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Full text of "Summer wild flowers"

F!M LIBRARY 




c,« 8S ±L^l5 F.4S& 



SUMMER WILD FLOWERS 



J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE 
Assistant Curator, Taxonomy, Department of Botany 



GO 



53* 




Published by 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

CHICAGO 

1924 



A *>? 



This leaflet is the third of a series of Field Museum 
leaflets illustrating some of the more common or attrac- 
tive wild flowers of the Chicago region. The two pre- 
ceding leaflets describe the spring and early summer 
flowers, and a fourth will illustrate autumn flowers and 
fruits. 

LIST OF BOTANICAL LEAFLETS ISSUED TO DATE 

No. 1. Figs $ .10 

No. 2. The Coco Palm 10 

No. 3. Wheat .10 

No. 4. Cacao 10 

No. 5. A Fossil Flower 10 

No. 6. The Cannon Ball Tree (in preparation) ... .10 

No. 7. Spring Wild Flowers 25 

No. 8. Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers . . .25 

No. 9. Summer Wild Flowers 25 

No. 10. Autumn Flowers and Fruits 25 

D. C. DAVIES 

DIRECTOR 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
CHICAGO, U.S.A. 



Field Museum of Natural History 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
Chicago, 1924 

Leaflet Number 9 



SUMMER WILD FLOWERS 



MILKWEED. SILKWEED 

(Asclepias species) 

The usually milky juice and the silk-filled pods 
characterize this well-known perennial. The flowers 
are distinctive, with pentagonal centers surrounded 
by five hood-like structures each containing an incurved 
horn. Of many species, none is handsomer than the 
Butterflyweed with its brilliant orange-red flowers, 
red stalk and green leaves. The Common Milkweed, 
much taller and stouter, with purplish flowers, 
furnishes from its pods the "silk" from which orna- 
ments are made. The Swamp Milkweed is another 
common variety with many leaves and rose-purple 
flowers. (Milkweed Family) 



[63] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




ARROW-HEAD 

(Sagittaria species) 
About the muddy edges of streams and in shallow 
shores the Smooth Arrow-head produces white, yel- 
low-centered flowers all summer long. Usually the 
leaves are broadly arrow-shaped, borne on long stalks, 
but sometimes, when the plant grows in deeper water, 
they are long and narrow. (Water Plantain Family) 

[64] 



Summer Wild Flowers 




PICKEREL-WEED 
(Pontederia cor data) 

The violet-blue flower-spikes of the Pickerel-weed 
are usually seen massed along the margins of ponds 
and in marshes. The smooth stout stem bears only 
one leaf, the other long-stalked heart-shaped leaves 
being produced directly from the creeping roots. 

It is said that the Pickerel is wont to place its 
eggs at the bases of this shore plant. (Pickerel-weed 
Family) 

[65] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




LILY 

(Lilium species) 
Only one of our three species of lilies bears its 
blossoms erect. This is the Wood Lily. Its flowers 
are reddish orange or deep red, spotted with purplish. 

The flowers of the Yellow Lily of moist meadows 
and bogs are borne nodding on long stalks. They are 
of a yellow or orange color, usually spotted with brown. 

The Turk's Cap Lily is the finest of all. Its stems, 
reared in rich low grounds to a height of several feet, 
bear nodding orange flowers that are thickly spotted 
with purple within. The flower parts are strongly 
turned back. (Lily Family) 

[66] 



Summer Wild Flowers 




FRINGED ORCHIS 

(Habenaria species) 
The Fringed Orchis, one of our finest native or- 
chids, usually grows in a bog or wet meadow where 
it raises its slender stem to a height of one or two feet. 
Near its summit, in a short wand or raceme, are the 
two-lipped golden or purplish flowers. The lower 
part or "lip", of the blossom is prominently fringed; 
often it is also three-parted. The small slender leaves 
are rather inconspicuous and borne erectly along the 
stem. (Orchid Family) 

