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Rbcsived m ExoBAMos I 



no. 50 


Si ■■-) 



The American Association 






DECEMBER, 1903-JANUARY, 1904. 





Permanent Stcrttary 


•• • • • 

• * 



Officers of the St. Louis Meeting ..... 

Members of the Council of the St. Louis Meeting 
Local Committees of the St. Loitis Meeting .... 
Officers for the Philadelphia Meeting .... 

Members of the Council for the Philadelphia Meeting 
Special Committees of the Association .... 
Meetings and Officers of the Association of American Geolo- 
gists and Naturalists 
List of Meetings of the Association 
Officers of the Meetings of the Association 
Act of Incorporation .... 

Constitution ..... 

Members of the Association 

Surviving Founders 

Patrons .... 

Honorary Fellows 

Members and Fellows 

Incorporated Scientific Bodies 

Geographical Distribution of Members 

Deceased Members 


Address by Ira Rbmsen, thb Retiring President op 
THE Association ....... 


Officers OP Section A . 

Address of Vice-President G. B. Halstrd 

Papers Read ......... 


Officers of Section B ...... 

Papers Read ......... 


Officers of Section C ..... . 

Address of Vice-President Charles Baskerville 
Papers Read ......... 




















Oppicbrs of Section D . . . 
Address op Vice-President C. A. Waldo 
Papers Read ...... 




Officers op Section E ..... . 

Address of Vice-President W. M. Davis 

Papers Read ........ 



Officers of Section F . . . . 

Address op Vice-President C. W. Hargitt 
Papers Read ....... 



Officers op Section G 
Papers Read . . 



Officers of Section H 
Papers Read 



Officers of Section I ...... . 550 

Address op Vice-President H. T. Newcomb . 551 

Papers Read ......... 579 



Officers of Section K ...... 



Report of the General Secretary 
Report of the Treasurer . . . . 
Report of the Permanent Secretary 
Cash Account of the Permanent Secretary 





Officers of the St. Louis Meeting. 


Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor, Washington, D. C. 


A. Mathematics and Astronomy — Otto H. Tittmann, Coast and 

Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. 

B. Physics — E. H. Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

C. Chemistry — W. D. Bancroft, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering — C. M. Woodward, Wash« 

ington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

E. Qeology and Geography — I. C. Russell, University of Michi- 

gan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

F. Zoology — Edw. L. Mark, Harvard University,Cambridge, Mass. 

G. Botany — T. H. MacBridb, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 
H. Anthropology — M. H. Saville, American Museum of Natural 

History, New York, N. Y. 

I. Social and Economic Science — Simeon £. Baldwin, New Haven, 

K. Physiology and Experimental Medicine — H. P. Bowditch, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. 


L. O. Howard, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. 


Ch. Wardell Stiles. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, 

Washington, D. C. 


Charles S. Howe, Case School, Cleveland, Ohio 




ji. Mathematics and Astronomy — L. G. Weld, University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 

B. Physics — Dayton C. Miller, Case School, Cleveland. Ohio. 

C. Chemistry — Charles L. Parsons, New Hampshire College, 

Durham, N. H. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering — Wm. T. Magruder, Ohio 

State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

B. Qeology and Geography — G. B. Shattuck, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. 

F. Zoology — C. JuDSON Herrick, Denison University, Granville, 

Q. Botany — P. E. Lloyd, Teachers' College, New York, N. Y. 

H. Anthropology — Gborob H. Pepper, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

I. Social and Economic Science — J. F. Crowbll, Bureau of Sta- 
tistics, Washington, D. C. 

K. Physiology and Experimental Medicine — F. S. Lee, Columbia 
University, New York, N. Y. 


R. S. Woodward, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 


Richard S. Clifton, Washington, D. C 


Members of Council of the St. Louis Meeting. 

Past Presidents. — Simon Nbwcomb, Washington; Gborgb P. 
Barker, Philadelphia; George J. Brush, New Haven; C. A. 
Young, Princeton; Edward S. Morse, Salem; Samuel P. Lang- 
ley, Washington; T. C. Mendenhall, Worcester; George L. 
Goo DAL E.Cambridge; Albert B. Prescott, Ann Arbor; Edward 
W. Morley, Cleveland; Theodore Gill, Washington; Wolcott 
GiBBS, Newport; F. W. Putnam. Cambridge; G. K. Gilbert, Wash- 
ington; R. S. Woodward, New York; C. S. Minot, Boston; Asaph 
Hall, South Norfolk; Ira Remsen, Baltimore. 

Vice-Presidents of the Pittsburg Meeting. — G. W. Hough, Evans- 
ton; W. S. Franklin, South Betnlehem; H. A. Weber, Columbus; 
J. J. Flathbr, Minneapolis; O. A. Derby, Sao Patilo; C. C. Nut- 
ting, Iowa City; D. H. Campbell, Stanford University; Stewart 
Culin, Philadelphia; Carroll D. Wright, Washington; W. H. 
Welch, Baltimore. 

Vice-Presidents of the Washington Meeting. — George Bruce 
Halsted. Austin; E. P. Nichols, Hanover; Charles Basker- 
yillb. Chapel Hill; C. A. Waldo, Lafayette; Wm. M. Davis, 
Cambridge; C. W. * Hargitt, Syracuse; F. V. Covillb, Wash- 
ington; George A. Dorsey. Chicago; H. T. Newcomb, Phila- 
delphia; W. H. Welch. Baltimore. 

Officers for the St. Louis Meeting. — Carroll D. Wright, Wash- 
ington; O. H. Tittmann, Washington; E. H. Hall. Cambridge; 
W^ D. Bancroft, Ithaca; C. M. Woodward, St. Louis; I. C. 
Russell, Ann Arbor; E. L. Mark, Cambridge; T. H. MacBridb, 
Iowa City; M. H. Saville, New York; S. E. Baldwin, New 
Haven; fl. P. Bowditch, Cambridge; L. O. Howard, Washing- 
ton; Ch. Wardell Stiles, Washington; Charles S. Howe, 
Cleveland: L. G. Weld, Iowa City; Dayton C. Miller, Cleveland; 
C. L. Parsons, Durham; Wm. T. Magruder, Columbus; G. B. 
Shattuck, Baltimore; C. Judson Herrick, Granville; F. E. 
Lloyd, New York; Geo. H. Pepper, New York; J. P. Crowbll, 
Washington; F. S.Lee, New York; R. S. Woodward, New York. 

From the Association at Large. — To hold over until successors are 
elected. A Fellow from each Section: J. M. Van Vleck, Middle- 
town; H. S. Carhart, Ann Arbor; F. W. Clarke, Washington; 
J. F. H A YPORD, Washington; U.S.Grant, Evanston; C. L. Mar- 
L ATT, Washington; G. F. Atkinson. Ithaca; W J McGee, St. Lotiis; 
Marcus Benjamin, Washington; R. H. Chittenden, New Haven. 

Elected by the Council. — (For one year) J. McK. Cattell, U. S. 
Grant, Wm. Kent; (for two years) J. M. Coulter, A. A. No yes, 
H. F. Osborn; (for three years) Franz Boas, E. L. Nichols, 
W. F. Wilcox. 

From the Affiliated Societies. — American Chemical Society: John 
H. Long, Wm. A. No yes; Geological Society of America: N. H. 
WiNCHELL, H. L. Fairchild; Botanical Society of America: Arthur 
Hollick, H. M. Richards; Society for the Promotion of Agri- 
cultural Science: W. J. Bbal, H. E. Alvord; American Microscop- 
ical Society: J. C. Smith, A. M. Holmes; American Psychological 
Association: E. C. Sanford; American Society of Naturalists: 
W. T. Sedgwick; Association of Economic Entomologists: E. P. 
Felt, James Fletcher; American Anthropological Association: 
W. H. Holmes, Franz Boas; Astronomical and Astrophysical 
Society of America: C. L. Doolittle, G. C. Comstock; American 
Physical Society: A. G. Webster, Ernest Merritt; Society of 
American Bacteriologists: W. H. Welch, 


Local Officers and Committees of the St. Louis 


David R. Francis. 

President Wm. Trelease. 

First Vice-President C. M. Woodward. 

Second Vice-President F. Louis Soldan. 

Third Vice-President R. H. Jesse. 

Secretary A. S. Langsdorp. 

Treasurer Wm. H. Thomson. 


Wm. Trelease, Chairman. 

Geo. H. Morgan, Secretary, 
W. S. Chaplin, F. E. Nipher, 

Wm. Taussig, H. C. Townsend, 

John Schroers, Wm. H. Thomson, 

Walter B. Stevens, A. S. Langsdorp. 


Wm. H. Thomson, Chairman, 
Murray Carleton, Chas. £. Ware, 

Jas. G. Gilmorb, Arthur Thacher, 

l. d. kingsland, c. h. huttig, 



Wm. Taussig, Chairman. 

Howard J. Rogers, W. S. Chaplin, 

F. Louis Soldan, W. J. S. Bryan, 

A. S. Langsdorp, S. Leavett. 


John Schroers, Chairman. 
Howard J. Rogers, Otto Heller, 

Jos. A. Graham, Ben Blewitt, 

John M. Kartell, John F. Manger, 

E. C. Eliot, W. Marion Reedy, 

John L. Vanornum, H. M. Whelpley, 

Arthur W. Douglas, Arthur O. Lovejoy, 

Henry King, V. Moth Porter. 

Geo. S. Johns, 




W. S. Chaplin, Chairman. 

Prof, and Mrs. Wm. Trelease, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Bryan, 
Gov. and Mrs. D. R. Francis, Mr. and Mrs. John Fowler, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Mauran, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Van Blarcom,. 
Mr. and Mrs. F.D.Hirschberg, Miss Mary Lionbergbr, 
RoBT. S. Brookings, Mr. and Mrs. G. O. Carpenter, 

Theophile Papin. Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Lee, 

Mr. and Mrs. Hiram Phillips, Mr. and Mrs. Festus J. Wade, 
Mr. and Mrs. S. W. Fordye, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. John Schroers, 
Mr. and Mrs. G. D. Markham, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Nagel, 
Mr. and Mrs. Julius S. Walsh, R. H. Whitelaw. 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Ockbrson, Mr. and Mrs. Adolphus Busch,. 
Mr. and Mrs. G. C. Hitchcock, Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Hoyt, 
Mr. and Mrs.T. H.McKittrick, Judge and Mrs. D. G. Taylor, 
Prof, and Mrs. H. C. Ives, Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Capen, 

J. F. Lee, Mrs. W. S. Chaplin. 

£. S. Robert, 


Walter B, Stevens, Chairman. 

W. F. Saunders, Henry Rustin, 

L. £. Anderson, Hanford Crawford, 



H. C. TowNSEND, Chairman. 

Geo. J. Tansey, Vice-Chairman. 
C. C. McCarthy, J. M. Chesbrough, 

C. S. Crane, J. M. Beall, 

D. H. Martyn, F. D. Gilderslbve, 
£. W. Labeaume, D. Bowes, 

G. B. Allen, C. L. Hilleary, 

V. W. Fisher, J. E. Davenport, 

W. Steele, Geo. Morton, 

Bryan Snyder, L. W. Wakeley, 

A. Hilton, E. A. Williams. 
Ed. Keane, 


F. E. Nipher, Chairman. 
C. M. Woodward, Herman von Schrenk. 


Officers for the Philadelphia Meeting. 


W. G. Farlow, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 


A. Mathematics and Astronomy — Alexander Ziwbt, University 

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

B. Physics — Wm. F. Maoib, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

C. Chemistry — Leonard P. Kinnicutt, Poljrtechnic Institute, 

Worcester, Mass. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering — David S. Jacobus, Ste- 

vens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

E. Qeology and Geography — Eugene A. Smith, University, Ala. 

F. Zoology — C. Hart Merriam, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Wash- 

ington, D. C. 

Q. Botany — B. L. Robinson, Harvard University, Cambridge, 

H. Anthropology — Walter Hough, U. S. National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

I. Social and Economic Science — Martin A. Knapp, U. S. Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C. 

K. Physiology and Experimental Medicine — H. P. Bowditch, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

L. O. Howard, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. 


Charles S. Howe, Case School, Cleveland, Ohio. 


Clarence A. Waldo, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 




A. Mathematics and Astronomy — L. G. Weld, University of Iowa, 

Iowa City, Iowa. 

B. Physics — Dayton C. Millbr, Case School, Cleveland, Ohio. 

C. Chemistry — Charles L. Parsons, New Hampshire College, 

Durham, N. H. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering — Wm. T. Magruder, Ohio 

State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

E. Geology and Geography — Edmund O. Hovby, American Museum 

of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

F. Zoology — C. JuDSON Hbrrick, Denison University, Granville, 


Q. Botany-— P. E. Lloyd, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 

H. Anthropology — George H. Pepper, American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, New York, N. Y. 

I. Social and Economic Science->J. F. Crowell, Bureau of Sta- 
tistics, Washington, D. C. 

K. Physiology and Experimental Medicine— (Vacancy to be filled.) 


R. S. Woodward, Columbia University. 


Members of Council (or the Philadelphia Meeting. 

Past Presidents. — Simon Newcomb, Washington; George F. 
Barker, Philadelphia; George J. Brush, New Haven; C. A. 
Young, Princeton; Edward S. Morse, Salem; Samuel P. Lang- 
ley, Washington; T. C. Mendenhall, Worcester; George L. 
GooDALE, Cambridge; Albert B. Prescott, Ann Arbor; Edward 
W. MoRLEY, Cleveland; Theodore Gill, Washington; Wolcott 
GiBBS, Newport; F. W. Putnam, Cambridge; G. K. Gilbert, 
Washington; R. S. Woodward, New York; C. S. Mi not, Boston; 
Asaph Hall, South Norfolk; Ira Remsen, Baltimore; Carroll 
D. Wright, Washington. 

Vice-Presidents of the Washington Meeting. — George Bruce 
Halsted, Austin; E. F. Nichols, New York; Charles Basker- 
viLLE, Chapel Hill; C. A. Waldo, Lafayette; Wm. M. Davis, 
Cambridge; C. W. Hargitt, Syracuse; F. V. Coville, Washing- 
ton; George A. Dorse y, Chicago; H. T. Newcomb, Philadelphia; 
W. H. Welch, Baltimore. 

Vice-Presidents of the St. Louis Meeting. — O. H. Tittman, Wash- 
ington; E. H. Hall, Cambridge; W. D. Bancroft, Ithaca; C. M. 
m>ODWARD, St. LoTiis; I. C. Russell, Ann Arbor; E. L. Mark, 
Cambridge; T. H. MacBridb, Iowa City; M. H. Saville, New 
York; S. E. Baldwin, New Haven; H. P. Bowditch, Cambridge; 

Officers for the Philadelphia Meeting. — W. G. Farlow, Cam> 
bridge; Alexander Ziwet, Ann Arbor; Wm. F. Magie, Princeton; 
Leonard P. Kinnicutt, Worcester; David S. Jacobus, Hoboken; 
Eugene A. Smith, University; C. Hart Merriam, Washington; 
B. L.Robinson, Cambridge; Walter Hough, Washington; Mar- 
tin A. Knapp, Washington; H. P. Bowditch, Cambridge; L. O. 
Howard, Washington; Charles S. Howe, Cleveland; Clarence: 
A. Waldo, Lafayette; L. G. Weld, Iowa City; Dayton C. Miller,. 
Cleveland; Charles L. Parsons, Durham; Wm. T. Magruder, 
Columbus; Edmund O. Hovey, New York; C. Judson Herrick,. 
Granville; F. E. Lloyd, New York; George H. Pepper, New 
York; J. F. Crowell, Washington; R. S. Woodward, New York. 

From the Association at Large. — To hold over until successors 
are elected. A Fellow from each Section: Ormond Stone, Char- 
lottesville; D. B. Brace, Lincoln; E. H. S. Bailey, Lawrence; 
J. BuRKiTT Webb, Hoboken; Eugene A. Smith, University; 
A. M. Bleile, Columbus; G. F. Atkinson, Ithaca; W J McGee, 
St. Louis; Marcus Benjamin, Washington; R. H. Chittenden, 
New Haven. 

Elected by the Council. — (For one year) J. M. Coulter, A. A. 
Noyes. H. F. Osborn; (for two years) Franz Boas. E. L. Nichols, 
W. F. Wilcox; (for three years) Edgar F. Smith, H. B. Ward, 
Wm. Trelease. 

From the Affiliated Societies. — American Chemical Society: John 
H. Long, Wm. A. Noyes; Geological Society of America: N. H. 
Winchell, H. L. Fairchild; Botanical Society of America: 
Arthur Hollick, H. M. Richards; Society for the Promotion of 
Agricultural Science: W. J. Beal, H. E. Alvord; American Mi- 
croscopical Society; T. J. Burrill, Henry B. Ward; American 
Psychological Association: Wm. L. Bryan; American Society of 
Naturalists: Wm. Trelease, E. L. Mark; Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists: E. P. Felt, Tames Fletcher; American 
Anthropological Association: W^. H. Holmes, Franz Boas; Astro- 
nomical and Astrophysical Society of America: G. C. Comstock, 
W. S. Eichelberger; American Physical Society: A. G. Web- 
ster, Ernest Merritt; Society of American Bacteriologists: 
W. H. Welch. 


special Committees oi the Association.^ 

I. Auditors, 
Emory McCtiNxocK, Morristown, and G. K. Gilbert, Washington. 

2. Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature. 

Jas. Lewis Howe, Chairman, F. W. Clarke, H. W. Wiley, A. B. 
Prescott, Alfred Tuckerman. 

3. Committee on the Policy of the Association, 

The President, Chairman, The Permanent Secretary, The 
Treasurer, C. S. Minot, H. L. PAiRCHiLb, . 

4. Committee on Standards of Measurements. 

T. C. Mendenhall, Chairman, E. W. Morley, E. L. Nichols, 

R. S. Woodward, H. S. Carhart. With power to add to its 


5. Committee on the Association Library. 

F. W. C1.ARKB, Chairman, A. W. Butler, W. L. Dudley, 
Thomas French, Jr. 

6. Committee on Anthropometric Measurements, 
J. McK. Cattell, W. W. Newell, W J McGee, Franz Boas. 

7. Committee for the Collection of Information Relative to Forestry. 
W. H. Brewer, Chairman, Gippord Pinchot, Arnold Hague. 

8. Committee on the Quantitative Study of Biological Variation. 
Franz Boas, Chairman, J, McK. Cattell, C. S. Minot, C. H. 


9 Committee on the Protection and Preservation of Objects of 

Archaeological Interest. 

, Chairman, F. W. Putnam, N. H. Winchell, 

G. K. Gilbert, A. W. Butler, George A. Dorsey. 

10. Committee on the Study of Blind Vertebrates, 

Theodore Gill, Chairman, A. S. Packard, C. O. Whitman, 
S. H. Gage, H. C. Bumpus, C. H. Eigenmann. 

> All Committees are expected to present their reports to the Council not later than the 
third day of the meeting. Committees sending their reports to the Permanent Secretary one 
month before a meeting can have them printed for use at the meeting. 



II. Committee on the Teaching of Anthropology in America, 

W J McGee, Chairman, G. G. MacCurdy, , 

Franz Boas, W. H. Holmes. 

12. Committee on the Relations of the Journal ** Science ** with the 


Simon Newcomb, Chairman, G. K. Gilbert. J. McK. Cattell, 
The President, The Permanent Secretary, The Treasurer. 

13. Committee- on the Relations of Plants and Climate. 

William Trelease, Chairman, D. T. MacDougal, J. M. 

14. Committee on the Atomic Weight of Thorium. 

Charles Baskerville, Chairman, P. P. Venablb, Jambs 
Lewis Howe, 

15. Committee on the Velocity of Light, 
W. S. Franklin, Chairman, D. B. Brace, E. F. Nichols. 














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5 ■£ 

1 '' 



.- 1^ 







Members in 

Number of 



Sept. ao, X848 





Aug. X4, X849 





Mar. la, X850 




New Haven 

Aug. 19, X850 





May 5, X851 





•Aug, 19, X85X 





July a8, X853 





April a6, 1854 





Aug. 15. « 855 




ad Albany 

Aug. ao, 1856 





Aug. xa, 1857 





April a8, 1858 





Aug. 3. X859 





Aug. r, i860 





Aug. X5, x866 





Aug. a 1, 1867 





Aug. 5, x868 





Aug. 18, X869 





Aug. 17, X870 





Aug. x6, 187X 





Aug. 15, x87a 





Aug. ao, 1873 





Aug. xa, X874 





Aug. XI, X 875 




ad Buffalo 

Aug. a3, 1876 





Aug. a9, X877 




St. Louis 

Aug. ai, X876 





Aug. a7, X879 





Aug. 35, x88o 




ad Cincinnati 

Aug. 17, x88i 




ad Montreal 

Aug. 33, 188a 





Aug. 15, 1883 




ad Philadelphia 

Sept. 3,1884 




Ann Arbor 

Aug. a6, 1885 




3d Buffalo 

Aug. 18, x896 




New York 

Aug. xo, 1887 




ad Cleveland 

Aug. 14. x888 





Aug. 96, 1889 




ad Indianapolis 

Aug. 19, 18^ 




ad Washington 

Aug. 19, 1891 





Aug. 17, 189a 





Aug. 17, X893 





Aug. X5, 1894 




ad Springfield 

Aug. e8, 1895 




4th Buffalo 

Aug. a4, 1896 




ad Detroit 


Aug. 9, 1897 




ad Boston 

Aug. aa, 1898 





Aug. 71, 1899 




ad New York 

June as, 1900 





Aug. a4, 1901 





June a8 to July 3, 190a. 




3d Washington 

Dec. 87, 1907, to Jan. a, 1903. 




ad St. Louis. 

Dec. 98, 1903, to Jan. «, 1904. 



* Including 303 Members of the British Association and 9 other foreign guests. 

t Including 34 Foreign Honorary Members for the meeting. 

X Including 15 Foreign Honorary Members and Associates for the meeting. 


Officers of the Meetings of the Association. 

[The number before the name is that of the meeting; the year of 
the meeting follows the name; the asterisk after a name indicates 
that the member is deceased.] 









1 I. 








( Wm. B. Rogbrs,* 1848. 

i W. C. Redfield,* 1848. 
Joseph Henry,* 1849. 

'A. D. Bache,* March 
meeting, 1850, in the ab- 

^ sence of Joseph Henry.* 

I August meeting, 1850. 

I^May meeting, 185 1. 
Louis Agassiz,* August 
meeting, 185 1. 
(No meeting in 1852.) 
Benjamin Pierce,* 1853. 
James D. Dana,* 1854. 
John Torrey,* 1855. 
James Hall,* 1856. 

f Alexis Caswell,* 1857, 

j in place of J. W. Bailey,* 

deceased. 1858, in the ab- 

. sence of Jeffries Wyman.* 
Stephen Alexander, *i859. 
Isaac Lea,* i860. 

(No meetings for 1861-65.) 
F. A. P. Barnard,* 1866. 
J. S. Newberry,* 1867. 
B. A. Gould,* 1868. 
J. W. Foster,* 1869. 
T. Sterry Hunt,* 1870, 
in the absence of Wm. 
Asa Gray,* 1871. 
J. Lawrence Smith,* 1872. 
Joseph Lovering,* 1873. 
J. L. LeConte,* 1874. 
J, E. Hilgard,* 1875. 
William B. Rogers,* 1876. 
Simon Newcomb, 1877. 
O. C. Marsh,* 1878. 

28. G. F. Barker, 1879. 

29. Lewis H. Morgan,* 1880. 

30. G. J. Brush, 1881. 

31. J. W. Dawson, 1882. 

32. C. A. Young, 1883. 

33. J. P. Lesley,* 1884. 

34. H. A. Newton,* 1885. 

35. Edward S. Morse, 1886. 

36. S. P. Langley, 1887. 

37. J. W. Powell,* 1888. 

38. T. C. Mendenhall, 1889. 

39. G. Lincoln Goodale, 1890. 

40. Albert B. Prescott, 1891. 

41. Joseph LeConte,* 1892. 

42. William Harknbss,* 1893. 
4^3. Daniel G. Brinton,* 1894. 

44. E. W. Morley, 1895. 

f Edward D. Cope,* 1896. 

45. J Theodore Gill, as senior 
j vice-president acted after 
tthe death of Prof. Cope. 
fWoLCOTT GiBBS, i897,ab- 

46. -{ sent. W J McGee, Acting 

1^ President. 

47. F. W. Putnam, 1898. 
Edward Orton,* 1899. 
Grove K. Gilbert, elec- 
ted by the General Com- 

48. •{ mittee December, 1899, 
to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Prof. 

49. R. S. Woodward, 1900. 

50. C. S. Minot, 1901. 

51. Asaph Hall, 1902. 

52. Ira Remsbn, 1903. 

53. Carroll D. Wright, 1904. 

54. W. G. Farlow, 1905. 




There were no Vice-Presidents until the nth meeting when 
there was a single Vice-President for each meeting. At the 24th 
meeting, the Association met in Sections A and B, each presided 
over by a Vice-President. At the 31st meeting nine sections were 
organized, each with a Vice-President as its presiding officer. In 
1886 Section G (Microscopy) was given up. In 1892, Section F 
was divided into P, Zoology; G, Botany. 


II. Alexis Caswbll,* 1857, 17. Chas.'Whittlesby,* 1868. 

acted as President. 18. 

12. John E. Holbrook,* 1858, 19. 

not present. 

13. Edward Hitchcock,* 1859. 20, 

14. B. A. Gould,* i860. 21. 

15. B. A. Gould,* 1866, in the 22. 
absence of R. W. Gibbbs. 

16. WOLCOTT GiBBS, 1867. 23. 

Ogdbn N. Rood. 1869. 
T. Sterry Hunt,* 1870, 

acted as President. 
G. F. Barker, 187 i. 
Alex. Winchbll,* 1872. 
A. H. Worthen,* 1873. 

not present. 
C. S. Lyman,* 1874. 


Section A. — Mathematics, Phys- 
ics, and Chemistry. 

24. H. A. Newton,* 1875. 

25. C. A. Young, 1876. 

26. R. H. Thurston, 1877, 

in the absence of E. C. 

27. R. H. Thurston,* 1878. 

28. S. P. Langley, 1879. 
Asaph Hall, 1880. 
Wm. Harkness,* 1881, in 


Section B. — Naturod His- 

24. J. W. Dawson, 1875. 

25. Edward S. Morse, 1876. 

26. O. C. Marsh,* 1877. 

27. Aug. R. Grote, 1878. 

28. J. W. Powell,* 1879. 

29. Alex. Agassiz, 1880. 

30. Edward T. Cox, 1881, in 

the absence of Gborgb 

the absence of A.M.Mayer.* 

Chairmen op Subsections, 1875-1881. 

Subsection of Chemistry. 

24. S. W. Johnson, 1875. 

25. G. F. Barker, 1876. 

26. N. T. LuPTON,* 1877. 

27. F. W. Clarke, 1878. 

28. F. W. Clarke, 1879, in the 

absence of Ira Rbmsen. 

29. J. M. Ordway, 1880. 

30. G. C. Caldwell, 1881, in 

the absence of W. R. 
Subsection of Microscopy. 

25. R. H. Ward, 1876. 

26. R. H. Ward, 1877. 

27. R. H. Ward, 1878, in the 
absence of G. S. Blackib.* 

28. E. W. Morley, 1879. 

29. S. A. Lattimorb, 1880. 

30. A. B. Hervey, 1881. 
Subsection of Anthropology. 

24. Lewis H. Morgan,* 1875. 

25. Lewis H. Morgan,* 1876. 

26. Daniel Wilson,* 1877, not 


27. United with Section B. 

28. Daniel Wilson,* 1879. 

29. J. W. Powell,* 1880. 

30. Garrick Mallery,* 1881. 
Subsection of Entomology. 

30. J. G. Morris,* 1881. 




Vicb-Prbsiobnts of Sections, i88a- 

Section A. — Mathematics and 38. H. S. Carhart, 1889. 

Astronomy, 39. Clbvbland Abbb» 1890. 

. W. A. Rogers,* 1882, in the 40. P. E. Nxpher, 1891. 
absence of Wm. Harknbss.* 41. B. F. Thomas, 1899. 





W. A. Rogers,* 1883. 

H. T. Eddy, 1884. 

Wm. Harkness,* 1885, in 

the absence of J. M. Van 


35. J. W. Gibbs.* 1886. 

36. J. R. Eastman, 1887, in 

place of W.Ferrbl,* res'd. 

37. Ormond Stone, 1888. 

38. R. S. Woodward, 1889. 

39. S. C. Chandler, 1890. 

40. E. W. Hyde, 1891. 

41. J. R. Eastman, 1892. 

42. C. L. DooLiTTLE, 1893. 
fG. C. CoMSTOCK, 1894. 
I Edgar Frisby, 1894. 

Edgar Frisby, 1895, in place 
of E.H.HoLDEN, resigned. 

Alex. Macfarlane, 1896, 
in place of Wm. E. Story, 

46. W. W. Beman, 1897. 

47. E. E. Barnard, 1898. 

48. Alex. MacFarlane, 1899. 

49. Asaph Hall, Jr., 1900. 

50. James MacMahon, 1901. 

51. G. W. Hough, 1902. 

52. George Bruce Halsted, 


53. O. H. TiTTMANN, 1904. 

54. Alexander Ziwet, 1905. 
Section B . — Physics . 

31. T. C. Mendenhall, 1882. 

32. H. A. Rowland,* 1883. 

33. J. Trowbridge, 1884. 

34. S. P. Langley, 1885, in 
place of C.F.Brackett, res'd. 

35. C. F. Brackett, 1886. 

36. W. A. Anthony, 1887. 

37. A. A. Michelson, 1888. 

42. E. L. Nichols, 1893. 

43. Wm. a. Rogers, 1894. 

44. W.LeContb Stevens, 1895. 

45. Carl Leo Mees, 1896. 

46. Carl Barus, 1897. 

47. F. P. Whitman, 1898. 

48. Elihu Thomson, 1899. 

49. Ernest Mbrritt, 1900. 

50. D. B. Bracb, 1901. 

51. W. S. Franklin, 1902. 

52. Ernest F. Nichols, 1903. 

53. £. H. Hall, 1904. 

54. Wm. F. Magib, 1905. 
Section C. — Chemistry. 

31. H. C. Bolton,* 1882. 

32. E. W. MoRLBY, 1883. 

33. J. W. Langley, 1884. 

34. N. T. LuPTON,* 1885, in the 

absence of W. R. Nichols. 

35. H. W. Wiley, 1886. 

36. A. B. Prescott, 1887. 

37. C. E. MUNROE, 1888. 

38. W. L. Dudley, 1889. 

39. R. B. Warder, 1890. 

40. R. C. Kbdzie, 1891. 

41. Alfred Springer, 1892. 

42. Edward Hart, 1893. 

43. T. H. Norton, 1894. 

44. Wm. McMurtrie, 1895. 

45. W. A. NOYES, 1896. 

46. W. P. Mason, 1897. 

47. Edgar F. Smith, 1898. 

48. F. P. Vbnable, 1899. 

49. Jas. Lewis Howe, 1900. 

50. John H. Long, 1901. 

51. H. A. Weber, 1902. 

52. Charles Baskerville, 


53. W. D. Bancroft, 1904. 

54. L. P. Kjnnicutt, 1905. 



Vice-Presidents of Sections, Continued. 
Section D. — Mechanical Science 43. Samuel Calvin, 1894. 



and Engineering. 
W. P. Trowbridge,* 1882. 
DeVolson Wood, 1883, ab- 
sent, but place was not filled. 
R. H. Thurston,* 1884. 
J. BuRKiTT Webb, 1885. 

35. O. Chanute, 1886. 

36. E. B. CoxE, 1887. 

37. C. J. H. Woodbury, 1888. 

38. James E. Denton, 1889. 

39. James E. Denton, 1890, 

in place of A. Beardslby, 

40. Thomas Gray, 1891. 

41. J. B. Johnson, 1892. 

42. S. W. Robinson, 1893. 

43. Mansfield Merriman, 1894. 

44. William Kent, 1895. 

45. Prank O. Marvin, 1896. 

46. John Galbraith, 1897. 

47. John Galbraith, 1898, in 

the absence of M.E.Cooley. 

48. Storm Bull, 1899. 

49. John A. Brashbar, 1900. 
H. S. Jacoby, 1901. 
J. J. Flather, 1902. 
Clarence A. Waldo, 1903. 

C. M. Woodward, 1904. 

D. S. Jacobus, 1905. 
Section E. — Geology and 


E. T. Cox, 1882. 
C. H. Hitchcock, 1883. 
N. H. Winchell, 1884. 
Edward Orton,* 1885. 

35. T. C. Chambbrlin, 1886. 

36. G. K. Gilbert, 1887. 

37. George H. Cook,* 1888. 

38. Charles A. White, 1889. 

39. John C. Branner, 1890. 

40. J. J. Stevenson, 1891. 

41. H. S. Williams, 1892. 

42. Charles D. Walcott, 1893. 





44. Jbd.'Hotchkiss, 1895. 

45. B. K. Emerson, 1896. 
^ j I. C. White, 1897. 

t E. W. Claypole,* 1897. 

47. H. L. Fairchild, 1898. 

48. J. F. Whiteaves, 1899. 

49. J. F. Kemp, 1900. 

50. C. R. Van Hise, 1901. 

51. Joseph A. Holmes, 1902, in 

the absence of O. A. 

52. Wm. M. Davis, 1903. 

53. I. C. Russell, 1904. 

54. Eugene A. Smith. 1905. 
Section F. — Biology ^ 1882-189 2. 

31. W. H. Dall, 1882. 

32. W. J. Beal, 1883. 

33. E. D. Cope,* 1884. 

34. T. J. BuRRiLL, 1885, in the 

absence of B. G. Wilder. 

35. H. P. BOWDITCH, 1886. 

36. W. G. Farlow, 1887. 

37. C. V. Riley,* 1888. 

38. George L. Goodale, 1889. 

39. C. S. Minot, 1890. 

40. J. M. Coulter, 1S91. 

41. S. H. Gage, 1892. 

Section F. — Zoology. 

42. Henry F. Osborn, 1893. 

43. J. A. Lintner,* 1894, in 
place of S. H. Scudder, rcs'd. 

44. L. O. Howard, 1895, in 

place of D. S. Jordan, res'd. 

45. Theo. Gill, 1896. 

46. L. O. Howard, 1897, ^^ 
place of G. Brown Goode,* 

47. A. S. Packard, 1898. 

48. S. H. Gage, 1899. 

49. C. B. Davenport, 1900. 

50. D. S. Jordan, 1901. 

51. E. L. Mark, 1902, in the ab* 

sence of C. C. Nutting. 





52. C. W. Hargitt, 1903. 

53. B. L. Mark, 1904. 

54. C. Hart Mbrriam. 1905. 
Section G. Microscopy, 1882-85. 

31. A. H. TUTTLB, 1882. 

32. J. D. Cox, 1883. 

33. T. G. Wormley,* 1884. 

34. S. H. Gagb, 1885. 
(Section united with F in 1886) 

Section G. — Botany. 
42. Charles E. Bbssby, 1893. 
j L. M. Underwood, 1894. 
{ C. £. Bessey, 1894. 

44. J. C. Arthur, 1895. 

45. N. L. Britton, 1896. 

46. G. F. Atkinson, 1897. 

47. W. G. Farlow, 1898. 

48. C. R. Barnes, 1899. 

49. W. Treleasb, 1900. 

50. B. T. Galloway, 1901. 

51. C. E. Bbssby, 1902, in the 

absence of D. H. Camp- 

52. F. V. Coville, 1903. 

53. T. H. MacBridb, 1904. 

54. B. L. Robinson, 1905. 
Section H. — A nthropology. 

31. Alex. Winchbll,* 1882. 

32. Otis T. Mason, 1883. 

33. Edward S. Morse, 1884. 

34. J. Owen Dorsey,* 1885, 
in the absence of W. H. Dall. 

35. Horatio Hale,* 1886. 

36. D. G. Brinton,* 1887. 

37. Charles C. Abbott, 1888. 

38. Garrick Mallbry,* 1889. 

39. Frank Baker, 1890. 

40. Joseph Jastrow, 1891. 

41. W. H. Holmes, 1892. 

42. J. Owen Dorsey,* 1893. 

43. Franz Boas, 1894. 

44. F. H. Cushing,* 1895. 

45. Alice C. Fletcher, 1896. 

46. W J McGeb, 1897. 

Sections, Continued. 

47. J. McK. Cattbll, 1898. 

48. Thomas Wilson,* 1899. 

49. A. W. Butler, 1900. 

50. J. Walter Fbwkbs, 1901. 

51. Stewart Culin, 1902. 

52. Geo. a. Dorsey, 1903. 

53. M. H. Savillb, 1904. 

54. Walter Hough, 1905. 
Section I. — Social and Economic 


31. E. B. Elliott,* 1882. 

32. Franklin B. Hough, *i883. 

33. John Eaton,* 1884. 

34. Edward Atkinson, 1885. 

35. Joseph Cummings,* 1886. 

36. H. E. Alvord, 1887. 

37. Charles W. Smiley, x888. 

38. Charles S. Hill, 1889. 

39. J. Richards Dodge, 1890. 

40. Edmund J. James, 1891. 

41. L. F. Ward, 1892, in place 
of S. D. Horton,* resigned. 

42. William H. Brbwer, 1893. 

43. Hbnry Farquhar, 1894. 

44. B. E. Fbrnow, 1895. 

45. W. L. Lazbnby, 1896. 

46. r. t. colburn, 1897. 

47. Archibald Blub, 1898. 

48. Marcus Benjamin, 1899. 

49. Marcus Bbnjamin, 1900, 

in the absence of C. M. 

50. John Hyde, 1901. 

51. John Hyde, 1902, in the ab- 
sence of Carroll D. Wright. 

52. H. T. Newcomb, 1903. 

53. Simeon E. Baldwin, 1904. 

54. Martin A. Knapp, 1905. 
Section K. — Physiology and Ex' 

perimental Medicine. 

51. W. H. Welch, 1902. 

52. W. H. Welch, 1903. 

53. H. P. Bowditch. 1904. 

54. H. P. Bowditch. 1Q05. 




General Secretaries, 1848- 

1. Walter R. Johnson,* 1848 

2. £. N. HoRSPORD,* 1849, in 

the absence of Jbppribs 

3. L. R. GiBBS, 1850, in the ab- 
sence of E. C. Hbrrick.* 

4. E. C. Hbrrick,* 1850. 

5. Wm. B. Rogers,* 185 i, in 
the absence of E. C. Hbrrick.* 

6. Wm. B. Rogers,* 185 i. 

7. S. St. John,* 1853, in the 

absence of J. D. Dana.* 

8. J. Lawrencb Smith,* 1854. 

9. Wolcott Gibbs, 1855. 
xo. B. A. Gould,* 1856. 

11. John L. LbConte,* 1857. 

12. W.M.GiLLBSPiE,*i858,inihe 
absence of Wm.Chauvenbt.* 

13. Wm. Chauvbnbt,* 1859. 
14* Joseph LeConte,* i860. 

15. Elias Loomis,* 1866, in the 
absence of W. P. Trowbridge.* 

16. C. S. Lyman,* 1867. 

17. Simon Newcomb, 1868, in 
the absence of A. P. Rockwell. 

18. O. C. Marsh,* 1869. 

19. F. W. Putnam, 1870, in the 

absence of C. F. Hartt.* 
ao. F. W. Putnam, 187 i. 
ai. Edward S. Morse, 187a. 
aa. C. A. White, 1873. 

33. A. C. Hamlin, 1874. 

34. S. H. Scudder, 1875. 

35. T. C. Mendenhall, 1876. 
a6. Aug. R. Grote, 1877. 

37. H. C. Bolton,* 1878. 
a8. H. C. Bolton,* 1879, in the 
absence of George Little. 
39. J. K. Rees, 1880. 

30. C. V. Riley,* 1881. 

31. William Saunders, i88a. 
33. J. R. Eastman, 1883. 

33. Alfred Springer, 1884. 

34. C. S. Minot, 1885. 

35. S. G. Williams,* 1886. 

36. William H. Pettbe, 1887. 

37. Julius Pohlman, 1888. 

38. C. Leo Mbbs, 1889. 

39. H. C. Bolton,* 1890. 

40. H. W. Wiley. 1891. 

41. A. W. Butler, 189a. 
4a. T. H. Norton, 1893. 

43. H. L. Fairchild, 1894. 

44. Jas. Lewis Howe, 1895. 

45. Charles R. Barnes, 1896. 

46. Asaph Hall, Jr., 1897. 

47. J. McMahon, 1898, in place 
of D.S.KELLicoTT,*decea8ed. 

48. F. Bedell, 1899. 

49. Chas. Baskerville, 1900. 

50. John M. Coulter, iqoi, in 

the absence of William 

51. D. T. MacDougal, 190a. 
5a. Henry B. Ward, 1903. 

53. C. W. Stiles, 1904. 

54. Charles S. Howe, 1905. 
Permanent Secretaries , 1 8 5 1 - 
5-7.. Spencer F. BAiRD,'f'i85i'4 
8-17. Joseph Lovering,*i854 

18. F. W. Putnam, 1869, in the 

absence of J. Lovering.* 
19-21. Joseph Lovering,* 1870 

22-46. F. W. Putnam, 1873-98. 

47-54. L. O. Howard, 1898-05. 

Assistant General Secretaries y 


31. J. R. Eastman, i88a. 

3a. Alfred Springer, 1883. 

33. C. S. Minot, 1884, in the ab- 

sence of E. S. Holden. 

34. S. G.Williams,* 18S5, in the 

absence of C. C. Abbott. 



Secretaribs, Continued. 

35. W. H. Pettee, 1886. 

36. J. C. Arthur, 1887. 
Secretaries of the Council, 1888- 

37. C. Leo Mbes, 1888. 

38. H. C. Bolton,* 1889. 

39. H. W. Wiley, 1890. 

40. A. W. Butler, 1891. 

41. T. H. Norton, 1892. 

42. H. Leroy Fairchild, 1893. 

43. Jas. Lewis Howe, 1894. 

44. Charles R. Barnes, 1895. 

45. Asaph Hall, Jr., 1896. 

46. D. S. Kellicott,* 1897. 

47. Frederick Bedell, 1898. 

48. CharlbsBaskbrville,i899. 

49. William Hallock, 1900. 

50. D. T. MacDougal, 1901. 

51. H. B. Ward, 1902. 

52. Ch. Wardbll Stiles, 1903. 

53. Chas. S. Howe, 1904. 

54. C. A. Waldo, 1905. 




Secretaries of Section A . — Mathe* 
matics, Physics and Chemistry, 

J S. P. Langley, 1875. 
\ T. C. Mendenhall, 1875. 
A. W. Wright, 1876. 
H. C. Bolton,* 1877. 
F. E. NiPHER, 1878. 

28. J. K. Rees, 1879. 

29. H. B. Mason, 1880. 

30. E.T.Tappan, 1881, in the ab- 
sence of Jno. Trowbridge. 

Secretaries of Section B. — Nat" 
ural History, 1874-1881. 

24. Edward S. Morse, 1875. 

25. Albert H. Tuttlb, 1876, 

26. William H. Dall, 1877. 

27. George Little, 1878. 

28. Wm. H. Dall, 1879, in the 
absence of A. C. Wetherby. 

29. Charles V. Riley,* 1880. 

30. William Saunders, 1881. 

Secretaries op Subsbctions, 1875-1881. 

Subsection of Chemistry. 

24. F. W. Clarke, 1875. 

25. H. C. Bolton,* 1876. 

26. P. Schweitzer, 1877. 

27. A. P. S. Stuart, 1878. 

28. W. R.|Nichols,* 1879. 

29. C. £. Munrob, 1880. 

30. Alfred Springer, 1881, in 
the absence of R.B. Warder. 

Subsection of Entomology. 
30. B. P. Mann, 1881. 

Subsection of Anthropology. 
24. P. W. Putnam, 1875. 

25. Otis T. Mason, 1876. 

26, 27. United with Section B. 
28, 29, 30. J. G. Henderson, 

Subsection of Microscopy. 

25. E. W. MoRLBY, 1876. 

26. T. O. SoMMBRS, Jr., 1877. 

27. G. J. Engblmann, 1878. 

28. 29. A. B. Hbrvey, 1879-80. 
30. W. H. Seaman, 1881, in the 

absence of S. P. Sharplbs. 

Secretaries op the Sections, 1882- 

Section A. — Mathematics and 

31. H. T. Eddy, 1882. 

32. G. W. Hough. 1883, in the 
absence of W. W. Johnson. 

33. G. W. Hough, 1884. 

34. E. W. Hyde, 1885. 

35. S. C. Chandler, 1886. 

36. H. M. Paul, 1887. 

37. C. C. DOOLITTLE, 1888. 



Secretaries op thb Sections, Continued. 

38. G. C. CoMSTOCK, 1889. 

39. W. W. Beman, 1890. 

40. F. H. BiGBLow, 1891. 

41. Winslow Upton, 1892. 
4a. C. A. Waldo, 1893, ^^ ^^^ 

absence of A. W. Phillips. 

43. J. C. Kershner, 1894, in 

place of W.W.Beman, res'd. 

44. Asaph Hall, Jr., 1895, in 
place of £. H. Moore, res'd. 

45. Edwin B. Frost, 1896. 

46. James McMahon, 1897. 

47. Winslow Upton, 1898, in 

place of Alex. Ziwbt, 

48. John F. Haypord, 1899. 

49. W. M. Strong, 1900. 

50. G. A. Miller, 1901, in place 

of H. C. Lord, resigned. 

51. E. S. Crawley, 1902. 

52. C. S. Howe, 1903. 
53-57. L. G. Weld, 1904-1908. 

Section B. — Physics. 

31. C. S. Hastings, 1882. 

32. P. E. NiPHBR, 1883, in the 

absence of C. K. Wead. 

33. N. D. C. Hodges, 1884. 

34. B. F. Thomas, 1885, in place 
of A. A. MiCHELSON. resigned. 

35. H. S. Carhart, 1886. 

36. C. Lbo Mees, 1887. 

37. Alex. Macparlane. 1888. 

38. E. L. Nichols, 1889. 

39. E. M. Avery, 1890. 

40. Alex. Macparlane, 1891. 

41. Brown Ayres, 1892. 

4a. W. LeConte Stevens, 1893. 

43. B. W. Snow, 1894. 

44. E. Merritt, 1895. 

45. Frank P. Whitman, 1896. 

46. Frederick Bedell, 1897. 

47. W. S. Franklin, 1898, in 
place of E. B. Rosa, resigned. 

48. William Hallock, 1899. 

49. R. A. Fessbndbn, 1900. 

50. John Zeleny, 1901, in place 

of J. O. Reed, resigned. 

51. E. F. Nichols, 1902. 

52. D. C. Miller, 1903. 
53-57. D.C. Miller, 1904-1908. 

Section C. — Chemistry, 
31. Alpred Springer, 1882. 


i J. W. Langley, 1883. 
* ( W. McMurtrie, 1883. 


SS' H. Carmichael, 1884, inthe 
absence of R. B. Warder. 

34. F. P. DUNNINGTON, 1885. 

35. W. McMurtrie, 1886. 

36. C. F. Mabery, 1887. 

37. W. L. Dudley, 1888. 

38. Edward Hart, 1889. 

39. W. A. NoYEs, 1890. 

40. T. H. Norton, 1891. 

41. Jas. Lewis Howe, 1892. 

42. H. N. Stokes, 1893, in the 

absence of J. U. Nep. 

43. Morris Loeb, 1894, in place 
of S. M. Babcock, resigned. 

<W. P. Mason, 1895. 
iW. O. Atwatbr, 1895. 

45. Frank P. Venablb, 1896. 

46. P. C. Frber, 1897. 

47. C. Baskerville, 1898. 

48. H. A. Weber, 1899. 

49. A. A. NoYES, 1900. 

50. W. McPhbrson, 1901. 

51. F. C. Phillips, 1902. 

52. H. N. Stokes, 1903. 
53-57- Chas. L. Parsons, 1904- 

Section D. — Afechanical Science 
and Engineering. 

31. J. Burkitt Webb, 1882, in 
the absence of C. B. Dudley. 

32. J. Burkitt Webb, 1883, pro 


33. J. Burkitt Webb, 1884. 

34. C. J. H. Woodbury, 1885. 



Secretaries op the 

35. William Kent, 1886. 

36. G. M. Bond, 1887. 

37. Arthur Beardslby, 1888. 

38. W. B. Warner, 1889. 

39. Thomas .Gray, 1890. 

40. William Kent, 1891. 

41. O. H. Landrbth, 189a. 
4a. D. S. Jacobus, 1893. 

43. John H. Kinbaly, 1894. 

44. H. S. Jacoby, 1895. 

45. John Galbraith, 1896. 

46. John J. Flathbr, 1897. 

47. John J. Flathbr, 1898, in 

the absence of W. S. Al- 


48. J. M. Porter, 1899. 

49. W. T. Magrudbr, 1900. 

50. C. W. CoMSTOCK, i9oi,in the 

absence of W. H. Jaqubs. 

51. C. A. Waldo, 190a. 
5a. Elwood Mead, 1903, in the 

absence of Albert Kings- 
53"57- W. »r. Magrudbr, 1904- 

Section E. ^-Geology and Geo- 
31. H. S. Williams, i88a, in the 
absence of C. E. Dutton. 
3a. A. A. JuLiBN, 1883. 

33. E. A. Smith, 1884. 

34. G. K. Gilbert, 1885, in the 

absence of H. C. Lewis.* 

35. E. W. Claypole,* 1886. 

36. W. M. Davis, 1887. in the 

absence of T. B. Comstock. 

37. John C. Brannbr, 1888. 

38. John C. Brannbr, 1889. 

39. Samuel Calvin, 1890. 

40. W J McGee, 1891. 

41. R. D. Salisbury, 189a. 
4a. W. H. HoBBS,* 1893, ^^ 

place of R. T. Hill, resigned. 
43. Jed. Hotchkiss,* 1894, in 
place of W. M. Davis, res'd. 

Sections, Continued. 

44. J. Pbrrin Smith, 1895. 

45. W. N. Rice, 1896, in place 
of A. C. Gill, resigned. 

46. C. H. Smith, Jr., 1897. 

47. Warren Upham, 1898. 

48. Arthur Hollick, 1899. 

49. J. A. Holmes, 1900. 

50. H. B. Patton, 1901, in the 
absence of R. A. F. Penrose. 

51. P. P. Gulliver, 190a. 
5a. E. O. HovEY, 1903. 
53. G. B. Shattuck, 1904. 
54-57. EdmundO.Hovby, 1905- 

Section F: — Biology, i88a-i89a. 

31. William Osler, i88a, in 
the absence of C. S. Minot. 

32. S. A. Forbes, 1883. 

33. C. E. Bessey, 1884. 

34. J. A. Lintner,* 1885, ^^ 
place of C. H. Fernald, res*d. 

35. J. C. Arthur, 1886. 

36. J. H. Comstock, 1887. 

37. B. E. Fernow, 1888. 

38. A. W. Butler, 1889. 

39. J. M. Coulter, 1890. 

40. A. J. Cook, 189 i. 

41. D. B. Halstead, 189a. 
Section F. — Zoology. 

42. L. O. Howard, 1893. 

43. John B.Smith, 1894, in place 
of Wm.Libby, Jr., resigned. 

44. C. W. Hargitt, 1895, io 
place of S. A. Forbes, res'd. 

45. D. S. Kellicott,* 1896. 

46. C. C. Nutting, 1897. 

47. R. T. Jackson, 1898, in 
place of C. W. Stiles, resigned. 

48. C. L. Marlatt, 1899, in 
place of F. W. True, resigned. 

49. C. H. Eigenmann, 1900. 

50. H. B. Ward, 1901. 

51. C. W. Stiles, 190a. 

52. C. J. Hbrrick, 1903. 
53-57- C. J. Herrick, 1904-08. 

(25 > 


Secretaries of the 

Section G. — Microscopy^ 1882-85 

31. Robert Brown, Jr., i88a. 

32. Carl Seiler, 1883. 

33. RoMYN Hitchcock, 1884. 

34. W. H. Walmsley, 1885. 

Section G. — Botany. 

42. B. T. Galloway, 1893, in 
the absence of F. V. Covillb. 

43. Chas. R. Barnes, 1894. 

)B. T. Galloway, 1895. 
M. B. Waite, 1895. 

45. George F. Atkinson, 1896. 

46. F. C. Nbwcombe, 1897. 

47. Erwin F. Smith, 1898. 

48. W. A. Kellerman, 1899. 

49. D. T. MacDougal, 1900. 

50. Ernst A. Bessey, 1901, in 
the absence of A. S. Hitch- 

51. H. von Schrenk, 1902. 

52. C. J. Chamberlain, 1903. 
53-57. F. E. Lloyd, 1904-1908. 

Section H. — A nthropology. 

31. Otis T. Mason, 1882. 

32. G. H. Perkins, 1883. 

33. G. H. Perkins, 1884, in the 
absence of W. H. Holmes. 

34. Erminnib a. Smith,* 1S85. 

35. A. W. Butler, 1886. 

36. Chas. C.Abbott, 1887, in the 

absence of F. W.Langdon. 

37. Frank Baker, 1888. 

38. W. M. Beauchamp, 1889. 

39. Joseph Jastrow, 1890. 

40. W. H. Holmes, 1891. 

41. W. M. Beauchamp, 1892, in 
place of S. CuLiN, resigned. 

42. W. K. Moorbhead, 1893. 

43. A. F. Chamberlin, 1894. 

TStewart Culin and W. 

44. \ W. TooKER, 1895, ^^ place 
(of Anita N. McGBE.res'd. 

45. G. H. Perkins, 1896, in 
place of J. G.BouRKE,*dec*d. 

Sections, Continued. 

.46. Anita N. McGbb, 1897, ^^ 
place of Harlan I.SMiTH,res'd. 

47. Marshall H. Saville,i898. 

48. E. W. Scripture, 1899, in 
place of Geo.. A. Dorsby, 

49. Frank Russell,* 1900. 

50. G. G. MacCurdy, 1901. 

51. Harlan I. Smith, 1902. 

52. R. B. Dixon, 1903. 
53-57- Geo. H. PEppBR-04-08. 
Section I. — Social and Economic 

j Franklin B.Hough,*i882. 
' { J. Richards Dodge. 1882. 

32. Joseph Cummings,* 1883. 

33. Charles W. Smiley, 1884. 

34. Chas. W. Smiley, 1885, in 
the absence of J. W.Chicker- 


35. H. E. Alvord, 1886. 

36. W. R. Lazenby, 1887. 

37. Charles S. Hill, 1888. 

38. J. Richards Dodge, 1889. 

39. B. E. Fernow, 1890. 

40. B. E. Fernow, 1891. 

41. Henry Farquhar, 1892, in 

place of L. F. Ward, made 

42. Nellie S. Kedzib, 1893. 

43. Manley Miles, 1894. 

44. W. R. Lazenby, 1895, ii^ 
place of E. A. Ross, resigned. 

45. R. T. CoLBURN, 1896. 

46. Archibald Blue, 1897. 

47. Marcus Benjamin, 1898. 

48. Calvin M.Woodward, 1899. 

49. H. T. Newcomb, 1900. 

50. R. A. Pearson, 190 1, in place 
of Cora A. Benneson, res'd. 

51. F. R. RuTTER, 1902, in place 
of Walter F. Willcox, resigned. 

52. F. H. Hitchcock, 1903. 
53-57- J- P- Crowell, 1904-08. 



Sbcrbtaribs op THB Sbctions, Continubd. 

Section K. — Physiology and Ex' %2. F. S. Lbb, 1903. 

perimental Medicine. 53. F. S. Lbb, 1904. 
51. F. S. Lbb, 190a. 54 1905* 


1. Jbppribs Wyman,* 1848. 

2. A. L. Elwyn,* 1849. 

3. St. J. Ravenel,*i85o, inthe 

absence of A. L. Elwyn.* 

4. A. L. Elwyn,* 1850. 

5. Spencer F. Baird,* 1851, 
in the absence of A. L. Elwyn.* 

6-7. A. L. Elwyn,* 1851-53. 
8. J. L. LeConte,* 1854, in the 
absence of A. L. Elwyn.* 

9-19. A. L. Elwyn,* 1855- 

^0-30. Wm. S. Vaux,* 187 1- 

32-42. Wm. Lilly,* 1882-93. 
43-49. R. S. Woodward, 1894- 

50-54. R. S. Woodward. 1901- 



Commontoealth of Massachusetts. 

In the Year One Thousand Bight Hundred and Seoenty-Pour. 


To Incorporate the "American Association for the Advance- 
ment OF Science/' 

Be it enacted by ike Senate and House of Representatives, in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows: 

Section i. Joseph Henry of Washington, Benjamin Pierce of 
Cambridge, James D. Dana of New Haven, James Hall of Albany, 
Alexis Caswell of Providence, Stephen Alexander of Princeton, 
Isaac Lea of Philadelphia, F. A. P. Barnard of New York, John S. 
Newberry of Cleveland, B. A. Gould of Cambridge, T. Sterry Hunt 
of Boston, Asa Gray of Cambridge, J. Lawrence Smith of Louis- 
ville, Joseph Lovering of Cambridge, and John LeConte of Phila- 
delphia, their associates, the officers and members of the Associa- 
tion, known as the "American Association for the Advancement of 
Science," and their successors, are hereby made a corporation by 
the name of the "American Association for the Advancement of 
Science," for the purpose of receiving, purchasing, holding, and 
conveying real and personal property, which it now is, or here- 
after may be, possessed of, with all the powers and privileges, and 
subject to the restrictions, duties and liabilities set forth in the 
general laws which now or hereafter may be in force and applicable 
to such corporations. 

Section 2. Said corporation may have and hold by purchase, 
grant, gift, or otherwise, real estate not exceeding one hundred 
thousand dollars in value, and personal estate of the value of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Section 3. Any two of the corporators above named are here- 
by authorized to call the first meeting of the said corporation in 
the month of August next ensuing, by notice thereof **by mail," 
to each member of the said Association. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

House of Representatives, March 10, 1874. 

Passed to be enacted, 

John E. Sanford, Speaker. 

In Senate, March 17, 1874. 

Passed to be enacted, March 19, 1874. 

Geo. B. Loring, President. Approved. 

W. B. Washburn. 
Secretary's Department, 

Boston, April 3, 1874. 

A true copy. Attest: 

David Pulsifbr, 

Deputy Secretary of the Commonwealth, 




Incorporated by Act of tiM General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetti. 


Article i. The objects of the Association are, by periodical 
and migratory meetings, to promote intercourse between those 
who are cultivating science in different parts of America, to give 
a stronger and more general impulse and more systematic direc- 
tion to scientific research, and to procure for the labors of scientific 
men increased facilities and a wider usefulness. 


Art. 2. The Association shall consist of members, fellows, 
patrons, corresponding members and honorary fellows. 


Art. 3. Any person may become a member of the Association 
upon recommendation in writing by two members or fellows, and 
election by the Council. Any incorporated scientific society or 
institution, or any public or incorporated library, may be enrolled 
as a member of the Association by vote of the Council by pay- 
ment of the initiation fee; such society, institution, or library may 
be represented by either the President, Curator, Director, or 
Librarian presenting proper credentials at any meeting of the 
Association for which the assessment has been paid. 


Associates for any single meeting shall be admitted on the pay- 
ment of three dollars, such associates to have all the privileges of 
the meeting, except reading papers and voting. 

Members of scientific societies whose meetings are contem- 
poraneous with, or immediately subsequent to, that of the Associa-^ 



tion, and which are recognized by vote of the Council as "Affiliated 
Societies," may become associate members for that meetings on 
the payment of three dollars. They shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of membership except voting or appointment to office, 
but their names shall not appear in the list of members printed in 
the annual report. 

Foreign Associates. 

Any member or fellow of any national scientific or educational 
institution, or of any society or academy of science, of any country 
not in America, who may be present at any meeting of the Associa- 
tion shall, on presenting the proper credentials, be enrolled with- 
out fee as a Foreign Associate, and shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of the meeting except voting on matters of business. 


Art. 4. Fellows shall be elected by the Council from such of 
the members as are professionally engaged in science, or have, 
by their labors, aided in advancing science. The election of 
fellows shall be by ballot, and a majority vote of the members 
of the Council at a designated meeting of the Council. 


Art. 5. Any person paying to the Association the sum of one 
thousand dollars shall be classed as a patron, and shall be en- 
titled to all the privileges of a member and to all its publications. 

Honorary Fellows and Corresponding Members. 

Art. 6. Honorary fellows of the Association, not exceeding 
three for each Section, may be elected, the nominations to be made by 
the Council and approved by ballot in the respective sections be- 
fore election by ballot in General Session. Honorary fellows shall 
be entitled to all the privileges of fellows, and shall be exempt 
from all fees and assessments, and entitled to all publications 
of the Association issued after the date of their election. Corres- 
ponding members shall consist of such scientists not residing in 
America as may be elected by the Council, and their number shall 
be limited to fifty. Corresponding members shall be entitled to 



all the privileges of members and to the annual volumes of Pro- 
ceedings published subsequent to their election. 

Art. 7. The name of any member or fellow two years in 
arrears for annual dues shall be erased from the list of the 
Association, provided, that two notice* of indebtedness, at an 
interval of at least three months, shall have been given; and no 
such person shall be restored until he has paid his arrearages or 
has been re-elected. The Council shall have power to exclude 
from the Association any member or fellow, on satisfactory evi- 
dence that said member or fellow is an improper person to be con- 
nected with the Association, or has in the estimation of the Council 
made improper use of his membership or fellowship. 


Art. 8. No member or fellow shall take part in the organiza- 
tion of, or hold office in, more than one section at any one meeting. 

Art. 9. The officers of the Association shall be elected by 
ballot by the General Committee from the fellows, and shall con- 
sist of a President, a Vice-President from each section, a Per- 
manent Secretary, a General Secretary, a Secretary of the Council, 
a Treasurer, and a Secretary of each Section; these, with the 
exception of the Permanent Secretary, the Treasurer, and the 
Secretaries of the Sections, shall be elected at each meeting for the 
following one, and, with the exception of the Treasurer and the 
Permanent Secretary, shall not be re-eligible for the next two 
meetings. The term of office of the Permanent Secretary, of the 
Treasurer, and of the Secretaries of the Sections, shall be five 



Art. 10. The President, or, in his absence, the 'senior Vice- 
President present, shall preside at all General Sessions of the 
Association and at all meetings of the Council. It shall also be 
the duty of the President to give an address at a General Session 
of the Association at the meeting following that over which he 



Art. II. The Vice-Presidents shall be chairmen of their 

respective Sections, and of their Sectional Committees, and it 



shall be part of their duty to give an address, each before his own 
Section, at such time as the Council shall determine at the meeting 
subsequent to that at which he presides. The Vice-Presidents 
may appoint temporary chairmen to preside over the sessions of 
their sections, but shall not delegate their other duties. The 
Vice-Presidents shall ha\ie seniority in order of their continuous 
membership in the Association. 

General Secretary. 

Art. 12. The General Secretary shall be the Secretary of all 
General Sessions of the Association, and shall keep a record of the 
business of these sessions. He shall receive the records from 
the Secretaries of the Sections, which, after examination, he 
shall transmit with his own records to the Permanent Secretary 
within two weeks after the adjournment of the meeting. 

Secretary op the Council. 

Art. 13. The Secretary of the Council shall keep the records 
of the Council. He shall give to the Secretary of each Section the 
titles of papers assigned to it by the Council. He shall receive 
proposals for membership and bring them before the Council. 

Permanent Secretary. 

Art. 14. The Permanent Secretary shall be the executive 
officer of the Association under the direction of the Council. He 
shall attend to all business not specially referred to committees 
nor otherwise constitutionally provided for. He shall keep an 
account of all business that he has transacted for the Association, 
and make annually a geAeral report for publication in the annual 
volume of Proceedings. He shall attend to the printing and 
distribution of the annual volume of Proceedings, and all other 
printing ordered by the Association. He shall issue a circular 
of information to members and fellows .at least three months be- 
fore each meeting, and shall, in connection with the Local Com- 
mittee, make all necessary arrangements for the meetings of the 
Association. He shall provide the Secretaries of the Associa- 
tion -with such books and stationery as may be required for their 
records and business, and shall provide members and fellows 
with such blank forms as may be required for facilitating the 
business of the Association. He shall collect all assessments 



and admission fees, and notify members and fellows of their 
election, and of any arrearages. He shall receive, and bring be- 
fore the Council, the titles and abstracts of papers proposed to be 
read before the Association. He shall keep an account of all 
receipts and expenditures of the Association, and report the 
same annually at the first meeting of the Council, and shall pay 
over to the Treasurer such unexpended funds as the Council may 
direct. He shall receive and hold in trust for the Association 
all books, pamphlets, and manuscripts belonging to the Associa- 
tion, and allow the use of the same under the provisions of the 
Constitution and the ord^^k>f the Council. He shall receive all 
communications addressed W the Association during the intervals 
between meetings, and properly attend to the same. He shall at 
each meeting report the n&mes of fellows and members who have 
died since the preceding meeting. He shall be allowed a salary 
which shall be determined by the Council, and may employ one 
or more clerks at such compensation as may be agreed upon by 

the Council. 


Art. 15. The Treasurer shall invest the funds received by 
him in such securities as may be directed by the Council. He 
shall annually present to the Council an account of the funds in 
his charge. No expenditure of the principal in the hands of the 
Treasurer shall be made without a unanimous vote of the Council, 
and no expenditure of the income received by the Treasurer shall 
be made without a two- thirds vote of the Council. The Treasurer 
shall give bonds for the faithful performance of his duty in such 
manner and sum as the Council shall from time to time direct. 

Secretaries of the Sections. 

Art. 16. The Secretaries of the Sections shall keep the records 
of their respective Sections, and, at the close of the meeting, give 
the same, including the records of subsections, to the General 
Secretary. They shall also be the Secretaries of the sectional 
committees. The Secretaries shall have seniority in order of 
their continuous membership in the Association. 


Art. 17. In case of a vacancy in the office of President, the 
senior Vice-President shall preside, as provided in Article 10, 




until the General Committee can be assembled and the vacancy 
filled by election. Vacancies in the offices of Vice-President, 
Permanent Secretary, Secretary of the Council, Secretaries of the 
Sections, and Treasurer, shall be filled by the Council by ballot. 


Art. 1 8. The Council shall consist of the Past Presidents, and 
the Vice-Presidents of the last two meetings, together with the Presi- 
dent, the Vice-Presidents, the Permanent Secretary, the General Sec- 
retary, the Secretary of the Council, the Secretaries of the Sections, 
and the Treasurer of the current meeting, of one fellow elected from 
each Section by ballot on the first day of its meeting, of one 
fellow elected by each affiliated society, and one additional fellow 
from each affiliated society having more than twenty-five mem- 
bers who are fellows of the Association, and of nine fellows elected 
by the Council, three being annually elected for a term of three 
years. The members present at any regularly called meeting of 
the Council, provided there are at least five, shall form a quorum 
for the transaction of business. The Council shall meet on the 
day preceding each annual meeting of the Association, and arrange 
the program for the first day of the sessions. The time and place 
of this first meeting shall be designated by the Permanent Secre- 
tary. Unless otherwise agreed upon, regular meetings of the Coun- 
cil shall be held in the Council room at 9 o'clock A. M., on each day 
of the meeting of the Association. Special meetings of the Council 
may be called at any time by the President. The Council shall be 
the board of supervision of the Association, and no business shall 
be transacted by the Association that has not first been referred 
to, or originated with, the Council. The Council shall decide 
which papers, discussions, and other proceedings shall be published, 
and have the general direction of the publications of the Associa- 
tion; manage the financial affairs of the Association; arrange the 
business and programs for General Sessions; suggest subjects for 
discussion, investigation or reports; elect members and fellows; 
and receive and act upon all invitations extended to the Associa- 
tion and report the same at a General Session of the Association. 
The Council shall receive all reports of Special Committees and 
decide upon them, and only such shall be read in General 



Session as the Council shall direct. The Council shall appoint 
at each meeting the following subcommittees who shall act, sub- 
ject to appeal to the whole Council, until their successors are 
appointed at the following meeting: i, on Papers and Reports; 
2. on Members; 3, on Fellows. 

General Committee. 

Art. 19. The General Committee shall consist of the Council 
and one member or fellow elected by each of the Sections, who 
shall serve until their successors are elected. It shall be the 
duty of the committee to meet at the call of the President and 
elect the general officers for the following meeting of the Associa- 
tion. It shall also be the duty of this committee to fix the time 
and place for the next meeting. The Vice-President and Secre- 
tary of each Section shall be recommended to the General Com- 
mittee by the Sectional Committee. 


Art. 20. The Association shall hold a public meeting annually, 
for one week or longer, at such time and place as may be deter- 
mined by vote of the General Committee, and the preliminary 
arrangements for each meeting shall be made by the Local Com- 
mittee, in conjunction with the Permanent Secretary and such 
other persons as the Council may designate. 

But if suitable preliminary arrangements cannot be made, the 
Council may afterward change the time and place appointed bv 
the General Committee, if such change is believed advisable, by 
two-thirds of the members present. 

Art. 21. a General Session shall be held at 10 o'clock, A. M. , 
on the first day of the meeting, and at such other times as the 
Council may direct. 

Sections and Subsections. 

Art. 22. The Association shall be divided into Sections, 
namely: — A, Mathematics and Astronomy; B, Physics; C, Chemistry, 
including its application to Agriculture and the Arts; D, Mechanical 
Science and Engineering; E, Geology and Geography; F, Zoology; 
G, Botany; H, Anthropology; I, Social and Economic Science; K, 
Physiology and Experimental Medicine. The Council shall have 




power to consolidate any two or more Sections temporarily, and 
such consolidated Sections shall be presided over by the senior 
Vice-President and Secretary of the Sections comprising it. 

Sectional Committees. 

Art. 33. Immediately on the organization of a Section there 
shall be a member or fellow elected by ballot after open nomina- 
tion, who, with the Vice-President and Secretary and the Vice- 
President and Secretary of the preceding meeting, and the members 
or fellows elected by ballot at the four preceding meetings, shall 
form its Sectional Committee. The Sectional Committees shall 
have power to. fill vacancies in their own numbers. Meetings of 
the Sections shall not be held at the same time with a General 
Session. The Sectional Committee may invite distinguished 
foreign associates present at any meeting to serve as honorary 
members of said Committee. 

Art. 24. The Sectional Committee of any Section may at its 
pleasure form one or more temporary Subsections, and may desig- 
nate the officers thereof. The Secretary of a Subsection shall, 
at the close of the meeting, transmit his records to the Secretary 
of the Section. 

Art. 25. No paper shall be read in any Section or Subsection 
until it has been placed on the program of the day by the Sec- 
tional Committee. 

Art. 26. The Sectional Committees shall arrange and direct the 
business of their respective Sections. They shall prepare the 
daily programs and give them to the Permanent Secretary for 
printing at the earliest moment practicable. No titles of papers 
shall be entered on the daily programs except such as have passed 
the Committee. No change shall be made in the program for the 
day in a Section without the consent of the Sectional Committee. 
The Sectional Committees may refuse to place the title of any paper 
on the program ; but every such title, with the abstract of the paper or 
the paper itself, must be referred to the Council with the reasons 
why it was refused. The Sectional Committee shall also make 
nominations to the General Committee for Vice-President and 
Secretary of their respective Sections as provided for in Article 19. 

Art. 27. The Sectional Committees shall examine all papers 
and abstracts referred to the Sections, and they shall not place 



on the program any paper inconsistent with the character of 
the Association; and to this end they have power to call for any 
paper, the character of which may not be sufficiently understood 
from the abstract submitted. 

Papers and Communications. 

Art. a 8. All members and fellows must forward to the Secre- 
tary of the proper Section or to the Permanent Secretary, as 
early as possible, and when practicable before the convening of 
the Association, full titles of all the papers which they propose 
to present during the meeting, with a statement of the time that 
each will occupy in delivery, and also such abstracts of their 
contents as will give a general idea of their nature; and no title 
shall be considered by a Sectional Committee until an abstract 
of the paper or the paper itself has been received. 

Art. 29. If the author of any paper be not ready when called 
upon, in the regular order of the official program, tlie title may 
be dropped to the bottom of the list. 

Art. 30. Whenever practicable the proceedings and dis- 
cussions at General Sessions, Sections and Subsections, shall be 
reported by professional reporters, but such reports shall not 
appear in print as the official reports of the Association unless 
revised by the Secretaries. 

Printed Proceedings. 

Art. 31. The Permanent Secretary shall have the Proceedings 
of each meeting printed in an octavo volume as soon after the 
meeting as possible, beginning one month after adjournment. 
Authors must prepare their papers or abstracts ready for the 
press, and these must be in the hands of the Secretaries of the 
Sections before the final adjournment of the meeting, otherwise 
only the titles will appear in the printed volume. The Council 
shall have power to order the printing of any paper by abstract 
or title only. Whenever practicable, proofs shall be forwarded to 
authors for revision. If any additions or substantial alterations 
are made by the author of a paper after its submission to the 
Secretary, the same shall be distinctly indicated. Illustrations must 
be provided for by the authors of the papers, or by a special 
appropriation from the Council. Immediately on publication of 



the volume, a copy shall be forwarded to every member and fellow 
of the Association who shall have paid the assessment for the 
meeting to which it relates, and it shall also be offered for sale 
by the Permanent Secretary at such price as may be determined 
by the Council. The Council shall also designate the institutions 
to which copies shall be distributed. 

Local Committee. 

Art. 32. The Local Committee shall consist of persons in- 
terested in the objects of the Association and residing at or near 
the place of the proposed meeting. It is expected that the Local 
Committee, assisted by the officers of the Association, will make 
all essential arrangements for the meeting, and issue a circular 
giving necessary particulars, at least^one month before the meet- 

Library of the Association. 

Art. 33. All books and pamphlets received by the Association 
shall be in charge of the Permanent Secretary, who shall have a 
list of the same printed and shall furnish a copy to any member 
or fellow on application. Members and fellows who have paid 
their assessments in full shall be allowed to call for books and 
pamphlets, which shall be delivered to them at their expense 
on their giving a receipt agreeing to make good any loss or 
damage, and to return the same free of expense to the Secretary 
at the time specified in the receipt given. All books and pamphlets 
in circulation must be returned at each meeting. Not more than 
five books, including volumes, parts of volumes, and pamphlets, 
shall be held at one time by any member or fellow. Any book 
may be withheld from circulation by order of the Council. [The 
Library of the Association was, by vote of the Council in 1895, 
placed on deposit in the Library of the University of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Members can obtain the use of books by writing: to the 
Librarian of the University Library, Cincinnati, Ohio.] 

Admission Fee and Assessments. 

Art. 34. The admission fee for members shall be five dollars 
in addition to the annual dues. On the election of any mem- 
ber as a fellow an additional fee of two dollars shall be paid. 



Art. 35. The annual dues for members and fellows shall be 
three dollars. 

Art. 36. Any member or fellow who shall pay the sum of 
fifty dollars to the Association, at any one time, shall become a 
Life Member, and as such shall be exempt from all further assess- 
ments, and shall be entitled to the Proceedings of the Association, 
All money thus received shall be invested as a permanent fund, 
the income of which, during the life of the member, shall form a 
part of the general fund of the Association; but, after his death, 
shall be used only to assist in original research, unless otherwise 
directed by unanimous vote of the Council. 

Art. 37. All fees and dues must be paid to the Permanent 
Secretary, who shall give proper receipts for the same. 


Art. 38. The accounts of the Permanent Secretary and of the 
Treasurer shall be audited annually by Auditors appointed by 
the Council. 

Alterations of the Constitution. 

Art. 39. No part of this Constitution shall be amended or 
annulled, without the concurrence of three-fourths of the members 
and fellows present in General Session, after notice given at a 
General Session of a preceding meeting of the .Association. 










[At the Brooklyn Meeting, 1894, a resolution was unanimously 
adopted by which all the surviving founders of the Association 
who have maintained an interest in science were made Honorary 
Life Members of the Association in recognition of their pioneer 
work in American Science.] 

Abbot, Samuel L., Boston, Mass. 

Bo YE, Martin H., Coopersburg, Pa. 

GiBBs, Wolcott, Newport, R. I. 


[PenoQS contributing one thousand dollars or more to the Association are classed as 
Patrons, and are entitled to the privileges of members and to the publications. The names of 
Patrons are to remain permanently on the list.] 

Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth, Stamford, Conn. (aa). (Died July, 

Lilly, Gen. William, Mauch Chunk, Pa. (aS). (Died Dec. i, 

Hbrrman, Mrs. Esther, 59 West 56th St., New York, N. Y. (a9). 

McMillin. Emerson, 40 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (37). 


[See Articlb VI of the Constitution.] 

*RoGERS, Prop. William B., Boston, Mass. (i). 1881. (Born Dec. 

7, Z804. Died May 30, F88a.) B E 
♦Chbvreul, Michel Eugene, Paris, France. (35). 1886. (Born 

Aug. 31, 1786. Died April 9, 1889.) C 
♦Gbnth, Dr. F. a., Philadelphia, Pa. (34). 1888: (Born May 17, 

i8ao. Died Feb. a, 189a.) C E 



*Hall» Prop. Jambs, Albany, N. Y. (i). 1890. (Bom in 181 1. 
Died Aug. 7, 1898.) 

*GouLD, Dr. Bbnjamin Apthorp, Cambridge, Mass. (3). 1895. 
(Bom Sept. 37, 1834. Died Nov. a6, 1896.) A B 

*Lbuckart, Prop. Rudolp. (44). 1895. (Bom in Helmstedt, 
Braunschweig, Germany, Oct. 7, 1823. Died in Leipzig, 
Feb. 7, 1898.) F 

*Gibbs, Prop. Wolcott, Newport, R. I. (i). 1896. B C 

♦Warinoton, Robert, P. R. S., Rothamsted, Harpenden, Eng- 
land. (40). 1899. C 

*Wb8Tinohousb, George, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 1903. D 


The names designated by an asterisk (*) are those of Fellows. (See Articlb IV of the 
Constitution.) The number In parenthesis indicates the meeting at which the Member joined 
the Association ; the date following 'i% the year when made a Fellow ; the black letters at end 
of line are those of the Sections to which the Member or Fellow belongs. When the name is 
l^ven in small capitals, it designates that the Member or Fellow is also a Life Member. Any 
Member or Fellow may become a Life Member by the payment of fifty dollars. The income 
of the money derived from a life membership is used for the general purposes of the Association 
during the life of the Member; afterwards it is to be used to aid in original research. Life 
Members are exempt from the annual assessment, and are entitled to the publications. The 
names of Life Members are printed in small capitals in the regular list of Members and Fellows. 

The Constitution requires that the names of all Members two years in arrears shall be 
omitted from the list, but their names will be restored on payment of arrearages. Members not 
in arrears are entitled to the publications of the Association, including the journal Science, 

♦Abbe, Cleveland, Professor of Meteorology, Weather Bureau, U. 

S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (16). 1874. A B 
♦Abbe, Cleveland, Jr., U. S. (jeological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
(44). 1899. E 
Abbe, Truman, M. D., 2017 I St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (52). 
♦Abbe, Dr. Robert. 13 W. 50th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 1892. 
♦Abbot, Charles G., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

(49). 1902. B 
♦Abbot, Dr. Samuel L., 90 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. (i). 
Abbott, Alexander C, Univ. of Penna., Philadelphia, Pa. (52). 

Abbott, Frank L., Professor of Physical Science, State Normal 

School, Greeley, Colo. (50). B E 
Abbott, Theodore Sperry, C. E., Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. (52). 

♦Abel, John J., Professor of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. (51). 1902. C 
Abraham, Abraham, Brooklyn, N. Y. (43). 



♦Acheson, Edward Goodrich, President of the International 

Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. (50). 1903. C 
♦Adams, Charles C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

(50)- 1903- F 
Adams, Charles Francis, Head of Science Department, Central 

High School, Detroit, Mich. (53). B 

Adams, Comfort A., 13 Farrar St., Cambridge, Mass. (47). 

Adams, C. E., M. D., 29 West Broadway, Bangor, Me. (43). F 

Adams, Edward Dean, 35 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

Adams, Frederick C, Mechanic Arts High School, Boston, Mass. 

(50). B C 
Adams, Orr J., Telhiridc, Colo. (53). C 
♦Adler, Isaac, M. D., 22 E. 62d St., New York, N. Y. (49). 1903. K 
♦Adriance, John S., 105 E. 39th St., New York, N. Y. (39). 1895. C 
Aguilera, Jos6 G., Director of the Geological Institute of Mexico, 

Mexico City, Mexico. (53). E 
Ailes, Hon. Milton E., Riggs National Bank, Washington, D. C. 

(52). I 
Ains worth, Herman Reeve, M. D., Addison, N. Y. (51). I K 
Aitken, Robert G., Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal. (53) A 
Akeley, Lewis E., Professor of Physics and Chemistry, University 

of South Dakota. Vermillion, S. Dak. (51). B C 
Albaugh, Maurice, Secretary of the Crescent Metallic Fence 

Stay Co., Covington, Ohio. (51). D 
Albert, Harry Lee, Professor of Biology, State Normal School, 

Cape Girardeau, Mo. (53). F 6 
Albrecht, Emil Poole, Secretary of The Bourse, 1523 N. 17th 

St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). A D 
Albrecht, Sebastian, Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cai. (52). A 
Albree, Chester B., Mechanical Engineer, 14-30 Market St., 

Allegheny, Pa. (50). D 
♦Alden, John, Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass. (36). 1898. 
♦Alderson, Victor C, President Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 

Colorado. (50). 1903. D ■ 
♦Aldrich, Wm. S., Director, Thomas S. Clarkson Memorial School 

of Technology, Potsdam, N. Y. (43). 1897. D 
Alexander, Chas. Anderson, M. E., Johnston Harvester Co., 10 

Vine St., Batavia, N. Y. (50). D 
Alexander, Curtis, Mining Engineer, Cedral, San Luis Potosi, 

Mexico. (50). E 
Alexander, George E., Chemist and Mining Engineer, 1736 Champa 

St., Denver, Colo. (50). C D 
Alexander, Harry, E. E., M. E., 18 and 20 W. 34th St., New York, 

N. Y. (50). D 
Aley, Robert J., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. (49). 


AUabach, Miss Lulu F., Instructor in Biology and Zoology. Central 
State Normal School, Lock Haven, Pa. (5-2V F 

Allan. Chas. P., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). B E 

Allderdice, Wm. H., Lieutenant U. S. Navy, Navy Dept., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (33). D 

AUeman, Gellert, Ph. D., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. 

(so). C 

Allen, C. L., Floral Park, N. Y. (49). 

Allen, Charles Metcalf , Assistant Prof, of Experimental Engineer- 
ing, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. (52) . D 

Allen, Edwin West, Editor of Experiment Station Record, U. S. Dept. 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (52). I 
♦Allen, Frank, Ph. D., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (49). 
1903. B 

Allen, Hon. F. I., Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C. 

(50. I 
Allen, Glover Morrill, Secretary Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Perkins 

Hall 68, Cambridge. Mass. (52). F 

Allen, H. Jerome, M. D., 421 H St., N.E., Washington, D. C. 

(51). K 
Allen, Miss Jessie Blount, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (52). F 
Allen, John Robins, Asst. Prof, of Mechanical Engineering, 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (45). B D 
Allen, Richard H., Chatham, N. J. (49). 

Allen, Walter S., 34 S. Sixth St., New Bedford, Mass. (39). C I 
Allis, Edward Phelps, Jr., Palais Carnol^s, Menton, France. (52). F 
Allison, Charles Edward, M. D., Elysburg, Pa. (51). K 
Allison. Hendery.M.D., 260 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. (50). K 
Almond, Thomas R., M. E., 83-85 Washington St., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. (51). D 
♦Almy, John E., Ph. D., Instructor in Physics, University of Ne- 
braska, Lincoln, Neb. (50). 190 1. B 
Alpers, Wm. C, 45 West 31st St., New York, N. Y. (50). I 
Alsop, E. B., 1502 20th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (50). D 
Alspach, E. F., 455 West Sixth Ave., Columbus, O. (48). H 
Alt, Adolf. M. D., 3819 W. Pine Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. (53). F 
♦Alvord, Maj. Henry E., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, 

D. C. (29). 1882. I 
*Alwood, Prof. Wm. B., Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacks- 
b.urg, Va. (39). 1891. F 
Ames, Oakes, Assistant Director of the Botanic Garden of Har- 
vard University, North Easton, Mass. (50). G 
Amweg, Frederick James, Engineer and Manager, American- 
Hawaiian Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., 218-222 
Rialto Building, San Francisco, Cal. (51). D 



Anders, Howard S., M. D., 1836 Wallace St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(51). K 
Anderson, A. J. C, 127 Water St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

* Anderson, Alexander P., American Cereal Co., Monadnock Build- 
ing, Chicago, 111. (45). 1899. G 
Anderson, Prof. Douglas S., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, La. 

(49). BD 
Anderson, Edwin Clinton, M. D., 726 Market St., Chattanooga, 

Tenn. (51). K 
Anderson, Prank, E. M., 255 Second East St., Salt Lake City, 

Utah. (so). D E 
Anderson, Frank P., Epworth, Iowa. (46). 
Anderson, J. Hartley, M. D., 4630 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. 

(so). K 
Anderson, James Thomas, Lieutenant U. S. Army, 1421 Wood Ave., 

Colorado Springs, Colo. (51). 
Anderson, William G., M. D., Associate Director Yale Gymnasium, 

New Haven, Conn. (52). H K 
Anderson, Winslow, M. D., President of College of Physicians and 

Surgeons of San Francisco, 1025 Sutter St., San Francisco, 

Cal. (51). K 
Andrews, Clement Walker, Librarian of The John Crerar Library, 

Chicago, 111. (53). C 
^Andrews, Frank Marion, Ph. D., Instructor in Botany, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, Ind. (52). 1903. G 
Andrews, Wm. Edward, Principal Township High School, 700 

South Clay St., Taylorville, 111. (52). D 
Andrews, William Symes, care Gen'l Elec. Co., Schenectady, 

N. Y. (50). D E 
Annear, John Brothers, 1028 Regent St., Boulder, Colo. (50). C 
Anthony, Mrs. Emilia C, Gouvemeur, N. Y. (47). G 
Anthony, Richard A., 122-124 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

♦Anthony, Prof. Wm. A., Cooper Union, New York, N. Y. (28). 

1880. B 
Apple, Joseph H., President of the Woman's College, Frederick, 
Md. (52). I 
♦Appleton, John Howard, Professor of Chemistry, Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence, R. I. (50). 1901. C 
Archer, George Frost, 31 Burling Slip, New York, N. Y. (50). D 
Armitage. Thomas L., M. D., Princeton, Minnesota. (51). K 
*Armsby, Henry Prentiss, Director Agrl. Expr. Station, State 

College, Centre Co., Pa. (52). 1903. C 
*Arnold, Bion Joseph, 4128 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. (50). 1903. D 
Arnold, Delos, Olcott Place, Pasadena, Cal. (51). 



Arnold, Ernst Hermann, M. D., Director New Haven Normal 
School of Gymnastics, 46 York Square, New Haven, Conn. 

(52). K 
Arnold. Mrs. Francis B., loi W. 78th St., New York. N. Y. {40). 
Arnold, Jacob H., Teacher of Natural Science, Redfield College, 

Redfield, South Dakota. (50). I 
Arnold, Ralph, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (51). E 
♦Arthur. J. C, D. Sc., Botanist Agric. Exper. Sta., Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette, Ind. (21). 1883. G 
Asdale, William James. M. D., Professor of Gynecology, Western 

Penna. Medical College, Pittsburg, Pa. (51). K 
Ashbrook, Donald Sinclair, 3614 Baring St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(sO. C 

Ashcraft, A. M., Ph.D., P. O. Box 742, Baltimore, Md. (52). 
Ashe, W. Willard, Consulting Forester, Raleigh, N. C. (47). 
♦Ashley, George Hall, Professor of Biology and Geology, College 

of Charleston, Charleston, S. C. (51). 1903. E F 
♦Ashmead, Wm. H., Department of Insects, U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. F 
Ashton. Charles Hamilton, Assistant in Mathematics, University 

of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. (53). A 
Aspinwall, John, 290 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Atkins, Prof. Maa:tin D., 269 Forest Ave., River Forest, 111. (48). B 
♦Atkinson, Edward, 31 Milk St., Boston, Mass. (29). 18S1. D I 
♦Atkinson, George F., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (39). 
1892. G 
Atkinson, John B., Earlington, Ky. (26). D 
♦Atwater, W. O., Professor of Chemistry, Wesleyan Univ., Middle- 
town, Conn. (29). 1882. C 
♦Atwell, Charles B., Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. (36). 

1890. G 
♦Auchincloss, Wm. S., Atlantic Highlands, N. J. (29). 1886. A D 
♦Austen, Prof. Peter T., 80 Broad St., New York, N. Y. (44). 
1896. C 
Austin, Oscar P., Chief Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. C. 

(SI). " 
♦Avery, Elroy M., Ph. D., LL.D., 657 Woodland Hills Ave.. 
Cleveland, Ohio. (37). 1889. B 

AvBRY. Samuel P., 4 E. 38th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Avis, Edward S., Ph. D., President North Georgia Agricultural Col- 
lege, Dahlonega, Ga. (52). 

Aycr, Edward Everett, 915 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. (37). H 

Ayer, James I., 5 Main St. Park, Maiden, Mass. (50). D 
♦Ayers, Howard, President Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
(49). 190X. F 



Aylesworth, Barton O., President of the State Agricultural College, 
Fort Collins. Colo. (50). I 
♦Ayres, Prof. Brown, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. (31). 
18S5. B ■ 

Ayres, Horace B., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Babcock, Charles A., Supt. Schools, Oil City, Pa. (52). F 
♦Babcock, Prof. S. Moulton, 432 Lake St., Madison, Wis. (33). 
1885. C 

Bacon, Arthur Avery, Professor of Physics, Hobart College, Geneva, 
N. Y. (53). B 

Baerecke, John F., M. D., Professor of Biology, Stetson University, 
DeLand, Fla. (50). F K 

Bagby, J. H. C, Dept. Physical Science, Hampden-Sidney College, 
Hampden-Sidney, Va. (50). B 
♦Bagg, Rufus Mather, Jr., Ph. D., High School, Brockton, Mass. 
(49). 1903. E 

Baogaley, Ralph, Pittsburg, Pa. C50). D 
♦Bailey, E. H. S., Professor of Chemistry, Univ. of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kan. (25). 1889. C E 

Bailey, E. P., In charge Department of Geology and Geography, 
Brockton High School, Brockton, Mass. (52). E 

Bailey, Frank H., Lieut. Com'dr, U. S. N., U. S. F. S. " Brooklyn." 
care of Postmaster, New York, N. Y. (52). D 
♦Bailey, Solon Irving, Associate Prof. Astronomy, Harvard Ob- 
servatory, Cambridge, Mass. (50). 1901. A 

Bailey, Vernon, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(52). F 
♦Bain, Samuel M., Professor of Botany, University of Tennessee, 

Knoxville, Tenn. (50). 1902. G 
Bair, Joseph Hershey, Ph. D., Columbia University, New York, 

N. Y. (52). H K 
Baird, John Wallace, Carnegie Research Assistant in Psychology, 

Cornell Univerpity, Ithaca, N. Y. (53). H 
Baird, Robert Logan, Assistant in Laboratories, Oberlin College, 

Oberlin, Ohio. (53). F 
Baker, A. G., Springfield, Mass. (44). 
♦Baker, Frank, M. D., 1728 Columbia Road, Washington, D. C. 

(31). 1886. F H K 
Baker, Frederic, 815 Fifth Ave., New York. N. Y. (49). 
Baker, Hugh P., Yale Forest School, New Haven, Conn. 

(51). e 

♦Baker, James H., President of the University of Colorado, Boulder, 
Colo. (50). 1903. I 
Balch, Alfred William, Assistant Surgeon, U.S. N ., Navy Depart- 
ment, Washington, D. C. (52). C K 



♦Balch, Edwin Swift, 141 2 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
1903. E H 
Balch, Francis Noyes, Prince St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (50). F 
Balch, Samuel W.. 67 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (43). 
Baldwin, Mrs. G. H., 3 Madison Ave., Detroit, Mich. (34). H 
Baldwin, Herbert B., 9-1 1 Franklin St., Newark, N. J. (43). 
♦Baldwin, Prof. J. Mark, Princeton, N. J. (46). 1898. H 
♦Baldwin, Hon. Simeon E., Associate Judge of Supreme Court 

of Errors, New Haven, Conn. (50). 1901. I 
♦Baldwin. S. Prentiss, 736 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio. (47). 
1900. E 
Baldwin, William Dickson, 25 Grant Place, Washington, D. C. 

(52). E 
♦Ball, Carleton R., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(49). 1902- 6 
♦Ball, Elmer Darwin, Professor of Animal Biology, State Agricid- 

tural College, Logan, Utah. (50). 1903. F 

Ball. Miss Helen Augusta, 43 Laurel St., Worcester, Mass. 

(so). F 

Ballard, C. A., Curator of Museum, State Normal School, Moor- 
head, Minn. (51). 
♦Ballard, Harlan H., 50 South St., Pittsfield, Mass. (31). 1891. 

E F 
♦Balliet, Thomas M., Supt. of Schools, Springfield, Mass. (48) . 1903. 
H I 

Bancroft, Alonzo C, Elma, New York. (41). 

Bancroft, Frank Watts, Ph. D., Instructor in Physiology, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. (50). F K 

Bancroft, John Sellers, M. E., 3310 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(51). D 
♦Bancroft, Wilder Dwight, Professor of Chemistry, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y. (50). 1901. B C 
Bangs, Lemuel Bolton, M. D., 39 E. 72d St., NewYork, N. Y. 

♦Bangs, Outram, 240 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. (47). 1900. F 

Banker, Howard J., Prof. Biology, Southwestern Normal School, 

California, Pa. (51). G 
Banks. William C, Electrician, Gordon Battery Co., 439 E. 144th 

St., New York, N. Y. (50). D 
Banta, Arthur M., Univ. of Indiana, Bloomington. Ind. (53). F 
Barber, Amzi L., 7 E. 4 2d St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Barbour, Miss Carrie Adeline, Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Nebraska, 

Lincoln, Neb. (53). E 
♦Barbour, Erwin Hinckley, Prof, of Geology, Univ. of Nebraska, 

Lincoln, Neb. (45). 1898. E 



Barbour, Thomas, 50 White St., New York, N. Y. (50). F 
Barck, Dr. Carl, 2715 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. (52). 
♦Bardeen, Charles Russell, Anatomical Laboratory, Wolfe and 
Monument Sts., Baltimore, Md. (50). 1901. F K 
Bardeen, Charles William, 406 So. Franklin St., Syracuse, N. Y. 


Bardwell, Darwin L., District Supt. of Schools, Borough of Rich- 
mond, Stapleton, N. Y. (52). 

Barkan, Adolph, M. D., LL.D., Mutual Savings Bank Bldg., San 
Francisco, Cal. (51). K 
*Barkbr, Prop. G. F., 3909 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. U3)- 
1875. B C 

Barker, Mrs. Martha M., 42 Eleventh St., Lowell, Mass. (31). E H 

Barlow, John, A. M., State College of Agriculture, Kingston, R. 1. 

(SI). F 
♦Barnard, Edward E., Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. 

(26). 1883. A 
Barnes, Albert, Clemson College, S. C. (49). D 
♦Barnes, Charles Reid, Ph. D., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

(33). 1885. G 
Barnes, Edward W., Box 446, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Bamett, Robert Crary, 3023 East 20th St., Kansas City, Mo. 

(51)- "> 
Bamhart, Arthur M., 185 Monroe St., Chicago, 111. (4>). 

♦Bamhart, John H., M. D., Tarrytown, N. Y. (49). 1903. G 

Bamsley, George Thomas, C. E., Oakmont, Pa. (51). D 
♦Barnum, Miss Charlotte C, Ph. D., U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Washington, D. C. (36). 1896. A 
Barr, Charles Elisha, Professor of Biology, Albion College, Albion, 
Mich. (50). F 
♦Barr, John Henry, care of Smith Premier Typewriter Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. (51). 1903. D 
Barren, Joseph, 105 Bishop St., New Haven, Conn. (51). t 
Barrie, Dr. George, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (49)- 

H I 
Barringer, Daniel Moreau, Geologist and Mining Engineer, 460 
Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (50). D E 
♦Barrows, Walter B., Agricultural College, Mich. (40). 1897. F 
♦Bartlett, Prof. Edwin J., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 
(a8). 1883. C 
Bartlett, Francis, 40 State St., Boston, Mass. (50). I 
Bartlett, George Miller, Instructor in Physics and Mathematics, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (52). B 
♦Bartlett, John R., Captain, U. S. N., Lonsdale, R. I. (30). 1882. 
B E 



♦Bartley, Elias H., M. D., 21 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(S3)' 1894. C 
* Barton, G. E., 212 North 3d St., Millville, N. J. (46). 1898. C 
♦Barton, George Hunt, Dept. of Geology, Mass. Inst. Tech., Bos- 
ton, Mass. (47). 1900. E 
Barton, Philip Price, E. E., Sup't Niagara Palls Power Co., 127 
Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls. N. Y. (50). D E 
♦Barton, Samuel M., Ph. D., The Univ. of the South, Sewance, 
Tenn. (43). 1899. ^ 
Bartow, Edward, Ph. D., Kansas State University, Lawrence, 

Kan. (47). C 
Bartsch, Paul, Ph. D., Instructor in Zoology, Columbian Univ., 
Washington, D. C. (52). F 
♦Bsunis, Carl, Ph. D., Wilson Hall, Brown Univ., Providence, R. I. 

