to Pop. AnU H, 228, 4to« 
Ed. Sometimes the emptied glass was made to ring 
against the thumb-nail; alike evincing the fact, 
tending to perpetuate the phrase, and perhaps con- 
tinuing the festive practice. 

SustACK. A fall. '* I cum down sich a sussak^^*' 
such a souse, perhaps. In Scottish " soss is the fiat 
sound caused by a heavy but soft body, when it 
comes hastily to the ground.'' J. With us it also 
means a blow, but is not often heard in that sense. 
** 'A gon em a right good sussack i' the guts.'' This 
elegant word might have been given among its fel- 
lows under Aint, but was forgotten. It is no verb, 

Sus-Svs. The invitation, appropriate enough, to 
a sow or swine, to partake of its swill. In Leicet«> 
tershire pur is, or was, a similar inviie, as Nares 
show in bis curious article under i\<r; and what 
may be thought farther curious, he illustraterit by 
an extract from a sermon of bishop Latimer/ who 
was a Leicestershire man — 

They say in iggf eomitryi when thc^ call fhehr hogges to 


Hhe f wiDMnnifb, ^ Come to thy miogle mmglo—eomo pir, 

This sermon roust be, I should think, rather a sin- 
gular episcopalism. 

I may note in this article of porcine infitation, 
having omitted it in its proper place, a particle of 
awinic repulsion or propulsion. In dHying^ or in 
any way persuading, this obstinate race of animals, 
we have no other imperative than hooe, hoocj, in a 
deep nasal, guttural tone, ^propriately coippounded 
of groan and grunt. 

SwABBLEN. A quarrelling, loud«talking, swagger- 
ing, bullying sort of a person, is called ** a swab- 
lin fellow'' — from squabbling perhaps. 

SwACK. A blow, a thump, a fall. *' I'll gi ye a 
sw^QCk i the chops." Also, au contraire, a shake b v 
the hand. ^' Ah ! give us a swack a' your hand. 
We say also, a smack of the hand; and, I believe, 
swack is occasionally substituted in reference to the 
lips, The following is a genuine speech, commu« 
nicated by a friend. " liie haw Sparrak ^uvv'd 
the mawther Sal swack down off 'a the stule an 
crackt ar sconce :** — implying, that the boy ^ar- 
rowhawk pushed the girl Sally off a stool, and hurt 
her head. In the first sense many other words are 
enumerated under Aimt. In Scottish ** to sM)ak, to 
strike — a hasty and smart blow.'' J. 

SwAOKRN. Large, thumping, joHy-t-in a good 
sense--*' a swacken child." '' A fine swacken fel* 
low"-^''A swacken gal." Sometimes the penult 
sound is softened, and swashen has a like meaning. 
The latter word occuns in the aame sense in Nigel, a^ 
a Scotticism. See Fulla for a specimen of the use 
of swacken. It may have some relation to Swack, 
which see, and Swashen, * 

SwAD. Sword — pronounced short and sharp. 
" There 'a go, with a's swad by a*s side ! — ^hewd 'a 
thowt it !" This was said of a swaggering volunteer 
officer, the first of his family who ever wore a swctd. 

2 N 2 


Swag. To swing backward and forward — as a 
gate, or the handle or iwake of a pump. . ^ Doni 
swag the gate.'' It may have been borrowed from 
the ostentatious movement of the arms in the walk of 
a swaggering/ellow. Of such a one it would be said — 
" K'there — what a e wag *a cut.'* 

SwAKE. The handle of a pump. This word and 
mmg appear related. Grose has " Swape, the handle 
of a piimp." Norfolk. Pr, GL See, of divers handles 
of implements and tools, under Stale. 

Swale. A gentle rising of the ground — ^like rkt, 
but with a corresponding declivity — ^a swell. In 
Norfolk it means shade^ '* Let's walk i' the swale*' — 
but I never heard the word in this sense. 


Swap — or Swop. To change — to chop. It is Scot- 
vtish alsOf Pirate, I. 218, and perhaps intermediately 
not infrequent. ".Wool ye swap ?*'— According to Ray, 
in the north, " coup is to exchange or swap" £. W. 
p. 24 — and, in p. 73, he says, " to cope, i. e. to chop 
or exchange, used by the coasters of Norf. Sufi^ &c. 
as also Yorksh." I never heard cope. In Scottish, " to 
coup, is to exchange ; to swap, the same." J. In an 
O. D. A. is ** to swap, to barter, or exchange one 
thing for another." 

Chop and cope, are perhaps only diflTerent pronun- 
ciations of the same word ; the hard and soft sounds 
of ch and k — ^being very common, as noticed under 
Perk. Chop, Jockey, and St&ap, are nearly, I think, 
equally common in Suffolk. See under the two 
former words. Nares, under Chapman and Copeman, 
shows that they are the same-preferring to change or 
barter — both from ceap, a market. 

Swarm. A person climbing the stem of a bough- 
less tree, is said to *' swarm" it, as the French do up 
the mdis de cocagne. Leaping over a gate, rail, &c. 
assisted only by a slight touch of the band is swarm- 
ing over. Without touching, it U, of course, jump- 
ing or leaping. It is sometimes called Sharming — 
which see. 


• SwASHBN. .. Similar to Sw€u:ken and Slacken, whicK 
see* . I haVe heard swashen and slashen in Ireland, 
In Scdttish. "to swash, to swell — ^frotn the aneient 
Swedish swassa, to walk loftily.'* J. 

It is found in our old dramatic poets^ as shown by 
Nares ; exactly, he observes, as we now say, dashing, 
spirited, calculated to surprise. 

We'll have a suKuiking and a martial outside, . 

As many other maunish cowards have. As you L. t#, i« 3, 

We should also' use the word in the sense of a 
hard, severe blow, as in the following passages: 

Gregory, remember thy meoMm blow. Rvm, and J. i. U 

I do confess a swashu^ blow. B. Jams. Staple o/N,y,i, 

The old editors have a ** washing blow ;'' bot, as that Is 
nonsense, swashing is very properly substitated. GL 

Swathb-Raking. The operation of hand-raking 
between the swathes (or mown r6ws) of barley or 
oats, to collect on to such swathes the loose stalks or 
ears scattered in the mowing. .From a habit of 
transposing harsh consonants, as noticeable in bref- 
kust for breakfast, waps for wasp, &c. ; the word 
now under consideration is sometimes pronounced 
Swake-rathrng and rake-swathing. See Waps. 

Sway. A balance, or lever — ^seldom heard. 

SwAYPOLE. A long moveable beam, swinging 
obliquely, but not equipoised, on its centre, up and 
down a well, for raising water — a bucket or pail is 
hung^ on a hook at the end of a chain, or bar, or 
rope, pendent from the high end of the sway-pole 
when at rest. The other end is heaviest, loaded 
perhaps ; and helps to raise the bucket, which is 
pulled down by hand to the water to be filled and 
swayed up. 

Sweat. Or rather swet, as usually pronounced — 
has a meaning of to beat. ** 'A gon em a right 
good sxvetten," is well understood in this sense : a 
figurative one, peradventure, as implying the ex- 


«didmg «ttBOt «f audi an opferafticn on Ibe no8ilee. 
Of .« Tftricty «f iiiae rhetorical, te, flouriihe»*-* 
Ae«e4Wfflifiieiift»>gtf^o iw m cj ' a e e onder Aint, ia' the 

Sweeties. Sweetmeats— >sweet things of any sort* 
especially sickening things for children. In Scot* 
tish iweetich sweetmeats. J. 

SwiDGB. Set SWFG. 

Swig— or SwiJ. A little water^ beer, &c. (not a 
draught) running or being improperly on the floor, 
table, &e. The roof leaking, a room will be said to 
be '*idlof aswidje'' — this is commoner than imig. 
If a beer-barrel leak, ** The siller is all of a 
swidje/' Such a word is wanted in our language, 
and this is not a bad one. In the sense oT guzzle, we 
have swig, 'both as a verb and substantive. Both, 
as welt as the practice, are, I fancy, in preftty ex- 
tiensive usagei To smiii is equivalent and appro* 

Swij. See Swrc. 

SwiLU The liquid food of swine— hog-wash-^ 
the omnium of domestic thrift. " Swill«tub"**the 
cistern or receptacle, of ihe same. It is also used as 
a verb to stigmatize inordinate or indelicate drink- 
ing, as it is in a figurative sense by Shakespeare, 
who had evidently the true Suffolk notion of this 
word ; which is not, perhaps,' local — 

The wretched, bloody, and nsarping boar. 
That spoils your ftummer 6eld8 and frnitra! vines { 
SwiUt yonr warm blood like waahf and makes bis troogli 
In yonr eniboweird bosoms. R, Srd. ?• 9» 

Guzzle and Sxvig are verbs, in extensive use, per- 
haps, of like import — ^so is Bezzle. See* under those 
words — and under Draff, for a similar substantive. 

SwiNFUL. Sorrowful — wistful — ^longing. " Poor 
thing — ta looked so^swinful aata me" The speech 
of a nurse, referring to a weaned child. 

SwiMGB, A Uow. Tusser uses the word in the 


tense in which we use hiuL '^Sudnge bnuntdes 
and brakes.'' pp. 160 — 174. See Goof, verae 14. 
and note. 
Shakespeare also— for a blow or beating—- 

I will have you sooDcUy immgid for this, yoa Mit-Mllc 
rogne. 2. JIT. JSTim. /F. v. 4. 

Blue-hottle, perhaps, refers ^egradiiigly to the 
obscene fly commonly so called. Swinge occurs in 
the list of terms of offence given under Aint. 
Shakespeare again in the like sense — 

St* George that mring^d the dragon. JEC Jtkup ii. i. 

In an O. D. A. are 

To Mwinget to whip or bang soundly, to'manl— Mplnfifig, 
huge, exeeeding great— a tmnger^ any thing that ib of a very 
large site— to momgle, amon|;flax-dres8erSy to beat'-HMWN^M- 
Haff, a stick to beat flax with. 

SwiNGEL. That limb of the flail which falls on 
the corn in the straw. It is also called Frinjeh The 
long lioib is called the hand-staff. For .other names 
of handles of tools and implements, see under StaiBi 
TiLLBR, and other articles thence referred to. In 
Cheshire, " Sunppo is the thick part of a flail. In 
Scotch swap is a sharp stroke.'' W* We have not 
swap in that sense — our wap may be equivalent* 
We reckon hidva or holly one of the best of wood for 
making swingelL See Hulva. 

SwiNJiN. Large — bouncing. '* A swinjin gal." 
It ia not local perhaps. We have several other 
word* applicable, in not an un pleasing, though 
rather in an unfeminine, sense, to our healthy, 
buxom damsels, of the useful class. Among them 
—as well as bouncinff, and other universal epitbeta— 
strappen, swacken, uashen, spanken, swashen, wap-* 
pen, at once occur to me. 

SwnR. A jerk. Sometimes a b l a w" ■ a g«ntk 
swack perhaps. 

SwiaL. A waving motion with the band : not, 
howeveri of itself conveying any very definite idea. 



Switch. As well as a small stick, and as descrip- 
tiye of the tail of a horse — we use this word to de- 
note a smarts sharp, clipping stroke ; such a one as a 
switch would inflict. *' Switch him right well/* 
"'A gon 'em a right good switchin." For other si- 
milar words, see Aint in the Appendix, 

SwiTBiN, St. The notion current^ I believe, 
pretty extensively, that if we have rain on this day, 
not one of the next forty will be wholly without, is 
still in full force among us. Nares notices it as an 
old and often revived superstition; referring to 
ample illustrations thereof, in Pop, Ant, where it is 
not, however, mentioned that B. Jonson, in bis 
** Every Man out of his Humour" introduces it. In 
Alban Butler's Lzm of /^eiSatii^5,S with in is recorded. 
— but nothing is said of the rainy prodigy. 

Swop. See Swap. 

Swoop. The long sweeping stroke or cut of a 
scythe. Nares explains the word, " a sudden de- 
scent of a bird upon its prey." This passage in 
Macbeth may have guided most commentators in 
this interpretation — but Shakespeare sometimes in- 
termixes metaphors — 

Oh— hell-kite— all— 
Wha( ! all my pretty chickeus, and their dam, 
At one fell nooop. iv. 3. 

I do not think that we know the word in this sense 
of stoop, or. pounce. As a form of the .verb sweep, 
Nares and H. Tooke are disposed to consider swoop 
in its Suffolk sense. The word, though uncommon, 
Nares adds, is not, perhaps, obsolete. Dryden has 
used it. Drayton applies it as a verb, to the sweep- 
ing motion of a river : . 

As she goes swooping by, to Swule-dale whence she spriofss. 

Polyolb, xxviii. p. 1199. 

SwouNDED. Swooned. So drownded, for drowned. 
Sythe. Rhyming to hlUh-*^^ sigb. 


' T. 

Ta\ T^Is-tt" ta. .year ''—this year. Also to,~ 
See TiTTiE. Also it — *J ta frwe" (rhyming to 
prize) it freezes — **ta thow" FhymiDg to ^Aroio-— it 
thaws — ** ta snew " — it snowed. Our insignificant 
particle it, forms an awkward idiom as applied to 
atmospherical phcnomena~i* rAined — it blew — it 
snowed — it thawed, &c.— -wjA^i rained — blew — 
snowed — or thawed ? " Ta year," seems but an 
extension of tomorrow, to day, to night — another 
awkward incongruous idiom', indicating £^ paucity 
of language. Other European nations are as badly 
off in this particular. 

I knownot if the' author of the Diversions of 
Parley toqk ,this anomalous it in hand : he would 
probably have m^'de something of it. " Is — ta dew" 
is our provincial " yes — ^it does." ** Dew it rain ? " 
•'Istadew." " Ta crumble all ta pieces," Ex- 
amples of this phraseology may be found under 
JSarj^n, Feed, and other articles in this Collection^ 

Tack. A trick, at cards — not a frolic. ** I 'vc 
got six tacks.'' JJft or Left is another term for .a 
tnck at cards. See Left. Both trick and lift 
seem niore.appropriate and significant than tack, of 
which I see no reasonable derivation unless from 
tactic. Winning a game, at whist, &c. we caH 
winning a set: points and rubbers are not yet of 
universal usage at whist tables in Suffolk. I per- 
ceive I have used tack ior tiitk, tti the article 
Noddy. ' . 

In Scottish tack ts the act* of seizure— a slight 
•lold. J. 

Tag. The end of a lace for women's stays, or 
of men's highlows, Sec. stiffened by a piece of tin 
fastened on it. In Scottish tag is a lalchet, or any 
thing used for tying. I«. is tW v^orA^^**!'^ the 
latcbet of a shoe." Ray. p,61, 

Tahnation. The same, I believe* as- Ihtk /*" 

2 o 


nation — v^hich see — a softened exclamation, or 
oatfa ; of which we have divers, {is qoticed under 
Amenden. We al^o sometimes use this for the 
purpose of amplification <*A iahncukun sight of 
folks." See Sight. 

Taken. A piece of husbandry work, not done 
by the day. " *Tis taken work — ;! ha' took it — I 
dew it by the job." We also say of a man or beast 
taken suddenly ill, that "he is taken^* — illness is 
understood. Shakespeare uses the word in this 
sense — though in his day, such attacks were often 
imputed to witchcraft — that vampire of social life. 
It is amply illustrated by Nares. 

Take on. To lament, or grieve bitterly, or 
vociferously. " 'A take on wemmently.'' We some- 
times use it also for anger. As does Shakespeare — 

Dame Quickly* Alas the day! Good heart! She does to 
take on with her meo. M, W, of W. iii. 5. 


Hff. Page, Why woman, your husband is in his old luoes 
again: he so takes on yonder. 26. iv. 2. 

These were less " in sorrow than in anger.'* On 
this passage Johnson says '^ Take on, which is now 
used Yor to grieve^ seems to be used by Shakes- 
peare for to rage. Perhaps it was applied to any 
passion." '*To take on. To grieve violently; 
rather vulgar than obsolete." Nares. 

Take up. Reforming — said of an extravagant 
thoughtless person — *^ Ah — yah — 'a mah take up 
binebine — tha's no woo in 'em as yit." See BlNK- 
BINB ; and Woo. Take up, seems to be derived 
metaphorically from the operation of stopping a 
runaway horse ; which is said to be took up. 

Tamer. A team. This is more of a Norfolk 
word — and not much used in Suffolk. 

Tano. The point or tongue^ or tooth. The 
tang of a shoe buckle used to be that point which 
p^eu^ing .through the strop confined it to the rim ; 


like a harness buckle« I can recoHect when our 
rustic shoe buckles — and what male or female 
then went without? — had only one tangi, or tongue, 
as it was indifferently called. This word may be 
compounded of tongue and tine, a tooth or prong. 
Another part of the buckle was called the chafe ; 
another the anker. 

Tangled — sometimes Twangled. A rumpled 
skein of thread or silk — or a mass of cord, or un- 
combed hair. Thus Shakespeare — 

Thb is that Tery lUab 
That plats the manes, of horses in the night ; 
And! bakes the'elf-Iocks in foul sluttish hairs. 
Which, once unkmgledt much misfortune bodes. 

Rom. 4- JuU 1. 4 

The word is not locals I believe. 

Tanglesoms, Discontented-~obstinate — ^fret« 
fid — not essentially different from Tankenome, 

Tankersome. Fractious— 411-humoured — fret- 
fill. <*How tankersome yeow dew fare*' — mostly 
to a froward child. 

Tannaps. Turnips. The first a. is sounded 
broad — tahnapg, 

Xantickle. a little fish, otherwise called 
Stickleback and Stand — ^which see. It is the ^as** 
teroiteut acuieatus of Linn* In Scottish ''Ban- 
stickle, the three-spined stickleback." J. 

Tantrums. Affected airs — whims-^maggpts^ 
insolencies— " He*s in his tantrums." Antrunu, 
seems of nearly the same power. This is not per- 
haps a very confined word. In Scottish the same 
is explained ** high airs, from the French tantran, 
nick-nack.*' J* 

Tares. Tears. SeeTRiNKLE. 

Tat. Father. Also Bop, and Doc?— which 
see; and Moral Sot an example of Tat, 

Tat BBS. Potatoes. There are old people now 
living iit my parish of Great Bcaiings, who rec 




lect the time when this commonTOOt was altof^ether 
unknown there. And my Father was, as it is be- 
lieved, the first man who ventured to grow a crop 
of them in a field, in the county of Suffolk. I re- 
collect it ; and think it must have been in the year 
1777 — in a three or four acre field adjoining, or 
near, the hnck-kell at Alderton* The crop was of 
course shipped to London : and we marvelled what 
could be done with such a quantity. 

In an O. D. A; Potatoe is explained " a kind of 
West India root." 

The notion that this excellent root is of a pro- 
vocative tendency — ( Aphrodisiacally) is pretty well 
passed away with its scarcity. In Shakespeare's 
day it was very common, as several of his con- 
temporaries shew — 

Let the aky rain petatoa; let it tbunder to Ae toM of Careen. 

tleeves; hail kissing eomftc^ and toow^enogoeis. let thsiecom^. 
a tempest of provocation* M. W. rf W, ▼. 5. 

Thooe who desire tp seek farther in this ptKiUtt^ 
may consult Nares under Cheen-iletom, and PoUV'. 
toe$^ I will crave leave to note a curious fact» »ot 
unconnected with the increase m the growth of po- 
tatoes. The fsUihers of the living race of men could, 
and can, recolfect when Suffolk inmorted part* of 
the wheat fbi* its cronsumption. Iii Tusser-^a very 
curious worfc^t Is asserted that ** wheat never 
grew" in SiifFolk, which now exports as mueb, 
perhaps,, as any county, in England— 

IriSu'tToIk aganit whertM v^ak'nAer grew, 

Go9^ bqsbaafiry ujed, good wheat iand IJukivh* 

This proverb experience long. ago gav^it ^ 

** That nothing who practiseihi nothing shal\ bave.** p. 53i. 

T*AVE. It has— it have — or, it hath. :Taf is 
our common word for e^-^and. how wruse hwe, is 
shown ua<jef tl^at word. 

Taw\ A rare sort of marble, believed to be 
foreign, with which school boys pl^ay at their favo- 
rite gahie. It 'U sometimes prettily niarked« ov 


spotte4» with a yellowish or reddish tint. An aliey 
is a somewhat different species, being actually 
made of marble^ which the common ones are not. 
A known good alky will be worth 30 or 40 common 
marbles. They are sometimes deeply streaked 
with red, and are then more valuable, and called 
btood'alleys* See Fen. 

Tawbr. I do not give this as a Suffolk word ; 
nor do I think it is — but having, under the article 
Knacker, noted it as a Staffordshire >vord, mean- 
ing probably a worker in leather, J will here observe 
that I have, since that article was written, met some- 
thing confirmatory of that surmise. Tawer and 
Whit'tawer, it appeared, mean a cart collar and 
harness maker ; or a Knacker, as we call him. In 

— ^To tew is to lay hold of, to tnmble about* from the Icdandk 
taC'th carpere laaam-*-^wf» a whip, a Jash» from the Icel. taug, 
lorum. J. 

Here, then, is a satisfactory source of the Staf- 
fordshire tawer, as one who lays hold of, and 
. works up, whit, and other leather. To which may 
be added from Nares — 

To tawe, to beat and diets leather with alum ; a process used 
with wfctte leather instead of bark. Metaphoricall/, to harden, 
or make tough, like white leather*— 

His knuckles knobVdy his flesh deep dinted in. 
With tat(7e<2 hands, and hard ytanned skin; 

Mtrr. foi Mag, Sackv. Ijiditctidn, 

For lie make greatness quake, lie tawe the hide 

Of tbick-skinu'd Hugenes. Marston*s What you Will, 

"Metaphorically," Nares adds **to torment" — 
like the lanam carpere, above. 

Although confessedly out of place, I will add 
.other authorities for this word. 

To tawtK to tan or dress leather. A tawer, or tawyer, one 
that is employed in tanning. To tew-taw hemp, to beat or 
dress it. 0,1), A, 

To tew, or pull or tow; also to work hard. N. country word 

Tawed i beaten. Grose. 

2 o3 


A honeys hide taiotd was bought in 1389* for one du]ting.-*> 
Tawed Is dtesse^ white, with allum, * Tawers oflether^ are men- 
tibned among the artificers in a statute of 23 Edward IIL 

CnUuar$ HitwHead. p. f t0. 

ITawn Y. Of a yellowish, sandy colour — a per- 
.800 tanned by exposure to the sun would be called 
tawney. Hair inclining to reddishness is some- 
times called taumyt as well as gandy. We do not 
say ** an oraige^tawney beard ** — as Shakespeare, 
I believe, does. 

Tawtah. To shake— totter— " 'A fere ta taw- 
tah" — he seems to totter, said of an infirm person » 
Titticumtawta^ the game of see- saw. 

Tesdus. Tiresome— fretful ; said of a crying, 
fractious child. 

Tebn. To tcaze — tire — ^worry. I have noted 
it as used by Shakespeare, in the sense of troMe^ 
griefs but have not marked the passage, unless tt 
be in that admirable scene in Romeo and Juliet, 
where that divine creature (I cannot now cbuse but 
think of one * whose like we ne'er again shaH look 
upon*) is first introduced. Good cM nurse, in a 
punning humour, says — 

111 lay foarteen of ipy teeth— 
And yet to my tcm be it sp^en, I have but foar— 
She is not fourteen— 4* S. 

<* Tetti — sorrow.** Commexloti^r. 

In Cheshire and Lancashire " Teen is anger." W. 
So Ray, among his north country words, *' Teen, 
angry, ah A> 8* Tynan to provoke, stir, anger, 
or enrage. Good or fow teen, Cheshire. Good or 
foul taking." E. W. p. 61. Under the article VTine 
I have fancied some relationship between that word 
and Teen, in a figurative sense. It may bethought 
fanciful. In Scottish, however to " teen or teyne, is 
to vex, to irritate— sorrow, vexation." J. 

I take the following from Nares — 

Teene ; grief, misfortune — from the Saxon. 

Eighty odd years of sorrow have I seen. 

And each hour's joy wrecked with a Week of teen. 

Rich. m. IT I. 


Back to reCurn to that great fairy queen« 

And her to servo six years in warlike wise, 
*Gainst that prOud Paynim king that works her teen, 

Spens. F. Q. I. xir. 11^. 

From that day forth I cast in careful m'md 

To seek her out with4abuur and long tyne. lb, I. ix*. 15. 

Tbbnt. It is not. SeeEfiNT. 

Teeva. Red ochre — the earthy oxyd of iron 
Mrith which sheep are usually marked, called Rud' 
die, in some parts of England. We pronounce the 
word sometimes rhimingtoyever, sometimes to diver* 
The name Ruddle is not much used in Suffolk for 
ochre. We sometimes so call a mixture of ochre 
and pitch or tar« as well as Teeva or Tiver. See 

Tell. Count— reckon—'' Tell ytr money." — 
" Ded yeow tell the ship l '' This was perhaps an 
original sense — though the word he now falling 
into disuse. The' Tellers of the Elxchequer, retain 
the ni^me, though not perhaps the fact or practice. 
We find it too in Shakespeare — 

While one with moderate haste. 
Might tell a hundred. Hamltt, i. t. 

Tale, in the sense of buying or receiving articles 
by the tale, or by counting, instead of by weighing 
or poising, is still in general use. So in Scottish 
" tail or tale, account ; from the Ang. Sax. tel-an, 
to reckon.'' J. Hence a tally, a thing on or by 
which such a reckoning is kept. 

Tempering. To intermix one thing with ano- 
ther, 60 as to render it more suitable to the purpose 
in view. Mortar is tempered by adding more sand 
or water. Clay or earth, in building walls, or 
making brick, is tempered to a due degree by simi- 
lar admixture. Earthy matter when not stiff or 
strong, or clayey, enough for any purpose is said to 
be too tender, and to require tempering. See 
Daabing*-— and Goof, verse 16, and note. *« To 
t^tiper^ to qualify, to mingle." O. D« A* 


Tbmpins. The gaine^ called elsewhere, and 
sometimes by us, nine pins. Why we give it ano- 
ther nvaae-^ten-pins I presume — ^I know not, see- 
ing that we always play the game with nine. See 


Tench. We have a notion very prevalent that 
this fish has a healing quality ; and that the pike 
when wounded, cures itself by rubbing against the 
tench, which is not therefore devoured by this, 
otherwise indiscriminating ** fresh water shark/' — 
Nares shows, from Walton and others that this no- 
tion has been widely entertained. Another is that 
this fish though good plaister is bad nourishment — 
that ** being laid to the soles of the feet they often 
drive away the ague, but are unwholesome food." 
Nares adds that toet are now much more frequently 

Sut into the stomach, than applied externally. We 
ave no prejudices against them that I ever heard 

Ten toes. A conveyance, similar to ihanht* 

Terrify. Flies tormenting horses or kine» are 
said to " terrify em sadly.'* 

Tester. The fixed top and head parts of a 
bedstead. Tester, in the meaning of the head part, 
may have been derived from the old French teste, 
the head, which gave its name to a coin that bore 
such impression, worth about sixpence. Tester 
and tizzy have been cant terms in England for a 
sixpence. See Nares under Testeme. 

Tetchy. Snappish — peevish-Hsomething simi- 
lar to stingy, except that teichy is not applied to 
penuriousness : both are, to angry bees. Tetchy 
is not a local word. See Elvish and Stix^gy. 

It is perhaps touchy : taking fire like touch-wood. 
*' Techy or touchy, apt to find fault with ev€Sfy 
thing." O. D. A. The following is from Naies* 
Glossary — 

Ttehy^ Teachy, or Tetchy^m all which ways it is f^lM in 


sove editions of Shakespeare^ signifies froward» fretfaU easily '' 
offended, like a peevish child. It is probably the same as 
touchy, which is now ased. Bailey *s diet, lias tech, for touch, 
marked as old. In Ck>le*s diet* it is again varied into * titch^ ; 
morosii8» dificilis — to be titchy ; asperb moribus esse.* It is 
clear that they are all of one origin. 

Tetchy and wayward was thy infancy. Rich* III. ir, 4. 

It is again used in -Tro. and Cress, i. 1. ^ 

T^t^yf Tetchy f touchy, peevbh, cross ; apt to be angry. Grose. 

Thahty. Thirty. See Space. 

Tharragonimble. a diarrhoea — used quaint*, 
ly, like the Waoly-wandfles, in Scotland, 

Thbave. a young ewe. I was reminded of 
this word by seeing it among Ray's S. and £• coun- 
try words. See Hog. In Scotland a ewe of two 
years is called a gimmer ; a contemptuous term also 
for a woman. J. I do not think that thtave is so 
very common with us as it is in other parts of Eng- 
land. As hinted under Dam there is no end to 
£nglish names for sheep of different ages and con- 
ditions. Quinter and twirter> 1 have recently met 
with among othars. Of this see something under 

» • • * 

Then. Tfain-^the initials pronomieed the santet 
belog merely a substitution of tlie e for {-—of wbiich 
many instances are given under Akinkd. 

Thennum. That time — " by thennum " — by 
then. *• Dee yeow dew that there job, and by then- 
num I'll be woo ye aginn." ., 

Thew. Thawed. Similar to snew, me^, &Ci 
" Ta blew, an ta snew, and ta thew all atonce«7 
See Ta — and Atonce. 

Thews* Sinews — ^muscle — strength. This word 
b now rarely heard. Shakespeare lises it«» 

* ■ for Romans now 
Have ihtwit and limfaa like. to tkeir ancestors. J* Com. u 5^ 

For nature, does ncV grow alone ' 

la fWioct and bulk. HmUtA.^h 


The word is used again by FaJstaff in the 2 Hen. 4. 

