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AMFTTA R. .„, 

HOOLS IN H» -^r* 

o: o :k. o x<r T o - 





C!oman Conquest to t&c J^rcsent Cime. 










Not to the young scliolar only, but to the student of 
maturer age, to the tradesman, statesman, and soldier, is 
the perusal of our English history a most interesting and 
important branch of education. The poorest as well as 
the richest, the lowliest as well as the loftiest, may learn 
from its pages such a lesson of patience, courage, and 
honest endeavour as will make their task of life easier to 
support under adversity, and teach them better to employ 
the advantages which Providence may have entrusted to 
their hands for the benefit of their fellow-creatures. The 
History of England is the history of progressive refine- 
ment. It records such advances in science, such triumphs 
in literature, such an onward tide of gathering wealth, 
conquest, and wisdom, as nowhere enriches the annals of 
an European monarchy. The virtues of a king like Alfred 
— the dauntless patriotism of a Hampden — the mai-tyr- 
fame of our Protestant reformers under Queen Mary and 
Charles the First, cannot fail to rouse the pride and the 
ambition of all who are acquainted with those ennobling 
passages of our national chronicles — cannot fail, let us 
hope, to make of them better citizens and sincerer Chris- 
tians. In pursuance of this aid, we cannot too early 
begin to instil a knowledge of English history into the 
minds of the young, or too liberally dijffuse narratives 
adapted to the various stages of mental development 


among the schools and classes which now, happily, ahomid 
throughout tho length and breadth of the land. The 
present Summary is a volume of little pretension ; but 
earnest pui-pose. It proposes, when placed before the 
child, to serve as brief introduction to more advanced and 
lengthy works ; and, when laid on the table of the class- 
room, or occupying a modest place on the shelves of the 
public and private library, to act as a concise and truthful 
handbook of those dates, facts, and biographies which, 
taken in the aggregate, constitute our English history. 

Xot, then, in antagonism to any previous effort in the 
same direction — not in depreciation of abler or more 
extensive productions, whether old or new — but in the 
hearty and willing hope that we are rendering some aid 
to the great cause of education, sowing some seeds of 
nobleness and worthy ambition, these pages are put forth 
for the use of all to whom they may be of service. 

London, May^ 1856. 



I. — England before the Conquest 9 

,, under the EoMANS, from B.C. 55 TO 

A.D. 449 9 

„ under the Saxons, a.d. 449to a.d. 827 11 


1013 13 

,, UNDER THE DaNES, A.D. 1013 TO 1041 . 18 

,, UNDER THE SaXONS, A.D. 1041 TO 1056 19 

II. — The Norman Monarchs 22 

III. — The House of Plantagenet 26 

IV. — The Houses op Lancaster and York ... 31 

V. — The House of Tudor 41 

VI. — The House of Stuart 52 

VII. — The House of Stuart (continued) .... 61 

VIII. — United Houses of Stuart and Nassau , , , 66 

IX. — The House of Brunswick 69 

X. — The House of Brunswick (continued) ... 82 

Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2009 witli funding from 

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I. — In the ancient times, when Rome was a republic and 
Jesus Christ yet unborn, this beautiful England was a 
desolate waste of marshland and forest, inhabited by a 
savage people, who fought with clubs and tin swords, 
clothed themselves in skins, and stained their bodies with 
the juices of a plant called woad. These barbarians went 
by the name of Britons, and they believed in a horrible 
idolatry that sanctioned battles, and revenge, and human 

II. — Huts rudely constructed of wicker and mud, and 
erected in little clusters here and there over the country, 
were called towns. These towns were generally situated 
upon small clearings in tracts of woody land, and were 
surrounded by a trench, which served for defeace in time 
of war. One such hamlet, built upon the shores of a 
great river, and protected on the north by an impenetrable 
forest abounding in every species of game, was called 
Llyn-Din, or the " town on the lake," and is now that 
largest and wealthiest capital in the world known by the 
name of London. 


III. — Eager for conquest, and tempted by the rich 
pearls and tin mines for which the island was famous, but 
pretending only to punish the poor savages for having 


helped the Gauls, with whom he was at war, Julius Caesar 
came over from Italy with his ships and soldiers, plundered 
and killed in every direction round about Sandwich, and 
made the first conquest of Britain. This happened just 
fifty-five years before Christ. Scarcely a hundred more 
had gone by when the Emperor Claudius came with fifty 
thousand men, and subdued it over again (a.d. 43). It was 
during the reign of this emperor that Caractacus, a patriot 
Briton, made the first effort to free his country from the 
Eoman yoke. After nine years conflict he was taken pri- 
soner ; but was afterwards released by the clemency of 

IV. — Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero (a.d. 61), 
landed on the Isle of Anglesea, and destroyed the sacred 
groves and altars of Druidical superstition, which, in addi- 
tion to the cruel treatment offered to Boadicea, Queen 
of the Iceni, once more roused the Britons to rebellion. 
They won a splendid victory over their powerful masters, 
and slew 70,000 of them ; but in the course of the same 
year were again defeated with great loss. 

V. — For Julius Agricola (a very good and clever general) 
was reserved the establishment of the Eoman power in 
Britain. He took possession of the country for the third 
time (a.d. 78), founded the arts of peace, and made the 
people happy and civilized. He also delivered them from 
the fierce incursions of the Picts and Scots, and helped 
them to erect a great wall of separation across the island 
between the Tyne and Solway, known in history as the 
Wall of Severus, because Severus, some hundreds of years 
afterwards, assisted to repair it. 

This rampart, however, proved ineffectual against the 
savage inroads of the Xorthern tribes, and a second was 
constructed between the Friths of Clyde and Forth 
(A.D. 138). 

YI.— On the death of St. Lucius (a.d. 179), the first 
Chiistian king of Britain — indeed, the fii'st in the world — 


he bequeathed this island to the Emperors of Eome, whose 
property it was vii'tually all the time ; for, under their 
rule, the native sovereigns were but governors, or lieute- 
nants. The Eomans remained masters of England for 
nearly four centuries, at the end of which period, having 
lost much of their own power and dignity, they were com- 
pelled to withdraw their forces to defend themselves 
against the Goths (a.d. 410). No sooner were they gone 
than the marauding Scots poured in upon the defenceless 
Britons, who, not knowing what better to do in their 
distress, applied for assistance to the Saxons, a people 
of North Germany. 

UHDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 449 TO A.D. 827. 

YII. — The Saxons accordingly came across the channel 
between six and seven thousand strong, under the com- 
mand of two brother chieftains named Hengist and 
Horsa (a.d. 449). They speedily routed the Scots ; but 
rewarded themselves for their trouble by taking possession 
of the country they came to deliver. They were followed 
by other German tribes ; the Saxon tongue became the 
national language; and the native Britons fled to Wales, 
Cornwall, and the coast of France. 

YIII.— After the death of Hengist (a.d. 488), the 
Saxons poured in upon Britain faster than ever, and it 
was in opposing these tribes that the famous Arthur, king 
of Britain, won his great renown. He succeeded in secur. 
ing to his people forty years of peace ; but valour alone 
was of no avail. The natives, in time, were all over- 
powered or expelled, and the land was divided into 
seven small kingdoms, each governed by a Saxon tyrant. 
This period is known as the period of the Saxon Hept- 
archy. The follawing was the order of distribution : — 

IX. — The kingdom of Cantia, or Kent, comprised the 
fertile county of Kent, and was founded by Hengist 
(a.d. 457). 


The kingdom of Soutli Saxony comprised the comities 
of Sussex and Smrrey, and was founded by Ella (a.d. 490). 

The kingdom of West Saxony, or Wessex, comprised the 
counties of Hampshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, 
Somersetshire, and Devonshire, and was founded by Cerdic 
(A.D. 519). 

The kingdom of East Saxony comprised the counties of 
Essex, Middlesex, and a part of Hertfordshire, and was 
founded by Ercenwin (a.d. 527). 

The kingdom of Northumbria comprised the counties 
of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham, 
Yorkshire, Lancaster, and a portion of Scotland. It was 
founded by Ida (a.d. 547). 

The kingdom of Bast Anglia comprised the counties of 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, and was founded by Uffa 
(a.d. 575). 

The kingdom of Mercia comprised all the midland 
counties, namely: — Cheshire, Stafford, Derby, Warwick, 
Worcester, Shropshire, Hereford, Gloucester, Oxford^ 
Buckingham, Bedford, Huntingdon, Northampton, Rut- 
land, Leicester, Nottingham, Lincoln, and a part of Hert- 
fordshire. It was founded by Cridda (a.d. 582). 

X. — As it may readily be supposed, these seven kings 
of Britain did not at all times reign in perfect friendship 
with each other, but, on the contrary, distracted the 
country with perpetual quarrellings and warfare. Despite 
even these drawbacks, the nation, however, began to ex- 
perience the blessings of industry. Property received the 
protection of the law, and no part of our island was with- 
out an acknowledged ruler. The people were still idolators 
and heathens, worshipping the false gods of ancient Eome. 
In the year 596, a good monk, named Augustine, came 
over from Italy with forty of his brethren, and converted 
the two powerful kings of Kent and Northumberland 
(a.d. 599). A great church was then built at Canterbury 
(a.d. 604) } Sebert, king of Essex, became a proselyte ; 


the Temple of Apollo at Westminster was pulled down, 
and a church, dedicated to St. Peter, was erected where 
the Abbey is now standing; the Temple of Diana was 
destroyed, and the original cathedral of St. Paul raised on 
its site ; and the University of Cambridge was founded in 
the year 644. Soon after this, the whole of Britain em- 
braced Christianity, and the seven kingdoms were united 
into one by the conquests of Egbert of Wessex, receiving 
the collective name of England, which it has ever since 
retained. Winchester was at this time considered to be 
the capital of the country. 


began to keign a.d. 800. dred 836. 
XL — Scarcely had peace and unity been established 
in the kingdom, when a horde of savage warriors, called 
Danes, who dwelt upon the shores of the Baltic Sea, 
fended on our coasts, but were routed on the coast of 
Devon, and forced to fly back to their ships for safety- 
only to return again about once in every year. After a 
prosperous reign, troubled only by these invaders, Egbert 
died (a.d. 836), and was buried at Winchester. 

* Ethelwolp. 


XII. — Egbert was succeeded by Ethelwolf, his eldest 
son. This king undertook a pilgrimage to Pome, and 
married a daughter of king Charles the Bald of France. 
He first granted tithes to the clergy, and instituted an 
annual tribute to the pope, called Peter's Pence. The 
Danes now made themselves the terror of England, and 
though frequently repulsed, continued to plunder the 
country, and occasionally to carry off the inhabitants for 
slaves. In the year 851 they sailed up the Thames with 
S50 ships ; bui-nt the cities of London iind Canterbury, 


and established themselves permanently upon the Isle of 
Tlianet. Ethelwolf died (a.d. 857), and was buried at 
Steyning, in Sussex. 

began to keign a-d. 857. died 860. 



XIII. — The reign of Ethelbald was brief, unim- 
portant, and vicious. He was succeeded by his brother 
Ethelbeet, who reigned only sis years, during which 
time the Danes exacted tribute from the English, laid 
waste the whole county of Kent, and pillaged the city 
of Winchester. Ethelbert died a.d. 866. 



XIY. — Ethelbert was followed by Etheleed, a brave 
soldier, whose reign was one long scene of valiant warfare 
with the Danes. It is said that in one year he fought no 
less than nine pitched battles with the enemies of his 
country. In all these he was assisted by his young brother, 
Prince Alfred, afterwards illustrious as Kmg Alfred the 
Great. Prince Alfred was the first earl created in Eng- 
land. In this reign the invaders penetrated into Mercia 
and took up their winter quarters at Nottingham, whither 
the king instantly marched to dislodge them. A great 
battle ensued, in which Ethelred was killed, leaving to 
Alfred the inheritance of a kingdom which had declined 
into an almost hopeless condition of weakness and distress. 

Alfeed the Geeat. 
*^ began to reign a.d. 872. died 901. / 
XV. — Alfeed the Geeat was just twenty-two years 
of age when he ascended the throne of England, and for 
the first eight years of his reign was engaged in an uninter- 
rupted and disastrous wai'fai-e with the Dunes. They, ia 



fact, at one time made themselves entire masters of the 
kingdom, so that Alfred was obliged to assume many 
humble disguises, and hide himself in the woods, and in the 
cottages of his peasant subjects. In Somersetshire, how- 
ever, he found friends and assistance, built a strong fort, 
assembled an army, and once more took the field against 
the Danes. Assuming the disguise of a wandering harper, 
he then penetrated to the enemy's camp, judged of the 
most favourable manner of attack, brought his soldiers 
unexpectedly upon them, and achieved a brilliant victory. 
Many years of peace ensued, during which this brave and 
good king applied himself to the improvement of his 
country and the happiness of his people. ^ 

XVI. — Alfred now framed a code of Jaws, some of which f^ 
exist to the present day — divided England into counties 
and hundreds — established the first regular militia — en- 
couraged the arts and sciences, and instructed the English 
in the art of navigation and ship-building. He was the 
fij-st of our monarchs who made England a naval power ; 
and to state that he was the most accomplished man of 
his day, that he was the hero of fifty-six battles, that he 
established the system of trial by jury, and founded the 
University of Oxford, is but to relate a portion of his/ 
glory. After twelve years of peace the Danes again in^ r* 
vaded our coasts. They came under the command of 
Hastings, their sea-king, with a fleet of three hundred 
and thirty-one ships, and landed on the coast of Kent, 
making Appledore their head-quarters. A protracted 
struggle ensued, at the conclusion of which they were 
again defeated. The wife and family of Hastings were 
taken captives ; but Alfred, with his general moderation, 
restored them to the Danish chief, on condition that he 
and all his followers should leave the country. To these 
terms they readily acceded; but some few lingered till 
the year 897. Alfred ^jed a.d. 901, at Farringdon, in 
Berkshire. He was buiied at Winchester, and has lelt 


behind him the most honourable reputation for learning, 
courage, wisdom, and generosity, of any English sovereign. 

Edwaed the Eldee. 
began to reign a.d. 901. deed 925. 

XYII. — Edwaed the Eldee, second son to King 
Alfred the Great, succeeded to the crown. His reign was 
troubled by the pretensions of his cousin Ethelwald, who 
disputed Edward's claim, and fell at last on the field ot 
battle. Towards the end of this king's reign he invaded 
Wales, and added to the endowments of the Cambridge 
University. He died (a.d. 925), leaving a numerous 


began to reign a.d. 925. DIED 941. 

XVIII. — King Athelstan had not been many years 
established on his father's throne when a great league 
was formed against him by the Danes, Scots, and other 
nations. They were, however, completely defeated, and 
six of the kings, his enemies, were slain (a.d. 938). 
This monarch caused the Bible to be translated into the 
Saxon tongue, and presented a copy to every chureh 
throughout the kingdom. He also gave encouragement 
to commerce by decreeing that every merchant who had 
taken three vo3'age8 should be entitled to the rank of a 
thane, or nobleman. Athelstan died at Gloucester (A.D. 
941), and was buried at Malmesbury, Wilts. 

Edmund I. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 941. DIED 947. Nt"'^" 

XIX.— Athelstan was followed by his brother EdmukS; 
a youth of eighteen years of age, whose first act was to 
subdue the Danes gathered together under the command 
of Anlass. He was stabbed by a wicked robber named 
Leolf (a.d. 947), and was succeeded by his brother Edred, 
fc slxtli son to Edward the Elder. 

undee the anglo-saxons. 17 



XX.— This king rebuilt Glastonbury Abbey, and was 
entirely ruled by the abbot, named Dunstan. Dunstan 
was, in fact, the virtual king of England. Edward died 
(a-D. 955), and was buried at Winchester. 

began to keign a.d. 955. died 959. 
XXI. — The profligate and careless Edwy received the 
crown of his uncle, and offended the prejudices of his 
clergy by marrying the Princess Elgiva, a lady of great 
beauty, but of near relationship to himself. Dunstan, 
who had hitherto been absolute in the kingdom, succeeded 
in uniting the priesthood against this marriage. Edwy 
was compelled to divorce his wife, and she was murdered 
with barbarous cruelty by her enemies. Edwy died of 
grief (a.d. 959), being threatened by sedition in all parts 
of his dominions, and overborne by the influence and 
hatred of Dunstan the Abbot. 

began to reign a.d. 959. died 975. 
XXII. — Edgae, surnamed the Peaceable, next ascended 
the throne. He was elected, and consequently governed, 
by the monks; built many monasteries; increased the 
navy to three hundred and sixty ships, and exterminated 
the wolf from the mountains and forest-lands of Wales. 
This king was so arrogant of his conquests, that he caused 
his barge to be rowed by eight princes along the river 
Dee. He died after a reign of sixteen years, a.d. 975. 

Edward II. 


XXIII. — This unfortunate young monarch, whoso reign 
had promised to be happy and judicious, was stabbed (a.d. 
978), by order of his step-mother, while drinkiixg a cup of 


wine at the gate of Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire. He was 
succeeded by his half-brother, Ethehed, after a brief king- 
ship of little more than three years. 

^Ethelsed II. 
*^ X BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 978. DIED 1016./^ 

XX T V. — In this reign the Danes once more flocked to 
our coasts, and Ethelred was weak enough to buy them 
off with a money-tribute called Lauegelt, which was 
levied by a tax of one shilling on every hide of land 
throughout the country, and is the first land-tax upon 
record in our history. Soon this, even, ceased to satisfy 
them, and the king formed a cowardly plan to massacre 
all the Danes in the kingdom, instead of meeting them in 
fair battle. This disgraceful slaughter took place on the 
18th of November, a.d. 1002, and was revenged by a 
great invasion of the enemy. They sailed from Denmai'k 
under the command of Sweyn, their king, who, after a 
protracted struggle of ten years, put Ethelred to flight, 
and ascended the English throne (a.d. 1013). . 

Uia)EK THE DANES. A.D. 1013 TO 1041. 

Sweyn ... Began to reign 1013 ... Died 1014. 
Canute... „ „ 1014 ... „ 1036. 

XXV. — SwETN reigned ia England for the short space 
of one year, and was succeeded by Canute, his son, who 
divided the kingdom with Edmxmd Ironside, a Saxon 
monarch, from whom is traced the descent of King 
George IV. Before Edmund had reigned for one year 
over his portion, he was murdered at Oxford, and Canute, 
who was at that time the most powerful monarch in 
Europe, became sole king. Having conquered, not only 
this country, but the countries of Korway and Sweden, he 
called himself king of England, Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden. He banished the children of Etheli-ed. but mar- 



ried Emma, their mother, and died (a.d. 1036) at Shaftes- 

began to reign a.d. 1036. died 1039. 

XXVI.— Haeold, surnamed Harefoot, from the swift- 
ness with which he ran, was the son of Canute by his fii'st 
wife. He reigned only three years, and died at Oxford, 
A.D. 1039. 


BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1039. DIED 1041. 

XXVII. — Harold was succeeded by his weak and 
wicked half-brother, Haedi Canute. He died from in- 
temperance after a short reign of two years (a.d. 1041), ^ 
aiid was the last representative of the Danish line. N 

UNDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 1041 TO 1066. ^:^ 

f:* Edwaed the Confessoe. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1041. DIED 1066. 

XXVIII. — A Saxon, known as Edwaed the Con- 
fessoe, was next chosen. This monarch was famous for 
his piety, and married Editha, daughter to Earl Godwin. 
Having been, unfortunately, educated abroad, in the 
coui-t of Normandy, Edward the Confessor retained but 
little ajBection for the customs, or even for the natives of 
his own country. He evinced a marked preference through- 
out his reign for all French laws and habits, and by this 
line of conduct gave considerable cause for jealousy to his 
people. He repealed the tax called Danegelty and was 
the first king who touched for that disease known as the 
king's evil. Daring this reign William Duke of Nor- 
mandy came over to visit England, and Edward, it is 
said, then promised to him the reversion of the English 
crown. Edward the Confessor rebuilt Westminster Abbey, 
and at his death, on January the 5th, 1066, was canonized 
as a Saint by the Roman Catholic Church. 



Haeold II. 