(33). 1887. B 
Barwell, John William, Waukegan, 111. (47). 
♦Bascom, Miss Florence, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

(42). 1897. E 
Bashore, Dr. Harvey B., West Fairview, Pa. (46). E 
♦Baskerville, Charles, Professor of Chemistry, University of North 

Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. (41). 1894. C E 
Baskctt, James Newton, Mexico, Mo. (50). F I 
Basqtdn, Olin H., Associate Piofessor of Physics, Northwestern 

University, Evanston, 111. (53). B D 
Bassett, Carroll Phillips, Ph. D., Civil and Consulting Engineer, 

Summit, N. J. (51). D 
Bates, Henry H., Ph. D., The Portland, Washington, D. C. (52). 

A B D 
Bates, Rev. John Mallery, Red Cloud, Neb. (51). 6 1 
Bauder, Arthur Russell, Instructor in Physics, Boardman High 

School, New Haven, Conn. (50). B 
♦Bauer, Louis A., Ph. D., U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, 

D. C. (40). 1892. A 
Baumgardt, B. R., ' 626 W. 30th Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

(51). A 
♦Bausch, Edw., P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (26). 1883. 

Bausch, Henry, P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (41). 
Bawden, H. Heath, Professor of Psychology and Philosophy, 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (51). F 
Baxter, James Phinney, President, Maine Historical Society, 

Portland, Maine. (50). H I 
Beach, Miss Alice M., St. Anthony Park, Minn. (50). F 
Beach, Char]es Coffing, M. D., 54 Woodland St., Hartford, Conn. 

(So).J( F K 



Beach, Henry Harris Aubrey, M. D., 28 Commonwealth Ave., 

Boston, Mass. (50). F K 
♦Beach, Spencer Ambrose, N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station. Geneva, 

N. Y. (41). 1900. G 
Beach, William Harrison, Teacher of History and Civics, East 

Division High School, 239 Pleasant St., Milwaukee. Wis. (52). 
Beahan, Willard, Division Engineer, C. St N. W. Ry., 220 W. 6th 

St., Winona, Minn. (51). D 
Beal, Walter Henry, Assistant, Office of Experiment Stations. 

U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (52). 
♦Beal, Wm. James, Ph. D., Professor of Botany, Agricultural 

College, Mich. (17). 1880. G 
Beaman, George Herbert, 2232 Mass. Ave., N.W., Washington, 

D. C. (52). I 
♦Beardsley, Arthur E., Professor of Biology, Colorado State 

Normal School, Greeley, Colo. (50). 190 1. F 
Beates, Henry, Jr., M. D., President of State Board of Medical 

Examiners, 1504 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). K 
Beatty, James W. F., Pitcairn, Pa. (51). 
Bebb, Edward C, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

($2). E 
Becher, Franklin A., 234 Oneida St., Milwaukee, Wis. (41). A I 
Beck, Carl, M. D., Professor of Surgery in New York Postgraduate 

Medical School and President of St. Mark's Hospital, 37 E. 

31st St., New York, N. Y. (51). K 
♦Becker, Dr. Geo. F., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(36). 1890. E 
Beckwith, Miss Florence, 394 Alexander St., Rochester, N. Y. 

(45). e 

♦Bedell, Frederick, Ph. D., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). 
1894. A B 
Beebe, Charles William, Curator of Ornithology, N. Y. Zoological 

Park, New York, N. Y. (53). F 
Beede, Joshua William, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

(so). E 
Beekman, Gerard, 47 Cedar St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Beers, M. H., 410 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). I 
♦Behrend, Bernhard Arthur, C. E., E. E., Station H, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. (50). 1903. D E 
♦Bell, Alex. Graham, Ph.D., 1331 Conn. Ave., N.W., Washington, 

D. C. (26). 1879. B H I 
♦Bell, Alex. Melville, 1525 35th St., Washington, D. C. (31). 1885. 

♦Bell, Albert T., Professor of Botany, Wesleyan Univ., University 

Place, Neb. (52). 1903. G 



Bell, C. M.. M. D., 320 Fifth Ave, New York, N. Y. (36). 
Bell, George, Mineralogist, 200 S. Washington Ave., Denver, Colo. 

(50). E G 
Bell, Guido, M. D., 431 £. Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. (51). K 
Bell, John Everett, M. £., care of The Stirling Co., Barberton, Ohio. 

(53). D 
*Bell, Robert, M. D., LL.D., F. R. S., Geol. Survey, Ottawa, 

Can. (38). 1889. E F 
Bellows, Horace M., M. D., Huntingdon Valley, Pa. (51). K 
Belmont, August, 23 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (50). I 
*Beman, Wooster W., 813 E. Kingsley St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
(34). 1886. A 
Bement, A., 218 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. (52). 
BSndrat, Rev. Thomas Albert, Spencer, So. Dak. (52). 
Benedict, Harris Miller, Instructor in Biology, University of 
Cincinnati, 103 West St. Clair St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (52). F 
Benedict, James H., 704 Lords Court, New York, N. Y. (49) 
Benham, J. W., 138 West 42d St., New York, N. Y. (52). H 
♦Benjamin, Marcus, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

(27). 1887. C I 
♦Benjamin, Rev. Raphael, M. A., Hotel St. George, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. (34). 1887. E F G H 
♦Bcnneson, Miss Cora Agnes, A. M., LL. B., 4 Mason St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. (47). 1899. H I 
Bennett, Charles W., Coldwater, Mich. (50). E 
Bennett, Edward, Electrical Engineer, Amber Club, Pittsburg, 

Pa. (52). D 
Bennett, Henry C, 4th Flat, 1692 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Bennett, Rev. N. E., Wilmington, Ohio. (47). A 

♦Bennett, William Z., Ph. D., Director of Chemical Laboratory, 

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Benson, Frank Sherman, 214 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

*Bentley, William B., Professor of Chemistrj', Ohio University, 

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(SI). ■ 
"♦Bergey, David H., S. E. cor. 34th and Locust Sts., Philadelphia,. 

Pa. (48). 1903. K 

*Bergstr6m, John Andrew, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Psy* 

chology and Pedagogy, Indiana University, Bloomington^ 

Ind. (50). 1901. I 

Berkeley, Wm. N., Ph. D., Box 466, San Juan, Porto Rico. (49). C 



Berkey, Charles Peter, Ph. D., Tutor in Geology, Columbia 

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(so). D 
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ada. (18). 1875. F 
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Biddle, James G., 1024 Stephen Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bien, Julius, 140 Sixth Ave., New York, N. Y. (34). E H 

Bierbaum, Christopher H., M. E., Consulting Engineer, 330 Pru- 
dential Building, Buffalo. N. Y. (53). D 
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(si). K 
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♦Bigelow, Robert Payne, Ph. D., Mass. Institute of Technology, Bos- 
ton. Mass. (51). 1903. F 

♦Bigelow, S. Lawrence Ph. D., Asst. Professor of General Chemistry, 
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*Blackmar, Frank Wilson, Professor of Sociology and Economics, 

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. (50). 1903. H I 
[ Blackmore, Henry S., 206 S. 9th Ave., Mount Vernon, N. Y. (49). 
Blackshear, Edward Levoisier, Principal of the Prairie View 
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*Blake, Francis, Atibumdale, Mass. (23). 1S74. A B 
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Blanchard, Arthur Horace, C. £., Instructor in Engineering, 

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♦Bogert, Marston Taylor, Havemeyer Hall, Columbia Univ., 

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♦Bolton, Thaddeus L., Ph. D., Dept. Philosophy, University of 

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1885. D 
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1900. C 
Boon, John Daniel, Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Geology, 

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Booth, Edward, Instructor in Chemistry, Univ. of California, 

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1S94. F G I 
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♦Bouton, Charles Leonard, Instructor in Mathematics, Harvard 
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Bowditch, Miss Charlotte, Pond St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (50}. I 
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Bowlus, E. Lingan, Professor of Biology, Monmouth College, 

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Bowman, Joseph H., Resident Engineer, Vera Cruz and Pacific 

Ry., Apartado 21, Cordoba, Mexico. (50). D 
Bownocker, Prof. J. A., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
(48). E 
♦Bowser. Prof. E. A., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (28), 

♦Boyd, James E., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. (46). 1899. 

B D 
♦BorB, Martin H., M. D., Coopersburg, Pa. (i). 1896. C 
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♦Brackett, Prof. C. F., Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 
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^Brackett, Richard N., Clemson College, S. C. (37). 1891. C E 
♦Bradford, Royal B., Commander, U. S. N., Navy Dept., Wash- 
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Bradley, M. J., 373 Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (43). 
Bradley, Stephen Rowe, Nyack, New York. (51). 
Bradley, Walter Parke, Ph. D., Professor of Chemistry, Wesleyan 

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Brainerd, Erastus, Seattle, Wash. (52). 
Bramwell, Geo. W., 335 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (43). D 
♦Branner, Prof. John C, Stanford University, Cal. (34). 1886. E F 
Brasefield, Stanley Eugene, Instructor in Mathematics, Lafayette 
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*Brashear, John A., Allegheny, Pa. (33). 1885. A B D 
Brassill, Miss Sarah Ellen, South Weymouth, Mass. (47). F G 
Braunnagel, Jules L. A., M. D., P. O. Box 925, San Antonio, 
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♦Bray, William L., Professor of Botany, Univ. of Texas, Austin, 
Texas. (49). 1901. G 
Brayton, Sarah H., M. D., The Hereford, Evanston, III. (33). 
Breed, Robert Stanley, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Allegheny 

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Brett, George P., Darien, Conn. (49). 
♦Brewer, Charles Edward, Professor of Chemistry, Wake Forest 

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♦Brewer, Prof. Wm. H., 418 Orange St., New Haven, Conn. (ao). 
1875. E F I 
Brewster, Edwin Tenney, Instructor in Natural Sciences, Phillips 

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Brewster, Frank H., M. E., 154 Fargo Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. (51). D 
Brice, Judge Albert G., 901 Hennen Bldg., New Orleans, La. (32). 

Bridge, Norman, M. D., loo Grand Ave., Pasadena, Cal. (51). K 
Briggs, Edward Cornelius, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
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♦Briggs, Lyman J., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
(48). 1901. B 

(56) . 


Briggs, Wallace Alvin, M. D.» 1005 K St., Sacramento, Cal. (51). K 
*Brigham, Albert Perry, Professor of Geology, Colgate Univ., 
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Bright, Richard Riggs, Ordnance Bureau, Navy Dept., Washing- 
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Brill, George M., Consulting Engineer, 11 34 Marquette Building, 
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Bristol, John I. D., Metropolitan Building, New York, N. Y. (49). 
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A B D 

Brittin, Lewis H., Ansonia, Conn. (52). H 
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Britton, Wilev. Special Pension Examiner, Springfield, Mo. (40) . F 

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Brodie, Patd Thomas, Professor of Mathematics, Clemson College, 
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Bronson, Dr. E. B., 10 W. 49th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

Brooks, Albert A., High School, Kansas City, Kan. (50). F 6 

Brooks, Alfred Hulse, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(52). E 
Brooks, Charles, Botanical Laboratory, University of Missouri, 

Columbia, Mo. (53). 6 
Brooks, Charles Edward, Lake Roland, Md. (52). A 
Brooks, Rev. Earle Amos, Waverly, W. Va. (50). F 
♦Brooks, Wm. Keith, M. D., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

(52). 1903- ^ 
Brooks, Prof. Wm. P., Amherst, Mass. (38). C F 

♦Brooks, Wm. R., D. Sc, Director Smith Observatory and Pro- 
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1886. A B D 

Broome, G. Wiley, M. D., 612 N. Taylor Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (51). K 

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Brown, Arthur Erwin, Secy. Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 
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Browne, Charles A., Jr., Ph. D., Exper. Station, Audubon Park, 
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Brown, Rev. Clement, 1440 M St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52) . 

Brown, Edgar, Botanist in charge of Seed Laboratory, Depart- 
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Brown, Elisha Rhodes, President Stafford Savings and National 

Banks, 50 Silver St., Dover, N. H. (50). I 
Brown, Ellis W., Supervising Principal of Public Schools, 924 24th 

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Brown, George P., President The Public School Publishing Co., 

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♦Brown, Robert, Yale University Observatory, New Haven, Conn. 

(11). 1874. A 
♦Brown, Mrs. Robert, Observatory Place, New Haven, Conn. (17). 


Brown, Robert Marshall, 35 Eighth St., New Bedford, Mass. (48). 

Brown, Samuel B., Morgantown, W. Va. (40). E 

Brown, Stewardson, 20 E. Penn St., Germantown, Pa. (50). I 
♦Brown, S. J., U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis,Md. (49). 1902. A 

Brown, W. L., 42 West 72d St., New York, N. Y. (50). I 

Brownell, Silas B.. 71 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Browning, Charles Clifton, M. D., Highland, Cal. (51). K 
♦Browning, Philip Embury, Kent Chemical Laboratory, Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Conn. (46). 1903. C 

Browning, William, M. D., 54 Lefferts Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

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N. Y. (43). F 6 H 
Bruner, Henry Lane, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Butler College, 

Indianapolis, Ind. (50). F 
♦Bruner, Lawrence, Professor of Entomology, Univ. of Nebraska* 

Lincoln, Neb. (50). 190 1. F 
Brunton, David William, Mining Engineer, 865 Grant Ave., 

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1886. B 
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1874. C E 
Bryan, Joseph Hammond, 818 17th St., Washington, D. C. (52). 



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♦Bryan, Prof. William L., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. (49). 

1900. H 

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1901. H 

♦Buckhout, W. A., State College, Pa. (20). i88x. F 
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(s»)- E 

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Buffum, Burt C, Professor of Agriculture, Agrictdtural College, 
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Tenn. (50). K 

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St. Anthony Park, Minn. (52). D 6 
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1897. D 

Billiard, Warren Gardner, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Mathe- 
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Bullene, Mrs. Emma F.Jay, 143 1 Court Place, Denver, Colo. 

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*Bumpus, H. C, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, N. Y. (49). 1900. 
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for the Insane, Montreal, Can. (38). 1889. 6 



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bury College, Middlebury, Vt. (50). 190 1. 6 
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Burton, Standish Barry, Civil and Mining Engineer, Saltillo, 

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Cambridge, Mass. (52). 1903. H 
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Butler, Frank Edward, President of Grayson College. White- 

wright, Texas. (50). I 
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Butteriield, Arthur Dexter. Assistant Professor of Mathematics. 

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Butterfield, Elmore E., Medical Department of Columbian Uni- 
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Butts, Edward Pontany, C. E., Chief Engineer, Am. Writing 

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Cady, Hamilton Perkins, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Uni- 
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♦Cain, William, Professor of Mathematics, University of North 

Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. (50). 1901. A D 
♦Cajori, Florian, Professor of Mathematics, Colorado College, 

Colorado Springs, Colo. (50). 1901. A 
Calder, George, 105 East 2 2d St., New York, N. Y, (50). 
♦Caldwell, Prof. George C, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (23). 

1875. € 
♦Caldwell, Prof. Otis W., State Normal School, Charleston, 111. (49). 

Z902. 6 
♦Calkins, Gary N., Ph. D., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

(49). 1901. F 
Calkins, Marshall, M. D., 14 Maple St., Springfield, Mass. (29). 
♦Calvert, Philip P., Ph. D., Instructor in Zoology, Biological Hall, 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (50). 1903. F 
♦Calvert, Prof. Sidney, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (47). 

1903- C 
♦Calvin, Prof. Samuel, Dir. Iowa Geol. Surv., Iowa City, Iowa. 

(37). 1889. E F 
♦Cameron, Prank K., Ph. D., Chemist, Bureau of Soils, U. S. 
Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (49). 190 1. C 
Cammann, Hermann H., 51 Liberty St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
♦Campbell, Douglas H., Professor of Botany, Stanford University, 
Cal. (34). 1 888. 6 
Campbell, Henry Donald, Professor Geology and Biology, Wash- 
ington and Lee University, Lexington. Va. (52T. E F 6 
Campbell, Leslie Lyle, Ph. D., Westminster College, Fulton, Mo. 

Campbell, Marius Robison, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 
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Cannon, W. A., Ph. D., Desert Botanical Laboratory, Tucson, 

Arizona. (52). 6 
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Mech. Arts, Kingston, R. I. (45). 6 
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1894. 6 
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Carnahan, Charles T., Mining Engineer, Equitable Building, 

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Carnegie, Thomas Morrison, Trustee of Carnegie Institute, Dunge- 

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Carpenter, Franklin R., Ph. D., Mining Expert, 1420 Josephine St. 

Denver, Colo. (50), D E 
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A B 

Carr, William Kearny, 14 13 K St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). 
Carr, William Phillips. M. D., 1418 L St., N.W., Washington, 

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1903. F K 
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Carter, John E., Knox and Coulter Sts., Germantown, Pa. (33). 


Carter, Marion H.. 504 West 143d St., New York, N. Y. (49)- 
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Cary, Mrs. Elizabeth M. L., 184 Delaware Ave. , Buffalo. N. Y. {45). 


Case, Eckstein, Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

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1901. K 
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Chadwick, Leroy S., M. D., 1824 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. (51). 
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Tulane University, New Orleans, La, (51). 1903. K 
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Chamberlain, Clark Wells, Professor of Physics, Denison Univer- 
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Chamberlain, Paul Mellen, Prof, of Mechanical Engineering, Lewis 

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Chandler, Elwyn Francis, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, 

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Channing, Walter, M. D.. Brookline. Mass. (50). I K 



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D. C. (52). E 
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Charlton, Orlando Clarke, Professor of Biology and Geology, 
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♦Chase, Frederick L., Yale University Observatory. New Haven, 
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Chase, Harry Gray, Assistant Professor of Physics, Tufts College, 

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Chester, Wayland Morgan, Associate Professor of Biology, Colgate 
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Chilcott, EUery Channing, Professor of Geology, Agricultural 
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Chicago, Chicago, 111. (50). 1901. F 
♦Child, Clement D., Colgate Univ., Hamilton, N. Y. (44). 1899. • 
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D. C. {48). 1901. F 
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•"Christie, James, Chief Mech. Engineer Am. Bridge Co., Pen- 
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♦Chute, Horatio N., Instructor in Physical Sciences, High School, Ann 

Arbor, Mich. (34). 1889. ABC 
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1901. A B D 
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Clark, Friend Ebenezer, Dept. of Chemistry, Penna. State College, 

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1874. C 
♦Clark, Gaylord Parsons, Professor of Physiology, Syracuse Uni- 
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Clark, Herbert A., 1902 P St., Lincoln, Neb. (50). B € 
Clark, Howard Walton, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111. 

♦Clark, Hubert Lyman, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Olivet College, 

Olivet, Mich. (50). 1903. F 
Clark, James Albert, "The Cumberland," Washington, D. C. 

Clark, James Frederick, M. D., Fairfield, Iowa. (50). I K 

♦Clark, Prof. John E., 34 S. Park Terrace, Long Meadow, Mass. (17). 
Clark, John Jesse, Manager, Text Book Dept., International Text 
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♦Clarke, John Mason, Ph. D., Asst. State Geologist and Palaeontol- 
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♦Clark, John S., no Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (31). 1901. B C I 
Clark, Judson F., Assistant Professor of Forestry, New York Col- 
lege of Forestry, Ithaca, N. Y. (52). 
Clark, Miss May, Instructor in Physics, The Woman's College, 

Baltimore, Md. (52). B 
Qark, Oliver Durfee, 590 Halsey St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (41). E F 



^Clarke, Prof. Samuel Pessenden, Williams College, Willi amstowii , 
Mass. (50). 190 1. F 
Clark, Thomas H., 34 Lancaster St., Worcester, Mass. (40). 
Clark, W. A., Ph. D., President State Normal School, Peru. Neb. 

Clark, Wm. Brewster, M. D., 50 E. 31st St., New York, N. Y. 

(33). C F 
♦Clark, Wm. Bxtllock, Ph. D., Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
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Clements, Frederic Edward, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Botany, 

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111. (52). K 
Clements, Joseph, M. D., Nutley, N. J. (52). K 
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Cobb. Prof. Collier, University of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, 

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190Z. F 
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^Coffin, Rev. Selden J., Ph. D., Lafayette College, Baston, Pa. 
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*Coghill, George Ellett, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Pacific Univ., 
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^Cogswell, Wm. B., Syractise, N. Y. (33). 1891. D 
Cohen. Mendes, Civil Engineer, 825 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md. 
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^Cohen, Solomon Solis, M. D.,Z525 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
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Coker, Wm. Chambers, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Botany, 
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^CoLBURN, Richard T., Elizabeth, N. J. (31). 1894. F H I 
Colby, Edward A., care Baker Platinum Works, Newark, N. J. 

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1891. B C 
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D H 
Coleman, Walter, Prof, of Natural History, Sam Houston Normal 

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D.c. (si), e 

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1902. B 
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1900. tt I 

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1903. F 
Cooper, Hon. Edward, 12 Washington Square, N., New York, N. Y. 

Cooper, Hermon Charles, Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of 

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1900. F 6 

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Cox, John, Professor of Experimental Physics, McGill University, 

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Cox, Ulysses O., Professor of Biology, State Normal School, Man- 

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D E 
Crew, Henry, Professor of Physics, Northwestern University, 
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1903- ^ 
Crockard, Frank Heame, E. M., C. E., Asst. Mgr. Riverside Dept. 

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♦Cunningham, Prof. Susan J., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, 

Pa. (38). 1901. A 
Curran, Ulysses T., Probate Judge, Erie Co., Sandusky, Ohio. 

(52). I 
•Currie, C. A., M. D., P. O. Box 1606, Philadelphia, Pa. (48). F 
♦Curtis, Cariton C, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (51). 

1903- • 
Curtis, Charles B., 9 East 54th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
Curtis, George Carroll, 64 Crawford St., Boston, Mass. (52). E 
Curtis, G. Lenox, M. D., 7 West 58th St., New York, N. Y. (51). 
Curtis, George W., Mgr. Collier County Mill and Elevator Co., Mc- 

Kinney, Texas. (50). 
Curtis, H. Holbrook, M. D., 118 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 

(SO- K 

Curtis, Mattoon M., Prof, of Philosophy, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Cleveland,* Ohio. (50). H I 

Curtis, Winterton C, Ph. D., Instructor in Zoology, University of 
Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (53). F 

Curtiss, Richard Sydney, Asst. Prof, of Chemistry, Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y. (52). C 
♦Curtis, William E., Post Building, Washington, D.C. (40). 1903. HI 

Cushing, Harvev, M. D., 3 West Franklin St., Baltimore, Md. 

(52). K 
♦Cushing, Henry Piatt, Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio. (ss). 
1888. E 
Cushing, John J., looi Union Trust Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. (50). 
♦Cushman, Allerton, Ph. D., Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. 

Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (50). 1901. C 
♦Cushny, Arthur R., Professor of Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (50). 190 1. K 
Cutler, Coiman Ward, M. D.. 36 East 33d St., New York, N. Y. 

^ (50). K 
Cutter, Ephraim, M. D., 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (51). K 
Cutter, Irving S., Box 732, Lincoln, Neb. (50). F 8 
♦Dabney, Charles W., Ph. D., President University of Tennessee, 

Knoxville, Tenn. (47). 1901. C 
. Daggette, Alvin S., M. D., 400 South Craig St., Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 
F K 
Dahlgren, Ulric, Ph. D., Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

Daland, Rev. William Clifton, D. D., President of Milton College, 
;a. Milton, Wis. (52). I 



Dale, J. Y., M. D., P. O. Box 14, Lemont, Pa. (51). K 
♦Dall, William Healey, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
(18). 1874. F H 
Dalrymple, Rev. C. H., 27 Irving St., Cambridge*, Mass. (53). I 
Dalrymple, W. H., Prof. Vet. Science, La. State Univ. and A. & 
M. College, Baton Rouge, La. (50). F K 
♦Dana, Dr. Charles L.. 50 W. 46th St., New York, N. Y. (46). 1889. 

. H 
♦Dana, Edward Salisbury, New Haven, Conn. (23). 1875. B E 
Daniel, John, Professor of Physics, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, 

Tenn. (50). B 
Danielson, A. H., Agricultural College, Port Collins, Colo. (50). B 
♦Darton, Nelson H., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (37). 
Daugherty, Rev. Jerome, S. J., President of Georgetown Univ., 

Washington, D. C. (5a). 
Daugherty, Lewis S., Professor of Biology, State Normal School, 
Kirksville, Mo. (53). F 
♦d'Auria, Luigi, M. E., 972 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 

1903. A D 
♦Davenport, Charles Benedict, Ph. D., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 
111. (46). 1898. F 
Davenport, Eugene, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Champaign, 111. (39). 
Davenport, Francis Henry, M. D., 419 BovlstonSt., Boston, Mass. 

(50). K 
♦Davidson, George, 2221 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal. (29). 

1881. A B D 
Davidson, R. J., Agric. Exper. Station, Blacksburg, Va. (40). C 
Davies, Arthur Ernest, Ph. D., Ohio State University, Columbus, 

Ohio. (53). I 
Davies, William G., 22 E. 45th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Davis, Abial B., 129 East Lincoln Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. (44). A 
Davis, Andrew McFarland, 10 Appleton St., Cambridge, Mass. 

(35)- H 
Davis, Bergen, Columbia University, New' York, N. Y. (49). B 
♦Davis, Bradley Moore, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 

111. (45). 1897. B 
Davis, Charles P., Fort Collins, Colo. (50). C 
Davis, Charles Gilbert, M. D., 31 Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

(51). K 
♦Davis, C. H., Commander U. S. N., Navy Dept., Washington, 

D. C. (40). 1896. 

Davis, Edward E., 47 W. Main St., Norwich, N. Y. (50). 

Davis, George S., P. O. Box 724, Detroit, Mich. (50). 



♦Davis, Herman S., Ph. D., Director of International Latitude 

Station, Gaithersburg, Md. (50). 1901. A 
♦Davis, J. J., M. D., 11 19 College Ave., Racine, Wis. (31). 1S99. 
F G 
Davis, John J., Attorney at law, Clarksburg, W. Va. (50). I 
Davis, Kary Cadmxis, Ph. D., Menomonee, Wis. (50). G 
♦Davis, Nathan Smith, M. D., LL. D., 65 Randolph St., Chicago, 
111. (si). 1903. K 
Davis, N. S., Jr., 291 Huron St., Chicago, 111. (50). F G 
♦Davis, Wm. Harper, Asst. in Psychology, Columbia Univ., New 

York, N. Y. (50). 1903. H I 
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1885. B E 
Davison, Alvin, Ph. D., Lafayette College, Baston, Pa. (49). 
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Daviss, Edward Paxton, M. D., 305-6 Binz Building, Houston, 
Texas, (51). K 
♦Davy, Joseph Burtt, State Agrostologist and Botanist, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Pretoria, Transvaal. (51). 1903. G 
♦Dawson, Percy Millard, M. D., Instructor in Physiology, Johns 

Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Md. (50). 1903. K 
♦Day, William Scofield, Ph. D., 337 W. 87th St., New York. 
N. Y. (50). 1901. B 
Dean, Edward B., Hotel Gordon, Washington, D. C. (52). 
Dean, Seth, C. E., Surveyor of Mills County, Glen wood, Iowa. 

(34). D 
Dean, Wm. H., 167 West River St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. (50). C 
Deans, John Sterling, Chief Engineer, Phoenix Bridge Co. 

Phoenixville, Pa. (51). D 
Dearborn, George Van Ness, Ph. D., Professor of Physiology, 

Tufts Medical and Dental Schools, Boston, Mass. (53). K 
de Arozarena, Rafael M., Consulting Engineer, 2da Calle de las 

Estaciones, Esquina de Encino, City of Mexico, Mexico. (51). 

de Benneville, James S., University Club, 15 10 Walnut St., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. (46).* C 
de Coppet, Henry, 22 West 17th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Deens, Miss Anna M., 216 North Ave., W., Allegheny, Pa. (50). 

de Forest, Robert W., 30 Broad St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
de Funiak, Frederick, Consulting Engineer, 204 E. Chestnut St., 

Louisville, Ky. (51). D 
*Deghu6e, Joseph A., Ph. D., 247 Harrison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(40). 1900. C 
Deimel, Richard F., 209 West 97th St.. New York, N. Y. (52). A 



♦Delabarre, E. B., Ph. D., 9 Arlington Ave., Providence, R. I. (49). 
1901. H I 

Delafield, Maturin L., Jr., Fieldston, Riverdale, New York, N. Y. 

(43). « 
Delafond, E., Ingenieur Chimiste, P. O. Box 2290, City of Mexico, 
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Db Landero, Carlos P., Asst. Director Pachuca and Real del 
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Delano, Frederic A., Supt. of Motive Power, C. B. and Q. Railroad, 
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Delany, Patrick Bernard, E. E., Inventor, South Orange, N. J. 
(SO). D 

Dellenbaugh, Frederick S., Century Club, 7 West 43d St., New 

York, N. Y. (51). H 
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♦Dennis, David Worth, Professor of Biology, Earlham College, 

Richmond, Ind. (50). 1901. F 
♦Dennis, Louis Munroe, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (43). 
1895. C 

de Raasloff, Harold, Civil Engineer, 18 Burling Slip, New York. 

N. Y. (si). D 
Derby, George McClellan, Major, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., 

P. O. Box 654, St. Paul, Minn. (50). D 
♦Derby, Orville A., Commissao Geologica, Sao Paulo, Brazil, South 

America. (39). 1890. E 
Detmers, Fredericka, 13 15 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio. (48). G 
Detweiler, Andrew J., M. D., State Board of Health, Columbia, Mo. 

(53). K 
Devereux, W. B., 99 John St., New York, N. Y. (50). 

♦Dewey, Lyster H., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D, C. 
(40). 1899. F 8 
Dexter, E. G., Ph. D., Professor of Education and Psychology, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. (52) . K 
♦Dexter, Franklin, M. D., Associate Professor of Anatomy, Har- 
vard Medical School, Boston, Mass. (50). 190 1. K 
Dickerson, E. N., 141 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Dickinson, Gordon K., M. D., 278 Montgomery St., Jersey City. 

N.J. (51). K 
Diemer, Hugo, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. (49). D 
♦Diller, J. S., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (52). 

1903. E 
♦Dimmock, George, Box 1597, Springfield, Mass. (22). 1874. F 



Dimock, Mrs. Henry F., 25 East 60th St.. New York, N. Y. (50). 
Dimon, Miss Abigail Camp, 367 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. (50). F K 
Dinkey, Alva C, General Supt. Homestead Steel Works, Munhall, 

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Disbrow, William S., M. D., 151 Orchard St., Newark, N.J. (51). K 
Dixon, Brandt B., President of Newcomb College, New Orleans. 

La. (52). K 
*Dixon, Roland B., Peabodv Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (46). 190 1. 

Dixon, Samuel Gibson, M. D., Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1900 Race St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. (50). F K 
Dixson, Prof. Zella Allen, Librarian University of Chicago, 

Chicago, 111. (52). I 
♦Dock, George, M. D., Professor of Medicine, University of Michi' 

gan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (51). '903. K 
♦Dodge, Charles Richards, 1336 Vermont Ave., N.W., Washing* 

ton, D. C. (22). 1874. 
♦Dodge, Charles Wright, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (39). 

1898. F 
Dodge, D. Stuart, 99 John St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
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♦Dodge, Richard E., Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., New 

York, N. Y. (49). 1901. E I 
Dodman, Alfred C, Jr., 235 W. 108th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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♦Dolbear, Prof. A. Emerson, Tufts College, Mass. (20). 1880. B 
Dole, Rev. Charles Fletcher, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (50). I 
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♦Dorsey, George A., Ph. D., Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 

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Doughty, Mrs. Alia, Milford, Pa. (49). 

Doughty, John W., 165 Johnston St., Newburgh, N. Y. (19). E 
Douglas, Archer Wall, 5101 McPherson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (53). 

Douglas, Mrs. George William, Tuxedo Park, N. Y. (49). 
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Douglas, Orlando B., 20 Pleasant St., Concord, N. H. (49). 



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Dowell, Philip, Ph.D.. High School, Port Richmond, N.Y. (50). F 
Downing, Elliott Rowland, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Northern 

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Dozier, Melville, Professor of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, 

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z88i. A B D F 
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(41). F 
Drewett, Wm. A.. M. E., 202 Rutledge St., Brooklyn. N. Y. 

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Dreyfus. Dr. William, 162 East 9sth St., New York, N. Y. (52). C 
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♦Droppers, Garrett, President of the State University, Ver- 
million, S. Dak. (50). 1 90 1. I 
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Duane, Russell, 911 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. (50). I 
♦Duane, William, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, State University, 

Boulder, Colo. (50). 1901. B 
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C H I 
DuBois, Wm. E. B., Professor of Economics and History, Atlanta 

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Du Bose', F. G., M. D., 915 Alabama St., Selma, Ala. (51). K 
Dudgeon, H. R., M. D., Demonstrator of Surgery, School of 
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1881. C 
♦Dudley, Prof. Wm. R., Dept. of Systematic Botany, Stanford 
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Duerden, J. E., Ph. D., Professor of Biology, University of Michi- 
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♦Duggar, Benjamin Minge, Professor of Botany, Univ. of Missouri, 
Columbia, Mo. (45). 1900. 8 
Duke. Prank Williamson, Professor of Mathematics, Hollins In- 
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Duncan, Fred. N., Professor of Chemistry, Emory College, Oxford, 
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♦Duncan, George Martin, Professor of Philosophy, Yale University, 
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Duncanson, Henry Bruce, Professor of Biology, State Normal 

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Duncklee, John B., Civil Engineer, 35 Fairview Ave., South 

Orange, N. J. (51). D 

♦Dunham, Edward K., M. D., Professor of Pathology, Carnegie 

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(51). K 
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♦Durand,Elias J., D.S., 402 Eddy St., Ithaca, N.Y. (41). 1899, fi 

Durand, John S., 81 Fulton St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
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1S90. B 
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1899. A 



Dutton, Charles Frederic, Jr., 64 West Roy Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

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Duvall, Trumbull Gillette, Ph. D., Professor of Psychology and 
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Duvel, Joseph W. T., U. S. Dept. of Ag^culture, Washington, 

D.C. (48). fi 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., M. D., 2 E. 34th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
♦D wight, Thomas, M. D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 

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♦Dwight, Prof. William B., Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

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♦Dyar, Harrison G., Ph. D., U. S. National Museum, Washington, 
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Dyche, Lewis Lindsay, Professor of Systematic Zoology and 
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Dysterud, E., Electrical Engineer, Monterey, Mexico. (50). D 
Eagleson, James B., M. D., 512 Burke Bldg., Seattle, Wash. (51). 

Earhart, Robert F., Asst. Professor of Physics, Ohio State Univer- 
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Earll, Charles Isaac, M. E., 76 William St., New York, N. Y. (52) . 
* Eastman, Charles Rochester, Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, 

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Easton, Christopher. Deputy Superintendent, MetropoUtan Hos- 
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♦Eastwood, Miss Alice, Curator of Herbarium, California Academy 
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Eaton, Elon Howard, 209 Cutler Building, Rochester, N. Y. 

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1894. C F 
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♦Eddy, Prof. H. T., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (24). 

1875. AB D 

£des, Robert Thaxter, M. D., 15 Greenough Ave., Jamaica Plain, 

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Edgar, Clinton G., 72 Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. (46). 
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♦Edwards, Prof. Charles Lincoln, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

(49). 1900. F 
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Edwards, Prof. John W., Iowa Wesleyan University, Mt. Pleasant 

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Ehrhom, Edward Macfarlane, County Entomologist, Santa Clara 

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♦Eichelberger, William Snyder, Ph. D., U. S. Naval Observatory, 

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♦Eiesland, John, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics, Thiel College, 

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♦Eigenmann, Carl H., Ph. D., Indiana University, Bloomington, 

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Eikenberry, William Lewis, Instructor in Botany, High School, St. 

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♦Eimbeck, William, U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(17). 1874. A B D 
Eimer, August, 220 East 19th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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F K 

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*Elrod, Morton John, Professor of Biology, University of Montana, 
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Ely, Charles Russell, Professor of Natural Science, Gallaudet 

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Ely, Robert Erskine, Executive Director, League for Political Edu- 
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St. Station, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 1886. D 
♦Emerson, Prof. Benjamin K., Box 203, Amherst, Mass. (19). 1877. 

E F 
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Emmerton, Frederic Augustus, 9 Bratenahl Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 

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Emory, Hon. Frederic, Chief of the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
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Enders, Howard Edwin, 1007 W. Lafayette Ave., Baltimore, Md. 
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Engle, Horace M., Roanoke, Va. (52). E 

Engle, Wilber Dcwight, Professor of Chemistry, University of 
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♦Engler. Edmund Arthur, President Worcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, Worcester, Mass. (50). 1901. A 

English, William Thompson, M. D., Professor of Physical Diagno- 
sis, Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 

Eno, a. F., 32 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (50). 

Eno, John Chester, 18 West 38th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

Epper, Rev. Fro win, O. S. B., Mt. Angel, Oregon. (50). F 

Esmond, Darwin W., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). A I 

Esterly, Calvin Olin, Assistant in Zoology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley, Cal. (53). F 

EsTES, Dana, Brookline, Mass. (29). H I 
♦Evans, Alexander W., M. D., 12 High St., New Haven, Conn. (45). 
1903. 6 

Evans, Britton D., M. D., Medical Director of N. J. State Hospital, 
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Evans, Thomas, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

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Evans, Walter Harrison, Ph. D., Department of Agriculture, 

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Evans-Carrington, Rev. Edward, 227 E. Cucharras St., Colorado 

Springs, Colo. (51). I 
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Evers, Edward, M. D., 1861 N. Market St., St. Louis, Mo. (28). 

F H 
Eycleshymer, Albert Chauncey, Department of Anatomy, Univer- 
sity of Chicago, Chicago, 111 (53). K 
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Fahrig, Ernst, 3642 York Road, Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
♦Fairbanks, Henry, Ph. D., St. Johnsbury, Vt. (14). 1874. ABB 

Fairchild, B. T., P. O. Box 1120, New York, N. Y. (36). 
♦Fairchild, David Grandison, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washing* 

ton, D. C. (47). 1898. 6 
♦Fairchild, Prof. H. L., Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (28). 
1883. E F 
Falconer, William, Superintendent, Allegheny Cemetery, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. (29). 
Falding, Frederic J., Consulting Chemical Engineer, 52 Broadway, 

New York, N. Y. (50). C 
Falk, Gustav, 24 East 8:st St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
♦Fanning, John T., Consulting Engineer, Kasota Block, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. (29). 1885. B 
♦Fargis, Rev. Geo. A., S. J., Georgetown University, Washington, 
D. C. (40). 1892. 
Farley, Godfrey Pearson, C. E., General Manager, W. W. & P. R. R. 
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♦Farlow, Dr. W. G., 24 Quincy St., Cambridge, Mass. (20). 1875. B 
Farnsworth, Philo J., M. D., Clinton, Iowa. (50). K 
Farquhar, Miss Helen, State Normal School, West Chester, Pa. 
(SO). AB 
♦Farquhar, Henry. Census Office, Washington, D. C. (33). 1886. 
A B 6 I 
Farr, Marcus S., Sc. D., Princeton Univ.. Princeton, J^, J. (49). E 
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(50). 1902. H 
Farwell, Elmer S., Steam Engineer, 507 W. i42d St., New York, 
N. Y. (51). A B 



Farwell, Robert Benneson, C. E., 53 Monument Ave., Charles- 
town, Mass. (47). D 
*Fassig, Oliver Lanard, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
(46). 1899. B 

Past, Richard Ellsworth, Professor American History and Political 
Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown. AV. Va. (50). 

Faught, John B., Professor of Mathematics, Northern State Normal 
School, Marquette, Mich. (50). A 

FauU, Mrs. Annie B. Sargent, 245 McCaul St., Toronto, Canada. 

(52). F 

Fawcett, Ezra, Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, 233 Ely St., 
Alliance, Ohio. (48). B D 

Fawcett, William, Director, Dept. of Public Gardens and Planta- 
tions, Hope Gardens, Kingston, Jamaica, B. W. I. (53)* B 

Fay, L. G., Naval Office, 20 Exchange Place, New York, N. Y. 

Fellows, Charles S., 912 Chamber of Commerce, Minneapolis, Minn. 

(34). F 
♦Felt. Ephraim Porter, Ph. D., State Entomologist, Albany, N. Y. 

(44). 1899. F 
*Fenneman, Nevin M., Ph. D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wis. (51). 1903. E 
F^nyes, Adalbert, M. D., P. O. Box W, Pasadena, Cal. (51). F 
Ferguson, Alexander McGowen, Instructor in Botany, Univ. of 

Texas, Austin, Texas. (51). B 
Ferguson, L. L., Optician, 155 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

(52). ■ 
Fernald, F. A., 301 W. Utica St., Buffalo. N. Y. (43). C 

*Fernow, Bernhard E., Director N. Y. State College of Forestry. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (31). 1887. 6 I 
Ferril, William C, Curator, Siate Historical and Natural History 

Society of Colorado, Denver, Colo. (50). E F B H I 
Ferry, Dexter M., Jr., Seedsman, 1040 Woodward Ave., Detroit, 

Mich. (50). G 
*Fessenden, Reginald A., care of National Electric Signalling Co., 

8th and Water Sts., Washington, D. C. (47). 1899. A B 
Fetterman, John Colvin, Castle Shannon, Pa. (51). E F 
*Fcwkes, Dr. J. Walter, Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, Washington, 

D. C. (48). 1900. H 
Field, George Wilton, Mass. Jnst. Tech., Boston, Mass. (47). 
Field, W. L. W., Milton, Mass. (47^. F 

Finch, John Wellington, State Geologist, Victor, Colo. (50). E 
Findlay, Merlin C, Professor of Biology, Park College, Parkville» 

Mo. (50). F 


4 ' 


♦Fink, Prof. Bruce, Professor of Botany, Iowa College, Grinnell, 

Iowa. (45). 1890. 6 
Finley, Norval Howard, 6638 Deary St., Pittsburg, Pa. (52). C 
Fireman, Peter, Ph. D., Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. (45). D 
♦Firmstone, F., Easton. Pa. (33). 1887. D 
Fischel, Washington E., M. D., 2647 Washington Ave., St. Louis, 

Afo. (50). F K 
Fischer, Charles E. M., care of Western Electric Co., 259 S.Clinton 

St., Chicago, 111. (53). F 
Fischer, Louis Albert, Bureau of Standards, U. S. Department of 

Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. (47). ABC 
Fish, Charles Henry, M. E., General Manager, Cocheco Mf'g Co. 

Dover, N. H. (51). D 
♦Fish, Pierre A., D. Sc, Professor of Comparative Physiology and 

Pharmacology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (49). 1901. K 
Fish, Walter Clark, General Elec. Co., Lynn, Mass. (50). D 
Fishburne, Edward Bell, Jr., President Hoge Memorial Militaiy 

Academy, Blackstone, Va. (51). D 
Fisher, George E., 37 and 39 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (37). 
Fisher, George Egbert, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 

Pa. (51). 
Fisher, Henry Wright, Electrical Engineer, S. U. Cable Co., 

Pittsburg, Pa. (51). D 
♦Fisher, Irving, Ph. D., 460 Prospect St., New Haven, Conn. (50). 

190T. A I 
Fisher, Robert Jones, 614 F St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (50). D 
Fisher, Robert Welles, M. D., 159 E. 2d South St., Salt L-ike City, 

Utah. (51). K 
Fisher, S. Wilson, 1502 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). A 
Fisk, Herbert F., Principal of the Academy, Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Evanston, 111. (50), 
♦Fiske, Prof. Thomas S., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

1901. (50). 
Fiske, Wilbur A., Professor of Science, Richmond High School, 

Richmond, Ind. (51). B 
♦Fitz, George W., M. D., 483 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. (47). 

1898. H 
Fitz Gerald, Francis A. J., P. O. Box uS, Niagara Falls, N. Y. (50). 

Pitzpatrick, Thomas J., Estherville, Iowa. (52). 6 
Flanders, Charles S., Franklin, Mass. (42). E 
♦Flather, John J., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University 

of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (44). 1896. D 
Fleming, John A., 185 1 Kinney Ave., E. Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. (48). 



Fleming, Miss Marv A., The Oxford, 432 Pearl St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(47). E 6 
Flemming, Dudley D., Gas Engineer, 249 Washington St., Jersey 

City, N. J. (50). C D 

♦Fletcher, Miss Alice C, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (29). 
1883. H 

Flltcher, Andrew, 339 West 77th St., New York, NT. Y. (50). 
♦Fletcher, James, Ph. D., Dominion Entomologist, Experimental 

Farm, Ottawa, Can. C31). 1883. F 
♦Fletcher, Robert, M. D., Army Medical Museum, Washington, 
D. C. (29). iSSi. F H 

♦Fletcher, Robert, Ph. D., Director of Thayer School of Civil En- 
gineering, Hanover, N. H. (51). 1902. D 
Flexner, Simon, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (52). K 
Flickinger, Junius R., Sc. D., Principal of Normal School, Pres., 
Pa. Educational Assn., Normal School, Lock Haven, Pa. (51). 
♦Flint, Albert S., Washburn Observatory, Madison, Wis. (30). 
1887. A 

♦Flint, Austin, M. D., LL.D.. Professor of Physiology. Cornell 
University Medical College, New York, N. Y. (50). 190 1. F K 

♦Flint, James M., Surgeon U. S. N., Stoneleigh Court, Washington, 
D. C. (28). 1882. F 

♦Focke, Theodore M., Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, 

Ohio. (44). 1903. A B 
♦Folej', Prof. Arthur Lee, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

(46). 1900. B 

Folkmar, Daniel, D. S. S., care of Civil Service, Manila. P. L 
(46). H I 

Folsom, David M., Stanford University, Cal. (51). E 

Folsom, Justus Watson, Instructor in Entomology, University of 
Illinois, Champaign, 111. (53). F 

Foote, Allen Ripley, Editor of "Public Policy," 625 Home Insur- 
ance Building, Chicago. 111. (52). I 

Foote, James S., M. D., Creighton Medical College, Omaha, Neb. 
(50). F K 

Foote, Warren M., 1317 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. (50). C 

Forbes, Charles Savage, Assistant in Matrhematics, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y. (53). A 

Forbes, Robert H., Professor of Chemistry, University of Arizona, 
Tucson, Arizona. (50). C 

Ford, Prof. Arthur H., Professor of Electrical Engineering, 
Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta. Ga. (52). D 

Ford, James B., 4 East 43d St., New York, N. Y. (49). 



Fort, I. A., U. p. Land Agent, North Platte, Neb. (51). 
Forwood, Gen. William Henry, M. D., U. S. A., 1425 Euclid Place, 
N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). K 

Foster, Macomb G., P. O. Box 1120, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Foster, William, Newburgh, N. Y. (50). I 

Foulk, Charles W., Assist. Professor of Analytical Chemistry, 
Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. (51). C 

Fox, Charles James, M. D., Lock Box A, Willimantic, Conn. (51). K 
Fox, Henry, 5603 Germantown Ave., Germantown, Philadelphia, 
Pa. (52). F 

Fox, Philip, Carnegie Assistant, Yerkes Observatory, Williams 
Bay, Wis. (53). A 

Fox, William, Asst. Professor Physics, College of the City of New 

York, New York, N. Y. (50). B D 
Foxworthy, Fred. William, Assistant in Botanical Department, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (52). 6 
Fracker, George Cutler, Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, 

Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. (52). H 
Fraenkel, Joseph, M. D.,46 East 75th St., New York, N. Y. (50). K 
Francis, Charles Kenworthy, Ph. B., Prof, of Chemistry, Converse 

College, Spartanburg, S. C. (50). C 

Francisco, M. Judson, 49 Merchants' Row, Rutland, Vt. (50). I 
♦Frankforter, George B., Professor of Chemistry, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (43). 1901. C 
Frankland, Frederick W., Herston Farm, Foxton, Manawater, 
N. Z. (50). 

^Franklin, Mrs. C. Ladd, 516 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. (47). 1899. 

♦Franklin, Edward Curtis, Ph. D., Stanford University, Cal. (47). 
1900. B 6 

♦Franklin, William S., Lehigh University, So. Bethlehem, Pa. (36). 
1892. B 

♦Frazer, Dr. Pbrsifor, Drexel Building, Room 1042, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (24). 1879. C E 

♦Frazier, Prof. B. W., Lehigh University, So. Bethlehem, Pa. (24). 
1882. C E 

♦Frear, William, State College, Pa. (33). 1886. C 
Frederick, Charles Wamock, U. S. Naval Observatory, Washing- 
ton, D. C. (50). ABC 
Freeborn, George C, M. D., 215 West 70th St., New York, N. Y. 

(50). K 
♦Freedman, William Horatio, Professor of Electrical Engineering, 
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. (50). 1901. B D 


« * 
* • 


Freeman, Charles, Ph. D., Director of Clark Chemical Laboratory, 
Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa. (50). C 

Freeman, Prof. T.J. A., Loyola College, Baltimore, Md. (33). B C 
♦Freer, Prof. Paul C, Ann Arbor, Mich. (39). 1891. C 

Freley, Jasper Warren, M. S., Professor of Physics, Wells College, 
Aurora, N. Y. (45). BE 

French, E. L., Crucible Steel Co. of America, Syracuse, N.Y. (51). C 

French, Owen B., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 
D. C. (52). A D E 
•French, Prof. Thomas, Jr., Amherst, Mass. (30). 1883. B 

Fretz, Augustus Henry, Doylestown, Pa. (50). 

Fretz, John Edgar, M. D., 120 North 3d St., Easton, Pa. (46). F 6 H 

Frick, Prof. John H., Dept. of Mathematics, Central Wesleyan Col- 
lege, Warren ton, Mo. (27). A B E F 

Friedenwald, Harry, M. D., Associate Prof, of Ophthalmology 
and Otology, College of Phys. and Surgs., 1029 Madison Ave., 
Baltimore, Md. (51). K 

Friend, Samuel Henry, M. D., 141 Wisconsin St. , Milwaukee, Wis. 

(51). K 
•Fries, Dr. Harold H., 92 Reade St., New York, N. Y. (40). 

189S. C 
Frisbib, J. F.,M. D.,Box 455, Newton, Mass. (29). E H 
•Frisby, Prof. Edgar, U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. 

(a8). 1880. A 
Frissell, H. S., President of the Fifth Avenue Bank of N. Y., 5th 

Ave and 44th St., New York, N. Y. (52). I 
Frost, Arthur Barzilla, 33 Fay St., E. Cleveland, Ohio. (53). C 
♦Frost, Edwin Brant, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. 

(38). Z890. A B 
Frost, George H., C. E., Editor of '* Engineering News,'* 220 Broad* 

way, New York, N. Y. (50). B D 
Frost, William Dodge, Instructor in Bacteriology, University of 

Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. (50). F 
Frothingham, Mrs. Frederick, 152 PawtucketSt., Lowell, Mass. 

(31). A F I 
Fry, Charles, 40 Water St., Boston, Mass. (53). I 
Frye, Theodore Christian, Professor of Botany, State University, 

Seattle, Washington. (53). fi 
Fuller, Charles Gordon, M. D., Reliance Building, Chicago, 111. 

(35). F 
♦Fuller, George W., 170 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). 1903. K 

•Fuller, Prof. Homer T., President Drury College, Springfield, Mo. 

(35). 1891. C E 
♦Fuller, Melville W., LL.D., Chief Justice U. S. Supreme Court, 
1801 F St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). 1901. I 



Puller, Myron L., Assistant Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C. (50). E 
Ftillmer, Edward Lawrence, Berea. Ohio. (50). F 
♦Fulton, Robert B., Chancellor Univ. of Mississippi, University, 

Miss. (21). 1887. A B 
Fulton, Weston Miller, Instructor in Meteorology, University of 

Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. (50). B 
Furlow, Floyd Charles, Professor of Experimental Engineering, 

Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. (50). D 
♦Furness, Miss Caroline E., Ph. D., Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y. (47). 1899. A 
Purst, Clyde, Secretary of Teachers' College, Columbia University, 

New York, N. Y. (52). 
Gable, George D., Ph. D., Parsons College, Fairfield, Iowa. (40). 

A B 
Gaff. Thomas T., 1738 M St., Washington, D. C. (52). 
♦Gage, Prof. Simon Henry, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (28). 

1881. F 
♦Gage, Mrs. Susanna Phelps, Ithaca, N. Y. (48). 1900. F 
Gage-Day, Mary, M. D., 207 Wall St., Kingston-on- Hudson, N. Y. 

(51). K 
Gager, C. Stuart, Professor of Biologic Science, New York State 

Normal College, Albany, N. Y. (50). F 6 
Gahagan, William L., M. D., 141 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (51). 

•Galbraith, Prof. John, School of Practical Science, Toronto, Can. 

(38). 1889. D 
♦Galloway, B. T., U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (37). 

1890. 6 
Galloway, David Henry, M. D., Payette, Idaho (53). C 
♦Galloway, Thomas W^alton, James Milliken Univ., Decatur, 111. 

(45). 1901. F G 
♦Ganong, Wm. F., Prof essor of Botany, Smith College, Northamp- 
ton, Mass. (49). 1900. G 
Gantt, Henry Lawrence, Consulting Engineer, care American 

Locomotive Co., Schenectady, N. Y. (51). D I 
Ganz, Albert Frederick, M. E., Professor of Applied Electricity, 

Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. (52). A B D 
Garcin, Ramon D., M. D., 2618 E. Broad St., Richmond, Va. (51). 

Gardiner, Charles Fox, M. D., 818 N. Cascade Ave., Colorado 

Springs, Colo. (51). K 
Gardiner, Edward G., Ph. D., 131 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. 

Gardiner, Rev. Frederic, Jr., Yeates School, Lancaster, Pa. (47). F H 



Oardner, Rev. Corliss B., Ripley, N. Y. (29). A B I 

Gardner, Geo. Clinton, 416 Beach St., N., Richmond Hill, New 

York, N. Y. (50). 
Garland, Jos. E., M. D., 17 Pleasant St., Gloucester, Mass. (51). K 
Gamer, James Bert, Professor of Chemistry .Wabash College, Craw- 

fordsville, Ind. (53). C 
Gamier, Madame Laure Russell, The Castle, Tarry town, N. Y. (40). 
Garrett, Albert O., 615 South 9th East St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

(50). fi 

Garriott, Edward B., U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. (49). 

Garrison, Harriet E., M. D., 105 E. Second St., Dixon, 111. (51). K 

Garver, John A., 44 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

Garvin, John B., Instructor in Chemistry, High School District 
No. J, Denver, Colo. (50). C 

Gary, Lester B., Instructor in Biology, Central High School, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. (53). F 

Gates, Fanny Cook, Instructor in Physics, Woman's College, 
Baltimore, Md. (50). A B 

Gault, Franklin B., 602 N. I St., Tacoma, Wash. (43). 

Gause, Fred Taylor, Manager Standard Oil Co. of New York, T. 
and B. Dept. Yokohama, Japan. (40). 

Gauss, Robert, Editor "Denver Republican," Denver, Colo. (50). I 

Gazzam, Hon. Joseph M., 61 1-6 14 Real Estate Trust Bldg., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (53). A 

Geisler, Joseph F., New York Mercantile Exchange, New York, 
N. Y. (50). 
♦Genth, Fred. A., 103 N. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. (32). 1900. 

C E 
♦Gen the, Karl Wilhelm, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Natural 
History, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (50). 190 1. F 

George, Russell D., Professor of Geology, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colo. (53). fi 
♦Germann, George B., Principal of Public School No. 130, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. (49). 1901. A 

Getman, Frederick H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

(45). B 
♦GiBBs, Prop. Wolcott, Newport, R. I. (i). 1896. B C 

Gibson , George H., Peabody Bldg., Hyde Park, Mass. (51). D I 

♦Gies, William J., College of Physicians and Surgeons, 437 West 

59th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 1901. C 

Gifford, Harold, M. D., 405 Karbach Block, Omaha, Neb. (51). K 

♦Gifford, John Clayton, New York State College of Forestry, Ithaca, 

N. Y. (50). 1902. 6 

Gilbert, Charles B., Supt. Public Instruction, 106 Brunswick St., 

Rochester, N. Y. (50). I 



♦Gilbert, G. K., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (i8). 

1874. E 

Gilbert, Norman Everett, Professor of Physics, Dartmouth Col- 
lege, Hanover, N. H. (51). B 
Gilchrist, John D. P., Ph. D.. Government Biologist of Cape Colony, 
Department of Agriculture, Cape Town, South Africa. (53) . F fi 
Gilchrist, T. Caspar, 317 N. Charles St.. Baltimore, Md. (52). 
Gildersleeve, Nathaniel, M. D., Assistant in Bacteriology, Lab- 
oratory of Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
Pa. (52). K 
♦Gill, Adam Capen, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (38). 1894. E 
♦Gill, Augustus Herman, Mass. Institute Technology, Boston, Mass. 

(44). 1896. C 
♦Gill, Theodore Nicholas, M. D., Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. 

(17). 1874, F 
♦Gillette, Clarence P., Professor of Zoology, Agrictiltural College, 
Fort Collins, Colo. (50). 190 1. F 
Gilman, Charles Edward, Stanford University, Cal. (51). E 
♦Gilman, Daniel C, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

(10). 1875. E M 
♦Girty, George H., Ph. D., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. 
(48). 1903. E 
Glaser, C, Analytical and Consulting Chemist, 21 S. Gay St., Balti- 
more, Md. (49). 
Glasgow, Frank A., M. D., 3894 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

(53)- K 
Gleason, H. Allan, Asst. in Botany, Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, 

111. (50). G 
Gleason, W. Stanton, M. D., 143 Grand St., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). 

F K 

♦Glenn, L. C, Ph. D., Professor of Geology, Vanderbilt University, 

Nashville, Tenn. (50). 1003. E 
♦Glenn, William, 1348 Block St., Baltimore, Md. (33). 1893. C 

Glenny, William H., Buffalo, N. Y. (25). 

Glover, Charles Carroll, 1703 K St. N.W., Washington, D. C. 

(52). I 
Godfrey, Chas. C, M. D., 753 Lafayette St., Bridgeport, Conn. (51). 


Godkin, Mrs. E. L., 8 W. loth St.. New York, N. Y. (49). 
♦Goessmann, Prof. C. A., Mass. Agric. College, Amherst, Mass. (18). 

1875. C 

Gold, Rev. Dr. James Douglas, Covington, Ohio. (50). I 
♦Gold, Theodores., West Cornwall, Conn. (4). 1887. B C 
Golden, Harry E., Civil Engineer, Mann Building, Utica, N. Y. 

(51). «> 



♦Golden, Miss Katherine E., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 
(42). 1897. 6 
Goldsborough, John Byron, Croton-on- Hudson, N. Y. (51). 
♦Goldschmidt, S. A., Ph. D., 43 Sedgwick St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(24). 1880. B C E 
♦Goldsmith, Edw., 658 N. loth St., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 1892. B C 
Goldthwait, James Walter, Assistant in Geology, Harvard 

University, Cambridge, Mass. (51). E 
Goldthwaite, Miss Nellie Esther, Mount Holyoke College, So. 
Hadley, Mass. (47). C 
♦Gomberg, Moses, Sc. D., iioi E. University Ave., Ann Arbor, 

Mich. (51). 1903. C 
♦Gooch, Frank A., Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (25). 1880. C 
♦Goodale, Prof. George Lincoln, Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, 
Mass. (18). 1875. 6 
Goodale, Joseph Lincoln, M. D., 397 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

(so). F K 
Goode,'John Paul, Instructor in Geography, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (52). E H I 
Goodnow, Henry R., 95 Riverside Drive, New York, N. Y. (32). B 
♦Goodspeed, Arthur Willis, Ph. D., Dept. Physics, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (47). 1898. A B 
Goodwin, Elmer Forrest, Principal and Prof. Physics and Chemistry, 
Concord Branch, West Virginia State Normal School, Athens, 
W. Va. (so). BC 
♦Goodwin, Harry M., Professor of Physical Chemistry, Mass. In- 
stitute Technology, Boston, Mass. (47). 1901. B 
Goodwin, Rev. James, 76 Garden St., Hartford, Conn. (52). I 
♦Goodyear, William H., Museum of Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. (43). 1902. H 
Gordon, Charles Henry, Ph. D., Acting Professor of Geology, Uni- 
versity of Washington, Seattle, Wash. (52). E 
Gordon, Clarence McC, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Centre Col- 
lege, Danville, Ky. (48). ABC 
Gordon, Gustavus Ede, Scientific Director, Walker Gordon Lab- 
oratory Co., Chevy Chase, Md. (51). F 
Gordon, Leonard J., M. D., President Free Public Library, Jersey 

City. N. J. (52). K 
Gordon, Reginald, Newburgh, N. Y. (50). 
Gordon, Robert H., Cumberland, Md., (48). E F 
Gore, J. W., Professor Physics, Univ. of N. C, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

(51). B 
Gorham, Frederic P., Associate Professor of Biology, Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence, R. I. (53). F K 
♦Goss, Prol. Wm. F. M., Lafayette, Ind. (39). 1896. 



Gossard, Harry Arthur, Professor of Entomology, Florida Agri- 
cultural College, Lake City, Fla. (51). F 
Goucher, John Franklin, President of The Woman's College, Balti- 
more, Md. (50). 
Gould, Charles Net on, Professor of Geology, University of Okla- 
homa. Norman, Okla. (53). E 
♦Gould, George Milbry, M. D., 163 1 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
(51). 1902. K 
Gould, H. P., 1 2 19 13th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). G 
Gouldy, Miss Jennie A., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). I 
Grabill, H. P., 1004 Enas Ave., Des Moines, Iowa. (50). C 
Graef, Edw. L., 58 Court St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (28). F 
Graf, August V., 1325-29 S. 7th St., St. Louis, Mo. (53). 
Graham, Andrew B., 1230 Pa. Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. (5a). I 
Graham, Douglas, M. D., 74 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (51). K 
Graham, James Chandler, Chemist, Phillips Academy, Andover, 

Mass. (50). C 
Graham, Robert Dunn. 281 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. (50). 
Granbery, Julian Hastings, Engineer and Electrician, 561 Walnut 

St., Elizabeth, N. J. (50). D 
Granger, Arthur O., Cartersville, Ga. (50). A B 
♦Grant, Ulysses Sherman, Ph. D., Professor of Geology, North- 
western University, Evanston, 111. (50). 1902. E 
Grant, Willis Howard, 744 South Ave., Wilkensburg, Pa. (51). C G 
Granville, William Anthony, Ph. D., Instructor in Mathematics, 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (50). A 
♦Gratacap, L. P., 77th St. and 8th Ave., New York, N. Y. (27). 

1884. C E F 
♦Gray, Prof. Thomas, Terre Haute, Ind. (38). 1889. D 

Greeff, Ernest F., 37 W. 88th St. New York, N. Y. (49) 
♦Green, Arthur L., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. (33). 1888. 

♦Green, Bernard Richardson, Civil Engineer, Supt. of Congressional 
Library Building, 1738 N St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (51). 
1903. B D 
Greene, Chas. Lyman, M. D., 150 Lowry Arcade, St. Paul, Minn. 

(50. K 
♦Greene, Charles Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Physiology, State 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (50). 1901. F K 
Green, Edgar Moore, M. D., Easton, Pa. (36). C Q H 
Greene, G. K., 127 W. Market St., New Albany, Ind. (38). 
Green, Horace, care "Sunday American and Journal," 15 Spruce 

St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
Greene, Jacob L., President Mut. Life Insurance Co., Hartford, 

Conn. (23). 



Green, Milbrey, M. D., 567 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. (29). 
Greenlach, Wallace, Deputy City Engineer, Albany, N. Y. (51). D 
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Greenough, Charles Pelham, Attorney at Law, 39 Court St., Boston, 

Mass. (50). I 
Greenough, John, 31 W. 35th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Greenway, James C, 667 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (53). 
Gregg. William H., M. D., Port Chester, N. Y. (49). 
♦Gregory, Miss Emily Ray, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, Wells 

College, Aurora, N. Y. (50). 1901. F 
♦Gregory, Herbert E., Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (50). 
1902. E 
Griffin, Gen. Eugene, First Vice-President, General Electric Co., 

44 Broad St., New York, N. Y. (50). D 
Griffith, C. J., Instructor in Dairying, Agricultural College, Fort 

Collins, Colo. (50). F 
Griffith, Herbert Eugene, Professor of Chemistry, Knox College, 
Galesburg, 111. (50). C 
♦Griffiths, David, Div. Agrostology, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Wash- 
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Griggs, Robert F., Professor of Biology, Fargo College, Fargo, N. 

Dak. (52). Q 
Grimm, Carl Robert, Bridge and Structural Er^gineer, 1622 Caton 

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Grimsley, George Perry, Secretary, Kansas Academy of Sciences, 
Topeka, Kansas. (51). E 
♦Grindley, Dr. Harry Sands, Associate Professor of Chemistry, 

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1885. E F 
Griswold, Clifford S., Head of Dept. of Physics, Groton School, 
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♦Griswold, Leon Stacy, 238 Boston St., Dorchester, Mass. (38). 1893. E 
♦Groat, Benjamin Peland, Asst. Prof, of Mathematics and Mechan- 
ics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (51). 1903. A 
Grosskopf, Ernest C, M. D., Medical Superintendent Milwaukee 

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Grossman, Edward L., M. D., 413J Kearny St., San Francisco, Cal. 

(53). K 

Grosvenor, Edwin P., 414 West ii8th St., New York, N. Y. (52). 

Grosvenor, Gilbert H., ** National Geographic Magazine," Cor- 
coran Bldg., Washington, D. C. (48). El 

Groszmann, Maximilian P. E., Director of the Groszmann School 
for Atypical and Nervous Children, *' Pinehurst,*' Depot Lane, 
Washington Heights, New York, N. Y. (52). K 



*Urout, Abel J.. Boys' High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. (47). 1899. G 
Grover, Edwin Osgood, General Editor for Rand, McNally and 

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Grover, Frederick Orville, Professor of Botany, Oberlin College, 

Oberlin, Ohio. (50). Q 
Grower, Geo. G., Ansonia, Conn. (43). B D 

Gruenberg, Benjamin C, Teacher of Biology, De Witt Clinton High 
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♦Gruener, Hippolyte, Adelbert College, Cleveland. Ohio. (44)* 
Guiick, Luther Halsey, M. D., Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
(52). K 
♦Gulliver, F. P., St. Marks School, Southboro, Mass. (40). 1900. E 
Gummere, Henry Volkmar, Professor of Mathematics, Physics and 

Astronomy, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa. (51). A B 
Gunsaiilus, Rev. Frank W., President, Armour Institute, Chicago, 

111. (53). 
Guth, Morris S., M. D., Supt. State Hospital for the Insane, War- 
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♦Guthe, Karl E., Ph. D., Bureau of Standards, U. S. Department of 
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Guthrie, Joseph E., Instructor in Zoology, Iowa State College, 

Ames, Iowa. (52). F 
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(52). F e 

Hadley, Artemus N., Box 313, Indianapolis, Ind. (51). 
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Hager, Albert Ralph, in charge Educational Exhibit, Philippines 
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Hailman, James D., C. E., Shady Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). A B 
♦Haines, Reuben, Haines and Chew Sts., Germantown, Philadel- 
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Haines, Thomas Harvey, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Phil- 
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♦Hale, Albert C, Ph. D., 352A Hancock St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
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Hale, George D., 1059 Lake Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 



*Hale, George E., Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. (37). 

189Z. ABC 
♦Hale, William H.. Ph. D., 40 First Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. {\q\ 

1874. ABCEFHI 
*Hall, Asaph, U. S. N., South Norfolk, Conn. (25). 1877. A 
♦Hall, Asaph, Jr., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (38). 

1890. A 
♦Hall, Charles M., Vice-President Pittsburg Reduction Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. (50). 1903. C 
♦Hall, C. W., Dean College of Engineering Met. and Mechan. Arts, 
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1884. C 
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Hall, William Shafer, Professor of Mining and Graphics, Lafayette 

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Hall, Winfield Scott, Ph. D., Professor of Physiology, Northwestern 
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Hallack, H. Tuthill, M. D., Alcott Station, Denver, Colo. (51). K 
Halley, Robert Bums, Professor of Physics and Chemistry, Sam 
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1896. C 
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♦Hallowell, Prof. Susan M., Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. (33). 

1890. 6 
♦Halsted, Byron D., Professor of Botany and Horticulture, Rutgers 

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*Halsted, George Bruce, M. D., Kenyon College. Gambier, Ohio. 

(43). 1896. 
♦ Halsted, William Stewart, 1201 Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Md. (50). 

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Ham. Miss Clara Eleanor, Instructor in Biology, Northfield, Mass. 

(53)- F 
Ham, Judson B., Teacher Natural Science, Vt. State Normal 
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♦Hamaker, John Irvin, Professor of Geology and Biology, Trinity 

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♦Hambach, Dr. G., 13 19 Lami St., St. Louis, Mo. (26). 1891. E F 

Hamilton, William, Ph. D., U. S. Bureau of Education, Washing- 
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Hammatt, Clarence Sherman, Vice-President, Florida Electric Co., 
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Hammel, Wm. C. A., Director of Manual Training and Physics, 
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Hammer, William Joseph, Consulting Electrical Engineer, 1406 
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Hammond, Mrs. Eliza F., 1689 Cambridge St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Hammond, George W., Yarmouthville, Maine. (47). 
♦Hammond, John Hays, 71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). 

Z901. D E 
Hammond, Mrs. John Hays, 320 Madison Ave., Lake wood, N. J. 

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Hard, J as. M. B., Cordobanes 16, City of Mexico, Mexico. (50). C 
♦Harding, Everhart Percy, Instructor in Chemistry, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (50). 1901. C 

Harding, Harry A., N. Y. Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, 
N. Y. (48). 6 

Hardy, Edward R., 31 Allen St., Boston, Mass. (49). I 
♦Hargitt, Prof. Charles W., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 
(38). 1891. F 

Harmon, Miss A. Maria, 171 McLaren St., Ottawa, Can. (31). 
F H 

Harmon, Herbert W., South- Western State Normal School, Cali- 
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Hamly, Henry Jacob, Ph. D., Professor of Biology, McPherson Col- 
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♦Harper, Henry Winston, M. D., The University of Texas, Austin, 
Texas. (45). 1899. C 

Harper, R. H., M. D., Afton, Indian Ter. (51). F H K 

Harper, William R., LL.D., President University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. (53). 

Harrah, C. J., P. O. Box 1606, Philadelphia, Pa. (48). H 



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* Harris, Abram Winegardner, Sc. D., Port Deposit, Md. (40), 

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Harris, J. Campbell, 119 So. i6th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
Harris, James Arthur, Shaw School of Botany, St. Loids, Mo. 

(50. Ffi 
Harris, Robert Wayne, M. D., 621 Vincennes St., New Albany, 

Ind. (51). K 

^Harris, Rollin Arthur, U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(47). 1899. A 

* Harris, Uriah R., Commander, U. S. N., U. S. Naval Station, 

Olongapo, P. I. (34). 1886. A 
Harrison, Judge Lynde, 52 Hillhouse Ave., New Haven, Conn. 

(so). I 
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Hart, Charles A., Assistant to State Entomologist, Univ. of Illinois, 

Urbana, 111. (51). F 
♦Hart, Edw., Ph. D., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (33). 1885. C 
Hart, James Norris, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 

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Hart, Joseph Hall, Ph. D., Instructor in Physics, Randal Morgan 

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Hart, Rev. Prof. Samuel, Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, 

Conn. (22). A 
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Hartgering, James, Rapid City, S. Dak. (53). CD 

Hartley, Chas. P., Assistant in Plant Breeding, Bureau of Plant 
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Hartley, Frank, Principal of Allegheny County Academy, Cum- 
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Hartman, Dr. C. V., Curator of Archaeology and Ethnology, Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. (53). H 

Hartness, James, President of Jones and Lamson Machine Co., 
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Hartzell, Prof. J. Culver, Illinois Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, 

111. (49). E 
Harvey, Nathan Albert, Ph. D., Vice- Principal Chicago Normal 
School, 613 West 67th St., Englewood, Chicago, 111. (52). F 



Harvey, Wm. Stocker, 119 So. 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (47). 
Harvie, Miss Lelia Jefferson, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Wash- 
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Hasie, Montague S., C. £., Manager of American Bridge Co. of 

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^Haskell, Eugene E., Campau Building, Detroit, Mich. (39). 

1896. A B D 
Hasslacher, Jacob, 100 William St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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Haven, Conn. (25). 1878. B 
Hastings, Edwin George, Asst. Bacteriologist, Agr. Exp. Station, 

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♦Hatcher, John Bell, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 1903. 

E F 
Haukinson, Thomas L., Assistant in Biology, E. 111. State Normal 

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North 3Sth St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 1903. D 
Havemeyer, W. F., 3a Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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New York, N. Y. (49). 1901. F 
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(51). E 
Hayes, Ellen, Professor of Applied Mathematics, Wellesley College, 

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D. C. (46). 1898. A B D 
Haynes, Prof. Arthur E., College of Engineering, University of 

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1884. H 
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Hays, B. Frank, Bensonhurst, N. Y. (49). 

Hays, Charles I., care North Side High School, Denver, Colo. {50). 
C 6 
♦Hajrs, Willet M., Professor of Agriculture, University of Min- 
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Haywood, Prof. John, Otterbein University, Westerville, Ohio. 

(30). A B 
Hazard, Daniel L., U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (48). 
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York, N. Y. (50). 1902. Q 
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*Heald, Fred. DeForest, Ph. D., Adjunct Professor of Plant Phy- 
siology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (50). 1903. F 

Heam, Rev. David William, President College of St. Francis 
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Heath. Harry E., Chief Engineer, The Eddy Electric Mfg. Co.. 
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Heaton, Augustus George, 1618 17th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 


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Hebden, Edwin, Principal of Group A, Public Schools, 730 Colo- 
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(50)- 1903- * 
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(52). E 
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Hektoen, Ludwig, Professor of Pathology, University of Chicago, 

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1901. B 
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Hbrrman. Mrs. Esthbr. 59 West 56th St., New York, N. Y. 
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Herron, John Brown, S. Linden Ave., E. E., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). I 
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Heston, John W., President South Dakota Agricultural College, 

Brookings, S. D. (50). I 
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Hitz, John, Supt. of Volta Bureau, 1601-3 Thirty-fifth St., Wash- 
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Hodges, Miss Julia, 217 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. (36). E F H 

Hodges, Thomas Edward, Professor of Physics, W. Va. State 
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Hodgkins, William Candler, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washing- 
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Hob, Mrs. R., Jr.. ii E. 36th St.. New Vork, N. Y. (36). 

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Hoffman, Prank Sargent, Professor of Philosophy, Union Uni- 
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Berlin, Germany. (28). 1881. C F 

Hoffman, Samuel V., Morristown, N. J. (52). A D 

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Holbrook, Percy, Genl. Mgr. Weber Ry. Joint Mfg. Co., 145 W. 
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Holden, Edwin R., 13 E. 79th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

HoLDEN, Mrs. L. E., The HoUenden, Cleveland, Ohio. (35). 

Holferty, George M., Botany Building, University of Chicago, 
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N. Y. (31). 1892. E 6 

HoUinshead, Warren H., Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

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Holmes, Dr. Christian R., 8-10 East Eighth St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 


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X887. E F 

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Holt, Herbert S.. President, Montreal Light, Heat and Power Co., 

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Homburg, Frederick, Teacher of Chemistry, Woodward High 

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Homer, Charles S., Valentine & Co., 245 Broadway, New York, 

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Homung, Christian, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 
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1883. E H 
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♦Howard, S. Francis, Asst. Professor of Chemistry, Mass. Agri- 
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Howard, Wm. Lee, M. D., 11 26 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, Md. 

(sO- K 
♦Howe, Charles S., Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, 

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♦Howe, Henry M., Professor of Metallurgy, Columbia University, 

New York, N. Y. (50). 1901. D 
♦Howe, Herbert Alonzo, Director of the Chamberlin Observatory, 

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♦Howe, Prof. Jas. Lewis, Washington and Lee University, Lrex- 

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Howe, J. Morgan, M. D., 12 West 46th St., New York, N. Y. (50), 
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♦Howell, Edwin E., 612 17th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (25)- 
1891. E 

Howell, John W., Ballantine Parkway, Newark, N. J. (50). 
♦Howell, William H., M. D., Professor of Physiology, Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore, Md. (50). 1901. F K 
Howell, Wilson Stout, Sec'y Association of Edison Illuminating 

Companies, 80th St. and East End Ave., New York, N. Y. 

(50). D 
Hower, Harry Sloan, Instructor in Physics, Case School of Applied 

Science, Cleveland, Ohio. (50). B 
Howerth, Ira Woods, Instructor in Sociology, University of 

Chicago, Chicago, 111. (50). I 
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Hoyt, Adrian Hazen, M. D., Manager Whitney Electric Co., 

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Hubbard, Walter C, Coffee Exchange Bldg., New York, N. Y. 

♦Huber, G. Carl, M. D., Junior Professor of Anatomy and Director 
of Histological Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich. (50). 1901. F K 
Hubley, G. Wilbur, Electric Light Co., Louisville, Ky. (52). D 
Huddleston, John H., M. D., 126 West 85 th St., New York, N. Y. 
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Hughes, Charles Hamilton, M. D., President, Barnes Medical Col- 
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Hulbert, C. E., Secretary, Department of Anthropology, La. Ptir- 
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Hume, Alfred, C. E., University, Miss. (39). A 
Hume, Frank, 454 Penna. Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). 



Hummel, John A., Experiment Station, St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

♦Humphrey, Richard L., Testing Laboratory, City Hall, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (48). 1902. D 
Humphreys, Alex. C, M. E., C. E., 31 Nassau St., New York, 

N. y. (49). 

Humphreys, David Carlisle, C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, 

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Hunsicker, George W., 141 N. 8th St., Allentown, Pa. (50). C 
Hunt, Chas. Wallace. Stapleton, N. Y. (51). 
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B H I 
Hunter, Chas. H., M. D., 13 Syndicate Block, Minneapolis, Minn. 

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Hunter, George William, Jr., 2297 Loring Place, University Heights, 
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♦Hunter, Prof. Joseph Rufus, Richmond College, Richmond, Va. 

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Hunter, Walter David, Special Agent, U. S. Department Agri- 
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Htintington, Ellsworth, Highland St., Milton, Mass. (51). 

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H I 

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H I 
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1898. B 
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1891. A 
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Jaffa. Myer Edward, Berkeley, Cal. (47). 
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H I 
♦James. William, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. (52). 1903. I 



*Jaques, Capt. William H., 483 Beacon St., Boston, Ma^. (47)- 
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Jarman, Joseph L., President and Prof, of Chemistry, State 

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♦Jastrow, Dr. Joseph, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. (35). 1887. 

F H 
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Jenkins, Oliver Peebles, Professor of Physiology, Stanford Uni- 
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Jenks, William Johnson, Electrical Engineer, 120 Broadway^ 
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i0O3« E 
Jennings, Gainor, M. D., West Milton, Ohio. (51). K 
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Johns, Carl, Professor of Natural History, Bethany College, 
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Johnson, Albert Lincoln, C. E., 606 Century Bldg., St. Louis, 

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Johnson, Charles W., Ph. D., Box 114, University Station, Seattle, 

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Johnson, Chas. Willison, Boston Society of Natural History, 

Boston, Mass. (51). 
Johnson, Frank Edgar, 747 Warburton Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

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1901. F 
Johnson, W. Smythe, Ph. D., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 

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♦Johnston, John Black, Professor of Zoology, Univ. of West Va., 
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♦Johonnott, Edwin Sheldon, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Physics, 

Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Ind. (50). 1903. B 

Jones, Adam Leroy, Ph. D., Tutor in Philosophy, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y. (52). HI 

Jones, Arthur Taber, Instructor in Physics, Purdue University, La 
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Jones, Clement Ross, Professor Mechanical Engineering, West 
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Jones, Ernest S., Instructor in Biology, University of Virginia, 

Charlottesville, Va. (52). F 
♦Jones, Frederick S., Professor of Physics, University of Minne- 
sota, Minneapolis, Minn. (45). 1901. B 

Jones, Grinnell, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. (52). C 



♦Jones, Lewis Ralph, Professor of Botany, University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vt. (41). 1894. 6 
Jones, Lynds, M. Sc, Instructor in Zoology, Oberlin College. 
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♦Jones, Prof. Marcus E., Salt Lake City, Utah. (40). 1893. 6 
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Cal. (50). 
♦Jordan, Prof. David Starr, President of Stanford University, 

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111. (50). 1901. K 
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1 90 1. H I 
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♦Kasner, Edward, Ph. D., Tutor in Mathematics, Barnard College, 

Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (52). 1903. A 
Kauffman, William Albert, 73 Hooker Ave., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

I Kay, James I., 426 Diamond St., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). D I 
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Kean, Mrs. Hamilton Fish, 25 East 37th St., New York, N. Y. 

Keane, John J., Rt. Rev. , Archbishop of Dubuque, Dubuque, la. 

♦Kearney, Thomas H., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(47). 1902. 6 

♦Keasbey, Lindley Miller, Professor of Economics and Politics, 

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Keene, Geo. Fredk., M. D., Supt. State Hospital for the Insane, 

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Keilholtz, Pierre Otis, Consulting Engineer, Continental Trust 

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Keim, Edward Tudor, E. E., Supt. Am. Dist. Tel. Co., 142 1 

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Keith, Prof. Marcia A., Braintree, Mass. (46). B 
♦Keller, Edward, Ph. D., Box 724, Baltimore, Md. (50). 1903. 
C D 
Keller, Emil E., P. O. Box 452, Pittsburg. Pa. (51). 
♦Kellerman, William A., Ph. D., Ohio State University, Columbus, 
Ohio. (41). 1893. Q 
Kelley, Walter S., Mining Engineer, 1393 Golden Gate Ave., San 

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Kelly, John F., Ph. D., Constdting Electrical Engineer, 384 

W. Housatonic St., Pittsfield, Mass. (50). D 
Kelly, William, Mining Engineer, General Manager Penn. Iron 

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Kelsey, Harlan Page, 11 50 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

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Kelsey, James A., Agric. Exper. Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Kemp, George T., Professor of Physiology, University of Illinois, 

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♦Kemp, James F., School of Mines. Columbia University, New 

York. N. Y. (36). 1888. E 
Kendall, Arthur I., 106 Jackson Place, Baltimore, Md. (52). 
Kendall, Hugh F., Mining Engineer, Gust Carlson Exploration 

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Kendall, William Converse, Bureau of Fisheries, U. S. Department 

of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. (5 a). 
♦Kendrick, Arthur, Electrical Measuring Instruments, 45 Hunne- 

well Ave. Newton, Mass. (45). 1897. B 
Kennedy, Frank Lowell, Instructor in Lawrence Scientific School, 

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Kennedy, Orran W., General Superintendent, Frick Coke Co., 

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♦Kennelly, Arthur Edwin, Sc. D., Professor Electrical Engineering, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (50). 1901. D 
Kent, James Martin, Instructor in Steam and Electricity, Manual 

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Kent, Norton Adams, Ph. D., Professor Physics, Wabash Cbllege, 

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♦Kent, William, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Syracuse 

University, Syracuse, N. Y. (26). 188 1. D I 
Kenyon, Oscar Curtis, Teacher of Physics, High School, Syra- 
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Kepner, Harry V., Instructor in Chemistry, Manual Training 

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Keppel, F. P., Secretary of Columbia University, West 11 6th 

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Keppler, Rudolph, a8 W. 70th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
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Kern, Josiah Quincy, Ph. D., 1825 F St., N.W., Washington, 

D. C. (40). I 
Kern, Walter McCullough, Supt. Public Schools, Columbus, Neb. 

(so). F € 
Kerr, Abram Tucker, Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Cornell 

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Kerr, William Jasper, D. Sc, President of Agricultural College of 

Utah, Logan, Utah. (52). A 
♦Kershner, Prof. Jefferson £., Lancaster, Pa. (29). 1883. A B 
Kesler, John Louis, Department of Biology, Baylor University, 

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Kester, Fred. Edward, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

(48). B 
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*Keyser, Cassius Jackson, Ph. D., Prof, of Mathematics, Columbia 
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Kilgore, Benjamin Wesley, Director, N. C. Agric. Exper. Station, 
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Kimball, Albert B., M. E., Central High School, Springfield, 
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* Kimball, Arthur Lalanne, Professor of Physics, Amherst Col- 
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Kimball, S. I., Life Saving Service, U. S. Treasury Dept., Wash- 
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X891. D ^. 



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(29). 1900. F H 
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♦King, F. H., 202 nth St., S.W., Washington, D. C. (32). 1892. E F 
Kling, George B., Lawrence, Mass. (47). 
King, Theo. Ingalls, U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. 

(52). A 
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♦Kingsbury, Benj. F., Stimson Hall, Cornell University, Ithacaf 

N. Y. (45). 1899. F 
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1883. C 
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Kirk, Arthur, 910 Duquesne Way, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). El 
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H I 
Kirkpatrick, Samuel, M. D., Selma, Ala. (51). K 
Kirkwood, Joseph E., Instructor in Botany, Syracuse Uni- 
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(50). 1901. H K 
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1903. B C 
Knight, Wm. H., President So. California Academy of Sciences, 

2 Bryson Block, Los Angeles, Cal. (51). A 
*Knipp, Charles Tobias, 506 W. Illinois St., Urbana, 111. (46). 

1900. B 
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Knox, Geo. Piatt, Teacher of Chemistry, High School, 5178A 

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Knox» Wilm, Society for Savings Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

*Kober, Geo. Martin, M. D., 1600 T St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

(40). 1896. H 
Koenig, Adolph, M. D., Editor "Penna. Medical Journal," 122 

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*Kofoid, Prof. Charles Atwood, University of California, Berkeley, 

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(47). 1901. 6 
Kraus, Edward H., Syracuse High School, Syracuse, N. Y. (50). E 
Krause, Otto H., Prospect Ave., Hackensack, N. J. (50). 
Kr6csy, Prof. B61a, vi Btdyovsxkyu. 22, Budapest, Hungary. (41). 

♦Kremers, Prof. Edward, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

(47). 1901. C 
Kress, Palmer J., M. D., 636 Hamilton St., Allentown, Pa. (51). K 



Kretz, Prof. Charles Henry, Asst. Professor Mechanical £n- 

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♦Kroeber, A. L., Ph. D., Univ. of California, Berkeley, Cal. (47)- 

1901. H 
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Kummer, Frederic Arnold, Civil Engineer, President, United 

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Kunhardt, Wheaton B., 1 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 

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(50). X90Z. C D 
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*Laflamme, Prof. J. C. K., Laval University, Quebec, Can. (29). 

1887. B E 
♦La Flesche, Francis, 214 First St., S.E., Washington, D. C. (33). 

Z885. H 
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1896. A 
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Lanahan, Henry, Professor Physics and Civil Engineering, Mary- 
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(si). K 
♦Land, William Jesse Goad, Dept. Botany, Univ. of Chicago, 

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Landacre, Francis L., Associate Professor of Zoology and Entomo- 
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♦Landes, Henry, State Geologist, Seattle, Wash. (51). 1903. E 
Landis, Edward Horace, Instructor in Physics and Chemistry, Cen- 
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(1 16) 


^Lanb, Alfred C, State Geologist, Lansing, Mich. (50). 1902. E 

Lane, Horace Manley, M. D., Caixa 14 S. Paulo, Brazil, South 
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Lang, Prof. Henry R., Yale University, New Haven, Conn. (41). H 

Lange, J. D., a 20 W. 79th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 

Lange, Philip A., Supt. Westinghouse Blec. and Mfg. Co., Pitts- 
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^Langenbeck, Karl, Elizabeth, N. J. (39). 1896. C 
^Langley, Prof. S. P., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
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Langmann, Gustav, M. D., lai W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
^Langsdorf, Alexander Suss, Assistant Professor of Blectrical En- 
gineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. (50). 1903. 

Lanphear, Burton S., Asst. Professor of Electrical Engineering, 
Iowa State College, Ames, la. (51). 

Lansing, John Ernest, Instructor in Natural Sciences* Phillips 
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^ Lanza, Prof. Gaetano, Mass. Institute Technology, Boston, Mass. 
(29). X8S2. A B D 

Laramy, Robert Edward, Teacher in Moravian School, 27 North 
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Lare, H. S. P., M. D., 3452 Park Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (49). 
^Larkin, Edgar L., Director of Lowe Observatory, Echo Moun- 
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La Rue, Wm. Gordon, North Freedom, Wis. (50). D E 

Latham, Vida A., M. D., 808 Morse Ave., Rogers Park, Chicago, 
111. (53) . C F K 

Lathbury, B. Brentnall, C. E., Constdting Chemist, 16 19 Filbert 
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Latimer, Thos. S., M. D., 2x1 W. Monument St., Baltimore, Md. 
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^Lattimore, Prof. S. A., University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 
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Lauder, George, 7403 Penn Avenue, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 
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Lauman, George Nieman, Instructor in Horticulture. Cornell 
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Lawbaugh, Elmer Arthur, Oregonian Building, Portland, Oregon. 

(SO. K 
Lawrance, J. P. S., Past Assistant Engineer U. S. N., Navy 

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Lawrence, A. E., 53 Devonshire St.. Boston, Mass. (49)- 



Lawrence, Plorus P., M. D., Chief of Staff and Surgeon, Lawrence 
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(S3)- K 
Lawrence, Harry E., Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (44)- B 
Lawrence, James W., Professor of Mechanical Engineerings 

Agricultural College, Port Collins, Colo. (50). D 
Laws, Prank Arthur, Mass. Institute Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Laws, Samuel Spahr, 1733 Q St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). H 

♦Lawson, Andrew C, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. (50). 1901. E 

Lay, Henry Champlin, Civil and Mining Engineer and Geologist, 
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Lazell, Ellis W.. Ph. D., 16 19 Pilbert St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

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190Z. C 
Leathers, W. S., Piofessor of Biology, University of Mississippi* 

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Leavitt, Frank M., Mechanical Engineer, 258 Broadway, New 
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Le Boutillier, Roberts, E. Washington Avenue, Germantown, 
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*Le Brun, Mrs. Michel M., 8 Motmtain Ave., S., Montclair, N. J. 
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Le Conte, Louis Julian, Civil Engineer, P. O. Box 482, Oakland, 

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' 1881. C 
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Lee, Edwin, Professor of Physics and Chemistry, Mt. UnionJCol- 

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Lee, Prancis Valentine T., Electrical Engineer, 69-75 New Mont- 
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♦Lee, Frederic S., Adjunct Professor of Physiology, Columbia 

University, New York, N. Y. (49). 1901. K' 
Lee, Leslie A., Professor of Biology, Bowdoin College, Bruns- 
wick, Me. (52). F 



Lee, Waldemar, 4620 Wayne St., Philadelphia, Pa. (50). 
Lee, William George, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
(SO). H K 
*Lee, Willis Thomas, U. S. Geological Siirvey, Washington, D. C. 
(47)- 1902. E F 
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1885. B C 
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BC D « 
Leiter, L. Z., Dupont Circle, Washington, D. C. (40). 
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^Lengfeld, Felix, Ph. D., Consulting and Manufacturing Chemist, 

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1894. C 8 
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Leonard, John William, Editor of "Who's Who in America," 

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^Lillie, Prank R., Professor of Zoology, University of Chicago^ 

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^Lincoln, Patd Martyn, Electrical Engineer, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 

1903. D 
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Lindenkohl, Henry, U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

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1891. I 

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(Sa). E 
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*Ling, Charles Joseph, Instructor in Physics, Manual Training 

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[ Linn, George A., M. D., P. O. Box 813, Monongahela, Pa. (51). K 
Linton, Edwin, Biological Laboratory, Washington and Jeffer- 
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1S90. C F 
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Lochhead,**, William, Professor of Biology, Ontario Agrictdtural 

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Lockwood, Edwin Hoyt, Asst. Prof. Mechanical Engineering, 

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1889. C 
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Lomb, Henry C, P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (43). 



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♦Longden, A. C, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Knox College, 
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Loomis, Frederick B., Ph. D., Assistant in Zoology, Amherst Col- 
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1874. C E 
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Lundin, Carl A. R., care Messrs. Alvan Clark and Sons, Cam- 
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McAllister, Cloyd North, Ph. D., Instructor in Psychology, Yale 

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McAllister, Henry, Jr., Attorney at law, 512 Mining Exchange 

Building, Colorado Springs, Colo. (51). 
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Mc Arthur, Lewis L., M. D., 100 State St., Chicago, 111. (51). K 
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McBeth, William A., Asst. Professor of Geography, State Normal 

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McBride, Hon. George Wickliffe, U. S. Comm'r La. Purchase 

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McBride, Jas. H., M. D., Pasadena, Cal. (51). K 
*Macbride, Thomas H., Iowa City, Iowa. (38). 1890. 8 



McCalley, Henry, Chief Assist. State Geologist, Universitjr, Ala. 

(50). E 

McCartney, Dr. James H., Room 501 Granite Btdlding, Roch- 
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McCaustland, Elmer James, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineer- 
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McClelland, James H., M. D., 5th and Wilkins Aves., Pittsburg, 
Pa. (so). F K 
♦McClintock, Emory, 32 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (43). 1895. A 

McClung, Clarence E., Ph. D., Professor of Zoology, University of 
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McClure, Geo. E., 4418 Arsenal St., St. Louis, Mo. (53). G 

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McCoy, Lucinius S., Whitten, Hardin Co., Iowa. (50). A 

MacCracken, John Henry, Ph. D., LL. D., Syndic of New York 
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1889. C E 

McCune, M. Virginia, M. D., 506 West John St., Martinsburg, 
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McCurdy, Arthur W., 143 Bloor St., West, Toronto, Ontario, 
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♦MacCurdy, George Grant, Ph. D., 237 Church St., New Haven, 
Conn. (48). 1900. H 

McCurdy, Hansford M., Manual Training High School, Kansas 
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McDermott, Rev. P. A., Roman Catholic Mission, Old Calabon 
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Macdonald, Benjamin J., 296 Grand St., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). I 

McDonnell, Curtis C, Asst. Chemist Agaric. Exper. Station, 
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MacDougall, George R., 131 West 73d St., New York, N. Y. 

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McElfresh, William Edward, Asst. Professor of Physics, Williams 

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McFadden, L. H., Westerville, Ohio. (32). B C 



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Macfarlane, Hon. James R., Judge of Court of Common Pleas, 
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* Macfarlane, John M., Lansdowne, Pa. (41). 1899. F G 

McGahan, Chas. P., M. D., Aiken, S. C. (51). K 
^McGee, Dr. Anita Newcomb, 1901 Baltimore St., Washington, 
D- C. (37). 1892. H 
McGee, D. W., Farley, Iowa. (50). E 
McGee, Miss Emma R., Box 197, Farley, Iowa. (33). H 
McGee, John Bernard, M. D., 1405 Woodland Ave., Cleveland, 
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1892. C 
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McKee, George C, care The Wm. Tod Co., Youngstown, Ohio. 

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McKee, Ralph Harper, Professor of Chemistry, Lake Forest Uni- 
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McKelvy, William H., M. D., President Board of Education, 420 

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*McKenney, Randolph Evans Bender, Ph. D., Department of 

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McKinney, Thomas Emery, Professor of Mathematics and Astron- 
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McLain, Louis Randolph, Pres. of Florida Engineering Co., St. 
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Maclay, James, Ph. D., Adjunct Professor of Mathematics, 
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McLanahan, George William, 160 1 21st St., N.W., Washington, 
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MacLaren, Archibald, M. D., Lowny Bldg., 350 St. Peter St., 
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McLaughlin, A. C, Houston Oil Co. of Texas, Houston, Texas, 

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McLaury, Howard L., Prof, of Mathematics and Physics, So. 
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♦MacLean, George Edwin, President of the State University of 

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1882. F6 
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1 89 1. A 
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McMillan, Smith B., Signal, Ohio. (37). 

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McMuUen, Joseph Francis, 1908 Nora Ave., Spokane, Washington. 

(52). E e 

♦McMurtrie, William. 100 William St., New York, N. Y. (22). 1874. 

*McNair, Fred Walter, President Michigan College of Mines, 

Houghton, Michigan. (51). 1902. B D 
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^McNeill, Malcolm, Professor Mathematics and Astronomy, Lake 

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McNulty, Geo. Washington, Civil Engineer, 258 Broadway, New 

York, N. Y. (51). 