** T%ewes** saith Steevens "is an old obsolete 
word, implying nerves dr muscular strength.*' 

If now heard in Suffolk it is more confined to the 
draught part of harness, than to living muscle. — 
Nares most amply illustrates it : but I have said 
enough on a word of doubtful locality. 

Thicks. Groves or woods, with close under- 
wood — ^thickets. Ufford thicks, is a well known 
game preserve near Wood bridge. We never, I think 
use the word in the singular, as Spenser does in this, 
passage quoted by Nares — 

Which when the warrior heard, dismotinting straight 
From his tali steed he rosht into the thick. F. Q* Ih i. 39. 

Ko other service, satjr, but thj watch 
About these thicks^ lest harmless people catch 
Mbchief orsad mischance. FU Fakhf, Shep» y. 1. 

Spenser has it in other places. It is common with 
Drayton too : — 

And through the cumbrous thiclts as fearfully he makes^ 
He with his branched head the tender sapplings shakes. 

Pot^olb. xiii. p. 917. 

Thief in the candle. A defective wick, 
which not being equably consitmed, causes .the can* 
die to gutter and waste. A coming ieiter is foralold 
by a projecting spark on the snasie. See Sn astb* I 
do not note these so much in the idea of their being 
local notions, as to show their spread. 

Thill. I am not sure that we now have this 
word in use unconnectedly. It formerly appears 
to have meant " The thili, the beam or draught- 
tree of a cart — ^hence thiUer or thill-horse, the 
horse that is put under the thilL^' O. D. A. Thil- 
ler and Thill horse, are common in Suffolk; where 
thin-bells, is that chain part of the thill-hane's 
harness which, fixed on the seel br wooden fore- 
part of the collar, hooka on the tugs of the shafts. 
We commonly call them fiU-heUs. 

*' Tkilkr'' savsCocker, '< the horse that is near 



the thiUs or forerpart of the cart/' We call him 
also the^//er ; or, as we are disposed to pronounce 
it, feila — which sec — the horse which remains in 
the shafts or thills, while the cart is being fiird, or 
felVd. Every body recollects poor old Gobbo*s 
thill-horse — 

_. WonhtppM might he be ! — What a beard hast thou got ! 
Thou hast more hair on thy chin, than Dobbin, my tkiU-honef 
has on his tail. M. rfVen, ii. 1, 

Dobbin is still a favorite cart-horse name in Suf- 
folk. See Hkit, for other names of the present^ 
and of Chaucer's, day. 

Thill-bells. See Thill. 

Thilleb: See Thill. 

Thill-horse. See Thill. 

ThinK'SHAms. a compound used in this sense 
" I should think-sbame to 'a done so** — i. e. have 
felt, or feel shame. So in Scottish " to think^shame, 
to feel abashed, to have a sense of shame."' J* 

Thinskinnd. Land with a thin superstratum 
of good soil, is expressively so called. See Rorz* 


Thirteen. An unlucky number to make one 
of at dinner. Even now some persons not otherwise 
remarkable for deficiency of intellect, if they do 
not actually decline making one of this unlucky 
dozen, or request one of the youngest to sit at a 
side-table (as I have known done) do not make so 
comfortable a meal as among a less inauspicious 
number. This superstitious feeling is I believe, or 
rather has been, pretty extensive m England ; and 
perhaps beyond it. It may have arisen from the 
last sad supper of the twelve and our Saviour* 

Like spilling the salt, eating with twelve has 
been inauspicious since the days of Leonardo da 
Vinci — See under Spilling — where thirteen, or 
the baker's, or deiVs dozen is noticed. Our notion 


ig that one 6f the thirteen so indiscreetly partaking, 
will die ere the year be out. 

Thow. Rhyming to mow. Thaw. See Thkw. 
" Ta thow," it thaws. See Ta. In Scottish " lo 
thow, to thaw." J. 

Thowl. The elevations in the gunnel of a boat 
to receive the oars of the rowers : sometimes fixtures, 
sometimes shiftable pegs. In Scottish '^ Thowel, 
the nitch or hollow in which the oar of a boat acts — 
Ang. Sax. tkok" J. " Th^ thowls, in a boat; the 
wooden pins between which the rowers put their oars 
when they row." O. D, A. 

Thowts. The seats of rowers in a boat — Che 
thwarts perhaps; or what go across. " The thoughts 
— ^the seats of rowers in a boat." O. D, A. 

Thrbading the tailor's needle. One of 
our juvenile games — for a list, although an imper- 
ftct one, see under Move all. 

Thredegal. Unsettled, as a]>p1ied to weather 
—-and I never heard the word applied to any thing 
else. 1 lately heard this speech. •' The weather 
fare ta look thredegal, and the clumps of the even- 
iag are coming on." I am not a sufficient linguist 
to trace this strangely sounding word to any pro* 
babie source : and i never saw it — or one like it* 

Three-blue-bbans. See Beans. 

Three cocked hat. A cocked hat — a name 
seldom heard ; and a ridiculous thing now, luckilyi 
seldom seen, among us. 

Three jolly butchers. A juvenile sport. 
See Moveall. 

Three shear. A sheep of two or three years, 
liaviag been thrice shorn. See Dans. 

Three square. Triangular — like a bayonet or 
«mall sword blade. Four Sjrteare-^clie-shaped ; a 
cube. Sc*e Four square. 


Threwahthrew. Through and throi^h. See 

TiL&iD. Thyead. ** What can't y«ow thrid yar 
fieedle?'' See Tout. 

TiuaiFT. The ioeteiMurf (dandri^f) w theskia 
'«f an Ul-grooBied horse. 

Tbrxf. a jsuaiit ctif^uig ; alrohe. Of -^ucfa ^mtt 
ArNT.-^*' 'A^goBtem a thnp^umier the ^hort iHm.'' 
In Cheshire « thrippa, to beat." W. In the JSc^t* 
tkh and- northern dialects, to tkrepe, . seems, to ineaa 
to chide or censure, or rehuke. Kay and Nares 
deriTe it fi'om 4he Saxon. .\Ray has 'Mil thii^^pa 
thee— ril beat thee. CheMr^y p. 62* 

TiUio»H. Thresh— -or beat* ** A right ^cod 
throshio/' a hearty beating. The variety of. nanus 
for this offensive manipulation seems to imply a 
propensity in us East Anglians to pugnacity. Sect 
binder Aint. 

Throstle. The thrush — as in Scottish, and in 
other ancient poetry. It is so nice a word that il 
inll be doubtless ere long restored to our rural po- 
ntics. The musical Thomas of Ercildoune (as eited 
in Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk/II. 918. for I 
-irnve liot read his poems) seems ta apply Uuspnetty 
iROMwl to«ome other bbd— - 

I saw the ihrmttfl and tbe jay. 
The mavis moved of her sange^ 
'The ivoodwale sang notes gaj» 
That 4f n the -^'ood about range, 

' jicmek calW the thrush by ili& Barnes «f Thxastie 
•and MaTis. -We apply liMmcortMly to the Twdus 

I borrow the following from Nares — 
- Tkrmtk. A 4bnisb; {iropcrly the missel-tfarwh^ but •ftcn 
.^osed with latitude for any of the, genus. 

The tkrestle with his note so true} 

The wren with little qoill. Mid, N. Br. m. 1. 
Ifa-li&rsifleiMig, hefftlt^strafght a eapering« (Af,^^. u>S, 
WknttU'Cock* The male thrvsh. 

The thr^ttU^ccek, bj breaking of the day^ 
Chavots to hit iweet full many a lovely faey* 

Bnt, Skep; Cwi- 



. • • »• 

The onsel and the throstk'Cockf chief muaicke of oar Maye. Ih* 
These Dames, Nares adds, are still current in some counties. 

This, with what is offered under Mavis, may 
suffice of this beautiliil and interesting bird. I 
sometimes cannot help wishing that they, and their 
oo-operatives the owsel, did not spoil so many of 
my cherries; but they make ample atonement in 
what Drayton justly deaotes '* full many a lovely 

Throush6t. The hole of a rabbit under 
ground through a bank. It is an expressive word, 
where the animal has shot through It is also ap- 
plied to a spendthrift — *' a through-shot sort of a 
fellow.'* The path of a hare, is called Smeuse, or 
Mewse, See Mewse. 

Thrower. A sort of knife used for cleaving 
lath or hurdle stuff. It appears to have been form- 
erly called grower. See under Goof, verse 8, and 

Thrum. To beat — ^not common. ** To thrum 
one, to beat or bang him." O. X>. A. Of such 
words se^ Aint. 

Thumbstai.l. a covering for a cut thumb <Mr 
finger — called also Cot and Hudkin. See under 

Thumping. Or as we commonly pronounce it, 
ihumpen. Large — heavy — " a thumpen boy*'— of a 
newly born infant. Lumpen is about equivalent. — 
This class of words I suppose not to be very con- 
fined in their usage. " That^s a thumper " — a pal* 
pable lie. 

Thunder pipe — Thunder-bolt — Thunder-pic — 
or Thunder stone, Lithic Cylinders, or frustra of 
cones, two or three inches long, and about the 
thickness of a black lead pencil, are so called ; and 
are picked up and looked on with some reverence, 
among us. The true sort are straight, and are, 1 
believei classed by naturalists among the Brontuie, 


or Bdemnitei. But generally, most small stones 
of a cylindrical form, are called by one of these 
names. We fancy some of them mil in thunder 
storms — and I am not sure that we are altogether 
in error. Some of them may possibly be aerolites. 
The persuasion — I had written superstition, but 
crossed it out — is old and perhaps extensive. — 
Shakespeare has the word and feeling as in Suf- 

IOIk — Fear no raore the Iightning-fiash 
^ . N"or the all-dreaded thundentone. Cymheline. it. 1. 
^ I hhve bared my bosom to the thundentont, JvL C<twr. i. t, 

' Thuss«KS. In this manner— thus— " Yeow 
inust dew it thussens^^^Wke Sooins — in that man- 
ner. In Cheshire '* TkWn, in this way. TTuifn-^ 
a thafn, in that manner." W. 

Thwack. To beat — as noticed with divers 
other similar words under A int. This is not local 
perhaps nor modem—" To thwack, or bang one*s 
sides lustily.*' O, JD. A. ^ 

Tib or Tibby. A calf— appellations of endear- 
ment. Grose has ** Tib, a young lass — Tibhy, a 
cat*' — but I do not think we nave. 

Tidy. Considerable — much — "A good tidy bit** 
a largish piece. ^'Oood tidily.*' "Tha's a good 
tidy dag this morning.'^ See Dag. Also, as in 
other parts, cleanly, neat. In the quotation below 
from Tusser, he seems to use the word in reference 
to quantity — tho' his commentator says "tidy means 
neat, proper, and in season/' With us a tidy, is 
a little bag for receiving odds and ends of thread, 
silk, bit^ of doth, &c. of female work, which 
would otherwise be left littering about in an untidy 
manner. In Scottish tydy, means neat — as wdl as 
in season. J. " Tidy, handily, cleanly, neat."— 
O. D.A. 

If weather be fair, and if tidy thy graini 
Make speedily carriage, for fear of a rain; 
For tempests and showers deeeiveth a vany^ 
And lingering lubbers lose many a penny, p. 186. 

' TiFP, An angry fit or mood — " 'A fare ta be in 



a tifF.'' Tf^means aka a sup, or as. we shooid^caS 
it, a ioop, of drink : especially, I ddnrk of pmreh; 
** A tiff *a poonch." In the first sense I'havelieaTd^ 
miff-^hut tiff is more common. Ih tlie second! 
sense, or nearly, of drink, Nares gives a quotation 
from Bishop Corbet — 

And as the conduib ttat 
WS#h clafetat Uie.coroiiAtfbDy 
So let your channels flow with single tiff. 

It did not then mean. puach> but the poQUr small 
single-beer for which the first college ia CUioKd is* 
and has£}r ceatimes^been, so lamentably eontrasilbed 
with itsrival at Cambridge^. ifl,r«spect to its hum«> 
miiftg audit, and othes, (Uiubl^ X., 

Tight. Well— hearty— '* kaenda tighti«h"~ 
ysetty bearfy-^*' puisly tiglit ''^-mtich ameBded* 

TidMSR. AmacUiieiaaceUii^ wQdg^foB«fld> 
lor being intcsppsed betwieen-a eaek aadr the waU 
behind it, to Old, or tili it up. The aitide it 
called Tilder, and the operation to tiU4 or tiUm 

TiLSSu ARDfc Prooottnoed geuera^ THeslmdr-m 
A broken piece of tite«<4ik£ P^tsiadf whiek sec, 
•adr SuABD* 

I TiLLEB. The haadten ^ wooden {met, of a fiurm 
ahovel, «r -skuf^oi^ or spade^ oc skajfoL U d«e« 
not occur that, dbe waid ia applied to the hmd.iU^ 
of a&y other implement. Aa noticed under BofS* 
ttojfyt^ have s^pmpriate names Ion ahnost every 
variety of tooV-bandle-~-see that word^^and uader 
JEf(^^«/t?^^^ai^--S^ji|ia--aAd Ski^d, for 
^ekr specific application. We have two sorts of 
3Y^28rs-*->a skuppet and ^haffi^l have d^ Jcqt^iMedc teur 
nanted on the top for a haadle^^T*-*'^ spade an. e^ 
tiUer — Y — of oae piece, filter ia abo expceasivCy aa 
a verb, of the process of germination in respect to 
spindlingy or the upreasing of the apiiidlA or sheath 
of grain. Sec SnN»LB%. In this semie it la occa- 
sionally heard apptted to the shooting u.p of trees. 
In thinning lyoods, the young standi oi stadOl^jae 
left to rtlfer— to grow taitt 


NareSy under Tiller, notices this last sense, as 
mentioned by Theobald — " of a stand ; a small tree 
left in a wood for growth, till it is fellable." This 
sense, Nares adds, is found in Evelyn on Forest 
Trees — and he refers to Todd s Johnson. OfStaddle 
and Stand see under those words in this Collection. 

Ray, among his S. and £. country words, has 
" Snatke, the handle of a sithe." E. W. p. 86. I 
never heard it. The scythe handle we call scythe- 
stick ; and seldom or never give it either of the 
above specific names. 

The tiller of a boat or ship's rudder, is the com- 
mon nautical name for that important article. — 
There may be some relationship between it, and 
Qur word. 

Tilt. To lift up a little one side, or end, of 
any thing — a cask, &c. I have used the word un- 
der Stry. Tild, is a similar verb — and . Tilder, 
which see, is an article to tilt or tild withal. 

TiLTER. Un3er the article Kilter, I have rc- 
'ferred to this. I was not quite certain of the pre- 
cise meaning of the latter word ; nor am I now, 
though I have made farther enquiry. Some plough- 
men have affirmed that tilter, describes a particular 
mode of ploughing out of the ordinary line of draught. 
Tilt, and tild, which see, have meanings not very 
remote — as being out of the usual level — b«t they* 
are not applied to a plow. 

TiMBERSOME or TiMMERsoME. Timid— tim- 
orous. The latter is Scottish. 
• TiMMY. To me. Sec Nettled. 

Tine. The prong of a fork — " A tew- tined fork*' 
— " A three-tined fork." In the sense of furcated, 
ft is also a Scottish word — ** a buck with ten-tyned 
branches " occurs in the T. of my L. 'Srd Ser: I. 80. 
And again, by the same writer, in an English dia- 
logue of the age of the Crusades — •'. 

Usgag the glove on the tine of yonder branched antlers. 

Ivanhoe, II. 34^« 



I nerer fieard it used in SttflroHi in any Q^ier way 
than as applied to a fork, and to the teeth of har^ 
rows. It rhimes to mine. Teen is a different word, 
which see, ahd is never a pron^ — thengh m en^ 
sense some relationship may he Hkcemed. Of a 
nan who leads what Shakespeare calls *' a frampold 
life/' with a jealous or termagant vnift, h will he 
Baid that ** 'a fare like a toad under a harrow/' Of 
frampoid, see under Frxjmp. In Scottish '* tynd 
Is a narrow tooth, from the ancient Swedish Hfine, 
the same ; or any thing sharp Hke a tooth.'' J. 

TiNEY. little— this is old and not local — from 
Tenuis, perhaps. Thus Shakespeare-*— 

"When I was a little tiney boy. Lear, 

Tip-top. The very top — or topmost. *' B#'s a 
tip top fellow" — means a very hearty jovial soul; — 
ever in tip-top .spirits. 

Tit. a hofsf , ^r rather, I belii^ye^ a ponty, or 
small horte. It is also extended to a nice smart 
jirl. Neither sense Is perhaps very local: or tittup^ 
a hand-gallop, or canter. 

TiTEUMUP. Put in order. *' I dated em up a Ijtr 
tie," would he said by a maid servant, having p«t 
things in order in a deranged drawer; or having 
hrushed up a room ; or fnrepared children for an 
ailing or ^r eshihition. It is derived perhaps ^tom 
tidy — cleanly — neat — ord^y in apipearaisice. Sise 

Tit- FAGGOTS. Small short fia^gotsibr kindling 
— " What de yeow ax for them there tits ? " Kit, 
according to Bailey, is a north country word £6r a 
small brush faggot. And according to Ray Kid is 
the word — *' a small faggot of underwood or brusti- 
wood.'* E. W. p. 39. 

Tits. . See Tit-faggots. A quaint term ahi#^ 
■ for horses. 

TiTTLB. Tickle^ ** 'A tittled me tM dead 


TMVLi m 9AWGY. Tke prdty Iktle Wanrt*! 
ease. FtiJa irieaior. 

. TiTTYKUMTAWTAH. The game of s^e-saw-r-ou 
a pl^nkj, i^upported on its center. Children while 
^Pyin£ this recreation, h^ve a song of appropri* 
ate cadence-r-vthe hi^rfien of which i^ — 

Titty-kua)-t9wtah^ — the (lucks \a the water, 
Tittykumtahtah the geese follow aater. 

Titty -.WREN, Thp interesting littlp bird that 
we looh on lyith reverential affectioq. It is protected 
l^j Ihis old traditional verse — 

QHik IMnin »n^ Titty rwreft—Ar^ t^e Alpjighly's cQpk and l>c% 

ft^in B^bre9^l 9iid Jeimy Wirepi «iFe other mmffk 

f^l ^^r £i}gl{u)4 i^rh9f s, fpr tb^e pc«t|y bM«f 

Of lhj# M§ ^oiiflWBg "Oder PfPKir-iAHp, f9 
8«»itAod the wr«n is ^WeA JCitty wf^l^-r-SK^Qtber g|r 
i4#fi^ of t)H appliyn^e of Christiafi pai^a t» bjlr4% 
as noted in the article just referred to. . 

TivER. TivA— Tl EVER— Teevbr— rhyming 
nearly to diver aud/er^r; red o.chre. See Teeva. 

To. Closenr-^hnt — in this sense — 'Ms the door 
tor— t.e. is it ^htttt «' Put the door to/' So 
** put the horses to "-^implies to the carriaige — or 
** you may put to." Thu^ in Scottish — " To— shut. 
T^e door is tuerr-from the W^}c toe^ Id. De duur 
is foe:' J. 

Toad in a hoie. An imiavitiog same of a 
very good thing-r^beef<^teaks baked in batter, with 
pepper and salt. A dish and name not very confined 
perhaps in its spread. 

Toad's-cap. The f^ingi which grow so nume- 
rously in n^eadows, o^ over the roob of trees, I 
know of no other naiaes for the varieties of this 
genus, but Toad's-cap, or Toad's-^^e, or Toad*s-stool, 
and Muskerune, The Scotch call this spedes of 
Agaricus, Paddoek'Stool, of whioh see under Pai><- 
fk>€K. *^ Toad's'Stoel, a kind of mushroom.''' 
O. D. A. Of Toad'S'spit, see under Snasupit. 


' Tol». The chump-end of a tree, eilher tffkwnbff 
for firing, or growing. See Chump, Such ^awn 
tods may be either top or root ends^ But the word 
is oftenest heard— or at any rate read of — connected 
with its frequent ivy decoration, and as the abode 
of the bird of wisdom. So common indeed is this 
combination that the name of the tod itself is given 
to the ivy ; or we have transferred the aame of the 
tuf^ to the chiimp. 

No rural poet ever existed in England who did 
not introduce this interesting bird into his efiiisions. 
Nothing can be '' most musical, most melancholy,** 
without it. Its beautiful abode is also well suited 
to the eye and language of rustic bards. Many 
pages might be extracted in illostrl^tion and proof 
of this — but such licence is out of the present ques- 
tion. The reader will not, perhaps, be displeased 
with two or three. I select them from Nares' 
Glossary- — 

There valiant and approved men of Biitain 
Like boding owls, creep into tods of ivy. 
And hoot their fears to one another nightly. 

B. 4* FL BmtiuccA, I 1. 
Mkhael Van Owie, hew dost thou? 
In what dark barn, or tod of aged iry. 
Hast then ly en hid? J6. Rule a Wife, iv. 3. 

The bat then served the owlc 

That in her ted did stand. Warn, Atb, Eng. vii. ^7. 

your ladyship Dame Owle, 

Did call me to your tori.. lb, 183. 

then forth she yodo • 
Ottl of the covert of an iwf tod, Brotone, Brit, Past. i. 4. 

Mr. Weber in the English PoetSf quotes the following lines at 
still popular j but I never met with them elsewhere : 
How Cain in the land of Nod, 
». ' • When the rascal was all alone> 

like an owl in an eti^ tod. 
Built a city as big as Roan. II. 495. 

The last quotation I believe is |>art of a blasphe* 
mous ballad; which I shall make no more direct 
Reference or allusion to^-^save that it begins with 
the. word £e% Jan. 


Toddle. To walk unsteadily— as a childfi earlj 
attempts. The same in Scottish. 

TQM90Y. A h<Mdeo — a riMnping girl» moce diai^ 
p(94«fl to boy's play than to tbeamusameots b«fittin§ 

%>MMY>-<oi^ IhMe^Tami nvliid^ sco^a doiibls 
breasted plough. 

TbM Tickler's ground. A juvenibe sporty 

Ste AtbVEALL. 

Tom toe. The grea^ toe of eithtf foot. 

13aN«(UB& Small 8oles»*HiQiek as^ thou^ iatr 
cwMffijmlAy tlie beat, are«i^ke ciingled caniato^- 
unfit fev* tile Loodoa markets See Lunnu N.Niaia» 
In the western parts of India, the sole isiCaUtd thil 
Umm0\fiA.t J^^^afactc%-^«/i^ being the tongue; 
apa the sail so. called by us, is th^eire ti^e to^m 
9nit- The fish, and the sail so. caUed arq doubtleaf 
fijom the shape: It i& a son^ewhat curvous coincl* 
d^Q^ce a& to the f>sh., Aod farther, Wi^ hai^e thp 
word J£6, lA thiQ semie of ion^ue^-^*' Uold y^xjib!* 
bi}t this may be only a softening of gtdf—oT a re* 
lilMement on jib^, or jahber, or gibbtrisk. See G^B, 

Toon or Tone, Rhiming to spoon. Too — also— 
likewi^q^ It isj fiarther, equivalent to — tm^-^ox the 
wm\ in contradistinction to tM other. T* one awl 
fqther^ occur? a hundred times in Tusser. 

**- Ah — I know butta than that toon *' — in the iirst 
sense — in the letter, take the following illustratknui 
from Nares — 

And that v«th fiirce, withoonniagt nor with p^io^t 
Tke tmte of tbeiB oould make the other yield. 

Um. Axwi» i. ^ 
So was Licaon made a woolfe ; and Jove became a boU, 
Jk9 tm^ ^ W^g ^raeilie^ the u^er for. 14s truU, 

Qoddhig's (h^ Pr^. 

It| f^^QQent corre^tiv^ Nares ^dd?, is tfithevf a wo(d of n- 
nilar origin — a contraptb)ii« It is stttl in use. 

We say '^nutha tone nor tofAer-^equivalent to 
NaMher a hoih^ whieh see. 



•Toot. Total— the whole — '* the whole tool on 
em." It is, 110 doabt^ an abbreviation of totaL 
Thus the total of expences of the splendid marriage 
between Lord Darcy and Mary Kytson, of the Hen- 
grave family, in 1583, is thus given in Gage's Hen- 
grave. " Sora. tot. of the whole charges of my 
dauter Mary's apparell and jewelis against her mar- 
riage, vjc. Ixij/i. vj«. xjd.*' p. 214. 

In a like sense ' we say '* the whole kit oa em." 
6ee Kit. And we have a rather curious wo^d ja 
this meaning — *' the whole bilen on em.'" — I have 
omitted this latter word in its place. * It is mostly 
used in a disparaging sense. May it be from boiUng ? 
— which we pronounce hUen : i, e. as much (of gocid) 
as could be extracted were such folks or things even 
boiled or distilled. 

Top LATCH. The thong which passes tliroogb 
holes in the seel of a horse's collar, and serves to 
fasten it; or to loqsen or tighten it, as may be ne« 
cessary. It is also the rising and falling latch whicfa^ 
catching the moveable part of the cow-hauk, con^ 
fines her when being milked. See Bavk. 

/• Topple. To tumble over — to fall down. A dc^ 
cesised Suffolk poet has a verse to this effect — 

Thus thea I muse, and castles build in air ; . • 
And when they topple down let fancy them repair* 

A crested hen we call toppie-crowned* 
I find this word in a quotation in Nares, descrip- 
tive of the old English game of Quintaincj from 
Laneham's letter from Kennilworth — 

The specialty of Ifae sport waz to see ; bow sum for hut slack- 
ness bad a good bob with the bag, and sum for bis haste too 
ti^pl dooun right, and cum tumbling to the post, &c. &c. 

KeniuL lUustr, 4to. p. 19. 

Bob is now used in Suffolk in a like sense of a 
sharp thump. See Bob. 

In Nares we find to topple, farther illustrated^ as 
a neutral and active verb, from Shakespeare — , 

Though castles toppU on t)ieir warden^ heads, MaGk,if*l* 


And tcfppla dowti 

Steeples and moss-grown towers. 1 Hen. IV. UL 1. 

TOPPLE-CROWN. Any of the feathered race 
Lavlog plumed heads we call topple*crowned, A ben, 
the peacock, the peewit, &c. In Nares we find 
eopph'Crown as the same word — ' 

And wha^s tKeir feather ? ■ * ■ 

Like the copplc' crown 

The lap-wing has. Uandoljph. Amynt. ii. 3. 

O sweet lady-birds t 
With tifpple-crovms, and wings but on one side. Ibid, 

Id Scottish Tappit-hen, is a crested hen. J. 

ToPSiTivvY. Topsiturvy. In Scottish Tapsal- 
teej'ie, is the same. J. 

Tosh. A tooth/ so large or projecting as to be 
unseemly. — Tusk and Tush are probably thie same 
words ; affording another instance of the change of 
initial and iinal sounds in such words; as noticed 
under Perk. 

To't. To it — not local. I give it <Jaiefly, 1 sus- 
pect, for the sake of introducing the following little 
madrigal — original, as I believe — 


When on't I plah — an to*t I sing, 
I makes the woods and w alleys ring-^ 
An folk dew sah — though yeovr ma smile— 
Ta mah be hard amost a mile. 

Although I heard and saw this niorceau in Suffolk, 
and in Suffolk only, I cannot say how far we may 
claim the exclusive merit of the composition. 

ToTTY. Little — also Tot and Doddy — fondling 
appellations to young children. !u Scottish ** Tot, 
a fondling designation for a child.'^ J. 

Touch wood and whistle. A boy having 
been guilty of a certain indelicacy, subjects himself 
to be pinched by his offended compeers, till he do 
what is noted. This, under such an operation — ^not 
.very aDgrily, though smartly Inflictedr-is not an 


easy matter. AlvtMMt^icliiMb4i-M 'Mouch bone and 
wShtle?' fou^ching tt'toeth ivi('aii9we^ in this case. 

TotJT. Sec TdwT, 

^OWAKB. Tractabic— well-dhp<j$€id— «€«tly — 
)R 'yoUttg person— or a facrrse. See Oi^nxfWAtCJi. 
We also use the word Orhyming fn afl eases to eo<(r- 
ard) for <AtV'«vsrnrari/^to'tM0MM4B>4he sense of 
this line of Shake^ai^s — 

Here*s a noble ieaet tovMrd^ Ttm. rfA. iii. 6. 

'91iat is^appfOBtebiag^-^eMiiiBg. 'We inrvie^lso hi* 
ihert&ward for biiherto— See Hath ATA^A»r-^nd 
Ward. Id a quotation from Shakespeare under 
"^Ctip, to bed-ward occurs. 

Towel. A cudgel — generally with the prefix of 
vaken. To be rubbed down by such a thing is a 
^mre more to be approved for its quaintness tbin 
admired for its application. 'Something of this is 
noted under Wipe. 


pwiLY. A towel. A small ^'ter-dinner glass nap* 
kin is called, peitaps extensit^ely, IM/y— and Isap^ 
pose all these words, and T^/^ff^, probably, -^re're* 
lated, though I may not belble'totrace the parentage. 

TowT or Torr — rhyming to pifut. Cotton or 
silk thread, when not ipleasaut to work withal, from 
short ends sticking out, oralJiMndliiieakiBg, is said to 
tmtit or to be tcuiy^ or to /wot, orto befiuKjf, — 
" CoBsim this here thrid ; how ta iouL^* 

Taut is a Scottish word ; but not, I believe, ascd 
in this way. It occurs under Sunket, in the melo- 
^Aious and not confined sense, I t>elieve, of the iooi* 
nioaing of a horn. 

In Jameison, however, I have more recentilyfaH 
€Mithis approxim^ktion — ''To^eii;^, tepiitin4isoider, 
to teaae, to vex." 

