SUMMARY ENGLISH HISTORY WITH OBSEKVAIIONS QN THt FROGSESS ART, ,^iENC£, AND CiVlLIZATION, AND QUE8iTaN», ADAPTED TO EACH PARAGRAPH, AMFTTA R. .„, HOOLS IN H» -^r* o: o :k. o x<r T o - QAM MILLER, 62 KING STREI A A SUMMARY ENGLISH HISTORY FROM THE C!oman Conquest to t&c J^rcsent Cime. WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROGRESS OF ART, SCIENCE, AND CIVILIZATION, AND QUESTIONS ADAPTED TO EACH PARAGRAPH. B7 AMELIA B. EDWARDS. FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. TORONTO: PUBLISHED BY ADAM BIILLER, 62 KING STREET, K MDCCCLXVII. PEEFACE. Not to the young scliolar only, but to the student of maturer age, to the tradesman, statesman, and soldier, is the perusal of our English history a most interesting and important branch of education. The poorest as well as the richest, the lowliest as well as the loftiest, may learn from its pages such a lesson of patience, courage, and honest endeavour as will make their task of life easier to support under adversity, and teach them better to employ the advantages which Providence may have entrusted to their hands for the benefit of their fellow-creatures. The History of England is the history of progressive refine- ment. It records such advances in science, such triumphs in literature, such an onward tide of gathering wealth, conquest, and wisdom, as nowhere enriches the annals of an European monarchy. The virtues of a king like Alfred — the dauntless patriotism of a Hampden — the mai-tyr- fame of our Protestant reformers under Queen Mary and Charles the First, cannot fail to rouse the pride and the ambition of all who are acquainted with those ennobling passages of our national chronicles — cannot fail, let us hope, to make of them better citizens and sincerer Chris- tians. In pursuance of this aid, we cannot too early begin to instil a knowledge of English history into the minds of the young, or too liberally dijffuse narratives adapted to the various stages of mental development VI PEEFACE. among the schools and classes which now, happily, ahomid throughout tho length and breadth of the land. The present Summary is a volume of little pretension ; but earnest pui-pose. It proposes, when placed before the child, to serve as brief introduction to more advanced and lengthy works ; and, when laid on the table of the class- room, or occupying a modest place on the shelves of the public and private library, to act as a concise and truthful handbook of those dates, facts, and biographies which, taken in the aggregate, constitute our English history. Xot, then, in antagonism to any previous effort in the same direction — not in depreciation of abler or more extensive productions, whether old or new — but in the hearty and willing hope that we are rendering some aid to the great cause of education, sowing some seeds of nobleness and worthy ambition, these pages are put forth for the use of all to whom they may be of service. London, May^ 1856. CONTENTS. OHAP. lAGE I. — England before the Conquest 9 ,, under the EoMANS, from B.C. 55 TO A.D. 449 9 „ under the Saxons, a.d. 449to a.d. 827 11 „ UNDER THE AnGLO-SaXONS, A.D. 827 TO 1013 13 ,, UNDER THE DaNES, A.D. 1013 TO 1041 . 18 ,, UNDER THE SaXONS, A.D. 1041 TO 1056 19 II. — The Norman Monarchs 22 III. — The House of Plantagenet 26 IV. — The Houses op Lancaster and York ... 31 V. — The House of Tudor 41 VI. — The House of Stuart 52 VII. — The House of Stuart (continued) .... 61 VIII. — United Houses of Stuart and Nassau , , , 66 IX. — The House of Brunswick 69 X. — The House of Brunswick (continued) ... 82 Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive in 2009 witli funding from Ontario Council of University Libraries http://www.archive.org/details/summaryofeng67bwest00edwa SUMMARY ov ENGLISH HISTOEY. CHAPTER I. ENGLAND BEFORE THE CONQUEST. I. — In the ancient times, when Rome was a republic and Jesus Christ yet unborn, this beautiful England was a desolate waste of marshland and forest, inhabited by a savage people, who fought with clubs and tin swords, clothed themselves in skins, and stained their bodies with the juices of a plant called woad. These barbarians went by the name of Britons, and they believed in a horrible idolatry that sanctioned battles, and revenge, and human sacrifices. II. — Huts rudely constructed of wicker and mud, and erected in little clusters here and there over the country, were called towns. These towns were generally situated upon small clearings in tracts of woody land, and were surrounded by a trench, which served for defeace in time of war. One such hamlet, built upon the shores of a great river, and protected on the north by an impenetrable forest abounding in every species of game, was called Llyn-Din, or the " town on the lake," and is now that largest and wealthiest capital in the world known by the name of London. UNDER THE ROMANS, FROM B.C. 55 TO A.D. 449. III. — Eager for conquest, and tempted by the rich pearls and tin mines for which the island was famous, but pretending only to punish the poor savages for having 10 SUMilAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. helped the Gauls, with whom he was at war, Julius Caesar came over from Italy with his ships and soldiers, plundered and killed in every direction round about Sandwich, and made the first conquest of Britain. This happened just fifty-five years before Christ. Scarcely a hundred more had gone by when the Emperor Claudius came with fifty thousand men, and subdued it over again (a.d. 43). It was during the reign of this emperor that Caractacus, a patriot Briton, made the first effort to free his country from the Eoman yoke. After nine years conflict he was taken pri- soner ; but was afterwards released by the clemency of Claudius. IV. — Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero (a.d. 61), landed on the Isle of Anglesea, and destroyed the sacred groves and altars of Druidical superstition, which, in addi- tion to the cruel treatment offered to Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, once more roused the Britons to rebellion. They won a splendid victory over their powerful masters, and slew 70,000 of them ; but in the course of the same year were again defeated with great loss. V. — For Julius Agricola (a very good and clever general) was reserved the establishment of the Eoman power in Britain. He took possession of the country for the third time (a.d. 78), founded the arts of peace, and made the people happy and civilized. He also delivered them from the fierce incursions of the Picts and Scots, and helped them to erect a great wall of separation across the island between the Tyne and Solway, known in history as the Wall of Severus, because Severus, some hundreds of years afterwards, assisted to repair it. This rampart, however, proved ineffectual against the savage inroads of the Xorthern tribes, and a second was constructed between the Friths of Clyde and Forth (A.D. 138). YI.— On the death of St. Lucius (a.d. 179), the first Chiistian king of Britain — indeed, the fii'st in the world — UNDEE THE SAXONS. 11 he bequeathed this island to the Emperors of Eome, whose property it was vii'tually all the time ; for, under their rule, the native sovereigns were but governors, or lieute- nants. The Eomans remained masters of England for nearly four centuries, at the end of which period, having lost much of their own power and dignity, they were com- pelled to withdraw their forces to defend themselves against the Goths (a.d. 410). No sooner were they gone than the marauding Scots poured in upon the defenceless Britons, who, not knowing what better to do in their distress, applied for assistance to the Saxons, a people of North Germany. UHDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 449 TO A.D. 827. YII. — The Saxons accordingly came across the channel between six and seven thousand strong, under the com- mand of two brother chieftains named Hengist and Horsa (a.d. 449). They speedily routed the Scots ; but rewarded themselves for their trouble by taking possession of the country they came to deliver. They were followed by other German tribes ; the Saxon tongue became the national language; and the native Britons fled to Wales, Cornwall, and the coast of France. YIII.— After the death of Hengist (a.d. 488), the Saxons poured in upon Britain faster than ever, and it was in opposing these tribes that the famous Arthur, king of Britain, won his great renown. He succeeded in secur. ing to his people forty years of peace ; but valour alone was of no avail. The natives, in time, were all over- powered or expelled, and the land was divided into seven small kingdoms, each governed by a Saxon tyrant. This period is known as the period of the Saxon Hept- archy. The follawing was the order of distribution : — IX. — The kingdom of Cantia, or Kent, comprised the fertile county of Kent, and was founded by Hengist (a.d. 457). 12 STJSIMAET OP ENGLISH HISTORY. The kingdom of Soutli Saxony comprised the comities of Sussex and Smrrey, and was founded by Ella (a.d. 490). The kingdom of West Saxony, or Wessex, comprised the counties of Hampshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, and Devonshire, and was founded by Cerdic (A.D. 519). The kingdom of East Saxony comprised the counties of Essex, Middlesex, and a part of Hertfordshire, and was founded by Ercenwin (a.d. 527). The kingdom of Northumbria comprised the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham, Yorkshire, Lancaster, and a portion of Scotland. It was founded by Ida (a.d. 547). The kingdom of Bast Anglia comprised the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, and was founded by Uffa (a.d. 575). The kingdom of Mercia comprised all the midland counties, namely: — Cheshire, Stafford, Derby, Warwick, Worcester, Shropshire, Hereford, Gloucester, Oxford^ Buckingham, Bedford, Huntingdon, Northampton, Rut- land, Leicester, Nottingham, Lincoln, and a part of Hert- fordshire. It was founded by Cridda (a.d. 582). X. — As it may readily be supposed, these seven kings of Britain did not at all times reign in perfect friendship with each other, but, on the contrary, distracted the country with perpetual quarrellings and warfare. Despite even these drawbacks, the nation, however, began to ex- perience the blessings of industry. Property received the protection of the law, and no part of our island was with- out an acknowledged ruler. The people were still idolators and heathens, worshipping the false gods of ancient Eome. In the year 596, a good monk, named Augustine, came over from Italy with forty of his brethren, and converted the two powerful kings of Kent and Northumberland (a.d. 599). A great church was then built at Canterbury (a.d. 604) } Sebert, king of Essex, became a proselyte ; TTNDEB THB ANGLO-SAXONS. 13 the Temple of Apollo at Westminster was pulled down, and a church, dedicated to St. Peter, was erected where the Abbey is now standing; the Temple of Diana was destroyed, and the original cathedral of St. Paul raised on its site ; and the University of Cambridge was founded in the year 644. Soon after this, the whole of Britain em- braced Christianity, and the seven kingdoms were united into one by the conquests of Egbert of Wessex, receiving the collective name of England, which it has ever since retained. Winchester was at this time considered to be the capital of the country. UNDER THE ANGLO-SAXONS. A.D. 827 TO 1013. Egbeet. began to keign a.d. 800. dred 836. XL — Scarcely had peace and unity been established in the kingdom, when a horde of savage warriors, called Danes, who dwelt upon the shores of the Baltic Sea, fended on our coasts, but were routed on the coast of Devon, and forced to fly back to their ships for safety- only to return again about once in every year. After a prosperous reign, troubled only by these invaders, Egbert died (a.d. 836), and was buried at Winchester. * Ethelwolp. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 836. DIED 857. XII. — Egbert was succeeded by Ethelwolf, his eldest son. This king undertook a pilgrimage to Pome, and married a daughter of king Charles the Bald of France. He first granted tithes to the clergy, and instituted an annual tribute to the pope, called Peter's Pence. The Danes now made themselves the terror of England, and though frequently repulsed, continued to plunder the country, and occasionally to carry off the inhabitants for slaves. In the year 851 they sailed up the Thames with S50 ships ; bui-nt the cities of London iind Canterbury, 14 6ITMMA.ET OF ENGLISH HISTOBT. and established themselves permanently upon the Isle of Tlianet. Ethelwolf died (a.d. 857), and was buried at Steyning, in Sussex. Ethelbald. began to keign a-d. 857. died 860. Ethelbeet. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 860. DIED 866. XIII. — The reign of Ethelbald was brief, unim- portant, and vicious. He was succeeded by his brother Ethelbeet, who reigned only sis years, during which time the Danes exacted tribute from the English, laid waste the whole county of Kent, and pillaged the city of Winchester. Ethelbert died a.d. 866. Etheleed. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 866. DIED 872. XIY. — Ethelbert was followed by Etheleed, a brave soldier, whose reign was one long scene of valiant warfare with the Danes. It is said that in one year he fought no less than nine pitched battles with the enemies of his country. In all these he was assisted by his young brother, Prince Alfred, afterwards illustrious as Kmg Alfred the Great. Prince Alfred was the first earl created in Eng- land. In this reign the invaders penetrated into Mercia and took up their winter quarters at Nottingham, whither the king instantly marched to dislodge them. A great battle ensued, in which Ethelred was killed, leaving to Alfred the inheritance of a kingdom which had declined into an almost hopeless condition of weakness and distress. Alfeed the Geeat. *^ began to reign a.d. 872. died 901. / XV. — Alfeed the Geeat was just twenty-two years of age when he ascended the throne of England, and for the first eight years of his reign was engaged in an uninter- rupted and disastrous wai'fai-e with the Dunes. They, ia UNDEE THE ANGLO-SAXONS. 15 « fact, at one time made themselves entire masters of the kingdom, so that Alfred was obliged to assume many humble disguises, and hide himself in the woods, and in the cottages of his peasant subjects. In Somersetshire, how- ever, he found friends and assistance, built a strong fort, assembled an army, and once more took the field against the Danes. Assuming the disguise of a wandering harper, he then penetrated to the enemy's camp, judged of the most favourable manner of attack, brought his soldiers unexpectedly upon them, and achieved a brilliant victory. Many years of peace ensued, during which this brave and good king applied himself to the improvement of his country and the happiness of his people. ^ XVI. — Alfred now framed a code of Jaws, some of which f^ exist to the present day — divided England into counties and hundreds — established the first regular militia — en- couraged the arts and sciences, and instructed the English in the art of navigation and ship-building. He was the fij-st of our monarchs who made England a naval power ; and to state that he was the most accomplished man of his day, that he was the hero of fifty-six battles, that he established the system of trial by jury, and founded the University of Oxford, is but to relate a portion of his/ glory. After twelve years of peace the Danes again in^ r* vaded our coasts. They came under the command of Hastings, their sea-king, with a fleet of three hundred and thirty-one ships, and landed on the coast of Kent, making Appledore their head-quarters. A protracted struggle ensued, at the conclusion of which they were again defeated. The wife and family of Hastings were taken captives ; but Alfred, with his general moderation, restored them to the Danish chief, on condition that he and all his followers should leave the country. To these terms they readily acceded; but some few lingered till the year 897. Alfred ^jed a.d. 901, at Farringdon, in Berkshire. He was buiied at Winchester, and has lelt 16 SUMMABY OF ENGLiyH HISTOHY. behind him the most honourable reputation for learning, courage, wisdom, and generosity, of any English sovereign. Edwaed the Eldee. began to reign a.d. 901. deed 925. XYII. — Edwaed the Eldee, second son to King Alfred the Great, succeeded to the crown. His reign was troubled by the pretensions of his cousin Ethelwald, who disputed Edward's claim, and fell at last on the field ot battle. Towards the end of this king's reign he invaded Wales, and added to the endowments of the Cambridge University. He died (a.d. 925), leaving a numerous family. Athelstan. began to reign a.d. 925. DIED 941. XVIII. — King Athelstan had not been many years established on his father's throne when a great league was formed against him by the Danes, Scots, and other nations. They were, however, completely defeated, and six of the kings, his enemies, were slain (a.d. 938). This monarch caused the Bible to be translated into the Saxon tongue, and presented a copy to every chureh throughout the kingdom. He also gave encouragement to commerce by decreeing that every merchant who had taken three vo3'age8 should be entitled to the rank of a thane, or nobleman. Athelstan died at Gloucester (A.D. 941), and was buried at Malmesbury, Wilts. Edmund I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 941. DIED 947. Nt"'^" XIX.— Athelstan was followed by his brother EdmukS; a youth of eighteen years of age, whose first act was to subdue the Danes gathered together under the command of Anlass. He was stabbed by a wicked robber named Leolf (a.d. 947), and was succeeded by his brother Edred, fc slxtli son to Edward the Elder. undee the anglo-saxons. 17 Edeed. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 947. DIED 955. XX.— This king rebuilt Glastonbury Abbey, and was entirely ruled by the abbot, named Dunstan. Dunstan was, in fact, the virtual king of England. Edward died (a-D. 955), and was buried at Winchester. Edwy. began to keign a.d. 955. died 959. XXI. — The profligate and careless Edwy received the crown of his uncle, and offended the prejudices of his clergy by marrying the Princess Elgiva, a lady of great beauty, but of near relationship to himself. Dunstan, who had hitherto been absolute in the kingdom, succeeded in uniting the priesthood against this marriage. Edwy was compelled to divorce his wife, and she was murdered with barbarous cruelty by her enemies. Edwy died of grief (a.d. 959), being threatened by sedition in all parts of his dominions, and overborne by the influence and hatred of Dunstan the Abbot. Edgae. began to reign a.d. 959. died 975. XXII. — Edgae, surnamed the Peaceable, next ascended the throne. He was elected, and consequently governed, by the monks; built many monasteries; increased the navy to three hundred and sixty ships, and exterminated the wolf from the mountains and forest-lands of Wales. This king was so arrogant of his conquests, that he caused his barge to be rowed by eight princes along the river Dee. He died after a reign of sixteen years, a.d. 975. Edward II. BEGAN TO REIGN 975. DIED 97S. XXIII. — This unfortunate young monarch, whoso reign had promised to be happy and judicious, was stabbed (a.d. 978), by order of his step-mother, while drinkiixg a cup of 18 8UMMAEY OP ENGLISH HISTOBT. wine at the gate of Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Ethehed, after a brief king- ship of little more than three years. ^Ethelsed II. *^ X BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 978. DIED 1016./^ XX T V. — In this reign the Danes once more flocked to our coasts, and Ethelred was weak enough to buy them off with a money-tribute called Lauegelt, which was levied by a tax of one shilling on every hide of land throughout the country, and is the first land-tax upon record in our history. Soon this, even, ceased to satisfy them, and the king formed a cowardly plan to massacre all the Danes in the kingdom, instead of meeting them in fair battle. This disgraceful slaughter took place on the 18th of November, a.d. 1002, and was revenged by a great invasion of the enemy. They sailed from Denmai'k under the command of Sweyn, their king, who, after a protracted struggle of ten years, put Ethelred to flight, and ascended the English throne (a.d. 1013). . Uia)EK THE DANES. A.D. 1013 TO 1041. Sweyn ... Began to reign 1013 ... Died 1014. Canute... „ „ 1014 ... „ 1036. XXV. — SwETN reigned ia England for the short space of one year, and was succeeded by Canute, his son, who divided the kingdom with Edmxmd Ironside, a Saxon monarch, from whom is traced the descent of King George IV. Before Edmund had reigned for one year over his portion, he was murdered at Oxford, and Canute, who was at that time the most powerful monarch in Europe, became sole king. Having conquered, not only this country, but the countries of Korway and Sweden, he called himself king of England, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. He banished the children of Etheli-ed. but mar- eK TTNDES THE SAXONS 19 ried Emma, their mother, and died (a.d. 1036) at Shaftes- bury. Haeold. began to reign a.d. 1036. died 1039. XXVI.— Haeold, surnamed Harefoot, from the swift- ness with which he ran, was the son of Canute by his fii'st wife. He reigned only three years, and died at Oxford, A.D. 1039. Haedicanute. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1039. DIED 1041. XXVII. — Harold was succeeded by his weak and wicked half-brother, Haedi Canute. He died from in- temperance after a short reign of two years (a.d. 1041), ^ aiid was the last representative of the Danish line. N ^^ UNDER THE SAXONS. A.D. 1041 TO 1066. ^:^ f:* Edwaed the Confessoe. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1041. DIED 1066. XXVIII. — A Saxon, known as Edwaed the Con- fessoe, was next chosen. This monarch was famous for his piety, and married Editha, daughter to Earl Godwin. Having been, unfortunately, educated abroad, in the coui-t of Normandy, Edward the Confessor retained but little ajBection for the customs, or even for the natives of his own country. He evinced a marked preference through- out his reign for all French laws and habits, and by this line of conduct gave considerable cause for jealousy to his people. He repealed the tax called Danegelty and was the first king who touched for that disease known as the king's evil. Daring this reign William Duke of Nor- mandy came over to visit England, and Edward, it is said, then promised to him the reversion of the English crown. Edward the Confessor rebuilt Westminster Abbey, and at his death, on January the 5th, 1066, was canonized as a Saint by the Roman Catholic Church. 