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Bible Manual 








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A OLAKCE at the pages which follow, will show the reader the plan of 
the present work: a few words may, however, be added regarding the 
method of its execution. 

There is an article on each of the sixty-six Biblical books; there is 
one also on the Apocrypha. A notice — or, where needful, a short biography 
— has been given of every man or woman mentioned in the Bible. All the 
places referred to have idso been introduced, so have all objects of natural 
seien'*e. The interval between the Old and New Testament periods receives 
extensive treatment. There are brief histories not merely of the Hebrew 
race and nation, but also of all the heathen powers with which the chosen 
people from time to time came into contact. Various other subjects are taken 
up in the volume. Though a considerable amount of theology has been 
introduced, yet the work was designed to be Biblical rather than theological : 
to hare treated both subjects with equal fulness would have required, 
perhaps, one hundred additional pages. 

For the method of transliterating Hebrew names, see page 27, col. 2 ; 
for that adopted with respect to Greek words, see page 265, col. 2. 

The work is not a mere compilation : the author has thought out every 
portion of it more or less independently, and has worded each article in the 
language which he has deemed best adapted to convey his meaning. The 
Harmony of the Gospels is not copied from any other book. For the 
purely Scriptural characters he has required no extraneous aid : his authori- 
ties have been simply the Bible and his own observation of human life. He 
laboured for upwards of eight years as a missionary in Central IncUa at the 
capital of a native Rajah ; and the experience thus acquired has not merely 
rendered him familiar with Oriental manners and customs, but has enabled 
him to divine the motives of the prominent actors in important political 
events; especially at the times when Jndah was a vassal State under Assyria, 
Egypt, Babylon, or Persia, and the whole or part of Palestine stood in the 
aame relation to Borne as the "paramount power.'* Natural science has 
been a favourite pursuit with him from his youth upwards, and has been 
prosecuted at home and abroad, in the field as well as in the library : he has, 
therefore, felt warranted in expressing opinions on the subject with greater 
freedom than if his knowledge of it had been derived solely from books. 

Of the departments which necessitate more dependence on authorities, 
one of the chief is geognphj, topography also being included. In treating 

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of places, the method adopted has been first to go over all references to each 
of them in Scripture; while to identify the sites the writer has consulted the 
works of modem travellers, and especially the invaluable publications, large 
and fi>mall, of the ** Palestine Exploration Fund/' with the constant use of the 
large twenty-six sheet map of Western Palestine produced under the 
auspices of the Fund by the officers of the Ordnance Survey. Nor has 
the "Egyptian Exploration Fund" been ignored. With regard to the 
history of the several tribes and nations, various works have been consulted ; 
and particular attention has been given to such modern discoveries as the 
Deluge Tablet, the Moabite Stone, the Siloam inscription, with those from 
Tel-el- Amama, Lachish, and other places. 

Many delicate queslioDS have had to be considered in the present volume ; 
if in these the writer has expressed an opinion at all, he has done it in mild 
language, and with all respect for these who hold other views. The hope may 
therefore be entertained that the work may find its way (as the monthly part-s 
have already done) into all denominations, as supplying, without offensive 
accompaniments, information useful to each. Much labour has been expended 
on its production. While it is fondly trusted that it will not be considered 
beneath the notice of any Biblical student, it is specially designed for Sunday 
school teachers, with whom the writer was for many years closely asso- 
ciated, and whose work he highly appreciates. But at the same time, with 
profound self-abasement, and with the deepest gratitude that he has l.ved 
to finish the volume, he would desire to lay it on the altar of the Highest 
Being in the Universe. Will Mr. Washington Moon pardon the substitu- 
tion of hooJe for 8ong in the following beautiful lines of his, which the 
present writer adopts as exactly expressing the feelings with which he 
dedicates his volume to Jehovah: — 

** The worlds of splendour in the midnight sky, 
Which, gem-like, shine so beautifully bright, 
Are but Thy breath, AUnighty God, Most High, 
Condensed while passing through primeval night 
With these creative words — * Let there be light ! * 
Do Thou but speak, and all that's dark in me 
At once shall take its everlasting flight ; 
And like a star o*er life's tempestuous sea 
My book may haply guide some wandering one to Thee." 


Forest Retreat^ Lovghttm^ Ettex, 
Wi January, 1894. 

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Labos Map of thb Holt LAin> In Focket 


Babtlosoa, Asstbla, Media, A2n> Subiana, Countribs of the 

Jewish Captivity To face page IIQ 

Map to Illttstbatb the Pezttatbuch . 

The Sea of Galilee 

The M&els Sea 

The KcroDOMS of Jxtdah and Isbaxl 

A Plan of Jebusaleic 

Palestine in the Tucb of oub Lobd 

The Environs of Jebusalex 

St. Paul*8 Missionabt Joubneys 

The Boxan Empieb in the Apostolic Age 

The Wobld as Known to the Anoibntb 


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sunday school teacher's 
Bible Manual. 

I [Hebw Ahdroti; etymology doubt- 
ful, perhaps "mountaineer" (^ {Geae- 
Mtt4s), or "light" (?) {Oxford Bible)]. 

The elder son of Amnun and hia wife 
Jochebed ; Amnun again bein^ the son of 
Kohath, and the grandson of LiaTL Aaron 
was the elder brother of Moses, by three 
years his senior ; and, as we do not read of 
perils attending his infancy, it may be in- 
ferred that he was bom before the pro- 
mulgation of the nefarious Egyptian eoicts 
dooming Uie Hebrew male children to 
ileath. He was younger than his sister 
Miriam (<^v.) (Exod. vi. lG-20. 26 ; vii. 7 ; 
XT. 20). When Moses, dirinely called to 
stand forth as the deliverer of his op- 
pressed countrymen, complained that he 
was "slow of speech, and of a slow tongue," 
and wished some other one appointed to 
the trpig duty, God in anger repelled the 
objection, and said. " Is not Aaron, the 
liCTite, thy brother? I know that he can 
speak well. " This decided the matter, and 
snortly afterwards Aaron was instructed to 

g» out and meet Moses in the wilderness, 
e d^d so, affectionately kissing his 
younger brother when the two met on the 
Mount of God (iv. 10-16, 27). They lost 
no time in gathering together the elders 
of Israel and intimating to them the 
approaching deliverance ^-31). Before 
then, how lone we know not, Aaron had 
married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, 
sister of Naashon, who bore him four 
sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar 
(vi 23; Numb. iii. 2, etc.). The wonder- 
working^ rod of Moses was apparently, with 
the Divme sanction, transferred to Aaron, 
and is henceforth usually known as Aaron^s 
rod (Exod. iv. 17; vii 9, 19). Acts of smiting 
with this rod brought on in succession the 
ten Egyptian plagues (vii. 17, 19, 20 ; viii 
5, etc.). At the Red Sea Moses was di- 
rected to lift up the rod (this time called 
his) and the waters would be divided (xiv. 
16). Aaron and ^ur supported Moses's arms 
while the Jewish leader prayed during the 
battle with Amalek (xvii 12) . Aaron, with 
two of his sons, Xadab and Abihu, was in- 
vited to ascend Mount Sinai a certain di< - 
tance when Moses had an interview with 
Jehevah to receive the Law (Exod. xxiv. 1) . 
Afterwords he and his four sons were 

solemnly and with much ceremony conse- 
crated to the priesthood after splendid 
vestments had been made for them to 
wear as their official dress (xxviii. 1-43: 
xl 13-16; Levit. viii. 1-36). Aaron had 
not the iron firmness of Moses in dealiD^; 
with the rebelli6u8 Israelites. Asked to 
mfdce them gods, he weakly consented, and 
moulded for them the golden calf (Exod. 
xxxii. 1-29). He joined with Miriam in 
finding fault witn Moses for having 
marriM an Ethiopian woman (Numb. xii. 
1-16). The rebellion of Korah was 
directed moro against Aaron than Mo8es 
(xvi. 1-35) fKosAH], and it was to vindi- 
cate the exclusive right of Aaron and bin 
descendants to the priesthood that his rod 
was made to bud (xvii. 1-13). Soon after- 
wards he was taken by Divine direc- 
tion up Moimt Hor (q.v.) and stripped of 
his sacred vestments, which were trans- 
ferred to his son Eleazar. This done, he 
immediately died. A' mourning of the 
whole Israelite nation for his decease took 
place, and lasted thirty days (22-29). 

Aaronites [English]'. The priestly 
descendants of Aaron (1 Chron. xii. 27). 

A1> [Heb. Abh = "father"]. 

In compotition "Father," as Abraham = 
" father of a multitude " ; Abner — 
" father of light." It is generally used in 
the construct state Abi, as Abimelech - 
"father of a king," Abiahag = "father 
of error." 

[Heb. Abhaddon = {\) "de- 
struction " (Job xxxi. 12— A.V. and 
R.VO; (2) "the place of destruction," 
see No. 1]. 

1. The place of destruction, the bottom- 
less pit, the abyss. Almost the same as 
Sheol (q.v.) (Job xxvi. 6— R.V. ; xxviii. 
22— R.V. margin; Prov. xv. 11— R.V.) . 

2. The angel of the bottomless pit or of 
the abyss (Rev. ix. 11— A.V. and R.V.}. 

Aliagtlia [Persian = " a garden " ; " a 
gardener" (?) (Gesefiim), or from Sanscrit 
Bagaddta— " given by fortime" {Bohica)]. 

One of the seven chamberlains who min- 
istered in presence of the Persian king 
Ahasuerus (Esther i. 10). 

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[Heb. A6/uitMh,Afmtnah='' a,tre&ty," **a 
statute," ** a decree," or "stony" {?)]. 

Presumably the more important of the 
two rivers of Damascus, for Naaman, of 
that city, mentions it first (2 Kings v. 12). 
It is probably the Barada river, whidi 
rises in a large blue p<>ol of unfathomable 
depth on the nigh plain south of Zebed^y 
on Anti- Lebanon, 23 miles from Damascus, 
rushes in a south-easterly course down the 
mountain, and then, turning eastward, 
runs alomr the north wall of the city, to 
be lost mially in an inland lake, the 
middle one of three existing. At first it 
is sluggish^ but on its passage through 
Damascus it has a rapid course. Not less 
than nine or ten branches are taken from 
it, yet to the end it continues both deep 
ana broad. It is the Chrvsorrhoas of the 
Classical writers. One of its tributaries, 
Nahr Abanias, still preserves the memory 
of its old name. 

AlMurim [Heb. Abharim = ** regions be- 
yond ' * ( GeHemim)] . 

A mountain range, of which apparently 
Mount Nebo constituted one peak. It 
was a station of the Israelites just before 
they reached the plains of Moao, opposite 
Jencho (Numb, xzziii. 47, 48). It was 
fromMount Abarimand the peak of itcalled 
Nebo that Mosee was directed to look 
across at the promised land (Numb, zzvii. 
12; Deut. xzxii. 49; xxxiv. 1). In the 
R.y. Abarim is mentioned in Jer. zxii. 20, 
with Lebanon and Bashan ; in the A.y . it is 
rendered ** Passages " [Nbbo, Pisoah]. 

Ahlm [Aramaic, from Heb. Abh = 
•♦ father," or " Father"]. 

A term borrowed from childhood^s lan- 
guage to express filial address to Gk>d 
(Mark xiv. 36 ; Bom. viii. 16 ; Gal. iv. 6). 

Abda ^Aramaic Abhda = " servant " 
(probably meaning of God)]. 

1. The father of Adoniram (q.v.) (1 
Kings iv. 6). 

2. A Levite, the son of Shammua (Neh. 
xi. 17). 

Abdeel [Heb. Abhdeel = « servant of 
The father of Shelemiah (Jer. xxxvi. 26). 

Abdl [Heb. Abhdi ; a contraction of 
Heb. Abhdiyah—** servant of Jehovah "J. 

1. A Levite; the son of Malluch, and 
father of Kishi (1 Chron. vi. 44). The 
Abdi of 2 Chron. xxix. 12, who had a son 
called Kish, seems the same man. though 
the two are generally di8tingui»hea. 

2. A son of a certain Elam (Ezra 
X. 26). 

Abdtol [Heb. Abhdiel = ** servant of 

A son of Guni, and father of Ahi, resi- 
dent in Gilead (1 Chron. v. 15). 

Abdon (1) [Heb. Ahhdon = *' servile "]. 

1. The son of Hillel, a native of Pira- 
thon, in the tribe of Ephiaim. He * * judged" 
Israel, or a portion of it. eight years, by 
the Hebrew chronology, ttom. alx>ut 1120 
to 1112 B.O., and had forty sons and thirty 
nephews or " sons* sons" — R.V. — ^who rode 
on as many ass- colts. When he died he 
was buriea in his native place (Judg. xii. 
13-15). ^ ^ ^ 

2. A Benjamite ; a son of Shimhak (1 
Chron. viii. 23). 

3. The firstborn son of Jehiel, resident 
at Gibeon (1 Chron. viii. 30 ; ix. 35, 36). 

[ACHBOE (2).] 

Abdon (2; [Abdon (1)]. 

A city or town in the territory of Aaher 

S'ven, with its suburbs, to the Xevitee of 
e Gershon family (Josh. xxi. 30; 1 Chron. 
vi. 74). Mashal or Mishal, Hukok, and 
Rehob (75) were also given from the same 
tribe. Abdon has been identified with 
the ruins of Abdeh, 10 miles north of 

Abed [Heb. Ebkedh = ** sUve "; " ser- 

Abed-Nogo [Aramaic Abhedh-Nego = 
'* servant of N^," probably the same as 
Nebo (q.y.) {(regetnua)]. 

The idoli^us name given by the prince 
of the eunuchs at Babyk>n to A«irU.h^ one 
of the three faithful Jews, afterwards 
miraculously saved from the fiery furnace 
(Dan. i. 7 ; lii. 12-30). 

Abel (l) [Heb. ffebhel = '* hreaih,'* 
* * vapour '* ; " tiransitoriness." Applied to 
Abel apparentiy from the f^ortness of his 
life (cf. James iv. 14)1. 

The second son of Adam, and by calling 
a shepherd. He offered to God a lamb 
from his flock, which was accepted. When 
New Testament li^ht is thrown upon the 
incident, it is considered that his sacrifice 
implied a confession that he wa« a sinner, 
an admission that the wages of sin is death, 
a prayer to Gk>d that the death of the 
innocent lamb might be accepted as an 
atonement for the sins of the offerer (cf . 
John i. 29). Cain's offering, which was 
of a different nature, being rejected, he, 
at the promptings of envy against his 
brother, whose sacrifice had been accepted, 
became his murderer ((Jen. iv. 1-16). We 
learn from the New Testament that AbePs 
animating motive was faith (Heb. xi. 4). 

Abel (2) [Heb. Abhel= "a grassy place," 
** a pasture," ♦* a meadow"]. 

Sinely, or in compo$ition, the name of 
severed places in Palestine. 

1. The same as Abrl-Bbth-M a acth ah 
(q.v.) (2 Sam. xx. 14, 15, 18). 

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(3 ) 


2. In 1 Sun. ri. 18 it is apparentiy an I 
eiToneons reading for Eben (stone^. See | 
the B.T. M. Clermont Ganneau places it { 
donbtfoHy at Deir 'Aban, near Beth- 

Abkl-Beth-Maachah, Absl-of-Bbth- 
Maachah, Abel-Maachah. (Beth- 
Maarhah is = **the * house/ " i.e. **the 
Tillage of Maachah "). A fortified town 
in the tribe of Xaphtali (1 Kings xv. 20 ; 
2 Kings XT. 29), It was renowned for 
wisdom (2 Sam. xx. 18). Durinff Sheba'k 
rerolt Joab was about to asaaiut it, but 
"a wise woman " flung the rebel^s head | 
orer the wall, and saTed the town (14-22). 
It was one of the places captured by Ben- I 
hadad at the instance of Asa (I Kings xr. 
20). Tifflath-paeaer n. took it with other 
Naphtafite towns, carrying the inhabi- 
tants captiTO to Assyria (2 Kings xt. 29). 
It WBB identical with Abel-Maim of 
2 Chron. xri. 4. Its site was probably at 
AU-el-Kainh, a small Tillage on a rising 
gnmnd west of Banias. [Abel (2).] 

Abel-Chebaxoc [Heb. = ** meadow of 
nneyards "], a place constituting the 
utmost limit to which Jephthah pursued 
tbs Ammonites (Judges xi. 33— R. v.). 

Abkl-Madc [Heb. = ** meadow of the 
waters "]. [Abbl-Bsth-Maachah] (2 
Gbron. xtI. 4). 

Abkl-Msholah [Heb. = " meadow of 
dunning "], a town where Elisha was bom 
(1 Kings xix. 16). It was fixed by 
Jerome lO miles south of Scythopolis, the 
Scf iutur e Bethshan orBethshean. Capt. 
Gander places it at the jpresent * Ain Helweh 
in the Jordan Talley, not far from 

ABEL-SHnnx [Heb. = ** meadow of 
acadaa*'], the same as SRrrmc (q.T.) 
(Numb, xxxiii. 49). 

AMI (3) [FoTEbM= '< mourning*']. 

Onljf in eompotitum in the word which 

Abbx-Miebaix [Heb. "Mourning of 
Egypt or the Egyptians "] . [Atad.] 

{[Heb.J5*A^^= **tin"(?), 
from €ihh*U = ** to be white '*]. A boraer 
Tillage or town of lasachar (J€«h. xix. 20). 
Cap^dn Conder doubtfully identifies it 
with El Beida, which in Arabic means 
** white,'* at the north end of the plain of 

AM [an abbreriation of Abia or Abuah 
(q.T.)]. The motiier of Hezekiah, and 
the daughter of a certain Zachariah or 
Zechariah (2 Kings XTiii. 2— A.Y. and 
R.V.). She is caUed in 2 Chron. xxix. 1 

AU% Abtali [Greek Abia; Heb. 
Abhiyah, Abhiyakn — '* whose father is 
JehoTah.'* The same as Abijah]. 

I. Of the form Abiah :— 

(1) A son of Becher, and grandson of 
Benjamin (1 Chron. Til. 8). 

(2) The second son of Samuel. Like his 
lRX)tner he was a jud^ at Beersheba, and 
took bribes (1 Sam. Tui. 2). 

(3) The wife of Hezrou, a man of the 
trioe of Judah (1 Chron. ii. 24). 

(The R.V. spells Nos. 1 and 2 Abijah, 
leaTing the spelling Abiah to No. 3, the 
woman only.) 

II. Of the form Abia :— 

(4) The spelling in Matt. i. 7— A.V.— of 
king Abijah, the son of Rehoboam. 

(5) The spelling in Luke i. 5— A.V.— of 
Abijah of 1 Chron. xxiT. 10^ whose course 
was the eighth of the 24 mto which the 
priests were ultimately arranged. 

AbUlbon [Heb. ^^At-a/6Aoft = ** father 
of strength **J. The same as Abiel ([2) 
(q.T.) (cf. 2 Sam. xxiii. 31 with 
1 C^hron. xi. 32). 

AMawiph [Heb. ^^AtoMtfA = ** father 
of collection**: i.e. **a collector**]. A 
LcTite of the family of Korah (Exod. 
Ti. 24). Called also Ebiasaph (q.T.). 

AliUitliar [Heb. Abhiothar ^ *' father 
of abundance"]. 

A priest, the son of Ahimelech. On the 
slaughter by Doe^ at the instance of king 
Saul of the priests at Nob, Abiathar 
escaped, and, as was natural, cast in his lot 
with Darid (1 Sam. xxii. 20-23). When 
DaTid at leng^ ascended the throne, 
2^ok and Abiathar apparently shared the 
h^h priestiiood between them, thou^ 
what seems a copyist*8 error in 2 Sam. Tui. 
17 substitutes Ahimelech the son of 
Abiathar for Abiathar the son of Ahime- 
lech (2 Sam. XX. 25 : 1 Chron xr. 11). He 
remamed faithful to the king during Abeo- 
lom*s rebellion, and render^ the fugitiTe 
monarch great sendee (2 Sam. xt. 24, 29, 
36, 36 ; XTii. 15; xix. 11), but went with 
Adonijah when he aspired to the throne 
(1 Kings i. 7, 19, 25). For this he was 
ejected from the high priesthood by 
^lomon (ii. 26, 27), thus fulfiUing a 
prophecy spoken against EU*s house 
(1 &un. iii 31-3.5). The passage in I Kmgs 
iT. 4 probably refers to the time imme- 
diately nrior to his deposition. Abiathar 
is alluded to by our Lord in the New 
Testament (Mark ii. 26). 

AMI) [Heb. Ahhibh = " an ear of com." 
From aohabh = *' to ■flourish,** " to pro- 
duce flowers*']. 

The old name of the month which 
the Hebrews were diTinely directed to 
make the first of the year in commemora- 
tion of their departure from Egypt 
(Exod. xii. 1, 2: xiii. 4; xxiii. lo; 
xxxiT. 18; Deut. xri. 1). The feasts of 
unleaTcned bread and the paseoTer fell 
during the month (Ibid.). The Jewish 

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(4 ) 


months following the moon, and ours being 
fixed, the two cannot be made exactly to 
correspond. Abib most nearly approaches 
our month of March, though m some 
years its end moves some distance into our 
kpril. After the captivity the old Hebrew 
name Abib gave place to Nisan (q.v.) 
(Neh. ii. 1; Esther iii. 7). 

AMda, AMdab [Heb. Abhidhah = 
*' father of knowledge "]. 

A son of Midian (Gen. xxv. 4 ; 1 Chron. 
i. 33). 

AUdan [Heb. Abhidhan = '' father of 
a judge"]. 

The head, captain^ or representative of 
the tribe pf Benjamm in the wilderness. 
His father*s name was Qideoni (Xiunb. i. 
11; ii.22; vii. 60, 65; x. 24). 

. AUel [Heb. Abkiel = " father of 

(1) The father of Kish and of Ner, and 
the grandfather of Saul and of Abner 
(I Sam. ix. 1 ; xiv. 51). 

(2) One of David's mighty men : called 
also AbIalbon (q.v.) (1 Chron. xi. 32). 

Ableser [Heb. Abhiezer = ** father of 

(1) A descendant of Manasseh, who 
fomided a family to which the jud^ 
Gideon afterwanu belonged (Josh. xvii. 
1,2; Judjjesvi. 11). 

Abiezer is sometmies used for Abiezrite, 
the family being personified as an indi- 
vidual (Judges vi. 34). Abiezer is called 
also Jebzeb (Q'V'])* 

(2) One of David's heroes (2 Sam. xxiii. 
27 ; 1 Chron. xi. 28 ; xxvii. 12). 

AUeirlte [Eng. Ab%ez{er)ite ; Heb. 
Abhi'haezH'], One belonging to the 
family of Abiezer (1) (Judges vi. 11, 24 ; 
viii. 2, 32). 

AMgail Va.e'b. Abhiahail = '' father of 
exultation " ; obi = ** father," and gad = 
" exultation," from gil = ** to rejoice "]. 

(1) The vrife of I^abal. She was *' a 
woman of good understanding, and of a 
beautiful countenance," and on the death 
of her first husband became one of David's 
wives (1 Sam. xxv. 3, 14-44 ; xxvii. 3 ; 
2 Sam. ii. 2"). When the Amalekites 
captured Ziklag they took her captive, 
but she waa rescued by her husband aft'T 
he had defeated the enemy fxxx. 5, 18 . 
She bore to him a son called Chiloab 
(2 Sam. iii. 3). 

(2) David's second sister. She married 
Ithra or Jether, an Israelite or Ishmaelite, 
and had a son Amasa (2 Sam. x\'ii. 25; 
1 Chron. ii. 16, 17). 

AUhall ri) [Heb. Abhihail, perhaps for 
Abhihhail (Geseniujt) = ** father of forti- 
tude" ; "father of light" or '*splendour" 


(1) A daughter of Eliab and wife of 
Renoboam (2 Chron. xi. 18). 

(2) The wife of Abishur (1 Chron. 
ii. 29). 

AMhall (2) [Heb. Abhihhail] [Abi- 
HAIL (1)J. 

(1) A Levite, the father of Zurid (Numb, 
iii. 35). 

(2) A Gadite, the son of Huri, and a 
descendant of Gilead (1 Chron. v. 14). 

(3) The father of queen Esther (Esther 
: ii. 15 ; ix. 29). 

I AbUin [Heb. Abhihtt = " to whom He 
I is father," '* whose father is God." ] 

I The second son of Aaron. He shared in 
the privileges, in the sin, and in the fate of 
Nadab the eldest son, and like him died 

, childless (Exod. vi. 23 ; xxiv. 1 ; xxviii. 
1 ; Lev. X. 1-7 ; Numb. iii. 2 ; xxvi. 60, 61 ; 
1 Chron. vi. 3 ; xxiv. 1). [Nadab (1).] 

i AllUiud [Heb. Abhihudh = " whose 
, father is Juoah "]. A son of Bela and 
I grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. viii. 1,3). 

A1liJ«b [Heb. Abhiyahu = " to whom 
, Jehovah is a father"]. 

(1) A son of Jeroboam. While yet a 
chud he fell dangerously sick, and Jero- 
boam sent his queen in disguise to the 
prophet Ahijah, the same wno had pre- 
dicted that he should obtain the kingdom, 
to inauire what the issue of the sickness 
woula be. The prophet recognised the 
queen, notwithstanding her disguise, de- 
nomiced judgment against Jeroooam for 
his apostacy from Jehovah, and added 
that the child would die, and obtain 
honourable burial, because in him alone of 
all that household was found some good 
thing towards the Lord God of Israel. All 
happened as the seer had foretold (1 Sjngs 
xiv. 1-18). 

(2) The name given in Chronicles to the 
son and successor of Rehoboam, called in 
Kings Abuam (q.v.) (2 Chron. xii. 16; 
xiii. 1-xiv. 1). 

AbtJam [Heb. Abh if/am = "fatiier 
of the sea," i.v. "a person of maritime 
tendencies "]. 

The son and successor of Eehoboam on 
the throne of Judah. His mother's name, 
Maachah or Michaiah, the "daughter" 
[or granddaughter (?)] of Absalom (cf. 
1 Kings XV. 1 : 2 Chron. xi. 20-22 ; xiii. 2). 
He sinned after the mamier of his father, 
and had not a heart true to Jehovah. The 
kings of Judah had not yet become recon- 
ciled to the revolt of the ten tribes, and a 
battle took place between Jeroboam and 
Abijam, the armies being so enormous 
that, if there has been no copyist's error in 
recording the numbers, there must have 
been a levy of all the fighting popula- 
tion. The victory was with Abijam, and 
the slaughter was proportionate to the 

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BombtTs engaged* But tlie Idnsdo™ o' 
tike ten tribes, thougki def e&ted, -was not 
ooaqoered. Abijam bad. f oturteen wives, 
tventj-tvo KHis, and aucteen. dau^hten. 
Bj ^ Hebcew chronology lie ascended 
tbe thzone aboxit b.c. d58, reigned three 
rean, and died about 955 s.c. , leaving his 
M.n Aia to soooeed him in. tl&e kingaom. 
Abijam ii c^ed in Chroniclea Abijah 
[Abuah (2)1 KingiB xiv. 31 ; xv. 1-8; 
:i Chroa. xn. 16 ; xm. 1 ; xiir. 1). 

I [Greek jLhilene^ so called from 
Abila, ita capital, and that again from 
Abel, whom traditkni Tepreaents aa haying 
been Iraried there') . 

A tetiarchy near Anti-Liebanon. Its 

capital, AbOa, is 18 or 20 milea N.W. from 

Danaaena.- There ia a romantic gorge, 

wtUi a Tt^w^T* road cnt in the cuff, a 

ceneAcsT, a nnmbcr of tall pillars, a 

i fa e aui below and ^* Abers tomb " above. 

Two tableta cut in the rock stote that the 

pbce is Abila. ^Wlten first heard of, 

AUene waa nnder a tetrarch called Lysa- 

ena (Joeei^. Antiq. XIV. xiii. } 3). In 

Lake in. I it ia still governed bva tetrarch, 

v-ho is believed to have been the nandson 

c-f the one nkentioned by Joeepnns (cf. 

Jaanh. Anttq. XIX. v. } 1). 

Tneze waa an Abtla m Persea^ east of 
Oadaia, bat it ia not mentioned m Scrip- 

. [Heb. Abhimael - ** father of 
(the)Mael" (tribe) (?) ]. 

A aoo of Joktan ((^en. x. 28 ; 1 C%ron. 
i. 22). It haa been supposed that he 
foaaded the tribe caUed ov Theophrastus 
the Mali and by Strabo the Meinaoi, i.e. 
the Ttfmgn, nomad Arabs wandering in the 
vidnxty of Mecca {Oesenius^ etc.). These 
shoold probably be identified with the 
recently discovered, but ancient and very 
im p ort a nt M'"'^*" kingdom in the south 
of Arabia (q.v.). 

, [Heb. AbhimeUk = " father 

of the Jdng,'* or ** the father king"]. 

(1)A long €ff Gerar, at whose court 
Abraham aSempted to pass Sarah off as 
hii mter (Gen. xx. 1 -18}, the Idnjg and the 
jmtnarcb at a later period entermg into a 
Srfomnt with each other (xjd. ^$4). 

(2) A Jang of Gerar or of the Philistmes, 
at Vikwcoort laaac attempted to pass off 
BebekBb as hia mUfter, and with whom he 
jS^fflte his &«!«•, at laat formed a cove- 

"^(Sf'-^'of'^ j«^«« "»d hero 
mrb« «m ^^^„i. ^One natuml 

C2jTbe eon 
G&on, by * 

— z-r -^ i«.,r»«mw IB tJiat the sons by 

P^^^^F^cely to quyrel witt 
one iDotber tend ffa^-Wielech, obtain- 
tj^ by Hi»^fLvf^ mother»s relative., 
imMBStance JJ^"*, -e-v-enty sons except 
kaiedaDlu* f«^^*X^in fiie maasaiie 
ooe, ^ho escaped xxv. 

fJoTHAM]. Then he was elected king of 
Shechem. According to the Hebrew 
chronology he would begin to reign about 
1209 B.C. ^ Before he had ruled three years 
he and his subjects were at variance, and 
his throne, founded in blood, had begun to 
totter. A plot against him was formed by 
GaaL ItcametotheearsofZebul, Abime- 
lech's second in command. Goal was de- 
feated and driven out of Shechem, the dty 
being afterwards destroyed and sowed 
with salt. A thousand men and women 
who had taken refuge in its tower were 
burnt to death. When Abimelech shortly 
afterwards was besieging Thebez, he was 
mortally wounded by a millstone dropped 
on his head from the dty wall by a woman. 
Regarding it as dishonourable to be killed 
by a femeue, he ordered his armour-bearer 
to draw his sword and shiy him, which he 
did r Judges ix. 1-57). 

(4) (?) A priest, a son of Abiathar 
(1 Clunon. xviu. 16). In 2 Sam. viii. 17 he 
was called Abimelech, for which Abime- 
lech may be the error of a copyist. 

AMaadmb [Heb. Abhinadhabh = 
" father of nobiHty," " noble father "]. 

(1) A man of Kirjath-jearim, who gave 
the ark accommodation in his house for 
twenty years, when it was sent back by the 
Phihstines, his son Eleazar being set apart 
as a priest to act as its custodian (1 &Lm. 
vii. 1-2 ; 2 Sam. vi. 3 ; 1 Chron. xiii. 7). 

(2} The second son of Jesse and an elder 
brotner of king David (1 Sam. xvi. 8 ; 
xvii. 13). 

(3) A son of Saul, killed like his father in 
the battle of Gilboa (I Sam. xxxi. 2). 

(4J The father of Solomon's purveyor 
for tne region of Dor (1 Kings iv. 11). 

Ablner [Heb. Abhinerl [Abneb] 
[Margin of 1 Sam. xiv. 60— A.V.]. 

AMooam [Heb. Abhinoam — ^^ ioiher 
of sweetness or grace"]. 

The father of Barak (Judges iv. 6, 12 ; 
V. 1, 12). 

Ablraiii [Heb. Abhiram — ** father of 

(1) A son of Eliab, and brother of 
Dathan, with whom he joined in Korah's 
rebellion. [Dathait, Kobah.I 

(2) The firstborn eon of Hiel, who re- 
built Jericho (1 Kings xvi. 24). His deatli, 
when its foundations were laid, in rart 
fulfilled a curse pronounced by Joshua 
(Josh. vi. 26). 

AUflliAg [Heb. AbJUahagh = ^'father of 

A very beautiful girl from Shunem, em- 
ployed to attend upon king David when he 
was old and declining in vitality (1 Kings 
i. 1-4). Adonijah wished to marry her 
after David's death, and made application 

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for the needed permission to Solomon, who 
not merely refused his recjueet, but inter- 
preted it to mean an insidious claim for the 
crown, and put him to death (ii. 13-25). 

[Heb. Abhithai = "father of 
a gift"]. 

A son of Zeruiah and a brother of Joab. 
When David found Saul and his followers 
asleep, Abishai asked permission to kill the 
king ; but David would not sanction his 
doing harm to "the Lord's anointed" 
(1 Sam. xxvi. 5-9 ; 2 Sam. ii. 18 ; 1 Chron. 
ii. 16). When Abner, fleeinff from the 
battle at Gibeon, was compelled to kill 
ABahel, Joab and Abiidiai, his two brothers, 
pursued the homicide, but without effect 
(I.Sam, ii. 18-24). He was one of David's 
miffhty men, having on one occasion slain 
300 of the enemy in a fight (zxiii. 18, 19 ; 

1 Chron. xi. 20). This he seems to have 
done unaided ; but he must have been at 
the head of an army when he slew of the 
Edomites, in the Valley of Salt, 18,000 
(1 Chron. xviii. 12). 

AMsliAloiia [Heb. Abhishalam], the 
same as Absalom (q.v.) (cf. 1 Kings zv. 

2 and 2 Chron. xi. 21). 

Abialiiia [Heb. AbhUhua = " father of 
safety *']. 

(1) A Benjamite, a son of Bela (1 Chron. 
viii. 4y. 

(2) The son of Phinehas the priest 
(1 Chron. vi. 4, 5, 50 ; Ezra vii. 5). 

AMflhiir [Heb. Abhishur = " father of 
a wall "]. 

A man of Judah, and son of Shammai 
(1 Chron. ii. 28, 29). 

Abttal [Heb. ^Mt/a/ =" father of 

One of David's wives. Her son was 
Shephatiah (2 Sam. iii. 4 ; 1 Chron. iii 3). 

AUtab [Heb. Abhitubh = " father of 
goodness "]. 

A Benjamite, son of Shaharaim by his 
wifeHushim (1 Chron. viii. 8-11). 

AMnd [Gr. Abioud, from Heb. Abhi- 
hudh =r «« Judah (is) his father "]. 

A son of Zerubbabel (Bfatt. i. 13). The 
name is omitted in 1 Chron. iii. 19. 

[Heb. Abhner = " father of 

The son of Ner, king Saul's uncle. 
During the reign of that monarch Abner 
was commander-in-chief of the army 
(1 Sam. xiv. bV). David's victory over 
Goliath made hmi known to Abner, and 
through Abner to Saul (xvii. 55). On 
the death of Saul Abner proclaimed 
the deceased monarch's son Ishbosheth 
king at Mahanaim ^2 Sam. ii. 8). During 
an interview whicn he held at Gibeon 
with Joab, David's commander-in-chief. 

Abner proposed what he seems to have 
intended for a tournament between twelve 
young men pidced from Ishbosheth's 
supporters and as many taken from the 
followers of David, but mutual animosities 
converted the mimic combat into a real 
battle ; and the two armies being drawn 
into the struggle, that which Abner led 
was defeated with great shiughter (12-32). 
During the retreat from this battle Abner 
was pertinaciously followed with hostile 
intent by Asahel, one of Joab's brothers, 
and after repeatedly warning him off, had 
at last to strike him dead in self-defence 
(18-24). Soon afterwards Abner had a 
serious charge brought against him by 
Ishbosheth, which so irritated him that he 
intimated his intention of transferring his 
allegiance to David, and was as good as his 
wora. First he sent messengers to David, 
and then sought an interview with him, 
and was graaously received. But Joab, 
believing or pretending to believe that 
Abner hiEid come simply as a spy. went 
after him, invited him to a friendly con- 
versation, and stabbed him dead. The 
ostensible reason for this assassination was 
revenge for the death of Asahel, who, how- 
ever, had died in fair fight. An unavo wed 
motive probably was f€«r that Abner mig^ht 
one day displace him from the command 
of David's army. The king was justly 
incensed against the murderer, and con- 
spicuously ^owed the people that he had 
no comphcitv in the crime. He attended 
the funeral, lamented the unworthy fate of 
the prince and great man who had fallen 
in Inrael, and finally left it in charge to his 
successor to call Joab to account for the 
crime (iii. 6-39 ; 1 Kings ii. 5). Abner had 
at least one son, Jaasiel f 1 Chron. xxvii. 21) , 
and seems to have haa a regard for the 
house of God, for he dedicated to it some 
of the spoils which he had taken in battle 
(xxvi. 28). 

[Lat. abominatio = 
" something of evil omen " ; hence, "some- 
thing hateful "]. 

Anything foreboding evil (Lev. vii. 18), 
orin itself hateful (Prov. xi. 1, 20 ; xii. 22, 
etc.), specially an idol or the false divinity 
whom it represents (Deut. xxvii. 15 ; 
1 Kings xi. 5-7 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 13). 

H Th4 Abomination of Desolation (Matt, 
xxiv. 14; Mark xiii. 14). Something 
idolatrous which was both hateful in 
itself and ominous of evil. The Saviour 
founded the expression on two verseft 
of Daniel: "And they shall pollute 
the sanctuary of strength, and shall take 
away the duly sacrifice, and they shall 
place the abomination that maketh deso- 
late " (Dan. xi. 31^. " And from the time 
that the daily sacrifice shall be taken awav, 
and the abomination that maketh desolate 

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(7 ) 


set ap, tbsn shall be a thousand two 
hundred and ninety days'* (xn, 11). 
Daniel's predi^^ion bad a tnreefoid refer- 
ence: one immediate, the other two re- 
mote. The immediate one was the stoppue 
of the daiW^ sacrifice by Antiochus Epi- 
phanes in June, 168 B.C., and the erection 


<Hi tbm brazffli altar of an idolatrous one, 
on whidi aacrifloes were offered to Jupiter 
Olympins. The first of the remote refer- 
«ncee — ^that which Jesus spoke of as still 
future — ^was the appearance of the Roman 
eagles, which their bearers were accus- 
tomed to worship, carried as standards in 
A.D. 70 into eyen the most holy place of 
the Temple, the sacrilese being followed 
br the oeetruction of the Temple itself. 
Tlie other remote reference was to the 
ploug^iing up of the Temple site in ▲.d. 135, 
after the faulure of Bar Cocheba's rebellion, 
and spedaUj to the erection on the sacred 
site of an idolatrous edifice dedicated to 
the Capitoline Jupiter. 

Abram [Heb. 
^Mnwi= **&ther of height"] ; Abraham 
THeb. AbhraJkam = ** faUier of a multi- 

The eldest son of Terah. He was bom 
at Ur of the Chaldees, from which he 
removed witii his faliier to Haran in 
Meaopotemia, and was with him when he 
died (Gen. xL 27-32^. Not long afterwards, 
Abram received a Divine command to leave 
his oountay and his kindred, and go to 
sojourn in a land of which Jehovah would 
unimately make known to him the name. 
He unhesitatingly obeyed, and ** by faith " 
went forth, **not knowing whither he 
went " (ziL 1-4 ; Heb. xi. 8). Some time 

afterwards it was revealed to him that 
Canaan was the country intended, and 
thither accordingly he proceeded, Lot, his 
brother's son, and other relatives and 
dependants aocomjianying him on his 
journey. On arriving, ne sojourned in the 
valley of ** 3ichem,'^t>. Shechem ; on a 
mountain or hill between Bethel and Hai 
or Ai ; at Mamre, near the future Hebron ; 
besides occasional journeys to the Sinaitic 
wilderness between Kadesh and Shur, to 
Oerar in the Phihstine country, and once, 
to avoid famine, to Egypt. Soon after 
reaching Canaan from Haran, he received 
the promise that he should be the father of 
a numerous progeny, and it was added 
that '* in thee shful all families of the earth 
be blessed" (Qen. xii. 3), a prophecy 
considered Mbbbianic (q.v.). Similar 
promises were again oftener than once 
repeated (zii. 7 ; ziii. 14-17 ; zv. 5, 18-21 ; 
xvii. 4-8, 16; xviii. 18; xxii. 17-18). 
The Divine blessing attended Abraham 
during his sojourn in Canaan, or Palestine 
rPsalm cv. 9-15). He and his nephew Lot 
round their flocks and herds so increase 
that there was not room for both of them 
together in the same district, and an 
amicable separation took plaoe^ Abraham 
showing magnanimity ana dismterested- 
ness and Lot selfishness. The latter re- 
moved to Sodom, in the deep valley of 
the Jordan. When Chedorlaomer ana the 
Eastern kings defeated the kings of the 
cities of the plain. Lot was among the cap- 
tives, and owed his rescue to the courage 
and militaiT skill of Abraham, who, arming 
318 of his slaves, made anight attack upon 
the victors, and defeated tnem near wnat 
became the future Dan (Qen. xiii. 4-18; 
ziv. 1-16). It wss on ms return from 
this expedition that he had an interview 
with the celebrated Melchieedek (q.v.). 
With all the blessings which attended him 
Abraham had one cause of sorrow : he had 
no son and heir, and both he and his wife 
Sarah were advanced in years. Following 
Sarah's counsel, he married as a secondary 
wife an Egyptian maidservant called 
Hagar, who had a son — Ishmael, the 
ancestor of many of the Arabs (Gen. xvi. 
1-16). When Ishmael was thirteen years 
old, the rite of circumcision was instituted 
for Abraham and his posterity, and his 
name was changed from Abram to 
Abraham (»ee etymology) (Gen. xvii. 
1-27). Soon afterwanu he interceded 
unsuccessfully for Sodom, which had filled 
up the cup of its iniquity and was about 
to be destroyed (jdx. 1-21). In due time 
Sarah gave birth to Isaac, the child of 
promise (xxi. 1-8). As he was growing up 
to manhood, God applied an extreme test 
to Abraham's faith and obedience. Would 
he at the Divine command sacrifice liis 
well- beloved son? Notwithstanding the 

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terrible nature of the demand, the patri- 
arch was willing ; when, as might have 
been anticipated, the will was taken for 
the deed, and the painful order with- 
drawn (Gen. xxii. 1-19; Heb. xi. 17-19). 
On the death of Sarah, her husband 
purchased the cave of Machpelah, near 
Hebron, to be her sepulchre (Gen. xziiL 
1-20), this being the only piece of land he 
could call his own in the coimtry which his 
posterity were to inhabit. When the 
mourning for Sarah was over, Abraham 
despatched a faithful servant to Mesopo- 
tamia to arrange about a partner for Inac 
(xxiv. 1-67). Then he himself remarried, 
taking as a wife Keturah, by whom he had 
several children. He died at the great age 
of 175, and was buried by the side of Sarah 
In the cave of Machpelah(q.v.) (xxv. 1-10). 

The Apostle Paul devotes the whold of 
Bom. iv. and a large part of Gkd. iii. and 
iv. to an explanation and commendation 
of the faith manifested by Abraham, the 
spiritual ''father of the faithful" (cf. 
Gal. iii. 7-9), " the friend of God " (James 
ii. 23). 

Ateam [Abraham] (Gen. xi. 26, 27, 29 ; 
xii. J, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 16; and xvii. 5, 

AlirmiAli, XbronahrHeb. Abhr<mah= 
*' a passage," as of a seaj. 

One of the stations of the Israelites in 
the wilderness, between Jotbathah and 
Ezion-gaber. It was evidently not far 
from the Gulf of Akaba (Numb, xxxiii. 34, 
35— A.V. and B.V.). 

I FHeb. Abhshalomy Abhishalom 
— ** father of peace "]. 

The third son of David, kinff of Israel. 
He was bom in Hebron, and nad for his 
mother Maacah, the daughter of ^ Talmai, 
king of G«shur, in Syria (2 Sam. iii. 3). He 
was of faultless form, and had long fine 
hair, of which he was inordinately vain. 
His beauty was shared by his sister Tamar, 
who BO fascinated her half-brother Amnon 
that he perpetrated a criminal outrage upon 
her, for which two years afterwards he was 
treacherously assassinated at the instance 
of Absalom, whose g^est he was at the time. 
Though Absalom was his father's favour- 
ite, his crime was too gross to be over- 
looked even by his indu&ent parent. He 
had to g[o into exile, and remained three 
years with his maternal connections in 
Geshur, and two more at Jerusalem before 
he was allowed to return to the Court, or 
see his royal father. He soon afterwards 
deliberately set himself to win the hearts of 
the people away from the king his father, 
and when the plot was ripe, repaired, 
under false pretences, to Hebron, and 
raised the standard of rebellion. He ma^ 
have thought that the perfection of his 
bodily frame marked him out for rule of the 

highest kind. Probably he had heard that 
Solomon was to succeed David, and con- 
sidered the arrangement unfair to liimself , 
as he was the elder of the two brothers, 
and, unlike Solomon, was by tho mother*s 
as well as the father's side of royal blood. 
Whether or not he was aware that it 
was by the Divine choice, as recorded in 
1 Chron. xxii. 7-10, that Solomon wns 
designated to the sovereignty is less cer- 
tain ; if he did know it, then in a theo- 
cracy like the Jewish, the enormity of his 
rebellion was*^ furtlier heightened. It is 
noticeable, in connection with this point, 
that the priests and Levites sided with 
David, and brought him much moral as well 
as material support, but the mass of the 
people seem to have gone against him ; and 
ne had to escape with a few faithful follow- 
ers from Jerusalem to save his life. Of 
David's two chief counsellors, the abler 
one, Ahithophel, had gone over to Absa- 
lom | the other, Hushai, was faithful ta 
David, and went after the fugitive kin^. 
David sent him back to Jerusuem to pre- 
tend adherence to Absalom, and thwart 
the counsel of Ahithophel. When the time 
arrived for offering advice to Absalom,. 
Ahithophel astutely recommended that 
he should be allowed to take 12,000 men 
ttiat very night and follow David before- 
he recovered from his depression. He 
would kill only the king, and the people 
would then come over to Absalom, ^fore 
the scheme was carried out, Hushai was 
asked if he adhered to it ; and of course 
he raised objections, and proposed a rival 
scheme of his own, so preposterous that 
it does not say much for Absalom^s- 
penetration that he did not see it wan 
meant to •ffect his ruin. Hushai coun- 
selled long delay — ^which would tend to 
make Abs^om weaker and David stronger. 
He flattered Absalom's self-conceit hy 
proposing that he should be commander^ 
which was really meant to guarantee that 
the army should be badly led. When victory- 
was achieved, which he assumed to be a 
certainty, he provided that there should 
be extensiva and unnecessary bloodshed, a 
serious political blunder as well as a great 
crime. Hushai's absurd scheme, however, 
recommended itself to Absalom and the 
people ; and Ahithophel, seeing that it was 
all over with the rebellion, went home and 
committed suicide. Hushai, understanding 
that the danger was not yet over, sent 
David counsel immediatelv to cross the 
Jordan, which he did. Absalom and the 
rebel army were beginning to revert to the 
policy of Ahithophel; and ultimately a 
compromise was made between his plan 
and that of Hushai, i.e. hostilities should 
be immediate, but Absalom should be the 
commander-in-chief. The battle took 
place in the wood of Ephraim, apparently 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




aeax Mfthuwiin, wbeie David was then 
lesdiiif. The rebel host, imdisciplmed and 
Imdlj led, went down at once before 
BaTid^s Teteranft, handled by three skilful 
GonmanderB. When the rout took place, 
Abaaktm, riding furiously on a mule, ^t 
luB head entangled among the spreadmg 
bnncbes of an oak, great disservice being 



dose Imn by the long hair of which he was 

ao Tain., lite animal ran away, leaving 

him haaginf helplessly, but alive. Joab, 

» of tM uree commanders, thrust three 

through the heart of the unhappy 

e, and ten of his immediate followers 

aarroiznding him completed the shiughter. 

Darid had given express directions that 

he sihould not be injured, and on hear- 

ing of his death he gave himself up to 

exoeanve grief Q2 Sam. xiii. 1-xix. 8). 

Ahaalom was bnned near the place where 

he died, in a pit under a ^^eat cairn of 

abnea. He had reared for hunself a pillar 

at Jeronlem to keep his name in remem- 

tnnoe (zviii. 17, 18), out what is now called 

^ AfaMJom's tomb " is of much later date. 

{JwaTHATinfl It is thought that Psalms 

xKL, xliii., efc., were oompoeed by David 

daimg Ab«a]om*s rebdlion. 

[ (Heb. AHadh — " a ligature, 

idUdclacantle"; Assjrmxi Akkad (^ , 

A ytry andent dty in the plain of 

^aaTf one of four which constituted *^ the 

^oj^ammg of ** Ximrod^s kingdom (Gen. 

i 10). It i3 the ancient SEPHABVAiif 

(^-r.), and the Amyrian Sippara west of 

tte BophniteB. It gave name to the 

•orthem portion of Babylonia, the 

abormnea of which axe believed to have 

6een the Accadians. They were of the 

Turanian race, speaking a language akin 
to that of the finns and the Turks, and 
which the Bev. C. J. Ball has recently 
shown to have resemblances to the Chinese 
{Proceed. Bib. Arch. iSoc. xii., pt. 1, etc.). 
The Accadians were a literary people ; the}' 
invented the hieroglyphics whicn subse- 
quently developed mto the cuneiform 
(wed^-shaped) character adopted by the 
Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the 
Persians. They had traditions of the 
Deluge, and kept a sabbath. They be- 
Heved in the existence of evil spirits, which 
they dreaded. Three of these, Anu, the 
sky, Mulge, the earth, and Ea, the 
deep, were believed to be more potent than 
the rest, and were regarded as gods. 
When the Shemites conquered the Acca- 
dians, they studied the language of the 
vanqiushed for the literature it contained, 
and ultimately regarded it as a sacred 
tongue. Long aft^ it had become a dead 
language, it was studied in schools, and 
retained the same place in Babylonian 
education that Latin does in .that of 
England. Through the Babylonians 
Accadian knowledge reached Europe, and 
has a certain influence even on our own 
age {Saycty etc.). 

Aoobo [Heb. Akko = " hot sand 'J. 

A Canaanite dty on the coast of Pales- 
tine, about 30 miles south of Tyre. It was 
assigned to the tribe of Aaher, which, 
however, found it too strong to be cap- 
tured (Judg. i. 31). The Qreeln changed its 
name to Ptolemais, by which it was Imown 
in Maccabee and New Testament times 
(1 Mace. V. 22; x. 39). [Ptolemais. J 
St. Paul touched there, and he took the 
opportunity to land for a day on his last 
voyage and journey to Jerusalem (Acts 
xxi. /). When the Saracens took it the 
old name of Accho was restored. This i» 
now corrupted into Acre. It was taken in 
A.D. 1191 by Philip Augustus, king of 
France, and Bichara I., kmg of England. 
From A.D. 1229 it was held by the Knights 
of St. John, and was often called in conse- 
quence St. Jean d'Acre. Prior to 1799 it 
was strongly fortified by Jezzar Pasha^ 
who rulea it with energy, but with so 
much cruelty that he was nicknamed " the 
Butcher." In that year it was attacked 
without success by the Emperor 
Napoleon I., Jezzar*s victory being Largely 
produced by English sailors, whom Sir 
Sydney Smith had landed to give him aid. 
In 1832 it was wrested from the Turkish 
Sultan by one of his subjects, Ibrahim 
Pasha, son of Mohammed Ali, the ruler of 
Egypt. On November 3rd, 1840, it was 
bombarded by the British and Austrian 
fleets, the event of the day being virtually 
decided by the explosion of the powder 
magazine, which caused the death of frocx 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 10) 


IJOO to 2,000 Egyptian soldiers. The place 
was ^ven back to the Sultan, under whose 
rule it still remains. Acre stands on the 
northern part of a semicircular bay eight 
miles across, the southern bounoaiy of 
which if formed by Mount Carmel. It 
is now a walled town, with a single land- 
gate at the south-east an^le and a sea- 
gate leading to the shipping m the harbour. 
Its ramparts, injurea by the bombard- 
ment of 1840, naye not been repiured; 
its bazaars look deserted, the chief support 

which Judas had cast down in the Temple. 
It was dedgned to be a burial-ftlaoe for 
strangers. Tne traditional site, dating from 
the time of Jerome in the fourth century, 
is on the southern side of the yalley sloping 
down to Joab*s well. This identification 
\b not improbable, for the locality is one 
which can furnish potter*s clay, of which 
they may haye found it to their interest 
to be owners. Many crusaders were sub- 
seouently buried there. Its modem name 
is Hakk ed Dumm. 


of its 5,000 to 8,000 inhabitants being the 
money spent by the garrison or obtained by 
the exportation of grain and cotton. 

Aoonra^d [Eng. ac, a prefix designed 
to strengthen the meaning; and cursed — 
* * completely cursed " ] . 

% Amtrsed thing. 

Anything on which a curse has been 
pronounced deyoting it to utter destruc- 
^on (Josh. yi. 18; yii. 1, 11, 13, 15; 
xxii. 20). 

Aoeldama [Gr. Akeldama ; from 
Aramaic Hhaqaldetna =■ ** field of 

A field nominally purchased by Judas, 
which apparently means no more than 
with Juaas*s ill-^tten money, and within 
the limits of which his suicide took place 
(Acts i. 18, 19). From Matt, xxvii. 7-8 
we learn that it was called originally the 
Potter's Field, and was bought by the chief 
prints with the thirty pieces of silver 

[Gr. Akhaial 
Originally a state of Greece situated in 
the northern part of the Peloponnesus (now 
the Morea^, and comprehending Ck>rin^ 
and its istiimus. After Greece nad been 
conquered by the Romans, the emperor 
Augustus CsBsar divided that country with 
the adjacent regions into two proyinoee, 
Macedonia and Achaia. The latter com- 
prehended the whole of the Peloponnesus, 
with continental Greece S. of Ulyricum, 
Epirus, and Thessaly. Corinth was the 
capital, and was the residence of the pro- 
consul by whom the province was ruled. 
It is in the second or comprehensiye sense 
that the word Achaia is used in the New 
Testament wherever it occurs (Acts xviii . 
12, 27; xix. 21 ; Rom. xv. 26; xvi. 5 ; 
1 Cor. xvi 15 ; 2 Cor. i. 1 ; ix. 2 ; xi. 10 ; 
IThess. i.7, 8). 

[Lat. from Gr. Akhaikos -. 
•* belonging to Achaia "]. 

Digitized by 





A. Chiia^iaxi. ^wlio came i?rith two 
<wffls irom Cormtli to tlxe Apostle Paul 

AUXM. iq.w) (Matt L 9— 

- **tRjf4blw," •>' one ^wlfco afflicts or 


itanoiCanid^amKnof Jv&dab. Hewas 

'thetioabUT of Israel** w1k> at the cap- 

toKQlJcxiGho ^^tranaereaBedm thetiuDg 

*WTOd" aCbronTiiTT), t.^. appropriiM 

tolu own use and bid in his toat a Babj- 

loDBb gjitiment and a wedge of ffold, nut 

<A the spoil of Jericho, whic^ oad been 

devoted to utter destruction.. [Aocussed 

TnsQ.A His trananesaion led to the defeat 

ci the uiaelitea b^ore Ai. Lots were then 

cait to diaoover the culprit who had 

>iCNi|^ on the catastrophe, and Achan 

VIS pointed out as the individnal. He 

littde oonfenion of bis guilt, but this did 

vA aTBit his fete. He was stoned to death 

a flis TaUey of Achor (Josh. vii. 1-26 ; 


ArAar. [Acmj^s.} (1 C}iTt?a. ii. 7.) 
Acbai [Greek Akh^\ The areek fonn 

iiifclinr fHpb, Akhbnr ^ *' ii mouse "]. 

(■) Use mther of BAal-bajwin, king of 
£Aia(a«Bi. xxzTi. 38 ; 1 Cliroa. i. 49). 

{i^ *lW son of MJcimiah and father of 
Snafhan. He wriLa ti tru^4jd ufHoer at the 
- : ■ t . .ih C- ftingg xxii. 12, 14 ; Jer. 
zxtL 22 ; xxsnri. 12). Called also Abdon 
(2 Chron. xxxiv. 20). 

Aiattm [Greek Akkeim ; from Heb. 
Takk%n\ [Jachin] =" Jehovah will estab- 

A man whose name occurs in the 
r of our Lord. He is the fifth in 
Zerubbabel, and the fifth 
r back from Joseph the husband of 
Ifarj (Katt. i. 14). 

AtfUHh [Heb. AkhUh = «< angry" (?)]. 

(l^ The son of Maodi and the king of 
Gat^y to whom David twice fled durinff 
the time that he was persecuted by Sam 
[David] (1 Sam. xxi. 10-15 : xxvii. 1-12 ; 
zxviiL I, 2; xzix. 1-11). In the title to 
FmIbi xxxiv. Achish is called Abimelech. 

(2) (?) An Adiish son of Maachah and 
kiB^ of Gath is mentioned in 1 Kings ii. 
39, 40. He might have been the old man, 
Wt more probably was a descendant of 
1ms. possibly his grandson. 

AAm&UhM. [If the *' Hebrew " Ahh- 

'"etka ii really from that language, then it is 

« " a dtadel, " ** a fortification." But it is 

flsore probably an alteration of Median 

Htommtana, Ha^tnatan^ the name on the 

Be&ton inscription of the city. But one 

marrinal reading in the A.Y. renders 

AkSmetia = ** in a coffer "]. 

A dty io the palace of which was found 

Cyruses decree permitting that Jerusalem 
should be rebuilt (Ezra vi. 2). It was the 
southern Ecbatana or Agbatana, the 
capital of Media. It was built iu a plain 
at the foot of Mount Orontes, the modem 
Eliyend or Erivend. Notwithstanding an 
intimation to the contrary in the apocry- 
phal book of Judith, Prof. Bawlinson 
oelieves that it was from first to hist with- 
out walls, and consequently had uniformly 
to be surrendered when a Median army 
was de(feated in the field. It had a notable 
palace. It k now called Hamadan. The 
northern Ecbatana, now Tukt-i-8uleiman, 
is not mentioned in Scriptuie. (Pkof. 
Rawlinson*s Five Ancient M&ntrckits, 
m. 16-28). 

[Heb. Akhor = <« afllicting with 
sorrow "]. 

The valley where the unhappy Achan 
was stoned to death. It is considered by 
Cantain Gonder to have been the Wady 
Kelt, which runs from the sjiring Kelt to 
the south of Erlha (Jericho), past Julj&lieh 
(Gilgal) to Jordan. The bed of the stream 
and the adjacent banks are full of 
boulders and pebUes of all sizes, while the 
adjacent country is very bare of them. 
The spot wastheref ore one well adapted for 
execution by stoning (Josh. vii. 24-26 : 
XV. 7; Isa. Ixv. 10; Hos. li. 15). [Chbbith.] 

Aohaa [Heb. Akhsah^^'si 
leg-band," "an anklet"]. 

A daughter of Caleb, who promised her 
in marriage to anyone who should capture 
Kirjath-sepher. Othniel, his nephew, took 
the town, and was rewarded witn the hand 
of the maiden. At her request her father 
gave her the upper and nether springs 
y osh. XV. 16-19 ; Judg. i. 12-15 ; 1 Chron. 
ii. 49). 

(Heb. Akhshaph = " incli- 
nation," ** fascmation "]. 

A border town of Asher, originally 
Canaanite, with a king, oonquerod by 
Joshua (Josh, xl 1 ; xii. 20 ; xix. 25). It 
is often mentioned in Egyptian records. 
Dr. Bobinson placed it at some ruins 
called Kesaf (which he thinks may be 
Achsaph altered), near Banias. Captain 
Conder does not accept this view, but 
doubtfully identifies Achshap^ with 
Yastf , six mQes north-east of Acre. 

AohJdh [Heb. Akhzibh = << menda- 
cious," "false," "deceitful"]. 

(1) A "city" within the territory of 
Judah ^osh. xv. 44 ; Micah i. 14). Pro- 
bably the same place as Chezib (q.v.). 
Captain Conder jpla(»8 it near Beit Nettif, 
at the spring 'Am Kezbeh, which is appa- 
rently a corruption of the old name. 

(2) A town on the sea-coast of Asher 
(Josh. rix. 29), but from which the people 
of that tribe were unable to drive out the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Acts of the Apostles ( 12 ) 

Caiuianite inhabitants (Judg. i. 31). It 
has been identified as Ezzlb, eight and a 
half miles north of Acre. 

Aots of the Apostlas. The fifth and 
last historic book of the New Testament. 
The writer addressed it to a certain 
" Theophilus," and made reference to a 
** former treatise ** sent to the same indi- 
vidual. This was clearly the thii-d gospel, 
to which the name of Luke is prefixed 
(Luke i. 1-4 ; Acts i. 1). The book of 
Acts may therefore be considered a con- 
tinuation of St. Lake*8 ^spel. It natur- 
ally falls into two divisions. The first 
comprehends chapters i.-xii., in which 
St. Peter is the Christian hero, and the 
work described is chiefiy among the Jews, 
to whom that apostle was specially sent. 
The second division comprises chapters 
xiii.-xxviii. Here the Christian hero is 
St. Paul, and the operations described are 
chiefiy among the Gentiles, for whom Paul 
was set apart. In the earlier division the 
Greek has somewhat more of a Hebrew 
complexion than it has in the later portion. 
The first division opens with a record of 
Jesus* last conversations with His disci- 
ples before His ascension, and then goes on 
to narrate that ascension itself ; the elec- 
tion of Matthias as an apostle to supply 
the place of the unworthy Judas 
(chap, i.) ; the descent of the Holy Spirit 
on the day of Pentecost, with its re^ts 
(ii.) ; the evangelistic efforts of the 
apostles, specially of Peter and John (iii.- 
iv. 34) ; the temporary communism of the 
early Churchy ending apparently when it 
led to the cajntally-punished sin of Ananias 
and Sapphira (iv. 34 -v. IH; miraculous 
cures by the apostles, wno were im- 
prisoned and agam released (12-42) ; the 
appointment of church officers to look 
after the poor (vi. 1-6); the martyrdom 
of St. Stephen (vi. 7-vm. 4) ; the cases of 
Simon Magus and the Ethiopian eunudi 
(•5-40) ; the conversion of Saul, afterwards 
St. Paul (ix. 1-31); the cure of .S^eas, 
and the raising of Dorcas from the 
dead (32-43) ; the Divine direction given to 
Peter to overstep Jewish caste prejudices, 
and welcome the Gentiles to the church 
(x., xi.) ; the mart3n:xlom of James, the 
brother of John ; and the wretched death, 
A.D. 44, of Herod Agrippa I., by whose 
authoritythe persecution had taken place 
(xii.). The chief events narrated in the 
second part of the book are: PauPs first 
missionary joumev (xiii. , xiv.) ; the meeting 
of the first council at Jerusalem (xv. 1-35) ; 
PauPs second missionary journey Txv. 36- 
xviii. 22) ; his third missionary journey 
(xviii. 23-xxi. 17) ; the riot which led to 
his arrest (18-40); his defence (xxii. 1- 
xxiii. 11); his imprisonment at C^sarea 
(xxiii. 12-xxiv. 27) ; another trial and 

defence, the most important feature of 
which was an appeal of the apostle to 
'* Ceesar,^* the then reigning ' Bornan 
emperor, who unhappilv was the in&mous 
Nero (xxv., xxvi.) ; Paulas voyage and 
shinwreck (xxviL) ; his arrival at Bomtf, 
ana his partial restraint there for the 
next two years (xxviii.). Then the narra- 
tive abruptly stops, naturally suggesting 
that the Acts went out of ms poesessiou 
at that date, sav about a.d. 63. As already 
shown, the writer of the ** Acts " was the 
author also of the third gospel ; in other 
words, St. Luke. That gospel suggests 
that he was a physician and a foreign mis- 
sionary [Luxe (tI)]. On to the earlier 
portion of chap, xvi., when speaking of 
Paul and others, he uses the pronouns 
" he," ** him," " they," and " them " (xiii. 
51, 52; xvi. 1, 2} ; but at chap. xvi. 10 
**we" and "us" suddenly appear, and 
they recur frequently during the re- 
mamder of the book (xvi. 10, 11, 12, 13, 
14, 15, 16; XX. 6, 13, 14, 15; xxi. 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17; xx\-ii. 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 27, 37 ; 
xxviii. 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16). This 
shows that for a considerable period 
St. Luke was St. Paul's companion and 
eye-witness of many scenes which he 
describes. His narrative comprehends n 
period of about thirty-three ^Bars. Though 
not much Quoted by the Christian Father?, 
the book of Acts was received by the early 
Church without hesitation as an inspired 
work. Paley added to the evidence of it» 
canonidty bv publishing in 1790 his clas- 
sical worx, Jiortt Fattltuaj in which he 
Joints out many ** midesigned coind- 
ences " between the book of Acts and the 
Epistles of St. Paul. The Rev. John James 
Blunt in 1847 published a work, begun in 
connection witn an edition of Psdey, which 
extended the scope of the original writer's 
argument. The nistoric value of the book 
of Acts is incalculable, affording, as it does, 
the only authentic account of the planting 
and training of the apostolic churcnes. It 
has done much also to generate and sustain 
the missionary spirit, now beneficently 
telling on nearly every country in the 

[Heb. and Aramaic Adhadhah 
= ** a holiday," ** a festival "]. 

A town on the extreme south of the 
tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 22). 

It has been identified as probably 
'Ad'adah, a ruin in the desert east of 

[Heb. Adhah — " adornment," 

(n One of Lamech's wives, and the 
mother of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. iv. 19-21, 

(2) One of Esau's wive?, called also 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




lath, the daughter- of Elon, a 
Hittite (Gen. xxvi. 'M ; xjutvi. '2, 4). 

[Heb. Adhat/ah , ^dha^ahn 
= **whom Jehovah bas adorned." Nos. 1 
to 7 are of the first lonn ; Ko. 8 of the 

\\) A man of Bowatli tlie father of 
Jedidah, Josiah's mother C^ Kings xxii. I). 
CI) ALcvite, a «on of Ethan of the Ger- 
iJQQ family (I Chron. vi. 41, 42). 

C5) A piiest, the son of Jeroham (1 
Omm. ix, 12 ; Neh. xi. 12). 

U) A Benjamite, a aon of Shimhi (1 
Chron. viii. 21). 

(5) A «on of Bani. He was induced by 
Eiiatopat away his foreign wife (Ezra 

i.61 The aon of another Bani. He was 
onibiiY persuaded ^zra z. 39). 
CT) a' son of Jotanb (Neh. ad. ^. 
^ The father of Maaseiah (2 Chron. 

XXBL 1). 

[Aramaic AdhalayOy from Per- 

Ma = -upright" CO]. 
One of Haman'g ten sons (Esther ix. 8). 

\(y)rS,e\i.Adham; tromAdham=t 
•^ to be red.'^ Assyrian Adama^ originally 
= the Accadian Adamattty i.e, red skins, 
the aborigines of Northern Babylonia; 
then, at alater period, their fair-coloured 
Semitic conquerors {Sauce)]. 

The first maiK or ii tnere were prior 
zacea, then the first whose creation is re- 
carded in Scripture. The etymology** red** 
implies either tiiat primitive man was red 
or rosy, or that the " dust *' from which he 
was made was of a reddish hue. The 
Egyptians also believed that the original 
man who gave birth to the dwellers on the 
Xile Taller was formed of clay. Adam 
was made m the ima^ of Qod (uen. i. 2^, 
27). St. Paul describes the similarity as 
ccmsi^ing "in knowledge/' or, more 
ooBs^etely, " in knowledge,** " righteous- 
ness and true holiness** (cf. Epbes. iv. 
±>-25 : Col. iii. 9, 10). Adam with his de- 
seendants was invested with dominion over 
the inferior animals (Gen. L 26-28). Either 
on the sixth day (27) or subsequently, " an 
help meet for him '* wasprovided by the 
fofmation of Eve (ii. 20-23) [Eve]. Every 
pbnt of which they oould make use was 
S^rea to them for food (i. 29, 30). They 
»erB exhorted to be fruitful and multiply, 
aad replenish the earth, and subdue it (28) , 
«dt constituting part of the creation, 
'hued ID the approval when God nro- 
acnme-d the verdict that evCTVthing which 
He had made was very good Pl) . Adam 
WW placed on his creation with Eve m the 
gu£aof Eden to dres* it and keep it in 
55^. fEDKC.] On his fall [T^] a curse 

p^from the garden (tu. 1-24). After- 

wards ho had children — first, Cain ; then, 
Abel ; then, when he was 130 years old, 
Seth. He lived 800 years more, at last 
dying at the age of 930, or, according to 
the Hebrew chronologv, about 3074 b.c. 
St. Fcul draws a double parallel between 
Adam and Christ, calling our Lord the 
last Adam (Hom. v. 12-21 ; 1 Cor. xv. 
22, 45). 

/.dam (2) [Heb. Adham = "red'*; here 
= " red earth '*]. 

A city beside Zarethan (Josh. iii. 16). 
Captain Conder conaid^s that the name 
still lingers at D&mieh ford, east of She- 
chem. [Admah.] 

jHeb. Adhamah, Adam (2)]. 
A fenced city of Naphtali TJoah. xix. 36) . 
The Palestine explorers putoe it at ed 
D&mieh, five miles west of Tiberias. 

[Heb. Adkami = " human *']. 
A frontier town of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 
33^ . Captain Conder identifies it with the 
rumed village of Admah on the tableland 
south-west m>m the Lake of Galilee. 

(1) [AddAT (2)] (Josh. XV. 3— 

A. v.). 

Adar (2) [Heb. Adhar, from Assyrian 
-4<i!rfar«="dark,** i.e. **the dark month"]. 

The name given after the captivity to 
the twelfth month of the Jewish year 
(Ezra vi. 15 ; Esther iii. 7j 13 ; ix. 15). It 
is generally believed that it extended from 
the new moon in February to that in 
March, and is called approximately 

▲dbeel [Heb. Adhbeel = " a miracle of 

God's ** (m. 

>nof Ishmael 

(Gen. XXV. 13; 1 Chron. 


i. 29). 

Addaw, Addon [Heb. = ** inferior " 

A place from which some people who 
coula not prove their Israelitish descent 
went to Palestine after the cap»tivity (Ezra 
ii. 59 ; Neh. vii. 61). The site is unknown. 

(1) [Heb. = "largeness" (?)]. 
The same as Abd (q.v.) (cf. Gen. xlvi. 
21 ; 1 Chron. viii. 3). 

_ (2), Adar[Heb.^rfflrff>-= "large- 
ness," '• amplitude * j. 

The same as Hazar-addab (q.v.) (Josh. 
XV. 3— A.V. and K.V.). 

[English from Anglo-Saxon 
Xeedre — " an iwder," " a snake "]. 

In both the A. V. and K.V. the rendering 
of four Hebrew words, referring probably 
to four distinct species of venomous snake. 

(1) ShephiphaHf from Aramaic Shephaph 
= " to creep," rendered on the margin of 
the K.V., the Hometl Snake. Pi-obably 
the Vipera Cerastesy the Homed Sand 

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( 14) 


Snake of Egypt, figured on the monuments 
of that -country. It is of a grey colour, 
and has a bom above each eye. It bides 


in the sand, and may well be the serpent 
which bites the horses' heels so that the 
rider fadls backward (Gen. xlix. 17). 

(2) Pethen^ a species of serpent mcapa- 
ble of being affected by the voice of the 
snake-charmer, and therefore called the 
deaf adder (Psalm Iviii. 4, 5^. It is 
evidently very venomous (xd. 13). It is 
the asp of Deut. xxxii. 33 ; Job xx. 14, 16 ; 
and Isaiah xi. 8. Probably the Naia haje 
of Egypt. [Asp.] 

(3) Akhshuhh (Fsahn cxl. 3). In the 
Septua^t and in the quotation in Bom. 
ilL 13, it is translated Aapia = *< an asp." 
Bochart considers it the Common Adder 
CPelias berus)j and Ck>lonel Hamilton Smith 
the Puff Addfflr of the Cape Colonists, Vi^a 
arietans, but there is as yet no certainty 
as to the identification. 

(A) Tnph^mi (Prov. xxiii. 32), translated 
in laa. xi. 8 ; xiv. 29 ; lix. 5, Cockatbiob 
(q.v.). (See also BASiLisr.) 

Addl [Gr. from a Hebrew name not 
occurring in the Old Testament]. 

The son of Cosam and the father of 
Melchi, in the genealogy of our Lord 
(Luke iii. 28). 

[Addan] (Neh. vii, 61). 

[Edkb] (1 Chron. viii. 15— A. V.). 

Adtol [Heb. Adhirl = ** decoration " or 
** ornament of God "]. 

(1) A Simeonite (1 Chron. iv. 36). 

(2) A priest, a son of Jahzerah (1 Chron. 
ix. 12). 

(3) The father of the Azmaveth who 
was over David*s treasures (1 Chron. xxvii. 

Adln [Heb. Adhin = *' soft," ** deli- 

A Jewish chief who returned from 
Babylon and was one of those who sealed 
a covenant to worship Jehovah (Ezra ii. 
15; viii. 6; Neh. vii. 20; x. 16). 

Adlno [Heb. ^rfAtw = ♦* soft," "deli- 
cate "(?)]. 

Aocoromg to both the A.V. and R.Y., 
another name for an ** Eznite," called also 
a Tachmonite. But Gesenius behaves 
that neither Adino nor Eznite is really a 
proper name (2 Sam. xxiii. 8). [Jobheb- 

Aditlialm [Heb. Adhithaim = '' doubly 
adorned "]. 

A town in a valley within the tribe of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 36). Perhaps the same 
as Hadii) (q.v.). 

Adlai [Heb. Adhlai, for Adhakyah = 
" justice of Jehovah "]. 

The father of Shaphat, David's herdsman 
(1 Chroc. xxvii. 29). 

Admah [Heb. Adhmah = '' red 

One of the dtiee of "the plain." [Plain .J 
(Gen. X. 19; xiv. 28 ; Deut.xxix.23 ; Hosea 
xi. 8.) Captain Conder thinks it may have 
been the same as the town of Adam men- 
tioned in Josh. iii. 16 [Adam (2)]. 

[Heb. Adhina = " smooth," 
*' polished,'^ *♦ elegant "]. 

A Beubenite, one of David^s military 
offioen (1 Chron. xi. 42). 

[Heb. Adhmatha^ from Per- 
sian, of doubtful meaning]. 

One of the seven princes of Persia and 
Media under Ahasuerus (Xerxes) (Esther 
i. 14). 

AdiiA [Heb. or Aramaic Adhna » 
** pleasure^']. 

A son of Fahath-moab. He was induced 
by Ezra to divorce Ws foreign wife (Ezra 
X. 30). 

h[Heb. Adhnah = "pleasure"]. 

(1) A Manassite who joined David at 
Ziklag (1 Chron. xii. 20). 

(2) A man of Judah, of high military 
rank under Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 
xvii. 14). 

L[Heb. Adhoni'Bhezeq- 


A king of Bezek, conquered by the 
warriors of the tribe of Judah, who in- 
flicted on him a cruel mutilation. This he 
seems to have regarded as a Divine requital 
for simflar cruelties perpetrated by hun on 
seventy kings (Judg. i. 4-7). 

A^^^mii [Heb. AdJMHiyah = " My 
Lord (is) Jehovah"]. 

(1) A son of David by Haggith, one of 
his wives. He was the fourth son bom to 
the king at Hebron (2 Sam. iii. 2, 4). He 
was a very goodly, probaUy meaning a 
very handsome, young man, and apparently 
his father*s next favourite after Absalom. 
Blinded by this foolish fondnesB, David 
has never once ** displeased him at anj 
time in saying. Why hast thou done so? * 
But the spoued child is the ungrateful 
child, and when David was on his death- 
bed, Adonijah aspired, without waiting 

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for Ids dflminB, to reign in his room. He 
won to his cause Joab, who, he hoped, 
would tarinff with him the army, and 
Abiathar, ue niiest, who, he expected, 
wonld hrmff wito him the priests and the 
Lerites. But Zadok the priest, Benaiah, 
commander of the royal lx>dyguard, and 
Nathan the prophet he was unable to 
seduce from weir allegiance. He therefore 
left them out in issumg invitations to his 
partisans to a great open-air feast at the 
stone of Zoheleiui by the fountain of Bogel, 
with which he desired to inaugurate his 
reign. But Solomon had been divinely 
cbMen to be tiie successor of David ; and 
Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, supported 

order, Solomon was proclaimed ; the open- 
air feast came to an abrupt terminalion. 
the guests having taken to flight, ana 
Adonijah himself laid hold on the noms of 
an altar in dreadful fear for his life ( 1 Kinffs 
L o-oO). Solomon pardoned him for the 
time, Imt finding him acting in such a way 
as to create the suspicion that he was again 
aiming at the kingdom, put him to d^kth 
(51-55^; ii. 13-25). 

(2) One of the Levites whom Jehosha- 
fdiat sent to mstruct the people of Judah 
(2 Cfaion. xriL 8). 

(3) The head of a house some represen- 
tatives of which returned with Zerubbabel 
from Babykm. He was called also Adoni- 

lEj^ (q-^O (cf • ^*n ^ 13 ; ^^' y^- is ; 

X. 16). 

AdofldkAin [Heb. Adhoniqam = *^Lord 
of enemies**]. [Adonuah (3). J (Ezra iL 13.) 

I [Heb. Adhoniram = *' Lord 
of height"]. 

An officer who was <* over the tribute ** 
during the reigns of David and Solomon. 
He was the son of Abda, and was called 
also Adoram and Hadoram. When the 
ten tribes revolted Behoboam sent him to 
treat with the rebels, who, however, 
instead of listening to him, stoned him to 
dcttfli r2 Sam. zx. 24 ; 1 Kings iv. 6; xii. 
18 ; 2 Chron. x. 18). 

, [Heb. 

Adkimi' nedheq = *' lord of iustioe '*]• 

A king of Jerusalem, who becoming 
alarmed on learning that the Oibeonites 
had made peace with Joshua, and that the 
Jewish lesiider had captured Ai, formed a 
ooofederacy with four other Amorite kinss 
to punish Gibeon. He and his confederate 
monarchs were defeated, taken, and slain 
(Joah. x. 1-27). 

\lAt. Adoptio]. 

In the New Testament the word * 
tioo " is used to designate — 


(1) The choice by Jehovah of the Jewish 
nation to be His special people (Rom. ix. 4). 

(2) The choice of all true Christians to 
be in a special sense the sons of Gk)d (Gal. 
iv. 5 ; Ephes. i. 4). The ** spirit of syidop- 
tion " is that which enables us to feel to 
God as children to a loving father. It is 
distinguished from the ' * spirit of bondage,* ' 
which compels one to feel to Him as a uave 
to a master (Rom. viii. 14-21). 

(3) The "redemption of the body;*' 
apparently its deliverance from sin, pain, 
ana death (Rom. viii. 23). 

The idea of adoption appears frequently 
in both the Old and New Testaments, 
where the technical word to designate it 
does not occur. 

[Heb. Adhoraim = ** two 
tumuli " or ** mounds"]. 

A dU of Judah fortified by Reho- 
boam (2 Chron. xi. 9). It may be the 
Adora of 1 Mace. xiii. 20, and the Dora of 
Joeephu&(^Mrt<7. XIII. ix. § 1). Professor 
Robuison m 1838 identified it with a large 
village Dura in the Hebron district, on the 
gradual eastern slope of a hill, with olive 
groves and cornfields around. 


An abbreviation of Adoio&ajc (q.v.) 
(2 Sam. XX. 24). See also Haooiux. 

FHeb. AdhrammeUk = 

magnificence of (the) \dng^* (Gesenius) ; 

more probably ** fire king" (or Kino Adab, 

see the article)]. 

(1) An idol of Sepharvaim to which the 
colonists brought from that dtv to Samaria 
burnt their children in the fire (2 Kings 
xvii. 31). Sayoe {Assyria^ p. 66) be- 
lieves that the idol was King Adar, the 
son of Beltis, one of the deities formed by 
worshipping the sun god under some par- 
ticular attnbute. 

(2) A son of Sennacherib. With another 
brother he murdered his father, and after- 
wards escaped to Armenia (2 Kings xix. 
37 ; Isa. xxxvii. 38). 

Adnunyttiiim [Latin from Greek 
Adrainutteion or Adramuteiottt see the 

A maritime dtv in .£olia in Asia 
Minor. It was colonised by the Greeks. 
Paul's ship, though sailing from Caesarea in 
Palestine, was one connected with Adra- 
myttium, where probably it was built 
(Acts xxvii. 2). 

AdrU [Greek Adtias = *' the Adriatic 

A part of the Mediterranean in which 
Paul 8 ship was greatly tossed about (Acts 
xxvii. 27). Though now the Adriatic Sea 
is generally held to be simply another 
name for the Gulf of Venice, yet anciently 
it included also the whole Ionian Sea lyin( 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 16) 


between Sicfly and Greece, and it was in 
the open sea, rather than in the gulf, that 
Paul 8 ship was tossed. 

Adriel [Heb. Adhriel = •' a flock of 

A Menolathite, to whom Saul gave in 
marriage his daughter Merab, though he 
had previously promised her on one condi- 
tion to David (1 Sam. xviii. 19). 

Adnllam PHeb. ^(fAt/Z/am =*' justice 
of the people "T. 

Origmally a Canaanite town, existing as 
early as the time of Judah, Jacobus son 
(Gen. xxxviii. 1,12, 20). It had a long in the 
time of Joshua, by whom it was conquered 
(Josh. zii. 15). It was situated in a valley 
of Judah rxv. 35). It was fortified by 
Behoboam (2 Chron. xi. 7)» and continued 
to flourisl^ in the time of MictUi the 
prophet (Micah i. 15). In its vicinity was 
the celebrated cave which David at one 
period of his wanderings mad^ his head- 
ouarters, being joined by his father and 
the rest of his household, with many other 
Adherents (1 Sam. xxii. 1 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 
13). M. Clermont Ganneau found the 
name still lingering at Aid-el-Mia, not 
where the uncritical Crusaders located it, 
in the romantic gorge east of Bethlehem, 
but a number of miles west, slightly 
south of that town, in the lowlands con- 
necting the Bethlehem table-land with the 
Philistme plain. Capt. Conder described 
the place as near the junction between a 
ravine and the great valley of Elah (q.v.), 
about eight miles from the place where the 
fight took place between David and 
Goliath. There is on a hill a fortress which 
Capt. Conder thinks may mark the site of 
the dty Adullam, while numerous caverns 
exist in the adjacent rocks, one of which 
would be David^s place of refuge (Conder's 
TetU Life in Palestine, II. 156-160). 

▲dnlteiy [Lat. AduUerium]. 

I. LiUrally. — (1) In a special sense, 
sexual intercourse of a married man with 
a female not his wife, or that of a married 
woman with a man not her husband. 
Whilst polygamy was existent, the defini- 
tion of adultery became much less strict ; 
but polvgamy is, to say the least, no- 
where formally sanctioned in the Old 
Testament [Mabriaoe], the Divine law 
contemplating marriage of only one woman, 
and that on a life engagement (Gen. ii. 24). 
Under the Mosaic mw adultery was 
punished with death (Lev. xx. 10). The 
prophets continually denounce it, and 
threaten judgment on the land on account 
of its prevalence (Isa. Ivii. 3 ; Jer. ix. 2 ; 
xxiii. 10, etc.). 

(2) In a general sense, all sexual im- 
purity in thought, word, or deed, or what- 
ever tends thereto. This is the sense in the 

seventh commandment, interpreted on the 
principles of the Sermon on the Mount 
(Exod. XX. 14 ; Deut. v. 18 ; Matt. v. 27, 

n. Figuratively. — ^The worship of false 
gods, of idols, or anything similar (Jer. iiL 
8, 9 ; Ezek. xxiii. 37, 43), God daiming 
our undivided affections, as a husband does 
the undivided regard of the woman who 
has sworn him fioelity. 

A^wmwiiwa [Heb. Adhummim = ** red 
men "]. 

A pass on the boundary line between 
Judah and Benjamin, not isi from the 
Jordan (Josh. xv. 7 ; xviii. 17). It is sun- 
posed to be on the south side of the Wady 
Kelt, the Valley of Achor (?), and that 
through which the brook Cherith ran (F). 
Mr. C. F. T. Drake located it at TaJat 
ed Dumm, on the road from Jerusalem to 

JBnaas [Latin from N. T. Greek 
Aitteas; classic Greek Aitteias = the name 
of a Trojan hero]. 

A paralytic bom at Lydda. Peter, on 
passing tluough that town, said to him, 
** .£neas. Jesus Christ maketh thee whole. 
Arise ana make thv bed." And at once 
his palsy, which haa continued eight years, 
was removed (Acts ix. 32-35). 

JBnon [Greek Aitwrt, from Aramaic 
Enavan = " foiintains "]. 

A place near Salim, where John the 
Baptist at least on one occasion exercised 
his special fimction, for which it was well 
adapted, there being much water (in 
Greek "many waters") there (John m. 
23). Dr. Robinson in 1852 found a rain 
Aindm, east by north from Samaria. The 
name Ain(in corresponds exactly to .£non ; 
but Dr. Robinson (Later Biblical Be- 
tiearc/iesj p. 305) rejected the identification, 
because he could not find a Salim near, or 
a drop of water. Both existed in the 
vicinity, though outside the limits within 
which he had sought them ; and there is 
reason to believe that, though he did net 
know it, he had foimd tne real New 
Testament ^non. It is on a table-land four 
miles north of the great F&r*ah valley, 
constituting the highway from Shechemio 
the Damieh ford of the Jordan. At the 
head of the valley, which is at first a 
narrow gorge fianked by low predpicee, 
but is afterwards more open, there are 
springs which with others lower down 
create a fine oleander-fringed stream, the 
largest tributary of the .Jordan south of 
Jezreel. Thus there are both abundance 
of water and an open space for a multitude 
to stand. Three miles south of the valley 
is Saldc (q.v.). This is the only district in 
Palestine where two names corresponding 
to JEnon and Salim exist in the same 
vicinity (Conder*s Tent Life in Pahttine^ 

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I. 91-93 ; n. 57). Sir Charles Wilson, 
bowerer, p re fe r s to locate .ZBnon, though 
doabfcfully, at the springs near Umm el 
* A mil An 7J nules below Beisan (Aim- 
itrong, Xautea and PUue$, II. 2). 

_ [latin from Greek Agabo8» 

No oorrespondinff name occurs in the Old 
Testament, bnt uie word is probably from 
Heb. agUbh = " to love "1. 

A prophet who i>redictea a great famine 
which took place in the days of Claudius 
CsBar TActs xL 2b). Again, when Paul 
passed urough Cseearea on his last journey 
to Jerusalem, Agabus, who \yq& there, 
bound his own hands and feet with Paul's 
gmOe, and intimated that this would be 
<lcoe also to the owner of the girdle when 
be reached the capital (xxi. 10, 11). 

Aca^P [Heb. Aghaah — ** flaming," from 
•7A«yA=" to blaie,'"* " to flame " {Gesen- 


Amrently a title of the kings of 
AiBuek, as Pharaoh was for those of 
Emt. Specially 

(1; A king of Amalek whose greatness 
was alluded to by Balaam (Numb. xxiv. 7). 

(2) The king of Amalek slain by Samuel, 
after he had uen spared by Saul (1 Sam. 
XT. 9-33). 

Asactte [English]. 

Ai^nrently an.Amalekite, an appellation 
eiTen to Harnan, the great enemy of the 
Jews (EBther iii. 1, 10; viiL 3-5). 

AgiKt [New Testament Greek from 
Hebrew Haoab (q.v.) (GaL iv. 24, 25)— 

A^Kta [Latin Aehate^.Qieek. Akhdte^, 
uuned £rom a river in Sicily near whidi 
the agate abounded]. 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Kadkkedh =■ " a sparkling gem,'* probably 
from kddhadk = ** to send forth fire,*' a 
description ill according with the agate, 
which in its natural state is wanti^ in 
lustre. Hence the R.Y. translates it 
BxTBT (Isa. Ut. 12 ; Ezek. zzrii. 16) ; and 
the margin of the A.y. Chbtsofsase 

f2) The rendering of the Hebrew Shehhoy 
eiflfter from Shdbhah, ** to lead captive," 
or lesB probably from Shebka — ** ^eba," 
from wnich it may have been brought. It 
was the middle stone in the third row of 
gans oo the Jewish high priest's breast- 
phte (Ezod. xxviii 19 ; zxxix. 12}. The 
agate u a variegated variety of chalcedony. 
It may be banded, or clouded, or present 
visiUe inipurities. Sometimes it is sur- 
rounded oy lines with salient and re- 
sntering angles, making a structure so 
Hke a fortification that this varie^ is 
calted the fortification agate. Sometmies 
again mfiltration of impurities while it 
was in a semi-fluid state nas produced an 
appearance so like moss that this variety 

is called moss agate. Agate pebbles are 
found in many parts of Great Britain, in 
volcanic rocks. They have little attraction 
when picked up, but polishing brings out 
their beauty. 

Age [French dge^ remotely from Latin 

(IJ The time counted by years, or more 
precisely by yetin, months, and davs, that 
one has lived in the world. The antemluvian 
patriarchs reached extraordinary ages. 
For instance, Adam lived 930 years, Jtu^ 
962, and Methusaleh 969 (Gen. v.). Im- 
mediately after the deluge the ages were 
such as these : Shem 600 ; Arphaxad 438, 
Eber 464, Terah (Abraham's father) 205 
(Gen. xi.) ; Abraham himself died at the 
age of 175 (G^n. xxv. 7)f and lus wife 
Sarah at 127 (xxiii. 1) ; Isaac at 180 (xxxv. 
28), Jacob at 147 (xlvii. 28), Joseph at 110 
(1. 26), Moses at 120 (Deut. xxxiv. 7), and 
Joshua at 110 (Josh. xxiv. 29 j. By the time 
of David the age of mankind had dwindled 
down to its present limits, and he died an 
old man at seventy (2 Sam. v. i ; 1 Kings ii. 
11). Veneration for old age is inculcated 
in the Bible (Lev. xix. 32 ; Prov. xx. 29), 
and old ag6 itself is considered a blessing 
(Exod. XX. 12 ; Deut. v. 16). 

(2) The rendering in the New Testament 
of the Greek atofi, the later Latin aon = 

(fl)'*A lifetime," "ffeneration," "a 
certain specified perioa of the world's 
history, past or to come " (1 Cor. x. 
11 ; Ephes. ii. 7; iii. 9; Col. i. 26; Heb. 
vi. 3). More frequently it signifies an 
indefinitely long period of time, etemitv 
past or to come. Hence ** unto the ages ^' 
on the margin of the B. V. figures as °* for 
ever " in the text (Luke i. 33 ; Rom. i. 25 : 
ix. 5 ; xi. 36 ; Heb. xiii. 8)^r ** for ever- 
more" (2 ^^- "• 31). ** The age of the 
ages" ^ph. iii. 21 — R.V., mar^n) is in 
the text " for ever and ever." ** IJnto the 
ages of ages " is also " for ever and ever " 
(Gal. i. 5 ; Phil. iv. 20 ; 1 Tim. i. 17 ; 1 Peter 
V. 11 ; Rev. i. 18; v. 13; xxii. 5). So is 
** unto ages of ages" in Rev. xiv. 11 — 
R.V., margin = "for ever and ever" in 
the text. 

(*) "The woild" UteraUy (Heb. i. 3— 
R.y. margin) ; or fig^uratively (Matt. xiii. 
22; Luke xvi. 8; xx. 34; Rom. xii. 2; 
1 Cor. i. 20; ii. 6, 7,8; 2 Cor. iv. 4; Gal. 
i. 4 ; 2 Tim. iv. 10 ; Titus ii. 12— aU R.V., 
maigin). The connecting link between a 
and is when the world means the dura- 
tion of this world (Matt. xii. 32, 40 ; xxiv. 
23), and of that to come (Mark x. 30 ; 
Luke viii. 30 ; Heb. ii. 5.) 

(r) "The course" (of the world) (cf. 
Ephes. ii. 2— R.V., text and margin). 

Agee [Heb. AghS = "a fugitive "]. 
A Hararite, one of David's mighty men 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 11). 

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( IB) 


Agricmltiira [Lat. aariruUura], • 
** rhe cultivation of fields." Tne word 
does not oocor in Scripture, but the idea 
does ; and the analogous term hushandry 
is found both in the Old and New Testa* 
ments, while husbandman is common. 
Though the Iszuelites in Egypt remained 
shepl^rds (Gton. xlvii. 3), agriculture was 
in an advanced stage among the ruling 
race in the delta of the Nile. They culti- 
vated and exported ** com," i.e. meaning 
cereals of various kinds (Qen. xli. 5, 6, 
22-24, 49, 56, 57 ; xlii. 25, 26 ; xliii. 2 ; 
xlvu. 12-14, 19). Wheat, rye, and barley 
are also mentioned (Exod. ix. 31, 32) ; be- 
sides which there were crops of flax {ihid.) . 
The crops cultivated by the Israelites 
were sometimes simimed up as com and 
wine (Qen. xxvii. 37 ; Psalm iv. 7). If a 
third agricultural product was named it 
was generally olives (Deut. vi. 11). When 
the enumeration was more ample, the 
list was increased to *' wheat, barley, vines, 
dg-treee, pomegranates, and olives ** (vin. 
8), not to speak of honey, which was rrom 
wild bees (d also xi. 14; xii. 17). To this 
list Isaiah adds fitches (Isa. xxviii. 25, 27), 
and Ezekiel beans, lentils, and millet 
rElzek. iv. 9). The Israelites had ploughs 
drawn by oxen (1 Kings xix. 19 ; Isa. ii. 4), 
and pruning-hooks (Tbid.)j sickles, etc. 
(Deut. xvi. 9; Joel iii. 13, etc). The 
purpose now effected by rotation of crops 
was carried out by letting the land ue 
fallow during the seventh year (Exod. 
xxiii. 10, 11). As a rule, gooa crops were 
reaped, ana thev would have been so to a 
larger extent had proper attention beenpaid 
to the storing of water in half -artificial 
reservoirs, so that absence of rain should 
not result, as it generally did, in famine. 
Agriculture and the keepmg of flocks and 
hwds continued, through all tiieScri))tural 

?Briod of history, the staple industries of 
alestine, which was not to any consider- 
able extent a commercial land. 

Acrtppa [Latin. In Otnek. Affrtppan. 
Etymology doubtful. The name of a very 
enunent Koman, once (b.o. 63-42) governor 
of Svria]. 

The son of that Herod A^^rippa, called 
in Acts xiL 1 Herod the Emg, who was 
eaten up by worms. Agrippa*s mother was 
named Cypros; his sisters were Bemioe, 
Mariamne, and DrusiUa. He was so young 
when his father died, in ▲.d. 44, that the 
Bomans were afraid to trust him with the 
government. They therefore sent Cuspius 
Fadus, and afterwiuxls Tiberius Alexander, 
to act as their procurator and keep the 
country tranquil till the you^ prince 
came of age (Josephus, Antiq. XIa. ix. § 12 ; 
War, II. xi. ^ 6). On the death of his 
ftither's brother, Herod, king of Chalds, 
in the eighth year of the Roman Emperor 

Claudius Csesar ^^.D. 49 fPl) , he was ap- 
pointed ruler of that small district {Anttg. 
XX. V. §2; W-ar, n. xii. § 1). In x.d. 58 
he was transferred by the Emperor from 
Chalcis to a larger territory, consisting of 
the tetrarchy of Philip, namely Batanea 
[Bashan], TrachonitiB and Gaulonitis, 
chat of Lysaxiias, and the province of Abi- 
lene, over which Varus haa ruled. Totheae 
territories Nero subsequently added four 
cities, viz., Abila, the Julias which was in 
Perea, with Tarichese and Tiberias, two 
cities on the Lake of Ghililee [Tibebiab]. 
He now also received the title of king. 
The rest of his fiither's dominions were 
placed under Felix as procurator ( JFar, II. 
xii. § 8 ; xiii. § 2). In ▲.». 58, when Felix 
had been succeeded hj Festus as pro- 
curator of Judea, A^ppa travellea to 
Ctesarea to salute him, oeing accompanied 
by his sister Bemice, with whom he so 
continiiallv went about that scandal, which 
is believed to have been well founded, 
arose on the subject. Festus told him of 
Paul, then in oonfinpment. and Agrippa 
became so interested in the story that 
nothing would satisfy him but to see and 
hear the prisoner himself. Next day, ac- 
cordingly, a fresh trial of the apostle took 
pla(». AgripptL for the time presided, with 
Bemice at ma side, and was supported by 
Festus and the other CsBsarean oi^taries. 
It was in presence of this aristocratic 
assemblage that Agrippa uttered the ever- 
memoraUe words rendered, ** Almost 
thou persuadest me to be a Christian " 
j[A.V.). But this translation is considered 
inaccurate; and the B.y. thus words 
Agrippa's speech and Paul's reply : ** And 
Agrippa said unto Paul, With but little 
persuasion, thou wouldest ^n make me a 
Christian. And Paul said, I would to Qod 
that whether witib little or with much, not 
thou only but also all that hear me this 
day might become such as I am, except 
these bonds." Agrippa concurred with 
Festus in thinking that the offence with 
which Paul was charged was no offence 
at all (Acts xxv. 13-xxvi. 32). Some 
years later, when the Jewish troubles 
began, Agrippa made a long and elo- 
quent speech, full of good sense, to dis- 
suade his countr3rmdn from their fatal 
resolve to measure their strength against 
that of the Boman Empire ( Jrar, II. xvi. 
§ 4, 5) . But they would not be dissuaded, 
and when the war commenced he sided 
with his patrons, the Bomans. When 
tiiey were laying siege toGamala, Agrippa 
urged the inhabitants to surrender; out 
they would not listen, and a slinger aiming 
at him, wounded him on the elbow with a 
stone. It would have been much better 
for them had they taken his advice ; for 
the dty was captured at last with great 
slaughter, thousands of those who escaped 

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( 19 ) 


tbt sword of the bedeffen flinging them- 
selreB, with fatal effect from the preci- 
utoos heights (War^ IV. i. § 1-8). 
Joaephns daims that he had sixt^-two 
letters from Agrippa, who hare testunony 
to tibe aceoracj of his work on the Jewish 
war {Life of Jotepkus, § 60). After the 
destruction of Jerosalem, Agrippa removed 
with Bemioe to Borne. He died there in 
the third year of the reign of the Emperor 
Trajan, a.d. 100. 

Ai^or [Heb. Aghur = " union/' *'as8o- 
datkA " (?)]. 

■ The son of Jakeh. He spoke the wise 
words now constituting the thirtieth 
chapter of Pmoverbe (Prov. zxx. 1). 

Aliab [Heb. Ahhadh = <' descended 
ircask a father's brother "]. 

(1) A king of Israel, and son and sue- 
ceasor of Omri. He began to reign by the 
Hebrew chronology about 919 or 918 B.C., 
in the thirt^-eighth year of Asa, kiiur of 
Joiah (1 longs xri. 29). He married an 
idolatress of semi-masculine temperament, 
Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal, kins: of 
the2donians, t.«. thepeopleof Sidon. Her 
sreat diyinity was Baal (9. v.), and her 
husband being weak and irresolute, she 
roled orer him, and made him also a Baal- 
worshipper (30-33) . This was a revolution 
in the national r^igion of Israel. When 
Jeroboam reared the two golden calves, he 
stin desired to worship Jehovah nominally, 
using them as helps for the purpose. But 
A^S, under Jezebel's influence, wholly 
gave up the adoration of Jehovah^ Baal 
being not a fancied aid to his worship, but 
a nral god. The intolerant Jezebel did 
not stop with Ahab's perversion, but 
attempted to force the whole people to 
adopt her &ith, the prophets of Jenovah 
being sought out and slain. Only a 
remnant escaped, being hidden in a cave 
by a high fimctionary, Obadiah. Now, 
how e ver, appeared the most formidable 
prophet known in the history of Israel, 
Qijah the Tishbite. He was sent to Ahab 
to mtimate the coming of three years of 
dron^t and attendant famine as the 
pon^ment of Ahab's sin. When the three 
years were drawing to a close, Eliiah, by 
the IHvine command, again oonzronted 
A)iAb, and demanded that the prophets of 
Baaland he should meet on the top ot Mount 
Carmel and submit the Question between 
them to a dedsive test. The meetingtook 
place, and Jehovah having vindicate His 
prophet by sending fire m>m heaven to 
eoosome Elijah's sacrifice, his worshipper 
took the 4.50 prophets of Baal, and 400 
propiieti of "the groves" [Asheba], down 
to the brook Kiahon^ and slew them one 
and alL Then jiraymg that the drought 
might oeaae, ram was immediately sent. 
The fury of the virago may be conceived 

on learning what had been done. She 
uttered imprecations against herself if 
£lijah were alive ** to-morrow about this 
time." When the time arrived, the 
prophet, fearing for lus life, was well 
on his way to the desert, from which 
he was Divinely brought back again 
to anoint as king of Israel Jehu, designed 
to be the relentless aveneev on the house 
of Ahab of all the sins wnich it had com- 
mitted. Execution of the sentence was, 
however, delayed, for the cup of iniquitv 
of Ahab and Jezebel was not yet full. 
Soon, however, it was made full to over- 
flowing by the affair of Naboth's vineyard 
P^'abothJ. Some time prior to this Ahab 
had been allowed a victory over Benhadad 
II., kins of Syria, and had permitted that 
potentate, who had been captured, to 
escape with a treaty, which ne had no 
intention of keeping. The war was soon 
renewed, and Ahab, taking advantage of 
a visit which Jehoshaphat. king of Judah, 
had made to him, proposed a joint expedi- 
tion for the recovery of Ramoth Guead. 
beyond Jordan. The prophets of Baal 
spoke well of the enterprise. Micaiah, the 
only prophet of Jehovah obtainable, fore- 
boaeathe death of Ahab [Micaiah], on 
which the man of doom resolved to go 
into the battle disguised, while proposing 
that the king of Judah should put on his 
royal robes, thus becoming the mark for 
every missile. But no precaution could 
thwart the Divine prediction. Aoertain man 
drew a bow at a venture and smote Ahab 
between the ioints of his *' harness," i.e. 
where the plates of his armour met. The 
wound was mortal, he died that evenine, 
and the siege of Ramoth Oilead was raisea. 
The chariot and armour were washed in 
the pool of Samaria, the dogs, as Elijah 
had predicted, licking his blood. Jezebel 
also failed to escape her predicted doom 
[JbzbbelI. By the Hebrew chronology, 
Ahab died after a reign of twenty-two 
years in b.o. 898, 897 or 896, and wan 
succeeded by his son Ahaziah (1 Kings 
xvi. 29-xxii. 40; 2 Chron. xviii. 1-341. 
An Assyrian inscription found at Kurkh, 
on the right bank of the Tigris, mentions 
" Akhabbu " (Ahab) in connection with a 
great battle at Karkor or Aroer in B.C. 853, 
between Shalmaneser 11., king of Assyria, 
and the allied armies of Hadadezer or 
Benhadad II., king of Damascus, Ahab, 
king of Israel, and eleven other kings of 
lees note. Ahab's continsent consisted of 
2,000 chariots and 10,000 infantry. The 
Assyrian chronology places the death of 
Ahab in a year corresponding to 851 B.C. 

(2) A lying and immoral prophet, a son 
of Kolaiah. Jeremiah predicted . that 
Nebuchadnezzar, kins of Babylon, would 
roast him on the fire (Jer. xxiz. 21-23). 

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Ai<i^»»*^t» [Heb. Ahhcrahh — ** after a 

The third son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 
viii. 1). 

Aharliel [Heb. Ahharhhel =. *' (bom) 
behind a breastwork "]. 

A man of Judah, a son of Harum 
(1 Chron. iv. 8). 

Abaaal [Ahzai] (Neh. zii. la— A.V.). 

Ain^^ti^i [Heb. Ahhasbhai = '' I fly for 
refuge to the Lord **]. 

The father of Elipnelet, one of David's 
heroes (2 Sam. xxiii. 34). 

jyuuraems [Heb. Ahhashverosh^ Per- 
sian inscription, Khshaydrahd^ written by 
the Greeks and Romans Xerxes, from Per- 
sian Kahaya = '* king "]. 

A Persian king or emperor, tin' T'-y^tl 
husband of Queen Esther !E-;THi:iiJ 
(Esther i. 2, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19 ;^ii. 1, l-S 
IG, 21 ; iii. 1, 6, 7, 8, 12; vi. 2 ; vii. o ; 
viii. 1, 7, 10, 12; ix. 2, 20, 30 ; x, I, ^i). 
The book of Esther tells of his ^tiiHiiality, 
his fickleness, his absence of fon'thoti>rht , 
his despotism, and his crueltj-. \\r^-^\ 
history presents essentially the same 
picture of Xerxes. He was the son of ! 
Darius Hystaspes, whom he succeeded on ' 
the Persian ti^rone, B.C. 486. His mother 
was Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus. In 
the second year of his reign he subdued 
the Egyptians, who had revolted against 
his father Darius. After about four years' 
preparation, he led an immense host to 
mvade Greece ; but fled back in a cowardly 
way to Persia on seeing his great fleet I 
dented Cb.o. 480) by a much smaller I 
number of Greek ships at Salamis. Thenext I 
year (479 b.c.} his general, Mardonius, 
whom he had left behind with an army, i 
allowed his camp at Plata3a to be forced ; 
by tiie Greeks, when such a slaughter j 
ensued as rendered the Persian invasion i 
hopeless. In 466, after a reiffn of twenty I 
yearsj Xerxes was murdered by two of his | 
courtiers, and was succeeded on the throne | 
by his son, Artaxerxes Longimanus, or i 
the Long-handed [Abtaxebxes]. Xerxes 
is believed by Sayce to have been the 
Ahasuerus of Ezra iv. 6, though many 
luive thought that it was Cambyses the son 
of Cyrus. With regard to Dan. ix. 1, 
Bosanquet {Messiah the Pnttcfj 2nd ed., 
1869, pp. 289, 290} thinks that the 
Ahasuerus mentionea is not Xerxes, but 
the Median Cyaxeres, an ancestor of 
Darius, or that the correct reading should 
be Darius and Ahasuerus. 

Aliava [Heb. Ahava^ of .imknown 

A brook, presumably falling into the 
Euphrates, at which Ezra halted and pro- 
claimed a fast when conducting i. body of 

exiles from Babylon to Palestine (Ezra 
viii. 21, 31). Sayce thinks that it may- 
have possibly been near the modem Hit. 
This 18 a town of Asiatic Turkey on the 
Euphrates, 140 miles north-west of the 
ruins of Babylon, and has from ancient 
times been celebrated for its pits of bitu- 

[Heb. Ahhaz = " possessing,'' or 
** possessor," from ahhaz = ** to catch"]. 

A king of Judah who succeeded his 
father Jotham by the Hebrew chronolo^ 
about B.C. 742, oeing then 20 years old. 
He was an idolator, causing his son to pass 
through the tire [Molech], and sacrifidii^ 
and burning incense on the high places, a:^ 
well as under the green trees. He was 
unsuccessfully besieged in Jerusalem by 
Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, king of 
Israel [Oded]. It was in connection with 
this cnsiB that Isaiah, being sent to give 
him consolation and encouragement, was 
commissioned to utter the celebrated 
prophecy relative to the birth of Immanucl 
(Isa, vii. 1-16) [IiQiANTJEL]. Notwith- 
standing this guarantee of Divine support, 
Ahaz remained distrustful, and offered to 
become a feudatory of Tiglath-pileser, 
king of Assyria, if that potentate would 
assist him in his present aifiiculties. The 
messenger who went to make this proposal 
carried with him the treasures of the 
temple and the palace, which Ahaz had 
given him for the purpose. Tiglath- 
pileser took the money, and, capturing 
Damascus, slew Rezin. On going to that 
capital to meet his deliverer Ahaz greatly 
admired a heathen altar, a facsimile of 
which was made at Jerusalem by direction 
of a too compliant hi^h rrieet, Urijah, 
who had it ready against ms sovereign's 
return. After reigning sixteen years, Ahaz 
died at the age of thirty-six, by the Hebrew 
chronology about the year 726 B.C. , lea vincr 
his son Hezekiah to ascend the tlirone 
g Kings xvi. 1-20 ; 2 Chron. xxviii. 1-27). 
Hosea and Micah, as well as Isaiah, 
prophesied during the whole of Ahaz*s 
reign, zealously witnessing for Jehovah 
(Isa. i. 1 ; vii. 1-16; Hosea i.T) [Sun-dial]. 

Ahaz is mentioned on the Assyrian 
monuments by the name Yahuhazi^ corre- 
sponding to the Hebrew Jehoahaz. Tlwi 
oiffers nom Ahaz onlv in having JehovaV. 
prefixed. Probably the king's name was 
oriffinally Jehoahaiz ; but the pious part 
of his snbjecU cut away the first two 
syllables, that the sacred name of Jehovah 
might not remain connected with that of 
one who had apostatised from His worship. 

[Heb. Ahhazyah^ Ahhasj^ah" 

= " whom Jehovah sustains "]. 

(1) A king of Israel who succeeded h» 
father Ahab, by the Hebrew chronology 
S'JS n.a His roign lasted coly two yean^. 

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( 21 ) 


On the death of Ahab, Moabhad rebelled, 
and Ahaja'ah took no steps to reduce it to 
sabjection [Mesha]. He joined with 
Jdiofihapfaat in fitting out ships to go to 
Tanhish; but they were wrecked at 
£zioii-geber before they could depart on 
their voyage. On a second attempt being 
made, Jehoshaphat, warned by a prophet, 
decKned the oo-operation of Ahaziah, the 
reason being that he was a worshipper of 
Baal, and a wicked man. Ahanah fell 
through a lattice in lus palace, and was 
seriously injiured. He sent to consult Baal- 
zebob, tiie god of Ekron, as to the result. 
Elijah interested the messengers, and 
lent them back with the message that the 
injniy would ptrove fatal, which it did. 
Ahaziah left no son to succeed him, so the 
tiiroae passed over to his brother Jehoram 
(1 Kings xxiL 40, 48-53). 

(2) A king of Judah, who succeeded bis 
iauer Joram or Jehoram, by the Hebrew 
duGiiology B.C. 885. He was then about 
tventy-two years old, and reigned only a 
year. His mother Athaliah (q.v.) was his 
«Til eenius. He went with «l oram king of 
Isad, as Jehoshaphat had done with 
Ahab, to fight with the Syrians at Bamoth- 
gilead. Joram returned to Jezreel 
wounded, and Ahaiiah having paid him a 
visit, was with faun during the revolt of 
Jdiu, and was killed with him by that 
ruthless soldier [Jehit] (2 Kinn viii. 
25-»; ix. 16-29; 2 Chron. xxi. 17; xxii. 
I-IO). He is called Jehoahaz in 2 Chron. 
XXL 17, and Azariah in 2 Chron. zxii. 6 
[Chboxoixx>t] . 

head of the tribe of Dan in the wilderness 
(Numb. i. 12 ; ii. 25 ; vii. 66). 

(2) A man of Gibeah who joined David 
at Ziklag (1 Chron. xii. 3). 

Ahlhud [Heb. Ahhihud = *' brother 
{i.e. friend) of the Jews " {GcMenim)], 

A prince of the tribe of Asher, appointed 
with others by Moses to divide the land 
(Numb, xxziv. 27). 

[Heb. Ahhban = ** brother of a 
prudent person " (?), or ** brotherly " (?) 

A man of Judah, the son of Abishur by 
Abihail (1 Chron. ii. 29). 

Alier [Heb. Ahher= "after," "second"]. 
A Benjamite (1 Chron. vii. 12), 

AU [Heb. Ahki = " an abbreviation of 
Ahiah'' (V) = "brother (».<?. friend) of 

(1) A Gadite, a son of Abdiel (1 Chron. 
V. 1.^). 

(2) An Asherite, a son of Shamer (1 
Chron. vii. 34). 

[Ahwah] (1 Sam. xiv. 3, 18 ; 1 

iv. 3 ; 1 Chron. viii. 7— all A.V.). 

[Heb. Ahhiam for Ahhiabh = 
** a father's brother," " paternal uncle "]. 
One of David's mighty men (2 Sam. 
xxiii. 33 ; 1 Chron. xi. 35). 

Aldaa [Heb. Ahhyan = " brotherlv"!. 
A Manassite, a son of Shemidah (1 
Chron. viL 19). 
Ahteaar [Heb. Ahhiezer = " brother of 

(1) A son of Amm*«>'«>d<1a.i. He was the 

Aitij^i* [Heb. Ahhit/ah. Ahhimhu = 
•* brotLer {\.e. friend) oi Jehovah ]. 

(1) A Benjamite, a son of Ehud (?) 
(I Chron. viii. 7--R.V.}. 

(2^ A man of Judah, and the son of 
Jeranmeel (1 Chron. ii. 25). 

(3) A chief priest, the son of Ahitub, 
and grandson of Phinehas. He lived in the 
reign of Saul, and had charge of the ark 
(! Sam. xiv. 3, 18— R.V.). Either ho was 
the brother of Ahimelech, or was that priest 
himself imder another name (cf. xxii. 
9, 11,20). 

(4) A Pelonite, one of David's mighty 
men (1 Chron. xi. 36). 

(5) A Levite in David's reign who was 
over the treasures of the tabernacle and 
the dedicated offerings (1 Chron. xxvi. 20). 

(6) A scribe in Solomon's reign (1 Kings 
iv. 3— B.V.). 

(7) A prophet belonging to Shiloh, who, 
meeting Jeroboam clad in a new garment, 
rent it in twelve pieces^ directing him to 
t^e ten, as a propnetic mdication that he 
should be king over the ten tribes (1 Kings 
xi. 29-39). After this prophecy had been 
fulfilled, Jeroboam bemg concerned for 
his little son Abijah, then seriously sick, 
sent his oueen disguised to the now aged 
and half - Dlind prophet to inquire as to the 
fate of the infant. Ahijah recognised her 
imder her disgmse, and predicted that the 
child would (ue, which it did immediately 
(xiv. 1-18). 

(8) A man of Iseochar. He was the 
father of Baasha, king of Israel (I Kings 
XV. 27, 33). 

Aii<irifciw [Heb. Ahhiqam = " brother 
of an enemy "]. 

The son of Shaphan and the father of 
Gedaliah, whom the Chaldseans after Nebu- 
chadnezzar's conquest had made governor 
of Judah (2 Kings xxv. 22 ; Jer. xxxix. 14 ; 
xl. 5, 6, 9 ; xli. 1,2). He was a friend of 
the prophet Jerenuah (2 Kings xxii. 12 ; 
Jer. xxvi. 24). 

AhUud [Heb. Ahhiludh = "brother of 
one bom," or " of a son "1. 

The father of Jehoshaphat, David and 
Solomon's recorder (2 Sam. viii. 16 ; xx. 
24; 1 Kings iv. 3). 

1 [Heb. Ahhimaats = " brother 
of irascibility"]. 

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(1) The father of Ahinoam, Saul's wife 
(1 8am. xiv. 50). 

(2} A son of Zadok, high prieet in 
David*8 time. He went to and fro to obtain 
and carry intelligence to David during 
Absalom^B rebelhon (2 Sam. xv. 27, 36; 
xvii. 20). When the victory over Absalom 
took plEUse, Ahimaaz was the first to arrive 
with partial intelligence for David of the 
battle (xviii. 19-30). It may have been 
he who was afterwards Solomon's pur- 
veyor in Naphtali (1 Kings iv. l.i). 

[Heb. Ahhiman = "brother 
of a gift'*]. 

(1) One of the sons of Anak, dwelling 
at Hebron (Numb. xiii. 22 ; Jo^. xv. 14 ; 
Judg. i. 10). 

(2) A Levite who acted «s porter in the 
king's gate eastward (1 Chron. ix. 17). 

A]ilmeledh[Heb. Ahhimeiek = <' brother 
of along"]. 

(1 ) A son of Ahitub, and the chief priest 
at Nob in Saul's reign. David on one occa- 
sion went to him unattended and with an 
untruthful excuse for being alone, and 
representing that he and his men were in 
great want of food, received from him the 
ulew-bread, which, by the law, was a 
perquisite of the priests. He also requested 
and obtained the sword which had 
formerly belonged to Ooliath (1 Sam. xxi. 
1-9). Doeg me Edomite reported the 
occurrence to Saul, who, interpreting it as 
a proof that Ahimelech ana the other 
priests were treacherous, gave orders that 
the^ should be slain — a cruel sentence, 
which the Edomite had no scruple about 
canrinff out. Only one inhabitant of Nob 
— AmaUiar, a son of Ahimelech — escaped 
from fhe massacre (xxi. 7; xxii. 7-^; 
Title of Fsalm lii.). Called also Ahtah 
(1 Sam. xiv. 18) and Abiatuab (Mark ii.26). 

