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Sultan to Sultan. 

Adventures among the Masai and 
other Tribes ot East Africa. 

" Bebe Bwana." 


Copley Sciuare. 

London: SAXON & CO., 23 Bouverie St., Fleet St., E. C. 

Coi'VRuniTEii 1S92. 
By M. French-Sheldon. 



(j/ic/'e <r,<c. M^/io ./o,< /'/i ,j /a.y/: .^/eeS 
'~tnd j,'/c9c. f//<tt t/,r/ f//u'c/'.> are -a'er. 

^yjoi^^try a.^.^^ a(^1^ ^ y^ 


From the public I crave indulgence for all shortcomuigs, 
with the assurance that under the crushing weight of a supreme 
sorrow which has overtaken me whilst " Sultan to Sultan" has 
been in press, it has been with an aching heart I have com- 
pleted the work, endeavoring with fortitude to do my best to 
make my readers better acquainted with the possibilities ot the 
natural primitives whom I am proud to call my iriends an 
be called friend by, and to demonstrate that if a woman coul 
journey a thousand and more miles in East Africa, amon 
some hostile tribes, unattended by other than Zanzibaris mer- 
cenaries, without bloodshed, the extreme measures employed by 
some would-be colonizers is unnecessary, atrocious, and with- 
out the pale of humanity. To the indefatigable efforts of m)- 
publishers, especially to Mr. 11. H. lioyce, who, with s)mpa- 
thy and consideration, has personally spared me the countless 
detail of the work ; to the artists who have entered into the 
spirit of the illustrations, and actually reproduced the photo- 
graphs and the curios, waiving artistic desire to make alter- 
ations ; to the printers, and the Victorians of Manchester, 
England, for the sketch map of m)- route ; and finally to 
Iriends who have seen me bravely through, I owe un- 
qualified thanks. 


BosiON, Mass., U. S. A.; 
August 20, 1S92. 


CHAPTER I. opiosiTE 


Bridge built by Native Engineers . . . . . . 22 

The Treacherous Guide ........ 46 


Plodding through an .African Boulevard . . . . . 146 

Natives coming to see Bebe Bwana . . . . . . 184 

On a Secret Mission ......... 200 

Map ............ 214 


A Pause for Breath . . . . . . . . . 238 

Natives and Ostrich afjout my Kitchen . . . . . 254 


AflO-AT on Lake Chala, May 9, 1S91 . . . . . . 270 


Tall Grass ........... 288 

Natives near Kildi.anjaro ........ 298 


chaptf:r XIV. 

Entering thk Forest 

Natives crowding around Car.-wan 


Part of an Encampment 
Group of Ta\'eta Natin'es 





Hamidi, Caravan and Natives ..... 

Poor Bebe, no Rings ....... 

Stream forded by Caravan ...... 




Sultan Mireali's Subjects attend iiy Full-dress Reception 
Sultan Mireali's Boma with some of his Wives and Surias 




Contemplative Natives . 
Cow sent by Mireali 



African Stream swum by . 
Photographic Fiction ..... 

M. French-Sheldon in Court Dress 






Ho ! FOR East Africa 

starting from London. — Adieu to Friends. — First Obstacle. — Palanquin 
and All safely on Board Steamship "Madura." — .\t Naples. — 
Heartbreaking Farewell. — Reviewing the Situation. — Life on Ship- 
board. — Port Said. — Suez Canal. — Sights on Vnyage. — Aden. 


Aden to Momi;asa 



Sights about Aden — Local Color. — Saffron Woman. — Palanquin on 
View. — Captain's Brutality turns to my Disadvantage. — Lamu. — 
My Great Obstacle. — Rumored Disturbances in German Occupancy. 

— Nearing Mombasa. 

Mombasa to Zanzibar ......... 63 

Approaching Moml^asa. — My Obstacle protests. — Silence a Virtue. — 
Frere Town Mission. — Impractical Christianity, Industrial Mission. 

— Native Drink. — .-V Desultory Glance. — The White Men in the 
English <.)ccupancy. 

Forming my Caravan ......... 83 

My Undertaking scouted. — L)i!ticulty in recruiting Porters. — Gaining 
the Auspices of the Sultan of Zanzibar. — Visits to the Harem. — 
Behind Closed Doors. — Sultan's Letter. — Caravan sworn in. — 
Malignant Fever. — Back to Mombasa. — My Obstacle converted. — 
Mr. Mackenzie's Letter. — Everything in Train. — Native's Quaint Ex- 
pression. — No Cripples. — Twins tabooed. — Stigmatized Bits of Metal. 




The First March io8 

Rain. — A First Start. — My Host. — \ariety uf Supplies. — Routine of 
Dailv Life. — Patience and Other Traits of my Contingents. — Tan- 
genizing, the African .Synonyme of the American Fixing. — Natives' 
Quaint Acts, Sign Language. — No Intirm, no Cripples. — Twins. — 
Treachery punished. 


First Al.\r.m. Excitable Porters 130 

Masai .Scare. — Products. — Flogging Porters to protect themselves and 
the Natives. — Methods of Discipline. — Kara, the Samson of the 
Caravan. — Ants. — Jiggers and C)ther Pests. — Pink Locusts. — Horal 
Colors. — Turtles. — Helices. — Name King. 


^\'A-NvIKA AND Wa-Duruma 1 53 

Thorny March. — Homage commanded from Natives. — Christened as 
Bebe Bwana. — Directness of Language. — Buss concludes a Bargain. 

— Wa-Duruma. — Wa-Shenzie. — Slaves own Slaves. — Foot-sore. — 
Making Camp. — Comforts of my Itinerary. — Tooth-Sticks. — Capt. 
.Stairs's Hints for Camps, etc. 


Re\ OI.T AND De.ath . . . . . . . . . • I 73 

First and Last Revolt. — Severe Measures necessary. — Rock Reservoirs. 

— Yellow Birds. — Medical Duties. — Nightly Horrors. — Marching 
in the Storm. — .\ Sentimental if not Faithful Wife. — • Porter de- 
voured by Lions. — An Invalid. — Deserted Villages. — Primitive 
Methods of tilling the Ground. 


nEPRA\ED Wa-TeITA . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 7 

Difficult March. — -Accident to my Eye. — Sagalia Mission deserted. — 
Depravity of the Wa-Teita. — Decoration the Religion of Dress. — 
.Vrrow Poison. — Polygamy climatic. — Kilimanjaro seen in Distance. 

— Palanquin pursued by Native Gamins. — The Ceremonious Art of 
spitting. — Whilst eating, viewed in Wonderment. — A Ducking. — 
Noli Me Tiutgerf. — -Device appreciated. — Dying by the Wayside. 

— "Buck Fever." — A Happy Shot. — Big Game. — Birds. — Plea 
for Methods of Transportation. 




Ox TO Taveta ........... 208 

Lake Jipo. — Kilimanjaro. — Another Masai Scare. — A Test of \alor. — 
Taveta Gates. — A Cloud-Burst. — ■ Bribery in Africa. — Welcomed by 
Wa-Taveta. — Habits, Costumes, and Industries. — The Woman of 
Taveta. — Funeral Rites. — Worship. — Secretiveness respecting the 
Dead. — Pombe Cups. — Dubious Origin of Designs. — Medical Prac- 
tices. — Dancing. — Decorations affected by the Men. — Trving to 
amuse Natives. — Singular Armlets. — King Ja-Ja Ring. — Articles 
craved by Natives. — Confidence in Author. 


Arcadian T.aveta . . . . . . . . . .238 

Attributes of Character. — Farm Products. — Rotten Egg. — Fanning 
Leather. — Clannish Selection of (.'rnament. — Sumptuous Display of 
Native Jewelry. — Marriage Customs. — Mixed Family Relations. — 
Native Medical Clinic. — Childhood's Limits. — Education by Observa- 
tion. — Circumscribed Language. — Fire-Sticks. — Shooting Fish. — 
Universal Kindness to Children. — Harmless Freedom in the Inter- 
mingling of the Sexes. 


CIRCUMNAVIG.A.T10N OF LaKE ChaLA ....... 260 

My Expedition to Lake Chala. — English Officer and Mission. — Doctor's 
Ivindness. — .'Vdventurous Descent to and Circumnavigation of Lake 
Chala. — My Friends, the Hostile Rombos, subsequently Dr. Peters's 

VuLC.«JS OF Chaga .......... 284 

Fundis Craftsmen or Blacksmiths of Chaga Land. — Experts, among 
which are Sultans Mandara and Mireali. — Mandara's Disablement. — 
Simplicity of Native Tools. — Forging Spears out of Iron Wire. — 
Methods used. — Charcoal Making. — High Rank of a Fundi. — A 
Fundi's Pride. — Jewellers who make Delicate Chains, Beads, Brace- 
lets, Armlets, Necklaces, Ear-Rings, and Bells. — Variety of Orna- 
ments. — Burnishing. — Religion of Ornamentation. — Men indulge 
in \'anities. — Do the Fancy Beadwork, leaving the Women to till 
the Ground and care for Cattle. — Following Fashion.' — , Various 
Significance of Bells. — Masai Women's Ornaments. — Patterns used 
for Spears. — Mark of the Maker. — Rombo Small Spears. — Using 
all Bits of Metal for Ornaments. — Adaptation of Bottles. — Native 
Unconscious Nudity. — Story of a Masai Spear. 




Primitive Kimangelia 301 

Forest Village never before visited by a White Person. — Debatable 
Territorial Lines. — Native Guides. — Passing through Useri. — 
Women's Decorations. — Uncivil Sultan receives a Rebuff. — Wild 
Animals. — A Masai Woman's Corpse stripped of its Ornaments. — 
.Sudden Change of Temperature. — All suffer from the nightly Cold. 
— Trying Route. — -Sweet Odors of Veget.ition induce Asthma. — Phos- 
phorescent Mists. — Revelations of the Night. — Nocturnal Attack of 
a Python. — Snakes and Serpents. — Cutting Way through Forest. — 
Habits and Customs. — Called Author God. — Stone Spear. — Dis- 
covery of a Cave. 

Masai 319 

Blustering Masai. — Attacks upon Taveta make a Trade of War. — The 
Wandurobo Dwarfish if not Dwarfs. — Forbidding Passage through 
Country. — Women's Privileges. — Grass as an Emblem of Truce. — 
Salt Stone Analysis, by the Royal College of Science, London. — 
Women's Regulation Garb. — Men's Theatrical Get-up and Actions. — 
Meat-Eaters. — One Thousand ready for Battle. — " Wow," a Threat 
met by Threat. — Blind Zeal in Photography. — Spitting an Urbane 
Civility. — Values of Women and Cattle. — Full-dress Reception. - — 
Picturesque Phrases. 

Heroic Hamidi and Others ........ 334 

Hamidi, Author's Headman of Headmen. — Refusing to conduct .Author. — 
Heroic .Action. — Final Consent. — His Devotion to his Leader. — ■ 
Woman's Loin-Cloth. — Wa-Kahe Belief in Transmigration of the 
Spirits of their .Ancestors. — Wa-Kahe Industries. — Native Thief 
captured. — -Tempted by Desire to possess a Waterproof Cloth. — A 
Little Maid of Kilema's Generosity. — Establishing a Code of Prestige. 

— Latent Fun of the Natives. — ^To wish for was to possess. — Josefe 
dubbed as the Trumpet of Bi'bc. — .-Vnswering me as Sir. — Members 
of my Migrating Household. — Washing Days. — Women Porters. — 
Porters secreting Articles in their Wool. — Daily Life among Porters. 

— Cutting out Thorns. — Caravan .Anchor. 

Sultan Mikeali .......... 356 

Mireali, Sultan of Marungu, dressed as a Guy. — His Warm Welcome 
and Generosity. — Resumption of Native Costume. — Coveted Music 
Box. — His Wives, Surias, and Household. — Mireali's Talks. — His 


Contentions uitli Mandara. — His Ambition to become enlightened. paok 

— Sultan Mariama and the Saw. — Native Fabrics. — Native-made 
Candles. — Stuff of Court Gown called Queens' Cloth. — Sunglass. — 
Mireali dances the Moon Dance. — A Deputation of his Subjects en- 
treating the Author to stay. — Happy Chance for a Photograph. — The 
Perished Umbrella. — Messenger from .Sultan to .Sultan. — How to 
check Interpreter. 


Characters . . . . . . . . . -377 

Musical Instruments. — Sultan Fumbo. — Rame/an's Artitice. — Baraka, my 
Steward. — Estabhshment of Discipline. — Porter Francez. — Roll 


Sultan Mandara of Mo.schi . . . . . . . . 39* 

His Crafty, L'nscrui)ulous Ways. — Visit to his Boma. — Caves at the Foot 
of the Hill of the Site of his Village. — Fiction with Germans. — Story 
of a Little Native Child. 

Fleeting Sights .......... 406 

Albinos. — Meeting Elephants. — Big Game. — Water Incident. — Women 
classed by Garments. — Offering a Head of Hair for Sale. — Effect of 
Climate on Photography. — A Photographic Fiction. 

Homeward Bound . . . . . . . . . .416 

Through the German Territory. — Palanijuin Accident. — Meeting Capt. 
Stairs. — Care on Steamship '-Madura." — Familiar Scenes. — Arrival 
at Naples. — Home again. 

Afterilath ........... 428 

Medical and SurijIcal .\ppLLA.NCEi . . . . . . .431 



Initial Letter H, Two Native Water-Carriers joined by Rubber Plant. — H. 
S. Wellcome. — E. L. Sheldon. — Surgeon T. H. Parke. — Naples. — Aden. — 
Capt. Avern. — Steamship "Madura." — Dredge on Suez Canal. — Port Said 
Jetty. — Entrance to Suez Canal. — Bedouin .\rab Chief. — .Arab Camel Caravan. 
— Water Caravan. — Suez. — Native Dobe or Washerwoman. — Tailpiece, Cas- 
solet used on Coaling Barges. 


Initial Letter A, Tiger. — Mosque at .\den. — Masai Head-Dress, Red 
and White Painted Leather Face Piece, Ostrich Plumes. — Abyssinian 
Warrior. — Water Tanks at .Aden. — Son of the Mahadi. — Delight of a Cordo- 
fan, Negro on a Chicken Coop. — Fellah Water-Carrier. — Abyssinian Slave 
Children. — Egyptian Scissors-Grinders. — Native Types of Porters. — Bushiri, 
the Slave Raider. — Somali Family. — Queen of Somali. — The Queen's Slave 
Woman. — Chaga Car\'ed Snuff-Box, Egyptian Design. — .Author's Sun Protect- 
ors. — Slave Dhow, built without Metal Spikes or Cleats. — Varbon Lelli, one of 
my Faithfuls. — George S. Mackenzie, my Great Obstacle. — Mombasa Fort, 
built by \'asco da Gama in Si.\teenth Century. — Tailpiece, Ostrich Boa and 
Feathers bought at Aden. 


Initial Letter W, Lemur. — Cocoanut Plantation, Mombasa. — .Author's 
Hand, showing Rings and Bracelets for Gifts. — .Arab Quarters, Mom- 
basa. — Date Palm. — Soudanese Warriors. — Snuff-Box, studded Silver, 
Metal Chain, Chaga make. — .Arab Woman selling Bananas to Porter. — Gourd 
Snuff-Box, studded Silver and Carved Patterns, Chaga make. — .Arab Blind 
Beggar. — Snuff-Box, studded Silver, Metal Chain, Chaga make. — Rescued 
Slave Girls, Various Tribes. — .Abyssinian Slave Girl. — Native Warriors. — 


Somali Warriors. — Ear Stretcher worn by Missionary Girls, Mombasa. — Tail- 
piece, Eland Bull. 


Initial Letter F, African Monkey and Grass. — Mombasa from English 
Point. — M. French-Sheldon, Bebe Bwana, in Travelling Costume. — Sultan of 
Zanzibar, Autographed Photograph. — Ivory Market at Bagamoyo. • — Sultan's 
Three Henchmen. — Woman of Sultan's Harem. — Woman of Sultan's Harem. 

— Sultan's Letter. — Arab Letter- Writer. — Arabian Musician. — Arab Sugar- 
Cane Seller and Porters. — Dervish Musician. — Mombasa. — Harbor Zanzibar 
and Sultan's Palace. — George S. Mackenzie's Letter. — Black Ivory, or Slaves 
at Bagamoyo. — Tailpiece, Hunteri. 


Initial Letter M, African Elephant's Head and Moss. — Josefe and Natives. 

— Arabs Resting. — A Study of Pombe Cups, .Author's Collection. — Buffalo 
Bull's Head. — Masai Flag of Truce, a Song 'of Peaceful Intentions, carried 
by Author's Caravan. — Khartoum Negro before Barber's Day. — Vv'hirling and 
Howling Dervishes seen at Zanzibar. — Type Native Soldier. — Type Native 
Soldier. — Type Native Soldier. — Native Women Water-Carriers. — Small 
Game ; a daily Scene on Safari. — Masai Spear. — Colored Trade Cloths. — 
Second Study of Pombe Cups in Author's Collection. — Gourd Water Bottle or 
Calabash, ornamented with Beads and Metal Chains. — Brass Chain Necklace, 
Chaga make. — Ear Ornament made of Wart Hog Tusks united with Braided 
Fibre, ornamented with Chains. — Tailpiece, Bush Buck. 


Initial Letter S, Giraffe and Native Grasses. — Wait-a-Bit Tree. — Brass 
Bead Necklace, Chaga make. — Luncheon in the Open. — Inlaid Wooden 
Bowl stained Brown. — Wooden Pot, stained Brown, dug out of a solid Piece 
with Knives or Flints. — Inlaid Wooden Bowl. — Egg-shaped and Venetian 
Trade Beads. — Dawa, or Medicine Beads, made of Black Beans. — Jewelled 
Swords given to Sultan Mandara. — Knob Kerry Sticks made variously of Ebony, 
Rhinoceros Horn, and Ivory. — Author's Rifle and Gun Case first made by 
Natives East Africa. — Portrait of Headman Hamidi. — Native Knives of all 
kinds, and Sheaths. — Kara, Samson of the Caravan. — Native Banana Knife 
taken from the Forge, unpolished. — Native Wooden Pot. — Third Study of 
Pombe Cups, showing first Attempt of Figure Drawing, and a Wooden Pan Pipe. 

— Twin Meal Pots. — Helices found from Coast to Highest Point travelled on 
Kilimanjaro by Author. — French-Sheldon Name Rings. — Tailpiece, Hunteri. 



Initial Letter T, African Lion and Palm-Tree. — Study Pombe Cups. — 
M'toto Bunduki, Author's Revolvers. — Egyptian Musician. — Women of tlie 
Harem. — Egyptian Couriers. — Native Gossips. — Loads for Four Porters. — 
Grass Mat for Porter's Bed. — Sandal, Bottom and Top. — Pombe Cup. — 
Wooden Pipe. — Wooden Ear Stretcher. — Capt. Wm. E. Stairs, R. E. — 
Native Wooden Basin. — The M. French-Sheldon Medicine Belt. — Chart of 
Camp. — Tailpiece, Eland Cow. 


Initial Letter P, Masai Donkeys' Heads and Cacti. — Wait-a-Bit Thorn. 
Raconta Beads. — Native Wooden Combs. — Native Medicine Box. — Trade 
Beads. — Metal Necklaces for Gifts. — Masai Long Spear. — Kanzu worn by 
Headman. — Copper Bead Kibosho Necklace. — Wooden Meal Dish. — Sweet 
Grass Bead Necklace. — Bead-inlaid Bowl. — Native Four-legged Dish, made 
of one Piece of Wood. — Spiral Metal Necklace, Native Work. — Native 
Wooden Spoon. — Hide and Bead Cap worn by Sultans. — Tailpiece, Head 
of Gazella Walleri. 


Initial Letter D, Native Goat with Black Face, and Fohage. — Wa-Teita 
Hut and Banana-Tree. — Poisoned Arrows and Fire Arrows. — Native Metal 
Rings and Goatskin Brotherhood Rings. — Snuff- Box made Gazelle's Horn, and 
ornamented. — Brass and Iron Beads, Native make. — Goatskin Flap, orna- 
mented with Beads and Chains, worn by many Tribes. — Wa-Teita Bead and 
Metal Ear-Rings, Twenty-four worn at a Time. — Wa-Teita Ear-Rings, made of 
Masai Beads. — Wa-Teita Bead Hoop Ear-Rings, Twenty-four and more worn 
in One Ear. — Wa-Teita Sem-Sem, small Blue and Red Bead Necklace, pon- 
derous. — Caravan Path. — Beaded African Fig Leaf, called by other Travellers 
Tassels. — Two Beaded Girdles. — Pigeon-Egg shaped Beads, and Pinhead 
Beads. — Bead-inlaid Dish. — Wooden Basin. — Rhinoceros Head. — Jewelled 
Presents given Sultans. — Tailpiece, Gazella Walleri. 


Initial Letter W, Fat-tailed Sheep, with Giant Ferns. — Lake Jipo. — A 
Test of Valor. — Living Tree Gates of Taveta. — Wild Cotton Pod, unnamed. 
— Taveta White and Pink Girdle. — Study of Four Pombe Cups. — Taveta 
Bead Collar and Necklace. — The Woman of Taveta. — Bead Belt presented to 
Author by the Woman of Taveta. — Calf s Stomach Head-Dress, ornamented 
with Beads and Chains. — Snuff-Box, ornamented with Beads and Chains. — 


Brass \Vire Spring Necklace, Native make. — Cotton Cap made by Porters on 
Safari. — Cotton Cap made on Safari, from which Natives copy Designs for 
Pombe Cups. — Silver-inlaid Wooden Bowl. — Dawa Necklace. — Taveta Bead 
Belts, Pink and White, Red and Blue. — Taveta Four-legged Stool, made out 
of One Piece of Wood, Top of Stool Designs burned in. — Child's Bead 
Fringe Girdle. — Fine Chain Girdle, Bone Armlet. — Silver Ring of King 
Ja-Ja, similar in Design to Bone Armlet. — Josefe, the Interpreter, Wag of the 
Caravan. — Tailpiece, Male Water Buck. 


Initial Letter G, Ostrich and African Papyrus. — Wa-Teita Sweet Grass 
Necklace. — View of Kilimanjaro. — Author's Alpine Stock with Noli Mc 
Tangere Pennant. — Taveta People. — B^be Bwana's Canvas Villa. — A ()uiet 
Siesta in my Palanquin. — Bead and Chain Embroidered Loin-Cloth of Sultana. 

— Snuff- Box. — Native Mail Carriers with Despatches from Home. — Porters 
coaxing a Fire during a Cold Day. — Bearded Masai Warrior's Collar, won when 
Twelve Foes have been killed. — Bead-inlaid Gourd. — Warrior's Spear. — 
Catherine Wheel Double Brass Ear- Ring. — A Future Warrior. — Tailpiece, 
Brindled Wildebeest Bull. 


Initial Letter W, Vultures and Foliage. — Lake Chala, Southwestern View. 

— Lake Chala, Northeastern View. — Phalacrocorax .^fricanus, shot on Lake 
Chala. — Phalacrocorax Carbo, shot on Lake Chala. — View Kilimanjaro. — 
Rombo Spear. — Rombo Hippopotamus Hide Shield, embossed Designs, 
Outside. — Rombo Shield, Inside. — Toy Bird Cause of a Panic. — Hostile 
Rombos. — Rombo Mctims of German Guns. — Tailpiece, Bush Buck. 


Initial Letter V, Turtle and Maize. — Brass and Iron Bell Ear-Rings. — 
Native Calfskin Bellows. — Native Calfskin Bellows. — Masai Spear. — Group 
Metal Chain Ear-Rings, Brass, Copper, and Iron, and Glass Beads. — Real 
Size Smallest Chaga Brass Beads. — Metal Ear-Rings. — Native Seme and 
Scabbard. — Iron Bell worn by Woman during First Pregnancy. — Bells 
worn by Infants. — Medicine Man's Knife and Poison Tubes. — Set of Orna- 
ments worn by Masai Woman. Iron Coils finished with Brass and Copper. 

— Warrior's Bell with Beaded Leg- Band. — Dancing Bell. — Native Vulcan's 
make of Bracelets and Goatskin Bracelet. — Tailpiece. Brindled Wildebeest 



Initial Letter K, Elephants and Hippopotamus and Palm-Tree. — Masai 
Colobus-skin Leglet. — Ostrich Feather Masai Mask. — Useri Head Orna- 
ment. — Masai El-Moran. — Masai El-Moran. — Buffalo Bull. — Palanquin 
and Python. — Chaga Chain Filet. — Camping Ground, Kimangelia. — Chaga 
Snuff- PJox, ornamented Copper Wire Chains and Beads. — Chain and Bead 
Ciirdle. — Metal Bead Necklace. — Tailpiece, Male Water Buck, or Kobus 


Initial Letter B, Striped Mouse, Balsams, and Heliotrope. — Masai 
Woman's Neck .-^rmor of Metal Coils. — Masai Brass Picked-out Bracelet. — 
Masai Women Callers. — Masai War Mask, Ostrich Feathers and Lion's Mane. 

— Split Vulture Feather Ruff, Part of Masai War Uniform. — Masai Necklace, 
Metal Chains and Spring. — Masai Nebara, White and Red Cotton sewn to- 
gether in Strips. — Wow, Masai \\'arrior threatening. — Masai Women with 
Neck .Armor and Catherine Wheel Ear- Rings and Hide Helmet. — Masai 
Brass Picked-out Collar. — Tailpiece, Male M'pallah. 


Initial Letter X, Zebra and Huge Maidenhair Fern. — Masai Ostrich 
Mask. — Masai Spears and Shields, with .Archaic Designs. — Chaga Metal Chain 
(iirdle. — Large Masai Nebara, Brilliant Red and White Cotton. — Leather 
Beaded Loin-Cloth with a Histor)'. — Portraits of Four Headmen. — Head of 
Oryx Beisa Bull. — Colobus Monkey-Skins. — .An old Masai warning .Author. — 


Initial Letter A, with Humming-Bird and Convolvulus. — Delicate Chain 
Necklace, with Spiral Brass Pendants. — Sultan Mireali in Native .Attire. — 
Presentation Jewelled Belt, Dagger, and Ornaments. — Bead Girdles worn 
solely as .Attire by Mireali Surias (\\'omen). — Beaded Fig Leaf, sometimes 
called a Tassel. — Beaded Fig Leaf, Metal Fringed. — -Agary Beads and Dawa 
Chains, rare. — Candle made by Sultan Mireali. — Sultan Mireali and Courtiers. 

— Dancing Wig, Front View, made of Colobus Monkey Hair. — Dancing Wig, 
Hack Mew, made of Colobus Monkey White Fur. — Delicate Chain Necklace. — 
I'seri Bone ICar-Rings. — Long Chain Necklaces, reach to the Wearer's Waist. 

— Moschi Carved Wooden Staff. — Masai Dancing Wand. — Staff covered 
with Iron Rings, to conserve for Various Uses. — Tailjiiece, Head Male 
M'pallah (Melampus pallah). 



Initial Letter L, Gazelles and Papyrus. — Ramezan. — Baraka. — Sultan 
Fumba's Crown. — Sultan Fumba and Suite. — Tailpiece, Kudu. 


Initial Letter I, Hippopotamus and Palm. — Sultan Mandara of Moschi. — 
African Spear. — Held in Bondage. — Study of Native-made Spoons. — .Arab 
Flags of Welcome. — Blue Cotton Bead and Chain Embroidered Woman's 
Cloth. — Out of the Forest. — Tailpiece, Eland Bull. 


Initial Letter M, Gazella Walleri Buck and Giant Ferns. — Tailpiece, 
Eland Cow. 


Initial Letter O, African Baboon, Serpent, and Vine. — Porters testing 
the Bridge. — A Clandestine Meeting. — A Repast of Arab Family. — .Arab 
Musicians. — Fellah Woman Water-Carrier. — " Does She Live ? " 


Initial Letter Q, Humming- Bird, Pepper Plant. — Tailpiece, Jacques 




/"^ For East Africa ! 
possessed my brain 
when all the prep- 
arations possible to make 
before reaching Aden 
were completed, and a 
myriad of boxes and 
a bewilderment of non- 
descript packages — 
my tent, gun, table, 
chairs, pistols, photo- 
graphic apparatus, and 
personal effects — had 
been sent by steamer to 
meet me at Naples, 
_ •'-^^ and for the first 

time I felt I was without doubt actually bound for East Africa. 
A hundred or more s)mpathetic friends and acquaintances, 




throncring the Charing Cross Station, albeit London was be- 
nighted in a pea-soup fog, thick, black, damp, and chilly, I 
was thrilled with ineliable delight. Gruesome remarks were 

intermingled with inspiring words of 
faith in my success: " Well, }OU have 
my prayers for safe return." " If 
you return alive, what a story you'll 
have to tell ! " " Do be reason- 
able, and abandon this mad, useless 
scheme." " Brave woman, you'll ac- 
complish all 3'ou aim to ; we owe 
you a vote of thanks tor )-our cour- 
age and self-sacrifice." "Be cau- 
tious, vigilant, ready for any surprise, careful of your health, 
and you'll win," said .Surgeon T. H. Parke. And A. Bruce, 
the sturd)- son-in-law of the great 
Livingstone, thrust into my hands a 
long-range field glass, as if to bid me 
be far-sipfhted. "Remember, nothino- 
is accomplished without giving )our- 
self up to the work at whatever sac- 
rifice, and that honest failure is not 
defeat. We believe )oii will suc- 
ceed." His true words were branded 
on my brain indelibl)-, and echoed e- l. .sheldon. 

through my thoughts time out of number. Around me pressed 
lovely girl friends, sentimental hero-worshippers, who set the 




seal of admiration upon my lips by their farewell kiss, and 
whispered, " Hoiv I wish I could go ivith you!" Sedate man 
friends looked compassionately at my husband, and involun- 
taril)- calculated that the time would be brief ere he should 
regret his consent, which I had flouted widel)', as evidence 
that when he sanctioned my undertaking, it was not irra- 
tional. We were off midst cheers, pelting of flowers, and 
the usual half-hysterical, frantic commotion attending a de- 
parture where a friend's life seemed at stake. At last the 
cars were speeding away from Lon- 
don town, and my husband and two 
friends, H. S. Wellcome, Surgeon 
T. H. Parke, and myself were the sole 
occupants of the railway carriage, 
destined for Dover. The conversation 
was somewhat constrained; however, 
the good doctor heaped upon me a 
host ot practical advice, the outcome surgeon 1. h. parkk. 

of his expansive experience respecting the preservation of 
my own health, and the amelioration of probable sufferings 
from the ine\itable African fever ; as well as how to ad- 
minister the contents of my extensive medical kit in behalf 
of my caravan. He had taken pains to write out minute 
directions, and so plainly that a child could follow such in 
fullest detail. At Dover w^e parted from our two friends. 
Arriving at Calais, we hastil)' counted up the luggage and 
met the first difficult)-. The railroad officials had not prop- 


erly notified the manager of rolling stock of the dimen- 
sions of my Palanquin, which proved too large to get into 
the luggage vans. Cables were flashed back to London. 
We implored the officials, at our risk of damage, to place 
the bo.x containing it upon a coal truck, or even to rip 
off the casing, all to no purpose : red tape prevailed to 
such a degree not one official on the spot had authority 
to make the slightest innovation. The station master waved 
the detested green signal flag, then came the demon screech 
of the unthrottled engine, and away we whisked out of the 
station, yelling out of the window, until beyond hearing, 
messages to the officials, finally to relapse in silence, and 
deliberate as to what should be our next move. Considering 
we had paid over ninety-five dollars (eighteen guineas) to 
register the Palanquin as personal luggage, we felt duped. 
Personally, I secretly thought it was rather absurd to think 
of trying to take the luxurious article with me, when it 
was next to impossible to have it transported from England 
to the coast of Italy after every care, forethought, and 
prearrangement had been devoted to make it absolutely sure 
that it would go on the same train with us. At every 
station we raided the telegraph offices, made supervisory 
arrangements with station masters, saw various American 
consuls, in the hope of more effectually engaging the atten- 
tion of railroad officials. Everything was being done at 
both ends. Unluckily, the luggage we had with us was 
left in charge of a dazed servant, who sat calmly by and 




allowed part of it to be carried away from our train. This 
then had to be sent back for. Then on reaching the Italian 
frontier the cases containing my medicines were suspected, but 
fortunately I was provided with a certified inventory furnished 
by the Italian consul at London, so this was soon adjusted. 
On reaching Naples, the steamship "Madura" had not been 
sighted, but was expected hourly, and would not remain in 

port but a few hours. News also came that the Palanquin 
had reached Rome, and would arrive next morning ; alas! in 
the usual course of things this would be too late for the ship, 
and hence, as a last resort, it would have to be taken to 
Brindisi, and shipped on the French Line to meet my ship 
at Aden. However, through the courtesy of the directors of 
the British East India Steamship Company, the agent was au- 
thorized to detain the steamer one day for the Palanquin. 



I\ly "white elephant" arrived, and was held in durance at the 
bonded warehouse. The entire day we passed going from 
office to office showing my passports, testifying as to who I 
was, and what I proposed to do, and having the cased mys- 
tery in all of its grandeur unboxed, examined, commented 
upon, explained; finally the next day — the ship had been 

swinging at anchor for my benefit for twenty-four hours — 
the Palanquin was sent in charge of custom-house officials 
to be delivered personally by them upon the ship, so that 
it could not be tampered with ; one might have supposed it 
was a portable article I could pocket and surreptitiously 
sell to defraud the government. 



The heat was torrid. Worry and our unflagging efforts 
had occupied our minds to the exchision of the diresome 
thoughts of parting which would otherwise have made those 
last hours painful and melancholy. My husband accompanied 
me to the steamship and placed me in charge of Capt. 
James Avern. Striving to keep my courage up, I took snap- 
shots of the harbor and finally of the one whose devoted 
heart was aching with apprehension. 
The time to haul up the anchor came. 
Then the signal "all ashore," we 
parted, and the boatmen, awaiting 
the last passenger, pulled the oars 
with sone, the last ineffable look 
was interchansred, the handkerchief 
that had defiantly fluttered farewell 
was soon saturated in tears. A res- 
olution to acquit myself bravely 
occupied my thoughts as I watched the one dear to me fade 
from the horizon, and pondered, half oblivious to my immediate 
surroundings, when suddenly I became conscious that I was 
the cynosure of strange eyes. A firm step sounded on the 
deck behind me, and a voice gently said, — 
"So you are ho! for East Africa, madam?" 
" If the steamer does not go to the bottom, yes," I snapped 
out with acrimony, to the amusement of the inopportune, cu- 
rious interloper. Poor fellow, he had an objectionable, obtru- 
sive nose for news, and was my constant tormentor throughout 




the voyage. Alas ! he died after a brief fortnight's residence 
at Zanzibar, a victim to the indiscretion so many strangers 
are guilty of upon going to the tropics, which is too often 
fatal. Reckless exposure to the sun and violent exercise, 
which produces excessive heat, so intolerable to the impatient 
novice that the dripping clothing is inconsequently stripped 
off, a cold bath indulged in, which results in a sudden chill, 
and mischief sets in usually with gravity. 

Capt. Avern, an expert seaman and an unfailing com- 
mander, as well as a man of varied experience, I found rich 
in expedients, and an invaluable counsellor and instructor for 
me upon almost all matters. My East African project was a 
theme of unremitting conversation. Everything was done for 






-_L ' 1 





Lit ~ 





Hjjy/ _l'^ 







- fr-^Ha! 

£; — -- 









my personal comfort, amusement, and contentment, from the 
commander down to the lowest menial of the steamer's crew. 
There were beside myselt only two first-class passengers, — 
men, — and soon the steamship " Madura" assumed the aspect 




of a private steam yacht. The captain, a most agreeable host, 
took apparently great delight in contributing to our individual 
tastes and entertainment. The " Madura " has its own his- 
tory, is most famous, every timber athrill with the recollec- 
tion of the tread of celebrated travellers and explorers, 
animated by every imaginable motive, who have trod her decks 
going to, or returning triumphant, or left as prey of death 


in Africa. The reminiscences ot this vessel would comprise 
not only a graphic story, but give a history of startling events 
and tell of leaders who have acted as great discoverers and 
civllizers ; of brave people, who knew how to be faithful to 
their leaders or the reverse, — a story of misguided infatu- 
ates, of honest workers, of benefactors, of selfish worldlings, 
of ambition's votaries, of despair's victims ; yet with all, she 
floats on serenely, unruffled, steadfast to her course, making 


no visible sign of her invested greatness or reflected honors, 
unstained, excepting possibly the ink splashes with which I 
carelessly defaced her spotless decks, and for which I was 
more than once gently but severely reprimanded by the 
deck master. 

Lovely mornings, bright, sparkling, clear as a crystal, with 
the unabashed moon hanging resplendent in the blue sky 
as if loitering to feel the full embrace of the uprising sun. 
As we passed through the Straits of Messina, in full view 
of the Apennine Mountains, then came Sicily and Mount Etna, 
the last sight of land until we reached the Egyptian coast, — 
a most felicitous contrast to the London foof, and conducive 
to mental exhilaration and physical exuberance. just the 
thing to sweep the cobwebs out of one's brain and allow the 
mind to adjust itself to a proper focus, as well as to rest 
the body, and impart that order of courage belonging to 
physical well-being. 

Then came fickle weather, the Ides of March were hav- 
ing a jubilee, — sunbursts, rain, even hail, — an ideal time to 
read, ponder, rearrange boxes, study photographic apparatus, 

A ship's rat established my reputation as a " brave lady." 
The impudent rodent explored my legs and testeel my 
nerves! For some unknown reason, I was not in the least 
excited, only surprised and anxious to know how to rout the 
enemy. A sneeze did it ! Throughout the voyage this rat 
was a constant visitor to me, and I became attached to the 





little four-footed friend, nightly placing in a convenient spot 
a tidbit for his refreshment. He never molested me only to 
manifest his presence by passing his rough, coarse, hairy 
paw over my lace. I would not consent to have a trap set 
to capture him. 

I'uKi SAID jF/rrv. 
The atmosphere was particularly clear ; and although the 
stars were peerlessly brilliant, they seemed but few. Orion 
shone marvellously, and one began to mark the course of the 
vessel by the starry atlas. Sighting Dainietta Light, in a 
little over an hour we dropped anchor at Port Said, a coal- 
ing station, before entering the Suez Canal. Filled with an.xiety 
to hear news, we all hung over the side of the vessel watching 



the boats pull up from shore, when a messenger brought 
me a cable from the gallant Capt. Nelson bidding me God- 
speed, and other lightning flashes from beloved friends that 
were like heart-throbs. 

Port Said Jetty, so picturesque, seemed all too beautiful 
as the first impression of the strange Arabic town. 

The tendency of invariably overcharging for an\- little 
article one desires to purchase impressed me with the idea 
that there prevails a strong Semitic strain, and unless a 
voyager holds out for fairness, he is sure to be the victim 
of extortion. During the progress of some purchases the 
proprietor of the quaint shop ordered a pot of Arabic coffee, 
served piping hot in dainty cups, thick as pea soup, but 
most aromatic and delicious. The Arabic quarters have a 
most villanous aspect ; not a place one would select to 
promenade alone during hours the shops might be closed. 

To all appearances the old gambling dens, wherein so 
many outrages were committed in former times, have been 
shut, but there is always some underhand round-the-corner 
avenue to gain access thereto. Nights when the mail steamers 
are expected, even though they arrive at two a. >r., the entire 
town is ablaze, and every shop or, strictly speaking, bazaar 
is open wide to display within and without the attractive 
goods. Accompanied by some one who is well up in the 
little commercial arts and tricks, the cost of local specialties 
is far below English and French charges for the same 


Lack of confidence prevails to such an extent that even 
the sheiks in charge of boats, unless paid in ailvance by 
the passengers, accompany them to see that the boatmen do 
not filch the fees or pocket gratuities. The coaling barges 
stations are brilliantly lighted bv cassolets, blazing with their 
oil or resinous beacons. Each steamship company's agent 

._ jiiii. 


arranges before the arrival oi anj' steamer belonging to his 
particular line for the required supply of coal, and on its 
arrival a coal barge is moored alongside, and Egyptian coal 
heavers and carriers, wearing only a meagre loin-cloth and 
head-pad, carry the coal in baskets up a slanting plank, with 
such systematic regularit)- and rapidity they reminded me of 
a well-chain. 



There is a total absence of women everywhere. The long, 
sjDOtless, flowing white and sombre black robes of the men, 
their picturesque turbans and elaborate sandals, and their 
infinite grace while walking, make them noticeably effeminate; 
but there is an air of repression or secretiveness in their 
mien, a seeming lack of honest frankness, which forced 
upon me the conviction that I should much prefer to face 
these Arabs rather than to have them follow behind me. 
Egyptian and native laborers make the line of distinction 
between master and servants unmistakable. 

If a steamer is not fitted with electric lights before being 
permitted to enter the .Suez Canal, the requisite apparatus 
must be hired at a fixed sum, with an e.xpert engineer in 

attendance. The canal 
is a marvel, especially 
when one considers 
that it was projected 
under the reign of 
Pharaoh Necho, 600 
r>. C, whereas De Les- 
s e p s made himself 
famous by renewing 
the original plan in 
an extensive wa)-, and 
by this water-way be- 
tween the Mediterra- 
nean and Red Seas he 



has given a boon to the commercial world almost without 
parallel ; reducing the distance from London to India from 
11,397 miles to 7,628, thereby shortening the voyage by the 
Cape thirty-six days. The extreme narrowness of the canal, 
most of its length of ninety-nine miles, makes the traffic 
somewhat congested, and the nearness to the white sand 
banks at times painfully glaring, and the far-away mountains 
cut across the sky in ragged peaks, limiting the lateral 
horizon. The electric lights, displayed on the ilotilla of 
steamers, lends to a night transit a weird splendor. The 
rule of navigation, which is strictly enforced the length of 
the canal, obliges steamers in sioht and all following farthest 
away from the station, when two or more approach in oppo- 
site directions, to tie up until the other passes. This is a 
great trial to pilots, as it exhausts time and greatly retards 
progress. However, it is an absolute law, violation of which 
inflicts a heavy penalty upon the culprit, and is impartially 
applied to all. A signal from the station approached deter- 
mines the right of way for all vessels. 

At Ismailia we saw how the dredging macliines excavated 
the bottom sand from the channel, carried it in a long 
trench and heaped it upon the banks, strengthening and 
increasing the levees. At this point, scarcely visible in the 
distance, is the chalet, built for the Empress Eugenie's re- 
ception when the inaugural Junctions attending the opening 
of the canal were celebrated. The sight provokes the thought 
of the downfall of an Empire, and later the downfall of a 



man who, at one time, was on the pinnacle of fame as an 
engineer. It again suggests scenes far away beyond the 
BibHcal days, until the mind loses itself in contemplating the 
wondrous changfes that time has wrought. 

We pass an Arab camel caravan, and for the first time 
saw women unveiled. One woman, whom I was scanning^ 


through my field glasses, prior to taking a snap-shot, glared 
at me, and with precipitation jerked up from the banks in her 
arms a quaint-looking little dog, cast a defiant glance towards 
me, as she discovered that she was the object of m)- obser- 
vation, and tossed the little pet upon a camel's back into 
a saddle made like a nest with rugs and blankets, and 


covered it from my evil eye. This act accomplished, she 
rushed to the water's edge and followed the course of the 
slowly moving steamer, imprecated and railed at me in the 
most vehement manner — about what? — ah! ask the Arabs 
who heard. This cara\-an was bound for the Holy Land, and 
a set of more villanous-appcaring land sharks I never be- 
held. Unclean, utterly miserable, degraded beings, knowing 
only a migratory life, in common with their camels and their 
vermin, devoid of principle, eking out a questionable exist- 
ence by cunning, extortion, and mendicancy. Successions of 
caravans of similar character occupied the foreground of the 
panoramic scenes ; some were laden with two great, square 




boxes, balancinsf each other on either side, containing- or 
beine filled with soft, fresh water, for which the Arabs would 
demand from pilgrims or travellers a fabulous sum during 
transit across the sandy deserts en route to or from the Holy 

.Suez presents an architectural appearance of a substantial 
shipping and commerical city. The background of mountain 
ranges breaks the monotony of its riatness, and lends a pleas- 
ing perspective. 

From this point the days were glorious, and the choppy 
sea, with white crests, truly grand. A hot sun, but sprightly 
fanning breezes, a steady double-awning ship, were winsome 
enough to make the Red Sea delightful. A greater portion 
of the time was employed in overhauling boxes and cases, 
separating and distributing in different boxes my goods for 
barter and personal chattel to provide in case of loss or acci- 
dent. All this required an arduous amount of labor, and 


cost an expenditure of thought and foresight in arranging 
and inventorying; however, it was by far tlie safest plan, and 
I was well pleased in the end to have had the opportunity to 
act upon the piteous experiences of many of my predecessors 
in the African fields. To be stripped of all articles of barter, 
of food, medicine, wearing apparel, and photographic appa- 
ratus, might leave me stranded at a moment of real peril, 
necessity, or importance, most significant to the accomplish- 
ment of my prime object. Somehow the more I dispassion- 
ately contemplated my venture, reviewing the pros and cons, 
the more I was convinced that I should accomplish something 
worth the greatest hardships and indefatigable output of 
force and endeavor requisite. The vo)-age yielded an oppor- 
tunity to acquaint myself with weak points, which had pre- 
viously escaped me. I could composedly formulate vague 
ideas into distinct shape, and prepare for possible emergencies, 
and fortify my health and strength. It was like gathering 
one's self up to enter an arena as a combatant. In making 
classifications for my future work, writing out leading ques- 
tions, jotting down points for anthropological and ethnological 
observation in order to lose no opportunity, when once in the 
field, of probing every topic to the heart and thrashing out 
the subjects thoroughly, gradually I discovered in myself a 
latent eift for organization. Self- amazement awaited each 
effort in this direction, for every diverse avenue of thought 
revealed fresh tributaries, until the responsibilities of my 
project aggrandized beyond all the limits of original conception. 



After all, g-ood work is 
an accretion of ideas 
put into effect. It is 
the experience of every 
thoughtful, earnest 
person in quest of 
knowledge in new fields 
where there is no pre- 
cedent to follow. 

The sea gradually 
assumed the color of 
a lovely t u r cj u o i s e 
ith thousands 

green, w 

of gleaming, glitter- 
NATivE DOBE WOMAN. ing whitccaps, and the 

far-reaching horizon at the rim ot the peerless, spotless 
blue-giay dome. Porpoises seemed scarce, although certain 
darting, phosphorescent streaks at night betokened their rol- 
licking presence. Increased heat made a diminution of, and 
thinner clothing necessar)' lor comlort. Mountain ranges 
loom up on the African and Aral)ian coasts; Babel-Mambed 
is sighted, and the Straits of Aden, called by the sailors 
Hell's Gate. 

Aden is calletl Hell's Ilarl)or; one can scarcely tell 
why, unless it is because of the biuTiing sands and the 
treacherous coast. It was night when we dropped anchor 
in the Gulf of Aden. .Sjjectacular wrecks of vessels loom 



up out of the water, suggestive of a fierce struggle with 
the elements, and as a phantom warning to those who 
course that way, against the high winds and insetting sea 
which prevail. 







tDEN'S racrored stone cliffs and starinof, burn- 

ing white sands, unrelieved by vegetation, 

and the low-built tropical stuccoed 

houses, the mosque, the Parsee temple, 

the English church, the hospitals, 

*'■" combine to make a singular but not 

^'JK'»K— ■^*'- attractive picture. 

Somali boys are naked, except an 
excuse for a loin-cloth, and sometimes a long piece of white 
sheeting, which they utilize for all manner of things, — a 
head-wrap, a general covering when they lie down on shore 
or curl up in their boats, or wind about their black shiny 
bodies as they pull their oars, or even fasten to a pole in 
lieu of a sail to catch the fitful breezes. Somali men are 
frequently fine, hardy fellows, and move about with a native 
dignity which is most impressive; the few women to be seen 
are not as a rule fine, excepting the young queen of Somali, 
who rules by her beauty and overbearing tyranny one of the 
most desperate tribes of Africa ; she is certainh* fair to gaze 
upon. A marked difference in the shades of color of their 



skins provokes the query as to the cause. Well-to-do .Somali 
men ^vear a leathern band passed through the centre of two 
valuable, large, knob -shaped pieces of amber around their 
necks. One purchased by me from the neck of the wearer 
cost ten dollars (two pounds). The same price is demanded for 
a new one at the shops. Others wear leather armlets, through 


which their knives are thrust, and plain leather collars, and 
even long strands of beads interspersed with a few red and 
yellow ones to brighten up the others. Native boy divers 
swim out from shore and float about the anchored vessels, 
soliciting a coin to dive for, and utter in a comical shrill way 
a few pigeon English words: " Laidee, swimmee bottom 


littee monee." They dive and gambol in the water like 
porpoises. When Somali boatmen pull their oars, it is to 
the time of a strange, measured plaint in a falsetto tone, 
whereas, when they rest on their oars, drifting or tied up, 
they laugh and chatter incessantly in a loud voice, repeating 
over and over the same words, and clapping their hands on 
their bare thighs. As the captain's gig, with its Indian crew„ 

pulled us to shore, the amphibious 
Somali boys surrounded the boat and 
bore us company all the way, entreating 
us for coin. A few whites, Arabs, Parsees, 
Egyptians, and Africans from every 
quarter of the coast and islands, Berber, 
Nubia, Dinkili, Galla, Karthoum, Soudan, 
Congo, and Somali men move about in 
these seaports, a motley throng, adding 
a quaint interest to all strangers. Once 
settled in a rickety two-seated cariole, 
drawn by a well-cared-for, fat, tiny little 
horse, we were driven by an old Arab 
who disported an abundant pale-green muslin turban sur- 
mounted by a plaited straw crown cap, a long striped kansor 
trailing to his feet and a bright yellow cloth sleeveless jacket 
braided with gold, his hands covered with rings of strange 
devices ; he was fat, sleek, odoriferous with a blend of spices 
and uncleanliness, utterly indifferent to the comfort of his 
passengers, his sandals occupying the front seat beside him. 




The heat and flies and merciless glare of sun on barren 
landscape, to say nothing ot the swirls ot dust and furnace- 
like air, which brought whiffs of unknown odors, and the 
stench of camels, of donkeys, ot sheep, ot people, and of 
towns, made the outing certain!)- unpleasant, if a novelty. 

The principal street was 
very tiny creatures, laden 
panniers and enormous 
at a very quick pace, 
here little 
b u r den, 
Said ; the 
most re- 
transport, and with their 
gallop at an admirable 
with bkick faces ; sheep 
tails clumped upon their / 
plume, — the 
duced b\' cut- 
fleshy part ot 

crowded with donkeys, 

with tremendous double 

packs travelling 

j4 There were 

tawn -colored 

used as beasts of 

as well as at Port 

camel seems the 

liable means of 

hea\-y loads awkwardly 

rate of speed; goats 

with heavy fat 

backs like a 

result pro- 

■.' ' ting the 

the tail and 

t r a i n i n 1/ the 


clumsy ap- 
pendage up at the crup, to 
keep it from trailing on the ground ; the fleece is short and 
not abundant. 

A most extraordinary apparition of a human creature 
loomed upon my vision, and proved to be a woman, the 

38 SULTA>f TO Sri^TAX. 

first of my own sex I had beheld in the town. She presented 
one complete, unvaried mass of saffron color. Every tone 
about her was saffron ; her body was tinged saffron, even to 
her feet in her saffron-colored sandals ; her gown was 
saffron ; her hair saffron ; she wore quantities of amber beads, 
and promenaded the streets unveiled. This fact and her oddity 
incited my curiosity. I did not rest until I gleaned the 
reason for her pronounced jaundiced appearance. Briefly, the 
government regulations provide quarters for a certain debased 
class of women, as a sanitary protection to the soldiers there 
stationed, and this saffron color is enforced upon the women 
habitants of these quarters as an insignia of her nefarious 
but authorized calling. 

As we were driving away from the commercial town centre 
towards the steep hills upon which the marvellous tanks and 
gardens are situated, built by the English, we passed the fort 
built on the steep side of the hill, which was approached by 
almost perpendicular stone stairways, most difficult of ascent. 

The architectural formation of the tanks, or water reservoirs, 
is most eccentric and picturesque, quarried out of the hard gran- 
ite-like stone structure of the hills, and walled up by similar cut 
slabs, cemented so as to make the tanks water-tight, ranged at 
different degrees up and about the hills in the most irregular 
manner. The bald rock surfaces, denuded ot soil, ol the 
declivities make the downpouring ot water comparatively free 
from earthy particles or other debris; nevertheless every stray 
atom accumulated from time to time is carefully collected and 



removed from the basins of the tanks, and used to improve the 
made gardens. It was interesting to watch corps of small boys, 
under the direction of an Arab headman, supplied with small 
baskets which they carry on their heads, filled with the scant 
debris that they industriously collect out of the empty tanks, and 


transported b)' them up ladders and stairways, to deposit upon 
the artificially made flower beds. Although the work certainly 
is not arduous, yet it showed that the children are not idle ; 
and the)- were as happy as possible while at their work, full 
of childish nonsense, giving vent to volleys of gleeful laughter. 




The water is all sold, and doled out with great economy to 
the purchasers ; there are some private tanks, and some 
leased by the government to indi\iduals or companies. Eleven 

months had transpired, at the 
time of my visit, since the last 
rainfall had filled the tanks, yet 
there was abundant water to 
last until the rainy season, and 
longer in case of drought. It 








is a current story that Aden 
has been frequently as long as 
five years without rain. I was 
surprised to see that the water 
showed no signs of stagna- 
tion; possibly the clever man- 
ner of cementing every crevice, and keeping the tanks free 
from vegetation, combined with the daily evaporation and the 
nightly heavy dewfall, may account for this. The almost per- 
pendicular steps leading to the various serpentine galleries 
bordering the tanks were difficult to ascend and descend, for 
the bluff walls of the aerial narrow passages, with a narrow foot 
tread, and the; tiny bridges with unrailed platforms, make 
one's head swim. I found mysell involuntaril)' stretching out 
my hands into space, eager to grasp something tangible to keep 
me from losing my balance and being dashed below. Seeing 
my predicament, my clear-headed escort bade me close my 
eyes and rest my hands upon his shoulders whilst we slowly 


descended ; this I did witli ease and safety, pausing to reassure 
myself whenever we attained a more spacious platform. Dotted 
here and there, in sequestered nooks, had been planted a few 
acacia and other trees, vines and flowers, giving a welcome 
shade. Here were usual))- situated water wells, with quaint 
sweeps to u[jlift the water, or an old-fashioned bucket and rope. 
One felt inclined to peer in the deep shadows for a Rebecca. 
Cooing pigeons, affrighted by our presence from their resting- 
places, with swelled throats and ruffled feathers, uttered a 
strange noise and flew wildly across the open space ; strange 
bulbous flowering plants grew out from little crevices almost 
devoid of soil. They appeared like wooden vv'ater-jugs, or 
water-skins at the base, then abruptly branched out, and with- 
out supplementary foliage blossomed into one or two waxy 
flowers, pink or white, which emitted a subtle, almost sickening 

The prevailing drought naturally reduces the soil to a 
parched state of barrenness; not a fruit, nor a vegetable, nor 
flower grows throughout the town in the open. In the suburbs 
there are many very lovely villas facing the Gulf of Aden, occu- 
pied by the prosperous merchants and professional residents, 
where they seek respite from the heat and moil of the town, and 
where fishing, yachting, and sea bathing are the principal 
attractions and divertisements. 

Driving back to town, I noticed children on the roadside 
making mud cakes and mud houses, whilst others engaged in 
a game with stones, something like draughts. Somali and 



pedlers of other nations circulate about tlie streets, offering 
for sale shiekls, seme, or swords, ostrich feathers single or 
in lonor tin cases, and longr feather boas and little baskets; 

however, they always ask 
strangers double price, and 
dog- the steps of those who 
refuse to be imposed upon, 
lessening the price, until they 
voluntarily accept what they 
can get from the customer. 

Aden's market place was 
diseustine- Arabs and Somali 
venders squatting on their 
filthy mats, with their vegetables 
DELIGHT OF A coRDOFAN. aud Iruits all about them, their 

bare, dirty feet indiscriminatel)- thrust among their wares ; some 
crouched in front of iron pans placed over a few smouldering 
twigs, or over smudgy oil lamps in which they cooked poor, 
meagre, dry ears of corn and bananas. The quality of the 
fruit offered for sale was wretched ; bananas and apples ab- 
solutely rotten, yet they found purchasers. Wood, camel, 
sheep, ami goat markets presented a thoroughly Oriental 
aspect. The wood on sale consisted of great scraggy loads 
of branchiuij faTOts borne on camels or mules, which would 
seem to be on the verge of toppling over. When the loads 
were sold, the camels were driven into the camel market, 
there to lie down or feed, whilst their drivers sprawled about. 

*■» .rr-» T ■ i« » ■■ *?i 



smoking, eating, or sleeping, awaiting some chance to reload 
and return to the country, or an opportunity to sell the 
animals. The live stock seemed well fed and well condi- 
tioned, as in fact do the people. I only observed a few 
miserable, crippled, or blind mendicants, sitting in full view at 
the entrance of the markets or tunnels, displaying to the very 
best advantage their hideous diseased bodies, covered with tlies 
and vermin, to which they seemed insensible, emitting liorrible 
odors, which fill with discrust the nostrils of those who mieht 
be charitably in- 

Fellah woman 
wa t er-carriers, 
and Arab women 
sellinof suijar-cane 
and corn, gave a 
decided local 
color here and 

The tunnels. 

cut through the 
hills, connect the 
east and west side 
of the peninsula, 
saving considera- 
ble distance in 
the travel across fellah water-carrier. 



or around the steep hills, and are fine pieces of engineering- ; 
however, so low studded, they are scarcely better than passage- 
ways. Strong, sickening odor ot camels and goats passing 
through Hnger a long time after their exit. The neck of land 

which makes Aden a peninsula 

Lit r. / L J^tiaaw"' 


is remarkably slender, and 
almost obliterated when the tide 
is flush. 