20 8UMMAEY OP ENGLISH HISTOBT. Haeold II. BEGAN TO EEIGN AND DIED A.D. 1066. XXIX. — Haeold, son of Earl Godwin, was then elected king by the Council of the States, but was destined to find a powerful opponent in Duke WiUiam of Normandy. This warlike and ambitious prince of France had the bold- ness to claim the crown for his own head ; and gathering around his standard all the recruits he could muster, all the beggarly nobles, freebooters, and adventurers of Europe, landed, with sixty thousand men, upon the coast of Sus- sex, and defeated the English in a great battle (Oct. 14, 1066), rendered still more disastrous by the death of Harold, and famous to us all as the battle of Hastings. Thus ended the Saxon period, which had subsisted with various fortune in England for upwards of six hundred years. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER I. I. What was the ancient con- dition of Britain? By whom was it inhabited? "What was the reliprion of the Britons? II. What was the state of the country at this early period ? Kelate the origin of London. III. "What was Britain famous for? Who was the first con- queror? When did Julius Ca;sar land ? Who was the second conqueror, and when did he arrive ? Who was Caractacus ? IV. What injuries roused the Britons to a second rebellion? What was the result of this rebellion ? V. Who established the Eoman power in Britain? What good service did Agricola do the Britains, and what great work of defence did he build for tliem? Where and when was me second wall constructed ? VI. Who was the first Chris- tian king in the world? To whom did he bequeath the kingdom? For how long did the Romans remain masters of England ? Why did they with- draw their forces ? What caused the Britons to apply to the Saxons? VII. When did the Saxons come over, and who were their leaders ? How did the Saxons reward themselves for beating the Scots ? What became of the native Britons? VIII. Who was King Arthur, and for what is he famous ? What term of peace did he secure for his people? Into how many kingdoms was Eng- land afterwards divided? By whatnameisthis period known in history? IX. Relate the order of dis- tribution among the seven Saxon kings. X. Did the kings reign in peace together? What was the UNDER THE SAXONS. 21 state of the country at this time ? Who was Augustine, and what did he eflfect in Eng- land? "What churches were built, and what temples pulled down? When was the Cam- bridge University founded ? When were the people con- verted to Christianity, and by whom ? Who united the seven kingdoms into one? By what name was it then called ? XI. What was the conduct of the Danes at this time ? Vtruen did Egbert die? ill. By whom was Egbert succeeded? Eelate the chief acts of Ethelwolf. Relate the events of 851. When did Ethelwolf die ? XIII. Of what character was the reign of Ethelbald, and by whom was he succeeded ? Re- late the encroachments of the Danes. When did Ethelbert die, and by whom was he suc- ceeded ? XIV. What was the charac- ter of Ethelred? How many battles did he fight in one year? What was the manner of Ethelred's death ? XV. At what age did Alfred the Great begin his reign, and in what year? Relate the events of the first eight years of his reign. XVI. How did Alfred em- ploy the years of peace that followed? Of how many bat- tles was he the hero? What system of trial did he intro- duce, and what great abode of learning did he found? Who was Hastings, and in wliatway did Alfred treat the captive family? When did he die, and what reputation has he left ? XVII. Who was the succes- sor of Alfred? Relate the events of Edward's reign. XVIII. What great league was formed against Athelstan, and how did it terminate? What great work did he cause to be translated? When did Athelstan die .* XIX. By whom was Athel- stan succeeded, and what was the first act of the new king? When did Edmund die, and by •whose hand? XX. By whom was Edmund I. succeeded ? What abbey was rebuilt by Edred, and by whom was the king ruled ? When did he die ? XXI. What was the charac- ter of Edwy, and in what way did he offend the clergy? Whai became of Elgiva, and when did the king die ? XXII. By what class of men was Edgar the Peaceable go- verned? Relate his principal deeds. When did he die ? XXIII. By whom was Edgar succeeded, and how was he murdered ? XXIV. What king next as- cended the throne ? What was the Danegelt? When did the cowardly massacre of the Danes take place? How was it re- venged ? XXV. For how long did Sweyn reign in England, and by whom was he succeeded ? Who was Edmund Ironside, and what was his fate? Name the titles of Canute. Whom did he marry, and when did he die? XXVI. Who was Harold I. ? How long did he reign, and when did he die? XXVII. By whom was Harold succeeded? From what causa and in what year did Hardi- canute die? XXVIII. Ofwhat nation wag Edward the Conlessor? To SUMMARY Oi ENGLISH HI8T0ET. whom did he promise the cro'mi of England? When did he die, and what honours did he receive after death ? XXIX. Whose son was Ha- rold? "NYho disputed Harold's right to the crown ? Of whom did William's army consist? AVhen was the battle of Hast- ings fought ? For how long ha<i the Saxons ruled in England? CHAPTER II. THE NORMAN MONAECHS. Began to reign. Died. WltriAMl. A.D. 1066... 10S7 WiloamH. „ 1087 ...1100 Henry I. „ 1100 ... 1135 Begai to reign. Died. Stephen > (House of Blois)> ^^"^^ "• ^^^* "William I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1066. DIED 10S7. I. — William I., son of Duke Eobert, of Normandy, and known as the Conqueror, was as politic as he was ambitious. Being wisely determined not to in-itate those whom he had conquered, he forbore to seize upon the crown as upon mere booty, but went through the form of asking the sanction of the English themselves ; a sanction which was not long withheld by the clergy and nobility, and for which he testified his gratitude by entering into a solemn engagement to protect the rights and liberties of his new subjects. These oaths are still taken by every English monarch on the day of coronation- II. — At first he governed impartially enough ; but, somehow, became greatly changed after the lapse of a few years, and did such deeds as left him the reputation of 9 ruthless tyrant. He seized and gave away to his Norman followers the rich estates of Saxon landholders; carried fire and sword, as if through an enemy's country, into the villages and fields of the New Forest, merely to c^ear it for his boar and deer hunting ; instituted the cmfew-bell, by which people were compelled to extinguish their lights and fires at a certain hour; and even strove to make THE NOEMAN M0NABCH8. i>i. Frencli the language of the country. Hence arose the mixed character of our vocabulary, which, to this day, consists as much of Norman as of Saxon words. Wil- liam the Conqueror died a.d. 1087. William II. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1087. DIED 1100. III. — William Eurus, so named from the red colour of his hair, and second son of the Conqueror, succeeded his father. He invaded Normandy, the dukedom of his elder brother Robert, and behaved well to his English subjects, whose afifictions he was anxious to secure. During his reign commenced those extraordinary wars carried on by all the chivalry of Europe against the Saracen possessors of Jerusalem, and known far and wide as the Ceusades. The first crusade went out in the year 1095, and with it, amongst other sovereign princes, Kobert, Duke of Nor- mandy, who mortgaged his rich provinces to William Eufus for the sum of ten thousand marks, in order that he might have sufficient money for the enterprise. Eufus was or the point of starting for France to take possession of tlese new lands, when he was accidentally shot by Sir Walter Tyrrel (a.d. 1100) while hunting the deer in the 2^ew Forest. This monarch erected Westminster Hall for his banqueting chamber. It was then the largest room iu Europe ; but was afterwards pulled down and rebuilt by Eichard II. In the year 1100, four thousand acres of land which had been the property of Earl Godwin, father to Harold II., and were by him bequeathed to the monks of Canterbury, were suddenly overflowed by the sea. The site where they once extended lies opposite the city of Deal, and is known to sailors as one of the most dangerous upon our coast-line. They are called the Goodwin Sands, Heney I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1100. DIED 1135. IV.— Heney, youngest brother to William Rufus, 24 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HI8T0BY. now hastened up to Winchester ; secured the royaJ treasure; married Matilda, a descendant of the ancient Saxon line ; removed the unpopular restrictions of the curfew; and had succeeded in obtaining the throne and the favour of the people, before Duke Robert (the rightful heir) could come over to dispute the succession. He then made war upon Eobert; invaded Normandy; possessed himself of that entire duchy ; took the duke prisoner, and confined him in Cardiff Castle for the remainder of his life — a period of eight-and-twenty years. V. — King Henry I. had one son, who, with a hundred and forty young men of the noblest families in England, was drowned off the coast of Harfleur (a.d. 112'3) on his return from Normandy, where he had been receiving the homage of the French barons. The death of tHs prince was a great blow to the king, who is said never to have smiled afterwards. During this reign a body of military monks called the Knights Templars established them- selves in England — the first English park was laid out at Woodstock — rents were made payable in money, having previously been payable in cattle, com, &c. — the coinage was corrected — a standard fixed for the regulation d weights and measures ; and the length of the English yard taken from the measurement of the king's arm. Woollen stuffs were also introduced at this time from the Low Countries, and a colony of Flemings settled down at Worsted, near Norwich, for manufacturing purposes. Henry I. died (a.d. 1135) in the sixty-seventh year of his age, leaving one daughter, named Matilda, wife to the Emperor of Germany. It is said that King Henry died from eating too largely of a dish of lampreys. Stephen (Earl of Blois). BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1135. DIED 1154. VI. — Stephen, Earl of Blois, grandson to William the Conqueror, and nephew to King Henry, hastened over THE NOEMAN MONAECHS. 25 from Normandy, and was received as king by the lower orders of the people, although Matilda, by right of birth, should have reigned in England. He had more difficulty with the clergy — but gained even their votes at last* seized the royal treasure ; and, to obtain favour with th^ populace, restored the laws made by Edward the Confessor. VII. — Matilda did not long delay her claim, and, shortly after these events, landed with a brave little retinue of one hundred and forty knights ; took Arundel Castle ; gathered together a considerable number of recruits; gained a battle over Stephen (a.d. 1140), and was crowned queen of England at Winchester Cathedral. She was not liked, however, by either the people or the nobility. Stephen was again recognised as king, and Matilda deposed. She contrived to escape, and brought up her son, named Henry, as a future rival to the usurper. YIII. — When Prince Henry had reached his sixteenth year, he showed such corn-age and talent, that he re- ceived the honour of knighthood (a.d. 1135), and under- took an invasion of England. Stephen was by this time worn out with the struggles of many years, and, to prevent farther bloodshed and misery, agreed that the youth should be associated with him in the government, and succeed to the crown upon his decease. A great fire devastated London during this reign (a.d. 1136) and all the city from Aldgate to St. Paul's was laid in ruins. Sugar was first introduced about this period, and the Tower first coustituted a royal residence. Stephen was a iust and moderate monarch, and, at his death, in the year 1154, the kingdom passed quietly into the hands of the House of Plantagenet. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER II. I. What proceedings were way is that ceremony perpetu- taken by "William to obtain the ated ? crown? In what way did ho II. What alteration took testify his gratitude ? In what place in the character of Wil- 26 8TJMMAET OV ENGLISH HISTOET. liara L? "VMiat wrongs did he Inflict upon the English? Whence arose the mixed cha- racter of our language ? III. In what year did "Wil- liam the Conqueror die, and by whom was he succeeded ? What invasion was undertaken by William Rufus? How did he behave to his English subjects ? What extraordinary wars were begun during this reign ? When did the first Crusade go out? In what manner did the king become possessed of Normandy, and at what price ? "What wag the manner of his death ? When did he die ? Wliat great room was erected by William Rufus, and for what purpose was it built? Relate the circumstances connected with the overflowing of the Goodwin Sands. IV. Who succeeded Rufus? What steps did Henry take to Becure the crown? Who was the rightful heir? What was the result of the war between Henry and Robert ? For how long was the Duke of Xormandy imprisoned ? V. What dreadful accident occurred to King Henry's only 6on? How old was the king when he died? What family did he leave to lament his loss ? What is alleged as the cause of King Henry's death? Who were the Knights Templars? Relate the improvements effected dur- ing this reign. When did Henry die? VI. "Who was Stephen, and in what way did he oppose the claims of Matilda ? By whom was he most favourably re- ceived? What steps did he take to secure the favour of the populace ? VII. With what forces did Matilda land, and what success had she? In what year was she crowned ? Did she long continue to reign ? With what object did she educate her son? VIII. What was the cha- racter of Prince Henry? When did he undertake to invade England? Into what agreement did the king enter? What great calamity befcl the city of Lon- don during this reign ? Whaf useful condiment was first intro- duced, and to what purpose was the Tower at this time devoted? When did Stephen die, and what ensued ? CHAPTER III. THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. Began to reign. Died. Began to reign. Died. Henry II. a.d. 1154 ... 1189 Edward I. a.d. 1272 . ..1307 Richard L „ 11S9... 1199 Edward II. „ 1307. ..1327 John „ 1199... 1216 Edward III. „ 1327 . .. 1377 HxNRYin. „ 1216... 1272 RicuARon. „ 1377. ..1399 Heney II. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1154. DIED 1189. I.— Heney II., eldest son of Geoffry Plantagenet and Matilda, daughter to King Henry I., was the most powerful ^/HE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 27 monarch of his time. He subdued Ireland and Wales, and ruled over a larger portion of French territory than the king of France himself. During his reign, the arrogance and ambition of the clergy exceeded all bounds. They raised immense sums by taxes and the sale of pardons, and England began at last to get impoverished by the de- mands of Eome. This the king resolved manfully to oppose. In order to do so the more effectually, he elevated Thomas a Becket, his chancellor, to the priest- hood, and even made him Archbishop of Canterbury, thinking by these means to secure a valuable rival to the pope of Rome : but herein he was greatly mistaken. A Becket was a man of inferior birth and brilliant talents, who loved power and splendour better than anything iu the world, and no sooner was he invested with these new dignities than he went over to the side of the clergy, supported them in all their measures, and offered a more determined resistance to King Henry's will than any one had yet done. II. — A great dissension ensued, during which the king and the archbishop mutually defied each other. A Becket excommunicated several of the bishops ; threatened even to excommunicate the king ; fled over to the con- tinent, and, being at length pardoned, was permitted to return to his diocese, after years of negotiation. Here he again behaved with such open insolence, that Henry, being then in Normandy, was one day tempted to utter a rash wish for his death, whereupon four knights crossed over to England for the purpose, and murdered the de- fenceless old man (a.d. II70) before the altar of Can- terbury Cathedral. III. — King Henry was greatly shocked, and even did public penance at the tomb of A Becket j but from this time his life became very unhappy. Frequent wars dis- turbed the kingdom, and, being appealed to by one of the native Irish princes for assistance against a neighbouring 28 8UMMABT OP ENGLISH HI8T0ET. chieftain, Henry invaded and snbdued Ireland (a.d 1172) ; annexed that country to the English crown ; and governed there by means of a viceroy — thus acting over again the part taken by the Saxons when first summoned over to our shores by the native Britons. Henry also conquered in Wales, and obtained the first ascendency over Scotland. During this reign London Bridge was rebuilt in stone- England was divided into six legal circuits (a.d. 1176) — charters were granted to many towns ; and the windows of private dwelling-houses were made of glass. Henry's sons were rebellious, and the eldest died ; so that on the decease of the king, in the year 1189, he was succeeded by his second son, Richard, known in history and romance as Richard the Lion-hearted. RiCHAED I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1189. DIED 1199. IV.— King Richardl., third son of Kiug Henry II,, wa3 a very brave soldier, and spent his whole reign in warfare on the continent and in crusades to the Holy Land. He can scarcely be called an English king at all, for we find that he could not speak one word of Saxon, and, although he was our sovereign for ten years, passed only eight months in England. Returning from the east, he fell into the power of Leopold, Duke of Austria, by whom he was detained in prison till ransomed by his faithful subjects. Richard fell while besieging the castle of Chains, near Limoges, in France, and was succeeded in 1199 by his brother John. John. BEGAN TO BEIGN A.D. 1199. DIED 1216. V. — John, fourth sou of King Henry II., was one of the worst and meanest kings that ever reigned in this country. His name has come down to us as a type of baseness, cowardice, and treachery. Outraged by his oppressions, and emboldened by his weaknesses, the barons compelled THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 29 this monarch to sign that signal ratification of English liberties and rights which is famous in our annals as the " Magna Charta," or Great Charter. This event took place in 1215, at Kunnymede, near Windsor. The Cinque Ports during this reign were endowed with additional privileges— the first standing army was levied in England, and the es- tabhshment of an annual election for the Lord Mayor and Sherifis of the City of London instituted. King John was deprived of his French provinces, in consequence of the cruelty with which he treated the children of his elder brother Geofiiy. Prince Arthur, his young nephew and heir to the crown, was murdered by his command at the Castle of Rouen, a.d. 1202 ; and Arthur's sister, the Prin- cess Eleanor, called the Damsel of Brittany, was imprisoned in Bristol Castle, where she died, a.d. 1241. King John reigned for seventeen years, and died universally detested. Heney III. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1216. DIED 1272. VI.— King Heney III., eldest son of John, was but eight years of age when he received the crown, and for many years the kingdom was governed by his guardians. He was of a weak and irresolute character, and tried to abolish Magna Charta. All London, and the chief land- holders and inhabitants of the county towns, rose in defence of their liberties, and the king, with his son, was defeated and imprisoned, and forced once more to confirm the safety of his people. The assembling of the nobles and burgesses of England, at this juncture (a.d. 1258), is considered to be the first outline of the Commons Pailiament. Coal began to be used for firing in this reign, a licence was granted to the people of Newcastle, for the working of their mines. Gold coinage, also, was introduced, and the art of distillation derived from the Moors. After a feeble reign of fifty-six years, King Henry III. died in the year 1272, and was succeeded by Edward, his eldest son. 30 SUMMAET OP ENGLISH HISTOBY. Edwaed I. BEGAN TO EEIGN AD. 1272. DIED 1307. VII. — ^Edtvaed I., eldest son of Henry III., was a clear- headed, resolute, and military monarch, and grasped the sceptre with a hand of iron* He added further privileges to Magna Charta, granted the freedoms of the Cinque Ports, a eated his son fii\st Prince of Wales, and, in honour of the useful laws which he enacted, obtained the name of the English Justinian. Gunpowder was invented during the reign of this king by the celebrated Roger Bacon ; paper was brought from the East by the Crusaders ; wine was sold as a cordial by the apothecaries ; and the mariner's compass was invented by one Gioja of Naples. Westminster Abbey, which had been in the course of erection for sixty years, was at this time completed, and great advances were made in literature, social science, and general civilizatioii. Edward I. died, a.d. 1307. Edwabd II. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1307. DIED 1327. Vm. — Edwaed II., son of Edward I., ascended the throne in 1307. Of a character and disposition the very reverse of his father's, the young king lost the confidence and respect of his people, sufiered his nobles to gain undue power, and was wholly governed by foreign favourites. In the year 1314, war was declared with Scotland ; and on June 2oth, the famous battle of Bannockbum took place, in which Eobert Bruce, with only 30,000 Scots, signally defeated the Eoyal army, consisting of 100,000 men. King Edward narrowly escaped with life ; 50,000 English were killed or taken prisoners, and the name of the northern hero was crowned with undying glory. In 1322, a rebellion, headed by the Earl of Lancaster, was crushed at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire, and that noble- man was punished with death. Not long after this event, the powerful barons coalesced against the favomitcc, and THE HOUSE OP PLANTAGENET. 