XXIX. — Haeold, son of Earl Godwin, was then elected 
king by the Council of the States, but was destined to find 
a powerful opponent in Duke WiUiam of Normandy. 
This warlike and ambitious prince of France had the bold- 
ness to claim the crown for his own head ; and gathering 
around his standard all the recruits he could muster, all 
the beggarly nobles, freebooters, and adventurers of Europe, 
landed, with sixty thousand men, upon the coast of Sus- 
sex, and defeated the English in a great battle (Oct. 14, 
1066), rendered still more disastrous by the death of 
Harold, and famous to us all as the battle of Hastings. 

Thus ended the Saxon period, which had subsisted with 
various fortune in England for upwards of six hundred 


I. What was the ancient con- 
dition of Britain? By whom 
was it inhabited? "What was 
the reliprion of the Britons? 

II. What was the state of 
the country at this early period ? 
Kelate the origin of London. 

III. "What was Britain famous 
for? Who was the first con- 
queror? When did Julius Ca;sar 
land ? Who was the second 
conqueror, and when did he 
arrive ? Who was Caractacus ? 

IV. What injuries roused the 
Britons to a second rebellion? 
What was the result of this 
rebellion ? 

V. Who established the 
Eoman power in Britain? 
What good service did Agricola 
do the Britains, and what great 
work of defence did he build for 
tliem? Where and when was 
me second wall constructed ? 

VI. Who was the first Chris- 
tian king in the world? To 

whom did he bequeath the 
kingdom? For how long did 
the Romans remain masters of 
England ? Why did they with- 
draw their forces ? What caused 
the Britons to apply to the 

VII. When did the Saxons 
come over, and who were their 
leaders ? How did the Saxons 
reward themselves for beating 
the Scots ? What became of the 
native Britons? 

VIII. Who was King Arthur, 
and for what is he famous ? 
What term of peace did he 
secure for his people? Into 
how many kingdoms was Eng- 
land afterwards divided? By 
whatnameisthis period known 
in history? 

IX. Relate the order of dis- 
tribution among the seven 
Saxon kings. 

X. Did the kings reign in 
peace together? What was the 



state of the country at this 
time ? Who was Augustine, 
and what did he eflfect in Eng- 
land? "What churches were 
built, and what temples pulled 
down? When was the Cam- 
bridge University founded ? 
When were the people con- 
verted to Christianity, and by 
whom ? Who united the seven 
kingdoms into one? By what 
name was it then called ? 

XI. What was the conduct 
of the Danes at this time ? 
Vtruen did Egbert die? 

ill. By whom was Egbert 
succeeded? Eelate the chief 
acts of Ethelwolf. Relate the 
events of 851. When did 
Ethelwolf die ? 

XIII. Of what character was 
the reign of Ethelbald, and by 
whom was he succeeded ? Re- 
late the encroachments of the 
Danes. When did Ethelbert 
die, and by whom was he suc- 
ceeded ? 

XIV. What was the charac- 
ter of Ethelred? How many 
battles did he fight in one 
year? What was the manner 
of Ethelred's death ? 

XV. At what age did Alfred 
the Great begin his reign, and 
in what year? Relate the 
events of the first eight years of 
his reign. 

XVI. How did Alfred em- 
ploy the years of peace that 
followed? Of how many bat- 
tles was he the hero? What 
system of trial did he intro- 
duce, and what great abode of 
learning did he found? Who 
was Hastings, and in wliatway 
did Alfred treat the captive 
family? When did he die, and 
what reputation has he left ? 

XVII. Who was the succes- 
sor of Alfred? Relate the 
events of Edward's reign. 

XVIII. What great league 
was formed against Athelstan, 
and how did it terminate? 
What great work did he cause 
to be translated? When did 
Athelstan die .* 

XIX. By whom was Athel- 
stan succeeded, and what was 
the first act of the new king? 
When did Edmund die, and by 
•whose hand? 

XX. By whom was Edmund 
I. succeeded ? What abbey was 
rebuilt by Edred, and by whom 
was the king ruled ? When did 
he die ? 

XXI. What was the charac- 
ter of Edwy, and in what way 
did he offend the clergy? Whai 
became of Elgiva, and when 
did the king die ? 

XXII. By what class of men 
was Edgar the Peaceable go- 
verned? Relate his principal 
deeds. When did he die ? 

XXIII. By whom was Edgar 
succeeded, and how was he 
murdered ? 

XXIV. What king next as- 
cended the throne ? What was 
the Danegelt? When did the 
cowardly massacre of the Danes 
take place? How was it re- 
venged ? 

XXV. For how long did 
Sweyn reign in England, and 
by whom was he succeeded ? 
Who was Edmund Ironside, 
and what was his fate? Name 
the titles of Canute. Whom 
did he marry, and when did he 

XXVI. Who was Harold I. ? 
How long did he reign, and 
when did he die? 

XXVII. By whom was Harold 
succeeded? From what causa 
and in what year did Hardi- 
canute die? 

XXVIII. Ofwhat nation wag 
Edward the Conlessor? To 


whom did he promise the cro'mi 
of England? When did he die, 
and what honours did he receive 
after death ? 

XXIX. Whose son was Ha- 
rold? "NYho disputed Harold's 

right to the crown ? Of whom 
did William's army consist? 
AVhen was the battle of Hast- 
ings fought ? For how long ha<i 
the Saxons ruled in England? 



Began to reign. Died. 
WltriAMl. A.D. 1066... 10S7 
WiloamH. „ 1087 ...1100 
Henry I. „ 1100 ... 1135 

Begai to reign. Died. 
Stephen > 

(House of Blois)> ^^"^^ "• ^^^* 

"William I. 


I. — William I., son of Duke Eobert, of Normandy, 
and known as the Conqueror, was as politic as he was 
ambitious. Being wisely determined not to in-itate those 
whom he had conquered, he forbore to seize upon the 
crown as upon mere booty, but went through the form of 
asking the sanction of the English themselves ; a sanction 
which was not long withheld by the clergy and nobility, 
and for which he testified his gratitude by entering into a 
solemn engagement to protect the rights and liberties of 
his new subjects. These oaths are still taken by every 
English monarch on the day of coronation- 

II. — At first he governed impartially enough ; but, 
somehow, became greatly changed after the lapse of a few 
years, and did such deeds as left him the reputation of 9 
ruthless tyrant. He seized and gave away to his Norman 
followers the rich estates of Saxon landholders; carried 
fire and sword, as if through an enemy's country, into the 
villages and fields of the New Forest, merely to c^ear it 
for his boar and deer hunting ; instituted the cmfew-bell, 
by which people were compelled to extinguish their lights 
and fires at a certain hour; and even strove to make 


Frencli the language of the country. Hence arose the 
mixed character of our vocabulary, which, to this day, 
consists as much of Norman as of Saxon words. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror died a.d. 1087. 

William II. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1087. DIED 1100. 

III. — William Eurus, so named from the red colour 
of his hair, and second son of the Conqueror, succeeded his 
father. He invaded Normandy, the dukedom of his elder 
brother Robert, and behaved well to his English subjects, 
whose afifictions he was anxious to secure. During his 
reign commenced those extraordinary wars carried on by 
all the chivalry of Europe against the Saracen possessors of 
Jerusalem, and known far and wide as the Ceusades. The 
first crusade went out in the year 1095, and with it, 
amongst other sovereign princes, Kobert, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, who mortgaged his rich provinces to William 
Eufus for the sum of ten thousand marks, in order that he 
might have sufficient money for the enterprise. Eufus was 
or the point of starting for France to take possession of 
tlese new lands, when he was accidentally shot by Sir 
Walter Tyrrel (a.d. 1100) while hunting the deer in the 
2^ew Forest. This monarch erected Westminster Hall for 
his banqueting chamber. It was then the largest room iu 
Europe ; but was afterwards pulled down and rebuilt by 
Eichard II. In the year 1100, four thousand acres of 
land which had been the property of Earl Godwin, father 
to Harold II., and were by him bequeathed to the monks 
of Canterbury, were suddenly overflowed by the sea. The 
site where they once extended lies opposite the city of 
Deal, and is known to sailors as one of the most dangerous 
upon our coast-line. They are called the Goodwin Sands, 

Heney I. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1100. DIED 1135. 

IV.— Heney, youngest brother to William Rufus, 


now hastened up to Winchester ; secured the royaJ 
treasure; married Matilda, a descendant of the ancient 
Saxon line ; removed the unpopular restrictions of the 
curfew; and had succeeded in obtaining the throne and 
the favour of the people, before Duke Robert (the rightful 
heir) could come over to dispute the succession. He then 
made war upon Eobert; invaded Normandy; possessed 
himself of that entire duchy ; took the duke prisoner, and 
confined him in Cardiff Castle for the remainder of his 
life — a period of eight-and-twenty years. 

V. — King Henry I. had one son, who, with a hundred 
and forty young men of the noblest families in England, 
was drowned off the coast of Harfleur (a.d. 112'3) on his 
return from Normandy, where he had been receiving the 
homage of the French barons. The death of tHs prince 
was a great blow to the king, who is said never to have 
smiled afterwards. During this reign a body of military 
monks called the Knights Templars established them- 
selves in England — the first English park was laid out at 
Woodstock — rents were made payable in money, having 
previously been payable in cattle, com, &c. — the coinage 
was corrected — a standard fixed for the regulation d 
weights and measures ; and the length of the English 
yard taken from the measurement of the king's arm. 
Woollen stuffs were also introduced at this time from the 
Low Countries, and a colony of Flemings settled down at 
Worsted, near Norwich, for manufacturing purposes. 
Henry I. died (a.d. 1135) in the sixty-seventh year of 
his age, leaving one daughter, named Matilda, wife to 
the Emperor of Germany. It is said that King Henry 
died from eating too largely of a dish of lampreys. 

Stephen (Earl of Blois). 

BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1135. DIED 1154. 

VI. — Stephen, Earl of Blois, grandson to William the 
Conqueror, and nephew to King Henry, hastened over 


from Normandy, and was received as king by the lower 
orders of the people, although Matilda, by right of birth, 
should have reigned in England. He had more difficulty 
with the clergy — but gained even their votes at last* 
seized the royal treasure ; and, to obtain favour with th^ 
populace, restored the laws made by Edward the Confessor. 

VII. — Matilda did not long delay her claim, and, shortly 
after these events, landed with a brave little retinue of 
one hundred and forty knights ; took Arundel Castle ; 
gathered together a considerable number of recruits; 
gained a battle over Stephen (a.d. 1140), and was crowned 
queen of England at Winchester Cathedral. She was not 
liked, however, by either the people or the nobility. 
Stephen was again recognised as king, and Matilda 
deposed. She contrived to escape, and brought up her son, 
named Henry, as a future rival to the usurper. 

YIII. — When Prince Henry had reached his sixteenth 
year, he showed such corn-age and talent, that he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood (a.d. 1135), and under- 
took an invasion of England. Stephen was by this time 
worn out with the struggles of many years, and, to 
prevent farther bloodshed and misery, agreed that the 
youth should be associated with him in the government, 
and succeed to the crown upon his decease. A great 
fire devastated London during this reign (a.d. 1136) and 
all the city from Aldgate to St. Paul's was laid in ruins. 
Sugar was first introduced about this period, and the 
Tower first coustituted a royal residence. Stephen was a 
iust and moderate monarch, and, at his death, in the year 
1154, the kingdom passed quietly into the hands of the 
House of Plantagenet. 


I. What proceedings were way is that ceremony perpetu- 

taken by "William to obtain the ated ? 

crown? In what way did ho II. What alteration took 

testify his gratitude ? In what place in the character of Wil- 



liara L? "VMiat wrongs did he 
Inflict upon the English? 
Whence arose the mixed cha- 
racter of our language ? 

III. In what year did "Wil- 
liam the Conqueror die, and by 
whom was he succeeded ? What 
invasion was undertaken by 
William Rufus? How did he 
behave to his English subjects ? 
What extraordinary wars were 
begun during this reign ? When 
did the first Crusade go out? 
In what manner did the king 
become possessed of Normandy, 
and at what price ? "What wag 
the manner of his death ? When 
did he die ? Wliat great room 
was erected by William Rufus, 
and for what purpose was it 
built? Relate the circumstances 
connected with the overflowing 
of the Goodwin Sands. 

IV. Who succeeded Rufus? 
What steps did Henry take to 
Becure the crown? Who was 
the rightful heir? What was 
the result of the war between 
Henry and Robert ? For how 
long was the Duke of Xormandy 
imprisoned ? 

V. What dreadful accident 
occurred to King Henry's only 
6on? How old was the king 

when he died? What family 
did he leave to lament his loss ? 
What is alleged as the cause of 
King Henry's death? Who were 
the Knights Templars? Relate 
the improvements effected dur- 
ing this reign. When did Henry 

VI. "Who was Stephen, and 
in what way did he oppose the 
claims of Matilda ? By whom 
was he most favourably re- 
ceived? What steps did he 
take to secure the favour of the 
populace ? 

VII. With what forces did 
Matilda land, and what success 
had she? In what year was 
she crowned ? Did she long 
continue to reign ? With what 
object did she educate her son? 

VIII. What was the cha- 
racter of Prince Henry? When 
did he undertake to invade 
England? Into what agreement 
did the king enter? What great 
calamity befcl the city of Lon- 
don during this reign ? Whaf 
useful condiment was first intro- 
duced, and to what purpose was 
the Tower at this time devoted? 
When did Stephen die, and 
what ensued ? 



Began to reign. Died. 

Began to reign. 


Henry II. a.d. 1154 ... 1189 

Edward I. a.d. 1272 . 


Richard L „ 11S9... 1199 

Edward II. „ 1307. 


John „ 1199... 1216 

Edward III. „ 1327 . 

.. 1377 

HxNRYin. „ 1216... 1272 

RicuARon. „ 1377. 


Heney II. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1154. DIED 1189. 

I.— Heney II., eldest son of Geoffry Plantagenet and 
Matilda, daughter to King Henry I., was the most powerful 


monarch of his time. He subdued Ireland and Wales, and 
ruled over a larger portion of French territory than the king 
of France himself. During his reign, the arrogance and 
ambition of the clergy exceeded all bounds. They 
raised immense sums by taxes and the sale of pardons, 
and England began at last to get impoverished by the de- 
mands of Eome. This the king resolved manfully to 
oppose. In order to do so the more effectually, he 
elevated Thomas a Becket, his chancellor, to the priest- 
hood, and even made him Archbishop of Canterbury, 
thinking by these means to secure a valuable rival to 
the pope of Rome : but herein he was greatly mistaken. 
A Becket was a man of inferior birth and brilliant talents, 
who loved power and splendour better than anything iu 
the world, and no sooner was he invested with these new 
dignities than he went over to the side of the clergy, 
supported them in all their measures, and offered a more 
determined resistance to King Henry's will than any one 
had yet done. 

II. — A great dissension ensued, during which the king 
and the archbishop mutually defied each other. A Becket 
excommunicated several of the bishops ; threatened 
even to excommunicate the king ; fled over to the con- 
tinent, and, being at length pardoned, was permitted to 
return to his diocese, after years of negotiation. Here he 
again behaved with such open insolence, that Henry, 
being then in Normandy, was one day tempted to utter a 
rash wish for his death, whereupon four knights crossed 
over to England for the purpose, and murdered the de- 
fenceless old man (a.d. II70) before the altar of Can- 
terbury Cathedral. 

III. — King Henry was greatly shocked, and even did 
public penance at the tomb of A Becket j but from this 
time his life became very unhappy. Frequent wars dis- 
turbed the kingdom, and, being appealed to by one of the 
native Irish princes for assistance against a neighbouring 


chieftain, Henry invaded and snbdued Ireland (a.d 1172) ; 
annexed that country to the English crown ; and governed 
there by means of a viceroy — thus acting over again the 
part taken by the Saxons when first summoned over to our 
shores by the native Britons. Henry also conquered in 
Wales, and obtained the first ascendency over Scotland. 
During this reign London Bridge was rebuilt in stone- 
England was divided into six legal circuits (a.d. 1176) — 
charters were granted to many towns ; and the windows 
of private dwelling-houses were made of glass. Henry's 
sons were rebellious, and the eldest died ; so that on the 
decease of the king, in the year 1189, he was succeeded 
by his second son, Richard, known in history and romance 
as Richard the Lion-hearted. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1189. DIED 1199. 

IV.— King Richardl., third son of Kiug Henry II,, wa3 
a very brave soldier, and spent his whole reign in warfare 
on the continent and in crusades to the Holy Land. He can 
scarcely be called an English king at all, for we find that 
he could not speak one word of Saxon, and, although he 
was our sovereign for ten years, passed only eight months 
in England. Returning from the east, he fell into the 
power of Leopold, Duke of Austria, by whom he was 
detained in prison till ransomed by his faithful subjects. 
Richard fell while besieging the castle of Chains, near 
Limoges, in France, and was succeeded in 1199 by his 
brother John. 


BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1199. DIED 1216. 

V. — John, fourth sou of King Henry II., was one of the 
worst and meanest kings that ever reigned in this country. 
His name has come down to us as a type of baseness, 
cowardice, and treachery. Outraged by his oppressions, 
and emboldened by his weaknesses, the barons compelled 


this monarch to sign that signal ratification of English 
liberties and rights which is famous in our annals as the 
" Magna Charta," or Great Charter. This event took place 
in 1215, at Kunnymede, near Windsor. The Cinque Ports 
during this reign were endowed with additional privileges— 
the first standing army was levied in England, and the es- 
tabhshment of an annual election for the Lord Mayor and 
Sherifis of the City of London instituted. King John was 
deprived of his French provinces, in consequence of the 
cruelty with which he treated the children of his elder 
brother Geofiiy. Prince Arthur, his young nephew and 
heir to the crown, was murdered by his command at the 
Castle of Rouen, a.d. 1202 ; and Arthur's sister, the Prin- 
cess Eleanor, called the Damsel of Brittany, was imprisoned 
in Bristol Castle, where she died, a.d. 1241. King John 
reigned for seventeen years, and died universally detested. 

Heney III. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1216. DIED 1272. 

VI.— King Heney III., eldest son of John, was but 
eight years of age when he received the crown, and for 
many years the kingdom was governed by his guardians. 
He was of a weak and irresolute character, and tried to 
abolish Magna Charta. All London, and the chief land- 
holders and inhabitants of the county towns, rose in defence 
of their liberties, and the king, with his son, was defeated 
and imprisoned, and forced once more to confirm the safety 
of his people. The assembling of the nobles and burgesses 
of England, at this juncture (a.d. 1258), is considered 
to be the first outline of the Commons Pailiament. Coal 
began to be used for firing in this reign, a licence was 
granted to the people of Newcastle, for the working of their 
mines. Gold coinage, also, was introduced, and the art 
of distillation derived from the Moors. After a feeble 
reign of fifty-six years, King Henry III. died in the year 
1272, and was succeeded by Edward, his eldest son. 


Edwaed I. 

BEGAN TO EEIGN AD. 1272. DIED 1307. 

VII. — ^Edtvaed I., eldest son of Henry III., was a clear- 
headed, resolute, and military monarch, and grasped the 
sceptre with a hand of iron* He added further privileges 
to Magna Charta, granted the freedoms of the Cinque 
Ports, a eated his son fii\st Prince of Wales, and, in honour 
of the useful laws which he enacted, obtained the name of 
the English Justinian. Gunpowder was invented during 
the reign of this king by the celebrated Roger Bacon ; 
paper was brought from the East by the Crusaders ; wine 
was sold as a cordial by the apothecaries ; and the mariner's 
compass was invented by one Gioja of Naples. Westminster 
Abbey, which had been in the course of erection for sixty 
years, was at this time completed, and great advances were 
made in literature, social science, and general civilizatioii. 
Edward I. died, a.d. 1307. 

Edwabd II. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1307. DIED 1327. 