(2) The son of the Abiathar who escaped 
from the slaughter at Nob, and the grand- 
son of No. 1. He was one of two high 
priests during David's reign (2 Sam. vui. 
17; 1 Chron. xxiv. 3, 6, SH. Ahimelech 
in 1 Chron. xviii. 16 is probaoly a copyist's 
error for Ahimelech. 

(3) A Hittite, and follower of David 
(1 Sam. xxvi. 6). 

Alilmotli [Heb. Ahhunoth = **hroitkeT 
of death"]. 

A Levite, a son of Elkanah (1 Chron. 
\± 25). 

Aldnadab FHeb. Ahhinadhabh = 
** liberal (».<?. noble) brother"]. 

Solomon's purveyor in Mahanaim 
(1 Kings iv. U). 

Alilnoam [Heb. Ahkinoam = "brother 
of grace"!. 

Q) Saul's wife, a daughter of Ahimaaz 
(ISam. xiv. 50), 

(2) A woman of Jezreel, one of David's 
wives (1 Sam. xxv. 43 ; xxvii. 3 ; xxx. 5). 
She was the mother of Amnou (2 Sam. 
ii. 2). 

Ahlo [Heb. Ahh^ = " fraternal "]. 

(1) A son of Abinadab and the younger 
brother of Uzzah. The two drove the cart 
on which the ark was borne (2 Sam. vi. 

3, 4^ [UZZAH]. 

(2) A Benjamite, a son of Elpaal 
(1 Chron. viii. 14). 

(3) A Benjamite, a son of Jehiel by his 
wife Maachaih (1 Chron. viii. 29, 31). 

▲lilra [Heb. Ahhira = " brother of an 

evil man*']. 

The son of Enan. He was the head of 

I the tribe of Naphtali during the earl^ 

' joumeyings in tne wilderness (Numb. i. 

15 ; ii. 29 ; vii. 78, 83 ; x. 27). 

[Heb. Ahhiram — "brother of 

A Benjamite, founder of a family 
(Numb. xxvi. 38). 

Ahlramite [EngUsh]. 
One belonging to the family of Ahinim 
(Numb. XXVI. 38). 

AM— maftli [Heb. Ahhisamak = 
" brother of support,'* or " help "]. 

A Danite, the father of the cnitsman 
Aholiab (Exod. xxxi. 6 ; xxxv. 34). 

Ahlalifthar [Heb. AhhUhahhar = 
" brother of the dawn '*]. 

A Benjamite, a eon of Bilhan (1 Ghrou. 
vii. 10). 

Ahiflluur [Heb. ^AAwAar =« brother 
of a musician," or ** singer "]. 

An officer who was over Solomon'^ 
household (1 Kings rv. 6). 

Ahltfaopbel {Heb. Ahhithophel - 
"brother of foUy^]. 

One of David's counsellors, a man of 
great intellectual giftSj but morally un- 
mistworthy . So unemng was his sagacity 
that his advice was "as if a man had 
enquired at the oracle of God '* (2 Sam. 
XVI. 23). When the rebellion of Absalom 
broke out Ahithophel was at his natite 
place Giloh, but Absalom sent fur him, and 
found him read}^ to betray his trust and 
point out how his royal master might be 
made away with. If , as is generally sup- 
posed, he was the grandfauier of Bath- 
SHEBA (2 Sam. xi. 3 and xxiii. 34), it may 
be that personal feeling on account of 
David's seduction of her, and murder of 
Uriah, may have caused this defection. 
When Absalom and his undisoeming 
followers preferred the absurd counsel 
of Hushai, who was secretly in David's 
interest, Ahithophel, foreboding that it 
was therefore all over with the rebellion. 
I went to his house, put it in order, and 

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( 23 


took bis Ufe (2 Sam. xr. 12, 31-34 ; zri. 15 ; 
XTU. 23), offering thus a strange Old 
Tettament type of Judas, both in his 
treachery ana his fate. It is proba- 
ble that some Tindictive psalms, ^nned 
by DaTid, were directed against his un- 
wc^thj oomiaellor. Ahithophel left a sou, 
Eliam, who was one of I>ftyid's migh^ 
men (2 Sam. xziiL 34) [Absalom, David J. 

Abttab PHeb. AhhUubh = «' brother,'' 
i^. "friena of benignity," or "benevo- 

(1) A son of Fhinehas, and grandson of 
Eh (1 Sam. ziv. 3). He was the father of 
Ahlmeledi, the niest Txiii. 9). 

(2) A son of Amarian, and the father of 
Zadok, the priest (2 Sam. viii. 17; 1 Chron. 
tL 7, S). 

r3) A son of another Amariah, and the 

of another Zadok, also a priest 
(1 canon. vL 11, 12 ; Neh. xi. 11). 

[Heb. Ahhlabh = « fatness," 
**£»t," "a fertile place"]. 

A town within the territory of Aiher, 
but from which that tribe could not drive 
cot the Canaanite inhabitants (Judg. i. 31). 
It haa bem thought that it was the place 
afterwards callea Qiscahi, rebuilt by «fohn, 
one of the leaders in the Jewish war of 
independence, who was generally called, 
in coDseqaence, John of Oiscala (Life of 
Jimpkttij i 10-13, 25 ; War, U. zx. 6, xxi. 
1 ; IV. in. 13, viL 1 ; VII. viii. 1). Oiscala 
was identified by Bobinson at el-Jish, 
nortili-wert of the Lake of OalOee. 

[Heb. 4hhlai = " O that," " I 

wish that n* 

(1) A daughtdr of Sheshan (1 Chron. ii. 

(2) The father (?) of Zabad (xi. 41). 

_» [Heb. ^AAoaAA=" brother (i.^. 

friend} of Jehovah "]. 

A ^enjamite, a son of Bela (1 Chron. 
viiL 4). 

/\ liAh«^^ [Eng.]. 

A dflsoenaant of Ahoah (q.v.) (2 Sam. 
rrin. 9). 

A]MlAli[Heb. Ahoiah = '< (she has) her 
own tent "J. 

Samaria and the kingdom of Israel per- 
sonified as a woman of bad character 
(Eaek. Txiii. 1-49). 

[Heb. AKoliabh - *' a father's 

A Danite artificer, who assisted Bezaleel 
in many kinds of work connected with the 
tabernacle and its worship (Exod. xxxi. 
6-11; XXXV. 34, 35). 

[Heb. AkoUhhah = «' my 
tent (is) in her 'H. 
Jerusalem ana the kingdom of Judah 

personified as a woman of bad character 
(Ezek. xxiii. 1-49). 

AhoUlMUiiftll [Heb. Aholibhamak = 
** the tent of a high place" or '* dignity "]. 

One oi Esau's wives, the daughter of 
Anah the Hivite (Gen. xxxvi. 2). She 
is called also Judith (q.v.). 

[Heb. Ahhufnai = " the 
brother of water," %,e, "dweller near 

A man of Judah, a son of Jahath 
(1 Chron. iv. 2). 

Alniiftin [Heb. Ahhwam — *' their 
possession 'H. 

A man of Judah, son of Ashur by his 
wife Naarah (1 Chron. iv. 6). 

A]iiisiatli[Heb. ^AAt<»aM = <* possess- 
ion "]. 

A friend of Abimelech, king of the 
PhihstineB in Isaac's time (Gen. xxvi. 26). 

[Heb. Ahhzaif the 
same as Ahatiah = ** whom Jehovah 

A priest, a son of Meehullam (Neh. 
xi. 13— A. V. and R,V.). Called also 
Jahzbbah (q.v.) (1 Chron. ix. 12). 

Al, HaL Alath, Alja [Heb. ^t = 
*' ruins." The *• H " prefixed in Gen. xii. 
8 is the definite article. Hence Hai of the 
A.V. isAiof theR.V.]. 

(1) A Canaanite town to the east of 
Bethel (Gen. xii. 8), and near Bethaven 
(Josh. vii. 2). At first it was unsuccessfully 
attacked by Joshua (Josh. vii. 2-5). When 
it was found that the defeat was caused 
by the sin of Achan (q.v.), and he had 
suffered for it, Ai was agaiu attacked, and 
this time was taken by stratagem. Its 
inhabitants, numbering about 12,000, were 
slaughtered, and its king hanged on a tree. 
Aft^wards the dtv was burnt, and lonjg 
remained desolate (vii. 6-viii. 29). Ulti- 
mately, however, it was robmlt, and 
became the Aiath of Isa. x. 28 and the 
Aija of Neh. xi. 31. Its site was long 
sought in vain. Van de Velde suggestea 
thai it might be at a ruin call et "^1, i.e, 
** the mound or heaj)" (cf. Josh. viii. 28). 
Capt. Conder found its locality at last just 
south of et Tell and two mOes east of 
Bethel at Haiyan, a name which recalls 
Aina, Joeephus's name for Ai. The ruins 
consist of uirgj^d rock-hewn reservoirs with 
tombs and cisterns. Thero is a rugged 
ravine to the north, whero Joshua's 
ambush may have assembled and from 
which they may have noiselessly moved 
round to the valley in the west between 
Bethel and Ai (Josh. viii. 9). Sir Charles 
Wilson adheres to Van de Yelde's opinion. 

(2) A city of the Ammonites, apparently 
not far from Heshbon (Jer. xUx. 3). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



[Heb. At yah = ** a bird of prey, 
the falcon " (?)]. 

(1) The same as Ajah (cf. G^n. xxxvi. 
24 with 1 Chron. i. 40). 

(2) The father of Rizpah, Saul's concu- 
bine (2 Sam. iii. 7 ; xri. 8, 10, 11). 

Alatli [Heb. Aiyath]. 

The same as Ai (q.v.; (Isa. x. 2vS). 

Alja [Heb. Aiya], 

The same as Ai (q.v.) (Neh. xi. 31). 

Aljalon, Ajalon [Heb. Aiyalon = 
*' place of Imu^,*' t e, ** where harts 
abound "J fHABT]. 

(1) A village and tallejr, the latter of 
which was apostrophised in the difficult 
paasage in Josh. x. 12. The village was 
assigned to the tribe of Dan; but they 
were not strong enough to expel the 
Amorite inhabitants (Judf. i. ^, 35). 
Aijalon was designed to be a Levitical 
city for the Kohathites CI Chron. vi. 69). 
It was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 
xi. 5, 10^ ; but in the time of Ahaz it was 
captured by the Philistines (xxviii. 18). 
The A.y. sometimes spells the name 
Ajalon (Josh. x. 12 ; xix. 42, etc.), though 
the Helnrew word is in all cases tne same ; 
the R.V. very properly introduces uni- 
formity, always adopting the spelling 
Aijalon. Prof. Robinson (^t^. Jtesmr, 
III. 63-64) with some slight hesitation 
identified ^alon with the village and 
valley of xald, about 13 miles from 
Jerusalem in the direction of Jaffa [Joppa]. 
Subsequent writers have dismissed his 
doubt and accepted his views. 

(2) A place in the tribe of Zebulun, 
noted for being the jplace where the 
** judge " Elon was buned (Judg. xii. 12). 
Exact site unknown. 

(xxi. 16). Prof. Robinson identifies it 
with the ruins of the village el Ghuwein, 
the name of which may be Ain, corrupted 
(Robinson, Bib, JUeaearc/tes, U. 625). 

Ajali [AiAHl. 

A son of Zibeon and brother of Anah 
(Gen. xxxvi, 24— A. V.). CaUed also Aiah 
[AlAH, 1]. 

Ajalon [Aualon] (Josh. x. 12-A.Y.). 

AlJOletli BMdi-SliAliar, Aljeletli 
Shaluur [Heb. Aiyeteth Hash-Shahkar = 
*' hind of the monung **]. 

Probably a now foi]^tten tune, to 
which the chief musician was directed 
to set the twenty-second Psalm, to which 
it is prefixed. (Title of Psalm xxii.— 
A.V. and R.V.) 

AIn [Heb. Aiyin = (1) " an eye " ; (2) 
*'the face"; (3) *'a fountain," "a 
natural spring," as distinguished from 
^r = **a well or cistern dug to catch 
rain-water "]. 

(1) A place on the northern boundary- 
line of Palestine west of Riblah (Numb. 
xxxiv. 11). Prof. Robinson thinks that 
the reference is to the fountain of the 
Orontes river. (Later Bible Res, [1852], 
p. 534.) 

(2) A town in the most southerly portion 
of Judah, doubtless with a notable foun- 
tain in its vicinity (Josh. xv. 32 ; xix. 7). 
It was aarigned as a city to the priests 


The same as Jakan (q.v.) (cf. Gen. 
xxxvi. 27 ; 1 Chron. i. 42). 

' Akkab [Heb. Aqqubh = *' cunning,*' 
■ *' artful "].•■ ^' 

I n) A son of Elioenai (1 Chron. iii. 24). 
(2) A Levite who acted as porter in tne 
I king*s gate, eastward (^. Chron. ix. 17 ; 
I Ezra ii. 42 ; Neh. vii. 4o ; viii 7 ; xi. 19 ; 

xii. 25). 
1 (3) One of the Nethinims (Ezra ii. 42). 

AkrabMm [Heb. Aqrahbim, pL of 
, Aqrahh = ** a scorpion "J. 
I f The ascent of Akraboim (Heb. Maaleh 
I Akrabbim). The ascent of scorpion^, i,e. 

apparently infested by scoipious. An 
j ascent on the south-east frontier of Judah 
I near the southern point of the Dead Sea., 

and not far from the desert of Zin (Numb. 
I xxxiv. 4 ; Josh. xv. 3 ; Judg. i. 36). 

I Ainaeb. "not,""donot"]. 

Al-Tashheth, Al-Ta8Chith [Heb. AI- 
Taehfteth = " do not destroy "J. 

A compound word occumng in the 
tiUes of Fsalms Ivii., Iviii., lix., and Ixxv. 
The first form is from the R.V. ; the 
second, which is less accurate, from the 
A.y. It probably refers, like Aijeleth 
Shahar, to the name of some well-lmown 
but now f or^tten Hebrew melody to the 
tune of which those psalms were to be 

[Greek A/abastros = "ala- 
baster," and Aiabasti-ites = ''^ alabaster 
stone **]. 

The material of which was made the 
box holding the ointment with which Jesus 
I was anointed at Bethany (Matt. xxvi. 7 ; 
Mark xiv. 3 ; Luke vii. 37). The alabaster 
mentioned is generally considered to have 
been massive gy^psum of a fine-grained 
variety, white m colour, and deucately 
shaded. It can be made into columns, 
being more easily worked than marble. It 
can also be turned on the lathe into tups, 
boxes, basons or vases. But the alabaster 
stone of the ancients, of which also vases 
were made, was stalagmite, a carbonate 
of lime found rising from the floor of 
caves, and produced by the evaporation of 
water imraegnated with that mineral, 
which has oropped from the end cf stalac- 
tites hanging from the roofs of the caves. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Of one or other of these minerals the 
alahuter box was doubtless made. 

[ALE3CETH (1)] (1 Chron. yu. 
8, A. v.). 

Alaameleoh [Heb. Alamtnelek = 
•' King*s oak "J. 

A frontier viUago of Asher (Josh. xix. 
26) ; site unknown. 

Alamolli [Heb. AlamotK]. 

A musical term of doubtful meaning 
oocarring in the title of Flaalm xlvi. and 
1 Chron. xv. 20. It appears to come 
from Altttah = **iL young woman of 
marriageable age.'* Hence Gesenius in- 
terprets it "with a treble or soprano 
▼oioe." Sir John Stainer objects to tins 
view that men in 1 Chron. xv. 20 are 
represented as playing on Alamoth. He 
tMref ore thinks that the obscure term may 
refer to the pitch or method of playing on 
meriouslj mentioned instruments. Phe 
uLY. retranslates the passage ** psalteries 
set to Alamoth/' which might possibly 
mean set to accompany treble voices. 

Alemetli (1), Alaoietli [Heb. Akmeih 
= **a coTering'*][. 

(1) A Benjamite, a son of Becher (1 
Chron. vii. »— A.V. and R.V.). 

(2) A son of Jehoadah (1 Chron. viii. 

(3) A son of Jarah (1 Chron. ix. 42). 

KbtmmOk (2) FAucon]. 
A later name for the town or village of 
AuiON (q.v.). 

AlesandAT [Gr. AUxandi-oa = << de- 
fending men," alexo = ** to ward,** or 
-'keep off," "to defend," and aner^ 
genitive andro$ = " a man "]. 

Yarions persons mentioned in the New 
Testament, all apparently named, directly 
or indirectly, after Alexander the Great, 
king of Macedonia. 

(1) The elder son of that Simon of 
Cyrene who was compelled to bear the 
CroM of Christ (Mark xv. 21). 

(2) A leading man at Jerusalem when 
Peter and John were brought to trial there 
(AcU iv. 6). 

(3) A Jew who, with Paul, was involved 
in danger during the tumult at Ephesus, 
the people putting him forward (Acts xix. 

(4) One who made shipwreck of his 
faith, blasphemed, and was excommuni- 
cated by St Paul (1 Tim. i. 19, 20}. He 
probablj was the same as Alexander the 
coppersmith, who did the apostle and his 
associates much injury (2 Tim. iv. 14, 15). 

AtoxaadrlA [Lat. and Gr., named 
after its founder, Alexander the Great]. 

A dty founded in the year b.c. 332, on 
the north coast of Egypt, of which it was 
dfaagnwl to be the ^reek metropoHs. 


was situated on a tongue of land Iving 
between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake 
Mareotis, and connected by a mole with 
the Isle of Pharos, on which there was a 
celebrated lighthouse. The dty, which 
was admirably situated for commercial 
purposes, flourished greatly \mder the 
Ptolemies, and subsequently under the 
Romans, till it extended along the coast 
fifteen miles by a breadth of one. 
Hie inhabitants were drawn from many 
nationalities, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, 
Romans, etc., and, as a rute, they occupied 
distinct quarters of the city. Intring the 
time that the old Roman Empire was 
dominant, Alexandria was oonsiaered the 
second dtj of the Empire, having a popu- 
lation of 600,000 or 700,000. It had a 
renowned library of 200,000 volumes, and 
was looked upon as one of the very 
greatest intellectual centres in the world. 
In the early Christian a^ it was the neat 
of a celebrated Christian school, which 
had for its teachers one of the Clements, 
Origen, and other Christian fathers. In 
A.D. 616, Chosroes II., king of Persia, took 
Alexanoria, and in 640, alter an obstinate 
defence, it was captured by Amrou, tho 
general of Omar I., the Arao caliph* and, 
with the exception of two or three brief 
intervals, has since remained under the 
blighting influence of Mohammedan 

f>yemment. The French, under Napoleon 
, captured it in 1798, but were driven 
out by the British in 1801, after which it 
reyerted to the Mohammedans. On July 
11th, 1882, tho Alexandrian forts were 
bombarded and taken by the British fleet, 
and that temporary occupation of Egypt, 
which still continues, begun. In that year 
Alexandria contained 227^064 inhabitants. 
The references to the aty in Scripture 
are but slight. There is an allusion to a 
synagogue of the Alexandrians (Acts vi. 9). 
A^llos was bom there (xviii. 24), and u 
ship belonging to the port conveyed St. 
Paul to Italy (xxvii. 6). An event more 
important than any of these occurred 
during the interval between the Old and 
New Testament histories : it was at Alex- 
andria that the Hebrew Bible was trans- 
lated into Greek, and published. The 
version there produced is known as the 
Septuaoint (q.v.). 

Algmn [AlmuoI (2 Chron. ii. 18 ; ix. 
10, 11). 

[Alvah] (1 Chron. i. 51). 
[Alvan] (1 Chron. i. 40). 

AUaluU [N.T. Gr. from Heb. Ualhlu- 
yah — ** Pnuse Jehovah "]. 

Praise Jehovah ; praise the Lord (Rev. 
xix. 1, 3, 4, 6. Cf. Psalm dv. 35). 

AllemeUi, Alematli (2) [Heb.^//bn<rM, 
of doubtful meaning]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

( 26 


The Kune as Aucon (q.v.) (1 Chron. vi. 
60— R.V.). 

AUon [Heb. Allan = " an oak '» (?)]. 

According to the A.V. a place, appa- 
rently a town, in Naphtali (Josh. xix. 33). 
But the R.V. translates the word " oak *' 
and the town disappears. 

Allon Bachuth [Heb. Allon Bakhuth 
= " oak of weeping "1. 

A place " below Beuiel," which derived 
its name from the drctunstance that 
Deborah, Bebekah^s nurse, was there 
buried under an oak-tree (Gen. xxzv. 8). 

Almodad [Heb. Almodhadh^ Arabic 
al = ** the,'' and Heb. modhadh from Heb. 
mAdhadh, Arabic tnad = " to extend " (?)]. 

The eldest son of Joktan TGen. x. 26 ; 
1 Chron. i. 20). He seems to have settled 
in the south of Arabia, and may in the 
opinion of Oesenius have been the founder 
of the Morad tribe in the mountains of 
Arabia Felix. 

Almon [Heb. = ** something hidden "]. 

A town or village within the territory of 

Benjamin. It was assigned to the 

friests (Josh. xxi. 18^. It is called in 
Chron. vi. 60 Alemetn. Schwarte, Mr. 
Finn, and Prof. Robinson identified it 
with 'Almit, a low, naked mound between 
Gtoba and Anathotii (Robinson, Later Bib. 
Res, 287). 

Almon Diblathaix [Heb. Altnon 
IHbhlathaimah — ''the two Diblaths"] 

A station of the Israelites as they were 
approaching Moab from the Sinaitic 

gminsiila (Numb, xxxiii. 46) [Beth- 
iBLATHAnc, Diblath]. 

Almond [English]. 

The almond-tree or its fruit (Gen. zliii. 
11). The rendering of the Hebrew Shaqedh 
from Shdqadh = ** to be awake,'' " to keep 
vigils," referring to the fact that the blos- 
soms come forth in early spring. It is 
the Amygdalus coiiimunte of lx>tanist8, 
the type of the order Drupaceee, or 
Almond-worts. It is a tree about 20 ft. 
highj originally, it is believed, from 
Burbary, out now lintroduced into many 
lands. In Palestine it is found on Leba- 
non, Hermon, and in most of the region 
beyond Jordan. There are two varieties, 
the bitter and the sweet almond, llie 
former has white, the latter roseate 
flowers, which in the gardens round 
London are a beautiful spectacle about 
Easter. The fruit is what botanists call a 
drupe, i.e, fleshy outside with a hard stone 
in tne interior. Almonds, i.e. the fruits of 
the almond-tree, were sent by Jacob to the 
Egyptian di^itary, whom he did not 
know to be his Eton (Gen. xliii. 11). The 
cups of the six branches of the golden 

candlestick were modelled on almond 
blossom (Exod. xxv. 33, 34 ; xxxvii. 19, 20). 
When Aaron's rod budded it brought forth 
almond blossoms (Numb. xvii. 8J, and 
Jeremiah (i. 11) saw the rod of an aunond- 
tree in his earnest vision. The expression 

THE ALM0ND*TREE. {Amy^dolut wmmun,i».) 

'' The almond tree shall flourish " (Ecdes. 
xii. 5— A. v., or "shall blossom"— R.V.) 
compares the white hairs on the head of 
the aged to the white flower of the bitter 

Almng, Algnm [Heb. Almug(im\ (and 
plural Alaum{mitn)y pi. see the article J. 

A tree Drought in great abundance by 
sea from Ophur during the reign of Solo- 
mon. Its wood was used to imike pillars 
for the temple and the king's palaoe, as 
also harps and psalteries for the musi- 
cians (1 mngs X. 11, 12). In 1 Kings the 
name of the tree is almug, in 2 Chron. ii. 
8 and ix. 10, 11 it is algum, and it is said to 
grow on Lebanon, brides being imported 
m)m Ophir. According to Professor Max 
MUUer, algum is a modification of the 
Sanskrit vtUguka^ meaning sandalwood. 
Ka is only a termination, and if omitted, 
ralgu greatlv resembles algum. It is the 
Santahtm alhmi of botanists, and the tyre 
of the order Santalaeete. It is a snoiall, 
much -branched tree, in aspect somewhat 
resembling a myrtle, a native of India and 
the eastern islands. If found on Lebanon 
it must have been introduced. The wood, 
which is odoriferous, is burnt to perfume 
temples and private houses both m India 
and China. It is well adapted for the 
purpose for which it was used by Solomon. 

Aloes [Latin from Gr. Aid = ** an 

aloe "]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 27 ) 


The rendering of the Hebrew Ahalim 
and Akalotk, both plurals. The plant 
meant is not the botanical genus Aloe^ 
consisting of succulent plants belonging 
to the order Liliacee, and furnishing a 
bitter purg^tire medicine. The chief value 
of the scriptunil plant is evidently its 
fragrance (Psahn xlv. 8 ; Prov. vii. 17 : 
So^ iv. 14). It seems to be Aquilaria 
Agailoeha^ called in various Indian dialects 
Agar, Agaru, and Agru, of which the 
Hebrew word is probably a corruption, as 

LiGH ALOES. {AquUaHa Agattocha.) 

is the KngKnh name Ea^lewood. The 
spedee grows in Sylhet, m the east of 
Bengal, and at Tennaaserim in the Eastern 
Peninsula. It is a large tree, having alter- 
nate lanceolate leaves, a leathery calyx, no 
petals, ten stamens, and a two-celled eeed' 
vesseL The wood contains a resin, and 
an essential oil, which constitutes the 
nerfume for which it is prized in the East. 
It is the Ugn-aloes of ]N umb. xxiv. 6, and 
the aloes of John xix. 39, one of the kinds 
of spioe with which Xioodemus designed 
to anoint the body of our Lord [Lion 

Alotb [if a complete word, then Heb. 
Alotk =■ ** yielding milk *' ; the present 
participle of 67 or // = " to yield milk "1. 

A aistrict (?) mentioned along witn 
Adher as the area within which &anah, 
one of Solomon's purveyors, acted (I 
Kings iv. 16). ^^ in Hebrew means ** in,^* 
and as in the passa^ quoted the Hebrew 
word is Bealoth, it u doubtful whether the 
translation should be ** in Aloth '* or 
BealoUi, as a single word. If the 
latter, then Aloth as a place disappears 

i [Gr.]. 

The first letter in the Greek alphabet. 
It is derived from the Phoenician, or the 
letter oorresponding to the Hebrew Aleph 

= **an ox.'' Omega is the last letter of 
the Greek alphabet. ** I am Alpha and 
Omega '^ means '* I am the first and the 
last''^ of beings (Rev. i. 8, 11; xxi. 6; 
xxii. 13). 

Alllluibet [Latin afphaheium, from 
Greek Alpha, Br fa, the first two letters 
of the Greek alphabet]. 

The letters used in writing or printing a 
language, these being arranged in a con- 
ventional order. The word ** alphabet ** is 
not found in the Bible, but references to 
tiie idea exist both in the Old and the New 
Testaments. The names of the several 
letters in the Hebrew alphabet and the 
order in which they are arranged have 
long been familiar to the English reader, 
from their having been used to mark the 
divisions of the 119th Psalm. The B.V. 
gives in addition the later forms of the 
fetters themselves, i.e, the square charac- 
ters introduced apparently not earlier than 
the Christian era. It will be seen that they 
are twenty-two in number. The Hebrew 
Bible has other alphabetical Psalms than 
the 1 19th, though tne fact is not ascertain- 
able from the English vendous [PaiLKs]. 
It has long been considered all but estab- 
lished that both the square characters 
of modem Hebrew and the earlier ones 
found on the Hasmonean coins of the first 
and second centuries B.C. came from the 
earliest Phcenidan. Another brandi from 
the same Phoenician root is considered to 
have produced the oldest Greek letters^ 
from which again the Roman alphabet, 
adopted by most European nations, in- 
cluding our own, came. But the honour 
is now claimed on behalf of the South 
Arabian Minffians, whose alphabet, older 
than the oldest known Phoemdan, presents 
a greater resemblance than the latter pos- 
sesses between the names of the letters and 
the objects (ox, etc.) which they represent. 
To transliterate the Hebrew letters is to 
substitute for them as nearly aspossible 
the equivalent Roman characters. There are 
different methods of transliterating some of 
the letters. In the present work Aleph is 
not itself transliterated, though the vowel 
attached to it is so. Beth is bh or b ; gimel 
is gh or g ; daleth, dh or d : he, h ; vau 
^nerally v ; zain, z : cheth, hh ; teth, t ; 
jod, i or y ; caph, kh or k ; lamed, 1 ; mem, 
m : nun, n ; samech, s : ain, generally left 
silent, like aleph, though in certain cases 
\vritten g as m Gomorrah : pe, ph or p ; 
tzade, ts ; koph, qu ; resh, r : snin, sh or s ; 
and tau, th or t [Hebrew, Writing]. 
In the New Testament two letters of 
the Greek alphabet are mentioned — Alpha, 
the first ; and Omega, the last [Alpha, 

Alpluens FLat. from Gr. Alphaios, from 
Heb. H/iafphi = *♦ one who passes" (?). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Hh&laph = " to pass " ('r). Clopas, Cleo- 


( 1 ) The father of James the Less (Matt. x. 
:5 : lilark iii. 18 ; Luke vi. 15 : Acts i. 13). 
He was married to a certain Mary, and, m 
addition to James, had another son Joses, 
and a daughter Salome (Matt, xx^'ii. 56 : 
Mark xv. 40; Luke xxir. 10^. He was 
called also Clopas or Cleopnas, which 
reveals the fact that his wife was the sister 
of the Virgin Mary (cf . Mark xv. 40 with 
John xix. 25). 

(2) The father of Matthew or Levi (Mark 
ii. 14). 

Altar [Lat. altar, a/iart], 

A raised table or small platform to be 
-used in the burning of incense, the offering 
of sacrifices, or tor any other religious 
purpose. In patriarchal tmies, worshippers 
reared altars wherever they pitched tneir 
tents or erected somewhat more permanent 
places of residence. Noah did so immedi- 
ately on leaving the ark (Gen. viii. 20). 
So did Abraham (xii. 7; xxii. 9), Jacob 
(xxxv. 1, 7), and Moses before reaching 
%Sinai (Exod. xvii. 15), and again at the 
base of that mountain (xxiv. 4). In the 
legislation delivered at Sinai and in the 
wudemess, directions were given that 
altars shoiild be made of earth, or, if they 
were built of stone, then it should be of un- 
hewn stones, and the ascent to them should 
not be by steps (xx. 24, 25 ; Deut. xxvii. 
5, 6). For tne court of the Tabernacle 
an altar was to be made of "shittim" 
(acacia) wood 7^ feet long, by 7J broad 
and 4^ high. At the four angles above 
were to be as many small up^right posts, 
called horns, to which the animals about 
to be sacrificed were tied (Psalm cxviii. 27). 
There were to be rings through whidi 
■** staves" (poles) were to be thrust to 
carry the altar. It was to be covered with 
a net- work of "brass" (copper), and to 
have pans, shovels, basins, fiesh hooks, and 
fire pans. It was generally called the 
brazen altar or the altar of burnt offering 
(Exod. XXX. 28; xl. 10). A fire was set 
upon it to consume animals offered in 
sacrifice (xxvii. 1-8 ; xxix. 37-38). Another 
altar, called the altar of incense, was also 
of shittim (acacia) wood. It was a foot 
and a half lon^, the same in breadth, and 
three feet in height. It was overlaid with 
pure jjold, and wa» for the burning on it 
of mcense (xxxvii. 25-28). when 
Solomon's Temple was built, a brazen 
altar was made, 30 feet long, 30 feet broad, 
and 15 high (1 Kings xiiL 64; 2 Chron. 
iv. 1). A new "golden altar" seems to 
have been fashioned at the same time for 
the burning of incense (2 Chron. iv. 19). 
Though these were the only altars on 
which tabernacle and temple sacrifices or 
incense could be acceptably offered (Deut. 

xii. 2, 5, 6, 7), yet the rearing of altars in 
other places did not cease ; nor does their 
erection seem to have met with censure. 
Altars were built by the Israelites in the 
time of the Judges (Judg. xx. 4); by 
Samuel (1 Sam. vii. 17) ; by Saul (xiv. 35) ; 
by David (2 Sam. xxiv. 18, 25) ; and by 
illijah (1 Kings xviii. 32), numerous altars 
to Jehovah having just before been thrown 
down by the worshippers of Baal (xix. 
10, 14 ; cf. also Ezek. vi. 4 ; Amos ii. 8). 
The idolaters just mentioned hod altars of 
their own (Judg. vii. 30), a^ had the 
Syrians or the Aasj-rions (2 Kings xvi. lU- 
16), the Athenians (Acts x\'iii. 23), and 
many others. Altars were not always 
intended for sacrifices or for the burning 


of incense ; the two and a half tribes who 
settled east of the Jordan built an altar 
designed to be a memorial of their afiinit}' 
in blood to the other tribes who crossed the 
river (Josh. xxii. 10-34). In New Testa- 
ment times gifts seem to have been offered 
at the altar (Matt. v. 23). In the book of 
Revelations mention i^ made of an angel 
offering incense on the golden altar (R*^; 
vii. 3, 5), and it was from its "horns" 
that a voice came when the angel sounded 
the sixth woe- trumpet (ix. 13). 

AlQflli [Heb. = " tumult of men "]. 

One of the stations at which the Israel- 
ites encamped on their wajr from Egypt ^ 
Mount Sinai (Numb, xxxiii. 13, 14). 

Alvmh, AUah [Heb. Alvah, Altyah = 

A duke of Edom, descended from Esau 
(Gen. xxxvi. 40 ; 1 Chron. L 51 ). 

AtImi, Allmn [Heb. A Iran, Aleyan = 

A Horite, a son of Shobol (Gen. xxxvi. 
23 ; 1 Chron. i. 40). 

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i [Heb. Auutdh = ** a people des- 
tined to endure for ever *']. 

A frontier village of Asher (Josh* xiz. 
26). Capt. Conder places it doubtfully 
at the ruin called el 'AmCidy north of 

[Heb. = " heavy labour," 

An Asherite, a son of Helem (1 Chron. 

[Heb. AmaJeq. Etymology 

(1) The son of Eliphaz, Esau's son, by 
his concubine Timna (Gen. xxxvi. VI) , 

(2) His descendants, the Amalekites, 
personified as an individuaL In Hebrew 
Amalekites is Amak^y and **Amalek" is 
gouTally left, both m the A.V. and the 
R.V., untranslated (Exod. xvii. 8, 9, 13, 14, 
16 ; Numb. xxiv. 20 ; Deut. xxv. 17 ; 
Joclf . V. 14 ; 1 Sam. xv. 3, 5 ; xxviii. 18 ; 
I^ann Ixxxiii. 7). 

I [Eng.]. 

The descendants of Amalek, the son of 
KKnha» and fl;randson of Esau [Amalek], 
witn whom, nowever, were conjoined an 
eariier race mentioned in connection with 
Chedorlaomer's invasion, as inhabiting the 
region of Kadesh in the Sinai Peninsula 
(Gen. ziv. 7). They fouf ht a battle with 
the Israelites at liephimm, between the 
Gulf of Suez and Sinai, and were de- 
feated (Exod. xvii. 8-13). They seem 
to have waylaid the travelling ** con- 
nection," cutting off all who fell 
behmd the rest on account of feebleness, 
and then, emboldened by their easy success, 
to have dinmted the passage of the host , 
itKlf. The most bitter feeling arose 
agamst them in consequence, and it 
received Divine sanction (Exod. xvii. 
14-16 ; Dent. xxv. 17-19). The spies found 
Amalekitea occupying the south of F^es- 
tine (Numb. xiii. 29). Balaam in again 
predicting utter destruction to the Amalek- 
ites cal^ Amalek **the first of the 
nations." This might mean the first in 
point of date, or of power and dignity, or, 
as suggested on the margin of the A.y.. 
the mtt nation that made war with Israel 
(Numb. xxiv. 20). The Amalekites aided 
Eglon, king of Moab, in taking Jericho 
from the £raelites, and in imposing his 
y<^ upon the Hebrew people ( Judg. iii. 
13, 14 ; V. 14). They also assisted the 
lfi<ya?yT t**f in invading Canaan and in con- 
quering and op p ressing the Israelites 
(vL 3, 33). Probably as the consequence 
of &ese and similar invasions, they so 
estabixriied themselves in the very centre 
of Gsnaan that there was a ** mount of 
the Amalekites " within the territory of 
Ephraim (xii. 15). King Saul was ordered 
to cany out the long-threatened sentence 

against the Amalekites, and made a great 
expedition against 'them. He found them 
extending from Haviloh (near the Eu- 
phrates i') all along the south of Palestine 
to Shur, in the vicinity of E^ypt. He 
smote them through that wide area, 
capturing their king, Agag, who was^ 
executed bv Samuel (1 Sam. xv. 1-33). 
After this tne Amalekites disappear from 
Hebrew history. 

Amam [Heb. Aindm = ** conjoined "1. 
A ** city " or village in the extrone south 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 26), site unknown. 

, (1) [Heb. Amatmh = "atreaty," 
"a statute "J. 

A mountam or mountain range grouped 
(Song iv. 8) with Lebanon and Hermon, and 
which from the parallelism of the Hebrew 
poetry mav be mferred to be connected 
with the latter rather than the former. 
It mav be the mountain slope from which 
the Amana or Abana nows [Abaka, 

Amana (2), Amanali [AbanaI (2 Kings 
V. 12 ; margin of A.V. and R.V.). 

[Heb. Auwreyah^ Amareyahit 
= **whom Jehovah has said," i.e, 
** promised." Noe. 1-7 are spelt in 
Hebrew Anwretjah ; No. 9, Ainareyahu ; 
and No. 8 is of both forms]. 

(1) The son of Meraioth. a Levite de- 
scended from Phinehas (1 Chron. vi. 7). 

(2) A Levite in the same line of descent, 
a son of Awiriah (1 Chron. vi. 11 ; Ezra 

(3) A L6vite, and possibly a priest, who 
sealed the covenant with Jehovah in 
Nehemiah*s time (Neh. x. 3 ; xii. 2, 13). 

(4) A man who nad taken a strange, t.r. 
a foreign, wife, whom Ezra made him 
divorce (Ezra x. 42). 

(5) A man of Judah. He was son of 
Shephatiah (Neh. xi. 4). 

(6) A son of Hizkiah, and an ancestor of 
the prophet Zephaniah (Zeph. i. 1). 

(7) A chief priest in Jehoehaphat's time 
(2Chron. xix. 11]. 

(8) A Levite, tne second son of Hebron 
(1 Chron. xxiii. 19 ; xxiv. 23). 

(9) One who helped to distribute the 
free-will offerings of God in Hezekiah*» 
time (2 Chron. xxxi. 14, 15). 

[Heb. = ** a burden"]. 
(1) The son of Ithra, an Israelite, or 
Jether, an Ishmaelite, bv his wife Abigail, 
niece of Zeruiah, JoaVs mother, when 
Absalom rebelled, he appointed Amasa 
captain of his army (2 Sam. xvii. 25 ; 1 
Chron. ii. 17). After the defeat and death 
of the revolted mince, Amasa, who was a 
relative of king David's, was forgiven, and 
appointed commander-in-chief in super- 
session of Joab (2 Sam. xix. 13). On the 
breaking out of a great revolt headed by 

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Sheba, Amaaa received orders to have an 
army in readiness to start in three days.. 
He was behind his time, and Abisnai 
was sent to greet him and hasten him on. 
When at length the preparations were 
ixmiplete and Amasa was marching at the 
head of his men, Joab sought a triendly 
interview with him, and treacherously 
stabbed him, so that he immediately died 
(Joab] (xx. 1-13). 

(2) An Ephnumite, a son of Hadlai. He 
was one of those who gave humane advice 
when the captives from Judah were being 
carried off by the Israelite army under 
Pekah (2 Chron. xxviii. 12). 

Amnffnl [Heb. = *' irksome," << griev- 

(1) A son of Elkanah, a L^vite of the 
Kohathite family (1 Chron. vi. 25, 35). 

(2) One of the Levites, who blew a 
trumpet in David^s reign (1 Chron. 
JLY, 24). 

(3) A Kohathite who aided in the reli- 
^ous revival in Hezekiah*s reign (2 
Chron. xxix. 12). 

ilud pieb. Atnathsaiy a word, 

Oesenius thinis, not correctly copied]. 

A son of Azareel, one of the pnests. He 
consented to live in Jerusalem, at Nehe- 
miah's request (Neh. xL 13). 

[Heb. Amauyah = " whom 
Jehovah carries in His lap ** (Oe»fnifts)]. 

A son of Zichri. He held mgh military 
office under Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xvii. 

, [Heb. AmaUeyah = " whom 
Jehovah has strengthened" {Ge»enUt9\ 
** Jehovah strengthens" {Oxford BibU), 
** Jehovah is strong " (JTmwwm)]. 

A king of Judim^who succeeded his 
father Joash by the Hebrew chronology in 
839 B.C., being then about twenty-l^ve 
years old. When he found himself firm 
on the throne, he put to death the murder- 
ers of his father, but spared their children, 
in conformity with the principle laid down 
on the subject in the Mosaic law (Deut. 
xziv. 16). He hired 100,000 Israelitish 
mercenaries to accompany him on an 
expedition against the Eaomites, but at 
the commana of a man of Ood he sent 
them back, they being so offended at their 
dismissal tnat they pnmdered the country 
on their way home. Afterwards starting 
with the forces of Judah alone, he de- 
feated the Edomites in the Valley of Salt, 
inflicting on them the loss of 10,000 men, 
and caTOured their capital Sblah (q.v.). 
Elated Dv their victory, and following bad 
advice, ne challenged Jehoash, kmg of 
Israel, to fight, the result being that he was 
heavily dented in a battle at Bethshe- 
mesh, and taken prisoner by the man whom 
iie had so impruaently provoked. Fart of 

the wall of Jerusalem was then broken 
down by Jehoash, the city captured, and the 
vessels of the Temple carried off. At first 
Amaziah worshipped Jehovah, though he 
allowed the **high places" to remain. 
Then he began to depart from his early 
faith, and a conspiracy was formed against 
him in Jerusalem. He fled to Lachish, 
but was followed thither and murdered. 
His reum had extended to twenty -nine 
^ears. He died by the Hebrew chronolog>'^ 
m QIO, leaving his son Arariah or Uzziah 
to ascend the throne (2 Kings xiv. 1-20; 
2 Chron. XXV. 1-17). 

Amber [Remotely from Arabic Amhar, 
Anbatj abir = ** ambergris "]. 

The hardened or f ossmsed resin of a now 
extinct pine-tree {Pinus ntceinifer) allied 
to the Norway spruce or to uie- Silver 
fir, and of about eight other species of pine. 
That it was originally fiuid is plain from 
the fact that it is found to endoee nume- 
rous remains of plants and of insects. The 
pines producing it ^w in the south- 
eastern part of what is now the bed of the 
BfJtic, and it is still picked up on the 
southern shore of that sea. It was re- 
garded as a gem, and early became an 
object of commerce over re^ns very 
remote from the Baltic Sea. It is senerallv 
yellow, and that is the ** colour ofamber " 
referred to in Ezek. i. 4, 27 ; viiL 2. 

Amen [N.T. Or. Am^^ from Heb. 

(1) As an adj'eetive^Firmy certain, 
trustworthy, deserving of all confidence 
(2 Cor. i. 20). 

(2) A» a noun — ^The faithful and true 
one. Usedof Jesus (Rev. iii. 14). 

(3) As an adverb or interjeetum — So be it, 
Bfay it be as has been asked, said, pro- 
mised, or threatened (Matt. vi. 13; cf. 
also Deut. xxviL 16-26 ; 1 Kings i. 36 ; Jer. 
xxviii. 6 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 16 ; Rev. xxii 20,21). 
To render it more emphatic, it is some- 
timee redoubled (Numb. v. 22; Psalm 
xli. 13 ; Ixxii. 19 ; Ixxxix. 52). 

Amethyst [Englishl. 

A precious stone, tne last one in the 
third row on the Jewish high priest's 
breastplate (Exod. xxviii. 19 ; xxxix. 12). 
In this paasage it is the translation of the 
Hebrew Ahhalmah, from Hhalam = ** to 
dream." The amethjrst formed the 
twelfth foundation of the New Jerusalem 
(Rev. xxi. 20). It is a glasinr, dear, 
purple, or bluish violet variety oi quartz, 
the colour, it is believed, being produced 
by manganese. It occurs sparingly in 
rocks in Scotland, England, and Ireuuid, 
but far finer n)ecimens are found in India, 
in Siberia, ana in Spain. 

Ami [a corruption of AxoK (q.v.)]* 
(Cf . Ezra ii. 57 and Neh. viL 69.) 

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\^A3QciSAJ>As] (l£att. L i ; 

T\tt i&ther of JoTi&h. 
Xing»DT.*i5; Jonah i. 1) 

▼eracioTis," "truth- 
ihe prophet (2 

^Heb. = *' mother " of any- 
fhxng XQ a figurative aenae, as ** mother of 
the Mm" = ihe cubital bone]. 

A hm ''that Ueth before Giah, by the 
ir^ of Ute wilderxken of Gibeon " (2 Sam. 
n. 24). Exact aitoation unknown. 

The khdie of the mother city. — [Mstheo- 
Aiollh] (2 Sam. viii. I). 

Aaml [Heb, = *'my people'' (Hosea 
L [Heb. = *■'' one of the family of 

0} A Bon of Gemalli, and the represen- 


God "J. 

tsthv of Uie tribe of Dan who weni to spy 
o«t Canaan (Numb. ziii. 12). 

(2) A man of Lodebar, and father of 
Ifadiir (2 Sam. ix. 4, 5 ; xvii 27). 

(3) The fdxth son of Obed-edom (1 
OkroQ. XXV i. 5). 

(4) The same as Eliax (q.v.) (cf. 2 
SaoB. xL 3 and 1 Chron. iii. 5). 

IJHeb. ^miniAt«M="one of 

tbe pec^ile of Judah *']. 

n)An Ephraimite. the father of 
FKihama (Xilmb. L 10 ; u. 18 ; 1 Chron. 

(2) A man of Simeon, and father of 
Slicmnel (Numb, xxxiv. 20). 

(3) A man of Naphtali, and father of 
P^dahel (Knmb. xxxiv. 28). 

(4) The father of Talmai, king of Geahur, 
to whom Absalom fled (2 Sam. xiii. 37). 
Called abo AJOdHUB (q.v.). 

{S\ A man of Judan, a son of Omri^ 
after the captivity (1 Chron. ix. 4). 

Aiwllror [Heb. Ammihhur = '* one of 
the family of ue nobles "]. 

The same as AJOcrsuD (3) (2 Sam. xiH. 
37— A- V. margin ; B.V. text). 

AwmifiMUIfcl^ Amlwmdftb FHeb. 
Ammmadimbh = " kinsman of a pnnce '* 

(1) A man of Jndah. He was the son of 
Bam and the father of Nahshon. whose 
^ater became the wife of Aaron. He was 
in tiie line of ancestry both of David and 
of Jesoa (Exod. vL 23 ; Numb. i. 7 ; Ruth 
!▼• 19; 1 Chron. iL 10 ; Matt. i. 4 ; Luke 

/2} A Leritt^. a mm of TJzxiel. He lived 
fflDland's time (1 Chron. xv. 10, 11). 

i'V A Levite, a aon of Kohath (1 Chron. 

AamlMUUb [Heb. Amminadhibh = 
"aypriiioely people"— B.V., "my willing 
peopfe '•—A.V.J. 

If a proptf name, which is doubtful, 
then it is someone famous for his chariots 
(Song vi. 12— A. V. and B.V. texts and 

Ammlahartrtiii [Heb. = *' one of the 
people," i.e. *• servant of the Omnipotent 

A Imnite, the father of Ahiezer (Numb. 
i. 12 ; ii. 25). 

AmmfgalMMl [Heb. Ammizabhadh = 
** one of the people," or " servant of the 
h'beral giver,* i.e. of Jehovah]. 

A son of Benaiah in David^s reign 
(1 Chron. Ixvii. 6). 

umon [Heb. = * * son of my people **(?), 
of my relative "(h, or "of a near 

A name given as an alternative one to 
Ben-Ammi, Lot*s younger son (Qen. xix. 
38). He became "the father of the 
children of Ammon," the latter part of 
this designation meaning the Ammonite 
tribe and nation (Numb. xxi. 24 ; Deut. 
ii.37;iii. 16 ; Judg. x. 6, 9, 18;xi. 5, 8, 9, 
12, 14, 15, 27, 30, 31 ; xu. 1, 2 ; 2 Sam. x. 
1, 2. 8, 10, 11, 14, 19; xi. 1 ; xii. 9, 26, 31, 
etc.). [AiacoNiTES.] 

Ammonltea IBng.Amtnm, -ties; Heb. 
Ammoni] . 

The tribe and nation descended from 
Ben-Ammi, or Ammon, Lot*s second son 
[Ammow]. When the Israelites on their 
way from Egypt appeared on the east of 
Jordan, the Junmonites were found in par- 
tial possession of the region between the 
Amon and Jabbok brooks or rivers (Numb, 
xxi. 24 ; Deut. ii. 37 ; Judg. xi. 13, 22). Their 
territory was afterwards given to the Gkid- 
ites (Deut. iii. 16). The ch^^ was brought 
against them that thev had joined vnth 
the Moabitee in hiring Balaam to curse the 
Israelites, and they were in consequence 
to be excluded fropi " the congregation of 
the Lord " for ten generations (Deut. xxiii. 
3-6). In the time of Jephthah they 
oppressed the Jewish people (Judg. x. 6, 
9, 18). They were evidently formidable 
foes, for it was under the ajmrehension of 
the danger of defeat and deaui in encoun- 
tering them that Jephthah uttered lus 
rash vow (xi. 1-40). Just when Saul was 
obtaining the sovereignty, Nahash, the 
Ammonite king, besie^Bamoth Gilead, 
refusing peace, except on the condition 
that every man in the dty should have his 
right eye put out. Saul came to the 
assistance m the beleaguered citizens, and 
totaUv defeated Nahadi (1 Sam. xi 1-11). 
The Ammonite king seems to have escaped 
from this lost field, and may have been the 
Nahash who befriended David ; doing this, 
perhaps, because both were enemies of 
Saul. On the death of Nahash, David 
sent an embassy to his son, Hanun, but 
the ambassadors were insulted, and war 

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supervened. In the first campaign, the 
confederate Syrians and Ammonites were 
defeated by the Israelites, led by Jqp.h and 
Abishai (2 Sam. x. 1-19; 1 Chron. xix. 
1-19). The second ended hy the capture 
of Rabbah, the Ammonite capital [Rabbah, 
Rabbath], and the cruel treatment of the 
defenders (2 Sam. xi., zii. ; 1 Chron. xx. 
1-3). Amon^ other **fair idolatresses" 
Solomon married some Ammonite women 
( 1 Kings xi. 1 ). In the time of Jehoshaphat 
the Moabites, the Ammonites, and the 
Edomitee unsuccessfuUr invaded Judah 
(2 Chron. xx. 1-30). The Ammonites sent 
gifts, probably tribute, tonzziah(xxvi. 8). 
They retook the Gkidite territory, and 
were in consequence denounced by 
Jeremiah, Amos, and Zephaniah (Jer. 
xlix. 1-6; Amos i. 13-15; Zeph. ii. 8-11). 
They also rejoiced over the capture of 
Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, for which 
judgment was predicted against them by 
Ezelael (Ezek. xxi. 20; xxv. 1-7). Inter- 
marriages between them and the Israelites 
took pukce after the captivity, which were 
censured by Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix. 
1 ; Neh. xiu. 23-31). Their special idol in 
the old age of Solomon was the saneuinary 
Molech (1 Kin^ xi. 7), though in uie time 
of Jephthah it had been Chemosh, the 
Moabite god (Judg. xi. 24). 

Amnon [Heb. = " faithful "1. 

A son of David by Ahinoam, the Jezreel- 
itees. He was bom at Hebron while that 
was his father's capital (2 Sam. iii. 2; 
1 Chron. iii. 1). He behaved very scan- 
dalously to Tamar, his half-sister, and 
was in conseauence murdered by her full- 
brother Absalom (xiiL 1-39). 

t [Heb. Amoq = ** deep "]. 

A priest mentioned in Neh. xii. 20. 

Amon (1) [Heb = *' a handicraftsman, '^ 
" an architect "]. 

(1) The governor of Jerusalem under 
King Ahab (1 Kinss xxii. 26). 

(2) A king of Juoah, the son of Manasseh 
and MediuUemeth. At the age of twentr- 
two he succeeded his father Manasseh, bv 
the Hebrew chronology about 643 B.C., and 
followed his bad example. Two years 
later; or in 641 B.O., his servants murdered 
him m his palace. The people of the land 
put the murderers to death, and placed his 
son Josiah on the throne (2 Kings xxi. 
19-26 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 21-25). 

(3) One of " the children of Solomon's 
servants '* (Neh. vii. 59). Called also Ami 
(Ezra ii. 57). 

Amon (2) [In Lat. and Gr. Ammon. 
From Egyptian Atneti — *' the hidden 
one," " the unseen being "]. 

The chief divinity of Thebes, named 
after him No- Amon, the capital of Upper 
Egypt (Jer. xlvi. '25— R.V. ; Nah. iii. 8— 

R.V.). He was sometimes called Amon- 
Ra, or Amen-Ra, Ra signifying the mid- 
day sun, which he was supposed to 
symbolise. He was represented as wear- 
ing two plumes of hawk's feathers, a disk, 
and a rea cap. 

Amoritea [Heb. Emori = *'a moun- 
taineer;" M« the artidel. 

One of the leading tnbes of Canaan in 
patriarchal and Mosaic times, as well as at 
the period of Joshua's conquest (Qen. xiv. 
7 ; XV. 16, 21 ; Exod. iiL 17 ; Numb. xiii. 
29 ; Deut. xx. 17 ; Josh. ix. 1 ; x. 6). The 
name is sometimes used for the whole 
Canaanite tribes of Canaan taken together 
(Gen. XV. 10 ; cf. xxxiv. 26, 30 with xlviii. 
22 ; Amos ii. 9. 10). The spies sent out by 
Moses found tne Amorites located chiefi v 
among the mountains (Numb. xiii. 29 ; cf . 
Deut. i. 7t 20), as Joshua did at a subse- 
quent period (Josh. x. 6-12). They were 
ruled by different kings, who were defeated 
by Josnua (Josh. x. 6). One of their 
spedal seats was (Engedi) on the diff rising 
from the western shore of the Dead Sea 
(Gen. xiv. 7). Mamre, one of Abraham's 
confederates, who was a chief resident at 
Hebron, was likewise of Amorite descent 
(13). The Amorites had also extensive 
settlements east of the Jordan. Sihon, 
Idng of Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, 
were both Amorite rulers (Numb. xxi. 21, 
25, 26, 34 ; Deut. iv. 46, 47 ; Josh. iL 10 ; 
Judg. xi. 19-22 ; cf. also Numb. xxxiL 39). 
Though the Amorites were devoted to 
destruction (Deut. xx. 17), yet large 
numbOTs of tnem escaped Uieir fate, and 
even Samuel was at peace with those of 
them remaining in his day (1 Sam. vii. 14). 
The Gibeonites, received by Joshua under 
false representations into an aUiance, were 
of the Amorite race (2 Sam. xxi. 2). 
Recent discoveries as to the antiquities of 
Jerusalem may explain the reason why 
Ezekiel says of it " Thy father was an 
Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite.'* 
These two races may together have consti" 
tuted its original inhabitants (Ezek. xvi. 2). 

Amos [Heb. = " a burden "] . 

A prophet, bom at Tekoa, in the 
territory of the tribe of Judah, about six 
miles south of Bethlehem. He was origin- 
ally a herdsman and a gatherer of sycomore 
fruit (A.VT), or a dresser of sycomore trees 

iR.V.), when the Divine call came to 
lim to prophesy in Israel, t.^. in the 
kingdom of the ten tribes. He then seems 
to mive fixed his headquarters at Bethel, 
then *'tiie kind's sanctuary and a royal 
house," but which much needed a prophet 
to denounce it, for it still had withm it one 
of the two golden calves reared by 
Jeroboam I. as objects of worship. Amos, 
when at Bethel, spoke with such freedom 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and futhfolness against the sins of the 
king and the people that Amaziah, the 
kbatrons priest ox the idaoe, applied to 
tibe king— Jeroboam li. — to put the 
prophet to death. But the monarch 
turned a deaf ear to the evil adriaer 
(Amos L 1 ; yii. 10-15). The time and 
drcomstenoes of Amoe's death are un- 
The Book of Amo». 

The third of the minor prophets. He 
prrabesied in the days of Uzziah, king of 
Jooah, and in the days of Jeroboam, son 
of Joash, king of Israel ^ two years before 
the earthquale (Amos i. 1). This pUoes 
tiie date at some time or other withm the 
tveotj-fiTB years b.c. 809 to b.c. 784, 
diomg wfaicn the reigns of the two 
■orereigiis just mentioned were oontem- 
pooneoos. He denounces judgments 
aotinst Damascus, the Philistine cities, 
1m, the Edomites, the Ammonites, the 
lusbites, the people of Judah, and those 
of Israel, all ox wnom had sinned deeply 
fi^ ii.). The remaining chapters are 
directed mainly against the ten tribes, the 
cantiTity of whicn is clearly prophesied. 
Alhiaion is made, also, to the approaching 
earthquake and the calamities it would 
bring ^iii.-ix.). [Eabthquaxe.] Amos v. 
"ih'Ti IS quoted in Acts vii. 42,43, and Amos 
ii. II in Acts xv. 16-18. 

[Heb. AmoU = " powerful," 

The father of the prophet Isaiah (Isa. 
1 1 ; ii. l,etc.). 

I [Gr. "a dty between two 

ieasor rxvers " ; atHphi=** on both sides "; 

A dty or town which Fkiul passed by on 
trsTdlmg from Fhilippi to Apollouia on 
his way to Thessalonica (Acts xrii. 1 ). It 
was the metropolis of southern Maceaonia. 
It was stuated at the mouth of the river 
Strymon, which nearly surrounded it, this 
Uttt giTing origin to its name. It is now 
ealln i^mpoli or TamboU, is about 3 miles 
from Ihe sea, and has a village Neokhorio 
or Jeni Keni (New Town) on piurt of its site. 

AamltM [Gr.1. 

A Christian of 'Kome to whom Fkiul sent 
an a ffect ionate salutation (Bom. xvi. 8). 

Amrmm [Heb. = << of kin to the exalted 
one," i^. to God]. 

(1) A Kohathite Levite, the husband of 
Jodiebed and the father of Miriam, Aaron, 
and Moaes. He Uved to the age of 137 
'Ezod. vi. 20 ; Numb, iii 19). 

['Ij A son of Bani. He had married a 
foreign wife, whom Ezra induced him to 
pst away (Ezra z. 34). 

AmnuBttM [Bnglish]. 

The descendants of Amram, Moses's 
father (Numb, iii 27 ; 1 Chron. xxvi. 23). 

[Heb. *'a command which 
has gone forth " (Ge^miut)], 

Along of Shinar, one of Chedorlaomer*s 
conf ederales in the invasion of the Jordan 
valley (Gen. xiv. 1, 9), 

(Heb. Amtfi = " robust "]. 

(1) A Levite, a descendant of Memri 
(1 Chron. vi. 46). 

(2) A priest, a son of a certain Zechariah 
(Neh. ». 12). 

Aaab [Heb. Attabh = ** a place fruitful 
in grapes^' (?) {Ge9en%tu)\, 

A town in the ** mountains ** of Judah. 
mentioned in connection with Hebron and 
Debir as inhabited by Anakims, whom 
Joshua cut off (Josh. n. 21 ; xv. 50). The 
place, which hes about ten miles from 
Hebron, is still called by its old name of 
An&b (Robinson's Bib. Bes,, U. 195). 

AiMli [Heb. '* hearkening to,'* '* grant- 

(1) A daughter of Zibeon the Hivite, 
and a mother-in-law to Esau (G^. zzxvi. 
2, 14). 

(2) A son of the same 2Sibeon (Gen. 
xxxvi. 24). 

(3) A ** son '* of Seir the Horite and a 
brother of a certain Zibeon (Gen. zxzvi. 
20). He became a ** duke " (29). 

AnaliTlili (Heb. Anahharath = (?)]. 

A frontier village of lasachar (Josn. 
xix. 19). . C!apt. Conder finds it at en 
Na'iirah (manifestly a corruption of the 
old name), 5 miles N.E. of Jeareel. 

[Heb. Anayah = *' whom Jeho- 
vah has heard "]. 

One of those who supported Ezra when 
he read the book of the law to the people 
(Neh. viii. 4), and who afterwards sealed 
the covenant to serve God (x. 22). 

AiiAk {Heb. Anaq = (1) «' a coUar," *< a 
necklace ^ ; (2) " length of neck or of 

The son of Arba, and progenitor of the 
giants called Anasdc or Anajciks (q.v.) 
(Numb. xiii. 22, 28 ; Josh xv. 13). 

A«i».iH«»^ Awalrtw [the A.V. has Ana- 
kims, which is a double plural Im Hebrew 
and S English. The R.y. has a single 
one, the Hebrew im, which is enough. 
From Heb. Anaqimy pi. of Anaq [AnaiI^. 

The descendants of Anak. His sons 
were three in number : Ahiman, Sheshai, 
and Talmai. The Anakim or Anakims 
were of great stature. The spies sent to 
search out the land of Canaan saw them in 
the vicinity of Hebron, where their chief 
settlement was, and were afraid of en- 
countering such men (Numb. xiii. 22-28). 
They existed also at Debir and Anab, and 
in the '* mountains'* both of Judah and 
Israel, being apparently a tribe of moun- 
taineers, from all these pUoes Joshua 

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^ il ft .' ^r^^ff i f ^ 

cut them off (Joflh. xL 21— A.V.andR.V.- 
xv. 14), but it was not till after the Jewish 
leader's death that the three sons of Anak 
were slain (Judf. i. 10). Those of the race 
who escaped fled to Gaza, Gath, and 
Ashdod, in the Philstine country (Josh, 
xi. 22). As will be rememberea, it was 
from one of these cities — Gath — that 
GK>liath, David's gigantic antagonist, came. 
Probably he was one of Axiak*s descen- 
dants (1 Sam. xvii. 4). 

An>inlin [Etjrmology doubtful]. 
An Egyptian tribe, of which nothing is 
known (Gen. x. 13 ; 1 Chron. 1. 11). 

i [Heb. AfMmineiekf from 
Heb. Attain = ** an image " and melek — 
**king'* (Gesenius). But Anam is now 
believed to be from Attu^ a Babylonian 
god. who presided over the sky, and had 
for nis consort a goddess Anumtj. 

One of the two leading "gods" 
worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim 
(the two Sipparas) on opposite oanks of 
the Euphrates. One of these portions of the 
city was distinguished as Sippara of Samas 
or the Sun-god, and the other as Sippara 
Anunit {see the etymology). The iimabi- 
tants of the citjr wnen l^ught to colonise 
Samaria worsmpped Anammelech with 
Adrammelech. another Babylonish deity, 
by burning their children m the fire (2 
Kings xvii. 31). 

Anan THeb. = ** a cloud *']. 

One oi the men who with Nehemiah 
sealed a covenant to worship Jehovah 
(Neh. X. 26). 

[a shortened form of Ananiah 


A son of Elioenai (1 Chron. iii. 24). 

Awanlali (1) [Heb. Ananyah = **whom 
Jehovah covers or protects "J. 
The father of Ifaaseiah (Neh. iii. 23). 

Anawlali (2) [Heb. Ananyah =*' which 
Jehovah covers or protects "J. 

A Benjamite town or village (Neh. xi. 
32). It has been identified as Beit 
Hannlna, near Gibeon. 

Ananias JThe Greek form of Hebrew 
Hananyah (Hananiah) = ** whom Jeho- 
vah has given'']. 

(1) A Christian, who, with his wife 
Sapphira, sold a piece of land, and taking 
a portion of the price, laia it at the 
apostle's feet, falsely pret^iding that it 
was the whole. On receiving a stem 
rebuke from Peter for having ** Ked unto 
God," he fell down and expired, as did his 
wife Sapphira, when, coming in three 
hours afterwards, in ignorance of what 
had taken place, she repeated her hus- 
band's falsehood, and had the same penalty 
assigned her by Peter (Acts v. 1 - 1 1 ). It is 
important to note that while in the fervour 

of its " first love " tiie members of the 
infant Church, most or all of them, sold 
their possessions, casting the proceeds 
into a common fund, this communism was 
not compulsory. Peter expressly stated 
that Ananias was under no obligation to 
sell the land; or, if he did, to cast the 
whole or any part of the proceeds into the 
Church treasury ; but it was not permis- 
sible that he should take credit for an act 
of self-denial which he had not really done 
{see ver. 4). 

(2j A Christian at Damascus who was 
Divmely instructed to receive Saul (Paul) 
on his conversion, and restore him to sight 
(Acts ix. 10-18). 

(3) A hi^ luiest who, sitting as Paul's 
judge, was so enraged on hearing the 
Ap^Ie say that he had lived in all good 
conscience before God till that da^, that 
he told those standing near to smite the 
prisoner on the mouth. Paul replied with 
the severity which such injudicial conduct 
provoked ; but apologisea on being told 
that the erring judge was the high priest 
(Acts xxiii. 1 -3). Axterwards Aniuiias went 
aown to Cssarea as one of Paul's accusers 
before the Roman governor^ Felix (xxiv. I). 
Ananias had been high pnest some years 
previously, about ▲.d. 47, but had been 
deposed and sent as a prisoner to Borne by 
Quadratus, governor of Syria, Jonathan 
being appointed in his room. The Em- 
peror Claudius allowed him to return to 
Palestine, which he did. His successor in 
ofiice had been murdered at the instance 
of Felix, who came after Quadratus, and 
the high-priesthood became vacant He 
was allowed to fill it temporarily as a vicsr 
or deputy till a regular appointment was 
made. At length, about a.d. 63, Asrippa 
gave the ofiice to a certain Ismaei, and 
the temporary incumbency of Amuiiss 
came to an end. When, then, he judged 
St. Paul he was not in full office, but only 
acting temporarily till a permanent ap- 
pointment was maae, and tnere may have 
been latent sarcasm in St. Paul's appa- 
rently innocent confession of ignorance: 
** I wist not, brethren, that he was the 
high priest" (Acts xxiiL 5) (Job^< 
Antiq, XX. vi. J 2 ; viii. § 5, 8 ; ff"ar, II. 
xvii. 9). 

Anatli FHeb. = '*a hearkening," 'a 

The fkther of Shamgar, the *< judge" 
(Judg. iii 31 ; v. 6). 

t [Gr. ^#Mi/A«»Mi =" any- 
thing devoted "1. 

In the New Testament a person or thing 
accursed, i,e. devoted to destruction. It 
corresponds with the Hebrew Hherem 
[Aocubsed] (Rom. ix. 3— R.V. ; 1 Cor. vL 
3— B.V. and margin of A.V. ; GaL L 8, 9 
— R.V.]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




AsATHEiCA Uabaxathjl [N.T. Gr. 
^maOtema — ** one deYoted to destrnctioii " 
tmd AxBmaic Maron atha = ** the Lord 
comet," or " will oome '*]. 

One aocoTsed at the oomiiur of the Lord 
<1 Cor. xtL 22). 

(1) [Heb. = " answered 
praveR [Ge*eniu»)'\. 

(1)A Benjamite, a son of Becher (1 
Chiou. Tu. 8). 

(2) One of those who, with Nehemiah, 
sealed a oorenant to woralup Jehovedi 
<N«h. X. 19). 

Aaatbotli (2) Heb. = *' answered 
prajers " {G€9eniu»)], 

A Leritical city within the territory of 
Benjamin ( Joeh. xxi. 18 ; 1 Chron yL 60). 
it was threatened by Sargon during his 
^ '— (laa. X. 30). It was the birthplace 

— »BWH ^A^H». ^, KTWf. Ab woo UXO UirifUUiaUl 

<rf the proidiet Jeremiah (Jer. LI). Frof. 

Botetson considerB that it undoubtedly 

^ood at the modern * Anita, which is about 

tlneimles north of Jerusalem. It was once. 

he th inka, a walled town and a place of 

sCrsBflh, thon^ now onlr a miserable 

'^Sh ^ Portions of the wall, indeed, still 

vnauB, built of large hewn stone, appa- 

i^ottly ancient. There are also f oundanons 

<tf booses, and the fra^nents of a column 

<Bobauon*s Bib, £e$. 07109, 110). 

Awrtliottilte, Aaetliotlilte, Aae- 
totktte [EngUshJ. 

A natrre or inhabitant of Anathoth 
(2 Sam. xziiL 27). 

The fomis Anethothite and Anetothite 

» in the A-V., AnathotUte in the B.y. 

' [Gr. Andreas, from andreia = 
** manliness^' (?)]. 

The brother ctf Simon Peter. He was 
Van at Bethaaida, meaning * * Flshertown," 
<m tike Lake of Galilee (John i. 44), and 
was himself a fisherman (Matt. iv. 18; 
Mark i. 16-18). He was at first a disciple 
of John the Baptist, but being directed oy 
John to Jeeus as Uie Lamb of Gk)d, he 
vent over to the Lord, soon afterwards 
Tadiiffng his brother Simon to follow his 
enamle (John i 35-42). Both were 
momted aposties (Matt. it. 18-20; z. 2 ; 
Hark iiL 18 ; Luke tL 14 ; Acts L 13). 
Ther had a house at Capernaum niaik i. 
^, 29). He was aasodaied with ttie three 
^tofored apostfas, Peter, James, and John, 
a the inqmrT regarding the destruction of 
ty and temple and the second ad- 

the €ity 

nntofChrkt (zin. 3. 


>aa* wi v/oj-flM. ^juu« u, -s/. Traditionary 
veoooti are grrrai of ms subseouent life, 
■otlmg trnatwotrtibr being reaU^ faiown 
o> tlie subject, lliere is a tnfle more 
Mnenent as to his death, which is said to 
kave haen by cnictfixion in Achaia on a 
atmbBpad Hke the letter X. This is now 
caibd St. Andrew's Oroas. A ship bearing 
two nfia of ham, is reported by tradi- 

tion to have been wrecked in St. Andrew's 
Bay, in Scotland— the mariners who 
managed to reach the shore afterwards 
introdncipg the (3U>8pel into that then 
heathen region. " St. Andrew," there- 
fore, became the patron saint of Scotland, 
and gave name to St. Andrew's town. 
His festival is kept by the Greek and 
Boman diurches on the 30th November. 
In the Church of EngLuid it has become 
customary to preach on that day on the 
subject of missions. The Acts of St. 
Andrew^ an alleged gospel from his pen, 
are spurious. 

Andronlons [Or. Andrmikos = " con- 
quering men'* (?)]. 

A Jewish Christian at Borne to Whom 
Paul sent a salutation. He was a iringmni^ 
of the apostle, and, like him, was in prison 
for Christ's sake (Bom. xvi. 7). 

1 [Heb. = " The two fountains "1. 

A Levitical " dty " in the territory of 
Issachar given with its suburbs to the 
sons of G^ershom (1 Chron. vi. 73). Capt. 
Conder and Lieut. Kitchener locate it at 
'Anin, in the hills west of the plam of 
Esdraelon, within the territory of 
Manasseh. It has rock-cut tombs and a 
curious channel for water. 

. (1 ) [Heb. for ttaar (?) = " a young 
uuui, with which Gesenius doubtfully 
compares Gr. aner = •* a man "]. 

An Amorite, resident at Mamre. He 
was one of Abraham's three confederates 
in the battle with the eastern Idngs (Gen. 
xiv. 13, 24). ^ ^ 

Aner (2) [Heb. Etymology doubtful]. 

A Levitical dty out of the naif -tribe of 
Manasseh west of the Jordan. It was 
given with its suburbs to the Eohathites 
[1 Chron. vi. 70). Capt. Conder considers 
that it may possibly be at or near the 
present village of AlMr, in the hills south- 
west of the plain of Esdraelon. Others 
think Aner a corruption of Taanach 

Anntlwthlte [Anathothite]. 
(2 Sam. xxiii. ^— A.V.). 

Anetotblte [Anathothite]. 
(1 Chron. xxvn. 12— A.V.). 

Aagtl [Lat. atweiusy from Gr. anyehs = 
" a messenger," ^* an envoy," *• one who 
announces or tells " ; from anffelh = ** to 
bear a message," "to bring tidings or 
news »•]. 

(1) Onebelongm^to an order of celestial 
beings a little higher in dignity than 
mask (Psahn viii. 5 ; Heb. iiTT), and not 
marrying or being given in marriage 
(Matt. xadi. 30). There are differences 
among angels m rank and dignity, for 
there are Archangels (chief angeto), as well 

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as those of a more ordinary kind (1 Thess. 
iv. 16 ; Jude 9). This twofold distinction 
does not seem to be aU. Both among 
fallen angels and angels mi&llen there 
are thrones, dominions, prindpalitiefl and 
powers (Bom. viii. 39 ; Eph. i. 21 ; iii. 10 ; 
Col. i. 16; ii. 15). Cherubmiand Seraphim 
seem also to belong to the an^lic order. 
The chief functidn of angels is, as their 
name imports, to carry messages ^om God. 
These may be messages of mercy or of 
judgment, generally the former. Angels 
were sent to Abraham (G^. xziL 11), 
to Hagar (xvi. 7), to Gideon (Judg. vi. 
12), to Elijah (1 Kings xix. 5), and 
many others in patriarcnal and tlewish 
times. It was an angel who first 
announced to the shepherds on the table- 
land of Bethlehem the birth of our Lord, 
and then a choir of aneels joined in with 
a song of praise and thanlcsgivine (Luke 
ii. 9-15). Zacharias (Luke i. 11, 13) and 
the Virgin Mary (26, 28), our Lord (xxii. 
43), Peter (Acts zii. 7, 8), and Paul (xxvii. 
23), with others, were visited by angels. 
There is frequent mention of these celestial 
beings in tiie book of Bevelation (Bev. L 1 ; 
▼. 2 ; vii. 2, etc.). Though the main 
function of angels was to deliver messages, 
yet they were frequently commissioned to 
act as well as to speak in execution of the 
Divine will. Angels hastened Lot out 
of Sodom (Gen. xix. 15) ; an angel was the 
agent in inflicting a pestilence, which in 
the reign of David ravaged Jerusalem 
(2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 17) : another slew 185,000 
Assyrians of Sennacherib's army, and 
compelled him to raise the siege of Jeru- 
salem (2 Kings xix. 35). The names of 
some angels or archangels are mentioned, 
namely, Gabriel (Dan. viii. 16 ; ix. 21 ; 
Luke L 19, 26). and Michael (Dan. x. 13. 
21 ; xii. 1 ; Jude 9 ; Bev. xii. 7). The old 
Persians and the modem Parsees have 
recognised the existence of angels of dif- 
ferent ranks, and assigned to some of them 

(2) The representative of a church ; but 
whether this is the earthly pastor, or a 
celestial bein^ of the angelic order watch- 
ing over it, is by no means dear (Bev. i. 
20; ii. 1, 8, 12, 18; iii. 1, 7, 14). The 
former is the more jnx>bable opinion. 

L [Heb. Aniyam =■ '* mourning or 
grief of the people **]. 

A Manassite, a son of Shemidah (1 Chron. 
vii. 19). 

A. [A contraction for Heb. Ayanim 
= "fountains"]. 

A town or village in the mountains of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 50). Captams Conder and 
Kitchener identify it with the ruin 
GhuweiUy about eleven English miles 
soutii of Hebron. (Surv. Wett Falettine, 
m. 403.) 

[Lat. anUum; Gr. anison and 

An umbelliferous plant {Pimpinella 
anisum) occasionally cuitiyated in England 
for its leaves, which are used as a season- 
ing or garnish. In Malta and Spain it is 
grown m gardens for its seed-like fruits, 
which are sweet-scented and prevent 
flatulence. Both the A.V. and the B.V. 
in the text render the plant aneihott of 
Matt, xxiii. 23, of whioi the Pharisees 
gave tithes, anise, but the translation 
*'Dill," which botli give on the margin, 
seems preferable [Dill]. 

A«ir|^^ i ^iiyi*i^ A ch^i" tnnding the 
two ankles of a female together, so as to 
compel her to take short steps, and esped- 
ally when thej were combined with anMets 
miuce a tinkbng sound when she walked 
(Numb. xxxi. 60— B.V. ; Isa. iii. 20-B.V.). 
The A.y. terms them simply **diains,'* 
and the term ankle-chains occurs again. 
The A.y. caUs them ornaments of the 

Anklet [Diminutive of Eng. ankles 
"a small ankle"]. 

An ornament for the ankles. It mar 
consist of metallic or glass rings. ^ It 
corresponds to bracelets on the wrists. 
Anklets are often worn by boys as well as 
women in the East (Isa. iii. 1&— B.y.). 
The A.y. calls them tinkling ornaments 
about the feet. [AmELE- chain.] 

Anna [The Gr. form of the Heb. 
Hannah = " grace," " prayers "]. 

A widow who, when the infant Jesus 
was brought to be dedicated in the temple, 
was tiiere, as it was her daily practioe to be, 
though die was 84 years old. She was 
the (mughter of Phanuel^ and was of the 
tribe of Asher. Her married life had lasted 
only seven years. A prophetess, she 
recognised Jesus as the Messiah, and made 
her discovery known to the pious 
worshippers around (Luke ii. 36-38). 

[An abbreviation of Ananias, 
the Gr. from Heb. Hananiah = **whom 
Jehovah has given "1. 

A Jew, stated by St. Luke to have been 
high priest, as was Gaiaphaa, in the jenx 
when John tiie Baptist bogan his ministry 
(Luke iiL 2), it is thought about 26 a.d. 
He was the father-in-uiw of Caiaphas, 
when our Lord was crudfled, and though 
Cuaphas was the high priest, vet Annas 
was so important a personage tnat it was 
to him Jesus was tajun first on His arrest 
(John xviii. 13). After exaniining Ids 
prisoner, Annas sent Him bound to Cai- 
aphas (24). When Peter and John were sub- 
sequently arrested, Annas was again called 
by St. Luke the high priest (Acts iv. 6). 
Annas is named uj Josephus Ananus, 
which is nearer the Hebrew JIammiak than 

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Annas is (twetymolo^). He was appointed 
about A.0. 8fby Quinmus [Ctsenius], and 
deposed by Valerius Gratus about ▲.d. 19. 
Caiapfaas was tbe real high priest from 
about A.D. 26. It was, therefore, by 
courtesT, rather than of rig^t, that Annas 
reodTed the title (Joseph. Antiq. XVIII. 

ii § 1, 2). [CAIAFHA8.J 

t [Derived through O. Fr. enoint, 
anointed and oindre = ** to anoint," from 

Lat i«ii^ = " to smear"]- 

To pour oil upon the head, or in any 
other way apply it to a person, or to a 
thing. Among the Jews there were an 
crdinaiT, a sacred, and a medicinal or 
sorgicaf anointing. The ordinary one 
vat amply a matter of the toilet (*2 Sam. 
m. 20; Han. x. 3 ; Matt. ri. 17). The 
uointing of the head with oil in the 
tine of Jesus was extended, as an act of 
tootesy, also to ^ests (Luke yii. 46). 
The lacred anointmg was o(mf erred on ' 
tbree cinwes of indiyiduals: prophets, 
jiieBtB, and kings. Elijah the prophet 
«ai directed to anoint Elisha, his successor 
(IKingszix.16). Aaron the high priest, and 
those who f ollowred him in the same office, 
were anointed with a holy consecrating oil 
(On] (Exod. xxviii. 41 ; xxix. 7 ; xzx. 30 ; 
xL 13, 15). finally, Saul (1 Sam. iz. 16 ; 
X. 1), Dayid (xv. 1 ; 2 Sam. ii. 7 ; iii. 39. 
etc). Sobmon (1 Kings i. 34), Hazael 
of Syria (xix. 15). Jehu (16), Jehoash 
(2 Kings xi. 12), ana others, were anointed 
kings. The Messiah of Old Testament 

at, was, as these names imply, 
specially the Aii<nnted One ; by whidi is 

prophecy, the Christ of New Testament 

probably meant, that He shouldf discharge 
the functions of prophet, priest and king. 
[Christ, Messiah.] Of things, the altar 
(Exod. xxix. 36 ; xl. 10), and the tabernacle 
(XXX. 26 ; xl. 9), the layer, etc. (xl. 9-11), 
woe also anointed. The medicinal or 
surgical anointing, not necessarily with oU, 
is referred to in Xoke x. 34, ana Bey. iii. 
18. There was also in the earl^ (^urch 
an anointing of the sick with oil, aooom- 
panied with a prayer of faith for a cure, 
to which a foyourable reply was promised 
> (James y. 14, 15). 

Aat [Middle Eng. amt, amst^ tnut^ 
mmet ; Anglo-Saxon amette], 

Any hymenopterous insect of the family 
Foradddse. They are social insects like 
bees and wasps, to which they are not re- 
motely akin. The species are numerous and 
^ndely diffused, the larger members, how- 
ever, occurring in the tropics. Ant, in the 
Old Testament, is the rendering of the 
Hebrew word Nemildhy Arabic Namhh, 
It it held up as an example, to the sluggard 
>nd others, of the good results which 
follow from industry, forethought, and 
o>-opetation in labour (Proy. yi. 6 ; xxx. 

25). The idea that ants lay in supplies of 
food on which to live in winter, is not 
asserted in Proy. yi. 6 ; all that is alleged 
is that the industrious insects lay in suppues 
in summer and in haryest. No information 
is ^yen as to whether, like the ants of 
Britain, they become torpid in winter, or 
whether, remaining active, they feed on 
their unexhausted stores. That the ants of 
Palestine are great robbers of grain in 
haryest is strongly asserted by Dr. Thom- 
son (.The Land and the Book tl859], 509). 
Col. Sykes in 1829 found an ant in India, at 
Poonan, storing grain, and called it Atta 
provident, Moggridge witnessed similar 
forethought exerdsed by certain ants in 
the south of Europe, and Dr. McC]look by 
others in Texas. 

Antelope [Gr. Antholotm], 

The EngUsh word used in the B.V. of 
Deut. xiy. 5, and Isa. 11. 20, for the animal 
called in Hebrew Tfo from tdah = ** to 
distance by running.'' Teo is probably a 
generic word, standmg for what naturalists 
call the sub-family AntilopiniB. The 
animal referred to in Deuteronomy — that 
called in the A. Y. the wild ox— is probably 
the White Antelope or Oryx (Antihpe 
leucoryx). Both sexes haye horns which 
are long, slender, conical, and with ring- 
like ridges round. The animal is white, 
with the exception of a long tuft of hair 
under the throat, which ib black. It is a 
natiye of Sennaar, Upper Egypt, and 
Arabia, and is said to be found in Syria. 
Of the numerous roedes comprised under 
the Antelope sub-family, Tnstram enu- 
merates flye as found in Palestine, or its 
vicinity. Of these, twoj besides the oryx, 
now described, aro mentioned in Scripture. 
[Gazelle, Ptoabo.] 

AntlolirUit [Gr. Antikhristos, from 
and = ** in antagonism to," or ** instead 
of," and KhrUtos = " Christ "]. 

One who either sets himself up in 
anta^nism to (Dhrist, or attempto to 
substitute himself in room of Clhnst (mv 
the etjrmology). Many such Antichnsts 
were to appear in **the last time" and 
enable the obsonrant to identify that time 
when it came (1 John ii. 19). Anyone 
denying the Father and the Son proved 
himselz an Antichrist (22). It was the 
same with one who denied the Incarnation 
(iv. 3 ; 2 John 7). Among these several Anti- 
christs, there was to be one called, bv way 
of pre-eminence, simply *' Antichrist,'* who 
was still to come ( 1 John ii. 18). The Anti- 
christs of St. John are not to be confounded 
with the ** false Christs" who were to 
precede the fall of Jerusalem (Matt. xxiy. 
5, 23. 24 ; Mark xiii. 6, 22 ; Luke xxi. 8). 
The former commenced by being mombers 
of the church, and then left it ; the latter 
were never within its pale, but were a 

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product of later Judaism, waiting for the 
redemption of Israel by means of a con- 
quering Messiah. No New Testament writer 
except St. John uses the term '^Anti- 
Christ.'' There has, however, been a general 
disposition to identify the typical Anti- 
christ of St. John with the " Man of Sin," 
and the *' Son of Perdition " of St. Paul, in 
2 Theas. ii. 3, and with one of the Apo- 
calyptic ** beasts " or *' living creatures," 
etc. As these identifications are not made 
in scripture, it will be better to treat each 

the river being navigable up to the city. 
Mount Casius approached it cloeely on the 
south, and the Amanus mountains were 
not ffir off on the west, whilst in front lay 
the valley or plain of the Orontes, five or 
six miles across. The city became large 
and numerously inhabited. lU population 
was a mixed one, chiefly Gentile, out also 
with not a few Jews. Its importance and 
its proximity to Palestine rendered it 
highly expedient that a Christian Church 
should be planted within its limits. Thi^ 


prophecy separately. [Beast, Man of 
Sin, etc.] Luther, Calvin, and other 
Reformers denounce the Papacy as Anti- 
christ, as many of their followers have 
subsequently done. They have applied to 
the same institution, also, many other New 
Testament passages which speak of an 
a]K>8tacy. Mohammed, also has been 
8tig[matised as the Antichrist ; and the Anti- 
christ has been constituted of all the 
corrupt individuals within the church 
universal, or any portions of that church 
itself which have become corrupt. 

Antlodh [Gr. Antiokheiay from a 
dignitary named Antiochus]. 

(1 ) The metropolis of Syria under the 
Macedonian Greek dynasty. It was 
founded B.C. 300 by Seleucus Nicator, and 
named by him after his father Antiochus. 
It was situated on the southern side of the 
Orontes, about 20 miles from its mouth, 

was done by Christians who fled from 
Jerusalem to avoid the persecution which 
arose upon the martynlom of Stephen. 
First the Jews who s] ake the Aramaic 
tongue were addressed, then the *' Gre- 
cians," i.e. the Jews who spoke Greek. 
Barnabas was despatched from Jerusalem 
to aid the good work ; and, after labour- 
ing there for a while, went to Tarsus, and 
fetched thence as a coadjutor the apostle 
Paul. For a whole year these two great 
evangelists made the dty the sphere of 
their labours. These so attracted the 
notice of the inhabitants in general that 
'* the disciples were called Christians first 
in Antioch" (Acts xi. 19-26). Further 
reinforcements arrived in the persons of 
*' prophets " (27), and the CHiurch there 
now becoming strong was able to dispense 
with the aid of Paul and Barnabas, who 
were Divinely chosen to carry the (Jospel 
to other parts (xiii. 1-4). On returning 

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ham thetr first miasioiiaiy journey Barna- 
bas and Pftiil sailod up the Orontes, and 
disembarked at Antiocii (xiv. 26). Many of 
the Christians at Antioch at this time were 
Gentilea, and Fftul and Barnabas were 
sent to them by the first council of Jeru- 
alem to intimate the decision which had 
been come to with regard to the rela- 
tion of Gentile oonverts to the Mosaic 
law {tt. 22, 23, 30). After delivering 
this message they returned to their 
Christian work in the dty (35). Their 
second, like their first missionary journey, 
oommenoed with a departure from 
Antioch (35, 36), to which Paul re- 
tonied, this time by the way of Caeearea 
(xviiL 22). It was at Antioch that the 
apostle witlistood ,^Peter to the face 

T»^ili:^C mI tt,i^ i(ii jlJb.hlJj^ 'i.iii!iij.iL rtii.Jl 

Tf^ard to the Gentile coiivnila (ilaL ii. 
llj* Th© city rettmine^l pn^nt^ and tho 
Cfaoi^ vr^it em to ilt'Vtil-'p wltili- t}i*j 

I em{iiriQ stood. In a,d. o.V^f IjvkMivn's, 
fim ^iraliiii kittf^T took mid 'h'^.u>^v<->[ [t. 
h WBB Inbuilt by the li-Mii...!i viiri-i- r 
Jialiiutfai, Xn a.I}. E3j it v.ii-c. 1.' n l^v iKo 
Sanuiend. from whom it {mmvil in Um tu 
tie Turks. E^cei>t between WM rmd 
VMB^ when It wu^ the seat of a CkrLstiiiTL 
hrngitom foundeil by the Cruiiti;*)^^, it \mi 
r«naln«d in Molmminadan h^nd^. It hiij 
>#ea, all along very liahle^ to oartbi;uiike9. 
line of which, o<n:umiig in 1M22, iliimi^^ 
Ju*timftii*s w^UI??. The [ilaro, htOl bulled 
'Jit " I .^MM^A- ujumportaiil. 

(^ A town in Asia Minor, also founded 
by Seleucus Nicator, and named after his 
father, Antiochus. Though situated in 
Fhiygia, it became the capital of the 
Roman jffovince of Pisidia. Bamai»s and 
Paul visited it on their first missionary 
joomey, Paul delivering a remarkable 
discourse within its synagogue. The visit, 
came to an end through the persecution of 
the evangelists (Acu xiii. 14-52; xiv. 
19-21 ; 2 tW. iii. 11). In 1833 ArundeU 
identified the ruins of this Antioch near 
the modem town of Talohatch, or Galo- 

Aiitlpaa[Gr., contraction of Antipater]. 

A martyr put to death for Christ s sake 
at Pergamos, in Asia Minor (Rev. ii. 
12. 13). 

See also Hebod (2). 

ABtlpatrls [Gr.1. [See the article.] 
A 'dty or town founded by Herod the 
Great, and called after Antipater, his 
father (Joseph. Antig. XVI. v. 2). It was 
the limit of Pbul^s first night journey whilst 
he was being taken as a prisoner from 
Jerusalem to Cssarea (Acts xziii. 31). 
Josrahus in one naasage appears to make 
Capbarsaba ana Antipatris identical 
{Antig. XHI. zv. 1), bat in another he 
I the two, calling Capbarsaba 

a plain and Antipatris a dty built within 
its limits (XVI. v. } 2). Capt. Conder 
located Antipatris at the ruined site of 
R4s el 'Ain, a large mound covered with 
ruins, from the sides of which on the 
north and west the river Aulah [Mejab- 
kon] pushes forth a full-siasea str«un. The 
place IS at the foot of the JudsBan hills. On 
the site of Herod^s dty are now the ruins 
of a large castle built in the time of the 

AntotliljAli [Heb. Antkothiyah = 
'* pravers fulfilled by Jehovah "]. 

A Benjamite, a son of Shashak (1 Chron. 
viii. 24). 

Antotbite [English]. 

A native or inhabitant of Anathoth 
(1 Chron. xi. 28; xii. 3). 

Annb [Heb. Anubh — ** joined to- 
gether "]. 

A man of Judah, a son of Cos (1 Chron. 
iv. 8). 

Ape [Anglo-Saxon Apa^ Gr. kepos, 
Malabar ana Sanscrit kajn or keji = " a 
monkey " ; keJi = •' swift," * " active " ; 
Sanscrit Ar«w/>=*'to tremble," "to 
move to and fro*']. 

The rendering of the Hebrew qoph, ** an 
animal brought from a distant country by 
the mariners of Solomon and Hiram 
(1 Kings X. 22 ; 2 Chron. ix. 21). Qoph is 
ai)parently the Malabar and Sanscrit keji^ 
with the letters slightly changed {see the 
etymology), in which case the navigators 
must either have visited Malabar or been 
in some market to which Malabar produc- 
tions were carried. Apes are without tails ; 
monkeys possess them. There is no 
genuine ape either in Malabar or in any 
other nart of India. Qoph is therefore 
probably a tailed monkey indigenous to 
Malabar, perhaps that called Ifanuman 
{Semnopithectu entellus)^ which is common 
througn India, and is worshipped as a 
god. It would be a curiosity in Palestine, 
especially to a naturalist like Solomon. 

ApellM [Gr.]. 

A Christian at Rome ** approved in 
Christ " to whom Paul sent a salutation 
(Rom. xvi. 10). 

Apharsftohttea, Apharsatlioliites 

[English from Aramaic Apharsekhaye and 
Apnarmth khayeV, 

A tribe brought from Assyria by ** As- 
napper," and settled in Samaria (Ezra iv. 

Apbandtes [English from Aramaic 

A tribe brought from Assyria by " As- 
napper," and settled in filamaria (Ezra 
iv. 9). 

Aphek [Heb. ^»A<'y =" strength," 
" a dtadel,'^ " a fortified dty "]. 

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(1) (?) A city, the king of which was 
conquered by Joshua. It may have been 
the same as No. 2, 3. or 4. Grove considers 
that it was, pernaps, identical with 
Aphskah (q.v.) (Josh. adi. 18). 

(2)A '*aty" within the territory of 
Asner (Josh. xiii. 4 ; xix. 30). It is called 
in Judg. i. 31 Aphik, and it is mentioned 
that the Asherites were unable to drive 
out the Ganaanite inhabitants. Gesenius 
thinks it was the same with the ancient 
^haca, famous for its temple of Venus. 
If so, then it is the modem Afka on the 
nori^-westem acclivity of the Lebanon 
range of mountains. 

(3) A city or district where the Philis- 
tines pitched before the battle in which • 
they captured the ark (1 Sam. iv. 1). It 
may possibly have been the same as No. 4, 
though a more southerly site would better 
agree with the topography of the battle. 
It has been placed doubtfully at Belled el 
Foka, meaning Upper Town, near Gath. 

(4) (?) A city near Jezreel, and therefore 
witlun the territoiy of Issachar. The 
Philistines made it uieir place of rendez- 
vous just before the battle of Gilboa (1 
Sam. xxix. 1). The Palestine explorers 

Slace it very doubtfully at FukCra, on 
[ount Gilboa. 

(5) A dty situated in a plain, to which 
Bennadad advanced with the intention of 
giving battle to Ahab, and to which he 
and his army retreated after his defeat, a 
wall (that of the city [?]) falling and killing 
27,000 of his soldiers (1 Kings zx. 26-30). 
Elisha predicted that Joash, king of Israel, 
should (three times) (?) smite the Syrians 
at Aphek, till they were consumed (2 
Kings xiii. 14-19). It has been identified 
with Fik, about six miles east of the Lake 
of Galilee. 

Apbekab (lleb. Apheqah = ^' fortify- 
ing," ** a fortification "]. 

A city, town, or village in the mountains 
of JucUih (Josh. XV. 53). Probably the 
same as Aphek (1) (q.v.). 

Ajj^hlah [Heb. ^/)/<iaM = '< revivified," 
*♦ restored**]. 

A Benjamite, an ancestor of King Saul 
(1 Sam. ix. 1). 

; [Aphek (2)] (Judg. i. 31). 

Aphrah [Heb. Aphrah from aplmr — 

A wora which, in the A.V. of Micah i. 
10. looks like a place named dust, but the 
E.V. calls it in the text Beth-le- Aphrah, 
i.e, the House of the Dust, and on the 
margin gives another reading. 

Aplises [Happizzez] (1 Chron. zxiv. 


Apooalsrpae [Gr. apokahtpsis = ** on 
uncovering," " a revelation "]. 

A name frequently given to the last book 
of the Bible. [Revelation.] 

ApooiTidia [Lat. from Gr. apokruj^hn 
= *' hidden things," used by ecclesiastical 
writers (1) for unrecognised, uncanonical : 

(2) forged, spurious; apokntpto = **to 
hide foom "]. 

The name generallygiven to the sixteen 
following books (1) 1 Esdras, (2) 2 Esdras, 

(3) Tobit, (4) Judith. (5) The rest of Esther, 
(6) Wisdom, (7) Ecclesiasticus, (8)Baruch, 
with the Epistle of Jeremiah, (9) The Soug 
of the Three Children, (10) The Story of 
Susanna, (1 1 ) The Idol Bel and the Draoon, 
(12) The Prayer of Manasses, <13) 1 Mac- 
cabees, (14) 2 Bfaocabees, (15) 3 Maccabees, 
and (16) 4 Maccabees. Sometimes tlie 
number is limited to 14, 3 and 4 Maccabees 
being omitted. 

Unlike the books of the Old Testam^it, 
which are in Hebrew, with the exception 
of a few verses in Aramaic, the Apocry- 
phal productions are in Greek. The 
Jewish church considered them uninspired, 
and some of their writers disclaim inspira- 
tion (Prologue to Ecclesiasticus ; 1 Mac«. 
iv. 46; ix. 27; 2 Mace. ii. 23; xv. 38). The 
Apocrypha is never quoted by Jesus or 
His apostles. The early churches when 
settling the canon rejected it, their decision 
carrying authority during the middle ages, 
as it does now with the various Protestant 
churches. Thus the Church of England 
in the sixth of the *♦ 39 articles " calls the 
apocryphal treatises books which '*the 
Cnurch doth read for example of life and 
instruction of manners ; but yet doth it 
not ftpply them to establish any doc- 
trine." The Council of Trent at its 
sitting on April 15, 1546, declared eleven 
of the sixteen apocryphal books to be 
.canonical, and pronounced an anathema 
against anyone who ventured to differ 
from it in opinion. This has since 
regulated the belief of the Boman Catholic 
Church. The Apocrypha was formerly 
inserted in many Protestant Bible?, 
between the Old and New Testaments, 
but a controversy on the subject carried 
on between the years 1821 and 1826 
resulted in the exclusion of the Apocrypha 
from all Bibles issued by the Bible Society. 
"Viewed as mere human productions, the 
Apocryphal books vary greatly from each 
otner m merit. 

(1) 1 Esdras. Esdras is simply the Greek 
form of Ezra, and thi Apocryphal book 
narrates the decline an I fall of the kingdom 
of Judah from the time of Josiah, the 
destruction of Jerusalem, the Babylonian 
captiWty, the return of the exiles, and the 
share taken by Ezra in reorganising the 
Jewish polity. In some respects it 
amplifies the Scripture narrative, but the 
adoitions are of doubtful authority. The 

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cMionical book of Ezra may have been 

rihlished about B.O. 457. The uncanonical 
Eedns is followed by Joeephua aJ), 93 
(cf. 1 Esdraa iii. 1-iv. 44, with Joaeph., 
Antiq. XI. iii. 2-8, etc.). How much 
earlier than his time it existed, there is no 
eridenoe to show. Nor is its author 

(2) 2 Eidras. This is in quite a diiferent 
stjle from 1 Esdras, ana tiie two can 
scaroely have had the same author. It is 
not a historic book, but is a relisious 
^eatise, much in the style Gt the Hemew 
presets. Its author is unknown, and its 
date has been placed about 50-43 B.C., or 
28-25 B.C., or m>m about a.d. 88 to about 
A.D. 117. Whenever published, it was sub- 
sequently interpolated by some Christian. 
Thus Jeeus is mentioned by name (vii. 28 k 
tnd is called by God, ** my son Christ ^* 
(29, cf. alBO ziii. 37, 52 ; ziv. 9) ; the Holy 
Ghost is expressly named (xiv. 22). God 
' oompaTes His care in gathering His people 
together to that of a hen gathering her 
diiAens under her wings (cf. 2 Esd. i. 30 
vith Hatt. xxiii. 37), and there are many 
otiier resemblances to the New Testament. 
But the thinking of the book is Jewish, 
and the distincuvely Christian passages 
are wanting in the Arabic and the Ethiopic 
versions — a strong proof that they did not 
emanate from the original writer. 

(3) Tobit.' This is a narrative of a 
certain pious Naphtalite, Tobit by name, 
who has a son Tobias. The father loses 
his eyesight : the son, dispatched to obtain 
payment of a debt to Kages in Media 
(which does not seem at the time to have 
been built), is led on by an angel to 
Edi^ana, where he makes a romantic 
marriage with a widow, who still remained 
a virgin, though she had been married to 
seven husbands, all of whom had been 
kUled by Asmodeus, the evil spirit, on their 
marriage day. Tobias, however, is en- 
couraged by the angel to become the eighth 
hnshsand of the virain- widow, and escapes 
death by burning the inner parts of a ^, 
the smoke of which nuts the evil spirit to 
flight. Then he cures his father^sbhncbiees 
by anointing the darkened eyes with tiie 
^U of the fish which had already proved so 
useful. Tobit is manifestly a tale, and not 
a serious narrative. The most probable date 
of t^ publication is about 350 B.C., or from 

(4) Judith. This is a narrative profess- 
ing to be a historv of the way in which 
Jiuith, a Jewish widow woman, of 
masculine temperament, insinuated herself 
into the good graces of Holofemes, an 
Aasyrian Commander-in-Chief, then 
beneging Bethulia, and seizing bis sword 
when he waa aaleep, cut off his head. It 
is very doubtful ii there is any trutii in 
the story, whidi may possibly have been 

suggested to the author by the narrativo 
of Jael and Sisera (Judg. iv. 17-22|. The 
first distinct reference to the book is in an 
epistle of Clement of Rome, about the 
end of the 1st century ▲.d., but it may 
have existed as early as 175 to 100 B.C., 
say four or six hundred years after the 
event it pof essed to record. By that time 
to say that Nabuchodonoeor, apparently 
Nebuchadnezzar, reigned in Nineveh, 
instead of Babylon (Judith i. 1), would 
not look so erroneous as it would to a con- 
temporary of the great king^ Judith may 
have first been published in Aramaic. 

(5) * * The rest of the chapters of the Book 
of Esther, which are found neither in the 
Hebrew nor in the Chaldee.** JT Aramaic] 
The canonical Esther ends with a short 
tenth chapter of three verses. The 
Apocryphal production adds thirteen 
verses more, and six chapters (xi.-xvi.). 
They amplify parts of the Scripturo 
narrative, without furnishing a new fact 
worth remembering. They were inter- 
polated by two distinct writers. Their 
date is uncertain. Prof. Sayoe considers 
that the Greek text took its present form 
in the fourth year of Ptolemy Philometor, 
B.O. 178. 

(6) The Wisdom of Solomon. This is 
an ethical treatise in commendation of 
wisdom and righteousness, and in denun- 
ciation of iniquity and idolatry. The 
passages which ^mt out the sin and folly 
of image worship recall those on tiie same 
theme in Pbalms and Isaiah (cf. Wisdom 
xiii. 11-19 with P&alm cxv.; cxxxv. 15-18; 
and Isa. xl. 19-25; xHv. 9-20). It is 
remarkable to what an extent the author, 
in referring to historical incidents illustra- 
tive of his doctrine, limits himself to tiiose 
recorded in the Pentateuch. He says that 
he was chosen by God as king of His 
people, and was by Him directed to build 
a tcnnple and an altar, the former on the 
model of the tabernacle, and in other 
words he asserts that he was Solomon. 
The claim cannot be sustained. He was a 
man of genius and of piety, his religious 
character being sustained by his belief in 
immortality. He lived apparently between 
150 and 50 B.C., and posubly between 120 
and 80 B.o. Though never formally quoted 
or in any way referred to in the New 
Testament, yet occasionally both its 
language and its trains of thought some- 
what resembb those in the book of Wisdom 
(cf. Wisdom v. 18-20 with Ephes. vi. 
14-17 ; Wisdom vii. 26 with Heb. i. 26; and 
Wisdom xiv. 13-31 with Rom. i. 19-32). 

(7) Ecclesiasticus. called also the 
Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach. This 
is a comparatively long work, extending 
to fifty-one chapters. ** A prologue made 
by an uncertain author *' explains that 
sentences in the book began to be collected 

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by a certain Hebrew called Jesus, who 
had nearly finished his task when his death 
occurred. His manuscrq>t was taken 
charge of by his son Sirach, and was ulti- 
mately completed and published by his son, 
called after his grandfather Jesus. In 
chapter 1. 1-21 he greatly commends 
Simon, the high priest, the son of Onias, 
probably the pontiff of that name who 
Uved between 370 and 300 B.C. The work 
may, therefore, have been published 
between 290 and 280 B.C. The 

implies that it was originally in Hebrew, 
from which a grandson of the second 
Jesus (?) transited it into Greek ** in the 
eight-and-thirtieth year coming into 
E^ypt, when Euergetes was king.*' He 
rcffers probably to ftolemy HI., sumamed 
Euergetes, who was king of Egypt from 
247 to 222 B.C. The compilers or authors 
designed that the great theme of their 
work should be wisaom. It is a valuable 
ethical treatise, in places reminding us of 
the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and 
parts of Job in the canonical Scrii)turee, 
and of the Wisdom of Solomon in the 
Apocrypha. It is (generally quoted as 
Ecclus.^ to distinguish it from Eccles. 

(8) Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah. 
Bfiunich was Jeremiah's friend [Babuch]. 
The first five chapters are made nominally 
to emanate from Baruch, while the siztn 
is headed "The Epistle of Jeremiah.'' 
The first is intended to comfort the Jews 
during the Babylonian captivi^ Inr a 
promise that they should ultimately return 
to their own land ; the second to warn 
them against Babylonian idolatry (cf . with 
Baruch i., Dan. iz; with Baruch li. and iii.. 
Lev. xxvi. and Deut. xxviii.). Baruch was 
penned apparently in the second century 
B.O., and tne Epistle of Jeremy probably 
about the same date, or even a century 
later. If so, then Uiey came into eidstence 
about 500 or more years after the days of 
Baruch and Jeremiah. 

(9) The Song of the Three Holy Children 
was designed to fit into the canonical 
Daniel between iii. 23, 24. Its author and 
exact date are unknown. (Cf. verses 35-68 
with Psalm cxlviii.) 

(10) The Story of Susanna. This i» also 
an Apocryphal addition to Daniel, showing 
how the prophet sagaciously discovered an 
accusation that Susanna, a godly woman, 
had sinned grievously to be a malignant 
slander. Ito author and date are un- 

(11) The Idol Bel and the Dragon. Yet 
another Apocryphal addition to the 
canonical book of Daniel. The prophet 
proves that the priests of Bel and their 
families ate the food offered to the idol. 
And he kiUs a dragon, for which, a second 
time, he is put into a lion's den. The first 

part of the book is credible : the seoood 
IS transparently fabulous. Author and 
date unknown. 

(12] **The prayer of Manasses, king of 
Judah, when he was holden captive in 
Babvlon" (cf. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 12, 13). 
Author unknown ; date probably the first 
century b c? 

(13) 'The first book of the Maccabees. 
A nistorical work of priceless value, giving 
an account of the Jewish war of independ- 
ence, under the Maccabee family of Levites 
in the second century b.o. [HifiTOBT (Inteb- 
Biblical)]. Its author, whose name is 
unknown, was evidently a Jew belonging to 
Palestine. Two opinions exist as to its date. 
The one places it oetween 120 and 106 B.O., 
the other between 10-3 and 64 B.C. It may 
have been translated into Greek from a 
Hebrew original. 

(14) ''The second book of Maccabees " 
is much less valuable, and the. author has 
a love of the marvellous which diminishes 
the credibility of his narrations, thouffh. 
in the main, uiey may contain a good aeal 
of truth. The date is believed to have 
been between B.C. 124 and b.c. 50. 

J 15) The third book of the Maccabees 
ers to events before the war of inde- 
pendence. The leading incident is the 
attempt of Ptolemy Iv. Philipator in 
217 B.C. to penetrate into the Holy of 
Holies, and his subsequent persecution of 
the Jews in Alexandria. It nas been dated 
about 200 B.C., and again been brought 
down as late as 39 or 40 a.d. 

(16) The fourth book of liaccabees. This 
is a moral treatise advocating the mastery 
of the passions, and illustrating its teach- 
ing by examples of constancy under suffer- 
ing drawn from Maccabean times. It has 
been dated 39 or 40 B.C. 

Apomryplial History. The history of 
the period during which nearly all the 
events recorded in the Apocrypha hap- 
pened and most of the Apocryphal books 
were written [History (Inteb- Bibucal)]. 

Apollonla [Gr. = " ApoUo-town," i.e. 
" town under the patrona^ of Apollo, the 
youthful *god' of music, song, sooth- 
saying, archery," etc.]. 

A town of Macedonia between Amphi- 
polis and Theasalonica. Paul passed by, 
or through, it on his missionary journey to 
the latter place (Acts xvii. 1). it is now 
called Polfina. 

Apollo* [Gr. ApolUmius or Apoliodorw] 

A Jew bom at Alexandria, and who, 
having assumed a Greek name, probably 
used that language rather than Hebrew 
in his daily conversation. He was 
naturally eloquent, and had moreover 
acquired great knowledge of the Old 

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Teetament scriptures. He became a 
disciple of John the Baptist, and sealoosly 
pro|»gated the half-deyeloped Cluis- 
tianity which was all that the forerunner 
knew. While itinerating in Asia Minor 
for this pmpofle, he met Aquila and 
Prisdlla at Ephesns, who instructed him 
more fully, and gave him, or sent before 
him, lettors of in^oduction to the brethren 
in Achaia, or Greece, exhorting them 
to afford him all needed attendance 
(Acts xriii. 24-28). The disciples with 
whom Paul soon afterwards fell in at 
Ephesns, who knew only John^s baptism, 
and had never heard that there was a 
Holy Ohoet, were doubtless the converts 
of ApoUos (xix. 1-7). His preaching at 
Corinth raised a party in the diurcn at 
that place (1 Cor. i. 12 ; iii 4, 5, 6, 22; 
iv. 6). But Paul had aH confidence in 
him, and urged him to revisit Corinth 
(xvi 12). He also enjoined Titus to help 
ApoUos, apparently then in or on his way to 
Crete (Titus iii. 1 3) . It is now thought by 
many scholars that ApoUos was the writer 
of the Efistleto the Hebbews (q.v.). 

Ap^llyon [Gr. ApoUuon, as an adjec- 
' tive = " destroying " ; as a noun = " a 
datojyer "]. 

The angel of the abyss. The same as 
Abaddoh (2) (q.v.) (Rev. ix. 11). 

Apostla [Gr. aposlolo* = " one sent 
forth," ** a messenger," '* an ambassador " 
" an envoy " (cf. John xiiL 16 in Greek, 
also the margin of the B.T.} . AootUUo = 
** to tend off or away irom " ; apo — 
"from," and $Ullo = ''^io send." The 
word missionary also means *' one sent," 
but comes ircm Latin instead of from 

(1) One of the men selected by Jesus to 
be ^s attendants during His earthly 
ministry, and His ambassadors to mankind 
after He had Himself quitted the world. 
They were chosen in succession at a very 
eariy period of the Saviour*s pubUc life. 
First came Andrew and hisbrotner Simon, 
the weU-known Simon Peter (Matt. iv. 
18-20 ; X. 2 ; Mark i. 16-18 ; Luke vi. 14 : 
John L 35-42) ; then apparently James 
and John (sons of Zebedee) (Matt. iv. 
21,22 ; X. 2 ; Mark L 19, 20; Luke vi. 14); 
then seemingly Philip and Nathanael, 
named also Bartholomew (John i. 43-51) ; 
and subsequently six more, viz., lliatthew, 
caUedalso Levi (cf. Matt. ix. 9-13 ; Mark 
ii. 14-17 ; Luke v. 27-32} ; Thomas ; James 
the son of Alphaeus ; Simon Zelotes, t.^. 
** the zealot," caUed also, by a mistransla- 
son, the Canaanite ; Judas, the brother of 
James ; and Judas Iscariot (Matt. x. 1-4 ; 
Mark iii. 16-19; Luke vi. 13-16; Acts 
i 13). The apostles are sometimes said to 
have been illiterate men. The charge was 
first made by the higher Jewish digni- 

taries who had before them Peter and John 
(Acts iv. 13). All thev seem to have 
meant, however, was that the apostlea 
had received what now would be caUed 
elementary rather than higher education. 
Jeeus g^ave great attrition to their spirit- 
ual training ; and a certain slow advance 
was perceptible in their knowledge and 
their fitness for their high office: but 
during the whole time that our Lord was 
with them they once and again showed 
serious imperfections. To the last they 
failed to understand His mission, believing 
that He was about to set up a temponu 
rather than a spiritual kingdom (Matt. xx. 
20-28; Mark x. 35-4d ; Acts i. 6); they 
slept in the hour of His agony in the 
garden (Matt. xxvi. 40), and held aloof aU 
the day of His death on the cross (Matt, 
xxvi. 66 ; Mark xiv. 60). They were often 
caUed disciples, t.^. scholars (Matt. xi. 1 ; 
xiv. 26 ; XX. 17 ; John xx. 2) ; and, as in the 
case of ordinary pupils, some had a clearer 
comprehension of the Teacher*s instruc- 
tions and a higher appreciation of Himself. 
Peter, James the son of Zebedee, and 
John seem to have possessed this merit, 
and on three different occasions thev were 
singled out from the rest for special privi- 
lege. Thev were in the room at the raising 
from the aead of Jairus^s daughter (Mark 
V. 37; Luke viii. 51); thev were present 
at the Transfiguration (Matt. xvii. 1 : Mark 
ix. 2; Luke ix. 28), and were in the 
cnrden of Gethsemane during the agony 
(Matt. xxvi. 37; Mark xiv. 33). Peter, 
thouf^h rash and impetuous in speech, was 
constitutionaUy the best fittea to lead. 
John was the disciple whom Jesus loved 
(John xix. 26 ; xx. 2 ; xxi. 7, 20). Thomas 
was more scruimlous as to evidence than 
his associates, but yielded when the proof 
he sought was complete. Judas, ** the son 
of perdition," was the traitor, who, 
betraying his Divine Lord to death for 
filthy lucre's sake, and then repenting, 
committed suicide. The step taken to ml 
his place showed t^t the number of 
the apostles, fixed originally at twelve, 
requited, for a time at least, to be kept 
at that figure ; the reason probably was 
that there might be as many apostles 
as there were tribes of Israel. A note- 
worthy circumstance also about the new 
election was that among the qualifi- 
cations of an apostle one was that the 
candidate must have so associated with 
Jesus and the apostles as to be able to 
speak as an eve- witness of the incidents 
which took place (Acts i. 21, 22). Two 
men possessing this and other quaUfica- 
tions, the one Joseph, called Barsabas and 
Justus, and the other Matthias, the lot or 
the vote feU upon Matthias, who was con- 
sequently elected in Judas*s room (Acts 
i. 15-26 ; of. with verse '20, P&alm cix. 8). 

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The descent of the H0I7 Spirit on the 
daj of Pentecost produced a spiritual 
transformation on the apostles, fitting 
them for the neat work to which they 
were called — the evangelisation of the 
world (Acts ii. 1-47). To this they at once 
addressed themselyes, Peter and John 
taking the lead (iii. l-v. 42 ; ix. 32-xii. 18). 
James, their old associate, must also have 
been very zealous, for he became so 
obnoxious to the Jewish authorities. that 
. th^ slew him with the sword (Acts xii. 2). 
If the "twelve" were designed specially 
for the Jews, an apostle was needed for the 
Gentiles, and Paul was Divinely chosen 
for the arduous and responsible office (Acts 
ix. 1-31 ; xzii. 5-16 ; xxVL 1-20}. He had 
not the apostolic qualification tnat he had 
itinerated with Jesus whilst our Lord was 
in the flesh; but in lieu of this Jesus 
appeared to him and spoke to him, 
cbang^ing his hostility into passionate 
devotion. He was able to say ** Am I not 
an apostle . . . have I not seen Jesus 
Christ our Lord " (1 Cor. ix. 1). Paul was 
a hiffhly educated man, and in him, 
therefore. Divine sanction was ^ven to 
the princii)le tiiat the evangelist who 
addreiBses highly-edijcated aucuences, like 
those which the Apostle of the Gentiles 
met at Athens, Uome, and elsewhere, 
should^ if ^ssible, possess high culture. 
Nor did his acquirements lead him away 
from his proper work. His labours were 
so abundant that the record of them fills 
about half the yoiume called the Acfts of 
the Apostles, and quite casts into the shade 
the achievements of the older ** twelve." 
AVhere the several apostles laboured, how 
they lived, and how thej died, is in 
most cases known only by the doubtful 
evidence of tradition. One matter, how- 
ever, and an all-important one, i» placed 
by tradition on a secure foundation, 
namely, that no second Judas appearea 
among them, none ever declared that he 
found he had erred, believing that the 
mission of Jesus was Divine ; all were faith- 
ful to the end : and some at least, if not 
even the majority, sealed their testimony 
with their blood. 

(2) The word is occasionally applied in a 
less restricted sense in the New Testament 
to men of apostolic gifts, graces, labours, 
and success. It is so notably of Barnabas 
(Acts xiv. 4, 14). Similarly one still meets 
with such expressions as Judson the Apostle 
of Burmah. 

AmMdm [Heb. = " the two nostrils," 
the dual of twh = " a nostril "]. 

A man of Judah, the younger son of 
Xadab (1 Chron. u. 30, 31). 