[67] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




CAMPION. CATCHFLY 

(Silene and Lychnis species) 
The Campions comprise a group of attractive 
flowers which includes the Ragged Robin and the Wild 
Pink, all related to the Carnation. They are slender- 
stemmed small-leaved plants characterized by a tubular 
usually inflated or box-like calyx from the top of which 
protrude the slender often cleft or fringed petals. 
These may be white, pink, or scarlet. The White 
Starry Campion of woody banks is pictured. (Pink 
Family) 

[68] 



Summer Wild Flowers 




BOUNCING BET. SOAPWORT 

(Saponaria officinalis) 
When this stout perennial of roadsides is culti- 
vated its showy rose-colored flowers are commonly 
double instead of single as shown in the photograph. 
At the apparent base of each petal, where it enters 
the tube- or box-like calyx, there is a little fringe. 

The juice of this plant forms a soapy lather with 
water. (Pink Family) 

[69] 



Field Museum of Natural History 




[70] 



Summer Wild Flowers 




WATER LILIES 
(Nymphaea, Castalia and Nelumbo species) 

The most attractive of our Water Lilies is the 
Sweet Scented Water Nymph of ponds or slow-flowing 
streams. Its solitary white or pink-tinged flower, that 
is often five inches across, opens soon after sunrise, 
and closes during the afternoon. Its round leaves are 
usually purplish-red beneath. 

The Common Cow Lily or Spatter-dock of quiet or 
stagnant waters may be known by its simple yellow 
flowers that are produced all summer. Often they are 
in part purplish-tinged. The Lotus or Water Chinqua- 
pin has large yellow flowers and circular leaves usually 
raised high out of the water. Both the tubers and seeds 
of this species of Water Lily are edible. (Water Lily 
Family) 



[71] 



10 



Field Museum of Natural History 




TICK TREFOIL 
(Desmodium species) 

The pea-like flowers of the Showy Tick Trefoil 
illustrated are purple ; the leaves consist of three leaf- 
lets borne together at the end of a single stalk; the 
erect stems are often several feet high. There are 
many species of Tick Trefoils, all possessing the three- 
foliate leaves and flat pods, which, deeply lobed along 
one side, finally separate into several joints or parts. 
(Pea Family) 

[72] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



11 





*i is 



JEWELWEED. TOUCH-ME-NOT 

(Impatiens species) 
The succulent Jewelweed growing smooth and 
rank in wet shady places may be recognized easily by 
its delicately pendulous flowers. These are somewhat 
bell-shaped but the closed portion tapers to a recurved 
hook or spur. The color is pale yellow or orange, 
more or less dotted with reddish-brown. 

The ripe seed-pods open at the slightest touch, 
throwing their seeds to a distance of several feet. 
(Touch-me-not-Family) 

[73] 



12 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



ST. JOHN'S WORT 
{Hypericum species) 

The St. John's Wort is recognized readily by its 
yellow flowers, their centers filled with tufts of fila- 
mentous stamens, and by its dotted leaves. These 
transparent dots are especially noticeable upon holding 
a leaf to the light. There are many species, some 
herbs, some bushes, but none are finer than the Shrubby 
St. John's Wort shown in the picture. (St. John's 
Wort Family) 

[74] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



13 




GREAT WILLOW-HERB. FIREWEED 
(Epilobium angustifolium) 
Where a piece of land has been burned over, 
especially a lowland, or a clearing made, the Fireweed 
is almost sure to raise its pyramidal raceme of showy 
purple-red blossoms. These are borne toward the top 
of a glossy stem that may be six feet high. The leaves 
are lance-shaped and scattered along the stalk below 
the flowers. (Evening Primrose Family) 



[75] 



14 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



QUEEN ANNE'S LACE 
(Daucus Carota) 

Doubtless the farmer considers the well-known 
Queen Anne's Lace a "pernicious weed" of fields and 
waste places. However, its tall bristly stems with 
much divided fern-like leaves bear at their summits 
very pretty flat-topped sprays composed of numerous 
clusters of tiny white or roseate flowers. 