Many of the Arab houses 

are strikingly quaint, covered 

Wk. ' ;T T with a latticework of split 

bamboo; occasionally there is 
a rude attempt at exterior dec- 
oration, arabesques daubed on 
in the crudest red, yellow, 
blue, black, and green, without 
any attempt to blend the colors, and it produces a start- 
ling effect. The l^arsee temple, the Hindoo mosque, the 
Christian churches, are picturescjue edifices. An obscure 
path leading to the Parsee Tower ot .Silence, which is erected 
on the top of a steep pinnacleil hill, filled me with gruesome 
awe. Xo one but a Parsee is ever permitted to visit this 
spot. Debarred as 1 was, I could not help thinking, and 
depicting to myself the spectacle; there on the top, an open 
tower serried with stoni? stretchers, upon which were laid the 
dead, exposed to the ravages of the elements, and ulti- 
mately to be devoured by filthy carnixorous birds, it seemed 



repulsively uncanny. Hindoo burial places were indicated by 
heaps of stones hardly worthy the dignity of the name 
Tumuli. I^aubed with round red spots at the corner of the 
heaps of stones, fagots were planted in the ground, from 
which floated small red cotton flags, imparting a weird and 
barbaric impression on lirst sight. I naively queried, when 
seeing the flags from afar, "Are they holding an auction?" 
My escort bluntly responded, " Yes, a devil's auction." 
The Mohammed burial ground is made noticeable by the 
low, arched tombstones upon which are inscribed a quotation 
from the Koran, whereas the English " God's acre," a very 
unpretentious and meagrely occupied spot, had wooden and 
stone head and foot monuments. 

Along the roads appear enclosed stone and wooden 
laniriiii, lor the accommodation of the people as they journey 
to and fro, for they have a decided delicacy, or superstition, 
or something else which makes them reluctant to befoul the 
earth on a thoroughfare. 

We saw enormous fish, a species of ray, being packed on 
donkeys, fairly sizzling beneath the direct rays of the sun. 
Arabs carry with them on a journey a cliarpoy, or a portable 
folding bamboo latticed straight cot, as well as large square 
chairs, upon which they curl up to sleep, and use for stands 
to display their goods. Arabs, .Somalis, and Indians when 
weary will roll themselves up in their cloths and lie down 
amid stones or on the hot .sands, and sleep peacefully under 
the blazing sun at mid-day, indifferent to human comfort. 


The blacks will stretch themselves out naked, with only a 
loin-cloth when the sun is hottest, their black skins shining 
and ^listening as the heat causes the palm and cocoanut oil, 
with which they are rubbed, to ooze out at everj- pore. 
Whereas the white man avoids the direct rays of the sun 
when suffering from fexer, the black men lose no opportunity 
in submitting to such as a curative agency. The primitive 
.simplicity of these tropical people is largely due to climate; 
they get along with so little, and seem in admirable condi- 
tion and happ)- as the da)- is long. ]\Iy stay on shore did 
not permit me time to look into the methods of education, 
although I was subsequently informed, on reliable authority, 
that there exists a governmental supervision over the chil- 
dren and a compulsory educational law. 

Native blacksmiths work on the roadsides, making a tem- 
porary forge wherever their work happens to be. The)- handle 
their tools with considerable adroitness. Egyptian scissors- 
grinders and knife-sharpeners form a very picturesque grouping. 
If only the people are disposed, they can get plenty of 
work at Aden, for it is such a great shipping port. How- 
ever, there seems to exist a great aversion to manual labor. 
Unless absolutely driven to do so by pressing need, the labor- 
ing classes are not possessed with an idea of bettering their 
position or of a thrifty provision for the future. They seem 
content to live and die in the circumstances and station of 
life to which they have been born. It is climatic as much 
as aught else. 












After the drive we were the guests of Cowerjie Dinshaws, 
the celebrated wealthy Parsee merchants, whose commercial 
house is the rendezvous for every one coming to Aden. A 
delightful breakfast, with a strange and varied menu, was pre- 
pared, awaiting our arrival ; and singularly enough, the host did 
not sit down at table with us, but said, after seating us and 
about to retire himself, " I trust you will do justice to our 
house by making yourselves at home." A Mussulman served 
us. He was a fat, wabbly, bow-legged, much-turbaned, and 
scant-begowned soul, who might have stepped out of the 



Arabian Niehts. Parsees wear the most delicate and sheer 
Indian mull oarments, lonor and flowin*'' to their heels, fastened 
with gold buttons. Their under apparel is not discernible 
beneath the shirt-shaped overdress. Their feet are sandalled. 
Indoors they wear a silk skullcap, which they surmount by 

NA'rivF. iNris oi-' nikTERS. 

a strange black enamelled pot hat for outdoor wear. Some 
of the enterprising young men, who travel on business in 
other countries, adopt, when abroad, European costumes, all 
but the hat. Every person seemed to be well acqu.ainted 
with m)' plan to visit East Africa, although wide of the mark 





as to my legitimate motive, and, naturally, had many comments 

to make and much gratuitous advice to give. Sir Francis de 

Winton, who had been stationed at Mombasa, was at Aden, 

awaiting the steamer for England. He considerately sent me 

word to prepare against rain if I was going to the interior, 

for it had been an unusually dry 

season, and it was more than likel)- 

to be followed by excessive rain. 

He also marvelled wh)' I did not 

select the German route instead of 

attempting the English. Then I 

did not comprehend why, but it 

subsequently became obvious that 

he was cognizant of the decided 

opposition that awaited me on the 

part of a certain official in the 

English Company. At Aden all the 

current gossip and news of the iishiki. 

world was buzzed about, as all the different lines of steamers 

bound for India, Ceylon, Malta, and Africa anchored in 

the port, and passengers ha\-e time to visit the town and 

exchange news. 

After making extensive supplementar)- purchases, I was 
quite content to board the steamer. My Palanquin was much 
admired by Messrs. Dinshaw. The senior member of the 
firm had an Indian one for his wife, which weighed two hun- 
dred pounds ; whereas mine onl)' weighed seventj-, being made 

^4 ^ 




of rattan, all the metal mountings of aluminium, the linings 
and fittings yellow India silk, the cushions of down, and the 
awnines ereen canvas. Had it been more cumbersome, it 
would have been impossible to have transported it on the 

'\1 M I IAMII.\. 

heads or shoulders of men through African jungles, swamps, 
over mountains, and across plains. 

In reviewing my purchases, arranging and familiarizing 
myself with what my possessions consisted in, and what their 
uses, and where they were, and in making triplicate in\en- 
tories, I discovered myself to be a very busy indi\idLial, with 
an increased realization of cares antl responsibility, which I 


was not willing to shirk, or relegate to hirelings. Undeniably 
the heat gradually increased, but the double ship awnings 
and prevailing tranquillity prevented great discomfort. When 
we were at table, one of the deck hands, standing out of 
sight, pulled a rope through the sk\ light by which he swung 
the punkah, keeping the flies from harassing us, as it put 
the air in gentle motion. Afternoon naps were in order, as 
we lolled in long chairs on deck, and the lazy languor of 
the tropics no amount of inherent energy could overcome. 
At night when I elected to write in the cabin, one of the 
ship's hands, usually a Malay boy, would be sent to fan me. 
He would scan me with curious eyes, but never say a word, 
nor would he leave his post unless I bade him do so. I 
would frequently leave the table and go to my own cabin to 
get some necessary article, and return in a few moments ; 
meantime the faithful fellow would await my return. One 
nieht I left the table to retire, never thinking of m\- faithful 
comfort-maker, when, two or three hours afterwards, I chanced 
to open my door and found him standing fast asleep, with 
the fan grasped in his hand, awaiting my appearance. 

One morning at the breakfast-table, where we were all 
convened, the chief engineer addressed the captain, — 

"Captain, I don't know what we'll do about that drunken 
rascal ; he seems to be quite beyond my control." 

The captain looked up with a degree of surprise, and 
answered brusquely, " I'll take that in hand after breakfast." 

The whole thing struck those present as being in 


violation of all ship discipline, but of course none of us 
made any comment, and the general chatter resumed its 
usual frivolity until the meal was at an end. After getting 
settled in ni}- long chair on deck prepared for a comfortable 
read, the captain, considerably flustered, followed by the 
chief engineer, who spoke in a low, though excited tone, 
rushed into his cabin and seized a rattan walking stick, and 
after hastily rushing half-way down the deck to the hatch- 
way, he abruptly turned around and came towards me, looking 
the very picture of suppressed anger, and burst out with, — 

"Mrs. Sheldon, look here a moment; I would like to 
show to you a living example of the ingratitude of the 
fellows we captains try to benefit. For example, we have 
on the ship a stowawa)', whom I thought an honest sort 
of a chap when he was discovered, and he gave something 
of a plausible reason for his trick in trying to get a free 
passage, so said, ' Very well, m\" good fellow, we will give 
you employment as a stoker.' To this he consented, and 
went on all right for some days, but was found beastly drunk 
last night while on duty, and do or say what the engineer 
might, he has kept up his org)- until we will have to take 
stringent measures." 

I protested that I did not care to see a drunken man, nor be a 
witness to any chastisement. However, the captain persisted, — 

" You will do me a favor by coming with me." 

So I followed him along to the hatchwa)', where were 
collected all the other passengers, the chief engineer, and 



several of the crew, hot and breathless, appearing as if they 
had had a tussle, and curled up on one side was the most 
dejected -looking 
specimen of hu- 
manity one could 
possibly conceive 
of. His limp fig- 
ure was drawn up 
into a little heap, 
his head hidden 
from view by his 
arms; a large pail 
of water, with tow- 
els and sponges, 
stood hard by, 
and the deck all 
about was com- 
pletely deluged 
with water. Upon 
the appearance of siimali ijieen. 

the captain and myself, with great excitement the engineer 
exclaimed, — 

"There's no use, sir, I've tried everything to sober him 
up, he's a cure. I've thrown eight or ten pails of water 
over him, all to no purpose, and the men have put him on 
his feet a dozen times, and he has as often dropped in the 
helpless state you see him." 



The captain exclaimed, " I'll make short work ot this 
business "; and his cane went whistling through the air and 
unmercifully fell on the shoulders of the poor wretch. 
Involuntarily I exclaimed, " Oh, don't, Captain! don't!" 
The captain glared at me and said, " Mrs. Sheldon, I re- 
quire no advice in carr)ing out discipline on this ship." 

After this snubbing, I was about turning to leave, feeling 
it was an outrage to have invited me to be a spectator to 
such a scene. With that the captain raised his foot and 
kicked the powerless fellow four or five times in succession, 
all the while .saying, "Get up! get up!" and I was tempted 
to return and offer one more protest in behalf of the poor 
wretch, when the captain's heel came down upon the man's 
head with a sickening thud, and the skull fairly crushed 
beneath the violence used. 

With uncontrollable horror and indignation I screamed 

out to the captain, as I started 
to lly from the spot, "You brute! 
you brute ! Don't ever dare to 
speak to me on this \-oyage ; I 
shall make a report to the ship's 
compan)' ! ^'ou are not fit to 
command a vessel ! " 

Convulsed with laughter, he 
sprang round and seized me by 
the arm, and all the others 

THl- QUF.KN'S SLAVE WUMAX. ^^''^'"'^ silUply bcUt doublc with 



their merriment, and to my humiliation, I saw the drunken 
man's head fly through the air, detached from his body, 
a bloodless, lifeless, empty tomato tin ! This effigy of a man, 
after having served to tool all the other passengers, who 
had with consistent silence kept me from 
the knowledge of their betrayment in 
order to witness the effect upon me, had 
gulled me completely. It can well be 
imagined, after having left no loophole 
by which to escape in my crazy denun- 
ciation of the captain, what a pleasant 
day I had. However, some time later, 
when we were swinging at anchor in a 
certain port, and the captain had given on 
shipboard a dinner to the English residents, whilst the even- 
ing's enjoyment was at its height, the chief engineer put in 
an appearance and said with professed concern, — 

" A boatman belonoino- to one of the o-entleman guests 
is lying in a perilous position on the ship's rail, and I am 
afraid to approach him lest he rolls off into the water." 

Aha, Air. Engineer, my time had come, so I sang out in 
a loud tone of voice, " Mr. Engineer, had you not better take 
a tin-opener to rescue that man ? " and he disappeared from 
sight. This time the laugh was on him. 

At Lamu the ship's local cargo was discharged by lighters. 
There was a heavy tide sweeping into the narrow channel, 
and the rocky and sandy coast looked most treacherous. 




Lamu itself was not an inviting spot from the water ap- 
proaches. The scraggy, gnarled bushes in view might have 
been dead scrub-oak, whilst others resembled cacti. 

This is the site of an English station, and at this time quite 
a bevy of important men connected with the English Company, 
who were preparing to make an official tour up country. Here, 
too, is stationed the original of Rider Haggard's " Captain 
Good." He is a noted sportsman, bird and butterfly collec- 
tor, as well as treaty maker and treaty enforcer for the English 
Company. He still wears the storied monocle, and is most 
helplessly near-sighted if by any circum- 
stance he is deprived of his ocular crutch. 

Rider Haggard, during his sojourn at 
Lamu, made the studies for " .She," and 
obtained the local color with which his 
African • romances glow. 

There has been foimil, in making 
some excavations from time to time, 
a considerable quantity ot 
hand-painted pottery, cer- 
tainly not of African origin, 
probably of Portuguese or 
other, which ma)' ha\'e been 
looted or brought thither 

b)- voyagers, buried, as everything is, for safe-keeping in 
Africa, subsequently forgotten, or for divers reasons not 
reclaimed bv the owners, but now excavated, to the 





bewilderment of curio collectors. The o-overnment's attention 
has been called to the fact that these relics were being carried 
out of the country, and it has prohibited further removal by 
the passage of a law. 

Some of the native iron workers in this vicinity manufac- 
ture knives, and daggers, with ivory handles inlaid with gold 
and silver that are really beautiful from an artistic point of 
view, although it is with great difficulty examples can be 
procured in any number, as the workers are most unreliable, 
and dilatory beyond the limits of patience. 

The long stretch of sandy coast and narrow waterway, 
scarcely more than a creek, leading to the island of Seychelee 


and Lainu, are not in the least imposing or attractive. 
Seychelee has affixed to it the extraordinary tradition of 
being the refuge of Adam and Eve. Here, too, grows a 
variety of cocoanut, rare and higlily vakicd. Its beach is 
strewn witli bleached human skulls and bones, to mark the 
ghastly tale of a deadly encounter between two hostile tribes 
who about exterminated each other. Some time since a 
French sailing vessel collected a cargo of these bones for 
commercial purposes ! So much for national utilitarianism 
and economy ! 

Very quaint dugouts dotted the harbor, equipped with long, 
awkward outriooers of enormous blades like sculls which bal- 
ance the crafts as the natives fish. Such black fellows, swathed 
about with what was once white sheeting, cast about Avith 
eel-jigs, baited with pieces of quivering fresh fish. There can 
be no sport in hauling them so caught out of the water. 
These fish were a species of silver perch marked with coral 
stripes all over the body, whilst the gills were tinted red. 

Similar st\"le of boats put out from shore with their lilack- 
skinned native crew in quest of a silver bittin from unwary 
passengers who might be tempted to trust themselves to 
voyage with them to \isit the shore. 

When the captain's gig returned from delivering the mail, 
although not disconcerted, I was far from being pleased \vith 
a very unsatisfactory letter from Mr. George S. Mackenzie. 
Despite the assurances I had had in London from important 
men in the directorship of the Imiierial British East African 



Company that everything 230ssible uould be done for me, 
and even that they had taken the trouble to cable to their 
representative to use his best endeavor to procure porters for 
me, this gentleman evidently was neitlier interested in nor in 
sympathy -with my " novel enterprise," but, to the contrar\-, 
absolutely prejudiced against it. 

Like a flash I realized that without doubt he would, if 
he could, put a stop to the affair, believing, as he did, that 
my advent among the natives in the English occupation of 
East Africa would Incur 
altogether too much risk 
upon the overburdened 
company. \Vh)', I could 
not imagine, as I did 
not ask, nor had I any 
intention of so doincj, 
the company to act as 
my sponsor, or to con- 
tribute in any substantial 
way to my personal un- 
dertaking beyond giving 
me full permission to 
traverse their posses- 
sions, and possibly assist vaki;u.\ lllli. 
and advise me how to recruit a caravan. Henceforward I 
regarded Mr. G. S. Mackenzie as my Obstacle, silently bear- 
ing my chagrin, determined to quietly make my own 




arrangements, in so far as I could, without his knowledge or 
counsel, and when perfected, proceed with or without his 
permission, let the issue be what it might. Strange para- 
dox, in the end matters culminated 
so that to this same Obstacle I owe 
a debt of gratitude. His maddening 
opposition developed and tried my 
metal, at the same time prepared me 
to encounter serious difficulties. I was 
convinced that it would be imcompati- 
ble with prudence to attempt to start 
interior with a caravan until the rain 
came. Enforced patience held in 
check my impetuosity, awarding me ample time to perfect 
and mature my mode of procedure once I should start. 

From all communicated to me, it was an open secret that 
the Germans were carrying everything by force of arms and 
exercising strict military discipline, which they were enforcing 
with tyranny upon the natives, who were submitted to a kind 
of military servility they had no prior knowledge of, nor any 
disposition to accept. The contrast between their national 
ways and means of civilizing and colonizing natives and that 
generally maintained by the English is extremely obvious and 
certainly reprehensible. Throughout the German occupation of 
East Africa on all sides there is a tooting of horns, the rat- 
tling of guns, the salute of cannons, all that belongs to the 
display and announcement of military despotism and rule ; 




whereas the English have no army, no naval force backing' 
them to liold their sway over the natives in tlicir occupation 
of East Africa, and it is but a question of time when the 
natives will voluntarily yield a willing homage and fealty to the 
English government which the Germans aim to procure, and 
only exact by great stringency of measures. They even 
conscript, from native tribes, soldiers to battle against their 
recreant neighbor.'* The atmosphere was rife with general 
discontent on this score. It may possibly be that some of 
the statements have only a figment of truth, they may be all 
true. In any event it is as the clown from a ripe thistle, 

* Since this went to press, h.ive been received the rumors of English disturbances at Witu and Uganda. 



and was flying about in the air on all sides. My ears were 
filled with the unpleasant statement that for divers reasons, 
in harmony with the arbitrary policy of the Germans' reign 
and rule, they would not permit any alien Europeans to trav- 
erse their East African occupation. Alas ! these rumors have 
a mysterious " they " that no one can give individuality, or 
name, or place to, and this " they," during my sojourn in 
East Africa, I discovered had no recognized parentage, no 
local habitation or home, but was a bastard, double-headed 
monster, most ubiquitous and slippery, and not above the 
most petty spites and jealousies. Every one who felt uncertain 
as to the origin of an assertion dodged behind " they said." 
I had to be patient until the good time arrived when occa- 
sion was given to test the veracity of the distracting hearsays, 
and discovered them as a whole distorted, and too often 

The picturesque Fort of Mombasa, built in the sixteenth 
century by Vasco da Gama, loomed in sight. 





E approached Mombasa in the 
sparkling rays of a tropical sun. 
It seemed most strange and 


unlike any harbor I had ever 
seen. It was very diffi- 
cult to navigate, not 
being properly marked 
\ by buoys, but in a most 
;, idiotic way the pilot 
must steer in line of a 
pole no thicker than a 
bean stalk to get a course between two pillars no larger 
than a good-sized oar planted on shore. The channel is at 
best narrow and interspersed with sand bars, consequently 
nearly every steamer going into this port runs aground. 

There was a great commotion ; all the everybodies and 
nobodies, white and black, hallooing, gesticulating in an 
e.xcited manner, while rushing along the shore, leaping from 
rock to rock, the natives, of course, in such a majority that 
the white men appeared most conspicuous. The old Porta- 



cocoAxrr flantaiion, m(>m}:asa. 

guese fort and the low native huts, thatched with cocoanut 
leaves, and huddled together, were more interesting than 
attractive places of abode. Certain landmarks are conspic- 
uous. At last the Imperial British East Africa Co.'s agent, the 
ship's agent, and all the usual crowd which throng an incom- 
ing steamer in these ports, pushed off in boats and came on 
board ; and one who for the moment, in the absence of Mr. 
G. S. Mackenzie, was the representative of the I. B. E. A. Co.'s 
interest, came on board to see me, and commenced a long 
harangue about the impossibility of the company's officers 
procuring for me even one porter for my inland journey; and 


in the course of his conversation he revealed to me the one 
prevaihng fact that my Obstacle, Mr. G. S. Mackenzie, did 
not approve of my presence, and denounced my undertaking. 
Then followed a long dissertation as to the popular idea 
of ni)- insane undertaking. This courteous, much-hampered 
envoy appeared completely cut up when I calmly inquired, — 

" What do the officers of the I. R. E. A. Co. suppose 
I want of them, that I am not prepared to get without their 
assistance? I require no financial aid, and I have already 
obtained permission from those in authority in England to 
pass through the English territory." 

He looked perfectly abashed for a moment, then graciously 
put himself at my disposal in so far as lay in his power as 
a gentleman, although as an officer he was utterly powerless 
to act. 

Many of the posts occupied b\- white men in the English 
and German possessions are too insignificant to be deemed 

desirable, unless through ^---li^ — ~^^ .^ ""^ i 

some concealed or some (_ ,- W^^ V,;!* 

ulterior end or aim they ^^ i^-^ .jj. . / -^L^.^ .^— 

are sought as a matter of h.\nd showing rings for gifis. 

personal eccentricity. It can be imagined that a man of activi- 
ties, who enjoys freedom, and possesses a natural propensity 
for leadership, should desire to break awa)' from the narrow, 
cloying environments of civilized society, with all of its set 
rules, conventionalities, shams, and cant, for just such a life 
as one might find in Africa. Had I visited East Africa to 


Study the anthropology and ethnology of the white man, in- 
stead of the native races, I have no doubt the research would 
have afforded novel results. However, my curiosity became 
keener and keener to study the native Africans, and I 
was most eager to get fairl\' at m\' work. All the volun- 
teered advice and hints proffered on all sides I was quite 
prepared to accept as stock in trade, which might redound, 
by judicious application, to my ultimate success. In such a 
country as Africa one must have physical force, health, and 
endurance, as well as strong mentality, in order to get and 
hold control over the natives, in order to command with the 
power to govern one's porters. Better mysterious silence 
when one is in doubt, than awkward indecision or a displaj* 
of blunders and a confession of deficient knowledge. It is 
not a country for half-tones or vacillation, at least not while 
the natives are in their present state of civilization. The 
fact was, it was feared that the consequences of a woman's 
leading a caravan might throw the natives into a frcnz)-, bring 
difficulties about which would involve the I. B. E. A. Co. in 
trouble and expense to come to my rescue. 

The Frere Town mission people came to take me to the 
lovely spot which overlooks the entire Bay of Mombasa, on 
which is erected their mission houses. The native crew were 
dressed in the usual length of unbleached body-cloth, bor- 
dered with a red stripe and a loose woven shirt. The gen- 
tleman who escorted me quite agreed with me that it would 
be a mistake to replace the natives' present style of dress 




by European iashions, and }et he confessed it would be 
most difficult to check the tendenc)', as the home societies 
were all the time sending out made-up articles of clothing, 
especially for the girls and women, that Avere totally unsuit- 
able for their position or the climate ; and the good creatures, 
zealously devoted to the propagation of the gospel among 
the heathen, were constantly making requests that the con- 
verts in the mission should be clothed with Christian decency. 
He frankly averred that no one could possibly know 
without living in the climate, studying the necessities of it, 
and looking into the habits of the people, how utterly pre- 



posterous are these modern innovations. However, he made 
an exception in the case of the best educated native men 
who were teachers, saying that " European clothing seemed 
to set well upon them." 

After landing- I was taken up to what was called the Ladies' 
House, Bishop Hannington's old residence, and here was 



cordially received and entertained by the ladies of the mission, 
shown about their institution, allowed to inspect the work 
taught to the girls, visited the school, and was presented to the 
leading man in the work, Mr. Binns. Having been told that 
Mr. Mackenzie had incidentally said that Mr. Binns's opinion of 
my expedition might lie considered with gravit)-, my desire 
was to convince Mr. Binns of the plausibility of my plans. 
He perfectly agreed with me that success would attend my 
efforts, if I set to work properly. After explaining my aim 
to mingle much with the native women and children, I asked, 
in order to facilitate the work, if he could supply me with 
woman interpreters. .Such a thing had never been thought 
of, nor ever before required, and he evinced great astonish- 
ment and was decidedly disconcerted when I persisted, saying, 
"Certainly, in an old-established mission like this, there must be 
among the pupils women or girls capable of interpreting." 
Finally he imparted, in an evasive way, his opinion that the 
mission girls would have a disinclination to go on safari 
(journey), and mix with the rest of the caravan, besides they 
would not e.xpect to carry even their own budget ; further- 
more, that their education was directed towards making them 
teachers in behalf of the mission, and not to acquire money 
in secular service. This revealed to me the utter impracti- 
cability of their methods of religious training. Such edu- 
cational discipline must necessarily undermine their self-reliance 
and leave the imprint of irresponsibility upon the native 
pupils. The woman missionary workers happily are not so 



much swaged by supercilious sentiments, and with an amount 
of practical common-sense seem to realize that all natives 

rescued from 
slavery by the 
mission have not 
b )• nature the 
a 1 1 1 i t u d e -which 
makes them eliofi- 
ble for teachers. 
These women 
are tr\-ino- to in- 
troduce simple, 
useful industries, 
such as Zanzibar 
mat braiding, 
and have taken 
contracts from 
a com m e r c i a 1 
house for strine- 


ing barter beads, besides teaching them to sew. The boys 
are mainly instructed in Arabic, Ki-.S\vahali, and English; 
whicli tits them as porters and interpreters, but so inefficiently 
that the mission boys are the horror of most caravans, and 
they apply the precepts of their religious training as a cloak 
for all their shortcomings. If a lamp is broken by one of 
ihem, or anything is lost, or a misdemeanor committed, when 
taxed as to wlio did it, with nai've sacrilege, not knowing what 



it means, it is common to hear them exclaim, "Jesus chd it." 
And, if reprimanded, the)' reiterate \vith some degree of logic, 
" Dio Bwana, Jesus did it. jesus died to save sinners — me 
mission boy — Jesus did it." This does not represent an 
isolated circumstance, but accords with the experience of 
numerous travellers. 

.Since my visit to East Africa, Rev. Dr. Stewart, celebrated 
as the founder of the Livingstone mission, assisted by Dr. 
Moffat (Livingstone's nephew), through the instrumentality of 
half a dozen .Scotch philanthropists, has established, about 
two hundred and fitly miles from the east coast, an industrial 
mission on the most practical lines. He aims to teach the 
natives some craft or avocation, according to the trend of 
their minds and physical capabilities, which will fit them to 
fill the existing demands, or those which may be created, of 

the country, and not such as will 
have no outlet. It is but just to 
declare in favor of the medical men 
who go out to uncivilized lands, 
either under secular or religious 
auspices, that they are truly the 
most devoted, abnegating adjuncts 
to class or church, and 
^^^ if so disposed, can ex- 
ercise the most bene- 


ficial influence towards 
the amelioration and 



progress of the natives. The women and girls are clothed 
in white cotton dresses, made like a chemise, bedecked with 

a T 11 r k e )' - r e d 
stripe around the 
skirt, low neck 
and short sleeves. 
Most of them 
have their ear 
lobes distended 
to an accepted 
size by a paint id 
method of intro- 
ducincr graduated 
plugs ; then they 
wear as an orna- 
ment leaves of 
)• o u n g pal m s 
coiled very tight- 
1\- and trimmed 

AkAl'. WClMW 

1,1 m; i;an'axas lo porter. 

so as to display the white veining that runs through the 
centre of the leaf, which makes a spiral and looks very 
pretty. Some of the grander natives disport fine brass ear 
ornaments. They are permitted to wear their bead neck- 
laces and bracelets. The girls who have not their hair 
shaven tight to their head coiffure it in an elaborate and 
intricate fashion. It is impossible to comprehend how they 
can braid it in such an endless variety of patterns, so 



O O Q 

'=y. « 


neatly and closely to their heads, in tiny flat plaits, each 
strand pressing close against the scalp at ever)' turn, 
and not in long pendent strands. All of the girls and 
women are splendid boat-women, and 
manceiure their ugly, heavy, awkward 
canoes with a skill equal to the boat- 
men. They eat squatting" on the ground 
or at a long table with their wooden or 
metal basins before them filled with por- 
ridge, which they gather up with their 
fingers and roll into a ball and stuff 
into their mouths in the most piggish 
way. Not only does this habit obtain 
with the children, but adults eat in the 
same manner. It seems to afford an 
imfaxorable commentary on the methods 
of education employed. Their dormito- 
ries are of the rudest kind, — a long 
shanty or room, where a certain number 
of eirls and women are alloted a lone 
trestled couch, the spaces divided for 
each occupant by mats ; but there is no 
attempt to provide that order of privacy 
which develops the refinement of civil- 
ized decency. As a rule they eat one 
meal daily, when they stuff themselves gourd sxuff-bo.k, stud- 

. ,• .• 1 ^- TTTi , DED SILVER AND CARVED 

to disgustmg repletion. Whenever they p^^-terns, wa-chaga. 


o C o'cO o " J 

* '0 SC 



can o-et fruit they munch it at all times, and drink to their 
detriment fermented cocoanut milk, called tembo, upon which 
they frequently become intoxicated. This does not so often 

occur in the mission as 
in the freer life outside. 
The bread, alike for the 
whites and blacks, is 
raised with tembo 
yeast. The mission 
people, being c o n - 
vinced that it creates 
an appetite for drink, 
try to supply for their 
own followers, as well 
as those in the vicini- 
t)-, bread raised with 
other yeast. The 
women pound the corn 
and millet in stone and 
wooden mortars, with a 
c ] u m s )• \v o o d e n or 
stone pestle. Mothers bear their babes suspended in a 
cloth upon their backs whilst pounding the grain, without 
evincing any fatigue. I asked one woman why she did not 
put the little one down whilst at work. She looked puzzled 
for a moment, then smiled, and pointed to an ant hill, thrust 
her fingers into her mouth and caressingly touched her baby. 




Inspired by a secondary thought, she swayed her body in 
a rocking manner and ciooned out, "La-la." Her first pan- 
tomime simply indicated that she feared her babe might be 
eaten by the voracious ants ; the second, that the monoto- 
nous rocking motion whilst she pounded the grain put her 
infant to sleep. Soon as the children are weaned, they are 
placed in a special house, to which is attached a circular 
cemented playground, where they are daily amused, cared 
for, and taught by a native woman until able to attend the 
schools. The maternal wisdom displayed by the lad)' mis- 
sionaries in the employment of a native mother teacher is 
beyond question, for she could know at once the little one's 
ailments and administer some simple native medicine ; she 
could learn better than a white woman its little grievances 

and soothe them. Then, too, she 
is infinitely better adapted to under- 
stantl what would best amuse the 
little ones. The custom should be 

On the ^Mombasa wharf and 
shore, hosts of nude boys and girls 
were plunging into the water irom 
the framework of a 
pier over seventy feet 
high, giving vent to 
hilarious shouts of de- 


lieht and vving^ with 



each other. They dive feet down, and are most expert swim- 
mers. Respecting the amphibious traits of the natives in 
Africa, an English officer exploits the fiction that some ante- 
cedent of tlie African race was crowded off the ark and had 
to swim or drown. 

Noticeable on the shore were women and boys of the 
Wanyki tribe, presenting the most extraordinary distortion of 
the abdomen, which they esteem a great beauty. The abdo- 
men is bulging and rotund and like a lesser dome upon a 
larger dome ; the umbilicus has been distended by artificial in- 
flation during infancy to the size of a tennis ball. I was per- 
mitted to witness the abnormal operation. Many of the women 



wear kilted skirts of common dark blue muslin, seldom over a 
foot long. Such a jumble of white men and total absence 
of white women can hardly be conceived of; no man seemed 
to be in the place that he was fitted to occupy, yet he had 
signed a three years' iron-bound contract. Some of these men 
were refined and highly educated, from the great centres 
of the world ; fired by ambition, stimulated by a desire 
to enlarge their horizon, they had sought these openings, 
scarcely realizing the deprivations incumbent upon their 
posts and the monotony thereof. Others were volunteers 
from the humblest ranks of life. Unfortunately there are 
no white women, apart irom the tew woman missionaries ; 
hence these men are thrown 
promiscuously together and 
too much upon their owm re- 
sources, and the customary 
habit of taking " pegs " — 
brandy and soda or whiskey 
— in the course of time, in 
too many instances, enervates 
alike the constitution and 
character, although many of 
the men become so inured to 
the habit they never are the 
slightest bit maudlin. Of 
those eentlemen whom I met 

on the coast and elsewhere in 



East Africa, I must proclaim that, with few exceptions, they 
acquitted themselves in a most manly way, and extended to me 
upon every occasion offered the greatest courtesy. It was 
touching to witness their efforts to entertain me under trying 
conditions, so devoid of outside resources, far away from marts, 
and how they ransacked their meagre stores to get little deli- 
cacies, and how earnestly they hunted to bring in a bit of 
choice game. They were to a man on their best behavior, 
and put their best foot forward in extending the amenities 
refinement prompted. They did all they could for my com- 
fort and convenience. Men never could have been more 
charming nor more circumspect in their deportment. Occa- 
sionally, when as my guests on safari, they would accompany 
me for a day or so, their good-natured acceptance of my 
leadership and willingness to accede to my arbitrary rule of 
camp, and order of march, proved them to be well-bred men 
and admirable disciplinarians. To these gentlemen, none of 
them I regret to say of my own nationality, I desire to make 
public acknowledgment of heartfelt appreciation. 

There were the usual friction and dissension belonging to 
occupants of newly defined posts in a new enterprise, with the 
tendency to revolt against conditions. In due course, with 
experience gained by the directors as well as the men, these 
crossgrained things will modify themselves. 

I went on shore to visit the quaint old fort, which is a 
superb ruin, and has a fine outlook towartl the sea, and gives 
one a bird's-eye view of Mombasa, with the native huts huddled 




as close together as possible, with their quaint cocoanut roof 
thatchings. Here I had pointed out to me my first line of 
march away from the English settlement that I should take 
if I went away from the coast. The fort was occupied by 
Capt. Rogers, who commands a troop of sepoys loaned by 



the government to the British East African Company. In 
the fort quarters there were some Arabs stationed, who 
disported magnificent studded cutlasses and belts, as valuable 
as they are beautiful. They are worn thrust into the belt in 
front. Leaving the fort, my attention was called to the 
superbly carved doors and lintels, which are evidently of 
Portuguese and Persian origin, forming the entrances to tumble- 
down buildings. The streets were quaint, circuitous passage- 
ways. The ivor)' custom house possessed considerable 
interest to me, as the bids were given and accepted by a 
Parsee commissioner, in order to appraise the value of the 

tusks, and assess 
duties. A scribe 
cut little Arabic 
l1 e s i g n s upon 
each tusk valued 
and passed. 

An excursion 
was arranged, to 
my delight, to 
take me over 
the seven miles 
and a half tem- 
poraril)' laid of 
the Victoria 
Nyanza Railroad, 
SOMALI wAKRioKs. mooted as the 



greatest of all benefactions for East Africa when once 

I was greatly chagrined to be informed that there was not 
to be hired a single porter at Mombasa ; so, after meeting and 
discussing my open plans with my Obstacle, whom I finally 
succeeded, by diligent argument, in convincing that, despite 
his intense prejudice to my j^roposed undertaking, at 
least I very decidedly had considered its magnitude, the 
personal risk involved, and the immense liability incurred, he 
seemingly became my advocate, and 
so far consented to my application 
for permission to go through Eng- 
lish territory as to say, "If you can 
form a caravan at Zanzibar, I will 
put no barriers in )-our way." I 
mistrusted it mig-ht be a o;enteel 
evasion on his part to checkmate 


me, and yet avert the disagreeable- sionary girls, mombasa. 
ness of out-and-out opposition. With propitiatory gallantry 
he even proffered for my use when, if I should return 
from Zanzibar, his fine, airy bungalow at Kilandini, a suburb 
of Mombasa; although unfurnished, he urged it would be a 
cool and airy place of refuge, much better than to camp 
in the open, although I was quite prepared to do that if 
necessary. In passing, I would say my Obstacle had 
advanced the objection to me that Mombasa was an unfit 
place for a lady, because there were no hotel accommodations. 



So by this gentleman's recommendation, with all my 
goods and chattels, which I had largely Increased by additions 
in the different ports, I betook myself to Zanzibar on the 
" Madura," full of apprehension, but determined to turn over 
every stone before admitting I was frustrated, and try what 
skill I had at recruiting and organizing a caravan. 





'ORMING my caravan — how to 
do it, and how long it would 
take me — monopolized my entire 
thoughts, to the exclusion of all 
others, in the short voyage to Zanzi- 
bar. Notwithstanding that practical obsta- 
jfei- cles had arisen, and rebuffs whistled like 
V/i\ small shot on all sides, I never quaked 
even secretly beneath a vague forecast of 
'■-' * defeat. 
Alas! at Zanzibar I found that my world-renowned reputa- 
tion of mad woman had preceded me, to my prejudice. In 
America, England, Aden, and Mombasa, and now here, I 
had to listen to and confront as best I could public censure. 
The bare idea that a woman should be foolhardy or ignorant 
enough to dare to enter Africa from the east coast and at- 
tempt to penetrate interior as far as the Kilimanjaro district 
of the late Masai raids, at a time when great disturbances 
had been provoked by the Germans and a revolt was brew- 
ing, and essaying thus to do as the sole leader and com- 



mander of her own caravan, — the thing was preposterous, and 
the woman boldly denounced as viad, mad, principally be- 
cause there was no precedent for such a venture ; it was a 
thorough innovation of accepted proprieties. It never had 
been done, never even suggested, hence it must be im- 
possible, or at least utterly impracticable, and certainly out- 
side a woman's province. 


Zanzibaris porters could never be induced to go into a 
district terrorized over by bloodthirsty, buccaneering Masai 
on safari (journey) led solely by a woman. Any woman 
with such intentions, whoever she might be, must take no 
offence when set down as a reckless fool. The movement 
ought to be first scoffed, then, if necessary, obstructed, and 
finally, if need be, prohibited by the authorities. Despite 
her intrepidity, or her attributes for leadership, or her ability 
to spurn hardships as she might dangers, she must be irra- 


tional in attempting such a liazardous vindertaking, and doubt- 
less would gladly abandon not only an ambitious but impracti- 
cal and suicidal plan when once she was properl)' informed of 
the clangers, and convinced of the uncontrollable odds against 
her. Having listened to these same sort of protests and 
persuasions until my ears were dulled to their unsavory 
repetitions, — aye, in truth, I think I knew the formula of 
every objection by rote and rule, and could ring the changes 
as deftly as my opponents, — did these gentlemen know 
that my empire of folly was not ostracized, and that 
I had received over two thousand applications from both 
men and women, as a rule accredited with unusual sense, 
occupying almost every rank in life, and the majority of them 
professional and scientific men, entreating me to allow them 
to accompany my free and independent expedition ? 

The most insuperable difficulty urged upon me was the 
fact that there were no porters to be had, even at Zanzibar, 
so manj' caravans had been equipped for the Germans as well 
as for the I. B. E. A. Co., and for some private expeditions 
that had combined to drain the country oi available porters. 

After much persuasion, Mr. Boustead, one of a firm for 
equipping caravans, agreed to constitute himself my agent, if 
I so desired, and endeavor to obtain fifty men to go with me 
to the interior, without any masculine European to aid me. 
This, however, he did in a very discouraging way. 

" If it were a feasible scheme, even then there are not fifty 
men to be had," he urged. " Besides, Zanzibaris would not 




consent to go in 
such a small 
number into 
hostile Masai 
land, and cer- 
tainly not with- 
out being prop- 
perl)' armed." 

I protested, 
urged, argued, 
and finally got 
him to consent 
to try. I wanted 
to start from 
jMombasa within 
a fortnight; 
hence he must 
work sharp to 
collect the men 
and to provide 
the necessary 
supplies. My 
urgency for 
speed was met 


He would try, but he had no hope he should 
Then cropped up another vital reason for delay. 



There was no water in the interior, and would be none until 
the rains. Very well, then, I would wait until there was rain, 
if he would set to work about the caravan, in order that 
I should not be detained when the auspicious time came. 
That very day the rain fell in torrents. 
I asked him if 

influence with the 
Sultan would aid 
him in any wa)'. 

" Certainly it 

So I proceeded 
to use my diplo- 
matic passport, 
and, through the 
courtesy of Ameri- 
can Consul-Gen- 
eral Ropes at Zan- 
zibar, arranged for 
an early audience 
with the Sultan. 
There were cer- 
tain difficulties 
herc:; again to be 
encountered. It 
was unusual for 
his Highness to 

ti^ffr^^(2i^?^'^ v-A.\ 



receive a lady, but, in consideration of Consul-General Ropes's 
persuasive arguments in my behalf, — that I was the first lady 
to attempt to lead a caravan that history had ever known, 
and various flattering claims he made for my personal im- 
portance, — a message came to say the next day at four he 
would receive me, but I must come alone, conducted to his 
Highness by two dragomen, who would attend me from the 
consul's residence to the palace. As I walked through the 
narrow, dirty apologies for streets, sandwiched between these 
two marked dragomen, with all the black people gazing at 
me as they deferentially drew aside to let me pass, and 
squatted on their heels in lieu of bowing, the thought came 
flashing into my brain that even these wretched blacks, in 
their debasement, imagined the very worst thing possible 
about the white woman, and I felt choked with self-indigna- 
tion that a freeborn American woman should have sought 
the opportunit)' to conspicuously place herself in such a ques- 
tionable position ; then the absolutism of my one determina- 
tion asserted itself, and the humiliation was from thence a 
mere detail, albeit keen and uncomfortable. 

Arriving at the palace, which is a most unpretentious 
structure, I was conducted up a flight of long stairs and 
was met by the Sultan on the landing. The few words of 
salutation in Ki-Swahali I had mastered came tripping off 
my tongue in response to the Sultan's jajiibos, obsequious 
smiles, and bows of welcome. After these ceremonious pre- 
liminaries were over, one of the dragomen was commanded 



by the Sultan to act as interpreter. The walls of the large, 
showy saloon were hung with red panels embellished with 
quotations from the Koran in embossed gilt characters ; 
great showy crystal chandeliers hung from the ceiling; tables 


of beautiful inlaid workmanship were ranged through the 
centre of the room, and tall-backed gilt chairs with crimson 
satin cushions were arrano-ed in a stilted fashion througfhout 
the long saloon. The floor had a crimson velvet carpet with 
such thick pile the tread of feet became noiseless. 

Once seated at one of the tables, feeling flushed by the 
curious scrutiny of all the attendants who hovered about, 
I was gratified when the Sultan ordered a particularly staring 


oleaginous creature to serve coffee. This I drank witli relish; 
l)ut no sooner was my cup partially empty than there was a 
quick succession of various sorts of sherbets paraded for 
my refreshment; trul)' they were marvellous concoctions of 
all colors, beginning with brown, closely followed b)' red, 
green, and white syrupdike fluids in the daintiest glasses 
imaginable ; but, with suspicion, I avoided the strange, spicy, 
honeyed beverages ; only touching the rim ot each glass with 
my forefinger, then, out of courtesy, pressing my finger to my lips 
in sign of satiety, to excuse my declining such choice nectars. 

Subsequent to these delicate civilities, the .Sultan explained, 
with evident embarrassment, that it was not his custom to cere- 
moniously receive ladies, nevertheless he was quite desirous to 
be of service to me in every possible way. This was my chance 
to tell him of my proposed expedition to Kilimanjaro and 
Masai land. Pulling his joho (long loose embroidered coat) 
around him, e.xposing his bare feet encased in sandals, he 
expressed regret that I should desire to go to such a danger- 
ous, wild section of Africa, and wished I might be dissuaded. 

"Is not Zanzibar charming? Why not linger here as the 
friend of the Sultan ? " 

"No, not dissuaded," I firmly rejoined: "however, his 
Majesty could make It far easier and safer for me, it he telt 

Again he wrapped his splendid gold-embroidered jolio 
about him with a certain majesty and said Imperiously, "Com- 
mand us and it shall be done." 



Explaining the difficulties my agent experienced in pro- 
curing porters, I urged that he would aid me b_\- having all 
slaves volunteering speedily sworn in on the followino- Satur- 
day ; and when masters interfered with their slaves, or mid- 
dlemen objected, 
to declare him- 
self my friend, 
and command it 

"It shall be 

He ordered 
his band to play 
some special 
pieces in m )• 
honor, which, as 
usual, wound up 
the performance 
by the national 
anthem, an ex- 
plosive pot- 
pojirri. When I 
was on the point of leaving, after drenching me with otter of 
rose, he invited me, with great effusiveness, to return on 
the following Friday with a woman interpreter, to visit 
his harem ; he also placed a carriage at my disposal during 
the entire time I remained in port, — I will not mar the lustre 




of his gallantry by describing the Sultan's vehicles and horses, 
— and he offered to take out his war ship "Glasgow" for 
my pleasure. This war ship, by the by, it is satirically said, 
was presented to the Sultan by a celebrated shipbuilder for 

the paltry sum of $200,- 
000 (/40,000). 

Friday's arrangements, 
owing to the difficulties 
of procuring a woman 
interpreter, either from 
the mission people or 
through my agents, 
seemed to be una\oida- 
bly cancelled when I re- 
woMAN OF THE HAREM. celved a message from 

the .Sultan summoning me to come, as he had himself se- 
cured the services of a woman interpreter. So I went, and 
received a most friendly reception. Through locked and 
barred doors I was conducted from one of the palaces — 
there are three in a row — to the other; and finally reaching 
a large saloon, the place where the interpreter was dismissed, 
that was in wild disorder, like the show-room of a barbaric 
merchant prince, — a dazzling variety and array of valuable 
gifts, curios, all sorts of purchasable splendors heaped incon- 
gruously one upon another upon tables, on the floor, and 
nothing showing to any advantage, the only impression given 
was of quantity and enormous value. 


The Sultan's eldest daughter was brousfht !n In' a black 
woman slave, attended by two little black slave boys. 

With a flash of pride the Sultan exclaimed, " See how a 
Sultan dresses his daughter! Look well, and tell to other 
Europeans how splendid are her jewels." The heavy gold 
anklets worn by this little child, but five years of age, 
impeded her moving with any freedom. Her crown, studded 
with jewels, must ha\'e pained her tender brow ; and the 
gorgeous as well as curious necklaces suspended one upon 
another to the number of a dozen, and numerous bracelets 
and fineer rings, certainlv must have been burdensome. 
The Sultan's lament is that he is unfortunate in having three 
dauo'hters and no sons. He 


was curious to know if I had 
children, and when the nega- 
tive response was conveyed 
to him, he asked boldly, 
" Has your husband many 
wives?" He smiled in a 
cynical way. 

" Certainly not," I re- 
torted with some contempt, 
vexed by his effrontery. 

At this juncture a heavy embroidered portiere was drawn 
aside by two Malay eunuchs, whose tongues were cut out 
to limit their power of disclosing secrets, and there appeared 
a hauo-hty woman, gorgeously attired. Possessed with all the 



Imperious disdain of an empress, she approached me, and 
rudely threw out her hand to me, at the same time ungra- 
ciously darting a glance of outraged feeling upon me. This 
then was the Sultana ! Poor woman, did she presume I 
was another usurper of her legitimate place? Only a few 
moments expired when she was ushered out by two gross, 
horrid, greasy eunuchs, and the portiere was drawn over the 
closing door. Within ten minutes after her Highness's exit, 
through another door entered in Indian file woman after 
woman of the Sultan's harem, to a number most amaz- 
ing. Each one In turn approached me, extending her hand. 
To the first, who was a fine, frank-looking creature, I 
arose to respond to her greeting, when the Sultan waved 
me down, — 

" Do not trouble )-ourself lor them. There are too man\-, 
all alike, and not worth it." 

Some of these poor, degraded concubines were sad-eyed 
and full of sorrow, others seemed defiant and triumphant, 
and yet others looked envious. Comparing the vast difter- 
ence in the costliness and quantity of their jewels and 
dresses, it flashed across my mind that these distinctions were 
marks of favoritism. Each and every one of these royal 
concubines, at the command of the Sultan, bathed my 
right foot in rose-water, and In recognition of my superi- 
ority and evidence ol their humlllt)-, each ga\e me one 
of her jewelled rings. The sum total was one hundred and 
fort)- two. 








In the name of God the meyoiful, the eo/fipassionate. 
From Ali Bin Sa'iij. 

To nil who may see it, and to proceed : This respected American lady is one of those 
arriving here and travelling into the region of Kilimanjaro; and I command that everv 
one who meets her, or with whom she puts up, shall receive her with absolute regard and 
attention, and shall restrain any one who interferes with her; for she is one of those who 
are much esteemed by us. This is fur the information of those whom she may meet. 
And peace be with you. 

Written on the seventeenth of the month Sha'han. in the year 13US 4 (March 2, ISDl). 

I>y the order of 



The Sultan, after sliowing me about through the private 
rooms, as he professed he had never previously shown any 
one, queried what I thought of it all. With true American 
frankness, I declared it atrocious. He said he would gladly 
renounce his harem, " But I should lose my Arab constitu- 

Most cautious man as this .Sultan is respecting signing 
papers, always suspicious of some governmental policy that 
will in\-olve him, he offered to vise my passport. This I 
declined, desirous that he should give me a special letter to 
any Arab caravans 1 might encounter on my route up 
country. This he did. He also gave me his autographed 
photograph ; and I had the Sultan's word he would always be 
more than pleased to serve me in an\' possible way as his 
friend. His gifts were most lavish ; a pair of Muscat dogs, 
and four Muscat donkeys, which policy dictated it was 
best to decline. .Saturday my men were sworn in without 
the usual difficulty, and when the steamship "Madura" sailed 
out of port I had the satisfaction of knowing that in six days 
the so-called impossible had been accomplished, and by a 
woman. Eight of my people were on the ship. My headman 
of headmen, Hamidi, one of the best known and most reliable 
of Zanzibaris, had come to pledge to me perfect faithfulness. 
I had started out with the idea of ha\-ing plenty of women 
as j)orters, and to have a native woman interpreter. I saw 
only one native woman who could in any way fill the 
recjuirements of the latter [jost, and ni)* conscience would 



not allow me to employ her, much as I desired, as she 
had started for the mission a children's school, which would 
have come to a 
standstill if she 
was taken away. 
As a slave, when 
a child, she had 
been rescued 
from her cruel 
captivity and be- 
friended by the 
mission people, 
educated and 
s u p p o r t e ci b)' ^ 
them during her 
helpless child- 
hood; although 
she had been in akai; i.i.hek-writer. 

other employ since, until the school was inaugurated, she 
scrupulously owned that the mission had a first claim upon 
her services, — a sentiment in which I accorded. 

We steamed back to Mombasa. There, for the first time, 
my freight and luggage, which were far from being modest, 
were disembarked, for I had taken everything with me to 
Zanzibar in case I should be compelled to go to Kilimanjaro 
through German territory, via Bagamoyo or Pangania. 

Malignant fever was raging at Zanzibar, and a general 




panic possessed nearly every European resident. Clinical 
thermometers flourished, and a friend's or an acquaintance's 
temperature was a theme for open discussion on the high- 
ways and byways. It was and is the universal practice dur- 
ing an epidemic for every one to test his or her own tem- 
perature several times daily. A friend meets a friend ; the 

daily bulletin of 
their respective 
temperatures is 
discussed. " INI )' 
temperature is 
I o 2 , what is 
y o u r s?" " Mine 
is 103, and I'm 
going to get a 
chance to go on 
board of one of 
the war ships." 
" Poor So-and-So's 
temperature was 
107 this morning, 
they have him in 
an ice bath. He'll 


pass in his chips ! " This habit is one of the most ridicu- 
lous and pernicious, rendering many a person liable to fever, 
and should be tabooed. 

Zanzibar to a stranger presents the guise of a pest-ridden 





land. No sewerage, and all the fikh pitched into the sea to 
ebb and How with the tides, polluting the atmosphere and 
stinking in one's nostrils. The streets are narrow, crooked, 
and dirty. Bazaars are everywhere, and bedecked with all 
sorts of articles. I took oreat delight in watching an Arab 
family at table, also an Arab woman selling sugar-cane. 
Oranges of the most luscious variety and .sweet limes and 
mangoes were extremely cheap and plenty. There are two 
very good clubs, and nothing else but dinner parties and 
a montonous drive of seven miles for recreation. A .Sunday 
spent with a friend at his sJunnba (country place) is always 
enjoyable. There are never but a very few white women, 
the wives or relations of the consuls. When a war ship 
or a steamer is in port, the residents are permitted an oppor- 
tunity to go on board, and the commanders frequently 
inaugurate a series of little dinners or luncheons ; but at 
best the outlook is very circumscribed, and a man's ambition 
must, in the end, be downed. Girl water-carriers made a 
pretty picture going in bevies to and from the wells, carry- 
ing their hammered copper, brass, and earthen pots upon their 
heads ; one girl always supplied with a long-handled ladle, 
the dipper part made of a calabash. 

Upon return to Mombasa, Mr. Mackenzie, no longer my 
Obstacle, but my converted friend, with kind courtesy ten- 
dered me the use of his large, airy, two-storied bungalow, 
most picturesquely surrounded at Kilindini, during my sojourn, 
while awaiting the balance of my caravan. 



The scenery and lov^ely climate made the nine ilays of 
my tarriance well worth I'emembering. The principal men 
associated with the difierent departments ot the I. 15. E. A. 
Co. called upon me. 
One can but be amazed 
at the kind of men that 
have taken up their work 
so far away from all that 
civilization means to men 
of education and ability. 
There are but few coun- 
terfeits of houses. Every 
one must live in a struc- 
ture of four corrugated 
zinc walls, with a tuakota 
(cocoanut leat ) plaited 
thatching placed over a 
zinc roof. Most ot the 
dwellings are constructec 
right upon the ground, okkvish musician. 

and the best of them have only a cemented floor and out- 
sheds. There is a slanting makota-pent forming the cover- 
ing to a rude veranda, beneath which it is the custom to lie 
and sit during the hot noonda)-, as well as during moments 
of leisure, where long chairs are ever in view, and dripping 
calabashes of water hanging to cool where the air freel)- 




Tlierc are no luxuries, not even proper comforts in this 
new countr)-, where young men have rushed with the love 
of adventure and the hope ot making a mark for themselves 
and achieving a future. .Somehow there seems to be a fas- 
cination enshrininof adventurous Africa for fine, eneryfetic men 
who are fired with ambition. Alas I I greatly fear all is 
not as they pictured it in their tar-away homes. There is no 
royal road in this new El Dorado. Ability, steadfast work, 
patience, abnegation, and time are the only stepping stones. 

One week alter leaving Zanzibar my entire caravan 
arrived at Mombasa, and in the late afternoon, with songs of 
salutation and general yells resounding through the shaniba 
of Kilindini bungalow, there came ninety-five porters, askari. 



palanquin bearers, headmen, and interpreters, making my little 
army of Zanzibaris up to the g-oodly number of one hundred 
and three. Seventy ot these men were to be armed with 
guns. The balance carried knives. It was only under 
this condition porters could be induced to go into the 
Masai countr\-. They camped as they could until Monda\, 
when all my loads woukl bj delivered from the dhow. I 
gave the porters one and all a general address as to ni)' retjuire- 
ments from them, and what to expect if they were unfaithful. 
To all I said they replied, " Dio " (yes), and " Inshallah" (God 
willing). The same shuffling irresponsibility as with whites. 






To all Arabs and Siualiilis travelling in ike interior : This is to inform you that this 
lady, to whom I have given this letter, is my friend, and I wish every one who meets her 
caravan to be kind to herself and her porters, and to do everything to help her safari. Any 
one who does this, and brings a letter from her to say she is pleased with what has been dune 
for her, will receive thanks on arrival at Muml^asa. Should any one interfere with her caravan, 
annoy her in any way, and do any act of disrespect to her, will be considered to have offentled 
the company, and will be treated and punished accordingly. 


Mombasa, 4th April, ISOl. 

In my caravan I found I had men who had been with 
several great explorers, and with some of the big game 
hunters who had memorialized Cha^a land as the Hunters' 
Paradise. I looked with amazement over all these strange 
black and every shade of brown faces, with much brutality 
imprinted thereupon, and marvelled if I should always be 
able to control them and make them subservient to my com- 
mands. After a moment's contemplation I felt somehow that 
I should, and would not have hesitated to have started at 
once with the lot as they stood, for a three years' journey 
The work in providing the right and infinite variety of beads 
and wire and cloths for barter to procure food for all this 
body of men, for no longer a period even than three months, 
was a great anxiety, and, when properly clone, 1 had more 
loads than men, and was forced to telegraph to my agent 
to get for me thirty more porters and have them follow me 
to Taveta. \Mien the)', with the headman and two soldiers 
{askari), arrived, I had one hundred and thirty-eight men. 
Usually many desert, for they receive so much of their wages 
in advance ; in this instance, three months'. However, 



BLAi_ K l\iiRV. 

the Fates were in my favor, for, upon calling the roll, there 
were only a few who had remained at Zanzibar, and these 
were replaced by \nlunteers. 

When Monday came, and the guns, which were 
brought to me b)' a chain gang, were distributed, Mr. Mac- 
kenzie harangued the people, telling them if the)- deserted 
and were found by him or his agents, they should be con- 
demned to serve a )ear in the chain gang. The Sultan had 
promised any miscreant far v.orse punishment, — to cut their 
throats if black-listed. Then there was a heavy penalty put 
upon the whole caravan, and for that matter upon me too, 
respecting the firearms. No one could sell, or lose, or 



break his gun without a fine of about forty dollars, — double 
the value of the gun when new. All this, I was assured, 
was in my behalf, and doubtless proved a great protection to 
me, although I could not refrain from expressing temporary 
indignation at what seemed extortion. So, gathering up all 
the loads, carefully numbered, embarking my Palanquin and 
all the people in a large dhow, and some in smaller boats, 
the I. B. E. A.'s steam launch, for a given sum of rupees towed 
us across to Railroad Point, and from there we were reall)- 
to make the first start the next morning. 





H-COVETED rain. 
with its heralded season 
of benefits, propitiated 
us, and the entire cara- 
van was atlirill with de- 
Hght, knowing" how the 
liardships and fatigues 
of the safari (journey) 
they liad enlisted for 
would be ameliorated 
now that they could anticipate plenty of water. 