Vm. — Edwaed II., son of Edward I., ascended the 
throne in 1307. Of a character and disposition the very 
reverse of his father's, the young king lost the confidence 
and respect of his people, sufiered his nobles to gain undue 
power, and was wholly governed by foreign favourites. 
In the year 1314, war was declared with Scotland ; and 
on June 2oth, the famous battle of Bannockbum took 
place, in which Eobert Bruce, with only 30,000 Scots, 
signally defeated the Eoyal army, consisting of 100,000 
men. King Edward narrowly escaped with life ; 50,000 
English were killed or taken prisoners, and the name of 
the northern hero was crowned with undying glory. In 
1322, a rebellion, headed by the Earl of Lancaster, was 
crushed at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire, and that noble- 
man was punished with death. Not long after this event, 
the powerful barons coalesced against the favomitcc, and 


the weak monarch whom they governed. They executed 
first Piers Gaveston, the Gascon, and then Hugh de 
Spenser and his son, all of whom had richly deserved the 
accumulated hatred and scorn of both nobles and people. 
Edward then withdrew into Wales, pursued by the Earl of 
Leicester. Even his wife, a princess of France, took up 
arms against him, and conducted the rebellion of the 
barons. This pusillanimous king was compelled at length 
to abdicate the throne and yield himself prisoner, when 
he was confined in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and 
horribly put to death, a.d. 1327. During the reign of 
Edward II., the House of Commons first began to annex 
petitions to their bills — the society of Knights Templars 
was suppressed — earthenware was brought into use for 
household purposes — the University of Dublin was founded 
— and the interest of money rose to the usurious rate of 
45 per cent. 

Edwaed III. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1327. DIED 1377. 

IX. — King Edwaed III., eldest son of King Edward II., 
succeeded his unhappy father in the year 1327. A more 
powerful monarch England never acknowledged. He sub- 
dued Scotland, invaded France, and, without any reason 
save ambition and the love of fighting, claimed the crown 
of that country for himself. It was upon this occasion 
that the famous battle of Cresiky was fought (a.d. 1346), 
when Edward's son, known in history as the Black Prince, 
won immortal fame by his intrepidity and coolness — a fame 
which he more than doubled some few years after at 
the great battle of Poictiers, a.d. 1356. During this reign 
London contained at one time two captive kings, John of 
France and David of Scotland. The latter remained pri- 
soner in England for eleven years ; and the former, failing 
in his endeavour to raise the sum stipulated for his ransom, 
surrendered himself to a life of honourable captivity at the 


court of his conqueror, aud died at the old palace of the 
Savoy, in the Strand, which at that time was studded with 
parks and country-seats, and formed no part of the city of 

During this reign, a fearftd pestilence, known as tho 
Black Death, raged throughout Europe, and is estimated 
lo have cost more life than all the wai's of King Edward 
III. Windsor Castle now fell into disuse as a fortress 
and was reserved exclusively for the residence of royalty — 
the art of painting in oils was invented by Van Eyck — 
cloth-weaving was introduced from Flanders — and the 
Lords and Commons for the first time occupied separate 
chambers at Westminster. In 1376 the Black Prince 
died, leaving one child to the care of the old king, who 
followed his valiant son to the grave before a year was 

BEGAN TO KEIGN 1377. DrED 1399. 

X. — RiCHAED II., son of the Black Prince and 
last representative of the house of Plantagenet, was only 
eleven years of age when the kingdom oi' England de- 
volved to him by right of birth (a.d. 1377). The conquests 
aud expeditions of his father and grandfather had added to 
the glory but diminished the wealth of the nation ; and 
during the long minority which unavoidably followed his 
accession, the nobles, as usual, were rebellious, and the 
people discontented. A heavy tax being unjustly levied 
all over the kingdom (a.d. 1381), the lower orders rose in 
open rebellion, headed by Wat Tyler, a blacksmith. This 
rebellion was suppressed by the young king, at that time 
only sixteen years of age, who immediately granted to them 
the concessions which they demanded. These, however, he 
afterwards revoked, and proved himself to be a more fickle 
and feeble sovereign than even Edward II. 
In the year 1398, the Duke of Gloucester, upon suspi- 


cion of treason, was imprisoned at Calais, and there mui-^ 
dered ; whicli act of oppression gave great offence to th& 
parliament and people. This being the case, he found 
none to defend or pity him when his banished cousm, 
Henry of Lancaster, retm^ned suddenly from exile, assem- 
bled an army of sixty thousand men, seized upon the 
supreme authority, and, after compelling Richard to sign 
his abdication, confined that unfortunate sovereign in Pon- 
tefract Castle, Yorkshire, and there had him basely mur- 
dered; thus terminating the lordly and brilliant line of 
Plantagenet kings. 

Richard II. built the present Westminster Hall, and 
lived more royally than any of his predecessors. His 
household consisted of no less than ten thousand persons, 
and in matters of fashion he set the most luxurious and 
costly example. Our great old English poet, Geoffrey 
Chaucer, flourished during this reign — William of Wyke- 
ham, distinguished for his learning and piety, and famous 
as the founder of Winchester School, and New College, 
Oxford, lived and died — and John Wycliffe, the herald of 
our great Reformation, expired, a.d. 1385, in his rectory 
at Lutterworth, Leicester. 


I. Name the possessions of ments effected during this reign. 
Henry II. Of what errors were "What were his domestic sor- 
the clergy guilty during this rows ? Wlien did he die, and 
reign? Who was Thomas a by whom was he succeeded? 
Becket, and to what rank was IV. "What was the charactei 
he elevated? ofRichar.lL? Washeathorougb 

II. Relate the circumstances Englishman ? What disaster 
of the quarrel between the king befel him in Austria ? By 
and the archbishop. "What was whom was he succeeded, and 
the manner of his death ? In in what year ? 

what year was he murdered? V. Describe the character and 

III. "What testimony of grief disposition of John. What was 
did Henry show for A Beckefs the great event of this reign ? 
death ? In what year, and uu- In what year was Magna Charta 
der what circumstances, did the signed ? How did John lose bfs 
king subdue Ireland? Name French provinces? For how 
the other conquests of Henry II. lojig did Jolin reign ? 

Belate the remarkable improve- VI. By whom was King John 



succeeded, and in what year? 
"\Vhat was the age of Henry 
III. when he received the 
crown? In what way did he 
iiifringe the liberties of the 
people? How did they show 
their resentment? In what 
year did the nobles and bur- 
gesses meet ? "What great body 
jiolitic was outlined at this time? 
How long did Henry reign, and 
by whom was lie succeeded ? 

VII. What privileges did Ed- 
ward I. grant to his people? 
"Who was the first Prince of 
"Wales ? "What name did King 
Edward obrain ? What re- 
markable inventions took place 
during his reign ? 

YIII. "When did Edward II. 
ascend the throne ? What was 
the character of this king ? In 
what way was he opposed 
by his wife? What was his 

IX. "Wlio succeeded Edward 
II., and in what year ? "What 

were the warlike enterprises of 

Edward III.? What famous 
battles were fought in this 
reign, when did they take place, 
and who was the hero of both ? 
Wliat two kings were at one 
time captives in London? Where 
did John of France die ? Kelate 
tlie chief events of this reign, 
"tt'hen did the Black Prince die, 
and how soon after did the king 
his father follow him to the 
grave ? 

X. How old was Richard II. 
when he ascended the throne ? 
What was the str.te of the king- 
dom, and why did the people 
rebel ? Who suppressed the 
rebellion ? What sort of a mon- 
arch was Ptichard II.? What 
was the fate of the Duke of 
Gloucester? Who deposed the 
king? Where was he imprisoned, 
and in what way did he die ? 
In what year did these events 
happen? What great meu 
flourished during this reign? 



Began to reign. Died. 
Hknrt IV. A.D. 1399 ... 1413 
Henry V. „ 1413... 1422 
Henry VI. „ 1422 ... ? 

Began to reign. Died. 
Edward IV. a.d. 1461 ... 1483 
Edward V. „ 1483 ... 14S3 
Richard IIL „ 1483 ... 1485 

Heney IV. 

BEGAN TO REIGN 1399. DIED 1413. 

I. — Heney IV. was the grandson of Edward III. and 
cousin of Richard II. He had no legal right to the English 
crown. He was an usurper, and the career of an usurper 
is not frequently happy. That of Henry IV. was pecu- 
liarly wretched — embittered by the desertion of his friends 
— troubled by the animosities of his barons — disturbed 
by conspiracies, and endangered by open rebellions of the 


Scots and the Welsh. He was also grieved by the excesses 
of the Prince of Wales, who, though brave and generous- 
hearted enough, gave himself up to eveiy kind of dissipa- 
tion and self-indulgence, and was even sent, on one occa- 
sion, to prison by Judge Gascoigne, for contempt of court 
Henry IV. attached himself zealously to the established 
religion, and, having constituted himself the champion of 
the chui'ch, became also the persecutor of WyclifFe's ad- 
herents. The Rev. Sir William Sautre, Rector of St. 
Oswyth, London, fell a victim to the king's mistaken 
bigotry (a.d. 1401), and was the first person burnt hi 
England for his religious opinions. The order of the Bath 
was instituted during this reign, and cannon were first 
used here at the siege of Berwick (a.d. 1405). In the 
J' ear 1407 thirty thousand persons died of the plague, and 
in the course of the same year, James, son of Robert III., 
King of Scotland, was seized off Flamborough Head, whilst 
on his way to France, and notwithstanding that there was 
peace between the Scots and English at that time, was 
detained prisoner in this country, and not released till the 
sum of £40,000 was paid over for his ransom, in the year 
1423. Henry IV. died at Westminster m 1413, after a 
reign of fourteen years, and a turbulent life of forty-six. 

Henby V. 

BEGAN TO REIGI* A.D. 1413. DIED 1422. 

II.— King Heney V., eldest son of King Henry IV., 
had no sooner succeeded to the throne than, much to the 
surprise of all the nation, he reformed his life, and showed 
himself a temperate, just, and wise sovereign. The great 
event of his reign was the conquest of France, when he 
won the celebrated battles of Harfleur and Agincourt (a.d. 
1415), and was recognised heir to Charles VI. He then 
married the Princess Catherine of France — the nobles 
swore obedience to him — and it was concluded by treaty 
that upon the death of Charles the two kingdoms were to 


"be united in the Englisli crown. In the month of May, 
1422, Henry, with his queen and his infant son, visited 
France, entered Paris in all the pomp of a royal progress, and 
dazzled the splendour-loving Parisians with the wealth, 
power, and triumph of their future sovereigns. Henry V. 
carried on that persecution of the Wycliffites which hia 
father began, and treated them with inexcusable severity. 
Lord Cobham was burned in St. Giles's Fields for his lean- 
ing towards the Protestant faith, and was the first among 
our English nobility who suffered the extreme penalty of 
the law for his religious opinions. Linen shirts and imder- 
clothing were at this time esteemed great luxuries, and a 
flock bed, with a chaff bolster, was a refinement of comfort 
known only to the wealthiest. From the reign of Henry Y. 
may also be dated the custom of lighting our London 
Btreets at night, since it was at his command that every 
citizen was compelled to hang a lantern on his door during 
the winter months. From the same period may also be 
dated the first establishment of a permanent naval force ; 
and one ship, built at Bayonne expressly for the king, was 
esteemed quite a marvel of size and strength, because it 
measured one hundred and eighty-six feet in length. Just 
at the most brilliant epoch in his career, died Henry V., 
in 1422, at the early age of thirty-four. 

Hexey VI. 


III. — Heney VI., son to the late king, was scarcely 
one year old at the death of his father, whereupon the 
Duke of Bedford, one of the most accomplished mea 
of that age, was made protector during the regal minority. 
In this reign the splendid territory of France was lost 
to us through the inability of the English generals 
and the want of an English king. A village-girl 
from a remote part of Champagne fancied herself 
divinely inspired, placed herself at the kead of the 


French army, and, by dint of undaunted courage and 
patriotism, won victory after victory, and crowned the 
French king at the city of Rheims, a.d. 1429. Being 
taken prisoner after this by the English, she is said, by 
most historians, to have been bm-nt at the stake. In 
history she is known as Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans. 

IV. — Thus by degrees the French wrested back their 
acres from the English, and in a few years Calais alone 
remained a dependency of the State. In the midst of 
these losses, the troubles of a disputed succession again 
threatened the safety of the young and feeble sovereign 
(a.d. 1450), and the house of York, represented by 
Duke Eichard, fomented insurrections among the people. 
At length, after many vicissitudes, during which Henry 
was sometimes a king and sometimes a prisoner, the 
Duke of York was slain at the battle of Wakefield Green, 
A.D. 1460, and all once more bore the promise of peace. 

V. — In the midst of this delusive lull, the great Earl 
of Warwick (called the " King-maker ") took up the 
cause of young Edward, son to the late Duke of York ; 
imprisoned Henry in the Tower of London ; and 
fixed Edward upon the throne, under the title of King 
Edward IV. Still, the civil wars continued unabated. 
The Yorkists bore a white rose for their emblem, and 
the Lancastrians fought under the ensign of a red one. 
Hence these contests are generally styled the " Wars 
of the Roses." The date of Henry's death is uncertain ; 
but it is said that the king's brother, Richard of 
Gloucester, murdered him in his chamber at the Tower. 

In this reign the right of voting at elections for Knights 
of the Shire was limited to freeholders possessed of estates 
to the annual value of forty shillings. Seats in the Com- 
mons were not, however, much sought by the middle classes 
of the fifteenth century. The functions of the Commons 
consisted chiefly in the imposition of taxes, and even the 
Lords of that period evinced little interest or assiduity in 


the discharge of their parliamentary duties. Both Houses 
enjoyed entire liberty of speech. Eton College, and King's 
College, Cambridge, were founded about a.d. 1440. Coffee 
was imported from Arabia, and th« art of wood-engraving 
borrowed from the Germans. In 1450 the first Lord 
Mayor's Show took place, and the same year was signalized 
by the famous insurrection in Kent, headed by one Jack 
Cade, who, under the assumed name of Mortimer, asserted a 
fictitious right to the English throne, but was defeated and 
killed at Sevenoaks by Alexander Iden, sherifif of Kent. 

Edwaed IY. 
began to reign a.d. 1461. deed 1483. 

VI. — King Edwaed IY., eldest son to the late Duke of 
York, was a very handsom.e, but a very capricious and 
tyrannical sovereign. During this reign, the first printing- 
press was set up by William Caxton, a.d. 1471. Edward 
narried Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter to Sir Richard 
"Woodville, and widow of Sir John Grey. This is the first 
instance since the Conquest of an English king being mar- 
ried to a subject. The circumstance gave great offence 
to the Earl of Warwick, who rebelled in consequence, 
and was slain (a.d. 1471) at the battle of Barnet.* Yew- 
trees were at this time cultivated in churchyards, for the 
purpose of making bows ; and a terrible plague spread 
throughout the country, from which more persons perished 
than during all the previous fifteen years of the wars of 
the Roses. Edward died (a.d. 14S3), just as he was pre- 
paring for a war with France, and left his infant sons, Ed- 
ward Y. and Richard Duke of York, to the guardianship 
of his wily and ambitious brother, Richard Duke of Glouces- 

♦ In the year 1478, George Duke of Clarence, brother to the 
king-, was condemned to death for high treason, and is supposec^ 
to have been executid privately in the Tower, by command of the 
Parliament. His death was a lasting source of remorse and griei 
to Edward IV. 


ter. This prince seeing but these children between himself 
and the sceptre, had them convej^ed to the Tower, and 
there murdered. He was acknowledged king in 1483, 
■ix months after the death of his brother Edward IV. 


BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1483, DrED 1486. 

YII. — Richard III., brother to Edward IV., during 
a short reign of two years, committed such atrocious 
deeds as have left him the blackest reputation of any- 
sovereign upon the records of our history. IJjFot only 
did he murder his young nephews, but he put to death 
the generous Lord Hastings, the unfortunate Jane Shore, 
and his own friend and ally, the Duke of Buckingham. 
The Earl of Richmond, a wise and brave nobleman, re- 
lated to the house of Lancaster by the marriage of his father, 
Edmund Tudor, to Margaret, the great grand-daughter of 
John of Gaunt, asserted his claim to the crown of England 
(a.d. 1485), assembled a small army of about two thousand 
persons, which became speedily augmented to three times 
that number — came over from Normandy, landed on the 
Welsh coast, and drew up his forces near Bosworth Field. 
On the 22nd of August, 1485, he was met by King Richard, 
who fell in the thickest of the fight, and Richmond 
received the crown upon the battle-field, in the presence 
of his army, which saluted him as King Henry VII. 
Thus ended the civil wars which had convulsed England 
for more than forty years, and the royalty of the 
Houses of Lancaster and York. During the reign of 
these two families (a period of nearly one hundred years), 
art, civilization, and science had made very considerable 
progress. Music was much cultivated, especially by 
the clergy; painting met with liberal encouragement, 
and was employed in the universal decoration of 
our churches ; books though still very expensive, became 
purchaseable by others than the most wealthy, in conse- 



quence of the invention of printing ; many of our most 
esteemed colleges and public schools date their founda- 
tion from this period ; the language became more refined, 
and received something like a standard in the works of 
Gower, Chaucer, and others ; and the style of our archi- 
tecture, raised on the crumbling ruins of the feudal castles, 
rose into a stately and beautiful order of ornamental build- 
ing known as the Perpendicular Gothic. The civil wars 
of this period, however, operated fatally upon the eiforta 
of agricultural science. Many prosperous and pleasant 
dwellings throughout England were laid waste, and within 
twelve miles' range of Warwick alone sixty villages are 
stated to have been entirely destroyed. 


I. What caused the sorrows 
of King Henry IV. ? What was 
the conduct of the Prince of 
Wales ? What sect did Henry 
IV. persecute, and who was the 
first aristocratic victim? What 
customs were introduced in this 
reign? When did the king die, 
and at what age? 

II. AVhat was the king's con- 
duct on succeeding to the 
throne? What was the great 
event of this reign? When 
were the battles of Harfleur and 
Agincourt fought? To whom 
was Henry V. married ? When 
did he die, and at what age ? 

III. How old was Henry VI. 
at the time ofhis father's death? 
Wliat loss did England sustain 
during this reign ? Relate the 
history of Joan of Arc. 

IV. What part of the French 
territory alone remained at- 
tached to the English crown ? 
What new troubles threatened 
the safety of the young king ? 
What was the fate of the Duke 
of York ? When was the battle 
Of \^^akefield Green fought ? 

V. Who was the Earl of 
Warwick, and what measures 
did he take against Henry VI. ? 
What were the emblems of the 
two parties? What was the 
manner of King Henry's death ? 
Relate the condition of the 
Houses of Lords and Commons 
at this time. What schools 
were founded, and what im- 
provements introduced? Who 
was Jack Cade ? 

VI. What was the character 
of King Edward IV. ? What 
signal event happened in this 
reign ? Whom did he marry, 
and what became of the Earl of 
Warmck? When did he die? 
What became of his two infant 
sons ? When was the Duke of 
Gloucester acknowledged king ? 

VII. For how long did 
Richard III. reign, and what 
reputation has he left behind 
him? Who were the Tictims 
of his cruelty and ambition? 
What was the lineage of the 
Earl of Richmond ? What was 
the size of his army, and from 
what country did he come over 


to claim the crown ? In what raged in England ? Relate the 

year did he land, and where improvements which had now 

draw up his forces ? What was taken place in the arts, sciences, 

the result of the battle of Bos- architecture, and civilization of 

worth? When was it fought ? England. What was the effect 

How long had the civil wars of the civil wars on Agriculture? 



Began to reign. Died. I Began to reign. Died. 

Henry VII. a.d. 1485 ... 1509 Mary a.d. 1553 ... 1558 

Henry VIII. „ 1509 ... 1547 Elizabeth „ 1558 ... 1603 
Edward YL n 1547 ... 1553 | 

Heney VIT. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1485. DIED 1509. 