31 the weak monarch whom they governed. They executed first Piers Gaveston, the Gascon, and then Hugh de Spenser and his son, all of whom had richly deserved the accumulated hatred and scorn of both nobles and people. Edward then withdrew into Wales, pursued by the Earl of Leicester. Even his wife, a princess of France, took up arms against him, and conducted the rebellion of the barons. This pusillanimous king was compelled at length to abdicate the throne and yield himself prisoner, when he was confined in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and horribly put to death, a.d. 1327. During the reign of Edward II., the House of Commons first began to annex petitions to their bills — the society of Knights Templars was suppressed — earthenware was brought into use for household purposes — the University of Dublin was founded — and the interest of money rose to the usurious rate of 45 per cent. Edwaed III. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1327. DIED 1377. IX. — King Edwaed III., eldest son of King Edward II., succeeded his unhappy father in the year 1327. A more powerful monarch England never acknowledged. He sub- dued Scotland, invaded France, and, without any reason save ambition and the love of fighting, claimed the crown of that country for himself. It was upon this occasion that the famous battle of Cresiky was fought (a.d. 1346), when Edward's son, known in history as the Black Prince, won immortal fame by his intrepidity and coolness — a fame which he more than doubled some few years after at the great battle of Poictiers, a.d. 1356. During this reign London contained at one time two captive kings, John of France and David of Scotland. The latter remained pri- soner in England for eleven years ; and the former, failing in his endeavour to raise the sum stipulated for his ransom, surrendered himself to a life of honourable captivity at the 32 STTMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. court of his conqueror, aud died at the old palace of the Savoy, in the Strand, which at that time was studded with parks and country-seats, and formed no part of the city of London. During this reign, a fearftd pestilence, known as tho Black Death, raged throughout Europe, and is estimated lo have cost more life than all the wai's of King Edward III. Windsor Castle now fell into disuse as a fortress and was reserved exclusively for the residence of royalty — the art of painting in oils was invented by Van Eyck — cloth-weaving was introduced from Flanders — and the Lords and Commons for the first time occupied separate chambers at Westminster. In 1376 the Black Prince died, leaving one child to the care of the old king, who followed his valiant son to the grave before a year was over. ElCHAED II. BEGAN TO KEIGN 1377. DrED 1399. X. — RiCHAED II., son of the Black Prince and last representative of the house of Plantagenet, was only eleven years of age when the kingdom oi' England de- volved to him by right of birth (a.d. 1377). The conquests aud expeditions of his father and grandfather had added to the glory but diminished the wealth of the nation ; and during the long minority which unavoidably followed his accession, the nobles, as usual, were rebellious, and the people discontented. A heavy tax being unjustly levied all over the kingdom (a.d. 1381), the lower orders rose in open rebellion, headed by Wat Tyler, a blacksmith. This rebellion was suppressed by the young king, at that time only sixteen years of age, who immediately granted to them the concessions which they demanded. These, however, he afterwards revoked, and proved himself to be a more fickle and feeble sovereign than even Edward II. In the year 1398, the Duke of Gloucester, upon suspi- THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET. 33 cion of treason, was imprisoned at Calais, and there mui-^ dered ; whicli act of oppression gave great offence to th& parliament and people. This being the case, he found none to defend or pity him when his banished cousm, Henry of Lancaster, retm^ned suddenly from exile, assem- bled an army of sixty thousand men, seized upon the supreme authority, and, after compelling Richard to sign his abdication, confined that unfortunate sovereign in Pon- tefract Castle, Yorkshire, and there had him basely mur- dered; thus terminating the lordly and brilliant line of Plantagenet kings. Richard II. built the present Westminster Hall, and lived more royally than any of his predecessors. His household consisted of no less than ten thousand persons, and in matters of fashion he set the most luxurious and costly example. Our great old English poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, flourished during this reign — William of Wyke- ham, distinguished for his learning and piety, and famous as the founder of Winchester School, and New College, Oxford, lived and died — and John Wycliffe, the herald of our great Reformation, expired, a.d. 1385, in his rectory at Lutterworth, Leicester. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER III. I. Name the possessions of ments effected during this reign. Henry II. Of what errors were "What were his domestic sor- the clergy guilty during this rows ? Wlien did he die, and reign? Who was Thomas a by whom was he succeeded? Becket, and to what rank was IV. "What was the charactei he elevated? ofRichar.lL? Washeathorougb II. Relate the circumstances Englishman ? What disaster of the quarrel between the king befel him in Austria ? By and the archbishop. "What was whom was he succeeded, and the manner of his death ? In in what year ? what year was he murdered? V. Describe the character and III. "What testimony of grief disposition of John. What was did Henry show for A Beckefs the great event of this reign ? death ? In what year, and uu- In what year was Magna Charta der what circumstances, did the signed ? How did John lose bfs king subdue Ireland? Name French provinces? For how the other conquests of Henry II. lojig did Jolin reign ? Belate the remarkable improve- VI. By whom was King John 34 BUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. succeeded, and in what year? "\Vhat was the age of Henry III. when he received the crown? In what way did he iiifringe the liberties of the people? How did they show their resentment? In what year did the nobles and bur- gesses meet ? "What great body jiolitic was outlined at this time? How long did Henry reign, and by whom was lie succeeded ? VII. What privileges did Ed- ward I. grant to his people? "Who was the first Prince of "Wales ? "What name did King Edward obrain ? What re- markable inventions took place during his reign ? YIII. "When did Edward II. ascend the throne ? What was the character of this king ? In what way was he opposed by his wife? What was his end? IX. "Wlio succeeded Edward II., and in what year ? "What were the warlike enterprises of Edward III.? What famous battles were fought in this reign, when did they take place, and who was the hero of both ? Wliat two kings were at one time captives in London? Where did John of France die ? Kelate tlie chief events of this reign, "tt'hen did the Black Prince die, and how soon after did the king his father follow him to the grave ? X. How old was Richard II. when he ascended the throne ? What was the str.te of the king- dom, and why did the people rebel ? Who suppressed the rebellion ? What sort of a mon- arch was Ptichard II.? What was the fate of the Duke of Gloucester? Who deposed the king? Where was he imprisoned, and in what way did he die ? In what year did these events happen? What great meu flourished during this reign? CHAPTER IV. THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK. Began to reign. Died. Hknrt IV. A.D. 1399 ... 1413 Henry V. „ 1413... 1422 Henry VI. „ 1422 ... ? Began to reign. Died. Edward IV. a.d. 1461 ... 1483 Edward V. „ 1483 ... 14S3 Richard IIL „ 1483 ... 1485 Heney IV. BEGAN TO REIGN 1399. DIED 1413. I. — Heney IV. was the grandson of Edward III. and cousin of Richard II. He had no legal right to the English crown. He was an usurper, and the career of an usurper is not frequently happy. That of Henry IV. was pecu- liarly wretched — embittered by the desertion of his friends — troubled by the animosities of his barons — disturbed by conspiracies, and endangered by open rebellions of the THE nOUSES OF LANCASTEE AND TORE:. ?A Scots and the Welsh. He was also grieved by the excesses of the Prince of Wales, who, though brave and generous- hearted enough, gave himself up to eveiy kind of dissipa- tion and self-indulgence, and was even sent, on one occa- sion, to prison by Judge Gascoigne, for contempt of court Henry IV. attached himself zealously to the established religion, and, having constituted himself the champion of the chui'ch, became also the persecutor of WyclifFe's ad- herents. The Rev. Sir William Sautre, Rector of St. Oswyth, London, fell a victim to the king's mistaken bigotry (a.d. 1401), and was the first person burnt hi England for his religious opinions. The order of the Bath was instituted during this reign, and cannon were first used here at the siege of Berwick (a.d. 1405). In the J' ear 1407 thirty thousand persons died of the plague, and in the course of the same year, James, son of Robert III., King of Scotland, was seized off Flamborough Head, whilst on his way to France, and notwithstanding that there was peace between the Scots and English at that time, was detained prisoner in this country, and not released till the sum of £40,000 was paid over for his ransom, in the year 1423. Henry IV. died at Westminster m 1413, after a reign of fourteen years, and a turbulent life of forty-six. Henby V. BEGAN TO REIGI* A.D. 1413. DIED 1422. II.— King Heney V., eldest son of King Henry IV., had no sooner succeeded to the throne than, much to the surprise of all the nation, he reformed his life, and showed himself a temperate, just, and wise sovereign. The great event of his reign was the conquest of France, when he won the celebrated battles of Harfleur and Agincourt (a.d. 1415), and was recognised heir to Charles VI. He then married the Princess Catherine of France — the nobles swore obedience to him — and it was concluded by treaty that upon the death of Charles the two kingdoms were to 86 8UM1IABY OF ENGLISH HISTOBT. "be united in the Englisli crown. In the month of May, 1422, Henry, with his queen and his infant son, visited France, entered Paris in all the pomp of a royal progress, and dazzled the splendour-loving Parisians with the wealth, power, and triumph of their future sovereigns. Henry V. carried on that persecution of the Wycliffites which hia father began, and treated them with inexcusable severity. Lord Cobham was burned in St. Giles's Fields for his lean- ing towards the Protestant faith, and was the first among our English nobility who suffered the extreme penalty of the law for his religious opinions. Linen shirts and imder- clothing were at this time esteemed great luxuries, and a flock bed, with a chaff bolster, was a refinement of comfort known only to the wealthiest. From the reign of Henry Y. may also be dated the custom of lighting our London Btreets at night, since it was at his command that every citizen was compelled to hang a lantern on his door during the winter months. From the same period may also be dated the first establishment of a permanent naval force ; and one ship, built at Bayonne expressly for the king, was esteemed quite a marvel of size and strength, because it measured one hundred and eighty-six feet in length. Just at the most brilliant epoch in his career, died Henry V., in 1422, at the early age of thirty-four. Hexey VI. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1422. PERIOD OF DEATH UNCERTAIN. III. — Heney VI., son to the late king, was scarcely one year old at the death of his father, whereupon the Duke of Bedford, one of the most accomplished mea of that age, was made protector during the regal minority. In this reign the splendid territory of France was lost to us through the inability of the English generals and the want of an English king. A village-girl from a remote part of Champagne fancied herself divinely inspired, placed herself at the kead of the THE HOUSES OF LANCASTEE AND fOEK. 87 French army, and, by dint of undaunted courage and patriotism, won victory after victory, and crowned the French king at the city of Rheims, a.d. 1429. Being taken prisoner after this by the English, she is said, by most historians, to have been bm-nt at the stake. In history she is known as Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans. IV. — Thus by degrees the French wrested back their acres from the English, and in a few years Calais alone remained a dependency of the State. In the midst of these losses, the troubles of a disputed succession again threatened the safety of the young and feeble sovereign (a.d. 1450), and the house of York, represented by Duke Eichard, fomented insurrections among the people. At length, after many vicissitudes, during which Henry was sometimes a king and sometimes a prisoner, the Duke of York was slain at the battle of Wakefield Green, A.D. 1460, and all once more bore the promise of peace. V. — In the midst of this delusive lull, the great Earl of Warwick (called the " King-maker ") took up the cause of young Edward, son to the late Duke of York ; imprisoned Henry in the Tower of London ; and fixed Edward upon the throne, under the title of King Edward IV. Still, the civil wars continued unabated. The Yorkists bore a white rose for their emblem, and the Lancastrians fought under the ensign of a red one. Hence these contests are generally styled the " Wars of the Roses." The date of Henry's death is uncertain ; but it is said that the king's brother, Richard of Gloucester, murdered him in his chamber at the Tower. In this reign the right of voting at elections for Knights of the Shire was limited to freeholders possessed of estates to the annual value of forty shillings. Seats in the Com- mons were not, however, much sought by the middle classes of the fifteenth century. The functions of the Commons consisted chiefly in the imposition of taxes, and even the Lords of that period evinced little interest or assiduity in 38 SrMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. the discharge of their parliamentary duties. Both Houses enjoyed entire liberty of speech. Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge, were founded about a.d. 1440. Coffee was imported from Arabia, and th« art of wood-engraving borrowed from the Germans. In 1450 the first Lord Mayor's Show took place, and the same year was signalized by the famous insurrection in Kent, headed by one Jack Cade, who, under the assumed name of Mortimer, asserted a fictitious right to the English throne, but was defeated and killed at Sevenoaks by Alexander Iden, sherifif of Kent. Edwaed IY. began to reign a.d. 1461. deed 1483. VI. — King Edwaed IY., eldest son to the late Duke of York, was a very handsom.e, but a very capricious and tyrannical sovereign. During this reign, the first printing- press was set up by William Caxton, a.d. 1471. Edward narried Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter to Sir Richard "Woodville, and widow of Sir John Grey. This is the first instance since the Conquest of an English king being mar- ried to a subject. The circumstance gave great offence to the Earl of Warwick, who rebelled in consequence, and was slain (a.d. 1471) at the battle of Barnet.* Yew- trees were at this time cultivated in churchyards, for the purpose of making bows ; and a terrible plague spread throughout the country, from which more persons perished than during all the previous fifteen years of the wars of the Roses. Edward died (a.d. 14S3), just as he was pre- paring for a war with France, and left his infant sons, Ed- ward Y. and Richard Duke of York, to the guardianship of his wily and ambitious brother, Richard Duke of Glouces- ♦ In the year 1478, George Duke of Clarence, brother to the king-, was condemned to death for high treason, and is supposec^ to have been executid privately in the Tower, by command of the Parliament. His death was a lasting source of remorse and griei to Edward IV. THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK. 39 ter. This prince seeing but these children between himself and the sceptre, had them convej^ed to the Tower, and there murdered. He was acknowledged king in 1483, ■ix months after the death of his brother Edward IV. RiCHAED III. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1483, DrED 1486. YII. — Richard III., brother to Edward IV., during a short reign of two years, committed such atrocious deeds as have left him the blackest reputation of any- sovereign upon the records of our history. IJjFot only did he murder his young nephews, but he put to death the generous Lord Hastings, the unfortunate Jane Shore, and his own friend and ally, the Duke of Buckingham. The Earl of Richmond, a wise and brave nobleman, re- lated to the house of Lancaster by the marriage of his father, Edmund Tudor, to Margaret, the great grand-daughter of John of Gaunt, asserted his claim to the crown of England (a.d. 1485), assembled a small army of about two thousand persons, which became speedily augmented to three times that number — came over from Normandy, landed on the Welsh coast, and drew up his forces near Bosworth Field. On the 22nd of August, 1485, he was met by King Richard, who fell in the thickest of the fight, and Richmond received the crown upon the battle-field, in the presence of his army, which saluted him as King Henry VII. Thus ended the civil wars which had convulsed England for more than forty years, and the royalty of the Houses of Lancaster and York. During the reign of these two families (a period of nearly one hundred years), art, civilization, and science had made very considerable progress. Music was much cultivated, especially by the clergy; painting met with liberal encouragement, and was employed in the universal decoration of our churches ; books though still very expensive, became purchaseable by others than the most wealthy, in conse- 40 8UMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. quence of the invention of printing ; many of our most esteemed colleges and public schools date their founda- tion from this period ; the language became more refined, and received something like a standard in the works of Gower, Chaucer, and others ; and the style of our archi- tecture, raised on the crumbling ruins of the feudal castles, rose into a stately and beautiful order of ornamental build- ing known as the Perpendicular Gothic. The civil wars of this period, however, operated fatally upon the eiforta of agricultural science. Many prosperous and pleasant dwellings throughout England were laid waste, and within twelve miles' range of Warwick alone sixty villages are stated to have been entirely destroyed. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER IV. I. What caused the sorrows of King Henry IV. ? What was the conduct of the Prince of Wales ? What sect did Henry IV. persecute, and who was the first aristocratic victim? What customs were introduced in this reign? When did the king die, and at what age? II. AVhat was the king's con- duct on succeeding to the throne? What was the great event of this reign? When were the battles of Harfleur and Agincourt fought? To whom was Henry V. married ? When did he die, and at what age ? III. How old was Henry VI. at the time ofhis father's death? Wliat loss did England sustain during this reign ? Relate the history of Joan of Arc. IV. What part of the French territory alone remained at- tached to the English crown ? What new troubles threatened the safety of the young king ? What was the fate of the Duke of York ? When was the battle Of \^^akefield Green fought ? V. Who was the Earl of Warwick, and what measures did he take against Henry VI. ? What were the emblems of the two parties? What was the manner of King Henry's death ? Relate the condition of the Houses of Lords and Commons at this time. What schools were founded, and what im- provements introduced? Who was Jack Cade ? VI. What was the character of King Edward IV. ? What signal event happened in this reign ? Whom did he marry, and what became of the Earl of Warmck? When did he die? What became of his two infant sons ? When was the Duke of Gloucester acknowledged king ? VII. For how long did Richard III. reign, and what reputation has he left behind him? Who were the Tictims of his cruelty and ambition? What was the lineage of the Earl of Richmond ? What was the size of his army, and from what country did he come over TH2 HOUSE OF TUDOB. 4l to claim the crown ? In what raged in England ? Relate the year did he land, and where improvements which had now draw up his forces ? What was taken place in the arts, sciences, the result of the battle of Bos- architecture, and civilization of worth? When was it fought ? England. What was the effect How long had the civil wars of the civil wars on Agriculture? CHAPTER V. THE HOUSE OF TUDOR. Began to reign. Died. I Began to reign. Died. Henry VII. a.d. 1485 ... 1509 Mary a.d. 1553 ... 1558 Henry VIII. „ 1509 ... 1547 Elizabeth „ 1558 ... 1603 Edward YL n 1547 ... 1553 | Heney VIT. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1485. DIED 1509. L— Heney VII. was first representative of the noble house of Tudor. He was grandson to Owen Tudor, grand- father of King Henry VII., and connected by marriage with the family of King Edward IV. His reign was sig- nalized by the appearance of two remarkable impostors, namely, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Lambert Simnel was the son of a baker, and (being trained purposely for the character) was placed at the head of an insurrection at Nottingham, and proclaimed to be the son of the late Duke of Clarence, and heir to the throne. A sanguinary battle took place (a.d. 1487), between the rebels and the king's army, in which the former were dispersed, and the pretender taken prisoner. He was pardoned by Henry, and afterwards filhd the situation of scullion in the royal kitchen. Perkin Warbeck's appearance and education were more favourable to deception. He was reported to be the little Duke of York who was murdered with his brother in the Tower. King James IV. of Scotland became one of his supporters ; his standard was joined by many of the highest noblemen in the kingdom ; he assumed the title of Pwichard III. of England; and even obtained the hand 42 SUilMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. of the Lady Gordon in marriage. He was, however, taken prisoner (a.d. 1499), thrown into the Tower, and executed publicly. II. — Notwithstanding these rebellions, Henry YII. was a prudent, a wise, and a merciful sovereign. He abridged the secular power of the pope ; extended the privileges of the people ; promoted commerce ; and rendered English- men powerful and happy. During his reign Columbus made the discovery of America, a.d. 1498, after having previously discovered the Bahama Islands in the West Indies (a.d. 1492). Sebastian Cabot also discovered New- foundland in 1497, and afterwards a considerable portion of North America. He likewise published the first map of the world which included both hemispheres. Vasco di Gama fii'st doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and made the passage to India by sea in 1497. Maps and sea-charts were now brought to England, shillings were coined, the 3'eomen of the guard appointed for the safety and honour of the king's person, the arbitrary court of law known as the Star Chamber first established, and Henry VII.'s Chapel built at Westminster Abbey ; a work considered to be the most perfect specimen of Tudor archi- tecture now extant. Henry YII. died in 1509, having lived fifty-two years, and reigned twenty-three. Henet YIII. began to reign a.d. 1509. died 154 7. III. — Henby VIII., second son to King Henry Vll., was handsome, affable, and popular, and ascended the English throne at eighteen years of age. During the first year of his reign he married with Catherine of Arragon, and threatened an invasion of France, which, however, came to nothing. Soon after this he became the firm friend of Thomas Wolsey, then Dean of Lincoln — a man of great ambition and talent, who had risen from the middle rank of life, and who was afterwards promoted to the high dignity THE HOUSE or TUDOE. 43 of a CO rdinalsliip. The kiiig had been married just eighteen years, when he fell inlove with Anna Boleyn, one of the maids of honour attending upon the queen. In order to effect a marriage with her, he divorced Queen Catherine in 1532, who died of grief shortly after, and even defied Pope Clement YII. for refusing to sanction his proceedings. This step led to the great and glorious Eefoemation. lY. — Having declared open opposition to the Church of Rome, Henry proceeded to make the most cruel enactments against papists ; to demolish the monasteries and convents scattered by hundreds throughout his domini«ns ; to turn the religious communities abroad into the world ; and to pour into his own treasuries the wealth w^hich had been accumulating in the clerical coffers for a thousand years. Dreadful persecutions ensued — men were hanged, burned, and beheaded, for not believing as he desired, and brave old Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher were executed (a.d. 1535) for denying his royal supremacy. Even Cardinal Wolsey was degraded, and arrested for high treason ; but died before any farther steps could be taken against him. V. — Henry's next step was to behead Anna Boleyn, and marry the Lady Jane Seymour (a.d. 1536), who died in giving birth to a son. He then entered into an alliance with the princess Ann of Clevcs, to whom, however, he took an intense aversion ; and, having put her aside, married Catherine Howard, niece to the Duke of Norfolk. This lady he beheaded in 1542, and then gave his hand, for the last time, to Lady Catherine Parr, widow of the late Lord Latimer. This wife alone contrived to retain the tyrant's affection, and, not being either divorced or beheaded, had the happiness to survive him. VI. — The last victims to the caprices of this cruel monarch were the Duke of Norfolk, and his son the Earl of Surrey, a young man who excelled in all the accom- plishments of a scholar, a soldier, and a courtier, and who 44 8U1IMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. has taten his standing among the early English poets. Both were accused of high treason. Surrey's head fell upon Tower Hill (a.d. 1547) ; but the life of his father was providentially saved by the death of the king, which happened on the evening of the day before that appointed for his execution. No king ever violated the rights of Englishmen or the fundamental liberties specified in Magna Charta more flagrantly than King Henry VIII. Upon life he placed no value, and for law he entertained no reverence. Ho even exacted a bill from his slavish Parliament by which the written edict of the sovereign was elevated to the level of a legal statute — a measure which rendered the crown absolutely despotic, and vested in the hands of the king the honour, safety, and wealth of the entii-e nation. During this reign many important discoveries were made, literature much advanced, and considerable progress effected in general knowledge. St. Paul's school was founded in 1510; the College of Physicians estabhshed in 1518; Whitehall and St. James's Palace were built; Mexico was conquered by Cortez, and Peru by Pizarro ; Wolsey commenced building Hampton-court Palace and Christ- church, Oxford; shipbuilding was improved, and the navy extended ; the Corporation of the Trinity-house was insti- tuted; the office of Secretary of State was created by government ; the Society of Jesuits was founded by Igna- **us Loyola (a.d. 1535) ; Wales was for the first time represented in parliament ; classical literature was exten- sively cultivated among the higher classes of both sexes, and Erasmus, a learned native of Holland, was elected Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford, and con- tributed much by his presence and attainments towards the advancement of education in England. In this reigF the first Lord High Admiral was appointed, in the person of Sir James Howard ; the whole of the Bible was trans- lated into English in 1539 : the Church Prayer-Book and THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 45* the Articles of Eeligion were aiTanged by Bishop Cranmer, in 1540; cherries, hops, apricots, pippins, and various other kinds of fi:uit and vegetables were first cultivated in this country; cotton thread was invented ; leaden conduits for the conveyance of water were substituted for the <vooden ones which had previously been in use ; pins were rYitroduced from France by Queen Catherine Howard, and were then a very expensive luxury. Before this time, ribbons, loopholes, laces with tags, hooks and eyes, and skewers of brass, silver, and gold, had been used alike by men and women. The term " pin-money," as applied to the income allowed by husband to wife, is dated back to this period, and refers to the heavy expenses incurred by the purchase of this extravagant article of attire. A pound sterling was first called a sovereign during the reign of Hemy YIII. ; and pre visions were so cheap, that beef and mutton were purchased at the rate of one halfpenny per pound. The value of precious metals, however, was very low, and a pound, at the time of the Conquest, would buy twelve times as much as at the j resent day. Edwaed VI. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1547. DIED 1553. VII.— King Edward VI., only son of Henry VIII., ascended the throne in 1547, being then nine years of age. The Duke of Somerset was appointed protector till the king should attain his majority. He was, however, supplanted and executed by the bold and ambitious Duke of Northumberland, who persuaded Edwai'd to transfer the succession to his cousin Lady Jane Grey, instead of sufiering it to devolve, as it should, upon his eldest sister, Mary. Lady Jane Grey was the wife of Northumberland's son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Shortly after this decision the king's health declined; and when be died of consump- tion in 1553, in the sixteenth year of his age, there were not wanting tongues among the people to attribute his los» 46 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET. to the machinations of the Protector. He was amiable, highly accomplished, and dearly loved by his subjects. No religious persecution was suffered during his reign, and a law was passed by which Protestant clergymen were permitted to marry. The book of Psalms was also trans- lated into verse, by Sternhold and Hopkins ; the book oi Homilies compiled by Cranmer and Eidley, and a new code of Articles was drawn up, to the number of forty-two, from which the thirty-nine Ai'ticles of the Established Church now in use were afterwards compiled. Christ's Hospital and St. Thomas's Hospital were founded, as well as many other charitable institutions, grammar-schools, almshouses, &c., throughout all parts of the kingdom. Grapes were brought over from France, and cultivated in England for the fii'st time ; crowns, half-crowns, and six- pences were introduced into our currency; and a dreadful plague, called the sweating sickness, which had hitherto been prevalent from time to time, became totally extinct. Our trade with Russia Was for the first time opened during the reign of King Edward VI. Maey I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1553. DIED 1558. YIII.— Maey I., eldest daughter of King Henry VIII. by Catherine of Arragon, next received the crown, after a brief contest of only ten days with Lady Jane Grey and her supporters. She inaugurated her cruel reign with the death of the unfortunate young pair, Dudley and Lady Jane Grey. Her next step was to marry Philip II. of Spain, A..D. 15 54, who cared little for her affection, and left her, as soon as possible, for his native country. IX. — The most tremendous and fearful persecutions were now directed against the Eeformers. The Bishops of London, Worcester, and Gloucester, and even Arch- bishop Cranmer, were condemned to the flames ; and it is computed that during this Eeign of Terror, \w"^\cli lasted THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 47 between four and five years, no less than 277 human beings were frightfully sacrificed. Mary died in 1558: universally abhorred. Coaches were introduced in this reign, before which time ladies used to be carried in litters, or rode on pillions behind their mounted squires. Flax and hemp were first cultivated, the use of staix'h was discovered, and the manu- facture of di'inking-glasses began to be encouraged in England. Elizabeth. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1558, DIED 1603. X. — Elizabeth, a Protestant princess, and daughter of King Henry VIII. and Queen Anna Boleyn, succeeded to the throne. Had she relieved the whole nation from captivity and chains, the delirium of joy with which all classes hailed the accession of Queen Elizabeth could scai'cely have been greater. The first act sanctioned by her authority was the formal restoration of the reformed religion; and in a single session of Parliament the articles of our faith were established ; freedom of thought secured ; the acts of her sister abolished ; and Protes- tantism for ever constituted the religion of England. XL — In the year 1587, Elizabeth tarnished the glory of her reign by signinj^ the death-warrant of Mary Queen of Scots, who had fallen into her power and was imprisoned for many years in Fotheringay Castle. The obloquy of this deed was effaced shortly after from the minds of the people by the glorious defeat of the great Armada sent out against our coasts by Philip of Spain, under the command of the Duke de Medina Sidonia. Against this floating army, consisting of twenty thousand soldiers in a hundred and thirty galleons. Queen Elizabeth sent forth thirty small sailing vessels, commanded by Admirals Eifiugham, Drake, Haw • kins, and Frobiolier (a.d. 1588). Just as the Channel 4S SUMilAE? OP ENGLISH HISTOET. was covered "by the hostile sail, a tremendous storm came on. The Spanish fleet got into disorder. The English navy rushed upon them, and poured in their batteries from every side. Two great three-deckers were taken, and twelve smaller ones — flight, destruction, or sub- mission alone was left to the rest, and of all that mighty armament commissioned to subdue Old England, only a miserable remnant escaped to carry back the tidings of defeat. XII. — The career of this famous queen presents other glories, very different but equally splendid. During her reign the poets Spenser and Raleigh wrote and flourished — Lord Bacon, the philosopher and historian, lived — and Shakespeaee, the immortal poet and dramatist, whose works are the glory of our literature, wrote some of his finest plays, surviving the queen by thirteen years. XIII. — The Act of Supremacy, passed at the com- mencement of Elizabeth's reign, was the greatest mistake of this sovereign's career. Devised for the purpose of crushing the Eoman Catholic influence, this Act compelled all clergymen and persons holdmg oflG.ce under the Crown to take an oath abjuring not only the temporal, but even the spiritual authority of every foreign prince or pre- late, and acknowledging the sovereign as the head of the Church, with rights derived from God. This Act was followed by the Act of Conformity, which prohibited all persons from attending the ministrations of any clergyman not belonging to the Established Church. The lamentable consequences may be readily imagined : hundreds suffered death, imprisonment, and persecution, in this and fol- lowing reigns, through the operation of these arbitrary statutes. The naval power of England, which had been gradually extending ever since the time of Henry V., continued still to be the chief care and ambition of our Government. Noble and scientific men pressed eagerly forward to join in expeditions for the discovery of unkno\VD THE HOUSE OF TUDOE. 49 countries. Sir Francis Drake made a three years' voyage round the world, and was the first Englishman who accom- plished the circumnavigation of the globe. He brought potatoes from Santa Fe, lu North America, and planted them in Lancashire. Tobacco was first brought to thi*^ country by Sir John Hawkins, a.d. 1565. Tea was intro- duced by the Dutch. Pocket-watches were brought over from Nuremberg, in Germany. Silk stockings were worn for the first time by the queen, cloth hose having previ- ously been" in use. The art of paper-making from linen rags was begun at Dartford, by Sir John Speilman, a German, a.d. 1590. Telescopes were invented by one Jansen, a spectacle-maker at Middleburgh in Holland. Decimal arithmetic was discovered by Simon Stevin, a scholar of Bruges. The Italian method of book-keeping was taught here by James Peele, whose book on the sub- ject is yet extant. Knives were first made in England A.D. 1563, and were the earliest branch of domestic cut- lery, being manufactured by one Matthews, of Fleet- bridge, London. In the month of July, 1588, when the invasion of the Armada was impending, the first English. newspaper was published, under the title of The JEnglish Mercurie. A copy of this journal is preserved in the libraiy of the British Museum. In 1556, the Royal Exchange was built by Sir Thomas Gresham. In 1590, Westminster School was founded by the queen ; and Rugby School was founded by L. Sherifie. Our mercan- tile transactions were now carried on upon a more liberal and extensive scale ; our whale and cod fisheries were esta- blished ; Birmingham and Shefiield became the centre of our hardware manufactures, and Manchester of our cotton and stocking weaving ; theatrical representatidfes became the popular amusements of the people ; art was encouraged by the nobility, and Hans Holbein, the portrait-painter, was patronized by the queen. In the fifth year of Eliza- beth's reign, the poor-laws were enacted, and the poptik- D 50 6CM3JAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. lion of London averaged 160,000 souls. The Bodleian Library was formed at tkis time, the East Lidia Company organized, and I^ew England colonized. XIV. — In 1G03 died Queen Elizabeth, much beloved by the English people, and to this day revered as the restorer of peace, the patroness of learning, the protector of religious hberty, and the upholder of the great English name through all the kingdoms of Europe. With her terminated the house of Tudor. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER V. /. TThat remarkable impos- tnres signalized this reign ? Eelate the story of Lambert Simnel. K elate the story of Perkin Warbeck. II. What was the character of Henry YII. ? In what way did he contribute to the happi- ness of his people ? What great discovery was made during his reign ? Name the other disco- veries of great navigators. What signal improvements and in- ventions took place at this time? What building is con- sidered the most perfect speci- men of its order now extant? When did he die, and at what age? liy whom was he suc- ceeded ? III. What was the character of Henry YIII. at eighteen years of age? What events took place in the fust year of bis reign? Who was Thomas Wolsey ? What led to the royal divorce? What great religious movement did this circumstance lead to? IV. What xerethe enact- ments of Ilenrv VIII. regarding Papists? What was the nat.;-" of the ihurch persecutions ? What great men were degraded Sud punished in consequence ? V. What was Henry's next matrimonial step? Name his third, fourth, fifth, and sixth wives. Why was the last the most fortunate ? VI. Who were the last vic- tims of King Henry's caprices ? What was the fate of Surrey, and what was his reputation ? How was the life of the Duke of Norfolk spared? In what way did Henry VIII. render his power despotic ? What great buildings were erected at this time, and what important ad- vances made in literature and general knowledge? AVhat fruits were introduced, and what im- provements effected in the me- tropolis ? Relate the history of pins. VII. In what year did Ed- ward VI. succeed to the crown, and what was his age? Who was appointed Protector, and what was his fate ? To what act was the king influenced by the Duke of Northumberland ? Who was Lady Jane Grey ? When did the king's health first begin to decline, and what was tlie popular opinion respecting the manner of his death ? When did Edward VI. die, and what was Ills age and disposition? THE HOUSE OF TUDOB. 51 What important law was passed respecting Protestant clergy- men? What religious works were compiled ? What benevo- lent institutions were founded? "Wiiat branch of trade was opena^^ to us abroad? Vill. For how long did Lady Jane Grey contest the crown, •and what was her fate and that of hei husband ? "Who was Mary I. * With whom did she marry? IX. Relate the persecutions levelled at the Protestants in this reign. How many souls perished by fire ? When did Mary die, and how was she liked by the people ? Relate the social improvements effected during this reign. X. What reception did Eliza- beth meet with? What was the first act of her reign ? XI. What was the end of Mary Queen of Scots, and when was she executed ? What great victory effaced the memory of this deed? What was the com- parative sea-strength of Spain and England ? What was the result of the expedition ? XII. What great men flou- rished in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ? What valuable in- strument was invented ? What influential company received its charter? How many years did Siiakespeare survive Queen ELi- zabetli? XIU. For what purpose was the Act of Supremacy devised, and of what nature was it? Relate the results of its opera- tion. What progress was made by England as a naval power, and in what way did men of education evince their eagerness to advance knowledge ? AVho was the first Englishman that circumnavigated the globe? What vegetables were intro- duced in this reign, and by whom? Who brought tobacco to this country ? Relate the inventions which took place at this time with regard to dress, paper, telescopes, and watches? Who invented decimal arith- metic? When were knives first made in England? What was the name of the first English newspaper? What great public institutions were founded in this reign ? What great fisheries were established? What par ticular branches of commerce were connected with Birming- ham, Sheilield, and Manchester? When were the first poor-laws enacted? What great library was formed at tliis time, and what powerful trading com- pany organized? Wiiat colony was first inhabited during thie reign ? XIV. In what year did this great Queen die ? In what way did siie contribute to the pros- perity of her kingdom ? What great royal house terminated at her death ? 62 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. CHAPTER YI. THE HOUSE OF STUAET Began to reign. Died. James I a.d. 1603 1625. ChaklesI 1625 1649. James I. BIGAN TO EEIfN A.D. 1603. DIED 1625. I. — ^KiNG James I. was the son of the unfortunale Mary Queen of Scots, and great grandson of James IV. of Scotland, who married a daughter of Henry YII. When the sceptre of Elizabeth descended to his hands, he was reigning at Holyrood under the title of King James VI. of Scotland. At the very commencement of his reign, a conspiracy which has never been sufficiently cleared up was set on foot by llie Lords Grey and Cobham, and Sir W. Ealeigh. The two former were pardoned ; but Ealeigh, the travelled and chivalrous poet, was executed in 1618, after manj years of confinement. II. — Two years after the accession of Jamesl. (a.d. 1605), discovery was made of the famous Gunpowder Plot; a con- spiracy, which terrified the whole nation, was designed to re-establish the Soman Catholic religion, and would, if successful, have proved the destruction of the King, Lords, and Commons of this realm. Many of the traitors asso- ciated in the enterprise were publicly executed ; some died sword in hand ; and some received the royal pardon. Lord Cecil, the minister of Queen Elizabeth, filled the same office under James up to the period of his death, in 1612; but from that time the king and his parliament were constantly at variance. He would fain have ex- tended his royal prerogative to a point little short of despotism, and they were equally resolute to uphold their privileges and power. In 1614 they withheld the supplies, because James delayed to redress the grievances of which they complained j and thus, in the parliamentaiy difficulties TnE HOUSE OF STUAET. 