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WITH OBSEKVAIIONS QN THt FROGSESS
ART, ,^iENC£, AND CiVlLIZATION, AND QUE8iTaN»,
ADAPTED TO EACH PARAGRAPH,
AMFTTA R. .„,
HOOLS IN H» -^r*
o: o :k. o x<r T o -
QAM MILLER, 62 KING STREI
C!oman Conquest to t&c J^rcsent Cime.
WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROGRESS OF ART, SCIENCE,
AND CIVILIZATION, AND QUESTIONS ADAPTED
TO EACH PARAGRAPH.
AMELIA B. EDWARDS.
FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
PUBLISHED BY ADAM BIILLER, 62 KING STREET, K
Not to the young scliolar only, but to the student of
maturer age, to the tradesman, statesman, and soldier, is
the perusal of our English history a most interesting and
important branch of education. The poorest as well as
the richest, the lowliest as well as the loftiest, may learn
from its pages such a lesson of patience, courage, and
honest endeavour as will make their task of life easier to
support under adversity, and teach them better to employ
the advantages which Providence may have entrusted to
their hands for the benefit of their fellow-creatures. The
History of England is the history of progressive refine-
ment. It records such advances in science, such triumphs
in literature, such an onward tide of gathering wealth,
conquest, and wisdom, as nowhere enriches the annals of
an European monarchy. The virtues of a king like Alfred
— the dauntless patriotism of a Hampden — the mai-tyr-
fame of our Protestant reformers under Queen Mary and
Charles the First, cannot fail to rouse the pride and the
ambition of all who are acquainted with those ennobling
passages of our national chronicles — cannot fail, let us
hope, to make of them better citizens and sincerer Chris-
tians. In pursuance of this aid, we cannot too early
begin to instil a knowledge of English history into the
minds of the young, or too liberally dijffuse narratives
adapted to the various stages of mental development
among the schools and classes which now, happily, ahomid
throughout tho length and breadth of the land. The
present Summary is a volume of little pretension ; but
earnest pui-pose. It proposes, when placed before the
child, to serve as brief introduction to more advanced and
lengthy works ; and, when laid on the table of the class-
room, or occupying a modest place on the shelves of the
public and private library, to act as a concise and truthful
handbook of those dates, facts, and biographies which,
taken in the aggregate, constitute our English history.
Xot, then, in antagonism to any previous effort in the
same direction — not in depreciation of abler or more
extensive productions, whether old or new — but in the
hearty and willing hope that we are rendering some aid
to the great cause of education, sowing some seeds of
nobleness and worthy ambition, these pages are put forth
for the use of all to whom they may be of service.
London, May^ 1856.
I. — England before the Conquest 9
,, under the EoMANS, from B.C. 55 TO
A.D. 449 9
„ under the Saxons, a.d. 449to a.d. 827 11
„ UNDER THE AnGLO-SaXONS, A.D. 827 TO
,, UNDER THE DaNES, A.D. 1013 TO 1041 . 18
,, UNDER THE SaXONS, A.D. 1041 TO 1056 19
II. — The Norman Monarchs 22
III. — The House of Plantagenet 26
IV. — The Houses op Lancaster and York ... 31
V. — The House of Tudor 41
VI. — The House of Stuart 52
VII. — The House of Stuart (continued) .... 61
VIII. — United Houses of Stuart and Nassau , , , 66
IX. — The House of Brunswick 69
X. — The House of Brunswick (continued) ... 82
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ENGLAND BEFORE THE CONQUEST.
I. — In the ancient times, when Rome was a republic and
Jesus Christ yet unborn, this beautiful England was a
desolate waste of marshland and forest, inhabited by a
savage people, who fought with clubs and tin swords,
clothed themselves in skins, and stained their bodies with
the juices of a plant called woad. These barbarians went
by the name of Britons, and they believed in a horrible
idolatry that sanctioned battles, and revenge, and human
II. — Huts rudely constructed of wicker and mud, and
erected in little clusters here and there over the country,
were called towns. These towns were generally situated
upon small clearings in tracts of woody land, and were
surrounded by a trench, which served for defeace in time
of war. One such hamlet, built upon the shores of a
great river, and protected on the north by an impenetrable
forest abounding in every species of game, was called
Llyn-Din, or the " town on the lake," and is now that
largest and wealthiest capital in the world known by the
name of London.
UNDER THE ROMANS, FROM B.C. 55 TO A.D. 449.
III. — Eager for conquest, and tempted by the rich
pearls and tin mines for which the island was famous, but
pretending only to punish the poor savages for having
10 SUMilAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
helped the Gauls, with whom he was at war, Julius Caesar
came over from Italy with his ships and soldiers, plundered
and killed in every direction round about Sandwich, and
made the first conquest of Britain. This happened just
fifty-five years before Christ. Scarcely a hundred more
had gone by when the Emperor Claudius came with fifty
thousand men, and subdued it over again (a.d. 43). It was
during the reign of this emperor that Caractacus, a patriot
Briton, made the first effort to free his country from the
Eoman yoke. After nine years conflict he was taken pri-
soner ; but was afterwards released by the clemency of
IV. — Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero (a.d. 61),
landed on the Isle of Anglesea, and destroyed the sacred
groves and altars of Druidical superstition, which, in addi-
tion to the cruel treatment offered to Boadicea, Queen
of the Iceni, once more roused the Britons to rebellion.
They won a splendid victory over their powerful masters,
and slew 70,000 of them ; but in the course of the same
year were again defeated with great loss.
V. — For Julius Agricola (a very good and clever general)
was reserved the establishment of the Eoman power in
Britain. He took possession of the country for the third
time (a.d. 78), founded the arts of peace, and made the
people happy and civilized. He also delivered them from
the fierce incursions of the Picts and Scots, and helped
them to erect a great wall of separation across the island
between the Tyne and Solway, known in history as the
Wall of Severus, because Severus, some hundreds of years
afterwards, assisted to repair it.
This rampart, however, proved ineffectual against the
savage inroads of the Xorthern tribes, and a second was
constructed between the Friths of Clyde and Forth
YI.— On the death of St. Lucius (a.d. 179), the first
Chiistian king of Britain — indeed, the fii'st in the world —
UNDEE THE SAXONS. 11
he bequeathed this island to the Emperors of Eome, whose
property it was vii'tually all the time ; for, under their
rule, the native sovereigns were but governors, or lieute-
nants. The Eomans remained masters of England for
nearly four centuries, at the end of which period, having
lost much of their own power and dignity, they were com-
pelled to withdraw their forces to defend themselves
against the Goths (a.d. 410). No sooner were they gone
than the marauding Scots poured in upon the defenceless
Britons, who, not knowing what better to do in their
distress, applied for assistance to the Saxons, a people
of North Germany.
UHDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 449 TO A.D. 827.
YII. — The Saxons accordingly came across the channel
between six and seven thousand strong, under the com-
mand of two brother chieftains named Hengist and
Horsa (a.d. 449). They speedily routed the Scots ; but
rewarded themselves for their trouble by taking possession
of the country they came to deliver. They were followed
by other German tribes ; the Saxon tongue became the
national language; and the native Britons fled to Wales,
Cornwall, and the coast of France.
YIII.— After the death of Hengist (a.d. 488), the
Saxons poured in upon Britain faster than ever, and it
was in opposing these tribes that the famous Arthur, king
of Britain, won his great renown. He succeeded in secur.
ing to his people forty years of peace ; but valour alone
was of no avail. The natives, in time, were all over-
powered or expelled, and the land was divided into
seven small kingdoms, each governed by a Saxon tyrant.
This period is known as the period of the Saxon Hept-
archy. The follawing was the order of distribution : —
IX. — The kingdom of Cantia, or Kent, comprised the
fertile county of Kent, and was founded by Hengist
12 STJSIMAET OP ENGLISH HISTORY.
The kingdom of Soutli Saxony comprised the comities
of Sussex and Smrrey, and was founded by Ella (a.d. 490).
The kingdom of West Saxony, or Wessex, comprised the
counties of Hampshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire,
Somersetshire, and Devonshire, and was founded by Cerdic
The kingdom of East Saxony comprised the counties of
Essex, Middlesex, and a part of Hertfordshire, and was
founded by Ercenwin (a.d. 527).
The kingdom of Northumbria comprised the counties
of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham,
Yorkshire, Lancaster, and a portion of Scotland. It was
founded by Ida (a.d. 547).
The kingdom of Bast Anglia comprised the counties of
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, and was founded by Uffa
The kingdom of Mercia comprised all the midland
counties, namely: — Cheshire, Stafford, Derby, Warwick,
Worcester, Shropshire, Hereford, Gloucester, Oxford^
Buckingham, Bedford, Huntingdon, Northampton, Rut-
land, Leicester, Nottingham, Lincoln, and a part of Hert-
fordshire. It was founded by Cridda (a.d. 582).
X. — As it may readily be supposed, these seven kings
of Britain did not at all times reign in perfect friendship
with each other, but, on the contrary, distracted the
country with perpetual quarrellings and warfare. Despite
even these drawbacks, the nation, however, began to ex-
perience the blessings of industry. Property received the
protection of the law, and no part of our island was with-
out an acknowledged ruler. The people were still idolators
and heathens, worshipping the false gods of ancient Eome.
In the year 596, a good monk, named Augustine, came
over from Italy with forty of his brethren, and converted
the two powerful kings of Kent and Northumberland
(a.d. 599). A great church was then built at Canterbury
(a.d. 604) } Sebert, king of Essex, became a proselyte ;
TTNDEB THB ANGLO-SAXONS. 13
the Temple of Apollo at Westminster was pulled down,
and a church, dedicated to St. Peter, was erected where
the Abbey is now standing; the Temple of Diana was
destroyed, and the original cathedral of St. Paul raised on
its site ; and the University of Cambridge was founded in
the year 644. Soon after this, the whole of Britain em-
braced Christianity, and the seven kingdoms were united
into one by the conquests of Egbert of Wessex, receiving
the collective name of England, which it has ever since
retained. Winchester was at this time considered to be
the capital of the country.
UNDER THE ANGLO-SAXONS. A.D. 827 TO 1013.
began to keign a.d. 800. dred 836.
XL — Scarcely had peace and unity been established
in the kingdom, when a horde of savage warriors, called
Danes, who dwelt upon the shores of the Baltic Sea,
fended on our coasts, but were routed on the coast of
Devon, and forced to fly back to their ships for safety-
only to return again about once in every year. After a
prosperous reign, troubled only by these invaders, Egbert
died (a.d. 836), and was buried at Winchester.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 836. DIED 857.
XII. — Egbert was succeeded by Ethelwolf, his eldest
son. This king undertook a pilgrimage to Pome, and
married a daughter of king Charles the Bald of France.
He first granted tithes to the clergy, and instituted an
annual tribute to the pope, called Peter's Pence. The
Danes now made themselves the terror of England, and
though frequently repulsed, continued to plunder the
country, and occasionally to carry off the inhabitants for
slaves. In the year 851 they sailed up the Thames with
S50 ships ; bui-nt the cities of London iind Canterbury,
14 6ITMMA.ET OF ENGLISH HISTOBT.
and established themselves permanently upon the Isle of
Tlianet. Ethelwolf died (a.d. 857), and was buried at
Steyning, in Sussex.
began to keign a-d. 857. died 860.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 860. DIED 866.
XIII. — The reign of Ethelbald was brief, unim-
portant, and vicious. He was succeeded by his brother
Ethelbeet, who reigned only sis years, during which
time the Danes exacted tribute from the English, laid
waste the whole county of Kent, and pillaged the city
of Winchester. Ethelbert died a.d. 866.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 866. DIED 872.
XIY. — Ethelbert was followed by Etheleed, a brave
soldier, whose reign was one long scene of valiant warfare
with the Danes. It is said that in one year he fought no
less than nine pitched battles with the enemies of his
country. In all these he was assisted by his young brother,
Prince Alfred, afterwards illustrious as Kmg Alfred the
Great. Prince Alfred was the first earl created in Eng-
land. In this reign the invaders penetrated into Mercia
and took up their winter quarters at Nottingham, whither
the king instantly marched to dislodge them. A great
battle ensued, in which Ethelred was killed, leaving to
Alfred the inheritance of a kingdom which had declined
into an almost hopeless condition of weakness and distress.
Alfeed the Geeat.
*^ began to reign a.d. 872. died 901. /
XV. — Alfeed the Geeat was just twenty-two years
of age when he ascended the throne of England, and for
the first eight years of his reign was engaged in an uninter-
rupted and disastrous wai'fai-e with the Dunes. They, ia
UNDEE THE ANGLO-SAXONS. 15
fact, at one time made themselves entire masters of the
kingdom, so that Alfred was obliged to assume many
humble disguises, and hide himself in the woods, and in the
cottages of his peasant subjects. In Somersetshire, how-
ever, he found friends and assistance, built a strong fort,
assembled an army, and once more took the field against
the Danes. Assuming the disguise of a wandering harper,
he then penetrated to the enemy's camp, judged of the
most favourable manner of attack, brought his soldiers
unexpectedly upon them, and achieved a brilliant victory.
Many years of peace ensued, during which this brave and
good king applied himself to the improvement of his
country and the happiness of his people. ^
XVI. — Alfred now framed a code of Jaws, some of which f^
exist to the present day — divided England into counties
and hundreds — established the first regular militia — en-
couraged the arts and sciences, and instructed the English
in the art of navigation and ship-building. He was the
fij-st of our monarchs who made England a naval power ;
and to state that he was the most accomplished man of
his day, that he was the hero of fifty-six battles, that he
established the system of trial by jury, and founded the
University of Oxford, is but to relate a portion of his/
glory. After twelve years of peace the Danes again in^ r*
vaded our coasts. They came under the command of
Hastings, their sea-king, with a fleet of three hundred
and thirty-one ships, and landed on the coast of Kent,
making Appledore their head-quarters. A protracted
struggle ensued, at the conclusion of which they were
again defeated. The wife and family of Hastings were
taken captives ; but Alfred, with his general moderation,
restored them to the Danish chief, on condition that he
and all his followers should leave the country. To these
terms they readily acceded; but some few lingered till
the year 897. Alfred ^jed a.d. 901, at Farringdon, in
Berkshire. He was buiied at Winchester, and has lelt
16 SUMMABY OF ENGLiyH HISTOHY.
behind him the most honourable reputation for learning,
courage, wisdom, and generosity, of any English sovereign.
Edwaed the Eldee.
began to reign a.d. 901. deed 925.
XYII. — Edwaed the Eldee, second son to King
Alfred the Great, succeeded to the crown. His reign was
troubled by the pretensions of his cousin Ethelwald, who
disputed Edward's claim, and fell at last on the field ot
battle. Towards the end of this king's reign he invaded
Wales, and added to the endowments of the Cambridge
University. He died (a.d. 925), leaving a numerous
began to reign a.d. 925. DIED 941.
XVIII. — King Athelstan had not been many years
established on his father's throne when a great league
was formed against him by the Danes, Scots, and other
nations. They were, however, completely defeated, and
six of the kings, his enemies, were slain (a.d. 938).
This monarch caused the Bible to be translated into the
Saxon tongue, and presented a copy to every chureh
throughout the kingdom. He also gave encouragement
to commerce by decreeing that every merchant who had
taken three vo3'age8 should be entitled to the rank of a
thane, or nobleman. Athelstan died at Gloucester (A.D.
941), and was buried at Malmesbury, Wilts.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 941. DIED 947. Nt"'^"
XIX.— Athelstan was followed by his brother EdmukS;
a youth of eighteen years of age, whose first act was to
subdue the Danes gathered together under the command
of Anlass. He was stabbed by a wicked robber named
Leolf (a.d. 947), and was succeeded by his brother Edred,
fc slxtli son to Edward the Elder.
undee the anglo-saxons. 17
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 947. DIED 955.
XX.— This king rebuilt Glastonbury Abbey, and was
entirely ruled by the abbot, named Dunstan. Dunstan
was, in fact, the virtual king of England. Edward died
(a-D. 955), and was buried at Winchester.
began to keign a.d. 955. died 959.
XXI. — The profligate and careless Edwy received the
crown of his uncle, and offended the prejudices of his
clergy by marrying the Princess Elgiva, a lady of great
beauty, but of near relationship to himself. Dunstan,
who had hitherto been absolute in the kingdom, succeeded
in uniting the priesthood against this marriage. Edwy
was compelled to divorce his wife, and she was murdered
with barbarous cruelty by her enemies. Edwy died of
grief (a.d. 959), being threatened by sedition in all parts
of his dominions, and overborne by the influence and
hatred of Dunstan the Abbot.
began to reign a.d. 959. died 975.
XXII. — Edgae, surnamed the Peaceable, next ascended
the throne. He was elected, and consequently governed,
by the monks; built many monasteries; increased the
navy to three hundred and sixty ships, and exterminated
the wolf from the mountains and forest-lands of Wales.
This king was so arrogant of his conquests, that he caused
his barge to be rowed by eight princes along the river
Dee. He died after a reign of sixteen years, a.d. 975.
BEGAN TO REIGN 975. DIED 97S.
XXIII. — This unfortunate young monarch, whoso reign
had promised to be happy and judicious, was stabbed (a.d.
978), by order of his step-mother, while drinkiixg a cup of
18 8UMMAEY OP ENGLISH HISTOBT.
wine at the gate of Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire. He was
succeeded by his half-brother, Ethehed, after a brief king-
ship of little more than three years.
*^ X BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 978. DIED 1016./^
XX T V. — In this reign the Danes once more flocked to
our coasts, and Ethelred was weak enough to buy them
off with a money-tribute called Lauegelt, which was
levied by a tax of one shilling on every hide of land
throughout the country, and is the first land-tax upon
record in our history. Soon this, even, ceased to satisfy
them, and the king formed a cowardly plan to massacre
all the Danes in the kingdom, instead of meeting them in
fair battle. This disgraceful slaughter took place on the
18th of November, a.d. 1002, and was revenged by a
great invasion of the enemy. They sailed from Denmai'k
under the command of Sweyn, their king, who, after a
protracted struggle of ten years, put Ethelred to flight,
and ascended the English throne (a.d. 1013). .
Uia)EK THE DANES. A.D. 1013 TO 1041.
Sweyn ... Began to reign 1013 ... Died 1014.
Canute... „ „ 1014 ... „ 1036.
XXV. — SwETN reigned ia England for the short space
of one year, and was succeeded by Canute, his son, who
divided the kingdom with Edmxmd Ironside, a Saxon
monarch, from whom is traced the descent of King
George IV. Before Edmund had reigned for one year
over his portion, he was murdered at Oxford, and Canute,
who was at that time the most powerful monarch in
Europe, became sole king. Having conquered, not only
this country, but the countries of Korway and Sweden, he
called himself king of England, Denmark, Norway, and
Sweden. He banished the children of Etheli-ed. but mar-
TTNDES THE SAXONS 19
ried Emma, their mother, and died (a.d. 1036) at Shaftes-
began to reign a.d. 1036. died 1039.
XXVI.— Haeold, surnamed Harefoot, from the swift-
ness with which he ran, was the son of Canute by his fii'st
wife. He reigned only three years, and died at Oxford,
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1039. DIED 1041.
XXVII. — Harold was succeeded by his weak and
wicked half-brother, Haedi Canute. He died from in-
temperance after a short reign of two years (a.d. 1041), ^
aiid was the last representative of the Danish line. N
UNDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 1041 TO 1066. ^:^
f:* Edwaed the Confessoe.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1041. DIED 1066.