L— Heney VII. was first representative of the noble 
house of Tudor. He was grandson to Owen Tudor, grand- 
father of King Henry VII., and connected by marriage 
with the family of King Edward IV. His reign was sig- 
nalized by the appearance of two remarkable impostors, 
namely, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Lambert 
Simnel was the son of a baker, and (being trained purposely 
for the character) was placed at the head of an insurrection 
at Nottingham, and proclaimed to be the son of the late 
Duke of Clarence, and heir to the throne. A sanguinary 
battle took place (a.d. 1487), between the rebels and the 
king's army, in which the former were dispersed, and the 
pretender taken prisoner. He was pardoned by Henry, and 
afterwards filhd the situation of scullion in the royal 
kitchen. Perkin Warbeck's appearance and education were 
more favourable to deception. He was reported to be the 
little Duke of York who was murdered with his brother in 
the Tower. King James IV. of Scotland became one of his 
supporters ; his standard was joined by many of the 
highest noblemen in the kingdom ; he assumed the title 
of Pwichard III. of England; and even obtained the hand 


of the Lady Gordon in marriage. He was, however, taken 
prisoner (a.d. 1499), thrown into the Tower, and executed 

II. — Notwithstanding these rebellions, Henry YII. was 
a prudent, a wise, and a merciful sovereign. He abridged 
the secular power of the pope ; extended the privileges of 
the people ; promoted commerce ; and rendered English- 
men powerful and happy. During his reign Columbus 
made the discovery of America, a.d. 1498, after having 
previously discovered the Bahama Islands in the West 
Indies (a.d. 1492). Sebastian Cabot also discovered New- 
foundland in 1497, and afterwards a considerable portion 
of North America. He likewise published the first map 
of the world which included both hemispheres. Vasco di 
Gama fii'st doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and made the 
passage to India by sea in 1497. Maps and sea-charts 
were now brought to England, shillings were coined, 
the 3'eomen of the guard appointed for the safety and 
honour of the king's person, the arbitrary court of law 
known as the Star Chamber first established, and 
Henry VII.'s Chapel built at Westminster Abbey ; a work 
considered to be the most perfect specimen of Tudor archi- 
tecture now extant. Henry YII. died in 1509, having 
lived fifty-two years, and reigned twenty-three. 

Henet YIII. 
began to reign a.d. 1509. died 154 7. 

III. — Henby VIII., second son to King Henry Vll., 
was handsome, affable, and popular, and ascended the 
English throne at eighteen years of age. During the first 
year of his reign he married with Catherine of Arragon, 
and threatened an invasion of France, which, however, 
came to nothing. Soon after this he became the firm friend 
of Thomas Wolsey, then Dean of Lincoln — a man of great 
ambition and talent, who had risen from the middle rank 
of life, and who was afterwards promoted to the high dignity 


of a CO rdinalsliip. The kiiig had been married just eighteen 
years, when he fell inlove with Anna Boleyn, one of the maids 
of honour attending upon the queen. In order to effect a 
marriage with her, he divorced Queen Catherine in 1532, 
who died of grief shortly after, and even defied Pope 
Clement YII. for refusing to sanction his proceedings. 
This step led to the great and glorious Eefoemation. 

lY. — Having declared open opposition to the Church of 
Rome, Henry proceeded to make the most cruel enactments 
against papists ; to demolish the monasteries and convents 
scattered by hundreds throughout his domini«ns ; to turn 
the religious communities abroad into the world ; and to 
pour into his own treasuries the wealth w^hich had been 
accumulating in the clerical coffers for a thousand years. 
Dreadful persecutions ensued — men were hanged, burned, 
and beheaded, for not believing as he desired, and brave 
old Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher were executed 
(a.d. 1535) for denying his royal supremacy. Even 
Cardinal Wolsey was degraded, and arrested for high 
treason ; but died before any farther steps could be taken 
against him. 

V. — Henry's next step was to behead Anna Boleyn, 
and marry the Lady Jane Seymour (a.d. 1536), who 
died in giving birth to a son. He then entered into 
an alliance with the princess Ann of Clevcs, to whom, 
however, he took an intense aversion ; and, having put her 
aside, married Catherine Howard, niece to the Duke of 
Norfolk. This lady he beheaded in 1542, and then gave his 
hand, for the last time, to Lady Catherine Parr, widow of 
the late Lord Latimer. This wife alone contrived to retain 
the tyrant's affection, and, not being either divorced or 
beheaded, had the happiness to survive him. 

VI. — The last victims to the caprices of this cruel 
monarch were the Duke of Norfolk, and his son the Earl 
of Surrey, a young man who excelled in all the accom- 
plishments of a scholar, a soldier, and a courtier, and who 


has taten his standing among the early English poets. 
Both were accused of high treason. Surrey's head fell 
upon Tower Hill (a.d. 1547) ; but the life of his father 
was providentially saved by the death of the king, which 
happened on the evening of the day before that appointed 
for his execution. 

No king ever violated the rights of Englishmen or the 
fundamental liberties specified in Magna Charta more 
flagrantly than King Henry VIII. Upon life he placed 
no value, and for law he entertained no reverence. Ho 
even exacted a bill from his slavish Parliament by which 
the written edict of the sovereign was elevated to the 
level of a legal statute — a measure which rendered the 
crown absolutely despotic, and vested in the hands of the 
king the honour, safety, and wealth of the entii-e nation. 
During this reign many important discoveries were made, 
literature much advanced, and considerable progress effected 
in general knowledge. St. Paul's school was founded in 
1510; the College of Physicians estabhshed in 1518; 
Whitehall and St. James's Palace were built; Mexico 
was conquered by Cortez, and Peru by Pizarro ; Wolsey 
commenced building Hampton-court Palace and Christ- 
church, Oxford; shipbuilding was improved, and the navy 
extended ; the Corporation of the Trinity-house was insti- 
tuted; the office of Secretary of State was created by 
government ; the Society of Jesuits was founded by Igna- 
**us Loyola (a.d. 1535) ; Wales was for the first time 
represented in parliament ; classical literature was exten- 
sively cultivated among the higher classes of both sexes, 
and Erasmus, a learned native of Holland, was elected 
Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford, and con- 
tributed much by his presence and attainments towards 
the advancement of education in England. In this reigF 
the first Lord High Admiral was appointed, in the person 
of Sir James Howard ; the whole of the Bible was trans- 
lated into English in 1539 : the Church Prayer-Book and 


the Articles of Eeligion were aiTanged by Bishop Cranmer, 
in 1540; cherries, hops, apricots, pippins, and various 
other kinds of fi:uit and vegetables were first cultivated in 
this country; cotton thread was invented ; leaden conduits 
for the conveyance of water were substituted for the 
<vooden ones which had previously been in use ; pins were 
rYitroduced from France by Queen Catherine Howard, and 
were then a very expensive luxury. Before this time, 
ribbons, loopholes, laces with tags, hooks and eyes, and 
skewers of brass, silver, and gold, had been used alike by 
men and women. The term " pin-money," as applied to 
the income allowed by husband to wife, is dated back to 
this period, and refers to the heavy expenses incurred by 
the purchase of this extravagant article of attire. A pound 
sterling was first called a sovereign during the reign of 
Hemy YIII. ; and pre visions were so cheap, that beef 
and mutton were purchased at the rate of one halfpenny 
per pound. The value of precious metals, however, was 
very low, and a pound, at the time of the Conquest, would 
buy twelve times as much as at the j resent day. 

Edwaed VI. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1547. DIED 1553. 

VII.— King Edward VI., only son of Henry VIII., 
ascended the throne in 1547, being then nine years of 
age. The Duke of Somerset was appointed protector till 
the king should attain his majority. He was, however, 
supplanted and executed by the bold and ambitious Duke 
of Northumberland, who persuaded Edwai'd to transfer 
the succession to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, instead of 
sufiering it to devolve, as it should, upon his eldest sister, 
Mary. Lady Jane Grey was the wife of Northumberland's 
son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Shortly after this decision 
the king's health declined; and when be died of consump- 
tion in 1553, in the sixteenth year of his age, there were 
not wanting tongues among the people to attribute his los» 


to the machinations of the Protector. He was amiable, 
highly accomplished, and dearly loved by his subjects. 

No religious persecution was suffered during his reign, 
and a law was passed by which Protestant clergymen were 
permitted to marry. The book of Psalms was also trans- 
lated into verse, by Sternhold and Hopkins ; the book oi 
Homilies compiled by Cranmer and Eidley, and a new 
code of Articles was drawn up, to the number of forty-two, 
from which the thirty-nine Ai'ticles of the Established 
Church now in use were afterwards compiled. Christ's 
Hospital and St. Thomas's Hospital were founded, as well 
as many other charitable institutions, grammar-schools, 
almshouses, &c., throughout all parts of the kingdom. 
Grapes were brought over from France, and cultivated in 
England for the fii'st time ; crowns, half-crowns, and six- 
pences were introduced into our currency; and a dreadful 
plague, called the sweating sickness, which had hitherto 
been prevalent from time to time, became totally extinct. 
Our trade with Russia Was for the first time opened during 
the reign of King Edward VI. 

Maey I. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1553. DIED 1558. 

YIII.— Maey I., eldest daughter of King Henry VIII. 
by Catherine of Arragon, next received the crown, after a 
brief contest of only ten days with Lady Jane Grey and 
her supporters. She inaugurated her cruel reign with 
the death of the unfortunate young pair, Dudley and 
Lady Jane Grey. Her next step was to marry Philip II. 
of Spain, A..D. 15 54, who cared little for her affection, 
and left her, as soon as possible, for his native country. 

IX. — The most tremendous and fearful persecutions 
were now directed against the Eeformers. The Bishops 
of London, Worcester, and Gloucester, and even Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, were condemned to the flames ; and it is 
computed that during this Eeign of Terror, \w"^\cli lasted 


between four and five years, no less than 277 human 
beings were frightfully sacrificed. Mary died in 1558: 
universally abhorred. 

Coaches were introduced in this reign, before which time 
ladies used to be carried in litters, or rode on pillions 
behind their mounted squires. Flax and hemp were first 
cultivated, the use of staix'h was discovered, and the manu- 
facture of di'inking-glasses began to be encouraged in 


BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1558, DIED 1603. 

X. — Elizabeth, a Protestant princess, and daughter of 
King Henry VIII. and Queen Anna Boleyn, succeeded to 
the throne. Had she relieved the whole nation from 
captivity and chains, the delirium of joy with which all 
classes hailed the accession of Queen Elizabeth could 
scai'cely have been greater. The first act sanctioned by 
her authority was the formal restoration of the reformed 
religion; and in a single session of Parliament the 
articles of our faith were established ; freedom of thought 
secured ; the acts of her sister abolished ; and Protes- 
tantism for ever constituted the religion of England. 

XL — In the year 1587, Elizabeth tarnished the glory 
of her reign by signinj^ the death-warrant of Mary 
Queen of Scots, who had fallen into her power and 
was imprisoned for many years in Fotheringay Castle. 
The obloquy of this deed was effaced shortly after from 
the minds of the people by the glorious defeat of 
the great Armada sent out against our coasts by Philip 
of Spain, under the command of the Duke de Medina 
Sidonia. Against this floating army, consisting of 
twenty thousand soldiers in a hundred and thirty 
galleons. Queen Elizabeth sent forth thirty small sailing 
vessels, commanded by Admirals Eifiugham, Drake, Haw • 
kins, and Frobiolier (a.d. 1588). Just as the Channel 


was covered "by the hostile sail, a tremendous storm came 
on. The Spanish fleet got into disorder. The English 
navy rushed upon them, and poured in their batteries 
from every side. Two great three-deckers were taken, 
and twelve smaller ones — flight, destruction, or sub- 
mission alone was left to the rest, and of all that mighty 
armament commissioned to subdue Old England, only a 
miserable remnant escaped to carry back the tidings of 

XII. — The career of this famous queen presents other 
glories, very different but equally splendid. During her 
reign the poets Spenser and Raleigh wrote and flourished — 
Lord Bacon, the philosopher and historian, lived — and 
Shakespeaee, the immortal poet and dramatist, whose 
works are the glory of our literature, wrote some of his 
finest plays, surviving the queen by thirteen years. 

XIII. — The Act of Supremacy, passed at the com- 
mencement of Elizabeth's reign, was the greatest mistake 
of this sovereign's career. Devised for the purpose of 
crushing the Eoman Catholic influence, this Act compelled 
all clergymen and persons holdmg oflG.ce under the Crown 
to take an oath abjuring not only the temporal, but even 
the spiritual authority of every foreign prince or pre- 
late, and acknowledging the sovereign as the head of the 
Church, with rights derived from God. This Act was 
followed by the Act of Conformity, which prohibited all 
persons from attending the ministrations of any clergyman 
not belonging to the Established Church. The lamentable 
consequences may be readily imagined : hundreds suffered 
death, imprisonment, and persecution, in this and fol- 
lowing reigns, through the operation of these arbitrary 
statutes. The naval power of England, which had been 
gradually extending ever since the time of Henry V., 
continued still to be the chief care and ambition of our 
Government. Noble and scientific men pressed eagerly 
forward to join in expeditions for the discovery of unkno\VD 


countries. Sir Francis Drake made a three years' voyage 
round the world, and was the first Englishman who accom- 
plished the circumnavigation of the globe. He brought 
potatoes from Santa Fe, lu North America, and planted 
them in Lancashire. Tobacco was first brought to thi*^ 
country by Sir John Hawkins, a.d. 1565. Tea was intro- 
duced by the Dutch. Pocket-watches were brought over 
from Nuremberg, in Germany. Silk stockings were worn 
for the first time by the queen, cloth hose having previ- 
ously been" in use. The art of paper-making from linen 
rags was begun at Dartford, by Sir John Speilman, a 
German, a.d. 1590. Telescopes were invented by one 
Jansen, a spectacle-maker at Middleburgh in Holland. 
Decimal arithmetic was discovered by Simon Stevin, a 
scholar of Bruges. The Italian method of book-keeping 
was taught here by James Peele, whose book on the sub- 
ject is yet extant. Knives were first made in England 
A.D. 1563, and were the earliest branch of domestic cut- 
lery, being manufactured by one Matthews, of Fleet- 
bridge, London. In the month of July, 1588, when the 
invasion of the Armada was impending, the first English. 
newspaper was published, under the title of The JEnglish 
Mercurie. A copy of this journal is preserved in the 
libraiy of the British Museum. In 1556, the Royal 
Exchange was built by Sir Thomas Gresham. In 1590, 
Westminster School was founded by the queen ; and 
Rugby School was founded by L. Sherifie. Our mercan- 
tile transactions were now carried on upon a more liberal 
and extensive scale ; our whale and cod fisheries were esta- 
blished ; Birmingham and Shefiield became the centre of 
our hardware manufactures, and Manchester of our cotton 
and stocking weaving ; theatrical representatidfes became 
the popular amusements of the people ; art was encouraged 
by the nobility, and Hans Holbein, the portrait-painter, 
was patronized by the queen. In the fifth year of Eliza- 
beth's reign, the poor-laws were enacted, and the poptik- 




lion of London averaged 160,000 souls. The Bodleian 
Library was formed at tkis time, the East Lidia Company 
organized, and I^ew England colonized. 

XIV. — In 1G03 died Queen Elizabeth, much beloved 
by the English people, and to this day revered as the 
restorer of peace, the patroness of learning, the protector 
of religious hberty, and the upholder of the great English 
name through all the kingdoms of Europe. With her 
terminated the house of Tudor. 


/. TThat remarkable impos- 
tnres signalized this reign ? 
Eelate the story of Lambert 
Simnel. K elate the story of 
Perkin Warbeck. 

II. What was the character 
of Henry YII. ? In what way 
did he contribute to the happi- 
ness of his people ? What great 
discovery was made during his 
reign ? Name the other disco- 
veries of great navigators. What 
signal improvements and in- 
ventions took place at this 
time? What building is con- 
sidered the most perfect speci- 
men of its order now extant? 
When did he die, and at what 
age? liy whom was he suc- 
ceeded ? 

III. What was the character 
of Henry YIII. at eighteen 
years of age? What events 
took place in the fust year of 
bis reign? Who was Thomas 
Wolsey ? What led to the royal 
divorce? What great religious 
movement did this circumstance 
lead to? 

IV. What xerethe enact- 
ments of Ilenrv VIII. regarding 
Papists? What was the nat.;-" 
of the ihurch persecutions ? 
What great men were degraded 
Sud punished in consequence ? 

V. What was Henry's next 
matrimonial step? Name his 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
wives. Why was the last the 
most fortunate ? 

VI. Who were the last vic- 
tims of King Henry's caprices ? 
What was the fate of Surrey, 
and what was his reputation ? 
How was the life of the Duke 
of Norfolk spared? In what 
way did Henry VIII. render 
his power despotic ? What great 
buildings were erected at this 
time, and what important ad- 
vances made in literature and 
general knowledge? AVhat fruits 
were introduced, and what im- 
provements effected in the me- 
tropolis ? Relate the history of 

VII. In what year did Ed- 
ward VI. succeed to the crown, 
and what was his age? Who 
was appointed Protector, and 
what was his fate ? To what 
act was the king influenced by 
the Duke of Northumberland ? 
Who was Lady Jane Grey ? 
When did the king's health first 
begin to decline, and what was 
tlie popular opinion respecting 
the manner of his death ? When 
did Edward VI. die, and what 
was Ills age and disposition? 



What important law was passed 
respecting Protestant clergy- 
men? What religious works 
were compiled ? What benevo- 
lent institutions were founded? 
"Wiiat branch of trade was 
opena^^ to us abroad? 

Vill. For how long did Lady 
Jane Grey contest the crown, 
•and what was her fate and that 
of hei husband ? "Who was 
Mary I. * With whom did she 

IX. Relate the persecutions 
levelled at the Protestants in 
this reign. How many souls 
perished by fire ? When did 
Mary die, and how was she 
liked by the people ? Relate 
the social improvements effected 
during this reign. 

X. What reception did Eliza- 
beth meet with? What was 
the first act of her reign ? 

XI. What was the end of 
Mary Queen of Scots, and when 
was she executed ? What great 
victory effaced the memory of 
this deed? What was the com- 
parative sea-strength of Spain 
and England ? What was the 
result of the expedition ? 

XII. What great men flou- 
rished in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ? What valuable in- 
strument was invented ? What 
influential company received its 
charter? How many years did 
Siiakespeare survive Queen ELi- 

XIU. For what purpose was 

the Act of Supremacy devised, 
and of what nature was it? 
Relate the results of its opera- 
tion. What progress was made 
by England as a naval power, 
and in what way did men of 
education evince their eagerness 
to advance knowledge ? AVho 
was the first Englishman that 
circumnavigated the globe? 
What vegetables were intro- 
duced in this reign, and by 
whom? Who brought tobacco 
to this country ? Relate the 
inventions which took place at 
this time with regard to dress, 
paper, telescopes, and watches? 
Who invented decimal arith- 
metic? When were knives first 
made in England? What was 
the name of the first English 
newspaper? What great public 
institutions were founded in 
this reign ? What great fisheries 
were established? What par 
ticular branches of commerce 
were connected with Birming- 
ham, Sheilield, and Manchester? 
When were the first poor-laws 
enacted? What great library 
was formed at tliis time, and 
what powerful trading com- 
pany organized? Wiiat colony 
was first inhabited during thie 
reign ? 

XIV. In what year did this 
great Queen die ? In what way 
did siie contribute to the pros- 
perity of her kingdom ? What 
great royal house terminated at 
her death ? 




Began to reign. Died. 

James I a.d. 1603 1625. 

ChaklesI 1625 1649. 

James I. 

BIGAN TO EEIfN A.D. 1603. DIED 1625. 

I. — ^KiNG James I. was the son of the unfortunale 
Mary Queen of Scots, and great grandson of James IV. of 
Scotland, who married a daughter of Henry YII. When the 
sceptre of Elizabeth descended to his hands, he was reigning 
at Holyrood under the title of King James VI. of Scotland. 
At the very commencement of his reign, a conspiracy 
which has never been sufficiently cleared up was set on 
foot by llie Lords Grey and Cobham, and Sir W. Ealeigh. 
The two former were pardoned ; but Ealeigh, the travelled 
and chivalrous poet, was executed in 1618, after manj 
years of confinement. 

II. — Two years after the accession of Jamesl. (a.d. 1605), 
discovery was made of the famous Gunpowder Plot; a con- 
spiracy, which terrified the whole nation, was designed to 
re-establish the Soman Catholic religion, and would, if 
successful, have proved the destruction of the King, Lords, 
and Commons of this realm. Many of the traitors asso- 
ciated in the enterprise were publicly executed ; some died 
sword in hand ; and some received the royal pardon. 