Apphla [Gr. from Appta^ a Lat. female 
A Christian woman, to whom St. Paul 

sent his salutation in his letter to Philemon, 
whose wife she may have been (Phile- 
mon, 2). 

Appli Fomm [Lat. = ** the open space 
or market place of Appius "]. 

A locality in Italy to which the Chris- 
tians from Rome came out to wdoome 
Paul when he was being brought as a 
prisoner to that capital (Acts xxviii. 15). 
It was a small town about 43 Roman, or 
39} English miles from Rome, and secured 
its name from heing situated on the 
celebrated Appian way from Rome to 
Capua, «(Oonstructed by Appius Claudius. 
Its ruins exist near Triponti. 

Jkpple [English]. 

The fruit of tne Afple-Tbee (q.v.) 
(Prov. XXV. 11 ; Song ii. 5 ; vii. 8). 

f (1) Apple of Sodom [Vine %\ 

(2) Apple of the eye. The ball of the 
eye^ the eyeball {Deut. xxxii. 10 ; Psdm 
xvii. 8 ; Itov. vii. 2 ; Lam. ii. 18 ; Zech. 

Appla-tree [English}. 

The rendering, both m the A^V. and in 
the R.V., of the Hebrew Tappuahh^ which • 
stands both for the tree and its fruit. It 
is from Naphath = ** to diffuse an odour." 
If the expression "apples of gold" in 
Prov. xxY. 11 be interpreted ** apples of 
golden colour," then some tree of theorange 
fiunily, and probably the dtron, would be 
meant, but the language is apparently 
figurative. Tappuah seems akin to the 
i^bic tufflLha {Catafago)^ meaning an 
apple, and the one referred to in the Old 
Testament is probably our English apple- 
tree Pynt» Malua. which Dr. Thomson 
found growing splendidly at Askelon in 
the PhiBstine country. He points out (in 
the Land and tfte Book, ed. 1859, p. 546) 
that the citron is too diminutive ana buahj 
a tree to answer to the descriptions of it 
in Song ii. 3 ; viii. 5. In Joel s time, the 
apple-tree is enumerated with the vine, 
the fig-tree, the pomegranate, and the 
palm-tree, as one of the chief trees 
cultivated (Joel i. 12). There were two 
towns callea Tappuah (q.v.), where doubt- 
less many apple-wees grew. The apple- 
tree is the t™ of an order Tbtnaeetr 
(Apple worts) belon^g to the Rosales 
(Rosal Alliance). It is of the same genus 
as the pear, and the same species as the 
crab-tree growing in English woods, the 
sour trmt of the crab beuig transformed 
into the sweet fruit of the apple, simply by 

Aqnila [A Latin word = <* an eagle." 
In N.T. Greek Akulas]. 

A Jew, bom in Pontus, who with hit 
wife, Prisdlla or Prisca, lived for a time at 
Rome, but had to leave that city when tba 

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Emperor Claudius commanded all its 
Jewish inhabitants to depart. He removed 
to Corinth, where he worked at his craft, 
tent-makinff. Paul, who was then there, 
and was of the same occupation^ lodged 
with him and formed a high opmion of 
him and his wife (Acts xviii. 1-3). In the 
Apostle's First Epistle to the Corinthians, 
the two join him in sending salutations from 
Asia, ue. probably from Ephesus (1 Cor. 
xri 19). They were his fellow-passengers 
from Corinth as far as Ephesus, on his 
way to Syria (Acts xviii. 18, 19). There 
th^ found the eloquent, but uien only 
partially enlightened, ApoUoe, and in- 
structed him more completely in Christian 
doctrine (26). Afterwards they seem to 
have been permitted to return to Rome, 
for P^ul sends them salutations in his letter 
to the metropolitan church (Rom. zvi. 3). 
Bat they must again have left it for 
Ephesus (f), for in the Apostle's second 
Epistle to Timothy, written from Rome, 
aalatations are sent them anew (2 Tim. iv. 

Ar [Heb. and Moabite = '' a city '']. 

One of the chief cities of Moab, more 
foUy called Ar of Moab(Isa. xv. 1). It was 
to unnortant a place that it is sometimes 
used ngurati^ely for Moab itself (Numb, 
xxi. Id, 28 ; Deut. ii. 9, 29). It lay not far 
from the ** border *' of the Moabite country, 
U. near to Amon (Numb. xxi. 15 ; Deut. 

The Greeks, not knowing what Ar 
meant, supposed that it must be connected 
with their Ares (the Roman Mars), the 
god of war, and called it after him Areo- 
pohs (the city of Mars). The Jews and 
others in the early Christian oentiuries had 
another name for it, Rabbah Moab, or 
simplT Rabbah (q.v.). Its ruins, still 
calfecl Rabba, have been found ten miles 
BoaUi of the Amon. They are traversed 
by a Roman road. Remains apparently 
of Roman age have been founa— carved 
worioL Corinthian capitals, vaults, and 
archea cellars, the building material beinf 
chiefly limestone, with a few blocks en 
baaslt (Tristram LandofMoaby etc.). 

Ara [Heb. Ard =» " a Hon " (?)]. 
A man of Asher (1 Chron. vii. 38). 

Arab [Reh.Arabh = '*an ambuscade**!. 

A village in the hill country of Judah 
(Joshua zv. 52). Capt. Conder located it 
at er Rabtyeh, soutii of Hebron. 

[Heb. ArdbA4h = *'s, desert,** 

fnm4rabh = " to be dry *']. 

Aiabah, in the R.V. without the article, 
is tranaUted desert rJer. 1. 12 , U. 43). 
With the definite article, it is the geo- 
[ifaical name of that great depression of 
land eztonding from the waters of 

Merom to the Gulf of Akaba on the Red 
Sea. In the R.y. it is properly left un- 
translated. In the Old Testament the sea 
of Chinnereth (the Lake of Oalilee) is said 
to be in the Arabah (Josh. xii. 5— R.V.). 
TheSaltSea or Dead Sea, also in the denree- 
8ion,is called the sea of the Arabah (Josh. iii. 
16 ; adi.3 ; xviii. 18 ; Deut. iv.49— all R.V.). 
It is connected with Elath and Ezion-ffaber 
on the Gulf of Akaba (Deut. ii. 8). Other 
passages referring to tne Arabah are Josh, 
xii. '1— R.V, ; 2 Sam. iv. 7— R.V. ; and 
2 Kings XXV. 4— R,V. The Arabs now call 
it the Ghor. For its levels. Me Jordan ; 
for its climate and geology, sm Pixeb- 


AraUa JEng. , Lat. and Gtr. ^ro^ui, Ara- 
bic Arabf Heb. Ardbh from Ardbh = ** to 
be dry and sterile ** {Getenim), Of several 
other verbs drabhy one means ** to mix,** 
whence the R.V. substitutes ** mingled 
people ** for Arabs in 1 King . x. 15]. 

According to modem geographers the 
most westeny of the three great peninsulas 
in Southern Asia. It lies between 34> and 
12» 40' N. latitude, and 32» SO* to 60» E. 
longitude. Its northern boundary resem- 
bles a triangle, with the angle which points 
northward mtervening between Syria and 
Mesopotamia; its southern limit is the 
Arabian Sea ; it is bounded on the east by 
the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, 
and on the west by the Red Sea. Its 
length from north to south is about 1 ,500 
miles; its average breadth fron east to 
west, about 800; its area about 1,139,000 
square miles. In andent times, however, 
Arabia was no more than the Sinaitic 
Peninsula, with the Asiatic regions 
adjacent, while Strabo, in tiie first century 
▲.D., applied the name to the district 
between the Gulf of Suez and the Nile, 
now universally assigned to Egypt. 
Arabia, in the modem sense, is an 
elevated tableland, sloping on the north 
towards the Syrian desert, and in other 
places separated from the coast by a low- 
lying sandy region. The eastern hemi- 
sphere is crossed by an enormous belt of 
desert, commencing near the Atlantic 
Ocean, traversing the Sahara and Eg3rpt, 
and then running through Arabia, Persui, 
and Chinese Tartary, almost to the Pacific 
Ocean. Arabia liesm this belt, and, speak- 
ing broadly, it tends to be a desert. It is 
not, however, universally so, and Ptolemy, 
the geographer of Alexandria who wrote 
in the second century a.d., divided the 
coun^ into three regions — Arabia Felix 
(the Happv), meaning the fertile Arabia, 
Milton*s Araby ike Bleet (Milton, TtiradUe 
Last, bk. iv.), Arabia Petraea (the Stony^, 
and Arabia Deserta (the Desert). Arabia 
Felix was of indemiite extent; Arabia 
Petraea, having for its capital Petra [Seli], 

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was the ctiatrid; between the Bed and the 
Dead Seas ; and Arabia Deserta the pro- 
jectin^ angle on the northern bonndur, 
sometimes called the Syrian desert. The 
rivers are few and smaU, none navigable. 
The geology is little known, the best 
explored part being the Sinaitic Peninsula 
(Sinai]. The great feature of the botany is 
the prevalence of aromatic plants, some of 
them furnishing valuable spices. Of its 
birds the most noted b the ostrich ; of its 
quadruneds the camel, the Arab horse, and 
the wila ass. Various tribes mentioned in 
Gen. z. 7, Hazarmaveth in verse 26, 
Ishmael, a very typical Arab, as being " a 
wild man " with his hand against evcory 
man, and every man*s hand against hvm 
(xvi, 12), dome of the sons of Keturah 
<xxv. 1-4), and Esau all seem to have 
settled within the limits of Arabia (xzxiii. 
16; zxxvi. 1-19). Solomon bought from 
the Arabs sold, silver, and spices (1 Kings 
X. 14, Id ; 2 Chron. ix. 14^ and .Tehosha- 
phat and the Syrians flocks of sheep and 
ffoats (2 Chron. xvii. 11 ; Ezek. xxvii. 21). 
Li the reign of Jehoram, the Arabs witii 
other marauders plundered Jerusalem 
^2 Chron. xxi. 16). They were afterwards 
defeated by Uzziah. Job^s friends seem to 
have been Arabs. ITsma..] Isaiah and 
Jeremiah denounced judgments against 
their race (Isa. xxi. 13-17; Jer. xxv. 24}, 
and both used the wandering Arab in their 
poetic illustrations (Isa. xiii. 20; Jer. iii. 2). 
There were Arabs present on the day of 
Pentecost (Acts ii. 11) , and Paul sojourned 
for a time in Arabia, before oommendnff 
his apostoUo work (Gal. i. 17). Recent 
research in Arabia has brou^^ to light 
the startlinff fact that a civilised power 
called the Bfo*in orMinsean kingdom existed 
in the south of that ooimtry , in the century 
before the exodus of the IsraeUtes from 
Ejgypt. The names of thirty-three Miniean 
kings have been recovered, and it is now 
thought tiiat it was the Mixueans, and not, 
as formerly believed, the Phoenioians, from 
whom the Greek, the Boman, and our own 
alphabet was derived. The Mtufwui king- 
dom was ultimately superseded by the 
Sabeeans, the people of the Scriptural 
Sheba (Prof. Sayce in the Gmietnporary 
Review for December, 1890). The scan- 
tiness of water, the courage of the 
Arabs, and their wandering life, pre- 
vented even the greatest of the anaent 
empires from conquering Arabia, and 
holding it in subjection. Both Judaism 
and Christianity mid rooted themselves in 
Arabia when, in the seventh century of the 
Christian era, Mohammed arose. Before 
his death (a.D. 632) his faith was every- 
where dommant throughout the Peninsuut, 
and in a century more the Saracens, inning 
t^ence^ had put in danger tiie civilisation 
and faith of the whole Christian world. 

[Enff., Heb. ArabAi^ smgnlar ; 
ArebhitHy plunu; Gr. Arapt, singular; 
ArabeSy plural]. 

One of the Arab race; a native or 
inhabitant of Arabia (2 Chron. xvii. 11 ; 
Isa. XXX. 20 ; Acts ii. 11). 

Arad [Heb. Arddh = ''sL wild ass." 
According to Gesenius this is an abbrevia- 
tion for mtharadh = " house of the wild 
ass," i.e, ** the place near which wild asses 
abounded "]. 

(1) According to tiie A.V. an oM 
Canaanite king (Numb. xxi. 1 ; xxxiiL 40). 
but the B.y. has a different reading of 
these passages, *^ And the Canaanite, the 
king of Anui, which dwelt in the south *' 
thus making Arad the dty, and not the 
king. With this last reading other passages 
agree. The king of Arad at first defeated 
the Israelites when they were approaching 
Palestine from the wilderness, but soon 
afterwards was himself vanquished (Numb, 
xxi. 1-3; xxxiii. 40). Jodiua apun 
defeated either him or a successor of his 
(Josh. xii. 14). In Judg. i. 16 the wilder- 
ness of Judah is descriMl as lying in the 
south of Arad, as if Arad was the capital 
of a large district, rather than an isolated 
place. Prof. Bobinson, in 1838, found the 
site still called Tell ' Ar4d, '' the mound of 
Arad,'' on a barren- looking eminence in the 
south of Judah, sixteen English miles from 

(2^ A man of Benjamite descent 
(1 Cnron. viiL 15). 

Arab [Heb. Arahh = '' migrating " (?) 

(1) A Jew whose ** children ** (members 
of whose dan or retainers), 775 or 652 in 
number, returned from Babylon with 
Zerubbabel TEzra ii. 5 ; Neh. vii. lOV. 

(2) An Asherite, a son of Ulla (1 Chron. 
vii. 39). 

Aram [Heb. Ardm - " the Highlands, 
as distinguished from Canaan the low- 

a.) Men. 

(1) The youngest son of Shem, the pro- 
genitor of the Syrians. His sons were Us, 
Hul, Gether and Mash or Meshech (Gen, 
X. 22, 23; 1 Chron. i. 17). 

(2) A son of Kemuel ^Gen. xxii. 21). 
He may be the same as the Bam of Job 
xxxii. 2. 

(3) An Asherite, a son of Shamer or 
Shomer (1 Chron. vii. 34). 

C4) A son of Machir (1 Chron. ii. 23— 
B. v^. 

ril.) A country. 

(5) Syria. In the A.Y. it is used almost 
exclusively in composition^ the one exoeph- 
tion being in Numb, xxiii. 7. where it 
signifies Eastern Syria, Mesopotamia. In 
the B.y. it is found on the margin of Judg. 
iii. 10, with the same meaning. 

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% T%4 Arumaic, Aramean or Aranuean 
L m t ptug t is the Wigw ige of Aram or Syria. 
Undiar the teooad AaeynAn Eznpire, it 
Iwcamft the language of trade and 
cliplaiiiacy among Tarious nationalities. 
No diange in this respect took place when 
the As^rian was succeedea bj the 
Babjlonian Empire. The Jews acquired 
Aramaic during their captivity, and 
Iroaght it back with them on their return 
to Palestuie, Before the cuneiform in- 
ecriptioos revealed that the Bab;^lonian 
Temacnlar was Assyrian, Aramaic was 
iaeocvectly called Ghaldee, a term not yet 
obscdflte. In 2 Kin^ xviiL 26, and laa. 
zxzri. 11 — A.y., it is named Syrian, and 
in the B.Y. Syrian, and on the margin 
Aramean, whidi are correct renderings. 
Ilie Aramaic did not speedily displace 
Hebrew among the educated Jews, nor 
waa it itself soon superseded by Greek 
the common people. It was at 

timea, or, pertiaps, frequently, employed 
by our Lord : Tahtha cumi (Mark v. 41), 
«ftdEk>i! Eloil lama8abachthani(xT.34^ 
»i^ Aramaic. A word or phrase derivea 
from Aramaic occurring in the Old 
'^ ' 'is called an Aramaism. 

are scattered sparingly over 
t of the books, becoming more frequent 
in those of late date. 

i-iCAACAHj Heb. Aram'MaalhahJ. 
Hie portion of Syria which had for its 
cnttal ICaacah (q.v.) (of. 1 Chron. xix. 6 — 
B.V., with verse 7), called in the A.y. 
8ynft*Maachah. It was south of Aram- 
aobah and westof Beth-rehob. 

ASAM-XAHABADC [Hcb. =r " Syria of 
the two rivers,'* i,e. " the highlanos of the 
two rivers '*l. 

The highlands towards the sources of 
-Qie Euphrates and the Tigris, and lying 
between these great rivers ; Mesopotainia, 
<» its upper ^rt (Oen. xxiv. 10— R.V., 
margin; VeaU jam. 4 — B.Y., margin; 
Jadg. iiL 8; Ptehn Ix., title). In the 
Hebrew Bible it occurs also m 1 Chron. 
xix. 6, both the A. V. and the B.V. render- 
ing it Hesopotamia, the same as Padav- 

AMAM (q.V.). 

AxAic-zOBAHjHeb. Arant' Ttobhah]. 

&rnL at the kingdom called ZoaiH (q.v.) 
(Ptohn Ix., title). 

AnuBttMB [English]. 

A Syrian female (1 Chron. vii. 14). 

Jknm. [Heb. Ardm = '* a wild goat '*]. 

A duke of the Horites (Oen. xxxvi. 28). 
Ajinirently the same person as Aran, son 
cf iMriian, and grandson of Seir (1 Chron. 

Ararat [Heb. Ararat, but from a 
foreign and probably an Armenian 

A regim containing monntains, on one 

of which Noah's ark rested when the 
waters of the deluge began to subside 
(Oen. viiL 4). It was subsequently the 
seat of a kingdom apparently adjacent to 
those of Minni and Ashkenaz (Jer. li. 27). 
When the sons of Sennacherib killed their 
father they escaped into the land of 
Ararat, which the A.y. identifies with 
Armenia (2 Kings xix. 37— A.y. and B.V., 
text and mar^ ; Isa. xxxvii. 38, ditto). 
Though traditions with respect to the 
resting-place of the ark attach themseWes 
to various mountains in the west of Asia, 
vet the generally-accepted claimant for the 
honour is the Mount Ararat of the modem 
maps in Russian Armenia, almost midway 
between the Black Sea and the Caspian, 
and not fiir from the boundary -line between 
Russia and Turkev. It has two peaks, one 
higher than the other. The loftier one rises 
17,260 feet above the level .of the ocean, 
more than 10,000 feet above the table- 
land on which it stands, and 3,000 above 
the line of perpetual snow. The ascent is 
80 difficult ana laborious that the Turks 
call Ararat A^hri Dagh, or *^ the Painful 
Mountain." Its summit was long deemed 
inaccessible, but it was at length reached 
in 1850, by Colonel Khoelzko and his party 
of sixty, while they were engaged on tlie 
trigonometrical survey of Tians-Caucasia. 
The whole region is full of Xoachian tradi- 
tions, yet it is very doubtful whether it is 
the real mountain on which the ark rested. 
The Ararat of Scripture, as before men- 
tioned, is a country and not a mountain ; 
besides which, the survivors of the deluge 
tiavellinff from ** Ararat'' to Shinar 
joum^M ** from the east " (Oen. xi. 2 — 
A-Vj, text), or " eastward " (margin), in 
the B.V. text, east (that is, eastwarch, or in 
the east (B.Y., margin). It would have 
been more natural to say from the north 
or southward, had Mount Ararat been the 
place from which they set out. 

[Heb. Aramah = " agile "]. 
A Jebusite who possessed a thxishing- 
floor on Mount Mori^ and presumably 
on its highest point. When David wished 
to purchase a piece of ground on which to 
erect an altar and offer sacrifice to depre- 
cate Jehovah's wiatii during a plague, he. 
instructed by the prophet (^id, considered 
the site of Araunah's threshing-floor the 
best adapted for the purpose. He, there- 
fore, purchased it and the oxen working it 
for ffity shekels of silver (2 Sam. xxiv. 
18-25^. The place afterwards became the 
site of Solomon's Temple (2 Chron. iii. 1). 
Araunah is called also Oman, the two 
spellings beinp; more like each other in 
Hebrew than m English. 

Arbiw Arteh [Heb. = <' four," "a 
square." Applied to a man it may mean 

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The father of Anak (Josh. xxi. 11), and 
therefore **a great man among the 
Anakims ** (xiv. 15). He was nronibly a 
giant, like hu immediate desoenoants. Me 
seems to hare founded Hebron, which was 
called, in consequence, the City of Arba, or 
Arbah (Gen. xxxr. 27 ; Josh. xiv. 15 ; xv. 
13 ; XX. 7 ; Judg. L 10). [Kibjath- 


Arbatbite [Heb. ArbhathL Ababah]. 
A native, or an inhabitant, oi the Arabah 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 31 ; 1 Ghron. xL 32). 

Arobelaiis [Lat. from Gr. Arkhelaos^ 
as an adjective = *•* leading the people *' ; 
as a noun = ** a chief **]. 

The yoim^er of two sons whom a 
Samaritan wife bore to Herod the Great, 
the elder one being Antipas, afterwards 
Herod the Tetrarch (Joseph. Antiq, XYII. 
i. 3). He received his education at Rome, 
as did Philip, another of Herod^s sons 
(Jbid.; abo U'ar. I. xxxi. 1). While there 
Antipater, a half-brother of his, falsely 
accused him and Philip of plotting to 
murder their common father ; but Arche- 
laus and Philip were acmiitted, and the 
crime which the accuser had alleged against 
others, being brought home to nimsd f , he 
was put to (feath {Antiq. XVI. iv. 3 ; XVII. 
vii. f ; War, I. xxxi. 2-xxxii. 7). Herod 
died immediately afterwards, and when 
his will, which had been altered a few days 
previously, was opened, it was found that 
the greater part of the kingdom was left 
to iux^elaus, though tetraraiies had been 
cut out of it for Antipas and Philip, and 
some cities reserved to Herod's sister 
Salome {Antiq. XVII. viii. 1). But at 
that Jbime the Jewish kingdom stood to 
imperial Borne in the same relation that the 
teiritory of an Indian feudatoir prince, or 
what is often called a protected, state, ooes 
now to the An^lo-Inoian Government or 
to the Imperial Cabinet in London. 
Archelaus therefore prudently abstained 
from ascending the throne till he had 
solicited permission from Augustus, the 
Roman Emperor, and he resolved to start 
at once for the metropolis to urge his suit 
in person (viii. { 4). But before he could 
leave, an unhappy incident occurred. A 
number of people, who conceived that they 
had a grievance, wished it redressed bj 
strong measures then and there. Their 
demand was clearly premature, but they 
would take no denial; and when they 
could not have their way, they rioted at 
the passover, till, sorely against his will 
(for he wished to gain popiUaritv), he had 
to put down the sedition by military force, 
3,000 people losing their Uves. In conse- 

auence of this, a deputation of Jews was 
espatched to Rome, to urge the Emperor 
not to allow Archelaus to obtain the 
kingdom. His elder brother, Herod 

Antinas, also appeared as his rival, petition- 
ing that he, in place of Archelaus, might be 
made king. The Emperor confirmed Herod's 
will in its essential provisions. Archelaus 
obtained the larger portion of the kingdom, 
but only with Uie Utle of ethnarch (ruler 
of a people) which was inferior to that 
of king (viiL i.-ix. J 7 ; xi. § 5). His rival 
Antipas was given only a tetrarchy. 
One can well understand that when, soon 
after this, Joseph and Mary returned with 
the infant Jesus from Egypt, they might 
consider that the queller of the passover 
riot was not a man over-tender of human 
Uf e, and that it was only common prudence 
for them to turn aside to Galilee so as to 
keep out of his jurisdiction (Matt. ii. 22). 
A parable of our Lord Himself seems to 
refer to the dreumstances attending the 
accession of Archelaus. ** A certain noble- 
man,' ' we read, ** went into a far country 
to receive for himself a kingdom, and to 
return " (Luke xix. 12). ** But his citisens 
hated him, and sent a message after him, 
saying, We will not have this man to reign 
over us " (14). If the reference is reaUy 
to Arehelaus, then it is feared that another 
verse may be history rather than parable. 
**But tiiose mine enemies, which would 
not that I should reign over them, bring 
hither and slay them before me*' (27). 
Quite in keeping with this view, Josephus 
says that Archelaus used not the Jews 
only but the Samaritans barbarously, out 
of resentment for their old quarrels with 
him. Both nationalities, therefore, sent 
embassies to Rome to complain of his 
cruelty. They succeeded in their object. 
In the ninth year of his government he 
was deposed, and banished to Vienne in 
Gaul, while nis wealth was put into the 
emperor's treasury {Warsj U, vii. 3). 
The accession of i^x^elaus is believed by 
Boeanquet to have been early in B.C. 1 ; 
his deposition and banishment in a.d. 7. 

ArolMTltas [Eng/; in Aramaic Arkevae 
= *' natives or inhabitants of Erech " (?)]. 

A tribe or people setled by^ ** Asnapper *' 
in Samaria after the ten tribes haa oeen 
carried captive (Ezra iv. 9). 

Arebl [Heb. Arki] [EbechI. 

According to the A.V. a town on the 
boundary hne of Ephraim between Luz 
and Ataroth (Josh. xvi. 2). The B.V. 
translates the Hebrew Arki Archites, the 
name of their town apparently being 
Erech [Ebsoh (2)] {tee also Abchitb). 

ArOhlppiis [Latin from Greek Ark^ 
hippos = *' master of the horse," arkhot 
= " a chief," and hippos = " a horse "]. 

A Christian at Coloase who had received 
a "ministry" "in the Lord" (Col. iv. 
17), and was in consequence called by St. 
Paul his "fellow-soldier." His wife 

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I to hare been Apphia, and there waa 
a church in Uieir house CPhUemon 2). 

Arohite [Heb. Arki\lABom], 
A native or inhabitant of EioiCH No. 2 
(q.T.) (Jo8h. xvL 2— R.V.). Huahai, 
I)aTid*s faithful counsellor, was so desig- 
nated (2 Sam. XT. 32; xvi. 16; xvii. 
d, 14 ; 1 Chnm. xxrii. 33). 

I [Latin from Greek Arktourot 
= ** the Bear- ward " ; arktos = *' a bear," 
and ouroi = ** a gruard "], 

A large and bright star, which the 
Greeks and Bomans fancifullj called br a 
name meaning the Bear- ward, i.e. ** the 
keqper of the Bear," because in its course 
tfarooflh the heaTens it alwa^ kept 
behina the tail of the constellation now 
called Ursa Major, or the Great Bear. In 
the A.y. of JoD ix. 9 and xxxviii. 22 it is 
the translation of the Hebrew AsA or 
Aitky signifying " a bier," for carrying a 
dfsad b(My upon. This is not the i^- 
toms of the Greeks and Bomans. The 
star 80 called looks very solitiury in the 
tky, while the Aish of Job (xxxviii. 32) has 
**80iiia," ue, bright stars near it in the 
heavens. It ia not the Bear-keeper but 
the Bear itself, and is so rendered in the 
B.T. It is ttie splendid constellation 
known not merely aa Una Major, or the 
Great Bear, but aa the Plough, an imple- 
ment which it reaemblea, St. Charlea'a 
Wain, etc There are in it aeven bright 
stars. The four constituting the plough- 
share aeemed to the Hebrews, as they still 
do to the Arabs, to resemble a bier carrv- 
ing a corpse, while the three stars consti- 
tnting the Bear's tail or the handle of the 
Fbngh, appeared to them to be the sons 
of ihb deceased person^ walking behind 
the bier to the place of mterment. 

Axd [Heb. " a fugitive "]. 

A scm or grandson of Beniamin, and the 
founder of a family (G^. xivi. 21 ; Numb. 
XXTL 40). 

[English] [Abd]. 
One belonging to the £unily of Ard 
(Kmnb. xxvi. 40). 

I [Heb. = " a fugitive "]. 

A son of Caleb by his wife Azubah 
(1 ChroD. ii. 18). 

Ann [Heb. = ** lion of 


A aon of Gad, and founder of a fiunOy 
(Qen.xlvL 16; Numb.xxvi. 17). 

Ar«ltte pSngliah] [Abeli]. 
One belonging to the family of Areli 
(Xnmb. xxvi. 1^. 

Anopttfftto [English] [Absopaoub]. 
A judge of the court of Areopagus 


_ [Gr. Areto* nagot = " the 
hill of Area " ; Artiot = ** oi or belonging 
to Area," "martial," and pagot=**a. 
firm-set rock," specially a high-pointed 
rock, a rocky hill). 

(1) A hill m Athens consecrated to Ares, 
the Greek god of war. Robinson (Bibl. 
Seaear., i. 10, U) deecribea it aa a nairow, 
naked ridge of limestone rock, rising 
gradually from the northern end, and 
terminating abruptly on the south, over 
against the Acropolis, or citadel of 
Athens. Its southern end is fifty or sixty 
feet above the valley separating it from 
the Acropolis, which is much the nigfaer of 
the two nHls. Area corresponding to the 
Roman Mars, Areopagus is the same as 
Mass-Hill (q.v.). 

(2) The supreme court of Athens, which 
met on the nill called Areopagus. The 
seats of the judges and othera connected 
with the court are still seen heyro. in 
the rock; and towards the south-west 
there is a flight of steps descending to the 
valley. It waa before the Areopagus that 
Paul pleaded his own cause and that of 
Christianity, and the philosophic character 
of his discourse arose from his vivid 
consciousness that he was addressing some 
of the most intellectual men in the most 
intellectual dty on the globe (Acts xvii. 

AretM [Gr. areU = *' virtue " (?)]. 

More than one king of Arabia Petrsea, 
during the time that it was occupied by 
the Nabathsan Arabs. [Nbbaioth.] 
There was an Aretas whose daughter was 
married to Herod the Tetrarch. Conceiv- 
ing a guiltv passion for Herodias (q.vj, 
he prepared to divorce ids legitimate wife, 
who, escaping to her father, told him her 
wrongs. Aretas declared war against 
Heroa and totally defeated his armv. The 
Romans took Herod*s part, and vitellius 
was dispatched to chastise Aretas, but the 
death oi the Emperor Tiberius put an end 
to the expedition (Josephus, Antiq, XVIII. 
V. { l-3j. It was about a.d. 39 or 40, 
dunng tne reign of his successor, Caligula, 
that Aretas for a brief period held 
Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32). 

Argob [Heb. Arffobh=**A heap of 
stones "]. 

ri) A rc^on of Bashan, included within 
the dominions of Og (Deut. iii. 4, 13). It 
was taken bv Jair, the son of Manasseh, 
who altOTed the name to Baahan-havoth- 
jair (14). In the time of Solomon it oon- 
tainod sixty fenced cities (1 Kings iv. 13'). 
Robiiison {Bib. JUb, III., Appendix 66) 
identifies it with the Greek Raffaba and 
the modem R&jib in Mount Ajlun, east 
from the Lake of Galilee. It is now 
generally believed to be the district of 
TBAOHomns (q.v.). 

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(2) A man assassinated along with 
Pekahiah, king of IsraeL by PekaJi, who 
aspired to the throne (2 Kings xr. 25). 

Artdai [Persian = "brave'' (?) {Gese- 
A son of Haman (Esther ix. 9). 

Arldath* [Persian = "brave" (?) 
A son of Hainan (Esther ix. 8). 

Arleh [Heb. Aret/ek = " a Hon '♦]. 

A man assassinated along with King 
Pekahiah, Argob^ and others, by Pekah, 
the son of Bemaliah (2 Kings xv. 25). 

Artel peb. = " Uon of God "1. 

(1) A figurative name ^ven by Isaiah 
to Jerusalem in consideration of the valour 
of its inhabitants (Isa. xxix. 1,2, 7). 

(2) A Jew, one of the chief men who 
were with Ezra at the brook Ahava 
(Ezra viii. 16). 

i [Lat. from Or. Arimathaia^ 
s an altcoration of Heb. Ha RanuUh- 
aim. the Ramathaim ; see the article]. 

The village or town from which came 
that " councilor,'* Joseph of Arimathsea, 
who begged Pilate to let tiim take away the 
body of Jesus, and, receiving permission, 
gave it a highly honourable interment in 
his own new sepulchre cut out of the rock 
(Matt, xxvii. 57-60 : Mark xv. 43 ; Luke 

BAMLEH {(h€ traditionary HU qf ArimathoBa). 

xxiii. 51-53; John xix. 38). The site 
of Arimathsea was probably upon two 
adjacent hill tops, east or north-east 
of Lydda, but tne exact spot has not 
as yet been determined (Robmson's Bid. 
Res. iii. 25-43; LaUr Researches, 141, 
142). [Raxathaim ZoPHnc.] 

Artooh \Reh.Ariok. Oesenius believed 
that it might possibly mean "a lion-like 
man.'' It is now known to be Accadian 
jt'na/rii = '* servant of the moon-god" 
(Sayoe's Fresh Light from the Atunent 
Monuments, p. 47) t^ 

(1) The kmg of JBllasar who was confe- 
derate with Chedorlaomer on his invasion 
of the Jordan Valley (Gksn. xiv. 1, 9). He 
is called in the Assyrian monuments 
Eriaku, king of Larsa, and is said to have 
been the son of Kudur Mabug. He seems 
to have been a wordiipper of the moon 
{see etvmology). "Larea" (EUasar), his 
capital, is now represented by the mounds 
of Senkereh, a little to the east of Erech. 

(2) The captain of the king's guard at 
Baoylon imder Nebuchadnezzar ^)an. iL 
14, 15). The margin of the A.Y. makes 
him chief of the executioners. 

Artaal [Persian = " Uon-like " (?) 
A son of Haman (Esther ix. 9). 

ArtstarehQS [lAt. from Gr. Aristarehos 
= "best ruling"]. 

A Macedonian from Thessalonica, one 
of St. Paul's travelling companions. In 
the riot at Ephesus he was oragged into 
the theatre, but does not appear to have 
been seriously injured (Ads xix. 29). He 
afterwards accompanied the apostle on 
another journey from Macedonia into Asia 
Minor (Acts xx. 4, etc.). He was subse- 
quentlv his fellow -voyager to Bome (xxvii. 
2), as also his fellow -prisoner in tiiat capital 
(Col. iv. 10), and is called in Philemon 24 
his fellow-labourer. 

Aristolniliis FLat. from €hr. Aristc 
boulos = " best aavising "]. 

A Christian, to whose household at Rome 
the Apostle Paul sent salutations (Rom. 
xvi. 10). 

Ark [English]. 

A chest, a box, a basket shaped like a 
box, a vessel of similar shape. Used for— 

H (\) Noah's Ark. The chest-shaped 
vessel which Noah was Divinely ordered to 
construct, and in which he sailed when the 
deluge was on the earth. If it is assumed 
that the ordinary Hebrew cubit was 
eighteen inches, then the length of the ark 
was 450 feet, the breadth 75 feet, and the 
height 43 feet. H the cubit is called 
nineteen inches, then the dimensions of 
the ark were 475 feet, 79 feet 2 inches, and 
47 feet 6 inches. Compare with these figures 
those of the Great Eastern steamship, tiie 
largest vessel yet built for commercial 
purposes, which was 674 feet long, 77 feet 
DToad, o8 feet deep, and had a gross 
tonna^ of 22,500 tons. The ark was to 
be finished upwards to a cubit (about a 
foot and a half— R. V.). It was to be made 
of gopher, i.e. cypreBs wood, and rendered 

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watertight bj being daubed inside and 
oatnde with bitumen. It was to have 
lower, second, and third stories. There 
was to be a window, which probably 
extended with slight interruptions all 
round the building (Gen. vi. 14 to viii. 19 ; 
Matt. xxiv. 38 ; Luke xvii. 27 ; Heb. xi. 7 ; 
I F^ iii. 20). The ark was designed for 
the accommodation of Noah, his family, 
and the species of animals which were 
Belected to be preserved. For how many 
depends on the settlement of the previous 
question — Wslb the deluge universal over 
we world ? or was it limited to parts of 
Western Asia f The evidence is in favour 
of its having been partial, which immensely 
reduces the number for which npace had 
to be found, besides removing various dif- 
ficulties as to the diversities of climate, 
food, etc, which require to be met, if the 
belief is entertained that the deluge ex- 
tfflded over the whole world. 

(2) Th^ Infant Moseses Ark, i.e. the ark 
made for the reception of the infant Moses 
when he was exposed upon the Nile. It 
wa^ a cradle of basket work, consisting of 
papyrus leaves or stems, or both, plaited 


together, the completed structure »«». 
rendered watertight by its being coat 
outside with bitumen (£xod. ii. 3-6). 

(8) The Ark of the Covenant, Testimony 
or Tettament. A cheet or box, which 
Hoses was directed to have made in the 
wilderness for the reception of certain 
ncred objects. It was to m 2^ cubits f about 
3 feet 9 inches) long, 1^ cubits (about 
2| feet) broad, and the same in deptn. It 
WIS to be made of shittim {%,e, acacia) 
wood, and overiaid within and without 
with pure gold. A rim or moulding of the 

same precious material was to surround it 
above. At each comer there was to be a 
golden ring, and through the pair of rings 
on the two sides poles of acacia wood 
overlaid with gold were to be put for the 
convenienoe en oanying the ark about 
(Exod. XXV. 10-15; xxxvii. 1-6). Its 
ordinary resting-i)laoe was to be the Holj 
of Holies, where it was to have above it 
the mercy-seat with the overshadowing 
cherubs (xxv. 21 ; xxvi. 33, 34). It was to 
be covered by the veil (xl. 3, 21). It was 
made specially for the reception of the 
" Testimony," i.e. the two tables of stone 
on which the ten commandments were 
written by the finger of God (Exod. xxxi. 
18 ; Deut. x. 2-5). Afterwards the Book 
of the Law, written by Moses by direction 
of Jehovah, was placed on the side of the 
ark. So also there were put in it the 
golden pot of manna (Exod. xvi. 34), and 
Aaron's rod that budded (Numb. xvii. 10 ; 
Heb. ix. 4). The ark was placed in charge 
of the Kohathite Levites TNumb. iii. 29-31). 
The priests who bore it stood with it in the 
midst of Jordan till the Israelites had done 
crossing the river (Josh. iv. 9-11). It 
was carried for seven days round 
Jericho before the walls of the dty 
fell down (vi. 1-20). Having been 
taken in Eli's time to the field of 
battie, as a talisman which waj« 
expected to work wonders in the 
contest with the Philistines, it was 
cantured by the enemy (1 Sam. iv. 
1-22), but was soon afterwards sent 
back into tiie Hebrew territory 
(v. 1-vi. 11). It was successively 
at Beth-shemesh, where the inhabi- 
tants looked into it and were pun- 
ished (12-20), and at Kirjath-jearim 
(vii. 1, 2X whence it was broug^ht 
by Davia to the City of David, 
drter a temporary halt at Perez- 
Uzzah, where Uzzah was struck 
dead for touching it when it seemed 
to totter (2 Sam. vi. 1-23). When 
it was placed within the Holy of 
Holies m Solomon's temple uiere 
was nothing in it except the two 
tables of stone (1 Kings viii. 9). 
Jeremiah mentions the ark of the 
covenant (Jer. iii. 16), and it is 
alluded to in the New Testament under 
the name of the ark of His J^God's] cove- 
nant or testament (Rev. xi. 19) ; but in 
the last quoted paraage the meaning is 
highly figurative. 

Arkite LHeb. Arqi = '' a fugitive " (?), 
from araq = ** to flee "]. 

A tribe descended fnnn Canaan (Gen. x. 
17 ; 1 Chron. i. 15). Their habitation seems 
to have been at the modem Arka, Greek 
Arke, about twelve miles north of Tripoli, 
in Syria. 

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Armageddon [N. T. Greek ArtM- 
gcdon, Armageddon y apparently from Heb. 
Har Megiddo = ** mountain of Megiddo "]. 

A prophetic battlefield destined to be 
the scene of enormous slaughter (Bev. 
xvi. 16). The name is framed with 
evident reference to two sanguinary 
contests which took place near the town 
of Megiddo (q.vj, the first, that in which 
Sisera and tne Canaanites were defeated 
at '* the waters of M^ddo *' [the Kishon 
(0 ((J.v.)] (J»*dg. V. 19); and the second, 
that m which king Josiah was killed when 
in conflict with the army of Pharaoh 
Necho (2 Kings xxiii. 29). The great plain 
of Jezreel, Esdraelon or Megiddo is well 
fitted to be the battlefield of nations. 

Armenia [Lat. from Gr. Armenia], 
The country into which Sennacherib's 
sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, escapned 
after murdering their father (2 Kings xix. 
37— A. V. ; Isa. xxxvii. 38— A. V.). It is 
the rendering of the Hebrew word Ararat ^ 
occurring again in Gen. viii. 4 and Jer. li. 
27. The country now called Armenia 
nearly corresponds to that called in Scrip- 
ture MiNNi (q.v.) {see also Ababat and 


Armlet rDiminutiy0 of English 

An ornament like a bracelet, but 
surrounding the arm higher up than the 
wrist. There were armlets amonja^ the 
spoil of the Midianites (Numb. xxxi. 50 — 
R.V.). In parts of the East an armlet, 

Generally studded with jewels, is worn 
y kings as one of the msignia of their 
royal authority. It is probable that the 
"bracelet** which the Amalekite took 
from the arm of Saul was one of this 
symbolical character (2 Sam. i. 10). 

ArmenI [Heb. = " pertaining to the 
palace,** ** a chamberlain *' (?) (GeBeniusy], 

One of Saul*s sons by ms concubine 
Rizpah. He was slain by the Gibeonites 
(2 &im. xxi. 8-11). 

Aman[Heb. = "agile'*]. 

A man mentioned in 1 Chron. iii. 21. 

Amon [Heb. " murmuring,** " brawl- 
ing,** " roaring,*' as some brooks]. 

A riyer which originally formed the 
boundary between the Ammonite country 
on the north and that of the Moabites 
on the south (Numb. xxi. 13, 14, 24. 26, 
28 ; xxii. 36 ; Judg. xi. 22) ; and at a later 
period between the tribe of Keuben on the 
north and again Moab on the south (Dent, 
ii. 24, 36 ; iu. 8, 12, 16 ; iy. 48 ; Josh. xu. 
1, 2; xiii. 9, 16; Judg. xi. 13, 26; Jer. 
xlyiii. 20). It had fords (Isa. xyi. 2). 
It is now called the Wady Mdjib. It 
is a perennial stream formed by the j unc- 
tion of three smaller tributaries, and falls 
into the Dead Sea. It is full of fish, 

and fringed by oleanders. The yegetation 
18 exuberant, and some ruins may be those 
of " the city that is in the midst of the 
riyer ** (Josh. xiii. 16) [Aboeb, 1]. 

Arod. Arodl [Heb. Arodh = " a wild 

A son of Gad, and founder of a family 
(Gen. xlyi. 16 ; Numb. xxyi. 17). 

Areer [Heb. and Moabite; as an 
adjectiye = " naked,** " indigent*' ; as a 
noun "ruins** (?)]. 

(1) A town " by ^* or " by the brink of " 
the liver Amon. Being the southern 
point of the Amorite kingdom ruled by 
bihon, and afterwards of the tribe of 
Reuben, it must haye been on the north 
side of the riyer (Deut. ii. 36; iii. 12; 
iy. 48 ; Josh. xii. 2 ; xiii. 9, 16 ; Judg. xi. 
26, 33). It seems to have been captured 
by Hasael, king of Syria (2 Kings x. 33 ; 
1 Chron. y. 8). In the time of Jeremiah 
it belonged to Moab (Jer. xlyiii. 19). It is 
now called 'Ara'tr, and is a desolate heap 
just south of Dibon, and a little east of 
the Boman road ruiming north and south 
through Moab. 

(2) ** Aroer that is before Kabbah,** a 
city built by the Gadites (Numb. xxxiL 
34), and constituting the southern limit of 
the tribe of Gad (Josh. xiii. 25). It was 
in the middle of the yalky of Q^ (2 Sam. 
xxiy. 6— R.V.), the " riyer** of Gad— A. V. 
Exact site unknown. 

(3) A yillage of Judah, to which Dayid 
sent spoil after his victory over the 
Amalekites who had pillaged Zikkg (1 
Sam. XXX. 28). Palmer, Drake, and 
Capt. Conder found its ruins, oonmsting of 
a few walls, in the Wady- A'arah, 12 nules 
east of Beersheba. 

(4) (Ts Apparently a district not far 
from Damascus (?) containing seyeral 
" cities " (Isa. xvii. 2). If one of these 
was called Aroer, then probably it was 
that ro^al city termed by the Assyrians 
Karkor in Hamath, in the yicinity of whidi 
Shalmaneser II. defeated various con- 
federate sovereigns, one of whom was 
Ahab, king of Israel [Arab]. 

Aroerlte [English]. 

A native or inhabitant of any place 
called Aroer. In 1 Chron. xi. 44 the 
reference is probably to Aroer (3). 

Anmd, Arphad [If Arpadh is Heb. 
thenit="abedpo8t"(P), "asupport" (?); 
but it is jirobaoly of Assyrian, or even 
Accadian, derivation]. 

A city, ruled over oy a king, conquered 
hy the A^yrians. It is generally coupled 
with Hamath, from whioi probably it was 
not far distant (2 Kings xviii. 34 ; xix. 13 ; 
Isa. X. 9 ; xxxvi. 19 ; xxxvii. 13 ; Jer. xlix. 
23). It has been phiced at TeU ErfStd, 
thirteen miles north of Aleppo. 

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ArpliadrABPAD] (Isa. xxxvi. 19— A. V. ; 
xxxrii. 13— A. v.). 

. 1 [Heb. Arpakhthadh = " the 

boundary of ^e Chaldsaiu" (?) {Gew- 

The third son of Shem, and the repre- 
nntatiTe of Chaldsea (Gen. x. 22, 24 ; 1 
Chron. L 17, 18). He was bom two years 
after the flood. At the age of thirty-five 
he begot Salah, and died 403 years after- 
wards at the age of 438 (zi. 10-13). 

[Heb. Artahh9hashtay 
AHahhshoBta = " ffreat king *n. 

(1) Apparently tiie Pseudo-Smerdis, ue. 
a Magian impostor called Gomates, who 
pretended to be Smerdis, the deceased 
brother of Cambyses, and reigned as such 
for seven months in the year b.o. 521. 
When the fraud was discovered he was i)ut 
to death and was succeeded by Darius 
Hystaspes (Ezra iy. 7-24). 

(2) The son of Xerxes, whom he suc- 
ceeded on the Persian throne, b.o. 465. 
The Greeks added to his name the dis- 
tinctive epithet or nickname of Makrokheir 
and the Romans of Longimanus (Long- 
handed), corresponding to the Persian 
Dirasdust. This is generally interpreted 
literally, but the B^. Dr. John Wikon 
(^arsi jReliaion. p. 583) considers that it is 
nguxative, and means only that Arta- 
zerxes heA a widely-extenaed dominion. 
In the seventh year of his reiffn (b.c. 
458) he allowed Ezra to go attended by a 
great multitude of exiles up to Jerusalem 
(Ezra vii. 1, 11, 12, 21; vui. 1). In the 
twentieth year of his reign (b.c. 445) he 
pennitted 'Nehemiah to make his first 
journey to the Jewish capital, and rebuild 
the walls of the city (Neh. ii. 1, etc.). In 
the thirty-second year of his reign (b.c 
433-432) he allowed Nehemiah, who had 
returned for a little to Persia, to revisit 
Jerusalem, and become governor of the 
restored city and the adjacent country 
(xiiL 6). Aitaxerxes died m the year B.C. 

[An abbreviation of Gr. 

Artemidoros (?) = ** the gtft of Artemis "]. 

A companion of St. PauPs, whom he 
thought of sending on an errand to Titus 
(Titus iii. 12). 


The Greek goddess of hunting, corres- 
ponding to the Roman Diana (q.v.) (Acts 
xix. 24 — ^E.V., margin). 

Arnbotb [Heb. = *' lattice-work '']. 

One of the districts whence Solomon 
drew his su]n>lies of provisions. It was 
probably in uie west of Judah (1 Kings 
nr. 10), but it has not been identified. 

Ammali [Heb. = '* a height '' (?)]. 
A village near Shechem, once the 

residence of Abimelech (Judg. ix. 41). 
Ctesenius thinks it may have been the same 
as the Rumah of 2 Kinss xxiii. 36. It has 
also been placed doubtfully at el 'Ormeh, 
six miles south-east of Shechem. 

Anr«d [Heb. Arvadh=^*9L place of 
fugitives "]. 

A place which, in EzekiePs time, 
furnished mariners and valiant defenderi 
of the strouffhold of Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 8, 
11). Its inhabitants were called Arvad- 
ITE8 (q.v.). It is the island of Aradus 
near the coast of Phoenicia (1 Mace. xv. 
23). It is now called £r Ruad. 

Arvmdite [English ; Heb. Arvadhtl 
One of the mhabitants of Arvad. They 

were descended from Canaan (G^. x. 18 ; 

1 Chron. i. 16). 

Ana [Heb. Artaa = ** earth "]. 
The steward of king £lah*s house in 
Tirzah (1 Kings xvi. 9). 

Asa [Heb. = *' striking against,** ^' in- 
juring," or *' a physician " USeienim)]. 

(H A Levite, a son of Elkanah, who 
Uvea in one of the villages belonging to the 
Netophathites H Chron. ix. 16). 

(2) A king oi Judah, the son of Abijam, 
and grandson of Rehoboam. His motner's 
(reafly his grandmother's) name was 
Maachah: she was the daughter of Absa- 
lom (cf. 1 Kings XV. 2, 10). Asa was 
a good king, whose desire was to worship 
J^ovah. He took away the Sodomit(» 
out of the land, and abolished the idols. 
So stem was his action against image 
worship, that he removed his grand- 
mother from her position of queen - 
dowager because she had ** made an 
abominable image for an asherah," while 
her idol itself he burnt by the brook 
Kidron (1 Kings xv. 9-13 ; 2 Chron. xiv. 
1-5 ; XV. 16). '* But the high places were 
not removed " (1 Kings xv. 14), which is 
explained in Chronicles to mean that they 
were taken away in the kingdom of Judah, 
but not in that of Israel (2 Chron. xiv. 3 ; 
XV. 17). In an early year of his reign 
Asa had to meet an invasion of his kingdom 
by an Ethiopian called Zerah, at theliead 
of an enormous host of Africans; but 
by the help of Jehovah he easily 
defeated tiiem, and drove them from the 
land (2 Chron. xiv. 9-15). A prophet 
called Azariah was sent to commend nim 
for the remarkable trust in God which he 
had shown in this period of peril (xv. 
1-7). Thus encouraged, he completed 
the religious reformation which he had 
begun, and induced the people to enter 
into a covenant with Jehovah. In 
the thirty-sixth year of his reign, 
Baasha, king of Israel, advanced against 
Judah, and buUt a fort called Ramah, 
doubtless on a hill (the name itself means 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



a hiffh place or height) , so as to prevent 
all free ingress into or eness from' the 
northern part of the soutnem kingdom. 
Asa, finding himself too weak to re-open 
the road by the capture of Bamah, took 
gold and silver from the Temple treasury 
and sent them to Ben-hadad, kmg of Syria, 
as a bribe to induce him to attack Baasha. 
Ben-hadad accepted the monev, and made 
a hostile invasion into the nortnem portion 
of the Israelite kingdom, capturing many 
of the cities. Baasha was compelled to 
evacuate Ramah, which, bv Asa s orders, 
was immediately demolisned, the ruins 
being used to build Geba and Mizpah. A 
second seer or prophet. Hanani, reproved 
the king for his worldly policy, arler his 
experience at the time of the Ethiopian 
invasion. Asa resented the interference 
of the prophet, putting him in prison 
(1 Kings XV. 16-22; 2 Chron. xvL 1-10). 
In the thirty-ninth year of his reign he 
became diseased in ms feet. His malady 
may have been gout, or, perhaps, incipient 
dropsy (1 Kings xv. 23 ; 2 Chron. xvi. 12). 
He died in the forty -first year of his reign, 
and was buried with spices in a sepulchre 
which he had made for himself in tne City 
of David. His reign extended, by the 
Hebrew chronology, from 955 to 914 b.c. 

AM^el [Heb. = *' whom God hath 
created or established **!. 

(1) A son of Zeruian, and brother of 
Joab and Abishai, who was exceedingly 
fleet of foot, whidi proved his ruin ; for 
in a battle between the followers of David 
and those of Ishbosheth he ^persisted in 
following Abner, Ishbosheth's commander- 
in-chief, with the intention of killing him 
and taking his armour, till at length 
Abner, after warning him more thaQ once, 
was compelled, reluctantly and in self- 
defence, to strike him a mortal thrust 
(2 Sam. u. 18-23; 1 Chron. u. 16). At 
one time Asahel had been the military 
captain in attendance on David for the 
fourth month of the year, his men being 
24,000 (I Chron. xxvii. 7). 

(2) One of the Levites employed by 
Jehoshaphat to teach the people Ihe law 
(2 Chron. xvii. 8). 

(3) An overseer of the Temple in the 
reign of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxi. 13). 

{i) The father of a certain Jonathan, 
employed by Ezra (Ezra x. 15). 

Aaahlah [Asaiae] (2 Kings xxiL 12, 14 
-A. v.). 

AsftUlL Aaahlah [Heb. Aaayah=^ 
*'whom Jehovah has created or estab- 

I. — Of the form Asaiah. 

rn A Simeonito prince (1 Chron. iv. 36). 

(2) A Levite belonging to the family of 

Merari (vi. 30). He lived in David's time 
(XV. 6, 11). 

(3) A man of Judah, a son of Baruch, 
and a descendant of ShuonL He dwelt at 
Jerusalem (I Chron. ix. 5). 

II.-^f both forms. 

(4) A servant of king Josiah*8, who was 
sent with others to ** inquire of the Lord '' 
about the book of the Law found by 
HiUdah (2 Kings xxii. 12, 14— A-Y. ; 2 
Chron. xxxiv. 20). 

Aflapb [Heb. '' collector "]. 

(1) A Levito of high musical gifts, the 
son of Beraduah, of the Genhomite 
family (1 Chron. vi. 39, 43). When the 
ark of God was brought up to Mount 
Zionfrom the houseof Obed-eaom. * * Asaph 
made a sound with cymbals '* (l Chron. 
xvi. 5), and David delivered a jisalm of 
thanksgiving into the hand of Asaph and 
his brethren (7). He is subseouently 
described as a seer or prophet (2 Chron. 
xxix. 30). He seems to have founded a 
family, which generation after ffeaeration 
inhented his musical gifts, till at length it 
became a hereditaiy caste of singers and 
instrumentalists (I Chron. xzvi. 1; 2 
Chron. xx. 14 ; xxix. 13). A hundred and 
twenty-eight, all of them singers, came 
back from Babylon (Ezra ii. 41; Neh. 
vii. 44^, and conducted the psalmody 
when the foundations of Zerubbabel s 
temple were laid (Ezra iii. 10 ; Neh. xi. 
22). Twelve Fsahns, viz., the 50th and 
the 73rd to the 83rd, both indusive, are 
attributed in the titles to Asaph; but 
these headings, though valuable for their 
age. are not authontative, and internal 
eviaenoe suggests that some of those 
psalms are much later in date than the 
days of the Asaph who was a contempo- 
rary of David. But others of the caste 
may very possibly have borne the same 

(2) The father of Joah, " the recorder," 
during the reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 
xviii. 18 ; Isa. xxxvi. 3). 

(3) The keeper of *^the king's forest" 
(on Lebanon [?]) in Palestine during the 
reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, sovereign 
of Persia (Neh. ii. 8). 

Amo^mI [Heb. = '*whom God has 
bound," i,e, by a vow]. 

A man of Judah, a son of Jehaleleel 
(1 Chron. iv. 16). 

Aflarelmh [Ashabblah] (I Chron. xxv. 

Asanath [Egyptian = ** who is from 
Neith," the Egyptian Minerva {Gnenius), 
but this etymology is very doubtful]. 

The daughter of Potipherah, pnest of 
On, or HeHopolis. She became the wife 
of Joseph and the mother of Manasseh 
and Ephraim (Gen. xli. 50-52 ; xlvi. 20). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




r. ThA Greek form of A8HSB (q.v.) 
(Luke ti. 36). 

Aah [Enffliflh]. 

The ren^ermg in the A.y. of the 
Hebrew Orm in Isa. xliv. 14. The R.V.. 
though placing ash on the margin oi 
the ame panage, introduces ** a fir-tree '' 
into the text. Oren in Hebrew is like 
Orma, one of the names for the ash-tree 
in Latin ; but the two lang^uages belong to 
diilierent families, and it is probable tnat 
the resemblance between the two words is 
aoddentaL Oeaenius thinks that Oren is 
from the Terb nman = ** to give a tremu- 
k>ns and creaking sound j** as from a lofty 
tree. He has no hesitation in oalhng Oren 
** apine or fir." 

The oommon ash (Frajeinm exeeisior) is a 
tree fifty to eighty feet high. Its flowers, 
which oome out in radng before the leaves 
nipear, are in small, d^se axillary pani- 
des of a dark-purple colour. They nave 
neither calyx nor corolla. They have two 
fltawiftm and a nearly sessile stigma. The 
leaves are compound, with about five pairs 
of acute notched leaflets, and an end one. 
The winged fruits are called Ash-kesrs. 
The Izee grows in Europe, the north of 
Africa, and parts of Asia. 

I [Heb. = " smoked. 

A town or village in a valley in Judah 
(Joeh. XV. 42), but belonging to Simeon 
(zix. 7 ; 1 Chron. iv. 32). It was assigned 
-with its suburbs to the Levites (vi. 59). 
Called also AinjAix (2)] (Josh. xxi. 16), 
and 24»parently identiou with Chor-ashan 
p Sam« XXX. 30). Capt. Conder thinks that 
it mav have been at the ruin of 'Aseileh, 
3| milee from the accepted site for Bimmon. 

Aflarelmli [Heb. Athar- 
eloA r= ** upright," " righteous towards 
God" (?)] [JbshabbiahJ. 

A son ot Asaph (1 Chron. xxv. 2— A.V. 
and B.y). Called also Jwrhabktah (q.v.) 

i [Heb. = *' I call as a witness," 
"I adjure^]. 

A descendant of Shelah, of the tribe of 
Judah. The members of tiie family 
wrought fine Hnen (1 Chron. iv. 21). 

Aflhbal [A secondary form of Eshbaal^ 
**a man of Baal "1 (IshbobhbthI. 

The third son of Benjamin (Gen. xlvi. 
21 ; Xumb. xxxvi. 38). In 1 Chron. viii. 1 
he is made the second son, but it has 
l)een thought that the Hebrew bekoro = 
" his firstborn," may be a misreading for 
Becher, which would make Ashbel the 

[Heb. Aihdodh = '' a fortified 

One of the five chief Philistine cities, 
and ruled over bv a ** lord " (Josh. xiii. 3 ; 
cf. 1 Sam. vi. 17). Some of its inhabitants 
were Anakims (Josh. xL 22). It was 
assigned to the men of Judah (xv. 
46, 47), but was not captured by that 
tribe. It had within it palacee (Amos iii. 
9), but was more celebrated for a temple 
of the fish-god Dagon (q.v.). Thither the 
ark of God was earned after it was taken 
by the Philistines in the time of Eli (1 
Sam. V. 1-8). A judgment falling on the 
inhabitants, the ark was transrerred to 
Gath(6-8). Uzriah broke down the walls 
of Ashdod (2 Chron. xxvL 6). The Tartan 
or Assyrian commander-in-chief under 
Sargon besieged it with success (Isa. xx. 1). 
So <fid Psammetichus, kin^ of Egypt, about 
630 B.C., after a siese which. aocOToing to 
Herodotus (ii. 157), lasted twenty-nine 
years. The sunrivors were only ** a rem- 
nant " (Jer. xxv. 20 ; cf. also Amos i. 8 ; 
Zeph. ii. 4 ; Zeoh. ix. 6) . Someof the returned 
I Jews married wives of Ashdod, who spoke 
I a different language from Hebrew (Pi^eh. 
xiii. 23, 24). Ashdod was destroyed by 
the Maccabees (1 Bfacc v. 68 ; x. 84), but 
was rebuilt by the Romans about B.C. 55. 
In New Testament times it was called 
Azotus (q.v.) (Acts viii. 40). 

It lay at or near the mud village of 
Esdild, on the eastern slope of a low round 
knoll, among syoomore trees and prickly 
pears, eleven miles N.E. from Asoaloii, 
three from the Mediterranean, and about 
midway between Jaffa and Gaza. No 
remnants of antiquity have hitherto been 
found at the spot. 

Ailidodlt«, AfllidOttilte [English]. 
A native or inhabitant of Ashdod (Josh, 
xiii. 3 ; Neh. iv. 7). 

The descendants of Ashbel (q.v.). 

( [Abbxsxaz] (1 Chron. i. 6). 

[Heb. pi. of Aahedah = 

effusion," "pouring out," as of the 
waters from a spring]. 
See the etymology and the compound. 

PlsSAlk [Heb. Aahdothhap- 

Either the slopes or the smings of Pisgah 
(Deut. iiL 17— A.V. and R.V., texts and 
margins ; iv. 49 ; Joeh. xii. 3 ; xiii. 20). If 
the latter, then it was probably at the 
springs of Ain M<^, under Mount Nebo. 

Aahdotlilte [AfiHDODiTE] (Josh. xiii. 3; 
xiu. 20). 

Aaher, Aser [Heb. Aaher = " happy " 
(Gen. XXX. 12, 13). In Gr. Aser], 

(1) The eighth son of Jacob, and the 
second by Zilpah, Leah's maidservant 
(Gen. XXX. 12, 13 ; xxxv. 26). His blessing 
given by Jacob on his death-bed is thus 
worded, *' Out of Asher his bread shall be 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




fat and he shall yield royal dainties " (Gen. 
xlix. 20). That of Moses^ ** Let Asher be 
bleesed with children ; let him be acoeptaUe 
to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in 
oil. Thy shoes shall be iron and brass; 
,$md as thy days so shall thy strength be ** 
(Dent, xxxiii. 25). He had four sons, 
Jinmah, Ishnah, Isui, and Beriah ; and a 
daughter named Serah (G^. zlyi. 17 ; 
1 Chron. vii. 30). 

(2) The tribe of which Asher, the son of 
Jacob, was the progenitor. On the north 
it extended to the northern boundary-line 
of Palestine, on the south it reached to 
Carmelj on the east it was bounded by the 
territories of Zebulun and Naphtali, and 
on the west by the Mediterranean. There 
were in it twenty-two cities, with their 
yillages (Josh. xix. 24-31). Among the 
former were Tyre, Sidon^ Accho, and 
other strong places, from which the Asher- 
ites were unable permanently to expel 
the Canaanite inhabitants (Judg. i. 31 . 3^). 

Asher was the most northerly ox the 
tribes. Its territory extended about sixtjr 
miles in length from north to south, by 
ten or twelve in breadth from east to west. 
It should haye been broader, but the 
failure of the Asherites to capture and 
occupy the Phoenician plain along the sea 
left ihem only the inland hill-ooimtry. 
This was well adapted for the culture of 
the oliye, so that the inhabitants might dip 
their feet in o^ (cf . Deut. xxxiii. 24). 

(3^ A town or village east of Shechem 
(Josn. xvii. 7). Exact site unknown. 

Aflberah (plural Ashebdc, masculine, 
and AsHEBOTH, feminine). (£ither from 
Heb. Yashar = " upright," or less pro- 
bably from Aaher = " bringing fortune."! 

A word uniformly mistranslatea 
"grove" in the A.V. A grove of trees 
would not need to be " brought out " from 
the house of the Lord (2 Kings xxiii. 6), 
nor did man *' build" it at the first 
(1 Kings xiv. 23). Hence the R.V. leaves 
it untnmslated. It was something upright, 
originally, perhaps, the trunk of a tree 
with the branches chopped off, and was 
regarded as the wooden symbol of a 
goddess Asherah, the female side of the 
beneficent and fertilising Sun-god (Exod. 
xxxiv. 13). It was erected beside the altar 
of Jehovah, or of Baal (Deut. xvi. 21 ; 
Judg. vi. 25, 28). There were prophets of 
the Asherah in Ahab^s time, who, with 
those of Baal, were slain by Elijah at the 
river Kishon (1 Kings xvi. 33 ; xviii. 
19-40). Women wove hangings for an 
Asherah in the Temple (2 Kin^ xxiii. 7), 
and Josiah, as one pait of his religious 
reformation, brought out the idolatrous 
symbol and burnt it at the brook Kidron 


[Abhebah] (Exod. xxxiv. 13 ; 

Deut. vii. 6— R. V. ; 1 Kings xiv. 23— B.V. : 
Micah v. 14— R.V.). 

Aflherltes [English]. 
Descendants of Asher, members of the 
tribe of Asher (Judg. i. 33). 

Aflherotli [Ashe&ah] (Judg. iii. 7— 
R.V. ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 3). 

Aahlma [Persian Ammanj Zend 
A^n6 = " heaven" (?) {Ge»eniu9)\, 

A divinity worshipped by the people of 
Hamath (2 Kings xvu. 30). 

Arfilroloii^ AskttlMly *Xfl]ikalMi 
[Heb. Ashoeloti = " migration " (P)]. 

One of tne five leading Philistine cities 
each ruled by a lord (Josh. xiii. 3; 
1 Sam. vi. 17; 2 Sam. L 20; Jer. xxv. 
20 ; xlvii. 5, 7 ; Amos i. 8). It was situated 
in a valley, on or near tiie Mediterranean 
sea-shore (jer. xlvii. 5, 7). It was cap- 
tured by the tribe of Judah in the time of 
the Judges (Judg. i. 18), bat must soon 
have reverted to its old rulers (xiv. 19). 
It was to have its inhabitants, all but a 
remnant, cut off and be made desolate, 
apparently b^ a Pharaoh in Jeremiah^s 
time (Jer. xlvii. 1, 5, 7 4 Zeph. u. 4, 7 ; cf. 
also Zech* ix. 5). As Ashdod was cele- 
brated for its temple of Dagon, so Ashkebn 
was noted for the temple and lake sacred 
to Derceto, the Syrian Venus. Ashkelon 
was several times taken and retaken during 
the Crusades, till at length, in ▲.D. 1270. 
the sultan Bibars destroyea it and filled 
the harbour with stones. Its site has been 
found within a natural amphitheatre con- 
structed by aridge of rocks, forming a kind 
of semicircle wiw the open side to the sea. 
The wall, now in ruins, ran along the top 
of the ridge. The soil is fertile, produdng 
large apples, svcomore figs, etc. The kind 
of onion callea shallot, or eschallot, came 
at first from Ascalon, after which it is 
named. Ashkelon is now called 'AskaUn. 

[Heb. Aifi 
Ar^mis (Etymology doubtful)]. 

(1) The eldest *' son" of Gomer ((Jer 
X. 3 ; 1 Chron. i. 6). 

(2) A kingdom peopled b^ his de- 
scendants. It is associated with Ararat 
and Minni (Jer. li. 27). On the ABsyriaa 
monuments it is called Asguza. It lay 
between the kingdom of Minni and that of 
Ecbatana, the siu)eequent capital of Media. 

Afllmali JHeb. = '* strong "]. 

(1) A village in a valley in Judah 
(Josh. XV. 33). It has been doubtfully 
placed at the ruins of Hasan and at those 
of 'Aslin, between Zorah and EshtaoL 

(2) Another village of Judah (Josh. xv. 
43). Exact site un&iown. 

Afllipeiiai [Etymology doubtful]. 
The master of the eunuchs at Babylon 
during Nebuchadnezzar's reign (Dan. i. 3). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



I [A8BIEL] (1 Chron. vii. 14). 

(1) [Plund of Heb. Ash- 
toreth (q.T.)]. 

Images of ABhtoreth (q.v.) often men- 
ticmed in connection with Baalim, or 
images of Baal, these being representa- 
tions of the two leading female and male 
divinitiee among the Phoenicians (Judg. ii. 
11. 13 ; X. 6 ; 1 Sam. yii. 3, 4; zii. 10; zxxi. 

Aditarotli(2), Astaroth [Named after 
the goddeas Astarte] [AshtobethI. 

A town at Edrei, and the capital of Og, 
king of Baahan (Dent i. 4 ; Josh. iz. U)}. 
Some of the ancient inhabitants were 
giants, Og himself being of the number 
^osh. zii. 4 ; ziii. 12). The place fell to 
Ute lot of Machir, tne son of Manasseh 
(31), bat became a Leritical city, inhabited 
br the children of Oerahon or Qerehom 
(1 Chron. tL 71) rBsESHTEBAH]. Uzsia. 
one of DaTid^s xnighty men. was connected 
with the town (zi. 44) [Abhteboth 

Aahterathtta [From Ashierath, a 
form of Achtaroth (2), not occurring as a 
ample word in the Hebrew Bible! . 

A natire of Ashxaboth (q.v.) (1 Chron. 
zL 44). 

AHhteroth KTwatin rELeh,A$tarte9- 
*'ot (the) two horns," "two-homed 

A town or district smitten by CHiedor- 
laomer and his confederate kings on their 
an>editioii against the cities of the plain 
(Gen. ziv. 5). Its name suggests that the 
mhabttants specially wonhipped the 
homed moon. Th^ /ippear to haye been 
giants fBEPHAiH]. ^It may have been the 
same place as the Camaim of 1 Mace. y. 
26, 43. 44, which was in "Galaad" 
(Gileaa) and the Camion of 2 Mace. zii. 
21. In Jerome's time the name was 
appHed to two yillagee, Adara and Abila, 
axjore the site of Sodom. Capt. Irby iden- 
tifies it with Beit Kurm, a little mstance 
from Hain^ in Moab. Some believe 
Ashteroth Kamaim to have been the same 
place as Ashtaroth (q.y.), but it is difficult 
to believe that the latter place can have 
been as far south as Moab. The Palestine 
explorers doubtfully locate it at Tell 
^Ashtarah, in Jaukm. 

Atfitorvtli [Heb., derived apparently 
from Syrian (r) or Persian words con- 
nected with tixe Or. AsUr = " a star," 
referring especially to the planet Venus 

Astarte, a Phoenician goddess, partly 
evolved, perhapa^ from admiration for 
the planet Venus, but symbolising also the 
■oft radiance of the moon rAsHTEBOTH 
Kabitaxm]. Her worship had established 
itself at Sidon before Tyre was much 

heard of. Hence she is called the ^^dess 
or the abomination of the Zidomans (1 
Kings zi. 5, 33 ; 2 Kincs zziii. 13). As 
early as the times of uie judges it had 
spread to the Hebrews, wbio worshipped 


** Baalim'' (images of Baal) and Ashta- 
roth (images of Ashtoreth) [AshtabothJ. 
Solomon m his old age was lured into 
giving it the support of his great name 
(1 Kmgs zi. 5 ; ^ Kings zzSi. 13). A 
short tune previously, if not even 
earlier, it had oeen adopted by the Philis- 
tines (1 Sam. zzzi. 10). 

Aflliiir [Heb. Aahhhur = *' black- 
ness(?) {Ge$eniwi)'], 

A son of Hezron by his wife Abiah. He 
was ** the father of Tekoa " (1 Chron. ii. 
24). He had two wives, Helah and 
Naarah, and seven children (iv. 5-7). 

Afllmrltos (English ; in Hebrew 

A people over whom Ishbosheth was 
made king. Where this country was U 
uncertain. It is mentioned after Oilead 
and before Jezreel (2 Sam. ii. 9). 

AflliT»tli [Etymology doubtful; cf. 
Aihoth - " fabricated," " fashioned "]. 

An Asherite, a son of Japhlet (1 Chron. 
vii. 33). 

Asia [Lat. from Gr. A»ui\. 

(1) Originally the region east of the 
Archipelago ruled by Attains, and eztend- 
ing from Fergamos or Mysia to Caria. 
Herodotus (443 B.o.^ is the earliest writer 
who uses the word m this sense. 

(2) The Roman proconsular jjrovince of 
the name, including Phrygia, Mysia, 
Lydia, and Caria. It had Ephesus for its 

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capital. Tkiis ia the common meaning of 
the term Asia in the New Testament 
(Acts a. 9; vi. 9; xvi. 6; xix. 10, 22j 
XX. 4, 16, 18; xxi. 27: xxiv. 18; 1 Cor. 
xvi. 19 ; 2 Cor. i. 8 ; 2 Tim. i. 15 ; 1 Peter 
i. 1 ; Bev. i. 4, 11), though occasionally 
the word may be used somewhat more 
extensively for all Asia Minor (Acts xix. 
26, 27 ; xxvii. 2). 

(3) The great continent east of Europe, 
containing part of Turkey, Arabia, India, 
China, etc. The word is nowhere used in 
Scripture in this sense. To distinguish the 
rcM^on between the Greek Archipelago, the 
Black Sea, and the Mediterranean from 
the immense area of the Asiatic continent, 
the former is now called by its Latin 
name Asia Minor, i.e. Lesser Asia. The 
first author known to have used the term 
Asia Minor was Orosius, in the fifth 
century of the Christian era (Trench). 

Aslarob [Lat. Asiarehua ; Gr. Asiar- 
kho8 = " chief of Asia *']. 

The Director- General of religious cere- 
monies in the Boman province of Asia 
[Asia ([2)1. The word Asiarohs occurs in 
Acts xix. 31 — R. V. , margin — ^as the render- 
ing of Afiarkhoi in the Greek. They are 
called in the A.y. '' the chief of Asia,''^ and 
in the text of the R.V. *' the chief officers 
of Asia." They befriended St. Paul during 
the riot at Epheeus. Properly speaking, 
there was but one Asiarch, whose official 
residence was Ephesus. The others 
mentioned were his subordinates. 

Asiel [Heb. = " created bv God "]. 
A Simeonite (1 Chron. iv. o5). 

Askelon [Ashxelon] (Judg. i. 18— 

Asnali [Heb. = "a granary" (?) or 
<* a bramble" (?) {Geaeniua)], 

A Jew, some of whose descendants 
returned from the captivity at Babylon 
(Ezra ii. 50). 

Amapper^ Osnappar [Heb. Aenappar 
or Omappar^ Assyrian Asmr-bani-pal = 
** Assur is creator of the son "] . 

A high Assyrian dignitary called *^ great 
and noble " who settled various heathen 
families in Samaria (Ezra iv. 10). He 
seems to have be«i a contemporary of 
Esar-haddon (cf . verses 2 and 10). Asnap- 
peiv-A.V., Osnappar R.V.— is probably 
the Hebrew form of Assur-bani-pal, the 
son of Esar-haddon, who from about 
671 B.C. or later was his associate and 
from 668 B.C. his successor on the Assy- 
rian throne. He was sole king for twenty- 
eight years, dying in 640 B.o. He was not 
Bs heroic as his ancestors. They hunted 
lions and other wild animals wherever 
they found them in the open country. He, 
too, was fond of the chase, but it was in 
enclosed parks, where confined animals, 

driven out of their cages for the purpose, 
became his jn^y. Previous kmgs of 
Assyria had, as a rule, led their own 
armies; he delegated this duty to his 
generals ; and if present at battles, was so 
only as a spectator, though the victory 
was always recorded as his. During nearly 
the whole of his rei^ Assyria was at war, 
and at first its hmits were somewhat 
extended. His father. Esar-haddon, had 
conqueredEgyptand divided it into twenty 
satrapies. Kebellion occurring among tbie 
petty rulers, and the assistance rendered 
them by the able Tirhakah (q.v.), involved 
the Assyrian king in two great campaigns, 
in whicn on the whole he was succesnul, 
though EgTpt was lost at last. One 
notable incident in the struggle was the 
capture and plunder of Thebes, tiie No- 
Amon of Scripture, an event which is 
alluded to in Nahum iii. 8-10. He had 
relations first friendly, but afterwards the 
reverse, with Gygee, tne usurping king of 
Lvdia [Goo]. He had to crusn a rebeUion 
of his own brother, the satrap of Babylon. 
He had a war with the Minm of Scripture 
[MiNNf], and more than one with £lax 
(q.v.), m the narrative of which there is 
irequent mention of the capital, Shuahan 
(q.v.V He multiplied wives, and by the 
Greeks, who callea him Sardanapalos, was 
considered effeminate, but modem scholars 
regard his memory with gratitude on 
account of the splendid libiury which he 
brought together. He had copyists inoes* 
santly^ at work not merely transcribing 
Assyrian books, but translating works ol 
value from the Accadian and other 
tongues. Part of this library has been 
recovered, and it is from it thai we derive 
most of our acquaintance witii the Assy- 
rian empire ana its kings. 

Asp FFrom Lat. and Gr. aspts = " a 
round shield," which the serpent when 
coiled up resembles]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Pelken in Deut. xxxii. 33 ; Jobxx. 14, 16 ; 
and Isa. xi. 8, and of tiie Greek Aspis in 
Rom. iii. 13. Both in the A.V. and the 
R.V. the word Pethen is with some 
inconsistencv rendered not asp [Addeb 
(2)], but aader in Psalm IviiL 4 and xd 
13. Pethen is from pdthan = (1) *'to be 
strong," (2) '* to twist " (?). It evidently 
means a very venomous species of snake, 
probably Nwa Haje, the Egyptian cobra, 
which is of the same genus as the deadly 
cobra of India. They have a hood which 
the^ dilate when they are about to strike 
their prey. They are common in Egjrpt, 
and are sometimes taken about by snake- 
charmers. The species is sculptured on 
the monuments of Egypt. It was 
worshipped by the ancient inhabitants of 
that country. 

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[Heb. from Persian (cf . Zend 

atpo'utpmhi ; San9crita»ra="ahone'*)]. 
A son of Hamau (Eeth. ix. 7). 

Ante]. Aahrtol [Heb. ^«rttf/=**whom 
God has bound by a tow '*]. 

A 8on of Manasseh and the founder of a 
f Amilf (Numb. xzvL 31 ; Josh. xvii. 2 ; 
1 CbroQ. Tii. 14). 

AarlaUta [Englbhl. 
One belonging to tne famil j of AflTtTKT. 
(q.v.) (Numb. xxvi. 31). 


The ^enus called by zoologists Asinus, 
ooatainmg the seyeral species and varieties 
<rf asses, wild or domesticated. The ass- 
nnus belomzs to the family Equidse 
Worses). Tnree aasee are mentioned in 

(1) The domestic wmiAtimtt asinut). 
Tins is the Hebrew Mhamor and the 
irabic komar. It is a sub-species de- 
scended from No. 2. It is regarded as 
the type of stupidity, but is not as destitute 
of intellect as u generally beUeyed. It is, 
however, unquestionably obstinate. But 
on the other hand the ass is strong, easily 
fedj patient, and forgiving. Its faults are 
mainly produced hj the cruel bondage 
imposed upon it by its human taskmaster. 
The ass was so early domesticated that 
Abraham had asses (Gen. xii. 16) on which 
he rode (xzii. 3). So had Jacob (zxx. 43). 
Thef were used also for burden-bearing 
{xlix. 14 ; Isa. zxx. 6), for ploughing, etc 
CDsuI zxiL 10). White asses were deemed 
nt for persons of rank (Judg. v. 10), as 
they stul ate in Palestine, tfesus showed 
HlslowlmeeB by riding, not on a white ass, 
bat on one of a more common colour, in 
His triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Zech. 
ix. 9 ; ICait. -r" 5). [Balaam.] 

(2) The wild ass, called in Hebrew 
Aniik, It is the Annus onager. It is the 
mcies poetically described in Job zxzix. 
9-8, where, however, there is mention also 
of No. 3. It occurs also in Dan. v. 21. 
It is found in the Sahara and in Arabia, 
where it was once common, but is now 
more rare. It occasionally visits the 
Haman. It is popularly believed to be 
imtameable, which is incorrect, for it is 
the progenitor of the domestic ass, No. 1 

(3) Tlie wild ass of Syria (Annus 
hmippui), Hebrew Pere, occurring in 
Jobzziv. 5; xxzix.5; Ftalmciv. 11; Isa. 
zxzii. 14. and Jer. ziv. 6. It is rather 
smaOer than No. 2. Tristram mentions 
that enormous herds of it often enter the 
Armenian mountains in summer. It is 
found at all times in Northern Arabia, Me- 
sopotamia and S^yria, occasionally entering 
Northern Palestine. It is the species repre- 
sented on the Ninevite sculptures. 

or [Heb. AshsAur -. 


agoing," "a way "J. 

(0 The second '' son '* of Shem (Oen. 
X. 22). [Sox.] He is mentioned in the 
A.V. of verse 11: "Out of that land 
[Babylonia] went forth Asshur and builded 
Nineveh.*' But the text of the B.V. 
renders the passage, " Out of that land he 
[Nimrod] went forth into Assyria.'* 
[No. 2.] 

(2) Assyria [Assub] [No. 1]. 

Afldmrlm [Heb. plural of Ashshur = 
" stepping," or *' going " ; Assyria]. 


A people descended from Dedan, and 
more remotely from Abraham by his wife 
Keturah (Oen. zzv. 3). They may have 
given name to a country, Asshur, which is 
mentioned with Sheba in Ezek. xxvii. 23, 
or they may themselves have been identical 
with tne Ashurites. named after Qilead in 
2 Sam. ii. 9. Professor Hommel believes 
that the governor of Ashur in Northern 
Arabia, mentioned in a Minman inscription, 
undoubtedly ruled over the scriptural 

AMdr [Heb. = " a captive "]. 

(1) Ason of Korah (Exod. vi '2 ; 1 Chron. 

(2) A son of Ebiasaph (1 Chron. vL 23, 

AflMM [Gr.1. 

A seaport town of Mysia, now called 
Behram Keni, 9 miles from Troas (Acts 
XX. 13, 14). 

[Heb. Ashthur}, 

ABsyria (Ezra iv. 2— A.V. ; Psalm 
Ixxxiii. 8— A.y.). (In both passages the 
B.y. substitutes Assyria.) 

Afl^rrla [Lat. from Or. Asmrta. 
Assoury Heb. Asshur^ from the original 
capital Attur or Asshur^ and that ag|ain 
from Assur, the patron god of the city, 
who ultimately be!oame the supreme deity 
of Assyria]. 

Assyria proper lay between 35* and 37*N. 
latitude and 42» and 44* E. longitude. 
It was about . 100 miles from north to 
south, by 70 from east to west. It is in 
most plaoes flat or undulating, though 
here and there rising into mountain ranges. 
It is traversed nearly from north to south 
by the river Tigris. [Hiddbkel.] It was 
peopled from Babylonia (Oen. x. 11), 
though its inhabitants were of more pure 
Semitic race. The seat of its government 
was originally at Assur or Aishur ; then 
Nineveh became its capital. The ruins of 
Assur have been found at E[alah Sheroat, 
about 60 miles below Mosul. At first 
Assur was subject to Babylon. Perhaps 
to this period belong Inmi-dagan and 
his five immediate successors (about B.C. 
1850 to 1700). Then followed Bel-kap- 

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( ^0 ) 


kapu, who, aooordinff to the later monu- 
mental inscriptions, founded the AAsyrian 
monarchy, doubtless throwing ofit the 
Babylonian yoke and becoming indepen- 
dent. Shalmaneser I. (b.o. about 1300 to 
1271) transferred the seat of ffoyemment 
from Asshur to Nineveh. Tiglau-pileser I. 
(about B.O. 1120 to 1100) raised the Nine- 
vite kingdom into the most extensive 
empire of the age. Under his successors 
it greatly declined, ito decadence leaving 
a void which permitted the kingdoms of 
David and Solomon to reach their widest 
limits. Assur-nazir-pal (b.o. 885 to 860} 
by his conquests founaed the seoona 
Assyrian empire. He was succeeded by 
his son Shalmaneser 11. (b.o. about 860 or 
859 to 825), the first Assyrian king who 
came into conflict with the Israelites. 
Among the other kings or emperors of the 
new empire were Tiglath-pileser II. 
(745-727), Shahnaneeer IV. (727-722), 
Sargon (722-705), Sennacherib (705-681) 
(all whicn see; see also Pul), and Assur- 
bani-pal (b.c. 668-626). [Abnappeb.] 
Then followed Bel-zakir-iskum (626-620) 
and Assur-ebil-ili (620-607), the latter, it is 
believed, being the Sarakos of the Greeks. 
In B.O. 667 me Medee, the Babvlonians 
and their allies captured Nineveh (q.v.) 
and put an end to the Assyrian Ehnpire. 
The first empire had plundered rather 
than subdued countries ; the second sub- 
dued them or rendered them tributary. 
When the latter was at its greatest limits, 
in the seventh century B.C., it compre- 
hended Babylonia and parts of Media and 
Arabia in one direction, and Syria, Cjrprus 
and Eg^t in the other. It ultimately 
gained for itself most of the commerce of 
Western Asia. The kings of Israel men- 
tioned in the Assyrian inscriptions are 
Humri (Omri), Ahabbu (Ahao), Tahua 
(Jehu), Minihimmu (Menahem), Paqaha 
(Pekah), and Husia (Hoshea). The kings 
of Judah so mentioned are Azriyahu 
(Azariah or Uzziah^^ Yahuhazi (Ahaz), 
Hazaqiyahu (Hezeuah), and Minase 

H n) Assyrian Religion, This was bor- 
rowea from that of Babylon, except that, 
as mentioned in the etymology, Anur, the 
presiding god of the city of Aiasur, beoime 
the chief oeity of Asayna. The other gods 
were Nebo, the panron of writing and 
learning ; Sin, the moon-god ; Merodach 
or Bel, a companion deity of Nebo: 
Nergal and Nimp, gods of *nunting ana 
war ; Yul, the storm-god ; Ann, the king 
of heaven ; and £a, the lord of hell. 
The chief goddess was Istar, the Assyrian 
Venus; another was Zirrat-banit, the wife 
of Merodach. [Sttoodth Beivoth.] The 
Assyrians were not a very religious people. 
Their finest buildings were not tuples, 
but palaces. They were a military race. 

like the Spartans and the Romans, adepts 
in war. The Bible and monuments show 
them to have been cruel. Excavations in 
the Assyrian palaces begun bv the French- 
man, l^tta, m 1843, foUowea immediately 
by the Englishman, Mr. Layard, and then, 
drter a time, by George Smith of the 
British Museum, Mr. Btusam, and otfaen, 
have made the Assyrian empire, which was 
little more than a myth to the classic 
nations of antiquity, to us a jnreat reaHty. 
(2) Assyrian Language, The language 
spoken by the Assyrians and, it now 
appears, bv the Babylonians. It was of the 
Snemitic family, and so closely allied to 
Hebrew that words occurring init once in 
the Hebrew Bible, and therefore of doubt- 
ful meaning, can sometimes have tiieir 
ngnification predsel^p' settled by AsBvrian. 
The alphabet in wmch it was written is 
familiar to those who visit the Assyrian 
rooms at the British Museum. The letters 
are cuneiform, that is, wedge-shaped, or, 
as they are often called, arrow-headed. 
They were d^ved originally from the 
Aocadian hieroglyphics. 

Astaroth [Ashtaboth] (Deut. i. 4). 

Astrologers [English]. 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew words 
Habhri Shamaim = ** dividers of the 
heavens." They are mentioned with the 
** star-Mizers " m Isa. xlvii. 13--A.V. and 
B.y. There is no question that these 
were astrologers who divided the heavens 
into certain mansions, with the view of 
tracing the course of the planets through 
each of them , in the vain hope of being 
able to tell fortunes and predict futvie 
events. Though their failure was neces- 
sarily complete, for the course of the 
planets has notning whatever to do with 
man or his affairs, jet the careful study 
of the heavens wmch astrologers found 
needful led to the gradual growth of the 
sublime science of astronomy. [Stabs.] 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew or 
Aramaic word Ashshaphim fDan. i. SOj, 
Ashphin (ii. 27), and Ashphaia (iv. 7, 
and V. 7— A. v.), all translated in the B.V. 
" enchanters,'* i.e, persons who practised 
Enchanticent (q.v.). 

AsQpjpim [Heb. = *< collections,** 
" gatherings ** ** storehouses "] . 

In the A. v., apparently a place con- 
nected with the Temple (l Chron. uri. 
15, 17). But on the margm it is rendered 
** gatherings," and in the R.V. a " store- 
house," the belief being entertained that it 
is not a proper name. 

Asynorltns [Lat. from Gr. Asimkritos 
= ** not to be compared," ** unlike **]. 

A Christian at Kome to whom St. P*ul 
sent a salutation (Bom. xvi. 14). 

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(61 ) 



[Heb. Atadh = a plant 
MhamHHt paliunuy named from its 
strength, from atadh = '' to strengthen*']. 

Apparently a man. owner of a thresh- 
ittg-floor east of Jordan, where a great 
raoaming for Joseph took place ((mi. 1. 
10, 11) [Abel-Mizbjldc]. But Atad might 
be abo the place where the threshing-floor 
stood, or a plant, the thorny Blmmnus 
{•et etymology), growing abundantly in its 

Atarali [Heb. = *'a crown," *'a 

One of the wives of Jerahmeel (1 
Chron. ii. 26). 

AtarotlK [Heb. = *' crowns,** 

(1) A town east of the Jordan, built or 
rebuilt by the tribe of Ghid (Numb, xxxii. 
3, 34). Its name is generally supposed to 
be preserved in Jel«l (Mount) *Attar{ls, 
three or four miles ^st of Machcerus. 
Grore (Smith. Diet, of tht Bible, Ataroth) 
d)jects • to this identification that the 
mountain is some miles south of Heshbon, 
which is in the tribe of Beuben. *Attar<!ls, 
therefore, cannot well hare been in that oi 
Gad. To this Tristram {Land of Moab p. 
271} replies that the territories of Reuben 
ana Gcul, like those of Judah and Simeon, 
are tztj much commingled. He therefore 
identifi(ee the town of Atarotk with Kirbet 
*Attar<is on the mountain-top. The ruins 
oonast of unwrought stones, lying in 
heaps ; ranges of broken walls ; remains 
of foundations, large cayems, and circular 
dsiems. The old citadel was an hour*s 
walk £roni the town, than which it is 
lower, but more isolated [Pisoah]. 

(2) The same as Ataboth Abab (q.v.) 
(Josh. xvL 2). 

(3) A town on the border of Ephraim, 
not far from Jericho. Apparently dif- 
ferent (?) from Ataroth Adar (q.T.) (Josh. 
XTL 7). Exact site unknown. 

^4) JAtboth Beth Joab] (1 Chron. ii. 54 

Ataboth Adab, Ataboth Asdab [Heb. 
Ateroth Addar [" crowns of great- 
nesB "(?)]. 

A Tillage on the eastern frontier of 
Ephraim (Josh. xvi. 5). It was on the 
boundaij line between that tribe and 
Benjamin, ** near the hill that lieth on the 
soQtn side of the nether Beth-horon** 
(xriii. 13). Capt. Conder identified it 
with the ruin Ed D^eh. 

[Heb. = " shut." " bound," 
poinblv meaning " mute " {Ge»enius)\. 

(I) k man, called, by way of distmc- 
wa^ Ater erf Hezekiah, ninety-eight of 
vfaose dcBMBendants returned from Babylon 
after the captivity (Ezra ii. 16 ; Neh. vii. 

(2) A porter (Ezra iL 42 ; Neh. vii. 45). 

Asaiah (?) (q.v.). 
A man of Judah, eon of a certain 

AtliAoh [Heb. Athak = *' an inn," '' a 
lodging "]. 

A village in Judah, to which David seut 
some of the spoil recaptured at Ziklag 
(1 Sam. XXX. 30). Site unknown. 

Atlialali [Heb. Athayah]. The same n^ 
saiah (?) (q.v.). 
A man of Judal 
Uzziah (Neh. xi. 4). 

AtluOlah [Heb. Athalyah = '' Jeho- 
vah has afflicted " (C/V«rtiiM*)]. 

(1) The daughter of Ahab and the 
granddaughter of Omri (2 Elings viii. 
18-26; 2 Chron. xxi. 6; xxii. 2). She 
possessed the masculine courage of her 
mother Jezebel, and was equally unscru- 
pulous in shedding blood. Finding that 
ner son, king ^ha^h, had been slain by 
Jehu, she killed all the sons of the 
muraered monarch excepting one infant, 
Joash, who was stolen away by his aunt, 
Jehosheba. Then ascending the throne, 
she reigned six years, at the end of which 
a priestly insurrection took place in favour 
of Joash. Attempting to quell it, she was 
dragged from the Temple courts and killed 
at We carriage entnuice of the palace 
(2 Kings xL 1-16; 2 Chron. xxii. 1-xxiii. 

(2) A Benjamite mentioned in 1 Chron. 
viil 26. 

(3) A son of Elam mentioned in Ezra 
viii. 7. 

[Gr. Athenai, which is a plural 
implying that the city oonsLBted of several 

The capital of Attica, one of the Greek 
states, and inhabited by a race so gifted 
that their city became the focus of 
enlightenment m science, literature, and 
art for the ancient and, in large measure, 
for the modem world. The part of it 
first occupied was the Acropolis (the top 
or highest point of the city) on the north- 
west side of the Gulf of JEgina, with the 
small river or brook the Ilissus on the east 
and south, and the Cephisus a little to the 
west. As the city gp^w, it extended to 
other small hills, with the intermediate 
valleys. Athens was about five miles from 
the sea, and required a port. That built 
was caUed the PirsBus, with which when 
Athens was in its gloiy it was connected 
by long walk. Tramtion says that Athens 
was founded by Cecrope about 1556 B.C., 
and that it sent fifty ships to the Trojan 
war. It is stated that it was first ruled by 
kings till about B.C. 1068, after which the 
supreme authority was vested in archons. 
Two celebrated legislators are spoken of— 
Dracon or Draco, about 621 B.C., whose 
name has become proverbial for pitiless 
severity, and Solon, about 694 B.C., a 
wiser man, whose laws were framed with 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




greater consideration for the weakness of 
humanity. As at Rome, there were 
struggles between the arifitocratic and 
democratic parties. In 490 B.C. the 
Athenians, supported by the Flatteans, 
gained the great victory of Marathon 
against the generals of Darius Hjstapes, 
kmg of Persia. In 480 Athens had to be 
abandoned to his son and successor, 
Xerxes, but the great naval fight of 
Salamis gained by the Oi-eeks compelled 

the invader to withdraw. The city was, 
however, burnt in b.o. 479 by his general, 
Mardonius. The glory gained oy the 
Athenians in the Persian war led to the 
establishment of a small empire, with 
Athens for its capital, and a powerful 
fleet rather than a large army for its 
support. About 444 B.C. the power of 
Pendes, an able democratic leader, became 
ver^ great. The good feature of his 
enlightened government was the creation 
of many beautiful public building in 
Athens. Literature also greatly flourished 
under his administration. In 431, while 
yet he lived and ruled, the Peloponnesian 
war began, which ended by the surrender 
of Athens to the Spartans m 404. The dty 
afterwards went through various political 
vicissitudes, though the intellect and 
knowledge of its inhabitants rendered 
them influential, whatever changes took 
place. When Paul was at Rome it was 
subject to the Romans^ as it had been 
since B.o. 86. Mars Hill, on which he 
delivered his celebrated discourse^ was a 
short distance west of the Acropolis (Acts 
xvii. 15-xviii. 1 ; cf. also 1 Thees. iii. I). 
Athens subsequently came into the hands 
of the Goths, the Byzantines, and other 

temporarily dominant races, ending with 
the Turks. Since the establishment of the 
modem Oreek kingdom, in 1828 a.d.. 
Athens has been the capital not merely 6i 
Greece, but of the Hellenic race through- 
out the world [Gbeece]. 

Atlilal [Heb. for Athleyah = "• whom 
Jehovah has afilicted **]. 

A son of Bebai (?). He was induced 
by Ezra to divorce his foreign wife (Ezra 
X. 28). 

Atonement [English At'OPte-tnent] = 
<* The malring of thosc oue in feeling who 
before were two,'* i.e. were at variance]. 

(1) Properly, Reconciliation between 
persons or beings at variance. In the only 
passage in the A.y. of the New Testament 
where the word occurs — Rom. v. 1 1— it is 
used in this primary, but now nearly 
obsolete, sense. The R. V. makes the mean- 
ing clearer by substituting »* reconcilia- 
tion." There is reference m the previous 
verses to the expiatory sacrifice of Christ 
as producing this reconciliation («**' verses 
6,7,8,9710, in. 

(2) That which produces this reconcilia- 
tion; specially an expiatory sacrifice 
designea to have that effect (Exod. xxx. 
16; Lev. iv. 20, 26, 31, 3.5; v. 6; vi. 7: 
ix. 7 ; xii. 8 ; xiv. 18 ; Numb. xv. 2'> ; xvi. 
46 ; xxxi. 50 ; 2 Sam. xxi. 3). [H Day of 
Atonement.] This, being now almost the 
only sense m which the word atonement 
is ever used, is that in which it continually 
occurs in theological writings. 

% The Day of Atonenu^it. A very 
sacred day occurring annually on the 
tenth day of the seventh month (Tisri), 
which fell ten days after the new moon of 
September. It was to be kept as ^*a 
sabbath of rest." When it came, the high 
priest was to kill for sacrificial purposes a 
young bullock for a sin offering ana a ram 
for a Dumt offering, doubtless in the court- 
yard of the tabernacle. The " children of 
Israel " were then to furnish two kids of 
the goats, the one for a sin offering, and a 
ram for a burnt offering. Of uie two 
goats, one was to be sacrificed, the other 
was to become the Scape-ooat (q.v-) (*<^ 
also Azazel). Taking the blood of the 
bullock, the high priest was then to enter 
the " holy place " within the veil, that is. 
the place specially holy, "the holy of 
holies." He was to bum incense on the 
appropriate altar, then he was to sprinkle 
the blood of the slain bullock seven times, 
and afterwards that of the other animals 
on and before the merer-seat. ITiis was 
to make atonement for himself, the 
people, the most holy place, and the 
tabernacle generally. Then coming out, 
he was to inake atonement for the altar, 
by sprinkling it also with blood. Finally, 
the scape-goat was to be despatched to the 

Digitized by 





wilderneee. The great day of atonement 
W88 the only one on which a human being 
was allowed to enter the most holy place, 
and the permit ion was limited to the high 
priest alone, who, moreover, had to take 
with him the blood of the atoning sacrifice 
(Ler. xri. 1-34; xxiii. 26-32; xxr. 9). 
The efiistle to the Hebrews points out 
that tms entry of the high priest into the 
most holy place, once a year, and not 
without UookI, foreshadowed and typified 
the entrance of Jesus, the great high priest 
of our profession, once for all into neaven, 
the holy place, naving purchased for us 
eternal salvation (Heb. ix. 1-12, 24-28). 

Atrotli [Heb.= "crowns"] [Ataboth]. 

The same as Atboth Shophan— B. v. 
(q.y.) (Numb, xxrii. 35— A.V.). 

Atboth Beth Joab [Heb. i troth beth 
ToahA = " crowns of the hou 3 of Joab **]. 

The same as Ataroth (4) of the A.V. ; 
apparently a place in the tribe of Judah, 
Bite unknown (I Chron. ii*. 54). 

Atboth Shophax [Heb. = " crowns of 

At» [Avva] (2 Kings xvii. 24— A. V.). 

Avmk [Heb. = "emptiness," "nothing- 
ness," " vanity," or " an idol "]. 
' ' - ' L. JT). 

A town bmlt by the Gadites (Numb. 
xzzii. 35). Site unknown. 

Attal [Heb. perhaps the same as liti = 
** OTDortune " (Geseniw)]. 

(1 ; The son of an Egjrptian slave, Jarha, 
and one of Sheshan, his Jewish master's 
dau^ters (1 Chion. ii. 34, 36). 

(2) A Oadite who came to David to 
Ziklag (1 Chron. zii. 11). 

(3) A son of Behoboam by his queen 
Uaachah (2 Chron. id. 20). 

Attell* rOr. Attaleia], , 

Named after its fotmder ; fA> the article. ; 
Ad^ on the sea-coast of Pamphylia. 
It was built by Attains Philadelphus, king 
of Pargamos, and is now called Antali or 
AdaL Paul sailed thence to Antioch on 
his first missionary journey (Acts ziv. 25). 

Angnsten [Ihiglish]. 

Of, or belonging to, Augustus Caesar. 

% AuguMtan band, Auguttan cohort^ 
AHfnttu9*» band. [In Or. Sp^re Sebaste, 
Seiute being the <ir. for Augustus, with 
which it corresponds in meaning.] 

A cohort of Boman soldiers, named after 
Augustus Cssar, the first Boman Exnperor, 
▼ery much as a regiment of the British 
vmy used to be called " the Kind's Own," 
and one is still denominated " tiie King's 
Own Scottish Borderers " (Acts xxvii. 1— 
AV., B.V., and margin). 

AncQstiw [Lat = (1) " consecrated," 
"stcred," "venerable'^; (2) "nuijestic," 

Ine personal name of the first Boman 
ODpefor, called more fully Augustus Cessar, 
or m the New Testament Cjsab Augustus 

«D, TC»«liVV , VIA CM 

(1) On (q.v.) fEzek. xxx. ., 
Hebrew oonFonants of On and Aven are 


the same, though the vowels differ. They 
have becm int^tionally changed by the 
prophet to express his contempt for the 
idolatries of the dty. 

(2) The same asBethaven No. 2. (q.v.) 
(cf. Hosea x. 5, 8). 

(3) An unidentified plain mentioned in 
connection with Damascus (Amos i. 5). 

Avenger [English]. 

One who inflicts punishment on a 
criminal, thus vindicating the. majesty of 
insulted hiw. 

H Avenger of blood. One who avenges 
a person killea. Each individual possesses 
a natural right to pumsh an aggressor ; 
but, as under the influence of passion he 
is pretty certain to go too far, ^vemmeut 
constitutes itself his representative and acts 
for him, aiminff to do it with a moderation 
and wisdom wnich he himself might not 
be able to show. The Shemitic nations, 
however, of old acted to a large extent on 
the bad system of each injured man being 
his own avenger. When a murder or an 
accidental homicide took place, the victim, 
of coune, could not avenge himself, but 
his nefunast relative was expected to do it 
for him, and was called uie avenger of 
blood. He slew the murderer or the 
unintentional homicide, without any pre- 
liminary trial to settle the actual mcts of 
the case. Then, very probably, the nearest 
relative of the second man slain murdered 
the avenger of blood, and a blood -feud 
being thus established, there followed 

" A wretched interchange of wrong for wrong." 

The Divinely promulgated Mosaic legisla- 
tion found £hiB system of blood-feuos too 

firmly established to be directly assailed ; 
but it introduced modifications which 
destroyed its worst features. This was 
done by establishing Cities of Befuge 
[Befuob f ] and enacting that anyone 
killing a man and fieeing to one of tnose 
cities should have a fair trial and should 
not be put to death unless he had com- 
mitted actual murder (Numb. xxxv. 19, 
21^24, 27 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 11-all B.V.j. The 
A.V. reads, Bevenger of blood [Be- 


[Avym (2)] (Josh, xviii. 23— 


Awliiui [AyyiM (1)] (Deut. ii. 23— 

Awttes [AyyiM (1)] (Josh. xifi. 3— 
A.V. ; 2 Kings xvu. 31-A.V.). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




ATtth [Heb. = ♦« ruins "]. 

An Edomite dty, the native nlace of 
king Hadad, the son of Bedad (Oen. 
xzxvi. 35 ; 1 Chron. i. 46). Exact site 

Avvm, Av» [Heb. -<4rra = *'an over- 

A place in the Assyrian empire from 
which people were brought to help to 
colonise Samaria. Their gods were Nibhaz 
and Tartak (2 Kings xviL 24, 31— A. V. 
and B.V.). Probably the same as Iyah 
and as Abaya (q.v.). 

ATVlm (1) [Heb. Jiwii/im from Awa 


The aborigines of the Philistine country, 
as far as Gaza. They were destroyed by 
tJie Caphtorim, afterwards called Philis- 
tines (Dent. ii. 2a— R.V. ; Josh. xiii. 3— 
R.y.). In the first passage the A.y. calls 
them Avims, and in the second one Avites. 

ATVlm (2), Avim [Awnc (1)1. 

A town of Benjamin, inhabited probably 
by a renmant of the Awim [Awnc (1)J 
(Josh, xviii. 23— R.V. and A.V.). 

ATVitea, ATttes [AyyaI. 

(1) The same as Awni (1) (q.v.) (Josh, 
ziii. 3). 

(2) The people of Awa (q.v.) (2 Kings 
xvii. 31— R. v.). 

. [Azkl] (Zech. xiv. 6— A.V.). 

[Heb. Atsalyahn = " whom 
Jehovah has reserved *']. 

The father of Shaphan (2 Chron. xxziv. 

^*niilfih [Heb. Azanyah = '* whom 
God has listened to"]. 

A Levite, father of a certain Jeshua 
(Neh. X. 9). 

AiMrael [Azabel (6)] (Neh. xii. 36). 

Aiareel [Azabel] (1 Chron. xii. 6— 
A.V., etc.). 

Asarel, Aiareel [Heb. Azarel, Azareel 
= " whom God has listened to "]. 

The A. V. inserts the first e, which is very 
short ; the R.V. omits it. 

(1) A man who joined David at Ziklag 
(1 Chron. xii. 6— A.V. and R.V.). 

(2) A singer in David's time ^1 Chron. 
XXV. 18 — A.V. and R.V. — called m verse 4 
tJzziel, the son of Heman). 

.(3) A son of Jeroham, the chief of the 
tribe of Dan (1 Chron. xxvii. 22— A. V. 
and R.V.). 

(4) A man whom Ezra persuaded to 
divorce his foreign wife (Ezra x. 41 — A.V. 
and R.V.). 

(5) A priest, a son of Ahasai (Neh. xi. 
13— A. V. and R.V.). 

(6) A musician of priestly descent (Neh. 
xii. 36— R. v.). [Aeaeael.] 

^ff^r*^''' [Heb. Azaryah and Asa- 
ryahu = ** whom Jehovah helps" or *' has 

(1) A son of Ethan, and the fourth in 
descent from Judah (1 Chron. ii. 8). ■ 

(2) A priest, the son of Ahimaaz, and 
father of Johanan (1 Chron. vi. 9). 

r3) Asonof Nathan^ who was over king 
Solomon's ofiioers (1 Kings iv. 5). 

(4) A priest, the son of Johanan, and 
father of Amariah. He officiated in 
Solomon's temple (and in Solomon's reign) 
(1 Chron. vi. 10). 

(5) A prophet, a son of Oded, in Asa's 
reign, who encouraged the king to per- 
severe in his work oi spiritual reformation 
(2 Chron. xv. 1-8). 

(6) A son of Jenoshaphat (2 Chron. xxi. 

(7) A man of Judah, the son of a certain 
Jehu, and the father of Helez (1 Chron. ii. 
38, 39). His grandfather was Obed (38). 
He was probaoly. the Azariah the " son of 
Obed," who remained loyal to Joash. king 
of Judah, during his infancy, and took part 
in the revolution which placed him on the 
throne (2 Chron. xxiii. 1). 

(8) Aji Ephraimite, a son of Johanan, 
in the rei^ of PekaJi. He was one of 
tiiose who mterf ered in favour of humanity 
to the captives of Judah (2 Chron. xxviii. 

(9) A king of Judah, better known to 
us by^ his name Uzziah. But on the 
Assyrian monuments he is called Azriyahu, 
as if Azariah was his .more common appel- 
lation (cf . 2 Kings XV. 1 with 2 Cnron. 
xxvi. 1). 

(10) The leader of the body of priests 
who ordered Uzziah out of the temple 
(2 Chron. xxvi. 17-20). 

(11) The chief priest of the house of 
ZadoK. and ruler of the temple in 
Hezekiah's reign (2 Chron. xxxi. 10-13). 

(12) A Kohathite Levite, the son of 
Z^haniah and the father of JoeL He 
seems to have lived in Hezekiah's reign 
(1 Chron. vi. 36 ; 2 Chron. xxix. 12). 

(13) A Merarite Levite, a son of 
Jenalelel, in Hezekiah's reign (2 Chron. 
xxix. 12). 

(14) A priest, the son of HiUdah, and 
the father of Seraiah, not long before the 
captivity (1 Chron. vi. 13, 14 ; ix. 11). 

(15) A son of Hoshaiah and a proud 
opponent of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 
xmi. 2). 

(16) The original name of Abednego 
(Dan. i. 7). 

(17) A prince of Judah (?) who took 
part in the dedication of Zerubbabel's 
temple (Neh. xii. 32, 33). 

(18) A son of Maaseiah, who had a 
house at Jerusalem in Nehemiah's time, 
and repaired the wall in its immediate 
vicinity (Neh. iii. 23, 24). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

"SowDAY School Tbachbx's Biblb Hamuax." AdTertiibg She«t, April, 1893. 



"At the Portsmouth Quarter Sessions, 
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tc charges of obtainii^ food and lodging. 

The prosccntor said that the prisoner had 
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HolL Some time ago the chaplain was 
tnasfinred to the convict prison at Portsea, 
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Sot. I she left, ostensibly to go to another 
Btutioo, but instead of doing so went to 
nxiois bouses and obtained food and lodging 
titiwit paying for them until she was appre- 
, bodei She made the extraordinary state- 
, es that her father was a large farmer in 
^ Vdkiire, and that, in addition to an income 
' (< £3 a week, she had had a large sum of 

I 1W prisOTer's father, who was called, 
I iCiiKed his daughter's fault to the silly 
■ Udiehad read. 

Mr. Giles : I have heard that she 
«ad a number of silly novels, 
v^uchmade a ffreat impression on 
OSS. In one of these the heroine 
?ot her living by procuring food 
^ lodging without paying for 

"^ prisoner, who had been previously 
*^°s^ed at Hull, was sentenced to six months' 
apnwoincnt with hard labour." — Daily 
I '^^nmcU, January, 1893. 


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^'^^mg 00 the body of an engineer's appren- 
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*2s dieerful. The Coroner : ' Had he been 
ndjring lately?' Witness: 'He was an 
^'^ leader of pernicious penny and half- 
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^ He was a very sensitiTe lad, but I knew 
^ iwhing that was likely to worry him. 
J*jq« for reading the trashjr books I never 
^ reason to find fault with him, but I cursed 
■3 UMi the books too. He kept no bad 
^l^pny, did not drink, and bad never 
Jjateaed suicide.' Wilness also spoke to 
^^ deceased hanging by a rope which was 
^ toa comer of the sitting-room door. A 
"^JJct of • Suicide while temporarily insane ' 
*» ittMned."— r;U Morning, January, 1893. 


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CASSELL ft COMPANY, Limitsd, LudgaU Hill, London; mud aU Booksellers, 

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' Sunday School Tbachbr's Bible Manual " AdvertUiog Sheet, April, 1893. 



Sunday School Teacher's 
Bible Manual. 

By the Rev. ROBERT HUNTER^ LL.D., F.G.8. 

(Member of the Biblical Arehwologteal Society, S:e.), 




(To be Completed in about 12 Parts.) 

%♦ With PART 1 is issued a large COLOURED MAP of 
the Holy Land from the most recent surveys. 

THE work of the Sunday School Teacher is of greater importance at 
the present time than it has ever been. The education in Ele- 
mentary Schools being now confined mainly to secular subjects, the 
responsibility thrown upon Sunday Schools has vastly increased, and 
nobly have the Teachers of all denominations accepted the additional 
burden which the altered circumstances have thus imposed. 

A mighty army of devoted workers, numbering some hundreds of 
thousands, have resolutely grappled with the problem of keeping alive, 
by voluntary effort, the spiritual education of the young, whilst their 
intellectual growth is being cared for in the day school ; and the heroic 
self-sacrifice evinced by the Sunday School Teachers of to-day is one of 
the most convincing proofs that the profession of Christianity is not a 
mere empty form, but a deep, living, and earnest reality. 

But whilst our Sunday School Teachers possess in an eminent 
degree the moral and spiritual qualifications necessary for their work, 
many of them, especially the younger members, are somewhat deficient 
in scriptural and general knowledge, while the admirable teaching cf 
the pupils in the Board and Voluntary Schools on the week-days 
naturally subjects that on the Sundays to a severer test than was the 
case in former and less exacting times. 

It is then of primary importance that Teachers should arm 
themselves for their task by an earnest and systematic study of the 
Scriptures, and should avail themselves of every aid which will render 
them more thoroughly qualified for fulfilling their great mission. The 
Sunday School Teacher's Bible Manual aims at supplying their 

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*S«iroAT School Tbachbs's Biblb Manual" Advertismg Sheets April, 1893. 

with a treasury of information on Biblical subjects, carefully prepared, 
systematically arranged, brought up to the latest date, and suited to the 
needs of both Sunday School Teachers and all Bible Students. 

The work is arranged in alphabetical order, as that best adapted 
for easy and constant reference. The Geology, Geography, Botany, 
Zoology, Topography, Ethnology, and History of the Bible are clearly 
and lucidly set forth ; concise Biographies are supplied, and clear 
summaries of the books of the Bible given : valuable information 
is provided on such subjects as the Messianic Prophecies of the Old 
Testament fulfilled in the New, the nature of Miracles, and the evidence 
on which those of Scripture rest, the teaching embodied in our Lord's 
Parables ; Coins, Weights and Measures ; Manners, Customs, and 
Languages of Eastern Countries, and other matters too numerous to 
mention in detail. 

Dr. Hunter, the author of this work, is eminently qualified for the 
task which he has undertaken. He founded and for many years con- 
ducted a large Sunday School, and therefore knows exactly the kind 
of book a teacher will find most useful, and he possesses, too, that 
peculiar knowledge which only a lengthened residence in the East 
can give of Oriental manners and customs. 

From the fact that the earlier volumes of the Encyclopaedic Dic- 
tionary were prepared under his supervision, and that his pen was 
active throughout that work, it will be apparent how completely he 
understands the best method of classification and arrangement. 

The Sunday School Teacher's Bible Manual, therefore, rises 
far above the level of a mere compilation. The Author has had 
constant recourse to the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New 
Testament, together with the Septuagint, and the Hebrew, Greek, 
and other lexicons. For the topography of Palestine he has studied 
the more scientific modern travellers, but above all has made diligent 
use of that great mine of wealth, the productions of the Palestine 
Exploration " Fund " or Society. He has availed himself freely of the 
large Ordnance Survey Map of Palestine, and when the distances of 
obscure villages from such known places of importance as Jerusalem, 
Bethlehem, or Hebron are recorded, they have been ascertained by 
measurement on the sheets of this great map. Two of the " Fund's " 
quartos, those by Hull and by Tristram, have also aided the writer greatly 
in various matters relating to the natural history of Palestine. 

The results of the most important archaeological researches will be 
incorporated in the work. Such discoveries as the Moabite stone, the 
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notice, and every effort will be made to render the Manual entirely 
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Illustmtions will be introduced to elucidate the text, and a series of 
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%♦ Prospectuses of this work will be forwarded to all persom itite rested in the 
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(19) One of those whom Ezra appointed 
to instmct the people in the law (Neh. 
Tiii. 7), and who sealed with Nehemiah 
the ooTenant with Jehovah (z. 1, 2). 

Y Besides these Azariahs, a long of 
Israel (not Undah) is so called in 2 Chron. 
xxiL 6y but this seems a copyist's error for 
Ahariah, which is given in the next verse 
(2 Chron. xxii. 6, 7. Cf. with 2 Kings 
viii. 29). 

i[Heb. = "strong"J. 
A Beubenite, the son at Shema, and 
father of Bela (1 Chron. v. 8). 

[Heb. = " an averting deity " 
iGesenius), "dismissal" (B.V.)]. 

A wora r^aced on the margin of Lev. 
xvi. 8--A.V. It is the Hebrew term 
rendered in the text of that verse, and 
twice in verse 10, scape-goat. The R.V. 
introduces it into the text, and scape-goat 
oonsequentlv disappears. On the margin 
of the B.V. Azazel is translated '* ms- 
1" («r etymology). [Scape-ooat.] 

[Heb. Azazyahu = ** whom 
Jehovah has strengthened *']. 

(1) A harper daring the reign of David 
(1 Chron. xv. 21). 

(2) An Ephraimite, the father of a 
certain Hoshoa, in David's reign (xxvii. 

(3) An overseer of the Temple in thd 
reign of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxi. 13). 

[Heb. Azbuq = " distinctly *' 
or** wholly desoUte"]. 

The father of a certain Nehemiah, con- 
temporaiT but not identical with the 
eeleoratea governor of that name (Neh. 
iii. 16). 

Aaekali [Heb. Azeqah = ** a field dug 
by a hoe, and set out with new vines "1. 

A town in a valley in Judah to which 
the longs besieging Gibeon were driven 
hf Joshua (Josh. x. 10, 11 ; xv. 35). The 
Fnilistines pitched their camp near it 
when they Drought with them Ooliath 
(1 Sam. xvii. 1). It was fortified by 
Kehoboam (2 Chron. xi. 9). Nebuchad- 
neszar fou^t against it (Jer. xxxiv. 7), 
and probably took it, but it continued to 
exist after the captivity (Neh. xi. 30). Two 
opinions as to its site exist, the one that it 
was at Ten Zakart^a in the valley of Elah, 
and the other that it was at Deir el 'A^ek 
in the valley of Sorek (Armstrong). 

