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Full text of "Summary report : 12 local surveys of public participation in the arts : a study of the relationship between arts participation levels and the supply of local arts programs and facilities in twelve diverse communities across the U.S."

SUMMARY REPORT 



12 Local Surveys of 
Public Participation in the Arts 



A study of the relationship between arts participation levels and the 
supply of local arts programs and facilities in twelve diverse 

communities across the U.S. 



Prepared by 
AMS Planning & Research Corp 



Research Division Report #26 
NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



Research Commissioned and Funded by the 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Research Division 

Office of Planning, Research, and Budget Coordination 

Washington DC 20506 



and Local Area Partners: 

City of Sedona and the Sedona Cultural Coalition 

City of San Jose Department of Convention & Cultural Affairs 

Broward County Cultural Affairs Council 

Metropolitan Dade County Cultural Affairs Council 

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 

Nevada State Council on the Arts 

Arts Council of Winston- Salem/Forsyth County 

Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance 

Pittsburgh Cultural Trust 

Seattle Arts Commission 



This report was prepared by 

AMS Planning & Research Corp., of Fairfield, CT 

with assistance from Paul DiMaggio 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-0845 1 5 




12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 




CONTENTS - 



I. Executive Summary 1 

II. Arts Participation in 12 Local Areas 17 

A. Pittsburgh/Allegheny County, PA 20 

B. Las Vegas, NV 24 

C. Reno, NV 28 

D. Rural Nevada 32 

E. Sedona, AZ 36 

F. Winston Salem/Forsyth County, NC 40 

G. Seattle/King County, WA 44 

H. Chicago Area 48 

I. Philadelphia Area 52 

J. Broward County, FL 57 

K. Dade County, FL 63 

L. Santa Clara County, CA 66 

III. Special Topics 70 

A. Factors Related to Arts Participation 70 

B. Cross-Discipline Participation Rates 71 

C. Frequency of Participation Data 72 

D. Utilization of Venues by Discipline 75 

E. Utilization of Venues by Demographic Characteristics 77 

F. Sources of Information About Arts Events 77 

G. Reasons for Not Attending More Often 79 

IV. Methodology 83 

A. Survey Research Methodology 83 

B. Methodology for Research on Local Supply of Arts Activity 85 

C. Summary of Methodologies for the 1982, 1985 and 1992 SPPA's 86 

D. Methodological Comparisons and Possible Sources of Bias 87 

E. Uses of the Data 90 

V. Appendix 91 

A. Data Tables 92 

B. Sampling Error 93 

C. Methodological Comparisons Between Local and National Surveys 98 

D. Survey Design Comparisons: 12 Local Surveys vs. National SPPA's 101 

E. Survey Form 105 

F. Bibliography: Public Participation in the Arts 106 



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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

This report summarizes the results of a research project commissioned by the Research Division of 
the National Endowment for the Arts to examine arts participation patterns in 12 communities across 
the U.S. The research involved two major components: the administration of an arts participation 
survey to randomly selected households in each area and research into the supply of local arts 
programs and facilities. Survey results for each site were then analyzed in the context of local arts 
activity levels, uncovering a rich and varied texture behind the statistics. 

The Research Division of the Arts Endowment contracted Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, MA to 
coordinate and facilitate the survey. A local sponsor in each area assisted in funding the research and 
helped to design sections of their local questionnaire. After 18 months of planning, the surveys were 
conducted by telephone over a three-month period from mid-February to mid-May 1992. In the fall 
of 1992, after survey results had been tabulated, each local sponsor received a preliminary report 
from Abt Associates as well as a computer file with their local data. At that time, the Arts 
Endowment contracted AMS Planning & Research Corp. of Southport, CT to conduct 
complementary research into local arts activity levels and to prepare this summary report. 

The 12 Local Surveys were undertaken to build a better understanding of variations in arts 
participation patterns between different communities and to provide local sponsors with valuable 
information about their areas. With respect to design, the 12 Local Surveys were intended to 
complement the 1992 national Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) conducted by the 
U.S. Census Bureau. Each local survey consisted of three components: 

• A "Core Questionnaire", common to all 12 sites, including arts participation and demographic 
information identical to the 1992 national SPPA 

• A set of questions, common to all sites but not included in the 1992 national SPPA, concerning 
facilities where arts participation occurred, reasons for not attending more often, and sources of 
information about arts events. 

• Community-specific modules, developed by the local partners to address specific information 
needs in each community. 

The following table presents a listing of the 12 communities studied, definitions of the geographies 
surveyed, and the local sponsors. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/summaryreport12IOOamsp 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



PARTICIPATING COMMUNITIES 



Participating 
Community 


Geography Surveyed & 
1992 Est. Population 


Local Sponsor(s) 


Pittsburgh, PA 


Allegheny County, PA - 
Population 1 .34 million 


Pittsburgh Cultural Trust 


Las Vegas, NV 


ZIP Codes in the Las Vegas area - 
Population 755,000 


Nevada State Council on the Arts 


Reno, NV 


ZIP Codes in the Reno/Sparks area - 
Population 248,000 


Nevada State Council on the Arts 


Rural Nevada 


All remaining ZIP Codes in Nevada - 
Population 147,000 


Nevada State Council on the Arts 


Sedona, AZ 


Arizona (Area Code 602) telephone 
exchanges of 282, 284, and 204 - 
Population 15,500 (City of Sedona) 


The City of Sedona 


Winston-Salem, NC 


Forsyth County, NC - 
Population 271,000 


Arts Council Winston-Salem/ 
Forsyth County 


Seattle, WA 


King County, WA - 
Population 1.55 million 


Seattle Arts Commission 


Chicago Area 


Cook, Kane, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, 
and Will counties in Illinois - 
Population 7.26 million 


John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur 
Foundation 


Philadelphia Area 


Philadelphia Metropolitan Statistical 
Area (MSA), including parts of NJ - 
Population 4.93 million 


Greater Philadelphia Cultural 
Alliance 


Broward County, FL 


Broward County, FL - 
Population 1 .29 million 


Broward County Cultural Affairs 
Council 


Dade County, FL 


Dade County, FL - 
Population 1.99 million 


Metropolitan Dade County Cultural 
Affairs Council 


San Jose, CA 


Santa Clara County, CA (excluding 
telephone exchanges in the Gilroy area) - 
Population 1 .54 million 


City of San Jose Dep't of 
Convention and Cultural Affairs, 
Santa Clara County Arts Comm. 



Survey Samplin g Methodology 

Using a list-assisted random digit dialing telephone survey approach, households were sampled in 
each of the sites until the goal of approximately 400 interviews was achieved. A stratified sampling 
approach was taken for several of the sites. For example, respondents for the Pittsburgh/ Allegheny 
County site were drawn equally from within the city limits of Pittsburgh and from the remainder of 
Allegheny County, so that participation in the two areas could be compared. In Dade County, 
telephone exchanges with a high percent minority population were over-sampled to facilitate 
comparisons between minority and non-minority participation. Similarly, for the Philadelphia site, 
an additional 200 interviews were completed in areas of the city with high percent minority 
populations. Spanish-speaking interviewers were used, as needed, to conduct interviews for three 
sites: Dade County, Broward County, and San Jose/Santa Clara County. 



2- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



For each household sampled, the person over 18 who had the most recent birthday was the eligible 
respondent. Up to 6 attempts were made to obtain an answered call for each residential number 
dialed. Response rates ranged from 40% in Dade County to 52% for Rural Nevada. On average, 
survey administration took 17 minutes. 

Survey results were weighted to compensate for the number of adults (18+) in the household and to 
bring the weighted sample distribution into closer agreement with the actual population of each site 
with respect to age, race, gender, and household income. Weighted percentages are used in the tables 
throughout this report. Table 1 (highlights), below, summarizes participation rates for the eight 
"core" disciplines (seven performing arts disciplines plus 'Art Museums/Galleries'), plus several other 
categories. 



ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES BY SITE 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation In the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages) 


Table 1 
(highlights) 


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8 

u 
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09 

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u 

2 

at 


3 

a 

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3 
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a 


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of 
u 

u 

CO 

o 

g 

CO 


3 






























Jazz 


14% 


15% 


10% 


7% 


19% 


13% 


16% 


16% 


12% 


20% 


14% 


19% 


15% 
20% 

6% 
27% 
20% 

7% 
10% 
42% 
62% 

49% 
73% 
44% 
73% 


Classical Music 


20% 


9% 


18% 


10% 


17% 


19% 


20% 


20% 


19% 


23% 


12% 


21% 


Opera 


5% 


3% 


9% 


2% 


4% 


4% 


7% 


5% 


7% 


12% 


7% 


8% 


Musicals 


25% 


20% 


19% 


12% 


24% 


17% 


26% 


32% 


24% 


34% 


20% 


30% 


Plays 


18% 


16% 


15% 


12% 


25% 


22% 


29% 


21% 


18% 


21% 


15% 


21% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


7% 


8% 


3% 


7% 


13% 


5% 


5% 


13% 


10% 


9% 


Other Dance 


8% 


11% 


12% 


10% 


13% 


9% 


13% 


10% 


11% 


9% 


12% 


9% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


38% 


39% 


41% 


39% 


77% 


32% 


52% 


42% 


44% 


41% 


35% 


44% 


Any of 8 "Core " Disciplines 


57% 


59% 


56% 


52% 


82% 


50% 


69% 


63% 


63% 


65% 


52% 


67% 




























Arts/Crafts Fair or Festival 


55% 


50% 


62% 


56% 


57% 


45% 


55% 


49% 


42% 


61% 


45% 


54% 


Movie Theater 


72% 


67% 


68% 


63% 


84% 


65% 


78% 


77% 


70% 


75% 


63% 


78% 


Historic Park/Monument 


41% 


36% 


50% 


42% 


60% 


46% 


44% 


44% 


47% 


40% 


41% 


51% 


Read Books for Pleasure 


60% 


71% 


76% 


74% 


82% 


69% 


82% 


75% 


75% 


75% 


62% 


74% 



Hi ghlights of Survey Results 

• Of the 8 "core" disciplines studied, 'Art Museums/Galleries' attracted the highest participation at 
every site. Rates ranged from 32% (Winston-Salem) to 77% (Sedona), with a 12-site average of 
42%. 

• 'Musicals' attracted the broadest audiences among the performing arts disciplines studied, with 
participation rates ranging from 12% (Rural Nevada) to 34% (Broward County) and a 12-site 



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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

average of 27%. This finding is generally consistent with data from the 1982 and 1985 national 
surveys. 

• Both 'Classical Music' and Plays' had average participation rates of 20% across all sites. 
Broward County had the highest 'Classical Music' participation rate (23%), while Seattle had the 
highest participation rate for Plays' (29%). 

• Relative to the other disciplines studied, both 'Opera' and 'Ballet' had lower participation rates 
across all sites (6% and 7% average rates, respectively). Large urban areas did not always have 
higher rates in these categories. For example, Rural Nevada's 'Ballet' participation rate of 8% 
was higher than Philadelphia's 5% rate. Also, Reno's 9% 'Opera' participation rate exceeded 
Chicago's 5% rate. 

• 'Other Dance', a new category for the 1992 SPPA that includes modern, folk and tap dance, had 
average participation of 10% across all sites and the smallest variation between sites of any 
discipline, ranging from 8% (Pittsburgh) to 13% (Seattle and Sedona). Participation rates for 
'Other Dance' exceeded rates for 'Ballet' for all sites except two. In Broward County, 'Ballet' 
participation (13%) was higher than 'Other Dance' (9%), and for Santa Clara County, the two 
rates were equal (9%). 

• Overall, Sedona respondents were most likely to participate in any of the 8 "core" disciplines 
(82%), followed by Seattle/King County (69%) and San Jose/Santa Clara County (67%), in 
contrast to Winston-Salem/Forsyth County (50%, the lowest rate of the 12 sites studied). 

• Among the three Nevada sites, several interesting differences emerged. While Reno and Las 
Vegas closely resemble each other in most categories, Reno's 18% participation rate for 'Classical 
Music' is twice the figure for Las Vegas, while jazz attendance is significantly higher for Las 
Vegas (15%) compared to both Reno (10%) and Rural Nevada (7%, lowest of all 12 sites). The 
gaming industry, which floods the Las Vegas and Reno markets with popular entertainment, 
seems to have little effect on arts participation rates among local residents, at least among the 
disciplines studied. 

• Despite their geographical proximity, Broward and Dade Counties have very different arts 
participation rates, with significantly higher participation rates observed for Broward County, 
with the exception of 'Other Dance'. The cultural diversity of Dade County is reflected in a high 
level of arts activity outside of the European-based performing arts disciplines (i.e., 'Classical 
Music', 'Opera', and 'Ballet', etc.) which were surveyed. While Dade County's participation rates 
for the "traditional" disciplines may be lower relative to other sites, participation in other 
disciplines such as 'Ethnic Music' may be higher, although no data are available to confirm this. 

In addition to arts participation rates, a wealth of data was collected on related topics such as 
frequency of attendance, types of facilities attended, sources of arts information, and reasons for not 
attending more often. Among the most interesting findings from these data are: 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Frequency of Attendance and Number of Disciplines Attended 

• Over 75% of all participators attended a given discipline three or fewer times. Only 8% of 
participators reported attending more than six performances of a given discipline over the 
preceding 12-month period. 

• Of the 77% of Sedona respondents who reported visiting an art museum or gallery, the average 
frequency of attendance was 3.95 times, much higher than the average for all sites (2.62 times). 
Conversely, Rural Nevada respondents reported lower participation rates in most disciplines, and 
those who did attend did so less frequently than their counterparts in other sites. 

• As frequency of participation increases, respondents tend to fall into higher age, income, and 
education brackets. Education levels, particularly, rise consistently with more frequent 
attendance. 

• Respondents with incomes over $100,000 were more than three times as likely to attend four or 
more different disciplines as they were to attend only one discipline. 

Venue Utilization 

• "Traditional" venue types (i.e., concert halls, theaters, etc.) were used almost exclusively for 
'Opera' (95%) and 'Ballet' (90%); the involved technical demands of these types of productions 
and the limited technical capabilities of alternative venue types may account for this trend. 

• About 10% of all classical music attenders reported attending a 'Church or Synagogue', 
underscoring the important role of these facilities in the performing arts delivery system. 

• Hispanic respondents were about three times more likely to utilize 'Civic Centers' (14%) than 
African- American respondents (4%) and White respondents (5%). 

• African- American and Hispanic respondents used concert halls and opera houses less frequently 
than Whites. 

Sources of Arts Information 

• An overwhelming majority of respondents get information about arts events through the media 
(84%, includes 'Newspapers', Television', 'Radio', and 'Magazines'). Much smaller percentages 
obtain information through "Word of Mouth' (24%), 'Targeted Appeal' (16%), and 'Other' (15%). 

• Respondents between the ages of 30 and 59 tend to get arts information from 'Newspapers'. 

• Respondents aged 60 and over are more likely to receive arts information from 'Mailings/Flyers'. 

• As education levels rise, so does usage of the media for arts information. Also, the most highly 
educated respondents (and also the most wealthy) are much more likely to get arts information 
from 'Mailings/Flyers'. 



-5- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Reasons for Not Attending More Often 

• Among those who would like to attend more often, 61 % cited one reason - 'Don't have time'. 
This response overshadows all other reasons by a factor of three. The next two most frequently 
cited reasons relate to cost - 'Overall cost of going to event' (20%) and 'Cost of tickets' (19%). 
Ten percent or fewer of respondents cited any other reasons. These findings are generally 
consistent with results of the 1982 and 1985 SPPAs. 

• Cost factors were cited by Seattle respondents more frequently than by those at any other site. 

• Problems related to age/health' were cited by 12% of Broward County respondents (compared to 
a 6% average for all 12 sites); these respondents also have the highest average age (50) of the 12 
survey sites. 

• 'Crime/fear of crime' was the most important reason for not attending more often for 1 1 % of 
Dade County respondents and for 7% of Broward County respondents, whereas this issue was 
not an important in other survey sites. 

• 'Social/personal barriers' (especially 'No one to go with') were reported to be important reasons 
for not attending more often for Pittsburgh and San Jose/Santa Clara County respondents, in 
contrast to the other 10 survey sites. According to demographic data, these two areas have a high 
proportion of single households. 

Research on Local "Supply" of Arts Facilities and Programs 

AMS contacted each local sponsor to determine the extent of existing information regarding cultural 
facilities and programs. In some cases, sponsors were able to provide complete information on 
numbers of performances, cultural attractions, and types of performance facilities from existing 
directories, periodic cultural calendars, and/or annual reports; in other cases sponsors indicated that 
no data existed. A combination of approaches was utilized to obtain data as required including phone 
calls to secondary contacts (e.g., arts service organizations, city and state arts councils, etc.). 
Because of the lack of systematic data collection at the local level, the amount and quality of 
information relating to the supply of arts facilities and programs varies from site to site. 

Relationshi ps between "Supply" and "Demand" 

Arts participation patterns in the 12 sites are a study in diversity and contrast. Relationships between 
the "supply" of arts programming and "demand" for programming (i.e., participation rates) in a 
particular community must at this time be regarded as inconclusive. Nonetheless, this research effort 
uncovered many interesting insights that contribute to a better understanding of the factors which 
influence arts participation. In some cases, participation rates in certain cities seem to be linked with 
a particular arts institution or even a particular production. For example, Sedona's popular Jazz on 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

the Rocks festival clearly impacts the area's jazz participation rate, a conclusion corroborated by the 
finding that 36% of jazz attenders in Sedona reported attending a 'Park or Other Open- Air Facility'. 
In fact, large scale festivals (particularly free events) appear to contribute substantially to some arts 
participation rates. Another example of this relationship is Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Arts Festival, a 
17-day annual event drawing over 600,000 to free events in the downtown area. The Festival helps 
to explain the area's high participation rate for 'Arts/Craft Fairs or Festivals' (55%). 

More often, a broad supply of programming from both large and small institutions coupled with the 
availability of performance facilities, support high participation rates for a given discipline. 
Seattle/King County's 29% participation rate for Tlays' (ranks highest of 12 sites), is an excellent 
example. Even though several larger companies such as Seattle Repertory Theatre serve a broad 
constituency, nearly 50 small and experimental theatre ensembles provide a wide variety of 
traditional and alternative productions in smaller venues throughout the city. In this case, 
demographic factors also support high theatre participation, notably a younger population with high 
education levels. 

In one case, the opening of a large new facility appeared to have a positive influence on participation 
rates across several disciplines. Despite recording the highest participation rates for 'Classical Music' 
(23%), 'Opera' (12%) and 'Ballet' (13%), Broward County's supply of arts activity did not seem 
extraordinary in relation to other sites. Local research points to the 1990 opening of the Broward 
Center for the Performing Arts in Ft. Lauderdale as a milestone in the arts community, adding 
significantly to the availability of programming in the traditional performance disciplines. 

Kev Findings bv Site 

There are no "winners" or "losers" in terms of participation rates, but rather different stories of 
achievement and challenges within each community. A combination of factors including geography, 
demographics, programming levels, facilities, and local traditions create a unique context for arts 
participation at the local level. Key findings for each of the twelve sites are presented below. 

Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania 

Pittsburgh boasts a rich cultural tradition, the legacy of a booming industrial economy of a bygone 
era. hi recent years, the arts played an important role in revitalizing the downtown area. The 
Pittsburgh Cultural Trust's Benedum Center serves as the home of the Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, the 
Civic Light Opera, the Pittsburgh Broadway Series and the Pittsburgh Dance Council. Together with 
Heinz Hall (owned by the Pittsburgh Symphony Society) and the Fulton Theatre, these venues 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

constitute the core of a thriving cultural district. Area residents benefit from a strong supply of 
dance, opera, classical music, and musical theatre programming. The Pittsburgh Public Theatre 
offers a full season of professional theatre and is complemented by a number of other companies, 
including community theatres and academic institutions. 

• Pittsburgh's arts participation is comparable to two of the other major urban areas in the survey, 
Chicago and Philadelphia, but does not quite reach the high participation rates in Seattle/King 
County or San Jose/Santa Clara County. 

• 'Classical Music' participation, at 20%, may be related to the presence of a world-class orchestra 
and a steady supply of chamber and choral music performances. 

• The area's high rate of participation in 'Arts/Crafts Fairs and Festivals' (55%) may be related to 
the popular Three Rivers Arts Festival, a 17-day Festival which is held each June and draws 
approximately 600,000 people to the downtown area for free cultural events. 

The study identified a total of 52 venues in Allegheny County, housing nearly 28,000 seats. Of the 
12 sites, Pittsburgh has the highest reported attendance at 'Concert Hall/Opera House' venues, an 
indication of the importance of the City's cultural district in the local performing arts delivery system. 

Las Vegas, Nevada 

In recent years Las Vegas has held the title as the fastest growing American city. Local arts 
representatives report an abundant supply of popular entertainment, including pop music, jazz, and 
blues. Touring Broadway musicals, the city's resident ballet and civic symphony orchestra, and the 
University of Nevada - Las Vegas (UNLV) presenting series bring a wide range of programming to 
the community. Arts administrators, however, note the lack of a professional theatre company and 
suggest that the dearth of small production facilities may be a cause. 

• Jazz accounts for over 70% of the more than 1 ,400 performing arts events reported over a recent 
twelve month period. 

• Attendance at traditional performing arts disciplines is low in comparison to other areas studied, 
particularly in the areas of classical music and opera. The supply of this type of programming is 
limited to a local community orchestra and the UNLV presenting program. 

• The region's participation in 'Art Museums/Galleries' and 'Arts/Crafts Fairs or Festivals' is about 
average for the 12 sites. 

One of the 19 venues identified in Las Vegas, an outdoor amphitheater seating 18,000 accounts for 
almost half of the total seat count. Of the remaining facilities, nearly half are either 'Bars, Clubs & 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Dinner Theatres' or 'Alternative Venues' (e.g., libraries, schools, etc.). This corroborates the survey 
finding that Las Vegas arts attenders utilize fewer traditional performing arts venues than any other 
site (57%, compared to a 70% average for all sites). 

Reno, Nevada 

Reno, Nevada is also experiencing significant growth and demographic changes and a corresponding 
expansion of arts activity including multi-cultural programming. In addition to resident performing 
arts producers such as the Reno Philharmonic, the Nevada Festival Ballet, the Nevada Opera 
Association, and the community-based Reno Little Theatre, a number of festivals, including an Asian 
Fest and the Basque Festival, seem to have taken hold. Nonetheless, local visual arts facilities have 
closed in recent years due to financial constraints. 

• Participation rates for Opera (9%) were the second highest of all sites surveyed. While 
participation rates were high, the low supply of opera performances (9) demonstrates the 
importance of the Nevada Opera Association which produces a summer musical theatre series in 
addition to its regular opera season. 

• Reno respondents reported the highest rates of participation in 'Arts/Crafts Fairs and Festivals' 
and at 'Historic Parks/Monuments'. Annual events which range from a Chili Cook-off, a Rib 
Cook-off, an Italian Fest, an Asian Fest, the Reno Balloon Races, and the Reno Air Races almost 
always include arts/crafts displays as part of the event. Also, Reno area residents appear to be 
voracious readers, with 72% of respondents reporting "read plays, poetry, or novels." 

• Over 550 events were identified during a recent twelve month period, with 'Jazz' and 'Classical 
Music' accounting for over 75% of activity (485 events). 

• Like their neighbors in other parts of Nevada, Reno/Sparks respondents listed 'visiting art 
museums' as the single activity they would like to do more often (25%). 

Two large hotel venues, each seating 2,000, host much of the area's musical theatre activity. 
Traditional venue types (i.e., theatres, concert halls, opera houses, etc.) were attended less frequently 
in comparison to other sites. 

Rural Nevada 

The third Nevada site studied as part of this project, Rural Nevada includes the balance of the state's 
population excluding Las Vegas and Reno/Sparks. In these more rural communities, local 
representatives report that the arts are often "the only game in town" for social and entertainment 
activity. Accordingly, a broad range of arts and cultural activity is found across the state. A range of 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

touring programs offered by presenting organizations complement productions mounted by 
community theatre companies. The relatively low supply of programs, however, places Rural 
Nevada participation rates well below average in 5 of the 7 performing arts disciplines. 

• Over 20% of Rural Nevada respondents reported attending a live poetry reading over the past 
year - the third highest rate among the 12 sites. The popularity of the annual Elko Cowboy 
Poetry Festival is evidence of this unique cultural tradition. 

• High participation in 'Arts/Crafts Fairs and Festivals' (56%) may be attributed to the statewide 
dispersion of community centers and local libraries which often host these types of events. 

• Touring programs sponsored by WESTAF (Western States Arts Federation) and the Nevada 
Presenters Network bring touring ballet companies to several Rural Nevada cities; these 
performances may account for the mid-range of participation rates for 'Ballet' and 'Other Dance'. 

For Rural Nevada respondents, the most frequently cited barrier to attending more often was 
'Distance/travel time/inconvenient location' (26%); the frequency of this response highlights the 
geographic isolation of many respondents. 

Sedona, Arizona 

Over the past decade, artists have been drawn to Sedona for the area's scenic beauty and affordable 
living and studio space. Rising interest in the "American Southwest" cultural aesthetic has helped to 
position Sedona at the forefront of interest in Native American-inspired and traditional design, arts, 
and crafts. While visual arts activities are in abundant supply, access to the performing arts is 
somewhat more limited. Residents often travel to Flagstaff, and even to Phoenix, for large scale 
musical theatre, opera, and classical music performances. 

• An unprecedented 77% of all respondents reported participation at 'Art Museums/Galleries' over 
the past year. The large number of artists living in Sedona, the many art galleries, and the high 
level of programmed activity (studio tours, gallery walks, etc.) clearly translate into high public 
participation. 

• Sedona ranks second of the 12 sites in 'Jazz' participation, at 19%. In addition to regular 
programming in 'nightclub/jazz clubs', the annual Jazz on the Rocks festival draws close to 5,000 
people each summer. 

• Sedona's high 'Other Dance' participation rate (13%, compared to a 12-site average of 10%) is 
attributed by local arts administrators to the work of two local dancers who offer classes and 
frequent performances. 



10 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

• Stage plays are the most frequently presented performing arts discipline in Sedona, and the 
participation rate for 'Plays' (25%) exceeds the 12-site average of (20%). 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

The Winston-Salem area benefits from a wealth of activity in both performing and visual arts, due in 
part to the presence of several universities and colleges with active arts programs. Resident 
companies such as the Winston-Salem Symphony and the Piedmont Opera Theatre also contribute. 

• Participation rates for Plays' (22%) and 'Classical Music' (19%) meet or exceed the 12 site 
averages. Nearly 70% of the total number of performances reported in a recent twelve-month 
period were in these two disciplines. 

• While the total number of venues identified is large, local representatives report that the limited 
number of traditional performing arts facilities (6 of 1 15) limits the provision of programs 
requiring production facilities. Accordingly, participation rates for 'Opera' (4%) and 'Musicals' 
(17%) - which are usually performed in traditional facilities - are below average compared to 
other sites. 

• Residents in Winston-Salem reported strong interest in attending Classical Music' more 
frequently; 15% designated Classical Music' as their top priority, the highest percentage of all 
sites for this category. 

King County (Seattle), Washington 

Recognized for its world-class opera company, ballet, and symphony, the City of Seattle remains a 
cultural capital of the Pacific Northwest. Two of the most vibrant areas of arts activity are Seattle's 
"fringe" theatres and the city's modern dance community. Demographics of the Seattle area are 
consistent with conditions related to higher arts participation; 1990 census data shows that a third of 
all adults have earned college degrees. The area continues to be a desirable place for young people to 
establish roots. 

• Attendance at 'Plays' in King County is the highest of all 12 sites (29%, compared to a 12-site 
average of 20%). A large inventory of small venues in the 100 - 500 seat range support over 75 
mainstream and "fringe" theatre companies. 

• Among the 12 sites studied, King County records the second highest participation rate for 'Art 
Museums/Galleries' (52%, second to Sedona); this rate is significantly higher than Chicago's 
(42%) and Philadelphia's (44%). High community awareness surrounding the recent opening of 
the Seattle Art Museum may have contributed to this remarkable statistic. 

-11- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

• King County residents rank first among the 12 sites (82%, tied with Sedona) in the category of 
'Reading books for pleasure'. Uniformly high participation rates for other literary categories 
(ranks 1st, 2nd or 3rd in all categories) reflect a well-educated population. 

Nearly three-quarters of all King County respondents (the highest figure for any site studied) 
expressed a desire to participate in the arts more frequently. Financial constraints (i.e., 'Cost of 
tickets', etc.) were cited most frequently as reasons for not attending more often. A new countywide 
hotel/motel tax fund, of which 70% will be used to fund cultural facilities, ensures continued public 
support of the arts and culture in King County. 

Chicago Area 

With a 1990 census population of 7.26 million, the Chicago site (including 5 counties) is by far the 
most populous of the 12 sites studied, providing a sharp contrast to the rural western sites both 
geographically and demographically. By any standards, the Chicago area is rich with both producers 
and presenters of traditional and non-traditional performing arts activity. Large arts institutions 
include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Goodman Theatre, and 
the Chicago Art Institute. Major presenters in the area include the Auditorium Theatre, Performing 
Arts Chicago, the Chicago Jazz Festival and the Ravinia Festival, in addition to a host of educational 
institutions with presenting programs including Northwestern University, DePaul University, 
Columbia College, and the University of Chicago. Theatre companies proliferate in the area, with 
some 200 non-profit theatre companies and more than 80 performing arts facilities of under 300 
seats. Several arts service organizations track performance activity within certain disciplines, 
including the Chicago Dance Coalition, the Chicago Music Alliance, and the League of Chicago 
Theatres. 

• Chicago area participation rates for the traditional performing arts disciplines are nearly average 
for the 12 sites studied, reflective of the large size and demographic heterogeneity of the area, 
especially with respect to race, income and education. 

• The high rate of attendance at 'Musicals' (32%, second of all 12 sites) may be due in part to 
Chicago's inclusion on the first-run Broadway road show circuit as well as to the preponderance 
of theatre companies whose productions often include musical theatre. 

• Unique to the Chicago site is unusually high utilization of 'Dinner Theatres' as venues for the 
performing arts (12% of all venue utilization, a figure twice as high as at any other site). 

• Among Chicago respondents who would like to attend arts events more often, fully 75% (ranks 
1st) expressed an interest in attending 'Art museums/galleries' more frequently. 



-12 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

• In terms of exposure to the traditional arts on radio or through recordings, Chicago's overall 
figure of 83% is the highest of all 12 sites. The Chicago area benefits from a wide range of arts 
programming offered by a number of radio stations including WFMT, WNIB, and WBEZ. 

Challenges facing the Chicago arts community echo those of other large communities; sources report 
that audiences at traditional arts events are "graying" and that arts organizations throughout the area 
are struggling to respond to their increasingly diverse constituencies. 

Philadelphia Area 

The Philadelphia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which includes several counties in southern 
New Jersey, embraces a diverse arts community with over 30 large arts institutions with budgets over 
$2 million and scores of smaller groups. Several colleges and universities add measurably to the 
supply of arts activity, including student and professional productions and presentations of visiting 
artists in music, theatre, and dance. That culturally diverse programming is a major issue for arts 
groups reflects the area's 25% minority population. 

• With several exceptions, participation rates for the Philadelphia site are similar to rates for the 
Chicago and Pittsburgh/ Allegheny County sites, and to the average rates for all 12 sites. 

• As a centerpiece of American history, Philadelphia has the highest participation rate for 'Historic 
Parks/Monuments' (47%) of the large cities studied. Among the area's historical landmarks are 
Independence Hall, Valley Forge National Park, plus many historic neighborhoods and houses. 

• Philadelphia's rate for 'Classical Music' participation through television programming, at 50%, is 
the highest of all 12 sites. This rate contrasts sharply with Pittsburgh's (30%), and is more 
comparable to Chicago's (46%). The local non-profit station WHYY-TV's regular offerings of 
classical music programming may contribute to higher participation. 

• Of all the urban sites studied, Philadelphia respondents attended 'Alternative Venues' most often, 
including 'Churches/Synagogues' (4%) and 'Secondary School Facilities' (4%). Aside from the 
three Nevada sites, Philadelphia respondents also reported the highest utilization of 
'Nightclubs/Jazz Clubs' (8%). 

Philadelphia's inventory of performance facilities is in a state of transition. The arts community 
eagerly anticipates plans for new performance facilities. Major institutions including the 
Philadelphia Orchestra look forward to a new home, while emerging groups await the increased 
availability of existing venues. 



13 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Broward County, Florida 

The cultural life of Broward County has changed radically with the influx of new residents and the 
opening of the Broward Center for the Performing Arts in 1990. Representatives of the arts 
community report trends away from the traditional arts programming offered primarily for the benefit 
of seasonal residents during the winter months. More family-oriented fare, such as children's theatre 
and popular music, now appears on the cultural calendar, even during the summer months. With 
respect to arts activity levels, Ft. Lauderdale clearly benefits from its proximity to Miami and other 
population centers along the South Florida coast. 

• Participation rates for traditional performing arts disciplines in Broward County are all above the 
12-site averages, with the exception of 'Other Dance' performances. 

• Overall, 57% of the Broward County residents surveyed attended at least one performance among 
the seven performing arts disciplines studied, the highest figure for all sites. 

• Among the 12 sites studied, Broward County respondents reported the highest participation rates 
in the following disciplines: 'Jazz' (20%), 'Classical Music' (23%), 'Opera' (12%), 'Musicals' 
(34%), and 'Ballet' (13%, tied for first with Seattle/King County). These very high rates may be 
attributed to a number of factors, including the high public awareness surrounding the opening of 
the Broward Center and the greater availability of leisure time for some residents (i.e., retirees). 

Among Broward County respondents, 29% designated 'Art Museums/Galleries' as their single 
highest priority for more frequent attendance; a figure significantly higher than those for other urban 
sites such as Santa Clara County, CA (20%) and Seattle/King County, WA (19%). 

Dade County, Florida 

Encompassing the greater Miami area, Dade County, Florida is a rapidly growing community at the 
forefront of cultural change in America, in terms of both growth and diversity. According to 1990 
census figures, approximately half of the population of Dade County is of Spanish origin and about 
20% of the County population is African- American. The number of cultural organizations in Dade 
County increased from 1 10 in 1983 to nearly 600 in 1991. The resulting demand for resources, 
especially funding and facilities, is the primary challenge of the arts community. 

• Arts participation rates in the traditional disciplines do not capture the cultural richness of the 
community. 'Classical Music' participation for Dade County, at 12%, is the lowest of any urban 
site studied, although those who do attend classical music performances go more frequently than 



14 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

their counterparts in other cities. The European-based classical music tradition is not part of the 
cultural heritage of a majority of Dade County's population. 

• Generally, participation rates for disciplines based on the spoken word (i.e., 'Musicals' and 
Plays') are lower for Dade County, while participation rates for 'Ballet' and 'Other Dance' (i.e., 
disciplines based on movement) are higher. Although a number of theatre companies present 
performances in Spanish, survey results show that Hispanic/Latino respondents (from all 12 
sites) are less than half as likely to attend 'Plays' than White respondents, but are equally as likely 
to attend 'Other Dance*. 

• Dade County's 10% participation rate for 'Ballet' is twice the figure for Philadelphia and Chicago 
(both at 5%). The Miami City Ballet's rapid ascent to national prominence (it is currently the 7th 
largest ballet company in the U.S.) and its impact on the local community through regular 
performances, outreach, and education programs may contribute to high participation. 

The recent growth of Miami's major arts institutions has created demand for new facilities with 
improved technical capabilities. Representatives of the arts community recognize the need to expand 
access to performance facilities - not only for the city's large organizations but also for its many 
emerging arts groups. 

Santa Clara County, California 

Santa Clara County, at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay Area, has experienced rapid growth 
in population over the past two decades, and the City of San Jose is now one of California's largest 
centers of commerce and population. Nearly one in five residents is Hispanic/Latino, and a growing 
Asian community represents another 10% of the population. 

• For each of the seven performing arts disciplines studied, participation rates for Santa Clara 
County generally fall in the middle of the distribution for all 12 sites, with a tendency to be 
somewhat higher. 

• 'Jazz' participation, at 19%, is relatively high. In addition to a lively nightclub scene, a summer 
jazz festival takes place throughout downtown San Jose and offers free performances for three 
days. 

• Of particular note in Santa Clara County is the high rate of attendance at 'Historic 
Parks/Monuments', with 51% of respondents having visited such a site over the past year (ranks 
#2 of the 12 sites). Local representatives report that Kelly Park (a collection of historic buildings 
and replicas near downtown San Jose), the Winchester Mystery House, and Villa Montalvo are 
popular destinations for local residents and visitors. 



15- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

• Santa Clara County respondents reported the highest percentage of attendance at college facilities 
(12%) of all the sites surveyed, with the exception of Las Vegas. Four area educational 
institutions host performing arts activities: San Jose State University, Santa Clara University, 
Stanford University, and Foothill Community College. 

Some of the most exciting cultural developments in the county are in the area of multi-cultural 
performing arts collaborations involving Asian, Latino, and East Indian music and dance companies. 
The county's cultural community is striving to develop a supportive infrastructure for arts and culture 
through audience development and outreach activities. 

Conclusions 

Results of this study suggest that supply and demand (for arts activity) do not always have a 
traditional relationship in the economic sense, but rather stimulate each other to achieve higher 
participation levels. In other words, arts programs are not offered solely in response to demand, but 
in some cases can stimulate demand. Where high participation rates were observed, there was also 
high interest in attending those types of events more often. If participation breeds additional interest, 
then, to a degree, supply can stimulate additional demand and a spiraling effect can occur. 

Attempting to understand the local conditions surrounding arts participation levels may eventually 
lead to the transfer of arts development strategies between cities. For example, studying Seattle's 
theatre community, or Dade County' dance community, or Sedona's visual arts community can 
provide clues to stimulating higher participation in these disciplines in other communities. 

Dynamic forces shape different patterns of arts participation in each community. Facilities open and 
close; new institutions rise to prominence while others struggle to reach new audiences; 
demographics and cultural factors often change rapidly, creating new and different demands for 
programming and facilities. Arts participation rates measured in this study are like a snapshot of a 
long panorama that is constantly changing. Continued research at the local level will add valuable 
context and detail to the national surveys and advance our understanding of the ecology of arts 
participation. 



16- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



II. ARTS PARTICIPATION IN 12 LOCAL AREAS 

This research project adds an important new dimension to the study of arts participation. In addition 
to measuring arts participation or "demand" for arts programming in 12 diverse communities, another 
component of the research program involved gathering information on the availability or "supply" of 
arts facilities and programs in each of these areas, in order to better understand arts participation 
levels within a context of local conditions. The resulting analysis, in the broadest sense, amounts to 
an exploration of the relationship between "supply" and "demand" with respect to arts participation. 

Analysis of survey data advances our understanding of variations in arts participation levels (and 
other issues) for each site. Additional research into the availability of arts activities breathes life into 
the statistics of arts participation by shedding light on some of the reasons that respondents in a 
particular area attend jazz performances, for instance, as much as they do. 

In order to place this research effort into context with other studies, consider that an individual's arts 
participation history is a function of both individual and environmental factors. Demographic and 
cultural influences, and especially arts education as a child, help shape a person's values with respect 
to the arts - their attitudes about arts participation and ultimately their propensity to participate in the 
arts as an adult. Other factors such as ticket prices and the availability of programming affect an 
individual's ability to participate but are part of the general environment. The arts delivery system in 
any community is a complex marriage of facilities, media, arts producers, presenters, funders, service 
organizations, and other institutions. The "fit" between a community's arts consumers and their local 
delivery system is the subject of 12 site discussions which appear in this section. 

Despite the fact that some participation rates in certain cities can be linked with a particular arts 
organization or even a particular production, relationships between the "supply" of arts programming 
and "demand" for programming in a particular community are generally inconclusive. 1 More 
frequently, a combination of factors including geography, demographics, program offerings, 
facilities, and local traditions seem to influence participation rates. Throughout the 12 site 
discussions, participation rates which seem to be especially high or low are highlighted and an effort 
is made to discern one or more reasons which might explain the results. Proving causality, however, 
is beyond the scope of this research. The general approach to the site discussions is summarized in 
the diagram on the following page. 

Qualifications to Local Data 

The quality of local data, such as size and type of facilities, number of arts programs, etc., varies 
substantially from site to site. For the large urban areas studied (Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, 
Miami, and Seattle), the supply of arts activities would be difficult if not impossible to measure 
precisely, given the size and complexity of the arts delivery systems in these areas and the vast 
amount of programming. In cases where numbers are not available, an anecdotal approach is taken to 
characterizing the local arts environment, including mention of the area's major venues and 
institutions. Unfortunately, the limited scope of this summary report does not allow for a full 
treatment of the breadth of arts activity in each site, particularly the alternative venues and small 
performing groups which contribute immeasurably to the arts scene in any community. Specific 



^or example, Broward County's 34% participation rate for 'Musicals' is most likely related to a 12-week run 
of Phantom of the Opera, which drew over 250,000 people to the newly opened Broward Center in Ft. 
Lauderdale. 

- 17- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



institutions mentioned in the site discussions were selected only to illustrate the range of arts activity 
available in each community. 

APPROACH TO SITE ANALYSIS 



"SUPPLY" RESEARCH 



Demographic & Lifestyles Analysis 
Number & Size of Arts Facilities 
Types of Arts Organizations 
Number and Type of Arts Programs 
Interviews with Local Representatives 



li 



"DEMAND" RESEARCH 
(DATA ANALYSIS) 

Participation Rates 
Number of Times Attended 
Types of Venues Attended 
Interest in Attending More Often 
Other Data 



U 



SITE ANALYSIS 

Demographic Characteristics of the Sampled Area 

Geographical/Locational Issues 

Anomalous Participation Rates 

Relationships Between Arts Programs and Participation Rates 

Gaps Between Supply and Demand 

Comparisons Between Similar Sites 

Types of Venues Attended vs. Actual Facility Inventory 

Interest in Attending More Often vs. Supply of Arts Programs 



Tables 

Several tables are used in each site discussion to highlight relevant data. Initially, definition of the 
geography surveyed and basic information about the sample are presented in a table entitled "About 
the Sample..." Also on the first page of each site discussion is a table summarizing the numbers of 
performances (jazz, classical music, opera, musicals, plays, ballet, and other dance), number of art 
museums, number of art galleries, number of arts/crafts fairs/festivals, and number of historical sites 
(monuments, parks, etc.). Figures for the number of performances are for a recent 12-month period, 
and do not necessarily correspond to the 12-month period over which respondents were asked to 
recall their history of participation. When available, these figures were included to provide a general 
idea of the annual availability of certain types of cultural activities. 

Arts participation rates for each site (weighted data) are displayed in a table on the second page of 
each site discussion. To provide some context, average rates for the 12 sites combined are presented 
in an adjacent column. Figures for the 12 sites combined are not meant to be comparable to figures 
from the national SPPAs, but in fact are only average figures for 12 very dissimilar communities. 
Readers are cautioned not to take these rates out of context. Table 1 in the appendix offers a 
complete picture of participation rates for all 12 sites, along with average figures for all 12 sites plus 
figures from the 1982 and 1985 SPPAs. In most cases, participation rates for the local sites are 
significantly higher than the corresponding rates from the 1982 and 1985 SPPAs. Although it is 



18 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

probable that participation rates in some of the local areas are indeed higher than national figures, the 
consistency and magnitude of upward variation suggests that methodological differences in the way 
data was collected may account for at least some of this variation. 2 

Most site discussions also contain a table showing the number and size of performance venues in the 
area. The many different types of venues are categorized into four groups: 

• traditional performing arts facilities (concert halls, etc.) 

• bars, clubs and dinner theatres 

• college/university venues 

• alternative venues (churches, parks, etc.) 

In some cases, the large number of small venues, especially nightclubs and churches/synagogues, 
was too difficult to measure precisely, especially for large areas. As a result, these tables do not 
present definitive venue information but rather include information supplied by local sources or 
obtained through secondary research (i.e., facility directories, etc.). 

The last table of each site discussion presents frequency of participation data. Participation rates 
alone show the "breadth" of participation in a community but do not account for how many times the 
respondents attended - the "depth" of arts participation. The number of different disciplines attended, 
yet another dimension of arts participation, is addressed briefly in the Special Topics section of this 
report. While most respondents attended any given discipline only once or twice, a small number of 
respondents reported very frequent attendance. For example, some people reported attending jazz 
concerts 50 to 100 times over the preceding year. These observations are not necessarily invalid, but 
they present a statistical problem in that they exert an undue influence when computing average 
figures. Therefore, all frequency of attendance observations greater than 12 were excluded from the 
data set for the purposes of computing mean frequency figures. This subject is explored in more 
detail later in the report. 



2 A discussion of methodological differences between the national SPPAs and the 12 Local Surveys may be 
found in the Methodology Section of this report. 



-19- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania 

Allegheny County, including the City of Pittsburgh, lost nearly ten percent of its population during 

the 1970s and continued to diminish in size through the 1980s to its current population of 1.34 

million. Compared to other major metropolitan areas, the Pittsburgh area is somewhat less culturally 

diverse, with a population that is 88% white, 

11% African- American, and about 1% other 

races. According to 1990 census data, less than 

1% are Hispanic/Latino. Estimated 1992 median 

income was approximately $30,000, with 24% of 

households having incomes over $50,000, and 

42% having incomes under $25,000. 



With respect to education levels, 1990 census 
data for Allegheny County show that 23% of 
adults (25+) have achieved a Bachelor's degree or 
higher, while 21% have less than a high school 
education. With respect to other large urban 
areas studied, these figures compare favorably to 
education levels in Miami/Dade County (19% 
college grads, 35% less than H.S.), and 
unfavorably to Seattle (33% college grads, 12% 
less than H.S.). Compared to all U.S households, 
Allegheny County contains significantly more 
singles and seniors (over 40% of all households) 
and relatively fewer high and medium-high 
income families. Like in other large urban areas, 
many households fall at both extremes of the 
socioeconomic scale. 



About the Sample.,* 

• Allegheny County was divided into two 
sub-areas for sampling - the City of 
Pittsburgh and the remainder of Allegheny 
County. The desired sample size was 
approximately 200 completed interviews for 
eachsubarea. 

♦ sample size -411 

Sample Demographics * 



54% female, 46% male 

86% white, not Hispanic 

9% African-American; 4% all other races 

20% have incomes > $S0,0QQ/yn 

37% have incomes < $20,000/yr. 

28% completed college; 7% have graduate 

degrees 

*weighted data 



Arts Activity in Allegheny County 

Pittsburgh boasts a rich cultural tradition. A number of major philanthropies - the legacy of a 
booming industrial economy of a bygone era - bolster the Pittsburgh's thriving arts community. 
Symbolizing the important role of the arts in the revitalization of downtown Pittsburgh, the Benedum 
Center for the Arts, a 2,800-seat fully restored movie palace, now serves as an elegant home for the 
Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, Civic Light Opera, Pittsburgh Broadway Series, Pittsburgh Opera, and the 
Pittsburgh Dance Council. 

The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust, a non-profit organization, was established in 1984 to develop a 
cultural district in Downtown Pittsburgh and to support the arts throughout the region. The Trust 
operates the Benedum Center and the 1300-seat Fulton Theater; it also provides a number of different 
services to the arts community, including workshops, collaborative advertising, publications, and the 
TDC Booth (a non-profit ticketing outlet). These two facilities, along with Heinz Hall (owned by the 
Pittsburgh Symphony Society), constitute a triad of performance facilities within the cultural district. 

Among the area's major dance presenters are the Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, the Pittsburgh Dance 
Council, and Dance Alloy. A large portion of the County's opera and musical theatre performances 
are presented by the Civic Light Opera, the Pittsburgh Opera, and the Opera Theatre of Pittsburgh. 



20 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Performances of classical music are offered by the 
Pittsburgh Symphony, the Pittsburgh Chamber Music 
Society, and special-interest groups such as the Organ 
Artist Series of Pittsburgh. Choral music is also 
popular in the area, evidenced by a number of active 
vocal ensembles including the Mendelssohn Choir of 
Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Camerata, and the Bach 
Choir of Pittsburgh. 

The non-profit Pittsburgh Public Theatre supplies a 
great deal of Pittsburgh's professional theatre activity, 
and is complemented by a number of other companies 
including the City Theatre Company and Quantum 
Theatre. Academic institutions also supply a 
substantial portion of theatre activity, including the 
Carnegie Mellon University Drama Department and 
the Three Rivers Shakespeare Festival, a program of 
the University of Pittsburgh. 

Pittsburgh's largest cultural center, The Carnegie, is 
an important institution by international standards, 
encompassing the Library of Pittsburgh, Museum of 
Art, Museum of Natural History, Music Hall, and 
Science Center. The diverse programming of the 
Carnegie, while emphasizing the visual arts, 
represents several cultural disciplines, and enriches 
the lives of both Pittsburgh area residents and tourists. 

Arts Participation in Allegheny County 

Generally, arts participation rates for Allegheny 
County are near or somewhat below average in 
comparison to mean figures for the 12 sites combined. 
In comparison to the other large urban areas 
studied, Pittsburgh compares similarly to Chicago and 
Philadelphia in many categories, outpaces 
Miami/Dade County in several disciplines, but does 
not reach the high participation rates of Seattle/King 
County or San Jose/Santa Clara County, both of 
which are similar in size to Pittsburgh/ Allegheny 
County. 

'Classical Music' participation in Allegheny County 

(20%) matches the rates for Seattle and Chicago, and 

is slightly ahead of Philadelphia (19%). The 

Pittsburgh Symphony, long considered a world-class 

orchestra, places Pittsburgh in a class with other 

larger cities in the realm of classical music. Almost 

70% of 'Classical Music' attenders reported last 

attending a 'Concert Hall/Opera House' - pointing to the Pittsburgh Symphony's frequent 



Allegheny County 

Arts Participation 

Rates 


>> 

C 

9 
O 

U 
>> 

B 
0> 

■a 
it 

< 


a 

e 

CO 

< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


14% 


15% 


Classical Music 


20% 


20% 


Opera 


5% 


6% 


Musicals 


25% 


27% 


Plays 


18% 


20% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


Other Dance 


8% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


38% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


57% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


55% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


72% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


41% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


60% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


63% 


69% 


Read Plays 


8% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


25% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


59% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


7% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


8% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


31% 


36% 


Classical Music 


30% 


44% 


Opera 


16% 


23% 


Musicals 


22% 


29% 


Plays 


22% 


27% 


Any Dance 


31% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


34% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


65% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


40% 


51% 


Classical Music 


52% 


61% 


Opera 


24% 


28% 


Musicals 


20% 


23% 


Plays 


6% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


67% 


77% 



-21 



2 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Allegheny County 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


EATING CAPACITY RANGES 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Scats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


fp to 300 


14 


1901 


N/A 


N/A 


5 


966 


7 


1050 


26 


3917 


01 - 850 


12 


6145 


N/A 


N/A 


2 


820 


4 


1875 


18 


8840 


51 - 1500 


1 


1350 


N/A 


N/A 


2 


1871 


1 


1500 


4 


4721 


501 - 2500 


1 


1950 


N/A 


N/A 














1 


1950 


h>er 2501 


3 


8569 


N/A 


N/A 














3 


8569 ! 


'otal Seat Count by Type 


31 


19915 








9 


3657 


12 


4425 


52 


27997 



srformances at Heinz Hall, a 2,847-seat concert hall. The area's steady supply of chamber and 
loral music performances may also contribute to such a solid participation rate for 'Classical Music'. 

ittsburgh's participation rate for 'Musicals' (25%), also compares to Seattle (26%) and Philadelphia 
14%), but falls behind Chicago (32%) and Santa Clara County (30%). The Pittsburgh Broadway 
eries, (a presentation of the Pittsburgh Symphony Society, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust, and PACE 
heatrical Group, Inc.), and the Civic Light Opera, draw thousands downtown to the Benedum 
enter and Heinz Hall for musical theatre productions. That relatively few musical theatre attenders 
ported attending any other venue type besides a 'Theatre' or 'Concert Hall/Opera House' underscores 
le importance of these downtown venues. 

articipation rates for other performing arts disciplines 
pically place Pittsburgh between several of the other 
rban sites studied. Pittsburgh's jazz participation rate of 
4% falls between Seattle's 16% rate and Philadelphia's 
ite of 12%. Similarly, Pittsburgh's 18% participation 
ite for Plays' equals Philadelphia's rate for that category, 
at falls short of Chicago's rate (21 %), and is well short of 
eattle (29%) in this category. 

/ith respect to dance participation, Pittsburgh's 7% rate 
>r 'Ballet' is somewhat higher than Chicago's and 
hiladelphia's rates of 5%, but behind Miami/Dade 
ounty's rate of 10%. Pittsburgh's 8% participation rate 
)r 'Other Dance' ranks last among the 12 sites; this lower 
ite may be less related to the supply of dance 
srformances and more a reflection of the demographic 
laracteristics (esp. education levels) of the Pittsburgh area. 

ittsburgh's 38% participation rate for 'Museums/Galleries' falls behind most of the other 1 1 sites 
udied. Only Miami/Dade County (35%) and Winston-Salem (32%) rank behind Pittsburgh in this 
itegory. In addition to the Carnegie Museum of Art, the Frick Art Museum also houses a 
;rmanent collection. A number of other galleries and service organizations, including The Mattress 
actory, the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, the Society for Contemporary Crafts, and the Wood 
treet Galleries (a Pittsburgh Cultural Trust project) offer regular exhibitions, as well as several 
iucational institutions. 



Allegheny County - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


•** 
S 
S 

o 
U 

e 

V 

J3 

a* 

< 


6G 

«S 

»— i 

-J 
-J 

< 


Jazz 


2.26 


2.7 


Classical Music 


3.25 


2.84 


Opera 


2.15 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.56 


2.3 


Plays 


3.18 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.57 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.96 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.2 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.3 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


2.42 


2.85 



22 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Over half of all Allegheny county respondents (55%) reported attending an 'Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival' 
during the past 12 months, a rate higher than at most of the other sites studied, including Chicago and 
Philadelphia, and equal to Seattle's 55% rate in this category. This result is probably related to the 
popular Three Rivers Arts Festival, a 17-day multi-disciplinary visual and performing arts event held 
each June throughout the downtown area. All of the Festival's activities - including exhibitions, 
performances, children's programs, and poetry readings - are free to the public. Annual attendance at 
the Festival is approximately 600,000. 

Literature participation rates for Pittsburgh are low (or lowest) in comparison to the other sites 
studied. For example, 60% of Pittsburgh/ Allegheny County respondents 'Read Books for Pleasure', 
compared to 82% for Seattle/King County. Aside from the relatively low education levels of the 
Allegheny County population, there is little else to explain these comparatively low rates, particularly 
for attending readings of poetry (7% - lowest of all 12 sites by a wide margin) or of Novels/Books 
(8%). Moreover, one source of literary activity - the Three Rivers Lecture Series - is well-attended, 
according to local sources. 

Despite its relatively large population, Pittsburgh's media participation rates are also low or lowest 
among the 12 sites studied. While 65% of Pittsburgh respondents reported some television exposure 
to the arts, this rate is 10% to 15% behind similar rates for other large cities and is comparable only 
to the Rural Nevada site (67%), where the supply of television programming is very limited. 

Types of Ve nues Attended 

Almost 80% of all Allegheny County respondents who participated in any of the seven performing 
arts disciplines reported last attending a traditional venue type, a figure just higher than Seattle/King 
County (78%), and significantly higher than Chicago (67%) and Philadelphia (65%). Attendance at 
'Concert Hall/Opera House' - 33% - is the highest for this venue type for all 12 sites by a wide 
margin, and again points to the importance of Heinz Hall and the Benedum Center in the facility 
inventory of the area. Over a third of all jazz attenders last visited a 'Nightclub/Jazz Club', a figure 
typical of other large urban areas and evidence of a healthy jazz scene. Use of alternative venues 
(esp. churches or synagogues and secondary school facilities) is lowest among comparable sites. 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Two-thirds of Pittsburgh/ Allegheny County respondents indicated that they would like to attend arts 
events more often, a figure not significantly different than similar figures for Chicago and 
Philadelphia (both 68%), but lower than Seattle/King County (74%) by a significant margin. As at 
other sites, the largest percentage of respondents (62%) expressed an interest in attending 
'Museums/Galleries' more frequently, followed by 'Musicals' (59%) and 'Plays' (56%). 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues provided by the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust Information regarding specific cultural 
institutions was drawn from a variety of publications, including Pittsburgh Arts Resources: 1992-93 Cultural Directory , 
and other publications of the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. 



23- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Las Vegas, Nevada 

Known in recent years as the fastest growing American city, the population of Las Vegas grew by 

nearly 70% during the 1970s and an additional 50% in the 1980s. With a 1990 census count of 

718,804, projections indicate that the city will reach nearly 850,000 residents by 1997. Current 

demographic data indicate that 81% of the population is white, 10% African- American, and 1 1% of 

Spanish origin (independent of race). Median household income has risen from $19,000 to more 

than $32,000 in just over 10 years, and 1990 

census figures show that 24% of the area's 

households have an annual income over $50,000. 

A composite view of the area shows a rapidly 

changing community with younger, upwardly 

mobile new residents (many from southern 

California) joining traditional families as the new 

Las Vegans. As the largest city in Nevada, Las 

Vegas reflects the diversity of lifestyles 

associated with urban areas, including both 

affluence and poverty. 



About the Sample.., 

• 28 Nevada ZIP Codes were sampled, 
covering the greater Las Vegas area, 
including Henderson and Boulder City 

• sample size - 402 

Sample Renographies* 



50% female, 50% male 

78% white, not Hispanic 

7% African-American; 7% Hispanic 

19% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

27% completed college, 

4% have graduate degrees. 

*weighted data 



Arts Activity in Las Veg as 

Local arts representatives speak of the 
community's great interest in popular 
entertainment, including pop music, jazz, and 
blues, all of which are in abundant supply in the 
city's casinos and showrooms. Touring 

productions of Broadway musicals have also been popular, and the city's resident ballet and civic 
symphony orchestras have a long tradition of performing in the community. A substantial presenting 
series at the University of Nevada - Las Vegas (UNLV) brings touring dance, music, and theatre 
groups to the region. Figures for the number of performances in each discipline (not counting casino 

shows) were researched carefully by Clark County 
officials (see Table at left). Frequent jazz 
programming in hotel bars accounts for a large 
majority of jazz activity in Las Vegas, although about 
75 to 100 jazz events were not associated with the 
hospitality/gaming industry. 

Arts administrators interviewed for this study 
concurred that professional theatre is sorely lacking, 
and that the absence of suitable facilities in the range 
of 500 to 2,000 seats has hampered the growth of the 
arts community. On a positive note, several new 
libraries planned for the city will feature 300-seat 
auditoria, and outdoor amphitheaters are also planned 
as features of new city and regional parks. Children's 
theatre and arts/crafts classes continue to grow as 
young families look for cultural experiences, while the 
city's arts community faces the challenge of drawing 
visitors out of casino hotels and into arts programs 
throughout the city. 



Las Vegas Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


12 


Art Galleries 


150 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


6 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


3 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


1,063 


Classical Music 


88 


Opera 


8 


Musicals 


46 


Plays 


112 


Ballet 


51 


Other Dance 


36 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



-24- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Arts Participation in Las Vegas 

The effect of the gaming industry on arts participation 
in Las Vegas is pronounced. The glut of popular 
programming in the city's casino showrooms, while a 
boon to visitors and the local economy, appears to 
influence local arts participation negatively in the 
traditional disciplines, both in terms of supply and 
demand. 

Attendance at traditional performing arts disciplines is 
quite low in comparison to other urban areas studied, 
especially in the areas of classical music and opera. 
This finding is consistent with the relatively low 
supply of programs in these disciplines. The 9% 
attendance rate for 'Classical Music' is the lowest of 
all 12 sites. Representatives of the local arts 
community indicate that Las Vegas's local symphony 
orchestra is not well supported in the community and 
receives no city or county funding. The balance of 
classical music programming is available primarily 
through UNLV's Master Series, which presents 
touring ensembles at relatively high ticket prices 
($15-$45). Attendance at 'Opera' is the second lowest 
of all 12 sites at 3% and can be explained by the lack 
of local productions of opera in Las Vegas. Only two 
operatic performances were presented by UNLV last 
year. 

Participation rates for 'Jazz' (15%), 'Ballet' (7%), and 
'Other Dance' (11%) are all within a few points of the 
12-site averages. It is interesting to note, however, 
that supply figures indicate twice as many ballet as 
other dance performances, though the rate for 'Other 
Dance' attendance is higher. One possible explanation 
may involve the wide variety of casino showroom 
entertainment in the form of musical and dance 
"revues" which feature jazz and tap dance and may be 
attracting local residents at moderate levels. One 
positive effect of the Las Vegas gaming industry is 
the large numbers of local musicians and dancers 
employed by entertainment promoters. 3 

Rates for participation in both 'Musicals' and 'Plays' 
are both well below the 12-site averages; these low 
rates reflect the low supply of programs and, in fact, 
the dearth of appropriate facilities in which to present 
or produce these disciplines. Outside of two 
performance facilities at UNLV and the 1,200 seat 



Las Vegas 

Participation 

Rates 


3 

S 
> 

3 
- 


a 

C0 

B 

on 
w 

on 

a 

< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


15% 


15% 


Classical Music 


9% 


20% 


Opera 


3% 


6% 


Musicals 


20% 


27% 


Plays 


16% 


20% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


Other Dance 


11% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


39% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


59% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


50% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


67% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


36% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


71% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


69% 


69% 


Read Plays 


4% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


33% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


65% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


13% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


9% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


37% 


36% 


Classical Music 


33% 


44% 


Opera 


16% 


23% 


Musicals 


25% 


29% 


Plays 


21% 


27% 


Any Dance 


32% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


36% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


69% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


50% 


51% 


Classical Music 


54% 


61% 


Opera 


18% 


28% 


Musicals 


16% 


23% 


Plays 


7% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


74% 


77% 



3 Where Artists Live. 1980 . National Endowment for the Arts - Research Division Report #19, March 1987. 

-25- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Las Vegas Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


1 


300 


4 


650 


2 


350 


1 


300 


8 


1600 


301 - 850 


2 


1180 








1 


600 


2 


1150 


5 


2930 


851 - 1500 




















2 


2900 


2 


2900 


1501 - 2500 


1 


2000 








1 


2200 








2 


4200 


Over 2501 


1 


7500 








1 


18000 








2 


25500 


Total Seat Count by Type 


5 


10980 


4 


650 


5 


21150 


5 


4350 


19 


37130 



Las Vegas High School Auditorium, there are no performance venues with advanced technical 
capabilities. 

Attendance by Las Vegans at art museums and arts/crafts fairs is about average for the 12 sites, but 
visitation at 'Historic Sites' is the lowest of all 12 sites at 36%. This figure is somewhat curious 
when considered in light of Reno's second highest rate of visitation at heritage attractions (50%). 
One explanation may lie in Las Vegas' geographic isolation from the historic sites scattered around 
Nevada; Reno is closer in proximity to the Lake Tahoe area and to other historic Nevada towns 
(Carson City, Virginia City, etc.). Also, Las Vegas is a relatively young city. 

In terms of reading literature and attending public readings, Las Vegas has comparatively low rates in 

several categories, in contrast to the Reno and the rural Nevada sites. Las Vegas literature 

participation rates include: 'Reading Books for 

Pleasure' - 71% (ranks 9th of 12 sites); 'Reading 

Plays' - 4% (ranks last); and 'Attending Poetry 

Readings' - 13% (ranks 1 1th). Likewise, rates for 

exposure to the arts on television, on radio, or through 

recordings are quite low compared to the 12-site 

averages. 

One can surmise that the widespread availability of 
popular programming at the casino showrooms, 
combined with the relative youth of the city, 
contributes to lower participation rates in the 
traditional disciplines. Further research is necessary 
to determine if Las Vegas residents participate more 
actively in other types of cultural events (e.g. popular 
music, etc.) which were not surveyed. 

Types of Ve nues Attended 

Distinctly different patterns of venue utilization may 

be observed among Las Vegas arts attenders, in comparison to other sites. Although Las Vegas 
attenders utilize fewer traditional performing arts venues than any other site (57%, compared to the 
70% average for all sites), college facilities are used more frequently on a relative basis than any 
other site (24%, compared to an 8% average). Almost one quarter of all performing arts attenders 
surveyed reported last attending a college facility; clearly, the UNLV facilities and presenting 



Las Vegas - Mean 

Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


3 

> 

3 
- 


t/3 

m 

H 

33 

•-9 
< 


Jazz 


2.45 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.66 


2.84 


Opera 


1.39 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.2 


2.3 


Plays 


2.37 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.47 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.92 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


3.17 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.29 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.16 


2.85 



-26 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

program play a crucial role in the local performing arts environment, particularly in the areas of 
classical music, ballet, musicals, and stage plays. 

Parks and open-air facilities are also important venues for Las Vegas, although only two such venues 
are listed in this category: the Las Vegas Silver Bowl (capacity 40,000) and the Silver Mountain 
Ranch State Park (capacity 1,500). These venues account for 30% of jazz attendance and 16% of 
attendance at musical productions. 

Unique to the Las Vegas site is the reported utilization of library venues for performances of classical 
music, stage plays, and musicals. The Las Vegas - Clark County Library District includes 10 
branches with 7 art galleries and various small performance spaces. 

Interest in Attending More Frequently 

Among those who would like to attend arts events more often, 24% indicated that jazz would be their 
top priority, the highest ranking for jazz among all sites. This finding is consistent with the musical 
preferences of a younger population, and most likely reflects the desires of local residents to 
participate more fully in an entertainment scene loaded with headline jazz artists. Another 25% cited 
'Art Museums/Galleries' as their top priority for attending more often. This high rate of interest may 
relate to a high public awareness of the area's 12 museums and 150 art galleries (estimated). 

In contrast to other urban sites studied, only 18% of Las Vegans who would like to attend arts events 
more often expressed any interest in seeing more opera. The equivalent figure for Chicago was 29% 
and for Seattle 26%. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the Clark County Parks and Recreation Department 



-27 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Reno, Nevada 



The twin cities of Reno and Sparks, just east of Lake Tahoe on Interstate-80, have traditionally 

served as a gaming and recreation vacation mecca for residents of the San Francisco Bay Area. 

Referred to as "the biggest little city in the world," Reno has experienced rapid growth over the past 

20 years (much like Las Vegas to the south) and is projected to continue to grow over the coming 

decade. With a 1990 census population of 238,887, the area is growing at a rate of approximately 

2% per year. Only one-third of households have 

children under 18, 45% are renters, and the 

median age is about 34 years. The racial 

composition of the area is predominantly white 

(91%), with approximately 3.5% Native 

Americans. People of Spanish origin comprise 

about 8.6% of the population. The overall 

picture is one of a metropolitan area dominated 

by middle and upper-middle class households 

including many younger, upwardly mobile 

singles and couples just beginning to establish 

roots in the community. 



About the Sample.., 

• 14 ZIP Codes were sampled, covering the 
greater Reno/Sparks area. 

• sample size = 401 

Sample Demographics* 

• 50% female, 50% male 

• 84% white, not Hispanic 

• 4% Native American; 7% Hispanic 

• 17% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

• 27% completed college, 6% have graduate 
degrees. 
* weighted data 



Arts Activity in Reno 

Parallel to its population growth and 
demographic changes, arts activity in Reno is 
moving away from traditional European-based 

programming to a more diverse assortment of multi-cultural performances and festivals. While local 
arts administrators report that efforts to diversify cultural programming have been slow to take hold, 
certain events (e.g., Asian Fest, Basque Festival) have been successful. Resident performing arts 
producers include the Reno Philharmonic, the Nevada Festival Ballet, the Nevada Opera Association, 
and the community-based Reno Little Theatre. Presenting activity takes place primarily at the 

University of Nevada-Reno. 

In terms of visual arts, three contemporary exhibition 
spaces have closed in the past three years due to 
financial constraints and controversy surrounding 
exhibition of certain works. Local artists report that 
the cultural community is slowly maturing through 
the provision of support services and the evolution of 
community-based organizations which are just 
beginning to present cultural events. 

Arts Participation in Reno 

Participation rates for the seven performing arts 
disciplines surveyed range from high to low, closely 
reflecting the available supply of programming, with 
several exceptions. Attendance at jazz performances 
is the second lowest of all 12 sites, although there 
does appear to be a fair supply of jazz available in 
nightclub settings, often in the city's casino hotels. 
Musical theatre (19%) and drama (15%) participation 



Reno Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


1 


Art Galleries 


30 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


50 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


50 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


235 


Classical Music 


250 


Opera 


4 


Musicals 


5 


Plays 


30 


Ballet 


3 ! 


Other Dance 


50 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



28- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



rates are significantly lower than the averages for all 
12 sites (27% and 20%, respectively) and may be 
attributed to the low supply of musical theatre and 
stage play productions. Reno currently has no 
professional theatre company, nor a presenter or 
producer of musical theatre. Participation rates for 
'Ballet' and 'Other Dance' are within several points of 
the 12-site averages; the Nevada Festival Ballet does 
occasionally present touring dance companies in Reno, 
providing a fair supply of dance performances. 

Reno's 9% participation rate for 'Opera' was the second 
highest of all 12 sites, behind Broward County (12%). 
The supply of opera performances in Reno - 12 
performances over the past 12 months - would not tend 
to support this figure. One explanation may lie in the 
fact that the Nevada Opera Association produces 
musical theatre performances during the summer 
months; perhaps some respondents incorrectly 
identified musical theatre participation as opera 
participation. 

In terms of attendance at visual arts exhibits and 
historic sites, participation rates in Reno are notable in 
two categories: 'Arts/Crafts Fairs and Festivals' (62%, 
the highest of all 12 sites) and 'Historic 
Parks/Monuments' (50%, the third highest of all sites 
after Sedona and Santa Clara County). The very high 
participation rate for arts and crafts fairs/festivals is 
due in part to the preponderance of special events and 
festivals taking place in the Reno/Sparks area, almost 
all of which have some arts/crafts displays along with 
the main fare. Annual events include a Chili Cook- 
Off, Rib Cook-Off, Italian Fest, Asian Fest, Reno 
Balloon Races (drawing close to 150,000 people over 
3 days), and the Reno Air Races (drawing in excess of 
200,000). These major events, with sponsorship from 
the local casinos, generally have modest displays of art 
and craft work. One specialty event is the annual 
Holiday Season Crafts Fair sponsored by the 
Reno/Sparks Convention & Visitors Authority, where 
holiday-oriented craft work is available for sale each 
December. 

The fact that one of every two survey respondents 

reported visiting an historic park/site or monument 

over the past year is also remarkable, and indicates that 

Reno residents partake of nearby historical attractions 

on a regular basis. Among those who reported visiting an historic park/site or monument over the 

past year, the average frequency of participation was 3.51 times, somewhat higher than the average 

figure of 2.85 times for all 12 sites combined. In addition to its own district of historic homes, Reno 



Reno Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


© 

s 


f 

I 
GO 

d 

< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


10% 


15% 


Classical Music 


18% 


20% 


Opera 


9% 


6% 


Musicals 


19% 


27% 


Plays 


15% 


20% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


Other Dance 


12% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


41% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


57% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


62% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


68% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


50% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


76% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


76% 


69% 


Read Plays 


9% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


35% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


73% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


14% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


13% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


35% 


36% 


Classical Music 


43% 


44% 


Opera 


20% 


23% 


Musicals 


28% 


29% 


Plays 


25% 


27% 


Any Dance 


37% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


46% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


77% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


46% 


51% 


Classical Music 


61% 


61% 


Opera 


22% 


28% 


Musicals 


16% 


23% 


Plays 


8% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


74%. 


77% 



29 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 














Summary Report 




Reno Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


2 


450 


7 


740 


3 


600 


1 


300 


13 


2090 


301 - 850 








1 


500 


1 


615 


3 


1500 


5 


2615 


851 - 1500 


1 


1428 














1 


1500 


2 


2928 


1501 - 2500 


2 


4000 




















2 


4000 


Over 2501 


1 


5000 














1 


5700 


2 


10700 


Total Seat Count by Type 


6 


10878 


8 


1240 


4 


1215 


6 


9000 


24 


22333 



is also close to the historic towns of Carson City and Virginia City which are noted visitor 
destinations and heritage tourism sites. Additionally, the Pony Express Trail, Dormer Pass historic 
site, and several historic markers in state and national parks are all within a short drive of the 
Reno/Sparks area. 

Reno residents appear to be voracious readers, recording the highest percentage of all 12 sites for the 
category "read plays, poetry, or novels" (76%). When the figure is broken down for each type of 
literature, Reno ranks first in the "reading novels/short stories" category (73%) and is second only to 
Sedona in the "read poetry" category. Consistent with the literature participation rates of the Rural 
Nevada site, it appears that the literary tradition of the western U.S. is flourishing in the Reno/Sparks 
metropolitan area, as well. 

With regard to arts participation through the electronic 
media and recordings, respondents in the Reno sample 
report average participation rates in comparison to the 
other sites, although participation through audio 
recordings is lower in several categories. Reno 
residents appear to be less likely than respondents in 
other cities to listen to recordings of opera or musical 
theatre on the radio, or on records, tapes, or CD's. 

Venue Typ es Attended 

Traditional venues were last attended by 64% of all 

Reno arts audiences, compared to a 70% average for 

all 12 sites. Among the traditional venue types, 

theatres (39%) and college facilities (10%) were used 

somewhat more frequently than average, while 

concert halls or opera houses were attended less 

frequently (10%). Two large hotel venues, John 

Ascuaga's Nugget and the Reno Hilton, each seat 

2,000 and are primarily used for dinner theatre. 

Musical theatre attenders most likely classified these two large venues as theatres or nightclubs, 

rather than dinner theatres. This confusion provides an example of the subjective nature of venue 

type definitions. 



Reno - Mean 

Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


e 
e 


OB 
H 

MM 

- 

< 


Jazz 


3.25 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.63 


2.84 


Opera 


1.93 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.04 


2.3 


Plays 


2.08 


2.45 


Ballet 


2.01 


1.77 


Other Dance 


2.02 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.59 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.49 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.51 


2.85 



30 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Attendance at 'Nightclubs/jazz clubs', at 16%, is the highest for any site. Musicals and jazz are the 
primary disciplines presented in 'Nightclubs/jazz clubs', although a number of respondents reported 
attending ballet and other dance performances at these venues. High rates of arts attendance at 
nightclubs/jazz clubs are unique to the Nevada sites and are clear evidence of the gaming industry's 
contribution to entertainment programming and the local facility inventory. 

Interest in Attending More Often 

It is worth noting that like their neighbors in rural areas of the state, residents of Reno/Sparks listed 
"visiting art museums" as the single activity they would most like to do more often (25%, compared 
to 16% for jazz concerts). The data also seem to support the notion that there is an unmet demand for 
cultural events in the area: 71% said they would like to attend cultural events more often, the third 
highest percentage of all sites. When asked why they hadn't attended more often, fully 20% 
mentioned "cost of tickets" as a primary reason, the third highest percentage citing prohibitive ticket 
prices out of all 12 sites. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the Sierra Arts Foundation. 



31- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Rural Nevada 



The Rural Nevada site is composed of the entire state excluding the metropolitan areas of 

Reno/Sparks and Las Vegas and includes ten towns ranging in population from 1,000 (in Lincoln 

County) to 40,000 (Carson City). The 1990 

census count for this area was 140,683, of whom 

91% are white, 3.5% Native American, and 8.6% 

of Spanish origin. Nearly half of the households 

have children under age 18, and almost 38% of 

residents live in areas classified as "rural". 

Education levels are relatively low, with 42% 

listing high school graduation as the highest grade 

completed and only 14% being college graduates. 

The area includes relatively high concentrations 



About the Sample... 

« The Rural Nevada site consisted of ten 
communities - Carson City, Ely, 
Elko/Carlin, Fallon, Minden/Gardenville, 
Lincoln County, Tomopah/GoIdfielcL 
Virginia City, Winnemucca, and Yerrington. 
The sample was allocated to the ten 
communities proportional to their 
population share. . 

• sample size » 401 

Sample Demographics * 



47% female, 53% male 

82% white, not Hispanic 

6% Native American; 10% Hispanic 

17% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

19% completed college, 

6% have graduate degree. 