Having put out from Kilidini at a late hour, although 
our point of landing was a short distance abo\e and across 
the narrow stream, in consequence of the weight of loads, the 
throng of people, and the swift current, we reached Railroad 
Point, after considerable delay, too near night to make any 
progress on our journey. Persuaded by the officers of the 
I. B. E. A. Co. stationed here, I consented with pleasure to 
remain over nifjht as the cri-iest of mv friend, Mr. C. Mac- 
donnell Lemmi, who most graciously vacated his premises for 



my personal accommodation, whereas my men camped in the 
adjacent open. If so inclined, my friend could have boasted 
of being the possessor of the most tasteful dwelling there- 
abouts. Instead of giving wa)' to the uninviting barrenness 
and uncon- 

geniality of 
his sur- 
he had with 
himself to 
make the 
best of con- 
d it ion s in 
his endeav- 
or to main- 
tain a sem- 
blance of 
his inbred 


home refinement. The interior of his tin\- corrugated abode 
was daintily hung with bright trade cottons, and photographs 
were grouped about on the walls and tables ; his toilet arti- 
cles were arrayed in such a fashion as to betray his fondness 
for elegance ; the floor was covered with prett)' Zanzibar mats, 
upon which were spread lion and leopard skins, and over the 
chair backs were draped bits of bright cotton stuffs ; a large 

I lO 




Milan plush rug answered for a bedspread. Everything, with- 
out being costly, was most decorative, and presented a vivid 
contrast to the heedless don't-care manner most men permit 
themselves to lapse into when isolated from home tics. 
Some wa)' it was ineHaljl)- touching to witness these evi- 
dences of this great stalwart man's clinging to the artistic 
conventions of his far-away Italian home lite. He was one 
of the "wise men" who, according to Shakespeare, "make 
every port a happy ha\en," antl never made a display ot his 
disappointments when his dreams were discounted by stern 
reality, but, to the contrary, tried to infuse fact with fancy. 
Denied the refined companionship of white women for a long 
time, this man was most charmed to have the lleeting oppor- 
tunity to converse with mc ; and I have thought, since my 
return, if for no other result than the undisguised pleasure 
afforded to lone, forlorn white men I encountered in East 
Africa, by my presence and society, my expedition would, 
even so, not have been made in vain. 

The Indian bullocks and their drivers interested me very 
much. These expensive, handsome little animals had been 
importeci to send to Victoria Nyanza, but during the wait 
were employed on the railroad construction works. How- 
ever, they were finally shipped as accessories to Capt. 
Rodgers, and his troop of sepoy soldiers loaned b)- the 
government to I. B. E. A. Co. in his expedition to W'itu. 
A camel caravan had gone up countrj' a few weeks prior to 
my appearance, and bad news came back to the effect that 

I 12 


the camels were coming to grief and dying. This portion 
of Africa does not conduce to the use of camels for trans- 
portation. Donkeys die off very speedily, and horses are 
impossible ; therefore there remains no relief to the poor 
Zanzibar porters, nor immunity for the natives from slavery 
until a railroad is constructed. 


Unfortunately, the recent rain had washed out the tem- 
porary roadbed of the railroad and undermined the rails 
so that they were not safe to drive the heavy engine ov'er ; 
therefore the seven miles I had anticipated to have conveyed 
my carax'an b\' rail was now impossible. 

During the evening and night some straggling porters 
came into camp, reducing the list of deserters materially. 
My friend kindly gave me a lesson in roll calling, as well as 
how to quickly inspect loads, count the rifles, and set my 
tents. For the last time everything was overhauled. 

When it is recognized that a caravan going into the in- 



terior or up country in Africa is like a migratory community, 
and must be provisioned and armed for the entire expedition, 
take sufficient goods for barter to insure immunity from 
hunger, and be enabled to give tribute to purchase from the 
natives a right of way i^hongo^ , if required, as well as a 
variety of presents for the natives one wishes to negotiate 
with, and that it is essential to provide for necessities and 
all likely emergencies during periods of health as well as 
during sickness, that precaution must be taken against 
tropical heat as well as against the bitter cold trade winds, 
which at certain seasons blow up during the afternoon or 
night, and for dry as well as for rainy weather, living as 
one must in the open, tlie incongruity and variety ot an 
African outfit is beyond conception of any one who has not 
had experience therewith. Not onl)- must one prepare 
against the elements, 
but against ferocious 
wild beasts, as well as 
the invidious attacks 
of creatures no larger 
than white ants, which 
are perfect vandals in 
the wa)' they carry out 
their work of rapid 
destruction upon all wooden objects. Precious or valuable 
articles must be kept, to insure them against damage, in 
air-tieht and water-tight tin cases : the coils of metal wire 




{senenge) are sacked in round packages ; the beads (^skanga ) 
are carried in boxes or canvas sacking ; the cloth in long 
bales, covered with makota (cocoanut) matting; the rice in 
strange, trumpet-shaped bags; the provisions in boxes; pots, 
pans, and kettles upon poles exposed to view, and a certain 













number of iron pots, in which the porters and men cook ; 
calabashes with water, tents and poles, chairs, folding tables, 
large waterproof canvases enveloping cork ground beds ; large 
piecec of waterproof cloth, the ground cloth with which the 
tent is carpeted to keep the damp from rising from the earth ; 
boxes of candles, soap, cartridges in boxes, matches. Hints 
and steel, cotton waste to clean the guns, cocoanut oil, kero- 


I I 

sene in large square tin cans, when emptied used for water 
cans, or bartered to the natives; coffee in sacks; lanterns, 
by night swung on poles, carried by a porter, with a light 
load; water bottles; photographic apparatus and instruments 
for observation; tools; medicine cases; largfe tin buckets lor 
water; bath tub, hammock for the sick, and all manner of 
trilling accessories, and luxuries, and endless et ceteras. Then 
come the men's mats, upon which they sleep ; the cloth, of 
which they make their little tents, used as a turban (vituniha^ 
during the day to ease up their loads from their heads, and 
kept by them to the last as a means of barter with natives. 

In the selection of the 
beads, the quality and size 
of the metal wires, the 
cloths, the silks and velvets, 
gold-lace, and other pres- 
ents which one takes for 
chiefs, of all kinds and 
sizes, the most valued 
among which will be British 
soldier coats, flaunting red, 
with gaud\- gold-lace and 
plenty ot brass buttons : 
European hats, and red 
umbrellas, tooting horns, 
music boxes, clocks, matches, razors, knives, bells, rings, 
bracelets, metal belts and jewelled weapons, needles, sewing 



thread, pins, fishhooks, tops, kites, dolls, picture books, clay 
pipes, tobacco, snuff, tea, sugar, silverware, china cups, knives, 
spoons and forks, paint boxes, mirrors, sewing machines, tools. 

Needless to say, great thought and attention are required, 
and one must profit b)' the experience of other travellers 
in order to avoitl falling into mistakes which it is impossible 
to rectify after once leaving the coast, if indeed one can 
rectify them at the coast. All of these loads must be 
weighed, numbered, and allotted to the men and rear- 
ranged, or as they sa\- in Africa, tangeiiezcd, from time to 
time, as one journeys on, according as articles are taken 
from different packages, in order to fairly distribute the 
work upon all of the porters throughout the caravan ; then, 
too, as illness alwaj-s ensues after one has been out on 
safari a few days, the sick must be relieved of the 
burden of full loads, if not, indeed, relieved altogether, and 
they themselves carried in hammocks. This unloading, 
tangenezing , as it were, as one j^roceeds, is both advanta- 
geous and necessary. Almost daily can be gauged the 
depletion of supplies, and extravagance checked ; it also 
affords an opportunity to detect pilfering, and discover if 
loads have been discarded, sometimes in time to recover 

One possessed ot a spark of humanity will not leave a sick 
man by the roadside to die of starvation, and even become, 
alive or dead, food for the vultures and prowling animals ; 
hence, if the afflicted is too ill to walk, two of his com- 




panions are obliged to be relieved of their loads and carry 
him ; in order to do this the contents of these loads must 
be distributed to the other porters. They have no objection^ 
to carrying a inzimga (white man), but they very nuich 
object to carrying a {&\\o\\ pagazi (porter). 

However, I found it an admirable method to quietly 
say to an objecting porter, " Look here, my man, to-mor- 
row )ou ma)- be ill, and if )ou object to carrj- )our 
companion to-day, who will then be willing to carry you 
when you are stricken ? We will leave you to your fate, 
the prey to the wild beasts ! Come, come, fall in line ! " 



This usually ended all grumbling ; for the dissenter, 
seeing there was no chance to shirk, would assume his part 
of the burden. The end was accomplished ; he did his 
duty, although too often with ill grace. 

The method of dealing out rice, 
which is carried for poslio or rations 
during the first eight or nine days 
from the coast in bulk of sixty 
pounds in a kaiida, — a long and 
narrow matting bag, broadest at the 
bottom, — is somewhat peculiar. A 
brass measure, like a straight tumbler, 
called a kababa, which should legiti- 
mately bear upon it the offiical im- 
print of the Sultan, resembling the 
figure "8," holding about a pint of 
rice, is the accepted dole ; but in 
lieu of this, the headman of head- 
men will deal out the portions by 
putting his two hands together and 
allowing the orain to rest within 


SO that none of it falls over when he shakes his hands. 
The amount eiven to the men varies accordino- to the rank 
of eacii man. 

Porters, carrying the heavy loads, are paid the least and 
receive the smallest poslio; the headmen, who are paid the 
largest price ami never carry even their own mats, receive 



four to five times the amount of food or allowance, and their 
wages are in proportion larger. However, I was obliged to 
submit to the usage of the country, believing it must have 
virtue from its time-honored existence. 

The small (quantity of food that each 
man eats daily would seem hardly to 
suffice for the maintenance of his strencrth, 
but the\- as a whole are comparatively 
hearty and, as a rule, thrive when on 
safari, and if treated fairl)-, seldom are 
sullen or murmur, unless it is very cold ; 
then they begin to ask for meat, and for 
more cloth, as they huddle, utterly misera- 
ble, with teeth chatterinof, round their fires 
in the open, sometimes the rain pelting 
furiously down upon their half-naked 

During a noonday halt or a tew min- 
utes' rest to catch breath after a stiffish 
climb, it is verv amusing to see the 
porters making cigarettes, or extract from 
their turbans, where they were placed for safety and con- 
venience, little pipes, draw a few whiffs, then pass them on 
to their less fortunate comrades, and in five or ten minutes 
be ready and content to start again, apparentl)' thoroughly 
refreshed, if not docile and obedient to the demand of their 
bwana (master). 




They carry water in calabashes until they get in the 
mooted vicinity of pools or streams, when they hastily empty 
them, averse to carry the additional weight. This frequently 
causes great distress among the men, for 
water too often fails, or is unfit to 
drink in welhknown localities ; then their 
rashness becomes obvious, too late to 
remed)-, yet they never profit by expe- 

W'hen a ilifficult journey is being 
maele and the men are fagged, there is 
always one man near the head of the 
carax'an who starts up in a loud 
\'oice a song of encouragement ; the 
drift of it is that tliej' are paid for 
work and that they must be faithful, 
and when the j(iiu'ne)' is finished or 
the day is done, they may rest and 
sing, dance and eat, and all this for 
their bra\'e Invaiia. Then the)' have 
songs of emulation, which are directed, with caressing policy, 
toward their leader, the Invajia ; the rhythm is very (juaint, 
and the terminal chorus resembles a hunter's call, with a 
succession of long-drawn sounds. As far as I could ascertain, 
these sounds did not represent articulations, but were a spe- 
cies of rally whoops and yells, as well as a tone pledge of ac- 
quiescence in a crude way very much esembling Tyrolean trills. 




Swahali porters, collectiv^ely called Zanzibaris, natives of 
almost every different African province, reveal their nativity 
by the manner in which they naturally carry their loads. 
A Zanzibari proper never carries a load on his sliouldcrs, 
and his head seems 
provided with a thick- 
ness of scalp for his 
accustomed duty ; just 
as the Wa-mawenzi 
ha\"e a muscular de- 
velopment on their 
shoulders in cons e- 
quence of their habit 
of carrying loads upon 
them ; and if on safari 
there is to be taken 
a palanquin or a 
hammock, which re- 
quires the services of \^ 
two or more bearers, nati\ k wan r-i akkii ks. 

the leader should alwa)-s aim to provide himself with 
Wa-mawenzi pagazi, otherwise he will be made very uncom- 
fortable, thrust upon the heads of the others, swinging 
mid-air in a craz)' way. The Zanzibaris carry their loads 
sometimes balanced with their hands extendecl overhead, on 
either side of the load, but with their bodies and heads 
perfectly erect, never looking at the immediate footpath, 



avoiding with deftness the overhanging branches or 
side projections. They put one foot cHrectly in line of 
the other, without turning the toes out, making a very f 
narrow tread. f 

This is a most difficult wa)' for a European to walk, 
antl I experienced great awkwardness in trying to stride , 
from side to side of paths that we followed, or across 
the tiny water beds of mountain rills, because it was 

impossible to walk 
without stumbline, 
or stepping on m)- | 
own heels, in a 
four-inch track. 

The)' univer- 
sall)' carry long 
stout staffs, cut by 
the way in an ad- 
jacent bosk, which 
they thrust ahead 
of them, and bear 
upon when ascend- 

-MAi.r, c;\ME. 

mountains, and 

employ to sound streams when fording, in order to 

find and avoid water-holes. The staff at night serves 

as one of the props on which they stretch their 
tent cloth. 




The Wa-mawenzi thrust a pole through the cords of their 
packs which they stick in the eartli and prop against a tree to 
support them, and never place the loads on the ground when 
on the march. 

when the roads 
are \-ery muddy 
and slippery, the 
mud, being of a 
sticky clay con- 
sistency, adheres 
to their feet, and 
accumulates all 
the particles of 
erass and stones 
until they are 
obliged to stop 
and scrape it off, 
the weieht be- 


comes such a great hindrance to their progress. The tenacity 
of this mud and its depth at times, in consequence of the pre- 
vailing rains, caused me great personal difficulty. I was obliged 
to have one of my porters, with his bayonet, excavate places 
for me to thrust my toes, in order that I could walk up- 
right instead of going on all fours or falling backward. 

The refracted heat and glare, which most travellers com- 
plain bitterly of, reflected from the red and white sand, I was 



fortunate in being spared, as the season was auspicious and 
vegetation very abundant. But even the blaze of the sun, as 
it bursts suddenly from behind lugubrious clouds, will affect 
the eyes of one unused to it, and bring about serious affec- 
tion of the vision. By using colored glasses with side pro- 


tectors, this is easily mitigated. When approaching the na- 
tives I was always obliged to remove my goggles ; for they 
were terrified whenever the)- caught sight of them, and would 
run away, screaming in fright. 

This calls to mind an incident which occurred on the 
plains of Taro. After having thoughtlessly kept my goggles 
on, and the natives had experienced the usual scare, I 
endeavored to coax them back, trying to amuse them by 


showing them some pictures, which they chci not comprehend, 
and finally started my music box to play. This delighted them 
so that they forgot all about the spectacles, which I had in 
the mean while cautiously removed. 

When a large throng of natives was about me, feeling 
thirsty, I ate an orange, and the idea popped into my head 
that one of the pranks of my childhood might amuse them. So 
I cut a quarter section of the orange skin into points in imita- 
tion of teeth, and pressed them 
over my own teeth, operating 
them by opening and closing 
my mouth. This delighted the 
natives beyond expression, and 
an old chief besought me for 
the coveted sham ; in his de- 
light at procuring the trophy, 
he started off in great haste, 
soon returning with the blood 
streaming from his mouth, and] 
a great splendid tooth, which | 
he had just extracted, as a 
eift to me. He sat down 
when I had inspected it, and 
commenced to puncture a hole 
through it in order that I might string it round my neck 
as a charm against hunger. 

He indicated this to me by saying, " Chukula," which 




means " food," and then touching his stomach with his hands, 
took the tooth and pressed it over his stomach, saying, 
" A-i-e, la-la," which meant that hunger would sleep. 

Their gestures are so very significant that any one who 
pays heed must understand what they desire to indicate, 
without being able to comprehend a single word of their 
language. I have thought, since returning from Africa, that 
a clever and thoroughly good-natured pantomimist might be 
able to reach the intelligence of the natives more effectually 
than any other person. 

A native desiring to tell me he had plenty of bananas on his 
plantation, which he; was cai^rr 1 should visit, took a bunch of 

bananas, put it down 
in front of me, pulled 
several of the bana- 
nas off, surrounded 
me by placing one 
after the other in a 
circular row, then 
lifted up the bunch 
and placed it succes- 
sively beside each 
one of the distributed 
bananas. The whole 


thing revealed so clearly what he meant, that when m\- inter- 
preter interrogated him on the point, it corroborated my idea ; 
for it transpired that he owned a plantation which he averred 


was fruitful enough to provide the whole caravan ; and as iny 
porters wanted the fruit and he wanted to barter it for their 
beads and cloth, a bargain was at once struck. 

Many of their antics in their sign language are not only 
grotesque, but childish. I was remarking to an elder in a cer- 
tain tribe upon the fact that I saw very few deformed people, 
and none lame, when a native doubled himself up in a sitting 
posture and commenced to hop before me. When he con- 
cluded this little performance and again stood erect, he 
pointed with his tongue to his village, and made me under- 
stand that in it there was a man in this condition, and he 
wanted some da^ucx, or medicine, for him. This was verified 
when I accompanied him to his village. He took me forth- 
with to a hut where a lame man sat upon a long wooden 
framework which he used for his bed as well as his work- 
table, — a cripple from some accident which had occurred in 
his early youth ; however, he was so useful to his people, 
even as a boy, — he is a clever craftsman now, — that he 
had not died young ; like true Spartans, these natives adhere 
to the idea that if nature has frowned upon a human being, 
it is their duty to see that he does not eke out a life of 
misery or dependence. 

Whatever they may resort to I am not able to state, but 
it is an exceptional thing to find adult cripples in Africa. 
This idea may also explain the fact that there are no de- 
crepit old people ; but as they do not allow even outside 
tribes to know of the deaths that occur among them, I think 


it would be very difficult to trace the time and method used 
to put . away those who promise to be either imbecile or 
helpless. If a woman gives birth to twins, one of these 
sio-nificantly dies ; if an animal has twins, not only are the 
twins slaughtered, but the mother is slaughtered also, for her 
prolificness is regarded as an omen of bad luck. There 
is something mnre subtle than I could discover actuating 

them in these seem- 
ingly senseless 
deeds, based un- 
Idoubtedly upon some 
long-abiding supersti- 
Ition. I was informed 
o f seve ral cases 
of women being 

considered traitors by taking lovers in a tribe hostile to their 
own, to whom they confessed having revealed the secrets of 
their own people. Without loss of time they were summarily 
killed, in accordance with an arbitrary law among themselves. 
A Masai woman of considerable importance, trusted as a pur- 
veyor between her own and hostile tribes, was discovered false 
to her tribal allegiance, having formed a liason with an enemy. 
She was thrown, so goes the story, with her abundant adorn- 
ments of metal coils incasing her legs, arms, and neck, into a 
smelting furnace to be consumed by fierce flames. Her forty or 
fifty pounds of metal ornaments in due time melted into a mass. 


Little chunks of iron alloyed with copper and brass, dis- 
playing tiny glints of colored glass, all fused together and 
reputed to be of the unfortunate woman's worldly splendors, 
are given to or forced upon an enemy as a token of bad 
luck. .Surreptitiously, at my solicitation, my headman procured 
for me a bit of the stigmatized metal. Men who are traitors 
are punished with more rigor, and with an idea of spectacu- 
ular example. The man is tied to a tree, and all the men 
in the tribe will come and stick him with their knives, at first 
just enough to make the blood flow; then these stabs are 
given with increasing violence until the knives enter deep into 
the flesh, and the culprit quivers from head to foot in supreme 
agony ; never, however, uttering a sound, but stoically endur- 
ing the punishment as his life ebbs out. His body is then 
allowed to remain the prey of rapacious vultures and hyenas, 
until there is nothing but a few bones and the ropes left. 

The name of the traitor is never mentioned, and should 
one of his children — it he have an)' — bear his tabooed name, 
the child receives a new name ; and in speaking of this 
man, his widow or family say, " He who has gone to the 
black world," evidencing that they have an idea of purgatory or 
of the more enlightened, dogmatic, fiery regions. 





IMAMA! simama! Bebe! (Stop! stop! 
lady!) suddenly yelled my askari, 
" Masai ! Masai ! " This was cer- 
tainly a trying moment. The por- 
ters at once launched forth into a 
voluble, rapid gibberish, out of 
I which I could barely distinguish 
here and there a word I could 

But " Masai ! Masai ! " predomi- 
nated, and every man was pointing to certain vague objects 
far away in advance on our line of march, and manifested 
unfeigned alarm and fear. The result was wild confusion, 
which I realized would lead on to a decided panic, if not 
promptly checked. 

My field glasses revealed the cause to be the presence of 
several almost nude natives armed only with bows and arrows, 
and carrying a few calabashes and water-skins, who were dodg- 
ing through the long grass and thick undergrowth in a coy, 
timid fashion, far from indicating hostility or aggressiveness. 


I U 

Quickly halting iny men, I proceeded to meet these 
natives, accompanied by an interpreter and two askari, who 
carried our Masai flag of truce and my little American mas- 
cot. Seeing us advance without fear or threats, they squatted 
abjectly upon the ground, their long bows and arrows planted 
straight up and down in front of them, their startled coun- 
tenances, with 
ej-es opened wide 
in amazement, 
speechless to see 
such a strano; 
apparition of a 
mziinga (whit(> 
man) as I pre- 

To remove! 
their lurking ap- 
prehension as to 
our actual inten- 
tion, I gave them several name rings, and Josete imparted 
to them the elaborated statement that Bebe was a white 
queen of limitless power coming to make triends with them 
and to bring them many beautiful tokens of peace. To all 
of which they quizzically ejaculated, " A-i-e ! a-i-e ! " more 
amazed than before. Finally among themselves they talked 
in a subdued tone, casting inquisitive glances at me, evi- 
dently stud)ing my attire, and christened me " Bebe Bwana" 




(woman master); a sobriquet that was spon- 
taneously and universally bestowed upon me as 
a satisfactory and all-sufficient appellation b)- all 
natives whom I met in East Africa ; and this 
too with a certain directness and aptness that 
surprised me, not only in this title, but respect- 
ing the full meaning of all of their nouns. 
Sometimes they were no other than adjecti\'al 
substantives in their cogent expressiveness of a 
like thing and kind combined. 

These natives were stray sellers of cala- 
bashes, and gee, a substitute for butter made 
from goat's milk, strong smelling and rancid 
llavored, )'et prized highly by natives and Zanzi- 
baris and even white men on safari. They had 
meandered three days away from their settle- 
ment of Teita, in hopes to dispose of their 
produce and wares. They maintain themselves 
by their bows and arrows and the wild fruits 
found on all sides, carrying a small supply of 
maize, sugar-cane, and bananas, and sleeping 
under the shadow of the trees. As fine, fearless 
children of either forest, plain, or mountain, these 
specimens could not be regarded as types. 
After the scare had subsided and we had resumed our 
march, meditating over the alarm exhibited by my valiant 
little army on such slight provocation, I could not but expe- 





rience a qualm of insecurity, and for tlie first time fully real- 
ized the terror the African bogy-man — the Masai — struck 
to the Zanzibaris heart. It was too late to repent, there 
was no chance for me to abandon the venture I had so 
confidently embarked upon, if I had so desired ; therefore 
with a more serious sense of personal responsibility, and 
an awakening to the necessary requirement of self-govern- 



ment, in order to hold indubitable sway over my men, I 
bent my every thought, with more absolute determination to 
accomplish my aims at every sacrifice apart from relinquish- 
ment of personal dignity, and by the enforcement of disci- 
pline and exaction of duty and obedience by any means 
short of inhumanity. 

Bravery and fearlessness have nothing akin to reckless- 
ness or heedless disregard of consequences. This statement 
is made in the full consciousness of the fact that during 
moments of sudden emergency, action must be taken with- 
out tardy deliberation at the 
time. However, previous train- 
ing and consideration of possi- 
ble peril, and general adapta- 
tion of wa}'s and means, with 
a cool, well-balanced head, 
nerve, and tact, stand in the 
gap as a bulwark of power and unfaltering wisdom. 

My constant study was to know my porters, to learn 
their personal characteristics, and to put each man at his 
best. The tax upon my judgment was great, tor these 
untutored fellows are creatures of ungovernable passion. 
If one porter calls another " a goat," like a flash the 
affronted man whips out his knife and makes a vicious lunge 
at the gross insulter; unless authorized interference puts a 
stop to these accessions of murderous passion, the result is 
likely to be a tragedy. Nothing is so effectual as the 




time-honored stick, the kibosh. I have been much maligned, 
and accused of ruthlessly Hogging the iiaik'es/ I do not 
feel called upon to explain on this score, yet will state the 
facts, so as to prevent misunderstanding in the minds of 
truth seekers. 

One day a porter in anger stabbed one of his comrades 
through and through his body, imperilling his life. He was 

Another porter violently pitched upon and brutally hurled 
to the ground the daughter of a chief, for no greater offence 
than that she persistently offered some sweet corn for sale, 
after he had or- 
dered her to quit 
the encampment, 
which, by the 
wa)', was occupy- 
ing the grounds 
of the native 
market place. 
This act came 
very near em- 
broiling- me with 
the natives. The 
man was flogged. 

Another hot-headed porter, maddened out of his reason, 
if he ever had any, wrested a rifle from a comrade's hands 
and shot at the headman, who had enraged him by assigning 




to him a load he objected to carry, missing' his victim b\' a 
hair's breadth. He was flogged. 

In glancing over my black list and counting the men who 
were flogged during my entire safari, the actual nimiber 

does not exceed, in fact does 

not attain, the fingers of my 

two hands. 

Starting out on my expedi- 
jtion, I fondly nursed the idea 

that the porters could be gov- 
iNLAiD \vooDE^f BOWL. emcd by kindness and moral 

suasion, and that the discipline so necessary to their own 
individual safety, as well as the safety of the expedition, 
could be consistently maintained without resorting" to the 
usual punishment with the stick. This cherished belief was 
soon modified by actual experience. I found that discipline 
could only be maintained by chastising serious oftenders in 
the accepted way, — a method familiar to them and approved 
by the sentiments of their comrades. Coaxing arguments 
and persuasive talks were disregarded and sneeringly laughed 
at, probably the more so because /, flicii- leader, was a woman. 
As time wore on, they found that I was always at the head 
of my caravan, and if there was any danger to be encountered 
that they could rely upon me ; soon they were imbued with 
confidence and respect. They found, also, that wilful offenders 
would suffer just punishment, that orders must be obeyed 
without demur, that no idle threats were used, that promises 



were cautiously given but religiously kept, that yes meant 
yes, and no, no ; that if any of them fell ill, I personally 
attended them daily, setting their broken bones, dressing 
their wounds or administering needed medicines, and having 
them carried when disabled. 

The result was that I soon obtained complete control over 
every man. I do not think I could have succeeded in this 
if I had not most unwillingly changed my lifelong ideas 
about whipping. An appeal to 
physical force has always seemed 
to me to be brutal, and degrad- 
ing alike to victim and adminis- 
trator. However, circumstances 
alter cases. A caravan on safari 
as a travelling community must 
have order and laws of its own 
for the safety of the whole ; it 
must, in itself, form a body 
politic to enforce these laws 
and assist in the preservation of 
order and discipline. 

The only thing when a man 
has committed an offence, and 
his punishment has been agreed ixig-shaitd beads. 

upon by having his fault submitted to a jury of five or six 
of his comrades, is to have the headman execute it promptly, 
and if the culprit shows signs of atonement, never to permit 



him to be nagged or twitted ; instead, to accept his good 
behavior for all it would seem to indicate. Other methods 
of punishment are particularl)- cruel, and disable the men. 

There is, without exaggeration, more real good than in- 
tended evil in the Zanzibaris, if they are properly and judi- 
ciously treated. They have patience, obedi- 
ence, devotion, and above all, pride. 

A circumstance revealing the pride ani- 
mating them to excel each other and win 
some meed of praise may be best illustrated 
by the following story connected with one 
of my porters, known as the "strong man" 
in the caravan : — 

Among the baggage was a long tin 
uniform case, which, because of its weight, 
was a double load ; I fully e.xpected to 
have had it carried between two men, but 
after a few marches this plan was found to 
be exceeding!)- awkward, owing to the 
steep, rugged country we traversed, so, with discontent, 
the porters put down the load upon the ground after a 
difficult day's march. My attention was drawn to them b_\- the 
confusion that ensued. Getting at the true inwardness ot the 
commotion, I called all the porters together, and stepped 
before them to tr)' ni)- art in soothing their fretted tempers. 
" Here is a box which is a double load ; I have heard a 
great deal concerning the renown of a strong pagazi in this 




caravan. Now, where is that strong pagazi? A man who 
earns double money and double poslio, because he does the 
work of two men ? " 

There was a de- 
cided rustle, then a 

jostling and parting >^ ^.^^ ' ^ 

at the back of the 
throng of porters, 
and forcing his way 
through there came 
forward a tall, stal- 
wart fellow, with a 
beaminor face, his 
smiling open mouth jewelled sword give.n' sultan ^LA^'DAR.A. 

revealing his glittering teeth. He stood out conspicuously 
apart irom the others, and announced proudly, " Bebe, I 
am that strong man." Then whirling himself like a spinning 
top round on his heels to display his muscular superiority, he 
stretched out both his arms, clinched his fists and forcibly 
drew them tightly up to show off his pronoimced biceps, 
saying, " Bebe, command me." 

Indicating the box with my staff to him, he salaamed, and 
grasped the handle of the great tin box, and with one single 
swing lifted it clean and imfalteringl)' from the ground onto 
his, I presume, thick head, balanced it there, and walked 
oft triumphantly, sending a song of defiance and rally to the 
other porters, who gave vent to their adulations by slapping 



their naked thighs, by nods, and a general hubbub such 
as only a Zanzibari cara\'an can make. 

This same porter had as tremendous a voice as he had 
a body, and was always talking garrulously, and roaring out 
in thunderous tones when we were on the march ; and as he 
had naturally taken his post, as a man of entitled honor, in 
close proximity to my ears, frequently I thought he would 
drive me distracted. No sooner was one story finished than 

this inexhaustible narrator com- 
menced another, and no com- 
rade dared interrupt or gainsay 
him. One day, when my nerves 
were particularly rasped by his 
continual loud-voiced chatter, I 
summoned him during the noon- 
day halt to my pre.sence. 

" Kara, you are a very fine 
fellow ; you do your work well ; 
you are always thoughtful of 
Bebe ; you bring me beautiful 
grasses and flowers ; no fire is 
so bright as the one you build 
for me ; nevertheless I cannot 
have you screaming as you do 
behind my ears, and if it con- 
tinues I shall be obliged to order you to the rear." 

He made me profuse, emphatic promises to correct his 




error, saying, as he again .struck his Ijreast with his sledge- 
hammer fist, " Bebc Bwana, you .see I am so big in the 
lungs, and my voice is as big as 
I am strong." 

To this 1 quite agreed, assur- 
ing him, whereas, I did not wish 
to diminish his strength, I did 
care to silence his lusty voice. 
That day things went on very 
peacefully. There was not the 
slightest occasion to complain 
of my Samson, and, in good 
truth, during the entire day he 
took it upon himself to cry out 
indignantly, " Kallela," to silence 
his fellow-porters in the rear 
when they, forgettid of my' 
wishes, began to talk in a loud 
tone of voice. At night 1 called 
him up to me and complimented 
him on his effort to be quiet, 
telling; him how well he had 
pleased me. 

With a burst of enthusiasm 
he exclaimed, " Ah, Bebe Bwana, I am so happ)' ! because I 
have sweat prickles from my marrow all day tr)-ing to be quiet." 

The quaintness of the remark and the knowledge of the 





severity with which the prickly heat attacks these men, 
sufficed for me, and caused me to think him not inept in 

This same man was a great gormand, and the prepara- 
tion of the food in the little knot of men with whom he 
messed was a work of art, and almost a work of devotion. 
He tasted the pot, when the chicken stew with vegetables 
of various kinds had reached the point when it required to 
be seasoned, and if the flavor was not up to the mark, he 
carefully added the deficient condiments. Before eating he 
always bathed himself and put on his spotless, clean kanzu, 
a long, white garment like a nightdress, fancifully stitched 
or embroidered about the neck ; and if there was something 
])articularly dainty, according to his idea, a choice portion of 
it was brought with great flourish to my tent, and cere- 

monioush' proffered to me. He was 
always the first to establish his own 
tent and get everything shipshape and 
comfortable at the time of our encamp- 
ment; and when his day's work was 
done, he would change his attire, and 
seemctl to "^"joy with sensuous delight 
the comfort with which he had so deftly surrounded him- 
self. Unfortunately, pot)r Kara, whilst trudging up the foot- 
hills of Kilimanjaro, was sunstruck; he was not only inca- 
pacitated from carrying a loatl, but was in a serious plight 
♦or some days; yet he would not surrender his place of 




honor, or give the load to one of his companions, but, with 
great fortitude, struggled beneath it until I personally ob- 
served his flagging condition, and was compelled to authori- 
tatively interfere. I had him come to me, apart from the 
others, and told him he must surrender his load, and possi- 
bly be carried himself until we reached a proper resting 


place, and his acute agony should yield to medication. He 
protested with great vehemence, exclaiming, — 

"What! 1, the strong man of every safari I have ever 
undertaken, give up my chosen load to one of those goats? 
Oh, no!" 

■ Then I said, " Kara, my good fellow, I will tell you what 
I will do. Your box is known as the heavy load. Come, 
now, I will empty it, and you will only have the weight of 
the box on your head — just seventeen pounds — and no man 



in the caravan will know but what you are still carrying your 
heavy weight." 

This artifice delighted him, and he fairly howled in 
barbaric glee when I dismissed him, to think he was going 
to get the best of his comrades by this subterfuge, yet 

maintain inviolable his 
prestige. So it was 
that Kara, the proud 
porter, carried, with 
comparative ease, dur- 
ing the period of his 
indisposition, for seven 
da)-s, the empty box, 
no one in the caravan, 
not e\-cn mv headmen, 
knowing that I had 
extracted its contents, 
and had, unsuspected, 
KARA, siRON-G MAN. (.Hstribu ted the same 

among other loads without perceptible increase ot weight. 

As Kara recovered his strength, he voluntarily sought me 
and suCTcrested that the lesfitimate contents of his box mis-dit 
be replaced, saying he was feeling so well and strong and 
full of life that if he did not have a heavy weight upon his 
head as a sort of safety valve, he should fly from the top of 
one of the mountains and be dashed to atoms, so he needed 
the load to hold him down and exhaust his superlkious force. 


Inadvertently I was just in the act of putting my foot 
upon an ants' nest, concealed from my sight by overgrowing 
grass, when, like a whirlwind, something suddenly grasped 
me about the waist, lifting me up from the ground, and 
seemed to dart on the wings of the air, away be)ond on the 
open plain, when I was as suddenly dropped, and then dis- 
covered m)- captor to have been Kara, my strong man, as 
he prostrated him- 
self, his fac (■ 
pressed close on 
the ground in the 
dust, pleading pa- native haxana knife, unpolished. 

thetically, "Btbc Bwana; siafiif siafu!" (ants, ants;) so it 
was that this ever-watchful porter, seeing me unwittingly 
about to step upon the vicious ants, himself knowing from 
sad experience what a terror the)- are to man and beast, 
had dropped his load and, unceremoniously seizing me, had 
carried me beyond the danger. In narrating this and similar 
incidents I must aver that these half-civilized porters, 
although deficient in many advantages that modern education 
brings, are far from being devoid of the highest chivalry. 

Apropos of these ants, they attack human beings in 
great droves, and have frequently been known to compel 
every man in an encampment to turn out, in the middle of 
the night, and seek refuge at some distance away from the 
original camp ; it is no uncommon thing to hear the men 
grumbling and growling at night, followed by the flapping of 


their mats, when trying to sliake off these invasive insects. Their 
bite is painful, and poisonous to some people. They have 
periods of migration, when they make long journeys in vast 
armies, devastating a tract of country by cropping a noticeable 
swath where they have traversed. The other ants, which 
build the strange red-sand structures, looking like broken 
battlements on the top of a palace or bastion, are perhaps 
more interesting to study. Then come the termites, or white 
ants, which seem bent on destruction ; not only do they attack 
splendid forest trees at the roots and work up, devouring as 
they proceed the body of the trees, leaving nothing but the 
outer bark, in perfect semblance of solidity, but which will 
topple over and fall into fragments at the slightest push, they 
will also attack the foundations of any wooden structure, 
however massive ; frequently wooden bo.xes that are put upon 
the ground for one night will be simply riddled by them, 
leaving only a mere veneering of the wood itself, however 
solid, which crumbles into dust when touched. 

Travellers and inhabitants of Africa find these destructive 
creatures a great pest, and the wooden mountings of man\- 
fine instruments, to the sorrow of explorers, are totally 
destroyed without warning. The native woman invariably 
carries her infant slung upon her back in hides or cloth 
while at work pounding corn or millet, or when tilling the 
.soil, fearful of allowing the child to remain on the ground 
lest it become a prey to the ants. 

Mosquitoes and stinging flies Infest Africa In vast swarms 







during particular seasons, especially towards and on the coast. 
One of the essential articles for comfort in personal outfit is 
a large, sound mosquito net, 
anil large squares of gauze 
or netting to wear over the 
sun hat, and enclose snugl)' 
the head and neck; otherwise 
the flies dart into the travel- 
ler's eyes, which is even 
more painful than their sting. 
Then, too, the tlesh-bur- 
rowing jiggers and grass ticks 
cause much distress; the jig- 
gers usually burrow under the 
toe and finger nails, whereas 
the ticks work head first into 
the flesh, and breed therein 
in a prodigious manner it not 
dug out. Every one caught by the porters is cut in two. The 
poor, faithful fox terriers which adopted me from Taveta until 
the)- reached Moschi were simpl)- besieged with these pests, 
and out of sheer mercy every day I would pick and dig 
their tormentors out of their flesh. The dogs' ears and groins 
were the favorite spots of attack. The poor little animals 
would be maddened in their helplessness to free themselves. 
I was told of se\-eral fine docs havincr been made blind, and 
finally succumbing, p(;stered to death by ticks, and carelessly 




neglected by those who were caring for them in their 
masters' absence. 

Old camping grounds are to be consistently avoided, 
as they are more than likely to be infested with jiggers, ticks, 
lice, antl a nameless host of other \'ermin. 


A singular thing occurs respecting the animals ami color 
of the sand ; the tones all seem to marry one with the other ; 
and when you chance to see a nimiber of haj'tebeest, or deer, 
against one of these ant structures, — for such they are, — 
you cannot distinguish between the two until you see some 
movement on the part of the animals ; and so it is with most 
of the creeping things, especially the mantis, the " praying 
mantis," which appear like the bark and twigs of trees, and 
\\Vv moving leaves which the}' so illusively simulate ; even 
the butterflies look like winged flowers, and will, by some 
strange attraction, settle on llowers their own counterfeits in 
color and varif^gated condition, and when they rise and take 
wing, disturbed b\' some passing thing, th(i first impression 



to the vision is tliat a mysterious phantom breeze has blown 
the petals of the flower off the parent stem. The variety 
and gorgeousness of these butterflies are beyond description, 
but the choicest species, according to collectors, are the white. 


mottled with brilliant crimson spots, bright blue, pale green, 
yellow, and violet. 

Pink locusts, clapping their wings and harshly chirping, 
swarmed in millions over our heads like a floatine cloud all 
through one morning. 

Another noticeable thing in the physical aspect was the 
prevalence of all shades of heliotrope, violet, and purple 



in the flowers ; and whereas pink would prevail in England 
or temperate zones, this tropical East African nature seemed 
to be more fashionable, and dispense with the old-time beauties 
for some new diversity in the floral world. Clematis is 
very profuse, and a species of white, pink, and crimson 
magnolia, with oreat waxen buds and enormous frasjrant 
flowers, with laree, thick, smooth leaves ; rhododendrons are 
gorgeous ; balsams, narcissus, buttercups, asters, and poppies 
star the erass-lands, and milkweed ^alore and o^ladiolus, wild 
heliotrope, geranium, and orchids of the rarest, but no roses, 
not even a sweetbrier, to greet the eye. Every shady nook is 
a superb fernery of every variety. Maidenhair fern trails and 
twines to the top of high trees in a prodigal manner. 

We constantly met myriads of land turtles of rather a 
small variety, and the porters would never pass one without 
taking their staves and turning it over on its back ; and many 
of the shells that were brought to me for inspection bore upon 
their carapace Arabic characters, showing that some previous 
traveller or porter in a caravan had captured the little thing 
and carved a device upon its back, whether as a message to 

other caravans or merely 
out of personal amusement 
I am unable to say, for 
the natural tracings ot the 
mottles of the shell and 
the characters were so 

intermiuCTled that it was 


impossible to separate one from the other. I picked up 
from Teita throughout my entire journey, on the foothills 
of Kilimanjaro and even so high up as Kimangelia, beauti- 
ful pure white and delicate brown and buff helices, some 
very small and others enormous. 

to travel 
among these 
natives with- 
out leavingr 
some evidence of my 
presence, I had taken 
the precaution to have several 
thousand rings, on which were 
engraved m)' name, and to 
every native with whom I 
personally came in contact in 
the course of time I presented 
one of these souvenirs ; they were also most useful to 
tie round a package of letters or send as an earnest, 
affixed to a seal, to a mission station, or when I required 
to send a messenger to a sultan whose country I desired 
to pass through or had already traversed. These little 
souvenirs became heralded from native to native, and tribe 
to tribe, and I was alwaj's asked for a pctc Jint, which 
meant a " name ring." Whilst fitting rings upon their 
fingers I was enabled to observe how small as a rule 




their hands were, and out of upwards of five hundred clay 
impressions on paper I took of feet and hands of natives 
of various tribes, it was exceptional to find a very large 
hand or foot. 





HE tract of plain skirting the 
Shimba or Lion Mountains, where 
meander vagrant W'a-Nyil^a and 
Wa-Duruma, spread out before us 
as we started exactly at five 
o'cloclc at sun up, witli rain-laden 
clouds overhead rapidly coalescing 
into dense, ominous masses, was 
certainly most uninviting and well 
entitled to its name of the wilder- 
E\'er)'\vhere the tropical vegetation seemed to offer 
a bristling jsrotest to intrusion, — euphorbias, mimosa, acacia, 
wait-a-bits, cacti, and nettles of endless variety ; the most 
lovel)' foliage to my sorrow I too often found hispid b)- a 
nap of infinitesimal needle-points ; the very grasses were 
spiked and saw or blade edged, tearing, pricking, and gash- 
ing alike the flesh and garb, causing no end of discomfort, 
if not actual pain. 

Sudden!)' a great cackling of poultry was heard, which 
answered well as a sounded tocsin to announce the appear- 



ance of a party of unseemly Wa-Nyika who were issuing 
from the woodlands to engage in trade with the mzunga 
caravan they had heard was coming. A pariah dog flew at 
me, and to ward off his attack I lifted my Alpine stock, and 


at the same time discharged a pistol over his head. The 
dismayed natives were thrown into a wild state, and angrily 
rushed forward, flourishinff their bows and arrows in a threaten- 
ing manner, when my alert askari pointed his gun at them, 
shouting, "Stop ! speak! salaam Bebe." When they discovered 
they were in the presence of a white woman, in consternation 
they kept ejaculating, '" Javibo ! Javibo ! Bcbe viztmga?" 
(How do you do, lady white man ?) and dropped down upon 
the ground in a squatting position, staring me quite out of 
countenance, now and then chatted among themselves as 
though marvelling what it meant. Soon they queried the 
porters to know if there was a bivana mzunga (a white 
man-leader) of the safari. When the negative response was 
given, their amazement did not abate ; indeed, they were 
thrown into a deeper quandary and exclaimed, " Aief Aie! 



Aie /" as they wagged their heads and riveted their eyes 
with fixity upon me, forgetting their feathered, fhittering, 
squawking merchandise, which, tethered to walking poles, had 
been heedlessly pitched upon the ground when they had 
rushed upon me. Then surged around me women and 
children, with equal amazement ami more audacit)- than 
evinced by the men. They curiously commented upon my 
color, hair, hat, costume, shoes, gloves, crooked staff, and 
pistols ; and in glee yclept, the latter, ni '(0/0 hundiiki 
(baby guns). Language with all" these tribes has a full- 
fraught meaning, making clear the thing they desire to com- 
municate. Phrase harlequinade with its quips and pranks 
and abstrusely in- 
volved sense is re- 
served for enligrht- 
enecl supereducated 
races ; barring- their 
quaint poetic similes, 

— and these too are 
marvels of e.xpletives, 

— the natives aptly 
short cut word and 

So these grovelling, intimidated, unclean creatures were 
the men of the wilderness ! Their bodies tattooed indis- 
criminately without significance, and smeared with umber- 
colored clay and rancid grease, emitting an odor far from 

M nni) BiiNPUKr. 

(]iAi:v GUNS.) 




agreeable to civilized nostrils. Their teeth filed and dis- 
colored, hair bushy and rather animated. 

The men, when not naked, wore a bit of hide about them, 
or a filthy fragment of cloth ; whereas the married women 
disported a miserable blue calico kilted skirt, reaching half- 


way from their waist to their knees, and some indifferent beads 
and rough wire necklets and bracelets. 

Trade was sharp for a brief time, and the general hubbub 
of the porters and angry protests of the natives squabbling 
over the chickens became deafening ; the natives grew uproar- 
ious when a burly porter would cut a chicken trom its tether 
and put down, in exchange, a string of red beads called scm- 
scm, and cry out " Buss." finished as a finale to the trans- 
action, which was not satisfactory to the- crafty, avaricious 
native. It always ended in the porter being compelled to 
relinquish the poor, thin ku-kn (chicken), and commence 
a new deal. At first these proceedings interested me ex- 
ceedingly, but in the end I was obliged to take a firm stand 
to escape being fleeced beyond reason by the extortion of my 
long-sought ideal primitives, and found a magic in that 
same word biiss that ended all dickering and disputes. Fives 
seemed to be the span of enumeration, and they use as an' 
abacus, sticks, and in trade place one down, cry out moja 
(one), and follow it up with another and another, pili, latu, 
21IIC, tano (two, three, four, five) ; gather them up and go over 
the same again, if the trade exceeds five. And when they 
want to enumerate one half, a stick is broken in two ; then 
they are thrown into a dilemma by possessing two half-sticks 
instead of one whole one. One hand doubled up stands 
also for five, two hands for ten, when sticks are not con- 

If two bunches of bananas or other produce are offered 




for barter at the same price, the simple native will not sell 
both together, but one at a time. Exacting the fee agreed 
upon, he hands over the article and closes the sale by saying 
buss, which the purchaser repeats, then goes through the 
same detailed performance again. Should a dispute arise, as 


it generally does, between customer and trader, the latter will 
dog the former and by degrees accept the proffered stipend,' 
after which a host of his tribe, finding the market price 
broken, will solicit barter on the same diminished terms. Yet 
the tenacity with which they hold fast to their first price, 
until they must own defeat or conform to a lesser ofter, is 
admirable. Leaders of expeditions narrate, with striking 
unanimity, instances where their barter and the native's prod- 
ucts have been placed in full view on the camp grounds for 
mutual consideration, and the natives could not be induced 
for days and days to yield, until time and patience failed, and 
an order was given by the leader to gather up the barter, 
and even then often the natives would permit the mzunga 
to depart without budging from their origuial demands. Ex- 
tortion seems a latent trait with all African tribes ; this 
properly directed in connection with their trading propensities 
may in good time result in converting them to thrifty com- 
mercial peoples, and in uplifting them bejond dependence 
upon philanthropic indulgence and helpless subserviency. 

Wa-Duruma kept sneaking out from their thorn-hedged 
seclusions all day as we proceeded on our march, and pre- 
sented a strange appearance, some few with their wool 
bleached yellow with unslacked lime, which is found here- 
abouts, and bushed out like Somali men, into which were 
thrust porcupine quills and short lengths of reeds and fish- 

Their ear ornaments consisted mainly of tiger and other 



animals' teeth, and striped quills of vulture's feathers with a 
tiny tuft of feather at the end. A few slender strings of blue 

beads, a groatskin ank- 
let, a meagre strip of 
clay-stained, coarse 
cotton cloth tied over 
their shoulders hanging 
scarcely to their hips, 
constituted their dress. 
Hardship and thriftless- 
ness, if not jsoverty, 
seemed written on 
their lineaments. They 
suffer so from famine 
that they gladly sell 
themselves into bond- 
age. This brings me 
to the statement that 


many Wa-shenzie, — which is an African equivalent for back- 
woodsmen, — when once enslaved and taken to the coast, are 
unwilling to be liberated, and have no desire to return to 
their former haunts or lives. A master must provide food 
and shelter for his slaves when they are not hired out. Then 
the slaves are obliged to give half, if not all, of their earn- 
ings to their master. A peculiar African institution is that of 
slaves owning slaves, and in my caravan there were men, not 
in my employ, but the slaves of some of m\- porters, who 



were themselves slaves, and were taken on safari to relieve 
their slave masters of their packs, and to do odd jobs for the 
headmen and others, remunerated by a mere stipend given 
to their owners, or remnants of food that would otherwise be 
thrown away. They seemed merry and contented to lead the 
nomadic life of a safari in companionship of the regular porters. 
When not living in the open, they huddle with their 
families and their goats in dome-shaped huts no better than 
pig-pens, ver\' low, made of branches and sticks plastered over 

w 1 




a n ti 

dung, entered by 
a tiny aperture on 
hands and knees; 
the interior filth)- 
and stifling with 
the dense smoke 
from an e \' e r - 
smouldering firt/, 
without a vent tor 
its escape or for 
ventilation. They 
practise polygamy 
when they can ; 
sell their female 
children and wives 


to the Masai or Arab traders ; are a wretchetl, ill-favored 
people, debased even in the eyes of other African natives, 


living not so far from the coast as to deter them from going 
tliither, yet in their indolence preferring to skulk about, get- 
ting a precarious livelihood as they may. Their worship is 
fetich. As a whole, they have nothing to recommend them. 
They are stunted in growth, imhealthy in appearance, victims 
to skin affections, and look thoroughly degenerated and are 
of low-grade mentality. 

My feet began to blister, and the men showed evidences 
of lameness from the same cause. To overcome the pre- 
vailing- distress I issued an order to give to each man a cer- 
ts <^ 

tain allowance of carbolized grease to apply daily to his 
feet. This would naturally make ruinous inroads upon my 
stock of luiguents, and it was necessary at the outset to think 
from what source to replenish. All goat and sheep and 
beef fat from thenceforth was understood to belong to me, 
no matter from where or by whom procured, and my bounti- 
ful viafuta (grease) supply was the unfailing comfort of 
every one in ni)' caravan to the finish of my safari. 

We passed several pairs of comparatively good sandals, 
discarded or lost bj' others who had travelled the same way. 
I fully e.xpected to see my porters make a grab for them. 
To my surprise, not one man even touched them. It appears 
that some porters have a foot disease which is dreaded so 
intensely, in consequence of its infectious nature, that they 
one and all avoid any sandals not their own. When a 
goat, sheep, cow, or game is slaughtered, the porters beg for 
pieces of the raw hides, out of which they roughly cut soles 



-,>>".»' --^-.^i 


which the)' strap to their feet with a leather thong, and wear 
occasionalh" when traversing stony roads, and swing from 
their gun-stocks when not in use. 

When we camped lor the night we were obhged to form 
a hedge ot thorn-bushes and circle the encampment with 
huge bonfires to keep the wild beasts from attacking us. It 
was terrifying to hear the continuous roar of lions resound- 
ing on all sides, and the scurrying feet of panting jackals, 
and to see the glare of hyenas' e)-es in the darkness of the 
umbrageous surroundings. A sense of abiect helplessness 
momentaril)' possessed me, \anquished b}- a courage that had 
onl\- been dormant. 

1 64 


Orders were issued to have the camp doubly guarded and 
the men well armed and allotted extra ammunition. My gun 
and pistols were my close companions during a sleepless 
night. I felt I should have at least thirty-one chances before 
reloading if attacked. The night was particularly black and 
the growling, rumbling thunder was in unison with the mun- 
dane horrors. Day dispersed the impending storm-clouds, as 
well as silenced the nocturnal voices. The experience was 
beneficial, insomuch as the happy, safe denouement dissipated 
all future cause for a similar scare during the entire safari. 
Unfortunately I had no Wa-shenzie hunters, and the majority 
of my men knew nothing about the use of firearms except 


what hail been drilled into them since enlisting for my ex- 
pedition, and were clumsy at best. Nothing contributed 
more to my personal comfort than the numbers of lamps 
scattered about, four always outside of my tent, and the 
huge fires my askari (sentinels) kept up nightly. 



Daily, hour!)', I may aver the uniqueness of my position 
grew upon me ; in truth, the farther away from toucli with the 
coast we journeyed the more my personal responsibility and 
cares and anxieties, for nameless reasons, increased. A 
chronic insomnia gained upon me at such a pace I scarcely 
ever slept over two hours out of twenty-four ; this, too, with- 
out a sequel of ill effects upon my health, although every 
nerve was strained to its higfhest tension. Walkine conduced 
to my general well-being, and I am constrained to admit 
proved invaluable, with other rational hygienic observances, in 
giving me an entire immunity from fever. I never drank 
water that had not been first boiled and filtered, refrained 
from all stimulants excepting coffee, indulged daily in hot- 
water baths, cautiously avoided the sun's ra\s upon my head 
and spine, put on an additional garment when hottest, if 
not on the move ; changed wet 
clothing as soon as convenient. A 

small bathing tent proved of the 

greatest use and comfort ; it was 

always set just outside of the back 

flap of my tent, in close proximity, 

so I could step from one to the 

other with ease and privacy. Not 

least in sanitary consideration was my Palanquin, in which I 

slept, elevated at least two and a half feet from the ground, 

above the strata of miasmatic mists. One of my black 

women had a natural gift ot massage ; and whenever we 


1 66 



paused for a noonday's rest, I made a habit of standing or 
moving- about to avoid stiffness ; and Suzani always came, 
despite lier own fatigues, and if tlie seclusion of tlie trees 
or bushes was opportune, otherwise she called one of the 

other women, who would plank her- 
self back towards me in front of me, 
and spread out her body-cloth to 
screen me ; then Suzani rubbed me 
as a jockey might have rubbed a favorite horse between 
races. .Abdullah, my civilian cook, likewise proved an excel- 
lent accessory to my migrating establishment. He was also a 
capital interpreter, not only of words, but alack ! of my goods 
and chattels. Many and many a chicken was carried off by 
the hyenas that by natural assimilation was translated 
into his well-conditioned .sell. 

For general convenience I was provided with a huge 
waterproof, padlocked dobe, or wash-bag, into which was 
stuffed, protected and separated in 
lesser bags, immediately necessary 
articles, for example, a change of 
costume, extra 
shoes, toilet '^♦itW 
articles, and a 
small suppl>- of wooden pipe. 

soap, matches, candles, fhnt and steel, coffee, biscuits, as 
well as a small quantity of barter articles, and close at hand, 
as another pack, a cork ground bed. Through this precaution, 



an emergency retarding the bearers of my tent or special 
loads never left me in the lurch for ordinary comforts and 

Every night or morning my women washed every travel- 
soiled article, snatching the opportunity to dry them as they 
could on the bushes or guys of my tent. When a dress or 
other articles of wearing apparel became useless through 
shrinkage or damage, they were carefully washed and placed 
in a load of utility oddments to await a time when they were 
worth their weight in gold for bandages, or to repair other 
garments. Every article of my clothing was light, durable, 
and as dainty as possible ; in fact, everything had been done 
to minimize weight, in order to maximize quantity, in every 
department of my personal effects and caravan supplies. 
There were men scattered throughout the caravan who could 
turn a hand at almost every 
trade, or do a bit of jobbery, 
and even barbers and/ 
" leeches " were to be found 
when wanted ; and I had 
taken a large supply of tools 
and articles to meet almost wdoden ear strktcher. 

every conceivable demand, — rope, canvas, nails, sail needles, 
and great hanks of linen thread, as well as considerable 
aluminium wire, solder, and irons. 

The indigenous products of the country offered all that 
could be desired in the way of fibrous plants and trees, and 



^-.-*-«¥^^:S^:^^^N _— ,^^^^^^^:f- 

all the timber we could possibly require. A saponaceous shrub 
from which the natives and Zanzibaris cut their tooth-sticks 
was very prolific. One of the porter's attendants would be 

sent to cut an 
armful of this 
wood and dis- 
tribute it right 
and left until 
his supply 
would be e.x- 

E. Stairs, care- 
fully prepared 
the subjoined 
rules for camp 
making for 
me, supple- 
menting them 
with a score 
of practical 
counsel, i n - 


valuable as the thoughtful outcome of his vast experience as 
an officer of famous repute in African exploration, for which 
I shall ever be grateful. 

* Since the above went to press, the direful newt of Capt. W. E. Stairs's death near Zambezi has made all 
solemnly grieve who knew the loyal, gallant, high-spirited soldier, the refined gentleman, and unselfish, lov- 
able friend. His untimely death is an irreparable less. M. F, S. 



Although I found it expedient to deviate from the letter 
in some of the minuti.x, as he would have advised had he 
been on the 
field cognizant 
of the situation. 
His watchword, 
" Discipline for 
yourself and for 
your subordi- 
nates," was "'WI^K NATIVE WOOnEN- BASIN. 

never forgotten, 'wmm In proof of his own acceptance of 
this axiom was '"liiili' his trite expression, " Never question 
a duty to be executed, do if quickly and leave it accomplished 
behind \ou, or face it like a Briton a /'ouirancc. 


I. Choose commanding position, one not near long grass or bush, if hostile 
natives are about. 

II. Beware of long, dry grass near camp ; natives may set fire to it and 
burn you out. So clear a space round your goods of twenty to thirty yards 

III. Cover up your goods with tarpaulins, and place sentries, and as 
a general order let this be the rallying point in the night or when danger 
appears imminent. 

IV. Place sentries (black) in groups of not less than three men each at 
exit and ingress of camp, seventy yards from centre, and in great danger, 
groups to right and left. 

\'. In an attack on camp at night the first notice will be some arrows 
falling in the camp. At once order silence, smother down the fires, as the 


natives invariably fire at these in hopes of hitting men lying about them, 
and rally near the centre pile of goods, and store of ammunition ; then 
send out some of your most reliable men, but you yourself keep in camp 
and direct matters. 

VI. Never move a step in .Africa without two or three attendants with 
rifles. Make this a maxim, for one day it may save your life ; and remember 
there are maniacs in .Africa as well as elsewhere. 

VII. Your column organize as follows: * first, your riflemen, without 
loads ; then the carriers, then a small force under a chief in rear, and for this 
pick your very best man. 

VIII. Insist on your personal baggage, tents, and blankets being near your 

person, and always 
up in front, other- 
wise you may arrive 
in camp and your 
things be hours be- 


IX. Number every bale, box, load, or bundle, and enter in a book against 
the name of its carrier, and endeavor to give same loads to same men each day. 