Ami (1) [Heb. Atsel = ** noble "1. 
A desoesiaant of Jonathan, Saurs son ' 
(1 Chron. viiL 37, 38 ; ix. 43, 44). 

Ami (2), Anl [AzEL (1)1. 
A place near Jerusalem (Zech. xiv. 5 — 
A.Y. and R.V.). Exact site unknown. 

Awm r?ZEM] (Josh, XV. 29— A. V.; 

[Heb. Azgadh = ** strong " or 
** brave " or ** in fortune "]. 

The head of a family or clan mentioned 
by E^zra and Nehemiun (Ezra ii. 12 ; viii. 
12; Neh.vii. 17 ;x. 1, 15). 

Asiel [Jaa2iel] (1 Chron. xv. 20). 

AsUa [Heb. = ** robust'']. 
A man whom Ezra induct to divorce 
his foreign wife (Ezra x. 27). 

Asmavtetli (1) [Heb. = ** brave even to 

(1) A Barbumite, one of David's might v 
men (2 Sam. xxiii. 31). 

(2J The son of AdieL He was over 
David's treasures (I Chron. xxvii. 25). 

(3) A son of Johoadah, a detoendant of 
Jonathan, Saul's son (1 Chron. viii. 36). 

(4) A Benjamito, whose sons came to 
David at Ziklag (1 Chron. xU. 3). 

ASBUiTetll (2) [AZXAVETH (1)]. 

A village near Jerusalem. It was 
Mtuated either in the territory of Judah or 
in that of Benjamin. Forty-two of its 
inhabitants retunie<l from the Babylonian 
ca|)tivity (Ezra ii. 24). Some singers 
resided on its fields (Neh. xii. 29). Called 
also Beth-Azmavbth. Its site has been 
placed ut the village of Hizmeh, four miles 
north-east of Jerusalem. 

AsmoB [Heb. Atsnum = ** robust "]. 

A place on the southern or south- 
western boundary of Canaan (Numb. 
xxxiv. 4, 5 : Josh. xv. 4). It has been 
thought to be the same as Heshmon of 
Josh. XV. 27. Exact site unknown. 

Asiotli Tabor [Heb. = ** the Ears 
{i.e. slopes or tops) of Tabor "J. 

A place on the boundur-lme of Naph- 
taU (Josh. xix. 34). 

Aior [Gr. Az6r, = *' helper," from 
Heb. Eu,'= *'help"]. 

The son of Eliakim, and the father of 
Sadoc, in the line of ances^ of our 
Lord (Matt. i. 13, 14). 

[Lat. fr«m Gr. Azoiot] [AsH- 
DOD] (Acts viii. 40). 

Anrlel [Heb. = *' help of God "]. 

(1) A man belonging to the half -tribe of 
Monasseh, east of the Jordan (1 Chron. v. 

(2) A Naphtalite, the father of Jeri- 
moth, in David's reign (1 Chron. xxvii. 

(3) The father of Seraiah, in Jeremiah's 
time (Jer. xxxvi. 26). 

[Heb. Atriqam = ** assist - 

Ji enemy"]. 

I) A son of Neariah (1 Chron. iii. 23). 

ance against an enemy "], 

(H A son of Neariah (1 ,. 

(2) The eld^ son of Azel, a descendant 

of Jonathan, SauPs son (1 Chron. viii. 38 : 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




(3) A Lerite, a son of Haahabinh (1 
Chron. ix. 14). 

(4) The govemor of the palace under 
king Ahas. He was Idued by an 
Ephraimite, Zichri (2 Chron. xxviii. 7). 

[Heb. Azubhah = *'Tma8'' 

(1) The first wife of Caleb (1 Chron. ii. 
18, 19). 

(2) A daughter of Shilhi. She was the 
mother of Jdioehaphat (1 Kings xzii. 42). 

Amr [Azzub] (Jer. xxviii. 1— A.V.). 

Anali [Heb. Azzah, which some would 
transliterate Ouzzah = " strong," " forti- 
fied "]. 

The same as Gaza (q.v.) (Deut. ii. 23— 
A.V. ; 1 Kings iv. 24— A. V. ; Jer. xxv. 
20— A.V.)rti all these places the R.V. 
spells the name ** Ghtfa." 

Anaa [Heb. = " strong "]. 

The father of Paltiel, pnnce of the tribe 
of Issachar in the wilderness (Numb. 
xxxiv. 26). 

Amir, Amr (Heb. AMtur = ** a 
helper " " an assistani," " a promoter "1. 

(1) A Gibeonite, the father of Hananian 
the prophet (Jer. xxviii. 1). 

(2) Tlie fa^er of Jaaxaniah, who de- 
vised wickedness (Esek. xi. 1). 

(3) One of those who. with Nehemiah, 
signed the covenant with Jehovah (Neh. 
X. 17). 

l(l)[Heb. = "Lord," "possessor;" 
in this case = " Lord " or " possessor of 

(1) The sun-god, the centre of whose wor- 
ship was Phoenicia, whence it spread to the 
neighbouring countries. Baal was adored 
on nigh places in Moab as early as the 
davs of Balaam and Balak (Numb. xxii. 
.41) [Bamoth Baal]. By the time of the 
Judg^es he had altars to a limited extent 
withiii the country of the Israelites (Judg. 
ii. 13 ; vi. 28-32), and when King Ah^ 
married Jezebel, ttie daughter of fn^baal, 
king of the Sidonians, he for a time became 
the national god of the degenerate ten 
tribes. The death struggle between Elijah 
and the priests of Baal on Mount Carmel 
is told in the articles Ahab. Jbzebel, and 
Elijah (q.v.) (1 Kings xVi. 31, 32 ; xviii. 
17-40). Though it ended by the slaughter 
•of the then existing priests of Baal) yet 
they soon swarmed anew, and a contest 
went on- between them and the Jewif^ 
priests and prophets to the time of the 
two captivities. Jehu was their deadly 
opponent; and slew them without pity 

(2 Kings X. 18-28). This was in the 
kingdom of the ten tribes. They soon 
aftmvards suffered also in Judah. during 
the rovolution which deposed and put to 
death Athaliah, their temple at Jerusalem 
being pulled down, the altan and images 
destroyed, and Mattan, their chief prirat, 
slain before the altar (xii. 18). Joeiah 
carried vessels consecrated to Baal out of 
the Temple of Jehovah and Jerusalem, and 
made the public worshipof Baal forthe time 
to cease (xxiii. 4, 5). Jeremiah frequently 


denounced it, as did other prophets ; and 
no wonder, for one featuro of it was that 
parents burned their sons with fire as 
offerings to the false divinity (Jer. xix. 4, 5). 
The worship of Baal, the sun-god, was 
often associated, as was natural, with that 
of Ashtoreth^ the moon-god (Juds. ii. 13), 
and in the vicinity of the altar there was 
often an Asheba (q.vj (Judg. vL 30; 
1 Kings xvi. 32, 33). Baal corresponded 
to the Babylonian Bbl (q.v.). In a^d. 
1870 Professor Pahner and Mr. C. F. 
Tvrwhitt-Drake found in the Wady 
Muweileh, in the Sinaitic Peninsula, 
among cairns and ancient dwellings, well- 
made heaps of stones placed regularly 
along the edse of a cliff, and all &cing 
eastwards. These they supposed to be altars 
of Baal. 

(2) A Beubenite, son of Beaia, and 
father of Beerah, who lived before the 
captivity of the ten tribes (1 Chron. v. 

(3) A son of Gibeon by his wife 
Maachah. He was a brother of Kish. 
uncle of another Kish, the father of Saul 
(1 Chron. viii. 30 ; ix. 35, 36, 39). 

Baal-Bbrith [Heb. = " Lord of & 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




coveoaaV' t.^* ''the covenant-keeping 

A derignfttion under which Baal was 
worshipped in Israel, Just after the death 
of Gideon {Judg. ▼iii. 33). The "jod" 
had a temple at Shechem (iz. 4^. &>me- 
times his name was abbreyiatea into £1- 
Berith (46— R.y.). Berith of the A.Y. is 
not the complete name. 

Baal-Gad [Heb. = "lord of fortune"). 

A pkoe " in the valley of Lebanon under 
Mount Hennon/* where apparently Qad, 
the Canaanite god of fortune, was 
wonhipped. It constituted the extreme 
northeni or north-eastern limits of Jodiua*s 
•conquests ^oeh. xi. 17 ; zii. 7 ; ziii. 5). 
Bobmson, jLater Bib, Bes,y 409, considered 
it to have heen at Banias, and Dr. Thom- 
son at Baalbek [Cjbbabea Phiufpi]. 

Baal-Haxon [Heb. = '' place of a 
multitude," or of " Jupiter Ammon "]. 

A place where Solomon had a vineyard 
(Songviii. 11). Gesenius compares with 
it the name Balamo, applied to a town 
near Dothaim in Samana, mentioned in 
Judith viiL 3. 

Baal-Hanait [Heb. Baal-Ehanan = 

(1) A son of Acnbor and a king of Edom 
(Oen. xzxvi. 38 ; 1 Chron. L 49). 

(2) A custodian of the olive and syco- 
more trees under King David (1 Cliron. 
xxvH. 28). 

Baal-Haxob [Heb. Baal-ffatsor = 
** having a country house " or ** villa "]. 

A town or viUage '* beside Ephiaim" 
(2 Sam. ziii. 23). Gesenius thinks it may 
have been the same as Hazor in Benjamin 
(Keh. xi. 33). Another view is that it was 
at Tell AaikT. 

Baal-Hebxon [Heb. = ** place of 

A place Detween Lebanon and Hermon, 
occupied in Joshua's time bv the Hivites 
(Joiw. iii. 3). It constituted the limit in 
one direction of tiie half -tribe of Manasseh 
east of the Jordan (1 Chron. v. 23). It 
was apparently the same j>lace as Baai<- 
Gad Cq.v.) {ct. Josh. xiii. 5 with Judg. 
liL 3), or may even have been Mount 
Sermon itself. 

Baa]>Mbov [Heb. = ** lord" or " place 
of habitation "( 

A Moabite aty on the frontiers of the 
country, and evidently not far from Nebo 
(1 Chron. v. 8). The Reubenites rebuilt 
itf altering its name by prefixing to it Beth 
(Xumb. xxxii. 38; Josh. xiii. 17). This 
next became shortened into Beu-meon 
(Jer. xlviii. 23), and even Beon (Numb. 
TTTJi. 3). In Uie time of Ezekiel it had 
rerertea to the Moabites, and was called 
^ain by the old name (Ezek. xxv. 9). 
Tne ruins now called miEi'tn Ue in the 
northern part of Moab, south-west from 
Medebo. Tristram described them as 

occupying the crests and sides of four 
adjacent hills, one being evidently the site 
of the central dty, connected with the 
rest by a causeway. There are remains of 
foundations, walls, streets, arches, carved 
stones, caverns and cavernous dwellings, 
wells, and cisterns. 

Baal-Peob [Heb. = " lord of an open- 
ing " or " cleft," OT " of Mount Peor '']. 

A Moabite idcd worshipped with impure 
rites on the top of Mount Peor. The 
Israelites, wh^ . passing through the 
Moabite territory, felt attracted bv it, and 
so sinned that a plague broke out among 
them, and was not nayed till a slaught^ 
had been ordered of the chief transgressors 
(Numb. xxv. 3, 5, &c.). 

Baal-Pkra2IX [Heb. Baal Ferattim = 
"place of overthrow," "defeat," or 
"slaughter" (Geunitis), "phM» of 
breaches." A.y., "place of breaking 
faith," B.y.. near the vallejr of RephaimJ. 

A place wnere David «dned a victory 
over the Philistines (2 Sam. v. 18-20; 
1 Chron. xiv. 9-11). 

Baal-Shaubhah [Heb. s " lord " or 
" place of Shaliihah (= " a third part ")]. 

A village from which, when Elisha was 
at Gilgal near Jericho, a man brought him 
first-mdts, which he miraculously multi- 
plied (2 Kings iv. 42-44). [Elisha.I 
Uapt. Conder locates it at the present 
village of Kefr Thilth on the lower bills of 
Ephraim. In Arabic, Kefr is a village, 
and Thilth is three (fg» etymology). 

Baal-Takab [Heb. = " a place of 

A place in Benjamin at which the 
Israelite army took post when it was about 
to assail Gibeah (Judg. xx. 33). Exact 
site unknown. 

Baal-Zebub [Heb. Baal Zehhubh = 
" lord of the fly," " the fly-god "] . 

The "^*' of Ekron. to which 
Ahaziah, king of Judah, applied as to an 
oracle (2 Kings L 6, 16). Tne time of the 
year when flies most abound is the summer, 
the heat of the sun [Baal] hatching the 
maggot from the egg and the perfect insect 
from the chrysaus. It was from this 
natural phenomenon that the "god" 
Baal-zebub was manufactured. [Beel- 

BAAL-ZEPHOir [Heb. Baal Tsephon = 
" place of Typhon," i.e, " the place 
sacred to Typhon " (Gesenius), or ** the 
Baal of the North " (?)]. 

A place "over affainst" which the 
Israehte encampment stood, while the 
latter was before Pi-hahiroth, between 
Migdol and the sea (Exod. xiv. 2, 9). So 
also in Numb, xxxiii. 7, Pi-hahiroth is said 
to be before Baal-Zephon. Formerly it 
was assumed to be on the African sidfe of 
the Bed Sea, but Naville believes that it 
was on a hill on the Asiatic shore of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


( 68) 


Ghilf of Suez ; while Bmgsch Bey locates 
it at the Egyptian sanctuary of Baali 
Tsapuna, close to Mount Kasios on the 
shore of the Mediterranean. [Exodus.] 

I (2) [BlAL (1)]. 

__ illage of Sim©__, 

BaaUlTH-Beeb (1 Chron. iv. 33) 

*«* [Heb. = " a mistress " " a 
ladr," '* a community/* " a state **]. 

(1) A town in the north of Judah called 
also Kibjath-Jeabix (q.v.) (Josh. xv. 9 ; 
1 Chron. xiii. 6). 

(2) A mountain in Judah, some distance 
westward of the town Baalah (1) (Josh. 
xv. 11). Exact situation unknown. 

(3) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 
XY. 29). Apparently the same as Balah 
([q.v^ (Josh. xix. 3) and Bilhah (1 Chron. 
iT. 29), where it is mentioned as a Simeou- 
ite town. Site unknown. 

tfh [Heb. = "states," "acity"]. 

A frontier village of the original temtonr 
of Dan (Josh. xix. 44). Solomon rebuilt 
it (after it had been destroyed by the 
Egyptians P) (I Kin^ ix. 18 ; 2 Chron. viii. 
6). Capt. Conaer thmks it may be the pre- 
sent Tillage of Bela'in, west of Beth-horon. 

Baalath-Beeb [Heb. = " having a 
well " or " dstem " {Gesenim)]. 

A town on the boundarv-line of the tribe 
of Simeon. Called also Kamah or Bamath 
of the south (Josh. xix. 8). Site unknown. 

Baale [Heb. = " dtiron " {Gesenius), 
the plural of Baal]. 

A town called more fully Baale of Judah 
(2 Sam. vi. 2). The same as Baalah and 
Kibjath-Jeabim (q.v.) (cf. 1 Chron, 
xiii. 6). 

BaaU [Heb.]. 

My Lord (Hos. ii. 6). 

, [Heb. Bealim, plural of Baal]. 

Images o'f Baal (Judgt ii. 11; iii. 7; 
viii. 33 ; x. 10 ; 1 Sam. vii. 4 ; xii. 10). 
Often combined with Ashtaroth (q.v.). 

I [Heb. = ** son of exultation "]. 
A king of the Ammonites who reigned 
shortly after Nebuchadnezzar's capture of 
Jerusalem (Jer. xl. 14). 

Baaaa [Heb. Baana = *' son of afflic- 

(1) A son of Ahilud. He was Solomon's 
purveyor for Megiddo and the adjacent 
towns (1 Kings iv. 12). 

(2) The fa&er of a certain Zadok (Xeh. 
iii. 4). 

I [Heb. Baanah], [Baana.] 

(1) The ** captain of a buid" under 
Ishbosheth (2 Sam. iv. 2). 

(2) A Netophathite, father of Heleb, one 
of David's worthies (2 Sam. xidii. 29; 
1 Chron. xi. 30). 

(3) The son of Hushai. He was Solo- 
mon's purveyor for Asher and Aloth 
(IKinesiv. 16). 

(4) A Jew who returned from Babylon 
with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 2 ; Neh. vii. 7). 
He, with Xehemiah and others, sealed a 
covenant with Jehovah (x. 27). 

Baara [Heb. = " a foolish woman "]. 
One of the wives of Shaharaim, a Ben- 
jamite (1 Chron. viii. 8). 

[Heb. Baaseyah = " work of 
Jehovah "]. 

A Kohathite, the son of Malchiah 
(1 Chron. vi. 40). 

Baaaha [Heb. Baesha = **bad,** 
"wicked" (?) (^GeseniM)]. 

Thesonof Ahijah, of the tribeof Issachar. 
While Nadab, the son and successor of 
Jeroboam I. on the throne of Israel, was 
directing the siege of Gibbethon, then in 
the hands of the Philistines, Baasha 
murdered him and all Jeroboam's descen- 
dants, thus fulfilling the Divine judgment 
denotmoed against nis house, though this 
did not excuse Baasha's crime (1 Kings 
xvi. 7 ; cf . Acts ii. 23). Then the assassin 
ascended the throne of Israel, by the 
Hebrew chronology about the year 953, and 
reigned 24 ^ears, till about 930, having 
fixed his capital at Tirzah (1 Kings xv. 25- 
xyi. 4). H!e was a contemporary of Asa, 
king of Judah, with whom he carried on a 
long war. He built a certain fort called 
Bamah to blockade the northern frontier 
of Judah. Asa, tmable to dislodge him, 
hired against him Benhadad, king of Syria, 
who captured several important towns in 
Israel and compelled him to evacuate 
Ramah, which was at once destroyed 
[Asa] n Kings xv. 16-21 ; 2 Chron. xvi. 
1-6). Though Baasha had extirpated the 
house of Ahab, yet he imitated it in its 
calf- worship, and a prophet Je^u, the son 
of Hanani, was sent to threaten him and 
his house with a similar fate. He died a 
natural death, and was buried in Tirzah, 
leaving his son Elah to ascend the throne 
of the ten tribes (1 Kings xv. 34-xvi. 6). 

Babel [Assyrian Bab-il = " gate of 
the god" or "of God." The Jews 
changed the name to Babel = "con- 
ftision," in derisive reference to the con- 
fusion of tongues (Rawlinson, Fire Great 
Monarchies, Note to iii. 352JJ. 

A dtv constituting the oeginning of 
Nimrod's kinjgdom, %.e, probably the 
earliest and chief seat of his power (Gen. 
X. 10). It was on the plain of Shinar, and 
soon after the Deluge became celebrated as 
the spot where the famous tower was 
reared (xi.9Uf]. 

Though the word Babel occurs only 
twice in the A.V. and the R.V., yet it does 
so fi^uently in the Hebrew original. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Bftbd and Babylon being the same place. 

n The tower of Babel.^A tower bant at 
Babd or Babylon just after the Flood. 
Thoae who did ao began to erect it from the 
desire of reputation for their akill, and 
also with the intention of avoidinjS what 
they considered the danger of their being 
scattered orer the euth. There was 
no boilding-stone on the aUnvial plain 
of Siinar, so bricks had to be used in 
place of stone, and there was no lime to 
make cement, so they had to fall back on 
the abundant supplies of bitumen (inaccu- 
rately rendered slime) which were to be 
found at Hit, about 140 miles higher 
up the river. The tower was never 
finished, for those erecting it were visited 
with a confusion, or baoel (in the He- 
biew sense), of tongues, so that they did 
not understand each other. The hint as 
to duty thus conveyed was taken, and the 
different individuals who spoke the same 
tongue drew together, and, lorming a little 
group, departed in quest of new regions. 
But Babel or Babylon was not wholly 
deserted, a considerable numbor of the old 
builders remaining there, so that the dtj 
soon became a populous place (Qea. xi. 
1 — 9). Tradition identifies the tower of 
Babel with the Birs Nimrftd, which, how- 
ever, is at Borsippa, and not at Babybu. 
There is a Babylonian account of the same 
event. It makes the leader in the build- 
ing project a giant cidled Etana, whose 
name was corrupted by the Oreeks into 
Titan. The motive was to scale heaven by 
force, and join the ranks of the celestials. 
The spot diosen was the mound at Babylon 
now called Amr&m, where afterwards stood 
the temple of Anu, the palace of the kings, 
and Nebuchadneasar's hanging gardens. 
Operations were commenced at the 
antmnnal equinox ; but a tempest during 
the nijdLt overthrew the tower, and Bel, 
the Babylonian god, confounded the 
tongues of the builders, scattering the 
latter upon the mound (Sayce's Hervdotus^ 
p. 267). An older version of the incident 
existed among the Accadians, whose name 
for Babel was Ca-dimira (the gate of god). 
The winds were made to blow down the 
tower, and the sod Anu * * confounded great 
and small on the mound *' as well as their 
"speech," and "made strange their 
eoimsel** (Sayce, Fre9h Light, 37). 

[Assyrian Bab il or Bib'ili 
= "gate of God" [Babel], with the 
Oreek nominatival enung on] . 

(I) The great capital of the Babylonian 
empire. Adverting to the fact that the 
name of Babylon m the Hebrew Bible is 
Babel, it may be considered as first men- 
tionea in G^en. x. 10, where it fi|[ures with 
tivee otljusr places as the beginning of 

Nimrod*s kingdom (^. Isa. xxiii. 13). 
There the tower of Babel, t.^. Babjlon. 
was built, and the consequent confusion of 
tcmgues took place (xi. 1-9) [Babel]. It 
was then, no doubt^ only a small town, or 
even a village, but it increased in sise and 
importance century after century, its 
glory reaching its greatest in the mgn of 
Kebuchadnezzar (604-561 B.C.), who did 
much for it, rendering it the uu^est and 
most splendid capital of the then known 
world, if not, indeed, of the ancient world 
itself. The political events connected with 
it are treated of in the article Babt- 
LONiA. It is enou^^h if we here de- 
scribe the dty in its flourishing da^. 
The earliest writer who estimated its 
magnitude when at its greatest was 
H^odotus. who flourished about 443 B.C. 
He says that Babylon, which he presu- 
mably visited, was a souare, each side 
being 120 stades (or aoout 14 miles) 
in length (t.^. 56 miles for the whole 
length of the waU). This would en- 
close nearly 200 square miles. Ctesias, 
also an eye-witness, who flourished about 
the year 400 B.C., makes each side of the 
BQuare only about 90 stades, or the length 
of the four sides together 360 stades, or 
forty-two miles, in which case the enclosed 
area would not much exceed 100 square 
miles. Other writers prior to the Christian 
era speak of 365, 368, and 385 stades. On 
various grounds the smaller numbers are 
to be preferred. Besides this, there was a 
certain space inside the wall, and all 
round the square, within which no houses 
were allowed to be built, and vast spaces 
connected by gardens and open nelds. 
which counted much for the area but added 
little to the population of the dty. London 
covers a considerably larger extent of 
territory, while all but a fraction of that 
area is densely packed with habitations. 
With regard to the breadth of the walls. 
Herodotus says they were fif^ royal 
cubits (i,e, about eighty-five English feet), 
while Quintus Curtius makes them the 
equivalent of about thirty-two English 
feet. Begarding^ the height of the walls, 
Herodotus calls it 200 royal cubits (about 
335 English feet) ; Clitarchus (aa reported 
by Diocbrus Siculus) and Straoo aflree in 
reducing this to 75 English feet. In this 
case also thesmallernunooersare preferable. 
The dtj had a hundred gates, twenty- 
five on each side. From these there ran 
broad streets at right angles to the walls, 
thus dividing the whole area into a large 
numberof smaller squares. The Euphrates 
ran through the midst of the dty, cuviding 
it into two nearly equal portions. Along 
each bank of the river there was a con- 
tinuous quay like theThames embankment. 
A wall cut ue quay off from the dty ; but 
it was perforated by twenty-five gateways 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




with gates, whence there was a descent to 
the river hank. There were ferrv-hoats, a 
hridfle, and even a tunnel. The three most 
notable buildings were two palaces, one on 
each side of the river, and the great temple 
of B^us. In connection with one of the 
palaces were himging gardens. [Nsbu- 
CHADNEZZAB.] The material of the walls, 
the quays, the palaces, temples, and private 
edifices was bnck ; the cement or mortar 
was bitumen, the ** slime" of Scripture 
(Gen. zi. 3). The timber of the houses, 
which were high and built in storeys, was 

(2) The mystic Babylon of Revelation 
xiv. 8; zvi. 19; zvii., xviii., is the dtr 
of Bome, which stood on seven hiUs (ex. 
xvii. 3, 5, 6, 9, 18). 

BalqrloiilA [Enelish, etc.]. 

The word Babylonia does not occur in 
Scripture, but the term Babylonian, whidi 
is found, implies its existence. 

Babylonia is a re^on of Western Asia 
which^ at the period of its greatest 
celebntjT, had Babylon for its capitaL It 
is sometimes callea, as by Professor G. 

srrs OP AKCiBirr babtlon. 

of palm- wood. The Scripture prophecies 
regarding Babylon have been rulfilled to 
the letter (Isa. xiii. ; xiv. 1-23 ; xxi. 1-10 ; 
xlvi. 1, 2; xlvii. 1-3; Jer. I. 41). Jere- 
miah (li. 37, cf. also 1. 26) says that it 
should become heaps, and *' heaps '* or 
mounds are all that remain of it now. 
They commence 3} to 5 miles above the 
village of Hillah, and extend from norUi 
to south slightly above 3 miles, by 1} from 
east to westj lying chiefly on the eastern 
side of the nver. The tluree most notable 
mounds are now called by the Arabs the 
Babil, the Kasr, and the Amram mounds. 
The Kasr mound marks the site of 
Nebuchadnezzar's palace, and has fur- 
mshed bricks stamped with his name ; 
the Amram mound, apparently that of prior 
kings. The effort has been unsuccessxul to 
trace the course of the lofty walls. 

Rawlinson in his Fire Great Monarchiety 
ChaldsBa. It was bounded on the north 
by Upper Mesopotamia, the dividing line 
between them, runnine from near mt on 
the Euphrates to a littfe below Samarah on 
the Tiffris, being a natural one, separating 
as it does the slightly elevated plain of 
secondary formation on the north from 
the low-lying alluvium brought down by 
the EuphratM and the Tigris on the south. 
Babylonia is bounded on the east by the 
Tigris, on the south bv the Persian Gulf, 
and on the west by the Arabian desert. 
Now it is 430 miles long, by 185 broad at 
the widest part, and contains 30,000 square 
miles, but the northern part of the Persian 
Gulf is being gradually filled up by 
alluvium, and anciently tne area of Baby- 
lonia was about 25,000 square miles, lesa 
than that of Ireland or of Scotland. 

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Bat the deep zidi alluYial soilf if artifici- 
ally imgated, was of almost matchleaB 
fertility. Babylonia was divided into two 
great districts — Northern Babylonia or 
AocAD (q.v.), and Southern Babylonia or 
Shctab (q.v.)- The earliest innabitants 
seem to have been the Sumirians, or people 
of Shinar. These were conquerBd by the 
Aocadians or BSghhmders, a kindred race 
who came from the mountains of Elam; 
then the Semites rooted themselves in 
9iinar, whence they gradually spread 
northward. Ultimately the language of 

-- aplojred as a /iM^ua 

Berosus (in Gredc Merostos), a priest of 
the temple of Bel or Belus, at Babylon, 

i mT'I^Tii^ >ilH.ut \U: ;n^ 270 B.r. a work 
entiUerl ^'History of" the ChzLldeans, and 
tbe actaotiJ* cf theLr kings*" It has been 
lost, but fragroeiits of it have been pre- 
aerv^Hi by Joaephns, EuAsbimi, and oiher 
imciimt writers. Like Mnnt^tho with 
^ t, be enumeratea tlynastie-^ of kings, 
l^t, which coim&tetl of tighty-six 
ku^ said r&igii^l S4J>S0 jcvlts, lias^ a 
Toy mythie look aiid may f>iiftiJy be dis- 
cwrded. But Professor Ea w linscrii considers 
the citii£XQ as reaUy iiomewhAt liistorical, 
aikd dTSWB mit a table which he calls 
^* Bsi3aiis*s chronoloeical aiiihGiiie com- 

DfOSAty L of ? Cbftldtan kings f years— 

jac^ f to B,c, -^^M, 
Dynaitl' IL vi 8 >lt^liEUi kings, 234 years— 

9LCL SS86 to B.C!. ^^^ 

DyittStf tET. cif 11 7 kings, 48 years— 

ac. fXm to B.C.. 2004. 
Dynasty IV. of A& CbaHcan kings, 458 years— 

H.C, £!i]04to n.CL l^ld 
Dynasty W of 9 Anhian kings, 245 years— 

ac. iwe tt? *.c. I SOU 
Pym^ty VL of 4& ? kings, 526 years— 

II. .7, laji to ft.r, T7r^ 
flFi^ rvf riji (Claltkiin king), 28 years— B.C. 

ns to a.c. 747. 
Dynasty VII. of IS f ktogs, 122 years - 

B.G. 747 to B.C. 625. 
Dynshty VIII. of 6 Babylonian kings, 87 years 

— B.C. 625 to B.C. 538. 
(Professor George Rawlinson's Five Great 
Monarckin, vol. i. (1871), p. 151.) 

He says that this scheme, in which there 
is nothing conjectural, except the length 
of thereignof Pul, receives veiyremarksuDle 
oonfirmation from the Assyrian monuments. 
The establishment of a Cushite kingdom 
in Lower Babylonia is considered by Pro- 
fessor Bawlinson to date from the twenty- 
fourth or twenty-fifth century B.C., if not 
even from an earlier period. Its founder 
was a son of Cush, Nimrod (Gen. z. 8-10), 
who probaUy entered the country from 
the sea. Me founded Babylon. £brech, 
Aocad, and Calneh. One early king, 
Urukh, was a great builder of temples. 
He began to reign about b.c. 2286 ; inscnbed 

bricks of his, of rude workmanship, still 
exist. He is the earliest Babylonian king 
who has left sudi memorials. His capitfu 
was Ur (q.v.). Soon afterwards Babylonia 
was conquered by the Elamites, who 
established a dynasty of five kings, one of 
whom was Ghedorlaomer (q.v.). Nimrod, 
Urukh, and Ghedorlaomer seem to have 
been the three greatest kings of the first 
Ghaldsoan or Babylonian monarchy, though 
the names of neany thirty others have been 
recovered. The monarchy perished through . 
an Arab invasion about 1500 B.O., the 
invaders holding possession of the country 
till B.C. 1273 or 1270. Then it was sub- 
dued by Tiglath Nin (or Tiglath Adar ?). 
king of Ass3nria, who after a time allowed 
it to be ruled like an Indian protected 
state, by a semi-independent king. Xhiring 
the next few centuries tha:e were 
frequent struggles between Asmia and 
Babylonia, a portion at least of xhe latter 
country aiming at complete independence 
and acnieving it under its king Nabonassar 
in 747 B.O. It was reconquered by Sargon 
in 700 B.O., next, after successive revolts, 
again by Sennacherib in 703 B.C., and 
^arhaddon in 680 B.C. During this 
period the Merodach Baladan of Scnpture 
twice oocujaed the throne, once in 721 , and 
the second time in 703. When the Assyrian 
empire was becoming old and decrepit, it 
was threatened by both the Medes from 
the east and other enemies from the south. 
The Assyrian king divided his forces into 
two portions. At the head of the one, 
designed for operations in the south, was an 
Assyrian nobleman of high lank and 
known capacity, Nabu-paJ-uzur, better 
known as Nabopolassar. His instructions 
were to proceed to Babylon, of which pro- 
bably he was appointed viceroy, and 
defend it against all enemies. He was 
faithless, and, soon after entering Babylon, 
declared his independence, and laid the 
foundationa of what soon developed into 
the great Babylonian empire. He reigned 
from the year b.o. 625 to b.o. 604. He 
betrothed his son Nebuchadnezzar to 
Amuhia or Amyitee, daughter of Cyaxeres, 
king of Media, and the two fathers-in-law 
sent their united forces to attack Nineveh. 
They were successful, Nineveh was taken 
and destroyed in 606 (?) B.O., and the 
Assyrian empire partitioned between the 
victors, the share of Nabopolassar being 
Susiana, thevalley of the Euphrates, Syria, 
and Palestine. He made peace between 
the Syrians and the Medes, who had been 
at war. In his old age his territory was 
invaded by Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, 
and, too inert or infirm to resist the enemy, 
he sent his sonNebuchadnezzar in his stead. 
Nebuchadnezzar totally defeated Necho 
at the battle of Garchemish, fought B.o. 
604 [Necho, Cabchsmish], and pursuing 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




him to or into Egypt, meditated fresh 
victories, but was recalled to Babylon by 
the news of his father^B death. Ke 
ascended the throne in B.C. 004, and reiened 
nearly forty-four years, while the whole 
duration of the Babylonian empire, 
founded by his father, was only eighty- 
eight. But for Nebuchadnezzar it would 
scarcely have existed. Under him it 
reachea the farthest limitn to which it ever 
attained ; and almost all its engineering 
and ardhitectural achievements were 
carried out under his direction. It was 
by him that the two tribes were carried 
into Captivitt (q.v.) [Nbbuchadnezzab]. 
On his death in B.C. 501, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Evil-Merodach, who 
befriendea the captive Jehoiochin (2 Kings 
XXV. 27; Jer. Ui. 31). After a reign of 
two years (561-659 B.C.) EWl-Merodach 
was put to aeath by conspirators, headed 
by Moriglissar, husband of a daughter of 
^ebuchiulnezzar. Neriglissar, who is pro- 
bably the Nergal-Sharezer Kab-Mag of 
Scripture (Jer. xxxix. 3, 13), then ascended 
the throne and reigned between three and 
four yean, dying in 550. His son and 
successor, Laboroeoarchod or Labossoracus, 
a mere boy, was tortured to death a few 
months later, and with him the House of 
Nabopolassar, which had ruled seventy 
years, came to an end. The conspirators 
against the boy-king then invested one of 
their number, *Nabonadius or Nabannido- 
chus, with the sovereignty. In the 17th 
year of his rei^, B.C. 538, Cyrus entered 
Babylon, termmating the Babylonian em- 
piie. rCYBUS.1 InB.O.520-19andaffainindl4 
Babylon revolted against Darius Hystaspes, 
but on both occasions it was subdued, 
and the last time was dismantled. From 
that date it gradually decayed, the build- 
ing of Seleuda on the Tigris, in B.C. 322, 
hastening its ruin. Since then the territory 
on the Lower Euphrates has passed succes- 
sively to the Pttsians, the Macedonians, 
the Greeks, tiie Romans, the Parthians, the 
Persians again, and finally to the Moham- 
medans, wnose misffovemment renders a 
country oomparativeTy unproductive which 
under firm and enhghtoied rule would 
become well cultivated and prove itself one 
of the most fertile regions in the world. 
With the exception of Asshur, the Baby- 
lonian gods were the same as those of 
Assyria. [Bsl, Mebodaoh, Nebo.] 

[Heb. Bakha = (1) " weeping," 
(2) ** a tree which sheds tears of gum (r)," 
" a balsam-tree "(a.v.)]. 

A valley dry and aesolate through which 
pilgrims had to pass on their journey to 
Jerusalem to keep the great Jewish 
festivals. A blessing was pronounced on 
the man who should dig wells in the valley 
for the thirsty pilgrims (Psalm Ixxxiv. 6). 

On the margin of the A.V. Baca is trans- 
lated mulbwry-trees. In the R.y. it is 
"weeping" in the text, and "balsam- 
trees" on the margin. [Balsax-tbeb, 
MuLBEBBY-TBEE.] Exact Situation un- 

Batfhrttes [English]. 
An Ephraimite "utmily" descended 
from Becner (Numb. xxvi. 35). 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
tahhaih in the R.V. (Exod. xxvi. 14; 
XXXV. 7 ; Numb. iv. 25 ; Ezek. xvL 10). 
It was an animal, the skin of which was 
used for tibe outer covering of the Taber- 
nacle. It could also be made into sandals 
(t^.). Tristram says that the common 
badger, Meles rulaarity is not rare in 
the hilly and wooded parts of Palestine, 
but does not seem to be alluded to in 
the Bible. The Tahhash of Scripture, 
rendered in the R.V. the seal, or on the 
margin the porpoise, is the Arabic Tukash, 
whidi is tne Dugong {Halieore hem- 
prichii). It belongs to the order Sirenia, 
of which the nearest allies are the mammals 
of the whale order. It is generally ten to 
twelve feet long, with a round head, breasts 
for suckling its young, and a fish-like tail. 
The colour is slaty blue above and white 
below. It is beheved to be one of the 
animals, if not indeed the animal, which 
gave rise to the fabled mermaid half- 
woman half -fish. It is common amon^ 
the coral banks of the Red Sea, whence it 
extends as far as the coasts of Australia. 

Bagpipe [English]. 

The rendering on the margin of the 
R.y. of the Aramaic Sumpfumeya in Dan. 
iu. 5, 7, 10, 15. The texts of the A.V. 
and R.V. translate it Dulchceb (q.v.). 
Sumphoneya is apparently from the Gredc 
sumphonia = " symphony," ** unison of 
sounds," the reference beinff, as some 
think, to the melody and the £one of the 
bagpipe. The instrument anciently existed, 
under different names, over a great part of 
Europe and Asia. Among the Highlands 
of Scotland and the bogs of Ireland it is a 
survival of a bygone age. 

Balianiiiilte, Barhmiilte [English]. 
A native or resident of Bahurim (q.y.) 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 31 ; 1 Chron. xi. 33). 

[Heb. Bahhurim = "village 

of young people "]. 

A village evidently between Jerusalem 
and the Jordan mentioned repeatedly in 
the history of David. Thence came Shimei, 
who cursed him; and in a well in the 
ground belonging to a man who lived there 
Jonathan and Ahimaaz hid when pursued 
by the partisans of Absalom (2 Sam. iii. 
16 ; xvi. 5 ; xvii. 18 ; xix.16 ; 1 Kings iL 8). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Captain Conder finds it possibly at Abnit. 
[Bjlhabtticite, Bajihuicite.] 

Bajttli FHeb. Bauith = *' house/' It 
has the definite article Ha. Ha Bayith is 
= " the house/' " the temple "]. 

A Moabite town (?), temple (?)> or idol 
shrine on an eminence (?) (Isa. zv. 2). 

(Heb. Baqbaqqar = ** de- 
vastation of a mountain ** (?) {jGesenitu)]. 
A Levite (I Chron. ix. 16). 

: [Heb. Batfbnq = " a fliupon "]. 

One of the Nethiiums, and the founder 
of a familff members of which returned 
from the captivity (Ezra ii. 51 ; Neh. vii. 

Fnl^y^^1l^lf^^ [Heb. Baqhuqydh = **effu- 
sion'*; %,e. *^ population of Jehovah" 

(1) A Levite resident at Jenisalem in 
Jeremiah's time, and employed about the 
Temple (Neh. xi. 17). 

(2) A porter employed at Jerusalem in 
Kehemian's time (Neh. ziL 25). 

> [Heb. ^iVmw. If really from 
that language, then = ** a foreigner^' (?) ]. 
A prophet, the son of Beor, and resi- 
dent witnin the Hittite dty of Pethor, on 
the Euphrates [Pethob]. He was sent for 
by Balak, kin^ of Moab, to curse the Israel- 
ites, that it might afterwards be more easy 
to destroy them in battie. When the 
elders of Moab and those of Midian 
appeared in his native pUoe, with **the 
rewards of divination" in their hands, 
Balaam would not consent to go with them 
tin he bad first consulted Jehovah, show- 
ing apparently that he worshinped the true 
Ood,andnottiiefidseHittit^divinities. As 
mi^t have been expected, Jehovah forbade 
him to so on a journey for any such 
object. Balak thoujdit that the elders sent 
had not been of sufficient social standing, 
and next time dispatched as negotiators not 
elders, bat princes. Balaam's first reply was 
unobjectionable. Not for a house full of 
gold and silver would he go beyond the 
wtad of Jehovah. After whidi brave speech 
he applied again to God for permission to 
go, uud was allowed to accompany the men, 
on condition of uttering onnr the Divine 
words put into his mouth. H^ set off with 
the desire to earn, if possible, ** the rewards 
of divination." Thrice over an angel of 
the Lord with drawn sword disputeii his 
progress. The apparition of the ghostly 
opponent was miraculously made visible to 
the ass, but not to its riaer. Then voice 
was given to the ass, and it spoke out. 
Ftnaiiy Balaam himself was permitted to 
see tiie angel, and learn the peril he was in. 
He offered to turn back, but was allowed 
to go forward, on the same stringent 

condition as before. Balak met him on 
the banks of the Amon almost as soon as 
he had set foot on Moabite soil, and 
conducted him to Kiriath-Hiuoth (the 
dty of streets), probably the same as 
Kiriathaim, on the first conspicuous 
eminence after passing the Amon [KiBi- 
ath-Huzoth]. There oxen and sheep 
were sacrificed, the high place being 
probaUy the top of Attarus, with its 
commanding prospect. Then the two went 
together, stul northward, to the high place 
of Baal [Bamoth-Baal], from which 
elevated spot the whole camp of Israel was 
visible, with Palestine in the background 
of the picture (Numb. xxii. 1-41). Then, 
after seven altars had been reared, and an 
ox and a sheep sacrificed on each, the 
afflatus came; and Balaam, under the 
restraint of Jehovah, blessed the people he 
had been invited to curse (xxiu. 1-12). 
Balak was dreadfully disappointed, but it 
oocurred to him that the Israelites when all 
visible at once looked too imposing: if 
Balaam saw only the outiyins part of 
their camp, perhaps he might be able to 
curse them. The experiment was made, 
the station occupied this time being the 
top of PisoAH or Nbbo (q.v.). Here altars 
were built and sheep and oxen sacrificed as 
before, but the only result was fresh 
blesring instead of cursing (13-26). A 
third attempt was made, with the usual 
preliminaries, the station this time being 
the top of Peor [Baal-Peob), on the ridge 
north of Nebo. Not merely was there 
blessing in the most dedded language, but 
the utterance ended with a prophecy that 
Israel should ultimately conquer Moab. 
Balak was enraged at wnat he considered 
Balaam's treachery, and dismissed him to 
his own country without conferring on 
him any honour or paying him the coveted 
rewards (xxiiL 27-xxiy. SS). The prophet 
returned again to try to ooimteraot the 
effect of his own predictions^ and if pos- 
sible earn the honorarium which Balak was 
still ready to pay for value reodved. He 
believed that if Balak could seduce the 
Israelites into the idolatry and the impurity 
of the worship practised in Baal-peor, 
Jehovah would leave them to their fate. 
The evil counsel was taken, with the result 
of heavy judgment on the Israelites, and 
Balaam died, sword in hand, fiflmtmg 
against the people whom at tne Divine 
bulding he thrice had blessed (xxxi. 8, 16). 
Various other Old Testament books and 
the New Testament writers refer to 
Balaam's character and fate (Deut. xxiii. 
4, 6; Josh. xxiv. 9, 10; Neh. xiii. 2; 
Micah vi. 5 ; 2 Peter iL 15 ; Jude 11 ; Bev. 

[N. T. Greek Baldk [Balak] 

(Eev. ii. 14--.A.V.)]. 

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[Heb. Soiadhan = ** whoee 
lord is Bel," t,e, ** who is a worshipper of 
Bel" {OeteHius)], 
The father ol Merodach-Balltdan (q.v.). 

I [Baalah]. 
A Simeonite town, the same apparently 
as Baalah (3) (q.v.) (Josh. six. 3). 

J FHeb. Balitq^*' empty," 

"void,"" inane '^. 

The Moabite king who lured Balaam 
from Pethor to curse Inael [Balaam]. 
He was a son of Zippor ^umb. xxii.- 
xziv. ; Josh. xziv. 9, 10 ; Judg. zi. 25 ; 
Micah ri. 5 ; Bev. ii. 14). 

J [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrow Saleam^ 
from saleam = "to consume." An un- 
known species of locust, or perhaps of 
grasahopp^; probably the former rLer. 
zi. 22). There is nothing in the Heorew 
etymology to suggest that the animal had 
a bald appearance. 

Balm, Balm of CMlaad. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
7>ari or lion. m>m the root tsarah^ " to 
make fissures," as if fissures were made in 
the tree to allow gum to ooze out. The 
vegetable product thus obtained was 
brought especially from Gilead (Gen. 
xxxvii. 25 ; Jer. viii. 22 ; zlvi. 11) ; and in 
the time of Ezekiel, if not even before, was 
exported from Palestine (west of the 
Jordan (?)). It was used as an ointment 
for the healing of wounds (Jer. K. 8, etc.). 
It was once pretty strongly believed, and 
still is by many, tnat the Balm of Gilead 
was Opobalsamum, a greenish-yellow oily 
resin of the consistency of honey, to which 
wonderful healing virtues were attributed. 
It comes from a tree, BaUamodendron 
Opobaisamum or piieadense. belonging to 
the order Amyridacea (Amyrids), It 
is from six to eight feet high. But 
the identification of the Opobalsamum 
with the Balm of GKlead is rendered doubt- 
ful by the &ct that the tree producing it is 
not now found in Gilead, even in garaens, 
and there is no proof that it ever existed in 
that localiir. it is a native of Arabia and 
Nubia, ana is stOl imported into Bombay 
from the former place. Hence the Opo- 
balsamum is often called the Balm of 
Mecca. Joeephus, indeed, mentions a plant 
bearing very precious balsam as cultivated 
at Jencho. but he does not give details 
sufficient for its identification (Joeephus, 
Aniiq.y XIV., iv. 1 ; XV., iv. 2; TFar, I., 
vL 6). Nor can it be examined now, for it 
has been extinct, it is believed, since the 
time of the Crusades. 

[Latin balsamum ; Greek 
Balsamon.from the Heb. Bdtdm^ " bahn," 
cognate with besem = " a sweet smell "]. 

In Scripture, a sweet-smelling gom-resin 
from the Balsam- tree (Q*yO* 

BAL8A3C-TBEB [Engli&h Balsam-tres] . 

The rendering of Heb. BakMa on the 
margins of Ftalm Ixxxiv. 6— B. V. ; and of 
2 Sam. V. 23, 24 ; 1 Chron. xiv. 14. 15. 
The name is now applied to plants ot the 
genera dusia and Bakamodendnm, The 
Vlusias are trees or shrubs from tropical 
America, and cannot be referred to in the 
Bible ; tne Balsam-tree is, therefore, the 
Balsamodendron, and identical with 
Balm (q.v.). 

leb. = " a 

A high 

Bamofh [Heb. = " high phices "]. 

A contraction for Bamoth Baal (q.v.) 
(Numb. xxi. 19, 20J. Or it may refer to 
certain dolmens in its vicinity. 

Bamoth Baal. A place in Hoab at 
which the Israelites temporarily encamped 
nBAMOTHl , and to which Bakk took 
Balaam (Numb. xxii. 41), R.V. (margin). 
It was within the limits of the tribe of 
Beuben (Josh. xiii. 17). Tristram believes 
it probably the same as Baal-meon (q.v.][r 
Conder as el MasKkbiyeh. 

l[Heb. = "buUt"T. 

(1) A Gadite, one of X>avid*8 mighty 
men (2 Sam. xxiii. 36). 

(2) A resident at «Jerusalem, descended 
from Pharez, the son of Judah (1 Chron. 

(3) The head of a family or dan (to 
what tribe is unknown), of which 642 or 
648 returned from the Babylonian cap- 
tivity. Called also Binnui (Eizra iL 10 ; x. 
29 (P); Neh. vii. 15; x. 14(P)). 

(4) A BOD. of Shamer, a Levite of the 
family of Merari (1 Chron. vi. 46). 

(5) A Levite, the father of Behom 
(Neh. iii. 17 ; ix. 4, the first Bani(P); x. 

(6?) Another (?) Levite, a son of Has- 
habian, and father of Uzzi (Neh. xL 22). 

(7 ?) Another (?) Levite (Neh. ix. 4), the 
second Bani. 

(8?) Another (?) Levite (Ena x. 34). 

(9) Another Levite, a son of No. 8 (Sua 

f It is difficult to discover how many 
Levitee called Bani are mentioned in Em 
and N^emiah, and to apportion the 
passages to each. 

[Lat. baptiMMy Gr. haptitma 
and baptitmos from baptize = "to baptise," 
and that acain from oapto = " to dip **]. 

The initiatory rite of the Christian 
Church. The forerunner John so con- 
tinually administered it that he came to be 
called the Baptist (Matt. iii. 1 ; Mark vi 
14, etc.V His baptism was sometimes 
called tne baptism of repentance for the 

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nnamskm of nns (Matt. iii. 11 ; Mark i. 4 ; 
Luke iii. 3 ; Acts ziii. 24 ; zix. 4.) Those 
to whom it was admimitered were not 
therefore exempted from the necessity of 
hong rehaptised on profession of their 
faith in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ 
(Acts zix. 1-5). John himself drew a dis- 
tinction between the two baptisms in these 
words, " I indeed baptise you with water 
unto reitentance ; but he that oometh after 
me is miehtier than I, whose shoes I am 
not woruy to bear ; he shall baptise you 
with the Holy Ohost, .and wUh fire*' 
(Matt. iiL 11; Mark i. 8; Luke iii. 16; 
John L 26, 33). Eren Jesus himself, to 
fulfil aU ri^teousness, applied for and 
reoeiTed baptism from John (Maitt. iii. 
13-17 ; Mark i. 8-11 ; Luke iii. 21, 22, of. 
John i. 32). The actual administration of 
the rite Jesus delegated to his disciples 
(John iy. 2). In the missionaiy oommis- 
aicm which He sare to his apostles before 
His ascension, directions are laid down that 
after makfny disciples of all nations, they 
are to baptise them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghoet rMatt. xxviii. 19). St. Paul gene- 
rally delegated to others the actual a<unin- 
istration of the baptismal rite, beUering 
that his special call, Divinely given, was 
to preach rather than to baptise (1 Cor. i. 
13-17). The several sections of the 
Christian Church differ as to the proper 
subjects and method of baptinn. Bap- 
tists hold that the only ^alid method 
of administering the rite is by immer- 
sion, and that its sole recipients should 
be persons of intelligent age, professing 
their faith in Christ (see speciuly Matt, 
xxviii. 19; Mark xvi. 16). Not find- 
ing in the New Testament any express 
command to baptise infants, and not 
believing the connection between the 
Jewish and the Christian Churches to be 
so dose that analogy can be drawn from 
the rite of circumcision, they decline to 
baptise infants. Their opponents, consti- 
tuting the laii^part of Cnristendom, con- 
sider that sprinkling is equally legitimate 
with immersion, and, if so, is on obvious 
grounds to be prefenred. Bemrding the 
subjects of baptism, they think that pro- 
bably .there were infants, or, at least, 
youiu^ people, in the families of Lydia and 
the Fmlippian jailor, when, immediately 
on their conversion, their two households 
were baptised (Acts xvi. 14, 15, 27-34). 
Or if then be uncertainty on tms point, 
they consider that the children snould 
have the benefit of the doubt. Believing 
that a dose relation subsisted between 
Judaism and Christianity (the latter in 
one point of view being evolved from the 
former), infants, who undoubtedly were 
admitted into the Church under tiie old 
eocmomy, should be so under the new, 

unless it can be shown that our Lord gave 
an express command to take their former 
privilege away. It is beyond the scope of 
the present work to attempt to decide such 
a question, or to enter into it further. 

Bar [Aramaic = *' a son '*]. 

Bab-Js8XJB [Aramaic and N.T. Gr. 
Bar^Ieaottt; Bar^ Yehothua — " the son of 
Jesus or Joshua "1. 

The name of a Jewish sorcerer and false 
prophet (Acts xiiL 6). 

Bab-Jona [N.T. Gr. Bar-Iotuuy 
Aramsan Bar^ Tonak = **son of Jonah "]. 

A name of the apostle Peter, meaning 
that he was the son of Jonas or Jonah. 

BmnMmm [N.T. Gr. Barubbtu, Ara- 
maic Bar Abba = ** son of a father**]. 

A robber who had made an insurrection 
in which he had committed murder. He 
was ** a notable prisoner " when Jesus was 
arrested. Pilate, anxious that Jesus should 
be rdeased, but not prepared to run any 
risk to effect his purpose, offered the Jews 
the ojrtion of relwuring Jesus or Barabbas, 
believing that they could not possibly be 
so lost to shame as to choose Barabbas; but 
he was dis^pointed in the result, for the 
people, inated by the chief priests, 
clamoured for the release of Barabbas, and 
then for the crudfixion of Jesus (Matt, 
xxvii. 16, 17, 20, 21, 26; Mark xv. 7, 11, 
15 ; Luke xxiii. 18 ; John xviii. 40). 

Braehel [Heb. Barakhel = ** whom 

A Buzite. the father of Elihu, Job's 
"friend»'(Jobxxxii.2, 6). 

BrachlM p^.T. Gr. Barakhi4u\. 

The father of that prophet, Zacharias or 
Zechariah, who was slain between the 
temple and the altar (Matt, xxiii. 35). 
Apparently the same as Jehoiada (cf . 2 
Chron. xxiv. 20, 21). [Zbchabtah.] 

Bank [N.T. Gr. Barak, Heb. Baraq 
= **liffhtnmg"]. 

An Israelite, bdonging to the dty of 
Kedesh Naphtali, who reodved an order 
from the prophetess Deborah to summon 
10,000 men from the tribes of Naphtali 
and Zebulun to meet him at Mount Tabor 
with the view of encountering the army of 
Sisera, Jabin's commander-in-chief. Barak 
intimated his readiness to comply if the 
proi^etess went with him, which she 
promised to do. When Sisera heard of 
the gathering^ he put his chariots and his 
army in motion to encounter Barak and 
Deborah, but was totally defeated, and 
shortly after the battle was cruellv mur- 
dered by a woman (Judg. iv. 1-24 ; v. 1^ 
12 ; Heb. xi. 32). 

BarlMiian [From Lat. barbaria^ rarely 
barbarieB; English = ** an outiandish or 
foreign country,*' outside Greece or Italy]. 

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(1) Originally one who did not speak 
the Greek language, or who, if he did, was 
not of the Greek race (Acts xxviii. 4, of. 
also 2). There being nothing offensiTe in 
the word, the Romans and the Jews were 
content to be called barbarians (Bom. i. 

(2) One who spoke an unintelligible 
foreign tongue (1 Cor. xiv. 11). 

(3) A savage (Col. iii. 11). When the 
word contracted a contemptuous meaning, 
the Romans took offence if it was applied 
to themselves, as doubtless was the case 
also with other cultured nations. 

Barliiimlte [Bahabtjxite] (2 Sam. 
Txiii. 31). 

BariAli [Heb. Bariyahh = *' a fugi- 

A son of a certain Shemaiah (1 Chron. 
iii. 22). 

Brkoa [Heb. Batyot = ** a painter **]. 

One of the Nethinims, who founded a 
family, some members of which returned 
from the captivity (Ezra iL 53 ; Keh. vii. 

Bartojr l^nglish]. 

In the O.T. tne rendering of the Hebrew 
word Seorahftrom sear = **hair " because 
the fruit of the plant so named is hairy. 
In the N.T. the rendering of the Greek 
word Kriihai (a plural) properly barleys. 

A cereal grain larsely cultivated in 
Palestine (Deut. viii. 1 ; Ruth i. 22 ; iii. 
2 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 30, ete.), Epypt (Ezod. ix. 
31), and the adjacent regions, and made 
into cakes or loaves (Judg. vii. 13 ; 2 Kings 
iv. 42; John vi. 9, 13). The several 
barleys belong to the genus Hordeum. 
They are cerefu grasses, with the spikelets, 
which are in threes, on opposite sides of the 
rachis or flower-axis, so as to form a 
two-sided spike. The area of the genus is 
the temperate and warmer parts of the Old 
World, with South America in the New. 
Ten species are known, of which Tristram 
found six in Palestine, one of them, 
Hordeum athabureiwey from Mount Tabor, 
being peculiar to the Holy^ Land. That 
now cultivated in Palestine is chiefly 
Hordeum dittichum^ which has only the 
central floret fertile, the two side ones 
being abortive. It is largely sown also in 
Britain, because the seed is more uniform 
in size than in-some other species. It is 
believed that it came first from Tartary. 

BamabAS [Greek Bamibaty from Ara- 
maic Bar-Nabha = " son of prophecy," 
"exhortation," or "consolation"]. 

The surname of Joses, a Levite of 
Cyprus, who. early converted to Chris- 
tianity, sold nis land, and laid the price 
at the feet of the apostles (Acts iv. 36, 37). 
Removing from Jerusalem to Damascus, 
he became con\'inced of the sincerity of 

Saul Tafter^Tards St. Paul), and when the 
Christians of Jerusalem were afraid to 
receive the new convert, spoke on his 
behalf, and removed their apprehensions 
fix. 27). Afterwards he was oispatched to 
Antioch, to aid in important work therein 
progress, and having laboured for a time, 
* went to Tarsus and farouffht back Saul to 
be his coadjutor (xi. 22-2o). A year later 
the two were dispatched to carry alms to 
their Iwethren at Jerusalem, then suffering 
from famine (27-30). Returning with John 
Mark to Antioch (xii. 25), they separated 
from the Church by Divine direction to go 
on a missionary eiqpedition to the Gentiles 
(xiii. 2). and departing, visited Salamis 
and Papnos in Cymiis, Perga, Antioch in 
Pisidia, Iconium, Xystra, and Derbe. At 
Lystra the simple inhabitants mistook 
Barnabas, who seems to have been of 
imposing app^uranoe, for their supreme 
god Jupiter. Then returning by the way of 
Attalia. the evangelists again presented 
^emselves at the Syrian Antioch from 
which they had set out (xiiL 3-xiv. 28). At 
the first Council of Jerusalem Barnabas 
spoke, as did Paul (xv. 1, 2, 12), and at the 
close the two were commissioned to carry 
the decrees of the Council to the churches 
in Syria and Aria Minor (22-31). After 
further labours at Antioch (35^, Paul 
TOoposed a second missionary journey. 
Barnabas was quite willing, but desired to 
have with him his young relative, John 
Mark. To this Paul objected, as John 
Mark had lost heart and gone home from 
Perga on the former tour. Each main- 
tained his view so pertinaciously that the 
two e\ungeU8ts separated and went dif- 
ferent wavs, Barnabas with Mark sailing 
again to byprus, while Paul went on to 
Asia Minor (36-41). But their mutual 
affection did not cease. Paul, in his 
epistles, speaks quite in a friendly way of 
Barnabas (1 Cor. ix. 6; Gal. ii. 1, 9, 13; 
Col. iv. 10), and yet more so of John 
Mark, about whom the quarrel arose (2 
Tim, IV. 11) [Mabk, Paul]. 

BaraabiMM, BarsabAS [Aramaic = 
"son of Sabba "(?)]. 

(1) The surname of the Joseph who 
stood candidate for the apostleship against 
Matthias (Acts i. 23— A. V. and R.V.). 

(2) The surname of the Judas who was 
sent to Antioch as a delegate of the metro- 
politan church with Paul, Barnabas, and 
Silas (Acts XV. 22— A.V. andR.V.). 

[Gr. Barthohmdios, 
from Aramaic Bar Thltnai = ** son of 

One of the twelve Apostles (Matt. x. 3 ; 
Mark iii. 18 ; Luke vi. 14 ; Acts i. 13). 
As in the first three of these passases the 
name of Bartholomew immediately foUows 
that of Philip and nearly does so in the 

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fourth, he was probably the same jwrson 
as Nathanael, who was led to Chnst by 
Philip (John i. 45, 46). If so. then his 
birthplaoe was Cana of Galilee (John 
xxi. 2). He was hijghly commended by 
Jesus as an Israelite indeed in whom there 
was no guile (i. 47-51). 

Bartiiiisras [N. T. Gr. Bartimaiot, 
from Aramaic Bar Txmai = *^ son of 

A blind man healed by Jesus at Jericho 
(Mark z. 46). 

I [Heb. Baruk = " blessed "]. 
' (1) The son of Neriah. Ho was a fnend 
of Jeremiah^s, and one of the witnesses of 
a purchase which the prophet made of a 
field, in token that there should be a return 
from the Babylonian captivity (Jer. xxzii. 
12-16). Acting once as an amanuensis, he 
noted down. Jeremiah's words on a roll, 
which he afterwards read to certain Jewish 
dignitaries (xzxyL 4-19; zlv. 1-5). When 
the king had burnt this first roll, Baruch 
was directed to make a second copy, with 
some additions, which he did (xxxvi. 
27-32) after the fall of Jerusalem. Jere- 
miah was accused of having allowed him- 
self to be prompted by Barudi, when in the 
Divine name he exhorted the people left 
in Judfea by the Chaldeans to remain 
where they were, instead of fleeing to 
Egypt (Jer. xliii. 3-6). 

(2) The son of Zabbai. He repaired 
part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. lii. 20) 
and sealed the covenant (x. 6). 

f3) The son of Col-hozeh (Neh. xi. 5). 

•y TJie Book of Baruch. A book bearing 
the name of Babvch (1) (q.v.) [Apoc- 

Banlllal [Heb. = '< made of iron '*]. 

(1) A Gileadite, who had a large farm or 
cstftte at Ro^lim, east of the Jordan. He 
showed David princely hospitality, sending 
him and his army food and other neces- 
saries while the fugitive king was at 
Mahanaim during Absalom's rebellion 
(2 Sam. xvii. 27-29). After the ^-ictory, 
Bandllai escorted Deivid over the Jordan, 
and was invited to- become a member of 
the king's household and court at Jeru- 
salem, mit he excused himself on account 
of his great age — eighty years. It was 
therefore arranged tmt his son Chimham 
should go in his stead (xix. 31-40). 

(2) A Meholathite, whose son Adriel 
married Saul's daughter Michal (2 Sam. 
xxi. 8). 

(3) A priest (Eoz ?) who married a 
daughter of Bamllai the Gileadite, and 
assmned his father-in-law's name (Ezra 
ii. 61 ; Neh. vii. 63). 

sandy place 

[Heb. = *' soft 


A region east of the Jordan and north of 
the Ammonite country (cf . Deut. ii. 37 ; 
iii. 1). When the Israehtes were on their 
way from Egypt to Canaan, the king of 
Bashan was a giant called Og, whom Uiey 
defeated and ^ew at Edrei (Numb. xxi. 
33-35; Deut. iii. 1-3; iv. 47; Josh. xiii. 
12,etc.). His palace had been at Ashtaroth 
(Deut. i. 4 ; Josh. ix. 10 ; zii. 4). One of 
the districts was called Ari^b, which itself 
had sixty cities fenced with high walls, 
gates, or bars, besides many unwaUed towns 
(1 Kings iv. 13). Bashau was assi^ed to 
the half -tribe of Manasseh (Deut. iii. 4-14) 
(of. Numb, xxxii. 33, 39-41 ; Josh. xxii. 7). 
It was well adapted for pasture, and reared 
a celebrated breed of cattle, the bulls of 


which were proverbially strong and fierce 
(Psalm xxii. 12 ; Isa. xxxiii. 9 ; Jer. 1. 19 ; 
Ezek. xxxiz. 18 ; Amos iv. 1 ; Micah vii. 
14 ; Nahum i. 4). It had a particular 
breed of sheep (Deut. xxxii. 14). It was 
celebrated also for its oak-trees (Isa. ii. 13 ; 
Ezek. xxvii. 6 ; Zech. xi. 2). The forests 
of evergreen oak still crown the mountains 
of Baslmn [Oak], and M the large number 
of cities mentioned as occurring within a 
portion of a region about 30 miles long by 
20 broad may appear incredible. Professor 
Porter {Great Cttiraof Bashan [1866], 1-96) 
has removed the difiiculty by snowing that 
in the mountainous parts of the country 
there are still at least 100 deserted cities 
and villages, many of them built of basalt 
and with basaltic doors. [Palestine.] 

n The Hill of Bashan, This seems to 
mean not any hill called by that name, but 
the hill within that region ; in other 
words, Mount Hermon, which is 9,166 
feet high (Psalm Ixviii. 15). 

Bashan Hawoth Jaib [Heb. Bashan 

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Ehawoth Tair = ** Jaii*8 villages of 

The name giTen by Jair to Aigob after 
he had conquered uiat region (I>eat. iii. 
14). [Abgob.] 

Baiiliwatli, Basematli [Heh. Base- 
math = " sweet-smelling," " fragrant"]. 

(1) A daughter of Isbmael, who became 
one of Esau's wives (Gen. zzxvi. 2, 4, 13). 
In xzviii. 9 she is called Mabalath. 

(2) A daughter of Elon the Hittite, who 
also became Esau's wife {Oea, xxvL 34). 
Or are Nos. 1 and 2 the same ? 

Bfttlllfilr [English^ from Latin BaaiU 
isetu ; Greek Baaihtkos = " a kind of 

The rendering of the text of the B.V. of 
the Hebrew liiphoniy plural T^iphonim, 
evidently a venomous serpent livmg in a 
*' den " or hole (Isa. xi. 8). It deposits 
eggs, from which its voung are hatched 
(fix. 5). It is insensible to the charmer's 
arts (Jer. viii. 17). Basilisk is a rendering 
in the B.V. also of the Hebrew l^ha, 
meaning probablr the same serpent (Isa. 
xiv. 29). The B.y. gives the marginal 
rendering Adder (q.v.). In all cases the 
A.y. erroneously translates the words 
CkxxATBiOE (q.v.). 

BMO&atli |lleb.='' smelling sweetly"]. 

A daughter of Solomon married to 
Ahimaay. (1 Kings iv. 15). 

Bat [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
AtaUephy from atal = " to be covered with 
mist,'^" to be dark," and eph = " flying." 
The type of animal so designated was 
classed with " fowls," or " birds " ; it was 
ceremonially unclean (Lev. xi. 13, 19; 
Deut. xiv. 11, 12, 18), and tended to hide 
itself awav from observation in dark places 
(Isa. ii. 20). The reference is pretty 
clearly to the bat order, of which Tnstram 
enumerates seventeen species as occurring 
in Palestine. In early Jewish classifica- 
tions a bat fi^^ures as a bird, as many 
people still beheve it to be. But modem 
science unhesitatingly places it with the 
mammals, on the ground that it is a quad- 
ruped, covered with hair instead of 
feathers, having teeth instead of a bill, and 
suckling its young instead of laying eggs. 
Nor is its ** wing " a flying apparatus of 
the bird type ; it is an unfeath^^ mem- 
brane connecting the fore and hind legs. 

Bmth(l)[Heb. = <' daughter of;" the 
construct, state of bath — '"daughter "]. 

Daughter of, in a literal or flgurative 
sense {see the compounds). 

Bath-babbdc [Heb. = *' daughter of 
many "]. 

A gate near the fish-pools of Heshbon 
(Song vii. 4). 

Bath-sheba. [Heb. Bath Shebha = 
« daughter of an oath "1. 

A daughter of Eliam (2 Sam. xi. 3). In 
1 Chron. iii. 5 she is called Bath-shua. 
(q.v.), and her father AmmieL 

There was an Eliam, a son of AMtiiophel 
(2 Sam. xxiii. 34). If the two Eliams were 
identical, which is uncertain, then Bath- 
sheba was the granddaughter of Ahitho- 
phel. rELL4M.][ She beciEune'the wife of 
Uriah the Hittite. and was the woman 
with whom David so shamefully sinned. 
After Uriah's death she became the wife 
of David (2 Sam. xi. 27) and the mother 
of Solomon (xii. 24). Wnen Adonijah was 
preparing to usurp the kingdom, Bath- 
shefxi, supported by the prophet ifathan, 
appealed to David in favour of her own . 
son Solomon, the result being that Adoni- 
iah's enterprise was thwarted (1 Kings i. 
ll-«'>3), and himself ultimately put to 
death (ii. 13-25). 

Bath-shua [Heb. = "daughter of 

Another name for Bath-sheba (q.v.) 
(1 Cairon. iii. 5). 

Batit (2) [Heb. Bath from Bathath s 
"to measure^*]. 

A Hebrew measure of capacity used for 
measuring water, wine, oil, or other liquids 
(1 Kin^ vii. 26, 38 ; 2 Chron. ii.l0;iv.6; 
Ezra vii. 22). It was the tenth nart of an 
homer and was the same aa tne ephah 
(Ezek. xiv. 10, 11, 14). 

B»TVal,B»Tal [Persian = <'father" (?) 

A son of Henadad. He repaired partof 
the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. ui. 18). 


The rendering m the A. V. of the Hebrew 
Bzrahh, from Zarahh = "to arise," "to 
shoot forth," in Psalm xxxviL 35. The 

Slant referred to by the translatora is 
]aurus nobilis^ a tree thirty, forty, or more 
feet hi^h, with lance-shaped evergreen 
aromatic leaves^ inconspicuous flowers, and 
cherry-like fniits. It is found in gardens 
in Britain, and Tristram met with it 
on Carmel, Tabor^ and in Gilead. But 
the B.y., following Oesenius, renders 
Ezrahh " a green tr^ in its native soil,'* 
which, of course, tends to flourish better 
than a transplanted and, perhaps^ a sioUy 
exotic. The same Hebrew word is used in 
Lev. xvi. 29 ; xviii. 26, for a native as 
distinguished frx>m a man from another 

BaiUtb, Badntb [Heb. Batslith, Bats- 

huh = "makiiu; naked," "nakedness**]. 

One of the Netiiinim and founder ox a 

family, members of which returned from 

captivity (Ezra ii. 52 ; Neh. vii. 54). 

^^^^V«i«i [Lat. from Or. Bdelhm » 
"an Asiatic plant yielding a fragnnt 

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ffom.*' It waa formerly held to be the 
P&lmjra palm (BorasstuJlabfUi/onniSy but 
isiiow b^ieredto have been one or more 
species of Balsamodendron. From Heb. 
Bedkolakhy tee the article.]. 

Bdelhonis, in Scripture a substance of 
the same colour as manna (Numb. zi. 7) 
and found like gold and the onyx-stone or 
the beryl in the land of Havilah (Gen. ii. 
\2\ As gold, the onyx, and the beiyl, all 
belong to the mineral Idnffdom, it may be 
suspected that bdellium does so also ; in 
which case the term is not used in the 
same sense as it was by the Greeks and 
Rotnanw. Nor can it hare been, as some 
think it was, a pearl. The Septuagint 
of Gen. iL \2 translates it Anthrax, de- 
fined by liddell and Scott as the car- 
buncle, ruby, and garnet, and in Numb. 
xi. 7, Kmstallos, meaning rock-crystaL 
Dana makes Anthrax the red sapphire. 
With all these diversities of opmion, the 
real meaning of the Scripture Bedholahh 
must be considered very obubtfuL 

I [Heb. Bealyah = " whom God 
commands* J. 

A Benjamite warrior who came to David 
at Ziklag (I Chron. xil 5). 

[Heb. = *' communities," 
** states"]. 

A town or village on the extreme 
southern limit of Judah (Josh. xv. 24). 
Site unknown. 

I [English]. 
The rendering of the Hebrew Fol in 
2 Sam. xviL 28 and Ezek. iv. 9. The trans- 
lation ** bean " is believed to be accurate. 
The Bean {Faba vulamris) is the type of 
the large natural oroer Fabaoes or Xegu- 
minose. It is believed to be a native of 
south-western Asia and Egypt. It has 
been cultivated from an etLrty age. Its 
seeds are very wholesome and nutritious 
articles of food. 


The -undisputea rendering of the Hebrew 
WOTd Dodhf corresponding to the Arabic 
dttb. In New Testament Greek it is Arktoa. 
It is from Dabhabh = " to go softly and 
insidiously." The species meant is the 
Syrian bear {Unus syriacits). It is of a 
yellowish-brown colour, and, unless pressed 
by necessity, lives chieflv on vegetable 
food. But all bears are aangerous when 
meddled with (Isa. xi. 7 ; Amos v. 19), 
especially when robbed of their whelps 
(2 Sam. xvii. 8 ; Prov. xvii. 12 ; Hosea 
xiii. 8). Perhaps some such outrage had 
been perpetrated on the two she-bears 
which came out of the wood near Bethel 
and tore in pieces the forty -two ^oung 
people who mocked Elisha (2 Kings li. 24). 
The bear has a voice, and can roar (Isa. 
lix. 11). Though now almost confined to 

Lebanon, on the west of the Jordan, with 
Hermon, Gilead, and Bashan on the east 
of the river, it anciently roamed over the 
land (Prov. xxviii. 15) ; thus David killed 
one in the vicinity of Bethlehem (1 Sam. 
xvii. 34). 

% The prophetic bear of Daniel vii. 5 
commissioQea to devour much flesh was 
the Medo-Persian empire. The apoca- 
lyptic livinff creature with seven heaos and 
ten horns had the feet of a bear (Bev. 
xiii. 2). 


(1) A mammal as distinguished from a 
fowl of the air and a creepmg thing (Gen. 
i. 29, 30). The wild beasts are distin- 
guished from domesticated animals (Lev. 
xxvi. 22 ; Isa. xiii. 21, 22 ; xxxiv. 14 ; Jer. 
1. 39 ; Mark L 13). 

(2) Any of the inferior animals as 
distangmshed from man (Psalm oxlvii. 9 ; 
Eocl. uL 19; Acts xxviiL 5). In this 
sense there was a distinction drawn under 
the Mosaic law between ceremonially clean 
and unclean beasts. 

(3) Figuratively. A kin^, kingdom, or 
empire of predominately animal t^denciee. 
The term is applied in Daniel to the 
Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, the Greek, 
and the Roman (?) empires (Dan. vii. 1-28). 
Of the two beasts of Revelation, that with 
ten horns and seven heads is apparently 
Rome (cf. Rev. xiii. 1-10 with xviii. 9, 18). 
The second or two-homed beast re- 
sembling a lamb is more doubtful (xiii. 
11-18). The beasts of iv. 6-9 of the A.V. 
are very properly altered to living 
creatures in the R. Y. 

VRQ\).^ebhaiy fromPehlevi Bab = 

" father'*" (?U(7<»^mf«)] 

The founder of a family or clan, 623 
or 628 of whose members returned from 
captivity (Ezra ii. 11 ; viii. 11 ; Neh. vii. 

Baeher [Heb. Bekhe)' = '* a young 

A son of Ephraim, and founder of the 
familv of the Bachrites (0«n. xlvi. 21 ; 
Numb. xxvi. 35). 

Beohmratli [Heb. Bekhoraih = *' the 
offspring of a first birth "1. 

A Benjamite, an ancestor of king Saul 
(1 Sam. ix. 1). 

B«d [English!. 

An article of domestic furniture to sleep 
upon. Beds evidently of a tolerably 
comfortable character are mentioned as 
early as the time of Jacob (Gton. xlvii. 31). 
In the period of the Kings, if not before, 
beds raised above the ground were known 
(2 Kings i. 4, 6, 16 ; iv. 10). Even beds, 
or rather bedsteads, of ivory were in use 
among the wealthy (Amos vi. 4). But when 
one not rich travelled even in our Lord's 

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( 80 


time, the bed might be no more than a 
scarf, plaid, rug, or mat, easily bundled up 
and carried away (Matt. ix. 6 ; Mark ii. 
9, 11; Johnv. 11,12). 

4 [Heb. Bedhadh = " separation," 

** apart'*!. 

The father of Hadad, king of Edom 
(Gen. xxxvi. 35 ; 1 Chron. i. 46). 

[Heb. BedMn = ''90TL of 
Dan" (?)or^<inDan" (?)]. 

(1) Apparently a Hebrew Judge, ruling 
between Jerubbaal (Gideon) and Jeph- 
thah, and distinguished enough to be 
worthy of ranking with them and with 
Samuel (1 Sam. xu. 11). No such person- 
age is mentioned in the Book of Judges. 
The reading in Samuel may be incorrect ; 
indeed, some ancient authorities have 
Barak instead of Bedan. Or Bedan may 
have ruled Israel, though no record of his 
administration can be found in the Book of 
Judges, or some Judge may have had two 
names, one of them Bedan and the other 
that used in the Book of Judges. Or as 
one element in Bedan is Dan the meaning 
may be Gideon, the Danite {i.e. Samson), 
Jephthah, and Samuel. 

(2) A man of Manasseh, a son of Ulam 
(1 Chron. vii. 17). 

Bedelali [Heb. Bedyah = ** in keeping 
of Jehovah"]. 

A son of Bani, who was induced by Ezra 
to put away his foreign wife (Ezra x. 35). 

Bee [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Debkorahy from which comes the name of 
the prophetess Deborah (q.v.). It is 
from the verb Ddbhar^ in the sense of 
driving out as a swarm, or in that of 
destroying. Or may it not come from the 
hummiog of bees, making a sound like 
that of words P The insects called Debhorah 
are described as chasing man, following 
him in swarms as a pursuing army (Deut. 
i. 44), or surroundmg him in their aerial 
fliffht (PSalm cxviii. 12). Wasps or hornets 
might do this ; but that the insect meant is 
a genuine bee is plain from its making 
hon^, which the others do not (Judg. xiv. 
8, 18). As Canaan is described as a land 
flowingwith milk and honey (Exod. iii. 8, 
etc.) [HonetI, the bees making it must 
have been in large numbers, "nieir nests 
were in rocks (rsalm Ixxxi. 16) and in 
woods (1 Sam. xiv. 25). especially in 
Judah (Ezek. xxvii. 17 ; cf. llatt. iii. 4). 
A ipeoes of bee seems to have been 
common also in Assyria (Isa. vii. 18). 

BeelUda [Heb. Beelyahda = << known 
by Baal " ; but probably Baal here is used 
for Jehovah in the sense of Lord or 
Possessor] [Baal]. 

A son of long David (1 Chron. xiv. 7), 

called in 2 Sam. v. 16 Eliada, meaning 
** known by God." 

Beelaebub [Gr. Bcclzcboul See the 

The prince of the devils, or, by a better 
rendenng, demons. The spelling Beelze- 
bub, adopted both in the A.V. and the 
R. v., recognises the fact that the word is 
a slightiy changed form of the Old Testa- 
ment Baalzebub, "god of (the) fly." 
[Baalzebub.] But why has the Greek 
substituted 1 for b as the final letter ? The 
general explanation is that with the view 
of insulting the Eki'omte " god " and his 
worshippers, the Jews wished to make 
zebub = ** fly " into zebel = ** dung." It 
is in favour of this view that flies in 
summer n'eatiy aboimd on dung-heaps. 
But as in Hebrew, zebul means habitation, 
Baalzebul probably signifies lord of the 
habitation, and the notion of insult falls 
to the ground. It was used by Jesus to 
designate the prince of the devils or demons 
(Matt. X, 25; xii. 24; Mark iii. 22; Luke 
xi. 15, 18, 19), whom he identifies with 
Satan (cf. Matt. xii. 26; Mark iii. 23; 
Luke xi. 18). 

Beeiselml [Beelzebub] (Matt. x. 25, 
margin; xii. 24— A.V. , margm; Luke xi. 
15, 18, 19— A.V., margin). 

Beer THeb. Beer = " a well," " a 
cistern," *' a pit," " as disting^shed from 
a fountain"]. 

(1) A station of the Israelites on the 
confines of Moab, at which the leaders of 
the Israelites, by direction of Moses, dug 
a well with their staves (Numb. xxi. 16-18). 
[Beeb Eldi .] Situation unknown. 

(2) A well (and town r) to which Jotham 
fled from his brother Abimelech. Bobiiison 
believes it may have been the some as 
Beeboth (q.v.) (Judg. ix. 21). Situation 

Beeb Eum [Heb. = " well of heroes "1. 

A well, or a villflge with a well, in Moab 
^Isa. XV. 8). Probably the same as Beeb (1) 

Beeb La Ha Roi [Heb. Beer la hhai 
rot = ** well of (the) life of vision," i.e. in 
which life is preserved even after there has 
been a seeing of God {Gesenitis)^ or "the 
well of the Living One who seetii me " 
(Gen.xvi. 14— R.V.)]. 

The name given by Hagar to a well in 
the desert between Kadesh and Bered, 
pointed out to her by an an^l when she 
and her son Ishmael were m danger of 
perishing of thirst (Gen. xvi. 10-15 ; xxi v. 
62; XXV. 11). Bowlaiids doubtfully iden- 
tifies it with 'Ain Muweileh, 12 mike west 
of Kadesh. , 

Beeb-shiAa [Heb. Beer Shebha = "well 
of swearing " or ** of an oath," or "well 
of seven (lambs) . " iirc the article] . 

A well dug by Abraham, and at which 

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he made a coTenant with Abimelech^ the 
king of Gerar, living lum sev«i ewe-lambs 
aA a memorial tiiat he, the patriarch, 
chimed the poaeesedon of the well, as 
ki-ring been the pereon by whom it was 
excavated (s<v etymology) (Gren. xxi. 
22-^^2) . Next he planted there a tamarisk- 
tree, and called on the name of Jehovah, 
the everlasting God (33— R.V.). It was 
^unrounded bv the wilderness, in which a 
little before lahmael and Hagar had almost 
^crld^ from thirst (14-19). Abraham 
lor a considerable part of his sojourning 
resided at Beersheba (udi. 19;. The 
Philistines filled up Abraham's wells, and 
Ifflac, when his servants again du^ this 
*a»e, called it Shibah, meaning bitter- 
ness of spirit, which, not hewi accu- 
rately, sounded like Sheba, and brought 
the old name of Beersheba back (xzvi. 
•i2, 33). It was from this well that Jacob 
sttarted on his journey to Haran (xxviii. 
lu}. and there he sacrificed on his way to 
Egypt (xlvi. 1 -5). A town ultimately rose in 
the vicmity of the well (Josh. xv. 28). It 
was situated in the extreme south of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 28; 2 Sam. xxiv. 7; 2 Kings 
xriii. 8), though allotted to the Simeon- 
rtes (xix. 1, 2 ; 1 Chron. iv. 28), and 
was also the southern limit of Palestine^ so 
that the expression became proverbial, 
- f rom Dan to Beersheba,'' i.e, from the 
extreme north to the extreme south of the 
Holy I^nd (Judg. xx. 1 ; 1 Sam. iii. 20 ; 
J Sam. iiL 10; xvii. 11; xxiv. 2, 15; 1 
Kings iv. 25 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 2 ; 2 Chron. 
XXX. 5). Samuel's sons were judges in 
Beenheba (1 Sam. viii. 2). Ehjah 
passed through it on his way to 
Hoineb (1 Kings xix. 3). It was in- 
h^t^ after the captivity (Neh. 
jd. 27, 30). Robinson (Bib, liet., i. 
300-303) f oand two deep wells, still 
called Bir-es-Seba', on the northern 
side of a wide watercourse or bed 
<zf a tarrmt, Wady-es-Seba*. llie 
wells are some distance apart. Thev 
are circular and built around with 
«olid masoniT. The largest he found 
12| feet in oiameter and 44^ deep, 
to the surface of the water, 16 feet 
at the lower port being cut through 
sc^id rock. 
BMrm [Heb. = " a weU *']. 
An Asherite, a son of Zophah (1 
Oirocu vii. 37). 

Beerab [Heb. = '' a well "]. 

A prince of the Beubenites, a son 
ofBaaL He was carried captive by 
Tigkth-j^Ieser, king of Assyria (1 
Chron. V. 6). 

BmnrHeb. = "man of a well "]. 

'I) A Hittite, father of Judith, one of 
Inu'a wires (Gen. xxvi. 34). 
(2) The father of Hosea (Ho8ea 1. 1). 

[Heb. Beeroth = ** wells "]. 

A Gibeomte town (Josh. ix. 17), after- 
wards assigned to the Benjamites (xviii. 2d ; 
2 Sam. iv. 2). It continued to be inhabited 
after the captivity (Ezra ii. 25 ; Neh. vii. 
29). Bobinson, who thinks it may have 
been the same as Beeb (2) (q. v.), locates 
it at el Blreh, a little more than eight miles 
north of Jerusalem on the way to Bethel. 
It is a ridge running west to east, and hi 
seen from a distance both towards the 
north and south. Many large stones and 
various substructions testify to the anti- 
quity of the site. 

% Beeroth of the children qfJaakan, 

A station or the Israelites m the wilder- 
ness, a day's journey from Mosera (Deut. 
X. 6). The name is sometimes shortened 
into Bene-iaakan (Numb, xxxiii. 31). 
Situation unknown. 

Boerotlilte, Berothite [English]. 
[Akan, Jajcan.] 
A native or inhabitant of Beeboth 
.v.) (2 Sam. iv. 2, 5, 9 ; xxiii. 37 ; 1 
}n. xi. 39). 

Beetfiterali [Heb. = *< house " or 
" temple of Astarte "]. 

The same place as Ashtaroth (cf . Josh, 
xxi. 27 with 1 Chron. vi. 71). 

Beetle [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Hhargol in Lev. xi. 22. It is not a genuine 
beetle, and the B.Y. substitutes cricket 

Behemoth [Heb., plural of Behemah 



= " a head of cattle." The plural is one 
technically called of excellence, which is 
essentially singular, but adds the idea 

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that what is described is of great size or is 
highly notable in some other wayl. 

A large animal described by Job. It is 
not a beast of prey, but eats grass like an 
ox. Its body is tiiick and massive, with 
bones like bars of iron, and a tail, which it 
moves, like a cedar. It is amphibious, 
sometimes feeding with other quadrupeds 
upon the mountams, and sometimes Ijring 
in fens, among reeds, under willows or 
apparently in flooded rivers (Job xl. 
15-24). It IB probably the Hippopotamus 
or Biver-horse of the Nile {Hippopotamus 
aviphibiu9\ This has an unwieldy bodv 
11 or 12 leet long, a large clumsy heaa, 
short stout legs, with four feet bearing 
toes. The gape of its mouth is enormous 
and the tusks of formidable size. It feeds 
on green oom, grass, and young shrubs. 
In ancient times it daBcended the Nile, but 
the Romans took all that could be found 
to their capital for exhibition in the circus. 
Now, therefore, these animals are extinct 
in Egypt, though found on the Upper Nile. 

[Heb. Beqa = "a half," 

from bdqa = " to spUt," " to divide "J. 

Half a shekel (Gen. xxiv. 22— E.V., 
margin: Exod. xxxviii. 26). The value 
was about 1*68 pence, about a penny and 
two-thirds. It was used for weighing the 
precious metals. 

[Bkka] (Exod. xxxviii. 2^— 


Bel [Heb., a contraction of Bcelj i.e, 

One of the diief "gods" of Babylon 
(Isa. xlvi. 1 ; Jer. 1. 2 ; H. 44). He cor- 
responded to the FhoBnidan Baal (q.v.). 
G^^nius considered that he symbolised the 
planet Jupiter ; but it is now believed that, 
uke Baal, he was the Sun-god, and was 
the supreme divinity. He appeared in two 
aspects, the one beneficent, giving life and 
light, tne other in wrath. In the latter 
case ne demanded the sacrifice of the first- 
bom to jNun his favour. He was the same 
as Merc^ach. His consort was Bilat or 
Beltis. The germs of his worship were to 
be seen among the Accadians, with whom, 
however, he was not the chief divinity. 
The Assyrians borrowed from the Baby- 
lonians the adoration of Bel. They first 
reared idols in his honour. 

% The Idol Bel and the Dragon [Apo- 

OBYPHA, ^ ii.]. 

BeU n), Belali [Heb. ^«/^='' de- 
vouring," " destruction "]. 

(1) (Of the form Bela.) A king of Edom, 
whose father's name was Beor^ and whose 
city was Dinhabah (Oen. xxxvi. 32). 

(2) (Of the two forms.) A son of 
Benjamin, and founder of a family (Oen. 
xlvi. 21 ; Numb. xxvi. 38). 

Bela (2) [Bela (1)1. 
One 01 the cities of the plain, the same 
as ZOAE (q.v.) (Gen. xiv. 2, 8). 

Belali [Bela] (Gen. xlvi. 21— A. V.). 

BellAl [Heb. Beliyaal = " worthless," 
from bc'li = " without," and yaal = ** ad- 
vantage," "profit," "use.'*^ In N.T. 
Qt. Belial, Beliar], 

An evil spirit. If only the Old Testa- 
ment had been available to decide the 
meaning of Belial, it would have been 
doubtf m whether or not the word was a 
proper name; but the New Testament 
settles that it is one, and identifies Belial 
with Satan (2 Cor. vi. 15). 

H Men ofBelialy Sotu oj^ Belial, Baagh^ 
ters of Belial, Children of' Belial, aie men, 
sons, daughters, or chil<iren of satan, the 
designation implying that, like him, they 
are morally worthless (Deut. xiii. 13; 
Judg. xix. 22; XX. 13; 1 Sam. i. 16; ii. 
12; X. 27; XXV. 17; xxx. 22; 2 San^. xvi. 
7; XX. 1 ; xxiii. 6 ; 1 Kings xxi. 10 ; 2 
Chron. xiii. 7). 

Bel«hai»ar [Babylonian Bilu-sarra- 
utsur = ** Bel protects." See the article!. 

According to Daniel a king of the Chal- 
deans, the &8t who reigned over Babylon. 
Feasting with 1,000 ot his lords, and 
quaffing wine ibtNom the sacred vessels 
taken l^ Nebuchadnezzar from the temple 
of Jerusalem, he was alarmed to see the 
fingers of a man write words upon the 
wall. They were "Mene, Mene, Tekel, 
Upharsin," which Daniel thus interpreted: 
**Mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom, 
and finished it. Tekel, Thou art weighed 
in the balances, and art found want- 
ing. Feres, Thy kingdom is xlivided, and 
given to the Modes and Persians." *' In 
that night was Belshazzar, the king of the 
Chaldeans, slain, and Darius the Median 
took the kingdom" (Dan. v. 1-31). 
The Chaldean author, Berosus, calls the 
last king of Babylon Nabonnedus. When 
Cyrus TOsieged Babylon, the native ruler 
retired to the adjoining city of Borsippa, 
where he had to stana a siege. After a 
time he surrendered the place, and had his 
life spared. Herodotus spells the name 
Labynetus. Neither historian mentions a 
Belshazzar; but an inscription on a 
cylinder dug up in 1854 by Sir Henry 
Bawlinson at Mugheir, the ancient Ur, 
goes far to reconcile the contradictory 
accoimts. One part of the ioscription runs 
thus: — 

"As for me Nabonidos, the king of Babylon, 
preserve me from sinning against thy great 
divinity, and grant me the gift of a life of lon^ 
days and plant in the heart of Bilu-sarra-iitMiu , 
the eldest son, the oflkpring of my heart, 
reverence for thy great divinity." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Bna-sarra-utsur i« eridently the Baby- 
knaan way of writing Belahazzar. He was 
the eldest son of Nabonidoe, and when 
Daniel called him the son of Nebuchad- 
neizar. the meaning must have been that 
Xebucjiadneszar was his ancrator (d, 
Ifatt. i. 2). He may have been associated 
with his mther in the sovereignty, or may 
have been left to rule in ^bylon whda 
Nabonidos fell back on Borsippa, with the 
ultimate result that the son perished while 
the &ther survived. 

B#ttMdiaisar [Heb. for Babylonian 
Bei-Uka-uzur = " Bel is the keq[)er of 
secretB.*' This Prof. Bawlinaon prefers to 
BiUa^shar'Uzur — ** Beltis protects the 
' (Dan.iv,8)]. 

name given by the prince of the 
Babylonian eunuchs to the prophet Daniel 
(Dan. L 7 ; iv. 8, 9, 18, 19). 

1(1) [Heb. = "son"]. 
A Lcrnte "of the second degree," 
porter (1 Ghron. xv. 18). 

(2) [In composition, Heb. s " a 

Son, or descendant. 

Bkh-Abdtabab [Heb. Ben-Abhinadhabh 
= " son of a noble father "]. 

Solomon's purveyor in the region of Dor 
(1 Kings iv. 1 1— B.V.). 

Ben-Aumi [Heb. = " son of my people '* 
or" kindred 'n. 

Lot*s younger daughter, from whom 
sprang the Ammonite mbe or nation (Gen. 

Bsr-DSKEB [Heb. Ben-Deoer] [Deseb]. 

Solomon's purveyor in Betnshemesh and 
some other towns (1 Kings iv. 9 — B.V. 
and margin of A.y.). 

Bbs-Gebeb (Heb. Ben-Gebher = "son 
of a man, or of a hero "]. 

Solomon's purveyor m Bamoth-gilead 
(1 Kings iv. 13— B.VO. 

Bbt-Hail [Heb. Ben-Wtail^ "son of 
■fatmgth, bravery," or " fortitude "]. 

One of the Jewish princes sent by 
Jdiodiaphat to teach m the cities of 
Jndah (2^Chron. zvii. 7). 

'BtS'BMXAX\]SLfSb,Ben-HKanan = " son 
of the kind " or " benignant one "J. 

A man of Judah, a son of Slumon (1 
Chroa. iv. 20). 

Beh-Hesed [Heb. Ben-Ehesedh = 
** son of benevolence "]. 

Solomon's purveyor m Aruboth (1 Kings 
iv. ia-E.V.). 

Bzir-HuB [Heb. Btn-Hltur = " son of 
an aperture "J. 

Solomon's purveyor in Mount Ephraim 

Bsv-Ohi [Heb. = " son of my 

■OfTOW "]. 

The name designed for the child whose 
birth its mother Bachel felt was causing 

her death. But Jacob changed it to 
Benjaxin (q.v.) (Gen. xxxv. 18}. 

Ben-Zoheth [Heb. Ben-/ohheth — 
" son of Zoheth " (q.v.)]. 

A man of Judah, a " son " of Ishi (or of 
Zoheth [?]) (1 Chron. iv. 20-R.V.). 

[Heb. Benayahy Benayahu = 
"whom Jehovah has built up." Nos. 1 
and 2 are of both forms; 5, 6, 9, 10, U, 
and 12 only of the first ; and N^os. 3, 4, 7* 
and 1 only of the second forml. 

p) A Levite, the son of Jehoiada the 
pnest. He was bom at Kabzeel in Judah. 
He was over the Cherethites and the 
Pelethites, David's bodyguard (2 Sam. 
viii. 18 ; zx. 23). He was a valiant man, 
who slew a lion, as also ''two lion -like 
men of Moab," and an Egyptian giant. 
He was the fourth in oistinction of 
David's captains (xxiii. 20-23 ; 1 Chron. 
xL 22-25). He was on special duty during 
the third month (1 Chron. xxvii. 6). He 
with the bodyguard remained faithful to 
David during Absalom's rebellion (cf. 
2 Sam. XV. 18; xx. 23) and that of 
Adoniiah (1 Kings i. 10). B^ David's 
order he escorted Solomon to Gihon, that 
he might be ' anointed king (38). He 
afterwards became the executioner of 
Adonijah rii. 25), of Joab (29-35), and of 
Shimei (4o). llie death of Joab having 
left the commander-in-chiefship vacant, 
Benaiah was promoted to the olhce (35). 

(2) A Pirathonite, one of David's thirty 
mighty men of the second rank (2 Sam. 
xxui. 30; 1 Chron. xi. 31V He was on 
special duty during the eleventh month 
(xxvii. 14). 

(3) A Levite of the second degree of 
players on the psaltery and harp in the . 
reign of David (l Chron. xv. 18, 20 ; xvi. 

(4) A priest who blew a trumpet in 
David's reign (1 Chron. xv. 24 ; xvi. 6). 

(5) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat 
(2 Chron. xx. 14). 

(6) A Simeonite, possibly a contempo- 
rary of Hezekiah (1 Chron. iv. 36 ; cf. 41). 

(7)^ A Levite, an overseer of dedicated 
offerings and ruler in Hezekiah's reign 
(2 Chron. xxxi. 13). 

(8) A prince, and father of Pelatiah, in 
the days of Ezekiel (Ezek. xi. 1, 13). 

(9) A son of Parosh (Ezra x. 25). 

(10) A son of Pahath-moab (30). 

(11) AsonofBani(35). 

Nos. 9-12 were induced by Ezra to 
put away their strange wives. 

[In composition, Heb. = " sons 

of " ; the plural of Ben (q.v.)]. 

Bene-Bbbak [Heb. Beiie Bheraq = 
"(the village of) the sons of BeraJt" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




A town or village of Dan (Josh. xix. 4)). 
Now identified with Ibn Ibrik. 

Bene-Jaakan [Heb. Brttr-Vaaqan]. 

A curtailed form of Beeroth-Bene- 
Jaakan (q.v.) (Numb, xxxiii. 31, 32). 


Benbadad [Heb. Ben-H(fffha(1h -^^ mn 
(i.e. worshipi>er) of Hadod," the supreme 
god of Syria] [Hadad]. 

The name of throe Syrian kings ruling 
at Damascus. 

(1) Benhadad I. The son of Tabrimon 
and the grandson of Hezion. When Baasha, 
king of Israel, built Bamah to blockade 
the entrance into Judah from the north, 
^Vsa, unable to meet him directly in 
the field, sent to Benhadad a present or 
subsidy of silver and gold, and urged him 
to break his treaty with Baasha and 
invade his kingdom. The Sjrrian poten- 
tate consented, and his captains with his 
army entering the territory of the ten 
tribes, captured the cities of Ijon, Dan, 
and Abel-Maachah, besides ravaging the 
landof Cinneioth, or Gennesareth, on the 
west of the lake of that name, with all 
the land of Naphtali. The diversion enabled 
Asa to destroy Ramah, and terminate the 
blockade of his kingdom (I Kings xv. 
18-21; 2Chron. xvi. 1-6). 

(2) Benhadad II., Ahab's antagonist. 
He was a braggart, and addicteil to 
liquor. He Bont Ahab an insulting 
message, demanding his silver, his gold, his 
wives, and the handsomest of his children. 
Ahab consented, when fresh demands at 
once arrived . Aiiab this time refused com- 
pliance, and, standing the issue of battle, 
was completely victorious (1 Kings xx. 
1-21). Next year Benhadad renewed the 
war ; but sxistained a still heavier defeat 
than he had done on the previous occasion. 
Ahab granted him conditions of peace, 
which Benhadad shamelessly violated 
(22-43), and it was in fighting'against his 
soldiers before Kamoth-gilemi that the 
king of Israel lost his life [Ahab] (1 Kings 
xxu. 1-40 ; 2 Chron. xviii. 1-34). It was 
the second Benhadad who in the reign of 
Jehoram, Ahab's son, besieged Samaria, 
reducing it to gieat straits through famine. 
But the Syrians fled in a panic, and the 
beleaguered city was saved (2 Kings vii. 
8-20). When Benhadad was sick, Elisha, 
who had paid a >'isit to Damascus just at 
the time, was consulted as to the issue of 
the disease. Elisha said that the Syrian 
king was about to die. Hazael, the 
messenger employed to go to and fro 
between the king and the prophet, made 
sure that the prediction should not fail by 
assassinating his sick sovereign and seizing 
on the vacant throne (viii. 7-1''^). 

(3) Benhadad III. The son of that 
Hazael who, after murdering his king. 

called his son by that Idng^s name. In the 
reign of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, first 
Hazael and then Benhadad oppressed 
the ten tribes (2 Kings xiii. 3-13). But 
Joash, the son of Jehoahaz, inflicted three 
defeats on Benhadad, and recovered the 
cities of Israel which had been under 
Syrian rule (22-25). His son, Jero- 
boam II., followed up these victories by 
retaking Hamatb, and even temporarily 
occup^^ng Damascus (xiv. 28). 

^ The Palaces of Benhadad, The 
palaces of Damascus (Jer. xlix. 27 ; Amos 

Benlnn [Heb. = ** our son "]. 

A Levite who with Nehemiah and others 
sealed a covenant with Jehovah (Neh. 
X. 13). 

Bex^amln [Heb. Bin Yamin = ** son of 
the right hand," i.e, *^ oi happiness" 

(1) The youngest of Jacob's twelve sons. 
He was the fufl brother of Joseph, both 
being children of Rachel. As Racnel with 
her husband and household was approach- 
ing Bethlehem, she gave birth to Benjamin, 
and, feeling that his advent into the world 
was about to cost her her life, named him 
• * Benoni, the son of my sorrow ; ' * but Jacob, 
disinclined apparently to perpetuate the 
memory of an event so tragic, called him 
Benjamin (see etymology) {Qen. xxxv. 
16-20) . Being the youngest, he was also the 
favourite son of ms father. It was with 
excessive reluctance that his parent allowed 
him to go to Egvpt with his other brothers 
(Gen. juiii. 1-1/), and Judah was probably 
right in supposing that the father would 
die of grief if any untoward occurrence 
happen^ to the son of his old age. Joseph 
also felt much affection for Benjamin 
[Joseph] (xliii. 29-34 ; xUv. 1-34). Ulti- 
mately he had ten sons and became the 
founder of a tribe in Israel [Benjajcik (2)] 
(Gen. xlvi. 21 : Numb. xxvi. 38-41 ; 
1 Chron. vii. 6-12). 

(2) The tribe to which Benjamin ^ve 
onjpn, and the t^ritory which it obtained 
as its allotment. Jacob's dying prophecy 
regarding his favourite son was this, 
^'Benjamin is a wolf that ravineth. In 
the morning he shall devour the prey, and 
at even he shall divide the spoil " '(Gen. 
xUx. 27— R. v.). That of Moses, *^ The 
beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety 
by him. He covereth him all the day long 
and he dwelleth between his shoulders" 
(Deut. xxxiii. 12— B.V.\ It is recorded 
that in the distribution or the ** land bv lot 
under Joshua the first lot came to Ben- 
jamin," whose territory lay between that 
of Judah, and that of **the children of 
Joseph." ' Its northern boundary was to 
run from Jordan a little to the north of 
Jericho on to Ataroth-adar, south of nether 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Bethhoron. Its western border ran from 
this point to Kirjath- jearim. Its southern 
boundary went thence through the valley 
of the son of Hinnom, immediately south 
of Jerusalem, to the northern point of the 
Dead Sea. Its eastern limit was the 
Jordan (Josh, xviii. 1 1 -20) . The territory 
thus marked out extended from west to 
cast about 20 miles, from the Lower Beth- 
horon to the desert above Jericho, and 10 
miles from Bethel on the north to Jeru- 
salem on the south. It was a hilly 
cjuntry, but was all studded with towns, 
the chief of which were Jerusalem, Jericho, 
Bethel, Gibeon, Gibeath, and Mizpeh 

(3) A Benjamite, a son of Bilhan (1 
Chron. vii. 10). 

(4) A son of Harim (Ezra x. 32). 

II (1) Benjamin* 8 Gate. — A sate of Jeru- 
salem after, if not also before, tiie captivity. 
It was opposite to the ** first gate *' (Zech. 
xiv. 10), and in the opinion of Professor 
Sayce was identical with the east gate of 
Jer. xix. 2— A.V., the gate Hardth or 
gate of the potsherds (B.V.), or of the 
potteries (Professor Sayoe). It seems to 
nave been different from the hi^h or upper 
gate of Benjamin (f 2). It is doubtful 
whether the '*gate of Benjamin*' (Jer. 
xxxviL 13 ; xxxviii. 7) refers to No. 1 or 2. 
The probability is in favour of No. 1. 

(2) The High Gate o/Bety'amin, A. V.— 
The Ij>per gate of Benjamin, R.V. A 
gate of JeruMlem near the Temple. Jere- 
miah was confined there in the stocks 
(Jer. XX. 2). [Jebubalex.] 

Beno [Heb. = *< his son *']. 

A son of Merari by his wife Jaoiciah 
(1 Chron. xxiv. 20, 27). 


An abbreviation for Beth-meon (q.v.) 
(Numb, xxxii. 

Ammonites, the Moabites and Edomites 
(2 Chron. xx. 26). The name still lingers 
as Breikt:it, first identified by Wolcott 
(in 1843), though the name had been for 
some time previously in Seetzen*s map. It 
is now a ruin about 3 miles W.N. W. from 
Tekoa. 4 miles S. W. by S. from Bethlehem, 
and a little east of the road f tx>m the latter 
village to Hebron. 

Beraohiali [Bebechiah (1)1 (1 Chron. 
vi. 3y— A.V.). 

Beralah [Heb. Bcrayah = "whom 
Jehovah has created "]. 

A Benjamite, a son of Shimhi (1 Chron. 
viii. 21). 

• [Heb. = "a torch"!. 

(1) The father of Bela, king of £dom : 
(Gen. xxxvL 32 ; 1 Chron. i. 43}. 

(2) The father of Balaam (Numb. xxii. 
5 ; xxiv. 3, Id ; xxxL 8 ; Deut. xxiii. 5 ; 
Josh. xiii. 22 ; xxiv. 9 ; Micah vi. 5). \ 
Called in the New Testament Bosofi (q.v.) ; 
(2 Peter ii. 15). , 

Ber»jieb. = "agift"]. I 

The king of Sodom, who was defeated 
by Chedorlaomer and his confederates I 
(Gen. xiv. 2, 8, 10). I 

Baradiali [Heb. Berahhah = ''bless- ! 
ing," from Barak = »* to bless »']. ' 

A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag , 
(1 Chron. xii. 3). 

5 Valley of Berachah [Heb. = '• valley i 
of blessing"]. 

A valley in Jndah, in or near the wilder- , 
nees of Tekoa. Jehodiaphat gave it its name , 
because he and his army there returned 
thanks to God for a great victory over the \ 

J [Lat. from Or. Biroia'j. 

A city of Macedonia, the Jewish inhabi- 
tants of which were more noblo than those 
of Thessalonica in that they received the 
word ^*ith all readiness, and searched tiie 
Scriptures to ascei-tain whether the doctrine 
preached to them by Paul and Silas was 
true. Many of them in consequence 
believed (Acts xvii. 10-14). Berea is now 
called Verria, or Boor. 

BereoIilAli [Heb. Berck/it/ah, Berekh- 
»/rt^/r = '* whom Jehovali has blessed." Nos. 
1 and 2 are of the second form ; 3-6 of the 
first ; and No. 7 of botli]. 

(1) The father of Asuph. a Levite de- 
scended from Gershora (1 Chron. vi. 39 — 
R.V., spelled in the A.V. Bebaohiah) 

(2) A doorkeeper for the Ark in David's 
reign (1 Chron. xv. 23). 

(3) One of the chief men of Ephraim in 
the reign of Pekah. He took the part of 
the captives from Judah. He was a son 
of Meshillemotli (2 Chron. xxviii. 12). 

(4) A Bon of Zerubbabel (1 Chron. iii. 

(5) A Levite, a son of Asa (1 Chron. ix. 

(6) A pon of Meshezabeel. He repaired 
part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. iii. 4, 

(7) The father of the prophet Zechariah 
(Zech. i. 1, 7). [Babachias.] 

Bared [Heb. Beredh = " hail "]. 

(1) A place in the wilderness of Shur 
not far from Beer-la-ha-roi (Gen. xvi. 
14). Its exact locality has not been deter- 
mined. A ruin has been doubtfully sug- 
gested, called Khalasah, 13 miles south of 

(2) A son of Shuthelah (?) and grand- 
son (?) of Ephraim (1 Chron. vii. 20). 

BeH [Heb. = '* man of a well '»]. 
An Asherite, a son of Zophah (1 Chron. 
viii. 3G). 

Berlali [Heb. Beriah = "a gilt" 
(1 Chron. vii. Jo)]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




(1) A sou of Asher, and founder of a 
family (Gen xlvi. 17 ; Numb. xxvi. 44). 
(-2) A son of Ephraim (1 Chron. vii. 23). 

(3) A Benjamite, a head of the fathers 
of the inhabitants of Aijalon (1 Chron. 
viii. 13). 

(4) A Levite, a son of Shimei, the Ger- 
shonite (1 Chron. xxiii. 10). 

Berite [English, remote etymology 
doubtful; CI. Bebi]. 

Apparently a people living near Abel- 
Beth-Maachah (o.v.) (2 Sam. xx. 14), but 
it is not certain ii the rendering is correct. 

Beritli pieb. = " a covenant"]. 

In the A.V. of Judg. ix. 46, a god 
worshipped at Shechem. But the ren&r- 
ing should be El-Bebith (q.v.). 

Bemloe [Lai. from Gr. Bemike for 
Pherenike = ^a female^ "carrying oft vic- 
tory,'* or "victorious"]. 

The eldest daughter oi Herod Agrippa I. , 
the king who was eaten up of worms (Acts 
xii. 1-23). She was mamed to her uncle, 
Herod, ruler of Chalcis, who soon after- 
wards died. She then went a great deal 
about with her brother Agrippa, and 
scandal in consequence arising, sne tried 
to allay^ it by a marria^ with Polemo, king 
of Cilida. She soon became tired of him, 
and, deserting him, returned to her brother 
Agrippa (Joseph. , Anti^. XX. vii. 3 ; Wars, 
II. XI. 5J. She was with him when Paul 
made his defence before him (Acts xxv. 
23; xxvi. 30). She afterwaras became 
the mistress, first of Vespasian and then of 

Baladan] (2 Kings xx. 12). 

Berotbab, Berotlial [Heb. = " my 

A town in the north of Palestine, which 
wait subject to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 
but was taken from him by David (2 Sam. 
viii. 8). It was still a notable place in 
Ezekiers dajrs (Ezek. xlvii. 16). Called 
also Chun (q.v.) (1 Chron. xviu. 8). Site 

Batyl [English, from Lat. berullus, 
Gr. Berulloi = " a beryl," etc. See No. 2]. 

(H The rendering of the Hebrew Tar- 
shisn , referring to a precious stone brought 
doubtless from the place bearing the same 
name. It was the nrst stone of the fourth 
row on the Jewish high-priest's breast- 
plate (Exod. xxviii. 20 ; xxxix. 13 ; Song 
V. 14 ; E«ek. i. 16 ; x. 9 ; xxviii. 13 ; Dan. 
X. 6). None of these passages tell the 
colour of the stone. On the margin of the 
R.y. of Song V. 14 Tarshish is rendered 
topaz, and on that of Exod. xxviii. 26 
amber, which latter translation is im- 
probable; for amber comes not from 
Tarshish but from the Baltic. 

(2) The Greek Berullos in Rev. xxi. 20, 
where it constitutes the eighth foundation 
of the New Jerusalem. The bervl is an 
"earthy" mineral, having as its chief 
constituents silica, alumina, and beryllium 
(glucinum). It may be colourless or aqua- 
marine, bluish-green, or various blues and 
violet, or vellow and brown. It is closely 
allied to the emerald. Abroad it is found 
in Siberia, in India, in Brazil, etc. ; at 
home it occurs in Cornwall, in County 
Down, and in Aberdeenshire. 

[P«-«flii="a sword" (F) 

One of we Nethinims, and the founder 
of a family (Ezra ii. 49 ; Neh. vii. 62). 

Sleb. Besodhej/ah = " in 
The fa£ber of Meshullam, who helped to 
repair a gate of Jerusalem (Neh. iii. 6). 

[Heb. = " cold "J. 

A brook near Gaza, mlling into the 
Mediterranean. When David was pursu- 
izig the Amalekites who had plimdered 
Ziklag, 200 of his men were too much worn 
out to cross the brook (1 Sam. xxx. 9, 10, 

Betab [Heb. Betahh = " trust," " con- 
fidence "1. 

A city Delonging to Hadadezer, king of 
Zobah. David took from it very much 
"brass," i.e, either copper or bronze 
(2 Sam. viii. 8). Called also Tibhath 
(q.v.) (1 Chron. xviii. 8). Site unknown. 

Betan [Heb. = " the womb "1. 

A frontier village of Asher (Josh. xix. 
25^. Eusebius identifies it with a village 
called Beth-Beten, eight milee east of 
Acre. Capt. Conder doubtfuUv considerB 
this the village of El B*aneh, 12 miles east 
of Acre. 

Betli (in composition) [Heb. = " house 
of," the construct, state of Aay»M="a 
house," " a palace," " a temple " ; applied 
to places it means " city," " town,^* or 

Beth-Anath [Heb. = " house of 
reply " ; perhaps. " of an echo "]. 

A feneed city of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 38), 
from which, however, that tribe failed to 
drive out the Canaanite inhabitants (Judg. 
i. 33). The officers of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund locate it at the village of 
'Ainttha, six miles west of Kedesh. 

Beth-Anoth [The same etymology as 
Beth-Anath (q.vO], 

A town or village in the mountains of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 59). The officers of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund place it at the 
ruin of Beit' AinAn, a mile and a half 
south-east of Halhul. 

Beth-A&abah [Heb. Beth^ha'-'Arabhah 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




= *' house (i.e, city) of the wilder- 

A aty, town, or villa^ on the boundary - 
line between Judah and Benjamin (Josn. 
XT. 61 ; xviii. 22). Called also AnAHAw 
(q.v.) (vene 18). Not yet identified. 

Beth-Abax [Bbth-Habaic] (Josh. 
xiii. 27— A. v.). 

Beth-Asbel [Heb. Belh-arbhel = 
** God's house of ambush "]. 

An Israelite town *' spoiled" by 
Shalman [Shahnaneser lY. (^)] with 
horrible cruelty, even to defenceless women 
(Hoeea z. 14). Prof. Bobinson thinks it 
may be identical with Arbek of Galilee 
mentioned in 1 Mace. iz. 2, and by Joseph. 
(Anttq., Xn. xi. ^1 ; XFV. xr. } 4), now 
Irbid, west of the jLake of Galilee. There 
are many natural cayems and a limestone 
precipice, which hare been connected by 
artificial passases cut through the rock, 
with defences wherever access was possible. 
Herod the Gkeat found these caverns the 
abode of robbers, whom he rooted out. 
[Hebod.] The officers of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund consider the identifica- 
tion probable. 

Beth-Aven [Heb. = "house of empti- 
ness," ** nothingness," *' vanity," or *' an 

(1) A town in the territory of Benjamin. 
near Ai, east of Bethel (Josh. vii. 2) and 
west of MichmMh ^1 Sam. xiii. 5 : cf . also 
xiv. 23). In the vicinity was a '* wilder- 
ne« " (a.v.) (Josh, xviii. 12). Not yet 
exactly looitified. 

(2) A name taken from No. 1 and 
applied by Hosea contemptuously to 
:^thel aftCT* it had become a great seat of 
idol-worship ^Hosea iv. 15; v. 8; x. 5). 
The point of tne sarcasm was in the ety- 
mology of the word. 

Bbth-Azicjlteth [Heb. = "house of 
Armaveth "]. 
The same as Azxavetr (2) (Neh. vii. 

Beth-Baal- B(eok [Heb. = '* house of 
the lord " or ** place oi habitation "]. 

The same as Baal-Meon (q.v.) (Josh. 
xiii. 17). 

Beth-Babab [Heb. ="a ford" or 
** passage"] [Bethababa]. 

A place on the Jordan, probablv the 
aame as Bethababa (q.v.) (Judg. vii. 24). 

Beth-Bibi, Beth-Bibei [Heb. = 
*• house of my creation "]. 

A Simeonite city, town, or village 
(\ Chron. iT. 31). Gesenius and Grove 
think it may be a corruption of Beth- 
L£3AdTH (q.v.). In Armstrong's Names 
and Place* (1889) it figures as umdentitted. 

Beth-Cab [Heb. Beth -Ear = "house of 
pasture," i,e, " a place fit for grazing "]. 

A place " under " which tte Philistines 
were pursued and slaughtered after a 
battle m SamuePs time (1 Sam. vii. 11). 

The word " under " would seem to imply 
that it was high, and perhaps precipitous. 
Capt. Conder doubtfully fixes it at 'Ain 
Ktbim, west of Mispen, the site of the 
stone between that place and Sheu. 

Betr-Daoon [Heb. Beth Daghon s 
"house of Dagon*^* (q-v.)]. 

(1) A village in **tne lowland" of 
Judah rJosh. xv. 33, 41— R.V.). M. 
(Vermont Ghumeau located it doubtfully at 
Daj(in, between L^dda and Tebnah, south 
of Beit Dejan, which is simply the Arabic 
form of the old Hebrew name. 

(2) A town of Asher. on the frontier 
where it turned eastward to be contermi- 
nous with that of Zebulun (Josh. xix. 27;. 
Capt. Ck>nder considers its probable site to 
have been at the present ruin of T^ll- 
D'ailk, south of Acre. 

Beth-Diblathaix [Heb. Beth-Dibhla- 
thaim — ** house of the two dried fi^ "1. 

A Moabite town (Jer. xlviii. 22). 
Probably the same as Alxon-Dibla- 
THAIM (q.v.) (Numb, xxxiii.46,47). Capt. 
Conder thinks that it mav have been 
situated at Deldy&t, south oi Tell M*ain. 

Beth-Eden [Heb. Beth-Edhen = 
" house of Eden or pleasure "1. 

A Syrian town in Mount Lebanon (Amos 
i. 5 — margin of A.V. and E.V.). 

Beth-el [Bethel]. 

Beth-elite [BetheliteI. 