McNulty, John J., Ph. D., College of City of New York, New 
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*MacNutt, Barry, Lehigh University, So. Bethlehem, Pa. (47), 

1900. B 
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1898. C 
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MacVannel, John Angus, Instructor in Philosophy and Education, 

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♦Magic, Prof. Wm. Francis, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

(35). 1887. 
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*Maltby, Margaret E., Ph. D., Barnard College. New York, N. Y. 
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*Mark, Edward Laurens, Director Zoological Laboratory, Har- 
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* Marlatt; Charles L., U. S. Department Agriculture, Washington, 

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E H K 
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Marsden, Samuel, 1015 N. Leffengwell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (27). A D 
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♦Martin, George C, Assistant Geologist, Maryland Geological Sur- 
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Martin, Geo. W., Professor of Biology, Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn. (52). F 

Martin, Louis Adolphe, Jr., Instructor in Mathematics and Me- 
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Martin, William Lyon, Augusta, Ga. (50). H 
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1892. B 
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Marvin, Harry Norton, 11 E. 14th St., New York, N. Y. (50). D 

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Mason, Miss Nellie M., Teacher of Science, Abbot Academy, 
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Mateer, Horace N., M. D., Wooster, Ohio. (36). E F 
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Mathews, Miss Mary Elizabeth, Lake Erie College, Painesville, 
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1901. K 
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Merrill, Joseph Francis, Ph. D., Professor of Physics and Elec- 
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1885. A D I 
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1903- • 
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Miller, Armand R., Professor of Chemistry, Manual Training 
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Miller, Benjamin LeRoy, Dept. Geology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn 
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♦Miller, Prof. Dayton C, Case School of Applied Science, Cleve- 
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A E F 
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Miller, Emerson R., Professor of Pharmacy, Alabama Polytechnic 

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^Miller, Bphraim, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, State 

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Miller, Herbert Stanley, Electrical Engineer, zoas East Jersey 

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Miller, James Shannon, Professor of Mathematics, Emory and 

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Miller, Louallen F., Instructor in Physics, University of Wisconsin, 

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Mills, James Edward, Instructor in Ph3rsical Chemistry, Univer- 
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Mills, John, Instructor in Physics, Western Reserve University, 
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♦Mills, Prof. Wesley, McGill University, Montreal, Can. (31). 1886. 

F H 
♦Mills, William C, Page Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, 
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Mills, Wm. Park, M. D., Missoula, Mont. (52). 

Milne, David, 2030 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 

Miner, James Burt, Ph. D., Instructor in Psychology, University of 
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Minns, Miss S., 14 Louisburg Square, Boston, Mass. (32). 
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Mitchell, Andrew S., Analytical and Consulting Chemist, State 
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Mitchell, Edward. 44 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (50). 

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Mitchell, Henry Bedinger, Tutor in Mathematics, Columbia Uni- 
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Mitchell, James, Newburgh, N. Y. (50). A 

Mitchell, John Pearce, Assistant in Chemistry, Stanford Univer- 
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Mitchell, Roland G., 141 Water St.. New York, N. Y. (50). 

Mitchell, Samuel Alfred, Ph. D., Columbia University, New York, 
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♦Moenkhaus, Wm. J., University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. 

(51). 1903- F 
Mohler, George H., Fremont Normal School, Fremont, Neb. (53)- 


Mohler, John F., Professor of Physics, Dickinson College, Carlisle, 

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Mohr, Charles, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Thera- 
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A B D 
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A D 



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C D E 
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(sO. B D 
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*Moses, Prof. Alfred J., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

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F H 

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^Moulton, Forest Ray, Ph. D., Instructor in Celestial Mechanics, 
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A B D 
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♦Newell, William Wells, Editor "Journal American Folk Lore," 

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^Orleman» Miss Daisy M., M. D., Peeksldll Militaiy Academy » 
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^Orleman, Col. Louis H., Ph. D., Principal PeeksldU Military 
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B F 

^Ortmann, Arnold Edward, Ph. D., Curator of Invertebrate Zo- 
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*Orton,£dward,Jr., The Normandie, Columbus, Ohio. (48). 1900. E 

♦Orton, W. A., Div. of Veg. Phvs. and Path., U. S. Dept. Agri- 
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1883. F 

♦Osbom, Herbert, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. (32). 

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190a. H 
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E F 
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1896. E 
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Palmer, Walter Keifer, Consulting Engineer, 401 New York Life 

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1892. G 



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Z901. H K 
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1874. A 
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Parsons, John E., hi Broadway, New York, N. Y. (36). 
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Patten, Miss Juliet, aaia R St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (49)- 


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Patterson, Dr. A. M., Instructor in Chemistry, Rose Poljrtechnic 

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Patterson, Prof. James L., Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 


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Patton, Arthur L., State Preparatory School, Boulder, Colo. (50). 
♦Patton, Horace B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Colo- 
rado School of Mines, Golden, Colo. (37). 1901. E 

Patton, John, Counsellor-at-law, 925 Mich. Trust Co. Bldg., Grand 
Rapids, Mich. (50). I 
♦Paul, Henry M., 2015 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C. (33). 

1885. A B 
♦Paulmier, Frederick Clark, N. Y. State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 
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Pauls, Gustavus, St. Louis Altenheim, 5408-5450 S. Broadway, St. 
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Pawling, Jesse, Jr., Randal Morgan Laboratory of Physics, Univ. 
of Penna., Philadelphia, Pa. (50). A B C D 

Peabody, George Foster, 28 Monroe Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. (50). 

Peabody, Mrs. Lucy E., 1430 Corona St., Denver, Colo. (50). H 

Peabody, Mary Brown, All Saints School, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 
(52). F« 

Pearce, James Edwin, Principal of High School, 309 W. 10th St., 
Austin, Texas. (51). H 

Pearl, Raymond, Ph. D.. Instructor in Zoology, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (53). F 

Pearson, Fred. Stark, Consulting Engineer, Columbia Bldg. (Room 
220), 29 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). D 
♦Pearson, Raymond A., Professor of Dairy Industry, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y. (49). 1901. F 

Pease. Miss Clara A., Public High School, Hartford, Conn. (47). E 

Peck, Charles H., State Botanist, Albany, N. Y. (52). B 

Peck, Frederick B., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (49). 

Peck, Frederic W., M. D., Litchfield, Conn. (52). K 



' Peck, George. M. D., U. S. N., 926 North Broad St., Elizabeth, 
N.J. (51). K 
Peck, Mrs. John Hudson, 3 Irving Place, Troy, N. Y. (28). 
Peck, W. A., C. E., 1643 Champa St., Denver, Colo. (19). E 
♦Peckham, Wheeler H., 80 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (36). 
1 90 1. I 
Pegram, George Braxton, Ph. D., Tutor in Physics, Columbia Uni- 
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♦Peirce, Benjamin O., 305 Cabot St., Beverly, Mass. (47). 1898. 
Peirce, Cyrus N., D. D. S., 3316 Powelton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

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♦Peirce, George James, Associate Professor of Plant Physiology, 

Stanford University, Cal. (44). 1897. Q 

Peirce. Harold, 222 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). H I 

Pell, Mrs. Alfred, Highland Falls. N. Y. (51). 

Pendleton, Edward Waldo, 900 Union Trust Building, Detroit, 
Mich. (46). H I 

Penfield, S. L., Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. (51). 1902. E 

Pennell, William W., M. D., Predericktown, Ohio. (51). K 

Penniman, George H., 1071 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (49). 
♦Pennington, Miss Mary Engle, Ph. D., 3908 Walnut St., Phila- 
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Penrose, Charles B., M. D., 1720 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(SI). B K 
♦Pbnrose. Dr. R. A. P., Jr., Ph. D., 460 Bullitt Building, Phila- 

delphia. Pa. (38). 1890. E 
♦Pepper, George H., Amer. Mus. Nat. History, Central Park, 
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Perkins, Albert S., Teacher of Chemistry, Dorchester High School, 

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Pbrkins, Arthur, 14 State St., Hartford, Conn. (31). A B 
♦Perkins, Prof. Charles Albert, University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. (47). 1900. B D 
Perkins, Edmund Taylor, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 

D. C. (52). E 
Perkins, Frank Walley, Asst. Supt., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
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♦Perkins, Prof. George H., Burlington, Vt. (17). 1S82. E F H 
Perkins, Henry Famham, Ph. D., University of Vermont, Burling- 
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Perkins, John Walter, M. D., 423 Altman Building, Kansas City,. 
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♦Perrine, C. D., Asst. Astronomer, Lick Observatory, Mt. Ham^ 
ilton, Cal. (51). 1903. A 



Perrine, Miss Lura L., State Normal School, Valley City, No. 

Dak. (47). E F a H 
♦Perry, Arthur C, 226 Halsey St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (43). 1896. 

Perry, Thomas Sergeant, Author, 312 Marlborough St., Back 

Bay, Boston, Mass. (50). 
Peskind, Arnold, M. D., 1354 Willson Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. (51). 

Peters, Amos W., Instructor in Zoology, University of Illinois, 

Urbana. 111. (53). F 
Peters, Clayton A., Polytechnic Preparatory School, 13th Ave. and 

56th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (46). 6 
♦Peters, Edw. T., 58 Savernake Road, London, N. W., England. 

(33). 1889. > 
Petersen, Niels Frederick, Plain view. Neb. (50). I 

Peterson, Bertel, Genl. Mgr. Grand Central Mining Co., Ltd., 

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Peterson, Dr. C. A., 715 Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. (52). H 
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1901. K 
Peterson, Sidney, Brighton High School, Boston, Mass. (50). C 6 
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Pettee, Charles Holmes, Durham, N. H. (47). A 
Pettee, Rev. J. T., Meriden, Conn. (39). I 
♦Pettee, Prof. Wm. H., Professor of Mineralogy, University of 

Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (24). 1875. E 
Pettegrew, David Lyman, P. O. Box 75, Worcester, Mass. (44). A 
Pettersen, C. A., 2395 Lowell Ave., Chicago, 111. (52). 
Pettis, Clifford R., care Forest, Fish and Game Com., Albany, 

N. Y. (52). G 
Phelps, William Joshua, Mgr. The Phelps Co., Detroit, Mich. 

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Philips, Ferdinand, of Philips, Townsend & Co., Manufacturers, 

505 N. 2ist St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). D 
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♦Phillips, Prop. Francis C, Box 126, Allegheny, Pa. (36). 1899. C 
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Phillips, John Lloyd, Assistant State Entomologist, Blacksburg, 

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Phipps, Lawrence Cowle, Farmers' Bank Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

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Pickel, Frank Welborn, Prof, of Biology, Univ. of Arkansas, 
Fayetteville, Ark. (71). G 



^Pickering, Prof. Edward C, Director of Harvard Observatory , 
Cambridge, Mass. (z8). 1875. A B 
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(41). D I 
*PiBRCB, Nbwton B., Pacific Coast Laboratory, U. S. Dept. 

Agriculture, Santa Ana, Cal. (49). 1901. 6 
♦Pierce, Perry Benjamin, U. S. Patent Ofiice, Washington, D. C. 
(40). 1895. H 
Pierce, Sloan J., R. F. D., No. 4, Warren, Ohio. (50). E 
PiBRRBPONT, Hbnry £., 9i6 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

♦Piersol, George A., Professor of Anatomy, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (50). 1902. K 
fPietrzycki, Marcel, M. D., Starbuck, Wash. (51). I 
Pilcher, James Evelyn, Ph. D., Professor of Sociology and Eco- 
nomics, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. (50). I 
Pilling, J. W., 1301 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

♦Pillsbury, J. E., Captain U. S. N., General Board, Navy Dept., 

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♦Pillsbury, John H., Prin. of Waban School, Waban, Mass. (23). 

1885. F H 
*Pinchot, Gifford, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(47). 1899. 6 
Pinchot, J. W., i6i«; Rhode Island Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

(50). « 
Pinkerton, Andrew, Electrical Engineer, Vandergrift, Pa. (50). D 

Pinney, Mrs. Augusta Robinson, 350 Central St., Springfield, 

Mass. (44). F G 
Piper, Charles V., U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

D. c. (53). e 

Pitkin, Lucius, 47 Fulton St., New York, N. Y. (29). 

Pitner, Thomas J., M. D., Trustee Illinois College, Jacksonville, 

111. (si). K 
Pitts, Thomas Dorsey, Naval Architect and Engineer, 90 Halsey 

St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (51). D 
Plant, Albert, 28 East 76th St.. New York, N. Y. (50). 
Plapp, Frederick Wm., 2549 N. 42d Ave., Irving Park Sta., 

Chicago, 111. (52). 
Piatt, Hon. Thomas C, United States Senator, 49 Broadway, New 

York, N. Y, (49). 
Piatt, Walter B., M. D., 802 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

(50). K ■ > 

Plimpton, George Arthur, 70 5th Ave., New York, N. Y. (47). 




Plowman, Amon Benton, 24 Shepard St., Cambridge, Mass. 
(50). B 
♦Pohlman, Dr. Julius, 404 Franklin St.. Buffalo, N. Y. (32). 1884. 
E F 
Pole, Arminius C, M. D., 2038 Madison Ave., Baltimore, Md» 

(51). K 
♦Pollard, Charles Louis, 286 Pine St., Springfield, Mass. (44)- 

1899. G 
Pollock, Horatio M., Ph. D., N. Y. State Civil Service Com- 
mission, Albany, N. Y. (50). F 
Pomeroy, Charles Taylor, 55 Broad St., Newark, N. J. (43). 
♦Pond, G. Gilbert, Ph. D., Professor of Chemistry, State College, 

Pa. (51). 1903. C 
Pond, Raymond Haines, Ph. D., Northwestern University Bldg., 

87 Lake St., Chicago, 111. (52). G 
Poor, John Merrill, Professor of Astronomy, Dartmouth College^ 

Hanover, N. H. (52). A 
Porter, Albert B., 1232 Forest Ave., Evanston, 111. (53). B 
Porter, Miss Caroline Johnson, The Western College, Oxford^ 

Ohio. (52). 
Porter, Miss Edna, 94 Russell Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. (41). F 6 
Porter, Fred. B., 4911 Champlain Ave., Chicago, 111. (52). C 
Porter, H. Hobart, Jr., Consulting Electrical and Mechanical 

Engineer, 31 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (50). D 
Porter, Henry K., Trustee of Carnegie Institute, 541 Wood St., 

Pittsburg, Pa. (50). D 
Porter, J. Edward, Mfg. Chemist and Analyst, 8 Clinton Block,. 

Syracuse, N. Y. (50). C 
Porter, Miles F., M. D., 207 W. Wayne St.. Ft. Wayne, Ind. (51). K 
♦Porter, W. Townsend, M. D., Assistant Professor of Physiology,. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. (so). 1901. K 
Posse, Baroness Rose, Posse Gymnasium, 206 Massachusetts Ave, 

Boston, Mass. (52). 
♦Post, Charles A., Bayport, Long Island, N. Y. (49). 1901. A 
Post, Walter A., General Superintendent, Newport News Ship- 

building and Dry-dock Co., Newport News, Va. (51). D 
Poteat, Wm. L., Wake Forest, N. C. (47). F 
Poth, Harry A., Technical Brewer, 216 N. 33d St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. (53). e 

Potter, Mrs. Henry C, 347 W. 89th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
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Potter, William Bancroft, Chief Engineer, Ry. Dept. G. E. Co.^ 

Schenectady, N. Y. (50). P 
Potter, William Plumer, Justice Supreme Court of Pennsylvania,. 

304 St. Clair St., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). I 



Powel, Colonel dc Vcaux, 38 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). 
Powell, James, Mechanical Engineer, 9525 Spring Grove Ave., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. (51). D 
Powell, Thomas, M. D., 915-917 Laughlin Bldg., Los Angeles, 

Cal. (41). 
^Power, Frederick B., Ph. D., Director, The Wellcome Research 

Laboratories, 6 King St., Snow Hill, London, £. C, England. 

(31). 1887. C 
^Powers, Le Grand, 3007 13th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (51). 

1902. I 
Praeger, William Emilius, Department of Botany, University of 

Chicago. Chicago, 111. (53). 6 
Prang, Louis, 45 Centre St., Roxbury, Mass. (99). D 
Prather, John McClellan, Ph. D., Instructor in Biology, St. Louis 

High School, St. Louis, Mo. (59). F 
Prather, Wm. L., Ph. D., President of the University of Texas, 

Austin, Texas. (50). I 
Pratt, Alexander, Jr., Ph. D., 26 Bunnell St., Bridgeport, Conn. (50). 

H I 
Pratt, Chas. W., Supt. City Schools, Augusta, Kans. (50). F 
♦Pratt, Joseph Hyde, Ph. D., Chapel Hill, N. C. (49). 1902. E 
Pratt, Col. R. H., Superintendent of U. S. Indian Industrial School, 

Carlisle. Pa. (53). I 
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(52). K 

Prentiss, Daniel Webster, M. D., 13 15 M St., N. W., Washington, 
D. C. (so). F K 
'^ Prentiss, Robert W., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 

Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (40). 1891. A 
*Prescott, Prof. Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (23). 1875. C 

Prescott, Samuel Cate, Instructor in Biology, Mass. Inst. Tech., 
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Price, Harvey Lee, Adjunct Professor of Horticulture, Agricultu- 
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Price, Robert Henderson, Willow View Farm, Long's Shop, Va. 

(50). F e 

Price, Thomas Malcolm, U. S. Dept. of Agrictiltiire, Washington, 

D. C. (50). C 
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Priest, Henry, Ph. D., Dean of College of Letters and Science, St; 

Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y. (53). I 
Prince, J. Dyneley, 15 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Pritchard, Myron T., 125 School St., Roxbury, Mass. (59). El 
Pritchard, Samuel Reynolds, Blacksburg, Va. (47). D 



Pritchard, William Broaddus, M. D., 105 W. 73d St., New York, 

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♦Pritchett, Henry S., President Mass. Inst. Technology, Boston, 

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(51). K 
Proctor, Chas. A., Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 

Columbia, Mo. (53). B 
♦Prosser, Charles S., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. (33). 1891. 

E F 
Proudfit, Alexander Couper, 40 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (47). 
Pruyn, John V. L., Jr., Albany, N. Y. (29). 
Pryer, Charles, New Rochelle, N. Y. (49). 
Puffer, William L., 198 Mt. Vernon St., West Newton, Mass. 

(50). D 
Pulsifer, Mrs. C. L. B., Nonquitt, Mass. (33). 
♦Pulsifer, Wm. H., Nonquitt, Mass. (26). 1879. A H 
•Pupin, Dr. M. I., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (44). 

1896. B 
Purdue, Albert Homer, Professor of Geology, University of Ar- 
kansas, Fayctteville, Ark, (50). E 
Puryear, Chas., Professor of Mathematics, Agric. and Mech. 

College, College Station, Tex. (51). A 
Pusey, Charles W., M. E., President The Pusey & Jones Co.> 

Wilmington, Del. (51). 
Putnam, Chas. P., M. D., 63 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Putnam, Miss Elizabeth D., 2013 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa. 

*Putnam, Prof. F. W., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (10). 

1874. H 
Putnam, Henry St. Clair, Davenport, Iowa. (47). 
Pyle, Miss Efiie B., Principal of High School, Coldwater, Kansas. 

(51). BC 
Pyle, William Henry, Supt., Vandalia City Schools, Vandalia, 111- 

(•;3). " 

Quackenbos, John D., M. D., 331 W; 28th St., New York, N. Y. 

*Quaintance,'A. L.,- U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington ^ 

D. C. (51). 1903. F 
• Quinn, John James, Warren, Pa. (52). 
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pilas, Mexico. (50). E 
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Radin, PauU 844 Teasdale Place, New York, N. Y. (52). F K 



^Ramaley, Francis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. (45). 

1899. 6 
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Ramsey, Rolla Roy, 615 £. 3d St., Bloomington, Ind. (50). B 
Rand, C. P., M. D., 1228 15th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (27). 

E H 
Rand, Herbert Wilbur, Ph. D., Instructor in Zoology, Harvard 

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Randall, Burton Alexander, M. D., 17x7 Locust St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (51). K 
Randall, John £., Superintendent and Electrical Engineer, 

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Randolph, Beverley S., Mining Supt. Consolidation Coal Co., 

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Randolph, Prof. L. S., Blacksburg, Va. (33). D 
*Rane, Prank Wm., New Hampshire Agric. Exper. Station, Dur- 
ham, N. H. (42). 1900. 6 
Rankin, Walter M., Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Princeton 

University, Princeton, N. J. (51). F 
Ransohoff, Joseph, M. D., Cincinnati, Ohio. (51). K 
Ransome, Ernest Leslie, Concrete Engineer, Westervelt and 4th 

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^Ransome, Prederick Leslie, Ph. D., U. S. Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C. (52). 1903. E 
Rathbun, Miss Mary J., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D. C. (52). F 
^Rathbun, Richard, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

(40). 189a. F 
Rau, Albert George, Principal Moravian Parochial School, 63 

Broad St., Bethlehem, Pa. (50). B E 
Raymer, George Sharp, E. M., Instructor in Mining, Harvard 

University, Cambridge, Mass. (50). D E 
♦Raymond, Rossiter W., 99 John St., New York, N. Y. (15). 1875. 

E I 
♦Raymond, William G., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, 

N. Y. (44). 1896. D 
Rea, Paul M., Professor of Biology and Geology, College of 

Charleston, Charleston, S. C. (53). E F 
Reagan, Albert B., care of Boarding School, Rosebud, S. Dak. 

Reber, Samuel, Lieut. Col. U. S. A., Signal Corps, Headquarters of 

the Army, Washington, D. C. (50). D 
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(51). K 



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Redfield, William C, Commissioner of Public Works, Borouj^h 
Hall. Brooklyn, N. Y. (44)- 
♦Reed, Charles J., 3313 N. i6th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (34). 1903- 

Reed, Howard Sprague, Instructor in Botany, University of Mis- 
souri, Columbia, Mo. (53)- 6 

Reed, Hugh D., Ph. D., Instructor, Dept. of Neurology, Vertebrate 
Zoology and Physiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(49). F 
Reed, Hon. James H., Amberson Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). I 

♦Reed, John O., 907 Lincoln Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. (44). 1898. B 

♦Rees, Prof. John K., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (26). 

1878. ABE 

Reese, Albert Moore, Ph. D., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

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♦Reid, Harry Fielding, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

{36). 1893. B 
♦Reid, Hon. Whitelaw, 451 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (50). 

Z90Z. I 
Reifsnyder, Samuel K., 705 Bond St., Asbury Park, N. J. 

(50). I 
Reigart, John Franklin, Department of Pedagogy, University of 

Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. (53). I 
Reighard, Jacob, Prof, of Zoology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. (51). F 
Reist, Henry G., Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, 5 South 

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♦Remsen, Ira, President Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

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1898. C 
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♦Rhodes, Jambs Ford, Author and Historian, 392 Beacon St., 

Boston, Mass. (50). 1903. I 



Rice, Calvin Winsor, Consulting Engineer, General Electric Co., 

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Ohio. (43). F 
Rice, Edwin Wilbur, Jr., General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

(50). D 
Rice, Martin Everett, Asst. Professor of Physics and Electrical 
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"♦Rice, Prof. W. North, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 
(18). 1874. E F 
Rich, Michael P., M. D., 50 W. 38th St., New York, N. Y. (40). 
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1885. D 

'^RiCHA&DS, Edgar, 341 W. 88th St., New York, N. Y. (31). 1886. C 

^Richards, Herbert Maule, Ph. D., Instructor in Botany, Barnard 

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** Richards, Prof. Robert H., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, 

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^Richards, Mrs. Robert H., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, 

Mass. (23). 1878. C 
* Richards, Prof. Theodore William, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. (47). 1899. 
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Richardson, Charles Henry, Ph. D., Department of Mineralogy, 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (47). C E 
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^Richardson, Clifford. Barber Asphalt Paving Co., Long Island 

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^Richardson, Miss Harriet, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 
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^Richardson, Mark Wyman, M. D., 90 Equitable Building, Boston, 
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Richmond, William Henry,. 3425 North Main Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

(SO). E 
Rickard, T. A., Editor of "The Engineering and Mining Journal," 

261 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). D E 
Ricker, Maurice, Principal of High School, Burlington, Iowa. (50). 




Ricker, N. Clifford, Dean of the College of Engineering, Uni- 
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♦Ricketts, Prof. Palmer C, 30 Second St., Troy, N. Y. (33). 1887, 

A D 
♦Ricketts, Prof. Pierre de Peyster, 104 John St., New York, N. Y. 

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Rietz, Henry Lewis, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. {51). A 
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College, Hartford, Conn. (50). 1901. C 
Riggs, Walter Merritt, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Clem* 

son College, S. C. (50). B D 
Riker, Clarence B., General Manager, The Sydney Ross Co., 48 

Vesey St., New York. N. Y. (52). F 
Riker, Samuel, 27 E. 69th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
Riley, Cassius M., Professor of Chemistry, Barnes Medical College 

and Barnes College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Mo. (53). 
♦Riley, Isaac Woodbridge, Ph. D., Professor of Philosophy and 

Pol. Economy, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton^ 

New Brunswick, Canada. (52). 1903. H I 
Riley, Mrs. Matilda E., Art Director, St. Louis Public Schools, 

Board of Education Building, St. Louis, Mo. (53). 
Rissmann, Otto, General Manager Cherokee- Lanyon Spelter Co.^ 

lola, Kan. (50). D E 
Ritchie, Craig D., Conveyancer, 414 N. 34th St., Philadelphia, Pa» 

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(SO). I 



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Roberts, Milnor, Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, University 

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Rockwood, Elbert W., Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology, 

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Rogers, Edward L., 71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (50). 



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Rose, Lewis H., Associate Prof., Chemistry and Physics, Univ. 

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Roy, Arthur J., C. E., First Assistant, Dudley Observatory^ 
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1894. 6 
♦Russell, Israel C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (25). 

1882. E 
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1900. B 



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♦Sanford, E. C, Professor of Psychology, Clark University, Wor- 
cester, Mass. (49). 1902. H I 
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*Saunders, A. P., Ph. D., Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. (4S). 

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mental Farms, Ottawa, Canada. (17). 1874. F 
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Schefder, Frederick A., Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, Box 

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(51). B 
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ScH^RMBRHORN, Wm. C, 49 West 23d St., New York, N. Y. 

Schernikow, Ernest, P. O. Box 1191, New York, N. Y. (49). 



f Schiafiino, Mariano L., Chief Electrical Engineer, "Campania de 

Luz de Guadalajara," Bel en 2, Apartado 260, Guadalajara, 

Mexico. (50). D 
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Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. (50V F 
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Schmticker, Samuel Christian, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. Nor- 
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(52). c 

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York, N. Y. (29). 1900. F 
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*Schwarz, E. A., U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

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"^Schwatt, Isaac Joachim, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, 

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(23). 1874. CF 
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York, N. Y. (39). 1891. A 
.Sears, Edward H., CoUinsville, Conn. (50). D I 
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C E 
Sears, Dr. Henry Francis, Beverly, Mass. (50). 
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Seawell, Benjamin Lee, Teacher of Biology, State Normal School, 

Warrensburg, Mo. (50). F 
Secor, William Lee, Academia, Ohio. (52). C 
Sedgwick, Howard M., M. D., 512 Woolner Bldg., Peoria, Illinois. 
(S2). B C K 
♦Sedgwick, William Thompson, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Boston, Mass. (47). 1898. F G 
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Segerblotn, Wilhelm, Professor of Chemistry, Phillips Exeter 

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(44). 1900. G 
Seligman, Isaac N., Mills Building, New York, N. Y. (49). 
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Serviss, Garrett P., 8 Middagh St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (s^). 
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(.so). E 
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(51)- BC 
♦Seymour, Paul Henry, 245 East 6ist St., Chicago, 111. (44). 1896. 

Shafer, John A., Custodian of the Museums, N. Y. Botanical Gar- 
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C D 
Shamel, Archibald D., 1227 Princeton St., N.W., Washington, 

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Sharp, Charles Cutler, C. E.. E. M.. President Raven Coal and 

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(47). c 

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♦Shattuck, George Burbank, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. (47). 1899. E 

♦Shattuck, Samuel Walker, Professor of Mathematics, University 
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*Shaw, Walter Robert, Ph. D., Prof, of Botany and Entomology, 

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(49). 1901. Q 
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♦Sheldon, John Lewis, Plant Pathologist, W. Va. Agr. Exp. Station, 
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♦Sheldon, Samuel, Ph. D., Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

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D. C. (52). G 
Shiland, Andrew, Jr., 262 W. 78th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
♦Shimek, Bohumil, Professor of Botany, State University, Iowa 
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Shi mer, HerveyWoodburn, Instructor in Geology, Massachusetts 
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Siemon, Rudolf, 22 East Jefferson St., Fort Wayne, Ind. (40). A F 
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F K 
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Neb. (48). 1903. B 
Skinner, Clarence Edward, M. D., Physician in Charge, The Newhope 

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1902. F K 

Skinner, James Dudley, 823 E. 14th Ave., Denver, Colo. (50). B D 

Slade, Elisha, Somerset, Mass. (29). F 

Slagle, Robert Lincoln, Ph. D., President, State School of Mines, 

Rapid City, S. D. (50). C E 
♦Slichter, Charles S., Professor of Applied Mathematics, University 

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Slocum, Frederick, Ph. D., Ladd Observatorv, Providence, R. I. 

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1903. E F 

SmilUe, Thomas W., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
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Smith, Arthur George, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, State 

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1898. F K 
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T890. G 
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1877. C E 
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♦Smith, Harold B., Professor of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic 

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T. H. (47). 1901. G 
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A F 
♦Smith, John B., Ph. D.. Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

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(26). 1881. K 
Smith, Thomas A., Professor of Mathematics and Physics, Beloit 

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Smith, Warren Rufus, Instructor in Chemistry, Lewis Institute, 

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♦Smith, William Benjamin, Professor of Mathematics, Tulane 

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Smith, Wm. Lincoln, Consulting Electrical and Illuminating 

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1879. E 
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♦Sneath. E. Hershey, Professor of Philosophy, Yale University, 

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Snelling, Charles Mercer, Junior Professor of Mathematics, Uni- 
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1889. B 
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E F H 
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1899. B C E 
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Souvielle, Mathieu, M. D., Box 355, Jacksonville, Fla. (36). 

B E F 
Souvielle, Mrs. Mathieu, Box 355, Jacksonville, Fla. (24). A B F 
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Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (46). 1899. ^ 
♦Spalding, Volney M., Ph. D., Professor of Botany, University of 

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1882. E 
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1895. C 
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. Spiegelhalter, Dr. Joseph, 2166 Lafayette Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

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Spillman,Wm. Jasper, U. S. Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. (s*). G 
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Stanton, John R., 11 and 13 William St., New York, N. Y. 

Stanton, Robert Brewster, Civil and Mining Engineer, 66 Broad- 
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Washington. D. C. (50). 1902. E 
Starks, Edwin Chapin, Curator and Instructor, Department of 

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F K 
"♦Starr, Frederick, Ph. D., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (36). 

1892. E H 
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1901. K 
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Angeles, Cal. (18). 1874. F 

Stearns, Theron C, M. D., Consulting Chemist, 44 Montgomery 
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Stebbins, Miss Fannie A., 480 Union St., Springfield, Mass. (44). 

Steensland, Halbert Severin, M. D., College of Medicine, Syra- 
cuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. (50). F K 

Steer, Justin, M. D., Medical Department, Washington Uni- 
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♦Steiger, George, Chemical Laboratory, U. S. Geol. Survey, Wash- 
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Stellwagen, Thos. C, M. D., Prof. Physiology, Philadelphia 

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♦Stbphbns, W. Hudson, Lowville, N. Y. (18). 1874. E H 
Stern, Philip Kossuth, Consulting Mechanical and Electrical 

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ment, Washington, D. C. (24), 1880. F 
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(49). H I 
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♦Stevens, Frank L., Ph. D., Prof, of Biology, College of Agric. and 

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Stevens, Frederick W., Department of Physics, Lake Forest Uni- 
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Stevens, George T., M. D., 22 East 46th St., New York, N. Y. 
(28). B F 

Stevens, James Franklin, M. D., 1136 O St., Lincoln, Neb. (50). 
F H K 
♦Stevens, James S., The University of Maine, Orono, Me. (48). 

1900. B 
♦Stevens, Prof. W. LeConte, Washington and Lee University, 
Lexington, Va. (29). 1882. B 

Stevenson, Francis L., Electrical Engineer, Deering Division, Inter- 
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♦Stevenson, Prof. John J., University Heights, New York, N. Y. 

(36). 1888. E 
♦Stevenson, Mrs. Matilda C, Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Washington, D. C. (41). 1893. H 

Stevenson, Robert, Consulting Civil and Mining Engineer, P. O. 
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Stewart, Douglas, Assistant to Director Carnegie Museum, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. (50). E 

Stewart, Francis Laird. Murrysville, Pa. (51). G 
♦Stewart, Fred. Carlton, Botanist, N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station, 
Geneva, N. Y. (44). 1901. G 

Stewart, George Walter, Professor of Physics, University of North 
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Stewart, J. Clark, M. D.. 1628 5th Ave., So. Minneapolis, Minn. 

(SI). K 
Stewart, James Henry, Director of W. Va. Agric. Exper. Station, 

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♦Stewart, Oscar M., Assist. Professor of Physics, University of 

Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (46). 1900. B 
Stewart, Ralph Chambers, 1031 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
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Stickney, Gardner P., care Oliver C, Fuller & Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

(44). 1901. H 
Stickney, Malcom Enos, Instructor in Botany, Denison University, 

Granville, Ohio. (S3^- ® 
♦Stieglitz, Dr. Julius, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (39). 

1895. C 
Stieringer, Luther, 129 Greenwich St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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1892. F 



Still, George A., 17 16 N. 9th St., Des Moines, Iowa. (50). G 
Stillhamer, Arthur G., Ryerson Physical Lab., University of 

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(50). B D 
♦Stine, Prof. W. M., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. (37). 

1900. A G 
Stockard, Chas. R., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (52). 
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(51). K 
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Stone, Alfred H., 200 A St. S.E., Washington, D. C. (51). 
♦Stone, George E., Professor of Vegetable Pathology and Physiol-, 
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1902. G 

Stone, Isaac S., M. D., 16 18 Rhode Island Ave., N. W., Washing- 
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Stone, Miss Isabelle, Ph. D., Instructor in Physics, Vassar Col- 
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Stone, Julius F., Columbus, Ohio. (48). 

Stone, Lincoln R., M. D., Newton, Mass. (31). 

Stone, Mason A., 161 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 
♦Stone, Ormond, Director Leander McCormick Observatory, 
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Stookey, Lyman Brumbaugh, Ph. D., Pathological Institute, 
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Storer, Norman Wilson, care Westinghouse E. & M. Co., Pitts- 
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Storey, Thomas Andrew, Assistant Professor of Hygiene, Stan- 
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Storrs, Lucius S., Geologist, N. P. Ry. Co., St. Paul, Minn. (51). E 
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1881. A 

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♦Stradling, George F., Ph. D., 41 14 Parkside Ave., Philadelphia, 

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Stratton, Samuel W., National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
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Stringham, Irving, Professor of Mathematics, University of Cali- 
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Stromsten, Frank A., 43 University Hall, Princeton, N.J. (52). F 

Strong, Edwin A., Department of Physical Sciences, State Nor- 
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Strong, Frederick F., M. D., 176 Huntington Ave., Boston, Mass. 

(47). BCK 
Strong, Frederick G., Box 959, Hartford, Conn. (50). D 
♦Strong, Oliver S., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (52). 

1903. K 
Strong, Reuben Myron, Ph. D., Department of Zoology, University 

of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (51). F 
♦Strong, Wendell M., Tribune Bldg, Chicago. 111. (44). 1S99. AB 
Stuart, William, Professor of Horticulture, University of Ver- 
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Stump, James A., Instructor in Physics, Agricultural College, 

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1892. G 
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Summa, Hugo, M. D., Piofessor of Medicine, St. Louis University, 

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Summers, Joseph, 1 103 E. Broadway, Columbia, Mo. (51). B 
Sumner, Francis B., Ph. D., Instructor in Natural History. Col- 
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Sweat, Mrs. Margaret J. M., 103 Spring St., Portland, Maine. 

Swensson, Emil, C. E., 551 1 Hays St., Pittsburg, Pa. (51). D 
Swezey, Goodwin D., Professor of Astronomy and Meteorology. 

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♦Swingle, Walter T., U. S. Dept. Ajrriculture. Washington, D. C. 
(40). 1892. G 
Swope, Gerard, Manager of the Western Electric Co., 810 Spnice 

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Talbot, Miss Mignon, 134 Howe St., New Haven, Conn. (51). E 
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Tandberg, John P., Instructor in Physics and Chemistry, St. 
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1899. A B 
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Taussig, James, Rialto Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. (50). I 
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♦Taylor, Frank B., 391 Fairfield Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. (39). 


Taylor, Henry Ling, M. D., 125 W. 58th St.. New York. N. Y. 


Taylor, Henry W.. Chief Engineer. H. R.. Box 483. House of Rep- 
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Tavlor, H. Longstreet. M. D.. 75 Lowry Arcade, St. Paul, Minn. 
"(-;iV K 

Taylor, J. Erskine, M. D., Rockland, Pa. (51). K 

Taylor, James Landon, M. D., Whcelersburg, Ohio. (51). K 
♦Tavlor, James M., Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. (33). 1901. 
A D 

Tavlor, Lewis H., M. D., 83 S. Franklin St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa, 

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Taylor, Wm. Alton, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

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C F K 
Terrell. Arthur Davis, 624 E. Madison St., lola, Kansas. (51). C 
Terry, Robert James. Professor. of Anatomy, Medical Department, 

Washington University. St. Louis. Mo. (53). K 
♦Tesla, Nikola, LL.D., 55 W. 27th St., New York, N. Y. (43). 

1895. B 
Thaw, Benjamin, President Hecla Coke Co., Morewood Place, 

Pittsburg, Pa. (50). A D 
Thaw, Mrs. William, Box 1086, Pittsburg, Pa. (41). H 
♦Thaxter, Roland, Ph. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. (50). 190 1. Q 
Thayer, Harry Stanley, The Montana Anaconda. Mon. (50). C 
Thayer. Rufus Hildreth, 930 F St.. N.W., Washington, D. C. 

♦Thayer. William S.. M. D.. 406 Cathedral St.. Baltimore, Md. 
(52). 1903. K 
Theisen, Clement F., M. D., 172 Washington Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

(SI). K 
Thelberg, Elizabeth B., M. D., Resident Physician and Professor 

of Physiology and Hygiene, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y. (50). F K 

Thiessen, Alfred Henry, Point Reyes Station, Cal. (51). B 

♦Thom, Charles, 239 Hazen St., Ithaca, N. Y. (50). 1901. G 

♦Thomas, Benjamin F., Professor of Physics, State University^ 

Columbus, Ohio. (29). 1882. k B 

Thomas, George T., M. D., Rogers, Texas. (50). F K 



Thomas, Jerome B., Captain and Assistant Surgeon, U. S. V., 

Bagnio, Benguet, P. I. (51). K 
Thomas, Lancaster, 1932 Mt. Vernon St., Philadelphia, Pa. (52). 

B F 
♦Thomas, Prof. M. B., Crawfordsville, Ind. (41). 1894. G 
Thompson, Almon Harris, 1729 12th St., N.W., Washington , 

D. C. (52). 
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1902. H 
Thompson, Miss Anna P., P. O. Box 32, Summit, N. J. (49). 
Thompson, Bcnj., Chief Engineer, T. & B. V. Ry. Co., Hillsboro, 

Texas. (52). D 
Thompson, Hugh L., Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Water* 

bury, Conn. (51). D 
Thompson, James David, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C 

(52). A B 
Thompson, James E., New Carlisle, Ohio. (48). 

Thompson, James Edwin, 3224 Broadway, Galveston, Texas. (50). 

Thompson, T- L., M. D., 20 West Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

(39). F ' 
♦Thompson, Joseph Osgood, Amherst. Mass. (41). 1893. 

Thompson, Millett Taylor, Ph. D., Clark University. Worcester, 

Mass. (51). F 

Thompson, Robert M., 43 Exchange Place, New York, N. Y. 

Thompson, Rev. Walter, D. D., Garrison-on-Hudson, N. Y. (49). 

Thompson, William, Mining, Metallurgical and Mechanical 

Engineer, Rossland Great Western Mines, Ltd., Rossland, 

B. C. (50). E 

♦Thompson, W. Oilman, M. D., 34 E. 31st St., New York, N. Y. 

(50). 1902. F K 

♦Thomson, Elihu, Swampscott, Mass. (37). 1888. B 

♦Thomson, Wm., M. D., 1426 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 

1885. B 

I'hornber, John J., Botanist, Agr. Exper. Station, Tucson, Arizona. 

(50). 6 
♦Thornburg, Charles L., Lehigh Univ., S. Bethlehem, Pa. (44). 

1897. A 
♦Thorndike, E. L., Ph. D., Adjunct Prof, of Genetic Psychology. 
Columbia Univ., New York, N. Y. (49). 1901. H I K 
Thorne, Mrs. Phoebe Anna, 558 Madison Ave., New York, 

N. Y. (50). 
Thome, Samuel, Jr., 44 East 70th St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Thornton, William M., Professor of Applied Mathematics, Univer- 
sity of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. (53) A 



*Thrtt8ton, Gates Phillips, Nashville. Tenn. (58). 1890. H 
'^Throston, R. C. Ballard, Ballard & Ballard Co., Louisville. Ky. 
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Thurber. Charles Herbert, 39 Beacon St.. Boston, Mass. (53). I 
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Tieman. Austin K.. C. £.. P. O. Box 441, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Tiffany. Lyman, 1705 Conn. Ave.. Washington. D. C. (52). 

Tiffany, Louis C. 15 Union Square, New York, N. Y. (50). 
♦Tight. William 'George, President University New Mexico, Albu- 
querque. N. M. (39). 1900. E 
Tilley. Charles Edward. Teacher of Physios and Chemistry, Hope 

Street High School, Providence, R. I. (50) . B C 
Tilson, P. S., Associate Professor of Chemistry, A. and M. Col- 
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Tilton. John Littlefield, Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa. (50). E 
♦Tingle, J. Bishop, Illinois College, Jacksonville. 111. (50). 1903. C 
♦Titchener, E. B., Professor of Psychology, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N. Y. (51). 1902. H 
♦Tittmann, Otto H., Supt. U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, 
D. C. (24). 1888. A 
Titus, E., Jr., 10 E. 70th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 
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(so). F 
Todd, Albert M., Kalamazoo, Mich. (37). € 
♦Todd, Prof. David P., Director Lawrence Observatory, Amherst 

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♦Todd, Prof. James E., State Univ., VermilUon, S. Dak. (22). 1886. 

E F 
Todd, J. H., M. D., Christmas Knoll, Wooster, Ohio. (48). 
Todd, William J., M. D.. Mt. Washington, Baltimore, Md. (51). K 
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Tonnele, Theodore, Metallurgical Engineer, 9x9 College Ave., 

Pittsburg, Pa. (50). E 
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(51). K 
Torre y, Harry Beal, Ph. D.. Instructor in Zoology, University of 

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Totman, David M., M. D., 303 Montgomery St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

(SO). K 
♦Tower, Olin P., Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Adelbert 

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Tower, Ralph Winfred, Ph. D., Curator of Physiology, Am. Mus. 

Natural History, New YosTk, N. Y. (53). K 



*Towle, William Mason, Associate Professor of Practical Mechanics, 
Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, N. Y, (44). 1902. D 
Townley, Sidney Dean, International Latitude Observatory, 

Ukiah, Cal. (53). A 
Townsend, Miss Anna B, 214 Hazen St., Ithaca, N. Y. (52). F 6 
I'Townsend, Charles O., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. (46). 1902. 6 
Townson, Andrew J., President Board of Education, Granite 

Building, Rochester, N. Y. (50). I 
Tracy, Edward A., M. D., 353 Broadway, S. Boston, Mass. (51). K 
♦Tracy, Samuel M., Biloxi, Miss. (27), 1881. Q 
Transeau, E. N., 220 S. Ingalls St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (53). C 
♦Traphagen, Frank W., Ph. D., Professor of Metallurgy, Colorado 
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Trask, Spencer, William St. comer Pine St., New York, N. Y. 

(50). I 
Travlor, Miss Mary Clark, 653 S. Grant Ave., Denver, Colo. 

(50). A 
Treat, Erastus B., 241-243 W. 23d St., New York, N. Y. (29). 
♦Trelease, Wm., Ph. D., Director Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. 
Louis, Mo. (39). 1 89 1. 6 
Trimble, Robert E., Asst. Meteorologist and Irrigation Engineer, 

Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo. (50). D E 
Troth, Alonzo P., Principal of High School, Leadville, Colo. (50). 

♦Trowbridge, Augustus, Ph. D., Dept. Physics, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison, Wis. (47). Z900. B 
♦Trowbridge, Charles Christopher, Tutor in Physics, Columbia 
University, New York, N. Y. (50). 1901. B 
True, A. C, Ph. D., Director, Office of Experiment Stations, 
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1882. F 
♦True, Rodney Howard, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, 
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Truesdell, George, Room 22, Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C. 

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♦Tucker, Richard Hawley, C. E., Astronomer, Lick Observatory, 
Mi* Hamilton, Cal. (50). 1902. A D 
Tucker, William Albert, Le Sueur, Minn. (51). G 
Tucker, William Conquest, Civil and Sanitary Engineer, 156 Fifth 
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^Tucker, WiUis G., M. D.. Albany Medical College, Albany. N. Y. 

(29). 1888. C 
"♦TucKERMAN, Alprbd» Ph. D., 342 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 

(39). 1891. G 
Tuckerman, Louis Bryant, Jr., 1473 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

(50). AB 
"♦Tufts, Frank Leo, Ph. D., Tutor in Physics, Columbia University, 

New York, N. Y. (so). 1901. B 
Tunstall, Whitmell Pugh, Engineer's Office, B. & O. Depot, 

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Turck. Fcnton B.. M. D.. 362 Dearborn Ave.. Chicago, 111. (51). K 
TumbuU, Thomas, Jr.. M. D., Asst. Professor of Practice of 

Medicine, Allegheny University, Allegheny, Pa. (50). F K 
Tumeaure, Frederic Eugene, Professor of Bridge and Sanitary 

Engineering. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. (51). D 
Turner, Archelaus E., President Waynesburg College. Waynes- 
burg, Pa. (50). E I 
Turner, Arthur Bertram, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics. 

Temple College, Philadelphia, Pa. (52). A 
Turner, J. Spencer, 71 Worth St., New York, N. Y. (43). B 
Turrentine, J. W., Instructor in Chemistry. Lafayette College, 

Easton, Pa. (53). G 
■*Tuttle, Prof. Albert H., University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 

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Tutton, Charles H., Asst. Engineer, Department of Public Works, 

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Tweedy. Miss Alice B., Spuyten Duyvil, New York. N. Y. (49). 
"♦Twitchell, E.. Wyoming, Ohio. (39). 1891. G 
Tyler, Ansel Atigustus, Ph. D., Professor of Science, Bellevue 

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Tyler, Prof. Harry W.. 491 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (51). 
'=*Tyrrell, Joseph Burr, Mining Engineer. Dawson. Y. T.. Canada. 

(50). 1903. D E 
'►Tyson, James, M. D., 1506 Spruce St., Philadelphia. Pa. (51). 

1903- K 
^Uhler, Philip R., 254 W. Hoffman St., Baltimore, Md. (19). 1874. 

• E F 

f Uihlein, August, 332 Oalena St., Milwaukee, Wis. (51). 

* Underwood. Lucien M.. Columbia University, New York. N. Y. 

(23). 1885. G 
Underwood. William Lyman, Lecturer on Biology, Mass. Institute 

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*Updcgraff, Milton. U. S. Naval Academy. Annapolis. Md. (40). 

1895. A 



*Upham, Warren, Secy. Minnesota Historical Society, St. PauU 
Minn. (25). 1880. E 
Upton, George B., Milton, Mass. (50). 
♦Upton, Winslow, Ladd Observatory, Providence, R. I. (29). 1883^ 
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Vaile, Joel P., 420 Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. (50). I 
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VaU6, Jules F,, M. D., 3303 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (51).. 

♦Van Amringe, John Howard, Professor of Mathematics, Columbia. 

University, New York, N. Y. (50). 1901. A 
Van Antwerp, Rev. Francis J., 26 Harper Ave., Detroit, Mich* 

Van Bburen, Frbdbrick T., 21 W. 14th St., New York, N. Y. 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 602 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (51). 1^ 

Vanderlaan, J., M. D., 200 S. Terrace St., Muskegon, Mich. (51). 

Vanderpoel, Frank, Ph. D., 153 Center St., Orange, N. J. (50)* 

f K 

Van der Vries, John N., Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Mathe- 
matics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. (52). A 
Van Dine, Delos Lewis, Entomologist, U. S. Experiment Station,. 

Honolulu, T. H. (51). 
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♦Van Dyck, Prof. Francis Cuyler, Rutgers College, New Bruns- 
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Van Dyck, William Van Bergen, Cronly, N. C. (50). D 
Van Gelder, Arthur P., Superintendent Climax Powder Mfg. Co.» 
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♦Van Hise, Charles R., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. (37). 1890. 

Van Orden, Charles H., Civil Engineer, Catskill. N. Y. ($!).• 
*Van Omum, Prof. John Lane, Professor of Civil Engineering,. 

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. (50). 1903. D 
♦Van Slyke, Lucius L., Agr. Exper. Station, Geneva, N. Y. (41). 

1901. C 
Van Valkenburg, Hermon L., Electrical Engineer, Amber Club, 
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♦Van Vleck, Prof. John M., Wesleyan University, Middletowa» 
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Van Winkle, Edgar B., 115 E. 70th St., New York. N.Y. (49). 
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Vaughan, T. Wayland, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 

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A E 
Veatch, Arthur Clifford, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

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=*Venable. Prof. F. P., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 

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^Vcrrill, Prof. Addison E., 86 Whalley Ave., New Haven, Conn. 

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^Vogdes, A. W., Lt.-Col., sth Artillery, U. S. A., Key West, Fla. 

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Vogt, Frederick A., Principal of Central High School, Buffalo, 

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*von Schrenk, Hermann, Missotiri Botanical Garden, St. Lotus, Mo^ 
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Voris, Floyd Thomas, Professor of Physics and Chemistry, Buena^ 
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Votey, J. William, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of 
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Vreeland, Frederick K., E. E., Montclair, N. J. (50). B D G 

Wackenhuth, P. C, Jr., Technical Brewer, 57 Freeman St., New- 
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Wade, John W., M. D., 318 N. Second St., MiUville. N. J. (51). K 

Wadman, W. E., 102 Lord Ave., Bayonne, N. J. (50). 
♦Wadsworth, F. L. O., Dir. Allegheny Observatory, Western 
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Wadsworth, Herbert, 1801 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washing- 
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♦Wadsworth, M. Edw., Professor of Mining and Geology, Penna. 
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Wadsworth, Oliver F., 526 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. (52). K 

Wadsworth, William Austin, Geneseo, N. Y. (50), 6 
♦Wagner, Frank C, Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute^ 
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Wagner, George, 15 W. Gorham St., Madison, Wis. (46). F G 

Wagner, Samuel, President of Wagner Free Institute of Science*. 
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Waidner, Charles W., Nat. Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
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Wainwright, Jacob T., Metallurgical Engineer, P. O. Box 774^ 
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Wait, Charles Edmund, Professor of Chemistry, Univ. of Ten- 
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Waite, Frederick Clayton, Ph. D., Asst. Prof, of Histology and 
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1893. Q 
♦Walcott, Charles D., Director U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington^ 

D. C. (25). 1882. E F . . ' 

♦Waldo, Prof. Clarence A., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

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♦Waldo, Leonard, 640 West 8th St., Plainfield, N. J. (28). 1880. A. 

Wales, Charles M., M. E., 11 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (51). I> 

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Walker. Charles R., M. D.. Concord, N. H. (50). K 

Walker, Ernest, Professor of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, 

Fayetteville. Ark. (52). 
Walker, E. W., Superintendent State School for the Deaf, Dela- 

van, Wis. (52). I 
Walker, George C, Room 367, Rookery Building, Chicago, 111, 


Walker, James, 49 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. (43). 

Walker, John A., E. M., 260 Montgomery St., Jersey City, N. J. 
(50). C D E I 

Walker, R. M., 713 Prudential Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. (52). D 

Walker, T. B., Pres., Minneapolis City Library Board, 803 
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Wallace, Robert James, Photographer, Yerkes Observatory, Wil- 
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Waller, Coleman Bailey, Woflford College, Spartanburg, S. C. 

(51). ABC 
♦Waller, E., 7 Franklin Place, Morristown, N. J. (23). 1874. 
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Walls, John Abbet, 1724 Notre Dame St., Montreal, Can. 

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Walpole, Frederick A., U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
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Walsh, James J., M. D., LL.D., Lecturer on Medicine, New York 
Polyclinic, 1973 Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y. (51). K 

Walsh, Thomas F., Le Roy and Phelps Place, Washington, D. C. 

Walter, Miss Emma, 109 North i6th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(50). E 

Walter, Dr. Robert, Walters Park, Pa. (53). H 

Walter, Rudolph J., Mining Engineer and Metallurgist, 1452 
Blake St., Denver, Colo. (50). D E 

Walter, W. J., 115 W. S7th St., New York, N. Y. (50). 

Walters, John Daniel, Prof, of Industrial Art. Kan. State Agri- 
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Walton, L. B., Professor of Biology, Ken yon College, Gambier, 
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♦Wanner, Atreus, York, Pa. (36). 1890. H 

Wantland, C. E., U. P. R.R. Co., 1025 17th St., Denver, Colo. 

(50). E 
Ward, Delancey W., 163 Madison Ave., Flushing, N. Y. (51).. C. ■- 
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♦W^ard, Henry A., 620 Division St., Chicago, 111. (13). 1875. 




♦Ward, Dr. Henry B., Dean of Medical Faculty, University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (48). 1899. F 
Ward. Henry L., Secretary Board Trustees, Public Museum, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. (51). E 
Ward, J. Langdon, 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (39). I 
♦Ward, Lester P., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (a6). 
1879. E 6 
Ward, Louis Clinton, Box 11, Huntington, Ind. (Si). E 
Ward, Milan Lester, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 
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♦Ward, Robert De C, Harvard Univ.. Cambridge, Mass. (47)- 

190a. E 
♦Ward, Dr. R. H., 53 Fourth St., Troy, N. Y. (17). 1S74. F fi 
Ward, Willard Parker, Ph. D., Mining Engineer, 164 W. s8th St., 

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W^arden, Albert W., M. D., 325 Fulton St., Weehawkcn, N. J. (51). 

Warder, Charles Barclay, M. D., 17 15 Walnut St., Philadelphia, 
Pa. (SI). K 
♦Warder, Prof. Robert B., Howard University, Washington, D. C. 
(19). x88i. B C 
Wardlaw, George A., Electrical Engineer, Amber Club, Shady 

Ave.. Pittsburg, Pa. (51). D 
Wardle, Harriet N., 125 N. loth St.. Philadelphia, Pa. (47). E H 
Ware, Miss Mary L., 41 Brimmer St., Boston, Mass. (47). 
♦Ware, Wm. R., School of Architecture, Columbia University, 

New York, N. Y. (36). 1901. D 
♦Warinoton. Robert, F. R. S., Rothamsted, Harpenden, Eng- 
land. (40). 1899. G 
♦Warner, Jambs D., 463 E. 26th St., Platbush, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(iS). 1874. A B 
♦Warner, Worcester R., 1722 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. (33). 
1888. A B D 
Warren, Charles H., Ph. D., Instructor in Mineralogy, Mass. 

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Warren, Geo. F., Jr., Howard, Neb. (52). 

Warren. Rt. Rev. Henry White, Bishop M. E. Church, University 
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♦Warren, Prof. Howard C, Princeton Univ., Princeton, N. J. (46). 

1901. H K 
♦Warren, Joseph W., M. D., Bryn Mawr, Pa. {31). 1886. F 
♦Warren, S. Edward, Newton, Mass. (17). 1875. A I 
Warren, William R,, 68 William St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Warrington. James N., 1711 South Hope St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
(34). A B D 



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Washington, Charles Milnor, The Graduate Club, New Haven, 

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* Washington, Dr. Henry S., Locust, N. J. (44). 1897. E 
Waterhouse, James Sraartt, Professor of Chemistry and Natural 

Science, Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. (50). C F 8 
Waters, C. E., Assistant in Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Md. (52). C 
Watson, Benj. Marston, Bussey Institution, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 


Watson, Miss C. A., 56 Prospect St., North Andover, Mass. (31). D 

Watson, Frank Elbert, 832 Main St., Springfield, Mass. (51). F 

Watson, Irving Allison, M. D., Sec'y State Board of Health, Con- 
cord. N. H. (52). K 

Watson. Joseph Ralph, Department Natural Sciences, Rochester 
Normal University, Rochester, Ind. (50). G 

Watson, Thomas A., Weymouth, Mass. (4a). E 
♦Watson, Prof. Wm., 107 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (xa). 
1884. A 

Walters, William, A. M., M. D., a6 S. Common St., Lynn, Mass. 
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Watterson, Miss Ada, 153 W. 84th St, New York. N. Y. (49). G 

Watts, William Lawrence, 56 Henry St. .Cambridge, Mass. (5a). A 

Waugh, James Church, Mount Vernon, Washington. (52). 

Waychoff, Andrew J., Prof, of Geology and Physics, Waynesburg 
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*Wead, Charles K., U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (47). 
1898. B 

Weatherly, Ulysses Grant, Professor of Economics, University 
of Indiana, Bloomington', Ind. (50). I 

Weaver, Edwin Oscar. Professor of Physics and Biology, Witten- 
berg College, Springfield, Ohio. (51). B F G 

Weaver, Gerrit E. Hambleton, 916 Parragut Terrace, West 
Philadelphia, Pa. (38). G I 

Webb, Howard Scott, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Uni- 
versity of Maine, Orono, Maine. (50). D 
*Webb, Prof. J. Burkitt, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. (31). 

1883. A B D 
♦Webber, Herbert J., U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(47). 1900- • 
♦Weber, Prof. Henry A., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. (35). 

x888. C 

Webster, Albert Lowry, C. £., Consulting Civil and Sanitary 

Engineer, 112 E. 40th St., New York, N. Y. (50). G D 



♦Webster, Prof. Arthur Gordon, Clark University, Worcester, 

Mass. (47). 1898. A B 
Webster, Edgar H., Professor of Physical Science, Atlanta Uni- 
versity, Atlanta, Ga. (50). B 
♦Webster, Prof. F. M., 806 W. Springfield Ave., Urbana. 111. (35). 

1890. F 
Webster, Frederic S., Carnegie Atuseum, Pittsburg, Pa. (51). E F H 
Weed, Alfred, care Nicholson File Co., Providence, R. I. (51). D 
♦Weed, Clarence M., Ph. D., Durham, N. H. (38). 1890. F 

Weed, J. N., 244 Grand St., Newburgh, N. Y. (37). E I 
♦Weed, W. H., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (52). 

1903. E 
Weeks, Edwin Ruthven, Consulting Engineer, 604-607 New Nelson 

Bldg.. Kansas City, Mo. (50). A B D I 
Weeks, John Elmer, M. D., 46 E. 57th St., New York, N. Y. (51). 

♦Weems, J. B., Ph. D., Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, Agric. 

College, Ames, Iowa. (44). 1900. C 
Weems, Mason Locke, Instructor in Physiology, Valparaiso Col- 
lege, Valparaiso, In d. (52). K 
Weidman, Samuel, Geologist, Wisconsin State Geological and 

Natural History Survey, Madison, Wis. (53). E 
Weimer, Edgar A., M. E., Supt. Wcimer Machine Works Co., 

Lebanon, Pa. (51). D 
Weinzirl, John, Director. Hadley Climatological Lab., Univ. of 

New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mex. (45). G 
♦Welch, William Henry, M. D., 935 St. Paul St., Baltimore. Md. 

(47). 1900. F H 
♦Weld, Laenas Gifford, Dean of Graduate College, State University 

of Iowa. Iowa Cit3% Iowa. (41). 1895. A 
Welin, John E., Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Geology, 

Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kansas. (50). B C E 
Wells, Eliab Horatio, M. D., Professor of Natural Science, Baylor 

Female College, Belton, Texas. (50). F K 
Wells, Frank, M. D., 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. (47)^ C 
Wells, William H., Jr., 2 Norfolk St., Strand, W. C. London, 

England. (39). E 
Welsh; Francis Ralston, 328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wendling, Hon. Geo. R., Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. (52). 1 

Wenner, Francis W., Supt. of Public Schools, North Baltimore, 

Wood Co., Ohio. (51). B 
Wesson, David, Southern Cotton Oil Co., Savannah, Ga. (50). C 
"W^est, Max, Ph. D., care of Treasury Department, San Juan, Porto 

Rico; (52). I 



• West, Thomas Dyson, M. E., Mgr., T. D. West Engrg. Co., Sharps* 
ville. Pa. (5i).D 
Westgate, Lewis Gardner, Ph. D., Professor of Geology, Ohio 
Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio. (51). E 
♦Wbstinohousb, Gborgb, Pittsburg, Pa. (50). 1902. D 

Westinghouse, Henry Herman, Wilmerding, Pa. (51). D 
♦Weston, Edward, 645 High St., Newark, N. J. (33). 1887. BCD 
Wetherill, Henry Emerson, M. D., 3734 Walnut St., Philadelphia,. 

Pa. (53). K 
\ Wetzel. Reinhard A., Supt. Science High School, Fargo, N. D. 

(53). B 
Wetzler, Joseph, 240-242 W. 23d St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Weygant, Colonel Charles H., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). I 

Weysse, Arthur W., Instructor in Zoology, Massachusetts Inst. 

of Technology, Boston, Mass. (52). F 
Wheatland, Marcus F., M. D., 84 John St., Newport, R. I. (51)* 

H K 
Wheatley, Frank G., M. D., 47 Adams St.; North Abington, Mass. 

(51). K 
♦Wheeler, Alvin Sawyer, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Chemistry^ 
University of Nortji Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. (50). 
T901. C 
Wheeler, Chas. Fay, U. S. Department Agriculture, Washington^ 

D. C. (52). 6 
Wheeler, C. Gilbert, 214 State St., Chicago, 111. (51). C 
Wheeler, E. B., Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. (52). 
♦Wheeler, Eben ,S., U. S. Engineer Office, Detroit, Mich. (50). 

1901. D 
♦Wheeler, Henry Lord, Sheffield Lab., New Haven, Conn. (50) » 
1901. C 
Wheeler, Horace Leslie, Department of Statistics, Public Library,. 

Boston, Mass. (53). A E 
Wheeler, Schuyler Skaats, Ampere, N. J. (50). D 
Wheeler, William, C. E., Concord, Mass. (41). 
♦Wheeler, William Morton, American Museum of Natural History ^ 
New York, N. Y. (50). 1901. F 
Whelpley, Henry Milton, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. (52). H K 
Whelpley, James D., 1417 G St. N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). L 
White, Charles G., Lake Linden, Mich. (46). B C 
White, Charles H., U. S. N.. Center Sandwich, N. H. (34). C 
♦White, David, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. 

♦White, Horace, Editor "New York Evening Post,*' 18 W. 69th 
St., New York, N. Y. (50). 1901. I 



♦White, H. C, Ph. D., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. {ag). 

1885. C 
*Whitb, Prop. I. C, State Geologist of West Virginia, Morgan- 
town, W. Va. (as). i88a. E 
White, John Williams, 18 Concord Ave., Cambridge, Mass. (47)- 
White, LeRoy S., 19 Buckingham Ave., Watcrbury, Conn. 


White, Mrs. Mary Bell, 1615 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (52). 

White. Oscar W., 1116 F St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (52). 

White, Walter Henry, M. D., 220 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

(SI). K 
Whitehome, Wm. Risby, Ph. D., Lehigh University, South Beth- 
lehem, Pa. (52). C 
♦Whitfield, J. Edward, 406 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. (44). 

1896. C 
♦Whitfield, R. P., Amer. Mus. Nat. History, Central Park^ New 
York, N. Y. (18). 1874. E F H 
Whitham, Wm. Henry, Assistant in Physics, W. Va. University, 

Morgantown, W. Va. (52). B 
Whiting, S. B., 11 Ware St.. Cambridge, Mass. (33). D 
♦Whiting, Miss Sarah P., Professor of Physics, Wellesley College 

Wellesley, Mass. (31). 1883. A B 
♦Whitman, Prof. Charles O., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111 

(43). i»98. F 
♦Whitman, Prof. Frank P., Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio. (33) 

1885. A B 
♦Whitney, Miss Mary W., Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (47) 
1900. A 
Whitney, Solon Franklin, A. M., Public Library, Watertown 
Mass. (52). 
♦Whitney, Willis Rodney, Mass. Inst. Tech., Boston, Mass. (46) 
1900. C 
Whitted, Thomas Byrd, General Elec. Co., Denver, Colo. (50). D 
Whittelsey, Theodore, Ph. D., Professor of Chemistry, North- 
western University School of Pharmacy, Chicago, 111. (53). 
Whittemore, Williams C, 1526 N. H. Ave., Washington, D. C. (49). 
Wiechmann, F. G., M. D., 310 West 80th St., New York, N. Y. 
(50). F K 
♦Wiegand, Karl McKay, Ph. D., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(45). 1899- fi 
Wightman, Merle J., Electrical Engineer, 302 Broadway, New 

York, N. Y. (50). D 

Wilbour, Mrs. Chariotte B., 40 Central Park, South, New York. 

N. Y. (28). 



♦Wilbur, A. B.. Middletown, N. Y. (aj). 1874. E 
•Wilbur, Ray Lyman, M. D., Assistant Professor of Physiology, 
Stanford University, Cal. (50). 1901. F K 
Wilcox, Mrs. Aaron Morley, The Arlington, Washington, D. C. 

* Wilcox, Edwin Mead, Ph. D., Prof, of Biology and Plant Phy- 
siologist and Pathologist, Ala. Poly. Inst., Auburn, Ala. ($0). 
1901. F G 
Wilcox, Miss Emily T., Middletown, Conn. (33). A B 
Wilcox, Ouy Maurice, Professor of Physics, Armour Institute , 
Chicago, 111. (53). B 
♦Willcox, Miss Mary Alice, Ph. D., Professor of Zoology, Wollesley 

College, Wellesley, Mass. (50). 190 1. F 
♦Willcox, Walter P., Ph. D., Professor of Economics, Cornell 

University, Ithaca, N. Y. (50). 1901. I 
♦Wilder, Burt Green, Prof, of Neurology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. (51). 190a. K 
Wilder, Harris Hawthorne, Ph. D., Professor of Zoology, Smith 

College, Northampton, Mass. (52). F 
Wiley, Andrew J., C. E., Chief Engr. Boise- Payette River Electric 
Power Co., Boise, Idaho. (51). D 
♦Wiley, Harvey W., Ph. D., U. S. Dept.' Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. (21). 1874. C 
Wiley, William H., C. E., 43 E. 19th St.. New York, N. Y. (50). D E 
Wilkins, Miss Le wanna. Eastern High School, Washington, D. C. 

(5a). F G 
Wilkins, Wm. Glyde, C. E., Westinghouse Bldg.. Pittsburg, Pa. 

(so). D E 
♦Wilkinson, Levi Washington, Professor of Industrial and Sugar 
Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. (50). 1903. C 

WiUard, Julius Terrass, Dir. Kans. State Exper. Sta., Manhattan^ 
Kans. (50). G 

Wille, Henry Valentin, M. E., Engineer of Tests, Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, 2600 Girard Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). D 

Willett, James R., 434 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. (53). D 

Williams, Arthur, The New York Edison Co., 55 Duane St., New 
York, N. Y. (50). D 
♦Williams, Benezette, 153 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. (33). 1887. D 

Williams, Charles B., North Carolina Dept. of Agric, Raleigh, 

N. C. (47). 
♦Williams, Charles H., M. D., 1069 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 
(22). 1874. 
Williams, Mrs. Chauncey P., 284 State St., Albany, N. Y. (52). 
Williams, Charles S., z66 Montgomery St., Newburgh, N. Y. (50). I 
♦Williams, Prof. Bdw. H., Jr., Andover, Mass. (25). 1894. E 


"* Williams, Francis H.» M. D., 505 Deacon St., Boston, Mass. (29>. 
Williams, Frank Blair^ Ph. D., Assistant. Professor Civil Engineer- 
ing. Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. (53). D 
Williams, Frank H,, Greene, N. Y. (50). D 

Williams, Harvey Ladew, P. O. Box 410, Bristol, Tenn. (53). E 
^Williams, Prof. Henry Shaler« Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. (18). 1 88a. E F 
Williams, Ira Abraham, 77 W.I a 4th St., New York, N.Y. (5a). DE 
Williams, J. C, aai Orchard St., Ridgeway, Pa. (51). E 
Williams, Jacob Lafayette, M. D., 4 Walnut St., Boston, Mass. 

(51). K 
♦Williams, Dr. J. Whitridge, Professor of Obstetrics, Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore, Md. (50). 1901. F K 
Williams, Leonard Worcester, Brown University, Providence, 

R. I. (52). 
Williams, Miss Mabel Clare, Iowa City, Iowa. (52). H 
Williams, Stephen Riggs, Professor of Biology, Miami University, 

Oxford, Ohio. (50). F 
Williamson, Edward Bruce, Bluffton, Ind. (50). F 
Williamson, G. N., 14 Dey St., New York, N. Y. (49). 
Williamson, Homer D., 133 W. loth Ave., Columbus, Ohio. (51). K 
Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton, xo6o W. Jefferson St., Los Angeles, 

Cal. (44). F 
*Willis, Bailey, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (36). 

1890. E 
Willis, Bernard Darwin, care Stromberg-Carlson Telephone 

Mfg. Co., 70-86 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. (5a). 
Williston, Arthur L., Director Dept. Science and Technology, 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. (51). D 
* Williston, Dr. Samuel W., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (5 1) . 

190a. F K 
"^Willoughby, Charles C, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (45). 

1897. H 
Wills, Dr. Albert P., Instructor in Mechanics, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, N. Y. (53). A B 
Wills, Joseph Lainson, F. C. S., Chief of Laboratories, National 

Brewers' Academy, 133 Midwood St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (50). 

B G F 
WiLMARTH, Mrs. Hbnrit D., 51 Eliot St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. 


Wilmore, J. J., Director, Mechanical Department, Ala. Poly- 
technic Institute, Auburn, Ala. (51). D 

Wilson, Miss Alisan, The Lenox, Washington, D. C. (5a). H 

Wilson, Prof. Andrew G., Hebron, Neb. (43). E 



Wilson, Charles Branch, State Normal School, Westfield, Mas3. 

(52). F 
Wilson, Delonza Tate, Assistant Professor, of Mathematics and 

Astronomy, Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland. Ohio. 

(53). A 
♦Wilson, E. B., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (49). 

Wilson, Predk. Morse, M. D., 834 Myrtle Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 

(51). K 
♦Willson, Prof. Frederick N., Princeton. N. J. (33). 18S7. A D 
♦Wilson, Henry Van Peters, Professor of Biology, University of 

North Carolina, Chapel Hill, .N. C. (50). 1901. F 
Wilson, John C, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. (49). I 
Willson, Mortimer, M. D., Port Huron, Mich. (50). A F 
Wilson, Robert Lee, M. D., Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Marine Hos- 
pital Service, Box 274, Honolulu, T. H. (50). K 
♦Willson, Robert W., Cambridge, Mass. (30). 1890. A B 
Wilson, Mrs. Thomas, 1218 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Washington, 

D. C. (52). H 
Wilson, William Hyatt, Prof, of Mathematics, Univ. of Wooster, 

Wooster, Ohio. (50). A 
♦Wilson, Prof. William Powell, Philadelphia Commercial Museum, 

233 S. 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (38). 1889. G 
♦Winchell, Alexander Newton, Professor of Geology and Miner- 
alogy, State School of Mines, Butte, Mont. (50). 1903. E 
♦Winchell, Horace V., Butte, Montana. (34). 1S90. € E 
♦Winchell, Prof. N. H., Minneapolis, Minn. (19). 1874. E H 
Windesheim, Gustave, M. D., 255 Main St., Kenosha, Wis. (51). K 
Windsor, Sarah Sweet, M. D., 138 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

U7). F H 
Wingate, Miss Hannah S.. 23 W. 129th St., New York, N. Y. (31). 
E I 
♦Winslow, Charles Edward Amory, Instructor in Biology, Mass. 

Inst. Tech., Boston, Mass. (51). 1903. F K 
Winter, Mahlon A., 339 Penna. Ave., Washington, D. C. (52). 

D E I K 
♦Winterhalter, A. G., Lt. Com. U. S. N., Navy Yard, Portsmouth, 

N. H. (37). 1893. A 

Wiseman, Carl Marshall, Optician, 301 W. Chestnut St., Louis- 
ville, Ky. (S3). 
♦Withers, W. A., Professor of Chemistry, North Carolina College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, West Raleigh, N. C. (33). 
189X. G 

Witherspoon, Thomas A., Patent Office, Dept. of Interior, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (52). C 



Witmer, Lightner, Ph. D., Asst. Prof. Psychology, Univ. of 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (46). H 
Witte, Max Ernest, M. D., Superintendent of Clarinda State 

Hospital, Clarinda, Ta. (si)- K 
^Witthaus, Dr. R. A., Cornell Medical College, xst Ave. and 28th 

St., New York, N. Y. (35). 1890. 
Wolf, August S., Examiners' Room, Equitable Life Assurance 

Society, 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Wolfe, Elmer Ellsworth, Ph. D., Principal of the Academy. 

Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio. (51). B C Q 
W61fel, Paul, Chief Engineer, American Bridge Co., N.W. Cor. 

15th and Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
♦Wolff, Frank A., Jr., Ph. D., Bureau of Standards. U. S. Dept.of 

Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. (47)* 1900. B 
* Wolff, Dr. John E., University Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (36). 

1894. E 
♦Woll, Fritz Wilhelm, 424 Charter St., Madison, Wis. (42). 1897. ^ 
Wolverton, Byron C, Engineer, N. Y. & Pa. Telephone and 

Telegraph Co., P. O. Box 43. Elmira, N. Y. (50). 
Wood, Arthur J., Professor Mechanical and Electrical Engineerings 

Delaware College, Newark, Del. (51). D 
Wood, Mrs. Cynthia A., 117 W. 58th St., New York, N. Y. (43). 
Wood, Miss Elvira, 1425 Welling Place, Washington, D. C. (47). 
Wood, Matthew P., Consulting Engineer and Mechanical Expert, 

234 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. (51). D 
♦Wood, Robert Williams, Professor of Experimental Physics, 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. (46). 1900. B 
Wood. Stuart, 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 
♦Wood, Thomas D., M. D., Prof, of Physical Education, Teachers* 

College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (51)- 1902. K 
Wood, Walter, 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). F I 
Woodberry, Miss Rosa Louise, Teacher of Natural Science, Lucy 

Cobb Institute, Athens, Ga. (51). B C 
Woodbridge, Frederick J. E., Professor of Philosophy, Columbia 

University, New York, N. Y. (52). 
Woodbridge, Tyler Reed, C. E., care The Taylor and Brunton 

Sampling Co., Victor, Colo. (50). 
♦Woodbury, C. J. H., Amer. Telephone and Telegraph Co.. 125 

Milk St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1884. D 
Woodbury, Frank, M. D., 218 South i6th St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. (52). K 
Woodhull, Alfred A., M. D., Colonel. U. S. A., Retired, 46 Bayard 

Lane, Princeton, N. J. (51). K 
♦Woodhull, John Francis, Teachers' College, Momingside Heights^ 

New York. N. Y. (43). 1899. 


Woodhull. Gen. Maxwell Van Zandt, U. S. A., 2033 G St., N.W., 
Washington, D. C. ($2). 
♦Woodman, Durand, Ph. D., 127 Pearl St., New York, N. Y. (41). 
Woodruff, Lorande Loss, Assistant in Biology, Williams College, 
Willi amstown, Mass. (s^). F 
♦Woods, Albert F., U. S. Dept. Agric, Washington, D. C. (43). 
1897. 6 
Woods, Carl Fred, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (53). 
♦Woods, Charles D., Professor of Agriculture, University of Maine, 

Orono, Maine. (50). 1901. 6 
♦Woods, Fred. A., M. D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
(si). 1902. K 
Woods, John A., 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (49). 
Woodward, Anthony, Ph. D., Amer. Mus. Nat. History, Central 
Park, New York. N. Y. (49). 
♦Woodward, Prof. Calvin M., Washington University, St. Louis. 

Mo. (3a). 1884. A D I 
♦Woodward, R. S., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (33). 
1885. ABO 
Woodward, Samuel B., M. D., $S Pearl St., Worcester, Mass. 

(51). K 
Woodward, William Carpenter, E. E., 5 Charles Field St., Provi- 
dence, R. L (50). C D 
Wood worth, C. W., Asst. Professor of Entomology, University of 

California, Berkeley, Cal. (50). F 
Woodworth, George Keen, Asst. Examiner Electrical Division, 
U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (50). D 
♦Woodworth, R. S., Ph. D., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

(49). 1901. H K 
♦Woodworth, William McMichael, Ph. D., 149 Brattle St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. (44). 1898. F 
Wooten, J. S., M. D., Austin, Texas. (51). K 
♦Worcester, Dean C, U. S. Philippine Commission, Manila, P. I. 

(46). 1903. F H 
♦Wright, Albert A., Professor of Geology and Zoology, Oberlin 

College, Oberlin, Ohio. (24). 1880. E F 
♦Wright, Prof. Arthur W., Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

(14). 1874. A B 
♦Wright, Carroll D., LL.D., Dept. of Labor, Washington, D. C. 
(41). 1894. I 
Wright, Cary, Superintendent Highland Valley Power Co., Box 

654, Boise City, Idaho. (51). D 
Wright, Rev. Clement Blake Bergin, Ph. D., 796 Astor St., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. (50). H 



Wriglit, Fred. Eugene, Ph. D., Instructor in Petrography, Mich. 
Col. Mines, Houghton, Mich. (52). E 
♦Wright, Prof. Geo. Frederick, Drawer C, Oberlin, Ohio. (29). 1882. 

E H 
•Wright, John S., Eli Lily & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. (4a). 1899. 

Wright, Jonathan, M. D., 73 Remsen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (43). 

Wright, Walter Livingston, Jr., Professor of Mathematics, Lin- 
coln University, Pa. (50). A 

Wrinch, Frank Sidney, Ph. D., Instructor in Experimental Psy- 
chology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Cal. (52). H K 

Wuensch, Alfred F., 1220 Corona St., Denver, Colo. (50). C E 

WuNDBRLiCH, Frbdbrick W., M. D., 165 Remsen St., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. (45). 
WUrtele, John Hunter, Acton Vale, P. Q., Canada. (48). 
♦WUrtele, Rev. Louis C, Acton Vale, P. Q., Canada. (11). 1875. ^ 
Wurts, Alexander Jay, Manager Nemst Lamp Co., 1164 Shady 

Ave., Pittsburg. Pa. (50). D 
♦Wyeth, John A., M. D., 19 W. 3Sth St., New York, N. Y. (51). 

1903. K 
Wylie, Robert Bradford, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. (53). C 
♦Wyman, Walter, M. D., Surgeon-General, Public Health and 

Marine Hospital Service, Washington, D. C. (51). 1903. K 
Yanney, Benjamin F., Prof. Mathematics and Astronomy, Mt. 

Union College, Alliance, Ohio. (51). A 
♦Yarrow, Dr. H. C, 814 17th St. N.W., Washington, D. C. (23). 

Yates, J. A., Professor of Natural Science, Ottawa University, 

Ottawa, Kan. (50). B C Q 
Yeates, William Smith, State Geologist, Atlanta, Ga. (50). C E 
Yerkes, Robert Mearns, Instructor in Comparative Psychology, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (52). K 
York, Lewis Edwin, Supt. Public Schools, Barnesville, Ohio. 

(50). I 
Youmans, Vincent J., 175 Elm Place, Mount Vernon, N. Y. (43). 
♦Young, A. V. E., Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. (33). 

1886. B C 
♦Young, C. A., Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. (18). 1874. 

A B D 
Young, Clinton Mason, Hiram, Ohio. (51). K 
Young, Hugh Hampton, M. D., 1005 N. Charles St., Baltimore, 

Md. (S3). 
Young, Rev. S. Edward, 2512 Perrysville Ave., Allegheny, Pa. 

(51). E 



* Young, Stewart Woodford, Asst. Professor of Chemistry, Stan- 
ford University, Cal. (50). 1901. C 
Young, Walter Douglas, E. E., B. & O. R.R. Co., 309 Oakdale 

Road, Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. (51). D 
Zahm, George, Instructor in Law Department, Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. (53). I 
♦Zalinski. E. L., U. S. A., Century Club. 7 W. 43d St., New York, 
N. Y. (36). 1891. D 
Zeigler. J. L.. M. D.. Mount Joy, Pa. (52). C Q K 
Zeleny, Charles, Hull Zoological Laboratory, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. (53). F 
♦Zeleny, John, Associate Professor of Physics, University of 

Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (50). 1901. B 
♦Ziwet, Alexander, 644 S. Ingalls St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (38). 1S90. 
Zuber, Wm. H., Principal, Greensburg Seminary, Greensburg, Pa. 
(52). B C 




[Holding membership under the provisions of Article 3 of the 
California, The University of. Library, Berkeley, Gal. (52). 
Cincinnati, Public Library of, Cincinnati, Ohio. (53). 
Manchester Institute of Arts and Sciences, Manchester. N. H. 

Marietta College Library, Marietta, Ohio. (51). 
Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Michigan. (53). 
Mt. Carmel Scientific Society, Mt. Carmel, 111. (50). 
Nebraska, The University of, Library, Lincoln, Neb. (51). 
N. P. Cobum Library, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Philadelphia, The Free Library of, 12 17-133 1 Chestnut St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 

P. M. Musser Public Library, Muscatine, Iowa. (51). 

Pratt Institute Free Library, Ryerson St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (52). 

St. Olaf Library, Northfield, Minn. (52). 

Wilmington Institute Free Library, Wilmington, Del. (52). 


Surviving Founders, 3 ; Patrons, 2 ; Honorary Fellows, 3 ; Fellows, 
1255; Members, 2864; Total, 4127. 

NoTB. — The omission of an address in the foregoing list indicates that letter* mailed to 
that last printed were returned a^ uncalled for. Information of the present address of tiic 
members so indicated is requested by the Pbrmanxnt Sbckrtary. 




[Corrected to April i, 1904.] 



Dunstan, A. St. C, Polytechnic Institute. 
Miller, Emerson R., Polytechnic Institute. 
Ross, Bennett Battle, Polytechnic Institute. 
Southall, James P. C, Polytechnic Institute. 
Wilcox, Edwin M., Polytechnic Institute. 
Wilmore, J. J., Polytechnic Institute. 

Carson, Shelby Chad wick. 


Shaffner, Samuel C, care Electric Lighting Company. 


DuBose, P. G., 915 Alabama Street. 
Kirkpatrick, Samuel. 

Buchner, Edward F. 

McCalley, Henry. 

Smith, Eugene Allen. 


Slipher, V. M., Lowell Observatory. 

Collins, T. Shields. 

Blau velt, ' Harrington. 


Cannon, W. A., Desert Botanical Laboratory. 

Forbes, Robert H. 

Thomber, John J., Agric. Exper. Station. 


Hendrix College Library. 


Johnson, W. Smythe, University of Arkansas. 
Muckenfuss, A. M., University of Arkansas. 


Pickel, Prank Welbom, University of Arkansas. 
Purdue, Albert Homer, University of Arkansas. 
Rose, Lewis H., University of Arkansas. 
Walker, Ernest, University of Arkansas. 

Fort Smith. 

Molitor, Frederic A. 



Bancroft, Frank Watts, University of California. 
Blake, Edwin Mortimer, 1910 Addison Street. 
Blasdale, Walter Charles, University of California. 
Booth, Edward, University of California. 
Esterly, Calvin O., University of California. 
Hilgard, E. W., University of California. 
Jaffa, Meyer Edward. 

Kofoid, Charles Atwood, University of California. 
Kroeber, A. L., University of California. 
Lawson, Andrew C, University of California. 
Lewis, E. Percival, University of California. 
Loughridge, R. H., University of California. 
Merriam, John C, University of California. 
Miller, Loye Holmes, University of California. 
Moore, Ernest Carroll, University of California. 
Morgan, Wm. Conger, University of California. 
Ritter, William Emerson, University of California. 
Smith, William Sidney Tangier. 
Stingham, Irving, University of California. 
Torrey, Harry Beal, University of California. 
Woodworth, C. W., University of California. 
Wrinch, Frank Sidney, University of California. 

Brackett, Frank P., Pomona College. 

Echo Mountain. 
Larkin, Edgar L., Lowe Observatory. 

Hollister, John James. 

Browning, Charles C. 

Chisholm, A. Arthur. 



Brown, Austin H., Jr. 

Los Anoblbs. 

Baumgardt, B. R.. 626 W. 30th St. 

Comstock, Theo. B., 534 Stinson Building. 

Dozier, Melville, State Normal School. 

Ellis, H. Bert, 243-345 Bradbury Bldg 

Hooker, John D., 325 West Adams Street. 

Hoose, James H., University of Southern California. 

Knight, Wm. H., 2 Bryson Block. 

Powell, Thomas, 315-217 Laughlin Building. 

Shepherd, Frank I., University Station. 

Stearns, Robert E. C, 1035 East x8th Street. 

Taber, G. M., 508 Laughlin Building. 

Warrington, James N., 171 1 South Hope Street. 

Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton, 1060 West Jefferson Street. 

Marb Island. 
See, T. J. J., Observatory. 

Muir, John. 

Mt. Hamilton. 

Aitken, Robert G., Lick Observatory. 
Albrecht, Sebastian, Lick Observatory. 
Campbell, William Wallace, Lick Observatory. 
Perrine, C. D., Lick Observatory. 
Tucker, Richard Hawley, Lick Observatory. 

Mountain Vibw. 
Ehrhom, Edw. M. 


Shinn, Charles Howard. 

LeConte, Louis Julian, P. O. Box 483. 

Kimball, Edwin Boyce. 

Palo Alto. 
Nott, Charles Palmer, P. O. Box 381. 


Arnold, Delos, Olcott Place. 
Bridge, Norman, 100 Grand Avenue. 
Claypole, Miss Edith J., 50 S. Grand Ave. 
P^nyes, Adalbert, P. O. Box 30. 



Johnson, John Benjamin, 708 Bast Colorado Street. 

McBride, Jas. H. 

Mattison, Fitch C. E., Stowell Building. 

Point Rbybs Light. 
Thiessen, Alfred Henry. 

Sacrambnto. ' 

Briggs, Wallace A., 1005 K Street. 
Cranston, Robert E., 36 Physicians Building. 
Lichthardt, G., Jr., 1800 M Street. 

San Dibgo. 
Carpenter, Ford A., United States Weather Bureau.' 

San Francisco. 

Amweg, Frederic James, 218-222 Rialto Building. 

Anderson, Winslow, 1095 Sutter Street. 

Barkan, Adolph, Mutual Savings Bank Building. 

Bishop, James Hall, 2309 Washington Street. 

Bishop, Mrs. Josephine Hall, 2309 Washington Street. 

Blum, Sanford, 1243 Franklin Street. 

Brown, Philip K., 161 2 Van Ness Avenue. 

Davidson, George, 2221 Washington Street. 

Eastwood, Miss Alice, Academy of Sciences. 

Grossman, Edward L., 41 3 J Kearny Street. 

Herzstein, M., 801 Sutter Street. 

Hirschfelder, Jos. Oakland, 1392 Geary Street. 

Hood, William, 512 Van Ness Avenue. 

Jones, Philip Mills, 17x0 A Stockton Street. 

Kelley, Walter S., 1393 Golden Gate Avenue. 

Lachman, Arthtir, 1909 Eddy Street. 

Lee, Francis Valentine T., 69-75 New Montgomery Street. 

Lengfeld, Felix, 202 Stockton Street. 

Louderback, George D., 122a Geary Street. 

Manson, Marsden, 20x0 Gough Street. 

Molcra, E. J., 606 Clay Street. 

Moody, Mrs. Agnes Claypole, 125 Belvedere Street. 

Moody, Robert O., Hearst Anatomical Laboratory. 

Moser, Jefferson F., Ferry Station. 

Stevenson, Robert, P. O. Box 2214. 

Taylor, Alonzo Englebert, 1809 Broadway. 

Vining, E. P., 49 Second Street. 

von Hoffmann, Charles, 1014 Sutter Street. 


OftOGtlAPttiCAL DidtftlfiUtlON — COLO. 

San Jose. 

Carey, Everett P., High School. 

Hall, J. Underwood, 45 Jirorth ist Street. 

Pierce, Newton B. 
Oothout, William. 
Burbank, Luther. 
Steinwand, O. W. 

Santa Ana. 

Santa Barbara. 

Santa Rosa. 

Stanford Univbrsity. 

Branner, John C. 

Campbell, Douglas H. 

Carlson, Anton Julius. 

Dudley, William R. 

Polsom, David M. 

Gilman, Charles £. 

Jenkins, Oliver Peebles. 

Jordan, David Starr. 

Kellogg, Vernon Lyman. 

Miller, George A. 

Mitchell, John P. 

Newsom, John F. 

Peirce, George James. 

Sanford, Fernando. 

Slonaker, J. Rollin. 

Starks, Edwin Chapin. 

Stearns, H. D. ' 

Storey, Thomas Andrew. 

Still man, John M. 

Wilbur, Ray Lyman. 

Young, Stewart Woodford. 


Tuohy, John. 

Townley, Sidney Dean, International Latitude Observatory. 


Thayer, Harry Stanley, The Montana. 




Annear. John Brothers, 1028 Regent Street. 
Baker, James H., University of Colorado. 
Duane, William, University of Colorado. 
George, Russell D., University of Colorado. 
Henderson, Junius, University of Colorado. 
Patton, Arthur L.. State Preparatory School. 
Ramaley, Francis, University of Colorado. 

Colorado Springs. 

Anderson, James Thomas, 1421 Wood Avenue. 

Cajori, Florian, Colorado College. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.. Cobum Library. 

Cragin, Francis Whittemore, 17 15 Wood Avenue. 

Evans-Car rington, Edward. 227 E. Cucharras Street. 

Gardiner, Charles Fox, 818 N. Cascade Avenue. 

Hawkins, J. Dawson. 

Hayes, Joel Addison. 

Hoagland, Henry Williamson, 327 N. Nevada Avenue. 

Loud, Frank H. 

McAllister, Henry, Jr., 512 Mining Exchange Building. 

N. P. Cobum Library, Colorado College. 

Pastorius, Charles Sharpless, care of Van Briggle Pottery Co. 

Shedd, John C. 

Sturgis, Wm. C, 28 E. Columbia Street. 

Cripplb Crbbk. 
Moore, Charles James, P. O. Box 548. 

Alexander, George E., 1736 Champa Street. 
Bell, George, a 00 S. Washington Avenue. 
BoUes, Newton A., 1457-59 Ogden Street. 
Brunton, David W., 865 Grant Avenue. 
Bullene, Mrs. Emma F. Jay, 143 1 Court Place. 
Cannon, George Lyman, High School No. i. 
Camahan, Charles T., Equitable Building. 
Carpenter, Franklin R., 1420 Josephine Street. 
Chase. John, 414-415 Kittredge Building. 
Clcrc, Frank L., Hotel Metropole. 
Comstock, Charles Worthington, 76 Grant Avenue. 
Elder, E. Waite, High School No. i. 
Ferril, William C, 2123 Downing Avenue. 
Garvin, John B., High School No. i. 
Gauss, Robert, care Denver Republican, 



Hallack, H. Tuthill, Alcott Station. 

Hays, Charles I., care North Side High School. 

Hensel, Samuel T., 80 1 East Colfax Avenue. 

Holmes, A. M., Jackson Block. 

Keim, Edward Tudor, 142 1 Champa Street. 

Kepner, Harry V., Manual Training High School. 

Kinney, Julius Eugene, 1437 Stout Street. 

Lender, Mrs. Jtdia A., a 201 Lincoln Avenue. 

Leonard, Percy A., P. O. Box 364' 

Ling, Charles Joseph, Manual Training High School. 

Mahin, John W., 1411 i6th Street. 

Miles, Mrs. Cornelia, 1544 Pranldin Street. 

Peabody, Mrs. Lucy E., 1430 Corona Street. 

Peck, W. A., 1643 Champa Street. 

Sessinghaus, Gustavus, 1360 Columbine Street. 

Skinner, James Dudley, 823 East X4th Avenue. 

Snedaker, James A., 850 Equitable Building. 

Spence, Harold C. 

Steams, Thomas B., 1720 California Street. 

Traylor, Miss Mary C, 653 South Grant Avenue. 

Vaile, Joel P., 420 Equitable Building. 

Walter, Rudolph J., 1452 Blake Street. 

Wantland, C. E., 1025 17th Street. 

Whitted, Thomas B., General Electric Company. 

Wuensch, Alfred F., 1220 Corona Street. 

Fort Collins. 

Aylesworth, Barton O., Agricidtural College, 
Carpenter, Louis G., Agricultural College. 
Danielson, A. H., Agrictdtural College. 
Davis, Charles F. 

Gillette, C. P., Agricultural College. 
Griffith, C. J., Agricultural College. 
Lawrence, James W., Agrictdtural College. 
Paddock, Wendell, Agricultural College. 
Stump, James A., Agrictdtural College. 
Trimble, Robert E., Agrictdtural College. 


Alderson, Victor C, Colorado School of Mines. 
Patton, Horace B., Colorado School of Mines. 
Traphagen, Frank W., Colorado School of Mines. 

Abbott, Frank L., State Normal School. 


dEOC^RAf>ritCAL DISTRlBUtldhf — COLO. — CONN. 

Beardsley, Arthur E., State Normal School. 
Snyder, Zachariah X., State Normal School. 

Troth, Alonzo P. 

Blakeslee, Olin S. ' 


Holbrook, Henry R. 

Palmer, Irving A., Eiler's Plant, A. S. & R. Co. 

Adams, Orr J. 

Lay, Henry Champlin. • 

Parker, Charles V. * 

University Park. 

Engle, Wilber D., University of Denver. N 

Howe, Herbert Alonzo, University of Denver. '» 

Russell, Herbert Edwin, University of Denver. 
Warren, Henry W. 

Finch, John Wellington. 
Woodbridge, Tyler Reed, The Taylor and Brunton Sampling Co. 



Brittin, Lewis H. 
Grower, Geo. G. 


Godfrey, Charles C, 753 Lafayette Street. 

Lovett, Miss Mary, 293 Golden Hill. '^ 

Pratt, Alexander, Jr., 26 Brunnell Street. 

Wilson, Frederick Morse, 834 Myrtle Avenue. 

Sears, Edward H. 

Hallock, Prank Klirkwood. 

Daribn. , . . 

Brett, George P. 


geographical distribution — conn. 


Beach, Charles Coffingp 54 Woodland Street. 

Bond, George M., 141 Washington Street. 

Edwards, Charles Lincoln, Trinity College. 

Genthe, Karl W., Trinity College. 

Goodwin, James, 76 Garden Street. 

Greene, Jacob L., Office Mutual Life Insurance Company. 

Howard, Charles P., 116 Farmington Avenue. 

Hyde, Clement C, 41 Willard Street. 

Pease, Miss Clara A., Public High School. 

Perkins, Arthur, 14 State Street. 

Riggs, Robert Baird, Trinity College. 

St. John, Howell W., P. O. Box 913. 

Strong, Frederick G., Box 959. 

Veeder, Curtis Hussey, 40 Willard Street. 

Bissell, Leslie Dayton, Hotchkiss School. 

Peck, Frederic W. 


Hitchcock, Caroline Judson, High School. 
Pettie, J. T. 


Atwater, W. O., Wesleyan University. 

Bradley, Walter Parke, Wesleyan Universif 

Cady, Walter G., Wesleyan University. 

Crawford, Morris B. 

Hart, Samuel, Berkeley Divinity School. 

Rice, W. North, Wesleyan University. 

Van Vleck, John M., Wesleyan University. 

Wilcox, Miss Emily T. 

New Haven. 

Anderson, William G., Yale Gymnasium. 

Arnold, Ernst Hermann, 46 York Square. 

Baker. Hugh P., Yale Forest School. 

Baldwin, Simeon E. 

Barrel!, Joseph, 105 Bishop Street. 

Bauder, Arthur Russell, Boardman High School. 

Bishop, L. B., 356 Orange Street. 

Brewer, William H., 418 Orange Street. 

Brown, Mrs. Robert, Observatory Place. 



Brown, Robert, Yale University Observatory. 

Browning, Philip Embury, Yale University. 

Brush, George J., Yale University. 

Chase. Frederick L., Yale University Observatory. 

Chittenden, Russell H., Yale University. 

Churchill, William. Yale University. 

Dana, Edward Salisbury. 

Du Bois, Aug. J. 

Dudley, S. W., 333 York Street. 

Duncan, George M., Yale University. 

Elkin, William L., Yale University Observatory. 