*weighted data 



of upper-middle and middle income families; 
younger, upwardly mobile singles and couples; 
and older, lower income working and retired 
couples. 

When considering this site, it is important to note 

that "rural" does not necessarily mean 

agricultural, but rather implies isolation from 

urban areas. Some of the smaller communities 

included in this site are, in fact, home to many 

professionals and employees of Nevada's casinos, 

military bases, and community colleges. Local 

representatives report that arts performances and exhibits are frequently attended by ranchers and 

schoolteachers. In one sense, the isolated towns are extremely supportive of cultural programming - 

often the "only game in town" as far as social and 

entertainment activity. 

Arts Activity in Rural Nevada 

A wide range of arts and cultural activity is found 
across the state, evidenced by successful community 
theatre companies and presenting organizations which 
offer touring attractions. Representatives of cultural 
organizations indicate that audiences are growing 
more reluctant to attend experimental or non- 
traditional arts programs. Accordingly, presenters are 
offering more traditional fare and theatre companies 
are sticking with the classics. There does not appear to 
be a strong correlation between size of community 
and arts activity, and it has been reported that 
productions and touring arts presentations in some of 
the smallest towns (Yerrington, Gardnerville, Minden, 
etc.) outweighs the cultural activity in Carson City 
(which is also close enough to Reno and South Lake 
Tahoe for arts patrons to travel for programs). 



Rural Nevada Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


11 


Art Galleries 


9 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


19 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


12 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


13 


Classical Music 


29 


Opera 


1 


Musicals 


13 


Plays 


28 


Ballet 


3 


Other Dance 


17 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



32- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Arts Participation in Rural Nevada 

In terms of participation, attendance rates for five of the 
seven performing arts disciplines surveyed are well below 
the averages for the 12 sites; these lower rates reflect the 
relatively low supply of programs in and isolation of the 
state's small towns. Two exceptions can be found in the 
categories of 'Ballet' (5th of 12 sites) and 'Other Dance' 
(equal to the average for all sites). The higher rates of 
attendance for ballet and dance performances have three 
possible explanations. First, touring ballet companies - 
with underwriting from the Western States Arts Federation 
(WESTAF) and the Nevada Presenters Network - 
regularly visit several of the towns in the Rural Nevada 
site. Additionally, many of the municipalities have active 
ballet and dance schools, whose dance recitals featuring 
student performers are well attended. Third, at least three 
of the communities have recently hosted performances by 
a touring Ballet Folklorico troupe. Attendance at these 
performances may have been considered as 'Ballet' 
participation by survey respondents, regardless of the 
actual genre of dance performed. 

Participation rates for 'Art Museums/Galleries' and 
'Historic Sites' are within a few percentage points of the 
12-site averages, while attendance at 'Art/Crafts Fair or 
Festival' is significantly higher (56%) than the average for 
all 12 sites (49%). Members of the local communities 
indicate that festivals and art exhibits often take place in 
venues such as community centers and libraries and that 
they are quite accessible to the general public (more so 
than, say, art galleries in urban settings). Reportedly, it is 
also not uncommon to drive in excess of 100 miles for 
events and exhibits in neighboring communities. 

Frequency of attendance among audiences is lower than 
average for all disciplines except 'Art Museums/Galleries' 
and 'Historic Sites', for which the mean frequency of 
attendance is somewhat higher than the average. The low 
frequency of attendance figures for performing arts 
disciplines may be attributed both to the limited supply of 
programming and to the long distances separating 
respondents and venues. 



Perhaps the most fascinating finding from this research is 

that 20% of respondents reported attending a live poetry reading over the past year, the third highest 
participation rate in this category for all 12 sites (after Sedona, AZ and Dade County, FL). One 
annual event which accounts for a good portion of this response is Elko's Cowboy Poetry Festival, 
which draws visitors from throughout the nation to experience one of the West's oldest traditions: 
the cowboy poet who recites verse from memory, often around a campfire setting. Even more 
surprising, however, are reports of frequent poetry readings taking place throughout the state in bars, 



Rural Nevada 

Arts Participation 

Rates 


cs 

> 
Z 

S 

s 

as 


§ 

VX 

g 

CO 

3 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


7% 


15% 


Classical Music 


10% 


20% 


Opera 


2% 


6% 


Musicals 


12% 


27% 


Plays 


12% 


20% 


Ballet 


8% 


7% 


Other Dance 


10% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


39% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


52% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


56% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


63% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


42% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


74% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


71% 


69% 


Read Plays 


6% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


32% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


66% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


20% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


12% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


27% 


36% 


Classical Music 


32% 


44% 


Opera 


13% 


23% 


Musicals 


20% 


29% 


Plays 


19% 


27% 


Any Dance 


32% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


41% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


67% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


36% 


51% 


Classical Music 


51% 


61% 


Opera 


14% 


28% 


Musicals 


16% 


23% 


Plays 


7% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


62% 


77% 



-33 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Rural Nevada 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


7 


1355 


9 


880 


3 


300 


33 


4785 


52 


7320 


301 - 850 


7 


3990 


1 


550 








20 


10120 


28 


14660 


851 - 1500 


1 


924 














3 


3800 


4 


4724 


1501 - 2500 




















1 


2500 


1 


2500 


Over 2501 




















2 


6500 


2 


6500 


Total Seat Count by Type 


15 


6269 


10 


1430 


3 


300 


59 


27705 


87 


35704 



libraries, and alternative settings. Aside from the cowboy poetry tradition, there appears to be a 
fascination with the spoken word and the traditional art of storytelling in this rural western state. 
Many contemporary American authors have chosen to write about and/or live in the western and 
Mountain states and appear to be contributing to an historic tradition by helping stimulate a renewed 
interest in literary pursuits by residents of Nevada. 

In terms of media exposure to the arts, participation rates for residents of rural Nevada are generally 
well below those for the other sites; these lower rates reflect a relatively low supply of programming. 
The rate for overall exposure to radio broadcasts or recordings of traditional arts - 62% - is, in fact, 
the lowest of all 12 sites, almost certainly because of the dearth of radio stations available to 
residents of this vast state. 



Venue Types Attended 

Several striking differences are apparent between the 
venue types attended by Rural Nevada audiences and 
by respondents in other survey sites. As would be 
expected, fewer "traditional" venue types were 
attended by arts participators in the rural Nevada site. 
The category 'Concert Hall or Opera House' only 
accounted for 7% of attendance in comparison to an 
average of 18% for all 12 sites combined. 'Civic 
Centers', on the other hand, were utilized by more than 
twice as many Rural Nevada arts attenders (25%, ranks 
first). These facilities, which are used for all types of 
performances, include community and convention 
centers (e.g., Fallon Community Center, seating 450; 
Wellington Community Hall, seating 250; etc.) located 
in most of the small communities scattered around the 
state. 



Rural Nevada - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


08 

> 
41 

z 

2 

s 
OS 


H 

1—1 

< 


Jazz 


2.55 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.51 


2.84 


Opera 


1.17 


1.86 


Musicals 


1.53 


2.3 


Plays 


1.48 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.5 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.64 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.7 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.19 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.11 


2.85 



All three of the Nevada sites participating in this study showed high utilization of 'Nightclub/Jazz 
club' venues, reflecting the abundance of programming in casinos and nightclubs supported by the 
gaming industry. Not only jazz attenders used these venues, but also attenders of 'Musicals' and 
'Other Dance'. Finally, 'Secondary Schools' also serve a disproportionate number of arts attenders in 
Rural Nevada (9%, ranks first). School facilities are found throughout the ten communities 
comprising this site, primarily small theatres in the 200 to 700-seat range. 



34- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



Interest in Attending More Often 

64% of rural Nevada respondents indicated an interest in attending cultural events more often. When 
asked about the single cultural activity that they would like to do more often, 'Art Museums/ 
Galleries' were cited by 36% of all respondents - the highest percentage interested in any single 
activity across all 12 sites. The geographical isolation of respondents is clearly a deterrent to 
increased arts attendance. When asked about the primary reason for not attending arts events more 
frequently, 26% indicated 'distance/travel time/inconvenient location' as the most significant factor. 
This reason is the most frequently cited barrier to attendance for this site, and Rural Nevada also has 
the highest response rate in this category among all sites. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Special thanks to the Nevada State Council on the Arts for collecting and compiling information on arts activities and 

venues from 10 communities in Rural Nevada. 



35 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Sedona, Arizona 



The Greater Sedona area has grown rapidly over the past decades, from a 1970 population of 8,200 to 
more than 15,500 in 1990. The population is largely white, upper middle income, and almost a third 
are classified as single. Education levels are significantly higher than the national average. The 
overall picture is one of a fairly homogeneous community of middle and upper-middle class 
households with few at the extremes of wealth or 
poverty. Seniors comprise almost a quarter of all 
households. 



Arts Activity in Sedona 

Sedona is remarkable for its large population of 
visual artists and art galleries. Over the past 
decades, artists were drawn to the area's scenic 
beauty and affordable living and studio space. 
Commercial art galleries soon followed, 
capitalizing on the influx of visitors and growing 
population of upper income residents. 



Rising interest in the "American Southwest" 

cultural aesthetic, especially in art, architecture 

and interior design, has helped to position 

Sedona (along with Flagstaff, Scottsdale, Santa 

Fe and Albuquerque) at the forefront of interest 

in Native American-inspired and traditional design, arts and crafts. Three historical museums 

showcasing local and Native American history are located within a 30-mile radius of Sedona. 



About the Sample... 



* telephone exchanges 282 and 284 were 
sampled (Area Code 602) 

• 91% reside in ZIP Code 86336. 

♦ includes households in southern Coconino 
and western Yavapai counties 

• sample size = 402 

Sample Demographics* 



54% female, 46% male 

91 % white, not Hispanic 

17% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

35% completed college; 

8% have graduate degrees. 

^weighted data 



Performing arts presenters in Sedona take advantage 
of scenic outdoor settings, notably the annual Jazz on 
the Rocks festival, which draws close to 5,000 people 
each summer. Phoenix residents (127 miles to the 
south) account for nearly half of the audience for this 
popular event, while another third of the audience is 
drawn from out-of-state. 

Residents of Sedona are able to partake of community 
theatre productions and a limited supply of touring 
arts events, but they frequently travel to nearby 
Flagstaff and even to Phoenix for large scale musical 
theatre, opera, and classical music performances. 
Representatives of the arts community report that the 
lack of a large performance facility (1,000+ seats) or 
of a suitably-equipped smaller theatre (250-350 seats) 
limits the supply of performing arts programs. 

Arts Participation in Sedona 



Sedona's high 'Jazz' participation rate of 19% (ranks 
#2 of 12 sites) may be attributed in part to the popular Jazz on the Rocks event held each summer, 
since 36% of jazz attenders reported Park or Open- Air Facility' as the venue they most recently 



Sedona Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


1 


Art Galleries 


28 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


7 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


15 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


10 


Classical Music 


30 


Opera 


4 


Musicals 


40 


Plays 


75 


Ballet 


2 


Other Dance 


6 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



36 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



attended for jazz. Another 21% of jazz attenders saw 
their last jazz performance in a nightclub/jazz club. 
Although jazz participation is relatively high, Sedona 
residents who attend jazz go less frequently than their 
counterparts in other cities (mean frequency of 1.7 
times per jazz attender, compared to a 12-site average 
of 2.7 times). 

Sedona respondents also reported comparatively high 
participation rates for Plays' (ranks 2nd) and 'Other 
Dance' (ranks 1st with Seattle). The high participation 
rate for 'Other Dance' can be explained in part by the 
activities of two local resident dancers, each of whom 
offers classes in modern dance and occasional 
performances in the area. Dance participation may 
continue to rise, as a local presenting organization 
began presenting touring modern dance companies in 
1992. 

Seventy five performances of non-musical stage plays 
were reported - nearly twice as many as any other 
discipline for Sedona. "Theatres' (34%), followed by 
Park or Open- Air Facility' (23%) were the most 
frequently attended venue types for Plays'. 

With 15 out of 20 venues seating 300 or less, Sedona's 
facility inventory favors the types of performances 
which are best presented in intimate spaces, including 
plays and small-scale musical productions. Moreover, 
the predominance of 'alternative' venue types in 
Sedona (12 out of 20, not including nightclubs) 
promotes the kinds of performances which can best be 
adapted to non-traditional performing arts spaces such 
as churches, resorts, open-air facilities, and local 
schools. 

Sedona's small population base and lack of larger 
performing arts venues limits the supply of opera, 
ballet, and classical music, although the Sedona 
Chamber Music Society and the Verde Valley Concert 
Association present touring attractions from time to 
time. The relatively low participation rates for 
traditional performing arts disciplines correspond to 
the limited supply of product. Out-of town arts 
participation (including organized bus excursions to 
Flagstaff and Phoenix) also factors into these rates. 
Although Sedona has no college/university performing 
arts facilities, 23% of classical music attenders saw 
their most recent concert at a college facility - most likely 
campus in Flagstaff. 



Sedona Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


es 

s 
e 
TS 


1 

i— < 
-J 

< 


LIVE PERFORMING ARTS 


Jazz 


19% 


15% 


Classical Music 


17% 


20% 


Opera 


4% 


6% 


Musicals 


24% 


27% 


Plays 


25% 


20% 


Ballet 


3% 


7% 


Other Dance 


13% 


10% 


Any of7Perf. Arts Disciplines 


54% 


52% 


• 

OTHER DISCIPLINES 


Art Museum/Gallery 


77% 


42% 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


57% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


84% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


60% 


44% 


LITERATURE 


Read Books for Pleasure 


82% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


74% 


69% 


Read Plays 


9% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


42% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


70% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


22% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


20% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 


Jazz 


29% 


36% 


Classical Music 


40% 


44% 


Opera 


17% 


23% 


Musicals 


33% 


29% 


Plays 


34% 


27% 


Any Dance 


41% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


61% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


82% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 


Jazz 


52% 


51% 


Classical Music 


70% 


61% 


Opera 


21% 


28% 


Musicals 


22% 


23% 


Plays 


13% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


82% 


77% 



referring to Northern Arizona University's 



-37 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Sedona Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL | 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


1 


170 


7 


540 






7 


710 


15 


1420 


301 - 850 














3 


1400 


3 


1400 


851 - 1500 














2 


2000 


2 


2000 


1501 - 2500 
























Over 2501 














1 


5000 


1 


5000 


Total Seat Count by Type 


1 


170 


7 


540 








13 


9110 


21 


9820 



An unprecedented 77% participation rate for 'Art Museums/Galleries' places Sedona first among the 
twelve cities studied by a wide margin (Seattle is 2nd with a 52% rate). Sedona not only has the 
highest participation rate in this category, but the mean frequency of participation (3.95 times for 
Sedona) is significantly higher than the average figure for all 12 sites (2.62). The large number of 
artists and art galleries and high level of visual arts activity in the region (i.e. studio tours, gallery 
walks, etc.) clearly translates into high public participation and proves that this community enjoys an 
intensity of interest in the visual arts unique to a handful of American cities. 



The high level of interest in the visual arts also appears to carryover into other artistic disciplines; 
Sedona respondents reported high participation rates for literature, film, historic sites, and performing 
arts through the media. Sedona's 60% public participation rate for 'Historic Sites' (ranks 1st among 
the 12 sites) most likely relates to several factors, including the large number of Native American 
landmarks and the historical character of the area. This high rate is underscored by a comparatively 
high mean frequency of participation (3.9 times) compared to other sites. 

Top honors also go to Sedona for attendance at movie 
theatres. Fully 84% of the sampled households 
reported attending the cinema over the past year - the 
highest participation rate for any category for all of the 
12 sites. These data may reflect both an interest in 
film and a limited supply of entertainment alternatives 
in this geographically-isolated community. According 
to local representatives, going to the movies is a 
frequent social activity in Sedona. 

Sedona residents also show impressive participation 

rates for literature, ranking high or highest in almost 

every category. Most notable are participation rates 

for reading poetry (42%, ranks first) and for attending 

readings of poetry (22%, ranks first). Sedona also 

ranks first (tied with Seattle) for 'Reading Books for 

Pleasure'. Although figures are not available, a sizable 

community of writers may partially account for a high awareness of literature, in addition to the large 

percentages of seniors with more leisure time to read. 



Sedona - Mean 

Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


cs 

B 

e 
5 


B 

H 

55 

< 


Jazz 


1.70 


2.70 


Classical Music 


2.80 


2.84 


Opera 


2.72 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.23 


2.30 


Plays 


1.59 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.23 


1.77 


Other Dance 


3.32 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


3.95 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.49 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.90 


2.85 



38- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Arts Participation through the Media 

Despite Sedona's distance from any large urban area, media participation rates for the arts - both on 
television (82% report watching at least one arts program) and radio/recordings (also 82%) - are high 
across all disciplines. The mountainous landscape of the Sedona area limits the reach of broadcast 
television, creating a strong market for cable TV. Thus, a preponderance of homes have access to 
arts programming on cable channels. Additionally, Phoenix's public television station (KAET) draws 
many members from the Sedona area, and students at the Sedona Arts Center are encouraged to 
watch "how-to" visual arts classes offered on KAET. Also contributing to the high media arts 
participation rates may be the limited number of live entertainment alternatives, the availability of 
more leisure time for some residents (i.e. seniors), and a high community consciousness of the arts 
and culture. 

Venues Types Attended 

Overall, traditional performing arts venues (i.e. theatres, concert halls, opera houses, etc.) were last 
attended by 60% of performing arts attenders in Sedona. Only Las Vegas has a lower figure, at 57%. 
Instead, Sedona arts attenders make use of Parks and Open- Air Facilities' (14%, ranks first), 
'Museums and Galleries' (8%, ranks first), and 'Secondary Schools' (6%, ranks second to Rural 
Nevada). Surprisingly, the types of performances most frequently seen in Sedona's art galleries are 
musicals and stage plays, not classical music. Local school facilities are utilized most frequently for 
'Classical Music', 'Jazz', and 'Other Dance.' 

Interest in Attending More Frequently 

With the large supply of art galleries, it is little wonder that residents in this community express a 
strong desire to visit museums and galleries more often. Among those who would like to participate 
in the arts more frequently, 74% expressed an interest in attending museums/galleries more 
frequently, and 27% singled out museums/galleries as the one cultural activity that they would like to 
do more often. Across all 12 sites, 'Art Museums/Galleries' consistently garner the highest 
percentage of interest among those who would like to participate in the arts more often, although by a 
slimmer margin than at Sedona. 'Musicals' (63%) and Plays' (60%) also rank high in terms of 
interest among those who would like to attend more frequently, as opposed to 'Opera' (17%, ranks 
last), which generates relatively little interest in Sedona. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for the number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the Sedona Department of Arts and Culture. 



-39 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Winston- Salem, North Carolina 

Forsyth County is situated just east of the Appalachian mountain range among the lush green hills 
and tobacco farms of central North Carolina; it includes Winston-Salem and several rural 
communities surrounding the city. Two neighboring cities - Greensboro (20-miles to the east) and 
High Point to the southeast, join Winston-Salem to form a triangle of population centers within easy 
driving distance of each other. Among the 
county's 1990 population of 265,878, 74% are 
white, 25% African- American, and other racial 
minorities comprise only 1% of the population. 
More than one-third of households in the area 
have children under 18. 



About the Sample... 

• Sampled area includes all of Forsyth 
County, North Carolina, including Winston- 
Salem. (Does not include Greensboro or 
High Point.) 

• sample size = 403 

Sample Pemographjcs* 



54% female, 46% male 

77% white, not Hispanic; 20% Black 

23% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

28% completed college; 

7% have graduate degrees 

*weighted data 



Education levels for Forsyth County exceed 
national figures but contrast sharply to other 
sites. While 24% of Forsyth County adults (25+) 
have Bachelor's degrees, this figure rises to 33% 
for both Santa Clara County and King 
County/Seattle, but falls to 19% for Broward 
County. The U.S. average is 20%. 

In addition to the large percentages of country 

families and low-income urban dwellers, Forsyth 

County also includes strong numbers of affluent 

families (almost 10% of all households). With estimated 1992 median household income at $32,320, 

the area closely resembles Broward County, FL from an economic standpoint and compares 

favorably to the $29,920 median income for 
Allegheny County, PA (Pittsburgh). 

Arts Activity in Forsyth County 

The Winston-Salem area benefits from a wealth of 
activity in both performing and visual arts disciplines. 
The Winston-Salem Symphony and the Piedmont 
Opera Theatre contribute to a lively musical scene, 
although local productions in the areas of chamber 
music, choral music, and dance are limited. In part, 
the generally high level of arts activity is due to the 
presence of several colleges and universities with 
active arts programs, including Wake Forest, 
Winston-Salem State, Salem College, and especially 
the North Carolina School of the Arts, which presents 
over 500 performances in five theatres annually 
(including student productions, faculty recitals, etc.). 

Jazz music performances are limited, for the most 
part, to activity in local clubs. Representatives of the 
local cultural community indicate a need for facilities 
in the range of 750 - 900 seats and a major hall of at least 3,500 seats. Reynolds Auditorium, one of 
the area's larger facilities (capacity 1,922), badly needs capital improvements according to local 
sources. 



Winston-Salem Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


4 


Art Galleries 


27 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


15 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


4 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


30 


Classical Music 


83 


Opera 


11 


Musicals 


36 


Plays 


190 


Ballet 


12 


Other Dance 


31 ! 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



■40- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



A variety of high quality crafts shows, sponsored by 
the Piedmont Craftsmen, the Carolina Crafters, and 
the Winston-Salem Crafts Guild, takes place annually 
at the Convention Center. Several small community 
non-profit galleries also offer exhibition opportunities 
for local artisans. Old Salem, a major historical 
attraction, draws many thousands of visitors to the 
area annually and serves as a focal point for local 
cultural activity. 

Arts Participation in Forsyth County 

Generally, arts participation rates in Forsyth County 
are average or below average compared to the 1 1 other 
sites studied. Participation rates for 'Jazz' (13%), 
'Classical Music' (19%), 'Opera' (4%), 'Ballet' (7%), 
and 'Other Dance' (9%) are not significantly different 
than average figures for the combined 12 sites. 
Overall, only 50% of Forsyth County respondents 
reported attending at least one of the 8 "core" 
disciplines (7 performing arts disciplines plus 'Art 
Museums/Galleries') surveyed - the lowest rate for any 
site. This rate is comparable to Rural Nevada (52%) 
and Dade County, FL (52%) but well behind the larger 
urban sites studied (e.g., Seattle at 69% "core" 
participation). Mean frequency of attendance among 
those who do participate is also lower than average 
across all performing arts disciplines. 

Forsyth County's strong participation rate for 'Plays' 
(22%, compared to a 12-site average of 20%) is linked 
to a healthy theatre community, both academic and 
community-based. In addition to frequent student 
theatre productions, the North Carolina School of the 
Arts also presents performances by touring companies. 
Wake Forest University also has an active drama 
department. Winston-Salem is home of the North 
Carolina Black Repertory Theatre, which every other 
year hosts the National Black Theatre Festival, a 
major cultural and tourist attraction with some 75 
performances in 2 weeks. 

Based in High Point, a short distance to the southeast, 
the North Carolina Shakespeare Festival attracts 
audiences from a wide area and contributes to the 
supply of theatre activity in Forsyth County. 

In contrast to the solid participation rate for Plays', 

only 17% of Forsyth County respondents reported 

attending a musical theatre production, compared to a 12-site average of 27%, and the second lowest 



Winston-Salem 

Arts Participation 

Rates 


E 

I 

e 

2 
in 

s 


a 

I 

w 

J 
< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


13% 


15% 


Classical Music 


19% 


20% 


Opera 


4% 


6% 


Musicals 


17% 


27% 


Plays 


22% 


20% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


Other Dance 


9% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


32% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


50% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


45% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


65% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


46% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


69% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


66% 


69% 


Read Plays 


7% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


32% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


60% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


13% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


15% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


30% 


36% 


Classical Music 


36% 


44% 


Opera 


16% 


23% 


Musicals 


26% 


29% 


Plays 


22% 


27% 


Any Dance 


32% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


40% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


67% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


43% 


51% 


Classical Music 


58% 


61% 


Opera 


21% 


28% 


Musicals 


14% 


23% 


Plays 


11% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


70% 


77% 



41 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Winston-Salem 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL | 


SEATING CAPACITY RANGES 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats ! 


Up to 300 


1 


294 


13 


2500 


2 


388 


48 


5286 


64 


8468 


301 - 850 


2 


890 


3 


1050 


4 


2346 


13 


7163 


22 


11449 


851 - 1500 










1 


1380 


11 


11893 


12 


13273 


1501 - 2500 


1 


2000 






2 


4100 


6 


12322 


9 


18422 


Over 2501 


2 


7600 










6 


72837 


8 


80437 


Total Seat Count by Type 


6 


10784 


16 


3550 


9 


8214 


84 


109501 


115 


132049 



rate after Rural Nevada. Musical theatre activity is generally limited to presentations and productions 
sponsored by the North Carolina School of the Arts. The School's 'Broadway Preview' series serves 
as a testing ground for Broadway-bound productions. (Neil Simon's Lost in Yonkers was originally 
built by the School.) Touring productions such as Grand Hotel easily sell out the 1,380-seat Stevens 
Center, indicating excess market demand for musical theatre. The area lacks a larger venue with the 
technical capabilities requisite for major productions. 

Contrary to this research, only a small percentage of musical theatre attenders reported last attending 
a college facility. These results imply that respondents were generally unable to distinguish between 
the different categories of traditional venue types (concert hall/opera house, civic center, theatre, and 
college facility) which are not mutually exclusive. (For example, a concert hall may also be a college 
facility, and either answer would be correct.) 

Participation rates for 'Art Museums/Galleries', at 32%, is 
also the lowest of any site studied, although 4 museums 
and 27 art galleries serve the area. Attendance at 
arts/crafts fairs or festivals is substantially higher, at 45%, 
although this figure is still below average in comparison 
to other sites. The historic character of the area, 
highlighted by Old Salem, probably accounts for higher- 
than-average participation in 'Historic Sites' (46%, 
comparable to Philadelphia's 47% rate in this category). 

Literature participation rates are average or below 
average, with the exception of reading poetry, for which a 
32% participation rate was reported (compares to a 12-site 
average of 29%). Forsyth County respondents are also 
somewhat more likely than their counterparts in other 
cities (urban areas, especially) to attend readings of books, 
with a participation rate of 15% in this category. 

Two-thirds of all respondents (67%) reported some exposure to the arts on television, although this 
figure ranks last among the 12 sites, along with Rural Nevada. The area's relatively small population 
base and its distance from any large urban area limit the supply of cultural programming on 
television, which may account for these depressed rates. Similarly, exposure to the arts on the radio 
is limited. 



Winston-Salem - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


E 

— 

I 

s 
e 

(0 

e 


a 

H 

< 


Jau. 


2.15 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.38 


2.84 


Opera 


1.4 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.07 


2.3 


Plays 


1.87 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.37 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.75 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.98 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.07 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


2.48 


2.85 



-42 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Generally, lower education levels compared to other sites combined with limited access to certain 
types of arts events seem to keep Forsyth County's arts participation rates at average levels. 

Venue Types Attended 

More than any other site, Forsyth County respondents utilize traditional performing arts venue types, 
with 82% of all audiences reporting attendance at a theatre (41%), a concert hall/opera house (19%), 
a civic center (13%), or a college facility (10%). Considering the predominance of programming 
offered by educational institutions, attendance at college facilities may be under-reported/confused 
with other venue types. Despite the high rate of attendance at traditional halls, alternative venues are 
not lacking in the facility inventory. These spaces range from small rooms in libraries and 
museums/galleries to 14 mid-sized theatres and auditoria in secondary schools throughout the area. 
Church spaces, some quite large, are also available for performances, although reported utilization of 
these spaces (for the disciplines covered) was very low. 

Also of interest is the low utilization of Parks and Open- Air Facilities' - 3%, the lowest figure in this 
category for any site. Jazz, the most common type of outdoor programming, is seen indoors by over 
90% of Forsyth County jazz attenders. Although six open-air facilities including Winston Square 
Park, Tanglewood Park, and Miller Park are part of the local facility inventory, they are used 
infrequently for performing arts events. (The Symphony offers summer concerts at Tanglewood 
Park.) 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Forsyth County respondents showed comparatively high interest levels in attending classical music 
concerts more frequently (15% designated 'Classical Music' their top priority, ranks 1st with Reno, 
NV) but a distinct lack of interest in seeing more 'Opera' (top priority for only 2%, ranks last). 
Interest in attending Plays' more frequently was also higher than average (16% specified Plays' as 
the single type of event that they would like to attend more often, compared to 12% for all sites). 
These results provide another example of high participation and high interest in the same discipline. 
Overall, just 57% of those surveyed expressed an interest in attending arts events more often, the 
lowest figure for any site by 7%. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the Arts Council Winston-Salem/Forsyth County. 



43- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



King County, Washington 

King County, Washington had just over 1.5 million residents in 1990, of whom approximately one- 
third lived in the City of Seattle. Between 1980 and 1990, the area's population grew nearly 20%. 
Some 31 municipalities comprise King County and an additional one-third of the population resides 
in unincorporated rural and suburban areas west 
of Lake Washington. 1 990 median household 
income for King County was $38,243, with 
nearly 34% of households having incomes over 
$50,000. Of the 12 sites studied, Seattle most 
closely resembles Chicago and Philadelphia in 
terms of affluence (despite its comparatively 
small size), and periodically receives mention as 
one of America's most livable cities. 



About the Sample..* 

• Sampled area includes all of King County, 
Washington, including Seattle and Bellevue. 

• sample size - 406 

Sampje peroqgraphfcs* 



5.1% female, 49% male 
87% white, not Hispanic 
4% African- American, 6% Asian 
27% have incomes >$50,000/yr. 
41% completed college; 
10% have graduate degrees 
Weighted data 



With a white population of 88%, King County's 

African- American and Asian populations each 

represent just over 4%, with Hispanic residents 

accounting for only 2.1%. Households with 

children under 18 represent just over one-third of 

the total households, the remainder being single 

and married couples without children. With 17% of respondents aged 25 - 29 (the largest percentage 

in this age category for all 12 sites) and with the largest percentage of college graduates of any site 

(46%), King County (and Seattle in particular) continue to earn a reputation as a desirable place for 

young people to establish roots. 

Arts Activity in King County 

The City of Seattle remains the cultural capital of the county, recognized for its world-class opera 
company, ballet, and symphony. A new Art Museum and several non-profit exhibition spaces, along 
with the University of Washington's exhibition facilities and performing arts presentations, offer a 
well-rounded slate of activities. Two of the most vibrant areas of arts activity are Seattle's "fringe" 

theatres and the city's modern dance community. 
Reportedly, Seattle boasts the most "theatre" per 
capita of all U.S. cities. Local arts community 
representatives describe a "critical mass, a crucible of 
experimentation" in Seattle's theatre community 
which is attracting playwrights and actors from across 
the country. Nearly fifty small and experimental 
theatre ensembles are organized as "Seattle Fringe 
Theatres" and present an annual Fringe Theatre 
Festival. The modern dance community has also 
prospered lately; local choreographers such as Mark Morris have gained international recognition, 
and an annual festival of dance (Allegro) draws sizable audiences. 

In the remainder of King County, almost half of the municipalities have active arts commissions 
involved in programming and services to artists and arts organizations. In the upscale community of 
Bellevue, the Bellevue Art Museum and Bellevue Philharmonic as well as the Village Theatre in 
Issaquah have become attractions for Seattle residents in addition to serving residents of the outlying 
communities. At least two new cities (Federal Way and SeaTac) are pursuing development of arts 



King County Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


12 


Art Galleries 


184 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


350 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


480 



-44- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



programs and facilities, while other municipal arts 
commissions (Kirkland, Redmond, Kent, Renton, 
Issaquah) are involved in presenting and public art 
programs. 

Community residents report that musical theatre and 
classical music performances are most popular 
throughout the county, with less jazz, dance, and 
opera activity. Arts and crafts festivals are also 
popular attractions in many of the localities. 
Continued public support of the arts and culture in 
King County is guaranteed through a new countywide 
Hotel/Motel Tax fund, of which 70% will go to 
funding cultural facilities, with another 20% dedicated 
to heritage organizations for capital expenditures and 
interpretive and educational programs. 

Arts Partic ipation in King County 

Seattle and King County residents attend most 
traditional performing arts disciplines at average rates; 
reported attendance at jazz, classical music, opera, and 
musical theatre are all within one percentage point of 
the 12-site averages and are not significantly different 
from several other urban sites studied, including 
Pittsburgh and Chicago. However, significantly 
higher participation rates for theatre, ballet, and other 
dance are remarkable. 

Attendance at 'Plays' in King County is the highest of 
all 12 sites at 29% (compared to a 12-site average of 
20%). As noted above, Seattle is recognized as a 
center of theatrical activity in the Pacific Northwest, 
with large numbers of both mainstream and "fringe" 
theatres (over 75 altogether) supported by a healthy 
inventory of small venues in the 100 - 500 seat range. 

King County's participation rates for 'Ballet' and 
'Other Dance', at 13% each, compare favorably to 12- 
site averages of 7% and 10%, respectively. The 
Pacific Northwest Ballet, based in Seattle, has 
received widespread attention as one of the country's 
leading companies and contributes to the area's strong 
ballet participation rate. Frequent local dance 
productions, spawned by Seattle's thriving modern 
dance community, as well as presentations of touring 
companies by the University of Washington, may 
account for strong participation in 'Other Dance'. 



King County Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


s 
s 
o 
U 

WD 
S 

5 


B 
I 

H 

i— i 

C/3 

nJ 

J 
< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


16% 


15% 


Classical Music 


20% 


20% 


Opera 


! 7% 


6% 


Musicals 


26% 


27% 


Plays 


29% 


20% 


Ballet 


13% 


7% 


Other Dance 


13% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


52% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


69% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


55% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


78% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


44% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


82% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


75% 


69% 


Read Plays 


9% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


33% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


71% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


16% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


18% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


40% 


36% 


Classical Music 


38% 


44% 


Opera 


21% 


23% 


Musicals 


26% 


29% 


Plays 


26% 


27% 


Any Dance 


36% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


53% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


78% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


58% 


51% 


Classical Music 


65% 


61% 


Opera 


28% 


28% 


Musicals 


21% 


23% 


Plays 


10% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


78% 


77% 



45 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





King County 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Vennes 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


21 


3550 


1 


90 


2 


386 


14 


3030 


38 


7056 


301 - 850 


9 


4204 


1 


450 


1 


708 


6 


2585 


17 


7947 


851 - 1500 


3 


3337 


N/A 


N/A 


1 


1206 


1 


1182 


5 


5725 


1501 - 2500 


1 


2130 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


1 


2130 


Over 2501 


2 


6071 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


2 


6071 ! 


Total Seat Count by Type 


36 


19292 


2 


540 


4 


2300 


21 


6797 


63 


28929 



Among the 12 sites studied, King County records the second highest participation rate for 'Art 
Museums/Galleries' (52%, second to Sedona); this rate is significantly higher than Chicago's 42% 
rate and Philadelphia's 44% rate. One explanation may lie in the recent opening of the new Seattle 
Art Museum and the high community awareness (or "honeymoon effect") associated with the 
opening of such a high profile cultural facility. The Bellevue Art Museum and other smaller art 
exhibits throughout the county also appear to be drawing sizable audiences. King County also shows 
healthy figures for attendance at 'Arts/Crafts Fairs or Festivals' and at 'Movies' (78%, ranks first with 
San Jose); both of which are consistent with a youthful population. 

Also of particular interest are participation rates for literary pursuits. King County residents rank 
first among the 12 sites (82%, tied with Sedona) in the category of 'Reading Books for Pleasure'. 
The uniformly high participation rates for other literary categories in comparison to the other survey 
sites (ranks 1st, 2nd, or 3rd in all categories) reflect a well-educated population. Also indicative of 
the unique cultural environment of Seattle is a high participation rate for attending public readings of 
books/novels (18%, second to Sedona, and significantly 
higher than any other urban site). Of late, Seattle has 
been referred to as the "coffee capital of the nation", with 
high per-capita sales of gourmet coffees and a thriving 
network of coffee houses and bookstore/cafes which 
frequently offer public readings and are patronized 
primarily by young people. 

The King County site is also noteworthy for its high rates 
of television exposure to the arts: 40% viewed a jazz 
performance on television (ranks 1st), and 53% watched 
at least one visual arts program on television (ranks 2nd). 

Reasons for Not Attending More Often 

One of the most revealing statistics from the research 

concerns the reasons for not attending more frequently. 

74% of all King County respondents (the highest figure 

for any site studied) expressed a desire to participate in 

the arts more frequently. Among these people, 26% cited 'Cost of Tickets' as a reason for not 

attending more often; again, this rate was the highest figure among the 12 sites. Several 

demographic and economic factors may bear upon this finding. First, the younger population of 

Seattle, while interested in attending arts events, has less means to do so by virtue of their lower 



King County - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


C 
S 
© 

U 

WD 

C 

2 


en 
in 

< 


Jazz 


2.69 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.64 


2.84 


Opera 


1.8 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.68 


2.3 


Plays 


2.81 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.52 


1.77 


Other Dance 


2.18 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


3.26 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.59 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.23 


2.85 



-46 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

incomes. Alternatively, these people may be drawn to the lower-cost ticket prices and non-traditional 
programming offered by the many "fringe" theatres and fledgling modern dance companies in the 
area. 

The overall economic climate of the area also corroborates this finding. High demand for jobs in the 
Seattle area tends to depress income levels (particularly in the wake of large-scale layoffs by Boeing), 
while the cost of living remains relatively high in comparison to other sites studied. The resulting 
pressure on disposable income exacerbates the economic barriers to arts attendance, particularly 
among young people. 