Beth-Exek [Heb. Beth-ha-emeq = 
** house of the valley "]. 

A town within Uie territory of Asher 
(Josh. xix. 27). It has been doubtfully 
placed at *Amka, seven miles north-east of 

Beth-Ezel [Heb. Beth-ha-etzel = 
" house of firm root," t.f."of fixed seat"]. 

A town or village of Judah or Samana 
— it is uncertain which (Micah i. II). 
Situation unknown. Mr. Armstrong 
{Xames and Placet . 137) compares it with 
Azal in Zech. xiv. 5, and locates it doubt- 
fully in the Philistine plain. 

Beth-Gadeb jpeb. Beth-ffodlter = 
" house of a wall '*]. 

A town or village of Judah, of which 
Hareph was the ** father" or founder 
(I Chron. ii. 51). The same as Gedeb 

BETH-GAinjL [Heb. = *^ house of one 

A Moalnte town (Jer. xlviii. 23). Capt. 
Cinder locates it doubtfully at Jemail, east 
of Dibon. 

Beth-Haoohebeh, Beth-Haccebeh 
[Heb. = ** house of the vineyard," viz. 
Beth = " house of," hak = " the," and 
kei-em = *' vineyard "]. 

A town or village of Judah (Neh. iii. 14 ; 
Jer. vi. 1). Exact localitv unknown. It 
has been located at the irank Mountain, 
but Captain Conder prefers to place it at 
*Ain Karlm, ** the spring of vineyards." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Beth-Haban, Bethabaic, Beth Habax 
[The last two forms are = ** place of a 
height," or " of the height." The first form 
may be a corruption of the others, or may 
be = " pertaining to a mountain "1. 

Beth-haian is a place built or reouilt by 
the " children of Gad " (Numb, xxxii. 36). 
The Beth-aram of the A.V., the Beth- 
haram of the B.V., is a town in a valley 
belonging to the tribe of Qad (Josh. xiii. 
27). The two places are eviaently the 
same. Tristram considers that it occupied 
a ' * tell * * or mound, perhaps artificial, called 
Beth Harran, in the plain of the Jordan, a 
little north-east from the northern ex- 
tremity of the Dead Sea. The oflicers of 
the Palestine Exploration Fimd place it at 
Tell R&meh, east of Jericho. 

Beth-Hoola, Beth-Hoolah [Heb. 
Beth Hhoglah = ** house of (the) par- 

A Benjamite town or village on the 
boundary-line between the territories of 
Beniamin and Judah (Josh. xv. 6 ; xviii. 
19, i\\ It is believed to have been at 'Ain 
Hajlan, at the lower fords of the Jordan 
south-east of Jericho. 

Beth-Hobon [Heb. Beth-Hhoron = 
" house " or ** place of hollowness " ; i.e. 
perhaps " of caves "]. 

Two towns or villages of Ephraim, both 
built by a woman of that tribe called 
Sherah (1 Chron. vii. 24). 

f (1) Beth'horon the Nether ; the Nether 
Bethoron. A town or village on the 
boundary-line of Ephraim (Jo^. xvi. 3 ; 
xviii. 13). It was rebuilt or enlarged by 
Solomon (\ Kings ix. 17 ; 2 Chron. viii. 5). 
Dr. Bobmson found it at Beit 'Ur el 
Tahta, towards the foot of the declivity 
sloping from the high tableland of P^es- 
tine towards the Philistine plain [^ 21. 

% (2) Upper Hclh'horon, The Beth- 
horon at the top of the pass or declivity 
descending to the Nether Beth-horon 
[IF]. Like its companion town, it was on 
the southern boundary-line of Ephraim 
(Josh. xvi. 5; xviii. 14). Dr. Robinsonfound 
it at Beit 'Ur el Foka, on an eminence on 
the very brow of the mountain, with a deep 
valley on each side both north and south. 
The ascent to it from the Nether Beth- 
horon is very rough and rocky, but in 
many places artificial steps have been 
cut out. On a landing-stage a certain 
distance up the path are remains of a 
castle. A mountam pass of this kind was 
pretiy sure to be the scene of a series of 
military struggles, and after the fight 
before Gibeon between Joshua and the 
confederate kings, the victorious Jewish 
leader pursued the vanauished enemy 
'' along the way that goetn up to Beth- 
horon," i.e. from the eastward up the un- 
dulating incline from Gibeon to tne Upper 
Beth-horon. Then, still driving tnem 

westward, he made them flee in a great 
hailstorm *' in the going down to Beth- 
horon," i,e, along the steep descent from 
the Upper to the Lower town (Josh. x. 
10, 1 1). In Saul's reign Philistine spoilen 
passed that way (1 ikun. xiii. 18), as did 
Israelite mutineers and plunderers in the 
reign of Aroaziah (2 Chron. xxv. 13). 
Solomon fortified both places (1 Kings ix. 
1 7 ; 2 Chron. viii. 5) . Which of the Beth- 
horons was given with its suburbs to the 
Kohathites (Josh. xxi. 22 ; 1 Chron. vi. 68) 
and became a city of refuge we do not 
know ; perhaps both may have been. Judas 
Maocaoeus heavily defeated the Syrian 
general Seron on the slope of the Beth- 
horons, and drove him to the Philistine 
plain (1 Mace. iii. 16-24). Another Syrian 
general, Bacchides, forufied the pass (ix. 
50). Bv the end of the fourth centurv 
after Christ the Beth-horons were small 

Beth - Jeshdcoth, Beth - Jesimoth 
[Heb. Beth ha yeshimoth — ** house of the 
deserts " or " wastes "]. 

A fortified town near the eastern bank 
of the Jordan, where the Israelites for a 
time pitched (Numb, xxxiii. 49). It was 
assigned to the Beubenites (Josh. xii. 3 ; 
xiii. 20^, but by the time ot Ezeldel had 
reverted to the Moabites, from whom it 
had been originallv conquered (Ezek. xxv. 
9). Schwartz identified it with 'Ain 
Suweimeh, a knoll at the north-eastern 
extremity of the Dead Sea. Only a few 
lines of stones now remain. 

Beth-Lbbaoth [Heb. Beth'Zebhaoth], 

Probably the same as Lebaoth (q.v.) 
(Josh. xix. 6), 

Beth-Maacah, Beth-Maachah [Heb. 
Beth'Maakhah = " house of Maachaii"]. 

A town near the base of Mount Hermon 
(2 Sam. XX. 14, 15) [Abel-Beth-Maa- 

Beth-Mabcaboth [Heb. Beth ham 
Markablioth = ** house of chariots "]. 

A town or village of the Simeonites 
(Josh. xix. 5 ; 1 Chron. iv. 31). Exact site 
unknown. Dean Stanlev (Sinai atuf 
Pales tine J 160) believes that it was a depdt 
or station for such chariots as those which 
in Solomon's time went to and fro be- 
tween Egypt and Palestine. 

Beth-Meon [Heb. = '* house of habi- 

An abbreviation of BETH-BAAL-MEoy 
and Baal-Meox (q.^ (Jer. xlviii. 23). 

Beth-Mebhilk [Heb. Beth Han 
Merh/uiq=^** house of removal " ; i.e. ** the 
Far House"]. 

Probabjy not a village, but only a house 
beside the brook Kidron, between Jeru- 
salem and the Mount of Olives (2 Sara. xv. 
17 — R.V.). The margin renders it '* the 
Far House " ; the A.V. ** a place that was 
far off." Exact situation unknown. 

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Beth^Ndoulh [Heb. = ** house of 
limpicl fresh water ** J. 

A fortified city built or rebuilt by the 
Gadites rNumb. xxxii. 36), within whose 
aadgned territory it lay (Jcwh. xiii. 27). It 
is now called Nimrtn, and ia in the Jordan 
valley, a little higher than Bbth-Haran 
(q.T.). It is the same as the Nimrah of 
Ifumb. xxxii. 3 fNiXBAH, Ndcbhc]. 

Bbth-Palei [Beth-Pelet] (Josh. xy. 

Beth-Pazzez [Heb. Beth-patUets = 
*' house of di8|)er8ion **]. 

A town or Tillage within the territory of 
Tiwachar (Josh. xix. 21). Exact site 

Beth-Pelet, Beth-Phelet, Beth- 
Palet [Heb. Beth-peUt, Beth-palet t= 
" house of escape "]. 

A town or villaffe on the most southerly 
part of Judah (Josh. xv. 27 — A.V. and 
H.y. ; Neh. xi. 26). Exact site unknown. 

Beth-Peob [Heb. = " house or temple 
of an opening or cleft/' or of Mount PeorJ . 

A Moabite city notable for the worship 
of Baal-Peob (q.T.J. The Israelites 
encamped in the valley opposite to it 
(Deut. iii. 29 ; iv. 46), and it was there 
that Moses was buried (xxxiv. 6). It was 
afterwards assigned to the Keubenites 
(Josh. xiii. 20). Capt. Ckmder doubtfully 
identified it with Mareighilt on a ridge 
whic^ has Minyeh, believed to be Peor, 
on its western partTPEOBl . 

Beth-Phelet [Beth-PeletI (Xeh. xi. 

Beth-Kapha [Heb. = ** house of 
Bapha,'* ** house of a giant "]. 

A man of Judah, a son of Eshton (1 
Chron. iv. 12). 

Beth-Rehob [Heb. Beth-Behhohh = 
** house of a street '']. 

A city (the same as Rehob) (q.v.), 
unless, as Gesenius suggests, Beth-Rehob 
is the district and Rehob the city. It was 
the north of Palestine, and it was in the 
valley adjacent to it tl^t the cii^ of Dan 
was Doilt (Judff. xviii. 28). It was in- 
habited by Brians, who joined the 
Ammonites in a ^^reat war wiui David (2 
Sam. X. 6). Robinson doubtfully locates 
it s^ the modem fortress of H(inin com- 
manding the plain of Huleh, in which Dan 
was situated. Some discriminate this Beth- 
Rehob mentioned in the book of Judges 
from that of 2 Samuel, placing the latter 
near the Euphrates. 

Beth-Shan [Beth-Shean] (1 Sam. 
xxxi. 10, 12 ; 2 Sam. xxi. 12). 

Beth-Shean, Beth-Shan [Heb. Beth- 
»htan, contracted Beth'Shan = '* house of 
quiet" or "rest"]. 

A dty, originally Canaanite, and difficult 
to captore, Kir its inhabitants had chariots 
of iron (Josh. xvii. 16). When Canaan 
was parcelled out by Lot, Beth-shean, 

with its dependent towns, fell within 
the area of Issachar, but was given to the 
Manassites, who, perhaps, were better able 
to cope with a |)lace so formidably de- 
fended (Josh. xvii. 11 ; 1 Chron. vii. 29). 
They were encouraged bv Joshua to make 
the attempt, but they either shrank from 
doing it, or thev failed in their endeavour, 
so that they had to tolerate the presence of 
Canaanite inhabitants. When strong, 
however, they made them pay tribute 
aosh. 11-16 ; Judff. i. 27, 28}. When the 
Philistines found Saul and nis sons dead 
on Mount Gilboa, they beheaded him and 
fastened the headless trunk, with the 
bodies of his sons, to the waill of Beth- 
shean (1 Sam. xxxi. 10-13; 2 Sam. 
xxi. 12-14). Beth-shean was beside 
Zarethan beneath Jezreel (1 Kings 
iv. 12). The Septuagint translators of 
Judg. i. 27 write ^^B^thsan (Bethshan) 
whidi is a city of the Scvthians." As 
early as the time of Juoas Maccabfeus 
the city was called Sc3rthopoli8. It has 
been supposed that the Sc3rthians who, 
according to Herodotus, ruled in Western 
Asia for twenty-eight years, captured 
Beth-shan about the reign of Josian, but 
this IB an etvmological conjecture, rather 
than a completely proved historic fact. It 
was not stated apparently till nearly 800 
years alter the Uhristian era, or about 
1400 after the alleged invasion. The Jews 
of the ilrst century a.d. did not regard 
Scythopolis as a city of their countrymen, 
but sacked it dunng the war with the 
Romans^ the citizens retaliating by 
massacring the Jewish residents. JoMphua 
says that it was the largest of the ten 
cities called Decapolis. and was near 
Tiberias ( }rar8, HI. ix. 7) . It was the only 
one of the ten cities that lay west of the 
Jordan. It continued to figure in history 
as late as the Crusades. Though the name 
Scjrthopolis lasted for centuries, it did not 
ultimately take root, and the Arab mud 
village wnich now marks its site is called 
Beis&n. The city was splendidly situated 
on the brow of a hill just where the great 
valley or plain of Jezreel drops down rather 
steeply for 300 feet to the level of the 
Ohor or depressed valley of the Jordan. 

Its walls must have oeen between two> 
and three miles round. The enclosed area 
was five-twelfths of a mile. The edifices 
were built of black basalt, the region 
aroimd being volcanic. It was a city of 
temples. Extensive ruins of it still remain. 
They are divided by two streams into three 
parts: the southern section contains the 
modem village and hippodrome (race- 
course), a theatre, with a ruined mosque, 
and part of the ancient dty waUs ; the 
centml section includes the fortress and 
numerous ruins ; the northerly one has a 
church, tombs, and fort. North-east and 

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north-west are bridges, and to the south is 
a cemetery (Surrey of Western Palestine, 
ii. 101-114). 

Beth-Sheicesh FHeb. = '^ house (used 
sometimes for temple) of the sun '']. 

(1) A town on the border between the 
temtories of Dan and Judah, but belong- 
ing to the latter tribe (Josh. xv. 10; 
2 Kings xiv. 1 1). The name would suggest 
that at least in Canaanite times it was a 
focusof Sun-worship for the region around. 

After Joshua's conquest it was given 
over to the priests, the sons of AEiron 
(Josh. xxi. 16; 1 Chron. vi. 59). When 
the Ark of Gk>d was sent from the Philistine 
country on a new cart drawn by twomildi 
kine without human ffuidanoe, the fwrima-lH 
took the way to &th-Shemesh. The 
townspeople were delighted with its coming, 
but, forofanely looking into it, were strudc 
by a plague which was fatal to 50,070 of 
their ntmiber. The figures^ which seem 
very large, may have h&Esn. miscopied, or if 
accurate, it mav be conjectured tnat Beth- 
Shemesh may liave continued a place of 
pilgrimage to the old Sun-worsnippers, 
and the arrival of the Ark may have taken 
place when they were in tens of thousands 
(1 Sam. vi. 1-21). One of Solomon's 
twelve purveyors drew supplies of food 
from the town and district (1 Kings iv. 
7, 9). It was the scene of a great battle 
between Amaziah, king of Judah, and 
Joash, king of Israel, in which the former 
was defeat (2 Kings ziv. 1 1 ; 2 Chron. 
XXV. 21), and was taken by the Philistines 
during the reign of Asa (xxviii. 18). 
Br. Bobinson locates this first Beth- 
Shemesh at the modem 'Ain Shems, about 
seven miles from Ekron. [Hebes, Ib- 

(2) A frontier town of Issachar towards 
the Jordan (Josh. xix. 22). Captain Conder 
thinks it may possibly be the ruin Ain esh 
Shem-siyeh in the Jordan valley, south of 

(3) A fenced citv within the limits of 
the tribe of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 38). They 
did not succeed in driving out the Canaan- 
ite inhabitants, but made them tributaries 
( Judg. i. 33) . It has been placed by some at 
the ruin of Shemstn, east of Mount Tabor,* 
and by others at that of Shem*a, three 
miles west of Safed (Armstrong Names 
and PlaceSy 35). 

(4) An Egvptian city where the sun was 
greatly worshipped. Probably On (q.v.) 
(Jer. xliii. 13). 

Beth-Shemite [English]. 

A native of Beth-shemesn No. 1(1 Sam. 
vi. 14, 18). 

Beth-Shittah [Heb. Beth hash shittah 
— ** house of the acacia "]. 

A town or village on the Jordan near 
Abel-Meholah (Judg. vii. 22). Robinson 
located it at Shutta. 

Beth-Tappitah [Heb. Beth-Tappuahh 
= ** house of anples "]. 

A town or vmage on the mountains of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 53). It is believed to 
have lam at the modem village of Tuffiih, 
west of Hebron (Robinson, etc.). 

Beth-Zub [Heb. Beth 7Wr = ** house 
of a rock"]. 

A town in the mountains of Judah 
r Josh. XV. 58). It was founded (?) by Maon 
(1 Chron. ii. 45). It was fortified by Reho- 
boam (2 Chron. xi. 7). In Nehemiah's 
time half of it belonged to Azbuk TNeh. 
iii. 16). It is the same place as Betnsura 
at wmch Judas Maccabasus gained a great 
victory over the Syrian general Lysias 
(1 Maoc. iv. 29 ; 2 Mace. xi. 5 ; xiii. 19. 
22). The patriot leader afterwards fortified 
it (1 Maoc. iv. 61 ; vi 7, 26, 31). Want of 
food compelled the garnson to surrend^ it 
to the Syrians (49, bQ). Its defences were 
strengthened bv Bacchides (ix. 52), but it 
was recaptured bv Simon (xi. 65, 66 ; xiv. 7) 
and refortified (33). Beth-zur or Bethsura 
is believed to have been at the modem Beit 
SCir, four miles north of Hebron. 

BetbAbara [= "House of (the) ford "J. 

A place beyond Jordan at wnich, acoora- 
ing to the A.V. of John i. 28, the Baptist 
exercised his special function. But the 
R.V. reads Betiiany beyond Jordan, with 
the marginal addition, "Many ancient 
authorities read Bethabarah, some Beth- 
arabah." If the correct reading be Beth- 
abara, then the spot is evidentiv at one of 
the numerous foras of the Jonum, and of 
the whole of these only one is now called 
Makht 'Ab&rah. It is a main ford of the 
river just above the place where the Jalud 
stream, flowing down the valley of Jezreel 
bv Beisan, enters the Jordan. [Bethany 
(2).] Sir Charles Wilson, however, prefers 
the traditionary site, east of Jericho. 

Betluuiy (1) [Or. Bethania, Aramaic 
Beth' Hine = "house of dates'*; Heb. 
Beth = " house of," and Aramaic Ahina 
= " a date." That the name is partly 
Aramaic suggests that Bethany did not 
come into existence till after the cap- 

A village or small town on the Mount of 
Olives (i/Lark, xi. 1 ; Luke xix. 29), about 
15 furlongs (less than two miles) from 
Jerusalem (John xi. 18). Our Lord often 
lodged there (Matt. xxi. 17; xxvi. 6; 
Mark xi. 1, 11, 12; xiv. 3). It was the 
town of Laisarus, of Martha, and of Blary 
(John xi. 1 ; xii. 1), as well as of Simon 
the leper, in whose house one of the 
anointings of Jesus took place (Matt. xxvi. 
6-13; Mark xiv. 3). It was the place 
whence He ascended to heaven (Luke xxiv. 
50). It has been generally identified as the 
village of el Azerlyeh (Lazams's village), 
on the farther side of a ravine or shallow 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


(91 ) 


TaUey on the eastern slope or lower spur 
of the Mount of Olives, nearly £.S.£ from 
Jerusalem. It is now a miaerable village 
with a few ancient stones built into modem 
habitations. The houses of Simon and of 
Martha and Maiy , and the tomb of Lazarus 
are aH shown, but there is no reason to 
beUeve that they are genuine. Presumably 
when the villaee was first named date 
pafans flourished in the vicinity {Me ety- 
mology). They do not do so now, but in 

sleeping in the open air, he called it Bethel 
{jiee etym.) (Gen. xxviii. 19: xxxL 13). 
Abraham, of course, never heard that 
name ; it is introduced in the narrative of 
his wanderings because it was the famih'ar 
one when the book of Genesis was written. 
On the return of Jacob from Padan- Aram, 
he was directed to repair to Bethel and 
build an altar there, which he did, re- 
naming the place as before (xzzv. 1-15; 
Hosea xii. 4). The people of Luz or Bethel 

their place are olives, figs, and pome- 

B«ChAinr (2) [Or. Bethania, Lat. 
Bataruea^ttom. Heb. Banhan (Q;V.)]. 

A region distinguished from Bethany (I ) 
by being called Bethany beyond Jordan. 
It does not occur in the A. v., but does so 
ill the R.Y. of John i. 28. It is the name 
given in ^e time of Christ to the Old 
Testament Bashak (q.v.) (CJonder Teitt 
Life, ii. 67). If limited to one spot, that spot 
13 probably the ford at Bethabara (q.v.). 

BvtlMl [Heb. = " house of God,'* from 
Beth = " house of," and El = '» God "]. 

(I) An ancient town of Palestine, west of 
Ai (Gen. rii. 8 ; xiii. 3 ; Josh. vii. 2 ; %'iii. 
9, 12, 17), and southward from Shiloh 
[Jvy^. xzL 19). Abraham on his first 
iowmej into Palestine, and subsequently, 
ntched his tent between the two {Ibid.). 
iU G^naanite name was Luz, meaning 
" an almond-tree " [Luz] , but on account 
of the Divine appearance to Jacob when 

helped those of Ai in the second fight with 
Joshua (Josh. viii. 9, 12, 17). Afterwards 
it was taken and its king slain (xii. 9, 16). 
It was on the southern boundary -line, 
between Ephraim and Benjamin, but was 
assigned to the latter tribe (Josh. xvi. 2 ; 
xviii. 13, 22), though the Canaanite Luz, 
apparently a ver^ snort distance from the 
scene of the Divine manifestation, fell 
within the limits of Ephraim, was 
taken by that tribe (Judif. i. 22-26), and 
was said to be in Mount Ephraim (iv. 5 ; 

1 Chron. vii. 28). As early as the neriod 
of the Judges tlie Hebrews went thither 
when they desired to ask counsel of 0<A 
(Judg. XX. 18, 26, 31— R.V.; xxi. 2- 
K.V.), a practice which continued at least 
as late as the days of Saul (1 Sam. x. 3). 
Bethel was one* of the places to which 
Samuel went on circuit (1 Sam. vii. 16). 
Jeroboam fixed one of nis calves there 
(1 Kings xii. 29-33), and Bethel became a 
great centre of idolatry (1 Kings xiii. 1-32 ; 

2 Kings X. 29). It was taken and tempor- 

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arily held by Abijah or Abijam ^2 Chron. 
xiii. 1 9^ . Elijah and Elisha passea through 
it (2 Kings ii. 1-3), and it was from Bethel 
that the youths came who mocked the latter 
man of God (23, 24). The prophets de- 
nounced it for its idolatries (Jer. zlviii. 13 ; 
Hoeea x. Id ; Amos iii. 14 ; iy. 4 ; y. 5, 6). 
They nicknamed it from a town or yillage 
in its vicinity Beth-Ayen (** house of 
naught ") (Hoeea iy. 15 ; y. 8 ; x. 5) Pbth- 
AynN]. Ajnos was in danger in Bethel, 
being denoimced by Amaziah, the priest of 
the calf, who called the place a chapel and 
the king*s court TAmos yii. 10, 13). Josiah 
broke down its altars and its high places, 
and, as foretold, burnt the bones oi the 
priests taken from its sepulchres (2 Kings 
xxiii. 4, 15-20). Some of its inhabitants 
returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel 
(Ezra ii. 28 ; Neh. rii. 32), the place 
again reverting to the Benjamitcs (xi. 31).' 
In Maccabee times it was fortified by the 
Syrian Bacchides (1 Maoc. ix. 50). In the 
Jewish war it was cantured bythe Roman 
emperor Vesjtasian (Joseph^ JTars^ TV. ix. 
§ 2). The ruins still called Beitin, which is 
simply either Bethel or Beth-Ayen trans- 
formed, lie on the watershed of Palestine, 
9^ miles north from Jerusalem. They are 
on the summit of a hill sloping to the 
south-east, and cover three or four acres. 
There is higher ground roimd the hill. In 
the western valley is a broken reservoir, 314 
feet long by 21 7 broad, with two brooks 
of living water. Two other brooks are in 
the vicinity. There are sepulchres cut in 
a low cliff. All the country round is of 
grey stone or white chalk, with a great 
deficiency of vegetable mould. As in 
Abraham's time, it is a pastoral region 
(Robinson, Conder, etc.). 

(2) A town in Judah which in Joshua^s 
time had a Canaanite king, whom he 
conquered (Josh. xii. 16). David sent 
thither part of the recaptured spoil of 
Ziklag (1 Sam. xxx. 27). CaUed also 
Bethul, Bethuel, and Chesil (q.v.). 

% Mount Bethel, The hill country in 
which Bethel is situated (Josh. xvi. 1 ; 
1 Sam. xiii. 2). 

Betber [Heb. = ** separation," " divi- 
sion "]. 

• Mountains, presumably separated or 
divided from each other by deep valleys 
(Song of Solomon ii, 17). If a literal 
mountain range bo meant, it may be near 
Bether, a strong fortress near Jerusalem, 
where the Jews under Bar Cochab made 
their last stand in their contest with the 
liomans. Another view is that it was 
Bethel No. 1, and yet another that it was 
Bittir, south-west of Jerusalem. 

Bethesda [Aramaic Bith-Hisda = 
*' house of compassion " or '* of mercy.'* 
But the earlier manuscripts of the "^ew 

Testament have a dozen spellings of the 
noun, of which the chief are Bethsaida = 
*' house of fishing," and Bethzatha = 
** house of germination '* (i')l. 

A pool m or at Jerusalem, near the 
Sheep gate (R.V.) or market (?) (A.V.). 
It had five porches, where diseased and 
im|)otent people were laid in the hope of 
deriving benefit from the water. The spot 
was the scene of a great miracle wrought 
by Jesus on a man who had long been 
im|)otent (John v. 1-9). In the R. V., the 
periodic troubling of the water by the 
angel, and tiie consequent miraculous 
virtue imparted for a time to the water, 
disappear from the text of the sacred narra- 
tive. Some have placed the site of Bethesda 
at the Moslem bath in the street leading 
west from the Temple, but the traditional 
view locates it at the Birket Israel, in the 
fosse north of the Temple, leading to the 
tower of Antonia. In ▲.d. 333 the 
Bordeaux pilgrim stated that there were 
two pools ana five {torches. In the autumn 
of 1888 excavation in the north-east part 
of Jerusalem, in connection with the repair 
of the church of St. Anne, laid bare at 
some depth below that building a pool 
with five porches, believed to ti one of 
the two seen by the Bordeaux pilgrim. 
Prof. Robinson thought he had K>und 
Bethesda in another quai-ter. In the after- 
noon of April 30th, 1838, he and Dr. Eli 
Smith were examining the ** Fountain of 
the Virgin " in the Kidron valley,' east of 
Jerusalem. Dr. Smith was stanaing on a 
dry stone in the fountain, when the water 
began suddenly to rise, covering the stone 
and then wetting the sole of his boot. 
After reaching a foot above its former 
level, it again slowly fell. Evidently it 
was an intermittenl stream, produced 
jrarobably by a natural siphon in the rocks. 
This intermittency had attracted notice in 
the early and middle ages, but had been 
forgotten apparently since the fourteenth 
century. It occun-ed to him that this 
might "be the Pool of Bethesda, the water 
of which, according to the interpolated 
passage in John, was periodically troubled 
by an angel, with the effect of imparting- 
to it haling powers (Robinson's Bio. 
Jiesearch, I. 505-508). Capt. Conder, who 
accepts this view, has brought fresh evi- 
dence to its support. The intermittent 
action of the water is now atMbuted by the 
natives to a dragon in place of an angel, 
healing virtue is ascribed to the troubled 
pool, and impotent peoule still con^p-egate 
around the pool in tno nope of obtauiing a 
euro (Conder, Tent Work in Palettiufy pp. 
313, 314) [En-Rooel, GmoN], 

Bethleliem [Heb. Beth- Le/t hem = 
*' house of bread " ; Beth = ** house of,'* 
and Li'hhem — *' bread "]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




(1) A town more fully named Beth- 
lehem-Judoh, to distinguish it from the 
place of the same name m Zebuluu [No. 2] 
(Judg. xvii. 7, 9: Ruth i. 1, 2). It was 
called originally Ephrath (G^u. zxxt. 19 ; 
xlviii. 7), the connection between the 
two names being long preserved in the 
name Bethlehem-Ephratah. Its father, b^ 
which probably is meant its founder, is 
said to have been Salma (1 Chron. ii. 51, 
.>4), and either Hur, the son of Ephratah, 
or Ephratah himself (iv. 4) ; it was evi- 
dently from the last-named individual that 

the city of David (Luke ii. II). Bethlehem 
must from a pretty early period have been 
a walled town or village, for its gate is 
mentioned, and it is stated that near that 
gate was a spring, for the water of which 
David on one occasion longed (2 Sam. 
xxiii. 15, 16; 1 Chron. xi. 16-19). Reho- 
boam built, i.e. repaired, enlarged, or 
fortified the town (2 Chron. xi. 6). A 
hundred and twenty-three Bethlehem- 
ites returned from captivity with Zerub- 
babel (Ezra ii. 21 ; Neh. vii. 26). It was 
prophesied that it should be the birthplace 


the name of Bethlehem-Ephratah came. 
Bethlehem is not mentioned among the 
cities of Judah in Josh, xv., having at that 
time been nrobably an unimportant place. 
But as a village it existed as early as the 
time of Jacob. Bachel died, and was 
buried in its vicinity (Qen. xxxv. 16, 19 ; 
xlviii. 7). It was the birthplace of the 
mercenary Levite, Jonathan, first Micah's 
and afterwards the Danites' priest (Judg. 
xvii. 7-9). It was so also of tne concubine 
belonging to another Levite (xix. 1, 2, 18). 
It was that also of Elimelech (Ruth i. 1, 2, 
19. 22), and the residence of Boaz, of Ruth 
in her married state (i. 19; iv. 9-11), and 
apparently of Obed (iv. 21, 22). Jesse, the 
fatiier of David, resided at Bethlehem 
(1 Sem. xvi 1, 4; xvii. 12, 15, 58; xx. 
6, 28 ; 2 Sam. ii. 32) ; and his world- 
renowned son raised the town to such 
'vlebritv that it was one of two places (the 
fort on "^ount Zion being the other) called 

of the Messiah King (Micah v. 2), and 
accordingly when the fulness of time had 
come Jesus became incarnate at Beth- 
lehem. It was in its vicinity that the 
annunciation to the shepherds took place 
(Luke ii. 1-20). It was thither that the 
Magi wended their way to salute the 
new-bom babe, and it was the infants of 
Bethlehem who were murdered by Herod 
to make sure that among them he had 
cut off the future King (Matt. ii. 1-18). 
There has never been anv doubt as to its 
site. It is five miles south of Jerusalem, 
at the modem village of Beit Lahm T Arabic 
= '* house of flesh "). It lies on the east 
and north-east slop6 of a long ridge, which 
to the west is higher than the Tillage. On 
the southern siae is a valley running by 
the north of the Frank mountain to the 
Dead Sea. On the northem side there is 
another valley running north-east. The 
town has gates at the entrance to some of 

Digitized by 





the streets. The houses are moetlj small, 
but well built. A little east of it is the 
church built by Helena, the mother of 
Ckmstantine, over the cave said to be the 
stable in which the nativity took place. A 
little north of the town is the so-called 
tomb of Bachel. The inhabitants of 
Bethlehem, who may be 4,000 or more, 
are mostly Christians belonging to the 
Greek Church. There are in the vicinity 
vineyards, orchards of fig-trees, and olive- 
trees. The fields, though stony, produce 
grain abundantly, and at harvest gleaning 
may be seen as it was in the days of Ruth. 
(2) A **city" with dependent villages 
situated withm the territorv of Zebuuin 
(Josh. xiz. 15). It seems to have been this 
second Bethlehem which gave birth to the 
judge Ibzan (Judg. xii. 8-10; cf. 11). It 
IS believed to have been on the site of the 
modem Beit Lahm, a small village seven 
miles north-west of Nazareth. Prof. 
Robinson {Later ResearcheB. 115J said of 
it : — ** It is a very miserable village ; we 
saw none more so In all the country. We 
could find no trace of antiquity except the 

Bethpliaipe [Gr. Bethphage^ from Heb. 
Beth — ** house of," and Aramaic p(tge = 
*' figs." That the name is partly Aramaic 
suggests that Bethphage did not come into 
existence till after the captivity]. 

A village near Bethany. As our Lord 
entered it first on His way from Jericho to 
Jerusalem, it must have lain east of the 
more celebrated village (Matt. xxi. 1 ; 
Mark xi. 1 ; Luke xix. 29). The site has 
not been satisfactorily identified. Some 
have placed it at Abu Dis, half a mile 
soutii of the Jericho road ; Capt. Conder 
doubtfully at Kefr et T6r. 

jTTTiiiiwwniw [Gr. BethsaicUy Betaeaidan. 
from Heb. Beth Tsaidah = **ho\iae of 
hunting " or ** of fishing," probably the 

, latter]. The name of at least one, and 
perhap of two towns on or near the Lake 
of Gkuilee. 

(1) A town of Gaulonitis on the north- 
eastern part of the Lake of Galilee, near 
the entrance of the Jordan from the north. 
When Jesus, after feeding the 5,000 at a 
desert place belonging to Bethsaida (cf . 
Matt. xiv. 13-21 ; Mark vi. 31-44 ; Luke 
ix. 10-17; John vi. 5-13), saUed to Beth- 
saida itself (Mark vi. 45), and then 
** when they hiad passed over," or " were 
gone over,'* **came into the land of 
Gennesaret," which was confessedly on 
the western shore of the lake, it looks 
as if they must have been on its eastern 
side (Matt. xiv. 34; Mark vi. 53). 
It was probably at this Bethsaida that 
Jesus hcAled a certain blind man (Mark 
viii. 22). Philip the tetrarch altered the 

. name Bethsaida to Julias in honour of 

Julia, daughter of the emperor Augustus 
(Joseph., J«^i<7. XVIII. ii. 1 ; JTat-s, U. 
ix. 1 ; III. X. 7;. It has been placed at 
el Mesadiyeh, near the entrance of the 
Jordan into the Lake of Galilee, also at et 
Tell and ed Dikkeh on the east side of the 
lake. The identification is not yet com- 

(2) Some think that there was a second 
Bethsaida called in distinction to No. 1 
Bethsaida of Galilee (John xii. 21). It 
was the birthplace of Andrew, Peter, and 
Philip (i. 44 ; xii. 21). With Chorazin and 
Capernaum, it was a place of special privi- 
lege, but had to be denounced oy Jesus for 
its unbeUef (Matt. xi. 21 ; Luke x. 13). It 
has been located at Et T&bjghah, about 
two miles south of Kh^ Minyeh, which 
Prof. Robinson considered to be the site of 
Capernaum. There are ancient remains in 
the vicinity, including a massive Roman 

Bethnel (1) [Heb. Beihttel tor Methttel 
= ** man of God " (Gesenitu)]. 

The son of Nahor by his wife Milcah. 
He was the father of L&ban and Rebecca, 
and nephew of Abraham (Gen. xxii. 20^ 
22, 23; xxiv. 15, 24, 47, 50; xxv. 20; 
xxviiL 2, 5). 

Bethnel (2) [Heb. Bhethttel = '* AHd- 
ing," or ** sojourning of God "1. 
The same as Bethul (q.v.) (1 Chron. iv. 


Bethul [Heb. Bhethnl, Bethuel (2)]. 

A town of the Simeonites (Josh. xix. 4), 
called in 1 Chron. iv. 30 Bethuel. It 
seems to be also the Chesil of Josh. xv. 30. 
See also Bethel (2). Not identified. 
Possibly the small village of Beit AOla, 
five mues west of HfilhOl {Annstrong), 

Betonlm [Heb. = ^' pistachio-nuts "1. 
A town of Gad (Josh. xiii. 26). Not 
properly identified. 

Benlah [Heb. Bciilah - " married," 
the pa par of Baal =**... to many "]. 

A name prophetically applied to uie 
once ** forsaken " land of Palestine when 
it was repeopled after the captivity (Isa. 
Ixii. 4). 

Ml [Heb. Betsai (from Persian = '* a 
sword" (P)l. 

A Jew, tne founder of a family or clan, 
of which 323 or 324 returned from Babylon 
with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 17 ; Neh. vii. 
23). He signed the covenant of fidelity to 
Jehovah (Neh. x. 18). 

Beialel, Beialeel [Heb. Betsalel, 
Betsalecl = ** in the shaoow (i.^. under 
the protection) of God"]. 

( l)The son of Uri, a man of Judah. He 
was iMvinely chosen to work in prold, silver, 
co^yper, in the setting of precious stones, 
the carving of wood for the furnishing 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




of the Tabernacle. He was sifted with the 
natural ([enius, and possessed the acquired 
akin which render^ him competent for 
the dnty (Exod. xzzL 1-11 ; xxxt. 30-35— 
all iuV. and R.VO. 

(2) A son of Pahath-Moab. He was 
induced by Ezra to put away his foreign 
wife (Ezra x. 30— A,V. and K.V.). 

; [Heb. B^:gg = 

(1) A town within the limits of the irihe 
of Jadah, which at the period of the 
judges had for its king a Canaanite, Adoni- 
Bezek (the name means '* lord of Bezek) 
(Judg. i. 4-7). Capt. Conder locates it 
Terr doubtfully at Bezkah, six miles south- 
east of Lydda. 

(2) A place where kin^ Saul numbered 
his army before proceedmg to the relief 
of Jabesh Gilead (1 Sam. xi. 8). Capt. 
Conder identifies it with Ibzik, just north 
of Tirzah, and 13 miles north-east of 

(1) [Heb. Jieizer = "gold and 
silver "]. 

An Afiherite, a son of Zophah (1 Chron. 
▼ii. 37). 

Bewr (2) HBezeb (l)]. 

A dty, called more fully Bezer in the 
wildemesB. It was on a plain within the 
territoiy of Beuben. It was given to the 
Lerites, and was one of the cities of 
refuge (Deut. iv. 43 ; Josh xx. 8 ; xxi. 
36; 1 Chron. vi. 78). Professor Palmer 
doubtfully placed it at Kusr el Besheir, 
near IHbon {Armstrong). 

BtUie [English, from Ecclesiastical 
Latin £ibiia = ** the Bible" ; Gr. Bibiia, 
plural of Biblion = (1) " a praer," ** a 
letter"; (2V*a book," a dunmutive 
from Gr. JBiolos = (1) " the inner bark of 
the papyrus " ; (2) the paper made from 
it ; (3) " a book.'' It is beUeved that the 
Greek word Biblia was first applied to the 
sacred books by John Chrysostom, Patri- 
ardi of Constantinople, from a.d. 398 to 

Etymolo^cally viewed, the Bible means 
"the Boon": and that no qualifying 
adjective stands before the noun implies 
that ihoBe whose speech or writmgs 
directly or indirectly created the teim 
Bible, and corresponding words in other 
tongues, considered the series of writings 
thus designated so 8Ui)erior to all other 
Htenuy productions that, compared with 
the former, the latter were not worthy of 
being mentioned. The same view is sug- 
gested by the etymology of the word 
ocinture and Scriptures, and the fact is 
renooed aU the morersognificant that both 
terms occur frequently with this implied 
wM*»mig in the^ew Testament [Scrif- 
• TUBsl. The tenn Bible is absent from the 
MCRd page ; it is of ecclesiastical origin. 

The plural term Biblia reminds us of the 
important fact that the Bible is not a 
single book, but a great many. The words 
Bible and Scripture, on the other hand, 
bein^ both in the singular number, em- 
phasise the fact that, under the diversity of 
human authorship, there Ues a wonderful 
unity, suggesting the operation of One 
Directing Mind, which, acting during 1500 
consecutive years, must have been not 
human, but Jjivine. The claims to Divine 
authority made by Scripture are in- 
vestigated by a science called Apolo- 
getics. The word is used in a Greek 
rather than in an English sense, and is, 
therefore, liable to be misunderstood. It is 
related that when George III. was told that 
Bishop Watson had published an Avolony 
for the Biblgy he drily remarked that he did 
not know before that the Bible required 
an apology. The Bishop used the word 
" Apolo^," like theGreelc " Apologia ^''^ to 
mean defence, uid the science of Apolo- 
getics defend* the Bible [Inspibatign]. 
A second science, namely, that of Biblical 
Criticism, aims at settling what books 
successfully establish their claim to con- 
stitute part of the Bible, and at Inineing 
the text of these books to the highest 
practicable level of accuracy [Apochy- 
PHA, Canon]. The science of Herme- 
neutics investigates the principles of 
interpretation, while Scripture Exegesis 
carries them into practice. The con- 
tents of the Bible are then methodi- 
cally arranged. It will be found when 
this is done that they touch geography, 
history, science, philosophy, ethics — in 
fact, nearly every department of human 
thought, finally, the special doctrines of 
the Sacred books, systematically arranged, 
and stated with precision, constitute the 
science of Theology. The Bible is 
naturally divided into the Old and 
the New Testaments or covenants [New 
Testament, Old Testament!. The 
Old Testament was written in Hebrew 
Tq.v.^, except a few verses in Abamaic 
(q.v.). the New Testament in Gbeex. 
For the several books of the Old Testa- 
ment, see Genesis, Exodus, etc. ; for those 
of the Newj see Matthew, Mabk, etc. 
For the versions of the Scripture into otiier 
tongues, see Samabitan, Septuaoint, 
Yebsions, and Vuloatb. Each of the 
Sacred books on its original publication 
came forth as a more or less continuous 
roll, with no division into chapters or 
verses. To find a passage in these circum- 
stances was difficult ; to tell anotho: where 
to find it was far from easy. Hence efforts 
at some sort of division and classification 
began early to be made ; then improvements 
were introduced, till the process of develop- 
ment ended in ourpresent system of chap- 
ters and verses, llie credit of the division 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




into chapters is generally ^ven to Cardinal 
Hugo, who lived in the thirteenth century ; 
that into verses was apporentlv borrowed 
from the Jewish Masorites of the ninth 
century. The present division into chapters 
and verses was first adopted in its entirety 
in the Geneva New Testament, published 
in 1517, and the Geneva Bible, in 1560. 
They are of great convenience, but being 
only of human origin, are not perfect. 
Begarding chapters, there is an imperfec- 
tion in drawing the line between the i. and 
ii. of Genesis at the place where the 
separation is now made. Gen. i. should 
also include Gen. ii. 1-3, and chapter ii. 
begin at ii. 4, where " Qod " is succeeded 
by "the Lord Gk)d." Isa. liii. should 
begin with lii. 13, and John vii. should 
take in alf^o viii. 1. Begarding the verses, 
they are absolutely inolspensable for the 
purpose of quotation ; but they should be 
Ignored when one is following the thread 
of an argument or of a narrative. The 
R.V. enables one to do this easily, giving 
as it does less prominence to the division 
into verses ; but the dan^r of inaccuracy 
as to numbers is diminished by quoting 
from the A.V., where the verses are 
separated. The Bible Society has printed 
BiDles or portions of them m 296 
languages or dialects. It would not be a 
great exaggeration were one, referring to 
the inspired writers of the Bible, to adopt 
the language of the Psalmist, meant 
originally for the silent theological teach- 
ing of the star-spangled sky— "There 
is no speech nor language where their 
voice is not heard " (P^alm xix. 3). 

Biohrl [Heb. JiikhH = " youthful "]. 
The father of the rebel Sheba (2 Sam. , 
XX. 1). ' 

Bidkar [Heb. Bidhqar = " son of 
thrusting through " ; *' one thrusting 

A captain under Jehu (2 Kings ix. 25). 

BlgtliA [Heb. = "a gardener '* (?)]. 


A chamberlain of the court of Ahasuerus 
or Xerxes (Esther i. 10). 

Bigthaa. IHgthana [Heb. = " a 
.gardener" (?). Or from Persian and 
Sanscrit Baffaadfm=*^ a gift of fortune.*'] 


A chamberlain who con^ired against 
king Ahasuerus (Xerxes) (Esther ii. 21 ; 
vi. 2). 

Blgiral [Heb. = " a gardener " (P)]. 

One of the leading men who returned 
from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezraii. 2). 
He was the founder of a family or chui of 
which 2,056 or 2,067 returned at the same 
time (Ezra ii. 14; Neh. vii. 19), and 72 
males afterwards (Ezra viii. 14). 

Blkath-Aven [Heb. Biqalh-Arm - 
" valley of vauitv" (i.^. of idolatry [r])]. 

The same as Aven (q.v.) (Amos i. 5 — 
A. v., margin). 

Blldad [Heb. Mildadh = '' son of 
strife'' m]. 

^^ A Shumte, one of Job's ** fiiends " (Job 
ii. 11). He made three si)eeche8 to the 
afflicted patriarch (viii. 1 ; xviii. 1 ; 
XXV. 1). 

BUeam [Heb. = " not a people/* 
" foreign " (?)! . [Balaam.] 

A town of Manassch, west of the Jordan. 
It was given over to the Kohathite Levitea 
(1 Chron. vi. 70). Capt. Conder and 
Lieut. Kitchener believed that it was near 
Jeuin, within the territory of Issachar. 
They think that the name may be traced 
in Bel'ameh, now applied to the valley and 
well south of Jenin. out not apparently to 
any ruin. They believed it the same as the 
Belmen or Belmaim of Judith iv. 4 and 
vii. 3, but not the same as Ibleam, with 
which it is often identified (Smra/ West, 
Pal., ii. 48). Called in Josh. xxi. 25, 
Gath-Bdocon (q.v.). 

BUftali. Bllgal IBUgah, Bilgai = 

(1) The head of the fifteenth course of 
priests in David's rei^ (1 Chron. xxiv. 14). 

(2) One of the Levites who returned from 
Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. xii. 5, 18). 
He was one of those who sealed the cove- 
nant to worship Jehovah (x. 8). 

(1) [Heb. = " bashfuhiess "]. 
Bachel's maidservant, who, at her 
mistress's desire, became one of Jacob's 
secondary wives. She was afterwards the 
mother of Dan and Naphtali TGen. xxx. 
1-8 ; 1 Chron. vii. 13). Ultimately she com- 
mitted sin with Beuben (G^en. xxxv. 22). 

BUhali (2) [BiLHAH (1)]. 
A Simeonite town (1 Chron. iv. 29). The 
same as Baalah and Balah (q.v.). 

BiUuui [Heb. = " bashful " ('r)]. 

(1) A Horite, a son of Ezer (Gen. xxxvi. 

(2) A Beniamite, the eldest son of 
Jeoiael, and himself the father of seven 
children (1 Chron. vii. 10), 

an [Heb. = " son of a tongue " or 
" speech," i.e. " an eloquent man "]. 

One of the chief men who returned from 
Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 2 ; 
Neh. vii. 7). 

Blmlial [Heb. = " son of circumcision,** 
i.e. " circumcised man "]. 

An Asherite, a son of Japhlet (1 Chron. 
vii. 33). 

Blnea [Heb. =" spring water,"* "a 
spring "]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 07) 


A son of Moza, a descendant of Jona- 
than, Sanl*8 8on (1 Chron. viii. 37 ; ix. 43). 

BtBBiii [Heb. = *' a buildingj*] . 

(1) The same as Bani (cf. Ezra u. 10 
with Neh. vii. 15) [BaniI. 

(2) A Bon of Pahath-Moab (Ezra x. 30). 

(3) A Levite, the father of Noadiah 
<Ena Yiii. 33). 

(4) A son of Henadad. He repaired 
jsart of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. ui. 24 ; 

(5) (?) A Levite who came from Baby- 
lon with Zerubbabel (Neh. xii. 8). 

Birdi [English]. 

Tristram enumerates 348 species of 
birds as either indigenous or visitants to 
Palestine. Of these 271 belong to the 
Palaarctic zone of Sclater— that to which 
most of the. European birds, including 
tlkose of Great Britain, belong ; forty to 
the Ethiopian, and seven to the Inclian 
2one ; while thirty, as far as is known, are 
peculiar to Falestme itself. The Ethiopian 
and Indian types are almost exclusively 
confined to the Dead Sea basin, but it is so 
depressed beneath the level of the oceem 
that it is really a snmll tropical region 
located in the midst of the temperate 
3ume. Under the Mosaic law the following 
birds (we follow the R.y.) were regarded 
as . umlean :~the eagle ^margin— great 
Tultore), the gier-eagle, tne osprey, the 
Idte, the falcon, the raven, the ostrich, the 
night-hawk (?), the seamew, the hawk, the 
linle owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 
the horned owl (margin — swan), the 
pelican, the vulture, the stork, the heron 
(margin — ibis), and the hoopoe, all after 
their kind (Lev. xi. 13-19). To these 
Deuteronomy adds the glede (Deut. xiv. 
- 11-20) (§ee all these wor&). Of domestic 
fowls uie cock is mentioned (Matt. xxvi. 
34, 74, 75; Mark xiii. 35; xiv. 30, 68, 72, 
«tcHOocK]. So is the hen ^Matt. xxiii. 
37 ; Luke xui 34). The migration of birds 
is referred to in Jer. viii. 7. There is re- 
peated reference to the snaring of birds by 
the arts of the fowler (Psahn xci. 3; cxxiv. 
7 ; Prov. vi. 5 ; Hoeea ix. 8). 

Btrdia [Heb.='' son of wickedness **]. 

The "fang" of Gomorrah who was 
defeated by Chedorlaomer and hb con- 
federates (Gen. xiv. 2, 8, 10). 

Btrtlirisht ^English]. 

A certain right or privilege generally 
considered to bdong to the firstborn son in 
a famSjy and whicn is not shared by his 
younger brothers. Under the Mosaic law 
the eldest son inherited a double portion of 
his father's property (Deut. xxi. 17 ; 
cf. 2 Kings ii. 9l A birthright even in 
eai^ times might be sold to a ^^ounger 
brotoer, as Esau sold his birthright to 
Jacob (Gen. xxv. 29, 34 ; Heb. xii. 16). It 

might also be forfeited on account of mis- 
conduct. Thus the -birthright of Reuben 
was transferred, on account of the immoral 
act which he committed, to Joseph (1 
Chron. v. 1). 

Blnalth. BlnaTltli [Heb. Birzavith 
(text), Birz'Uh (margin) = ** openings,'" 

An Ashente, a son of Malchiel (1 Chron. 
vii. 31— A.V. and B.V.). 

BlglilAiii [Heb. ^ " son of peace "1. 

A Persian official who, with others, 
complained to Artaxerxes that the Jews 
were rebuilding Jerusalem (Ezra iv. 7). 

Blflliop [English; from Anglo-Saxon 
biscop^ a corruption of Latin rpiscopitSy 
from Gr. episkopos = ** an overseer," " a 
guardian " : epi — " upon," *' over " ; and 
»kopo9 = •' one who watches "]. 

In the Xcw Testament, An officer in 
the Christian Church whose function it 
was to oversee the flock. The word first 
appears in Acts xx. 28 — B.V., where we 
re»d that Paul, then at Miletus, sentT for 
the elders (margin— presbyters) of the 
Church of Ephesus, and ainone other 
counsel offered them, said. " TsJce^ heed 
unto yourselves, and to all tne flock in the 
which tiie Holy Ghost hath made you 
bishops (margin— overseers) ..." (Acts 
XX. 17, 28— R.V. ; cf . also Titus i. 5, 7). 
The designation * * elders " or * ' presbyters, ' * 
borrowed from the Jewish synagogue, 
applied to those Ephesian rulers, sug- 
gested that they were elderly men, while 
the term ** bishop," borrowed from Greek 
civil life, impliea that their special func- 
tion was to act as Christian overseers or 
guardians of the Church (cf. 1 Peter v. 
1-4). A plurality of them existed in the 
church that was at Philippi (as in that of 
Ephesus) (Phil. i. 1). The qualiflcations of 
a oishop are given in 1 Tim. iii. 1-7 and 
Titus 1. 7-9. The name is applied 
figuratively to Jesus Himself (1 Peter ii. 
25). Shortly after New Testament times, 
if not even then, a slow process of 
evolution commenced, which in course of 
time transformed the temporary chairman 
or president of the presbyters or elders, in- 
to their permanent ruler, limiting to him 
the title of ** bishop," which had originally 
been common to them all. 

I [Heb. Bithyah = ** adaughter (in 

the sense of a worshipper) of Jehovah"]. 

A daughter of Pharaoh, presumably a 
king of Egypt. She became the wife of 
Mered, a man of Judah (I Chron. iv. 18). 

Bltbron [Heb. = " a region cut 
asunder by mountains and valleys," or *• a 
valley separating mountains " ]. 

A plaoB near Mahanaim (2 Sam. ii. 29). 
Exact site unknown. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




Bitliynl* [Xat. from Gr. Bithmia. 
See the artiole. j 

A oountiy of Asia Mmor, bounded on 
the north by the Enxine (the Black Sea), 
on the Bouth by Phrygia and GkUatia, on 
the eaoit by Faphlagonia and part of 
Phrygia. and on tne west by Myaia. But 
its boundaries Tailed at dijfferent times. It 
was colonised by the Thyni or Bithvni 
from Thrace, in Europe, who conquered or 
drove out the Bebryoee. its original 
inhabitants, and impaired to it their own 
name. Under the Persian -emiire, it con- 
stituted a satrapy. NiocMBedes in. be- 
queathed it to tlieBomaas in b.c. 74. Paul 
and Silas were desirous of preaching within 
its limits, but they were Divinely forbidden 
to canr out their intention (Acts xvi. 7). 
But wnen Peter wrote his first epistle to 
the '* strangers scattered throughout '' five 
regions in Awa Minor which he enumerated, 
Buhynia was one of the five (1 Peter i. 1). 
It is a fertile country, in which the vine 
is largely cultivated. In various parts, 
especially in the chain of Mount Olympus, 
wnich runs along its southern boundary, 
there are forests of oak, interspersed with 
beech-trees, chestnuts, and walnuts. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Qippodhy from qaphadh = ** to contract,'* 
'*to roll up.*' An animal frequenting 
ruins (in the vicinity of pools of water) (?) 
(Isa. xiv. 23 ; xxziv. 11). It was capable 
of ascending to the top of ruined doors, or 
to window-siUs, and thence making its 
voice heard (Zeph. ii. 14). The mention 
'* of pools of water '* may have sun^ested 
to the translators of the A.y. the tnttem 
{Botaurut etellarie). This is a long-necked 
and lon^-legged wading bird, habitually 
freauentmg^^ pools of water,'* but not 
likely to be heard ^ving voice from a 
ruined window. Gtesenius makes the animal 
and the B.y. a Poboupike 

(q.v.)7while Tristram identifies it as pro- 
bably the Scops Owl {8eop9 giu), a migrant 
in Palestine for the summer months, 
breeding in the walls of old ruins and in 
hollow trees. 

I [English and Lat. The 

syllable bit is prolMibly Lat. pis^ Gr. pitta 
= " pitch," m whicfti case bitumen would 
mean " pitch stuff "]. 

Mineial pitch. There are three varieties 
of it: (1) Earthy bitumen ; (2) elastic 
Intumen, elaterite or mineral caoutchouc ; 
(3) compact bitumen, or asphalt, 
asphaltum, or Jews* pitch. In its appear- 
ance it resembles common ptch. It sinks 
in water, is easily melted, is very inflam- 
mable, and when set on fire bums with a 
red smoky flame. It is produced in the 
diemistiy of nature by uie enclosure of 
vegetable matter in the crust of the earth. 

so that it is in immediate contact with 
water, while atmospheric air is quite shut 
out. There is a pitch lake in Trinidad. 
Bitumen or asphalt exists at or near the 
Dead Sea, caued, in consequence, bv the 
Greeks and Bomans Lake As^maltitis. 
[Dead Sea..] It is found also at Hit, on 
the Euphrates, above Babylon, and in oth^- 
places. Bitumen was " the slime ** with 
which the bricks used for the erection of 
the tower of Babel were cemented (Gen. 
zi3—B.y., text and margin). The ^^ slime 
pits " in which the defeated kings of the 
cities of the plain fell were bitumen pits 
(xiv. 10 — ^B. v., text and margin). Bitumen 
largely enters into the composition of the 
London asphalt pavements. The formation 
of bitumen is not confined to one geologic 

Bli^JotlUali [Heb. Bizyothyah = '* con- 
tempt of Jehovah **]. 

A town in the most southerly portion of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 28). Exact site un- 

Blstli* [Persian = ** an impotent 
person** (?) (Geteniue)], 

A diamDorlain at the court of Ahasuema 
(Xeixes) (Esther i. 10). 

[English from Anglo-Saxon 

'Uie rendering of the TLe^ste^Abhabuoth^ 
from Aramaic ^Ma = " to bott forth," " to 
flow out." It signifies a bleb, a bubble of 
matter, a blister full of serum arising 
upon uie skin. It would now probably 
be ranked under the skin disease called 
Pemphigus. Blains accompanied boils in 
the disease which constituted the sixth of 
the ten plagues of Egypt (Exod. ix. 8-11). 


Defamatory or other wicked language 
directed a«»inst God (Psahn Ixxiv. 10-18 ; 
Isa. lii 6; Eev. xvi. 9, 11, 21, etc.). Under 
the Mosaic law it was punished bv stoning 
(Lev. xxiv. 16). The diarge of blasphemT 
was falsely brought against Naboth 
a Kings xxi. 10-13), Stephen fActs vi. 
11), and our Lord (Matt. ix. 3; xxvi. 
66, 66 ; Mark ii. 7 ; xiv. 64 ; John x. 36). 

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghott, The 
unpsuraonable sm approached or committed 
by the opponents of our Lord when they 
attributed His miracles to Satanic power 
(Matt. xii. 22-32 ; Mark iii. 22-30). 

[Lat. from Gr. Blastos = " a 
sprout," " a shoot," ** a sucker **]. 

A palace f imctionary who had charge of 
Herod Agrippa*8 bedchamber (Acts xii. 

BleM [English] . 

Of the three leaoing meanings which the 
verb " bless *' has in Scripture, one is ** to 
return thanks for" (cf. Matt. zzvL 26 

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and Mark xiv. 22 ^th Luke zzii. 19 and 
1 Cor. tL 24. 

J [English]. 
Any adrantage oonf erred or wished for. 

(1) A present {Qen. zxjiii. 11 ; Josh. 
XV. 19; 2 Kings T. 15). 

(2) Favours, advantages, conferred by 
God, and brimnng pleasure or happiness 
in their train (Qen. xxzix. 5; Deut. xxviii. 
8 ; Prov. x. 22, etc.). 

Blo«d [Bnghah]. 

The vital miid circulating throng the 
body, a system of deep-seated arteries 
conveying it from the heart to the extre- 
mitiee, and a system of superficial veins 
oonve^iuff it back a^un to that cngan. 
Arterial blood is florid red, while venous 
blood is of a dark vurple or modena hue. 
Soon after the Deluge, the principle was 
enunciated that the blood so symbofised the 
life that it must not be ea^, and the law 
was laid down, **Whoeo sheddeth man's 
blood, by man shall hisblood be shed** (Cten. 
ix. 4-6, cf. Lev. xvii. 11 ; Numb. xxxv. 33J. 
Even before this, when Gain killed Abel, 
the blood of the murdered victim cried to 
God from the ground for venffeanoe (iv. 10). 
** Almost all things are by t& law purged 
with blood, and without shedding of blood 
there is no remission *' (Heh. ix. 22). The 
•• Wood of Jesus," the ^* blood of Christ," 
the ** blood of Jesus Christ," or " the Mood 
of the Lamb," are figurative expressions 
for His atonmg death (1 Cor. x. 16 ; Eph. 
iL 13; Heb.ix.14; x.l9; 1 Peter i. 2, 19; 
1 JohnLT; Rev. vii. 14; xii. 11). 

^ (1) Avenger of blood. [Avznoeb If.] 

(2) Bevenger of blood (Numb. xxxv. 19, 
21, 24, rf\ 2 Sam. xiv. 11— A. V.). 
[Atbhoeb H.] 

Bloodj FlQZ [English]. 

[Dtsbhtkbt.] (Acts xxviii. 8— A.V.) 

Bloodj Sweat [Sweat]. 

Boaaergw [N.T. Gr., probably from 
the Galilean dialect of Aramaic for Heb. 
bene = " sons of," and Aramaic roaet. 
Heb. reghe$h = "commotion,"" tumult,'* 
Arabic ra'ad = " thunder "]. 

A name given by Jesus to James and 
John, probably from their impassioned 
oratory (Mark lii. 17). 

Benr [English!. 

Hie rendemiff both in the A.Y. and the 
B.Y. of the Hebrew Hhasir^ when it refers 
to the swine, and especially to the male of 
the swine {Sue terofa), m a wild state 
(Psilm faux. 13). When the reference is 
to the domesticated animal, it is rendered 
swine. The wild boar is three or more 
feet long, not oounting the taiL The 
canine t^flth project beyond the upper lip, 
constituting formidable tusks, with which 
it seeks to rip up its assailants. The 

female is smaller than the male and has 
smaller tusks. The animal lurks in woods, 
from which it sallies forth in the twilight to 
devour fruits and plants, or grub up roots. 
When driven by hun^^ it will eat almost 
anything which has m it nutrition. It is 
found in the Old World over a great part 
of the temjMrate zone. It became exonct 
in Oreat Britain in the seventeenth century 
or earlier, but lingered on in Ireland till 
about the eighteenth. A wild boar 
generally consmered identical with that of 
Europe, but described by Mr. Gray as 
distinct, and called by him Sus libycuSf is 
found all over Palestine, especially ^- 
quenting marshes and thickets. [SwnfE.] 

Boai (n, Booi [Heb. ^0ae = " alac- 
rity," " araour," " eagerness " (fieaeniut). 
Another rendering has been given, "In 
him is power," from ^ = " in him," and 
o« = " strength," "power.** N.T. Gr. 

A wealthv Bethlehemite, a relative of 
Buth the Moabitess, whom he married in 
romantic oircumstanoes. thus becoming an 
ancestor of King Davia, and of our Lord 
(Buth ii.-iv. ; Matt. i. 5). Late Jewish 
tradition, destitute of all rax>bability, iden- 
tifies him with the judge Ibsan (q.v.). 

(2) [Heb. = " in him *' or " it *' (?) 
"is power '^ or "strength.** Why so 
called is doubtful] . 

The left-hand pillar of two set up in the 
porch of Solomon*s temple (1 Kings vii. 
15-23^), [Jachin.] 

Boehem [Heb. Bokheru = " first- 

A son of Axel and a descendant of 
Jonathan, Saul*s son (1 Chron. viii. 38). 

Boolilm [Heb. Bokhim = " weepers **]. 

A place near Gilnd, to which an angel 
or messenger of Qtoa came to reprove the 
Israelites ior their neglect of the Divine 
comlnands with respect to the C!anaanites. 
On hearing lum the people wept. It was 
from this drcumstanoe that Bochim 
obtained its name (Judg. ii. 1-5). Its 
exact site is unknown. 

[Heb. = " a thumb "]. 

Asonof Beuben (Josh. xv. 6 : xviii. 17). 

% The ttone of Bohan, A place on the 
boundarv-line between Judan and Ben- 
jamin (Josh. XT. 6; xviii. 17). Ganneau 
places it doubtfully at Hair el Asb&h, on a 
cliff near the north-west comer of the 
Dead Sea. 

Boa [Enfflish]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Shehhitty from Shahhan = '" to be in- 
flamed,** " to ulcerate.** An inflamed 
ulcer. It was inflicted as the sixth plag^ue 
of Egypt (Exod. ix. 8-11 ; cf. Deut. xxviiL 
27, »5). PPLAOUM OP EoTPT.] With it 

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( 100) 


were sent also *'blains.'* [Blain.] It 
was a prominent symptom in leprosy (Lev. 
xiii. 18-20). The tsraelites were threatened 
with it if thev departed from Jehovah 
(Deut. xxviii. 27, 36). It constituted the 
main feature of Hezekiah^s disease, which 
brought his life into imminent danger 
(2 lui^ zx. 7; Isa. xxxviii. 21). Job 
was smitten by Satan with *^ boils" from 
head to foot (Job. ii. 7). Ordinary boils 
are common, in the warmer -psjts of 
the East, during the rainy season. They 
are unsigntly, but are not dangerous. One 
type of boil, however, the carbuncle, aris- 
ing from poisoned blood and eating away 
the flesh uke an ulcer, may terminate the 
life. This was probably Hezeldah's disease. 
The application of a poultice of figs would 
do it good, but the rapid cure was evidently 
miraculous. ' [Botoh.] 

J [English]. 

Originally a head-dress for men, a sense 
which the word still retains in Scotland. 
Then it was applied to a head-dress for 
women. In the Old Testament it occurs 
as the rendering of the Hebrew PeSr in 
Isa. iii. 20 and Ezek xliv. 18— A. V. In 
the first passage it is oppli^ to women, in 
the second to men. The B.V. renders it 
head-tires and tires. [Tibe.] 

Book [English] . 

Anciently, a roU with writing on one or 
both of its sides. Of this type of book 
there is a memorial in the word volume. 
Latin volumen^ properly, something rolled 
up (Psalm xl. 7 ; Jer. xxxvi. 2 ; Ezek. 
ii. 9). When completed, it was rolled up, 
and sealed with one or more seals (Isa. 
xxix. 11 ; Dan. xii. 4 ; Bev. v. 1). Books 
are mentioned in the Bible as early as 
Exod. xvii. 14. Among remarkable books 
alluded to are the Book of the Law(Deut. 
xxxi. 26), etc. ; the Book of the Wars of 
Uie Lord (Numb. xxi. 14) ; the Book of 
Jasher (the Upright) (Josh. x. 13 ; 2 Sam. 
i. 18) ; the Book of tne Acts of Solomon 
n.KiuCT xi. 41); the Book of the 
ChronicleB of the Kings of Judah (1 Kings 
xiv. 29) ; the Book ei Nathan the prophet 
(2 Chron. ix. 29) ; and the Book of the 
Kings of Judah and Israel ^2 Chron. xvi. 
11). Kiriath or Kirjath-Sepher means the 
city of books. [Kiuath-Sephbb.] 

Booth [Enfflish]. 

The rendermg of the Hebrew SuJckahy 
plural /VMA:A»rA= "a hut," ♦^a cot," "a 
cabin," ** a hovel," designed in most cases 
for longer occupation tlum a tent, but not 
for permanence like a house. It was often 
formed with branches of trees. Jacob 
made booths at Shechem for his cattle, the 
place in consequence being afterwards 
<jaUed Suoooth ((Jon. xxxiiE 17). The 
Israelitee were required to form booths of 

branches of trees, palm-leaves, etc., and 
dwell in them for seven days at the Feast 
of Tabernacles, in memory of the time 
when they had to inhabit similarly flimsy 
structures while they were leaving Egypt 
[SuocoTHl (Lev. xjoii. 39-43 ; Neh. viii. 
14). "Keepers," probably watchers, in 
the fields made booths in Job*s time to 
shelter them from the sun and rain (Job 
xxvii. 18). Jonah did so at Nineveh with 
a similar intent (Jonah iv. 5). 

[BoAz] (Matt. i. 6— A.V. ; Luke 
iii. 32— A. v.). 

Borrow [English]. 

To ask in loan. The A.V. erroneously 
makes the Israelites, when about to leave 
Egypt, "borrow" jeweb of silver and 
gold from their opnressors, and then go off 
without sending the articles back. The 
Hebrew word for * * borrow * * in the passage 
gSxod. xi. 2 ; xii. 3d, 36) is Shdal, Shdel, 
the ordinary one for " ask" or " seek." The 
R.V. very properlv substitutes " ask " for 
" borrow ; " and when it translates literally 
a second clause, "so that they let them 
have what they asked," another erroneous 
translation, "lent," disappears. Whatwas 
meant and took jplace was, that the now 
emancipated Israelite slaves, asked and 
received some compensation for their 
labours during many years of bondage ; 
and there was no promise or obligation to 
return any i>art of what after all was much 
less than the wages out of which they had 
been defrauded by their Egyptian oppres- 

[BozKATH] (2 Kings zxii. 1— 

[N.T. Gr. from Heb. Bear = " a 
Beor, the father of Balaam (2 Peter iL 


Botoh [English from O. Fr. Boce = 
" the boss of a buckler (?)," " a boa "J. 

The rendering, in Deut. xxviii. 27, 35 — 
A. v.. of the I^brew /ShehhWf elsewhere 
translated Bon. (q.v.). 

BotOo [English]. 

(1) In Scripture, a hollow vessel, gener- 
ally of leather, or the hollow hide of an 
ammal, used for holding water or other 
liquid. A bottle of such material was not 
broken, it was rent or burst (Job xxxii. 19 ; 
Matt. IX. 17; Marie, ii. 22; Luke v. 37, 

(2) A small vessel of earthenware often 
framed by potters, and which of course 
was capable of being broken (Jer. xix. 1, 
10, 11). If anj glass bottle is referred to 
in Smpture, it was probably a small 
lachrpiatory for holding tears (Psalm 
Ivi. 8). 


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Bos (1) [EngliBh and Anfflo-Sazon]. 
A anall case or Tessel wim a cover. In 
Scripture times they were used to hold oil, 


ointment, etc. (2 Kings ix. 1 ; Matt. zzri. 
7 ; Mark xiv. 3 ; Luke vii 37). 

(2) [English from Anglo-Saxon 

iux, &0X = '*the box-tree," from Lat. 
Awjrttf, Gt. puxot = " the box-tree "]. 

A box-tree ; tee the compound. 

Box-Tekb [English = " box," *' tree "]. 

The roidering of the Hebrew theiuaMr, 
mwining a tail, noble tree, from the root 
maJutrj to be straight or upright. With the 
•* fir-te«e " and the ** pine-tree " it con- 
stituted the glory of Lebanon (Isa. Ix. 13^. 
God promisra to plant it with other trees m 
the wilderness (xh. 19). While in the text 
both Mte A.y. and the R.y . translate theat' 
sAUr "the box-tree," the R.y., on the mar- 
gin, renders it "the CTPBBB8"(q.T^. The 
senus Buxttt belongs to the order £uphor' 
Mtfcwr, or Spurges. Serenteen spedee are 
known. The common box {Buxus $emper' 
rirem), which is believed to be indijgenous 
in "gnglftw^ at Boxhin in Surrey, is from 
Sto 12 feet hi^ ; a dwarf variety is a very 
oonmon edging in gardens. The Lebanon 
qwdes iM Buxtis Umffifoliaj which has longer 
leaves than the common box. 

Bmm imb. BoUeU = " shining," " re- 

One of two sharp rocks near Gibeah, the 
other being called Seneh (1 Sam. xiv. 

4, 5). It was the north cliff of the Wady 
Suweintt (Conder). 

' BoBkath, Bo«oatli [Heb. Botaqath = 
*• elevated, stonv grouncf "]. 

A town or village in the extreme south 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 39). Josiah^s maternal 
grandfather, Adaiah, was a native or 
mhabitant of the place (2 Kings xxii. 1). 
Exact site unknown. 

[Heb. Botsrah = "an enclo- 
sure" "asheepfold"]. 

(1) Bozrah of £dom. The chief city of 
Idunuea (Edom) in Old Testament tmies 
(Gen. xxxvi. 33; 1 Chron. i. 44; Isa. 
xxxiv. 6; Ixiii. 1). Jeremiah prophesied 
its utter destruction (Jer. xlix. 13, 22). 
Amos predicted that its palaces should be 
destroyed, thus revealing the fact that it 
had palaces to destroy (Amos i. 12). It 
was noted for its sheep (Micah ii. 12). 

Burckhardt and Bobinson located it at 
el Buseirah, in the Edomite territory 
south-east of the Dead Sea. When the 
latter traveller visited it, he found it to be 
a village of about iifty houses on a hill 
crowned by a small castle (Bib, Mea.^ ii. 

(2) Bozrah of Moab, A city of Moab 
against which, as against the other in- 
habited places in that country, Jeremiah 
denounced judgment (Jer. xlviii. 24). 
Armstrong {JVatnca and PiaceSf 39) considers 
that it may have been Bezeb (q.v.). He 
thinks also that this, rather than No. 1, 
was the Bosor of the Moabite stone. 

Braoalet [English]. 

An ornament for the wrist, or for the 
arm. One was put on Rebekah's wrist 
when Abraham* 8 confidential servant saw 
her at the well (Gen. xxiv. 22). Bracelets 
were given by Uie pious Israelites in the 
wilderness to furnish gold or silver for 
the construction or ornamentation of the 
vessels of the tabernacle (Numb. xxxi. 50). 


Bracelets were worn by both sexee (Ezek. 
xvL 11), and Saul had one, unless, indeed, 
what he wore was an Abxlet (2 Sam. 
i. 10). For "bracelet" in Gen. xxxviii. 
18, 25— A.V. the R.V. substitutes " cord " ; 
for "bracelets" in Exod. xxxv. 22— A. V. 
it substitutes "brooches," and for 
" bracelets " in Isa. iii. 19 it substitutes on 
the margin " chains." 

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I [English]. 
The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Atadh in Judg. ix. 14, 15. The plant is 
so named from its fihnness. Apnarently it 
is not the familiar hlamble or olackbenr, 
but some other thomV plant. The B. v., 
despairing of exact idtetiflcation, renders 
it on the mai|^ *' thorn," as the A.y. does 
in Ffialm Iviii. 9, where tihe same Hebrew 
word occurs. Tristram cchisiders that it 
was probably a buckthofti, Rhamnus 
pala$t%na, peculiar to Paltetine, and 
clothing the rocks in all parts of ttiat coun- 
try. The buckthorns are shrubs frdte one to 
ei^ht, ten, or more feet high, often tihomy, 
with the leaves usually alternate, the 
flowers, which are small and greenish, hi 
clusters, or umbels, from the axils of the 
leaves, and the fruit fleshy, with two to 
four small stony seeds. 

Branch pSnglish]. 

One of the titles applied to the Messiah 
was ** The Branch '^ (Jer. xxiii. 5 ; Zech. 
iii. 8; vL 12). But the margin of the 
B.V. substitutes "shoot or bud" in the 
first passage, "shoot or sprout" in the 
second, and " bud " in the third (cf. Isa. 
xi. 1 ; liii. 2 ; Jer. xxxiii. 15). 

\ [English]. 

(1) The rendennff in the A.Y. and in 
the text of the B.V. of the Hebrew 
word Nehhcshethy the margin of the R.y. 
translating it * ' copper." It was evidently a 
metal {Qien. iv. 22) obtained bv applyms 
fire to the ore of it du^ from tae ground 
(Deut. viii. 9 ; Job xxviii. 2). But unless 
brass be accidentally associated with 
calamine, it does not occur in nature, 
but is an artificial product; it, there- 
fore, does not answer to the descri])- 
tion of the Hebrew Nehhosheth. Brass is 
composed of copper alloyed with from 28 
to 34 per cent, of sine. The assertion used 
to be made that it was not known till it 
was aoddentalhr formed by the running 
together of different meltea metals when 
Corinth was burnt, b.c. 146, by the consul 
Mummius. But vessels of brass have been 
found of much higher antiquily in 
Egyptian tombs. ProMbly the brass men- 
tioned in at least the earner books of the 
Bible was copper ^Exod. xxxviii. 29, etc.. 
etc.). That used for the manufacture of 
temple vessels by Hiram may have been 
bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. The 
latter metal may have been obtained from 
Cornwall and the Sdllv Islands by the 
Tyrian navi^tors (1 Kmffs vii. 14). The 
people of JPalestine and the adjacent 
countries used " brass " for armour (I Sam. 
xvii. 6), for fetters (2 Kings xxv. 7, 13), 
and for gates of cities (Isa. xlv. 2)^tc. 

(2) The rendering of the Greek Khalkoi, 
probably copper, though it may have been 
tirass or bronxe. It is mentioned as used 

for money, for the manufacture of musical 
instruments and of idols (Matt x. 9; 1 
Cor. xiii. 1 ; Rev. ix. 20). 

The figure of a 

seipent, made probably of copper nSBAfis] , 
ana erected on a pole in the wilderness, 
that the Israelites bitten by fiery serpents 
might look at it in faith and be healed 
(Numb. xxi. 8, 9). It was not designed to 
be worshipped, and when the Inaelites 
began to use it as an idol, Hesekiah had it 
broken in pieces, contemptuously calling it 
Kehtuhian (brazen), meaning that it was 
only a pieoe of brass (2 Kings xviii. A), 
Our Lord explained the spiritual signifi- 
cance of the rearing of the brazen serpent 
in John iii. 14, 15. 

B fMiito te [English]. 

(1) An ornament, and a sacred article of 
dress >om by the Jewish high priest on his 
breast. It was of ^Id, of blue, purple, 
scarlet, and fine- twined linen, and nad set 
on it twelve %tones, in four rows, as a 
memorial or synJM of the twelve tribes. 
It also contained the Urim and Thumnum 
(Exod. xxviii. 15-30 ; xtaix. 8-21). 

(2) A plate of metal or ot tbick leather, 
designea to protect the breaA m. battle 
^Bev. ix. 9). Figuratively, righteoHMess 
(Isa. lix. 17 ; Epl^ vi. 14). or faith and 
love, constitute a spiritual breastplate 
(I Thess. V. 8). 

Brefbren [English, plural of brother]. 

Now people regarded with fraternal 
affection, as belongmg to the same profes- 
sion, or having t^ same sympathies and 
aims as the tfpodkst. If sons of the same 
father are meant, the word now used is not 
brethren, but brothers. Formerly this dis- 
tinction was not observed, and * * brethren " 
is constantly used in the English Bible 
where we should now say broukers (Gen. 
xxxiv. 25 ; xliL 6, 13, 32 ; xlv. 16, etc.). 
It is often used, however, in the modem 
sense, especially when applied to Chris- 
tian disciples (Matt, xxiii. 8 ; Acts xiv. 2 ; 
Bom. i. 13, etc.). 

% (1) Brethren of the Lord. The brothers 
of Jesus, using the tenn " brothers " either 
in a strict or m a loose sense. They were 
four : James, Joseph or Joses, Simon, and 
Judas (Matt. xii. 47-50 ; xiiL 55— A.Y. and 
E.V. ; Mark vi. 3 ; 1 Cor. ix. 5; GaL i. 19). 
If the woids ** brothers " and " brethren *♦ 
(brothers) are used in a strict sense, then 
the " brethren of the Lord " would be the 
childresi of Joseph and Ma^ after the 
nativity (Matt. i. 25) ; if in a looeer sense, 
they would be our Lord*s first cousins. 
The subsequent marriage of the betrothed 
Joseph ana Maiy seems clearly asserted in 
Matt. i. 20-25; and that it resulted in the 
birth of children appears to be implied in 
tiie fact that Jesus is called the^n^-^orM 

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(Mait. i. 25 ; Luke ii. 7). But from the 
early Christian centuries mat reluctance 
has been shown to accept tiois view, and to 
escape from it three hypotheses have been 
formed. One is that the Lord's brethren 
were sons of Joseph by a prior marriage ; 
another that they were children of 
Alpssub (q.T.) or Ciopas (Q'^O and 
Mary, sister of the Vu^gin, and. tnerefore. 
our Lord's first cousins; ana the third 
that tiiey wore the children of Joseph and 
the widow of his brother, married on the 
pindple laid down in Deut. xxv. 6-10. 
Of these three hypotheses the first has 
sU along prevailea m the Eastern, and the 
second in the Western, churches. The 
third did not arise till the eleventh century, 
and has never largely prevailed. 

CZyMenandSrtihren.'* "And"isnot 
in toe Greek original. There is simply 
*' Men, brethren," t.^. ** Men who are my 
brethren." The meaning is best expressed 
by wholly omitting ** men," and writing 
sunply, as the B!v. does, "brethren^ 
(Acts'i. 16; ii. 29; xxiii. 1, 6, etc.; cf. 
A.V. and B,V.). Peothbb.] 

Briok [English]. 

A mass of day tempered, made rect- 
angular in shape, and either left to harden 
in the sun, or burnt in a brick-kiln. 
Bricks of this latter kind were used in 
building the tower of Babel (Gen. zi. 3). 


Both bricks and tiles are often foimd 
stamped with names and inscriptions, 
from which we have derived much of our 
knowledge of thoee ancient times, as well 
as from uie tablets of burnt clay specially 
prepared as documents in a similar way. 
The bricks which the Israelite slaves had to 
make in Egypt seem to have been unbumt 
bricks leftto harden in the sun (Ezod. i. 
14; V. 7). 

BRXCK'KiLSf [English]. 

A kiln for enclosing oricks while the^ 
me being burnt (2 Sam. ziL 31 ; Jer. xliii. 


In English, any species of wild rose, 
especially the Dog Rose (Hota canina). In 
the A.V. and B.y. of the Old Testament it 
is the rendering of six distinct Hebrew 
words, and in the A.V. of the New of one 
Greek one. 

(1) Hebrew Barqan^ from barao = " to 
flash lightning" (Judg. viii. 7, 16). 

(2) Hebrew Shamir = ** a thorn," or 
collectively " thorns," from Bhamir =" to 
fix with nails." It occurs in Isa. v. 6 ; 
vii. 23-25: ix. 18; x. 17; xxvii. 4; and 
xxxii. 13. Tristram thinks that it is a plant 
called Christ's Thorn {Paliurut aculeatut). 
which is found in southern Europe, and 
covers most of the rocky hiUs in Palestine. 

(3) Heorew Sirpadh, from a Persian 
word signifying *' white " (Geaenius) (Isa. 
Iv. 13). 

(4) Hebrew Sarabh, from aarabh = 
"to rebel" (Ezek. ii. 6). It ia doubtful 
whether this is a thorny plant or a rebel. 

(5) Hebrew Sillofty from 8alal = " to 
nod," " to viteate " (Ezek. xxviii. 24). 

(6) Hebrew Hhedheq (Micah rii. 4), 
translated " thorn " in Prov. xv. 19. The 
corresponding word in Arabic means *' the 
Egg-]^t," "Mad-apple." "Jew*s- 
apple," or "Brinjal" {^Solanum Melon' 
^ena)y one variety of which is thorny. It 
IS a native of India and, it ii believed, of 
Arabia. It is of the same genus as the 
potato, but the eatable part is the fruit, 
which is much used in curries in the East. 

(7) Greek Akantha, meaning (1) "a 
thorn " ; (2) " a prickly plant." perhaps a 
thistle ; Va) " a tnomy free,'* perhaps an 
acacia (Heo. vi. 8). 

Biisftndlne [English and French, 
from Low Lat. brigam = " a light-armed 

An obsolete nan^ for a coat of mail, 
compoeed of light tmn-jointed scales, or of 
thin pliantplate armour (Jer. xlvi. 4 — A.V. ; 
U. 3— A.V.). The B.V. substitutes " coat 
of mail." 


Sulphur (Gen. xix. 24 ; Deut. xxix. 23 ; 
Psalm xi. 6 ; Bev. xix. 20 ; xx. 10, etc.). 

Brook [EnffUsh]. 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Nahhal, from ndhhal = " to flow." It is 
applied to Eshcol (Numb. xiii. 23), Zered 
(Deut. ii. 13, 14), Kidron (2 Sam. xv. 23 ; 
xvii. 20; 2 Chron. xxix. 16), Cherith 
(I Kings xvii. 3, 6), and Kishon (xviii. 40 ; 
I^salm ixxxiii. 9, etc.). 

(2]) The rendering of the Greek word 
Kheimarrhos or KMtmarrhoos — as adjec- 
tive, "winter flowing" ; as noun^ "a brook 
which flows in winter but dries up in 
summer." It is applied in John xviii. 1 to 

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( 104) 


the Kidron, and corresponds to the 
Hebrew Nahhal, [No. 1.] 

i [English]. 

The renaerinff of the Hebrew Rothem in 
the text of Jod xxx. 4 — R.V. and the 
margin of 1 Kin^s xix. 4— R.V. and Psabn 
cxx. 4— E.V. In the text of the last two 
passages in the R.y., and in all the three in 
the A. v., it is rendered ** juniper," but the 
Hebrew word corresponds to the still exist- 
ing Arabic Jiaiemy appUed to a brOom, 
Jietama Etttaitty growmg in Syria and 
Arabia. It is common in the Sinai Penin- 
sula. It is a much-branched bush, with 
twiggy, nearly^ leafless, branches, and 
clusters of pinkish- white flowers. 

(1) One of the male sex bom of the same 
fatner and mother, or of the same father 
or mother as the person who calls him 
brother (Qen. xliii. 6 ; xliv. 19 ; Job i. 13 ; 
Hal. i. 2). 

(2) One of the male sex belonging to 
the same family, race, or nation as the 

rsrson who calls him brother (Dent, xxiii. 
; Neh. v. 7 ; Jer. xxxiv. 9). 

(3) One of the male sex belonging to the 
same faith as the person who culs him 
brother (Acts ix. 17 ; 1 Ck)r. vi. 6 ; 2 Cot, 
ii. 13). 

(4) One of the male sex greatly beloTed 
or very politely addressed by the person 
who caUs him brother (2 Sam. i. 26). 

(5) Anyone of the male sex whatever, 
the common brotherhood of the human 
race being recognised (Oen. ix. 5 ; Matt. v. 
22 ; xviii. 35). [Brethben.] 

BiMkler [English]. 

The smaller of two kinds of shield in use 
in Old Testament times. It was fixed 
upon the arm and could be moved about 
to cover any part of the fore portion of the 
body which might be in danger (1 Chron. 
V. 18 ; xiL 8). Often used figuratively of 
the Divine protection (Psalm xviii. 2; 
xd. 4). 

Bakki [Heb. Buqqij the same as 
Bukkiah (q.v.)]. 

(1) A son oi Jogli. He was prince of 
the Danite tribe (luunb. xxxiv. 22). 

(2) A son of Abishua and a descendant 
of Phinehas (1 Chron. vi. 5, 61 ; Ezra 
vii. 4). 

BnkldAli [Heb. Bugqiiahu = " devas- 
tation sent by Jehovah "J. 

A musician, a son of lleman (1 Chron. 
XXV. 4, 13). 

Bnl IFor Heb. TebhtU = "rainy," 
from yaShal = " to flow "1. 

The eighth month of tne Jewish year. 
It extended from the new moon of 
November to that of December, and was 
oonsidered a rainy month (1 Kings vL 38). 


(1) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Aoir^ meaning ^^toave," "strong"; a 
strong animal, specially a bull, in Aalm 1. 
13 ; Ixviii. 30 ; Isa. xxxiv. 7— all A.V. and 
R.V., and in Jer. 1. 11— A. V., the R.V. 
substituting " horse " for " bulL" 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Pat' or Pdr in Psalm xxii. 12.' [Bullock.1 

(3) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Shot in Job xxi, 10. In Arabic it is Satcr^ 
in Aramaic Tora, whence the Greek 
Tauros and Latin Taurus = " a bull." 

(4) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Baqar (which is the general term for a 
head of cattle) in Jer. BL 20. fCATTLE.] 

H The bull is the male of the species, 
called by naturalists Bo» taurut, [Ox.] A 
particularly strong and flerce breed of 
bulls existed in Bashan (Psidm xxii. 12). 

% Wild Bull [Heb. To, Teo] (Isa. li 20). 
The R.V. txanshites Teo " Antblope " 

Bnllook [English, diminutive of buUI. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word Far 
or l^dr^ meaning a young bull. Bullocks 
were used as araught animals bearing a 
yoke (Jer. xxxi. ^, and were largely 
offered in sacrifice (Exod. xxix. U ; Judg. 
vi. 25 ; 1 Chron. xxix. 21). [Bull (2).] 

Bnlnuh [English, from bull in th& 
sense of "large" and "rush"]. 

(1) Hebrew gome. The Paftbub (q.v.) 
(Exod. ii. 3 ; Isa. xviii. 2). 

(2) Hebrew offtnon, signifying (1) a 
"brazen" or bronie vessel; (2) a reed; 
(3). a rope of reeds or similar plants. The 
plant r^erred to bows its head under the 
mfluence of the wind, having evidently a 
slender reedy stalk (Isa. Iviu. 5). What 
the A. V. calls a " hook" and the R.V. a 
" rope of rushes," with much difficulty put 
into the nose of a leviathan (Job xU. 2). is 
of the same plant agmon. So is the "rush*' 
of Isa. ix. 14 ; xix. 15. Finally agtnon is 
derived from ogam = "a marsh," suggest- 
ing that this is the kind of place where the 
phint may be found. Tristotm believes it 
to be ihQAmudo Donax, a tall reedy grass 
from the Mediterranean region andfl^uth 
Siberia, from the former of which it has 
been introduced into English gardens. 
Here it is 8 or 10 feet high, but it Is much 
taller in its native regions. 

Bnaali [Heb. = "prudence"]. 
A man of Judah, a son of Jerahmeel 
(1 Chron. ii. 25). 

[Heb. = "built," "erected"]. 

(1) A Levite, the father of Haah&biab, 
earlier than Nehemiah's time (Neh. xi. 15). 

(2) AnothOT Levite, a oontemporarT of 
Nehemiah (Neh. ix. 4 ; x. 15). 

Bnrdea [English!. 

(1) A heavy toad to be borne ; used in m 

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literal or a figuratiTe s^use (Exod. zzili. 5 
Numb. xi. 11, etc.). 

(2) A prophecy denouncing heavy judg- 
ment on a phice or people (Isa. xiy. 28 
XV. 1 ; xvu. 1 ; xix. 1 ; XXI. 1, 11, 13 
xxii. 1 ; xxiii. 1 ; xxx. 6 ; £zek. xii. 10 
Hoaea viii. 10 ; Kahum i. 1). 

Burial [English]. 

Interment, the committal of a corpse to 
the ground, or its disposal in another 
reverential way. The Jews generally 
carried the body upon a bier to uie ffrave 
(2 Sam. iii. 31 ; Liuce vii. 14). Burial was 
generally in a cave or in a sepulchre 
scooped horizontally in the rock {Oten. 
xxiii. 29 ; xxv. 9, 10 ; xlix. 30 ; Matt, xxvii. 
60 ; Mark xv. 46 ; xvi. 3, 4 ; Luke xxiii. 
53 ; xxiv. 2 ; John xix. 41 ; xx. 1). 

J [English]. 
An offering in which the victim was 
wholly burnt. We first read of this kind 
of sacrifice in Qen. viii. 20. when Noah 
offered it lust alter leaving tne ark. The 
Miw^ftU wnich he sacrificed were represen- 
tatives of every clean beast and of every 
clean fowl. Isaac was to have been offered 
as a burnt-offering (xxii. 2), and, in lieu of 
him, aram was thus sacrificed (13J. There 
were minute regulations in the Mosaic law 
for bnmt-offenngs, which often consisted 
of a lamb rNumb. vii. 15, 2l, 27, etc.), 
sometimes oi a ram (Lev. ix. 2; xvi. 5, 
etc), and sometimes of a cow. cows, or 
oxen (1 Sam. vi. 14 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 22, 25). 
Mesba, the Moabtte king, in whose honour 
the Moabite stone was inscribed^ offered 
his son for a burnt-offering on a aty wall, 
if possible to turn the f oixune of a battle 
in which he was being defeated (2 Kings 
iii. 4, 26, 27]). So also the degenerate 
Israelites during the later years of the 
monarchy, offered their sons as a burnt- 
offering to Baal (Jer. xix. 5 ; cf . 2 Kings 
xvH. 16, 17). In Psalm li. 19 a distinction 
is made between ** burnt-offering" and 
** whole burnt-offering." Probabl]|r, by the 
first wa« meant those sacrifices wmch were 
partially burnt, and bv a ** whole burnt- 
offering " the bumt-oifeiizig technically so 
called. The expression ** whole bumt- 
effering" occurs again in Heb. x. 6, 8, 
where the inspired writer is quoting from 
the Septuagint of Psahn xl. 6-8. He 
points out tne spiritual significanoe of the 
Dumt-offering, as of tl^ other bloody 
sacrifices : they pointed to the agony and 
atoning sacrifice of Christ. The **. whole * * 
burnt-offering may have foreshadowed the 
completeness of His sacrifice and its 
thorough effectiveness for the expiation of 

xxiv. 22 ; 1 Kiujgs xviii. 38 : 1 Chron. xxiii. 
31 ; 2 Chron. xiii. 11 ; Psalm xx. 3 ; Ixvi. 

I [English]. 
The same as Bi7B2«t-offbbino (q*^*) 
(Numb, xxiii. 6 ; Deut. xxxiii. 10 ; 2 Sam. 

I [English]. 

(1) The rendenng of the Hebrew Seiteh, 
The bush which Moses saw burning, and 
from which Jehovah spoke (Exod. iii. 2, 3 : 
Deut. xxxiii. 16). Tnstram believes it to 
have been the Acacia vera or niiotica. the 
Egyptian thorn. It is a withered -looking 
thorny tree, 12 feet high, with bipinnate 
leaves and white flowers. It crrows 
throughout a hirge part of Africa, also in 
the Smai Peninsula, and, in Palestine, ou 
the shores of the Dead Sea. It'yields the 
gum arabic of coramerce, which naturally 
exudes in a nearly fluid state from the 
trunk and branches, hardening on exposure 
to the air. 

C2) Hebrew Siahh (Job xxx. 4, 7). II 
is irom Siahh = '* to iax)duce " or '* bring 
forth," and is the word rendered ** plant " 
in (Jen. ii. 5, and *' shrub" in Gen. xxi. 

(3) Hebrew Nahalol (Isa. vii. 19), ren- 
dered by Gesenius and m the R.V. " pas- 
ture." On the margin of the A.V. it i« 
translated ** commendable trees." 

(4) Greek Baton, the Fame as No. I 
(Mark xii. 26 ; Luke xx. 37 ; Acts vii. 30, 
35). In Luke vi. 44 Batos is rendered 
** bramble bush," both in the A.V. and 
the R.V. 


The rendering of the Greek Modiot = 
a dry measure containing almost two 

Sillous, or nearly one peck (Matt. v. 15 ; 
ark iv. 21 ; Luke xi. 33). 


The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Mhetnah = "curdled milk," "curds," 
" butter " (Gen, xviii. 8 ; Deut. xxxii. 14; 
Judg. V. 25 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 29 ; Job xx. 17 ; 
xxix. 6 ; Psalm Iv. 21 ; Piov. xxx. 33 ; 
Isa. vii. 15. 22). On the margin of Isa. 
vii. 15^R.V. the translation is " curds." 
Dr. Thomson {The Land and the Book, 1859, 
p. 441) says that neither the ancient nor 
me modem orientals have made butter iu 
our sense of the word. The "butter" 
given to Sisera by Jael was sour milk, 
called in Arabic Icbctiy and (p. 255) the 
" butter " of Prov. xxx. 33 is a production 
made in this way. A bottle formed b}^ 
strippmg off the entire skin of a young 
buffalo IS filled with milk and then perse- 
veringly kneaded or shaken by women. 
Then the contents are taken out, boiled or 
melted, and put into bottles of goats' skins. 
In winter it resembles candied honey, and 
in summer is mere oil. 

Bni [Heb. = "despicable"]. 
(1) A son of Nahor by his wife Milcah 
(Gen. xxii. 20, 21). 

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(2) A Gadite, the father of Jahdo 
(1 Chron. v. 14). 

(3) An Arabian tribe, probably descended 
from Buz No. 1 (Jer. xxv. 23). 

Boil [Heb. =: " a descendant of Boz "1 
[Buz {2)). 

The father of the prophet Ezekiel (Ezek. 

Bnilte [English]. 

One belonging to the Arabian tribe of 
Buz [BxTZ (3)J (Job xxTJi. 2). 

Cab [Heb. Qabh = "a hoUow vessel," 

A Hebrew measure of ca^udty for dry 
articles (2 Kings yi. 25). It held about 
2*8333 pints; the cab for measuring liquids, 
which IS not mentioned in Scripture, con- 
tained nearly a fifth more. 

Oabbon [Heb. Kabbdn^^'a, band," 
"a bond," "a fetter" (Oeaenius); "a 
cake," Oxford Bible]. 

A town or Tillage in a valley in Judah 
(Josh. XV. 40). G^Bsenius thinks it may 
have been the same as the Maiehbenah of 
1 Chron. ii. 49. The Palestine explorers 
consider the site as vinidentified. 

Catal [Heb. Kabhul^ '"displeasing" 
«r " &ty.^' (Marginof A.V.)1. 

(n A town of Asher (Josh. xix. 27). It 
has oeen identified with the modem &&b{d, 
a village nine miles east of Acre. 

(2) A re^on in Galilee containing twenty 
towns, which Solomon presented to Hiram, 
king of Tjrre, in return for the services 
rendered in connection with tihe building of 
the temple. The Tynan king was dis- 
pleased with the gift, and thercKfore called 
the region Cabul [«<v the etym.] (1 Kings 
ix. 12Q. Of course it has no connection 
with Cabul, the capital of Afghanistan. 

• [Lat. probably from Caenarie* = 

" a head of hair." N. T. Greek JTawarl. 

The family name of a branch of the 
Julian house or clan in Rome. Though 
it is traceable from B.c. 501, it did not 
gain extensive celebrity till it was borne bv 
Caius Julius Caesar, who ranks witn 
Alexander the Great and Napoleon as one 
of the three most remarkable conquerors 
the civilised world has produced. On the 
assassination of Julius Csnar, B.C. 44, his 
will requested lus grand-nephew Octavius, 
afterwards the emperor Augustus, to 
assume the name of Caesar. Tiberius, who 
succeeded Augustus, and Caligula, Clau- 
dius, and Nero, who followed in succession, 
were all entitled by relationship to the 

great dictator to bear the family name ; 
uie seven succeeding emperors— Galba, 
Otho, Yitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domi- 
tian, and Nerva — assumed it, so that 
it is customary to speak of the twelve 
CflBsars. From havmg been the name 
of one mighty conqueror and then of a 
series of emperors, the name Csesar became 
the type or ^mbol of the dvil power in 
general, and it is continually used in this 
sense in discussions as to the relative 
domains of civil and ecclesiastical rulers 
(cf. Matt. xxii. 17, 21 ; Mark xii. 14, 16, 
17 ; Luke XX. 22, 24, 25). 

The name Cssar is applied in the New 
Testament to — 

(1) The first Boman emperor, Augustus 
Caesar [CiBBAB Auoustub] (Luke ii. I). 

(2) The second Boman emperor, Tibe- 
rius Cabjlb (q.v.) (Matt xzii. 17 ; Maik 
xii. 14; Luke iii. 1 ; xx. 21, 22; John 
xix. 12). 

(3) Tlie fourth Boouin emperor, CuLU- 
Dius (q.v.) (Acts jcvii. 7 [?]). 

(4) The fiftk Boman emperor. Nero 
fActs xxT. 12, 21 ; xxvi, 32 ; Phil. iv. 
22). His predecessor, Claudius, had been 
iBarried to a woman— Messalina— who 
ultimately proved a shameless profli- 

Site. She bad borne him a son named 
ritannicus, and a daughter called Octavia. 
When she was put to death, he married 
next his niece A^ppina, a widow with a 
son called Lucius Domitius. The first 
ambition of this new profligate was to get 
her son married to Octavia. and appointed 
successor to the empire. Sue was success- 
ful, Lucius being adopted by the empefor 
under the charurod name of Nero. Then, 
after a time, Qaudius was poisoned, and 
Nero in a.d. 54 became emperor of Borne, 
any rivalry from Britanmcus being soon 
terminated by lus assassination. Nero 
was a monster of lust and cruelty, 
though, perhaps, his crimes have been 
exaggerated. In the tenth year of his 
reign, a.d. 64, a great fire broke out at 
Bome, in large measure destroying three 
of the fourteen districts into which uie d^ 
was divided. The emperor was believed, 
apparently on insufficient evidence, to have 
been himself the incendiary, and was in 
consequence in danger of his life. To 
screen himself, he falsely accused the 
Christians of having caused the fire, and 
put many of them to cruel deaths, tradition 
adding that both Paul and Peter were 
among the sufferers. Nero is the " lion " 
of 2 Tim. iv. 17. Finding that he was 
deserted hj his troops, and uiat he would 
soon be put to death, he anticipated his 
fate. Like Saul, he attempted suicide, and, 
failing, induced one of his supporters 
to complete theact of slanghter. He died 
▲.s. 68, in the thirty-second year of his 
age and the fourteentn of his reign. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CasAB AT70X78TUB The fint Bomaa 
emperor, better known as Augustus Gosar 
(Luke ii. I). He was bom at Yelitne on 
the 22nd of September, b.o. 63, and was 
named Octavius after his father Cains 
OctaTins. His mother, called Atia, was 
the daughter of Julia, sister of Julius 
Caeear. On the assassination of his great 
relatire, B.C. 44, he went to Borne, and 
was admitted to be heir of the deceased 
dictator, whose property he obtained. He 
now be<»me known as Gains Julius Cesar 
Octavianus. In B.o. 43 the second trium- 
Tirate was formed, Octavian, Marc Antony, 
and Lepidus asreeinff to divide the Roman 
world among themselVes, and rule it for five 
jears with an authority equal to that of 
consub. Then entmng Rome with their 
troops, they g^Te a list of 300 senators and 
about2,000 knights whom they desired to be 
put to death, and their instructions were 
actually carried out. In B.C. 42 Octavian 
and Antony fought two great battles at 
PhUippi against the republican party led 
by Brutus and Caasius, two of thiB leading 
assawriwi of CiBsar. Cassius committed 
suicide when he thought the first battle lost, 
and Brutus did so whea the second one was 
terminating in his defeat. Lepidus was 
soon found uneoual to his high responsi- 
btHties, and haa to retire from political 
Hfe. The other two able and ambitious 
men soon quarrelled and fought. Antony 
was defeated in a naval battle at Actium, 
B.C. 31, and, fleeing to Bffinpt with his 
facamour, queen Cleopatra, kiUed himself 
on a 'WffOKt reaching him ttiat she had 
committed suicHa. ▲^gustus was now the 
%(Ae master of the Roman iiuiM,mbi1 while 
nominally keeping up the old liberties and 
tiie institutions which had enshrined them, 
he really converted the repubUo into a 
military despotism. In the year b.o. 29 
he received the title of Imperator, or 
Emperor, and in 27 B.C. the title of Augus- 
ts, meaning " venerable '* or ** augiut.*' 
This <dian^ of name was a great {^van- 
tage, as It helped people to forget the 
massacre with which he had to do 
while yet he was only Octavian and a 
triamVir. He attempted to efface its 
memory by acting as the &ther of his 
people. He died on the 19th August, 
A.D. 14, in the sevent]^ -sixth year of his age 
and the 44th of his reign, if its commence- 
ment is measured from the battle of 
Actimn. Literature so flourished in his 
TQgn that the Au^pstan age has become a 
proverbial expression for the time in the 
flistoty of any nation when literature has 
readied its hij^iest point. It was in conse- 
quence of a decree of Augustus that all the 
world should betaxedrCrarens] that Joseph 
and Mary repaired to Bethlehem, the latter, 
as prophecy nad f oreehadowed, there giving 
biiiii to the infant Jesus (Luke ii. 1-20). 

[Lat. from Gr. Kaisdrma 
= ** Csesar's town." See the article] . 

A city on the coast of Palestine, about 
twenty- three miles south of Mount CarmeL 
Its site was called originally Strato's tower. 
The city was built by Herod the Great, 
who spent twelve years in its erection, 
viz., from 25 to 13 B.C. There 'was a 
sea-mole formed of stones 50 feet long, 
18 broad, and 9 deep. It was 200 feet 
wide, and stood in 20 fathoms of water. 
The entrance to the artificial port was on 
the north, where there was a tower. The 
dty had also a temple, a theatre, and an 
amphitheatre. There was a complete 
system of drainage. Herod named the 
place Oesarea, after Ms patron Augustus 
Ceeear [Cjsbab Auouarusj. It was some- 
times called Csesarea of Palestine, or 
Cnearea by the Sea, to distinguish it irom 
Cjesabea Pmuppz (q.v.). It became the 
Roman capital of Palestine. The gospel 
was carried thither bv Philip the evan- 
gelist, who made it nis residence (Acts 
viii. 40 ; xxi. 8). When Paul, soon after 
his conversion, was in danger of bein^ 
murdered by the Jews of Jerusalem, his 
Christian brethren brought him down to 
CfiBsarea. whence he sailed on his way to 
his birtnplaoe, Tarsus, in Asia Mmor 
(ix. 30). It was at Gaesarea that the 
Roman centurion Cornelius lived, and that 
the calling of the G^tiles took nlaoe 
(x. 1, 24 ; xi. 11). It was visited bv Peter 
after his escape from prison ^xii. 19;. Paul 
twice revisited it, and found a church 
existing (xviii. 22 ; xxi. 8, 16). He was 
afterwaros taken thither as a prisoner 
(xxiii. 23, 33) ; and it was there that his 
^kUL hafare Festus and Agrippa took place 
(xxv. 1-4, 6-13). In Ju ee imus' s lame the 
dty was large. The population was very 
mixed, and race-iealounes existed to such 
an extent that m the reign of Nero the 
Syrians made a wholesale massacre of the 
Jews, commencing the troubles which led 
in A.D. 70 to the destruction of Jerusalem 
by Titus (Josephus, War^ II. xviii. § 1). In 
▲.D. 548 the Jews and Samaritans joined in 
assaulting the Christians. In 638 the dty 
was captured by the Saracens. In the year 
1 102 it was taken by the Cipsaders, led by 
Baldwin I. Saladin retook it from them in 
1189 ; the Crusaders recovered it in 1191, 
but lost it to the Sultan Bibars in 1265. 

In the Stirrer of Western Falestine 
(Samaria, pp. 13, 14) it is stated that the 
existingrums are of two periods. There is, 
first, a Roman town with walls, containing 
a theatre, a hippodrome (race-course), a 
mole, a temple, and aqueducts ; then, 
secondly, there is the Crusading town 
with wallB, a castle, a cathedral, a northern 
church, a harbour, etc. The Roman wall 
extends 4,800 feet from north to south and 
2,700 from east to west, the whole en- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ciesarea Fhilippi 

( 108) 


closure scattered over with fragments of 
xmuioiiry and pillar shafts, cisterns, and 
comer walls oi buildings. The harbour 
measures 540 feet across. A reef running 
into the sea is probably Josephus's mole. 
The aoueducts are two, one at a high and 
the other at a low level ; the pipes are of 
good earthenware, with air-holes at in- 
tervals. CaBsarea is still called Kais&rieh. 

still further embellished it, and changed 
the name to Neronias, to compliment the 
emperor Nero ; but on the emperor^s 
death all desire te honour him ceased, and 
the name speedily lapsed ^Joseph.. Antuj. 
XX. ix.' \ €), Titus exhibited glaoiatorial 
shows in the town, one part of the specta- 
cle being Jewish captives thrown to the 
wild beasts, or compelled to encounter 


CaBMurea Pbllippl flat. = *< Gaecarea 
of Philip/' to distinguish it from CaBsarea 
ofPalestme]. [Cababsa.] 

A city of Upper Galilee, which has 
sometimes been erroneously identified with 
the Old Testament Dan, but which was 
more probably Bajll-oad (q.v.). The 
worship of the Roman (rod Pan long pre- 
vailed m the locality, and Herod the Great 
having built a teinple of fine marble near 
the sacred spot Fanium, the place was 
called Paneas (Joseph., ^;>^i^. XV^. z. § 3). 
The town was afterwards enlai]sed and 
adorned by Philip the tetrarch. who 
altered its name to Csssarea to show nonour 
to the second Roman e mpero r, Tiberius 
Gsesar (Joseph., Antiq, XYIII. i. { 1 ; 
Wars. n. iz. { 1). Jesus and His discmles 
visitea it at least once, and it was there uiat 
the remarkable conversation took place 
between him and Peter arisins out ox the 
Question, ** Whom do men say ttiat lam ?*' 
(Mattzvi.l3;Markviii.27). Agrippall. 

each other in deadly warfare (Joseph., 
Wart^ VII. ii. 1 ; iii. 1). It was romanti- 
cally situated under the shade of the great 
Hermon, at the main source of the Jordan, 
the river bursting forth from a cave 
under the mountam as a copious stream. 
The town was in the angle of a small 
plain, with hills on all sides of it except on 
the west. Part of its fortifications still 
remain, and there are Greek inscriptions 
on the adjacent rocks. The town hiis now 
dwindled to a small village, still called 
Banias, which is simply an alteration of 
Paneas, one of its early names. 

[Gr. Kaidphas, from Aramaic 
Kaiepha = '* depression "]. 

Joseph Caiaphas, who was appointed in 
A.D. 26 to the high priesthood by Valerius 
Gratus, the Roman procurator^ and the 
immediate predecessor of Pontms Pilate 
(Joseph., Antiq. XVni. ii. 2). Caiaphas 
and his father-in-law Annas were ni^ 

Digitized by 





priests when John the Baptist oommenoed 
bia ministry (Luke iii. 2). It was Caiaphas 
who expressed the worldly-wise but 
unri^teous sentiment^ '' It is expedient 
for us that one nian should die for the 
people, and that the whole nation perish 
not." He was not aware of the pophetio 
ngnificanoe attaching to the woros he had 
uttered (John xi. 49-53 ; xviii. 14). It was 
at his palace that the council or secret 
conclave of the chief priests, the scribes, 
and the elders was held to concoct measures 
for the arrest of our Lord (Matt. xxvi. 
3-5). When Jesus was apprehended, He 
was taken first to the palace of Annas, who 
sent Him bound to Caiaphas (John xviii. 
24)^ whence He was led next to the prs- 
tonum of Pilate (28). Deeply responsible 
ioT Qie judicial murdL*r of the innocent 
prisoner, Cidaphns nftt^ru it'I- tnok part in 
the trial .f ivt. r jivl .h']ai i Acts iv. 6). 
In A-U. *i 'j 3 1 '. ' w : I - . 1 1 ■ ] w I ?> ••'* U ly \' i t ellius, the 
Kamaai prv'-.-iii^^ut r.t ??^-iui, iiud father of a 
future emperor o( Eome [Joseph., Antiq. 
XVHL it. 3). 

f^am (1) [Heb. Qtn** = *' eott^m," "ac- 
qoirefl,*^ '"a poasessLon '^ {Geix. iv. 1)1. 

'tfm «eocuid eoti of Aiiom, and by calling 
ita agricultumt. He bri^u^^ht of the 
froliA cvf the ^Qund an ujferitig to Ood, 
ThrDwiug New Te^tiiment U^ht on the 
inddent, \m fMt^ring implied im acknow- 
lad^pent of gratituda ti^ <iod for the 
proaiu^ of the V^rth, hut d^i confession of 
SOL. HL>t offedtig Wit-H n^j Lifted, ^vhile that 
of hm brother Al*el wa.^ ar<»pted; on 
wMcIl Caiii bf^cnrue hi4 murderor. Called 
to accDuiit In' (r<'"l i'ly "- • ime, and 
doomfid nb a penalty t i ... a fiq^tive 
and a vagabond, he complained that his 
poniahment was greater than he could 
Dear, but from the first to the last of the 
Bible narrative he nowhere makes con- 
feeaion of sin or admission of error, but 
adopts a self - justifying tone. Sent 
into exile, he lived in the land of Nod, 
eastward of Eden, and became the pro- 
genitor of a race which made considerable 
progrees in the mechanical arts (Gen. iv. 
1-26 ; 1 John iii. 12 ; Jude 11). 

(2) [Heb. Qain (?) = "a lance," 
"a spear" (2 Sam. xxi. 16) {GeMnim). 
Or possibly from Heb. Qen = **a nest" 
{Gror^)]. [Kenitbb.] 

A town or village in the mountains of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 57). The Palestine 
explorers locate it doubtfully at the ruin of 
Yukln, three miles south-east of Hebron. 

I [Or. Kaindrij from Heb. Qenan 
= " possession " (?) or " possessor " (?)]. 

(1) The son of Enos and father of 
Mahalaleel (Gen. v. 9-14 ; Luke iii. 37, 38). 

(2) The son of Arphaxad, and father of 

SheUh (Luke iii. 36). The Hebrew of 
Greu. xi. 12 has no Cainan in these rela- 
tions ; the Septuagint, however, has, and 
it was from the Septuagint that St. Luke 
took this second Cainan. 

Calali [If Hebrew, then from Kalahh 
— ** perfection " ; but it is more probably 
Accadian or Assyrian]. 

One of the cities of Aseyria, built, accor- 
ding to the text of the A. v., by Asshur, and 
that of the B.V. by Nimrod (Gen. x. 11). 
The Assyrian inscriptions make its founder 
Shalmaneser I., who reigned from 1300 to 
1271 B.C. Perhaps Asshur or Nimrod built 
a village at the spot, and Shalmaneser I. 
developed the village into a town. Early 
in the ninth century b.o. it had fallen into 
decay, but was restored and embellished by 
Assur-natsir-pal, who reigned from 885 to 
860 B.O. Its ruins, now called Nimrdd, lie 
about twenty miles south of Nineveh, and 
have furnished many Assyrian relics to the 
British Museum. Some have doubtfully 
identified Calah with the Halah of 2 Kings 
xvii. 6; xviii. 11). [Haiah.] 

[Lat. from Gr. Kalatnoa = " a 
reed," "a cane"]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Qeneh'bosffn = " reed of fragrance " ; or of 
the simi^e.termQanM = " cane," "reed," 
witlk which is connected the Latin Canna, 
the Greek Kanne or KanCy and the English 
Cane (q.v.). 

A sweet - smelling, cane - like plant, 
furnishing spice (Ex^. xxx. 23 ; Song iv. 
14). It waa sold in the Tyrian markets, 
beinff brought apparently from " Yedan " 
and Javan (Cyprus [?!) (Ezek. xxvii. 19 — 
B.y.). If it came rrom Europe, it was 
probably the Aeorus Calamus^ or Common 
Sweet Sedge of England, an indigenous 
plant, with a spadix and spathe, akin to 
the Aroids, but belonging to the allied 
order of the Orontiaceaa or Orontiads. The 
rhizome or underground stem is aromatic. 
If an Indian plant is permissible, then the 
Calamus was j^bably the Andropo^on 
Calamus aromo^u^M, a genuine grass,which, 
like its near ally, ^e Lemon Ghrass, A. 
«^Aa?ftanMtM, is highly scented. The Cala- 
mus is probablv tae same as the Sweet- 
cane. [Cane.j 

Calool, ChAlool [Heb. Kaikol = 
" support," " sustenance," " mainte- 

A veiy wise man, one of three sons of 
Mahol (1 Kings iv. 31 ; 1 Chron. ii. 6). 

Cale1» [Heb. Kalebh = " raving," 
"fierce," "mad" (?) {Gesenim) ; or "a 
doff " ?P), or " a valiant hero" (?)]. 

(1) The son of Hezron, and the third in 
direct descent from Judah. Caleb was the 
brother of Jerahmeel, and the great-grand- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




father of Bezaleel (1 Chron. ii. 18-20, 
42-49). Called also Chelubai (q.y.)* 

(2) The son of Hur, the eldest son of 
Ephiatah (1 Chron. ii. 50). 

(3) The son of Jenhunneh, a Kenezite. 
He first appears as tue representative enpy 
from the tribe of Judah (Numb. xiii. 6), 
and, with the exception of tfoshua, the only 
one of the twelve who brought back an 
account of the land and its inhabitants 
fitted to encourage the Israelite invaders 
(30; xir. 6-10). As a reward he and 
Joshua had the promise of being allowed 
to enter and possess the country when the 
cowardly spies were no more (24, 30, 38). 
He was cme oi thoae^dterwards appointed 
to jrartion out the land by lot, ho^npre- 
senting, as before, the tribe of Judah 
(xxxiv. 19). He received as his own 
portion the town of Hebron ^Josh. xiv. 14), 
irom which he expelled the giants by whom 
it had been previously occupied (xv. 13,14). 
He had also to do with the taking oi the 
adjacent town of Kirjath-sepher, or Debir 
(15- 19) . The south of Caleb mentioned in 
1 Sam. XXX. 14 was probably the south of 
the Hebron district or the vidnil^ of Debir. 
It has been supposed that Caleb was of 
Edomite descent, and a proselyte to the 
worship of Jehovah (cf. Josh. xiv. 14 : 
XV. 18). [See also Kenaz and Kenezite. J 

Caleb - ephratah [Heb. = ** Caleb's 
land" or "region" (?); or " Caleb tthe) 
fruitful" (?)]. 

i^parentlv a place where Hezron, a 
man of Judan, died, but there is doubt as 
to the correctness of the reading (1 Chron. 
ii. 24). [Cai£B (2).] If accurate, theplaoe 
referred to may be Bethlehem. [Caleb 

Calf [English]. 

A young bull or cow (J?o«, Taurtta), The 
rendering of the Hebrew £ffel =3 '* a 


calf," and Ealah = " a female calf." 
Calves were killed for food (Gen. xviii. 7) 

and for sacrifice (Heb. ix. 12, 19). Aaron 
made a golden calf for worship (Exod. 
xxxii. 4), and Jeroboam set up two— one at 
Bethel and one at Dan (1 Kings xii. 29). 
Both seem to have borrowed the calf- 
worship which they instituted from Egypt, 
where they had of ten seen the inhabitauts 
adore the bull Apis [EotptI— Aaron, 
while he was a slave in the valley of the 
Nile, and Jeroboam, while he was a re- 
fugee at the court of Shishak (1 Kings zi. 