X. Fall the men in each morning, call the roll, and give out their loads in 
person. This keeps up the discipline and prevents favoritism, as the best 
black chief will give his friends light loads if left to himself. 

XI. .Always try to keep near you quinine, carbonate of ammonia, and one 
or two other standard medicines. 

XII. Natives as a rule prefer day to night for attack ; a night march may 
often put you out of a difficulty. 

XIII. Go slowly at first, with frequent halts till the men and women get 
strong ; allow as many women as possible to accompany you, as it shows 
peaceful intentions.! 

*This was impossible, as my loaded porters carried rifles. 

t The few women in my caravan were a decided detriment, and caused me unceasing anxiety and chagrin. 



XIV. Do all the palavering yourself if jiossible. Swahali will carry you 
far along your journey. 

XV. You as a woman possess many points that no man would have in 
dealing with Africans. You therefore should find an t-n/rl-e easy anywhere. 

General principle of a camp in danger : — 



m^^ , 

* • -mi 


+ -^ 


: : Sentries. 

A. Stores and rallying point. 

B. Tent. 

XXX. Men sleeping. 

Never put your tent on the edge of the camp, and always have trusty 
ones sleeping near you. 

When no immediate danger is apprehended, the sentries should be 
outside the camp, fifty yards, which is about bow-shot. 

In conclusion, I feel sure that your invaluable tact and perception will 
pull you through much that a man would fail at. 



In danger or in safety, do not forget to have always in camp some 
watchers, or sentries, with their rifles handy. 

You can never be safe till this is done, and the men know what to do 
in an emergency. 

Yours sincerely, 

. O- J^^^^ , 

To Mrs. French-Sheldon. 





LAINS of Taro stretched out in vast, 
^sloping, sandy lengths, defined by the 
(clusters of hills on either side, and 
an isolated sand mound now and 
again looming up like a dome with- 
^ |^"^^ri'^'''^^^^^^'^^0'^'t apparent connection with the 
.,..,^r=' °'y;Wvf -^^ _■■'■- hills. An occasional length of thorny 
,«4i,«^ vines and trees, gray, spectre-like, gaunt, 
'gnarled, bare of leaves but clad in cruel re- 
pellent thorns, were made more conspicuous by the luxuri- 
ous wide-spreading branches of a baobab, or a mango, inter- 
spersed with brilliant flowers, prolific, delicate ferns, and 
marvellous cacti. 

The rain had imparted an agreeable, smiling freshness to 
nature, veiling the burning red sands and tufted stubble with 
a generous verdure, which spared us all much discomfort. 
This portion of the route, however, is generally conceded to 
be full of hardships, especially as the porters are scarcely 
broken in to their work, and their feet are soft and easily 
burnt. In making such a detour as the wait-a-bits and 



Other natural obstacles provokingly compel in Africa, length- 
enino- the journey to a given point at times immeasurably, 
my men became surly, evincing symp- 
toms of insubordination. Suddenly the 
leaders wheeled around, halted the line 
of porters following, pitched their loads 
in wild disorder upon the groimd, saying 
Bebe did not know the road, and refused 
to budge, and as the porters in the rear 
kept coming up they were incited to 
manifest the same spirit. The minor 
headmen made futile attempts to rally 
the men, and beat about in a lusty man- 
ner with their kibosh, all to no effect. 
Hamidi, m\' factotum, was in the rear, 
far away ; and Josefe, my interpreter, was 
simply guyed and scofted at for every 
order he issued from me. Then or 
never I realized I must demonstrate to these mutinous, half- 
savage men that I would be obeyed, and that discipline should 
be enforced at any cost. Only for one instant in perplexity 
I paused, a vulture flew overhead, 1 drew my pistols and .sent 
a bullet whizzing after it, and brought it surely down at my 
feet, to the astonishment of the revolting men. 

With both pistols cocked, suddenly I became eloquent in 
the smattering of the Swahali which I knew, without interpre- 
ter, inspired with fearlessness and strength I started through 

WArr-A-Brr 'ihorn 



the centre of the rebelHous throng, pointing first one, then 
the other pistol in quick succession at the lieads of the men, 
threatening, and fully prepared, determined, and 
justified to shoot the first dissenter. 

As with unrtinching, angry eyes fixed upon 
them, I exclaimed, " Get up ! take your load ! 
One! two! th !" and before the three was pro- 
nounced the man addressed was on his feet, 
grasping" his discarded load. After half a dozen 
men were thus warned, and the entire throng re- 
vealed uneasiness and were stirring-, I turned 
upon them and said, " Every man who is not 
on his feet with his load on his head, when I 
have counted three, I will shoot ! " They knew I 
woidd, and knew I had been empowered to do 
so by the Sultan of Zanzibar. 


Then I had no fear : now I marvel how ever beads. 
I had the temerity to take such extreme measures. 

I halted my caravan, and through 
the pelting rain, attended by Josefe 
and two askari, retraced my steps to 
meet Hamidi, who had been de- 
layed by the accidental disablement 
of two porters, who were being 
slowly carried. He returned with 
me, and the men were harangued in such plain language 
there could be no future misunderstanding. The two 




ringleaders were flogged, order restored, and that march 

This was the first and last revolt during my safari, 
and if it had not been promptly and fearlessly 
quelled, my life would not have been safe, and 
the entire caravan would have been in constant 
danger from similar outbreaks. 

Although it rained daily, many well-known 
pools, or ziivi, were filled with mud and slime, 
and the porters would drink the loathsome '^"^d"-'''^'^ ^'^'^■ 

"^ fluid, heedless of resultant ill- 
ness. On the hill of Taro are 
famous water-holes, or small 
cisterns, which irregularly 
honeycomb masses of flat 
rocks, called ungurunga. 
These are remarkable natural 
formations, cupped into and 

channelline a short distance 
beneath the surface of 
granite-like rocks. Many 
theories are offered to explain 
their existence. Some sug- 
gest that they have been 

\ carefully enlarged by the 

TRADE DEADS. \,:^v\y\^ of thc wild uicu from 

time to time, when they have traversed the plains. Slight 



depressions in a soft portion of tlie rocks, where water was 
observed to accumulate, liave been scooped out by travellers, 
and increased by the decomposition of decayed vegetation. 
Many of the holes are mere pockets ; whereas others I dis- 
covered were connected beneath the surface of the rock, some 
two to four feet in diameter and ten to twelve feet deep. 

Here every 
kibiiyu or cala- 
bash or bottle or 
kerosene tin was 
filled, to meet 
the requirements 
of one of the 
most difficult 
marches through 
an up-hill coun- 

As we were 
about to move I 
on, I observed a 
tree covered with what seemed to be yellow blossoms, so 
thickly set that the color of the bark from root, branch to 
top could not be discerned. Casting my eyes up, and lost 
in wonder, my Masai interpreter, who was something of an 
African cicerone, pushed forward, and tossed his turban into 
the tree. The jellow rose on wings, and proved to be the 
tiniest birds imiaginable, in size between a humming-bird and 




an ordinary butterHy. Not one twitter, only the rustle 
and whir of thousands of wings, as the yellow graduall)' 
coalesced into an airy cloud overhead, and was gently 
wafted far away out of sight. 

Useless to narrate day by day the routine and de- 
tail of marching, or to make much ado about hardships 
and trials, which were the consistent outcome of such 
a journey. We met only a few straggling natives. Fever 
I began to be manifest among the men. Warburgh's solu- 
' tion was promptly and lavishly administered ; their feet 
and legs swelled, and great gaping ulcers appeared. 
These were most miraculously healed, through a simple 
treatment. First, the ulcers were washed out, and the 
cavity was filled with powder iodoform ; then bandaged 
with a strip of antiseptic gauze, over which was tightly 
tied a piece of goat's or sheep's hide, and left without 
redressing for several days, when the ulcer would ha\e 
healed and present a wholesome surface. This simplified 
and minimized the medical labors which were incumbent 
upon me. The swelled and blistered feet were relieved 
by hot water when available, and constant use of 
grease, which I provided in almost limitless quantities. 
With considerable horror I discovered that two of ni)- 
I men were afflicted with a malady simulating, if not 
^•'^' actualK', leprosy. They were kept isolated as much as 
si'KAR. possible, to await developments, and in a few da)s 
when tlie toes on the foot of one man dropped off, and 




the other case became an aggravated form of leprosy, there 
was nothing left for me to do but arrange to provide for 
them and lea\'e them with some kind natives, until they could 
join a coast-bound Arab caravan, or b}' degrees work back 
to Zanzibar. 

Ever\' man in the caravan who had not had smallpox, 
or had not been recently vaccinated, I vaccinated, and 
strangely not one man was disabled thereby, although every 
case "took"; this may be attributed to the 
excellency and purity of the vaccine and 
certain h)-gienic laws I unremittingly per- 
sisted in having the men observe. 

When encamped the temporarj' invalids 
were assigned the duty of camp scavengers, 
swept with besoms of their own make-up all 
the litter, and burned all rubbish, and it was 
forbidden that anj- one should in any way 
befoul the camp or its immediate vicinity. 

The nights were made hideous with the roars, howls, 
grunts, chatter, yappings, and croakings of wild beasts and 
frogs, crickets and cicadc-e. Our camp was always surrounded 
by a thick thorn hedge, and camp-fires blazed on all sides. 
Through the interstices of the hedge could be seen the red 
glaring eyes of the prowlers, and when the animals became 
too intrusive, a random shot sent them helter-skelter to a 
safe distance. 

We intercepted a caravan, and I sent a |3ackage of letters 


I So 


to the coast, sealed and tied, with a name ring- affixed. 
There was a thrill of delight in being able to communicate 
with the world 
of civilization 
through this 
means of mail 
carriers not 
included in 
any zone sys- 

After marching during a perfect 
hurricane, with the rain pelting and 
soaking us, the van of the caravan led 
as ever by me, we arrived at the camp- 
ing ground at the foot of Mungu to, 
await the wear)' stragglers. As filthy 
and disgusting a spot as can be ima- 
gined, infested with vermin and cluttered 
with all manner of discarded rubbish, provision tins, bits of 
garments, old sandals, rinds of fruit, the chewed pith of sugar- 
cane, bones, fragments of rope, broken bottles, and ash heaps. 
The storm increased with such violence there was no choice ; 
the camp must be made there, until we could get a supply of 
water from the quenchless well at the top of the mountain. 
Two thousand feet of rocks to scale by the footsore and weary 
men, and jackals and lions in hazardous pro.ximit)'. Every one 
was irritable and fractious, their din grew unbearable, when 



suddenly the storm abated and the sun burst out dazzling, 
shedding a good-night radiance over all. Good-nature was 
restored, the men began to sing, and each one eagerly 
performed his task ; those detailed to bring water started 
swiftly with their utensils and their guns up the steep 
mountain ^^a"'^'^^ ^^^^^^5^^^ to the well, in order 

to re- jjT ,.,a«s,AsaaiBfc,^f;;^^r ~ "^ turn before the sim 

should vanish 

and night set 

in. A warn- 


ing charge was given to a young porter not to tarry, and 
above all not to wander away from the others, knowing full 
well he might be enticed by the sight of the wild pepper 
and berries that there abound. 

Awaiting the return of porters sent for water and watch- 
ing the laggards of the rear come into camp, my attention 
was attracted by seeing upon the arms of a Wa-Duruma 
woman a curious pair of pink and white bead armlets. I 
tried to purchase them from her. .She wa.xed \-ery angry at 
the mere suggestion, her eyes flashed indignantly as she 



gathered herself up on her feet, and placed her back against 
a tree as if to defy me. 

"No! Bebe Bwana, no! no! no! My man has 
h gone to Chaga land, and these he placed on m\' arms 
\ to prove my faithfulness to him. They \vere his mar- 
3 riage gifts to me. No ! no ! no ! I will not ! " 

Nor could she be induced to part with her bridal 
bawbles, although I made her tempting oft'ers of cloth 
and beads she much coveted. However, her protest 
and sentimental indignation were worth tenfold the 
value of the armlets as a revelation of character ; 
and yet these natives are reputed by white men to 
possess no idea of nor disposition to faithfulness in 
their marital relations. They may be inconstant, but 
GRASS {ii^gy g^j-g faithful in a way. 

BEAD •' -^ 

NECKLACE. Night fell ; the moonless darkness was so intense 
it seemed palpable. Every man was in camp but one. 
The roll was called. Alas! no answer came to "Ferusa bin 
Sura," the boy who went with 
the others to bring water. 
Every man was questioned 
concerning him. Yes, the)- had 
filled their vessels all together ; 
he was there with them, and 
they had all started down to- BKAD-ixLAin bo\\x. 

gather; no one had noticed that he loitered, although the 
Avild pepper was plenty and they all had gathered some as 



they came leaping down the rugged mountain, but driven 
by hunger, fatigue, and the fear that night might overtalce 
them, tliey had not tarried. 

Hamidi organized a search party with torches and guns 
to search for Ferusa 
bin Sura. Kerosene 
cans were opened and 
great bonfires made. 
The relief party 
shouted, yelled, and 
sung. A protest re- 
sounded on all sides 
from the wild beasts. 
Presently an unearthl)- 
shriek overrode all 
other noise ; my heart 
fairly choked me in its agonized plunges and curdled my 
blood, for I realized that poor Ferusa was being devoured 
by the lions. Nothing could now restrain me. With a well- 
armed body guard and torches I made them conduct me 
up the mountain path and fire volley after volley, trying 
to frighten the animals; all to no purpose. We finally dis- 
covered that he had fallen into a gully, and there had been 
pounced upon by lions he had disturbed. Nothing was left 
but to retreat, and in the morning search for his remains. 
We found a bone or two, and the water pail ominously 
marked with my name. Sometimes in the night my memory 


1 84 



vividly brings back those ear-splitting shrieks, and the vhole 
scene, with its spectacular horrors, parades through my brain. 
This was the only human creature I left dead in Africa; 

although later on I had an attendant 
so violently ill with fever, so mad in 
delirium, forcing upon me great per- 
sonal solicitude and requiring hourly 
vigilance on my part, and a total 
surrender of all other special attend- 
ants to the invalid's care, in order 
to prevent another tragedy. The 
caravan ambulance of this one inva- 
lid required the service of eighteen during four fifths of my 
safari, but reached home comparatively well. 

During the day I visited some villages we passed, where 
there was scarcely any sign of habitation ; the huts wide open, 
the fires burning, completely deserted, with the exception of a 
few old men and women lolling about ; for every one else had 
gone to work on the shambas, or jjlantations, which the auspi- 
cious rains had made fertile, or had followed those who did 
work in order to secure to themselves companionship. But 
when the sun was about to set, surging from all directions 
came the natives, the women bearing upon their heads 
long loads of grass or wood, happy and joyful as if the day 
had just begun and they were anticipating some fete, rather 
than having just finished their labor and returning home for 
rest and refreshment. 











Methods of working the plantations seem rather hard upon 
the women, because the few tools they use are without 
handles, and the Zanzibar hoe 
is a bastard pick and hoe com- 
bined, something like an adze. 
The shortness of the metal haft, which is projected from the 
tool itself, compels the women to bend almost double as they 
break up the ground. 

Fortunately the rare fertility of the soil lessens the 
necessity of much work of this kind. They cut the grain 

with curved .. ,.,.1..^ _ knives sharpened 

on the .,eil^^1M^li'^C¥k'>^>WO^f%^j inner edge, 


something- like a modified sickle, as well 

as with long straight knives looking like dirks. 

The curved knives are principally used for cutting 

banana stalks and grass. The women resort to a rather 

singular artifice in case the bunch of bananas they essay to 


cut happens to be very heavy ; they manage to stand up 
directly beneath it upon a stone or log, and by throwing 
their heads back and a peculiar curving of the spine, ma- 
noeuvre until they make platforms of their necks and breasts, 
upon which they ease up the heavy bunch, while they reach 
overhead to the extreme limit of their arms, grasp and hack 
it off by a sweeping motion of their curved knives ; and I 
have seen a woman supporting a bunch of such ponderous 
weight that when it was liberated from its parent stem she 
would fairly reel backward, stagger a moment to recover her- 
self, and with difficulty keep from dropping her precious 
burden until she was able to place it carefully on the ground. 
Finally she would, with regathered force, firmly lift it on her 
head and walk away with her burden, displaying the light- 
ness and agility of a gazelle. The women never seem to 
shirk carrying a load, however hea\'y it may be, if they can 
once manage to get it settled and balanced upon their heads. 





IFFICULTIES and hardships were 
steadily in the ascendency trom the 
n moment we left the sycamores at 
Maungu, and struck the steppes to 
the west. The mountains of Ndara, 
presenting their rugged gneiss wall, 
stand out boldly, and beyond the 
mountains of Teita haz)' like a 
half-tone. Nature became more 
„__ •/;:,'■- "erratic, vegetation more varied; the 

breccia rocks were full of bits of glittering quartz and mica, 
thorns and angular branches made phantom-like profiles, 
grasses of a height exceeding ten feet hid the glaring 
red sand, and brilliant odoriferous flowers attracted swarms 
of honey bees. Our march in the broiling sun, up the rising 
ground, fatigued us considerably. Unfortunately, my advance 
askari, whose business it was to lop oft the intrusive 
branches and vines to make a wa)- for me, allowed a branch 
of a thorn-tree to escape his grasp, which flew back and 
struck me in the left eye, leaving a thorn thrust in my 




eyeball. Such agony I never previously experienced, and the 
attendant horror that, in removing the thorn, the eye might 
possibly be destroyed, disquieted me to the degree when all 
knowledge of expedients was vanished for a time. 

Terror reigned supreme over every member of the 
caravan, and the poor unhappy culprit supplicated me for 
mercy, fearful that the penalt)' for his fault would be nothing 
short of death. Although sorry for myself because of the 
seriousness of the accident, there was certainly no wrath in 
my heart for him. A singular coincidence occurred which I 
feel justified in narrating, as it impressed the Zanzibaris as 
to the actuality of the superhuman powers they heretofore 




had supposed were enthralled in mj- being. The same 
askari met with a similar accident to his left eye thirty- 
six hours after my misfortune, and gradually his eye ran 
out, so that when we reached the coast, at the finish of 
the sajari, the empty socket tortured my conscience, knowing 
that he believed it was a retribution I had called down 
upon him. He was a Roman Catholic convert, and during 
the remainder of 
the safari, after 
his own injury, 
he addressed 
orisons first to 
God, then to me. 
He fully ac- 
cepted his affliction from the beginning as a righteous punish- 
ment I had called down upon him, and nothing could eradi- 
cate this idea from his mind. He would pathetically and 
without cant say, " Bebe is merciful, kind, and good; a Inoana 
would have shot me." 

After the shock had abated, my eye was bandaged, and on 
we marched. One does not stop for an eye or a limb or a 
life in Africa ; one is ever impelled to proceed, per augusta 
ad aiigiista. With one eye I saw more than I can ever 
hope to recount of the grandeur of Kilimanjaro, and am 
repaid tenfold for all I suffered in Africa by the possession 
of the confidence and friendship bestowed upon me by the 
African primitives. 



At the foot of the Ndara Mountain we halted just below the 
Sagalia mission station, at least six hundred feet above. This 
camping ground, so well known to all caravans traversing 
that resfion, contains a number of uninviting straw and banana- 
leaf thatched sheds, filthy with the indescribable debris of 
many caravans, and giving out a strong odor of chickens, 
goats, cattle, and, at this particular time, also of camels, for 
the I. B. E. A. caravan taking camels up country had only 
a few days before passed that way. Some of the tired 
porters hastily put down their loads, and threw themselves 

upon the litter, 
heedless of the 
filth and stench, 
in their eager- 
ness to avail 
themselves of 
the dubious 
shelter. \ pool 
of water fed 
from the moun- 
tain rills, if not 


living wellspring, a dark, dank home for wriggling, loath- 
some creatures, silently rested beneath outspreading sycamore 
and baobab trees. Here the men scrambled and threw them- 
selves flat on the ground, plunged their heads into the water 
and drank until they had quenched their inordinate thirst. 


In quick response to our signal shots tlie natives dis- 
charged two rifles, and men, women, and children, the young 
and the old, began to swarm down the rugged escarpment 
with amazing precipitation, bearing on their heads all sorts of 
salable green stuff, and chickens, eggs, butter, gee, milk 
curds, honey, and what other articles of barter their meagre 
stock in hand warranted. 

A great hubbub ensued, to which the porters largely 
contributed, as there would be a mutual recognition of an 
old acquaintance. Mr. Wray, the former 
resident of the Sagalia mission, also the 
agent of Ibea, had resigned their posts 1 
in consequence of the dissatisfaction mani- snuff-box. 

fested by the natiyes in a series of unbearable jaersecution. 
Their absence deprived me of an opportunit)' I had largely 
counted upon whereby to obtain some interesting data. 

Whilst the men of the caravan were bartering, cooking, 
bathing, and filling their calabashes, attended by Josefe and 
three askari, I climbed over six hundred feet up to the top 
of the hill to take a bird's-eye view of the surrounding 
country and visit the people. 

Depravity seems to be an eminent characteristic of natives 
in easy touch to coast traders and caravan traffic. The 
Wa-Teita, especially that branch of the tribe known as the 
Wa-Sagalia, who inhabit this portion of the mountain in the 
province of Teita, situated as it is at the four corners of 
caravan routes leadino- to and from the coast in various 



directions, present a glaring example of the statement. They 
are grovellers, devoid of self-respect, and evince a shameless 

state of beggary; although they possess 
a most fertile tract of country, pro- 
tected by its eminence from surprises 
by hostile tribes, their indolence and 
the prevailing demoralization of the 
women too often reduce this tribe to 
a sad plight of penury. 

The flagrancy of the • women is 
most disgusting, from all accounts 
given by reliable travellers who have 
been forced to camp here for a few 
days. Food was too high priced to 
entice my porters to tarry long, there- 
fore during the few hours we halted I 
was spared the humiliation of being 
an involuntary witness to their degra- 

Neither the men nor women are 
comely of feature or fme in figure. 
Their color is brown rather than black; 
they file and discolor their teeth and 
tattoo their bodies in a rudimentary way, 
without motive or any conventional 
fashion. The women artificially make their breasts pendulous, 
and shave their heads, all but a circular crown patch, which 




they strand and string beads upon ; the prosperous or favor- 
ite women attach a number of strands of beads around their 
heads, in addition to the crown of 
beaded hair, and per- 
mit several strings to 
hang down over their 
ears and shoulders; 
they wear high masses 
of dark blue and red 
small beads, called 


sail -SCI) I, 

to d 


tinguish such from 
seed-beads, around their 
necks, until their chins are 
awkwardly thrown up anc 
pressed backwards; also a bead 

girdle, or smiply more goatskin ki,ap worn by many tribes, 

strands of beads roped ornamented with beads and chains. 

about the waist ; then a dark blue or brown — clay stained 
— cotton loin-cloth or kilt skirt, very short, coming only half- 
way between hip and knee, or a tiny scrap of cloth or goat- 
skin hanging in front, or a small triangular flap of goatskin 
dangling behind from their waists ; large pewter and bead 
armlets and upwards of twenty-four wire hoops two and 
one half inches in diameter, on which are strung all sorts 
of small beads, in one ear, and in the other a few hoops 
of large green and blue glass rings of the sort that are 


prized by the Masai. In various punctures around the rim 
and in the lobes of their ears they thrust bits of sweet 

grass, circular pieces of 
ivory or bone, porcupine 
quills, brass, iron, and 
copper danglers orna- 
.mented with a few large 
showy beads. All these 
beads represent accuniu- 


TWENTY-FOUR WORN AT A TIME. lated wcalth. OccasioU" 

ally women had followed the fashion of the Zanzibaris slave 
women, and wore little studs of various materials put through 
holes bored into their nostrils and lips and cheeks. When 
they are fortunate enough to possess a bright variegated 
bandana or handkerchief, they delight to display it on their 
person. Horn, metal, and goatskin rings bedeck their hands. 
Although their hands and feet are broad and thick, they are 
not long, and cannot fairly be called large. They, as 
other natives, detest ablutions, and use quantities of animal 
and cocoanut oil overlaid with yellow clay and accumulated 

The men wear odd bits of all sorts of calico, deck out 
their persons in ivory and bone and metal armlets and leg- 
lets, wear similar ear ornaments, arm themselves with bows 
and arrows, carry a hide quiver filled with poisoned arrows; 
the poison they use, and many other tribes in East Africa, is 
a vegetable product from the province of Gyriama, which 




they procure from the Arab traders, or direct through their 
own envoys from the people of the country. 

Polygamy exists, and a degenerate outcome of the men's 
thriftlessness leads them to marr)- their own mothers and 
sisters and even their own children, because they are too 
improvident or actually in some 
cases too poor to purchase 
an unrelated wife ; 
hence the offspring 
of these consanguin- 

which enervate alike 

their mental and 

physical forces, must 

retrograde and develop vicious tendencies in their degenerate 

progeny, if they do not in time happily become sterile. 

Their religion, such as it is, may be safely called fetich. 

As they depend largely, as one of their most profitable 
products, upon the yield of the calabash, which is the fruit 
of the baobab-tree, when a famine threatens they plant 
numbers of this tree to propitiate the elements, and regard 
as a bad oinen the destruction of a baobab-tree if through 
accident or intention. 

All the hair, as a rule, is shaved close to the skin. Magic 
doctors are held in high repute. Women are the accoiiclicurs 
and specialists for women. Puberty is attained at an early 
age, as in all tropical countries. The v^'omen ma)' marry 



at the age of ten, and the youths at fifteen. The families 
are not large. Virtue here has no place. Men and women 
antl children drink pombc, and smoke 
long wooden or iron pipes, and use 
snuff. The inevitable snuff-box dangles 
In sight, for every tribe in East Africa 
indulge in the habit. 

Plenty of game could be discerned 
ambling away on the outstretch of 
steppes beyond. A sudden mist shrouded 
the distant sight of Kilimanjaro, which 
deprived us of seeing the grand moun- 
tain's peaks. Rain portended, and despite 
the protest the natives made, we soon 
were in train to march. 

The natives were struck with amaze- 
ment to see the loliitc won/an, and 
several stood as if riveted to the ground, 
with their loads on their heads, staring 
at me for hours. Men squatted about 
with their bows and arrows clutched in 
their hands, mutely watching every move- 
ment I made. The Palanquin was a 
veritable surprise to adults and children. 
All wanted to see it carried ; and when 
the bearers lifted it up to proceed on 


EAR-RINGS. our safai-!. they ran m droves after 



them, shouting and screaming with dehght, exactly as do 
street gamins pursue a circus caravan going through a town. 
Shaba, tlie old chief of Sagalia, had presented me with a 
few of his ear ornaments, for which I had gi\'en in return an 
ample amount of beads ; however, he expressed great 
dissatisfaction, and demanded some Americana, white cotton 
sheeting, which Hamidi peremptorily refused. He planted 



himself close beside me wherever I chanced to move, and 
commenced a nagging grumble, about being so poor and 
that I was so rich, and what the other travellers had given 
him. A more abject-looking creature can scarcely be de- 
picted. His wives sallied about him to lend their voices 
to his bewailings, until for peace and quiet I came very near 
acquiescing to their demands. The women, to incite my pity, 



carried their wretched-looking babies shing over their backs 
in a hide or length of cloth, but Hamidi protested that he 
would satisfy and silence the "beggars." 

Rather a sprightly bronze beauty — a beauty according to 
the accepted rule of that country — came racing up to me, 
repeating over and over again, " Bebe, Bebe," extending her 
arms, holding in her hands a sweet grass bead necklace, and 
a round bone ornament pierced in the centre, which she had 

worn on her own neck. 1 
;pted her proffered 
curious to know 
hat she would 
demand in return. 
To my astonish- 
ment, she spit at 
me. In my dis- 
gust and indigna- 
tion, I was about 
to return her pres- 
Mits, when Josefe 
;hecked me by saying 
is merry way, " Quite 
right, Bebe, it is their way 
of paying you a compliment; 
they all do it in this part." So they do, as we shall see 
later on. Rather pleased at the little maiden's evidence of 
generous friendliness, I drifted into quite a revery, from 



which I was disturbed, some miles from the place of the 
scene, by her voice and her presence. She had repented of 
her free gift, and had pursued us to exact adequate pay- 
ment for, or the return of, the trifles. She was pacified with 
the glitter of a few pice and a name ring. 

Whilst I partook of my luncheon, sitting in my Palanquin, 
I confess experiencing great embarrassment in the presence of 
the large audience of natives who thronged about to gaze 
and comment upon the performance, wherever we chanced 
to halt, from beginning to finish of our safai-i. 

The observances of little ceremonies and indulgence in 
certain refinements, as well as some few luxuries, conduced 
not only to my prestige in the natives' eyes, but to my 
personal comfort and self-respect. Requisite accessories add 
but little to the expense of a safari, and bring a threefold 
result : namely, in appearance, in instructiveness as to the 
white people's customs, and not the least, to personal conven- 
ience and comfort. All talk explanatory of such, not illus- 
trated by actual representation, could not do half the service 
of certain observances adhered to consistently by a leader. 
It is not foolish. It is essential in studying traits of native 
people, and to provoke and develop the play of their intel- 
lect when brought face to face with strange manners and 

On we pushed, trying to reach a suitable camping ground 
for the night, despite the sharp showers that fitfully swept 
down upon us. Suddenly, as the sun neared the horizon, a 




violent outbursts ot 

bow of promise, with tliree reflected glories of its radiant self, 

made the heavens magnificent, and the storm ceased. Alas! 

photographs taken of this and similar manifestations of the 

elements proved utterly worthless, 

— vagfue, meaningless, and black be- 
es ' o 

yond the recognition of a single out- 
line or effect. 

Encased in a waterproof coat, 
rubber boots, and a cover over my 
topcc (pith hat), I defied every storm, 
and marched with ease through 
wind-driven rains. My head askari 
shouldered me to convey me across a muddy, leech-infested 
stream, swollen by the recent downpourings, and in his 
effort to obtain a foothold on the slimy, somewhat abrupt, 
yielding bank, slipped, and dumped me into the turgid 
waters. When fished out I certainly was a bedraggled-look- 
ing object, both e)es closed with mud which trickled down 
from head to feet, my mouth, nostrils, anci ears resembling 
overflowing phials of pea soup. 

Witnessing the event, Hamidi's kibosh ( rhinoceros-hide 
stick) went whistling through the air as he impulsively plunged 
throueh the stream to chastise the frightened askari. How- 
ever, in justice I signed him oft', and made merry of the 
incident, protesting it was not the man's lault through any 
carelessness. Quietly I resolved never again to trust myself 
to the hazard of a similar ducking, and thereafter swam or 







^^rw^^rv^^V" -w ^^i 

forded the streams, only making exceptions when we had to 
plod through short spaces of muddy, swampy ground, and 
there was no sense in making myself uncomfortable or 
hideous for hours by loading down my clothing and feet with 
tenacious clay and slime. 

Straggling natives at first were very shy and half sus- 
picious, although never hostile or reluctant to supply us with 
food when we would reach their settlements, although at 
Matata the prices were even more exhorbitant than at Teita. 
This can be accounted 
for from the fact that 
our reputation had 
preceded us, and we 
were heralded as a 
/)/£' and ricJi safari, 
and that Bebe Bwana was a white queen. 

The plantations were very fertile, and the women, who 
are the legitimate agriculturists of East Africa, bediz- 
ened with Qrlisteninof beads and shinino- metal, tilled the 
ground, without apparently deeming their task to be any 
hardship. Somehow the natives' acceptance of the inevitable 
is very fine. Knowing that we were to traverse their 
country, they were evidently on the alert to see me, and were 
disporting their splendors in honor of the event. They were 
not surprised, and passed upon m)' anomalous appearance 
without hesitancy. My long hair was an unremitting source 
of amazement to all the tribes I met. They queried why I 



did not shave it off, lilce theirs. My crooked Alpine stock, 
with its blue pennant emblazoned with the magic device, 
noli J71C tanzci'c, was much admired and I tear coveted. 
They innocently deemed it to be a badge of high rank, 
never havine seen one before, hence inferred that I must be 
of supreme importance and possessed of limitless power, to 
pass over their idea of the inexhaustibility of my material 

On all sides I was besought for razors and clasp-knives, 
which I bestowed freely. An explorer's knife, worn attached 

to my belt, delighted them with its 
iintltuiu in parvo contents. 

They would peer around and into 
my tent if the flaps were fastened 
^ '^ back to the guys, when fitted up 
^. -V with all of its paraphernalia, and 
- ) stand, eyes wide open, fixed with 
V -amazement at the mysterious ap- 
'jpointments thereof, for hours, with- 
out becoming weary. 

At night I would set alight mag- 
nesium wire, red and green Greek 
powder, or send up rockets, antl 
EGG-SHAPED BEADS. somctlmcs fire a voile)' for their 

amusement when they were bold enough to venture to defy 
the dark, of which they have an inherent fear, measurably 
shared b)' all African tribes. 


On our route at Ruru we found, curled up tinder the 
meagre cover ot a tew branches overspread with palm leaves 
and grasses, a poor, ill wretch dying- 
frc^m neglect and hunger, who hail 
been discharged, it was said through 
his |:)hysical inability to proceed with head-inlaio dish. 

a cara\an destined to a certain station, and turned adrift, 
without adequate means to reach the coast as best he could 
or drop dead in the bush. Poor fellow, he managed to drag 
himself several days on his homeward journey, antl then col- 
lapsed in his utter helple.ssness at this point. Although I 
was carrying a document from an authoritative officer to 
various subofficers, occup)'ing stations in East Africa, ordering 
them not to deplete their stores, nor to provide me with sup- 
plies of barter goods, ami under no circumstances to assume 
any e.xpense in my behalt, or enlist in any of my undertak- 
ings other than to warn me of ilanger and if possible prevent 
me from incurring risk of lite, coinmon humanity asserted itself, 
and I provided one of their adandoned wretches with a tempo- 
rary abiding place in the care of a native family well known to 
my headman Hamidi, and left him trade goods sufficient to get 
him to the coast when he should be able to travel. Three weeks 
afterwards, three natives from this village presented themselves 
in my camp to demand further payment ior the maintenance 
of the fever-stricken waif. Their claim I promptly repudiated, 
as it could only be regarded in the light of sharp practice, 
for the man had died, by their own confession. 



We were constantly coming across the fresh spoor of buffa- 
loes and rhinoceros, and the bush was trampled significantly. 
The rear part of the caravan was put to rout by the dash of a 
herd of zvilde bccsfc which had been disturbed by the noise 
whilst grazing, but after the panic subsided it was found that 

no one had been hurt; 
then the)' all boasted 
how they could have 
brought down the en- 
tire herd if Bebe 
B w a n a had only 
r^^^ given them per- 
mission to shoot. 
D u r i n o- the 


course of the day I was fortunate in bringing down a lovely 
gazelle at two hundred and forty yards, — a random shot 1 
sent from my Winchester into a herd. This bit of luck was 
hailed with great acclamation by my men, and they boasted 
about it with as much fervency as if they, each one, had 
individually bet;n the marksman. 

Several porters started on a gallop to bring in the 
game. It was soon flayed, and the meagre portion of 
meat it afforded was dressed and sent to my cook tent. 
Selectino- a few steaks, the balance was eiven to Hamidi, to 
distribute to the sick, after reserving the liver and kidneys for 
his own mess pot. 

Although quantities of big game abounded, after a few 



experiments it became obvious to me that it would throw 
my caravan into wild confusion to engage in sport which 
would not have had a brilliant result, as my men were not 
expert in the use of rifles. However, when we could not 
procure meat, and the men seemed to require a more generous 
diet than fruits, corn, bananas, and yams, I would try my 
hand. Partridges and Guinea fowls were plenty, and flew up 
from the bush when we were right upon them. One morn- 
ing, in less than an hour, with my revolver, I shot for the 
pot nineteen, without the slightest tax of skill. The inflam- 
mation that had set up in my injured eye behooved me to 
avoid long-range sights. However, after my minor successes, 
I fully comprehend why it is that f\ great sportsmen like 
Sir John \VilIoughb\-, » Jackson, 
have expressed them- 
selves with so much en- 
thusiasm about this 
" hunter's Paradise." 

A deplorable species of 
" buck fever," belonainc: ex- 
clusively to no particular 
country, experienced b\" me 
when in too close proximit)' 

to the ivories of elephants encountered on my sajari, pre- 
vented me taking photographs of the admitted greatest 
source of commerce in Central, East, and West Africa, — 
a commerce which lias a nefarious significance when one 

Chanler, and others. 

kHINoi. KROP. 



speaks of black ivory, or slaves; for It is the white ivory yield 
which is the very key-note of slavery for the ill-favored blacks 
who are captured and impressed into service by the Arab i\ory 
traffickers to transport their hauls to marketable points, and then 
sold when their task is accomplished. Another plea for proper 

and humane trans- 
portation, to which 
obviou si y Chris- 
tians, hu m a n i t a- 
rians, commercial 
promoters, coloniz- 
ers, should lend 
unanimous voice. 

Our caravan 
was constantly be- 
ing joined by small 
Arab caravans, 
who were bound 
jKWFi.i.r.D pRFSKNis FOR sui.TANP. '^ luterioT to the 

elephant regions, expecting to be absent from the coast for 
one, two, and three years. The paucity of their numbers, 
and seeming inefficiency of their barter goods, provoked me 
to make many inciuiries which resulted in certain revelations 
as to luno it is dow. 

A few Arab merchants, none of the number particularly 
wealthy, form a little band and pool their money to venture 
themselves or employ available men to go interior for ivory, 


and with combined forces procure the smallest possible 
number of porters requisite to carry their wares, and forth- 
with proceed. They do not hesitate to plunder the natives 
of their accumulated ivory, which they usually bury for safe 
keeping ; or purchase at a rate barely removed from actual 
looting, or even employ native hunters to bring down the 
elephants and secure for them live ivory tcmbo. When they 
have collected sufficient, without hesitation, in the name of 
the Sultan, they capture strong natives to carr\' their ill-gotten 
gains to the coast marts, 

The surveillance of the European officers over the 
posts and stations of their respective governments, in order 
to collect the duties of the incoming ivory caravans, has a 
judicial tendency to check the intlux of slaves. The Eng- 
lish, Germans, French, and Belgians, as well as the .Sultan 
of Zanzibar and some others, have united and pledged 
themselves by the passage of a law to suppress slave raiding 
and to free newly made sla\es. 




ON TO '1"A V KTA. 

SELESS to mark day by day our 
progress over a most variable, inter- 
esting route known to all caravans 
who hail for Taveta. 

The scenery at times was superb, 
Lake fipo shone like a copper 
„/ mirror, and now and ao;ain we 
:_^^ caught a transitory view oi the 
snow-capped peak of Kilimanjaro, 
only to lose it in the great sweeping shoals of Huctuating 
mists. Excitement reigned every time there was a rift in 
the flufly thick mantle, which would part like a curtain 
drawn back from the centre, in consequence of the saddle- 
like cut between the illustrious Ivibo and Mawenzi ; porters 
shrieked, " Kilimanjaro ! Kilimanjaro ! " Erom van to rear the 
call would leap from their lusty throats in quick succession. 
The incomparable grandeur ami limitless expanse offered 
the fiekl of vision put my heart athrill, and I felt if only 
for this glorious sight I was more than amply rewarded 
for all the hardships incumbent upon the undertaking from 

ON TO 'lAX'lClA. 


beo-innine to those lurkine alontr the line to the finish. 
Mountain ranges on both sides of us, behind us, and Kili- 
manjaro facing us, spaced and frontiered b\- long stretches of 
plains over which bounded magnificent wild beasts, varied by 


ravines, sloping hills, silver lakes, and gushing streams turbu- 
lent!)' rushing seaward. A defined tree line, the point where 
vegetation about ceases, the cloud line, and far, far above it 
all the peerless domain of sun and moon and stars! That 
picture can never be reproduced b)' word or color. 

Again the Masai scare stirred m)' cowardly Zanzibaris. We 
reached a point by a dismal pool overshadowed with enormous 
trees, called Little Lanjaro, where the embers of the fires 
were still smouldering, and the remnants of a meat feed all 



betokened the recent presence of the bogy-men, so the por- 
ters acceded with a degree of alacrity to my command to 
go a few hours further on to Big Lanjaro, where we could 
comfortably rest during a day in camp to make a becoming 
entrance into the forest-locked arcadian Taveta. 

Rain, rain, pelted down upon us with unlooked-for fury. 
With a howling gasp of wind that drove the rain into our 

~~ faces, all was o\'er, the sun jjcered 

out behind the clouds and 
^J soon j)ut the storm to 
light. I'^verything 
fumed and steamed, 
and the sultriness 
became almost lui- 
bearable. The 
men rushed and 

)lunged into the 

stream, -which 
;oursed below our 
encampment, to cool 

.ere ascending a hill, 
A 'JEST OF VALOR. trjiug to liold OUT tootlug on 

a slippery goat-path, w-hen, without a loud spoken word, a 
dozen porters dashed down their loads, crowded by me, com- 
pelling me to halt, and at stated distances ahead each man 
grasped a sapling from the side of the hill above the path 


and stood on die very edge of the path overlooknig' a wild, 
dangerous ravine, muttered a prayer from the Koran, and 
closed his eyes. A strange rattling of stones, crushing of 
bushes, and clumps of flying earth came from above, followed 
by an enormous bowlder, which in the serpentine trend of 
the path, although I had not seen it, the porters on the out- 
ward curve of the hill had, and voluntarily were standing 
awaiting a doom that seemed inevitable to try and sheer the 
bowlder off of its destructive course, and save me. 

One instant, and the first man must be crushed. He 
never winced, but stood his ground with feet firmly planted, 
and his sinews and veins standing out over his entire body 
like whipcords. My heart sank. I felt I could not endure 
the sight, and closed my eyes. The ground crunched, some- 
thing gave way, a man screamed, and there was a new crashing. 
My eyes flew open in terror, but were greeted with the une.x- 
pected. Just as the bowlder reached within one foot of the 
first man, the earth crumbled, and it went swirling to the 
bottom, and the brave porter lost his footing and was clutch- 
ing the shrubbery right and left as he rolled down to save 
himself, which he did, and all the other brave porters went 
to his assistance. I made a detour to photograph that bowl- 
der as it lay innocently at the bottom, by the side of which 
a mountain stream went purling by as if nothing hatl hap- 
pened. I christened the stone "A Test ot Valor." 

During the da)- I was more than astounded suddenly to 
e.xperience several shocks of trembling ot the earth, and upon 

2 I 2 


inqiiirj' was informetl these manifestations of suppressed 
earthquake were far from being unusal in the vicinit\- of 

/eta ; and although then; arc no 
■idences ot a recent eruption, 
tlie volcanic character of the 
countr\' just bej'onti and the 
extinct craters of the Kiliman- 
jaro range would seem to be- 
token that at some future 
da\' an eruption might recur, 
brom those who are learnetl 
as to the geological character 
LiviNc; iRF.ii GATES OF -lAVF.iA. of this regiou, I coukl obtain 

no knowledge as to the existence of any fumaroles which might 
indicate smouldering or latent \-olcanic action. 

Natives are ver\- superstitious about these tremblings, and 
are always thrown into a panic during their mild manilesta- 
tions, and seek the shelter of their huts, close the entrances, 
and revive the fires, as they huddle together in their apprehen- 
sion. The thunder rumbled in the distance, and the black 
clouds were cut xiu/asf across the dark heavens b\- blinding 
lightning dashes, until the cataclysm seems to relieve the 
surcharged heavens, at the same time gorging the throat of 
every ra\'ine and water-wa)-. These fierce outlireaks ot the 
elements fortunately are of short duration, and immediately 
afterwards the country is smiling and fresh as possible, and 
t'.ie water has become absorbed by the porous earth and 



rocks ; if storms have not been continuous, soon the earth is 
dry again, and the sands and rocks have been greatly cooled. 

Haniidi, my headman, came rushing to me one day, 
pointing to a swirling black cloud in the heavens which 
seemed to be a centre of magnetic attraction, drawing impetu- 
ously to itself all other clouds until they rapidly coalesced as 
one mass, yet the greater part of the heavens was cerulean, 
fair, and simn\'. 

He exclaimed with considerable agita- 
tion, " Bebe Bwana, we must set the tent 
for you; that is a cloud-burst, you'll get 
drowned with the rain shortl)'." W'ith con- 
siderable curiosity, I queried what he meant. 

" That cloud will wing its ^j^ 
\\a.\ tlirecth' over where we are 

now marching and then fall to 
earth, a solid sheet of water." _ 

As we were just about to Cr v_>' r^' 
leave a valley, and I saw on all Iv -(2! ^- ■^■ 
sides the natives lleeing to (f^^'^fdT 
the hills, and my porters all ^^ • ' ^ - 
edging up towards the de- 
clivities, I concluded I should like 
to experience a cloud-burst, hence 
refused to have my tent set. In a "•"•" L'-nox i-oii, rxxAMF.n. 
moment the cloud did burst, and we were standinsr enfrulfed 
by the downpoiiring to our armpits in water in less than 


three minutes, and in less than ten minutes we were able 
to proceed on our march with no evidence of the transi- 
tory deluge, save the moist, glossy appearance of the stones 
and foliage, and the balmy freshness of the atmosphere. 
This manifestation of the elements is not peculiar to Africa ; 
but since my return one or two Peruvian travellers have im- 
parted to me a similar experience. I felt well repaid for my 
obstinacy, and thoroughly enjoyed the adventure. 

Hamidi informed me, with some hesitation, that it would 
be impossible to get my Palanquin through the forest gates 
of Taveta, as they were so low the men would have to push 
their ordinary compact loads through, then crawl in after them. 
Here was a dilemma. However, " the Palanquin must go 
where I 20," that settled it, and it did enter Taveta more 
than once, despite the gates ; twenty yards of unbleached 
calico paved the way. 

Wa-Taveta men, women, and children came far on the 
road as we approached Taveta to bid me welcome, to bring 
me tributes of all kinds, to say to the ivliiic queen, as they 
persisted in calling me, that they had looked for me for two 
moons, and almost despaired that 1 would ever arrive. Then 
they asked about bioaiia this, and that, and the other who 
had visited them in years agone. 

Presently we met, at the confines of the forest environing 
Taveta, a sentinel from the English post, who fired at least a 
dozen shots in salutation, and informed me that the officer 
in charge was absent, but had made preparations to entertain 







m(; in his boiua. How strange this sounded, after haxing, 
hved in the open under canvas ! 

We began to \\end our waj- through the densest of 
forest, gloomy, dark, difficult to advance rapidly with the 
f a 1 1 e n giant trees,' 
o\'erhanging \ines, 
and ceneral tano"le 'iaveta i'ink ami whim. liEAu uirdi.e. 

obstructing the wa)', antl in places sogg)' and hideously 
muddy, after crawling through gates constructed out of living 
trees which evidently had been trained from their stripling 
period until their tall, thick, raddled branches and huge 
trunks in course of years constitute formidable barriers. 
There are, I was told, thirteen such gates, makino- Taveta 
impregnable to the attack ol an enemy. The tiny cone- 
shaped entrance, not three feet high, and about the same in 
width at the bottom, is blocked b)' rolling huge logs against 
the gap. Not only is Taveta stockaded thus, but the 
tortuous maze-like paths diverging in all ways leading up 
to a stream to be resumed on the other bank, and the 
scatteretl boiiias, instead of congregations of huts, would 
perplex, def\-, and frustrate an)- strange invader. 

An awe crept over me. The porters were hushed, as we 
struggled to threail our wa)-, imtil we attained the splendid 
plantations of bananas, corn, sugar-cane, and tobacco. Arrayed 
in brave splendors, the belles and beau.x, the husbands and 
wives, crowded about us. The porters greeted old acquaint- 
ances, and were welcomed in return with unmistakable fervor. 


Almost all the huts and officers' quarters of the English 
post, which is the market place of the Wa-Taveta, were 
placed at my service. Great and many preparations had been 
made by the resident officer, who had sent a letter to await 
me, sa\ing that he was on the road to Taveta, and would 
hasten if I sent him word. He arrived, with his assistant 
and posse of men, in a few hours. 

My caravan was installed under cover, but I declined to 
accept any shelter apart from my canvas dwelling, although 
I found the new house of the assistant a convenient 
storehouse and agreeable to retire to and put up my 
personal attendants. I was deeply touched at the efforts 
made in my behalf to beautify and make convenient this 
little hut. It means more in East Africa than in great 
centres of civilization, where the refinements and accessories 
of comfort are easy to obtain. 

Never was woman more indulged and feted than was I 
during my sojourn. My eye had become greatl)- inflamed, 
and I was tenderly ministered to by men who did not hesi- 
tate to administer personally the kibosh to any wayward 
fellow imder his command, and this care for me was delicate, 
sympathetic, almost reverential. Gentlemen, I publicly thank 
you now ; you had not to do with an mgrate. 

Caravans always make a habit of halting at Taveta 
sufficient time to string their barter beads, in consequence 
of the abundant growth of rapliia ]>alm, generally known as 
niioliala ; its fibre is stranded into threads of various thick- 


2 17 

nesses. These incomings and outgoings keep the natives 
in a perpetual state of expectancy and fete, as it were. The 
market place and camping ground is within the homa of the 
English post, and in order to collect the duties upon the 
ivory there existed the somewhat arbitrary and uncomfortable 
law, when I halted at Taveta, enforcing all caravans bound 


for the coast, no matter what their destination or purpose, to 
camp within the bonia under the immediate inspection of the 
resident officer and his askari. 

Wa-Taveta raise an excellent quality of tobacco, although 
a trifle coarse through lack of proper cultivation, which they 
do not habitually either chew or smoke, but use lavishly as 
snuff, and the habit is prevalent among the women as well 
as the men. This is universal among all tribes in East 

Their snuff-boxes are most varied and highly decorated, 
often most beautiful. The ceremony of snuff taking quite 



outrivals the former court etiquette respecting the same in 
France and other countries of the last century. When the 
compliments of the clay and polite salutations are at an 
end, snuff is proffered and taken all aroiunl. Having been 
informed of this custom, I had taken a large supply of snuff 
and tobacco with me. Whenever a snuff-box was presented 
to me by m}' request or \olimtaril\' by an)' native ot any 
tribe, every atom of the snuff was patient))' extracted with 
jealous care before the donor surrendered it to me. 

Their plantations are fertile, owing to the fact that their 
district never suffers from prolonged droughts. In good truth 

water can be obtained anywhere in 
this village by using an Abys- 
sinian pipe, and the stream 
which cuts through in the 
woodland part of the settle- 
ment is reputed always to 
contain abimdant water. 
On all sides could be seen 
in thrift)' condition quantities of 
sweet corn, — -maize, — wimbe, or 
millet, pumpkins, tomatoes, sugar-cane, 
several varieties of bananas, a number 
TAVETA BEAD COLLAR AND NECKLACE. of edible vlues wliicli arc 
cooked as greens or eaten as salad, and sweet potatoes 
that were somewhat fibrous. 

The English officers have placet! a haml-mill within their 


boma for their own use, but generously accord to the natives 
the privilege of using it to grind their corn and banana Hour ; 
this relieves them of the tedious process of pounding the 
grain and dried fruit in a wooden or stone mortar, with a 
heavy wooden pestle, — an advantage they evidently seem to 
highly appreciate, for the mill is never idle all day long. 
Heretofore the women were allotted the task of pulverizing 
the corn and bananas to an impalpable flour, and with ma- 
ternal solicitude strapped their babes upon their l^acks, afraid 
to put the little ones on the ground on account of the rav- 
ages of the white ants, and they would be quieted and 
rocked to sleep by the swaying motion of the mother's body 
as she monotonously wielded the heavy pestle. 

Honey bees thrive, and the Wa-Taveta manufacture 
quantities of beehives out of logs ; they are cylindrical in 
shape, three to four feet long, and a foot and a half in diam- 
eter, hollowed out and then closed at one end, with a punc- 
ture at the other to admit the ingress and egress of the 

The honey is rather dark in color, but most delicious in 
flavor and plentitul. It is put in hide boxes or calabashes. 
We several times came across dead hollow tree-trunks, branches 
lopped, standing erect, covered over with a removable piece 
of hide, punctured to admit the bees, which were used for 
hives. These primitives are utilitarians by nature. 

Made hives are hung in the trees on the track of the 
bee ranges, where honey flowers are most abundant. A similar 



Utensil to the made beehives is used in which to brew 
their pombc\ a concoction of sugar-cane, bananas, or cocoanut, 
wimbe, and corn. When the masli is fresli tlie beverage 
tastes very much like unfermented mead or beer, but in the 
course of three days fermentation has reached a point when 
the brew becomes a subtle intoxicant ; and as it is profusely 

^J brewed by al- 
most every na- 
tive of the tribe, 
they are during 
liarvest times in 
a perpetual state 
of jollification, 
and all the un- 
amiable qualities 
and propensities 
I if their natures 
seem to be 
strangely affect- 
ed by this in- 
toxicant. It is a 
mistake to say 
that the Africans 
have been pollu- 
ted in this respect by the invasion of white men, because they 
have always, as far as one can ascertain, used potnbe and tcmbo 
or other native drinks. 



At Taveta I met a woman, whom I please to call " The 
Woman of Taveta," who was in sore trouble. Immediately 
upon seeing me, if I may use the expression, she adopted 
me into her confidence, and all her troubles were poured into 
my ears, and by her earnestness she so engaged my interest 


and sympathy it was a delight to try and assist her to 
some better state of daily existence, which would preclude 
certain trials she was subjected to. She was a woman 
of intense feeling, a lover of power, indeed was a leader 
among women, and the wife of one of the elders. Her 
word seemed to be beyond dispute with them all. She 
was eager that I should be a friendly witness to all of 
the strange customs and habits of her tribe, and she had the 
power as well as willingness to give me the open sesame to 
them all. Twice at midnight, when the moon dances of the 
cl-nioraii, from which women of the tribe are excluded, were 
in lull swing, she stole to my tent, mysteriously signed me 
to follow, and silently led me through the forest to a seques- 
tered spot to be an unseen spectator to the wild, riotous 
performance of the utterly nude fellows, who were unaware 



of the presence of an interloper. Thus I was enabled to 
become familiar with customs forbidden to the presence of 
white men. How they pranced, gyrated, leaped in the air, 
squatted on the ground and hooted, shook their long hair 
and waved branches or brushes made of zebra tails, their 
faces daubed, Masai fashion, with white chalk and red paint, 
splotches on their cheeks, chins, and their eyes encircled with 
broad bantls of color, their bodies shinine with erease under 
the rays of the moon as the perspiration 
started from every pore ! 

riirnugh the Woman of Taveta's instru- 

mentalit}', I saw a funeral ceremony in 

which the stift corpse of a chikl was fixed 

in a sitting posture amidst blazing fagots, 

until all the flesh was burnt off from the 

bones. Meanwhile the men formed an 

inner circle arouml the funeral pyre, and 

p^ave vent in a lusjubrious voice to a mo- 

notonous chant, slowly moving in an unbroken 

img round and romiil, whilst the women, form- 

mg an outer circle, moved in a reverse direction, 

and as if in response to the threnody of the men, 

at stated intervals they would make a 

calf's stom.'^ch . , 1 1 -1 1 • 1 1 

sweepmo" salaam, and while; then- heads 


MENTED WITH READS wcre Still bowecl, utter a piercing wail. 

AND CHAINS. ,p, ,. , • n I 1 

1 he little ones tiesh was soon consumed; 
only the bones remained; the skull was taken and reposed 


in a rude pottery urn, then carried to some distance and 
lowered into a hollow tree containing the skulls of the de- 
ceased members of the family. The bones were gathered 
up by several men bedecked in flowing red and white cloths 
and interspersed through the forest, evidently in places which 
were already consecrated for the deposition of 
such revered remnants 
of the dead, amid the 
exposed tree-trunks. 

but not under the ground. 
The)' have a strange idea that the 
cadaver pollutes the soil, and de- 
ters the fertility of crops. This habit 
of disposing of the bones of those who have died normal 
deaths, and the arboreal vaults with their accumulation of 
bones, account for the suppositions that there have been 
massacres committed, or that disease has ravaged the land 
when found by caravans. There exists another burial custom 
much more obnoxious. In a selected cleared spot not very 
remote from their boiuas, well surrounded and hidden by 
thorn-bushes and trees with dense foliage, beyond the obser- 
vation of casual passers-by, if it were not for the foul, fetid 
stench, in rude pottery urns turned up sidewajs are deposited 
certain parts of the viscera, the heart and the head, and there 
allowed to fester and decay, until in time nothing is lett 
but the whitened skull. These burial places are not infre- 
quently met with in all the villages I \'isited ; they are entered 


by a very low squatty opening through the thorn-bushes, 
compelling those who seek to effect an entrance to get down 
and crawl through on their hands and knees. 

The idea prevails that by the preservation of the skull the spirit 
of the departed is saved, and that the congregation in one place 
of the skulls of a family or tribe guarantees a future reunion. 
Superstitions concerning death are decidedly obscure and 
extremely heterogeneous in East Africa, and yet there are 
little threads which have various origins, running through the 
tissue of what may be called their religion. 
They worship the moon and the sun, 
and revel in sonofs or chants addressed 
to the rain during planting seasons. 
The Wa-Duruma near the coast beat 
drums, but they are the only tribe in 
the part of East Africa I visited where 

A decided aversion among all tribes exists in respect to 
permitting an outsider to know of the death of one of their 
number ; if a familiar is missed, and an inquiry made concerning 
the absence of such a one, an answer promptly comes, "He 
has gone on a safari" — doubtless to the great hereafter. 

Among the Masai the corpses are often tossed into the 
open, where vultures or wild beasts soon devour them. 

The birth of a first child is quite an event, but not so 
subsequent births. Children are not numerous in any one 
family or sections of families. 


Elders, or the oldish men who formerly, before the 
occupancy of the English, exercised a dictatorship over 
their tribe, strut about in a majestic way, with as much 
sheeting as they can afford, ten, twelve, or fifteen yards of 
Americana or white or unbleached or clay-stained drill or 
cotton cloth, varied occasionally by Turkey red, or lasso 
bandana handkerchiefs, — which trail behind 
them, fastened over the shoulder, much like 
a Roman toga ; and they have infinite grace 
both in manner and speech, which seems 


to marry well with their surroundings. on safari. 

Many wear slung over their shoulders, attached to a 
leather strap or chain, a little three or four legged stool, 
which they carry, as they do their bows and arrows, wherever 
they go, and, when paying a call or chatting in the open 
with their comrades, they plant it on the ground to comfort- 
ably sit upon, and take out from the knotted corner of a 
bit of cloth their bead work, just as might a young white 
girl engage in fancy work; these effeminate 
warriors leave the toilsome avocations of 

tilling the ground, and caring for the cattle, 
COTTON CAP MADE and packing loads, and the duties of the 

ON SAFARI. 1-^1 1 

kitchen to the women. 