Venue Types Attended 

Over 3/4 of those who reported at least one attendance at a live performance over the past year last 
attended a traditional venue ('Concert Hall or Opera House' - 25%, 'Civic Center' - 5%, 'Theatre' - 
42%, 'College Facility' - 5%). Attendance at all other venue types, including 'Nightclubs', 'Churches 
or Synagogues', and Parks or Open- Air Facilities', was average or below average compared to the 
other sites studied. Especially for this site, "purpose-built" facilities tend to be used for their 
respective disciplines. For example, 72% of opera attenders last attended an opera house; 72% of 
theatre attenders (both musicals and non-musical stage plays) last attended a traditional theatre 
venue; 32% of jazz attenders last attended a jazz club; 44% of classical music attenders last attended 
a concert hall, etc. From the data collected, the facility inventory appears to complement the supply 
of arts activity, at least within the disciplines queried. 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Nearly three-quarters of all respondents expressed a desire to participate in the arts more often - the 
highest figure for any site - and an encouraging figure for the Seattle arts community. Interest levels 
in specific disciplines was not significantly different than average figures for all sites, with several 
exceptions. 63% expressed an interest in attending 'Plays' more frequently (ranks 1st with Chicago 
and Sedona), while 16% indicated that attending more Plays' was their single highest priority (ranks 
1st with Winston-Salem). Given the already high participation rate for Plays', this high interest in 
attending more theatre reinforces the notion that high participation tends to breed even more interest - 
a phenomenon observed throughout this study. Stated another way, the data suggests that supply and 
demand (for arts activity) are not necessarily related in the traditional economic sense, but rather can 
stimulate each other to achieve higher consumption levels. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for the number and seating capacities of venues, and estimates for the number of cultural attractions provided by 

the Seattle Arts Commission. Additional information provided by the King County Arts Commission. 



47 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Chicago Metropolitan Area, Illinois 

With a 1990 census population of 7.26 million, the Chicago site (including 5 counties) is by far the 

most populous of the 12 sites surveyed, providing a sharp contrast to the rural western sites (i.e., 

Sedona, AZ - population 32,094), both geographically and demographically. As is generally true of 

major metropolitan areas, demographic data illustrate a diverse population spanning the range from 

affluence to poverty and everything in between. 34% of households in this area have incomes over 

$50,000, while 31% earn under $25,000. 

Seventy-one percent of residents are white, 20% 

African- American, 3.5% Asian, and almost 12% 

Hispanic/Latino. More than 18% have graduated 

from college whereas 17% list eighth grade as the 

highest education completed - a polarization 

common to large urban areas. The area includes 

large percentages of metropolitan singles, 

wealthy established families, and struggling 

minority singles and couples. Households in the 

outlying areas of the sampled geography 

(including the communities of Elgin, Aurora, and 

Joliet) are more likely to be mainstream families 

with average incomes and education, in contrast 

to their urban counterparts. 



About the Sample.-. 

♦ Sampled area includes five northeastern 
Illinois counties: Cook, Kane, DuPage, 
Lake, McHenry, and Will, representing a 
large geography around Chicago. 

• sample size = 401 

Sample Demographics* 



53% female, 47% male 

72% white, not Hispanic 

15% African-American, 5% Hispanic 

28% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

33% completed college; 

1 1% have graduate degrees 

*weighted data 



Arts Activity in Metropolitan Chicago 

By any standards, the Chicago area is rich with 
both producers and presenters of traditional and 
non-traditional performing arts activity. As one 

of America's largest cities, Chicago boasts a number of world-class cultural institutions, including the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Goodman Theatre, and the Chicago 
Art Institute. The Hubbard Street Dance Company, one of the country's most active touring dance 
ensembles, makes its home in Chicago, as does the Joseph Holmes Chicago Dance Theatre and 
numerous other local companies. Theatre companies proliferate in the Chicago area; some 200 non- 
profit theatre companies and more than 80 performing arts facilities of under 300 seats contribute to 
one of the nation's healthiest theatre environments. The bi-annual Chicago International Theatre 
Festival serves as a focal point of theatrical activity in the region. 

Major presenters in the Chicago area include the Auditorium Theatre, Performing Arts Chicago, the 
Chicago Jazz Festival, and the Ravinia Festival, in addition to a host of educational institutions with 
presenting programs including Northwestern University, DePaul University, Columbia College, and 
the University of Chicago. 

Measuring Chicago area arts activity in quantitative terms is nearly impossible, barring an 
unprecedented research effort. Several arts service organizations track performance activity within 
certain disciplines, however, including the Chicago Dance Coalition, the Chicago Music Alliance, 
and the League of Chicago Theatres. For example, the Chicago Dance Coalition, with 36 member 
dance companies and 25 member choreographers, reported that the 1991-92 Chicago dance season 
included 316 performances by both resident and touring (presented) companies. The Chicago Music 
Alliance reported 872 classical music performances over a one-year period ending January, 1992 (not 
including student or faculty recitals presented by music schools), held in 132 Chicago area venues 
ranging from Orchestra Hall to Evanston's First Baptist Church. Further investigation revealed an 



-48 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



additional 165 performances presented by DePaul and 
Northwestern Universities, and another 875 musical 
events at libraries, churches, and other non-traditional 
venues. 

According to representatives of the city's cultural 
community, the metropolis model rings true in the 
arts world as well, with dichotomies existing between 
large and small organizations and downtown versus 
suburban performance spaces. As in other major 
metropolitan areas, access to performance space in 
downtown Chicago is viewed by many as the stepping 
stone toward status as a major arts institution. 
Challenges facing the Chicago arts community echo 
those of other large communities; sources report that 
audiences at traditional arts events are "graying" and 
that arts organizations throughout the area are 
struggling to respond to their increasingly diverse 
constituencies. 

Arts Participation in Me tropolitan Chicag o 

Chicago area participation rates for the traditional 
performing arts disciplines are nearly average 
compared to the 12 sites studied, with the exception 
of 'Musicals' (32%, ranks second highest of all sites) 
and 'Ballet' (tied for 1 1th of all 12 sites). The high 
rate of attendance at 'Musicals' is due partly to 
Chicago's inclusion on the first-run Broadway road 
show circuit as well as the preponderance of theatre 
companies whose productions often include musical 
theatre. With respect to the low participation rate for 
'Ballet', ticket prices and the limited availability of 
tickets for performances of Ballet Chicago may 
constrain participation within this discipline. This 
finding is corroborated by a lower than average 
frequency of attendance at ballet performances among 
those who do attend the ballet (1.32 avg. annual 
attendances for Chicago balletomanes vs. 1.77 for 
ballet attenders across all 12 sites). 

The relatively low participation rate for 'Opera' (5%, 
only rural Nevada, Sedona, Las Vegas, and Winston- 
Salem have lower 'Opera' participation rates), implies 
a similar constraint. Access to performances by the 
Lyric Opera is limited by both high ticket prices and 
high demand. 



Participation rates for 'Art Museums/Galleries', 

'Arts/Crafts Fairs or Festivals', and 'Historic Sites' are 

each equal to the 12-site averages, while movie theatre attendance, at 77%, ranks fourth of all sites. 



Chicago Area 

Arts Participation 

Rates 


83 

< 
© 

3 

6 


1 

S3 

H 

J 
< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


16% 


15% 


Classical Music 


20% 


20% 


Opera 


5% 


6% 


Musicals 


32% 


27% 


Plays 


21% 


20% 


Ballet 


5% 


7% 


Other Dance 


10% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


1 42% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


63% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


49% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


77% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


44% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


75% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


69% 


69% 


Read Plays 


7% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


29% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


64% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


15% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


13% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


37% 


36% 


Classical Music 


46% 


44% 


Opera 


24% 


23% 


Musicals 


30% 


29% 


Plays 


30% 


27% 


Any Dance 


36% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


45% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


75% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


56% 


51% 


Classical Music 


64% 


61% 


Opera 


30% 


28% 


Musicals 


25% 


23% 


Plays 


12% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


83% 


77% 



-49- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Chicago Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


Up to 300 


79 


9934 


1 


300 


7 


962 


2 


419 


89 


11615 


301 - 850 


15 


6453 


3 


1821 


5 


1938 


2 


868 


25 


11080 


851 - 1500 


7 


8112 


1 


975 


1 


1338 


N/A 


N/A 


9 


10425 


1501 - 2500 


3 


6196 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


3 


6196 


Over 2501 


2 


6095 


N/A 


N/A 


1 


4000 


N/A 


N/A 


3 


10095 


Total Seat Count by Type 


106 


36790 


5 


3096 


14 


8238 


4 


1287 


129 


49411 



Similarly, little is unusual with respect to literature participation or television exposure to the arts. In 
terms of exposure to the traditional arts on radio or through recordings, Chicago's overall figure of 
83% is the highest of all 12 sites. With respect to radio, the Chicago area benefits from a wide range 
of arts programming offered by a number of stations including WFMT, WNIB, and WBEZ. The 
individual rate for jazz participation through radio/recordings (56%) is the third highest (behind 
Seattle/King County and Santa Clara County), and the rate for opera on radio or recording (30%) is 
second only to that for Broward County, Florida. 

Given the enormous supply of arts activity (especially in the areas of classical music, theatre, and to 
some extent dance) and given the large number of high- 
profile cultural institutions, one might expect higher 
participation rates for the Chicago area in some 
categories. However, several factors counter these 
expectations. The sampled area includes a large 
geography - including areas for which driving time to 
Chicago may be a barrier to attendance. Ten percent of 
the Chicago respondents who would like to attend arts 
activities more often cited 'Distance/travel time' as an 
obstacle to increased attendance. Results for this variable 
tend to be related to the size of the sampled geography. A 
similar survey administered to a smaller geography - for 
instance, a 25-mile radius around downtown Chicago - 
might yield very different participation rates. Further, the 
size and demographic heterogeneity of the area, especially 
with respect to race, income and education, provides a 
more diverse population from which to draw a random 
sample. The sample, therefore, is more likely to reflect 

this heterogeneity. Given a population of over 7 million, it would be difficult to expand penetration 
into the overall market area beyond average rates, despite the Chicago area's many artistic riches. 



Chicago Area - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


as 
< 

s 

•mm 

JS 
U 


«3 

a 

-a 
- 

< 


Jazz 


2.72 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.93 


2.84 


Opera 


1.97 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.27 


2.3 


Plays 


2.15 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.32 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.87 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.77 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.91 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


2.86 


2.85 



Venue Types Attended 

Traditional venue types were last attended by two-thirds of Chicago respondents who reported 
attending at least one live performance. Among the traditional venue types, 'Theatres' were attended 
by 40% of all audiences (compared to 35% for all 12 sites); another 17% last attended a 'Concert Hall 
or Opera House'; while 7% reported last attending a 'College Facility'. The relatively high utilization 



50 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

of traditional theatres may be attributed both to the large numbers of these venues in the Chicago area 
and to the high participation rates for 'Musicals' and Plays'. 

This study, as well as other research, has shown that Civic Centers (generally defined as multi- 
purpose cultural centers) tend to serve smaller communities, where purpose-built facilities such as 
concert halls, opera houses, and traditional theatres are not a part of the facility inventory. Consistent 
with this observation is Chicago's low rate of attendance at Civic Centers (3%, ranks last, compared 
to 13% for Winston-Salem, and 25% for Rural Nevada), as well as similar figures for the other urban 
sites studied, including Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and Seattle, which all have 5% utilization rates for 
Civic Centers. 

Unique to the Chicago site is unusually high utilization of dinner theatres as venues for the 
performing arts. Twelve percent of all Chicago area arts audiences last attended a dinner theatre - a 
figure twice as high as at any other site. Chicago's 32% participation rate for musical theatre clearly 
brings more people into dinner theatres. Although dinner theatre venues were not inventoried for this 
study, a number of successful dinner theatres operate in the suburban areas surrounding the city. 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Interest levels among Chicago area respondents closely follow the 12-site averages for most 
disciplines. In comparison to the Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Seattle sites, Chicago respondents 
tend to have generally higher interest levels, particularly with respect to 'Art Museums/Galleries'. 
Among Chicago respondents who would like to attend arts events more often, fully 75% (ranks 1st) 
expressed an interest in attending 'Art Museums/Galleries' more frequently. 

Just over two-thirds of all Chicago area respondents expressed an interest in attending arts events 
more frequently, similar to the 12-site average of 69%, and equal to Philadelphia's figure of 68%. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Information on arts activity provided by the Chicago Dance Coalition, Chicago Music Alliance, League of Chicago 

Theatres, and the Illinois Arts Council. 



51- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Philadelphia Area 

The Philadelphia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) encompasses an irregular geography stretching 
from Pottstown, PA across to the New Jersey coast and from northern Bucks County, PA (near 
Allentown) to southern Gloucester County, NJ (near Vineland). Not included in this area are 
Trenton, NJ and Wilmington, DE. According to 
census figures, the Philadelphia MSA had a total 
1990 population of nearly 4.85 million, only 
slightly larger than the population ten years ago. 



The area has a substantial minority population, 
predominantly African- American (19%) and 
including 3.5% Hispanic/Latino and 2% Asian 
populations, white residents comprise just over 
3/4 of the total population. Estimated median 
household income for 1992 was $38,000, with 
more than 34% reporting incomes over $50,000. 
Education levels are quite similar to the Chicago 
site, with 23% of all adults (25+) having 
graduated from college, and another 24% without 
a high school degree. 

Typical of other major metropolitan areas, 
Philadelphia is comprised of a heterogeneous 
population falling at both ends of the socio- 
economic scale and everything in-between. In 
comparison to other sites covered in this study, 
Philadelphia has proportionately fewer affluent 
households than Seattle/King County and the 
Chicago area, but more than 
Pittsburgh/ Allegheny County and Miami/Dade 
County. Demographically, the Chicago site (i.e. 
5 Illinois counties) is most similar to 
Philadelphia. 

Arts Activity in the Philadelphia Area 



About the Sample... 

• Sampled area includes the Philadelphia 
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which 
includes 3 New Jersey counties (Gloucester, 
Camden and Burlington) and 5 Pennsyl- 
vania counties {Philadelphia, Delaware, 
Chester, Montgomery, and Bucks). This 
area was divided into 3 subareas: 

1. AH counties in the MS A except 
Philadelphia County 

2. Telephone exchanges within the City of 
Philadelphia containing high concentra- 
tions of minority populations. 

3. All remaining exchanges within the city 

• The high minority population subarea (#2 
above) was over-sampled in order to 
increase the sample size of minority 
respondents, 

• sample size = 607 

Sample Demographics* 



54% female, 46% male 

79% white, not Hispanic 

1 6% African- American; 4% all other races 

25% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

29% have incomes < $20,000/yr. 

35% completed college; 

7% have graduate degrees 

*weighted data 



Arts community representatives paint a picture of 

a stratified arts community (again, similar to Chicago) with over 30 arts institutions with budgets 

over $1 million, and scores of smaller arts groups. 
Several colleges and universities add measurably to 
the supply of arts activity, including student and 
professional productions and presentations of visiting 
artists in music, theatre, and dance. Culturally diverse 
programming is a major issue for arts groups; smaller 
organizations are seeking to showcase local traditions 
(evidenced by recent African- American festivals and 
productions), while larger institutions strive to find 
ways of attracting minority audiences. The area 
boasts a flourishing 'new music' community and a 
general resurgence of theatre. 



Philadelphia Area Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions* 


Art Museums 


8 i 


Art Galleries 


133 ! 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


3** 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


36 


*Data on # of performances not available. 
**Large-scale events only. 



-52- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



The Academy of Music, downtown Philadelphia's 
2,929-seat concert hall, is the primary venue for 
several of the city's major arts institutions, including 
the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Pennsylvania Ballet, 
and the Opera Company of Philadelphia. The 
Pennsylvania Opera Theatre, a separate organization, 
produces in the adjacent Merriam Theatre (formerly 
the Shubert) and other venues. 

Philadelphia's inventory of performance facilities is in 
a state of transition. The Port of History Museum, 
which includes the City's most acoustically perfect 
concert hall, has been leased to a private concern and 
will be inactive for an indefinite period until major 
renovations are competed. On the plus side, the new 
convention center includes a 600-seat performance 
hall which could be used by several of the displaced 
groups. New performance facilities, planned as part of 
a downtown cultural district, are eagerly anticipated 
by the arts community. Major institutions, including 
the Philadelphia Orchestra, look forward to a new 
home, while emerging groups await the increased 
availability of existing venues. 

One of the area's noteworthy alternative spaces is the 
Painted Bride Arts Center, a multi-discipline 
presenting organization with artist-curated programs 
in the performing and visual arts. 

Several modern dance troupes make their home in 
Philadelphia, including the Zeromoving Dance 
Company and PhilaDanco. The Dance Celebration 
Series at the Annenberg Theatre serves as the area's 
major program of touring dance attractions. 

Philadelphia has an active theatre community, with 
several well-established resident theatre companies, a 
plethora of smaller troupes, and a series of theatrical 
programs presented by the Annenberg Center. Among 
the area's most active companies are the Philadelphia 
Drama Guild (which produces at the Zellerbach 
Theatre, capacity 944), the Walnut Street Theatre 
Company (1,052 seats), the Wilma Theatre (106 
seats), the Philadelphia Theatre Company, the 
Philadelphia Festival Theatre for New Plays, the New 
Freedom Theatre, and the People's Light and Theatre 
Company. 

The American Mus"ic Theatre Festival provides area 

residents with an unusual opportunity to see a variety of new musicals on a regular basis, in addition 



Philadelphia 

Area Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


03 

o> 
u 

< 

.2 

a. 

1 
a. 


as 

1 

m 

on 

J 

J 
< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


12% 


15% 


Classical Music 


19% 


20% 


Opera 


7% 


6% 


Musicals 


24% 


27% 


Plays 


18% 


20% 


Ballet 


5% 


7% 


Other Dance 


11% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


44% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


63% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


42% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


70% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


47% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


75% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


68% 


69% 


Read Plays 


9% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


28% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


64% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


14% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


11% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


34% 


36% 


Classical Music 


50% 


44% 


Opera 


22% 


23% 


Musicals 


29% 


29% 


Plays 


26% 


27% 


Any Dance 


36% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


44% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


80% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


48% 


51% 


Classical Music 


60% 


61% 


Opera 


28% 


28% 


Musicals 


23% 


23% 


Plays 


10% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


73% 


77% 



53 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



to the regular schedule of Broadway shows promoted by the Shubert Organization at the 1,840-seat 
Forrest Theatre and other venues. Several of the theatre companies mentioned above also produce 
musicals. 

With respect to museums and galleries, the Philadelphia Museum of Art is the area's flagship 
institution, serving a broad constituency including many tourists. Other art museums include the 
Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum, the James A. Michener Art Museum, and the 
Institute for Contemporary Art. Over the past several years, many commercial and non-profit 
galleries have relocated to the 'Olde City' section of downtown Philadelphia, which is now a focus of 
visual arts activity. 

Touring artists are presented by the Chamber Music Society, the All-Star Forum, the Annenberg 
Center, and many other non-profit presenters and commercial promoters. Numerous cultural 
festivals are presented by the Convention and Visitors Bureau, including the African- Americas 
Festival, the Mummer's Parade, and President's Jazz Weekend, although the area lacks a major arts 
festival. 

The Effect of Weighting on Philadelphia Survey Results 

As noted above, minority populations in the City of Philadelphia were over-sampled to increase the 
sample size of minority respondents. Because the sampling methodology was not random with 
respect to geography, results should not be used to make inferences about the total MSA population 

without making adjustments to the sample 
data. Weighting procedures conducted by 
Abt Associates adjusted for four 
demographic variables (age, gender, race, 
and household income), and had a major 
impact on survey results (see Table A). 
Further investigation of weighting 
procedures would be necessary to explain 
these results. (Consult the methodology 
section of this report for additional 
information about weighting procedures.) 

The geographical distribution of 
Philadelphia respondents is not random, 
since certain telephone exchanges within 
the City of Philadelphia were over- 
sampled. By design, approximately two- 
thirds of respondents live in the City of 

Philadelphia. The closer proximity of these people to downtown venues, where a majority of arts 

activity occurs, has an unknown impact on participation rates. 





TABLE A 




Effect of Weighting on 




Philadelphia 


Area Arts Participation 


Rates 




Raw 


Weighted 






Data 


Data 


Change 


Jazz 


18.8% 


12.4% 


-6.4% 


Classical Music 


14.8% 


18.7% 


3.9% 


Opera 


5.1% 


7.2% 


2.0% 


Musicals 


25.7% 


24.0% 


-1.7% 


Plays 


21.1% 


18.0% 


-3.1% 


Ballet 


7.1% 


4.7% 


-2.4% 


Other Dance 


13.0% 


11.1% 


-1.9% 


Museums 


49.3% 


43.7% 


-5.6% 



Arts Participation in the Philadelphia Area 

With several exceptions, weighted participation rates for the Philadelphia site are similar to rates for 
the Chicago site, the Pittsburgh/Allegheny County site, and to the average rates for all 12 sites 
combined. One exception is the 'Jazz' participation rate of 12%, which ranks lowest of the urban 
sites studied; only Rural Nevada (7%) and Reno, NV (10%) have lower rates for jazz participation, 
although the supply of jazz activity in Philadelphia is more comparable to Chicago (16%). 



-54- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Philadelphia Area 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY RANGES 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


34 


16110 


30 


3300 


N/A 


N/A 


16 


1950 


80 


21360 


301 - 850 


2 


1219 


2 


500 


3 


1445 


4 


999 


11 


4163 


851 - 1500 


1 


1052 








N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


1 


1052 


1501 - 2500 


1 


1668 








1 


2300 


N/A 


N/A 


2 


3968 


Over 2501 


1 


2929 








N/A 


N/A 


3 


36700 


4 


39629 


Total Seat Count by Type 


39 


22978 


32 


3800 


4 


3745 


23 


39649 


98 


70172 



'Opera' participation in the Philadelphia area, at 7%, ranks ahead of Chicago and Pittsburgh (both 
5%) and equal to Seattle and Miami/Dade County. Participation rates for 'Ballet' (5%), and 'Other 
Dance' (11%) parallel rates for the Chicago area in these categories, consistent with the limited 
supply of ballet programming in both areas, the healthier availability of 'Other Dance' presentations, 
and the higher participation of minority groups in 'Other Dance'. 

Philadelphia's participation rate for 'Musicals', 24%, falls well behind Chicago's 32% rate. Although 
comparable in size, the Chicago market still supports longer runs of some Broadway shows. Based 
on the data collected, Chicago area respondents also attend dinner theatres more often, another factor 
which might explain that city's higher rate for 'Musicals'. Out-of-town participation may additionally 
factor into this rate; surveys of Broadway theatre audiences in New York show a steady draw from 
Philadelphia, according to the League of American Theatres and Producers. 

As a centerpiece of American history, Philadelphia has the highest participation rate for Historical 
Sites (47%) of the large cities studied. Among the area's historical parks, monuments, and other 
landmarks are Independence Hall, Valley Forge National Park, plus many historic neighborhoods and 
houses. 

Literature participation rates for Philadelphia are nearly identical to Chicago's, and all fall within one 
percentage point of the 12-site average. Rates for arts participation through the media contrast more 
sharply with other markets. Philadelphia's rate for 'Classical Music' participation through television 
programming is the highest of all 12 sites - 50% - sharply higher than Pittsburgh (30%), and also 
ahead of Chicago (46%) by a narrower but still significant margin. Local non-profit station WHYY- 
TV offers regular classical music programming, which may contribute to higher participation. Also, 
classical music programming on television is also more likely to reach minority audiences, relative to 
live participation rates. 

Exposure to the arts through 'Radio or Recordings' for Philadelphia is lower than for Chicago, though 
it is significantly higher than for Pittsburgh in all 5 disciplines. 

Types of Venues Attended 

Of all the urban sites studied, Philadelphia respondents attended "Alternative Venues" most often, 
including 'Churches/Synagogues' (4%) and 'Secondary School Facilities' (4%). Aside from the 3 
Nevada sites, Philadelphia respondents also reported the highest utilization of 'Nightclubs/Jazz Clubs' 
(8%). Attendance at 'Dinner Theatres' (8%), was second highest to Chicago's (12%). With respect to 
traditional venue types, 39% of all attenders reported last attending a 'Theatre', while 17% last 



55 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

attended a 'Concert Hall or Opera House', a figure identical to Chicago's. Attendance at 'Civic 
Centers' (2%) was the lowest of all sites, and most similar to Chicago (3%). 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Of the 8 core disciplines, 28% of Philadelphia respondents indicated that 'Musicals' was their single 
highest priority for attending more often, the highest rating for 'Musicals' of the 12 sites studied. In 
total, 64% of all Philadelphia respondents reported some interest in attending more musicals, an 
indication of the strong perceived interest in this type of activity. In contrast, only 9% selected 
Plays' as their highest priority for attending more often (53% reported any interest); this figure is one 
of the lowest among the 12 sites and paints a very different picture in comparison to Chicago and 
Seattle where interest in attending 'Plays' more often equals or exceeds interest in attending more 
'Musicals'. With the exception of 'Musicals', interest levels in the 8 "core" disciplines are lower than 
Chicago's (and lower than the 12-site averages). This finding may be attributed in part to the 
comparatively lower education levels of the Philadelphia survey site. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, and other information provided by the Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance. 



56 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Broward County, Florida 

Broward County, Florida, in the middle of South Florida's "megalopolis" stretching from Miami to 

Palm Beach, is a community experiencing rapid population growth and demographic diversification. 

The city of Ft. Lauderdale and dozens of smaller surrounding municipalities have traditionally been a 

haven for retirees and winter residents from 

throughout the U.S. Northeast and Canada, 

known locally as "snowbirds". More recently, 

the county has seen an influx of young families; 

a growth rate of 23% for the decade between 

1980 and 1990 accumulated a 1990 census 

population of 1.25 million, not including 

seasonal residents. With this growth have come 

significant demographic changes. According to 

1990 census figures, 82% of the population is 

white, 15% African- American, with 8.6% of 

Spanish origin. Median household income is 

more than $32,000, with just 27% of households 

reporting incomes over $50,000, compared to 

over 38% who earn $25,000 or less. 



About the Sample,., 

• Sampled area includes all of Broward 
County, including the communities of 
Pompano Beach, Ft. Lauderdale, and 
Hollywood. 

• sample size - 403 

Sample Demographics * 



53% female, 47% male 

87 % white, not Hispanic 

8% African-American; 2% Hispanic 

24% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 

38% completed college; 

14% have graduate degrees 

*weighted data 



Overall, the county has high concentrations of 
younger upwardly mobile singles and families 
plus many retirement-aged singles and couples. 
Compared to other large urban areas studied, 

Broward County is substantially more homogeneous, particularly with respect to income and 
education, and lacks the extreme polarization of lifestyles associated with major metropolitan areas 

such as Chicago and Philadelphia. 



Arts Activity in Broward County 

The cultural life of Broward County has changed 
radically with the influx of new residents and since the 
opening of the Broward Center for the Performing 
Arts in 1990. Representatives of the arts community 
report trends away from the traditional arts 
programming offered primarily for the benefit of 
seasonal residents during the winter months. More 
family-oriented fare - such as children's theatre and 
popular music - now appears on the cultural calendar, 
even during the summer months. Sources report a 
growing demand for theatrical performances by small 
equity companies, light opera, and choral music. Two 
jazz festivals have been successful, and a local jazz 
society has begun presenting monthly programs. 

The recent opening of the Broward Center for the 
Performing Arts, a multi-venue state-of-the art 
performance facility in downtown Ft. Lauderdale, had 



Broward County Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


4 


Art Galleries 


107 ! 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


73 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


20 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


77 


Classical Music 


190 


Opera 


20 1 


Musicals 


48 


Plays 


367 


Ballet 


27 


Other Dance 


21 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



57- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



an immediate and dramatic positive impact on arts 
activity in Broward County. The new Center ushered 
in 255,000 patrons for its inaugural program, 
Phantom of the Opera, and continues to host large 
theatrical productions and performances by major 
artists in many disciplines. 

With respect to arts activity levels, Ft. Lauderdale 
clearly benefits from its proximity to Miami and other 
population centers along the South Florida coast. 
Several prestigious cultural institutions serve the 
entire region, including the Miami City Ballet; the 
Florida Philharmonic Orchestra (based in Broward 
County); and the Greater Miami Opera, which 
performs several productions a year in the Broward 
Center. 

Presenters in the area include the Broward Center, the 
Concert Association of Florida, Broward's Friends of 
Chamber Music, the Ft Lauderdale Opera, Bailey 
Concert Hall, and the Coral Springs City Centre, in 
addition to several municipalities which offer free 
programs to area residents, frequently in outdoor 
facilities. 

Arts Participation in Broward County 

Participation rates for traditional performing arts 
disciplines in Broward County are all above the 12- 
site averages, with the exception of 'Other Dance' 
performances. In fact, overall, 57% of the Broward 
County residents surveyed attended at least one 
performance among the seven performing arts 
disciplines covered in the research, the single highest 
overall attendance rate of all sites. 

The most dramatic figures were recorded for 'Jazz' 
(20%, ranks #1), 'Classical Music' (23%, ranks #1), 
'Opera' (12%, ranks #1), 'Musicals' (34%, ranks #1), 
and 'Ballet' (13%, tied for first with King County). 
These very high rates may be attributed to a number 
of factors, including the high public awareness 
surrounding the opening of the of the new Broward 
Center for the Performing Arts and the high 
percentage of retirees who populate the area and are 
accustomed to attending world-class cultural events. 
The greater availability of leisure time for many 
residents (i.e., retirees) may also factor into the higher 
participation rates. 



Broward County 

Arts Participation 

Rates 


C 
S 

o 
U 

% 

2 

aa 


c 

s 
S 

So 

►J 
-J 
< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


20% 


15% 


Classical Music 


23% 


20% 


Opera 


12% 


6% 


Musicals 


34% 


27% 


Plays 


21% 


20% 


Ballet 


13% 


7% 


Other Dance 


9% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


41% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


65% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


61% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


75% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


40% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


75% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


71% 


69% 


Read Plays 


5% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


27% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


68% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


17% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


13% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


36% 


36% 


Classical Music 


45% 


44% 


Opera 


28% 


23% 


Musicals 


30% 


29% 


Plays 


28% 


27% 


Any Dance 


35% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


35% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


74% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


51% 


51% 


Classical Music 


59% 


61% 


Opera 


31% 


28% 


Musicals 


23% 


23% 


Plays 


12% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


75% 


77% 



58 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Broward County 
Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 

Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


4 


866 


9 


N/A 






2 


450 


15 


1316 


301 - 850 


4 


2345 














4 


2345 


851 - 1500 


1 


1201 






1 


1200 






2 


2401 


1501 - 2500 


3 


6044 






1 


2100 






4 


8144 


Over 2501 


2 


6786 














2 


6786 


Toted Seat Count by Type 


14 


17242 


9 





2 


3300 


2 


450 


27 


20992 



Broward County's unprecedented participation rate for 'Musicals' is clearly linked to a healthy 
schedule of touring Broadway productions - the Ft. Lauderdale Broadway Series - produced by PTG 
Florida, Inc. and launched with a 12-week run of Phantom of the Opera. Broward County's 13% 
'Ballet' participation rate, may be attributed in part to the popularity of the Miami City Ballet and 
other touring ballet presentations. Performances of ethnic/traditional dance, including the Ballet 
Folklorico, have also been successful in the area. 



'Opera' participation, at 12%, appears to be related to the strong supply of opera programming, both 
at the Broward Center and at other venues. In addition to productions by the Ft. Lauderdale Opera, 
the Greater Miami Opera and the Gold Coast Opera also 
perform regularly in venues throughout the county. Not 
only are participation rates for 'Opera' and 'Ballet' high, 
but those Broward County respondents who do attend 
'Opera' and 'Ballet' do so more frequently than audiences 
in other survey sites. 

The high rate of attendance at jazz events may be 
explained by a preponderance of music festivals Qazz, 
Latin/Caribbean, etc.) and the large number of resident 
jazz artists. The Hollywood Jazz Festival is a 3-day event 
which attracts international visitors; several jazz societies 
and the Musician's Exchange also present jazz concerts. 
Enjoying the warm climate, almost a third of all jazz 
attenders saw their last jazz performance at a park or 
open-air facility, whereas relatively few attended 
nightclubs or jazz clubs. 



Broward County- 
Mean Frequency of 
Attendance Among 
Attenders 


e 
s 
o 
U 

■2 

08 

it 

2 

ea 


m 

b 

-J 

< 


Jazz 


3.35 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.98 


2.84 


Opera 


2.59 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.68 


2.3 


Plays 


2.46 


2.45 


Ballet 


2.42 


1.77 


Other Dance 


1.72 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.88 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.74 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


2.54 


2.85 



Interestingly, attendance at 'Art Museums/Galleries', 'Movies', and 'Historic Sites' do not correlate 
with the high rates for performing arts and are close to the averages for the 12 sites. One exception 
in this area is the high participation rate for 'Arts/Crafts Fairs and Festivals'; at 61%, it is second only 
to Reno among the 12 sites. Local cultural representatives indicate that the region's superb weather 
and festival settings (e.g., Riverwalk and other public parks) are conducive to outdoor programming. 
Vendor-based arts and crafts festivals are scheduled nearly every weekend from October through 
May. 

Participation rates for literary activities, television exposure, and radio/recordings of traditional arts 
disciplines are less anomalous. Interestingly, the participation rates for watching opera on television 



59- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

(28%, second only to Dade County) and for listening to opera on the radio or recordings (31%, ranks 
1st) are consistent with the high participation rate for live opera performances. 

Types of Ve nues Attended 

Traditional venue types were last attended by three-quarters of Broward respondents who reported 
attending at least one live performance. 'Theatres' were attended by 43% of all audiences (ranks 1st); 
another 15% attended a 'Concert Hall or Opera House'; 11% attended a 'Civic Center', while 6% 
reported attending a 'College Facility'. The Broward Center's two venues, the Au-Rene Theatre at 
2,700 seats, and the Amaturo Theatre at 595 seats, could easily be classified as either theatres or 
concert halls. Otherwise, the Coral Springs City Centre may also account for high utilization of 
"Civic Centers." The high utilization of traditional theatres may be attributed in part to the high 
participation rates for 'Musicals' and other disciplines typically seen in a traditional theatre setting 
(i.e. opera, ballet, and stage plays). 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Among Broward County respondents, 29% designated 'Art Museums/Galleries' as their single 
highest priority (ranks 2nd to Rural Nevada) for more frequent attendance, significantly higher than 
similar figures for Santa Clara County, CA (20%), and King County, WA (19%), and second only to 
Rural Nevada (36%). Interest levels in other disciplines are average, with the exception of jazz, 
which only 11% of respondents (ranks last among the 12 sites) designated as their single highest 
priority for increased attendance. Overall, 71% of all Broward respondents indicated that they would 
like to attend arts events more often. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the Broward Cultural Affairs Council. 



60- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Dade County, Florida 

Encompassing the greater Miami area, Dade County, Florida is a rapidly growing community at the 

forefront of cultural change in America. According to 1990 census figures, approximately half of the 

population of Dade County is of Spanish origin, including significant numbers of Cubans and a 

growing Haitian community. Another 20% of 

the County population is African-American. 

Population growth totaled 28% between 1970 

and 1980 and another 19% during the 1980s. 

During 1992, the county's population is expected 

to cross the 2 million mark, and projections 

indicate continued growth over the next five 

years and beyond. 



Demographic statistics do not fully capture the 
cultural diversity of Dade County, with its 
unique combination of permanent and seasonal 
residents, widely diverse minority populations, 
and traditional American families. Of the 12 
sites studied, Dade County income levels are 
most similar to the Pittsburgh/ Allegheny County 
site, with 24% reporting incomes over $50,000 
and 44% with incomes under $25,000. Median 
household income for 1992 was estimated to be 
$28,764, similar to Pittsburgh ($29,920), but 
much less than Chicago ($38,022) and 
Philadelphia ($38,592). Only the Sedona, AZ 
site had lower median income than Dade County. 

Education levels for Dade County show greater 
concentration at the low end of the spectrum; 
while about 19% earned a Bachelor's degree or 
higher, fully 34% did not graduate from High 
School and 18% did not go past the 8th grade 
(the highest percentage in this category for all 12 
sites). Similar to other large urban areas, single 
households constitute almost a quarter of all 
households. 



Dade County Cultural Activity 


Cultural Attractions* 


Art Museums 


12 


Art Galleries 


184 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


350 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


480 


*Data on # of performances not available. 



About the Sample*.* 

Dade County, Florida was divided into two 

sub-areas for sampling. 

1 



Telephone exchanges with a high 

percent minority population ( 1 79 

completed interviews) 
2. All remaining telephone exchanges in 

Dade County (223 completed 

interviews) 
The desired sample size was split 
proportional to their total populations 
An analysis of the ZIP Codes of respondents 
shows that the sample is concentrated in the 
immediate area around downtown Miami. 
A total of 85 interviews, or 21% of the 
sample, were conducted in Spanish, 
sample size = 402 

Sample Demographics* 



54% female, 46% male 

47% white, not Hispanic; 

17% Hispanic/Latino; 

17% African-American; 

12% Caribbean Islander; 

3% Central & South American 

21 % have incomes > $50,000/yr.(24% of 

the sample did not report their incomes) 

30% completed college; 

8% have graduate degrees 

^weighted data 



Arts Activity in Dade County 

Like its population, Dade County's cultural 
community is rapidly growing and changing. 
According to the Metropolitan Dade County 
Cultural Affairs Council, the number of cultural 
organizations in Dade County increased from 1 10 
in 1983 to nearly 600 in 1991. The resulting 
demand for resources (especially funding and 
facilities) is the primary challenge of the Cultural 
Affairs Council. 



-61 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Miami's proximity to other population centers along 
the south Florida coast, including Ft. Lauderdale and 
the Palm Beaches, impacts the local cultural 
environment by broadening the service area (and 
funding base) of several of the larger arts 
organizations. The Florida Philharmonic, for 
example, is based in Ft. Lauderdale and performs 
regularly in Miami and Palm Beach. Other groups 
which perform throughout the region include the 
Miami City Ballet and the Greater Miami Opera. 

Other large arts institutions include the New World 
Symphony, a national training orchestra based in 
Miami Beach, and the Concert Association of Florida, 
a non-profit presenting organization which brings a 
variety of orchestras, soloists, dance companies, and 
popular entertainers to venues throughout the region. 

The area boasts an active dance community, 
highlighted by the nationally-prominent Miami City 
Ballet. Numerous smaller ballet companies and 
schools reflect a strong community interest in that art 
form, and the variety of contemporary and ethnic 
dance companies reflect the popularity of dance as a 
form of cultural expression. 