Lord Cecil, the minister of Queen Elizabeth, filled the 
same office under James up to the period of his death, in 
1612; but from that time the king and his parliament 
were constantly at variance. He would fain have ex- 
tended his royal prerogative to a point little short of 
despotism, and they were equally resolute to uphold their 
privileges and power. In 1614 they withheld the supplies, 
because James delayed to redress the grievances of which 
they complained j and thus, in the parliamentaiy difficulties 


of his father, was anticipated somewhat of the fatal 
obstinacy afterwards evinced by Charles I. In this reign 
(for the purpose of raising money) the king created the 
title of Baronet, and sold it for the sum of £1000. Horse 
races were established at Newmarket. The circulation of 
the blood was discovered by Dr. Harvey, a.d. 1619. The 
broad si].k manufacture was introduced. Copper half- 
pence and farthings were coiried for the first time. Log- 
arithms were introduced by Napier, a.d. 1614. Buildings 
were built of brick ; the authorized translation of the Bible 
as at present in use wao produced under the care of forty- 
seven divines ; the London New River Company was pro- 
jected by Sir Hugh Middleton; Homer was translated by 
Chapman ; and the Charterhouse School was founded by 
Mr. T. Sutton, who purchased the vast premises from the 
Duke of Norfolk, a.d. 1611. 

III. — King James married the Princess Ann of Den- 
mark, by whom he had four childi-en. Two alone survives 
him — namely, Charles prince of Wales, and Elizabeth, 
married to Frederick V., elector palatine of Bavaria, an 
unfortunate prince, whose dominions were confiscated by 
the Emperor Ferdinand II., and whose posterit}" after- 
wards succeeded to the English sovereignty. James I. 
died in 1625, at the age of fifty-nine. 

Chaeles I. 

BEGAN TO KEIGN A.D, 1625. DIED 1649. 

IV. — Chaeles I., second son of James I., commenced 

his reign with great apparent advantages, both of person, 
education, and position. He found the treasmy of the coun- 
try, however, in an impoverished condition ; and, being 
refused sufficient supplies by the parliament, laid a heavy 
and unpopular tax upon the people, with the proceeds of 
which he fitted out a fleet for the invasion of Spain. This 
measure created great discontent j but instead of being 


warned by the murmurs of the nation, Charles was unjust 
and impolitic enough to persevere, and from 1629 to 1636 
never called any parliament, but raised money by means 
of an obsolete statute called the levy of Ship-money. It 
may be as well here to explain the nature of that tax. 

Y. — Three years after the king's accession (a.d. 1628), 
the Commons, in return for five subsidies, had induced 
him to sign that second great charter of English liberties 
known as the Petition of Eight ; by which he bound'ielf to raise no taxes without the consent of parlia- 
ment. It was therefore in direct violation of his own 
treaty, that in 1629 royal writs were issued to the City of 
London and to the towns along the coast, exacting a 
tribute of money for the purpose of equipping ships of war 
for the defence of the country. At first this step, though 
productive of much ill-feeling between the king and the 
people, was yet tolerated, and had some excuse of precedent ; 
but Charles shortly ventured on a stretch of prerogative 
that no other sovereign, however arbitrary, had ever 
dared to contemplate. He sent writs of ship-money tc 
the inland counties, where no ship had ever been seen, and 
continued to raise money for the defence of his kingdom 
at a time when he was at peace with all the world. 

YI. — The first resistance was offered by John Hampden, 
a gentleman of Buckinghamshire. He refused to pay the 
rate levied upon his estate, and brought the matter to 
trial (a.d. 1636), with the patriotic resolution of supporting 
the liberties of the people. The result, which it was hoped 
would affix some limit to the power of the sovereign, was 
anxiously awaited by the nation ; but Hampden lost his 
cause, and Charles grew more exacting than ever. Many 
ceremonies of Eoman Catholic worship were now intro- 
duced into the church — episcopacy was forced upon the 
Scots, who rebelled in consequence — more rates and levies 
were wrung from the public purse, and the king raised an 
army and marched to the north (a.d. 164.0), where, in- 


stead of defeating the Presbyterians, he ended a feeble 
campaign by a treaty of peace. 

VII. — During the month of April in this year (1610) 
Charles found himself compelled once more to assemble 
a parliament, and this time Hampden took his seat in the 
House of Commons as member for Buckinghamshire, and 
leader of the opposition party. This paiiiament the 
king angrily dissolved, because it was bent upon redi'essing 
the public grievances. He threw some of the Com- 
mons members into prison, exacted ship-money more 
rigorously than ever, and even prosecuted the Corporation 
of London for their unwillingness to enforce the levies. 

VIII. — Again a parliament was called (Nov. 1640), 
and again the opposition, more powerful than ever, with 
Hampden, Pym, Holland, and others, at the head of the, 
party, stood up to foi'ce the king to something like justice 
and reparation. By this famous tribunal great and salu- 
tary reforms were vigorously carried out. Strafford, who 
had been created Earl, I/ord-lieutenaut of Ireland, and 
President of the Council of the North, was impeached, with 
Archbishop Laud, imprisoned, and executed. The servile 
judges and officers of the crown were punished, and the 
king deprived of arbitrary and feudal powers. In fact, it 
was open war between Charles and his people. 

IX. — As if blindly led on to his ruin, Charles now 
committed an act for which history can furnish no parallel, 
and posterity no excuse. Enraged against the opposition, 
and misled by the lenity with which some of the members 
were disposed to treat his measures, he went in person to 
the House of Commons (Jan, 1612), attended as far as 
the door by two hundred halberdiers and armed cour- 
tiers, there to arrest and seize Lord Kimbclton, Hampden, 
HoUis, Pym, and two other members, whom he had 
previously impeached through his attorney-general. An}'- 
thing so unprecedented as the arrest of members en- 
gaged in the exercise of their parliamentary duties had 


never been known; and though the attempt failed, and 
the members were absent, this act of tyranny led lo 
extremes which few then could have anticipated. 

X. — Hampden and his friends secreted themselves in the 
city. The parliament recalled them, and they returned 
to their seats in triumph, accompanied by immense crowds 
of spectators and military, and saluted with salvos of 
artillery. The result was civil war. Charles fled to the 
North, after having sent the Queen and Prince of Wales 
to a place of safety. The nation became divided into two 
factions distinguished as Cavaliers and Eoundheads, and 
both parties prepared for the great struggle. The clergy, 
the Universities, the landed gentry, and a majority of the 
nobles sided with the king. The Eoundheads comprised 
the middle classes of England, the merchants, shopkeepers, 
yeomanry, dissenters, parliamentarians, and a formidable 
minority of the peerage. 

XI. — Not to dwell too long upon this period of our 
summary, we will briefly detail the chief events of that 
deplorable conflict, which lasted for the space of three 
years, and caused the eff'usion of so much English blood. 
The royal standai'd was first erected at Nottingham, 
August 25th, 1642, and the first engagement, known as 
the battle of Edgehill, was fought on the 23rd of the 
October following, when both sides claimed the victory. 
From this time no great event (unless an unimportant 
advantage gained by Charles at Stratton) took place, till 
the death of Hampden, at Chalgrave-field, June 24th, 1643. 
In 1644, the Eoundheads, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
signally defeated the Eoyalists under Prince Eupert, at 
the famous battle of Marston Moor — and on June 14th, 
1645, was fought the decisive battle of Naseby, in North- 
amptonshire, when the king's army sustained a total 
defeat. Fifty thousand of his soldiers were taken prisoners, 
baggage and cannon were left upon the field, and Charles 
fled to Scotland, By his northern subjects, upon whose 


protection he had thrown himself, he was basely sold over 
to the English for the sum of £400,000. 

XII. — From this moment the king's doom was sealed. 
He was first imprisoned at Hampton Court — then in 
Carisbrook Castle — then in Hurst Castle, Hampshire — 
finally in Windsor Castle, whence he was brought to 
London, to go through the mockery of a trial at St. 
James's. By the high court of justice he was sentenced 
to death, and publicly beheaded in fi-ont of Whitehall 
Palace on the 30th Jan., 1649. " A great shudder ran 
through the crowd that saw the deed, then a shriek, and 
then all immediately dispersed." Charles was at that time 
forty-eight years of age, and had reigned nearly four-and- 
tweuty years. 


XIII. — That extraordinary epoch in our history, knowi. 
as the period of the Commonwealth, ensued. Olivee 
Ceomwell, who had distinguished himself as a general in 
the late wars, received the command of the Puritan army 
in Ireland (a.d. 1653), and there defeated the Royaliscs 
with great slaughter. Having reduced that country to 
submission, he was next despatched to Scotland, where 
they had espoused the cause of the Stuarts and placed 
Prince Charles upon the throne. Here the sternRoundhead 
was everywhere invincible ; the Scotch deserted the royal 
standard ; a great battle was fought at Worcester, on the 
3rd of September, 1651 ; and the king was forced to make 
his es(;ape to the coast of France. 

XIV. — In this manner the authority of the parliament 
became established throughout the British dominions. 
The American settlements, which had declared for the 
king, were subdued; Ireland and Scotland silenced; 
Jersey, Guernsey, Scilly, and the Isle of Man, brought 
easily under subjection ; and an immense empire, rich in 
fleets and armies, in cro\vn-lands and ecclesiastica' 


treasures, was governed by an assemblage of some sixty or 
seventy men of obscure birtli and inferior education, wh(? 
had taken upon themselves to alter the legislature of the 
state and to behead a great king, and who, in their present 
position., found themselves holding the foremost place 
among the sovereign powers of Europe. 

XV. — Oliver Cromwell, having entire possession of the 
aifection and confidence of the army, and being regarded 
with suspicion and anxiety by the Long Parliament, 
resolved upon what was, perhaps, the boldest step of his 
life. He went with 300 soldiers to the House of Commons 
(a.d. 1653), turned out the members, dissolved the 
assembly, ordered the door to be locked, and put the 
key in hij pocket. The next parliament was called, and 
consisted entirely of ignorant fanatics. These men resigned 
office (Dec. 12, 1653), and vested the entire administrative 
power in Cromwell, with the title of Lord Protector of the 
Commonwealth of England. Thus the oppressions of 
royalty were exchanged for a despotic military government. 

Oliyee Ceomwell, 
protector of e>'gland fho.m a.d. 1c53 to 1g58. 

XYI. — The Peotectoeate was inaugurated by a suc- 
cession of brilliant victories, and the recognition of the 
English power in all the courts of Em-ope. The Dutch 
were brought to sue for peace (a.d. 1654), and made to 
pay an indemnification of £85,000. Favourable terms 
subsisted between Cromwell and Mazarin, and Dunkirk 
became a dependency of the State. The years 1655 and 
1656 saw the great victories of the English fleets, under 
Admiral Blake, at Algiers, Cadiz, and the Canary Islands ; 
and in 1655 Admirals Penn and Yenabies made the con- 
quest of Jamaica. 

XVII. — Despite all this prosperity, the Protector's was 
far from being a safe or happy position. He was feared 
and distrusted on aU sides; threatened by numberless 


conspiracies ; and a prey to perpetual anxiety. A teiTlan 
ague carried him off at last (Sept. 3, 1658), in the fifty- 
ninth year of his age, and the ninth of his usurpation. 
He appointed his son Eichard his sQCcessor; but the 
army, discontented with so young and irresolute a Ic-ader, 
compelled him to sign his abdication, and the oSlcers 
restored the Long Parliament which Cromwell had 
forcibly dissolved. 

XVIII. — This parliament, however, having offeridedthe 
army, was again dismissed, and General Monk, toiirching 
from Scotland with 8000 veterans (Jan. 1660), compelled 
the London forces to disperse. A new Parliament was 
then assembled, and the restoration of royalty, in the 
person of the exiled Charles, was proposed and received 
with universal delight both by the CommoriS and the 
people. So ended the period of the Commonw*-alth. 


I. 1 whom did the crown he ? In what year did he die, 
descend on the death of Eliza- and at what agof 

betli ? What conspiracy threat- lY. How did Charles I. com- 

ened the commencement of mence his reign ? "What means 

James's reign, and who were the did he take to St out a fleet for 

parties concerned in it? What the invasion of Spain? How 

was the fate of Sir ^Y. Raleigh ? did he raise money without the 

II. Wiiat was the nature of aid of parliarac-nt, and for how 
the Gunpowder Plot, and in long? 

what year was it discovered? Y. When did Charles sien 
What occasioned the disagree- the Petition of Right, and what 
ments between James and his terms did be therein agree to? 
parliament? When were the When did he issue the writs fc« 
supplies withheld? For what 6hip-money,andupon what pre. 
purpose was the title of Baronet tcnce ? To what unwarrantable 
created? What great discovery degree did he extend this ex- 
was made by Dr. Harvey? Re- action? 

late the inventions and im- YI. Who offered the first 

provements cf this reign ? By resistance? What was the re- 

whom was the New River suit of Hampden's cflbrts? By 

Company projected? Who was what acts of oppression did 

5Ir. T. Sution, and what charity Charles follow up his success ? 

did he found? Yll. When did Charles again 

III. Whom did the king call a parliament? How did 
marry, and what family hail he treat that body ? In what 



way did he insult the Corpora- 
tion of London ? 

VIII. In what month of the 
same year did he again call a 
parliament, and who were the 
leading members of the opposi- 
tion ? What great reforms did 
the parliament effect ? 

IX. What extraordinary piece 
of illegal tyranny did Charles 
next resort tc, and when did he 
carry it into effect ? 

X. Where did Hampden and 
his friends take refuge ? In 
what manner did they return 
to parliament? What became 
of the king and royal family ? 
Into what well-known factions 
was the nation divided? Of 
whom did the Cavaliers consist ? 
What classes constituted the 
Koundheads ? 

XI. Where and when was 
the royal standard first erected? 

tMien was the battle of Edge- 
hill fought? Where did Hamp- 
den fall? Relate the event and 
date of the battle of Marston 
Moor. When was the battle 
of Xaseby fought, and with what 
result ? What was the conduct 
of the Scotch upon this occa- 

XII. At what places was the 
king successively imprisoned ? 
By what court was he sen- 
tenced? Relate the circum- 
Btances and date of his execu- 
tion. What was his age? How 
long had he reigned ? 

XIII. What period ensued* 
Who was Oliver Cromwell, and 
when was he sent to Ireland? 
Why was he next sent to Scot- 
land ? What was the date and 
result of the battle of Wor- 

XIV. In •n'na.t countries was 
the authority of the parliament 
everywhere established ? What 
was the character and power of 
the parliament ? 

XV. What bold step did 
Cromwell take? Of whom did 
the next parliament consist? 
When was Cromwell raised to 
the supreme power in the 

XVI. Under what auspices 
did the Protectorate commence ? 
In what year were the Dutch 
subdued ? What terms sub- 
sisted between France and Eng- 
land ? What were the great 
victories of Admiral Blake, and 
when did they take place? 
What were the conquests of 
Penn and Venables? 

XVII. Was the Protector 
happy ? When did he die, and 
from what cause ? Whom did 
he appoint to succeed him' 
What steps were taken by the 

XVIII. What became of the 
parliament? What was the 
course taken by General Monk? 
In what way ended the period 
of the Commonwealth ? 



Began to Keign. 

Charles II a.d. leeo Died 1685. 

James II 1685.. . Detlironed 1688. 

Charles II. 

BEGAN TC KEIGN A.D. 1660. DIED 1685. 

L — King Chakles II., eldest son of King Charles I., 
came to the throne amid the universal rejoicings of a 
nation released from Puritanic tyranny, and anxious to wel- 
come the restoration of royalty. Commencing his reign with 
cl emency and moderation, he passed an act of universal par- 
don (excepting only the regicide judges and more furious 
republicans), chose his first council indifferently from both 
loyalists and presbyterians ; and proclaimed entire liberty of 
opinion among his people. The body of Cromwell, however, 
was dug up, hung in chains, at Tyburn and buried under the 
gallows; but was afterwards removed secretl}^ and re- 
jnterred, as some assert, in the centre of Red Lion Square. 

II. — It was supposed, from this promising beginning, 
ihat Charles would be found an easy monarch, and that 
nothing affecting the religion or liberty of the nation need 
be feared at his hands. In this the public was disap- 
pointed. Having first of all disbanded the fine army of 
the Commonwealth, the king began to follow his father's 
evil example by forcing episcopacy upon the nonconform- 
ists. This step raised an outcry of discontent throughout 
the kingdom : in one day about two thousand presbyterian 
ministers gave up their benefices, because they would not 
embrace a new faith — and now the Church of England 
began to persecute its former persecutors. 

III. — He next declared war with Holland (a.d. IGGo), 
and sent out an English fleet under the command of his 
brother, James, duke of York. The ship of Admii-al 


Opdam, the Dutch commander, was blown up, and the 
victory of the English complete. 

IV. — In the years 1665 and 1666, London became the 
scene of two fearful calamities, exceeding in horror any 
that were ever known to befal oue city within so short a 
period. A mortal plague spread among all classes, and 
carried off in six months more than 100,000 human beings. 
They were buried in great pits dug about the neigh- 
bourhood of JMoorfields and Tothill fields, and every 
night the dead-carts traversed the melancholy streets, 
in which the unaccustomed grass grew rankly, and no 
other traffic now was known. Scarcely had this sickness 
begun to decline, when a fire, unexampled in Europe since 
the destruction of Rome under Nero, " laid in ruins the 
whole cit}^, from the Tower to the Temple, and from the 
river to the purlieus of Smithfield." This conflagration 
destroyed 400 streets and 13,200 dwelling-houses, besides 
89 churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, the Royal Exchange, 
the Custom House, Guildhall, and many other important 
public buildings. It lasted without intermission for four 
days, and was only stopped at last by the blowing-up 
of houses. 

V. — Taking advantage of this period of our national 
weakness and distress, the Dutch fleet, under command of 
Admiral de Ruyter, sailed up the Thames (a.d. 1667), 
and burned the ships of war which lay at Chatham. This 
was the first, and happily the last, time that the roar of 
foreign guns was heard to echo through the streets of 
London. A disgraceful peace was shortly afterwards con- 

VI. — The great imposition known as the Popish Plot 
took place in 1678. A discreditable character, one Titus 
Oat€S, constructed a hideous fiction which he found the 
nation only too ready to believe. He gave out that the 
papists were preparing for the destruction of London by 
fii-e, the assassination of the king, and the betra^yal of our 


country into the hands of the French. Just at this junc- 
ture, the mysterious murder of Sir Edmondsbury Godfrey, 
a Protestant magistrate, lent all the colouring of truth to 
his assertions. Many innocent persons were in (*<.>nsequence 
arrested and executed, and, among others, the aged and 
illustrious Earl of Staiford fell a victim to calumny, and 
was beheaded on Tower Hill, December 29th, 16S0. 

VII. — In the year 1679 was passed the Habeas Corpus 
Act. This act, next in importance to Magna Charta, is 
one of the bulwarks of individual safety. So long as the 
statute remains in Ibrce, no subject of England can be 
detained in prison, except where such detention is shown 
to be justified by law. 

VIII, — The Lords Shaftesbury and Eussell, in con- 
junction with the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Essex, 
Algernon Sidney, and others, were discovered (a.d. 1680) 
to be the authors of a treasonable conspiracy, having for 
its object the death of the king. This was the famous 
Rye-house Plot; so called from the conspirators' place of 
meeting. Lengthened trials ensued. Monmouth escaped; 
Kussell (the most popular man of his day) was executed 
in Lincoln's-inn Fields, July 21st, 1683; the Earl of Essex 
was found with his throat cut in his cell at the Tower; 
Shaftesbury absconded to Holland; and Sidney suffered 
the extreme penalty of the law, December 7th, 1683. 

IX. — The king was at this time (a.d. 1685) as abso- 
lute a sovereign as anj' in Europe ; but his power was 
destined not to be of long duration. Towards tiie be- 
ginning of February, 1685, he was attacked by what 
seemed to be a lit of apoplexy, and soon after expired 
without a struggle. Before dying, he received tli3 sacra- 
ments of the Ivomish church; an act which proved that 
although he had always passed for a prctestant king, he 
cherished another religion in his heart. Charles was fifty- 
nine years old at the time of his death, and had reigned 
twenty-fivo years. His character has been thus briefly 


summed np bj a modern historian : — " Charles was the 
falsest, meanest, merriest of mankind." 