Almost every individual, man, woman, and child, in the 
Taveta community or tribe, carries a pombe cup, made from 
a gourd, to which is affixed a long handle, sometimes beaded 
or ornamented with metal rings ; the bowl of the cup usually 


bears numerous effective devices, which make an interesting 
study to trace their origin. Many ot the designs have been 
adapted with more or less variation, prompted by the taste 
of the copyist, from the scroll work on the little cotton caps 
which porters delight in making and wearing when on safari ; 
sometimes too they were of Turkish, again even Persian or 
Egyptian origin. I consider as a great acquisition the pos- 
session of a pombe cup which bears upon obverse and 
reverse sides the first attempt I found or heard of to repre- 
sent the human form divine ; and quaintly enough, the 

white man is distintjuishable bv his feet, 

> . . . 

^- which are indicated by awkward lines to 

ounterfeit shoes, and a school-child's 
slate and pencil angular lines to represent 
European clothing ; whereas, the native 
iNLAin WOODEN BOWL. Is reprcseutecl with bare feet, and ears 
stretched out of shape by heavy ear-rings. 

Strange as it niay seem, when shown photographs, natives 
have as a rule no real conception or appreciation of the 
photographic semblance of human beings or animals. Sul- 
tans Mireali, Mandara, and a few others are notable excep- 
tions to this obtuseness. Photography is regarded as a 
species of witchcraft or black magic. 

There are certain beans and some sweet grasses made 
into beads, and bits of horn, amber, iron, wood, animals' teeth 
and glass beads, musk and xanilla, which are universally worn 
as charms, alike to ward off evil as for dazva, or medicine, for 


2 2 7 

all maladies. Their possessors are very reluctant to part with 
these charms, or (^a7va. However, the)' will lend them one to 
another, when suffering, but always reclaim them when the 
recipient has been alleviated, or before if personally needed. 
With some difficulty I procured a string of these beads from 
a magic doctor who had lost caste, in consequence of his mis- 
fortune in permitting a man of importance to die during his 


ministrations, hence he desired to capitalize his stock of 
charms and bad dazoa, and make haste to the coast, knowing 
that his own life was in imminent jeopard)-. Peculiar black 
pine-like needles obtained from a huge forest tree, the name 
of which I could not ascertain, these are punctured, and when 
strung resemble the coarse teeth of a large rubber comb, 
and are much-prized dauia for enceinte women. 

Strange native medical practices were revealed to me 



through the auspices of the Woman of Taveta. The old 
women are all skilled midwives. Mothers suffer ver)' little 
during the period of gestation or in the throes ot childbirth. 
A girl reaches puberty at the infantile age of ten. Youths 
are circumicised by their own election when they no longer 
wish to be children, but aspire to the station of cl-moran, as 
early often as the age of twelve. The custom of circum- 
cision must have maintained for many decades, for nature 
frequently simulates it, and the parents boast of an offspring 




SO pre-eminendy destined to be a warrior, and the favored 
boy is pointed out as one elect. 

All the natives are most delicate about alluding to any 
complaints of \h<t\x titniba (abdomen). All seem to possess a 
minor yet practical knowledge of the use of herbs and 
roots, and of imported medicaments. Sulphur, cjuinine, blue- 
stone tlo they beseech the leaders of caravans for. They 
suffer from itch, ulcers, sore eyes, and fevers. The Woman of 
Taveta told me of bubbling hot-water ziwis (springs or pools) 
where those who were afflicted with various diseases, includ- 
ing smallpox and elephantiasis, made pilgrimages and were 



benefited, and of certain clays tliat the W'andorobo knew 
about and brought down country that possessed curative 
properties for coughs and stiff joints, a species of rheumatism, 
and sometimes progressive paralysis caused from excessive 
drinking and exposure to the ele- 
ments. This paralysis, with 
marked and retributive selec- 
tion, inflicts the sultans and 
important men of tribes, who 
are in position to command the 
largest harems, and indulge 
themselves like Sybarites. 

Personal decoration at- 
tains a very great height 


at Taveta, especially among the 
young men, who are much given 
to dressing their hair in a very 
quaint fashion, drawing it in 
braided clumps, hanging down 
sr over the face and divided 

^S^ in strands made over the 
back of the head, hanging 
over the shoulders, which they plaster with grease and red clay, 
to which they frequently add bead and metal pendants. These 
young fellows, who represent the Taveta snobs, smear their 



bodies with grease, and tint tlitniselves with red clay. They 
are very self-conscious and great posers, the very princes of 
dawdlers and slaves of fashion. They divide themselves up 
into little bevies, almost clubs, and they wear as an insignia 
or badge of fellowship or brotherhood little armlets made of a 
strip of cowhide, upon which are sewn beads in special 
devices and chosen colors, which seem to indicate their 
particular faction or club. They are great dancers and 
merrymakers. The young fellows gather in groups and 
dance as though in competition, one with the other; a dar- 
ing aspirant will dash out from the circle apart from his 
companions, rush into the middle of a circumscribed space, 
and scream out, "Wow! wow!" another follows him and 
screams in the same way; and a third, and so on. These 
men will dance with their knees almost rigid, jumping into 
the air faster and faster, until they bound with amazing 
velocity, and their excitement becomes proportionately 
greater, and their energy wa.xes more and more spasmodic, 
leaving the ground frequentl\- fully three feet as they spring 
into the air. At some of their festivals at which I was a 
spectator, this dancing was carried to such a pass that I have 
seen during a crisis a young fellow's muscles quiver from 
head to foot, and his jaws tremble until his teeth chattered 
like castanets in playing a tremolo, without any apparent ability 
on his part to control himself, until he foamed at the mouth, 
his eyes swimming about, his head wagging idiotically, from 
his drivelling lips issued moans and shudders, and as one 


drunk finally he fell in a paroxysm upon the ground, to be 
carried away to a ])lace of retirement by his companions 
until he resumed his calmness. 

This state of seeking artificial physical excitement bears 
a singular resemblance to the dances of other people out- 
side of Africa. I am not purposing to make deductions, but 
I think there is considerable opportunity to study compari- 
sons as to the motive which prompts various people to en- 
gage in this physical excitement. It would seem to emanate 
from an undefinable species of voluptuousness. 

The women also engaged in dances, ^t^-^y 
and especially as guests, during wedding '/' 

festivities, bedecked with all their fine ^i!;^,™... ,,_^ 

toggery, they separate themselves from '''••'■'iK^^^^.li'^^'' 

the men and follow in a procession, one ■« \>»~^ 

child's bead fringe 
after another, with their hands upon girdle. 

each other's shoulders or hips, beating their feet in time, and 
singing a strange, monotonous plaint, now and then inter- 
spersed with shouts of laughter when they resume their 
measured processional steps, jingling all the bells they have 
about them with a peculiar jerk and lling of their hips and 
shoulders as they go round and round, threading their way 
through the forest, back again to the />omc7 of the host of 
ceremony, drinking and carousing quite as much as the 
young fellows. A certain amount of dignity is put upon 
these gayeties by the presence of the elders; however, there 
seems no viciousness in any of their games and pleasures. 


They have a certain amount of animation and youthful ex- 
hilaration, which expresses and expends itself in an abandon 
to muscular exhibits and jocose explosiveness. 

They are very jealous of each other in their attentions to 
the uiziingu (white man), and seemed especially so respect- 
ing m)'self; one family would briny me milk and eggs, but 
seeing that somebod)- had superseded them, would im- 
mediately commence a tirade as to the bad quality ot the 
other's eifts, and recommend- j) ing their own with great 

vivacit)-. However, they were 
so pleased to have the "white 
queen" with them, there was 

\\ nothing among their posses- 
ja sions which I really craved in 
the end they did not give me. 
FINE CHAIN GIRDLE. Qf coursc, it is wcll uudet- 

stood that these gifts were alwajs reciprocated by me, it not 
in kind, certainly in excess of value, but that does not in 
an)' way detract from the fact that they were willing gifts, 
and i)resented with a free, open hand, without expectation 
of return, as a tribute to the " white queen." 

Poinding the children very merry, I endeavored to amuse 
them in every conceivable way. Soap bubbles were failures, 
tops successful, and huge colored balls great favorites. 
Masks of animals' heads and grotesque human faces simply 
threw children and adults into jjaroxysms ot glee, until the 
fun became rather too boisterous, and my porters overstepped 


the mark. As it was a gala day, and my four music 
boxes were playing, it occurred to me a fine opportunity to 
let fly some large Japanese paper kites, imitating birds 
and fish, iVom which floated long streamers of bright-colored 
taes. Takino- the end of the strings of several at once, the brisk 
breeze inflated and carried them on their aerial flight far and 
swiftlv into the air. True, the children were attracted, but 
lo I instead of inspiring the delight I had expected, quick as 
a flash the alert little chaps whipped 
their bows from ofi their shoulders, at 
the same time jerked their arrows from 
their quivers, and with deadly aim shot 
my poor kites, with imminent danger to 
me, as their arrows spattered about very 
freel}-. The voile)' was not discon- 
tinued until every winged bird and 

r 1 1 ,1 111 I!ONE .ARMLET. 

nsh was brought low, the breath 

knocked out of it, falling vanquished to the ground, a shabby, 
shapeless thing, for the youngsters were animated more by the 
inborn traits of hunter than juvenile play. 

Not so with the adults. The)- queried with deep concern 
what kept the aerials mid-air, and with much e.xcitement ex- 
claimed and pointed to them as they floated serenely sky- 
ward when 1 ran out in the open, free from trees, with my 
arms outstretched over my head, manoeuvring to keep the 
strings from becoming entangled. The vandal youngsters 
were summarily waved away irom my encampment by the 


elders, who evidently thought it the most natural thing- that 
I would eive vent to g^reat ancer at the wilful destruction 
of my air birds and fish. 

The children amuse themselves, as do other children, vying 
with each other shooting at a mark and at birds on wing with 
their bows and arrows, which they succeed in doing with great 
dexterity. They have some idea of forming companies and 
drilling, and accept a leader whom they are disposed to follow. 
Their education is a rudimentary one of imitation, and not of 
instruction. They are impressionable and observing. Their 
reasoning faculties naturally would be quickened and vivified by 
attrition and calling them into play, although at present they 
are, at times, somewhat slow to comprehend innovations to 
their old habits and customs. They are afraid of monkeys, and 
the lemur makes frequent nocturnal visitations to the settle- 
ments, to the distress of the people. 

There are, in parts of these woods, the most beautiful 
butterflies, and some bright-plumaged birds and marvellous 

Many of the men wear upon their arms jaw-shaped armlets, 
which are placed upon the arm in )outh before the muscles are 
developed, and become imbedded in the expanded flesh to such 
an extent that removal is almost like amputation, so painful and 
difficult is the operation. Upon the three arms from which I 
took the armlets I have in my possession, the scars were so 
pronounceil and disfiguring that the owners of the surrendered 
ornaments insisted that they should have a substitute of suffi- 


cient metal armlets to entirely cover the scars. There may be 
traced a great significance and analogy between these bracelets 
with the thyrsus of old. I was told by a very intelligent elder 
that the figures graven on the reverse side of these armlets rep- 
resented the male and female organs of generation, and the 
armlet itself was of moon origin; and this was all I could de- 
duce from them. But considering that the moon — Astaroth — ■ 
was the goddess of the Phcenicians, and many of the mercenary 
soldiers who served the Phcjenicians were reputed to be of East 
African origin, there seems some- 
thing at least to investigate, 
wherein a close student may 
possibly draw some conclusive 
analogy. Since ofl'ering this 
idea, I have received from an ^^'^'^ 

American traveller a silver ring, presented to him by the late 
King Ja-Ja, of Opobo, West Africa, representing, as he was told, 
a shark's jaw, which is identical in shape with the East African 
armlet, however, displaying no distinctive ornamentation device, 
apart from a little rosette or flower form on the articulation of 
the jaw, with no motive other than decoration; yet it is African. 

With other tribes, they also have a great horror of insects 
and all creeping things ; and there are constantly being met 
many small vipers, puff adders, and a few pythons. One of 
the porters of my own caravan was viciously bitten in the 
foot by a viper, while cutting grass on the plain. 

They detest rain falling upon their bodies, and use three or 



four broad banana leaves spread out over their heads as arca- 
dian umbrellas. 

I found they were very eager to possess needles and reels of 
bright-colored cotton thrcail, which I had liberall)- provided myself 
with. They had never seen a thimble, and when I showed them 
those I had brought with me, the)' exclaimed almost immediately, 
"Finger hives," quick to recognize an analogy between the 

thimble and their hives. 
Then upon discovering 
the little indentations, 
the)' tiu'ned and said, 
"They have had small- 
po.x." Scissors and ra- 
zors and claspd<;nives 
they were delighted to 
receive, and hand- mir- 
rors. In this there was 
quite a difference be- 
tween tribes, for I found 
some who considered 
the possession of a mir- 
ror as an ill omen, and 
woidd retuse to receive 
jnsKii:, ]]\K iNii.i;i>KF.TKR. them, or if in a moment 

of temptation they had accepted one, lost no time in returning 
it with some apt excuse. 

I was taken to their bonias in sickness and in their joy, and 



although I found it most difficult to breathe witliin these chim- 
neyless inclosures, with a fire always burning in the centre of 
the room and their cattle stalled in one part, yet I never refused 
to enter, in order to show them that I did not spurn becoming 
acquainted with their habits and customs, and was most inter- 
ested in everything they did. 





LINTS of the daily existence of the arcadian 
Wa-Taveta reveal many charming attri- 
butes of character, so untrammelled, so 
natural, that the town dwellers of other 
countries can but sigh over their own 
remo\al from a free pastoral life, 
^. apart from the perpetual worry and 
"u labor of money getting, or even bread 
nning. Although the Taveta dam- 
sels are very fine in figure, their faces are not so attractive 
as some of the highland tribes. I came very near being 
betrayed into supposing that certain scars upon their bodies 
were the result of tattooing, but after close inspection found 
that they resulted from cupping, which they resort to ior 
their headaches and stomach difficulties ; in fact, no matter 
what malad)- afflicts them, they are great blood letters, and 
the simple methods the)- employ I adopted with great ser- 
vice during my caravan clinic. After excoriating the surface 
with a little knife or a piece of Hint or a piece of wire, they 
place over it a gazelle horn, with the pointed end cut off, 




when they apply suction by holding the horn, first wet, firmly 
against the part to be cupped, and then drawing with their 
lips the blood; and if the malady is serious, they make 
several applications, on difterent places, drawing as much as 
an ounce and a half of blood from the sufferer. Some 
Taveta wives file their teeth ; however, this is not a tribal 
custom with the Wa-Taveta, but it indicates that the women 
who do so ha v e 
been married from 
other provinces, and 
the casual observer is often 


misled in supposing it to 

be such. They also often color their teeth, finger nails, 
and palms of their hands and occasionally their faces 
with a red stain procured from the dracaene or she- 
dragon shrub ; but as a rule the pure-blood Tavetas keep 
their teeth beautifully white and polished with tooth-sticks. 
These tooth-sticks are cuttings from small branches of a 
saponaceous shrub, and are universally used by Arabs 
and Swahali. 

Caravans bring up froni the coast nutmegs, which are 
disposed of to the natives by the porters as charms against 
disease, and taken internally to allay fever ; they form one of 
the important stock medicines every ncpara, or headman, 

Natives eat as a medicine, as a condiment, and as a 
stomachic great quantities of red peppers, which grow indi- 



genously and abundantly. They are fond of raw plum 
tomatoes, which I discovered to be delicious, and identical in 
flavor to the cultivated tomato, perhaps a trifle more tart. 
Ears of corn or maize are spiked about their fireplaces, 
which consist of three stones canted inward so as to touch 
at the top, or placed upright, under which the fire is built, 
where they roast, bake, or boil the maize, which is most lus- 
cious. They also eat maize raw, and so did we before too 
ripe, when it is palatable and nutritious, full of sweet milky 


juice which slakes the thirst. When they cannot obtain pure 
salt, which tliey always crave, and is an appreciated article 
of barter, they use chumvi-stone, which has a brackish, alka- 
line flavor, and answers ver\^ well as a substitute. Salt is 
found in great abundance in some of these highland districts, 
according to good authority. Butter they churn by rolling 
across their boma grounds or by shaking large calabashes, or 
oblong wooden dug-out cylinders, like their honey boxes, 
filled with milk. Rutter made of cow's milk is very white 



and waxy in appearance, strongly 
flavored with banana, for the, 
cattle are fed during the rainy 
season on banana leaves and the 
fruit that is unfit to keep or 
exceeds the native's wants. The taste 
for this butter I fancy must be acquired 
by a foreigner. They also make goat's 
butter, called gee, oily, strongly fla\'ored, 
erous as the goat itself. This product is 
in the cookery of native gormands, and 
caravans, but to my taste it was decidedly 
Mutton obtained from sheep of the fat- 
is very strong, as is also that of the 
beef is more or less tough. The chickens, 
enough called kii-kus, are very tiny and 
tives frequently sell a hen that is laying, 
viso that the eggs laid for four days, or 
arrangement, should be theirs. It is a 
custom to string these chickens upon the 
by the cook's mate, with pots and pans, 
pouch is kept fastened under the hen, so 
on the march, the egg is preserved; and 
make sure that the purchaser will not 
seller, the latter sends some boy of the 
the caravan three or four days, in order 
product on the spot. 


and odorif- 
used largely 
adopted b }' 
tailed species 
goats. The 
ij strangely 
sinew)'. Na- 
with the pro- 




ver)' quaint 
pole carried 
and a cloth 
that if she lays 
in order to 
defraud the 
li tribe to follow 
to take the 




Africans all have a particular taste and decided prefer- 
ence for rotten eggs. It has been often cited that as a 
reward for some act of l<indness on the part of white men to 
natives, that the women, under the guise of gratitude, have 
brouo;ht as thank-offerinos, e^ors — rotten eCTgrs ! Could thev 
do more ? Even then* gratitude has been impugned by 
almost every explorer and traveller, simply because the 

natives' expression of this senti- 
ment is at variance with 
the white man's concep- 
tion of what it 
should be. They 
gave what they 
valued most, yet this 
has been attributed 
to a mean trait of 
deception in their 
natures, which are 
judged so utterly de- 
void of gratitude. The 
civilized man is, after all, a 
thorough Procrustean, intol- 
erant ot the natural diversities of human nature, unjust and 
illiberal once he departs from the limitations of his own 
studied environments. He deliberately makes his reason 
impervious to new truths by a heterogeneous composite of 
principles and his own accepted theories. 




Domesticated and wild animals' hides they tan in a very 
admirable and sometimes unique manner. They put aloe 
juice upon the surface after having shaved off the hair, and 
the hides are hung up or spread out to dry in the sun, first 
carefully rasping from the inside all 
the fat and fibre. To obtain 
variety sometimes they cut or 
shave the skins, leaving 


lozenge-shaped squares ^,. ' 

as decoration, 

which are re- .yfeftvi '' 

lieved by the bare 

patches. This 
style is much affected by the " smart " cl-inoran. They also 
make a species of chamois leather from goatskins, which they 
soften by friction and working in a large amount of grease. 
Domestic and wild animals yield them a large quantity of fat, 
or as they call it iiiafiita, which is valued highly; and, with 
a little instruction, they could soon be taught to make soap, 
candles, and especially ointments, lor they much need medica- 
ment for ulcers and wounds. 

The cowhides and other hides are used for making loin- 
cloths, and togas for men and women, and shields and little 
three-cornered flaps which they sling across the dorsal part 
ot the back, with no apparent purpose if not to brighten 
and whet the edge of their knives upon, e.xcepting that of 
decoration ; although some writers assume they are to sit 


upon, — a thing impossible in tlie anatomical structure of those 
whom I saw wearing the article. These they embellish with 
little rows of delicate beads, and sometimes metal chains. 
The lads carry wooden spears, artistically modelled after, in 
fact a perfect counterfeit of, the fine IMasai metal weapons, 
and these youths are always posing as prospective warriors. 
They are e.xperts in the use of bows and arrows, shoot birds 
and fish and at a mark in games of competition. 

Men, women, and children are all equally good swimmers, 
but use very little water to keep their persons clean ; in 
truth, in some East African regions, they suppose the white 
man's ablutions are part of a religious preparation before 
prayer. They substitute, instead of water, grease, yet with all 
of its nutritive and cleansing properties, by the aggregation 
of the red clay they universally affect, the decomposition ot 
the oil, never prime even when fresh, renders them rather 
odorous, when stale it becomes foul and rancid. 

Women shave their heads like the men, with the e.xcep- 
tion that they often retain a small cushion or clump on the 
crown, from which they allow to grow one or two long strands, 
on which the)' string beads ; and even at times the)' strand in 
little pigtails the entire unshaven clump of wool with beads. 
The men frequently disport head-dresses made ot cows' or 
calves' stomachs, stretched into shape upon their heads whilst 
warm and pliant, soon after the animal has been slaughtered ; 
these hang down over their shoulders from their foreheads, 
completely covering their heads, and are variously garnished 



with beads and delicate metal fringes and dangling diamond- 
shaped or round glints of tin. The men are dandies of the 
most effeminate order. 

Most of the bead work is done by the men, and it is 
not a rare sight to see an cl-nwran moving about in his 
own or a friend's boma with a leather scabbard upon which 
he works a glass bead or 
namentation, or a wo 
man's loin-cloth, 
leather bracelet 
belt, armlets, 
anklets, for 
some one 
upon whom 
he may 
smiled, if 
not, in fact, 
for his lordship's 
self. The regula- 
tions ot conven- 
tionality in the dif- 
ferent regions seem to 
be so set that various a quiet siesta in my palanquin. 

shapes of beads lend a clannish caste to many ornaments and 
personality to the panic of each tribe. An expert looks at an 
approaching native, and at once he proclaims the newcomer 


to be either "Rombo"; "Taveta"; " Kikoro " ; "Kiboso"; 
"Masai"; or "Kimangelia: aye, aye!" He seldom fails in 
the speedy classification he denotes. 

Apropos to this, a camp story was current to the effect 
that Mandara, the Sultan ot Moschi, detected among his 
women some Kiboso beads, the country of his dire enemy, 
Sina, and forthwith accused them of infidelity, and of having 
leagued against him, betraying his future plan of action to 
his eneni)'. Forthwith he stripped them of their bawbles, 
ducked them in the stream, daubed their heads with cow's 
dung, and threw them as bait for prowling animals in the 
forest, proscribing succor to them on penalty of similar 
treatment to the violator of his command. 

Certainl)- the Wa-Taveta are most extravagant if not even 
luxurious in their love of decoration. Noticeably they, as 
most of tlie Chaga tribes do also, wear great heavy pewter 
armlets and leglets and necklaces, several at a time if they 
are fortunate possessors of a number. All the women wear 
a beaded belt of a set pattern, and those classed as the 
wealthy disport quantities of various colored beaded fringes 
as a cincture and fillets from which hang long strands of 
Chaga metal beads, or chains of copper, iron, and brass. 

Polygamy exists. It seems almost as a necessity more 
than licentiousness, considering the environments. A man 
accumulates more land or more cattle than his first wife 
can attend ; he purchases another wife, and so on. The wives 
are far from being jealous of each other ; in truth, are 



delighted to welcome a new wife, and make great prep- 
arations for her. Each wife has her own hut, if indeed 
not her own boma. She has control of her own plantations, 
and has the supreme right to her children. Her moral 
standard is exacth' the same as her husband's. A woman 
is only declassed when she holds liaisons with porters 
in a caravan or with the enemy of her husband. Marriage 
is b)' purchase ; the wile is bought 
from her parents b)' cows, land, 
spears, etc.; then the marriage cere- 
mony is consummated by capture. 
Her marital aspirant, with four or 
five ot his comrades, pursues her, and 
after capture she is secluded four or '^ 
five days ; meanwhile the husband's 
friends have been permitted certain 
privileges before the husband claims 
her. This is simply atrocious. The wedding feast is held 
with great pomp and ceremony to every one but the bride, 
who is secluded and presumably undergoing a preparatory 
schooling in the hands of her husband's mother. 

The established wives are full of merriment, and inter- 
change many pleasantries with their lord and master, feeling 
that their daily toil will be lightened. 

Frequently the Woman of Taveta would bring a man or 
woman to me and say, "This is my brother by m}' father, 
but not the same mother," and "This is my sister by the 




cl-moran my mother lived with before she married," or 
"This is my brother by the same father and the same 

A Wa-Taveta elder, or nizia, requested me to visit the 
infant of one of his new wives and take my dawa saudiiki 

(medicine box) with me. I went 
out the medicine, knowing that if 
worse, or perchance died, I 
be accused of black art, 
possibly arouse the 
retaliation which would 
barrassment. Within 
congregated other 
the sick child. 

with him with- 
the child grew 
naturally would 
tabooed, and 
natix'es to some 
e.\pose me at least to em- 
the arena of the boiua were 
of his wives than the mother of 
The infant was held in the 
arms of his maternal 
grandmother. A throng 
s.NUFF-Box. ^'*^^^ ^ °f intimates were sitting 

and standing about, who ^^^^ had flocked there as 
much to see Bebe Bwana, as out of sympathy for the dis- 
tressed parents, or to lend assistance. 

The little one was a victim to a malignant form of dys- 
entery, and I knew from the pallor of his visage that his 
doom was irrevocably sealed. Mercy would ha\e dictated 
that the sufferer should be comforted in every way, most 
certainly not violently forced to take nauseous nostrums. 
The parents were not of the same opinion, for they deter- 
mined without delay to administer another dose to the 



screaming, struggling cliild, who was on tlie verge of con- 
vulsions in his wild efforts to resist his tormentors. Tears 
suffused the mother's piteous eyes ; her stoicism evidently 
was waning. The brave warrior father, seeing her falter, 
came to the fore, addressed a few peremptory and not very 
refined words to the grandmother, turned to me and .said, 


" Bebe Bwana, this may make you sick ; it is not nice, but 
it must be done." 

Curiosity prompted me to protest that I did not object, 
for I was in a quandary to know what he proposed to do. 
The father took from his wife's hands a small gourd dish, 
stepped to the fire, filled his hands with the white ashes 
and mixed with a little water, thoroughly cleansed the 


vessel, then smeared honey on Its edge, before putting 
into it the medicinal decoction, wliich emitted very strong 
herbaceous fumes ; lie held this to the child's lips to no 
purpose ; despite the honey bait, the little one kicked and 
struggled. However, the relentless father concluded that 
the child must be overcome ; the time for coaxingf had 
passed. At a glance from him, the grandmother grappled 
the child and crushed him, plunging and yelling. Mat upon her 
lap; two of the lookers-on clutched the little martyr's feet 
and hands, and the grandmother pinched his nose between 
the thumb and forefinger. I confess experiencing alarm 
lest I should, by my presence, be aiding and abetting a 
murder. The dusky father held the gourd to the self- 
sacrificing grandmother's lips. She took, with real abnega- 
tion, a large mouthful; it bulged her cheeks out. Ha! there 
was to be some vicarious cure. No, no. The infant scion 
of this African house of distinction must take his own physic. 
Soon the grandmother, without relaxing her grip of the 
child's nose, in order to force open his mouth, bent over 
him, and after fixing her lips against his, as he gasped for 
breath, scjuirted into his mouth, out of her own, the noxious 

Of all medicinal processes, antl I have seen some strange 
ones, 1 never witnessed any to equal this in novelt\- and 
expedienc)', for the spluttering youngster had to swallow 
the dose or be suflbcated on the instant. 

The deed done, the panting child subsided; then fell 



into a sleep of happy unconsciousness. No one seemed 
touclied, even witli pity. One must naturally deduce that 
there is no puerile nonsense among African families of 
good standing. 

Possibly the sequel to this may be of interest. The 
child died. 

Childhood's limit is very brief with the African children ; 
in good truth, it seemed to me there were no real children 

1.1 I.^Al \t 


after six or eight years of age. That is, they engaged in the 
pursuits of, and mingled freely with, the adults, in so far as 
their physical strength and adolescence would admit. They 
seemed also to be perfectly acquainted with the existent rela- 
tionships held by their seniors, even to the extent of passing 



comments upon certain customs, and avowing their future 
intentions to follow or abandon a similar course when they 
should have become cl-moran (young man) or en-ditto (a 
marriageable young woman). This fact comes from the 
mediocre limitations of the native adult mind, hence the 
liiiJ":.'.-' children's accession to the same is compar- 
atively rapid, although I must disclaim 
that it evinces precocity. 

I heard a boy of about six 
say to a little girl no more than 
five years of age as he strode 
about, facing her, while he flour- 
ished his wooden spear, full of 
pride and impetuosity: "When 
1 shall be cl-inoran and thou 
cti-ditto, I shall win and wear the 
bearded collar, and thou wilt be my 
w ife, aye ! Thou shall have more 
BEARDED MASAI warrior's bcads than all of Endella's wives 


FOES HAVE BEEN KILLED. put together. I liavc spoken! Now 
walk with me and show to m)' fellows how a sultana 
should look." And the two midgets, with all the pom- 
posity imaginable, made a circle round about the young 
people gathered in the market place, to become the 
object of merriment and joke, but good-naturedly they 
gesticulated and returned the pleasantries of the different 
groups, and seemingly had their own little fun and glory 
by thus emphasizing their rosy prospects. 


This bearded collar is worn by the Masai warrior who 
has twelve times " plunged to the heart of twelve foes his 
spear." Hence the ambitious, bellicose youngster proffered 
to his young Dulcinea no mean outlook, if his boast met 
with realization. 

Throughout the section of East Africa I journeyed, I 
was in a constant state of wonderment over the happy, 
merry dispositions of the children, full of song and sport, 
like arboreal sprites. The region can well be called, as is 
Japan, the Paradise of Children. 
Archery clubs are formed among the 
youngsters and under the command of 
a leader, selected, or who asserts himself, 
because of his skill. They practise .shoot- '^laid g urd. 
ing at a mark, and vie with one another with a pardonable 
zest. They participate in games of running, become com- 
petitors in swimming, diving, and dancing. In imitation 
of adult blacksmiths, they make wooden spears, the precise 
counterfeits of the metal ones. They are venders of all 
sorts of produce at the markets, especially of chickens 
and eggs. 

Soon as they attain an age and have strength to en- 
dure journeys, they are sent as couriers, and, when expe- 
rienced, as guides. Their early exi.stence is spent in a per- 
petual sort of rudimentary kindergarten and their education 
is acquired by observation, imitation, and object lessons. 
Like all aborigines, and animals, left to their own re- 


sources, they are constantly on the alert, more or less 
wary, even to a degree of suspicion. In their primitive 
condition they affect the mannerisms, adopt the customs, 
and aspire to the estate ot their seniors, as have and 
do the children of all nations. 

The fact of the natives' simplicity, despite their detract- 
ors, fills me with an abiding hope that if at the outset these 
particular, amiable, and amenable tribes of East Africa have 
sagacious, peaceful, fair treatment, and their natures are en- 
^ larged and they are led at a gradual pace to accept the 
ways of civilization, there is much to hope for in their 
intellectual unfoldment. Every move, every gesture, every 
word, is scrutinized by these natives, and this habit of con- 
centration imparts a contemplative seriousness which char- 
acterizes the expression of their eyes. Strange, too, a 
traveller among them soon takes on the same e.xpression, 
in the endeavor to fully interpret the natives' eloquent 
sign language, with which they vivify and supplement 
their circumscribed vocal utterances. With a vocab- 
ulary of two hundretl and fifty Swahali words it has been 
affirmed that an observing person could travel, with a 
dialect interpreter, all over Africa. As Emerson has truly 
written : — 

"The eyes of men converse as much as their tongues, 
with the advantage that the ocular dialect needs no dic- 
ti<)nar\', but is understood all the world over." 


spiiAK. Several ostriches belonging to the officer of the English 







post flourished at Taveta, to the natives' great annoyance. 
Apparently the natives never became used to them, although 
they saw them dozens of times during the day, as they 
passed through the bonia bent on work 
or pleasure. If the gawky birds flapped 
their wings or made a rush, they would 
scatter, yelling, and striving to make a 
speedy exit, in clamorous terror. These 
birds with the iamous stomachs would 


swallow with impunity cartridges, old double trass ear-ring. 
shoes, and all sorts of rubbish tendered them. An ostrich 
breeding farm could be advantageously maintained there- 
abouts, and stocked from the wild birds that haunt the 
countr)' in great flocks. We encountered a number whilst 
on the march. 

They dry fish and jerk beef, which they cure by hanging 
in their huts, e.xposed freely to the smoke of their fires. 
Everything they possess, even their bodies and hair, smell 
strongly of smoke. 

An elder of imexcelled intelligence and standing among 
his tribe told me that the fires were never allowed to go out; 
that is, in the village ; a single family fire might become ex- 
tinct, but this could be resupplied or reignited by getting a 
blazing fagot from some friend's fire. But in the history of the 
tribe, as far as he knew, the)' had always vigilantly preserved 
the fire, as doubtless did their prehistoric ancestors. On a 
march or when hunting or visiting from tribe to tribe, they carry 



with them fire-sticks, which they deftly use by twirling rapidly 
in the hollow of a bit of hard wood in which is placed dried 
fibre until the friction. They also are acquainted with the 
use of flint, and by scraping the fibre from the viwliala or 
other fibrous trees they make a pulp which is quite as in- 
flammable as tow. 

^^ 1 




,, ,S. 




The children are very skillul in the use of bows and 
arrows, and when I presented them with fish-hooks and 
lines, to please me they would use them at the end of a 
reed pole ; but no sooner was m)- back turned than they 
would resume their old practice of obtaining fish by shoot- 
ing them with wooden arrows in the water, or by using 


Taveta's grand forest as well as its mountain, and its 
reatl)' access to the plain, or hara, give the Wa-Taveta ample 
security from invaders and scope for their plantations and 
orass land for fodder for their stall-fed cattle, making theirs 
almost an independent province ; and altliough it is said they 
are of Masai origin, they are so gentle, pastoral, and peace- 
loving I could but doubt the supposition, always going back 
to the fact that their environment showed a long line ot an- 
tecedents of like ilk. During the period of my sojourn in 
East Africa there was considerable friction between the young 
dandies, or cl-inoraii, and the elders, in Taveta, on the matter 
of lumgo, or tribute exacted trom caravans passing through 
their country. This has been abolished by the English gov- 
ernment throughout in their protectorate, also by the Germans 
in theirs, but it is evaded in an ingenious manner by the 
natives, -who impress the newcomer with the Idea that 
they will receive certain advantages and suret}' from moles- 
tations in giving them presents ; and in former days the 
elders received this toll, and made distribution as it suited 
them. Now the young men personall)' desire to receive 
this tribute, whenever they are able to e.xact it, and they are 
continually holding palavers between themselves to determine 
what effectual course to pursue. However, this exaction 
must be short-lived ; the government will doubtless succeed 
in totally abolishing it as an imposition and an indignity. 
However, I did not pay Iioiigo to any tribe during m)' 
safari. When approached respecting this, I said, " I am jour 

258 SUl.TAN TO SUl.TAN. 

guest ; I am as a white queen coming to you. Would you 
ask lioneo of the sultan of such and such a tribe should he 
visit you?" and it successfully relieved me from further parley 
or exaction. 

They are very tenacious as to the qLiality of the cloths 
the)- receive ; and although they are verj' much attracted by 
bright colors, you will see them take a piece ot cloth and 
hold it up to the light, to test its texture, and if it is too 
thin they do not want it ; and the old habit of forcing upon 
the native any trash as good enough for the negro, at least 
in East Africa, does not at present answer. 

They are kind to their children ; however, I found no 
children in act or intention in any tribe I \isited in East Africa, 
after the age of six ; they were little men and little women, 
who, of their own accord, daily trudged to the noonday market 
with a load upon their heads, happy and delighted to be in 
the swim with their parents ; and the only child I heard cry 
during my expedition, who was not an ill bab)', was a little 
one who was restrained from going to market, and he 
howled, and kicked, and yelled in such a fashion, alarmed, 1 
paused to inquire the cause of his uproarious distress. 

The utter freedom with which the men and women mix 
together, and the homely intercourse between parents and 
children, reveal a trait of their social life that is most eenial 
and certainly not looked for. Possibly this leads to a certain 
amount ot familiarit)' with matters and things in ci\'ilization 
removed from the knowledge of the youth and the maid; 



but then one must admit that natives are naturals, and that 
ignorance with them concerning natural things is as much of 
a crime as innocence is a virtue in civilization. Although 
they are not purists by any manner of means, let me sa)' I 
savi^ in Taveta no manifestation of licentiousness, excepting 
the matter of their dances. In talking with them as to the 
English occupancy in their country and the benefits to 
accrue therefrom, they would answer rather dubiously, " Aie, 
aie ; yoh, yoh," and I fain discovered a tinge of regret, and 
in their hearts I believe they would be content to go on in 
their happy, pastoral wa)', without bothering their brains 
about education, government, and all the confusing principles 
of civilization. They live to enjoy, and enjoy to live, and 
are as idyllic in their native waj-s as any people I ever 





^jpt. HILST thti majority of my 
JjvM- caravan were busy stringing 
barter beads for poslio at Ta- 
veta, I sought the opportunity 
ot starting" on a little tour. .Ac- 
companied by the resident Eng- 
ih officer, Mr. Anstruther, but at 
y own expense exclusively, with 
my own selected corps of fifty porters, 
solely as m\' own prixate expedition, 
the last ot .\pril, 1S91, I made my first visit to the crater 
Lake Chala, and descended to the water's edge. Under 
the .same circumstances, en route to Kimangelia, a fortnight 
later, with my entire caravan, we returned, and on May g, 
1891, circumna\igatcd this lake. Through the courtesy of 
the Germans, Mr. .\. was the lortimate possessor ot two 
sections of a copper pontoon, which were the original prop- 
erty ot Count Teleke, and abandoned by him as cumbersome 
iinpcclhiicnla. These were conveyed between ten and twelve 



miles on the shoulders of ni)- porters, the distance from 
Taveta to Lake Chala, in order to make the venture. 

I feel prompted to offer an explicit statement of certain 
facts, to exonerate Mr. Anstruther from criticism of having- in 



an)' way violated the covenants of his legal and moral f)bli- 
gations imder his iron-clad official commission with the Ibea 
Compan) . 

Finally, it will be well to state that absolutely in no in- 
stance was m\' rule and order of command relinquished to 


any temporary guest or friendly escort iluring m\' entire ex- 
pedition, nor in any way have I to acknowledge the success- 
ful carrying forward or completion of my expedition to the 
auspices or patronage of an\' European resident in East 
Africa, however grateful I may be for certain courtesies. At 
this period I owe to Dr. Baxter, formerly of Moschi, hearty 
thanks for surgical care given to my eye, and tor the medical 
supervision he bestowed upon the unfortunate fever-stricken 
invalid of the caravan. Every time a white man chanced to be 
with us, my porters were discontented and at times positively 
sullen ; they seemed somewhat apprehensive lest the white 
men might be installed in my place as leader. Like children 
they would tlock about me to express their delight over the 
departure of a guest. This spirit of displeasure was 
evinced by many natives, who seemed to have a latent sus- 
picion that the white man would make some demands upon 
them, or might be desirous of subjugating them, or fighting 
with them. .So it was proved disadvantageous for me to 
entertain or to be joined, when on the march, b;,' white men, 
no matter who they might be. 

Leaving Taveta during a great downpour about three r. m., 
the ten or twelve miles' march was a great hardship to all 
of the men, who were more or less demoralized and out of 
condition in consequence of the long encampment. Night 
overtook those who were in tlie rear, and after delays and 
tumbles into animal pits, tliose belated straggled in camp at 
all hours until after davlight. Wood for fuel was scarce, as 


there was nothing growing immediately about the ston)' place 
of our encampment, close beside the rim of the lake, but 
thorn-bushes, and the rain had soaked everything. It was a 
night of discomfort ami anxiety, for we were in the immediate 
haunts ot wild animals and the so-called fierce Rombos. 

The gradual ascent from Taveta to the rim of th(- crater 
lake on the western side is only a little above the level of 
the plain, and on the southwestern end there are abrupt 
peaks two himdred to four hundred feet high ; the level of 
the water, as shown by our aneroid, attained a level of one 
hundred and ninety-five feet below the encampment, and 
about tour hundred and forty-seven feet above Taveta. And 
the temperature of the water near the surface was only one 
and one half degrees lower than the atmosphere registration. 
The lake is near the western side of the stream Mfuro, or, 
in the Masai lano^uagfe, Naromosha, but accordin"' to some 
travellers misnamed the Lumi. We find Lake Chala north 
ol Taveta on the northeastern side oi Kilimanjaro, about 
3'-"' 22' south latitude, 37° 17' east longitude, over three 
thousand feet abo\-e the sea level. 

The crater's crest rises above the surface of the lake 
eight hundred feet at its highest point, and at its lowest two 
hundred and fifty feet. The lake, roughly estimated, is two 
and one half miles across at its widest point, and from si.x 
and a halt to eight miles in circumference. It is environed 
by massive blocks ot perpendicular rough rocks, which e.xtend 
like a subterranean wall far beneath the level of the water. 


Interminable vines and thickl\- gnnvn forest trees present a 
forbidding appearance on all sides. 

The late missionar\' New \vas the first white person to give 
an account of this lake and ot his difficult descent to the 
water's edge in 1S71. Ho\ve\'er, the explorer Thompson 
writes of this lake with reference to its inaccessibility: "1 
went all around it; and although I am not deficient in enter- 
prise or nerve, I saw no place that I dared descend, not even 
if I could ha\'e swung trom creeper to creeper like a monkey." 

.Standing on the crest of the rim of this crater, looking 
down upon tlie cr\stal water which was cupped therein, at 
first 1 \vas well impressed with the impossibility of descending 
to the water's edge, unless some means could be devised as 
a substitute for fl\ ing. Nevertheless, on the assurance of Mr. 
A. of Ta\'eta, who had some months pre\-iously descended to 
the lake edge, nothing tlaunted, 1 determined to make the 
venture. There was a Aveirtl attractiveness overhanging tliis 
place that overawetl even the natives. All accounts I could 
glean about it were so vague that I wanted to taste ot the 
forbitlden irult m\sell. With an ach'ance guard of onh" two 
men, alone, for Mr. A. remained at the top to direct the 
pontoon bearers, I fouml myself attempting to j)enetrate 
through a girdle of primexal forest trees, tossed, as it were, 
b\' some \-olcanic action against the rock base, and seemingly 
as impenetrable as any stockade. With bill-hooks and knixcs 
they cleared a slight opening through which I managed to 
squeeze, on emerging to fintl mjself standing on a bowlder, 



\vhicli was balancetl upon another bowlder, antl ever)' mo- 
ment's tarriance seemed U> imperil m\' ecjuilibrium ; antl as I 
dared to Aentiire on other uncertain surlaces which presented 
a footin;^-, it n'ljuired cat-like ag'ilit\" to crawl or slide down, 


sometimes landing' in a bed of lea\'es, which must have been 
the accumulations of centuries, and into which I lre(}uentl\' 
.sank up to m)- armpits, and had to be hauled out b\' niain 
force by m\' men; and then bv clinoim'' and clutching to the 
branches of overhanging trees, after great eftort and consid- 


erable peril, succeeded in laboriously attainintr some odier 
foothold, step by step advancing, again and again to be 
opposed by gigantic trunks of trees, which, lightning-smitten, 
had fallen as a barricade, or through some potent eruptive 
force had been uprooted and turned themselves top down in 
solemn humiliation. .Anon, a bowlder, loosened from its scant 
earth)- holdings, would come crashing matlly down from the 
top and shiver into fragments the white skeletons of these 
trees. The weirdness of the scene was intensified by the 
strange whirring of birds frightened unceremoniously from 
their hitherto undesecrated homes, and the whisking ot myr- 
iads of monkeys as the)' leaped from branch to branch with- 
out emitting a chatter in their fright. A whistling eagle beat 
the air with its wings directly over my head, scattering its 
feathers like storm-flawn flowers in its wild flight, and white- 
hooded owls peered out from sequestered nooks and twoo- 
hooed in solemn amazement. The e.vtreme sheerness of the 
rocks made the descent hazardous, tortuous, and very tedious. 
Constantly obliged to turn back on my path, searching and 
groping, creeping on my hands and knees through tangles ot 
interwoven tissues of rubber-vines, and so was compelled to 
cautiousl)- feel with m\- feet, and be content with the greatest 
slowness. The danger attending e\-er)- movement and the 
spectral weirdness of the place inspired me and even affected 
my men with awe. M)' advance guard woidtl sometimes 
whisper words of warning, afraid to utter a sound, and e.x- 
tended his hand (jr arm to prevent my plunging headlong to 


thi! bottom. All this filled me with an excitement and imparted 
fresh courage, anci re-enforced my determination to overcome 
the difficulties of the uncann\- spot, cost what it might, so 
long as 1 shoukl be able to climb, or crawl, or slide, or step, 
or simply let myself go with utter blindness, and risk the 
incumbent results; for the goal bewitched me in anticipation. 
Through gaps in the massed trees, through which 
the sun could scarcely filter, the arboreal darkness was 
pierced b}- a radiant gleam of light, and the flashing lake 
greeted my e.xpectant eyes. There arose a general shout 
from the men, "Chala!" " Chala ! " and behold! I found my- 
self rewarded by being upon a rugged, rough tangle of 
prostrate trees and wild tumble of white and gray rocks, 
whilst the limpid, restless waters were laughing and dashing 
themselves into a jubilant foam at my feet. The scene was 
one of which I became enamoured. It was truly overcast 
with a sublime sense of a holy sanctuary. Losing myself in 
the spectacle, I forgot that Mr. A. and porters, with the two 
sections of pontoons we had taken the precaution to bring, 
were waiting eagerly for me to give the signal agreed upon 
when once I should be safe at the bottom on the lake 
shore. After a moment's revery, recovering myself, I 
sounded the whistle. Then the deafening crash and )ell and 
rush commenced, as the porters struggled valorously with 
their precious burden down the narrow, serpentine, rugged 
figment of a path, which we in the van had essayed to 


The marvellous ingenuity whh which these porters manoeu- 
vred their metal loads, and the stoical way, when they would 
slip and their burden fall upon their shoulders, and cruelly 
dig out chunks of flesh, the blood trickling from their wounds, 
they would struggle to their feet and go on without com- 
plaint, called forth from their comrades screams of applause, 
whilst the leaders sung a wild, weird strain full of rhythm, just 
as we find men who are moving heavy loads always instinc- 
tively do in order to keep time with each other's movements. 

Finally the two copper sections of the pontoon were in 
the water. The)' were immediatel)' e.xamined to see if there 
had been any puncture made through the thin metal sides 
in their difficult transit. They were scarcely large enough, 
when lashed together and covered with a vizvhala door, 
which had been converted into a platform, to hold 
m\self and men, and presented to the onlooker a most un- 
safe maritime structure. The moment came to embark, and 
on demanding, "Where are the men who are to accompany 
us?" not one would respond ior the first excursion; subse- 
quently Joseie and a headman were perfectl)' willing if not eager 
to distinguish themselves by going. Pre.sently they murmured 
amonp- themselves, " No, no ; we will not eo on Devil's 
water. Just see the crocodiles, and hear the monkeys, and 
look at the breath of the devil. luslialla (God willing), we 
will remain with our feet under us on shore," as they 
pointeLl to the water which was in some considerable com- 
motion, revealing here and there its amphibious denizens. 


After going through tlie usual process ot calling them 
goats, and cowards, and jungle-men, m\' interpreter, [osele, 
who was somewhat of a darede\il, and ready for an adven- 
ture, stepped torwanl, saluted me, antl saitl (juite gallantly, 
" Bebe Bwana, at your service." So Mr. A., Josefe, and 
myself, with our giuis and photographic instruments, em- 
barked upon the bobbing pontoon with two long improviseil 
paddles. We pushed carefully out from the shore, amid the 
shouts ot the bewildered porters, who eagerly watched the 
performance, fully persuaded in their own minds that it must 
end disastrously, having taken the precaution to attach a 
haw.ser several hundred feet in length to the uncouth craft 
in case of accident. The crocodiles were very curious, not 
knowing w-hat to make o( the invasion of their haunt, and 
came in close proximity to our uderpinnings, as with one 
paddle I man(cuvreil to guide the craft and Josefe awkwardly 
propelled with the other, whilst my guest kept a sharp look- 
out for the obtrusive aquatic creatures. After moving the 
lencrth of the hawser, we found the craft was manageable, and 
cut loose, to the horror ol the men grouped on the rocks. 

At ever)- turn there arose from the midst of the crater 
forest great flocks of birds, which had all the appearance of 
being ducks, but which have since been named by the late 
Mr. Bates, Plialacrocorax Africauus and Phalacrocorax carho, 
a species of cormorant but edible. They cawed and screamed 
and whirred about, making a great commotion, and, u[)on our 
ajDproach, would dive into the water, when the crocodiles 


would immediately give them chase, which was obvious on 
account of the extreme limpidness of the lake. I was enabled 
to bring back several specimens, shot from my craft on the 
lake, as well as a specimen of monkey which has as yet not 
been named. 

Gazing up at the steep cliffs on all sides, the vines hang- 
ing In theatrical festoons, and the weird, weird beauty of the 

various foliaije contrasting- with 

the grand trunks of whited 

trees, the strange murmur 

of the waters, the remarkable out- 


AFRicANus. _»w»»*^ break of waves crested with foam, the 

small circle of sky as I looked up, and the mad tumble of 
rocks, all contributed to make it seem as though I was in 
some phantom land. 

Everything was most eldritch and immense. At the firing 
of a gun the reverberations came back like a thunder-clap — 
sharp, crashing. I should not have been surprised to have 
seen the whole lake covered with some imcanny creatures, or 
to have seen the apparition of some mammoth forest king 
issue forth and assert himself as monarch of all we surveyed, 
and crush us out of existence as invaders. The hours spent 
upon this lake at different times held me in a thraldom of 
wonder. There was little said, very much thought, and 
imagination thrilled my brain with the ineffable pleasure 
which 1 had craved and sought for years, of being the first to 
visit a place undefiled by the presence of man before. 



The thing which surprised me most was the fact that when 
I pkinged my paddle two or three feet imder the water at 
various points, the suction was so great it would be drawn 
away from me, and only with difficulty could I recover it and 
resume control ; and at other points it would be drawn beneath 
the float, and again I would have to tug lustily to pull it 
back. At the same time the entire lake was in agitation ; it 
was bubbling almost like a hot spring, and yet there was no 
rift in the rim of the crest through which currents of wind 
could sweep down and cause this commotion. 
After trying to make a sounding with a 
plummet and line ol two hundred and^^ 
fifty feet, without success, I determined that it 


was the reservoir for the meltings of the snow carbo. 

from Kilimanjaro, and that these under-currents and counter- 
currents were due to subterranean in-takes and outlets, and that 
this body of water fed the streams of the plains, and was a water- 
shed subsidiary to Kibo and Alawenzi. Another remarkable 
thing, although the dashing of the water at different times must 
have reached a greater height than its level when I was afloat 
thereon, as shown by the moisture upon the boundary rocks, they 
were unstained by decayed vegetation and uncolored by mineral 
deposit. It was perfectly clear and clean, as evidenced by 
the specimens of rock I took the pains to bring home for 
analysis. The water to the taste was not disagreeable, but 
was sott and sweet, a trifle warm, 72°, whereas the atmospheric 
mean temperature was 74°. As we cast about the margin of 



this lake, with its seductive little insects making unrevealed 
bays, until one was fairly upon the turn of the margin, it was so 
exquisite and beautiful ! and as far as the water scene and the 
surrounding forest of vegetation, I could scarcely believe it pos- 
sible such beauty could be encompassed within the precincts of 
the crater lake, nor have I ever heard or read of a parallel crater. 
Although this is doubtless one of the last evidences of a 
volcanic eruption in this region, it has survived the memory 
of the people. The fabulous tradition concerning it is that 


when the sun sank into the mouth of Mawenzi, the Masai 
village which was located upon the site of the lake when Chala 
was a mountain was tossed into the air, and crreat rush of 
water rose, filling up the .space and making the present lake, 
and hatl swallowetl the i)eop]e ; and that the strange murmur, 
which is almost unaccountable, is caused by the spirits of those 
unhappy wretches, and the soughing of the trees is the lowing 
of the cattle and bleating of the sheep, and the clapping of the 


reeds is the cackling of the fowl. Another version of this 
tradition is that the people of the Ma?ai village that was once 
located here had committed so many depredations against 
other tribes, became arrogant and ungrateful, and refused to 
pay tribute for years to Kibo and Mawenzi ; so the angry God 
of the Mountains inundated their village, and swept them far 
away out of existence. 

"What length of far-famed ages, billowed high 
\\'ith human agitation, roll along 
In unsubstantial images of air !" 

Capt. Sir John C. Willoughby says : " Making a slight 
detour, by climbing the lower slopes of Kilimanjaro, which 
enabled us to visit the curious Lake Cala [Chala], no 
sooner had we ascended the low hills encircling its eastern 
shore than we were rewarded b)- a glorious view. At least a 
thousand feet below us nestled the lovely lake, somewhat 
triangular in shape, and from one to two and a half miles in 
its widest diameter, completely embedded among hills and 
cliffs, — a basin in which the great Masai Mountain God could 
always wash his hands. From our position its shores appeared 
inaccessible, but the natives declared a descent was practi- 
cable." Notwithstanding this statement, I was not enabled to 
find that any of my porters had heard of any one descending 
to the surface of the lake, or to meet any native who had gone 
to the water's edee or who could be induced to descend " 
thereto ; and instead of being the subject of curiosity, which 
I had apprehended and was desirous to avoid, when the natives 


knew I intended to descend, and witnessed my preparations, 
they flew back, terror stricken, into their mountain villages, and 
not one intrusive eye would gaze upon the white woman on the 
Devil's water. 

Bewitched by Lake Chala, I made several descents at 
different times, and floated my little American flag from the 
pontoon craft during its circumnavigation. To facilitate matters 
at some future day, when I hoped to return, the historic little 
craft named for me was buried in a bed of leaves, and I re- 
tained a key describing its secret hiding-place. Several slabs 
loom up at various intersections of the lake margin, defiled by 
red paint, which emblazon my name and the date of this exploit. 

Having completed for the time being my explorations of 
Lake Chala, I turned my attention to the people who inhabit 
that section of Africa. 

My ears had been filled with warning as to the hostilities 
of the Rombos, consisting, in four or five provincial divisions, 
of a tribe known respectively under the names of Rombo, 
Rombo Chini, Rombo of the Bara, Rombo Colis, inhabiting 
the plain and hills between Lake Chala and Kilimanjaro ; so 
with justifiable precaution my men were well armed, albeit I 
was fully determined, unless the most desperate events should 
compel defence, under no pretext to use firearms, and had 
impressed this upon my porters before making the venture, 
giving strict orders to my headman to punish any porter 
severely who violated my command, and under no circumstances 
to fire at natives, or even the wild animals haunting this region,^ 


without word of command from either myself or himself. My 
first impression of the physical aspect of their domain environ- 
ing Lake Chala was most inauspicious, presenting great gloomy 
hill slopes, with basaltic formation and rotted lava stones inter- 
spersed with thorn-bushes, although overshadowed by the majes- 
tic twin peaks of Kilimanjaro, — snow-capped Kibo, crenelated 
Mawenzi, — which certainly lent a scenic splendor to the horizon. 
The plantations, which are unquestionably fertile, were so far re- 
moved from my line of march that they were scarcely discernible. 
A succession of animal pits ranged immediately below the 
point where we were to encamp, which were set by the Rombo 


people, who are trap hunters rather than hunters of chase. 
The curious construction of these animal pits is worthy a 
word. The Rombos and other native trap hunters dig a pit 
of about four feet wide, six to ten feet longf, si.\ to eigfht or 
ten feet deep. This is covered over with brush, and presents 
no appearance of a trap to the casual eye. They are spaced 
at the distance of say a foot between, ten or twelve in a row, 
so as to intersect a path to a water course or water pool. 
These traps are baited or not, and the Rombos beat the bush 
and jungle thereabouts, and drive the animals who are seeking 
water or prowling for food into them, and afterwards kill 
their prey with spears or arrows. However, they frequently 
leave the traps undisturbed, and withdraw to their hillside 


bomas, and await the chance of the animals straying unto- 
wardly into them. These are used for elephants, lions, and all 
other big game. Mischief not infrequently befalls an unwary 
traveller or a caravan passing through the country during the 
night, who may fall into these pits and become seriously 
injured; and there are credible accounts that men have tum- 
bled into the very jaws of lions which had already become 
victims. Another method ot making a trap, especially for 
elephants, is by excavating a large pit on the usual caravan 
route, covered with an ingenious intertwining of vines, upon 
the top of which is placed a covering of sod and sand, to all 
appearances no different from the rest of the path. These 
are excessively dangerous, because interspersed beneath the 
outer covering are sharp spikes, made of tusks or spear-heads, 
or even giant thorns, to step upon which is most injurious 
and painful. These are incidental disadvantages to pleasant 
promenades, and can be warded against b)' the judicious em- 
ployment of native guides, when one desires to jaass through 
regions known to be habited by natix'e hunters. 

To reiterate, the Rombos living in this region have ever 
been deemed a very ferocious people, tricky in their dealings 
with other natives, and the marauders of passing caravans. 
Some of their villages have been closed even against the 
Arabs, and they bring their products to barter down upon the 
hara, or plain, rather than admit strangers into their kraals. 
With the warnings which I had received, I felt imbued with 
a sense of precaution and unwillingness to enter their villages 



until I could decide from their manifest attitude 
likelihood of their looting my caravan 
and probably murdering me. He 
ever, after being beset with ear 
nestness by the prime minister ot 
one of the sultans, I concluded 
to go and see for myself; and 
at an hour when the men were 
all resting and I could safely 
leave the camp without obser- 
vation, I selected four of m\ 
most trusty headmen and an 
interpreter, and visited one of 
the Rombo villages, to find the 
delighted people most civil, and 
eager to do Bebe Bwana hom- 
age. They were neither un- 
couth nor unkind nor ungen- 
erous, and certainly far from 
being hostile. They loaded me 
with gifts of beautiful furs and 
such other of their worldly pos- 
sessions that I chanced to 
admire. Although, with few 
exceptions, men, women, and 
children were in an absolute, state 
of nudity, the men carr>-ing shields romb^ 

as to 




made of hippopotamus hide three feet long and a foot wide, 
bossed and with pressed designs, they brandished spears, the 
blade end not a foot loner and narrow, carried bows and arrows, 
their deportment was as manly as one would naturally expect 
from civilized people. When they were presented b}- me with 
cloth (and this I wish to explain fully, because I have been very 
much misquoted on the subject), they looked about and saw in 
what manner my porters were bedecked. However, instead of 
putting their cloth on from a sense of prudery or 
''^ shame, they were as likely to hang a piece of four 
or five yards trailing from their shoulder, or try 
to twist it about their heads as a turban, or 
tie it on to their arm or leg, as much so as 
they were disposed to use it as loin-cloths 
or surround their bodies. The idea which 
evidently prevailed with them, as in lact it 
I does the world over, was simply to follow 
i .1 fashion, and to imitate what they thought 
was fine in some one else. They have no 
consciousness of their nakedness. They 
bore themselves with so much dignity, and 
1 o-rew to regard their color as abundant 
ROMBo sHiKi.ii. INSIDE, clothing for them in their primitive simpli- 
city. Truly they were clothed with io^-a virilis, a robe 
of manhood unfashioned by any mode of civilization, but 

In passing, as an illustration of the effect of superstition 


upon these people, which reduces them to a timorous, suspi- 
cious state, the following may be interesting. 