XXVIII. — A Saxon, known as Edwaed the Con-
fessoe, was next chosen. This monarch was famous for
his piety, and married Editha, daughter to Earl Godwin.
Having been, unfortunately, educated abroad, in the
coui-t of Normandy, Edward the Confessor retained but
little ajBection for the customs, or even for the natives of
his own country. He evinced a marked preference through-
out his reign for all French laws and habits, and by this
line of conduct gave considerable cause for jealousy to his
people. He repealed the tax called Danegelty and was
the first king who touched for that disease known as the
king's evil. Daring this reign William Duke of Nor-
mandy came over to visit England, and Edward, it is
said, then promised to him the reversion of the English
crown. Edward the Confessor rebuilt Westminster Abbey,
and at his death, on January the 5th, 1066, was canonized
as a Saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
8UMMAEY OP ENGLISH HISTOBT.
BEGAN TO EEIGN AND DIED A.D. 1066.
XXIX. — Haeold, son of Earl Godwin, was then elected
king by the Council of the States, but was destined to find
a powerful opponent in Duke WiUiam of Normandy.
This warlike and ambitious prince of France had the bold-
ness to claim the crown for his own head ; and gathering
around his standard all the recruits he could muster, all
the beggarly nobles, freebooters, and adventurers of Europe,
landed, with sixty thousand men, upon the coast of Sus-
sex, and defeated the English in a great battle (Oct. 14,
1066), rendered still more disastrous by the death of
Harold, and famous to us all as the battle of Hastings.
Thus ended the Saxon period, which had subsisted with
various fortune in England for upwards of six hundred
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER I.
I. What was the ancient con-
dition of Britain? By whom
was it inhabited? "What was
the reliprion of the Britons?
II. What was the state of
the country at this early period ?
Kelate the origin of London.
III. "What was Britain famous
for? Who was the first con-
queror? When did Julius Ca;sar
land ? Who was the second
conqueror, and when did he
arrive ? Who was Caractacus ?
IV. What injuries roused the
Britons to a second rebellion?
What was the result of this
V. Who established the
Eoman power in Britain?
What good service did Agricola
do the Britains, and what great
work of defence did he build for
tliem? Where and when was
me second wall constructed ?
VI. Who was the first Chris-
tian king in the world? To
whom did he bequeath the
kingdom? For how long did
the Romans remain masters of
England ? Why did they with-
draw their forces ? What caused
the Britons to apply to the
VII. When did the Saxons
come over, and who were their
leaders ? How did the Saxons
reward themselves for beating
the Scots ? What became of the
VIII. Who was King Arthur,
and for what is he famous ?
What term of peace did he
secure for his people? Into
how many kingdoms was Eng-
land afterwards divided? By
whatnameisthis period known
IX. Relate the order of dis-
tribution among the seven
X. Did the kings reign in
peace together? What was the
UNDER THE SAXONS.
state of the country at this
time ? Who was Augustine,
and what did he eflfect in Eng-
land? "What churches were
built, and what temples pulled
down? When was the Cam-
bridge University founded ?
When were the people con-
verted to Christianity, and by
whom ? Who united the seven
kingdoms into one? By what
name was it then called ?
XI. What was the conduct
of the Danes at this time ?
Vtruen did Egbert die?
ill. By whom was Egbert
succeeded? Eelate the chief
acts of Ethelwolf. Relate the
events of 851. When did
Ethelwolf die ?
XIII. Of what character was
the reign of Ethelbald, and by
whom was he succeeded ? Re-
late the encroachments of the
Danes. When did Ethelbert
die, and by whom was he suc-
XIV. What was the charac-
ter of Ethelred? How many
battles did he fight in one
year? What was the manner
of Ethelred's death ?
XV. At what age did Alfred
the Great begin his reign, and
in what year? Relate the
events of the first eight years of
XVI. How did Alfred em-
ploy the years of peace that
followed? Of how many bat-
tles was he the hero? What
system of trial did he intro-
duce, and what great abode of
learning did he found? Who
was Hastings, and in wliatway
did Alfred treat the captive
family? When did he die, and
what reputation has he left ?
XVII. Who was the succes-
sor of Alfred? Relate the
events of Edward's reign.
XVIII. What great league
was formed against Athelstan,
and how did it terminate?
What great work did he cause
to be translated? When did
Athelstan die .*
XIX. By whom was Athel-
stan succeeded, and what was
the first act of the new king?
When did Edmund die, and by
XX. By whom was Edmund
I. succeeded ? What abbey was
rebuilt by Edred, and by whom
was the king ruled ? When did
he die ?
XXI. What was the charac-
ter of Edwy, and in what way
did he offend the clergy? Whai
became of Elgiva, and when
did the king die ?
XXII. By what class of men
was Edgar the Peaceable go-
verned? Relate his principal
deeds. When did he die ?
XXIII. By whom was Edgar
succeeded, and how was he
XXIV. What king next as-
cended the throne ? What was
the Danegelt? When did the
cowardly massacre of the Danes
take place? How was it re-
XXV. For how long did
Sweyn reign in England, and
by whom was he succeeded ?
Who was Edmund Ironside,
and what was his fate? Name
the titles of Canute. Whom
did he marry, and when did he
XXVI. Who was Harold I. ?
How long did he reign, and
when did he die?
XXVII. By whom was Harold
succeeded? From what causa
and in what year did Hardi-
XXVIII. Ofwhat nation wag
Edward the Conlessor? To
SUMMARY Oi ENGLISH HI8T0ET.
whom did he promise the cro'mi
of England? When did he die,
and what honours did he receive
after death ?
XXIX. Whose son was Ha-
rold? "NYho disputed Harold's
right to the crown ? Of whom
did William's army consist?
AVhen was the battle of Hast-
ings fought ? For how long ha<i
the Saxons ruled in England?
THE NORMAN MONAECHS.
Began to reign. Died.
WltriAMl. A.D. 1066... 10S7
WiloamH. „ 1087 ...1100
Henry I. „ 1100 ... 1135
Begai to reign. Died.
(House of Blois)> ^^"^^ "• ^^^*
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1066. DIED 10S7.
I. — William I., son of Duke Eobert, of Normandy,
and known as the Conqueror, was as politic as he was
ambitious. Being wisely determined not to in-itate those
whom he had conquered, he forbore to seize upon the
crown as upon mere booty, but went through the form of
asking the sanction of the English themselves ; a sanction
which was not long withheld by the clergy and nobility,
and for which he testified his gratitude by entering into a
solemn engagement to protect the rights and liberties of
his new subjects. These oaths are still taken by every
English monarch on the day of coronation-
II. — At first he governed impartially enough ; but,
somehow, became greatly changed after the lapse of a few
years, and did such deeds as left him the reputation of 9
ruthless tyrant. He seized and gave away to his Norman
followers the rich estates of Saxon landholders; carried
fire and sword, as if through an enemy's country, into the
villages and fields of the New Forest, merely to c^ear it
for his boar and deer hunting ; instituted the cmfew-bell,
by which people were compelled to extinguish their lights
and fires at a certain hour; and even strove to make
THE NOEMAN M0NABCH8. i>i.
Frencli the language of the country. Hence arose the
mixed character of our vocabulary, which, to this day,
consists as much of Norman as of Saxon words. Wil-
liam the Conqueror died a.d. 1087.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1087. DIED 1100.
III. — William Eurus, so named from the red colour
of his hair, and second son of the Conqueror, succeeded his
father. He invaded Normandy, the dukedom of his elder
brother Robert, and behaved well to his English subjects,
whose afifictions he was anxious to secure. During his
reign commenced those extraordinary wars carried on by
all the chivalry of Europe against the Saracen possessors of
Jerusalem, and known far and wide as the Ceusades. The
first crusade went out in the year 1095, and with it,
amongst other sovereign princes, Kobert, Duke of Nor-
mandy, who mortgaged his rich provinces to William
Eufus for the sum of ten thousand marks, in order that he
might have sufficient money for the enterprise. Eufus was
or the point of starting for France to take possession of
tlese new lands, when he was accidentally shot by Sir
Walter Tyrrel (a.d. 1100) while hunting the deer in the
2^ew Forest. This monarch erected Westminster Hall for
his banqueting chamber. It was then the largest room iu
Europe ; but was afterwards pulled down and rebuilt by
Eichard II. In the year 1100, four thousand acres of
land which had been the property of Earl Godwin, father
to Harold II., and were by him bequeathed to the monks
of Canterbury, were suddenly overflowed by the sea. The
site where they once extended lies opposite the city of
Deal, and is known to sailors as one of the most dangerous
upon our coast-line. They are called the Goodwin Sands,
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1100. DIED 1135.
IV.— Heney, youngest brother to William Rufus,
24 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HI8T0BY.
now hastened up to Winchester ; secured the royaJ
treasure; married Matilda, a descendant of the ancient
Saxon line ; removed the unpopular restrictions of the
curfew; and had succeeded in obtaining the throne and
the favour of the people, before Duke Robert (the rightful
heir) could come over to dispute the succession. He then
made war upon Eobert; invaded Normandy; possessed
himself of that entire duchy ; took the duke prisoner, and
confined him in Cardiff Castle for the remainder of his
life — a period of eight-and-twenty years.
V. — King Henry I. had one son, who, with a hundred
and forty young men of the noblest families in England,
was drowned off the coast of Harfleur (a.d. 112'3) on his
return from Normandy, where he had been receiving the
homage of the French barons. The death of tHs prince
was a great blow to the king, who is said never to have
smiled afterwards. During this reign a body of military
monks called the Knights Templars established them-
selves in England — the first English park was laid out at
Woodstock — rents were made payable in money, having
previously been payable in cattle, com, &c. — the coinage
was corrected — a standard fixed for the regulation d
weights and measures ; and the length of the English
yard taken from the measurement of the king's arm.
Woollen stuffs were also introduced at this time from the
Low Countries, and a colony of Flemings settled down at
Worsted, near Norwich, for manufacturing purposes.
Henry I. died (a.d. 1135) in the sixty-seventh year of
his age, leaving one daughter, named Matilda, wife to
the Emperor of Germany. It is said that King Henry
died from eating too largely of a dish of lampreys.
Stephen (Earl of Blois).
BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1135. DIED 1154.
VI. — Stephen, Earl of Blois, grandson to William the
Conqueror, and nephew to King Henry, hastened over
THE NOEMAN MONAECHS. 25
from Normandy, and was received as king by the lower
orders of the people, although Matilda, by right of birth,
should have reigned in England. He had more difficulty
with the clergy — but gained even their votes at last*
seized the royal treasure ; and, to obtain favour with th^
populace, restored the laws made by Edward the Confessor.
VII. — Matilda did not long delay her claim, and, shortly
after these events, landed with a brave little retinue of
one hundred and forty knights ; took Arundel Castle ;
gathered together a considerable number of recruits;
gained a battle over Stephen (a.d. 1140), and was crowned
queen of England at Winchester Cathedral. She was not
liked, however, by either the people or the nobility.
Stephen was again recognised as king, and Matilda
deposed. She contrived to escape, and brought up her son,
named Henry, as a future rival to the usurper.
YIII. — When Prince Henry had reached his sixteenth
year, he showed such corn-age and talent, that he re-
ceived the honour of knighthood (a.d. 1135), and under-
took an invasion of England. Stephen was by this time
worn out with the struggles of many years, and, to
prevent farther bloodshed and misery, agreed that the
youth should be associated with him in the government,
and succeed to the crown upon his decease. A great
fire devastated London during this reign (a.d. 1136) and
all the city from Aldgate to St. Paul's was laid in ruins.
Sugar was first introduced about this period, and the
Tower first coustituted a royal residence. Stephen was a
iust and moderate monarch, and, at his death, in the year
1154, the kingdom passed quietly into the hands of the
House of Plantagenet.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER II.
I. What proceedings were way is that ceremony perpetu-
taken by "William to obtain the ated ?
crown? In what way did ho II. What alteration took
testify his gratitude ? In what place in the character of Wil-
8TJMMAET OV ENGLISH HISTOET.
liara L? "VMiat wrongs did he
Inflict upon the English?
Whence arose the mixed cha-
racter of our language ?
III. In what year did "Wil-
liam the Conqueror die, and by
whom was he succeeded ? What
invasion was undertaken by
William Rufus? How did he
behave to his English subjects ?
What extraordinary wars were
begun during this reign ? When
did the first Crusade go out?
In what manner did the king
become possessed of Normandy,
and at what price ? "What wag
the manner of his death ? When
did he die ? Wliat great room
was erected by William Rufus,
and for what purpose was it
built? Relate the circumstances
connected with the overflowing
of the Goodwin Sands.
IV. Who succeeded Rufus?
What steps did Henry take to
Becure the crown? Who was
the rightful heir? What was
the result of the war between
Henry and Robert ? For how
long was the Duke of Xormandy
V. What dreadful accident
occurred to King Henry's only
6on? How old was the king
when he died? What family
did he leave to lament his loss ?
What is alleged as the cause of
King Henry's death? Who were
the Knights Templars? Relate
the improvements effected dur-
ing this reign. When did Henry
VI. "Who was Stephen, and
in what way did he oppose the
claims of Matilda ? By whom
was he most favourably re-
ceived? What steps did he
take to secure the favour of the
VII. With what forces did
Matilda land, and what success
had she? In what year was
she crowned ? Did she long
continue to reign ? With what
object did she educate her son?
VIII. What was the cha-
racter of Prince Henry? When
did he undertake to invade
England? Into what agreement
did the king enter? What great
calamity befcl the city of Lon-
don during this reign ? Whaf
useful condiment was first intro-
duced, and to what purpose was
the Tower at this time devoted?
When did Stephen die, and
what ensued ?
THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET.
Began to reign. Died.
Began to reign.
Henry II. a.d. 1154 ... 1189
Edward I. a.d. 1272 .
Richard L „ 11S9... 1199
Edward II. „ 1307.
John „ 1199... 1216
Edward III. „ 1327 .
HxNRYin. „ 1216... 1272
RicuARon. „ 1377.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1154. DIED 1189.
I.— Heney II., eldest son of Geoffry Plantagenet and
Matilda, daughter to King Henry I., was the most powerful
^/HE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 27
monarch of his time. He subdued Ireland and Wales, and
ruled over a larger portion of French territory than the king
of France himself. During his reign, the arrogance and
ambition of the clergy exceeded all bounds. They
raised immense sums by taxes and the sale of pardons,
and England began at last to get impoverished by the de-
mands of Eome. This the king resolved manfully to
oppose. In order to do so the more effectually, he
elevated Thomas a Becket, his chancellor, to the priest-
hood, and even made him Archbishop of Canterbury,
thinking by these means to secure a valuable rival to
the pope of Rome : but herein he was greatly mistaken.
A Becket was a man of inferior birth and brilliant talents,
who loved power and splendour better than anything iu
the world, and no sooner was he invested with these new
dignities than he went over to the side of the clergy,
supported them in all their measures, and offered a more
determined resistance to King Henry's will than any one
had yet done.
II. — A great dissension ensued, during which the king
and the archbishop mutually defied each other. A Becket
excommunicated several of the bishops ; threatened
even to excommunicate the king ; fled over to the con-
tinent, and, being at length pardoned, was permitted to
return to his diocese, after years of negotiation. Here he
again behaved with such open insolence, that Henry,
being then in Normandy, was one day tempted to utter a
rash wish for his death, whereupon four knights crossed
over to England for the purpose, and murdered the de-
fenceless old man (a.d. II70) before the altar of Can-
III. — King Henry was greatly shocked, and even did
public penance at the tomb of A Becket j but from this
time his life became very unhappy. Frequent wars dis-
turbed the kingdom, and, being appealed to by one of the
native Irish princes for assistance against a neighbouring
28 8UMMABT OP ENGLISH HI8T0ET.
chieftain, Henry invaded and snbdued Ireland (a.d 1172) ;
annexed that country to the English crown ; and governed
there by means of a viceroy — thus acting over again the
part taken by the Saxons when first summoned over to our
shores by the native Britons. Henry also conquered in
Wales, and obtained the first ascendency over Scotland.
During this reign London Bridge was rebuilt in stone-
England was divided into six legal circuits (a.d. 1176) —
charters were granted to many towns ; and the windows
of private dwelling-houses were made of glass. Henry's
sons were rebellious, and the eldest died ; so that on the
decease of the king, in the year 1189, he was succeeded
by his second son, Richard, known in history and romance
as Richard the Lion-hearted.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1189. DIED 1199.
IV.— King Richardl., third son of Kiug Henry II,, wa3
a very brave soldier, and spent his whole reign in warfare
on the continent and in crusades to the Holy Land. He can
scarcely be called an English king at all, for we find that
he could not speak one word of Saxon, and, although he
was our sovereign for ten years, passed only eight months
in England. Returning from the east, he fell into the
power of Leopold, Duke of Austria, by whom he was
detained in prison till ransomed by his faithful subjects.
Richard fell while besieging the castle of Chains, near
Limoges, in France, and was succeeded in 1199 by his
BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1199. DIED 1216.
V. — John, fourth sou of King Henry II., was one of the
worst and meanest kings that ever reigned in this country.
His name has come down to us as a type of baseness,
cowardice, and treachery. Outraged by his oppressions,
and emboldened by his weaknesses, the barons compelled
THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 29
this monarch to sign that signal ratification of English
liberties and rights which is famous in our annals as the
" Magna Charta," or Great Charter. This event took place
in 1215, at Kunnymede, near Windsor. The Cinque Ports
during this reign were endowed with additional privileges—
the first standing army was levied in England, and the es-
tabhshment of an annual election for the Lord Mayor and
Sherifis of the City of London instituted. King John was
deprived of his French provinces, in consequence of the
cruelty with which he treated the children of his elder
brother Geofiiy. Prince Arthur, his young nephew and
heir to the crown, was murdered by his command at the
Castle of Rouen, a.d. 1202 ; and Arthur's sister, the Prin-
cess Eleanor, called the Damsel of Brittany, was imprisoned
in Bristol Castle, where she died, a.d. 1241. King John
reigned for seventeen years, and died universally detested.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1216. DIED 1272.
VI.— King Heney III., eldest son of John, was but
eight years of age when he received the crown, and for
many years the kingdom was governed by his guardians.
He was of a weak and irresolute character, and tried to
abolish Magna Charta. All London, and the chief land-
holders and inhabitants of the county towns, rose in defence
of their liberties, and the king, with his son, was defeated
and imprisoned, and forced once more to confirm the safety
of his people. The assembling of the nobles and burgesses
of England, at this juncture (a.d. 1258), is considered
to be the first outline of the Commons Pailiament. Coal
began to be used for firing in this reign, a licence was
granted to the people of Newcastle, for the working of their
mines. Gold coinage, also, was introduced, and the art
of distillation derived from the Moors. After a feeble
reign of fifty-six years, King Henry III. died in the year
1272, and was succeeded by Edward, his eldest son.
30 SUMMAET OP ENGLISH HISTOBY.
BEGAN TO EEIGN AD. 1272. DIED 1307.
VII. — ^Edtvaed I., eldest son of Henry III., was a clear-
headed, resolute, and military monarch, and grasped the
sceptre with a hand of iron* He added further privileges
to Magna Charta, granted the freedoms of the Cinque
Ports, a eated his son fii\st Prince of Wales, and, in honour
of the useful laws which he enacted, obtained the name of
the English Justinian. Gunpowder was invented during
the reign of this king by the celebrated Roger Bacon ;
paper was brought from the East by the Crusaders ; wine
was sold as a cordial by the apothecaries ; and the mariner's
compass was invented by one Gioja of Naples. Westminster
Abbey, which had been in the course of erection for sixty
years, was at this time completed, and great advances were
made in literature, social science, and general civilizatioii.