Jaaies II. 


X. — James II., brother to the late king, had distin- 
guished himself as a naval commander, but was unpopular 
with the general pubhc on account of his gloomy temper 
and the ill favour in which his religion was held. He 
had been brought up to the Eoman Catholic persuasion, 
and liis first acts were to go openly to mass, to sanction 
the erection of Jesuit colleges, and to establish Eoman 
Catholic bishops. These things much displeased the 
nation, and so, when the Duke of Monmouth (an ille- 
gitimate son of the late king) came over to England, set 
up his standard in Dorsetshire and claimed the crown, 
thousands flocked to his aid, and he found himself, in a 
very few days, at the head of a considerable army. He 
was defeated at Sedgemore, a village near Bridgewater, 
and, being hotly pursued, was found concealed in a field, 
hidden among branches of fern, and utterly worn-out with 
hunger and fatigue. Despite his supplications for mercy, 
James was inexorable, and the unhappy young man was 
executed, July 15th, 1685. 

XI. — The most savage persecutions followed. Twenty 
prisoners were hung upon the field of battle ; but to the 
infamous memory of Judge Jeffi-ies (the most bloodthirsty 
of legal murderers) belong the chief horrors of what has 
been called the English Eeign of Terror, Hundreds of 
victims, old and young, were sacrificed for having been 
implicated in the rebellion ; and in Scotland people were 
hung and drowned for refusing to repeat the Creed. The 
English fleet mutinied because James had ordered mass to 
be read on board the vessels, and the Bishop of London 
was suspended from ofiice. 

XII. — The king next issued a proclamation of entire 


liberty of conscience to his subjects; a proceeding which, 
although it bore a fair appearance, was known to be solely 
put forward for the favouring of Eoman Catholicism. 
Seven bishops of the Church of England undertook to 
deliver a remonstrance to the king, especially concerning 
that clause of his proclamation in which he desired that 
it should be read in all the chui'ches upon the conclusion 
of divine service. For this courageous resistance the 
bishops were arrested and thrown into the Tower (June 
29, 16SS), but, being acquitted upon their trial, were 
regarded as the saviours of the Protestant religion, and 
met everywhere by rejoicing thousands. 

XIII. — It was while affairs were in this position that 
the eyes of all men were turned for deliverance to William, 
Prince of Orange, who had married Mary, the eldest 
daughter of James. This wise and politic prince, being 
invited over by the clergy and the people, left Holland 
with a fleet of 500 vessels and an army of 14,000 men, 
landing at Torbay on the 5th of November, 1688, Here 
he was joined by the nobility, clergy, and military; even 
by Lord Churchill, who owed everything to the bounty of 
the king ; and by Prmce George of Denmark and his wife 
the Princess Anne, second daughter to James. 

XIV. — In this manneiHhe crown changed hands withjut 
the striking of a blow. James was confined at Rochester, 
but was permitted to escape to France, where he after- 
wards died ; and the Prince and Princess of Orange were 
proclaimed joint king and queen of England on the 13th 
February, 1680. 


I. With what measures did were his commands received by 
Charles commence his reij^n ? the rresbyterian ministers? 
"What indignities M'ere oflcred III. In wliat year was ws^ 
to the body of Cromwell ? declared with Holland, and hov/ 

II. By wliat unpopular mea- ended tlie first engagement ? 
eure did Charles lose the good IV. What calamity befel 
opinion of the people? How London in 1665? When diiJ 



the great fire take place? How 
long did it last, and what was 
the extent of tlie destruction? 

V. In v\ ]iat waj' did the Dutch 
take advantage of our distress, 
and in wliat year ? 

YI. AVhen was the Popish 
plot set on foot, and by wliom? 
lielate the purport of Oates's 
statements. When was the Earl 
of Stafford beheaded ? 

YII. In what year was the 
Habeas Corpus Act passed ? 
"What is the purport of tlife Act? 

VIII. What illustrious gen- 
tlemen were concerned in tlie 
Rye-liouse Plot ? What were 
their respective fates ? 

IX. What was the power of 
the king at this time? When 
did he die? What was the 
cause of his death ? What 
sacraments did he receive ? 
AVhat was his age ? How lojig 
had he reigned ? What was his 

X. r>y whom was Charles 
eucceeded? AVith what acts 
did James commence his reign ? 
How was the insurrection of 

Monmouth received by the 
people !* flow did his rebellion 
terminate, and what was hia 

XI. How did the king's army 
treat tiie prisoners? AVliat in- 
famous judge was appointed to 
try the rebels? What were the 
cruel results ? What took place 
in the English fleet, and what 
Eishop was suspended from 
ollice ? 

XII. WHiat was the real ten- 
dency of the king's order re- 
specting liberty of conscience ? 
Who protested against it? How 
was this remonstrance received ? 
What was the event of the 
trial ? 

XIII. To whom did the people 
look for assistance? Witli what 
army and how many ships did 
Prince William leave Holland? 
When and where did he land ' 
By whom was his standard 
joined ? 

XIV. Did the crown change 
hands easily ? What became 
of James ? When were the new 
sovereigns proclaimed ? 



Began to reign. Died. 

King William III a.d. 1CS9 1702, 

Queen Mary II „ 1CS9 I(j94. 

QuesnAnne „ 1J02 1714 

William IIJ 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1CS9. DZi:X> 1702. 

I. — ^William III., +hroughout his reis^n in England 
(for Queen Mary, who was the daughter of -Tames IL, had 
little to do with affairs of State, and died before her 


husband), was troubled with treachery at home and warfare 
abroad. A great war with France continued nearly the 
whole time, and not only his crown, but his life was several 
times attempted by the emissaries of the exiled James. 
The latter went over to Ireland in the spring of 1690, 
raised an army of 40,000 men, and besieged Londonderry. 
Failing in his attempt to reduce that city, he was forced 
to retreat with a loss of 9000 men, and being met on the 
banks of the river Boyne (June 30, 1690) by King William 
and his army, was signally defeated. 

II. — The late king was not yet discouraged by these 
failures, but fought a last battle at Aughrim, and was 
forced to retreat to Limerick. Here, finding all chance of 
victory gone, his adherents capitulated, and above 14,000 
of them followed him to France. 

III. — William of Orange was a great general, and the 
bravest of soldiers. War was his element, and in raising 
sums for the prosecution of his military plans, he plunged 
the Government into that great National Debt which it 
has never since been able to discharge. Peace was, how- 
ever, concluded at Ryswick, after eight years of bloodshed 
(Sept. 20, 1697) ; and on the 8th of March, 1702, England 
lost this remarkable and celebrated sovereign. He was 
just fifty-two years of age, and was succeeded by Lis 
wife's sister. 

began to reign a.d. 1702. died 1714. 

lY. — Anne, second daughter of King James II., 
now reigned in England, and her reign is the history of 
constant but brilliant warilire. The court of Versailles 
had acknowledged the son of James II. as Prince of 
Wales. Queen Anne felt this to be both a political ana 
personal insult, and declared for war. Lord Churchill, 
now Duke of Marlborough, received the command of the 
English army, as well as that of the Dutch, who sided 
Urith us. The Germans joined the alliance j the Nether- 


lands were speedily cleared of the Invader; several towns 
were taken by siege ; and the first of a series of splendid 
victories was fought at Blenheim, August 2nd, 1704. In 
this year also the fortress of Gibraltar was taken by Sir 
G. EookfcV and has remained ours ever since. 

V. — The next great victory which brought glory to 
Marlborough was the famous battle of Eamixies (May 21, 
1706) ; and in the autumn of the same year were finally 
united the kingdoms of England and Scotland. Though 
these two countries had since the accession of James I. 
acknowledged but one sovereign, they had enjoyed sepa- 
rate laws md separate parliaments : now both were repre- 
sented at Westminster, and the Union was ratified as it 
still exists. 

YI. — The year 1708 was signalized by the victory of 
Oudenarde, gained by the Duke of Marlborough ; which 
was followed, in 1709, by the equally brilliant battle of 
Malplaquet. Shortly after this, by a system of court 
intrigues, the particulars of which would detain us too long 
in this place, the Duke of Marlborough and his wife (to 
whom the queen had been greatly attached) fell into dis- 
grace. The great general was dismissed from his com- 
mand, and a treaty of peace was entered upon at the 
celebrated Conference of Utrecht. By this instrument, 
signed in April, 1713, England's glory and interest were 
secured. To her jurisdiction France resigned Hudson's 
Bay, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland — Spain relinquished 
Gibraltar and Minorca — and the fortifications of Dunkirk, 
whijh might have proved dangerous to our trade in time 
of war, wer3 demolished. The rest of Europe was dealt 
by with equal fairness. 

VII. — Soon after this event the health of Queen Anne 
declineJ., and on the 31st of July, 1714, she died, at the 
age of forty-nine. She had reigned for twelve years; was 
much beloved by the people ; and went by the glorious 
and enviable title of "the good Queen A:ine." During 



her reign, Addison, Steele, Pope, Bolingbroke, Gay, Swift, 
Prior, and other famous wits and poets, whose works are 
considered to be our national classics, lived and wrote. 
This epoch is styled the Augustan age of English lite- 


I. Was the reign of AVil- 
liam peaceful and prosperous ? 
"Wliither did James repair? 
Wliat army did he assemble, 
and what town besiege ? When 
was the battle of tlie Boyne 
fought, and with what suc- 

II. When did James fight 
his last battle? What took 
place at Limerick ? 

III. What was the cause of 
the Naticual Debt ? When and 
wliere was peace concluded ? 
When did WiUiam die? What 
was his age, and by whom was 
he succeeded ? 

IV. Why did Queen Anne 
declare war with France? Who 
became allies with the English, 
and who was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief? What success 
had Marlborough in the Nether- 
lands, and when did he win his 
first great victory? What other 

important acquisition was made 
in this year? 

V. What was the next vic- 
tory gained by Marlborough? 
AVhat great legal event took 
place in the autumn of 1706? 
\Vhat had been the points of 
separation between England 
and Scotland ? In what way 
wers they removed ? 

VI. What were the two great 
victories of 1708 and 1709? 
How did it happen that Marl- 
borough lost his command? 
Where was the peace conference 
held ? What glorious conces- 
sions were made by France and 
Spain to the arms of England? 

VII. When did Queen Anne 
die ? What was her age ? By 
what popular name was she 
known ? What celebrated lite- 
rary characters lived during her 
reign? By what name is the 
age distinguished ? 



Began to Reign. 

George I a.d. 17U. . . « 

George II „ 1727. . . . 

George III „ 17G0, ... 


Geoege I. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1714. DIED 1727. 

1. — George I. of Brunswick, Elector of Hanover, and 
fi^reat grandson of James I., succeeded to the "good 


Queen Anne." He was fifty-four years of age wlien he 
received the crown, and was preceded by a character 
for sagacity, experience, and industry, w^hich led the 
nation to expect a happy and peaceable reign. How- 
ever, he soon showed that he could be vindictive towards 
those of the nobility who had been unfavourable to his 
succession. The Duke of Ormond, Lord Bolingbroke, 
and the Earls of Oxford and Mortimer, were impeached of 
high treason, and Matthew Prior, the poet, was taken 
into custody. The Duke of Ormond and Bolingbroke, 
having fled to the continent, were degraded from their 
rank; their names and arras were razed from the list of 
peers, and their estates confiscated. Lord Oxford was set 
at liberty. 

II. — Rebellion now broke out in Scotland (a.d. 1715), 
and the son of James II., known as the Pretender, 
was there supported by the interest of the Earl of 
Mar, and by arms, ammunition, and soldiers from France. 
InsuiTections were also started in various parts of the 
western counties ; but were promptly quelled by Generals 
Carpenter, Wills, and Pepper. Man}- noblemen and gentle- 
men of rank and substance took part in these disastrous 
risings — the prisons of London were crowded with unhappy 
captives — the Lords Derwentwater, Carnwath, Wintoun, 
Kenmuir, Widdrington, and Nair were executed — five 
persons of inferior rank were hanged at Tyburn — two-and- 
twenty at Preston and Manchester — and about a thousand 
were transported. The king would hear of no mercy. 

III. — Perhaps the most extraordinary event in the 
reign of this sovereign was the great South-Sea Bubble. 
We will endeavour to explain the nature of the specu- 
lation as briefly as possible. During the reign of 
William III., the government was obliged to borrow 
money (for war purposes) from different companies of 
merchants, and among the rest, from the South-Se? 
traders. For this particular debt the government waa 


paying an annual interest of £500,000. Now in 1720, 
one Blunt, a scrivener, came to the ministry in the niime of 
this Company, and proposed to them that it (the South-Sea 
Company) should become sole creditor to the State b}' the 
purchase of the debts of all the other companies. Having 
bought up these, they offered to accept an interest of five 
per cent, for the first six years, and a reduced interest of 
four per cent, ever after, till the parliament found itself in 
a position to pay it off altogether. But the Company was 
not rich enough to make this gigantic purchase from its 
existent funds; and they proceeded to raise money by 
opening a subscription for trading in the South Seas, by 
which traffic they persuaded the public that great fortunes 
were to be made. Thus deluded, the purchasers of South- 
Sea stock poured in by thousands, and the government 
creditors sold their government stock for that of the South- 
Sea Company. It was even advanced that the government 
was about to exchange Gibraltar for a portion of Peru ; than 
which anj'thing more chimerical can hardly be conceived. 
The Bubble exploded ; the directors' estates, to the value 
of £2,014,000 were seized in 1721 ; and many thousand 
families were overwhelmed with ruin. 

IV. — The king, who had not been over to inspect big 
Hanoverian dominions for some time, resolved to pay them 
a visit in the month of June, 1727. He embarked for 
Holland accordingly ; but while travelling in his carriage 
from Delden, where he had passed the night, was taken 
suddenly ill, and expired at Osnaburgh the next morning, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age and the thirteenth of his 

Geoege II. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1727. DIED 1760. 

V. — George II. succeeded to his fiithcr when f n-ty-four 
years of age, and his son, being summoned over from 
Hanover, took his rank as Prince of Wales. A miA- 


understanding with Spain occurred early in this reign. 
In consequence of the discovery of some illicit trading- 
vessels commanded by Englishmen, the Spanish guard- 
ships seized indiscriminately upon innocent and guilty, 
and subjected our merchant captains to considerable an- 
noyance. Admiral Yernon was accordingly sent out with 
a fleet of six ships to attack the Spanish settlements in 
America (a.d, 1739). Here he was uniformly victorious. 
Having taken Porto Bello, he bombarded Carthagena and 
took Fort Chagre, while Commodore Anson attacked the 
city of Palta, on the coast of Peru, captured a valuable 
Spanish galleon, and returned home laden with booty. 

VI. — The death of the Emperor of Austria in 1740 
afforded the French an opportunity to interfere with the 
succession of that empire. Setting aside the hereditary 
claims of the Emperor's daughter, Maria Tlieresa, Queen 
of Hungary, they caused the Elector of Bavaria to be 
raised to the imperial throne, whilst the King of Prussia 
gi-asped the provinces of Silesia. At this juncture Eng- 
land came forward to assist the cause of justice, and her 
example being followed by Holland, Sardinia, and Russia, 
the Elector was obliged to fly, and Maria Theresa reigned 
in her father's kingdom. 

VII. — The French declared for war (a.d. 1743), and 
being met on the banks of the Maine by the English 
army under command of the king in person, weic 
signally defeated by a force numbering 20,000 less than 
their own. This was the famous battle of Dettingen. 
Meanwhile, Prince Charles Edward, son to the Pretender 
and grandson to James II., made a bold stroke for the 
English crown; landed in Scotland with a few desperate 
adventurers, seven officers, and arms for only 2000 men ; 
•rained an unimportant victory over Sir John Cope at 
Preston Pans ; and took possession of Dunkeld, Perth, 
Dundee, and Edinburgh. He then reduced Carlisle, and 
advanced into England; but not finding himself supported 


here, retreated northward, followed by tlie English army 
and the Duke of Cumberland. Upon the plain of Cul- 
loden the cause of the Stuarts was for ever lost. A 
great battle was fought on the 16th April, 1746. The 
loss of the English scarcely exceeded 200 men, while 2500 
Scots were left on the field. Charles Edward sought safety 
in flight ; escaped through countless dangers ; and died at 
Eome in 1788. 

VIII. — Warfare abroad and rebellion at home induced 
England to regard with favour a negotiation proposed 
between the belligerent powers in the year 1748. At 
Aix-la-Chapelle a treaty was thereupon concluded, by 
which all nations were pacified, and peace prevailed in 
Europe. Kot so, however, in !N'orth America and in the 
East and West Indies. In those colonies the French and 
English had never ceased from hostilities, and while all 
was once more quiet in this quarter of the globe, the 
names of Wolfe and Clive were spreading terror among 
our distant enemies. In America the islands of Cape Breton 
and St. John's were taken ; the French settlements on the 
coast of Africa were reduced; the isle of Guadaloupe was cap- 
tured ; and Wolfe fell at the surrender of Quebec, a.d. 1760. 

IX. — But the glory of the great British name was still 
farther increased by the splendid successes of Clive in the 
East Indies. Terribly revenging the death of 123 English 
subjects in the Black hole, this gallant soldier attacked and 
took Calcutta, June 20, 1757, afterwards winning a second 
splendid victory at Plassey, by which was acquired the 
province of Bengal, a district exceeding in size the whole 
extent of Great Britain, and in wealth, fertility, and 
natural advantages, all the provinces of the East. 

X. — King George II., in the midst of his glories and 
successes died quite suddenly, from a rupture of the right 
ventricle of the heart (Oct. 25, 1760), being then in the 
seventy-seventh year of his age, and the thirty-third of 
his reigu. In consequence of the death of Frederick 


Prince of Wales some nine years previously, the king was 
succeeded by his grandson, under the title of George III. 

George III. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1760. DIED 1830. 

XL — George III., grandson of George II., ascended 
the English throne at a period when our arms abroad and 
the progress of our wealth and civilization at home had 
rendered the position of the monarch one of the most en- 
viable and illustrious in the whole world. The first remark- 
able event in this reign was the declaration of war between 
England and Spain, in 1762, followed by a successful expe- 
dition against ]\Ianilla and the Havannah. Altogether this 
was one of the most glorious wars ever carried on in any 
age by any people. In the course of seven years were won 
twelve great battles by land and sea. Twenty-five islands, 
nine fortified cities, and forty forts and castles were taken; 
a hundred ships of war were captured; and more thdM twelve 
millions were acquired as plunder. In the beginning of 
1765, the imposition of the Stamp Act upon our American 
colonies raised the first hostile feelings between the two 
countries, and in 1774 the tea sent from England laden 
with a certain duty, was thrown by an enraged populace 
into the waters of Boston harbour. 

XII. — Open war ensued, and an engagement at Lex- 
ington took pluce, near Boston, April 19, 1775. In this 
alFau' the English lost 273 soldiers, and the Americans 
about forty or fifty. The great battle of Banker's Hill 
followed, upon June 17» in Avhich the Americans were 
vanquished after a valiant resistance; and on the 4th 
July, 1776, they proclaimed their independence. 

XIII. — In the year 1778, France declared in favour of 
the Americans, and in 1779 Spain acknowledged their 
independence. Thus war was provoked with tliese two 
powers, and in 1781 a third enemy was found in the 
Dutch. During this latter year, England was carrying on 


it one time, by sea and land, four great contests — namely, 
with America, France, Spain, and Holland. In the 
month of October, however, the surrender of lork-to\Am 
by Lord Cornwall is to General Washington was the 
virtual ending of the American war. 

XIV. — In the year 1784, peace was made with Holland 
and with America, now known as the United States. 
Peace was also concluded between the East India Company 
and the Rrjah of Mysore. 

XV. — A terrible revolution took place in France in 
the memorable year 1789, which, although it did not 
directly affect the interests of the British throne, was des- 
tined ultimately to ext-end an unparalleled influence over 
the destinies of Europe. The populace rose, destroyed the 
Bastille, deposed and imprisoned King Louis XVI., and 
declared France a republic. After many excesses, during 
which the European powers stood b}' as inactive spectators, 
the French Jacobins guillotined the king, queen, and 
certain members of the royal family, a.d. 1793 ; where- 
upon a great confederacy was established between England, 
Spain, Holland, and the empires of Germany and Rus- 
sia, to restore the crown of France. Valenciennes was 
taken ; Toulon was taken and lost again ; many French 
settlements in the West Indies were captured (a.d. 1791) ; 
the Island of Corsica was subdued; and the Cape of Good 
Hope and Trincomalee in Ceylon were added to the pos- 
sessions of Great Britain. 