[Heb. Kahiehy of doubtful 

A dty in the land of Shinar (Lower 
Babylonia) built by Nimrod (Oen. x. 10). 
It was an important place in the time of 
Amos (JimoB vi. 2). [Calito, Canneh.] 
Armstrong doubtfully places it at Zerghul, 
and Bawlinson at NifFer, but Sayoe points 
out that it is the Kulimu oi the monuments. 
It is situated in what once was Shinar. 

[Heb. Kalfw\, [Calzveh.] 
A city which Saigon, kins of Assyria, 
boasted of having subduecT (Isa. x. 9). 
Probably the same as Calneh (q.v.). 

Calyary [For etym. aee the artide]. 

The plaice where our Lord was crucified 
and in the vicinity of which He was buried. 
The name is derived from the Latin 
eakariay more rarely cakarium = '* a skull " 
(Luke xxiii. 33). It corresponds to the 
Aramaic Golgotha (Matt, xxvii. 33; Hark 
XV. 22 ; John xix. 17, 41). The namemav 
have arisenfrom the finding thereof askull, 
or from the rocks on the spot, if rocks there 
were, taking that f oim. It is important to 
obeorve that, thou^ popularly called the 
Hill of Calvarv, uiere is no mention in 
Scripture whether it was a hill, undu- 
lating ground, or a plain. Begarding its 
locahty almost the om^ Scripture informa- 
tion is that it was outside the city, but in its 
vicinity (John xix. 20; Heb. xiii. 11-13). 
So also Stephen was taken outside Jeru- 
salem to be martyred (Acts vii. 50). 

Its site is generally discussed in connec- 
tion with that of the Holt Sefulchbe 
(a.v.). Sufiioe it here to say that the Bev. 
Mr. Williams and many others fix it close to 
the present church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
in the centre of modem Jexiisalem; 
Fergusson, the architect, on the Temple 
Hill; and the Bev. Dr. Bobinson, of ^ew 
York, outside the present wall of Jeru- 
salem, on the north-west (or north). An 
opinion not essentially differing from the 
hypothesis of Dr. Bobinson, but much 
more specific, deserves very careful atten- 
tion. Sometime prior to 1881 Dr. Chaplui 
had discovered that the hill above Jere- 
miah's Grotto, near the Damascus gate^ on 
the north of Jerusalem, was the anaent 
place of Jewish execution, and the Mohun- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

( 111) 


IS Capt. Conder in that year 
aaoertaiiied, oooosider the spot an ill- 
omened one, aaaodated with death and 
jiid^ment. Several vitdtorB observed that 
the roimded summit and two hollow cave 
entnuioeB below it present some resem- 
Uanoe to a skull, though Oapt. Conder 
cooadea that the similarity is to the skull 
of an *»»»*»«^l lather than raat of a human 
bein^ The commanding position renders 
it vinUe from a great pesx of Jerusalem ; 
in fact, there is scarcely another place near 
the city so well fitted for a public spec- 
tade. There is every reason to beueve 
that it is the real site of Calvary. [Holt 

glish; Lat. Camelua; Or. 
KatHeiot; fromHeb. Gamal], 

The rendering of the Hebrew Gamal 
{Cattulus drom^ritu), the one-humped 


eamel of naturalists, the other species 
of the genus, the two • humped or 
Bactrian camel, ajiparently not being 
mentioned in Scripture. Even the former 
runs into two well-marked varieties— the 
camel properly so-called, which ia a dow- 
gomff animal ; and the Dboxedaet (q .v.) , 
whid^ is swift of foot. The camel has been 
called *' the ship of the Desert,'' and its 
whole otnanisation fits it to cross sandy 
wastes. It is a ruminating animal, but 
beloii^ to that aberrant portion of the 
Bummantia in which, in place of the 
ofdxnaiy cloven hoof, the foot is enveloped 
in a hardened skin, enclosing the cushion- 
Hfce soles, whidi can be spread out sidewise 
so as to adapt it to walk, without sinking 
deeply, over aoit and yielding sand. 
Antftier adaptstioo is that m the walls of 
the paoDch or first stomach there are two 
coUiSUfOB of water cells on which the 
■ittwMd can dravr when no other water is 
HoenmUe. Efbo tha hump is another 

adaptation. It is a storehouse of food, 
and becomes larger or smaller according as 
the animal is in good or in bad condition. 
The popular view of the camel's character 
is too flattering. It is stupid, ill-tempered, 
and sometimes vindictive, ^ut its passive 
obedience and power of endurance render 
it very valuable. It is not now anywhere 
found wild. It was domesticated at an ace 
so esrhr that Abraham. Jacob, and the 
Ishmaelites who bought Joseph all had 
camels (Gen. zii. 16 ; zxz. 43 ; zxxvii. 25). 
It was not, however, so much at home m 
Palestine^ which is a hilly country, as in 
the Arabian and the African deserts (Ezod. 
ix. 3; 1 Chron. v. 18-21). But it is still 
bred abundantly on the plains of Moab and 
in the south of Judsea. 

[Heb. QamSn = '* abounding in 
stalks of grain," from Qatnah = '* a stalk 
of grain" (?) {Gesenius)]. 

A place, presumably in the land of 
GKlead, wnere the '* judge" Jair was 
buried (Judg. z. 5). Site unknown. 

Camplilre [An old form of English, 
Camphor ; Gr. Kaphoura ; Arabic Kdfm' ; 
all from Malay Kapur = '' chalk "]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Kopher in Song i. 14 ; iv. 13. The A.V. 
considers it the Camphor-tree ; the R.V. 
renders it Hbnna (q.v.). 

[Gr. Kafid; Heb. Qanahy from 
<2«wA = "areed "(?)]. 

A village, more fully named Cana of 
Galilee, the scene of our Lord's first 
record^ miracle, the transformation of 
water into wine (John ii. 1, 11; iv. 46). 
It was the birthplace or early residence of 


Nathanael the apostle (xxi. 2\ FossiUy- 
the words ** of Galilee " are aaded to this 
Cana to distingnish it from another which 

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Josephus locates in Csele-Syria {Antiq, 
XV. V. j 1). The Jewiah historian several 
times mentions some Cana or other (Life, 
IG, 71 ; Antiq. XIH. xv. } 1 ; War/L. iv. 
7 ; xvii. 5). The traditionary site of tiie 
New Testament Cana is at Kefr K^nna, a 
Tillage about Z^ miles north-east of 
Nazareth, on the road to Tiberias. Dr. 
Bobinson strongly advocated another view, 
held by some inquirers in the Crusading 
period, that Cana of Galilee was at K^a- 
el-jeltl, which is the old name scarcely 
-changed, about eight miles north by east 
•of Nazareth. It is a miserable vills^^ on 
a nearly isolated hill, but has many ancient 
cisterns in ita vicinitv. The JPalestine 
explorers, who call the place KhUrbet 
Kanah, revert to the traditionary view. 

«n(l). [Canaan (2).] 

The f oiirtn son of Ham. His descendants 
were called Canaanitbs (q.v.) (Gen. x. 6, 
15-18; 1 Chron. L 8, 13-16). As a curse 
was pronounced against Canaan when one 
would have esmected to find it launched 
against his father Ham, Canaan, if then 
living and of responsible age, must in some 
way not known to us have shared his 
iatner's wickedness. Canaan^s doom was 
io be a 8er\'ant of servants to his " breth- 
i«n " (Gen. ix. 25-27). 

Caiuuui (2), Chanaww [Heb. Keua/tn 
<N.T. Gr. K)Muaan) = ** low," ** de- 
pressed**; "a low** or "depressed re- 

A name given at first to the low-lving 
•coast-line of Palestine (of. Matt. xv. 22), to 
distinguish it from Aram (Syria), which 
meant the highlands. Afterwards the 
name Canaan was extended first to the 
Jordan valley, and then to the whole of 
Palestine west of the river, and became 
one of the most common designations of 
the countiy inhabited by the Jews, though 
what Uiey occupied was really the high- 
land portion of Palestine and the Jordan 
valley, with little of the coast-line (Gen. 
xi. 31 ; Numb. xiii. 2 ; cf. 29). [Canaa- 
NiTB (2), Palestine.] 

H The Language of Canaan. The 
^* Hebrew ** tongue'(l8a. xix. 18). It iscalled 
in Neh. xiii. 24 the Jews* language. The 
Jews probably borrowed it from the 
Canaamte tribes. [Hebbew f .] 

CanaaDlte (I) [English; in Heb. 

(1) A aescendant of Canaan, the fourth 
son of Ham. The tribes to which he gave 
origin were *'8idon** or *'Zidon** (the 
Sidonians or Zidonians) and Heth (the 
Hittites), the Jebusite (the heatnen 
inhabitants of Jebus or Jerusalem), the 
Amorite, the Girgashite, the HiWte, the 
Arlrite, the Sinite, the Arvadite, the 
2emarite, and the Hamathite (Gen. z. 

15-18; 1 Chron. i. 13-16). A second list 
of the Canaanite tribes is given in Gen. 
XV. 19, 21, viz., the Kenites, the Keniz- 
zites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the 
Perizzites, the Bephaims, the Amorites, the 
Canaanites (proper), the Girgashites. and 
the Jebusites. Others occur in Exod. 
iii. 8 and Deut. xx. 17. The Canaanites 
were doomed to destruction on aocoimt of 
their sins (Deut. zx. 17). But the Israel- 
ites to a certain extent foiled to carry out 
the injunction. They in many cases con- 
tented themselves trith patting the 
Canaanite inhabitants to tribute (Judg. i. 
27-36). Solomon levied on tiiem a tribute 
of bondservice ; in other words, made them 
perform forced labour (1 Kings ix. 20, 21). 
(2) One, not the wnole, of the tribes 
descended from Canaan or inhabiting the 
country so named (Gen. xv. 21). They 
inhabited the Mediterranean region and 
the Jordan valley (Josh. ix. 1, etc.). 

Canaanite (2) [Gr. Kananites, from 
Heb. Qdnnd ; Aramaic Qanai or Qcuiedn = 

A zealot, one of a Jewish party so called, 
whose fanaticism helped to bring on the 
Boman war and the destruction of the city 
and Temple. The name was applied to 
Simon, an apostle (Matt. x. 4— A.V. ; 
Mark iii. 18— A. V.). In Luke vi. 15- 
A.V. and Acts i. 13 — A.V. he is more 
accurately called Simon Zelotes, t.^. Simon 
the zealot. There is no reason to believe 
that he was of Canaanite descent. [Cana- 


Canaaniteas [English ; in Heb. 
A female Canaanite (1 Chron. ii. 3). 

Cananiean. [Canaanite (2).] 
A zealot. [Canaanite (2).] (Matt. x. 
4— B.V. ; Mark iU. 18— bY.). 

[Gr. Kandaki], 

A queen oi Ethiopia, i.e,, probably, of 
Meroe, i^i southern Nubia. A eunuch of 
great authority at her court, being con- 
verted to Christianity when on a vlrit to 
I^lestine through the instrumentality of 
Philip the evangelist, seems to have intro- 
duoea his new faith into that African 
region (Acts viiL 26-39). Strabo, Dion 
Cassius, and Pliny all concur in stating 
that Meroe in the first century of the 
Christian era was govMned by a succession 
of queens, each called Candaoe. 


A stick or stand for a candle. One was 
made by Divine direction for the Taber- 
nade. It was of pure goldj and having 
six branches, three on each side, with one 
upright pillar, afforded support not for six, 
but for seven lamps (Ebiod. xxv. 31-37; 
xl. 24 ; Lev. xxiv. 4). In place of a single 

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candlestick Solomon made teo—five for 
the right and flye for the left of the 
"oracte" (1 Kings Tii. 49; 2 Chion. iv. 
7). They were carried away to Babylon 
(Jer. hi. 19). Zerubbabel returned to the 
earher arrangement, and had but a single 


(From the Arch qf Titus.) 

candlestick ; this was carried off by Anti- 
ochus Epiphanee (1 Mace. i. 21). Being 
replaced (it. 49), it continued till the 
capture of Jerusalem by Titus, when it 
was carried ofF to Rome, figuring in Titus*s 
triumph, and was scul^uied on his arch, 
whidi stall remains. The representation 
thoroughly agrees with that of the six or 
seven-raanched candlestick of the wilder- 
nev period (Joseph., War^ YU, t. { 5). 

glish ; Lat. Canna ; Gr. 
Kantut, Xinne, and Kane : all from Heb. 
Qameh =*<areed**]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Qaneh in Isa. xhii. 24 and Jer. ti. 20. It 
is evidently a reedy plant, with a sweet 
smelL In both places the margin of the 
R.V. renders it Valaxus (q.vO* So does 
the A.y. in Exod. zxz. 23 ; gon^ iv. 14 ; 
and Ezek. xrvii. 19. In Isa. xxzn. 6 both 
the A.y. and the B-Y. render Qaneh 

i [Enffliahl. 

The rendering of the Hebrew Teieq in 
Joel L 4 ; ii. 25 ; and in Nah. iii. 16. It 
M a winged insect ([Nah. iii. 16^, very 
desteuctive to growmg crops. Yeleq is 
trsaslated ** cat^pUlar ^ in FSalm cv. 34 
and Jer. Ix. 27— A. V. The R.V. makes it 
** cankerworm.'* It is said in Nehemiah 
to be rough, i.e. rough with hairs. As it 
•eems to *' spoil *' vegetation even after it 
has become winged, and is mentioned with 
the typical locust, which it resembles also 
in the numbers in which it appears, it is 

probably some species of locust ; which, it is 
oifficult to detennine. 


Probably the same as Calveh (q.v.) 
(Ezek. xxvii. 23). 

[Or. Kanon = (1) any straight 
rod or bar, such as a rod or level used by 
masons in building ; (2) figuratively, any- 
thing which serves to regulate or deter- 
mine other things, specially classical books. 
It is from Gr. Xane, Kanna, Kanne = " a 
reed " or " cane "]. [Cane.] 

A collection of all the inspired books, 
viewed as a rule of faith and conduct. The 
word canon does not occur in this specific 
sense in the Bible ; it does, however, in a 
more general one, with the meaning **a 
rule " fGal. vi. 16 ; Phil. iii. 16). A book 
entitled to a place in the Bible is called a 
canonical book, one not so entitled an 
uncanonical book, and the title itself 

(1) The Old TeatametU Canon, The 
traditional view, till lately all but univer- 
sally accepted, is that the Old Testament 
canon was completed as we now find it 
about 400 years B.C. (see, for instance, 
'*Gaus8enofi the Canon** [1863], p. 441). 
what may be called the human editor of 
the work bein^ Ezra the priest. Whoever 
receives this view must modi^ it at least 
to the extent of admitting that someone 
retouched the Old Testament long after 
Ezra's death ; for the book of Nehemiah 
brings down the succession of high priests 
to Jaddua, who is beheved to have been a 
contetaporaxy of Alexander the Great, 
flourishing about 332 b.c. (Neh. xii. 10, 1 1) ; 
and in 1 Chron. iii. 19-24 there appear to 
be several generations given of the descen- 
dants of I^rubbabel, a contemporary of 
Ezra's. A more modem view, advocated 
by Dr. Samuel Davidson, is that the three 
leading portions of the Hebrew Old 
Testament— the Law, the Prophets, and 
the Sacred Writings, called by the Greeks 
Hagiographa — came into existence, or, 
rather, were collected and published suc- 
cessively, and with oonsideraDle intervals of 
time between each. The collection and 
pubUcation of the first of the three — the 
Law, by which is to be understood the 
Pentateuch and the book of Joshua— are 
credited to Ezra. On the return from 
Babylon the Church and State had to be 
reorguiised ; law was needful for tiieir 
government, and to furnish it there was a 
reissue of the books embodjring the legis- 
lation at Sinai and during the wilderness 
wanderings. Ezra made continual efforts 
to instruct the people in this law, and gain 
to it their heturtfelt obedience (Ezra vii. 
6, 10, 11, 12, 14; X. 3; Neh. viii. 1, 8, 
12-15, 17, 18 ; ix. 28, 29). In an apocry- 
phal book, 2 Esdras xiv. 1-48, Ezra is 

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said to have restored the lost scriptures hj 
writing them anew. 

The apocryphal 2 Mace. (ii. 13) says 
''Neemias*' (rTehemiah) ** founding a u- 
brazy gathered together the acts of the 
kings, and the prophets, and of David, and 
the epistles oi the kings concerning the 
holy gifts.** This looks uke collection and 
publication or republication of the historic 
books of the Old Testament (omitting the 
Pentateuch and Joshua, already re- 
issued), with the prophets and the poetic 
books, excepting those arranged in the 
third section of the Old Testament scrip- 
tures. Old Jewish writers attribute some 
part of the work on the Canon to certain 
learned men called the Great Synw>gue, 
which is believed to have continued m>m 
about 444 to 200 B.C. During this time 
they may have supplemented Kehemiah*8 
edition, which may have been in gradual 

frogress from 444 to 300 B.C., i.e. about 
44 years. 

2 Maccabees ii. 14 follows the state- 
ment about Nehemiah*s action by a more 
vague intimation that Judas Maccabeus 
*' gathered together all those things that 
were lost by reason of the war we had, 
and thev remain with us.** This might be 
the collection and reissue as a whole of 
the third section of the Old Testament, the 
Hagiographa, or Sacred Writings. The 
words, however, are ambiguous. The 
Prologue to Ecclesiasticus, translated by 
Jesus the son of Sirach (about 230 (?) B.C.). 
is plain and unmistakable. He speaks oi 
** the law, and the prophets, and other 
books of our fathers,*^ the latter expres- 
sion referring probably to the Hagio- 
grapha, or, at least, to that portion of it 
which had then been collected. In the 
first century B.C. doubts arose in certain 
minds as to the canonicity of Ecclesiastes, 
the Song of Solomon, £sther. Proverbs, 
and Ezekiel, but they were for the time 
allayed. Our Lord and His Apostles quote 
or refer to so many Old Testament books 
from all the three portions of the col- 
lection that their canon cannot be dis- 
tin^shed from ours. About a.d. 65, and 
again in 90 a.d., fresh discussions took 
place, at the earlier date regarding Eccle- 
siastes, and at the later one r^arding it and 
the Song of Solomon, the ultmiate aecision 
at the Synod of Jabneh, or Jamnis (about 
A.D. 90) , being in favour of their canonicity. 
Ten vears later, or about 100 a.d., 
Josepbus {Against Apion^ i. 8) stated 
that the Jewish sacred books were 
twenty-two. He really acknowledged the 
whole thirty-nine whidi we now possess ; 
but called the eleven minor Prophets one 
book, combined Ruth with Judges, Lamen- 
tations with Jeremiah, etc., so as to har- 
monise with the number of letters (twenty- 
two) in the old Hebrew alphabet. The 

Jews, to whom '' tiie orades of God" were 
committed, showed themselveB worthy of 
their high trust, for they have lost no 
book, and as a rule have been exceedingly 
careful to keop the text in its pristme 
purity. [Old Testaiiknt.] 

(2) TJie Canon of the New TeBtament. 
The earliest books of the New Testament 
were P&ul*8 Epistles to the Theesalonians, 
which appeared about 48 A.D. That the 
Apostle meant these letters to be PubUc 
and authoritative is plain ^m 1 Thess. 
V. 27; 2 Thess. ii. 15; iii. 4, 6, 12. 14. 
More epistles followed after the middle of 
the first century, with other portions of 
the New Testament. The epistles of 
St. Paul are recognised as Smpture in 
2 Peter iii. 15, 16, whidi shows that when 
that letter was written the idea of a New 
Testament canon had already taken root. 
Omitting references of individual fathers 
to particular books, it may be mentioned 
that Barnabas^ about 119 A.D., seems to 
have quoted either Matt. xx. 16 or xxii. 
14 from the Bible, or 2 Esdras viii. 3, an 
apocryphal book. About 144 a.d. the 
** heretic '* Marcion travelled from Pontus 
to Rome, bringing with him an altered 
version of St. Luke*s gospel, with ten 
epistles of St. Paul, those to Timothy 
and Titus being omitted, as was that 
to the Hebrews. The shorter Greek 
recension of the epistles of Ignatius, 
about 175 A.D., recognises as New Testa- 
ment sacred books **the Oospel and 
the Apostles.** Irensus (bom in 120 and 
martyred in 202 a.d.} had a canon contain- 
ing the four Gospels, the Acts, thirteen 
Epistles of St. Paul, St. John, and Bevela- 
tion. He, too^ had a second canon of 
inferior authonty to the first. It con- 
tained 1 Peter. 2 John, and the Shepherd 
of Hennas. Clement of Alexandria (bom 
about 150, died about 220 a.d.) had also 
two canons, the first agreeing with the 
hiffher one of Irensens, the second, of 
inferior authority to the first^ consisting of 
Hebrews, 2 John, Jude, the Apocalypse of 
Peter, the Shepherd of Hennas, and the 
Epistles of Clement and Barnabas. Ter- 
tullian (bom about 160 (?) or 135 (?). died 
about 220 (?) a.d.), like the rest, had two 
canons, the first consisting of the Gospels, 
the Acts, thirteen Epistles of St. Paul, the 
Revelation, and 1 John. His second 
included Hebrews, Jude, the Shej^^ of 
Hermas, 2 John, and 1 P^er. Of the 
Christian fathers preceding Origen none 
had greater influence in fixing the canon 
than the three just mentioned — Irenaeus, 
Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian. 
The Peshito (simple) version of the Bible 
in Syriac, now dated at the oommenoeiment 
of the third century [Vsbsiohs], contains 
all the twenty-seven books. Oiigen, about 
254 A.D., appears, as has been gathered 

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from scattered notices in his works, to 
Lave recognised three distinct classes of 
books— the first, authentic ; the second, 
mixed, or intermediate, i,e, of doubtful au- 
thenticity ; and the third, spurious writings. 
In the first categoiy ne ranked ue 
Gosnels, the Acts, the thirteen Epistles of 
Paul, Hebrews as &r as it contaixied Faults 
, ideas, 1 Peter, 1 John, and Bevelation; in 
the second he phioed James, 2 Peter, 2 and 
3 John, and Jude ; and in the third various 
books now rejected. The opposition 
to certain books reached its height early in 
the fourth century. Professor Gaussen, of 
Crenera, summing up the evidence of 
which the most impOTtant portions have 
now been ^nven, divides the twenty-seven 
books of tiie "Sew Testament into three 
distinct daases. Those of the first, eighteen 
in number, were accepted at once and 
without demur. They were the four 
Gospels, the Acts of the Ai)08ties, and the 
thirteen acknowledged Epistles of St. Paul. 
Of 7,959 verses comprised in the New 
Testament, thev contain 7,059, or eight- 
ninths of the wnole. A second class con- 
sisted of the seven general Emstles of 
James, Peter, John, and Jude. They were 
received from the first by most, but not by 
all the early Churches. They contain 222 
verses, or one thirty-sixth part of the 
whole. The third class contains two 
works — the Epistle to the Hebrews, and 
the book of Kevelation, which being re- 
ceived unhesitatingly at the time of their 
appearance, and on to the close of the 
second century, were afterwards for a time 
called in question, Hebrews in the West, 
and Revelation in the East. They together 
contain 303 -^ 404 = 707 verses, or about 
one-eleventh of the whole. Thus all the 
lengthened discussions which took place 
on the New Testament canon were 
h*Ih....l a .■.li.;^!. j...:t at tj.. ..Lion.i-l Tolume; 
the greativ Jargor partiuti vriis eonHikWj 
f¥ioeivpd. While yet tlie opijoaitirm to 
certain books was but slightly alkyed, 
^»ebiu» :ibotit A.D. Mi} iBaut^l hu H'trfe- 
mtiMiitfti Hi*tmy, Rec^iiftijm nf^tiuilly 
eziRtin^ fjietB, he made a fomiarcIjjjsmfiL^- 
tioo of the Chrirtiati books i:LkimiTig 
inspiration. He divided thenj into thrtse 
lifimarT claase** — (1) nfHtia/o^ottmffifi {ac- 
«e|ited\Kiok9), induditiK the Gognels, the 
Aetfl, thiitt^eti Epistkfl of Paul, Hebrews, 
1 John. 1 Peter J imcl. **if thought 
pFoiitf »" ReV(*liitio(ii ; (2) AniU4'§fmitHa 
(coatTOvert^i bcciloi), moJufimg Jainfjs, 
^ Pteter, 2 and 3 John* jnid Jude \ and (3) 
jTc^tAd (qmripus books), none of which ure 
nnw received a& (^luionicaL Besides the 
citttJoipje of EuseMu*, eleven othi?Tit hare 
been Irft ua by the fathers and councilH of 
tilt JbtirUi esiiury. 1^'uiQ tminiiatCMl from 
the Others and two from the couiidls. 
With the ejcceiijion of three, which omit 

Bevelation, all the catalogues emanating 
from the &thers, viz.^tho6eof Athanasius, 
Epiphanius, Jerome, Bufinus, and Au^- 
tine, are identical with that now umver- 

sally accepted throughout the Protestant 
of Christendom, the opposition to a 

part ( 

small amount of the books, strong at the 
beginning of the fourth century, having 
almost wholly collapsed before its close. 
The two Councils m the fourth century 
which considered the question of the canon 
were that of Laodioea ▲.d. 364, and that 
of Carthage in 307. The Council of Lao- 
dioea fixed a New Testament canon 
identical with ours, except that it left out 
Bevelation. That of Carthage admitted 
Bevelation, and made the New Testament 
canon iust as we have it at the present 
time. No serious discussions on the sub- 
ject arose in the subsequent centuries. 
Though individuals may have raised the 
question afresh, the Churches have been 
willing to let it rest ; and as the Council of 
Carthage left it, so it remains till now. 
[New Testament.] 

Cantleles [English from Lat. Canti- 
eulum = ** a little song." Cauticum Canti' 
ewrwn is the Song of ^ngs, the name given 
in the Vulgate to the Song of Solomon]. 

Another name for The Somo of Solo- 
icon (q.v.) (Seeetym.). 

€!apeniaiiiii [Gr. KapemaouMy Kaphar' 
naoum, probably from Heb. Kephar 
Nahhum = " village of Nahum " or ** of 

A dtv or town on the north-Westem 
shore oi the Lake of Galilee, near or on the 
boimdary between Zebulun and Naphtali 
(Matt. IV. 13-16 ; cf. Luke iv. 31 ; John 
vi. 17, 24). At an early period of our 
Lord's ministrv He remove4i thither from 
Nazareth (t^ia.), and so continually made 
it the headquarters of His itinerant 
ministry that it came to be called His own 
city (Matt. ix. 1 ; cf . Mark ii. 1 ; John 
ii. 12). It was there that He healed the 
centurion's palsied ** servant" or slave 
(Matt. viii. 5-13; Luke vii. 1-10), and 
Pettr's wife's mother when she was pros- 
tratD with fever (Matt. viii. 14-17 ; Mark 
i. 29-31 ; Luke iv. 38, 39), one of the 
demoniacs (Mark i. 21-28 ; Luke iv. 
31-37), a man afflicted by palsy borne of 
four (Mark ii. 1-13; cf. Matt. ix. 1-8^, 
a nobleman's ** servant " {John iv. 46-54). 
with quite a number oi other diseased 
people (Matt. viii. 16-17; Marki. 32-34; 
Luke iv. 23, 40, 41). The discourse re- 
corded in John vi. 24-71, which followed 
on the feeding of the 5,000, with many 
other addresses, was delivered in the 
synagogue at Capernaum or elsewhere 
in the town (Mark ix. 33-50). It was at 
Capernaum also that Jesus called to the 
apostieship Matthew or Levi, as he was 

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sitting at the receipt of custom (]£att. ix. 
9-13 ; Mark ii. 14-17 ; Luke v. 27-32 ; cf. 
Matt zvii. 24). It might have been ex- 
pected that a place so spedallv favoured 
would have made proi>er use of its privi- 
leges ; it did the opposite, and its ruin was 
predicted by Jesus oecause of its impeni- 
tence (Matt. zi. 23, 24 ; Luke z. 15). 

The **city" of Capernaum does not 
seem to have been ancient when Jesus 
made it His headquarters. It is not men- 
tioned in the Old Testament, and probably, 
therefore, did not arise till after the 

his suffrage in fiivour of Khan Min^Bh, 
and Major Conder takes the same view. 
But the prevalent opinion, which has 
among its other supporters Sir Chas. 
Wilsou, is in favour of the other site. Tell 
Hum. Caper is the Hebrew Kapkar = 
** village *' [see etym.], and mieht well be 
dropped in favour of the Arabic Tell = 
** mound.** when the place became a ruin. 
Hum in Arabic means ** a herd of camels ;** 
if Hebrew, it is probably part of the word 
Nahum. It is in favour of Tell Hum that 
there are extensive ruins of an ancient city 



captivity. Josephus relates in his Life^ 
6 72, that fighting a battle with Sylla, a 
Koman commander, near Julias (not far 
from the spot where the Jordan enters the 
Lake of Galilee^, he was thrown from his 
horse, and had nis wrist bruised ; on which 
account he ** was carried into a village 
named Cephamome or Capernaum.** 
Again, describing the fertile plain of 
Genesareth, he says—'' it is also watered 
by a fountain. The people of the country 
call it Caphamaum. Some have thought 
it to be a vein of the Nile, because it pro- 
duced the coracin fish, as well as that lake 
does which is near to Alexandria ** ( War. 
III. X. 8). 

Two spots contend for the honour of 
being the site of the now departed Caper- 
naum. They are about two and a naif 
miles apart. The most northerly is called 
Tell Hum, the more southerly Khan 
Minyeh or Minyah. Dr. Bobiuson gave 

piled along the shore, and for at least 800 
feet up the hill. The houses must nearly 
all have been of black basalt, while the 
ruins of a synagogue, either that in which 
Jesus preached or its successor, are of 
marble, or fine limestone quarried in the 
mountains north-west of the locality. 

Caphtor [Heb. Kavfitor = '* a small 
wreath " or »^ garland '*]. 

An isle or sea-coast, the remnant of 
whose inhabitants, emigrating or being^ 
driven out, became the germ or nucleus of 
the Philistine nation (Jer. xlvii. 4 — A.Y. 
and R.y. ; Amos ix. 7J. It is believed to 
be Lower Egjrpt, t.^. the Delta of the Nile 
and the region immediately adjacent. 

Caphtmrim, Capl&toriiiis [Heb. 

Kaphtorim^ the plural of Kaphtob (q.v.)]. 
An individual, or, as the plural suggestSy 

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a tribe, descended from Mizraim. and 
therefore nreeumably at first from Egypt 
(Gen. X. 14; 1 Chron. i. 12). They be- 
came the inhabitants of Caphtob (^.t.) 
ODeut. iL 23). 

_ [Caphtoboc.] 

(Deut. ii. '23-A.V.) 

Cappsdoola [Lat. from Gr. Kappa^ 

A province in the interior of Asia Minor. 
It was bounded on the north by Pontus, 
on the south by Cilida, on the east by 
Syria and Lesser Armenia, and on the west 
by Lycaonia. It produced excellent wheat 
wad. norses, but was regarded as a region 
of uncultivated minds and immoral prac- 
tioee. Visitors from it were present at the 
Pentecostal feast, rendered ever memorable 
for the descent of the Holy Spirit (Acts ii. 
9). Some of the *' straiu^n " to whom 
St. Peter addressed his tot e^nstle were 
scattered throughout Cappodocia (1 Peter 

CaptlTtty [Lat. CaptititM^ from Cap'to 
= " to take," "to seize"]. 

The state of beine in bondage to enemies, 
especially in a foreign land. In Old 
Testament times the Anyrions introduced, 
and the Babylonians adopted, the some- 
what dangerous practice of making a 
wholesale deportation at least of the 
leading men belonging to each country 
which they conquered, and locating them in 
districts where they would be under the 
eye of the central government. If this 
removal of leaders rendered it more diffi- 
cult for the conquered people to revolt, 
it introduced multitudes of disaffected 
foretgnen into otherwise loyal regions, 
^ve them knowledge of any weaknesses 
which might exist under the government 
of the conquerors, and afforded them 
incitement and opportunity of betra^g it 
to its enemies at seasons of crisis. In 
B.C. 740 the Assyrians under Tiglath- 
pileeer captured tne cities of Northern 
Galilee and those east of the Jordan, and, 
carrying the inhabitants to Assyria, com- 
menced the captivity of the ten tribes 
(2 Kings XT. 29 : 1 Chron. v. 26 : Isa. ix. 
1 ). After the fall of Samaria, b.c. 721 , the 
remainder of the ten tribes, constituting 
veiy mudi the larger part of the nation, 
were carried captive to Asmia and the 
then dependent country of Media, the 
vacant territory being refilled by colonists 
from heathen tribes, who ultimately deve- 
loped into the Samaritan nation (2 Kings 
xrii. 6, 24-41 ; zviii. 9-12). It is believed 
tliat the mass of the captives never again 
returned to their own land (cf. Joseph., 
AnHg. XV. iL 2 ; War, II. xvi. 4). It 
was the deetinr of the two tribes to be 
taken to Babylon. The fljrst deportation 

of them, which was on a limited scale, 
took place when Jerusalem was captured 
for the first time by Nebuchadnezzar, 
about the fourth year of Jehoiakim, 
B.O. 606. It was m this captivity that 
Daniel and his three companions were 
carried away (2 Kings xxiv. 12 ; 2 Chron. 
xxxvi. 6 : Dan. i. l-f). A second depor- 
tation followed in b.o. 699, the eighth year 
of Nebuchadnezzar and the first of Jehoia- 
chin. It was on a much larger scale. Ten 
thousand were carried away, including not 
only the princes and ine aristocracy 
generally, but the smiths and other artisans. 
**Nope were left but the poorest sort of 
the people " (2 Kings xxiv. 10-16). Then 
came the crowning captivity of all— that 
under Zedekiah, b.o. 588, m which the 
Temple was burnt, and all but the poor 
again carried away (2 Kiuj^ xxv. 11, 12). 
The seventy years* captivity nredicted by 
Jeremiah (2 Chron. xxxvi. 21 ; Jer. xxv. 
9-12; xxix. 10)^ and which excited the 
attention of Darnel (Dan. ix. 2), extended, it 
is believed, from 0O6 to 536 b.c. In the 
latter year Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of 
Babylon, moved by God (Ezrai. 1), allowed 
the Jews to return to their own land, thus 
terminating the captivity of the two tribes. 
The act was as politic as it was kind. It 
conciliated those whom the Babylonians 
had oppressed, and thus strengthened the 
Persians, while it weakened the Baby- 
lonians. It removed a disaffected and, 
therefore, dangerous people from the 
vicinity of the capital to a distant place, 
attaching them by gratitude to the power 
to which m future their allegiance was due. 

Carlniiicle [English from Lat. Car- 
buneulm = ** a small coal," diminutive of 
C^r^ = "charcoal"]. 

(l)The rendering of Hebrew ^ar^^^^A 
and Barqath = '* a kind of gem," and 
from Baraq = ** to shine hke lightning " 
(Ezek. xxvui. 13— A.V. and text of R. V.). 
It was the third stone in th^ first row m 
the high priest^s breastplate (Exod. xxviii. 
17— A. V. and text of R.V.). In both 
cases the margin of the R.y. makes it an 
emerald. [Emebald.I 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew Zqdah, 
from QddaCh = " to blaze." " to gfow,'^ 
in Isa. liv. 12— A.V. and B.V. According 
to Dana three distinct minerals are called 
by Pliny carbuncles. They are the garnet, 
tne ruby spinel, and the sapphire. The 
garnet specially included under Pliny*s 
carbimcles is the Precious or Oriental 
Garnet or Almandine. It is of a fine deep 
transparent colour: the beet are from 
Pegu. The Ruby Spinel is a spinel of a 
clear red oi reddish colour, transparent or 
tnmsluoent. [Safphi&b.] 

Caroas [Heb. Karkas, from Persian => 
"an eagle '^ (?) {Oe^iua)], 

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^f^.|> ^|t^W[l<ylt 



Ono of the seyen chamberlains who 
served in the presence of king Ahasuerus 
(Xeizeo) (Esther i. 10). 

I' [Heb. Karkemish; ac- 
cording to Gesenius from Aramaic Kerek 
= "a stronghold," **a dtadel" ; and 
MUh^ the specific name of the pl&oe (cf. 
Moabite CAe/notA)]. 

The eastern capital of the Hittites, at a 
ford oyer the Euphrates. It was defended 
on the north ana west by a canal, and on 
the other sides by the Euphrates. Admir- 
ably situated for commercial purpoees, it 
became very wealthy. The Assyrian king, 
Assur-natsir-pal (885 to860 B.O.} was about 
to assault it, but was bought off b^ the 
promise of rich tribute. In b.o. 717 it was 
captured b^ Sargon, and with it fell the 
Hittite empire (lu. X. 9). Fharaoh-Necho, 
king of Egypt, was heayily- defeated at 
Carchemisnby Kebuchadneasar in B.C. 604 
(2 Chron. xzxv. 20 ; Jer. zlyi. 2). It was 
not, as was formerly supposed, the same 
^aoe as the Greek Ktrkesion and the 
Uoman Ctreeaium. Its site was discovered 
by Mr. Skene, the English consul at 
Aleppo, his identification being confirmed 
by Mr. George Smith, of the British 
Museum. It is called Jerabliis or Kalaat 
Jerabldis, i,0. ** the fortress of Jerabltis," a 
name believed to be a corruption of the 
Greek Hterapolin, or Holy City. It is on 
the western bank of the Euphrates, midway 
between Birejik and the mouth of the 
Sajur, about 200 miles N.W. of Circesium. 
An artificial mound covers ruins and 
sculptured blocks; some of the latter 
have been brought to the British Museum. 
The human figures have boots with up- 
turned tips, which is believed to settle 
conclusively that they are of Hittite origin. 


Oareab [Heb. Qareahh = '' bald," 
"destitute of hair"]. 
The father of Johanan (2 Kings zzv. 23). 

Cmraul [Heb. Kannel = " a fruitful 
field." " a garden," *♦ a park "]. 

(1) A range of hills, about eight miles 
long, running from the inland parts of 
Central Palestine and terminating in a 
promontory which juts into the Mediter- 
ranean, and constitutes the southern 
boundary of the Bay of Acre. Near its 
south-eastern end it is 1,742 feet high, a 
little further onward it is 1,71/5, and it 
gradually falls more and more, till at the 
north-western top, that which constitutes 
the promontory, it is only 556 feet high, 
purvey Map of Palestine, sheet 6.) 
Viewed from the south it is not imposing, 
but it looks better from the Bay of Acre^ 
The range constitutes the south-western 
boundary of the valley of Esdraelon or 
Jezreel, through which the Kishon runs, 

and at one place that river or brook 
vrashes the northern slope of CarmeL The 
summit of the range consists of a series of 
eminences vrith te^blelands on their tops, 
sometimes bare and rocky and sometimes 
covered with shrubs, especially the prickly 
oak, the juniper, etc Thestrataareof lime- 
stone, and there are caves on the sides of the 
mountain chain, though not on its summit. 
The view from its higher parts is fine. It 
is now called Jebel Kurmul, and is im- 
doubtedly the Mount Carmei of Scripture 
(cf. Jer. zlvi. 18). Caimel constituted tiie 
southern boundary of Asher (Josh. ziz. 
26; cf. xii. 22). It was on the top of 
Carmei that Elijah brought to a decisive 
issue the question between him and the 
worshippers of Baal (1 Kings xviiL 17-40) ; 
and it was from the top of the same range 
that his servant looked seven timto before 
he saw the ascent from the Mediterrartean 
of the little doud like a man's hand which 
heralded the heavy rain-storm about to be 
granted to the thirsty Umd (41-40). Carmei 
was visited by Elisba (2 Kings li. 25 ; iv. 
25). It is beueved to have been anciently 
cultivated to the summit with fruit-trees in 
orchards or gardens, as its name im- 
ports, and when in Song vii. 6 the lover 
says to the object of his affection '* Thine 
h&Bud upon thee is like Carmei," ^ he 
probably means covered with luxuriant 
nair, as Carmei is with fruit-trees (cf. 
2 Chron. zxvi. 10 ; Isa. zzziii. 9 ; xxxv. 2 ; 
Jer. iv. 26— R.V. margin; 1. 19). The 
absence now of these trees was to have 
been expected, for Amos the prophet had 
thus spoken. ** The top of Carmei shall 
wither^* (i. 2). He says also, ** Though they 
hide themselves on the top of Cannel, I 
will search and take them out thence," 
the meaning being, thoujgh they hide among 
the vineyards, the oliveyaros, and the 
orchards (ix. 3 ; cf. Nah. L 4). The forest 
or wood in the midst of Carmei was pro- 
bably one consisting chiefly of fruit-trees 
(2 Kings xix. 23 : Isa. xxxvii. 24 : Micah 
vii. 14— A. V. and R.V.). There has long 
been a convent on Mount Carmei, after 
which the Carmelite monks are named. 

(2) A town in the mountainous part of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 55 ; cf. 1 Sam. xv. 12). 
The churlish NabaPs possessions lay in the 
vicinity (I Sam. xxv. 2-40). It may be 
alludea to in 2 Chron. xxvi. 10, but it is 
doubtful, the more natural rendering being, 
as the R.y. makes it, fruitful fields (see 
A.y. and R.Y. texts and margins). The 
name is still retained in the modem 
Kurmul, a ruin about seven miles south of 
Hebron. It was apparently of the second 
Carmei that the Cannelites of I Sam. xxx. 
5, 2 Sam. ii. 2, iii. 3, xxiii. 35 {Y), 
1 Chron. xi. 37, and the Carmelites of 
1 Sam. xxvii. 3, 1 Chron. iii. 1 were natives 
or inhabitants. 

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CSttrml [Heb. jriin»tt = **a vine- 
dreMer,** from J>m»=(l) ** a vineyard," 
(2) "a vine"]. 

(1) The jonngeBt son of Reuben, and 
fouiMler of the Curmite iamilj (G^en. xlvi. 
9; Exod. vi. 14; Numb. zxvL 6; 1 
Chron. v. 3). 

(2) The son of Zabdi or Zimri, and 
Uther of Acfaan (Josh. viL 1 ; 1 Chron. ii. 

Cupeater [English]. 

The first mention of carpentry in the 
Bible as a distinct occupation bb in 2 Sam. 
V. 11. In Isaiah's time carpenters had a 
measuring-rule as one of their implements 
(laa. zliv. 13),and a saw as another (z. 15). 
Joseph, our Lord's foster-father, was a 
carpenter (Matt. xiii. 55), and in His 
youth Jesus worked at the same calling 
Himself (Mark vi. 3). 

[Lat from Gr. Katpoa = '' the 

A resident at Troas, with whom Paul, 
probably by inadvertence, left his cloak, for 
wUch he had afterwards to send (2 Tim. 
iT. 13). 

CandMBa [Heb. Kanhena^ from 
Persian = '* pillage of war "]. 

One of tne seven lead^ princes of 
Persia at the court of King Ahasuerus 
(Xerxes) (Esther i. 14). 

CarrlnS [English]. 

The art of cutting letters or ornaments 
in wood, stone, ivory, or other material. 
Bezaleel, a man of Judah, and Aholiab, a 
Danite, were gifted in this respect when 
the tabernacle and its furnishings were 
beinff prenued (Exod. xxxi. 1-7 ; xxxv. 
30-35). There was carved work in 
Solomon's temple (1 Kinffs vi. 18), and in 
that of Zerubbabel (Psalm Ixxiv. 6), as 
well as in the superior kind of domestic 
architecture (Prov. vii. 16). 

Properly a small portion of a window, 
made movable by a hinge above, so that it 
may be opened while the rest of the window 
remains shut. Now, however, it is often 
used of the entire window (Prov. vii. 6). 

CSastpld* [Heb. Kasiphyuj from Heb. 
Ke»eph, Aramaic Keaaph^ Kaapha = 
"silver" (?)]. 

An unknown place, apparently on Ezra's 
route between ^bylon and Jerusalem. If 
so, then the Caspian reanon, i.e, the region 
around the Caspian Sea^ suggested by 
Gesenius owine to the similarity of name, 
would be too far north to be uie locality 
sought (Ezra viii. 17). 

L [Heb. KatltiAhimj of doubt- 
ful meaning]. 
An Egyptian people descended from 

Mizraim, and standing^ in the line of ances- 
tral descent to the Philistines (Qen. x. 14 ; 
1 Chron. i. 12). 

[English, from Lat. Casta, 
Cauia ; Ghr. Katia^ Kania = an Arabian 
plant producing an inferior kind of cinna- 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Qiidah, from QddhadA^'* to cleave" 
occurring in Exod. xxx. 24 and Esek. 
xxviL 19. On the margin of Exod. xxx. 
24— B.T. the rendering is Coatm. The 
Co$tu$ of the ancients was discovered bv 
Dr. Falconer to be a composite plant with 
purple flowers now called ApUtaxis Lappa, 
ffrowing in Cashmere from 8,000 to 9,000 
feet above the sea level. It is exportea to 
various countries, the valuable part bein^^ 
the root. The Chinese bum it in their 
temples for incense. 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
QeUioth, the feminine plural of QeUiak^ 
from QdUa = " to cut oft" or " pe^ oflf,'* 
used of bark in Psalm xlv. 8. Cassia bark 
is derived from various species of Cinna- 
momum. [Cinnamon.] 


In the plural the rendering of the 
Hebrew Menaanim (from3^«a=** to nod^" 
** to tremble," " to vibrate "), occurring m 
2 Sam. vi. 5— R.V. as the name of a 
musical instrument which David and his 
subjects played. The margin has aistray 
and the A.Y. *' comets." Castanets are a 
pair of small spoon-shaped cymbals fast- 
ened to the thumb and beaten together by 
the middle finger. The word castanets 
is derived from Caatanea = ** a chestnut," 
two of these fruits being anciently attached 
to the fingers and beaten together. Cas- 
tanets were emi>loyed in Greece and Rome 
as an accompaniment to hymns in honour 
of the goddess Artemis or Diana. 

Castla rEnfflish, from Lat. dutelitan], 
A fortined Duildiug or fortress. The 
A.Y. of Gen. xxv. 16 makes the early 
Ishmaelite chiefs live in castles ; the R.V. 
alters these to encampments, which is more 
probable. The same substitution is made 
for the Midianite castles in Numb. xxxi. 
10— R.V. In 1 Chron. xi. 5, 7, the Jebu- 
site castle which David took was con- 
verted into his residence, and was after- 
wards called the city of David. The 
R.V. substitutes stronghold, which does 
not differ much from a castle. Jehoshaphat 
built ** castles" in the cities of Judah 
(2 Chron. xvii. 12 ; mar^^ of A.Y. 
** palaces"), and Jotham in its forests 
(xxvii. 4— A.Y. and R.Y.). The Book of 
Proverbs (xviii. 19) mentions them as 
having bars, evidently difficult to break or 
H " The castle" in which Paul was con- 

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Castor and FoUnz 

( 120) 


fined at Jerusalein was the tower of 
Antonia. [Jebusalem.] 

Castor and PoUnx [Lat. Cantor; Gk. 
Kaator; Lat. and Gr. I^Uux), 

Two Greek and Roman divmitiee having 
the same mother— Leda, but Castor's father 
was Tjmdareus, a Laoedsmonian or 
Spartan king, while that of Pollux was 
Zeus, the Greek supreme god, the Jupiter 
of the Romans. But bj another account 
Castor was also the son of Zeus. By the 
first myth Castor and Pollux were half, by 
the second one full, brothers. Castor was 
a great charioteer and horse-master, while 
Pollux was a highly- distinguished pugilist. 
After various exploits, Castor was JdUedin 
a fight, and Pollux, between whom and his 
brother there was a warm affection, was 
offered by Zeus the gift of immortality, 
but begged to be allowed to share 
it day and day about with the deceased 
Castor. The request was granted, and 
both brothers were worshipped, specially' 
at Sparta, imder the name oi the Dioscuri, 
or sons of Zeus. Thevwere regarded as the 
special protectors of distresMd mariners 
KJrote, Ifiat, ojTG^irftSf, Part I., chap. viiL). 
The Alexandrian vessel in which Paul 
sailed from ** Melita " to Rome had for its 
sign — that is, had on its ensign or flag — 
"Dioskouroi." This the U7V. ren&rs 
*• The Twin Brothers," and the A.V., with 
more latitude, " Castor and Pollux " (Acts 
xxviii. 1 1^. The constellation Gemini (the 
Twins) IS called after the affectionate 
brothers, and its two leading stars are 
named Castor and Pollux. 

CaterpUlar [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
H/uMiif from HJ^&Hal=^ "to feed opon," 
" to devour," in 1 Kings viii. 37 ; 2 (Siron. 
vi. 28 ; Ptolm Ixxviii. 46 ; Isa. xxxiii. 4 ; 
Joel i. 4; ii. 25. Probably a species of 
locust, or the common migratory locust in 
one stage of development (cf . Joel i. 4 ; ii. 
25— margin of R.V.). 

Cattle rEnglishl. 

The renaering of the Hebrew Mioneh^ a 
comprehensive wtm used in the OldTesta- 
ment apparently for camels, horses, sheep, 
goats, oxen, and asses; in short, for all 
aomestic quadrupeds except the dog (Gen. 
xiii. 2 ; xxvi 13, 14 : xxx. 32 ; xxxi. 8, 9, 
38, 41 ; xlvii. 16-18). 

Canda [Gr. Kanda\. 

The name in the text of the R.Y. of the 
island called on the margin and in the 
A.V. Clauda (q.v.) (Acts xxvii. 16). 

Caid [English]. 

(1) A net worn over the hair by Hebrew 
women (Isa. iii. 18J ; rendered ** network " 
on the margin of the R.Y. 

(2) The lesser omentum, a layer of the 
inner lining of the cavity of the belly, 

partly enveloping the liver, as the greater 
omentum does uie stomadi (Exod. xxix. 
13, 22 ; Lev. iii. 4, 10, 15, etc.). 

Cave [English]. 

A hollow place ; a cavern in the side of a 
hill or in any similar situation. Caves 
tend to occur m all cliffis which are now or 
have at any former time been washed by 
sea-wavee; they are, however, most 
numerous and largest in limestone coun- 
tries, of which Palestine is one. Many 
caves are mentioned in the Bible, the most 
celebrated being that of Machpelah (Gen. 
xxiii. 1-20 ; xlix. 29), and that of AduUam 
(1 Sam. xxiL 1 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13). Other 
caves are spoken of in G^en. xix. 30 ; Josh. 
X. 16 ; Judg. vL 2 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 6 ; xxiv. 
10 ; 1 Kin^ xviii. 4 ; xix. 9 ; Isa. u. 19 ; 
Ezek. xxxm. 27 ; John xi. 38 ; and Heb. 
xi. 38). 

Cedar ^ngUsh, from Lat. Cedrtu ; Gr. 
Kedi'09 ; Heb. Erez^ from -4r« = "to 
render firm " or ** stable "] . 

The rendering of the Hebrew Erez^ from 
^r«2=**torenaerfirm" or **8table."ItiBa 
very large tree (2 Kings ziv. 9 ; Psalm 
civ. 16; Isa. ii. 13; xiv. 8, etc.). Its 
timber was used for beams in David^s 
palace (I Chron. xvii. 1), in Sobmon's 


temple, and in other edifices. Its wood 
was fra^prant, whence it was used in 
ceremomal purifications (Lev. xiv. 4 ; 
Numb. xix. 6). The He Drew Erez was 
evidently the Cedar of Lebanon {Abiet 
Cedrtu, or Cedrtu Libani). It is the Arz 
of the Arabs. It is a large tree of dome- 
shaped form, with long, spreading, con- 
torted brandies, evergreen leaves, and 
cones three to five inches long. It is wild on 
Mount Taurus as well as in Lebanon. The 
little grove of trees on the latter range 
generally visited by travellers was long 
believed to be the only one ; but others 
have now been discovered on the back of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


(121 ) 


the mountain. Thefre are many oedan of 
Lebanon planted in the suburbs of London. 
It is doubtful whether the Deodar of the 
Himalaya mountains is really a distinct 

Cedron [Kidboit] (John jlvuL 1— 

, OBii6lirea [Lat. from Gr. 
KeHckhreiai in the plural = ffiains of 

The eastern of the two ports of Corinth, 
that which gave access to the Archipelago. 
It was about nine miles from the city. 
Paul visited it (Acts xviii. 18), and it after- 
wards possessed a Christian church, of 
which Phebe was a servant or deaconess 
(Kom. zvi. 1). CenchresB is now the 
village of Kikries, which is simply the old 
name a little changed. 

A Tessel for Eoldme incense whilst it is 
lieing burnt. Unoer the tabernacle 
economy censers were of brass (copper) 




(Nomb. xvi. 39) ; under that of the Temple 
they were of gold (1 Kings vii. 50; 2 
Ghion. ir. 22 ; Heb. iz. 4). The censers 
of the book of Revelation (viii. 3, 5) were 
also of gold. 

C^eneiis [English, from Lat. Census]. 

The operation of numbering a i>eople. 

The word census does not occur in the 

Bible ; the idea does. Besides partial 

enumerations, three formal censuses are 

reoorded in the Old Testament. The first 

was of the Israelites, taken in the second 

month of the second year after they had 

left Egypt (Numb. i.). Omitting the 

Levites, with whose spiritual office 

fighting would have been an incon- 

gnuty, there were of males above twenty 

yean at age and capable of bearing arms 

603,550 (45-47). The second census 

was taken in tne Moabite country after 

Asnm's death, and towards the close of 

the forty years' wandering. The former 

onmber oad altered but slightlv, and now 

ins 601,730 (Sumh, xxvL 1-51). Another 

ceosof was made by order of David, who 

found that there were of fighting men in 

tiie nine tribes (Levi was omitted from 

the ten) 800,000, and in Judah (Ben jamin 

was omitted) 500,000. A judgment on 

David and his subjects followed the taking 
of this census (2 &im. zziv. 1-25 ; 1 Chron. 
zxi. 1-30). All these censuses left out the 
women and children, and even failed to 
number the whole of the men. For the 
census or enrolment under Augustus 
Caesar, see Luke ii. 1-3. [Cjbsab Augubtub, 


Centiirioii [Lat. Centurio, genitive 
cmturiotiis, from centum = 100. In N. T. 
Or. Kmturion], 

An officer in the Roman army who at 
first commanded 100 soldiers and after- 
wards about that numbor. Centurions are 

mentioned in the New Testament in Matt, 
viii. 5, 8 ; xxvii. 54 ; Mark xv. 39 ; Luke 
vii. 2 ; xziil. 47 ; Acts x. I, 22 ; xxi. 32 ; 
xxiL 26 ; xxiii. 17, 23 ; xxiv. 23 ; xxvii. 1, 
11, 43; xxviii. 16. 

CeiAas [Aramaic Kepha = *' a rock ** or 
"stone," a word for which the Apostle 
John substitutes Petros = ** Peter " as the 
Greek equivalent]. [Peteb.] 

An appellation given by Jesus to the 
Apostle Simon. It was from it that his 
b^t-known name Peter arose. [Peteb.] 
(John i. 42 ; 1 Cor. i. 12 ; iii. 22 ; ix. 5 ; 
XV. 5 ; Qal. ii. 9.) The R.V. thus words 
the first of these passages, *< Thou shalt bo 
called Cephas, wnich is by interpretation 
Peter." On the margin there is the note, 
" That is, Eock or Stone." 

Clialoedoiiy [English, from Lat. 
Chalcedonium ; from Gr. Khalkedotfy 
Kalkedotiy a town in Asia Minor where 
the mineral was found]. 

The rendering of the Greek Khalkedoft 
in Bev. xxi. 19, where it is the third 
foundation of the New Jerusalem. Chal* 

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( 122) 


oedony used to be regarded as a distmct 
spedfiB of «liceo«8 (flintjr) mineral, but is 
now reduced to a variety of tbe great 
species quarts. It is baifd, its largest 
ingredient being silica. It is of a waxy 
lustre, and tbmfore much duUer than 
typical quarts. It is white-grey, brown, 
blue, etc. It is not perfectly crystallised, 
but often coats crystals of quarts. It 
occurs massive, in veins, in nodules of 
botryoidal form (ue, resembUnjg^ a cluster 
of grapes^, or in stalactites. }t is a common 
mineral in Britain and most other coun- 
tries. When held to be a separate species, 
it had placed under it as varieties Onyx, 
Sard, Sardonyx. Heliotrope, and Chryso- 
prase, and as suD-species Ga!cholong, Car- 
nelian^ and Ag»te. Now these figure as 
varieties or sub- varieties of quartz. 

ChalooL [Calogl.] (1 Kings iv. 31.) 

duddea [English, from Lat. ChaltUta ; 
Gr. Khaldaia], 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
KhoBditnah in Eieek. xi. 24 : xvi. 29 ; and 
xxiii. 16 ; also of the words Erets Kha»» 
dim (land of the Chaldeans) in Isa. xxiiL 
13, etc. ; and of Khtudim standing alone in 
Jer. 1. 10 ; U. 24, 35 ; and Ezek. xxiii. 15. 
Chaldea was originally the southern por- 
tion of Babylonia, but was ultimately ex- 
tended to the whole of that resion — \£aX is. 
to all Lower Mesopotamia. It was divided 
into two regions — Northern and Southern 
Chaldea, the first extending from Hit 
TAhayjI] to a little below Babylon 
[AcoADj, and the second from Niffer to the 
Peraiau Gulf [ShinabI. North Chaldea 
contained four important cities—Baby- 
lon, Borsippa, Cutha, and Sippara, the first, 
third, and fourth of which are referred to 
in Scripture; and South Chaldea four, viz., 
Ur or Hur, Warka, Niffer, Lassa or 
Larancha, which Prof. Rawlinson identi- 
fies with Ur of the Chaldees, Erech, 
Calneh, and Ellasar, all Scriptundplaces 
(Rawlinson, Ancient MonarchitSy VoL I., 
chap. i.). Speaking of the Babylonians, 
Ezekiel says that the place of their nativity 
was Chaldea. [Babylonia, Chaldean.] 

.^glish. In 
Heb. Khasdim^ which Prof. S^ce (Fresh 
Lights 21) thinks may be the Babylonian 
Kasidi (conquerors), referring to the fact 
that they conquered the Accadians and 
other aborigines]. 

(1) A native or inhabitant of Chaldsea 
.V.) (Ezra v. 12 ; Job i. 17 ; Isa. xxiii. 
J ; xliu. 14 ; Dan. i. 4 ; iii. 8 ; Hab. i. 6 ; 
Actsvii. 4). The Chaldeans are called in 
the cuneiform inscriptions Caldai or 
Kaidai, When first mentioned, viz., in 
the ninth century B.C., they inhabited the 
shores of the Persian Gulf, and had for 
their capital Bit Takin. Under Mebo- 


bach-Balaban (q.v.) they oonauered 
Babylonia, and in the Greek period gave 
their name to the whole of that covnky 
(Sayce, Herodotus, 361). In JoVs time 
they seem to have been simply a predatory 
tribe (Job i. 17) ; in Isaiah^s a people of 
maritime tendencies, as was natural to 
men living near the sea (Isa. xliii. 14); in 
Habakkui's a conquering nation (Hab. 
L 6) ; and in EzekiePs a luxurious people, 
with gorgeous attire, identified with the 
Babylonians (Ezek. xxiii. 15). They were 
of the Semitic race, but were of less pore 
blood than the Assyrians. 

(2) An astrologer or a magician, the 
cleverer natives of Chaldea being much 
addicted to these pursuits (Den. u. 10; 
iv. 7; V.7, 11). 

CbAldeM. [CraldkansJ 

An abbreviated form of Chaldeans used 
in the expression Ur of the Chaldees (Gen. 
xi. 31 ; Neh. ix. 7), but also when there 
is no mention of Ur (2 Kings xxiv. 2 ; xxv. 
4, 10, 13, 25, 26; 2 Chron. xxxyi. 17; 
Isa. xiii. 19). 

CliAlkstoao [English]. 

A stone taken from the chalky-looldng 
tocks which constitute a marked features 
the Holy Land. The Hebrew word for 
chalk is ffir, from the verb ^»r= " to boil,** 
referring to the effervescence which takas 
place when add is poured on it, or on any 
other rock having much lime in its compo- 
sition (Isa. xxvii. 9). 

CliamberlalB [English]. 

Properly one who looks after the private 
chambers of a palace or mansion. In the 
Old Testament it is the rendering of the 
Hebrew SaHs, primarily meaning **a 
eunuch,** and which might have been so 
translated in the English version (2 Kings 
xxiii. 11 ; Esther i. 10 ; ii. 3, 14, 15, 21; 
iv. 6J. In the New Testament " chamber- 
lain** is the rendering of Greek wordi 
which have no similar meaning. Blastns 
was over Herod*s bedchamber (Acts xii. 
20), and Erastus was the treasurer of the 
city of Corinth (Bom. xvi. 23). 

[English, from Lat. 
Chamaieon, which is from Gr. Khamaifeon, 
literally the ground lion, from Khamai= 
** on the ground,** and Leoft=*^ a lion.** By 
this the Greeks meant " a small lion **]. 

The well-known lizard, known for 
changing its hue. Chameleon is the render- 
ing in Lev. xi. 30 of the Hebrow Koahh = 
"strength**; also a lizard poss^sed of 
remarkable strength. Whether this is the 
^nuine chameleon or not is doubtfuL It 
IS more likely to be the great Monitor of 
the Nile {Monitor or Varanus nilotietts), 
which is six feet in length, and devours 
the eggs of the crocodile. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




CShawaoia [Engliah and French]. 

Tbe rendfoW^oth in the A.V. and the 
B.Y. of the Hebrew Zemer, from Zamar = 
"... to leap " in Deut. xir. 
5. Evideatly a leaping rumi- 
nant. It 18 not the ml 
diamoia, which is a native of 
the European mountain* from 
the Pyrenees to the Caucasus, 
but does not occur in Pales- 
tine. Most likeljr it was, as 
Col. Hamilton Smith believed, 
a wild sheep {pvi* tragetaphiu) 
found in tne Mokattem hiUs 
near Cairo, in tiie Sinaitic 
Peninsula, etc 

Cbampalsn [English]. 

Open country (Deut. xi. 30 
—A. v.). The R. v. renders it 
the Arabajs (q.v.). 

GbaaaM [N. T. Gr. 

The same as Cur^ur (q.v.) 

GtaiqitUr [English and 

The capital, i.e, the head 
or uppermost part of a oolumn or pillar, 
<ir ca a pilaster. It can be varied in 
several re^>ects, according to the order of 
architecture used in the building (Exod. 
xxxvi. 38 ; xxxviiL 17, 19, 28 ; 1 Kings 
vii. 16; 2 Kings xxv. 17; 2Chron. iv. 12, 
13 ; Jer. lU. 22). 

CbmvmMa [English]. 

Originally a merchant; then a mere 
pedlar (2 Chron. ix. 14). 

CShanwlilm IKeh.Hharashitn^ '* crafts- 

The valley of Charashim. A valley 
in Judah of which **Joab" was the 
** father" (in which he was the principal 
Jewish settler [?]) (1 Chron. iv. 14). Itis 
the same as the valley of cr^tsmen of 
Neh. xi. 35, inhabited after the exile by 
the tribe of Benjamin. Conder identifies 
it with Kharbet Hirsha (a corruption of 
the old name), situated on the bonk of the 
sreat valley, 12} mfles south-east of 

CbarelimiiUli. [Cabchzxish.] 
(2 Chron. xxxv. 20). 

Chargiar jfEnglishI . 
A large dish capable of bearing a great 
weight Srumb. vu. 13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 
49, 61 , 67, 73, 79, 85 ; Ezra i. 9 ; Matt. xiv. 
8;Karkvi. 25). 
Cterlot [English and French]. 
(I) A car used to bear a warrior or 
wamars in battle, and sometimes equipped 
with scythes, hooks, or other appliances to 
injure any hostile ranks through which 
they may be driven (Exod. xiv. 6, 7» 25 ; 

Judg. iv. 15 ; V. 28 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 5 ; I Kings 
(2) A car of state for a king or a high 


dvil or military dignitary (Gen. xli. 43; 
1. 9 ; 2 Sam. viii. 4 ; 2 Kings v. 9. 

Charity [English. From Lat. Cantas 
= **deame88," "high regard," '*love 
accompanied with esteem **]. 

Love. The chnrity described in I Cor. 
xiii. — ^A.y. is not almsgiving, as is evident 
from verse 3 ; it is love, as it is made by 
the B.y. The A.V. uses charity not in the 
limited sense in which it is now employed, 
but in its much broader etymological 

Cluumui [Haean] (Acts vii. 2, 4 — 

ChelMur {Heb. Keb/iar = «« length of 
space or of time *']. 

A river within the Babylonian empire, on 
the banks of which some of the Jewish 
exiles, including the prophet Ezeldel, were 
settled. It was there that he saw several 
of his visions (Ezek. i. 1, 3; iii. 15, 23: 
X. 15, 20). It may have been the river 
called by the Greeks Khaboras, which rises 
near Nisibis in Upper Mesopotamia, and 
falls into the Euphrates at Circesium. 
This, however, is m Assyria rather than 
Chaldea. Bochart and Prof. Rawlinson 
consider that it may have been Nebu- 
chadnezzar's grand canal. Armstrong 
admits it to be unidentified. 

Ctaedorlaomer [Heb. Kedhorlaomer ; 
Elamite Kudnr-Lagamar = ** servant of 

" umar*^]. 

Elani, who, when first he 
on the historic scene, was the 

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paramount soyeieign over the five kmes of 
the lower Jordan valley, they having been 
subject to him for the previous twelve 
years. In the thirteenth year they threw 
off his yoke. In the fourteenth year he 
made a military expedition against them — 
the first that is recorded in Scripture. He 
had with him three confederate or subject 
kings with their armies— Amraphel Tdrs 
of shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, and 
Tidal " kmg of nations " (A.V.), of Goiim 
(R.y.). The five kings of the plain en- 
countered the invaders on unfavourable 
^und in the valley of Siddim, which had 
in it many "sUme" — i.e. Wtumen-npits. 
[Bitumen.] They were defeated, andfhad 
to flee to the mountains. Soon afterwards 
the victors were overcome, and the spoil 
recaptured in a night attack by the patri- 
arch Abbjlhajc (q.v.) (Gen. xiv. 1-16). 
Much light has been thrown on this cam- 
paign of remote date b3r the cuneiform 
mscriptions on the Assyrian monuments. 
Though the name of Chedorlaomer has not 
vet been met with, an analogous one has 
oeen found— Kudur Mabug ("' the servant 
of the god Mabug "). Prof. Sayce thinks 
that he may have been Chedorlaomer*s 
brother. Kudur Mabug claims to have 
been ** the father of Fafostine "—in other 
words, its paramount ruler. Arioch king 
** of Ellasar ** is called on the monumente 
Eri-aku, king of Lassa, son of Kudur 
Mabug the E^mite. [Abioch, Ellasab.] 
Tidal king ** of nations^' was probably Idn^ 
of Gutiiui, north of Babylonia [Goint.] 
The Ass^rianking Assur-bani-pal mentions 
an invasion of Chaldea 1635 years before 
his time, i.e. about 2283 B.C. The expedi- 
tion may have established the Elamite 
supremacy, which afterwards descended 
bv inheritance to Kudur Mabug and 
Cnedorlaomer (Sayce, Fresh Light from 
theAtwient Monuments^ pp. 47, 48). 

Cheese (English]. 

The art of making ** cheese " was under- 
stood in Palestine in the time of David 
(1 Sam. xvii. 18 : 2 Sam. xvii. 29 ; cf. also 
Job X. 10), but it may not have been what 
we now designate by the name. 

<3ielal [Heb. Kehl = *' consumma- 
tion," "completion," "the whole"]. 

A son of Pahath-Moab, whom Ezra 
induced to divorce his foreign wife (Ezra 
X. 30). 

Chellnhi, CheUQli [Heb. Kehthii. 
Etym. doubtful]. 

A son of Bani, whom Ezra induced to 
divorce his foreign wife (Ezra x. 35). 

Chelub [Heb. KelAbh = "a wicker 
basket"; " a bird's cage "]. 

(1) A man of Judah, tne brother of 
Shuah, and father of Mehir (I Chron. 
iv. 11). 

(2) The father of Ezri. the son being 
over the cultivators in David's reign (1 
Chron. xxvii. 26). 

ChelnlMd [Keh. Kelttbhai]. [Chelub.] 
The same as Caleb No. 2 (cf. 1 Chron. 
ii. 9 with 18). 

Chemarlm, Ghenutttms [Heb. 
Ketndrimy plural of Komer = " an idola- 
trous pnest," from Kdmar = *^ to 
scorch." Persons "dressed in black at- 
tire" {Oxford £ibie)]. 

A word translatea m the text of 2 Kings 
xxiiL 5— A.V. and R.V. "idolatrous 
piests," and in that of Hosea x. 5 
^* priests " ; while on the margins of these 
passages and in the text of Zeph. i. 4 it is 
left untranslated. 

Chemeeli [Heb. and Moabite Keiimk = 
" subduer," from jrrtwi<w/*= " to subdue"]. 

An idol worshipped by the Moabites and 
hj the Ammonites (Numb. xxi. 29 ; Judg. 
XI. 24), especially by the former, Molech 
being the distinctive god of the Ammo- 
nites. Solomon erect^ a high place for 
Chemosh " in the hill that is before Jeru- 
salem " (1 Kings xi. 7). This was after- 
wards denied by Josiah (2 Kings xxiiL 13 ; 
cf. Jer. xlviii. 7). 

Chenaaiifth [Heb. KenaanaJiy the 
feminine of Ke»aaH= "Canaan" (q.v.) 

(1) A Beniamite, a son of Bilhan (I 
Chron. vii. 10). 

(2) The father of Zedekiah, the false 
prophet who deluded Ahab (1 Kings xxii. 
11 ; 2 Chron. xviii. 10). 

Chenani [Heb. Kenani = " a pro- 
tector," "a defender"]. 

A Levite who assisted in bringing the 
returned exiles to such a frame of miiid 
that the^ agreed to enter into a covenant 
to worship Jehovah (Neh. ix. 4). 

Chewanlah [Heb. Kennmfahn= "whom 
Jehovah looks at " or " reg^urds "]. 

A singer, chief of the Levites in David's 
time in matters of song (1 Chron. xv. 22, 
27). He was also an officer and a judge 
(xxvi. 29). 

Clie]duu>Ammenal, Chephar-Haam- 
menal [Heb. Kephar Ha Ammotiai = " a 
village of the Ammonites "J. 

A village of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 24). 
The Palestine explorers fix it doubtfully at 
the ruin of Kefr Ana, three miles north of 

Chephlrah [Heb. Kephirah = '' t^ 

One of the "cities" of the Gibeonites 
(Josh. ix. XT), It was afterwards allotted to 
the Benjamites (xviii. 26). It continued to 
exist after the captivity (Ezra ii. 25 ; Neh. 
vii. 29). The Palestine explorers locate it 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




at the rain Keflreh, eight milee north-west 
of Jerusalem. 

, [Heb. Kerdn = " a dthem" or 

A Horite, a son of IHshon (Gen. zzxvi. 
26; 1 Chron. i. 41). 

GliAiwtliliiis [Chebethites] (Ezek. 
XXV. 1&-A.V.). 

ChmtitblUm, Chere- 
tldms [Heb. Kerethim = 
** executioners "] . 

A nation or tribe inhabit- 
ing the Philistine country or 
its southern portion (1 &un. 
XXX. 14), apparently on or 
near the sea-coast of the 
Mediterranean (Ezek. xxv. 
16 ; Zeph. ii. 5, 6). 

H The designations of the 
Cherethitee and Pelethites 
who constituted David*s 
bodyguard (cf. 2 Sam. xx. 
23 with xxiii. 22, 23) signify 
** executioners *' ana "run- 
ners." They probably were 
of Cherethite and Philistine 
descent, and may have be- 
come attached to David 
while he was at Ziklag (2 
Sam. viii. 18 ; xv. 18 ; xx. 7» 
2S; 1 Kings i. 38, 44; 1 
Chitm. xviii. 17). 


each other face to face across the merc]r- 
seat, which they overshadowed with their 
wings (Exod. xxv. 18-20; xxxvii. 7-9). 
Qod promised to commune with Moses 
from oetween Ihe cherubs (Exod. xxv. 
22), a fact to which continual reference 
was subsequently made (Numb. vii. 89; 
1 Sam. iv. 4 ; 2 Sam. vi. 2 ; 2 Kings xix. 

JtmM = 
' separation,^' "a gorve "]. 

A brook ** before 

Jordan," by which 
EUiah was Divinely directed to sojourn 
(1 Aings xvii. 3, 5). Jerome and Schwarz 
place » east of the Jordan, Van de Velde 
and others west of the river at Ain Fusail, 
15 miles above Jericho, and Robinson 
doubtfully at the Wady Kelt, near Jericho 
[ Achob] . These are httle more than con- 
lectures, the real situation of the brook 
being as yet unknown. 

CflMnib [Heb. Keruby from the Assjrrian, 
in which language it is = " one near to 
God." It comes from a root = ** to ap- 
proach," " to be near," and was by the 
Babylonians applied to one of the winged 
monsters with the bod^ of a bull and the 
head of a man somenmes placed in the 
Assyrian sculptures on either side of the 
tree of life. They stood also at the en- 
trance of a Babylonian palace, and were 
supposed to prevent the entrance of evil 
spmts (Sayce, Freth Light. 26, 27)]. 

(1) Angelic beings placea at the gate of 
ParadiM to prevent tne re-entrance of our 
first parents after their expulsion from the 
garden (Oren. iii. 24). Golden images of 
two such cherubs were placed, one at each 
end of the merov-seat, when first it was 
made in the wilderness. They looked at 


15 ; Isa. xxxvii. 16 ; Faalm Ixxx. 1 ; xcix. 
1). Arrangements similar to those of the 
tabernacle were carried out by Solomon, 
who had two gigantip cherubs made for 
his temple. llie height was ten cubits 
(fifteen feet), and the expansion of their 
wings as many more. They were of olive- 
wood, and were overlaid with gold (1 
Kings vi. 23-28 ; viii. 7 ; 2 Chron. iii. 
10-13; V. 7, 8; Heb. ix. 5; cf. Ezek. 
xxviii. 14). Cherubs, ^th palm-trees and 
open flowers, were also carved all round the 
walls of the temple (1 Kings vi. 29). God 
is represented as riding upon a cherub and 
flvin||p (2 Sam. xxii. 11 ; Psalm xviii. 10). 
£zekiel had a vision of cherubs by the 
river Cheber. Each had four faces and 
four wings TEzek. x. 1-22; cf. ix. 3). 
They seem to nave been identical with the 
four living creatures previously seen by 
the prophet ; if so, then these four faces 
were those of a man, a lion, an ox, and an 
eagle (cf. i. 5-12 with x. 20, 21). Thev 
resembled also the four '* living creatures " 
of Bev. iv. 6-9, who had faces like those of 
the same four animals; they may also 
have been identical with the seraphim of 
Isa. vi. 1-6. The exact symbolical refer- 
ence of the cherubim is doubtful. 
^ The proper plural of cherub, accepted 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 126 ) 


as an English word, is cherubs ; cherubim 
is ^e Hebrew plural, and cherubims an 
unneoeasary double plural. 

(2) A place in Babylonia, from which 
certain persons came who could not prove 
their Israelite descent (Ezra ii. 59 ; Neh. 
yii. 61). Situation imknown. 

[Heb. jr<J«afo« = *' trust," 

A town or village on the boundary line 
of Judah, and the side (slope (Y)) of Mount 
Jearim (Josh. xv. 10). Capt. Conder finds 
it at the village of Kesla, 10 miles west of 

[Heb. irwrf="a Chal- 
dean" (?) or "a conqueror" {Oxford 

A son of Nahor by his wife Milcah (Gen. 
xxii. 22). 

GhMU [Heb. Kesil =^ " a fool "]. 

A town or village in the most southerly 
region of Judah (Josh. xv. 30). Called 
also Bethul and Bethuel (q.v.). 

Chestnut [English]. 

The rendering in the A.V. of the 
Hebrew armony from aram = ** to be 
high" (Gen. xxx. 37 ; Ezek. xxxi. 8). The 
Spanish chestnut, Castanea vesea^ reaches 
a great size, an enormous specimen on 
Mount Etna being 284 feet in circumfer- 
ence. It would, Sierefore, answer well to 
the Hebrew word, being a "high" tree. 
But the R. V. makes the tree ref en^ed to the 
Plane (q.v.). 

CliesiiUotli meh.Kesitlloih = "trusts"] . 

A town or village on the boundary line 
of Issachar (Josh. xix. 18). It may be the 
same as Xaloth mentioned b^ Josephus 
{War, m. iii. 1). The Palestine ex- 
plorers locate it at Iks&l. 

Clieiib [Heb. Kezibh = " mendacious," 
"false," "deceitful"]. 

A place where Shelah, a son of Judah, 
was Dom (Gen. xxxviii. o). Probably the 
same place as Achzib (1) (q.v.)* 

CbldOB [Heb. Kidhon = " a javelin "]. 

Another name for Nachon, the locality 
of the threshing-floor at which Uzza was 
struck dead for touching the Ark (cf. 2 
Sam. vi. 6 ; 1 Chron. xiii. 9). Exact site 

Chileab [Heb. Kileabh = " whom the 
Father (t.^. the Creator) has made per- 

David's second son, bom at Hebron. His 
mother was Abigail (2 Sam. iii. 3). He is 
called in 1 Chron. iii. 1, Daniel (q.v.) 
[Daniel, 1]. 

ClilliOB [Heb. Kihjon = " a wasting 
away," " consumption"]. 

Tne younger son of Elimelech and 
Naomi. He died at an early age (Ruth i. 
2, 5). 

[Heb. Kihnadh, of doubtful 

A plfusis which traded with Tyre. It is 
mentioned just after Asshur or Assyria 
(Exek. xxvii. 23). Armstrong (Natnes and 
Places, 44) places it at Kalwadha, near 

[Heb. Kimham = " faint," 
" weak," "inactive," "longing"]. 

The son of Barzillai the Gfleadite. 
When the &ther was invited by David to 
Jerusalem, and declined the honour on 
account of his advanced age, Chimham 
was sent in his place (2 Sam. xix. 37, 38). 
He seems to have settled at last in the 
vicinity of Bethlehem (Jer. xU. 17). 

Chluneretli, Cliliiaerotli« Cimne««rtli 

[Heb. Ktttnrtrt/i^ AttmeiTiih^ fn^tn A'iH«i7r 
= "ti lU[tt\" "a harp" (h {(irsfHiu*)], 

(1) A fortified eit^^ of Xapbtjili (Jo^ 
xix. t^i ; of, aJAo Deut- iiL 17)« It wis 
situatei! cti the iireetfiTn ehf;fm of Xha X4Lto 
of Giililt'*', ftnci pn>bttbly oii Ihe plaiii of 
Geniiiisaret. No retuams of xt have bet^n 

(2^ The region or district around the city 
of Chinnereui or Chinneroth (I Kings xv. 
20 ; cf. also Josh. xi. 2) [GENNESABfir]. 

II Sea of Chinnereth, Sea of Chinneroth, 
— The sheet of water adiacent to the forti- 
fied city and region or aistrict of Chinne> 
reth, or Chinneroth (Numb, xxxiv. 1 1 ; 
Josh. xii. 3 ; xiii. 27 ; 1 Kings xv. 20). In 
the New Testainent it appears slightly 
altered as the Lake of Gennesaret (Luke 
v. 1). 

Chios [Gr. Kh%09\. 

An isbuid, now called Sdo or Chio, in 
the Greek Archipelago, at the entrance of 
the Gulf of Smyrna. It has Lesbos on the 
north and Sunos on the south. It is about 
32 mUes long from north to souths 18 broad 
from east to west, and has an area of 
about 400 sQuare miles. Faults vessel 
passed it on nis last voyage to Palestine 
(Acts XX. 15). 

Chlaler, Chlaleu [Heb. Kiel^v ; 
Assyrian Kisiiii'u. Of doubtful meaning. 
Gesenius thinks it may be from Kdaai = 
" to be languid " or " mert," as nature is 
in the month so named]. 

The ninth month of the Hebrew year. 
It extended from the new moon of 
November to that of December (?) 
(Gesenius), or from that of December to 
that of January. Sayce considera it 
approximately the same as November 
(Keh. t 1 ; Zech. vii. 1 ; 1 Mace L 54). 

Chlalon [Heb. Kislon = " trust," 

The rather of EHdad, prince of the 
Benjamito tribe in the wildertkess (Numb, 
xxxiv. 21). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Cbialoth Tabor 



' [Either " the loins of 
Tabor," or *< the trust of Tabor'* (meaning 
'* its fortified dty")]. 

A town at the lower part of Mount 
Tabor, on the boundary une of Zebulun 
(Josh. xix. 12). Sometimes called more 
briefly Tabor (r2). It was given with its 
sobarbs to the Levites of the Gershom 

the R.y. it is mentioned that many manu- 
scripts and Tersions read Bor-aahan. 

ChorailB [Gr. Khorazin. Remote ety- 
mology uncertain]. 

A town mentioned along with Bethsaida 
and Capernaum, and probably, like them, 
near the Lake of Galilee. As was the case 

fanilj (1 Chron. yi. 77). The same as 
Ohbbctlloth (q.T.). 

GUtttm [Kirmc] (Numb. xxiv. 24; 
Iia. zxiii. 1, 12 ; Jer. ii. 10; Ezek. xxvii 
6; Dan. xi 30). 

B rHeb. Ki^An]. 

A wora occurring but once in the 
Hebrew Bible, in Amos v. 262and liiere- 
fdre of doubtful mecming. The text of 
the A.V. and of the R.y. leaves it untrans- 
lated ; the margin of the B. V. renders it 
**shrnie." It nas also been interpreted 

Many think that it was the planet 
Saturn, which was looked upon as impro- 
pifcious. It was more probably, however, 
an Egyptian god, Kem [Remphan]. 

GUoo [Gr. KAloe = <' the first shoot of 
greengrass "]. 

A Christian woman, apparently at the 
leui of a house at Corinth ( 1 Cor. i. 11). 

flunr Mlwn, Cor^wliaa [Heb. Xor 
Atkan = " smoking furnace "]. 

A town, apparently the same as Abhan 
fq.T.) (1 &un. zxz. 30). On the marginof 

with the other two places, Chorazin was 
highly favoured, havmg at times been the 
scene of the Saviours preaching and 
beneficent miracles ; but it failed to turn 
its spiritual privileges to account, and was 
doomed to suffer the penalty of its neglect 
(Matt. xi. 21 ; Luke x. 13). Eusebius, in 
the fourth century, said that it was two 
Roman miles from Capernaum. In 1842 
the Rev. G. Williams believed that he had 
found it at Kerazeh, about 2A miles north 
of Tell Hum. The identification was 
doubted for a time, but is now generally 
accepted. It is a little inland, m a side 
vaUev branching off from another one 
which goes down to the lake. The Pales- 
tine explorers describe the spot as marked 
by extensive ruins, including a synagogue. 

ChoselM, Coaeba [Heb. Khozehha = 
"mendacious," "false,'* "deceitful"]. 

A village in Judah, peopled chiefly bv 
the descendants of Shelah, a son of Judah 
(1 Chron. iv. 22). It had eenendlv been 
believed to be the same p&ce as Aoheib 
'1) (q.v.) and Csezib (q.v.V. Major 
" >nder, however, locates it at Kiieiztba, 


Digitized by 





which he oonsiden a oorraption of the old 
name, north-east of Hebron. It is to the 
north of Bethzur, and at the head of 
PiUite's aqueduct to Jerusalem. 

durlst FEnglish, from Or. Khristos; 
as an adjective = ** Anointed*' ; as noun = 
•* the Anointed one "1. 

(1) The Anointed One. It was borrowed 
from the Septuagint, specially from Psalm 
ii. 2; Dan. ix. 25, etc., where it corre- 
sponds to the name Messiah, derived from 
the Hebrew. When used in the New 
Testament in this sense it generally has the 
word the prefixed, and the meanmg is the 
Messiah of Old Testament prophecy (Matt, 
xvi. 16, 20 ; zxvi. 63 ; Mark viii. 29 ; xiv. 
61 ; Luke iii. 15 ; John i. 41, etc.). Some- 
times the is omitted (Matt. ii. 4 ; xxii. 42 ; 
xxiv. 5 ; xxvi. 68 ; Mark xiii. 6 ; John 
iv. 25, etc.). 

(2) Christ, though really used in the 
primary sense, is so constantly appended 
to Jesus, the distinctive peorsonal name of 
our Lord, given from His Dirth, as virtually 
to constitute part of the proper name 
(John i. 17 ; Acts xi. 17 ; Rom. i. 1 ; v. 1 ; 
Philemon 1, etc.). [Jebus Chbist.] 

Ghrlstlan [English]. 

A follower of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
The name was first given at Antioch, about 
A.D. 43, and apparently by foes rather 
than friends. Though destmed ultimately 
to become universal, yet it took root so 
hIowIv that it is found onljr twice again in 
the New Testament, once in the mouth of 
Agrippa II. (Acts xxvi. 28), and once in a 
letter from St. Peter (1 Peter iv. 16). 

ChroniiflAS [English]. 

Two historical books of the Old Testa- 
ment. The word chronicles is taken from 
the Latin chronicon^ applied to these 
writings by the CThristian father Jerome. 
The Septuagint called them Paraleipometwn 
(** that which is left over "), and separated 
them into two books, though in the Hebrew 
Bible, from which the translation was 
made, they constituted only a single 
composition. The Vulgate followed nie 
Septuagint in making them two, and ulti- 
mately the same diml arrangement was 
introduced into Hebrew Bibles, and 
remains unchanged till now. Both books 
were evidently the work of a single author, 
and the Hebrew name which he gave to 
his composition meant the ** Words of 
Days,*' %.€, diaries, daily chronicles, 

(1) The firtt book of the Chronieka.— 
This work naturallj divides itself into two 
parts— idiapters i.-ix., occupied with gene- 
alogies, and chapters x.-xxix., the history 
of David, commencing with the fight at 
Oilboa, which cleared the way for his 
ascent of the throne. When a hero and a 

great and good man has been dead a 
sufiident length of time to show his real 
merits, people have no heart to parade hit 
defects, out prefer to dwell on his virtues. 
and the First Book of C^hrouides omits all 
mention of David's sin in the matter of 
Uriah, his cruelty to the conquered Am- 
monites, etc. The writer derives his mate- 
rials from various sources, indudingOenesis 
(cf. Gen. v., xxxvi., etc., with 1 Chron. i.), 
Exodus (cf . Exod. vi. 18, 22, with 1 CJhron. 
XV. 8, 9), Leviticus (cf. Lev. x. 12 with 

1 Chron. vi. 3 ; xxiv. 2, etc.). Numbers (cf. 
Numb. xxvi. 39 with 1 Chron. vii. 12), and 
to omit others — 1 and 2 Samuel (cf. 1 cam. 
xxxi with 1 Chron. x. and 2 Sam. i.-xxiv. 
with 1 Chron. x.-xxix.). For the author 
and his age see 2 Chron. 

(2) The second book of the Chroiiiekt.^ 
This work continues the history from the 
accession of Solomon at least to the taking 
of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, and the 
captivitv of the people resident in Judah. 
The author derived his materials from a 
variety of sources, among which ap- 
parently 1 and 2 Kings hem a prominent 
Slace. He aims at showing how unifonnly 
delitv on the part of the king and people 
to Jenovah brought with it not merely 
spiritual, but temporal prosperity, whilst 
apoetacy produced calamity. Gkxxi kings 
have their faults lightly touched upon or 
left unmentioned. Some of the numbers 
are lamly in excess of those in the 
books of Samuel and those of Kings, but 
figures are particularly liable to be copied 
incorrectly [Cheonolooy]. The second 
book of Chronicles closes abruptly in 
what appears to be the middle of a 
sentence, 2 Chron. xxxvi 22, .23 being 
repeated in Ezra i 1-3. If the English 
BiDle had been the original, it would have 
been ttiought that a copyist after finishing 

2 Chroniclee had begim the book of Ezra, 
forgetting to leave a proper space between 
the two. But in Hebrew Ezra does not 
follow 2 (^Ihroniclee^ the ^abruptly dosing 
verse being the last in the Old Testament. 
Jewish tnmition attributes the two books 
of C^ironides, originally, it will be remem- 
bered, one composition, to Ezra. If internal 
evidence be followed, it will an)ear that 
the writer lived probablv in Judah. The 
history of the ten tribes occupies but 
limited space in his work, whilst that of the 
two is presented in detail. He gives such 
prominence to Levitical arrangements that 
he was in all probability himself a Levite, 
and apparently a singer or instrumentalist 
He traces the posterfty of Zerubbabd for 
some ^^erations, and, unless there has 
been mterpolation, must, therefore, have 
lived a considerable period after the cap- 
tivity (1 Chron. iii. 19-24). Hisbooksare 
placed the last in the Hebrew Bible, occu- 
pying the place there which Malarhi does 

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in tfa^ Eciglbh Old Ti^gtament. His 
Hebrew b of u late type. Quite a number 
of pLoiaM luid obtained new names when 
he wrote ; those aha of luany men had 
been matly aliens, or at least were 
■polled differently. Among the dates 
a£sjgit«d to the Chronicles have been 
B»c. hm, ac. 400, ima B.a 250. The 
|irenond«T«iice of scholarly opinion is now 
111 ijivour of the lati^tdate. 

d^onoIdgX [Engiifih, frmn kter Gt, 
Khrviuthiiiiu = ** chnouologfy ** ; lfifOHM=^ 
*' time/' and loff&M = . , . ' ■ a nwnber," 
** rockotiiuir," or *' tale **]. 

CompuL-itioti of tim*^. The clironology 
of the *Scriiiture iJeriod h imwrtnut, but 
Kif&e of it is uticfiirtiiin. It ii derivcnL fram 
tliite *ouree9- /r*^ from Scnjitiin? itst If ; 
Av&Aif, from uninspired hi>.ti;.iru^iiK ; mid 
tMfdj from the monumeiitt^ of P'g3'pt, 
ria» etc 

[ Stripittre rAr^i*o%^.— No niirnclo 
bean wrought to presence thH saored 
ttart from bein^ copied injiccumttilj. und 
llpai^ are mndh more liJcely tJiuii 'word§ 
lo mffer in this respect If ti Jiynpyint 
tmi»mbin^ an Eu^Uah hook prtutLiL a 
century before Wfote cott/t?<)ueuw, the 
aror would he hiittantly' deleeted It 
would be aaiil at once tHat ho had mk- 
t&ken tlio old / {m) for./; wtid thtvt ho 
should have written **ooniMi(jiieiu>e/' Dut 
if he mistook the dat« 1713 for ITIH, 
file 0gnre« them*elve# woulri not rt^vcnl the 
mtm. It could be det*2ii:tefl (tiU h^ a 
ti^^e^imination of the djite froin wKith 
^ mm w:is made, or by historic kno^ir- 
ledi^ deriTed! from other iiources. There 
In no qvefiftion that the dnim and other iudi- 
latfons of time in the Bible have to a cer- 
tain limited extent suffer e<l from foryistw' 
tmorp. In thti ehroucdc*gy of theanttKliluLvmn 
perfgd there are dhcrt'imudisi Iwtwtmi the 
Hilnvw, the Septuiigitit^ uiid thi^ S^inmri- 
tnn Pentateuch to syntenintic that they 
cannot he accounted for in this way. The 
Hebrew text seeniiB to be thu more accurate 
imo with retpect to dates. The niithor at the 
TiAltmn manujtcdpt of thn ^ptun^iit, or 
»onM» of }m predecersBors^ thought tlmt the 
long-tiYed antfililnirians were not likely to 
be^et a ton wtule they were If-i^it than IbO 
TMjn otd ;: and where it w»f) »ud that tbey 
laid done &o* he took the lilserty of sidding 
a cetitury to the Hebrew tkti?, ' Thjj^ he did 
hi the case of Adam, Seth, Enoa* Caiiiian, 
MahalnleclH, Enoch, and MethUKnJeh. The 
author of tho SaWumtan Pc^iitatPinTi, on 
the contrary t or eome one of }iis r «,|]y t-^t», 
tdok the opposite view : he thnngtit tliat 
an antddiluvtan woj^ tiftt likely la hnvo 
Itred l,^ yeare withcmt lic'gcttinijf hia lit^it 
mm. Finding that hy the Hebrew b.^xt 
Jarod did so at IC2^ Mt-tbuRnkh at l^^T. and 
Lcmedi at ISi^ h» cut Ibe figuros down to 

62, 67, and 53. This reduced the total 
lengths of their lives, whereas the Septua- 
eiiit had carefully balanoed its additions to 
the first part of the Utcs by corresponding 
subtractions from the later part, so that 
the total length of each life was the same 
in that Tersion as in the Hebrew originaL 
Similarly, in the case of the postdiluvian 
patriarchs, the Vatican copy of the 
Septuagint will not allow them to beset a 
son till thev are 100 years old. It adds 100 
years to uie ases at which sons were 
begotten bv Arphaxad. Salah, Eber, Peles , 
Reu, and Serug, and loO to the time of life 
when Nahor begat Terah. The Samaritan 
Pentateuch allows them to beget a son 
after 60, and adds 100 years in the case of 
Arphaxad. Sahdi, Eber, PeW. Beu, and 
Serug, ana 50 in the case of Nahor. 

Gen. V. enables one to take a first, and 
XL 1-32 a second step towards Scripture 
chronology. The ages, etc. , of the Heorew 
patriarchs conduct us forward to the time 
of the descent of Jacob into Egypt. The 
lenffth of time that the Hebrews were in 
that country cannot be ascertained with- 
out the pnor settlement of the question 
whether the 400 years mentioned m Qen. 
XV. 13, cf. also Acts vil 6— the 430 of 
Exod. xii. 40, 41 ; Gal. iii. 17 — commenced 
at the time the prophecy was uttered or 
at the time that «racob and his family 
descended into Egypt. On the first suppo- 
sition, the Hebrews were in Egypt 215 
years, on the second they were 430 or 400, 
a mat discrepancy. The sojourn in the 
wilderness was, of course, 40 years (Numb, 
xiii. 33, 34; Dent I 3j Psabn xcv. 10). 
The exact length of tmie during which 
Joshua was l^er is doubtful, and the 
chronology of the period of Judges yet 
more so (cf. Judff. xi. 26; Acts xiii. 
19). But much aid in solving the diffi- 
culty is derived from 1 Kmss vi. 1, 
where it is stated that Solomon^s temple 
began to be built in the 480th year after 
the Israelites had quitted Egjrpt. The dates 
of the accessions and deaths of tiie success- 
ive kings of Judah and Israel enable a 
chronological system for the monarchy to 
be constructed, aid being obtained also from 
Ezek. hr. 4, 5, in which 390 years stand 
as the period prior to the captivity (?) 
during which Israel had committed iniquity. 
Jeremuih*s seventy years* captivity (2 
Chron. xxxvi 21 ; Jer. xxv. 11, 12; xxix. 
10 ; Dan. ix. 2), the dates in Ezra, Nehe- 
miah, Haggai, etc., with the prophecy of 
the seventy weeks, nve the main Old Testa- 
ment data on which a Hebrew chronology 
can be constructed down to the advent of 
Jesus. The New Testament furnishes but 
scanty chronological data (Luke iil 1, 2). 
[GosPEM, Paul.] These, however, are 
largely supplemented by dates derived from 
Pagan historians. The Jews now place 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 130) 


the creation in the year b.c. 3760-3761. 
ButBosanquet, founding his opmion onevi^ 
dence derived m>m ancient Jewish Crimean 
■gravestones, says that * ' the original Jewish 
era of creation preserved amonff the ten 
tribes was 3911 b.o. Of those who in this 
country have attempted to construct sys- 
tems of Scripture chronology, Archbishop 
Ussher or Usher (1580-16^) has exerted 
the most permanent influence. It was 
elaborated in his Chronologia Sacraj pub- 
lished in 1660, after his death, by Dr. 
Thomas Barlow, afterwards Bishop of 
Lincoln. Ussher's system, which dat^ the 
creation 4004 B.O., is essentially that which 
stillfigures on the margin of our Bibles. But 
all competently informed persons now dis- 
sent from one of ITssher's opinions. He con- 
sidered that 4004 B.C. was the year in which 
the world as well as Adam was created. 
Geology has, however, shown that the age 
of the earth moiints up to many millions of 
years, while the first appearance of man 
was a very recent geological event. 
Between 1809 and 1814 the Bev. Wm. 
Hales, D.D., at one time Professor of 
Oriental Languages^ published in success- 
ive instalments his Hew AtialusU of 
Chronologu, in which, in treating of ante- 
diluvian dates, he followed the 3eptua«^t 
instead of the Hebrew numbers. In 1863 
Mr. J. W. Boeanquet, F.R.A.S., etc., in 
Yi^ Fall of Nineveh andMeignofSennaehenb. 
commenced a modiflc&tion of the received 
chronology, afterwards elaborated in his 
Messiah the Pi-inee and subsequent publi- 
cations. Starting with an effort to identify 
Darius the Median of Dan. v. 31 with 
Darius Hystaspes, he brings down the date 
of the Babylonian captivity from b.o. 517 
to 492, and lowers the whole range of dates 
connected with the Jewish monarchy 25 
years. Thus the carrying away of the ten 
tribes falls from 721 to 696 ; the threatened 
attack upon Jerusalem by Sennacherib in 
the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, 
from 714 to 689 ; and the destruction of 
Jerusalem from 588 to 563. His system 
has not been generally adopted ; a strong 
point, however, about it is the effort he 
makes to fit the dates of calculated eclipses 
to those of contemporary Scripture inci- 
dents. The three specially used for the pur- 
pose are thesolar eclipseof June 15, 763 B.O., 
of which a record was made at Nineveh ; the 
annular eclipse of January 11, 689, which 
affected the dial of Ahas m the 14th year 
of Hezekiah*s reign ; and the total eclipse 
of Thales, May, 585 : all of which lower 
current dates just 25 years. Dates on 
ancient Jewish gravestones in the Crimea 
do so likewise (Boeanquet, Messiah tJte 
PriTteey vii.-xliv.). These dates he con- 
siders also to hannonise with those of the 
Sabbatical years and Jubilees. 
(2) The aironology of uninspired writers. 

—One of the most important of these is 
Josephus, wnose two leading works, I%e 
Antiquities of the Jews and The Wars of 
the Jewsy are studded with dates. These 
are of little importance for Old Testament 
chronology, but are valuable as fixing the 
time of the several occurrences during 
the interval between the Old and New 
Testament periods, with those of the latter 
space of time itself. For all three the 
classical writers are of use; but their 
works are liable, like those of the sacred 
books, to errors of copyists, so that they 
cannot be implicitly trusted. To pass finally 
to chronology derived from uie Egyp- 
tian, the Assyrian, and other monuments. 
The Egyptieuis commence the history of 
their country at so remote a i>erioa of 
antiquity that it is difficult to reconcile it 
with Scripture chronology ; but both the 
dates and the incidents of those very 
remote times are suspicious. They be- 
come more trustworthy as we advance 
to less ancient times. During most 
of the period of the divided Jewish 
monarchy Assyrian cimeif orm records give 
aid in fixing dates. These do not in all 
cases agree with those obtained from the 
Old Testament. Thus, by the Hebrew 
chit>nology Ahab died between b.c. 896 and 
896, but hj the Assyrian cuneiform records 
he did so in B.C. 851, a discrepancy of 41 
to 43 years. Dates obtained from monu- 
ments possess this advantage over those 
derived from books, that th^ are free from 
copyists' errors; and the Assyrian, from 
this cause, furnish aid in purifying the 
Hebrew chronology. 

Subjoined are afew leading dates apper- 
taining to Scripture times : — 


The creation of Adam . . . 4004 

The Hood 2848 

The call of Abraham. . . .1921 
The descent of Jacob and bis family 

into Egypt 1706 

The Exodus 1491 

The entry into Canaan . . . 1451 
The establishment of the monarchy 

under Saul 1095 

The revolt of the ten tribes under 

Jeroboam 976 

The captivity of the ten tribes . . 721 
The captivity of the two trlbcii . . 688 
The return of the two tribes . • ^^6 
The birth of Christ . . . A(T^ox\(!) 

Thecniciflxion . . . . 30 (?) or 88(?) 
The destruction of Jerusalem under 

Titus 70 

For other dates which have been assigned 
to these events see the articles on the events 

Clirysollte, Chrysolyto [EnffUsh, 
from Lat. Chrysolithus ; Gr. KhrusSUthot 
(literally) = " gold-stone," %.e. a bri^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C hrygojir ma 



jeUow stone ; kAmtot s ** gold/* and litAoB 

= "artone"]. 

The modern^ ohrjsolite is a unisiUcate 
minentl ontmj^ iting mainly of maffnesia and 
siUca. There are two Taiieties of it, one 
predoQS, the other common. The former, 
which is transparent and of a pale yellow- 
ish-green, is DTOu^t from the Levant. 
But the chrysolite of PUny and of the 
Sew Testament was probably the topaz, of 
which the most common colour is straw 
yellow [Topaz]. It constituted the seventh 
foundation of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 

C lujaoprm mtt 01 u ' y»o p ir— m [English 

colour, and prAson =s **a leek,*' t.^. of a 
leek-green oolourl. 

A variety of cnalcedony of an apple- 
neen hue, the colour beinff produced by 
tbe presence of oxide of nickel. Its best- 
known locality is in Silesia. It constitutes 
the tenth foundation of the New Jeru- 
salem (Bev. xzL 20). 

drab [Heb. Kt^h, Of doubtful mean- 

A people mentioned in Ezek. xxx. 5 
alcmg with Ethiopia, Libra, and Lydia. 
They may have been a Nubian tribe. 

Caraa. Cim HSeb. Ktin = '* standing 
erect,** •* establishment ** (?)]. 

A town or village belonflpng to Hadar- 
eaer, king of Zobah (1 Cnron. zviii. 8). 
Called in 2 Sam. viii. 8 Bbbothai (q.v.). 

Cararcih [English, probably from Or. 
(to) kuriakott = " the Lord^ house ** ; 
htrUMt = *'of** or "for a lord** or 
"master**; Ho JTwriof = " the Lord ** ; 
Jhtriciy as adjective = " ruling,** as a 
noon =*• a lord**]. 

The rendering in the New Testament of 
the Oteek Ekklesiay which in the States of 
Greece meant the asKmbly of the citizens 
summoned for legislative or other purposes. 
The sacred writers use the word eecleaia to 
mean an organised community acknow- 
ledging the Lord Jesus Christ as their 
Supreme Ruler, and meeting statedly or as 
opportunities offer for religious worship 
<lfak xvi. 18; xviii. 17; Acts ii. 47; 
T. II ; Ephee. v. 23, 25, etc.). As follow- 
ers of Jesus arose in many different cities, 
the plural *' churches ** began to be em- 
ployedf the Christian community in each 
separate locality being considered a 
<junt:h (Acts ix. 31 ; xv. 41 ; Bom. xvi. 4 ; 
1 Cor. yn. 17, etc.). 

% Church is nowhere unequivocally 
used in the New Testament for tlie build- 
ing in which any particular Christian com- 
munity met i this is a later meaning. The 

nearest approach to it is in 1 Cor. xiv. 19, 
28, 35. 

Cbiuluui mirtftthfttm [Cushan- 
bishathahi] (Judg. iii 8, 10— A.V. and 

Cliiua [Or. Khouza or Khouzat: Ara- 
maic Kuza =: *< modest** (?)]. 

Herod the tetraoh*s steward, whose wife 
Joanna ministered to the wants of Jesus 
(Luke viii. 3). 

Cniela [English and Lat., from Or. 
Kilikta ; accoraing to the Greeks from 
JTt/ir, by whom it was first colonised, but 
the etymology is doubtful]. 

A province of Asia Minor, bounded on 
the north by Cappadocia, Lycaonia, and 
Isauria, on the south by the Mediterranean, 
on the east by S3rria, and on the west by 
Famphylia. It was anciently divided into 
two portions, the western one, which was 
mountainous, called the Boush, and the 
eastern one, which was level, the Plain 
Cilioia. The chief town in the latter was 
Tarsus, the birthplace of St. Paul (Acts 
xxL 39 ; xxii. 3 ; xxiii. 34} [Tabsus]. 
Jews from Cilicia (was Paul among the 
number [?]) disputea with Stephen (Acts 
vi 9). The gospel reached it very early 
(xv. 23), planted apparently by Paul (Acts 
ix. 30; OaL i. 21). Afterwards, passing 
through it, he confirmed the churches 
which had been founded (Acts xv. 41). 
Subsequently on his voyage as a prisoner 
to Rome he sailed over the Sea of Cilicia 
(xxvii. 5). 

dmuunoit [English, from Heb. See 
No. IT. 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew Qinno' 
inott, Qifmemon = " cinnamon,** probably 
from Qaneh = ** a reed.** It was an in- 
gredient in the sacred anointing oil used 
m the consecration of Aaron and his suc- 
cessors (Exod. XXX. 23). It was used in 
after-times to perfume beds (Prov. vii. 
17). It was cultivated in orchards (Song 
iv. 14H21. 

(2^ In Bev. xviii. 13 cinnamon is the 
rendering of the Greek /rtftamoi/ton, derived 
from the Hebrew, and referring to the 
same vegetable product. It is the aro- 
matic bi^ of a tree, Cinnaitunnum zeylani^ 
eum, belon^g to the laurel order, and 
cultivated m Oylon, of which it is a 
native. The bark of the tree yields an 
essential oil, which is obtained from it by 
distillation. It is of a golden-yellow colour, 
has an agreeable smeHt and is used in per- 
fumery. The tree hias been grown in 

dnnerotli [Crivneboth]. A more 
exact spelling of the Heb. Kiniterothy as at 
present printed, though not adopted either 
m the A.y. or the B. Y.]. [Chinnesoxh.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 182) 


Ctrole. [English.] 

(1) In the general sense of the word 
(Isa. xl. 22). 

(2) As a geographical term for the low- 
lying plain or valley of the Jordan, ^klled 

in Hebrew Kikkar (Gen. xiii. 10— R.y., 
margin). The text of the A.y. and the 
R.v:both render Kikkmr " phiin." 

ClreniiMtlrton [Enghsh, from Lat. 
eircHfncisio = ** a cutting around **]. 

The initiatory rite of the Jewish Churchy 
instituted bv Qod and enjoined upon 
Abraham, who was himself to be circum- 
cised, as were all his male children and his 
manservants, \,e, slaves, whether bom in 
his house or bought with money. The 
proper time to cany out the rite was when 
the ipale child was eight days old, but 
those bom before the institution of the 
ordinance were to be droumdsed at any 
time of life. Thus Abraham was circum- 
cised when he was 99, and Ishmael when 
he was 13 (Oen. xvii. 11-27). Moses when 
in Midian carried out the rite with req>ect 
to his family TExod. iv. 24-26 ; John viL 
22)^ It was observed during the bondage 
ft, but was neglected in the wilder- 

ness. Before the entrv into Canaan, how- 
ever, Joshua made "knives of flint" 
(E.V.J and circumcised the people (Josh. 
V. 2-9). By this time metal was known, 
but there is a strong conservatism in all 
religions, and antique arrangements tend 
to remain after the necessity for them has 
passed away ; so flint held its own against 
metal for centuries after the time that 
the former might have been superseded. 
Though there were circumcised nations as 
well as the Jews, yet the Philistines, the 
Phoenicians, the Moabites^ the Ammonites, 
the Syrians, the Assyrians, the Babj^- 
lonians. and various other nationalities 
with whom the Jews were in contact were 
undrcumdsed, so that the word *^un- 
drcumdsed *' designed as a term of 
reproach meant almost practically (not 
etymologically) the same as heathen (Gen. 
xxxiv. 14 ; Judg. xiv. 3 ; xv. 18 ; 1 Sun. 
xvii. 26, 36; xxxi. 4; 1 Chron. x. 4; 2 
Sam. i. 20; Ezek. xxviii. 10; xxxi. 18; 
xxxii. 19-32). "The circumcision/' on 
the contrary, used in the New Testa- 
ment meant the Jewish Church and 
nation (Gal. ii. 8; CoL iv. 11, etc.). To 
circumcise the heart is so to regenerate 
it that its irreligious obstinair^ win disap- 
pear (Deut. X. 16), and it will be able and 
willing to love God with all its powers 
(xxx. 6). Circumcision is universal among 
the Mohammedans as well as the Jews. 

CIS [N. T. Gr. Ki9. The same as Kibh 
(q.v.) (Acts xiii. 21— A. V.)]. 

Clston [English]. 

A small artificial reservoir enclosed by- 
stone or brick work, or scooped in a rock 

to hold water. Cisterns were very nmner- 
ous in Palestine. There were so many in 
Jerusalem that, though tiie city had near it 
only one natural spring, it never ran shoit 
of water during the most protracted riee» 
(2 Kings xviii 31 ; Prov. v. 15 ; EccL zn. 
6 ; Isa. xxxvi 16 ; Jer. ii. 13). 


1) In many parts of. the Old Testamoit, 

1 even in the New, a dty is simply a 
large village, especially if surrounded by 
a wall (Gen. xviii. 26; xix. 29 ; Numb, 
xxi 25 ; Deut. ii, 34 ; Josh. iii. 16; x. 39 ; 
Luke xxiii. 51). That this is so appears 
from the fact that in the Old Testament 
the term ** dty " occurs very frequently^ 
while both "town'' and ♦'^village" arft 
met with sparingly ; whereas, if the words 
are dted in their modem aoeeptation, dtisa 
in any country are few, towns nior» 
numerous, and villages the most nomeroaa 
of the three. Important dties were forti- 
fied, and were, therefore, called " fenced 
dties '* (2 Kings x. 2 ; xvii 9 ; 2 Chron, 
xi 23) ; " defenced dties '* (Isa. xxv. 2; 
xxxvu. 26 ; Jer. i. 18). The oldest *'d^;* 
in the first sense mentioned in Scripture is 
that bmlt bv Cain (Gen. iv. 17). 

(2) A really large and populous tomit 
especially if it is the capital of a kingdom 
(Esther viii 15; Psalm xlviii. 2: Isa. 
xvii. 1 ; Ezek. ix. 4 ; xxvii 32 ; Jonah 
i. 2 ; Nah. iii. 1 ; Rev. xviii. 21). 

f Cities of Refuge,— ^\x Levitical cities 
dedffned to shelter the person who has 
accidentally committed manslaughter from 
the pursuit of the "Avenger of Blood** 
[Avenoeb]. It was revealed to Moses 
that they were to be six in number, 
three east and three west of the Jordan 
^umb. XXXV. 1-34 ; Deut. xix. 1-13; of. 
Exod. xxi. 13). The command to appoint 
them being r^eated to Joshua, he selected 
" Kedesh in Galilee in Mount NaphtaU^ 
Shechem in Mount Ephraim, and Kirjath- 
arba, which is Hebron, in the mountain of 
Judab.'* The first of these was in Galilee, 
the second in the future Samaria, and the 
third in the future Judsea. East of Jordan 
first Mosesj and then Joshua, chose Bcmt 
in the territory belonging^ to the tribe of 
Reuben. Bamoth-gilead m that of Gad, 
and Golan in Basluui in that of the half- 
tribe of Manasseh. All these three wer» 
in the future Persea (Deut. iv. 41-43 ; xxL 
13, 21, 27, 32, 36, 38 ; Josh. xx. 1-9). No 
part of Palestine was far from a dW of 
refuge, and the institution of sachasybima 
must have saved from death multitudes of 
people who did not deserve to be elaiut 
ana helped to terminate wretched blood- 
feuds which but for them would have good 
on from generation to generation* 

Clavda [Gr. Klaude]. 

A small island off the south-west of 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




CtodU or Greta. Paul's ship ran under its 
lee juit After aha was caught by the 
EurodydoB. The B-V. relegates Clauda 
4o the margin, and inserts in its stead 
-Cauiu. <q.T.) (Acts xzviL 16 — A.y. and 
&.y.)- Xlie Greeks stiU call it CUuda-nesa 
<Clauda island) pr Qaudanesi, which the 
Italians have corrupted into Qozzo. 

^^■wiw [Lat. from Claudua. feminine 
•C7tfittifl = ** lame" (?). In IST. T. Gr. 

A female Christian whojoined St. Paul 
m aending a salutation to Timothy (2 Tim. 
It. 21). 

daatfini (Lat. from Claudm s 
-*lama"(?). N. T, Gr. JT/aiirfMw]. 

The fourth Boman emperor, ilis full 

-name was Tiberius Claudius Nero Germa- 

nims. He was the son of Dnisus Nero, was 

nqihew of the emperor Tiberius, and uncle 

<d Caius or Caligula, his peoecessor on 

the throne. On the assassination of the 

last-named ruler, the soldiers of the prse- 

-torian gaard, i^, of the emperor's liody- 

^nard, who had no legal right to elect an 

emperor, did so in violation of the consti- 

totion, and chose Claudius against the will 

of the senate. Instead of being punished 

ibr this gross oflFenoe they were hand- 

-•QoielT rewarded by Claudius. He as- 

•ceoded the throne in a.i>. 41, reigned 

13 years and 8 months, dying in his 

<4tli year in i^d 54. He was feeble in 

-cbaracter, and his timidity was constantly 

practised ax>on by stronger natures around. 

'TIm famine predicted by Agabus took 

-pfaboe in the fourth year of Claudius's 

TBtgn, ▲.D. 45 (Acts xi. 28; cf. Josephus, 

.Antiq. XX. ii. 5; XX. y. 2). In the ninth 

jyear of his reign, ▲.d. 50, he banished the 

3eiws from Bome (Acts xyiii. 2). One of 

-the faTourites who ruled oyer Claudius 

was a freedman called Felix, the same 

-who was sent as govemor of Judsa, and 

was made by Paul to tremble (Acts xxiy. 

"25) [Fsuxj. Claudius's first wife, Messa- 

lina, was a shameless profligate. She bore 

him a son called Britannicus. When she 

was pot to death, he next married his niece 

Agiivpina, a woman who had already had 

two nusbsAds. By her first husband she 

had had a son, Nebo (q.y.)* She was as 

worthless as ner predecessor, and mur- 

^ored Claudius that her son might reign, 

-or rather that she herself might do so in 

CuLVDiUB Ltsiab [Lat. In Greek the 
asme is KUmdio9 LuiUui]. 

The ** chief captain " at Jerusalem when 
"St Paul was first brought to trial there. 
Ttm Greek Testament calls him Khiliar- 
kkm = '* a Chiliarch," t.^. the commander 
<i 1,000 men. He was, therefore, of much 
lugber rank than a centurion, who had 
aakr inm aoij 100. He seems to haye 

been the military tribune in charge of the 
whole garrison of Jerusalem. Each legion 
had as its ofiioers six such tribunes. 
Claudius Lysias sent soldiers to deliver 
Paul when the Apostle was in danser of 
being torn to pieces by fanatioal Jewish 
rioters; but immediately afterwards he 
was on the brink of committini^ the ille- 
gality and injustice of having Paul 
scourged without inquiring into his 
nationality. Then again he whaved well, 
rendering abortive a conspiracy against 
the prisoner by sending lum during the 
night under a large escort to Csesarea with 
a letter to Felix, the Boman {irocurator 
(Acts xxiL 24-xxiiL 35). 

lent [Lat. Ciemm$. genitive 
Clementi$ = " Knd," " merctful.^' In 
N. T. Gr. KletMi, genitive Klementos], 

A Christian, one of those who laboured 
along with St. Paul, apparently at Philippi 
^E^T. iv. 3). He may nave been the same 
mdividual as the Apostolic Father Clemens 
Bomanus, i^. Clement of Bome as dis- 
tinguishea from Clement of Alexandria. 

[Gr. KieapaSf a contraction of 


One of the two disciples who journeyed 
to and from Emmaus on the evening of 
the Besurrection day (Luke xxiv. 18). 
Apparently not the same as Clopas or 
Cleophas, though some Christian fathers, 
not of early date, assumed the identity of 
the two. 

Cleopluui [Clopas] (John xix. 25— 

Cloiia% Cleopluui [Gr. Klopaa.Clopaty 
Cleophas f and Alphiens are different 
attempts at transhteration of the same 
Hebrew word Hhlalpht] . [Alphaxtb. ] 

The same as Alphjbub (q.v.) (John xix. 
25— A. V. and B.V.). Apparently not the 
same as Cleopas (q.v.)- 

Clond [English]. 

For various phenomena of clouds tee 
Gen. ix. 13; Exod. xix. 9; Judg. v. 4; 
2 Sam. xxii. 12 ; xxiii. 4 ; 1 Kings xviii. 
44, 45 ; Job iii. 5 ; xx. 6 ; xxx. 15 ; xxxvi. 
29 ; xxxvii. 16 ; xxxviii 37 ; Pfealm cxlvii. 
8; Prov. xxv. 14; Ecdes. xii 2; Luke 
xii. 54. 