Edward I. died, a.d. 1307.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1307. DIED 1327.
Vm. — Edwaed II., son of Edward I., ascended the
throne in 1307. Of a character and disposition the very
reverse of his father's, the young king lost the confidence
and respect of his people, sufiered his nobles to gain undue
power, and was wholly governed by foreign favourites.
In the year 1314, war was declared with Scotland ; and
on June 2oth, the famous battle of Bannockbum took
place, in which Eobert Bruce, with only 30,000 Scots,
signally defeated the Eoyal army, consisting of 100,000
men. King Edward narrowly escaped with life ; 50,000
English were killed or taken prisoners, and the name of
the northern hero was crowned with undying glory. In
1322, a rebellion, headed by the Earl of Lancaster, was
crushed at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire, and that noble-
man was punished with death. Not long after this event,
the powerful barons coalesced against the favomitcc, and
THE HOUSE OP PLANTAGENET. 31
the weak monarch whom they governed. They executed
first Piers Gaveston, the Gascon, and then Hugh de
Spenser and his son, all of whom had richly deserved the
accumulated hatred and scorn of both nobles and people.
Edward then withdrew into Wales, pursued by the Earl of
Leicester. Even his wife, a princess of France, took up
arms against him, and conducted the rebellion of the
barons. This pusillanimous king was compelled at length
to abdicate the throne and yield himself prisoner, when
he was confined in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and
horribly put to death, a.d. 1327. During the reign of
Edward II., the House of Commons first began to annex
petitions to their bills — the society of Knights Templars
was suppressed — earthenware was brought into use for
household purposes — the University of Dublin was founded
— and the interest of money rose to the usurious rate of
45 per cent.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1327. DIED 1377.
IX. — King Edwaed III., eldest son of King Edward II.,
succeeded his unhappy father in the year 1327. A more
powerful monarch England never acknowledged. He sub-
dued Scotland, invaded France, and, without any reason
save ambition and the love of fighting, claimed the crown
of that country for himself. It was upon this occasion
that the famous battle of Cresiky was fought (a.d. 1346),
when Edward's son, known in history as the Black Prince,
won immortal fame by his intrepidity and coolness — a fame
which he more than doubled some few years after at
the great battle of Poictiers, a.d. 1356. During this reign
London contained at one time two captive kings, John of
France and David of Scotland. The latter remained pri-
soner in England for eleven years ; and the former, failing
in his endeavour to raise the sum stipulated for his ransom,
surrendered himself to a life of honourable captivity at the
32 STTMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
court of his conqueror, aud died at the old palace of the
Savoy, in the Strand, which at that time was studded with
parks and country-seats, and formed no part of the city of
During this reign, a fearftd pestilence, known as tho
Black Death, raged throughout Europe, and is estimated
lo have cost more life than all the wai's of King Edward
III. Windsor Castle now fell into disuse as a fortress
and was reserved exclusively for the residence of royalty —
the art of painting in oils was invented by Van Eyck —
cloth-weaving was introduced from Flanders — and the
Lords and Commons for the first time occupied separate
chambers at Westminster. In 1376 the Black Prince
died, leaving one child to the care of the old king, who
followed his valiant son to the grave before a year was
BEGAN TO KEIGN 1377. DrED 1399.
X. — RiCHAED II., son of the Black Prince and
last representative of the house of Plantagenet, was only
eleven years of age when the kingdom oi' England de-
volved to him by right of birth (a.d. 1377). The conquests
aud expeditions of his father and grandfather had added to
the glory but diminished the wealth of the nation ; and
during the long minority which unavoidably followed his
accession, the nobles, as usual, were rebellious, and the
people discontented. A heavy tax being unjustly levied
all over the kingdom (a.d. 1381), the lower orders rose in
open rebellion, headed by Wat Tyler, a blacksmith. This
rebellion was suppressed by the young king, at that time
only sixteen years of age, who immediately granted to them
the concessions which they demanded. These, however, he
afterwards revoked, and proved himself to be a more fickle
and feeble sovereign than even Edward II.
In the year 1398, the Duke of Gloucester, upon suspi-
THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 33
cion of treason, was imprisoned at Calais, and there mui-^
dered ; whicli act of oppression gave great offence to th&
parliament and people. This being the case, he found
none to defend or pity him when his banished cousm,
Henry of Lancaster, retm^ned suddenly from exile, assem-
bled an army of sixty thousand men, seized upon the
supreme authority, and, after compelling Richard to sign
his abdication, confined that unfortunate sovereign in Pon-
tefract Castle, Yorkshire, and there had him basely mur-
dered; thus terminating the lordly and brilliant line of
Richard II. built the present Westminster Hall, and
lived more royally than any of his predecessors. His
household consisted of no less than ten thousand persons,
and in matters of fashion he set the most luxurious and
costly example. Our great old English poet, Geoffrey
Chaucer, flourished during this reign — William of Wyke-
ham, distinguished for his learning and piety, and famous
as the founder of Winchester School, and New College,
Oxford, lived and died — and John Wycliffe, the herald of
our great Reformation, expired, a.d. 1385, in his rectory
at Lutterworth, Leicester.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER III.
I. Name the possessions of ments effected during this reign.
Henry II. Of what errors were "What were his domestic sor-
the clergy guilty during this rows ? Wlien did he die, and
reign? Who was Thomas a by whom was he succeeded?
Becket, and to what rank was IV. "What was the charactei
he elevated? ofRichar.lL? Washeathorougb
II. Relate the circumstances Englishman ? What disaster
of the quarrel between the king befel him in Austria ? By
and the archbishop. "What was whom was he succeeded, and
the manner of his death ? In in what year ?
what year was he murdered? V. Describe the character and
III. "What testimony of grief disposition of John. What was
did Henry show for A Beckefs the great event of this reign ?
death ? In what year, and uu- In what year was Magna Charta
der what circumstances, did the signed ? How did John lose bfs
king subdue Ireland? Name French provinces? For how
the other conquests of Henry II. lojig did Jolin reign ?
Belate the remarkable improve- VI. By whom was King John
BUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
succeeded, and in what year?
"\Vhat was the age of Henry
III. when he received the
crown? In what way did he
iiifringe the liberties of the
people? How did they show
their resentment? In what
year did the nobles and bur-
gesses meet ? "What great body
jiolitic was outlined at this time?
How long did Henry reign, and
by whom was lie succeeded ?
VII. What privileges did Ed-
ward I. grant to his people?
"Who was the first Prince of
"Wales ? "What name did King
Edward obrain ? What re-
markable inventions took place
during his reign ?
YIII. "When did Edward II.
ascend the throne ? What was
the character of this king ? In
what way was he opposed
by his wife? What was his
IX. "Wlio succeeded Edward
II., and in what year ? "What
were the warlike enterprises of
Edward III.? What famous
battles were fought in this
reign, when did they take place,
and who was the hero of both ?
Wliat two kings were at one
time captives in London? Where
did John of France die ? Kelate
tlie chief events of this reign,
"tt'hen did the Black Prince die,
and how soon after did the king
his father follow him to the
X. How old was Richard II.
when he ascended the throne ?
What was the str.te of the king-
dom, and why did the people
rebel ? Who suppressed the
rebellion ? What sort of a mon-
arch was Ptichard II.? What
was the fate of the Duke of
Gloucester? Who deposed the
king? Where was he imprisoned,
and in what way did he die ?
In what year did these events
happen? What great meu
flourished during this reign?
THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK.
Began to reign. Died.
Hknrt IV. A.D. 1399 ... 1413
Henry V. „ 1413... 1422
Henry VI. „ 1422 ... ?
Began to reign. Died.
Edward IV. a.d. 1461 ... 1483
Edward V. „ 1483 ... 14S3
Richard IIL „ 1483 ... 1485
BEGAN TO REIGN 1399. DIED 1413.
I. — Heney IV. was the grandson of Edward III. and
cousin of Richard II. He had no legal right to the English
crown. He was an usurper, and the career of an usurper
is not frequently happy. That of Henry IV. was pecu-
liarly wretched — embittered by the desertion of his friends
— troubled by the animosities of his barons — disturbed
by conspiracies, and endangered by open rebellions of the
THE nOUSES OF LANCASTEE AND TORE:. ?A
Scots and the Welsh. He was also grieved by the excesses
of the Prince of Wales, who, though brave and generous-
hearted enough, gave himself up to eveiy kind of dissipa-
tion and self-indulgence, and was even sent, on one occa-
sion, to prison by Judge Gascoigne, for contempt of court
Henry IV. attached himself zealously to the established
religion, and, having constituted himself the champion of
the chui'ch, became also the persecutor of WyclifFe's ad-
herents. The Rev. Sir William Sautre, Rector of St.
Oswyth, London, fell a victim to the king's mistaken
bigotry (a.d. 1401), and was the first person burnt hi
England for his religious opinions. The order of the Bath
was instituted during this reign, and cannon were first
used here at the siege of Berwick (a.d. 1405). In the
J' ear 1407 thirty thousand persons died of the plague, and
in the course of the same year, James, son of Robert III.,
King of Scotland, was seized off Flamborough Head, whilst
on his way to France, and notwithstanding that there was
peace between the Scots and English at that time, was
detained prisoner in this country, and not released till the
sum of £40,000 was paid over for his ransom, in the year
1423. Henry IV. died at Westminster m 1413, after a
reign of fourteen years, and a turbulent life of forty-six.
BEGAN TO REIGI* A.D. 1413. DIED 1422.
II.— King Heney V., eldest son of King Henry IV.,
had no sooner succeeded to the throne than, much to the
surprise of all the nation, he reformed his life, and showed
himself a temperate, just, and wise sovereign. The great
event of his reign was the conquest of France, when he
won the celebrated battles of Harfleur and Agincourt (a.d.
1415), and was recognised heir to Charles VI. He then
married the Princess Catherine of France — the nobles
swore obedience to him — and it was concluded by treaty
that upon the death of Charles the two kingdoms were to
86 8UM1IABY OF ENGLISH HISTOBT.
"be united in the Englisli crown. In the month of May,
1422, Henry, with his queen and his infant son, visited
France, entered Paris in all the pomp of a royal progress, and
dazzled the splendour-loving Parisians with the wealth,
power, and triumph of their future sovereigns. Henry V.
carried on that persecution of the Wycliffites which hia
father began, and treated them with inexcusable severity.
Lord Cobham was burned in St. Giles's Fields for his lean-
ing towards the Protestant faith, and was the first among
our English nobility who suffered the extreme penalty of
the law for his religious opinions. Linen shirts and imder-
clothing were at this time esteemed great luxuries, and a
flock bed, with a chaff bolster, was a refinement of comfort
known only to the wealthiest. From the reign of Henry Y.
may also be dated the custom of lighting our London
Btreets at night, since it was at his command that every
citizen was compelled to hang a lantern on his door during
the winter months. From the same period may also be
dated the first establishment of a permanent naval force ;
and one ship, built at Bayonne expressly for the king, was
esteemed quite a marvel of size and strength, because it
measured one hundred and eighty-six feet in length. Just
at the most brilliant epoch in his career, died Henry V.,
in 1422, at the early age of thirty-four.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1422. PERIOD OF DEATH UNCERTAIN.
III. — Heney VI., son to the late king, was scarcely
one year old at the death of his father, whereupon the
Duke of Bedford, one of the most accomplished mea
of that age, was made protector during the regal minority.
In this reign the splendid territory of France was lost
to us through the inability of the English generals
and the want of an English king. A village-girl
from a remote part of Champagne fancied herself
divinely inspired, placed herself at the kead of the
THE HOUSES OF LANCASTEE AND fOEK. 87
French army, and, by dint of undaunted courage and
patriotism, won victory after victory, and crowned the
French king at the city of Rheims, a.d. 1429. Being
taken prisoner after this by the English, she is said, by
most historians, to have been bm-nt at the stake. In
history she is known as Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans.
IV. — Thus by degrees the French wrested back their
acres from the English, and in a few years Calais alone
remained a dependency of the State. In the midst of
these losses, the troubles of a disputed succession again
threatened the safety of the young and feeble sovereign
(a.d. 1450), and the house of York, represented by
Duke Eichard, fomented insurrections among the people.
At length, after many vicissitudes, during which Henry
was sometimes a king and sometimes a prisoner, the
Duke of York was slain at the battle of Wakefield Green,
A.D. 1460, and all once more bore the promise of peace.
V. — In the midst of this delusive lull, the great Earl
of Warwick (called the " King-maker ") took up the
cause of young Edward, son to the late Duke of York ;
imprisoned Henry in the Tower of London ; and
fixed Edward upon the throne, under the title of King
Edward IV. Still, the civil wars continued unabated.
The Yorkists bore a white rose for their emblem, and
the Lancastrians fought under the ensign of a red one.
Hence these contests are generally styled the " Wars
of the Roses." The date of Henry's death is uncertain ;
but it is said that the king's brother, Richard of
Gloucester, murdered him in his chamber at the Tower.
In this reign the right of voting at elections for Knights
of the Shire was limited to freeholders possessed of estates
to the annual value of forty shillings. Seats in the Com-
mons were not, however, much sought by the middle classes
of the fifteenth century. The functions of the Commons
consisted chiefly in the imposition of taxes, and even the
Lords of that period evinced little interest or assiduity in
38 SrMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
the discharge of their parliamentary duties. Both Houses
enjoyed entire liberty of speech. Eton College, and King's
College, Cambridge, were founded about a.d. 1440. Coffee
was imported from Arabia, and th« art of wood-engraving
borrowed from the Germans. In 1450 the first Lord
Mayor's Show took place, and the same year was signalized
by the famous insurrection in Kent, headed by one Jack
Cade, who, under the assumed name of Mortimer, asserted a
fictitious right to the English throne, but was defeated and
killed at Sevenoaks by Alexander Iden, sherifif of Kent.
began to reign a.d. 1461. deed 1483.
VI. — King Edwaed IY., eldest son to the late Duke of
York, was a very handsom.e, but a very capricious and
tyrannical sovereign. During this reign, the first printing-
press was set up by William Caxton, a.d. 1471. Edward
narried Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter to Sir Richard
"Woodville, and widow of Sir John Grey. This is the first
instance since the Conquest of an English king being mar-
ried to a subject. The circumstance gave great offence
to the Earl of Warwick, who rebelled in consequence,
and was slain (a.d. 1471) at the battle of Barnet.* Yew-
trees were at this time cultivated in churchyards, for the
purpose of making bows ; and a terrible plague spread
throughout the country, from which more persons perished
than during all the previous fifteen years of the wars of
the Roses. Edward died (a.d. 14S3), just as he was pre-
paring for a war with France, and left his infant sons, Ed-
ward Y. and Richard Duke of York, to the guardianship
of his wily and ambitious brother, Richard Duke of Glouces-
♦ In the year 1478, George Duke of Clarence, brother to the
king-, was condemned to death for high treason, and is supposec^
to have been executid privately in the Tower, by command of the
Parliament. His death was a lasting source of remorse and griei
to Edward IV.
THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK. 39
ter. This prince seeing but these children between himself
and the sceptre, had them convej^ed to the Tower, and
there murdered. He was acknowledged king in 1483,
■ix months after the death of his brother Edward IV.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1483, DrED 1486.
YII. — Richard III., brother to Edward IV., during
a short reign of two years, committed such atrocious
deeds as have left him the blackest reputation of any-
sovereign upon the records of our history. IJjFot only
did he murder his young nephews, but he put to death
the generous Lord Hastings, the unfortunate Jane Shore,
and his own friend and ally, the Duke of Buckingham.
The Earl of Richmond, a wise and brave nobleman, re-
lated to the house of Lancaster by the marriage of his father,
Edmund Tudor, to Margaret, the great grand-daughter of
John of Gaunt, asserted his claim to the crown of England
(a.d. 1485), assembled a small army of about two thousand
persons, which became speedily augmented to three times
that number — came over from Normandy, landed on the
Welsh coast, and drew up his forces near Bosworth Field.
On the 22nd of August, 1485, he was met by King Richard,
who fell in the thickest of the fight, and Richmond
received the crown upon the battle-field, in the presence
of his army, which saluted him as King Henry VII.
Thus ended the civil wars which had convulsed England
for more than forty years, and the royalty of the
Houses of Lancaster and York. During the reign of
these two families (a period of nearly one hundred years),
art, civilization, and science had made very considerable
progress. Music was much cultivated, especially by
the clergy; painting met with liberal encouragement,
and was employed in the universal decoration of
our churches ; books though still very expensive, became
purchaseable by others than the most wealthy, in conse-
8UMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
quence of the invention of printing ; many of our most
esteemed colleges and public schools date their founda-
tion from this period ; the language became more refined,
and received something like a standard in the works of
Gower, Chaucer, and others ; and the style of our archi-
tecture, raised on the crumbling ruins of the feudal castles,
rose into a stately and beautiful order of ornamental build-
ing known as the Perpendicular Gothic. The civil wars
of this period, however, operated fatally upon the eiforta
of agricultural science. Many prosperous and pleasant
dwellings throughout England were laid waste, and within
twelve miles' range of Warwick alone sixty villages are
stated to have been entirely destroyed.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER IV.
I. What caused the sorrows
of King Henry IV. ? What was
the conduct of the Prince of
Wales ? What sect did Henry
IV. persecute, and who was the
first aristocratic victim? What
customs were introduced in this
reign? When did the king die,
and at what age?
II. AVhat was the king's con-
duct on succeeding to the
throne? What was the great
event of this reign? When
were the battles of Harfleur and
Agincourt fought? To whom
was Henry V. married ? When
did he die, and at what age ?
III. How old was Henry VI.
at the time ofhis father's death?
Wliat loss did England sustain
during this reign ? Relate the
history of Joan of Arc.
IV. What part of the French
territory alone remained at-
tached to the English crown ?
What new troubles threatened
the safety of the young king ?
What was the fate of the Duke
of York ? When was the battle
Of \^^akefield Green fought ?
V. Who was the Earl of
Warwick, and what measures
did he take against Henry VI. ?
What were the emblems of the
two parties? What was the
manner of King Henry's death ?
Relate the condition of the
Houses of Lords and Commons
at this time. What schools
were founded, and what im-
provements introduced? Who
was Jack Cade ?
VI. What was the character
of King Edward IV. ? What
signal event happened in this
reign ? Whom did he marry,
and what became of the Earl of
Warmck? When did he die?
What became of his two infant
sons ? When was the Duke of
Gloucester acknowledged king ?
VII. For how long did
Richard III. reign, and what
reputation has he left behind
him? Who were the Tictims
of his cruelty and ambition?
What was the lineage of the
Earl of Richmond ? What was
the size of his army, and from
what country did he come over
TH2 HOUSE OF TUDOB. 4l
to claim the crown ? In what raged in England ? Relate the
year did he land, and where improvements which had now
draw up his forces ? What was taken place in the arts, sciences,
the result of the battle of Bos- architecture, and civilization of
worth? When was it fought ? England. What was the effect
How long had the civil wars of the civil wars on Agriculture?
THE HOUSE OF TUDOR.
Began to reign. Died. I Began to reign. Died.
Henry VII. a.d. 1485 ... 1509 Mary a.d. 1553 ... 1558
Henry VIII. „ 1509 ... 1547 Elizabeth „ 1558 ... 1603
Edward YL n 1547 ... 1553 |
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1485. DIED 1509.