Musical theatre programming is largely the domain of 
Pace Theatrical Group, which promotes a series of 
Broadway shows at the Jackie Gleason Theatre in 
Miami Beach. A range of professional and amateur 
theatre companies, including approximately 10 
culturally-specific troupes, offers a wide variety of 
programming. One of the area's most popular 
companies, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, offers six 
productions annually in its 1,100-seat theatre. 

The County's visual arts community is equally 
diverse. Although Miami lacks a flagship art museum 
on the order of The Carnegie in Pittsburgh, several 
culturally-specific museums, such as the Cuban 
Museum of Arts and Culture and the Black Heritage 
Museum, add a richness not found in other cities. 
Numerous commercial and non-profit art galleries 
feature the works of local artists. 

Dade Coun ty Performance Facilities 

The recent growth of Miami's major arts institutions 
has created demand for new facilities with improved 



Dade County Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


>, 

c 
s 
o 

U 

4> 

ea 

Q 


1 

a 

d 

< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


14% 


15% 


Classical Music 


12% 


20% 


Opera 


7% 


6% 


Musicals 


20% 


27% 


Plays 


15% 


20% 


Ballet 


10% 


7% 


Other Dance 


12% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


35% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


52% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


45% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


63% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


41% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


62% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


63% 


69% 


Read Plays 


9% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


31% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


56% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


21% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


16% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


38% 


36% 


Classical Music 


45% 


44% 


Opera 


31% 


23% 


Musicals 


33% 


29% 


Plays 


28% 


27% 


Any Dance 


39% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


43% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


77% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


44% 


51% 


Classical Music 


61% 


61% 


Opera 


29% 


28% 


Musicals 


23% 


23% 


Plays 


11% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


70% 


77% 



technical capabilities. Representatives of the arts community recognize the need to expand access to 



62- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



performance facilities for the city's large organizations and for the many emerging arts groups. 
Planning is underway for a new, multi-venue performing arts center which could open as early as 
1996. Presently, Dade County's active venues with more than 800 seats are all owned by public 
agencies and include: 

Dade County Auditorium, in residential Miami (2,498 seats) 

TOPA - Jackie Gleason Theatre, in south Miami Beach (2,705 seats) 

Gusman Center, in downtown Miami (1,709 seats) 

Victory Park Auditorium, in North Miami Beach (1,200-seats) 

Joseph Caleb Auditorium, in Miami (1,000 seats) 

Manuel Artime Performing Arts Center, in Miami (804 seats/442 in use) 

The Effect of Weighting on Dade County Survey Results 

As noted above, sampling was weighted to gain more respondents in those areas in which a low 
response rate was expected. Since a stratified sampling methodology was used, results should not be 
used to make inferences about the total county population without making adjustments to the sample 
data. Weighting procedures conducted by Abt Associates adjusted for four demographic variables 
(age, gender, race, and household income), and had a relatively minor impact on survey results (see 

Table A). Generally, weighting procedures 
lowered participation rates by one or two 
percentage points, except for 'Opera' 
participation, which rose 1.7% after 
weighting. (Consult the methodology 
section of this report for additional 
information about weighting procedures.) 





TABLE A 






Effect of Weighting on 




Dade County Arts Participation 


Rates 




Raw 


Weighted 






Data 


Data 


Change 


Jazz 


15.7% 


14.3% 


-1.4% 


Classical Music 14.4% 


12.4% 


-2.0% 


Opera 


5.7% 


7.4% 


+1.7% 


Musicals 


21.1% 


20.3% 


-0.8% 


Plays 


16.9% 


15.2% 


-1.7% 


Ballet 


10.7% 


10.3% 


-0.4% 


Other Dance 


12.9% 


12.2% 


-0.7% 


Museums 


36.6% 


35.4% 


-1.2% 



Arts Participation in Dade County 

Arts participation rates in the traditional 
disciplines do not capture the cultural 
richness of the community. 'Classical 
Music' participation for Dade County, at 
12%, is the lowest of any urban site 
studied, surpassing only Las Vegas (9%) 
and Rural Nevada (10%) among the 12 
sites studied. Those who do attend 
classical music performances, however, go more frequently than their counterparts in other cities. 
Given the healthy supply of classical music performances by the Florida Philharmonic and the New 
World Symphony, in addition to numerous presentations of touring artists and chamber groups, the 
lower participation rate most likely relates to demographic and cultural factors. The European-based 
classical music tradition is not part of the cultural heritage of a majority of Dade County's population, 
and lower participation rates would be expected. 

Jazz participation (14%) is closer to the 12-site average of 15% and places Dade County between 
Chicago (16%) and Philadelphia (12%). Participation rates for other types of musical performances, 
including ethnic/traditional music, were not researched, but could be expected to uncover an 
important aspect of arts participation in Dade County. 

Generally, participation rates for disciplines based on the spoken word (i.e., musicals and plays) are 
lower for Dade County, while participation rates for 'Ballet' and 'Other Dance' (i.e., disciplines based 



-63- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



on movement) are higher. Language barriers might 
contribute to the lower participation for musicals and 
plays, although a number of theatre companies present 
performances in Spanish. Dade County's 20% 
participation rate for 'Musicals' contrasts sharply with 
Broward County's 34% rate (even though the two 
counties are adjacent), and is the lowest of the large 
urban areas studied. During the 1991-92 season, Pace 
Theatrical Group presented approximately 80 
performances of Broadway shows at the Jackie 
Gleason Theatre in Miami Beach, drawing over 
1 10,000. With such a steady supply of programming 
(and excess capacity), other factors seem to constrain 
participation in this discipline. 

A similar story emerges for participation in 'Plays'; 
Dade County's 15% rate is lowest of the urban sites 
studied. Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, both with 18% 
participation rates for 'Plays', are most comparable, 
although Seattle's 29% rate is almost twice as high. With Spanish as the primary language for so 
many of its residents, and with such a diverse minority population, Dade County and its theatre 
community face some unique challenges. Table 1(a) in the appendix shows arts participation rates 
for demographic sub-groups. Results show that Hispanic/Latino respondents (from all 12 sites 
combined) are less than half as likely to attend 'Plays' than white respondents: 

Arts Participation Rates for Demographic Sub-Groups 

Excerpted from Table 1(a) 



Dade County - 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


S. 

s 
o 

u 

•o 
es 

Q 


H 

(Z5 

< 


Jazz 


3.35 


2.7 


Classical Music 


3.72 


2.84 


Opera 


1.77 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.76 


2.3 


Plays 


3.08 


2.45 


Ballet 


2.02 


1.77 


Other Dance 


2.61 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.69 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.48 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3 


2.85 







Classical 










Other 




Jazz 


Music 


Opera 


Musicals 


Plays 


Ballet 


Dance 


RACE/HERITAGE 
















White 


15% 


22% 


8% 


30% 


21% 


8% 


10% 


African- American 


19% 


13% 


2% 


24% 


16% 


3% 


9% 


Hispanic 


13% 


6% 


2% 


16% 


9% 


4% 


10% 



These data offer substantial insight into Dade County's participation rates. Note especially that 
Hispanic participation in 'Other Dance' (10%) equals the rate for white respondents. Dade County's 
12% rate for 'Other Dance' reinforces the notion that dance, as an art form, is indigenous to many 
cultures, in contrast to other performing arts disciplines covered in this research. Those who attend 
'Other Dance' performances in Dade County also attend more frequently than their counterparts in 
other cities. 

Although minority respondents are half as likely to attend 'Ballet', Dade County's 10% participation 
rate for 'Ballet' is twice the figure for Philadelphia and Chicago (both at 5%). The Miami City 
Ballet's rapid ascent to national prominence (it is currently the 7th largest ballet company in the U.S.) 
and its impact on the local community through regular performances, outreach, and education 
programs clearly contribute to this high participation rate. To the north, Broward County's 13% rate 
for 'Ballet' is also supported by this institution. 

Literature participation rates for Dade County, as might be expected, are somewhat lower than 
averages for the 12 site combined; in several categories Dade County compares favorably to 



64- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Pittsburgh. Interestingly, of all the urban sites studied, Dade County has the highest participation 
rates for attending readings of books or poetry. 

In contrast to attendance at live performances, media participation rates for Dade County compare 
similarly to other urban sites studied, with several exceptions. Both Dade and Broward counties have 
high rates for television exposure to opera. Also, Dade County's 44% participation rate for listening 
to recordings of jazz is lower than Chicago's (56%) and Broward County's (51%), but higher than 
Pittsburgh's (40%). 

Interest in Attending More Often 

Overall, 70% of Dade County respondents reported an interest in attending arts events more often; 
this figure is not significantly different than Chicago (68%) or Broward County (71%) but is 
somewhat higher than Pittsburgh (66%). In contrast to other urban sites, Dade County respondents 
were less likely to list 'Musicals' as their highest priority for attending more often and more likely to 
select 'Ballet' and 'Art Museums/Galleries' as the single discipline that they would like to attend more 
often. These findings are consistent with participation levels and indicate again that a high level of 
participation in a particular discipline breeds additional interest, and vice versa. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. Other information 
provided by the Metropolitan Dade County Cultural Affairs Council. 



65 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Santa Clara County, California 

Santa Clara County, at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay Area, has experienced rapid 
population growth over the past two decades, and the City of San Jose is now one of California's 
largest centers of commerce and population. A comprehensive downtown redevelopment plan, a 
rapid transit system, and the skyrocketing growth rate of nearby Silicon Valley have all contributed 
to San Jose's emergence from "edge city" status to that of an independent urban center. Nearly one in 
five residents are Hispanic/Latino, and a growing Asian community represents another 10% of the 
population. Median household income in 1991 
was close to $52,000, a level far above both 
national and state averages. Families represent an 
increasingly larger percentage of households, 
with significant numbers headed by single 
parents. 



About the Sample.., 

• sampled area includes all of Santa Clara 
County, excluding telephone exchanges 
(408) 842, 847, and 848 (Gilroy area). 

• sample size - 401 

Sample Demographics * 



51% female, 49% male 
67% white, not Hispanic 
18% Hispanic/Latino, 8% Asian 
51% have incomes > $50,000/yr. 
43% completed college; 
16% have graduate degrees 
*weighted data 



Arts Activity in Santa Clara County 

The arts have not been bypassed by the region's 

fast growth but rather have prospered with it. 

New or planned cultural facilities include a 

renovated art museum, a new home for the local 

repertory theatre company, and renovation of the 

historic Fox Theatre downtown. Nearby 

communities have also recently opened facilities 

(Mountain View Center for the Performing Arts) 

which draw Santa Clara County residents away from the traditional cultural centers of San Francisco 

and Oakland. Recent experiences with outdoor productions in the downtown area (i.e., outdoor Jazz 

Festival and Le Cirque du Soleil) have proven that the city itself can serve as a suitable venue for 

various types of performances. 

Some of the most exciting cultural developments in 
the county are in the area of multi -cultural performing 
arts collaborations involving Asian, Latino, and East 
Indian music and dance companies. The cultural 
community in the region is striving to develop a 
supportive infrastructure for arts and culture through 
audience development and outreach activities. 

Arts Participation in Santa Cl ara County 

For each of the seven performing arts disciplines 
surveyed, participation rates for Santa Clara County 
generally fall in the middle of the distribution for all 
12 sites, with a tendency to be somewhat higher than 
average. An exception is found in the area of 'Jazz' 
with a participation rate of 19% (tied for 2nd of 12 
sites). In addition to a lively nightclub scene, (26% of 
jazz attenders last attended a nightclub or jazz club), a 
summer jazz festival takes place on six stages 
throughout downtown San Jose and offers free 
performances for three days. Consequently, another 



Santa Clara County Cultural 
Activity 


Cultural Attractions 


Art Museums 


4 


Art Galleries 


16 


Arts/Crafts Fairs/Festivals 


20 


Historic Parks/Sites/Monuments 


6 


Performing Arts Activity* 


Jazz 


375 


Classical Music 


202 


Opera 


58 


Musicals 


473 


Plays 


992 


Ballet 


53 


Other Dance 


115 


*Number of Reported Performances over a 
Recent 12-Month Period 



66- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



22% of jazz attenders last attended a 'Park or Open- 
Air Facility'. The area's large Latino population 
enjoys concerts and dances featuring salsa and Afro- 
Caribbean music, which also have been reported as 
jazz participation. 

In comparison to other sites, Santa Clara County 
respondents also reported significantly higher 
participation rates for 'Ballet' (9%, ranks #4) and 
musical theatre (30%, ranks #3). The county's 
resident professional dance company, the San 
Jose/Cleveland Ballet, produces an annual season in 
San Jose, while professional ballet companies can also 
be found within an hour's drive in San Francisco and 
Oakland. Touring ballet companies also perform at 
universities throughout the Bay Area. 

Also figuring in the relatively high participation rate 
for 'Ballet' may be attendance at performances by 
Ballet Folklorico organizations, a form of ethnic 
dance popular among Latinos and prevalent in Santa 
Clara County. 

The area's rich diversity of cultural activity is not 
adequately reflected in the categories surveyed. For 
example, attendance at performances of ethnic music 
cannot be considered either 'Classical Music' or 'Jazz' 
participation, and consequently were unrecorded, even 
though it is a major area of arts activity in Santa Clara 
County. Further, local representatives report a 
growing number of non-traditional collaborative 
productions involving the region's Latino and Asian 
communities, often featuring music and dance on the 
same program. It is unclear to what extent attendance 
at these types of performances was reported, given the 
limited discipline definitions and the interview 
protocol. 

Of particular note in Santa Clara County is the high 
rate of attendance at 'Historic Sites', with 51% of 
respondents having visited such a site over the past 
year (ranks #2 of 12 sites). While local representatives 
have reported only six such sites in the County, at 
least three are unique for their stature in the 
community. Kelly Park is a collection of historic 
buildings and replicas near downtown San Jose; the 
Winchester Mystery House is a popular destination to 
which local residents take out-of-town visitors for 
tours and special events; and Villa Montalvo, an 
historic home, is also a site for performing arts events. 



Santa Clara 

County Arts 

Participation 

Rates 


c 

§ 

U 

en 

U 

c 

ett 
CO 


i 

a 

d 

< 


CORE DISCIPLINES 


Jazz 


19% 


15% 


Classical Music 


21% 


20% 


Opera 


8% 


6% 


Musicals 


30% 


27% 


Plays 


21% 


20% 


Ballet 


9% 


7% 


Other Dance 


9% 


10% 


Art Museum/Gallery 


44% 


42% 


Any of 8 Core Disciplines 


67% 


62% 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


54% 


49% 


Attend Movie Theater 


78% 


73% 


Historic Park/Monument 


51% 


44% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


74% 


73% 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


72% 


69% 


Read Plays 


10% 


8% 


Read Poetry 


29% 


29% 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


70% 


64% 


Hear Poetry 


20% 


15% 


Hear Novels/Books 


16% 


13% 


TELEVISION EXPOSURE 






Jazz 


36% 


36% 


Classical Music 


36% 


44% 


Opera 


23% 


23% 


Musicals 


29% 


29% 


Plays 


29% 


27% 


Any Dance 


34% 


36% 


Artists/Art/Art Museums 


37% 


43% 


Any TV Exposure 


74% 


75% 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


57% 


51% 


Classical Music 


65% 


61% 


Opera 


27% 


28% 


Musicals 


24% 


23% 


Plays 


8% 


10% 


Any Radio/Recordings 


81% 


77% 



67- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 





Santa Clara 
County Venues 


Performing Arts 
Facilities 


Bars, Clubs & 
Dinner Theatres 


College/Univ. 
Venues 


Alternative 
Venues 


TOTAL 


SEATING CAPACITY 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


#of 
Venues 


Total 
Seats 


Up to 300 


12 


2058 


2* 


325* 


4 


850 


11 


2230 


27 


5138 


301 - 850 


5 


2355 


N/A 


N/A 


5 


3889 


4 


2450 


14 


8694 


851 - 1500 


1 


1000 








1 


1081 


2 


2160 


4 


4241 


1501 - 2500 














1 


1722 


2 


4000 


3 


5722 


Over 2501 


3 


8187 








2 


13500 


1 


20000 


6 


41687 


Total Seat Count by Type 


21 


13600 








13 


21042 


20 


30840 


54 


65482 



* list incomplete 

Figures for frequency of attendance are very similar to the averages for all 1 2 sites. Although 
participation rates for Santa Clara County respondents are higher in some categories, those who 
participate do not attend more or less frequently than their counterparts in other cities. 

For the most part, rates of participation in the arts through the media are also not significantly 
different in comparison to most of the other 1 1 sites. However, literature participation rates for 
Santa Clara County tend to be somewhat higher, especially in the categories of 'Reading Novels or 
Short Stories', and 'Attending Poetry Readings'. This finding is consistent with the observation that 
higher education levels are related to higher literature participation rates. Santa Clara County ranks 
third among all sites in the number of respondents with college degrees (23.6%), and first among all 
sites in the number of respondents with graduate degrees (18.2%). 

Venue Typ es Attended 

Seventy-seven percent of those respondents who 
participated in any of the seven performing arts 
disciplines reported last attending a traditional performing 
arts venue (i.e. 'Theatre', 'Concert Hall or Opera House', 
'College Facility', etc.). This figure is comparable to the 
other large urban areas studied. A comparison of the 
venue types attended with the actual facility inventory of 
the area shows that college and university facilities play 
an essential role in the performing arts delivery system. 
Four educational institutions host performing arts 
activities: San Jose State University, Santa Clara 
University, Stanford University, and Foothill Community 
College. It is therefore no surprise that Santa Clara 
County boasts the highest percentage (12%) of reported 
attendance at college facilities of all the sites surveyed, 
with the exception of Las Vegas. Among the disciplines, 
respondents attended 'Other Dance' performances at college 
other type of venue. 

Interest in Attending More Frequently 



Santa Clara County 

Mean Frequency of 

Attendance Among 

Attenders 


>> 

G 
9 
O 

U 

O 

3 

C/5 


05 

w 1 

J 
-J 

< 


Jazz 


2.45 


2.7 


Classical Music 


2.74 


2.84 


Opera 


1.92 


1.86 


Musicals 


2.28 


23 


Plays 


2.73 


2.45 


Ballet 


1.35 


1.77 


Other Dance 


2.25 


2.03 


Art Museum/Gallery 


2.57 


2.62 


Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


2.79 


2.66 


Historic Park/Monument 


3.02 


2.85 



facilities more frequently than at any 



With respect to interest in attending arts events more frequently, Santa Clara County respondents 
expressed interests similar to those of respondents in other cities. 'Musicals' (22%), 'Art 



-68- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Museums/Galleries' (20%), and 'Jazz' (19%) were most frequently cited as the single cultural activity 
that respondents would like to attend more often. Compared to average figures for the other 1 1 sites, 
only 'Jazz' received a significantly higher percentage of interest (19%, ranks 2nd to Las Vegas). 
Overall, 68% of those surveyed would like to attend arts events more often. 



Source for demographic and lifestyle data: Equifax Marketing Decision Systems, Encinitas, CA. 

Figures for number and size of venues, number of performing arts events, and number of other cultural attractions 

provided by the City of San Jose Office of Cultural Affairs. 



-69 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



ffl. SPECIAL TOPICS 

The primary focus of this report is arts participation at the local level, and the relationship between 
participation patterns and the supply of local arts activity. However, data from the 12 Local Surveys 
is rich with information about a variety of additional topics of relevance to arts managers, funders, 
and policy makers. For example, results from questions about participation, venue types attended, 
sources of information, etc., can be cross-tabulated with demographic variables to uncover possible 
underlying differences. Although the opportunities for detailed analysis of this data are almost 
endless, several of the more interesting special topics are addressed below. 

A. Factors Related to Arts Participation 

A statistical procedure called 'discriminant analysis' was used to determine the demographic 
variables which distinguish between those respondents who participate in each of the arts 
activities and those who do not. Results from this analysis identify which factors contribute 
the most to whether a respondent belongs in a specific group (e.g., 'Classical Music' 
attenders, etc.). For example, it was observed that of all the demographic variables, the 
education variable 'Graduate Degree' related most strongly to 'Classical Music' participation. 
Although this analysis does not prove causality (i.e., that having a graduate degree causes 
Classical Music' participation), it does sift out what factors are most related to participation 
in the various disciplines. 

Combined data from all 12 sites were analyzed. Age, race, gender, income, education, 
marital status, and household size were all tested against each of the categories of arts 
participation. Results show that: 

• Of all the demographic variables tested, education levels, particularly 'High School 
Degree', 'Bachelor's Degree' and 'Graduate Degree', have the strongest relationship to arts 
participation in each of the 8 core disciplines. This finding is generally consistent with 
the results of previous research on arts participation, including the 1982 and 1985 
SPPAs. 

• The difference in participation rates among races is greater with respect to Classical 
Music', 'Opera', and 'Art Museum/Gallery' participation, and less for 'Jazz', 'Musicals', 
Plays', 'Ballet' and 'Other Dance'. 

• High Income ($100,000+) is associated with participation in Classical Music', 'Opera', 
'Musicals' and 'Art Museums/Galleries'. Income levels, generally, are less related to 
participation in 'Other Dance'. 

• Age is a significant discriminating factor for Classical Music' and 'Opera' participation, 
but much less so for other disciplines. For example, 41 % of 'Opera' attenders fall into 
the 40-59 age bracket, and another 30% fall into the 60+ age bracket. In contrast, 'Jazz' 
attenders are more evenly distributed across all age brackets (only 46% are over age 40). 



• 



Marital status is not a particularly strong factor related to arts participation, although 
'Married' is significantly related to Classical Music' participation, and 'Never Married' is 
signifipantly related to attendance at 'Arts/Crafts Fairs or Festivals'. 



70 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Combining data from the 12 sites does not produce a nationally representative sample, and 
data sets are too small to conduct this analysis on a site by site basis. Other statistical 
procedures, including multiple regression analysis, were used on data from the 1982 and 
1985 SPPAs to evaluate demographic variables as predictors of arts participation. Reports 
from these studies should be consulted for further information about the demographic and 
socio-economic characteristics of arts attenders. A bibliography of research on arts 
participation appears in the appendix. 

B. Cross-Discipline Participation Rates 

While it is valuable to study participation rates for the individual disciplines, the data also 
provides information about overlapping audiences between the various disciplines. Table 1 1 
(below) presents cross-discipline participation rates for all of the 12 sites combined. Use this 
table to look up what percentage of attenders in a particular discipline also attend the other 
disciplines. 1 This information might be useful to a marketing manager, for example, in 
targeting mailings for a particular production or series. A number of interesting 
observations can be made from these data: 



CROSS-DISCIPLINE PARTICIPATION RATES 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 



Table 11 



3 



s 

-a 



Reference Audience 

(Read down each column for results) 



CO 

\— 

8. 
o 



a 



«3 





G> 




O 




§ 




Q 


<u 


In 


■a 


■3 


CQ 


O 



Percent Also Attending.. 




HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Among 'Opera' participators, 25% also attended 'Ballet'. 



• Interest in dance does not necessarily cross from one genre to another: Only 24% of 
'Ballet' attenders also reported attending 'Other Dance', while even fewer 'Other Dance' 
attenders also attended 'Ballet' (16%). 



'For an analysis of overlapping audiences from the 1982 SPPA, consult the University of 
Maryland's'report Public Participation in the Arts: Final Report on the 1982 Survey , pages 
204-211. 



71 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation m ^ Summary Report 

• While 55% of 'Opera' attenders also attended 'Classical Music', the reverse is less 
common. Only 19% of 'Classical Music' attenders also attended 'Opera'. 

• 'Musicals' and 'Plays' seem to have the strongest "mutual attraction" of audiences; 
crossover from 'Musicals' to "Plays' was 41%, while crossover from 'Plays' to 'Musicals' 
was 57%. 

• Generally, performing arts attenders are very likely to also attend 'Art Museums/ 
Galleries,' with crossover rates ranging from 62% ('Musicals') to 80% ('Opera'). In 
contrast, 'Art Museums/Galleries' attenders are much less likely to cross over to the 
performing arts disciplines, with crossover rates ranging from just 12% for 'Ballet' and 
'Opera' to 34% for 'Classical Music' attenders 

A similar analysis can be conducted with data from each site. For the arts manager, results 
from this analysis might be useful in assessing the potential impact of marketing efforts to 
attenders of various disciplines. 

C. Frequency of Participation Data 

Participators in each discipline were asked how many times they had attended performances 
of that discipline over the past year. The resulting data (referred to as "frequency of 
participation") was compiled for each site, and presented in tabular format in each site 
discussion. For example, the popularity of visual arts activities in Sedona, AZ is evidenced 
not only by a high participation rate for 'Museums/Galleries' (77%), but also by the fact that 
those who did visit museums/galleries did so more frequently (6.34 times over the past year, 
on average) than their counterparts in other cities (3.45 times for all sites combined). 

Usually, the distribution of data for frequency of participation in any discipline was skewed 
by several very high observations. In other words, someone inevitably reported attending 
('Opera', for example) 20, 30, or even 50 or more times, while almost everyone else went 
only once or twice. These observations are not necessarily invalid, but they present a 
statistical problem in that they exert an undue influence when computing average figures. 
Therefore, all frequency of attendance observations greater than 12 were excluded from the 
data set for the purposes of computing mean frequency figures. Typically, this procedure 
only eliminated several observations. 

The vast majority of participators attended any given discipline only several times, at a 
steeply declining rate: 

• 38% of all participators attended a given discipline only once 

• Another 37% of participators attended two or three times 

• Another 17% attended between four and six times 

These data become more interesting as frequency numbers rise above 6. Instead of 
continuing to decline at a steady rate, the data begin to cluster at certain numbers, including 
10, 12, 15, 20, 24, 25, and 52 - numbers which are multiples of 5 and 10, or calendar units 
(12 = once a month, 24 = twice a month, 52 = once a week). To generalize, it appears that 
frequency of participation figures change from actual to estimated somewhere around the 
number 6. 



-72 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



Demographics of the Most Frequent Attenders 

Respondents were categorized into five mutually-exclusive groups based on the highest 
number of times they had attended any one of the 8 "core" disciplines (7 performing arts 
disciplines plus 'Art Museums/Galleries'): 

1. Those who did not attend 

2. Those who attended once 

3. Those who attended two or three times 

4. Those who attended four or five times 

5. Those who attended six or more times 

For example, if a respondent reported attending 'Musicals' 4 times in the past year, 'Plays' 
twice, and 'Classical Music' once, they would be categorized in group #4, above, because 
their highest frequency was 4. 

These frequency categories were then cross-tabulated with demographic characteristics to 
facilitate analysis. Results are presented in Table 9(a) in the appendix. As frequency of 
participation increases, respondents tend to fall into higher age, income, and education 
brackets. Education levels, particularly, rise consistently with more frequent attendance: 



EDUCATION LEVELS BY FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION 



[~l High School or Lower 



Some College 



Bachelor's Degree or Higher 



70% 
60% 



s 

BO 
.S 
> 



< 




Times 



1 Time 2 or 3 Times 4 or 5 Times 

Attended Any of 8 "Core" Disciplines... 



6+ Times 



Generally, demographic characteristics follow a consistent pattern of change until frequency 
of participation reaches '4 or 5 Times', after which there is a leveling out or reversal of the 
trend. For example, the percentage of respondents in the '60 and Over' age bracket increases 
steadily as frequency of participation rises: 



Frequency 

1 Time 

2 or 3 Times 
4 or 5 Times 
6+ Times 



% 60 and Over 
16% 

21% 
24% 
29% 



73 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



The racial/ethnic distribution of those who did not attend any of the 8 "core" disciplines is 
different than the racial distribution of those who attended at least once (see table below). 
Minority populations account for almost a third of all non-attenders (32%), but less than a 
quarter of those who attended once (22%), 2 or 3 times (20%), or 6 or more times (17%). 
Oddly, this trend reverses for the group of respondents who attended 4 or 5 times, with 29% 
minority composition . 



*" 0% 



RACIAL/ETHNIC MINORTI1ES BY FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION 



African -American ; | Hispanic 



I I Other Minority 




Times 



1 Time 2 or 3 Times 4 or 5 Times 

Attended Any of 8 "Core" Disciplines... 



6+ Times 



With respect to gender, females account for larger percentages of attenders as freqency of 
attendance increases. This trend is reversed, however, at the highest level (6 or more times), 
where participation by males exceeds that for females by over 10%. Frequency of 
participation data from the 1992 SPPA should be examined in light of these results. 

Number of Disciplines Attended 

Adding another dimension to the analysis of participation rates and frequency of 
participation, a separate analysis was conducted to examine the demographic characteristics 
of respondents based on the number of different disciplines attended. In other words, how 
does the respondent who attended 'Jazz' performances four times differ from the respondent 
who attended four disciplines once? Both may have attended a total of four times, but how 
do they differ? Results are presented in Table 10 in the appendix. Generally, demographic 
characteristics change dramatically as the number of disciplines attended goes up: 

• Almost half of all respondents who attended six or more of the 8 "core" disciplines fall 
into the 40 - 59 age bracket. 

• Married persons are significantly more likely to attend multiple disciplines. 

• Respondents with incomes over $100,000 are more than 3 times as likely to attend 4 or 
more disciplines as they are to attend only one discipline. 

• Education levels increase dramatically as the number of disciplines attended goes up (see 
chart on the following page). 



74 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



EDUCATION LEVELS BY NUMBER OF DISCIPLINES ATTENDED 



I I High School or Lower 



Some College 



Bachelor's Degree or Higher 



> 
-J 

e 
o 
a 

S 

3 

s 



2 



# 





None 



1 Discipline 2 or 3 Disciplines 4 or 5 Disciplines 6 to 8 Disciplines 

Number of 8 "Core" Disciplines Attended... 



D. Utilization of Venues by Discipline 

The 1982 and 1985 SPPAs asked respondents simply to list all types of venues attended for 
all performances. However, the 12 Local Surveys queried venue types for each discipline, 
providing a new level of information about this subject. Table 3(a) in the appendix shows 
venue utilization for each site (for all disciplines combined). Table 3(b), which is reproduced 
below, shows venue types attended by discipline. As might be expected, venue utilization 
varies substantially by discipline. 

Venue types are sorted into three categories for easy reference; performing arts facilities (i.e. 
"traditional" venue types), clubs/dinner theaters, and "alternative" venues. Consult the table 
for details. Highlights of these data include: 

• "Traditional" venue types were used almost exclusively for 'Opera' (95%) and 'Ballet' 
(90%), presumably because of the involved technical demands of these productions and 
the limited technical capacities of other types of venues. 

• 'Nightclubs/Jazz Clubs' and 'Dinner Theatres' were last attended by a third (33%) of all 
'Jazz' attenders, while another 20% attended 'Jazz' concerts at Parks/Open-air Facilities'. 
"Traditional" performing arts venues were utilized by only 37% of 'Jazz' attenders. 

• Approximately 10% of all 'Classical Music' attenders reported attending their most recent 
concert at a 'Church or Synagogue', underscoring the importance of these venues in the 
performing arts delivery system. 

• 'Dinner Theatres' were most recently attended by 13% of audiences for 'Musicals', 
indicating that small-scale musical theatre productions are an important part of the 
supply of arts activities. More people attended 'Musicals' in 'Dinner Theatres' (13%) than 
'Concert Halls/Opera Houses' (11%) or 'Civic Centers' (5%). 

• Traditional theaters account for 59% of utilization for both 'Musicals' and 'Plays.' 



75- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



VENUE TYPES ATTENDED BY DISCIPLINE 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


Table 3(b) 


N 
N 

a 
•— > 


o 

'c/3 

3 

'55 

53 




03 
O 


C/5 

'55 

3 

2 


C/5 

EC 


PQ 


<a 

c 

Q 

«- 

o 


















Concert Hall or Opera House 


9% 


39% 


61% 


n% 


9% 


30% 


12% 


Civic Center 


5% 


6% 


5% 


5% 


4% 


10% 


5% 


Theatre 


16% 


17% 


26% 


59% 


59% 


43% 


28% 


College Facility 


7% 


12% 


3% 


3% 


9% 


7% 


12% 


Performing Arts Facilities 37% 74% 95% 78% 81% 90% 57% 


















Coffee House 


1% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


Dinner Theatre 


7% 


2% 


2% 


13% 


9% 


2% 


3% 


Nightclub/Jazz Club 


25% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


1% 


1% 


3% 


Clubs/Dinner Theatre 33% 2% 2% 14% 10% 3% 6% j 


















Church or Synagogue 


2% 


10% 


0% 


1% 


2% 


0% 


3% 


Secondary School Facility 


2% 


3% 


0% 


2% 


2% 


3% 


10% 


Museum or Arts Gallery 


1% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Library 


0% 


1% 


0% 


1% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Park or Open-Air Facility 


20% 


6% 


2% 


2% 


2% 


1% 


12% 


Town Hall/City Hall 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Alternative Venues 25% 20% 3% 6% 7% 5% 28% 


















Other 


5% 


4% 


0% 


1% 


1% 


2% 


8% 


Don't Know 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


2% 


1% 


0% 


Refused 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: One quarter of all jazz attenders in the combined sample 
reported seeing their most recent jazz performance at a 'Nightclub/Jazz Club'. 



Within the category of 'Performing Arts Facilities', the data suggest that respondents had 
difficulty classifying facilities based on the venue types provided. In some cases, 
respondents reported attending 'Concert Halls/Opera Houses' in cities where none exist, and 
frequently confused 'College Facilities' with Theatres' and other venue types. Definitions of 
venue types were not provided in the survey. 

A similar analysis can be conducted for each site, although the number of attenders for each 
venue type are often too low to produce statistically reliable results at an acceptable level of 
confidence. 



76 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

E. Utilization of Venues by Demographic Characteristics 

Further examination of venue types attended was conducted to reveal any demographic 
differences between respondents who utilize the various venue types. Table 3(c) shows 
venue utilization by demographic characteristics (race, age, and income) for the 12 sites 
combined. A number of interesting observations can be found in this data, although 
sampling error rates limit the reliability of some of this data. (Also, given the large 
differences in utilization of venue types by discipline, it is of limited value to aggregate all 
venue utilization except for very general purposes.) 



• 



African-American and Hispanic respondents used "purpose-built" concert halls and opera 
houses less frequently than Whites. This may be attributed in part to the nature of 
programming (opera and ballet, esp.) which is typically presented at these venues, in 
addition to a host of accessibility issues including transportation and ticket prices. 

• Hispanic respondents were about three times more likely to utilize 'Civic Centers' (14%) 
than African- American respondents (4%) and white respondents (5%). 

• As might be expected, use of College Facilities' is most prevalent among the youngest 
respondents (13% for ages 18-29, but only 5% for ages 40-59). Utilization of 
'Nightclubs/Jazz Clubs' also drops off in the higher age brackets (7% for ages 18-29 vs. 
2% for ages 60+). 

• As might be expected, the very wealthiest respondents are less likely to attend 
'Alternative Venues', and more likely to attend traditional theaters. 

F. Sources of Information by Demographic Characteristics 

All respondents to the 12 Local Surveys were asked "How do you learn or find out about arts 
events in your community?" Complete results are presented in Table 6(b) in the appendix. 
For analysis, responses were categorized into several groups, with results as follows: 

%of 

Respondents * Categories of Sources of Information 

82% Any Media (newspapers, television, radio, magazines) 

24% Any Word-of-Mouth (word of mouth, friends/relatives) 

16% Any Targeted Appeal (mailing/flyer, telemarketing) 

15% Any Other (posters/notices, school notices, other) 

^percentages do not total 100% because multiple selections were allowed. 

Overall, results show that newspapers (74%) are the most frequent source of information on 
arts events. 'Television' (26%), ranks higher than 'Radio' (20%) as a source of information 
about arts events, with 'Word-of-Mouth' and 'Mailing/Flyer' each reported as a source of 
information for 16% of respondents. Only 10% of respondents reported that 
"Friends/Relatives' were a source of information about arts events, while 9% received 
information from Posters/Notices'. With respect to demographic characteristics, several 
observations are of interest: 



77 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



• Respondents between the ages of 30 and 59 tend to get arts information from 
newspapers. Respondents aged 30 to 39 also reported 'Radio' as a source of information 
more frequently than respondents in other age categories. 

• Respondents '60 and Over' years of age are more likely to receive arts information from 
'Mailings/Flyers'. 

• Younger respondents aged 18 - 29 are more likely than other age groups to receive arts 
information from 'Posters/Notices' and 'School Notices'. 

Gender 

• Females reported 'Mailings/Flyers' as a source of information about arts events more 
frequently than males. Women also reported 'Newspapers' as a source of information 
more frequently than men, while men turned to 'Magazines' for arts information more 
often than women. 

Race 

• White respondents receive arts information through the media (86%) more frequently 
than respondents who are African- American (77%), Hispanic/Latino (62%), and other 
races (66%). Conversely, African- Americans are significantly more likely to receive arts 
information by Television' or 'Radio' than other racial groups. 

• African- American respondents reported "Friends/Relatives' as a source of arts 
information twice as frequently as Whites (18% vs. 9%). 

• Hispanic/Latino respondents listed 'Posters/Notices' as a source of information about arts 
events more frequently than other races, although the small number of Hispanic/Latino 
respondents (275 across all sites) cause larger sampling error rates for this analysis. 

Education 

• As education levels rise, so does usage of the media for arts information. Also, the most 
highly educated respondents (and also the most wealthy) are much more likely to get arts 
information from 'Mailings/Flyers'. 

Income 

• Respondents with annual incomes less than $20,000 were far less likely to report 
'Newspapers' as a source of arts information than respondents with incomes over 
$20,000. Conversely, those with lower incomes were more likely to report 'Television' 
as a source of information. 

Marital Status 

• Aside from media sources, single respondents are more likely than married respondents 
to receive arts information by "Word of Mouth', whereas married and widowed 
respondents are more likely to get their information from 'Mailings/Flyers'. 

Each of the 12 local sites should examine the sources of arts information for their own 
respondents, although cross-tabulations by demographic characteristics will result in numbers 
too small to be meaningful. Of particular value to arts producers and presenters in each area 
will be the verbatim answers reported for the actual newspapers, radio and television stations 
listed by respondents. 



78- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

G. Reasons for Not Attending More Often 

Often referred to as "barriers to attendance", reasons for not attending more often were also 
queried in the 1982 and 1985 national SPPAs, but were dropped from the 1992 national 
survey. For each of the 12 Local Surveys, respondents were first asked whether or not they 
would like to attend cultural events more often. Those who answered "Yes" (an average of 
69%) were then asked to list the reasons why they don't attend more frequently. Answers 
were coded into 17 different categories, ranging from 'Don't have time' to 'No one to go with'. 
Individual reasons were probed in some markets. Results are presented in Table 4(a) on the 
following page. 

Among those who would like to attend more often, 61% cited one reason - "Don't Have 
Time" - overshadowing all other reasons by a factor of 3 for the combined data set. The next 
two most frequent reasons cited relate to cost - "Overall Cost of Going to Events" (20%), and 
"Cost of Tickets" (19%). All other reasons were cited by 10% or fewer of the respondents. 
These findings are generally consistent with results of the 1982 and 1985 SPPAs, although 
the samples were not designed to be comparable. Several interesting variations occurred 
between sites: 



• 



'Not available/Not enough variety' was a much more important reason for not attending 
for respondents located outside of large urban areas (i.e., Sedona, Winston-Salem, and 
the 3 Nevada sites). Generally, one would expect lower participation rates in areas where 
the supply of arts programming is limited, and this holds true for the 3 Nevada sites and 
to some extent for Winston-Salem. However, 22% of Sedona respondents, despite the 
area's very high participation rates, still perceive availability of arts programming as a 
significant problem. 

'Cost of Tickets' and 'Overall Cost of Going to Events' are cited as barriers to attendance 
by Seattle respondents most frequently (26% cited each), compared to averages for all 12 
sites (19% and 20%, respectively). In contrast, only 9% of Rural Nevada respondents 
cited 'Cost of Tickets' as a barrier. 

Lack of Child Care/Baby-sitting' was cited by Chicago respondents significantly more 
often (13%) compared to respondents in other urban areas (7% for Pittsburgh, 10% for 
Philadelphia). 

As would be expected, 'Distance/Travel Time/Inconvenient Location' was a major issue 
for Rural Nevada respondents (19%), and also an issue for Sedona respondents (11%). 
Curiously, 10% of Chicago respondents who would like to attend more often also cited 
this as a reason, although this may be due in part to the extent of the geographic area 
surveyed, which included areas over 60 miles from downtown Chicago. 

Problems Related to Age/Health' were cited by 12% of Broward County respondents 
who would like to attend more often, compared to a 6% average for all 12 sites. 
Weighted age data shows that Broward County respondents have the highest average age 
of the 12 sites (50). 

'Transportation/Traffic/Parking Problems' were most prevalent for Philadelphia 
respondents (10%), but not for Chicago respondents (4%). 



-79 



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HOW TO READ THIS T 

as a reason for not attend 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Primary Reason for Not Attending More Often 

Additionally, all respondents were asked to identify the single or "primary" reason for not 
attending cultural events more often. The resulting data are presented in Table 4(b) in the 
appendix. A different picture emerged when respondents were forced to choose the single 
most important reason for not attending more often. For the purposes of analysis, answers 
were categorized into five sub-groups as follows: 

CATEGORY REASONS 

Personal Barriers Lack of Interest, Don't Have Time, Prefer to Watch 

TV, Just Don't Get Around to It, Don't Know 
(These responses show that the respondent is not 
really interested in attending more arts events than 
s/he already does.) 

Price Factors Cost of Tickets, Overall Cost of Going to Events 

Social/Physical Barriers Lack of Child Care/Baby-sitting, No One to Go 

With, Problem Related to Handicap, Problem 
Related to Age/Health 

Locational Issues Transportation/Traffic/Parking Problems, 

Distance/Travel Time/Inconvenient Location, 
Crime/Fear of Crime 

Quality/ Availability Tickets Sold Out, Poor Quality of Performance, Not 

Available/Not Enough Variety 

Some of the observations noted above still come through in this analysis, but some factors 
become less important while new ones surface. 

• When forced to identify the single most important reason for not attending more often, 
Price factors remain important for Seattle respondents, but also become more prominent 
reasons for Philadelphia respondents. 

• Concern about child care/baby-sitting all but disappears for Chicago respondents. 

• 'Crime/Fear of Crime' emerges as the most important issue for 1 1 % of Dade County 
respondents and for 1% of Broward County respondents; in other sites, safety appears to 
be less of an issue. 

• Distance and availability overshadow all other reasons for not attending for over half of 
all Rural Nevada respondents. Only for the 3 Nevada sites is 'Not Available/Not Enough 
Variety' perceived to be the primary barrier to attendance for a significant number of 
respondents. These issues shrink in importance for Sedona and Winston-Salem 
respondents. 

• Social/physical barriers (especially 'No One to Go With') come forward as important 
reasons for not attending for Pittsburgh and San Jose/Santa Clara County respondents, in 



-81- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

contrast to all other 10 sites. According to lifestyle data, these two areas have a high 
proportion of single households. 

• Personal barriers (reasons that are within the control of the individual) are cited as the 
most important reasons for not attending more often by an average of 44% of all 
respondents. Thus, a majority of respondents (56%) reported that external or 
environmental factors which are beyond their control (i.e., cost, traffic, etc.) are the most 
important reasons for not attending more often. 

Further Explanation of Barriers for Demographic Sub-Groups 

Further analysis of these data shows some interesting differences between demographic sub- 
groups. From Table 4(c) in the appendix, it is observed that: 

• Older respondents (60+) were less likely to cite personal barriers for not attending more 
often (e.g., 'Don't Have Time' was less of an issue) but they were more likely to cite 
social/physical barriers and locational Issues. 

• Younger respondents (1 8 to 29) were less concerned with price factors than respondents 
in other age groups. 

• Men were more likely to cite personal barriers than women, whereas women expressed 
greater concern over social/physical barriers and price factors. 

• African-American respondents tended to cite more problems related to locational issues. 
Hispanics cited availability/quality reasons for not attending almost twice as frequently 
as African- Americans and Whites. 

• Locational Issues appear to be more of a perceived problem for respondents with lower 
education levels, whether located in rural or large metropolitan areas. 

• As would be expected, cost-consciousness decreases as income levels rise, and unmarried 
respondents cite fewer social/physical barriers to increased attendance (i.e., lack of child 
care/baby-sitting, etc.). 

By studying these data, local sponsors may gain insight into the unique challenges facing 
their area with respect to barriers to increased attendance. 

Other Topics 

Data from the 12 Local Surveys are available for supplemental analysis 2 . Other topics which merit 
further analysis include live vs. media arts participation, sources of information about arts events, and 
attitudes about arts participation. The survey data will continue to yield additional value from the 
focused study of these and other topics. 



inquiries should be directed to the Research Office, National Endowment for the Arts, 1 100 Pennsylvania 
Ave. NW, Washington DC, 20506. 

-82- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

IV. METHODOLOGY 

A. Survey Research Methodology 

Commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts in collaboration with local co- 
sponsors, the 12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts were conducted by Abt 
Associates, of Cambridge, MA, over a three month period from February 12 to May 15, 
1992. The surveys were intended to augment the national survey of participation in the arts 
(SPPA) conducted by the Bureau of the Census throughout 1992, and to provide the twelve 
participating communities with research data to meet their specific needs. 

Desig n 

Each survey was designed to include three components: 

1. The "Core Questionnaire" duplicated key questions from the 1992 national survey. 
These questions pertained to participation rates in the performing and visual arts, 
literature, and several other disciplines, as well as arts participation through the 
media. Additional questions (not on the national survey) asked participators to 
indicate the frequency of attendance over the past 12 months, and in what type of 
venue they had most recently attended. 

2. "Community-Specific Local Modules" were developed in conjunction with Abt 
Associates to address the specific information needs of the local sponsors. 
Questions pertaining to "reasons for not attending more often" and "sources of 
information about the arts" were common across all sites, in addition to a series of 
questions unique to each survey. 

3. Basic Demographic Information was collected for all respondents. This included 
race/ethnicity, age, gender, education, household income, and marital status. 

The scope of this summary report is limited to questions common to all 12 surveys, 
including participation rates, frequency of participation, venue types attended, sources of 
information about arts events, interest in attending more often, reasons for not attending 
more frequently, attitudes about arts participation, and demographic characteristics of 
respondents. 

Further discussion of survey design issues, including differences between the local 
questionnaires and the national SPPA's, may be found in the report appendix. 

Sampling Methodology and Response Rates 

Using list-assisted random digit dialing telephone survey approach, households were sampled 
in each of the sites until the goal of approximately 400 interviews was achieved (600 in the 
Philadelphia metropolitan area), for a total of approximately 5,000 respondents. A stratified 
sampling approach was taken for several of the sites. For example, respondents for the 
Pittsburgh/Allegheny County site were drawn equally from within the City limits of 
Pittsburgh and from the remainder of Allegheny County, so that participation in the two 
areas could be compared. In Dade County, telephone exchanges with a high percent minority 
population were over-sampled to facilitate analysis between minority and non-minority 

-83- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



participation. Similarly, for the Philadelphia site, an additional 200 interviews were 
completed in areas of the city with high percent minority populations. Spanish-speaking 
interviewers were used, as needed, to conduct interviews for three sites; Dade County, 
Broward County, and San Jose/Santa Clara County. 

For each household sampled, the person over 18 who had the most recent birthday was the 
eligible respondent. A maximum of 6 attempts were made to obtain an answered call for 
each residential number dialed. 

The majority of interviews were conducted during the early evening in the respondent's local 
time zone or on the weekend. Callbacks were scheduled as needed when the eligible 
respondent was unavailable during the initial attempt. The interviewer introduced 
him/herself as "calling for the local sponsor about a study of local participation in the arts." 
Interviewers used Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) to collect data and 
guide them through the survey instrument. Response rates, according to Abt Associates, are 
reported in the following table (sorted from highest to lowest). 



SITE 


Response 
Rate 


Rural Nevada 


52% 


Reno 


50% 


Pittsburgh 


48% 


Sedona 


45% 


Winston-Salem 


45% 


Philadelphia 


44% 


Seattle/King County 


43% 


San Jose 


43% 


Las Vegas 


42% 


Chicago 


42% 


Broward County 


41% 


Dade County 


40% 



On average, the survey took 17 minutes to administer. 

Weighting 

Typically, data are weighted to correct for a disproportionate sampling distribution. Abt 
Associates applied two weighting procedures to the sample data for each site. First, each 
respondent's data was assigned a weight equal to the number of adults (18+) in the 
household. Thus, if the respondent lived in a household with 2 other adults (parents or 
grandparents, for example), a weighting factor of 3 was applied. This procedure corrects for 
the unequal selection probabilities introduced by selecting one adult from each household, 
according to Abt Associates. 

Second, a post-stratification adjustment was made to the weight described above, to bring the 
weighted sample distribution into closer agreement with the actual distribution of four 
demographic variables within each site: age, race, gender, and household income. This 
procedure was intended to reduce the potential for bias arising from non-response, and also 
to adjust the sample for non-coverage of households without telephones. For Dade County, 



84- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Allegheny County, and the Philadelphia MSA, the post-stratification adjustment was carried 
out for each subarea before they were combined. 

These weighting procedures were primarily intended to improve the reliability of survey 
results for local users. Weighted percentages are used in the tables throughout this report. 

Sampling Error 

The survey percentages used throughout this report are subject to sampling variability, 
because they were derived through sampling techniques and not through a census of the 
entire area. Therefore, a standard error must be calculated to define the area surrounding 
each survey percentage in which the actual "true but unknown" value lies, at a certain level of 
confidence. 

Two different types of error rates apply to different analyses of the data. Comparison of rates 
within a site (for example, jazz participation rates for Dade County by race) requires that 
standard error rates be calculated based on the unweighted sample size for that site (usually 
about 400, but 600 for Philadelphia). For a sample size of 400, at the 95% confidence level, 
error rates will range from about 2% to 5%, depending on the survey percentage in question. 

Different standard error rates apply when evaluating the statistical significance of survey 
percentages across multiple sites. For instance, to see if classical music participation rates 
are different between Las Vegas and Reno (and other sites), confidence limits must be 
calculated based on the entire sample size for all 12 sites for the variable in question. Unlike 
the "Single-Site" error rates, these rates allow us to determine whether survey percentages 
between sites are significantly different. For each of the common variables on all 12 surveys, 
a standard error was calculated on the total number of respondents answering each question, 
at the 95% confidence level. Standard error figures for the various participation rates ranged 
from .67% to 1.38%. 

Consult the report appendix for Standard Error Tables and further discussion of these error 
rates. 

B. Methodology for Research on Local "Supply" of Arts Facilities and Programs 

AMS staff contacted each local sponsor to determine the extent of existing information 
regarding cultural facilities and programs. In some cases, sponsors were able to provide 
complete information on numbers of performances, cultural attractions, and types of 
performance venues (with seating capacities) from existing directories, periodic cultural 
calendars and/or annual reports. In other locations, site sponsors indicated that no data 
existed and suggested alternate approaches for gathering "arts supply" data. One local 
sponsor held a staff meeting to collect information from all relevant staff. A combination of 
approaches was utilized to obtain data as required, including phone calls to secondary 
contacts (arts service organizations, city and state arts councils, etc.). 

Secondary sources of local arts activity data included national and regional performing arts 
facility and museum directories, and a variety of other publications obtained by the 
researchers. In several cases, a great deal of difficulty was encountered in collecting data on 
any systematic basis. Thus, the amount and quality of local arts activity data varies from site 
to site. Appropriate qualifications regarding local arts activity data are included in each site 
discussion. 

-85- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



A lack of compiled data on arts activity levels was a problem for some sites. Only two local 
sponsors had this information easily at hand, and another three were able to compile arts 
activity data from a variety of existing sources. In all cases, arts activity levels are estimated. 
For several sites, where activity levels were too difficult to ascertain, qualitative data and 
anecdotal narrative were used to describe the local arts environment Future research of a 
similar nature would benefit from a planned data collection phase at the local level, over a 
period of time coinciding with the survey time frame. 

C. Summary of Methodologies for 1982, 1985 and 1992 SPPA's 

National surveys of public participation in the arts (SPPA's) were conducted in 1982, 1985, 
and 1992 by the U.S. Census Bureau for the National Endowment for the Arts. Results from 
these research efforts can be projected to the U.S. population, and provide valuable 
information on arts participation and related topics. Since data from the 12 Local SPPA's 
were to complement and add context to the national surveys, it is necessary to understand 
what methodologies were used for the national surveys, and to recognize any relevant 
methodological differences between the 12 Local Surveys and the three national surveys. 

Summaries of the methodologies of the national studies are provided below. With respect to 
both survey design and sampling methodology, these research efforts were handled 
somewhat differently. 

!9_&2 

The 1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, 
involved a sample of 17,254 individuals, interviewed mostly in person (about 75%), with the 
remainder surveyed by telephone. Census Bureau population counts were used to draw up 
the sample in such a way that all individuals living in households in the United States had an 
equal chance of selection. All individuals aged 18 and over in the selected households were 
eligible to be included in the survey. Fewer than 15% of eligible respondents were not 
interviewed, and the final data were slightly weighted to reflect age, gender, and race of the 
1982 U.S. population. 

The SPPA questions immediately followed a crime survey, which was part of an on-going 
panel study of 72,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Each month, from 
January through December 1982, a national cross section of 1,450 respondents was surveyed 
on arts participation. From January through October, the five- minute interview covered a 
set a of "core questions" about arts participation in the previous 12 months, plus a set of 
"rotating" questions about arts socialization, mass media usage, musical preferences, etc. 
The November and December interviews lasted 20 minutes and asked all of the rotating 
questions. 

mi 

The survey methodology for the 1985 SPPA was quite similar to that of 1982. Once again, 
the SPPA questions were incorporated in the Census Bureau's omnibus panel study for a 
randomly selected subset of households. Similarly, approximately 75% of interviews were 
conducted face-to-face in the respondents' homes, and less than 15 percent of eligible 
individuals could not be interviewed. The primary difference between the 1982 and 1985 
SPPA's was that the 1985 survey was conducted only over a six month period (from January 

-86- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

through June 1985), and all were five-minute interviews. Since no respondents were asked 
all sets of rotating questions (as in Nov. and Dec. 1982), inter-module analyses could not be 
conducted with the 1985 data. 

Thus, the sample size per month in 1985 was larger - 2,200 households, or one fourth of all 
households included in the omnibus survey. The total 1985 SPPA sample size was 13,675, 
compared to 17,254 for 1982. 

Results of the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's were analyzed by the University of Maryland's Survey 
Research Center, under the direction of John P. Robinson, Ph.D, and published in October 
1985 and March 1987, respectively. The March 1987 report included two volumes. Volume 
I comprised a project report on the 1985 SPPA, while Volume II compared 1982 and 1985 
data. Participation rates from these studies are reproduced in this report (e.g. Table 1). 
Numerous additional analyses of the 1982 and 1985 SPPA data were commissioned by the 
NEA Research Division, a listing of which may be found in the bibliography to this report. 

mi 

As with the earlier SPPA's, respondents to the 1992 SPPA were part of a larger, continuously 
rotating panel of respondents who were interviewed every six months over a three year 
period. Sample selection was similar to the two previous SPPA's - Census Bureau 
population counts were used to draw the sample in such a way that all individuals living in 
households in the United States had an equal chance of selection. All adults aged 18 and 
over were eligible to be interviewed. 

About 80% of the interviews were conducted by telephone, in contrast to the 1982 and 1985 
SPPA's, which were conducted primarily in-person. (The Census Bureau states that no 
effective differences have generally been found between in-home interviews and telephone 
interviews.) During the first six months of 1992, only core participation questions were 
asked of each respondent, and the interviews lasted approximately eight minutes. Data from 
a total of 6,947 interviews comprise the sample from the first six months. During the last six 
months of 1992, additional questions were asked of all respondents, resulting in an average 
interview time of about 16 minutes. Sample size for the last six months of data collection 
was not available for this report, but it is anticipated that it will be approximately 6,000. 

Approximately 20% of all eligible adults in the sampled households could not be 
interviewed, slightly more than in 1982 and 1985. Again, the final data were weighted 
slightly to ensure that the final sample was completely representative of the 1992 U.S. 
population in terms of age, race and gender. 

D. Methodological Comparisons and Possible Sources of Bias 

Compared to the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's, significantly higher participation rates were 
observed in the 12 Local Studies. Data from the 1992 SPPA (which was not available for 
this report) will uncover any changes in arts participation levels since 1985 on a national 
basis. It is possible that actual participation rates may have increased over the past seven 
years. Further, arts participation rates can be expected to vary from site to site, with higher 
rates expected in large urban areas where the supply of arts activity is greatest. The 12 sites 
studied were predominantly urban, and this might explain some of the upward variance in 
participation rates. 



87 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

However, the amount and consistency of upward variance clearly suggests that 
methodological differences account for at least some of this variance. Several 
methodological differences are summarized below, and are discussed further in the report 
appendix. 

1. Sponsorship/Survey Context 

The 12 Local Surveys and the National SPPA's were presented to eligible 
respondents in a significantly different manner. The National SPPA's immediately 
followed surveys on crime, an issue that affects everyone to some degree. This may 
have served as an incentive to participate in the survey, attracting a very 
heterogeneous group of people as far as arts participation is concerned. On the other 
hand, the 12 Local Surveys were introduced as studies of local participation in the 
arts, creating an opportunity for 'self-selection' in or out of the survey based on the 
respondent's interest in the arts. 1 Fundamentally, respondents to the national SPPA's 
had already completed an unrelated (crime) survey, while respondents to the 12 
Local Studies were recruited to complete a local survey of arts participation. 

2. Telephone vs. Face-To-Face Interviews 

Although tests have shown that the quality of respondents' answers does not vary 
significantly between telephone and in-person interviews, it is much easier for 
respondents to terminate a telephone interview. Response rates for the 12 Local 
Surveys ranged from 40% to 52%, indicating that up to 1,000 households were 
contacted in some markets to achieve 400 completed interviews. (These response 
rates are typical of telephone surveys of this type, although response rates of 55% or 
higher are common.) In contrast, completion rates for the National SPPA's ranged 
from 80% to 85%. 2 Telephone sampling also introduces the possibility of non- 
response bias resulting from the inability to sample households without telephones, 
although weighting procedures are supposed to correct for this. 

3. Respondent Eligibility 

For the National SPPA's, all adults (18+) in the sampled households were eligible 
respondents, in contrast to the 12 Local Surveys, for which the one adult (18+) in the 
household with the most recent birthday was the eligible respondent. Although this 
procedure is methodologically sound, it creates another opportunity for disinterested 
but eligible respondents to select themselves out of the sample (i.e., to terminate the 
call). 



Recognizing potential problems associated with the introductory language in the telephone script, Abt 
Associates tested an alternative introduction in one of die local areas to see if results would be different. 
Response rates were not observed to be significantly different, and the telephone script was not changed. 

2 Even though the 1992 National SPPA was conducted primarily by telephone, respondent households had 
been contacted previously by the Census Bureau about participating in an on-going panel study. These 
respondents were far more likely to complete die SPPA than if they had been contacted through random-digit 
dialing. 

-88- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

4. Out-of-Town Arts Participation 

None of the arts participation surveys, either local or national, ask respondents to 
distinguish between local and out-of-town arts participation. This distinction is 
unnecessary with the national surveys because results are generalized to the U.S. 
population. However, out-of-town arts participation may have skewed rates higher 
in several of the 12 local sites because of two factors. First, several of the local sites 
are near other cities with high levels of arts activity. (For example, Sedona, AZ 
residents commonly drive to Flagstaff for arts presentations.) Secondly, several of 
the sampled areas (i.e., Broward and Dade Counties) are populated by seasonal 
residents who may also attend arts events in another area. 

5. Lang ua ge Barrier 

For the 12 Local Surveys, an unknown number of calls were terminated immediately 
due to a language barrier [figures not released by Abt Associates], although some 
interviews were conducted in Spanish for the Dade, Broward, and San Jose sites. 
Participation rates in the European-based arts disciplines are generally lower among 
non-English speaking immigrant groups, for cultural and socioeconomic reasons. 

6. Sampling Periods vs. Seasonality of Arts Activity 

The 1982 and 1992 SPPA's were conducted over a calendar year, with an even 
distribution of interviews each month, while the 1985 SPPA involved data collection 
only during the first six months of 1985 (January - June), which includes months of 
both high and low arts activity. (Arts programming drops off sharply during the 
summer months, particularly with respect to traditional programming.) The 12 Local 
Surveys were conducted during one of the most active 3-month periods for arts 
programming - mid-February through mid-May. Recent attendance may be more 
easily recalled by respondents, raising the possibility of higher participation rates for 
respondents interviewed during the performing arts season. 

Generally, the methodology used for the 12 Local Surveys resulted in a more homogeneous 
group of respondents in comparison to the national samples. While the demographic 
characteristics of the 1982 and 1985 SPPA samples are almost identical and closely follow 
U.S. averages, demographics for the 12 Local Studies sample (5,040 respondents) are 
consistently higher. 3 

For example, with respect to education levels, the percentages of local respondents who 
completed college exceed the actual figures for the base population of the geographies 
surveyed by anywhere from 6% to 20%. Table 8, in the appendix, presents education data 
for each of the 12 sites. Since higher education levels are closely associated with arts 
attendance, this analysis leads to the conclusion that respondents to the 12 Local Surveys are 
more likely than average to be arts attenders. 



3 Aggregated sample data for die 12 Local Surveys cannot be compared to data from a random sample of die 
United States. In fact, the actual demographic characteristics of the 12 sites combined (using 1990 census 
data) are somewhat "higher" than figures for die U.S. as a whole. Even accounting for the higher base area 
demographics, sample demographics are still substantially higher - even using weighted percentages. 

-89- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Sum man' Report 

Highest Education Level Achieved 
(Excerpt from Table 8) 

Bachelor's 
PITTSBURGH/ High School Degree or 

ALLEGHENY COUNTY or lower Some College Higher 



Unweighted Sample Data 


42% 


24% 


33% 


1990 Census Data 


57% 


21% 


23% 


Variance 


-15% 


+3% 


+10% 



Another possible explanation of the variation between local and national participation rates 
would be the larger sampling error rates associated with smaller sample sizes. If this were 
true, both positive and negative variation would occur. However, the consistency and 
magnitude of higher participation rates for the 12 local sites suggest that at least some of this 
variation is not random. 

E. Uses of the Data 

Results from the 12 Local Surveys are a valuable resource of information for the arts field in 
general, and particularly for the local sponsors. Given the various limitations of the data 
discussed in this section, appropriate uses of the survey results include: 

• Study of the relationship between the supply of cultural activity and participation rates 
within a given geography; 

• Comparison of participation rates, frequency of participation, and other results between 
the 12 sites studied; 

• Cross-tabulations of data within a site, so long as the sample size of sub-groups is large 
enough to allow for reasonable error rates. Such analyses might include: 

- demographic characteristics of sub-groups (e.g., jazz participation by race, etc.) 

- cross-discipline participation rates 

- utilization of venues by discipline, or by demographic characteristics 

- source of arts information by demographic characteristics 

- reasons for not attending by demographic characteristics 

- frequency of participation by demographic characteristics 

- attitudes about arts participation by demographic characteristics 

In addition, each survey contained a variety of site-specific questions (including questions for 
which verbatim answers were recorded), which deserve thorough analysis. 



-90- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



APPENDIX 



-91 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



A. Directory of Data Tables 

Data files are available for further analysis. Inquiries should be directed to the Research 
Office, National Endowment for the Arts, 1 100 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington DC, 
20506. 

TABLE # DESCRIPTION 

Table 1: All participation rates for each of the 12 sites, plus applicable figures for 
1982 & 1985 SPPA's. 

Table 1(a): Arts participation rates for demographic sub-groups, core disciplines 

Table 1(b): Arts participation rates for demographic sub-groups, literature 

Table 1(c): Arts participation rates for demographic sub-groups, media 

Table 2: Interest in attending more often, for each of the 12 sites 

Table 3(a): Venues types attended - by site, for all disciplines 

Table 3(b): Venues types attended - by discipline, for 12 sites combined 

Table 3(c): Venue types attended by demographic characteristics 

Table 4(a): Reasons for not attending more often, total percentages by site 

Table 4(b): Primary reason for not attending more often, percentages by site 

Table 4(c): Primary reason for not attending more often, for demographic sub-groups 

Table 5: Attitudes about arts participation, by site 

Table 6(a): Sources of information on arts events, by site 

Table 6(b): Sources of arts information by demographic characteristics 

Table 7(a): Unweighted sample demographics, by site (raw data) 

Table 7(b): Weighted sample demographics, by site 

Table 8: Education levels: sample data vs. 1990 census 

Table 9: Mean frequency of participation, by site 

Table 9(a) Frequency of participation by demographic characteristics 

Table 10: Number of disciplines attended by demographic characteristics 

Table 1 1 : Cross-discipline participation rates (see Special Topics section) 



-92- 









ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES BY SITE 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages) 














Table 1 


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CORE DISCIPLINES 




1 


Jazz 


14% 


15% 


10% 


7% 


19% 


13% 


16% 


16% 


12% 


20% 


14% 


19% 


15% 
20% 

6% 
27% 
20% 

7% 
10% 
42% 
52% 
62% 


10% 


10% 


Classical Music 


20% 


9% 


18% 


10% 


17% 


19% 


20% 


20% 


19% 


23% 


12% 


21% 


13% 


13% 


Opera 


5% 


3% 


9% 


2% 


4% 


4% 


7% 


5% 


7% 


12% 


7% 


8% 


3% 


3% 


Musicals 


25% 


20% 


19% 


12% 


24% 


17% 


26% 


32% 


24% 


34% 


20% 


30% 


19% 


17% 1 


Plays 


18% 


16% 


15% 


12% 


25% 


22% 


29% 


21% 


18% 


21% 


15% 


21% 


12% 


12% 


Ballet 


7% 


7% 


7% 


8% 


3% 


7% 


13% 


5% 


5% 


13% 


10% 


9% 


4% 


4% 


Other Dance 


8% 


11% 


12% 


10% 


13% 


9% 


13% 


10% 


11% 


9% 


12% 


9% 


N/A 


N/A ) 


Art Museum/Gallery 


38% 


39% 


41% 


39% 


77% 


32% 


52% 


42% 


44% 


41% 


35% 


44% 


22% 


22% 


Any of 7 Performing Arts Disciplines 


46% 


46% 


43% 


33% 


54% 


42% 


55% 


54% 


52% 


57% 


«% 


5(5% 


N/A 


N/A 


Any of 8 "Core" Disciplines 


57% 


59% 


56% 


52% 


82% 


50% 


69% 


63% 


63% 


(55% 


52% 


67% 


N/A 


N/A 


OTHER DISCIPLINES 






Arts/Crafts Fair/Festival 


55% 


50% 


62% 


56% 


57% 


45% 


55% 


49% 


42% 


61% 


45% 


54% 


49% 
73% 
44% 


39% 


40% 


Attend Movie Theater 


72% 


67% 


68% 


63% 


84% 


65% 


78% 


77% 


70% 


75% 


63% 


78% 


63% 


59% 


Historic Park/Monument 


41% 


36% 


50% 


42% 


60% 


46% 


44% 


44% 


47% 


40% 


41% 


51% 


37% 


36% 


LITERATURE 






Read Books for Pleasure 


60% 


71% 


76% 


74% 


82% 


69% 


82% 


75% 


75% 


75% 


62% 


74% 


73% 
8% 
29% 
64% 
<5P% 
15% 
13% 


N/A 


N/A 


Read Plays 


8% 


4% 


9% 


6% 


9% 


7% 


9% 


7% 


9% 


5% 


9% 


10% 


N/A 


N/A 


Read Poetry 


25% 


33% 


35% 


32% 


42% 


32% 


33% 


29% 


28% 


27% 


31% 


29% 


N/A 


N/A 


Read Novels/Short Stories 


59% 


65% 


73% 


66% 


70% 


60% 


71% 


64% 


64% 


68% 


56% 


70% 


N/A 


N/A 1 


Read Plays or Poetry or Novels 


63% 


69% 


76% 


71% 


74% 


66% 


75% 


69% 


68% 


71% 


<5J% 


72% 


56% 


56% 


Attend Poetry Readings 


7% 


13% 


14% 


20% 


22% 


13% 


16% 


15% 


14% 


17% 


21% 


20% 


N/A 


N/A 


Attend Readings of Novels/Books 


8% 


9% 


13% 


12% 


20% 


15% 


18% 


13% 


11% 


13% 


16% 


16% 


N/A 


N/A 


TELEVISION/VIDEO 






Jazz 


31% 


37% 


35% 


27% 


29% 


30% 


40% 


37% 


34% 


36% 


38% 


36% 


36% 
44% 
23% 
29% 
27% 
36% 
43% 
75% 


18% 


17% 


Classical Music 


30% 


33% 


43% 


32% 


40% 


36% 


38% 


46% 


50% 


45% 


45% 


36% 


25% 


24% 


Opera 


16% 


16% 


20% 


13% 


17% 


16% 


21% 


24% 


22% 


28% 


31% 


23% 


12% 


12% 


Musicals 


22% 


25% 


28% 


20% 


33% 


26% 


26% 


30% 


29% 


30% 


33% 


29% 


20% 


18% 


Plays 


22% 


21% 


25% 


19% 


34% 


22% 


26% 


30% 


26% 


28% 


28% 


29% 


26% 


21% 


Any Dance 


31% 


32% 


37% 


32% 


41% 


32% 


36% 


36% 


36% 


35% 


39% 


34% 


N/A 


N/A 


Artists/ Art/ Art Museums 


34% 


36% 


46% 


41% 


61% 


40% 


53% 


45% 


44% 


35% 


43% 


37% 


23% 


25% 


Any TV Exposure 


65% 


69% 


77% 


67% 


82% 


■57% 


78% 


75% 


80% 


74% 


77% 


74% 


N/A 


N/A , 


RADIO OR RECORDINGS 






Jazz 


40% 


50% 


46% 


36% 


52% 


43% 


58% 


56% 


48% 


51% 


44% 


57% 


51% 
61% 

28% 
23% 
10% 
77% 


N/A 

'" N/A 


N/A \ 

' N/A 


Classical Music 


52% 


54% 


61% 


51% 


70% 


58% 


65% 


64% 


60% 


59% 


61% 


65% 


Opera 


24% 


18% 


22% 


14% 


21% 


21% 


28% 


30% 


28% 


31% 


29% 


27% 


N/A 


N/A 


Musicals 


20% 


16% 


16% 


16% 


22% 


14% 


21% 


25% 


23% 


23% 


23% 


24% 


N/A 


N/A 


Plays 


6% 


7% 


8% 


7% 


13% 


11% 


10% 


12% 


10% 


12% 


11% 


8% 


N/A 


N/A 


Any Radio/Recordings 


67% 


74% 


74% 


62% 


82% 


70% 


78% 


8J% 


73% 


75% 


70% 


81% 


N/A 


N/A 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: 25% 
NOTE: Participation rates from the 19 
NOTE: Italicized figures were computi 
NOTE: N/A = Not Available 


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1 



] ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES FOR DEMOGRAPHIC SUB-GROUPS 

J 12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 

(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


■ 


Performing Arts Disciplines 




73 
> 

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<n 

i 

08 

1* 


4* 

a 

4) 

E 

s 
a 
o 

s 


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O 


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O 

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41 
HI 

s 


AGE 


18 to 29 


19% 


10% 4% 


27% 


19% 


7% 


11% 


48% 


43% 


42% 


■30 to 39 


16% 


17% 4% 


25% 


16% 


7% 


8% 


43% 


53% 


50% 


1 40 to 59 


16% 


23% 


8% 


29% 


24% 


8% 


11% 


44% 


55% 


49% 


Over 60 


9% 


24% 


8% 


28% 


18% 


7% 


13% 


34% 


45% 


36% 


t GENDER 




■Male 


17% 


18% 7% 


25% 


19% 


6% 


10% 


44% 


44% 


45% 


Female 


14% 


20% 6% 


29% 


21% 


8% 


10% 


41% 


54% 


44% 


.RACE 




■White 


15% 


22% 8% 


30% 


21% 


8% 


10% 


45% 


56% 


48% 


* Black 


19% 


13% 2% 


24% 


16% 


3% 


9% 


32% 


30% 


30% 


Hispanic 


13% 


6% 2% 


16% 


9% 


4% 


10% 


41% 


33% 


31% 


■Other 


10% 


10% 


4% 


15% 


19% 


4% 


14% 


32% 


30% 


41% 


VEDUCATION 




High School or Lower 


9% 


8% 


4% 


19% 


10% 


3% 


6% 


27% 


35% 


31% 


■ Some College 


17% 


19% 


3% 


24% 


19% 


8% 


9% 


40% 


56% 


48% 


■Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


21% 


31% 


12% 


40% 


32% 


11% 


16% 


62% 


61% 


56% 


INCOME 




Less than $20,000 


10% 


13% 


4% 


16% 


11% 


2% 


8% 


27% 


30% 


29% 


l$20,000-$49,999 


15% 


15% 5% 


26% 


17% 


5% 


10% 


42% 


52% 


47% 


1 $50,000-599,999 


22% 


27% 


8% 


36% 


31% 


11% 


14% 


57% 


62% 


54% 


$100,000 or More 


25% 


34% 


17% 


48% 


39% 


14% 


14% 


71% 


66% 


64% 


mMARITAL STATUS 




[Married 


15% 


23% 6% 


31% 


20% 


8% 


11% 


44% 


56% 


47% 


Widowed 


8% 


15% 6% 


28% 


20% 


6% 


7% 


29% 


39% 


38% 


1 .Separated 


15% 


9% 16% 


19% 


14% 


3% 


13% 


33% 


17% 


25% 


iDivorced 


15% 


14% 7% 


18% 


21% 


5% 


7% 


35% 


48% 


43% 


^Never Married 


18% 


14% 5% 


24% 


19% 


6% 


12% 


47% 


40% 


42% 


■HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Among all Hispanic respondents in the combined sample, 16% reported attending at least one 
|live musical stage play during the 12 months prior to being interviewed. 



ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES FOR DEMOGRAPHIC SUB-GROUPS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


Table 1(b) 


Literature Participation Rates 


E 

B 
u 

+m) 

< 


-a 
S 


09 

a. 

S 

pes 


>> 

s 


09 

> 
© 
Z 

■o 

S 
as 


& 

s 

•5 

s 

Im 

1 

e 
< 


09 

00 

c 

•mm 

T3 
M 
0> 

as 

o 
o 

pa 

•a 
e 


AGE 


18 to 29 


70% 


14% 


29% 


65% 


13% 


11% 


91% 


30 to 39 


76% 


5% 


30% 


60% 


16% 


13% 


79% 


40 to 59 


75% 


6% 


30% 


66% 


19% 


16% 


68% 


Over 60 


69% 


6% 


29% 


63% 


14% 


11% 


52% 


GENDER 


Male 


70% 


7% 


23% 


57% 


15% 


13% 


76% 


Female 


75% 


8% 


35% 


70% 


15% 


12% 


71% ! 


















RACE 


White 


74% 


8% 


29% 


66% 


13% 


13% 


76% 


Black 


72% 


8% 


32% 


58% 


22% 


13% 


63% 


Hispanic 


64% 


10% 


25% 


55% 


21% 


13% 


72% 


Other 


63% 


6% 


28% 


58% 


22% 


12% 


64% 


EDUCATION 


High School or Lower 


63% 


6% 


20% 


52% 


12% 


8% 


63% 


Some College 


74% 


8% 


34% 


66% 


14% 


12% 


76% 


Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


84% 


9% 


36% 


76% 


20% 


18% 


82% 


INCOME 


Less than $20,000 


65% 


9% 


28% 


54% 


18% 


8% 


58% ! 


$20,000-$49,999 


75% 


7% 


29% 


68% 


13% 


12% 


77% 


$50,000-599,999 


83% 


7% 


29% 


72% 


15% 


15% 


83% 


$100,000 or More 


88% 


9% 


28% 


74% 


18% 


19% 


90% 


MARITAL STATUS 


Married 


75% 


5% 


28% 


66% 


15% 


15% 


73% 


Widowed 


65% 


5% 


31% 


59% 


16% 


9% 


45% 


Separated 


67% 


5% 


18% 


59% 


22% 


7% 


50% 


Divorced 


71% 


7% 


35% 


57% 


14% 


11% 


69% 


Never Married 


72% 


16% 


30% 


64% 


16% 


11% 


85% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Among all respondents in the combined sample who reported annual 
incomes over $100,000, 90% reported attending the cinema at least once during the 12 months prior 

to being interviewed. 