Frmkf Fttuy^ and Raiik — wbkh see — are terms 
nearly a-'kin to towt* 

TOW2LC. To puU ^one- ^liiMi^'^sfiedUlly a 'fc- 


teAle^ilidt^orottiAx. *' IVKy iant ton^xU me tc>*-'* 
It nttker reftrs to dearanging tfae clothed, &c. fn 
fl^^ttHsfa '* to foiitfe, to put into disorder; to yum- 
jffit-^tbvDziup, disordered, dishevelled — touzh, rough 
daUhoiee/' J. " To tawze, to tug or pull about, to 
Mtnipl^^to towze tPooU to card or dress It/' O. 
'jD; ii. Shakespeare has toze; explained by the 
twmme&tators to mean break in pieces — ^but our 
word stops short of that. 

TmVFPlc, -The traa»it of carriages^ or travtUei^, 
oyer a road. ** A deal Qt tragit pass this wah^'^-^^ 
without reference to trade ; aUhougli, no doubt, an 
idea of bu$inm originated the term. So trv4:k is 
used in a like sense; banded down to uk perba|>8» 
trom the liwes when by trafiCf truck, or barter, 
Biostof our wares changed hands; instead of by the 
universal cash payments of the present day. 

Thai LINO B«sr. A donation to Iabodt«t$^—df 
money usually — dating, or before, hay harvest, by 
any. one who may hav« passed, or be pasting, over 
tba growing grass ; as it makes the crop in that* part 
more difficult to mow. It is commonly asked and 
given in reference to the desired preservation of 
such partridge's nests as may be met with, scythe in 

Tram. Horses ar6 said to be " on the. tram/ 
when at work. It is mostly used to express a long 
day^s work. ^ Tbah ha' bin on the tram ever sin 
6 o'clock." This may be from Tramp, or Tramimeh 
"Bee under those words. 

Trammel. A sort of hook, moiv^bie up ~wid 
down, on a perpendicular plate or bar of iron, in 
ci>ttftge and farm house chimnies, fbr hanging a pot 
or the kettle on; over the fire. But in this meaning 
of the word sufficient is glveii under the article 
Ci^ck^ ^hich see. I will^ however, Just add from 
<«n C D. A; *' Tmrnm^ly a chimney irOh to hang 


III the srase of being coofined or shackled, the 
word is used by writers and speakers of early day^r 
and distant counties, as well as of the present daj. 
And we abbreviate and extend it to a horse being 
in his harness or at work, thus '' *AVe been on th' 
tram all day*^ — or this may rather be from-^amp 
n more common word. We sometimes say *' in tbs 
trave** or ** in the traves,^ instead of on the troM. 
See Tram— Tramp— and Trat£« 

The following quotation from I^ares, wilLbe 
Ibnnd applicable to our present article, as well as 
to another in this Collection — 

The mode of trammelUng a horse to teach htm to amblcb ii 
exactly described in G. Markhani'** Way to WeaUh. p. 48* tho 
«nio<iiit of which is this; that having strong pieces of gtrt web» 
•nd proper straps and buckles* yoa are to fasten them» *' One to 
)bis neer fore-leg, and his neer binder*!^ the other to hb farre 
fore-leg and his farre liinder-lega which is called among horsck 
inen trameUng : with these yea shall let him walk in some piece 
■ of ground* till he can so perfectly go in the same, that wheh at 
any time you offer to chace him« you may see him amble swiM/ 
and tmly : — then yon shall take him back and ride him with the 
tame trammeb^ at least three or foore times a day» Mil yon find 
he is so perfect* that no way can be so rough and vneTcii as to 
compel him to alter his stroke or to go unnimbly.'* 

This he says is the only certain and true way to make a horse 
amble, though maiay others are pretended. CL 

It is probable that Markhani u right as to this 
bein|^ the best mode of teaching that pace : for- as 
well as being in extensive practice in England* I 
have seen it in common and effective use among an 
equestrian people at our antipodes. • 

We have several modes of trammelling horses for 
other purposes — some of which are cdled Yang^ 
Hng. See Yangle. 

Tramp. On foot — walking. " On the trarop*'-^- 
seeking employment. A word and custom now be* 
come too common in our late iudustiious county; 
Trate, Tram, and Trammel, seem to bear relation- 
ship to this word. Tramper is an evident derivative^ 
^or one on the tramp. I was disposed to think 'tiiat 


Thntier, meatiiiig a pedlar, or kidJier, was a mere 
variation of tbe other — but am instructed by Nares^ 
that it is ft dififerent word ; though not altogether 
dissimilar in meaning. In addition to what is ob - 
served under Rip, I may note that Grose has 
" Crockers — forestalleis ; called also kidderi and 
itanter$" I suspect crocktt* to be an itinerant ven- 
der of crockery — not a forestalter. Grose of Kidder 
says *' a forestaller — also a person employed by tbe 
gwdenera to gather pease.*' Probably because thev 
carried them away in kids, or peds. ' But of tbw 
matter I have said enough, if not more than enough^ 
tttuhr Kiddier, and artictea thence refened to< 

TftANT. See Tramp. 

. Tr ATTLE8— or 7r*o<^/<f . The globuI;[ir excremeit-T 
titious droppings of sheep. The following are the 
only similar words that I have met with — ** lirdfes^ 
or treadles, or treddles, the dung of a sheep. 
Dreitlea, the dung of a rabbet or coney.'' 0» D4A^ 

Travb* Horses ham^sed ready for work, are 
Mud to be. *« in the trave''-— or, ** in.the travee"-^at 
iprork, *«oo the tram.*' See Tram. Trasit oemn ka 
thai very pretty piece of topography, Cuiium^ Hkm 
jtMtf, p,.l42.. in a description of a gentleman's 
house in Suffolk, written in 1581. It seems to 
flaean.a place for exercising horses. It is added that 
** TVates; as the dictionaries say, are asort of shackles 
for a horse that is taught to amUe or pace." These 
we call Trammel and Yangie^ See those words. 

In Rees'CyclopcBdiait is said, under Trove, that it 
is " the same with ferriers as Travke." See Trav<- 
Yis. '^A IVoae or Travim, an engine or enclosure 
to shoe an unruly horM in." O* D.A. 

Travyis. The shoeing anti-room of a farrierV 
shop. It is not local. See under Travice in Rees* 
Cyc, It b, however, not there used in theSufiolk 
sense ; but is described as the. small . wooden en- 
dosytre, seen mi$Ue blacksauths' shops {oir con* 



fioiog mmdj luMnet while muleryoiiig tbe ^raemikiv 
of beiog sbped. to «oiiie remote parte of .Knfhiaj> 
it h Midy this is called a break ; aad ia ]l?r»cb lra*> 
vait. With ttSp as ia Loadon, a bndcis a ^lifoeiil 
thing : a^i^ the place described ia Rees* we isali 

The word trmss is used in Scotland appamntly 
^f ia Suffolk, or ia one nearly connected with, 
horses. SeeT.o/mifL. 2d $. Hi. g. Under J^em, 
Trmmmet, Tramp, and Trave, aoMethjag fiistblK. 
may be sought hereon* 

TftAVTH. A trough of any ioi|« 

Trbb. a sbaight tflont pieee ai woed^ M.wiMi' 
the carcases of slaughtered beasts ate bwag, smpeaded 
by the sinews of thei|r .hind legs» extended to. the 
ends ct the ttte, A shorter crdoked article for 
ehcsep, caites, ^c. is called a Sucker. Sometiffieft 
Uns lutter is of iron ; and it is then a Camhtd. Set 
under thos« words. Prom the latter, refereuct is 
made to this. I have nothiog fi^et to atkt oa 
ttiis matter. 

'SitmBtmocmn. Unier- the mMa BamMiki ^ 
ka«a aolieM itas itiiaiae of the 8o laa % 90 at mt 
aadet 8hdl*Smhi riMntkn ii ttada of <il|e gaii i^ i i 
lEOgeUilive origin thathaii bfW ettansii^a^ ailigiiafr 
ta this M>iik>us csambioatioii.. The tAna ol Tim^ 
aaatef I da oat thittk iaHiaw at all aaed^ mA iNrti 
vei9rliititrktiom,iaSttA4k. rottntriy I bdlai>0 it 
^Nuu A vtty cttfiCNiii astide^ as earUer aHa4#d' U^, 
might tM esMly cottipiMi ottt o^ tha mti^iM^ 
41redilioaa parsaasions aad reialiaae irf etir fotenfa- 
thera 0ti this mMtet. Thangb thla is an plaae fof i 
ii^ 1 otniiDicreaist theteipptaiion ei bassxnvaig a feir 
lines from Nareftk tt Aapeatiaca of what mA aas 
article might be — 

TrU'gteu, A fiarae given t6 Bamacleft^ from tSeic cappoted 
niietftmo7|ib6$h, yi\Ach fs fio \thete lAcrre diiikiiteJy «k»6rib«d la 

WhaMM iu«e iMffei'd tfisps/ «rhech asMMR j ^bHsIm 
ab islile«#^ ittte i«fi (ia riaey a tjkasf Wkt- . 


. A M^ft and upj^ gonm from which those TVee-fteif grow 
Oaird barnacles by OS, which like tjell^ first 
To the beholder ieem» then» by the flux are niirst» 
SniM^inmt md greater thrhre* uiitii yoawell may see ^ - * ^ 
Them hirB*d to- perfect fowls» wheo droppiag from thc.tE«».i. 
Into the merey poad« whi^ under them doth lie, ' . ' \,' . 
Wax ripe> and taking wingt away in flocks do fly ; 
Which well otir ancients did among onr wonders place, '&&' " 


' ''From this fiible*' Naresadds, "Ziiin^iii, hai 
foimed his trivial name — dnaiife»'at Goose — or J?»cfc^ 
foann^**— of the bamacle. 

Tresn. This word is now nearly disused in 
Suffolk, and i« but little known. It used to mean 
wooden. I know of no lingual derivatioo, and be« 
lieve it to be from tree; as. wood-«i is from or. of 
wood. Treen is an old English plural of tiree* a« ia 
ihown by Nares,, in several quotations to that effect 
— ^but this is not exactly the sense in which we are 
now considering the word — but in another to which 
tile following apply — 

I Trran-^wooden; made of the matter of a tree. **Piicina-*^ 
a great Tat, or trtene vessel* conteiaing hot or colde water, to 
hath int** jLb, Flemitig, NomencL 

WeUy after this bride cam thear by too and too^ a dozen 
damzels for bridesmaids; that fbi favor» attyre, for facton and 
cleanlines, were az nieete fur such a bride, as a treen ladl for a 
porige pot. LanehamU Let, Kennilw, III, p. 18. 

. Tusser uses the word frequently in the sense of 
wooden. " Treen dishes/' occurs in a quotation 
under Black-jack. Treen plates, or platters, 1 take 
to be altered ta trenchers — thrifty articles not quite 
disused in Suffolk. See Trencher. 

** Treen-ware^ earthen vessels,** Grose, I be- 
Reve he is wrong — misled, probably by Ray, who 
says the same thing in as many words. The chief 
of Grose's Provincial Glossary^ is indeed, from Ray. 


Trench fiRS. Wooden plates, or platters, now 
si^Idom. seen ; but which I c^n recollect in general 
use in farm houses, and in genteel kitchens. . They 



have » teqr fvordiy <ild ^fl ttihloifg d wm, nflto^ tot 
these three score aiia led years ba^oeiwr voloslatfily 
eaten off 9my otbear* Tremkirs^ need to be nade 
mmtHf id mapkr; «9letmeK( for its irlbiliaflea» dod 
closeness of graiv. Al(|eir was netif in estimskfidn : 
Slid when kept Diceljr deaned they are not uDpteaoant 
4ii|igs to eaft off. The cheapuess of crockery, the 
ciunparative easiness of ke^Mg it clenn^ and the 
*4eajnes9 of wood» have rendered innekan kss 
economical now than fbmerrv* And the ]irogceas 
of notions of refinement and gentility has nearly 
biini^fed tfacf thrifty article. Cv^ urTusseKs div — 
0«y I^^^O-^they were not reckoned gefnteaf: for nt a 
quotation men tmcfer Kdek-jacfk^ be says — '^IVeeA 
dishes be homely.*^— Tfais» by the mty, is assmniog 
the fKihxt that trencher is derived fr&m treen, 
wooden; of whfeir se^ ondierTWrn. I b6rrovrtbe 
ftilfawhig from Nares — 

Trencher — a wooden platter^ long used instead of iMtaUic» 
cbina, or earthen plates. It was even <ieusidferwr a^ s ittlde of 
liiaiui^^ wlten trmdiera weie oAto c han yd in« oii» nMdb In 
lile SateniiaB ag»it is said«*«* 

The Venetian canred not Ms meat witli a: siN«r pitdr foit^ 
BMtUtr did tkr svtaetHeothed* Sogtiajwan airfit A- doMtf of 
ttwc&ers art oflie nrndt Deahtr'tGmCt U.B,o!tuu 

And Willi an bumble chaplain* Nares adds, it was actording to 
Bishop Hall ** expressly stipulated that he never change hii 
tnneJIl^ tn'iecJ* The tentt> a gbod> rn'Ouket^mmt in*, i&en 
f^f alenl to » hmrh^feed^rk GU 

So it is now in SutfoHk-^f bvve heant it a hunAeitff 
times : similar to '* piaying a g>06d haife and fork." 

Teess els — Of Trussels. Long4eggedy nar^ow^ 
topped stools, for placing planks or boards on t» 
support bricklayers when workings at some distance 
from the ground ; of for the kiitera of washer\voBien. 
Not locaf perhaps. ''A tresaeT or irussel — a prop; 
a three-footed stocpf; a fmm to toear ttft tiUcs^ 
seafRMs, ^b.** O. IK A, Oursi «re< «fti» fmr^ 




. TRMiva Al'Iffvet/teititfqpa kettle MMioo, 
Q«r tbi fim '* n-eUMr^^f ^Hiei^^; ^ fwltensi mr tto^ 
fiMk^ SuffiiHi.'^ Jfalr,^ £. W. p; 80. Ineterlnnrd 
fHlltciB sB^caikd. TK4 irm rim^ or botloni of W*«^ 
men's pattens are «MmiffM» eriAkle«sll«ped^. JUM 
tf»ewitsi and n>ost likely t^e name of one article 
inSy ihiis hdve be'en'tfltken from* th^ other*' Akd^ 
iron, cob^ eobiron, hob and hoBtron, are, ( believe, 
different words for llie MdUe af ftele ; f. e; ttre /(re« 
iidfr^lMm^ ov i#t«er. 

Txit9^ triplets ad; ainMaii SUtiDmU. 

Tricket. a game at cards— s oi i ftWil iai l lik#to«H 

TMCK^AlTi FlayM; ivolieks6iiieu*aLi)raiy« ki a 
g96d sense. Ako* « g^l or voMg! w^Mrafei ne^tStyvit^ 
1k^ ov frid^^ one. mttw ea^^teina i t ■■ w w m 
adrai^ tltgantH^^'iltiotiog^ in< iMnalfati fltow^ 

At weU as to » ptayfnl^ frotidsome ^1, we siMnM 
9ifiplj the teri» to a ekktidh mare^ 

fffttf . 1*<0^ be^> siHttt%. «< Mr €f^ Vtif Jad;^ 

trimmen/' This word is omitted in the^ mt c? <^ 
fensive terms given under Aint. 

THINKLR. Trickle^'' liie tMcsifirtkM dciwm 
Iky dmk.*' hi Scotttsk *' (x> IrlnA/e, to ti^iekie.*' h 

Tmfp. New d<Jft efrees^e; mude of milk— but fiot 
wltetf iftftde of eitBiW. '^ Is" f hut a; crt^m eh^sdefl"^— 
^ Ife, it is only A frip." Ftis'mad^soni^wh^tthiiifrer 
Ifian creanf chee$es^ usiraliy ate. Aony, Flet, sEnd 
Wonmil, are other names tor SuffdlE cnieeisedV ie6 

^TftlVET. More commonly called TrewU^-'^hich 
see. A cottvenienee for resting a kettle or sauce- 
paii offj or befofv^e lire. 

Trollop. A dirty, course, vulgar slut. A 
compound ol Umit aad tmpo^y pr^kFy^ See 

. TA0]»i*T. \A nuuket oirt^ ^'Skh rotdftl We 
gol.ii«iefyjtftMeetf i' the tr0lfy/' See Jounce. ^l*a 
jfVutf; to.trandle: pet.c(mirmcHome$m. Svam%J' 
Bay. £. W. p. 89. Omt Trolly miy be oftiin 
Ctfee of words.: SeeTiieMDfcs. 

•i ' ' 

TBfofTKits. Tcet— sheep'g, cahe's, or pig'i^ 

dfiesse4&r the table. 

- «• ■ , . , , . «- • 


Thouncb. Tobeat — ^notlocalperbaps. **Tfonnce 
ttiD right well;" For loaiiywiiiilar wordii see AiKT— 
ia the AppmuU^. 

Truck, Rubbbli**-somethiiigwortbt(e8Sy or worse* 
Afidd or baiik» fool from spear^grass^ docks, Ao. 
,wottid be said to be '* lull 'a tmek" " Nawn but n 
bargain 'a truck" describes »iy fiollcetion of rubbiah. 
Trude is also a name. of a machkie for moving tim- 
ber. The timber is laid am it. JDruy- is . another 
name for it. The roaehihe for moving timber under 
Jtwe call Jim* See those words. And under 
Demltry and Felt, for further illustration of the 
first given sense of the. word. In another sense of 
traffic, or business, trupkh again brought into use* 
See T&AFFic. 

Trullibubs. Alow coarse term among butch- 
eta for the entrails generally of animals. ** Tripes 
a|id. truiiibubs." — ^The blackguard expression of ** a 
>ratch and chaiDS " for the heart and pluck, or per- 
haps, the bead and pluck, of a sheep or calf, is com« 
inon in London. Or the latter is sometimes quaintly 
designated " An alderman hung, in chains." Narea 
has this article 

TrilUImb — a sort of cant expreaeion fqr any thing rtry tiiiiiig* 

I hope my guts will, hold, and that*! c'cft all • 
A gseiuleman caa look for of sQcfa triUibubt, 

Mati. Old Law. lit. t.. 
Mr. Glfford quotes Shirley for it: 

But I forgive thee, »nd foiget thy tricks 
And trillibubs^ Hyde Park. 


As words of this low HMtpt Wfknt. bMbi ^r^pKfMaAf Hjble 
to conraptiony we meet with the Tariations oi troim^ubt sad truU 
UtHbi; dckaoV^Mdged by the tla&Udl Cipt;6fose Cinder the 
elegant phrase of « tripes and trullibuhi,*' To this fbhA 6f ihf^ 
wird» fieidiag's Ptrsm Trumer, debdtless ewedliis jmOB. CL 

T^Mft'buggJ^tjipe. Cumber!. €hrm, 

But enough of thfs repulsive tribe of worcts. f^r- 
their. If desired^ may be found thereon under Trun^ 
dU^ sind other articles thence referred to, 

Tmtm>iM. To tfive « i^iMafy ladfkW'Himt 1 
do not jreeol(«ci li«f ing k^fA fhe miait6 Ap^d td' 
Mljf thltkg but A toy ttuwiiin$ biii bOoff^vtml a mftkl^ 
trmMtig or twirilflg hef i»^« iTfats lazier t>^eff^^' 
tifWitf ^di^itly done to tke fttms^ 'wililolil handHiigt 
aMi witb a Heir Mop AMI « skHfiil g^l,l& U» (ed(tcft$«- 
ally if slM b^ btM^Mk^ ftlld one iMf ^^iif^MKf W 
philosophize) an follraftiag andaj^'lIttsltitkNt of 
the. oentrifttgal force. 

Pachajw tbe pkl wofd irotd^ in 6lie ^itjlfonMBTi. 
may he c»gaala 

ItiAve tftteti tlih' line Mm N^^ : urtto^^ajli^it^lf 
that to troll a catch or a btftt&d Waft in dSe i^f- 

itf(W^. mA I ttmy AiiU tiftf if 6i«i/tn^ aoit desei^fc^s 

a llldd^ ^ adding #1tfai li Wfa^-^aR iknpfyli^ rdtei/ 
lion. So possibly fro%r it e«rt/ ttlty liiiVe sotfH^' 
Kdtgli^iiQbip^so tltey 4nk^ aacl tndHMm: tnfUop 
aii4irap6t<; but I staUnotj«Mdeaircrar todlMrar'bMvv 
.Wf'vmy tecienl <M({i»y hajir M'|fieio4h«»'kii4m^ 
ledge, thai otiKr rouMlTatotar^ a^ilts &te ddfied' 
trundle, A portion of «^Siheh<»doli ('[ftur^iwasifi^) 
afu^ a.inill-gtfar, are^ aaoiig ofhcrthingai-^OiealM. 
n^ndnesa or gyration seeias aj^waya the prevsuiliiift 
sense Uk^thf^ clas» ef words,- See Wokwl-bokjs^ 

TaWaSLS*'. See Tlt^Mfeur* . 

'fRtT^HV^ Y^racioiur— believe^^ Jri^Se^ o^. 
depended on<--iiot a bad word. .< 


TtrtKY. A liiilMy. See Mii«T. 

yvLi^ It wiO : also twootp or U wooL See Ta»^ 
HSi4 Wool. * 

TifLY. Poorly--" Toly stomached.'' "A* well — 
naaber — ^how de yeow fare?" " Wa' naaba — bat 
tuhf.'* In Somersetshire Twify means restlesi — ^the 
saine vi^ord perhaps, in the sense of toily, opposed 
to fM or ease. See Paj. Ray, among his S«.Bnd 
£. country Words ha^ " Tewly or Tuly; tender, sick;' 
TulyrBto^ilcbeflf weak stomached.*' £. W. p. 88. — 
W^entie, probably, Grose has taken bis '' T«inEqr 
poorly» weakly, tenderly. W. country^ Toolj^, teiH 
d^r» «icMjr: alool^niaa or woman. AiMfidk.'"— . 
Prm OL To0fy, we should,, probably, pronoviiee. 
tvfy,^ iewfejft io onjur accoston^d ovMle of cbangiDg. 
ooimto the acate ic; as noticed nnder JBmim* 
: TvitPA* Tittder. Hie hauta-boM* 

Tup. Aram. This is common, I believe, balf^ 
if Bot all, over England. It occurs several times in 
Othello — and the commentators tho^ht H ex« 
tkc nheep. breeders in some counties'* — and 

i^byjgaye it a place h^re. In. Scottish V T^ a 
v^vf^^. J. Seie Dans. 

; TuRN-,ovBR. A nam^ of the good. thing other*^ 
w^ called Apple-jack^ HndFUpjaeftt andiXoy- 
ooer. See those articles, 

' TcasLB. A €onteatr-*of wrestling, or any odier 
sMM^AaiNt/tiig' operation. "*A hewd- em a right 
good, tussle *'^^opposed or rcaisAed him. manfi^. 
? J\mk,: a struggle.. JiYe had a tasfe for it. M« 
a^d S. country word.** fiVsse* > .. > 

• Tussocks. The rushy kno^ of coarse sedgy 
^ss, in' swampy lands. They are ^ also callea 
Dikiin. 'See I>oss— and Hassock. In Scottish ' 

Timockt (of wheat). A tnftr«f wlieat hi' a corn iild, g^e- 
rally owing to fhe Te^etatioi;! of the nest or uranaiy of a fieiil 
vMniie— fieib KXS^ WeD^ 'ttcft^, a iott\ iuwawg, faavbg a taft 
orbtmdie. J, .... c '•' . 


IKTe, dio> calliuch tofts, ft i i iw rtt ; btit htt In* 
tilled to attribute them to a heedless drop of stt* 
{lerabundaiit.seed, rather than to mu^icwiMite. ' 

I am isduced to add the fatiowiag from Nares-^ 
as applicable to the word before us, and of another 
iQ common use among us — (not to mention its own 
enticing matter.) r 

Tkuttock, Tvuockt and Tutmck, A tuft of loose hair: or a 
tuft of an J tort. Johnson on Ihe latter word, supposes it is a 
diminutive of tux; but that is hardly an acknowledged word. 

Though we have not exprcsse tneation in Smpture* acgainst 
such laying out of the haire in tkustockes and tufts, yet we have 
in Scripture ex presse mention rfis^tortucrim^, ofwrithin haire 
'(hat la for the nonce forced t9 curie. Latimer, Serm, 

What a subject for a bishop to handle in a ser- 
mon !-^Of other words used above* see Noonce, 
iiad Writs. , 

TUTSON. The periwinkle (flower) Vinca or Per^ 

mnca. Not the shell-fish, which we significantly 

call pin-patch. From Pervinca is derivable the 

French perventhe (the nature of that language being 

<4o soften the hard c) and our retentive periwinkle. 

Sometimes, however, we soften and they do not. 

In Ihtmkirk or Donqwtrqiu — which means the kM 

church, they have retained the hard sound, like the 

Scotch*— and we have softened it, initial and fiaul, 

in our Church. See Perk. ' 

Of the word more immediately before us, I ma^^ 

note that I know not of its wider usage» unless it 

be in this instance — " Tutsan or Tusan, an exatU 

lent wound herb," O. D. A, 

TuTT>AH. Trouble — ^work — io'-do* *" 'A might 
as well keep another C6oto-Y-tha*s as much tuUa an 
ta dew about one as about tew "-H'Cows.) 

Twang. A pull, especially by the n ose i^* c qui» 
valent to^-a imeak perhaps. Twangiimg in also a 
confused jingling-jangling, of bells. Nares under 
the laKer word says ^t is fk ridiciiIoiM djkrivatlve 
from /ivan^j noisy jingling. - *. ' 

Sometimeia thousand 4va«^(cnf isslrvBieatf • . , f 

Will bam ahout mine ears^ and sometimes TOices. 

r/a^MSl. iii« t. 


Tw^axoM^ Eatangle^^-niflle. '^H«»w y«r' line 

iialfi«8pwaebful, ^ithet. 

TvrsBTCtt— or Twitch. The $9m^ F b<flie?e a« 
tjriieecA, or spear SfrouM. But the letter js the com- 
mon name ; atyd the otihers are very little V9^d or 
lLnowii» in Suffolk. 

TwiDOifS. A pimple. See Geow. 

TwiLT. A quilt-.-w in. acQtl»n4t T^ofmt ^ 
3 Set, II. 296. Among the ftimitiue of Heomwe 
IMl in.l609 were^ 

Ilflii oae lafge li^i(«f yeilow •altcir- em bw ifere d. It id, out 
loDge twiU of crimson and taffy tje sarsenet of the oae sl^e^ aWI 
tawQey sarseqet of the olher^ twUud Ter^ ^ely of b<ttb nicies, 
anil perfiined. Itm; One (id/t of tawnej tsffata sarsenett, em- 
^ffffdoRid nU ovepivith iwbie of yellow 'sSke^ with tha eimit- 
C^m ff ^r Tbos* Kf tMtnV 4ii4 qpy U4^e*s jmna. 

T«mpf* I lake to be:yellair, or ef that Ime. -Smt 
Xawnt. *• a hcwrd of <ir^iige>tii»mogr,'M fanwe 
«pa(iawii<»!e r«#td of; but iiav«r htard of^ av aaai, 

TwifiK. As ahbfefiatieiii I'anppose^ of 'twink- 
ling. It is used to denote the amallest tmi^^able 
|)oitian f>{ tiine. ^* In a twink^'i— is mor^ eniphatic 
than in a triee, in a jifi^, *hi- a craek^ aUd avdi 
{divases. Nare» explains it in itsoHrioursenM of 
*'the wink, or 8uddei»metk>tt'of ane^feoreye^lid. 
TmmkJJtAg\s Bowvanhstitafted ISsr it^'— 

' Tlien In atunnfc'^he won me to her love, T. ^\h9 5%. ii. 1. 

—hi IP a percless p^incei 
SoUMto 8 kingi and in the- Sower of yooth> 
£f«n \wilk a twmkt a anteltste t stAcksil saMv 

, Fwn^uU fi9rf$x. 0. R i. %4^ 

>!V^^sa^ MMl^f^' twinkle. ««The stanr twiak-.'* 
As a verb we also have sf i ria^ 'and itay, to^deikot^ 
the act of ntelitaiiatt* 8ae' fthetir wordi. 


Twister. To twisi, or turn ; but especially tlie 
former. I have .used it, I perceive, in the article 
Wm. We have iwiak or hcizislet in k like sense. 
See TwizxLB. 

Twit. To reproach — to throw iir one's teeth — 
•• 'A twitted 'a wo't, an ta ril'd ar/'—" To twiiy or 
hit one in the teeth vniAi. a thing*." O. D* A.-^ 
Spenser uses tvoight in the same sense. 

And evermore the did hinr sharpelj iwigjkt 

For breach of faitli to her* which he had firuely pllglit. 

T. Q. V. Ti. 12. 

TwiTTBR. I know not if this word be local — 
but rather &ncy not. It i» a pretty one, denoting; 
the collective chirping of happy little birds of a 
summer evening — delightful music ! In the follow- 
ing quotation did the poet mean twilight, ox the 
time of the merry meeting alluded to ? It is from 
Nares — 


TrntUT^Ught — twilight; so iiaed in the following iaitanc6| but 
r know no other: 

— —Then cast she up 
•Her pretty «ye» and w^nVd: — ^the word mgthonght was thetiv 
^ Come not till tvoUteT'Ughit/* MiddletimU More DHc, iil. 1, 

We also use the word — ^not ih^ a verv dissioiilar 
sense, perhaps — for tremulous^ and thence for a 
palpitating sort of alaran. " O lawk ! Tm in «ich 
a. twHteri' Or, •* I'm ail of a tmtttr:' Grose 
hasi *' TwiHer, to trambie— kTdet ti^em, tremere, 
both from tha sound produced. A word of gene- 
ral us6; My heart itM^^ers.. I am all in a twitter.*' 
Pr. Gl. 