L— Heney VII. was first representative of the noble
house of Tudor. He was grandson to Owen Tudor, grand-
father of King Henry VII., and connected by marriage
with the family of King Edward IV. His reign was sig-
nalized by the appearance of two remarkable impostors,
namely, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Lambert
Simnel was the son of a baker, and (being trained purposely
for the character) was placed at the head of an insurrection
at Nottingham, and proclaimed to be the son of the late
Duke of Clarence, and heir to the throne. A sanguinary
battle took place (a.d. 1487), between the rebels and the
king's army, in which the former were dispersed, and the
pretender taken prisoner. He was pardoned by Henry, and
afterwards filhd the situation of scullion in the royal
kitchen. Perkin Warbeck's appearance and education were
more favourable to deception. He was reported to be the
little Duke of York who was murdered with his brother in
the Tower. King James IV. of Scotland became one of his
supporters ; his standard was joined by many of the
highest noblemen in the kingdom ; he assumed the title
of Pwichard III. of England; and even obtained the hand
42 SUilMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
of the Lady Gordon in marriage. He was, however, taken
prisoner (a.d. 1499), thrown into the Tower, and executed
II. — Notwithstanding these rebellions, Henry YII. was
a prudent, a wise, and a merciful sovereign. He abridged
the secular power of the pope ; extended the privileges of
the people ; promoted commerce ; and rendered English-
men powerful and happy. During his reign Columbus
made the discovery of America, a.d. 1498, after having
previously discovered the Bahama Islands in the West
Indies (a.d. 1492). Sebastian Cabot also discovered New-
foundland in 1497, and afterwards a considerable portion
of North America. He likewise published the first map
of the world which included both hemispheres. Vasco di
Gama fii'st doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and made the
passage to India by sea in 1497. Maps and sea-charts
were now brought to England, shillings were coined,
the 3'eomen of the guard appointed for the safety and
honour of the king's person, the arbitrary court of law
known as the Star Chamber first established, and
Henry VII.'s Chapel built at Westminster Abbey ; a work
considered to be the most perfect specimen of Tudor archi-
tecture now extant. Henry YII. died in 1509, having
lived fifty-two years, and reigned twenty-three.
began to reign a.d. 1509. died 154 7.
III. — Henby VIII., second son to King Henry Vll.,
was handsome, affable, and popular, and ascended the
English throne at eighteen years of age. During the first
year of his reign he married with Catherine of Arragon,
and threatened an invasion of France, which, however,
came to nothing. Soon after this he became the firm friend
of Thomas Wolsey, then Dean of Lincoln — a man of great
ambition and talent, who had risen from the middle rank
of life, and who was afterwards promoted to the high dignity
THE HOUSE or TUDOE. 43
of a CO rdinalsliip. The kiiig had been married just eighteen
years, when he fell inlove with Anna Boleyn, one of the maids
of honour attending upon the queen. In order to effect a
marriage with her, he divorced Queen Catherine in 1532,
who died of grief shortly after, and even defied Pope
Clement YII. for refusing to sanction his proceedings.
This step led to the great and glorious Eefoemation.
lY. — Having declared open opposition to the Church of
Rome, Henry proceeded to make the most cruel enactments
against papists ; to demolish the monasteries and convents
scattered by hundreds throughout his domini«ns ; to turn
the religious communities abroad into the world ; and to
pour into his own treasuries the wealth w^hich had been
accumulating in the clerical coffers for a thousand years.
Dreadful persecutions ensued — men were hanged, burned,
and beheaded, for not believing as he desired, and brave
old Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher were executed
(a.d. 1535) for denying his royal supremacy. Even
Cardinal Wolsey was degraded, and arrested for high
treason ; but died before any farther steps could be taken
V. — Henry's next step was to behead Anna Boleyn,
and marry the Lady Jane Seymour (a.d. 1536), who
died in giving birth to a son. He then entered into
an alliance with the princess Ann of Clevcs, to whom,
however, he took an intense aversion ; and, having put her
aside, married Catherine Howard, niece to the Duke of
Norfolk. This lady he beheaded in 1542, and then gave his
hand, for the last time, to Lady Catherine Parr, widow of
the late Lord Latimer. This wife alone contrived to retain
the tyrant's affection, and, not being either divorced or
beheaded, had the happiness to survive him.
VI. — The last victims to the caprices of this cruel
monarch were the Duke of Norfolk, and his son the Earl
of Surrey, a young man who excelled in all the accom-
plishments of a scholar, a soldier, and a courtier, and who
44 8U1IMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
has taten his standing among the early English poets.
Both were accused of high treason. Surrey's head fell
upon Tower Hill (a.d. 1547) ; but the life of his father
was providentially saved by the death of the king, which
happened on the evening of the day before that appointed
for his execution.
No king ever violated the rights of Englishmen or the
fundamental liberties specified in Magna Charta more
flagrantly than King Henry VIII. Upon life he placed
no value, and for law he entertained no reverence. Ho
even exacted a bill from his slavish Parliament by which
the written edict of the sovereign was elevated to the
level of a legal statute — a measure which rendered the
crown absolutely despotic, and vested in the hands of the
king the honour, safety, and wealth of the entii-e nation.
During this reign many important discoveries were made,
literature much advanced, and considerable progress effected
in general knowledge. St. Paul's school was founded in
1510; the College of Physicians estabhshed in 1518;
Whitehall and St. James's Palace were built; Mexico
was conquered by Cortez, and Peru by Pizarro ; Wolsey
commenced building Hampton-court Palace and Christ-
church, Oxford; shipbuilding was improved, and the navy
extended ; the Corporation of the Trinity-house was insti-
tuted; the office of Secretary of State was created by
government ; the Society of Jesuits was founded by Igna-
**us Loyola (a.d. 1535) ; Wales was for the first time
represented in parliament ; classical literature was exten-
sively cultivated among the higher classes of both sexes,
and Erasmus, a learned native of Holland, was elected
Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford, and con-
tributed much by his presence and attainments towards
the advancement of education in England. In this reigF
the first Lord High Admiral was appointed, in the person
of Sir James Howard ; the whole of the Bible was trans-
lated into English in 1539 : the Church Prayer-Book and
THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 45*
the Articles of Eeligion were aiTanged by Bishop Cranmer,
in 1540; cherries, hops, apricots, pippins, and various
other kinds of fi:uit and vegetables were first cultivated in
this country; cotton thread was invented ; leaden conduits
for the conveyance of water were substituted for the
<vooden ones which had previously been in use ; pins were
rYitroduced from France by Queen Catherine Howard, and
were then a very expensive luxury. Before this time,
ribbons, loopholes, laces with tags, hooks and eyes, and
skewers of brass, silver, and gold, had been used alike by
men and women. The term " pin-money," as applied to
the income allowed by husband to wife, is dated back to
this period, and refers to the heavy expenses incurred by
the purchase of this extravagant article of attire. A pound
sterling was first called a sovereign during the reign of
Hemy YIII. ; and pre visions were so cheap, that beef
and mutton were purchased at the rate of one halfpenny
per pound. The value of precious metals, however, was
very low, and a pound, at the time of the Conquest, would
buy twelve times as much as at the j resent day.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1547. DIED 1553.
VII.— King Edward VI., only son of Henry VIII.,
ascended the throne in 1547, being then nine years of
age. The Duke of Somerset was appointed protector till
the king should attain his majority. He was, however,
supplanted and executed by the bold and ambitious Duke
of Northumberland, who persuaded Edwai'd to transfer
the succession to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, instead of
sufiering it to devolve, as it should, upon his eldest sister,
Mary. Lady Jane Grey was the wife of Northumberland's
son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Shortly after this decision
the king's health declined; and when be died of consump-
tion in 1553, in the sixteenth year of his age, there were
not wanting tongues among the people to attribute his los»
46 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
to the machinations of the Protector. He was amiable,
highly accomplished, and dearly loved by his subjects.
No religious persecution was suffered during his reign,
and a law was passed by which Protestant clergymen were
permitted to marry. The book of Psalms was also trans-
lated into verse, by Sternhold and Hopkins ; the book oi
Homilies compiled by Cranmer and Eidley, and a new
code of Articles was drawn up, to the number of forty-two,
from which the thirty-nine Ai'ticles of the Established
Church now in use were afterwards compiled. Christ's
Hospital and St. Thomas's Hospital were founded, as well
as many other charitable institutions, grammar-schools,
almshouses, &c., throughout all parts of the kingdom.
Grapes were brought over from France, and cultivated in
England for the fii'st time ; crowns, half-crowns, and six-
pences were introduced into our currency; and a dreadful
plague, called the sweating sickness, which had hitherto
been prevalent from time to time, became totally extinct.
Our trade with Russia Was for the first time opened during
the reign of King Edward VI.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1553. DIED 1558.
YIII.— Maey I., eldest daughter of King Henry VIII.
by Catherine of Arragon, next received the crown, after a
brief contest of only ten days with Lady Jane Grey and
her supporters. She inaugurated her cruel reign with
the death of the unfortunate young pair, Dudley and
Lady Jane Grey. Her next step was to marry Philip II.
of Spain, A..D. 15 54, who cared little for her affection,
and left her, as soon as possible, for his native country.
IX. — The most tremendous and fearful persecutions
were now directed against the Eeformers. The Bishops
of London, Worcester, and Gloucester, and even Arch-
bishop Cranmer, were condemned to the flames ; and it is
computed that during this Eeign of Terror, \w"^\cli lasted
THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 47
between four and five years, no less than 277 human
beings were frightfully sacrificed. Mary died in 1558:
Coaches were introduced in this reign, before which time
ladies used to be carried in litters, or rode on pillions
behind their mounted squires. Flax and hemp were first
cultivated, the use of staix'h was discovered, and the manu-
facture of di'inking-glasses began to be encouraged in
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1558, DIED 1603.
X. — Elizabeth, a Protestant princess, and daughter of
King Henry VIII. and Queen Anna Boleyn, succeeded to
the throne. Had she relieved the whole nation from
captivity and chains, the delirium of joy with which all
classes hailed the accession of Queen Elizabeth could
scai'cely have been greater. The first act sanctioned by
her authority was the formal restoration of the reformed
religion; and in a single session of Parliament the
articles of our faith were established ; freedom of thought
secured ; the acts of her sister abolished ; and Protes-
tantism for ever constituted the religion of England.
XL — In the year 1587, Elizabeth tarnished the glory
of her reign by signinj^ the death-warrant of Mary
Queen of Scots, who had fallen into her power and
was imprisoned for many years in Fotheringay Castle.
The obloquy of this deed was effaced shortly after from
the minds of the people by the glorious defeat of
the great Armada sent out against our coasts by Philip
of Spain, under the command of the Duke de Medina
Sidonia. Against this floating army, consisting of
twenty thousand soldiers in a hundred and thirty
galleons. Queen Elizabeth sent forth thirty small sailing
vessels, commanded by Admirals Eifiugham, Drake, Haw •
kins, and Frobiolier (a.d. 1588). Just as the Channel
4S SUMilAE? OP ENGLISH HISTOET.
was covered "by the hostile sail, a tremendous storm came
on. The Spanish fleet got into disorder. The English
navy rushed upon them, and poured in their batteries
from every side. Two great three-deckers were taken,
and twelve smaller ones — flight, destruction, or sub-
mission alone was left to the rest, and of all that mighty
armament commissioned to subdue Old England, only a
miserable remnant escaped to carry back the tidings of
XII. — The career of this famous queen presents other
glories, very different but equally splendid. During her
reign the poets Spenser and Raleigh wrote and flourished —
Lord Bacon, the philosopher and historian, lived — and
Shakespeaee, the immortal poet and dramatist, whose
works are the glory of our literature, wrote some of his
finest plays, surviving the queen by thirteen years.
XIII. — The Act of Supremacy, passed at the com-
mencement of Elizabeth's reign, was the greatest mistake
of this sovereign's career. Devised for the purpose of
crushing the Eoman Catholic influence, this Act compelled
all clergymen and persons holdmg oflG.ce under the Crown
to take an oath abjuring not only the temporal, but even
the spiritual authority of every foreign prince or pre-
late, and acknowledging the sovereign as the head of the
Church, with rights derived from God. This Act was
followed by the Act of Conformity, which prohibited all
persons from attending the ministrations of any clergyman
not belonging to the Established Church. The lamentable
consequences may be readily imagined : hundreds suffered
death, imprisonment, and persecution, in this and fol-
lowing reigns, through the operation of these arbitrary
statutes. The naval power of England, which had been
gradually extending ever since the time of Henry V.,
continued still to be the chief care and ambition of our
Government. Noble and scientific men pressed eagerly
forward to join in expeditions for the discovery of unkno\VD
THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 49
countries. Sir Francis Drake made a three years' voyage
round the world, and was the first Englishman who accom-
plished the circumnavigation of the globe. He brought
potatoes from Santa Fe, lu North America, and planted
them in Lancashire. Tobacco was first brought to thi*^
country by Sir John Hawkins, a.d. 1565. Tea was intro-
duced by the Dutch. Pocket-watches were brought over
from Nuremberg, in Germany. Silk stockings were worn
for the first time by the queen, cloth hose having previ-
ously been" in use. The art of paper-making from linen
rags was begun at Dartford, by Sir John Speilman, a
German, a.d. 1590. Telescopes were invented by one
Jansen, a spectacle-maker at Middleburgh in Holland.
Decimal arithmetic was discovered by Simon Stevin, a
scholar of Bruges. The Italian method of book-keeping
was taught here by James Peele, whose book on the sub-
ject is yet extant. Knives were first made in England
A.D. 1563, and were the earliest branch of domestic cut-
lery, being manufactured by one Matthews, of Fleet-
bridge, London. In the month of July, 1588, when the
invasion of the Armada was impending, the first English.
newspaper was published, under the title of The JEnglish
Mercurie. A copy of this journal is preserved in the
libraiy of the British Museum. In 1556, the Royal
Exchange was built by Sir Thomas Gresham. In 1590,
Westminster School was founded by the queen ; and
Rugby School was founded by L. Sherifie. Our mercan-
tile transactions were now carried on upon a more liberal
and extensive scale ; our whale and cod fisheries were esta-
blished ; Birmingham and Shefiield became the centre of
our hardware manufactures, and Manchester of our cotton
and stocking weaving ; theatrical representatidfes became
the popular amusements of the people ; art was encouraged
by the nobility, and Hans Holbein, the portrait-painter,
was patronized by the queen. In the fifth year of Eliza-
beth's reign, the poor-laws were enacted, and the poptik-
6CM3JAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
lion of London averaged 160,000 souls. The Bodleian
Library was formed at tkis time, the East Lidia Company
organized, and I^ew England colonized.
XIV. — In 1G03 died Queen Elizabeth, much beloved
by the English people, and to this day revered as the
restorer of peace, the patroness of learning, the protector
of religious hberty, and the upholder of the great English
name through all the kingdoms of Europe. With her
terminated the house of Tudor.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER V.
/. TThat remarkable impos-
tnres signalized this reign ?
Eelate the story of Lambert
Simnel. K elate the story of
II. What was the character
of Henry YII. ? In what way
did he contribute to the happi-
ness of his people ? What great
discovery was made during his
reign ? Name the other disco-
veries of great navigators. What
signal improvements and in-
ventions took place at this
time? What building is con-
sidered the most perfect speci-
men of its order now extant?
When did he die, and at what
age? liy whom was he suc-
III. What was the character
of Henry YIII. at eighteen
years of age? What events
took place in the fust year of
bis reign? Who was Thomas
Wolsey ? What led to the royal
divorce? What great religious
movement did this circumstance
IV. What xerethe enact-
ments of Ilenrv VIII. regarding
Papists? What was the nat.;-"
of the ihurch persecutions ?
What great men were degraded
Sud punished in consequence ?
V. What was Henry's next
matrimonial step? Name his
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth
wives. Why was the last the
most fortunate ?
VI. Who were the last vic-
tims of King Henry's caprices ?
What was the fate of Surrey,
and what was his reputation ?
How was the life of the Duke
of Norfolk spared? In what
way did Henry VIII. render
his power despotic ? What great
buildings were erected at this
time, and what important ad-
vances made in literature and
general knowledge? AVhat fruits
were introduced, and what im-
provements effected in the me-
tropolis ? Relate the history of
VII. In what year did Ed-
ward VI. succeed to the crown,
and what was his age? Who
was appointed Protector, and
what was his fate ? To what
act was the king influenced by
the Duke of Northumberland ?
Who was Lady Jane Grey ?
When did the king's health first
begin to decline, and what was
tlie popular opinion respecting
the manner of his death ? When
did Edward VI. die, and what
was Ills age and disposition?
THE HOUSE OF TUDOB.
What important law was passed
respecting Protestant clergy-
men? What religious works
were compiled ? What benevo-
lent institutions were founded?
"Wiiat branch of trade was
opena^^ to us abroad?
Vill. For how long did Lady
Jane Grey contest the crown,
•and what was her fate and that
of hei husband ? "Who was
Mary I. * With whom did she
IX. Relate the persecutions
levelled at the Protestants in
this reign. How many souls
perished by fire ? When did
Mary die, and how was she
liked by the people ? Relate
the social improvements effected
during this reign.
X. What reception did Eliza-
beth meet with? What was
the first act of her reign ?
XI. What was the end of
Mary Queen of Scots, and when
was she executed ? What great
victory effaced the memory of
this deed? What was the com-
parative sea-strength of Spain
and England ? What was the
result of the expedition ?
XII. What great men flou-
rished in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth ? What valuable in-
strument was invented ? What
influential company received its
charter? How many years did
Siiakespeare survive Queen ELi-
XIU. For what purpose was
the Act of Supremacy devised,
and of what nature was it?
Relate the results of its opera-
tion. What progress was made
by England as a naval power,
and in what way did men of
education evince their eagerness
to advance knowledge ? AVho
was the first Englishman that
circumnavigated the globe?
What vegetables were intro-
duced in this reign, and by
whom? Who brought tobacco
to this country ? Relate the
inventions which took place at
this time with regard to dress,
paper, telescopes, and watches?
Who invented decimal arith-
metic? When were knives first
made in England? What was
the name of the first English
newspaper? What great public
institutions were founded in
this reign ? What great fisheries
were established? What par
ticular branches of commerce
were connected with Birming-
ham, Sheilield, and Manchester?
When were the first poor-laws
enacted? What great library
was formed at tliis time, and
what powerful trading com-
pany organized? Wiiat colony
was first inhabited during thie
XIV. In what year did this
great Queen die ? In what way
did siie contribute to the pros-
perity of her kingdom ? What
great royal house terminated at
her death ?
62 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
THE HOUSE OF STUAET
Began to reign. Died.
James I a.d. 1603 1625.
ChaklesI 1625 1649.
BIGAN TO EEIfN A.D. 1603. DIED 1625.
I. — ^KiNG James I. was the son of the unfortunale
Mary Queen of Scots, and great grandson of James IV. of
Scotland, who married a daughter of Henry YII. When the
sceptre of Elizabeth descended to his hands, he was reigning
at Holyrood under the title of King James VI. of Scotland.
At the very commencement of his reign, a conspiracy
which has never been sufficiently cleared up was set on
foot by llie Lords Grey and Cobham, and Sir W. Ealeigh.
The two former were pardoned ; but Ealeigh, the travelled
and chivalrous poet, was executed in 1618, after manj
years of confinement.
II. — Two years after the accession of Jamesl. (a.d. 1605),
discovery was made of the famous Gunpowder Plot; a con-
spiracy, which terrified the whole nation, was designed to
re-establish the Soman Catholic religion, and would, if
successful, have proved the destruction of the King, Lords,
and Commons of this realm. Many of the traitors asso-
ciated in the enterprise were publicly executed ; some died
sword in hand ; and some received the royal pardon.