Evans, Alexander W., la High Street, 

Fisher. Irving, 460 Prospect Street. 

Gooch, Frank A., Yale University. 

Granville, William Anthony, Yale University. 

Gregory, Herbert E., Yale University. 

Harrison, Judge Lynde, 52 Hillhouse Avenue. 

Hastings, C. S., Yale University. 

Hotchkiss, Henry Stuart, 55 Hillhouse Avenue. 

Hurst, Julius H., 269 Canner Street. 

Jenkins, Edward H., Agricultural Station. 

Judd, Charles H., Yale University. 

Kindle, Edward M., 109 Elm Street. 

Lang, Henry R., Yale University. 

Lockwood, Edwin H., Yale University. 

MacCurdy, George Grant, 237 Church Street. 

Marble, Milton M., Hillhouse High School. 

McAllister, Cloyd N., Yale University. 

Moody, Mrs. Mary B., Fair Haven Heights. 

Penfield, S. L., Yale University. 

Phillips, Andrew W., 209 York Street. 

Richards, Charles B., 237 Edwards Street. 

Scripture, E. W., Yale University. 

Skinner, Clarence Edward, 67 Grove Street. 

Sneath, E. Hershey, Yale University. 

Talbot, Miss Mignon, 134 Howe Street. 

Verrill, Addison E., 86 Whalley Avenue. 

Washington, Charles Milnor, The Graduate Club. 

Wheeler, Henry Lord, Yale University. 

Williams, Henry Shaler, Yale University. 

Wright, Arthur W., Yale University. 

Zahm, George, Yale University. 

Stoeckel, Carl. 


obooraphical distribution — del. 

Sa^e, John H. 

South Norfolk. 
Hall, Asaph. 

South Norwalk. 
Hill, Ebeneser, Norwalk Iron Works. 

Emery, Albert H. 
Emery, Albert Hamilton, Jr., 31a Main Street. 

Rodman, Charles S. 
Thompson, Hugh L. 
White, LeRoy S., 19 Buckingham Avenue. 

Wbst Cornwall. 
Gold, Theodore S. 

Wbst Havbn. 
Nason, Frank L. 

Ruland, Frederick D. 


Fox, Charles James, Lock Box A. 

Heath, Harry E., The Eddy Electric Mfg. Co. 



DvL Pont, Francis G. 


Brown, Harold W., Delaware College. 
Wood, Arthur J., Delaware College. 


Brown, Glenn V., 130a Jefferson Street. 
Canby, William M., zioi Delaware Avenue. 
Leisen, Theodore Alfred. 
Puscy, Charles W., The Pusey & Jones Co. 
Reese, Charles L., 1020 Jackson Street. 





Abbe, Cleveland, Weather Bureau. 

Abbe, Cleveland, Jr., U. S. Geological Survey. 

Abbe, Truman, 2017 I Street, N.W. 

Abbott, Charles G., Smithsonian Institution. 

Ailes, Milton E., Riggs National Bank. 

Allderdice, William H., Navy Department. 

Allen, Edwin W., Department of Agriculture. 

Allen. P. I.. Patent Office. 

Allen, H. Jerome, 421 H Street, N.E. 

Alsop, E. B., 1502 20th Street N.W. ; 

Alvord, Henry E., Department of Agriculture. 

Arnold, Ralph, Geological Survey. 

Ashmead, William H., National Museum. 

Austin, Oscar P., Bureau of Statistics. 

Ayres, Horace B., Geological Survey. 

Bailey, Vernon, Department of Agriculture. 

Baker, Frank, 1728 Columbia Road. 

Balch, Alfred William, Navy Department. 

Baldwin, Wm. D., 25 Grant Place. 

Ball, Carleton R., Department of Agriculture. 

Bamum, Miss Charlotte C, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Bartsch, Paul, National Museum. 

Bates, Henrv H., The Portland. 

Bauer, Louis A., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Beal, Walter H., Department of Agriculture. 

Beaman, George Herbert, 2232 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

Bebb, Edward C, Geological Survey. 

Becker, George F., Geological Survey. 

Bell, Alex. Graham, 1331 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Bell, Alexander Melville, 1525 3Sth Street. 

Benjamin, Marcus, National Museum. 

Benton, John R., 132 A Street N.E. 

Bermann, I., The Plaza. 

Bessey, Ernst A., Department of Agriculture. 

Bigelow, Frank H., Weather Bureau. 

Bigelow, W. D., Department of Agriculture. \ 

Blount, Henry Fitch, "The Oaks." 

Bolce, Harold, The Franconia. *, 

Boutwell, John Mason, Geological Survey. 

Bradford, Royal B., Navy Department. 

Briggs, Lyman J., Department of Agriculture. 

Bright, Richard R., Navy Department. 



B redhead, Mark, 1733 19th Street, N.W. 

Brooks, Alfred Hulse, Geological Survey. 

Brown, Clement, 1440 M Street, N.W. 

Brown, Edgar, Department of Agriculture. 

Brown, Ellis W., 924 24th Street, N.W. 

Browne, Aldis B., 141 9 F Street, N.W. 

Bryan, Joseph H., 818 17th Street, N.W. 

Butterfield, Elmore E., Columbian University. 

Cameron, P. K., Department of Agriculture. 

Campbell, Marius R., Geological Survey. 

Carr. William Kearney, 1413 K Street, N.W. 

Carr, William Phillips, 141 8 L Street, N.W. 

Carroll, James, 2147 F Street, N.W. 

Carleton, M. A., Department of Agriculture. 

Chamberlain, Frederic M., Bureau of Fisheries. 

Chapman, Robert Hollister, Geological Survey. 

Chester, Colby M., Naval Observatory. 

Chickering, J. W., '*The Portncr." 

Chittenden, Frank Hurl but. Department of Agriculture. 

Clapp, Frederick G., Geological Survey. 

Clark, James Albert, "The Cumberland." 

Clarke, F. W., Geological Survey. 

Claudy, C. H.. 1302 F Street. 

Clifton, Richard S., Department of Agriculture. 

Collier, Arthur James, Geological Survey. 

Collins, Guy N., Department of Agriculture. 

Cook, Orator P., Department of Agrictdture. 

Coquillett, D. W., National Museum. 

Corbett, L. C, Department of Agriculture. 

Coville, Frederick V., Department of Agriculture. 

Crampton, Charles A., Treasury Department. 

Crandall, Francis A., 2219 15th Street, N.W. 

Crosby, Oscar Terry, Cosmos Club. 

Crowell, John Franklin, Bureau of Statistics. 

Crozier, Wm., Ordnance Office, War Department. 

Curtis, William E., Post Building. 

Cushman, AUerton, Department of Agriculture. 

Dall, William H., Smithsonian Institution. 

Darton, Nelson Healey, Geological Survey. 

Daugherty, Jerome, Georgetown University. 

Davis, C. H., Navy Department. 

Dean, Edward B., Hotel Gordon. 

Dew^ey, Lyster H., Department of Agriculture. 

Diller, J. S., U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dodge, Charles Richards, 1336 Vermont Avenue, N.W, 



Dow, Allan W., District Building. 

Droop, Edward F., 1455 Bacon Street. 

Duvel, Joseph W. T., Department of Agriculture. 

Dyar, Harrison G., National Museum. 

Eckel, Edwin C, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Edwards, Clarence R., War Department. 

Eichelberger, William Snyder, Naval Observatory. 

Eimbeck, William, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Ely, Charles R., 5 Kendall Green. 

Emmons, S. F., Geological Survey. 

Emory, Frederick, State Department. 

Evans, Henry B., 3009 Cambridge Place. 

Evans, Walter H., Department of Agriculture. 

Evermann, Barton W., Bureau of Fisheries. 

Fairchild, David Grandison, Department of Agriculture. 

Fargis, Geo. A., Georgetown University. 

Farquhar, Henry, Census Office. 

Fesscnden, Reginald A., 8th and Water Streets. S.W. 

Fewkcs, J. Walter, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Fireman, Peter, Cosmos Club. 

Fischer, Louis Albert, Bureau of Standards. 

Fisher, Robert Jones, 614 F Street, N.W. 

Fletcher, Robert, Army Medical Museum. 

Flint, James M., "Stoneleigh Court." 

Forwood. William H., 1425 Euclid Place, N.W. 

Frederick, Charles Wamock, Naval Observatory. 

French, Owen B., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Frisby, Edgar, Naval Observatory. 

Fuller, Melville W., 1801 F Street, N.W. 

Fuller, Myron L., Geological Survey. 

Gaff. Thomas T.. 1738 M Street. 

Galloway, B. T., Department of Agriculture. 

Garriott, Edward B., Weather Bureau. 

Gilbert, G. K., Geological Survey. 

Gill, Theodore N., Cosmos Club. 

Girty, George H., Geological Survey. 

Glover, Charles C, 1703 K Street, N.W. 

Gould, H. P., 1219 13th Street, N.W. 

Graham, Andrew B., 1230 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Green, Bernard Richardson, 1738 N Street, N.W. 

Griffiths, David, Department of Agriculture. 

Grosvenor. Gilbert H., Corcoran Building. 

Guthe, Karl E., Bureau of Standards. 

(2 10) 


Hague, Arnold, Geological Survey. 

Hamilton, William, Bureau of Education. 

Harbaugh, Miss Joanna, iioo M Street. 

Harris, RoUin Arthiir, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Hartley, Charles P., Department of Agriculture. 

Harvie, Miss Lelia J., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Haupt, Herman. "The Concord." 

Hay, William P., Howard University. 

Hayes, C. Willard, Geological Survey. 

Hayford, John F., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Hazard, Daniel L., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Heaton, Augustus G., z6i8 17th Street, N.W. 

Hedrick, Henry B., Naval Observatory. 

Henry, Alfred J., Weather Bureau. 

Herron, William H., Geological Survey. 

Hesse, Conrad £., Weather Bureau. 

Hill, Edwin A., U. S. Patent Office. 

Hill, George A., Naval Observatory. 

Hill, Robert Thomas, Geological Survey. 

Hillebrand, William F., Geological Survey. 

Hillyer, William Eldridge, 1365 Whitney Avenue, N.W. 

Hitchcock, Albert Spear, Department of Agriculture. 

Hitchcock, Frank H.. Department of Commerce and Labor. 

Hitz, John, 1601-3 Thirty-fifth Street. 

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Smithsonian Institution. 

Hodgkins, H. L., Columbian University. 

Hodgkins, William C, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Hogan, Mrs. Louise E., Box 205. 

Holmes, Wm. H., National Museum. 

Holt, H. P. R., Cosmos Club. 

Hopkins, A. D., Department of Agriculture. 

Hopkins, N. Monroe, Columbian University. 

Hough, Walter, National Museum. 

Howard, Leland O., Cosmos Club. 

Howard, Mrs. Leland O., 2026 Hillyer Place, N.W. 

Howe, Ernest, Geological Survey. 

Howell, Edwin E., 612 17th Street, N.W. 

Hrdlicka, Al^s, M. D., National Museum. 

Hume, Frank, 454 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Hunter, Walter D., Department of Agriculture. 

Hutcheson, David, Library of Congress. 

Hyde, Miss Edith E., National Museum. 

Hyde, John, Department of Agriculture. 

James, Mrs. Sarah S., 15 17 O Street, S.E. 

Kearney, Thomas H., Department of Agriculture. 



Kendall, William C, Bureau of Fisheries. 

Kern, Josiah Quincy, 1825 F Street. 1 

Kimball, S. I., Treasury Department. 

King, A. F. A., 1315 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

King, F. H., 205 9th Street, S.W. 

King, Theo. Ingalls, Naval Observatory. 

Kinslcr, John H., Department of Agriculture. 

Kirk, Hyland C, 211 6th Street, N.E. 

Knapp, Martin A., Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Kober, George Martin, 1600 T Street, N.W. 

LaFlesche, Francis, 314 ist Street, S.£. 

Lamb, Daniel S., 800 loth Street, N.W. 

Langley, S. P., Smithsonian Institution. 

Lawrence, J. P. S., Navy Department. 

Laws, Samuel S., 1733 Q Street, N.W. 

Lee, Willis T., Geological Survey. 

Leiter, L. Z., Dupont Circle. 

Lindenkohl, Adolphus, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Lindenkohl, Henry, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, Geological Survey. 

Littell, Frank B., Naval Observatory. 

Littlehales, G. W., Hydrographic Office. 

Lloyd, Morton G., Bureau of Standards. 

Lucas, Anthony F., 1406 i6th Street, N.W. 

Luebkert, Otto, Colorado Building. 

McBride, George W., P. O. Box 173. 

McGee, Anita Newcomb, 190 1 Baltimore Street. 

McGuire, Joseph D., 1834 i6th Street. 

McKenney, Randolph Evans Bender, Department of Agriculture. 

McLanahan, George William, 1601 21st Street, N.W. 

McLaughlin, Thomas N., 1226 N Street, N.W. 

Magill. Arthur E., Hotel Stratford. 

Mann, B. Pickman, 19 18 Sunderland Place. 

Manning, Miss Eva, 1330 Columbia Road. 

Marlatt, Charles L., Department of Agriculture. 

Martin, Artemas, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Marvin, C. F., Weather Bureau. 

Mason, Otis T., National Museum. 

Matthes, Francois E., Geological Survey. 

Matthews, Washington, 1262 New Hampshire Avenue. 

Maxon, William R., National Museum. 

Maynard, George C, 1407 15th Street. 

Maynard, Washburn, Treasury Department. 

Mead, Elwood, Department of Agriculture. 




Mendenhall, Walter C, Geological Survey. 

Merriam, C. Hart, Department of Agrictdture. 

Miller. Frederick A., 2201 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Miller, Gerrit S., National Museum. 

Mitchell. Guy E., 1419 F Street N.W. 

Momsen, Hart, Census Office. 

Moore, George T. , Department of Agriculture. 

Moore, Willis L., Weather Bureau. 

Morris, Edward L., Washington High School. 

Morton, George L., Room 322, Patent Office. 

Mosman, Alonzo T., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Motter, Murray Gait, 181 5 Belmont Avenue. 

Muncaster, Stewart Brown, 907 Sixteenth Street, N.W. 

Munroe, C. E., Columbian University. 

Murray- Aaron,' Eugene, Lanier Heights. 

Newcomb, S., 1620 P Street, N.W. 

Newell, F. H., Geological Survey. 

Norton, J. B., Department of Agriculture. 

Noyes, Isaac Pitman, 409 4th Street, S.E. 

Nutting, Perley G., Bureau of Standards. 

Oberholser, Harry Church, Department of Agriculture. 

Ogden, Herbert G., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Orton, W. A., Department of Agriculture. 

Osgood, Wilfred H., Department of Agriculture. 

Owen, Frederick D., No. 3 Grant Place. 

Page, Logan Waller. Department of Agriculture. 

Palmer, Edward, Department of Agriculture. 

Parker, Edward W., Geological Survey. 

Parsons, Francis H., 210 ist Street, S.E. 

Patrick, George E., Department of Agriculture. 

Patten, Miss Juliet, 2212 R Street, N.W. 

Patterson, Mrs. Flora Wambaugh, Department of Agriculture. 

Paul, Henry M., 2015 Xalorama Avenue. 

Perkins, Edmund T., Geological Survey. 

Perkins, Frank W., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Pierce, Perry Benjamin, Patent Office. 

Pilling, J. W., 130 1 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

Pillsbury, J.E., Navy Department. 

Pinchot, Gifford, Department of Agriculture. 

Pinchot, J. W., 1615 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W. 

Piper, Charles V., Department of Agriculture. 

Powers, LeGrand, 3007 13th Street, N.W. 

Prentiss, Daniel Webster, 131 5 M Street, N.W. 

Price, Thomas Malcolm, Department of Agriculture. 

Quaintance, A. L., Department of Agriculture. 



Rand, C. F., laaS 15th Street, N.W. 

Ransome, Frederick L., Geological Survey. ' 

Rathbun, Miss Mary J., Smithsonian Institution. 

Rathbun, Richard, Smithsonian Institution. 

Reber, Samuel, War Department. 

Richardson, Charles Williamson, xxoa L Street, N.W. 

Richardson, Miss Harriet, Smithsonian Institution. 

Ricker, Percy Leroy, Department of Agriculture. 

Roberts, Wm. F., 730 15th Street. 

Robins, William Littleton, 1700 13th Street, N.W. 

Rorer, James B., Department of Agriculture. 

Rosa, Edward B., Bureau of Standards. 

Rose, Joseph N., National Museum. 

Rosenau, Milton J., Public Health and Marine Hospital Service. 

Roth, Filibert, Department of Agriculture. 

Rothermel, John J., Eastern High School. 

Ruffin, Sterling, 1023 Vermont Avenue. 

Rutter, Frank Roy, Department of Agriculture. 

SaegmuUer, G. N., 132 Maryland Avenue. S.W. 

Salmon, Daniel E., Department of Agriculture. 

Saunders, Wm. H., 1407 F Street, N.W. 

Schaller, Waldemar T., Geological Survey. 

Schmeckebier, Laurence Frederick, Geological Survey. 

Schmitt, Ewald, 311 Florida Avenue, N.W. 

Schuchert, Charles, National Museum. 

Schwarz, E. A., Department of Agrictdture. 

Scoficld, Carl S., Department of Agriculture. 

Scott, W. M., Department of Agriculture. 

Seaman, W. H., 1424 zzth Street, N.W. 

Shamel, Archibald D., 1227 Princeton Street, N.W. 

Shear, Cornelius L., Department of Agriculture. 

Shibley, George H., 53 Bliss Building. 

Shidy, Leland P., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Shute, D. K., 1 1 01 13th Street, N.W. 

Sigsbee, Charles D., Navy Department. 

Simpson, John Crayke, Government Hospital for Insane. 

Sinclair, Cephas Hampstone, Coast and Geodetic Survev. 

Skinner, Aaron Nichols, Naval Observatory. 

Smillie, Thomas W., National Museum. 

Smith, Erwin F., Department of Agrictdture. 

Smith, George Otis, Geological Survey. 

Smith. Hugh M., Bureau of Fisheries. ' 

Smith, Middleton, 16 19 19th Street, N.W. 

Snow, Charles Carleton, 1739 9th Street, N.W. 


Spear, Ellis, 1601 Laurel Avenue, Mt. Pleasant. 1 

Spencer, Arthur Coe, Geological Survey. 

Spencer, J. W., 1718 21st Street, N.W. 

Spillman, William Jasper, Department of Agriculture. 

Sprigg, William Mercer, 1015 i6th Street, N.W. 

Stanton, Timothy W., Geological Survey. 

Steiger, George, Geological Survey. 

Stejneger, Leonhard, National Museum. 

Sternberg, George M., War Department. 

Stetson, George R., 1441 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

Stevenson, Mrs. Matilda C, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Stiles, Charles Wardell, Public Health and Marine Hospital Service. 

Stokes, Henry Newlin, Bureau of Standards. 

Stone, Alfred H., 200 A Street, S.E. 

Stone, Isaac S., 16 18 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W. 

Stose, George W., Geological Survey. 

Stratton, Samuel W.. Bureau of Standards. 

Swingle, Walter T., Department of Agriculture. 

Tainter. Charles Sumner, 1405 G Street, N.W. 

Talbott, Mrs. Laura Osborne, The Lenox, 1523 L Street N.W. 

Tanner, Zera L., The Cairo. 

Taylor, Henry W., Box 483, House of Representatives. 

Taylor, William Alton, Department of Agriculture. 

Thayer, Rufus H., 930 F Street, N.W. 

Thompson, Almon Harris, 1729 12th Street, N.W. 

Thompson, James David, Library of Congress. 

Tiffany, Lyman, 1705 Connecticut Avenue. 

Tittmann, Otto H., Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Titus, E. S. G., Department of Agriculture. 

Townsend, Charles O., Department of Agriculture. 

True, A. C, Department of Agriculture. 

True, Fred. W., National Museum. 

True, Rodney H., Department of Agriculture. 

Truesdell, George, Room 22, Wyatt Building. 

Vaughn, T. Wayland, Geological Survey. 

Veatch, Arthur Gifford, Geological Survey. 

Vinal, W. Irving, 11 06 East Capitol Street. 

Wadsworth, Herbert, 1801 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 

Waidner, Charles W., Bureau of Standards. 

Waite, M. B., Department of Agriculture. 

Walcott, Charles D., Geological Survey. 

Walpole, Frederick A., Department of Agriculture. 

Walsh, Thomas F., Le Roy and Phelps Place. 

Ward, Lester P., Geological Survey. 


&ltOORAt>RlCAL bldTHlBtJtlOK — D. C. — PLA. 

Warder, Robert B., Howard University. 

Wead, Charles K., Patent Office. 

Webber, Herbert J., Department of Agricidturc. 

Weed, W. H., Geological Survey. 

Wendling, George R., Cosmos Club. 

Wheeler, Charles Fay, Department of Agriculture. 

Whelpley, James D., 14 17 G Street,. N.W. 

White, David, Geological Survey. 

White, Mrs. Mary Bell, 161 5 New Hampshire Avenue. 

White, Oscar W., 1116 F Street. N.W. 

Whittemore, Williams C, 1526 New Hampshire Avenue. 

Wilcox, Mrs. Aaron M., The Arlington. 

Wiley, Harvey W., Department of Agriculture. 

Wilkins, Miss Lewanna, Eastern High School. 

Willis, Bailey, Geological Survey. 

Wilson, Miss Alisan, The Lenox. 

Wilson, John C, Cosmos Club. 

Wilson, Mrs. Thomas, 1218 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 

Winter, Mahlon A., 339 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

With^rspoon, Thomas A., Department of Interior. 

Wolff, Frank A., Jr., Bureau of Standards. 

Wood, Miss Elvira, 1425 Wellington Place. 

WoodhuU, Maxwell Van Zandt, 2033 G Street. 

Woods, Albert F., Department of Agriculture. 

Wood worth, George Keen, Patent Office. 

Wright, Carroll D., Department of Commerce and Labor. 

Wyman, Walter, Public Health and Marine Hospital Service. 

Yarrow, H. C, 814 17th Street, N.W. 


Db Land. 

Baerecke, John F., Stetson University. 
Osborne, Frank Russell, Stetson University. 

Carnegie, Thomas Morrison, Dungeness. 

Grken Cove Springs. 
Herty, Charles H. 


Hammatt, Clarence S., Florida Electric Co. 
Souvielle, Mathieu, Box 355. 
Souvielle, Mrs. Mathieu, Box 355. 



Kby Wb8T. 
Vogdes, A. W. 

La KB City. 
Gossard, Harry Arthur, Florida Agrictiltural College. 


Rolfs, P. H. 

St. Auoustinb. 
McLain, Louis Randolph, Florida Engineering Co. 

Bierly, H. £., State Seminary. 

Wbst Palm Bbach. 
Potter, Richard B. 



Patterson, Andrew H., University of Georgia. 
Snelling, Charles Mercer, University of Georgia. 
White, H. C, University of Georgia. 
Woodberry, Miss Rosa Louise, Lucy Cobb Institute. 


Black, Homer V., Georgia School of Technology. 
Du Bois, William E. B., Atlanta University. 
Ford, Arthur H., Georgia School of Technology. 
Furlow, Floyd Charles, Georgia School of Technology. 
Walker, R. M., 713 Prudential Building. 
Webster, Edgar H., Atlanta University. 
Yeates, W. S. 


Lyle, David A., Augusta Arsenal. 
Martin, Wm. L. 

Granger, Arthur O. 
Avis, Edward S. 
Steiner, Roland. 





McHatton, Henry. 

Sellers, James Freeman, Mercer University. 


geographical distribution — hawaii — idaho — ill. 

Duncan, Fred. N., Emory College. 


Nunn, R. J.. 5 East York Street. 

Wesson, David, care Southern Cotton Oil Co. 



Smith, Jared G., Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Van Dine, Delos Lewis, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Wilson, Robert Lee, Box 974. 



Wiley, Andrew J., Boise- Payette River Electric Power Co. 
Wright, Cary, Box 654. 

Galloway, David Henry. 


Brown, George P. 

Guthne, William E. 

Hartzell, J. Ctilver, Illinois Wesleyan University. 

Knapp, Alfred A. 

Robertson, Charles. 

Berry, Daniel. 


Davenport, Eugene, University of Illinois. 
Folsom, Justus Watson, University of Illinois. 
Gleason, H. Allan, John Street. 
Kemp, George T., University of Illinois. 
Shattuck, Samuel Walker, University of Illinois. 


Caldwell, Otis W., State Normal School. 

Haukinson, Thomas L., State Normal School. 

Taylor, Edson Homer, Eastern Illinois State Normal School, 

geographical distribution — ill. 


Allen, Miss Jessie Blount, University of Chicago. 

Anderson, Alexander P., American Cereal Co., Monadnock Building. 

Andrews, Walker C, John Crerar Library. 

Arnold, Bion J., 4198 Prairie Avenue. 

Ayer, Edward Everett, 915 Old Colony Btiilding. 

Barnes, Charles Reid, University of Chicago. 

Bamhart, Arthur M., 185 Monroe Street. 

Bement, A., 218 La Salle Street. 

Bethea, Solomon Hix, Chicago Club. 

Brill, George M., Z134 Marquette Building. 

Cams, Paul, 324 Dearborn Street. 

Chamberlain, Charles Joseph, University of Chicago. 

Chamberlain, Patil M., Lewis Institute. 

Chamberlin, Rollin T., Hyde Park Hotel. 

Chamberlin, T. C. Hyde Park Hotel. 

Chanute, O., 413 East Huron Street. 

Child, Charles Manning, University of Chicago. 

Clark. Howard Walton, Field Columbian Museum. 

Cloud, John W., 974 The Rookery. 

Copeland, Edw. B., 653 East 57th Street. 

Coulter, John M., University of Chicago. 

Craig, Wallace, University of Chicago. 

Davenport, Charles Benedict, University of Chicago. 

Davis, Bradley Moore, University of Chicago. 

Davis, Charles Gilbert, 31 Washington Street. 

Davis, Nathan Smith, 65 Randolph Street. 

Davis, N. S., Jr., 991 Huron Street. 

Delano, Frederic A., 909 Adams Street. 

Dixson, Zella A., University of Chicago. 

Dorsey, George A., Field Columbian Museum. 

Doubt, Thomas Eaton, 693 East 57th Street. 

Eycleshymer, Albert C, University of Chicago. 

Fischer, Charles E. M., 259 S. Clinton Street. 

Foote, Allen R., 625 Home Insurance Building. 

Fuller, Charles Gordon, Reliance Building. 

Gunsattlus, Frank W., Armour Institute. 

Hall, Winfield Scott, 2431 Dearborn Street. 

Harper, Wm. R., University of Chicago. 

Harvey, Nathan Albert, 613 West 67th Street, Englewood. 

Head, W. R., 5467 Jefferson Avenue. 

Hefferan, Miss Mary, University of Chicago. 

Hektoen, Ludwig, University of Chicago. 

Henius, Max, 294 So. Water Street. 

Holferty, George M., University of Chicago. 



Hopkins, Anderson H., John Crerar Library. 

Howerth, Ira Woods, University of Chicago. 

Howland, Howard N., ii6 South 52d Avenue. 

Iddings, Joseph P., University of Chicago. 

Johnson, Frank Seward, 2521 Prairie Avenue. 

Jordan, Edwin Oakes, University of Chicago. 

Kinsley, Carl, Quadrangle Club. 

Klebs, Arnold C, 100 State Street. 

Land, William Jesse Goad, Department Botany, Univ. Chicago. 

Latham, Vida A., 808 Morse Avenue, Rogers Park. 

Lillie, Frank R., University of Chicago. 

Linder, Oliver A., 35 Clark Street. 

Logan, F. G., 2919 Prairie Avenue. 

Long, John H., 2421 Dearborn Street. 

Lutz, Frank Eugene, University of Chicago. 

Lyman, James, 1047 Monadnock Building. 

Mc Arthur, Lewis L., 100 State Street. 

McKeown, W. W., Jr., 160 Washington Street. 

Maxwell, George H., 1702 Fisher Building. 

Merriman, C. C, 19 10 Surf Street. 

Michelson, A. A., University of Chicago. 

Mohr, Louis, 32 Illinois Street. 

Moore, Eliakim H., University of Chicago. 

Moyer, Harold N., 103 State Street. 

Moulton, Forest Ray, University of Chicago. 

Myers, Geo. W., 61 19 Monroe Avenue. 

Nef, J. U., University of Chicago. 

Neiler, Samuel Graham, 1409 Manhattan Building. 

Nichols, Fred. R., Manual Training High School. 

Otis, Spencer, 903 Plymouth Fisher Building. 

Owen, Charles Lorin, Field Columbian Museum. 

Parker, Miss Florence, 10340 Longwood Avenue. 

Pettersen, C. A., 2395 Lowell Avenue. 

Plapp, Frederick William, 2549 No. 42d Ave., Irving Park Sta. 

Pond, Raymond H., Northwestern University Building, 87 Lake 

Porter, Fred. B., 491 1 Champlain Avenue. 
Praeger, William Emilius, University of Chicago. 
Salisbury, R. D., University of Chicago. 
Schobinger, John J., sioz Indiana Avenue. 
Seymour, Paul Henry, 215 East 6ist Street. 
ShuU, George Harrison. University of Chicago. 
Skiff, F. J. v., Field Columbian Museum. 
Smallwood, Miss Mabel Elizabeth, 430 West Adams Street. 
Smith, Alexander, University of Chicago. 



Smith, James Hervey, 217 North Central Avenue. 

Smith, Warren Rufus, Lewis Institute. 

Starr. Frederick, University of Chicago. 

Stevenson, Francis L.. Electrical Engineer, Deering Division, In- 
ternational Harvester Co.. 79 Lincoln Avenue. 

Stieglitz, Julius, University of Chicago. 

Stillhamer, Arthur G., 5809 Jackson Avenue. 

Strong, Reuben Myron. University of Chicago. 

Strong, Wendell M., Tribune Building. 

Wainwright, Jacob T., P. O. Box 774. 

Walker, George C, Room 367, Rookery Building. 

Ward, Henry A., 6ao Division Street. 

Wheeler, C. Gilbert. 214 State Street. 

Whittelsey. Theodore, Northwestern University School of Phar- 

Whitman, Charles O., University of Chicago. 

Wilcox, Guy Maurice. Armour institute. 

Willett, James R., 434 West Jackson Boulevard. 

Williams, Benezette, 153 La Salle Street. 

Willis, Bernard Darwin, 70-86 West Jackson Boulevard. 

Williston, Samuel W., University of Chicago. 

Wylie, Robert Bradford, University of Chicago. 

Zeleny, Charles, University of Chicago. 

Galloway, Thomas W., James Milliken University. 

Db Kalb. 
Charles, Fred. L. 

Garrison, Harriet E., 105 E. Second Street. 


At well, Charles B., Northwestern University. 
Basquin, Olin H., Northwestern University. 
Brayton, Sarah H., *'The Hereford." 
Crew, Henry, Northwestern University. 
Crook, Alja Robinson, Northwestern University. 
Eccles, David C. Northwestern University. 
Fisk, Herbert F., Northwestern University. 
Grant, U. S., Northwestern University. 
Hough, G. W., Northwestern University. 
Murray, Chas. R., 1207 Maple Avenue. 
Porter, Albert B.. 1232 Forest Avenue. 
Voung, A. V. E., Northwestern University. 


0b06raprical distribution — ill. 


Griffith, Herbert Eugene, Knox College. 
Longden, A. C, Knox College. ^ 

Neal, Herbert V., Knox College. 
Sprague, Robert James, Knox College. 

Greenville. ! 

Mojonnier, Timothy. 

Highland Park. 
Grover, Edwin Osgood. 


Hairgrove, John Whitlock. 

Overton, James Bertram, Illinois College. * 

Pitner, Thomas J., Illinois College. » ' 

Tingle, J. Bishop, Illinois College. 


Stanislas, Sister M., St. Francis Academy. 


NefT, Isaac E., High School. 

La Grangb. 
Hoskins, William. 

Lake Forest. 

McKec, Ralph Harper, Lake Forest University. 
McNeill, Malcolm, Lake Forest University. 
Needham, James G., Lake Forest University. 
Stevens, Frederick W., Lake Forest University* 
Turck, Fen ton B., 362 Dearborn Avenue. 


Oglevee, Christopher S., Lincoln College. 

Roberts, H. L., Western Illinois State Normal School. 


Little, Henry P., Union Schools. 

Bowlus, E. Lingan, Monmouth College. 

Morgan Park. 
Schobinger, John J. 


geographical distribution — tf.l. 

Mt. Carmbl. 
Mt. Carxnel Scientific Society. 

/ Oak Park. 

Maxwell, Fred. B. 

Palmbr. * 

Simpson, Jesse P. 

Sedgwick, Howard M., 512 Woolner Building. 


Montgomery, Edmund B., 1461 Vermont Street. 

River Forest. 
Atkins, Martin D., 269 Forest Avenue. 


Lichty, Daniel, Masonic Temple. 

Rock Island. 
Lusk, James L., U. S. Engineer's Office. 

Clements, George E.. 628 East Capitol Avenue. 

Andrews, William Edward, 700 South Clay Street. 

Upper Alton. 
McNeil, Hiram Colver, Shurtleff College. 


Bevier, Miss Isabel, University of Illinois. 
Burrill, Thomas J., University of Illinois. 
Crandall, Charles S., 805 Goodwin Avenue. 
Dexter, E. G., University of Illinois. 
Grindley, Harry Sands, University of Illinois. 
Hart, Charles A., University of Illinois. 
Knab. Frederick, University of Illinois. 
Knipp, Charles. Tobias, 506 West Illinois Street. 
Miner, James B., University of Illinois. 
Palmer, Arthur William, 804 West Green Street. 
Peters, Amos W., University of Illinois. 
Ricker, N. Clifford, University of Illinois. 
Rietz, Henry Lewis, University of Illinois. 



Sager, Fred. Anson, University of Illinois. 
Smith, Frank, University of Illinois. 
Talbot, Arthur N., University of Illinois. 
Webster, F. M.. 806 W. Springfield Avenue. 

Pyle, William Henry. 


Harwell, John William. 
Carter, James Madison G. 

Leonard, John W. 
Russell, John B., Superintendent of Schools. 


Sharpe, Richard W. 



Aley, Robert J., University of Indiana. 
Andrews, Frank Marion, University of Indiana. 
Banta, Arthur M., University of Indiana. 
Beede, Joshua W., University of Indiana. 
Bergstr6m, John Andrew, University of Indiana. 
Bryan, William L., University of Indiana. 
Cumings, Edgar R., University of Indiana. 
Eigenmann, Carl H., University of Indiana. 
Foley, Arthur Lee, University of Indiana. 
Lyons, Robert E., University of Indiana. 
Marsters, Vernon, University of Indiana. 
Miller, John A., University of Indiana. 
Moenkhaus, Wm. J., University of Indiana. 
Mottier, David M., University of Indiana. 
Ramsey, Rolla Roy, 615 East Third Street. 
Weatherly, Ulysses Grant, University of Indiana. 

Williamson, Edward Bruce. 


Bodine, Donaldson, Wabash College. 

Emery, Wm. O. 

Garner, James Bert, Wabash College. 

Kent, Norton A., Wabash College. 

Olive, Edgar W. 

Thomas, M. B. 



Evans, Samuel G., 2x1 Main Street. 

Fort Waynb. 

Kuhnc, F. W., 19 Court Street. 

Ladd, George Tallman. care Bass Foundry and Machine Co. 

Porter, Miles F., 207 W. Wayne Street. 

Siemon, Rudolf, 22 East Jefferson Street. 

Taylor, Frank B., 3Q1 Fairfield Avenue. 

Taylor, Robert S., Box 2019. 

Owen, D. A. 

Cook, Melville T., De Pauw University. 

Ward, Louis Clinton. 


Bell, Guido, 431 East Ohio Street. 
Bruner, Henry Lane, Butler College. 
Butler, A. W., Board of State Charities. 
Dunning, Lehman H., 224 North Meridian Street. 
Hadley, Artemus N., Box 313. 
Sterne, Albert E., **Norways.*' 
Thompson, J. L., 20 West Ohio Street. 
Wright, John S., Eli Lilly and Company. 


Arthur, J. C, Purdue University. 

Golden, Miss Katherine E., Purdue University. 

Goss, William F. M. 

Green, Arthur L., Purdue University. 

Jones, Arthur Taber, Purdue University. 

Marquis, J. Clyde. 

Meigs, Miss Emily. 

Snyder, Miss Lillian. 

Waldo, Clarence A., Purdue University. 

MooRB*s Hill. 
Bigney, Andrew J., Moore's Hill College. 

New Albany. 

Greene, G. K., 127 West Market Street. 
Harris, Robert Wayne, 621 Vincennes Street. 


geographical distribution — ind. — iowa. 

Headlee, T. J. 

Dennis, David Worth, Earlham College. 
Lindley, Ernest H., University of Indiana. 
Sackett, Robert L., Earlham College. 

Watson, Joseph Ralph, Rochester Normal University. 

Tbrrb Haute. 

Dryer, Charles R., State Normal School. 

Gray, Thomas. 

Johonnott, Edwin Sheldon, Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

McBeth, William A., State Normal School. 

Mees, Carl Leo, Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

Patterson, A. M., Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

Wagner, Frank C, Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

Weems, Mason Locke, Valparaiso College. 



Harper, R. H. 

Bond, R. I. 



Burroughs, Paul L. 


Beyer, Samuel W., Agricultural College. 
Bissell, G. W., Iowa State College. 
Guthrie, Joseph E., Iowa State College. 
Lanphear, Burton S., Iowa State College. 
Pammel, L. H., Agricultural College. 
Spinney, L. B., Agricultural College. 
Summers, Henry E., Argicultural College. 
Weems, J. B., Agricultural College. 

Cratty, R. I, 


geographical distribution — iowa. 


Ricker, Maurice, High School. 
Scherf, C. Harry, 114 Marietta Street. 

Cedar Rapids. 
Fraeker, George C, Coe College. 

Witte, Max Ernest, Clarinda State Hospital. 

FarnsT\orth, Philo J. 


Putnam, Miss Elizabeth D. 
Putnam, Henry St. Clair. 

Des Moines. 

Grabill, H. P., 1004 Enas Avenue. 
Higgins, Lafayette, West D. M. High School. 
Kinney, Charles Noyes, Drake University. 
Savage, Thomas E., Iowa Geological Survey. 
Still, Geo. A., 1716 N. 9th Street. 


Herrmann, Richard, Institute Science and Arts. 
Keane, Rt. Rev. John J. 
Ruete, Otto M., 721 Bluflf Street. 

Anderson, Frank P. 


Fitzpatrick, Thomas J. 


Clarke, James Frederick. 

Gable, George D., Parsons College. 

McGec, D. W. 
McGee, Miss Emma R., Box 197. 

Fort Dodge. 
Oleson, Olaf M. 

Dean, Seth. 


geographical distribution iowa. 


Fink, Prof. Bruce, Iowa College. 
Hill. Bruce V. 

Grundy Crktbr. 
McAlvin, J. G. 

Iowa City. 
Calvin, Samuel. 
Hobby, C. M. 

Houser, Gilbert L., University. 
Macbride, Thomas H. 
MacLean, George E., State University. 
Nutting, Charles C, University. 
Rockwood, Elbert W., University. 
Seashore. Carl E., University. 
Shimek, Bohumil, State University. 
Shrader, John Clinton, State Board of Health. 
Smith, Arthur George, University. 
Teeters, Wilbur John, University. 
Veblen, Andrew A., University. 
Weld, Laenas Gifford, State University. 
Williams, Miss Mabel Clare. 

Tilton, John Littlefield, Simpson College. 

Meigs, Montgomery, Office of D. M. R. Canal. 

Mason City. 
Craig, Moses. Memorial University. 

Mt. Pleasant. 
Edwards, John W., Iowa Wesley an University, 

Mt. Vernon. 

Collin, Alonzo, Cornell College, 
loms, Martin J. 

Stein, Simon G. 

Lufkin, Albert. 


Meek. Walter J., Penn College. 


gbographical distribution — iowa — kans. 

Sioux City. 
Jepson, Wm. 
Stauffer, Thomas P., 200 nth Street. 

Storm Lakb. 
Voris, Floyd Thomas, Buena Vista College. 

Jungblut, Herman C. 

Luckey, John Eddy. 

McCoy, Ludnius S. 


KneiT, EUsworth B., Midland College, 

Pratt, Charles W. 

Pyle, Miss Effie B. 

HaU, Pred. C, Jr; 

I den, Thomas M., State Normal School. 

Hoffman, Christian B. 


Rissmann, Otto, Cherokee-Lanyon Spelter Company. 
Terrell, Arthur Davis, 624 East Madison Street. 

Kansas City. 
Brooks, Albert A., High School. 


Ashton, Charles Hamilton, University of Kansas. 
Bailey, E. H. S., University of Kansas. 
Bartow, Edward, University of Kansas. 
Blackmar, Prank W., University of Kansas. 
Cady, Hamilton Perkins, University of Kansas 



Diemer, Hugo, University of Kansas. 
Dyche, Lewis Lindsay, University of Kansas. 
Franklin, Edward Curtis, University of Kansas. 
Hunter, Samuel John, University of Kansas. 
Marvin, Frank O., University of Kansas. 
McClung, Clarence E., University of Kansas. 
Miller, Ephraim, University of Kansas. 
Newson, Henry Byron, University of Kansas. 
Rice, Martin Everett, University of Kansas. 
Snow, F. H., University of Kansas. 
Sternberg, Charles Hazelius. 
Van der Vrics, John N., University of Kansas. 


Johns, Carl, Bethany College. 
Welin, John E., Bethany College. 

Hamly, Henry Jacob, McPherson College. 


Walters, John Daniel, Kansas State Agricultural College. 
Willard, Julius Terrass, State Experiment Station. 

Ward, Milan L. 
Yates, J. A., Ottawa University. 

Hayes, Noah. 

Smith, E. R. 


Cooper, James Campbell, Room 5, Veale Block. . 
Grimsley, George Perry, Kansas Academy of Scienc.s. 
Menninger, Charles Frederic, 1251 Topeka Avenue. 
Patrick, Frank, 601 Kansas Avenue. 
Smyth, Bernard B., Academy of Science. 
Thompson, Alton H., 721 Kansas Avenue. 


Dunlevy, Robert Baldwin, Kansas State Normal College, 




Bowling Grbbn. 
Crump, M. H. 


Gordon, Clarence McC, Centre College. 
Nelson, A. B., Centre College. 

Atkinson, John B. 

Guthrie, William Alvis. 


Miller, Arthur M., State College. 

Scovell, M. A., Agricultural Experiment Station. 


Cobb, Arthur, 600 Equitable Building. 

de Funiak, Frederick, 204 East Chestnut Street. 

Hubley,*G. Wilbur, Electric Light Company. 

Mark, E. H., Center and Walnut Streets. 

Marvin, Joseph B., Kentucky University. 

Reynolds, Dudley S., 304 W. Chestnut Street. 

Thruston, R. C. Ballard, Ballard and Ballard Company. 

Wiseman, Carl Marshall, 301 W. Chestnut Street. 

Pickett, Thomas E. 

Hogeboom, Miss Ellen C. 


Baton Rouge. 

Coates, Charles E., Louisiana State University. 
Dalrymple, W. H., State University and Agr. and Mech. College. 
Kretz, Charles Henry, State University and Agr. and Mech. College. 
Morgan, H. A., State University. 

Millard, Charles S. 

New Orleans. 

Anderson, Douglas S., Tulane University. 
Ayres, Brown, Tulane University. 



Brice, Albert G., 901 Hennen Building. 

Brown, Linus Weed, 741 Carondelet Street. 

Browne. Charles A.. Jr., Audubon Park. 

Chaill^, Stanford E., Tulane University. 

Cline, Isaac M., Weather Bureau. 

Dixon, Brandt B., Newcomb College. 

Donovan, Cornelius, Custom House. 

Low, Clarence P., Liverpool, London, Globe Building, 

Lion, Leon Elie, loio Burgundy Street. 

Matas, Rudolph, Tulane University. 

Smith, J. C, 131 Carondelet Street. 

Smith, William Benjamin, Tulane University. 

Stubbs, W. C, Audubon Park. 

Venable, Wm., Mayo, 708 Hennen Btiilding. 

Wilkinson, Levi Washington, Tulane University. 


Hichbom, C. S. 


Adams, C. E., 99 West Broadway. 
Coe, Thomas U. 

Hervey, A. B. 


Lee, Leslie A., Bowdoin College. 

Moody, William Albion, Bowdoin College. 

Robinson, Franklin C, Bowdoin College. 

Cumberland Mills. 
Mason, Herbert Warren. 

Chadboum, Erlon R. 

Nylander, Olof O. 

Howe, Freeland, Jr. ;, 


Hart, James S., University of Maine. 
Merrill, Lucius H., University of Maine. 



Munson, Wei ton M., University of Maine. 
Stevens, James S., University of Maine. 
Webb, Howard Scott, University of Maine. 
Woods, Charles D., University of Maine. 


Baxter, James Phinney, Public Library. 
Sweat, Mrs. Margaret J. M., 103 Spring St. 

RuMPORD Palls. 
Mixer, Chas. Adam, Rumford Falls Power Co. 


Farley, Godfrey Pearson, W. W. & F. R.R. Co. 

Yarmouth viLLE. 
Hammond, George W. 


O'Donoghue, Martin. 


Brown, 8. J., United States Naval Academy. 
Updegraff, Milton, U. S. Naval Academy. 

Annapolis Junction. 
Dorsey, N. Ernest. 


Abel, John J., Johns Hopkins University. 

Ashcraft, A. M., P. O. Box 742. 

Bardeen, Charles Russell, Anatomical Lab., Wolfe and Monu< 

ment Streets. 
Barrie, George, Johns Hopkins University. 
Brooks, William Keith, Johns Hopkins University. 
Clark, Miss May, The Woman's College. 
Clarke, WilHam Bullock, Johns Hopkins University. 
Cohen, Mendes, 825 North Charles Street. 
Cushing, Harvey, 3 West Franklin Street. 
Dawson, Percy Millard, Johns Hopkins Medical School. 
Edmonds, Richard H., care "Manufacturer's Record." 
Enders, Howard R., 1007 W. Lafayette Avenue. 
Fassig, Oliver Lanard, Johns Hopkins University. 
Franklin, Mrs. C. Ladd, 516 Park Avenue. 
Freeman, T. J. A., Loyola College. 


Cbographical distribution — MD. 

Friedenwald, Harry, 1029 Madison Street. 

Gates, Fanny Cook, Woman's College. 

Getman, Frederick H., Johns Hopkins University. 

Gilchrist, T. Caspar, 317 No. Charies Street. 

Gilman, Daniel C, Johns Hopkins University. 

Glaser, C, 21 South Gay Street. 

Glenn, William, 1348 Block Street. 

Goucher, John Franklin, The Woman's College. 

Halsted, William Stewart, 1201 Eutaw Place. 

Hebden, Edwin, 730 Colorado Avenue. 

Hemmeter, John C, 1734 Linden Avenue. 

Hooker, Donald R., 1707 Fairmount Avenue. 

Howard, Wm. Lee, 11 26 North Calvert Street. 

Howell, William H., Johns Hopkins University. 

Jacobs, Henry Barton, Johns Hopkins Medical School. 

Jewell, Lewis E., Johns Hopkins University. 

Keilholtz, Pierre Otis, Continental Trust Building. 

Keller, Edward, Box 724. 

Kendall, Arthur L, 106 Jackson Place. 

Knower, Henry McE., Johns Hopkins Medical School. 

Latimer, Thomas S., 211 West Monument Street. 

Lehmann, G. W., City Hall Annex. 

Lehmann, Leslie P., 32 South Street. 

Lemley, C. McC, 17 12 N. Calvert Street. 

Marmor, J. D., 181 2 McCuUoh Street. 

Martin, George C, Johns Hopkins University. 

Metcalf, Maynard M., The Woman's College. 

Miller, Edgar G., 213 East German Street. 

Noyes, Wm. A., Johns Hopkins University. 

Osier, William, Johns Hopkins University. 

Paine, Paul McClary, 422 West Biddle Street. 

Paton, Stewart, 213 West Monument Street. 

Piatt, Walter B., 802 Cathedral Street. 

Pole, Arminius C, 2038 Madison Avenue. 

Reid, Harry Fielding, Johns Hopkins University. 

Remsen, Ira, Johns Hopkins University. 

Shattuck, George Burbank, Johns Hopkins University. 

Simon, William, 1348 Block Street. 

Springsteen, Harry W., Johns Hopkins University. 

Steuart, Arthur, 951 Equitable Building. 

Thayer, W. S., 406 Cathedral Street. J 

Todd, William J., Mt. Washington. 

Uhler, Philip R., 254 West Hoffmann Street. 

W^aters, C. E., Johns Hopkins University. 

Welch, William Henry, 935 St. Paul Street. 



Williams, J. Whitridge, Johns Hopkins University. 
Wood, Robert Williams, Johns Hopkins University. 
Young, Hugh Hampton, 1005 N. Charles Street. 
Young, Walter Douglas, 309 Oakdale Road, Roland Park. 

Schultz, Louis G., Magnetic Observatory. 

Chevy Chase. 
Gordon, Gustavus Ede. 

College Park. 

Blodgett, Frederick H., Agricultural College. 
Lanahan, Henry, Agricultural College. 
McDonnell, Henry B., Agricultural College. 
Norton, J. B. S., Agricultural College. 
Patterson, Harry J., Agricultural College. 
Silvester, Richard W., Agricultural College. 

Gordon, Robert H. 

Hartley, Frank. 

Apple, Joseph H., Woman's College. 

Randolph, Beverly S., Consolidation Coal Company. '^ 

Davis,' Herman S., International Latitude Station. 

Newcomb, H. T. 

Lake Roland. 
Brooks, Charles Edward.'' 

Port Deposit. 
Harris, Abram Wj 


Brooks, William P. 
Emerson, Benjamin K., Box 203. 
Goessmann, C. A., Agricultural College. 
Harris, Elijah P., Amherst College. 
Hopkins, Arthur John, Amherst College. 



Howard, S. Francis, Agricultural College. 

Kimball, Arthur Lalanne, Amherst College. 

Loomis, Frederick B., Amherst College. 

Lull, Richard S. 

Stone, George £., Agricultural College. 

Thompson, Joseph Osgood. 

Todd, David P., Amherst College. 


Brewster, Edwin Tenney, Phillips Academy. 
Graham, James Chandler, Phillips Academy. 
Lansing, John Ernest, Phillips Academy. 
Mason, Nellie M., Abbott Academy. 
Moorehead, Warren K., Phillips Academy. 
WilUams, Edw. H. 

Sheffield, Geo. S. 

Blake, Francis. 




Peirce, Benjamin O., 305 Cabot Street. 
Sears, Henry Francis. 


Abbot, Samuel L., 90 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Adams, Frederic C, Mechanic Arts High School. 

Atkinson, Edward, 31 Milk Street. 

Bangs, Outram, 340 Beacon Street. 

Bartlett, Francis, 40 State Street. 

Barton, George Hunt, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Beach, Henry Harris Aubrey, 28 Commonwealth Avenue. 

Bigelow, Robert Payne, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Blackall, Clarence Howard, i Somerset Street. 

Blake, Clarence J., 326 Marlborough Street. 

Blake, John Bapst, 178 Beacon Street. 

Bowditch, Charles P., 28 State Street. 

Briggs, Edward Cornelius, 129 Marlborough Street. 

Burke, Robert E., Boston Normal School. 

Burrell, Herbert L., 22 Newbury Street. 

Burton, Alfred E., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby Street. 

Cilley, Frank H., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 



Clarke, Miss Cora H., 91 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Clark, John S., zzo Boylston Street. 

Comstock, Daniel F., 102 Huntington Avenue. 

Cooper, Herman Charles, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Crafts, James Mason, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Crosby, W. O., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Cross, Charles R., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Curtis, George C, 64 Crawford Street. 

Davenport, Francis Henry, 419 Boylston Street. 

Dearborn, George Van Ness, Tufts Medical and Dental Schools. 

Dexter, Franklin, Harvard Medical School. 

Dwight, Thomas, Harvard Medical School. 

Field, Geo. W., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Fitz, George W., 483 Beacon Street. 

Fry, Charles, 40 Water Street. 

Gardiner, Edward G., 131 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Gill, Augustus Herman, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Goodale, Joseph Lincoln, 397 Beacon Street. 

Goodwin, Harry M., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Graham, Douglas, 74 Boylston Street. 

Green, Milbrey, 567 Columbus Avenue. 

Greenough, Charles P., 39 Court Street. 

Hardy, Edward R., 31 Allen Street. 

Harriman, George B., 2A Park Street. 

Haynes, Henry W., 239 Beacon Street. 

Hebbard, Ellery Cola, 122 Huntington Avenue. 

Homans, Amy Morris, 97 Huntington Avenue. 

Hosmer, Sidney, 3 Head Place. 

Hough, Theodore, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Hunt, Mrs. Mary H.. 23 Trull Street. 

Jaques. William H., 483 Beacon Street. 

Jeffries, B. Joy, 15 Chestnut Street. 

Jelly, George Frederick, 69 Newbury Street. 

Johnson, Chas. Willison, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Johnson, Miss Isabel Louise, 467 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Kelsey, Harlan Page, 11 50 Tremont Building. 

Kinealy, John H., no8 Pemberton Building. 

Lancaster. Walter B., loi Newbury Street. 

Lanza, Gaetano, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Lawrence, A. E., 53 Devonshire Street. 

Laws, Frank Arthur, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 

Lee, William George, Harvard Medical School. 

Lefavour, Henry> 3 Bremmer Street. 

Lloyd, Andrew J., 308 Newbury Street. 

Lowell, Percival, 53 State Street. 



McQueeney, Francis J., 46 Dartmouth Street. 
Manning, J. Woodward, iioi Tremont Building. 
Mason, Amos Lawrence, 265 Clarendon Street. 
Matthews, Albert, 145 Beacon Street. 
Means, James, 196 Beacon Street. 
Michael, Mrs. Helen Abbott, 140 Beacon Street. 
Minns, Miss S., 14 Louisburg Square. 
Minot, Charles Sedgwick, Harvard Medical School. 
Morse, John Torrey, Jr., i6 Fairfield Street, Back Bay. 
Mullan, W. G. R., Boston College. 

Mulliken, Samuel P., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Munro, John Cummings, Harvard Medical School. 
Murdoch, John, Public Library. 
Myer, Mrs. Mary H., 44 Mt. Vernon Street. 
Naphen, Henry F., Pemberton Building. 
Niles, Wm. H., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Noyes, Arthur A., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Osborne, George Abbott, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
O'SuUivan, Denis T., 761 Harrison Street. 
Paine, Robert Treat, 6 Joy Street. 
Painter, Charles Fairbank, 372 Mulboro Street. 
Palmer, Ezra, 2 Lincoln Hall, Trinity Court. 
Parker, Richard A., 4 Post- Office Square. 
Parker, William L., 312 Dartmouth Street. 
Parks, C. Wellman, Navy Yard. 
Peterson, Sidney, Brighton High School. 
Perry, Thomas S., 312 Marlborough Street. 
Phillips, John C, 299 Berkley Street. 
Porter, W. Townsend, Harvard Medical School. 
Posse, Baroness Rose, Posse Gymnasium, 206 Massachusetts Ave. 
Prescott, Samuel Cate, Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Pritchett, Henry S., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Putnam, Charles P., 63 Marlborough Street. 
Rhodes, James Ford, 392 Beacon Street. 
Richards, Robert H., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Richards, Mrs. Robert H., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Richardson, Mark Wyman, 90 Equitable Building. 
Rogers. Miss Annie Fuller, 126 Newbury Street. 
Rollins, William Herbert, 250 Marlborough Street. 
Rotch, T. M., 197 Commonwealth Avenue. 
Ruddick, Wm. H. 

Sedgwick. William Thompson, Massachusetts Institute Tech- 
Sharpies, Stephen P., 26 Broad Street. 
Shattuck, Frederick C, Harvard Medical School, 



Shaw, Henry Lyman, 19 Commonwealth Avenue. 
Sheldon, Mrs. J. M. Arms, 18 West Cedar Street. 
Shimer, Henry Woodbitm, Mass. Institute of Technology. 
Silver, Elmer E., 221 Columbus Avenue. 
Stoddard, George Howland, 197 Beacon Street. 
Strong, Frederick P., 176 Huntington Avenue. 
Swain, Prof. George Fillmore, Mass. Institute Technology. 
Talbot, Henry P., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Taylor, Edward W., Harvard Medical School. 
Thurber, Charles Herbert, 29 Beacon Street. 
Tracy, Edward A., 353 Broadway. 
Tyler, Harry W., 491 Boylston Street. 

Underwood, William Lyman, Massachusetts Institute Tech- 
Wadsworth, Oliver F., Beacon Street. 
Ware, Miss Mary L., 41 Brimmer Street. 

Warren, Charles H., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Watson, William, 107 Marlborough Street. 
Wells, Frank, 178 Devonshire Street. 

Weysse, Arthur W., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Wheeler, Horace Leslie, Public Library. 
White, Walter Henry, 220 Marlborough Street. 
Whitney, Willis Rodney. Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Williams. Charles H., 1069 Boylston Street. 
Williams, Francis H., 505 Beacon Street. 
Williams, Jacob Lafayette, 4 Walnut Street. 
Windsor, Sarah Sweet, 138 Marlborough Street. 
Winslow, Charles E. A., Massachusetts Institute Technology. 
Woodbury, C. J. H., 125 Milk Street. 
Woods, Fred A., Harvard Medical School. 

Keith, Marcia A. 


Bagg, Rufus M., Jr., High School. 
Bailey, E. P., High School. 


Channing, Walter. 

Estes, Dana. 

Hedge, Frederic H., 440 Boylston Street. 

Manning, Warren H. 

Olmsted, John Charles, 16 Warren Street. 

Packard, John C, 14 Searle Avenue. 

geographical distribution — mass. 


Adams, Comfort A., 13 Parrar Street. 

Allen, Glover Morrill, 68 Perkins Hall. 

Bailey, Solon Irving, Harvard University. 

Benneson, Miss Cora Agnes, 4 Mason Street. 

Black, Newton Henry, 26 Trowbridge Street. 

Blakeslee, Albert Francis, 12 Kirkland Place. 

Bouton, Charles Leonard, Harvard University. , 

Bushnell, D. I., Jr., Peabody Museum. 

Castle. W. E., Harvard University. 

Chandler, Seth C, 16 Craigie Street. 

Clark. Austin Hobart. 68 Perkins Hall. 

Cole, Leon Jacob, 41 Wendell Street. 

Dalrymple, C. H.. 27 Irving Street. 

Davis, Andrew McFarland, 10 Appleton Street. 

Davis, W. M., 17 Francis Avenue. 

Dixon, Roland B., Peabody Museum. 

Duval, Edmund P. R., 67 Oxford Street. 

Eastman, Charles Rochester, Museum Comparative Zoology. 

Farlow, W. G., 24 Quincy Street. 

Fletcher, Miss Alice C, Peabody Museum. 

Goldthwait, James Walter, Harvard University. 

Goodale, George Lincoln, Botanic Gardens. 

Hall, Edwin H., 5 Avon Street. 

Hammond, Mrs. Eliza F.. 1689 Cambridge Street. 

Horseford, Miss Cornelia, 27 Craigie Street. 

Jackson. Charles L., Harvard University. 

Jackson, Robert T., 9 Fayerweather Street. 

James, William, Harvard University. 

Jeffrey, Edward C. 21 Follen Street. 

Kennedy, Frank Lowell, Harvard University. 

Kennelly, Arthur E., Harvard University 

Mark, Edward Laurens, Harvard University. 

Mellen, Edwin D., 1590 Massachusetts Avenue.. 

Munsterberg, Hugo, Harvard University. 

Newell, William Wells. 

Palache, Charles, University Museum. 

Parker, George Howard, Harvard University. 

Pickering, Edward C, Harvard Observatory. 

Plowman, Amon Benton, 24 Shepard Street. 

Putnam, F. W., Peabody Museum. 

Rand, Herbert Wilbur, Harvard University. 

Raymer, George Sharp, Harvard University. 

Richards, Theodore William, Harvard University. 

Riddle, Lincoln Ware, 61 Brattle Street, 



Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, Harvard Herbarium. 
Roever, William Henry, 64 Kirkland Street. 
Ross, Denman Waldo, 24 Craigie Street. 
Sabine. Wallace Clement, 40 Shepard Street. 
Sargent, Dudley Allen, Harvard University. 
Sargent, Porter E., 105 Lexington Avenue. 
Scudder, Samuel H. 

Sharpies, Philip Price, 22 Concord Avenue. 
Smith, Philip Sidney, 23 Felton Hall. 
Smith, Wm. L., 360 Marlborough Street. 
Thaxter, Roland, Harvard University. 
Ward, Robert DeC, Harvard University. 
Watts, William Lawrence, 56 Henry Street. 
White, John Williams, 18 Concord Avenue. 
Whiting, S. B., 11 Ware Street. 
Willoughby, Charles C, Peabody Museum. 
Wilson, Robert W. 
Wolff. John E., University Museum. 
Woodworth, William McMichael, 149 Brattle Street. 
Yerkes, Robert Mearns, Harvard University. 

Lundin, Carl A. R., care Messrs. Alvan Clark and Sons, 

Farwell, Robert Benneson, 53 Monument Avenue. 

Huxley, Henry M., Revere Rubber Co. 


Bigelow, Henry Bryant. 

Smith, Wm. Lincoln. 
Wheeler, William. 


Griswold, Leon Stacy, 238 Boston Street. 
Hyams, Miss Isabel F., 2(5 Wales Street. 
Shurtleff, Eugene, 73 Hancock Street. 

Fall River. 
Jackson, John H., 155 Franklin Street. 

Fitch BURG. 
Kirkpatrick, E, A., State Normal School, 


geographical distribution — mass. 

Flanders, Charles S. 

Lemon. James S., 31 Park Street. 

Garland, Jos. E., 17 Pleasant Street. 

Great Barrington. 
Stanley, William. 

Griswold, Clifford S., Groton School. 

Bliss, Charles B. 


Chase. P. Stuart, 53 Summer Street. 
Nichols, Austin P., 4 Highland Avenue. 


Butts. Edw. P., Am. Writing; Paper Co. 
Mahoney. Stephen A., 206 Maple Street. 


Smith, Miss J. Angelina. 

Holmes, Frederic Harper, State Normal School. 

Hyde Park. 

Gibson, George H., Pcabody Building. 

Perkins, Albert S., 75 Milton Avenue. 

Rotch, A. Lawrence, Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Balch. Francis Noyes. Prince Street. 

Bowditch, Miss Charlotte, Pond Street. 

Bowditch, H. P. 

Dole, Charles Fletcher. 

Edes, Robert Thaxter, 15 Greenough Avenue, 

Jack, John G. 

Kinraid, Thomas Burton, 38 Spring Park Avenue. 

Watson, Benjamin Marston, Bussey Institution. 

Wilmarth, Mrs. Henry D., 51 Eliot Street. 


geographical distribution mass. 


AJden, John, Pacific Mills. 
King, George B. 

Long Meadow. 
Clark, John E., 34 S. Park Terrace. 

Livermore, Mrs. M. A. C, Prescott Street. 


Barker, Mrs. Martha M., 42 nth Street. 
Frothingham, Mrs. Frederick, 152 Pawtucket Street. 
Page, Dudley L., 46 Merrimack Street. 
Page, Mrs. Nellie K., 46 Merrimack Street. 
Parker, Moses Greeley, 11 ist Street. 

Fish. Walter Clark, King's Beach Terrace. 
Watters, William, 26 South Common Street. 


Ayer, James L, 5 Main Street Park. 
Lund. James, 142 Hawthorne Street. 
Sprague, C. H. 
Sullivan, J. A., 308 Main Street. 

Rockwell, Alfred P. 


Jenks, Elisha T. 

Field, W. L. W. 

Huntington, Ellsworth, Highland Street. 
Lesley. J. Peter, P. O. Box 93. 
Upton, George B. 


Ellis, Frederick W. 

Mt. Hbrmon. 
Budington, Robert A. 

New Bedford. 

Allen, Walter S., 34 South 6th Street. 
Brown, Robert Marshall, 35 Eighth Street. 


geographical distributiom — mass. 

Hovey, Horace C, 60 High Street. 

Coffin, Fletcher B. 

Frisbie, J. F. 

Kendrick, Arthur. 

Sawyer, Edward. 

Stone, Lincoln R. 

Warren, S. Edward. 

Pulsifer, Mrs. C. L. B. 
Pulsifer. William H. 


North Abi!«gton. 
Wheatley, Frank W., 47 Adams Street. 

North Andovbr. 

Carter, Henry C, Bradford Street. 
Kittredge. Miss H. A., 56 Prospect Street. 
Watson, Miss C. A., 56 Prospect Street. 

North Easton. 
Ames, Oakes. 


Ham, Miss Clara Eleanor. 
Hart, Miss Mary £. 


Ganong, William F., Smith College. 
Wilder, Harris H., Smith College. 


Ballard, Harlan H., 50 South Street. 

Kelly, John F., 384 West Housatonic Street. 

Kennedy, George Golding. 


Kennedy, Harris, 384 Warren Street. 
Prang, Louis, 45 Centre Street. 
Pritchard, Myron T., 135 School Street. 

Dunham, Henry Bristol, State Sanitorium. 



Morse, £. S. 

Osgood, Joseph B. F.. P. O. Box 212. 

Sargent, Ara Nathaniel, 1x6 Federal Street. 


Slade, Elisha. 


Gulliver, F. P., St. Marks School. 

South Fraicinghaic. 
McPherson, William D., 58 Hartford Street. 

South Hadlby. 

Clapp, Miss Cornelia, Mt. Holyoke College. 
Cowles, Miss Louise F., Mt. Holyoke College. 
Goldthwaite, Miss Nellie Esther, Mt. Holyoke College. 
Hooker, Henrietta E., Mt. Holyoke College. 

South Weymouth. 
Brassill, Sarah Ellen. 

Baker. A. G. 

Balliet, Thomaa M. 

Booth, Miss Mary A., 60 Dartmouth Street. 

Bradley, Milton. 

Calkins, Marshall, 14 Maple Street. 

Dimmock, George, Box 1597. 

Kimball, Albert B., Central High School. 

Lewis, George Smith, 746 State Street. 

Lyford, Edwin P. 

Orr, William, Jr., 30 Firglade Avenue. 

Pinney, Mrs. Augusta Robinson, 350 Central Street. 

Pollard, Chas. L., 286 Pine Street. 

Pr^fontaine, Louis A., 317 Main Street. 

Stebbins, Miss Fannie A., 480 Union Street. 

Watson, Frank E., 832 Main Street. 

Thomson, Elihu. 

Tufts College. 
Chase, Harry Gray. 
Dolbear, A. Emerson. 
Kingsley, J. Sterling. 


gbographical distribution — mass. 


Pillsbury, John H., Waban School. 


Cooke, George Willis, Park Street. 
Packard, George Arthur, i8 Lafayette Street. 

Moses, Thomas P., Worcester Lane. 


Snow, Walter B., 29 Russell Avenue. 
Whitney, Solon Franklin, Public Library. 

Cowles, Edward, McLean Hospital. 

Wacson, Thomas A. 


Cooley, Miss Grace E., Wellesley College. 
Cummings, Miss Clara E., Wellesley College. 
Hallowell, Miss Susan M., Wellesley College. 
Hayes, Miss Ellen, Wellesley College. 
Morse, Albert P. 

Whiting, Miss Sarah P., Wellesley College. 
Willcox, Miss Mary Alice, Wellesley College. 


Monroe, Will S., State Normal School. 
Wilson, Charles B., State Normal School. 

West Newton. 
Puffer, William L., 198 Mt. Vernon Street. 


Clarke, Samuel Fessenden, Williams College. 
McElfresh, William E., Williams College 
Milham, WilUs L, Williams College. 
Woodruff, Lorande Loss, Williams College. 

Woods Holl. 
Crowell, A. F. 


Allen, Charles Metcalf, Polytechnic Institute. 
Ball, Miss Helen Augusta, 43 Laurel Street. 



Chandler, Clarence A., 12 Westland Street. 

Clark. Thomas H., 34 Lancaster Street. 

Conant, L. L., Pol3rtechnic Institute. 

Engler, Edmund Arthur, Polytechnic Institute. 

Hodge, Frederick H., Clark University. 

Jennings, Walter L., Polytechnic Institute. 

Kingsbury, Albert, Polytechnic Institute. 

Kinnicutt, Leonard P., 77 £lm Street. 

Marble, J. Russel. 

Mendenhall, T. C. 

Pettegrew, David Lyman, P. O. Box 75. 

Sanford, £. C, Clark University. 

Smith, Alton Lincoln, Polytechnic Institute. 

Smith, Harold B., Polytechnic Institute. 

Story, William E., Clark University. 

Thompson, Millett T., Clark University. 

Webster. Arthur Gordon, Clark University. 

Woodward, Samuel B., 58 Pearl Street. 


Agricultural Collbgb. 

Barrows, Walter B. 
Beal, William James. 

Barr, Charles Elisha, Albion College. 

Ann Arbor. 

Adams, Charles C, University of Michigan. 
Allen, John Robins, University of Michigan. 
Bartlett, George Miller, University of Michigan. 
Beman, Wooster W., 813 East Kingsley Street. 
Bigelow, S. Lawrence, University of Michigan. 
Carhart, Henry S., University of Michigan. 
Carrow, Flemming, University of Michigan. 
Chute, Horatio N., High School. 
Cooley, Mortimer E., University of Michigan. 
Cushny, Arthur R., University of Michigan. 
Dock, George, University of Michigan. 
Duerden, J. E., University of Michigan. 
Freer, Paul C, University of Michigan. 
French, Thos., Jr., 114 North Ingalls Street. 
Gomberg, Moses, iioi East University Avenue. 
Hall, Asaph, Jr., University of Michigan. 



Haynes, Miss Julia A., 428 Hamilton Place. 

Holmes, S. J., University of Michigan. 

Ruber, G. Carl, University of Michigan. 

Johnson, Otis C, 730 Thayer Street. 

Leverett, Frank. 

Miggett, W. L., University of Michigan. 

Newcombe, Frederick Charles, 102 1 East University Avenue. 

Novy, Frederick G., University of Michigan. 

Patterson. George W., Jr., 814 South University Avenue. 

Pearl, Raymond, University of Michigan. 

Pettee, William H., University of Michigan. 

Prescott, Albert B. 

Reed, John O., 907 Lincoln Avenue. 

Reighard, Jacob, University of Michigan. 

Rominger, Carl. 

Running, Theodore R., 935 Greenwood Avenue. 

Russell, Israel C, University of Michigan. 

Schaeberle, J. M., 502 Second Street. 

Schlotterbeck, Julius O., 131 9 Israel Hall Avenue. 

Smith, Arthur W.. University of Michigan. 

Spalding, Volney M., University of Michigan.^^ 

Transeau, E. N.. 220 S. Ingalls Street. 

Ziwet, Alexander, 644 South Ingalls Street. 

Atlantic Mxnb. 
Stanton, Frank McMillan, Baltic and Central Mining Co. 

Battle Crebk. 
Kellogg, John H. 

Cold Water. 
Bennett, Charles W. 
Collin, Henry P., 58 Division Street. 


Adams, Charles Francis, Central High School. 
Baldwin, Mrs. G. H., 3 Madison Avenue. 
Blain, Alexander W., Jr., 131 Elmwood Avenue. 
Connor, Leartus, 103 Cass Street. 
Courtis, Wm. M., 412 Hammond Building. 
Cram, Roys J., 26 Hancock Avenue. West. 
Davis, George S.. P. O. Box 724. 
Doty, Paul, 230 Woodward Avenue. 
Edgar, Clinton G., 72 Jefferson Avenue. 
Ferry, Dexter M., Jr., 1040 Woodward Avenue. 
Haskell, Eugene E., Campau Building. 



Houghton, £. Mark, 350 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Keep, William J. 

Leach, Miss Mary F., 74 Pitcher Street. 

Lyons, Albert Brown. 

Pendleton, Edward Waldo, 900 Union Trust Building. 

Phelps, William Joshua, 37 Alexandrine, West. 

Searle, Frederick Edwards. Detroit University School. 

Shurly, E. L., 32 Adams Avenue, West. 

Van Antwerp, Francis J., a6 Harper Avenue. 

Wheeler, Eben S., United States Engineer Office. 


Millar, John M. 

Grand Rapids. 

Parmelee, H. P., 503 Michigan Trust Building. 
Patton, John, 925 Michigan Trust Building. 

Harbor Bbach. 
Oldfield, Anthony M. 

Mast, Samuel O. 


Hood, Ozni P., School of Mines. 
McNair, Fred. Walter, Michigan College of Mines. 
Seaman, Arthur Edmund, Michigan College of Mines. 
Wright, Fred. Eugene, College of Mines. 

Charlton, Orlando C. 
Todd, Albert M. 

Lane, Alfred C. 

White, Charles G. 

Johnson, N6ls. 


Lake Linden. 



Downing, Elliott R., Ph.D., Northern State Normal School. 
Faught, John B., Northern State Normal School. 


Loveland, Horace Hall. 


geographical distribution — mich. — minn 

Dow, Herbert H. 

Vanderloan, J., 200 South Terrace Street. 


Blish, W. G. 


Clark, Hubert Lyman, Olivet College. 
Osborn, Frederick A., Olivet College. 

Port Huron. 
Willson, Mortimer. 

Sault Stb. Marie. 
Edmands, Isaac Russell, Supt. Union Carbide Co. 

Jenkins, J. F., 48 Chicago Street. 

Kelly. William. 

Jefferson, Mark S. W. 

Lyman, Elmer A., Michigan State Normal School. 

Michigan State Normal College. 

Strong, Edwin A., State Normal School. 

Coleman, Clarence. 
Kendall, Hugh F. 
Tucker, William A. 



Lb Sueur. 


Cox, Ulysses O., State Normal School. 

Renninger, John S. 


Bracken, Henry M., 10 10 Fourth Street. 
Brown, John C, University of Minnesota. 
Constant. Frank H., University of Minnesota. 



Eddy, H. T., University of Minnesota. 

Blftman, Arthur H., 706 Globe Building. 

Fanning, John T., Kasota Block. 

Fellows, Chas. S., 912 Chamber of Commerce. 

Flather, John J., University of Minnesota. 

Frankforter, George B., University of Minnesota. 

Groat, Benjamin Feland, University of Minnesota. 

Hall, C. W., University of Minnesota. 

Harding, Everhart P., University of Minnesota. 

Haynes, Arthur E., University of Minnesota. 

Hortvet, Julius, 313 i6th Avenue S. E. 

Hunter, Chas. H., 13 Syndicate Block. 

Jones, Frederick S., University of Minnesota. 

MacMillan, Conway, University of Minnesota. 

Nachtrieb, Henry F., University of Minnesota. 

Oestlund, Oscar W., State University. 

Sardeson, Frederick William, University of Minnesota. 

Stewart, J. Clark, 1628 5th Avenue. 

Walker, T. B., 803 Hennepin Avenue. 

Winchell, N. H. 

Zeleny, John, University of Minnesota. 

Moyer, Lycurgus R. 

Ballard, C. A. 
Chambers. Will Grant, State Normal School. 


Chaney, Lucian W., Carleton College. 
Metcalf, Wilmot V., Carleton College. 
Tandberg, John P., St. Olaf College. 

Armitage, Thomas L. 

Hewitt, Charles N. 


Red Wing. 

St. Anthony Park. 

Beach, Miss Alice M., Experiment Station. 

Bull, Coates P. 

Hays, Willet M., Experiment Station. 

Hummel, John A., Experiment Station. 

Snyder, Harry, Experiment Station. 

Washburn, Frederic Leonard, Agricultural Experiment Station 


gbooraphical distrlbuttok — minn. — ico. 

St. Paul. 

Derby, George McC. 

Greene, Chas. Lyman, 150 Lowry Arcade. 
MacLaren, Archibald, 350 St. Peter Street. 
Osbom, H. L., Hamline University. 
Rogers, John T., Lowry Arcade. 
Sneve, Hal dor, Lowry Arcade. 
Storrs, Lucius S., N. P. Ry. Company. 
Taylor, H. Longstreet, 75 Lowry Arcade. 
Upham, Warren. 


Beahan, Willard, 220 West 6th Street. 
Messenger, James P., State Normal School. 


Agricultural College. 
Herrick, Glenn W. 
Robert, J. C, A. and M. College. 


Tracy, Samuel M. 

Fulton, Robert B. 

Hume, Alfred. 

Leathers, W, S. 


Marshall, Horace Miller, U. S. Engineer Office. 


Cape Girardeau. 
Albert, Harry Lee, State Normal School. 


Brooks, Charles, University of Missouri. 
Calvert, Sidney, University of Missouri. 
Connaway, J. W., State University. 
Curtis, Winterton C, University of Missouri. 
Detwiler, Andrew Jay, State Board of Health. 
Duggar, Benjamin M., University of Missouri. 
Eckles, C. H. 

Greene, Charles Wilson, University of Missouri. 
Meyer, Max, University of Missouri. 
Proctor, Chas. A., University of Missouri. 



Reed, Howard Spragiie, University of Missouri. 
Schweitzer, Paul, University of Missouri. 
Spalding, Fred'k P., University of Missouri. 
Stewart, Oscar M., University of Missouri. 
Summers, Joseph, 1103 E. Broadway. 

Tucker, George M., Agricultural Experiment Station, University of 

Campbell, Leslie Lyle, Westminster College. 

Kansas City. 

Bamett, Robert Ci, 3023 East 20th Street. 

Kent, James Martin, Manual Training High School. 

McCurdy, Hansford M., Manual Training High School. 

Miller, Armand R., Manual Training High School. 

Morrison, Gilbert B., 2510 Perry Avenue. 

Palmer, Walter K.. 401 New York Life Building. 

Perkins, John Walter, 423 Alt man Building. 

Stigall, Bennett Merriman, Manttal Training High School. 

Weeks, Edwin Ruthven, 604-607 New Nelson Building. 


Daugherty, Lewis S., State Normal School. 

Mitchell, William Francis. 

Roberts, John M., High School. 

Baskett, James Newton. 

Mountain Grove. 
Lynch, William H., Mountain Grove School. 


Findlay, Merlin C., Park College. 

Mattoon, A. M., Scott Observatory of Park College. 


Buckley, Ernest Robertson. 
McRae, Austin Lee. 

St. Joseph. 
Owen, Miss Juliette A., 306 North 9th Street. 



Owen, Miss Luella Agnes, 306 North 9th Street. 
Owen, Miss Mary Alicia, 306 North 9th Street. 

St. Louis. 
Alt, Adolph, 3819 W. Pine Boulevard. 
Barck, Carl, 2715 Locust Street, 
Bonnet, Frederic, Jr., 2719 Russell Avenue. 
Bemays, Augustus Charles, 3623 Laclede Avenue. 
Broome, G. Wiley, Mo. Trust Building. 
Casey, Thos. L., P. O. Drawer 71. 
Chauvenet, William M., 620 Chestnut Street. 
Comstock, T. Griswold, 3401 Washington Avenue. 
Coulter, Samuel M., The Shaw School of Botany. 
Cramer, Gustav, G. Cramer Dry Plate Co. 
Crunden, Fredk. M., 3635 Laclede Avenue. 
Douglas, Archer W., 5101 McPherson Avenue. 
Drayer, H. C, Washington University. 
Ei ken berry, Wm. L.. High School. 
Evers, Edward, 1861 North Market Street. 
Fischel, Washington E., 2647 Washington Avenue. 
Glasgow, Frank A., 3894 Washington Avenue. 
Graf, August V., 1325-29 S. 7th Street. 
Hager, Albert Ralph, La. Purchase Exposition. 
Hambach, G., 13 19 Lami Street. 
Harris, James Arthur, Shaw School of Botany. 
Hedgcock, George G., Missouri Botanical Garden. 
Higdon, John Clark, 605 Union Trust Building. 
Hinrichs, Gustavus, 4106 Shenandoah Avenue. 
Hitchcock, George Collier, 709 Wainwright Building. 
Hughes, Charles H., 3857 Olive Street. 
Hulbert, C. E.. Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
Huston, Henry A., 134 Laclede Building. 
Johnson, Albert L., 606 Century Building. 
Kcm. John H., 1317 Madison Street. 
Kinner, Hugo, 1103 Rutger Street. 
Klie, G. H. Charles, 5100 North Broadway. 
Knox, Geo. Piatt, 5178 Morgan Street. 
Kolbenheyer, Fred'k, 2006 Lafayette Avenue. 
Langsdorf, Alexander Suss, Washington University. 
Lare, H. S. P., 3452 Park Avenue. 

Lemp, William J., Comer Cherokee and 2d Carondelet Avenue. 
Lightner, Calvin R., 2313 Washington Avenue. 
Link, Theodore C, Carieton Building. 
Lischer, Bonno Edwards, 2313 Washington Avcnut-. 
McClure, Geo. E., 4418 Arsenal Street. 



McGee, W J, Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Mallinclcrodt, Edwin. P. O. Sub-station A. 

Mallinckrodt, Edw., Jr., 26 Van de venter Place. 

Markham, George D., 4961 Berlin Avenue. 

Marsden, Samuel, 1015 North Leffengwell Avenue. 

Matlack. Ellwood V., 421 Olive Street. 

Moore, Philip North, lao Laclede Building. 

Moore, Robert, 61 Vandeventer Place. 

Moore, Stanley H., McKinley High School. 

Mulford, Miss A. Isabel, Central High School. 

Nelson, N. L. T., Central High School. 

Nipher, Francis E., Washington University. 

Pauls, Gustavus, St. Louis Altenheim, 5408-5450 S. Bury Street. 

Peterson, C. A., 715 Century Building. 

Prather, John McC, St. Louis High School. 

Randall, John E., 4960 Lotus Avenue. 

Riley, Cassius M., Barnes Medical College and Barnes College of 

Riley, Mrs. Matilda E.. Board of Education Building. 

Rogers, Howard J., Universal Exposition. 

Riimbold, Miss Caroline. Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Sale. Samuel, 4010 W. Bell Street. 

Sander, Enno. 

Saunders, Edward W., 3003 Lafayette Avenue. 

Schwab, Sidney L, 4393 Westminster Place. 

Siedenburg, Frederick, St. Louis University, Grand Ave. and Pine St. 

Spaulding, Perley, Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Spiegelhalter, Joseph, 2166 Lafayette Avenue. 

Sprague, C. C. 1900 Locust Street. 

Steer, Justin, Washington University. 

Summa, Hugo, St. Louis University. 

Swope, Gerard, 810 Spruce Street. 

Taussig. Albert E.. 2647 Washington Avenue. 

Taussig, James. Rialto Building. 

Terry. Robert James. Washington University. 

Trelease. William. Missouri Botanical Gardens. 

Vall^. Jules P., 3303 Washington Avenue. 

Van Omum, John Lane, Washington University. 

Von Schrenk. H., Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Whelpley, Henry Hamilton. Washington University. 

Woodward, Calvin M., Washington University. 


Britton, Wiley, Bureau of Pensions. 
Fuller, Homer T., Drury College. 


geographical distribution — mo. — mont. neb. 

Seawell, Benjamin Lee, State Normal School. 

Frick, John H., Central Wesleyan College. 


Palmer, Charles Skecle, A. C. M. Co. 


Blankinship, Jos. W., State College. 
Cooley, Robert A., Agricultural College. 
Tallman, William Duane, Agricultural College. 


Bowman, Charles Henry, State School of Mines. 
Page, Clarence V. 
Winchell, Alex. N. V. 
Winchell, Horace. 

Monroe, Joseph E., State Normal College. 

Silloway, Perley M., High School. 


Byrnes, Owen, P. O. Box 131. 
Malm, John L. 


Elrod, Morton J., University of Montana. 

Mills, William Park. 

Rowe, Jesse Perry, University of Montana. 


von Mansfelde, Alexander S., "Quality Hill. 

Tyler, Ansel Augustus, Bellevue College. 

Kem, Walter McCullough. 



geographical distribution — nbb. 

Burrell. Rimon Haddock. 

Mohler, George H., Fremont Normal School. 

Snyder, Nathaniel Marion. 

Wilson, Andrew G. 

Warren, George F., Jr. 





Almy, John E., University of Nebraska. 
Barboiir, Carrie Adeline, University of Nebraska. 
Barbour, Erwin Hinckley, University of Nebraska. 
Bessey, C^piarles Edwin, University of Nebraska. 
Bolton, Thaddeus L., University of Nebraska. 
Brace, D. B., University of Nebraska. 
Bniner, Lawrence, University of Nebraska. 
Clark, Herbert A., 1902 P Street. 
Clements, Frederic E., University of Nebraska. 
Cutter, Irving S., Box 732. 

Heald, Fred. De Forest, University of Nebraska. 
Heck, Charles McGee, 1507 R Street. 
Moore, Burton E., University of Nebraska. 
Shantz, Homer Le Roy, 1420 Vine Street. 
Skinner, Clarence A., University of Nebraska. 
Stevens, James Franklin, 1136 O Street. 
Swezey, Goodwin D., University of Nebraska. 
Ward, Henry B., University of Nebraska. 

Hopeman, H. 

North Platte. 
Fort. LA. 


Cleburne, Wm., 12 19 South Sixth Street. 
Foote, James S., 422 South 26th Street. 
Gifford, Harold, 405 Kasbach Block. 


gbooraprical distribution — neb. — nbv. — n. h 


Clark, W. A., State Normal School. 
Duncanson, Henry Bruce, State Normal School. 

Peterson, Niels Frederick. 

Red Cloud. 
Bates, John Mallery. 

University Place. 

Bell. A. T. 

Bush, John C. F. 



Redding, Allen C. 

Eastman, J. R. 

White, Charles H. 


Center Sandwich. 


Coit, J. Milner, Saint Paul's School. 

Coit, Joseph Howland, Saint Paul's School- 

Douglas, Orlando B., 20 Pleasant Street. 

Sears, Frederick Edmund, Saint Paul's School. 

Walker, Charles R. 

Watson, Irving A., State Board of Health. 


Brown, Elisha R., 50 Silver Street. 
Fish, Charles Henry, Cocheco Mfg. Co. 


Morse, Fred. W., New Hampshire College. 

Parsons, Charles Lathrop. 

Pettee, Charles Holmes. 

Rane, Frank William, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Weed, Clarence M. 

Tybo. I 

obographical distribution — n. h. n. j.. 

Segerblom, Wilhelm, Phillips Exeter Academy. 


Bartlett, Edwin J., Dartmouth College. 

Emerson, C. P., Box 499. 

Fletcher, Robert, Thayer School of Civil Engineering. 

Gilbert, Norman E., Dartmouth College. 

Hitchcock, Charles H. 

Hull, Gordon Ferrie, Dartmouth College. 

Poor, John Merrill, Dartmouth College. 

Richardson, Charles Henry, Dartmouth College. 

Richardson, Leon B., Dartmouth College. 

Smith, William T., Dartmouth Medical School. 

Woods, Carl Fred, Dartmouth College. 

Blair, Mrs. Eliza N. 
Bossi, Arnold L., 196 a Elm Street. 
Clough, Albert L., Box 114. 
Manning, Charles H. 
Schaeffer, Henri N. F., P. O. Box 676. 

Bradley, Arthur C. 

Hoyt, Adrian Hazen. 

Winterhalter, A. G., Navy Yard. 


Dunn, Gano S. 
Wheeler, Schuyler Skaats. 

Asbury Park. 
Reifsnyder, Samuel K., 705 Bond Street. 

Atlantic Highlands. 
Auchincloss, William S. 

Wadman, W. E., 102 Lord Avenue. 


Cummins, George Wyckoff. 

Squibb, Charles F. 


Chancellor, William E., 343 Belleville Avenue. 
Comelison, Robert W, 

Allen, Richard H. 

Sackett, Miss Eliza D. 

East Orange. 
Colie, Edward M. 
Mann, Albert, 18 Summit Street. 
Miller, Fred. J.. 34 Beech Street. 

Colbum, Richard T. 
Collingwood, Francis. 

Granbery, Julian Hastings. 561 Walnut Street. 
Heyer, William D., 523 South Broad Street. 
Langenbeck, Karl. 

Miller, Herbert Stanley, 1025 East Jersey Street. 
Peck, George, 926 North Broad Street. 

Far Hills. 
Tainter, Frank Stone. 

Glen Ridge. 
Scheffler, Frederick A., Box 233. 

Krause, Otto H., Prospect Avenue. 


Bristol, William H., Stevens Institute. 
Ganz, Albert Frederick, Stevens Institute. 
Jacobus, David S.. Stevens Institute. 
Martin, Louis Adolphe, Jr., Stevens' Institute. 
Shultz, Charles S., Hoboken Bank for Savings. 
Smith, Eugene, 317 Washington Street. 
Webb, J. Burkitt, Stevens Institute. 


Jbrsby City. 

Dickinson, Gordon K., 278 Montgomery Street. 
Fleming, Dudley D., 249 Washington Street. 
Gordon, Leonard, Free Public Library. 
Hungerford, W. S., care W. Ames & Company. 
McLaughlin, George Eyerman, 41 Crescent Avenue. 
Steams, T. C, 44 Montgomery Street. 
Walker, John M., 260 Montgomery Street. 

Hammond. Mrs. John Hays, 320 Madison Avenue. 

Riederer, Emil Justus, Forcite Powder Co. 

Little Falls. 
McCormick, Henry D. 

Washington, Henry S. 

Toothe, William. 


Barton, G. E., 212 North 3d Street. 
Wade, John W., 318 North 2d Street. 


Le Brun, Mrs. Michel M., 8 Mountain Avenue. 
Parker, Horatio N., 456 Bloomiield Avenue. 
Vreeland, Frederick K. 

Morris Plains. 
Evans, Britton D., State HospitaL 


Colgate, Abner W. 
Hoffman, Samuel V. 

Waller, E., 7 Franklin Place. 


Baldwin, Herbert B., 9-1 1 Franklin Street. 
Colby, Edward A., care Baker Platinum Works. 
Disbrow, Wm. S., 151 Orchard Street. 
Edwards, Arthur M., 423 Fourth Avenue. 
Howell, John W., Ballantine Parkway. 
Luther, Miss Agnes Vinton, 917 Broad Street, 



Murdock, George J., 248 6th Avenue. 
Pomeroy, Charles Taylor, 55 Broad Street. 
Rockwood, Charles G., 70 South xith Street. 
Sharp, Clayton H., 722 Highland Avenue. 
Wackenhuth, F. C, 57 Freeman Street. 
Weston, Edward, 645 High Street. 

Nbw Brunswick. 

Bowser, E. A., Rutgers College. 

Halsted, Byron D., Rutgers College. 

Kelsey, James A., Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Prentiss, Robert W., Rutgers College. 

Smith, John B., Rutgers College. 

Speyers, Clarence Livingston, Rutgers College. 

Van Dyck, Francis Cuyler, Rutgers College. 


Clements, Joseph. 

Vanderpoel, Frank, 153 Center Street. 


Berry, Edward W., News Building. 
Sullivan, John J., 51 Passaic Avenue. 

Nelson, William, Paterson National Bank. 

Perth Amboy. 
Roessler, Franz, 39 High Street. 


Probasco, John Buck, 175 East Front Street. 
Waldo, Leonard, 640 West 8th Street. 


Baldwin, J. Mark, Princeton University. 
Brackett, C. F., Princeton University. 
Dahlgren, Ulric, Princeton University. 
Farr, Marcus S., Princeton University. 
Libbey, William, Princeton University. 
Lovett, Edgar Odell, Princeton University. 
Macloskie, George, Princeton University. 
Magie, William Francis, Princeton University. 
Rankin, Walter M., Princeton University. 
Rockwood, Charles G., Jr., Princeton University. 


aBOOftAl>HtCAt DI8Tkl6utlOM — N. J. — N. HEX. — N. t. 

Smith, Herbert S. S., Princeton University. 
Stromsten, Frank A., 43 University Hall. 
Warren, Howard C, Princeton University. 
Willson, Frederick N., Princeton University. 
WoodhuU, Alfred A., 46 Bayard Lane. 
Young, C. A., Princeton University. 

Short Hills. 
Morgan, William F. 

South Orangb. 
Delany, Patrick B. 

Bassett, Carroll P. 

Herr, Hiero B. 

Thompson, Miss Anna F., P. O. Box*39. 

Knapp, G. N., Lock Box 455. 
Smock, John Conover. 

Warden, Albert W., 325 Fulton Street. 

Clark, Alexander S. 



Tight, William G., University of New Mexico. 
Weinxirl, John, University of New Mexico. 

East Las Vegas. 
Hewett, Edgar L., New Mexico Normal University. 

Magnusson, Carl Edward, State School of Mines. 

Stbbplb Rock. 
Robinson, Sanford. 


Ainsworth, Herman R. 

Clarke, John Mason, State Hall. 
Colvin, Verplanck, State Adirondack Survey. 



Felt, Ephraim Porter, Capitol. 

Gager, C. Stuart, State Normal College. 

Greenalch, Wallace, 54 North Pine Avenue. 

Hindshaw, Henry H., State Museum. 

Merrill, Frederick J. H., State Museum. 

Merrill, Mrs. Winifred Ednerton, 268 State Street. 

Paulmier, Frederick Clark, State Museum. 

Peck, Charles H. 

Pettis, Clifford R., care Forest, Fish and Game Commission. 

Pollock, Horatio M., State Civil Service Commission. 

Pruyn, John V. L., Jr. 

Roy, Arthur J., Dubley Observatory. 

Ruedemann, Rudolf, 161 Yates Street. 

Theisen, Clement F., 172 Washington Avenue. 

Tucker, Willis G., Albany Medical College. 

Williams, Mrs. Chauncey P., 284 State Street. 

Cooke, Hart, 60 E. Genesee Street. 


Freley, Jasper Warren, Wells College. 
Gregory, Miss Emily R., Wells College. 

Alexander, Charles Anderson, 10 Vine Street. 

Post, Charles A. 

Marble, Manton. 

Lennon, William H., State Normal School. 

Abraham, Abraham. 

Almond, Thomas R., 83-85 Washington Street. 
Bartley, Elias H., 21 Lafayette Avenue. 
Benjamin, Raphael, Hotel St. George. 
Benson, Frank Sherman, 214 Columbia Heights. 
Bierwirth, Julius C, 137 Montague Street. 
Booraem, J. V. V., 204 Lincoln Place. 
Bradley, M. J., 373 Fulton Street. - 
Browning, William, 54 Lefferts Place. 
Brundage, Albert H., 1073 Bushwick Avenue. 



Bunker, Henry A., 158 6th Avenue. 

Clark, Oliver Durfee, 590 Halsey Street. 

Cook, Charles D., 162 Remsen Street. 

Culin, Stewart, Brooklyn Institute. 

Deghu6e, Joseph A., 247 Harrison Street. 

Drewett, Wm. A., 202 Rutledge Street. 

Eilers, Anton F., 751 St. Marks Avenue. 

Germann, George B., Public School No. 130. 

Goldschmidt, S.,A., 43 Sedgwick Street. 

Goodyear, Wm. H., Museum Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Graef. Edward L., 58 Court Street. 

Grimm, Carl Robert, 1622 Caton Avenue, Flatbush. 

Grout, Abel J., Boys' High School. 

Gulick, Luther H., Pratt Institute. 

Hale, Albert C, 35 2 A Hancock Street. 

Hale, William H., 40 ist Place. 

Hall, James P., 6 Poplar Street. 

Hancock, James Cole, 43 Cambridge Place. 

Harris, Mrs. Carolyn W., 125 St. Marks Avenue. 

Henderson, Joseph J., 689 loth Street. 

Henry, Charles C, 56 Clark Street. 

Hooker, Davenport, 341 Adelphi Street. 

Hooper, Franklin W., Brooklyn Institute. 

Hutchinson, Susan A., Brooklyn Institute Museum. 

Law, Benedict W., 693 Lafayette Avenue. 

Lloyd, Thomas Mortimer, 125 Pierrepont Street. 

Low, A. A., Columbia Heights. 

McKay, John S., Pasker Collegiate Institute. 

Machalske, F. J., P. O. Box 25. Station W. 

Mangan, Daniel C, 92 Park Avenue. 

Marston, Edwin S., 291 Clinton Avenue. 

Martin, Daniel S., 756 Quincy Street. 

Mason, Lewis D., 171 Joralemon Street. 

Mayer, Alfred Goldsborough, Museum Brooklyn Institute. 

Mayo, Caswell A., 1536 15th Street. 

Miller, P. Schuyler, Mt. Prospect Laboratory, Flatbush Avenue. 

Nichols, O. F., 42 Gates Avenue. 

Parker, Herschel C, 21 Fort Green Place. 

Parkhurst, Henry M., 173 Gates Avenue. 

Peabody, George Foster, 28 Monroe Place. 

Perry, Arthur C, 226 Halsey Street. 

Peters, Clayton A., Polytechnic Preparatory School, 13th Avenue 

and 56th Street. 
Pierrepont, Henry E., 216 Columbia Heights. 
Pitts, Thomas Dorsey, 90 Halsey Street. 