By the suggestion of a man who had gone from coast to 
coast of Africa, subsequently spending a year in East Africa, 
holding a position which should have given hini full insight, 
one would suppose, into the habits and tastes of the natives, 
and who should have known what would have .^s? 
amused them, I took a dozen bright feather toy 
birds, which, by means of a rubber bulb and x^ t,.,. — -v- 
tube, are made to hop about with great anima- toy bird. 
tion. The dull day came when, quite at my wit's ends to amuse 
some visitors from one of the tribes of Rombo, suddenly I recol- 
lected the birds. The case containing them was opened, and 
with great flourish I wound up my music box and set the birds 
to gambol before the wide-open-eyed guests, as they squatted 
expectant on their heels around my tent. 

Presto ! in two seconds that robust vision of dusky war- 
riors, yelling at the top of their voices, presented nothing 
but heels. They ran like the rushing wind, terrified by the 
innocent toys, and as il pursued by his Satanic majesty. 

The next morning, through the prime minister of the 
tribe, they indignantly requested us to leave their sultanate. 
Unwittingl)' I had actually betrayed my entire caravan to 
imminent peril, as the performance was looked upon as 
black art. 

Nothing more of these natives was seen ; and after 
exhausting every resource in my efforts to induce them to 

2 8o 


return and accept of our amity, they persistently refused, and 
I was unable to procure food for my men. This threw us 
into a very sorry dilemma ; for we were quite depending 
upon reprovisioning the caravan at this village, for food was 
scarce and cattle d)ing off rapidly several marches beyond 
this point of our journc\-. 


Having to submit to the folly of my experiment, so inno- 
cently made, it opened up a new field of consideration as to 
a characteristic in their nature of which I had previously 
been entirely ignorant. 

This recalls another incident which shows the importance 
of striving to understand the peculiar characteristics of 
different tribes, in order to know what impression they are 
likely to receive when experimented upon. 





Observing a bevy of young warriors and girls hovering 
about one of my tents, I took a hand-mirror and through 
the ventilator of my personal tent, unseen by them, I caught 
the sun's rays and threw the reflection upon the group, 
never for a moment thinking of the cross-lacing in front ot 
the opening. This made the reflection fall in checkers or 
squares. An instant sufficed. They scrambled pellmell 
away, thinking it was a devil's tattoo that I was directing 
against them, to enslave or put them under a magic spell. 

In connection with this I must add, these little traits of 
character, based upon superstition, are like stepping-stones 
to the index of their character ; and one who is careless in 
the study of what may on the surface appear to be frivolous 
and unimportant, will miss the finest points in the individu- 
ality of any people. 

Whereas these natives, with the cited exception, treated 
me with so much courtesy and gentleness, I still recall the 
circumstance which has been blazoned throughout the world, 
that when six weeks after I had safely traversed that coun- 
try as a lone woman, the celebrated Dr. Carl Peters, in 
order to pass safely with himself and armed soldiers through 
this district, felt obliged to turn his guns on these Rombos, 
armed in their simple fashion, and kill a hundred and twenty 
before breakfast one morning. It makes one's blood boil 
with indignation ! This, then, is how Germany proposes to 
civilize and colonize Africa. 

I am constrained to say either there must have been some 


peculiar power vested in me of a quality almost superhuman 
to have enabled me to subdue these so-called hostile 
Rombos, or else Dr. Peters's methods are simply brutal, 
atrocious, and unnecessary. 

This distinguished man reveals his belief in despotic 
measures throughout Africa. The following citation from his 
" New Light on Dark Africa," respecting his manner of pro- 
ceeding in Uganda, is a satire on the title: "As I well knew 
that in case of possible Arab enterprise I should have to rely 
principally on moral impressions, I had taken care that our 
reputation should precede us, and had been careful, above all, 
to bring with me from Usoga a band of war drums, which should 
send the signal of war resounding before us over the far- 
spreading heights. Three drums tuned in fifths on which the 
roll was beaten, and the bigf drum coming in between, the 
whole produced a solemn and threatening effect." 

If an alien provokes by coercive measures the native in his 
own land and develops all of the worst propensities latent in his 
nature, it is not fair to lay the blame upon the poor untutored 
native and call him " savage." 





ULCANS, fiiiidis, or craftsmen in 
metal work, have attained a great 
degree of skill and perfection 
,. througliout Cha^a land. The re- 

\ i ( 1/ nowned blacksmiths all have been 
[i]"/ or are celebrated chiefs or sultans, 
whose deftness In the forging of 
spears, knives, pipes, agricultural imple- 
ments, tools, bells and most delicate little charms, necklaces, 
armlets and leglets, as well as various metal ornaments, has 
given them a distinctive prestige in other spheres of tribal 

Mireali of Marungu, and Mandara of MoschI, have held 
their own, generally speaking, with the belligerent Masai in 
consideration of the fact that, although great warriors, they 
are dependent upon the skill of these two sultans for their 

Mandara does not now personally forge any weapons, in 
consequence of his physical disablement ; those made in his 
sultanate, however, are practically his ware, and bear the stamp 



of his original skill, temper, and patterns. He has rendered 
the metal work ol Chaga land the envy of other districts, as 
well as the wonder of white men. 

The simplicity and poverty of the native tools make their 
skill all the more remarkable. One of their finest spears, 
with its blade three and a half feet long and four inches wide 
at the broadest point, and an inch-square 
metal pike about four feet long joined with a 
wooden rod from one to three feet long, 
requires forty rings of iron the thickness of 
telegraph wire. The texture of the metal 
becomes fine and durable as it is heated, 
in order to weld, in charcoal fires, and neces- 
sarily wrought very slowl)', hence it is the 
gradual process, coalescing the iron wire 
into a mass, and its carbonizing- makes the 
temper very fine, and converts the metal into ■ 
an admirable semblance of steel. In lieu of 
an anvil, the metal is forged upon a piece of 


close-gramed ironstone by a heavy stone or ear-rings. 

iron hammer. The hot iron is grasped and manipulated 
with a rude pair of long-handled pincers ; the fire is kept 
alive by a pair of native bellows alternately inflated with 
and expressing the air as operated by a man sitting between 
them on the ground opposite the fire. The nozzles of the bel- 
lows are made of pottery, and are plunged into a small clay 
oven ; the charcoal is doled out in small quantities, and treated 



sparingly as something- precious ; in lact, a long roll of grass, 
neatly disposed, contains the fuel, opened at one end, from 
which an attendant picks out with his hands, lump by lump, 
or in handfuls the black diamonds to revive the fire ; his 

miserly care impresses the onlooker 
with the idea that he is dealing with 
an article oi great price, as in fact it 
in consequence of the primitive man- 
ner it is charred on the mountain. A 
tree is fired about si.\ feet from the 
ground, and wet grass plastered in a 
hummock over the l)urning portion to 
smother the flames. When the smoul- 
dering trunk is charred, the tree topples 
over, and when a fresh supply of charcoal 
was required, the body and branches were 
treated in the same method. 

A ptndi is an autocrat, accounted and 
recognized to be a great man ; he bears an 
imperious mien, and is always attended b}' a 
coterie of followers and henchmen who do his 
slightest biddine, as he bends over his work 
and fashions the articles of his craft ; thirsty, 
some one gives him a drink oi pombc ; tired 
or hungry, he pauses, even betakes himself away for refresh- 
ment. No one presumes to suggest aught to him ; no one 
dares to gainsay him. He is master of his craft ; he realizes 




his own power ; he exercises his prerogative of superiority 
upon every trivial occasion. Tlien, too, he has certain privi- 
leges and perquisites not accorded even to the chiefs who 
are not also fiutdis. 

During an evening's chat a fundi said to one of my 
interpreters, " Come now, good man, where would the war- 
riors be, if it 
were not for / 

the spears and 
knives that 
\\\Q. fundi make ? ' 

The interpre- 
ter queried, " Do 
you fight?" 

" Fight, boy? 
Me fight? No, I make spears, 
so that cl-viorau (warriors) native calfskin bellows. 

fight in the right waj- ; fight to kill." 

At this he seized by the middle the wooden part of a 
spear which he had stuck in the ground erect in front of 
himself when he had squatted down before the crackling 
camp-fire to chat. 

" See ! see, boy ! " He cleverly balanced the double 
weapon, spear-head one end, pike the other, plunging for- 
ward with an upward sweep the fire-flashed metal, describing 
a broad arc, yet he did not let go of the wooden centre, 
but rushed ahead until it had reached its limit, then whirled 



the weapon out, and vaulting backward forcibly drove the 

pike into the ground behind him, when, with a glow of 
satisfaction over his own prank, he exclaimed, " See, boy ! 
see ! " quickly uprooting the quivering weapon, again vio- 
lently swirling it from right to left in the same wild manner, 
leaping sideways with agility as if parrying a blow; "this, 
boy, this is the way I, the great fundi ot Fimbosa, teach 
the warriors ; they may kill a foe in an eye-look with my 
beautiful spears." Poising the heavy weapon on the fore- 
finger of his right hand until it gently swung like a pendu- 
lum, he sauntered away, evidently loath to remain in the 
presence of Zanzibari who was ignorant of his noble calling 
and of the brave fabrications thereof. 

In good truth, to be a spear or sword fujidi requires 
admirable skill and practice alike of eye and hand, in order 
to shape, balance, set, edge, and polish the blades, much 
more so certainly than is required to make their agricultural 
implements and small knives, although they are more or 
less all made according to tribal conventional shapes, gauged 
by the recjuirements ot utilit)'. 

Still more delicate and nimble, but not so masterful, 
must be the fingers of those who are the jewellers 
the fundi s, for the fine wire the)- make by repeatedly and 
laboriously drawing when heated with long, slender pincers 
through the cJiambiwo or perforated metal or stone screens of 
various sizes in order to reduce to a delicate size to make 


SPEAK, the slender link chains which are so pliant and marvellously 

3.- ' 







dainty, and the many sizes of metal beads they manufacture 
by cutting from a wire cubes of certain length, then, by beating 
them thin and flat, turn them into little cylinders, pressing 
the edges so close 
the union is 
scarcely noticea- 
ble, at the same 
time keeping them 
round. Some 
square dice- 
shaped metal 
beads are also 
made by them. 

It occurs to 
me that if cara- 
vans would carr)- 
for barter suitable 
tubings of differ- 
ent metal and 
different sizes, it 
would vastly re- 
duce the labor of 
the native metal 
workers; although 
it is questionable 
if more accurate and symmetrical forms of machine-made tubing 
would lend beauty to their present fabrications. They have 




an odd habit of placing around a staff rings of iron wire, and 
stringing together links of chains to be used when required. 
The only crucibles I could discover in the 
regions I visited were stones hollowed out and 
a fire built all around them, inside and out, 
until they became white hot, when the inside 
was brushed out and iron, brass, copper, and 
solder put in, then kept hot by the surrounding 
fire until it melted, when they would pour 
the liquefied metal into a wooden mould 
the shape of the bracelet or necklet required, 
which they had previously soaked until 
thoroughly saturated, first in grease, then 
in water ; but this method is not held desira- 
ble. The native connoisseurs prefer the 
hand-forged articles of jewelry, in the same 
manner as do civilized folk prefer anything 
hand wrought to that which is cast or 
machine made. I am not speaking of the 
people far up on the mountain, who use 
great furnaces and smelt native iron, but 
of the people of Chaga land, whom I was 
privileged to see at work. Hence I hope 
I will not be understood as assuming there 
are no furnaces in East .Africa. 

Their graving tools are very primitive, 


BRASS BEADS. generally consisting of a piece of iron they 



have welded, having a narrow chisel edge with which they cut 
into the articles, much as do the artisans in civilized countries, 
by tapping the instrument with a metal or stone hammer when 
held on the article to be embellished, and follow the pattern, 
thus graving out the design intended. All of their processes 
are slow, requiring great patience, — a quality patent to native 
peoples the world over. They insert or incn 
bits of silver, gold, and other metals, bits of 
ivory, bone, beads, into wooden vessels and 
gourds most cleverly. This is done in a style 
durable, finished, and artistic, far from being 
trumpery, and certainly not slipshod. They 
finish off with spiral rings of fine copper or 
brass wire or dainty rows of beads the ends 
of all objects, or where there are two parts 
joined, or one material used for embellish- 
ment or it merges into another for lack of 
quantity, or prompted by the selection of 
taste, displays the trait of perfection which 
is the acme of all crafts. Ear-rings five 
inches in diameter, of double circles of 
brass wire, like Catharine rings, are most perfectly shaped 
and highly polished ; and this without any tools except pincers 
or hammers, pieces of flint and pumice stone, and perchance 
when they are fortunate enough to possess a file procured 
trom some Arab caravan. The art of buffing or polishing, 
smoothing oft and brightening, is effectually done in the 




first place with pumice stone, in which this volcanic region 
abounds, wood ashes, using as buffers goat, sheep, and cow 
skins, as well as the palms of the hands well moistened. 
If you will take the trouble to watch a group of this 
dusky people before a fire which has burned long and 
the ashes accumulated, you may .see some of their number 
spitting into the palms of their hands, which they dip into 
the ashes and afterwards vigorously rub their bracelets or 
anklets, and the brightness and glitter which their orna- 
ments preserve, although coated with grease and clay, I 

have never been able to procure with- 
out using burnishing irons and pumice 
powder mi.xed with kerosene or lye. 
Ornamentation appears as a species 
of religion with them, and they never 
seem to be content with their possessions to 
the point that they cease to strive to accumu- 
late more. 

Vanity and love of finery, in Africa at least, are free from 
being exclusively feminine, for the men are quite as prone 
to indulge in personal bedeckment as the women, if not more 
so, and amongst some tribes the warriors and patcrfamtlias 
do all the strutting about and fancy work, whilst the women 
toil, till the plantations, carry wood, carry the fodder for the 
cattle, care for the stall-fed creatures. They stick with marked 
tenacity to a mode in decorations, and seemingly avoid exer- 
cising originality in design, in order to follow a fashion. Very 




true, this fashion may change or become diversified when the 
people of various tribes mingle in friendly association, and 
possibly exchange, present, or barter their trinkets to some 
•enterprising youth or girl. Anon, frequently when they can- 
not get what they crave in gewgaws, they will not refuse 
what is proffered, unless it is in lieu of a purchase; 
then they will not as a rule be swayed, save by 
their own will. To their native metal work they 
frequently subjoin charms, c/awa, or medicine beads, 
animals' teeth, which are worn for various complaints, 
and frequently loaned by members of a family one 
to the other. Their bells have various uses and 
various significance, beside that of ornamenta- 
tion. A warrior's bell, six inches long, turned 
over in shape, with a metal bullet or metal 
piece within, is attached to a leather beaded 
band, which is worn below the knee by the 
Masai during times of war. A little iron bell, 


three inches long and two in diameter, with by a woman. 
a long bar-shaped tongue, constructed somewhat after the 
pattern of a lily, is worn by a woman during her first preg- 
nancy. It serves as a warning to those who approach her : 
the herders driving home the cattle, and youths dancing, and 
all those who might suddenly frighten her, take heed of the 
warning tinkle, are silenced, and let her pass unmolested. 
Then the majority if not all of the people in most of the tribes 
wear little jingling bells, affixed to thongs strapped around 



their ankles or arms ; and in the tribes on the mountain, if a 
woman or man is found at night outside the boiiia without 
these bells, they are supposed to be on some evil errand, and 
must suffer accordingly. Then they wear little bells, like 
turnover pies, in their ears, around their arms, around their 
dancing wands. They put bells around the necks of one or 
two of their cattle in a herd, when they are grazing in the 
open, and hang them about the fringes of their bead orna- 
ments ; and they all have a peculiar sound of their own. 
They use a circlet of bells to teach the children 
how to walk. 

Catching sight of and hearing the 
%/ jingle of a string of cowrie-shaped small 
-*\ iron bells attached to a leather strap around 
the ankles of a mere toddler, and observing 
the little one constantly looking down to her 
feet striving to see them, apparently to the 
great danger of her equilibrium every time 
they tinkled, I asked her mother why she allowed the child 
to wear them, at the risk of having her fall. 
"To make her walk," was her prompt reply. 
Then she pointed to the little feet, and 1 watched the 
child's performance only a minute to be convinced of the 
cleverness of the maternal trick. The little one would move 
a foot In an undecided, unsteady way to put It to the 
ground, when the bells would tinkle, and with frantic efforts 
she would wriggle her body in every direction to see where 



the noise came from, and half losing her equipoise, up 
would fly the other foot, then she would hear another sound 
of bells ; and so on indefinitely going through with the same 
performance, one foot and the other alternately, until she 
had crossed the broad ground of the boma. 

By a happy chance I had a large supply of table and 
call bells and small sleigh bells, which were received 
with delicjht as shifts, and the natives were even 

o o 

anxious to barter for. 

Their knives are sometimes oddly shaped, some- 
times rude enough, again works of artistic cutlery. / / /\ 
Frequently they wear them on their arms in /^4^ 
a leather band, with little tubes of arrow / 
poison strung on to them by delicate metal 
chains or strips of leather ; they also thrust 
them into their belts for convenience in 


case of defence, as well as to be able on and poison tubes. 
the instant to cut the thorns, bananas, corn, grass, and to 
dig out their wooden utensils. 

Banana knives are rough, heavy blades, set in short, 
straight wooden handles, sharpened on the inner groove, so 
that they hook them around the stalk of a bunch of bananas 
and deftly with one sweep detach it from the main branch. 

Rings and bracelets, leglets and neck ornaments, in the 
case of the Masai women, consist of great coils like ex- 
aggerated multifold continuous bangles or car springs, finished 
off with other metals; the body of the ornament, which is 



usually iron, garnished with copper and brass by way of con- 
trast, always with the idea of accentuating display. Almost 
every man understands in an amateurish way something of 
metal work. He makes for himself, his sweetheart, or wives 
rings and bracelets and anklets, but he is not a master, not 
a fundi. 

They showed me the source from which they pattern the 
splendid Masai spears, and I was delighted to find it was the 


leaf of the same species of cactus as the Spanish sword bayonet, 
indigenous to various tropical regions, and when a leaf of this 
cactus was held beside their implement, the accuracy of their 
eyes and gift of reproduction were evidenced, for the shape 
was a complete copy, even as to the little peculiar roundness 
of the point, and the ridge running through the centre of 
the spear, which puts the stamp of grace upon a master- 
piece ; and their smaller spears, that are used by the Rombo 


and other tribes, are imitations of rubber and magnolia 

They make crude bullets and spoons, arrowheads, rude 
razors. This latter is not to be wondered at, as it seems to 
be one of the traditional coat-of-arms of all negroes. How- 
ever, their razors have no wings; they do notj 
fly, as in America. 

The way in which they turn 
to account every bit of 
shining metal is some- 
times amusing. Ever) 
tin can, when emptied, is 
carefully pre- 
served to pre- 
sent to them by 
the porters, who make 
efforts to win a smile, obtain a favor, or procure a tidbit for 
their pot they could not otherwise afford. One day after dis- 
carding the metal tube upon which had been rolled surgical 
plaster, spindle shaped, with circular ends colored bright red, 
I was pleased to see a pretentious young warrior sally about 
the camp with the article thrust into his ears. The tops of 
the cans they would convert into dangling dice, scalloped, 
diamond shaped, round, square, to add a lustre to their own 
finery. Watch and clock wheels are likewise e.xtracted from 
timekeepers to mark the rapid pace of fashion in ornamen- 

warrior's bell. 



Soda-water bottles were pounced on with avidity, and the 
men would squabble until blows ensued for their possession. 
They liked to have the bottles to carry water or milk for 
their own use, as well as to barter with the natives. In 
sauntered on a village palaver ground a native, in truth a so- 
called crown prince, with twelve soda-water bottles attached 
to a leather girdle ; the dozen represented his accumulation 
of possibly years, but this moment in my presence he 

thought the proper occa- 
L sion to disport his soi- 
1 i^isan/ treasure. For 
this delicate tribute I 
held a full-dress reception, 
attired in my court gown and 
all the splendors of my jewel 
box and portable wardrobe. As 
usual, the function was a very dis- 
tinguished social success, and exalted 
me far above mortals of common clay 
in the estimation of sultan, crown prince, courtiers, and ple- 
beians. All the world over tailors and dressmakers hold a 
rule and reign wherever civilization dares stride. Decency 
and style with the enlightened, the spirit of monkey-like 
imitation with the untutored primitives, make votaries to the 
tyrant Fashion. 

Soon after a splendid Masai spear had been received by 
me, the chief of camp story-telling made it the occasion to 




flourish before his comrades, after scornfully listening to a 
green porter's yarn about some cruelty practised by the Somali, 
burst out vehemently : — 

"What! you call that worth the telling, man? Come now, 
listen to a true story. It will put warmth into your blood, 
and make you sleep with your e\'es open. When I first 


came to Masai country, aye, before you had stopped tugging 
at your mother's breasts, coming from the winter's sun-bed, 
we saw two men carrying — " 

He turned and darted a fierce glance of defiance on the 
group of porters certainly uncalled for, as they sat mutely 
engrossed in the progress of his story, never vouchsafing to 
lisp one word. "Do you know what?" he said to one; 



"or you? or you? or you?" and he pointed with his knob 
Kerry stick rapidly from one of his followers to another, 
never expecting an answer. "Ha! ha! I might have known 
you couldn't guess. Well, mark you! keep your ears open 
as the day. Upon a spear — a spear like this!" — and he took 
up a large Masai spear — "two Masai carried between them, 
upon which swung the bodies of three Rombos, spitted like 
fish to bake ! rigfht throuoh the middle, on the same haft ! 
Hey ! who dares gainsay that ? Vou see, lads, I have travelled. 
A man must travel to see and to tell." 

And he swaggered on down through the camp, quite 
satisfied with the horror he had inspired ; and it occurred to 
me that a white woman must travel at the head of a caravan 
to hear such yarns. 



<.\>; \ 



IMANGELIA, at the height of four thou- 
sand seven hundred feet above the sea 
level, in the mountain forests on the 
ortheastern slope of Kilimanjaro, be- 
tween the second and third decree 
south of the equator, forms the 
frontier of Masai land, was the objec- 
tive point of a two or more days' 
■■■*-' march. It became necessary to re- 

pose considerable confidence in a native guide bearing the 
geographical appellation of Mombasa of Taveta, — a perfect 
dandy in his make up, handsome and self-conscious, faithful 
and inoffensive. He had been born at Useri, but lived at 
Taveta. The hue of his complexion betokened the inter- 
mingling of w'hite blood in his veins. Mombasa of Taveta 
insisted, and was riofht, too, that the forest village was above 
Useri on the mountain, whereas an English official, desirous 
of floating the English flag and enter a first claim in behalf 
of the English, recognizing the established fact that all terri- 
tory above the plains must be German, and having sited in 


the distance from Lake Chala the jjlantations of Kimangelia, 
had concluded that it must be below the lake region, uhich 
was a theme of dispute then, but since has been admitted to 
be German. He had laid out another route, by following 
which, in spite of Mombasa's protests, the caravan was com- 
pelled to make a long tedious detour. 

Lake Chala was then debatable grounds in consequence of 
the gradual slope of the plain from Taveta to the lake 
^ which is so gentle that the rim of the crater ap- 
proached from Taveta seems almost on a level with 
the plain. Dr. Myer has expressed an opinion that 
even Taveta should legitimately belong to the Germans. 
There is much striving to encroach on all sides in the 
establishment of territorial lines throughout Africa, 
which demonstrates the importance attached to Afri- 
can possessions, especially in this particular section 
Y of East Africa. The Chaga language is almost uni- 
versally spoken after leaving Taveta on the slopes of 
LEGLET. Kilimanjaro, and I was informed throughout Masai 
country. The agreed governmental plan of allotting the 
highlands and mountain of Kilimanjaro to the Germans, 
and the plains and all territory to the east to the English, it 
would seem cannot be consistently adhered to, for the reasons 
that the highland habitants must have access to the grassy 
plains for fodder and to hunt, whereas the habitants of the 
plains should have recourse to the highlands for their planta- 
tions, hence with strictly maintained dividing lines there must 



constantly arise friction and worse ; for it can hardly be ex- 
pected that either the English or the Germans will complacently 
submit to the rigid enforcement of territorial lines, or the 
collection of imposts in these primitne re ■^jsj^, 
gions, with mainly a native constitu- .^ ,\ .^mtmwi^^^r 

ency to levy upon. ^.^H' * W^^'',- 

^« 1' rrni ftj. . --Si 
From this point I took guides from 

the tribes, with the idea that I would 

hold these ouides, in case of attack -> V^% ^ 

or hostility, as hostages, and the 

instant the first tribe made an 

assault on me or my caravan, I i//-*^^ 

would punish these guides in ,.-'-'-y ■. 

some unmistakable manner that 

would stand as a warning to all 

further aggressors. They were 

also useful to point out difficulties, #/■, '■• 

avoid traps, and show the most acces- ^i'''-^ 

sible paths. Before I got through with 


m)- journe\-, I had attached to ni)' little masai mask. 
army forty of these half-prisoner guides, who were perfectly 
happy, in their unconsciousness of the motive which actuated 
me, to jog along day after day enjoying the fellowship of 
the porters. 

The people of Useri were somewhat disturbed in their 
minds upon the appearance of the white woman's caravan. 
They were under German protection, flying the German flag, 


and hesitated in giving to me the welcome othet" tribes had 
extended. I sent two messengers to the Sultan Malimia's 
boma, saying we would await him half an hour, or, as they 
quaintly say, " until the sun is there," pointing to a special 
place in the heavens; and while I was waiting it gave me a 
little opportunity to study the people. 

The women were decorated very much after the fashion of 
the Wa-Taveta, with the exception that they wore from a 
clumped piece of hair on the centre of their forehead little 
circular bone ornaments, terminating in metal fringes, which 
hung down over the nose; and some of them wore metal 
chains around their heads, which hung lil<e fringed veils to 
their eyebrows ; and their ears were pierced at every point 
possible, into which were thrust beads and pods, and long 
ivory or bone pendent rings. The men were shy and had a 
hang-dog look about their faces, which might have arisen 
from their recent subjugation by treaty of the Germans, and 
the presence of German soldiers in their midst; they seemed 
uneasy and on the lookout for a surprise. 

Sultan Malimia did not make his appearance at the stated 
time, so we proceeded on our journey to be overtaken, when 
five minutes beyond the confines of his province, by a message 
through his prime minister to say that if Bebe Bwana would 
only return he would receive her, and he had some fine 
presents. I promptly said, " Bebe Bwana never returns. If 
the Sultan of Useri wishes to see her, let him follow her to 
the next encampment." This resulted in his sending after me 



a meagre quantity of presents, -which I did not accept. In any 
country but Africa this would assume the appearance of surli- 
ness or contempt on a traveller's part, but in Africa the prestige 
of the white man or woman must be maintained through certain 
current conventions, which are well known with all the natives. 

We passed the fountains of Useri, which are more in the 
name than in fact, and more like pools than fountains. 

From this point, passing through many villages and 
small tribes, we directed our course to Kimangelia 

Wart hogs and other rather wild beasts 
abounded, and the fresh spoor of rhinoceros, the 
occasional bellow of buffalo, and the crushed grass 
showing evidences of beds just forsaken by recent 
denizens, made our march somewhat anxious. 
Every one was on the alert, and not one dare 
say he could complacently encounter a buffalo 
My personal mishaps became stupidly frequent, 
succession I tumbled into three deep holes, newly excavated 
by the wart hogs, never profiting by a first tumble on 
account of the tanofle of grrass that covered them. 

Then the caravan parted, and it was a long time before 
the stragglers were reunited, one of the porters broke his 
shin bone, another had a chunk of flesh gouged out of his 
shoulder through a tin box slipping off from his head and 
cruelly striking him in its tumble ; fever prevailed, and for 
some time all sorts of trying incidents flocked unceasingly 
like birds of ill omen. 


In quick 



A Masai woman's corpse was nosed out in tlie bush, 

with all her armor of iron wire leglets and armlets upon her 

stark stiff body untouched, however much coveted, through 

superstition. Personally I nerved myself to the removal of 

^,-.\\ her leglets, which had become so imbedded into 

{iafc->- > ■ the flesh and muscles ot her legs, amputation 

was necessary. Josefe only was ready 
,,' to assist me to perform the un- 
pleasant business. Certainly I 
could have commanded any of 
■^^: my porters to attend to this 
matter, but they were possessed 
by nameless superstitions; and 
such an exaction on my part 
would ha\e put a damper on 
their exalted estimation of me 
,' for so outraging their senti- 
ments. I endeavored to main- 
tain a policy of harmony when 

M\ \i II MMi.'Ax. Dail)' the temperature was 

so alterable that it was with difficulty the porters could keep 
warm at night, although sweltering under the direct tropical 
rays of the sun in the noonda)-. Towards three or four 
o'clock 1'. M. the hot air would suddenly ascend to the moun- 
tain region, and be displaced by a rush of cold air, and a 
constant atmospheric current swept over the country. The 









regularity of these breezes suggested the idea that windmills 
might be profitably established, which could be used for irri- 
gation and cistern purposes. Although the natives have 
ingeniously and methodically constructed ditches and erected 
irrigation troughs, made by digging out tree trunks, with 
which they surround their plantations on the top of some of 
the mountains, and on all sides could be heard the purling 
of the water, sometimes hidden beneath the vines or by the 
dracaena hedges that divided the plantations by lanes. The 
recent downfall of rain had converted the ground of these 
lanes into very tenacious, slippery mud, and often we would 
sink up to our knees in a black, pudding-like mixture, and 
the suction offered great resistance to rapid progress; or 
in descending a slight slant with feet together every one 
would slide down, or in ascending we were forced to cut 
foot-holes and clutch frantically to the shrubbery to ward 
against backsliding, and avoid being washed along in the 
resistless current of an unspent swift gush of gurgling water 
that would bound down over rocky beds, seeking the bottom 
of the cations, or leap and tumble into cascades to join 
swirling rapids seaward bent. 

Tlie moisture which rises from the oround at nieht makes 
a singular phosphorescent mist, which carries sufficient dew 
to bathe and nourish all vegetation and, in fact, the land 
around, to bring about certain results which are almost 
phenomenal considered from an agricultural point of view. 
It is from these heavy dews that most of the nous-iiiioas, or 



Stone reservoirs, are kept supplied. It is one of the great dis- 
advantages to the traveller in Africa, subjecting him to much 
discomfort and rendering him liable to fevers, if the greatest 
care is not observed to ward against the insidious dampness. 
The moisture causes to exhale from the shrubs, flowers, and 
grasses a sweetish odor, which at times becomes stifling, 

and it is no uncommon thing 
to find almost every man in a 
caravan afflicted with asthma, 
and as he marches along his 
snorting, wheezino breath is 
very perceptible. 

In countries of such a cli- 
mate the usual practice sug- 
gested by all good military 
B tacticians, of surrounding a tent 
with a ditch, in case of rain, 
MASAI i:l-moka\. is a great mistake, excepting 

when absolutely necessary. Making personal observations on 
this point, in the hope of ameliorating my personal condi- 
tion, — being a victim to chronic asthma, — I fountl that the 
newly upturned earth at night would emit a phosphorescent 
p^low which would hano- and hover about the little trench as 
it reluctant to part from its maternal source ; and all sorts 
of crawling things would issue forth and revel in the un- 
healthy place. Another strange manifestation of these mists 
was evidenced in passing my hands through the thick, wavy veil 


and rubbing the palms together in a dark spot removed from 
the trench, they would glow with phosphorus as if I had 
dipped them in fire ; and when one of the porters stepped 
out of these trenches he would leave his fiery footprint on the 
solid ground for some minutes after walking thereon. Such a 
miasmatic condition certainly cannot be conducive to the well- 
being of human creatures. I have also seen mists in Africa 
which were luminous and had certain powers of refracting the 
rays of the moon, which became iridescent and full of prismatic 
sheets and gleams. The effect was very much like a terres- 
trial aurora borealis, and the foliage would stand out bright, 
glistening, and green, as if the sunlight had fallen upon them 
after a rain. The appearance is very weird, and I inferred of 
common occurrence, as none of the men in the caravan 
noted it with any degree of surprise, which would indicate 
that they were accustomed to it. It had a very strange 
effect upon my eyesight, and I discovered that the porters 
in moving about at night would always hold their hands over 
their eyes, as one naturally does to avoid the sun's glare. 
A certain amount of superstition affixes to this strange mani- 
festation, which perhaps may account for the porters reluctance 
to speak of it, and I only noticed it in Chaga land, and not 
on the plains or in the jungle. Sometimes when a man 
would come rapidly through the mist, which would float and 
settle down in a vacillating way without any apparent reason, 
here and there his garments would be illumed with spots and 
flecks of the phosphorescent particles, making him look as 



if clad in spangled armor ; upon observing the effect upon 
his own garment, he would shake his cloths and kanzii, 
causing the particles to dart off in globules, leaving behind 
them streaks of shimmering light through the air. This same 
mist betrayed me into numerous absurdities ; for at first, 
not realizing how vagrant was its course, and seeing strange 

lights in the woods, I would insist on 
one of my guards accompanying me 
ither to make closer observation, 
id althougrh I would find something 
similar to a will-o'-the-wisp, it was 
different, inasmuch as the light 
would be in sheets. Josefe, who 
BUFFALO BULL. '^^ was always ready for a game, 
once placed around his staff a wad of cotton, which he took 
the precaution to wet, sallied into the midst of one of these 
mists, twirled his staff about as if to accumulate the phospho- 
rescent qualities, and stood out in the clear, dark atmosphere 
whirling his staff rapidly around until it displayed a succession 
of fiery circles that lasted for an instant, then faded into 

Observations made by me in East Africa at night were 
most unusual it not unique, and made me acquainted with 
certain peculiar revelations which nature seems to keep 
mysteriously concealed during the day. Creeping things, 
prowling animals, were ever on the alert just outside of the 
encampment, deterred from coming in by the numerous fires 


and the sentinels on watch. One night, experiencing great 
fatigue, I fell in a profound slumber lying in my Palanquin 
within my tent, when suddenly I awoke with a shuddering 
apprehension of danger, and possessed by an instinctive feel- 
ing of the presence of some harmful thing ; involuntarily 
seizing my knife and pistol I cried out, "Who is there?" No 
answer. Then I called out for the askaid on guard, at the 
same time tried to penetrate the darkness surrounding me, 
when I became aware, through the atmospheric conditions, 
that a cold, clammy, moving object was above me, in truth 
almost touching me, on the top of my Palanquin, the rattans 
of which were cracking as if under the pressure of a mangle. 
I was struggling to slide out of the Palanquin without rising 
from my recumbent position to avoid touching the thing, when 
the alarmed askari entered, carrying a lantern, to my abject 
horror revealing to me the object I had intuitively dreaded. 
My blood fairly seemed to congeal in my veins at the spectacle : 
it was an enormous python, about fifteen feet long, which had 
coiled around the top of the Palanquin, and at that moment 
was ramping and thrusting its head out, searching for some 
attainable projection around which to coil its great, shiny, 
loathsome length of body. Seeing the python, the askari 
immediately yelled wildly out for help, and in a moment, a 
dozen stalwart porters pitched in a merciless way with their 
knives upon the reptile, slashing and cutting its writhing 
body into inch bits. I am not ashamed to confess it was 
the supreme fear of my life, and almost paralyzed me. I 



came very near collapsing- and relinquishing myself to the 
nervous shock; but there was no time for such an indulgence 


of weakness ; there were other sequences to be considered. 
However, during my safari in East Africa, I only saw one 
other live python, wrestling inconsequently with all of its might 


with one of the invincible dead giants of the forest, without 
any visible success, as the majestic, unyielding tree gave no 
evidence of weakness under the pressing coils of the mad- 
dened monster, which was being overtaken by the realization 
that all was futile, and in the end it must be 
thwarted and admit defeat. 

We encountered some small water and , 

land serpents, a few puff adders, but with ^'gV^Sp 

few exceptions were never molested, barring ^v' -^|* 
the fact that occasionally we missed a goat ^f&Up.&'A 
or sheep, and they might have been the 
prey of audacious hyenas and jackals, onl)' 
for the reason that we heard no commo- 
tion in the temporary sheds where the 
animals were stalled, which indicated the 
work of reptile garroters. 

Reaching Klmangelia on the plains, ' 
the natives swarmed down from the moun- 
tain fastness and urged us to visit their 
mountain village, previously never entered by niziuiga. 
Difficulties arose ; there was no cut or road through the forest 
environments ; the porters could not force a way through. 
This was soon overcome, the)' assisted cutting a way through 
the gigantic trees, and as we plunged into the depths of a 
foliage-twilighted thicket, the hippopotamuses grunted and 
shambled awa)\ disturbed for the first time by a paleface 
or the commotion of a caravan. 




The sultan was a victim to his own debaucheries, and was 
paralyzed and unable to meet or personally welcome Bebe 
Bwana, but he had placed at my disposal his great circular 
palaver grounds cleared in the centre of a primeval forest, and 
overlooking Masai land on the north and the lonof stretch of 


country we had passed over, and beyond, overhead, grand 

Their habits and customs, in matters of dress, superstition, 
marriage, rites, fetes, and pursuits were a cross between the 
Chaga people and the Masai. At that particular time they 
were disturbed, not knowing whether the Germans or Encrlish 


were going to claim them, and inclined towards the English, 
having been prejudiced against the Germans by the accounts 
given by the Masai. 

In consequence of the cold blasts which swept down from 
Kilimanjaro, the women wore, as do the Masai women, cow- 
hides around their waists and over their shoulders, and the 
great masses of iron and brass coils about their necks, arms, 
and legs that the Masai do. Their plantations are thrifty, 
and their /u/idi's do 
splendid chain 
work ; live stock ' 
was kept very scarce 
by the Masai. Honey anc 
poinbc were almost poured down 
upon us ; and the heads of the tribe chaga snuff box. 
ordered dances, and as the moon shone, ventured to sally from 
their huts and pay nighdy visits to the encampment. Greek 
fire delighted them, and a volley of musketry gave them a 
foretaste of real paradise. As usual, a full-dress reception 
was in vogue ; their admiration surpassed anything of the 
kind I had ever been the recipient of. And as for the itiusic 
box, they wagged their heads and addressed barbaric prayers, 
called it n^^ai, and called me ugai, their equivalant for God, 
as in fact everything mysterious is to them, ngai. 

Masai women flocked to see me, and secret messengers 
were sent to ask Bebe Bwana to visit a certain village not 
remote. The import cf this was to say that I would accom- 



pany them alone about a distance not exceeding five miles, 
I would be shown something that no 7nztcnga had ever seen. 
These envoys were not of Kimangelia, but from another tribe. 
W^hilst a couple of guests I had for a short time with me were 
indulging in an afternoon nap, I accompanied the natives, 
escorted by Josefe and Hamidi. Arriving at the place of 
destination, with a display of great secrecy I was shown by 

the chief, after all 
but two of his 
own attendants 
had been dis- 
missed, a stone 
spear-head, the ex- 
act size and shape of a 
Masai spear, which was kejDt 
secretly buried and unknown 

CHAIN AND BEAD GIRDLE. ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^J^^ ^l^J^f ^^J 

two or three of his confidants, including his prime minister, 
and which he told me passed in line of descent from chief 
to son for decades. I asked him how long it had been in 
the possession of his tribe. " Since the sun made day and 
the moon lig-hted the nigrht." 

"Was it before Kilimanjaro spit fire?" 

" Oh, long before that," he replied, " when the streams 
run fire." 

He begged me not to reveal the place of concealment, or 
the name of his province or his tribe, as he said the " Dutch" 








would take it from him. It illustrated a very important point 
in the history of the origin of these people. 

Another day, quite inadvertentl)', while my men were halted 
eating, smoking, singing, and talking at the top of their voices, 
according to ni)' habit I was strolling about hard by to get 
away from the din and confusion, seeing what I could discover 
or taking photographs ; after reaching a point about half a 
mile from my caravan, I stepped 
what seemed a firm surface and 
tumbled amidst a perfect screen 
of vines and shrubbery into a 
cave. I brought away pieces of 
the stone which made the body 
of the cave, and a small piece of a 
stone mortar which I unearthed, fo 
it stood in one corner concealed by 
cover of moss and lichens, so long had metal bead necklace. 
it been undisturbed. The cave was an irregular oven shape ; 
part had been artificially made and part was a natural cave, and 
it undermined the surface of the earth above it, which came 
over sharp to the edge, wherefrom the vines fell as a pent 
and down to the ground, trailing in long lengths be)-ond and 
obscuring the entrance. It was about four feet square and five 
and a half in height, and evidently had been a smith's workshop, 
a primitive vulcan's forge. There were several stones standing 
up against the wall, upon the floor, which seemed to have 
served as forms to work upon, and what must have been used 



as an an\il bore the abrasions caused by wieldincr heavy blows 
that spent their extra force upon the stone and -was much 
discolored with smoke. jealous of my discovery, and eager 
not to be surprised by my porters in this cave, I hastily with- 
drew, fully intending some clay to make fuller investigation, 
as well as to search elsewhere for similar evidences of the 
Stone Age or of the Cave Dwellers. Just here allow me to 
digress and call attention to the excavations at the foot of 
the hill upon which Mandara's boma is founded, and which I 
subsequently entered only to be summoned back without time 
to make a full investigation by the warning of my headman 
who stated it was a death's trap to be shunned. 





LUSTERERS that the Masai are, 

they cannot be seriously looked upon 

as true warriors, or as possessing 

real bravery ; but rather as African 

Jack Shepherds. Their vocation is 

cattle stealine, freebootine, and raid- 
er o 

%^ ing their neighbors, after terrorizing 
y, them by their merciless onslaught. 
With theatrical make-up and hostile 
manner, they succeed in creating a panic wherever they list to 
carry a high hand, not only in the hearts of natives, but by 
compelling Germans and English to defence, and are soon 
put to rout by gunpowder. 

They recognize no law but capture and victory. They have 
frequently attacked the arcadian Wa-Taveta with a fierce 
hatred, although the W^a-Taveta are deputed to have descended 
from the Masai. 

They will not work; they have not the pride of tlie Wa- 
Chaga in forging their own spears, but depend upon the 
vulcans of Chaga for their fine Aveapons and almost all of their 


metal work. Donkey breeding seems to be their only legiti- 
mate labor. They make demands upon the services of the 
Wandurobo, a semi-subject nomadic tribe, which, although 
servile and subjugated by the Masai, is not actually in slavery. 
They hunt and engage in agricultural pursuits only to the 
extent of barely supplying necessities which the Masai cannot 
loot from other tribes, who, in return, give the Wandurobo their 
protection, and secure to them an immunity from their own 
persecution. These people are most insignificant in appear- 
ance, low of stature, almost dwarf. " Du- 
robo" signifies stumpy. Among those 
we met there was no man who attained 
a height of over four feet and 
a few inches, and some were 
considerably shorter. 

ARMOR FOR NECK. Jl^^ ^J^^^j j^^^.g ^ ^^,^;^^ ^^.^^. 

of forbidding passage through their territory. They place in 
the middle of a path likely to be traversed by an individual 
or a caravan, a bullet, over which they cross two twigs 
stripped of foliage, with the exception of a tassellccl brush 
at the top. The first person trespassing beyond this barrier 
is usually speared or shot without hesitation by some warder 
who is in ambush. Not knowing of this custom, inadver- 
tently coming to such a forbiddance, I kicked it aside. In 
consternation one oi my headmen sprang forward, urging 
me to pause if I valued my life, for the moment I put foot 
beyond that point 1 most likely would be assassinated. 



Before he had conckided his words of warPxing, about thirty 

Masai warriors abruptly made their appearance in a great state 

of agitation, with uphfted spears, frantically gesticulating, as 

they ordered us to halt, and demanded from me the payment 

of a large amount of hongo for the depredation committed. 

Every porter in my caravan was terror-stricken and quite ready 

to drop his load and take to his heels. However, the fierce 

Masai were soon appeased with a few lumps of bluestone, 

which they prize as highly as they 

do donkeys or cattle. These 

were given as a present, and 

not admittedly as a penalty, 

for I felt to recognize, even 

in such a slight matter, their 

arbitrary right in prohibiting a 

passage through a tract of country 

not actually theirs, might in the 

end result disastrously not only to myself, but to other 

caravan leaders who might follow. 

Their costumes and habits have the most distinctive 
personality of all the tribes I met. The women paint their 
faces with white and red splotches, and often wear a close- 
fitting cowhide hood, embellished on the margins with iron 
and blue or green glass rings, which covers their foreheads and 
chins, exposing their ears with their heavy brass Catherine 
wheel ear rings, and falls down over the back ot their heads 
upon their necks and shoulders, beneath their ponderous 



brass or iron coil collars. They present a most hideous 
appearance. The men, also, indulge, upon occasions more 
or less frivolous, in paint, decorating their bodies by daubing 
on masses of color. 

The women are not well made, and are far from being 
up to the standard of physical comeliness of the women of 
other tribes, but rather taller, even more so than the men. 
They wear quantities of ponderous iron coils like greaves 
about their legs and also their arms, weighing as much as 
fifty pounds. These are placed on before the bones and 
muscles have attained full growth, and naturally the enormous 
weight and constant pressure of the ponderous metal orna- 
ments retard the normal development alike of bones, muscles, 
and flesh, hence the women are angular, lank, sinewy, and 
yet fleet as deer, and very strong. 

Grass used as a truce with the Masai is more general 
than with other tribes, possibly on account of the exigencies 
which are the outcome of their belligerent habits ; and 
an essential part of the attire of the Masai women, who act 
as purveyors between tribes, and move about generally 
unmolested among even hostile tribes, seems to be a bunch 
of grass, which they fasten to their cowhide belts, or tie 
to some of their iron coils, in order to have convenient 
when as occasion arises, wherewith to manifest amity. It 
is one of the most significant and delicate symbols univer- 
sally recognized through Chaga land, to ignore which must 
naturally curtail any traveller's opportunities to see and to be 




trustingly welcomed ; the adoption of which proved most 
serviceable to me at almost every turn, for frequently I stepped 
apart from my caravan to parley with natives, holding in my 
hands and extending towards them a bunch of grass without 
any flowers intermingled, always to meet with a genuine wel- 
come, albeit the natives might have at first evinced a measure 
of suspicion and over-caution, if indeed they were not abso- 
lutely inimical. When several Masai women approached me 

with their upheld 
hands f u 1 1 of 
grass, clutching 
in the middle 
the stems, which 
were turned from 
both sides tow- 
ard the centre, 
and the heads 

MASAI WOMEN CALLERS. of the g^rass wav- 


ing outward, I thought it one of the daintiest exhibitions of 
symbolical friendliness I had ever witnessed. Grass is like- 
wise used as a prayer for mercy when an offence has been 
committed. Anon, when the cross-paths are perplexing and 
a leader desires to forfend against the chance of his caravan 
going astray, grass is thrown across the divergent path. 

The Masai also use salt stone, cliumvi, and tobacco stone 
as peace offerings. I brought back with me quite a quantity 
of both sorts, which had been presented to me at various times, 


and have had diem analyzed at the Royal College of Science, 
London, through the joint courtesy of Professor Judd and 
Professor T. E. Thorpe, February 22, 1S92. 

Analysis of Salt Stone. 

Carbon dioxide 3947 

Soda (Nag.°) 39.95 

Ferric oxide 1.59 

Common salt A trace. 

Water 18.99 


Salt stone is simply a hydrated sesquicarbonate of soda 

or fona (2 Na, O3W3432 O), containing a trace of common 

salt and oxide of iron. 

(Signed) T. E. Thorpe. 

Analysis of Tobacco Stone. 

Soda (Nag.°) 29.92 

Carbon dioxide 30.48 

Magnesia 2.28 

Lime 1.52 

Alumina and ferric oxide 1.97 

Chlorine 1.S3 

Water 15 -3' 

Clay 16.69 

The substance is mainly fona, or hydrated sesquicarbonate 
of soda mixed with the carbonate of lime and magnesia, a 
trace of common salt and clay. 

(Signed) T. E. Thorpe. 



Tobacco stone they mix with tlieir tobacco and snuft ; it 
is also ad\antageously bartered to caravans for the same 
purpose. Salt stone, called c/iituii'i, is not a bad substitute 
for pure salt ; however, pure salt is abundant throughout 
portions of Masai land, and man)' contests and 
battles have grown out of the fact that 
various other tribes have been dis 
covered by the Masai in the act of 
looting their salt fields. Some of 
the lagoons or pools are decid 

edlv brackish, and an incrustation \ , _ 

^"^' \\ 
of salt, caused by evaporation ^^* 

forms on the surface of the stones V^-*^- 

about the water's edge. Th 

1 .1 . f ^ 

renders the water 01 numerous -^^ -. 

pools unfit to drink. The wild ^'^ 

animals naturally seek the water '^^^ 

ways and the salt fields, and can 

be readily tracked by hunters to theii 

lairs, as well as reveal to the observ- "'''' "'^^ "'''''• 

ant individual where to find both water and salt. 

A Masai woman's regulation dress consists of four metal 

spiral coils for the legs, four similar coils for the arms, 

and a metal coil collar supplemented by brass and pewter 

collars or necklets representing an average weight of forty 

to fifty pounds, to which is added several pounds in metal 

and other beads. Usually they wear a cowhide as a skirt, 



and a second one as a cloak over their shoulders ; even some- 
times disport for this purpose fine Hyrax furs, monkey and 
goat skins, and sheep fleeces to protect themselves against 
the diurnal winds. Their shrewdness has been developed 


in a marked degree. Doubtless this is due to the fact that 
the men, with their freebooter propensities, are constantly 
embroiled with other tribes and luiropeans. However, whilst 
war is proceeding, the women have free, unmolested access be- 

MASAI. 327 

tween the combatants, and constitute the bearers of despatches 
as well as are the purveyors, unless the attack is to capture 
women and children to sell to slave dealers to transport to 
the coast, when the traditional neutrality for woman is totally 
disregarded. And I heard many pitiful tales of such captures. 
The Masai men frequently sell their own women into captivity, 
or barter them awa)-, which is the equivalent. The men are 
exceedingly crafty and are great braggarts, indulging in bluster 
and threats that can be put to rout by fearless use of the same 
measures by one conversant with their characteristics ; totally 
deficient in any tender traits, never exhibiting any signs of 
affection, and keep their women under foot. They are laugh- 
terless, mirthless, having no songs but those of war. They 
are die heavy tragedians of Africa, full of theatrical display 
in manner and personal get up. When a plain intervenes 
between the Masai occupancy and other provinces, contention 
occurs over the pasturage nature so abundantly provides, 
which is above the necessity ot cultivation, and coveted by 
those who are too indolent or possess no ambition to indulge 
in a pastoral, peaceful lite. For some unknown reason the 
Masai lay claim upon all the land and all of its products, 
wherever they list to set foot. They are most brutal and 
more licentious than the Chaga mountaineers. Prompted by 
sheer wantonness, they capture women from tribes the)- have 
accepted truce with, to bestow as a mark of favoritism if not 
to sell as slaves upon some of their comrades or subjects 
when they have personally wearied of the poor creatures. 


Their numbers and overruling spirit of despotism and cruelty 
put fear into the hearts of all lesser tribes within the radius 
of their excursive periodic raids. However, the)- have met 
their match in the Germans, and must either 
accept subjugation or stand a chance of 
being annihilated. 

Contrary to most of the other tribes I 
met, who live as a rule upon vegetable and 
fish diet, the Masai are meat eaters, and will 
pounce upon an animal yet in the throes of 
leath when being slaughtered, and hack chunks 
of flesh out of its quivering bod)-, and devour 
raw, or cut the throats of cattle and drink the 
hot flowine blood. When meat is scarce and 
the)- are about to enter battle, they go so far 
as to make an incision in their own arms and 
suck the blood. With all this there is no trace, 
no tradition, that they have ever been addicted 
to cannibalism pure and simple. I partook ot 
blood brotherhood with them when a white goat 
was the sacrificed bond. The)' engage in no 
industries, have no avocation but fighting. 

Masai warriors were sent in deputations to 


NECKLACE, wam me of the belligerent, disturbed condition of 
their territor)', and I was afforded the extraordinary oppor- 
tunity of seeing over one thousand Masai armed and ready 
to enter battle, having as an objective point Arusha-jue in 



the German territory which they had but recently been forced 
to evacuate by the Germans. The sight was certainly a 
magnificent spectacle, equipped, armed, and adorned with 
their picturesque paraphernalia, faces daubed with paint, 
splendid masks matle of masses of ostrich and vulture 
feathers, plumed at the top with fine sweeping feathers, lions' 
manes, and white bits of Colobus monkey hair; huge vulture 
feather rufis about their necks, and even encircling their 
faces, and enormous feather 
panniers around their thighs; 
here and there a warrior with 
an entire Colobus monkey-skin, 
slit in the centre, through 
which he had thrust his head, 
and the tail and long hair blow- 
ing- straight out in the wind; 
from his shoulders wildly floated 
in the breezes a ncbara made ^'asai nebara, white and red cotton. 
of stripes or figured red and white cotton cloth, and a long 
hyena tail decorated with a lion's mane, and Colobus monkey 
tails swinging from his shoulders as an emblem of war, — 
forsooth the African shoulder chip ! About the warriors 
waists was strapped goats' hides, into which they thrust their 
knives ; below their knees, and over long oval iron bells a 
strip of Colobus monkey-skin, with the long white hair stand- 
ing straight out like a pennant, and similar adornments on 
their ankles ; and the leaders wore strapped across their 


shoulders a leather quiver, containing a supply of ostrich 
feathers to refurbish their masks : they all carried a long 
fine Masai spear, which they never throw like Asagai, but run 
antl thrust at their victims, always retaining the weapon in 
their gras]) ; and use to parr)' blows splendid 
cowhide elliptical shields from three to four 
feet high and a foot and a half broad, 
embellished with archaic designs ■ some- 
what varied, but the colors em- 
ployed are invariably white, 

^T dark red, and black. 
The bells jangle as 
the yelling, fierce men 
dash and manoeuvre. 
With all their ferocity 
there is, as I hax^e said, 
a great deal of sham 
and bluster about the Masai. Al- 
though considered the bog)-men of Africa, I am of the 
opinion that any leader of nerve and self-possession need 
have no fear when the)' threaten an immediate attack. A 
warrior, hideously bedecked in his war paint and war tog- 
gery, having heard that I refused to pa\' Invigo to the 
Masai who tried to e.xact it from me whilst at Kimangelia, 
and not in Masai land, came rushing up to me brandish- 
ing his spear violently, then uplifted It as though he aimed 
to cleave me in two, plantetl it into the ground before me, 




yelled in a deafening tone as he bounded high in the air, 
"Wow! wow! wow!" Quick as a llash, I reached behind me 
and seized my gun, rushed forward with it, pointing the 
muzzle towards him, and in tium j-elled, "Wow! wow! wow!" 
discharging it in the air. Suffice it to contess, [ own that 
spear. It was never called for. 
It cannot be denomi- 
nated as either a gift, 
or a find, or a cap- 

At this moment 1 
became greatly excited 
in my desire to take photo- 
graphs, and betrayed myself into 
a ridiculous situation. From a lurking 
place where I sought to evade observa- 
tion, for more than all other tribes the 
Masai have a dread of a camera, sud- 
denly a large body of warriors, all accoutred, passed in 
full view. Impulsively I turned, seized what I presumed 
was my camera, pulled oft the supposed cap, and lo and 
behold ! it was tlie stopper of my water bottle ! I was per- 
fectly deluged with the contents, and the only picture I could 
claim was an aquarelle. So much for blind zeal ! 

Spitting on gifts and upon faces and at people is carried to 
a great pass among the jNIasai. They are polygamists ; their 
religion is fetish. They indulge copiously in the wassail 



bowl, however; intoxicated or otherwise they are aggressive, 
quarrelsome belligerents, quite in contrast to their arcadian 
neighbors. Their leatures m-e not specially negroid, and 
their color is variable ; hands and feet small. But on the 
■whole rather an impossible, barbaric people to effect mucii b)' 
way of civilization upon, for a long time to come, meanwhile 
they may be annihilated. 

Masai women have not the privileges or rights that exist 

among the more pas- 
toral tribes, ex- 
cept as spies 
and purveyors. 
They own no 
proj^ert)' what- 
ever, where- 
MASAi liiiAss COLLAR. as the Chaga and 

Taveta women hold and keep their own propert)' ami may 
acquire more. So disregarded are women, that in some 
Masai districts five large pigeon eggs, blue or white, green 
or amber colored glass beads will purchase a woman, whereas 
it takes ten of the same beads to purchase a cow ! They 
milk cows and goats in the dark. They avoid catching the 
last glance of a dying person's eye, alleging that, it they do, 
after death the spirit of the departed will hold the un- 
fortunate victim under a spell for evermore. 

My full-dress reception, among the Masai, came very near 
attaining the proportions of a calamity, as it incited some of the 

MASAI. 333 

audacious young- warriors with a desire to carry me off, and they 
had made a plan which was secretly imparted to me by a Masai 
woman, who hail taken a ijreat likinsf to me. Hence the little 
unpleasantness was averted in good time. The annexation 
was not effected. 

The greetings and salutations are somewhat more poetic 
than that of other tribes. A niziinga is met, a woman cries out, 
" Good morninor, son of a good mother, father ol orood sons"; 
and to me they said, " Good morning, mother of good sons." 