Lord Cecil, the minister of Queen Elizabeth, filled the
same office under James up to the period of his death, in
1612; but from that time the king and his parliament
were constantly at variance. He would fain have ex-
tended his royal prerogative to a point little short of
despotism, and they were equally resolute to uphold their
privileges and power. In 1614 they withheld the supplies,
because James delayed to redress the grievances of which
they complained j and thus, in the parliamentaiy difficulties
TnE HOUSE OF STUAET. 53
of his father, was anticipated somewhat of the fatal
obstinacy afterwards evinced by Charles I. In this reign
(for the purpose of raising money) the king created the
title of Baronet, and sold it for the sum of £1000. Horse
races were established at Newmarket. The circulation of
the blood was discovered by Dr. Harvey, a.d. 1619. The
broad si].k manufacture was introduced. Copper half-
pence and farthings were coiried for the first time. Log-
arithms were introduced by Napier, a.d. 1614. Buildings
were built of brick ; the authorized translation of the Bible
as at present in use wao produced under the care of forty-
seven divines ; the London New River Company was pro-
jected by Sir Hugh Middleton; Homer was translated by
Chapman ; and the Charterhouse School was founded by
Mr. T. Sutton, who purchased the vast premises from the
Duke of Norfolk, a.d. 1611.
III. — King James married the Princess Ann of Den-
mark, by whom he had four childi-en. Two alone survives
him — namely, Charles prince of Wales, and Elizabeth,
married to Frederick V., elector palatine of Bavaria, an
unfortunate prince, whose dominions were confiscated by
the Emperor Ferdinand II., and whose posterit}" after-
wards succeeded to the English sovereignty. James I.
died in 1625, at the age of fifty-nine.
BEGAN TO KEIGN A.D, 1625. DIED 1649.
IV. — Chaeles I., second son of James I., commenced
his reign with great apparent advantages, both of person,
education, and position. He found the treasmy of the coun-
try, however, in an impoverished condition ; and, being
refused sufficient supplies by the parliament, laid a heavy
and unpopular tax upon the people, with the proceeds of
which he fitted out a fleet for the invasion of Spain. This
measure created great discontent j but instead of being
54 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
warned by the murmurs of the nation, Charles was unjust
and impolitic enough to persevere, and from 1629 to 1636
never called any parliament, but raised money by means
of an obsolete statute called the levy of Ship-money. It
may be as well here to explain the nature of that tax.
Y. — Three years after the king's accession (a.d. 1628),
the Commons, in return for five subsidies, had induced
him to sign that second great charter of English liberties
known as the Petition of Eight ; by which he bound
h.im'ielf to raise no taxes without the consent of parlia-
ment. It was therefore in direct violation of his own
treaty, that in 1629 royal writs were issued to the City of
London and to the towns along the coast, exacting a
tribute of money for the purpose of equipping ships of war
for the defence of the country. At first this step, though
productive of much ill-feeling between the king and the
people, was yet tolerated, and had some excuse of precedent ;
but Charles shortly ventured on a stretch of prerogative
that no other sovereign, however arbitrary, had ever
dared to contemplate. He sent writs of ship-money tc
the inland counties, where no ship had ever been seen, and
continued to raise money for the defence of his kingdom
at a time when he was at peace with all the world.
YI. — The first resistance was offered by John Hampden,
a gentleman of Buckinghamshire. He refused to pay the
rate levied upon his estate, and brought the matter to
trial (a.d. 1636), with the patriotic resolution of supporting
the liberties of the people. The result, which it was hoped
would affix some limit to the power of the sovereign, was
anxiously awaited by the nation ; but Hampden lost his
cause, and Charles grew more exacting than ever. Many
ceremonies of Eoman Catholic worship were now intro-
duced into the church — episcopacy was forced upon the
Scots, who rebelled in consequence — more rates and levies
were wrung from the public purse, and the king raised an
army and marched to the north (a.d. 164.0), where, in-
THE HOUSE OF STT7AET. C
stead of defeating the Presbyterians, he ended a feeble
campaign by a treaty of peace.
VII. — During the month of April in this year (1610)
Charles found himself compelled once more to assemble
a parliament, and this time Hampden took his seat in the
House of Commons as member for Buckinghamshire, and
leader of the opposition party. This paiiiament the
king angrily dissolved, because it was bent upon redi'essing
the public grievances. He threw some of the Com-
mons members into prison, exacted ship-money more
rigorously than ever, and even prosecuted the Corporation
of London for their unwillingness to enforce the levies.
VIII. — Again a parliament was called (Nov. 1640),
and again the opposition, more powerful than ever, with
Hampden, Pym, Holland, and others, at the head of the,
party, stood up to foi'ce the king to something like justice
and reparation. By this famous tribunal great and salu-
tary reforms were vigorously carried out. Strafford, who
had been created Earl, I/ord-lieutenaut of Ireland, and
President of the Council of the North, was impeached, with
Archbishop Laud, imprisoned, and executed. The servile
judges and officers of the crown were punished, and the
king deprived of arbitrary and feudal powers. In fact, it
was open war between Charles and his people.
IX. — As if blindly led on to his ruin, Charles now
committed an act for which history can furnish no parallel,
and posterity no excuse. Enraged against the opposition,
and misled by the lenity with which some of the members
were disposed to treat his measures, he went in person to
the House of Commons (Jan, 1612), attended as far as
the door by two hundred halberdiers and armed cour-
tiers, there to arrest and seize Lord Kimbclton, Hampden,
HoUis, Pym, and two other members, whom he had
previously impeached through his attorney-general. An}'-
thing so unprecedented as the arrest of members en-
gaged in the exercise of their parliamentary duties had
56 STJMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
never been known; and though the attempt failed, and
the members were absent, this act of tyranny led lo
extremes which few then could have anticipated.
X. — Hampden and his friends secreted themselves in the
city. The parliament recalled them, and they returned
to their seats in triumph, accompanied by immense crowds
of spectators and military, and saluted with salvos of
artillery. The result was civil war. Charles fled to the
North, after having sent the Queen and Prince of Wales
to a place of safety. The nation became divided into two
factions distinguished as Cavaliers and Eoundheads, and
both parties prepared for the great struggle. The clergy,
the Universities, the landed gentry, and a majority of the
nobles sided with the king. The Eoundheads comprised
the middle classes of England, the merchants, shopkeepers,
yeomanry, dissenters, parliamentarians, and a formidable
minority of the peerage.
XI. — Not to dwell too long upon this period of our
summary, we will briefly detail the chief events of that
deplorable conflict, which lasted for the space of three
years, and caused the eff'usion of so much English blood.
The royal standai'd was first erected at Nottingham,
August 25th, 1642, and the first engagement, known as
the battle of Edgehill, was fought on the 23rd of the
October following, when both sides claimed the victory.
From this time no great event (unless an unimportant
advantage gained by Charles at Stratton) took place, till
the death of Hampden, at Chalgrave-field, June 24th, 1643.
In 1644, the Eoundheads, under Sir Thomas Fairfax,
signally defeated the Eoyalists under Prince Eupert, at
the famous battle of Marston Moor — and on June 14th,
1645, was fought the decisive battle of Naseby, in North-
amptonshire, when the king's army sustained a total
defeat. Fifty thousand of his soldiers were taken prisoners,
baggage and cannon were left upon the field, and Charles
fled to Scotland, By his northern subjects, upon whose
THE COMMONWEALTH. 67
protection he had thrown himself, he was basely sold over
to the English for the sum of £400,000.
XII. — From this moment the king's doom was sealed.
He was first imprisoned at Hampton Court — then in
Carisbrook Castle — then in Hurst Castle, Hampshire —
finally in Windsor Castle, whence he was brought to
London, to go through the mockery of a trial at St.
James's. By the high court of justice he was sentenced
to death, and publicly beheaded in fi-ont of Whitehall
Palace on the 30th Jan., 1649. " A great shudder ran
through the crowd that saw the deed, then a shriek, and
then all immediately dispersed." Charles was at that time
forty-eight years of age, and had reigned nearly four-and-
XIII. — That extraordinary epoch in our history, knowi.
as the period of the Commonwealth, ensued. Olivee
Ceomwell, who had distinguished himself as a general in
the late wars, received the command of the Puritan army
in Ireland (a.d. 1653), and there defeated the Royaliscs
with great slaughter. Having reduced that country to
submission, he was next despatched to Scotland, where
they had espoused the cause of the Stuarts and placed
Prince Charles upon the throne. Here the sternRoundhead
was everywhere invincible ; the Scotch deserted the royal
standard ; a great battle was fought at Worcester, on the
3rd of September, 1651 ; and the king was forced to make
his es(;ape to the coast of France.
XIV. — In this manner the authority of the parliament
became established throughout the British dominions.
The American settlements, which had declared for the
king, were subdued; Ireland and Scotland silenced;
Jersey, Guernsey, Scilly, and the Isle of Man, brought
easily under subjection ; and an immense empire, rich in
fleets and armies, in cro\vn-lands and ecclesiastica'
68 SUMMARY OF E^"GLISH HISTOEY.
treasures, was governed by an assemblage of some sixty or
seventy men of obscure birtli and inferior education, wh(?
had taken upon themselves to alter the legislature of the
state and to behead a great king, and who, in their present
position., found themselves holding the foremost place
among the sovereign powers of Europe.
XV. — Oliver Cromwell, having entire possession of the
aifection and confidence of the army, and being regarded
with suspicion and anxiety by the Long Parliament,
resolved upon what was, perhaps, the boldest step of his
life. He went with 300 soldiers to the House of Commons
(a.d. 1653), turned out the members, dissolved the
assembly, ordered the door to be locked, and put the
key in hij pocket. The next parliament was called, and
consisted entirely of ignorant fanatics. These men resigned
office (Dec. 12, 1653), and vested the entire administrative
power in Cromwell, with the title of Lord Protector of the
Commonwealth of England. Thus the oppressions of
royalty were exchanged for a despotic military government.
protector of e>'gland fho.m a.d. 1c53 to 1g58.
XYI. — The Peotectoeate was inaugurated by a suc-
cession of brilliant victories, and the recognition of the
English power in all the courts of Em-ope. The Dutch
were brought to sue for peace (a.d. 1654), and made to
pay an indemnification of £85,000. Favourable terms
subsisted between Cromwell and Mazarin, and Dunkirk
became a dependency of the State. The years 1655 and
1656 saw the great victories of the English fleets, under
Admiral Blake, at Algiers, Cadiz, and the Canary Islands ;
and in 1655 Admirals Penn and Yenabies made the con-
quest of Jamaica.
XVII. — Despite all this prosperity, the Protector's was
far from being a safe or happy position. He was feared
and distrusted on aU sides; threatened by numberless
THE COilirONWEALTH. 59
conspiracies ; and a prey to perpetual anxiety. A teiTlan
ague carried him off at last (Sept. 3, 1658), in the fifty-
ninth year of his age, and the ninth of his usurpation.
He appointed his son Eichard his sQCcessor; but the
army, discontented with so young and irresolute a Ic-ader,
compelled him to sign his abdication, and the oSlcers
restored the Long Parliament which Cromwell had
XVIII. — This parliament, however, having offeridedthe
army, was again dismissed, and General Monk, toiirching
from Scotland with 8000 veterans (Jan. 1660), compelled
the London forces to disperse. A new Parliament was
then assembled, and the restoration of royalty, in the
person of the exiled Charles, was proposed and received
with universal delight both by the CommoriS and the
people. So ended the period of the Commonw*-alth.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER YI.
I. 1 whom did the crown he ? In what year did he die,
descend on the death of Eliza- and at what agof
betli ? What conspiracy threat- lY. How did Charles I. com-
ened the commencement of mence his reign ? "What means
James's reign, and who were the did he take to St out a fleet for
parties concerned in it? What the invasion of Spain? How
was the fate of Sir ^Y. Raleigh ? did he raise money without the
II. Wiiat was the nature of aid of parliarac-nt, and for how
the Gunpowder Plot, and in long?
what year was it discovered? Y. When did Charles sien
What occasioned the disagree- the Petition of Right, and what
ments between James and his terms did be therein agree to?
parliament? When were the When did he issue the writs fc«
supplies withheld? For what 6hip-money,andupon what pre.
purpose was the title of Baronet tcnce ? To what unwarrantable
created? What great discovery degree did he extend this ex-
was made by Dr. Harvey? Re- action?
late the inventions and im- YI. Who offered the first
provements cf this reign ? By resistance? What was the re-
whom was the New River suit of Hampden's cflbrts? By
Company projected? Who was what acts of oppression did
5Ir. T. Sution, and what charity Charles follow up his success ?
did he found? Yll. When did Charles again
III. Whom did the king call a parliament? How did
marry, and what family hail he treat that body ? In what
SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
way did he insult the Corpora-
tion of London ?
VIII. In what month of the
same year did he again call a
parliament, and who were the
leading members of the opposi-
tion ? What great reforms did
the parliament effect ?
IX. What extraordinary piece
of illegal tyranny did Charles
next resort tc, and when did he
carry it into effect ?
X. Where did Hampden and
his friends take refuge ? In
what manner did they return
to parliament? What became
of the king and royal family ?
Into what well-known factions
was the nation divided? Of
whom did the Cavaliers consist ?
What classes constituted the
XI. Where and when was
the royal standard first erected?
tMien was the battle of Edge-
hill fought? Where did Hamp-
den fall? Relate the event and
date of the battle of Marston
Moor. When was the battle
of Xaseby fought, and with what
result ? What was the conduct
of the Scotch upon this occa-
XII. At what places was the
king successively imprisoned ?
By what court was he sen-
tenced? Relate the circum-
Btances and date of his execu-
tion. What was his age? How
long had he reigned ?
XIII. What period ensued*
Who was Oliver Cromwell, and
when was he sent to Ireland?
Why was he next sent to Scot-
land ? What was the date and
result of the battle of Wor-
XIV. In •n'na.t countries was
the authority of the parliament
everywhere established ? What
was the character and power of
the parliament ?
XV. What bold step did
Cromwell take? Of whom did
the next parliament consist?
When was Cromwell raised to
the supreme power in the
XVI. Under what auspices
did the Protectorate commence ?
In what year were the Dutch
subdued ? What terms sub-
sisted between France and Eng-
land ? What were the great
victories of Admiral Blake, and
when did they take place?
What were the conquests of
Penn and Venables?
XVII. Was the Protector
happy ? When did he die, and
from what cause ? Whom did
he appoint to succeed him'
What steps were taken by the
XVIII. What became of the
parliament? What was the
course taken by General Monk?
In what way ended the period
of the Commonwealth ?
THE HOUSE OF STUAET. 61
THE HOUSE OF STUAET (Continued.)
Began to Keign.
Charles II a.d. leeo Died 1685.
James II 1685.. . Detlironed 1688.
BEGAN TC KEIGN A.D. 1660. DIED 1685.
L — King Chakles II., eldest son of King Charles I.,
came to the throne amid the universal rejoicings of a
nation released from Puritanic tyranny, and anxious to wel-
come the restoration of royalty. Commencing his reign with
cl emency and moderation, he passed an act of universal par-
don (excepting only the regicide judges and more furious
republicans), chose his first council indifferently from both
loyalists and presbyterians ; and proclaimed entire liberty of
opinion among his people. The body of Cromwell, however,
was dug up, hung in chains, at Tyburn and buried under the
gallows; but was afterwards removed secretl}^ and re-
jnterred, as some assert, in the centre of Red Lion Square.
II. — It was supposed, from this promising beginning,
ihat Charles would be found an easy monarch, and that
nothing affecting the religion or liberty of the nation need
be feared at his hands. In this the public was disap-
pointed. Having first of all disbanded the fine army of
the Commonwealth, the king began to follow his father's
evil example by forcing episcopacy upon the nonconform-
ists. This step raised an outcry of discontent throughout
the kingdom : in one day about two thousand presbyterian
ministers gave up their benefices, because they would not
embrace a new faith — and now the Church of England
began to persecute its former persecutors.
III. — He next declared war with Holland (a.d. IGGo),
and sent out an English fleet under the command of his
brother, James, duke of York. The ship of Admii-al
62 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
Opdam, the Dutch commander, was blown up, and the
victory of the English complete.
IV. — In the years 1665 and 1666, London became the
scene of two fearful calamities, exceeding in horror any
that were ever known to befal oue city within so short a
period. A mortal plague spread among all classes, and
carried off in six months more than 100,000 human beings.
They were buried in great pits dug about the neigh-
bourhood of JMoorfields and Tothill fields, and every
night the dead-carts traversed the melancholy streets,
in which the unaccustomed grass grew rankly, and no
other traffic now was known. Scarcely had this sickness
begun to decline, when a fire, unexampled in Europe since
the destruction of Rome under Nero, " laid in ruins the
whole cit}^, from the Tower to the Temple, and from the
river to the purlieus of Smithfield." This conflagration
destroyed 400 streets and 13,200 dwelling-houses, besides
89 churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, the Royal Exchange,
the Custom House, Guildhall, and many other important
public buildings. It lasted without intermission for four
days, and was only stopped at last by the blowing-up
V. — Taking advantage of this period of our national
weakness and distress, the Dutch fleet, under command of
Admiral de Ruyter, sailed up the Thames (a.d. 1667),
and burned the ships of war which lay at Chatham. This
was the first, and happily the last, time that the roar of
foreign guns was heard to echo through the streets of
London. A disgraceful peace was shortly afterwards con-
VI. — The great imposition known as the Popish Plot
took place in 1678. A discreditable character, one Titus
Oat€S, constructed a hideous fiction which he found the
nation only too ready to believe. He gave out that the
papists were preparing for the destruction of London by
fii-e, the assassination of the king, and the betra^yal of our
THE HOUSE OF STUAEt. 6d
country into the hands of the French. Just at this junc-
ture, the mysterious murder of Sir Edmondsbury Godfrey,
a Protestant magistrate, lent all the colouring of truth to
his assertions. Many innocent persons were in (*<.>nsequence
arrested and executed, and, among others, the aged and
illustrious Earl of Staiford fell a victim to calumny, and
was beheaded on Tower Hill, December 29th, 16S0.
VII. — In the year 1679 was passed the Habeas Corpus
Act. This act, next in importance to Magna Charta, is
one of the bulwarks of individual safety. So long as the
statute remains in Ibrce, no subject of England can be
detained in prison, except where such detention is shown
to be justified by law.
VIII, — The Lords Shaftesbury and Eussell, in con-
junction with the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Essex,
Algernon Sidney, and others, were discovered (a.d. 1680)
to be the authors of a treasonable conspiracy, having for
its object the death of the king. This was the famous
Rye-house Plot; so called from the conspirators' place of
meeting. Lengthened trials ensued. Monmouth escaped;
Kussell (the most popular man of his day) was executed
in Lincoln's-inn Fields, July 21st, 1683; the Earl of Essex
was found with his throat cut in his cell at the Tower;
Shaftesbury absconded to Holland; and Sidney suffered
the extreme penalty of the law, December 7th, 1683.
IX. — The king was at this time (a.d. 1685) as abso-
lute a sovereign as anj' in Europe ; but his power was
destined not to be of long duration. Towards tiie be-
ginning of February, 1685, he was attacked by what
seemed to be a lit of apoplexy, and soon after expired
without a struggle. Before dying, he received tli3 sacra-
ments of the Ivomish church; an act which proved that
although he had always passed for a prctestant king, he
cherished another religion in his heart. Charles was fifty-
nine years old at the time of his death, and had reigned
twenty-fivo years. His character has been thus briefly
64 SUM3IABY OF ETTCftlSH HISTOEY.
summed np bj a modern historian : — " Charles was the
falsest, meanest, merriest of mankind."