53 of his father, was anticipated somewhat of the fatal obstinacy afterwards evinced by Charles I. In this reign (for the purpose of raising money) the king created the title of Baronet, and sold it for the sum of £1000. Horse races were established at Newmarket. The circulation of the blood was discovered by Dr. Harvey, a.d. 1619. The broad si].k manufacture was introduced. Copper half- pence and farthings were coiried for the first time. Log- arithms were introduced by Napier, a.d. 1614. Buildings were built of brick ; the authorized translation of the Bible as at present in use wao produced under the care of forty- seven divines ; the London New River Company was pro- jected by Sir Hugh Middleton; Homer was translated by Chapman ; and the Charterhouse School was founded by Mr. T. Sutton, who purchased the vast premises from the Duke of Norfolk, a.d. 1611. III. — King James married the Princess Ann of Den- mark, by whom he had four childi-en. Two alone survives him — namely, Charles prince of Wales, and Elizabeth, married to Frederick V., elector palatine of Bavaria, an unfortunate prince, whose dominions were confiscated by the Emperor Ferdinand II., and whose posterit}" after- wards succeeded to the English sovereignty. James I. died in 1625, at the age of fifty-nine. Chaeles I. BEGAN TO KEIGN A.D, 1625. DIED 1649. IV. — Chaeles I., second son of James I., commenced his reign with great apparent advantages, both of person, education, and position. He found the treasmy of the coun- try, however, in an impoverished condition ; and, being refused sufficient supplies by the parliament, laid a heavy and unpopular tax upon the people, with the proceeds of which he fitted out a fleet for the invasion of Spain. This measure created great discontent j but instead of being 54 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOET. warned by the murmurs of the nation, Charles was unjust and impolitic enough to persevere, and from 1629 to 1636 never called any parliament, but raised money by means of an obsolete statute called the levy of Ship-money. It may be as well here to explain the nature of that tax. Y. — Three years after the king's accession (a.d. 1628), the Commons, in return for five subsidies, had induced him to sign that second great charter of English liberties known as the Petition of Eight ; by which he bound h.im'ielf to raise no taxes without the consent of parlia- ment. It was therefore in direct violation of his own treaty, that in 1629 royal writs were issued to the City of London and to the towns along the coast, exacting a tribute of money for the purpose of equipping ships of war for the defence of the country. At first this step, though productive of much ill-feeling between the king and the people, was yet tolerated, and had some excuse of precedent ; but Charles shortly ventured on a stretch of prerogative that no other sovereign, however arbitrary, had ever dared to contemplate. He sent writs of ship-money tc the inland counties, where no ship had ever been seen, and continued to raise money for the defence of his kingdom at a time when he was at peace with all the world. YI. — The first resistance was offered by John Hampden, a gentleman of Buckinghamshire. He refused to pay the rate levied upon his estate, and brought the matter to trial (a.d. 1636), with the patriotic resolution of supporting the liberties of the people. The result, which it was hoped would affix some limit to the power of the sovereign, was anxiously awaited by the nation ; but Hampden lost his cause, and Charles grew more exacting than ever. Many ceremonies of Eoman Catholic worship were now intro- duced into the church — episcopacy was forced upon the Scots, who rebelled in consequence — more rates and levies were wrung from the public purse, and the king raised an army and marched to the north (a.d. 164.0), where, in- THE HOUSE OF STT7AET. C stead of defeating the Presbyterians, he ended a feeble campaign by a treaty of peace. VII. — During the month of April in this year (1610) Charles found himself compelled once more to assemble a parliament, and this time Hampden took his seat in the House of Commons as member for Buckinghamshire, and leader of the opposition party. This paiiiament the king angrily dissolved, because it was bent upon redi'essing the public grievances. He threw some of the Com- mons members into prison, exacted ship-money more rigorously than ever, and even prosecuted the Corporation of London for their unwillingness to enforce the levies. VIII. — Again a parliament was called (Nov. 1640), and again the opposition, more powerful than ever, with Hampden, Pym, Holland, and others, at the head of the, party, stood up to foi'ce the king to something like justice and reparation. By this famous tribunal great and salu- tary reforms were vigorously carried out. Strafford, who had been created Earl, I/ord-lieutenaut of Ireland, and President of the Council of the North, was impeached, with Archbishop Laud, imprisoned, and executed. The servile judges and officers of the crown were punished, and the king deprived of arbitrary and feudal powers. In fact, it was open war between Charles and his people. IX. — As if blindly led on to his ruin, Charles now committed an act for which history can furnish no parallel, and posterity no excuse. Enraged against the opposition, and misled by the lenity with which some of the members were disposed to treat his measures, he went in person to the House of Commons (Jan, 1612), attended as far as the door by two hundred halberdiers and armed cour- tiers, there to arrest and seize Lord Kimbclton, Hampden, HoUis, Pym, and two other members, whom he had previously impeached through his attorney-general. An}'- thing so unprecedented as the arrest of members en- gaged in the exercise of their parliamentary duties had 56 STJMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTORY. never been known; and though the attempt failed, and the members were absent, this act of tyranny led lo extremes which few then could have anticipated. X. — Hampden and his friends secreted themselves in the city. The parliament recalled them, and they returned to their seats in triumph, accompanied by immense crowds of spectators and military, and saluted with salvos of artillery. The result was civil war. Charles fled to the North, after having sent the Queen and Prince of Wales to a place of safety. The nation became divided into two factions distinguished as Cavaliers and Eoundheads, and both parties prepared for the great struggle. The clergy, the Universities, the landed gentry, and a majority of the nobles sided with the king. The Eoundheads comprised the middle classes of England, the merchants, shopkeepers, yeomanry, dissenters, parliamentarians, and a formidable minority of the peerage. XI. — Not to dwell too long upon this period of our summary, we will briefly detail the chief events of that deplorable conflict, which lasted for the space of three years, and caused the eff'usion of so much English blood. The royal standai'd was first erected at Nottingham, August 25th, 1642, and the first engagement, known as the battle of Edgehill, was fought on the 23rd of the October following, when both sides claimed the victory. From this time no great event (unless an unimportant advantage gained by Charles at Stratton) took place, till the death of Hampden, at Chalgrave-field, June 24th, 1643. In 1644, the Eoundheads, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, signally defeated the Eoyalists under Prince Eupert, at the famous battle of Marston Moor — and on June 14th, 1645, was fought the decisive battle of Naseby, in North- amptonshire, when the king's army sustained a total defeat. Fifty thousand of his soldiers were taken prisoners, baggage and cannon were left upon the field, and Charles fled to Scotland, By his northern subjects, upon whose THE COMMONWEALTH. 67 protection he had thrown himself, he was basely sold over to the English for the sum of £400,000. XII. — From this moment the king's doom was sealed. He was first imprisoned at Hampton Court — then in Carisbrook Castle — then in Hurst Castle, Hampshire — finally in Windsor Castle, whence he was brought to London, to go through the mockery of a trial at St. James's. By the high court of justice he was sentenced to death, and publicly beheaded in fi-ont of Whitehall Palace on the 30th Jan., 1649. " A great shudder ran through the crowd that saw the deed, then a shriek, and then all immediately dispersed." Charles was at that time forty-eight years of age, and had reigned nearly four-and- tweuty years. THE COMMONWEALTH. XIII. — That extraordinary epoch in our history, knowi. as the period of the Commonwealth, ensued. Olivee Ceomwell, who had distinguished himself as a general in the late wars, received the command of the Puritan army in Ireland (a.d. 1653), and there defeated the Royaliscs with great slaughter. Having reduced that country to submission, he was next despatched to Scotland, where they had espoused the cause of the Stuarts and placed Prince Charles upon the throne. Here the sternRoundhead was everywhere invincible ; the Scotch deserted the royal standard ; a great battle was fought at Worcester, on the 3rd of September, 1651 ; and the king was forced to make his es(;ape to the coast of France. XIV. — In this manner the authority of the parliament became established throughout the British dominions. The American settlements, which had declared for the king, were subdued; Ireland and Scotland silenced; Jersey, Guernsey, Scilly, and the Isle of Man, brought easily under subjection ; and an immense empire, rich in fleets and armies, in cro\vn-lands and ecclesiastica' 68 SUMMARY OF E^"GLISH HISTOEY. treasures, was governed by an assemblage of some sixty or seventy men of obscure birtli and inferior education, wh(? had taken upon themselves to alter the legislature of the state and to behead a great king, and who, in their present position., found themselves holding the foremost place among the sovereign powers of Europe. XV. — Oliver Cromwell, having entire possession of the aifection and confidence of the army, and being regarded with suspicion and anxiety by the Long Parliament, resolved upon what was, perhaps, the boldest step of his life. He went with 300 soldiers to the House of Commons (a.d. 1653), turned out the members, dissolved the assembly, ordered the door to be locked, and put the key in hij pocket. The next parliament was called, and consisted entirely of ignorant fanatics. These men resigned office (Dec. 12, 1653), and vested the entire administrative power in Cromwell, with the title of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Thus the oppressions of royalty were exchanged for a despotic military government. Oliyee Ceomwell, protector of e>'gland fho.m a.d. 1c53 to 1g58. XYI. — The Peotectoeate was inaugurated by a suc- cession of brilliant victories, and the recognition of the English power in all the courts of Em-ope. The Dutch were brought to sue for peace (a.d. 1654), and made to pay an indemnification of £85,000. Favourable terms subsisted between Cromwell and Mazarin, and Dunkirk became a dependency of the State. The years 1655 and 1656 saw the great victories of the English fleets, under Admiral Blake, at Algiers, Cadiz, and the Canary Islands ; and in 1655 Admirals Penn and Yenabies made the con- quest of Jamaica. XVII. — Despite all this prosperity, the Protector's was far from being a safe or happy position. He was feared and distrusted on aU sides; threatened by numberless THE COilirONWEALTH. 59 conspiracies ; and a prey to perpetual anxiety. A teiTlan ague carried him off at last (Sept. 3, 1658), in the fifty- ninth year of his age, and the ninth of his usurpation. He appointed his son Eichard his sQCcessor; but the army, discontented with so young and irresolute a Ic-ader, compelled him to sign his abdication, and the oSlcers restored the Long Parliament which Cromwell had forcibly dissolved. XVIII. — This parliament, however, having offeridedthe army, was again dismissed, and General Monk, toiirching from Scotland with 8000 veterans (Jan. 1660), compelled the London forces to disperse. A new Parliament was then assembled, and the restoration of royalty, in the person of the exiled Charles, was proposed and received with universal delight both by the CommoriS and the people. So ended the period of the Commonw*-alth. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER YI. I. 1 whom did the crown he ? In what year did he die, descend on the death of Eliza- and at what agof betli ? What conspiracy threat- lY. How did Charles I. com- ened the commencement of mence his reign ? "What means James's reign, and who were the did he take to St out a fleet for parties concerned in it? What the invasion of Spain? How was the fate of Sir ^Y. Raleigh ? did he raise money without the II. Wiiat was the nature of aid of parliarac-nt, and for how the Gunpowder Plot, and in long? what year was it discovered? Y. When did Charles sien What occasioned the disagree- the Petition of Right, and what ments between James and his terms did be therein agree to? parliament? When were the When did he issue the writs fc« supplies withheld? For what 6hip-money,andupon what pre. purpose was the title of Baronet tcnce ? To what unwarrantable created? What great discovery degree did he extend this ex- was made by Dr. Harvey? Re- action? late the inventions and im- YI. Who offered the first provements cf this reign ? By resistance? What was the re- whom was the New River suit of Hampden's cflbrts? By Company projected? Who was what acts of oppression did 5Ir. T. Sution, and what charity Charles follow up his success ? did he found? Yll. When did Charles again III. Whom did the king call a parliament? How did marry, and what family hail he treat that body ? In what CO SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTORY. way did he insult the Corpora- tion of London ? VIII. In what month of the same year did he again call a parliament, and who were the leading members of the opposi- tion ? What great reforms did the parliament effect ? IX. What extraordinary piece of illegal tyranny did Charles next resort tc, and when did he carry it into effect ? X. Where did Hampden and his friends take refuge ? In what manner did they return to parliament? What became of the king and royal family ? Into what well-known factions was the nation divided? Of whom did the Cavaliers consist ? What classes constituted the Koundheads ? XI. Where and when was the royal standard first erected? tMien was the battle of Edge- hill fought? Where did Hamp- den fall? Relate the event and date of the battle of Marston Moor. When was the battle of Xaseby fought, and with what result ? What was the conduct of the Scotch upon this occa- eion? XII. At what places was the king successively imprisoned ? By what court was he sen- tenced? Relate the circum- Btances and date of his execu- tion. What was his age? How long had he reigned ? XIII. What period ensued* Who was Oliver Cromwell, and when was he sent to Ireland? Why was he next sent to Scot- land ? What was the date and result of the battle of Wor- cester? XIV. In •n'na.t countries was the authority of the parliament everywhere established ? What was the character and power of the parliament ? XV. What bold step did Cromwell take? Of whom did the next parliament consist? When was Cromwell raised to the supreme power in the State? XVI. Under what auspices did the Protectorate commence ? In what year were the Dutch subdued ? What terms sub- sisted between France and Eng- land ? What were the great victories of Admiral Blake, and when did they take place? What were the conquests of Penn and Venables? XVII. Was the Protector happy ? When did he die, and from what cause ? Whom did he appoint to succeed him' What steps were taken by the army? XVIII. What became of the parliament? What was the course taken by General Monk? In what way ended the period of the Commonwealth ? THE HOUSE OF STUAET. 61 CHAPTER VII. THE HOUSE OF STUAET (Continued.) Began to Keign. Charles II a.d. leeo Died 1685. James II 1685.. . Detlironed 1688. Charles II. BEGAN TC KEIGN A.D. 1660. DIED 1685. L — King Chakles II., eldest son of King Charles I., came to the throne amid the universal rejoicings of a nation released from Puritanic tyranny, and anxious to wel- come the restoration of royalty. Commencing his reign with cl emency and moderation, he passed an act of universal par- don (excepting only the regicide judges and more furious republicans), chose his first council indifferently from both loyalists and presbyterians ; and proclaimed entire liberty of opinion among his people. The body of Cromwell, however, was dug up, hung in chains, at Tyburn and buried under the gallows; but was afterwards removed secretl}^ and re- jnterred, as some assert, in the centre of Red Lion Square. II. — It was supposed, from this promising beginning, ihat Charles would be found an easy monarch, and that nothing affecting the religion or liberty of the nation need be feared at his hands. In this the public was disap- pointed. Having first of all disbanded the fine army of the Commonwealth, the king began to follow his father's evil example by forcing episcopacy upon the nonconform- ists. This step raised an outcry of discontent throughout the kingdom : in one day about two thousand presbyterian ministers gave up their benefices, because they would not embrace a new faith — and now the Church of England began to persecute its former persecutors. III. — He next declared war with Holland (a.d. IGGo), and sent out an English fleet under the command of his brother, James, duke of York. The ship of Admii-al 62 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. Opdam, the Dutch commander, was blown up, and the victory of the English complete. IV. — In the years 1665 and 1666, London became the scene of two fearful calamities, exceeding in horror any that were ever known to befal oue city within so short a period. A mortal plague spread among all classes, and carried off in six months more than 100,000 human beings. They were buried in great pits dug about the neigh- bourhood of JMoorfields and Tothill fields, and every night the dead-carts traversed the melancholy streets, in which the unaccustomed grass grew rankly, and no other traffic now was known. Scarcely had this sickness begun to decline, when a fire, unexampled in Europe since the destruction of Rome under Nero, " laid in ruins the whole cit}^, from the Tower to the Temple, and from the river to the purlieus of Smithfield." This conflagration destroyed 400 streets and 13,200 dwelling-houses, besides 89 churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, the Royal Exchange, the Custom House, Guildhall, and many other important public buildings. It lasted without intermission for four days, and was only stopped at last by the blowing-up of houses. V. — Taking advantage of this period of our national weakness and distress, the Dutch fleet, under command of Admiral de Ruyter, sailed up the Thames (a.d. 1667), and burned the ships of war which lay at Chatham. This was the first, and happily the last, time that the roar of foreign guns was heard to echo through the streets of London. A disgraceful peace was shortly afterwards con- cluded. VI. — The great imposition known as the Popish Plot took place in 1678. A discreditable character, one Titus Oat€S, constructed a hideous fiction which he found the nation only too ready to believe. He gave out that the papists were preparing for the destruction of London by fii-e, the assassination of the king, and the betra^yal of our THE HOUSE OF STUAEt. 6d country into the hands of the French. Just at this junc- ture, the mysterious murder of Sir Edmondsbury Godfrey, a Protestant magistrate, lent all the colouring of truth to his assertions. Many innocent persons were in (*<.>nsequence arrested and executed, and, among others, the aged and illustrious Earl of Staiford fell a victim to calumny, and was beheaded on Tower Hill, December 29th, 16S0. VII. — In the year 1679 was passed the Habeas Corpus Act. This act, next in importance to Magna Charta, is one of the bulwarks of individual safety. So long as the statute remains in Ibrce, no subject of England can be detained in prison, except where such detention is shown to be justified by law. VIII, — The Lords Shaftesbury and Eussell, in con- junction with the Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sidney, and others, were discovered (a.d. 1680) to be the authors of a treasonable conspiracy, having for its object the death of the king. This was the famous Rye-house Plot; so called from the conspirators' place of meeting. Lengthened trials ensued. Monmouth escaped; Kussell (the most popular man of his day) was executed in Lincoln's-inn Fields, July 21st, 1683; the Earl of Essex was found with his throat cut in his cell at the Tower; Shaftesbury absconded to Holland; and Sidney suffered the extreme penalty of the law, December 7th, 1683. IX. — The king was at this time (a.d. 1685) as abso- lute a sovereign as anj' in Europe ; but his power was destined not to be of long duration. Towards tiie be- ginning of February, 1685, he was attacked by what seemed to be a lit of apoplexy, and soon after expired without a struggle. Before dying, he received tli3 sacra- ments of the Ivomish church; an act which proved that although he had always passed for a prctestant king, he cherished another religion in his heart. Charles was fifty- nine years old at the time of his death, and had reigned twenty-fivo years. His character has been thus briefly 64 SUM3IABY OF ETTCftlSH HISTOEY. summed np bj a modern historian : — " Charles was the falsest, meanest, merriest of mankind." Jaaies II. BEGAN TO KEIGN A.D. 1685. DETHRONED 1689. X. — James II., brother to the late king, had distin- guished himself as a naval commander, but was unpopular with the general pubhc on account of his gloomy temper and the ill favour in which his religion was held. He had been brought up to the Eoman Catholic persuasion, and liis first acts were to go openly to mass, to sanction the erection of Jesuit colleges, and to establish Eoman Catholic bishops. These things much displeased the nation, and so, when the Duke of Monmouth (an ille- gitimate son of the late king) came over to England, set up his standard in Dorsetshire and claimed the crown, thousands flocked to his aid, and he found himself, in a very few days, at the head of a considerable army. He was defeated at Sedgemore, a village near Bridgewater, and, being hotly pursued, was found concealed in a field, hidden among branches of fern, and utterly worn-out with hunger and fatigue. Despite his supplications for mercy, James was inexorable, and the unhappy young man was executed, July 15th, 1685. XI. — The most savage persecutions followed. Twenty prisoners were hung upon the field of battle ; but to the infamous memory of Judge Jeffi-ies (the most bloodthirsty of legal murderers) belong the chief horrors of what has been called the English Eeign of Terror, Hundreds of victims, old and young, were sacrificed for having been implicated in the rebellion ; and in Scotland people were hung and drowned for refusing to repeat the Creed. The English fleet mutinied because James had ordered mass to be read on board the vessels, and the Bishop of London was suspended from ofiice. XII. — The king next issued a proclamation of entire THE HOUSE OF STUAST. 