The Water Parsnip of muddy shores is a similar 
plant with smooth stout stems and coarser leaf -divis- 
ions. (Parsley Family) 

[76] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



15 




HEDGE BINDWEED. WILD MORNING GLORY 
(Convolvulus septum) 

The Morning Glory-like flowers of this vine of 
hedge-rows, stream-thickets and cornfields are white 
or rose-tinted; the leaves are triangular or halberd- 
shaped and are often somewhat toothed near the base. 

The twining stems of the Bindweed always turn 
to the left (opposite to the direction of the hands of a 
watch). They grow and move very rapidly, observa- 
tions having shown that they may describe a com- 
plete circle in less than two hours. (Morning Glory 
Family) 

[77] 



16 



Field Museum of Natural History 




VERBENA. BLUE VERVAIN 
(Verbena species) 

Slender spikes of small bright violet-blue flowers 
borne, candelabra-like, at the top of a straight leafy 
stem characterize the Blue Vervain. The plants often 
grow in groups, forming showy patches along road- 
sides or in pastures. The brilliant Verbena of gar- 
dens is a related herb. 

The Vervain, as one of the so-called "sacred 
plants" of ancient times, was supposed to possess 
many virtues, including the power to offset the in- 
fluence of witches. (Verbena Family) 

[78] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



17 




FALSE DRAGON HEAD 
(Physostegia virginiana) 

The handsome tubular and two-lipped rose-purple 
flowers of this tall perennial of wet places are borne 
in one or several wand-like spikes at the summit of the 
leafy stem. The numerous, longish leaves are sharply- 
toothed. 

The False Dragon Head has the square stems and 
opposite leaves that characterize all the members of 
the Mint Family. 

[79] 



18 



Field Museum of Natural History 




WILD BERGAMOT 

(Monarda fistulosa) 

Square stems, oppositely placed leaves and head- 
like showy clusters of tubular two-lipped flowers serve 
to identify this vigorous perennial. The slender blos- 
soms are sometimes lilac, sometimes pink, or even 
crimson. The plants vary from a foot to several feet 
in height, usually many stems growing together in a 
clump. 

Closely related is the Horse, Mint with the flower- 
heads in the axils of the upper leaves. Its blossoms 
are yellowish with purple dots. (Mint Family) 

[80] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



19 




COMMON MULLEIN. VELVET PLANT 

(Verbascum Thapsus) 

The tall stout wand-like stem of the woolly leaved 
Mullein is a familiar sight along pasture fences and in 
old fields. In some places it bears the rather apt 
names of Aaron's Rod and Jacob's Staff. The Mullein 
is an immigrant from Europe, supposed to have come 
over in ship ballast. (Figwort Family) 

[81] 



20 



Field Museum of Natural History 




BUTTER AND EGGS 
(Linaria vulgaris) 
Originally an introduced garden plant from 
Europe, the Yellow Toadflax is now common in our 
fields and roadsides where its orange and yellow 
flowers, borne in profusion, make colorful patches. Its 
straight stems, sometimes a foot or more in height, are 
thickly clothed with numerous narrow leaves. It is 
said that the acrid juice of this plant, when mixed 
with milk, makes an excellent fly-poison. (Figwort 
Family) 

[82] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



21 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



TURTLEHEAD. SNAKEHEAD. SHELL FLOWER 
(Chelone glabra) 
The names of this plant all refer to the shape of 
the flower. The tall branching stems, slender leaves, 
and terminal clusters or spikes of the large white or 
rose-tinged flowers well mark this smooth perennial 
of wet places. (Figwort Family) 

[83] 



22 



Field Museum of Natural History 




CULVER'S-ROOT. CULVER'S PHYSIC 
( Veron tea v irginica ) 
The slender tapering white or blue-tinted spikes 
of this herb of moist woods and meadows are well- 
known. . It has tall smooth stems and finely toothed 
leaves that are borne at intervals in whorls of four or 
seven. (Figwort Family) 

[84] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



23 




BUTTONBUSH 

(Cephalanthus occidentalis) 
The heads of white flowers, borne like balls on 
short stalks, distinguish easily this shrub of swamps 
and stream banks. Its leaves grow in pairs and in 
threes at intervals along the smooth stems. The most 
interesting feature of the Buttonbush is the delightful 
fragrance of the flowers. These are rather inconspicu- 
ous but keep opening from June to Sept. (Coffee Fam.) 