BEGAN TO KEIGN A.D. 1685. DETHRONED 1689.
X. — James II., brother to the late king, had distin-
guished himself as a naval commander, but was unpopular
with the general pubhc on account of his gloomy temper
and the ill favour in which his religion was held. He
had been brought up to the Eoman Catholic persuasion,
and liis first acts were to go openly to mass, to sanction
the erection of Jesuit colleges, and to establish Eoman
Catholic bishops. These things much displeased the
nation, and so, when the Duke of Monmouth (an ille-
gitimate son of the late king) came over to England, set
up his standard in Dorsetshire and claimed the crown,
thousands flocked to his aid, and he found himself, in a
very few days, at the head of a considerable army. He
was defeated at Sedgemore, a village near Bridgewater,
and, being hotly pursued, was found concealed in a field,
hidden among branches of fern, and utterly worn-out with
hunger and fatigue. Despite his supplications for mercy,
James was inexorable, and the unhappy young man was
executed, July 15th, 1685.
XI. — The most savage persecutions followed. Twenty
prisoners were hung upon the field of battle ; but to the
infamous memory of Judge Jeffi-ies (the most bloodthirsty
of legal murderers) belong the chief horrors of what has
been called the English Eeign of Terror, Hundreds of
victims, old and young, were sacrificed for having been
implicated in the rebellion ; and in Scotland people were
hung and drowned for refusing to repeat the Creed. The
English fleet mutinied because James had ordered mass to
be read on board the vessels, and the Bishop of London
was suspended from ofiice.
XII. — The king next issued a proclamation of entire
THE HOUSE OF STUAST. 66
liberty of conscience to his subjects; a proceeding which,
although it bore a fair appearance, was known to be solely
put forward for the favouring of Eoman Catholicism.
Seven bishops of the Church of England undertook to
deliver a remonstrance to the king, especially concerning
that clause of his proclamation in which he desired that
it should be read in all the chui'ches upon the conclusion
of divine service. For this courageous resistance the
bishops were arrested and thrown into the Tower (June
29, 16SS), but, being acquitted upon their trial, were
regarded as the saviours of the Protestant religion, and
met everywhere by rejoicing thousands.
XIII. — It was while affairs were in this position that
the eyes of all men were turned for deliverance to William,
Prince of Orange, who had married Mary, the eldest
daughter of James. This wise and politic prince, being
invited over by the clergy and the people, left Holland
with a fleet of 500 vessels and an army of 14,000 men,
landing at Torbay on the 5th of November, 1688, Here
he was joined by the nobility, clergy, and military; even
by Lord Churchill, who owed everything to the bounty of
the king ; and by Prmce George of Denmark and his wife
the Princess Anne, second daughter to James.
XIV. — In this manneiHhe crown changed hands withjut
the striking of a blow. James was confined at Rochester,
but was permitted to escape to France, where he after-
wards died ; and the Prince and Princess of Orange were
proclaimed joint king and queen of England on the 13th
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER VII.
I. With what measures did were his commands received by
Charles commence his reij^n ? the rresbyterian ministers?
"What indignities M'ere oflcred III. In wliat year was ws^
to the body of Cromwell ? declared with Holland, and hov/
II. By wliat unpopular mea- ended tlie first engagement ?
eure did Charles lose the good IV. What calamity befel
opinion of the people? How London in 1665? When diiJ
6C11MAEY OF ENGLISH Sic TORY.
the great fire take place? How
long did it last, and what was
the extent of tlie destruction?
V. In v\ ]iat waj' did the Dutch
take advantage of our distress,
and in wliat year ?
YI. AVhen was the Popish
plot set on foot, and by wliom?
lielate the purport of Oates's
statements. When was the Earl
of Stafford beheaded ?
YII. In what year was the
Habeas Corpus Act passed ?
"What is the purport of tlife Act?
VIII. What illustrious gen-
tlemen were concerned in tlie
Rye-liouse Plot ? What were
their respective fates ?
IX. What was the power of
the king at this time? When
did he die? What was the
cause of his death ? What
sacraments did he receive ?
AVhat was his age ? How lojig
had he reigned ? What was his
X. r>y whom was Charles
eucceeded? AVith what acts
did James commence his reign ?
How was the insurrection of
Monmouth received by the
people !* flow did his rebellion
terminate, and what was hia
XI. How did the king's army
treat tiie prisoners? AVliat in-
famous judge was appointed to
try the rebels? What were the
cruel results ? What took place
in the English fleet, and what
Eishop was suspended from
XII. WHiat was the real ten-
dency of the king's order re-
specting liberty of conscience ?
Who protested against it? How
was this remonstrance received ?
What was the event of the
XIII. To whom did the people
look for assistance? Witli what
army and how many ships did
Prince William leave Holland?
When and where did he land '
By whom was his standard
XIV. Did the crown change
hands easily ? What became
of James ? When were the new
sovereigns proclaimed ?
UHITED HOUSES OF STUART AND NASSAU.
Began to reign. Died.
King William III a.d. 1CS9 1702,
Queen Mary II „ 1CS9 I(j94.
QuesnAnne „ 1J02 1714
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1CS9. DZi:X> 1702.
I. — ^William III., +hroughout his reis^n in England
(for Queen Mary, who was the daughter of -Tames IL, had
little to do with affairs of State, and died before her
UNITED HOUSES OF STUAET AND NASSAU. 67
husband), was troubled with treachery at home and warfare
abroad. A great war with France continued nearly the
whole time, and not only his crown, but his life was several
times attempted by the emissaries of the exiled James.
The latter went over to Ireland in the spring of 1690,
raised an army of 40,000 men, and besieged Londonderry.
Failing in his attempt to reduce that city, he was forced
to retreat with a loss of 9000 men, and being met on the
banks of the river Boyne (June 30, 1690) by King William
and his army, was signally defeated.
II. — The late king was not yet discouraged by these
failures, but fought a last battle at Aughrim, and was
forced to retreat to Limerick. Here, finding all chance of
victory gone, his adherents capitulated, and above 14,000
of them followed him to France.
III. — William of Orange was a great general, and the
bravest of soldiers. War was his element, and in raising
sums for the prosecution of his military plans, he plunged
the Government into that great National Debt which it
has never since been able to discharge. Peace was, how-
ever, concluded at Ryswick, after eight years of bloodshed
(Sept. 20, 1697) ; and on the 8th of March, 1702, England
lost this remarkable and celebrated sovereign. He was
just fifty-two years of age, and was succeeded by Lis
began to reign a.d. 1702. died 1714.
lY. — Anne, second daughter of King James II.,
now reigned in England, and her reign is the history of
constant but brilliant warilire. The court of Versailles
had acknowledged the son of James II. as Prince of
Wales. Queen Anne felt this to be both a political ana
personal insult, and declared for war. Lord Churchill,
now Duke of Marlborough, received the command of the
English army, as well as that of the Dutch, who sided
Urith us. The Germans joined the alliance j the Nether-
68 SUMMAET OP ENGLISH HISTOET.
lands were speedily cleared of the Invader; several towns
were taken by siege ; and the first of a series of splendid
victories was fought at Blenheim, August 2nd, 1704. In
this year also the fortress of Gibraltar was taken by Sir
G. EookfcV and has remained ours ever since.
V. — The next great victory which brought glory to
Marlborough was the famous battle of Eamixies (May 21,
1706) ; and in the autumn of the same year were finally
united the kingdoms of England and Scotland. Though
these two countries had since the accession of James I.
acknowledged but one sovereign, they had enjoyed sepa-
rate laws md separate parliaments : now both were repre-
sented at Westminster, and the Union was ratified as it
YI. — The year 1708 was signalized by the victory of
Oudenarde, gained by the Duke of Marlborough ; which
was followed, in 1709, by the equally brilliant battle of
Malplaquet. Shortly after this, by a system of court
intrigues, the particulars of which would detain us too long
in this place, the Duke of Marlborough and his wife (to
whom the queen had been greatly attached) fell into dis-
grace. The great general was dismissed from his com-
mand, and a treaty of peace was entered upon at the
celebrated Conference of Utrecht. By this instrument,
signed in April, 1713, England's glory and interest were
secured. To her jurisdiction France resigned Hudson's
Bay, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland — Spain relinquished
Gibraltar and Minorca — and the fortifications of Dunkirk,
whijh might have proved dangerous to our trade in time
of war, wer3 demolished. The rest of Europe was dealt
by with equal fairness.
VII. — Soon after this event the health of Queen Anne
declineJ., and on the 31st of July, 1714, she died, at the
age of forty-nine. She had reigned for twelve years; was
much beloved by the people ; and went by the glorious
and enviable title of "the good Queen A:ine." During
THE HOrSE OF BEUNSWICE.
her reign, Addison, Steele, Pope, Bolingbroke, Gay, Swift,
Prior, and other famous wits and poets, whose works are
considered to be our national classics, lived and wrote.
This epoch is styled the Augustan age of English lite-
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER VIII.
I. Was the reign of AVil-
liam peaceful and prosperous ?
"Wliither did James repair?
Wliat army did he assemble,
and what town besiege ? When
was the battle of tlie Boyne
fought, and with what suc-
II. When did James fight
his last battle? What took
place at Limerick ?
III. What was the cause of
the Naticual Debt ? When and
wliere was peace concluded ?
When did WiUiam die? What
was his age, and by whom was
he succeeded ?
IV. Why did Queen Anne
declare war with France? Who
became allies with the English,
and who was appointed com-
mander-in-chief? What success
had Marlborough in the Nether-
lands, and when did he win his
first great victory? What other
important acquisition was made
in this year?
V. What was the next vic-
tory gained by Marlborough?
AVhat great legal event took
place in the autumn of 1706?
\Vhat had been the points of
separation between England
and Scotland ? In what way
wers they removed ?
VI. What were the two great
victories of 1708 and 1709?
How did it happen that Marl-
borough lost his command?
Where was the peace conference
held ? What glorious conces-
sions were made by France and
Spain to the arms of England?
VII. When did Queen Anne
die ? What was her age ? By
what popular name was she
known ? What celebrated lite-
rary characters lived during her
reign? By what name is the
age distinguished ?
THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK.
Began to Reign.
George I a.d. 17U. . . «
George II „ 1727. . . .
George III „ 17G0, ...
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1714. DIED 1727.
1. — George I. of Brunswick, Elector of Hanover, and
fi^reat grandson of James I., succeeded to the "good
70 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
Queen Anne." He was fifty-four years of age wlien he
received the crown, and was preceded by a character
for sagacity, experience, and industry, w^hich led the
nation to expect a happy and peaceable reign. How-
ever, he soon showed that he could be vindictive towards
those of the nobility who had been unfavourable to his
succession. The Duke of Ormond, Lord Bolingbroke,
and the Earls of Oxford and Mortimer, were impeached of
high treason, and Matthew Prior, the poet, was taken
into custody. The Duke of Ormond and Bolingbroke,
having fled to the continent, were degraded from their
rank; their names and arras were razed from the list of
peers, and their estates confiscated. Lord Oxford was set
II. — Rebellion now broke out in Scotland (a.d. 1715),
and the son of James II., known as the Pretender,
was there supported by the interest of the Earl of
Mar, and by arms, ammunition, and soldiers from France.
InsuiTections were also started in various parts of the
western counties ; but were promptly quelled by Generals
Carpenter, Wills, and Pepper. Man}- noblemen and gentle-
men of rank and substance took part in these disastrous
risings — the prisons of London were crowded with unhappy
captives — the Lords Derwentwater, Carnwath, Wintoun,
Kenmuir, Widdrington, and Nair were executed — five
persons of inferior rank were hanged at Tyburn — two-and-
twenty at Preston and Manchester — and about a thousand
were transported. The king would hear of no mercy.
III. — Perhaps the most extraordinary event in the
reign of this sovereign was the great South-Sea Bubble.
We will endeavour to explain the nature of the specu-
lation as briefly as possible. During the reign of
William III., the government was obliged to borrow
money (for war purposes) from different companies of
merchants, and among the rest, from the South-Se?
traders. For this particular debt the government waa
THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 71
paying an annual interest of £500,000. Now in 1720,
one Blunt, a scrivener, came to the ministry in the niime of
this Company, and proposed to them that it (the South-Sea
Company) should become sole creditor to the State b}' the
purchase of the debts of all the other companies. Having
bought up these, they offered to accept an interest of five
per cent, for the first six years, and a reduced interest of
four per cent, ever after, till the parliament found itself in
a position to pay it off altogether. But the Company was
not rich enough to make this gigantic purchase from its
existent funds; and they proceeded to raise money by
opening a subscription for trading in the South Seas, by
which traffic they persuaded the public that great fortunes
were to be made. Thus deluded, the purchasers of South-
Sea stock poured in by thousands, and the government
creditors sold their government stock for that of the South-
Sea Company. It was even advanced that the government
was about to exchange Gibraltar for a portion of Peru ; than
which anj'thing more chimerical can hardly be conceived.
The Bubble exploded ; the directors' estates, to the value
of £2,014,000 were seized in 1721 ; and many thousand
families were overwhelmed with ruin.
IV. — The king, who had not been over to inspect big
Hanoverian dominions for some time, resolved to pay them
a visit in the month of June, 1727. He embarked for
Holland accordingly ; but while travelling in his carriage
from Delden, where he had passed the night, was taken
suddenly ill, and expired at Osnaburgh the next morning,
in the sixty-eighth year of his age and the thirteenth of his
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1727. DIED 1760.
V. — George II. succeeded to his fiithcr when f n-ty-four
years of age, and his son, being summoned over from
Hanover, took his rank as Prince of Wales. A miA-
72 SUMMAfiT OF ENGLISH HISTOBY.
understanding with Spain occurred early in this reign.
In consequence of the discovery of some illicit trading-
vessels commanded by Englishmen, the Spanish guard-
ships seized indiscriminately upon innocent and guilty,
and subjected our merchant captains to considerable an-
noyance. Admiral Yernon was accordingly sent out with
a fleet of six ships to attack the Spanish settlements in
America (a.d, 1739). Here he was uniformly victorious.
Having taken Porto Bello, he bombarded Carthagena and
took Fort Chagre, while Commodore Anson attacked the
city of Palta, on the coast of Peru, captured a valuable
Spanish galleon, and returned home laden with booty.
VI. — The death of the Emperor of Austria in 1740
afforded the French an opportunity to interfere with the
succession of that empire. Setting aside the hereditary
claims of the Emperor's daughter, Maria Tlieresa, Queen
of Hungary, they caused the Elector of Bavaria to be
raised to the imperial throne, whilst the King of Prussia
gi-asped the provinces of Silesia. At this juncture Eng-
land came forward to assist the cause of justice, and her
example being followed by Holland, Sardinia, and Russia,
the Elector was obliged to fly, and Maria Theresa reigned
in her father's kingdom.
VII. — The French declared for war (a.d. 1743), and
being met on the banks of the Maine by the English
army under command of the king in person, weic
signally defeated by a force numbering 20,000 less than
their own. This was the famous battle of Dettingen.
Meanwhile, Prince Charles Edward, son to the Pretender
and grandson to James II., made a bold stroke for the
English crown; landed in Scotland with a few desperate
adventurers, seven officers, and arms for only 2000 men ;
•rained an unimportant victory over Sir John Cope at
Preston Pans ; and took possession of Dunkeld, Perth,
Dundee, and Edinburgh. He then reduced Carlisle, and
advanced into England; but not finding himself supported
THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 73
here, retreated northward, followed by tlie English army
and the Duke of Cumberland. Upon the plain of Cul-
loden the cause of the Stuarts was for ever lost. A
great battle was fought on the 16th April, 1746. The
loss of the English scarcely exceeded 200 men, while 2500
Scots were left on the field. Charles Edward sought safety
in flight ; escaped through countless dangers ; and died at
Eome in 1788.
VIII. — Warfare abroad and rebellion at home induced
England to regard with favour a negotiation proposed
between the belligerent powers in the year 1748. At
Aix-la-Chapelle a treaty was thereupon concluded, by
which all nations were pacified, and peace prevailed in
Europe. Kot so, however, in !N'orth America and in the
East and West Indies. In those colonies the French and
English had never ceased from hostilities, and while all
was once more quiet in this quarter of the globe, the
names of Wolfe and Clive were spreading terror among
our distant enemies. In America the islands of Cape Breton
and St. John's were taken ; the French settlements on the
coast of Africa were reduced; the isle of Guadaloupe was cap-
tured ; and Wolfe fell at the surrender of Quebec, a.d. 1760.
IX. — But the glory of the great British name was still
farther increased by the splendid successes of Clive in the
East Indies. Terribly revenging the death of 123 English
subjects in the Black hole, this gallant soldier attacked and
took Calcutta, June 20, 1757, afterwards winning a second
splendid victory at Plassey, by which was acquired the
province of Bengal, a district exceeding in size the whole
extent of Great Britain, and in wealth, fertility, and
natural advantages, all the provinces of the East.
X. — King George II., in the midst of his glories and
successes died quite suddenly, from a rupture of the right
ventricle of the heart (Oct. 25, 1760), being then in the
seventy-seventh year of his age, and the thirty-third of
his reigu. In consequence of the death of Frederick
74 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET,
Prince of Wales some nine years previously, the king was
succeeded by his grandson, under the title of George III.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1760. DIED 1830.
XL — George III., grandson of George II., ascended
the English throne at a period when our arms abroad and
the progress of our wealth and civilization at home had
rendered the position of the monarch one of the most en-
viable and illustrious in the whole world. The first remark-
able event in this reign was the declaration of war between
England and Spain, in 1762, followed by a successful expe-
dition against ]\Ianilla and the Havannah. Altogether this
was one of the most glorious wars ever carried on in any
age by any people. In the course of seven years were won
twelve great battles by land and sea. Twenty-five islands,
nine fortified cities, and forty forts and castles were taken;
a hundred ships of war were captured; and more thdM twelve
millions were acquired as plunder. In the beginning of
1765, the imposition of the Stamp Act upon our American
colonies raised the first hostile feelings between the two
countries, and in 1774 the tea sent from England laden
with a certain duty, was thrown by an enraged populace
into the waters of Boston harbour.
XII. — Open war ensued, and an engagement at Lex-
ington took pluce, near Boston, April 19, 1775. In this
alFau' the English lost 273 soldiers, and the Americans
about forty or fifty. The great battle of Banker's Hill
followed, upon June 17» in Avhich the Americans were
vanquished after a valiant resistance; and on the 4th
July, 1776, they proclaimed their independence.
XIII. — In the year 1778, France declared in favour of
the Americans, and in 1779 Spain acknowledged their
independence. Thus war was provoked with tliese two
powers, and in 1781 a third enemy was found in the
Dutch. During this latter year, England was carrying on
THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 75
it one time, by sea and land, four great contests — namely,
with America, France, Spain, and Holland. In the
month of October, however, the surrender of lork-to\Am
by Lord Cornwall is to General Washington was the
virtual ending of the American war.
XIV. — In the year 1784, peace was made with Holland
and with America, now known as the United States.
Peace was also concluded between the East India Company
and the Rrjah of Mysore.