TwtzSLls; Twiri — quick rotation. Thfe syrtp- 
loms of a disease that sheep are liable to, would be 
thus described — '* Ta fared dunt, an ta twizzled' 
about sfamminly.'' This word comes^ perhaps^ 
from our twisieTj to twist or turn. 

Two SHE AH. This term prefixed to ^kip de* 
npt^s a lamb of two yeats ; or thslt has been twi<ie 
shorn* See under 'Daks, for more on this subject; 

. TwooL. It will— see Sop. TtiU^ is the same 
corrupiioQ.' 2 a 


V. '.■ ■ . 

Vawntia. The tin mwcbxm used fQf liflmg 
beer, wine, &c, out at the bung- hole of a cask* by t 
pressbg the thumb on- the small hole at top. Jn 
some places it is called thumb pump. I have never* 
heard it called Valentia out of Suffolk. 

Since this was written I have met with the word : 
m print, spelled Valinch, The Roman goddess 
Valentia^ supposed to be the same as the Grecian 
Hygeia^ can scarcely connect herself with a beer 

Valentines — ^And Valentine's day, used, within 
my recollection, to be among thfe most agitating 
articles and periods of the Suffolk year. The amo- 
rous billets, duly ornamented and illuminated^ are 
still sent^but I believe— and I am sorry for it — 
the expectations, hopes, &c. excitements, are less 
ardent— so I am informed at least — then they used 
to be. And the post-masters tell me the frequency 
of transmission through their media, is &lien off 

Under VaiaUine in Nares' Glossary, some cuarious 
particulars on the antiquity and otiber pkaaantries* 
of this sanctified day will . be found* I dare only 
extract this consoling passage ; .warned by the 
alarming numbar at the top of my ftetge-*— 

It is a carious fact, that the number of Ittttfff^^mkVnfeH" 
ttne*i day, makes several addiUonal sorters necessf :^at the pusi* 
office in LoDdoa. 

Valure. Worth-*-value : and sometimes nearly 
in the sense of consideration. "I woud'nt do*t for 
Uie valur of a guinea.*' — " Why— 1 don't care wuthar 
I dew a* nut — ^for the valure of that *' — it here seems 
equivalent to tncUter, Nares shows that several (^ 
our old writers so wrote the word, in the senses 
first given. Although it is not generally a Suffolk 
vulgarism to substitute the initial w for v, the word, 
now under our notice, I must confess, is often, and 
perhaps^ mostly, p)ronounced Walldkr It does 


not always refer to price or worth ; but sometimes 
to quantiW — ** The wallah of a rod and a half." — 
•♦ The walla of five pecks an acre." In Cheshire 
Vahte is similarly used. W. 

Van. a fsui-shaped^ flat basket for winnowing 
. com. We call it also Fan. This is in an O. D. A. — 
** Van or Fan, an instrument to winnow corn with."- 
- Between fan, and winnow, the word may, haply, 
have been compounded. It is Fan in French. 
Tusser calls it Fan. See under Goof. v. 1. and 
note. Also a four-wheeled covered carxiage for 
the conveyance of passengers and parcels ; of less 
dignity than a stage coach. Carravan^ abbreviated, 
may have given us this word — which we sometimes 
call Wan. Wain, and Waggon, and Wan seem 
cognate. See Wain. FaAim, pronounced some* 
what short, is in several East Indian languages a 
v^ide of conveyance — ^bnt not confined to one on 
wheels. Fun, aeeording to Grose, is a Gloa- 
cestershire word, in the sense first given. 

Van — ^French — vamnuh Latin; a winnbiHng fan; a crible 
Ibr com. Baitty, 

'^ Under the early article Back-ttriking reference 

' is made to this to show what Tusser meant byyan- 

ning. In the quotation there given from Tusser, 

a mistake has been overlooked — for farming read 


Varment. Vermin — not always confined to 
the vermnious class of animals — but extended to 
any annoying or troublesome ones. See Warmbnt. 

VaR8AL« The whole; a vulgar cormption of 
universaL '* I'm sewer I heent a farden i' the 
varsal wald.*' Shakespeare puts this phrase into 
the mouth of good old nurse in Romeo and Jnllet — 
and Mrs. Davenport gives it every effect in the 
humourous speech containing it — 

She lo6k8 at pale aa any clovt in the vanal world. H. 4. 

Vaunckroof. a garret ; according to Grose, 



a Suffolk word ; and I give it |K>lely oaliis aatboiily 
as I never heard it. It occurs in a quotation firon 
Iiis Pr* GL under tbe article Spkrket in tliis Col- 
lection. As this sheet was going to press I met 
with this> as a Norfolk word, in Marshall's Rural 
Economy of that county — " Vance-roof ^ the garret/' 

Vent. The hole of a cask for the reception of 
a vent-peg. It has also an extended and general 
cognate windy meaning ; referring to animals of aU 
sorts — not fishes — that need not be particularly 
explained. Also to a chimney* We likewise use 
it in the sense of vend or sale — ** Is — I've a pretty 
sprinklin a' carrots ta year — but then tha's no vaU 
for 'em." 

ViftGiN MART THisTi^K* The beautifiil and 
roa,gnificf nt Carduus BenefUdm^ or BleMed Jhistk* 
Its broad bright leaves are mafked with white wcU 
defined spots, as if they had held milk. 0«r po* 
^ular legend accounting for this pieasuBg vm^ is* 
that Our Lady, when thirsty, met with a eow; and 
being at a loss for a vessel for receivii^ the Biilk» 
perceiired this species of thbtle— but not then varie- 
gated — at hand — and using its broad leaf as a con- 
vepient cup, she willed tb^t the species should, as 
a grateful testimony of its well-timed utilitv, ever 
indelibly retain the marks it then received n-om ita 
useful application ; and bear also the name of ita 
pure patroness. This legend is not confined to 
Suffolk : it is found current in Devonshire, and 
was, most Ukely ioiported from ft;'mQ.ire pocftfcal 
country* About Teignmoi|th it is oalled Lady*^ 
Thistle, and tbe story is somewhat veiled: aoase 
of oiir (Jidy*s milk, having somehow fallen on tfc^ 
Ijeaf, is thereabout s(m4 to h^ve kft tls holy m4 
indelible marks. 

Tusser in his ^* Marches albslraet," aoiMig ^ers 
** herbs and roots fpr sadlads and iwJice»" includes 
the <' Blessed thistle or Carduus benedictua/''— I am 


coiTjuption probably of individual 
^* He*s so weak 'a can't dew a vit- 

not aware that this beantifid weed is now, any 
where, cioiisfdefied as an Edible. 


—in this sense — ** 

tifui thing," ..- . . . : 

; Vmck» a bloj¥— more^cpniBionly. Fliek, which 
^ee« Giroflij^.giyes both words ; and explains tlieia 
** a blow with a stick "—and as, W, country words* 

. ' Voider.' A pail-like ^ticle, of wood or wicker, 
into whych' bone^« &c« ajfe shelved or throwo« 
during a meal, it is not a modern word; nor, 
perhaps^ in very confined usage. Thus Nares-— 

Voider — a basket or tray for carrying out the relics of diiuicrp 
or other meal. 

• ^ • 

' ^er*s Proagliman Idd the cloth, and Simpticlty brought in 
the voider. Decker, 

' So in a burlesque speech—* 

Instead of tears* let them poor capon-tance 
Upon my hearse* and salt instead of dast« 
Mancbats for stones $ for others' glorious shields . 
Give me a voider, B. f Fl. Woman Hater, i. 5. . 

So in an O. D. A. " Voider, a table basket to 
hold plates, dishes, &c." Sotnetimes we call "by 
this name the mahogany, brass-bound, open-toppea 
convenience usually placed under^ or. near, side- 
boards in a dining room, for the reception of hot- 
lies. This description of Voider is going out of 
fashion. '. . . 

rot<£<r; a tajble basket for plates, Itnives, &c. Bailey* 

u. . 

Ul — or Al. He will. " 'Ul run awah, 'strus 
J^owr alive.*' 

Um. Him — ^tjiem*— cfft also. Common abbre- 

X'M^BRr Number. *'*IVe got my umber,*'"^ 

2r 3 


• • • ' » , 

Grose gives this wora in ^e saoie ^eiuc». ^s of ttie 
Exmoor dialect. 

Vmelb. The vanie, perhaps, as the commoii 
word humbk: bat up ed with ua in a lUentt sense of 
yielding, bending, and intenmxing. ltisthcpio« 
perty or facility of fleadbility or lithenese. Com* 
paring reeds and alvaw for nuxing with earth for a 
wM, the workmen agreed that straw was the best, 
£»f that it wonld ** unble best.'' 

*17n. One — referring to an indii4da|JL The fel« 
lowing phrase rednttly occnrred— *< He'fc a bad mr 
yeow mah apend ont." 


Unbethowt. Unpremeditated^ unintentionally. 
"'Twas wholly nnbediowt 'a mc'^ — that is, on mj 

part. Grose has it in a contrary sense — **UnbeikauU: 
reflected, remembered." Pr, GL 

Unchange— or as we gmerallj pronomiee it 
Onehange — which see* Here seems a redttndant 
syllable— bat not eiactly se---4bv we nse it in the 
sense of thanjfing dHjram, r»'ckemgmff. See Luth a, 
for An instance. 

Undeniable. See Ondeniablb: 

. . .U|<DBRMiNC^. Uad^mine— to let clay or sand^ 
for exas^le, oavs oic keeve down into a i»t. 

Unber the wind. So sitnated behind a 
bank, house, Ac as not to feel the wind. Thie 
M'ind blowing over you, as it were. 

Ung Al N: Inconvenient — awkward — unhandy 
— unsteady. See Gain. , We commonly pronounce 
it Ongain, which see. 

Unloose. Loosen. This word and Ututrif^ 
exhibit in the refined phraseology of the present 
day, n redundant syllable, but in ^e of yoie the 
prefixture was not deemed inelegant, l/isftsss — 
occurs in many of our best anthsffs and ittnScVip* 


Un^ossible* Or, as we sometimeft pronounce 
ity Onp&sitble, does not require much explanatioik. 
We are rather apt thus to give the privalii'e; of 
which see On^ and some foliowing artici^niu As 
far as may regard unpossihle, we are warranted by 
authority. Under that word in Nares we read-*- 

• Hdw changed in common use taimpiistible — 

^^Forusto levjpower, pr^Mirtknateto theene*i|3F» ' ' 
1% 9\\ unpowJbis^ . Hiek, tl* in <-. 

In t]be public version of the Bible, it has been tilentiychMted 
to hKDOuihU, where it was at first unpo$Me^ See Toddrt SAn^ 

We should likewise say undraw the curtains-^ 
implatient — uaperfeet — ni^oper — unrepauable— 
imresistable — unrip — uo^trip^-^uBlpose — .uasiflgegg 
^-unsolid — unstop — unsufferable— unswe^t-^uai^ 
tolerable — ua toothsome — untoward—- unchange — 
unready — &c. Some of which are given and illos- 
trated in this Collection under words beginning^ 
with On, or Un» 

Unready* Not dressed. The Ifollowing quo- 
ttttions ia Mares trom Shakespeare* and othe^^ 
writers of about hb day, fully show pur sense o£ 
this term^ as well as its antiquity, &c. 

Uitreocfi^— undressed. To dress being often a part ot making 
rea^y te undress was called to make tmretsdy. 

How nowy mj Lords, what all unrtady, 1. Hen. VI. il. 1. 

Thb is said to the French lordi on seeing them leap from the 
wall^ in their shirts. 

yfhj I hope yon are not going to bed ; 1 see you are not yet 

Enter Jamei^ tinread^t in his night-osp^ gaYtVilesv^ ■ 

Slagf lHifee0o»^ 

€ora»— where hare you been wencli ?' mtiLeitaewu»€mdy.: 
. Ideptbutilllafltnigbt. B. and FL 

A yoong grntle-woman was iii>er bedfcbunbciw makiiiig^hei^ 

< Oood i»js mn iore». what up and ready to« ^ 
. Botli» my ^l&ar lord, not all. this night made X , 

Myself ttfiready, or cbold sleep a wink* CAdpmoitt 


Hee remayned'wiili hU daughter to |^fe liif wife time ol 
readying henclt Pemhroke. 


Unstil. In motion. See Jifflb. 

Unstrip. Strip. 

Upinnd. To set a cask or any thing on its aid. 
'* Upinnd if See under Akinnd for many in- 
stances of our substitution of i for e« 

Uppkn. Mention — reveal — disclose. **Yeow. 
didnt uppen it did ye ? " — ** Be sewer don't uppen it 
ta nobody •'* . This word is much used about Aidbco*. 

Uppish. A man prone to take offence is said to^ 
hetippUh: — orpepperish: apt to be hot: or Siin^, 
which see. 

Uprii^HT. On his own means. *' *A live up- 
right on Vs forten" — that is, he lives without 
business or profession. We make a queer phrase 
of this word — " More right-upper " — ^which means 
less tnelined : more upright. We have also trans- 
posed the syllables, and call upright things Righi 
«p*-^which see, and Wrangi. 

. Upshot. The result, the end, the issue, of 
any business or matter. ** And that*s the upshot 

W. • 

Waah. Way. See Wah. 


Wabble. A Sempstress in kemmimg is said to 
icoUle her work, if she overlay the folds^soasto 
Make her work thicker in one place than in another. 
Such inelegant hem' would be called a wabble. We 
also apply it to the process of difficult roasticatbn. 
A cow chewing a tornip Hukwardly,- u said to 
'* wabble it about in 'ar mouth"— or " wambk i#*'— 
which is r ectochide the same sort of thing. And it 
was this operatioDi I imagine, that BloomfiehTs sow 


with tte Saffalk cheese was cn^iaged or when tlift 
poet describes her tenacioiis mofrsd as-^ 

Too large to swallow and too hard to bite. 

The poor animal must of Decessity therefore have 
*' wambled it about" 'till she could haply detach a 
frastrum of it. Wimble and Wibble, 1 take to be 
more delicate or refined^ modes of describing similar 
processes. I lately, for instance, heard it said of a 
goldfinch, that it Wimbled a piece of thread about 
in its bill; and when I noticed the word, the 
prenunciatioa was altered to WMle. Grose has 
••Ft66fe, bad drink." 

In sonaething like our vense I find ill an 0« !>• A. 
'* to Wabble : to wriggle about like an arJTOff mti^ 
air." This, indeed, is nearer to our Logger, which 
see. We should also apply the term WuMe, to one 
who walked badly, or not straight* '* To WMle^ 
to boil. Pot-w<Mler, qjae who boils a pot." Chrome. 
Of dumplings tumbling about in the cbullilion of 
the boiler, we shonld say *' how they woUop about *' 
and we might use wtMle also ibr this phenomenon* 
See W At Lap, <' To tooMfe; SaxoA. To totlei^; 
as a top almost spent in spinning — also to wri^gte» 
as an arrow flying." Bmley. 

Wad. Word — pronounced short. See H bent. 
We pronounce it rather open, though short — wahd 
— ^like 8wad for sword. 

Wadmul. a gret^t coat made of the stuff called 
Dujie^vfhich see. Also the stuff itself. Ray says 
that ** Woi;tdmel is a hairy coarse stuff made of 
Iceland wool, brought thence by our seamen to 
KerMk, S«ffolk, &c." E. W, p. 90. Grose fol- 
lows Ray enMctJiy. And in Zetland scenery, in the 
Novd of the Pirate, we find a similar stttff called 
Wadmaalf 4nd Wadmaarel-^ 

Her upper gmmieiit* which dropped with water, i#*t <»f a 
coane dark colouied staff called Wadmaargt, then much used in 
the Zetland islands, as also in Iceland and Norway. 1. 118. 

Ill p. 218 waadmalm€W& a similar stuff*— and ia 


p. 294; the very same cloak that in p. 118 is calltd 
Wadmaarelvi€Med Wadmael. The stuff in ZetlaDd 
seems to have heen of a blue dark hue. la Suffolk 
Wadmalis mostly, I think^ light. The name dif- 
ferently spelled, as) above, occurs half a score 
times, or ofteuer, in the Pirate. 

Vadmell, a species of woollen cloth maBafactored and worn in 
the Orlineys. Icelandic, ixufmiui^pannns rnsticus. J. 

Waddemole; WodJemel; Woddenel; coarse stuff used for 
covering the collars of cart-horses* Bailey. 

This is oi^e of the use^ to which we now univer- 
sally apply it. 

. ' Wa6«. Ta wAgcr. « I '11 wage fi* poimd.''— 
Thus in Shakespeare — 

His taints and honors 
Wag*d equal with him. Ant. and CUvp. ir. 19. 

' That is, Nares observes, to be opposed, as equal 
stakes in a wager. \ 

To wage — wagenp German. To lay a wag^. BmUif* 

Waggle* A sense of to wag. Wiggle-waggle, 
which see, is commonly heard, of such up and down 
motions as the tail of the Water-wagtail* Or of a 
dog we should say '^ 'A waggled 'a's tail.'' In an 
O. D. A. is to ^* waggle: to joggle, to move up and 
down." The Scottish has a number of words of like 
sound and sense — 

To wachle, to move backufards and forwards. WagglCf a bog 
or marsh. Tentonie «w^/e-en, agitarei motitare. Waiglep 
^^g^^f to waddle, to waggle— Swedish waekkt,- motitare. To 
viiggte, to wriggle. Wringle, a writhing motion. J. — ^To im^ 
gle — ^Sazon — tojoggle, or move up and down. Bailey. 

Wah. Way — pronounced long, wa^-ah. So, sah» 
lah, pah, &€.—** this wah-wad," means this way-r- 
.ihls way>ward — or toward this way. We also say 
Aa^Aa^awad— h it hertoward. See Wabd* WiiuX 
occurs under the article JBawda, of thi« CoUectiDn. 

Wakahoo. , See Kahahoo in the Appendix. 

Wahts— pjonounced short*. I know no English 


word rhyming exactly to our pronunciaribn of tdb. 
It iD^ans any edible greens; especially ctfbbage^ 
sproots, turnip-tops, &c. " What av ye got for' 
dinner?" — "Pork an wakts.'* In sounding pot**,' 
the r is not of much use to us. Worts is the real 
word under dbcussion : it is preserved elsewhere in' 
€o]e«worts» called by us CoUards, which see. 

Wort; in general an herb. Saxon. Bailey, 

Wain. A waggon— also Wan — and Van — 
which see. Wain is perhaps a pretty geueral word 
-^as is Charles* Wain, for the great bear. In Scotr 
land they call it *' Charlewan and Charlewayne — and' 
the Plough. In Anglo-Saxon Carleaswagn-^m old 
Swedish Karlwapi — in Danish, Karlva^n/' J- — , 
marking the extent of this appellation. In Suffolk 
we also call the constellation the Plough. Nares 
•hows that the name of Charles* wain, applied to. 
the seven bright stars in Ursa major, was in honor 
of Charlemagne. 

Waldaxhoutind. World without end — ^appUed 
to a long, tiresome, piece of work, or business, or 
story — " Ah — that's a Wkldathotttind job " — an un- 
promising, bootless, undertaking. 

The like, used as an adjective, is used by Shake-. 
speare — 

King, Now, at the latest minute of the hoor. 
Grant us your loves. 

PrincMt. A tine^ methinks, too short ^ ^ ^ 

To make a toortd-'mihout-end bargain in. 

L, lu L. V. a?. 

Walb — ^Webl— or Wheau See Wbal. 

Walla. Value. See Valure. 

Wallis. The highest part of a hotse, except 
Lis head when up — the point he is measured at — just 
at the junction of the neck aud back. The withers. 
It is sometimes pronounced wallaje. In Norfolk, 
" Wallace ; the withers of a horse."* MarshalVs K. £• 
1 have used wallis in the article Forehw, 


W AUX^F* A blow-T-the same peifaapt or vevAy, 
u wf^p tbough not so often heard* It meaot wo 
a^ imgolalr motion* not easily explained--4ike Log^ 
Mr or Wabble — which see« We sliould farther apfSy 
^le .woid to duni|»lins in the ebullition of a boilerr-^ 
or to other things siniilarly circumstanced. Hence, 
possibly, or thence, the p^t-wailopper of other times 
and places, I find the word in au O. D. A.— • 

A woliopf a thick piece of fat — to woUop, to bobble vp In 
boflinf-*-to iMMi&te, fea rise vp^ as boUiiig water do er > iMm* 
Uti^ or qaalm In the stomach. 

Widiept a roll of fat. To wmMe, to more or tdr, as the gnts 
do Bometimes with wind, or as water that boUf ge&tlj, Bmey. 

So ia Scottish — 

To W&ibpf or wahpxto nove quickly, with tandk agitation— ^ 
Teutonic waLoppct cunos gradarhit. To taarnbU^ to move in, 
an nndnlating manner — Icelandic vamhUu To vxxuhUf to reel. ^.' 

In one of tlie senses above, and related to almost 
all of them, 1 recollect a verse in a Scottish ballad^ 
in which the word occurs. I write it from memory, 
and may not be very correct — ^for a great portion of 
baif a centory has elapsed since I saw it — 

She lifted up her ktrtle weel. 
An showd her bonnie cools, so sma* 
An waUvjfped about the reel. 
The Iig.hte8t liiter o* them a\ — 

We tboa see that Wahbk, WaUap, and Wamble, 
are related. And perhaps the Waim, or Waulm, 
of Bailey; explained as "adimiDutive or moderate 
boiling or seething — a little boil over the fire^-^may 
be so likewise. 

WALLfk <« Bv the walls.** Dead and not buried. 
'«*A lie bi^ the WalU '--said, I beliew, pa^of a 
human subject. 

Walnut-trbb. We have a current persuasion 
that whipping a Walnut-tree tends to its improve* 
ment, both as to produce and flavour of the fruit. 
Such persuasion is strengthened and perpetuated by 
tt distich — ^with us not not an unusual, and indeed a 
useful, mode, of imprinting any fact on the memory. 


I/do not eiMiqire^ whether the 'notioa ajdiferted 
to ^] or'be inWgrbWded i£ observance V Ipr^sume 
ndt» from not having heard of it, or seen ^ny 

Sllustoh to' it,' elsewhere t and^ frdm the nionstrous 
Ibclriojes^wblcfi'm^Ee part of the inementoin qties- 
tidn. It^sthis-^ '^"•' • ^ 

A Woman, a. Spaniel, and a TTa/Nul-tree^ ^ 

The tt»fe yovi \vh!p theftt'the better they be. 

I have heen told, since this was written, f hat the 
abovje. piece of poetry is in psinty and that the moral 
ift not local. ,We have .iko paiticutslr desire to^£laim 
IH e fuertt either of the potetr jr or the' philosQpliy« 
ThefoHowing qnatriin wasrre«Ated on the^sunesub** 
ject^-^*^ of eqi^ tlent»^ ^^' > ' '* ' - 

fh^'^li1itita;8 W bieaHns better prOT€-^ 

r A Nirt# «n An^ acWeman^ . v< 

' And the v*i be «ood for no man» 

Walted^, Grass or corn is said to be waited^ 
when it do not stand fair and erect to the scythe ot 
sickle; from stock oi: dogs> or children having run 
over it, or when lal^d by the wind. It .diffelrs from 
nickled in t^s-^nickled cbrif is when the stem is in>> 
sufficiently ^tron^ to support the ear, and ^iyes way 
'near the girbuhd. ' 

I find ** To walt,'^ in Ray among his north coun- 
try words with this cxplaBation— 

■ To tutter, to lean one waf, to overthrow, from. the old Saxj»a 
Waltarif to tumble, or rowl, wkenceour welteringr in bloody or 
rather from the Saxon Weatttan, to reel or 8taggtr.''!£';\V« p. 64> 

• r 

Our word may therefore be supposed of a like 
origin. ^ In Scottish— * , . - ^ 

A watt sheep means a fallen sheep^i^tt^aZ, to let fall. AvaUer, 
to fall down; Fr(*nch. . In old Swe^ai^afal/ikptwi ''tdtxttttrp 
to w€lt ; to itMtirt to rbll, to 4)vet9drn(-wi>oim ca« galMS^#ftZ»^i4U» 
to roll, Teutonic «e'ter-tfn, Sv^edkh 'ioekr^^'^ 19^' tlir^Ttiltmr— 
WaitereVf one who overturns. To waUet, to overcnm^^Teutooic 
vtoelUr^eth volutare. J. ■ ' .: ^ ',' 

. Walt, to totter, or lean xmt way ) to oYerthttyw— Whbdce bur 



: To.i04ib i%p^ liuigiiH**-wben •ship haa opt Iwtdiiei/qifkii- 

tltj of |.aUa4t to eaablp,h^r t9 )«eai her Mi to keep hts^ f^^ 


• •H ♦.^r* 

We hav^ diffeif^Dt words to eitpxfv^ this j^cliiK^tiQn 

of corvt,&c. hvii I.ani pot sure that -we are at all 

exact in their application* Under the words Ba/-^ 

fed, Bujffled, Nickled, Snaffled, m^ ShMckltd, 

something is said, bereoii,, See alsio Wabt« 

WAN^tiiymingtO'nicMt* Avaiiy'WakKorciiRmiii'k 
8ce> Van— *a&d Wain. Abo hardies not saWfti or 
rift; but , iwUtwed of hazle-tooiulff^ wbenoe iXit 
flame frobablj. Seij Hyjrdlb^ Rinvand Twistbr. 
We call XhtrnWan-hurdleSi and Wanu^ and Wmttk^-^ 
the same. things, whichc are I beKeve in Scotland 
called Flakes. We -also call tthem ikeep-kurdles. 
It is probably the same in WanMcksfafre^ and may 
have taught Shakes^are this line — 

The skilful shepherd pieelM me eertain'iooRJii. 

M» tf Vtmee, i. i 

Altoding ^o Ihe strMagcni of Jacob, where {Gen. 
XXX. .37. 38.) he 13 described as having 

->-takeQ rods of^reea poplar and of the hazel a^ chestnat 
tree, and piUed white strakes in them, aud set the rods which 
he had filled bei^^re the flocks. , . . . 

See Pill. * 

In Scottish ymrid has sinriiiar meanings-^*' Watii, 
a rod-^Gof hie U7ancf; Dslnish vaand, baculns; virga. 

IFaw<f-6erf, a wicker bed.** J. 

• . . . * ■ 

;WANBS-T-p|r;WE5NS. . Floor, or other.boanling, 
not being square at the long «dges-^(the outside 
planks 4f too mapy be taken off a round log are 
otherwii>6 in some parts of their length) — are said U> 

\ be wemyf and auch discontinuities of outer edge, afe 

' called #Fatte9^ or ^eoiw. 

Wangher — orWoNOHBB. Large-^fttraj^g ; 

J H ,gir| <5?peciallj. Perhaps the uncouSb word j&o»»- 

ia/ which see may be the .99i|ie^. .M f^ri^iyic^ 


inay>be dtrived from the ides; oCMXiij to strap^^ or 
beat om/- 80 wkanger, may be • similarly from, M 
wktmg or. bang. See Strafpbr^ and Whakg.-^ 
S^fUcer, Wapper, Wkacker ^^ ^se Jlader those 
words — may be of like origin. 

Want. A mole. Ihave doubt if thi? word be 
used in Suffolk ; although I have been recently told 
«0i' , If it all, . it is on the border of Norfolk. — 
GW^st^afto Ray, gives it as a Norfolk wiord, from 
^#^9lemon ufd^iit and wdnitlwnp, or ail'ti-tump,. u 
mof^-hill in G!oucestersfaii^. " See MbiLl^ARP^ 
Nibfes; ^ving^the dtimd-expkLiiAtfbn %s kUy, a^d& 
tiiei^e illtistrations— ; , '* 

' ' ' ' * t.— SheCv hath the. ewr'es.of'a want J' 
P.— Dtrth shee waiit tuieii ' ' 

• 'Mpa,' W mole,' wafii or wont. *" IffrtTrt'i Pinai.' igS. 

' 'V .'"IRit'thefl;* iny lords, cotiiider, he deltglifsi ' 
>> = ' ^ 'S^^'^Hib^hii grace td n»|>dor eartl^'ira^ 

- ^ v« ^ ^o bii*pl0it ^irobsy : Mid ^U the d^hilC plaots* 

;»>^ .b:i » ►. "' cj; , Vh^f W.Mag. 413*: 

Want^ Saxon : meanii^ to tarn op— >a mole ; Katinaa It toni^ 

IjiJleigiVeft Uii^isamjB jj^VOtt for the i^amie of Ww^ 

- WaIp. Ablbw^'^liigiyeowawajifihechops^.'^ 
W^j^pOi, M baAingf» So In Seottkh — 

A wdp ml a cortter ttane o^ WalfiP dtkg wad defy (he doctor. 
; i' • ' T.^wyL. SrdS. U. fTfi 

In German fTajppea means arm generally. 

ff^^jHMD^tio^^^.means a fall. ** I com down tieh 
i wip^ , See WAPP.^N-^and Ajnt m ibfR-Appm^ 
diitri^Vimtaiy words implying a beating. In Jaroei^ 
son is " Wapf a q^ttick and smart stroke.'' See 

\\rAPPJER. , . ' . - IP 

Wap'd. SeeWAPES, 

Wapbs. TheiFapo«inh«*low8piritiNl — nervous' — 
8olitaQF^yawiifaig^<K>h dear 1 1 Vc got thcWapes." 
^ ^TiiS lid ' dblesome a plave I'm wap*d ta dead 
aaoit*^- • See Wambn. - -u • 



:Wappsk., ShaKespeive mes a word idnch I 
«]|spQctiahavebeeRUifc«Bt C<iw,thig; thoMiLi camri 
mentntoni have not continned my suspidoiu Xi»^^b 
finding geld, introduces into his bitter speedi this 

• ' ' — - ihii if it • t 

' lli»t iDftket the tooppenM widow w<Hi, agaiA. T*dfXiv.S. 