Redfield, William C, Borough Hall. 

Rothe, William G.. 481 Halsey Street. 

Ruland, M. A., 53 Linden Avenue. 

Schlichting, Emil, 61 Hicks Street. 

Schoonhoven, John J., 34 Second Place. 

Serviss, Garrett P., 8 Middagh Street. 

Sheldon, Samuel, Poljrtechnic Institute. 

Smith, Mrs. Annie Morrill, 78 Orange Street. 

Squibb, Edward Hamilton, 148 Columbia Heights. 

Tibbals, Geo. A., 148 Milton Street. 

Velsor, Joseph A., 105 McDonough Street. ^ 

von Nardroff, Ernest R., 397 Madison Street. 

Warner, James D., 463 East 36th Street, Platbush. 

Williston, Arthur L., Pratt Institute. 

Wills, Joseph Lainson, 133 Midwood Street. 

Wright, Jonathan, 73 Remsen Street. 

Wunderlich, Frederick W., 165 Remsen Street. 

Bierbaum, Christopher H., 330 Prudential Building, 
Bradley, Charles W., 1064 Ellicott Square. 
Brewster, Frank H., 154 Fargo Avenue, 
Busch, Frederick Carl, 145 Allen Street. 
Cary, Mrs. Elizabeth M. L., 184 Delaware Avenue. 
Femald, F. A., 301 W. Utica Street. 
Fleming, Miss Mary A., The Oxford, 43a Pearl Street. 
Gary, Lester B., Central High School. 
Glenny, William H. 

Houghton, Frederick, Public School, No. 7. 
Letson, Miss Elizabeth J., 366 Massachusetts Avenue. 
Mixer, Fred. K., 313 Delaware Avenue. 

Ofifinger, Martin H., Buffalo Commercial and Electro-Mech . Inst. 
Park, Dr. Roswell, 510 Delaware Avenue. 
Pohlman, Dr. Julius, 404 Franklin Street. 
Porter, Miss Edna, 94 Russell Avenue. 
Rochester, Delancey, 469 Franklin Street. 
Smith, Lee H., 663 Main Street. 
Smith, T. Guilford. 

Sperry, Elmer A., 366-388 Massachtisetts Avenue. 
Starr, Elmer G., 523 Delaware Avenue. 
Stockton, Charles G., 436 Franklin Street. 
Tutton, Charles H., Department of Public Works, City Hall. 
Vogt, Frederick A., Central High School. 

Richardson, Charles A. 




Mills, Frank Smith, St. Lawrence University. 
Priest, Henry, St. Lawrence University. 

Van Orden, Charles H. 

Chbrry Vallby. 
Cox, A. Beekman. 


Saunders, A. P., Hamilton College. 
Smyth, C. H., Jr. 

CoLLBOB Point. 
Hartz, J. D. Aug. 

Goldsborough, John Byroi^. 

Bancroft, Alonzo C. 

Wolverton, Byron C, P. O. Box 43. 

Floral Park. 
Allen, C. L. 


Clark, £dmund, 426 Sanford Avenue. 
Ward» Delancey W., 163 Madison Avenue. 

Cheesman, T. M. 
Thompson, Walter. 

Wadsworth, WilUam A. 


Bacon, Arthur Avery, Hobart College. 
Beach, Spencer Ambrose, Experiment Station. 
Brooks, William R., Smith Observatory. 
Durfee, William P., 639 Main Street. 
Harding, Harry A., Experiment Station. 
Jordan, Whitman H., Experiment Station. 
Stewart, Fred. Carlton, Experiment Station. 
Van Slyke, Lucius L., Experiment Station. 




Anthony, Mrs. Emilia C. 


Williams, Frank H. 

Sharpe, Benjamin F. 



Brigham, Albert Perry, Colgate University. 
Chester, Wayland Morgan, Colgate University. 
Child, Clement D., Colgate University. 
McGregory, J. F., Colgate University. 
Taylor, James M. 

Chrystie, William F. 

Highland Falls. 
Pell, Mrs. Alfred. 

Schuyler, Philip. 


Allen, Frank, Cornell University. 

Atkinson, George F., Cornell University. 

Baird, John Wallace, Cornell University. 

Bancroft, Wilder Dwight, Cornell University. 

Bedell, Frederick, Cornell University. 

Blaker, Ernest, Cornell University. 

Caldwell, George C, Cornell University 

Clark, Judson F., 402 Eddy Street. 

Craig, John, Cornell University. 

Dennis, Louis Munroe, Cornell University. 

Durand, Elias J., 402 Eddy Street. 

Durand, W. F., Cornell University. 

Femow, Bemhard E.. Cornell University. 

Fish, Pierre A., Cornell University. 

Foxworthy, Fred. W., Cornell University. 

Gage, Simon Henry, ^Cornell University. 

Gage, Mrs. Susanna Phelps. 

Gifford, John Clayton, State College of Forestry. 

Gill, Adam Capen, Cornell University. 

Hoobler, Bert R., Cornell University. 

Hopkins, Grant S., Cornell University. 

Jacoby, Henry S., Cornell University. 



Kerr, Abram T., Cornell University. 
Kingsbury, Benjamin P., Cornell University. 
Lauman, George Nieman, Cornell University. 
McCaustland, Elmer J., Cornell University. 
McMahon, James, Cornell University. 
Mann, Paul B., 45 East Avenue. 
Merritt, Ernest, Cornell University. 
Moler, George S., 106 University Avenue. 
Nichols, E. L., Cornell University. 
Pearson, Raymond A., Cornell University. 
Quiroga, Modesto, Cornell University. 
Reed, Hugh D., Cornell University. 
Ries, Heinrich. 

Rowlee, W. W., Cornell University. 
Ryan, Harris J., Cornell University. 
Schurman, J. G., Cornell University. 
Shearer, John Sanford, Cornell University. 
Slingerland, Mark Vernon, Cornell University. 
Tanner, John Henry, 7 Central Street. 
Tarr, Ralph Stockman, Cornell University. 
Thorn, Charles, 239 Hazen Street. 
Townsend, Miss Anna B., 214 Hazen Street. 
Titchener, E. B., Cornell University. 
Wiegand, Karl McKay, Cornell University. 
Wilder, Burt Green, Cornell University. 
Willcox, Walter P., Cornell University. 

Sirrine, P. At wood, 110 New York Avenue. 


Gage-Day, Mary, 207 Wall Street. 

Neilson, John. 

Long Island City. 
Richardson, Clifford, Barber Asphalt Paving Company. 


Stephens, W. Hudson. 


Wilbur, A. B. 

Kunz, George H. 



gbooraphical distribution — n. t. 

Mount Vbrnon. 

Blackmore, Henry S., ao6 South 9th Avenue. 
Davis, Abial B., 129 East Lincoln Avenue. 
Youmans, Vincent J., 175 £lm Place. 

New Brighton. 
Ransome, Ernest Leslie, Westervelt and 4th Avenues. 

Allan, Charles F. 

Crane, James M. 

Doughty, John W., 165 Johnston Street. 

Esmond, Darwin W. 

Poster, William. 

Gleason, W. Stanton, 143 Grand Street. 

Gordon, Reginald. 

Gouldy, Miss Jennie A. 

Hirschberg, Michael H. 

Lockwood, Cornelius Wygant. 

Macdonald, Benjamin J., 296 Grand Street. 

Mitchell, James. 

Robinson, Charles D wight. 

Weed, J. N.. 244 Grand Street. 

Weygant, Charles H. 

Wilkinson, John G. 

Williams, Charles S., i66 Montgomery Street. 

New Hartford. 
Scripture, Arthur M. 

Nbw Rochbllb. 
Pryer, Charles. 

Nbw York. 

Abbe, Robert, 13 West 50th Street. 
Adams, Edward Dean, 35 Wall Street. 
Adler, Isaac, 22 East 62d Street. 
Adriance, John S., 105 East 39th Street. 
Alexander, Harry, 18 and 20 West 34th Street. 
Allison, Hendery, 260 West 57th Street. 
Alpers, William C.» 45 West 31st Street. 
Anderson, A. J. C, 127 Water Street. 
Anthony, Richard A., 122-124 Fifth Avenue. 
Anthony, William A., Cooper Union. 
Archer, George P., 31 Burling Slip. 
Arnold, Mrs. Francis B., loi West 78th Street. 



Aspinwall, John, 390 Broadway. 

Atisten, Peter T., 80 Broad Street. 

Avery, Samuel P., 4 Bast 38th Street. 

Bailey, Frank H., U. S. P. S. " Brooklyn," care of Postmaster. 

Bair, Joseph Hershey, Columbia University. 

Baker, Frederic, 815 Fifth Avenue. 

Balch, Samuel W., 67 WaU Street. 

Bangs, Lemuel Bolton, 39 East 73d Street. 

Banks, William C, 439 Bast 144th Street. 

Barber, Amxi L., 7 East 4 2d Street. 

Barbour, Thomas, 50 White Street. 

Barnes, Edward W., Box 446. 

Beck, Carl, 37 East 31st Street. 

Bee be, Charles WilUam, N. Y. Zoological Park. 

Beekman, Gerard, 47 Cedar Street. 

Beers, M. H., 4x0 Broadway. 

Bell, C. M., 320 Fifth Avenue. 

Belmont, August, 23 Nassau Street. 

Benedict, James H., 704 Lords Court. 

Benham, J. W., 138 West 42d Street. 

Bennett, Henry C, 4th Flat, 1692 Broadway. 

Berkey, Charles Peter, Columbia University. 

Bemheimer, Charles L., 43 East 63d Street. 

Bickmore, Albert S., American Museum Natural History. 

Bien, Julius, 140 6th Avenue. 

Bigelow, Maurice A., Columbia University. 

Biggs, Charles, 13 Astor Place. 

Billings, Miss B., 279 Madison Avenue. 

Bishop, Heber R., Mills Building. 

Blake, Joseph A., 6oz Madison Avenue. 

Blakeman, Mrs. Birdseye, 9 East 44th Street. 

Bliss, Cornelius N., 117 Duane Street. 

Bloodgood, John H., 6 West 40th Street. 

Boas, Emil L., 37 Broadway. 

Boas, Franz, American Museum Natural History. 

Bogert, Marston Taylor, Columbia University. 

Bookman, Samuel, 9 East 6 2d Street. 

Bowker, R. R., 28 Elm Street. 

Bradley, Charles S., 44 Broad Street. 

Bramwell, George W., 335 Broadway. 

Bristol, John I. D., Metropolitan Building. 

Biitton, N. L., Bronx Park. 

Bronson, E. B., 10 West 49th Street. 

Brown, Joseph Stanford. 489 Fifth Avenue. 

Brown, W. L., 4a West 7 2d Street. 



Brownell, Silas B., 71 Wall Street. 

Bruggerhof, F. W., 36 Cortlandt Street. 

Bryan, Walter, 139 East 21st Street. 

Buchholz, Carl W., 21 Cortlandt Street. 

Buckingham, Chas. L., 38 Park Row. 

Bumpus, H. C, American Museum Natural History. 

Burchard, Anson W., 44 Broad Street. 

Burgess, Edward S., 11 West 88th Street. 

Burr, William H., Columbia University. 

Burton-Opitz, Russell, Columbia University. 

Calder, George, 105 East a 2d Street. 

Calkins, G. N., Columbia University. 

Cammann, Hermann H., 51 Liberty Street. 

Carter, James C, 277 Lexington Avenue. 

Carter, Marion H., 504 West 143d Street. 

Caswell, W. H., 201 West 55th Street. 

Cathcart, Miss J. R., The Barnard. 

Catt, Geo. W., Park Row Building. 

Cattell, James McKeen, Columbia University. 

Chamberlin, W. E., 11 1 Water Street. 

Chambers, Frank R., 842 Broadway. 

Chandler, C. F., Columbia University. 

Childs, James E., 300 West 93d Street. 

Chisholm, Hugh J., 813 Fifth Avenue. 

Chisolm, George E., 19 Lioerty Street. 

Church, E. D., Jr., 63 Wall Street. 

Churchill, Wm. W., 26 Cortlandt Street. 

Churchward, Alexander, 44 Broad Street. 

Clark, Ernest P., 58th Street. 

Clark, William Brewster, 50 East 31st Street. 

Clements, Julius Morgan, 11 William Street. 

Cochran, W. Bourke, 31 Nassau Street. 

Coffin, C. A., 44 Broad Street. 

Cole, George Watson, Graham Court, 1925 7th Avenue. 

Conant. Charles A., 38 Nassau Street. 

Conant, Miss E. Ida, 42 West 48th Street. 

Copper, Edward, 12 Washington Square, North. 

Corthell, Elmer L., i Nassau Street. 

Cox, Charles F., Grand Central Depot. 

Cox, Edmund O., 1878 Seventh Avenue. 

Crampton, C. Ward, 160 West it 9th Street. 

Crampton, Henry E., Columbia University. 

Crocker, Francis B., Columbia University. 

Crosby, William Edward, 1603 Amsterdam Avenue. 

Curtis, Carlton C., Columbia University. 



Curtis, Charles B., 9 East 54th Street. 
Curtis, G. Lenox, 7 West 58th Street. 
Curtis, H. Holbrook, 118 Madison Avenue. 
Cutler, Col man Ward, 36 East 33d Street. 
Cutter, Ephraim, 120 Broadway. 
Dana, Charles L.. 50 West 46th Street. 
Davies, William G., 23 East 45th Street. 
Davis, Bergen, Columbia University. 
Davis, William Harper, Columbia University. 
Day, William Scofield, 337 West 87th Street. 
de Coppet, Henry, 32 West 17th Street, 
de Forest, Robert W., 30 Broad Street. 
Deimel, Richard F.. 209 West 97th Street. 
Delafield. Maturin L.,*Jr., Fieldston, Riverdale. 
Dellenbaugh, Frederick S., Century Club. 
Dennett, William S., 8 East 49th Street, 
de Raasloff, Harold, 18 Burling Slip. 
Devereux, W. B., 99 John Street. 
Dickerson, E. N., 141 Broadway. 
Dimock, Mrs. Henry F., 25 East 60th Street. 

Dodge, D. Stuart, 99 John Street. 

Dodge, Philip T., Tribune Building. 

Dodge, Richard E., Columbia University. 

Dodman, Alfred C, Jr., 235 West io8th Street. 

Doherty, Henry L., 40 Wall Street. 

Douglas, James, 99 John Street. 

Draper, Daniel, New York Meteorological Observatory. 

Draper, Mrs. Henry, 271 Madison Avenue. 

Dreyfus. William, 162 East 9Sth Street. 

Drummond, Isaac Wyman, 436 West 2 2d Street. 

Dunham, Edward K., 338 East 26th Street. 

Durand, John S., 81 Fulton Street. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., 2 East 34th Street. 

Earle, F. S., Bronx Park. 

Earll, Charles I.. 76 William Street. 

Easton, Christopher, Metropolitan Hospital. Blackwells Island. 

Eimer, August, 220 East 19th Street. 

Elliott, George T., Cornell Medical College. 

Ely, Robert Erskine, 23 West 44th Street. 

Eno, A. F., 32 Fifth Avenue. 

Eno. John Chester, 18 West 38th Street. 

Fairchild, B. T., P. O. Box 11 20. 

Falding, Frederic J., 52 Broadway. 

Falk, Gustav, 24 East 8ist Street. 

Farrand, Livingston H., Columbia University. 



Parwell, Elmer S., 507 West 14 2d Street. 
Fay, L. G., 20 Exchange Place. 
Ferguson, L. L., 155 Broadway. 
Fisher, George E., 37 and 39 Wall Street. 
Fiske, Thomas S., Columbia University. 
Fletcher, Andrew, 339 West 77th Street. 
Flint, Austin, Cornell University Medical College. 
Forbes, Charles Savage, Columbia University. 
Ford, James B., 507 Fifth Avenue. 
Foster, Macomb G., P. O. Box 11 20. 
Fox, William, College of the City of New York. 
Fraenkel, Joseph, 46 East 75th Street. 
Freeborn, George C, 215 West 70th Street. 
Fries, Harold H., 92 Reade Street. 
Frissell. H. S., 5th .A. venue and 44th Street. 
Frost, George H., 220 Broadway. 
Fuller, George W., 170 Broadway. 
Furst, Clyde, Columbia University. 
Gahagan, William L., 141 Broadway. 
Gardner. George Clinton, 416 Beach Street. North. 
Garver, John A., 44 Wall Street. 
Geisler, Joseph F., New York Mercantile Exchange. 
Gies, William J., College of Physicians and Surgeons. 
Godkin, Mrs. E. L., 8 West loth Street. 
Goodnow, Henry R., 95 Riverside Drive. 
Graham, R. D., 281 Fourth Avenue. 
Gratacap, L. P., 77th Street and 8th Avenue. 
Greeff, Ernest F., 37 West 88th Street. 
Green, Horace, 15 Spruce Street. 
Greenough, John, 31 West 35th Street. 
Greenway, James C, 667 Madison Avenue. 
Griffin, Eugene, 44 Broad Street. 
Grinnell, George Bird, 346 Broadway. 
Grosvenor, Edwin P., 414 West ii8th Street. 

Groszmann, M. P. E., "Pinehurst," Depot Lane, Wash'n Height?. 
Gruenberg, Benjamin C, 60 West T3th Street. 
Hagar, Stansbury, 48 Wall Street. 
Hague, James D., 18 Wall Street. 
Hallock, Albert P., 440 ist Avenue. 
^Hallock, William, Columbia University. 
Hammer, William Joseph, 1406 Havemeyer Building. 
Hammond, John Hays, 71 Broadway. 
Haslacher, Jacob, 100 William Street. 
Havemeyer, W. F., 32 Nassau Street. 
Hay, 0..P., American Museum Natural History. 



Haynes, Miss Caroline C, i6 East 36th Street. 

Hays, B. Frank, Bensonhurst. 

Hazen, Tracy E., Barnard College, Columbia University. 

Hearn, David William, 30 West i6th Street. 

Hendricks, Henry H., 49 Cliff Street. 

Henrich, Carl, q 9 John Street. 

Henzey, Samuel Alexander, 52 Broadway. 

Hering, Daniel Webster, New York University. 

Hering, Rudolph, 170 Broadway. 

Herman, Mrs. Esther, 59 West 56th Street. 

Herter, Christian A., 819 Madison Avenue. 

Herzog. Felix B., 51 West 24th Street. 

Hess, Selraar, 122 Fifth Avenue. 

Higginson, James J., 16 East 41st Street. 

Higley, Warren, 68 West 40th Street. 

Himowich, Adolph A., 130 Henry Street. 

Hinton, John H., 41 West 32d Street, 

Hiss, P. Hanson, 437 West 59th Street. 

Hitchcock, Romyn, 20 Broad Street. 

Hodges, Miss Julia, 57 West 39th Street. 

Hoe, Mrs. R., Jr., 11 East 36th Street. 

Hoe, Mrs. Richard M., 11 East 71st Street. 

Holbrook, Percy, 145 West 69th Street. 

Holden, Edwin R., 13 East 79th Street. 

Hollick, Arthur, Bronx Park. 

Holt, Chas., 42 Broadway. 

Holt, Henry, 29 West 23d Street. 

Homer, Charles S., 245 Broadway. 

Hopkins, George B., 52 Broadway. 

Hovey, Edmund O., American Museum Natural History. 

Howe, Henry M., Columbia University. 

Howe, J. Morgan, 12 West 46th Street. 

Howe, Marshall A., Bronx Park. 

Howell, Wilson Stout, 80th Street and East End Avenue. 

Hubbard, Walter C, Coffee Exchange Building. 

Huddleston, John H., 126 West 85th Street. 

Humphreys, Alexander C, 31 Nassau Street. 

Hunter, George W., Jr., 2297 Loring Place. 

Huntington, G. S., Columbia University. 

Hyde, B. T. Babbitt, 20 West S3d Street. 

Hyde, E. Francis, Hotel Netherland. 

Hyde, Miss Elizabeth Mead, 210 East z8th Street. 

Hyde, Frederick E., 20 West 53d Street. 

Hyde, Frederick E., Jr., 20 West 53d Street. 

Hyde, Henry St. J., 210 East i8th Street. 



Ingram, Edw. L., N. Y. Navy Yard. 

Ives, Frederick E.. 552 West 25th Street. 

Jackson, Victor H., 240 Lenox Ave. 

Jacoby, Harold, Columbia University. 

Jarvis, Samuel M., i West 7 2d Street. 

JeflEeris, William W., 442 Central Park, West. 

Jenks, William Johnson, 120 Broadway. 

Jesup, Morris K., 44 Pine Street. 

Johnson, Willis G., 52 Lafayette Place. 

Johnston, Thomas J., 66 Broadway. 

Johnstone, William Bard, 22 West 25th Street. 

Jones, Adam L.. Columbia University. 

Jtdien, Alexis A., Columbia University. 

Kahn, Julius, 100 West 80th Street. 

Kasner, Edw., Columbia University. 

Kean, Mrs. Hamilton Pish, 25 East 37th Street. 

Kemp, James P.. Columbia University. 

Keppel, F. P., Columbia University. 

Keppler, Rudolph. 28 West 70th Street. 

Ketchum, Alexander P., 32 Mt. Morris Park, West. 

Keyser, Cassius Jackson, Columbia University. 

King. Cyrus A., Gresham Court. loi West i4otli Street. 

Klepetko, Frank, 307 Battery Park Building. 

Knox, Henry H., no East 23d Street. 

Koues, Miss Elizabeth L., 282 West 85th Street. 

Kummer, Frederic Arnold, 29 Broadway. 

Kunhardt, Wheaton B., i Broadway. 

Kunz, G. F., Union Square. 

La Fetra, Linnaeus Edford, 58 West 58th Street. 

Lange, J. D., 220 West 79th Street. 

Langmann, Gustav, 121 West 57th Street. 

Laudy, Louis H., Columbia University. 

Leaming, Edward, 437 West 59th Street. 

Leavitt, Frank M., 258 Broadway. 

Ledoux, Albert R., 99 John Street. 

Lee, Frederic S., 437 West 59th Street. 

Levene, P. A., i Madison Avenue. 

Levine, Edmund J., 638 Broadway. 

Lewis, Clarence McK., care Wm. Salomon & Co., 25 Broad Street 

Lindenthal, Gustav, 45 Cedar Street. 

Ling, George H., Columbia University. 

Linville, Henry R., 509 West 112th Street. 

Livingston. Burton E., Bronx Park. 

Lloyd, Francis E., Columbia University. 

Lloyd, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth, Columbia University. 



Lobenstine, William C, 245 Central Park, West. 

Loeb, Morris, 273 Madison Avenue. 

Loewy, Benno, 206 and 208 Broadway. 

Logan, Walter S., 27 William Street. 

Lough, J. E., New York University. 

Love, Edward G., 80 East 55th Street. 

Low. Seth. 30 East 64th Street. 

Luquer, Lea Mcllvane, Columbia University. 

Lyman, Chester W., 30 Broad Street. 

McAlpin. P. W., 55 West 33d Street. 

MacCracken, John H., Syndic of New York University. 

MacDougal, Daniel T., Bronx Park. 

MacDougall, George R., 131 West 73d Street. 

MacDougall, Robert, Sedgwick Park. 

MacFarland, W. W., 22 William Street. 

Maclntyre, Miss Lucy. 303 West 74th Street. 

Mack, Jacob W., 92 Liberty Street. 

McClintock, Emory, 32 Nassau Street. 

McGregor, James H., Columbia University. 

McKeag, Miss Anna J., 14 East i6th Street. 

Maclay, James, Columbia University. 

McMillin, Emerson, 40 Wall Street. 

McMurtrie, William, 100 William Street. 

McMulty, John J., College of City of New York. 

McNulty, Geo. Washington, 258 Broadway. 

MacVannel, John A., Columbia University. 

Macy, V. Event, 68 Broad Street. 

Magee, Louis J., 25 Broad Street. 

Magill, William S.. Dry Milk Co., ii Broadway. 

Maltby, Margaret E., Barnard College. 

Mapes, Charles Victor, 60 West 40th Street. 

Marks, Louis B., 687 Broadway. 

Martin, W. R. H., 56 West 33d Street. 

Marvin, Harry Norton, 11 East 14th Street. 

Meltzer, S. J., 107 West i22d Street. , 

Merrill. Earle Abbott, 26 Cortlandt Street. 

Merrill, Pa3rson, iii Broadway. 

Mershon. Ralph D., 621 Broadway. 

Metcalfe, Henry, 143 Liberty Street. 

Meyer, Adolf, N. Y. State Hospital, Wards Island. 

Miller. Edmund H., Columbia University. 

Miller, George N.. 811 Madison Avenue. 

Miller, Henry Huntington, 13 Park Row Building. 

Mitchell. Edward, 44 Wall Street. 

Mitchell, Henry Bcdinger, Columbia University. 



Mitchell, Roland G., 141 Water Street. 

Mitchell, Samuel A., Columbia University. 

Morris, Henry L., i6 Exchange Place. 

Morris, Newbold, 52 East 7 2d Street. 

Morris, Robert T., 58 West 56th Street. 

Morrison, Chas. E., 131 Hamilton Place. 

Moses, Alfred J., Columbia University. 

Mosher, Charles D., No. i Broadway. 

Mullin, Edward Hemphill, 44 Broad Street. 

Myers, William S., 12 John Street. 

Nash, George V., Norwood Heights. 

Nesmith, Henry E., Jr., 28 South Street. 

Nichols, Ernest Fox, Columbia University. 

Niles, Robert Lossing, 66 Broadway. 

Oakes, F. James, 58 Stone Street. 

Obrig, Adolph, ''The Dakota." 

O'Connor, Joseph, 146 Frank Street. 

Ogden, Herbert Gouverneur, Jr., The Royalton Hotel, 44 West 44th 

Opdyke, William S., 20 Nassau Street. 
Osbom, Henry F., Columbia University. 
Osburn, Raymond C, Columbia University. 
Paltsits, Victor Hugo, Lenox Library. 
Parish, Henry, 52 Wall Street. 
Park, William Hallock. 315 West 76th Street. 
Parsell, Henry V. A., 770 West End Avenue. 
Parsons, Mrs. Edwin, 326 West 90th Street. 
Parsons, John E., iii Broadway. 
Patten, John, 325 East 97th Street. 
Patterson, Frank A.. 141 Broadway. 
Pearson, Fred. Stark, Room 220, 29 Broadway. 
Peckham, Wheeler H., 80 Broadway. 

Pegram, George B., Columbia University. »' 

Penniman, George H., 107 1 Fifth Avenue. 
Pepper, George H., American Museum Natural History. 
Peterson, Frederick, 4 West 50th Street. 
Phillips, John S., 141 East 25th Street. 
Pitkin, Lucius, 47 Fulton Street. 
Plant, Albert, 28 East 76th Street. 
Piatt, Thomas C, 48 Broadway. 
Plimpton, George Arthur, 70 Fifth Avenue. 
Porter, H. Hobart, Jr., 31 Nassau Street. 
Potter, Mrs. Henry C, 347 West 89th Street. 
Powel, de Veaux, 28 Broadway. 
Prince, J. Dyneley, 15 Lexington Avenue. 



Pritchard, William Broaddus, 105 West 73d Street. 

Proudfit, Alexander Couper, 40 Wall Street. 

Pupin, M. I., Columbia University. 

Quackenbos, John D., 331 West a 8th Street. 

Radin, Paul, 844 Teasdale Place. 

Raymond, Rossiter W., 99 John Street. 

Rees, John K., Columbia University. 

Reid, Whitelaw, 451 Madison Avenue. 

Reuter, Ludwig H., 434 East 87th Street. 

Rice, Calvin Winsor, 44 Broad Street. 

Rich, Michael P., 50 West 38th Street. 

Richard, Montrose R., 114 West ii6th Street. 

Richards, Edgar, 341 West 88th Street. 

Richards, Herbert, Columbia University. 

Rickard, T. A., 261 Broadway. 

Ricketts, Louis D., 99 John Street. 

Ricketts, Pierre de Peyster, 104 John Street. 

Ries, Elias E., 116 Nassau Street. 

Riker, Clarence B., 48 Vesey Street. 

Riker, Samuel, 27 East 69th Street. 

Robb, J. Hampden, 23 Park Avenue. 

Rogers, Edward L., 71 Broadway. 

Roney, Wm. R., 10 Bridge Street. 

Root, Elihu. 

Rothschild, Jacob, Hotel Majestic. 

Rupp, August, College of City of New York. 

Ruppert, G. E., 5 West 86th Street. 

Rusby, Henry H., 115 West 68th Street. 

Russak, Prank, 19 East 65 th Street. 

Russell, James E., Teachers' College. 

Rydberg, P. A., Bronx Park. 

Sachs, B., 21 East 65th Street. 

Sando, Will J., 120 liberty Street. 

Sattcrlee, F. LreRoy, 8 West i8th Street. 

Savage, Watson L., Columbia University. 

Saville, Marshall H., American Museum Natural History. 

Schermerhom, F. Aug., 10 1 University Place. 

Schermerhom, William C, 49 West 23d Street. 

Schemikow, Ernest, P. O. Box 1191. 

Schieffelin, Eugene, 865 Madison Avenue. 

Schieren, Charles A., Brooklyn. 

Schiff, Jacob H., P. O. Box 1193. 

Schirmer, Gustave, 117 East 35th Street. 

Schmitt, A. Emil, 103 East 60th Street, The Palermo. 

Schoney, L., St. James Court, 143d Street and 7th Avenue, 



Schultz, Carl H., 430-444 First Avenue. 

Searle, George M., Paulist Fathers, 415 West 59th Street. 

See, Horace, i Broadway. 

Seligman, Isaac N., Mills Building. 

Sever, George F., Broadway and nyth Street. 

Seymour, George S., 17 Battery Place. 

Shafer, John A., Bronx Park. 

Shepherd, Miss Elizabeth, 353 West 128th Street. 

Sherman, Henry C, Columbia University. 

Shiland, Andrew, Jr., 262 West 78th Street. 

Sickles, Ivin, 17 Lexington Avenue. 

Skeel, Prank D., 58 East 25th Street. 

Small, John Kunkel, Bedford Park. 

Smith, Arthur, 152 Broadway. 

Smith, Ernest Ellsworth, 262 Fifth Avenue. 

Smith, Harlan I., American Museum Natural History. 

Soper, George A., 39 Broadway. 

Soule, R. H., 917 Seventh Avenue. 

Spaulding, Edward G., College of the City of New York. 

Spiccr, Walter E., 312 West 51st Street. 

Spofford, Paul N., P. O. Box 1667. 

Stanley- Brown, Joseph, 128 Broadway. 

Stanton, John R., 11 and 13 William Street. 

Stanton, Robert B., 66 Broadway. 

Starr, M. Allen, 5 West 54th Street. 

Starrett, M. G., 349 West 8sth Street. 

Stem, Philip Kossuth, 130 Fulton Street. 

Stevens, Edward Lawrence, 5 9th Street and Park Avenue. 

Stevens, George T., 22 East 46th Street. 

Stevenson, John J., University Heights. 

Stieringer, Luther, 129 Greenwich Street. 

Stillwell, Lewis Buckley, Park Row Building. 

Stockard. Chas. R., Columbia University. • 

Stokes, Anson Phelps, 47 Cedar Street. 

Stone, Mason A., 161 Broadway. 

Stookey, Lyman Brumbaugh, Pathological Institute, Wards Island 

Strong, Oliver S., Columbia University. 

Sumner, Francis B., College of the City of New York. 

Taggart, Rush, 319 West 7Sth Street. 

Tatlock, John, 32 Nassau Street. 

Taylor, Henry Ling, 125 West 58th Street. 

Tesla, Nikola, 55 West 27th Street. 

Thompson, Robert M., 43 Exchange Place. 

Thompson, W. Gilman, 34 East 31st Street. 

Thorndike, E. L., Columbia University. 



Thome, Mrs. Phoebe Anna, 558 Madison Avenue. 

Thome, Samuel, Jr., 44 East 70th Street. 

Tiffany, Louis C, 15 Union Square. 

Titus, E., Jr., 10 East 70th Street. 

Trask, Spencer, William Street comer Pine Street. 

Treat, Erastus B., 241-243 West 23d Street. 

Trowbridge, Charles Christopher, Columbia University. 

Tucker, Wra. C, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Tuckerman, Alfred, 342 West 57th Street. 

Tufts, Frank Leo, Columbia University. 

Turner, J. Spencer, 71 Worth Street. 

Tweedy, Alice B., Spuyten Duyvil. 

Underwood, Lucien M., Columbia University. 

Vail, Miss Anna Murray, 29 Washington Square. 

Valentine, Morris Crawford, 259 West 131st Street. 

Van Amringe, John Howard, Columbia University. 

Van Beuren, Frederick T., 21 West 14th Street. 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 602 Fifth Avenue. 

Van Winkle, Edgar B., 115 East 70th Street. 

Villard, Mrs. Henry, 145 West 58th Street. 

Vineberg, Hiram N., 751 Madison Avenue. 

Waddell, Montgomery, 135 Broadway. 

Wainwright, John William, 177 West 83d Street. 

Wales, Charles M., 11 Broadway. 

Walker, James, 49 Maiden Lane. 

Wallerstein, M., 105 East 91st Street. 

Walsh, James J., 1973 Seventh Avenue. 

Walter. W. J., 115 West 57th Street. 

Ward, J. Langdon, 120 Broadway. 

Ward, Willard Parker, 164 West 5 8th Street. 

Ware, William R., Columbia University. 

Warren, William R., 68 W^illiam Street. 

Watterson, Miss Ada, 153 West 84th Street. 

Webster, Albert Lowry, 112 East 40th Street. 

Weeks, John Elmer, 46 East S7th Street. 

Wetzler, Joseph, 240-242 West 23d Street. 

Wheeler, William Morton, American Museum of Natural History. 

White, Horace, 18 West 69th Street. 

Whitfield, R. P., American Museum Natural History. 

Wiechmann, F. G., 310 West 80th Street. 

Wightman, Merle J., 302 Broadway. 

Wilbour, Mrs. Charlotte B., 40 Central Park, South. 

Wiley, William H., 43 East 19th Street. 

Williams, Arthur, 55 Duane Street. 

Williams, Ira Abraham, 77 West 124th Street. 



Williamson, G. N., 14 Dey Street. 

Wills, Albert P., Columbia University. 

Wilson, E. B., Columbia University. 

Wingate, Miss Hannah S., 23 West Z29th Street. 

Witthaus, R. A., Cornell Medical College. 

Wolf, August S., 120 Broadway. 

Wood, Mrs. Cynthia A., 117 West 5 8th Street. 

Wood, Matthew P., 234 West 44th Street. 

Wood, Thomas D., Columbia University. 

Woodbridge, Frederick J., Columbia University. 

Woodhull, John Francis, Teachers' College. 

Woodman, Durand, 127 Pearl Street. 

Woods, John A., 120 Broadway. 

Woodward, Anthony, American Museum Natural History. 

Woodward, R. S., Columbia University. 

Woodworth. R. S., 338 East a6th Street. 

Wyeth, John A., 19 West 35th Street. 

Zalinski, E. L., 7 West 43d Street. 

Niagara Falls. 
Acheson, Edward G. 

Barton, Philip Price, 127 Buffalo Avenue. 
Fitz Gerald, Francis A. J., P. O. Box 118. 
Hall, Charles M., Pittsburg Reduction Company. 

Davis, Edward E., 47 West Main Street. 

Bradley, Stephen R. 

Burdick, Lewis Dayton. 


Orleman, Miss Daisy M., Peekskill Military Academy. 
Orleman, Louis H., Peekskill Military Academy. 

Pbn Yan. 
Taylor, Edward Randolph. 


Hudson, George H., State Normal and Training School. 
Stackpole, Miss Caroline E., State Normal School. 

Poland Cbntbr. 
Cheney, Newel. 



PoMPTON Lakes. 
Ogilvie, Miss Ida Helen, Box 133. 

Port Chbstbr. 
Gregg, William H. 

Roberts, Miss Jennie B., 231 William Street. 

Port Richmond. 
Dowell, Philip, High School. 


Aldrich, William S., Clarkson School of Technology. 
Brackett, Byron B., Clarkson School of Technology. 
Stowell. T. B. 


Bawden, H. Heath, Vassar College. 
Cooley, LeRoy C, Vassar College. 
D wight, William B., Vassar College. 
Fumess, Miss Caroline E., Vassar College. 
Kauffman, William A,, 73 Hooker Avenue. 
Stone, Miss Isabelle, Vassar College. 
Thelberg, Miss Elizabeth B., Vassar College. 
Whitney, Miss Mary W., Vassar College. 

Prince Bay. 
Johnston, William A. 

Just, John A., Jefferson Avenue and Delano Street 


Gardner, Corliss B. 


Bausch, Edward, P. O. Drawer 1033. 
Bausch, Henry, P. O. Drawer 1033. 
Beckwith, Miss Florence, 394 Alexander Street. 
Davison, John M., 340 Oxford Street. 
Dodge, Charles Wright, University of Rochester. 
Drescher, Willibald A. E., P. O. Drawer 1033. 
Eaton, Elon H., 209 Cutler Building. 
Fairchild, H. L., University of Rochester. 
Gilbert, Charles B., 106 Brunswick Street. 
Hale, George D., 1059 Lake Avenue. 
Lattimore, S. A., University of Rochester. 
Lawrence, Harry E., University of Rochester. 




Lindsay, Alexander M. 

Lomb, Adolph, P. O. Drawer 1033. 

Lomb, Henry, P. O. Drawer 1033. 

Lomb, Henry C, P. O. Drawer 1033. 

McCartney, James H., Room 501 Granite Bviilding. 

Paine, Cyrus P., 242 East Avenue. 

Reche, Miss Eugenie M., 31 Howell Street. 

Robinson, Otis Hall, University of Rochester. 

Townson, Andrew J., Granite Building. 

Ward, Frank A., 16-26 College Avenue. 


Andrews, William Symes, General Electric Company. 

Curtiss, Richard Sydney, Union University. 

Gantt, Henry Lawrence, care of American Locomotive Company. 

Hoffman, Frank S., Union University. 

Landreth, Olin H., Union University. 

Lovejoy, J. R., 811 Union Street. 

Mortensen, Casper, 5 Campbell Avenue. 

Potter, William B., General Electric Company. 

Reist, Henry G., 5 South Church Street. 

Rice, Edwin Wilbur, Jr., General Electric Company. 

Riddell, John, 1132 State Street. 

Steinmetz, Charles Proteus, General Electric Company. 

Wheeler, E. B., Union University. 

Williams, Frank Blair, Union College. 


Bias, Solomon. 

Landon, Francis G. 

Bardwell, Darwin L. 
Hunt, Charles Wallace. 


Bardeen, Charles William, 406 S. Franklin Street. 

Barr, John Henry, care of Smith-Premier Typewriter Co. 

Billiard, Warren Gardner, Syracuse University. 

Clark, Gaylord Parsons, Syracuse University. 

Cogswell, William B. 

Cruikshank, Barton, 1813 W. Genesee Street. 

French, E. L., Crucible Steel Company of America. 

Hargitt, Charles W., Syracuse University. 

Hopkins, Thomas Cramer, Syracuse University. 



Kent, Wm., Syracuse University. 

Kenyon, Oscar Curtis, High School. 

Kirkwood, Joseph E., Syracuse University. 

Kraus. Edward H., Syracuse High School. 

Marlow, Prank William, 300 Highland Street. 

Mathews, John A., Crucible Steel Co. of America. 

Metzler. William H., Syracuse University. 

Porter, J. Edward, 8 Clinton Block. 

Reese, Albert M., Syracuse University. 

Roc, Edward Drake, Jr., Syracuse University. 

Saunders, F. A., Syracuse University. 

Smallwood, Martin, Syracuse University. 

Steensland, Halbert Severin, 614 South Salma Street. 

Totman, David M., 303 Montgomery Street. 

Towle, William M., Syracuse University. 

Van Duyn, John, 318 James Street. 

Bamhart, John H. 

Coutant, Richard B. 

Gamier, Madame Laure Russell, The Castle. 


Crockett, Charles W., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

Hanaman, C. E. 

Houston, David Walker, 18 Second Street. 

Marsh, James P., 1828 Fifth Avenue. 

Mason, William P., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

Peck. Mrs. John Hudson, 3 Irving Place. 

Raymond, William G., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

Ricketts, Palmer C, 30 Second Street. 

Ward. R. H.. 53 Fourth Street. 

Church, Royal Tyler. 

Tuxedo Park- 
Collier. Price. , 
Douglas, Mrs. George William. 


Dimon, Miss Abigail C, 367 Genesee Street. 
Golden. Harry E., Mann Building. 

Hilton, William A., 435 Penn Avenue. 

obooraphical distribution — n. v. — n. c. 

Hall, Edwin Bradford. 

West New Brighton. 

Berry, Edgar H., care of C. W. Hunt Co. 
Serrell, Edward Wellman, Forest Avenue. 

White Plains. 
Schmid, H. Ernest. 


Crehore, Albert C, 48 Lincoln Terrace. 
Johnson, Frank Edgar, 747 Warburton Avenue. 


Juat, Francis. 


von Ruck, Karl, Winyah Sanitarium. 

Chapel Hill. 

Baskerville, Charles, University of North Carolina. 

Cain, William, University of North Carolina. 

Cobb, Collier, University of North Carolina. 

Coker, William Chambers, University of North Carolina. 

Gore, J. W., University of North Carolina. 

Holmes, Joseph A., North Carolina Geological Survey. 

Mills, James Edward. 

Myers, Edward W., North Carolina Geological Survey. 

Pratt, Joseph Hyde. 

Venable, F. P., University of North Carolina. 

Wheeler, Alvin Sawyer, University of North Carolina. 

Wilson, Henry Van Peters, University of North Carolina. 

Satterfield, David J., Scotia Seminary. 

Van Dyck, William Van Bergen. 

Hamaker, John Irvin, Trinity College. 


Bryant, Miss D. L., 218 Ashe Street. 
Hammel, Wm. C. A., State Normal School. 


gbograprical distribution — n. c. — n. dak. — ohio. 

Ashe. W. Willard. 

Chittenden, Thomas A., Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

Kilgore, Benj. W. 

Massey, Wilbur Pisk, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Sackett. Walter George, Baptist Female University. 

Sherman, Franklin, Jr. 

Stevens, Prank L. 

Von Herrman, C. P., U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Williams, Charles B., North Carolina Department of Agriculture. 

Wake Forest. 

Brewer, Charles Edward, Wake Forest College. 
Poteat, William L. 

West Raleigh. 

Withers, W. A., North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Vest, Solomon Alexander, Navassa Guano Company. 

Ludlow, Jacob Lott, 434 Summit Street. 


Agricultural College. 
BoUey, Henry L., Agricultural College. 


Griggs, Robert P., Fargo College. 

Ladd, Prof. E. P. 

Wetzel, Reinhard A., Science High School. 

George, Walter, University of North Dakota. 

Chandler, Elwyn Francis. University of North Dakota. 

Valley City. 
Perrine, Miss Lura L., State Normal School. 


Secor, William Lee. 


geographical distribution — ohio. 


Knight, Charles M., 129 South Union Street. 
Replogle, Mark A., in South Walnut Street, 
Shaw, Edwin C, 104 Park Street. 


Pawcett, £zra, 233 Ely Street. 
Lee, Edwin, Mt. Union College. 
Soule, William, Mt. Union College. 
Yanney, Benjamin P., Mt. Union College. 

Snyder, Fred. D., lo Center Street. 


Bentley, Wm. B., Ohio University. 

Hoover, William. 

Mercer, William Fairfield, Ohio University. 

Bell, John Everett, care of Sterling Co. 

York, Lewis E. 

Fullmer, Edward Lawrence. 


Ayers, Howard, University of Cincinnati. 

Behrend, Bemhard Arthur, Station H. 

Benedict, Harris Miller, 103 West St. Clair Street. 

Bouscaren, Louis Frederic Gustav, City Hall. 

Burke, M. D., 404 Pike Building. 

Cincinnati, Public Library of. 

Cushing, John J., 1001 Union Trust Building. 

Evans. Thomas, University of Cincinnati. 

Fleming, John A.. 1851 Kinney Avenue, E. Walnut Hills. 

Guyer, M. P.. University of Cincinnati. 

Hillkowitz, William, 704 Race Street. 

Holmes, Christian R., 8-10 East 8th Street. 

Homberg, Frederick, Woodward High School. 

Hyde, E. W., Station D, 

Jewett, William Cornell, 541 Ridge way Avenue. 

Johnston, Arthur W., Madison Road. 

Lloyd, John Uri, Court and Plum Streets. 

Lyle, Benjamin P., 2302 West Eighth Street. 



Menyweather, George N., 639 Forest Avenue, Avondale. 

Powell, James, 2525 Spring Grove Avenue. 

Ransohoff, Joseph. 

Reigart, John Franklin, University of Cincinnati. 

Springer, Alfred, 312 East 2d Street, 

Stewart. Robert W., The Oritz. 


Avery, Elroy M., 657 Woodland Hills Avenue. 

Baldwin, S. Prentiss, 736 Prospect Street. 

Brush, Charles F., 1003 Euclid Avenue. 

Burton, Theodore E. 

Case, Eckstein, Case School. 

Chadwick, Leroy S., 1824 Euclid Avenue. 

Cook, Samuel R., Case School. 

Cowles, Alfred H., 656 Prospect Street, 

Crile, Geo. W., 169 Kensington Street. 

Curtis, Mattoon M., Western Reserve University, 

Cushing, Henry Piatt, Adelbert College. 

Dutton, Charles Frederic, Jr., 64 West Roy Avenue. 

Emmerton, Frederic Augustus, 9 Bratenahl Building. 

Focke, Theodore M., Case School. 

Frost, Arthur Barzilla, 33 Fay Street. 

Greenman, Jesse M., 875 Doan Street. 

Gruener, Hippolyte, Adelbert College. 

Herrick, Francis Hobart, Adelbert College. 

Hobbs, Perry L., Western Reserve Medical College. 

Holden, Mrs. L. E., "The HoUenden." 

Howe, Charles S., Case School. 

Hower, Harry Sloan, Case School. 

Knox, Wilm, Society for Savings Building. 

LeBaron, John F., 1329 Williamson Building. 

McGee, John Bernard, 1405 Woodland Avenue. 

Mabery, Professor C. F., Case School. 

Marple, Charles A., 382 Sibley Street. 

Marvin, Walter T., 36 Knox Street. 

Miller, Dayton C, Case School. 

Miller, Miss Louise K.. Goodrich House. 

Mills, John, Western Reserve University. 

Morley, Edward W., Adelbert College. 

Moulton, W. H.. Mayfield Heights. 

Peskind, Arnold, 1354 Wilton Avenue. 

Price. Weston A. V., 2238 Euclid Avenue. 

Robb, Hunter, 702 Rose Building. 

Smith, Albert W., Case School of Applied Science. 



Smith, Charles J., 35 Adelbert Street. 

Sollmann, Torald. Western Reserve Medical College. 

Spenzer, John G., 116 Rose Building. 

Stair, Leslie D., 106 a E. Madison Avenue. 

Stockwell, John N., ioo8 Case Avenue. 

Tower, Olin F.. Adelbert College. 

Tunstall, Whitmell Pugh, B. & O, Depot. 

Waite, Frederick C, Western Reserve Medical College. 

Warner, Worcester R., 1722 Euclid Avenue. 

Whitman, Frank P., Adelbert College. 

Wilson, Delonza Tate, Case School of Applied Science. 


Alspach. E. F., 455 West 6th Avenue. 
Blackburn, Joseph E., Box 231. 
Bleile, Albert M., Ohio State University. 
Bownocker, J. A., Ohio State University. 
Boyd, James E., Ohio State University. 
Cole, Alfred D., Ohio State University. 
Davies. Arthur Ernest, Ohio State University. 
Detmers, Fredcricka, 13 15 Neil Avenue. 
Earhart. Robert F., Ohio State University. 
Foulk, Charles W., Ohio State University. 
Haines, Thomas, Ohio State University. 
Henderson, William Edward, Ohio State University. 
Hine, James S., Ohio State University. 
Hitchcock, Embury A., 380 West 8th Avenue. 
Howard. Curtis C., 97 Jefferson Avenue. 
Kellerman, William A., Ohio State University. 
Kcster, Frederick Edward, Ohio State University. 
Landacre, Francis L., Ohio State University. 
Lawrence, Florus F., 423 East Town Street. 
Lazenby, W. R. 

McPherson, William, Ohio State University. 
Magruder, William T., Ohio State University. 
Major, David R., Ohio State University. 
Mead, Charles S., 217 King Avenue. 
Mills, William C, Ohio State University. 
Morrey, Charles B., Ohio State University. 
Morse, Max W., Ohio State University. 
Orton, Edward, Jr., "The Normandie." 
Osbom, Herbert, Ohio State University. 
Prosser, Charles S., Ohio State University. 
Riddle, Lumina C, 160 West 5th Avenue. 
Robinson, Stillman W., 1353 Highland Street. 



Ruppersberg, Miss Emma A., 842 South High Street. 
Schaffner, John H., Ohio State University. 
Stone, Julius F. 

Swartzel, Karl D., 318 West 6th Avenue. 
Thomas, Benjamin F., Ohio State University. 
Tuckcrman, Louis B., 1473 Neil Avenue. 
Weber, Henry A., Ohio State University. 
Williamson, Homer D., 133 W. loth Avenue. 

Albaugh, Maurice. 

Gold, James Douglas. 


Houk, Mrs. Eliza P. T., P. O. Box 94. 
Lowe, Houston. 

Slocum, Charles E. 


Duvall. Trumbull G.. Wesleyan University. 
Hormell, William G., Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Rice, Edward L., Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Westgate, Lewis Gardner, Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Little, C. A., Box 517. 

Pennell, William W. 


Halsted. George Bruce, Kenyon College. 
Walton, L. B., Kenyon College. 


Chamberlain, Clark Wells, Denison University. 
Dorsey, Herbert G. 

Herrick, C. Judson, Denison University. 
Stickney, Malcolm Enos, Denison University. 

See, James W., Opera House. 


Col ton, Geo. H., Hiram College. 
Young, Clinton Mason. 


gbographical distribution — ohio 

Mt. Vbrnon. 
Grimm, Carl Robert, 103 North Vernon Street. 


Corwin, Clifford E., High School. 

Mc Kinney, Thomas Emory, Marietta College. 

Marietta College Library. 

Monfort, Wilson F., Marietta College. 

Wolfe, Elmer Ellsworth, Marietta College. 

Hotchkiss, Elmer A. 

Nkw Carlislb. 
Thompson, James £. 

North Baltimore. 
Wenner, Francis W. 


Baird, Robert Logan, Oberlin College. 
Grover, Frederick Orville, Oberlin College. 
Jewett, Frank Panning, Oberlin College. 
Jones, Lynds, Oberlin College. 
St. John, Charles E., 125 Elm Street. 
Wright, Albert A., Oberlin College. 
Wright, George Frederick, Drawer C. 


Porter. Miss Caroline Johnson, The Western College. 
Williams,' Stephen Riggs, Miami University. 

Mathews, Miss Mary Elizabeth. Lake Erie College. 

Hurd. E. O. 


Sutton, Jasper G. 

Mansfield, Albert K., 125 Lincoln Avenue. 

Curran, Ulysses T. 
Moseley, Edwin L., High School. 

McMillan, Smith B. 


cbooraphical distributiok — ohio — oki.a. 


Linn, Alvin Prank, Wittenberg College. 
Weaver. Edwin Oscar, Wittenberg College. 

Bunn, J. P. 

Homung, Christian, Heidelberg University. 


Bessey, J. Mortimer, 1814 Adams Street. 
Hillig, Frederick J., St. Johns College. 
Savage, Thomas E., Western College. 

CoUett, Samuel W., High School. 

Warrbn. ' 

Pierce, Sloan J., R. P. D. No. 4. 

West Milton, 
Jennings, Gainor. 

Westerville. » 

Haywood, John, Otterbein University. 

McPadden, L. H. 

Miller, Prank E., Otterbein University. 

Taylor, James Landon. 

Bennett, N. E. ff 


Bennett, William Z., University of Wooster. 

Hyatt, William. 

Mateer, Horace N. 

Selby, Augustine Dawson, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Todd, J. H., Christmas Knoll. 

Wilson, Wm. H., University of Wooster. 

Twitchell, E. 


McKee, George C, care The William Tod Company. 

Gould, Charles Ncton, University of Oklahoma. 


gbographical distribution — okla. — pa. 

Chandler, Richard £. 
Shaw, Walter Robert, Agricultural and Mechanical College. 


FoRBST Grove. 
Coghill. George E., Pacific University. 

Mt. Angel. 
Epper, Frowin. 

Cheney, Williard C. 
Coe. Henry W., ''The Marquam." 
Lawbaugh, Elmer A., Oregonian Building. 
Robinson, Samuel Adams, 135 North 2 2d Street. 
Rockey, A. E., 778 Flanders Street. 



Albree, Chester B., 14-30 Market Street. 

Boucek, Anthony J., 624 Chestnut Street. 

Brashear, John A. 

Connelley, C. B. 

Deens, Miss Anna M., 216 North Avenue, West. 

Forcee, Miss Margaret P., Arch near Ohio Street. 

Phillips, Francis C, Box ia6. 

Smith, Miss Jennie M., 40 Library Place. 

Smith, Miss Matilda H., 40 Library Place. 

Snyder, William E., 510 East North Avenue. 

Tumbull, Thomas, Jr., Allegheny University. 

Wadsworth, F. L. O., Western University of Pennsylvania. 

Young, S. Edward, 2512 Perrysville Avenue. 

Hunsicker, George W., 141 North 8th Street. 
Kress, Palmer J., 636 Hamilton Street. 

Dudley, Charles B., Drawer 56. 

McFadden, Thomas Gilbert, Lebanon Valley College. 

Stevens, Cyrus Lee. 



Hice, Richard R. 


Hair, Robert W.. 28 South Center Street. 

Lambert, Preston A., 215 South Center Street. 

Laramy, Robert Edward, 27 North New Street. 

Rau, Albert George, 63 Broad Street. 

Robbins, Fred. W. 

Tunstall, Whitmell Pugh, 326 Wyandotte Street, South. 

Klingensmith, Israel P. 

Jenks, William H. 

Brtn Mawr. 

Bascom, Miss Florence, Br)^ Mawr College. 
Keasbey, Lindley M., Bryn Mawr College. 
Miller, Benjamin Le Roy, Bryn Mawr College. 
Warren. Joseph W. 

Banker, Howard J. 

Harmon, Herbert W., South- Western State Normal School. 

Himes, Charles P. 
Landis, W. W., Dickinson College. 
Mohler, John P., Dickinson College. 
Pilcher, James Evelyn, Dickinson College. 
Pratt, R. H., U. S. Indian Industrial School. 
Spangler, Harry Allen. 
Stephens, Henry Matthew, Dickinson College. 

Castlb Shannon. 
Petterman, John Calvin. 

Heflfrin, Harry, 212 West 7th Street. 


Gummere, Henry Volkmar, Ursinus College. 
Shaw, Charles Hugh, Ursinus College. 

Craig, Alexander Righter, 23a Cherry Street. 



Boy 6, Martin H. 


Pretz. Augustus Henry. 
Mercer, H. C. 

Coxe, Bckley B., Jr. 


Brasefield, Stanley E., Lafayette College. 

Coffin, Selden J., Lafayette College. 

Davison, Alvin, Lafayette College. 

Eyerman, John, "Oakhurst." 

Pirmstone, P. 

Pretz, John Edgar, lao North 3d Street. 

Green, Edgar Moore. 

Hall, William S., Lafayette College. * 

Hart, Edward, Lafayette College. 

Hellick, Chauncey Graham, Lafayette College. 

Moore, J. W., Lafayette College. 

Peck, Frederick B., Lafayette College. 

Sherwood- Dunn, B. 

Shimer, Porter W. 

Turrentine, J. W., Lafayette College. 

Allison, Charles E. 

Van Gelder, Arthur P., Climax Powder Mfg. Co. 


Dunn, Ira J., 810 Peach Street. 
Heisler, Chas. L., 909 North 8th Street. 

Conradson, Pontus H., Galena Signal Oil Company. 


Beyer, T. Raymond, 119 Maplewood Avenue. 
Brown, Stewardson, 20 East Penn Street. 
Carter, John E., Knox and Coulter Streets. 
Fox, Henry, 5603 Germantown Avenue. 
Haines, Reuben, Haines and Chew Streets. 
Hyde, Chas. G., 6336 Burbridge Street. 
Le Boutillier, Roberts, East Washington Avenue. 


geographical distribution — pa. 

Stahley, George D. 

Kinyoun, J. J. 

Shaw, Henry Clay. 

Zuber, William H., Greensburg Seminary. 

Eiesland, John, Thiel College. 


Jacobs, Michael William, aaa Market Street. 
McCreath, Andrew S., 223 Market Street. 
O'Connor, Haldeman, 13 North Front Street. 

Hall, Lyman B., Haverford College. 

Huntingdon Valley. 
Bellows, Horace M. 

Jacob's Creek. 
Medsger, Oliver P. 


Gardiner, Frederic, Jr., Yeates School. 

Kershner, Jefferson E. 

Schiedt, Richard Conrad, Franklin and Marshall College. 

Macfarlane, John M. 

Hayes, George W. 

Weimer, Edgar A., Weimer Machine Works Company. 

Dale, J. Y., P. O. Box 14. 

Owens, William Gundy, Bucknell University. 

Lincoln University. 
Miller, John Craig. 
Wright, Walter Livingston, Jr. 


gboqraphical distribution — pa. 

Lock Havbn. 

Allabach, Miss Lulu P., Central State Normal SchooL 

Fleckinger, Junius R., Normal School. 
Singer, George Park, 545 West Church Street. 

Hoopes, H. E. 


Breed, Robert S., Allegheny College. • 

Montgomery, James H. 

Snook, H. Clyde, Allegheny College. 


Doughty, Mrs. Alia. 


Bitner, Henry P. 


Spayd, Henry Howard. 

Linn, Geo. A., P. O. Box 813. 

Mount Joy. 

Zeigler, J. L. 
Dinkey, Alva C. 
Stewart, Francis L. 
Rotzell, W. E. 



Nfw Wilmington. 
Freeman, Charles, Westminster College. 

Barnsley, George Thomas. 

Oil City. 
Babcock, Charles A. 

Oliphant, F. H., South Penn. Oil Co. 

Christie, James. 


Abbott, Alexander C, University of Pennsylvania. 
Albrecht, Emil Poole, 1523 North 17th Street. 



Anders, Howard S., 1836 Wallace Street. 

Ashbrook, Donald Sinclair, 3614 Baring Street. 

Balch, Edwin Swift, 14 12 Spruce Street. 

Bancroft, John Sellers, 3310 Arch Street. 

Barker, G. P., 3909 Locust Street. 

Barringer, Daniel Moreau, 460 Bullitt Building. 

Beates, Henry, Jr., 1504 Walnut Street. 

Bergey, David }i.. Southeast comer 34th and Locust Streets. 

Biddle, James G., 1024 Stephen Girard Building. 

Blair, Andrew A., 406 Locust Street. 

Boston, L. Napoleon, 1531 South Broad Street. 

Brown, Amos Peaslee, University of Pennsylvania. 

Brown, Arthur E., 1208 Locust Street. 

Bryant, Henry G., 2013 Walnut Street. 

Burnham, George, Jr., 214 North 34th Street. 

Calvert, Philip P., University of Pennsylvania. 

Cat tell, H. W., 3709 Spruce Street. 

Cohen, Solomon Solis, 1525 Walnut Street. 

Conarroe, Thomas H., 1807 Wallace Street. 

Conklin, E. G., University of Pennsylvania. 

Coplin, W. M. L., Jefferson Medical College Hospital. 

Comman, Oliver P., 2252 North 20th Street. 

Coyle, John S., St. Joseph's College, 174 Stiles Street. 

Crawley, Edwin S., University of Pennsylvania. 

Cunningham, Francis A., 16 13 Wallace Street. 

Currie, C. A., P. O. Box 1606. 

d'Aurii, Luigi, 972 Drexel Building. 

de Benneville, James S., University Club. 

Dixon, Samuel Gibson, 1900 Race Street. 

Downs, Norton, 215 West Walnut Lane, Germantown. 

Duane, Russell, Real Estate Trust Building. 

Du Bois, Howard Weidner, 4526 Regent Street. 

Du Bois, Patterson, 401 South 40th Street. 

Dulles, Charles W., 4101 Walnut Street. 

Ehrenfeld, Frederick, University of Pennsylvania. 

Ely, Theodore N., Pennsylvania R.R., Broad Street Station. 

Fahrig, Ernst, 3642 York Road. 

Fisher, George Egbert, University of Pennsylvania. 

Fisher, S. Wilson, 1502 Pine Street. 

Plexner, Simon, University of Pennsylvania. 

Foote, Warren M., 13 17 Arch Street. 

Frazer, Persifor, Drexel Building, Room 1042. 

Gazzam, Joseph M., 611-614 Real Estate Trust Building. 

Genth, Frederick A., 103 North Front Street. 

Gildersleeve, Nathaniel, Universitv of Pennsvlvania. 



Goldsmith, Edward, 658 North loth Street. 

Goode, John Paul, University of Pennsylvania. 

Goodspeed, Arthur Willis, University of Pennsylvania. 

Gould, George Milbry, 163 1 Locust Street. 

Hance, Anthony M., 2217 De Lancey Place. 

Harrah, C. J., P. O. Box 1606. 

Harris, J. Campbell, 119 South i6th Street. 

Hart, Joseph Hall, University of Pennsylvania. 

Harte, Richard H., 1503 Spruce Street. 

Harvey, William Stecker, 119 South 4th Street. 

Haupt, Lewis M., 107 North 35th Street. 

Heilprin, Angelo, Academy Natural Sciences. 

Hexamer, C. John, 419 Walnut Street. 

Hitchcock, Miss Fanny R. M., 4038 Walnut Street. 

Holmes, Miss Mary S., 1331 12th Street. 

Humphrey, Richard L., City Hall. 

Ingham, William A., 320 Walnut Street. 

Jack, Louis, 1533 Locust Street. 

Jayne, Horace, 318 South 19th Street. 

Knauff, Francis Henry, Oak Lane. 

Kraemer, Henry, 145 North loth Street. 

Landis, Edward Horace, Central High School. 

Lathbury, B. Brentnall, 16 19 Filbert Street. 

Lazell, Ellis W.. 16 19 Filbert Street. 

LeConte, Robert Grier, 1625 Spruce Street. 

Lee, Benjamin, 1420 Chestnut Street. 

Lee, Waldemar, 4620 Wayne Street. 

Leeds, Morris E., 3221 North 17th Street. 

Leidy, Joseph, Jr., 13 19 Locust Street. 

Leonard, Charles Lester, 112 S. 20th Street. 

Lewis, Wilfred, 5901 Drexel Road. 

Lightfoot, Thomas Montgomery, Central High School. 

Lyman, Benjamin Smith, 708 Locust Street. 

McCurdy, Charles W., 724 Real Estate Trust Building. 

McFarland, Joseph, 442 West Stafford Street. 

Maher, John J., 1535 Franklin Street. 

Makuen, G. Hudson, 252 South i6th Street. 

Marks, William D., ''The Art Club." 

Meehan, S. Mendelson, German town. 

Mellor, Alfred, 2130 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Meyer, John Franklin, University of Pennsylvania. 

Milne, David, 2030 Walnut Street. 

Mohr, Charles, Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital. 

Moore, Clarence B., 1321 Locust Street. 

Nolan, Edward J., Academy Natural Sciences. 



Olsen, Tinius, 500 North 12 th Street. 
Ortmann, Arnold E., Carnej^e Museum. 
Parker, J. B., United States Naval Home. 
Patterson, James L., Chestnut Hill. 
PaiKrling, Jesse, Jr., University of Pennsylvania. 
Peirce, Cyrus N., 3316 Powelton Avenue. 
Peirce, Harold, 222 Drexel Building. 
Pennington, Miss Mary Engle, 3908 Walnut Street. 
Penrose, Charles B., 1720 Spruce Street. 

Penrose, R. A. F., Jr., 460 Bullitt Building. 

P^tre, Axel, P. O. Box 1606. 

Philips, Ferdinand, 505 N. 21st Street. 

Piersol, George A., University of Pennsylvania. 

Poth, Harry A., 216 North 33d Street. 

Randall, Burton Alexander, 17 17 Locust Street. 

Reed, Charles J., 3313 North i6th Street. 

Reckefus, Chas. H., Jr., 506 North 6th Street. 

Reese, Jacob, 400 Chestnut Street. 

Riesman, David, 1624 Spruce Street. 

Ritchie, Craig D., 414 North 34th Street. 

Rorer, Jonathan T., Central High School. 

Rosenthal, Edwin, 517 Pine Street. 

Sadtler, Samuel P., N.E. comer 10th & Chestnut Streets. 

Schaffer, Mrs. Mary Townsend Sharpless, 1309 Arch Street. 

Schwatt, Isaac Joachim, University of Pennsylvania. 

Seal, Alfred Newlin, Girard College. 

Sellers, William, 1600 Hamilton Street. 

Skinner, Henry, 716 North 20th Street. 

Smith, Allen J., University of Pennsylvania. 

Smith, Edgar F., University of Pennsylvania. 

Smith, Joseph R., 2300 De Lancey Street. 

Snyder, Monroe B., Philadelphia Astronomical Observatory. 

Steinbach, Lewis W., 1309 North Broad Street. 

Stellwagen, Thos. C, 1328 Chestnut Street. 

Stewart, Ralph Chambers, 1031 Spruce Street. 

Stradling, George F., 4114 Parkside Avenue. 

Thomas, Lancaster. 1932 Mt. Vernon Street. 

Thomson, William, 1426 Walnut Street. 

Turner, Arthur Bertram, Temple College. 

Tyson, James, 1506 Spruce Street. 
Vaux, George, Jr., 404 Girard Building. 

Walter, Miss Emma, 109 North i6th Street. 
Warder, Charles Barclay, 1715 Walnut Street. 
Wardle, Harriet N., 125 North loth Street. 
Weaver, Gerrit E. Hambleton, 916 Farragut Terrace. 




Welsh, Francis Ralston, 328 Chestnut Street. 
Wetherill, Henry Emerson, 3734 Walnut Street. 
Whitfield, J. Edward, 406 Locust Street. 
Wille, Henry Valentin, 2600 Girard Avenue. 
Wilson, William Powell, 233 South 4th Street. 
Witmer. Lightner, University of Pennsylvania. 
Wolfel, Paul L., N.W. cor. 15th & Chestnut Streets. 
Wood, Stewart, 400 Chestnut Street. 
Wood, Walter, 400 Chestnut Street. 
Woodbury, Frank, 218 South i6th Street. 

Deans, John S., Phoenix Bridge Conipany. 


Beatty, James W. F. 


Anderson, J. Hartley, 4630 5th Avenue. 

Asdale, Wm. J., Western Pennsylvania Medical College. 

Baggaley, Ralph. 

Bennett, Edward. Amber Club. 

Bland, John C, 1003 Penn Avenue. 

Buchanan, James I., Conestoga Building. 

Coster, Wm. H., Department of Public Works. 

Crawford, David Francis, Union Station. 

Daggette, Alvin S., 400 South Craig Street. 

Dempster, Alexander, 5721 Stanton Avenue. 

Ely, Sumner B., Vandergrift Building. 

English, William Thompson, Western University of Pennsylvania.' 

Falconer, William. Allegheny Cemetery. 

Finley, Norval H., 6638 Deary Street. 

Fisher, Henry Wright, S. U. Cable Company. 

Hailman, James D., Shady Avenue. 

Hartman. C. V., Carnegie Museum. 

Hatcher, John Bell, Carnegie Museum. 

Herron, John Brown, South Linden Avenue, E. E. 

Holland, W. J., Carnegie Museum. 

Kahl, Paul H. L, Carnegie Museum. 

Kann, Myer M., Station B. 

Kay, James L, 426 Diamond Street. 

Keller, Emil E., P. O. Box 452. 

Kirk, Arthur, 910 Duquesne Way. 

Knowles, Morris, 10 17 Frick Building. 

Koenig, Adolph, 122 9th Street. 

Lange, Philip A., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Company. 



Lauder, George, 7403 Penn Avenue. 

Lincoln, Paul M. 

Litchfield, Lawrence, 5431 Fifth Avenue. 

Macbeth, George A., 717 Amberson Avenue. 

McClelland, James H., 5th ami Wilkins Avenues 

Macfarlane, James R., Court House. 

McKelvy, William H., 430 6th Avenue. 

Mellor, Charles C, 319 sth Avenue. 

Metcalf, Orlando, 424 Telephone Building. 

Metcalf, William, i Fulton Street. 

Morrison, Thomas, Farmers' Bank Building. 

Negley, Henry Hillis, 600 North Negley Avenue, 

Nicola, Frank F., German National Bank Building. 

Osborne, Loyal Allen, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Company. 

Phipps, Lawrence C, Farmers' Bank Building. 

Porter, Henry K., 541 Wood Street. 

Potter, William Plumer, 304 St. Clair Street. 

Reed, James H., Amberson Avenue. 

Roberts, Thomas Paschall, 361 North Craig Street. 

Ross, F. G., Farmers' Bank Building. 

Sanes, K. L, 1636 5th Avenue. 

Scaife, William L., 28th Street. 

Scott, Charles F., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Company 

Shaw, Wilson A., Norwood Avenue, cor. Forbes Avenue. 

Stewart, Douglas, Carnegie Museum. 

Storer, Norman W., 6109 Howe Street. 

Swensson, Emil, 55 11 Hays Street. 

Taylor, Edward B. 

Thaw, Benjamin, Morewood Place. 

Thaw, Mrs. William, Box io86. 

Tonnele, Theodore, 919 College Avenue. 

Van Valkenburg, Hermon L., Amber Club. 

Wardlaw, George A., Amber Club. 

Webster, Frederick S., Carnegie Museum. 

Westinghouse, George. 

Wilkins, William G., Westinghouse Building. 

Wurts, Alexander Jay, 11 64 Shady Avenue. 

Berry, John Wilson. 
Sheafer, A. W. 



Bryson, Andrew, Brylgon Foundry. 
Mengel, Levi W., Boys' High School. 



Williams, J. C, Orchard Street. 

Taylor, J. Erskine. 


Clark, John Jesse. International Text Book Co. 
Kay, Thomas Wiles, 345 Wyoming Avenue. 
Richmond, William Henry, 3425 North Main Avenu* 
Scharar, Christian H., 2073 North Main Avenue. 

West, Thomas Dyson, T. D. West Engraving Co. 

Scull, Miss Sarah A. 

South Bethlehem. 
Cleaver, Albert M. 

Drown, Thomas M., Lehigh University. 
Franklin, William S., Lehigh University. 
Frazier, B. W., Lehigh University. 
Irving. John D., Lehigh University. 
MacNutt, Barry, Lehigh University. 
Merriman, Mansfield, Lehigh University. 
Sayre, Robert H. 

Schober. Wm. Bush, Lehigh University. 
Thomburg, Charles L., Lehigh University. 
Whitehorne, William Risby, Lehigh University. 

State College. 

Armsby, Henry Prentiss. 
Buckhout, W. A. 
Clark, Friend E. 
Frear, William. 
Osmond, I. Thornton. 
Pond. G. Gilbert. 
Surface, H. A. 
Wadsworth, M. Edw. 


Alleman, Gellert, Swarthmore College, 
Cunningham, Susan J., Swarthmore College, 
Hoadley, George A., Swarthmore College. 
Stine, W. M., Swarthmore College. 


gbographical distribution — p> 

Kennedy, Orran W., Frick Coke Company. 

Upper Darby. 

Doolittle, C. L. 
Pinkerton, Andrew. 
Morris, F. W. 

Villa Nova. 


Guth, Morris S., Milwaukee County Hospital. 
Jefferson, J. P. 
Lindsey, Edward. 
Quinn, John James. 

Walters' Park. 
Walter, Robert. 


Linton, Edwin, Washington and Jefferson College. 
McAdam, D. J., Washington and Jefferson College. 


Turner, Archelaus E., Waynesburg College. 
Waychoff, Andrew J., Waynesburg College. 

West Chester. 

Cochran, C. B., 514 South High Street. 
Farquhar, Miss Helen, Normal School. 
Schmucker, Samuel C, Normal School. 
Wagner, Samuel, Greenbank Farm. 

West Fairview. 
Bashore, Harvey B. 


Downs, Edgar Selah, 704 Trenton Avenue. 
Grant, Willis Howard, 744 South Avenue. 
Newell, Frank Clarence, 434 Rebecca Avenue. 


Dean, William H., 167 West River Street. 

Ricketts, R. Bruce. 

Taylor, Lewis H., 83 South Franklin Street. 


Westinghouse, Henry Herman. 


geographical distribution — pa. — r. i, 

Crawley, Howard. 

Wanner, Atreus. 

Thomas, Jerome B., Bencjuet. 

Winterhalter, A. G., Naval Station. 


Folkmar, Daniel, care Civil Service. 

Jenks, Albert E., Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes. 

McCaulcy. C. A. H. 

Meams, Edgar A. 

Merrill, Elmer D., Insular Bureau of Agriculture. 

Russell, A. H. 

Worcester, Dean C. 

Harris, Uriah R., U. S. Naval Station. 

Domenech, Manuel V., Lock Box 220. 

San Juan. 

Berkeley, William N.. Box 466. 

West, Max, care Treasury Department. 


Keene, George F. 


Barlow, John, College of Agriculture. , 

Card, Fred. W., College of Agriculture. 
Merrow, Miss Harriet L., College of Agriculture. 

Bartlett, John R. 

Matlack, Charies, *' Hidden Hearth." 


gbographical distribution — r. i. s, c. 

Emmons, Arthur B. 
Gibbs, Wolcott. 
Wheatland, Marcus F., 84 Johns Street. 

Peace Dale. 
Hazard, Rowland G. 


Appleton, John Howard, Brown University. 

Bams, Carl, Wilson Hall, Brown University. 

Blanchard, .\rthur Horace, Brown University. 

Catlin, Charles A., 133 Hope Street. 

Delabarre, E. B., 9 Arlington Avenue. 

Gorham, Frederic P., Brown University. 

Hill, John Edward, Brown University. 

Lowell, Russell C. 573 Hope Street. 

Marlatt, Miss Abby L., Manual Training High School. 

Mead, A. D,, Brown University. 

Miller, Horace George, 189 Bowen Street. 

Packard, A. S., 115 Angell Street. 

Palmer, Albert De Forest, Brown University. 

Slocum, Frederick, Ladd Observatory. 

Tilley, Charles Edward, Hope Street High School. 

Upton, Winslow, Ladd Observatory. 

Weed. Alfred, care Nicholson File Company. 

Williams, Leonard Worcester, Brown University. 

Woodward, William Carpenter, 5 Charles Field Street. 

Marble, Miss Sarah. 



McGahan, Chas. F. 


Ashley, George H., College of Charleston. 
Rea, Paul M., College of Charleston. 

Clemson College. 
Barnes, Albert. 

Brackett, Richard N. 

Brodie, Paul T. 

Chambliss, Charles E. 

Lewis, Joseph Volney. 

McDonnell, Curtis C. 



Mell, P. H. 
Metcalf, Haven. 
Riggs, Walter M. 


Burdell, W. J. 


Francis, Charles Ken worthy, Converse College. 

Knox, Francis H. 

Waller, Coleman Bailey, Wofford College. 


Jewett, Geo. Franklin. 


Chilcott. Ellery C, Agricultural College 
Heston, John W., Agricultural College. 

Torrence, William W., 649 Main Street. 

Ellis, Robert W. 

Norton, A. Wellington. 

Rapid City. 
Hartgering, James. 

McLaury, Howard L., School of Mines. 

O'Hara, Cleophas Cisney. School of Mines. 

Slagle, Robert Lincoln. 

Arnold, Jacob H., Redfield College. 


Reagan, Albert B., care Boarding School. 
Scovel, Edward C. 

Sioux Falls. 
Peabody, Mary Brown, All Saints School. 

B^ndrat, Thomas' A. 




Akeley, Lewis E., State University. 
Droppers, Garrett, State University. 
Todd, James E., State University. 


Williams, Harvey Ladew, P. O. Box 410. 

Anderson, Edwin Clinton, 726 Market Street. 


Bain, Samuel M., University of Tennessee. 
Claxton, P. P., University of Tennessee. 
Dabney, Charles W., University of Tennessee. 
Fulton, Weston Miller, University of Tennessee. 
Perkins, Charles Albert, University of Tennessee. 
Wait, Charles E., University of Tennessee. 

Waterhouse, James Smartt, Cumberland University. 


Cook, James B., Randolph Building. 

Sinclair, Alexander Grant, Memphis Hospital Medical College, 

Buist, John Robinson. 
Daniel, John, Vanderbilt University. 
Dudley, William L., Vanderbilt University. 
Glenn, L. C, Vanderbilt University. 
Hollinshead, Warren H., Vanderbilt University. 
Jones, Grinnell, Vanderbilt University. 
Kirk, Elliott W.. Wesley Hall. 
Lund, Robert Leathan. 
McGill, John T., Vanderbilt University. 
Martin, George W., Vanderbilt University. 
Thruston, Gates Phillips. 


Barton, Samuel M., University of the South. 
Hall, William Bonnell, University of the South. 
Quintard, Edward A. 





Bray, William L., University of Texas. 
Ellis, Alexander C, University of Texas. 
Ferguson, Alexander McGowan, University of Texas. 
Harper, Henry Winston, University of Texas. 
Lowber, James William, 113 East i8th Street. 
Mezes, Sidney Edward, University of Texas. 
Pearce, James Edwin, 309 West 10th Street. 
Prather, William L., 19 14 Nueces Street. 
Rucker, Miss Augusta, University of Texas. 
Simonds, Frederic W., University of Texas. 
Smith, Matthew Mann. 

Smith, Q. Cincinnatus, 617 Colorado Street. 
Wooten, J. S. 

Wells, Eliab Horatio, Baylor Female College. 

Fuller, Arthur Levens. 

Carroll, James J. 

College Station. 

Nagle, James C, Agricultural and Mechanicsd College. 
Ness, Hege, Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
Puryear, Chas., Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
Sanderson, E. D wight. Agricultural and Mechanical College 
Tilson, P. S., Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

Harrison, Robert Henry. 
Simpson, Frie^ch, Jr. 

Corpus Christi. 
Spohn, Arthur Edward. 

Hasic, Montague S. 

Smith, J. F., Commercial College. 

Munson, T. V. 


Long, William H., Jr., 


El Paso. 
Mellish, Ernest Johnson. 

Fort Worth. 
Chase, Ira Carleton. 

Heller, Napoleon B., Fort Worth University. 


Dudgeon, H. R., School of Medicine, University of Texas 
Jones, Charles C. 

Patten, Frank Chauncy, Rosenberg Library. 
Thompson, James Edwin, 3224 Broadway. 

Matly. Frederick W. 

Montgomery, Edmund. 


Thompson, Benj., T. & B. V. Ry. Co. 


Daviss, Edward P., 305-6 Binz Building. 
Dumble, E. T., 1306 Main Street. 
McLaughlin, A. C, Houston Oil Co., of Texas. 
Red, Samuel Clark. 


Coleman, Walter, Sam Houston Normal Institute. 
Halley, Robert Bums, Sam Houston Normal Institute. 


Curtis, George W. 

Smith, James Edward. 

Saunders, James, Lock Box 147. 

Port Arthur. 
Biggins, J. Edgar, care Gulf Refining Co. 

Prairie View. 
Blackshear, Edward Levoisier. 

Thomas, George T. 


geographical distribution — tex. — utah. 

San Antonio. 

Brackenridge, George W. 

Braunnagel, Jules L. A., P. O. Box 925. 

Vamey, A. L., San Antonio National Bank. 

Boon, John Daniel. * 

Miller, Pleasant T., 816 North 9th Street. 

Sheppard, Morris. 

Grouse, Hugh Woodward. 

Smith, Felix Ezell. 

Cole, W. F. 

Kesler, John Louis, Baylor University. 

Butler, Frank Edward, Grayson College. 

Wolfe City. 

Holstein, George W. 
Shropshire, Walter. 




Ball, Elmer D., Agricultural College. 

Kerr, Wm. J., Agricultural College. 

Linford, James Henry, The Brigham Young College. 

Salt Lake City. 

Anderson, Frank, 255 2d East Street. 

Ellis, Henry Rives, 217 South West Temple Street. 

Fisher, Robert Welles, 159 East 2d South Street. 

Garrett, Albert O., 615 South Ninth East Street. 

Howard, Orson, University of Utah. 

Jenney, Walter Proctor, Kuntsford Hotel. 

Jones, Marcus E. 

Merrill, Joseph Francis, University of Utah. 

Reynolds, George, P. O. Box B. 

Talmage, James Edward, University of Utah. 

Tiernan, Austin K., P. O. Box 441. 

geographical distribution — utah — va. 


Stackpole, Morrill D. 

Holton, Henry D. 



Butterfield, Arthur Dexter, University of Vermont. 

Freedman, William Horatio, University of Vermont. 

Jones, Lewis Ralph, University of Vermont. 

Morse, Warner Jackson, University of Vermont. 

Perkins, George H. 

Perkins, Henry F., University of Vermont. 

Stuart. William, University of Vermont. "^ 

Taft, Elihu B. 

Votey, J. William, University of Vermont. 

Bentley, Wilson A. 

Ham, Judson B., State Normal School. 


Burt, Bdward Angus, Middlebury College. 

Francisco, M. Judson, 49 Merchants' Row. 

Saint Johnsbury. 
Fairbanks, Henry. 

Hartness, James, Jones St Lamson Machine Company, 

O'Brien, Matthew Watson, 908 Cameron Street. 

Big Stone Gap. 
Hodge, James M. 


Alwood, William B., Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
Davidson, R. J., Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
Phillips, John Lloyd, Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
Price, Harvey Lee, Agricultural Experiment Station. 



Pritchard, Samuel Reynolds, Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
Randoljph, L. S., Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 

Fishbume, Edward B., Jr. 

Charlottes viLLB. 

Dunnington, F. P., University of Virginia. 
Jones, Ernest S., University of Virginia. 
Mallet t, J. W., University of Virginia. 
Stone, Ormond, University of Virginia. 
Thornton, William M., University of Virginia. 
Tuttle, Albert H., University of Virginia. 

College Park. 
Martin, F. W., Randolph- Macon Women's College. 

Miller, James Shannon, Emory and Henry College. 

Jarman, Joseph L., State Female Normal School. 

Richardson, William D., P. O. Box 185. 

Bagby, J. H. C, Hampden-Sidney College. 


Duke, Frank Williamson, Hollins Institute. 


Campbell, Henry Donald, Washington and Lee University. 
Howe, James Lewis, Washington and Lee University. 
Humphreys, David Carlisle, Washington and Lee University. 
Stevens, W. LeConte, Washington and Lee University. 

Long's Shop. 
Price, Robert H., Willow View Farm. 

Miller School. 
Tompkins, Stonewall. 

Newport News. 

Hopkins, Albert L., 2904 West Avenue. 

Post, Walter A., Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. 


gbographical distribution. — va. — w. va. 


Garcin, Ramond D., 2618 East Broad Street. 
Hunter, Joseph Rufus, Richmond College. 
Johnston, Geo. Ben., 407 Bast Grace Street. 
Kimball, James H., Weather Bureau. 
Magruder, Egbert W., Department of Agriculture. 
Valentine, Edward P. 

Engle, Horace M. 

Mueller, Edward. ' 

Mount, William D., Mathieson Alkali Works. 


Mount Vernon. 
Waugh, James Church. 

Landes, Henry. 

Shedd, Solon. 

Brainerd, Erastus. 

Eagleson, James B., 512 Burke Building. 

Frye, Theodore Christian, State University. 

Gordon, Charles Henry, University of Washington. 

Johnson, Charles W., University Station. 

Minis, John, U. S. Engineer's Office. 

Roberts, Milnor, University of Washington. 

Shelton, Edward M.. 2904 Franklin Avenue. 


Burbidge, Frederick, 510 Empire State Building. 
McMuUen, Joseph F., 1908 Nora Avenue. 

Pietrzycki, Marcel. 


Gault, Franklin B., 602 North I Street. 
Smith, Alice Maude, 327 North G Street. 


Goodwin, Elmer Forrest, State Normal School. 




Sharp, Charles Cutler, Raven Coal and Coke Company. 


Cargill, George W. 

Davis, John J." 
Smith, Harvey F. 

Sands, Wm. Hupp. 



McCune, M. Virginia, 506 West John Street. 

Brock, Luther S. 

Brown, Samuel B. 

Past, Richard Ellsworth, West Virginia University. 

Hennen, Ray V., L. B. 448. 

Hodges, Thomas Edward, West Virginia University, 

Johnson, Thomas Carskadon, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Johnston, John Black, West Virginia University. 

Jones, Clement Ross, West Virginia University. 

Maxwell, Hu. 

Morris, Russell Love, West Virginia University. 

Sheldon, John Lewis, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Stewart, James H., Agricultural Experiment Station. 

White, L C, West Virginia University. 

Witham, William Henry, West Virginia University. 

Six, William Lewis. 

Brooks, Earle Amos. 

Crockard, Frank Heame, Lock Box 34. 



Smith, Erastus G., Beloit Sanitary Laboratory. 
Smith, Thomas A., Beloit College. 

Walker, E. W., State School for the Deaf. 


. ob06raphical distribution — wis. 

Fond du Lac. 
Molitor, David, 125 Park Avenue. 

Grbbn Bay. 
Schuette, J. H. 

Windesheim, Gustave, 255 Main Street. 


Babcock, S. Moulton, 432 Lake Street. 
Birge, Edward A., University of Wisconsin. 
Bull, Storm, University of Wisconsin. 
Cheney, Lellen Sterling, 318 Bruen Street. 
Clements, Julitis Morgan, University of Wisconsin. 
Comstock, George C, University of Wisconsin. 
Fenneman, Nevin M., University of Wisconsin. 
Flint, Albert S., Washburn Observatory. 
Frost, William Dodge, University of Wisconsin. 
Goflf, E. S., 1 1 13 University Avenue. 

Hastings, Edwin George, Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Hillyer, Homer W., University of Wisconsin. 
Hobbs, William Herbert. 
Jastrow, Joseph, University of Wisconsin. 
Kahlenberg, Louis, University of Wisconsin. 
Kremers, Edward, University of Wisconsin. 
Leith, Charles Kenneth, University of Wisconsin. 
Lenher, Victor, University of Wisconsin. 
Longden, A. C, Wisconsin Avenue. 
Maurer, Edward R., University of Wisconsin. 
Mendenhall, Charles E., University of Wisconsin. 
Miller, Louallen F., University of Wisconsin. 
Miller, William S., University of Wisconsin. 
O'Shea, M. V., University of Wisconsin. 
"Russell, H. L., University of Wisconsin. 
Slichter, Charles S., University of Wisconsin. 
Snow, Benjamin W., 518 Wisconsin Avenue. 
Trowbridge, Augustus, University of Wisconsin. 
Tumeaure. Frederic E., University of Wisconsin. 
Van Hise, Charles R., University of Wisconsin. 
Wagner, George, 15 West Gorham Street. 

Weidman, Samuel, Wisconsin State Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey. 
Woll, Fritz Wilhelm, 424 Charter Street. 


geographical distribution — wis, 

Davis, Kary Cadmus. 

Daland. William Clifton. 


Beach, William Harrison, 229 Pleasant Street. 

Becher, Franklin A., 234 Oneida Street. 

Case, Ermine Cowles, State Normal School. 

Conway, George M., 10 Belvedere. 

Friend, Samuel Henry, 141 Wisconsin Street. 

Kletzsch, Gustav A., 453 Cass Street. 

Mitchell, Andrew S., 220 Green bush Street. 

Neilson, Walter Hopper, 114 Garfield Avenue. 

Nolte, Lewis G., Senn's Block. 

Ogden, Henry Vining, 141 Wisconsin Street. 

Sherman, Lewis, 448 Jackson Street. 

Stickney, Gardner P., care Oliver C. Fuller & Company. 

Uihlein, August, 332 Galena Street. 

Ward, Henry L., Public Museum. 

Wright, Clement Blake Bergen, 796 Astor Street. 

North Freedom. 
La Rue, William Gordon. 


Voje, John Henry, Private Sanatorium, Waldheim. 

Davis, J. J., 1 1 19 College Avenue. 

Chandler, Charles Henry. 

Marsh, C. Dwight, Ripon College. 

Harris. Frederick S. 

Grosskopf, Ernest C, Milwaukee County Hospital. 

Williams Bay. 

Barnard, Edward E., Yerkes Observatory. 
Fox, Philip, Yerkes Observatory. 
Frost, Edwin Brant, Yerkes Observatory. 
Hale, George E., Yerkes Observatory. 
Reese, Herbert M., Yerkes Observatory. 



Schlesinger, Frank, Yerkes Observatory. 
Wallace, Robert James, Yerkes Observatory. 


Onderdonk, Henry U. 

6alath^, Frederick, Penna. Oil and Gas Company. 

Morris, Robert C, Clerk -of Wyoming Supreme Court. 

Four Bear. 
Pickett, William Douglas. 

Buffum. Burt C. 

Nelson, Aven, University of Wyoming. 

Slosson, Edwin E., University of Wyoming. 

Carter, James. 

Coffeen, H. A. 

Shoshone Agency. 
Ramsey, Miss Mary C. 



Sao Paulo. 
Derby, Orville A. 

Lane, Horace Manley, Caixa 14. 

von Ihering, F., Museu Paulista. 



Thompson, William, Rossland Great Western Mines, Limited. 


SuttOn, William J. 

Wiirtele, John Hunter. 
Wiirtele, Louis C. 

Acton Vale. 


geographical distribution — canada. 

Hunter, Andrew Frederick. 

Macfariane, A., Gowrie Grove. 

Tyrrell, Joseph B. 

Riley, Isaac Woodbridge. 


Lochhead, William, Ontario Agrictiltural College. 
Mills, James, Ontario Agrictdtural College. 

Murray, Daniel A., Dalhousie College. 

Cornish, George A. 

Bcthune, C. J. S., 500 Duflferin Avenue. 


Burgess, Thomas J. W., Protestant Hospital for the Insane. 

Butler, Matthew J., 877 Dorchester Street. 

Cox, John, McGill University. 

Holt, Herbert S., Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company 

lies, George, 5 Brunswick Street. 

Lampard, Henry, 102 Shuter Street. 

Loeb, Leo, McGill University. 

Lyman, Henry H., 74 McTavish Street. 

Mills, Wesley, McGill University. 

Schenck. Charles C, McGill University. 

Walls, John Abbet, 1724 Notre Dame Street. 

Niagara Falls. 
Converse, Vernon G., Ontario Power Co. 


Bell, Robert, Geological Survey. 
Fletcher, James, Experimental Farm. 
Harmon, Miss A. Maria, 171 McLaren Street. 
Klotz, Otto Julius, 437 Albert Street. 
Saunders, Charles E., Experimental Farm. 
Saunders, William, Experimental Farm. 



Shutt, Frank T., Experimental Farm. 
Whiteaves, J. F., Geological Survey. 

Laflamme, J, C. K., Laval University. 

Moore, Mrs. A. H. 


Burton, E. F., Toronto University. 
Faull, Mrs. Annie B. Sargent, 245 McCaul Street. 
Galbraith, John, School of Practical Science. 
James, Charles C, Department of Agriculture. 
Kammerer, Jacob Andrae. 
Kirschmann, A., Toronto University. 
McCurdy, Arthur W., 143 Bloor Street, West. 
McLennan, J. C, Toronto University. 
Walker, Byron Edmund. 

Scott, Arthur William, St. David's College. 


Hoover, Herbert C, care Bewick, Morring & Co., Broad Street 

House, New Broad Street. 
Peters, Edw. T.. 58 Savemake Road, N. W. 
Power, Frederick B., 6 King Street, Snow Hill, E. C. 
Wells, Wm. H., Jr., 2 Norfolk Street, Strand, W. C. 

Myres, John L., Christ Church. 


Warington, Robert. 


AUis, Edward Phelps, Jr., Palais Carnoles. 

Loubat, Le Due De, 47 rue Dumont d'Urville. 

Hoffmann, Friedrich, Charlottenburg, Kant Street 125. 

(33 1) 

geographical distribution — germany mexico. 

Miyake, KUchi, Botanisches Institut, Universitat zu Bonn. 


Kr^csy, B^la, vi Bulyovsxky u. 22. 


San Remo. 
Kuntze, Otto, Villa Girola. 


Fawcett, Wm., Hope Gardens. 


Hoyt, Olive Sawyer, Kobe College. 


Loew, Oscar. 
Gause, Fred. Taylor. 

Morse, Willard S. 
Alexander, Curtis. 




City op Mexico. 

Agviilera, Jos^ G., Ecological Institute of Mexico. 

de Arozarena, Rafael M., 2 da Calle de las Estaciones. 

Delafond, E., P. O. Box 2290. 

Hard, James M. B., Cordobanes 16. 

Sercombe, Parker H., la Calle San Francisco No. 8. 

Smoot, Edgar Kenneth, D. F. 79 Paseo de la Reforma. 


Herbert, Arthur P. 

Bowman, Joseph H. 




NuttalU Mrs. Zelta, Casa Alvarado. 

Schiaffino, Mariano L. 


Schiertz, Ferdinand A. 

Gutierrez, Manuel R. 
McLimont, Andrew W. 
Cema, David. 
Dysterud, E. 
De Landero, Carlos P. 






Abbott, Theodore Sperry. 
Burton, Standish B. 

San Nicolas dbl Oro. 
Miller, Henry Huntington. 

McMahan, Charles Hays. 


Peterson,' Bertel. 

Vbra Cruz. 
Parker, Herman B. 

Villa Corona. 
Camaghan, Edwin D. 



Prankland, Frederick W., Herston Farm, Foxton, 


Crawford, John. 



Scaife, Walter B., care A. W. Elford. 


Capb Town, 

Gilchrist, John D., Department of Agriculture. 
Lounsbury, Charles P., Department of Agriculture. 
Mally, Charies William, Department of Agriculture. 


Davy, Joseph Burtt, Department of Agriculture. 
Simpson, Charles Baird, Department of Agriculture. 


Norton, Thomas H., United States Consulate. 


McDermott, P. A., Roman Catholic Mission, Old Calabar. 




[A list of deceased members of the Association, so far as known 
at the time of publishing the volume of Proceedings of the Spring- 
field meeting, May, 1896, is given in that volume. At the Buffalo 
meeting the Council directed the Permanent Secretary to omit 
the printing of the full list of deceased members in the annual vol- 
umes and to print only the additions to the list. Since the publica- 
tion of the list printed in the Washington Proceedings (Vol. 53) 
notices have been received of the decease of the following members.] 

Abbot. Francis Ellingwood, 43 Larch Road, Cambridge, Mass. 

(50). Died October 23, 1903. 
Abert, S. Thayer, Metropolitan Club, Washington, D. C. (30). 
Allen, J. M., Hartford, Conn. (aa). Died December 28, 1903. 
Baker, Marcus, Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (30). Died 

December la, 1903. 
Boies, Henry Martin, 530 Clay Avenue, Scranton, Pa. (50). 

Died December la, 1903. 
BoLTON, H. Carrinoton, Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C. (17). 

Died November 19, 1903. 
Bond, Fred, Cheyenne, Wyoming. (50). 

Clancy, Michael Albert, 1436 Corcoran St., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Crane, Walter, Braddock. Pa. (47). Died October 18, 1902. 
Cranford, J. P., Wakefield. New York, N. Y. (50). Died January 

28, 1903. 
Day, Fisk H., 309 Sycamore St., Lansing, Mich. (20). Died May 

30. 1903- 
de Peyster, Johnston Livingston, Tivoli, N. Y. (52). Died May 

27, 1903. 
de Schweinitz, E. A., U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

D. C. (36). Died . 

Douglass, Andrew E., Am. Mus. Nat. History, New York, N. Y. (31) . 
Engelmann, George J., 208 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. (25). 

Died November 16, 1903. 
Everts, Orpheus, Cincinnati, Ohio. (51). Died June 19, 1903. 
Ewell, Ervin E., Atlanta, Ga. (40). Died 

Faile, Thomas H., Murray Hill Hotel, New York, N. Y. (50). 
Foster, George Winslow, Bangor, Maine. (52.) 
Gibbs, J. Willard, New Haven, Conn. (33). Died April 28, 1903. 
Grimes, James Stanley, 1422 Wesley Ave., Evanston, 111. (17). 

Died September 27, 1903. 
Higgins, F. W., M. D., 20 Court Street, Cortland, N. Y. (51). 
Jesup, Henry G., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (36). 
Kedzie, John H., 15 14 Ridge Ave., Evanston. 111. (34). 



Le Grand, Leroy, Graham, Texas. (50). Died ^ptember 28, 

Magee, James Francis, 114 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (51). 

Marindin, Henry Louis, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 

D. C. (40). Died March 25, 1904. 

Moody, Lucius W., 39 Church St., New Haven, Conn. (43). Died 

January 10, 1903. 

Morison, George Shattuck, 49 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (50). 