All the Wa-Chaga have a poetic way of measuring time. 
When they speak of noon it is, " When the sun is as a 
brother," meaning thera is no shadow ; morningr is, " when 
sun flies as an arrow to there," pointing over head, and when 
the sun is sinkin"' and one walks towards it, it is designated 
as " an enemy skulking at one's heels." All tribes mark 
time by pointing when the sun shall have or has reached a 
certain part oi the heaven. A messenger replied to mj' 
demand to know how soon we should reach a certain point, 
" To-morrow and the to-morrow of to-morrow and the night 
of another morrow you will get there." 





man of headmen, a freeman, born, I 
believe, at Pemba Island, near Zanzibar, 
a Mohammedan, endowed with amaz- 
ing attributes of refinement and in- 
telligence, upright, strict, possessed 
of just the right order of qualities to 
manage the affairs reposed in him, a 
man who never shirked duty or dan- 
ger, whereas he never injudiciously 
courted the latter. The Sultan of Zanzibar particularly recom- 
mended this man to me as faithful anel far above the averagfe 
headmen. He had by his thrift accumulated considerable 
wealth, and was generally accounted to be among the Zanzi- 
baris a mzai, or wise man, a hiur^ia, or master. Although I 
made a rule not to commit even to Hamidi my real object in 
visiting Africa, other than the safari was destined for Masai 
land, I was obliged every night or every morning to inform 
him what I aimed to accomplish during the next twenty-four 
hours, in order to secure harmony in the caravan and have 

-f-»s,-." - 


him second my orders, and he could distribute these orders as 
he saw fit to the subordinate headmen and all of the porters. 

I had many evidences of his pronounced tact ami admirable 
manaeement of Zanzibaris, and found him most obedient to my 
slightest wish, until we were in Masai land, when, to my sur- 
prise, after saying, " Hamidi, to-morrow we will make such and 
such a safari beyond the frontier," in a measure simply to feel 
m)' wa\- and see if he had heeded certain rumors 
bruited about respecting the turbulent state '^ 
in which the Masai then were, he turned 
and said, " Bebe Bwana, I will not conduct 
you thither ; the danger is too great." 

" Then, Hamidi, do )-ou mean to say that ^^ 
you disobey my orders ? " 

He turned round and faced me, looking 
square into my eyes without hesitation, and .masai mask. 
replied, " Bebe Bwana, I swore to the Sultan of Zanzibar and 
to Bwana Mackenzie to protect )'ou as far as I could from 
all danger, and to pive you m\- life rather than harm should 
come to you. Bebe P>wana, take these pistols," and he 
drew his revolvers from his belt; "kill me, but I will not go." 

There was a heroic majesty about the man ; I took the 
proffered pistols, and whether he misinterpreted ni)- movement 
I know not ; he opened his kaiisic without demur, and stood 
stoically with his breast bared before me. 

" I am ready, Bebe Bwana." 

" Hamidi, go, or I shall be tempted to do something rash. 



Let me think it over, and whether 
yon go or not I yo into Masai 
land, ^'on and the rest of )our 
goats ma)' stay behind. I go into 
Masai land at sun-up to-morrow 
Before da)break I heard Hamidi's 
voice without ni)- tent, saying pathet- 
ically, " Bebe Bwana, I must speak 
to you." 

" Well, Hamidi, what is it?" 

" I am sorr)' to have 
ve.xed }'ou, Bebe Bwana; 
if you go into Masai 
land, I will go too. 
I might as well be 
killed one place as 
another." And this 
fine man, as heroic 
,' and chivalrous and 
loyal as any white 
defender of a leader 
could possibly have 
MASAI SPEAKS AND SHIELDS, been uudcr the cir- 
cumstances, succeeded in dissuading 
me from what wcnild have been not 
onl)' a most hazardous undertaking, 



but wcnikl tloiibtlt'ss havt; rcsultccl in the entire lootiny of 
m)' caraxan and annihilation of the Zanzibaris, no matter 
what might have happened to me. 

Another word about this noble fellow. \\'ht;n I would have 
the men ranged in line and file, assorted in groups, such and 
such men with ulcers, those with stomachic difficulties, those 
affected with sunstroke, etc., in making my daily round to ad- 
minister to their maladies, Hamidi would walk beside me, and 
when he came to 
a man who care- /sf^. 
lessly extended \,(^" 
a dirt)' loot cov- 
ered with mud, he "^«->''jSm 
would seize him by 
the neck and exclaim, «»; 

" You toad ! o'o to the water; 


don't )ou know better than to 
put a foot like that before Bebe Bwana ? " He always evinced 
the desire to compel, when necessary, certain respectful hom- 
age from the porters, which proved most grateful to me. 

Hamidi called my attention to the fact that many of the 
married women of Chaga and Ta\eta wear a leather loin- 
cloth which covers the hips antl falls half-way to the knees, 
with a long, sash-like pendant at the side, embroidered and 
loaded down with glass and metal beads and chains, the 
leather colored with yellow clays, avowing he could not pro- 
cure one. There is a certain superstition connected with these 



leather cloths which has a very strange import as revealing an 
innate idea of faithfulness, if not of tenderness, according to their 
conception of such a quality on the part of the women for the 
men w'ith whom they are associated by marriage. The)' have 
never been known to sell, give, or barter one of these cloths 
after having worn it, until I procured the one in my posses- 
sion. The reason for this is very rational from their stand- 
point, considering the people from whom it emanates ; the 
idea that if they should give to anj- mzunga such a cloth, or 
he should obtain it in any way, the woman would be under 
some sexual subjection to this man ; that he could throw over 
her a spell at any time, wherever she might be, however 
unwilling the woman should feel ; he could take her from her 
husband and tribe to the ends of the earth. 

When 1 argued with the women that 1 was a woman, a 
bcbc like themselves, that I could not possibl)- work such 
magic over them, and that it would be a graceful thing for 
one woman to give to another woman such an evidence of 
her friendship, they argued and protested at first, always 
refusing to comply with my request ; then as I made firmer 
friendship with them, bestowing gifts and kindnesses upon 
them, possibly administering to them medically if they 
chanced to be overtaken with illness, the heart of one 
woman softened towards me and she professed that she was 
willing to give me her cloth if her husband would only con- 
sent, for which fa\or 1 avowed my willingness to give her 
sufficient material and beads to make two others. Yet she 



kept settling back in wonderment over the peculiarity of my 
request, and that I, a woman, and the master of a great 
caravan, could possess her cloth and yet not care to possess 
her. However, after the lapse of many clays and recurrent 
consultations with her husband, and all manner of blandish- 
ments on m}- part, she followed my safari over fifty miles, 


and finally came and tossed it into my tent, exclaiming, 
" Bebe Bwana, take it, take it; you are my sister, take it!" 
This episode goes far to evidence how much superior in 
some ways is the position of a woman going among this 
tribe over that of any man, however crafty and savant he 
might be, and it is only illustrative of many other occur- 
rences during my safari, revealing to me the habits and 


customs and the family life and relationships of the natives. 
These leather cloths once worn never change ownership, 
even amongf women of the same tribe, but are burned or 
buried with the wearer upon death. As have other travellers, 
so have I two or more perfectly new samples of these cloths. 
The Wa-Kahe cling with great fidelity to a marvellous 
superstition quite Egyptian in its doctrine of transmigration 
in connection with the Colobus monkey which inhabits their 
forests, to which, however, no other tribe gives credence. 
They believe that the spirits of their ancestors transmigrate 
and possess the bodies of these white and sable creatures, 
hence, under no circumstances whatever, will a native of 
Kahe kill or consciously permit one of these beautiful sim- 
ians to be killed, and on approaching the forest where they 
abide in great numbers, the WaT<ahe observe an ominous 
silence and cast furtive glances as they pick their steps with 
precaution and hesitation that would seem to indicate verita- 
ble belief in their superstition. 

Leaping from branch to branch of the tall trees the 
Colobus monkey presents a beautiful apparition ; their bodies 
when fully grown are two feet long from muzzle to root of 
tail, and covered with a very thick, long growth of soft silky 
hair, jet black on the back and belly, and silvery white on 
the sides. Their tails are from two and a half to three and a 
half feet long, and perfect plumes from root to tip of spot- 
less white hair. The Masai and other tribes, to the horror 
of the Wa-Kahe, hunt these monkeys, considering their 



beautiful pelts as great troijhies, and desirable trophies and 
effective accessories for personal adornment. 

Wa-Kahe use bows and arrows and spears when they can 
procure them. They cultivate fine plantations and possess 
vast bee ranges, which incite maurauders : thev hunt and 
engage in minor blacksmith work. 
Various furs, the principal being the 
H)Tax, are used to protect them 
from the icy breath of Kibo, and 
their huts were rather on a 
better order and of more 
artistic shape than those pre- 
viously seen by me. Gran- 
aries are placed on stilt-like 
supports, and resemble huge modern 
beehives, made of heavy braided or 
roped grasses. Many tribes hang ^ 
up their produce and harvest inside 
the slanting roofs of their huts, and 
the appearance is much the same as 
a farmer's barn or garret in ci\'ilized 
countries, prompted measurably by leather beaded loin-cloth. 
the same necessities. Tree granaries differ in no wa)' from 
similar granaries in other lands, excepting the use of the 
raphia palm leaves, which frequenth" attain a growth of 
thirty feet in length, and constitute an admirable thatching 
which sheds the water over the grarnered harvest when once 


suspended from the branches of the selected trees. Utility 
is marked on all sides. Many strange and multicolored 
mosses bearded the trees, presenting the guise of the be- 
mossed trees of a Florida swamp. There were gray parrots, 
but not in any great numbers. The ornaments of the 
Wa-Kahe very much resemble those of the \\'a-Ta\eta, 
varied with an occasional string of Masai beads or trinkets, 
and beads from other tribes. 

By tying together the ends of a large waterproof sheet, and 
suspending it between trees or poles, I had instituted the habit 
of catching rain water. Natives witnessing this would always 
examine the fabric in wonderment, and would essay to do the 
same thing with pieces of cotton cloth they procured from 
the porters, going through with similar arrangements ; but, in 
consequence of the thinness ot the cloth, the result was gen- 
erally unsatisfactory. In passing, these trifling circumstances 
are mentioned in evidence of the natives' susceptibility in 
appropriation of useful ideas, and it shows that their brains 
have the same receptiveness one looks lor in children. 
Failing, they naturally concluded tliat there was a peculiar 
charm about the "imperia" of Bebe Bwana, and one covetous 
sultan was inciteil to command a )outh to steal the water- 
proof sheet of my Palanquin. He was discovered in the act 
and captured, and brought by Mamidi as a prisoner one long 
day's march after me. His family had sent, as ransom for the 
boy, after returning the stolen cloth, a cow, two goats, four 
sheep, anil a (juantity of fruit. Unfortunately, I was pro- 



hibited from acting in accordance with the dictates of my own 
feelings, being in German territory; hence there was nothing 
left for me but to hand the boy over to the resident officers 
at the first station, and enter a plea for leniency and mercy. 
I was prompted to make a personal aftair of it by the touch- 
ing display of anguish of the boy's aged mother, fearful that 
her son would be consigned to death, as well as by the boy's 
own contrition. He was freed after a day's make-believe 
incarceration and five sticks, and his promises for good deport- 
ment in the future. He came rushing to me full of gratitude, 
prostrated himself fiat on the ground, spat upon my toes, 
arose and tossed at me armfuls of grass furnished by his 
mother, and quite voluntarily offered to carry a load for a day 
or more. I cite this to show that these natives are capable 
of feelings of contrition, as well as of oratitude. 

In attestation on the side of their sentimental nature, a 
little Kilema maiden, seeing that 1 had no rings upon my 
hands, murmured very deploringly, "Poor Bebe Bwana ! no 
rings!" Then, with a sudden and spontaneous accession of 
generosity, she slipped from her own fingers her numerous 
metal rings, exclaimed as she proffered them to me and as 
I was about to place them on m\' fingers, " Bebe m'zuria 
Sana!" — lady very beautiful! — and settled back upon her 
heels, admiringly gazing at me with her own denuded hands 
clasped across her equally nude abdomen. Luckily 1 suc- 
ceeded in taking a photograph ot her at this juncture, which 
is expressive of the situation. 



One day, when we had just started out, I said to Hamidi, 
"Look you, man. I cannot talk to these black tellows in this 
wa}' ; they crowd too close to me. 1 must have something to 
stand on." He immediately issued an order that every porter 
who desires henceforth to speak to Bebe Bwana must first init 
down his sanditki (box) for Bebe Bwana to stand upon, and 


this was maintained throughout the entire journe)-. When 
I saw a porter during camp hours coming towards me bearing- 
one box or two, according to his height, upon his head, 1 knew 
he had some com|)laint or request to pour into ni)' ears ; and he 
woukl |)ut down one box, and say, "There!" anil put down 
another and repeat, "There! " and wait until 1 had mounted on 
the extemporized tlais. Then he would begin his complaint. 
It was the source of a "reat deal of amusement to the officers of 


various stations, as I passed through sections where the Ger- 
mans or Enghsh were established, to witness this httle by-play. 
Presently the natives were likewise inoculated with the idea 
that I must not be spoken to unless I occupied some point of 
eminence ; so they would indicate with their tongues or with 
their spears a stone or a hummock, and say, " There ! " and 
when I would mount upon it, they would make a salaam and 
proceed with their business. One day, standing upon a stone, 
while the men were taking their noonday smoke and rest, 
surrounded by fifty or sixty young warriors and young girls, 
in Kilemi, I tried to engage the attention of the natives; 
and to a young girl, whose eyes were riveted in amazement 
upon me, and who nervously kept pursing up her mouth, I 
said, " Do this," and I whistled. With the erreatest elee 
and merriment all the girls commenced to whistle, and one 
buxom fellow who stood well to the fore among the group, 
otherwise he would never have taken the liberty, com- 
menced to whistle. The girl turned round and eave him 
a smart slap on the face and said, "You are not a girl," 
thenceforth he was the butt of .so much merriment that he 
was obliged to retire to a remote spot for refuge. 

To return to Hamidi. If there was any curious thing 
that he chanced to discover, article of wearing apparel or 
ornament, or a fine spear, he at once managed to have 
its possessor come to me, and whilst standing apart, unseen 
by the native, with a significant glance at the article 
and at me he would quietly say, " Ha-penda, hi?" (do 



you like it?) If 1 would nod or say, "Yes," he would reply, 
" \'er)' well, you shall have it," and in due course, whether 
as a gift from the individual, or whether it was paid for by 
me or by him, the coveted article became mine. 

1 was surprised one day to have Hamidi enter m\- tent, 
aying, " Bebe Bwana, that thing must be 
left." What "that thing" was my looks 
revealed I ielt in some doubt. He touched 
a chameleon, which I had carried because 
the little thing seemed to have attached itself 
to me in the course oi my march, and upon 
incjuiry, "W'h)?" he said, "The men think 
that it pertains to witchcraft." I found 
my porters throughout the caravan full 
of abhorrence oi all crawlino- thinus, and 
reluctant to have such tolerated by me ; 
so 111)' little pet was abandoned, and I was tor- 
mented by swarms of flies and mosquitoes it 
had protected me against. 

As my readers have discovered, another 
ORYX BEisA BULL, charactcr in the cara\-an was Josefe, m)' head 
interpreter. He was the wag and life of the camp. He 
spoke twenty-seven dialects, English particularly well, and 
had been emplojed so constantly upon war-ships going to 
different ports, that he had all the mannerisms of a laddie of 
the sea; and when I would call, "Josefe!" he would immedi- 
ately straighten himself up, pull his coat together, touch his 


head with his hand and say, "Aye, aye, sir." I announced 
to my Zanzibaris, "When [osefe tells you what I say, it 
is as if I spoke"; he was afterwards dubbed "the trumpet 
of Bebe," not before me or in my supposed hearing; 
but time out of number I heard merriment rinof throueh- 
out the encampment when Josefe would circulate about 
giving utterance to an order. He was personally full 
of curiosity and interest to see and hear everything con- 
cerning the natives whom we visited, as it was his first 
commission, as he called it, in these parts, anel was ever 
on the alert to keep me informed as to what was going 
on, and from time to time narrated to me many of the 
stories which were current, many only of topical interest, 
requiring their own setting to carry any wit or meaning. 
He seemed very much pleased with his position of gcntlc- 
man in attoidance. His vanities I himiored as best I could 
by giving him white and blue yachting coats to wear, and 
by having extra gold-band decorations sewn on his cap to 
identify him from others, and was ne.xt to Hamidi in impor- 
tance. I confess I rather revelled in his swao-pferine manner 
and braggadocio speech and assumption of dignit)', but found 
him a capital elbow man. 

The habit of regarding me as a man, and not being quite 
able to reconcile my office witli that of a woman, was shown 
throughout my safari by the men who were my personal 
attaches. I would open my tent-flap and say, "Boy!" Back 
would come the answer, " Sabe ! " (sir); and they never got 



over it. If I addressed a porter he would respond, " Dio, 
Bwana " (yes, master). 

My body servant, gun-bearer, and cook had been with 
.some of the most distinguished travellers on extensive safaris. 

exil,ui;us m on kiiN -.skins. 

and were experienced and inured to caravan lile and hard- 
ships, and knew the country fairly well from actual knowledge 
or throuoh hearsay. Their raam/cr of the different charac- 
teristics of the iiiznnga whom the)- had ser\-ed, revealed too 
often the old saying that a man is never a hero to his valet, 
nor above the scrutiny or criticism of those whom he com- 


mands. They are very close observers of actions and words, 
and make some \er)- astute deductions. When they are 
favored by the Inoaiia of a caravan, the)' become jealous of 
any one who invades their legitimate or self-imposed duties, 
and are guilty of man\- little spiteful acts to regain their lost 
empire, and lose no chance to depreciate the invader. For 
example: my boy, Ramezan, could not endure the thought 
that I would allow an)- one to make my bed or brush my 
clothes but he : and my other boy, Baraka, who assisted in 
serving my meals, was equally jealous ot his function as but- 
ler. But these two lads throughout my safari served me with 
as great and efificient attention and cleanliness as if they had 
been trained under the most exacting teachers in a European 
household. I have previously written I never sat down in the 
open on a box, using the top of its duplicate for a table to 
eat from, but they put a dainty little tablecloth over it, 
and laid the cover with a certain amount of style and pomp, 
serving my meagre meals in courses. I think travellers 
who are deprived of these refined evidences of civilization 
in making long safaris are likewise deprived of an intimate 
knowledge of the capabilities and adaptabilities of the blacks 
about them. Besides, it all tends towards maintaining self- 
respect, and accentuates personal prestige, which is so sig- 
nificant in the eyes of the African, whether he is a porter 
or a free and independent native. 

When we were in camp for a da)' there would be a gen- 
eral washing of all of the clothing of the caravan, which 


would be taken by them to a stream or pool and washed, 
and their tent covers cleansed, and all of my soiled clothing, 
although it never was allowed to accumulate, washed by the 
women. The little tricks resorted to in order to obtain soap 
from me were certainly amusing. Although my stores suf- 
fered in consequence of these inroads upon them, I feigned 
indifference, knowing I had plenty. The Swahali, as a rule, 
are very clean about their persons and clothing, and never 
lose an opportunity of taking a bath (or washing) on safai'i. 
They usually carry one or two changes of clothing. Rame- 
zan, my bo)-, said one day, speaking ot some natives who 
were not cleanly, " Bebe Bwana no likee ; smellee badly; 
Ramezan cleanee; Ramezan sweetee. Bebe, give Ramezan 
some soapee. Ramezan washee, makee sweetee." I gave 
him a piece of soap, going through the formula ol request- 
ing him to return the remnant, which he seldom did. As it 
was his duty to wash the napkins and tablecloths, I had 
great difficulty in supervising economy on this score, for I 
had charged him never to serve a meal with soiled linen. 
Soap, in Ramezan's hands, seemed to melt into nothingness 
in a moment, the secret of which, of course, was that he 
used it for his personal bathing purposes, and to whiten his 
own clothes. He was fastidiously neat and clean. This fact 
conduced largel\' to my comfort. 

Although I had been strongly advised to take women 
porters and women to wash and for other duties, I toimd the 
few I had a perpetual nuisance. They were always inciting 


disputes among' the porters, and resorted to all sorts of meas- 
ures to win from them portions of food and other things 
which they coveted. One little woman, who happened to be 
m admirable cook, would volunteer her services to groups of 
porters who messed together, was like a fatted pig at the 
end of the safari, having received in payment for her ser- 
vices as cook the pick of their rations. This little woman, 
who carried her full load 
daily, frequently was in 
danger of being swept 
down the torrential 
streams, which we had 
to ford or swim, and I 
found it necessary to de- 
tail a strong, tall porter j 
as life preserver to get 
her safely across. How- an old masai warning me. 

ever, I have this to say of the women porters, they com- 
pared admirably with the men both in staying qualities and 
strength, doing their day's march with no more complaining, 
besides having superficial duties either incumbent upon them 
or volunteered, which the men had not. Certainly I was 
personally deprived of their aid in consequence of the des- 
perate and helpless illness of one I took to serve me, to 
whom I had to relegate every woman to nurse, besides 
detail a dozen or more porters to carry and guard when 
encamped against the intrusion of natives. 


It was a constant source of amazement to see what the 
porters would from time to time produce from their mats in 
the way of varieties of beads and other trifles, and the way 
in which they converted their ration-cloth into garments or 
transformed a turban into tents. Needles were always in 
demand. They sewed with thread drawn from the woof of 
cotton cloth when that they had brought on reels was used. 
Not only do they sew neatly but with rapidity; and upon 
occasions where needles were given out to string m)- trade 
beads, which were counted before distribution and again on 
their return, out of one hundred possibly ten might be 
returned, the missing number were always lost. Then I 
would say to the porters, "Let me examine your hair"; and 
often I have found ten or twelve needles secreted in the 
thick woolly pad surmounting their heads. I discovered 
that they put for safe keeping all of their little treasures 
under this clump of wool until they were needed or could 
be bartered to each other or to the natives. After a stated 
time, when the heat became oppressive, and their wool too 
long and burdened with vermin, every head in the caravan 
was shaved smooth. Several men among the porters who 
were good barbers were employed by the others at a nom- 
inal fee to perform this office. This naturally ended the 
needle pilfering, and simplified the characteristic search for 
vermin, which seems indigenous to Africa, and meets the 
eye on all sides. The few rupees they carried from the 
coast, and the beads received for posho, would be tied 


in the corner of their cloths, or deposited with one of the 
headmen, until required by them. 

The headmen, askari, antl interpreters never carrj' loads 
excepting during times of emergency ; and when there are 
any sick who must be carried, if the caravan is small and 
porters scarce because of desertion or illness, the askari 
and others are detailed as carriers. 

The manner in which a turban, worn by a porter to 
ease the weight of the loatl from his head, will be whipped 
oft in a moment when a camping ground is reached, is 
interesting. Then, with two or three forked sticks cut from 
the immediate bushes or trees, he makes a dainty little tent, 
and carefully sweeps the ground within with a bush besom, 
and lays down clean grass, puts his belongings inside, and 
joins a group of porters with whom he messes. Then the 
cooking commences, and he rushes off — if he is not per- 
sonally attending the pot — to gather more wood or, perhaps, 
in answer to mj- call, to fetch fuel for my fires. He changes 
his body-cloths, puts on a little white cap, which he has 
perhaps not yet finished, and the threads may be hanging 
loose, and takes up his position to sing or talk in a loud 
voice, telling — if he has visited the place before — what 
happened when Bwana So-and-so was encamped here last 
year, or ten years before. Their minds seem to have 
marvellous retentive powers. Things may be exaggerated 
somewhat by their imagination, but, on the whole, I found 
that many of their stories were quite accurate, and had 


been vividly impressed upon their minds by certain incidents 
known to more than one porter in the caravan, and would 
fairly coincide and corroborate each other. 

Their trifling manifestations of vanity amused me immensely. 
Every porter carried a mirror. When in camp he would seek 
out a quiet corner and pull out his mirror, take his tooth- 
sticks, and, while admiringly gazing at himself, would polish 
his teeth and make some little arrangement of toilet, comb 
his hair, or polish his scalp, and cant his cap in a coquettish 
way a little over one ear, and then, with great satisfaction, 
pull himself together and meander up and down through 
the passages between the tents, assuming the air of a 
dandy who was thoroughly satisfied with himself. 

The picking of the mimosa thorns from their cloths, which 
would sometimes form a perfect nap over the entire face of 
the cloth, and the jabbing out of their flesh thorns, which 
they do in an almost merciless manner, occupied much atten- 
tion. These thorns, and also bits of flint which had become 
imbedded in their feet during a day's march, are usually 
gouged out — in a three-cornered piece of flesh embodying the 
thorn or flint — either by their own hands or the kind offices 
of a friend, and they never flinch or seem to mind the 
operation. But when I got a thorn in my foot, they made 
delicate arrancrements for its removal. Two or three boxes 
were laid down, with rugs upon them ; then I was ceremoni- 
ously requested to be seated, and to bare my foot. The 
porter who had assumed the duty of removing it, having 


washed his mouth and polished his teeth, asked me for 
"sweetee water" — which was cologne — and copiously bathed 
his face all over with it, rinsed out his mouth, and then put 
on his clean kansti. He then lay fiat on his stomach on the 
ground at the end of the box on which my foot rested, with 
his hands stretched on each side so as to avoid touching me, 
and saying, " Inshallah, Bebe," which is equivalent to " With 
your permission, lady," with his lips parted and his teeth 
thrust forward as far as possible, and pressing steadily and 
forcibly about the thorn until he had it well clinched between 
them, he pulled it slowly but firmly out and held it in his 
teeth, and came and dropped it by my side for my inspec- 
tion. As a master of surgery, he asked for a piece of cotton 
wool, and after dipping this in grease, he daintily bandaged 
my foot. This important ministration ended, he would start 
on a dead run to his tent to tell with boast and flourish to 
his comrades the service he had rendered Bebe Bwana. 

With great ceremony Josefe informed me that a boiite- 
sale was to take place among the porters. This aftair was 
a general auction of all superfluous articles, bottles, and 
curios. The fun they provoked by the bidding was irresisti- 
bly contagious. 





-jS we approached Marungu, Sultan Mi- 
reali's province, had crossed the 
last ravine, and were ascendins,'' the 
last hill to his bonia, a very stony, 
difficult pull for my weary porters, 
there could be heard the buzz and 
hum of distant voices, occasionally 
a strident tone would override the 
others, and on searching; for a solution of the hubbub, I de- 
scried at the crest of the hill, roughl\- estimated, two or three 
thousand people, making a spectacular sight decidedly intensi- 
fied by the bright red that seemed to prevail in their flashing, 
ample vestments, as the}' moved and circled about with consid- 
erable agitation, like swarming bees, at one time converging, 
then spreading out and scattering, only to crowd again together 
ami return ; and, as we neared, I discovered that the pivot 
of attraction consisted in a personage standing upon a huge 
bowlder, a native, tall and distinguished, who appeared a perfect 
guy, tricked out in a pair of German military trousers, with 
side stripes, a white knitted shirt with a brilliant pin on the 









bosom, a celluloid high collar, a cravat of the most flaminof 
color, a striped woollen Scotch shooting-coat, a flamboyant 
pocket-handkerchief, and a j^air of Russia-leather shoes, expos- 
ing blue silk clocked socks. His fine head was disfigured b^- 
wearing a black silk pot hat, which was canted backwards, 
bonnet fashion, by the long porcupine quill ear ornaments 
thrust throuofh the rims of his ears. He carried an Enolish 
walking-stick with a huge silver knob, and held in his hands 
a pair of kid gloves. This clown then 
was Mireali, conceded to be the handsomest r4 
native man in East Africa, the 
most noble and most majestic sultan ^^ ;. 
if not the most powerful. This ^ §• ^ 
chivalrous sultan, notified by his cou- ? 
riers at last, alter his weeks of expect I. 
ancy, I was coming, had summoned all 


oi his subjects — several thousand — to with spiral brass 
bid me welcome, and add lustre to the pendants. 

honor he desired to pay Bebe Bwana, and to Italicize the 
function had ridiculously bedecked himself in this cast-off 
finery of various persons of different nationality, who had 
but recently left his province. 

Remembering that he had been told to uncover in the 
presence of a guest, Mireali found himself in a sad dilemma 
as to how to do it ; however, one of his many subjects stepped 
up behind him and tilted the hat over backwards, and scraped 
it off from the embarrassed potentate's head. It is a shame 



a man like Mireali should be so imposed upon by those 
who should have known better. 

When all the salaams and jambos had been effusively 
uttered, and Mireali had welcomed me with 
great ceremony himself, he conducted me, 
followed by my caravan, to his old bom a, which 
presented rather a ghastly appearance, for his 
father-in-law, brother-in-law, rival, and enemy. 
Sultan Mandara of Moschi, had first 
looted, then burnt his house to the 
; round, and the charred beams and 
)ther debris were the only remnants to 
be seen of his first advance in civiliza- 
tion, for his house had been built by 
iSwahali labor and in just such style 
as one might find in Zanzibar. 
His present boma is sepa- 
rated from this site by a rubbled 
dry stone fence, about ten feet 
high and three and a half in 
thickness, upon which usually 
disported two or three pet goats, 
and frequently all his wives 
and the women of his wives 
would loom up over this fence 
to see Bebe Bwana. As soon 
SULTAN MIREALI iM NATIVE AiTiRE. as I had ail oppoTtunit)' of ex- 



changing a few words with Mireali, when he asked for all the 
white men who had visited him, I ventured to say: "Mireali, 
why do )ou wear these clothes ? They make you look like a 
goat. I want to see you in your own native cloth, and see 
you as Mireali, the great African sultan that )ou are." He 
hung his head contemplatively for a few moments, then 
gazed at me with his fine eyes, said, " Bebe Bwana, yes,, 
yes, to-morrow." The 
next morning he pre- 
sented himself with an 
enormous cloth, as 
large as four table- 
cloths sewn together, 
wound around him, and 
thrown over his shoul- 
ders in the most grace- 
ful and artistic manner, 
trailing regally behind 
him, carrying a long 
spear, and backed up by his picturesque coterie of wives 
and followers, all in native costumes. The wives all wear 
ample pieces of Americana, which is somewhat superior to 
the trade gumpty, and quantities of beaded and metal 
ornaments. He looked truly majestic as he advanced with 
his picturesque cortege, and I could not help recalling some 
of the old pictures of Roman senators. His mien was full 
of composure, yet not restrained to such a pass as to conceal 




his gracious desire to be hospitable, and there was a hirking 
anxiety withal, -which manifested itself in his furti\'e glances, 
as if he sought to divine what would most please me. In 
the course of the day he brought me sheep, with fat tails 
dragging on the ground, one or two of which he had been 


fattening especially for me, and the creatures could scarcely 
move, burdened with so much superfluous flesh ; also numer- 
ous ofoats, and sent me one cow after another until the number 
reached ten. This was a thing unparalleled in East Afri- 
can native generosity, for it is conceded that one or two cows 
are considered a right royal offering; but Mireali, in his 


eaeerness to know more of me, and make me feel he was 
my friend, and to secure my friendship for himself, had noth- 
ing in his province he woukl not have bestowed upon me, 
had I expressed the desire to possess it. We had many 
talks, and I found him intelligent, his brain alert and suscep- 
tible of impressions, and with a general discontent with his 
condition, and a restless craving to become more as the white 
men. Isly finest music box he coveted without any disposition 
to dissemble, and was never happier than when watching the 
wheels go round, and marking the intonations of the carols. 

Finally, in a spasm of desire which overcame him to 
possess this box, he came and planted before me his own 
personal spear, his sceptre as it were, and said, " Bebe Bwana, 
take this and let me have your music box." I gave him the 
music box, and a jewelled belt and dagger, happy to pos- 
sess the spear. 

I queried, " How will you keep this box from being 
stolen, as your other treasures have been stolen, by Mandara?" 

He led me to an excavation in a secluded spot under 
the shade of banana-trees in the middle of his plantation, 
which was lined with stone slabs and completely covered inside 
with Hyrax and Colobus monkey-skins, and here he placed 
his treasure with a jewelled sword I had brought to him from 
England, and after covering it up with a heavy slab and 
replacing the sod, he said, " Mandara can never find that." 
This habit of burying treasures, especially ivory, is universally 
resorted to by all African tribes. 


The women, or surias, of his wives are totally nude, wear- 
ing decorative beaded ropes, six to twenty-four in number, 
around their waists, arms, and legs, with no other attempt 
at clothing. They are more beautifully formed than thei' 
mistresses, although darker in color, but their features are 
absolutely pretty, their teeth glittering white, and they seem 
to give a great deal of attention to the decoration of 
their bodies with their beads, which are usually white and 
i\ pale or dark blue, or solid dark colors, 
• -V and dainty in the extreme. They also 
wear cloth and leather pendants, which 
may be denominated as African fig 
,1 leaves. These articles are likewise 
affected by many of the men and chil- 
dren, and are profusely ornamented with 
beads and delicate metal chain fringes. 
liEADEEi FIG LEAF. The gTace of these women in moving 
about is the grace which affixes to all people who are in the 
habit of carrying loads over mountainous countries on their 
heads with their bodies erect, and they have the movement 
almost of a o-azelle in climbincr and descending the mountains. 
This imparts to them a somewhat haughty mien and swing- 
ing motion as they approach )'ou without loads. Although 
we are in the habit of considering Africans as being simply 
progressive monkeys, a species of rudimental human beings, 
with their arms awkwardly pendent, hands and feet large and 
ungainly, and a certain cattish movement when not shuffling. 


and licit footed, I am free to sa)- it is not the case with 
these Chaga people. They are great posers when they are 
on view, if they hold or have an audience with other tribes, 
or the white man is present. Their self-consciousness and 
egotistic vanit)- transcend concealment. 

I asked jNIireali, " Do you not love one wife better than 
another ? " 

" Oh, I like them all, but the new 
one is the best for to-day ; in a week 
I shall afo back to the old, the big 
wife, because she knows me better 
than the others," he quaintly responded. ' 

" But these children, how about 
them? There are a number." 

"Well, yes, they are good little Vi,i,!i:|M.i'ii 

goats, but only the first son of the |li^'fsfAvtiil'44'4'M%f^ 
big wile IS worthy ot my virility. /,',: ■'! iUiWi^Uii^^l .1%-^'^j 

lis expression rather perplexed Jy^fZ^^fe™?? 

3ut later on I learned the true ^''^Pt'li® ll'^^^P' '1 

me, but later on I learned the true 'ff'.'Sjlp 
significance of his phrase and thought, beaded fig leaf. 

" Ah me, what exponents of simple honesty and truth these 
aboriginals are." 

Complimenting Mireali about the neatness and taste dis- 
played by the natives in packing loads, he turned around and 
acquainted me with a subtle reason I had overlooked. 

" A spray of grass, a few seeds, a chewed bit of sugar- 
cane ma}" betray any one to his enemy. Watch us ; we never 


go exactly by the same path. Look you, Bebe Bwana, see 
there, that woman bounding through the grass. She is the 
wife of a well-lcnown Masai, and she is trying to lose her 
footprints. By and by she will wade across the water, then, 
on the other bank, later on, cross back." 

There was so much suggestion in Mircali's remarks, that 
from that hour I never ceased watching the natives we 
chanced to meet, or those who were pursuing the same 
direction, and discovered that they were more or less erratic 
in the course of their journey, habitually " losing their foot- 
prints." A bev)- of native women carrjing provisions from 
sultan to sultan, or merely in the hope of capturing trade 
from my caravan when we would halt, at one moment would 
be in plain sight, and later on, when we would have crossed 
a stream or ascended a craggy steep, they would have van- 
ished, subsequentl)' to emerge away beyond to the right or 
left of our path from a dense thicket, or were far in 
advance awaiting our approach, having cut across countr)-. 

It was a fine sight to see these women, almost nude but 
elitterino- with their barbaric metal ornaments and bright 
beads, fleet-footed, indifferent to hardships or physical hurt, 
race up or down the moimtain-sicles, ford rivers, step upon 
cruel thorns and sharp blade-like flints, or slide along over the 
slippery mud with the lleetness and agility of gazelles, bal- 
ancing on their heads heavy loads ot fruit or what not, and 
never fall. Ordinarily they will cover thirty miles in a da)-. 

One of Mireali's sisters has been the cause of a war with 


Mandara. She has been euphoniously named the \'enus of 
the Mountains, and accounted to be a professional Chaga 
beauty. Mireali's demand of forty cows for his sister, Man- 
dara would not accede to. .So he stormed Mireali's boma, 
but did not capture the prize, although he drove Mireali 
away Irom his province temporarih'. 

Mireali was under a cloud and not in very great favor 
with his subjects because of this defeat. When one of these 
sultans are defeated, they evacuate their sultanate and retreat 
into the fastness of the mountains until things have calmed 
down. The Germans had given their protection to Mireali, 
so he returned in hopes some day to lay his despotic enemy 
and relation low. 

Mireali has not been free from the crime of raiding les.ser 
tribes, but he aims to improve himself, and seeks to imitate 
the more enlightened wa\-s of the mzninyu. 

Mireali represents all that is superior and intelligent 
among these tribes. As rival in intelligence he has the 
youngest sultan in East Africa, Miriami, who has possessions 
in Kilema ; and this young prince, who had performed in 
my behalf several acts of real services, for which I strove to 
give substantial evidence of appreciation, and had bestowed 
upon him all manner of jjresents, I discovered that he 
looked .somewhat downcast, when I asketl, "Is there an)'thing 
else \ou would like? Are my gifts not to your pleasure?" 

He replied, "Ah, dio Bebe Bwana ; but I want an 
English saw and an English hammer." 


I asked, "What do you want these for?" 
He answered, " Ah, Bebe Bwana, I want to build an 
EneHsh house and hve like a white man." I promised to 
.send him the saw. 

He said doubtfully, "Ah, yes, white men all promise, but 
they all forget ; the vizimgu always lies." 

I interrupted him .sharply, " Stop, Miriami, )'ou must not 
speak to Bebe Bwana in that way. I never lie. I will 
send you the saw." 

And upon my return, while the delirium was raging- dur- 

ino- mv illness, this thiny- haunted 
me with other promises I had 
made these poor trusting natives,. 
AGARY BEADS AND DAWA sud I uevcr rested, day or night, 

CHAINS, RARE. ^^^^jj ^^.^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^y ^^^ ^ ^^^]^j 

ment, through the consideration of the scrupulous guardian 
of my honor, and Miriami has his saw. 

So it is, I think, if people when visiting the country of 
natives, instead of taking useless, showy trumpery, would 
give them implements useful and simple to understand, and 
take a little trouble to teach them the uses thereof, they 
would be found ready and appreciative people, evincing 
gratitude and no mean amount of aptitude. 

The natives' sufferings from the cold in these districts, 
where the bleak wind rises at four in the afternoon, and 
the thermometer falls down to fifty-four degrees and even 
lower, is very pitiful ; and although they have quantities of 



furs, they are constantly asking for cloths and blankets to keep 
them warm. Various fibres, papj'rus, bamboo, iiiivhala, and 
others, and grasses which abound throughout East Africa, 
are susceptible of being converted into frabrics, exactly as 
such have been utilized by the people of Madagascar and 
Peru ; therefore, if simple looms, without any mechanical in- 
tricacies, were introduced, the natives could very soon supply 
their own requirements, as well as produce a com- 
mercial commodity. I found a variety of wild cotton, 
it not cotton certainly a delicate silky, sepia color pro- 
duct, covering vast areas, which mieht be cultivated. 
The only native-made fabrics I found were sacks 
varying from a tiny size only large enough to hold 
an &^^ or two, graduating to those large enough 
to hold a huge bunch of bananas, on up to dimen- 
sions sufficient to entirely cover a hut. One in mv 
possession is three feet deep and five feet in cir- 
cumference, and took a woman one year steady 
work to plait. The twine or cord out of which it 
is plaited is made by twisting into very hard strands ^[^pj. ,^y 
uru'/iala, or bamboo, fibre ; the women laboriousl\' *"''^-^"- 
punch the cord through the foundation braid with a fish- 
bone or an iron wire prod. .So closely knit are these sacks 
that they hold water after having been soaked. As usual, 
the article is colored with }ellow clay, variegated with an 
occasional bright red strand dyed with the juice of the 

■'-'4 ft 






It does not demand a stress of credulity to believe that 
the jewellers who are capable of executing the tedious pro- 
cesses required to produce the delicate chain work, of which 
I saw so man)' varieties, and the \-ulcans of Chaga land 
who can forge such Ijeautiful spears, and also those who 
make hide shields, decorate gourds, tan leather, with as great 
natural skill as the\' indisputably do now, are capable of much 
better things, if onl)- trained. 

Mireali has made some \"ery fair examples of candles 
out of the beeswax, and he craves lisfht, and no more 
welcome sfift did I bestow uoon him than candles, oil, and 
soap. He was ambitious to get window glass for a new Swahali 
house he was about to erect. They could also, by the Intro- 
duction of such simple sugar presses as are used to-day in 
Madagascar, express the juice from the sugar-cane, which 
grows in great abundance, and provide for themselves this 
appetizing condiment, preserving it for such times as there 
were no crops, and secure to themselves the benefit of its 
nourishment when the harvests failed. Apart from and in 
addition to the usefulness of such, they would regard every 
new avocation in which they might become skilled as an 
amusement ; they delight in the novelties which the white 
man brings ; and Mireali showed me, with great pride, twelve 
folding wooden chairs, like steamer chairs, and a table ol 
his own manufacture, before which he sat while eating, and 
he was pleased as a child when I gave him a tablecloth, 
some napkins, knives and forks, and a set of little china tea- 



cups and saucers, and some tea ; and die most notable after- 
noon tea — "a small and early" — I had during my African 
season was sitting in his bouia on a four-legged stool, sur- 
rounded by his wives and surias, served by Mireali himself 
i,\ith a cup of tea of his own brewing, some 
sugar-cane, bananas, and an attempt at 
\,v bread made from banana flour, a tomato 
salad which he concocted himself, with 
the flourish of a gormand, and various 
other knickknacks from his own 
( kitchen. I had taken some boxes 
"^ of bonbons, but these people did 
not care for them. The boys took 
the sugar-plums and used them for 
marbles, and shot them out of their 
finoers at targets. 

o o 

Mireali used to sit by the hour 
watching me write. When I held a hill- 
dress reception, he fell upon the ground 
and spat upon the hem of m)- gown, 
quite lost in admiration. My blonde wig 
particularly interested him, and he brought 
DANCING WIG, FRONT VIEW, me Gue of the native's dancing wigs, 
made of the white hair of the Colobus monkey-skin, shaped 
to fit the head. My court gown was a source of endless 
admiration, not only with Mireali, but other sultans and 
natives. Mireali wanted to know the kind of cloth it was 

\ \ 


made of. Josefe put my nationality in pawn by quickly in- 
forming him that the silk and silver netting covering it 
were fabrics never worn only by white queens, like Bcbe 

"Ale!" ejaculated Mireali, "it is then queens' cloth"; and 
so the name maintained from that 
on, in answer to other questioners. 

The larg-e crystal multicolored 
stage jewels covering the gown were 
from time to time, one by one, removed 
to bestow upon the covetous natives, until 
not one remained. My bracelets, neck- 
lets and rings and shoe buckles were like- 
wise relinquished in the same manner. Ii 
truth, the bawbles were taken with this enc 
in view, notwithstanding the simple natives 
deemed my apparent willingness to thus 
lavishly bestow upon them m)- beautiful 
jewels as a personal distinction, and my 
generosity, in their estimation, ranked me 
in the light of a millionnaire. 


Whate\'er is the reason I could not as- made of colobus 


certain, but whenever a native presented 

me with an article, if possible, he or she would keep a bead 

or two or an ornament or a little bit of chain, no matter what, 

only some bit of the present they always were desirous to 



Mireali was highly delighted with a powerful sunglass 
I presented to him, after showing him how the sun's rays 
could be focused to set fire to dried leaves, tow, or paper. 
He evinced great excitement, exclaimed in glee, " Bebe Bwana, 
now I can stand on one mountain and burn Mandara's honia 
and plantations on the other mountain." 

In evidence of homage, Mireali danced for me the rua, 
in which he is a jaast master. This dance consists in floating 
out in the air a long piece of cotton cloth, eight or ten yards 
long, one end attached to the body, and whilst the dancer 
prances and leaps about he keeps his arms swinging and 
casting out in a loop the cloth, striving to have it describe 

a circle, and when this is 
achieved the dance is at 
/ an end. He was so grace- 
ful, agile, and skilful, he 
put his competitors to 
shame. Upon this occa- 
sion the moon shone with 


its fullest radiance, and the atmosphere seemed to palpitate with 
ineffable effulgence, clear dazzling white, as the white of bur- 
nished silver; and as Mireali danced, his shadow fell anti llittcd 
in a weird, spectral way. It has no parallel in ni)- memory. 
Before departing from Marungu it was my good fortune 
to take a photograph of a very large group of Mireali's 
court. The simple, hospitable folk had gathered about my 
tent to implore me to remain, urging, " Stay, Bebe Bwana, 


-) 7 - 

Stay; you shall be more powerful even tlian all the sultans; 
you shall have all the plantations, all the cows, and sheep, 
and goats. Stay, Bebe Bwana, sta\'." They never knew they 
were thereafter to be my photographic subjects. 

Mireali dolorously came to me the morning I made my 
adieus, with the frame of a large compact English um- 
brella, with a conspicuous silver handle, but lacking every 
vestige of cover, — the remains of a gift from an 
American sportsman, and which had, in its 
normal condition, served during two years to jL 
constantly shelter Mireali from the sun and //oA 
much-detested rain. He deplored the loss 
ceaselessly and in pitiful tones of yearning 
queried, "Can Bebe Bwana make it new?" 

" No, Mireali, but I will send you one from 
London ; meanwhile you shall have one of my 
red sunshades." He promptly took the substi- 
tute, evidently liked it very much, pronounced 
it '"viznri saua" (very beautitul) ; after a tew 
circumspect minutes, half ashamed, he again 
approached me and hesitatingly asked, so none 
micrht hear but me, " Bebe Bwana, don't iorofet 
the other mioazuili (umbrella)." 

After leaving the boundaries of his prov- 
ince, one of his runners came breathlessly into my encamp- 
ment and delivered a message from Mireali ; the import of it 
was, " that Bebe Bwana must not forget the promise given 




to her friend Mireali about the mwaviili" They are so child- 
Hke in their dread of disappointment. Even this superior 
man could not permit me to get beyond the reach of his 
voice without this parting admonition. 

Whilst at Marungu, a Wa-Kiboso messenger, attended by 
several load-bearers, came to me from Sultan Sina, carrying 

a leaf, bearing the imprint ot a 
blood-dripped hand, and bring- 
ingf as tribute a white goat and a 
/||| sheep, the latter so fat it could 
1 1 scarcely waddlej and its clumpy 
tail dragging on the ground, 
akin to the sheep Herodotus 
describes, and a superb spear 
and shield. He was dramatic 
in oresture and almost classical 
in figure, with an impressiveness 
in diction. Although his lan- 
guage was undoubtedly circumscribed, he transcended the 
limits of mediocre when he announced, " I am as Sultan Sina, 
who sent me, who bade me show you this leaf, and bring you 
this goat and this sheep and this spear and this shield, to let 
Bebe Bwana know Sina, who sent me, is the friend of Bebe 
Bwana." An emissary, sent bv a chief, by a sultan, or merely 
by a master, has no individuality for the time being save that 
which identifies him with his master, until acquitted of his 
task ; and in indicating such an emissary, it is customary to 




say, "Mireali, the man," or " Fumba, the man," which is equiva- 
lent to sa_\'ing, he is the messenger of the Sultan Mireali, the 
Sultan Fumba, or whoever ma)- have despatched 
him. These messengers have the most marvel- 
lous gift of transmitting not only the import of 
the message, but literally word for word, as it 
has been imparted to them by those who have 
sent them ; they are perfectly imbued with the 
sender's thought before starting as an envoy by 
being obliged to repeat the message until they 
have proficiently committed its letter and sig- 

I found it an admirable thin^ when instruct- 
ing an interpreter respecting any important 
^ message, which was to be convejed in my pres- 
B ence to the natives, to have two interpreters 
^ present, and never heed the one who was 
interpreting, but watch the play of expression 
3 over the countenance of the one who was listen- 
ing, and at the slightest intimation that the 
jioscHi CARVED spokcsHian had deviated from my instructions, 
WOODEN STAFF, surprise would involuntarily play over his coun- 


WAND. STAFF teuauce, and I would check the man and refer 


IRON RINGS. the matter to the telltale listener, when he 
would take up the thread of discourse. In turn I would watch 
the other man, who would, in a similar manner, reveal his com- 
rade's errors in discoursing, who would likewise be checked and 


the task recommitted to the first man. In this way I avoided 
many misunderstandings, and found it an infalHble process oi 
discovering carelessness or trickery. When anything was lost 
on the road, and it was necessary to send back for its recover)', 
three men were usually selected who were not chums, and lull 
of distrust for each other, in order to make sure that the article 
would ever be returned, il found. 

In my caravan were a certain number of fleet runners who 
were allotted places near the van and rear, in order that I could 
communicate with Hamidi, who alwa^'s brought up the rear, and 
vice versa he could communicate with me. It was a pretty 
sight to watch these runners disencumbered, with only a gun 
and a staff, leap and bound through the grass and over the 
rocks, covering the distance like a whirlwind, and return with- 
out seemingly having stirred their pulses a particle ; and like all 
human beings in any sphere of life who excel in any one thing, 
they were proud of the renown they receive from their com- 
rades for their practised skill. 


O/ / 



'ONGING for music, I was surprised to hear a 

dainty little twaneino-, like that which en- 
s',-, - & & 

''*^Vi^'^ sues from thridding a harp-string. It 
was produced by tightening a 
bow-string made of sinew 
and striking it with the ar- 
row, which would rebound 
and strike rapidly the string 
before a new blow was 
6*^ given. The tones were 
harmonious. Most of the 
native guides have the trick of music-making. In passing 
through Sultan Fumba's sultanate, I procured a pan pipe, 
sweetly played by a native, and these two musical Instruments 
were the only native ones I saw or heard, yet the natives ac- 
cepted with delight mouth music boxes I gave them. 

Sultan Fumba is considered the most avaricious sultan in 
East Africa. However, before leaving this quaint character, I 
was able to persuade him to give me every article of clothing- he 
wore ; even his crown or cap, which was the same as receiving 


the crown of a European king without his powers. He has for 
a prime minister the most crafty creature, who is capable of 
doine anvthino- that is sneakinof and mean, but certainly in- 
capable of doing aught that is manl)-. I secured an admirable 
portrait of him, his prime minister, and his courtiers. Although 
he offered every inducement to get me to tarry in his boiita, I 
felt safer and happier to jjlace a long distance between his boma 
and my camp, and so were my men, one of whom advanced the 
following : — 

" Bebe Bwana, natives no goodee, no cleanee, smell very 
bad, no washee ; Bebe Bwana, me no likee, no, no, no ! " 
Ramezan accentuated this protest by significant gestures, 
clutching his nose between his thumb and forefinger, in order 
to more fully acquit himself of the meaning which his limited 
English vocabulary would otherwise fail to reveal. Cunningly, 
after watching the effect upon me, he insinuatingly added, 
" Bebe Bwana, Ramezan cleanee, very much cleanee, aic ? 
Bebe Bwana, give me soap, me go river, me wash table- 
cloth, me wash self and cloths. Bebe Bwana, me take huiiduki 
(gun), aie ? " All this roundabout method was his naive 
way of getting a favor from me. 

In truth this boy was scrupulously cleanly, not onl)- in his 
person, but in his service to me ; away out on the plains or 
in the jungle or in the mountain fastnesses, it mattered not 
when or where, daily he served my meals with as much 
precision and ceremony as though in civilized lands. Even 
when I was compelled to eat from the top of boxes piled 

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upon one another, and sat upon one, the dainty cloth was 

spread, the napkin placed, and the usual array of knives, 
n forks, and spoons, and the enamelled dishes 
changed for each course. Ramezan had 
for an assistant a young fellow of most 
J general accomplishments as a body servant 
and steward, called Baraka. These two at- 
tended to my personal requirements, and 
were pretentiouslj' dubbed stewards, looked 
after my tent when once set, and, in fact, 

Baraka assisted the headmen and askai-i in putting it up 

and taking it down, as well as in arranfrino; and collectinp- 

small luggage and all articles appertaining 

to my personal household. Neither of 

these servants were expected to carry 

loads, and were ever close upon my heels 

ready to serve me. Ramezan carried my 

gun and cartridge belt, and a bottle of L 

coffee to quench my thirst, his own um- baraka, mv shward. 

brella, and sandals and calabash. Baraka carried one of my 

cameras, a small medicine case, my rain cloak, a silk gown, 

extra wraps, and my umbrella when not in use. 

Certainly my gun bearer had something of a load with 

the gun, and thirty rounds of cartridges in his belt, besides 

his own personal effects, which he would string about him. 

They always dressed in pure white, with little white caps, 

and did not carry their own mats. 


Put my head outside of my tent flap any hour of the day 
or night and call " Boy ! " instantly back would come the 
answer, " Sabe ! " (sir) ; and to the very last of my safari not 
one of my men ever learned to answer me other than " Sir." 
Even my intelligent interpreter Josefe would reply from the 
distance when I would signal to him by sounding my whistle, 
"Aye, aye, sir!" and he never approached me without 
touching his hand to his head and presenting arms, extem- 
porizing for a weapon his walking staff. 

The natives and general porters had encompassed th'e 
bizarre situation by calling me Bebe Bwana. My fine head- 


men, with an assumption to show their superiority upon 
occasions, would struggle to say " Bebe Bwana Sheldune." 
They never could seem to reconcile my sex with my post, 
which, in their eyes, indubitably belonged to a man, and I 


was at first abashed to realize that their natural protest kept 
inadvertently cropping out in one way or another, despite 
their obvious efibrt to conceal their preconceived idea of 
common propriety according to the only usage they knew. 
It is, therefore, with a sense of personal pride during my 
trying expedition, surrounded constantly by these black porters, 
the majority of them culled from the roughest specimens of 
natives, deficient in intellect, devoid of any certain knowledge 
as to the proper attitude that men should assume to a white 
woman, and many of them full of brutish instincts, that they uni- 
versally treated me with deference and obedience. Never dur- 
ing my safari did I see an indecent action on the part of my 
porters, who were, of course, more or less subservient to my 
commands, but on the part of the natives, who were unre- 
strained and free to do as they listed. All this I firmly hold was 
due to a certain rcgitnc I adopted, based upon the combined 
experience of many wise explorers, and an innate conviction 
that individual prestige, consisting in personal dignity and 
self-respect on the part of a leader, must be maintained 
wherever you may be, if you expect to inspire those whom 
you aim to guide and command with your personal importance 
and might. Nothing careless is admissible ; no slur of words ; 
no meaningless threat ; no hesitanc)' ; no shirking ; above 
all, a certain amount of silence which the natives and the 
ignorant regard as reser\'e force. A leader is a target of 
observation and unmeasured criticism from the lowest to the 
highest in the caravan ; and unless on guard at all times, 



Striving to consistently bear out the ideas porters, askari, 
headmen, and body servants adhere to as becoming a mas- 
ter, in some guileless moment a single heedless action may 
cause the leader the chagrin of witnessing throughout the 
caravan a state of demoralizing insubordination. Insubordina- 
tion in East Africa means a very hazardous thing — possible 
dissolution of the entire caravan, and ruination to one's plans, 


if not much bloodshed. Inflexible strength of will is requisite. 
Courage, knowledge, dignity, directness of purpose, resolu- 
tion, justice, and that most trying of all qualities, patience, 
and consideration for the condition of minds of those whose 
training and capacity are in contradistinction to your own. 


Although allowing yourself to be swayed by reason, you must 
never vacillate or flinch when a difficult thing should be 
done. Scout hardships by sharing them, however ; show 
appreciation when irksome service is rendered. Never brow- 
beat and sneer at shortcominos, but encourage and stimulate 
your men to their best, even if it is done by inciting a spirit 
of rivalry. When punishment is deserved, calmly order it 
quickly administered, however, not without premeditation, then 
afterwards do not persist in holding the culprit under the 
yoke of ignominy if he evinces a disposition to redeem his 
fault by good behavior. Zanzibaris hate to be kicked and 
cuffed about, any time preferring to stand up and take ten 
" sticks " to one kick or blow with the fist. 

When hardships and utter fatigue pressed heavily upon all, 
yet it was necessary to proceed to some known spot where 
water could be had, I have said, "Where are the faithful men 
in my caravan, where are the brave, strong men who serve me 
day and night, among my tired, my thirsty, my hungry, my 
sick men, who will march all night to find water and rest 
to-morrow ?" 

Every man able to stand would push forward to the front 
and signify his willingness to continue the march. 

For a long time I was unable to comprehend, when a long 
day's march was at an end, according to my judgment, if there 
chanced to be a stream fronting us or a hill just ahead, the men 
invariably manifested a disposition to cross the stream or ascend 
the hill. It proved to be from some notion of theirs to start fair 


in the morning, and in case of streams to avoid the discomfort 
of marching after an early soaking, for, as they quaintly say, 
" Better a stone for a pillow than for a burden next sun-up." 
The philosophy of this was beyond question soon, as the rains 
came tumblingr down durinor the nicjht, making^ the streams 
swollen, and torrential and difficult to ford or swim. The hill- 
tops were chosen simply to give to the entire caravan a vantage 
ground from whence to reconnoitre the country from all points, 
enabling them to descry attempted invasion of wild beasts, or 
frustrate the stealthy surprises of hostile natives. 

Francez, a porter, who spoke English admirably, a fact I did 
not discover for a long time, used to eye me constantly and ever 
sought to pitch his little tent near mine. Notwithstanding his 
lips might be swollen and cracking and his throat burning with 
thirst, when we would reach a stream he never quenched his 
own thirst until he had proffered to me a gourd full of the 
sparkling water. So unremitting was his scrutiny of me and my 
every move, that, I confess, it at times became most embarrass- 
ing. Through his vigilance, one of my askari was discovered 
in the very act of stealing from my tent while he was on duty. 
Through his lynx eyes I was saved being assassinated, one 
night, when a thief crept into my tent to steal my gun, and was 
about to stab me, when he found I was awake and saw him. 
Francez was in my tent, like a Hash, and almost strangled the 
poor wretch. He called my attention to various things, and 
brought me two prismatic caterpillars ; their bodies were five 
inches long, white, and the nodules were prismatic, but the 


colors not very vivid. Unfortunately, I had no means of pre- 
serving them, nor, in truth, any other specimens. Another day 
he brought me a bird's-nest, like a tailor bird, and anon pointed 
out a lot of brilliant red crabs.. He was also quite as much of a 
dabster in making fire with fire sticks as the natives. A native 
chanced to pass, the lobes of whose ears had been torn out by 
weighty ear-rings, and had been mended by cutting- off from the 
ragged fracture a tiny slice of the flesh and joined with porcu- 
pine quills, and bidding fair to heal by "first intention"; this 
poor native was lured by Francez into my presence, and 
wheedled to taking out the quills and separate the broken parts 
to show " Bebe Bwana how it was done." He quaintly called 
my attention to some native women inebriated, and said, "They 
are black women ; the white women never forget themselves 
any more than the black sultans." 