^**Wof^d or wappm'd'* :#aitl^ Wa^)>urto9^ b^t 

iives no authority or reason f9|r sa^juig 4so, " figi^-* 
eg both somwifv^ and tei;nifi|edi, €i%\k^ for t&Vlofi^ 
of a good h|isband or by die treatias^t .of a badvr-x 
But goUy he aaySy can overcqme bofthher^affj|ctioi| 
and her sorrow." Whatever Shahespefune smf 
have said or meant» his right reverend commentator 
has left the word just where he found it* _ • 

In Suffolk we have toappem meaf^ng-^tseitker 
sarroto/Worlerr|^«j;»bttt--7fltoiii9ro6tci#,liif^« Wt^ 
ping, la I suppose, the word--^'' What.^^iiKQ3>p<» 
fellow 'a is,girowi|^-Ttha03 <^e9^a.«fxW 
to eive a goojd lofp, or blow : . equiyileBl :tOiS<ra^ 
pai^ or mooMng^ as applied to. a child. See 
Wanghbr.' • • :-:'.. 

•■: "^ 

If ^Shakespeare really wrote mtjppfii% ^ 1 may 
l^viTt&e word pretty much as tiie Idtnied bism>p 
has <i^(H»e^b«it> if Jii»M6«r^ H^^qsot, it^ k quite de- 
scriptive of fuAMt^ imMctn^ hmimt,2»SM 
^i^ifov 2 ^ .V^» ife sheb^ larg^ and strapping 
^ita^« we shwld say.*' She's a wapper.** 

The foUdwittg is'ffom Narei 

f^ng^wom-otiweakeiiedr- ^ iWlattcr-is giwui iB'43FO0e P. I^latf 
» iGliiiiee4t<nh,; words. «nd ezplaised ''MstkBa^or^tigiiQ^A^^ 
ijpK»kea of atifik perioo.** 

this (gold) It is ^ ^ ^' r 

That makes the wappm^d widow wed again. T. «^il. 

Here we find it it a compound f' 

.-^it- '^Whvpifm'^udaikcraafUg .x .fH'i^v 


Yonngaad v»-f0qpp^yi^qf^jkaUiiy^;9A^£#dii^, .K.A 
Both words liave betn doubted. Iiy the 'cinnM&atorsf'liaitl; 



kaMTBot tbatwe e«itiMfcft4taj|]iUif better «f 4tiik Haajt. 
eoBJectnres may b« seen in the notes on the former passm. bat 
none that are tatisfactory.' It seems dear^. at leaQt> thai oofh 
dronid be spelt aKke, 

With dtie deferelsce; 1 think not. I cannot stHt 
help' opining that' tchppen'd, applied to a i^idow; 
means wapen*d and is equivalent to outi/bap*d: and 
that foapper*i,itap[ie9, Kke wapp*d, a beating. See 
WAF^WAPBSH^aiid Wappbr.. 

'"WApPEjR. ' Lafj^eV Strongs rohust^^^specially 1 
young woman 6t widow. We have bikny wbrdis xle- 
seripli^e 'Of ^sfu«h'>fN;rscMto*^ ^ tinder Wft^K6isR 

aiid WafprN.' Oirff^aeas^ •«tcMa> t* refef to Htkku 

p^tson a^ could give one a ioappeii^ that is a betlhigi 
*fWhkppt^, alargiBffiaii or womao: toy thing fcnjpj 
a Hmmpef.^ Oh^s^^ The latter' word reminds m% 
that of a gross- falieBoodi we should- say **ThatV a 
UPPP^t ' Ve^valetm .toa boi^cer o;r > a thuQip^r— 
a wap^ being a thump or blow. See. WAiP— -ancl 


_Waps. ,Aw99P«: it i»iiotuQf)OQynon with u«ti^ 
transpose. |w;o4karib.^onso|^uts^t}Kis fn-effcwt, for 
lbf<^]rftpi^trr^^«epuisnvv&Nr licence^ some oiyberA 

which do not now occur to me. See those words,: 
and uqder JSer, Lax. j^nd Shuck, for some notice of 
this preneness to fraosposition. And in reference tq 
other counties^ Ray in his S.,and £. country worda| 
says that in Sussex for ** hasp, clasp, was^, thej 
pronounce hapse, ctapse, ivapse,'*. &c. E. W. p. &i,^-r- 

..• Wopip ^was(i» TTopy mtheExnioiQrdlalectp Grote* . , 
^ Wnpa^V^imipi or bee. C/ieiker. ) • .! . 

So the Scotch and otliei's say mukeUf or mixefi*-^ 

' War-be«tlk8. *• targe maggots^ brtf* 111 Jlb« 
Hacks of cattle. Norfolk." Marsha(r$ R. B. ^ Thfe 
i am told is also a fibfblk hazBe— -but I do -not 
^ial^ I ever heard it— certainly not lately. > . ' . > 

' Wakd. As 'a compound^ uied in the sense "o^ 



wkI^ vi6ti \htia is ginieral-^ i<i inward. WeJ^ 
iDd^^' pronounce it, short— ^loa^^ . '•'j(psj^g'e-^d^. 
-—toward Ipswicb — ^Ihis way-wad— ^^Int waj-iprtd— r 
kffhatatoad (which. see) this way. . S^e ToWjiBA — 
ajQ^ WAH. Uiid^r^ Cup, j^ a qiibtatioo froii^ 
S^hakespeare in which he usesitr— 

Whea tapers l^otn to bed'<wfr«i. • ,^ 

In Scottish ** Wart, in coinpaahioa of adrerbsy m 
the^iame with the English loonf ; 9s imwari^ iary99fdp 
Ang. 3a«. toeard, Iceland. 'ver/. versus/' J. ' \ . , 

'. .W4SB.. Any britde t|4ttgft «re (|» caUed in c^m-' 
pQ$iftiQn/ as ui o$hae paiiiu -Riit I think we ^piy 
i|;iit«gl3} in.a wny not geneDaL. The i^ety or acr, 
^1^ 9a«iifaetured at a hfy^lfclt^ w^e s^ «v9r» 
•ollacturely; and to other |toc]|;Uivlrad<e; aotter 
timbi cten to live stock. See Qabt.^ . » 

* ^Warm. Rich — in eomforMble eircnmafancee* 


- - - - •« - ..-."» 

Warmrnt. Vermin, in p;eneral'— applied also 
^tnperatively io an oniamard boy, j^, dog, ic. 
Siee Grill ai^ Orizzlb. An ill bted dof wooltf 
be/stigmati^ed With the cbaracHer of'* downright 

., -^ » 

' WarR. . An. abbreviation ptobabfy of hewartr-, 
'' Warr, horse *^—-a ctiutioh to a hoiind in danger of 
being jbrodden on. " W^rr,' sheep '*-^warns him 
from i^gression. *<Warr, heads 'V-^^M be ex- 
daimed by a boy throwing any thing into the air, 
which in its fall might endanger or annoy his- play- 
fellows — if but in a triflii^'degree the eifcotion wotild^ 
probably* .be given too late. .. i- , >. ., ' 

Wart. Ploughing land across the line <if the 
laUt |||n;oyf jji^cc^i^d Wartinff^^or, overwart, Fffim 
tiiipariyx^l^ly. " Yow insist wart it.*! vlijs ^ 
procete in making fallows, to ge(; the^pp^^, g^asf 
out. In. Cheshire **Wari or rf^ther umiZ^ fH>A 91 
l,aiicashi]re ^ai«^, ,is to oyerturp,. and ^ sl)eep 
mwaii, is a cast sheep. Skinner derives ^ifrom the. 


nj^ileed a sens^ of faUen in Suffolk ; and all diese' 
wortT^ ni^ have tbe same source; tho^ it is curiofis 
^AinH^how they have been thus dispersed. See 
QxBRWARf^ i;.%U9^ wHte9 \t Oterfhwurt-^ / 

itide l^ailAf^d* H^»Mi^ muttk, if y&wili; to the k]iec«» 
Aikd pampas it thea, :i9 a busbandlypart. o, 156. 

TiilMic ilwQorte wHt^s oovtipus foe ^ompostli A laorf^ 
on the luttda^ n&c«. wtf icall tivri^* 

WAs^^BO^lfs; 'T1iel<^ei^)rfTa&n3s^^ 
oftre'^i^ €hah, znd'Spjrawh, are' I believe nes^lv. 
the sante fhio^. Sefe those wordi :^ and un9ef. Bo^f 
for Tarions Suffoft names of the (^ious poriions c 
a tree* 

.1 J li ij < 

Wask. a paviour'tf moMmet^ 

WASfiSBl. T«tchyf— 8fliii|gr— «cie thpij^ w&ds— 
irritable. It n often ns^d by Shakespeare, in this 

« A <. 

Watb^-bbwxtcued« , Very weak grog : or poor 
tipple io general. ... * 

k* ,^ . : i. -» ...^ »v 

•WATfeRStAiN.: Laftd)^^fteiitive€fflarfacewti!eri 
dhri^tt^iliHng to be draiiied^ is thtts iven^deiikB^W^ 
Weshbtild say pOiidned-4^t< ^ rather 'fpt€^e»i'^Wittt 
liNife]^ ''-whence Aitfed <)^ sfaiH/b^ ^ easy process. 

Wattlb. The opj^riition q^f intertiyjiuiiigp hizle 
or other flexible young' wippd into imansijoi; mn-- 
kurdlet; or gf youn^ live staff >ia fences, to >thi%ken 
thein. iHardles of this sort are called trtfff!^, as 
well^as by the name just g^Vdi^ 'See Wa*». .. v; { 

Ray gives WditieSy as a Sussex wofd, I^C d%c 
scribes' the article differently^ as '^ ' ' ^t* 

— ^made of split wood, in fashion of gulei^ wherct^tjbc^ ns^^ 
to fold sheep, aa elsewhere iahardle^-^-ab A. S. iMtfiofy crates,' 


wood; tiie^giUs o£ a pock;, w rea flesh nnd^ ^.torkeVs neck,, 

''•'".' ' • ';• ".^' ■ ••' - ^. Df, A:^ 

*- WatHet, Imitilfci ; ' ahd lijc loW^t jiarr \ii a CoclV&nilJ ' ' ' '' 

The btfer id also ft Sbffolk%«riir^of OS^rdl^^ 
Bailey, has " Watiied; SaxQiir-'VAderWifeh. ifoKte or 
hurdle^. Wattle$ ; spketed ^ralel» > > ^' httrdUes ; 
also folds for sbeep^ made with splits WckMl.', Also 
the gilld^ of a cock, and the red piiggered' flesh 'that 
lyasga lindj^. a turkey eoek'8iie4c.^<> sfiavAfWaMkif 
of a cock or hog ; i^>]iaariy:the saoie latanig^ ^ n > 

Wax^: To graw-T"vta i^ay "-^ror i^iT^yejra^?^ 
V ta dpn t fare fa^ wa^" " .'A; wax ^^n^ " we iise» 
in its common sens^^. , '/.How ^ew EoI^b ^Jbom«-- 
fi^l4, git on ? " " ;a wifxi^V . Thus Jgh4.^p^af e-n . 

As this temple waxet ^ f 

The inward service of the mind and sool 
Grows wide withsivrrMMiefc' iii5i . {f /. . . •: A . • 

Ana. we S9LJ:f^a JiEtd,,qf:(Wd2p''*-HDeanuiig a sn^art 
cle^er^hieUovir. ; GiiCs/ sa^ thji;» of jroimg feUowSx 
like nurse to Jfuliet, of Pans — 

A man, jonng ladj^J — ^^^J — >oc^ <^ man,^ 
A9Wl^WoHd^w&y/!te*8ateanofitMi«.' 'R.^J/uS, 

L; ^' 

Those who have heard Mrs. DaVeDpdrt^speak*^ 
U^«^^tw^t liniesj wti) «^ri^9atfily ^get tHim- 

grewVMi4!y^twhft*W$l0)eff6<%t w^ul^ lN»:isifp0c|i|4: 
qi^ iheiB, by ^n. qfiim^. is«4 jcaiirel^ss tn^A^ \ . - 
T«sser us^il^ iQitb(eiiwi^#5ir9i9--n^ft wri 
icfoc, for the rhvme — 

*' Stick J)l<?ftty of bonshs among' fnticivatpeasef f^ 
* vToelhnbettberefefe^nd'io'iranch aitbKreaii^ " "^ 

•: wi5bidoiaigri»ore4lbftd«naii(l^rpi«ertlie5f)€[>ear^ '••^ * '. -^ -> 
.,:^ Ii;ppn9opk,aiid tjir^egr. jl^^iie jp^^iag thsi^ bezi fp. ^(ttfc.. . 

For cZiittiier/i'we' liho«bi'iflfaj^'el9M6«ri ' JoMtiM^y. wcr 
uffl^i%t)ie,^ai»e i^j^iwe* See Joq« u&e;^, is evideBlly, 
the plural of beak,.: iSjeed^AMftEE-^Suvt^r-^and: 
Hat. "To wax: Saxon-^to grow, to bpcome, 
toenci^afee:**^i?iii%/;„;. • -^ ; ' • / 

Weal. The rise or seam on tJktnltit whidi M« 


km ft Uovvi ytiAsimAk er whijk 4ft k misbiilar'|jirt; 
l:kaoiv df iito'i^thcfr ijaneYdr tbk^tahfNyrary $wit' 
iiM99,aid«ss it heTieiisI^, w^hfckas notl. I^liev^ ai 
goMfftliword* '>I^once heafS an Imlnnaii say 
^ J ?a w«lt yottlifcc a^^ bei^." 
I The'swelliii^ on tke head 'incident to a thump' iir 
t)iBt* qpkrter, we- dQl. J9Im%; w&ich ' dee ; atrJF 
iitW in the Appendix; " Wails, marks in ibe'sliiii 
afi^erjJ?eafcii^,;V } QiP^A.,,,y^whfial9i: ti?M»; a 
push 6r^iiQjple^f^l]^.'>*^6,fQ^^ b/rpni jyornr-r 

^^»^'*99h^^^9V»^ .- . , ,, , • '.. . '- 
^jl^ jp^^i^U^liU ^ffce :i« aU bBJii^klesj; and vheSt^f Jind 
knoDSy ftn4 coaTii of fire. Heii. V. iiu ^, 

. Chaucer luid spited, whelk^ |ind kivobs-—'. i 

/ ''l%atjAtgtit'hiJ^ betp^'n lOf his w^^^ 
" '^ '^NeWtbeknobbe«jBittingpi\^hi8pheekes. Con. 7, . 
''^TI%^1%; ttreakedy ttriatecl; from iif)b^U^tbAeat-->of ^ toote f 
ihe mark of a lash on th^ skin. ... 

We should',.||^rli9|%9».Rroiioi4nce.1^^ word in- 
difftfeirtl^ wiUtf jo^lliir whekl:' hnt not, I thinks 
whelk* Sc*)W'HI'Mtv•^•l^^^f)^i«J:.^•J■:- ;.■ ^,..' 

ilj^liejl|o.^fl ^clMng of; i topt^ A^ contiAu^ wail 
wa ffickly child, or any •VtJi^itljeitnWatiQn^ 
a distressing^^ wearyingi, or worrying nature. TKe 
St^tlh'hS'rfwVtfdfi^^^^^ . ' 

Ang. Sax. v^M^ Jas«is-r-Teia|l«crt^; cAiisiii^ ' trooibte^ifd^d/ 
amof^U WefrJjfuk jpt/ronounced vearifwif, cansinjj. pfif|-or 

See,WilE)g^fT._ . ,.,, ; ^, .. • ,,.,,g 

- ---¥^A^«^-6iSccW^2ZENv. ,^ ,: . . . ^..;,,.5,r 

W|^ : Weeded; '' HewwedilmJt therii! spAsfV^ 

IfiAMi. AiiitttialeishgeR. Yoyhem^JKS 
fenaie. TJiSrfer Croipe, JDans, tfclg^ind'T 
I have hinted at^tHegre&t variety Of ifaml^' ilutt 
might U^ '^dUe^d" ^s u^ed m mfTtraxt tvM 'of 
England, for thrif^r^^cS^ and «<^ti^ of this 
moaf ^Ji@r cl^M of Ia^IUb i and I iMtve referred 


to ll^s Acticl^<"ttiiift iid» mttbd^ihAti I;.hkirc my 
thing faurihcar. to .saiyj I imnjr.jiiatiiyAdothiit anoa^ 
many btheiS names iiaSdofcl^iidrJlipi Ib ar irlmi^ ^and 
QmnteViJ^'^lw^ . JFea^Aer* is)the liott/coouBna 
and perhaps correct proateaciatkwioftfilkee^cninlieif 
-rrBaUiey. spells U sb»-rbut denltea t)ie' wacdfindm 
^3arXon wfidder^ o.r Dutch widier'ff-*',^Bh!eep 

gellle4«'' ; : . . ':.'.-. .. •' .-M •.'-.•.! '>iit li': ' ' :. 

' Wek.^ Stnallw «*^A wee4)rfbfSi,tbW'^^^P'!icl(f 
ttrVcii^d,' ^h(ff t^ ahnoiit ^terV ^ittTc^ihiiii;.' It iai 
QOi^kmoa w ^Scbttiak «— spelled we^ -mmefW^iy^Mym 
Nares under ^ee, explains it "smalf^ shrank tib^f 
^Mnblogv dotihtiWr^^ati^ gites'the fttldtrixtt^ ai&A 
trations and inforinatiqn-77 . , ^. -^ 

He hfttb ^1^^ lUOe wee ^a^i ^ijritV a tittle jiclf^)beg^*/ " 

It IS coouson m the Scottith 4vUeqt nfx^ in. the nwt|J|rot 
. . Tbey raiae B tfee beforJB t1^e'coc1c>, ' ,, 

A tote mouse will ereep under a mickfe^fPfpiUM^;^. m 

j.It h^not jtt (to^eT/ dMddm very faodfttf lata^i»^* . 

dfe^iboTe sense Wiftrtfii/t.< . ' ^'^ V * -' W ''' 

Webk. Squeel^:, .eap^cially , the. di^poaal fifeWkj'. 
plaint bf. a sicU^ child; or,Qf,.i^ pig. ^ In Scottuia 
V i<^itc&<aA:» or |9€e^«. to. sqiieafc, to wImbcJ'. J* 

'-'WJiFT. Wat«;d— '^ 'A weft *a8 hkud.'*' ^•T^cff 
him off" — put him off» with some <^cnj|f » ' The« 
Scottish has tropin a like., ^ense'/'llie inter- 
weaving of hair on a sti^g ta ht hiadetnto wigs — 
6^ fadieir the 'AiftMi)eiBa.pce0aredr*»48 calfed M^ Iol 

S#Qfc ;ftn^K p«^^^ .eUcwfrerCt .' In opr pW su- 
toors^icy^ .V^ uffod' ip, the sefi/&e;fii;sl giyen-^Th«% 


; And9i»ii8er«*--cited«byNcu^wlinb«xpla{fi» 

aa the purtieiple of wavtd^putraside^ ^ .^ 

VexMi thy inerocMddtidnyhe'i^eft. J?*. iQ* Rt iv; ^6; 

Well ta dew. Well to do— domg well—tliaf 
IS, li&ving the means of living comfortably; 

Welt. As a verb — to beat severely — so as. to 
raise wales or weals-^See Weal; and Aint, in 
Ae Appendix. I 

Wemmently. Violently — sadly — eipeciallV 
applicable to the lamentations of sorrow^ See 
Take on. I had supposed this word to be a cor- 
ruption of t>e^em6n% — but the Scottish **waymin^^ 
waymettt, womenting, lamentation." ' J— seem to 
imply an originality of word. And in NaiesVe 
have — " Wayment; lamentation ^v--*- » 

' Sbe made so piteous mooe and deare vfayment, ■ ' 

F, Q. III. iv. SSk 

To iDOj/inmt;, to laoieBt. X€ ocean in Cbmacer, and'pcca^on- 
ally ia (ater Autihors—- « 

For what bootes it to w«epe and to wmftnentf , 

When ill is chaoilsty but doth the ill increase* . 

Spem, F. Q, II. I la. 

WfiNNEL. A weaned calf. 

Curst cattle that nurteth— Poor toennel soon harleth. 

, Tuner, p. 4^ 
Again — 

Olve cattTe their fodder in plot dry and warm. 
And count them for mixing, or other like harm : 
Young colts with thy wenneU K^ethcr go serve» 
Lest, 1 urched by others, they happen to ster ve. J6* 59. 

Finch never thy wemieU ai water and meat Jfr« 156. 

And Cocker says " Weanel or Weanling is a yoiing 
creature newly weaned." — " Wennel, a young beasf, 
oxy bully or cow. Ess. and Suff.'' Chrase* 

This wolvish sheepe would ecatchen his prey, 

A Lamb) or. a kid, or a wcanell wast. Sp, Sh: Kah 

M ' WbjTsday. Wednesday. So in Scottish ^'ffom 
iha(Belg;ic weensdagh, Icelaodic wtmsdag, the day 


^ . . : AnAjBtQCMig dia^Hfaidooft 

Boodwar is WedBe9dfty,,'iiifi dfty o^ JEkndJJBuda 
Botore correcdy) the :,Woden or Mercury of Eastern 

Wkt. ^Rain. "Dew it wet?"— "Iss-^tadcw." 
€* No— ta* abn^t— ta fare ta mizzle." ^ See Mizzle, 
for other words denoting any light rain. '^ * 

Wbt Quaker. One of the very refl|^^eta)>le 
fiociety who may not always be so abstemioua in 
the article of good-fejlowship as the Friends iisuaUj 
are. Wet-parson is also sometimes applied tO'Ar 
Cleirk suspected of similar, deyfations from the path 
pjf strict prudence. '- ■ . 

.Wbtshud. -Wet-shod — ^wetrshoed. InCfafftfiire 
«* Wetchet or Weiched^vtet sftod— wet ia the feet.'* 
W. " Woichett . wetshod, wet in the &et. Oxford* 


Wbt thb sickle. Drinking in a pufolic liouse 
the amount given by a farmer to 'his 'rabdurers, as 
earnest t on taking their harvest. This is usually a 
shilling a piece* See Earnest: and Capper- 
CLAWlNGy where this phrase occurs. We have 
also Wet your whistle^ in this Scottish, and probably, 
in an extensive, sense — '* To wet one's whistle, to 
take a drinlc." J. 

Wezzbn. The wind pipe. ''No more thanky 
•^rm up to the wezzen almost already.'* — :Jusqu k 
aorge* This is an old poetical word. It may have 
been the wheezing pipe : we sometimes sa[y wezzen 
pipe. Shakespeare uses it alone — 

Bstter his sk^ull, or paunch him with a staice, or cut his wee* 
tand with thy "kuife. Temp, in. 2« 


We too have paunchy as a verb as well as a. sub* 
stantive. See Paunch. 

Tfae-trecMnda the throat-pipe ^r sullet* O. J). A 

The same in Bailey. In Scottish. '':JFi2eii,. the 
Ihroat.'' .J[, -^^'J^eBMiM^ more recently wxittto 


uteBMit ; ihe throat i from the Saxon/' Naresi ^ 

( ' ^— had his wetdnd been a little wider. Sp, Sh. Kal. t 
BeoausQ the thirtde swains*, wkh l^ollow hand* . . , 

. Coa?eied the streame to weet his dire weatand, 

Hatl. Sat. IL 1* ▼. 5. 

, 1 know not if Qmxzen — which see — meaning tp 
cfaoak, be cognate with wezzen, the throat. Quezzen 
is nearly the Scotch mode of pronouncing the latter' 
word ; Jameison writes it wizen. With us, wizzen 
is a different thing. See WizzEN. Nares say* 
that Wizzle is supposed to be a corruption of wC' 
zandf or weazon ; but 1 do not think 1 ever heard 
it in Suffolk. He gives this illustration—^ 

Forbid the banns, or I will cat your wizztlp 
And spoil your squiring in the dark. 

r ./ Ct«y JIf atcA, O. P. ix, 245,., 

, Whack. Whacker. Whackbn* A blow — . 
a thump. , A wa^ken^ a beating. Of such words we 
have a great assortment. See Aint, in the Appendix* 
Whacker^ is large, strapping — **^whnckengal'^-^ 
Similar to Swacken, and Bonnka. — Slasher, Sniasher» 
Strapper, Swinger, Wapper, are other denomination^, 
of the like class; seldom, if ever, used in a bad sense^, 
unless indeed for a " whackeu lie "^ — equivalent to a 
swacker^ or a thumper. Bailey has, ** Ifhisking^- 
very great, swinging; as a whiiking lie/* See 


In the first sense, the Scottish has ''To whauk,i6 
thwack." J. , [ 

Whacken. Robust— rlarge — SeeWHAfcK. 

Wha^G. The thong or lash, or as we call it the^ 
tanner of a whip— or the leather tie of a shoe, or of 
highlows. . See Highlows— and LanHA. Bjjt 
more especially, I think, that which serves to iay on 
to an unruly one. A slight cane imported horn 
China is by us — 1 know not if by the Chinese also>' 
but it sounds like a Cliinese word^-called a whang*^ 
hee. What does Shakespeare mean; in his Prince of 
Tyre, if indeed, that piay be his, by this threat ^-*-' 

Look how thou stirrest now! come away, or I ^If fetch th^d 
mth n vjanniont ii. 1. 

2 T 



** I Kate beard '^ sttys a ^ottiMeitlator w tkb wopi>: 
^'amoii^t the viil]^ar in Devmisbm^ the ferb to 
mm or to wanff, med for to beat or to fXresA'sovDdly. 
Perhaps from the GeunTufwannen, to fan €(t to trtfi- 
9|Oio*" In, Suffolk we have the word tvang in the 
Devonshire sense: and "fan em along" is not Hn 
uncommon hint to a driver to flog his horses. See' 
Fan. It may refer to the cruel frequency of his 
act, like the movement of a fan in the hand* S. 
and V — are convertible letters — v and u the Kk^ — 
the words in question inay therefore be derivable 
from bang. 

In the sense first given we find it in Scottish— 

Of other men's leather sen takes huge wluaigta. May, p. SOI. 

*• A whang; Lomm A. S. Shoe-whang/' ib. E. W» 
p. 112. And in Jameison is **Qukayng or wkat^, 
d thong — to whang, to flog: Ang. Sas. thwamg**' 
** Whangs, leather thongs, Norf." Cr>^0se« See- 
Goof, verse 6, and note. 

' The question which I put above, I am no farther 
a'ble to answer. Nares illustrates the phrase qoolittg 
divers authorities. But does not accord with Mr» 
Bosweirs conjecture ''with a wmHowing^''^for a 

What ysowI I can ircarcely explain how tfaiar 
i^ used — but it is sometimes heard in a quaint and 
not unpleasant way» A lad or man being interro- 
gated in. a familiar or friendly vein — "Ah— what. 
Jack 1 "—will quickly reply — *^ what ycow? "— ^s 
inuch as to say " Ah — hah — ^that's y<m is it t 

Whelk. See Whilk. 

, Whe;um* a hollow tree — or more correctly hrff 
^ hollow tre&^'^whelmed down under a gate way, as a 
water course — serving the place, though but badly» 
q{ guttc;r-bricks. •* Whelm it " — is to turn any thing 
bolUxw (s^ cbest or basket without a top or lid) hott6m 
upward, or rather mouth downward.. It is a good. 
^ord« I.rather unexpectedlyi read it i^ Ray-^bat 
not given Wa localism — 


• ►% 


To icAaotie— CbeshJre-^to cover or tohelm over. We mtl nal 
kUl but tt>fcoave-^Chesh. Frov. spoken of a p^ or fowl that tliej 
' have overwhelmed with some vessel in readiness to kill it. 

In Seottii^b these words may be Ifttie eke than our 
wheiwif with a little clHnge of the inal sound— ^ 

' To whuntmel, whotnel, or qvAemlt, to turn vpstde down ; Sw6* 

• dSth iofmmnid, J.-^-T4 wftc/niy or wW&m, to covor. O. £L A - 

Grose has it as a Norf. aud SufF. word— for thfe 
uses first given above. And uader IFAott«ehe€|UOtes 
the explaqatiDA j^bove given from lUy . " To whelm, 
or to whelvt; SaKon — to turn or cover the open side 
of a vessel downwards." Bailey. We thus find 
^vAeim^ wkdoe, wh^we, whemel^ end odier nearly 
^sioiilar. sounds, Go^ateia the same sense. 

WttELF. An hnportinent pup]^ of a boy. BaJ- 
«)cy preserves this sense-^-^wUdi is not, {nrobably, a 

*€t)nttned one. 


WttERRiT. A sharp blow, or cuff. This is 
;(&xultod kk. the Ust of siaiilikff woids under AiifT* 
.8es tiial word in &• Appendix* The Word is aett 
•CQDiiaon in Suffolk. I do noit reeoUect seeing it 
jaay where except in Nares, who has this arti^e— ^ 

Wherret, or whirrit ; a smart blow or box on tk« tar, . " 

• Troth, how Fm invUibie, Til liit him- a ionlid vtktrretoa 
the ear, FurU«m, W. U 

How meekly , , ,| . 
Thif other fellow here receivecl his whirrit'. 