66 liberty of conscience to his subjects; a proceeding which, although it bore a fair appearance, was known to be solely put forward for the favouring of Eoman Catholicism. Seven bishops of the Church of England undertook to deliver a remonstrance to the king, especially concerning that clause of his proclamation in which he desired that it should be read in all the chui'ches upon the conclusion of divine service. For this courageous resistance the bishops were arrested and thrown into the Tower (June 29, 16SS), but, being acquitted upon their trial, were regarded as the saviours of the Protestant religion, and met everywhere by rejoicing thousands. XIII. — It was while affairs were in this position that the eyes of all men were turned for deliverance to William, Prince of Orange, who had married Mary, the eldest daughter of James. This wise and politic prince, being invited over by the clergy and the people, left Holland with a fleet of 500 vessels and an army of 14,000 men, landing at Torbay on the 5th of November, 1688, Here he was joined by the nobility, clergy, and military; even by Lord Churchill, who owed everything to the bounty of the king ; and by Prmce George of Denmark and his wife the Princess Anne, second daughter to James. XIV. — In this manneiHhe crown changed hands withjut the striking of a blow. James was confined at Rochester, but was permitted to escape to France, where he after- wards died ; and the Prince and Princess of Orange were proclaimed joint king and queen of England on the 13th February, 1680. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER VII. I. With what measures did were his commands received by Charles commence his reij^n ? the rresbyterian ministers? "What indignities M'ere oflcred III. In wliat year was ws^ to the body of Cromwell ? declared with Holland, and hov/ II. By wliat unpopular mea- ended tlie first engagement ? eure did Charles lose the good IV. What calamity befel opinion of the people? How London in 1665? When diiJ 66 6C11MAEY OF ENGLISH Sic TORY. the great fire take place? How long did it last, and what was the extent of tlie destruction? V. In v\ ]iat waj' did the Dutch take advantage of our distress, and in wliat year ? YI. AVhen was the Popish plot set on foot, and by wliom? lielate the purport of Oates's statements. When was the Earl of Stafford beheaded ? YII. In what year was the Habeas Corpus Act passed ? "What is the purport of tlife Act? VIII. What illustrious gen- tlemen were concerned in tlie Rye-liouse Plot ? What were their respective fates ? IX. What was the power of the king at this time? When did he die? What was the cause of his death ? What sacraments did he receive ? AVhat was his age ? How lojig had he reigned ? What was his character? X. r>y whom was Charles eucceeded? AVith what acts did James commence his reign ? How was the insurrection of Monmouth received by the people !* flow did his rebellion terminate, and what was hia end' XI. How did the king's army treat tiie prisoners? AVliat in- famous judge was appointed to try the rebels? What were the cruel results ? What took place in the English fleet, and what Eishop was suspended from ollice ? XII. WHiat was the real ten- dency of the king's order re- specting liberty of conscience ? Who protested against it? How was this remonstrance received ? What was the event of the trial ? XIII. To whom did the people look for assistance? Witli what army and how many ships did Prince William leave Holland? When and where did he land ' By whom was his standard joined ? XIV. Did the crown change hands easily ? What became of James ? When were the new sovereigns proclaimed ? CHAPTER VIII. UHITED HOUSES OF STUART AND NASSAU. Began to reign. Died. King William III a.d. 1CS9 1702, Queen Mary II „ 1CS9 I(j94. QuesnAnne „ 1J02 1714 William IIJ BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1CS9. DZi:X> 1702. I. — ^William III., +hroughout his reis^n in England (for Queen Mary, who was the daughter of -Tames IL, had little to do with affairs of State, and died before her UNITED HOUSES OF STUAET AND NASSAU. 67 husband), was troubled with treachery at home and warfare abroad. A great war with France continued nearly the whole time, and not only his crown, but his life was several times attempted by the emissaries of the exiled James. The latter went over to Ireland in the spring of 1690, raised an army of 40,000 men, and besieged Londonderry. Failing in his attempt to reduce that city, he was forced to retreat with a loss of 9000 men, and being met on the banks of the river Boyne (June 30, 1690) by King William and his army, was signally defeated. II. — The late king was not yet discouraged by these failures, but fought a last battle at Aughrim, and was forced to retreat to Limerick. Here, finding all chance of victory gone, his adherents capitulated, and above 14,000 of them followed him to France. III. — William of Orange was a great general, and the bravest of soldiers. War was his element, and in raising sums for the prosecution of his military plans, he plunged the Government into that great National Debt which it has never since been able to discharge. Peace was, how- ever, concluded at Ryswick, after eight years of bloodshed (Sept. 20, 1697) ; and on the 8th of March, 1702, England lost this remarkable and celebrated sovereign. He was just fifty-two years of age, and was succeeded by Lis wife's sister. Anne, began to reign a.d. 1702. died 1714. lY. — Anne, second daughter of King James II., now reigned in England, and her reign is the history of constant but brilliant warilire. The court of Versailles had acknowledged the son of James II. as Prince of Wales. Queen Anne felt this to be both a political ana personal insult, and declared for war. Lord Churchill, now Duke of Marlborough, received the command of the English army, as well as that of the Dutch, who sided Urith us. The Germans joined the alliance j the Nether- 68 SUMMAET OP ENGLISH HISTOET. lands were speedily cleared of the Invader; several towns were taken by siege ; and the first of a series of splendid victories was fought at Blenheim, August 2nd, 1704. In this year also the fortress of Gibraltar was taken by Sir G. EookfcV and has remained ours ever since. V. — The next great victory which brought glory to Marlborough was the famous battle of Eamixies (May 21, 1706) ; and in the autumn of the same year were finally united the kingdoms of England and Scotland. Though these two countries had since the accession of James I. acknowledged but one sovereign, they had enjoyed sepa- rate laws md separate parliaments : now both were repre- sented at Westminster, and the Union was ratified as it still exists. YI. — The year 1708 was signalized by the victory of Oudenarde, gained by the Duke of Marlborough ; which was followed, in 1709, by the equally brilliant battle of Malplaquet. Shortly after this, by a system of court intrigues, the particulars of which would detain us too long in this place, the Duke of Marlborough and his wife (to whom the queen had been greatly attached) fell into dis- grace. The great general was dismissed from his com- mand, and a treaty of peace was entered upon at the celebrated Conference of Utrecht. By this instrument, signed in April, 1713, England's glory and interest were secured. To her jurisdiction France resigned Hudson's Bay, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland — Spain relinquished Gibraltar and Minorca — and the fortifications of Dunkirk, whijh might have proved dangerous to our trade in time of war, wer3 demolished. The rest of Europe was dealt by with equal fairness. VII. — Soon after this event the health of Queen Anne declineJ., and on the 31st of July, 1714, she died, at the age of forty-nine. She had reigned for twelve years; was much beloved by the people ; and went by the glorious and enviable title of "the good Queen A:ine." During THE HOrSE OF BEUNSWICE. 69 her reign, Addison, Steele, Pope, Bolingbroke, Gay, Swift, Prior, and other famous wits and poets, whose works are considered to be our national classics, lived and wrote. This epoch is styled the Augustan age of English lite- rature. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER VIII. I. Was the reign of AVil- liam peaceful and prosperous ? "Wliither did James repair? Wliat army did he assemble, and what town besiege ? When was the battle of tlie Boyne fought, and with what suc- cess? II. When did James fight his last battle? What took place at Limerick ? III. What was the cause of the Naticual Debt ? When and wliere was peace concluded ? When did WiUiam die? What was his age, and by whom was he succeeded ? IV. Why did Queen Anne declare war with France? Who became allies with the English, and who was appointed com- mander-in-chief? What success had Marlborough in the Nether- lands, and when did he win his first great victory? What other important acquisition was made in this year? V. What was the next vic- tory gained by Marlborough? AVhat great legal event took place in the autumn of 1706? \Vhat had been the points of separation between England and Scotland ? In what way wers they removed ? VI. What were the two great victories of 1708 and 1709? How did it happen that Marl- borough lost his command? Where was the peace conference held ? What glorious conces- sions were made by France and Spain to the arms of England? VII. When did Queen Anne die ? What was her age ? By what popular name was she known ? What celebrated lite- rary characters lived during her reign? By what name is the age distinguished ? CHAPTER IX. THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. Began to Reign. George I a.d. 17U. . . « George II „ 1727. . . . George III „ 17G0, ... Died. 1727. 17G0. 1820 Geoege I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1714. DIED 1727. 1. — George I. of Brunswick, Elector of Hanover, and fi^reat grandson of James I., succeeded to the "good 70 SUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTOET. Queen Anne." He was fifty-four years of age wlien he received the crown, and was preceded by a character for sagacity, experience, and industry, w^hich led the nation to expect a happy and peaceable reign. How- ever, he soon showed that he could be vindictive towards those of the nobility who had been unfavourable to his succession. The Duke of Ormond, Lord Bolingbroke, and the Earls of Oxford and Mortimer, were impeached of high treason, and Matthew Prior, the poet, was taken into custody. The Duke of Ormond and Bolingbroke, having fled to the continent, were degraded from their rank; their names and arras were razed from the list of peers, and their estates confiscated. Lord Oxford was set at liberty. II. — Rebellion now broke out in Scotland (a.d. 1715), and the son of James II., known as the Pretender, was there supported by the interest of the Earl of Mar, and by arms, ammunition, and soldiers from France. InsuiTections were also started in various parts of the western counties ; but were promptly quelled by Generals Carpenter, Wills, and Pepper. Man}- noblemen and gentle- men of rank and substance took part in these disastrous risings — the prisons of London were crowded with unhappy captives — the Lords Derwentwater, Carnwath, Wintoun, Kenmuir, Widdrington, and Nair were executed — five persons of inferior rank were hanged at Tyburn — two-and- twenty at Preston and Manchester — and about a thousand were transported. The king would hear of no mercy. III. — Perhaps the most extraordinary event in the reign of this sovereign was the great South-Sea Bubble. We will endeavour to explain the nature of the specu- lation as briefly as possible. During the reign of William III., the government was obliged to borrow money (for war purposes) from different companies of merchants, and among the rest, from the South-Se? traders. For this particular debt the government waa THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 71 paying an annual interest of £500,000. Now in 1720, one Blunt, a scrivener, came to the ministry in the niime of this Company, and proposed to them that it (the South-Sea Company) should become sole creditor to the State b}' the purchase of the debts of all the other companies. Having bought up these, they offered to accept an interest of five per cent, for the first six years, and a reduced interest of four per cent, ever after, till the parliament found itself in a position to pay it off altogether. But the Company was not rich enough to make this gigantic purchase from its existent funds; and they proceeded to raise money by opening a subscription for trading in the South Seas, by which traffic they persuaded the public that great fortunes were to be made. Thus deluded, the purchasers of South- Sea stock poured in by thousands, and the government creditors sold their government stock for that of the South- Sea Company. It was even advanced that the government was about to exchange Gibraltar for a portion of Peru ; than which anj'thing more chimerical can hardly be conceived. The Bubble exploded ; the directors' estates, to the value of £2,014,000 were seized in 1721 ; and many thousand families were overwhelmed with ruin. IV. — The king, who had not been over to inspect big Hanoverian dominions for some time, resolved to pay them a visit in the month of June, 1727. He embarked for Holland accordingly ; but while travelling in his carriage from Delden, where he had passed the night, was taken suddenly ill, and expired at Osnaburgh the next morning, in the sixty-eighth year of his age and the thirteenth of his reign. Geoege II. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1727. DIED 1760. V. — George II. succeeded to his fiithcr when f n-ty-four years of age, and his son, being summoned over from Hanover, took his rank as Prince of Wales. A miA- 72 SUMMAfiT OF ENGLISH HISTOBY. understanding with Spain occurred early in this reign. In consequence of the discovery of some illicit trading- vessels commanded by Englishmen, the Spanish guard- ships seized indiscriminately upon innocent and guilty, and subjected our merchant captains to considerable an- noyance. Admiral Yernon was accordingly sent out with a fleet of six ships to attack the Spanish settlements in America (a.d, 1739). Here he was uniformly victorious. Having taken Porto Bello, he bombarded Carthagena and took Fort Chagre, while Commodore Anson attacked the city of Palta, on the coast of Peru, captured a valuable Spanish galleon, and returned home laden with booty. VI. — The death of the Emperor of Austria in 1740 afforded the French an opportunity to interfere with the succession of that empire. Setting aside the hereditary claims of the Emperor's daughter, Maria Tlieresa, Queen of Hungary, they caused the Elector of Bavaria to be raised to the imperial throne, whilst the King of Prussia gi-asped the provinces of Silesia. At this juncture Eng- land came forward to assist the cause of justice, and her example being followed by Holland, Sardinia, and Russia, the Elector was obliged to fly, and Maria Theresa reigned in her father's kingdom. VII. — The French declared for war (a.d. 1743), and being met on the banks of the Maine by the English army under command of the king in person, weic signally defeated by a force numbering 20,000 less than their own. This was the famous battle of Dettingen. Meanwhile, Prince Charles Edward, son to the Pretender and grandson to James II., made a bold stroke for the English crown; landed in Scotland with a few desperate adventurers, seven officers, and arms for only 2000 men ; •rained an unimportant victory over Sir John Cope at Preston Pans ; and took possession of Dunkeld, Perth, Dundee, and Edinburgh. He then reduced Carlisle, and advanced into England; but not finding himself supported THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 73 here, retreated northward, followed by tlie English army and the Duke of Cumberland. Upon the plain of Cul- loden the cause of the Stuarts was for ever lost. A great battle was fought on the 16th April, 1746. The loss of the English scarcely exceeded 200 men, while 2500 Scots were left on the field. Charles Edward sought safety in flight ; escaped through countless dangers ; and died at Eome in 1788. VIII. — Warfare abroad and rebellion at home induced England to regard with favour a negotiation proposed between the belligerent powers in the year 1748. At Aix-la-Chapelle a treaty was thereupon concluded, by which all nations were pacified, and peace prevailed in Europe. Kot so, however, in !N'orth America and in the East and West Indies. In those colonies the French and English had never ceased from hostilities, and while all was once more quiet in this quarter of the globe, the names of Wolfe and Clive were spreading terror among our distant enemies. In America the islands of Cape Breton and St. John's were taken ; the French settlements on the coast of Africa were reduced; the isle of Guadaloupe was cap- tured ; and Wolfe fell at the surrender of Quebec, a.d. 1760. IX. — But the glory of the great British name was still farther increased by the splendid successes of Clive in the East Indies. Terribly revenging the death of 123 English subjects in the Black hole, this gallant soldier attacked and took Calcutta, June 20, 1757, afterwards winning a second splendid victory at Plassey, by which was acquired the province of Bengal, a district exceeding in size the whole extent of Great Britain, and in wealth, fertility, and natural advantages, all the provinces of the East. X. — King George II., in the midst of his glories and successes died quite suddenly, from a rupture of the right ventricle of the heart (Oct. 25, 1760), being then in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and the thirty-third of his reigu. In consequence of the death of Frederick 74 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET, Prince of Wales some nine years previously, the king was succeeded by his grandson, under the title of George III. George III. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1760. DIED 1830. XL — George III., grandson of George II., ascended the English throne at a period when our arms abroad and the progress of our wealth and civilization at home had rendered the position of the monarch one of the most en- viable and illustrious in the whole world. The first remark- able event in this reign was the declaration of war between England and Spain, in 1762, followed by a successful expe- dition against ]\Ianilla and the Havannah. Altogether this was one of the most glorious wars ever carried on in any age by any people. In the course of seven years were won twelve great battles by land and sea. Twenty-five islands, nine fortified cities, and forty forts and castles were taken; a hundred ships of war were captured; and more thdM twelve millions were acquired as plunder. In the beginning of 1765, the imposition of the Stamp Act upon our American colonies raised the first hostile feelings between the two countries, and in 1774 the tea sent from England laden with a certain duty, was thrown by an enraged populace into the waters of Boston harbour. XII. — Open war ensued, and an engagement at Lex- ington took pluce, near Boston, April 19, 1775. In this alFau' the English lost 273 soldiers, and the Americans about forty or fifty. The great battle of Banker's Hill followed, upon June 17» in Avhich the Americans were vanquished after a valiant resistance; and on the 4th July, 1776, they proclaimed their independence. XIII. — In the year 1778, France declared in favour of the Americans, and in 1779 Spain acknowledged their independence. Thus war was provoked with tliese two powers, and in 1781 a third enemy was found in the Dutch. During this latter year, England was carrying on THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 75 it one time, by sea and land, four great contests — namely, with America, France, Spain, and Holland. In the month of October, however, the surrender of lork-to\Am by Lord Cornwall is to General Washington was the virtual ending of the American war. XIV. — In the year 1784, peace was made with Holland and with America, now known as the United States. Peace was also concluded between the East India Company and the Rrjah of Mysore. XV. — A terrible revolution took place in France in the memorable year 1789, which, although it did not directly affect the interests of the British throne, was des- tined ultimately to ext-end an unparalleled influence over the destinies of Europe. The populace rose, destroyed the Bastille, deposed and imprisoned King Louis XVI., and declared France a republic. After many excesses, during which the European powers stood b}' as inactive spectators, the French Jacobins guillotined the king, queen, and certain members of the royal family, a.d. 1793 ; where- upon a great confederacy was established between England, Spain, Holland, and the empires of Germany and Rus- sia, to restore the crown of France. Valenciennes was taken ; Toulon was taken and lost again ; many French settlements in the West Indies were captured (a.d. 1791) ; the Island of Corsica was subdued; and the Cape of Good Hope and Trincomalee in Ceylon were added to the pos- sessions of Great Britain. XVI. — And now the most extraordinary man of modern history, the greatest conqueror of any age since Julius Cajsar, the finest .soldier that ever won French laurels, began to distinguish himself against the Aus- trians (a.d. 1795), and to pave the way for the magni- ficent reputation which, as Napoleon the Great, he after- wards acquired. Before his arms the States of Germany were forced to sue for peace, and the English viceroy wiis compelled to evacuate Corsica. The year 1797 saw the 76 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. mutinies of Spithead and the Nore, the disgrace of which ■was, however, compensated by the splendid victories of Cape St. Yincent and Camperdowu, won by Admirals Sir John Jervis and Duncan. These brave commanders were each rewarded with a peerage. XVII. — The highly-merited fame of these two great victories was nevertheless eclipsed by that of the battle of the Nile (a.d. 1798), in which Nelson asserted his place as the first naval commander of that day ; cut through the centre of the French fleet; dispersed, captured, and destroyed thirteen of the enemy's ships ; and was recompensed with the title of Baron Nelson of the Nile, and a pension of £3000 per annum. In the meantime. Napoleon Buonaparte was rapidly taking the lead in all the most important affairs of the French Republic. To him was entrusted the command of a powerful army in Egypt; but, finding the English so victorious upon the Nile, he hastened back to Paris, and was created first consul, in 1799. In the beginning of 1800, he crossed the Alps at the head of his army, and by the brilliant victory of Marengo (14th June) annihilated, for the time, the Austrian power in Ital3\ XVIII. — The Union of Great Britain with Ireland was fixed by an act of parliament passed on the 21st of April, 1800, to commence from the first day of the new century (January 1st, 1801). The Imperial Parliament of the United Kingdom v/as summoned to meet on the 22nd of the same month. This measure met with much opposition from the Irish. XIX. — In this year (a.d. 1801), Napoleon succeeded in fomenting a war between England and Denmark, and a powerful fleet, under Lord Nelson and Sir H. Parker, was accordingly despatched to the bombard- ment of Copenhagen. The Danes had made formidable preparations, and fought valiantly during a strife of four hours, when, having lost all their ships of the line THE HOTTSE OF BEUNSWICE. 