It is a singular thing that the native women, when into.xicated, 
reveal a certain lack of dignity and helpless inebriation that the 
men escape. They seem thoroughly brutalized and helpless to 
maintain anything like personal dignity or self-respect ; whereas 
a chief drunk is always a chief, he never loses the conscious- 
ness of his own greatness. I have seen a man, who appeared 
almost an imbecile under the influence of liquor, shake himself 
out of it all, roused into a sudden consciousness by some one 
exclaiming that another chief he was unfriendly to had greater 
powers than himself, and, with his returned rationality, condign 
the promulgator of such an idea to some great task, or e.xact a 
tribute of cows as punishment for his indiscretion. This pecul- 


iarity may be accounted for from the fact that the women let 
themselves go when they commence to drink, having no pres- 
tige to maintain, with no desire to overcome the intoxication, 
but rather to assist its progress. However, the next morning, 
after a nightly bout, they appear as fresh and sober as if they 
had never tasted their poinhc cups. 

However, drunk or sober, profanity is unknown, although 
they have a qualified equivalent in "you goat," "you cow," 
"you son of no man's virility." This, however, is the same 
among all peoples without a God, or a settled idol, or any idea 
of his Satanic highness. It is the privileged vice of those who 
know Christianity. Strange to relate, the natives never kiss, 
moved by tender sentiment. In lieu of kissing, they may be 
observed to clasp the palms of their hands spasmodically, and 
impetuously unclasp and press them wide open over the 
shoulders, across the knees, or upon the breast of the person 
they yearn to manifest their affection for. 

Francez brought me, sewed up in a bit of snake-skin, a per- 
fumed charm to hang on a tree facing my tent, to ward off an 
impending storm, and circled my tent several times, mumbling 
some invocation, scattering grass as he walked. This struck me 
as being very like the Japanese custom of hanging little paper 
messages, variously addressed, upon trees. 

My regular caravan numbered one hundred and fifty- 
three persons, all told. The official roll call and pay list 
may not be entirely uninteresting to my readers; the names 
are phonetically spelled. 










1 Hassan Hamis. 

2 Tunda Yadi. 

^ Oomara Mzuana. 

4 Demas. 

5 Hamis bin Afman. 

6 All bin Hamad. 

7 Semba bin Seligman. 

8 Sadi bin Seligman. 

9 Yabon Lelli. 

10 Sadi Wadyuma. 

1 1 Meni Youma Kebanda. 

12 Suadi bin Youma. 

13 Soda Wadiherie. 

14 Hamis Wadi .Suroro. 

15 Baraka Montonana. 

16 Hanna Amore Kombo. 

17 Sadi Wadi Farodi. 

18 Dosere Wampere. 

19 Marico. 

20 Unledi. 

21 Munombe bin Kombo. 

22 Hamid Unquezilla. 

23 Selligman Mamwiina. 

24 Baraka bin Seligman. 

25 Furiozo Wadehaha. 


26 Abdallah bin .Selim. 

27 Mabruka Imperia. 

28 Kara (Samson of caravan). 

29 Franczes bin Sadi. 

30 Munisa bin Muita. 

3 1 Mari Marabo. 

32 Zied bin Yuma. 

2)2, Songoro Maneyega. 

34 Sali bin Massib. 

35 Usofo bin Umari. 

36 Hassand Ballonza. 

37 Fernza Mardaneff. 

38 Safi Mhezila. 

39 Wadzuna. 

40 Farnza bin Sorora. 

41 Ebosie. 

42 Sali M'gazilia. 

43 Manboy Wah ! Shehongo. 

44 Sadi bin Hamid. 

45 Hamid bin Hamid. 

46 Hamis Wadzied. 

47 Francez (spoke English 


48 Uled bin Yuma. 

49 Hanamoura. 



50 James. 

51 Bryan bin Mousa. 

52 Hassan bin Mufta. 

53 Seru. 

54 Sucl Balleous. 

55 Dahoma bin Sellim. 

56 Munynamyezia. 

57 Yana Hairy. 

58 Yuma Wad La Edie. 

59 M'Guya. 

60 Marbruka Wadzie. 

61 Magaza. 

62 Hamis Sali. 

63 Sadalla bin Seligman. 

64 Yacont Samacie. 
6s Yuma. 

66 Fernza bin Muguro INlari. 

67 Hamis Kombo. 

68 Umari bin Abdallali. 

69 Usinga bin Sali. 

70 Usinga. 

7 1 Winecomdo. 

72 Feruse Ballons. 

73 Min bin Gainie. 

74 M'Selliam. 

75 Uman bif Tuffick. 

76 Sehaba. 

■]■] Abad. 

78 Umanie Wad Suboro. 

79 Adie bin Hamis. 

80 Hamad. 

81 Abdallah bin Yuma. 

82 Songoro (prey of lions). 

83 Hamis Impera. 

84 Wadyuma. 

85 Kamonice bin Unsa. 

86 Yuma Wad -Sadi. 

87 Nasib bin Ulali. 

88 Mabruka Nufta. 

89 AUamao Muongo. 

90 Muntozo. 

9 1 Kerv Voto. 

92 Menahadi. 

93 Sodie. 

94 Menahazy. 

95 Sali Mohozo. 

96 Mugumbo Murarba. 

97 Munya Shumarie. 

98 Hassand bin Abdalla. 

99 Hamis bin Adie. 
100 Ferusa Surmari. 
loi Alrnass. 

102 Umari. 

103 Simba Madmamba. 



04 Abdallah bin Abdad. 

05 Minvv Hat-tib. 

06 Mabruka Wad Hat-tib. 

07 Ali bin Hassan. 

08 Kermut (Clement, cook's 


09 Abdallah (cook). 

10 Baraka (steward). 

11 Ramezan (steward). 

12 Lidia (woman). 

13 Beda (woman). 

14 Suzzan (woman). 

15 Burt Hamis (woman). 

16 Burt Hamis Mzuria (wo- 


17 Abdallah. 

18 Hamis bin Barcada. 

19 Nedia Hamis. 

20 Hamadia. 





Songora bin Hamis. 
Demodio Sadi. 

Morboro du Kombo. 
Sali bin Yongo. 
Winum Shumaro. 
Sani bin Abdulla. 
Marbruki Wadi Haftu. 
Hamis bin Adie. 
Fenesa de Sumara. 
Ali bin Hassand. 
Simba Vidi Mombo. 
Darfurf Wad Ballouse. 

Wadicu bin Huma. 
Abdalla bin Hamis. 
Winy Hastibu. 


Hamis bin Abdallah. 







ASKARi {continued I. 
Maza bin Kombo. 
Hamis bin Baraca (Pagaiza). 

(Took the place of the thief.) 


Hamidi bin Ali (headman of headmen). 

Mabruka Keseysah. 

Bin Allah. 


Josefe (chief interpreter). 

Umbi Bwana (Masai interpreter). 

In addition to these men there were usually forty others, 
comprised of volunteers and guides, and porters' slaves. 





would be impossible to narrate half of 
rumors current as to the extremely 
crafty and atrocious deeds of the am- 
bitious, brutish, and abominable Sul- 
tan Mandara ; but without doubt he 
is much feared for his cleverness 
and duplicity. He is a keen, intel- 
igent observer, and a deep student 
yf.:i*in his wa)-, despite his marked 
deficiency in uprightness, justice, 
mercy, or morality. Proficiency in crafts and general knowl- 
edge in many diverse avenues have been and ever will be 
during his life the keynote of his power among the Chaga 
tribes. In the old feudal da}'s of his tyrannical sway he was 
a treasonable disturber of all covenants between these tribes, 
carrying whatever he listed by force of arms, united with 
chicanery, and was seldom defeated. When he wanted war- 
riors he levied on some minor tribe, who dare not refuse his 
mandates as they valued their freedom or their lives. He 
exercised his rights as potentate of Moschi with an imperious, 



overbearing despotism which has about come to an end. Dur- 
ing my sojourn at Moschi he set a trap into which he liimself 
untowardly fell, in order to possess a ([uantity of ivor)- he had 
received information of, through the good offices of some of his 
spies, certain minor sultan possessed and had buried, as is the 
African custom when treasure is to be safe gruarded, awaitine 
an opportunity to dispose of it to a coast-bound caravan, and 


who had injudiciously discovered its hiding-place to prying eyes 
in his eagerness to sell it to one of my headmen. 

Mandara's avarice set him to intriguing in a hazardous 
fashion. He sent his prime minister and other important head- 
men of his court to the unfortunate betrayed sultan to inform 
him that the Germans were now, as he knew, the rulers of 
Chaga land, and that he must pay a tribute of fort)'-five tusks 


of pcmba (elephant ivory) not under two fasilla (seventy 
pounds) in weight each antl every tusk. Howeve ■, as he, 
Mandara, was ivcll with the Germans, he would graciously 
undertake to oblige the sultan, who was his blood-brother 
as well as his old friend, b)' convej'ing the ivory by his 
safari to the Germans. In a purely confidential way the 
prime minister was charged to convey to the si.ltan further 
information of the Germans' dealing with their t\rann\', and 
that they were about to descend upon him ai.d his tribe 
without merc)', because he had been tardy in sending this 
tribute, exactl}' as the)* had descended upon the Masai, "with 
their big guns that killed a thousand men at one boom." 
It sufficed. The ivory was immediately committed to Man- 
dara's cara\an, and the terrorized sultan entreated the prime 
minister to enjoin upon the great and powerful Mandara 
the necessit)- of using his influence to stave oft the wrath of 
the Germans in his behalf, and he would send as a reward four 
fine milch cows. A few da)'s after this occurrence, Mandara 
sent to the German station, saying such a sultan had sent 
through him a tribute to them of twenty tusks of fine ivory. 
They were received, but in a brief time the (~)fificer in command, 
Baron von Witzslaben, learned the true inwardness of the 
transaction through hearing of a document written by Mandara, 
— who is one of the few natix'es who write, — and demanded 
the instant disgorgement of his ill-gotten plunder. Seeing that 
he had overreached himself, Mandara feigned a severe attack 
of fever, — fever is always an excuse in Africa for disinclination. 

394 Sn.'l'AN TO SIT.TAN. 

rA disabilit)-, and failure, — and pretended he coultl not 
then attend to tlie dcMnantl. P'our Gern^an as/car/ were 
sent with the officer's compliments, and the kind conso- 
lation that if his Highness was so ill and ditl not see his 
\va\' to make speedy reco\er\- before sundown, if the: 
balance of the pcinba was not forthcoming, it would 
not matter much, gimpowder tea would be ser\ed ; 
and the German batteries were, with much parade, 
conspicuously turneil in readiness upon Mandara's homa 
during the passage of the official message. Of course, 
his life would be worthless to him if he was so pros- 
trated ; death woukl be a relief to him. An answer 
came speedily back to the station from Mandara: — 

"Bwana Deitch, wait till noon, soon "Cne pciiiha will 
be sent, and two cows as well. " 

Meanwhile Mandara's eldest son living — he is re- 
puted to have murdered several of his sons, fearful 
that in order tf) g^tin accession to his possessions and 
sultanate they might be tempted to kill him — was 
enticed into the German bonia and genteelly held as 
hostaee for anotlier ofience committetl b\- liis tricky 
father, that the officer in charge likewise determined 
should be adjusted without evasion or delay. 

Intrigue seems one of Mandara's fundamental traits 
of character, and if not already will very .soon attain 
jfa 1 a climax the Germans will not tolerate. Either Sina 


SPEAR, of Kiboso, or Mireali of Murungu, are destined in the 



course of events to depose this arrant knave, if forsooth the 
inexorable Germans do not annihilate him and his tribe. 
Presumably he thinks, with his civilized brothers, "The king 
can do no wrong. " However, the man is not totally bad, 
and should be judged in accordance with his environments 
morally and physicall)-, and in a manner from his own stand- 
point, and the ethics ol the code of the natives as they seem 
to be, and not from the remote standpoint of European 
enlightenment or by European sentiment or conventions. 

Mandara had been exceedingly curious to see a white 
woman, and he had offered a gratuity of forty, eighty, and 
even one himdred cows if some Arab caravan would fetch him 
a white wife. This fact, which was patent to everybody in 
East Africa who knew aught of Mandara, had filled the 
white men whom 1 met with considerable apprehension 
lest I should be detained by him at Moschi or waylaid by 
his orders. I was very glad to be forewarned, and determined, 
in my own mind, to e.xercise every possible precaution 
and be more than guarded when I visited this sultan. 

At Moschi I was the CTuest of the German commander, and 
he was very averse to my crossing the ravine separating his 
station from Mandara's hoina, unless I went under the pro- 
tection of the German soldiers. As my policy had been to 
go solus to \'isit sultans of importance, without the protection 
of any outside power, without government headiuen or soldiers, 
I declined this proposition ; and after much solicitation and 
man\' presents from Mandara, consisting of cows, goats. 



sheep, beautiful furs, I determined to visit him, and did so, 
attended by twelve soldiers and an interpreter of my own 
caravan. Baron Von Witzslaben said before I left the en- 
cam])ment. "Mark you, I have my cannon set; it )ou do not 
return within the two hours, I shall send a squad ot soldiers to 
demand your delivery, and will throw Mandara in chains. If 
he refuses, I shall forcibly liberate you, bombard his honia, 
annihilate him and his iniquitous subjects. I consider it at 
best most rash that )'ou are going with your paltry corps of 

askari and few at- 
tendants, but do not 
ha\e an)' fear. I will 
protect you if occa- 
sion arises." 

I thought, as I 
was struoolino- down 
the m o u n t a i n - s i d e 
picking ni)' way over 
HELD IX i;omd.v;e. thc strcaui at the bot- 

tom ot the ravine, and struggling up the path leading to 
Mandara's boma, with the natives of his tribe Hanking the 
pathway in droves, that jierhaps it zvas rash, and alter a 
few words of caution given to headman and interpreter as 
to what I expected them to ilo in case we were tlebarred 
retin'n, we had attained the gateway of Mandara's honia and 
found a hearty welcome awaiting us. All the important men 
of his tribe were arra)ed in state finery, and they conducted 


me, with considerable pomp and many salaams, to Man- 
dara, who was prostrate by paralysis, unable to move his 
boil)- below his waist, excepting through the assistance ot 
his attendants, in a tlark, gruesome hut, — his Swahali liouse 
had been destroyed by Sultan Sina, o[ Kiboso, — stutt)- and 
malodorous, as are all native habitations ; he was 1) ing on a 
lono- Arab kitanda (bed), co\'ered with animal hides tor 
warmth, and a smoky fire in the centre of the room. In 
his helplessness and emaciation, one could scarcely believe 
this man possessed the power to terrorize all the lesser 
chiefs of the Kilimanjaro district, and from recent ac- 
counts cause the Germans a large expenditure of gun- 
powder. He has lost one eye, but the other is so bright 
and alert, with such a strange furtive olance in it, whilst a 
sinister smile always discloses his teeth, with an amount of 
nervous energy and crafty look about his mouth, that one 
cannot help but feel that he is in the presence of a man 
of prowess and full ot trickery and cunning, and capable of 
cruel subtertuges and brutal treacher)-. 

He was fairly jubilant on seeing me, extemled his hand, 
but in a piteous voice said, "Ah, now I have lived to see 
a white woman, and here I am so helpless." He immedi- 
ately asked me to take off mj- gloves. He examined my 
fincrers, and a sinoujar coincidence occurred in the fact that I 
wore an old-fashioned seal ring surrounded with diamonds, 
which seemed on a casual glance to be a counterpart of the 
signet ring presented to him b) Emperor William ; and he 



■^aid at once, "Ah, you are the friend 
of the kino." I said, " Cer- 
tainl)', 1 am the friend of 
many Icings, and I trust I may 
call Mandara my friend." And, 
a thing most peculiar, he seized 
both my hands and spat upon 
them. The blood flushed to m)- 
cheek, and in a moment ot anger 
I rose to my feet and took my 
pistol from my belt, when my head- 
man .said, "Re content, Bebe Bwana; 
Mandara never was known to spit 
on any one's hands before in that 
manner; it is an evidences ot hom- 
age; do not be angry." I will have 
more to say of this custom later 
on, but it was ilecmed the greatest 
evidence of humiliation and 
homage that this chief 
i\\\j could hax^e ])Ossibl\' paid 
me, loathsome as it seemed 
to me. 

After resuming m\' self- 
possession, he turned to me 
/ and said, would the white 
' (jueen let him see her hair. 




I let it down and pullfd it well about me, and he said, 
"Ngai, Ngai I it is the threads of the sun's light"; and he 
said, "May I touch it?" And waiving- for once my rule of 
noli nic taiigcrc, 1 answered, " Certainly." He stroked it in a 
strange, caressing way, and called out to summon his wives 
to come and look at the white woman's tresses. When I 
gathered them loosely up antl replaced the pins, he indulged 
in an undertone conversation with these Avomen, who, over- 
come by curiosity, ventured to ask why I did not shave off 
my hair, as they did theirs ; and IMandara sneeringly retorted, 
"It is too mziiria sana (it is too beautiful); why should she cut 
it oft?" And then he continued in an incisive tone, " She is a 
white queen, and you are all slaves and black." He quaintl)- 
drew himself up in a helpless way on his elbows, turned 
towards me, and said, " I have expected \'ou for many moons. 
The last moon, when it kissetl Kibo, brought a message to 
me and said, 'The white queen is coming.'" I stopped him 
and queried, " Mandara, was the message not brought b)' 
one of )our runners?" 

And he laughed and said, "Perhaps, perhaps. ISut the 
message came, Bebe Bwana ; I knew that \'ou were to pay me 
a visit." To this I protested that, had he not been elisabletl. I 
should never have condescended to take the trouble to visit him. 
It was his place to have |jaid me a state visit, with pomp and 
ceremony, and I should have received him in court dress, such 
as white queens wear. 

" Ah, ah," he dolorously replied, " to show you how much 1, 


Mandara, the greatest sultan of Chaga, care for this honor, I will 
give )'ou the last piece of work I shall ever execute." It was a 
bracelet cut into diagonal strands on the surface, made of an 
amalgam of sih-er and pewter, which he placed himself upon 
my arm, and, assisted by one of his attendants, bent with long, 
slender pincers so that it clasped close, and said, '' Wear this 
until Mandara follows the sun home, and nobody in his province 
will ever dare to do you harm." 

He possessed many strange jewels, contained in a little 
casket he fingered over, that had been given to him by Euro- 
pean officers, hunters, Arabs, and from various other sources, 
including the princely gifts sent b)- the Emperor William. 
After pre.senting Mandara with a jewelled sword and a ring \ut 
coveted, and I was on the eve ot leaving, he requested me to 
give him m)' picture to put with a collection of prints he pos- 
sessed ol white women. " Yes, )ou shall have m\- photograph 
if )ou let me take )oiu's." In a tone ot injured \'anit)', he said, 
" But see, Bebe Bwana, I cannot stand, I cannot hold m\- spear, 
I cannot aim m)' bitudiiki" (gun); and he signed one ot his 
wives to cast aside the large Hyrax fur robes that covered him, 
exposing his mere skeletons of legs. " Once I was the deer ot 
the mountain; animal nf)r bird could go where I could not. 
I have stood on out; mountain and killetl ni)* enem)' who stood 
opposing me on another mountain. I, Mandara, am the great- 
est finidi living! I, Mandara, am the greatest warrior and 
fear not Sina, and fear not Masai I I, Mandara, am the great- 
est sultan." 


He tried to get me to consent to take a photograph of his 
eldest son, tlie scion of his Highness, protesting that he had 
looked like the crown prince when he was his age. After much 
parley, I procured a sketch which is a ver)' good counterpart 
of Mandara, the egotistical invalid, stripped of the glory of his 
own opinion. I sent him m)' promised photograph, accom- 
panied b)' five hundred grains of quinine, and tea, sugar, and 
blankets and cloths he coveted ver)- much, and received in re- 
turn many additional beautiful presents, among which was his 
own personal fine spear, many goats, sheep, and tusks of i\-or\'. 
Mandara is very boastful of a num- ^ ,.^^^ /^ 

ber ot connectingr natiu'al caves be- -v •-.> jx's 
neath the hill he occupies. I was ^^k^i^f^A /^ 
not permitted to pass the entrance of 
the first. The story runs that during 
an attack by his enemies, he has had 
them allured into these ca\-es where arab flags of welcome. 
a large posse of his warriors, there lying in ambush, charged 
upon them and killed several hundred. These caves recall 
the following circumstance : Mandara is the most dissolute 
sultan I met. He respects nobody's rights, and does whatever 
he lists ; frequently has raided adjacent tribes, and captured 
the )'oung girls and women, driving them into his harem like 
cattle, and when he has wearied of his captives he would mag- 
nanimously bestow them upon his favorites, who are debased 
enough to consider it a great favor and a decidedly economical 
plan in comparison to procuring wives by purchase. 



The women were not fine, and looked dejected. The beads 
and other gifts I bestowed upon them were accepted with avidity. 
I was able to procure a woman's ample kaniki (blue cotton), 
beautifully embroidered with multicolored beads in Turkish 
designs. In consequence ot the sudden cold winds that sweep 
over this district, men and women wear furs or hides as do 
the Masai, quantities of Chaga chains, and lustre beads, pew- 
ter and brass ornaments. Their 
burial customs are the same as all 
throuo'h Chatia land. 

The) all seemed uneasy and 
ilubious what attitude the Ger- 
mans would take towards them ; 
and well the)' might. I was able 
to procun; a pair of native-made 
goat-skin bellows from Manclara's 
chief fiuidi, some fine bows and 
arrows, and several Colobus white 
and sable monkey- skins. I made blood-brotherhood with 
Mandara's son, which was the same as though the ceremony 
had been between the sultan and myselt. 

The invalid of my cara\an was much terrified b)' a native 
woman's constant ai)i)arition before her tent during the night 
marches. This poor .soul had lost her reason during a tragic 
encounter with lions in the jungles, whilst she ami her son 
were in flight from slave raiders, I believe, and they were 
picked up by an English caravan and turned over to the 


i:lue cotton bead and chain 



Germans. This mad woman, although harmless, had some 
vague idea coursing through her disordered brain to carry off 
the invalid to some sequestered place. Indeed several attempts 
were made during my safari, by natives, to kidnap this same 
fever-stricken one ; augmenting my vigilance as well as my 
apprehensions and cares. Dr. Baxter had assisted me by 
medical attendance from Taveta to Moschi when the case had 
reached its crisis ; however, the necessities of ambulance care 
could not be relinquished in this case until Pangani was reached 
when homeward bound. 

One of the most touching incidents came under my per- 
sonal observation whilst at Moschi, respecting a little native 
child, who had been captured by a slave-raider with other 
unfortunates, and freed by the German government. The 
missionaries are generally made custodians of the freed slaves, 
and receive from the government a pittance of not over five 
dollars (one pound), I believe, to take, educate, rear, clothe, 
and feed them. In this way it happened that the celebrated 
mission doctor, Wm. Baxter, who has spent the best part 
of his adult life in Africa, during a professional visit to the 
station where the little child, not over six years of age, 
had been placed, noticed him, and the child was immediately 
drawn by the doctor's kindliness and evinced love for chil- 
dren, and became deeply attached to him. 

When the doctor had finished the duties of his profes- 
sional visit, and returned to his own post, distant from the 
place where he met the child something like twelve or fifteen 



miles, and over a very difficult range of rugged steep foot- 
hills of Kilimanjaro, intersected by deep ravines, gulleys, and 
water courses, as well as being infested by wild animals, 
a day or so elapsed when one night he was aroused by 
his attendants, who brought a little native waif utterly worn 


out by fatigue and hunger. It was his little friend, who, 
unattended, had braved the terrors of night and prowling 
animals, and the hardships of a perilous journey, as he 
followed the tracks of the good doctor, guided only by his 
child's affection and innate instinct of trapper. 

Touched as the doctor was by compassion for the devoted 
brave little soul, after the child had recuperated it was neces- 



sary that he should return him to his legitimate protectors. 
With much grief and disappointment to the child, and reluc- 
tance on the part of the doctor, this was done. 

Before a fortnight had elapsed, again during the blackest 
hours of night the child put in an appearance at Moschi, the 
doctor's station,* having eluded the vigilance of his warders, and 
ignoring the terrors he had encountered during his former es- 
capade. Heroic little chap ! The doctor could no longer resist 
his pleading words of love and desire to be his mioto (little 
boy), and took measures to secure the right of guardianship. 

When I saw this child he was trudging up a steep hill, 
bearing on his staff just like a little old man, his face radiant 
with a welcome for the doctor, who had been on a long 
journey. What will the future of this child be, I wonder! 

♦Since this went to press Ibe Germans have expelled the English missionaries from the German Kili- 
manjaro district- 





, ARCHING over the southeastern foot- 
hill of Kilimanjaro, after leaving 
Moschi, towards evening, there was 
an ominous rustle of the leaves and 
movement of the branches in a shady 
bosk, which seemed to indicate the 
presence of a skulking animal or ser- 
pent. Investigation revealed three albi- 
nos who, in terror, were striving- to gain 
concealment. Their hair was not the yellow-white discolor- 
ation found throughout Africa, prompted by individual fancy, 
although not tribal, produced by bleaching with lime, but it 
was pure dazzling white, soft and flossy; and their eyes 
were a very pale pink, the iris dilating and contracting 
with (jLiick, nervous snap, resembling the action of those 
of white rabbits ; eyelashes white and coarse like spun 
silver, and in striking contrast to the sickly unprepossessing 
ashy black of their complexions, which has no given place 
in the scale of colors. They looked dejected and debased, 
were quite deficient in the allure and elasticity presented by 


most of the East Africans. They were shy, and refused 
to hold comnuinication with any of my interpreters or per- 
sonally with me. I proffered to them tempting gifts, which 
they would not accept ; finally, as they became over-embar- 
rassed b)- our friendl)- overtures, they ran away and again hid 
in the adjacent bushes. Their teeth were filed in points and 
stained brown with nut-juice. Low of stature, and craniums 
sloping from the forehead to the apex, thick protruding lips 
and jaws, they resembled Aztecs ; and certainly, from all 
physical indices as well as their deportment, seemed to rank 
as the lowest intellectually, if not the most degraded Africans 
met. What their tribe could not be ascertained ; and from 
information subsequently gleaned, naturally leads to the con- 
clusion that albinos are simply freaks of nature liable to 
occur in any tribe, yet tabooed by their own families and 
tribes, and by all other tribes. Per force of circumstances, based 
upon the stigma of nature, they become the denizens of 
sequestered places, pursuing a migratory and precarious ex- 

Marvels trooped on all sides calling for attention and too 
often provoking alarm. It had, up to this period, been a 
keen disappointment that we had not seen, even at a dis- 
tance, elephants. Struggling down the deep dip of the hills 
into a ravine, when the van of my little army was in the 
bottom, which made the crotch between the hills, and the 
line of men extended over a mile behind, so that the last 
man's head had not been seen over the brow of the hill, 


elephants' fresh tracks were before me. My first thought 
was to get a photograph, if they should put in an appearance; 
then with a sportswoman's pricle my heart swelled with the 
idea I could possibly get a shot at them ; this was absurd, 
with only rifles of small calibre. A crush and crash and 
heavy thud of the ground put my Zanzibaris' hearts and 
mine too in pawn. The quadrupedal earthquakes were 
emerging from the trees and about to cross our path. In 
wild dismay I cast a hasty backward glance to see how the 
Zanzibaris were going to behave, and there was not one 
single human creature in sight; it seemed as though the 
earth had swallowed the entire caravan, not even a human 
sound. I stood alone in my glory! My knees relaxed, my 
spine gave way, and down I sank amid the tall grasses, 
terror-stricken. Elephant number one came in full view 
and beat about to the right and left, with his trunk in close 
proximity to me, evidently aware of the presence of aliens, 
but never paused, when snivelling and puffing hot breaths of 
inlantile complaints came trotting after a baby elephant 
reluctantly following its sire, then came the ungainly mother, 
lashing the youngster into a quicker trot by slapping it on 
one side of its haunches, then on the other, with her trunk. 
They all three sniffed about and tossed their trunks into the 
air, and the male returned to round his small family up, 
but trotted off without desire to molest us. After a few 
minutes had elapsed, soot-balls began to blossom amid the 
foliage, and presently my loyal, leal, brave fellows emerged 








smiling, chattering at the top of their voices about the 
tcnibo (elephants). A wandering band of hunters, evi- 
dently on the trail of these elephants, passed us during the 
day ; they carried loaded spears with huge barbed poisoned 
arrowheads, which they throw at the elephants, but always 
strive to get back the loaded shafts when the elephants are 
brought low, as they are difficult to make and invaluable. 

The keen sight of the natives is astounding as exemplified 
by native guides. A guide would say, pointing, " Bebe 
Bwana, very soon comes such or such a mountain, or vine, 
or plain, or village." And I would strain my eyes striving to 
penetrate the limitless spaces, unable to descry the slightest 
indication of the aforesaid, or the slightest premonition of the 
appearance of a caravan he might aver was coming ; neither 
could I with my field glasses espy a single object to verify his 
assertion. However, in due course of a day or two's march 
we would be in lull view of the announced object, or within 
shouting range of the caravan. There is just one cogent 
objection to offer on this point: may the natives not be so 
well posted as to the physical aspect of the country, and 
familiarized with such by constantly traversing it; and may 
they possibly not have learned from experience that the 
mzimgus caravans march at a certain rate of speed and are 
most likely in a given time to reach a point they know as a 
fixed fact, or that a caravan, rumor has bruited is en route, 
will be met ? or can it be that these naturals actually have 
that same keenness of vision peculiar to birds and some wild 


animals, and in some marked individual cases extremely 
acute? Another remarkable trait, or gift, which it would 
seem is an attribute possessed by all native peoples, is 
their acute faculty of hearing. The native guides, like the 
North American Indians, would sprawl flat on the ground and 
press their ears close upon it, then announce with a degree 
of accuracy certain discoveries: "a herd of buffalo," "simba," 
"zebra." "elephants," "a saftiri" "natives," "water." 

At Lake Jipo, and, in fact, on the banks of various 
streams, personally I distinctly heard men talking in a low 
voice over the water from the opposite bank, by sending the 
voice close to the water's surface, and even heard them speak 
across ravines from the edge of one precipice to the other. 
The latter denotes some peculiar vibrant qualities of the at- 
mosphere, whatever may be the secret of the former. On all 
sides could be heard th(; laughter of merry girls and Icon 
(lads), and the voices of men and women from distances 
which would prove a rarity or peculiarity in the carrying 
properties of the atmosphere. 

Water seemed to be my African ordeal. Shouts and yells 
are always in order with Zanzibaris on safari, and only when 
particularly vociferous does a leader heed them, although 
there is usually an intonation that is significant when 
prompted through peril. 

A great shout of warning from my followers rang up from 
the valley to me, as I was cautiously picking my steps along 
a customary goat-path on the mountain-side. Although not 


easily flustered, their repeated yells and wild, significant ges- 
tures, I must confess, slightly alarmed me. The thought flashed 
through my brain that possibly I might be on the eve of 
stepping into some gorge or trap unseen by me but discern- 
ible to my followers from below. As their yells continued, I 
deemed it wise to pause and ascertain the cause of the 
augmenting commotion, so I wheeled around, and planted my 
back against the craggy mountain-side. At this act their 
yells redoubled. I demanded an explanation. No answer 
came, none was needed. The rains of the nieht before had 
gorged the usual water courses and, as an overflow, rushed 
in a perfect deluge down upon me where unwittingly I stood. 
It was only by crouching upon the ground and clutching the 
scant shrubbery that I kept from being swept over the steep 
side to the bottom of the ravine in the belching waters. It 
was over in a momeni. My sense of the ridiculous, together 
with thankfulness for my escape, put me in such good humor 
that even the terrified porters seemed to catch the contagion 
of my merry mood, and were never so light-hearted as during 
the remainder of the day after this incident which threatened 
danger to their leader. Although drenched to the skin, an 
hour's march in the sun made my clothing as dry as usual. 
Each da)' every garment became saturated with perspiration, 
the heat was so intense, and great caution was required to 
avoid sudden chill. When we halted I always put on an 
additional garment, a long silk gown which was carried by 
Baraka or Ramezan. Another thing I must confess, that I 


was just feminine enough to feel more comfortable to have 
my short travel-stained frock well covered down to my feet 
when standing about among my porters. My woman's cos- 
tume was never a hindrance to my progress, and I cannot 
conceive how masculine attire would have in an)' wa)' been 
an advantage to me. 

This brings me to state that there is a certain recognized 
distinction in the native women's costumes, which has as subtle 
and significant an import as the sleeves of the Japanese 
women's kiinonas. A Taveta or Chaga woman who is dissolute 
with Swahali caravans usually wears the cloths of the coast 
tribes, and is more or less stigmatized by the more conventional 
of her own tribe. This, too, from no high sense of virtue, 
but from tribal prejudice, based on the fact that the woman 
has bartered her favors to porters or to aliens ; hence therein 
resides the secret of her diserace. 

Ideas of hospitality among natives are of a very singular 
strain. If one sultan visits another sultan, or a man of 
importance another, or even friend visits friend, the host puts 
at his guest's disposal one or more of his own wives, and allows 
him general freedom throughout his home. These civilities 
are commonly interchanged throughout Chaga land as well 
as at Faveta. 

A quaint sight presented itself during a little call upon 
a chief's family. A she-goat with her kids bleating about her 
as she stood over a native baby who was laid comfortably 
upon a sheaf of grass suckling it, letting- her own )oung await 


their turn, when the adopted baby should be satisfied ; 
presently the child slept, and the goat cautiously picked up 
her feet and backed away without disturbing its slumbers. 
This goat returned at regular intervals to see if all was well 
with her charge, and was ready to answer its demands when 
hunger's cry called to her. 

A native promenaded before me, shaking his head in order 
to display his elaborately dressed hair, plastered with grease 
and red clay. He expressed entire willingness to dispose of 
it for a stipulated amount of beads, wire, and cloth. Whilst 
awaiting the tonsorial preparations, it occurred to me to in- 
spect the man's head ; the revelation of its animated con- 
dition compelled me with regret to refuse to carry out the 


The difficulties of photography in a tropical country like 
Atrica, during the rainy season, when 1 visited it, are obviously 
great. Negatives become affected by the heat and the moisture, 
and a fungus growth will develop upon them which, it not 
entirely effacing the picture, certainly produces regretable 
blemishes. However, there is nothing which puts a traveller's 
narration so much in evidence, or constitutes so admirable a 
syllabus to refresh the memory of passing events, as photog- 
raphy, good or bad. The place one visits for the first time, 
for example, my circumnavigation of Lake Chala, and the pho- 
tographs taken, cannot be discounted by any contradictory 
statement prompted by jealousy or incredulity. It is to be 
regretted that the glowing colors of the foliage, which is so 


multifold, and the gorgeous floral effects, as well as atmospheric 
effects, cannot be reproduced ; and then, too, the lack of artistic 
focus, unavoidable in instantaneous pictures, deprives the view 
of perspective, and when a representation of grass over ten feet 
high is in the foreground, looking across a plain fifty to one 
hundred miles wide, with a mountain several thousand feet high 
as a far-away background, or rather the central point, the effect 
is somewhat distorted and disappointing. Nevertheless, it 
serves a purpose far transcending the force of mere description. 

The natives' horror of being photographed makes it most 
difficult to obtain satisfactory portraits of them. Once, and 
only once, with their knowledge I held up my camera before 
a group of natives, employing the photographer's fiction to 
attract their attention, " Look here and you will see a bird 
fly out." The result justified the deception. Their good- 
natured, laughing phsiognomies depict anything but brutality 
or sa\agery. 

Glass negatives are constantly in peril of damage, gelatine 
is liable to melt or mildew, and the necessary chemicals to 
develop at once the negatives are too frequently utterly spoiled 
by the atmospheric conditions. There is much to be accom- 
plished in perfecting photographic paraphernalia ibr tropical 

It had fully been my intention to take a phonograph, 
despite its unwieldiness, but at that time there was no 
guaranteed surety that the wax cylinders would withstand 
the climate, and the project was wisely abandoned on the 











advice of skilled electricians. The Sultan of Zanzibar was the 
possessor of a phonograph which he kindly proffered for 
my use, but this instrument was not in working order ; more- 
over, I naturally declined the responsibility entailed, fearful it 
should be damaged. Now I am quite convinced it would 
have been worse than useless, terrifying the natives to such 
an e.xtent they would have stigmatized me as a mistress of 
black art. 





UT of the German fort at Panoani, 
the moment the first sun was fired 
and the reveille beat, I ordered 
my porters to carry me, only too 
;lad that the night of dread and 
suffering had at last ended, and 
eager to outdistance the com- 
-mander's limit of power before he 
could prohibit my egress. 
\v^ ^ The mosquitoes had mart\Ted 

me; my entire body was mottled and burning from their 
merciless stings. In my utter helplessness, for the first time 
I relinquished a thought or a care as to my personal effects; 
in consequence, for the first time, articles disappeared. 

Alack ! when within a few daj's' march of Pangani, I met 
with the unfortunate accident which so nearly cost me my 
life. At the time there were nothing but German swamps 
and unplcturesque stretches of valley country elongated be- 
tween distant mountains, and, as I experienced a slight degree 
of fatigue and natural reaction, deemed it a sensible thing 



to husband my strength, betook myself to my Palanquin, and 
allowed myself to be carried. 

Bent upon accomplishing some detailed work and arran- 
ging botanical specimens, I paid too little heed to the con- 
struction of an extemporized tree bridge. As it was the 
rainy season, the sap was well up in the trees ; those 


selected on both brinks, and felled ior our purpose, looked 
fair and sturdy ; and when duly strapped together in the 
middle, and all was ready, a number of porters were sent 
ahead to test the structure ; they crossed safely. I should 
have walked across, however, without a thought of danger. I 
allowed myself to be carried in ni)- Palanquin ; the bark 
proved to be unsound and slippery ; my bearers maintained 
their footing with difficulty ; when in the middle of the 


bridge, over the swollen torrent which noisily tumbled in its 
stony bed twenty or more feet below us, the bark peeled 
off from the logs, and the usually sure-footed porters were 
hurled with me down into the rushing waters, whereas 
they at their peril were dashed headlong into the dubious 
channel, and compelled to struggle for their lives. For a 
■hazardous moment, only a moment, although time and space 
are so immeasurably elongated into eternities during like 
terrors, I was whirled about, protected from injury by my 
Palanquin, but with mj' head down and completely submerged 
in thick yellow water, in jeopardy of drowning. Several addi- 
tional porters — for my bearers, poor fellows, had all they could 
do to save themselves — precipitously descended the bank and 
plunged into the seething waters and extricated me with great 
difficulty from the Palanquin in which I was helplessly buried 
beneath a confused mass of cushions, besides being under water. 

Poor, affrighted fellows, in their wild efforts to carry me 
out of the water, up the steep rugged bank, hopelessly 
slipped and dropped me a second time, with serious injury 
to my spine, where I had struck the rocks. A second rescue, 
and I was carried, limp and helpless, as I thought per- 
manently disabled, up the bank. When 1 had somewhat 
recovered from the shock, I realized that ni)' life depended 
upon reaching the coast at the earliest possible moment. 

Meeting the German officer at Masslndi, where he had 
preceded me, I did not mention the fact of the disaster to 
him, although my helplessness was not possible to conceal. 






He took it for granted I had the fever, a very natural conclu- 
sion, as he was then stricken with the malady, yet proposed 
to extend his official journey back to a mountain village 
where the natives were rebellious ; hence it did not excite his 
suspicion to know, notwithstanding illness, that I would, that 
I must, proceed on my journey. 

To this point coin had been useless to me, and the re- 
mainder of my rupees seemed too small to meet the demands for 
the balance of the journey. I was given an order on the officer- 
in-chief at Pangani to refund me for the surplus loads I had 
gladly transferred to the officer then at INIoschi, at coast rates, 
deducting the fifteen rupees a load for transportation, when I 
found coin would be required at the fag end of the journey. 
That claim has never been settled. However, another officer 
at a station later on answered my request sent by a messenger 
at night for one hundred rupees, which have been refunded. 

By instituting frequent relays of sturdy carriers, — for 
many of my porters were without loads, who were induced 
by promises of extra reward to carry me in a light hammock, 
marching day and night, — one clay they made the extraor- 
dinary distance of forty miles through the swampy country of 
Rufa. The German surgeons at the various stations were 
horrified that I should proceed in the dying condition they 
deemed me to be in. However, after using every effort short 
of force, and having- exhausted all arguments to induce me to 
tarry and recuperate at Bomo and Lewa, the gentlemen were 
more than hospitable, and went so far as to compassionately 


tender to me personal care, cooking with their own hands delica- 
cies, proffering and even loading me down with the choicest arti- 
cles they had in store when I would depart. Some few of these 
German stations were comfortable habitations, though not 
quite finished, and the saw and hammer of the carpenters could 
be heard. It must be remembered that I was utterly power- 
less, and had to lie just where placed, dying, it seemed, by 
degrees, my poor brain half delirious ; but the rule of my 
camp life had become so indelibly stamped that I knew 
enough to be silent unless sure of the words I was to utter. 
Nervous dysentery had several times assailed me after 
leaving Chaga land, and now it caused serious havoc, and it 
was impossible to eat a bit of solid lood, or taste beef tea or 
beef extract. Every day my distress and emaciation grew more 
apparent, and Hamidi and Josefe were constantly by my side, 
if, indeed, not assisting my carriers. They would lift me ten- 
derly in and out of the hammock, fan me, carry an umbrella 
over me, try in every possible way to tempt me to eat, and 
encourage me when my vitality was about to ebb out. The 
tenderness and delicacy of these two men, as well as that 
of Ramezan and Baraka, I can never praise too highly. 
In fact, every man in the caravan developed unexpected 
traits of devotion and gentleness. My big man Kara was 
ever eager to serve, when a single-handed aid was required 
in carrying me through the swamps; and others, too numerous 
to mention, expressed in deeds their solicitude, and were 
fired with the desire to bring me alive back to the coast. 



The vague remembrance of the salutes fired in my honor 
by the Germans still affects me in a strange manner — the 
country, the natives, the intermingling of so much military 
displa}', primitives and 
rattle ot guns, my des- 
perate condition, the deed 
accomplished, the narrow- 
ing down of my soul's 
desire only to return alive 
and receive the adulation 
of the one whose mortal liiiS 
lips are now silenced by 
a journey to that bourne 
where one goes, but 
nevermore returns to ter- 
restrial haunts. 

To the officers and 
even to the good doctor ^ clandestine meeting. 

I was so very uncivil. When proffered courtesies and medical 
attention, I was at once apprehensive that if I became either 
their guest or patient they could e.xercise in the name of human- 
ity a warrantable edict based upon the fact that my condition 
was altogether too precarious to admit of my being removed 
from their hospital or fort. One thought possessed me, 
namely, to catch the steamer at Zanzibar and start home ; 
the one boon I yearned for was to live at least until I 
should once more see my husband and reach my home. 


All the chances seemed against me ; the doom of death 
seemed upon me. Having hired Moias to transport us to 
the anchored ship off Zanzibar, although there was little 
wind, by employing sixty oarsmen the Mo7u I had embarked 
upon with about fifty selected porters, headmen, interpreters, 
arrived at the steamer in the unusual time durino; monsoons 
of twenty-eight hours ; the rest of my caravan and imple- 
ments followed a day later. With difficulty I was carried on 
board of the " Madura." Capt. Avern and all on board were 
shocked at my ghastly apparition. I was laid upon the sky- 
light ; all .sorts ot arrangements had been made to secure for 
me every comfort, and contribute to my well-being. Friends 
came to see me; doctors were consulted; and the late Capt. 
W. E. Stairs, who was just forming his caravan, full of 
compassion for his own expedition, which proved fatal to 
him, implored me to execute certain documents as he ven- 
tured to whisper to me his solemn conviction, shared by all, 
that I would die on the voyage. Upon my emaciated 
upper arms he slipped a pair of silver bracelets which only 
measured six inches in circumference. He exclaimed, "I 
never beheld such an object of physical ravages at Nelson's 
starvation camp!" In truth, I seemed to be surely dying 
Irom the sequences of the injury to my spine, starvation, and 
dysentery. After having escaped African fever — no, not 
actually escapctl, for I find that I too have become a victim 
to that insidious African complaint — fever, what you will — 
from which seldom, if ever, any traveller in Africa escapes — 



the craving to return. Africa is a hard but irresistibly 
fascinating mistress, holcling fast with magnetic swa}' lier 

After a safe, altliough thrilHng, venture among hostile and 
peaceful tribes, and a safe march through a difficult country, 
with only one dead and one thief left behind me, my heart 


bounding with delight born of success, it seemed a cruel 
fate to be thus disabled. 

Despite my serious illness, so exhausted I could not 
articulate an audible sound, sufferingr excruciatine aeony, I 
feel a glow of pardonable pride, in which my friends and my 
sex must join me, in the fact that I personally discharged 
all of my men, and saw them disband, and that I made full 


settlement of every payable obligation connected with my 
caravan, as completely as though in the possession of my 
normal health. My misfortunes were not to end when 
embarked on the dear old " Madura," although every profes- 
sional care and personal consideration were extended to me, 
and the after deck of the ship fitted up for my occupancy 
like a private yacht; reposing. In order to breathe, on the sky- 
light day after day, semidelirious, one day a sudden gust of 
the monsoon lifted ni)- mattresses with me upon them and 
hurled me against the iron stanchions of the ship's railings, 
and, but for the canvas sides, would have carried me into the 
ocean. My skull was fractured. The captain, surgeon, and 
officers at first thought it must result seriously, but the cap- 
tain had personally provided for my use a couple of tons of 
ice, and its constant applications to my head kept down in- 
flammation. Strange fact, I shall always regard this calamity in 
the light of a benefit, for it aroused me from a subtle coma- 
tose condition, which was gradually enshrouding my sentient 
being and chaining my will. Day and night through my 
distracted brain passed in review all of the incidents and the 
solicitudes of camj) life. A little concert-hall song one of 
the porters used to drone out in broken English, in wliich 
the refrain was " Lady Locket lost her pocket," would come 
mumbling from ni)- lips; anon some order would be cried 
out, and the personages haunting m\- delirium were the 
phantoms of those who had served me with such marked 
patience and loyalty during my safari of over a thousand 



oeling of lile's course, occurred: awaiting 

miles. Various gifts ami jirayer symbols were brought to mc 
by the headmen and principals of m\- caravan from their 
wives or from themselves. A curious incident, revealing the 
chance and odd ju^^, 
my arrival was a 
Zanzibaris servant, 
known to many as 
Saala bin Osman, 
who desired to ac- 
compan)' me back 
to England, al- 
though he had but 
just returned to 
Zanzibar. He nar- 
rated with consid- 
erable pathos that 
he had become a 
Christian bo\-, and 
that his father and \f\r. ml-siciaxs. 

brother were dead, and that his iMohammcdan friends would 
no lono-er tolerate him ; in tact, that his lile was in dano^er. 
Whilst his story was in progress, Hamidi, m\' headman, 
dressed like a satrap, in spotless white and crimson velvet 
and gold-lace, came with a troup of magnificent personages, 
who proved to be my working porters, transformed into 
Zanzibaris gentlemen of color. .Saala and Hamidi exchanged 
glances, surprise broke over both faces, and they e.xclaimed 



in concert, "This is my brother!" And so it proved Saala's 
supposed dead brother was my trusted Hamidi. Had I ever 
dreamed I should have lived to reach Engrland, I should cer- 


tainly have brought Hamidi with me. Suffice it my voyage 
of horrors progressed ; once more we were at Aden, then 
Port Said, and the local color changed ; the sights and 



.-v^"-vi^^?:?^-^'^\H;,. ^*^-f.^ 

scenes assumed the guise of familiarity, and my condition 
was even more deplorable, and we sighted Naples. 

With all the reserve force I could command I eathcred 
myself together for the shocking ordeal of meeting my 
husband. A voice, that set my heart thumping, tremulously 
asked, "Does she live?" Ah, yes, she did live, and felt 
that from henceforth protectetl and safe, she would surely 
recover, proud and happy in the 
thought to be at last in shelter- 
ing, loving arms; and, more 
than all, success was im- 
bued with a new glamour, 
for he smiled and in 
well-measured adulation 

Friends and the dear 
faithful Jacques overwhelmed 
me with such a welcome. The 

y..-\ . il 1 J 1 "DOES SHE LIVE?" 

little town, the loved home, was 

redolent with a greeting, and brilliant with llags, among 
which conspicuously floated my own American flag, which 
had acted as a talisman throughout my safari. Weeks of 
suspense and agony, then my constitutional vitality asserted 
itself under the auspices of skilled medical care and un- 
abated nursing of devoted friends and faithful servants, and 
once more I was well and strong. The rest has no place 
here in this volume, save in the few words in the dedication. 





»UERYING was it worth while? 
After serious retrospection over the 
pros and cons, tlie expenditure of 
time, money, personal force, hazards, 
loss and gain, and finally facing as 
best I may the irrefutable sorrow 
which is upon me, requiring more 
courage to bear up under than all 
else which has befallen me, or can befall me, I 
am prepared to answer the quer)- provisionally, without a 
tinge of cant. 

Yes, it was worth while, if it lies in my feeble power 
after the quest I ventured to make to contribute something 
substantial towards the betterment and enlightenment of the 
natives, as well as to be instrumental in convincing their 
future rulers and teachers that more humanity and practical 
common-sense will be more fruitful. If the time, money, 
personal force, hardships, and ethnological researches result 
in putting into my hands useful productive work to do in 
behall of the primitives, if in ni)* future work I may dexx'lop 



those rare attributes of nobility and meritorious character 
which shall make me a worthy exponent of the philosophy and 
example oi him whose name I proudl)- bear, then, I reiterate, 
it was worth while. 

Jaui(^yPL tS ^/zl£^9C(rt^ 


Two large-sized pigskin cases, filled. 

Two small leather emergency cases, surgical fittings. 

One French-Sheldon medicine belt, filled. 

Fever thermometers, hypodermic cases. 

Lymph and lancets for vaccination. 

\'ariou5 splints, carbolized gau/e, bandages. 

Hazehne, ether, chloroform, soda, liorax. 

Eno fruit salts, violet water, toilet soap. 

Traveller's Surgical and Medical C.uide. 



One or two for dose, three times ilaily in cholera, dysentery, or diseases of the bladder 
attended with discharge of pus. 


One or two taken immediately after eating to relieve indigestion, and to assist the diges- 
tion. One or two taken with meals, during convalescence from malarial fevers, beneficial. 


Taken according to direction on labels to induce sleep, during period of insomnia. 


One or two taken immediately after the first symptoms of malarial fe\er are experienced, 
to aliort an attack of ague. 


.Small doses of quinine beneficial as a tonic and antimalarial. ( >ne or t\\<i tabluiils would 
be an appropriate dose. 


Anodyne and astringent. One tabloid, taken every three hours, to stop the discharge in 
dysentery and in persistent diarrhrea, attended with hemorrhage. 


Dose, one tabloid to relieve pain, or to iniluce sleep. 


One tabloid dissolved in an ounce of water may be used as an eye lotion in inllamed con- 
ditions of the eyes; also, as an injection for gonorrhoea, gleet, etc. 



One or two pills as a dose, two or three times daily, as a stimulating tonic in nervous 
debility and loss of tone in the system. 


Two tabloids dissolved in a wineglass of water, taken to relieve headache, or four t.-ibloids 
taken in same quantity of water, taken as a night draught in sleeplessness. 


One tabloid taken in a little water, three times daily, as an antimalarial and as a tonic in 
malarial fever, and as an alterative in skin disease. 


Found useful and recommended highly by Dr. Hans Meyers, to allay thirst when march- 
ing long distances. Either dissolved in water and taken as a draught, or by placing a tabloid 
in the mouth and allowing it to dissolve slowly. 


One tabloid taken every two hours to act as a stimulant when taking a long journey, and 
to ward off the craving for food. [V'ery effectual. — .\i riiuK.j 


One tabloid every two h<iurs as an alterative for boils, carbuncles, eruptions, and suppurat- 
ing wounds. 


Four tabloids crushed in a little water to be taken during the acute stage of dysentery. 


Tonic, aperient, antimalarial. One or two tabloids when the first symptoms of malarial 
fever are felt. 


Four to eight tabloids during the cold stage of intermittent fever, in brandy and \\ater. 
Patient should go to bed if the sweating induced is not profuse, and o repeated dose of four 
to eight tabloids should be taken two hours from the time the first dose was taken. 


One tabloid added to a quart of water when its purity is doubted. This will destroy the 
to.xicity of organic matter in the water and render it drinkable. 

A solution made according to the directions on label may be used for irrigating foul ulcers, 
wounds, etc., or ten minims may be injected into the puncture caused by the fangs of a 
venomous reptile or rabid animal. In case carbolic aciJis not handy, two grains oi pcrtnan- 
ganate of poiash dissolved in ten minims of water may be substituted. 


A suljstitute for sugar, f hie tabloid may be used in lieu of a lump of sugar for sweeten- 
ing ctjffee, cocoa, etc., as well as in articles of food. 


Dose, one or two taliloids as a stomachic in dyspepsia, diarrhrea, etc. 


One or two tabloids in a little water as a mild aperient. 

Dissolve one taliloid slowly in the mouth or take as a draught, dissolved in water, to 
relieve dyspepsia, flatulency, and cramps. 


Used same \vay as tabloids. Five grains will be the .piantity that will lay comfortable 
upon a shilling. 


The properties of this wine the same as the quinine tabloids. 


Used as a dusting powder upon indolent and purulent ulcers, wounds, etc. (Invaluable.) 


For cauterizing wounds and bites of venomous animals, t-arried in a glass-lined metal 
caustic holder, 


To mix into a salve or ointment with lanolin or fat. Applied for ringworms, ulcers, etc. 


An anodyne and astringent. May be applied on lint locally to stop hemorrhages from 
wounds; or taken in water internally as a styptic in hemorrhages from the stomach or lungs. 
Invaluable for hemorrhoids; also, for inflammatory condition of the eyes. 


( )ne to three teaspoonfuls dissolved in a tumbler of water and drunk while effervescing as 
a mild aperient. 


Frcjm ten to thirty drops to be taken as an anodyne and astringent in gastric affections, 
painful diarrhiea, dysentery, and to allay pain generally. 


Used as an application to ulcers of the cornea, and with a grain of the salt to an ounce of 
water, as an eye lotion. (Highly prized.) 


Rub the cone well over the painful surface in neuralgia, rheumatism. Admirable to 
alleviate sttn hcadacJte^ if applied to base of brain and over the temples. Relieves the muscular 
fatigues of long marches by applying to the joints. 

Used as an emollient and as a basis for ointments in conjunction w^ith chrysophanic acid, 
etc. Specially adapted for toilet purposes. 



Applietl to sore feet, skin irritations, abrasions, and wounds. 


A few drops on a piece of cotton wool immediately over tlie part stung ur bitten by a 
wasp, l)ee, or other venomous insect will give instant relief from pain. 


f'or emergency, in a serious case, etc. 


Ten to thirty drops may be taken on a piece of sugar or m a little water in diarrhoea to 
abt>rt a colfl, or as a sedative. 


For strains and inflammatory condition of the joints. 


L'sed as an aijplication for the skin. Also, w ill allay intense thirst caused by fevers by 
moistening a liit of cotton wool or small piece of cloth and applying to the tongue as required. 


Kach tabloid containing ten minims of essence of ginger. One to l)e taken mixed with 
\\ater as a stomachic. 


One or two three times daily, to promote diuresis in bladder affections. 

-Apply with camel's-hair brush for ulceration or relaxation of the throat. It may be taken 
in doses of half a teaspoonful, mixed with water, to check hemorrhages of the lungs. 


l)ose as per label for cholera, dysentery, persistent diarrhcea. 


lUiring the delirious period of lever and for intense sun headaches, as required. 


A small quantity dusted in the shoes, if the feet are sore, while marching, or may lie dis- 
solved in hazeline or water as a lotion for bleeding wounds or as a gargle for sore throat. 


Twelve tubes of vaccine in metal cases with the hyjioderniic syringes and lancets. 


Used as ordinary adhesive plaster, but not necessary to heat it. 


Antiseptic dressing for wounds. 



Complete illustrations as to their varied use printed on bandages. They may be used in 
conjunction with web l:)andages or with a piece of calico sheeting. 

I.I NT bllKKTINn. 

A superior suiistitute for lint. 


Before using cover with carljolized oil, — one part carbolic acid to forty parts any licjuid oil. 


It is a good plan to carefully separate the gum from the tooth with a gum lance, then 
crowd the blades of the forceps as far down as possible to the base of the tooth, firmly attach, 
then draw the tooth. 


To be used only for surgical cases. 


For fractures or dislocali'ins. 


Invaluable, as they can be used w'hile on the march. 


I'repared on cloth, ret]uiring only to be moistened through with hot water. 


Covering for compressors and other bandages. 


It is advisable to cut in the form of a cross (+), seeing, of course, that no blood-vessels are 
in the way of the operation. After all the pus has been extracted, iodoform may be dusted in, 
and the part covered with a piece of bandage or carbolic gauze. [I found strips of hide admi- 
rable, and never disturb the dressing, only leaving an outlet for the pus.] Silk to be used for 
sewing up incised wounds by meins of the needles in same packet. The scarifier intended for 
vaccination purposes. 

In case of wounds in the neighborhood of an important artery, if spurting blood is ob- 
served, the artery must be carefully searched out and clasped by means of the forceps, which can 
be locked after drawing them a slight distance away from the edge of the wound; the artery 
may then be ligatured at lioth ends, and the wound is then ready to be sewn up. 


Camel's-hair brushes for eyes and throat application. 


Compressed ink pellets stand the tropical climate. One pellet mixed with a tablespoonful 
of water makes clean, fadeless, free-flowing ink, invaluable if notes and sketches are to be 
preserved; non-breakable, and of scarcely any weight, taking up but small space. 

Note. — In fitting up my expedition. I constantly aimed at minimum of weight, getting a 
maximum of results and economy in space, whenever possible substituting all lireakable 
and fluid articles. — AUTHOR.