B. and Fl. f^ice Valoiir. iv. last SC. 

Derivation, uncertain — ^Nares a(Ws — See TodcTi Johnson* It 
appears by an example there given that Blekerstaflf, in L. in a 
VU. used wherret for the comaion eoUo^kl word wcrrit; 
which, I cpAceifve is not made from thiti but a xpere corruptio|a 
of worry, 

; See Wearing— WoRRET — and Worry. I 
have just found this in Bailey—" A wherrit; a boat 
on the ear, br^lap on the chops. To wherret; to 
give such a box or clap/' 

Whj&t* a tnomiog dram or diwight: also a 
.hfsty snap^ Of theie tn^leii seie wider Bfivsx. An 



;idea of whetting or shaipeniag (he appe(ite» and of 
*^ moistening t^ clay/' probably gave rise to this 
«word» and Wet, which see, and Whistle. 

\ Whilk — or Whblk. The fish of the common 
ceehle, or Bucdnum. It is eatable ; and turning 

,red when boiled, the name of Soldier is commonly 
applied to il. We pronounce the word Sw^fa, which 

.see. Nares has thb article — 

^ Whdky : itreakedy striated, from whelk, 

< Ne ought the wheffcy peaorle* esteemeth hee, 

Which are from Indian seas broaght far away* 
^ Spent, Vieg. Gnai, ▼. 105. 

v^nd whdh, he explains ** the same as waUj or wheai^ 

stripes, marks, discolorations.*' See Wbal. I should 

.rather have imagined the epithet whelkj^ to have 

.referred to the shelhf origin of the gem. Cockles, 

Shells, and Cookie-shells, are synonimous with U4. 

Wbealf or Whelks Saxon, a posh br -pimple. JBoilcy. 

" Whin. Fnrze, or gorse, in other cmintie»-*^In 
-'Scotland this beautiful bush is called wAiii as with 
-lis. It is an old name. See Wisp. ^ Wkini a 

shrub called knee-holm" Bailey. This last word is 

new to me. 

.WHiNrCHAT. A pretty little bird, that twitters 
mostly among whins. The same perhaps alluded to 
by Ray in thb passage, ** Whinner-neb, a lean spare 
faced man. Whinner, I suppose is the name of 
gome bird that usually builds in toAii», ^having a 
. alciider bill or neb." E. W. p. 66. 

Bill, Neb, and Twitter, are Suffolk words; and may 
he found in their places in this Collection. ' 

Whinjer. a weapon — especially a large sword« 
The word is now rarely, if ever, heard : but I have 
heard it in Suffolk, as well in the sense given, as ih 
' that of expressing ether large strong things ; a girl 
particularly — and swinger also. For a weapon, 
whinydrd used also to be a Suffolk word—- and-hy- 
perbolically, for a knife ; like Whittle, )ihic^ set. 


^ Scot&k '^WJmgiBr, mhiitga^^ a short hahget 
used at a knife at neols^ and aaa awoid m braib^'^ J^ 
Nares amply illustrates wkinywrd; adding " Tiie 
Scottish dialect has whinger m tlie same sense^ which 
evidently must ha?e come from the same origin/* 


. Wiuk N Y. The half neigh, half muger^ of« hax^ 
ipare, or colt* See Niggiieu 

To w/itnney/'toDeighy 93 a horse does. 0. P. A^ 

Whimusxiv^, neighing. Cumb. Grosp, 

Xo whiuTiy ; tp neigh ; as a horse or young colt. Bail^» 

* Whip belly yengbance. Poorsub-^acid heer^ 
or anjy thin drink. Mgi-gui, is aootiier of tbes# l»w 
alang terms — Whi^tle-belly another^ 

Whjpstawk. a whip handlfi-^otfaervise wkip^ 
9tkk, or stock, or sio/A. See Stali^ for a vasiet]^ 
of tool or implenieAl handles* I find, vary unex« 
pecteffiy, the following article in. Nares; showing 
that our names are not, as I was disposed to Ihiol^ 
Qiere localisms, or vulgarbm^*- . 

Whipitoek ; the st^ck or handle of a .whip, but firequently 
put for the wliip ittalf ; particularly a carter's whip. 
MalvoU0*8 i)o$e is no whip$tockm Tw, N, u» ^ 

Phttbusi when 

He broke his tehipstockf and exclaimM against 

The horses of the sun. B* and Fl, Two Nob, Kin$. i. 2« 

For by his rusty outside, he appears 

X» have practised more the whipstoek tkaa the lance, ' 

PificUh ii. $• 
Beggars fear him more than the justice^ and as much as th% 
whipstock. Eark*i Microc p. 60. 

Bought you a whistle and a whip-staJk too. 
To be revenged on thsir tillainics. 8pan» Trag, O. P* >il. ISO. 
It U, Nares adds, once or twice used 86 a name of reproMh 
fpr S cstter — ** base wMpitock." 

Whipstick. See Whipstawk. 

WHiit. The sound of any thing in rapid motion 
—a liall through the air, or ^e rising of a phea« 
sant — " Ta whurr'd by me." Whiz'd, would be 
used >vithbut much discrimination— and pcrhapf. 



wu£d* **WhMr; wknz; in Falconry— the ihttmi^ 
ol partridges or pheasants as they rise.^' BaiUy. 

• Whirl-bomb. See Worrel-bonb. 

* Whisk. See Wise. 

Whiskers. The hair on the upper lip— as ontil 

lately> I helieve, all over England. New, the hiiir 

.andcr the ears — ^sometimes under the eyes abo^^ — 

bear this term; and the labial comae, are called 

mimatachei, or some such name. 

A whuker, a tuft of hair oa a man's apper lip. 0, D. A, 

WKUken ; little tofts of hair at the cornen of the mouth on the 
upper lip. Bai %. 

' Whisket. I am told that this name is not un- 
known in Suffolk for a basket : but I never heard 
it, and am in doubt. It occurs under the articles 
Kiddier and Ped m this. Collection. See under 
WiNNiCK. Nares says that he does not recollect 
having seen this word in use, but Coles acknow- 
ledges it thus— 

A whiiket9 Gorbisf cophinas. LaL Diet, Baxter also has it- 
nnder JBoseattdo — nnda fit (he adds) qnod Viminei cophini genus 
agrestibus AngUs dicitur toAtsfcet. GUus, Auti^, Brit, 

Whistle. Wet your whistle, or moisten your 
clay, and other quaint invitations to good -fellowships 
scarcely require explanation. See Wet the sickle 
-^and Whet. 

White-powder. A notion is very common, or 
^asy for I have not heard of it lately, that poachers 
And people who commit deeds in darkness, use a. 
noiseless white gunpowder. I know not if such a 
thing ever, existed — but Naces shows that it was an 
old ^ncy. Sir T. Browne, he adds, does.not deny 
that subh a powder might be formed ; but says that 
it would be useless — 

/.Such powder contrived either with or without salt-petrcj will 
lyirejy be of little force, and the effects thereof no way to be, 
feared : for as it omits of report, so will it of effectual exclusion} 
and so the charge he of little force which is excluded. Fv^* JErr* 


f Om offers to :Uj fiv« l^imdred pbvojs t^t you wenldUoi 
with a piuoi cluurgcd with white powder* B. ami J"/. Hen., 
HofiY For*, ii. «. 

. The idea, Karet addt* was Tery prevalent. So^e contpiratort 
In Queen Elizabeth's time confessed that they had intended to 
moider >the Queen with fire arms charged with white pewder ; 
but it is not pretended that any such preparation was found in 
their possession. Tliere is^ however^ an old poem by May» 
called The White Powder Plot, printed in 1662. 

White tapb. Gio. 

Whitster. a whitesmith — not common. Nares 
explains it *' a bleacher of linen ; one who whitens, 
it : from white,** The word he thinks not out of 
use ; but the authorities for it are few. It occurs 
in the M. W. of W. iii. 2. — and the time of bleach- 
ing is there called wkUmg-timei See Whittle. 

Whittle. To peel sticks in a peculiar manner, 
by boys — but I forget exactly how — and believe the 
word is nearly obsolete or lost. A knife is some- 
times, tho' rarely now called whittle* It is used in 
Hudibras, and in other of our ludicrous poems, in 
derision, for a sword. In Timon of Athens, v. 1. it 
occurs— but is not easily to be quoted briefly and 
intelligibly. It is used by Walter Scott, and by 
other recent writers, quaintly, in the sense of bladCf^ 
weapon, knife. 

In Ray I read " To whittle sticks — to cut off the. 
bark with a knife, to make them whiter Hence also 
a knife is, in derision, called a Whittle" £. W. 
p. viii. It is amusing to find exactly the same sense 
ifetained to this day ; and to note Ray's accuracy of 
observation. In another place Ray gives a farther 
explanation of the word Whittle, Among his S. 
and £. cotmtry words be says " A whittle is a double 
blanket, which women wear over their shoulders in^ 
the west country, as elsewhere short cloaks — ab, A. 
S. Hwital, SagOf Sagum, Lcena, a kind of gar- 
ment or cassock, an Irish mantle, &c." £. W. p. 00.' 
• A whittle, as described by Ray is a comfortable 
sqiHire or. oblong .warm artic^le thrown over tbo 


shooldvfff of aft raaiEf in SmtMk, aid I biiiere 
other parts cf EngianiL It is of wo(41eir, and, as I 
have said warm and comfortable; but never ap- 
proaches the **doiMe blanket "^of ^y. lo Scottiab 

Sax. hwitelt id. ihwktm^ culteUo raMDcant. J* 

Wkittte; Saxon. A sort of basket, also a Httle fauf(>— s 
child's blanket, or one worn by women over their slioidders; To 
whittle ; to cut sticks into small pieoei^ ^f*%» 

A vhittU, a small knife; a double, blanket worn by aome 
eonntiy women over, their shorriders. 'to vhittict to cut sticks 
iato ■maU piteea— <«piktttM» cut io tkat auauiec; O. IK A» 

WhitHe, 8 knife. Notii^. Orwe, 

' Awhittte; a small clasp knifb, CqlteHus—Cote* A Stxon 
w«rd. Karet, 

WiBBLE. A delicate pronunciation^ I imagine^ 
of ^a6Mw which 3e^. 

Wiggle-waggle. A tremtiloBs undulating 
motion — of the tail of a bird, more especially — in 
ititistration of whieh the following verse may he 
quoted from a well known juvenile- hueolic— 

• Little Robin ted breast ———Set tipon a pole s 
Wi^le^uaggie went^fais taii^^Anii^— 

—•but the finale is too familiar perhaps to reqtiire 
quotation. See Waggle. 

WiLCp. The sediment or lees of beer, bome- 
inade wine, &c. — also a brewing utensil. In the 
first sense, Crii&A« Hilk, and Ji^$, which see — 
are also in use. 

WiLL-jiLL. I am in doubt if this term be cur- 
fent in Sufiblk, though I have been told so, for aa 
hiermophrodile. It is so in Cheshire. W. The term 
is given in an O. D» A. and in Bailey, and similarly 
explained — tliough in phrase as well not to quote*-^ 
It is scarcely worth while to seek fax for the opgi& 
of this .term — Wili, and Jemty, perha|)8; like out 
usual John and Joan, which see. 

Wimble. The boret of a center bit. See nn- 
der OooFy verse 6, and note. ^ *^A. wmbkp. m 


piercer to bore holes with." O. D. A. In Bdley 
the same. See PuasB. 

Wind. Wine. 

WiNJ>-BEAM. The upper cross-beam of a roof 
--called also Collar-beam. The same in Bailee. 
, The lower, or main beams^ we call, as elsewhere^ 

Wind-egg* A hen's or other egg, with the film 
or amnion only. Where hens have not access to 
calcareous matter, the shell is imperfectly formed, 
or not elaborated at all. — ''A wind-egg, an addle 
egg that has taken wind.'' O. D. A. Our ancient 
friend was not much of a natural philosopher. 
'Bailey, however, gives the same explanation. 

.^ Wind-row. Mpvmgraas, or barley, laid loosely 
.in rows, exposed to the snn and wind to be dried, 
'is )iaid to be in irM<6i>iM. According to Ray^ in 
his S.. and E. Country Wordj— 

' A windrow is the greens or borders of a field dug up, in order 
• to' the -carf^g the earth oo to the laad to mend it. It isc odlcd 
,. Wind-ramt bmnie it is laid iajova aad exposed to- the triad. 
E. W. p. 90. 

With us the borders pf a field, the hrew of 
ditches, &c. so dug up, is called mannering» In 
Scottish — 

Whtraw, bar or peats pot together in long thm heaps, for the 
purpose of l>eing more easily dried. J. — Wind'ToWf a rank of 
mowed gnsi or haj, raked up- in order to be cocked. O. D. A* 

Win KEN. Used comparatively for speed or 
quifdmesi^ — " 'A rid like winken" — as quickly, per* 
baps, as one can wink, or squink the eye. 

WiNNiCK. To cry— to fret. A sickly, droop- 
ing child is said to be ** a poor winnicken thing''-^ 

^* Alius a winnicken.*' Ray sa^s the smallest pig 
of a litter is called a Whinnick. We call it the 

^barra-pig, or the pUmanf or pinlMUkei* See those 
words, in another place (North Country Words^ 
p. 104.) Ray gives ** Whmnock, ot Kit, a pail to 

j0arry nulk in.^^ . . 


Under th(fe aitiek JfikUJer, and ethers ^naux 
Tefnred to, I have however, fmie iile^uflfaamit dis- 
cussion of this class of words. And shall ptfUy add 
that Grose gives, as Norfolk Words, an exact 
transcript of the above quotation from Kay — and 
* Whisket, he explains, ** a basket, skuttle, or shal- 
*lowped. Norf. — WAitkin, a shallow, brown, 'drink- 
ing bowl." Pr. GL See Whisket. 

Wipe. One of those ^ argnmenla ad homipes/ 
of which a copious eivumeratipn is' exhibited imder 
'AiNt,'itt the Appendix. This id, similarly^ ia figu- 
rative flourish of ^ an oaken towel,' by which an 
offender, is metaphorically 'rubbed down ;* or as in 
'the case'of ilinftM^r, ' ^ruohed over./ SeeTowEJ^. 
The verb in question may not be strictly local. 

Tft^c, in the sense of a'MoW is Scottish; Ihaye 
'read it in a Scottish cdlh>qtiy, ' *'• 1f]Fj)e, ablow, dr 
S^ppoach.*' €frose. 

. WiP'J) HIS EYi* tn shootings if one miss. the 
biffdr md a. c^QipMuon, firing after* kill il^.'the 
. look j^ Of BMv^ ski&iutv gwnicr, is s«di to mrim He 
^ eye of his disappointed friend. The same leeliog 
'Is discovered «i t^i^- article in ^ares-^ 

' To tbipe a perstn't nose ; to chedt hftn. - - ** -. 

■ • Such cuuQuig nu^ten^ iMuit ko foo^^d aofBetimeySirt 
^nd have theiT woryhip^s nuea v:if'd» ^s lieakhful. , , 
W^ arc but quit B^and fl. Span, Curate, iv. ^ 

' 'S^botf UeiiteMaiit, w9t thfm wfer tby notetoiffi Mfijt4$ of 
.thii great heii. Chopm, Maw ^ay% A$¥:i Pjr^ W, ilO, "i. 

WiPPJLB-mBE. The wQoilsB iaar 4o whiqkjtke 
.traces of harnessed, horjies are f^ffixed at plongp or 
harrows. This is not^ I believe, a local ytoxA. 
Pummel-tree is a similar ttrticlei except bemg of a 
different length. 

WisR^OB WiiiSK . To move Mmbly or nqptcBj. 

.«' Th' ovfd fiillit vhuOt'd about like ayottig un*'' A 

^miik or u^kkk » qjbHi a light hreom or farushH^i-a^d 

it used to be a part of female dress, to go abovt tha 


m^K like the moAertt. whittkj^h^ps^ la Scot* 

To toitk, to harry away, as if one qalckly swept o^aiy ^An^^-- 
with « besow. Ootl^^ kwitk^ twiilh » besooi — ipMi^ « ftJkk 
motion. /» 

. A vhitkf a bra«h made of olive twigs ; a sort of neckcloth for 
women. To wkiskf to brush off the dust with a whisJc. 0. D, A* 


A whmk — Saaon. A bmth aa4e of oxicr twigt j ako a scart 
of neck dress» formerly worn bjr women^also a quick motion 
of a tvfig. To whish; to brush, it^itn a whisk — to give a slight 
brush with a slight motion, as a fox with her taU, a woman 
her petticoats. Aniey. 

Wf SP. A kandful of strawj either loose orplatted, 
to rub down horses withal. Hence " Will with a 
wisp" — of lighted straw probably. Tliis phenome* 
nott in Suffolk is called Hobhy-lantan — which see. 
Hob with a Lanthorn. Wisp is an ohi word — it 
occurs in the Vision of Piers Plonghnian — " And 
wished it had been wiped with a wisp of fir^es**^^ 
or ttf^m as they are called in Svffolk and Scotland* 

Wisp is used with us, in the farther sense of 
rudely kaiidliB^ aav deHeate thing — '* Dont finsp 
it** — a precaution (dont handle it as yon would ^ 
wkp OS stiaw) for instance, by a chiUl fearful of 
haTing its cap os bonnet compressed by a careles»v 

As a verb, and in the sense first given above, 
Ray has it in thia proverb, " A short hc^se is soon 
wisp*d.'' p. 122. This is but the leading limb of 
the -proverb — the other may not be exhibited in 
these decent days. Ray is indeed frequently tpo 
gross, one would think, for any day. In p. 287, 
he uses it again as a Scottish Ptoverb — "Good 
wine needs not a wispe.** 

Wisp in Scotland^ as well as in Scottish, may 
have served the purpose of a bush.-^ 

With straw-wisp and pease->bolt, with fern and the brak<^ 
Foe spvririg <rf fael aome brew and do bake. Tttsler. p. 40. 

TtSLse-bolt, is evidently our hahm, which see. 
We frequently heat the oven with il. 


' *'f{%ip, a haiKlful of 8tni\lr or hay ; a wi^ttth to^ 
carry a pail, &c. on oue*s head/' 0« D. A. The - 
awfte in Bailey. 

Advei^ing for a momeiit to Hobby-lantan — ^Jaclc * 
o' lantern — and Will o th* wisp, it is not unamusing 
tb see the two last tiins franslated, " Gulielmus de 
Wispo, alias Johannes de Lanterna." Nares tells 
as that a " Wup^ or small twist, of straw or hay, 
was often applied as a mark of opprobinm to an \ 
immodest woman, a scold, or similar offenders; 
even the shewing it to a woman was, therefore, 
considered as a grievous affront/' He gives several 
amusing illustrations of it. Perhaps in formers 
times a wisp exhibited in a window, may have been 
a signal of invitation to amorous passengers ; and 
hence even shewing it to a woman have been offen- 
sive. To a thirsty passenger, we see above, that 
it acts as an invitation in Scotland. The tavern^ 
aiid brothel were more commonly united formerly 
than now. 

WiSTER. A proKpect — a view — rather on affec- 
tation — probably Vi$ta. 

With— or Wythb. A Uimd of hazel, willow, 
or other flexible shrubi to tie ap faggots withal. 
Cowper uses ihe word — 

There's not a chain. 

That hellish foes, cenfed'rate for his harm, 
Can wind arouod him, but he casts it off. 
With as much ease as Samson his green voithes. 

Winter Morning Walk, 

Cowper took it from Scripture — 

And Samson s^d onto her. If thej bind me with seven green 
%ioiths that were never dried, then shall I he weak, and be as 
another man* « 

Then the lords of the Philistines brought up to her seven 
green witht which bad not been dried, and she bound him with 

.^Now there were men l^ing in wait, abiding with her in the 
chambe/Ni} Ajad sbe said unto him. The Philistines be U|K>n 
thee, Samson. And he btalte the withi, as a thread of tow i«. 
broken when it touehetfa the fire* Judges, xtU 7, 8. 9. . " ■ 


The word id pronounced in Suffolk, with, as 
rhyming to pith ; and wythe, as rhyming nearly to 

It is also a Scottish word : and was io uie hereto- 
fo|re pretty generally* In Hall's Satires we read of 

— ^^ — dried flitchek of tome smoked beere 
Hang'd on a wriihen wytke since Max;tin*ft eve* 

Similar words are found in Scottbh, &c — 

Weikjff a halter-«-el80 widdUf a rope made of twigs of willow ; 
used to denote a halter — Gothic, widia, vimeD from wide, salix ; 
Aog. Sax. wUhig* id. J. — A with, a twig of the wldiy-tree. 
0« D. A. A withy, a kind of willowotree. Ibt — Witky, a wiUow- 
tree. Glouc. Grote, 

WUhtp a sort of rush. TTttAyy an okier. Bailey, 

We have also Wriih, used above — which see. 

Nares on this matter has, under TwiHed, an in- 
structive article, from which I take what follows— « 

The twisted tree Or with, brought ift the week before Easter, 
was the usual substitute for palm branches, borne on Palm Sun* 
day, and used to decorate churches and houses* It is tlius 
mentioned by Stowe — 

'In the weeke before Easter had yee great shewes made for 
the fetching in of a twisted tree or with, as they termed It, out 
of the woodes into the King*s house, and the like into every 
man's house of honour or worship.' Stowe's Lond* 72, 

It WBS) in fact, Nares adds, a branch of the common with or 
withyy a species of willow. The withy is the first of its genui 
spoken of by Evelyn — Siflva, chap. xx. Gerard reckons the 
common withy to be the Salix perticatit, HerbaL p. 1392. 

I do not recollect having heard the willow called 
the withy. 

WiTTOL. A tame cuckold, knowing himself to be so— 
a Saxon word derived from — to know ^ because he knows his 
disgrace. It is now disused^ though foudd in iOine Comedies 
since the Restoration. 

Cuckold 1 — wittoll — cuckold 1 the devil himself hath not such 
a uaflie. M, W, rf W. ii* 9. 

Mark, how the wittol 
Stares on his sometime wlfel Ford's Farces, lU 1. 

2 V 


A cuckoldy says Lenton» is a harmlesse horned creature, but 
his homes hang not in his eiesy as jour wittai*8 doe. 

Character, 3«, 1631 

The above is from Nares. We use Wittoi in 
Suffolk for a *' contented cuckold" — and it is not 
long since 1 heard an unlucky wight of this de- 
scription console himself, or affect to do so, 
by repeating a common saying that " contented 
cuckolds go to heaven." — " Wittal, or wittoi; 
Saxon. One who knows himself to be a cuckold 
and is contented." Bailey. 

Wi22IN'd. Shrivelled— from age, or other cause. 
Applied to the human face chiefly. Fiuit shrivelled 
from the evaporation of its juices, is said to be 
CluT^f or Kringled, See those words. Wizzek'd, 
and Shinny, are nearly synonimous. In Scottish — 

To wtseny or wyssin, to wither, to become dry and hard — pro- 
nounced wissen — to be parched, in consequence of thirst. Ang. 
Sax. Wisri'ian, tabescere, marcescere — Icelandic visn'O, id. 
To vnaen, to become dry. J. 

Nares under Wearish, w^rish, or weri$h, ex- 
plains them, " small, weak, shrunk." It answers, 
he says, to what is now sometimes called wizen, or 
wither'd. He gives many illij»trations. See W££. 

WoE-BEGONB. Deeply afflicted. Common in 
Suffolk. Thus Shakespeare — 

iEveo such a man, so faint, so spiriiless, 
So dull, so dead in look, so woe-begone. 
Drew Friam^s curtain in the dead of night. 

2. Hen, VI, i. 1. 

— — - He saw his lifers joy set at nought, 
So woe^begone was he with pains of love. F. Tatso. i. 9. 

I have taken the last quotation from Nares, who, 
of the term in question, says — 

Several of the commentators have thought it necessary to ex- 
plain this word ; but I do not believe it to be wholly disused. 
It means deeply involved in woe. 

Wolf. I can recollect certain women, oldish 
ones 1 think, who were generally believed — by boys 


and girls I mean — to have a wolf in their stomachs. 
The notion was encouraged by the women them- 
selves ; who, it may be imagined, more disposed 
to eat th^n work, thus accounted for an inordinate 
appetite, and obtained commisseration and relief. 
1 have not heard of this species of imposition or 
disease of many years — but 1 question if it be 
wholly obsolete. 

WoNMiL Cheese. Cheese made of unskimmed 
milk — of skimmed milk it is called ^e^-cAee^e — that 
is from milk Jletted, or fleeted, perhaps. Hanmil 
is probably one meal, or mie milking ; the quantity 
of milk produced by one meal, or feeding, of the 
cow. See under the words Bang— Flbt — Meal 
— and Trip, in this Collection, for sufficient on 
this subject ; which is rather a sore one to us 
Suffolk farmers. ^ 

Woo. With. See Thennum. " Fll sune be 
wo' ye aginn.*' 

Woodcock Soil. Strong clayey land, retentive 
of moisture, such as Woodcocks love. " Pewit 
Land — in Cheshire — is moist, spongy ; such as the 
Pewit usually frequents." W. In Suffolk we call 
the Lapwing, Horn-pie ; as weH as Pewit or Peewit, 
from its note — but with us it frequents dry heathy 
soilsy directly the reverse of A^odcock soil. 

Among his S. and £. Country words Ray has 
" Woodcock'8oil;\ ground, that hath a soil under 
the turf that looks of a woodcock colour, and is 
not good." £• W» p. 00. Bailey has exactly the 
same words. 

WooDLANS. Wood-lands. The description of 
a considerable portion of that part of Suffolk laying 
to the north of the high turnpike road to Yarmouth. 
The soil is strong and deep, and favourable to the 
growth of timber; and thirty or forty years back, 
those parts, called also High Suffolk, were very 
finely timbered. But high prices and increased 

2u 2 

492 ' 

facilitieft of transpiMrt have nearly denuded them. 
The term Woodknu u not go much used or knowa 
in High Suffolk, as near the Coasts* or in the 
Sanlans (Sandlands) as the Wood-landers call that 
tract of country bounded by the rivers Orwell and 
Aide and the aforesaid road — the hundreds com« 
prised therein being mostly of a sandy light soil, 
poorly wooded. 

One does not see why, but the foct is, that the 
natives of what is generally called High Suffolk do 
not much relish the appellation. It is usually said 
to begin in the next parish, enquire where you will 
in those parts. 

WooD-SBRE. I am not certain that this is a 
Suffolk term — Sere-wood, is common enough ; but 
wood' sere seems to have a different meaning ia 
some of our old authors. It occurs in a quotation 
from Tusser, under the article Aadl£ in thb Col- 
lection ; apparently meaning as there noted, fum- 
mer-time — ** from May to October." It oi^curs 
again in Tusser in the following passage — in a like 
sense — 

llie buthtt and thorn, with tYit ihnibs that do aoy. 
In «NH>d-Mre or summer, cut down to destroy $ 
But whereas decay to tha tree ye wUl nose, 
Por danger in wood-tere, let hacking alone, p. 165. 

Dr. Mavor does not understand the word in this 
sense — nor, I think, under corrtctton, at all: he 
seems to think it means pollard ticcs. ** A wood- 
sere, an insect/' O. D. A. 

" Wood'tere, decayed, or hollow pollards ; also 
the month or season for felling wood. Essex, and 
Suffolk." Qrose. I do not xdy much on this mi- 
thority. ** Wooimrei an insect/' BM^. 

See under Sarb» and Snakb^stit, for somo* 
thing further on this Qomponnd, anomalous, word* 

WooB-spRiTB. Th« Wood-pecker. It is, I 
believe, sometimes called simply SpfrUe, but much 
oftener Wood-sprite. Nares shows that SpeighJt is* 


aa old name for the large black wood-pecker, from 
the German specht — 

Eve, walking forth about the forrests, gathers 
Speights, parrots, peacocks, estrlch icatterM feathers. 

Sylv, Dubart. Handicrafts, 

It is called Spite, and Wood- spite in some parts 
of England. 

WooH — or Woo-E. An imperative to stop cart 
horses. Also signifying a stop, or check, or end, 
to the career of an unpromising young man. 
" There's no woo in him as yit.*' See Take up. 

The word has I think been used in this sense by 
Shakespeare — 

Xx)ve *s a mighty lord- 
There is no woe to his correction. Two O. of V, Vu 4. 

This speech has been made strange work of by 
the commentators, who have taken woe in its usual 
dolorous acceptation: but, spell the word woo^ 
and apply it as we do in Suffolk, and it explains 
itself and the phrase. Nares has — 

Whoe, used for Ho, in the phrase * there was no ho with him** 

He was mad, mad, no whoe with him. 

BurUAnat. tfMel, p. 125, 

And under Ho, Nares has a long article, whence 
I extract this passage — 

Ho, Originallj a call, from the interjection ho / afterwards 
rather like a stop or limit, in the two phrases out of all ho, for 
out of all bounds 3 and there*s no ho with him ; that is, he is not 
to be restrained. 

. Of the latter phrase Nares quotes illustrations 
from Honest Wh, O. P. iii. 35$. — Lingua, O. P. 
V. 172. HarL Misc. VI. p. 1^0. Swift's Jour, to 
Stella. Let. 20.— All, I think, tendingto show that 
the Suffolk wc>rd woo being substituted in the sense 
of a stop or limif, would make the passages in- 
telligible ; which they scarcely are otherwise. 

For other terms of the Houyhnhmn dialect see 
under Cametuer, Heit, and Reb, of this Col- 




Wool. Will. "Will you have this woman 
&cA said a Divine in the colloquy common to 
such happy occasions.— **/woor' — smartly rejoined 
the happy groom — I cum a pappus." " Say yes" 
— said the patient gownsman. " Well — us — dien." 

''You did not shake it, did you Johnt" en- 

3 aired a master of his lad who was handing ahot- 
e of Port. "No— but I uhm/"— said the boy- 
shaking it heartily. 

Ta wool — or #1000/— or tmU — it will. 

We have a local antipathy to a Saturday new 
and Sunday full moon, which is perpetuated by 
the following distich — • 

Saturday's new and Sunday^ fbll» 
Was nercr fine, nor never wod. 