Died July i, 1903. 

Murray, Robert Drake, M. D., Marine Hospital, Key West, Fla. 

(50). Died November 22, 1903. 

Noyes, Theodore Richards, Kenwood, N. Y. (51). Died June i, 

Porteous, John, 48 St. Stephen Street, Boston, Mass. (22). 

Died February — , 1903. 

Rand, Theodore D., Radnor, Pa. (47). Died April 24,' 1903. 

Rhoads, Edward, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. (47). Died 

July 4. 1903- 
Roberts, William C, Danville, Ky. (50). 
Russell, Frank, Chloride, Arizona. (45). 
Russell, John Edwards, Leicester, Mass. (47). Died October 28, 

ScHAPFBR, Chas., 1309 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 

Died November 23, 1903. 
Schwalbe, Carl, 1002 South Olive Street, Los Angeles, Cal. (51). 

Died June 14, 1903. 
Sebert, Wm. F., 4S Strong Place, Brooklyn. N. Y. (41). Died 

March 29, 1903. 
Thurston, R. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (23). Died 

October 25, 1903. 
Van Brunt, Cornelius, 319 E. 57th St., New York, N. Y. (28). 

Died October i, 1903. 
Wales, Salem H., 25 East 55th Street, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Died December 2, 1903. 
Wells, Samuel, 45 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. (24)- 

Died October 3, 1903. 
Wilcox, William W., 187 South Main Street, Middletown, Conn. 

(50). Died November 10, 1903. 
Walcott, Mrs. Henrietta L. T., Dedham, Mass. (29). Died 

October — , 1903. 











At the weekly services of many of our churches it is cus- 
tomary to begin with the reading of a verse or two from the 
Scriptures for the purpose, I suppose, of putting the congre- 
gations in the proper state of mind for the exercises which are 
to follow. It seems to me that we may profit by this example, 
and accordingly I ask your attention to Article I of the Con- 
stitution of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, which reads thus: **The objects of the Association 
are, by periodical and migratory meetings, to promote inter- 
course between those who are cultivating science in different 
parts of America, to give stronger and more general impulse 
and more systematic direction to scientific research, and to 
procure for the labors of scientific men increased facilities 
and a wider usefulness." 

The first object mentioned, you will observe, is ** to promote 
intercourse between those who are cultivating science in 
different parts of America; the second **to give a stronger 
and more general impulse and more systematic direction to 
scientific research"; and the third **to procure for the 
labors of scientific men increased facilities and a wider use- 
fulness." Those who are familiar with the history of the 
Association are well aware that it has served its purposes 
admirably, and I am inclined to think that those who have 


been in the habit of attending the meetings will agree that 
the object which appeals to them most strongly is the promo- 
tion of intercourse between those who are ctiltivating science. 
Given this intercourse and the other objects will be reached 
as a necessary consequence, for the intercourse stimulates 
thought, and thought leads to work, and work leads to wider 

While in 1848, when the Association was organized and 
the Constitution was adopted, there was a fair number of 
good scientific investigators in this coimtry, it is certain that 
in the half century that has passed since then the number of 
investigators has increased very largely, and naturally the 
amount of scientific work done at present is very much greater 
than it was at that time. So great has been the increase in 
scientific activity during recent years that we are apt to think 
that by comparison scientific research is a new acquisition. In 
fact there appears to be an impression abroad that in the world 
at large scientific research is a relatively new thing, for which 
we of this generation and our immediate predecessors are 
largely responsible. Only a superficial knowledge of the 
history of science is necessary, however, to show that the sci- 
ences have been developed slowly, and that their beginnings 
are to be looked for in the very earliest times. Everything 
seems to point to the conclusion that men have always been 
engaged in efforts to learn more and more in regard to the 
world in which they find themselves. Sometimes they have 
been guided by one motive and sometimes by another, but 
the one great underlying motive has been the desire to get a 
clearer and clearer understanding of the universe. But be- 
sides this, there has been the desire to find means of increasing 
the comfort and happiness of the human race. 

A reference to the history of chemistry will serve to show 
how these motives have operated side by side. One of the 
first great incentives for working with chemical things was 
the thought that it was possible to convert base metals like 
lead and copper into the so-called noble metals, silver and gold. 
Probably no idea has ever operated as strongly as this upon 
the minds of men to lead them to undertake chemical experi- 


D^ents. It held control of intellectual men for centuries and 
it was not until about a hundred years ago that it lost its hold. 
It is very doubtful if the purely scientific question whether one 
form of matter can be transformed into another would have 
had the power to control the activities of investigators for so 
long a time; and it is idle to speculate upon this subject. 
It should, however, be borne in mind that many of those who 
were engaged in this work were actuated by a desire to put 
money in their purses — a desire that is by no means to be 
condemned without reserve, and I mention it not for the 
purpose of condemning it, but to show that a motive that 
we sometimes think of as peculiarly modem is among the 
oldest known to man. 

While the alchemists were at work upon their problems, 
another class of chemists were engaged upon problems of an 
entirely different nature. The fact that substances obtained 
from various natural sources and others made in the laboratory 
produce effects of various kinds when taken into the system 
led to the thought that these substances might be useful in 
the treatment of disease. Then, further, it was thought that 
disease itself is a chemical phenomenon. These thoughts, 
as is evident, furnish strong motives for the investigation of 
chemical substances, and the science of chemistry owes much 
to the work of those who were guided by these motives. 

And so in each period as a new thought has served as the 
guide we find that men have been actuated by different mo- 
tives, and often one and the same worker has been under the 
influence of mixed motives. Only in a few cases does it appear 
that the highest motives alone operate. We must take men as 
we find them, and we may be thankful that on the whole there 
are so many who are impelled by one motive or another or 
by a mixture of motives to take up the work of investigating 
the world in which we live. Great progress is being made in 
consequence and almost daily we are called upon to wonder 
at some new and marvelous result of scientific investigation. 
It is quite impossible to make predictions of value in regard to 
what is likely to be revealed to us by continued work, but it is 
safe to believe that in our efforts to discover the secrets of the 


universe only a beginning has been made. No matter in 
what direction we may look we are aware of great unexplored 
territories, and even in those regions in which the greatest 
advances have been made it is evident that the knowledge 
gained is almost insignificant as compared with that which 
remains to be learned. But this line of thought may lead to a 
condition bordering on hopelessness and despondency, and 
surely we should avoid this condition for there is much greater 
cause for rejoicing than for despair. Our successors will see 
more and see more clearly than we do, just as we see more 
and see more clearly than our predecessors. It is our duty 
to keep the work going without being too anxious to weigh 
the results on an absolute scale. It must be remembered that 
the absolute scale is not a very sensitive instrument, and that 
it requires the results of generations to affect it markedly. 

On an occasion of this kind it seems fair to ask the question : 
What does the world gain by scientific investigation? This 
question has often been asked and often answered, but each 
answer differs in some respects from the others and each may 
be suggestive and worth giving. The question is a profound 
one, and no answer that can be given would be satisfactory. 
In general it may be said that the results of scientific in- 
vestigation fall under three heads — ^the material, the intellec- 
tual, and the ethical. 

I. The material results are the most obvious and thev 
naturally receive the most attention. The material wants of 
man are the first to receive consideration. They cannot be 
neglected. He must have food and clothing, the means of 
combating disease, the means of transportation, the means of 
producing heat, and a great variety of things that contribute 
to his bodily comfort and gratify his esthetic desires. It is 
not my purpose to attempt to deal with all of these and to 
show how science is helping to work out the problems sug- 
gested. I shall have to content myself by pointing out a few 
of the more important problems the solution of which depends 
upon the prosecution of scientific research. 

First, the food problem. Whatever views one may hold 
in regard to that which has come to be called **race suicide," 


it is certain that the popttlation of the world is increasing 
rapidly. The desirable places have been occupied. In some 
parts of the earth there is such a surplus of population that 
famines occur from time to time, and in other parts epidemics 
and floods relieve the embarrassment. We may fairly look 
forward to the time when the whole earth will be overpop- 
ulated tmless the production of food becomes more scientific 
than it now is. Here is the field for the work of the agricul- 
tural chemist who is showing us how to increase the yield 
from a given area and, in case of poor and worn-out soils, how 
to preserve and increase their fertility. It appears that the 
methods of cultivating the soil are still comparatively crude, 
and more and more thorough investigation of the processes 
involved in the growth of plants is called for. Much has been 
learned since Liebig founded the science of Agricultural Chem- 
istry. It was he who pointed out some of the ways by which 
it is possible to increase the fertility of a soil. Since the re- 
sults of his investigations were given to the world the use of 
artificial fertilizers has become more and more general. 

But it is one thing to know that artificial fertilizers are use- 
ful and it is quite another thing to get them. At first bone 
dust and guano were chiefly used. Then as these became 
dearer, phosphates and potassium salts from the mineral 
kingdom came into use. 

At the Fifth International Congress for Applied Chemistry, 
held at Berlin, Germany, last June, Dr. Adolph Frank of 
Charlottenburg, gave an extremely interesting address on the 
subject of the use of the nitrogen of the atmosphere for agri- 
culture and the industries, which bears upon the problem that 
we are dealing with. Plants must have nitrogen. At present 
this is obtained from the great beds of saltpetre found on the 
west coast of South America — ^the so-called Chili saltpetre — 
and also from the ammonia obtained as a by-product in the 
distillation of coal, especially in the manufacture of coke. 
The use of Chili saltpetre for agricultural purposes began 
about i860. In 1900 the quantity exported was 1,453,000 
tons, and its value was about $60,000,000. In the same year 
the world's production of ammonium sulphate was about 


500,000 tons, of a value of somewhat more than $20,000,000. 
Of these enormous quantities about three-quarters finds ap- 
plication in agriculture. The use of these substances, es- 
pecially of saltpetre, is increasing rapidly. At present it seems 
that the successful cultivation of the soil is dependent upon 
the use of nitrates, and the supply of nitrates is limited. 
Unless something is done we may look forward to the time 
when the earth, for lack of proper fertilizers, will not be able 
to produce as much as it now does, and meanwhile the demand 
for food is increasing. According to the most reliable esti- 
mations indeed the saltpetre beds will be exhausted in thirty 
or forty years. Is there a way out? Dr. Frank shows that 
there is. In the air there is nitrogen enough for all. The 
plants can make only a limited use of this directly. For the 
most part it must be in some form of chemical combination as, 
for example, a nitrate or ammonia. The conversion of at- 
mospheric nitrogen into nitric acid would solve the problem, 
and this is now carried out. But Dr. Frank shows that there 
is another, perhaps more economical, way of getting the nitro- 
gen into a form suitable for plant food. Calcium carbide can 
now be made without difficulty and is made in enormous 
quantities by the action of a powerful electric current upon a 
mixture of coal and lime. This substance has the power of 
absorbing nitrogen from the air, and the product thus formed 
appears to be capable of giving up its nitrogen to plants, or. 
in other words, to be a good fertilizer. It is true that this 
subject requires further investigation, but the restdts thus far 
obtained are full of promise. If the outcome should be what 
we have reason to hope, we may regard the approaching 
exhaustion of the saltpetre beds with equanimity. But, even 
without this to pin our faith to, we have the preparation of 
nitric acid from the nitrogen and oxygen of the air to fall 
back upon. 

While speaking of the food problem, a few words in regard 
to the artificial preparation of foodstuffs. I am sorry to say 
that there is not much of promise to report upon in this con- 
nection. In spite of the brilliant achievements of chemists 
in the field of synthesis, it remains true that thus far they 


have not been able to make, except in very small quantities, 
substances that are useful as foods, and there is absolutely 
no prospect of this result being reached within a reasonable 
time. A few years ago Bert helot told us of a dream he had 
had. This has to do with the results that, according to 
Berthelot, are to be brought about by the advance of chemis- 
tr>\ The results of investigations already accomplished indi- 
cate that, in the future, methods will perhaps be devised for 
the artificial preparation of food from the water and car- 
bonic acid so abundantly supplied by nature. Agriculture 
will then become unnecessary, and the landscape will not be 
disfigured by crops growing in geometrical figures. Water 
will be obtained from holes three or four miles deep in the 
earth, and this water will be above the boiling temperature, 
so that it can be used as a source of energy. It will be obtained 
in liquid form after it has undergone a process of natural 
distillation, which will free it from all impurities, including, 
of course, disease germs. The foods prepared by artificial 
methods will also be free from microbes, and there will con- 
sequently be less disease than at present. Further, the 
necessity of killing animals for food will no longer exist, and 
mankind will become gentler and more amenable to higher 
influences. There is, no doubt, much that is fascinating in this 
line of thought, but whether it is worth following, depends 
upon the fundamental assumption. Is it at all probable that 
chemists will ever be able to devise methods for the artificial 
preparation of foodstuffs? I can only say that to me it does 
not appear probable in the light of the results thus far ob- 
tained. I do not mean to question the probability of the 
ultimate synthesis of some of those substances that are of 
value as foods. This has already been accomplished on the 
small scale, but for the most part the synthetical processes 
employed have involved the use of substances which them- 
selves are the products of natural processes. Thus, the fats 
can'be made, but the substances from which they are made 
are generally obtained from nature and are not themselves 
synthetical products. Emil Fischer has. to be sure, made veW 
small quantities of sugars of different kinds, but the task o? 


building up a sugar from the raw material furnished by na- 
ture — ^that is to say, from carbonic acid and water — presents 
such difficulties that it may be said to be practically impos- 

When it comes to starch, and the proteids which are 
the other chief constituents of foodstuffs, the difficulties are 
still greater. There is not a suggestion of the possibility of 
making starch artificially, and the same is true of the proteids. 
In this connection it is, however, interesting to note that Emil 
Fischer, after his remarkable successes in the sugar group and 
the uric acid group, is now advancing upon the proteids. I 
have heard it said that at the beginning of his career he made 
out a programme for his life work. This included the solu- 
tion of three great problems — the determination of the con- 
stitution of uric acid, of the sugars, and of the proteids. 
Two of these problems have been solved. May he be equally 
successful with the third! Even if he should be able to make 
a proteid, and show what it is, the problem of the artificial 
preparation of foodstuffs will not be solved. Indeed, it will 
hardly be affected. 

Although science is not likely, within periods that we may 
venture to think of, to do away with the necessity of cultiva- 
ting the soil, it is likely to teach us how to get more out of the 
soil than we now do, and thus put us in a position to provide 
for the generations that are to follow us. And this carries 
with it the thought that, unless scientific investigation is kept 
up, these coming generations will be unprovided for. 

Another way by which the food supply of the world can 
be increased, is by relieving tracts of land that are now used 
for other purposes than the cultivation of foodstuffs. The 
most interesting example of this kind, is that presented by 
the cultivation of indigo. There is a large demand for this 
substance, which is plainly founded upon esthetic desires of a 
somewhat rudimentary kind. Whatever the cause may be. 
the demand exists, and immense tracts of land have been, and 
are still, devoted to the cultivation of the indigo plant. 
Within the past few years scientific investigation has shown 
that indigo can be made in the factory from substances, the 


production of which does not for the most part involve the 
cultivation of the soil. In 1900, according to the report of 
Dr. Bninck, Managing Director of the Badische Anilin- and 
Soda-Fabrik, the quantity of indigo produced annually in 
the factory "would require the cultivation of an area of more 
than a quarter of a million acres of land (390 square miles) in 
the home of the Indigo plant.'* Dr. Brunck adds: "The 
first impression which this fact may be likely to produce, 
is that the manufacture of indigo will cause a terrible calamity 
to arise in that country; but, perhaps not. If one recalls to 
mind that India is periodically afflicted with famine, one ought 
not, without further consideration, to cast aside the hope that 
it might be good fortune for that country if the immense 
areas now devoted to a crop which is subject to many vicis- 
situdes and to violent market changes were at last to be 
given over to the raising of breadstuff s and other food jf)rod- 
ucts. "For myself," says Dr. Brunck, "I do not assume to 
be an impartial adviser in this matter, but, nevertheless, I 
venture to express my conviction that the government of 
India will be rendering a very great service if it should sup- 
port and aid the progress, which will in any case be irresis- 
tible, of this impending change in the cultivation of that 
country, and would support and direct its methodical and 
rational execution." 

The connection between scientific investigation and health 
is so frequently the subject of discussion that I need not dwell 
upon it here. The discovery that many diseases are due 
primarily to the action of microscopic organisms that find 
their way into the body and produce the changes that reveal 
themselves in definite symptoms is a direct consequence of the 
study of the phenomenon of alcoholic fermentation by Pasteur. 
Everything that throws light upon the nature of the action 
of these microscopic organisms is of value in dealing with 
the great problem of combating disease. It has been estab- 
lished in a number of cases that they cause the formation 
of products that act as poisons and that the diseases are 
due to the action of these poisons. So also, as is well known, 
investigation has shown that antidotes to some of these 


poisons can be produced, and that by means of these antidotes 
the diseases can be controlled. But more important than 
this is the discovery of the way in which diseases are trans- 
mitted. With this knowledge it is possible to prevent the 
diseases. The great fact that the death rate is decreasing 
stands out prominently and proclaims to humanity the im- 
portance of scientific investigation. It is, however, to be 
noted in this connection that the decrease in the death rate 
compensates to some extent for the decrease in the birth 
rate, and that, if an increase in population is a thing to be 
desired, the investigations in the field of sanitary science are 
contributing to this result. 

The development of the human race is dependent not alone 
upon a supply of food but upon a supply of energy in available 
forms. Heat and mechanical energy are absolutely essential 
to man. The chief source of the energy that comes into play is 
fuel. We are primarily dependent upon the coal supply for the 
continuation of the activities of man. Without this, unless 
something is to take its place, man is doomed. Statistics in 
regard to the coal supply and the rate at which it is being used 
up have so frequently been presented by those who have 
special knowledge of this subject that I need not trouble you 
with them now. The only object in referring to it is to show 
that, unless by means of scientific investigation man is taught 
new methods of rendering the world's store of energy avail- 
able for the production of heat and of motion, the age of the 
human race is measured by the extent of the supply of coal and 
other forms of fuel. By other forms of fuel I mean, of course, 
wood and oil. Plainly, as the demand for land for the produc- 
tion of foodstuffs increases, the amount available for the pro- 
duction of wood must decrease, so that wood need not be taken 
into account for the future. In regard to oil, our knowledge 
is not sufficient to enable us to make predictions of any value. 
If one of the theories now held in regard to the source of 
petroleum should prove to be correct, the world would find 
much consolation in it. According to this theory petroleum 
is not likely to be exhausted, for it is constantly being formed 
by the action of water upon carbides that in all probability 


exist in practically unlimited quantity in the interior of the 
earth. If this be true, then the problem of supplying energy 
may be reduced to one of transportation of oil. But given a 
supply of oil and, of course, the problem of transporta- 
tion is solved. 

What are the other practical sources of energy ? The most 
important is the fall of water. This is being utilized more 
and more year by year since the methods of producing elec- 
tric currents by means of the dynamo have been worked out. 
There is plainly much to be learned before the energy made 
available in the immediate neighborhood of the waterfall 
can be transported long distances economically, but ad- 
vances are being made in this line, and already factories 
that have hitherto been dependent upon coal are making 
use of the energy derived from waterfalls. The more rapidly 
these advances take place the less will be the demand for coal, 
and if there were only enough waterfalls conveniently sit- 
uated, there would be no difficulty in furnishing all the energy 
needed by man for heat or for motion. 

It is a fortunate thing that, as the population of the earth 
increases, man's tastes become more complex. If only the 
simplest tastes prevailed, only the simplest occupations would 
be called for. But let us not lose time in idle speculations 
as to the way this primitive condition of things would affect 
man's progress. As a matter of fact his tastes are becoming 
more complex. Things that are not dreamed of in one gen- 
eration become the necessities of the next generation. 
Many of these things are the direct results of scientific inves- 
tigation. No end of examples will suggest themselves. 
Let me content myself by reference to one that has of late 
been the subject of much discussion. The development of the 
artificial dye-stuff industries is extremely instructive in many 
ways. The development has been the direct result of the 
scientific investigation of things that seemed to have little, 
if anything, to do with this world. Many thousands of work- 
men are now employed, and many millions of dollars are 
invested, in the manufacture of dye-stuffs that were unknown 
a few years ago. Here plainly the fundamental fact is the 


esthetic desire of man for colors. A colorless world would 
be unbearable to him. Nature accustoms him to color in a 
great variety of combinations, and it becomes a necessity 
to him. And his desires increase as they are gratified. 
There seems to be no end to development m this line. At all 
events, the data at our disposal justify the conclusion that 
there will be a demand for every dye that combines the 
qualities of beauty and durability. Thousands of scien- 
tifically trained men are engaged in work in the effort to 
discover new dyes to meet the increasing demands. New 
industries are springing up and many find employment in 
them. As a rule the increased demand for labor caused bv 
the establishment of these industries is not offset by the 
closing up of other industries. Certainly it is true that scien- 
tific investigation has created large demands for labor that 
could hardly find employment without these demands. • 

The welfare of a nation depends to a large extent upon 
the success of its industries. In his address as president of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science given 
last summer Sir Norman Lockyer quotes Mr. Chamberlain 
thus: *'I do not think it is necessary for me to say anything 
as to the urgency and necessity of scientific training. . . . 
It is not too much to say that the existence of this country, 
as the great commercial nation, depends upon it. 
It depends very much upon what we are doing now, at the 
beginning of the twentieth century, whether at its end we 
shall continue to maintain our supremacy or even equality 
with our great commercial and manufacturing rivals." 
In another part of his address Sir Norman Lockyer says: 
'* Further, I am told that the sum of ;£24,ooo,ooo is less than 
half the amoimt by which Germany is yearly enriched by 
having improved upon our chemical industries, owing to our 
lack of scientific training. Many other industries have been 
attacked in the same way since, but taking this one instance 
alone, if we had spent this money fifty years ago, when the 
Prince Consort first called attention to our backwardness, 
the nation would now be much richer than it is, and would 
have much less to fear from competition. " 


But enough on the purely material side. Let us turn to the 
intellectual results of scientific investigation. This part of 
our subject might be summed up in a few words. It is so 
obvious that the intellectual condition of mankind is a direct 
result of scientific investigation that one hesitates to make the 
statement. The mind of man cannot carry him much in 
advance of his knowledge of the facts. Intellectual gains 
can be made only by discoveries, and discoveries can be made 
only by investigation. . One generation differs from another 
in the way it looks at the world. A generation that thinks 
the earth is the center of the universe differs intellectually 
from one that has learned the true position of the earth in 
the solar system, and the general relations of the solar system 
to other similar systems that make up the universe. A 
generation that sees in every species of animal and plant evi- 
dence of a special creative act differs from one that has recog- 
nized the general truth of the conception of evolution. And 
so in every department of knowledge the great generalizations 
that have been reached through the persistent efforts of 
scientific investigators are the intellectual gains that have re- 
stilted. These great generalizations measure the intellectual 
wealth of mankind. They are the foundations of all profitable 
thought. While the generalizations of science belong to the 
world, not all the world takes advantage of its opportimities. 
Nation differs from nation intellectually as individual differs 
from individual. It is not, however, the possession of know- 
ledge that makes the efficient individual and the efficient na- 
tion. It is well known that an individual may be very 
learned and at the same time very inefficient. The question 
is, what use does he make of his knowledge? When we speak 
of intellectual results of scientific investigation, we mean not 
only accumulated knowledge, but the way in which this know- 
ledge is invested. A man who simply accumtilates money 
and does not see to it that this money is carefully invested, is a 
miser, and no large results can come from his efforts. While, 
then, the intellectual state of a nation is measured partly 
by the extent to which it has taken possession of the general- 
izations that belong to the world, it is also measured by the 


extent to which the methods by which knowledge is accumu- 
lated have been brought into requisition and have become 
a part of the equipment of the people of that nation. The 
intellectual progress of a nation depends upon the adoption of 
scientific methods in dealing with intellectual problems. 
The scientific method is applicable to all kinds of intellectual 
problems. We need it in every department of activity. I 
have sometimes wondered what the result would be if the 
scientific method could be employed in all the manifold 
problems connected with the management of a government. 
Questions of tariff, of finance, of international relations would 
be dealt with much more satisfactorily than at present if the 
spirit of the scientific method were breathed into those who 
are called upon to deal with these questions. It is plain, I 
think, that the higher the intellectual state of a nation the 
better will it deal with all the problems that present them- 
selves. As the intellectual state is a direct result of scientific 
investigation, it is clear that the nation that adopts the scien- 
tific method, will in the end outrank both intellectually and 
industrially the nation that does not. 

What are the ethical results of scientific investigation.^ 
No one can tell. There is one thought that in this connection 
I should like to impress upon you. The ftmdamental char- 
acteristic of the scientific method is honesty. In dealing 
with any question science asks no favors. The sole object 
is to learn the truth, and to be guided by the truth. Ab- 
solute accuracy, absolute fidelity, absolute honesty are the 
prime conditions of scientific progress. I believe that the 
constant use of the scientific method, must in the end leave 
its impress upon him who uses it. The results will not be 
satisfactory in all cases, but the tendency will be in the right 
direction. A life spent in accordance with scientific teachings 
would be of a high order. It would practically conform to the 
teachings of the highest types of religion. The motives 
would be different, but so far as conduct is concerned the re- 
sults would be practically identical. I need not enlarge upon 
this subject. Unfortunately, abstract truth and knowledge of 
facts and of the conclusions to be drawn from them do not 


at present furnish a sufficient basis for right living in the case 
of the great majority of mankind, and science cannot now, and 
I do not believe it ever can, take the place of religion in some 
form. When the feeling that the two are antagonistic wears 
away, as it is wearing away, it will no doubt be seen that one 
supplements the other, in so far as they have to do with the 
conduct of man. 

What are we doing in this country to encourage scientific 
investigation.? Not until about a quarter of a century ago 
can it be said that it met with any encouragement. Since 
then there has been a great change. Up to that time re- 
search was sporadic. Soon after it became almost epidemic. 
The direct cause of the change was the establishing of 
courses in our universities for the training of investigators 
somewhat upon the lines followed in the German universities. 
In these courses the carrying out of an investigation plays 
an important part. This is, in fact, the culmination of the 
course. At first there were not many following these courses, 
but it was not long before there was a demand for the prod- 
ucts. Those who could present evidence that they had 
followed such courses were generally given the preference. 
This was especially true in the case of appointments in the 
colleges, some colleges even going so far as to decline to appoint 
any one who had not taken the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 
which is the badge of the course that involves investigation. As 
the demand for those who had received this training increased , 
the number of those seeking it increased at least in the same 
proportion. New universities were established and old ones 
caught the spirit of the new movement until from one end 
of the country to the other centres of scientific activity are 
now found, and the amount of research work that is done 
is enormous compared with what was done twenty-five or 
thirty years ago. Many of those who get a taste of the work of 
investigation become fascinated by it and are anxious to devote 
their lives to it. At present, with the facilities for such 
work available, it seems probable that most of those who 
have a strong desire and the necessary industry and ability 
to follow it find their opportunity somewhere. There is little 


danger of our losing a genius or even one with fair talent. 
The world is on the lookout for them. The demand for 
those who can do good research work is greater than the 
supply. To be sure the rewards are not as a rule as great as 
those that are likely to be won by the ablest members of 
some other professions and occupations, and as long as this 
condition of affairs continues to exist there will not be as many 
men of the highest intellectual order engaged in this work 
as we should like to see. On the other hand, when we con- 
sider the great progress that has been made during the last 
twenty-five years or so, we have every reason to take a cheer- 
ful view of the future. If as much progress should be made 
in the next quarter century, we shall, to say the least, be 
able to compete with the foremost nations of the world in 
scientific investigation. In my opinion this progress is 
largely dependent upon the development of our universities- 
Without the opportunities for training in the methods of 
scientific investigation there will be but few investigators. 
It is necessary to have a large number in order that the prin- 
ciple of selection may operate. In this line of work as in 
others, **many are called, but fev/ are chosen. " 

Another fact that is working advantageously to increase 
the amount of scientific research done in this country is the 
support given by the Government in its different scientific 
bureaus. The Geological Survey, the Department of Agri- 
culture, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the National Bureau 
of Standards, and other departments are carrying on a large 
amount of excellent scientific work, and thus helping most 
efficiently to spread the scientific spirit throughout the land. 

Finally, two exceedingly interesting experiments in the 
way of encouraging scientific investigation are now attract- 
ing the attention of the world. I mean, of course, the Car- 
negie Institution, with its endowment of $10,000,000, and the 
Rockefeller Institute, devoted to investigations in the field 
of medicine, which will no doubt be adequately endowed. 
It is too early to express an opinioa^in regard to the influence 
of these great foundations upon the progress of scientific in- 
vestigation. As both will make possible the carrying out of 


many investigations that wotdd otherwise probably not be 
carried out, the chances of achieving valuable results will be 
increased. The danger is that those who are responsible for 
the management of the funds will be disappointed that the re- 
sults are not at once of a striking character, and that they will 
be tempted to change the method of applying the money be- 
fore those who are using it have had a fair chance. But we 
who are on the outside know little of the plans of those who 
are inside. All signs indicate that they are making an earnest 
effort to solve an exceedingly difficult problem, and all who 
have the opportunity should do everjrthing in their power 
to aid them. 

In the changes which have been brought about in the con- 
dition of science in this country since 1848, it is safe to say 
that this Association has either directly or indirectly played 
a leading part. It is certain that for the labors of scientific 
men increased facilities and a wider usefulness have been 


Mathematics and Astronomy. 


Vice-President and Chairman of the Section. 
Otto H. Tittmann, Washington, D. C. 

L. G. Weld, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Member of Council. 
Ormond Stonb. 

Sectional Committee. 

G. B. Halstbd, Vice-President, 1903; C. S. Howe, Secretary, 
1903; O.. H. Tittmann, Vice-President, 1904; L. G. Weld, 

Secretary, 1904. 

WoosTER W. Beman, I year; John A. Brashear, 2 years; 
J. R. Eastman, 3 years; Ormond Stone, 4 years; 
Edwin B. Frost, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
Philip Fox. 

Press Secretary. 
L. G. Weld. 







The great Sylvester once told me that he and Kronecker, 
in attempting a definition of mathematics, got so far as to 
agree that it is poetry. 

But the history of this poesy is itself poetry, and the crea- 
tion of non-Euclidean geometry gives new vantage-ground 
from which to illuminate the whole subject, from before the 
time when Homer describes Proteus as finger-fitting-by-fives, 
or counting, his seals, past the epoch when Lagrange, con- 
fronted with the guillotine and asked how he can make him- 
self useful in the new world, answers simply, "I will teach 

Who has not wished to be a magician like the mighty 
Merlin, or Dr. Dee, who wrote a preface for the first English 
translation of Euclid, made by Henricus Billingsley, after- 
ward, Aladdin-like, Sir Henry Billingsley, Lord Mayor of 

Was not Harriot, whose devices in Algebra our school-boys 
now use, one of the three paid magi of the Earl of Nor- 
thumberland ? Do not our every-day numerals stand for Brah- 
min and Mohammedan, coming first into Europe from the 
land of the sacred Ganges, around by the way of the Pyramids 
and the Moorish Alhambra? 


The appearance of courses on the history of mathematics 
in all our foremost imiversities is a fortunate and promising 
sign of the times. I had the honor of being the first to give 
such a course in America, at Princeton, in 1881. 


But something especially fascinating, pure, divine, seems to 
pertain to Geometry. 

When asked how God occupies himself, Plato answered, 
"He geometrizes continually." 

It is a difficult, though highly interesting, tmdertaking to 
investigate the vestiges of primitive geometry. Geometric 
figures and designs appear in connection with the primitive 
arts: for example, the making of pottery. Arts long precede 
anything properly to be called science. The first creations 
by mankind are instnunents for life, though it is surprising 
how immediately decoration appears; witness the sketches 
from life of mammoth and mastodon and horses by prehistoric 
man. But. in a sense, even the practical arts must be pre- 
ceded by theoretical creative acts of the human mind. Man 
is from the first a creative thinker. Perhaps even some of 
our present theoretical presentation of the universe is due to 
creative mental acts of our pre-human ancestors. For ex- 
ample, that we inevitably view the world as consisting of dis- 
tinct individuals, separate, distinct things, is a pre-human 
contribution to our working theory and representation of the 
universe. It is conscious science, as a potential presentation 
and explanation of everything, which comes so late. 
Rude instruments were made for astronomy. 
The creative imagination which put the bears and bulls and 
crabs and lions and scorpions into the random-lying stars 
made figures which occur in the Book of Job, more ancient 
than Genesis itself. 

The daring astrologer, whose predictions foretold eclipses, 
saw no reason why his constructions should not equally fit 
human life. He chose to create a causal relation between 
the geometric configurations of the planets and the destinies 



of individuals. This was the way of science, where thought 
precedes and helps to make fact. No description or observa- 
tion is possible without a precedent theory, which stays and 
sticks until some mind creates another to fight it, and perhaps 
to overshadow it. 

That legend of the origin of geometry which attributes it 
to the necessity of refixing land-boimdaries in Egypt, where 
all were annually obliterated by the Nile overflow, is a too- 
ingenious hypothesis, made temporarily to serve for history. 
Some practical devices for measurement arose in Egypt, 
where periodic fertility fostered a consecutive occupancy, 
whose records, according to Flinders Petrie, we have for more 
than nine thousand years. 

But in the Papyrus of the Rhind, measurements of volume 
come before those for surface. 

Geometry as a self-conscious science waits for Thales and 

We find in Herodotus that Thales predicted an eclipse 
memorable as happening during a battle between the Lydians 
and Medes. The date was given by Baily as B. C. 6io. 

So we know about when Geometry, we may say when 
science, began; for though primarily geometer, Thales taught 
the sphericity of the earth, was acquainted with the attracting 
power of magnetism, and noticed the excitation of electricity 
in amber by friction. 

A greater than he, Pythagoras, was bom B. C. 590 at Samos, 
traveled also into Egypt and the East, penetrating even into 
India. Returning in the time of the last Tarquin, and finding 
Samos under the dominion of the tyrant Poly crates, he went 
as a voluntary exile to Italy, settled at Croton (as Ovid men- 
tions), and there created and taught new and sublimer 
hypotheses for our universe. The most diversely demon- 
strated and frequently applied theorem of geometry bears 
his name. The first solution of a problem in that most subtle 
and final of ways, by proving it impossible, is due to him; 
his solution of the problem to find a common submultipje of 
the hypothenuse and side of an isosceles right triangle,- an 
achievement whereby he created incommensurability. 


It is noteworthy that this making of incommensurables is 
confused by even the mo^t respectable of the historians of 
mathematics with the creation of irrational numbers. But 
in the antique world there were no such numbers as the square 
root of two or the square root of three. Such numbers cannot 
be discovered, and it was centuries before they were created. 
The Greeks had only rational numbers. 


Under the Horseshoe Falls at Niagara press on beyond the 
guide ; risk life for the magnificent sensation of a waterspout, 
a cloud burst, an avalanche, a tumbling cathedral of water- 
blocks! It must end in an instant, this extravagant down- 
pour of whole wealths of water. Then out; and look away 
down the glorious canyon, and read in that graven histon' 
how this momentary riotous chaos has been just so, precisely 
the same, for centuries, for ages, for thousands of years. 

In the History of Science a like antithesis of sensations is 
given by Euclid's geometry. 

In the flood of new discovery and rich advance recorded 
in books whose mere names would fill volumes, we ask our- 
selves how any one thing can be permanent? Yet, looking 
back, we see this Euclid not only cutting his resistless way 
through the rock of the two thousand years that make the 
history of the intellectuail world, but, what is still more 
astounding, we find that the profoundest advance of the last 
two centuries has only served to emphasize the consciousness 
of Euclid's perfection. 

Says Lyman Abbott, if you want an infallible book go not 
to the Bible but to Euclid. 

In **The Wonderful Century," Alfred Russel Wallace says, 
speaking of all time before the seventeenth century: **Then 
going backward, we can find nothing of the first rank except 
Euclid's wonderful system of geometry, perhaps the most 
remarkable product of the earliest civilizations." 

Says Professor Alfred Baker, of the University of Toronto: 
** Of the perfection of Euclid (B. C. 290) as a scientific treatise, 


of the marvel that such a work could have been produced 
two thousand years ago, I shall not here delay to speak. I 
content myself with making the claim that, as a historical 
study, Euclid is, perhaps, the most valuable of those that 
are taken up in our educational institutions." 

At its very birth this typical product of the Greek genius 
assumed sway over the pure sciences. In its first efflorescence, 
through the splendid days of Theon and Hypatia, fanatics 
could not murder it as they did Hypatia, nor later could that 
dismal flood, the dark ages, drown it. Like the phoenix of 
its native Egypt it rises anew with the new birth of culture. 
An Anglo-Saxon, Adelhard of Bath, finds it clothed in Arabic 
vestments in the Moorish land of the Alhambra. 

In 1 120, Adelhard, disguised as a Mohammedan student, 
went to Cordova, obtained a Moorish copy of Euclid's Ele- 
tnents, and made a translation from the Arabic into Latin. 

The first translation into English (1570) was made by 
"Henricus Billingsley," afterward Sir Henry Billingsley, 
Lord Mayor of London, 1591. And up to this very year, 
throughout the vast system of examinations carried on by 
the British government, by Oxford, and by Cambridge, to be 
accepted, no proof of a theorem in geometry should infringe 
Euclid's sequence of propositions. For two millenniums his 
axioms remained undoubted. 


The break from Euclid's charmed circle came not at any 
of the traditional centers of the world's thought, but on the 
circumference of civilization, at Maros-V^sdrhely and Temes- 
vdr, and again at Kazan on the Volga, center of the old 
Tatar kingdom; and it came as the creation of a wilful, wild 
Magyar boy of 21, and an insubordinate yoimg Russian, who, 
a poor widow's son from Nijni-Novgorod, enters as a charity- 
student the new university of Kazan. 

The new idea is to deny one of Euclid's axioms and to 
replace it by its contradictory. There results, instead of 
chaos, a beautiful, a perfect, a marvellous new geometry. 



Euclid had based his geometry on certain axioms or postu- 
lates which had in all lands and languages been systematically 
used in treatises on geometry, so that there was in all the 
world but one geometry. The most celebrated of these axioms 
was the so-called parallel-postulate, which, in a form due to 
Ludlam, is simply this: '*Two straight lines which cut one 
another cannot both be parallel to the same straight line." 

Now this same Magyar, John Bolyai, and this Russian. 
Lobachevski, made a geometry based not on this axiom or 
postulate, but on its direct contradiction. Wonderful to say, 
this new geometry, founded on the flat contradiction of what 
had been forever accepted as axiomatic, turned out to be 
perfectly logical, true, self-consistent, and of marvellous 
beauty. In it many of the good old theorems of Euclid and 
our own college days are superseded in a surprising way. 
Through any point outside any given straight line can be 
drawn an infinity of straight lines in the same plane with the 
given line, but which nowhere would meet it, however far 
both were produced. 


In Euclid, Book I, Proposition 32, is that the sum of the 
angles in every rectilineal triangle is just exactly two right 
angles. In this new or non-Euclidean geometry, on the con- 
trary, the sum of the angles in every rectilineal triangle is 
less than two right angles. 

In the Euclidean geometry parallels neifer approach. In 
this non-Euclidean geometry parallels continually approach. 

In the Euclidean geometry all points eqtiidistant from a 
straight line are on a straight line. In this non-Euclidean 
geometry all points equidistant from a straight line are on a 
curve called the equidistantial. 

In the Euclidean geometry the limit approached by a 
circumference as the radius increases is a straight line. In 
the non-Euclidean geometry this is a curve called the oricycle.. 


Thus the method of Kempe's book **How to draw a straight 
line/' would here draw not a straight line, but a curve. 

In the Euclidean geometry, if three angles of a quadrilateral 
are right, then the fourth is rights and we have a rectangle. 
In this non-Euclidean geometry, if three angles of a quadri- 
lateral are right, then the fourth is acute, and we never can 
have any rectangle. 

In the Euclidean geometry two perpendiculars to a line 
remain equidistant. In this non-Euclidean geometry two 
perpendiculars to a line spread away front each other as they 
go out ; their points two inches from the line are farther apart 
than their points one inch from the line. 

In the Euclidean geometry every three points are either on 
a straight line or a circle. In this non-Euclidean geometry 
there are triplets of points which are neither costraight nor 
<:oncyclic. Thus three points each one inch above a straight 
line are neither on a straight line nor a circle. 


These seeming paradoxes could be multiplied indefinitely, 
and they form striking examples of this new geometry. They 
seem so bizarre, that the first impression produced on the 
inexpert is that the traditional geometry could easily be 
proved, as against this rival, by careful experiments. Into 
this error have fallen Professors Andrew W. Phillips and 
Irving Fisher, of Yale University. In their Elements of 
Geometry, 1898, page 23, they say: ** Lobachevski proved 
that we can never get rid of the parallel axiom without assum- 
ing the space in which we live to be very different from what 
we know it to be through experience. Lobachevski tried to 
imagine a different sort of universe in which the parallel 
axiom would not be true. This imaginary kind of space is 
called non-Euclidean space, whereas the space in which we 
really live is called Euclidean, because Euclid (about 300 
B. C.) first wrote a systematic geometry of our space." 

Now, strangely enough, no one, not even the Yale Pro- 
fessors, can ever prove this naive assertion. If any one of 


the possible geometries of uniform space could ever be proved 
to be the system actual in our external physical world, it 
certainly could not be Euclid's. 

Experience can never give, for instance, such absolutely 
exact metric results as precisely, perfectly two right angles 
for the angle sum of a triangle. As Dr. E. W. Hobson says: 
**It is a very significant fact that the operation of counting,, 
in connection with which numbers, integral and fractional, 
have their origin, is the one and only absolutely exact opera- 
tion of a mathematical character which we are able to xinder- 
take upon the objects which we perceive. On the other hand,, 
all operations of the nature of measurement which we can 
perform in connection with the objects of perception contain 
an essential element of inexactness. The theory of exact 
measurement in the domain of the ideal objects of abstract 
geometry is not immediately derivable from intuition." 


In connecting a geometry with experience there is involved 
a process which we find in the theoretical handling of any 
empirical data, and which, therefore, shotdd be familiarly 
intelligible to any scientist. 

The results of any observations are always valid only within 
definite limits of exactitude and under particular conditions. 
When we set up the axioms, we put in place of these results 
statements of absolute precision and generality. In this 
idealization of the empirical data our addition is at first only 
restricted in its arbitrariness in so much as it must seem to 
approximate, .must apparently fit, the supposed facts of ex- 
perience, and, on the other hand, must introduce no logical 
contradiction. Thus our actual space to-day may very well 
be the space of Lobachevski or Bolyai. 

If anjrthing could be proved or disproved about the nature 
of space or geometry by experiments, by laboratory methods, 
then our space could be proved to be the space of Bolyai by 
inexact measurements, the only kind which will ever be at 
our disposal. In this way it might be known to be non- 
Euclidean. It never can be known to be Euclidean. 



The doctrine of evolution as commonly expounded postu- 
lates a world independent of man, and teaches the production 
of man from lower forms of life by wholly natural and uncon- 
-scious causes. In this statement of the world of evolution 
there is need of some rudimentary approximative practical 

The mighty examiner is death. The puppy, though bom 
blind, must still be able to superimpose his mouth upon the 
source of his nourishment. The little chick must be able, 
responding to the stimulus of a small bright object, to bring 
his beak into contact with the object so as to grasp and then 
swallow it. The springing goat that too greatly misjudges 
an abyss does not survive and thus is not the fittest. 

So, too, with man. We are taught that his ideas must in 
some way and to some degree of approximation correspond 
to this independent world, or death passes upon him an ad- 
verse judgment. 

But it is of the very essence of the doctrine of evolution that 
man's knowledge of this independent world, having come by 
gradual betterment, trial, experiment, adaptation, and 
through imperfect instruments, for example the eye, cannot 
be metrically exact. 

If two natural hard objects, susceptible of high polish, be 
ground together, their surfaces in contact may be so smoothed 
as to fit closely together and slide one on the other without 
separating. If now a third surface be ground alternately 
against each of these two smooth surfaces until it accurately 
fits both, then we say that each of the three surfaces is approxi- 
mately plane. If one such plane surface cut through another, 
we say the common boimdary or line where they cross is 
approximately a straight line. If three approximately plane 
surfaces on objects cut through a fourth, in general they make 
a figure we may call an approximate triangle. Such triangles 
vary greatly in shape. But no matter what the shape, if 
we cut of{ the six ends of any two such and place them side 
by side on a plane with their vertices at the same point, the 


six are found, with a high degree of approximation, just to 
fill up the plane about the point. Thus the six angles of any 
two approximate triangles are found to be together approxi- 
mately four right angles. 

Now does the exactness of this approximation depend only 
on the straightness of the sides of the original two triangles, 
or also upon the size of these triangles? 

If we know with absolute certitude, as the Yale professors 
imagine, that the size of the triangles has nothing to do with 
it, then we know something that we have no right to know. 
according to the doctrine of evolution; something impossible 
for us ever to have learned evolutionally. 


Yet before the epoch-making ideas of Lobachevski and John 
Bolyai every one made this mistake, everyone supposed we 
were perfectly sure that the angle-sum of an actual approxi- 
mate triangle approached two right angles with an exactness 
dependent only on the straightness of the sides, and not at 
all on the size of the triangle. 


The Scotch philosophy accounted for this absolute metri- 
cally exact knowledge by teaching that there are in the 
human mind certain synthetic theorems, called intuitions,, 
supematurally inserted there. Dr. McCosh elaborated this 
doctrine in a big book entitled *'The Intuitions of the Mind 
Inductively Investigated." One of these supernatural intui- 
tions was Euclid's parallel-postulate! Voila! 

*'Yet," to quote a sentence from Wenley's criticism in 
** Science," of McCosh's disciple Ormond, ** we may well doubt 
whether a thinker, standing with one foot firmly planted on 
the Rock of Ages and the other pointing heavenward, has 
struck the attitude most conducive to progress." 

Kant, supposing that we knew Euclid's geometry and 
Aristotle's logic to be true absolutely and necessarily, ac- 
counted for the paradox by teaching that this seemingly 


universal synthetic knowledge was in reality particular, being 
part of the apparatus of the human mind itself. 

But now the very foundations are cut away from under the 
Kantian system of philosophy by this new geometry which 
is in simple and perfect harmony with experience, with experi- 
ment, with the properties of the solid bodies and the motions 
about us. Thus this new geometry has given explanation of 
what in the old geometry was accepted without explanation. 


At last we really know what geometry is. Geometry is 
the science created to give understanding and mastery of 
the external relations of things; to make easy the explana- 
tion and description of such relations and the transmission of 
this mastery. Geometry is the most perfect of the sciences. 
It precedes experiment and is safe above all experimentation. 

The pure idea of a plane is something we have made, and 
by aid of which we see surfaces as perfectly plane, over-riding 
imperfections and variations, which themselves we can see 
only by help of our self -created precedent idea. Just so the 
straight line is wholly a creation of our own. 


I was once consulted by an eminent theologian and a 
powerful chemist as to whether there are really any such 
things as lines. I drew a chalk-mark on the black-board, 
and used the boundary idea. Along the sides of the chalk- 
mark is there a common boundary where the white ends and 
the black begins, neither white nor black but common to both ? 

Said the theologian, yes. Said the chemist, no. 

Though lines are my trade, I sympathized with the chemist. 

There is nothing there until I create a line and then see it 
there, if I may say I see what is an invisible creation of my 

Geometry is in structure a system of theorems deduced in 
pure logical way from certain unprovable assumptions pre- 
created by auto-active animal and human mind. 



Some unscientific minds have a personal antipathy to '*a 
perfect logical system," ** deduced logically from simple funda- 
mental truths." But as Hilbert says: *'The requirement of 
rigor, which has become proverbial in mathematics corresponds 
to a universal philosophic necessity of our tmderstanding; 
and, on the other hand, only by satisfying this requirement 
do the thought content and the suggestiveness of the problem 
attain their full eflFect. Besides, it is an error to believe that 
rigor in the proof is the enemy of simplicity. On the contrary 
we find it confirmed by numerous examples that the rigorous 
method is at the same time the simpler and the more easily 
comprehended. The very effort for rigor forces us to find out 
simpler methods of proof. 

**Let us look at the principles of analysis and geometry. 
The most suggestive and notable achievements of the last 
centur>^ in this field are, as it seems to me, the arithmetical 
formulation of the concept of the continuum, and the dis- 
covery of non -Euclidean geometry." 

The importance of the advance they had made was fully 
realized by John Bolyai and Lobachevski, who claimed at 
once, unflinchingly, that their discovery or creation marked 
an epoch in human thought so momentous as to be unstupassed 
by anything recorded in the history of philosophy or science, 
demonstrating, as had never been proven before, the suprem- 
acy of pure reason, at the very moment of overthrowing what 
had forever seemed its surest possession, the axioms of geom- 


Young Lobachevski at the University of Kazan, though a 
charity student, and, as seeking a learned career, utterly 
dependent on the authorities, yet plunged into all sorts of 
insubordination and wildness. Among other outbursts, one 
night at eleven o'clock he scandalized the despotic Russian 
authorities of the Tatar town by shooting off a great sky- 


Tooket, which prank put him promptly in prison. However, he 
continued to take part in all practical jokes and horse-play of 
the more daring students, and the reports of the commandant 
and inspector are never free from bitter complaints against 
the outrageous Lobachevski. His place as **Kammerstu- 
dent" he lost for too great indulgence toward the misbehavior 
of the younger students at a Christmas festivity. In spite 
of all, he ventured to attend a strictly -forbidden masked ball, 
and what was worse, in discussing the supposed interference 
of God to make rain, etc., he used expressions which sub- 
jected him to the suspicion of atheism. From the continual 
accusing reports of the commandant to the Rektor, the latter 
took a grudge against the troublesome Lobachevski, and 
reported his badness to the Curator, who, in turn, with expres- 
sions of intense regret that Lobachevski shotdd so tarnish 
his brilliant qualities, said he would be forced to inform the 
Minister of Education. Lobachevski seemed about to pay 
dear for his youthful wantonness. He was to come up as a 
candidate for the Master's Degree, but was refused by the 
Senate, explicitly because of his bad behavior. But his 
friend the foreign professor of mathematics now rallied the 
three other foreign professors to save him, if he would appear 
before the Senate, declare that he rued his evil behavior, and 
solemnly promise complete betterment. 

This was the mettle of the youth, the dare-devil, the irre- 
pressible, who startled the scientific sleep of two thousand 
years, who contemptuously overthrew the great Legendre, 
and stood up beside Euclid the god of geometers, this the 
Lobachevski who knew he was right against a scornful world, 
who has given us a new freedom to explain and understand 
our universe and ourselves. 



Of the boy Bolyai, joint claimant of the new world, we have 
a brief picture by his father. ** My (13 + X) year old son, when 
he reached his ninth year, could do nothing more than speak 
and write German and Magyar, and tolerably play the violin 


by note. He knew not even to add. I began at first with 
Euclid ; then he became familiar with Euler ; now he not onlv 
knows of Vega (which is my manual in the College) the first 
two volumes completely, but has also become conversant 
with the third and fourth volumes. He loves differential and 
integral calculus, and works in them with extraordinary readi- 
ness and ease. Just so he lightly carries the bow through the 
hardest runs in violin concerts. Now he will soon finish ray 
lectures on physics and chemistry. On these once he also 
passed with my grown pupils a public examination given in 
the Latin language, an examination worthy of all praise, 
where in part others questioned him ad aperturam, and in 
part as opportunity served I let him carry out some proofs 
in mechanics by the integral calculus, such as variable motion. 
the tautochrofiism of the cycloid, and the like. Nothing more 
could be wished. The simplicity, clearness, quickness and 
ease were enrapturing even for strangers. He has a quick and 
comprehensive head, and often flashes of genius, which many 
paths at once with a glance find and penetrate. He loves 
pure deep theories and astronomy. He is handsome and 
rather strongly built, and appears restful, except that he 
plays with other children very willingly and with fire. His 
character is as far as one can judge, firm and noble. I have 
destined him as a sacrifice to mathematics. He also has 
consecrated himself thereto." 

His mother, n^e Zsuzsanna Benko Arkosi, wonderfully 
beautiful, fascinating, of extraordinary mental capacity, but 
always nervous, so idolized this only child that when in his 
fifteenth year he was to be sent to Vienna to the K. K. 
Ingenieur-Akademie, she said it seemed he should go, but his 
going would drive her distracted. And so it did. 

Appointed "sous-lieutenant," and sent to Temesvir, he 
wrote thence to his father a letter in Magyar, which I had 
the good fortune to s^e at Maros-VdsArhely : 

**My Dear and Good Father: 

** I have so much to write about my new inventions that 
it is impossible for the moment to enter into great details. 


SO I write you only on one-fourth of a sheet. I await your 
answer to my letter of two sheets; and perhaps I would not 
have written you before receiving it if I had not wished to 
address to you the letter I am writing to the Baroness, which 
letter I pray you to send her. 

** First of all I reply to you in regard to the binomial. 


Now to something else, so far as space permits. 
I intend to write, as soon as I have put it into order, and 
when possible to publish, a work on parallels. 

**At this moment it is not yet finished, but the way which 
I have followed promises me with certainty the attainment 
of the goal, if it in general is attainable. 

** It is not yet attained, but I have discovered such magnifi- 
cent things that I am myself astonished at them. It would 
be damage eternal if they were lost. When you see them> 
my father, you yourself will acknowledge it. 

"Now I cannot say more, only so much: that from nothing 
I have created another wholly new world, 

**A11 that I have hitherto sent you compares to this only 
as a house of cards to a castle. 

**P. S. — I dare to judge absolutely and with conviction of 
these works of my spirit before you, my father; I do not 
fear from you any false interpretation (that certainly I would 
not merit), which signifies that, in certain regards, I consider 
you as a second self." 

Nor was the young Magyar deceived. The early flashings 
of his genius culminated here in a piercing search-light pene- 
trating and dissolving the enchanted walls in which Euclid 
had for two thousand years held captive the human mind. 

The potential new universe, whose creation this letter 
announces, afterward set forth with master strokes in his 
'* Science Absolute of Space," contains the old as nothing 
more than a special case of the new. 

Already all the experts of the mathematical world are his 



Henceforth the non-Euclidean geometry must be reckoned 
with in all culture, in all scientific thinking. It shows that 
the riddle of the universe is an indeterminate equation capable 
of entirely different sets of solutions. It shows that our 
universe is largely man-made, and must be often remade to 
be solved. 

In ** Science" for. November 20, 1903, page 643, W. S. 
Franklin, under a heading for which he shows scant warrant, 
expresses himself after the following naive fashion : 

*'A clear understanding of the essential limitations of 
systematic physics is important to the engineer; it is I think 
equally important to the biologist, and it is of vital impor- 
tance to the physicist, for, in the case of the physicist, to raise 
the question as to limitations is to raise the question as to 
whether his science does after all deal with realities, and the 
conclusion which must force itself on his mind is, I think, that 
his science, the systematic part of it, comes very near indeed 
to being a science of unrealities. *' 

Of course, we deeply sympathize with this seemingly sad 
perception, with its accompanying ** simple weeps," ''trailing 
weeps," and "steady weeps," but are tempted to prescribe a 
tonic or bracer in the form of a correspondence course in 
non-Euclidean Geometry. 

At least in part, space is a creation of the human mind, 
entering as a subjective contribution into every physical ex- 
periment. Experience is, at least in part, created by the sub- 
ject said to receive it, but really in part making it. 

In rigorously founding a science, the ideal is to create a 
system of assumptions containing an exact and complete 
description of the relations between the elementary concepts 
of this science, its statements following from these assump- 
tions by pure deductive logic. 


Now, geometry, though a natural science, is not an experi- 
mental science. If it ever had an inductive stage, the ex- 


periments and inductions must have been made by our pre- 
human ancestors. 

Says one of the two greatest living mathematicians, 
Poincar^, reviewing the work of the other, Hilbert's trans- 
cendently beautiful **Grundlagen der Geometric*': 

**What are the fimdamental principles of geometry? 
What is its origin? its nature? its scope? These are 
questions which have at all times engaged the attention of 
mathematicians and thinkers, but which took on an entirely 
new aspect, thanks to the ideas of Lobachevski and of Bolyai. 

For a long time we attempted to demonstrate the prop- 
osition known as the postulate of Eticlid ; we constantlv 
failed; we know now the reason for these failures. 

Lobachevski succeeded in building a logical edifice as coher- 
ent as the geometry of Euclid, but in which the famous postu- 
late is assumed false, and in which the sum of the angles of a 
triangle is always less than two right angles. Riemann 
devised another logical system, equally free from contradic- 
tion, in which this sum is on the other hand always greater than 
two right angles. These two geometries, that of Lobachevski 
and that of Riemann, are what are called the non-Euclidean 
geometries. The postulate of Euclid then cannot be demon- 
strated ; and this impossiblity is as absolutely certain as any 
mathematical truth whatsoever. " * * * 

**The first thing to do was to enumerate all the axioms of 
geometry. This was not so easy as one might suppose ; there 
are the axioms which one sees and those which one does not 
see, which are introduced unconsciously and without being 

** Euclid himself, whom we suppose an impeccable logician, 
frequently applies axioms which he does not expressly state. 

** Is the list of Professor Hilbert final? We may take it to 
be so, for it seems to have been drawn up with care. " 

But just here this gives us a startling incident: the two 
greatest living mathematicians both in error. In my own 
class a young man under twenty, R. L. Moore, proved that 
of Hilbert's "betweenness" assumptions, axioms of order, 
one of the five is redundant, and by a proof so simple and 


elegant as to be astonishing. Hilbert has since acknowledged 
this redundancy. 

The same review touches another fundamental point as 
follows : 

** Hilbert 's Fourth Book treats of the measurement of 
plane surfaces. If this measurement can be easily established 
without the aid of the principle of Archimedes, it is because 
two equivalent polygons can either be decomposed into 
triangles in such a way that the component triangles of 
the one and those of the other are equal each to each 
(so that, in other words, one polygon can be converted 
into the other after the manner of the Chinese puzzle [by 
cutting it up and rearranging the pieces]), or else can be 
regarded as the difference of polygons capable of this mode 
of decomposition (this is really the same process, admitting 
not only positive triangles but also negative triangles.) 

* * But we must observe that an analogous state of affairs 
does not seem to exist in the case of two equivalent polyhedra. 
so that it becomes a question whether we can determine the 
volume of the pyramid, for example, without an appeal more 
or less disguised to the infinitesimal calculus. It is, then, not 
certain whether we could dispense with the axiom of Archi- 
medes as easily in the measurement of volumes as in that of 
plane areas. Moreover, Professor Hilbert has not attempted 

Max Dehn, a young man of twenty-one, in Mathematische 
Annalen, Band 5 5 , proved that the treatment of equivalence by 
cutting into a finite number of parts congruent in pairs, can 
never be extended from two to three dimensions. 

Poincar^'s Review first appeared in September, 1902. But 
on July I, 1902, I had already presented before this very 
Section, a complete solution of the question or problem he pro- 
poses, the determination of volume without any appeal to 
the infinitesimal calculus, without any use of the axiom of 



As Study has said: *' Among conditions to a more profound 
understanding of even very elementary parts of the Euclidean 
geometry, the knowledge of the non-Euclidean geometry 
cannot be dispensed with." 

How shall we make this new creation, so fruitful already for 
the theory of knowledge, for kenlore, bear fruit for the teach- 
ing of geometry ? What new ways are opened by this master- 
ful explosion of pure genius, shattering the mirrors which had 
so dazzlingly protected from perception both the flaws and 
triumphs of the old Greek's marvelous, if artificial, con- 
struction ? 

One advance has been safely won and may be rested on. 
There should be a preliminary course of intuitive geometry 
which does not strive to be rigorously demonstrative, which 
emphasizes the sensuous rather than the rational, giving full 
scope for those new fads, the using of pads of squared paper, 
and the so-called laboratory methods so well adapted for the 
feeble-minded. Hailmann, in his preface, sums up '*the pur- 
pose throughout** in these significant words: **And thus, 
incidentally, to stimulate genuine vital interest in the study of 

I remember Sylvester's smile when he told me he had never 
owned a mathematical or drawing instrument in his life. 

His great twin brother, Cayley, speaks of space as '*the 
representation [creation] lying at the foundation of all ex- 
ternal experience." **And these objects, points, lines, 
circles, etc., in the mathematical sense of the terms, have a 
likeness to, and are represented more or less imperfectly, and 
from a geometer's point of view, no matter how imperfectly, by 
corresponding physical points, lines, circles, etc." 

But geometry, always relied upon for training in the logic 
of science, for teaching what demonstration really is, must be 
made more worthy the world's faith. There is need of a 
text-book of rational geometry really rigorous, a book to give 
every clear-headed youth the benefit of his living after 
Bolyai and Hilbert. 



] The new system will begin with still simpler ideas than did 

I the great Alexandrian, for example, the " betweenness" 

I assumptions; but can confound objectors by avoiding the 

old matters and methods which have been the chief points of 
objection and contest. For example, says Mr. Perry, "I 
wasted much precious time of my life on the fifth book of 
Euclid." Says the great Cayley: ** There is hardly anything 
in mathematics more beautiful than his wondrous fifth book." 

For my own part, nothing ever better repaid study. But 
the contest is over, for now, at last, without sacrificing a whit 
of rigor, we are able to give the whole matter by an algebra as 
simple as if only approximate, and, like Euclid, including 
incommensurables without even mentioning them. 

Again, we shall regain the pristine purity of Euclid in the 
matter of what Jules Andrade calls '* cette mialheureuse et 
illogique definition" (Phillips and Fisher, §7): "A straight 
line is a line which is the shortest path between two of its 

As to this hopeless muddle, which has been condemned ad 
nauseam, notice that it is senseless without a definition for 
the length of a curve. Yet, Professor A. Lodge, in a Discus- 
sion on Reform, says: * * I believe we could not do better than 
adopt some French text-book as our model. Also I, 24, 25, 
being obviously related to 1,4, are made to immediately fol- 
low it in such of the French books as define a straight line to 
be the shortest distance between two points." Professor 
Lodge, then, does not know that the French themselves have 
repudiated this nauseous pseudo-definition. Of it Laisant 
says (p. 223): "This definition, almost unanimously aban- 
doned, represents one of the most remarkable examples of the 
persistence with which an absurdity can propagate itself 
throughout the centuries. 

'* In the first place, the idea expressed is incomprehensible 
to beginners, since it presupposes the notion of the length 
of a curve; and further, it is a vicious circle, since the length 
of a curve can only be understood as the limit of a sum of 


rectilinear lengths; moreover, it is not a definition at all, since, 
on the contrary, it is a demonstrable proposition." 

As to what a tremendous affair this proposition really is, 
consult Georg Hamel in Mathematische Annalen for this very 
year (page 242), who employs to adequately express its con- 
tent the refinements of the Integral Calculus and the modem 
Theory of Functions. 

Moreover, underneath all this even is the assumption of 
the theorem, Euclid I, 20: **Any two sides of a triangle are 
together greater than the third side;" upon which proposition, 
which the Sophists said even donkeys knew, Hilbert has 
thrown brilliant new light in the Proceedings of the London 
Mathematical Society, 1902, pages 50-68, where he creates 
a geometry in which the donkeys are mistaken, a geometry 
in which two sides of a triangle may be together less than the 
third side, exhibiting as a specific and definite example a 
right triangle in which the sum of the two sides is less than 
the hypothenuse. 

Any respectably educated person knows that in general 
the length of a curve is defined by the aggregate formed by 
the lengths of a proper sequence of inscribed polygons. 

The curve of itself has no length. This definition in ordi- 
nary cases creates for the curve a length; but in case the 
aggregate is not convergent, the curve is regarded as not 
rectifiable. It had no length, and even our creative defini- 
tion has failed to endow it with length ; so it has no length, and 
lengthless it must remain. 

If, however, it can be shown that the. lengths of these 
inscribed polygons form a convergent aggregate which is 
independent of the particular choice of the polygons of the 
sequence, the curve is rectifiable, its length being defined by 
the number given by the aggregate. 


Euclid in his very first proposition and again in I, 22, **to 
make a triangle from given sides," uses unannounced a con- 
tinuity assumption. But nearly the whole of Euclid can be 


obtained without any continuity assumption whatever, and 
this great part it is which forms the real domain of Elementary 

Continuity belongs, with limits and infinitesimals, in the 

Professor W. G. Alexejeif of Dorpat, in **Die Mathematik 
als Grundlage der Kritik wissenschaftlich-philosophischer 
Weltanschanung " (1903), shows how men of science have 
stultified themselves by ignorantly presupposing continuity. 
He calls that a higher standpoint which takes account of the 
individuality of the elements* and gives as examples of this 
discreet or discontinuous mathematics the beautiful enumer- 
ative geometry, the Invariants of Sylvester and Cayley, and 
in chemistry the atomic-structure theory of Kekul^ and the 
periodic system of the chemical elements by Mendelejev, to 
which two theories, both exclusively discreet in character, we 
may safely attribute almost entirely the present standpoint 
of the science. 

Still more must discontinuity play the chief r61e in Biology 
and Sociology, dealing as they do with differing individuals, 
cells and persons. How desirable, then, that the new freedom 
should appear even as early as in elementary geometry. 

After mathematicians all knew that number is in origin and 
basis entirely independent of measurement or measurable 
magnitude; after in fact the dominant trend of all pure 
mathematics was its arithmetization, weeding out as irrele- 
vant any fundamental use of measurement or measurable 
quantity, there originated in Chicago from the urbane Pro- 
fessor Dewey (who in parenthesis I must thank for his amiable 
couftesy throughout the article in the Educational Review 
which he devoted to my paper on the Teaching of Geometry-) , 
the shocking tumble or reversal that the origin, basis and 
essence of number is measurement. 

Many unfortimate teachers and professors of pedagogy ran 
after the new darkness, and even books were issued trying to 
teach how to use these dark lines in the spectrum for* illumi- 
nating purposes. 

There is a ludicrous element in the parody of all this just 
now in the domain of geometry. 


After mathematicians all know of the wondrous fruit and 
outcome of the non-Euclidean geometry in removing all the 
diffictdties of pure elementary geometry, there comes another 
philosopher, a Mr. Perry, who never having by any chance 
heard of all this, advises the cure of these troubles by the 
abolition of rational geometry. 

Just as there was a Dewey movement so is there a Perry 
movement, with books on geometry written by persons who 
never read Alice in Wonderland or its companion volume, 
Euclid and his Modem Rivals. 

But the spirits of Bolyai and Lobachevski smile on this 
well-meaning strenuosity, and whisper, **It is something to 
know what proof is and what it is not ; and where can this be 
better learned than in a science which has never had to take 
one footstep backward.^" 


A New Trbatmbnt op Volume. By G. B. Halstbd. 


LUTiON. By E. L. Hancock. 

Thb Rotation Pbrioo op the Planbt Saturn. By G. W. Hough, 

An Extension op thb Group Concept. By Edward Kasner. 

Facilities por Astronomical Photography in Southern Cali* 
PORNiA. By £. L. Larkin. 

Coincident Variations. By L. S. McCoy. 

On the Generalization and Extension op Sylow's Theorem. 
By G. a. Miller. 

The Supporting and Counterweightingopthe Principal Axes 
op Large Telescopes. By C. D. Perrinb. 

A Linkage por Describing the Conic Sections by Continuous 
Motion. By J. J. Quinn. 

Circles Representbd by fi*'P -f L;ti*0 + M;tiR + N S = o. By 
T. R. Running. 

A New Type op Transit-Room Shutter. By David Todd. 


[The following papers were read before the Astronomical and 
Astrophysical Society of America, and Section A, in joint session.] 

The Prediction op Occultations op Stars by the Moon. Bt 
G. W. Hough. 

The D. O. Mills Expedition. By W. W. Campbell. 

The Sun's Motion Relative to a Group op Faint Stars. Bt 
g. c. comstock. 

The Absorption op Solar Radiation by the Sun's Atmos> 
pherb. By F. W. Very. 

Borelly's Comet. By Sebastian Albrecht. 

The Pivots of the Nine-inch Transit Circle op the U. S. Naval 
Observatory. By W. S. Eichblbbrger. 

A Short Sketch op TkE Progress op Astronomy in the Unitbd 
States. By M. S. Brbnnan. 

The Eros Parallax Photographs at the Goodsell Obsbrva- 
TORY. By H. C. Wilson. 


[The following papers were read before the Chicago Section of the 
American Mathematical Society, and Section A, in joint session.] 

A Generalization op Symmetric ahd Skew Symmetric Deter- 
minants. By L. £. Dickson. 

A Class op Pseudo-Contact Transpormations. By £. R. 

Some Developments in Vector Analysis. By J. V. Collins. 

Primitive Roots op an Ideal in an Algebraic Number Field. 
By Jacob Westlund. 

The Elliptic Functions and the General Symmetric Group 
ON Four Letters. By E. W. Davis. 

An Existence Theorem por a Dipperential Equation op the 
Second Order, with an Application to the Calculus op 
Variations. By G. A. Bliss. 

Analogues op th^ Jacobian Identity that Involve Four 
Elements. By Oscar Schmiedel. 

The Law op the Mean por Functions op Several Variables. 
By E. R. Hedrick. 

Algebras Defined by Finite Groups. By J. B. Shaw. 



The Definition op a Reducible Hyper-Complex Number Sys- 
tem. By Saul Epsteen. 

Memoir on Abblian Transformations. By L. E. Dickson. 

Groups in which Certain Commutative Operations arb Con- 
jugate; AND Complete Sbts of Conjugate Opbrations. 
By H. L. Rietz. 

Group Characters op a Linear Fractional Group; of Linbar 
Homogeneous Groups op Determinant Unity; and of the 
Group op all Linear Fractional Substitutions in a Galois 
Field. By H. E. Jordan. 




Vice-President and Chairman of the Section. 
Edwin H. Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dayton C. Miller, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Member of Council. 
D. B. Brace. 

Sectional Committee, 

Ernest F. Nichols, Vice-President, 1903; Dayton C. Miller, 
Secretary, 1903; Edwin H. Hall, Vice-President, 1904; 
D. C. Miller, Secretary, 1904. 

Ernest Mbrritt, i year; D. B. Brace, 2 years; A. G. Webster, 
3 years; Gordon F. Hull, 4 years; F. E. Niphbr, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
R. R. Ramsay. 

Press Secretary. 
D. C. Miller. 


Rbport op the Committee on the Velocity of Light. By 
D. B. Brace. 

A Half Shade Elliptical Polarizer and Compensator. By 
D. B. Brace. 

On the Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Interference of 
Natural Light. By John Mills. 

On the Velocity of Light in a Magnetic Field. By John 

Hertzian Waves Since Hertz. By A. D. Cole. 

A Simple Alternate Current Frequency Recorder. By E 
S. Johonnott. 

Iron Losses in Loaded Transformers. By E. S. Johonnott 

A Method of Comparing Standard Cells. By A. C. Longdkn 

A Method for the Determination of Mutual Induction Co- 
efficients. By Augustus Trowbridge. 

The Influence of Occluded Hydrogen on the Electrical Rk- 




On Hydrogbn-chargbd Palladium. By £. H. Hall. 

A New Form op Frequency Meter. By A. S. Langsdorp. 

A Remarkable Distribution op Carbon on the Bulb op a 
* Hylo* Incandescent Lamp. By Arthur L. Foley. 

On the Charges given to Surfaces by the Dippusion op Ions 
AND THE Earth's Negative Potential. By John Zblbnt. 

The Ratb op Propagation op Smell. By John Zeleny. 

On the Theory op the Electrolytic Rectipibr. By S. R. Cook. 

On the Position op Aluminum in the Voltaic Seribs and thb 
Use op Aluminum as a Positive Element in a Primary Cell. 
By S. R. Cook. 

A New Method por Quantitivb Work in Sound. By John O. 

On the Differential Telephonb. By William Duanb. 

The Selective Reflection op Puchsin. By W. B. Cartmbl. 

Primitive Conditions in the Solar Nebula. By Francis B, 


On the Investigation op the Kinetic Theory of Gases by 
Elementary Methods. By Henry T. Eddy. 

A Demonstration to Disprove the Second Law op Thermo- 
dynamics. By Jacob T. Wainwright. 

Determination op the Coeppicibnt op Expansion op Quartz 
AND Nickel at High Temperatures. By John O. Reed and 
H. M. Randall. 

On the Thickness op Absorbed Aqueous Films. By Lyman 
J. Briggs and a. W. McCall. 

On the Heat Developed on Moistening Insoluble Powders. 
By Lyman J. Briggs. 

The Continuous Method op Steam Calorimetry. By Joseph 
H. Hart. 

The Circulation of the Atmosphere, as indicated by the 
recent Abnormal Sky Colors. By A. Lawrence Rotcb. 


[The following papers were read before the American Physical 
Society and Section B, in joint session.] 

The Radioactivity op Ordinary Mbtals. By E. F. Burton. 

Dobs the Radioactivity of Radium depend on the Concen- 
tration? By E. Rutherpord. 

The Heating Eppect op the Radium Emanations. By E. 
Rutherford and H. T. Barnes. 

The Phosphorescence op Organic Substances at Low Tem- 
peratures. By £. L. Nichols and Ernest Merritt. 

Thk Spbctro-photomstric Study of Fluoresbnce. By E. h. 
Nichols and Ernest Merritt. 

Thb Electrical Conductivity op Liquid Films. By Lyman 
]. Br^ggs. 

On the Use op Nickel in the Marconi Magnetic Dbtector. 
By Arthur L. Foley. 

On Double Refraction in Matter moving through the Bthbr. 
By D. B. Brace. 


Thb Work of the National Bureau of Standards. By E. B« 

Blbctric Double Refraction in Gases. By D. B. Brace. 

Thb Spectrum of the Afterglow op the Spark Discharge 
IN Nitrogen at Low Pressures. By PttRCiVAL Lewis. 

Thb Spectrum of the Electrodeless Discharge in Nitrogen. 
By Pbrcival Lewis. 




Vice-President and Chairman of the Section, 
WiLDBR D. Bancroft, Ithaca, N. Y. 

<^HARLBs L. Parsons, Durham, N. H. 

Member of Council. 
E. H. S. Bailby. 

Sectional Committee. 

WiLDBR D. Bancroft, Vice-President, 1904; Charlbs L. Parsons, 
Secretary, 1904; Charlbs Baskbrvillb, Vice-President, 
1903; H. N. Storbs, Secretary, 1903. 

E. C. Franklin, i year; M. T. Bogbrt, 2 years; L. P. Kinnicutt, 
3 years; L. Kahlbnbero, 4 years; G. B. Prankfortbr, 

5 years. 

Member of General Committee 
Alfrbd Springbr. 

Press Secretary. 
G. B. Prankfortbr. 






It is the sad duty of the retiring Chairman of this Section 
to chronicle the death of two members. One of them, 
James Francis Magee, B. S., University of Pennsylvania, 1887, 
devoted his life chiefly to commercial purstiits, in which 
he was most successful. He joined the Association at the 
fifty-first meeting, being one of our youngest. The other was 
H. Carrington Bolton, Columbia, 1862 (Ph. D., Gottingen, 
1867), who, with the exception of four (Gibbs, Boye, Brush, 
and Hilgard), was the senior of the Section, having joined at 
the seventeenth meeting. I beg permission to quote from 
an article of his in the American Chemist, 1876, the year fol- 
lowing his elevation to Fellowship in the Association, as it 
exemplified in telling words one of the great aims in his life, 
with the fruitful accomplishment of which you are familiar. 

'* So rapid are the strides made by science in this progressive 
age, and so boundless is its range, that those who view its 
career from without find great difficulty in following its di- 
verse and intricate pathways, while those who have secured 
a footing within the same road are often quite unable to keep 
pace with its fleet movements and would fain retire from 
the unequal contest. It is not surprising, then, that those 
actually contributing to the advancement of science, pressing 
eagerly upward and onward, should neglect to look back upon 
the labors of those who precede them, and should sometimes 
lose sight of the obligations which science owes to forgotten 


generations.*'* His numerous contributions to and intimate 
knowledge of the history of chemistry ; his gentle and generous 
sympathy aided and stimulated many active in research or 
technical applications of chemistry. His monumental bibliog- 
raphies put out by the Smithsonian Institution are master- 
pieces. The grief and keen regret of his loss are not confined 
to one nation. 

On another occasion it has been the good forttine of him 
who has the honor of addressing you to-day to indicate that 
events of literary moment, governmental modifications, in- 
ventions and forward stridings in science have apparently 
accommodated themselves to historical periods during the 
past century .t Striking novel facts and fancies, gleaned in 
the realm of inorganic chemistry, have crested not a few of 
the high waves of those human tides that beat against the 
coast of the imtried and unknown. 

The human mind knows by contrasts. For the day we 
have night; for the good there is evil. Where man would 
have a God, he had also a devil ; for the true there is the false; 
the verified and unverified. The false may be true through 
ignorance ; the true may be false in the light of new knowledge. 
Or, as Hegel put it, *'Sein und das nicht Sein sind das Nam- 

Is matter continuous or discrete? argued the opposed 
schools of Grecian philosophy led by Leucippus, Democritus 
and Epicurus, and dominated by Aristotle. Despite the 
clarity of the statements of the Roman Lucretius,} the atomic 

*** Notes on the Early Literature of Chemistry — The Book of 
the Balance of Wisdom," New York Academy of Sciences, May 
39, 1876. 

t*'The Rare Earth Crusade: What it Portends, Scientifically 
and Technically," Science, N. S. 17, 722-781. 

J** Nature reserving these as seeds of things 
.Permits in them no minish nor decay; 
They can't be fewer and they can't be less." 
Again of compounds — 

" Decay of some leaves others free to grow 
And thus the sum of things rests unimpaired.** 

— Book II, 79. 


hypothesis received scant attention until the seventeenth 
century of the Christian era, when Galilei's experimental 
science assailed Aristotelian metaphysics and demanded veri- 
fications of the premises of that philosophy, which had gov- 
erned all the schools of Europe for two thousand years.* 
While Gassendi, Boyle, Descartes, Newton, perhaps Boscovich, 
Lavoisier, Swedenborg, Richter, Fischer and Higgins had 
to do with our modem atomic theory, Dalton one himdred 
years ago ** created a working tool of extraordinary power 
and usefulness" in the laws of definite and multiple propor- 
tions. As Clarket remarked, '* Between the atoms of Lucretius 
■and the Daltonian atom, the kinship is very remote." Al- 
though the lineage is direct, the work of Berzelius, Gmelin 
and others; the laws of Faraday, Guy Lussac, Agavadro, 
Dulong and Petit ; the reformations of Laurent and Gerhardt, 
but particularly Cannizzaro; the systematizations of de 
Chancourtois, Newlands, Hinrichs, Mendelejeff and Lothar 
Meyer; the stereo-chemistry of Van't Hoff and LeBel, have 
imperialized the ideas of the Manchester philosopher, so that 
the conceptions of the conservative atomists of to-day are 
quite different from those at the beginning of the closed cen- 
tury.! * 

These have not come about solely through the additive 
labors of the savants mentioned, for they have been shaped 
quite as much by speculative and experimental opposition 
exemplified by Brodie§ and Sterry Hunt.| 

In Graham's "Speculative Ideas Respecting the Constitu- 
tion of Matter, "IF we have the conception that our supposed 

♦See '*The Atomic Theory," The Wilde Lecture, by F. W. 
Clarke, at Dalton Celebration, May, 1903. 

tLoc. cit. 

J While I have examined much of the original literature, Ven- 
able's "History of the Periodic Law" has been most helpful. I 
have furthermore had the privilege of reading very carefully the 
manuscript of a work entitled "The Study of the Atom" (in press) 
by Dr. Venable. 

§" Calculus of Chemical Operations," J. Chem. Soc, 21, 367 
(1866), and his book, "Ideal Chemistry" (1880). 

II Numerous papers summarized in "A New Basis for Chemistry," 
New York, 1887 and 1892 (4th edition). 

^Proc. Roy. Soc, 1863. 


elements possess "one and the same ultimate or atomic 
molecule existing in different conditions of movement."* 
Apropos y we have the suggestion of F. W. Clarket that the 
evolution of planets from nebulae, according to the hypoth- 
esis of Kant and Laplace, was accompanied by an evolution 
of the elements themselves. Even Boyle — **the cautious 
and doubting Robert Boyle," as Himiboldt said of him — 
was inclined to the belief that "all matter is compounded of 
one primordial substance — merely modifications of the wa- 
teria prima, " 

The Daltonian ideas had scarcely reached adolescence 
before Prout (1815), giving heed to the figures concerned, 
would have all the elements compounded of hydrogen. The 
classical atomic mass values obtained by sympathetic Stas 
and the numerous investigations of those who followed him, 
with all the refinements himian ingenuity has been able to 
devise, temporarily silenced such speculations, but not until 
Marignac had halved the tmit, Dxunas had quartered it, and 
Zangerie, as late as 1882, insisted upon the one-thousandth 
hydrogen atom. 

The notion, like Banquo's ghost, will ever up, for if one may 
judge from the probability calculations of Mallet J and 
StruttS, a profound truth underiies the now crude hypothesis. 

Crookes,|| from observations made during prolonged and 
painstaking fractionations of certain of the rare earths, sup- 
ported his previously announced * ' provisional hypothesis" as 
to the genesis of the elements from a hypothetical protyle, 
which existed when the universe was without form and void. 
He designated those intermediate entities, like yttrium, gad- 
olinitim and didymium, **meta-elements,"ir a species of com- 
pound radicals, as it were. Urstoff, fire mist, protyle, the ultra- 

♦Venable, *'The Definition of the Element," Vice- Presidential 
Address, Section C, A. A. A. S., Columbus Meeting, 1899. 

t" Evolution and the Spectroscope," Pop. Sc. M. Jour., 1873. 

jPhil. Trans., 171, 1003 (1881). 

§Phil. Mag. (6), I, 311. 

llChem. News, 55, 83 (1886). 

^Address before Chemical Section of the British Association^ 
Chem. News, 54, 117 (1885). 


gaseous form, the fourth state of matter* was condensed by a 
process analogous to cooling; in short, the elements were 
created. The rate of the cooUng and irregular condensation 
produced '*the atavism of the elements," and this caused the 
formation of the natural families of the periodic system. 
Marignact, criticising this hypothesis, states "I have always 
admitted t the impossibility of accounting for the curious re- 
lations which are manifested between the atomic weights of 
the elements, except, by the hypothesis, by a general method 
of formation according to definite though imknown laws; 
even when these relations have the character of general and 
absolute laws." 

Further, "I do not the less acknowledge that the effect of 
constant association of these elements is one of the strongest 
proofs that can be found of the community of their origin. 
Besides, it is not an isolated fact; we can find other examples, 
such as the habitual association in minerals of tantalum, 
niobium and titanium." 

Sir John Herschel thought that all the atoms were alike and 
the elements, as we know them, **have the stamp of the man- 
ufactured article." 

Hartley § this year says: "It is more than twenty years 
since the study of homology in spectra led me to the con- 
viction that the chemical atoms are not the ultimate particles 
of matter, and that they have a complex constitution." 

The peculiar discharge from the negative electrode of a 
vacuum tube was investigated many years ago by Hittorf and 
Crookes, who arrived at the conclusion that it was composed 
of streams of charged particles. All are familiar with the 
very recent proposed "electrons" and "corpuscles" result- 
ing from the beautiful physical researches of Lodge and J. J. 
Thomson. These appear to have caused a trembling in the 

♦Crookes, Royal Societies, June 10, 1880. 

tArchives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, 1 7-5 ; Chemical 
News, 56, 39. 

^Remarks made in 1860-65 after publication of Stas' "Re- 
searches on Atomic Weights," Archives, 9, 102, 24-376. 

$ Address before the Chemical Section, British Association, 
Southport meeting, Sept., 1903. Chem. News, 88, 154. 


belief of many in the immutability of the atom, and the com- 
plete abandonment of the " atom is seriously discussed by 

'•If the electrons of all elements are exactly alike, or, in 
other words, if there is but one matter, just as there is but one 
force, and if the elements be but the various manifestations of 
that one matter, due to a different orbital arrangement of the 
electrons, it would seem that we are fast returning to the 
conceptions of the middle-age alchemist. The transmuta- 
tions of metals involves but the modification of the arrange- 
ment of the electrons/' Such efforts as Fittica's* shotdd not 
be treated with scorn, but given the careful examination and 
merited consideration, as Winklerf gave his. Science should 
thus ever be a " foe of raw haste, half-sister to delay. "{ 

Although by chemical means, so far, we have been unable 
to break up the atom, apparently electrical energy, in the 
form of cathode rays, for example, follows the grain of atomic 
structure. Some advanced thinkers look upon the atoms as 
disembodied charges of electricity. Ostwald has taught it. 
Electric charges are known only as united to matter, yet 
Johnstone Stoney and Larmor have speculated on the prop- 
erties of such charges isolated. **Such a charge is inertia, 
even though attached to no matter, and the increase of 
inertia of a body due to electrification has been calculated by 
both Thomson and Oliver Heaviside, the conception accord- 
ingly being advanced that all inertia is electrical and that 
matter, as we know it, is built up of interlocked positive and 
negative electrons. If it were possible in any mass of matter 
to separate these electrons, then matter would disappear and 
there would remain merely two enormous charges of electri- 
city." We are aware of phenomena attributed to the negative 
electrons ; we await anxiously the announcement of the posi- 
tive electrons. But here the water is deep and one may not 
swim too well. 

**' Black Phosphorus, or Conversion of Phosphorus into Arsenic," 
Chem. News, 8i, 257, and 82, 166. 

tBerichte, 33, 10; Chem. News, 81, 305. 
JVan Dyke in "The Ruling Passion." 


We do know, however, as A. A. Noyes says,* that ** there 
exists in the universe some thing or things other than matter 
which, by association with it, gives rise to the changes in proper- 
ties which bodies exhibit, and gives them power of producing 
changes in the properties of other bodies." Further (page 1 5). 
** . matter is that which gives rise to the localiza- 

tion of the complex of properties which certain portions of 
space exhibit. Even though, on the one hand, it must be 
admitted that the existence of matter is inferred only from 
various energy manifestations which bodies exhibit, it must be 
acknowledged, on the other, that there are no manifestations 
of energy except those which are associated with the mani- 
festations of it that have led to the adoption of the concept 
of matter; in a word, the two assumed entities, matter and 
energy, are indissolubly connected in our experience.*' Thus, 
as Dumas said, ** Hypotheses are the crutches of science to 
be thrown away at the proper time." 

I have dared to sketch these conceptions in a few bold 
outlines, for 

** We can't enumerate them all! 

In every land and age have they 
With honest zeal been toiling onf 
To turn our darkness into day." 

The imposition upon your good nature practiced in the 
foregoing craves its pardon in an effort to seek a definition 
for the term element. Shall we say, as does Remsen, **An 
element is a substance made up of atoms of the same kind.^" 
Can we say that it is not ? VenableJ truly says * * An element is 
best defined by means of its properties." These conceits are 
not exclusive. The properties are the result of the action of 
physical forces and chemical affinity, whatever that may be. 
Certain of the novel atmospheric gases have so far responded 
but poorly to the latter, as predicted before their discovery 
by Flawitzsky, Julius Thomsen and de Boisbaudran in 1887. 

**' General Principles of Physical Science," p. 13 (1902). 
+Aikens* poem at Priestley Centennial, Am. Chemist, 1875, 23. 
JThe "Definition of the Element," loc. cii. 

394 SECTION c. 

This necessitates, according to Piccini,* our dividing them a: 
once into two classes. 

Pattison Muir gives a satisfactory definition. f **The 
notion of the elements that has been attained after long 
continued labor is that of certain distinct kinds of matter, 
each of which has properties that distinguish it from every 
other kind of matter, no one of which has been separated into 
portions unlike the original substance, and which combine 
together to produce new kinds of matter that are called 

The following simpler definition has finally served as my 
guide: An element is that which has not been decomposed, so 
far as we are aware, into anything other than itself. In short, 
it is consistent. 

It is well to stop occasionally and take stock. The Dal- 
tonian centenary could not but be an opportune time. Stable, 
certified securities are not enumerated in the list which fol- 
lows. Having in mind the second chapter of the First 
Book of Chronicles, certain so-called elements are mentioned, 
for yttrium begat cerium, and cerium begat lanthanum, and 
lanthanum begat samarium and didymitmi, and didymium 
begat neodidymiimi and pra^seodidymium, and praeseo- 
didymium begat a- and i5-praeseodidymium, '*uttd so welter^ 

Unpracticed as a reading clerk, I shall spare you the strain 
of hearing this long list of elements on probation, but submit 
for leisure perusal printed copies. (See Appendix.) 

From the table have been omitted Urstoff, protyle. 
(Crookes), electrons (Lodge), corpuscles (J. J. Thomson) 
and pantogen (Hinrichs). It appeared also unnecessary to 
incorporate phlogiston, nitricum (the imaginary body, thought 
by Berzelius, imited with oxygen to form nitrogen), and araeon 
(ponderable caloric). According to Meissner, hydrochloric 
acid is composed of two equivalents of oxygen, one of water, 
combined with araeon and the imaginary radical murium 
{vide Bolton). Often alloys have been prepared and given 

♦Zeit. Anorg. Chem., 19, 295 (1899). . 

f'The Alchemical Essence and the Chemical Element," London, 
8vo., pp. 94 (1894). 


names like the elements, **Magnalium" for example. These 
are omitted also. Otherwise, I have purposely included 
every suggestion of an element I could obtain. The summary, 
while doubtless deficient, may secure an historical vindication. 

The italicised names are elements which have been tried 
and found wanting; those in small capitals have been verified 
beyond question as distinct, although in specific cases evidence 
is had that they are complex. All others uniformly stand 
before the bar of judgment. The arrangement is chrono- 
logical. Due to pressure of affairs, it has been quite impos- 
sible in some cases to consult the original papers, hence part 
of the table is composed of second-hand and meager informa- 
tion. Every source available has been drawn upon, as 
Venable*s **The Elements, Historically Considered'* [Joum. 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, IV, 36, (1887)], which un- 
fortunately gives no references; Winkler's '*The Discovery 
of New Elements within the last Twenty-five Years" (Lecture 
before the German Chemical Society, Smithsonian Report for 
1897, 237); Clere's **Marignac Memorial Lecttu-e," 1895; 
**Rise and Fall of the Defimct Elements" [Chem. News, 22, 
^08, (1870)]; **List of Elementary Substances Annotuiced 
from 1877 to 1887" (Chem. News, 58, 1887), by the lamented 
H. Carrington Bolton, to whom I cannot too strongly empha- 
size my indebtedness for his ever ready help and sympathy. 

It is my desire to have this as complete and authentic as 
possible. I therefore beg that all information as to omis- 
sions and corrections be forwarded me (Chapel Hill, North 
Carolina, U. S. A.). It will be gratefully acknowledged. 

What shall we do with these numerous aspirants whose 
recognition is urged.'* "These elements perplex us in our 
researches, bafQe us in our speculations, and haunt us in 
our very dreams. They stretch like an unknown sea before 
us, mocking, mystifying and murmuring strange revelations 
and possibilities," said Crookes referring to the rare earths. 
Some have been verified, many unverified ; some are true, some 
are false. Without doubt some have been presented without 
sufficient stage setting, yet the good faith of many cannot be 
questioned. In fact, from this list, as one reads he perceives 


the whole gamut of scientific emotions. There he may find 
the tragedies of elemental pretension, the comedies, yea! the 
very farces. 

We need not look far to ascertain explanations for certain 
incorrect conclusions. The extreme raritv of the minerals 
in which many of the tentative elements have been detected, 
the excessively small percentages of the new ingredients, and 
the extraordinary difficulties attending their separation from 
known and unknown substances combine to render the investi- 
gations laborious, protracted and costly. De Boisbaudran 
required 2,400 kilograms of zinc blende for 62 grams of 
gallium. Ramsay* has shown one part of crypton in twenty 
million volumes of air, while a like amount of xenon requires 
one hundred and seventy million. How patiently and per- 
sistently that modest Parisian couple followed BecquereFs 
rays ! 

Furthermore, when one feels that he has obtained some- 
thing novel, the absolute proof is fraught with difficulties 
and uncertainties. We have decided to define an element 
by its properties. The alterations produced in the properties 
of the most characteristic elements by the presence of small 
amounts of foreign substances are evident in steel. The 
influence of arsenic upon the conductivity of copper is well 
known, and Le Bonf has recently shown that traces of mag- 
nesium (one part in 14,000) in mercury cause the latter to 
decompose water and to rapidly oxidize in the air at ordinary 
temperatures. Thorium with less than a trace of actinium 
produces an autophotograph. 

This point cannot be strongly stressed in the rare earth 
field. One who has wrought with thorium dioxide well 
knows the influence a small amount of cerium has upon its 
solubility. The conflicting statements in the literature as 
to the colors of the oxides of the complexes, neodidymium 
and praeseodidymium, cause one to wonder if different 
researchers have had the same haecceity. 

An appeal to the spectroscope is of course in the minds of 
all my hearers. 

♦Zeit. phys. Chcm., 44, 74 (1903). 
fCompt. rend., 131, 706 (1900). 


It was once supposed that each element has its charac* 
teristic spectrum which remained the same under all cir- 
cumstances. Keeler* calls attention to modem investiga- 
tions which have shown that the same element can have 
entirely different spectra. For example, oxygen may be 
caused to have five different spectra, nitrogen two, etc. In 
fact, there is no indication in the appearance of the spectra 
that they belong to the same substance; yet through the 
result of the work of Rydberg, Kayser, Runge, and Precht, 
series of groups of lines are had which satisfy mathematical 

**It was proposed by de Gramont, at the International 
Congress in Paris, in 190c, and agreed, that no new substance 
shotdd be described as an element imtil its spark spectrum 
had been measured and shown to be different from that of 
every other known form of matter.'' As Hartley t remarks, 
"This appears to me to have been one of the most important 
transactions of the Congress. '* Radium} was the first to be 
tested by this rule. Exner and Haschek obtained 1193 spark 
and 257 arc lines for Demarcay's europium. It must not be 
forgotten, however, that by overlapping lines in mixtures 
may be masked or appear, which are absent in those bodies of 
the highest state of purity. It must not be forgotten that 
pressure influences the spectrum, usually producing a broaden- 
ing of the lines, as shown by Schuster, § and that it may occur 
symmetrically or only towards the least refrangible red. Lest 
we forget, the spectroscope failed a long time to show radium, 
and we knew it was there. It must not be forgotten, as G. 
Krtissl has shown that the "influence of temperature can- 

♦Scientific American Supplement, 88, 977, 1894, and Popular 

tAddrcss before the Chemical Section of the British Association, 
Southport, 1903. 

JRunge and Precht, Ann. Physik., IV, 12, 407 (1903). 

§British Association Report, 1880, 275. Vide also Lockyer .'ind 
Prankland, Proc. Roy. Soc, 27, 288 (1869). 

II** The Influence of Temperature upon the Spectrum; Analytical 
Observations and Measurements," Licbig's Annalen, 238, 57; 
Chem. News, 56, 51. 


not be neglected and ignored, but must be considered by every 
chemist who wishes to make correct spectroscopic observa- 
tions." It is well known to spectroscopists that band spectra 
are obtained at temperatures intermediate between those 
required for the production of continuous spectra ajid line 
spectra.'*' The explanations of these facts do not concern us 
at present. 

It has been shown by the researches of Newton, Dale, 
Gladstone, Jamin, Schrauff, Landolt, and others that the 
refractive power increases in all liquids, except in water, 
between o** and 4** with the increase of density — ^that is, with 
decrease of temperature. Rydberg showed that various solid 
bodies, such as quartz and aragonite, follow the same law. 
There are some exceptions, however. Among these is glass, 
as proved by Arago and Neumann prior to Rydberg. ** On a 
rise of temperature all phenomena of absorption or emission 
are displaced toward the violet with the glass prism, but 
toward the red with quartz prisms. These displacements are 
the greater the more refrangible the region of the spectrum in 
which they occur. " As the result of a large number of obser- 
vations, Kriiss learned that by a variation of 25®, marked 
changes would be observed in the spectroscopic lines. 
From a table given, it could be seen that errors may spring 
from neglect of the temperature (of the instrument) in stat- 
ing wave-lengths, since a rise of 5" is sufficient to transfer the 
Di to the position Da. Roscoe obtained an entirely new 
spectrum with the metal sodium whereby it appears that this 
metal exists in a gaseous state in four different degrees of 
aggregation, as a simple molecule, and as three or four or 
eight molecules together. 