77 and their floating batteries, they were compelled to capi- tulate. Shortly after this, the French were routed in Egypt by Sir Ralph Abercrombie and IMaj or- General Hutchinson, where the battles of Aboukir and Alexandria were won, in the former of which the brave Abercrombie met his death-wound. XX. — While Great Britain was thus extending her triumphs abroad (a.d. 1802), she was threatened by Napoleon with an invasion at home. For this purpose he had prepared a flotilla of flat-bottomed boats, and other vessels, for the conveyance of his troops. Alarmed by these movements on the part of the enemy, the government assembled a squadron, under Lord Nelson, for the defence of the coast. The invasion was never attempted : a treaty was entered upon by the English, French, Spanish, and Dutch powers, and on the 29th April, 1802, peace was proclaimed in London. This interval was destined not to be of long duration, and war was again proclaimed, April 29th, 1803. XXI. — Not content with the title of first consul, Napo- leon constituted himself emperor of France in the year 1804, and was crowned king of Italy in 1805. In conse- quence of these proceedings, an alliance was now formed between England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden. But Napoleon was victorious at Austerlitz, where he signally defeated the Austrian forces, and Russia was compelled to retreat. Fortunatel}^ the share borne by England was sufficiently victorious to counterbalance these disasters. October 21st, 1805, was fought the famous battle of Trafalgar, in Vv'hich Lord Nelson defeated the united fleets of France and Spain, and er:pired just as the conquest was assured. The following year (1806) records the death of the two most famous statesmen of that epoch — namelv, William Pitt and Charles James Fox. XXII. — Napoleon was now the greatest monarch of Europe. Emperor of France, king of Italy, protector of 78 SUMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. Bavaria and Wirtemberg, he dominated over every other governiner.t oscepting those of England and Spain. Two of his brothers filled the thrones of Holland and Naples; Denmark was in his service; Prussia at his mercy; Russia had just concluded a peace Avhich was entirely to his advan- tage; and Austria enjoj-ed but the shadow of a power which was really vested in his hands. Had he then been prudent, all might have been well; but he resolved to seize upon Spain likewise, and from this attempt may the beginning of his ruin be dated. XXIII. — Having taken Ferdinand of Spain prisoner by an ingeniou? stratagem (a.d. 1808), he carried that monarch and his son into France, and proclaimed his brother Joseph king of Spain. A general insurrec- tion immediately broke out in all parts of Spain; aid was implored from England ; the peasantry formed them- selves into guerilla parties, annoying and surprising the French at every opportunity, cutting off their supplies, shooting their stragglers, and skirmishing with their out- posts; except where the army was actually present, the power of Napoleon was set at nought ; and, to crown all, an army of 10,000 men was sent out, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley, better known at the present time by the honoured title of Duke of Wellington. Thus com- menced the famous Peninsular war, and the fii'st engage- ment is known as the decisive battle of Yimiera, August 2Ut, 1808. XXIV. — The next event of Importance was the victory of Talavera (July 27th, 1809), in acknowledgment of which Sir Arthur Wellesley received the title of Viscount Wellington. Not so fortunate was the memorable and ill-fated expedition to Walcheren, in which nearly 50,000 fine soldiers fell inglorious victims to the unhealthy cli- mate of Zealand and the disgraceful inefhciency of those placed in command. In the following year (1810), Lord Wellington completely drove the French troops from Per- THE HOUSE OF BEUN3WICK. 79 tugal. At this period, a succession of splendid victories, too numerous to admit of notice in so brief a recapitula- tion as the present, everywhere attended the career of Wellington. XXV. — England and Ilussia now coalesced against France (a.d. 1812), and the emperor resolved upon an invasion of Russia; collected an army of 600,000 men; forced his way to Borodino, where, after a sanguinary battle of three successive daj's, the Russians were de- feated; and pushed on, immediately, for Moscow. The Russians, knowing no other means by which to deprive the French of winter quarters and provisions, actually set fire to their ancient and beautiful capital, so that on their arrival the conquerors found nothing but desolation and flames. Thus disappointed of resources, they began a hasty retreat to France, having to traverse an enemy's country amid all the horrors of a northern winter, and being utterly destitute of all provision, except such as they could find amid the deserted villages along their route. During this frightful journey, they w^ere perpe- tually harassed b}' flying bodies of Cossacks ; were starved, frozen, and left to die by the wa3'side. Xo less than 300,000 splendid soldiers thus perished miserably. Seeing the emperor's present weakness, all the European powers now combined to crush their common enemy. One by one his conquests were wrested from him, and on May 31st, 1814, the allied armies entered Paris. On the 6th of April following, Napoleon signed his abdication at Fontainebleau, and Louis XVIII. was recalled to the throne of his ancestors. XXVL — In the j'ear 1815, while the ambassadors were assembled at Vienna to adjust the claims of Europe, the world was struck with surprise, terror, and admi- ration, by the report that Napoleon had escaped from his exile at Elba, and, having landed in France, was once again at the head of his beloved army. Again he 80 8UMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTCBT. ascended the imperial throne — again the allied sovereigns assembled their forces, and again they met, for the last time, upon the held of Waterloo, near Brussels. Here, on the 18th of June, was fought the glorious and ever- memorable battle of Waterloo, in which the French army was irrevocably routed, and fled from the field in the utmost confusion. All was now over with the brilliant hero of the great empire : he surrendered himself to the English mercy, and was sent a prisoner to the far and lonely island of St. Helena, where, after lingering through a few melancholy years, he died on the 5th of Ma}^, 1821, The expenses of England during the prosecution of this war are said to have exceeded seventy millions. XXVIL— The year 1820 proved fatal to the Duke of Kent, father to her present Majesty; and in less than a week after the death of this prince, England lost, ir» George III., one of her most respected sovereigns. This venerable monarch expired on the 29th January, 1820, in the eighty-second year of his age and the sixtieth of his reign, which is the longest and most remarkable in the annals of English history. QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER IX. I. By whom was Queen Anne what was found to be the value succeeded ? How old was of the directors' estates ? George I., and what character IV. Relate the manner of the preceded him? What noble- kings death. men experienced his resent- V. By whom was George I. ment ? How were Ormond and succeeded ? What was the nature Bolingbroke punished ? of the misunderstanding with II. Wiiat proceedings were Spain ? In what year was now taken by the I'retender, Admiral Vernon sent out ? andby whom was he supported? What successes were achieved What generals quelled the in- by liim and Commodore Anson? surrections? Wliat became of VI. On what occasion did the various insurgents ? the French interKre with the III. Describe the nature and Austrian succession ? What in- origin of that speculation called ju-tice did they commit towards the South-Sea Bubble. How Maria Theresa? What coun- did the South-Sea Company tries joined with England to raise money from public ere- assist the cause of justice, and duiity ? When the bubble burst, -n hat was the result ? THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK 81 Vn. In what year did the French declare war? What great battle took place on the banks of the Maine? What was Prince Charles Edward about in the mean time ? What cities did he seize in Scotland ? By whom was he pursued? When was the battle of Cul- loden fought? What was the result? What was the fate of the young Pretender ? VIII. In what year was con- cluded the peace of Aix-la- Chapelk^ ? In what colonies did the French and English con- tinue at war? What great men were at this time active against our distant enemies ? What were our conquests abroad, and when did General Wolfe fall? IX. AVhat terrible revenge was taken by Clive in the East Indies ? What were his con- quests there? X. When did George II. die, and by whom was he succeeded? XI. Wliat was the first re- markable event in this reign ? What were the successes of seven years? When was the Stamp Act imposed on our American colonies, and how was it received ? XII. Wlien ^egan the war between England and America? When was the first battle fought, and with Avhat result ? What W.1S the next battle ? When did the Americans pro- claim themst'lves independent? XIII. Wliat countries ac- knowledged their indepen- dence? What great wars did England carry on in conse- quence? What was tlie virtual ending of the American war? XIA'. Wliat treaties of i)eace were made in the year 1784? XV. What dreadful event occurred in France in 1789? What wore the procecdingB of the French Revolutionists, and into what confederacy did the European powers enter in 1793? XVI. What extraordinary man now began to make his name known in Europe ? What were his successes ? What fa- mous mutinies occurred in 1797, and what splendid victories at sea? XVII. In what year di(E Nelson win the battle of th« Kile? Relate the circumstances of the engagement. How was the gallant admiral rewarded? What were the proceedings of Napoleon at this juncture? In what year was he created First Consul? AYhen did he cross the Alps, and what great vic- tory followed ? XVIII. Relate the particulars of the Union. XIX. In what year was Co- penhagen bombarded, and vriih what success ? By whom were the French defeated in Egypt, and what general there met hio death ? XX. In what year did Napo- leon project an invasion of England ? What steps were taken to prevent it? Wiien was peace concluded, and how long did it last ? XXI. What royal titles were next assumed by Napoleon, and in what great battle did he defeat the Austrians ? Whe^ was the battle of Trafalgar fought ? Wliat was the fate of Nelson ? What statesmen died in tlie year ISOG? XXII. What was the position of Napoleon at this time? From what point may his ruin be dated ? XXIII. What step.s did he take to put lAi brother on the 82 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOEY. throne of Spain ? TTith what What powers now combined to resistance did he meet ? Name crush the emperor, and what the first battle of the great success had they? Peninsular War. XXVI. In what year did XXIV. For what victory was Kapoleon escape from Elba? Wel'.esley promoted ? What When was fought the battle of were the losses at Walcheren ? Waterloo, and with what re- in what year did Welliugtou suit? AVhat was the end of drive the French from For- Kapoleon ? tugal? XXVII. When did the Duke XXV. Eelate the particulars of Kent die? WJiat relation of Napoleons expedition to was he to Queen Victoria? Eufsia in lsl2. How many When did George III. die, and men did he take out, and how at what age ? How long liad many periahed in the retreat ? he reigned ? CHAPTER X. THE HOUSE OF BRUXSWICK (Continued). Began to reign. Died. George IV a.d. 1820 1830. WlLMAil IV „ 1S30. ..... 1S37. VicroKiA I , . „ 1S37 reigning. George IV. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1S20. DIED 1S30. I. — Geoege IV., eldest son of George III., and fourth sovereign of the House of Brunswick, succeeded to the throne. As Prince Regent during the last ten years of his father's life, wlien mental and bodily infirmity had rendered that aged monarch incapable of governing, George IV. had virtually been king of England long before ha wore the crown. He was a man of polished and fascinating man- ners, but heartless as Charles I., and profligate as Charles II. The first act of his reign was to exclude his wife's name from the liturgy of the church, and to seek a divorce by means of accusations against her, which, even though they might be only too true, should never have met the public ear. She came over to England, where her cause was espoused THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK. 83 by the populace, and took up her residence at Hammer- smith. Although the ministers declined to proceed for a bill of divorce, it was decided by law that she could not claim the honours of coronation, to which, as Queen Consort, she enjoyed a prescriptive, but not a judicial right. Being, however, ill-advised by her supporters, she presented herself at the doors of Westminster Abbey, July 19th, 1821, just as the ceremony was about to commence. Her demand for admission was refused, and after a length- ened and undignified altercation, she retired, — only to die within a few days, of shame, mortification, and a broken heart. II. — In the year 1822 disease, famine, and rebellion spread through Ireland. O'Connell made himself con- spicuous amongst the disaff*ected ; the cry for Catholic emancipation rose alike from all quarters, from Brow Head in Cork, to Fair Head in Antrim; and a grant of £300,000 was sent over from England to the rehef of the distressed peasantry. III. — The prevailing liberality of opinion having ex- tended to the shores of Greece, that oppressed nation now made a desperate effort to throw off the yoke of Turkey. In the year 1824 Lord Bja'on, accompanied by several Englishmen of talent and position, went over to their assistance; but the noble poet was not destined to witness the success of the great enterprise which he had embraced. He died at Missolonghi on the 19th April, 1824. The following year was remarkable for a great panic in the money market, and for the failui'e of many banking-houses, joint-stock companies, &c. By engaging in such ill-judged speculations, many thousands were ruined, and the national misery that ensued was witliout a parallel since the bursting of the South-Sea Bubble. IV. — The struggle between Greece and Turkey had now, by its long continuance, attracted the attention 84 SUMMAEY Oy ENGLISH HISTOET. of Europe, and determined the leading powers to Inter- fere for the protection and liberation of the former. The combined fleets of England, France, and E-ussIa sailed, accordingly, into the port of Navarino, October 20th, 1827; blew up, captured, and almost annihilated the Turkish navy under Ibrahim Pacha, and confirmed the independence of the nation which they came to deliver. V. — It became daily more and more evident that Ireland would never be otherwise than disaffected and unsettled, so long as the law excluded Eoman Catholics from the just privileges of the king's subjects. At this period to believe in transubstantiation and the infalli- bility of the Pope, was to be excluded fi"om parliament, to be denied the possession of arms, to be ineligible for all corporate offices, such as that of mayor, sheriff, &c. ; and, in short, to be subject to such a host of indignities as even, at this brief distance of time, we feel almost difficult of belief. In the month of February, 1829, this important question was brought before the House of Commons, and in the month of April was carried by a large majority in the House of Lords, when it becam^A^law, known as the Eoman Catholic Emancipation Act. All subjects of Great Britain were henceforth equals through- out these realms. VI. — In the early part of 1830, the king's health began to decline, and, after a lingering illness of some months, he expu-ed at Windsor on the 20th of June. Willi Ail IV. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1830. DIED 1837. VII. — King William IV., late Duke of Clarence, and brother to George IV., now succeeded to the crown. Tha jear 1332 is famous for the great Eeform of Parliament, carried by the King and the Commons against the stre- niLOua opposiuon of the Lords. Thereby parliament was THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 85 put npon a basis of security, in accordance with the public wish ; many evils were swept away, and a valuable power of further reform was vested in the nation. The franchise was removed from barely-populated to thickly-inhabited towns, bribery at elections made punishable, and the benefits which we now enjoy were secured to us for ever. YIII. — Theyear 1834 was signalized bya measurewhich, if it do not affect us so intimately as that of parliamentary reform, is of vital interest to a large proportion of British subjects — we allude to the act by which slavery was abolished throughout our colonies. The sum of £20,000,000 sterling was granted by parliament for compensation to the masters of the liberated slaves ; and on August 1st, 1834, no less than 770,280 became free men — a number equal to one-third of the popula^on of London. IX.— In 1837 the health of William IV. was observed to fail rapidly, and on the 21st of June he died, much regretted, after a brief and prosperous reign, during which he had aided to advance the liberties of his people, and succeeded in attaching to his memory the respect of posterity. ViCTOEIA I. BEGAN TO REIGN A.D. 1837. X. — In the nineteenth j-ear of her age, when this great empire was at peace with the world — when the legislative measures of the preceding reigns had ceased to provoke hostilities, and already begun to manifest their beneficia* results, Queen Victoria I., daughter to the late Duke of Kent, and grand-daughter to King George III., ascended the throne, and her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, imme- diately departed to take possession of the kingdom of Hanover, now severed from the British Empire by the operation of the Salic law, which excludes females from the <;rown. Lower Canada was at this time in a state of actual revolt J but the rebels, being defeated, lied to the United 86 SUilMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOfiY. States (Jan., 1838), and the British Parliament united the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, thereby restoring tranquillity and abolishing party spirit. In this year the Queen's coronation took place ; the great Affghan' 'ztan war commenced in our East Indian territories ; and war with China was declared. XI. — A society called Chartism was formed in the year 1839, chiefly among the working classes, for the furtherance of a scheme of universal suffrage, which they imagined was to redress all their grievances, and which they proceeded to enforce by assembling, in different parts of the country, with guns, pikes, and other weapons. On the 4th of November this year, they met, to the number of 10,000, and, headed by one Frost, made an attack upon Newport, but were defeated and put to flight by a detach- ment of the 45th Eegiment, stationed in that town. Three of the leaders were seized and condemned to death ; but the sentence was subsequently commuted to transpor- tation for life. In the early part of the following year (1840) her Majesty was married to Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg-Gotha. An expedition sent out to China reduced that country to submission. Canton was occupied by our forces, and the emperor was compelled to pay six millions of dollars for the expenses of the war, before the city was restored to him. XII. — In the meantime the Anglo-Indian army achieved some success at Candahar and Cabul, but, in the year 1842, met with serious reverses. An insun-ection broke out at Cabul, the British envoy was assassinated, our army almost cut to pieces, and the melancholy remnant obliged to retreat before the enemy. Lord Ellenborough was then sent out as Governor-General ; two armies were despatched against the Affghan forces ; the fortifications of Cabul were destroyed, the Affghans conquered, and the national honour retrieved. China having broken faith with us, a small fleet, commanded by Admiral Pai'ker, won a series THE HOUSE OF BETTNSWICK. 