This antipathy is» however, wearing away^-^and 
it is not every one who now can tell wheth^ Fri- 
day or Saturday be, astrologically, the wdueky 

day. See under Mui^s. 

Woolgathering. " Your wits are gone 
a' woolgathering*'—- said of an absent inattentive 

WoosH. An imperative commanding the fore* 
horse of a team to bear to the left. Wooih is more 
a Norfolk word. It has been derived from the 
French Gauche, Our cominon word is Heii, which 
see, and Wooh. 

Woo-VTAH, Irregular — not straight — one plough* 
ing unskilfully as to straightness of furrow, would be 
said to •* woo-wak about" — to waver perhaps from 
the right line. Thus in Scottish — ** To waver, or 
wawer, to wander — waw, wave.** J. 

Word of mouth. Or, by word of mouth*-* 
drinking out of a bottle ; mouth to mouth. 

Work at one as I do. A mirth-exciting, in- 
door, juvenile game — for the names of many of 
which, see under MovBALL* Although I call this. 


and divers others, jfut^mtVe games, I have often 
known ** children of larger growth" join, or assist, 
at them — and hope I shall again. 

Work- WAYS* Convenient or proper. Of a 
gate it would be said " 'twould be mere workways 
to hang it on that post/' 

World Apple. See Worrbl Apple. 

Worm-puts — or Worm-ctntg. The unsightly 
soil, worked up by worms to the surface of 
grass plots, in spring, and in rainy weather — they 
are otherwise called Molewarp$, which see. 

Worrel. The round metallic end or ferrel, of 
a walking stick — umbrella, &c. I have never heard 
this word out of Suffolk — where it is very common. 
** An ivory headed cane virled with gold" — which 
occurs in Sir Andrew Wylie, III. 35, may be tiie 
Scottish, and perhaps best, pronunciation of it. 
** Virle ; a small ring put round any body to keep 
it firm. Old English, vyroll; French, mroUeJ' J. 
It is lUtely, I think, that our worrel-lnme: and pos- 
sibly our worreZ-app/e— *-which see — may be con- 
nected in origin, with the subject of this article. 
" Verrel, or Ferril, a little ring at the end of a 
cane, &c.'* O. D. A. ** Verrel, or Verril c-^-^irole, 
French — a ferrel; a little, small, brass, or iron 
ring at the end of a walking cane, or the handle of 
some working tool/' Baileif. 

Worrel Apple. A fruit that is believed to 
take two years to ripen. It certainly resists decay 
beyond any other or Pomona's gifts. It will keep 
the year round — or till the re-turn of the apple 
season — and hence possibly the origin of its name 
— worrel — vtr/c, and similar words, having mean- 
ings connected with ideas of roundness, or circu- 
larity» or rotation, or returning. See Worrel- 
BONB. We sometimes call the fruit the World* 
apple. It is very globular — and flattened at its poles. 

Worrel-BONB. The osfemorU, It has been 
surmised to be firom whirl, or turning, in reference 


to the ball and socket motion of the superior ar- 
ticulation. Or, less likely, from world, referring 
to its globular terminations ; connected again with 
an idea of rotundity and rotation. Thus, the 
ti^orr^Z-apple is sometimes called iror/(t£-apple — 
some say from its globular form ; others because it 
will keep till the re -turn of the apple season. 
Sometimes we call, or used to call, this bone, the 
Ruel-bone ; but 1 haye not heard it lately. This is 
not very different from unnrel — and may be still 
connect^ with a rotatory sense, from roll — or the 
French raueliep a wheel ? — We also sometimes call 
the patella, the warrel-bone. So Cocker ** the 
whirl'hone of the knee."*—" The whirl-bone ; the 
round bone pf the knee.'^ O. D. A. In Nares 
is this — 

Whirl'boMi the round bone of the knee^ called the knee-pan 
or patella — 

Woman was once a ribbe (as Truth has said) 
Else, sith her tongue runs wide from every point, 
' I should have deeniM her substance had been made 
Of Adam^s whirl'bcne, when *twas out o* joint* 

' The whirUbone of the knee; the patella* CoU^ Lmt, Diet. 
In Jameison — this Scotticism — 

JVhorle; a very small wheel — the Ay of a spinning-wheel—* 
English whirl — Old Swedish hworia, rotare. 

Rotundity, or rotation, seems to be preserved in 
all the senses and languages in which this sound 
occurs. The virelai of French writers, corres- 
ponding with our roundelay, and the virlay and 
virelav of our old authors, may be cognate — So 
may the Scotch virle and our worrel. See under 
the latter word : and Nares under Virelay. Virer, 
to turn and lay, a song ; still preserving the idea 
of rotation. 

WoRRET. Tiresome — troublesome. " Yow 
worret me ta dead" — worry, perhaps. See Wear- 
ing, Wherrit, and Worry. 

Worry. To teaze, or fatigue, or tire* A dog 
killing or chasing sheep is said to worry them — and 


this is tlie most usual application of the word, 
which is not local. Ray say b'^* To he worried t 
to be choked. Warran in the ancient Saxon sig- 
nifies to destroy^ in which sense we still say " a 
dog worriei sheep.'' £. W. p. 67. See Wearing. 


WoRSER. The comparative degree of bad: 
the final liquid is redundant. — Shi^espeare uses 
the word often — once perhaps in the superlative 
degree — 

The strongest suggestion 
Oar toorser genhis cau> shall never melt 
My honour into lust. Temp, iv. 1* 

Nares notices it as an irregular comparison^ now 
justly exploded: and that Twiss's Index gives 
twelve instances of it in Shakespeare. It is used 
also by Dryden, and others of our poets. We go 
farther and say worsest, which see. 

Wo as EST. Worst, SeeWoRSER, We arc rather 
unhappy in our superlatives — Lagtenest, for most 
lasting, or durable — legsest, littlest, and leusest, for 
least or sniaVlest — doeUisist, for the most docile-^ 
eatinge^, the most devouring or exhausting-^&c. 

WoULDERS. Bandages. ** Teent quite well, 
I'm forced to keep the vooulderB on." Wowld is 
also used as a verb. 

" fVoulding, among seamen; bindmg ropes round 
about a mast, &c. after it has been strengthened.'' 
O. D. A* This I believe is still a nautical term. 
Bailey has the word in the same sense. 

WouNDY. Excessive— "woundy hot" — " woundy 
cold" — generally, I think, in a bad, or dis-praising 
sense — 9io' **woundy strong*'- may be predicated of 
good beer, &c. We have many of such words of 
amplification, of which see something under MoRTt 

** IVoundy, very great. S. Country." Grose. 

Wranglesome. Quarrelsome. A good |Vord 
— a propensity to wranglmg. 


Writ. A wart* la Scottish " fVrat, a wart — 
Belgic, wraitle*' J* 

Writh. a tvith, or withe, bound round any 
thing, would be said to be tvritked round it. It 
rhymes to pith, and seems to mean twisted or 
curled. It is sometimes heard as a substantive, 
like with, but is then commonly pronounced wrythe. 
** Writhen wythe/' occurs in a quotation under 
With. Writhe and twist are cognate verbs ; in 
some senses identical. In a curly sense, see Tus- 
socks. '*ffVt^Af»; Saxon. Wrung, twisted.'^ ^Bat/ey. 

Wrongs. The larger boughs of timber trees* 
In measuring trees the stem is called body timber — 
the boughs, wrongs. Sometimes the wrong* of 
oak, where applicable to ship-building when they 
obtain the name of crooked timber, are as valuable 
nearly as the body or right up timber. In contra- 
distinction to the right up part, these may have 
had their appellation of wrongs. This surmise 
received confirmation by a similar opinion given by 
an intelligent carpenter, who had just felled a 
timber oak. He called' the boughs, wrongs: on 
being asked why — said, he supposed to distinguish 
them from the Right ups. He also called them 

The sense of opposition to the upright or straight 
timber is preserved in Norfolk.—" Wrong, crooked ; 
a vnrong man or woman. Nor£*' Chose, Under 
Bole, will be seen that we are very discriminating 
in our names for the various parts of a tree. In 
Bailey 1 find " Wranglands ; misgrowing trees that 
will never prove timber, q. d. Wrongers of land/* 

Wrot. Wrote. '* I ha wrot em tew letters an 
I heent hard from um as yit." 

WuTHA. Whether—" Wutha 'a wool a' no." 
See A. Also weather. See Snew, 

Wythe, See With. 



Ya— -Yah— -or Yar. Rhyming to the a in far — 
your. YahSf your house — yours-^Yewan, is also 
yours — like hhn, his. 

Yaffle. Snatching, or taking, illicitly. A poach- 
ers dog snapping up a hare would be said to yajffk 
it; or a loose hand snatching a fowl, enpasiant* — 
** Yaffling, eating.. Cant word." Grose* 

Yah. See Ya. 

Yalen. Crying — fretting — like a sick or pained 
child. '* To yell, to cry out hideously, to howl." 
Ray, E. W. p. viii. 

Yanglb. a triangular yoke, composed of three 
pieces of wood about two feet long, fastened at their 
intersections, about the neck of a sow, so as to have 
the base of the triangle horizontal, and the apex over 
her head, to prevent her breaking through fences. 
The animal so circumstanced is said to be yangied. 
The hog's Yangle is also, indeed more commonly, 
called a Yoke* 

Horses are also Yanghd when ontoward. Side 
9f angling is when the fore and hind feet of the same 
side are connected by a chain and two shackles. 
Fore-yangling is when the two fore feet are so chained 
— Cross-y angling, the fore and bind feet of different 
sides. The latter is rare, from its severity. Some- 
times the side gangling is called hobbling. In Scot- 
land " langet and langel are names of the rope by 
which the fore and hinder feet of a horse or cow are 
fastened together." J. Under the article Trammel, 
more occurs of this matter — also under Hobble. 

Yap pen. Snarling — snapping — like two quarrel- 
some puppies or children. In Cheshire " Yaff, is to 
bark. '* A little fow yaffling cur" is a little ugly 
barking cur. Scotch, Jameison. Gaf- — Anglo* 
Saxon, a Babbler." W. In Jameison we find — 

To yaffy to baik ; properly denoting the noise made by a 
small dog — to yelp — Ang. Sax. t/fa(p-an, exciamarl — Yamfih, 
yamff to bark — Yaup, to yelp. J. 


A yapf a little dog. To yelp, to cry like a dog or fox. O. D. A. 

Yaapping, erring in despatr* laroentiBg; applied lo cluckeiis 
lamentiog the absence of tbeir parent lien. Norf. GroM. 

, Yar. Sec Ya. 

Yard. A garden. *' Yeow 'a got a good j9td 
to jar house." It is a Saxoa word. 


YARMomrH CAPON. A rcd^berrhig'^— one of 

the best of edibles. 

Yban. To produce lanibs. " The jows are 
yeBntog." *' To eofty to yeani Saxon. To bring 
forth lambs." Bailty. So Shakespeare — 

AVho thea conceiving did la waning time 

Fall party>colottred Umbsy and those were JaoobV 

all the eanUn^ which were streaked, and ]^edf 

Should fall as Jacob's. M. rf F. i. 3. 

See Fell— Pied — FiLL-^and Wan. 

YearlaK— or Yearlmg. A lamb between one 
and two years old. See DanS' — and WEDDEft.-^ 
'^A yearlings a beast a year old.'' O.D.A* and 

Yelk. Levelling and ramming clay, &c. well 
down fur a floor, or against the foundation of ma- 
sonry, is called yelking it. " YeUc it welL" 

Yelm. To arrange straw in parallel layers to be 
tied up in a bundle foi- thatcber's immediate use-^ 
or hay to be carried away in a btindle. In the first, 
the t hatcher's boy )hi11s it out of a stack or heap, 
and lays it on his rope, or chain. This he calls 
*' yelmlng it." 

Yelt. Yielded—" 'A yelt Vs self up." "Ta 
yelt a matter a' tew coom an acre.*^ The a in mat- 
ter we pronounce very broad — mahtter* 

Yeow — Yow— or Yeeow — rhyming, or nearly, 
to bough. You. Of thi» vicious pronunciation 
many examples are given in the preceding pages. 


It is sometimes pronounced in a long nasal drawl — 
scarcely expressed adequately even by the last ortho^ 
graphical attempt — yeehoWg slightly aspirated, may 
be nearer* 

Yerk. a smart blovr— a cut wifh a whip — par* 
ticularly of that kind where it is a drawing cut-^ 
from ierkf perhaps. " 'A gon em sich a yerk under 
the short ribs«" This would apply to a suffering 
horse or mau. Many other words importing a blow 
are enumerated under Aint in the Appemiix. In 
Scottish — 

Toyarkf to beat:— toyer/rf to bind ti^htljr* as witb a small 
cord — to beat, to strike smartly — yerk, a smart blowj a jerk* 
Icelandic hreck-^ia, to beat* J. 

A yerk, a jerk or lash — to yerk, to jerk or whip. 0. D. A. 

The following illustrations o.f this word, I am in- 
debted to Nares for. He explains it " to kick out 
strongly — doubtless a mere substitution for jerk." 

While (heir wounded steeds 
Fret fetlock deep in gore, and with wild rage, 
Yerk out their armed heels at their dead masters. 

Hen, V. iv. 7, 

They flirt, thtyyerk; they backward flucc and fling. 
As though the devil in their heel« had been. 

Drayt, Moenc. p. 513. 

Next to advancing, you shall teach your horse to yerk behind 
in this manner. (?• Mark. Way to get Wealth, p. 26. 

By the directions given, Nares Temarks, it appears to be a 
nice matter to teach a horse to yerk properly. 

Aisoj he adds, to lash with a whip — 

Whilst I securely let him overslip, 

Nere yerking him with my satyric whip. Manton, Sat. u 3* 

Spenser writes it yirk — 

But that same foole, w)iicb most increast her paines. 
Was Scorn ; who having in his hand a whip. 
Her thetewith yirkt* F. Q. VI. vii. 44* 

Bailey, explains Yerk^ as " the flinging kick of 
a horse.*' 

2 w 


YiT. Yet — ^in Ihe coniiiiai mode ci mbslitutiog 
I for e: ftft noliGcd under Amtmd. See %u eaiampk 
under Take I7f. 

YoFERS. Straight fir poles, for scaffolding, lad* 
der«, &c.' Yew-firs perhaps. The same, I believe, 
as FirbawkSf and Spursimr$ — which see — and Bank* 

Yoke. See Yanole. 

You AN. Pronounced yeiran— yours-- ftVi^— his. 
TAtfMfns — ^thus. Sooins — so. This'n — this. See 
Thussens, and Ya. 

Youngster. As well as in the common way for 
1^ youth, or yunker, we use youngster, or yungsier, 
as the younger of two — brothers in a school, for 
example. In superior schools minor is of course 
the word — ^but I can well recollect when one of my 
school-fellows was always dktii^uished by ** young- 
ster Farker," flrom his elder brother. 

Yow — or Yeow — ^in a drawling, nasal tone — 
You. See Yeqw. 

Yow. Rhyming to blow, an Ewe. la Scottish, 
^' Yow, Youe, a ewe. Ang. Sax. eown, Belgic ouwe, 
id." J. For many names of sheep of di^rent ages 
and conditions. See Crones— DANSh-aad Webder. 

YuLLA. Yellow. ** As yulla as a peagle." 

YuLLAHAMMANT. The yellow-hammer. See 
KoPE. In Scottish Ke/dfnug*, Yeldrm^Bnd Youlrmg, 
are names of this bird. J. ** Yold-ring, a yellow- 
hammer. Norf." Grose. I never heard these names 
in Suffolk, 



CONTAIKtMG- iVOll ITATtttli Aft H^Vfi OCCUftRltO WRiCtI 
. l>)ill fltBCCttlftfr'-mi^ti ttSIIB IN TUB PRfi8»; AND 

. <;t)ii;ttftotxb«« av ^ »»€» xititOEs A8 hays kIbn ov* 



AiNT. Under this word a copious list is given 
of others alike denoting^ a blow, to beat, or a beating. 
I thought thiis list not only copioit^ but euriou^. In 
the curreney Of my work, howevet^ itAhy moth 
have occifirred to me of edgiiate ifleaning ; drid I 
ftin induced to thriiw them altogether in this place. 
Commencing, then, with Amty and proceeding al- 
phabetically we haVe of our own the foUowm^ 
pugnacious words — 

Baffle, baste, buffle, bob, bum-brush, bump— 
dlap,- click, clink, clip, clout, clunch, crack — Dab, 
dash, ding, dint, douse, dunsh, dunt — Fan, flack, 
flick, frap— -Hide— Jerk, jdk — ^Knap, kulp — Lace, 
lanner, lah on, larrup, latha, lick, line, lump — 
Maul — Paji, pat, peg, .pelt, pepper, poke, poonch, 
poult, pounce, plump, pummel — Racket, rib-roast 
—Salt-eel, siserara, skelp, smash, sneezer, sowse, 
spank, squaj, strop, sussiack, swack, swash, sweat, 
iswinge, swirk, switch — ^Thrip, thrum, thwack, trim, 
trOunce — ^Vlick — ^Wallop, wale, wap, wask, weal, 
welt, whack, whang, wherret, wipe — Yerk — 
and dixers oth^ers no doubt which have escaped 

2 w 2 


me — in addition to the common threatening verbs 
active of bang, box, cuff, dress, lash, slap, smack, 
thrasb, thump, &c. &c. every where understood^ 

AiNT. In the last line of that article, for 
figurately, read figuratively. Page 5, line 2 from 
bottom, for countrymen, read county men. 

A'Lady. Our Lady — or at Lady — as already 
noticed. '< The five and twentieth daye of March 
(commonly called Alady daye)*'— occais in the voL 
V. p. 10 of the work Bibi 7ap. JBrf«.-^uoted and 
referred to under Gast. 

Alawk. Last line — for casion, read occasion* 

Allen. Unenclosed land that has been tilled 
and left to run to feed for sheep. It is a ccnnmoB 
word about Snape and Aldborough: as I am told; 
but I never heard it. 

Alley. A select or favourite marble. See Taw. 

Anberrt. a disease in turnips; described 
under Hantmry, which see — but this is, I believe, 
the more correct name of it. " An Aniwry, a kind 
of even or spongy swelling in a horse" — O. D. A. 
— is probably the same word. Looking into Ree$* 
Cyc, I find the turnip-disease minutely described 
under Anbwy. 

Anker. That part of a shoe buckle which con- 
fines it to the strap to which it is first applied. 
The chafe is the outer rim. "Anchor, of a buckle, 
the, chape. Gloust." Grose* 


' Backstrikino. Page 19, Hne 8 — for farming, 
r^ad fanning. 

Bailey. A bailif, or steward, or manager on a 
farm — also a Sheriff's officer. Among the ex- 
penses of Hengrave Hall, in 1572, is this entry — 
** Payed to Frank bay ley, for his charges at Mil- 
denhall fayer xd, and at Ipswich fair uijH' 
Gage's Heng, p. 190. 



Bahnabke. Under ihi^woxd^BJiA Gowden^buff^ 
OUT common pamc. for the^ pretty little Lady-bird^ 
I have expressed ,my ignoraace of any probable 
origin of the word. May it not be from Bairn-bee T 
ii e. diiMwii^s*-1>e^it teiAg such a fslvdrft^ \hth 
them. I atii dibappointied at not fiiidmg tbk^ in' 
J^tnicfson; Thtis' deiii^atk>n i«^ comtt^aneed by a 
soubriquet of Saint Nicholas, who from bein^sueb^ 
a favorite with boys^ waa called the Boy^bishop, 
and the J^arne-biskop. The Golden bug^ as. well 
as Barnabee^ is called JBishop-barnej^. What I 
have before offered under ^arnabee — Bishop-barnei^ 
— combined with this article, and what may bcv 
found in Nares under Nicholas, Saint, will, t 
think, confinirmy conjecture a* to the origiff of 
Bamabee, I must, however,, trespass a little* 
longer on the patience of my Reader, while I aoBk 
and take leave to add the medial verse, of a three 
stanza'd poem in the Morning Herald, of 9th Aprils 
1823 — evincing that the sentiment of the distich 
quoted under ray articte Bamabee^ is not alone 

Lidy-bird! Lady'-blrd !-^fly 8W«y home t-^ 
Thy house is a-fire* thy children will roam^-^ 
List — list ! — to their cry and bewailing : — 
^ The pitiless spider is wearing their doom^*— 

Then Lady.bizd ] — JLady-bird ! — fly away home.-—' 

Bare— ^or Bear. A chump, or piece of wood 
of IMe worth, \^hich a labourer after hife'^'day's 
worl^, or jobs, connected with such things, is^ 
allowed to carry, or bear home. If no such pieties* 
airise out of his job^ of hedging, say — he is allowexl' 
generally to carry away a faggot or bavin, ov-* 
brump, as it is generally called.. The latter word 
is however more commonly bestowed on a stolen 
or stowed faggot* See Brumper— and Stow. 

Barra-pjg. Under this article, and others 
therein mentioned and referred to, several names 
are given for the- yoYingeBt animal of a fsfmily. 
Grose gives Anthony Pig, as the Kentish designa^ 

2 w 3 


tion of '^ the favorite, or smallest pig, of the litter 
or farrow*' — and Banra or BarrawSf as the term in 
the Exmoor dialect, of a cut pig, 

Bear*s eab. The early red amienla — which 
we also call primmily — Primula. Beards ear is not 
a very confined name for the *' earliest rose of 

Beat. This word is curiously used at Yarmouth, 
and on the Suffolk side of the Yare — and perhaps 
still farther westward — in the sense of mend — but 
confined to the mending of nets. A heatster, is 
one who mends nets. 

Beezljns. Line 2 firom bottom — for in, read 

Belated. Benighted — or not extending quite 
so far into the evening. ** 'A yeow dont brush on 
yowl be belated." 

Bever. Page 28, line 2 from bottom — ^for spe- 
cious, read species. 

Bilen. The whole of any thing — or party, or 
family — as explamed under Toot. 

Blood Alley. A select marble. See Taw^ 

Bloodfallen. The chilblains. 

. Bone-cart. Rather a curious verb — it means 
to carry on the shoulder, articles more fitted from 
their weight to be moved in a cart. " I coudn't 
av a horse— so I was fohst — (forced) — to bane-c^rt 

Botty. Proud. I find nothing farther in my 
notes on this word — which I do not recollect ever 
to have heard ; nor whence I had it. 

Bump. Page 54, line 6 — for case, read cases. 

. Bter, Rhyming to ^re — abien See Pillow<» 



Cahm — or Calm. — The scum, or gathering, on 
the surface of vinegar or made wines.^— It is then 
said to be cammy. See KALMY*-and Mother. 

Clout-hiddid. Equivalent to dunt-hidded* 
See DuNT. Dull, stupid. " A clout-hiddid chap.'' 

Come. To this article I might have added that 

the word is used by Ben. Johnson in the same 

sense. I take the passage from Nares* article 
Puck — 

These were wont to be 

Your main achievements. Pug ; you have some plot now 
Upon a tonning of ale, to stale the jest ; 
Or keep the churn so, that the butter come not 
'Spite o' the housewife^s cord, or her hot spit. 

DdodUan Ass, i. 1. 

Crease. A mark left from the doubling of 
paper or linen — also a split, in a board, &c. A 
Huck — which see — is different — it implies a iwitg, 
in cloth or clothes, or sheets, from having been 
doubled, or spread, incautiously. 

Cricket. A child's, or other, two-legged 
stool, of an oblong form ; having its legs or ^et 
as wide or nearly, as the narrow side or end of its 
/Seat or top. I do not find any other description 
of stool called by this unaccountable name. 

Crotchet. Cross— crooked, perhaps, but some- 
what figuratively. *' Things go kienda crotchet 
with us at this time/' 

Cop. An abbreviation, perhaps, of come up — 
or come.' ** Cup-baw — mind what yeowr about*' — » 
" Cup — cup — lets 'a none 'a yar jaw." See Saaz. 


Dahnet — Danget. Varieties of moderated 
imprecations, of which we have a great variety, some 
of which are noticed under the articles Amendpt, 
Daknashun, Piezen, and others thence referred to. 

Dash. One of our mitigated imprecations — 
" dash it''---^« ru be dasht if 1 dew." It is also a 
blow or slap. 


Dbwbl. I kave^onitled ihiA' woYdr in- its fi&ce 
•v-thongb 44- Inui: been* long* kncnra to me, as- a. post 
set into the ground to mark the divisioik or boon^ 
dary of lands. Under the articles Bauk — Meer-^ 
Stank — and Stulp^ something of this occurs* I da 
not recollect having Heard dewel, elsewhere — or to 
have seen th)? word. May it be diad, as^ apper- 
taining to two'? It ils nsed eiliier by itself^ or iir 
combination ; dewel-yost. 

I have lately learned that dooles or doles, mean 
in Norfolk^ dividing posts. Our dewel is therefore, 
only our Suffolk substitution of the u U». oo as 
noticed under Butes, In a History of Yarmouth 
a contract is given for the due' setting out land by 
doles or dooles. The sense is sufficiently obvious^ 
to portion — to allot— to divide — to dole out — shares, 
or portions, or allotments. In Yarmouth thfe word 
d<^ in this sense is retained rather curiously iir 
apportioning the proceeds of its fishcfy,* which are 
thrown into a common fund and divided according' 
to ancient usage among the adventurers; 

Di D ALL, In the note to verse 10 of the qtiotatioir 
from Tusser, given under Goof, I have remarked- 
th^t I know nothing of such an article. I have 
made frequent enquiry, but cannot find* amy such' 
tlrifig a^ a DidaUy used or known — in Suffolk* But 
I recently learned that at Yarmouth, and perhafnr 
generally in Norfolk, a By die is in use and wdir 
known. It is. a cromed drahiingtool; and is most 
likely known also on the eastern borders. of Suffolk.. 
** Bydleing mash ditcbes '' — is- a process in cleaning^ 
or for faying them. See Fay. And a Dydleing 
machine, is also used for cleaning rivers. 

In Marshall's R. E. of Norf. h^Dydhi a kind 
of mud^^drag." And in Grose " Bidal, a triangular" 
spade, as sharp as a knife; called also a dagrprick^. 
in Norfolk and Essex-.'' 

Dogged — D6g4S£J>lt. Very — excessive — 
<f dogged hot "---" doggedly cold." Amplifying' 


terms, of which we have many; as noticed under 
Mart, Sight, Sort, and others thence referred to. 

DussENT. Dare not — durst not. Two boys of 
nearly equal calibre, half — or less — inclined to box« 
woold be egg'd on by a more eager compeer, with 
such a phrase as this — (insiduously aside in a low 
Toice, but loud enough to be heard by the consider- 
ing, incipient, combatants) — '' tone is afeard and 
tother duss'nt/' I write this at a time — (early in 
April, 1823)— »so critical as to pugnacity or })eace, 
with France and Spain, that — ^not to speak it pro- 
fanely — I am irresistably reminded of a somewhat 
similar feeling apparent between nations and boys 
and their respective /rienc^s. If certain words here 
used be not altogether intelligible, see Toon— ante^ 
and Ego'd — infra. 


Eatbnest. I have — under several articles — 
noticed some of our rather curious superlatives. But 
since all were written 1 heard one, I think, surpass- 
ing. Walking over a ploughed field with a rustic, 
and noticing some spear-grass, he said — ** it is the 
eatenesi thing that grow'' — that is, the most exhaust- 
iDg, or devouring of the soil — or the pabulum of 
plants. See DociLisiST— Lastenest — ^Lessest 
— ^Worsest. 

Eddish. In Hampshire, according to Grose, 
Aish is a stubble. Bailey gives Eddish as a Saxon 
word, and explains it " the latter pasture or grass 
which conies after mowing or reaping." See Eddish. 

Egg*d. Incited — persuaded — generally used in 
a baddish sense. See Dussent, above, — Reluctant 
boys are e^^'cf on, to fight; or to other unsuitable 
acts by their superiors in such matters, 


Fast. In use — not to be had. ** Retch me the 
gotch."— " Tis fast— you. can't het." See Set- 


Fleckbrd. Oar sense of this word is probably 
derived from the GermaQ^c^, a spot. . 

Fogs, ^* So many fogs ia March*— so many frosts 
in May." A prevailing belief in Suffolk — and, 
without binding us to precision, the adage may be 
grounded in shrewd observance. 

FitosLiN. Any thing — a lamb, a gosliiiy a 
chicken, an apple, &c. nipped, or pinched, or iai- 
jared by frost. Nat«s quotes a passage from Skd^- 
ton's Elinor Rumming, " Where the word wrdheoek 
appears applied to miserable Marred gosling **-^-ani 
where ^«/tw^ also appear in the like sense-^ 

Another brought two goslitlgs 
That were naughty JreiHngt* 

' FfoBably, Nareft notes, checkeil itnd stunted by ftott; 

Frosts. Of May-frosts commensurate with 
March fogs, see under Fogs. 


OazxY'^TBOT. Under this article I have noted 
jat fearful apparition in the neighbourhood of Wood- 
bridge. I have, not seen or heard of it since— bat 
in Groae I find several words beginning like this, aad 
deaot^ something frightful. The initial souad may 
have a d»moniac origin, although I know not where 
to seek it. " Gallibagger — a bugbear. Gallied — 
frightened. Galliment, a great fright. Exmoor 
dialect."— Pr. GL 

It might be deemed too pedantic to imagine that 
the Phrygian's frights of Grecian and Roman my- 
thology — and indeed, of history — the mutilated 
priests of Cybele, called GalH, could have had any 
hand in furnishing us with this name. 