I 



ARTS PARTICIPATION RATES FOR DEMOGRAPHIC SUB-GROUPS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 



Table 1(c) 



Television/Video 





> 










> 




H 










B 

e 




s 
e 








> 


EA 








> 




H 

B 


r 


> 

H 
e 
o 


3 

s 

■a 


> 

H 

B 

e 
2 


e 

o 


> 

B 
O 

09 


O 
<u 
u 

B 
« 

a 


73 


8 




Q. 

o 


V3 

a 


>> 
OB 


s 

< 


S 
> 



N 
N 
03 



Radio/Recordings 






o. 

o 



Comparisons 



e 
o 



O. 



t 

a. 
« 



B 

< 



e 
o 
a 
es 
o. 



t 

«B 



© 



o 



c 



.GE 



to 29 



to 39 



10 to 59 



•er60 



33% 



37% 



39% 



34% 



28% 



34% 



52% 



59% 



12% 



16% 



28% 



34% 



21% 



24% 



31% 



38% 



15% 



21% 



35% 



36% 



29% 



29% 



37% 



47% 



41% 



55% 49% 14% 14% 



42% 



58% 



46% 



52% 



44% 



54% 



70% 



16% 



36% 



41% 70% 44% 30% ! 18% 



67% 



19% i 5% 



63% 



29% 11% 



62% 



57% 



67% 



69% 



81% 



80% 



72% 



75% 



80% 



80% 



WDER 



<de 



xmale 



40% 



32% 



43% 



44% 



21% 



25% 



27% 



30% 



26% 



28% 



30% 



41% 



44% 



55% 63% 27% 20% 10% 



42% 



48% 60% 29% 26% I 11 



64% 75% 



60% 75% 76% 



78% 



I 



CE 



ute 



31% 



46% 



23% 



31% 



29% 



35% 



45% 



64% 



30% 



27% ! 10% 



65% 



75% 



77% 



31ack 



55% 



38% 



19% 



20% 



43% 



35% 



i spanic 
ier 
VCAI 



43% 



29% 



18% 



29% 



20% 



38% 



38% 



47% 



48% 



38% 



25% 



30% 



32% 



45% 



VCATION 



71% 



48% 



19% 



12% 



55% 



76% 



81% 



51% 



55% 



13% 



19% 12% 



52% 



77% 



69% 



54% 



63% 



37% 



13% ! 15% 



48% 



78% 



74% 



iigh School or Lower 



I 



me College 



33% 



37% 



36% 



41% 



20% 



24% 



23% 



33% 



20% 



30% 



31% 



40% 



35% 



42% 



45% 



55% 



49% 



62% 



24% 



31% 



16% I 9% 



47% 



25% 111% 



62% 



67% 



77% 



66% 



80% 



chelor's Degree or Higher 



39% 



55% 



26% 



31% 



34% 



38% 



50% 



\COME 



60% 



75% 



31% 



31% I 11% 



80% 



83% 



87% 



.ess than $20,000 



I 



),000-$49,999 



),000-$99,999 



100,000 or More 



37% 



36% 



39% 



35% 



42% 



42% 



48% 



46% 



24% 



22% 



23% 



24% 



25% 



28% 



30% 



26% 



21% 



25% 



35% 



30% 



35% 



36% 



34% 



30% 



39% 



51% 



43% 



50% 



44% 



61% 



53% 



59% 



58% 



58% 



68% 



73% 



32% 



24% 



28% 



28% 



15% I 12% 



42% 



24% 



27% 



33% 



9% 



65% 



10% 



79% 



86% 



74% 



74% 



79% 



81% 



73% 



75% 



85% 



85% 



MARITAL STATUS 



1 



.nied 



dowed 



Separated 



i 



jvorced 



^er Married 



34% 



45% 



35% 



39% 



37% 



44% 



64% 



38% 



47% 



36% 



22% 



45% 



22% 



25% 



17% 



29% 



38% 



26% 



32% 



24% 



29% 



36% 



10% 



33% 



22% 



36% 



52% 



30% 



45% 



27% 



43% 



44% 



38% 



44% 



48% 



42% 



48% 



53% 



53% 



59% 



63% 



69% 



50% 



62% 



56% 



28% 



50% 



24% 



28% 



22% 



26% 



28% 



20% 



9% 



64% 



12% 



50% 



18% 



52% 



21% ; 10% 



54% 



17% i 12% 



66% 



75% 



86% 



66% 



76% 



73% 



78% 



76% 



71% 



77% 



76% 



TOW TO READ THIS TABLE: 

^j respondents whose education 



80% of all respondents with a Bachelor's degree reported attending at least one live performance, compared to 47% of 
did not advance past a High School degree. 










saus nv 












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NO 


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its at art mus 
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in attending exhib 
ns or art galleries' 


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r- 


an intei 
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respondents expressed 
dents cited 'Exhibits at 


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£ 

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Three quartei 
third (36%) of 
i attend more o 




















































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Table 2 


1 

IS 

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1 

1 




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a 

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to 


HOW TO READ THIS TABL 
art galleries more often. Over 
arts event that they would like 


- 








N 

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saxis tiv 



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Td 'A}imo3 spEQ 



Tj 'XjunoQ piEMOig 



VSW ^iqdppBnqd 



B3JV oSBDiq^ 



VM 'apisas 



ON 'inapjs-uojsuiyw 



ZV 'Euopas 



s<IE ^pBA3jsi p;.md 



8 * 



AN 'oasH 



AN 'seS3 A sei 



Vd 'qSmqs«id 



# & * 

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# 



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£R «£ {£ ^ 5£ ?£ {£ 
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VENUE TYPES ATTENDED BY 

1 2 Local Surveys of Public Participati* 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites t 


DISCIPLINE 

an in the Arts 
Combined) 


Table 3(b) 


N 
N 


o 

'c/3 

3 

-a 

v: 
G 


ex 
O 


1/3 

o 

3 

2 


V3 


■>-> 
0Q 


Q 

•s 
o 


















Concert Hall or Opera House 


9% 


39% 


61% 


n% 


9% 


30% 


12% 


Civic Center 


5% 


6% 


5% 


5% 


4% 


10% 


5% 


Theatre 


16% 


17% 


26% 


59% 


59% 


43% 


28% 


College Facility 


7% 


12% 


3% 


3% 


9% 


7% 


12% 


Performing Arts Facilities 37% 74% 95% 78% 81% 90% 57% 


















Coffee House 


1% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% ! 


Dinner Theatre 


7% 


2% 


2% 


13% 


9% 


2% 


3% 


Nightclub/Jazz Club 


25% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


1% 


1% 


3% 


Clubs/Dinner Theatre 33% 2% 2% 14% 10% 3% 6% 


















Church or Synagogue 


2% 


10% 


0% 


1% 


2% 


0% 


3% 


Secondary School Facility 


2% 


3% 


0% 


2% 


2% 


3% 


10% 


Museum or Arts Gallery 


1% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Library 


0% 


1% 


0% 


1% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Park or Open-Air Facility 


20% 


6% 


2% 


2% 


2% 


1% 


12% i 


Town Hall/City Hall 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


Alternative Venues 25% 20% 3% 6% 7% 5% 28% 


















Other 


5% 


4% 


0% 


1% 


1% 


2% 


8% 


Don't Know 


0% 


0% 


0% 


1% 


2% 


1% 


0% i 


Refused 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


0% 


TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: One quarter of all jazz attenders in the combined sample 
reported seeing their most recent jazz performance at a 'Nightclub/Jazz Club'. 











t- 


5 
2 * 




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HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: 
as a reason for not attending more 



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PRIMARY REASON FOR NOT ATTENDING MORE OFTEN 

FOR DEMOGRAPHIC SUB-GROUPS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


Table 4(c) 


35 

1 

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CO 

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s 


AGE 


18 to 29 


1251 
1306 
1479 
778 


49% 


19% 


8% 


13% 


11% 


30 to 39 


50% 


26% 


13% 


8% 


5% 


40 to 59 


50% 


24% 


7% 


11% 


7% 


60 and Over 


21% 


26% 


25% 


25% 


3% 


GENDER 


Male 


2030 
3010 


57% 


18% 


7% 


12% 


7% 


Female 


35% 


26% 


16% 


16% 


7% 


RACE 


White 


3729 
582 
275 
336 


44% 


24% 


12% 


14% 


6% 


Black 


46% 


21% 


9% 


17% 


8% i 


Hispanic 


43% 


21% 


13% 


10% 


14% 


Other 


51% 


17% 


15% 


8% 


8% i 


EDUCATION 


High School or Lower 


1730 
1472 
1737 


45% 


20% 


10% 


19% 


6% 


Some College 


45% 


24% 


13% 


12% 


5% 


Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


43% 


25% 


13% 


11% 


9% 


INCOME 


Less than $20,000 


978 
1940 
941 
266 


31% 


32% 


15% 


17% 


5% 


$20,000-$49,999 


47% 


23% 


10% 


14% 


6% 


$50,000-$99,999 


52% 


18% 


9% 


10% 


10% 


$100,000 or More 


63% 


6% 


7% 


15% 


8% 


MARITAL STATUS 


Married 


2727 

301 

140 

574 

1203 


44% 


24% 


15% 


12% 


6% 


Widowed 


23% 


29% 


15% 


28% 


6% 


Separated 


40% 


40% 


5% 


12% 


3% 


Divorced 


49% 


19% 


10% 


15% 


7% 


Never Married 


47% 


20% 


8% 


15% 


10% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Among all respondents aged 18-29, 19% 
as the primary reason for not attending more often, compared to 26% for all 

over age 59. 


cited prici 
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1 



SAMPLE DEMOGRAPHICS BY SITE 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Unweighted Sample Data) 


Table 7(a) 
Raw Data 


< 

a. 

« 

a 

< 

SP 
2 

CO 

1 


w 

CO 

00 
O 

> 

GO 

(9 
-J 


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c 
u 

as 


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Bj 

N 
eo 
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3 


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< 

co" 
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00 


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Z 

a 

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U 

60 

e 

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u 
go 


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u 


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s 

ttf 

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a. 


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3 
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03 


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3 
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U 
u 

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Q 


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U 
a 

1 
u 

GO 

o 

1— » 

c 

CO 

C/5 


35 

< 


HOUSEHOLD SIZE 




Mean # of Adults (18+) 


2.32 


2.32 


2.24 


2.13 


2.07 


2.17 


2.16 


2.42 


2.44 


2.32 


2.5 


2.48 


2.31 


AGE 




18 to 29 


22% 


25% 


27% 


23% 


5% 


24% 


30% 


31% 


34% 


25% 


29% 


33% 


26% 
27% 
31% 
16% 
38 


30 to 39 


31% 


30% 


29% 


30% 


14% 


26% 


28% 


27% 


29% 


26% 


28% 


26% 


40 to 59 


29% 


30% 


31% 


35% 


37% 


34% 


32% 


29% 


24% 


31% 


28% 


32% 


60 and Over 


19% 


15% 


13% 


12% 


44% 


16% 


10% 


13% 


13% 


19% 


15% 


9% 


Median Age 


39 


37 


38 


39 


56 


40 


36 


36 


35 


39 


37 


36 


GENDER 




Male 


36% 


42% 


43% 


44% 


31% 


37% 


40% 


43% 


40% 


39% 


42% 


45% 


40% 
60% 


Female 


64% 


58% 


57% 


56% 


69% 


63% 


60% 


57% 


60% 


61% 


58% 


55% 


RACE 




White 


88% 


79% 


89% 


89% 


95% 


79% 


84% 


75% 


55% 


78% 


38% 


71% 


76% 
12% 
6% 
7% 


Black 


9% 


10% 


2% 


0% 


1% 


18% 


5% 


15% 


40% 


11% 


16% 


3% 


Hispanic 


0% 


5% 


4% 


4% 


1% 


1% 


3% 


4% 


2% 


6% 


26% 


14% 


Other 


4% 


7% 


6% 


6% 


4% 


2% 


8% 


6% 


4% 


5% 


21% 


12% 


EDUCATION 




High School or Lower 


42% 


40% 


36% 


45% 


21% 


38% 


26% 


34% 


40% 


30% 


39% 


26% 


35% 
30% 
35% 


Some College 


25% 


31% 


34% 


35% 


32% 


26% 


27% 


27% 


28% 


32% 


29% 


33% 


Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


33% 


30% 


30% 


20% 


47% 


35% 


46% 


39% 


31% 


39% 


32% 


42% 


INCOME 




Less than $20,000 


35% 


21% 


23% 


21% 


24% 


20% 


18% 


23% 


30% 


17% 


33% 


15% 


24% 
47% 
23% 
6% 


$20,000-549,999 


42% 


50% 


51% 


51% 


52% 


49% 


46% 


43% 


48% 


53% 


44% 


38% 


$50,000-$99,999 


19% 


21% 


21% 


25% 


17% 


27% 


27% 


25% 


19% 


23% 


17% 


36% 


$100,000 or More 


5% 


9% 


5% 


3% 


7% 


4% 


9% 


10% 


3% 


6% 


7% 


12% 


MARITAL STATUS 




Married 


52% 


53% 


52% 


65% 


68% 


65% 


57% 


54% 


42% 


57% 


51% 


54% 


55% 
6% 
3% 
12% 
24% 


Widowed 


9% 


5% 


7% 


6% 


9% 


3% 


5% 


5% 


8% 


7% 


7% 


2% 


Separated 


2% 


3% 


3% 


2% 


2% 


4% 


1% 


2% 


5% 


3% 


2% 


3% 


Divorced 


9% 


16% 


15% 


16% 


10% 


8% 


11% 


12% 


11% 


12% 


10% 


11% 


Never Married 


27% 


23% 


23% 


12% 


12% 


20% 


26% 


27% 


35% 


21% 


30% 


30% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: 
NOTE: This table shows UNWE 


Sedona 
(GHTED 


responde 
, "raw" d 


nts have 
ata. Min 


the highe 
ority pop 


st medial 
illations \ 


l age (56 
vere inte 


)ofthel 
rationally 


2 sites. ( 
oversam 


)nly 5% 
pled in sc 


fall into t 
>me sites. 


he '18 to 


29' age g 


roup. 



1 


SAMPLE DEMOGRAPHICS BY SITE 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Sample Data) 


1 


Table 7(b) 

Weighted 

Data 


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a, 

co" 

< 

00 

3 

x> 

co 

£ 


co 

CO 

oo 
> 

CO 

« 
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e 
o 

0* 


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N 
a 
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CO 

> 
o 

Z 

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3 

04 


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CO 

c 
o 
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z 
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o 

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op 

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CO 

c 


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c 

3 
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u 

eo 

c 

CO 

o 


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CO* 

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o 

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U 


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s 

CO 

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a. 

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CO 

a. 


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o 

m 


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c 

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CO 

a 


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U 

co" 

22 
< 
a 

CO 

O 

»-* 
C 
CO 

O0 


35 
j 
-J 
< 


^HOUSEHOLD SIZE 






Mean* of Adults (18+) 


3.15 


4.02 


3.45 


2.68 


5.57 


2.85 


4.48 


4.02 


5.71 


5.27 


5.36 


5.68 


4.69 




AGE 




§18 to 29 


21% 


22% 


25% 


22% 


31% 


24% 


25% 


26% 


24% 


18% 


19% 


28% 


24% 
22% 
31% 
23% 
43 


1 


30 to 39 


24% 


27% 


24% 


24% 


28% 


22% 


23% 


21% 


23% 


16% 


21% 


24% 




40 to 59 


26% 


30% 


30% 


32% 


28% 


32% 


31% 


33% 


28% 


29% 


34% 


32% 


■ 


60 and Over 


29% 


21% 


21% 


22% 


14% 


23% 


21% 


21% 


25% 


36% 


26% 


16% 


I Median Age 


44 


41 


41 


43 


37 


42 


40 


43 


43 


52 


45 


40 




GENDER 




Male 


46% 


50% 


50% 


53% 


46% 


46% 


49% 


47% 


46% 


47% 


46% 


49% 


47% 
53% 


Female 


54% 


50% 


50% 


47% 


54% 


54% 


51% 


53% 


54% 


53% 


54% 


51% 


|ft.4CE 




I 


White 


86% 


78% 


84% 


82% 


91% 


77% 


87% 


72% 


79% 


87% 


47% 


67% 


75% 
13% 
5% 
7% 




Black 


9% 


7% 


2% 


1% 


2% 


20% 


4% 


15% 


16% 


8% 


17% 


4% 


1 


Hispanic 


1% 


7% 


7% 


10% 


3% 


0% 


1% 


5% 


1% 


2% 


17% 


18% 


■Other 


3% 


8% 


7% 


8% 


4% 


3% 


9% 


8% 


3% 


3% 


19% 


12% 




EDUCATION 






High School or Lower 


47% 


44% 


42% 


47% 


37% 


46% 


32% 


40% 


39% 


31% 


40% 


27% 


39% 
28% 
34% 


|Some College 


25% 


29% 


31% 


34% 


28% 


25% 


28% 


27% 


27% 


31% 


30% 


30% 




Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


28% 


27% 


27% 


19% 


35% 


28% 


41% 


33% 


35% 


38% 


30% 


43% 


INCOME 




Less than $20,000 


37% 


30% 


32% 


34% 


36% 


30% 


26% 


31% 


29% 


28% 


37% 


14% 


30% 
44% 
21% 
6% 


|$20,000-$49,999 


43% 


52% 


50% 


49% 


46% 


47% 


47% 


41% 


46% 


48% 


42% 


35% 


1 


$50,000-599,999 


17% 


15% 


14% 


15% 


13% 


20% 


21% 


22% 


20% 


20% 


16% 


37% 




$100,000 or More 


3% 


4% 


3% 


2% 


4% 


3% 


6% 


6% 


5% 


4% 


5% 


14% 




MARITAL STATUS 




Married 


56% 


55% 


53% 


63% 


56% 


66% 


58% 


54% 


52% 


64% 


56% 


59% 


55% 
8% 
3% 
10% 
25% 


Widowed 


10% 


6% 


9% 


7% 


2% 


4% 


7% 


7% 


9% 


9% 


9% 


2% 


Separated 


2% 


2% 


3% 


2% 


1% 


3% 


1% 


2% 


5% 


2% 


2% 


3% 


iDivorced 


7% 


14% 


13% 


16% 


12% 


6% 


10% 


12% 


8% 


10% 


9% 


11% 


|Never Married 


26% 


24% 


22% 


L 11% 


30% 


21% 


24% 


25% 


27% 


15% 


24% 


26% 


1 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: San Jose respondents reported the highest education levels among the 12 sites. A total of 43% earned a Bachelor's 
degree or higher. 


n 































EDUCATION LEVELS: SAMPLE DATA VS. 1990 CENSUS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
National Endowment for the Arts 


Table 8 


Highest Education Level Achieved 


High School 
or lower 


Some 
College 


Bachelor's 

Degree or 

higher 


Pittsburgh Area, PA 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


42% 


24% 


33% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


57% 


21% 


23% 


Variance (A - B) 


-15% 


3% 


70% 


Las Vegas, NV 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


44% 


29% 


26% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


55% 


31% 


14% 


Variance (A - B) 


-11% 


-2% 


72% 


Reno,NV 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


35% 


33% 


30% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


46% 


34% 


20% 


Variance (A - B) 


-11% 


-7% 


70% 


Rural Nevada ZIPs 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


44% 


35% 


21% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


52% 


33% 


15% 


Variance (A - B) 


-8% 


2% 


6% 


Sedona, AZ 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


20% 


31% 


45% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


43% 


32% 


25% 


Variance (A - B) 


-23% 


-7% 


20% 


Winston-Salem, NC 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


38% 


26% 


35% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


51% 


24% 


24% 


Variance (A - B) 


-13% 


2% 


77% 


Seattle/King County, WA 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


25% 


27% 


46% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


35% 


33% 


33% 


Variance (A - B) 


-10% 


-6% 


73% 


Chicago Area, IL 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


33% 


27% 


38% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


50% 


26% 


25% 


Variance (A - B) 


-17% 


7% 


73% 


Philadelphia MSA 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


41% 


28% 


31% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


57% 


20% 


23% 


Variance (A - B) 


-76% 


8% 


8% 


Broward County, FL 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


29% 


31% 


37% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


55% 


26% 


19% 


Variance (A - B) 


-26% 


5% 


18% 


Dade County, FL 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


37% 


29% 


31% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


58% 


23% 


19% 


Variance (A - B) 


-21% 


6% 


72% 


Santa Clara County, CA 


Unweighted Sample Data (A) 


25% 


32% 


40% 


1990 Census Data (B) 


37% 


31% 


33% 


Variance [A - BJ 


-72% 


7% 


7% 


ALL SITES COMBINED 


Unweighted Sample Data 


35% 


30% 


35% 


Weighted Sample Data 


38% 


28% 


34% 


1990 Census Data (12 Sites Combined) 


51% 


25% 


24% 


Variance from Unweighted Sample Data 


-16% 


5% 


11% 


Variance from Weighted Sample Data 


-13% 


3% 


10% 











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FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION 

BY DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


Table 9(a) 


Highest Number of Times Attended Any of 8 Core Disciplines 




Times 


1 Time 


2 or 3 
Times 


4 or 5 
Times 


6+ Times 


Total 
Sample 


AGE 














18 to 29 


21% 


31% 


24% 


29% 


19% 


24% 
22% 
31% 
23% 


30 to 39 


22% 


24% 


25% 


17% 


18% 


40 to 59 


31% 


28% 


31% 


31% 


35% 


60 and Over 


27% 


16% 


21% 


24% 


29% 


GENDER 














Male 


44% 


49% 


47% 


44% 


56% 


47% 
53% 


Female 


56% 


51% 


53% 


56% 


44% 


RACE 














White 


68% 


78% 


80% 


71% 


83% 


75% 
13% 

5% 
7% 


Black 


15% 


10% 


13% 


11% 


10% 


Hispanic 


7% 


7% 


3% 


7% 


3% 


Other 


10% 


5% 


5% 


11% 


5% 


EDUCATION 














High School or Lower 


54% 


40% 


29% 


18% 


20% 


39% 
28% 
34% 


Some College 


. 28% 


31% 


28% 


27% 


20% 


Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


18% 


30% 


43% 


55% 


60% 


INCOME 














Less than $20,000 


46% 


22% 


21% 


15% 


19% 


30% 

44% 

21% 

6% 


$20,000-$49,999 


41% 


50% 


45% 


42% 


40% 


$50,000-$99,999 


12% 


24% 


26% 


29% 


31% 


$100,000 or More 


2% 


4% 


7% 


14% 


11% 


MARITAL STATUS 














Married 


53% 


52% 


59% 


58% 


60% 


55% 
8% 
3% 
10% 

25% 


Widowed 


10% 


6% 


6% 


5% 


6% 


Separated 


3% 


4% 


2% 


1% 


2% 


Divorced 


12% 


9% 


10% 


7% 


9% 


Never Married 


22% 


30% 


24% 


29% 


23% 


NOTE: Respondents were categorized into six mutually exclusive groups based on the highest number of 
times which they attended any of the 8 "core" disciplines. 

HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Respondents whose highest frequency of attendance was 4 or 5 times were 
more likely to have incomes over $100,000, compared to respondents in other frequency categories. 



NUMBER OF DISCIPLINES ATTENDED 
BY DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS 

12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 
(Weighted Percentages for 12 Sites Combined) 


Table 10 


Number of 8 Core Disciplines Attended... 




None 


1 
Discipline 


2 or 3 
Disciplines 


4 or 5 
Disciplines 


6 to 8 
Disciplines 


Total 
Sample 


AGE 














18 to 29 


21% 


29% 


27% 


22% 


9% 


24% 
22% 
31% 
23% 


30 to 39 


22% 


26% 


21% 


19% 


11% 


40 to 59 


31% 


25% 


32% 


36% 


49% 


60 and Over 


27% 


21% 


21% 


23% 


31% 


GENDER 












Male 


45% 


51% 


49% 


42% 


43% 


47% 

53% i 


Female 


56% 


49% 


51% 


58% 


57% 


RACE 














White 


68% 


75% 


78% 


86% 


88% 


75% 
13% 

5% ! 

7% 


Black 


15% 


13% 


12% 


9% 


6% 


Hispanic 


7% 


6% 


4% 


3% 


2% 


Other 


10% 


6% 


7% 


3% 


5% 


EDUCATION 














High School or Lower 


54% 


41% 


27% 


14% 


7% 


39% 
28% 

34% 


Some College 


28% 


32% 


27% 


21% 


24% 


Bachelor's Degree or Higher 


18% 


28% 


46% 


65% 


69% 


INCOME 














Less than $20,000 


46% 


20% 


23% 


13% 


20% 


30% 

44% 

21% 

6% 


$20,000-$49,999 


41% 


54% 


44% 


35% 


26% 


$50,000-$99,999 


12% 


22% 


27% 


37% 


38% 


$100,000 or More 


2% 


5% 


7% 


16% 


16% 


MARITAL STATUS 














Married 


53% 


56% 


53% 


65% 


73% 


55% 
8% 
3% 
10% 
25% 


Widowed 


10% 


6% 


6% 


6% 


6% 


Separated 


3% 


1% 


4% 


2% 


2% 


Divorced 


12% 


9% 


9% 


7% 


8% 


Never Married 


22% 


28% 


29% 


21% 


12% 


HOW TO READ THIS TABLE: Of those respondents who attended none of the 8 core disciplines, 46% 
reported incomes less than $20,000, compared to 30% for the total sample. 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



B. Sampling Error 

Any value derived from the use of sampling methodologies reflects the "true but unknown" 
values which occur in the data. For example, simply because the mean age for survey 
respondents in a given area is 46, this number is not absolute. There is variability 
surrounding this "point estimate" - since it was derived through sampling techniques and not 
through a census of the entire area. Therefore, a standard error must be calculated to define 
the area surrounding the point estimate in which the actual "true but unknown" value lies. 
Two different types of error rates apply to different analyses of the data. 

1. Single-Site Error Rates 

Comparison of rates within a site (for example, jazz participation rates for Dade County by 
race) requires that standard error rates be calculated based on the unweighted sample size for 
that site (usually about 400, but 600 for Philadelphia). For a sample size of 400, at the 95% 
confidence level, error rates will range from about 2% to 5%, depending on the survey 
percentage in question. 

For example, the jazz participation rate in Dade County for "White (not 
Hispanic)" is 22%, while the same rate for "Black/African American" is 9%. 
Are these rates significantly different? Consult the table below entitled 
"Margin of Error for Single-Site Percentages. " For a sample size of 400 
and a survey percentage of 22%, the error rate is 3.92%. Therefore, we are 
95% confident that the actual rate is 22% +/- 3.92%; or from 18.1% to 
25.9%. Similarly, the applicable error rate for a survey percentage of 9% 
with a sample size of 400 is 2.94%. Since the two ranges do not overlap, we 
can conclude that jazz participation rates for Whites and African-Americans 
in Dade County are significantly different at the 95% confidence level. 

Confidence limits from this table should be used to evaluate the statistical significance of 
survey percentages within a site. 



Margin of Error for Single- Site Percentages 

(95% Confidence Level) 




Sample Size 


400 600* 


Survey Percentage 


5%/95% 


2.14% 


1.71% 


10%/90% 


2.94% 


2.40% 


15%/ 85% 


3.50% 


2.86% 


20%/80% 


3.92% 


3.20% 


25%/75% 


4.24% 


3.46% 


30%/70% 


4.49% 


3.67% 


35%/65% 


4.67% 


3.87% 


40%/60% 


4.80% 


3.92% 


45%/55% 


4.88% 


3.98% 


50%/50% 


4.90% 


4.00% 



"Phildelphia site only 



-93 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

2. Multiple-Site Error Rates 

Different standard error rates apply when evaluating the statistical significance of survey 
percentages across multiple sites. For instance, to see if classical music participation rates 
are different between Las Vegas and Reno (and other sites), confidence limits must be 
calculated based on the entire sample size for all 12 sites for the variable in question. Unlike 
the "Single-Site" error rates discussed above, these rates will allow us to determine whether 
survey percentages between sites are significantly different. 

For each of the common variables on all 12 surveys, a standard error was calculated on the 
total number of respondents answering each question, at the 95% confidence level. A 
Standard Error Table may be found at the end of this section. Standard error figures for the 
various participation rates ranged from .67% to 1.38%. The correct application of these 
standard error calculations is illustrated in the following example: 

The classical music participation rate for the Las Vegas, NV area is 8.91%, 
while the classical music participation rate for the Reno, NV area is 18.24% 
(weighted percentages). From the table below, the standard error figure for 
classical music participation is 1.08%. Therefore, for Las Vegas, we are 
95% confident that the actual participation rate falls within a range of 
1.08% above or below the sampled rate of 8.91%. The same standard error 
figure is applied to the Reno data, resulting in the following confidence 
limits: 

Site Confidence Limits Confidence Level 

Las Vegas 7.83% to 9.99%. 95% 

Reno 17.16% to 19.32% 95% 

Since there is no overlap between the confidence limits, we can conclude 
that the difference between classical music participation in Las Vegas and 
Reno is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. If the exact 
sample sampling procedures were repeated for the same areas, you would 
expect a statistically significant difference to occur 95 times out of 100 times 
in which the study is duplicated. 

Statistically significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations 
for all of the core participation rates (both live performance and media). 



94 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



12 Local Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 

STANDARD ERROR TABLES 

For M u 1 1 i p 1 e - S i t e Comparisons 



VARIABLE 

NAME 


PARTICIPATION RATES 


STANDARD 


VARIABLE DESCRIPTION 


ERROR 


JAZZ 


Jazz participation 


1.03%* 


CLASSIC 


Classical music participation 


1.08%* 


OPERA 


Opera participation 


0.67%* 


MUSICAL 


Musical stage participation 


1.21%* 


PLAY 


Non-musical stage participation 


1.13%* 


BALLET 


Ballet participation 


0.79%* 


ODANCE 


Other Dance participation 


0.88%* 


MUSEUM 


Visited a museum or art gallery 


1.38%* 


FAIR 


Attended an art fair or festival 


1.38%* 


PARK 


Visited a historic park or monument 


1.38%* 


BOOKS 


Read books 


1.18%* 


READPLAY 


Read plays 


0.75%* 


READPOET 


Read poetry 


1.30%* 


READNOV 


Read novels 


1.29%* 


HEARPOET 


Listen to poetry 


1.02%* 


HEARNOV 


Listen to novels or books 


0.95%* 


TVJAZZ 


Watched jazz on TV/VCR 


1.33%* 


TVCLASS 


Watched classical music on TV/VCR 


1.38%* 


TVOPERA 


Watched operas on TV/VCR 


1.12%* 


TVMUS 


Watched musicals on TV/VCR 


1.23%* 


TVPLAY 


Watched stage play on TV/VCR 


1.22%* 


TVDANCE 


Watched dance on TV/VCR 


1.33%* 


TV ART 


Watched visual arts program on TV7VCR 


1.38%* 


LISJAZZ 


Listen to jazz on radio/recordings 


1.38%* 


LISCLASS 


Listen to classical music on radio/recordings 


1.38%* 


LISOPERA 


Listen to opera on radio/recordings 


1.17%* 


LISMUS 


Listen to musicals on radio/recordings 


1.13%* 


MISPLAY 


Listen to stage plays on radio/recordings 


0.79%* 


CINEMA 


Attend movie theaters to see films 


1.19%* 



"Significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations. 



95 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



VARIABLE 

NAME 


FREQUENCY OF PARTICIPATION 
VARIABLE DESCRIPTION 


STANDARD 
ERROR 


GOMORE 


Like to attend arts events more often 


1.24%* 


NJAZZ 


Number of times attended jazz 


3.40% 


NCLASSIC 


Number of times attended classical music 


3.20% 


NOPERA 


Number of times attended opera 


5.50% 


NMUSICAL 


Number of times attended musicals 


2.71%* 


NPLAY 


Number of times attended stage plays 


3.01%* 


NBALLET 


Number of times attended ballet 


4.58% 


NODANCE 


Number of times attended other dance types 


4.09%* 


NMUSEUM 


Number of times attended museum/gallery 


2.04%* 


NFAIR 


Number of times attended art fair or festival 


1.88%* 


NPARK 


Number of times attended historic park/monument 


2.03%* 


NBOOKS 


Number of books read 


1.65%* 


NTVJAZZ 


Number of times watched jazz on TV/VCR 


2.40% 


NTVCLASS 


Number of times watched classical music on TV/VCR 


2.26%* 


NTVOPERA 


Number of times watched opera on TV/VCR 


3.10% 


NTVMUS 


Number of times watched musicals on TV/VCR 


2.75% 


NTVPLAY 


Number of times watched stage plays on TV/VCR 


2.79%* 


NTVDANCE 


Number of times watched dance on TV/VCR 


2.37% 


NTVART 


Number of times watched visual arts program on TV/VCR 


2.18%* \ 



Y Significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations. 



VARIABLE 

NAME 


VENUE TYPES ATTENDED 


STANDARD 


VARIABLE DESCRIPTION 


ERROR 


WJAZZ 


Jazz venues 


3.38%* 


WCLASSIC 


Classical music venues 


3.17%* 


WOPERA 


Opera venues 


5.57%* 


WMUSICAL 


Musical venues 


2.70%* 


WPLAY 


Stage play venues 


3.00%* 


WBALLET 


Ballet venues 


4.57%* 


WODANCE 


Other dance venues 


4.08%* 



"Significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations. 



96- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation 



Summary Report 



VARIABLE 

NAME 


DEMOGRAPHICS 
VARIABLE DESCRIPTION 


STANDARD 
ERROR 


HHSIZE 


Number in household 


1.39%* | 


OVER 18 


Number of adults 18 or older in household 


1.52%* 


AGE 


Age of respondent 


1.41%* 


EDUC 


Highest education level completed 


1.38%* 


RACE 


Race or heritage 


1.38%* 


INCOME 


Household income 


1.38%* ! 



''Significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations. 



VARIABLE 

NAME 


OTHER VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS 


STANDARD 
ERROR 


MORE1 


Want to attend more.... (first answer) 


1.38%* 


MOREMOST 


Want to attend more often the most 


1.54%* 


BAR1 


Reason for not attending (first answer) 


1.63%* 


MOSTIMP 


Most important reason for not attending 


1.88%* 


HOWIMP 


How important is it to attend arts events 


1.38%* 


SCHOOLS 


How important is art in schools 


1.38%* 


TVTYPE 


Cable TV, Network TV or both 


2.64%* | 


RATEINFO 


Adequacy of information 


1.38%* 



♦Significant differences, on the 95% confidence level, occurred between locations. 

NOTE: The standard error is calculated on the number of respondents answering each 
question and is the maximum standard error for each question. 



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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



C. Methodological Comparisons Between Local and National Surveys 

Methodological differences between the 12 Local Surveys and the 1982, 1985 and 1992 
National SPPA's were summarized in the Methodology section of this report. These issues 
are central to understanding the variation in participation rates between surveys, and are 
discussed in greater detail here. 

1. Sponsorship/Survey Context 

The 12 Local Surveys and the National SPPA's were presented to the eligible 
respondents in a significantly different manner, which may have affected the 
respondents' perception of the two studies and, therefore, the completion rates and 
quality of answers. The National SPPA's immediately followed surveys on crime, an 
issue that affects everyone to some degree. This may have served as an incentive to 
participate in the survey, attracting a very heterogeneous group representative of the 
general public. On the other hand, the 12 Local Surveys were introduced by the 
interviewers as follows: 

"Hello, this is (NAME) calling for (LOCAL SPONSOR) about a 
study of local participation in the Arts. This study is being co- 
sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts. " 

Respondents were immediately able to contextualize the survey in terms of their own 
interests, and make a decision to proceed or hang up. Recent publicity surrounding 
the NEA's funding of controversial art may also have had some bearing, positive or 
negative, on response rates. 

2. Random Digit Dialing Telephone Survey Methodolog y 

Approximately 75% of the interviews for the '82 and '85 national SPPA's were 
conducted in person in the respondent's home, whereas all of the 12 Local SPPA 
households were sampled by telephone using a random digit dialing approach. (The 
1992 SPPA was conducted by telephone, unlike the earlier SPPA's, although other 
aspects of the methodology remained constant.) Four concerns arise from these 
differences in sampling methodologies: 

A. Very simply, telephone interviews can be (and frequently are) terminated by 
the respondent at any time for any reason. Response rates for the 12 Local 
Surveys ranged from 40% to 52%, indicating that up to 1,000 households 
were contacted in some markets to achieve 400 completed interviews. 
(These response rates are not unusual for telephone surveys of this type.) 
Respondents with an interest in the survey subject matter are more likely to 
complete the interview, a source of upward bias in the final data set. 
Respondents who were interviewed in person (in their own homes) for the 
'82 and '85 SPPA's found it more difficult to terminate the interview, 
regardless of their interest or disinterest in the arts. 

B. Households without telephones were excluded from the Local samples. It is 
assumed that households without telephones generally exhibit different 
demographic characteristics (i.e. lower income, education, etc.) than 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

households with telephones, and consequently are less likely to be arts 
participators. This potential source of bias arising from non-response was 
addressed by Abt Associates in their post-stratification weighting procedure. 

C. The great increase in telemarketing and telephone solicitations of all kinds 
has created a negative context for bonafide telephone survey research. For 
example, telemarketers sometimes introduce themselves as researchers, and 
what begins as a survey turns into a sales pitch. Generally, this increases the 
amount of resistance to telephone survey participation, except among those 
with an interest in the subject matter. Bias resulting from resentment or 
mistrust of interviewers cannot be measured, but nevertheless is a reality of 
telephone research. 