Griinwald in a series of papers on his theory of spectrum 
analysist endeavors ' ' to discover relations between the spectra 

♦Spectrum Analysis, Landauer, English translation by Tingle, 
p. 70. 

fa. '*Uber das Wasserspectrum, das Hydrogen — und Oxygen 
spectrum," Phil. Mag.. 24, 304 (1887). 

b. "Math. Spectralanalyse des Magnesiums und der Kohle." 
Monatshefte fUr Chemie, 8, 650. 

c. "Math. Spectralanalyse des Kadmiunis," Monatshefte fiir 
Chemie, 9, 956. 


and thus to arrive at simpler, if not fundamental, ** elements." 
He came to the conclusion that '* all the so-called elements 
are compotmds of the primary elements a and 6" (coronium 
and helium). Ames,* having called attention to the use of 
uncorrected data by Grtinwald, remarks, *'The concave- 
grating gives the only accurate method of determining the 
ultra-violet wave-lengths of the elements; and as a con- 
sequence of not using it most of the tables of wave-lengths so 
far published are not of much value. " 

Hutchins and Holden,t after a comparative study of the 
arc spectra of metals and the sun with a twenty-one foot focal 
Rowland grating, state: '*We are convinced that there is 
much in the whole matter of coincidences of metallic and solar 
lines that needs re-examination; that something more than 
the mere coincidence of two or three lines out of many is 
necessary to establish even the probability of the presence of a 
metal in the sun. With the best instruments the violet 
portion of the solar spectrum is found to be so thickly set 
with fine lines that, if a metallic line were projected upon it 
at random, in many places the chances for a coincidence 
would be even, and coincidences could not fail to occur in 
case of such metals as cerium and vanadium, which give 
hundreds of lines in the arc. " 

** Moreover, a high dispersion shows that very few lines of 
metals are simple and short, but, on the contrary, winged and 
nebulous, and complicated by a great variety of reversal phe- 
nomena. A 'line' is sometimes half an tnch wide on the 
photographic plate, or it may be split into ten by reversals." 

Lockyer maintained that the lines of certain substances 
vary not only in length and in number, but also in brilliancy 
and in breadth, depending upon the quantity of the substance 
as well as temperature. J Being unable to decompose the 
elements in the laboratory, he studied the spectra of the stars. 
The spectra of the colder stars§ show many more metals, 

♦Am. Chem. J., ii, 138 (1889). 

t**On the Existence of Certain Elements, Together with the 
Discovery of Platinum in the Sun." Am. Jour. Sci.; Sci. Am. 
Supp.. 25, 628, iSS9. 

•JRoy. Soc. Proc, 61, 148, 183; Chem. News, 79, 145. 

§Chem. News, 79, 147. 


but no metalloids, whereas the coldest stars, A, Oriants, 
show the Crookes' spectrum of metalloids which are com- 
pounds. None of the metalloids are found in the spectniin 
pf the sun. Over 100,000 visual observations and 2,000 pho- 
tographs were made in the researches. 

Liveing,* as the result of the work of Young, Dewar. 
Fievez and himself on the spectrum of the sun, by which some 
lines were resolved with a new instrument, which they before 
had not been able to devise, comments on Lockyer's work. 
That the coincidence of rays emitted by different chemical 
elements, especially when developed in the spark of a power- 
ful induction coil, and the high temperature of the sun and 
stars, gives evidence of a common element in the compositiQa 
of the metals which produce the coincident rays. **This 
result cannot fail to shake our belief, if we had any, in the ex- 
istence of any common constituent in the chemical elements, 
but it does not touch the evidence which the spectroscope 
affords us that many of our elements, in the state in which 
we know them, may have a very complex molecular structure." 
Hartley t in his recent admirable address said : 
"I have always experienced great difficulty in accepting 
the view that because the spectrum of an element contained 
a line or lines in it which were coincident with a line or lines 
in another element, it was evidence of the dissociation of 
the elements into simpler forms of matter. In my opinion, 
evidence of the compound nature of the elements has never 
been obtained from the coincidence of a line or lines exclus- 
ively belonging to the spectrum of one element with a line 
or lines in the spectrum exclusively belonging to another 
element. This view is based upon the following grounds: 
First, because the coincidences have generally been shown 
to be only apparent, and have never been proved to be real; 
secondly, because the great difficidty of obtaining one kind 

♦Address before the Chemical Section of the British Association, 
Scientific American Supplement, 14, 356, 1882, 
iLoc. cit. 


of matter entirely free from every other kind of matter 
is so great that where coincident lines occur in the spectra 
of what have been believed to be elementary substances, 
they have been shown from time to time to be caused by 
traces of foreign matter, such as by chemists are commonly 
termed impurities ; thirdly, no instance has ever been recorded 
of any homologous group of lines belonging to one element 
occurring in the spectrum of another, except and alone where 
the one has been shown to constitute an impurity in the 
other; as, for instance, where the triplet of zinc is found in 
cadmium and the triplet of cadmium in zinc, the three 
strongest lines in the quintuple group of magnesium is graph- 
ite, and so on. The latest elucidation of the cause of co- 
incidence of this kind arises out of a tabulated record from 
the wave-length measurements of about three thousand lines 
in the spectra of sixteen elements made by Adeney and 

myself. The instances where lines appeared to coincide 
were extremely rare; but there was one remarkable case of 
a group of lines in the spectrum of copper which appeared 
to be common to tellurium; also lines in indium, tin, anti- 
mony, and bismuth, which seemed to have an origin in com- 
mon with those of tellurium." 

The last sentence presents the point I wish to emphasize. 
Tellurium has long obtruded itself before a satisfactory 
vision of the natural system. The table (given below) alone 
recites not a few efforts to obtain the contaminating constituent 
of tellurium which h priori is present from Hartley's observa- 
tions (see also Grunwald, 1889, Table). The fractionation 
of a rubiditim-caesium mixture, perhaps, is a simpler problem 
than that confronting Pellini,* who reports a definite amount 
of an element with a high atomic weight (about 214) similar 
to and associated with tellurium. 

What has been said applies especially to the elements of the 
rare earth class — "asteriods of the terrestrial family'* — as 
phrased by Crookes. Many of them have not been secured 

*Gaz. Chim. ital. 33, 11, 35. 


with sufficient purity to claim an inherent spectrum ; further. 
the spectra attributed have not been obtained under uniform 

I have referred* somewhat in detail elsewhere to the 
factors producing variations in the absorption, as well as 
the advantages and disadvantages of the phosphorescent 
and reversal spectra. 

Without doubt the spectroscopic criteria are the most 
valuable we have in judging finally the elements, and, mayhap, 
will remain so; but in my hiunble opinion such have not 
alone sufficient authority, as yet, to usher the aspirant to a 
place among the elect. The contention frames itself, however, 
in an expression of the need for uniformity. 

Whether we follow the most advanced metaphysioo- 
chemical teachings or no, if there be any one concept upon 
which modem practical chemical thought depends it is the 
law of definiteness of composition. There may be, and 
doubtless are, definite, perhaps invariable, properties of our 
elements other than their combining proportions, the atomic 
weights, if you please, yet, as far as we know, they approxi- 
mate more closely than any fixed, if not permanent, ratios. 
Many of these values, by which we lay such store, are de- 
pendent upon datat in which, I venture the assertion, too great 
confidence has been bestowed, or opinions to which sufficient 
attention has not been given. 

Although in this connection we shall give little heed to 
the suggested variability of the relative values, it may be 
remarked that Boutlerow, noting the variations observed 
in 1880 by Schiitzenberger, who, by the use of different atomic 
weights, obtained analyses summing 10 1 instead of 100, 
expressed the opinion that the chemical value of a constant 
weight, or rather mass of an element, may vary; that the so- 
called atomic weight of an element may be simply the carrier 

♦The Rare Earth Crusade, he. cit. 

tOthers have been referred to in the address to which this is a 
sequel. Loc. cit. 


of a certain amoxint of chemical energy which is variable 
within narrow limits (see also Crookes). Wurtz's summary 
of Boutlerow's views, at a meeting of the Chemical Society 
of Paris, provoked an interesting discussion. Cooke later 
published a statement that he had expressed similar views 
more than twenty-five years before. That is, in 1855 he had 
questioned the absolute character of the law of definite pro- 
portions and had suggested that the variability was occasioned 
"by the very weak alHinity between elements manifesting a 
fluctuating composition. Without doubt "The Possible Sig- 
nificance of Changing Atomic Volume/'* in which a sugges- 
tion as to the probable source of the heat of chemical com- 
bination is put forward by T. W. Richards, bears directly 
upon this phase of the problem. 

While the atomic mass values depend directly upon the 
ratio between the constituents of the compounds, they rest 
equally upon the molecular weights. Many of the latter 
attributed to salts of some of the rare earths depend solely 
npon the specifict heat determinations of Hillebrand and 
Norton, t Nilson and Pettersson,S who, in the light of subse- 
quent investigations, we know worked with complexes. To 
be sure, those elements, which were apparently exceptions 
to the law of Dulong and Petit, possess low atomic weights 
(beryllium, boron, carbon, silicon, aluminum and stdphur), 
and have for the most part been brought into harmony. ' ' The 
specific heats of all substances vary with the temperature at 
which they are measured, and though the variation is often 
slight, it is occasionally of relatively great dimensions. When 
this is so in the case of an element the question arises: At 
what temperature must the measurement of the specific heat 
be made in order to get numbers comparable with those of 
the other elements? No definite answer has been given to 

*Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 37, i (1901), and 27, 399 

fBericbte, 13, 1461 (1880). 
|Pogg. Annal., 156, and following. 
fBericbte. 13, 146 (z88o). 


this question, but it is found that as the temperature rises 
the specific heat seems to approach a limiting value, and this 
value is not in general far removed from that which would 
make the atomic heat approximately equal 6.4."* In view of 
this, allotropism and the work of Richards adverted to, it 
appears that a revision of the specific heat values now taken 
is necessary before we can accept fully this law which has 
been most helpful. 

Time will not admit of detailed statements, and it is unnec- 
essary in this presence to more than call attention to the 
fact that what has been said is not applicable to each specific 
case. *'La critique est facile, tnais I* art est difficile, " as Berthe- 
lott has said, yet we must appreciate that all our laws have 
their limitations. '^Man being servant and interpreter of 
nature, can do and understand so much and so much only, 
as he has observed in fact or in thought in the course of 
nature. Beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do 

anything, "t 

A glance at the extensive, even censored, list of claimants 
will evoke serious thought. '*Thus was the building left 
ridiculous. '*§ The difficulties briefly outlined and the causes 
for lack in uniformity, are by no means insurmountable, 
but will continue until more systematic direction and prose- 
cution of the work come about. Investigators in pure 
chemistry, as a rule, hold professorships, or other positions 
making equal demand upon their time. Furthermore, it is 
extremely rare that one man can become a master of the 
various delicate operations hinted at. Mallet | made a propo- 
sition for systematizing atomic weight work, and F. W. 

*" Introduction to Physical Chemistry," James Walker, London. 

P- 33- 

f'Les Origines de I'Alchimie,*' Paris, 1885. 

J Bacon's Novum Organum, Aphorism I. 

fMilton, "Tower of Babel." 

|Stas Memorial Lecture, Chemical Society (London), delivered 

December 13, 1892, 


Clarke in this country* and abroadt has urged the establish- 
ment of an institute for its prosecution. This appeals to all 
interested in what we are pleased to term the exact sciences, 
and doubtless in time will come about. For the time being, 
however, it is not unreasonable to suppose that a concerted 
appeal of the chemists of this country to the direction of 
the munificent endowment recently made American Science 
for funds to clarify the elemental enigma presented above 
^would not be in vain. There are splendidly equipped chemical 
-departments in some of our great American universities 
which would make room for, and cordially welcome, I am 
sure, a selected corps of supported researchers, who would 
test the claims of each of these and other elemental aspirants. 
Such a community of effort should receive even greater 
substantial assistance from governments and corporations 
than has been accorded individuals. I need only refer to 
the aid given the Curies by the Austrian government and 
generosity shown by the Welsbach Lighting Company in 
this country to several investigators, especially myself. 

It must be evident to all that we are not indulging in special 
pleading, for every phase of that division of science designated 
-chemistry rests upon what we choose to term the elements. 

Victor Meyert referring to the phantasies of science, said: 
**He, however, who only knows chemistry as a tradition of 
perfectly clear facts, or who thinks to see the real soul of 
chemical study in measuring physical phenomena which 
accompany chemical transformations, feels no breath of this 
enjoyment." Reflecting upon the good and ill that have 
come to us through unrestrained imagination, we may give 
a careful acceptance of Newton's "Physics, beware of meta- 
physics," for as Clifford wrote, "Doubtless there shall by 

*Presidential Address before the American Chemical Society. 

t Wilde Lecture at the Dalton Centenary, Manchester, 1903. 

tLecture on **The Chemical Problems of To-day," before the 
Association of German Naturalists and Physicians at Heidelberg. 
September, 1889; Chemical News, 61, 21. 


and by be laws as far transcending those we know as they do 
the simplest observations." 

The graphic representation of the elements, **the founda- 
tion stones of the material universe which amid the wreck 
of composite matter remained unbroken and unworn," as 
Maxwell gracefully spoke of them, has often been mistaken 
for the periodic law. Camelley's ''reasonable explanations" 
of the periodic law were given a respectful hearing and for- 

** Granting that the chemical characteristics of an element 
are connected with its atomic weight, we have, however, no 
right to assume them to be dependent upon that fact alone." 
(Liveing). Hinrichs says weight and form,t concerning 
the latter of which I am ignorant. No doubt the pendulum 
lately has swung back toward Berzelian thought revivified 
by the like masters, Van't Hoff and Arrhenius. 

Le Verrier predicted the planet Neptune and his predictions 
were verified. While all of MendelejeflF's predictions, specific 
and tacit, have not been verified, some have. Ramsay J 
and others without a periodic guide, predicted certain of 
the inert gases, which predictions have been verified. 

Victor Meyer, in speaking of the completion of the Mendelejefi 
table, calls attention to the summing up of one himdred ele- 
ments, from which it appears that 258 would be the limit 
to our atomic mass equivalents. I am not prepared to 
positively contradict such a conclusion at the present time, 
but there are reasons for thinking otherwise. 

Clarke § has shown that the mean density of the earth, 5.5 

'*'He regarded the elements as compounds of carbon and aether 
analogous to the hydrocarbon radicals, and suggested that all 
known bodies are made up of three primary elements — carbon^ 
hydrogen and aether; truly an assumption which cannot be dis- 
proved. Aberdeen Meeting, British Association. 

fAtom Mechanics, Hinrichs, Vol. I, St. Louis, 1894, p. 242. 

^Address before the Chemical Section, British Association » 
Toronto Meeting (1898). 

§**The Relative Abundance of the Chemical Elements," F. W. 
Clarke. Read before the Philosophical Society of Washington. 
Oct. 26, 1899; Chem. News, 62, 31. 


to 5.6, is more than double that of the rocky crust, and **the 
difference may be accounted for as a result of pressure, or 
by supposing that, as the globe cooled, the heavier elements 
accumulated towards the center." While it is quite impos- 
sible to judge of the order of this intramundane pressure, I 
am not aware of such marked changes being brought about 
in the specific gravities of the heavier solid elements or their 
compounds either by pressure, allotropic or isomeric changes, 
except the cerebral argentaurum of the late S. H. Emmens.* 
The examinations of volcanic dusts by Hartley,! FleetJ and 
others appear to contradict the latter explanation, although 
we are unable to state the depth, perhaps within the shell, 
considered by Clarke, at which volcanoes begin their boister- 
ous activity. While awaiting a fulfilment of Martinez's§ pro- 
ject to explore the earth's center, we may offer a third solution, 
not wholly unscientific, as it can do no harm, and has naught 
to do with any yellow peril in science, namely, the existence 
of elements with atomic weights higher than those set by 
the silent limit of periodic tables. 

**Most molecules — probably all — are wrecked by intense 
heat, or in other words, by intense vibratory motion, and 
many are wrecked by a very impure heat of the proper 
quality. Indeed, a weak force, which bears a considerable 
relation to the construction of the molecule, can, by timely 
savings and accumulation, accomplish what a strong force 
out of relation fails to achieve.'! 

As hinted at in the earlier portion of this unduly pro- 
longed address, many have theorized as to the ultimate 
composition of matter. The logic of Larmor'sf theory, 
involving the idea of an ionic substratum of matter, the sup- 

* Argentaurum papers published by Emmens, New York. 
tRoyal Society, Feby. 21, 1901; Chem. News, 83, 174. 
JAbstr. Proc. Geol. Soc. 1902, 117. Journ. Chem. Soc. (Land) 
81-82, ii, 518 (1902). 

§La Nature, Sc. Am. Sup., 21, 546 (1886). 
HTyndall in Longman's Magazine. 
^Phil. Mag., December, 1897, 506. 



port of J. J. Thomson's* experiments, the confirmation of 
Zeeman's phenomenon, the emanations of Rutherford, 
Martin 'st explanations, cannot fail to cause credence in the 
correctness of Crooke's idea of a fourth state of matter4 
In the inaugural address as President of the British Associa- 
tion (1898), he acknowledges in the mechanical construction 
of the Roentgen ray tubes a suggestion by Silvanus Thompson 
to use for the anti-cathode a metal of high atomic weight. 
Osmium and iridium were used, thorium tried and in 1S96 
Crookes obtained better results with metallic uranium than 

These and the facts that most of the elements with high 
atomic weights, in fact all above 200 (thallium not reported 
on),§ exhibit radio-active properties, are doubtless closely 
associated and have to do with the eventual composition of 
matter. I have unverified observations which go to show 
the existence of at least one element with a very high atomic 
weight. If it be confirmed, then we have them now or they 
are making, and probably breaking up, as shown by that 
marvellous class of elements in the discovery of which the 
Curies have been pioneers. 

If our ideas, that all known elements come from some 
primordial material, be true, then it stands to reason that 
we are coming in tinie, perhaps, to that fixed thing, a frozen 
ether, the fifth state of matter. I may make use of dangerous 
analogy and liken our known elements, arranged in a per- 
fected, natural system, as the visible material spectrum, 
while electrons, etc., constitute the ultra-violet and cosmyle 
composes the infra-red, either one of the latter by proper 
conditions being convertible into perceptible elemental matter. 
No positive evidence supports these ideas, but I like to fancy 

♦Phil. Mag.. October, 1897, 312. 

tChcm. News, 85, 205 (1902). 

JPhil. Trans. II (188), 433- 

§See the exquisite paper by Madame Curie on "Radio-active 
Substances;" also "Radio-active Lead," Hofmann and Strauss, 
Berichte. 34, 3033, Pellini {loc.cit.) on "Radio-active Tellurium," 
Strutt, Phil. Mag., 6, 113, Elster and Geitle, Giesel, Marckwald, 
etc., etc. 


scientific endeavor as the sea, calm and serene, supporting 
and mirroring that which is below it, bearing that which is 
upon it, reaching to and reflecting that which is above it, 
moving all the while; yet, torn and rent at times by conflict 
from without and contest within, it runs; it beats against 
the shores of the unknown, making rapid progress here, 
meeting stubborn resistance there, compassing it, to destroy 
but to rebuild elsewhere; and the existence of those within 
it! "Like that of Paul, our life should be a consecrated 













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The following papers were read before the American Chemical 
Society and Section C, in joint session.] 

The Ternary System, Benzene, Acetic Acid and Water. By 
\. F. Lincoln. 

Thermombtric Analysis op Solid Phases. By Wilder D. 

A Method of Grading Soaps as to their Dbterobnt Power. 
By H. W. Hillyer. 

The Determination op Gliadin in Wheat Plour by Means op 
THE Polariscope. By Harry Snyder. 

Factors op Availability of Potash and Phosphoric Acid in 
Soils. By G. S. Praps. 

Thirty Years* Progress in Water Analysis. By Ellen H. 

A Study of the Nitrogenous Constituents of Meats. By 
H. S. Grindley. 

Some Double Salts op Lead. By John White. 


The Theory op Valence. By G. B. Frankporter. 

The Theory op Double Salts. By James Locke. 

Werner's Theory of Valence and the Constitution of Com- 
POUNDS. By J. E. Teeple. 

Solubility op Gold in Certain Oxidizing Agents. By Victor 

On a Method for Preparing Salts with a Definite Number 
OF Molecules of Water of Crystallization. By Launce- 
LOT W. Andrews. 

An Interesting Deposit prom City Water Pipes. By E. H. 
S. Bailey. 

A Method op Determining the Total Carbon of Coal. Soil* 
etc. By S. W. Parr. 

The Application of Physical Chemistry to the Study op Uric 
Acid in Urine. By F. H. McCruden. 

Investigation op the Bodies called Fiber and Carbohy- 
drates IN Feeding Stuffs, with a Tentative Detbrmina> 
TiON of the Components of Each. By P. Schweitzer. 


The Dielectric Constants op some Inorganic Solvents. Bv 
Herman Schlundt. 

Concentration Cells in Liquid Ammonia. By Hamilton P. 

The Action of Ammonia upon Solutions op Copper Sulphate. 
By James Locke. 

Phosphorescent Thorium Oxide. By Charles Baskervillb. 

On the Action of Radium Compounds on Rare Earth Oxides 
and the Preparation of Permanently Luminiferous Prep- 
arations BY the Mixing of the Former with Powdered 
Substances. By Charles Baskerville and Geo. P. Kunz. 

Action t)F Ultra-Violet Light on Rare Earth Oxides. By 
Charles Baskervillb. 

The Ripening op Apples. By W. D. Bigblow, H. C. Gorb 
AND B. J. Howard. 

Dissociation Phenomena of the Alkylb Haloids and of thb 
Monatomic Alcohols. By John Uric Nef. 

Synthesis of the Quinoline Series. By Edward Bartow. 

The Life of a Barley Corn. By Arvid Nilson. 


Mechanical Science and Engineering. 


Vice-President and Chairman of the Section. 
Calvin M. Woodward, St. Louis, Mo. 

Wm. T. Magrudbr, Columbus, Ohio. 

Member of Council. 
J. BuRKiTT Webb. 

Sectional Committee. 

C. A. Waldo, Vice-President, 1903; El wood Mb ad, Secretary. 
1903; C. M. Woodward, Vice-President. 1904; Wm. T. Ma- 
grudbr, Secretary, 1904. 

Mansfield Merriman, i year; J. B. Webb, 2 years; H. S. Jacobt. 
3 years; H. T. Eddy, 4 years; Wm. Kent, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
G. W. Bissbll. 

Press Secretary. 
Wm. T. Magrudbr. 






A few years ago technical education as we now tmderstand 
it was unknown in America. We have now in our midst 
more than 20,000 students preparing themselves distinctively 
for the engineering profession. 

While the technical schools of the country have had a 
development which for rapidity, strength and importance 
partakes of the marvelous, their rise and growth have been 
profoundly influencing the thought as well as the welfare of 
the nation. Especially in the domain of mathematics have 
they had a directing and vivifying influence which is little 
short of a revolution. To-day mathematics wishes no stronger 
reason for her existence and no stronger call to her cultiva- 
tion than the fact that she is the unchallenged doorkeeper 
to the appreciation and mastery of the physical sciences, 
both in their theory and in their application by the engineer 
to the constructive arts. 

The time is passed when mathematics is referred to by the 
thinkers of the day as being principally a discipline. It is, 
of course, true that, rightly pursued, mathematics is a dis- 
cipline, but it is far more, it is a knowledge, a tool, a power, 
a civilizer. The day is gone when on the one hand the stu- 
dent, Chinese fashion, learns his geometry word for word 


from cover to cover, or memorizes all the demonstrations of 
his analytic geometry down to the last index and subscript, or, 
on the other hand, when the devotee of a cult toasts his favorite 
subject with the words * * Here's to the higher mathematics, 
may they never be tiseful." 

To the workaday world the higher ranges of mathematics 
have been a sealed book; the man who traverses them suc- 
cessfully a magician — a man whose mental occupations 
awaken mingled feelings of awe and pity, awe that he can 
soar so high, pity that he wastes his strength in such useless 
flight. A generation ago the mathematician was joined in 
hand with the Roman and the Greek, and the three easily 
persuaded the educational world that they were the divine 
trio. Without them for a basis there could be nothing 
but a sham college course. Why it was that these three 
lines of study held such a commanding and for the most part 
unchallenged position it is now difficult for us to say. Pos- 
sibly they gained higher esteem as means of mental discipline 
because their most ardent votaries so seldom succeeded in 
making them directly useful except in certain narrow pro- 
fessional lines. Of the men in college courses who studied 
required mathematics beyond trigonometry, very few gained 
any vital conception of analytic geometry and the calculus. 
To most collegians the mass of symbols with which they 
juggled in pursuing these subjects was a distressing night- 
mare, a matter of jest and to be forgotten with all possible 

Our colleges to-day have seen a great light, and have re- 
formed their curricula. They now know there is no dis- 
cipline in the pursuit of mathematics to the man who does 
not understand its language. Early in his course, if not 
throughout it, the student is allowed the more rational way 
of getting his education — by pursuing subjects that he can 
understand. This sensible treatment of educational ma- 
terial has grown up during the development of technical 
colleges, and may be referred in a measure at least to th«ir 
influence. Certainly great advance in the teaching of mathe- 
matics has recently been made, yet very much remains to be 

C. A. WALDO. 451 

■done, and the next great forward movement seems to be 
coming directly from the engineers and the forces they are 
•setting in operation. 

The literature on the question of reform in the teaching 
•of mathematics is growing rapidly. In 1901, John Perry, 
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Royal Col- 
lege of Science, London, and Chairman of the Board of Ex- 
aminers of the Board of Education in Engineering and 
Mathematics, produced a profound impression upon the 
British Association by a paper on *'The Teaching of Mathe- 
matics." His ideas require attention further along. In 
"Germany, Nerst and Schoenflies, for example, have met the 
thought of the hour in their Einfiihrung in die Mathema- 
•tische Behandlung der Naturwissenchaften. In our own 
-country Perry centers are springing up for the reformation 
and profound improvement, if not revolution, of mathematical 
teaching in our secondary schools. In the west the apostle 
of this movement is Professor E. H. Moore, of Chicago Uni- 
versity. One needs only to read his admirable presidential 
address before the American Mathematical Society in New 
York, almost a year ago, to understand the full meaning and 
•extent of the changes sought. 

The address will be found in the number of the Bulletin 
of the American Mathematical Society for last May, and it 
will repay a careful perusal on the part of those of you who 
have not read it. Professor Moore has been counted as a 
pure mathematician of the most pronounced type, but into 
this new movement he has thrown himself with the ardor 
of one whose whole life had been spent in applying a wide 
range of mathematical power to the design and construction 
of the great objects of engineering. If the reformation which 
has been planned and begun shall go on to completion, the 
mathematical teaching in the secondary schools of the middle 
west will have little resemblance ten years hence to the work 
of to-day. 

Arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry will no 
longer be set off in ''water-tight compartments," but will 
all be demanded in various combinations for the solution of 

45 2 SBCTION D. 

single elementary problems. Squared and polar co-ordinate 
paper will represent the facts to the eye in geometrical 
sjmibolism, and at the same time will give a practical introduce 
tion to the fundamental ideas of anal3rtics and the calculus. 
By pursuing through the four years of secondary school life 
a carefully selected and properly graded problem course 
the pupil will review the whole range of elementary mathe^ 
matical truth and become familiar with it not only in theory 
but also in practice. He will never be asking, "What tisc?"^ 
But with the enthusiasm which original investigation only 
can arouse he will find his educational material in the simpler 
problems of the shop, the store, the farm, the bank, the rail- 
road, the steamboat, the steam engine, the electric motor^ 
political economy, geodesy, astronomy, time, space, force, 
and so on through the range of the elementary aspects of the 
things of daily thought and experience in this complex 
and highly developed life of ours. Such a change caimot be 
perfected in a day. No inferior or untrained teacher can 
succeed with it. Elementary work should be in the hands of 
those who have come into living contact with some of the 
deep, broad problems of chemistry, of physics and of engi- 
neering, demanding for their solution a large acquaintance 
with the higher ranges of mathematics. In turn colleges 
and universities which strive to train such teachers must 
revise their mathematical courses and adjust themselves 
to these new ideas. 

In many of our leading institutions exactly that thing is 
occurring, stimulated perhaps in the first place by the great 
demand of technical colleges for mathematicians in sym- 
pathy with engineering ideas. 

Those who are dealing with freshmen in colleges are asking 
the question: '*What is the matter with our preparatory 
schools?" If you wish to see this question strongly formu- 
lated and illustrated read the Commencement Address of 
1903 by President Ira Remsen at Mount Holyoke College. 

This is the indictment of the schools, that they tise, largely 
to the exclusion of the thought element, a mass of formal 
and conventional educational material, and thus paralyze 
thought and crowd out natural mental growth. 

C. A. WALDO. 453 

In the grades the clear, keen, accurate thinking pf child- 
liood soon disappears and does not usually show itself again 
nintil the laboratory or the practical problems of life make 
it once more dominant. We refer to President Remsen's 
question only so far as it relates to mathematical training. 
"The technical schools long ago recognized the barren results 
of primary and secondary mathematical instruction and have 
been deeply interested in its improvement. Most keenly 
this barrenness of earlier years has come to the engineer 
who must subject himself to the long hard discipline necessary 
in his profession for the successftd solution of his original and 
independent problems. Yet certain people seem to look 
askance upon the engineer and discover no advancement of 
science in the design of an entirely new machine to carry 
out an entirely novel idea. According to their notion, 
Whitney was not a scientist when he invented the cotton 
:gin, nor Fulton when he constructed the first steamboat, nor 
Morse when he perfected the telegraph. 

This was all pure commercialism. Even if these worthies 
•cared nothing for the financial side of their work, and only 
•sought to serve and benefit their fellow men, they could not 
l>e classified with the man who describes an unrecorded bug, 
or the one who makes a new but useless chemical compound. 
The latter work without the hope of direct money return for 
their labors. Therefore, theirs is the true method and the 
superior life, even when their disinterested consecration to 
science is mingled with a hope that a little fame will bring 
them an increase in salary from some practical person or per- 
sons who appreciate their unselfish efforts. 

However all of this may be, we know that the essence of 
any engineering work worthy the name is its independence. 
With this there is usually some degree of originality, as it sel- 
dom happens that the same problem repeats itself in every 
particular. What is more, with the independence and 
originality of the engineer must come character, confidence 
in his own mental processes, and a willingness to shoulder 
responsibility in embodying his conclusions. A scientist 
may announce his discovery of the tidal evolution of the moon 


and yet be forgiven if later it should be shown that he is in 
error. Not so with the engineer. When his bridge falls 
tinder prescribed conditions of safe load, his own ruin as well 
as that of his structure is complete. Of all men living the 
intellectual Ufe the engineer is the one most interested in. 
sotind and logical training for his profession, and most intol- 
erant of all shams. It is not surprising then that the one sub- 
ject in secondary schools whose natural purpose is to train 
the student to severe logical and productive thinking should 
respond most fully to his influence. Neither is it surprising, 
tnat from the ranks of the engineers should come the reformer 
who sees clearly the defects of our present mathematical 
work in the lower grades and who is moving powerfully to 
secure better conditions. 

We may sum up what now seem to be the best ideals in 
secondary mathematics as follows: 

These ideals come from the engineering professions. 

They insist upon quality rather than quantity. 

They insist that the thought shall precede the form; that 
the symbol shall not conceal the thing symbolized. 

They insist that systematic and progressive problems 
based upon everyday experience and observation shall be 
to a much greater extent the materials of education. 

They insist that the problems shall be largely concrete and 
shall be worked out to an accurate ntimerical restdt. 

They demand that the several elementary mathematical 
subjects from arithmetic to the calculus shall develop side 
by side in the boy's mind. 

They demand that the mastery of these subjects shall be 
more the work of the judgment than of the memory. 

They demand that from first to last, at least dxiring the 
secondary period, mathematical ability and the ability to 
think clearly, investigate closely, and conclude correctly 
shall develop together, and to the extent that four well 
spent years will on the average permit. 

Those who formtdate these ideals contend that they lead 
to the correct mathematical training for all professions and 
all careers. 

C. A. WALDO. 455 

It remains for us to consider the mathematical courses in 
our technical colleges. What is their relation to the develop- 
ment of the engineer? What shall they include? How 
shall they be administered? These are not new questions, 
neither has the last word been said in answer to them. Fif- 
teen years spent in directing engineering mathematics gives 
the writer some excuse to undertake some further discussion 
of them. 

Important contributions along this line were made by 
Professor Mansfield Merriam in 1894 and Professor Henry 
T. Eddy in 1897, whose articles are published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, 
the second and fifth volumes. But among the most sug- 
gestive discussions during the last year, as well as all previous 
years, are the papers of some of our brightest electrical 
engineers presented at the joint meeting last July at Niagara 
Falls of the Society just mentioned and of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, and published this year 
in the proceedings of both societies. To those interested 
in finding the best educational conditions leading to the 
average as well as the most important engineering operations 
of the day these papers come with peculiar weight and au- 
thority. Judging from the expressions of opinion contained in 
them the active engineer in his occupation, at least, cares 
nothing for the philosophic basis of the concept of number, 
nor for the geometry of non-Euclidean space, nor for Grass- 
man's stufe of the 5th or 6th degree, nor for computations of 
plane triangles when the sum of the angles is less than 180 
degrees. These subjects may and should interest the pro- 
fessional mathematician, but the engineer asks first for the 
ability to use numbers rapidly and to carry numerical compu- 
tations, no matter how complex, to an accurate conclusion. 
As for ordinary mathematics, including of course elementary 
geometry, algebra and trigonometry, the engineer should 
know them "as he knows the currency of his native cotmtry. 
In other words, he ought to be able to make change with ease, 
quickness and accuracy — not as if one were in a foreign 
country in a constant state of painful reckoning." 


On a basis of barter modem business would be strangled. 
The very existence of commerce in the modem sense, in 
which the line of cost and profit is so finely drawn, would be 
utterly impossible without a standard currency. So with- 
out mathematics engineering would be a mass of empiricism 
and tradition. Instead of a pioneer leading the way in the 
progress of the peoples it would be an outcast trailing in the 
rear of every science. 

This proposition that mathematics is the very bone and 
sinew of an engineering course needs no discussion. It is 
everywhere conceded. The extent and nature of the mathe- 
matical element in the curriculum, however, are two de- 
cided fiuents with curves of opposite slope. More mathematics 
but fewer kinds seems to be the tendency. The opinion 
appears to be gaining ground that the purely descriptive and 
highly specialized and professionalized elements in our 
technical courses should be reduced, while more subjects 
with a mathematical basis, with long unbroken continuity and 
bound together with a strong logical element should com- 
mand the attention of the student to the end of his under- 
graduate period. 

Upon the question what mathematical subjects shall the 
undergraduate courses include in our technical colleges, opin- 
ions are decidedly at variance. Upon the four ordinary 
elementary subjects the sentiment is practically unanimous, 
but these should be principally taught in the secondary 
schools. The practical people, however, are inclined to relegate 
analytic geometry and the calculus to the scrap pile. 

To such subjects as vectors, theory of functions, theory 
of groups, they allow no place whatever. 

One cannot but feel that this verdict against analytic 
geometr}^ and the elementary calculus, not to mention higher 
subjects, ig a great pity. Especially does it seem true when 
we recall that instruction in these two lines forms the princi- 
pal mathematical element of the second and third years of 
the ordinary technical course, and that the calculus itself is 
probably the most powerful and wonderful tool for investiga 
tion that the genius of man has ever contrived. 

C. a: WALDO. 457 

The student of mathematics who has reflected deeply upon 
the meaning and interpretation of its symbolic language 
knows that man in his struggle for the mastery and direc- 
tion of nature's laws and processes has no more subtle and 
no more powerful ally than he finds in the calculus. The 
other subjects leading to it are conventional and highly arti- 
ficial, but with this one we return to simplicity and operate 
"with perfect ease and freedom in the realms of time, space 
-and force. 

As we find nature operating by growth, and force by in- 
sensible gradations, so over against that the calculus is the 
science of continuous number. Why then does the mathe- 
matician find so much in this, his favorite subject, while the 
practical engineer, even the one of great ability, proficiency 
and success, is inclined to think that time spent upon it is 
ii^rasted or at least not employed to the best advantage? 
Why this great divergency in conviction? 

No one will doubt the ability of our best mathematical 
instructors nor their perfect familiarity with the matter they 
are teaching. But are analytics and the calculus — especially 
the latter — presented to the average student in the best 
way ? Does not the former smother the thought element and 
leave nothing but routine machine work upon symbols? 
As the student learns laboriously how to find the first deriva- 
tive of a wide range of rider problems has he a faint conception 
even of what it is all about? Sir William Thompson, you 
know, said he did not understand an equation until he could 
make a model of it. Is the average student able to make a 
model of his operations with the differential calculus ? And 
when he takes up the integral calculus and begins his attack 
upon a mass of algebraic and transcendental functions, 
using at times devices of great complexity and extreme re- 
finement, does he usually walk by sight or by faith? Does 
he not often go forward on long and painful journeys in utter 
darkness as to the meaning of it all, trusting, hoping, pray- 
ing that by and by his teacher and his text-book will land him 
on solid ground, and in the clear light to revel and operate 
in a new world Of thought and action? How many men of 


good natural endowments, who are sorely needed in the higher 
ranks of the world's workers, become terrified in this period 
of distressing gloom; how many have lost individual initia- 
tive and independence and are content thenceforward to 
walk not upright, vigorous, aggressive, daring, in the clear 
light of right reason, but by faith, himible and submissive ! 

Why do practical men almost unanimously place calcu- 
lus among the dispensable elements of a technical curricu- 

The answer, of course, is very simple: they have never 
found any use for it, probably because they have never learned 
how to use it. Yet they dare not pronounce against it alto- 
gether. They know that Rankine and Maxwell were master 
mathematicians, and that through this mastery of the most 
powerftd of tools they were able to do for terrestrial, what 
Newton and Laplace did for celestial mechanics. In college^ 
the engineer has not learned to tise the modem tool called the 
higher analysis; it remains to him as foreign currency. Out 
of college he has not time to learn its use. Are you a teacher 
of mathematics and did yo\i pursue the subject under the 
direction of a master? Yet how many classes did you your- 
self guide through the calctdus before its hidden meanings 
its range, its versatility, its power were in any adequate 
measure revealed to you? How simple and how majestic 
it has now become! But if you were so slow in reaching 
the true light, is it to be wondered at that students who go 
over the subject but once and under conditions not greatly 
superior to those of your own college days should not see clearly 
and should not use what they so little understand ! Because, 
as matters now stand, the man who does not repeat his course 
in calculus many times will fail to appreciate it and use it, 
shall we say that it should be cut out of the engineering 
courses and its place taken by more algebra, more trigo- 
nometry and more descriptive geometry, or shall we retain 
it and reform its presentation? The true mathematical 
teacher will always vote for the latter proposition, whatever 
may be the attitude of the professional man on the faculty 
or the pressure from the outside of the practicing engineer. 

C. A. WALDO. 459 

How then may the higher analysis in our technical schools 
be made effective as a true means of discipline and as a tool 
with which to equip the engineer in his life of investigation? 
It is to be understood that the answer to this question 
here is not claimed to be the word nor the last word on so im- 
portant a topic. It is a word to be taken for what it is worth. 

1. The most effective teaching of the higher analysis will 
be possible only when the reforms in mathematical instruc- 
tion referred to earlier in this paper have permeated the prin- 
cipal secondary schools. 

2. The teacher should be saturated with his subject. Not 
only should he be strong and apt on the formal side, but more 
important still its inner meaning should be clear to him and 
its close relation to the phenomena of the objective and sub- 
jective life. Some contend that the only man to whom the 
mathematics of a technical college can be entrusted is an 
engineer. Does that make any difference? Rather are not 
these the essential questions: Does the man know his sub- 
ject? In his teaching can he assemble from engineering and 
other records the material that will vitalize his work? Is 
he in sympathy with engineering essentials and ideals? 

3. Throughout the college course the teaching should be 
mainly concrete. The problem, say from the physical sciences 
including engineering, should first be presented to the mind. 
It should then be stated in mathematical symbols. The 
operations performed upon the symbols shotdd be accom- 
panied by drawings or models, the final result reduced to nu- 
merical form and then interpreted in language. Upon every 
problem the student must bring to bear the whole range of 
his acquired powers and be taught to select the shortest 
method within his ability. 

In other words, all typical problems should receive a 
three-fold consideration: (a) its statement in words, and the 
statement in words of its solution when effected; (6) its 
graphical statement and solution involving geometry and 
mechanical drawing with squared paper; (c), its analytic 
statement and solution, ending with a numerical result. 

4. The purely formal should be presented as a necessity 


arising from the so-called practical, and in order that a body 
of knowledge and technical ability may be accumtilated which 
will give the student easy control over the practical in what- 
ever one of its various forms experience shows that it may 

5. The problems chosen should be progressive in character, 
and their mastery should amount to a complete laboratory 
course in all that part of the higher analysis in which it is de- 
sirable that the engineering student should be well versed. 

6. The course shotdd be lecture and seminarium and in- 
dividual, more after the manner of the German Technische 
Hochschule. The text-book should become a book of refer- 
ence. The instructor should know clearly and be able to 
state accurately the limitations of his methods; but abstruse 
discussions of obscure points should be postponed as long as a 
<iue regard for logical development will allow. Time is 
wasted in removing difficulties whose existence and importance 
the student has hot yet recognized. 

These are some of the necessary extensions into college 
work of the reformation now urged upon the secondary 
schools, and though every one of them seems familiar enough 
when taken separately, all together their united application 
to the mathematical courses in our technical schools amounts 
to a departure from our present traditional methods little 
short of revolutionary. Yet isn't this the thing our engineers 
are demanding, and isn't this the logical way to train an en- 
gineer in higher mathematics? Isn't it the way to approach 
the higher mathematics anywhere or in any kind of a school? 

The pure mathematician may object and exclaim, what 
is to become of our curricula which have been evolved after 
so many years of intellectual conflict! The rule is so much 
algebra, so much geometry, so much trigonometry, so much 
analytical geometry and so much calculus. At the end the 
student has passed with greater or less success so many for- 
mal examinations upon so many formal topics, and his 
acquirements are supposed to range somewhere between the 
maximum and minimum grade of passing. But are these 
the questions which the enlightened educator of to-day is 

C. A. WALDO. 461 

asking? Is it not, How mtich power f A dry and fruitless 
fan:diiiaTity with a number of highly specialised and unre* 
lated things cannot be education. The engineers demand that 
the unity of the mathematical branches should be emphasized 
and that they should accumulate in the soul of the student 
not as dry, useless and unrelated facts, but as a magazine 
of energy. 

Little has been said in this paper about descriptive geome- 
try and mechanical drawing as necessary parts of a general 
mathematical training. Both of these subjects are of the 
highest value as disciplinary studies. They make definite 
and eflfective other mathematical material. Is not one 
reason for the barrenness of mathematics in university 
courses the fact that these subjects, simple though they are, 
have been so long neglected? Do we not find one important 
explanation of the effectiveness of mathematical training 
in technical schools the fact that these subjects are always a 
part of their curricula? 

You may ask for ^ome definite concrete expression upon 
the way that the study of calculus should be undertaken. 
This paper will close with an attempt at a brief answer to 
this question. 

We will suppose that experimentally or otherwise the 
student is familiar with the equation of falling bodies, 5 = ^ gf. 
By this time also the student must be somewhat skilled 
in the use of squared paper and acquainted with this curve 
itself through its application to parabolic mirrors or other- 
wise. Perhaps our parabola had been studied from its geo- 
metrical side as a conic section. It now takes on a symbolic 
meaning, for it gives in a certain sense a picture of the first 
law of falling bodies. But does the student grasp the full 
meaning of the picture ? Using the approximation ^ = 3 2, we 
have a numerical equation. The abscissas of the curve rep- 
resent elapsed time, the corresponding ordinates represent 
total space traversed. At some point on the curve proceed geo- 
metrically and analytically to construct the tangent, at every 
step making a threefold interpretation, one of the curve, one of 
the analysis, and one of the fact connected with these in the 


familiar phenomena of a falling body. Show the limiting posi- 
tion of the secant, deduce the number towards which your suc- 
cessive numerical approximations tend, and connect both of 
these with the velocity of the body at the point considered 
Draw the tangent and show how it represents uniform ve- 
locity. Show that the results reached at one point on iht 
curve are general and apply equally well to every point, and 
that everywhere on your curve yoiu* geometrical tangent and 
your analytic limit interpret each other and give the rate or 
velocity of the falling body. 

Note that the tangents are changing, that the corre- 
sponding numbers are changing, and that these constitute 
a rate of change of velocities. Show graphically the 
oblique straight line representing the changing velocities. 
Give its graphical, its numerical and its nature interpre- 
tation. In the same way study the line parallel to the 
axis of abscissas representing gravity. Study the graphs 
and their relation to each other. Study the series of numbers 
restdting from the selection of equal increments along the A- 
axis, the relation, therefore, of these operations to the theory 
of number series. Connect the first differential coeflficient 
with the tangents and with rates, the second w4th the changes 
of tangents or of rates of tangents, and thus with the thing 
in this problem that produces the changes of velocities, that 
is, with the force of gravity. Note the deformation of the 
original curve if the resistance of the air had been considered 
and its influence accounted for by some simple law. Con- 
struct the curve of the body projected upwards. Let up and 
down destroy each other, so that the ordinates at each ]x>int 
will be the algebraic sum of opposite motions. Note the 
point in the curve when the projected body is for an instant 
stationary in the air. Observe its connection with the first 
differential coefficient. Note the deformation of the curve 
due to the resistance of the air acting according to some as- 
sumed law. 

Similarly, construct approximately the smooth integral 
curve which represents the movement of a steam rail- 
road train from station to station fifty miles apart. Con- 

C. A. WALDO. 463 

Tiect the contour of the curve with velocities and with forces, 
including in the latter the steam in the cylinder, gravity, 
■assisting or retarding, friction and air resistance always re- 
tarding. Note how the second differential coefficient carries 
us back to steam in the cylinders, the third to the causes 
leading to a variation of the artificial forces, such as fuel, skill 
in stoking, &c. Pursue maxima and minima problems in the 
same way. But now instead of a rate of change directly de- 
pendent upon a conventional unit of time we have relative 
rates of change, and we quickly enlarge our ideas of the mean- 
ing and application of the first and second differential co- 
efficient. We can safely begin the formal element of the 
subject. Even then we shotdd continue the diagram and 
its interpretation though we may be utterly unable to set the 
highly artificial equation over against any definite problem 
known to exist in nature. 

Just as differentiation always has a symbolic interpretation 
in tangents and rates, so the integration of any expression 
may be interpreted as the finding of an area. 

Reverse the series of curves relating to falling bodies. 
"The straight line parallel to the axis of x represents the ac- 
tion of gravity, assumed to be constant. The oblique straight 
line through the origin sums its areas and shows that the 
rate of growth of the velocities is constant. In turn the 
vertical parabola picturing time and space is the integral 
curve of the velocities. 

From engineering we have a remarkable series of con- 
nected quantities and these may be selected, as given by 
Prof. W. K. Hatt in the Railroad Gazette of December 23, 
1898, for illustrating the cumulative effect of successive 
integrations. Five successive diagrams used in engineering 
practice are connected by integrations. These are in their 
order the load diagram, the shear diagram, the moment 
diagram, the slope diagram, and the deflective diagram. 

But it is not necessary to enter further upon specific illus- 
tration. The higher analysis is replete with problems which 
the skilled teacher may use as stepping-stones by which 
he may help the student to pass with safety to higher and 


higher mathematical attainment. Step by step he masters 
his method while he is gaining a clearer insight into the 
can^al r^]^tions of things about him. 

The thought element is ever dominant. He goes from 
strength to strength until no task seems too difficult for 
his disciplined powers. 

Two young men stand before an intricate machine. They 
are told that their success in life depends in large measure ia 
their ability to understand and use it. One examines piece 
by piece the parts of which it is composed. He discovers 
the way in which these parts are connected, the material of 
which they are made, their size, their strength, their beauty. 
After long and arduous study, he knows very much about 
the machine, but he cannot put it in motion, he cannot make 
it work, he can do nothing with it except to admire its per- 
fection of form. 

The other student begins to construct another machine 
like the one shown him. As it grows under his hands he 
is constantly using it for every operation to which it can be 
applied. As it approaches completion he admires more and 
more its adaptability and wide range of useful applications. Its 
beauty no longer affects him greatly, but he is lost in wonder 
and admiration before its marvelous power. By direct- 
ing and using this power he grows in wisdom, in mentality 
and in originality, and becomes one of the benefactors of 
his race. 

Do we need to stop long to discover who is the '*man 

In later years mathematical instruction in this country 
has greatly improved in its thought content, but it has re- 
sponded slowly and conservatively to modem methods. 
We are still more English than German. In the work of 
training a master of the physical sciences the text-book 
and the senseless repetition of words and formulas falling 
upon the dull ear of an instructor half asleep have been 
replaced by the lecture, the laboratory, and the seminarium. 
Why should not mathematics, so intimately related to them, 
follow their lead and partake in the benefits of modem 
methods carried to their legitimate and logical completion' 


Graphical Methods for Determining the Equations of EX' 


The Fatigue of Cement Products. By J. L. Van Ornum. 

The Design of Steel Concrete Arches. By E. J. McCaust- 


New Features and Tendencies in Bridge Engineering. By 
H. S. Jacoby. 

An Hydraulic Micrometer Caliper. By Wm. T. Magrudbr. 

PiTOT Tubes, with Experimental Determinations of the 
Forms of Water Jets. By James E. Boyd and Horace Judd. 

Molecular Velocities. By J. Burkitt Webb. 

Iowa Coals. By G. W. Bissell. j 


• Thb Science of Smoke Prevention. By C. H. Benjamin. 

A Producer Horse Power — A Proposed New Unit. By Wm. 
T. Magruder. 

t • 

Recent Improvements at the Union Station, St. Louis. Bt 
A. P. Greensfbldbr. 

The Flying Machine Problem. Bv J. Burkitt Wbbb. 

Practicable Artificial Flight. By J. Burkitt Webb 

Exploration of the Atmosphere as Practised with Kitbs at 
THE Blue Hill Observatory since 1894. By A. Lawrbmcb 


The Aeronautical Contests at the World's Fair, St. Louis. 
1904. By Calvin M. Woodward. 

The Aeronautical Concourse at the World's Fair. St. Louis, 
1904. By a. Lawrence Rotch. 

Aerial Navigation. By Octave Chanutb 


The Stream Flow of the Upper Mississippi River. By C. W. 

Lbvees, Outlets and Reservoirs. By R. S. Taylor. 

The Work of the Mississippi River Commission. By J. A 


A Rational Method of Controlling Floods on the Mississippi 
River. By Lewis M. Haupt. 

The Lower Mississippi River. By Jas. A. Seddon. 

Some Topics Connected with the Machinery Department of 
THE World's Fair. By G. L. Carden. 

Methods of Determining the Coefficients of Elasticity. 
By Frank B. Williams. 

A Proposed Method of Building the MaAdingo Ship Tunnel. 
By E. W. Serrell. 


Geology and Geography. 


Vice-President and Chairman of the Section. 
I. C. Russell, Ann Arbor, Mich, 

E. O. HovEY, New York, N. Y. 

Member of Council, 
E. A. Smith. 

Sectional Committee, 

W. M. Davis, Vice-President, 1903; E. O. Hovhy, Secretary, 
1903; !• C. Russell, Vice-President, 1904; E. O. Hovev, 

Secretary, 1 904. 

A. P. Brigham, I year; David White, 2 years; I. C. Russell, 
3 years; C. R. Van Hise, 4 years; I. C. White, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee, 
L. C. Glenn. 

Press Secretary. 
M. S. W. Jefferson. 






For twenty years past our section has acknowledged in 
its name an equal rank for Geology and Geography, but not 
one of the vice-presidential addresses during that period, or 
indeed since the foundation of the Association over fifty years 
ago, has been concerned with the subject second named. 
Unless we cross off geography from the list of our responsi- 
bilities, it should certainlv receive at least occasional atten- 
tion; let me therefore depart from all precedents, and, even 
though geologists may form the majority in this gathering, 
consider the standing of geography among the sciences of 
the United States: how it has reached the place it now 
occupies, and what the prospects are for its further advance. 

One measure of the place that geography occupies in this 
country may be made by considering the share that geo- 
graphical problems have had in the proceedings of our Asso- 
ciation: here follow, therefore, the results of a brief examina- 
tion of our fifty volumes of records. In the early years of 
the Association there was no fixed division into sections. The 
meetings were sometimes so small that papers from various 
sciences were presented in general session. At least once in 
the early years the work of our predecessors was recorded 
under the general heading, "Natural History, etc." As 
early as in 185 1 there was a section of geology and physi- 
cal geography, and another of ethnolog}' and geography, 


but that classification did not endure. Once onlv. in 
1853, did geography stand by itself as a sectional heading, 
but at many meetings physics of the globe and meteorology 
had places to themselves. Through the '6o*s and '70's 
geography was sometimes coupled with geology, but the 
latter more often stood alone or with paleontology, and it 
was not until the Montreal meeting of 1882 that Section E 
was definitely organized with the title that it now bears. 

In those years when physics of the globe and meteorology 
were given sectional rank, problems concerning the ocean 
and the atmosphere received a good share of attention. It 
is curious to note, in contrast to this, how little consideration 
has been given to the exploration and description of the 
lands; that is, to the geography of the lands, in this Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, either before or after 
the establishment of the double name for our section. The 
exploration of foreign lands, for many years a prominent 
subject in the meetings of the British Association where 
geography has had a section to itself since 1869, has at- 
tracted hardly any notice in our gatherings; perhaps 
because we have been busy exploring our own domain. At 
the first meeting, 1848, a stmimary of then recent explorations, 
prepared by Alexander, is the only paper of its kind. Other 
papers treating the geography of foreign lands are so few in 
number that most of them may be noted here; in 1850, 
Squier gave an evening address on the Volcanoes of Central 
America; in 1858 and i860, Hayes and Wheildon discussed 
Arctic Exploration; Orton described the Valley of the Ama- 
zon in 1869; in 1884 and 1898, two English visitors had 
papers on different parts of Asia; in 1891 and 1898. Crawford 
described features of Nicaragua, and in 1894 and 1895. Hub- 
bard read papers on China, Corea, and Japan. Even geo- 
logical essays on foreign regions have been few; Dana, Bran- 
ner, Hill, Spencer, Heilprin and Hitchcock being the chief 
contributors. Inattention to foreign exploration is, however, 
not to be fully explained by devotion to the geography of 
our own country, so far as the latter is measured by the pages 
devoted to it in our proceedings. The first meeting started 

W. M. DAVIS. 473 

well enough, with accounts of the terraces of Lake Superior 
by Agassiz, of the physical geography of northern Mississippi 
by Bolton, and of the topography of Pennsylvania and Ohio 
by Roberts. Again, in 185 1, when physical geography was 
named with geology, the first subject had two essays, the 
distribution of animals in California, and the climate, flora, 
and fauna of northern Ohio; and geography joined in the 
same year with ethnology had three rather scattering titles: 
a deep-sea bank" near the Gulf Stream, measurement of 
heights by the barometer, and a geographical department in 
the Library of Congress ; but this beginning had no worthy 
sequel. The many expeditions across our western territory 
contributed little geographic matter to our records; in 1856, 
Blake described the orography of the western United States, 
and Emory the boundary of the United States and Mexico; 
and the latter added in 1857 an account of the western moun- 
tain systems of North America. From that time onward 
there has been very little primarily of a geographical nature 
concerning the United States. Even the modem discus- 
sions of glacial geology in the last twenty years, profitable 
as they have been to the physical geographers of glaciated 
regions, have in very few if any cases been presented as con- 
tributions to geography. The new phase of the physiography 
of the lands is scantily represented; there have been hardly 
more than accounts of Mexico by Hill, of California by Perrin 
Smith, of North Carolina by Cobb; it is to be noted, moreover, 
that these three authors are primarily geologists, not geog- 
raphers. This meagre showing leads one to suspect that 
our proceedings do not give a fair measure of geographical 
activity in North America. 

There has been in reality a great deal of work of a geo- 
graphical nature done by our people, but the proceedings of 
the Association do not seem to have commended themselves 
as a place to put the work on record. Our geological surveys, 
state and national, have contributed numerous geographic 
chapters and reports of prime value; our Weather Bureau 
is in many respects the leading institution of its kind; our 
Coast Survey sets a high standard for triangulation, coast 


maps, and tide and current studies; we have held a prom- 
inent place in Arctic exploration, and have taken some part 
in exploration elsewhere. But in spite of all this accom- 
plishment, we have not made great contributions to the full- 
fledged science of geography. There are, for example, few 
steps toward scientific geography of greater value than good 
maps, but for the geographer to stop with the production 
of good maps is as if the botanist stopped with the collection 
of dried plants. The survey reports of our various States 
and Territories contain a great ftmd of geographical matter. 
and some of the members of these surveys have carried the 
physical geography of the lands so far forward as to develop 
it into a new science, to which a name, geomorphy or geo- 
morphogeny, has been given ; yet geography has not flourished 
among us as a maturely developed subject. The survey 
reports have not, as a rule, been prepared by persons whose 
training and interests were primarily geographical, and very 
few of the geomorphogenists have carried their new science 
forward into a geographical relation; they have usually 
stopped with the physical aspects of the subject, and left the 
organic aspects with scanty consideration. It is as if there 
had been some impediments in the way of the full develop- 
ment of geography as a maturely organized science. There 
are in fact three serious impediments. 

During all these years geography has suffered greatly 
from being traditipnally a school subject in its educational 
relations; the subject as a whole has been almost every- 
where omitted from the later years of college and university 
training, although certain of its component parts have re- 
ceived some attention in college years. Again, geography 
as a whole leads to no professional career outside of school- 
teaching; it is perhaps chiefly on that account that our col- 
leges and universities can give little time to it. Finally, 
there is not to-day in this country an organized body of 
mature geographical experts at all comparable in rank to the 
bodies of physicists or of zoologists which are organized into 
effective working societies; in the absence of such an organiza- 
tion geography suffers greatly for the lack of that aid which 

W. M. DAVIS. 475 

comes from mutual encouragement among its workers. How 
can we remove these impediments of low educational rank, 
no professional career, and no professional organization? 

Geography will find a place in our colleges and universities 
very soon after it is shown to be a subject as worthy of such 
a place as are the subjects whose position is already assured. 
Physical geography is to-day slowly winning a more respected 
place than it has ever had among the subjects on which ex- 
aminations are set for admission to college. Commercial 
or economic geography is, I believe, destined to attract in- 
creasing attention from mature teachers and nearly mature 
students. The general geography of various parts of the 
world must receive more and more consideration in our col- 
leges during the century that opens with the outgrowth of 
our home country; and just so soon as mature teachers of 
mature geography can make their lectures of value to the 
young men of to-day, who are to be the leaders of enterprise 
to-morrow, place will be found for geographical courses in 
our higher institutions of learning. Progress in this respect 
is visible, though not rapid. In order to hasten progress^ 
increased attention might well be given to so-called practical 
courses in geography, as well as to courses of a generally 
descriptive nature. The impediment of low educational rank 
, is not permanent; it need not discourage us, for it is destined 
to disappear. 

The study of geography is not likely sopn to lead to a large,, 
independent career, but it may be made useful in many 
careers, as has just been indicated. It will, however, be 
made particularly serviceable to a class of men that is now 
of small but of increasing numbers, namely, those who 
travel about the world, seeking fortune, entertainment or 
novelty. With the present rapid increase of wealth among 
us, this class is destined to grow, and while it may never be 
large, it may soon be important, and its members need careful 
cultivation; and at the same time the teachers of this class 
and of other classes with whom geography becomes important, 
will win a respected career for themselves. The impediment 
arising from the lack of a large professional career will there- 


fore have no great importance when the many relations of 
mature geography to other subjects are recognized. 

The third impediment to the maturing of geography is the 
most easily overcome even if at present the most serious, for 
its removal depends only on the action of geographers them- 
selves, and not on the action of higher bodies, such as execu- 
tive officers, trustees, and so on, or on the action of lower 
bodies, such as students. The absence of a society of mature 
geographical experts is the fatdt of the experts themselves. 
No greater assistance to the development of mature scientific 
geography lies within our reach than the establishment 
of a geographical society which shall take rank with the 
Geological Society of America, for example, as a society of 
experts, in which membership shall be open only to those 
whose interests are primarily geographical and whose capacitv 
has been proved by published original work in a distinctly 
geographical field. In order to determine whether such a 
society can now be organized, I propose to consider the 
classes of persons in the community from which the members 
of the society could be recruited. 

There are at least four classes of geographical associates. 
as they may be called, from which mature geographical ex- 
perts might be drawn. First and in largest number is the 
class consisting of the teachers of geography in our schools. 
It is true that our school teachers, as a rule, devote themselves 
to immature geography ; that is, to only so much of the whole 
content of the subject as can be understood by minors, indeed 
by children. But, on the other hand, one who is acquainted 
with recent educational progress cannot fail to recognize 
the notable advance made in the last ten years alone in the 
preparation for and in the performance of geographical teach- 
ing. There are in the secondary schools to-day a niunber 
of teachers who are competent to make original, mature 
geographical exploration of their home country, and some of 
them have actually travelled east and west with the object 
of making geographical studies. There are several Te,achers* 
Geography Clubs, and the leading members of these clubs 
are thoughtful workers. I am sure that a significant number 

W. M. DAVIS. 477 

of acceptable members of an expert geographical society 
wotdd be found in this class. 

The second class of geographical associates includes the 
observers of the national and state weather services, who 
have chiefly to do with that important branch of geography 
comprehended under climatology ; these observers are gather- 
ing a great crop of facts, not always very accurately de- 
termined or very widely applied as far as the observers in 
the state services are concerned; yet from among the thou- 
sands of persons thus employed there will now and then 
come forth the original worker whose contribution will fully 
entitle him to expert rank; when his published studies are 
seen to be of a thoroughly geographical character and of a 
mature grade, they would warrant his admission to a society 
of geographical experts. 

Third comes the class made up from the members of va- 
rious governmental bureaus, state and national, whose work 
is of a more or less geographical character; for example, 
topographers and hy drographers ; geologists and biologists; 
ethnologists and statisticians: this class being as a whole 
of much higher scientific standing than the two classes al- 
ready mentioned. It may happen that many persons thus 
classified have a first interest in the strictly geographical 
side of their studies, although faithful work in the organiza- 
tion to which they belong associates them with other sciences. 
I should expect the greatest part of the membership in a 
society of geographical experts to be drawn from this class. 

It may be noted that the absence of a body of mature geog- 
raphers, as well organized and as scientifically productive 
as are the workers in various other sciences, is explained by 
some as an inherent characteristic of geography, necessitated by 
the great diversity of its methods and its interests. The diversity 
is already an embarrassment, it is claimed, even in school years ; 
and it afterwards compels the separation of the branches of 
this highly composite subject, at best but loosely coherent, 
into a number of specialties, each of which is so much more 
closely allied to other sciences than to the other branches of 
geography that those workers whose union would constitute 


a body of mature geographical experts are found scattered 
among other unions, geological, botanical, zoological, 
ethnological, economical and historical. The claim that the 
disunion of geographical experts is necessary does not seem to 
me well founded. May we not, indeed prove that there is no 
such disunion by pointing to the fourth class of geographical 
associates, concerning whom my silence thus far may perhaps 
have awakened your curiosity, namely, the members of our 
various geographical societies? 

There are at the present time between five and seven 
thousand such persons in the United States, but in the 
absence of any standard of geographical knowledge from the 
requirements for membership, these societies cannot, I regret 
to say, be taken as evidence that there is a common bond by 
which experts in all branches of geography are held together. 
None of our geographical societies are composed solely of 
experts, and none of them are held together by purely geo- 
graphical bonds. While we must not overlook the excellent 
work that our geographical societies have done, neither must 
we overlook the fact that in making no sufficient attempt to 
require geographical expertness as a condition for member- 
ship, there is a very important work that the societies have 
left undone. They have truly enough cultivated a general 
interest in subjects of a more or less geographical nature, 
but they have failed to develop geography as a mature sci- 
ence. Indeed it may be cogently maintained that the absence 
of any standard of geographical knowledge as a condition for 
society membership has worked as seriously against the devel- 
opment of mature scientific geography as has the general aban- 
donment of geographical teaching to the secondary schools. 
Large membership seems to be essential to the maintenance 
of good libraries in handsome society buildings, and it is cer- 
tainly helpful in the collection of funds with which journals 
may be published and with which exploring expeditions may 
be equipped and sent out. I should regret to see the mem- 
bership in a single existing geographical society decreased, 
but I regret also that there is no geographical society of the 
same rank as the American Mathematical Society, the Ameri- 

W. M. DAVIS. 479 

can Physical Society, or many others in which number of 
members is secondary to expert quality of members. Large 
numbers of untrained persons are not found necessary to the 
maintenance of vigorous societies in which these other sciences 
are productively cultivated, and it is therefore reasonable 
to believe that large numbers would not be essential to the 
formation of a geographical society of high standing. Indeed, 
it can hardly be doubted that the acceptance of a low standard 
for membership in our geographical societies has had much to 
do with the prevailing indifference regarding the development 
of a high standard for the qualification of geographical experts. 
Not only may any respectable person obtain membership in 
any of our geographical societies, however ignorant he may 
be of geography, but various kinds of societies are ranked as 
geographical, even though their object may be geographical 
in a very small degree. This is indicated by a list of geo- 
graphical societies recently published, in which is included a 
small Travellers Club lately organized in one comer of our 
country. The object of this club is simply '*the encourage- 
ment of intelligent travel and exploration." Interest in 
rather than accomplishment of exploration and travel suffice 
to recommend a candidate, otherwise qualified, for member- 
ship. The object of travel is nowhere stated to be geograph- 
ical. As a matter of fact, travel for the sake of art, arch- 
aeology, language, history, astronomy, geology and botany, 
for discovery, or even only for sport and adventure, as well 
as for strictly geographical objects, is encouraged by this 
young organization, which is really nothing more than its 
name claims it to be: a travellers club. The same list of 
geographical societies includes several clubs of excursionists, 
outing-takers, or mountain climbers, among whom, as a 
matter of fact, geography attracts hardly more interest than 
botany. These societies are doing an excellent work in tak- 
ing their members outdoors, sometimes on walks near home, 
sometimes farther away to a hotel in the country, sometimes to 
a camp among the mountains. The chief result of such out- 
ings is an increased enjoyment and appreciation of the land- 
scape, of natural scenery, and of everything that enters into 


it ; but this excellent result is by no means exclusively, perhaps 
not even largely, geographic in its quality. 

One might question whether geographic rank was really 
accorded to these clubs by general assent, if their recognition 
in the group of geographical societies were expressed only bj 
an individual opinion in the list referred to; but this is not 
the case. In preparation for the meeting of the Intemationai 
Geographical Congress, to be held in this country next summ^. 
delegates to the committee of management have been invited 
from the Appalachian Mountain Club, in one comer of the 
country, and from the Mazamas in another. The delegate> 
appointed by these clubs are, as might have been expected, 
men competent to act with others in organizing the Congress 
for us, but the same result would have been attained if dele- 
gates had been asked from the various geological, botanical, 
zoological, and historical societies, for all these societies contain 
among their members persons of a certain amount of geo- 
graphical knowledge and of a sufficient executive ability. The 
same would be true had delegates been invited from the 
Boone and Crocket Club, a choice organization of sportsmen. 
for all such clubs have men of undoubted ability in the way 
of organization among their members, and are largely con- 
cerned with matters of geographical location and distribution 
in their activities. Nevertheless neither the sporting nor the 
outing clubs are essentially or characteristically geographical 
in their objects. Do not, however, understand me to object 
to the acceptance of delegates from the above-named clulis 
as members of the committee on management of the Inter- 
national Geographical Congress. I approve of the plar 
heartily ; for in the absence of geographical societies in many 
parts of our ootmtry there was no other plan so appropriate. 
The matter is mentioned here only to show the straits to 
which geographers are reduced in atternpting to give l 
national welcome to an intemationai geographical congress: 
the difficulty, so far as it is a difficulty, arises from the abseno^ 
among us of a body of mature geographical experts, united 
in an advanced acquaintance with some large part of a well- 
defined science. This condition of things seems to me urr 

W. M. DAVIS. 481 

satisfactory. The absence of a strong society of geographical 
experts indicates an insufficient attention to scientific geog- 
raphy, and I therefore now turn to consider the direction in 
which serious efforts may be most profitably made toward a 
better condition of things. Let it be imderstood, however, 
that no quick-acting remedy is possible, for the reason that 
many of those concerned with the problem — namely, the 
advance of scientific geography — do not seem to recognize 
that the existing state of things needs a remedy. It is there- 
fore only as a change of heart — a scientific change of the 
geographic heart — makes itself felt that much can be accom- 
plished toward the development of scientific geography, and 
such a change is notoriously of slow accomplishment. Progress 
is apparent, however, and from progress we ma^ gather 
encouragement. In what direction, then, shall /Suf further 
efforts be turned? "^ 

Let me urge in the first place that close scrutiny should be 
given to things that are popularly called geographical, with 
the object of determining the essential content of geographical 
science and of excluding from our responsibility everything 
that is not essentially geographic. Only in this way can we 
clear the groimd for the cultivation of really geographical 
problems in geographical education and in geographical 
societies. This scrutiny should be exercised all along the line : 
in the preparation of text-books, in the training of teachers, 
in the study of experts, and in the conduct of any geographical 
society that attempts to take a really scientific position. The 
essential content of geographical science is so large that the 
successful ciSjlyation of the whole of it demands all the ener- 
gies of many «iperts. Those who are earnestly engaged, in 
cultivating geography proper should treat non-geographic 
problems in the same way that a careful farmer would treat 
blades of grass in his cornfield : he would treat them as weeds 
an^Hlll^em out, for however useful grass is in its own place 
its growth in the cornfield will weaken the growth of the com. 
So in the field of geographical study, there is no room for both 
geography and history; geography and geology; geography 
and astronomy. Geography will never gain the disciplinary 


quality that is so profitable in other subjects until it is as 
jealously guarded from the intrusion of irrelevant items as is 
physics or geometry or Latin. Indeed the analogy of the 
blades of grass in the cornfield is hardly strong enough. It is 
well known that Ritter, the originator of the causal notion in 
geography, and therefore the greatest benefactor of geography 
in the nineteenth century, was so hospitable in his treatment of 
history that his pupils grew up in large number to be histor- 
ians and his own subject was in a way lost sight of by many 
of his students who became professors of geography, so-called, 
in the German universities, until Peschel revolted and turned 
attention again to the essential features of geography proper. 

Close scrutiny of what is commonly called geography will 
certainly be beneficial in bringing forward the essence of the 
subject and in relegating irrelevant topics to the background^ 
but it is not to be expected that any precise agreement will 
soon be reached as to what constitutes geography, strictly 
interpreted. Opinions on the subject, gathered from different 
parts of the country, even if gathered from persons entitled 
to speak with what is called "authority,*' would probably 
differ as widely as did the nomenclatures of the leading phys- 
iographic divisions of North America as proposed in a sym- 
posium a few years ago; but if careful consideration and free 
discussion are given to the subject, unity of opinion will in due 
time be approached as closely as is desirable. 

As a contribution toward this collection of opinions, let 
me state my own view: the essential in geography is a rela- 
tion between the elements of terrestrial environment and the 
items of organic response; this being only a modernized 
extension of Fitter's view. Everything that involves such 
a relationship is to that extent geographic. Anything in 
which such a relationship is wanting is to that extent not 
geographic. The location of a manufacturing village at 
a point where a stream affords water-power is an example 
of the kind of relation that is meant, and if this example is 
accepted, then the reasonable principle of continuity will 
guide us to include under geography every other example 
in which the way that organic forms have of doing things is 

W. M. DAVIS. 483 

conditioned by their inorganic environment. The organic 
part of geography must not be limited to man, because the 
time is now past when man is studied altogether apart from 
the other forms of life on the earth. The colonies of ants on 
our western deserts, with their burrows, their hills, their 
roads and their threshing floors, exhibit responses to elements 
of environment found in soil and climate as clearly as a 
manufacturing village exhibits a response to water power. 
The different coloration of the dorsal and ventral parts of 
fish is a response to the external illumination of our non- 
luminous earth. The word arrive is a persistent memorial 
of the importance long ago attached to a successful crossing 
of the shore line that separates sea and land. It is not sig- 
nificant whether the relation and the elements that enter into 
it are of easy or difficult understanding, nor whether they 
are what we call important or unimportant, familiar or un- 
familiar. The essential quality of geography is that it in- 
volves relations of things organic and inorganic; and the 
entire content of geography would include all such relations. 
A large library would be required to hold a full statement of 
so broad a subject, but elementary text-books of geography 
may be made by selecting from the whole content such rela- 
tions as are elementar}*", and serviceable handbooks may be 
made by selecting such relations as seem important from 
their frequency or their significance. The essential throughout 
would, however, still be a relation of earth and life, practically 
as Ritter phrased it when he took the important step of 
introducing the causal notion as a geographical principle. 

Thus defined, geography has two chief divisions. Every- 
thing about the earth or any inorganic part of it, considered 
as an element of the environment by which the organic 
inhabitants are conditioned, belongs under physical geog- 
raphy or physiography.* Every item in which the organic 
inhabitants of the earth — plant, animal, or man — show a 
response to the elements of environment, belongs under 
organic geography. Geography proper involves a consider- 

* It should be noted that t)ie British definition of physiography 
•givesit a much wider meaning than is here indicated. 


ation of relations in which the things that belong under its 
two divisions are involved. 

The validity of. these propositions may be illiistrated by 
a concrete case. The location and growth of Memphis, Helena, 
and Vicksbtirg are manifestly dependent on the places where 
the Mississippi river swings against the blnfEs of the uplands, 
on the east and west of its flood plain. The mere existence 
and location of the cities, stated independent of their con- 
trolling environment are empirical items of the organic part 
of geography, and these items fail to become truly geographic 
as long as they are stated without reference to their cause. 
The mere course of the Mississippi, independent of the organic 
consequences which it controls, is an empirical element of 
the inorganic part of geography, but it fails to become truly 
geographic as long as it is treated alone. The two kinds of 
facts must be combined in order to gain the real geographic 
flavor. Geography is therefore not simply a description of 
places; it is not simply an accotmt of the earth and of its 
inhabitants, each described independent of the other; it in- 
volves a relation of some element of physical geography to 
some item of organic geography, and nothing from which 
this relation is absent possesses the essential quality of geo- 
graphical discipline. The location of a cape or of a city is 
an elementary fact which may be built up with other facts 
into a relation of ftill geographic meaning; but taken alone 
it has about the same rank in geography th^t spelling has in 
language. A map has about the same place in geography that a 
dictionary has in literature. The mean annual temperature of a 
given station, and the occurrence of a certain plant in a certain 
locality, are facts of kinds that must enter extensively into 
the relationships with which geography deals; but these facts, 
standing alone, are wanting in the essential quality of mattire 
geographical science. Not only so; many facts of these 
kinds may, when treated in other relations, enter into other 
sciences ; for it is not so much the thing that is studied as the 
relation in which it is studied that determines the science to 
which it belongs. I therefore emphasize again the broad 
general principle that mature scientific geography is essenti- 

W. M. DAVIS. 485 

ally concerned with the relations among its inorganic and 
organic elements; among the elements of physical and of 
organic geography; or, as might be said more briefly, among 

the elements of physiography and of . Let me confess 

to the most indulgent part of this audience that I have in- 
vented a one-word name for the organic part of geography, 
and have found it useful in thinking and writing and teaching; 
but inasmuch as the ten, or at the outside twelve new words 
that I have introduced as technical terms into the growing 
subject of. physiography have given me with some geological 
critics the reputation of being reckless in regard to termi- 
nology, it will be the part of prudence not to mention the new 
name for organic geography here, where my audience prob- 
ably consists for the most part of geologists. 

There can be no just complaint of narrowness in a science 
that has charge of all the relations among the elements of 
terrestrial environment and the items of organic response. 
Indeed the criticism usually made upon the subject thus 
defined is, as has already been pointed out, that it is too broad, 
too vaguely limited, and too much concerned with all sorts of 
things to have sufficient unity and coherence for a real science. 
Some persons indeed object that geography has no right to 
existence as a separate science ; that it is chiefly a compound 
of parts of other sciences; but if it be defined as concerned 
with the relationships that have been just specified, these 
objections have little force. It is true indeed that the things 
with which geography must deal are dealt with in other sciences 
as well, but this is also the case with astronomy, physics, chem- 
istry, geology, botany, zoology, history, economics. . . . 
There is no subject of study whose facts are independent of 
all other subjects; not only are the same things studied under 
different sciences, but every science employs some of the 
methods and results of other sciences. The individuality of a 
science depends not on its having to do with things that are 
cared for by no other science, or on its employing methods 
that are used in no other science, but on its studying these 
things and employing these methods in order to gain its own 
well defined object. Chemistry, for example, is concerned with 


the study of material substances in relation to their constitu- 
tion, but it constantly and most properly employs physiczJ 
and mathematical methods in reaching its ends. Botanists 
and zoologists are much interested in the chemical compositior. 
and physical action of plants and animals, because the facts 
of composition and action enter so largely into the understand- 
ing of plants and animals considered as living beings. Over- 
lappings of the kind thus indicated are common enough, ard 
geography as well as other sciences exhibits them in abtindance. 
It may be that geography has a greater amotmt of overlapping 
than any other science; but no valid objection to its content 
can be made on that ground; the maximum of overlapping 
must occur in one science or another — there can be no discredit 
to the science on that account. Geography has to do with 
rocks whose origin is studied in geology ; with the currents of 
the atmosphere, whose processes exemplify general laws that 
are studied in physics ; with plants and animals, whose forms 
and manner of growth are the first care of the botanist and 
the zoologist; and with man, whose actions recorded in order 
of time occupy the historian ; but the particular point of view 
from which the geographer studies all these things makes 
them as much his own property as they are the property of 
any one else. 

In view of what has been said let me return to the close 
scrutiny that I have urged as to what should be admitted 
within the walls of a geographical society. We will sup- 
pose the geography of Pennsylvania is under discussion, 
as a result there must be some mention of the occurrence 
of coal, because coal, now an element of inorganic environ- 
ment, exerts a control over the distribution and the industries 
of the population of Pennsylvania. But the coal of Penn- 
sylvania might be treated with equal appropriateness by a 
geologist, if its origin, its deformation and its erosion were 
considered as local elements in the history of the earth ; by a 
chemist, if its composition were the first object of attention: 
by a botanist, if the ancient plants that produced the now 
inorganic coal-beds were studied. Furthermore, it would be 
eminently proper for the geologist to make some mention of 

W. M. DAVIS. 4S7 

the present uses to which coal is put ; or for the chemist and 
the botanist to tell something of the geological date when coal 
was formed, if by so doing the attention of the hearer could 
be better gained and held, and if the problem at issue could 
thereby be made clearer and more serviceable. So the geog- 
rapher is warranted in touching upon the composition, the 
origin, the exploitation of the Pennsylvania coal-beds, if by 
so doing he makes a more forcible presentation of his own 
problem; but if he weakens the presentation of his own 
problem by the introduction of these unessential facts, still 
more if he presents these unessential facts as his prime interest, 
he goes too far. The point of all this is that students in many 
different sciences may have to consider in common certain 
aspects of the problems presented by the coal of Pennsylvania; 
but that each student should consider Pennsylvania coal in 
the way that best serves his own subject. The scrutiny that I 
have urged would therefore be directed chiefly to excluding 
from consideration under geography the non-geographic rela- 
tions of the many things that various sciences have to study 
in common, and to bringing forward in geography all the 
problems that are involved in the relations of the earth and 
its inhabitants. The things involved in the relations of 
earth and life are the common property of many sciences, 
but the relations belong essentially to geography. It would 
be easy to point out topics in text-books and treatises, in the 
pages of geographical journals, and in lectures before geo- 
graphical societies, that would not fall under any division of 
geography as here defined. In many such cases, however, the 
topics might without difficulty have given a sufficiently geo- 
graphical turn, had it been so desired or intended; the topics 
might have been presented from the geographical point of 
view, so as to emphasize the essential quality of geographical 
study, had there been a conscious wish to this end. But in 
other cases, the subjects presented belong so clearly elsewhere, 
or are treated so completely from some other than a geographi- 
cal point of view, as to fall quite outside of geography; for 
example, a recent nunlber of one of our geographical journals 
contained an excellent full page plate and a half page of text 


on the '* Skull of the Imperial Mammoth," with brief de- 
scription of its size and anatomy, but with nothing more 
meariy approaching geographical treatment than the statement 
that the specimen came from *'the sands of western Texas." 
In all such cases it is open to question whether close scrutiny 
as to inclusion and exclusion has been given, and while 
the policy pursued by many geographical societies of gener- 
ously accepting for their journals many sorts of interesting 
•articles has something to commend it in the way of pleasing 
a mixed constituency, it is nevertheless open to the objection 
^f not sufficiently advancing the more scientific aspects of 
•geography. Blades of grass and mammoth skulls are very 
good things, if crops of hay and collections of fossils are to be 
:gathered ; but they are in the way of the growth of the best com 
and of the publication of the best geographical journals. Let no 
•one suppose, however, that the audiences in geographical lecture 
halls or the readers of geographical journals need suffer under 
the scrutiny that is here urged regarding lectures and articles. 
There is, even tmder the strictest scrutiny, an abundance of 
varied and interesting matter of a strictly geographical nature; 
few if any sciences are richer than geography in matter of 
general interest. There is indeed some reason for thinking 
that the real obstacle in the way of applying close scrutiny in 
the way here recommended, is the difficulty of obtaining high- 
grade material presented in an essentially geographical form. 
Inasmuch as this difficulty arises from the relative inattention 
to geography as a mature science, it is the businsss of geo- 
graphical societies to remove the difficulty. 

It has been maintained that one of the embarrassments from 
which geography suffers is the incoherence of the many things 
that are involved in its broad relationships. This is not really 
a serious embarrassment, and so far as it is an embarrassment 
at all it is not peculiar to geography. It is not a serious em- 
barrassment, because when any element of geography is 
treated in view of the relations into which it enters, it becomes 
reasonably interesting to all who are concerned with scientific 
geography. The embarrassment is not peculiar to geography, 
for it is found in all other studies; in histor\', for example. 

W. M. DAVIS. 489 

where an essay by a specialist on the modem history of South 
America is not likely to excite an enthusiastic interest in the 
mind of the student of classic times in Greece, or in the mind 
of the student of mediaeval church, history in Grermany; 
the embarrassment is known also in geology, where the student 
of the petrography of the southern Appalachians, or of the 
paleontology of the Trias in California, may care little for a 
paper by a colleague on the glaciation of the Tian Shan moun- 
tains in Turkestan. Yet, however unlike these various topics 
in history or in geology may be, they are welcomed, if well 
treated, by all the members of the expert society or by all the 
readers of the special journal in which they are presented, be- 
cause they so manifestly make for progress in the science to 
i«rhich they belong. Geographers need not therefore be embar- 
rassed on finding discussions of magnetic declination as affecting 
the navigation of the Antarctic regions,of the relations of climate 
-and religion among the Hopi Amerinds, and of the facilities 
for irrigation peculiar to aggrading fluviatile plains, all in one 
journal; this diversity of topics only illustrates the great 
richness of geography, and thus likens it to history and 

Let me consider next the advantages that will come to 
geography from the systematic collection and classification 
of all the facts pertinent to it. The popular idea of geo- 
graphical research is fulfilled when an explorer discovers a 
new mountain or a new island; but discovery is not enough. 
The thing discovered must be carefully described in view of 
all that is known of similar things, and the relation into which 
the thing enters must be sought and analyzed. Careful work 
of this nature involves the development of systematic geog- 
raphy, in which all items of a kind are brought together, and 
all kinds of items are arranged according to some serviceable 
scheme of classification. Geographers are far behind zoolo- 
gists and botanists in this respect, for there is to-day no 
comprehensive scheme of geographical classification in gen- 
eral use. Existing schemes are too generally empirical and 
incomplete. So important a group of land forms as moun- 
tains has never yet been thoroughly treated in a physio- 


graphic sense, while the organic responses to inorganic con- 
trols are as a rule not classified by geographers at all ; yet k 
comprehensive scheme of classification should certainly pro- 
vide systematic places for the organic responses as carefully 
as for inorganic controls. In the absence of a generally 
accepted scheme of classification, it is natural that items of 
one kind and another should be neglected in text -books and 
elsewhere; for it is well known that incompleteness of treat- 
ment goes with unsystematic methods. So simple and mani- 
fest a response to the globular form of the earth as is afforded 
by the wide extent of modem commerce is seldom mentioneii 
in connection with its control. The many important and 
interesting responses to the eternal and omnipresent force of 
gravity are not habitually treated as geographical topics at 
all ; nor is the definition of boundaries in terms of meridians 
and parallels usually recognized as a response that civilized 
nations now habitually make to the form and rotatioij of the 
earth, when they have occasion to divide new territory in 
advance of surveys and settlement. Yet surely all these 
responses to environment deserve systematic mention when 
the earth is described as a rotating, gravitating globe, just as 
the location of villages and the growth of cities at some point 
of advantage to their inhabitants deserves mention in the 
pages given up to geography of the more conventional kind. 
The development of a well -tested scheme of systematic geog- 
raphy may therefore be urged upon every geographer as a 
problem well worthy of his attention. A practical step toward 


the construction of such a scheme is evidently the accumula- 
tion of items that call for classification; therefore, let the 
geographer study the world about him : and a most effectual 
aid in the accumulation of items is found in searching for tht 
organic response to every inorganic control, and for the inor- 
ganic control of every organic response that comes to one's 
attention; therefore, let the geographer think carefully as he 
looks about him over the world. It can hardly be doubted 
that the explorer who goes abroad or the student who stays 
at home will make better progress in his investigations in 
proportion to the completeness of the systematic scheme 

W. M. DAVIS. 491 

with respect to which he consciously carries on his work. I 
woiild therefore urge the development of the habits of always 
associating causes with their consequences and consequences 
with their causes, and of always referring both causes and 
consequences to the classes in which they belong. If to these 
two habits we add a third, namely, that of making a careful 
arrangement of the classes in a reasonable and serviceable 
order, we shall have taken three important steps in geo- 
graphical progress, and, as a result, geography will flourish. 
There is no device by which the work of the specialist is 
so helpfully relieved of its narrowing influence as by the 
simple device of looking always for the general geographical 
relations of any special topic. The specialist in the geo- 
graphical study of ocean currents, of caverns or of deltas,, 
of forests, of trade routes, or of cities, should not lessen his 
attention to his chosen line of work, but he should, often to 
his great advantage, increase his attention to the place that 
his chosen subject holds in the whole content of geography. 
Not only will his work be broadened in this way, but both he 
and his work will be brought into closer relations with the 
whole body of geographers and the whole content of geog- 
raphy, and the possibility of organizing a society of mature 
geographical experts will be thereby greatly increased. If 
the geographical relations of a special topic are not looked 
for, the specialist fails to that extent of becoming a geographer. 
The climatologist who studies the physical conditions of 
the atmosphere for their own sake, the oceanographer who 
makes no application of the physical features of the ocean 
as controls of organic consequences, the geomorphist who is 
satisfied with the study of land forms as a finality, the student 
of the location of cities and the boundaries of states who 
makes no search for the explanation of his facts as affected 
by physiographic controls — these specialists may all be emi- 
nent in their own lines, but they fall short of being geog- 
raphers. In the same way it might be shown that a petrog- 
rapher who makes no study of field relations and discovers 
no results of processes and no sequences in time, fails of being 
a geologist, for geology deals essentially with processes and 


Structures in time sequence; likewise a chronologist > who is 
satisfied with mere dates of occurrence fails of being a his- 
torian, for history involves the meaning as well as the mere 
sequence of human events. There is, of course, no blame to 
be attached to interest in specialization, no praise to an in- 
terest in larger relations; it is merely a matter of fact that 
the isolated specialist remains somewhat to one side of the 
larger sciences with which he might become associated. On 
the other hand, the geographer is not necessarily so broad- 
minded that he must be shallow; he may specialize deeply 
on the climatologic, oceanographic, geomorphic, topographic, 
organic divisions of his subject; but if he wishes to be con- 
sidered a geographer he shotild cultivate all the geographic 
relations into which the facts of his chosen division enters, 
and he will find that it is largely through these relations that 
he associates himself profitably with other geographers. 

Two of the most beneficial results of the systematic study 
of geography are the great increase in the ntimber of classes 
or tjrpes with which the geographer becomes familiar, and 
the great improvement in the definition of these types. This 
is particularly the case with those types which contain many 
individual examples, such as rivers and cities, and which are 
therefore capable of division into many headings. So long 
as the geographer deals only with things in an empirical 
fashion, he may be satisfied with a rough classification; as 
soon as he begins to treat his problems more carefully, his 
classification becomes more refined and he has relatively 
more to do with classes of things than with the things them- 
selves. The things are actual, the classes are ideal, and 
therein lies one of the greatest values of systematic geography; 
it enforces attention upon the idealized type; by means of 
this increased attention the type is more fully conceived, and 
both observation and description of actual things are greatly 
aided. Let me illustrate. 

The breezes that descend from mountain valleys at night 
are well known and well understood phenomena. As a result, 
one may form a well-defined conception of such a breeze — ^a 
type mountain breeze — imagining its gradual beginning, its 

W. If. DAVIS. -^95 

increase in strength with its extension in area, and its gradual 
extinction; all its phases of waxing and waning being duly 
related to the passing hours of the night and to the associated 
changes of temperature. It is safe to say that no actual 
mountain breeze is as well known by direct observation of 
all its parts and stages as is the type breeze, in which all 
pertinent observations are properly generalized, and in which 
the deficiencies of observation are supplemented as far as 
possible by inferences deduced from well-established physical 
laws. It is entirely possible that there may be some errors 
in the deduced elements of the ideal type-breeze, but it may 
be confidently asserted that the errors will be replaced by the 
truth through the methods involved in observing, imaginings 
and checking, guided by the conception of the type, sooner 
than the truth will be discovered by blind observation un- 
guided by the aid that a well-defined type affords. 

It is the same with an alluvial fan; an element of land 
form that has, by the way, more similarity to a mountain 
breeze than appears on first thought. Observation shows 
only the existing stage of the surface of a fan; the fully 
developed type-fan includes the structure as well as the sur- 
face, the process and the progress of formation, extended 
into the future as well as brought forward from the past. 
There can be no question that the explorer who is eqtaipped 
with a clear conception of a type-fan can do much better 
work in observing and describing the fans that he may find 
than will be done by an explorer who thinks he can dispense 
with all idealized types, and who proposes simply to describe 
what he sees. The shortcomings of the simple observational 
method wotild be less if it were not so difficult to see what one 
looks at and to record what one sees; but any one who has 
had experience in field studies knows how far short seeing 
may be of looking, and how far short recording may be of 
seeing. The best restilts in geographical investigation can 
only be obtained when every legitimate aid to observation 
and description is summoned ; and, of all aids, that furnished 
by careftilly considered types, reasonably classified, is the 
greatest. When large and complicated features, such as 


valley systems or cuestas, are to be described, the need of 
types is vastly increased. Hence one of the most important 
and practical suggestions that can be made toward the ma- 
turing of geographical science is to cultivate the geograph- 
ical imagination iti the direction of acquiring familiarity with 
a large, systematic series of well-defined ideal types. As prog- 
ress is made in this direction there will be profitable advance 
from that narrow conception of geography which is based 
on the school-day study of names, locations and boundaries — 
the only conception of geography that many mature persons 
in this country possess — to a wider conception in which 
everything studied is considered as an example of a kind of 
things, so that it shall appeal to the reasonable understanding 
rather than to the empirical memory. Progress of this sort 
is already apparent in the schools, but it has not yet reached 
a desirable measure of advance. 

One of the best results that will follow from the systematic 
recognition of a large number of well-defined types will be 
the natural development of an adequate geographical termi- 
nology. When review is made of modem geographical articles, 
it is curious and significant to find only ^ small addition to 
the school-boy list of technical terms. This is not true of 
any subject that is cultivated in the universities as well as 
in the schools. It is a reproach to geography that the re- 
sults of mature observation are so generally described in the 
inadequate terms of immature study; this reproach will have 
the less ground the more thoroughly systematic geography 
is studied. With the development of more mature methods 
of description there may come a larger share of attention 
to the thing described, and thus a relative decrease of atten- 
tion to matters of merely personal narrative. I do not wish 
to lessen the number of entertaining books of travel which 
now fill many of the shelves in libraries called geographical, 
but it would be a great satisfaction to see the standard works 
of geographical libraries given a more objective quality, so 
that they might compare favorably with the standard works 
of geological or botanical libraries, in which the element of 
personal narrative is reduced to its properly subordinate 

W. M. DAVIS. 495 

Another step of equal importance with the establishment 
of geographical types is the change from the empirical to the 
explanatory or rational or genetic method of treating the 
elemental facts that enter into geographical relationships. The 
rational method has long been pursued in regard to the facts 
of the atmosphere and the ocean; it is coming to be adopted 
for facts concerning the lands; and since the adoption of an 
evolutionary philosophy, the evolutionary explanation of the 
organic items of geography may replace the teleological treat- 
ment that obtained in Ritter's time. It is, however, very 
seldom the case that geographers adopt the rational method 
consciously and fully; hence special attention to this phase 
of the theoretical side of geography may be strongly urged. 
It may be noted in this connection that the application of 
the explanatory method has been so lately made to the treat- 
ment of land forms that the geographer may for the present 
make himself to his advantage something of a specialist in 
this branch 9f the subject. It should be added that, so long 
as he studies land forms in order better to understand the 
environment in which living things find themselves, he re- 
mains a geographer and does not become a geologist. There 
is a needless confusion in this matter, which may perhaps be 
lessened if its untangling be illustrated by the following geo- 
logical comparison. 

For some decades past a new method of treatment has 
been applied to the study of rocks, greatly to the advantage 
of geologists. The method requires a good knowledge of 
inorganic chemistry and of optical physics, and the geolo- 
gists who have specialized in the study of rocks have had to 
make themselves experts in these phases of physics and 
chemistry; but they are not for that reason classified as 
physicists or chemists. They remain geologists, though some- 
times taking the special title of petrographer. So with the 
geographer who specializes in the study of land forms; he 
must make himself familiar with certain phases of geology, 
but he does not therefore become a geologist; he remains a 
geographer. His object is not to discover for their own sake the 
past stages through which existing land forms have been devel- 


oped; he studies past forms only in order to extend his know- 
ledge of systematic physiography and thus to increase his ap- 
preciation of existing forms. As far as he studies the sequence 
of past forms he is studying a phase of geology, just as the 
geologist who examines existing arrangements of climate, of 
oceanic circulation, or of land forms, is studying a phase of 
physiography. The two sciences are manifestly related, but 
they need not be confused. For, as has been shown for sciences 
in general, geology and geography are best characterized by 
the relations in which their topics are studied and not by the 
topics themselves. Both are concerned with the earth and 
life. The whole content of knowledge concerning the earth 
and life might be shown by a cube, in which vertical lines 
represented the passage of time, and horizontal planes repre- 
sented phenomena considered in their areal extension; then 
if the whole mass of the cube were conceived as made up of 
vertical lines, that would suggest the geological conception of 
the whole problem; while if the cube were made up of hori- 
zontal planes, that would suggest its geographical aspect; 
and the whole series of paleogeographies, horizontally strati- 
fied with respect to the vertical time line, would culminate 
in the geography of to-day. 

Objection is sometimes made to the plan of geography, as 
here set forth, that it involves hypotheses and theories, instead 
of being content with matters of fact, as the advocates of a 
more conservative method in geography suppose themselves 
to be. There is no doubt that geographical investigation of 
the kind here exposed does involve abundant theorizing, but 
that is one of its chief merits, for therein it adopts the methods 
of all inductive sciences. Furthermore, as between the pro- 
gressive geographer, who candidly recognizes that he must 
theorize, and the conservative geographer, who thinks that he 
observes facts only and lets theories alone, the chief difference 
is not that the first one theorizes and the second does not, 
but that the first one knows when he is theorizing and takes care 
to separate his factsandhisinferences, to theorize logically, to 
evaluate his results, while the second one theorizes uncon- 
sciously and hence uncritically, and therefore fails to separate 

W. M. DAVIS. 497 

his inferences sharply from his facts, and gives little attention 
to the evaluation of his results. Geography has indeed suffered 
so long and so seriously from the failure of geographers to 
cultivate the habit of theorizing as critically as the habit of 
observing — studies of the atmosphere and the ocean still 
excepted, as above — that a strong recommendation must be 
given to the acquisition of the methods of theoretical inves- 
tigation, in which deduction is an essential part, by every one 
who proposes to call himself a scientific geographer. Let me 
give an example of the loss of time that has resulted from the 
failure of geographers to develop the habit of theorizing. 