XV. — A terrible revolution took place in France in
the memorable year 1789, which, although it did not
directly affect the interests of the British throne, was des-
tined ultimately to ext-end an unparalleled influence over
the destinies of Europe. The populace rose, destroyed the
Bastille, deposed and imprisoned King Louis XVI., and
declared France a republic. After many excesses, during
which the European powers stood b}' as inactive spectators,
the French Jacobins guillotined the king, queen, and
certain members of the royal family, a.d. 1793 ; where-
upon a great confederacy was established between England,
Spain, Holland, and the empires of Germany and Rus-
sia, to restore the crown of France. Valenciennes was
taken ; Toulon was taken and lost again ; many French
settlements in the West Indies were captured (a.d. 1791) ;
the Island of Corsica was subdued; and the Cape of Good
Hope and Trincomalee in Ceylon were added to the pos-
sessions of Great Britain.
XVI. — And now the most extraordinary man of
modern history, the greatest conqueror of any age since
Julius Cajsar, the finest .soldier that ever won French
laurels, began to distinguish himself against the Aus-
trians (a.d. 1795), and to pave the way for the magni-
ficent reputation which, as Napoleon the Great, he after-
wards acquired. Before his arms the States of Germany
were forced to sue for peace, and the English viceroy wiis
compelled to evacuate Corsica. The year 1797 saw the
76 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
mutinies of Spithead and the Nore, the disgrace of which
■was, however, compensated by the splendid victories of
Cape St. Yincent and Camperdowu, won by Admirals Sir
John Jervis and Duncan. These brave commanders were
each rewarded with a peerage.
XVII. — The highly-merited fame of these two great
victories was nevertheless eclipsed by that of the battle
of the Nile (a.d. 1798), in which Nelson asserted his place
as the first naval commander of that day ; cut through
the centre of the French fleet; dispersed, captured,
and destroyed thirteen of the enemy's ships ; and was
recompensed with the title of Baron Nelson of the Nile,
and a pension of £3000 per annum. In the meantime.
Napoleon Buonaparte was rapidly taking the lead in all
the most important affairs of the French Republic. To
him was entrusted the command of a powerful army in
Egypt; but, finding the English so victorious upon the
Nile, he hastened back to Paris, and was created first
consul, in 1799. In the beginning of 1800, he crossed the
Alps at the head of his army, and by the brilliant victory
of Marengo (14th June) annihilated, for the time, the
Austrian power in Ital3\
XVIII. — The Union of Great Britain with Ireland was
fixed by an act of parliament passed on the 21st of April,
1800, to commence from the first day of the new century
(January 1st, 1801). The Imperial Parliament of the
United Kingdom v/as summoned to meet on the 22nd of
the same month. This measure met with much opposition
from the Irish.
XIX. — In this year (a.d. 1801), Napoleon succeeded
in fomenting a war between England and Denmark,
and a powerful fleet, under Lord Nelson and Sir H.
Parker, was accordingly despatched to the bombard-
ment of Copenhagen. The Danes had made formidable
preparations, and fought valiantly during a strife of
four hours, when, having lost all their ships of the line
THE HOTTSE OF BEUNSWICE. 77
and their floating batteries, they were compelled to capi-
tulate. Shortly after this, the French were routed in
Egypt by Sir Ralph Abercrombie and IMaj or- General
Hutchinson, where the battles of Aboukir and Alexandria
were won, in the former of which the brave Abercrombie
met his death-wound.
XX. — While Great Britain was thus extending her
triumphs abroad (a.d. 1802), she was threatened by
Napoleon with an invasion at home. For this purpose
he had prepared a flotilla of flat-bottomed boats, and other
vessels, for the conveyance of his troops. Alarmed
by these movements on the part of the enemy, the
government assembled a squadron, under Lord Nelson,
for the defence of the coast. The invasion was never
attempted : a treaty was entered upon by the English,
French, Spanish, and Dutch powers, and on the 29th
April, 1802, peace was proclaimed in London. This
interval was destined not to be of long duration, and war
was again proclaimed, April 29th, 1803.
XXI. — Not content with the title of first consul, Napo-
leon constituted himself emperor of France in the year
1804, and was crowned king of Italy in 1805. In conse-
quence of these proceedings, an alliance was now formed
between England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden. But
Napoleon was victorious at Austerlitz, where he signally
defeated the Austrian forces, and Russia was compelled to
retreat. Fortunatel}^ the share borne by England was
sufficiently victorious to counterbalance these disasters.
October 21st, 1805, was fought the famous battle of
Trafalgar, in Vv'hich Lord Nelson defeated the united fleets
of France and Spain, and er:pired just as the conquest was
assured. The following year (1806) records the death of
the two most famous statesmen of that epoch — namelv,
William Pitt and Charles James Fox.
XXII. — Napoleon was now the greatest monarch of
Europe. Emperor of France, king of Italy, protector of
78 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
Bavaria and Wirtemberg, he dominated over every other
governiner.t oscepting those of England and Spain. Two
of his brothers filled the thrones of Holland and Naples;
Denmark was in his service; Prussia at his mercy; Russia
had just concluded a peace Avhich was entirely to his advan-
tage; and Austria enjoj-ed but the shadow of a power
which was really vested in his hands. Had he then been
prudent, all might have been well; but he resolved to
seize upon Spain likewise, and from this attempt may the
beginning of his ruin be dated.
XXIII. — Having taken Ferdinand of Spain prisoner
by an ingeniou? stratagem (a.d. 1808), he carried that
monarch and his son into France, and proclaimed his
brother Joseph king of Spain. A general insurrec-
tion immediately broke out in all parts of Spain; aid
was implored from England ; the peasantry formed them-
selves into guerilla parties, annoying and surprising the
French at every opportunity, cutting off their supplies,
shooting their stragglers, and skirmishing with their out-
posts; except where the army was actually present, the
power of Napoleon was set at nought ; and, to crown all,
an army of 10,000 men was sent out, commanded by Sir
Arthur Wellesley, better known at the present time by
the honoured title of Duke of Wellington. Thus com-
menced the famous Peninsular war, and the fii'st engage-
ment is known as the decisive battle of Yimiera, August
XXIV. — The next event of Importance was the victory
of Talavera (July 27th, 1809), in acknowledgment of
which Sir Arthur Wellesley received the title of Viscount
Wellington. Not so fortunate was the memorable and
ill-fated expedition to Walcheren, in which nearly 50,000
fine soldiers fell inglorious victims to the unhealthy cli-
mate of Zealand and the disgraceful inefhciency of those
placed in command. In the following year (1810), Lord
Wellington completely drove the French troops from Per-
THE HOUSE OF BEUN3WICK. 79
tugal. At this period, a succession of splendid victories,
too numerous to admit of notice in so brief a recapitula-
tion as the present, everywhere attended the career of
XXV. — England and Ilussia now coalesced against
France (a.d. 1812), and the emperor resolved upon an
invasion of Russia; collected an army of 600,000 men;
forced his way to Borodino, where, after a sanguinary
battle of three successive daj's, the Russians were de-
feated; and pushed on, immediately, for Moscow. The
Russians, knowing no other means by which to deprive
the French of winter quarters and provisions, actually set
fire to their ancient and beautiful capital, so that on their
arrival the conquerors found nothing but desolation and
flames. Thus disappointed of resources, they began a
hasty retreat to France, having to traverse an enemy's
country amid all the horrors of a northern winter, and
being utterly destitute of all provision, except such as
they could find amid the deserted villages along their
route. During this frightful journey, they w^ere perpe-
tually harassed b}' flying bodies of Cossacks ; were starved,
frozen, and left to die by the wa3'side. Xo less than
300,000 splendid soldiers thus perished miserably. Seeing
the emperor's present weakness, all the European powers
now combined to crush their common enemy. One by
one his conquests were wrested from him, and on May
31st, 1814, the allied armies entered Paris. On the 6th
of April following, Napoleon signed his abdication at
Fontainebleau, and Louis XVIII. was recalled to the
throne of his ancestors.
XXVL — In the j'ear 1815, while the ambassadors
were assembled at Vienna to adjust the claims of Europe,
the world was struck with surprise, terror, and admi-
ration, by the report that Napoleon had escaped from
his exile at Elba, and, having landed in France, was
once again at the head of his beloved army. Again he
80 8UMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTCBT.
ascended the imperial throne — again the allied sovereigns
assembled their forces, and again they met, for the last
time, upon the held of Waterloo, near Brussels. Here,
on the 18th of June, was fought the glorious and ever-
memorable battle of Waterloo, in which the French army
was irrevocably routed, and fled from the field in the
utmost confusion. All was now over with the brilliant
hero of the great empire : he surrendered himself to the
English mercy, and was sent a prisoner to the far and
lonely island of St. Helena, where, after lingering through
a few melancholy years, he died on the 5th of Ma}^, 1821,
The expenses of England during the prosecution of this
war are said to have exceeded seventy millions.
XXVIL— The year 1820 proved fatal to the Duke of
Kent, father to her present Majesty; and in less than
a week after the death of this prince, England lost, ir»
George III., one of her most respected sovereigns. This
venerable monarch expired on the 29th January, 1820, in
the eighty-second year of his age and the sixtieth of his
reign, which is the longest and most remarkable in the
annals of English history.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER IX.
I. By whom was Queen Anne what was found to be the value
succeeded ? How old was of the directors' estates ?
George I., and what character IV. Relate the manner of the
preceded him? What noble- kings death.
men experienced his resent- V. By whom was George I.
ment ? How were Ormond and succeeded ? What was the nature
Bolingbroke punished ? of the misunderstanding with
II. Wiiat proceedings were Spain ? In what year was
now taken by the I'retender, Admiral Vernon sent out ?
andby whom was he supported? What successes were achieved
What generals quelled the in- by liim and Commodore Anson?
surrections? Wliat became of VI. On what occasion did
the various insurgents ? the French interKre with the
III. Describe the nature and Austrian succession ? What in-
origin of that speculation called ju-tice did they commit towards
the South-Sea Bubble. How Maria Theresa? What coun-
did the South-Sea Company tries joined with England to
raise money from public ere- assist the cause of justice, and
duiity ? When the bubble burst, -n hat was the result ?
THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK
Vn. In what year did the
French declare war? What
great battle took place on the
banks of the Maine? What
was Prince Charles Edward
about in the mean time ? What
cities did he seize in Scotland ?
By whom was he pursued?
When was the battle of Cul-
loden fought? What was the
result? What was the fate of
the young Pretender ?
VIII. In what year was con-
cluded the peace of Aix-la-
Chapelk^ ? In what colonies did
the French and English con-
tinue at war? What great men
were at this time active against
our distant enemies ? What
were our conquests abroad, and
when did General Wolfe fall?
IX. AVhat terrible revenge
was taken by Clive in the East
Indies ? What were his con-
X. When did George II. die,
and by whom was he succeeded?
XI. Wliat was the first re-
markable event in this reign ?
What were the successes of
seven years? When was the
Stamp Act imposed on our
American colonies, and how
was it received ?
XII. Wlien ^egan the war
between England and America?
When was the first battle
fought, and with Avhat result ?
What W.1S the next battle ?
When did the Americans pro-
claim themst'lves independent?
XIII. Wliat countries ac-
knowledged their indepen-
dence? What great wars did
England carry on in conse-
quence? What was tlie virtual
ending of the American war?
XIA'. Wliat treaties of i)eace
were made in the year 1784?
XV. What dreadful event
occurred in France in 1789?
What wore the procecdingB of
the French Revolutionists, and
into what confederacy did the
European powers enter in
XVI. What extraordinary
man now began to make his
name known in Europe ? What
were his successes ? What fa-
mous mutinies occurred in 1797,
and what splendid victories at
XVII. In what year di(E
Nelson win the battle of th«
Kile? Relate the circumstances
of the engagement. How was
the gallant admiral rewarded?
What were the proceedings of
Napoleon at this juncture? In
what year was he created First
Consul? AYhen did he cross
the Alps, and what great vic-
tory followed ?
XVIII. Relate the particulars
of the Union.
XIX. In what year was Co-
penhagen bombarded, and vriih
what success ? By whom were
the French defeated in Egypt,
and what general there met hio
XX. In what year did Napo-
leon project an invasion of
England ? What steps were
taken to prevent it? Wiien
was peace concluded, and how
long did it last ?
XXI. What royal titles were
next assumed by Napoleon, and
in what great battle did he
defeat the Austrians ? Whe^
was the battle of Trafalgar
fought ? Wliat was the fate of
Nelson ? What statesmen died
in tlie year ISOG?
XXII. What was the position
of Napoleon at this time? From
what point may his ruin be
XXIII. What step.s did he
take to put lAi brother on the
82 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY.
throne of Spain ? TTith what What powers now combined to
resistance did he meet ? Name crush the emperor, and what
the first battle of the great success had they?
Peninsular War. XXVI. In what year did
XXIV. For what victory was Kapoleon escape from Elba?
Wel'.esley promoted ? What When was fought the battle of
were the losses at Walcheren ? Waterloo, and with what re-
in what year did Welliugtou suit? AVhat was the end of
drive the French from For- Kapoleon ?
tugal? XXVII. When did the Duke
XXV. Eelate the particulars of Kent die? WJiat relation
of Napoleons expedition to was he to Queen Victoria?
Eufsia in lsl2. How many When did George III. die, and
men did he take out, and how at what age ? How long liad
many periahed in the retreat ? he reigned ?
THE HOUSE OF BRUXSWICK (Continued).
Began to reign. Died.
George IV a.d. 1820 1830.
WlLMAil IV „ 1S30. ..... 1S37.
VicroKiA I , . „ 1S37 reigning.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1S20. DIED 1S30.
I. — Geoege IV., eldest son of George III., and fourth
sovereign of the House of Brunswick, succeeded to the
throne. As Prince Regent during the last ten years of his
father's life, wlien mental and bodily infirmity had rendered
that aged monarch incapable of governing, George IV.
had virtually been king of England long before ha wore the
crown. He was a man of polished and fascinating man-
ners, but heartless as Charles I., and profligate as Charles II.
The first act of his reign was to exclude his wife's name
from the liturgy of the church, and to seek a divorce by
means of accusations against her, which, even though they
might be only too true, should never have met the public
ear. She came over to England, where her cause was espoused
THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 83
by the populace, and took up her residence at Hammer-
smith. Although the ministers declined to proceed for a
bill of divorce, it was decided by law that she could not
claim the honours of coronation, to which, as Queen
Consort, she enjoyed a prescriptive, but not a judicial
right. Being, however, ill-advised by her supporters, she
presented herself at the doors of Westminster Abbey, July
19th, 1821, just as the ceremony was about to commence.
Her demand for admission was refused, and after a length-
ened and undignified altercation, she retired, — only to die
within a few days, of shame, mortification, and a broken
II. — In the year 1822 disease, famine, and rebellion
spread through Ireland. O'Connell made himself con-
spicuous amongst the disaff*ected ; the cry for Catholic
emancipation rose alike from all quarters, from Brow
Head in Cork, to Fair Head in Antrim; and a grant of
£300,000 was sent over from England to the rehef of the
III. — The prevailing liberality of opinion having ex-
tended to the shores of Greece, that oppressed nation
now made a desperate effort to throw off the yoke of
Turkey. In the year 1824 Lord Bja'on, accompanied
by several Englishmen of talent and position, went
over to their assistance; but the noble poet was not
destined to witness the success of the great enterprise
which he had embraced. He died at Missolonghi on the
19th April, 1824. The following year was remarkable for
a great panic in the money market, and for the failui'e of
many banking-houses, joint-stock companies, &c. By
engaging in such ill-judged speculations, many thousands
were ruined, and the national misery that ensued was
witliout a parallel since the bursting of the South-Sea
IV. — The struggle between Greece and Turkey had
now, by its long continuance, attracted the attention
84 SUMMAEY Oy ENGLISH HISTOET.
of Europe, and determined the leading powers to Inter-
fere for the protection and liberation of the former.
The combined fleets of England, France, and E-ussIa
sailed, accordingly, into the port of Navarino, October
20th, 1827; blew up, captured, and almost annihilated
the Turkish navy under Ibrahim Pacha, and confirmed
the independence of the nation which they came to
V. — It became daily more and more evident that
Ireland would never be otherwise than disaffected and
unsettled, so long as the law excluded Eoman Catholics
from the just privileges of the king's subjects. At this
period to believe in transubstantiation and the infalli-
bility of the Pope, was to be excluded fi"om parliament,
to be denied the possession of arms, to be ineligible
for all corporate offices, such as that of mayor, sheriff,
&c. ; and, in short, to be subject to such a host of
indignities as even, at this brief distance of time, we feel
almost difficult of belief. In the month of February, 1829,
this important question was brought before the House of
Commons, and in the month of April was carried by a large
majority in the House of Lords, when it becam^A^law,
known as the Eoman Catholic Emancipation Act. All
subjects of Great Britain were henceforth equals through-
out these realms.
VI. — In the early part of 1830, the king's health began
to decline, and, after a lingering illness of some months, he
expu-ed at Windsor on the 20th of June.
Willi Ail IV.
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1830. DIED 1837.
VII. — King William IV., late Duke of Clarence, and
brother to George IV., now succeeded to the crown. Tha
jear 1332 is famous for the great Eeform of Parliament,
carried by the King and the Commons against the stre-
niLOua opposiuon of the Lords. Thereby parliament was
THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 85
put npon a basis of security, in accordance with the public
wish ; many evils were swept away, and a valuable power
of further reform was vested in the nation. The franchise
was removed from barely-populated to thickly-inhabited
towns, bribery at elections made punishable, and the
benefits which we now enjoy were secured to us for ever.
YIII. — Theyear 1834 was signalized bya measurewhich,
if it do not affect us so intimately as that of parliamentary
reform, is of vital interest to a large proportion of British
subjects — we allude to the act by which slavery was
abolished throughout our colonies. The sum of £20,000,000
sterling was granted by parliament for compensation to
the masters of the liberated slaves ; and on August 1st,
1834, no less than 770,280 became free men — a number
equal to one-third of the popula^on of London.
IX.— In 1837 the health of William IV. was observed
to fail rapidly, and on the 21st of June he died, much
regretted, after a brief and prosperous reign, during which
he had aided to advance the liberties of his people, and
succeeded in attaching to his memory the respect of
BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1837.
X. — In the nineteenth j-ear of her age, when this great
empire was at peace with the world — when the legislative
measures of the preceding reigns had ceased to provoke
hostilities, and already begun to manifest their beneficia*
results, Queen Victoria I., daughter to the late Duke of
Kent, and grand-daughter to King George III., ascended
the throne, and her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, imme-
diately departed to take possession of the kingdom of
Hanover, now severed from the British Empire by the
operation of the Salic law, which excludes females from the
<;rown. Lower Canada was at this time in a state of actual
revolt J but the rebels, being defeated, lied to the United
86 SUilMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOfiY.
States (Jan., 1838), and the British Parliament united
the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, thereby
restoring tranquillity and abolishing party spirit. In this
year the Queen's coronation took place ; the great Affghan'
'ztan war commenced in our East Indian territories ; and
war with China was declared.
XI. — A society called Chartism was formed in the
year 1839, chiefly among the working classes, for the
furtherance of a scheme of universal suffrage, which they
imagined was to redress all their grievances, and which
they proceeded to enforce by assembling, in different parts
of the country, with guns, pikes, and other weapons. On
the 4th of November this year, they met, to the number of
10,000, and, headed by one Frost, made an attack upon
Newport, but were defeated and put to flight by a detach-
ment of the 45th Eegiment, stationed in that town.