3. Respondent Eligibility 

Another primary difference between the 12 Local Surveys and the National studies is 
respondent eligibility. For the National SPPA's, all adults (18+) in the sampled 
households were eligible respondents, and less than 15% to 20% of eligible 
respondents were not interviewed. For the 12 Local Surveys, only the one adult 
(18+) in the household with the most recent birthday was the eligible respondent. 
Although the procedure of selecting the person with the most recent birthday assures 
a random selection of adults within the sampled households, this procedure also 
creates a convenient excuse for uninterested but eligible respondents to terminate the 
call. If the desired respondent was not available at the time of the initial call, an 
attempt was made to schedule a return call. However, "Respondent Never 
Available" was included on the telephone interview script as a reason to terminate 
the call after callback procedures were exhausted. 

In contrast to the National SPPA's, this procedure creates a barrier to reaching the 
eligible respondent, providing an opportunity for disinterested individuals to self- 
select themselves out of the sample. Conversely, this also provides an opportunity 
for those with an interest in the arts to stick with the interview protocol. 

4. Out-of-Town Arts Participation 

None of the arts participation surveys, either local or national, asked respondents to 
distinguish between local and out-of-town arts participation. With the national 
surveys, this distinction was unnecessary, because the results were generalized to the 
U.S. population. However, the issue of out-of-town arts participation becomes 
relevant given the geographical definitions of the 12 local sites. Several issues arise, 
particularly in light of the effort to reconcile the supply of local arts activity with 
sampled arts participation rates. 

First, the sampled geographies (12 local sites) may be close to other cities with arts 
activity. For example, Sedona, AZ residents commonly drive to Flagstaff for arts 
presentations sponsored by Northern Arizona University. Therefore, arts 
participation rates for Sedona respondents do not relate exclusively to the supply of 
arts activity in Sedona. Presumably, local participation rates would be lower if out- 
of-town attendance was discounted. Conversely, in areas where tourism is a major 
factor, local arts participation rates explain only a fraction of arts activity (e.g., Las 
Vegas, NV). 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 



Secondly, several of the sampled areas (i.e., Broward and Dade Counties) have 
significant populations of seasonal residents, who also may attend arts events in 
another area. The 12 Local Surveys were conducted during the winter months when 
seasonal residents tend to be in Florida. Survey results show that 10% of Broward 
County respondents identified themselves as "snowbirds," versus 6% for Dade 
County. These respondents, who maintain two residences and fall into higher age 
brackets, are more likely to report higher attendance levels. 

Out of town arts participation is not a source of methodological bias, since the issue 
was treated consistently between the 12 local surveys. However, it may explain 
some of the variation in participation rates between sites. 

5. Termination Due to Language Barrier 

For the 12 Local Surveys, an unknown number of calls were terminated immediately 
due to a language barrier [figures not released by Abt Associates], although some 
interviews were conducted in Spanish for the Dade, Broward, and San Jose sites. 
Participation rates in the traditional arts disciplines are generally lower among non- 
English speaking immigrant groups, for cultural and socioeconomic reasons - 
another possible source of upward bias. Little mention is made in the 1982 and 1985 
SPPA reports about language barriers, except that interpreters were made available, 
if necessary. 1 

6. Sampling Periods vs. Seasonality of Arts Activity 

The National SPPA's were conducted over longer periods of time than the 12 Local 
Surveys. The 1982 and 1992 SPPA's were conducted over a calendar year, with an 
even distribution of interviews each month, while the 1985 SPPA involved data 
collection only during the first six months of 1985 (January - June), which includes 
months of both high and low arts activity. (Arts programming drops off sharply 
during the summer months, particularly with respect to traditional programming.) 
The 12 Local Surveys were conducted during one of the most active 3-month periods 
for arts programming, mid-February through mid-May. 

Recent attendance may be more easily recalled by respondents, raising the possibility 
of higher participation rates for respondents interviewed during the performing arts 
season. 

7. Weighting 

The weighting procedures performed on the raw data by Abt Associates had a 
significant impact on participation rates. Consistently, weighted participation rates 
are lower than unweighted participation rates, typically by several percentage points, 
but occasionally by large numbers. The following data for Sedona, AZ illustrates an 
extreme example of the effect of weighting: 



Purvey of Public Participation in th e Arts: Volume I. Project Report. John P. Robinson and others, March 
1987, page 25. 

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12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Classical Music Participation - Sedona, AZ 

Unweighted Sample (raw data) 27.9% 

Weighted Percentag e 16.7% 

Variance 11.2% 

Sample data was first weighted for the number of adults in the sampled household. 
This procedure alone would tend to exaggerate the bias resulting from other sources. 
The second weighting procedure adjusted the data to bring the sample distribution 
into closer agreement with the actual distribution of age, race, gender, and household 
income for each site, to correct for potential bias arising from non-response, and to 
adjust the sample for non-coverage of households without telephones. 

Bias resulting from a number of sources led to samples with substantially different 
demographics (i.e., race, income, education levels) than the actual figures for the 
sampled geographies. Given these large discrepancies, it appears that the post- 
stratification weighting procedure resulted in some large downward adjustments to 
the original data. Despite this, weighted participation rates are still much higher than 
comparable rates from the '82 and '85 SPPA's. Unweighted participation rates for the 
12 Local Surveys, although not used for this analysis, differ even more with the '82 
and '85 SPPA figures. 

D. Survey Design Comparisons: 12 Local Surveys vs. National SPPA's 

The 12 Local Surveys differ significantly from the 1982 and 1985 National SPPA's from a 
design standpoint, although the 1992 SPPA is more consistent with the Local Surveys. 
Beyond the addition and deletion of whole questions, a variety of both subtle and obvious 
changes were made in the wording of questions. In some cases, these changes may have 
affected the comparability of data across surveys. Some of the design differences between 
these surveys are discussed below. 

1. Qualifications to Participation 

The 12 Local Surveys and the 1992 SPPA ask respondents not to include grade 
school or high school functions for all the disciplines, whereas the 1982 and 1985 
SPPA's only make this request for 'musical play or operetta' and 'non-musical play'. 

2. Literature Participation 

Questions relating to literature participation were also treated differently. The 1982 
and 1985 SPPA's included three questions about literature; one inquiring about the 
reading of novels, short stories or plays, the second asking if the respondent has read 
any books or magazines, and the third asking about reading or listening to poetry. 

The 12 Local Surveys and the 1992 SPPA are more specific about literature 
participation, asking separately about reading of plays, poetry, and novels or short 
stories, in addition to asking if the respondent read any books over the past year, 
excluding books required for work or school, and if so, the number of books read. 
The 12 Local Surveys add separate questions about listening to readings of poetry or 
novels/books, either recorded or live. These differences complicate direct 



101 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

comparisons of literature participation rates between the 12 Local Surveys and the 
1982 and 1985 National SPPA's. 

Dance (other than Ballet) was added as a new category of participation on the 12 
Local Surveys and the 1992 SPPA. Comparative data is not available from the 1982 
and 1985 SPPA's. 

3. Arts Participation through the Media 

The national SPPA's use a series of questions to query arts participation through the 
media. For each of the core disciplines, respondents were asked about: 

(a) TY7VCR participation 

(b) If yes, TV, VCR, or Both? (1992 version only) 

(b) If yes, frequency of participation (1992 version only) 

(c) Radio participation 

(d) Audio media (record, tape, CD) participation. 

The 12 Local Surveys combine radio with other audio media and ask the questions in 
a different order. Therefore, data for arts participation through audio media 
(including radio) is not comparable between the 12 Local Studies and the national 
SPPA's. 

With respect to dance participation through the media, the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's 
asked only about Ballet participation on TV, whereas the 1992 SPPA and the 12 
Local Surveys combine all types of dance (i.e., "ballet, modern, folk, or tap"). 
Further, the 1992 SPPA (only) explicitly excludes music videos. 

Media participation questions on the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's were included as a 
"rotating" module, and were not asked of all respondents. Conversely, media 
participation questions were asked of all respondents to the 1992 SPPA and the 1 2 
Local Surveys. 

Several other details: In the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's, VCRs were not specified as an 
acceptable form of media participation. The SPPA question about watching 
musicals/operettas on TV instructs the respondent to exclude any movie versions, 
while the 12 Local Surveys do not contain this exclusion. The 1992 SPPA (only) 
also instructs respondents to exclude movies, situation comedies, and TV series for 
reporting TV/VCR participation for non-musical stage plays. 

4. Film Participation 

With respect to film participation, the National SPPA's are simple and direct: 
"During the LAST 12 MONTHS did YOU go out to the movies?" (verbatim). Some 
respondents, however, may have included going out to a friends house to watch a 
movie (VCR), or a movie shown in a college dormitory or student union, etc. The 
12 Local Surveys add an exclusion: "Do not include movies you have watched on a 
VCR or at some other place other than a movie theatre." 



102 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

5. Frequency of Attendance 

Data relating to the frequency of participation in the various disciplines is non- 
comparable across surveys. The 1982 and 1985 SPPA's, after asking about 
participation over the past year, asked how many times the respondent had attended 
in the last month . Responses were coded as follows: 

1. None 

2. 1 time 

3. 2 or 3 times 

4. 4 or 5 times 

5. 6 or more times 

The 1992 SPPA and the 12 Local Surveys, however, ask respondents how many 
times they attended during the last 12 months , maintaining the same time frame (one 
year) as for the related participation question. Responses were open-ended, rather 
than categorized (any number was an acceptable answer). Thus, frequency of 
attendance data from the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's is categorical and for the period of a 
month, while frequency of attendance data from the 1992 SPPA and the 12 Local 
Surveys is continuous and for the period of a year. 

6. Types of Venues Attended 

The 12 Local Surveys asked all respondents who reported any attendance in a given 
discipline to identify the type of performance venue where they last attended. This 
process was repeated for each discipline. In contrast, one of the "rotating" modules 
of the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's asked respondents to identify all venue types utilized 
over the past year, for all disciplines, in one question. The 1992 SPPA drops the 
subject altogether. Thus, data on facility utilization from the 12 Local Surveys are 
unique. 

7. Reasons for Not Attending More Often 

One of the rotating modules of the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's was devoted to "barriers 
to participation". Separate questions were asked for each discipline, whereas the 12 
Local Surveys only ask about barriers to arts participation in general. The 1992 
SPPA drops the topic. The list of reasons for not attending more often is 
comparable, with the exception of 'cost'. The 12 Local Surveys distinguish between 
the cost of tickets and the overall cost of attending events, whereas the 1982 and 
1985 SPPA's mention 'cost' without further specification. 

In addition, several of the responses are different. 'Lack of Interest' and 'Just don't 
get around to it' are included in the 12 Local Surveys, whereas Procrastination/Lack 
of Motivation' is the most comparable response on the 1982 and 1985 SPPA forms. 
Also, Teel Uncomfortable' is a coded response on the National but not the Local 
surveys. 

8. Interest in Attending More Often 

Different time frames surround these questions. Whereas the 1982 and 1985 SPPA's 
ask what the respondent would like to do more often than what he or she has done 

-103- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

during the last 12 months , the 12 Local Surveys and the 1992 SPPA ask respondents 
what types of events they would like to attend 'more often than you do now'. 

This section addresses a limited number of survey design issues relevant to the 12 Local 
Studies. Numerous other design issues (esp. with regard to socialization, other leisure 
activities, etc.) are not treated here because they do not pertain to questions common to the 
12 Local Studies. 



-104- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

E. Survey Form 

As noted in the report, each of the 12 survey instruments were different. In addition to "core 
questions" relating to arts participation and related topics, each survey also included other questions 
of special interest to the local sponsor. These questions covered a variety of topics, including: 

awareness of local arts institutions 

culturally-diverse programming 

participation in other leisure activities 

ticket purchasing behaviors 

additional probing of barriers to attendance 

additional probing of local media preferences 

musical preferences 

perceived need for new facilities 

interest in continuing education programs 

other topics 

Since the scope of this report is limited to data collected across all 12 sites, only the "Core 
Questionnaire" is reproduced here. Local survey instruments in their complete form may be obtained 
by writing the Research Office of the National Endowment for the Arts, 1 100 Pennsylvania Ave., 
N.W., Washington DC, 20506 



-105- 



LOCAL SURVEYS OF PARTICIPATION IN THE ARTS 
Core Questionnaire 



The following questions are about your activities during the last 12 months— between 
1 , 1 9_, and , 1 9_. 

1 . With the exception of elementary or high school performances, did you go to a live jazz 
performance during the last 12 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.2) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 

B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



2. With the exception of elementary or high school performances, did you go to a live 
classical music performance such as symphony, chamber, or choral music during the 
last 1 2 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.3) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



3. (With the exception of elementary or high school performances,) Did you go to a live 
opera during the last 12 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.4) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



4. (With the exception of elementary or high school performances,) Did you go to a live 
musical stage play or an operetta during the last 12 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.5) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



5. (With the exception of elementary or high school performances,) Did you go to a live 
performance of a non-musical stage play during the last 1 2 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.6) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



6. (With the exception of elementary or high school performances,) Did you go to a live 
ballet performance during the last 1 2 months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.7) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 , 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



(With the exception of elementary or high school performances,) Did you go to a live 
dance performance other than ballet, such as modern, folk, or tap, during the last 12 
months? 

YES (ASK A-B) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.8) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



6 



B. In what type of place or facility did you see this (most recent) performance? IF 
R OFFERS THE SPECIFIC NAME OF A FACILITY BUT CANNOT CATEGORIZE IT 
BY TYPES GIVEN BELOW, WRITE THE NAME GIVEN. 

Church, synagogue, mosque, other facility associated 

with a religious organization 1 

Civic center 2 

Coffee house 3 

College facility 4 

Concert hall, opera house 5 

Dinner theater 6 

Elementary or high school facility 7 

Library 8 

Museum or art gallery 9 

Nightclub/Jazz club coffee house 10 

Park or other open-air facility 11 

Theater 12 

Town hall, city hall 13 

The "Y" (YMCA, YWCA, YMHA, YWHA, etc.) 14 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 96 



8. During the last 12 months, did you visit an art museum or gallery? 

YES (ASK A) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.9) 2 

A. About how many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 

9. (During the last 12 months,) Did you visit an art fair or festival or craft fair or festival? 

YES (ASK A) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.10) 2 

A. How many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 

1 0. (During the last 1 2 months,) Did you visit an historic park or monument or tour buildings 
or neighborhoods for their historic or design value? 

YES (ASK A) 1 

NO (GOTO Q.11) 2 

A. How many times did you do this during the last 12 months? 

NUMBER OF TIMES 



1 1 . With the exception of books required for work or school, did you read any books during 
the last 1 2 months? 

YES (ASK A) 1 

NO (GO TO Q.12) 2 

A. About how many books did you read during the last 12 months? 

Number of books 

12. (During the last 12 months,) Did you read any... 

YES NO 

Plays? 1 2 

Poetry? 1 2 

Novels or short stories? 1 2 

13. (During the last 12 months,) Did you listen to: 

YES NO 

A reading of poetry, either live or recorded? 1 2 

A reading of novels or books, either live or recorded? 1 2 



8 



1 4. During the last 1 2 months, have you watched any of the following on television or video 
(VCR) tape? 

A. How many times 
Watched in did you do this 

Type of Performance past 1 2 months? in past 1 2 months? 

A jazz performance? YES 1 => TIMES 

NO 2 

A classical music YES 1 => TIMES 

performance? NO 2 

An opera? YES 1 => TIMES 

NO 2 

A musical stage play YES 1 =» TIMES 

or operetta? NO 2 

A nonmusical stage play? YES 1 ■» TIMES 

NO 2 

A dance performance, such as YES 1 =» TIMES 

ballet, modern, folk, or tap? NO 2 

A program about artists, art YES 1 => r __ TIMES 

works, or art museums? NO 2 

1 5. During the past 1 2 months, did you listen to any of the following types of performances 
on the radio, on records, tapes, or compact discs? 

Type of Performance 

Jazz? YES 1 

NO ..... 2 

Classical music? YES 1 

NO 2 

Opera music? YES 1 

NO 2 

A musical stage play YES 1 

or an operetta? NO 2 

A nonmusical stage play? YES 1 

NO . 2 



16. (During the last 12 months), have you gone out to a movie theater to see a movie? 
(Do not include movies you have watched on a VCR or at some other place other than 
a movie theater.) 



YES 
NO 



1 
2 



17. I'm going to read to you a list of arts events that some people like to attend. If you 
could go to any of these events as often as you wanted, which ones would you go to 
more often than you do now? I'll read the list. Go to ... 



YES 



NO 



Jazz music performances 

Classical music performances 

Operas 

Musical plays or operettas 

Non-musical plays 

Ballet performances 

Dance performances other than ballet 
Exhibits at art museums or galleries . 



2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



IF ONLY ONE IS CHOSEN, SKIP TO NEXT ITEM. 
IF MORE THAN ONE IS CHOSEN, ASK A: 

A. Which of these would you like to do most? 



I've just mentioned many different types of arts activities. 

18. In general, would you like to attend cultural and artistic events more often than you 
have in the past 1 2 months? 

YES (ASK A) 1 

NO (GOTOQ.19) 2 



10 



A. What are the reasons that you did not attend these types of events (more often)? 
PROBE: Are there other reasons? RECORD VERBATIM AND CODE AT END OF 
INTERVIEW. 



B. How about (ITEM)? IF NEEDED: Was this a reason you did not attend arts events 
(more often)? 



READ ITEM ONLY IF NOT MENTIONED IN "A". 



1 . Was the cost of tickets a reason you did not attend Yes . 1 
more often? No . . 2 



2. The distance or travel time to events or inconvenient Yes . 1 
location of events? No . . 2 



3. The quality of the performances? Yes . 1 

No . . 2 



4. Lack of transportation or parking problems? Yes . 1 

No . . 2 



5. Not having enough time to attend? Yes . 1 

No . . 2 



6. Safety or fear of crime in the area where an event Yes . 1 
was held? No . . 2 



C. IF MORE THAN ONE REASON: Of the reasons you just mentioned, which is the 
most important? 



19. In general, how important is it to you to be able to attend or to take part in arts 
activities and events? Would you say it is... 

very important, 1 

somewhat important, 2 

not at all important? 3 



/ 



11 



20. In your opinion, how important is it to offer activities such as music, dance, theater, and 
art in the schools? Would you say that it is... 

very important, 1 

somewhat important, 2 

not at all important? 3 



21 . How do you learn or find out about arts events in your community? CIRCLE ALL THAT 
APPLY. PROBE: In what other ways do you find out about events? 

NEWSPAPER(S) (ASK A-D) 1 

WORD OF MOUTH 2 

FRIENDS, RELATIVES, OTHER INDIVIDUALS 3 

MAILED ANNOUNCEMENT, FLYER, BROCHURE 4 

POSTERS/NOTICES IN PUBLIC AREAS 5 

TELEVISION (ASK E,F) 6 

RADIO (ASK G) 7 

MAGAZINE (ASK H) 8 

SCHOOL NOTICES 9 

TELEMARKETINGH"ELEPHONE SOLICITATION 10 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 11 



NONE/DO NOT GET INFORMATION ABOUT 

ARTS EVENTS (GO TO Q.22) 00 



A. Which newspaper(s)? 



B. In general, how many days each week do you read a newspaper? 

DAYS/WEEK 

C. Do you usually read the Sunday paper? 

YES 1 

NO 2 

D. Which of the following sections do you read regularly ? 
(CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) 



YES NO 



The front or "A" section . 

Local news section 

Business 

Sports 

Living / entertainment/arts 
Neighbors 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



12 



E. Was that on cable TV, network TV, or both? 

CABLE 1 

NETWORK . 2 

BOTH 3 

F. Which, if any, local news programs do you watch? 



NONE 00 

G. Which radio station? 

H. Which magazine(s)? 



22. In general, how would you rate the availability and adequacy of information about arts 
events in your area? Would you say that it is ... 

excellent, 1 

good, 2 

fair, or 3 

poor? 4 



13 



^ 0ll/l5-fiovi5 <r^ 4U*> p*^- Wlr*. />o*^ <^>&^ f>T o.l( fjUpCKdjUAl 9 

1. What arts and cultural organizations are you familiar with or have you heard of in the 
South Florida area? These can be either large organizations, festivals, smaller or ethnic 
cultural groups, etc. INTERVIEWER: RECORD VERBATIM RESPONSES. 

PROBE: What other arts groups or organizations? 



2. Who most often selects the arts events you attend? (PROBE FOR ONE ANSWER.) 

RESPONDENT 1 

SPOUSE/PARTNER 2 

OTHER FAMILY MEMBER 3 

FRIEND(S) 4 

JOINT DECISION OF THOSE INVOLVED 5 

NO CONSISTENT PATTERN 6 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 7 

NOT APPLICABLE-RESPONDENT DOES NOT ATTEND 
ARTS EVENTS 8 



3. Do you think that this area offers a reasonably good number of arts-related activities 
that reflect the cultures of different ethnic groups? 

YES 1 

NO 2 



4. Are you interested in attending arts-related activities that reflect the cultures of different 
ethnic groups? 

YES 1 

NO 2 



ASK ONLY IF PARTICIPATED IN AT LEAST ONE ART FORM (FROM QS. 1-7): 

In the past twelve months, have you been a subscription ticket holder for any 
performing arts organization? 

YES 1 

NO 2 

A. Do you think that a "sampler" ticket package that allows you to choose several 
different types of events is a good idea? 

YES 1 

NO 2 



14 



DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS 

These next questions are for background purposes. 

1 . Do you live in Florida year-round or for part of the year? 



f?L<?tf(DA 
\ SlTtS 
LpivLY^ 



YEAR-ROUND 1 

PART OF YEAR 2 

OTHER (SPECIFY) 3 



For how many years have you lived in Florida (either year-round or for part of the year)? 

STTtS YEARS 

Including yourself, how many people live in your household? 

NUMBER IN HOUSEHOLD 

IF"1" ONLY, GO TOO. 4. 
A. How many people in your household are 1 8 years old or older? 

NUMBER 



4. How old were you on your last birthday? 

YEARS 

5. Are you currently... 

married, 1 

widowed, 2 

separated 3 

divorced, or 4 

never married 5 

6. What is the highest grade of school or highest degree you have completed ? (DO NOT 
READ CATEGORIES.) 

No school 1 

Grades K-8 2 

Grades 9-11 3 

Completed high school (or GED) 4 

Vocational school (after high school) 5 

Some college or Associates Degree 6 

Bachelors Degree 7 

Some graduate school 8 

Graduate degree 9 

Other (SPECIFY) . 10 



15 



7. Which of the following best describes your race or heritage? Do you consider yourself 
to be... 

White, non-Hispanic, 1 

Black or African-American, 2 

Hispanic, 3 

Caribbean islander (SPECIFY) 4 

Central American (SPECIFY) 5 

South American (SPECIFY) 6 

Native American or Alaskan, 7 

Asian, Pacific Islander, Filipino, or 8 

Something else? (SPECIFY) 9 



8. Which of the following categories best describes your household's total family income 
in 1991? 

Less than $10,000 1 

$10,000 to $14,999 2 

$15,000 to $19,999 4 

$20,000 to $29,999 5 

$30,000 to $49,999 6 

$50,000 to $74,999 7 

$75,000 to $99,999 8 

$100,000 or more 9 

9. What is your zip code? 

ZIP CODE 

10. INTERVIEWER OBSERVATION : 

R is MALE 1 

R is FEMALE 2 



16 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

F. Bibliography: Public Participation in the Arts 

The following bibliography was prepared by the Research Division of the National 
Endowment for the Arts. 

Abreu, Dan; Friedman, Andrea; Logan, Catrina; Reinhart, Kay; andZiff, Charles, Survey of Public 
Participation in the Arts: Musical Theatre. Operetta, and Opera Attendees . National Endowment for 
the Arts, 1987 

Andreasen, Alan R., Expanding the Audience for the Performing Arts . National Endowment for the 
Arts and Seven Locks Press, Washington, DC 1991 

Andreasen, Alan R. and Belk, Russell W., "The Effect of Family Life Cycle on Arts Patronage," 
Journal of Cultural Economics . 6:2, pp. 25-35. 

Arts for America/NALAA, The Arts in Rural Areas . Washington, DC 1988. 

Balfe, Judith H. and Heine, Joni Cherbo, editors, Arts Education Beyond the Classroom . ACA 
Books, New York, 1988. 

Balfe, Judith H. "Social Mobility and Modern Art" Social Movements. Conflict and Chang e. Vol. 4 
(1981), pp 235-251. 

Bamossy, Gary, "Socializing Experiences as Predictors of Performing Arts Patronage Behavior," 
Journal of Cultural Economics. 6:2, pp. 37-43 

Baumol, William J. and Bowen, William G., Performing Arts: The Economic Dilemma . The 
Twentieth Century Fund, New York, 1966 

Blattberg, Robert C. and Broderick, Cynthia J., "Marketing of Art Museums" in Feldstein, Martin, 
The Economics of Art Museums . University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991, pp 327-346. 

Blatti, Jo, editor, Past Meets Present:Essays about Historic Interpretation and Public Audiences . 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC 1987. 

Blau, Judith R. and Quets, Gail A., The Geography of Arts Participation: Report on the 1982 and 
1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts . National Endowment for the Arts 1987 

Cameron, S., "The Supply and Demand for Cinema Tickets: Some U.K. Evidence", Journal of 
Cultural Economics . 10:1, June 1986, pp 38-62. 

Cornwell, Terri Lynn, Democracy and the Arts: The Role of Participation . Praeger, New York, 1990. 

Cwi, David, "Changes in the U.S. Audience for the Arts," Govenments and Culture . Association of 
Cultural Economics 1984. pp. 32-42 

Cwi, David, "Market Segments for Theatre: Research to Increase Arts Participation," Economic 
Efficiency and the Performing Arts . Association of Cultural Economics 1986, pp. 150-158 



-106 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Cwi, David, editor, Research in the Arts: Proceedings of the Conference on Policy Related Studies of 
the National Endowment for the Arts . Walters Gallery, Baltimore 1978 Section on Research on the 
Anisic and Cultural Consumers, pp. 10-34 includes the following articles: 

Orend, Richard, "Developing Research on the Arts Consumer" 

Andreasen, Alan R. and Belk, Russell W., Consumer Response to Arts Offerings: A Study of 

Theatre and Symphony in Four Southern Cities" 

Peterson, George L. and Anas, Alex, "A Behavioral Approach for Assessing the Demands for 

Cultural and ArtisticRecreational Activities" 

Katzman, Natan, "How Broadcasters Assess the Response to Program Offerings" 

Cwi, David, "The Policy Uses of Audience Studies" 

Useem, Michael and DiMaggio, Paul, "A Critical Review of the Content, Quality and Use of 

Audience Studies" 

Dickenson, Victoria, "Museum Visitor Surveys: An Overview, 1930-1990", Cultural Economics . 
Ruth Towse and Abdul Khakee, editors, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992, pp 141-150. 

DiMaggio, Paul J.; Useem, Michael and Brown, Paula, The American Art Audience: Its Study and 
Its Character . National Endowment for the Arts 1977 

DiMaggio, Paul J., Audience Development: An Examination of Selected Analysis, and Prediction 
Techniques Applied to Symphony and Theatre Attendance in Four Southern Cities . National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1978 

DiMaggio, Paul J.; Useem, Michael and Brown, Paula, "Audience Studies of the Performing Arts 
and Museums: A Critical Review," National Endowment for the Arts, 1978 

DiMaggio, Paul J. and Ostrower, Francie, Race Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of 
Participation by Hispanic. White and African- Americans in Selected Activities from the 1982 and 
1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts . Seven Lock Press, Washington, DC, 1992 

DiMaggio, Paul J. and Useem, Michael, "Cultural Democracy in a Period of Cultural Expansion: The 
Social Composition of Arts Audiences in the United States", Social Problems . Vol 26, 1978, pp 179- 
97. 

Evrand, Yves, "The Determinants of Cultural Consumption," Artists and Cultural Consumer . 
Association of Cultural Economics, Akron, OH 1986 pp. 192-201 

Feldstein, Martin, editor, The Economics of Art Museums . University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 
1991, "The Museum and the Public", a panel discussion, Ch. 2, pp.35 -60. 

Felton, Marianne Victorius, "Major Influences onthe Demand for Opera Tickets," Journal of Cultural 
Economics . 13:1 pp.53-64 

Felton, Marianne Victorius, "On The Assumed Inelasticity of Demand for the Performing Arts", 
Journal of Cultural Economics. 16:1, June 1992, pp 1-12. 

Fitzhugh, Lynne, "An Analysis of Audience Studies for the Performing Arts in America", Journal of 
Arts Management and Law . Part I: "The Audience Profile" is in 13:2, Summer 1983 pp 49-85; Part 
II: "Market Behavior" is in 13:3, Fall 1983, pp 5-31. 



107 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Gapinski, James H., "Economics, Demographics and Attendance at the Symphony," Journal of 
Cultural Economics . 5:2 pp. 79-83 

Gray, Charles M, "Subsidizing the Arts with Vouchers: A Case Study of the Twin Cities 
Metropolitan Arts Alliance," 1992 unpublished paper 

Harris, Louis, and Associates, Americans and the Arts: A Nationwide Survey of Public Opinion , 
periodic surveys, American Council for the Arts, New York, 1992, 1988, etc. 

Heilbrun, James, "The Distribution of Arts Activities Among U.S. Metropolitan Areas," Cultural 
Economics 88: An American Perspective . Association of Cultural Economics 1988 pp. 33-40 

Heilbrun, James, "Growth and Geographic Distribution on the Arts in the U.S.," Artists and Cultural 
Consumers . Association of Cultural Economics, Akron, OH 1986 pp. 24-35 

Hendon, Mary Ann; Richardson, James F. and Hendon, William S., Bach and the Box: The Impact 
of Television on the Live Arts . Journal of Cultural Economics, Special Supplement 1985 

Hendon, R. Claude, "A Comparative Study of Leisure Activities of the Elderly in the Community 
and in Nursing Homes," Cultural Economics 88: An American Perspective . Association of Cultural 
Economics, 1988 pp. 143-148 

Hendon, R. Claude, "Arts Participation: Comparing the Elderly and Non-Elderly," Journal of 
Cultural Economics . 16:1, pp. 83-92 

Hoffman, Miles K. and Fritschner, Linda Marie, "Arts and Art Audiences: Testing the Market", The 
Journal of Arts Management and Law . 14:2 Summer 1984. pp5-19. 

Hood, Marilyn, "Staying Away: Why People Choose Not to Visit an Art Museum", Museum News . 
April 1983, pp 50-57. 

Hood, Marilyn, "Getting Started in Audience Research", Museum News . February, 1986, pp 25-31. 

Horowitz, Harold, The American Jazz Music Audience . National Jazz Service Organization, 
Washington, DC, 1986. 

Horowitz, Harold; Keegan, Carol and Kempnich, Barbara, "Cultural Participation and 
Geographic/Population Schema: From New York City to the Rural Farm," Artists and Cultural 
Consumers . 1986 pp. 36-50 

Hughes, Michael A. and Peterson, Richard A., "Isolating Cultural Choice patterns in the U.S. 
Population", American Behavioral Scientist . Vol 26, March/ April 1983, pp 459-478. 

Johnson, Alton C. and Prieve, E. Arthur, Older Americans: The Unrealized Audience for the Arts . 
Center for Arts Administration, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1975. 

Kangun, Norman; Otto, Gordon and Randall, Dana C, "Marketing Strategies for Bolstering 
Symphony Attendance among College Students", Journal of Cultural Economics . 16:1, June 1992, 
pp 25-40. 



- 108- 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Katz, Jonathan and Sikes, Toni Fountain, editors, Consumer Behavior and the Arts , a special issue of 
The Journal of Arts Management and Law . 15:1, Spring 1985. (Entire issue) 

Keegan, Carol, Public Participation in Classical Ballet: A Special Analysis of the Ballet Data 
Collected in the 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts . National Endowment for 
the Arts, 1987 

Kurabayashi, Yoshimasa and Ito, Takatoshi, "Socio-Economic Characteristics of Audiences for 
Western Classical Music in Japan: A Statistical Analysis", Cultural Economics . Ruth Towse and 
Abdul Khakee, editors, Springer- Verlag, New York, 1992, pp 275-287. 

McCain, Roger A., "Game Theory and Cultivation of Taste," Journal of Cultural Economics . 10:1, 
pp.1-16 

McCain, Roger A., "Reflections on the Cultivation of Taste," Journal of Cultural Economics . 3:1, pp. 
30-50 

McCaughey, C. A Survey of Arts Audience Studies: A Canadian Perspective. 1967 to 1984 . 
Research and Evaluation, The Canada Council, Ottawa, 1984. 

Mitchel, Arnold, The Professional Performing Arts: Attendance Patterns. Perferences and Motives . 
Association of College, University and Community Arts Administrators Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 
1984 

Morison, Bradley G. and Fliehr, Kay, In Search of an Audience: How an Audience was found for the 
Tyrone Guthrie Theatre . Pitman, New York 1968 

Morison, Bradley G. and Dalgleish, Julie Gordon, Waiting in the Wing s. American 
Council for the Arts, New York 1987 

Morrison, William G. and West, Edwin G., "Child Exposure to the Performing Arts: The 
Implications for Adult Demand," Journal of Cultural Economics . 10:1 pp. 17-23 

National Endowment for the Arts, A Sourcebook of Arts Statistics: 1991 (1989. 1987) . Washington 
DC, 1992, 1990, 1988. 

National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, Surveying Your Arts Audience . Washington, 
DC, 1985. 

National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, The Arts Public in the South . Publishing 
Center for Cultural Resources, New York, 1984. 

National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, Arts and Cultural Programs on Radio and 
Television . Washington, DC 1977 

O'Hare, Michael, "Why Do People Go to Museums? The Effect of Prices and Hours on Museum 
Utilization", Museym. 27:3, pp 134-146. 

Orend, Richard J., Leisure Participation in the South 1980: Volumes MIL Human Resources 
Research Organization and National Endowment for the Arts, 1980 



109 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Orend, Richard J., Socialization and Participation in the Arts . National Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, DC, 1989 

Owen, Virginia Lee and Hendon, William S., editors, Managerial Economics for the Arts . 

Association of Cultural Economics, Akron, OH, 1985. Section on "Measuring Arts Participation", 

pp 181-206 includes the following articles: 

Horowitz, Harold, "Measuring Arts Participation in Canada and the United States" 
Kinsley, Brian L., "Cultural Activities Surveys - The Canadian Case" 
Robinson, John P., "Estimating the Public's Exposure to and Expenditures on the Arts" 
Zuzanek, Jiri, Studies of Arts and Cultural Participation: Problems and Controversies" 

Pankratz, David B., "Arts Policy and Older Adults" The Journal of Arts Management and Law . 1 8:4, 
Winter 1989. pp. 13-64. 

Pankratz, David B. and Morris, Valerie B., editors, The Future of the Arts: Public Policy and Arts 
Research . Praeger, New York, 1990. "Part III: Social Trends and Research on Public Participation in 
the Arts" pp 63-187 includes the following articles: 

Cornwell, Terri Lynn, "Democracy and the Arts: The Role of Participation" 

Shuster, J. Mark Davidson, "Correlates of State Arts Support: The Geographic Distribution 

of Organizations, Artists, and Participation" 

DiMaggio, Paul J. and Ostrower, Francie, "Participation in the Arts by Black and White 

Americans" 

Meyersohn, Rolf, "Culture in the Bronx: Minority Participation in the Arts" 

Keller, Anthony S., "Arts Policy, Cultural Diversity, and the New Century" 

Pankratz, David B., "Arts Policy in an Aging Society" 

Also see extensive "Selected Bibliography", pp 289-310. 

Peterson, Richard A. "Patterns of Cultural Choice", Special issue, American Behavioral Scientist . 
Vol 26, 1983. 

Pommerehne, Werner W. and Kirchgassner, Gebhard, "The Decline of Conventional Culture: The 
Impact of Television on the Demand for Cinema and Theatre Performances," Economic Efficiency 
and the Performing Arts . 1986 pp. 44-61 

Rau, William, "Does Education Lead to Fine Arts Appreciation," Artists and Cultural Consumer . 
Association of Cultural Economics 1986 pp. 284-286 

Reed, John Shelton and Marsden, Peter, Leisure Time Use in the South: Secondary Analysis . 
National Endowment for the Arts 1980 

Robinson, John P. "Cultural Indicators from the Leisure Activity Survey", American Behavioral 
Scientist . Vol 26, 1983, pp 543-552. 

Robinson, John P.; Keegan, Carol A., and Triplett, Timothy A., Survey of Public Participation in the 
Arts: 1985 . Volume I Project Report. University of Maryland and National Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, DC 1987. 

Schliewen, Rolf E., A Leisure Study - Canada 1975 . Arts and Culture Branch, Department of the 
Secretary of State, 1977 



110 



12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation Summary Report 

Schuster, J. Mark Davidson, The Audience for American Art Museums . Seven Locks Press, 
Washington, DC 1991 

Schuster, J. Mark Davidson; An Inquiry into the Geographic Correlations of Government Arts 
Funding . National Endowment for the Arts, 1988 

Semenik, Richard and Bamossy, Gary "Methodological Issues in Arts Marketing Research", 
Managerial Economics for the Arts . Virginia Lee Owen and William S. Hendon, editors, Association 
of Cultural Economics, Akron Ohio, 1985, pp 23-34. 

Vaughan, D. Roger, "Marketing: A Positive Approach to Managing Recreational Use of Sites in the 
Countryside", Managerial Economics for the Arts . Virginia Lee Owen and William S. Hendon, 
editors, Association of Cultural Economics, Akron Ohio, 1985, pp 143-150. 

Waterman, David; Schechter, Russell and Contractor, Nashir S., "Overcoming Barriers to the Live 
Arts: Can the Media Compensate?" Journal of Cultural Economics 15:2 pp. 19-40 

Waterman, David; Schechter, Russell and Contractor, Nashir S., Public Participation in the Arts via 
the Media . National Endowment for the Arts, 1987 

West, Jerry, Public Participation in the Arts: Demands and Barriers National Endowment for the Arts 
1987 

Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane and Clubb, Pat, editors, The Cost of Culture: Patterns and Prospects of 
Private Arts Patronage . ACA Books, New York, 1989. 

Zill, Nicholas and Winglee, Marianne, Who Reads Literature? The Future of the United States as a 
Nation of Readers . Seven Locks Press, Washington, DC 1989 

Zuzanek, Jiri and Lee, Marlene, "Social Ecology of Arts Audiences", Journal of Cultural Economics . 
9: 1, June 1985, pp 65-84. 



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