For forty years past there has been active discussion as to 
how far land forms in glaciated regions had been shaped by 
glacial erosion, but not till within five years has any geog- 
rapher clearly defined the deductive side of this problem. 
In order to determine whether land forms are carved by 
glacial erosion or not, two methods have been open: one is to 
observe the action of existing glaciers and thus determine 
whether they are competent or not to carve land forms ; but 
this is difficult, because the beds on which glaciers lie cannot 
be well examined. The other method is to deduce the appro- 
priate consequences of both the affirmative and the negative 
suppositions, and then to confront these consequences with 
the facts found in regions once glaciated, and see which set 
of consequences is best supported. This deductive method is 
very simple. Its application involves no principle that was 
not perfectly well known fifty years ago, though it does 
involve a facility in theorizing that does not seem to have been 
familiar or habitual with geographers until more recent times. 
On the supposition that glaciers do not erode, the valley 
systems of once glaciated mountains ought not to exhibit 
any significant peculiarity of form, but should correspond to 
the normal stream-worn valley systems of non-glaciated 
mountains. On the supposition that glaciers do erode, the 
valley systems of once glaciated mountains should exhibit 
the highly specialized feature of a discordant junction of 
branch and trunk ; for the channels eroded by a small branch 
glacier and by a large trunk glacier must stand at discordant 


levels at their junction, just as the channels of a small stream 
and a large river do, though the measure of discordance b 
much greater in the channels of the clumsy, slow-moving ice- 
streams than in the channels of the nimble, quick-mo vinp 
water-streams. There can be no question that these well 
specialized consequences, deduced from the posttilate that 
glaciers can erode their channels, are much more accordant 
with the actual features of valley systems in once glaciated 
mountains than are the consequences deduced from the op- 
posite postulate ; but my reason for introducing this problem 
here is not to call attention to the value of ** hanging valleys'* 
in evidence of glacial erosion, as first clearly set forth by 
Gannett in 1898 in his account of Lake Chelan, but rather 
to point out how slow geographers have been to employ the 
deductive method in solving this long- vexed problem. The 
moral of this is that geographers as well as geologists, phys- 
icists, astronomers ought to have good training in scientific 
methods of investigation, in which all their faculties are 
employed in striving to reach the goal of full understanding 
instead of depending so largely on the single faculty of ob- 

Some may, however, object that the problem of glacial 
erosion, just touched upon, belongs exclusively to geolog>' 
and not at all to geography. It belongs to both; its asso- 
ciation will be determined by its application, as the foUovring 
considerations will show. The accumulation of sand-dunes 
by wind action, the abrasion of sea-coasts by waves, the ero- 
sion of gorges by streams, the construction of volcanoes by 
eruptions now in progress, manifestly belong in the study of 
physical geography, in close association with the blowing of 
the winds, the rolling of the waves, the flowing of streams, 
and the outbursting of lavas and gases. Both the agent and 
the result of its action are elements of the environment by 
which life is conditioned. Similarly, the grass-covered dunes 
of Hungary, the elevated sea-cliffs of Scotland, the abandoned 
gorges of central New York, and the quiescent volcanoes o: 
central France, are all elements of land forms and are all treated 
as geographical topics and explained by reference to their 

W. M. DAVIS. 499 

extinct causes in the modem rational method of geographical 
study. Likewise the discordant valley systems of glaciated 
mountains are proper subjects for explanatory treatment in 
the study of geography, although the glacier systems that 
eroded them are extinct;, they deserve explanatory treatment 
in geography just as ftdly as do the accordant valley systems 
of non-glaciated mountains. It is true that discussion as to 
whether certain sculptured land forms are due to glacial erosion 
is likely to continue more or less actively through the present 
decade ; but when this problem is as well settled as the problem 
of stream erosion has already been, the geographer will be con- 
tent with the simplest statement of the evidence that is essential 
to the conclusion reached; and the explanatory descriptions 
of land forms will include due reference to forms of glacial 
origin, just as much as a matter of course as they now include 
reference to forms of marine or of subaerial origin. Forms of 
glacial sculpture will be given as assured a place in geograph- 
ical study as forms of glacial deposition are already given. 
Neither the thing studied, nor the agent by which it was pro- 
duced, nor the method by which the agent is shown to be 
accountable for the thing, suffices to show whether the thing 
is of a geological or a geographical nature. This question will 
be decided, as has already been shown, by the relations into 
which the thing enters. It would be as unreasonable to 
omit all reference to glacial erosion in a geographical descrip- 
tion of Norway as to omit all reference to subaerial erosion 
in a geographical account of our Atlantic coastal plain. 

Nowhere is the cultivation of systematic geography more 
helpful than in the study of local or regional geography. 
The truth of this may be appreciated by considering the case 
of botany. No botanist would attempt to describe the flora 
of one of our states until he had obtained a good knowledge 
of systematic botany in general. Such knowledge would 
help him at every turn in his study of a local flora, not only 
in describing the plants that he might find, and in arranging 
the descriptions in a serviceable order, but also in finding the 
plants themselves. I believe that a closely eqxiivalent state- 
ment might be made with regard to the geography of a state; 


and yet there is not, to my knowledge, a single work on 
regional geography in which a recognized scheme of systematic 
geography has been avowedly followed as a guide for the 
treatment of local features. The adoption of such a guide 
would lead to various advantages; on announcing that a cer- 
tain scheme of systematic geography has been chosen as a 
standard, the writer of a regional work thereby gives notice 
in the simplest manner to the reader as to the kind and amount 
of knowledge necessary to understand the work in hand; 
descriptions are made at once briefer and more intelligible 
by phrasing them in terms of a scheme that is elsewhere 
stated in full ; relative completeness of treatment is assured, 
for with a systematic list of all kinds of geographical relations 
at hand, the writer is not likely to overlook any element of 
the subject that occurs within his chosen region; the reader 
can easily find any desired topic, not only by means of the 
table of contents and index, but also by means of the standard 
scheme of classification in accordance with which all elements 
are arranged; and finally, books on different regions will come 
to exhibit a desirable uniformity of treatment, when they are 
based on a common scheme of systematic geography. Al- 
though no books of this kind now exist, I -do not think it over- 
venturesome to say that some such books will soon exist, and 
that they will form very serviceable contributions to the 
literature of our subject. 

The various recommendations that I have made are likely 
to remain in the air, or at most to secure response only from 
isolated individual students, unless those who believe that 
the adoption of these recommendations would promote the 
scientific study of geography are willing to give something of 
their time and thought towards organizing a society of geo- 
graphical experts — an American Geographers Union. From 
such a union I am sure that geography would gain strength, 
but it is not yet at all clear in my mind that any significant 
number of persons would care to accept the strict conditions 
of organization which appear to me essential for the success 
of such an enterprise. The most important of the conditions 
are as follows: 

W. M. DAVIS. 501 

I St. The adoption of some definition for geography that 
shall sufficiently indicate the boundaries as well as the content 
of this broad subject. 

2d. The limitation of membership to persons with whom 
geography as thus defined is a first or at least a second interest, 
and by whom more than one geographical article of advanced 
grade, based on original observation and study, has been 

3d. The independence of the union thus constituted of all 
other geographical societies. 

Although we cannot adduce any existing geographical 
society in this country as a witness competent to prove 
that geography has sufficient unity and coherence to tempt 
geographei« to form such a union as is here contemplated, 
a careful review of the problem convinces me that a suffi- 
cient unity and coherence really exist in the science as I 
have here treated it; and I therefore believe that the for- 
mation of an American Geographers Union is feasible as well 
as desirable. 

It has been my object in this address to describe briefly the 
status of mature geography in our country, and to suggest 
several steps that might be taken for its improvement. 
Certain branches of the subject have reached a high develop- 
ment, but the subject as a whole does not thrive with us. 
The reason for its relative failure is not, I believe, to be found 
in the very varied nature of its different parts, but rather in 
the failure to place sufficient emphasis on those relationships 
by which, more than by anything else, geography is to be dis- 
tinguished from other sciences, and by which, more than by 
anything else, geographers may come to be united. Among the 
great number of persons — many thousands in all — ^whose atten- 
tion is given primarily to subjects that are closely related to 
geography as here defined, there must certainly be many — 
probably several hundred — with whom mature scientific geog- 
raphy is a first interest. It is upon these persons, geographers 
by first intention, that the future development of sound and 
thorough, mature and scientific geography among us primarily 
depends. To these geographers in particular, I would urge 


the importance of developing the systematic aspects of the 
science, and of constantly associating the special branch that 
they ctiltivate with the subject as a whole. Observation 
will not suffice for the full development of geography; critical 
methods of investigation, in which deduction has a large 
place, must be employed; for only by the aid of careful 
theorizing can an understanding of many parts of the subject 
be gained. With the progress of systematic geography we 
may expect to see a parallel progress of local or regional 
geography. As the science is thus developed, societies of 
mature geographical experts will be formed, and scientific geog- 
raphy will thrive; but whether thus developed into a thrivmg 
science or not, I hope that another long term of years may 
not pass without a representative of geography in this vice- 
presidential chair. 


An American Geographers' Union. By W. M. Davis. 

The Concentration op Geographical Publications. By 
Israel C. Russell. 

Two Classes of Topographic Relief. By George Carroll 

Evidences of Recent Differential Movement along the 
New England Coast. By Geo. Carroll Curtis. 

FossiLiPBRous Sandstone Dikes in the Eocene op Tennessee 
AND Kentucky. By L. C. Glenn. 

The Fauna of the Potter Creek Cave. By W. J. Sinclair. 

[The following papers were read before the Geological Society 
of America.] 

Observations on the Geography and Geology of Western 
Mexico. By Oliver C. Parrington. 


New Studies in the Ammonoosac District op Nbw Hampshire. 
By C. H. Hitchcock. 

Studies in the Western Finger Lake Region. By Charles 
R. Dryer. 

Note on the Geology of the Hellgate Valley between* 
Missoula and Elliston and Northward to Placid Lake. 
IN Montana. By N. H. Winchbll. 

A Fossil Water Fungus in Petrified Wood from Egypt. Br 
Alexis A. Julien. 

The Development and Relationships op the Rugosa (Tbtra- 
coralla). By J. E. Duerden. 

The Sudbury Nickel-Bearing Eruptive. By A. P. Colbma.v. 

The Widespread Occurrence of Fayalite in Certain Igneous 
Rocks of Wisconsin. By Samuel Weidman. 

Structural Relations of the Granites of North Carolina. 
By Thomas Leonard Watson. 

Field Work in the Wisconsin Lead and Zinc District. Br 
U. S. Grant. 


Molybdenite at Crown Point, Wash. By A. R. Crook. 

Recent Studies in the Physiography op the Ozark Region 
IN Missouri. By C. F. Marbut. 

The Physiography and Glaciation op the Western Tian Shan- 
Mountains, Turkestan. By W. M. Davis and E. Hunt- 

A System op Keeping the Records op a State Geological 
Survey. By E. R. Buckley. 

The Tectonic Geography op Southwestern New England 
AND Southeastern New York. By WiLLfAM Herbert Hobbs. 

The Lineaments op the Eastern United States. By William 
Herbert Hobbs. 

A Pre-glacial Peneplain in the Driptless Area. By U. S. 
Grant and H. F. Bain. 

The New Cone op Mont Pele and Other New Features op 
THE Mountain. By E. O. Hovey. 


SoMB Striking Erosion Phenomena Observed on the Islands 
OP St. Vincent and Martinique in 1903. By E. O. Hovey. 

The Grand Soufriere of Guadaloupe. By E. O. Hovey. 

Domes and Dome Structure in the High Sierra. By G. K. 

The Trent River System and the St. Lawrence Outlet. By 
Alfred W. G. Wilson. 

Postglacial Changes op Attitude in the Italian and Swiss 
Lakes. By Frank Bursley Taylor. 

The Basin of the Po River. By George L. Collie. 

Nantucket Shore Lines, II. By F. P. Gulliver. 

The New Geology under the New Hypothesis op Earth 
Origin. By Herman L. Fairchild. 

The Humboldt Region; a Study in Basin Range Structure. 
By G. D. Louderback. 


Glacial Erosiok in the Finger Lake Region, New York. 
By M. R. Campbell. 

Evidences of Slight Glacial Erosion in Western New York. 
By H. L. Fairchild. 

Waning op the Glaciers op the Alps. By H. L. Fairchild. 

The Carboniferous of the Appalachian Basin; Part II, 


Notes on the Deposition of the Appalachian Pottsvillb. 
By David White. 

The Benton Formation in Eastern South Dakota. By J. 
E. Todd. 

Further Studies of Ozark Stratigraphy. By C. F. Marbut. 

The Iroquois Beach in Ontario. By A. P. Coleman. 

Evidence of the Agency op Water in the Distribution of 
THE Loess in the Missouri Valley. By George Frederick 


The Loess at St. Joseph. By Luella Agnes Owbn. 

Fresh-water Shells in the Loess. By B. Shimek. 

Comparison of the Stratigraphy op Black Hills, Big Horn 
Mountains, and Rocky Mountains, #Front Range. By 
N. H. Darton. 




Vice-President and Chairman of the Section, 
£. L. Mark. Cambridge, Mass. 

C. JuDSON Herrick, Granville, Ohio« 

Member of Council. 
A. M. BlbiI/B. 

Sectional Committee, 

C. W. Hargitt, Vice-President, 1903; C. Judson Hbrrick, Secre- 
tary, 1903; E. L. Mark, Vice-President, 1904; C. Judson 
Herrick, Secretary, 1904. 

H. F. OsBORN, I year; S. H. Gage, 2 years; C. H. Eigbnmann, 3 
years; H. B. Ward, 4 years; Frank Smith, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee, 
Jacob Rbighard. 

Press Secretary, 
C. Judson Herrick. 







With the advent of the ** Origin of Species" became cur- 
rent the naturalistic interpretation of organic nature » epito- 
mized in such phrases as ** natural selection," ** survival 
of the fittest," etc. So rapid and general was the accept- 
ance of this conception as a working hypothesis that in 
thirty years, or within a single generation, Wallace made 
bold to claim for it universal recognition in the well known 
and oft-quoted declaration, "He (Darwin) did his work so 
well that descent with modification is now universally ac- 
cepted as the order of nature in the organic world." 

As a general statement of the fact of evolution, as the 
phrase maybe literally interpreted, it may, after fifteen addi- 
tional years of intense biological activity, be as vigorously 
claimed and as readily conceded. If, however, it be so inter- 
preted as to include the full content of Darwinism and the 
all-sufficiency of natural selection as the prime factor, with 
its details of endless adaptations to environment, whether 
physical or physiological, it need hardly be said that consent 
would be far less general or prompt. 

Moreover, with the highly metaphysical and speculative 
deductions which, under the caption of '*Neo-Darwinism, " 
or, more plainly, " Weismannism," which have boldly assumed 
the omnipotence and all-sufficiency of natural selection 
to account for the least and last detail of organic differentia- 


tion or constancy, widespread doubt and open protest are 
too common to elicit surprise or comment. 

It need hardly be pointed out at this late day, though it 
is more or less persistently ignored, that primitive Darwin- 
ism, while essaying to explain the origin of species, and em- 
phasizing the importance of natural selection as a means 
in the process, did not in the least presume to account for the 
origin of variation and adaptation, which were recognized 
as fundamental and prerequisite in affording conditions 
without which natural selection must be hopelessly impotent . 
Nor, moreover, should it be overlooked that while recognizing 
the inseparable correlation of the factors just mentioned and 
their essential utility either to the individual or species in the 
majority of cases, Darwin was free to concede and frank in 
declaring the efficiency of many other factors in the intricate 
and complicated problems of organic evolution. 

The recent impulse which has come to biologic progress by 
experimental methods, and the remarkable results which 
have been attained thereby, may without exaggeration be 
said to have raised anew many an earlier doubt as well as 
brought to light problems apparently quite beyond the scope 
of the older explanations. It may not, therefore, be an ex- 
travagant assumption to announce the entire question of 
organic adaptations as open for reconsideration, in the light 
of which no apology will be necessary for directing attention 
to certain phases of the subject upon the present occasion. 

Among the many problems which recent investigations 
and conclusions have brought into better perspective as 
well as sharper definition, and which might profitably be 
discussed, the limits of a single address preclude any verj*- wide 
range of review. I have, therefore, chosen to restrict my 
discussion chiefly to problems of coloration among lower in- 
vertebrates, including incidental references to correlated sub- 
jects, and the probable limitations of color as a factor in or- 
ganic adaptation. 

Interesting as it might be to glance at the earlier views of a 
subject, the nature of which from earliest times must have 
been a source of keen interest to mankind in general, and 


which must have appealed to the aesthetic and rational nature, 
inspiring not only poetic imagery but admiring awe and a 
devout fervor akin to reverence, it must suffice in the present 
discussion to hold attention well within the period of thought 
immediately concerned, which, as already indicated in the 
opening prargraph, was brought into prominence by the 
** Origin of Species." 

As is perfectly well known, color in nature is due to one of 
two causes, or to a combination of both, namely: (i). What 
has been termed optical or structural conditions, such as dif- 
fraction, interference or unequal reflection of light, examples 
of which are familiar in the splendid hues of the rainbow, the 
irridescent sheen and metallic colors of the feathers of many 
birds, wings of insects, etc. (2). What are known as pigmentary 
colors, due to certain material substances lodged within the 
tissues of animals or plants which have the property of ab- 
sorbing certain elements of light and of reflecting others, and 
thereby producing the sensation of color. While the two are 
physically quite distinct it is not unusual to find them asso- 
ciated in producing some of the most exquisite color effects 
of which we have knowledge. In a general way one may 
usually distinguish between these two sorts of color by noting 
that those which are purely optical in their character produce 
a constantly changing impression as the relative position of 
object or observer may happen to vary with reference to the 
angle and direction of light ; while upon the other hand colors 
which are due to pigments show this property very slightly 
or not at all, and that, moreover, pigment colors are usually 
more or less soluble in various reagents, such as alcohol, ether, 
acids, alkalies, etc., and that they often fade rapidly under 
the influence of strong light or in its absence, or upon the 
death of the organism. 

The presence of many and various colors in inorganic 
nature, the large majority of which are due to purely physical 
causes, such as the colors of the ocean, the sky, the clouds, 
the mineral or gem, while appealing to our sense of beauty 
elicit no special inquiry as to their significance or purpose. 
It suffices to know that they are constitutional or structural, 


be explored, as well as an introduction to that already made 
available. And while as a result of this activity many and 
various organic pigments have been isolated and their com- 
position in part or entirely made known, it must be recognis^ed 
that the task of the chemical analysis of any such highly 
complex compounds as most of these are known to be is 
attended with extreme difficulty and no small measure of 
uncertainty. Still, it has been possible to fairly distinguish 
several classes of such pigments, differentiated physiologically 
as follows: — 

First. — Those directly serviceable in the vital processes of 
the organism. Under this head may be classed such pig- 
ments as haemoglobin, chlorophyll, zooner5rthrin, chloro- 
cruorin, and perhaps others less known. It need not be em- 
phasized that by far the most important of these are the two 
first named. The others, found chiefly among the lower in- 
vertebrates, are believed to serve a function similar to the 

Second, — Waste products. Among these the several bili- 
ary products are too well known to call for special note. 
Guanin is a pigment of common- occurrence in the skin of 
certain fishes and is associated with the coloration of the 
species. Similarly certain coloring matters have been found 
in the pigments of many lepidoptera, known as lepidotic acid, 
a substance closely allied to uric acid and undoubtedly of the 
nature of a waste product. 

Third. — Reserve products. Of these there are several series, 
one of which, known as lipochrome pigments, is associated 
with the metabolism involved in the formation of fats and 
oils. Perhaps of similar character are such pigments as 
carmine, or rather cochineal, melanin, etc. It may be some- 
what doubtful whether these pigments do not rather belong 
to the previous class, where should probably be listed such 
products as haematoxylin, indigo, etc., etc., all of which have 
been claimed as resultants of destructive metabolism in pro- 
cess of being eliminated from the physiologically active tis- 
sues of the body of the organism. Of similar character is 
probably tannic acid, a substance well known among plant 


products and involved in the formation of many of the brownish 
and rusty colors of autunm foliage, particularly of the oaks 
and allied trees, as are the lipochromes in the formation of 
the reds and yellows which form so conspicuous a feature 
among auttunn colors. 

While the association of these and other pigmentary matters 
has long been known in connection with both animal and plant 
growth, and while the conception of their more or less intimate 
relation to the active metabolism of the various tissues is not 
new, comparatively little has been done toward directly 
investigating and elucidating the exact nature and extent 
of the process. This seems to be especially the case in rela- 
tion to the part played by these products in the formation of 
those features of coloration among organisms with which we 
are now concerned. 

The most strenuous advocates of the primary importance of 
natural selection as the chief or only factor in adaptation 
are free to admit that among the simplest forms particularly, 
color has originated in some more or less obscure way through 
growth or some of the vital activities of the organism, Dar- 
win, for example, merely suggesting that "Their bright tints 
residt from the chemical nature or minute structure of their 
tissues," and Wallace in the even less explicit statement 
that ** color is a normal product of organization," whatever 
that may imply. 

So far as I am aware Bisig was among the earliest to claim 
that among certain annelids the colors were primarily ex- 
pressions of the katabolic processes of the tissues, and were 
excretory in character. He was able to largely demonstrate 
this with species of Capitellidae by experimental methods. 
By feeding the animals with carmine he was able to follow 
its course through the alimentary tract, its progress through 
the tissues, and final deposition in the hypodermal tissues 
beneath the cuticle, where in the process of moulting it was 
finally eliminated. He also found that in a species of Eunice, 
which fed upon sponges, the pigment granules of the food 
passed unchanged through the intestine and into the body 
tissues much as had been the case in the experiments with the 


Graff later reached very similar conclusions concerning 
coloration in the leeches, but was able to go a step farther 
than Eisig had done and to show in great detail the exact 
process through which it was brought about. He found in 
the endothelium certain migatory cells which wander about 
in the coelom or penetrate through the tissues, and that among 
their functions one of the most important seems to be the 
absorption of foreign bodies and their conveyance into the 
mouths of the nephridia or through the tissues to the hypo- 
dermis and their lodgment in that tissue. He was even able 
to show that the special markings or color patterns which are 
so characteristic in some of the animals may be explained 
by the disposition of the muscle bands, and their relation to 
the lines of pigmentary deposition by the wandering cells, 
which Graff has designated "excretophores.'* He was also 
able to confirm the results of Eisig as to the experimental 
demonstration of feeding with various pigmentary matters, 
and subsequently tracing them from point to point in the 
process of elimination. Furthermore he showed that the 
amount and density of pigmentation was closely related to 
the intensity of metabolism, being greatest in those specimens 
which were most voracious feeders. 

Observations of a similar character have been made upon 
certain of the Protozoa, particularly upon Stentor. Schu- 
berg in 1890 found that the blue-green pigment so character- 
istic of this organism was constantly being excreted bodily in 
the form of definite granules. 

In 1893 Johnson, in an extended study of the morphology' 
of these Protozoa, confirmed the preceding observations, and 
showed that the pigment was excreted along with other ex- 
crementitious matter. He found also that the principal re- 
gion of excretory activity was at the base of the animal, 
where was formed after a short time a definite mass of debris 
near the foot. 

Perhaps one of the most important contributions along this 
line is that of Harmer on the character of the ** brown body" 
of the Polyzoa. By a series of critical observations upon the 
life-history of these interesting organisms, and painstaking 


experiments in feeding with carmine and other pigments, he 
was able to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the so-called 
** brown body" of the Polyzoa is a direct product of the de- 
structive metabolism within the body and is excreted in a 
mass at this particular region. He found that the leucocytes 
of the funicular organ as well as certain cells of the organ 
itself engulfed pigmentary wastes, and with the periodic decline 
of the polypides these cells became crowded into a close mass 
thereby constituting the ** brown body." The new polypi de 
arising by a sort of regenerative process was found to be al- 
ways devoid of any coloration, no pigment appearing for 
some time following the activity of the new polypide, but 
that it is formed in regularly increasing amounts with the 
age and degree of metabolism of the organisms. 

Correlated with these views concerning the origin of certain 
colors and their disposition in the organism is that of the rela- 
tion of coloration to the food. It has long been known that in 
many cases there is a more or less intimate relation of color 
to the food consumed by certain animals. Instances of this 
are too numerous for detailed consideration here. Let it suffice 
that Darwin, Semper, Eimer, Koch, Beddard, Poulton, Giin- 
ther, and many others, have, by extended observations and 
by detailed experimentation , apparently established the general 
fact. Beddard quotes the following observation made by 
G. Brown-Goode as to such an explanation of protective 
coloration in fishes. "On certain ledges along the coast of 
New England are rocks covered by dense growths of scarlet 
and crimson seaweeds. The cod-fish, the cunner, the sea 
raven, the rock eel, and the wrymouth, which inhabit these 
brilliant groves, are all colored to match their surroundings; 
the cod, which has naturally the lighter color, being most 
brilliant in its scarlet hues, while others whose skins have a 
large and original supply of black have deeper tints or dark 
red and brown." He then quotes farther the suggestions of 
Goode that these colors are due to pigment derived either 
directly or indirectly from the red algae; those which are 
carnivorous feeding upon the Crustacea and other marine or- 
ganisms whose stomachs are full of the algae and their pig- 
ments which pass unchanged into the tissues of the fishes. 


He also quotes a similar conclusion of Gtinther as to the origin 
of the red pigment of the salmon being derived from the red 
pigment of the Crustacea upon which it feeds. While ad- 
mitting that in the cases just cited there has been no attempt 
at demonstration of the proposed explanation, it yet would 
seem highly probable. **It is too remarkable a coincidence 
that the fish normally with but little pigment should when 
among these weeds be bright red, and that the fish normally 
possessing black pigment should be dark red, to permit of a 
settlement of the question oflF-hand by the easy help of natural 
selection — ^without at least some further inquiry." 

With the foregoing considerations concerning the general 
origin and development of pigments and their relations to the 
colors of organisms, we may next proceed to pass rapidly in 
review such groups of animals as we may choose to consider, 
and may institute a brief inquiry as to the significance of their 
types of coloration as factors of adaptation. 

With the avowed purpose of restricting my observations 
and discussion as far as practicable to the lower groups of 
invertebrates as already announced, it will suffice to say further 
that in justification of such a course I am constrained to con- 
sider the lower animals, particidarly Coelenterates, as more 
favorable subjects from which to obtain fundamental con- 
clusions than are the more highly specialized insects or birds 
which have had so large a measure of attention in earlier 
investigations along these lines. 

Furthermore, it seems highly probable that future investi- 
gations will involve more of direct experimentation than has 
hitherto been the case, and if so, these lower series will naturally 
afford some of the best material available for such inquiries, 
not only because of the more ready and rapid responses ob- 
tained, but from the relative simplicity of their organization 
and the consequent simplicity of results likely to be obtained 
in each case. 

If further warrant were demanded for a comparatively 
limited survey, or special emphasis upon a limited group of 
animals, I should find it in a measure in the personal interest 


and familiarity which has come from special researches con- 
nected therewith. 

Beginning with the Hydrozoa it may be noted in the outset 
that though including the simplest of the Coelenterates we 
shall find a remarkable variety and range of coloration. 
Among the hydroids, as is well known, coloration is neither 
very remarkable as to brilliance nor distribution. Many, if 
not most, are almost without color distinction, except in the 
dull brownish or amber colors found in such as Obelia, Hal- 
ecium, and other campantdarians. This may be due in part 
to the fact that the colonies are so generally encased within a 
chitinous perisarc which, while somewhat colored as already 
indicated, is seldom if ever of any considerable brilliance or 
diversity. Among the Tubularians, in many of which the 
development of a perisarc is slight, and always lacking over 
the hydranth itself, there is often foiuid considerable color- 
ation, as in Eudendrium, Pennaria, Corymorpha, and others. 
And in these color is usually foiuid associated more particu- 
larly with the development of the sexual products, or during the 
season of reproductive activity, which is a matter of con- 
siderable significance, to be taken up in a latter connection. 

As is well known, the predominance of alternation of genera- 
tions in these animals brings into prominence the sexual phase, 
which in most species is an ihdependent organism — the me- 
dusa. And it is in connection with the medusae that we find 
the most marked development of color. There does not, 
however, appear to be any well-defined distribution of colors 
into patterns. Among the Hydromedusae the distribution of 
pigment, which is almost the only conspicuotis kind of color 
present, is chiefly in association with the gonads, the tissues 
of the stomach and the regions of the chymiferous canals, 
though in some cases also extending to the tentacles and in the 
regions of the sensory organs. It shotdd not be overlooked, 
however, that in many of these medusae the color tints are 
among the most beautiftd and delicate known, though lacking 
the intensity more common among the Scyphomedusae and 

Turning attention to the Scyphomedusae we find as just 


suggested a more copious development of color and also 
what is more significant, in many cases its distribution into 
something like definite patterns, as is more or less evident in 
such genera as Cyanea, Pelagia and Rhizostoma. It is, 
however, no less evident that among these we have, as in the 
former, the deposition of pigment along the lines of most ac- 
tive metabolism, such as the gastro vascular and reproductive 
organs, in most abundance and usually of greatest brilliance. 

It is, however, when we come to the Anthozoa, which in- 
cludes the corals, actinians, sea-fans, etc., that we find the 
climax of coloration, both as regards brilliance and intensity. 
To look into the crystalline depths of the waters about a 
coral reef where these varied forms thrive in great garden- 
like areas is to gaze upon a scene, the fairy-like features of 
which it would be difficult to exaggerate. Here are actin- 
ians, corals, sea-fans, sea-feathers, etc., etc., which abound 
in the richest profusion and endless variety, seeming to vie 
with each other in the effort to produce the most exquisite 
displays of every tint of the spectrum, in contributing to 
the splendor of the ocean garden of which they are parts. 

In the distribution of color there is not apparently any 
advance as to differentiation over that found in the Scy- 
phomedusae, if indeed as much, though among the actin- 
ians certain stripings and mottlings occur over the exterior 
of the body. It is worthy of note that in those forms in 
which the tendency toward definite coloration is more evi- 
dent there appears also to be in many cases considerable 
variation of coloration. This is particularly noticeable in 
such forms as Metridium and Cyanea. 

Face to face with this rich profusion and beauty of color 
what is its significance? How has it originated and what 
does it mean? Is it simply the expression of some original 
constitution peculiar to the entire class, and if so why does 
it differ in so marked a degree among the different sub- 
classes? We may safely dismiss such an alternative as alto- 
gether unnecessary and without value as an explanation. 
May it be considered as an adaptation to protection, the 
result of natural selection? Certainly in no direct sense, 


for without exception so far as I am aware the more brightly 
colored forms are thereby rendered correspondingly more 
conspicuous and therefore more liable to attack from enemies. 
May it come within the category of '* warning" coloration, 
due to the offensive cnidarian armor borne bv most of the 
members of this phylum? So. not a few who have essayed 
an account of the matter would have us believe. It seems 
to me, however, open to serious doubt, aside from the fact 
that it lacks evidence. On the other hand among hydroids 
I have found that those having brighter colors are most lia- 
ble to be eaten by fishes in the habit of feeding upon such a 
diet. Furthermore various worms, snails, etc., which are 
known to feed upon them would be more likely to be attracted 
by colors than to be repelled. It is also matter of common 
observation that such animals are much more abundant 
among colonies of highly colored hydroids like Eudendrium, 
Pennaria, and Tubularia than among species of ObeUa or 
others of little color distinction. Many fishes with finely 
adapted dental apparatus are constant feeders upon corals, 
tranquilly browsing among the animated foliage of this 
luxuriant forest. 

Finally, may it come within the category of ** sexual selec- 
tion " ? So far as I am aware no one has ventured to assign to 
it any such a significance. Where sex characters are so little 
differentiated as among at least a portion of the phylum such 
an explanation would be as far-fetched as it would be unnec- 
essary. While upon the part of some of the older natural- 
ists there was a disposition to regard the massing of members 
of the Scyphomedusae at certain times as having a sexual 
meaning, it may be doubted whether it has any considerable 
support in facts. 

Concerning coloration among the Anthozoa, Duerden, 
whose work on the group is so extended and so favorably 
known, has summarized the following account: 

"The prevalence of the yellow and brown color is easily 
understood when an examination is made of the polypal tis- 
sues. For in all instances in which it occurs, the entoderm 
is found to be crowded with the so-called * yellow cells* or 


Zooxanthellae, which are unicellular, symbiotic algae, the chro- 
matophores of which are yellow or yellowish green. That 
these are the main cause of the external coloration may be 
easily proved from colonies of Madrepora. In this genus 
the polyps toward the apex of branches are nearly colorless, 
and on a microscopic examination of the entodermal layer 
Zooxanthellae are found to be absent while they are present 
in abundance in older pigmented regions.** 

These symbiotic algae are not, however, the only source of 
color among the corals. Duerden finds ectodermal pigment 
granules, aggregated in somewhat irregular, isolated patches 
in some cases, in others somewhat regularly distributed. 

He also found that a third source of coloration among 
corals was the presence of what he has termed ** boring algae.** 
These were both red and green, and penetrate into the skel- 
etal mass and color it a distinct red or green, as one or the 
other may be present. 

In his work on the Actiniaria of Jamaica, this author has 
found in many cases the presence of unicellular green algae 
growing upon the surface and giving to the polyp a distinct- 
ively green color. He found also superficial granular pig- 
ments in certain species which could be removed by any ero- 
sion of the ectoderm. I have foimd the same in several 
species of New England actinians, and in some cases the pig- 
mentation was irregularly distributed, sometimes in blotches, 
sometimes in longutidinal stripes, more often the latter. 
So extremely variable is the coloration in many of these 
organisms that it is impossible to utilize it as a factor in 
differentiating species. Duerden has called attention to 
this feature among both corals and actinians, and believes 
it to be due to the presence or absence of greater or less inten- 
sity of light, and believes it to be an expression of the fact that 
the Zooxanthellae are not able to thrive except under proper 
light, and that, moreover, where light is too intense, as in 
shallower waters, certain dark pigment found in such spec- 
imens is thought to be due to its utility as a screen. While 
there may be a measure of credibility as to phases of this 
view, it does not seem to me as of general adequacy. The 


variability of species to which I have just referred and to the 
very common genus Metridium is certainly not due in any 
appreciable degree to the factor of light, since it occurs in- 
discriminately among specimens taken in identical situations 
as well as under those of differing conditions. 

In this connection may be mentioned the same phe- 
nomenon among medusae. The variation of coloration in 
Cyanea has long been known and is so marked that the elder 
Agassiz distinguished two additional species chiefly on this 
character, both of which have long since been discarded. 
It is quite well known to observers that these animals when 
placed in aquaria usually show within a very short time a 
more or less marked diminution in colors. Dactylometra 
while living fairly well for many days in the aquarium loses 
within this time so much of its usually bright coloration as not 
to seem like the same creature. The same is true of many 
other animals than medusae. On the other hand it is equally 
well known that many other animals may be placed under 
these more or less artificial environments with little apparent 
loss in this or other respect. That it is not due to light alone 
is evident in the fact that similar changes occur in medusae 
which have been kept in open pools or enclosures about docks 
or elsewhere. 

It seems to me rather that the true explanation is to be 
found in the changed conditions of nutrition and the con- 
sequent change in the metabolism of the animal. Hydroids 
placed under these conditions show the same tendency. 

Those which take kindly to the change show no appreciable 
decline as to color or other vital process. The same is true 
of medusae. Gonionemus may be kept for weeks in the aqua- 
rium, and if properly fed will show no decline in color, while 
if the conditions become bad an immediate change is noticeable 
in this as well as other features. 

The same may be said concerning the actinians. While 
many seem to suffer noticeably when placed in aquaria others 
show no apparent difference. Cerianthus membranaceus, one 
of the finest of the actinians to be seen in the Naples aquarium, 
and one of the most variable, shows no apparent decline in 


any vital function. Specimens have been kept in flourishing 
condition in the aquarium for several years and show no sign 
of decline, the coloration continuing as brilliant as in the open 
sea. The same is true of many other organisms found in 
finest conditions in this celebrated aquarium. Among the 
annelids Protula soon shows decline in color vigor, and the 
same is true, though to a less degree, in the case of Spiro- 
graphis and Serpula. 

While it may not be without probability that some measure 
of this color change may be due in certain cases to the changed 
conditions of light, it still remains true, I believe, that light 
alpne is but a single factor, and that often a minor one in- 
volved in the changes observed, and that changed conditions 
of nutrition and metabolism are by far the more important. 

The main factor of our problem, however, is still unsolved. 
What answer shall we make to ourselves concerning the sig- 
nificance of the multiform colors more or less general among 
members of the Ccelentera? It seems to me more or less 
evident that natural selection can have at best but a limited 
place in its explanation. I see no place for it along the lines 
of protection, either direct or indirect. 

Of even less significance can any modification of it under 
the guise of sexual selection be claimed; for even aside from 
the large majority of cases where there is slight if any sex 
differentiation, no sensory organization, which Dar\\fin recog- 
nized as essential to the exercise of this factor, is present 
through which it might become operative in even the small- 
est degree. 

Two, and only two, other methods of explanation have 
seemed to me to afford a reasonable account. First, that 
it is due primarily to the normal course of metabolism, during 
which color appears as one of its many expressions. Darwin 
himself was not indifferent to this possibility, and expressly 
states in connection with the same problem that color might 
very naturally arise under such conditions. "Bearing in 
mind," he suggests "how many substances closely analogous 
to organic compounds have been recently formed by chemists, 
and which exhibit the most splendid colors, it would have 


been a strange fact if substances similarly colored had not 
often originated, independently of any useful end thus gained, 
in the complex laboratory of the living organism." It has 
also been pointed out in an earlier portion of this paper that 
Wallace had to appeal to a similar source in his search for 
the primary factors of animal coloration. 

Geddes and Thomson in discussing the problems of sex 
likewise make a similar claim. They declare, '* pigments of 
richness and variety in related series, point to pre-eminent 
activity of chemical processes in the animals which possess 
them. Technically expressed, abundant pigments are ex- 
pressions of intense metabolism." They further find in the 
phenomena of bright colors among the males of most of the 
higher animals simply the expression of the correspondingly 
greater activities of the processes of metabolism. 

I believe that in this source we have a real account of a 
considerable body of color phenomena among the lower in- 
vertebrates, and particularly of that series under present 

The second factor to which I would appeal is so nearly 
related to the former as to be involved more or less intimately 
therewith. It is to the effect that certain pigments are prod- 
ucts of waste in process of elimination. This has already 
been referred to in a former connection and need not be 
separately emphasized apart from the concrete cases to which 
it may be applied. 

Strongly significant of the importance of this process 
among the Hydrozoa is the fact already pointed out that 
pigments are found deposited along the lines of principal 
metabolism, namely, the gastro vascular regions, the gonads, 
and to a less extent the immediate regions of sensory bodies, 
when these may be present. While this alone as a mere state- 
ment of fact does not prove the point at issue, when taken in 
connection with other facts of a similar nature, it amounts 
to a high degree of probability. 

What evidence have we that in the case of hydroids, medusae, 
etc. , colors are associated with excretory processes ? While the 
facts are not numerous, they are I believe rather convincing. 


In work upon regeneration in hydroids, Driesch and Loeb 
called attention to certain pigmentary matters found in Tubu- 
laria and claimed for it an important function in the regen- 
erative process. Morgan, and later Stevens, working upon 
the same hydroid, became convinced that the claims of the 
former investigators as to the importance of this pigment 
were not well founded. They found that not only was the 
pigment of no special importance, but that it was really a 
waste product, and that during the process of regeneration 
was actually excreted and finally ejected bodily from the 
hydranth. I have personally been able to confirm these 
results on the same and related hydroids, and have also shown 
that in regenerating medusae there is formed de novo in each 
regenerating organ, such as manubrium, radial canals, etc., 
the characteristic pigment of the normal organ. This was 
particularly noticeable in the case of radial canals. Following 
their regeneration and promptly upon their functional activity 
the deposition of pigment made its appearance, and within 
a comparatively short time had acquired the normal intensity. 
This was also true of other organs, tentacles and tentacular 
bulbs, as well as manubrium and canals. 

Substantially the same results have been obtained, though 
here first announced, in experiments upon one of the Scy- 
phomedusae. In very young specimens where the tissues 
are delicate it is possible to note the intense activity in regen- 
erating organs, such as sensory body. The first part of this 
organ to make its appearance is the sensory papilla, which 
is soon followed by the otoliths, and later by the special pig- 
mentation of the entire organ. 

From the foregoing considerations three things seem to me 
to be more or less evident : 

First. — That in all regenerative processes a very marked 
degree of metabolism is involved, whether in the mere meta- 
morphosis of old tissues into new, or in the direct regener- 
ation of new tissues by growth processes, both of which 
seem to occur. 

Second. — That in regenerative processes there is often asso- 
ciated the development of pigmentary substances which seem 
to have no direct function in relation thereto. 


Third. — That in many cases there follows a more or less 
active excretion and elimination of portions of the pigment 
in question. 

Concerning color phenomena among the several classes 
of worms we are in much the same tmcertain state of mind 
as in the former. For while in some of the annelids there 
may be fotmd fairly well developed visual organs it may be 
seriously questioned whether they are of any such degree of 
perfection as would enable their possessors to distinguish 
small color distinctions. And if this be the case there would 
at once be eliminated any possibility of conscious adaptation 
in seeking a suitable environment, or such as would be in- 
volved in so-called sexual selection. 

Furthermore, it is very well known that among this group 
some which exhibit among the richest of these color phenom- 
ena have their habitat in seclusion, buried in sand or mud, 
or hidden beneath stones, or with tubes built up from their 
own secretions, or otherwise so environed as to render prac- 
tically nil the operation of natural selection. 

Again, it should not be overlooked in this connection that in 
many of the annelids, as well as others, the most pronotmced 
source of color is to be fotmd in the haemoglobin dissolved 
in the blood, and that it would be as futile to ascribe its color 
to natural selection as it would to claim a similar explanation 
of the color of the same substance in the blood of vertebrates, 
where as color it is absolutely of no selective value, except 
in such special cases as the colors of the cock's comb, where it 
may come to play a secondary ftmction as a sex character. 

What shall be said of such forms as Bipalium and Geoplana 
among land planarians, which exhibit in many cases brilliant 
coloration, but since they are chiefly nocturnal in their habit 
and conceal themselves during the day imder logs or other 
cover, the color could hardly serve any selective or adaptive 
function ? 

The same is equally true of such forms as Nemerteans whose 
habitat is beneath the sand along the tide line or below, and 
also of many annelids having a similar habitat. Some of 
these, particularly among the latter, have types of coloration 


which are often of brilliant character and splendid patterns, 
vying, as one writer has expressed it, * *with the very butter- 

It cannot be questioned that in some cases we find antiong 
these forms what would seem at first sight to be splendid illus- 
trations of protective coloration. If, however, we trace in detail 
their distribution and variable habitat we shall often find, 
as did Semper in the case of Myxicola, that the supposed case 
of marvelous mimicry resolves itself into merest coincidence. 
This case cited by Semper is described in detail in ** Animal 
Life,** and its careful study by some of our over-optimistic 
selectionists would prove a healthy exercise, conducing to 
a more critical scientific spirit and, as a consequence, to saner 
interpretations of appearances in the light of all the facts. 

The mimicry in the case was of coral polyps among which 
the annelid was found growing and which, in the form of its 
branches, their size and coloration, seemed so perfect that 
it had long escaped notice and was described by Semper as 
a new species. 

It was found in various localities among the corals, but 
invariably having precisely the same simulation of the polyps, 
so that Semper noted it as among the finest cases of mimicr}- 
which had come to his attention. It so happened, however, 
that soon after he happened to discover his mimetic Myxicola 
growing upon a sponge whose color and form were so different 
as to render it very conspicuous. A systematic search for 
it in other situations soon revealed it among the rocks, and 
in his own language, ** Almost everywhere, and wherever I 
examined it carefully, it was exactly of the size and color 
of the polyps of Cladocora caspitosa.'' 

Attention has already been called to Eisig's account of 
coloration among the Capitellidse, in which he discards the 
factor of natural selection as wholly inadequate in the case 
of the organisms under consideration as well as in many 
others, and refers to many investigators who have likewise 
found it deficient. In his exhaustive monograph the sub- 
ject is discussed in considerable detail and references given 
which it would be impracticable to cite in such a review 
as the present. 


It will be possible to refer but briefly to another group or 
two in the present discussion, the first of which is the 
Echinoderms, and chiefly the starfishes. As is well known 
these organisms exhibit a considerable range of variety and 
richness of coloration, among which red, orange, brown, 
yellow and black are more or less common. In not a few 
cases of course the colors comprise combinations of two or 
more of those named. An examination has been made of 
these pigments in a few cases and has sufficed to show 
that for the most part they are lipochromes, and therefore 
belong to either reserve or waste products. Similar colors 
are also found among the brittle-stars, with occasional ad- 
mixtures of blue or green, colors less common in the former 

As is also well known similar colors are found among the 
Crustacea, into a consideration of which it is impossible to 
enter here. There is a matter, however, which I cannot 
ignore in connection with the group, namely, the rather re- 
markable fact that in two phyla having so little in common 
as to habit, structure or environment, there should be so 
striking a color resemblance. This is further heightened by 
the fact that while the one is a prey to almost every denizen 
of the sea of predatory habit, the other is almost correspond- 
ingly exempt. So far as I know Echinoderms have few ene- 
mies, and are of course largely invulnerable against such as 
might otherwise find palatable feeding among these sluggish 
herds. If the color is in the one case protective, why not 
in the other? Or if it be not protective on the other hand, 
why claim such in the first ? That sexual selection might have 
some place among Crustacea may not seem improbable. 
But if color is its signal here what does it imply among 
Echinoderms, where in the nature of the case it must be ruled 
out of accoimt ? 

Discussing the significance of colors among the Echinoderms 
Mosely submits the following interesting problem: ** Those 
coloring matters which, like those at present under consid- 
eration, absorb certain isolated areas of the visible spectrum, 
must be considered as more complex, as pigments, than those 


which merely absorb more or less of the ends of the spectrum. 
. . .It seems improbable that the eyes of other animals 
are more perfect as spectroscopes than our own, and hence we 
are at a loss for an explanation on grounds of direct benefit to 
the species of the existence of the peculiar complex pigments 
in it. That the majority of species of Antedon should have 
vivid coloring matters of a simple character, and that few 
or only one should be dyed by a very complex one, is a re- 
markable fact, and it seems only possible to say in regard to 
such facts that the formation of the particular pigment in 
the animal is accidental, i, e,, no more to be explained than 
such facts as that sulphate of copper is blue.'* 

Considered from the standpoint of metabolism such facts 
would hardly seem to assume the difficulty which might be 
implied in the case just cited, indeed they are in perfect 
alignment with what might be anticipated, and what has in 
cases previously cited been found to be actually occurring. 

Similar conditions as to color and color significance are 
also matters of common knowledge in relation to MoUusca. 
Perhaps few groups among animals exhibit more brilliant 
and varied colors than are to be found aniong Gasteropods, 
yet in many of them this factor can have no more value as a 
means of adaptation than do biliary pigments or Haemoglo- 
bin among vertebrates, where as pigments their significance 
is nil. Of them, Darwin with his usual frankness, has said, 
as previously cited, "These colors do not appear to be of any 
use as a protection; they are probably the direct result, as in 
the lowest classes, of the nature of the tissues — the patterns 
and the sculpture of the shell depending on its manner of 
growth." Referring in the same connection to the bright and 
varied colors of Nudibranchs, he further declares, *'many 
brightly colored, white, or otherwise conspicuous species, do 
not seek concealment ; whilst again some equally conspicuous 
species, as well as other dull colored kinds, live tmder stones 
and in dark recesses. So that with these nudibranch molluscs, 
color apparently does not stand in any close relation to the 
nature of the place which they inhabit. " 

Into the classic shades afforded by the insecta as a fruitful 


haunt and stronghold of nattiral selection I must not venture. 
Not that its problems have all been solved, nor that some 
considered as settled beyond controversy may not have to be 
readjusted, not excepting the much exploited Kalima itself, 
but out of pure regard for the exigencies of the occasion. 

No more dare I presume to enter the abysses of the deep 
sea and to pass in review its manifold and almost untouched 
problems of color significance, great as is the temptation and 
attractive as are its inducements. It must suffice to suggest 
that had half the ingenuity which has been exercised to 
bring these problems into alignment with the general sway 
and supposed supremacy of natural selection been employed in 
an analysis of the pigments and some eftbrts mtade to discover 
the origin of coloration and its general significance as a phys- 
iological, rather than as a physical one, we should have been 
saved the sad rites attending the obsequies of still-bom 
hypotheses and half developed theories. The desperate 
attempt to save natural selection from drowning in its sub- 
marine adventures by lighting its abyssal path with the flicker- 
ing and fitful shimmer of phosphoresence was worthy of a 
better cause. It is difficult to be serious with this phase of 
a subject the nature of which demands an3rthing but rid- 
icule or satire. But the attempts to illtmiinate the quies- 
cent abysses with the dull glow which tmder all known con- 
ditions requires, if not violent, at least vigorous stimulus 
to incite it, and the assumption that its sources were sufficient 
to meet even a moiety of the necessities involved, makes a 
draft upon one's credulity which might arouse either indig- 
nation or the sense of the ludicrous, depending upon the point 
of view! But seriously, such a conception apparently loses 
sight of too many evident known Qoiiditions of phosphores- 
ence with which we are familiar, not to mention the growing 
belief that the phenomenon is in itself of the nature of one 
of the wastes of metabolism, to justify the herculean attempt 
to make it serve a cause so desperate. 

As a concluding word allow me to say that in the present 
review I have not in the least sought to ignore or discredit 
the value of natural selection as a factor in organic evolution. 


Nor would I be tinderstood as wholly discarding color as a 
factor in organic adaptation, partictdarly among the higher 
and more specialized forms. At the same time I must 
submit to a growing conviction that its importance has been 
largely overestimated, and that other factors have been as 
largely lost sight of. If the present discussion may serve in 
even the smallest degree to direct attention to some of the 
latter it will have served its chief purpose. 


[Titles preceded by an asterisk were presented by Section P, 
others by the Central Branch of the American Society of Zoolo- 
gists, in joint session.] 

*The Albatross Rookeries on Laysan. By C. C. Nutting. 

A Restricted Habitat of Scutigerblla immaculata (New- 
port), together WITH some remarks ON THE AnIMAL AND ITS 

Habits. By S. R. Williams. 

On THE Analogy between the Departure from Optimum Vital 
Conditions and Departure from Geographic Life Centers. 
By C. C. Adams. 

*A Feature in the Evolution of the Trotting Horse. By 
P. E. Nipher. 

Further Observations on the Breeding Habits and on the 
Function of the Pearl Organs in Several Species of Evbn^ 
tognathi. By Jacob Reighard. 

♦Phototaxis in Ranatra. By S. J. Holmes. 

♦Studies on Protoplasmic Structure. By A. W. Grbbly. 

Amitosis in the Embryo of Fasciolaria. By H. L. Osborn. 


*0n thb Morphology op Artipicial Parthbnoobnbsis in thb 
Sba-urchin, Arbacxa. By S. J. Huntbr. 

^Biological Intbrprbtation op Skbw Variation. By Prank 
E. LuTz. 

Thb Corrblation op Brain Wbight with othbr Charactbrs. 
By Raymond Pbarl. 

*Thb Rblatxon bbtwbbn thb Law op Ancbstral Hbrbdity and 
Mbndblianism. By Prank. £. Lutz. 

Evolution without Mutation. By C. B. Davbnport. 

^Studies in Compensatory ^bgulation. By Charles Zblbny. 

Iridbscbnt Pbathers. By R. M. Strong. 

*Study op Cross-sectional Courses through the Brain with 
Cortex Surpace Relations by Aid op Puller Sections and 
Models. By Charles H. Hughbs. 

The Morphology op the Vertebrate Head prom the View- 

By J. B. Johnston. 

The Vascular System and Blood Plow in Diplocardia com- 
munis Garman. By Prank Smith and J. T. Barrett. 

♦The Dippusion op North American Hawk Moths. By F. M 


^Insect Lifb above Timber Line in Colorado and Arizona. 
By Francis H. Snow. 


^Preliminary Description op a New Family op Gymnoblastic 
Hydroids from the Hawaiian Islands. By C. C. Nutting. 

The Development and Relationships of the Ruoosa (Tetra- 
coralla). By J. B. Duerden. 

Demonstration of Preparations made during a Study of the 


(Linton). By W. C. Curtis. 

*The Types of Limb Structure in the Triassic Ichthyosaurs. 
By John C. Merriam. 

*A New Group of Marine Reptiles from the Upper Triassic 
OF California. By John C. Merriam. 

An Anomaly in the Arterial System of the Dog. By John 
C. Brown. 

The Brain and Nerve Cord of Placobdella pbdiculata. By 
H. P. Nachtrieb. 

The Mechanism op Feeding and Breathing in the Lamprey. 
By Jean Dawson. 

538 SECTION p. 

♦Some Reactions of Mnbmiopsis leidyi. By Geo. W. Huktbr. 

♦Mouth Parts and Oviposition op Gall-producing Insects. 
By M. T/Cook. 

♦The Bermuda Biological Station for Research. By £. L. 

♦A Theory of the Histogenesis, Constitution and Physiolog- 
ical State op Peripheral Nerve. By Porter E. Sargent. 

♦The Two Chief Faun^b of the Earth. By Alprsus S. Pack- 




Vice-President and Chairman of the Section, 

T. H. Macbridb, Iowa City, Iowa. ! 

F. E. Lloyd, New York, N. Y. 

Member of Council. 
G. F. Atkinson. . 

Sectional Committee, 

T. H. Macbridb, Vice-President, 1904; F. E. Lloyd, Secretary, 
1904: F. V. CoviLLB, Vice-President, 1903; C. J. Cham- 

BBRLiN, Secretary, 1903. 

C. L Shbar, I year; W. A. Kbllbrman, a years; F. S. Earle, 
3 years; C. E. Bbssby, 4 years; W. J. Bbal, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
W. F. Ganong. 

Press Secretary. 



[The Mycological Society and the Botanists of the Central States 
met conjointly with Section G.] 

The Work of thb Year 1903 in Ecology. By H. C. Cowlbs. 

Notes on the Botany op the Caucasus Mountains. By C. E, 

The Cypress Swamps op the Saint Francis River. By S. M. 

Ecological Notes on the Islands op Bermuda. By S. M. 

A Lichen Society op a Sandstone Riprap. By Bruce Fink. 

Relation op Soil to the Distribution op Vegetation in the 
Pine Region op Michigan. By B. E. Livingston. 

Research Methods in Phytogeography. By F. E. Clements, 

Ensayo para la pormacion db UN poto-hbrbario botanico y 
medico db la plora Mexicana. By Fernando Altamirano. 

The Alamogordo Desert. A Preliminary Notice. By T. 
H. MacBride. 


The Flora op the St. Peter Sandstone in Iowa. An Ecologi- 
cal Study. By B. Phimek. 

An Ecologically Aberrant Begonia. By Wm. Trblbasb. 

Plant Formations in the Vicinity op Columbia, Mo. By 
Francis Daniels. 

The Distribution op Some Iowa Plants: Formations on which 
they Occur. By L. H. Pammel. 

The Chemical Constituents op a Soil as Appecting Plant Dis* 
TRiBUTioN. By S. M. Tracy. 

Vegetation op the North Shore op Lake Michigan. By C. 

Zones op Vegetation About the Margin op a Lake. By W. 
J. Beal. 

The Genus Harpochytrium: its Development, Synonymy and 
Distribution. By G. F. Atkinson. 

The Phylogeny op the Lichens. By F. E. Clements. 

The Necessity por Reporm in the Nomenclature op the Fungi. 
By F. S. Earle. 

Taxonomic Value op the Spermogonium. By J. C. Arthur. 


Proof op the Identity op Pmoua and Phyllosticta on the 
Sugar Beet. By Geo. C. Hedgecock. 

Craterellus taxophilus. a New Species op THELEPHORACSiC. 
By C. Thom. 

The Fungi Cultivated by Texas Ants By A. M. Ferguson. 

Symbiosis in Lolium. By £. M. Freeman. 

Type op the Genus Agrostis. By A. S. Hitchcock. 

The Morphology op Elodea canadensis. By R. B. Wylie. 

Prothallia op Botrychium obliquum. By H. L. Lyon, 

The Lipe History op Ephedra tripurca. By W. J. G. Land. 

The Epfect op Chemical Irritation upon the Respiration op 
Fungi. By Ada Watterson. 

The Dehiscence op Anthers by Apical Pores. By J. A. Harris 

Mitotic Division op the Nuclei in the Cyanophyce^. By 
E. W. Olive. 


Chemical Stimulation of Alg^b. By B. £. Livingston. 

Thb Differentiation of the Strobilus. By P. E. Clements. 

The Histology of Insect Galls. By M T. Cook. 

Morphology of Caryophyllacea.- By M. T. Cook. 

The Phylogeny and Development of the Archegonium of 
Mnium cuspidatum. By G. M. Holferty. 

The Enzyme-secreting Cells in the Seedlings of Zba mais^and 
Phcenix dactylifera. By H. S. Reed. 

Discoid Pith in Woody Plants. By F. W. Foxworthy. 

A Plea for the Preservation of Our Wild Flowers. By C. 
E. Bessey and S. M. Coulter. 




Vice-President and Chairman of the Section, 
M. H. Saville, New York, N. Y. 

Geo. H. Pepper, New York, N. Y. 

Member of Council, 
W J McGee. 

Sectional Committee. 

George A. Dorsey, Vice-President, 1903; Roland B. Dixon, 
Secretary, 1903; M. H. Saville, Vice-President, 1904; 

Geo. H. Pepper, Secretary, 1904. 

W. H. Holmes, i year; F. W. Hodge, 2 years; W J McGbb, 3 
years; Miss Alice C. Fletcher, 4 years; Geo. Grant 

MacCurdy, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
Amos W. Butler. 

Press Secretary. 
C. B. Hulbert. 


[The American Anthropological Association met in affiliation 
with Section H.] 

Presentation op Eoliths prom England and Belgium. Dan- 
ish Museum op ARCHiSOLOGY. By George Grant MacCurdy. 

The Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groups. By David 
I. Bushnbll, Jr. 

The Mounds op the American Bottom op Illinois: Report on 
A Group Hbrbtoporb not mentioned and a New Light 
thrown upon Their Former Use. By H. Kinnbr. 

The Aprican Pygmies. By S. P. Verner. 

The Future op the Indian. By George A. Dorsey. 

The Knipe in Human Development. By W J McGee. 

The Torture Incident op the Cheyenne Sun-dance op 1903, 
By George A. Dorsey. 

The History of an Arickaree War Shield. By George A. 

Presentation op Ceremonial Flint and Facts Relative to 
its Discovery. By H. M. Whelpley. 


TORY. By R. H. Harper. 

The Efficiency op Bone and Antler Arrow Points as shown 
BY Fractured Human Bones prom Staten Island, New 
York. By George H. Pepper. 

Certain Rare West Coast Baskets. By H. Newell Wardlb 

Stone Graves and Cremation Cists in the Vicinity of St. 
Louis. By H. Kinner 

Some Drawings from the Estufa op Jemez, New Mexico. 
By a. B. Reagan. 

A Glossary op the Mohegan-Pequot Language. By J. D 
Prince and Frank G. Speck. 


Social and Economic Science. 


Vice-President and Chairman of the Section. 
Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven, Conn. 

John Franklin Crowell, Washington, D. C. 

Member of Council. 
Marcus Benjamin. 

Sectional Committee. 

Simeon £. Baldwin, Vice-President, 1904; John Franklin 
Crowell, Secretary, 1904; H. T. Nswcomb» Vice-Presi- 
dent, 1903; Frank H. Hitchcock, 
Secretary, 1903. 

E. L. Corthell, I year; Carroll D. Wright, a years; B. £ 
Fernow, 3 years; Frank R. Rutter, 4 years; Wm. R. 

Lazenby, 5 years. 

Member of General Committee. 
Allen R. Foote. 







In the rapid development of modem industry old problems 
are ever assuming new and perplexing phases, but intrinsically 
new ones rarely develop. Each age is quick to imagine that 
its difficulties exceed those which were conquered by its 
predecessors, and to fancy the latter as free from the obstacles 
in overcoming which the courage and genius of its own leaders 
are subjected to their supremest tests. But this is the super- 
ficial view only. Just as the principle upon which the most 
complex mechanism performs its marvelously specialized 
functions is to be found in the crudest labor-saving devices 
of the earliest dawn of culture, so the most primitive in- 
dustrial organization, when subjected to minute scrutiny, 
is sure to present traces of those elements of friction which, 
one after another, in different stages of progress, become the 
particular and absorbing problems of generations to 
which each in turn seems the sole serious impediment to 
the realization of perfect conditions. 

The labor problem is no exception. It is the struggle 
between different factors in production over the relative 
shares of each, and its origin lies deep in fundamental con- 
ditions which have existed as long as men have known the 


wisdom of saving labor by the tise of tools and of conserving 
productive resources by the device of private property. It 
will persist, in one or another of its protean forms, until by 
some unlocked for alchemy man learns to satisfy all human 
wants without reqtiiring from any individual more labor or 
abstinence than he will voluntarily tmdertake. In every 
historic era this tmceasing struggle has left indelible traces 
upon the record of man's progress, and rarely has it yielded 
the place of primary importance in the minds of men to 
anything less compelling than religious zeal. 


How shall the comfort of satisfied economic wants be 
divided between those who contemporaneously endure the 
physical discomforts of toil and those who control the other 
factors in production? This is the everlasting question 
which, in various forms, has been asked and answered, re- 
asked and answered again in unending repetition while 
humanity has struggled from the crudest forms of industrial 
organization, through slavery and serfdom, up' to the wages 
system. It is asked to-day, when the share of the poorest 
who labors with his hands is sufficient to purchase comforts 
which a few centuries ago were beyond the reach of kings, 
and although the agencies which Capital has established seek 
daily in the uttermost limits of the earth and among the most 
distant islands of the sea to bring thence and lay cheaply 
at the feet of Labor every product that can satisfy or please, 
the final answer is not yet. Indeed, in this most fortunate 
land, where sturdy manhood has found nature in her most 
generous mood and industry and genius have won an abtm- 
dant and increasing harvest, there is at this hour of highest 
prosperity a reverberating discontent which seems to some 
to menace much that has been gained. 

The organized demand for a better answer to this persis- 
tent questioning than Labor has ever yet received appeals 
strongly to the sympathies of those who love their fellowmen, 
and, as long as it is kept within reasonable bounds by a due 
sense of the responsibilities of strength and the rights of others, 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 553 

will have the aid and approval of the right-minded. But 
sympathy may go where sanction must be denied, and 
in every step of its perpetual struggle for what it rightly or 
wrongly conceives to be the interests of Labor, and the means 
of attaining a higher standard of comfort and ctdture, the 
demands of organized labor must be subjected to intelligent 
scrutiny, and the probable consequences ^f granting them 
must be calmly and minutely examined. 


Let us enumerate a few of the ftmdamental conditions of 
this struggle over distribution. Capital is the great labor- 
saving contrivance and the mother of all labor-saving devices. 
Withdraw that which exists, and, with the most grinding toil, 
the earth could not be made to support a tithe of its present 
population. Stop its further accumulation, and industrial 
progress would cease tmtil presently it should give place to 
retrogression. Remove the incentive to abstinence, and 
saving and accumulation wotdd stop, while the gradual con- 
sumption of existing capital, not offset by replacement, wotdd 
inaugurate a movement toward barbarism. Reduce the in- 
centive, and the pace of progress will be proportionately 
slackened. But Capital is not only the handmaiden of 
Labor; it is the accumtdated product of labor. Wherever it 
exists, it is conclusive evidence of previous eflfort and absti- 
nence. Labor, alone, can pluck the ripened fruit; it cannot 
increase the product by cultivation, for it cannot subsist 
during the period of growth. Labor can wade in the stream 
and catch a few fish with its naked hands, but it cannot spread 
the net to gather food for a multitude unless Capital provides 
for its immediate necessities while the fabric is being con- 
structed. Labor can carry an armful of coal or a stick of 
lumber, but the locomotive which hauls its train of fifty cars, 
each containing one htmdred thotisand potmds of coal or 
lumber, is Capital. But the instruments of husbandry, the 
net, the locomotive, have no direct or final utility of their 
own. Of themselves, they neither feed, nor clothe, nor house 
the body of man, nor minister to .his higher needs. They 


will not be brought into being, tinless, for the effort expended 
in their creation, their producers are guaranteed a fitting 
recompense. This recompense must be a share in the prod- 
ucts obtained through their agency and the economic name 
for this share is ** interest.'* Interest, including in that term 
compensation for the risk assumed, is all that Capital, as 
such, ever obtaint from production; it is the least which it 
will accept. It is high when the supply of Capital is small 
in proportion to the demand for it, and low when the condition 
is reversed. Profit is not for Capital; it is the wages of the 
usually arduous labor of determining the direction of in- 
dustrial investments or the differential reward of exceptional 
economic foresight or technical skill. Those who reap pro- 
fits are differentiated from those who receive wages by the 
fact that profits are dependent upon success (possibly it is 
better to consider that in the case of failure there are really 
negative profits), while wages constitute a preferred claim, the 
payment of which is usually arranged for in advance. 


Here, then, are the conditions of the problem. Labor 
must have its wages at all times and under all conditions. In 
the long run directing efficiency must have its profits and 
Capital must have its interest. Wages may often absorb 
portions of the shares of the other claimants, but unless 
these are eventually satisfied, the efficiency of industry will 
be impaired and capital will cease to accumtdate, either be- 
cause the owners of wealth prefer to consume it or because 
they hoard it rather than permit its use as capital on tm- 
satisfactory terms. Thus is the limit of wages fixed. The 
efforts of organized workingmen to secure higher wages 
deserve approval so long as they do not threaten industrial 
efficiency through a reduction of interest or profits below the 
minimum limits respectively fixed by marginal capitalists 
and entrepreneurs. Demands that exceed these limits would, 
if granted, produce results which could only react unfavorably 
upon those who made them. The increase and progressive 
diffusion of industrial intelligence tend to reduce the amounts 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 555 

which can be effectively demanded by those whose service to 
society lies in determining the character and organization ot 
productive efforts, and the rapid accumulation of capital 
tends to reduce the general rate of interest. Consequently, 
wage-earners can reasonably anticipate an increasing share 
of the value annually produced, and if, under favorable con- 
ditions, they fail to receive it they may justly demand a 
change in the proportion which they are accorded. 


The instinct which impels workingmen to organize rather 
than to deal separately with their employers is precisely the 
same as that which at other points of economic contact has 
tmiversally led to efforts to mitigate the consequences of com- 
petition by the simple device of combination. The single 
workman, dealing with an employer of many workmen en- 
gaged to render similar service, is at exactly the same sort of 
disadvantage which confronts the small manufacturer who 
has to sell in a market to which a multitude of competing 
producers have access on equal terms. There is nothing 
strange in the fact that the characteristic movement of the 
great industrial revolution which has been in progress since 
the invention of the spinning jenny and the power loom has 
left its impress upon Labor as well as upon Capital. If Labor 
had not organized, it wotdd have been a sadly belated factor 
in the industry of the opening years of the Twentieth century. 
Just as Capital must continue to compete with Capital, so 
Labor will compete with Labor as long as capitalistic pro- 
duction and the wages system endure, but on either side 
folly cotdd go no further than to seek the perpetuation of the 
crude, cut-throat competition which seeks the immediate 
extermination of the rival at whatever cost to the survivor. 
Such competition is crude in its methods: it is destructive in 
its consequences, and it is not, to-day, a means of attaining 
the highest degree of economic efficiency. Both Capital and 
Labor are amply justified in uniting to mitigate this kind of 
competition. It is to be observed, in passing, that the capital- 
istic combination, when fully justifiable, is the means of 

5 $6 SECTION I; 

economies in operation and management which lower the 
cost of production, and in the face of actual or potential com- 
petition are always finally expressed in reduced prices. The 
labor combination has so far almost always lacked this justi- 
fication, and the leaders must systematically seek it or their 
organizations must continue to find their entire economic 
basis in the mitigation of the evils of unrestrained and de- 
structive competition. 

THE employers' SIDE. 

Enlightened employers do npt expect or desire to obtain 
profits by securing the greatest aggregate of labor, measured 
in hours or effort, at the lowest cost. The American manu- 
facturer has seen the greatest productive efficiency coincide 
with the highest wages, and he knows that the countries 
where workmen receive the lowest real wages are unable to 
compete in the markets of the world with those whose labor 
is better paid. He is able to estimate somewhat accurately 
the superiority of intelligent, well-fed, well-clothed, well- 
housed and contented workmen over those who do not enjoy 
similar advantages. He knows that every machine in his 
factory works better in the hands of those whose standard of 
living requires an high degree of comfort. Yet in the economic 
philosophy of American employers there is no place, and there 
should be none, for gratuities. High wages, liberal wages, 
are preferred not from any imptdse of generosity, which would 
be out of place and destructive of its own purposes, but be- 
cause, dollar for dollar, the return from high wages exceeds 
that from low wages. When this is not the case, it means 
that the point of over-payment has been reached. The ex- 
cess of the wages received by the overpaid group, in such an 
instance, over the normal amount, is a burden which must be 
borne by the other industries and the other workmen of the 
same commimity. Each workman must give in labor a fair 
equivalent for what he receives in wages, or some other work- 
man will receive less than he gives. The employer who, for 
the sake of continued peace during a period of high profits 
or for any other reason, aids in establishing such a condition. 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 557 

Strikes a blow at industrial welfare which in the end will fall 
most severely upon the wage earners. It is not claimed that 
the practices of individual employers invariably attain to 
these standards. Narrow selfishness and tmenlightened greed 
sway their proportions of the members of every industry and 
every grade in every industry. Employers have dealt grudg- 
ingly and even cruelly with workmen in far too many instances 
and always to their own injury. Yet the conditions which 
make for fair dealing are so compelling, even if we omit the 
paramount condition created by the force of public sentiment, 
and they are so easily read, that it is not too much to say that, 
in the main, American employers desire to deal fairly, and do 
deal fairly with the men whose names are upon their pay- 


The economic philosophy of general acceptance among the 
members of labor organizations is not so easily grasped. In- 
deed there is reason to believe that, except for a few general- 
izations of the broadest character, there is no economic creed 
to which American trade unionists as a class adhere. Among 
their leaders, there is every shade of belief from the strong 
individualism of John Mitchell to the socialism of Eugene Debs. 
Even in the principles to which the various unions of the 
American Federation of Labor adhere, there is no uniformity, 
for we find organizations, like the United Mine Workers, 
which desire a monopoly of all labor engaged in certain kinds 
of production and move toward it by waging destructive war- 
fare upon existing unions of more modest ambitions, side by 
side with others which admit only the journeymen workers 
of single highly specialized trades. Theoretical agreement is 
probably confined to the propositions that the share of Labor 
in the products of current industry should steadily increase at 
the expense of the share of Capital, and that this can be accom- 
plished by the enforcement of collective bargaining. It is 
less surprising that the first proposition should be pressed by 
some to the extreme of denying the validity of the claim of 
Capital to even the smallest share in the benefits following 


production than it is gratifying that the socialists, whose 
philosophical system rests upon this view, have made so 
little progress in their efforts to turn the labor movement 
into an organized demand for the socialization of all industry. 


Even in the current practices of unionism there is little 
imiformity. At their best, as exemplified in the recent his- 
tory of some of the brotherhoods of railway employees, these 
practices tend to increase the dignity of Labor and to sim- 
plify the relations between employers of large bodies of 
Labor and the workingmen composing the latter. On the 
other hand, there have been instances in every great city 
and in most industries in which organized labor has been 
made the means of denying to American citizens some of the 
most fundamental rights of industrial liberty; of intolerable 
interference with public order, and of oppression, falling with 
equal injustice upon representatives of Capital and of Labor. 
What more significant contrast could there be than that 
offered by American unionism ; one day paying tribute at the 
grave of P. M. Arthur, the conservative leader of a conserva- 
tive organization, and, on another, parading tmder the leader- 
ship of a creature under conviction for using his position in a 
labor union as a means of blackmail and the grotesque figure 
of the man whose infamous name has become a s3monym for 
the unspeakable vileness of the lowest period in the political 
degradation of the chief city of this cotmtry . Yet how short 
the interval between the funeral of the late Grand Chief of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the Labor Day 
parade led by Parks and Devery. 


I do not bring these facts to your recollection without a 
purpose. They are submitted as conclusive evidence of the 
gulf which separates the best organizations from the worst. 
Between these extremes are undoubtedly to be found repre- 
sentatives of nearly every intermediate degree. In fact, 


the same organization will not infrequently appear, within a 
short period, to be gtiided by utterly divergent ethical and 
economic principles. Such a lack of stability is of course un- 
fortunate, but it is attributable to a cause that operates in all 
voluntary associations, and at times even in the State itself; 
absence of interest on the part of those whose influence, if 
exerted at all, would usually fall on the conservative side. 
The conclusion to be drawn from these facts is an important 
one. They establish the principle that every labor organ- 
ization and every demand of a labor organization must be 
treated, and ought to be treated, according to its independent 
merit. It is impossible to generalize far beyond the right of 
workmen to organize, a right which no sane student of in- 
dustrial affairs and no intelligent employer of labor ever 
now disputes. Workmen have the right to organize and to 
do so on such terms and for such lawful purposes as seem good 
to them, but employers have an equal right to refuse to deal 
with organizations whose purposes or methods would lead to a 
loss in efficiency and to reject particular overtures whose ac- 
ceptance would have that effect. Employers who earnestly 
desire to accord to a movement, the persistence of which 
against great opposition and in spite of enormous obstacles 
of internal origin, establishes the economic soundness of its 
central principle, will always strain a point in favor of dealing 
with labor organizations. Indeed no employer ought to de- 
cide to refuse to consider an offer to make a collective bar- 
gain on the part of his employees except on the most con- 
vincing grounds and with the greatest reluctance. To destroy 
one labor organization is but to prepare the way for another, 
and the elimination of one set of labor leaders will never 
be more than the signal for others to enter upon the scene. 
Nor are the new organizations and the new leaders always 
to be preferred to the old. 


The character of a labor organization is to be measured by 
its acts and by the principles to which it adheres. The most 
common tests of character relate to the treatment of non- 


union men, restriction of output and the strike. Before any 
of these, but not detracting from their importance, I should 
put the attitude of the organization toward the fair employer. 
What objection can be raised to the declaration that neither 
a fair workman nor a just organization will enter into an 
agreement which may compel tinfair treatment of a fair 
employer. Yet this principle, so obviously jtist, is openly 
and constantly violated by organized labor. Before the re- 
cent Anthracite Coal Strike Commission, witness after witness 
among those called on behalf of the striking mine employees, 
testified that prior to the great strike of 1902, he had no griev- 
ance against his employer, the Philadelphia and Reading 
Coal and Iron Company. This great company enjoyed an 
tmimpeachable record for fairness to its employees, and among 
them there existed no doubt that shotdd unintentional wrong 
occur it could readily be brought to the attention of its 
mining superintendent and would be promptly and com- 
pletely remedied. The man who holds this position, John 
Vieth, has spent more than half a century in the anthracite 
mines, beginning as a day laborer. He knows the mines and 
the miners as probably no other man has ever known or can 
ever know them: his sympathies are broad; his manner, 
frank; his honesty, rugged; his fidelity to the industry and 
every man in it, impartial and tmbreakable. The Reading 
company reduced the price of powder a full decade before its 
competitors; it established the sliding scale of wages; it 
never owned a company store; it long ago established an 
employees' insurance fund, and it pays its miners on the simple 
per car and per linear yard systems. Yet the organizers, 
who were sent to the anthracite fields from Illinois in the early 
part of 1900, were able to induce the employees of the Reading 
to pledge themselves to an agreement binding them to desert 
their fair and generous employers whenever the miners in 
the Northern and Western anthracite regions shotdd feel 
sufficiently dissatisfied with the wages or conditions in their 
fields to demand a general strike. This is precisely what 
happened in May, 1902. The satisfied employees of the 
Schuylkill region had no desire to strike, but because the men 

H. T. NEWCOMB. 561 

of the Other regions desired to do so, they consented to attack 
the prosperity of the company which had brought prosperity 
to them, and, with no grievance of their own, to strike a 
severe blow against American industrial stability. This ac- 
tion is typical of hundreds of instances in which the most 
generous fairness on the part of individual employers has failed 
to protect them against sharing the penalty of real or fancied 
unfairness on the part of the owners of other establishments 
with which they had no connection. In fact, with few ex- 
ceptions, it is the current practice of American unionism 
to refuse any special protection to the employer who distin- 
guishes himself from his competitors by the liberal treatment 
of his employees while, in a spectacular manner and with 
unbending spirit, visiting the sins of those who displease them 
alike upon the just and the unjust. Such a practice is de- 
structive of the legitimate ends to be gained by organization. 
It places the generous employer at a greater disadvantage 
than that resulting from the ordinary competition of his rivals, 
and utterly destroys the business advantage that ought to go 
with righteous methods. 

The principle which requires the fair treatment of fair em- 
ployers must be established as a part of the creed of unionism 
before the latter can become a gentiine means of industrial and 
social betterment. This would require the revision of some 
very prominent features of the methods now current among 
labor organizations; it would abolish the sympathetic strike 
and also the general strike which, in recent instances that all 
will recall, has frequently paralyzed the industry of entire 
sections. It would leave labor controversies to be settled 
by the parties directly concerned and wotdd pretty effec- 
tually deprive both of the equally fickle support and opposition 
of public sentiment based on mere personal inconvenience 
and annoyance. 


The attitude of many numerically strong labor organizations 
toward those workmen who refuse to join their ranks ap- 
proaches closely to a denial of personal freedom in matters 


concerning which no liberty-loving individual can submit to 
dictation. No organization except Government can, with 
the sanction of the intelligent and far-seeing, be permitted 
to demand allegiance. Yet many labor leaders declare that no 
workman has a moral right to remain aloof from their organ- 
izations, and compare those who dare to do so with those 
guilty of treason in its most repulsive forms. This doctrine 
has its natural consequence, during the stress of great strikes, 
in violence directed at the persons and property of those who 
give practical expression to their independence by retaining 
employment against the wishes of their fellows or by accepting 
positions abandoned by those on strike. It would be absurd 
to expect any other result. Idle men of somewhat limited 
culture, of violent passions and possessing a strong sense of 
the solidarity of their class, with abundant opportunities for 
the development of mob spirit, will always attempt to compel 
obedience to what they regard as the moral law when con- 
vinced that those who violate it are doing so to the positive 
injury of their class. Hence, when John Mitchell and 
other leaders in the great strike of 1902 proclaimed against 
violence, in the abstract, with one breath, and with the next 
compared the men who were at work to Benedict Arnold and 
to the tories of the Revolutionary period, they laid a founda- 
tion upon which it is not strange that other men, whose oppor- 
tunities to acquire self-control had been more limited than 
their own, should erect a superstructure of violent interference 
with the rights of others. 

These leaders did not even verbally condemn the use of 
the boycott for the purpose of enforcing the new command- 
ment : " Without permission of the majority thou shalt not 
work.'* It was invoked to drive the daughters and sisters 
of non-union men from employment as teachers in the public 
schools and in factories, to prevent medical attendance upon 
the sick and to interfere with the interment of the dead. 
Its most common use was to deprive families of the necessaries 
of life and fathers who sought work for the sake of their 
little ones were sometimes compelled to see them suffer from 
hunger because no one dared to sell them food. From this 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 563 

expedient to dynamite how short the step. No one need be 
surprised that it was repeatedly taken. 


It stills remains to be seen whether those who have been 
most prominent in inculcating this new doctrine of the de- 
pravity of refusing to join an organization and especially of 
insisting on the right to work on terms which are unsatis- 
factory to others will learn wisdom from the Anthracite Coal 
Strike Commission and the President of the United States. 
To appreciate the contrast between their teachings and those 
of the great, extra-legal labor commission and the Pres- 
ident who created it, it is necessary to compare certain ex- 
pressions of Mr. Gompers and Mr. Mitchell with the later 
official utterances of the Commission and the Presidient. 
Mr. Gompers is the author of the following: 

■" ... the individual workman who attempts to make 
a bargain with the directors, or the representatives of such a 
directorate, simply places himself in the position of a help- 
less, rudderless craft on a tempestuous ocean. If he did but 
himself a wrong we might pity him and concede not only his 
legal but his moral right. But the workman who toils for 
wages and expects to end his days in the wage-earning class, 
as conditions seem to point, it will be a necessity, his bounden 
duty to himself, to his family, to his fellowmen and to those 
who are to come after him to join in the union.'* 

Mr. Mitchell's expression is, perhaps, still more forcible. 
He said of the non-union man who works during a strike 
that : 

**He is looked upon, and I think justly, in the same light 
that Benedict Arnold was looked upon, or any traitor. He 
is a man that fails to stand for the movement that the people 
stand for, and, after all, the majority of the workers in any 
particidar community reflect the public sentiment of that 
community. It is the movement of the people of that com- 


mimity, and if a man wants to desert his fellow workers and 
wants to prevent them from accomplishing good ends, then 
he is justly looked upon with disfavor by those who are rights 
because his working does not affect himself alone. If it only 
affected himself, it wotdd be a different proposition, but the 
fact that he works helps to defeat the objects of the men who- 
go on strike." 

And then, answering the inquiry whether the *' lives of the 
wives and children" of the men he had thus condemned 
ought **to be made unendurable," Mr. Mitchell declared: 

**I think those wives and children had better ask their 

Both of the foregoing declarations constituted part of the 
record before the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission when 
it unanimously adopted a report containing the following: 

**The non-union man- assumes the whole responsibility 
which restdts from his being such, but his right and privilege 
of being a non-union man are sanctioned in law and morals. 
The rights and privileges of non-union men are as sacred 
to them as the rights and privileges of unionists. The con- 
tention that a majority of the employees in an industry, by 
voluntarily associating themselves in a union, acquire author- 
ity over those who do not so associate themselves is un- 
tenable. ... It should be remembered that the trade 
union ... is subordinate to the laws of the land and 
cannot make rules or regulations in contradiction thereof. 
Yet it at times seeks to set itself up as a separate and distinct 
governing agency, to control those who have refused to join 
its ranks and to consent to its government, and to deny to 
them the personal liberties which are guaranteed to every 
citizen by the Constitution and laws of the land." 

Finally, exercising the authority volxmtarily accorded to 
it under the terms of the submission, the Commission estab- 
lished the wise and salutary rule: 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 565 

"That no person shall be refused employment, or in any- 
way discriminated against, on accotmt Of membership or 
iion*membership in any labor organization; and that there 
shall be no discrimination against or interference with any 
employee who is not a member of any labor organization by 
members of such organizations." 

It is very highly to the credit of organized labor that 
-among the seven members of the tribtmal which, without a 
'dissenting voice, enunciated this ftmdamental principle of 
fairness toward all labor sat the distinguished chief of the 
Brotherhood of Railway Conductors, probably the ablest of 
the living labor leaders of America, Edgar E. Clark. The 
last paragraph quoted has received especial Presidential 
approval, having been quoted in full in President Roosevelt's 
letter of July 13 last to the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor, in which it is followed by these words: 

•*I heartily approved of this award and judgment of the 
Commission appointed by me, which itself included a member 
of a labor tmion. This Commission was dealing with labor 
organizations working for private employers. It is, of course, 
mere elementary decency to require that all the Government 
-departments shall be handled in accordance with the prin* 
-dple thus clearly and fearlessly enunciated.** 

Thus in decreeing that every productive establishment of 
the Federal Government should be an ** open shop,*' in which 
there shotdd be no discrimination among American citizens 
on accotmt of race or creed or membership or non-membership 
in any legitimate organization, the President in the plainest 
terms gave the weight of his endorsement to the sotmd doc- 
trine that the discrimination thus forbidden in the workshops 
of the Government ought not, anywhere, to be permitted. The 
freedom of American workmen cotdd not survive the general 
abandoimient of the **open shop." It is infringed whenever 
there is any discrimination such as can no longer exist in the 
Oovemment shops. Workmen who have faith in their own 


abilities, who treasure the liberties won for them by their 
predecessors here, who realize the spirit and the beauty of 
the Golden Rule, will not seek to debar others from the right 
to work on account of a disagreement as to the propriety 
of the terms and conditions on which work can be obtained. 
The **tmion label" is one of the milder measures for com- 
pelling men to join organizations against whose principles 
or practices they wish to protest by remainiiig aloof from 
them. He who refuses to purchase goods not having this 
label is attacking the independence of some fellow-citizen. 
The employer who weakly assents to its use becomes a par- 
ticipant in a conspiracy against those workmen who dissent 
from the principles or methods of those who control the 
organizations in their fields. It is not pleasant to condemn 
a device which does afford some guarantee that the goods 
to which it is attached are not produced under oppressive con- 
ditions, but while giving partial protection against this danger 
the ** union label'* threatens one of the most fundamental 
and sacred rights of every individual. Divest it of its pro- 
scription of the non-union man and its power for good will 
win for it deserved welcome from all right-thinking men. 


There would be little utility in discussing the restriction of 
individual output in its theoretical aspects. That the practice 
is unsound in economics is recognized by all students and even 
by those leaders of labor organizations who are unable to 
deny that it is followed, more or less extensively, by the mem- 
bers of their organizations. This general condemnation of the 
practice makes it extremely difficult to determine its extent, 
but no one doubts that in one way or another it is a character- 
istic of most unions. It cannot, however, be said to have 
originated with them. Whenever two men work side by side, 
for an employer, there is a decided tendency to limit the labor 
of both by the capacity of the less skillful and energetic. 
As the number of workmen increase the tendency in this direc- 
tion is inevitably strengthened, and while there may be 
some increase, through example and emulation, in the labor 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 567 

of those who would do the least if working alone, the net 
result is always expressed in an average that is much nearer 
the capacity of the least capable than that of the most efficient. 
All this will happen in any establishment without the aid of a 
labor union. What, then, is the consequence, in this connec- 
tion, of organization? Usually its first effect is that the re- 
striction which was formerly tacit and somewhat irregularly 
enforced is reduced to a set of definite regulations that are 
systematically enforced. It may not become greater in 
amount, although it is not unlikely that it will. There is 
some evidence, however, that the improved economic percep- 
tion on the part of labor leaders is causing the older organ- 
izations to abandon their efforts in this direction. Yet the 
recent growth of the unions in numbers and power, and the 
reluctance of employers to resist their aggression in this 
particular, during a period of such tremendous general pros- 
perity that nearly every productive establishment was taxed 
to its utmost capacity, have undoubtedly led to an extension 
of the practice of restriction which must be checked. The 
unit of production per employee per hour has suffered a very 
considerable decrease in almost all American industries during 
the last six or seven years, and this diminution of effective- 
ness has placed a more severe burden upon industry than the 
enhanced wages by which it has been accompanied. The 
record of the United Mine Workers in the Anthracite region 
is probably an extreme one, but it can be more advantage- 
ously studied than any other on account of the elaborate 
investigation prosecuted last year. The testimony taken by 
the Strike Commission contained instances of probably every 
conceivable method by which the output of a body of work- 
men can be kept down to the level fixed by the least able 
and industrious. Those who dared to rebel against rules 
restricting their earnings were subjected to the ill-will and 
the systematic oppression of their less intelligent and ener- 
getic comrades, until they either became less efficient or 
were driven from the mines. It is necessary to be patient 
with folly that springs from ignorance, but there is Httle excuse 
for leaders who, knowing the truth, do not use all their tre- 


mendous influence to spread an intelligent understanding of 
the simple economic principles which would at once destroy 
this most vicious of self-limiting practices. 


That recourse to the strike should ever be necessary is 
wholly deplorable, but the condition of men whom the laws 
deprived of the use of this industrial weapon of last 
resort would be indeed pitiable. Freemen must have the 
right to work and the right not to work, and they may not be 
impelled to choose the former by any command more impera- 
tive than that springing from their own desire to enjoy the 
fruits of exertion. The whole fabric of industry and com- 
merce rests on bargains toward which there is no compulsion 
stronger than this. Between the buyer and seller of com- 
modities there are successive offers and counter-offers until 
a point acceptable to both, but less satisfactory to either than 
his original demand, has become the point of contract. The 
corporation and the- **4:rust'* do away with a great deal of 
dickering between individuals, and in a precisely similar 
way the labor organization attempts to substitute a single 
collective bargain for a multitude of individual bargains. 
If, however, the corporation and the trust are tmreasonable 
in their demands, every one now knows that the potential com- 
petition of smaller concerns, which always exists, is speedily 
actualized and the productive organizations, that have 
shown their commercial incompetence to bargain reasonably 
with buyers, are destroyed. So it should be with labor organiza- 
tions. Those organizations which are reasonable in their demands 
will usually establish their right to survive by remaining at peace 
with the employers; those whose frequent strikes and re- 
peated complaints of the alleged tyranny of employers prove 
their inability to bargain are usually inefficient in their efforts 
to promote the interests of their members and ought to pass 
out of existence. Yet the decision as to the terms which they 
will accept must always be left with the workmen, organized 
or unorganized. The right to strike ought to be used rarely 
and reluctantly; its use should always throw the burden of 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 569 

JTistif3dng its course at the bar of public sentiment jointly upon 
the employed and the employer; it can never be necessary- 
except by reason of the grievous f atilt of one party or the other ; 
yet it may be necessary and the greatest protection against 
its becoming so, save that which lies in the development 
and spread of a broad and intelligent spirit of humanity, lies 
in its exceedingly careful preservation. Generally speaking, 
however, the union which strikes on small provocation and 
frequently is to be classed among those which are undesirable, 
and the credit of any labor organization ought to be in inverse 
proportion to the frequency of its resort to this extreme 
method of enforcing its demands. 

As somewhat justifying the assumption that every strike 
is evidence of lack of capacity somewhere, and perhaps 
indicating where the blame more frequently resides, I wotild 
call your attention to the very large number of strikes which 
always attend the transition from a period of great industrial 
prosperity to one of relative depression. The interpretation 
of this phenomenon is very simple. From almost the be- 
ginning of a period of prosperity the leaders of organized 
workmen perceive that their position is one of growing 
strength. The demand for products is a demand for labor, 
and as the'one is expressed in rising prices the other is natu- 
rally translated into rising wages. Organizations formulate 
their demands, make them, and they are granted. New 
demands and new concessions follow in an alternation which 
becomes more rapid as prosperity appears more intense, the 
willingness of employers to grant even seemingly extravagant 
demands as to wages or conditions being based on a con- 
fidence in the continuance of heavy demand and high prices 
which often amotmts almost to intoxication. While this 
process has been going on the effect of high wages and reduced 
efficiency is being transferred to the consumers, always with 
some addition to make up for the exactions of those in charge 
of production. Naturally, this cannot continue forever. 
Sooner or later there is a consimiers' ** strike." That is, high 
prices tdtimately reduce the effective demand, orders come 
less freely, the bubble is about to burst. Employers rather 

57<^ SECTION I. 

promptly perceive the situation more or less clearly; labor 
too frequently does not. More wages or less work, or both, 
are again demanded, and, as this time the employers see 
that the cost of acquiescence cannot be shifted or realize that 
a curtailment of production must soon occur, the demands 
are refused. The strike which, if the workmen are ill-advised, 
follows, marks the turning point from prosperity to depres- 

The other typical strike is a protest against a reduction 
in wages when the decline in commercial activity is in progress , 
or before the change to perceptibly better conditions has arrived. 
Such strikes are less frequent but much more likely to be 
creditable to the judgment of the strikers. Employers 
rarely refuse reasonable demands while industry is prosperotis 
and the labor market empty or nearly so; some of them do 
attempt oppressive reductions in wages or unjust modifica- 
tions in conditions when the times are dull and the labor 
market glutted with the unemployed. This is not to say that 
radical reductions in wages may not be necessary; they are 
very apt to be after such a period of unprecedented activity 
in every line of industry as that which is but just closed or 
closing, but it should be recognized that when due allowance 
for the changed conditions has been made everywhere there 
may be some employers who will endeavor to take advantage 
of the situation and to deal unjustly with their workmen. 
May the number of such employers be few and the resistance 
of their employees wise, fearless and effective. 


The character of any labor organization is further to be 
tested by its principles and practices in reference to labor- 
saving machinery, profit sharing, pensions, insurance funds^ 
home ownership by its members, admission of applicants for 
membership, apprentices, the boycott, the manner in which 
it conducts itself toward other unions, and its rules and gen- 
eral policy. The verdict of intelligence concerning most of 
these matters is so clear that discussion would hardly be 
warranted. A wise policy will prevent any labor union from 

H. T. NEWCOMB. 57l 

discouraging the introduction of improved machinery, from 
refusing to accept or opposing fairly formulated efforts of 
employers to obtain greater loyalty from employees, from 
counselling against the ownership of homes, from upholding 
the boycott, from preventing the industrial education of in- 
telligent youth, and from permitting controversies with other 
unions to interrupt work or occasion inconvenience to blame- 
less employers. That particular organizations have grievously 
erred in these matters is perhaps much better known than 
that some have stood steadfastly for sound principles. 

These defects in the current beliefs and practices of some 
prominent labor organizations have been pointed out in no 
spirit of intolerance. The evils are widespread and serious; 
they must be plainly pointed out and bravely overcome; 
but they are not necessary accompaniments of such organi- 
zations. In fact, as to most of them the history of several 
highly successful unions can be cited to show that among 
organizations composed of the most intelligent workmen 
they are likely to be eliminated. It is even more true that 
the much less pardonable practices which involve black- 
mailing employers and combinations with unscrupulous 
representatives of Capital to rob consumers and destroy 
competitors are merely temporary consequences of an early 
recognition of strength which is not restrained by a sobering 
consciousness of responsibility or by ability to perceive the 
consequences of such injustice. 


The conclusion is that while the labor problem must always 
persist, the organization of labor will continue and will in- 
crease its power to be of service, not only to workmen but 
also to society. The principle of organization will not only 
survive the defeat and destruction of those organizations 
which obstinately adhere to vicious principles and practices, 
but the genuine progress of the labor movement will be sub- 
stantially advanced every time such deserved defeat is ad- 



While this progress is being made toward the attainment of 
better things and substantial restilts are awaited, the public 
properly searches for a means of preventing or mitigating 
the annoyances and losses that spring from the interruption of 
production caused by labor conflicts. Until employers and 
employees learn such sweet reasonableness in bargaining to- 
gether as to avoid strikes how shall their number and their 
evil consequences be reduced? Obviously the demand is for 
a temporary remedy for a dilBficulty which ought ultimately 
to disappear. With this fact kept carefully in view it is safe 
to consider the remedy of arbitration. This has actually but 
one form. To be arbitration at all it must be wholly volun- 
tary. The term comptilsory arbitration is self-contradictory, 
and however it may be disguised it really means the creation 
of a new type of court endowed with authority to make con- 
tracts relating to labor services. Arbitration — voltmtary 
arbitration — ^is a term so grateful to the ear to which it comes 
as a substitute for the clash of bitter industrial struggles 
that it seems ungracious not to commend it without qualifica- 
tion. If men cannot agree what can be better than to sub- 
mit their differences to the settlement of a disinterested and 
impartial third party? // men cannot agree. This qualifica- 
tion begs the entire question. Reasonable men can agree 
and unreasonable men must become reasonable or be re- 
placed, in industrial affairs, by those who are. One way in 
which unreasonable men arrange for their own replacement 
is by getting themselves into situations out of which they 
cannot be extricated except through the assistance of others. 
The adjustments of industry are too delicate to endure, with- 
out injury to all concerned, the frequent interference of the 
disinterested. A strong personal interest is the element which 
is most effective in preventing irreparable mistakes. Arbi- 
tration may be the smaller of two evils, but no one should 
fail to recognize it as an evil. Aside from the fact that it 
leaves the determination of matters of primary industrial 
importance to persons who will neither gain nor lose by the 

H. T. NBWCOMB. 573 

success or failure of the industry, it is evil in its consequences^ 
because, when there is reason to rely upon its being arranged 
for, that fact constitutes an incentive to making, and insisting 
upon, unreasonable demands. The easy-going policy which 
consents to the submission of questions vitally concerning 
the welfare of an enterprise to persons who have no stake 
in its success naturally leads to the easy-going method on the 
part of arbitrators which is expressed by "splitting the 
difference" between the conflicting demands of both of the 
contending, parties. This is the almost uniform result of 
arbitration. If you will turn to the decision and award of 
the recent Anthracite Coal Strike Commission you will find 
that that ablest and most impartial of arbitration boards was 
not able to avoid this nearly inevitable result. In its pages 
you will read the contradiction of every substantial aver- 
ment of the striking mine workers. You will find that the 
wages of the employees of the anthracite operators did not, in 
April, 1902, compare unfavorably with those of bituminous 
miners or men in other employments of similar character. 
You will find that the conditions of life and the standard of 
living in the anthracite counties of Pennsylvania was not 
lower than in comparable regions. You will find that the 
basis of payment was not unfair to the workmen. You will 
find the United Mine Workers described as a body too 
strongly influenced by bituminous coal interests to be a safe 
factor in the anthracite industry. You will find that boys 
voted in its meetings and gave a reckless tone to its manage- 
ment. You will find that the period of the great strike 
was one of lawlessness and violence, which the leaders of the 
organization could not or, at any rate, did not, effectively 
check. So much the gentlemen of the Commission gathered 
from unimpeached and unimpeachable testimony, and so much 
they clearly, concisely and fearlessly set down in the per~ 
manent record of their arduous and graciously accepted task. 
But after bravely announcing these facts in terms quite 
equivalent to declaring that the strike had no justification, 
the Commission yielded, as any other arbitrators would have 
yielded and as nearly all arbitrators will yield in future con- 

5,74 SECTION I. 

troversies, to the impulse, commendable in itself, to deal 
generously with those who have relatively little and awarded 
a general advance in wages. 


The term compulsory arbitration in the literal sense of 
the words is a verb