87 of brilliant victories, took seven of their great commer- cial cities, exacted a compensatory tribute of 21,000,000 of dollars, and took permanent possession of the valuable island of Hong Kong. XIII. — In the year 1844 began a brief 'out sanguinary warfare between the Government and the Sikh tribes of India. Five great battles were fought, many thousands of lives were sacrificed, and our victories were purchased by sad losses. Peace was concluded with the Sil-ihs in Tebi-uary, 1846. Just one year previously (1845) the corn-laws were repealed, and the people received the bless- ing of cheap bread. XIV. — It need scarcely be said that the year 1851 is famous for the peace of all nations, and for the opening of the Industrial Exhibition called the Crystal Palace, in Hyde Park. This superb building consisted entirely of glass and iron ; covered nineteen acres of ground ; contained 1,000,000 square feet of flooring, and was erected at a cost of £79,800. The roof alone com- prised seventeen acres of glass, and more than 4000 tons of u'on were used in the structure. Here was assembled the wealth, ingenuity, and industry of the world, from the rude implements of warfare wielded by the native of the Pacific Islands, to the thrice refined luxuries of European civilization. Here might be seen at one time travellers from the most opposite hemispheres, who, with the richest and the poorest of our own land, were alike employed in the study of the useful and the beautiful. Towards the close of the year, the materials of this building were sold for £70,000 to the new Crystal Palace Company, by whom the present gigantic Exhibition was erected at Sydenham, in Surrey. It is designed as a place of permanent recreation for the citizens of London, and not only ftir exceeds the former Palace in size and beauty, but is surrounded by gardens and- promenades, and ooatains the fmest fountains in Enghmd. In thia 83 8UMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOnT. year, ako, the communication by means of electric tele- graph was perfected between England and France. XV.— On the 14th September, 1852, died suddenly at Walmer Castle, Ai'thur Duke of Wellington, the great general who never was defeated in a battle, and whose memory is for ever famous as the conqueror of Napoleon. He was buried with great pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral, November 18th, 1852. XYI. — The year 1854 is among the most memorable which we have had to record since the conquest of England by the Eomans. For nearly forty years England had been at peace with Europe. The heroes of the Peninsula belonged to a fast-ebbing generation, and such as yet survived were old men, decorated by honour- able medals. Corn had been reaped upon the field of Waterloo ; Napoleon and Wellington were both gone, and their ashes rested in Paris and in London. AH was long past, and " on earth peace and goodwill towards men" seemed to have become an abiding blessing. But in the midst of tranquillity came injustice and strife. The Emperor Nicholas of Eussia, whose territories are equal in size to all the rest of Europe put together, claimed power over two-thirds of the population of Turkey, under the pretext that all Greeks were of the same religion as himseli', and that therefore all Greeks born in the Sultan's dominions should acknowledge him as their protector and the head of their church. In the meantime he seized on Moldavia and Wallachia as hostages for the Sultan's con- sent — two provinces which, together, comprise a larger extent of country than England and Wales, and which contain about one million four hundred and fifty thousand souls. To this demand the Sultan sent a spirited defiance, and after three or four brilliant actions, Omar Pacha, the Turkish general, succeeded in diiving the Russians back from Wallachia and Moldavia. England and France now thought it time to interfere, and, being roused to just TnE HOrSE OF BEUNSWICK. 89 indignation by the affair of Sinope, in Vv'hich 5000 Turks were massacred by a Russian fleet, resolved to dispute the aggressions of Nicholas. War was declared towards the end of March, 1854 England and France allied their fleets and armies in the good cause, and from England to Malta, from Malta to Gallipoli, we sent ships and soldiers to the relief of the Ottoman empire. XVII. — The first blow of the late war was struck in the Black Sea, March 22nd, 1854 Admirals Dundas and Hamelin approached Odessa, a great commercial port of the Euxine, and upon the refusal of the governor to give up all ships lying in the harbour, a vigorous bombardment from both fleets ensued. After a time two powder magazines exploded — the fortifications were destroyed — thirteen ships laden with muniticas of war were captured, and the allies drew off in trium'^n, with a loss of only five men. XYIIL — The armies now encamped at Varna and in the unhealthy valleys adjacent, where the cholera broke out, and committed fearful ravages among our brave men. The English army alone lost between 700 and 800. In the meantime the Russian forces had laid siege to Silistria, a garrison manned by 8000 Turks, and situated on the south bank of the Danube. For more than two months the soldiers of the Emperor Nicholas lay behind their earthworks, in front of this fortress, mining, cannonading, and assaulting the defenders, and still were constantly repulsed. At length, on the 28th June, a last and grand assault was led up by Prince Paskiewitch, Count Orloff, and General Gortschakoff. The Turks triunipliantly repulsed them. Orlolf was killed; the other leaders seriously wounded ; the troops fled in confusion across the river, and the siege was raised. More than 30,000 Russians perished in this enterprise. XIX, — The Allies next determined on an invasion of the Crimea, a peninsula which was the very stronghold of the Russian power in the Black Sea, and defended by the 90 8FMMAEY OF ENGLISH HISTOET. strongest and most richly stored arsenal in the world. On the 7th September, 1854, the great fleet, nearly 400 vessels, set sail from Varna, and on the 14th inst. the array was landed about eight miles from Eupatoria. On the 20th we attached the enemy, then drawn up in great strength among their batteries and entrenchments along the steep banks of the little river Alma. The Russians numbered 64,000 men, the allies about 50,000. The French com- menced the attack, and, being followed up by our men, drove the Russians from their admirable position, pursued them do\vn the hill, and after a contest of only three hours, achieved one of the noblest victories in the annals of our wars. The allies lost 609 men, and 2699 were wounded. The Russian loss was stated to be 1762 killed and 2720 wounded ; but it is likely that their disasters were more serious still. On the 23rd, the allies marched southwards, and on Monday, the 25th, arrived before the fishing port of Balaklava, which, after a faint show of resistance, surrendered unconditionally. The brave little garrison were sent as prisoners to Constantinople, and the army took up its quarters in the deserted lanes and hovels of the town. XX. — From this time our engineers and soldiers were actively employed in making entrenchments and earth- works before Sebastopol. Here we mounted guns, and every day crept nearer and nearer the forts of the enemy. Continual efforts to harass the working parties in the trenches — to surprise them iu their lines at night — to pour out suddenly by day, and to bombard us fiercely from their innumerable forts, were made by the Russians — ind still Ave kept building up our batteries, till we got near enough to fire upon them in our turn. On the 17th October our guns opened on Sebastopol, and the siege began. XXI. — The Russians, who had several times made their appearance as if to offer battle and as frequently THE norSE OF BEUNSWICK. 91 retreated, at length came out in great force (October 25th, 1854), and drove the Turks, like sheep, from their batteries round the valley of Balaklava. The English were immediately apprised of this imminent danger — the Highlanders repulsed the mounted Eussians with asto- nishing coolness and skill — our dragoons met theirs at full gallop, and after a desperate hand to hand conflict put them utterly to flight — our light brigade, by a fatal mis- take of the order given, was cut to pieces while performing incredible feats of valour, and amid glory and carnage and defeat, which could scarcely he called defeat when so bravely contested, this battle of Balaklava ended. The Eussians had gained the advantage. They had dis- mantled our forts, nearly destroyed our light cavalry, and gained the main road from Balaklava to Sebastopol. We had lost ten officers, and 147 men. Still the name of Balaklava is as glorious as that of many victories. XXII. — It was about this time that Miss Nightingale, the heroine of the war, set sail from England, accompanied by a body of nurses, for the humane object of attending to our suffering soldiers. Immense assistance of clothes, wine, and other necessaries was sent out by the Times' fund, and a considerable improvement in the hospital, laundry, and medical departments followed. XXIII. — The morning of the 5th of November was grey and drizzly, when the Eussians attacked our position near the bridge of the Tchernaya at Inkcrmann. Crossing the bridge unseen, they advanced in enormous bodies upon our advanced pickets, which were forced slowly to retreat. The firing aroused the other divisions of our army from sleep; but before they could arrive, the Eussians had once seized, once been expelled, and once more forced our works, pursuing the brave soldiers towards their camp. By this time the generals had reached the scene : the Guards, the infantry regimpjits, and the 00,000 Eussians were soon fighting desperately in innumerable groups, as 92 SUMMARY OF ENGLISH HISTOET. if twenty battles were going on at once ; for long hours the frightful contest lasted, and the English heroes were gradually giving ground to the foe, when the French, who had been drawn off to the defence of Balaklava, came np at full speed. English and Erench together charged upon the enemy, and, at the point of the bayonet, drove them down the hill. The French batteries opened an irresistible fii'e on the retreating masses, and the battle of Inkermann, after a struggle of twelve hours, was won : — 8000 English and 6000 French had defeated 50,000 Ptussians, with a loss of 462 killed and 1952 wounded. XXIY.— On the 2nd March, 1855, died Nicholas, Em- peror of all the Eussias. This great event m.ade no change, however, in the affairs of the war, which his son and suc- cessor pledged himself to continue. About this time, an electric telegraph was established at the Crimea, as well as a railway for the conveyance of stores, &c., from Bala- klava to the camp. Eeinforcements, too, were forwarded to the seat of war, and before May had arrived, the sick- ness had disappeared, the men were well provided with necessaries, and not less than 150,000 of the best soldiers m the world were again bombarding Sebastopol. XXV. — On the 18th of June, after many varying sorties and assaults, the French and English generals determined on an attack of the Malakhoff and Redan towers — an enterprise which disastrously failed, and ended with a loss of more than 500 killed and 2000 wounded. On the 28th inst.. Lord Raglan, after som.e days of illness, died, uni- versally regretted throughout the army, and was succeeded in his command by General Simpson. XXVI. — And now our works approached nearer every day to the walls of Sebastopol. Fifteen thousand well- disciplined soldiers from the little kingdom of Sardinia arrived to our assistance, under the command of General de la Marmora, and were encamped, with the English cavaliy, in the valley of the Tchernaya. Here, on the THE HOUSE OF BEUNSWICK. 93 16th of August, tliey were attacked by the enemy in great force ; large tcdies of men crossed the river, and, fancying they were to have an easy conquest, advanced up the hill to the French centre. Down came the French, literally hurling them back by the force of their charge. Hundreds of the enemy were crushed, rolled into the water, and put to flight; and, as they rushed confusedly back across the river, the Sardinian battei'ies mowed them down like grass. In this decisive battle the Eussians left 3000 dead on the field, and we took 400 prisoners. XXVII. — On Wednesday, September 5th, the final bom- bardment of Sebastopol began. The first day's work was tremendous, and many fires were observed within the walls both on Thursday and Friday. Towards the afternoon of the latter, a Eussian powder-magazine blew up, which must have done us appalling service. Thus it went on, and 1000 a day were killed or disabled by our balls and shells. No garrison could long withstand so deadly an attack. On Saturday, the 8th, the allied armies combined in a gigantic assault, which at the very commencement was signalized by the gallantry with which the French trdops took the Malakhoff bastion, and planted the tricolor in view of Sebastopol. The English now attacked the Eedan, but were repulsed; and the Little Eedan with- stood the attack of the French. Our allies likewise attacked the central bastion, but were defeated and forced to retreat. General Pelissier was now established in the Malakhoff; and Prince Gortschakhoff, aware that this success ensured the capture of the town, resolved to leave it. That night, favoured by the darkness, he withdrew his troops across the river in fine order, by means of a bridge of rafts ; the inhabitants of the town were removed in boats and steamers ; the retreat was guarded by General Schepeleff, who prevented the French from advancing into the town; and then, as the last of the Eussians withdrew, the bridge was desti'oyed and the buildings of Sebastopol 94 SUjiIMART of ENGLISH HISTOEY. set on fire, in order that nothing might be left to the con- querors save such ruin, and flame, and desolation as met Napoleon and his army in the streets of Moscow. One by one, forts, batteries, and sailing-vessels in harbour blew up with loud explosions, or sent forth vivid flames. Next morn- ing the victors entered the town. Churches and palaces, all blackened and ruined, stood around, and were visited with eager curiosity. A few days later, and the allied armies occupied Sebastopol, after a siege of nearly twelve months ; after four bombardments and three great battles ; after a loss of nearly 2700 in the last attack, and a total loss, on all sides, English, French, and Russian, both within and with- out the walls of Sebastopol, of something like 100,000 men. XXVIII. — In the mean time the city of Kars in Ana- tolia was sustaining a weary blockade. The garrison consisted of about 15,000 Turks under the command of General Williams, and was thinned daily by the casualties of war, fever, and famine. Opposed to this gallant little band was an overwhelming Eussian force numbering on the average 40,000 men, under General Mouravieff. The blockade commenced July 15th, 1856, and lasted more than four months ; till want of the necessary reinforcements, constant desertions, and utter starvation, compelled the brave garrison to capitulate. The terms of surrender were agreed upon November 25th, and on the 28 th inst. the Russians took formal possession of the place. XXIX. — The spring of the following year was signal- ised by the termination of this war. Paris became the centre of negotiation, and on the 30th of ]\Iarch, 1856, the treaty of peace was signed by the Plenipotentiaries of each nation. Ou the 29th of April this event was proclaimed by the heralds through the streets of London, and on the 29th of May a public holiday was appointed, and a display of fireworks and illuminations provided by the government in commemoration of the peace of Europe. Thus ended the greatest siege of modern history. THE HOUSE Oy BEUNSWICK. 95 QUESTIONS TO CHAPTER X. I. For how long had George IV. held the reins of power before he ascended the throne? "What was the first act of his reign ? By whom was the queen's cause favoured? On what occasion did she go to "Westminster Abbey, and what followed ? II. What disaster happened in Ireland in 1822? "Wiiat well- known character made himself conspicuous ? "What sum was granted for the relief of the Irish? III. In what year did Greece endeavour to throw off the Turkish yoke ? What great poet went to their assistance, and what was his fate? What panic took place in the following year? I"V. At what determination did the European powers arrive, and who were the allies ? When was the battle of Navarino fought and with what result? "V. What were the penalties to which Koman Catholics were subject at this time ? When was the Roman Catholic Emancipa- tion Act passed ? VI. When did George IV. die? Who succeeded him ? VII. For what great measure is theyear 1832 famous? What was the nature of the reform ? VIII. In what year was slavery abolished? What sura was paid to the slave-cwners, and liovv many men were set free? IX. V/hen did AVilliam IV. die? X. What was the age of Queen Victoria when she suc- ceeded to the throne, and in what condition was the British empire ? Why did the Duke of Cumberland become Kin? of Hanover ? What was the state of Canada, and what mea«urea were taken by parliament to tranquillize that colony ? What ceremony took place in the year 1838, and what great wars were entered upon ? XI. What was Chartism, and what excesses did the Chartists commit? In what year did the Queen marry? AVl.at was the result of the war in China? XII. How did the Indian war progress in the mean time? How did Lord Ellenborough retrieve the national honour? Relate the events in China. XIII. In what year did the Sikh war begin? How many battles were fought with these tribes, and with what success ? When was peace concluded? When were the Corn-laws re- pealed? XIV. For whatevent is 1851 celebrated ? Repeat the statis- tics of the Crystal Palace. What became of the materials ? What great vehicle of communication was this year established be- tween England and France ? XV. When did the Duke of Wellington die ? AVheu and where was he buiied? XVI. For how long had England now b'^en at peace with Europe? What claim of the Emperor Niclialas provoked tile late war? What provinces did he seize ? "What was the conduct of the Saltan ? By what massacre were England and France roused to indigna- tion ? When was war declared, and wliat followed? XVI r. When was the first blow struck ? Describe the aflfair of Odessa. XVI 11. Wliere did the armies encamp? Ilo.v ni;iiiy died of cholera in the English army T 96 BUMMAET OF ENGLISH HISTORY. Where is Silistria? How long did the Russians besiej^e it ? How did the siege terminate, and what were the numbers on each side? XIX. What place did the allies invade, and when did they arrive there? When did the battle of the Alma take place? What were the numbers on each side ? Re- late the order of the battle. Wliat were the losses of the allies and Russians ? To what place did the army next proceed? XX. What preparations were now made before Sebastopol? ■When did the siege begin ? XXI. Wlien was the battle of Balaklava fought? What was the result ? What were our losses ? XXII. AVhat noble lady now left England, and by whom was she accompanied ? What assist- ance was sent out through the Times' subscription? XXI II. On what day was the battle of Inkermann fought ? How did the Russians advance? What was the appearance of the battle? How were our men relieved ? What was the end of the contest ? How long had it lasted, and what were the numbers on eitch side? XXIV. When did the Emperor Nicholas die? What elfect had his death upon the war ? What useful works were established at the Crimea? What was the strength and state of the armies at this lime? XXV. Relate the events of the 18th of June. When did Lord Raglan die ? Who suc- ceeded him in the command ? XXVI. Uow many men were sent from Sardinia? When did the battle of the Tchernj.ya take place? How did it end? How many Russians were killed and taken ? XXVII. ATlien did the final bombardment begin ? How many were killed daily by our missiles in Sebastopol? When was the great attack made? What army took the Malakhoff ? Wliat success had the English? What French General was estab- lished in the Malakhoff? AVhat was the course pursued by the Russian Commander? By whom was the retreat guarded, and in what state did the Russians leave Sebastopol? How long had the siege occupied ? How many bombardments and bat- tles had there been ? How many were lost in the last attack? How many had fallen altogether both within and without the walls, during this siege ? XXVIII. Where is the city of Kars situated ? What was the number of men on each side, and by whom were they commanded? When did the blockade commence ? What compelled General Williams to surrender? When were the terms of capitulation agreed upon , and wh en did the Russians take possession of the city ? XXIX. What great event took place in the following spring ? Where and when did the peace treaty receive the signatures of the Plenipoten- tiaries? When Avas the event proclaimed in London ? On what day did the public rgoic- ings take place ? THE e:;d. It /u^ ^^ 7^--^ ,.-^V> '^;^^2^;^^^; -^ ^^r/-^ /^ i^-n^^<yt.^ y % to the •eed iana rent ring .did the .oten- -^.vent On UZ=i ^. \* ©per Cannt^u: Sfh0o?>'^logh Depoi. ADAM MILLER, / ^[Na STREET. EAST. TORONTO. SCHOOL BOOK PUJBLIilHEK, s< • \ i no[ AND .SoLLEGK TEXT-K^OOlvS, V. !.; ; L NO, PAPERS, 3TATT0NEK.V k^< y '.OODa i'iNDOW SHAD: AGXKT FOU Ta::K itALB OJ LOVILL'S SERIEtl OF isCHOOL-BOOKS. >N 7:2 .KOK. < -^-^,.^.^^:s,-v^•• ■>■•-■• ASD ALL SCKvdt; lEeTFXSniJr, ■f? ' «'(?«/; Purchasers, <i Liberia Hkco'