[85] 



24 



Field Museum of Natural History 




BALSAM APPLE. WILD CUCUMBER 
(Echinocystis lobata) 

This vine of river-thickets is well-known in culti- 
vation as an annual shade-plant on arbors and porches. 
Its small greenish-white flowers are scarcely as orna- 
mental as the nodding inflated egg-shaped pods, covered 
with weak prickles. The pods finally burst at one end. 

The Bur or Star Cucumber is similar but has 
fewer clustered flowers and small clustered pods that 
are densely armed with slender spines. (Gourd 
Family) 

[86] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



25 




BLACK-EYED SUSAN. RUDBECKIA 
(Rudbeckia hirta) 
The daisy-like flowers of the Rudbeckia or "Yel- 
low Daisy", as it is often called, have dark brown or 
nearly black raised centers and yellow rays or "petals". 
They are solitary on the tall (1-3 ft.) bristly-hairy 
stems. The rather few and narrowish leaves are as 
rough to the touch as the stalks. 

The Black-eyed Susan blooms from June to Sep- 
tember and sometimes is a troublesome weed in fields 
and meadows. It is one of the few plants native to the 
United States which, carried to Europe with grain, 
etc., has become established there as a weed. (Daisy 
Family) 

[87] 



26 



Field Museum of Natural History 




BLAZING STAR. GAYFEATHER 
(Liatris species) 

The tall wand-like stems of this perennial of sunny 
places produce, to some distance below their tops, 
feathery rose-purple flowers that suggest little tufts 
of ragged colored paper. The stem is clothed with 
numerous slender leaves. 

The name "Button Snakeroot" given to this plant 
refers to the roundish tuber which superstition con- 
nects with a cure for rattlesnake bite. (Daisy Family) 

[88] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



27 




MAY-WEED. CHAMOMILE 

(Anthemis Cotula) 

This ill-scented weed of barnyards and roadsides, 
bearing numerous white daisy-like flowers with yellow 
centers, is attractive as long as it is not picked. Like 
the Skunk Cabbage and some red Trilliums it is a plant 
to be admired where it grows. It is a low annual herb 
with finely divided leaves and is closely related to the 
strong-scented Chamomile of old gardens. (Daisy 
Family) 

[89] 



28 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Courtesy Frank M. Woodruff, Curator, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



OX-EYE. FALSE SUNFLOWER 

(Heliopsis scabra) 
The Ox-eye, with Sunflower-like blossoms on long- 
stalks, is a rather coarse perennial of sunny dryish 
soils. Its ovate leaves, roughish to the touch and 
toothed along the edges are borne in pairs at close 
intervals along the tall stems. (Daisy Family) 

[90] 



Summer Wild Flowers 



29 




YARROW. MILFOIL 

(Achillea Millefolium) 
This weedy plant of a "thousand leaves" has nearly 
as many names. Since the days of Troy it has had 
some association with humanity. At one time its 
pungently-scented, finely-divided leaves were thought 
to have a remedial value; again its white or purplish 
flat-topped clusters of small flowers have been con- 
sidered as worthy a place in the garden: just now it 
is usually only a field or roadside weed where it is often 
such a nuisance that its beauty is rarely recognized. 
(Daisy Family) 

[91] 



30 Field Museum of Natural History 



The photographs, unless otherwise credited, are by L. W. 
Brownell, with the exception of the Fringed Orchis by C. F. 
Millspaugh, and Vervain, False Dragon Head and Blazing Star 
by H. H. Smith. 

J. Francis Macbride. 



[92]