H Pillar of Cloud.— A miraculous doud 
taking the form of a pillar, which moved 
in front of the Israeutes in the wilder- 
ness to indicate to them the way along 
which God wished them to advance (Exod. 
xiii. 21, 22 ; Neh. ix. 19). When the 
evening was too for advanced for it to 
be seen, a pillar of fire was substituted in 
its place. When God designed to show 
His presence to the Israelites He did it in 
the pillar of doud (Numb. xii. 5 ; Deut. 
XXXI. 15), and when He designed to trouble 
the Egyptians He looked at them with 

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hostile gaze through the pillar of doud 
(Exod. xiv. 24). 

Onldiis [Lat., from Or. Knidos. Cf. 
Gr. Knidi = *'A nettie," ♦'a sea- 
anemone '*]. 

A city of Caria, on the south-west coast 
of Aoa Minor, over against the isle of Cos, 
which is about ten miles away. It was a 
Dorian colonjr. Eztensiye ruins exist at 
the spot, containing fine remains of Grecian 
lurchitecture. A small island just off the 
coast, now joined to the mainland, consti- 
tutes a penmsula oailed Cape Crio. Paul's 
vessel was opposite or nearly opposite to it 
at one part of his voyage to Kome (Acts 
xxviL 7;. 

Coal [English]. 

In Scnpture this is not the mineral sub- 
stance coal, but charcoal made by burning 
wood. Hence we read of coals of juniper 
(Psalm cxz. 4). The difference between 
coal in the more primitive and in its more 
modem sense is less than it looks. The 
mineral coal is simply the remains of 
ancient forests of now extinct trees and 
plants altered by the chemistry of nature, 
very ^erally a stratum of coal has be- 
neath it one of fire-clay, which is the 
ancient soil in which the trees grew. 

Coat [English!. 

The coats made by God for Adam and 
Eve immediately after their fall were of 
skins (Gten. iiu 21), and some savage 
nations have not even yet got beyond tms 
primitive covering. Josephs coat of many 
colours was prol»bly woven from wool. 
It may have heeii coloured like Scotch 
tartan, to which some plaids woven in 
Asia make an approach. Job mentions the 
collar of his coat, as if it bound him quite 
as a modem coat might do (Job xxx. 18). 
Aaron had a coat of linen as one of his 
sacred garments. 

% Coat of tnail, — A kind of armour 
fitting closely to the body like a coat. It 
may be of leather or of metallic rings (I 
Sam xvii. 5, 38). 

Cook [EngUshl. 

The male of toe well-known domestic 
fowl Oallus dotnestious. It is figured on 
the ancient Egyptian monuments. The 
cock is mentioned in the New Testament 
(Matt, xxvi 34, 74, 75 ; Mark xiii 35 ; xiv. 
30, 68, 72 ; Luke xxii. 34, 60, 61 ; John 
xiiL 38; xviii. 27). It is the correct 
rendering of the Greek AUktor, 

H Cock erowingy as a measure of time, 
is the third watch of the night (3 a.m. [?]) 
(Mark xiu. 35). 

Cookatrioo [English, from Old French 
eoca trice = ** a crocodile " ; from Low Lat. 
eocatrix^ a corruption of coeodnlltts = ** a 
crocodile "]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew woid 
Tttphoney pliural Fiiphonim, in Im. xL 8; 
lix. 6 ; and Jer. viii. 17 ; and of lUpha 
in Isa. ziT. 29-^ A.y. Itismaoilesay 
not a crocodile, and the B.y. evet^rwhers 
alters it to Basiubk (q.T.), or in the 
margin to Addeb (q.T.). 

Cookie [English]. 

The cookie, or more fully the corn- 
cockle of England (Agro$ten%ma Githf^ of 
Linnsus, afterwards called Lychnis Gitkago 
and now Oithago «0^«^tMi),i8ap]antoneor 
two feet high,. with large purple flowen, 
found in cornfields. Itisoneof theCaryo^ 
phyilacesB (Silenads or Cloveworts). In 
Job xxxi 40, texts of A. V. and B.V., cockls 
is the rendering of the Hebrew JBiuhak, 
from b«uuih = " to smell badly," which the 
corncockle does not. The maxgms of both 
the A.y. and the R-Y. have ** noisome 
weeds," which is more exact If a smgle 
comweed is alluded to it is doubtful what 
it is. 

Colkoiob [Heb. Jro/-irAo2^A='* every- 
one seeing," ue. ** who sees " (?)]. 

The father of Shallun and of Barucb 
(Xeh. iii. 15 ; xL 5). 

CoUogo [English]. 

A mistranslation of the Hebrew word 
Mishneh in 2 Kings xxii. 14— A V., and 
2 Chron. xxxiv. 22— A. V. The margin has 
** school" or " the second part," and the 
R. V. text ** the second quarter." 

ColOMO [Gr. Kolossai (a plural word)]. 

A city of Phrygia Major, in Asia Minor, 
lying near the confiuence of the Lycos 
with the Meander, not far from the main 
road from Ephesus to the Eujduutes. It 
was picturesquely situated m front of 
Mount Cadmus, which rises in vast pred- 

Sices, and is divided into two parts jost 
ehind Colosse by a great chasm through 
which a stream makes its way. The d^ 
was near Laodicea and Hierapolis (cf . CoL 
ii. 2 ; iv. 13), and with them was greatly 
injured by an earthquake about the yeur 
▲.D. 63 or 65. It soon rose again from its 
ruins, but its two rival towns cast it into 
the shade, and it did not retain the 
relative importance which it had in the 
days of Xenophon (401 B.c.^ (Xenophoiit 
Anabasis y L ii. 6). It is believed that it 
was situated at or near the modem village 
of Chonos or Konoe, though few remnants 
of antiquity have been found in the 

Coin— Iwm [English]. 

The natives or inhabitants of Colosse. 

% The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the 
Colossians, Paul associated Timothy*» 
name with his own in the introductory por- 
tion of this epistle (i. 1). When the Apostle 
wrote it he was a prisoner (iv. 3, 10, IH). 
probably at Rome (cf. Acts xxviii. 30, 31), 

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( 135 ) 


beliere that it was at 
k (cf. zziii. 33-35 ; xjdy. 27). It is 
doubtful whether he had ever been at 
Coloase when he penned it ; and if he had 
not, then probably Epaphras was the 
founder of the Colossian church. Meesaffes 
to it from the Apostle were carried by uie 
■une Epaphras, who seems to have been a 
natiTe ox ColosBe, and for a time the 
pastor of its church, which he ultimately 
gave over to Archippos, himself joining 

The letter was to be carried by Tychicus 
and Onesimus, Philemon^s converted slave, 
who was to bear to his master (a member 
of the Colossian church) ** Paui*s Epistle 
to Philemon " (Philemon 10-16). [Phile- 
XON.] Onesimus's fellow-traveller, Tychi- 
cus, was to take in his chiurge the Epistle 
to the Ephesians (Ephes. vi. 21). [Ephe- 
BiANS.I The two epistles were penned one 
immediately after the other, and both the 
thoughts and the language of the two are 

"Pavl at the place of his confinement (i. 7, 
8; iv. 12). The epistle ma^ be divided 
into four sections : Ist, A brief introduction 
<L 1,2); 2nd, Doctrinal teachinjj (i, 3-ii. 23) ; 
3rd, Practical exhortations (ui. I-iv. 6); 
and 4th, Salutations (iv. 7-18). One 
theme treated of is the pre-eminence and 
headship of Christ (i. 13-20 ; ii. 9, 10,. etc.) ; 
another is the mystery or long unrevealed 
truth that the Gentiles, of whom evidentlv 
the great majority of the Colossian church 
consisted, had the same privUeges when 
they becaone Christians as the Jewish con- 
verts posaeased (i. 26; ii. 11-17). There 
were evidently various Judaising teachers 
who sought to bring tiie church under a 
yoke of bondage ; and adherents of a p»hil- 
osopfay whi^looked very like posticism, 
anci may actually have oeen wat S3r8tem 
in iti germ, sought to corrupt the simplicity 
of the gospel (iC 8, 18-23). Among those 
who sent salntationa were Tvchicus, 
Onestmus, Hark, Emphras, Luke, and 
the aa yet unfallen VemoB (iv. 7} 9-14). 

wonderfully akin. For parallel passages 
in these epistles »ee EphbsiansH. If the 
Epistle to the Colossians was written at 
Rome, its date would probably be a.d. 02 ; 
if penned at Ceesarea, it would be between 
58 and 60. The testimony of various 
Christian fathers is in favour of its 
authenticity, though Baur, believing that 
when it was composed gnosticism was a 
potent force, asserted that it emanated 
irom a later writer than St. Paul. 

CodaiiIaIi, Cronimlali pieb. Konan- 
yahn — •' whom God beholds"]. 

(1) A Levite who had charge of the 
titJies and offerings in Hezekiah^s reign 
(2 Chron. xxxi. 12, 13— A. V. and R.V.). 

(2) A Levite of high station in the reign 
of Josiah (2 Chron. xxxv. 9— A.V. and 

ConoQliiiia [English] . 

In the Bible a secondary wife under the 
system of polygamy. Concubines are men - 
tioned in connection with Abraham (Gen. 

Digitized by 





xxT. 6), an Ephiaimite Levite (Jodg. zix. 
1-30; xz.1-6), Saul (2 Sam. iii. 7; xzi. 11), 
Bavid (2 Sam. ▼. 13; xvi. 22; zix. 5; 
XX. 3), Solomon, who had a scandalouB 
number (1 Kings xi. 3), Behoboam(2 Chron. 
xi. 21), Ahasuenis (Xerxes) (Esther ii. 14), 
and Belshazzar (Dan. y. 23). 

Conay [Englishl. 

An animal mentioned in the A.y. and 
in the text of the B.Y. in Lev. xi. 5; 
Deut. xiv. 7 ; Psalm dv. 18 ; and Prov. 
XXX. 26. The coney of England is the 
rabbit, that of Scripture is the Book- 
BADOBB (q.T.). 

Congregatioii [English, from Latin 
Congregatio = ** a flockinff together." "an 
assembly:'* con = "together/* and grex, 
genitive gregi$ = " a flock **]. 

(1) The whole bod^r of the Israelites 
assembled together in the wilderness 
(Num. xvi. 2, 3, 45, 47). [Tabebnaolb.] 

(2) An assembly of the people on a much 
smaller scale of magnitude (Num. xxxv. 12 ; 
Josh. XX. 6). 

(3) An assembly of pious Jews for the 
worship of Gk>d (Psalms Ixviii. 26 ; Ixxidx. 

(4) Any fathering (Job xv. 34 ; Psalm 
i. 5 ; XXVI. 5). 

% Th€ Great Congregation. — ^An assembly 
of the pilmms at Jerusalem on occasion 
of one of the great festivals, or any meet- 
ing as importtmt (1 Kings viii. 65 ; 2 Chron. 
vii. 8 ; XXX. 13). Often used in Messianic 
Psalms (Psalms xxii. 25 ; xxxv. 18 ; xl. 
9, 10). 

i [Heb. Konuahu], 

An abbreviation of JEOomAH (q.v.) (Jer. 
xxii. 24, 28 ; xxxvii. 1). 

Cononiali [Cokaniah] (2 Chron. xxxi. 
12, 13~A.V.). 

Conaeeration [English]. 

(1) Of men. — Solemn ordination to a 
sacred office (cf . Exod. xxix. 9), or to sacred 
work or service (Lev. viii. 33; 1 Chron. 
xxix. 5 ; 2 Chron. xxix. 31). 

(2) Of Mfn^«.— Solemn setting apart 
from a common to a sacred use (Exod. 
viii 31 ; xxix. 22 ; 2 Chron. xxxi. 6). 

ConTersation [EngUsh, from Lat. 
Conversatio = f 1), " frequent use ** ; (2), 
** frequent aboae in a place ** ; (3), "inter- 
course,** " conversation **]. 

(1) The rendering in the A.Y. of the 
Qreek Folitmma (Phil. iii. 20). properly 
rendered in the R.V. " citizenship^* in the 
text, and "commonwealth** in the margin. 
In i. 27, a phrase in which the correspond- 
ing verb Politeito occurs, translated " con- 
versation ** in the A.V., is rendered " let 
your manner of life be ** in the text of the 
R.V., and "behave as citizens** in the 

(2) The rendering, in many passasss of 
the A.y., of the Gieek Anattropks (QaL L 
13; lTim.iv. 12; 1 Peter L 15, etc). It 
means " conduct,*' " mode of life,** and is 
generally rendered in the B.y. " manner 
of life '* (Gka. L 13— B.V. ; 1 Tim. iv. 12 
— R.V.3, or "manner of living** (1 Peter 
i. 15— R. v.), or " Uving ** (2 ftter iii. 11), 
or " life ** (Heb. xiii. T\ James iii. 13), or 
" behaviour '* (1 Peter iL 12 ; iii. 1, 2). 

(3) The rendering, in the A.y., of the 
Greek Tfopoa = " a turn," in Heb. xiii. 5. 
The margm of the B.y. renders it " turn 
of life." 

Convoaatioii [English from Lat. Con- 
vocatio = " a calling together '*]. 

A festival on wmch the Jewish people 
were simunoned to assemble together and 
when no servile work was allowed to be 
done. The holy convocations were every 
Sabbath (Lev. xxiu. 37, 38), the fiist and 
seventh days of the feast of unleavened 
bread (Exod. xiL 16 ; Lev. xxiii. 6, 7 ; 
Num. xxviii. 18, 25), Pentecost (Lev. xxiii. 
15-21), the first and seventh days of the 
tenth month, the latter being the great day 
of atonement (Lev. xxiiL 24-28, 35 ; Num. 
xxix. 1), and the first and eighth days of 
the feast of tabemades, which began on 
the 15th of the seventh month (Lev. xxiii. 
34-36; Neh. viii. 18). 

Cooa [Cos] (Acts xxL 1— A.V.). 

Copper [English] . 

The rendering in the text of Ezra viii 
27^A.y. of Nehhothethy genouUv trans- 
lated " brass" in the other parts of that ver- 
sion. The margin renders it " yellow or 
shining brass ** while the R.y. has " fine 
briffht brass.'* In the first place in which 
Nehhosheth occurs in the Old Testament 
(Gen. iv. 22) the R.y. has in the text 
"brass,'*and on the margin " or copper,and 
so elsewhere.*' Copper is the better render- 
ing, though in some places the meaning 
may be bronze. 

Cknral [English]. 

The rendermg of the Hebrew Jtamoth in 
Job. xxviii. 18 and Ezek. xxvii. 16. It 
was evidently regarded as verv valuable. 
Syria disposed of coral with ouier articles 
of conmieroe in the markets of Tyre. 
Coral is properly the calcareous skeleton 
of certain animals of low organisation, 
popularly but erroneously called coral 
"insects." They are radiated animals, 
with a central mouth surrounded by fleshy 
limbs, and are either attached singly to a 
rock, or so bud from parents as to make a 
compound being of many half distinct, half 
united individuals. The carbonate of 
lime of which the oond skeleton is made is 
obtained from the sea- water. The coral is 
often beautifully branched like a tree or 
shrub, whoioe these animals are often 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




called Zoophytee (Plant animals). Some 
spedeaformgTeat reefs, and a great many of 
the islands with which the hotter parts of 
the Fadflc Ocean are studded are wholly 
boilt by the coral polypes. So also are the 
Bermuda Islands in the Atlantic, the 
waters surrounding them, brought by the 
Gulf stream^ being warm enougpa to allow 
the coral animals to live and work. 

i [Or. Korban, from Heb. Qorban, 
&» the article]. 

An oflFering, an oblation, whether of a 
bloody or an unbloody sacrifice, given to 
God. It isthfi word translated ** offering" in 
Ler.iLl— A.V., and ** oblation" in 4, 12, 13 
—AY., and in all the four passages in the 
B.y. AwonUTor^aiMW, from the same root, 
is rendered in Matt, xxvii. 6 ** treasury,'* 
and on the margin of the B-Y. ** sao^ 
treasury." Ck)rbui is used by our Lord for 
money dedicated to God. The practice 
vhidi he denounced in the passage was 
that of children whose parents required 
their sui^)ort giving them no aid, on the 
pretence that the money which would 
otherwise have been available for the pur- 
pose had been dedicated to God, and that 
it would be sacrileffe to divert it from this 
sacred purpose. Jos^ihus relates that a 
clamorous mob beset the tribunal of 
Fbotius Pilate when he took the sacred 
monev called Corban, and exi>ended it on 
aqueaucts designed to improve the water 
supply of Jerusalem. This doubtless was 
a public benefit ; but the Jews evidently 
tbouchtthat money once dedicated to God 
conM never again be lawf uU v used for a 
secular purpose, however conducive to the 
poUic welfare {War^ U. ix. 4). 

Gore [N. T. Gr. Ki>re\, 
KoiUH (q.v.) (Jude II— A. Y.). 

Cteiuider r^higlishl. 

Hebrew Qadh, from Qadhadh = ''U>iSQi,^' 
so named £rom the striated seeds. A plant 
which had white seeds, which the manna 
was considered to resemble (Exod. xvi. 31 ; 
Num. xi. 7). Yenr probably it was the 
Coriander {Coriandrttm sativum). It is a 
branched annual, with cut leaves, umbels 
of pink or white flowers, and a small 
globular fruit used to season dishes. It is 
wild in Arabia, Northern Africa, and, 
perhaps, in Southern Europe. In Palestine 
It is found in cultivated grounds and in 
the Jordan valley. 

Corlntli [Lat Cc»rinihu8y Gr. JTonVi- 


One of the leading cities of Greece, and 
the best situated of any for the growth of 
commerce and wealth. It stood on the 
nsnow isthmus connecting the Pelopon- 
oesQf, now the Morea, wiw the mainland 
of Greece. Any traffic conducted by hind 
6«iieither of theee places to the other had 

to pass through Corinth. To the east of 
the city stretdied the SalonicGulf (now 
that of iEgina), whilst the GiUf of Corinth 
(now that of iLepanto) approached it on 

the west. Thus ships could come to or 
near it from both sides. The Phoenician 
mariners seem to have been the first to 
appreciate the advantages of the situation. 
Tney built a village on the top of a moun- 
tain, subs^uently called Acrocorinthus 
(the top or citadel of Corinth). This 
setUement, which was about 48 miles west 
of Athens, became the nucleus of the 
future dty. The -ffJolian Greeks pos- 
sessed it next, calling it Ephvra. About 
1074 B.C. the pDwer passea from the 
.£olians to the Dorian Heracleidse. Not 
merely were these struggles between rival 
Greek races; the anstocracv and the 
democracy each contended for tne mastery. 
In B.C. 146 the Roman Consul disgraced 
himself and his country by burning it to 
ashes; the accidental fusmg together of 
different metals during this conflagration is 
said to have led to the discovery of Corin- 
thian brass. The city was rebuilt by 
Julius Csesar about 46 B.o. It became the 
capital of the Roman province of Achaia, 
and was ruled by a proconsul. The moral 
reputation of Corinth was not hi^h. 
Wealth produced idleness and idleness vice, 
so that to ** corinthiaze " had a bad mean- 
ing. Paul laboured in Corinth for about 
a year and a half, lodging with Aquila and 
Prisdlla, and supporting himself by tent- 
making. At first he spoke in the syna- 
gogues and then in the house of Justus, 

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( 138) 


till at length he was draffged before the 
tribunal of the prooonsuf Gallio (q.v.) 
(Acts zviii. 1-18). On Paul's departure, 
Apollos continued the good work which 
had been beg^ui (xix. 1). 

Afterwards the Apostle sent two letters 
to the Corinthian church [f 1 and 2). 

Ckirintii was a city of the lower Greek 
Empire. The capture of (Constantinople 


by the Venetians and the Crusaders in 1204 
was immediately followed by the surrender 
of Corinth. In 1446 the Turks took, and 
in 1687 the Venetians retook it ; the Turks 
capturing it again in 1715. In 1823 it 
jomed in the successful great rebellion. 
In February, 1858, it was nearly destroyed 
by on earthquake, but has since been re- 
stored. It is now called Gortho. 

H (n The Jint Epistle of Paul the 
Apostle to the Corinthians. — Paul was 
the founder of the church at Corintu 
((}.y.), and correspondence passed between 
hmi and it after he had gone on to 
other cities. In 1 Cor. v. 9 he says, *• I 
wrote unto you in an epistle.** Then one 
followed from them; for in vii. 1 the 
words occur, ** Now concerning the things 
whereof ye wrote unto me.** The Scrip- 
tural book called '* first ** Corinthians was 
written partljr in reply to queries sent to 
the Apostle in the letter from Corinth. 
The church at that city consisted, like the 
others, of Jews and Greeks. It was the 
failing of the former to ask for a sign from 
heaven, and dictate what the sign should 
be (cf. Matt. xii. 38, 39 ; xvi. 1, 4 ; Mark 
viii. 11, 12 : Luke xi. 16, 29, 30 ; John ii. 
18). The latter, on the other hand, were 
tempted to use their acute intellect in split- 
ting hairs, starting heresies in theology, 
and valuing worldly wisdom more than 
** the wisdom that is from above.'* Just 

before the epistle was penned, some mem- 
bers of a household of which a certain 
Chloe was the head brought the intelli- 
gence that the church at Corinth was 
broken up into parties. One church- 
member said, " I am of Paul,** another 
"I am of Apollos,** another "I am of 
Cephas,*' and another ** I am of Christ." 
Beisides this, all ran some risk from the 
immorality so preva- 
lent at C)orinth, and 
to which some of 
them hod yielded be- 
fore their conversion. 
Nay, incest had crept 
into the church it- 
self, and there were 
grievous scandals of 
another kind in con- 
nection with the com- 
munion. All this was 
known to Paul when 
he penned his first 
epistle. It may be 
divided into nine 
sections : — 

(1) Introductory 
verses (i. 1-9). 

(2) Remonstrance 
against the division 
of the church into 

• parties, and counsel 
that there should be 
a return to unity. To the Jewish Chris- 
tians, if thev stifl seek a sign, the Apostle 
commends Christ as the power of God ; to 
the Gentiles in quest of wisdom he com- 
mends Him as the wisdom of God (i. 24) : 
and reminds both that Christ crucified 
was the main theme of his preaching 
(i. 10-iv. 21). 

(3) Directions for the expulsion of the 
incestuous person from the cnurch (v.). 

(4) Bemonstrance with those Christians 
who prosecute their brethren before 
heathen tribunals (vi. 1-8). 

(5) On the relation of the sexes, with 
warning to the converts ^as there is in 
detached passages througn the epistle) 
against being contaminated by the abound- 
ing iniquity (vi. 9- vii. 40). 

(6) On mvitations to feasts in which 
meats offered to idols are set before tho 
guests (viii.-x.). 

(7) On the proper conduct of Divine 
worship (xi.-xiv.). Under this heading 
explicit directions are given as to the way 
in which the communion should be ob- 
served (xi. 20-34). and there is a ma^ifi- 
cent chapter (xiii.^ on the characteristics, 
the obligation, and the pre-eminent place 
of Christian love. 

(8J On the doctrine of the resurrection 
(xv.), being the most extended and sub- 
lime utterance on the subject in the Bible. 

(9) Directions for a collection which the 

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Apostle wished the church to make for the 
poor Christiaiis of Jerusalem, ezphination 
of his own intended movements, the whole 
closing with salutations (zvi.). 

The subscription, whicn is no part of the 
emsUe, alleges that it was written from 
PniUppi; internal evidence shows pretty 
clearly that it was sent from Ephesus 
(xvL 8, 9) **in Asia" (19), the probable 
oate being about A..D. 57. Its genuineness 
and authenticity are universally admitted. 

% (2) The second Emstle of^Tuul (he 
Apo9tU to the Corinthians,— When Paul 
had sent off his '* first" epistle, he half 
repented of what he had done (2 Cor. 
vii. 8). He was afraid that the strength of 
its language and the unpopular counsel 
which it gave might lead to its being badly 
received. He hadplanned a second journey 
to Ck>rinth ; but, m the uncertainty as to 
the effect produced by his epiBtle, thou^jpht 
it best not to go. He would defer his visit 
till he could do it without ** heaviness " 
(i. 17-ii. 5). Butby-and-bye Titus arrived 
with the welcome intelligenoe that the 
first epistle had been well received, and the 
exercise of discipline which it had enjoined 
had been carriea out. Paul was now glad 
that he had sent it, and may, perhaps, have 
carried out his deferred second visit. He 
speaks of a third one which he hopes soon 
to attempt ; but whether it is a third one 
which he is "ready" to imdertake, or a 
third actual visit is open to doubt (xii. 14 ; 
3dii. 1). There are no very obvious sec- 
tions m the epistle, but the following may 
be suggested:— 

rn j&troductory verses (i. 1, 2). 

(2) The Apoetle*s sufferings and those of 
the Corinthian Christians (3-14). 

(Z) His plans, past and present (15-24). 

(4) His recent letter and its effects 
(ii. 1-17). Here we find directions for the 
restoration to the church of the excom- 
municated man now penitent (5- 1 1 ). 

(6) Paul and his associates, who are de- 
acnbed as ** ambassadors for Christ," 
consider these converts as their epistle 
commending them, and seek for the 
approval ol their Divine Lord, before 
wluMe tribunal they and all others must 
ultimately appear. They counsel those 
stUl alienated nom God to be reconciled to 
Him, and exhort all to aim at holiness, 
which will be easier if they avoid marry- 
ing xmbelievers, and forbear to associate 
too closely with those who are not Chris- 
tians (iiL-vii.). 

jJS) JBxhortations to Christian liberality 

^7) Vindicatioa of Paul's apostolic 
authority, and warning against false 
teadiers (x.-xii.). 

(8) Final explanations and exhortations, 
the whole concluding with salutations 
from *' all the saints," without mention of 

an;^ individual name. The epistle was 
written from Macedonia (2 Cor. U. 13; 
vii. 5 ; ix. 2. 4) in 57 or 58 a.d., not long 
after its inreaecessor. Its genuineness and 
authentidtv have not he&x seriously im- 
peached, though some have denied its 

Cormoraitt [English]. 

(1) The rendering of Hebrew ShdMk\ 
from Shdlak^ «* to throw down." The bird 
was ceremonially unclean (Lev. xi. 17; 
Deut. xiv. 17). It is probaoly the Pha- 
iacroeorax carhoj a large swimming bird of 
the Pelican &mily, biu distinguished from 
the pelican by not having a pouch below 
the lower mandible. Biras of the Cormo- 
rant genus are widely diffused over the 
world, that which buitds on rocky islands 
off the coast of Northumberland being the 
same spedes as the one living on the coasts 
of Palestine^n the Lake of Galilee, and 
elsewhere. The appetite of a cormorant is 
proverbial; and Tristram describes its 
lavourite occupation in Palestine to be to 
sit on the snag of a tree where the Jordan 
enters the D^ Sea, and catch the fishes 
while they are stupefied by being carrie<i 
into the salt brine. He mentions that 
another spedes, Phaiacrocorax pygmtBus, 
the ' Pigmy Cormorant, occurs, though 
sparingfy, on the streams which flow 
through Palestine to the Mediterranean. 

(2)Heb. Qaath, The Pelican (q.v.) 
(Isia. xxxiv. 11 ; Zeph. ii. 14). 

Com [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew Lagltan^ 
from daghah = ** to multiply," a generic 
word for the several cereal grasses culti- 
vated in Palestine and so much constitut- 
ing the staff of life that ** com and wine " 
stand figuratively for the entire vegetable 
produce of the fields (Gen. xxvii. 28; 
Deut. vii. 13, etc.). The chief were wheat 
(Judg. XV. 1, etc.), barley (Deut. viii. 8, 
etc.), spelt (Isa. xxviii. 25, etc., B.y.), and 
millet (Ezek. iv. 9). Spelt, which grow in 
Egypt as well as in the Holy I^d, is 
translated in the A.y. of Exod. ix. 32 
and of Isa. xxviii 25 <*rie," in that of 
Ezek. iv. 9** fitches," 

Oomelius [Lat.]. 

One of the centurions of a Boman regi- 
ment called the Italian band, once stationed 
at CsBsarea. A devout and generous man, 
his prayers and alms were accepted by 
God, one of whose angels directed him to 
send to Joppa for Peter, who would indi- 
cate to him the path of dutv. He did so. 
and Peter was prepared for the coining of 
Cornelius's messengers bv the vision of the 
sheet let down m>m heaven with the 
animals clean and unclean, the latter as 
well as the former to be slaughtered if 
he liked it for food. Peter responded to 
the invitation, went with some Christian 

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( 140) 


friends from Joppa to Caesarea, preached 
the gospel to Cornelius, and was the means 
of converting him and his household. 
Divine confirmation of what had been 
•done being at once given by the descent 
upon them of the Holy Ghost, with the 
impartation of the gift of tongues. The 
•event was one of prime importance in the 
«arly Church, commencing as it did the 
long-promisea calling of the Gentiles (Acts 
:x. 1-48). 

Ck»nier^«toiie [English]. 

A stone placed at the angle where two 
walls of a ouilding meet, and helping to 
"bind Uiem together. Any stone m this 
^position, from the foundation to the roof, 
IS a comer-stone, and each requires to be 
stronger than an ordinary stone in the line 
•of wall ^Job xxxviii 6 ; Psalm cxliv. 12 ; 
Jsa. xzviii. 16) , 

% The chief Comer Stone.— Appaxenilj 
-the stone at tiie upper an^le of a ouilding, 
;and regarded as the most miportant one m 
-the e<£flce. Used figuratively of Christ 
(Ephes. ii. 20-22 ; 1 Pet. ii. 7 ; cf . Isa. 
zxviii. 16). The chief comer-stone is 
identical with the head of the comer or 
!head stone of the comer of Psalm oxviii. 
22 ; Matt. xxi. 42 ; Mark xii 10 ; Luke 
:m. 17; Actsiv. 11. 

Comet [English]. 

( 1 ) The rendering of the Hebrew Shoj)hary 
-from Shaphar = "to polish," " to shine," 
referring evidently to a metallic trumpet 
in 1 Chron. xv. 28 ; 2Chron. xv. 14 ; Psahn 
xcviii. 6, and Hosea v. 8. Elsewhere, as 
in Lev. xxv. 9, it is translated Tbuicpet 

(2) (Plural.) The rendering of the 
"Hebrew Menaanim in 2 Sam. vi. 5 — ^A.V. 
"The R.V. renders the word CjISTANBTS 

(3) Therendering of the Aramaic Qanur, 
•€orres]ponding to uie Hebrew Qeren in 
Dan. ui. 5, 1, 10^ 15. It means a horn, and 
is so renoered m viii. 20, ete. It was 
evidently a kind of trumpet, consisting 
•originally of the hollow nom of some 
:mammal, but which in the days of Daniel 
was probably made of metal. It was 
-curved, like many animals* horns, instead 
of being straight. 

Cos, Coos [Gr. Kos\ 

An islandj now called Slanko or StanehiOy 
in the Archipelago off the coast of Caria in 
Asia Minor, in a gulf between Cnidus 
4uid Halicamassus. It is about 21 miles 
long by 6 broad. Its principal city has 
l)een oftener than once seriously injured 
1)^ earthquakes. Cos was celebrated tor its 
wines, its ointments, and its purple dyes. 
Paul*s vessel passea, if it did not even 
iouch at, it on nis voyage from Miletus to 
Palestine. A day later ne readied Rhodes 
<Act8 xxi 1)^ 

^Ip*"' Jfoiam,j 

QoM»A=aaiviner: cf.s 

The son of Elmodan, and the &ther of 
Addi. in the ancestry of our Lord (Luke 
ill 28). 

Cotton [English]. 

The renaeriiig in the margin of the R.y. 
in Esther i. 6 of the Hebrew A af7M», trans- 
lated in the text of the A.V. and R.V. 
^ * green." The Septuagint makesit Karpaei- 
nos = '* of or belonging to Kai'pettoe^'* a fine 
flax grown in Spam ; out the word is from 
Sanscrit Karpasa = " cotton." Cotton is 
the bunch of threads surroimding the ripe 
seeds of the cotton-plants. They belong 
to the genus GosswoiwHf which is one of the 
Mallow order. Hie leaves have three or 
five lobes ; the flowers, which are large and 
showy, and oftoi of a jrellow colour, are 
surrounded by an outer involuoel or calyx 
of three great leaves. The Indian Cotton. 
Gossypium herbaeeum^ was early cultivatea 
in Persia, and was probably that of Esther. 

Connoil [English from Lat. Coneiium^ 
** a calling togeuier " ; an ** assembly "]. 

In the New Testament, a Jewish govern- 
ing body which, even under the Roman 
nue, retained considerable political power. 
It is generally called the Sanhedrim. It 
is more accurate to spell the word Sanhe- 
drin. It is derived from the Greek term 
Sunedrion = " a sitting together," " a 
sitting in council," "a coimcil." That 
the ethology' is not Hebrew or even 
Aramaic, but Greek, is a strong argument 
for the opinion that the Sauheorin or 
Council did not originate till some con- 
siderable time after Alexander the Great's 
conquest of Palestine, and accordingly 
Josephus does not mention it earUerJthan 
the days of Hyrcanus and Herod in 47 B.C. 
(Anti^.y XIV. ix. 3), though it may have 
come mto existence nearhr a century earlier, 
having succeeded ** the Great Synagogue.*' 
The Sanhedrin consisted of the chief 
priests, the elders, and the scribes. Its 
numbers were seventy-one, setenty ordi- 
nary members to correspond, perhaps, 
with the seventy elders appointed by Moses 
to assist him as judges, and as a sevens- 
first member, the hi^ priest, who was the 
official presiaent of the body. One of its 
usee was to be a court of appeal from the 
provincial tribunals, though it was not 
Dound to limit its businesB to oases brought 
up for review. It was the only Jewidj 
court which could pronounce the deaw 
penalty against a cnmiiial, but when the 
Roman dominion was estaUished in P*^^ 
tine, capital sentences could not be 
carried out without the sanction of the 
Boman procurator, as is hinted at in 
Matt. V. 22. It was before the Council or 
Sanhedrin that the first formal trial of Je&us 

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(141 ) 


took place (Matt. zxvi. 69; l£ark ziv. 
56 ; XV. 1 ; Luke xxii. 66 ; John xi. 47). 
It was before the Council that Peter, John 
and the other Apoetles were brought (Acts 
iv. 6, 6, 16 ; t. 21 27, 34, 41|, the "senate," 
probauy the elders or ola men who had 
not seats on the council, acting at the 
second meeting tiemporanly as assessors 
(y. 21). Stephen was taken before the 
Councd (Acts vi. 12), so also was Paul 
(xxii. 30 ; xxiii. 16 ; xxiv. 20). The 
sanhedrin was swept away at the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. 

Court [£ngli8h1. 

(1) An endoeed but uicoTered area 
surroundinff the Tabxritaglb (q.v.) (Exod. 
xxviL 9 ; xT. 8), with a similaj' but larger 
one, mostly unroofed, surrounding the 
Tkicfie (9. v.). This area being divided, 
the word is generally used in the plural, 
courts (Psalms Ixr. 4 ; Ixxxiv. 2 ; Isa. i. 

12, etcA 

(2) The palaoe of a king (Esther yi. 6 ; 

^) A sanctuary (Amos vii. 13— A. V. 

Coreiuuit [English]. 

An agreement between two persons or 
beings. Various covenants between man 
and man are mentioned in Scripture, but 
they are not now important (Gen. xxi. 27, 
32 ; 1 Sam. xviii. 3 ; xxiii. 18 ; 1 Kin^ 
xz. 34). It is otherwise with those m 
which God condescends to be a covenant- 
ing party. Of this latter kind are 6od*s 
covenants with Noah, that he should be 
nved when the old world perished (Gen. 
vi. 18), and the second one that there 
should be no other great deluge, the rain- 
bow being the token of the covenant (Gen. 
XX. 12. 15, 16) ; the covenant with Abraham 
and nia posterity of which circumcision 
was to be the sign (Gen. xiii. 17 ; xv. 18 ; 
xvii. 2, 4, 7, 11, 13, 14 ; Acts vii. 8). There 
was a covenant with Isaac, Jacob, and 
their descendants to give them the land of 
Canaan for an inheritance (Gen. xvii. 19 ; 
Psalm cv. 9-11 ; 2 Kings xiu. 23 ; 1 Chron. 
xvi. 15-18), one with the Israelites of which 
a sign was to be the Sabbath (Exod. xxxi. 
16), while the keeping of the ten command- 
ments was to be its condition (Deut. iv. 

13, 23) : this was made specially at Horeb 
(Dent. V. 2 J xxix. 1). A second covenant 
witii the Israelites was formed on the 
plaina of Moab (Dent. xxix. 1). There 
was a covenant with the Levites (Hal. ii. 
4, 8). and one specially with Phinehas to 
give mm and his descendants an everlasting 
prifiBthood (Numb. xxv. 12, 13). There 
was a covenant with David that his 
posterity should for ever occupy his throne 
(Ptahnlxxxix. 20-28, 34 ; cf. 2 Sam. vii. 
1-29 and 1 Chron. xvii. 1-27; 2 Chron. 
vii. 18 ; Jer. xxxiii. 21). There was to be 

a new covenant also with the Israelites^ 
which was to be of a more spiritual char- 
acter than its predecessors (Jer. xxxt 
31-34). Of this Christ is the Mediator 
(Heb. viii. 6-13 ; ix. 1 ; x. 15-17 ; xii. 24). 
With reference to it the Old and New 
Testaments had, perhaps, better have 
been called the Old and New Covenants. 

H (1) A eorenant of salt.— A covenant of 
permanent obligation and continuance 
(Numb, xviii. 19 ; 2 Chron. xiii. 5 ; cf. Lev. 
n. 13). [Salt.] 

m Ark of the Covenant.— [Akk, f 3.) 
(iHrou.xva 1.) 

(3) Jk<}k of the Corenant. 

Un The part of the Mosaic law contained 
in Exo4l. xx.-xxiii. (?). 

(Ii) The book of Deuteronomy (?), or the 
Peiitati^ich (y) (2 Kings xxiii. */; 2 Chron. 
xj»j^iv. 30). 

(4) 7h6ie9 of the CMenant.-The ten 
commandments, enjoined on the I$melitea 
as the condition on their part of retaining 
the Divine favour (Deut. ix. 11). 

Ckvw [English, plural cows, old plural 

Cows are mentioned as domestic animals 
as early as in the times of Jacob in Palestine 
(Gen. xxxii, 15), and those of Pharaoh^ 
Joseph's friend, m Egypt (xli. 2, 3, etc.). 
After the Israelites reached Canaan, the 
land flowing with milk and honey, they 
bad numerous cows (Deut. vii. 13 ; xxviii. 
4, 18, etc). A young cow is called a 
Hbiteb (q.v.). 

Cos [Heb. Qots = " a thorn '»]. 
A man of Judah, the father of Anub and 
Zobebah (1 Chron. iv. 8). 

Cosbl [Heb. ICozbi = ''given to lying,' ^ 
** mendacious**]. 

A Midianitish woman, the daughter of 
Zur, a man of high rank in his own tribe. 
A Simeonite Zimri having brought her to 
his tent, Phinehas slew them botn (Numb, 
xxv. 6-8, 14, 15, 18). 

Crane [English]. 

(I) Heb. AffAry a bird which has a 
note like a chatter (Isa. xxxviii. 14 — 
B.y.). It will be observed that while the 
A.V. reads ** a crane or a swallow,** the 
B.y. alters this to *'a swallow or a 
crane,** thus reversing the identification of 
the two birds. A^iir is from affar = ** to 
fly in circles.** Tnstram believes the bird 
to be the genuine crane, Griu cotmmtnis. 
Cmnmnnis does not mean that it is common. 
i.e. abundant, and easily seen, but that it 
is common to various countries instead of 
being confined to one. It is the tvpe of a 
famfly of long-legged wading birds. It is 
a large and elegant bird, breeding in the 
North of Europe and of Asia, and mi- 
grating southward at the approach of 

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winter. On these flights cranes go in 
large flocks of wedge-shaped form or in 
long lines. Tristram saw two individuals 
in the south of Palestine. 

(2) Heb. »U8 [Swallow] (Isa. zxxriii. 
14— A. V. ; Jer. viiL 7— A.V.). 

Cr«atioii [Englishj. 

The act or operation of making any- 
thing out of nothing, specially Qod's 
makmg out of nothmg the atoms or 
elements of which the universe is com- 
posed. Two narratives detailing the suc- 
cessive stages of creation exist in the book 
of G^esis, the on extending from chap, 
i. 1 to ii. 3 and the other fn>m ii. 4 to 7. 
Attention has been turned chiefly to the 
first aa being the lonf;er history. Before 
geology attracted notice as a science, the 
passage now referred to was generally in- 
teipreted to mean that the sun, moon, and 
stars, this earth, and the whole universe 
were brought into existence bj God only a 
few thousand years ago, the tune taken for 
their creation being six literal dayv. 
Milton interprets the creation narrative in 
this sense in his Paradise Lo$t^ book vii.^ 
published in 1667. When geolo^^ts beg^ 
to study the orderly succession of the 
rocks and speculate on their origin and 
history, they became convinced that 
millions of years must have been required 
to produce all the changes of which they 
had obtained evidence. At first the 
tendency in Christian circles was to regard 
the claim for so enormous an extension 
of time as unfounded, and strong and 
unwise language was used, in which 
even the great genius of the poet Cowper 
did not save him from participatmg 
(Ck)wper, Task, iii., 150-154, puWubed 
▲.D. 1785). After a time, some eminent 
divines peorceived that the geological daim 
for extended time was w^l founded and 
must be conceded. In this countoy tiie 
Bev. Dr. Thomas Chalmers led the way by 
publicly declaring in 1804 that ** the writ- 
mgs of Moses do not fix the antiouity of the 
globe.*' Afterwards, in his hvideHees of 
Christianity, p. 204, published in 1813, he 
more fully explained his view that be- 
tween the first act of creation described in 
Gen. i. 1, and the others commencing with 
verse 2, tiiere may have been an intenral of 
many ages. The same view was adopted, 
apparently independently, by Canon, after- 
wu^ Dean, Buckland, himself a great 
geolosist, in his inaugural lecture pub- 
lishea at Oxford in 18^0, and republished 
in 1836 in his Bridgewattr Treatise on 
Oeology and Mineraiogy, pp. 18, 19. It is 
undoubtedly true that the first verse of 
Genesis, taken alone, does not date the 
creation. Xo more is said as to time 
except that it took place in the beghming. 
But the beginning of what? Not of 

eternity, which had not a beginning : ii 
must lukve been of time. But if time is 
counted from the creation and the creation 
placed at the beginning of time, there 
is no real fixmg of a qsA», All that is 
settled is that God created the univenSy 
or the atoms out of which it has been 
evolved, at some period or other in the 
eternal past. After a time geology made 
a fresh claim, namely, the diBmissai of all 
belief in a chaos between former geological 
periods and that in which we now live, 
evidence having been obtained that the 
transition from the one to the other was 
gradual, and without any break in the 
succession of life. The method adopted by 
some eminent men to concede this daim 
was to make the six days of creation six 
geologiod ages, and attempt to trace a 
correspondence between the successife 
sta^ of creation as told in G^en. i. and as 
written in the rocks. This view seems to 
have originated vnth the great compara- 
tive anatomist Baron Cuvier, of Pftns, in 
1798, in the prelhninaij discourse to his 
OMff/tm^JoMt/M. republished in 182.5, being 
translated into Ihiglish and named Curisrs 
Theory of the £arth. This view was con- 
sidered and rejected by Buckland in 1836 
(Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy, pp. 
17,18). It was revived by Hugh Miller m 
1857 in his eloquent Tesiitnony of the Bocks, 
The simple age theory was modified by the 
vision theory, publisned bv Kurtz on the 
Continent and independently by Mr. James 
Sime in this comitry. The narrative in 
Gen. i. was supposed to be founded on a 
series of six visions presented to the eye of 
the inspired writer. If the vegetables and 
animals large enough to attract the eve 
in a panorama were alone noted, then the 
conspicuous feature of the Prima^ or 
Palsbzoic rocks would be the great carboni- 
ferous forests now preserved as coal ; that 
of the Secondary or Mesozoic rocks would 
be the great reptiles, the ichthyosauri, 
plesiosauri, etc. ; and the conspicuous 
feature of the Tertiary or Cainozoic period 
would be the great mammals, such as the 
mammoth, the hippopotamus, etc. The 
first period would be credited to the third 
day, the second period to the fifth day, and 
the third period to the sixth day. Both in 
the scriptural and in the geological record 
man is the last portion of the creation to 
be brought into existence. There is a weak 
point in the Cuvier and Miller hypothesis, 
even in its improved form. It is this : Ii 
there was deficient light between the 
creation of this element on the first * * day " 
and the preparation of the sun, moon, and 
stars for its reception [Lioht] on the 
fourth; if. moreover, the intermediate 
period extended to ages, then it is an 
unexplained phenomenon why the trilo* 
bites m very old Palseozoic rocks, brought 

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into existence hv the age theory <m 
the third day of creation, should have 
exquisitely-formed eyes, adapted to visioii 
on the same j^rindple as tnose modem 
crustaceans living when light is of the 
intensity that it is now (Buckland, Geology 
and Mineralogy, pp. 396-402). In 1839 
the Bev. Dr. Pye Smith, of Homerton, 
F.G.S., in a congregational lecture, 
' brought forward the hypothesis that the 
CTeati<m described in Gten. i. related not to 
the world at large but to a portion of Asia, 
reduced for the time being to a chaotic 
state. To the ^eral reader it will seem 
strange that different parts of the land 
surface of the globe should be of different 
ages, but it is known to geologists that 
they are. Pye Smith assumea for the 
purpose of harmony that part of Central 
ana Western Asia was tine last to rise 
above the waters. Opinions on this point 
will become increasingly definite as the 
geology of Western and Central Asia 
becomes better understood. Creation by 
the IHvine Hat would still be creation, 
even though it was carried out by 
mediate agency^ as seems to be suggested 
by such expressions as *' Let the ea^h put 
forth" (Gen. i. 11— R.V.), "Let the 
waters bring forUi " (20) ; cf. with " And 
God created^' (21). It might even cover 
the evolution of the plants and lower 
animals, though it is important to ob- 
serve that verse 26 uses jieculiar language 
of the human race, ** Let us make man." 
With regard to mediate agen^, the laws 
of nature are regarded in the Bible as God*s 
method of operation. Their action is His 
action. Benind the ** law *' stands the 
Lawgiver (cf. Psalm civ.). It is a generally 
accepted principle that the Bible was de- 
fognsd to reveal moral and spiritual truth, 
and not to teach science. The more weight 
that is given to this consideration, the less 
difficulty will there be in the way of anv 
scheme of harmony. Those who reject all 
schemes consider the chapter poetic or 
mythic, and rank it with the cosmogo- 
nies of other nations. 

In the fra^ents of the Chaldean 
B^txsus there is a Babylonian cosmogony 
somewhat similar, and one still more so iu 
an Assyrian tablet supposed to belong to 
the seventh century B.C. It is mutilated, 
but portions have been read. Among the 
information they give is this : — 

** At that time the heavens above received not 

Nor did the earth below record one ; 
; Yea, the deep wan their fint creator. 

The flood of the i 


k wa^t ahe who bore theiit 

Then the making of the "gods" is 
related, and then that of the host of 
heaven, then another unmutilated part 
records the creation of the animals. 

In the New Testament God is said to 
have created the worlds by means of the 
** Word," or of his Son (John i. 3 ; Ephes. 
iii.9; Col. i. 16; Heb. i. 2). 

Creeiiliis Thing [English]. 

In Seiipture, — ^Any animal which creeps, 
such as a serpent, a centipede, a cater- 
pillar, a snail. These have no real affinity 
to each other, so that the popular term 
" creeping thing " is useless for the pur- 
pose of saentific dassification (Gen. i. 26 ; 
Lev. xi. 41 J Psalm dv. 25). 

Creacg ni [Lat. = " growing,*' ** in- 
creasing *' ; Gr. Xreskes}, 

A Christian, who was for a time at Bome 
while the apostle P&id was a prisoner 
there, and then departed to Galatia (2 Tim. 
iv. 10). 

Cret« [English, from Lat. Creta ; Gr. 
jr»rte = *^ Crete." The Latin Creta = 
<* chalk " was named from the island, not 
the island from it]. 

An island in the Mediterranean, some- 
times called Candia, but by the Turks 
Kiridi. It is about 160 miles long by 
6 to 35 broad, and lies south of the 
Morea, between latitudes 34» 55' and 35^ 
43' N., and longitudes 23^ 36' and 26* 
20^ E. It is traversed from east to west 
by a chain of mountains, Mount Ida, near 
its centre, being 7,674 feet high. The 
island is mentioned by Homer as possessing 
100 dties (Homer, liiady ii. 649). It figures 
also in his Odyssey (jax. 174). The half- 
mythic legislator, Minos, lived in Crete, as 
did the wnoU^r fabulous Minotaur. After 
various vicissitudes, Crete was conquered 
by the Homans in B.O. 67, and was under 
their swav when Paul sent thither Titus to 
arrange the affairs of its Christian church 
or diurches (Titus i. 5). He sailed along 
its whole southern coast on his voyage to 
Rome (Acts xxvii. 7, 12, 13, 21). The 
Apostle wrote veiy disrespectfully of the 
Cretans. In fact, their general reputation 
was bad. They were admitted to be excel- 
lent bowmen, but their .unveradty was 
proverbial. In a.d. 823 the island was 
conquered bv the Saracens, who built a 
fort called Khandax, or *' the Great For- 
tress," now corrupted into Candia, which, 
properly roealdng, is the name of the 
capital only. Irie Greek emperor took 
the island from the Saracens in 961. 
From 1204 to 1665 it was hdd by the 
Venetians, who obtained it at first by 

Purchase. In the last-named year the 
'urks repossessed themselves of it, and 
have since retained it, amid great com- 
plaints of chronic misgovemment, which 
continue till now. 

Crioket [English]. 

The rendering in tne text of the R.Y. of 
the Hebrew Mnargol, from Wiargal st " to 

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leap," in Lev. xL 22. The chief leaping 
insects belong to three families of Orthop- 
tera, viz., the granhoppers, the locusts, 
and the crickets. The Hhargol almost 
certainlj belongs to one of the three, 
though which of them cannot now be 
determined. The crickets have long 
antenn® like the grasshoppers^ but the 
wing-cases lie flat on the body mstead of 
meeting over it like a roof. Among^ the 
few known species are the house cncket 
{Oryllut domestiem) and the iield cricket 

His own approaching death (Matt. x. 38; 
zvi. 24; Mack Tiii. 34; x. 21 ; Luke ix. 
23 ; xiv. 27). From the narratiTe of the 
crucifixion it is evident that the cross was 
of wood (Col. ii. 14), and was heavy, but 
still not too much so' to be borne by a 
strong man (Matt xxvii. 82 ; Mark xv. 21 ; 
Luke xxiii. 26 ; John xix. 17)» and can 
scaxcely, therefore, have been one of the 
massive structures which some painters 
denict. It was raised from the earth 
eitner before or after the victim had been 

{G, eampeatrxis. The A.V. renders Hhar- 
gol ** beetle," but the most typical species 
of the Coleoptera, or beetle order, are not 
leaping insects. 

Crlspns [Lat. = "curled," "crisped." 
In Gr. Kriapoa], 

TTie ruler of the Jewish synagogue at 
Corinth. After listening to PauFs reason- 
ings, he with all his household believed in 
Jesus (Acts xviii. 8), and was one of a 
small number of persons whom Paul per- 
sonally baptised (1 Cor. i. 14). 


Jer. xiv. 6 — 

CrooodUe . 

(Job xli. T—R. 
B.y. margin.) 

CroM {^nglish, indirectly from Lat. 
Ct'uXy gemtive erucia = " a cross "]. 

The word cross does not occur in the 
Old Testament. Prior to the crucifixion it 
is used in a figurative sense by our Lord, 
who at the time foresaw the manner of 

affixed to it ; probably, in most cases, ^ 
before. Crosses are of three leading types, 
one, generally called the St. Andrew's 
cross piNDRBW], like the letter X ; another 
like the letter T ; and the third ot the 
dag^ form, f, with which we are so 
familiar. The cross of Christ was, pro^ 
bly, as artists believe, of the last-named 
tvjpe, which more easily than the others 
allowed the name, title, or crime of the 
victim to be affixed to the upper part (Matt, 
xxvii. 37 ; Mark xy. 26 ; Luke xxiii. 38 ; 
John xix. 19). Up to the death of our 
Lord the cross was evidently as much^ 
name of horror and loathing as is the 
gallows in Engkmd now, so that to bear 
the cross meant to incur great rep'^^^ 
and obloquy ; but after the crudfixion the 
more zealous followers of Jesus regarded 
the cross with wholly altered feelings. 
Paul gloried in the cross of Christ (GaL vu 

14), by which he meant the atonement^r©^ 
suiting from ffis crudfixioa. ^ -*- -^ 

For other 

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jiUHiyniB in the New Testament directly 
lefemng to the croae in a literal or in a 
^KoratiTe sense see John zix. 25, 31 ; 
1 Cor. i. 17, 18: Gal. v. 11; vi. 12; 
Ephes. ii. 16 ; FhiL ii. 8 ; iii. 18 ; Col. i. 
20 : Heb. xii. 2. 

The pre-Christian cross of one form or 
:anotJier was in use as a sacred symbol 
■among the Chaldeans, the Phoenicians, the 
Egyptians^ and many other Oriental 
nations. The Spaniards in the 16th 
•century f onnd it also among the Indians of 
Mexico and Peru. But its symbolic teach- 
ing was quite different from that which we 
now associate with the cross. 

In the fifth century Socrates, the Church 
liistorian, and Theodoret, bishop of Cyprus, 
relate that Helena, the mother of Coustan- 
tine , was instructed in a dream to repair 
to Jerusalem and seek for the sepulchre 
of Christ. While there (A.D. 325) she found 
three crosses, one of which cured a dying 
w^oman, and was, therefore, known to be 
the true cross of Christ. She gave pert of 
it to the city of Jerusalem, and sent the 
other part to the emperor, who placed it 
within his statue, regarding it as the 
palladium of the empire. Eusebius, how- 
ever, who flourished m the fourth century, 
Mud was a oontemporaiy of Helena, and 
<m terms of friendship with the imperial 
family, knew nothing of the story, which 
meets with no acceptance from modem 
flcholais. It is believed that the practice 
-waa to bum, instead of to bury, the crosses 
<m whidi real or alleged criminals had been 
cradfied [Cbucifixion]. 

CSrowB [EngHsh]. 

Chiefly (1) literally, — An ornamental 
liead-dress worn by emperors, kings, or 
Tegnant queens as the badge of their 
florereiffn power. It was often of gold 
studdeoL with gems (2 Sam. xii. 30, etc.). 
. If a ruler of imerior rank wore anything 
Mt all similar, the king^s crown was distin- 
guished as *< the crown royal *' (Ezek. i. 
11; Ti.8). 

(2) Fiffuratively,--AnytYnBSOTnamen.tBkiy 
glorious, and highly dignifiea (1 Thess. ii. 
19 ; 2 Tnn. iv. 8 ; 1 Peter v. 4, etc.). 

4 OrewH of Thorns,— The crown, fillet, 
«.* gnrland of some thorny plant with 
sleiMler twi^ [Thobh f ] placed by the 
Boman soldiers aroimd the temples of our 
Lord, with the twofold intention of tortur- 
ing " Hitn and mocking His kin gly c-l*i.iTn <T 
aZatt xxTii. 29 ; Mark t. ITTjohn xix. 

I [English, from Lat. eruei 
s ** to a cross,'* nt>m »tif s: *' a cross," and 
Jxtu = "fixed"]. 

The act or operation of fixing a victim 

to a cross for the purpose of capital punish- 

meat. This was done either l^ his having 

his hands and feet tied to it, or in the more 


cruel way of having them fixed to it by 
nails driven through their fleshy portions. 
This method of punishment seems to have 
existed in manv ancient nations^ as the 
Egyntians, the Assyrians, the Persians, the 
Cartnaginians, the Greeks, and the Romans. 
Thus Alexander the Great crucified a thou- 
sand Tyrians. Josejihus makes Pharaoh, 
Joseph'a friend, crudfy the chief baker 
^Anti^,f n. V. 3), ana C3nrus introduce 
mto his edict for the return of the Jews 
from Babylon a threat of cmcifying any- 
one who attemi>ted to prevent the missive 
from being carried into execution {Antig,, 
XI. i. 3 ; iv. 6). The Jewish historian 
also relates that Antiochus Epiphanes 
crucified faithful Jews who would not 
abandon their religion at his bidding (XI. 
vL 4), and that Alexander Jannaeus (Frar, 
I. iv. 6) and the Pharisees crucified their 
enemies (fTar, I. v. 3). Among the 
Bomaus arucifixion was a penalty inflicted 
only on slaves, or on freemen who had 
committed the most heinous crimes; the 
ordinary Boman citizen was exempted 
from it by express legal enactment. The 
preliminary cruelties of scourging the 
victim (Matt, xxvii. 26; Mark xv. 15; 
John xix. 1), and then, when his body was 
lacerated, compelling him to bear his cross 
(John xix. 17) were not exceptional in the 
case of our Lord : they were very much in 
the ordinary course of procedure. Thus 
the Boman procurator Florus (Joeephus, 
JTar, II. xiv. 9) and Titus, at least on one 
occasion, had those scourged first who 
were afterwards to be cmdfied. If the 
victim was simply tied to the cross, this 
was no injury sufficient to produce death, 
which did not take place till thirst and 
hunger had done their work ; and this was 
sometimes the case even when the hands 
and feet were transpierced bjr nails. If it 
was expedient on any ground to get rid of 
the victims before natural death had re- 
leased them from their tortures, the end 
was sometimes hastened by breaJdng their 
legs, as we know was done in the case of 
the robbrav cmdfied with Jesus (John xix. 
31-33). [Messiah f.] Many Jews were 
crucified after Titus took Jerusalem TJose- 
phus, Ziffy 75). Constantine abolished 
the pimishment of crucifixion. The 
Mohammedans put a man to death in this 
manner at Damascus in 1247 A.D., and 
crucifixion is said to have existed among 
the Burmese as late as a.i>. 1809 (G. Smith, 
Life of Carey (1887), p. 152). It has been 
stated that it still lingers in the Eastern 
Archipelago and in parts of China. 

Crofle [English]. 

A small cup or ^t (1 Sam. xzvi. 11, 12; 
1 Kings xiv. 3; xvii. 1'2, 14 ; xix. 6 ; 2 Kings 
ii. 20— all A.V. and B.V.). It is the ren- 
dering of three Hebrew words. For the 

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translation of that in 1 Kings xiv. 3 — A.Y. 
and R.V. ("cruse" in the text), thfere is 
substituted on the margin '^ bottle. '' 

Ciysfeal [English from Gr. kntstalhs -— 
(l)"ice"; (2J **rock-ciT8tal"]. 

n> The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Zehnukhithy from zakhak = ** to be pure," 
in the A.V. of Job xxviii. 17. The R.V. 
makes it glass. 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Qerakh = (1) "ice," f2) " a mineral like 
ice in appearance," irom Qamkh = " to 
make smooth," specially " to make bald," 
in the A.V. of Ezek. i. 22. The R.V. has 
"crystal" in the text and "ice" on the 

(3) The rendering of the Greek krustaUoH 
{see etym.] in Rev. iv. 6 and xxii. 1. It 
is either ice or transparent rock-crystal, a 
colourless variety ot quartz, crystallised 
or the reverse, generally the former. It is 
the typical kina of quartz. 

Chibit [English, from Lat. cult it /an =■ 
" an elbow," "a cubit "]. 

A measure of length, being the distance 
from the elbow to the tip of the middle 
tinger, which in an average man is about a 
foot and a half. In the Old Testament it 
is the rendering of the Hebrew Ammah — 
propei'ly mother (of the arm), i.e. the 
anterior part of the arm, from Em = 
"mother^ TGen. vi. 15, 16; Deut. iii. 11, 
etc.>. In the second passage the origiii 
of tne term is hinted at when the cubit is 
called the cubit of a man. The Hebrews 
seem to have had two or thi-ee different 
cubits. Among the lengths which have 
been assigned to them have been 18 inchef<, 
19-0515 inches, and 21 -SSd inches, both for 
long and for land measui*e. 

In the New Testament cubit is the ren- 
dering of the Greek Pekhus = " the fore- 
arm," a cubit (Matt. vi. 27 ; Luke xii. 25 ; 
John xxi. 8 ; Rev. xxi. 17). 

Cuokoo, Cnokow [English, from the 
voice of the bird] . 

The rendering of the Hebrew Shahhaph 
from Shahhaph = " to peel the skin off," 
" to be emaciated." A bird ceremonially 
midean (Lev. xi. 16 ; Deut. xiv. 15). The 
A.V. renders it the cuckoo, meaning 
<.WuIh9 eattorus^ the well-known climbing 
bird, which, coming to Britain in spring 
from the south, on its annual migration, 
remains till the fall of the year, being 
freauently heai'd^ but rarely seen. The 
R. v., following tne Septuagint translators, 
and Gresenius render the Shahhaph not 
cuckoo, but sea-mew. Tristram considers 
the word a general one for all sea-fowl, 
especially the Common Tern, Stcmajluvia' 
tilts. [Sea-mew.] 

Cnonmlier [English, from Lat. ctteum' 
erem, the accusative of citcnmis = " a 

The rendering of the Hebrew Qisshna, 
plural Qistchuim = a culinary vegetable 
which the Israelites obtained while they 
were slaves in Egypt, and longed for when 
they could not have it in the wilderness 
(Numb. . xi. 5). It is apparently the 
Common Cucumber, Cncnmis satints. It 
has been cultivated from early times. It 
is of the same genus as the Melon (q.v.). 

Cammin [English. See the article]. 

(1) The i-endering of the Hebrew 
KamtnoHy from Kaman^ "to preserve," 
" to Dickie," in Isa. xxviii. 25, 27, where 
it is aescribed as a cultivated plant sown 
booadcast and, when ripe, beaten with a rod 
to detach its seeds. The Hebrew Kamum 
is the Arabic Kammun^ the Greek An- 
minoUf and the Latin Citminitm [No. 2]. 

(2) The rendering of the Greek A wwiww 
in Matt, xxiii. 23. It was a plant of which 
the Pharisees were particular in pavjj? 
tithes, because it cost them little. The 
Cummin is the Cttminum cyminum of 
botanists, a fennel- like plant bearing 
umbels of small white flowers. It was 
cultivated in Palestine for its seeds, which 
were eaten as a spice or relish witii food. 
They are now in large measure superseded 
by caraways, which are more agreeable to 
the taste and more nutritious. 

Cnp [English]. 

(1) LtteraUtf.^k small drinking vessel 
(Matt. xxvi. 27, etc.). At least as early 


as the time of Joseph, cups were occa- 
sionally made of silver (Gen. xliv. 2). 

(2) Tiffftratirelt/.—One*B inevitable lot, 
whether favouraf)le (Psalm xxiii. 5; Jer. 
xvi. 7, etc.) or the opposite (Psalm Ixxuj- 
10 ; Isa. U. 7 ; Zech. xU. 2 ; Rev. «▼• 10), 

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the latter being the more commou 

Cup-BEASEB [English]. 

One who mixed bquor in a cap designed 
for an Oriental sovereign. The office was 
oonsideied one of the most dignified in an 
Oriental kingdom, and the prime qualifica- 
tion required in its occupuit was moral 
trustworthiness. It saia much for the 
character of Nehemiah that he, a stranger 
and a foreigner, should have been ap- 
pointed to such an office at the Persian 
court. [Kino, Nehemiah.] The "butler" 
of Phazaoh was that sovereign's cup-bearer 
(Gen. xL 1-23; xlL 9-13). 

Ciuai [Heb. KHsh. Old Egyptian, Keesh, 
JfV»A= "Ethiopia"]. 

I. Men.— 

(1) The eldest " son " of Ham and the 
"father** of Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, 
Baamah. Sabtechah, and Nimrod (Gen. z. 
6, 7 ; 1 Chron. i. 8-10). 

(2) A Beniamite, a foe of King David 
(Ptalm vii., title). 

II. A Country.— 

Ethiopia, the country chiefly peopled by 
the descendants of Cush, the son of ILun. 
rETHioPUL.] (Gen. ii. 14— R.V., etc.; 

dmhan FHeb. KAnhoHf from Kiish = 
"Cuah," "Ethio^iia"]. 
Ethiopia (Hab. iii. /). 


THAm [Heb. KiUhan Jiishathaiin = "the 
BKwt malicious *' or " wicked Ethiopian *' 
CO iOesmiM)], 

A king of Mesopotamia, into whose hands 
the Israelites were delivered as a punish- 
ment for their worship of false gods. After 
eight years* (b.o. 1402-1394 {?)) servitude, 
their deliverance was achieved under the 
leaderdiip of Othniel, the son of Kenaz, 
Cateb's younger brother (Judg. iii. 5-11). 

Cndii [Heb. jrt2«At = "an Ethiopian**!. 

(1) The ^reat-grandfatherof that Jehuai 
who lived m Jeremiah*s time (Jer. xxxvi. 

(2) The father of the prophet Zephaniah 
(Z^. i. n. 

^ Aoooroing to the A.y. there is a third 
Cushi, one of the two men who carried 
David the news of the victory over his 
rebellious son Absalom ; but the Hebrew 
has "the Cushi,** evidisntly meaning, as 
the ILV. renders it, " the Cushite,** ue. the 
Ethiopian. What the actual name of the 
runner was is therefore unknown (2 Sam. 
xTiii. 21-23, 31,32). 

Ciuldta [English]. 

An Ethiopian (Numb. xii. 1— R.V., and 
margin of A.y.). 

Cstk, Cntfeali [Heb. Kttih, KAthah, of 
doubtful meaning] . 

Oneof theplaMS in the Assyrian Empire 

from which colonists were brought to re- 
place the ten tribes carried into captivity. 
The new-comers were worshippers of 
Nergal, one of the Assyrian gods (2 Kings 
xvii. 24, 30), who was tne tutelary divinity 
of this town or dty. Its site is now fixed at 
the mounds of Tel Ibrahim, north-west of 
Babylon, from which portions of a library 
have been exhumed. 

Cymtal [English, from Lat. cymbalum^ 
Gr. kumbalon], 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew 
TselatsaL plural Tuettselim^ from Ualal = 
" to tingle,'* in 2 Sam. >'i. 5 ; Psalm cl. 5. 

(2) In the plural, the rendering of the 
Hebrew Mcisiltaimyfiom, the same root, in 
1 Chron. xiii. 8 ; xv. 16 ; xvi. .5, 42 ; xxv. 


^^^^1 I 


6 ; 2 Chron. v. 13 ; xxix. 25 ; Eziu. iii. 10 ; 
Neh. xii. 27. 

The dual Metsiltaim implies that the 
instrument is of two distinct parts. This 
undoubtedly suggests cymbals, which are 
metallic disks, one form of them nearly flat, 
another a hollow cone, designed to be 
clashed together for their sound. 

(3) The rendering in 1 Cor. xiii. 1 of the 
Greek Kumbalon = "a cymbal** (src the 
etjmiology^. The R.V. properly alters 
" tinkling into " clanging ** cymbal. 

Cyitt'MB [English, from Lat. cuprcssus, 
et/paristu^y Gr. KujMD-issot]. 

The rendering m Isa. xliv. 14— A. V. of 
the Hebrew word Tirzah = the rnime of a 
certain tree, from tdraz = " to be hard 
and durable.*' The R.V. translates it the 
HOLX-TBEE (q.v.). 

The Cypress f Oupressus sempenirem^ is 
thetypeofthe sub-order Cnpre»se(Cfr9xi\dng 
under the order Pinacea (CJonifers). About 
ten species of the genus Cupressus are 
known. The Common Cypress is an ever- 
green running into two well-marked 
varieties, one a tall ti"ee 60 feet high with 
erect closely adpressed branches, and the 
other smaller, with the branches spreading. 
The Cypress is a native of Persia and the 
Levant. It is extensively planted in the 
East. Its "funereal grace ^* well adapts 
it for a place in cemeteries. 

Cypnis [English and Lat., from Gr. 
KuproB, So called from Kupris, a name of 

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Aphrodite, the Greek VenuS) who was 
greatljr worshipped in Cyprus]. 

An island in the eastern part of the 
Mediterranean Sea. It is intersected by 
the 35th parallel of north latitude and lies 
between 32"* and 34^ east longitude. It is 
about 60 miles from the coast of Cilicia in 
Asia Minor, 41 from that of Syria, and 238 
from Port Said in Effypt. The more com- 
pact part of the island is 1 10 miles in len^h 
by 30 to 50 or 60 in breadth ; besides which 
there runs from its north-eastern extremity 
a narrow strip of land, 40 miles long by 
5 or 6 broad, projecting from the r^ of 
the island like a bowsprit from the bow of 
a ship. The area of Cyprus is 3,584 square 
miles. The island is mountainous, with 
intermediate valleys which are at certain 
seasons unhealthy. It was first colonised 
apparently by the Phoenicians from the 

opiKMite ooast of Syria. They built as 
their capital the town of Eition or Citium, 
from which came the name Eittim or 
Chittim, by which not merely that metro- 
polis, but the whole island and even im- 
portant parts of the mainland w^jre 
xnown. [Chittim, Kirmc.] TheGrteks 
BO largely settled in Cyprus that to this 
day about three-fourths of the whole 
population belong to that race. In New 
Testament times it was under the Bomans, 
and was governed by a proconsul. Joses, 
or Barnabas, and Mnason were from 
Cyprus (Acts iv. 36). There were 
Christians connected with it before 
Stephen*s martyrdom; and dmlng the 
persecution which followed some oi them 
returned to it, preaching the gospel (Acts 
zi 19, 20). It was afterwards visited for 
nussionary purposes, first by Barnabas and 
Paul (Acts xiii. 4), and aftwwaids by 

Barnabas and Mark (xv. 39). Paul sailed 
past it at least twice without landing 
(xxi. 3, 16 ; zxvii. 4). It is popularly be- 
lieved to belong at present to this ooimtry ; 
technically, however, it constitutes, as has 
been the case since 1571, a jwrtion of 
Turkey, though b^ a treaty, dated June 4, 
1878, Great Britam administers and holds 
it as a place of arms, while Russia retains 
Batoum and Kars. A revenue has to be 
paid by Enghmd to Turkey of £92,800 per 
annum. It is not handed, over in money, 
but is used to pay part of a debt contracted 
by Turkey in 1855 auring the Crimean War, 
and which but for this arrangement might 
never have been recoverable. 

Cyrene [Lat., from Or. Kurene]. 

An important Greek colonial dty in 
North Africa, beautifully situated on a 
tableland many hundred feet above the 
sea-level, and a few miles distant from the 
Mediterranean, to whidi there is a descent 
by a series of terraces of great f ertili^. 

It constituted one of five Greek cities, 
called in consequence Pentapolis, or the 
five cities, situated in Libya Cyrenaica, 
now Tripoli, in Northern Africa. It is 
believed that it was founded about the 
year 632 b.c. During the time of the 
Ptolemies, in the third century B.C., many 
Jews became resident in Cyrene. Simon, 
who was compelled to carry the cross of 
Jesus seems to have been a Cyrenian Jew 
(Matt, xxvii. 32 ; Mark xv. 21 ; Luke 
xxiii. 26). Cyrenians joined with Liber- 
tines and others in forming a synagogue, 
in which apparently there was mu(£ zeal, 
if not even fanaticism, against Christianity 
(Acts vi. 9J. But men of Cyrene soon 
afterwards oecame converts and preachers 

ixi. 20). Among them was a certain 
jucius of Cyrene, a prominent man in the 
church at Antioch (xiii. 1). Extensive 
ruins of Cvrene still exist, but tiiey have 
been greatly injured by the semi-savages of 
the region. It is now called el Erenna. 

Csrrenins [A Latinised form of N. T. 
Gr. XurenioSy which again, however, is an 
attempt to write as a Greek word the 
Latin Quirinus, the real name of the 
Koman functionary. [QumiKUS.] Q had 
to become E, for the former letter does not 
occur in the Greek alphabet (Luke il 2— 

Cynui [Lai, Cunu; Gr. Kurot; Elam- 
ite and Persian Kotru or Khosru^ a royal 
title f?) = " the sun " (?) {Cteaitu)], 

A Jong twice named in IsaiaJi's pro- 
phecies as anointed, and predeetinea to 
achieve great conquests over kings and 
fortified places ; who, when his power was 
established, set the Jews free from the 
Babylonian captivity (Isa. xliv. 28 ; xlv. 
1 - 14\ Ezra relates how the prophecy was 
fulfiUed. Cyrus, whom he oUb '* king of 

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Pfefsia,*' in the very first jeax of his reign 
iaraed a proclamation pennitting the Jews 
to return to their own land, and urgins 
rather than simply allowing them to rebuild 
the Temfde, f or uie use of which he returned 
the sacred Yessels taken by Nebuchad- 
neziar (Ezra i. 1-11; v. 13, 14; vi. 3). 
Many of the Jews gladly availed them- 
•elTes of the permission, and returned to 
Jerusalem. Enemies attempted, with some 
succesB, to render the edict of Cyrus abor- 
tive, but it was never formally revoked 
riv. 1-5). Herodotus, Xenophon, and 
Ctesias were none of them contemporaries 
of the Rieat king, or sufficiently near his 
age to be able to disentangle the real inci- 
dents of his life from the myths with 
which thev had become doeely inter- 
twined. According to Herodotus and 
Xeno^on he was the son of Cambyses, 
the Frinoe of Penda, and Handane, the 
daughter of Astyages, long of Media. 
His infancy and early voutn, of course, 
were romantic. Arrivea at manhood, he 
in 560 B.C. defeated and captured his 
father-in-law, reignixiff in his room. In 
B.C. 546 he conquered Lydia, taking Sardis 
or Sardes, its capital, and making a pri- 
soner of ite king, Crceeus, celebratea for his 
enormous riches. In b.c. 538 he captured 
Babykm. According to Herodotus (i. 190, 
191), he did this by turning the waters of 
the Euphrates temporarify into a lake 
excavated forthepurpoee, and then entering 
from the nearly dry bed of the river by 
the gates which had been left open on the 
ni^t of a festival while the mhabitants 
were engaged in revelry. [Babylon.] 
There is a curious duality about the 
HasMfal accounts given of Cyrus. For 
instance, he died in two different ways and 
at two different places remote from each 
other. By one accoimt he was killed in 
battle, apparently in Tartary, by Tomyris, 
king at theMassagetae ; by the other he died 
peacefully in his bed, and was buried at 
Vui^maBdf in Persia, where his sepulchre 
is still shown. Hence the late Mr. Bosan- 
quet was convinced that two Cyruses had 
oeoi confounded together, one the father 
and one the son of Qunbyves. Now, how- 
ever, a new source of information has 
arisen — cuneiform inscriptions, one of them 
from Cyrus himself, who calls himself at 
fint ** king of Elam,'* though after a time 
he conquered Persia. The other tablets tell 
of the oooqueet of Ekbatana, the Median 
eaptal, by thrruB, the soldiers of Istuvegu 
(Astyages), its king, comingover to the 
young Elamite monarch. When Cyrus 
phnned the capture of Babylon he entered 
t^bylooia from the north, but found his 
way barred by an army led by Belshazzar, 
the king's son, who prevented him from 
eren approaching the city. Thus foiled of 
Jiispiupofle for tBe time, he mtriguedwith 

the disaffected elements of the population, 
and revolts occunred. Then in June, 539. 
Cyrus defeated the Babylonian army, lea 
by the king Nabonidoe, the father of 
Belshazzar, at Butuin. On the 14th of the 
month, Gobryas, Cyrus's general, arriving 
at Babylon from the south-^ist, was 
admitted into the dty without fighting. 
On the 3rd of October Cyrus entered it m 
triumph. Herodotus*s narrative about the 
turning off the Euphrates is all a myth. 
If there was any truth in the tale, it 
should have been placed in the reign of 
Darius Hystaspes, and not in that of Cyrus. 
** As for the sons of Babylon," the con- 
queror says in his tablet. **all their ruins I 
repaired, and I delivered their prisoners.'* 
These pxisoners probabl)r meant the Jews. 
Most of the Persian Inngs were of the 
Zoroastrian faith, butthe inscriptions unex- 
pectedly reveal tnat Cyrus was, or at least 
from policy pretended to be, a devout 
worshipper of Bel, Nebo, Merodach, and 
the rest of the Babylonian gods. He died 
in B.C. 529, and was succeeded by his son 

DiOMureli Pabeiuth] (Josh. xzi. 28— 

DablMMli«tli. Dabbeflbeth [Heb. 
Labbeiheth = **the bunch" or **hump of 
a camel"]. 

A town or village on tlie boundary-line 
of Zebulun rjoeh.xix. 11— A. V. and R.V.). 
Major Conaer locates it at Dabsheh, near 

Daberatb, Dabareb [Heb. Dabhemth 
and Had Daberaihy ue, the Dabherath ; cf . 
with Dob/ier = " pasture "]. 

A Levitical dty within the territory of 
Issachar. It was given with its suburbs 
to the Gershonites Tjosh. zix. 12 ; xzi. 28 
— R.V. and A.V. ; 1 Chron. vi. 72). It 
has been identified as the village of Debdrieh 
at the base of Mount Tabor, on the north- 
westOTn side of the hill. 

Dagon [Heb. Doffhon = *' great fish "]. 

The patron " god " of the Philistine 
town of Ashdod (Azotus), where he had a 
great temple. He had others at Gaza and 
elsewhere (Judg. xvi. 23; 1 Sam. v. 1-7 ; 
1 Chron. X. 10). fSAJCSON.! Simon Mac- 
cabfeus, after defeating the Philistines, 
drove them into the temple of Dagon in 
Ashdod, then setting fire both to the dty 
and the temple (1 Mace. x. 84 ; xi. 4). The 
idol is considered to have had the head, 
arms, and upper parts of himiau form, 
while the lower puis tapered away into 

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the tail of a fish. Diodorus Siculus (ii. 4) 
mentions an idol, called Dercetus, of similar 

IMAGE oy DAOox. (From Khorsabad.) 

form as having existed at Ashkelon, 
another Philistine town. [Beth-da.oox.] 

Dalalali [Deiaiah] (1 Chron. iii. 24— 

Dalmanntlia [Gr. LalmanotUhd]. 

A place to which Jesus sailed across the 
Lake of Galilee, after havinff miraculously 
fed the four thousand ^Mark viii. 10). It 
was evidently in the vicinity of Magdala 
(cf . Matt. XV. 39) . It was probably on the 
western shore of the Lake, a little north of 
Tiberias, but the exact situation is un- 

^ [Lat. andGr.]. 
A region on the eastern part of the 
Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Venice, with the 
small but numerous adjacent islands. It 
is traversed by the Julian continued as the 
Dinaric Alps, a part of the giant range 
separating Italy from France, Switzerland, 
and Germany. Modem Dalmatia, which 
lies north-west of Bosnia, is a province of 
Austria, with an area of G,000 square miles. 
Ancient Dalmatia was more extensive. It 
was subdued (a.d. 9) by the Bomans under 
Augustus' Ciesar, the general being 
TiTOrius, the future emperor. They re- 
garded it as part of Illyncum, which con- 
stituted the limit of PauPs missionary 
journeys in that direction (Rom. xv. 19). 
His associate Titus, after being for a time 
with Paul in the Italian capital, departed 
to Dalmatia, doubtless to plant the gospel 
among its wild inhabitants (2 Tim. iv. 10). 

DalpbonrCtym. doubtful. <'Proud**(?) 
{Oxford Bible)]. 
A son of Haman (Esther ix. 7). 

[Gr. = "a wife "(?)]. 
A woman converted througn Paul's 
preaching at Athens (Acts xvii. 34). 

Damaaoene [Englinh]. 

A native or inhabitant of Damascus 
(2 Cor. xi. 32). 

Dammsoiui [Lat., from Gr. Dainaskos^ 
Heb. Daminrseq, perhaps from Damasa^ = 
" to be quick," ** active," or " energetic," 

referring to the mercantile activity of its 

A dtj of Syria, the rivers of which were 
called m Ola Testament times the Abana 
and the Phaipar (2 Kings v. 12). It was 
a very ancient place, some think the oldest 
city m the world which still continues 
flourishing. It was mentioned as earless the 
time of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 15), of whose 
steward Eliezer it was the birthplace (xv. 2). 
In the days of David Southern Syria was 
divided into several petty States, of which 
Damascus was one. It was captured and 
garrisoned by the Jewish monarch (2 Sam. 
viii. 5, 6; 1 Chron. xviii. 5, 6). When he 
smote the adjacent Syrian kingdom of 
Zobah. a man called Rezon, at variance 
with nis sovereign Hadadezer, escaped 
from the slaughter, and collecting a band 
of men, seized Damascus. He made it his 
capital and took the first steps to tiie 
establishment of the ^reat Syrian kingdom, 
so often in conflict with IsraeL Thisreyo- 
lution took place in Solomon's reign 
(1 Kings xi. 23, 24). Damascus was ue 
capital of Tabrimon and the Ben-hadads 
(1 Kings XV. 18, 20 ; xx. 34 ; 2 Kings viii. 
7), of Hazael (1 Kings xix. 17 ; 2 Kings 
viii. 8-15), and of another Bezin or Bezon 
(xvi. 5). It was the residence abo of 
Xaaman, captain of the army under the 
second Ben-hadad (2 Kings v. 1, 12). 
When Rezin, in confederacy witli Pekah, 
the Israelite soverei^, planned to assault 
Jerusalem, Ahaz. its ruler, called in 
Tiglath-pileser, Idng of Assyria, who 
captured Damascus, carried the inhabitants 
captive to Kir, and killed Rezin (2 Kings 
XVI. 5-9 ; Isa. vii. 1-viii. 6 ; x. 9). It was 
probably to this destruction that the 
** burden" in Isa. xvii. 1-3, and that in 
Amos i. 3-5; iii. 12 (cf. v. 27) referred. 
If so, Damascus must have been rebuilt 
shortly afterwards, for it is mentioned by 
Ezekiel as trading with Tyre in the wine 
of Helbon and in white wool (Ezek. xxvii. 
18) . From the Assyrians Damascus passed 
to the Babylonians, and from them to tiie 
Macedonian Greeks, from whom it was 
taken b.o. 64 by the Roman general 
Pompey . It was on the road to Damascus 
that the Apostle Paul was struck down 
when he was on his way to persecute the 
Christians of the dty (Acts ix. 2, 3, 10 ; 
xxii. 6, 10, 11, 12 ; xxvi. 12). On his con- 
version, followed by his earnest preaching 
of Christ, he was in such danger from the 
luibeUeving Jews that he had to be let 
down in a basket from the citv wall, to 
escape from their fury (Acts ix. 24, 25 ; cf. 
xxvt 20; Gal. i. 17). The city was then 
temporarily in the hands of Aretas, king of 
Araoia Petnea [Abetas], but it soon re- 
verted to the Romans (2 Cor. xi. 32). 
When the empire became divided into two, 
with Rome and Constantinople as their 

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respectiTe capitals, Damascus, as was 
natiuul, fell to be included in the former. 
Th(mce it passed first to the Arab aiid then 
to the Turkish Mohammedans. It still 
remains in the hands of the Turks. It is 
a particularly fanatical place, there being 
continual dagger of outbreaks against the 
Jewish and Qiristian inhabitants. One 
took place in July 1860, when 6,000 
Oriental Christians and a Presbyterian 
missionaiy, called Mr. Graham, fell victims 
to the fury of the Mussulman mob, en- 
couraged rather than restrained by the 
Turing officials. 

When Damascus, now called Dimeshk- 
esh-Sh4m, is approached from the west, 
the exceedinff b^ul^ of its situation strikes 
every traveUer. it lies on a tableland 
about 2,200 feet above the level of the sea, 
at the eastern foot of the Antilibanus chaiu 
of mountains. The tableland, which con- 
tains about 500 square miles, is in one 
place barren, but the rest of it, watered by 
channels from the Barada [Abana] and 
the Awaj [Phabpab], is exceedingly fer- 
tile, so that the city is embosomed in 
j^yJiMaa and orchards, the scene of 
verdure being all the more refreshing to 
the eye that it has the desert near. A 
street in Damascus is shown as that called 
in Paul's time *' straight" (Acts.ix. 11). 
It is about two miles long, runs east and 
west, and was at one time mvided into three 
parts by Ck>rinthian colonnades. 

i[Heb. = "ajudge"]. 

(1) The name given by Bachel to JocoVs 
fifth ton, the mt by her maid Bilhah 
<Gen. xzx. 6 ; zzxv. 25 ; cf. Exod. i. 4 ; 
1 Chron. iL 2). Dan had only one son, 
HuBhim (Qen. xlvi. 23) or Shupham (Numb. 
xxvi. 39). His future destiny, or that of 
his descendant, was thus predicted by 
Jacob : ' * Dan diall judge his people, as one 
of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a 
serpent in the way, an adder in the path, 
that biteth the horses' heels, so that his rider 
falleth backward" (Gen. xlix. 16, 17— 
R.Y.). On the same subject Moses said : 
** Dan is a lion's whelp that leapeth forth 
from Baahan " (Deut xxxiii. 22— B.V.). 

(2) The tribe to which Dan gave origin, 
and the territory in Canaan which it 
obtained by allotment (Numb, i 12, 38, 
.•» ; ii. 25, 31 ; vii. 66 ; x. 25 ; xiii. 12 ; 
xxvi. 42 ; xxxiv. 22, etc.). Its boundary- 
line ran through Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir- 
shemesh, Ajalon, Ekron, Eltekeh, Gib- 
bethon, Me-jarkon (the Me-jarkon river), 
and ended opposito to Japho, i.e. Jopx)a 
aosh. xix. 40-46 ; xxi. 5, 23 ; cf. Judg. v. 
17). The Danites were not able to possess 
themselves of the plains, but were forced 
by the ** Amorites " into the " mountain" 
(Judg. i. 34, 35). Sorely cramped for 
JMxan, they sent out five spies to the 

extreme north of Palestine to look for a 
new location. The spies reported that a 
certain town, Laish or Leshem, in the 
extreme north of Palestine, might be sur- 
prised, its inhabitants being a careless sort 
of people. Acting on this mf ormation, the 
Danites sent an expedition which seized on 
the place, massacring its inhabitants. 
They rebuilt it imder the new name of 
Dan [No. 3] (Josh. xix. 47 ; Judg. xviii. 
1-31). [MiCAH, 1.] Aholiab and oamsou 
were Danites (Exod. xxxi. 6, etc. ; Judg. 
xiii. 2, 25, etc.). 

(3) The name given to Laish or Leshem 
after its capture by the Danites [No. 2] 
(Josh. xix. 47, 48 ; Jud^. xviii. 1-31 ; cf. 
Gen. xiv. 14 ; Deut. xxxiv. 1 ; Jer. iv. 15 ; 
viii. 16). It was so far north that the 
expression ** from Dan to Beersheba " was 
often used like the analogous one among 
ourselves, ** from John -o' Groat's house to 
the Land's End " (Judg. xx. 1 ; 1 Sam. iii. 
20 ; 2 Sam. iii. 10 ; xvii. 11 ; xxiv. 2, 15 ; 
1 Kings iv. 25 ; etc.). [Beebsheba.] Some- 
times the order was reversed, and became 
Beersheba to Dan (1 Chron. xxi. 2; 2 
Chron. xxx. 5). Jeroboam fixed one of his 

r)lden calves at Dan (1 Kings xii. 29, 30 ; 
Elings X. 29 ; Amos viii. 14). Ben-hadad 
took and destroyed Dan with other places 
in its vicinity (I Kin^ xv. 20 : 2 Chron. 
xvi. 4). In Ezekiel's tune Dan traded with 
Tjnre (Ezek. xxvii. 19). The site seems to 
have been at Tell el ICudy, four miles west 
of Banias. [C£SABEA Philippi.] Each of 
the two was situated at a source of the 
Jordan, that at Tell el Kkdj being the 
most westerly, and the other the most 
easterly. The signification of Dan, i.e. 
** judge," appears to have been preserved 
in the name Tell el Kudy, " the mound of 
the judge," and the river which rises thei-e 
was found by Dr. John Wilson to be called 
Nahr ed-DhAn, i.e. ** the river of Dan " 
(Lattds of the Bible, ii. 172), now 
^nerally spelled Leddun. The Tell itself 
IS chieflj[ of basaltic tufa, but there are 
ruins on it both of huts and houses, witli 
heaps of stones and old foundations. 
[Laish, Leshex.I 

Dan-jaan [Heb. Dan{ah) Taan. 
Gesenius thinks this a copyist's eiTor for 
Yaar = '* a thicket of trees." If so, then 
Dan-jaan is = ** the woodv Dan " (?)]. 

A town (?) to which Joab and the mili- 
tary captains sent out by David to take a 
census of the people came, after they had 
left Kadesh on the Orontes (?) [Tahtim 
HoDBHi], and before they reached Zidou 
{;! Sam. xxiv. 6). The Palestine explorers 
identify it with the ruin D&niun, between 
Acre and Tyre, and four miles north of 


The rendering both in the A.y. and the 

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R.y. of the Hebrew Mahhol, from Hul (?) 
= " to dance '*]. Sir John Stainer thinJoi 
that it may have been a flute used specially 
to lead the music for dancing purposes, 
and therefore does not object to tne trans- 
lation ** dancing/' which is essentially the 
idea expressed. Dancing on joyous occa- 
sions of a secular or semi-secular character 
was practised among the Jews by women, 
either singly or in groups (Ju^. zi. 34 ; 
1 Sam. xviii. 6, 7 ; xxix. d ; cf . «^r. zud. 
4, 13). Children apparently of both sexes 
took part in dances (Job xxi. 1 1 ; Matt. xi. 
17; liuke vii. 32). Men are very fre- 
quently mentioned as dancing (Psalm xxx. 
11 ; Lam. v. 15 ; cf. also £ccles. iii. 4 ; 


liUke XV. 25). Onlv on one occasion 
d6 we find a Jewish princess dancing 
publicly in an assembly of men after the 
maimer of an Indian ** dancing girl" 
(Matt. xiv. 6 ; Mark vi. 22). Among the 
adjacent nations the Amalekites gave 
themselves up to eating, drinking, and 
dancing when they had plimdered a town 
(1 Sam. xxx. 16). Dancing as part of a 
religious ceremony or as an act of worship 
seems to have been common among the 
Jews. It was practised chiefly by women 
(Judg. xxi. 21, 23). but occasionally by 
men, as in the well-known instance of 
David's dancing before the ark (2 Sam. vi. 
14-23; 1 Chron. xv. 29; Psalm cxlix. 3; 
d. 4). Dancing of an indecent kind before 
images was doubtless common among 
idolaters, of which there was a notable 
instance when the golden calf was made in 
the wilderness (Exod. xxxii. 19). 

Daniel [Heb. Daniyel = " (Jod's 
judge," ♦.<?. "who in the name of God 
does justice" (OeaeniusYL 

The celebrated Jewish prophet. He 
belonged to the tribe of Judah (tfci. i. 1 -7), 
and was of ^ood family (3-5) . He was one 
of foiur children carried off with other 
captives bv Nebuchadnezzar after his 
first siege of Jerusalem, begun and perhaps 
completed in the third year of king 
Jehoiakim, about 606 b.o. (or 575, Bosan- 
quei) (i. 1 ; cf. 2 Kings xxiv. 1-5 ; 2 Chron. 

i.5-8). With three oOkeri 
the future prophet obtained lea^ire from the 
master of tne eunuchs, under whcm he and 
they had been put, to substitate the simple 
but healthful food to which they had been 
accustomed for the luxurious viands is- 
signed them by the king or emperor. The 

four young enles all became proficient in 
leammg, while the grace of (iod enabled 
them to manifest uncompromising princi- 
ple, even when it brought tliem face to 
face with death (Dan. L). Is Nebuchad- 
nezzar's second year Danid mterpreted 
the dream in which the king saw the great 
image (ii. 1-46), which led to the prophet's 
being made nUer over the pvovinoe of 
Babylon, and head over its wise men 
(46-49). He afterwards intefimted the 
vision which revealed the appioadiiug 
madness of Nebuchadnezzar (iv.;. In the 
first and third years of Boshazzar the 
prophet saw visions whidi, under the 
figures of animals, represented the sucoeis- 
ive Asiatic kingdoms to the time when the 
''Ancient of days" should set, and ''the 
Son of man" come with the douds of 
heaven to set up a spiritual kingdom,, 
which should endure eternally (vii.-viii.). 
It is startling to find Daniel is the third 
year of Belshazzar apparentij fiving at 
Shushan, the Elamite capital. It is, how- 
ever, important to note that ttis is stated 
to have been in vision, whic^ aiay well 
have been while he was actually at Baby- 
lon (viii. 2). In the first year of Danua 
Daniel beheved the captivity to be ap- 
proaching its dose, humbled aimself , con- 
fessed his sins, and prayed, in consequence 
of which he had reveakd to him the 
prophecy of the seventy weeks (iz.)> 
[Week.] The same year he vtlered the 
prediction of a long sense of eyents inSyria^ 
Egypt, and Pales&e (xi.-xii.). [Hnromr^ 
Intehbiblical.] Darius is stated to have 
appointed 120 satraps over ttie kingdoin,. 
%,e, the Persian empire, with three presi- 
dents over them, Daniel beiiw one of the 
three. [Dabitts.] It was dunngtiiis reign 
that the well-known incident occurred of 
his being thrown into tiie lions' den, and 
then miraculously delivered. In L 21 we 
read that " Daniel continued even ante the 
first year of Kin^yf Cvrus," while tiie revela- 
tions described m cnap. x. are dated " in the 
third year of Cyrus, Jdng of Penta," evi- 
dentiy implying that he ad mat die ia the 
first year of Cyrus. So also iu vi. 28 it is 
said that "tms Daniel prospered in the 
reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus- 
the Persian." He must have Kved to an 
advanced age. The time aad manner of 
his death are unknown. The existence of 
Daniel is referred to in Eaek. xiy. 14 ; Matt^ 
xxiv. 15 ; Mark xiil. 14 : HeK zL 33. 

H 7%<ri?w)*o//>««W.— The Old Testa- 
ment book generally attributed to the 

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Tonophet Daniel. In our modem Hebrew 
BibleBitdoesnot standamong the other pro- 
pheeiee, but is relegated to the Hagiogiapha 
or Sacred books, where it follows Estner 
and precedes Ezra. The gr^itep part of it 
is in Hebrew, but the portion be^^inninff 
with the middle of verse 4, chap, li., and 
extending to chap, vii.^ verse 28, is in 
Aramaic, the oonmieraal language of 
Babylon rA&Ax] ; while, finally^ some 
words used to designate musical mstru- 
ments, and spedalfy sumponeyah [Bag- 
pipe], appear to have been borrowed from 
the GreeK. The kings mentioned in the 
book of Daniel are thus arranged by 
the prophet: (1) Nebuchadnezzar (i. 1 ; 
n, 1 ; iii. 1, etc.) ; (2) Belshazzar 
"his son" (v. 1, 2, 18, 22); (3) Darius 
^e Mede (v. 31 ; vi. 1 ; ix. 1) ; and (4) 
Cyrus the Persian (vi. 28). The book 
may be divided into two sections, the first 
(i.-vi.) chronologically arranged, and the 
second (viL-xii.) traversing part of the 
same ground anew, and not arranged 
chronologically. The sub-sections of the 
first secoon are: (I) i.-iv., relating to 
Nebuchadnezzar's reign ; (2) v., relating 
to that of Belshazzar; and (3) vi., relating 
to that of Darius. The sub-sections of the 
second section are: (1) vii.-viii., visions 
seen in the rei^ of Belshazzar ; (2) ix., an 
occurrence while Darius was king ; ^3) x.. 
an incident under Cvrus ; and (4) xi. ana 
xii., visions imder Darius's reign, placed 
last, probably because the inopnecy gives 
details of coming events to a later period 
than in the rest of the book. Historians 
who take a many-sided view of the events 
they narrate continually come back in this 
way on the chronology, as may be seen 
W examining consecutive diapters of 
(Hbbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Etnpire, In the English Bible the title of 
the work under consideration is "The 
Book of Daniel," the natural meaningof 
which is that he was its author. The 
Hebrew Bible heads it simply " Daniel," 
without in any way indicatmg whether 
Daniel is the hero of the book, or whether 
he was also its author. In the first seven 
chapters he is spoken of in the third person, 
ana sometimes in commendatorv teims 
such as a modest man would blush to 
apply to himself (i. 19,20; ii. 14; v. 11, 
l2 ; vi. 3) ; but in the subsequent chapters 
he speaks in the first person, as if he was 
file author of at least that part of the book 
(vui. 1, 2, 3, 4^ 5, etc ; ix. 2 ; x. 2, etc. ; 
xi. 1, etc. ; xii. 5). Our Lord also quotes 
the work as Daniel's ([Matt. xxiv. 15), and 
when He speaks of Himself as " the Son of 
man " come to found a kingdom (Matt. x. 
23 ; xvi.27, 28 ; xix. 28; x»v.30; xxv.31 ; 
xxvi. 64) tacitly alludes to the prediction 
in Dan. viL 9- 14, 27. nationalistic critics 
deny that the book was composed by 

Daniel, and they do not consider that iim 
doing so they are coming in conflict with 
the authority of Jesus, who did not desire? 
to commmucate information as to the* 
authorship of books, but left current 
oi)inions on the subject imdisturbed. They 
with one accord date its publication about 
B.O. 168 or 167, and believe that it was 
penned to support the faith of the Jews 
under the dreaoful persecution then raging 
under Antiochus Epiphanes. On the other 
hand, Hengstenberg, Havemick, and 
others in Gennany, with Pusey, Bo^an- 

Suet, etc., in Britain, have contended for 
tie early date of the book and for its pro- 
phetic character, though Bosan^uet be- 
lieves that additions to the genume work 
of Daniel were made by a Maccabean 
writer, and that in chaps, x.-xii. a para- 
phraseor brief commenta^originallyou the^ 
margin has sUpped into the text. He also- 
believes that chap. x. 1, the chronology of 
which is difiicult, is an interpolation 
{Mestiah the Prince, 2nd ed. [1869], 112- 
134). The Messianic passage in Dan. ix. 
24-27 [Week (H)] is the only portion of 
the Old Testament in which the A.V» 
introduces the word " Messiah " (25, 26 ;. 
cf. John i. 41 ; iv. 25). .The R.V. substi- 
tutes the equivalent term, " the Anointed. 
One" [Abomination, Messiah]^ 

H For the Apocmhal additions to 
Daniel see Apoceypha (9) (10) (11). 

Daniuili [Heb. = " a low place," " low 

A village among the "mountains" of 
Judah (Josh. xv. 49J. Major Conder con- 
siders it to have oeen probably at the- 
modem village of Idhna, in the low hills, 
eight miles west of Hebron. 

Dura [Heb. Dhara^ Dhera^ an abbre- 
viation of Daeda (q.v.)] (1 Chron. ii. 6). 

DardA [Heb. Bharda = " unity," 
" oneness of wisdom," " the unique peart 
of wisdom" (?)]. 

A son of Mahol, a man of Judah. In 
Solomon's time he was regarded as having- 
been one of the wisest of men (1 Kines iv. 
31). In 1 Chron. ii. 6 the name is abbro- 
viated or corrupted into Dara, or, as. 
Qesenius makes it, Dera. 

Darlo [Gr. Dareikos. See the article]. 

The rendering in 1 Chron. xxix. 7 ; Ezra-, 
viii. 27, both R. V. , of the 'E.ehrew Adharkon.. 
and in Ezra ii. 69 ; Neh. vii. 70, 71, 72, all 
R.V., of the Hebrew Darkefntm. Both 
words are derived by Gesenius from old 
Persian Dara or Darab = " a king," with 
which compare Dari(/ and Der^3h= "a 
palace." A Daric was a gold com current 
m Persia, the first issue of which was wont 
to be attributed to Darius Hystaspes. ^ It. 
was of gold, and had on one side a king 
with a TOW and a javelin or dagger, whil* 

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on tho other was a somewhat square figure. 
But Prof. Sayoe shows that Daric really 
comes from the Babylonian Dariku, a 
weight or measure which, like the English 
pound, commencing as a weight became 
afterwards a coin. Dariku inures in a 
contract in the Tith year of Nabonidos, 
five years before Cyruses conc^uest of 
Babvlon, and long before Danus was 
elected to the throne (Sayce, Ezra, etc., p. 

IHuliiB [Lat., from Gr. Dartios^ Heb. 
Dat'uaveshf from Zend Dara = ** king '*]. 

(1) A king described as '* Darius tne 
Median,'* who *' took the kingdom,*' being 
then about 62 years old, on the night in 
which Belshazzar, the long of the Chal- 
deans, was slain (Dan. v. 30, 31). He set 
120 princes or satraps over the kingdom, 
with three presidents over them, Daniel 
bein^ one of the three and above the other 
two m rank or dignity. It was this Darius 
who was inveigl^ into issuing the foolish 
decree for violating which Itainiel, sorely 
iigainst the king^s wishes, was cast into the 
lions' den (vi. 1-27). In his first year 
Daniel saw the vision of the seventy weeks 
(ix. 1-27). The .same year he stood to 
confirm and strengthen Darius by unfold- 
ing to him the future fortmies of the 
region over which he ruled (xi. 1-xii. 13). 
The monarch is called Darius tho son of 
Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes (ix. 1), 
and his reign is made immediately to pre- 
cede that of ** Cyrus the Persian '"^ (vi. 28). 
There is considerable difilculty in identify- 
ing this first Darius, of wnom secular 
history knows nothing. Dr. Pusey con- 

Sctured that he might be the Astyages of 
erodotus, or the Cyaxares of Xenophon, 
or some yet undiscovered king of Media. 
On the other hand, Bosanquet contends 
that he was Darius Hystaspes [No. 2] and 
dates the fall of Babylon mentioned in 
Daniel at 492 b.c. 

(2) A " king of Persia " who in point of 
time followed after Cyrus (Ezra iv. /)). 
When he came to the throne, the building 
of the Temple had been suspended owing 
to complaints from the jealous neighbour- 
ing tribes ; but Darius, on being applied to, 
caused a search to be made at Achmetha 
(Ecbatana), the Median capital, where the 
edict of Cyrus permitting the work to be 
undertaken was found nSzra vi 1-12J, 
The erection of the sacrea edifice accord- 
inglv recommenced in his second year, 
sixth month, and twenty-fourth day {Ezra 
iv. 24 : Hag. i. 15 ; ii. 18), and on the third 
day of the twelfth month (Adar) of his 
ftixth r^pial year was brought to a happy 
<*onclu8ion (Ezra vi. 15). The prophets 
Haggaiand Zechariah prophesied during 
the reign of this monarch (Hag. i. 1 ; ii. 1, 
10, 18 ; Zech. i. 1, 7 ; vii. 1), who was with- 

out doubt the Darius ^rstaspes of the 
classical writers, the Dara Gushtasp of Zend 
writings. The leading events of his life 
are defied by Herodotus, whose narrative 
has been supplemented and materiallv 
corrected by an inscription of Darius's 
own on a rock at Behistun, the Bagestan 
of the classical writers. It is in three 
lang^ua^es, Persian. Babylonian, and 
Amardian (Elamite). He alleges that 
eight of his ancestors were kiu^ He 
confirms '* the father of history " m repre- 
senting that Cambyses, Cyrus's son, pat 
his brother Bardes, called by Herodotus 
Smerdis, to death, and some time after- 
wards committed suicide. Then a Magian 
started up whom the inscription colla 
Gk)mates or Gaumata, pretending to be 
Bardes, who he alleged had not really been 
slain. According to Herodotus, with 
whose narrative the less detailed record on 
the stone essentially agrees, evidence of 
the fraud was discovered and a conspiracy 
formed against Gomates by seven men of 
rank, one of whom was Darius Hystaspes. 
On April 10, 521 B.C., they slew the 
Magian and sisduted Darius king. Cyras 
and Cambyses had been "RlamitAg and 
apparently idolaters. Dajius was a 
genuine Persian and a Zoroastrian. Elam 
therefore rose against the new monarch, 
but was temporarily subdued. Babylon 
followed under a leader called Nidinta-Bel 
and stood a siege of two years (520, 519 B.C.). 
Prof. Sayce and others believe that it was 
on this occasion, and not imder Cyrus, that 
the Persians diverted the course of the 
Euphrates, and, marching along its channel, 
entered the dty by gates ne^igently left 
open while revelry was in progress on a 
festival night (Sayce, Jfet-odolM, 387,388). 
Nidinta-Bel seems to have been killed m 
the assault, and was probably the Lucifer, 
son of the rooming, so forably described 
in Isa. xiv. 12. When it became known 
that Darius was detained at Babylon, a 
general revolt took place of the provinces 
constituting the yet scarcely compacted 
empire of Cyrus ; in fact it fell to pieces, 
ana had to be restored by Darius, who, 
rather than Cyrus, was the real founder of 
the Persian empire. As Darius himself 
says, "While 1 was in Babylon, these 
provinces rebelled against me: Persia, 
Susiania, Media, Assyria, Armenia, 
Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, and the 
Sakians." But he and his lieutenants 
subdued them all, generally ending by 
impaling the rebel l^er. Darius cbims 
to nave Deen victorious in nineteen battles 
and to have taken nine kings alive. Before 
all this fighting was done, Babylon, in 
514 B.C. , revolt^ anew under an Armenian 
called Arakha, but the rebellion was pat 
down, its leader and his chief adherents 
being impaled. The walls of the dty were 

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this time thrown down, and a great step 
taken to that utter destruction which the 
prophets foresaw. [Babylon.] Darius 
now ruled over an empire extending east- 
ward into India and westward to the 
Grecian Archipelago. He also admin- 
istered it, on the whole, wisely and well. 
After an unsuccessful campaign against 
the Scythians near the river Don, in what 
is now Russia, and a quarrel with the 
Greeks in which his generals Datis and 
Artaphemes were defeated in 490 B.C. at 
Marathon, Darius died at the age of 73 
(Ctcsios) m B.C. iSoj after a reign of 36 
years. Bosanquet dates his death in 482 

Dvkon [Heb. Darqon = ** one who 
Matters '* ; from Aramaic Dara^ = " to 
scatter" C?)]. 

The founder of a family, part of the 
children of Solomon's servants (Ezra ii. 56 ; 
Keh. vii. 68). 

J [English, from Lat. Dactylon^ Gr. 
DaktnlM = *♦ a finger," the date fruit being 
•apposed to resemble a finger- joint] . 

The fruit of the Date Palm (Phcfnix 
dae(yiifera) (2 Chron. xxxi. 5— A.V., 
BUttgin). The text and the R.V. render 
the word " honey." [Palm.] 

Datliaii [Heb. = *<of" or *'from a 
•pring of water *' {Gesenius)^ 

A sou of Eliab, a Reubemte, who with 
Abiram, his brother, and On, a man of the 
■sme tribe, were prominent leaders in the 
rebellion of Koran. Their grievance was 
diiferent from his. Probably they thought 
that the leadership of Israel should have 
gone to the tribe to which they belonged, 
iOT was not Reuben Jacob's eldest son ? 
Then, again, they complained that Moses 
lorded it over them, exercising his power 
^JespoticaUy, and taking them from a 
counhy where there was plenty, under the 
promise of leading them into '* a land 
flowing with milk and honey," while in 

fact all that he had done was to march 
them up and down amid naked rocks and 
barren sands (Numb. xvi. 1-35 ; xxvi. 
7-11 ; Deut. xi. 6 ; PsaUn cvi. 17). 


DaQghter [English]. 

Notwithstanding that in certain cases 
family life was vitiated by polygamy, yet 
daughters during the period of the Jewish 
polity seem to have occupied a place not 
essentially differing from that which they 
now possess in a Christian household. The 
daugnter was an object of tender affection 
to the father (Judg. xi. 34, 35 ; 2 Sam. xii. 
3 ; Biatt. ix. 18 ; Mark v. 22, 23 ; Luke 
viii. 41, 42). Jesus sometimes used the 
word daughter as an expression of loving 
sympathy for sick or troubled females 
who sought his miraculous aid (Matt. ix. 
22 ; Mark v. 34 ; Luke viii. 48). The word 
daujB^hter is sometimes used poetically for 
the mhabitants, male as well as female, of 
a place, as Daughter of Zion (Zech. ix. 9) ; 
Daughter of Jerusalem {Ibidi) ; Daughter 
of Babylon (Psahn cxxxvii. 8 ; and 
Daughter of Eaom (Lam. iv. 21, 22). 

David [Heb. Davidh = '' beloved "]. 

The vouugest son of Jesse, and the second 
king of Israel. When Saul, the first king, 
had been rejected by God, Samuel was des- 
patched to Bethlehem, where Jesse lived, 
to anoint a successor to the unliappy 
monarch. The prophet called Jesse and 
his sons to a sacrifice, and no sooner set 
eyes on the eldest one, called Eliab, than 
he exclaimed, "* Surely the Lord's anointed 
is before him." But it was not Eliab or 
any of the other six stalwart young men 
present that was chosen. ** Are here all 
thy children?" Samuel asked; to which 
the reply was, ** There remaineth yet the 
youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the 
sheep." "Send," the prophet rejoined, 
'* and fetch him, for we will not sit down 
tiU he come hither." By-and-bye there 
was brought in a youth with beautiful 
features and a ruddv complexion, on which 
the Lord said, " Anoint him, for this is 
he." Thus directed, Samuel took a horn 
of oil and anointed David in sight of his 
brothera, the Spirit of the Lord at once 
descending on the future king (1 Sam. xvi. 
1-13). The secret of what had been done 
seems to have been well kept from Saul ; 
for when, deserted by the Spirit of God 
and troubled by an evil spirit from the 
Lord, he required a harper to charm away 
his melancholy madness, he listened to 
those who recommended David for the 
office, and appointed him without demur. 
The youthful narper soon gained his affec- 
tions, and was oonstitutea armour-bearer 
as well (14-23). Soon afterwards his 
combat with Goliath (q.v.) showed that 
he was the greatest hero of whom Israel 

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< 156) 


then could boast (xvii. 1-58). This great 
achievement gained him the life-long 
friendship of Saul's eldest son, Jonathan, a 
singularly unselfish and lovable character. 
But as the hero returned from the scene of 
his great exploit, Saul unhappily over- 
heara the women, who with others were 
welcoming }nm with plaudits, saying. 
*' Saul hath slain his thousands and David 
his ten thousands.* ' This looked as if they 
were transferring their allegiance from the 
monarch to one of his subjects, who might 
take advantage of it to displace him from 
the throne. All his old love for David was 
transformed into jealousy. Twice over 
he hurled a javelin at him as he was play- 
ing the harp. Then becoming nommaUy 
friendly, he offered him first one and then 
another of his daughters as his wife, on 
condition that he undertook dangerous 
enterprises against the Philistines, in 
which he hopM that he would fall. But 
he succeeded, and Michal, the younger 
daughter, became his wife (xviii. 1-30). 
The first chapter in David's history had 
been his quiet keeping of his father's flocks 
at Bethlehem, and the second was his life 
at court ; a third was now to begin, for 
after more javelin-throwing he abeindoned 
the court and became a wanderer and an 
outlaw (xix. 1-17). He was let down from 
a window in the rear of his house while 
asfiasRins sent by Saul were watching it in 
front, and naturally took the road to 
Ramah, to Samuel, who had anointed him 
king (18-24). Saulpretendedrecondliation, 
ana expected him to return to the palace, 
which he was too prudent to do (xx. 1-42). 
He went instead to Nob, to Ahimelech the 
high-priest, with the ultimate result that 
the whole friendly colony was massacred 
by the now sanguinary monarch (xxi. 1 -9 ; 
xxii. 9-23). The wanderings are be- 
lieved to have continued about six years. 
Among the places visited were Gath, in 
the Philistine country^ (xxi. 10-15) ; the 
Cave of Adullam (xxii. 1,2); the Moabite 
Mizpeh (3. 4) ; the "forest" of Hareth 
(5) ; Keilah, where he fought the Philis- 
tines (xxiii. 1-13) ; Ziph (14-24) ; Maon 
(25-28) ; En-gedi (xxiii. 29-xxiv. 22) ; the 
wilderness of Faran, in the desert south of 
Judah. then again Maon (xxv. 1-44) ; 
Hachilah (xxvi. 2-4) ; and again Gath 
(xxvii.-xxix.), whence he made an expedi- 
tion to recapture Ziklag^ which had oeen 
taken by the Amalekites (xxx.). He 
narrowly missed being present on the 
Philistine side at the battle of Gilboa, 
but when on his way thither the jealousy 
of the Philistine loros led to him and his 
men being sent back (xxix. 1-11). When 
he heard the result of the battle, he 
mourned in beautiful elegiac verse the 
cruel fate not merely of Jonathan, but of 
Saul, whom he had twice spared when he 

had been in his power, and who, if he had 
sinned deeply, nad still been in his day 
the "anointed of theijord " (lSam.xxxi.- 
2 Sam. i.). With the death of Saul com- 
mences tne fourth period of David's life, 
for the tribe of Judah, to which he be- 
longed, elected him king, and he began to 
reign in Hebron (ii. 1 - 10) , being then about 
thirty years old (v. 4). The rest of the 
tribes, under the leadership of Ahner, 
set up Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, at Maha- 
naim, and for the next two years civil war 
went on between his partisans and those of 
David. It ended by the asaasmnation, 
sorely against David's will, both of Ahoer 
and of Ish-bosheth (ii, 12-iv. 12). David'* 
reign at Hebron continued for seven years 
and six months. He had already several 
wives, and among the sons b(mi to him 
at Hebron were Amnon, Absalom, and 
Adonijah (iL 11 ; iii . 1-5 ; v. 6). On the 
death of Ish-bosheth, David was elected 
king over all the tribes, and the fifth and 
last period of his eventful life began 
(v. 1 -5). Hebron, high above the sea, and 
in a central part of Judah, was admirably 
adapted to be David's capital as long as he 
rul^ over one tribe, but it was too &r 
south when he became king over twelve. 
He therefore took the strmigly fortified 
Jebus, or Jerusalem, from the Jeboattes, 
and converted it into his metropolis. He 
fixed his residence in the castle on the hill 
of Zion, and called it the City of David 
(6-10) [H]. On hearing that the champion 
who slew Goliath was now king over all 
Israel, the Philistines twice invaded the 
land, and twice suffered defeat (v. 17-25; 
1 Chron. xiv. 8-17). Then the kimr broi#t 
the Ark with ceremony, sacrinces, and 
r&joidng from Baale, or Kirjath-jearim 
(Josh. XV. 9 ; 2 Chron. i. 4), and pl«»d^ 
within a tabernacle which he haa pitched 
for it in the City of David (2 Sam. vi. 1-23 ; 
1 Chron. xiii. 1-14; xv. 1-3). Next be 
organised a body of Levitea to minister 
before the Ark (1 Chron. xv. 4-29), and 
delivered to Asaph and his fellow-singew 
a psalm, now cv. 1-15 ; xcvi, 2-13 ; cvi. 1= 
cvii. 1 = cxviii. 1 = cxxxvi. 1, and cvL 47, 
48 ; 1 Chron. xvi. 7-43). But he was not 
satisfied that, while he dwelt in a house of 
cedar, the Ark of God should be within 
mere curtains. He therefore intimated to 
Nathan the prophet his intention of build- 
ing a splendid temple. Nathan's first 
impulse was to encourage the project ; hut 
he was Divinely instructed to declare that 
the work should be accomplished not by 
David, a man of war, but by his moajj 
peaceful son and successor. Yet the will 
being taken for the deed, promise was 
made him that his throne should Im>^^^ 
lished for ever [Mesbianio Pbophbot] 
(2 Sam. vii. 1-29; 1 Chron, xvii. 1-27; 
xxiL 7-10). Through the Divine favour 

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lie now became very proeperous. He sub- 
dued the Philistines, the Moabites, the 
Syrians of Zobah, those of Damascus, etc, 
the Amalekites, the Edomites, and the 
Ammonites ^2 Sam. yiiL 1-18; x. 1-19; 
idL 26-31), thus extending his Idnsdom 
to the limite long before promised to Abra- 
ham (Gen. xv. 18). It was during the 
Ammonite war that Darid committed his 
fireat sin in the matter of Uriah the Hittite, 
far which God rebuked him through 
Nathan the prophet, and imposed the 
penalty that the sword should never 
depart from his house (2 Sam. xi. 1-xii. 23). 
[Bathshsba, Nathan, Uriah.] This 
judgment soon began to be executed. His 
ald^ son, Amnon (2 Sam. iii. 2), who had 
perpetrated a gross outrage on his half- 
sister, was kilkd for it by Absalom, her 
full brother (2 Sam. xiu. 1-39). Then 
Absalom rebelled asainst his too indulgent 
father, conapeUing him to flee from Jeru- 
salem to Mahanaim, beyond Jordan, and 
there await the result of a battle, in which 
the unnatural son met his well-merited 
doom (xiy. 1-xix. 43). Then the revolt 
of a Beniamite called Sheba required to be 
crashed (xx. 1-22) ; there was a very pain- 
ful event in connection with the house of 
Saul (xxL 1-14) ; more fighting with the 
Philistines ; and David, in deep thankful- 
ness for the Divine goodness in delivering 
him from his enemies, composed Psalm 
xviiL (2 Sam. xxii. 1-51). A pestilence, 
followmg on the taking of a census, led to 
ihe purdiase by Davm of the threshing- 
floor of Araunah or Oman, a Jebusite, to 
be used for the erection of an altar (2 
Sam. xxiv. 1-25 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 1-30). TWs 
spot on the summit of Mount Moriah after- 
wards became the site of the Temple ^2 
■Chron. iiL 1). For the erection of this 
splendid edifice, to be reared for the worship 
•of Jehovah, David had made enormous 
preparations. These he transferred to 
Solomon, pvinghim a dying injimction to 
proceed with the work (1 Chron. xxii. 1-16}, 
and when Adonijah, in defiance of David^s 
and the Divine choice, set u^ as king, David 
at (moe had Solomon proclaimed as his suc- 
cessor (1 Kings i. 1-5^. Then, his labours 
•on eaith over, he died in his seventy-first 
jear, according to the Hebrew chronology 
about the year b.c. 1015. He had reigned 
forty (or, more precisely, forty and a half} 

Sirs, seven (or rather seven and a half) at 
bron and thirty-three at Jerusalem 
Q Sam. iL 11 ; v. 4, 6 ; 1 Chron. xxix. 27). 
Gifts rarely found together in the same 
individual were combined in David. A poet 
and musician, he must have had a fine 
nervous organisation and the sensibility 
of genius; notwithstanding which he 
was a military hero, which few poets ever 
are. "Diough at times committing deep- 
^red sins, for which the early and com- 

paratively dark period of the Church's his- 
torjr at which he lived and his own deep 
penitence are his only defence, yet his 
general fidelity to Jehovah was such that he 
was called the man after Gk>d's own heart 
(1 Sam. xiii. 14}. His influence on man- 
kind can scarcely be over-estimated. He, 
rather than his predecessor, Saul, was the 
founder of the Jewish monarchy. His 
psalms, sung throughout Christendom 
century after century, revive his spiritual 
influence every Lord's day that comes 
round. But his highest title to be remem- 
bered is that he was a very important link 
in the chain of ancestry of Hun who was 
at once David's son and David's Lord 
(Matt. xxii. 41-45). 