XVI. — And now the most extraordinary man of 
modern history, the greatest conqueror of any age since 
Julius Cajsar, the finest .soldier that ever won French 
laurels, began to distinguish himself against the Aus- 
trians (a.d. 1795), and to pave the way for the magni- 
ficent reputation which, as Napoleon the Great, he after- 
wards acquired. Before his arms the States of Germany 
were forced to sue for peace, and the English viceroy wiis 
compelled to evacuate Corsica. The year 1797 saw the 


mutinies of Spithead and the Nore, the disgrace of which 
■was, however, compensated by the splendid victories of 
Cape St. Yincent and Camperdowu, won by Admirals Sir 
John Jervis and Duncan. These brave commanders were 
each rewarded with a peerage. 

XVII. — The highly-merited fame of these two great 
victories was nevertheless eclipsed by that of the battle 
of the Nile (a.d. 1798), in which Nelson asserted his place 
as the first naval commander of that day ; cut through 
the centre of the French fleet; dispersed, captured, 
and destroyed thirteen of the enemy's ships ; and was 
recompensed with the title of Baron Nelson of the Nile, 
and a pension of £3000 per annum. In the meantime. 
Napoleon Buonaparte was rapidly taking the lead in all 
the most important affairs of the French Republic. To 
him was entrusted the command of a powerful army in 
Egypt; but, finding the English so victorious upon the 
Nile, he hastened back to Paris, and was created first 
consul, in 1799. In the beginning of 1800, he crossed the 
Alps at the head of his army, and by the brilliant victory 
of Marengo (14th June) annihilated, for the time, the 
Austrian power in Ital3\ 

XVIII. — The Union of Great Britain with Ireland was 
fixed by an act of parliament passed on the 21st of April, 
1800, to commence from the first day of the new century 
(January 1st, 1801). The Imperial Parliament of the 
United Kingdom v/as summoned to meet on the 22nd of 
the same month. This measure met with much opposition 
from the Irish. 

XIX. — In this year (a.d. 1801), Napoleon succeeded 
in fomenting a war between England and Denmark, 
and a powerful fleet, under Lord Nelson and Sir H. 
Parker, was accordingly despatched to the bombard- 
ment of Copenhagen. The Danes had made formidable 
preparations, and fought valiantly during a strife of 
four hours, when, having lost all their ships of the line 


and their floating batteries, they were compelled to capi- 
tulate. Shortly after this, the French were routed in 
Egypt by Sir Ralph Abercrombie and IMaj or- General 
Hutchinson, where the battles of Aboukir and Alexandria 
were won, in the former of which the brave Abercrombie 
met his death-wound. 

XX. — While Great Britain was thus extending her 
triumphs abroad (a.d. 1802), she was threatened by 
Napoleon with an invasion at home. For this purpose 
he had prepared a flotilla of flat-bottomed boats, and other 
vessels, for the conveyance of his troops. Alarmed 
by these movements on the part of the enemy, the 
government assembled a squadron, under Lord Nelson, 
for the defence of the coast. The invasion was never 
attempted : a treaty was entered upon by the English, 
French, Spanish, and Dutch powers, and on the 29th 
April, 1802, peace was proclaimed in London. This 
interval was destined not to be of long duration, and war 
was again proclaimed, April 29th, 1803. 

XXI. — Not content with the title of first consul, Napo- 
leon constituted himself emperor of France in the year 
1804, and was crowned king of Italy in 1805. In conse- 
quence of these proceedings, an alliance was now formed 
between England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden. But 
Napoleon was victorious at Austerlitz, where he signally 
defeated the Austrian forces, and Russia was compelled to 
retreat. Fortunatel}^ the share borne by England was 
sufficiently victorious to counterbalance these disasters. 
October 21st, 1805, was fought the famous battle of 
Trafalgar, in Vv'hich Lord Nelson defeated the united fleets 
of France and Spain, and er:pired just as the conquest was 
assured. The following year (1806) records the death of 
the two most famous statesmen of that epoch — namelv, 
William Pitt and Charles James Fox. 

XXII. — Napoleon was now the greatest monarch of 
Europe. Emperor of France, king of Italy, protector of 


Bavaria and Wirtemberg, he dominated over every other 
governiner.t oscepting those of England and Spain. Two 
of his brothers filled the thrones of Holland and Naples; 
Denmark was in his service; Prussia at his mercy; Russia 
had just concluded a peace Avhich was entirely to his advan- 
tage; and Austria enjoj-ed but the shadow of a power 
which was really vested in his hands. Had he then been 
prudent, all might have been well; but he resolved to 
seize upon Spain likewise, and from this attempt may the 
beginning of his ruin be dated. 

XXIII. — Having taken Ferdinand of Spain prisoner 
by an ingeniou? stratagem (a.d. 1808), he carried that 
monarch and his son into France, and proclaimed his 
brother Joseph king of Spain. A general insurrec- 
tion immediately broke out in all parts of Spain; aid 
was implored from England ; the peasantry formed them- 
selves into guerilla parties, annoying and surprising the 
French at every opportunity, cutting off their supplies, 
shooting their stragglers, and skirmishing with their out- 
posts; except where the army was actually present, the 
power of Napoleon was set at nought ; and, to crown all, 
an army of 10,000 men was sent out, commanded by Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, better known at the present time by 
the honoured title of Duke of Wellington. Thus com- 
menced the famous Peninsular war, and the fii'st engage- 
ment is known as the decisive battle of Yimiera, August 
2Ut, 1808. 

XXIV. — The next event of Importance was the victory 
of Talavera (July 27th, 1809), in acknowledgment of 
which Sir Arthur Wellesley received the title of Viscount 
Wellington. Not so fortunate was the memorable and 
ill-fated expedition to Walcheren, in which nearly 50,000 
fine soldiers fell inglorious victims to the unhealthy cli- 
mate of Zealand and the disgraceful inefhciency of those 
placed in command. In the following year (1810), Lord 
Wellington completely drove the French troops from Per- 


tugal. At this period, a succession of splendid victories, 
too numerous to admit of notice in so brief a recapitula- 
tion as the present, everywhere attended the career of 

XXV. — England and Ilussia now coalesced against 
France (a.d. 1812), and the emperor resolved upon an 
invasion of Russia; collected an army of 600,000 men; 
forced his way to Borodino, where, after a sanguinary 
battle of three successive daj's, the Russians were de- 
feated; and pushed on, immediately, for Moscow. The 
Russians, knowing no other means by which to deprive 
the French of winter quarters and provisions, actually set 
fire to their ancient and beautiful capital, so that on their 
arrival the conquerors found nothing but desolation and 
flames. Thus disappointed of resources, they began a 
hasty retreat to France, having to traverse an enemy's 
country amid all the horrors of a northern winter, and 
being utterly destitute of all provision, except such as 
they could find amid the deserted villages along their 
route. During this frightful journey, they w^ere perpe- 
tually harassed b}' flying bodies of Cossacks ; were starved, 
frozen, and left to die by the wa3'side. Xo less than 
300,000 splendid soldiers thus perished miserably. Seeing 
the emperor's present weakness, all the European powers 
now combined to crush their common enemy. One by 
one his conquests were wrested from him, and on May 
31st, 1814, the allied armies entered Paris. On the 6th 
of April following, Napoleon signed his abdication at 
Fontainebleau, and Louis XVIII. was recalled to the 
throne of his ancestors. 

XXVL — In the j'ear 1815, while the ambassadors 
were assembled at Vienna to adjust the claims of Europe, 
the world was struck with surprise, terror, and admi- 
ration, by the report that Napoleon had escaped from 
his exile at Elba, and, having landed in France, was 
once again at the head of his beloved army. Again he 


ascended the imperial throne — again the allied sovereigns 
assembled their forces, and again they met, for the last 
time, upon the held of Waterloo, near Brussels. Here, 
on the 18th of June, was fought the glorious and ever- 
memorable battle of Waterloo, in which the French army 
was irrevocably routed, and fled from the field in the 
utmost confusion. All was now over with the brilliant 
hero of the great empire : he surrendered himself to the 
English mercy, and was sent a prisoner to the far and 
lonely island of St. Helena, where, after lingering through 
a few melancholy years, he died on the 5th of Ma}^, 1821, 
The expenses of England during the prosecution of this 
war are said to have exceeded seventy millions. 

XXVIL— The year 1820 proved fatal to the Duke of 
Kent, father to her present Majesty; and in less than 
a week after the death of this prince, England lost, ir» 
George III., one of her most respected sovereigns. This 
venerable monarch expired on the 29th January, 1820, in 
the eighty-second year of his age and the sixtieth of his 
reign, which is the longest and most remarkable in the 
annals of English history. 


I. By whom was Queen Anne what was found to be the value 
succeeded ? How old was of the directors' estates ? 
George I., and what character IV. Relate the manner of the 
preceded him? What noble- kings death. 

men experienced his resent- V. By whom was George I. 

ment ? How were Ormond and succeeded ? What was the nature 

Bolingbroke punished ? of the misunderstanding with 

II. Wiiat proceedings were Spain ? In what year was 
now taken by the I'retender, Admiral Vernon sent out ? 
andby whom was he supported? What successes were achieved 
What generals quelled the in- by liim and Commodore Anson? 
surrections? Wliat became of VI. On what occasion did 
the various insurgents ? the French interKre with the 

III. Describe the nature and Austrian succession ? What in- 
origin of that speculation called ju-tice did they commit towards 
the South-Sea Bubble. How Maria Theresa? What coun- 
did the South-Sea Company tries joined with England to 
raise money from public ere- assist the cause of justice, and 
duiity ? When the bubble burst, -n hat was the result ? 



Vn. In what year did the 
French declare war? What 
great battle took place on the 
banks of the Maine? What 
was Prince Charles Edward 
about in the mean time ? What 
cities did he seize in Scotland ? 
By whom was he pursued? 
When was the battle of Cul- 
loden fought? What was the 
result? What was the fate of 
the young Pretender ? 

VIII. In what year was con- 
cluded the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelk^ ? In what colonies did 
the French and English con- 
tinue at war? What great men 
were at this time active against 
our distant enemies ? What 
were our conquests abroad, and 
when did General Wolfe fall? 

IX. AVhat terrible revenge 
was taken by Clive in the East 
Indies ? What were his con- 
quests there? 

X. When did George II. die, 
and by whom was he succeeded? 

XI. Wliat was the first re- 
markable event in this reign ? 
What were the successes of 
seven years? When was the 
Stamp Act imposed on our 
American colonies, and how 
was it received ? 

XII. Wlien ^egan the war 
between England and America? 
When was the first battle 
fought, and with Avhat result ? 
What W.1S the next battle ? 
When did the Americans pro- 
claim themst'lves independent? 

XIII. Wliat countries ac- 
knowledged their indepen- 
dence? What great wars did 
England carry on in conse- 
quence? What was tlie virtual 
ending of the American war? 

XIA'. Wliat treaties of i)eace 
were made in the year 1784? 

XV. What dreadful event 
occurred in France in 1789? 

What wore the procecdingB of 
the French Revolutionists, and 
into what confederacy did the 
European powers enter in 

XVI. What extraordinary 
man now began to make his 
name known in Europe ? What 
were his successes ? What fa- 
mous mutinies occurred in 1797, 
and what splendid victories at 

XVII. In what year di(E 
Nelson win the battle of th« 
Kile? Relate the circumstances 
of the engagement. How was 
the gallant admiral rewarded? 
What were the proceedings of 
Napoleon at this juncture? In 
what year was he created First 
Consul? AYhen did he cross 
the Alps, and what great vic- 
tory followed ? 

XVIII. Relate the particulars 
of the Union. 

XIX. In what year was Co- 
penhagen bombarded, and vriih 
what success ? By whom were 
the French defeated in Egypt, 
and what general there met hio 
death ? 

XX. In what year did Napo- 
leon project an invasion of 
England ? What steps were 
taken to prevent it? Wiien 
was peace concluded, and how 
long did it last ? 

XXI. What royal titles were 
next assumed by Napoleon, and 
in what great battle did he 
defeat the Austrians ? Whe^ 
was the battle of Trafalgar 
fought ? Wliat was the fate of 
Nelson ? What statesmen died 
in tlie year ISOG? 

XXII. What was the position 
of Napoleon at this time? From 
what point may his ruin be 
dated ? 

XXIII. What step.s did he 
take to put lAi brother on the 


throne of Spain ? TTith what What powers now combined to 

resistance did he meet ? Name crush the emperor, and what 

the first battle of the great success had they? 

Peninsular War. XXVI. In what year did 

XXIV. For what victory was Kapoleon escape from Elba? 
Wel'.esley promoted ? What When was fought the battle of 
were the losses at Walcheren ? Waterloo, and with what re- 
in what year did Welliugtou suit? AVhat was the end of 
drive the French from For- Kapoleon ? 

tugal? XXVII. When did the Duke 

XXV. Eelate the particulars of Kent die? WJiat relation 
of Napoleons expedition to was he to Queen Victoria? 
Eufsia in lsl2. How many When did George III. die, and 
men did he take out, and how at what age ? How long liad 
many periahed in the retreat ? he reigned ? 


Began to reign. Died. 

George IV a.d. 1820 1830. 

WlLMAil IV „ 1S30. ..... 1S37. 

VicroKiA I , . „ 1S37 reigning. 

George IV. 


I. — Geoege IV., eldest son of George III., and fourth 
sovereign of the House of Brunswick, succeeded to the 
throne. As Prince Regent during the last ten years of his 
father's life, wlien mental and bodily infirmity had rendered 
that aged monarch incapable of governing, George IV. 
had virtually been king of England long before ha wore the 
crown. He was a man of polished and fascinating man- 
ners, but heartless as Charles I., and profligate as Charles II. 
The first act of his reign was to exclude his wife's name 
from the liturgy of the church, and to seek a divorce by 
means of accusations against her, which, even though they 
might be only too true, should never have met the public 
ear. She came over to England, where her cause was espoused 


by the populace, and took up her residence at Hammer- 
smith. Although the ministers declined to proceed for a 
bill of divorce, it was decided by law that she could not 
claim the honours of coronation, to which, as Queen 
Consort, she enjoyed a prescriptive, but not a judicial 
right. Being, however, ill-advised by her supporters, she 
presented herself at the doors of Westminster Abbey, July 
19th, 1821, just as the ceremony was about to commence. 
Her demand for admission was refused, and after a length- 
ened and undignified altercation, she retired, — only to die 
within a few days, of shame, mortification, and a broken 

II. — In the year 1822 disease, famine, and rebellion 
spread through Ireland. O'Connell made himself con- 
spicuous amongst the disaff*ected ; the cry for Catholic 
emancipation rose alike from all quarters, from Brow 
Head in Cork, to Fair Head in Antrim; and a grant of 
£300,000 was sent over from England to the rehef of the 
distressed peasantry. 

III. — The prevailing liberality of opinion having ex- 
tended to the shores of Greece, that oppressed nation 
now made a desperate effort to throw off the yoke of 
Turkey. In the year 1824 Lord Bja'on, accompanied 
by several Englishmen of talent and position, went 
over to their assistance; but the noble poet was not 
destined to witness the success of the great enterprise 
which he had embraced. He died at Missolonghi on the 
19th April, 1824. The following year was remarkable for 
a great panic in the money market, and for the failui'e of 
many banking-houses, joint-stock companies, &c. By 
engaging in such ill-judged speculations, many thousands 
were ruined, and the national misery that ensued was 
witliout a parallel since the bursting of the South-Sea 

IV. — The struggle between Greece and Turkey had 
now, by its long continuance, attracted the attention 


of Europe, and determined the leading powers to Inter- 
fere for the protection and liberation of the former. 
The combined fleets of England, France, and E-ussIa 
sailed, accordingly, into the port of Navarino, October 
20th, 1827; blew up, captured, and almost annihilated 
the Turkish navy under Ibrahim Pacha, and confirmed 
the independence of the nation which they came to 

V. — It became daily more and more evident that 
Ireland would never be otherwise than disaffected and 
unsettled, so long as the law excluded Eoman Catholics 
from the just privileges of the king's subjects. At this 
period to believe in transubstantiation and the infalli- 
bility of the Pope, was to be excluded fi"om parliament, 
to be denied the possession of arms, to be ineligible 
for all corporate offices, such as that of mayor, sheriff, 
&c. ; and, in short, to be subject to such a host of 
indignities as even, at this brief distance of time, we feel 
almost difficult of belief. In the month of February, 1829, 
this important question was brought before the House of 
Commons, and in the month of April was carried by a large 
majority in the House of Lords, when it becam^A^law, 
known as the Eoman Catholic Emancipation Act. All 
subjects of Great Britain were henceforth equals through- 
out these realms. 

VI. — In the early part of 1830, the king's health began 
to decline, and, after a lingering illness of some months, he 
expu-ed at Windsor on the 20th of June. 

Willi Ail IV. 

BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1830. DIED 1837. 

VII. — King William IV., late Duke of Clarence, and 
brother to George IV., now succeeded to the crown. Tha 
jear 1332 is famous for the great Eeform of Parliament, 
carried by the King and the Commons against the stre- 
niLOua opposiuon of the Lords. Thereby parliament was 


put npon a basis of security, in accordance with the public 
wish ; many evils were swept away, and a valuable power 
of further reform was vested in the nation. The franchise 
was removed from barely-populated to thickly-inhabited 
towns, bribery at elections made punishable, and the 
benefits which we now enjoy were secured to us for ever. 

YIII. — Theyear 1834 was signalized bya measurewhich, 
if it do not affect us so intimately as that of parliamentary 
reform, is of vital interest to a large proportion of British 
subjects — we allude to the act by which slavery was 
abolished throughout our colonies. The sum of £20,000,000 
sterling was granted by parliament for compensation to 
the masters of the liberated slaves ; and on August 1st, 
1834, no less than 770,280 became free men — a number 
equal to one-third of the popula^on of London. 

IX.— In 1837 the health of William IV. was observed 
to fail rapidly, and on the 21st of June he died, much 
regretted, after a brief and prosperous reign, during which 
he had aided to advance the liberties of his people, and 
succeeded in attaching to his memory the respect of 


X. — In the nineteenth j-ear of her age, when this great 
empire was at peace with the world — when the legislative 
measures of the preceding reigns had ceased to provoke 
hostilities, and already begun to manifest their beneficia* 
results, Queen Victoria I., daughter to the late Duke of 
Kent, and grand-daughter to King George III., ascended 
the throne, and her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, imme- 
diately departed to take possession of the kingdom of 
Hanover, now severed from the British Empire by the 
operation of the Salic law, which excludes females from the 
<;rown. Lower Canada was at this time in a state of actual 
revolt J but the rebels, being defeated, lied to the United 


States (Jan., 1838), and the British Parliament united 
the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, thereby 
restoring tranquillity and abolishing party spirit. In this 
year the Queen's coronation took place ; the great Affghan' 
'ztan war commenced in our East Indian territories ; and 
war with China was declared. 

XI. — A society called Chartism was formed in the 
year 1839, chiefly among the working classes, for the 
furtherance of a scheme of universal suffrage, which they 
imagined was to redress all their grievances, and which 
they proceeded to enforce by assembling, in different parts 
of the country, with guns, pikes, and other weapons. On 
the 4th of November this year, they met, to the number of 
10,000, and, headed by one Frost, made an attack upon 
Newport, but were defeated and put to flight by a detach- 
ment of the 45th Eegiment, stationed in that town. 
Three of the leaders were seized and condemned to death ; 
but the sentence was subsequently commuted to transpor- 
tation for life. In the early part of the following year 
(1840) her Majesty was married to Prince Albert of Saxe 
Coburg-Gotha. An expedition sent out to China reduced 
that country to submission. Canton was occupied by our 
forces, and the emperor was compelled to pay six millions 
of dollars for the expenses of the war, before the city was 
restored to him. 