Gibbet. . A violent descent or fall — " a'l come 
down with a rare gibbet.'' This phrase reininded 
nie of a barbarous act-— I trust not custom — of 
earlier days — not, let us hope, of the present— of lay- 
ing a frog, or bird, or mouse, &t equipoized on a 

511 ' 

piece of wood across a gate, and striking one end 
▼ieleiitly. Tke animal is projected high into the air, 
and probably suffers but little in the fall. Thb was 
calWd ''gibbetten 'em.'' 

OooM. In a blacksmith's bill just brought to 
me is this item. ^ A saw goom'd — 6d." On en* 
^iry he said that ** the goam iiad viz, and ta wanted 
goominJ* Farther enquiry led me to understand 
that it is usual, before a new cross-cut saw be used, 
to break off some of its teeth about half way, or 
more, of their .length. It cuts the better. The 
portion so blunted is called the goom. When the 
leeth are so worn down by use, as to be almost as 
low as those broken off, the saw requires goaming. 
This is. done with a file; and a villainous operation 
it is to be near. 

Qrizbn. Under the article Sperket, I have 
noticed that I never heard or met with this word 
except in Grose-^who has ** Gnxzen — the stairs.— 
Suffolk." I have since found it in Marshall's R. £• 
of Norfolk — " GrUson — the stairs or staircase.'' 


Hacken. Commonly used in this phrase — " a 
hacken cough''— that is which cuts or tears one to 
pieces, as it were — hack being in extensive use in 
the sense of cut, or mangle* 

Halla. Halloo— " Halla ! boys halla!"-— So 
— r*' kaUaxm a* larges." See Larges. 

Heap. I have omitted this word in its place, 
where it ou^ht to have been given in the sense of 
manyy much, " What a heap a' bullocks !" Mort 
— sight — and sort, are as likely to be used. See 
under those words. 

Hoo-<£. A pig- propelling imperative* See ante 
Sus-Sus— and Woo: and, infra, Od-rottle. 

HowsTRU ? How true is it ? — or how is it 
true? — a common interrogation to the fiict of a 


deubtAil relation The ready and expected answer 
or pledge is • ' Struts God's in Hivrn." Sec H i v viN 
— and 'Strips. 

Hulk. I know not how confined or extensive 
the application of this verb may be to the operatioa 
of taking the innards out of a hare or rabbit — 
but I find the word in Nares, under his article 


I coald hulk your gTBce» and band yon up emss-Ieg'd 
Ukt a hare at a poalter**. B. and FL PAiioitet. t. 1. 

He gives no illustration of the word under Hulk 
-—not perhaps, thinking it an unusual one. 1 find 
it in Bailey — " To hnlk ; to take out the garbage 
of a hare or coney/' I know sot where else to 
find it ; and I never heard it out of Sufiblk. 

Hurdle. As a W. country word, Grose has 
*' Harle — to cut and insinuate ^ne hind leg of 
a rabbit into the other, for the purpose of carrying 
it on a stick.^ The same, probably, as our Hurdk 
•^which see, 


Innards. Entrails— - inwards. So in Shake- 
speare — 

Jago, I do suspect the lusty Moor 
Hath leapt into my seat: the thought whereof 
Dotb, like a poisonous mineral, gnaw my inwardt* 

Othello, ii. 1. 


Jackson. A silly, stupid, fellow — equivalent 
to Jackass, perhaps-^-but inteiicled as a less offen^ 
sive allusion* 


Ka-ha-hoo." The vociferation of a crow-heepet', 
as we call a child employed to scare away depre- 
dators from com recently sown, or grain or seeds 
nearly ripe. I was reminded of this by the follow- 
ing article in Nares — which may be of a similar 
matter — 


Wahahow, R. C. a writer in Cmmden*s RenuanB (Sir Robert 
Cotton) saf« tbst we use wahtAewet in baHooini;^ as wa inter. 
j«ction« iein, p. S3. I hare beea-carioui to find an example 
of itf but have not succeeded, 

KiDBiBR. Ill page 194, last line— for ViNMCK, 
(iu some copiesj read Whinnick. 

LsssBST. Least Sometimes Utueit — leueii'^ 
iease$t-littk^Wkd UUle^t. See Eaten est, in this 
Appendix, and the articles thence referred to. 


Od rottlb — Might have been added to od rot 
-T-drat — drot — &c« s See Drat. The followinf 
fCBuine speech was handed to me by a neighbour — 
" Hooa!^-\ sah maw — if that there old seow heent 
eet all them tahnups — od rottk ar — Hooe! Hooa! 
— yeow warment yeow !" For other swinic phra- 
seology sec Sos-Sos. 

Other some. See Other where. 

Other where. In some other place. " He 
eent there — he's other where" — or *• some other 
where." Thns Shakespeare — 

How if your bosbond start 
Seme Other where f Omn* rf £• ii* 1. 

We have also •' other some'' — in this sense, of 
some other — 

flow happy 9onm o^ ether some 
Can be. Mid^N.p.Ll. 

Own. in the sense of to ftdtnowledge*— to re- 
loognize^ .1' was told that, a line in the beau^M 
episode of the faithiiil Argus in the Odyssey, runs 

thus^- , . , 

j Ibe luitUfijI creature eiott'd bia lord. and died* 

But it is not Pope's line« W^ should say of a 
dog recpgnieittg his master after an absence*^'' the 
poor dumb crature own'd em atonce." 



%«rd» gtvenhi Its *]^lace/I ttilght'bave ftoted IJbiit 
it is descriptive of not only our celebrated taee of 
iflUft hblrses/biit ieilio of onr — ^posnibly less lode- 
brated — race of ttien aad'.weDMii. We are bo!|lia-««r 
rather all three — said by foreipiers to be moulded 
on rather a small scale — and Punchy is the term 
hy '«lrtuch they Itave^eefr in to dei^gMtte (Mr alkid^^ 
duAHiutive st^tore. l%is weprofeioutK^ ino^'Usiiti 
way, PoMtMjf--^" A>S<iffMk P^oscfaf'-^or *<A |qk 
Suffolk meeowld*' — are phrases well understood bj 
us. Our horses a re, however, no longer small and 
isompact, Wbatev^ our men and women «fe. — ^A 
team of our true origimd, or Norman, stocit nf 
puttchy horses is noW rai«ly seen — and I doubt i^ 
%i, lo^ibg their dkting^ishkig «haf aeter, th^y have 
^ined My thing adequate in ex^lMnge. 

Pdddbn poke. Thb pretty bird is UieXoBf- 
tailed Titmouse — Partu ^udatus. It is reekopied 
the smallest of l^rttish birds, except the Golden- 
.^Aleftted Wren. It: has. vajeious wmmm in^dUltent 
jCMWOties-— amwig.them FeMher- pohe ' M itiaqBihi 
-—Huck-muck-— Bottle .To«i — be^idiM {x>ng«lailcd 
Mag, and several oUbers derived, lUiethe Rrench 
La Mestmge d Umgm/^ qume, hwBL its most striking^ 


Rellt. Aisev«, wi& very large interstices-^ 
or made of wood-^fer re%^^xarrots,'&c through, 
to d^fttt them for horiKS, i&c» i' bdieve it .ki«4iiu'ly 
the same as Rniiil^, which see. ''rrairHUJ^; 
^«ion MiMel-*46 sift in a sieTer .figtf^ 

Rip. I might have added to this article, the 
following illustration, 'from tiiat justly Admired 
^nursery classic We PetMtk^hdUH^-^ ' 

Thetff^key, )M>urMral, wtscttafiii'dio ^e'lEJ^; 
For all h«ry(Ml%:bi00d4Vui j#ir4llUf4«Vltlifkd^i|i^ ' 


A'macliihe» n not6 infdrmt ut, nsed tp ponltfr yardi, under 
wkieh it is asttfli to eoafittetlM notii^bird, tiU tm» jroang brood 
kas wi|aitcd; atteagtbitiK follair lirn Dit^ vociTy.itdirleatiMdiyi 
t^e^i It 4i9i2ved ft«n tb^ Sanm ^r^jv a ^ooroMOftr^^ proteciMon^ 

Rift; "A clift; diipk, or crack. To H/l?r— 
$axon^-to spHi^.to clei^ve.^* Smiley. This mer$ 
to my articles CHfti^--^Riflh-9fld' Itii^. 

Itt zi F^U«r authcofli^mighi Ifctve been quoted 
A^>*th^ iMe o^ tiii»- wom; op rwy ia the sense of 
«)iMii$ Of fHm^^fi^tm GowKsy — ^who did not mean 
luMiiMstf — 

'- ' ^ HespoVe — and •everv thhig that h. 

From oot the womb of fertile Nothing rif . 

grtwrf phmsttbility^^that Siiakcipeaie, n^dicmfiiig to 
be very ^erreet in what* the beetle was- faomo by, 
PHened its 8ja|>posed wings to a i^iece. of brokei^ 
pottecyi tp whicb^tHe Gaies> or stuisith,. or cbMd^ 
or afacd^i o£ at beetle's win^eare suffioieotfy.similan 
In kappy' <^poatftipn to the *' IbU winged eagle/' 

te deg^bgly adyertls. to the " sharded beetle/.!-T 
am. ijiot aware tjoi^t the wings, or the wing casei> 
oCany^ volant' aoimal ase. any where directly, calli^ 
Shard — nor is it necessary for Shakespeare^s dkrtn|| 
siinilitades that they should be. It may not b^ 
worth notivg that a cs^e or aheathj^ we ^aU Shd^ 
which' flse^ BSukSkartL 

taffiL. SfarHl. '' Siteh a shirl voices" 

' Slr9iKK« For Zant#, read lanim. It is pro 
bable that our Shrike is not the £. excuXntcr. 

SiBRiT. This word has been, peihaps, suffict^ ^ 
ently diisoussed in its place. In the concludiAg 
paragraph, I somcaf hat exalted in a happy etymo- 
logy, as suggested by a learned firtend* Iaftmrardfef» 



however, thought it as well to confirm myself ia 
this apparently obvious derivation — ^but on con- 
sulting some Latin Liturgies 1 was disappointed iift 
not finding the word wanted — iSct«ml--\whieh9 bj 
the way» is, in some copieSi, misj^rioted Scioerei.) 
Si quU, is common enough in a score of instances^ 
Where I expected to find n quu Scwerit, or n 
Sciveriit &c, I found Si ad ve$irum umoi&eai 
causa, Sic. In my dilemma I troubled my kkid 
informant with some queries on this matler— -and 
he favoifred me with a comssiuiicatum of 9091^ 
length, and much interest, thereon — ^from whicl^ 
though without leave, I make the following ex- 
tract — 

I must freely own that I cannot refer yon to any ritual for ny 
authority for Si actvertt oUquiM. I thought dut derivatioa w 
Siberit, to natural that I have been ever ready to entertain i^ 
but tince you have set me to tfainkins more toberljr about t^ I 
am almost disposed to give it up { and chiefly £rom the idea tlNH 
we ought to go to the Saxon tongue rather than to the («atii^ id^ 
the derivation of our vulgarisms. You are aware that Sir 
Thomas Browne left this word — 5t6Ht~npon record for posterity 
to make out (among some othds} ; and that tlie 'great Dr. 
George Hickest in his Gnmmatieo Crttkal and Mdmtokt^ealk 
IHctionary of the ancient northern language^ published at 
Oxford in 1705, in $ vols, folio — a work which would be cheaply 
bought now at twenty guineas — makes It a compound of Sib and 
b^rht. — ' Sibt or Sibber saith he, * means' relation, aflbity, or 
alliance, and bpfbt, n manifest $ so. that 1^ two warda» coo- 
jointly, make up the idea of a mani£tst aUiaooe, or atUttOnshipu* 
'i his I cannot understand. U he lesrned John Bay in his Preface 
to ' A Collection of hard words not generally used,** has noticed 
those which Dr. Hickes has set forth as peculiar to ihe East- 
An^le-Counties, and not of general use } . siid he thinks the 
word in question is deiived from Sibf with Dr. H* but he wouM 
tack to it the word ritus; Evidently ftom.b^ng finable to mnke 
.any sense of Dr. Hickes* derivation. But how absurd this is» 
X need not point out ; seeing that it is tbua made a conipound of 
two words— one from the Saxoui the other from the Lalin* 

As I fear I must give up my favourite derivation, I will now 
give you my conjecture on the word, as derived from. the Saaon. 
— It must come from Sibbe^ as our old friend Bsiiley tells us^ 
who notes it especially as a So0blk word; and spells h iibbrretf, 
or nbbtredgt. Now, st&ie» in my opinion^ is to be takgo here 
in the sense of alliance;, not effinitvp or actual telatipnftjilp) ia 


«ippe-*befisiitft at m ttaudiiA of % chU4 tbaxn is mi alU«ic« 
Ibrmed hythaspifUvjl £Mhcr anil m»tha,f ; tb»c if» by tb» g^<* 
father and gpdmocher, as thore before was between the iwtiir4 
father and mother. Sup(K)se9 then, gibbe to be trAn8late4 intd 
tHe- word atUtmce^ we have only to add to it the Saxon wprd 

* ■ fiifit» wb&ph mf Siuion Tocabulaty telle me.iiioaiis>uftiv 

t»c(itt ; and \^ one Eh^ish rigfit, anil w« hav» f<i» tl»« compmUHly 
a jiot ani{ lawful alliance, A 5i&nf9^ then, means tke lioldini; 
focth the names of' two persons, as whether proper or not» to 
enter into a Jast and lawful alliance, Wl»at thiflJc you of (bit /— 

'—' — The. taqtamount wocd-«or. werds«wiow in «ie^ 
are * banns of matrimony* — that is to say* * a proclamation*-** 
ftfance made) — * of> or concerning, just and tawftil matsimony..* 
IfMey III is/obitnrable,. tlsat the oompiksaofovr Liturgy did not 
iwow ibe nManiiig of thoSflXOftniMfd 4«n# vliea tb^ mailer tkff 
$ikketU to mm in the, form of * I publish th« banot of V*Ak» 
It sheoid rather be ' I publuh the (^inteaded) matrimony--tbc; 
jost and lawful aHiance— >the $ihberit— between such and s«ch 
penoBS — If* &C, — 'It Is not strictly corrtct to speaJk of the 
* btims being asked*' — though tha BubcTck tancaoiis the ex* 
pMssioa— f«r bm^ means 

Thus far is. the uifoimatiQii, and iagienious spccu* 
iationaft of my karoed aad esteemed fi:ieji4^«-to 
wbieh I caa add notbing. I may« be allowed ta 
sote tkat I do not thiak this puadiog word has ever 
before been ao satisisLCterfly traced. In reference 
to a former ** favourite aerivation«'' I b^j bn 
farther allowed to observe that aithoufh the word 
Sdnerit does not occur in any of the Latin Lituj^ie^ 
or Rituals which I have had an opportooil^ of ex« 
aminingy it may yet have been used* in puolisbifii^ 
the SiSrit; for in fact such publication was not> 
•nd is Bot BOW in Ronum Catholic churohcis^ a 
matter •£ OrdhiaBee^-^iven in a Ibrm not to be da* 
vmted Irora. Itwas, in our early churehea, Itft^ like 
other mote important portions of the aervice^ to 
the extemporaAeouB effusion of the pasitor. Aa4 
I do not yet despair of findings in some miflaal or 
book hi Roman Cathoiie chapelSy the very words 
in tpteBiAoa^Sk q¥U Bdverit, 

* Wheie this Appendix Is printed^ there it no Saacm fast 




. I miBt confess that I ongbi to feel some *^ «oiii* 
pmctioas visitingty'' if, after Staving shaken my- 
kind fiiend^s confidence in a ** favonrite deriyation,** 
I again weaken his fair and reasonable reliance on 
anodier. But — even be it so — he will take it as it is 
meant— -our common pnrsnit being the Truth ; an 
object always worth sed^ing, albeit the immediate 
subject be apparently unimportant. 

Bat — the term under discussion has pnzsled so 
many learned and ingenioos men, that a satb- 
factory explanation of it, is not altogether inglo« 
rious. For myself, I dare not chum evoi the 
attempt — my only boast is that my ignonnce may 
haply serve as a foige on which to sharpen the 
tdge of successful enquiry in others, 

SjCEWBALD. I lately heard a neighbour call his 
bleed of red and white horses Skeu^ld: and he 
seemed to think that he should not so call them 
were they black and white. And 1 have been as* 
sured by an observant neighbour that the above dis* 
tinction is correct. Fien^er'd, is more applicable to 
a vari^atlon in smaller spots than the larger, defined 
patches in pied or skewbald horses — rather of a 
flea-bitten descriptiou, from the Grennan^/{ee4rey ^ 
spot. In Cheshire we find .'* Sketv, or SkewMd, a 
pie* bald horse.'' W. On this matter I have suffici- 
ently dilated in the articles Fleckered — Gah — • 
Pied — Shell — and others thence referred to. 

Skuty. I have recently heard this word in the 
sense of small; used in this phrase—*' What a little 
$kuty fellow" — which on ^iquiry was explained to 
mean what elsewhere would be called a dmndy"^ 
confined, however, as was particularly noticed, to 
a dandy on a small scale ; for that the term could 
not be applied to a grenadier. Our skuty m 
evideotly from " Sknte (jSScAvyfe-— Dutch) — a small 
boat." Bailey. See something of Skute^ under 


Itt a sense givea in the original articley further 
.eB<|uiry has led me to the knowledge that Skuty is 
a dtstinctton of an irregularly shaped field. One 
with its fen<^s or sides ninning in angles would be 
so called : and without reference to size. A ten« 
acre field so shaped is called " the Skuty close.'' 

Some othbr where. See Other where. 

Spinx. I have met with the name Siskin, as 
one still current for the F. Spinm — in the Peacock 
at home — 

They ne'er witnessed such frisking — 
And how wrong in the Green-Bnch to flirt with the Siikin, 

Sometimesy it is added in a note called the Bariey bird* 

As noticed under the latter name, we call the 
Nightingale the Barley*hird — but it is, I believe, 
applied variously, even in our County. *' Siskm; 
the li^ird called a greenfinch — Spmx: a chaffinch, 
a bird." BaHey* 

Spurshbrs. Line 2-^for gofersy read y<^fers. 

Swill. An open-topped, double, coarse, wicker 
basket, much used in Yarmouth ai^d its aetghbour- 
hood for conveying chips — and I suppose other 
bulky things. It differs from Ped — Kid — Dosser— 
Rip — Skep — and all the variety of baskets, des- 
cr&ed under those articles, and others thettce 
referred to. 


Ta. Norfolk and Suffolk, from their contiguity, 
and the similarity of condition as to duration 
under the Heptarchy, have many archaic localisms 
in ebmmdn. I am glad to hear that a CoUectbli of 
Norfolcisms, is in progress. In Norfolk I lately 
heaotl Ta ha bin, in our Suffolk sense — it kai been» 
Noticing this afterwards in company, the following 
little anecdote was given in illustration— ^It is, 
perhaps, fanciful. Rural Mayors have long, in« 
considerately, been deemed fair game. — ^The Cor- 
poration of Norwich had occasion to carry lip an 

fVm-jim.\M« m u uiwijiju ., 

^ WM ■■ !■■ 



MAoisa im <Mir hue Ki«p. Tbe good Monwch, 
witlk fth Qsaal: aAtbiliiy, olnsepved to Mr. Majap, 
thai N««ivich ^b» 9. ftrj cociMt city^-^Ui^ imcM 
loB Wtnnlnp rsplkd^-*** fIbaM yomr Bl^ftt^ l» A* 

Tatbrs. Page 428y last fine — for rec^ read 

TtTES. Iron holdfasts in tfie shape of the top 
of the letter T, penxiairt oir dhort chains from the 
seels of a horse's collar^ or from the thillbells. 
Thej are dimst» one end first, through staples on 
the shafts. 

Throshel. The threshold* 

TlDDUN* A iw^nrd" •ftctt comhmed widi ipp; 
and vht^ly, if ever, heasd iiifhdiit it *< TkMwi 
lMip"-«HHeafls tile yery highest tm^ •# m tree^--or 
the pinnacle of a spire— of which, iMiv^ver, a» aa 
Eceksiastieal decMation, oar Coiin^ is kuBcntebly 
deficient. Ttp-/op, as in other Counties, may mean 
nearly the same thing-^bnt tiddlin-top^ marks the 
very eittreme. '^ Lawk \ kiinnda ! dew look at that 
there bahd — 'kthere — on the iiddRn-fapf a' that 
tree.*' {Genuine.) 

Ti&TSR. At the moment, alt&ost, io' wliich> I 
write this, I heard this word thus used— *^ The 
grinstun is out a' tilter'^'^which was explained to 
mean out of order : and that it would be applied 
alike to any Implement or thing in a similar state. 
See KlLTBK— and Ti lter. 

TaicfKET. As well as a game at ca«d», thia im 
alsi^ a name of a species <if iMtmble etidtet, tfes- 
eribed' under Btmffy*wuket. 

TwAix. A twirl — a whim. The word occiined 
lately in a .speech of a &rmcr of the old school^ 
referring to one disposed to experiment and im^ 
provement*— " Ah^— *tis one a' his Ivalbf '^ 


Wanty. In the note to verae 5 of the article 
Goof, I bave noticed my personal ignorance of die 
meaninff of lVisser*s waniy. Dr. Mavor sa}'siti8 
''a leather tie** — aiid is firohably rigb^; for Bailey 
has '* Waniey ; a sursingle or large girth for a pack- 
horse." I have met with the word no where else— 
nor can I, in many enqniriesy find it known in 
Suffolk. See Whang. 

Wask. As well as bebg a paviour*s heavy 
wooden rammer, wtuk is also a hammer or beetle 
used in beating hemp. As a .verb it may be in- 
chided in our list of offensive terms equivalent to 
beatf or thump, or pummeL It is then pronounced 
less open, rhyming nearly to task. 


WuKTLE-BERRY. The cran-berry. " Wharih — 
Syion ; a hcttrt— a kind 4^f shrub. fVhartle-benies ; 
the berries of a shrub, called Wkortky or Aair/le." 
JMle^^—'* BwrtJe-beny ; a sort of fruit." O. D. A. 
Jn the north I^ am told that fruits, somethings 
thoug]^ not exactly, similar, are called dog-berry — 
and 4»ip-terry. 


j YuLLA-HAMMANT. In German this bird is 
called Gold-hammer, and Goldammer. Query— 
whence hammer i 



The foUowJAC whnmioaU lettter, m^ fonraojed 
zaony^mmly to oie. It wean tbe a^ppeanuiee. oC 
gf^aiuneiueas-^iiiid coataiaing morer Surokifnia thau^ 
lever saw crowded togethefj;*Iam iDduced logii^ 
iU^ If it be the playful produce, of a. bumonna 
iaamd\ I cad only say that t should. g|iCdtj have beevk 
favored with more orthem — 

f waji aycd sonic 'stoupdlagoi| 
% WHfy'VK ottr 'Cesser at NiHl^d^ii to make inqiiiia* 
Hon a* veofw if HUsfer-^-^- — had'fNilid iii that tftere 
money mto the Bank. Billy P. he fare-Kiendaana^ 
about it, and when I see hini at Church ta day he sah 
timpiy,, says he, prah ha yeow wrot^^so I kieoda 
wePt urn oiF— and'I saU» says 1/ I beeot hard from 

S^an^ D asyit; but V dare sah, I shall afore 

long— So prah write me some lines^ an send 'me wafad, 
wutha the money is palid a' nae. I dont know what 
to make of our Mulladen folks, nut I — but some- 
how or another, theyre alius iu dibles, an FU be rot 
if I dont begin to think some on em a'l tahn up 

scaly at last ; an as to that there fulla he grow so 

big and so purdy that he want to be took down a 
peg — an Fni glad to hare that yeow giut it it em 
properly at Wickhum. Tm gooin to meet the Mul- 
laden folks a* Friday to go a bonnden, so prah write 
me wahd afore ihennuni, an let me know if thu 
money be pahd, that I may make Billy P. asy. How 


stammiii cowd tis aginxia ya ' ' ■ wc heent no feed no 
where, an the stock ran blorein ftbont for wittles jest 
•9 if :tini ninler-^r-^eiinir mah ipeod ont twrooitie a 
mortal bad season for greep geese, an we shant ha 
no spring wahts afore Soom fair. I dipt m¥ ship 
last Tuesday (list a' me^I mean Wensday) an tha 
9$riiige.u!p their bac]is so nashualy Vm afeacd they're 
V^holly «iryd — but fstrns Gjod tis a strange cowd 
time, i ketmt got<no news to tell ye> only wVre 
all stammenly set up about that there corn bill' — 
some folks dont fare ta like it no matters, an tha sah 
there was a nashun noise about it at Norrij last 
Salui^y was a feuitnk. The mob thay got d ^jls» 
a farmer, a squjre, .i^i a muilm an 9triis yeowre 
alive thay hung um all on pne Jibbit-^so folks sab. 
Howsomevef we are all quite enough here, case we 
fare to think it for our good. If yon aee th^^here 
chap. jf^mayr^T^^ tfLt^ioeAo ^m. 

1 f6tBaio> 

y^ur true frinnd^ 


— o — 


! ! 

I • ' 





For the Slixstratiotis from works marked * I am chieflif 
indebted to Nares' Glossary. For Illastrations frtm works 
maked t 1 am entirely obliged to the Venerable and leaoied 

— — 

Ane. Dr, f Ancient Dramas — 6 Tc^umes, 1814. 

Bailey. Dictionary — folio. 17d6. 

B. and FL * Beaumont and Fletcher. 

B. Jom. * Ben Johns<Hi. 

Brit. Pasl. f Browne's Britannia's Pastorab. 

Cocker. Dictionary— Bvo. Sd edition, 1724. 

Drayt. f Drayton, 4 volumes — paging continued 
throughout. 1753. 

E. W. EngHsh Words. This refers to Ray*s Col- 
lection of English Words — 4th edition, 1768 
— postfixed to his Proverbs. See Ray — below. 

Eupk. t Lily's Euphues. 

Fair/. T. f Fairfax's Tasso, 

Gayt Fest. N. f Gay ton's Festivous Notes to Don 

OL Nares* Glossary — or Grose's Provincial Glos- 
sary, as implied by the context. 

Grote. Provincial Glossary. 

Harr^ A. f Sir J. Harrington's Translation of 

J, Jameison's Scottish Dictionary, 8vo. 

MarshaU. 1 

M. > Marshall's Rural Economy of Norfolk* 

R.E. y 


Mirr^ Mag. f Mirror for Magistrates. 1610. 

More^i AiU. t More's Antidote against Atheism. 

N. North — ^ptefixed to " Country Words"— or 
S. or £. or W. denote these designations by 
Ray in his " Enghsh Words." See £. W. above. 

Nares. Nares' Classical Glossary, 4to. 1822. 

0. 1>. A. Old Dictionary, Anonymous (by J. K.) 
dth edition, in 12 volumes. 

O. PL t Old Plays— Dodley's Collection. Reed's 
edition, in 12 volumes. 

Percy JUL * Bishop Percy's Relics of Ancient 
British Poetry. 1794. 

Pohfolb. t Drayton's Polyolbion. 

Pr. QL Grose's Provincial Glossary, 8vo. 

Ray, Collection of English Proverbs— 4th edition, 
8vo. 1788. 

£•. South-country Words. See N. above. 

Shdkxpeare. An edition in 14 volumes 12mo. by 
Maaley Wood — generally. 

Siawe*s Zond, f Stowe's Survey of London. 1589. 

T, J> * Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary. 

7\cffer. Dr. Mavor's edition, 8vo; 

W. After Cheshire or Lancashire Words or Illus- 
trations, refers to a Glossary of Cheshire 
Words in vol. XIX. of Archseologia, by Roger 
Wilbraham, Esq. 

W. Prefixed to " Country" — denotes West-coun- 
try Words. See N. above. 

Other works occasionally quoted, are referred 
to with sufficient precision. 


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LITTLE*! Detachmenty and of the MahraUa Army commanded 
bjfPARASU RAM SHOW, during the Confederacy of 179S-3, 
against TIPPOO SULTAN, Indading occasional Remarks on 
the Manners and Country of the Mahrattas and Others* By 
EDWARD MOOR, Lieuteaant on the Bombay Establishment. 
(2uario— Map and Plates. «f 1. lis. 6d. 

NUTES OF COUNCILt Commands of the HON. £. I. 
COMPANY, and REGULATIONS, from whatever Authority 
promnlgatedy from the Year 1750 to the Year 1804» that are 
now in Force and Operating on the Discipline or Expenditare 
of the Bombay Army. Arranged according to priority of date 
under Appropriate Heads; with a Copious Index in the manner 
of a Digest or Code. Compiled from the Records of the Public 
Offices, and interspersed with References and Explanations.^— 
By Cttptain EDWARD MOOR. Printed at Bombay : by Order, 
and under the Patronage of Government. Folio, «f 8. 8s. 

in. The HINDU PANTHEON. An Investigation of the 
MYTHOLOGY of the HINDUS: illustrated by nearly Two 
Thousand Mythological Subjects, now first engraved in exact 
imitation of the Original Images, Pictures, Excavations, Medals, 
fte. in One Hundred and Five Plates. By Major EDWARD 
MOOR. F.R.S. F. A.S. Member of the Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland — of the Society Asiatipie of Parts — 
of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta— of the Literary Society of 
Bombay — and of the SodetS d* EmuUition of Cambray. Royal 
Quarto* ^5. 5s. 

IV. HINDU INFANTICIDE. An account of the Mea* 
seres adopted for Soppr^.ssing the Ftactice of the Syttematie 
Murder by their Parents of Female Infantt. With incidental 
remarks on other customs peculiar to the Natives of India. 
By EDWARD MOOR. F.R.S. &c. Author of the HINDU 
PANIHEON. Quarto. £1. lis. 6d. 

to Collect the Lingual Localisms of that County. By ED« 
WARD MOOR. F.R.S. F.A.S. &c. Duodecimo. lOs, 6d. 


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