Three of the leaders were seized and condemned to death ;
but the sentence was subsequently commuted to transpor-
tation for life. In the early part of the following year
(1840) her Majesty was married to Prince Albert of Saxe
Coburg-Gotha. An expedition sent out to China reduced
that country to submission. Canton was occupied by our
forces, and the emperor was compelled to pay six millions
of dollars for the expenses of the war, before the city was
restored to him.
XII. — In the meantime the Anglo-Indian army achieved
some success at Candahar and Cabul, but, in the year 1842,
met with serious reverses. An insun-ection broke out at
Cabul, the British envoy was assassinated, our army almost
cut to pieces, and the melancholy remnant obliged to
retreat before the enemy. Lord Ellenborough was then
sent out as Governor-General ; two armies were despatched
against the Affghan forces ; the fortifications of Cabul were
destroyed, the Affghans conquered, and the national
honour retrieved. China having broken faith with us, a
small fleet, commanded by Admiral Pai'ker, won a series
THE HOUSE OF BETTNSWICK. 87
of brilliant victories, took seven of their great commer-
cial cities, exacted a compensatory tribute of 21,000,000
of dollars, and took permanent possession of the valuable
island of Hong Kong.
XIII. — In the year 1844 began a brief 'out sanguinary
warfare between the Government and the Sikh tribes of
India. Five great battles were fought, many thousands
of lives were sacrificed, and our victories were purchased
by sad losses. Peace was concluded with the Sil-ihs in
Tebi-uary, 1846. Just one year previously (1845) the
corn-laws were repealed, and the people received the bless-
ing of cheap bread.
XIV. — It need scarcely be said that the year 1851
is famous for the peace of all nations, and for the opening
of the Industrial Exhibition called the Crystal Palace,
in Hyde Park. This superb building consisted entirely
of glass and iron ; covered nineteen acres of ground ;
contained 1,000,000 square feet of flooring, and was
erected at a cost of £79,800. The roof alone com-
prised seventeen acres of glass, and more than 4000
tons of u'on were used in the structure. Here was
assembled the wealth, ingenuity, and industry of the
world, from the rude implements of warfare wielded by
the native of the Pacific Islands, to the thrice refined
luxuries of European civilization. Here might be seen at
one time travellers from the most opposite hemispheres,
who, with the richest and the poorest of our own land,
were alike employed in the study of the useful and the
beautiful. Towards the close of the year, the materials of
this building were sold for £70,000 to the new Crystal
Palace Company, by whom the present gigantic Exhibition
was erected at Sydenham, in Surrey. It is designed as a
place of permanent recreation for the citizens of London,
and not only ftir exceeds the former Palace in size and
beauty, but is surrounded by gardens and- promenades,
and ooatains the fmest fountains in Enghmd. In thia
83 8UMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOnT.
year, ako, the communication by means of electric tele-
graph was perfected between England and France.
XV.— On the 14th September, 1852, died suddenly at
Walmer Castle, Ai'thur Duke of Wellington, the great
general who never was defeated in a battle, and whose
memory is for ever famous as the conqueror of Napoleon.
He was buried with great pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral,
November 18th, 1852.
XYI. — The year 1854 is among the most memorable
which we have had to record since the conquest of
England by the Eomans. For nearly forty years England
had been at peace with Europe. The heroes of the
Peninsula belonged to a fast-ebbing generation, and such
as yet survived were old men, decorated by honour-
able medals. Corn had been reaped upon the field
of Waterloo ; Napoleon and Wellington were both gone,
and their ashes rested in Paris and in London. AH was
long past, and " on earth peace and goodwill towards men"
seemed to have become an abiding blessing. But in the
midst of tranquillity came injustice and strife. The
Emperor Nicholas of Eussia, whose territories are equal
in size to all the rest of Europe put together, claimed
power over two-thirds of the population of Turkey, under
the pretext that all Greeks were of the same religion as
himseli', and that therefore all Greeks born in the Sultan's
dominions should acknowledge him as their protector and
the head of their church. In the meantime he seized on
Moldavia and Wallachia as hostages for the Sultan's con-
sent — two provinces which, together, comprise a larger
extent of country than England and Wales, and which
contain about one million four hundred and fifty thousand
souls. To this demand the Sultan sent a spirited defiance,
and after three or four brilliant actions, Omar Pacha, the
Turkish general, succeeded in diiving the Russians back
from Wallachia and Moldavia. England and France now
thought it time to interfere, and, being roused to just
TnE HOrSE OF BEUNSWICK. 89
indignation by the affair of Sinope, in Vv'hich 5000 Turks
were massacred by a Russian fleet, resolved to dispute
the aggressions of Nicholas. War was declared towards the
end of March, 1854 England and France allied their
fleets and armies in the good cause, and from England to
Malta, from Malta to Gallipoli, we sent ships and soldiers
to the relief of the Ottoman empire.
XVII. — The first blow of the late war was struck in
the Black Sea, March 22nd, 1854 Admirals Dundas and
Hamelin approached Odessa, a great commercial port of the
Euxine, and upon the refusal of the governor to give up all
ships lying in the harbour, a vigorous bombardment from
both fleets ensued. After a time two powder magazines
exploded — the fortifications were destroyed — thirteen ships
laden with muniticas of war were captured, and the allies
drew off in trium'^n, with a loss of only five men.
XYIIL — The armies now encamped at Varna and in the
unhealthy valleys adjacent, where the cholera broke out,
and committed fearful ravages among our brave men.
The English army alone lost between 700 and 800. In
the meantime the Russian forces had laid siege to Silistria,
a garrison manned by 8000 Turks, and situated on the
south bank of the Danube. For more than two months
the soldiers of the Emperor Nicholas lay behind their
earthworks, in front of this fortress, mining, cannonading,
and assaulting the defenders, and still were constantly
repulsed. At length, on the 28th June, a last and grand
assault was led up by Prince Paskiewitch, Count Orloff,
and General Gortschakoff. The Turks triunipliantly
repulsed them. Orlolf was killed; the other leaders
seriously wounded ; the troops fled in confusion across the
river, and the siege was raised. More than 30,000
Russians perished in this enterprise.
XIX, — The Allies next determined on an invasion of the
Crimea, a peninsula which was the very stronghold of the
Russian power in the Black Sea, and defended by the
90 8FMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
strongest and most richly stored arsenal in the world. On
the 7th September, 1854, the great fleet, nearly 400 vessels,
set sail from Varna, and on the 14th inst. the array was
landed about eight miles from Eupatoria. On the 20th
we attached the enemy, then drawn up in great strength
among their batteries and entrenchments along the steep
banks of the little river Alma. The Russians numbered
64,000 men, the allies about 50,000. The French com-
menced the attack, and, being followed up by our men,
drove the Russians from their admirable position, pursued
them do\vn the hill, and after a contest of only three
hours, achieved one of the noblest victories in the annals of
our wars. The allies lost 609 men, and 2699 were
wounded. The Russian loss was stated to be 1762 killed
and 2720 wounded ; but it is likely that their disasters
were more serious still. On the 23rd, the allies marched
southwards, and on Monday, the 25th, arrived before the
fishing port of Balaklava, which, after a faint show of
resistance, surrendered unconditionally. The brave little
garrison were sent as prisoners to Constantinople, and the
army took up its quarters in the deserted lanes and hovels
of the town.
XX. — From this time our engineers and soldiers were
actively employed in making entrenchments and earth-
works before Sebastopol. Here we mounted guns, and
every day crept nearer and nearer the forts of the enemy.
Continual efforts to harass the working parties in the
trenches — to surprise them iu their lines at night — to
pour out suddenly by day, and to bombard us fiercely
from their innumerable forts, were made by the Russians —
ind still Ave kept building up our batteries, till we got
near enough to fire upon them in our turn. On the 17th
October our guns opened on Sebastopol, and the siege
XXI. — The Russians, who had several times made
their appearance as if to offer battle and as frequently
THE norSE OF BEUNSWICK. 91
retreated, at length came out in great force (October
25th, 1854), and drove the Turks, like sheep, from their
batteries round the valley of Balaklava. The English
were immediately apprised of this imminent danger — the
Highlanders repulsed the mounted Eussians with asto-
nishing coolness and skill — our dragoons met theirs at full
gallop, and after a desperate hand to hand conflict put
them utterly to flight — our light brigade, by a fatal mis-
take of the order given, was cut to pieces while performing
incredible feats of valour, and amid glory and carnage and
defeat, which could scarcely he called defeat when so
bravely contested, this battle of Balaklava ended. The
Eussians had gained the advantage. They had dis-
mantled our forts, nearly destroyed our light cavalry,
and gained the main road from Balaklava to Sebastopol.
We had lost ten officers, and 147 men. Still the name of
Balaklava is as glorious as that of many victories.
XXII. — It was about this time that Miss Nightingale,
the heroine of the war, set sail from England, accompanied
by a body of nurses, for the humane object of attending
to our suffering soldiers. Immense assistance of clothes,
wine, and other necessaries was sent out by the Times'
fund, and a considerable improvement in the hospital,
laundry, and medical departments followed.
XXIII. — The morning of the 5th of November was
grey and drizzly, when the Eussians attacked our position
near the bridge of the Tchernaya at Inkcrmann. Crossing
the bridge unseen, they advanced in enormous bodies upon
our advanced pickets, which were forced slowly to retreat.
The firing aroused the other divisions of our army from
sleep; but before they could arrive, the Eussians had
once seized, once been expelled, and once more forced our
works, pursuing the brave soldiers towards their camp.
By this time the generals had reached the scene : the
Guards, the infantry regimpjits, and the 00,000 Eussians
were soon fighting desperately in innumerable groups, as
92 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET.
if twenty battles were going on at once ; for long hours
the frightful contest lasted, and the English heroes were
gradually giving ground to the foe, when the French, who
had been drawn off to the defence of Balaklava, came np
at full speed. English and Erench together charged upon
the enemy, and, at the point of the bayonet, drove them
down the hill. The French batteries opened an irresistible
fii'e on the retreating masses, and the battle of Inkermann,
after a struggle of twelve hours, was won : — 8000 English
and 6000 French had defeated 50,000 Ptussians, with a
loss of 462 killed and 1952 wounded.
XXIY.— On the 2nd March, 1855, died Nicholas, Em-
peror of all the Eussias. This great event m.ade no change,
however, in the affairs of the war, which his son and suc-
cessor pledged himself to continue. About this time, an
electric telegraph was established at the Crimea, as well
as a railway for the conveyance of stores, &c., from Bala-
klava to the camp. Eeinforcements, too, were forwarded
to the seat of war, and before May had arrived, the sick-
ness had disappeared, the men were well provided with
necessaries, and not less than 150,000 of the best soldiers
m the world were again bombarding Sebastopol.
XXV. — On the 18th of June, after many varying sorties
and assaults, the French and English generals determined
on an attack of the Malakhoff and Redan towers — an
enterprise which disastrously failed, and ended with a loss
of more than 500 killed and 2000 wounded. On the 28th
inst.. Lord Raglan, after som.e days of illness, died, uni-
versally regretted throughout the army, and was succeeded
in his command by General Simpson.
XXVI. — And now our works approached nearer every
day to the walls of Sebastopol. Fifteen thousand well-
disciplined soldiers from the little kingdom of Sardinia
arrived to our assistance, under the command of General
de la Marmora, and were encamped, with the English
cavaliy, in the valley of the Tchernaya. Here, on the
THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 93
16th of August, tliey were attacked by the enemy in great
force ; large tcdies of men crossed the river, and, fancying
they were to have an easy conquest, advanced up the hill
to the French centre. Down came the French, literally
hurling them back by the force of their charge. Hundreds
of the enemy were crushed, rolled into the water, and put
to flight; and, as they rushed confusedly back across the
river, the Sardinian battei'ies mowed them down like grass.
In this decisive battle the Eussians left 3000 dead on the
field, and we took 400 prisoners.
XXVII. — On Wednesday, September 5th, the final bom-
bardment of Sebastopol began. The first day's work was
tremendous, and many fires were observed within the walls
both on Thursday and Friday. Towards the afternoon of
the latter, a Eussian powder-magazine blew up, which
must have done us appalling service. Thus it went on,
and 1000 a day were killed or disabled by our balls and
shells. No garrison could long withstand so deadly an
attack. On Saturday, the 8th, the allied armies combined
in a gigantic assault, which at the very commencement
was signalized by the gallantry with which the French
trdops took the Malakhoff bastion, and planted the tricolor
in view of Sebastopol. The English now attacked the
Eedan, but were repulsed; and the Little Eedan with-
stood the attack of the French. Our allies likewise
attacked the central bastion, but were defeated and forced
to retreat. General Pelissier was now established in the
Malakhoff; and Prince Gortschakhoff, aware that this
success ensured the capture of the town, resolved to leave
it. That night, favoured by the darkness, he withdrew
his troops across the river in fine order, by means of a
bridge of rafts ; the inhabitants of the town were removed
in boats and steamers ; the retreat was guarded by General
Schepeleff, who prevented the French from advancing into
the town; and then, as the last of the Eussians withdrew,
the bridge was desti'oyed and the buildings of Sebastopol
94 SUjiIMART of ENGLISH HISTOEY.
set on fire, in order that nothing might be left to the con-
querors save such ruin, and flame, and desolation as met
Napoleon and his army in the streets of Moscow. One by
one, forts, batteries, and sailing-vessels in harbour blew up
with loud explosions, or sent forth vivid flames. Next morn-
ing the victors entered the town. Churches and palaces, all
blackened and ruined, stood around, and were visited with
eager curiosity. A few days later, and the allied armies
occupied Sebastopol, after a siege of nearly twelve months ;
after four bombardments and three great battles ; after a
loss of nearly 2700 in the last attack, and a total loss, on all
sides, English, French, and Russian, both within and with-
out the walls of Sebastopol, of something like 100,000 men.
XXVIII. — In the mean time the city of Kars in Ana-
tolia was sustaining a weary blockade. The garrison
consisted of about 15,000 Turks under the command of
General Williams, and was thinned daily by the casualties
of war, fever, and famine. Opposed to this gallant little
band was an overwhelming Eussian force numbering on
the average 40,000 men, under General Mouravieff. The
blockade commenced July 15th, 1856, and lasted more
than four months ; till want of the necessary reinforcements,
constant desertions, and utter starvation, compelled the
brave garrison to capitulate. The terms of surrender
were agreed upon November 25th, and on the 28 th inst.
the Russians took formal possession of the place.
XXIX. — The spring of the following year was signal-
ised by the termination of this war. Paris became the
centre of negotiation, and on the 30th of ]\Iarch, 1856, the
treaty of peace was signed by the Plenipotentiaries of each
nation. Ou the 29th of April this event was proclaimed
by the heralds through the streets of London, and on the
29th of May a public holiday was appointed, and a display
of fireworks and illuminations provided by the government
in commemoration of the peace of Europe.
Thus ended the greatest siege of modern history.
THE HOUSE Oy BEUNSWICK.
QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER X.
I. For how long had
George IV. held the reins of
power before he ascended the
throne? "What was the first
act of his reign ? By whom was
the queen's cause favoured?
On what occasion did she go
to "Westminster Abbey, and
what followed ?
II. What disaster happened
in Ireland in 1822? "Wiiat well-
known character made himself
conspicuous ? "What sum was
granted for the relief of the Irish?
III. In what year did Greece
endeavour to throw off the
Turkish yoke ? What great poet
went to their assistance, and
what was his fate? What panic
took place in the following year?
I"V. At what determination
did the European powers arrive,
and who were the allies ? When
was the battle of Navarino
fought and with what result?
"V. What were the penalties
to which Koman Catholics were
subject at this time ? When was
the Roman Catholic Emancipa-
tion Act passed ?
VI. When did George IV.
die? Who succeeded him ?
VII. For what great measure
is theyear 1832 famous? What
was the nature of the reform ?
VIII. In what year was
slavery abolished? What sura
was paid to the slave-cwners,
and liovv many men were set free?
IX. V/hen did AVilliam IV.
X. What was the age of
Queen Victoria when she suc-
ceeded to the throne, and in
what condition was the British
empire ? Why did the Duke of
Cumberland become Kin? of
Hanover ? What was the state
of Canada, and what mea«urea
were taken by parliament to
tranquillize that colony ? What
ceremony took place in the year
1838, and what great wars were
entered upon ?
XI. What was Chartism, and
what excesses did the Chartists
commit? In what year did the
Queen marry? AVl.at was the
result of the war in China?
XII. How did the Indian
war progress in the mean time?
How did Lord Ellenborough
retrieve the national honour?
Relate the events in China.
XIII. In what year did the
Sikh war begin? How many
battles were fought with these
tribes, and with what success ?
When was peace concluded?
When were the Corn-laws re-
XIV. For whatevent is 1851
celebrated ? Repeat the statis-
tics of the Crystal Palace. What
became of the materials ? What
great vehicle of communication
was this year established be-
tween England and France ?
XV. When did the Duke of
Wellington die ? AVheu and
where was he buiied?
XVI. For how long had
England now b'^en at peace
with Europe? What claim of
the Emperor Niclialas provoked
tile late war? What provinces
did he seize ? "What was the
conduct of the Saltan ? By
what massacre were England
and France roused to indigna-
tion ? When was war declared,
and wliat followed?
XVI r. When was the first
blow struck ? Describe the aflfair
XVI 11. Wliere did the armies
encamp? Ilo.v ni;iiiy died of
cholera in the English army T
BUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
Where is Silistria? How long
did the Russians besiej^e it ?
How did the siege terminate,
and what were the numbers on
XIX. What place did the allies
invade, and when did they arrive
there? When did the battle of
the Alma take place? What were
the numbers on each side ? Re-
late the order of the battle.
Wliat were the losses of the
allies and Russians ? To what
place did the army next proceed?
XX. What preparations were
now made before Sebastopol?
■When did the siege begin ?
XXI. Wlien was the battle of
Balaklava fought? What was the
result ? What were our losses ?
XXII. AVhat noble lady now
left England, and by whom was
she accompanied ? What assist-
ance was sent out through the
XXI II. On what day was the
battle of Inkermann fought ?
How did the Russians advance?
What was the appearance of
the battle? How were our
men relieved ? What was the
end of the contest ? How long
had it lasted, and what were
the numbers on eitch side?
XXIV. When did the Emperor
Nicholas die? What elfect had
his death upon the war ? What
useful works were established
at the Crimea? What was the
strength and state of the armies
at this lime?
XXV. Relate the events of
the 18th of June. When did
Lord Raglan die ? Who suc-
ceeded him in the command ?
XXVI. Uow many men were
sent from Sardinia? When did
the battle of the Tchernj.ya
take place? How did it end?
How many Russians were killed
and taken ?
XXVII. ATlien did the final
bombardment begin ? How
many were killed daily by our
missiles in Sebastopol? When
was the great attack made?
What army took the Malakhoff ?
Wliat success had the English?
What French General was estab-
lished in the Malakhoff? AVhat
was the course pursued by the
Russian Commander? By whom
was the retreat guarded, and in
what state did the Russians
leave Sebastopol? How long
had the siege occupied ? How
many bombardments and bat-
tles had there been ? How many
were lost in the last attack?
How many had fallen altogether
both within and without the
walls, during this siege ?
XXVIII. Where is the city
of Kars situated ? What was
the number of men on each
side, and by whom were they
commanded? When did the
blockade commence ? What
compelled General Williams to
surrender? When were the
terms of capitulation agreed
upon , and wh en did the Russians
take possession of the city ?
XXIX. What great event
took place in the following
spring ? Where and when did
the peace treaty receive the
signatures of the Plenipoten-
tiaries? When Avas the event
proclaimed in London ? On
what day did the public rgoic-
ings take place ?
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