XII. — In the meantime the Anglo-Indian army achieved 
some success at Candahar and Cabul, but, in the year 1842, 
met with serious reverses. An insun-ection broke out at 
Cabul, the British envoy was assassinated, our army almost 
cut to pieces, and the melancholy remnant obliged to 
retreat before the enemy. Lord Ellenborough was then 
sent out as Governor-General ; two armies were despatched 
against the Affghan forces ; the fortifications of Cabul were 
destroyed, the Affghans conquered, and the national 
honour retrieved. China having broken faith with us, a 
small fleet, commanded by Admiral Pai'ker, won a series 


of brilliant victories, took seven of their great commer- 
cial cities, exacted a compensatory tribute of 21,000,000 
of dollars, and took permanent possession of the valuable 
island of Hong Kong. 

XIII. — In the year 1844 began a brief 'out sanguinary 
warfare between the Government and the Sikh tribes of 
India. Five great battles were fought, many thousands 
of lives were sacrificed, and our victories were purchased 
by sad losses. Peace was concluded with the Sil-ihs in 
Tebi-uary, 1846. Just one year previously (1845) the 
corn-laws were repealed, and the people received the bless- 
ing of cheap bread. 

XIV. — It need scarcely be said that the year 1851 
is famous for the peace of all nations, and for the opening 
of the Industrial Exhibition called the Crystal Palace, 
in Hyde Park. This superb building consisted entirely 
of glass and iron ; covered nineteen acres of ground ; 
contained 1,000,000 square feet of flooring, and was 
erected at a cost of £79,800. The roof alone com- 
prised seventeen acres of glass, and more than 4000 
tons of u'on were used in the structure. Here was 
assembled the wealth, ingenuity, and industry of the 
world, from the rude implements of warfare wielded by 
the native of the Pacific Islands, to the thrice refined 
luxuries of European civilization. Here might be seen at 
one time travellers from the most opposite hemispheres, 
who, with the richest and the poorest of our own land, 
were alike employed in the study of the useful and the 
beautiful. Towards the close of the year, the materials of 
this building were sold for £70,000 to the new Crystal 
Palace Company, by whom the present gigantic Exhibition 
was erected at Sydenham, in Surrey. It is designed as a 
place of permanent recreation for the citizens of London, 
and not only ftir exceeds the former Palace in size and 
beauty, but is surrounded by gardens and- promenades, 
and ooatains the fmest fountains in Enghmd. In thia 


year, ako, the communication by means of electric tele- 
graph was perfected between England and France. 

XV.— On the 14th September, 1852, died suddenly at 
Walmer Castle, Ai'thur Duke of Wellington, the great 
general who never was defeated in a battle, and whose 
memory is for ever famous as the conqueror of Napoleon. 
He was buried with great pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
November 18th, 1852. 

XYI. — The year 1854 is among the most memorable 
which we have had to record since the conquest of 
England by the Eomans. For nearly forty years England 
had been at peace with Europe. The heroes of the 
Peninsula belonged to a fast-ebbing generation, and such 
as yet survived were old men, decorated by honour- 
able medals. Corn had been reaped upon the field 
of Waterloo ; Napoleon and Wellington were both gone, 
and their ashes rested in Paris and in London. AH was 
long past, and " on earth peace and goodwill towards men" 
seemed to have become an abiding blessing. But in the 
midst of tranquillity came injustice and strife. The 
Emperor Nicholas of Eussia, whose territories are equal 
in size to all the rest of Europe put together, claimed 
power over two-thirds of the population of Turkey, under 
the pretext that all Greeks were of the same religion as 
himseli', and that therefore all Greeks born in the Sultan's 
dominions should acknowledge him as their protector and 
the head of their church. In the meantime he seized on 
Moldavia and Wallachia as hostages for the Sultan's con- 
sent — two provinces which, together, comprise a larger 
extent of country than England and Wales, and which 
contain about one million four hundred and fifty thousand 
souls. To this demand the Sultan sent a spirited defiance, 
and after three or four brilliant actions, Omar Pacha, the 
Turkish general, succeeded in diiving the Russians back 
from Wallachia and Moldavia. England and France now 
thought it time to interfere, and, being roused to just 


indignation by the affair of Sinope, in Vv'hich 5000 Turks 
were massacred by a Russian fleet, resolved to dispute 
the aggressions of Nicholas. War was declared towards the 
end of March, 1854 England and France allied their 
fleets and armies in the good cause, and from England to 
Malta, from Malta to Gallipoli, we sent ships and soldiers 
to the relief of the Ottoman empire. 

XVII. — The first blow of the late war was struck in 
the Black Sea, March 22nd, 1854 Admirals Dundas and 
Hamelin approached Odessa, a great commercial port of the 
Euxine, and upon the refusal of the governor to give up all 
ships lying in the harbour, a vigorous bombardment from 
both fleets ensued. After a time two powder magazines 
exploded — the fortifications were destroyed — thirteen ships 
laden with muniticas of war were captured, and the allies 
drew off in trium'^n, with a loss of only five men. 

XYIIL — The armies now encamped at Varna and in the 
unhealthy valleys adjacent, where the cholera broke out, 
and committed fearful ravages among our brave men. 
The English army alone lost between 700 and 800. In 
the meantime the Russian forces had laid siege to Silistria, 
a garrison manned by 8000 Turks, and situated on the 
south bank of the Danube. For more than two months 
the soldiers of the Emperor Nicholas lay behind their 
earthworks, in front of this fortress, mining, cannonading, 
and assaulting the defenders, and still were constantly 
repulsed. At length, on the 28th June, a last and grand 
assault was led up by Prince Paskiewitch, Count Orloff, 
and General Gortschakoff. The Turks triunipliantly 
repulsed them. Orlolf was killed; the other leaders 
seriously wounded ; the troops fled in confusion across the 
river, and the siege was raised. More than 30,000 
Russians perished in this enterprise. 

XIX, — The Allies next determined on an invasion of the 
Crimea, a peninsula which was the very stronghold of the 
Russian power in the Black Sea, and defended by the 


strongest and most richly stored arsenal in the world. On 
the 7th September, 1854, the great fleet, nearly 400 vessels, 
set sail from Varna, and on the 14th inst. the array was 
landed about eight miles from Eupatoria. On the 20th 
we attached the enemy, then drawn up in great strength 
among their batteries and entrenchments along the steep 
banks of the little river Alma. The Russians numbered 
64,000 men, the allies about 50,000. The French com- 
menced the attack, and, being followed up by our men, 
drove the Russians from their admirable position, pursued 
them do\vn the hill, and after a contest of only three 
hours, achieved one of the noblest victories in the annals of 
our wars. The allies lost 609 men, and 2699 were 
wounded. The Russian loss was stated to be 1762 killed 
and 2720 wounded ; but it is likely that their disasters 
were more serious still. On the 23rd, the allies marched 
southwards, and on Monday, the 25th, arrived before the 
fishing port of Balaklava, which, after a faint show of 
resistance, surrendered unconditionally. The brave little 
garrison were sent as prisoners to Constantinople, and the 
army took up its quarters in the deserted lanes and hovels 
of the town. 

XX. — From this time our engineers and soldiers were 
actively employed in making entrenchments and earth- 
works before Sebastopol. Here we mounted guns, and 
every day crept nearer and nearer the forts of the enemy. 
Continual efforts to harass the working parties in the 
trenches — to surprise them iu their lines at night — to 
pour out suddenly by day, and to bombard us fiercely 
from their innumerable forts, were made by the Russians — 
ind still Ave kept building up our batteries, till we got 
near enough to fire upon them in our turn. On the 17th 
October our guns opened on Sebastopol, and the siege 

XXI. — The Russians, who had several times made 
their appearance as if to offer battle and as frequently 


retreated, at length came out in great force (October 
25th, 1854), and drove the Turks, like sheep, from their 
batteries round the valley of Balaklava. The English 
were immediately apprised of this imminent danger — the 
Highlanders repulsed the mounted Eussians with asto- 
nishing coolness and skill — our dragoons met theirs at full 
gallop, and after a desperate hand to hand conflict put 
them utterly to flight — our light brigade, by a fatal mis- 
take of the order given, was cut to pieces while performing 
incredible feats of valour, and amid glory and carnage and 
defeat, which could scarcely he called defeat when so 
bravely contested, this battle of Balaklava ended. The 
Eussians had gained the advantage. They had dis- 
mantled our forts, nearly destroyed our light cavalry, 
and gained the main road from Balaklava to Sebastopol. 
We had lost ten officers, and 147 men. Still the name of 
Balaklava is as glorious as that of many victories. 

XXII. — It was about this time that Miss Nightingale, 
the heroine of the war, set sail from England, accompanied 
by a body of nurses, for the humane object of attending 
to our suffering soldiers. Immense assistance of clothes, 
wine, and other necessaries was sent out by the Times' 
fund, and a considerable improvement in the hospital, 
laundry, and medical departments followed. 

XXIII. — The morning of the 5th of November was 
grey and drizzly, when the Eussians attacked our position 
near the bridge of the Tchernaya at Inkcrmann. Crossing 
the bridge unseen, they advanced in enormous bodies upon 
our advanced pickets, which were forced slowly to retreat. 
The firing aroused the other divisions of our army from 
sleep; but before they could arrive, the Eussians had 
once seized, once been expelled, and once more forced our 
works, pursuing the brave soldiers towards their camp. 
By this time the generals had reached the scene : the 
Guards, the infantry regimpjits, and the 00,000 Eussians 
were soon fighting desperately in innumerable groups, as 


if twenty battles were going on at once ; for long hours 
the frightful contest lasted, and the English heroes were 
gradually giving ground to the foe, when the French, who 
had been drawn off to the defence of Balaklava, came np 
at full speed. English and Erench together charged upon 
the enemy, and, at the point of the bayonet, drove them 
down the hill. The French batteries opened an irresistible 
fii'e on the retreating masses, and the battle of Inkermann, 
after a struggle of twelve hours, was won : — 8000 English 
and 6000 French had defeated 50,000 Ptussians, with a 
loss of 462 killed and 1952 wounded. 

XXIY.— On the 2nd March, 1855, died Nicholas, Em- 
peror of all the Eussias. This great event m.ade no change, 
however, in the affairs of the war, which his son and suc- 
cessor pledged himself to continue. About this time, an 
electric telegraph was established at the Crimea, as well 
as a railway for the conveyance of stores, &c., from Bala- 
klava to the camp. Eeinforcements, too, were forwarded 
to the seat of war, and before May had arrived, the sick- 
ness had disappeared, the men were well provided with 
necessaries, and not less than 150,000 of the best soldiers 
m the world were again bombarding Sebastopol. 

XXV. — On the 18th of June, after many varying sorties 
and assaults, the French and English generals determined 
on an attack of the Malakhoff and Redan towers — an 
enterprise which disastrously failed, and ended with a loss 
of more than 500 killed and 2000 wounded. On the 28th 
inst.. Lord Raglan, after som.e days of illness, died, uni- 
versally regretted throughout the army, and was succeeded 
in his command by General Simpson. 

XXVI. — And now our works approached nearer every 
day to the walls of Sebastopol. Fifteen thousand well- 
disciplined soldiers from the little kingdom of Sardinia 
arrived to our assistance, under the command of General 
de la Marmora, and were encamped, with the English 
cavaliy, in the valley of the Tchernaya. Here, on the 


16th of August, tliey were attacked by the enemy in great 
force ; large tcdies of men crossed the river, and, fancying 
they were to have an easy conquest, advanced up the hill 
to the French centre. Down came the French, literally 
hurling them back by the force of their charge. Hundreds 
of the enemy were crushed, rolled into the water, and put 
to flight; and, as they rushed confusedly back across the 
river, the Sardinian battei'ies mowed them down like grass. 
In this decisive battle the Eussians left 3000 dead on the 
field, and we took 400 prisoners. 

XXVII. — On Wednesday, September 5th, the final bom- 
bardment of Sebastopol began. The first day's work was 
tremendous, and many fires were observed within the walls 
both on Thursday and Friday. Towards the afternoon of 
the latter, a Eussian powder-magazine blew up, which 
must have done us appalling service. Thus it went on, 
and 1000 a day were killed or disabled by our balls and 
shells. No garrison could long withstand so deadly an 
attack. On Saturday, the 8th, the allied armies combined 
in a gigantic assault, which at the very commencement 
was signalized by the gallantry with which the French 
trdops took the Malakhoff bastion, and planted the tricolor 
in view of Sebastopol. The English now attacked the 
Eedan, but were repulsed; and the Little Eedan with- 
stood the attack of the French. Our allies likewise 
attacked the central bastion, but were defeated and forced 
to retreat. General Pelissier was now established in the 
Malakhoff; and Prince Gortschakhoff, aware that this 
success ensured the capture of the town, resolved to leave 
it. That night, favoured by the darkness, he withdrew 
his troops across the river in fine order, by means of a 
bridge of rafts ; the inhabitants of the town were removed 
in boats and steamers ; the retreat was guarded by General 
Schepeleff, who prevented the French from advancing into 
the town; and then, as the last of the Eussians withdrew, 
the bridge was desti'oyed and the buildings of Sebastopol 


set on fire, in order that nothing might be left to the con- 
querors save such ruin, and flame, and desolation as met 
Napoleon and his army in the streets of Moscow. One by 
one, forts, batteries, and sailing-vessels in harbour blew up 
with loud explosions, or sent forth vivid flames. Next morn- 
ing the victors entered the town. Churches and palaces, all 
blackened and ruined, stood around, and were visited with 
eager curiosity. A few days later, and the allied armies 
occupied Sebastopol, after a siege of nearly twelve months ; 
after four bombardments and three great battles ; after a 
loss of nearly 2700 in the last attack, and a total loss, on all 
sides, English, French, and Russian, both within and with- 
out the walls of Sebastopol, of something like 100,000 men. 

XXVIII. — In the mean time the city of Kars in Ana- 
tolia was sustaining a weary blockade. The garrison 
consisted of about 15,000 Turks under the command of 
General Williams, and was thinned daily by the casualties 
of war, fever, and famine. Opposed to this gallant little 
band was an overwhelming Eussian force numbering on 
the average 40,000 men, under General Mouravieff. The 
blockade commenced July 15th, 1856, and lasted more 
than four months ; till want of the necessary reinforcements, 
constant desertions, and utter starvation, compelled the 
brave garrison to capitulate. The terms of surrender 
were agreed upon November 25th, and on the 28 th inst. 
the Russians took formal possession of the place. 

XXIX. — The spring of the following year was signal- 
ised by the termination of this war. Paris became the 
centre of negotiation, and on the 30th of ]\Iarch, 1856, the 
treaty of peace was signed by the Plenipotentiaries of each 
nation. Ou the 29th of April this event was proclaimed 
by the heralds through the streets of London, and on the 
29th of May a public holiday was appointed, and a display 
of fireworks and illuminations provided by the government 
in commemoration of the peace of Europe. 

Thus ended the greatest siege of modern history. 




I. For how long had 
George IV. held the reins of 
power before he ascended the 
throne? "What was the first 
act of his reign ? By whom was 
the queen's cause favoured? 
On what occasion did she go 
to "Westminster Abbey, and 
what followed ? 

II. What disaster happened 
in Ireland in 1822? "Wiiat well- 
known character made himself 
conspicuous ? "What sum was 
granted for the relief of the Irish? 

III. In what year did Greece 
endeavour to throw off the 
Turkish yoke ? What great poet 
went to their assistance, and 
what was his fate? What panic 
took place in the following year? 

I"V. At what determination 
did the European powers arrive, 
and who were the allies ? When 
was the battle of Navarino 
fought and with what result? 

"V. What were the penalties 
to which Koman Catholics were 
subject at this time ? When was 
the Roman Catholic Emancipa- 
tion Act passed ? 

VI. When did George IV. 
die? Who succeeded him ? 

VII. For what great measure 
is theyear 1832 famous? What 
was the nature of the reform ? 

VIII. In what year was 
slavery abolished? What sura 
was paid to the slave-cwners, 
and liovv many men were set free? 

IX. V/hen did AVilliam IV. 

X. What was the age of 
Queen Victoria when she suc- 
ceeded to the throne, and in 
what condition was the British 
empire ? Why did the Duke of 
Cumberland become Kin? of 
Hanover ? What was the state 
of Canada, and what mea«urea 

were taken by parliament to 
tranquillize that colony ? What 
ceremony took place in the year 
1838, and what great wars were 
entered upon ? 

XI. What was Chartism, and 
what excesses did the Chartists 
commit? In what year did the 
Queen marry? was the 
result of the war in China? 

XII. How did the Indian 
war progress in the mean time? 
How did Lord Ellenborough 
retrieve the national honour? 
Relate the events in China. 

XIII. In what year did the 
Sikh war begin? How many 
battles were fought with these 
tribes, and with what success ? 
When was peace concluded? 
When were the Corn-laws re- 

XIV. For whatevent is 1851 
celebrated ? Repeat the statis- 
tics of the Crystal Palace. What 
became of the materials ? What 
great vehicle of communication 
was this year established be- 
tween England and France ? 

XV. When did the Duke of 
Wellington die ? AVheu and 
where was he buiied? 

XVI. For how long had 
England now b'^en at peace 
with Europe? What claim of 
the Emperor Niclialas provoked 
tile late war? What provinces 
did he seize ? "What was the 
conduct of the Saltan ? By 
what massacre were England 
and France roused to indigna- 
tion ? When was war declared, 
and wliat followed? 

XVI r. When was the first 
blow struck ? Describe the aflfair 
of Odessa. 

XVI 11. Wliere did the armies 
encamp? Ilo.v ni;iiiy died of 
cholera in the English army T 



Where is Silistria? How long 
did the Russians besiej^e it ? 
How did the siege terminate, 
and what were the numbers on 
each side? 

XIX. What place did the allies 
invade, and when did they arrive 
there? When did the battle of 
the Alma take place? What were 
the numbers on each side ? Re- 
late the order of the battle. 
Wliat were the losses of the 
allies and Russians ? To what 
place did the army next proceed? 

XX. What preparations were 
now made before Sebastopol? 
■When did the siege begin ? 

XXI. Wlien was the battle of 
Balaklava fought? What was the 
result ? What were our losses ? 

XXII. AVhat noble lady now 
left England, and by whom was 
she accompanied ? What assist- 
ance was sent out through the 
Times' subscription? 

XXI II. On what day was the 
battle of Inkermann fought ? 
How did the Russians advance? 
What was the appearance of 
the battle? How were our 
men relieved ? What was the 
end of the contest ? How long 
had it lasted, and what were 
the numbers on eitch side? 

XXIV. When did the Emperor 
Nicholas die? What elfect had 
his death upon the war ? What 
useful works were established 
at the Crimea? What was the 
strength and state of the armies 
at this lime? 

XXV. Relate the events of 
the 18th of June. When did 
Lord Raglan die ? Who suc- 
ceeded him in the command ? 

XXVI. Uow many men were 

sent from Sardinia? When did 
the battle of the Tchernj.ya 
take place? How did it end? 
How many Russians were killed 
and taken ? 

XXVII. ATlien did the final 
bombardment begin ? How 
many were killed daily by our 
missiles in Sebastopol? When 
was the great attack made? 
What army took the Malakhoff ? 
Wliat success had the English? 
What French General was estab- 
lished in the Malakhoff? AVhat 
was the course pursued by the 
Russian Commander? By whom 
was the retreat guarded, and in 
what state did the Russians 
leave Sebastopol? How long 
had the siege occupied ? How 
many bombardments and bat- 
tles had there been ? How many 
were lost in the last attack? 
How many had fallen altogether 
both within and without the 
walls, during this siege ? 

XXVIII. Where is the city 
of Kars situated ? What was 
the number of men on each 
side, and by whom were they 
commanded? When did the 
blockade commence ? What 
compelled General Williams to 
surrender? When were the 
terms of capitulation agreed 
upon , and wh en did the Russians 
take possession of the city ? 

XXIX. What great event 
took place in the following 
spring ? Where and when did 
the peace treaty receive the 
signatures of the Plenipoten- 
tiaries? When Avas the event 
proclaimed in London ? On 
what day did the public rgoic- 
ings take place ? 

THE e:;d. 



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