H Ciisf of David,— {I) A Jebusite fort, 
*< the stronghold of Zion,'' or ** the Castle 
of Zion,*' captured by David's men, and 
caUed by Km *'the City of David," 
because ne made it his royal residence 
(2 Sam. V. 6-9 ; 1 Chron. xi. 5, 7). Here it 
will be observed that it is not the whole 
hill of Zion, but the stronghold or castle 
upon some part of it — ^probably its summit 
— ^which was called " the City of David.'* 
The Ark was brouj^ht thither by David, and 
continued there tm Solomon's temple was 
built (2 Sam. vi. 10, 12, 16 ; 1 Kings viiL 
1 ; 1 Chron. xv. 1-29; cf. xiii. 13 and 
2 Chron. y. 2). David was buried in the 
*' city " called after his name (1 Kings ii. 
10). Solomon brought thither for a time 
his first queen, Pmiraoh's daughter (1 
Kings iii. 1), though he afterwards erected 
a palace for himseu and her (vii. 1 ; ix. 24 ; 
2 Chron. viii. 11). He was afterwards 
buried in the City of David (1 Kings xi. 43 ; 
2 Chron. ix. 31), as were Rehoboam (1 
Kings xiv. 31 ; 2 Chron. xii. 16) and many 
other kings (1 Kings xv. 8, 24 ; xxii. 50 ; 
2 Kings viii. 24 ; ix. 28 ; xii. 21 ; xiv. 20 ; 
XV. 7, 38 ; xvi. 20 ; 2 Chron. xiv. 1 ; xvi. 
14; xxi. 1. 20; xxiv. 16, 26; xxvii. 9). 
Jehoiada, the high priest, was also interred 
there (2 Chron. xxiv. 16). We read of 
" the breaches of the City of David," con- 
firming the belief that it was the fort or 
castle, and not the hill (1 Kings xi. 27 ; 
Isa. xxii 9). Hezekiah raought the upper 
watercourse of Gihon to the west side of 
the City of David (2 Chron. xxxii. 30 ; cf. 
xxxiii. 14). Millo was apparently within 
its limits (2 Chron. xxxii. 5). fMiLLO.] In 
Nehemiah's time there was a descent from 
the City of David by means of stairs (Neh. 
iii. 15, 16; xii. 37). The City of David 
was fortified and garrisoned by the Syrians 
and Greeks during the Maccabee wars (1 
Mace, i 33 ; ii. 31 ; vii 32 ; xiv. 36, 37). 
[Jebusalbm, ZionJ 

(2) Bethlehem (Luke ii. 4). 


(1) The portion of 

the twenty-four 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Dead 8ea 

hours during which the suu is above the 
horizon, or in which refraction prolongs 
twilight (Gen. viii. 22). 

(2) Twenty-four hours. The time of 
commencing such a day is simply conven- 
tional ; we, as is well known, do it from 
midnight. The Jews in Old Testament 
times seem to have begun their day in 
sense (2) at sunset (Gen. i. 3, 8, 13, 19, 23, 
31; Lev. xxiii. 3*2). Here, it will be 
observed, evening and morning are recog- 
nised. So in Old Testament times were 
noon or noonday (2 Sam. iv. 5 ; Deut. 
xxviii. 29, etc.), and afternoon (Judg. xix. 
8). There were also watches [Watch] 
(Exod. xiv. 24; Judg. vii. 19; 1 Sam. 
xi. 11 ; Psalms Ixiii. G ; xc. 4 ; cxix. 148 ; 
Lam. ii. 19). Hours are first mentioned 
by Daniel (Dan. iv. 19). • 

In the New Testament there is a passage 
(Matt, xxviii. 1^ which looks as if the day 
now began in tne morning instead of the 
evening, though it is believed that the old 
arrangement was still in force. Four 
Boman watches of the night are alluded 
to [Watch] (Luke xii. 38, etc.), and while 
*'hour** occurs only once in the Old 
Testament, it frequently does so in the New 
[Houb] (Matt. XX. 3, 5, 6, 12, etc.). 

Day ia frequently used in a figurative 

justice, though it is nowhere expressly 
stated, that the seven men chosen to relie?e 
the Apostles of the secular care of the 
widows and other poor people in the eailj 
Church were deacons (Acts vi. 5). Their 
charge of the needy did not debar them 
from the privilege of speaking publicly for 
Christ, for Stephen, who did so to such an 
extent and so successfully that he brought 
on his own martyrdom, was one of the 
seven (6, 8, 10, etc,). A plurality of 
deacons existed in the church at Pfaihppl, 
sharing with the bishops, who as mentioned 
first had evidently the higher dignity^ the 
duties of the church (PhiL i. 1). 

Day of the Lord. 

(1) Li the Old Testament, -any day 
marked by signal calamity. It Is a develop- 
ment of uie Hebrew idiom which appenas 
" of God " or ** of the Lord " to whatever 
is great or stupendous (Isa. ii. 12 : xiii. 6, 9 ; 
xxxiv. 8 ; Jer. xlvi. 10). In Malachi iv. 5 it 
seems to mean the first advent of Jesus. 

(2) In the New Testament, specially the 
second advent of our Lord ( 1 Cor. v. 5 ; 
2 Cor. i. 14 ; 1 Thess. v. 2 ; 2 Peter iii. 10). 

DaymiAB [English]. 

Either a mediator or an arbitrator. The 
former points out what he believes to be 
an eqmtable arrangement between two 
contending parties, but has no power to 
enforce his decisions ; an arbitrator possesses 
the power. ^ In Job ix. 33 it probably 
means a mediator. 

Deaoon [Gr. Dinlouott ; in classical 
^Titers = ** a servant," *' a waiting-man," 
aUo ** a messenger." It is used in this 
sense in Matt. xx. 2G, where in the text 
both of the A.V. and of the R.V. it is 
translated " ministers,'* and on the margin 
of the R.V. "servant" as dif^tinguished 
from Douloi = ** bond -servant." ** slave " 
occurring in the next verse ; cf . also Matt, 
xxiii. 1 1 ; Mark ix. 35 ; x. 43 ; John ii. 5, 
9— A.V. and R.V., texts and margins], 

A Christian officer, whose spiritual and 
moral mialifications rather than his duties 
are laid down in 1 Tim. iii. 8. It is 
generally assumed, and apparently with 


A female deacon, a designation applied 
on the margin of Bom. xvi. 1 — RrV. to 
Phebe, called in the text and in the A.V. 
*' servant" of the church at Cenchrea. 
The Greek word is Diakonot^ which is of 
the common gender, and here is feminine. 
It means a sen^ant. [Deacon, etymology.] 

Dead Sea [English]. 

I The name now generally given to the 

I sheet of water called in the Bible the Salt 

I Sea (Gen. xiv. 3 ; Numb, xxxiv. 12 ; Dent 

I iii. 17 ; Josh. iii. 16 ; xii. 3 ; xv. 2, 5 ; 

xviii. 19) .the Sea of the Plain (Josh. iii. 16j, 

I and the Kast or Eastern Sea plzek. xxvu. 

I 18 ; Joel u. 20 ; Zech. xiv. 8— R. V.). It is 

I situated in the deep volcanic rent or fissure 

I which runs through Palestine from north 

I to south. Its sunace was ascertained hy 

I the officers of the ordnance survey to w 

j 1 ,292 feet lower than the ocean-leveL The 

I sea is like a long rectangle with the angles 

bevelled off ; but its regularity of fonn is 

^ interrupted by a projection into its south- 

' eastern side of a great promontory or p^- 

I insula called Lisan, or the Tongue. The 

I length of the sea from north to south is on 

! an average about 47 English miles, hot it 

I varies, a large portion of the southern 

j shore being sometimes dry and sometimes 

i covered with water. The breadth a little 

; north of En-gedi is 9) miles, and it is nearly 

as much everywhere north of the lisan. 

! The Lisan is about 9 miles long from 

i Point Costigan in the north to Port Moly- 

; neux in the south. According to Tristrun 

i its highest point is about 3<K) feet above 

j the water. Lieut. Lynch, who in 1848 led 

an expedition for the exploration of the 

I Jordan and the Dead sea, found the 

I maximum depth of the latter, as asoer* 

I tained by sounding, to be 1,278 feet; this 

I was at a point about 5 miles north of Point 

i Costigan. South of the Lisan, on tiie 

I contrary, the sea is ouite shallow. Except 

: on the north side, where the Jordan enters 

I the Dead Sea, tne latter is nearly sur- 

! rounded by a rampart of cliifs, whidi in 

\ some places leave a narrow beadi between 

I them and the water, while in others they 

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Dead Sea 

( 159) 


themaelves constitute the coast-line. These 
rise in successiye terraces, which also exist 
along the lower part of the Jordan valley. 
At 'Ain Jldy [En-obdi], midway between 
the northern and southern extremities of 
the Dead Sea on the western side, the 
height from the seashore to the top of the 
cUfl^ is 050 feet ; a little farther north at 
R^ esh Shufk, the top is 2,519 feet above 
the Dead Sea, t.^. 1 ,227 above the Mediter- 
ranean. Further northward the elevation 
gradually descends till it reaches 1,400 feet 
above the Dead Sea {Stircet/ of IVcstern 
FaUstine, iii. 383). 

The Dead Sea is one of the most remark- 
able sheets of water on the globe. No 
other one is known to occupy so deep a 
hollow on the surface of the globe. Its 
waters are much Salter than those of the 
ocean, for while in the latter 100 lbs. of 
water contain G lbs. of salt, in the former 
100 lbs. of water contain 24*57 lbs. of salt. 
In consequence of this, one bathing in them 
finds himself almost ludicrously buoyant. 
But when he comes ashore there is a greasy 
deposit of salt upon his skin, which tortures 
him if at any place he has a scratch or a 
bruise on its surface. In seeldng an ex- 
planation of this saltness, ungeolo^cal 
travellers point to a ridge of hills, Jebel 
Usdum (Hill of Sodom), containing rock- 
salt, from which saline rills flow into 
the south-western portion of the sea. Geo- 
logists, however, point out that the range 
of hills is part of the old bed of thd 
Dead Sea, when the waters stood much 
higher than now. The sea created the 
rock-salt instead of the rock-salt rendering 
on otherwise fresh- water lake saline. The 
real process was tlus. All river water 
oontams a minute portion of salt, or at 
least the Jordan does. There being no 
outlet from the Dead Sea, the minute por- 
tions of salt given it by the river remain, 
and aocumulate year by ^ear . and age by 

rThe water with which tney come, on 
contrary, goes off to a large extent in 
vapour, evaporation being immense where 
the air from the desert comes, as it does 
here, dry and thirsty to an extraordinary 
extent. The Scripture name *' Salt Sea ^' 
is the most scientifically accurate one 
which has ever been given to the sheet of 
water now described. It is a pity that it 
has been supenieded by the less distinctive 
name of D^ Sea. This appellation may 
allude to the fact that the neavy water of 
the Dead Sea does not rise very easily into 
storms, and when it does, suraides more 
rapidly than lighter water would do. 
It is, nowever, said to have arisen from 
the old belief that there is a total absence 
of life in and around the sea, the truth 
being that birds frequent its shores or fly 
over it^ surface, as they do that of other 
Ukm and inland seas, and fishes, though 

woefully deficient, are found, according to 
Lartet, in small numbers south of the 
Lisau. Ezekiel prophesied the ultimate 
healing of the waters of the Dead Sea, and 
the multiplication of fish till the species 
for number rivalled those of the open 
Mediterranean (Ezek. xlvii. 6-12). 

Dearth [English, connected with the 
Ford *'dear*'J. 

Scarcity and consequent deamess of food 
or any other object of sale. Famine, a 
stronger word, comes from Latin Fatnea — 
*♦ hunger *♦ (Gen, xU. 54 ; 2 Kings iv. 38 ; 
Acts ^1i. 11 ; xi. 28; etc.). [Faminb.] 

Debir (1) fHeb., Debib (2) (?)]. 

A king of Eglon, who took part in 
Adoni-zeaec*s confederacy against the 
Israelites. He was defeated, captured, 
and executed by Joshua (Josh. x. 3, 27). 

Debir (2) PHeb. Debhir^ "most holy 
place" (?), **back part of a temple" or 

(1) A ** city," probably of Hittite origin. 
Its original name was Kirinth-sepiier 
(Josh. XV. 15 ; Judg. i. \o). This means 
" the city of books," ana has been ad- 
duced as proof that the Hittites were a 
literary people. It was called also Kirjath- 
sanuah, ^' the city of a palm-tree " (Josh. 
XV. 49). In the time of Joshua it was 
inhabited in whole or in part by " Ana- 
kims " ; it had a king, and was the head 
of other cities or villa^. Joshua captured 
it and slew all the inhabitants (J<^. x. 
38, 39 ; xi. 21 ; xR 13) ; but it must have 
been reoccupied by other heathen resi- 
dents, for it had to be recaptured by 
Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb*8 younger 
brother (Josh. xv. 15-17 ; Judg. i. 11, 12). 
It was assigned to the priests (Josh. xxi. 
13, 15 ; 1 Chron. vi. 57, 58). Major Conder 
locates it at £dh DhiLheri^eh, south-west 
of Hebron. It is on a flat ridge, with open, 
rock^ ground all around. It is between 
the sites Dannah, Socoh, Anab, and Esh- 
temoh (Josh. xv. 48-50). It Ib supplied from 
dstems (JSurveif of Fakatine^ iii. 402). The 
upper and nether spring mentioned in 
Judg. i. 15 are not distmctly coimected 
with Debir, and may be nearer Hebron. 

(2) A town on the boundary of the tribe 
of Judah, near the valley oi Achor, and 
consequently not far from Jericho (Josh. 
XV. 7). Now, perhaps, Thoghret ed Debr. 

(3) A town or district east of the Jordan, 
and near Mahaiiaim (Josh. xiii. 26). The 
margin of the R.Y. has Lidebir. Perhaps 
LODEBAB (q.v.). 

Deborah FHeb. LebhoraJi. = « a bee "]. 

(1) Rebekan^s nurse^ who accompani^ 
her from Mesopotamia, and, dying, was 
buried beneath Bethel, under an oak, 
called in consequence Allon-bachuth = 
** oak of weepiug^^ ((7en.zziv.59; xxxv.8). 

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(2) A prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth. 
43he lived under a pakn>tree, call^ after 
her name, between Kamah and Bethel, in 
Mount Ephraim, and there was a ** judge ' ' 
or ruler of the Israelites. It was sne who 
:summoned Barak to undertake the contest 
with Sisera, and, at her request, accom- 
panied him to the rendezvous of his army, 
if not eren to the field of battle (Juds. iv. 
4-14). Afterwards she joined with Barak 
in HJaging a sons of triumph for victory, 
which was probaoly of her rather than of 
hiB composition (v. 1-31). 

DeMor [English]. 

One who owes another money. By the 
lifosaic law it was enacted that if the 
debtor was an Israelite, the creditor had 
to release him from the obligation to repay 
what he had borrowed, provided it were 
still owing when the year of release came 
(pent. XV. 1-4). But in the times of the 
kings the practice was to seize the debtor 
^md make a slave of him to work out his 
•debt, or, if it were a woman, seize her sons 
for bondmen (2 Kin^ iv. 1 ; Isa. 1. 1). In 
the time of tfesus, imprisonment (and in 
certain circumstances torture ?) was some- 
times inflicted on a particularly odious 
debtor (Matt xviii. 23-35). 

Deoapolis [^6r. Dekapolis = ^' a district 
with ten cities " ; delca = " ten," and 
jfMlis = *' a dtj "J. 

A district m Palestine containing ten 
cities. Josephus calls it Decapolis of Syria 
{LifCy 65, 74). Pliny and Ptolemy agree 
that eight of these were: Scjrthopolis, 
Hippos, Gadaro, Dion, Pella, Gerasa, 
Philadelphia, and Canatha. The two 
others, according to Pliny, were Damascus 
.and Raphana. Ptolemy makes one 
Capitolias, and omits mention of the 
other. Josephus {War, m. ix. 7) says 
that Scythopolis was the largest dty of the 
Decapolis, which shows that he did not 
oonsiaer Damascus, which much exceeded 
it in size, one of the ten. An old Palmy- 
Tene inscription calls one of the ten Abila. 
All but Scythopolis, formerly called Beth- 
shan or Bethshean , were east of the Jordan 
OTiny, H, N., v. 19 ; Ptolem., Geoa,, v. 17 ; 
Joseimus, War, III. ix. 7). Multitudes 
from Decapolis followed Jesus at an early 
period of His ministry (Matt. iv. 25) . The 
-Gadarene demoniac, when the evil spirit 
was expelled, published his deliverance in 
Decapolis (Mark v. 20). As our Lord 
travelled through it on His way from Tyre 
iind Sidon to ^da Sea of Ghililee, a larger 
part of it than the writers just quoted 
admit must have been west of the Jordan 
(vii. 31). 

Dedaa [Heb. Dedhan, Of doubtful 

(1) I%e younger son of Raamah, and 
the grandson of Gush (Gen. x. 7 ; 1 Chron. 

L 9). In Ezekiel*8 time *^ Dedan," ij$, his 
descendants, traded with Tyre, brin^mg it 
horns of ivory and ebony C&sek. xxvu. 15). 
Gfresenius and others consider that the 
country was on the coast of the Persian 
Gulf, where, as Mr. Poole points out* the 
Greek and Boman geographers have plaoed 

(2) The youn^pr son of Jokshan, one of 
Abraham^s fanuly by Keturah (Gen. xxv. 
3; 1 Chron. L 32). From this Dedan 
sprang the three tribes called the Asshurim, 
i,e, the Asshuritee, the Letushim, ue. the 
Letushitee, and the Leummim, •'.«. the 
Leumites (Gen. xxv. 4). *^Dedan^*' %,*. 
the Dedanites, lived m the vidmty of 
Edom (Jer. xlix. 8 ; Ezek. xxv. 13j, of 
Tema, and of Buz rjer. xxv. 23). They 
travelled over Arabia and the rorions 
adjacent as merchants (Isa. xxi. 13). £zaci 
looility unknown. 

DedioatliMi [English, from Lat. Bedu 
eatio = ** the setting apart either of a 
person or a thing to the service of a 

ConsecratioQ. See the etymology (Psalm 
XXX., title). 

Feoit of the Dedication. — ^The annual 
festival instituted b]^ Judas Maccalwus to 
celebrate the redemcation or reoonsecn- 
tion of the Temple to Jehovah after it had 
been desecrated for three years by the 
Greek idolatries carried on within its 
precincts by order of Antiochus Epiphanes 
<1 Mace. IV. 52-59). The feart lasted 
eight days, beginning on the 25th of Ghis- 
leu (approximately November), 164B.o.,and 
falling consequently in ** winter.'* Jesos 
at leaist once attended at Jerusalem on 
occasion of the dedication festival, and 
delivered one of His discourses to those 
assembled at the Temple for its odebn- 
tion (John x. 22). The Jews still observe 
the festival. 

Deer [English]. 

The EngliSi name of tiie genus Cervus, 
or of the mmily Cervidse. in the A.V. it 
occurs only in composition [Fallow 
Deeb] ; in the B.V . apparently not at all. 
Tristmm enumerates two species of the 
genus Cervus— the Roebuck (Certmteavreo' 
Jus) and the Fallow Deer {Cervus dama) — as 
stiU occurring in Palestine; whilst the 
teeth and bones of three others (the Bed 
Deer, Cerrtu elaphut ; the Reindeer, Or- 
VU9 tarandm ; and the Elk, Cervut aleei) 
are found in bone caves in Lebanon. 


A word occurrmg m the titles of fifteen 
Psalms, viz., Pealms cxx.-cxxxiv. in- 
clusive, which are called Songs of Degrees. 
It is the rendering of the Hebrew Maaloth 
= *' steps,'* and so translated in Exod. xx. 
26 ; 1 Kings x. 19, etc It is the pluial of 
MaaUih = '' an ascent,'* from aiah = '' to 

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ascend.*' Gesenius believes that the Son^ 
of Degrees are so called because there is in 
their compositiou a certain progression, 
the concluding words of one sentence being 
often the commencement of the ne^^, as — 

I will lift up mine eyes unto the hUls 

From whence cometh my help; 
Mykelp eometh from the Lord, 

who made heaven and earth. 

But the repetition is the exception rather 
than the rule in these Psalms. The more 
probable opini(m, therefore, is that they 
were sung by the pilgrims during the 
ascent to Jerusalem. A Jewish tradition 
makes the fifteen Sonss of Degrees simgas 
an ascent was made by fifteen stens from 
the court of the women to that of toe men, 
a view not now generally entertained. 

Delialtes, DehavltMi [English, from 
Heb. Dehayi - "villagers" m, from Per- 
sian Deh. mh = "a vilkge" (^ iSxetenUts)], 

One of the tribes brou^t over to Samana 
from the Assyrian empire to replace the 
ten tribes carried captive (Ezraiv. 9 — A.V. 
and R.V.). Prof. Kawlinson believes that 
they wero Dai or Dahl, a nomad tribe of 
Aryan descent mentioned by Herodotus 
(i. 125). 

IMkor, Dekmr [Heb. Leqer = " per- 

The father of Solomon's purveyor, Ben- 
deker (q.v.) (1 Kings iv. 9). 

DQlalali [Heb. Deiat/ah, Delauahu = 
" whom Oodhas set free." Nos. 1 and 2 
are of the second form ; Nos. 3, 4, and 5 of 
the first}. 

(1) The head of the twenty-third course 
of Levites instituted by David (1 Chron. 
xxiv. 18). 

(2) A prince, a son of Shemaiah. He 
hved under king Jehoiakim (Jer. xxzvi. 
12). He was one of those who urged the 
king not to bum the roll written by Jero- 

Ci) The father of Shemaiah, and pro- 
bably the son or grandson of No. 2 (Neh. 
vi. 10). 

(4) One of the Nethinim, and founder 
of a family (Ezra ii 60 ; Neh. vii. 62). 

(.5) The sixth of seven sons of Ehoenai 
(1 Chron. iiL 24). 

IMUlali [Heb. = "weak," <« delicate," 
** wasted with longiiur " or " desire "]. 

The seductive Philistine woman from 
the vaDey of Sorek who lured Samson to 
his rain (Judg. xvi 4-18). [Samsok.] 

IMoge [English], ^ 


f Tk^ IkUt^e.—The flood in the time of 
Koah. [FiooD.] 

DiatTOE Tabijbt. a tablet giving the 
Aocadian account of the Deluge, which 
^ accepted also by the Chaldisans or 

Babvlonians. A paper on the subject was 
read before the Society of Biblical Archee- 
olo^ on December 3, 1878, by Mr. George 
Smith, of the British Museum. A revised 
translation was subsequently pubhshed by 
Ifr. Smith. The Deluge narrative is an 
astronomical poem, constituting an epic in 
twelve cantos, each devoted to one sign of 
the zodiac. It is appropriately placed in 
the eleventh canto, imder the constellation 
Aquarius, the Water Bearor. Sisuthros, 
the Accadian Noah, rolates his experience. 
Warned of the Deluge, and iustructed by 
the gods to build a boat of a specified 
number of cubits in length, breadth, and 
height, he obeyed, after first having ex- 
pre^ed the beuef that both children and 
old people would ridiciUe him for what he 
was dom^. When finished he was to enter 
it with his wife and family, taking into it 
at the same time his property, with the 
cattle and the wild beasts of the field. The 
boat or ship was finished in due time, and 
was rendered watertight by being daubed 
with bitumen. He did so, and presently 
the Deluge began. It was so thi-eateuiug 
that ** the gods, like a dog in his kennel, 
crouched down in a heap." The wind, the 
fiood, and the storm went on overwhelm- 
ingly for six days; on the seventh they 
began to subside. He opened the window 
of the ship and looked out on the sixth 
day. Afterwards the ship grounded on 
the mountain of Nizir. He sent out a 
dove, which, finding no resting-place out- 
side, returned. Tnea. he sent out a 
swallow, which also came back. Then he 
sent forth a raven, which lived on the 
floating carrion, and did not revisit the 
ark. After a time, the waters having 
subsided, he let the animals leave the ship, 
and, doing so himself, offered sacrifice on 
the mountain- top. '^The gods smelt the 
savour ; the gods smelt the good savour ; 
the gods gathered like flies over the sacri- 
fices. Thereupon the great goddess at her 
approach lighted up the rainbow, which 
Anu had created according to his glory. 
The crystal brilliance of those gods before 
me may I not forget " (Sayce, Fresh Light , 
pp. 27-33J. Every reader will at once 
perceive tne many points of resemblance 
oetween the Accadian and the Scriptural 
accounts of the Deluge. But the poly- 
theism ' -pf the Accadian record most 
markedly contrasts with the monotheism 
of the Scripture narrative. [Flood.] 

Demas [Gr., an abbreviation of Deme- 
trius (?) (q.v.)l. 

A Christian described by Paul as one of 
his fellow-labourers. He joined with the 
Apostle in sending salutations from Rome 
to the Colossians and to Philemon, havhig 
TMPobably himself been originally from 
Colosse (Col. iv. 14 ; Philemon 24). After- 

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wards, however, he deserted the Apostle 
and went to Thessalonica, having loved 
the present world (2 Tim. iv. 10). 

Damatriiis [Lat., from Gr. JDetneirioa 
= **of" or ** belonging to Demeter, or 
Ceres, the goddess of agriculture and rural 

(1) A silversmith at Epheeus, who made 
for sale silver shrines of Artemis or 
Diana, perhaps small models of her cele-> 
brated temple ; and believing his craft to 
be in danger from the preadiing of Paul 
and his associates, excited his fellow- work- 
men a^[ainst them, and stirred up the riot 
in which the mob cried for two hours, 
'* Great is Diana of the Ephesians '' (Acts 
xix. 24-41). 

(2) A Christian of whom all men spoke 
well, St. John joining in the favourable 
testimony (3 Jolm 12). 

Demon [Lat. Daanony from Gr. Daitnon 
= (1) ** a god," '* deity in general" ; (2) 
*' one's genius " ; (3) " one's fortune " ; 
(4) *' the soul of some man belonging to 
the gulden age, now acting as a tutelary 
divinity." Tlius originally Dainwn was 
used in a good sense, but by New Testa- 
ment times it had degenerated, and had 
only a bad meaning. An analogous word, 
Daunonion^ had similar significations]. 

In t/ie New Testament, — An evil spirit. 
Neither the A.V. nor the E.V. uniformly 
draws a distinction between a demon 
(daimon or diainonimi) and a devil {diabo' 
(OS). [Dexoniac, Devil.] 

Demonlao [English, fromLat. Damoni- 
aeusj jDainonicus; Gr. Daimoniakosy Lai' 
motukos = ** possessed by a demon "]. 

A word occurring in the plural on the 
margin of Matt. iv. 24 — R.V. as an equiva- 
lent for the expression ** possessed with 
devils " existing m the text. A demoniac, 
then, was one possessed by a demon. The 
inhabitation of such a bemg in some cases 
affected him physically, simulating certain 
ordinary diseases. Thus one poss^sed boy 
was described by his father as having a 
deaf and dumb spirit. Besides these def^sts 
the boy was affected at intervals with 
morbid ^mptoms resembling those of 
epilepsy (&lhng sickness) (Marx ix. 14-29). 
In Matt. xvii. 15 the sufferer is described 
as ** lunatic"; but Jesus, to make the 
lunacy depart, rebuked the demon by 
whom the Doy was possessed (18; of. also 
Luke ix. 37-42), where the Evangelist, 
who was a physician, describes the case in 
the same way, adding that the child was 
possessed by an unclean spirit. In the 
case of the Ghidarene demoniacs, again, 
the 83rmptom8 were like those of madness 
rMatt. viii. 28 ; Mark v. 3-5 ; Luke viii. 
27-29). Hence the opinion of many is 
that possession was simply a Jewish hypo- 

tiiesis to account for diseases bodily or 
mental, which is now superseded by more 
scientific explanations of the ^enomena. 
But this view takes no note of the fact that 
the demons speak, generally recognisiDg 
Jesus as the Son oi (^ (Matt. viiL 29, 31 ; 
Marki. 23,24; iii. 11, 12; v. 7; Luke 
iv. 34, 41 ; viii. 28, 32}, and that they 
are bv Him apparently recognised as 
actually existing oeings (Matt. viiL 16; 
X. 8; xii. 28; xviL 18, 21 ; Mark i. 25; 
iii. 15; V. 8-13 ; ix. 25, 29 ; Luke iv. 35, 
41;viiL 29, 30,32;ix. Ij42). Hewasfre- 
quently charged by His Pharinic and 
other opponents with bein^ Himself a 
demoniac (John vii. 20; viii. 48, 52; x. 
20, 21), with being mad (cf. John x. 20). 
and with casting out devils through aid 
rendered by their prince (Matt. ix. 34; 
xii. 24-30; Mark iii. 22-30; Luke xL 
14-26). Demoniacs are mentioned in the 
New Testament in the following pasnges : 
Matt. iv. 24; viii. 16, 28, 33 ; ix.32,33; 
X. 1, 8; xii. 22-30, 43-45; xv. 22-28; 
xvii. 14-21 ; Mark i. 24-28, 32-34 ; iii. 11, 
12, 15 ; V. 2-20; vi. 13; vii. 26-30; ix. 
17-29, 38-40 ; Luke iv. 33-37, 41 ; viii 2, 
26-36 ; ix. 1, 38-42, 49, 50 : x. 17-20; xi. 
14-26 ; xxii. 3 ; John vii. 20 ; viiL 48, 52 ; 
X. 20, 21 ; Acts xvi. 16-18 ; xix. 12-17. 

Deputy [English]. 

One deputed or empowered to act for 
another, generally of higher rank than 
himself, in the Old Testament it is used 
for a regent ruling in place of a king (1 
Kings xxii. 47), and in the New to desig- 
nate a Roman Pboconsul (q.v.) (Acts 
xiii. 8 ; xviii. 12 ; xix. 38 ; cf. A.Y. and 

Derbe [Gr. = "juniper" (?) {Oxford 

A aty in the province of Lycaonia, in 
Asia Mmor. When Paul was stoned and 
left for dead at Lystra, on his first mis- 
sionary journey, he after a time revived, 
and succeeded m reaching Derbe (Actsxiv. 
6, 20). On his second he agam passed 
through it, either there or at Lystra—it is 
uncertsiin which — making his first ac- 
quaintance with Timothy (xvi. 1). Gains 
was a native of Derbe (xx. 4). Its site 
was probably at Ambarrarasi, though other 
places have been suggested. {Annstrmtg.) 

Desort [English]. 

(1) The rendering in the A.V. of the 
Hebrew Midhbar, meanine primarily ** an 
unenclosed plain^ suitable for pasture." It 
is from Babharj m the sense of driving or 
leading a fiock. The secondary meamng 
of Midhbar is "a sandy "wildemeas 
(Exod. V. 3— A.V. ; Deut. xxxii. 10 ; Job 
xxiv. 6— A.V. ; Isa. xxi. 1--A.V. ; Jer. 
XXV. 24— A. v.). The B.V. generally substi- 
tutes ** wilderness," and there is no easeo- 

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tial difference between the two; only 
" desert** is from the Latin and ** wilder- 
ne»*' from the Anglo-Saxon. 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew Yeshi' 
MOH = " a waste,*" " a desolation/* from 
Yashetn = ** to be waste ** or " desolate '* 
(Psalm, Ixxviii. 40 ; cvi. 14 ; Isa. zliii. 
19, 20). When the article is prefixed it 
becomes a proper name. [Jeshimon.] 

(3) The rendering in £zek. xlvii. 8 — 
A.V. of the Hebrew Arabhah, JArabah.1 
The margin of theA.V. renders it **plain,*^ 
while the R.y. leaves it untranslated. 

(4) The rendering of the Hebrew Hhar- 
hah = " a waste, desolate,** or " ruined 
place,** from ^AdrnAA = (1) " to be dry'* ; 
(2) *' to be desolate** (Bnhn cii. 6; Isa. 
xlviii. 21— A, V. ; Ezek. xiii. 4). In the 
first and third passages the R.V. trans- 
lates ** waste places.** 

Denel [Heb. = " invocation of God,'* 
** a calling upon God **]. 

AGadite, the father of Eliasaph (Numb. 
L 14 ; vii. 42). He is called in ii. 14 Reuel, 
whidi means "friend of God.** He may 
have had both names, or a copyist may 
have mistaken the Hebrew i (d) for -t (r), 
they being very similar in form. 

De nt eronemy [Gr. Deuteronomion = 
"the law repeated,** from denieros = 
** second,** ana nornos = ** law **]. 

The name, derived from the Septuagint, 
of the fifth book of the Pentateuch. It is 
called in the Hebrew Bible £ieh Hadde- 
bkariut (These [are] the words), that is, the 
first two words with which it begins are 
used as the title of the volume. It is 
naturally divided into four sections. The 
first, comprising chapters i.-iii., contains 
an eloquent address, commenced by Moses 
in the plain of Moab, in the fortieth year, 
the eleventh month, and the first day of 
the month which was to close the wilder- 
ness wanderings. The narrative naturally 
led the speaker on to the arrival at Sinai, 
with the promulgation of the law there, 
and suhe«|uently in the wilderness. The 
recapitulation of its enactments, with 
promises to the people if they observed it 
and curses if they set it aside, constitute 
Uie theme of the second section, extending 
from chapter iv. to xxxi., and constituting 
the main portion of the volume. The third, 
including chapters xxxii. and xxxiil.j com- 
prises lAoees's song and blessing, with his 
prediction as to the future history of the 
sev&ral tribes. The fourth, which looks 
/LJkre an appendix to the book, tells of 
^c:3sem*s death and burial, and of events 
'^Wcb took place after he was gone. The 
T«Cttpitulation of the law in Deuteronomy 
VI tiot without distinguishing features of 
its 0W1U It greatly insists on the injunc- 
tion that sacrifices shall be offered only at 
the place which God would choose, evi- 

dently pointing at Jerusalem (xii. 6, 11, 18; 
xiv. 23, 25; xv. 20; xvi. 6, 7, U, 15; 
xvii. 8) ; kindness to the Levitt who had 
no earthly inheritance of their own is 
enjoined, and the expressions occur " the 
priests, tne Levites.** and " the priests, the 
sons of Levi,** as ii the priesthood had not 
yet been limited to the single family of 
Aaron. But the language, is ambiguous 
and may be interpreted differently (x. 9 ; 
xii. 19; xiv. 27, 29; xvii. 9, 18; xviii. 1, 
6 ; xxi. 5 ; xxiv. 8 ; xxv. 25 ; xxvii. 9 ; 
xxxi. 9). While the temple was being 
repaired in the eighteenth jear of King 
Josiah, the high priest Hilkiah said to 
Shaphan the scribe, "I have found the 
book of the law in the house of the Lord.** 
Shai)han, after receiving the book from 
Hilkiah, read it to Josiah, who was so 
moved by its threatenings that he rent his 
clothes (2 Kings xxii. 8-20; 2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 14-33). They were apparently 
those of Deuteronomy (chapters xxviii. and 
xxix.). The book found was either 
Deuteronomy or the whole law with 
Deuteronomy included, the former being 
the more probable ofiinion. The book of 
Deuteronomy stands in the Hebrew, as in 
the English Bible, between Numbers and 
Joshua. The ancient Jews considered it 
as emanating from Moses, with the excep- 
tion of the last chapter, which records his 
death. Our Lord, m quoting or referring 
to the work, seems to accept the ordinary 
Jewish opinion (cf. Matt. xix. 7, 8 and 
Mark x. 3 with Deut. xxiv. 1). So do the 
Apostles (cf . Acts iii. 22 with Deut. xviii. 
lo-19, and Rom. x. 19 with Deut. xxxii. 
21). Both He and they, even when they 
do not directly refer to authorship, accept 
it as an undoubted part of Old Testament 
scripture, and give it the sanction of their 
authority (cf. Matt. iv. 4 with Deut. 
viii. 3 ; Matt. iv. 7 with Deut. vi. 16 ; 
Matt. iv. 10 with Deut. vi. 30 and x. 20 ; 
and Rom. x. 19 with Deut. xxxii. 21). 
Hence the immense majority of Christians 
consider the Mosaic autnorsnip of Deuter- 
onomy, the last chapter excepted, as a 
settled question, and date its first appear- 
ance about 1451 B.C., just before its 
author*8 death. Rationalistic critics, on 
the other hand, bring it down to a much 
later date; Ewald^ Kalisch, and Dr. 
Samuel Davidson fixmg it in the reign of 
lifanasseh, about 650 B.C., while De 
Wette, Graf, and Kuenen, the last named 
after some wavering in opinion, believe 
that it was oompoMsd early in Josiah's 
reign, and was first made public about 
624 A.D., when Hilkiah gave it to Shaphan 
and to the king in the manner already 
described. The passage in chap, xviii. 15, 
18, 19 is quoted by the Apostle Peter as 
Messianic (Acts iii. 22, 23), and fulfilled in 

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( 164) 


Devil [English, from Lat. Diaboliu, Gr. 
Diabolos = *' a slanderer **J. 

(1) In a general w/iw, wit/iotU tfie article, 
—The word Devils occurs four times in 
the A.y. of the Old Testament ; these all 
disappear in the R.V., ** he-goats" heing 
substituted in the text^ and '^satyrs'* on the 
margin of Lev. xvii. 7 and 2 Chron. xi. 
1.3; and '* demons** in Deut. xxxii. 17 
and Psalm cvi. 37. In the A. V. of the New- 
Testament, the Greek words diabolos = *'a 
devil,'* and daimon or daiinonion = ^* a 
demon," are, as a rule, translated by the 
same word, "devil" ; while the two are not 
always distinguished by the B.Y. 

(2) In a specific sense ^ with the article. — 
Satan, the greatest of all the fallen spirits. 
A revolt took place in heaven, of which 
the Devil was tne leader (Jude 6). There 
aredifTerantgrades in the angelic hierarchy. 
Probably the Devil was of high degree, his 
rank enabling him more easui^ to lead the 
inferior spirits astray. The initial sin which 
pix>ved his ruin seems to have been pride 
?1 Tim. iii. 6). Ejected with his followers 
irom heaven, earth became the scene of his 
and their activity (cf . Rev. xii. 7-12). Wher- 
ever evil was to be done, he was the natural 
leader. He is identified in the New Testa- 
ment with **that old serpent" who 
tempted Eve (Rev. xii. 9 ; xx. 2). Perhaps 
with reference to this transaction he is 
called a mimlerer from the bejy^nniii]^, and 
a liar, and the father of lies (John viii. 44; 
cf. 1 John iii. 8). For some mischievous 
reason unknown, he disputed with the 
archangel Michael for the body of Moses 
(Jude 9) . He tempted our Lord, though, of 
course, unsuccessfully (Matt. iv. 1-11 ; 
Luke i V. 1 - 1 3) . He is described by Peter as 
producing either demotuacal possession or 
oi-dinary diseases (Acts x. 38). When the 
good se©d of truth is sown, the devil either 
steals it away (Luke viii. 12), or sows tares 
(Matt. xiii. 38). He incited Judas to 
commit his great crime (John xiii. 2). He 
is said to have the power of death (Heb. 
ii. 14). He is continually going about 
like a roaring lion seeking whom lie may 
devour (1 Peter v. 8). He lays snares or 

S metises wiles to injure the children of 
fod (Ephes. vi. 11; 2 Tim. ii. 26). He 
cast martyrs into prison (Rev. ii 10). 
Pi-e-emineutly sinful, unrighteous men, 
also those imbued with the spirit of lying 
and murder, are figuratively called children 
of the devil (John viii. 44 ; 1 John iii. 8, 
10). Judas was even called by Jesus a 
devQ (John vi. 70). If resisted, he will 
flee from those he wishes to tempt (James 
iv. 7 ; cf. also Ephes. iv. 27). He is finally 
to be cast into a lake of •' everlasting fire 
prepared for the devil and his angels** 
(Matt. XXV. 41 ; cf. Jude 6). 

He is sometimes called ** the Wicked 
One *' (cf. Matt. xiii. 38, 39), and iscleariy 

identified with the Old Testament Satak 
(q.T.) (cf. Matt. iv. 1 with Mark i. 13; 
Rev. xii. 9 ; XX. 2). Our Lord came to 
destroy the works of the devil (I John 
iii. 8). 

Dew [English]. 

Moisture condensed from the atmosphere 
upon cold bodies. Used in Scripture 
figuratively for whatever comes noiselessly 
and even mvisibly, but proves a blessing, 
as dew does to vegetation (Deut. xxxii. 2 ; 
Psalm ex. 3 ; Prov. xix. 12 ; Micah v. 7). 

Diadem [English, from Or. Diadema = 

(1) The rendering oi the Hebrew words 
Taaniphy Tsattoph^ and Tsanuphy all from 
7ia»<i;>A=" to roll round.'* A band or fillet 
rolled round the hetvd of a man (Job. xxix. 
14). A royal diadem of this type was 
worn by kmgs (Isa. Ixii. 3). The same 
word occurs in Isa. iii. 23 as Uie name of a 
female head-dress, called in the A.V. "& 
hood ** and in the R.V. " a turban.'* It is 
translated in Zech. iii. 5 ** mitre," and on 
the margin of the R.V. ** turban ** and 
*' diadem.'* It is applied to the head-dreas 
of the high priest. 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Mitsnepheth, from the same root. It is 
applied specially to the mitre of the Jewish 
high priest (Ezek. xxi. 26). The R.V. has 
Mitre (q.v.). 

(3) Tne rendering of the Hebrew word 
Tscphirah = " a crown ** ; from Tsaphar^ 
** to take a circular form ** (Isa. xxviii. 5). 

Dial [English]. 

An instrument consisting of a flat disc 
graduated into hour lines, and furnished 


with a projecting gnomon, to cast a shadow 
as the sun advances in his daily course, 
and thus point out the time of the day. The 
*' dial " of Aluus was not of this form ; for 
the Hebrew word Jfaaleh^ employed to 
describe it, means " an ascent," ** a flight 
of steps," ''degrees" (2 Kings xx. 11: Isa. 
xxxviu. 8). Bosanquet has shown that a 
shadow could go back upon steps during 
certain eclipses of the sun, and ne thinks 
that the phenomenon described in the 

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( 165) 


Bible was produced by the solar eclipse 
of June 15, 763 b.o. (Measiah t/ie FHftce. 

ZMamond [English, a corruption of 
adamant, Gr. Adamas^ genitive aaamantoa 
= *• unconquerable '* ; a = " not," and 
damazo = ** to subdue." In allusion to its 
excessive hardness] . 

The rendering of the Hebrew Yahatom, 
from Halam = ** to strike," in Exod. 
zzviii. 18— A. V.J and text of E.V. zxxix. 
11 ; Ezek. xxviii. 13. In the margin of 
Exod. xxviii. 18— R. V. ** sardonyx " is sub- 
stituted for '* diamond." It is a mineral 
of unequalled hardness and lustre, trans- 
parent or translucent, and capable of 
splendid polish. It is simply carbon, 
crvstallisea by the chemistry of nature, 
which that of art has not vet been able to 
imitate. Diamonds have long been known 
to exist in India, the island oi Borneo, and 
Brazil ; more recentlv splendid specimens 
have come in abundance from southern 
Africa, but not quite so white or hard. 

IMab* [Lat.]. 

The Roman goddess of the woods and of 
hunting. She is generally represented as 
a tall and beautiful maiden, with a quiver 
on her shoulder and a bow or a javelin in 
her right hand, and as engaged in himting 
deer. She was the sister of Apollo. She 
corresponds to the Greek Artemis, who 
was largely adored in Arcadia. But 
Ephesus was the chief seat of her worship, 
and her temple there was one of the 


wonders of the world. Its probable origin 
was this. At an unknown period of aiiti- 
omty a person walking on the banks of 
toe Cayster saw something descend from 
the sky and bury itself in tne ground. On 
being dug up, it was found to be of 
meteoric iron, its length being to its 
breadth pretty much as they are in a 
human being. It was supposed to be the 
image of a goddess, ana most likelv of 
Diana, which had fallen down from 
Jupiter, either the supreme j^ of that 
name or the sky, for Jupiter has in 
certain cases no more than the latter 
meaning (Acts zix. 35). The ** image," 
dug up, was placed in a shrine and 
worshipped. It grew celebrated, and the 

shrine gradually became a temple, which 
largely developed, if it did not even at first 
create, the atv of Ephesus. The first 
temple being burnt (b.o. 356), a second 
and moresplendid one arose, which, accord- 
ing to Pliny, was 425 feet long, '220 broad, 
and had around it supporting its roof 137 
columns 60 feet high. The site of the 
temple was discovert by Mr. J. T. Wood 
in April 1870, and as the result of his sub- 
sequent excavations many tons of marble 
belonging to it were despatched in January 
1872 to the British Museum. [Ephesus.] 
The ** silver shrines " which Demetrius 
the silversmith and his fellow-craftsmen 
found so profitable a manufacture were 
models of the temple of Diana (Acts xix. 
24). It is a notable fact that while in the 
riot they caused because their craft was 
in danger, the multitude whom they stirred 
up to excitement for two hours cried, 
*' Great is Diana of the Ej)he8ians" f28), 
she has not now a worshipper anywnere 
in the whole world. 

Dtblmli, lUbUtli [Heb. Dibhlah = " a 
cake" (>)]. 

A place in Palestine in the vicinity of a 
particularly desolate wilderness (Ezek. vi. 
14 — A.V. and R.V.). Gesenius regards it 
as undoubtedly a cop3ri8t*s error forRiblah. 
Major Conder consid!ers that this may be 
so ; and if not, then Diblah may possibly 
be Dibl in the territory of Naphtau. 

Dlblalm [Heb. IHbhlaim = «<two flat 
• The mother of the prophet Hosea's wife 
(Hos. i. 3). 

DlbUtH [DiBLiLH] (Ezek. vi. 14). 

Dlbon [Heb. Dibhon = '* a wasting 
awav," ** a consumption "]. 

(1) A Moabite town (Numb. xxi. 30; 
xxxii. 3), built, or rather rebuilt, by the 
Gadites (xxxii. 34), on which account it 
was called Dibon-gad (xxxiii. 45, 46). 
Afterwards it was ^veii over to the tribe 
of Reuben (Josh. xiii. 0, 17). By the times 
of Isaiah and Jeremiah it hod reverted to 
theMoabites (Isa. xv. 2; Jer. xlviii. 18, 22). 
It still exists, as a heap of ruins, retain- 
ing its old name Lhibdnj three miles north 
of the Amon, slightly eastward from the 
Roman road. Tnstrom describes Dibon or 
Dhtban as a twin dty upon two adjacent 
knolls, surrounded by a wall, portions of 
which still exist. The ruins are on the 
tm)8 of the hills, and on their slopes. 
There are caverns, cistems, vaulted under- 
ground storehouses, rude semi- circular 
arches, and Cyclopean buildings of basalt 
like those of Boshan. It was among the 
ruins of Dibon that Mr. Klein, in 1869, 
found the Moabite Stone (q.v.). 

(2) A village in the territory of the tribe 

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at Judah (Neh. xi. 25). Probably the 
same as DncoNAH (q.r.). 

Dibon-Gad [Heb., etc., DibJiWi'Gadh = 
** wasting of Gad "1. 

llie same as Dibon (1) (Xumb. xxxiii. 
45, 40). 

Dllnrl [Heb. Dibhri = ♦* eloquent" (?), 
from Dabhar = ** to speak "]. 

The Either of the Panite woman Shelo- 
mith, whose son was stoned to death for 
blasphemy (Lev. xxiy. 11-14). 

Dtdymns [Lat., from Gr. Lidamos = 

A surname of the Apostle Thomas, im- 
plying that he had a twin brother or sister 
Dom at ih% same time (John xi. 16 ; xx. 
24 ; xxi. 2). This idea is expressed also by 
his Hebrew name Thoxas (q.v.). 

Dlklali [Heb. Liolah = ** a region fer- 
tile in palm-trees,'* from Aramaic Diq/a = 
"a palm-tree '*]. 

A "son" of Joktan (Gen. x. 27; I 
Chron. i. 21^, who was named, apparently 
not at his Inrth, but after he had settled 
in a region abounding in palm-trees. It 
was almost certainly in Arabia, and, per- 
haps, in Yemen. 

Dilan, IMlema [Heb. Dilany Lilean = 
** field of cucimibers **]. 

A town or village in a valley in Judah 
(Josh. XV. 38). Exact site unlaiown. 

DIU [English]. 

An umbelliferous plant (Anethnin gra^ 
reolem) looking like fennel. It grows in 
the south of Europe and in Africa. It is 
used in the Elast as a condiment, and dill- 
water made from its fruit is given in 
England to relieve flatulence in children, 
and prevent griping when purgative 
medicmes are taken. The Anethon of 
Matt, xxiii. 23, rendered in the texts of 
both the A.V. and the R.V. *' anise,** was 
probably, as the margin of the B. V. makes 
It, " dill.'* [Anise.] 

DUnnah [Heb. = « a dung pit **]. 

A town in the tribe of Zebulun, given 
with its suburbs to the Levites of the 
family of Merari (Josh. xxi. 35). The 
same as Rimxcn (1) (?). 

XUmon [An alteration of Dibon 

Certain waters in the Moab country, 
which, after a slaughter of the people 
belonging to that region, were to ** oe full 
of blood " (Isa. xv . 9} . The Hebrew word 
for blood is Damjjaxio. G^senius thinks that 
Dimon may be Dibon altered to suggest 
the idea of blood. Conder locates the 
waters doubtfully at Umm Deineh. 

XMrnonali [DncoN]. 
A '* city,** town or village in the southern 
part of Judah, near the Edomite territory 

(Josh. XV. 22). The same as Diboh (2) (?) 


Dliuili [Heb. =r'* absolved,*' "vindi- 
cated** {Geaenim)]. 

A daughter of Jacob by his wife Leah 
(Gen. XXX. 21). Going out apparently 
unprotected to see the Canaanite daughters 
of the land, she was either led astray or 
outraged by Shechem, the son of Hamor the 
Hivite. The young prince afterwards 
wished to take her in honourable marriage, 
and her brothers apparently consented, on 
condition that the Hivites should be cir- 
cumcised. These acquiesced in the stipu- 
lation, and carried it out ; but an attack on 
their town was suddenly made bv Simeon 
and Levi, two of Dinah's full orothers, 
who slew all the males in the place, Hamor 
and Shechem among the rest Jacob took 
no part in the tre&cherous and cruel deed, 
but denounced it on his deathbed with the 
horror which the crime was fitted to excite 
(Gen. xxxiv. 1-31 ; xlix. 5-7). 

Dlnaites [Eng^lish, from Heb. Diittft, 
of unknown meanmg]. 

One of the tribes 'm>m the Assyrian em- 
pire brought over to Samaria to replace the 
ten tribes carried into captivity (Eara iy.9). 

Dlnlutteli [Heb. Dinhabhah = " land " 
or ** plaoeof plundering,** ** a lurking place" 
or *'den of robbers*' (Gewnius), Septua- 
gint Gr. Dennaba ; Vulffate Lat. I>nMba\. 

An Edomite city, uie birUiplace or 
possession of Bela, tne first king of Ed<mi 
?Gen. xxxvi. 32; 1 Chron. i. 43). Prof. 
A. Nebauer, of Oxford^ in a letter dated 
March 9, 1891, printed m the Academy of 
March 14, suggests that Tunip, in Northern 
Syria, is probably the name Dinhabah 
altered. In the Academy of March 21 the 
Rev. Henry George Tomkins located Din- 
habah at Thenib, east of Ele'aleh, in Moab 
(Palestine Exptoraticn Fund^ Quarterly 
Statement for October, 1891, p. 322). 
Major Conder hesitates to accept this 
view, believing that Dinhabah must be 
looked for in Edom, near Petra, and not 
in Moab {Ibid.^ January^ 1892, p. 46). 

Dlonsrsliis [Lat., from Gr. I>ionnsios= 
**of" or "belonging to Dionusos** or 
"Bacchus,** the Greek and Roman " god" 
of wine]. 

A member of the Athenian Supreme 
Court of Areopagus, who was converted 
through the preacning of St. Paul on Man 
Hill, where the court held its sittings 
(Acts xvu. 34). 

Dlotrei»lies [Gr. 2)»o/;yDA«»= " trained, 
nourished," or "cherished by Zeus" or 

A member of the particular church 
which contained also that Gains to whom 
the Apostle John sent his third epistle. As 

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( 167 ) 


Biotrephes's name {see etjmolo^) un- 
tied the diviiiity of Zeus or Jupiter, the 
Greek and Homan supreme god, its 
possessor would probably have alterod it 
at the time of his baptism had his Chris- 
tian feeling been deep. He loved to have 
the pre-eminence in the church to which 
he belonged, refused to receive the Apostle 
Jdm, and, on his own responsibility, 
excommunicated those who entertained 
the *' brethren ** with whom he would not 
himself fraternise (3 John 9, 10). 

Diwiiple [Lat. Liseipulut = a scholar].. 

A i>upil, a scholar. Thouch nominalrjr 
a diminutive, imjplying that uie learner is 
of small size, it is not really so limited in 
meaning. In the New I'estament it is 
used of all of whatever age who in faith 
received the Divine Master's instructions 
pfatt. X. -24, 42 ; Luke xiv. 26, 27, 33 ; 
John iv. 1 ; vi. 66), and espedaUy of the 
twelve Apostles (Blatt. v. 1 ; viii. *i5 ; x. 1 ; 
xii. 1, etc.). 

\ [English]. 
Both secondary causes and the operation 
of the Great Fint Cause are recognised in 
theBible account of disease. SanitaW regu- 
lations are enjoined in the law of Moses to 
a wonderful extent, thus recognising that 
to maintain cleanliness of the person, of 
the tent or house, and of the camp or city 
tends to diminish disease. When the 
a^en<^ of the Great First Cause is men- 
tionea in connection with disease, the 
infliction is generally mentioned as the 
penalty of sin [Plague (^)] (Numb. xi. 33 ; 
xiL 11; Deut. xxviii. 21, 22, 27, 35, 60; 
2 Chron. xxi. 18; Ptoun dii. 3, etc.). 
From the connection between sin and 
various diseases, the latter are sometimes 
attributed to Satan, the great tempter to 
sin (Luke xiii. 16), but this must not be 
apidied to individuals (Job iii.-xlii ; John 
ix. 1-3). The chief diseases mentioned 
by name in the Bible are ague, blains, 
botch, boils, consumption, dysentery, 
fever, inflammation, itch, leprosy, palsy, 
pestilence, plague, etc. Of those unnamed 
the chief are Aia^s, Jehoram's, Jeroboam's, 
Job's, Herod Agrippa's, and Hezekiah's 
diseases. {See the names of the afilicted 
individuals.) For the disease of the 
Shnnamite's son see Shunaiote. The 
lame, the blind, the deaf, etc., are also 
mentioned in the sacred page. 

Dialiaii. [DiSHON.] 

The seventn and youngest son of Seir 
the Horite, and the father of Uz and 
Aran. He was a Horite '^duke," and a 
brother of *' duke " Dishon (Gen. xxxvi. 
21, 28, 30 ; 1 Chron. i. :J8, 42). 

IMMhon [Heb. = a species of gazelle 
(1) The fifth son of Seir the Horite, and 

the brother of Dishan (q.v.). He was the 
father of Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and 
Cheran. Like his brother, he was a Horite 
** duke " (Gen. xxxvi. 21, 26, 30 ; 1 Chron. 
i. 38, 41). 

(2) The son of Anah, the grandson of 
Seir (Gen. xxxvi. 25 ; 1 Chron. i. 41). 

Dispersion [English!. 

The name applied in the Old Testament 
and elsewhere to the scattering abroad of 
the Israelites over other lauds than their 
own (Jer. xxv. 34— A. V.). The R.V. 
translates the passa^ now quoted dif- 
ferently ; but even if the plural noun 
" dispersions " disappears, the verb ** dis- 
perse " applied to the some scattering of 
the Israehtes remains. Scattering was 
threatened as a penalty if the people 
departed from the Mosaic law (Lev. xxvi. 
33-37; Deut. iv. 27, 28; xxviu. 64-68). 
The captivitv of the ten tribes and that of 
the two largely helped to fulfil these prophe- 
des ; for tne mass of the ten tribes were 
never restored to their own land, and of 
the two a very large number chose to 
remain in the region to which the^ had 
I been taken rather than return to their own 
country. A very considerable immijgration 
of Jews took place into the cities and 
towns of Alexander the Great's empire, 
and into the kingdoms of Egypt, Syria, 
etc., into which it was afterwardis divided. 
When afterwards the Boman empire estab- 
lished its sway over these and other 
regions, colonies of Jews sought a settle- 
ment in all the important pla^ ; so that 
wherever Paul and his coadjutors went, 
they found Jews and synagogues. The 
dispersion has continued till our own day ; 
ana recent developments of it through 
Russian persecution have attracted the 
notice of the world. 

. DiTliiation [English, from Lat. Divi- 
natio — *• the faculty of seeing " or " pre- 
dicting futurity," from Dxv'xno = "to 
divine," "foresee," "predict," or "pro- 

(1) /» a general sense. — ^The rendering of 
the Hebrew word Qesem, which, with 
Qoseiniin = " diviners," comes from 
Qasam = " to divine." This, Gesenius 
thinks, signified originally "to cut." 
" Divination " meant an effort to read the 
future. The devices used for the purpose 
have been almost infinite in number, tneir 
very multiplicity proving that no one of 
them had oeeii found effective. Jo8e])h, 
if indeed he seriously meant what he said, 
professed to divine by means of a cup (Gen. 
xliv. 5, 15). Saul desired " the witch of 
Eudor " to do so by means of a familiar 
spirit (I Sam. xxviii. 8), at the same time 
attempting "necromancy," i,e. seeking 
information from the dead. The king of 
Babylon thought he could divine by 

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( 168) 


making his arrows or knives bright, con- 
sulting images or '*teraphim/' and look- 
ing at the liver of some slain animal 
(&Kk, zxi. 21 » 22^. Astrologers consulted 
the stars, believmg that they could not 


(From a liotnan Sculptun.) 

merely predict, but influence human 
destiny. [Astboloobr.] The vanity of 
trusting to diviners and divination was 
frequently pointed out by the inspired 
prophets (Isa. xliv. 25 ; Jer. xzvii. 9 ; 
zxix. 8 ; Ezek. xiii. 9 ; xxi. 29 ; xzii. 28 ; 
Micah iii. 6, 7, 11 : Zech. x. 2). 

(2) In a ipeeific sense. — ^In Joseph's case 
the word " divme " is the rendonnff of the 
Hebrew Ndhaah = ** to hiss," with which 
is closely connected Ndhdsh = ** a snake,'* 
as if a snake no less than a cup had to do 
with Joseph's divination. 

DlToroe, DlToroemeiit [English]. 

Under the law of Moses a man could 
divorce his wife if he ** found some un- 
seemly thing in her." She might then be 
married to another man. If ner second 
husband also divorced her, the first one 
was not allowed to take her again. The 
process of divorce, when once resolved 
upon, was easy. All the husband had to 
do was to give ms partner a bill of divorce- 
ment, and send her away (Deut. xxiv. 1-4 
— R.V. ; cf. Isa. 1. 1 ; Jer. iii. 8). Our 
Lord explained that this enactment was 
framed onlv on account of the Israelites' 
hardness ot heart. The original and just 
law on the subject, that of nature, was 
that a wife should not be divorced except 
for *' fornication." By this is probably 
meant, after marriage or after betrothal 
(cf. Matt. i. 19) ; in the former case it is 
now technically called adultery. If any- 
one married a divorced woman, he also 
had committed the same sin (Matt. v. 31, 
32 ; xix. 3-9; Mark x. 2-12 ; Luke xvi. 18 ; 
cf. 1 Cor. viL 10-17). 

ZHialia1i» lU-nliab [Heb. IH-zahahh 
r= ♦♦ a place abounding in gold "] . 
A place in the Sinaitic Peninsula where 

presumably much gold was obtained (?) 
(Deut. i. 1). Geseniusand Robinson thiiik 
that it was at Dahab or Deheb, a cape on 
the western coast of the Gulf of Akaba. 

Dodal fHeb. BodJiai = *' loving" (?)]. 

An Ahohite, a militarv officer appomtod 
by king David over the course of the 
second month (1 Chron. xxviL 4). Ap- 
parently the same as Dodo (3) (q.v.). 

Dodaalm [Heb. Dodlianimy from Gr. 
Dardanoi = ** Dardanians," people of 
Troy, founded by a mythic Dardauo8(?) ; 
or from Gr. JDodona (P). iSee the article]. 

The youngest "son" of Javan (Gen. 
X. 4). In l Chron. i. 7 the text of the 
E.V. and the margin of the A.V. make 
the word *' Rodanim." In either case m 
seems the Hebrew termination of the 
masculine plural, in which case "sons" 
signifies descendants. If the proper read- 
ing is Dodanim, the meaning seems to be 
either the Dardanians, i,e, the Trojans [set 
etymology], or the people of IkMona, a 
place in Epirus. in Greece, the seat of a 
celebrated oracle. If the proper reading 
is Rodanim, the sigiiification is the people 
of Rhodes, an island in the Archipelaso off 
the south-western coast of Asia lunor, 
anciently famed for its gigantic statue of 
Apollo, called the Colossus. 

Dodavah [Heb. DadJiavahu = *' love of 

A man from Mareshah, the father of 
that Eliezer who prophesied the destruc- 
tion of Jehoshaphat's ships (2 Chron. xz. 

Dodo [Heb. Dodlio = *< his unde by the 
father's nde," from Dodh = " love "J. 

(1) A man of Issachar, the grandfather 
of the judge Tola (Judg. x. 1). 

(2) A man of Bethlehem, the father of 
Elhanan, one of David's mighty men (2 
Sam. xxiii. 24 ; 1 Chron. xi. 26). 

(3) An Ahohite, the father of Eleazar, 
one of David' s three mighty men of the 
first rank (2 Sam. xxiii. 9 ; 1 Chron. zi. 
12). Apparently the same as Dodai (q.^O- 

Doeg FHeb. = " timid"]. 

An Edbmite, the chief of King Saurs 
herdmen. When David, then a fugitive 
from Saul's court, though the fact was 
not vet known to more than a few, arrived 
at Nob, a city of the priests, and obtained 
from Ahimelech, who was not in the secret, 
the shew-bread and the sword of Goliath, 
Doeg '* was there that day detained before 
the Lord " (how remarkable the expres- 
sion !) (1 Sam. xxL 7). He subsequently 
told Saul what had occurred, which so 
excited the king that, after demanding 
explanations audcousiderinK them unsatis- 
factory, he ordered Doeg to kill the priests, 
which he did to the number of eighty-five 
men, massacring subsequently the women 

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■nd children, and deatroyinff even the 
cattle (xxii. 7-23). The title of Psahn 
UL mentions Doeg. At first sight it seems 
stean^ that the name of a man capable 
of actmg as he did should mean timid, but, 
after aU, it is the coward and not the 
brave man who stoops to become the 
wholesale assassin. 

Bos [English]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew Kelebh 
(Arabic Kelb) and the Greek Kuon, both 
correctly translated dog[. The dog of 
Palestine is the same variety as the Pariah 
dog of India. During the earlier period 
cf Bible history it is described as prowling 
about ^e streets and suburbs of cities 
(Psalm liz. 6, 14). feeding on what was 
thrown out to it (Kxod. xxii. 31), licking 
up blood when it was shed (1 Kings xxii. 
3o ; Psalm Ixviii. 23), or devouring dead 
bodies (I Kiugs xiv. 11 ; xvL 4) ; nay, even 
sometimes congregating in packs, to sur- 
round and attack human beings (Psalm 
xxii. 16, 20). But as early as the time 
of Job some dogs had been domesticated 
and set to watch sheep (Job xxx. 1), and 
in New Testament times they are in houses, 
having masters, the crumoB fix>m whose 
tables they pick up (Matt. xv. 27). More- 
over they uck the sores of begsars (Luke 
xvi. 21) in a manner that the dog of 
earlier times would have possessed neither 
the courage nor the friendliness to do. 
But the great mass of dogs still continued 
to run wild. They were deemed un- 
clean ; and to call one a dog, either in 
Old or New Testament times, was con- 
sidered (as it now is) a gross insult, 
(1 Sam. xvii. 43 ; 2 Kings viii. 13). In the 
New Testament the term dog is applied 
in a figurative sense to those who are in- 
capable of appreciating what is high or 
holy (Matt. vu. 6), who introduce false 
doctrines wi^ c3^moEd effrontery (Phil. iii. 
2), or who, like a dog returning to its 
vomit, go back to sins which nominally 
they had renounced for ever (2 Peter ii. 22 ; 
cfk Prov. xxvi. II). In one place our Lord 

to applv it to anyone who is a 
Gentile, but the context shows that He 
was reasoning on popular Jewish opinion, 
and not for the time intimating his own 
(Matt. XV. 26 ; Mark vu. 27). 

DoiAkab [Heb. Bophqahy of doubtful 

A station of the Israelites in the wilder- 
ness between tiie Bed Sea and Rephidim 
(Xomb. xjl:]^^ 12, 13). Seetsen locates it 
at a place called Tobbacfaa, but the identi- 
fication has not been generally accepted. 

Dor [Heb. = ** habitation "]. 

A town on the western limit of the 
fttfjon whence the kings who united to 
^^ Joshua near the waters of Merom 

drew their forces (Josh. xi. 2 ; xii. 23). It 
was in Issachar or Asher, but belonged to 
the tribe of Manasseh (Josh. xvii. 11 ; cf . 
1 Chron. vii. 29), which, however, failed to 
expel the Canaanite inhabitants (Judg. i. 
27). It was the chief town of a region in 
which one of Solomon's purveyors collected 
food (1 Kings iv. 11). In Maccabee times 
it was called Dora, and is stated to have 
been on the sea-coast. In B.C. 217 it was 
successfully besieged by Antiochus III. 
(the Great), and in 137 bv Antiochus VII. 
(1 Mace. XV. 11-14). Subsequently it was 
taken by a certain 2iOilus, on whose death 
it fell into the hands of Alexander Jannaeus. 
In B.C. 64 Pompey granted it self-govern- 
ment. In B.C. oo it was rebuilt by 
Gabinius. Early in the Christian Era it 
fell into decay. Remains of it still exist 
at £1 Burj or Khurbet Tant(kra, on the 
coast of the Mediterranean, between 8 and 
9 miles north of Ceesarea. There are a 
mound with a tower, the latter probably 
of crusading times, a harbour with the 
entrance cut thi'ough the rock, various 
buildings, rock-hewn tombs, a tank, and 
a causeway, but their ages are not easily 

DoroAB [Gr. Dorka* = " a gazelle," the 
Gr. rendenng of the Aramaic Tabiiha, 
Heb. 7)tebi = "a gazelle"]. 

A woman whose Aramaic name was 
Tabitha {see etymology \ resident at Joppa. 
She made ^rments, wmch she gave to the 
poor, and is the person after whom Dorcas 
societies are called. She was greatly 
lamented when she died ; and Peter was 
sent for that he might be able to raise her 
in her Lord's name from the dead, which 
the Apostle did (Acts ix. 36-43). 

Dotban [Heb. Dothain, and in the 
abbreviated form Dolhan= " two wells **]. 

A town north of Shechem, where 
Joseph's brothers fed their flocks, plotted 
to murder him, and then, partly relenting, 
cast him into a pit, whence he was taken 
out and sold to the Midianites (Gen. 
xxxvii. 17-28). It afterwards belonged to 
the kingdom of the ten tribes. King 
Jehoram, the son of Ahab, and the prophet 
Elisha were besieged in it by the Syrians : 
but the soldiers of the belea^ering army 
were miraculously struck with blindness, 
led to Samaria, had their vision restored, 
and were finally sent home without moles- 
tation (2 Kings vi. 8-23). The Septua^^int 
calls the pla^e Dothaeim and Dothaun. 
The book of Judith also calls it Dothaim, 
and, quite in harmony with Genesis, says 
that an open country existed in the 
vicinity. At no great distance away, 
however, there was a hilly region with 
paths through it into Judaea, which the 
high priest Joacim (Joakim) exhorted the 
people of Dothan and those of the towns 

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( 170) 


adjacent to guard (Judith iv. 6-8; vii. 
3, 18 ; viii. 3). Dothan has been identified 
as the ruin Tell Ddth^n, near a well 9^ 
miles north, slightly east, of Samaria. 

Dove [English]. 

The rendering of Hebrew Tonah, from 
what verb is doubtful. [Jonah.] It is a 
bird (Psalm Iv. 6) having fine eyes (Son^ i. 
15 ; V. 12), a plaintive voice (Isa. xxxviii. 
14), a gentle, affectionate disposition (Song 
ii. 14 ; V. 2 ; vi. 9), but not much sagacity 
THosea vii. 11). It is timid, and when 
frightened trembles (Hosea vii. 1 1 ) . When 
wild it sometimes frequents valleys ^Ezek. 
vii. 16), making its nest in the side of 
holes or fissures yer. xlviii. 28). When 
domesticated it flies when alarmed to 
"windows" (apertures in a dovecot [?]) 

gsa. Ix. 8). Tne Septuagint renders the 
ebrew YonaU by the Greek Feristera, 
Jesus refers to it as proverbially harmless 
(Matt. X. 16), and as bought and sold 
within the Temple courts, doubtless be- 
cause, being a clean animal, it was used in 
sacrifice TMatt. xxi. 12; Mark xi. 15; 
John ii. 14). 

The Doves constitute a family of birds 
(Colttmbid<e)y of which Tristram enumer- 
ates four species as occurring in Palestine : 
the Bing-dove or Wood-pigeon (Colmnba 
Prt/«w^/w), the Stock-dove {Columha <en(Uf)^ 
the Rock-dove (Colmnba livid) ^ and the 
A^-rumped Rock-dove (^Colmnba Schim' 
jl)en), Tne Ring-dove visits Palestine in 
immense flocks in spring and autumn 
during its aimual n^igrations ; individuals 
also remain all the winter. The Stock- 
dove is found chieflv east of the Jordan, or 
in the valley of that river. The Rock-dove 
is abundant on the coast and in the high- 
lands west of the Jordan. The Ash- 
rumped Rock-dove is exceedingly abundant 
in the interior of the country and in the 
Jordan valley, taking refuge in caves and 
fissures. It is the species described in Jer. 
xlviii. 28. [Pigeon, Tubtle.] 

DovEB* Dung. A substance which rose 
to famine prices during the siege of Samaria 
by Benhadad II. It is hard to believe that 
the name is to be taken literally; it may 
have been applied to the esculent root or 
fruit of some plant (2 Kings vi. 25). 

Dowry [English]. 

Among the Cauaanites as well as the 
Israelites a bridegroom or his father paid a 
tlowry to the bride's father to induce him 
to give her in marriage (Gen. xxxiv. 12 ; 
Exod. xxii. 17 ; 1 Sam. xviii. 2.5). 

Dracfon [Lat. Draco ^ genitive draconift, 
from Gr. J)rakoti=** a huge serpent " ('r)]. 

I. In the Old Testament— 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Tdn or Tan = **an animal frequenting 
deserts.*' llie plural is tannim and tannin. 

(a) A jackal, as the R.y. makes It (Job 
XXX. 29 ; Isa. xliii. 20 ; Jer. ix. 11 ; xiv. 6 
(?) ; U. 37 ; Micah i. 8 ; Mai. i 3). [Jackal.] 

(*) The crocodile (?) (Jer. xiv. 6 (?}- 
R. v. margin ; Ii. 34 (?)). [Ceooomle.] 

(^) A sea-monster (Psalm Ixxiv. 13; 
cxlviii. 7 ; Isa. xxviL 1 ; Ii. 9— all A.V. 
and R.V.). 

{d)A venomous serpent (Deut. xxzii. 
33 ; PsaUn xci. 13). 

(2) The rendering of Tannim^ a word 
which, though it looika plural, is really 
singular, and means ** a great river rep- 
tile," evidently the crocodile of the Nile. 
It is a symbol of Phanioh, the king of 
Egypt (Eizek. xxix. 3). 

II. fn the New Tc8tmne)tt. —The 
rendering of the Greek Drakon^ identified 
with Satan,''that old serpent" (Rev.xii. 3, 
4, 7, 9, 13, 16, 17 ; xiii. 2, 4, 11 ; xvi. 13; 
XX. 2). 

f The Dragon' 9 Well, The Di'agon WeV. 
— A well near Jerusalem, apparently not 
far from the Valley Gkite and Dung Gate 
(Neh. ii. 13). [Jebusaleic.] 

A vision seen durmg sleep, but which is 
found on awaking to be unreal. When a 
person dreams the imagination is actire, 
while the memory is so imperfect that one 
feels no surprise on seeing and oonvernng 
with a friend or relative who has for a 
long time been dead. Mental anxiety (cf. 
Eccles. V. 3, 7), an uneasy position ox the 
body, physical pain, slight sickness, etc, 
will all tend to create dr^ims. In Scripture 
times God frequentlv communicatea His 
will or intimated niture events either 
directly or by means of an angel in dream 
Divine communications were made in 
dreams to Abimelech (Gen. xx. 3), to Jacob 
(xxviii. 12), to Lfiiban (xxxi. 24), to 
Joseph (xxxvii. 5, 9, 10, 20), to Pharaoh's 
butler and baker (xl. 5), to Pharaoh (xlL 
7, 15, 25, 26), to a soldier in Gideon^saimy 
(Judg. vii. 13), to Solomon (1 Kings iiL 5), 
to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. ii. 1« 4, 36; iv. 
1), to Daniel (vii. 1), to Joseph the 
betrothed husband of Mary (Matt. i. 20), 
to the Magi (ii. 12), to the wife of Pilate 
(xxvii. 19), and doubtless to many others. 
The power of accurately interpreting 
prophetic dreams was miLted to certain 
favoured people, as to Joseph (Gen. xli. 
16) and to Daniel (Dan. ii. 25-28, 47). On 
the other hand, diviners and false propheto 
made a practice of pretending to have had 
Divine revelations in dreams (Jer. xxiii. 
25-32). Any diviner using this .pretenf? 
as a means of seducing the Israelites from 
the worship of Jehovcm was to be put to 
death (Deut. xiii. 1-5). 

Dreu [English]. 

Dress is first mentioned just after the 
Fall, when God made coats of skins and 

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clothed oar first parents (Gen. iii. 21). 
By the Moeaio law a man waa forbidden 
to wear the garment appertaining to a 
woman, or a woman that belonging to a 
man, a distinctive drees for the sexes be- 
ing thus early recognised (Deut. xzii. 5). 
As toon as the time of Jacob and Joseph, 
coats eren for men were made for orna- 
ment as well as for use. The latter had 
a coat (a long garment with sleeves— 
ILV. margin) of many colours made for 
Um by his father ; it may have been like 
the tartan ^parment of a Siootch highlander 
(Oen. xzxvii. 3, 32). Aaron, the hign pnest, 
had splendid saoeraotal vestments. [High 
Pmest.I For kings also there was " royal 
yparel'* (Esther vi. 8; viii. 15). When 
Jowph received all but royal honours in 
Egypt, he was dressed in fine linen, a 
mano&cture for which that country was 
celebrated (Oen. xlL 42). Among the 
^annents worn by men was a coat (Gen. 
m. 21 : xxxvii. 3, 32 ; 2 Sam. xv. 32 ; Job 
xzx. 18 ; Song v. 3 ; Matt. v. 40 ; Luke vi. 
29; Johnxxi.7). That of our Lord at His 
emcifixion was seamless. Others may have 
been the same (John xix. 23). A lonff 
tlowinff garment was also worn. It tended 
to trau behind one, and impede his pro- 
gress ; when, tiierefore, he had to do work 
It was needful to gird it round his waist 
(Exod. xii. 11). whence come such ex- 
hortations as ** Iiet your loins be girded *' 
(Luke xn. 35 ; £ph. vL 14 ; 1 Pet. i. 13). 
Aronnd the waist for the puraose was a 
Kirdlo (1 Sam. xviiL 4; I Kings ii. 5; 
2 Kin^ L 8 ; Itfatt. iii. 4 ; Mark i. 6 ; 
Rev. 1. 13). Shadrach, Meshech, and 
Abedne^, at Babylon, had **hosen" 
(Aramaic Sarbalin), meaning the wide 
trousers still worn in the E^t. They also 
wore a garment called in Aramaic Patish, 
The R.v. renders this "a tunic," %,e. 
in under-garment, in the text, and *'a 
tmban" on the margin. Finally thev 
had a Karbela^ rendOTed in the B.V. 
"mantle." The A.V. translates all the 
three Aramaic words differently (Dan. iii. 
21). Elijah had a mantle (1 Kmgs xix. 
13^ 19). So had Job (Job i. 20) and his 
friends ^. 12), witii "Eovl and many others 
(Ezra ix. 3, 5). A cloak as well as a coat 
was used in the timeof our Lord (Matt. V.40V 
"PhvX had such a garment (2 Tim. iv. 13). 
Of boys' dresses it should be noted that 
when Samuel was quite a child his mother 
brought him a coat— A. V. (a robe— R.V.) 
every year to the tabernacle (I Sam. ii. 19). 
Of female attire, as distinguished from 
ornaments, widows had a distinctive drees 
as early as the times of Judah and his 
danghter-in-law Tamar, and apparently 
they did not wear a veil (Gen. xxxviii. 
14, 19). Virgins, on the contrary, used 
veQs when they needed them, if not even 
constantly (Q^ xxiv. 65 ; Buth iii. 15 — 

A.V. ; Song v. 7~A. V., and on the margin 
of R. v.). In the reign of David princesses, 
while immarried, had a distinctive dress 
of different colours (2 Sam. xiii. 18, 19). 
Some of the articles of dress worn by the 
fashionable Jewish ladies in Isaiah's days 
are enumerated with their multitudinous 
ornaments in Isa. iiL 18-25. 

Drink [English]. 

The usual beverage of the Hebrews was 
water, though they also frequently used 
WiNB (q.v.), and more rarely Stsono 
Dbink (q.v.). 

Dbikk-offsbino. An offering under 
the Mosaic law (Lev. xxiii. 18, etc.). It 
consisted of a fourth or a half of a ^' hin " 
of wine (Exod. xxix. 40 ; Numb. xv. 5 ; 
xxviii. 14, etc.). 

Dromedaiy [English, from Lat. Lt'O' 

(n The rendering of the Hebrew 
Rekhesh, from Rakhaah = " to run quickly," 
in the A.V. of 1 Kings iv. 28. llie R.V.. 
following Gesenius, translates the word 
** swift needs." The same word Rekhesh 
is translated *' swift steed " in the B.V. of 
Micah i. 13, and "swift beast" in tiie A.V. 
In the B.V. of Esther viii. 10 Rekheah 
is rendered in the text " a swift steed," 
while the A.V. makes it ** a mule." In 
pause Rekheth becomes Rakhesh, 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew Ram' 
tnakhf from the verb Raminakh =** to be 
slender" or "graceful," in the text of 
Esther viii. 10-«-A.V., and on the margin 
of the R.V. The text of the R.V. trans- 
lates it " steed," and Gesenius " a mare." 

(3) The rendering of the Hebrew Bekhevy 
from Bakfmr = ** to be the first to come," 
** to be the first bom," in the A.V. of Isa. 
Ix. 6. The R.V. translates it "youn^ 
camels." In Jer. ii. 23 the same word is 
rendered " dromedary " in the text both 
of the A.V. and of the R.V., but on the 
margin of the R.V. *• young camel." Of 
the two species of Camelus, Cameltts dttMne- 
darittff tne Arabian or one-humped, and 
C. biKtrianuSy the Bactrian or two-humped 
camel, the dromedary is a swift variety of 
the first species ; it bias, therefore, but one 
hump on the back. It can go about 125 
miles a day. It is found chiefly in Arabia 
or Africa. [Cajcel.] 

Dmsilla [Or. Di^milla], 

The youngest daughter of Herod 
Agrippa I., by his wife Cypros. She was 
to have been married to a certain Epi- 
phanes, son of Antiochus (not, of course, 
the persecuting kin^ of that name), the 
brid^room promismg to come over to 
Judaism, but, on furtiier reflection, he 
refused to adopt a religion in which he did 
not believe, and the proposed alliance fell 
through. Azizus, king of Emesa, was next 

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( 172) 


applied to, the condition offered being the 
same as in the former case. He had no 
scriij^Ie about sacrificing his faith to his 
self-interest, and Drusilh became his wife. 
She was then possessed of great beauty, 
and was in consequence somewhat perse- 
cuted by her eldest sister BemicC; who was 
plain in appearance. Felix, who was then 
procurator of Judaea, conceived a sinful 
passion for Drusilla, to which she re- 
sponded all the more readilv that Bemioe's 
nettv tyranny over her maae her unhappy. 
In defiance of Jewish law, she left ner 
legitimate husband, and married Felix, a 
foreigner and an idolater. They had a son 
callea Agrippa, who grew up to manhood 
and marriea, perishing, however, at last in 
an eruption of Mount Vesuvius (Josephus, 
Antig., XVIII. v. 4 ; XX. vii. 1, 2). One 
can well believe that "when Felix came 
with his wife Drusilla, which was a 
Jewess," and Paul, then a prisoner, being 
sent for, " reasoned of righteousness, tem- 
perance, and jud^eut to come," "Felix 
trembled; " and it may be inferred that 
Drusilla, his partner in guilt, must also 
have been ill at ease (Acts xxiv. 24, 25). 

I>iilolmer [English]. 

The rendenng m the texts of the A.V. 
and the R.V. in Dan. iii. 5. 10, 15 of the 
Hebrew and Aramaic Sumphoneyah^ Sniti' 
phoney a y probably meaning, as the margin 
of the E.v. makes it, the Bagpipe (q.v.). 

The real dulcimer is ^uite a different 
instrument. In its earliest and simplest 
form it consisted of a flat piece of wood, 
on which were fastened two converging 
strips of the same material, which were 
crossed by strings played by small ham- 
mers. AJfterwards pegs for regulating the 
tension of the stnngs were superadded, 

and the flat piece of wood gave })lace to a 
resonance box. Then, as evolution went 
forward, the instrument became the 
modem piano {Stainer). [Psaxtebt.] 

Dunali [Heb. = " silence." Dumahis 
the word Edom, with the Hebrew letters 

I. A8 a person. — The sixth son of 
Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 14 ; 1 Chron. i. 30). 

II. As a pUice or places. 

(1) A region apparentlv not far from 
Mount Seir, and colonised, presumably b)r 
the descendants of Dumah No. 1 (laa. xxl 
11). Gesenius considers it identical with 
a re^on having a fortified citadel, called 
by Ptolemv the Geographer Doumaitha, 
on the confines of the Svrian and Arabian 
deserts. According to Mr. Stanley Poole, 
in Smith's Dictionary, the town is now 
called Doomat-el-Jendel or Dooma-el- 
Jendel, meaning Dumah of the stones or 
blocks of stone, and is situated in the north- 
western part of the Arabian peninsula. 

(2) A town or village in tne mountains 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 52). The Palestine 
explorers locate it at the ruin DAmeh, 
10 miles south-west of Hebron. 

Ihmg [English]. 
Dung for manurin 

luring plants is clearly 
mentioned in Luke xiii. 8, and is nrobaUV 
alluded to in Psalm Ixxxiii. 1 0. A auughill, 
sometimes with straw trodden for it, was 
also probably for manure (Isa. xxv. 10). 
In the E^t dried cowdung is constantly 
used for fuel, and was doubtless so also in 
ancient Palestine. 

DuNO-OATE. One of the gates of Jbbu- 
8ALEX (q.v.). 

I>iira [Aramaic Dura^ of doubtful 
meaning = *» town" {Oxford Bible)]. 

The plain in the province of Babylon 
where Nebuchadnezzar's huge golden 
image was set up (Dan. iii. 1). It has 
sometimes been identified with Dur, on the 
left bank of the Tigris, but was more pro- 
bably where Offert places it, at D^air, 
south-east of Babylon. 

Dysentery [English, from Or. Dnsen* 

iena — ** dysentery ; ** oHSy a prefix imply- 
ing difficulty, and enters = ** the intes- 

A disease characterised by inflammation 
and ulceration of the lower part of the 
intestines, with heemorrhago from the 
bowels. It is so constantly attended by 
fever that it is often called fever and 
dvsentery. Publius, the chief man in 
Melita (Malta) while Paul was there, 
suffered from this complaint, but was 
miraculously cured by the Apostle. TTw 
A.V. calls the sufferer*e disease "a fever 
and bloody flux," the R.V. ** fever and 
dysentery " (Acts xxviii. 7, 8 — A.V. and 

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lagle [English]. 

(1) The rendering of the Hebrew Neshr^ 
from Xashar = " to tear with the bill as a 
Wrd of prey does." Neshr is uniformly 
rendered "eaffle" in the A.Y. and iu the 
text of the R.V., though in the margin of 
the latter there is substituted in some 
places "Vulture" or *' Great Vulture" 
(Ley. xi. 13 ; Deut. xiv. 12 ; Prov. xxx. 
17). The correct rendering appears to be 
VULTUEE (q.v.). 

(2) The rendering of the Greek Aetos^ the 
genuine eagle genus, or rather sub-family 
(Ifatt. xxiv. -28 : Luke xvii. 37 ; Rev. iv. 
7; xii. U). It is doubtful whether iu 
the first two passages the reference is to 
the eagles or to the vultures. Normally 
the fonder feed on living animals and the 
latter on carrion, but at times the eagles 
themselves do not disdain dead prey. 
Whether they were eagles or vultures, 
thev symbolised the Roman armies bearing 
eagles as their standards, and hastening 
lixe vultures to the carcase. Tristram 
enumerates eight species of the eagle sub- 
&inily as occurring in Palestine. Seven 
are of the t^icaf genus A(Hiila, viz.: 
Aauila ehrysaetoSf the Golden £agle; A, 
Miaea^ the Lnperial Eagle; A, elanga^ 
the Greater Spotted Eagle ; A, rapaXy the 
Tawny Eagle; A. pennala^ the Booted 
£aele; A. nipalenstt, the Steppe Ea^le; 
ana ^. BoneUij Bonelli*s Eagle. Cii-eaetm 
gaUxeiu, the Short-toed Eagle, also occurs. 
With tiie exception of the Booted Eagle, 
the others are not uncommon. The most 
abundant is the Short-toed Eagle. It 
fceds on reptiles. It is nimierous in summer 
and autumn. In winter it occurs more 
sparingly, many apparentiv migrating 
Bouthward. [Gieb-Eaolb, Ospbey.] 

*' a ring," from Naaam - ** to perforate." 
The Hebrew word seems sometimes to 
mean a nose-ring inserted in a nostril 
bored for the purpose (Gen. xxiv. 47 — 
A.V. and R.V.). Sometimes it appears to 

; [English, from Welsh £m€a= 
an earnest penny] . 

Part payment in advance of a wa^, a 
sum of monev, or anything else promised, 
this beinff intended as a pledge or guaran- 
tee to the recipient that the bargain, 
contract, or promise will in due time be 
carried out. Blackstone says that the 
prepayment of a penny in England will 
legally bind a contract, and the handing 
over the smallest quantity of gooc» 
ordered wiU bind the engagement for the 
remainder. The earnest, as a rule, is the 
nme in kind as the ultimate payment of 
what it is the pledge of. The Spu*it in the 
hearts of Christians is the earnest of their 
inheritance (2 Cor. I 22 ; v. 6 ; Eph. i. 

, [English!. 

iering of the Hebrew yifzetn = 




mean a genuine earring (xxxv. 4), and 
often it u doubtful which of the two is 
intended (Judg. viii. 24, 25 ; Prov. xxv. 
12 ; Hoseaii. 13-aU A.V. and R.V., text 
and margin). 

Sarth [English]. 

1. The ren&ring of the Hebrew HretSj 
used of— 

(1) The globe on which we dwell as ' 
distinguishMl from **the heavens" in the 
sense of the sky overhead (Gen. i. 1). 
Hannah spoke of the earth standing on 
pillars, on which it had been placed 
by God (1 Sam. ii. 8). Others spjeak 
literally or figuratively of the foundations 
of the earth (Psalm cii. 5 ; dv. 5 ; Prov. 
iii. 19 ; viii. 29 ; Isa. xlviii. 13). Job was 
far beyond the age in which he lived when 
he said:— ** He stretcheth out the north 
over empty space, and hanffeth the earth 
upon (margin over) nothing '* (Job xxvi. 7 
— R.VJ. 

(2) The dry land as distinguished from 
the sea, lakes, and rivers, or at least from 
the sea (Gen. i. 10). 

(3) The habitable world (Gen. i. 28; x. 
25;xviii. 18). 

(4) Vegetable soil (Gen. xxvii. 28). 

(5) The inhabitants of the world or of 
any region in it (Gen. xi. 1 ; Psalm 
xcviii. 9). 

2. The rendering of the Heb. Adhainah 
= "vegetable soU^» (Exod. xx. 24). 

3. The rendering of the Hebrew Aphar 
= ** dust," in Job xxviii. 2. 

XartliqiiAke [English]. 

The quaking of the earth ; a vibratory 
or undulatory movement extending super- 
ficially over a wide area, and downwards, 

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( 174) 


it is believed, from a mile or two to more 
than thirty miles. The vibrations are, 
perhaps, produced by contractions of 
portions of the earth*s crust. That earth- 
quakes and volcanoes are connected is 
apparent from the fact that both aro 
confined to particular regions constituting 
continuous lines. One of these paases 
through Palestine. Broadly speaking 
the ^rthquake may be said to be im- 
prisoned steam and molten rocks seeking 
an aperture by which to escape, aiid a 
volcano the vent of which they are in 
quest or which they make. If so, the 
action of the volcano is like that of a 
safety-valve in an engine, it lets off explo- 
sive material which otherwise would shake 
or shatter everything around. The rolation 
between the earthquake and the volcano 
was recognised by the inspired naturalist 
who penned the 104th Psalm (unless, 
indeed, we suppose his language to be 
only figurative), and ignoring second 
causes he attributes both to Divins agency. 
** He looketh on the earth, and it trem- 
bleth: he toucheth the hills, and thej 
smoke ** (Psalm civ. 32). An earthquake 
tends to shake down buildings, burying 
the inmates in their ruins, to cause land- 
slips, to open chasms into which men may 
fall, or even by reclosing them to swallow 
them up. And if the sea is near, it may 
leave its bed for a few minutes nearly dry. 
and then bring in a wave upon the lana 
which will sweep over it with destructive 
efi'ect. It is found by experience that 
while in the case of ordmary dangers those 
most familiar with them are less afraid 
than other people, in that of earthquakes 
those who Know them best fear them 
most. Most of these xihenomena are 
alluded to in the opening part of Psalm 
xlvi., which may be called tne earthquake 
psalm. The movement of the earth is 
referred to in the words "Therefore will 
not we fear, though the earth be removed" 
j; verse 2), The heaving down of sea-cUfTs 
is thus aescribed, *^ and though the moun- 
tains be carried into the midst of the sea ** 
{ibid.). Allusion is made to the earth- 
quake wave in the language, "Though the 
waters thereof roar and be troubled, 
though the mountains shake with the 
swelling thereof " (verse 3). But from the 
abject terror the child of God was to be 
exempt. ^ ' God is our refuge and strength, 
a very present help in trouble. Therefore 
will not we fear, though the earth be 
removed,** etc. ^verses 1,2). Of theearth- 
(^uakes recordeu in Scripture that which 
signalised our Lord*s death (Matt, xxvii. 
51) and that which heralded His resurrec- 
tion were evidently miraculous (xxviii. 2). 
So probably also was that when Paul and 
Silas were m the gaol at Philippi (Acts xvi. 
2C) ; that, on the contrary, referred to by 

Amos (i. 1) and Zechariah (xiv. 5) arose 
simply from natural causes. 

■act [English]. 

{I) The rendermg of the Hebrew word 
Qedhcm = ** that wnich is before one," %.e. 
tiie East, the assumption evidently being 
that he nas his face eastward. It is from 
Qad/iam='' to go before" (Gen. ii. 8; 
xii. 8 ; Job zxiii. 8, etc.). 

(2) The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Mizrahh = " sunrise," hetice**the East;" 
from the root Zarahh = ** to rise" (Exod. 
xxvii. 13 ; Dent. iv. 41, 47 ; Josh. iv. 19; 
Neh. xii. 37 ; Psahn diL 12). 

(3) The rendering of the Greek word 
Anatole or Anatolai = " the dayspring," 
"thedawn," "thesimrise." It corresponds 
exactly to No. 2 (Biatt. ii. 1, 2, 9 ; viii. 11 ; 
Rev. vii. 2). 

f (1) Children of the Fast ; Men of the 
Eaat; People of tJie £iut,— The Arab 
tribes east of Palestine, and sometimes ex- 
tended to the Arabs generally (Gen. xxix. 
1 ; Judg. vi. 3, 33 ; vu. 10, 12 ; 1 Kings iT. 
30 ; Job. i. 3 ; Jer. xlix. 28 ; Ezek. xxv. 4, 
10 ; cf. also Isa. xi. 14). 

H (2) £a9t Sea, Eastern Sea. [DkadSea.] 

If (3) £ast wind. — A wind blowing from 
the East. In England it has an evil reputa- 
tion, while in "Egypt it is represented as 
blasting the ears of com (Gen. xii. 23, 27). 
and in Palestine the vines and vegetation 
generally (Ezek. xvii. 7-10; xix. 10-12). 
The east wind is not deleterious over the 
whole world ; that it is so in Great Britain, 
in Egypt, and in Palestine arises from tbe 
situation of the three countries. The reason 
why the east wind is so disagreeable and 
injurious in England is that it has been 
blowing over the steppes of Russia. The 
east wind which blasts vegetation in £|7P^ 
and Palestine does so because it has Men 
blowing over the Arabian or Syro- Arabian 
desert. For its less constant effects «» 
Exod. X. 13 ; xiv. 21 ; Psahn xlviii. 7. 

Vaster [Anglo-Saxon Easter, Eaiiran, 
Eastron = Eastre, from Anglo-Saxon 
Eastre, Old High German Ostm^ (kiaro = 
*'the Teutonic goddess of light and 

Originally the spring festival in hononr 
of the Teutonic goddess Eastre or Ostara. 
Then it was transformed into tbe Christian 
festival designed to celebrate our Lord^i 
resurrection. In the A.V. it occurs once, 
viz., in Acts xii. 4, but is a mistnnslatico. 
The original is Paskha, the ordinary Greek 
word for "Passover." The R.V. accord- 
ingly inserts "Passover," and banishes 
"Easter" both from the text and tbe 
marp^. Herod was a deadly foe of 
Christianity, and would never have ob- 
served a Christian festival ; it was a feast 
(the Passover) of his own* religion, 
Judaism, that he designed to keep. 

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( 175) 


_ (1) [Heb. Mhal, etymology 
doubtful; cf. Ebal (2) (q.v.)]. 

(1) A son of Shobai, aud a descendant 
of Seir the Horite (Gen. xxxvi. 23 ; 1 Chron. 

(2) The same as Obal (cf. Gen. z. 28 
with I Chron. i. 22). 

XlMa(2) [Heb. £bhal = *' leafless*' 
{Gesenim), «' stony " (^Oxford Bibie)], 

A momitain separated only by a narrow 
▼alley from that of Gerizim. When the 
Israelites passed the Jordan they were to set 
op ereat stones plastered, on which the 
words of the law were to oe written. An 
altar also was to be built (Deut. xxvii. 1-8). 
Bepresentatives of six tribes, those of 
Reuben. Gad, Asher, 2tebuluiK Dan, and 
Nanhtali, were to stand on Mount Ebal, 
ana pronounce curses on those who were 
guilty of certain heinous sins. The repre- 
aentatives of the remaining six tnbes 
standing on Mount Gerizim were to pro- 
nounce blessings (Beut. xi. 29; xxvii. 
9-26). These directions were carried out 
W Joshua (Josh. viii. 30-35). Mount 
£bal lies on the northern side of Nabulus, 
the aiident Shechem, whilst Mount 
Gerizim lies on its southern side. The 
first-mentioned eminence rises 3,077 feet 
above the sea, and is steep, rocky, and 
barren. In some places a few stunted 
olive-trees may be msooverod on its lower 
part, and prickly P^ above ; in others it 
u dotitute of yegetation. It is now called 
Jebel EsUmiyeh and Jebel et T6r. 

I [Heb. £bh^dh = " a slave "]. 

(1) The fattier of Gaal, an antagonist of 
Abimelech (Judg. ix. 28^ 29^. 

(2) A son of a certam .lonathan. He 
Rtorned from Babylon with fifty males 
nnder the leadership of Ezra (Ezra viii. 6). 

Ebed-xelech [Heb. £bhed Melek = 
"slave of the king'*]. 

An Ethiopian who, hearine that 
Jeremiah haa been cast into a dungeon 
where he would probably have soon died 
of hunger, obtained from the king permis- 
apD to draw him out, which Ebed-Melech 
<l>d by cords let down, and rags to protect 
the prophet's arm -pits against their sharp- 
ness (Jer. xxxviii. 7-13). Jeremiah was 
subsequently commissioned to inform him 
that, on account of the service he had ren- 
dered, he should be preserved when Jeru- 
■alem was taken (xxxix. 15-18). 

(in composition) [Heb. Ebhen = 

Ebxv-Ezes [Heb. Ebhen^ha-ezer = 
•*»tooeof (the)help"]. 

A oommemorative stone set up by Samuel 
between Mizpeh and Shen, after he had 
gamed a victory over the Philistines. He 
assffned as a reason for so naming the stone, 
''Hither hath the Lord helped us*' (1 Sam. 

vii. 12 J. The Philistines had previously 
pitchea at this spot (iv. 1), and the Ark 
had temporarily rested there (v. 1). Major 
Conder thinks it may possibly be Ifeir 
Ab&n; which M. C. Ganneau had identi- 
fied with the Abel of Beth-Shemesh. It 
is about 2 miles E.S.E. of Aiu Shems, the 
site of the latter town. 

Xber [Heb. EbJter = ** a region be- 
yond ''I . 

(1) The son of Salah, and grandson of 
AiT>haxad. He was the father of Peleg 
and Joktan (Gen. x. 21, 24, 25; 1 Chron. 
i. 18, 19). He was thirty-four years old 
when Peleg was bom, lived 430 years after, 
and died at the age of 464 (Gen. xi. IG, 
17). It was, perhaps, from him that 
Abraham aud the Jewish nation were 
called Hebrews; and Eber in Balaam^s 
speech is a poetic desig^tion of the 
Hebrew nation (Numb. xxiv. 24). 

(2) A priest who returned from Babylon 
with Zerubbabel (Neh. xii. 20). 

(3) A Gadite dwelling in Bashan 
(1 Chron. v. 13— R.V.). Called in the 
A.V. Heber. 

(4) A Benjamite, the eldest son of Elpaal 
(1 Chron. viii. 12). 

(5) Another Benjamite (1 Chron. viii. 
22— R. V.) . Called m the A. V. Heber. 

Kbiasapli [Abiasaph] (cf. Exod. vi. 
24 with 1 Chron. vi. 23 ; ix. 19). 

Kbony [Eniy^lish]. 

The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Habhcnim^ a plural = " logs of stony 
wood," habhem = ** stony," from Ebhen 
= * * a stone." The word meant is probably 
Ebony, derived from various species of the 
genus Diospp'os, which constitutes the 
tyx)e of the Ebenaceffi (Ebenads). The 
inner or harder wood is black ana heavy. 
Ebony is used for iulajring and ornamental 
turnery. The men of D^an (in Arabia ?) 
traded with it in the markets of T3rre, 
having obtained it apparently from India 
or Ceylon (Ezek. xxvii. 15). The Greeks 
recognised two kinds of ebony, one varie- 
gated, from India, and the other black, 
from *' Ethiopia." 

Mhron, Hebron (2) [Heb. Ebhmiy of 
doubtful etymology] . 

A town on the boundary- line of Asher 
(Josh. xix. 28— A. V. and R.V.). Perhaps 
identical with Abdun (2) (q.v.). 

Xbronmli [Abbonah] (Numb, xxxiii. 
34— A.V.). 

■olmtmnA [Gr. EkbatatWy Agbataim^ 
from Median Hagmatana, Haginatau^ 
[AcHMETHA.] (Ezra vi. 2, margin of the 
A.V. and R.V.) 

■ool6Slastes [Gr. Ekkle^tMtes = <' one 
who sits and spades in an assembly " or 

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"church," **a preacher," from Ekkletia 
= *' a civil assembly," ** a church "J. 

The name borrowed from the Septuagint, 
which is applied to tiie Old Testament 
book called in Hebrew Qoheleih •= " a 
preacher," derived from Qahal = " a con- 
gresation," ** an assembly." Ecclesiastes 
professes to have been spoken or written 
by a sou of King David (Ecdes. i. 1), and 
who himself, like his father, was king over 
Israel in Jerusalem (12) ; in other woras, he 
identifies himself with Solomon. Highly 
^ted with wisdom, he desired to employ 
it ill investigating the laws of nature. 
Spedally would he inquire into man's 
position in the Divine scheme, and his 
aestiny. Another inquiry would be into 
the relative ability of wisdom on the one 
hand, and foUv on the other, to confer 
happiness (i. 13- 18). Knowing the value 
of experience over mere speculative reason- 
ing, and having ample financial resources 
at his command, he was able to try 
methods of life denied to all but the very 
wealthy. For instance, he made him great 
works, built houses, planted vineyards, 
gardens, and orchards, obtained numerous 
man-servants and maid-servants, and 
men singers and women singers, besides 
heaping up gold, silver, and all precious 
things. In addition to this, he gave him- 
self temporarily for experimental purposes 
to wine, and "laid holdou folly" (u. 1-13). 
It is not to be wondered at that the result 
of this great, and not quite innocent, 
scheme wan *' vanity and vexation of 
spirit." Other experiments were also so 
uisappointiiig that he summed them up 
in a sentence, which he evidentlv designed 
to be the motto of the book, ** Vanity of 
vanities, saith the Preacher, vanitjr of 
vanities; all is vanity" (i. 2). The views 
the author takes of life are far too dark. 
He seems to have been troubled even 
by the uniformity with which the laws 
of nature act, and the tendency of 
events to rectir, or agencies to operate in 
cycles (i. 4-11). His mental and moral 
position can be explained. The least 
ambitious human soul aspires to three in- 
finities: i'. desires happiness of the highest 
possible kind, of the nicest degree, and of 
eternal duration. Whilst ttie preacher 
sought felicity in mere worldlv pleasures 
of an inferior kind, he soon felt satiety, 
and might have adopted the language of 
Childe Harold (Canto I. , verse Ixxxiv. ) : — 

*' It is that weariness which springs 
From all 1 meet or hear or see." 

Ecclesiastes is really the record of the 
aberrations of a great mind, which could 
find no rest till it returned to Ood. These 
aberrations are not proposed for imita- 
tion ; they were designed as beacons to 
warn others against traversing the same 

dangerous paths. Amid all these wander- 
in^p the belated pilgrim was under Divine 
guidance, which ever and anon hrousht 
him back to the ri^ht way, and eoaDleii 
him to give forth spiritual truth in beauti- 
ful and powerful language (L 13. 14; v. 1; 
vii. l-4j 20 ; ix. loTm. 1-7). FinaUy, Im 
aberrations over, he thus satisfadorilj 
ended his book : "Let us hear the conclu- 
sion of the whole matter: Fear God,ud 
keep His commandments, for this is the 
whole duty of man. For Ood shall bciog 
every work into judgment, with eveiy 
secret thing, whether it be good or whether 
it be evil ♦^(xiL 13, 14). 

There are no very obvious divisions in 
the Book of Ecclesiastes, but these may be 
suggested : — 

(1) Introduction showing that all 'm 
vanity (i. 1-1 1). 

(2) The preacher's experiment as to the 
relative advantages of wisdom and folly 
(i. 12-ii. 26). 

C6) The inouiry resumed (iii.-iv.). 

(4) Ck>unsels founded on the retolts 
already attained (v. 1-8). 

(5^ The darker aspects of life which still 
trouole the preacher (v. 9-vi. 12). 

(G^ The decision given with mcreaBing 
confidence in favour of wisdom (viL 1-x. 

(7) Wise counsels of a moral and spiritual 
kind(xi. 1-xii. 8). 

(8) The conclusion of the whole (xii. 

The startling character of some state- 
ments in Ecclesiastes led certain Jews to 
refuse it a place among inspired hooks. 
At last, however, it was universally 
accepted. There is no direct quotation 
from it or unequivocal allusion to it in the 
New Testament. It is now accepted by 
all Christian churches as canonical and as 
the work of Solomon, though many critici 
deny that he was the author, and attribute 
it to some unknown writer, who published 
it about 335 B.C. In usixiff the name of 
Solomon, he is not supposed u> have spoken 
fraudulently, nor is it held that this view 
conflicts with the inspiration of the work 
itself. The lang^uage is tinged with 
Aramaic, and the place of Ecclesiastes in 
the Hebrew Bible is between Lamentations 
and Esther in the Ha^pographa, or what 
may be called the third and concluding 
volume of Old Testament Scripture. 

Xd [Heb. Edh = ''vL witness "]. 

A word inserted both in the A.V. and 
the B.y. of Josh. zxii. 34, and which 
apparently was originally in the Hebrew, 
as it still IS in some manuscripts and ver- 
sions. It is needful to the fuu meaning of 
the passage, which tells how the two and 
a half tri ties east of the Jordan reared an 
altar as a witness that they were of conunoo 

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de s c ent with thoae wert of the river. Theee 
latter, takinff the altar to be the com- 
menoement en apoetacyfrom Jehovah, were 
preparing to make war upon those who had 
erected it, when explanations were given 
and accepted as sAtisfactorv ^Josh. xxii. 
1-34). Major Conder doubtfally suggests 
that Ed may have been on the Kum, a 
mountain riamg2,400 feet above the Jordan, 
on tiie route from Shiloh to Qilead. 

[Edkb (2), 1], (Gen. xxxv. 21— 

A.V. and^V.) 

■dfltt [Heb. Edhen = << pleasure,** 
'* pleasantness.*' See the article] . 
. t F/aee8. 

(1) A country, in the eastern portion of 
which Qod planted for Adam a garden, 
called from its situation the garaen of 
Eden. A river went out of (tte country 

.of) Eden to water the garden, and beins 
tfa^poe parted, became four heads, callea 
Pinion, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Euphrates. 
Of these four rivers, the Euphrates is well 
known. Hiddekel, in Aocacuan Id Idikla, 
is undoubtedlv the Tigris ; the other two 
are more doubtful, n^ with Prof. Sayoe. 
Puhon is considered the Babylonian word 
for a canal, and GKhon, perhaps Aocadian 
Gukkan. the stream on which . fiabylon 
stood {Fresh Liahi^ p. 26), then the site 
of Eden is fixed near Babylon. In con- 
formity with this view, the cuneiform 
records use Eden as the name of the 
** field '* or plain of Babylonia where the 
first Uving creatures were brought into 
beinff. From the second creation docu- 
ment in Genesis we learn that in the^ 
guilen grew '* every tree that is pleasant 
to the sight, and good for food ; the tree of 
life also in the midst of the carden, and 
the tree of knowledge of ^ooa and evil.** 
There Adam named tlie animals ; there also 
Eve was created, and. the temptation and 
ieJX took place. Our first parents were 
thai expelled from the blissful abode. 
Cherubim and the fiame of the sword 
being placed at the east of the gaf^den to 
prevent ^eir return (Gen. ii. 8-iii. 24). 
The cuneiform records tell of a good or 
h^y city called Eridu, near which was the 
^irme of Imin (the Euphrates). In the 
midst of a forest or garden in tne vicinity 
grew " the holy pine-tree,** " the tree of 
fife.*' The garden of Eden is referred to in 
laa. fi. 3 ; Ezek. xxviii. 13 ; xxxL 9, IS- 
IS ; xxxvi. 35 ; and Joel iL 3. 

(2) A regi<m in Telassar conquered by 
flieAasyrians(2Kixig8xix.l2; Isa. xxxvii. 
12). It is apparently the place mentioned 
along with Haran and Canneh, with which 
the lYrians traded. The people of Eden 
and its associate towns brought to Tyre 
bine clolhes, broidered work, chests of 
cedar fnU of rich appuel, etc. (Ezek. 

xxvii 23, 24) . It was probably in Mesopo- 
tamia, but its exact site is unlmown. 

{Z) A place apparently near Damascus 
in Syria, mentioned in ijnoe i. 5. On the 
margin it is called Beth-eden (q.v.). 
Exact site unknown. 

n. A Man. — A Gershonite Levite, a 
son of Joah (2 Chron. xxix. 12). Pro- 
bably the same as the Eden mentioned in 
xxxi. 15. 

(1), Ader [Heb. Edher ^ ** ^l 

(1) (Of both forms.) A Benjamite, a 
son of iBlpaal (1 Chron. viii. 15— A.y. and 

(2^ (Of the form Eder only.) A son of 
Musni, of the family of Merari (1 Chron. 
xxiii. 23 ; xxiv. 30). 

BdMT (2V Mar [Edeb (1)]. 

(1) (Of both forms.) A tower, beyond 
which Jacob on one occasion spreaa lus 
tent (Gen. xxxv. 21— A. V. and B.V.). 
Exact situation unknown. 

(2) (Of the form Eder only.) A town 
or loUage in the extreme south of Judah 
(Josh. XV. 21). Exact situation unknown. 

[Heb. JSaA<wi = "red." Seeihe 

(1) Another name for Esau. It was 
given in memorv of his having asked for 
red pottage, and sold for it his iMrthright 
(Gen. ixv. 30; xxxvi. 1, 8, 19). 

(2) The Edomites personified (Exod. xv. 
15; Numb. xx. 14. 18, 20, 21 ; Amos i. 6, 11 ; 
ii. 1 ; ix. 12 ; Mai. i. 4). 

• (3) The region occupied by the de- 
scendants of "^ Edom,'* i.e. of Esau. It 
was originaUy called Mount Seir, from 
Seir, the Honte (Gen. xxxii. 3; xxxiii. 14; 
xxxvi. '20-30; Wumb. xxiv. 18, etc.) 
[Edomites, Hobttes, Seib], but took the 
name of Edom after the Edomites had 
displaced the abori^^inal Horites (Deut. ii. 
12). The Septuagmt generally does no 
more than transliterate tne Hebrew £dhotn 
into Edom ; but in Isa. xxxiv. 5 ; Ezek. 
xxxv. 15, and xxxvi. 5, it substitutes the 
proper Greek name Idoumaia. . The A.V. 
renders this latter word Idumea, being the 
Latin Iduntam. with the diphthong a al- 
tered to e. In these passages the B.V., 
translating from the Hebrew Bible and 
ignoring me Septuagint, restores the word 
Edom and dismisses Idumea. The region 
just named is an alpine territory, running 
southward from the Moabite mountains 
and tablelands, and constituting the eastern 
boundary of the Arabah, or great depres- 
sion connecting the southern part of the 
Bead Sea with the Gulf of Akaba (cf . Josh. 
XV. 1 ; Judg. xi. 17, 18 ; 1 Kings ix. *i6 ; 
2 Chron. viu. 17). The Edomite mountains 
are about 100 miles long, and constitute 
part of a large arc with the slight concavity 

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towards the W.N.W. The breadth 
between the Arabah on the west and the 
desert on the east may be from 17 to 24 
English miles. The summit of Mount Seir 
is TOlieved to rise about 3,500 feet above 
the adjacent Arabah. The lower nart of 
the chain is of red Nubian sandstone, 
with dykes of red granite and porphyry ; 
the summit is of a chalky limestone, pro- 
bably of cretaceous age, Edom is not 
nearly so fertile as P^estine (cf . Mai. i. 
2-4) ; but in the time of Moses it nad fields, 
vineyards, wells, and a highway (Numb. 
XX, 17, 19). The Edomite capital in the 
times of the Jewish monarchy was at Selah, 
or Sela [SelaI, believed to be the place 
afterwards called Petra. Other important 
towns wereBozrah [Bozbah, 1} andTeman, 
the latter celebrated for its wisdom. 

f (I) The Chiidren of £dotn.^The de- 
scendants of " Edom,''^ t.^. of Esau— the 
Edomites (Psalm cxxxvii. 7). 

(2) Laughter of Edom. — ^A poetic name 
for the Edomites (Lam. iv. 21^ 22). 

(3) Field of Edom, — ^A poetical name for 
Mount Seir, or Idumsea (Judg. v. 4). 

(4) Tlie JFiidentess of Edom, — The 
Arabah bounding Edom on the west(l:') 
(2 Kings iu. 8 ; <3. 20). 

The descendants of '^om, i.e. of Esau 
(Gen. zxxvi. 1-19), or those bom or 
resident in the country of Edom. As early 
as the return of Jacob from ' Mesopotamia 
Esau had occupied the land of Edom (Gen. 
xxxii. 3 ; xxxvi. 6-8 ; Deut. ii. 4, 5 ; Josh, 
xxiv. 4), having driven out the aboriginal 
Horites, who seem to have been a cave- 
dwelling tribe [Hoeites] (cf. Gen. xiv. 6 ; 
xxxvi. 20-30; Deut. ii. 12, 22). The 
Edomites appear to have been first ruled 
by tribal chiefs called '* dukes,'* who were 
probably like Arab Sheikhs (Gen. xxxvi. 
15-19, 40-43; I Chron. i. 51-54^. After- 
wards they were governed oy kings, 
before the Jewish theocracy had develo^d 
into a monarchy (Gen. xxxvi. 31-39; 
1 Chron. i. 43-51). When the Israelites 
were approaching Canaan, they sought 
permission from tne king of Edom to pass 
through his territory, giving solemn assur- 
ances that the favour, if conceded, would 
not be abused. He refused the request, 
and was prepared to fight if the Israelites 
had persisted in moving forward. By the 
Divine direction, however, they forbore to 
have recourse to arms, and making a wide 
circuit ** encompassed," instoEid of passing 
through, the land of Edom (Numb. xx. 
14-21). Notwithstanding this hostility, 
an Edomite was regarded in the Mosaic 
law as a *^ brother*' of the Israelites, and 
the posterity of the former were allowed 
in the thiru generation to become incor- 

porated with the Jewish people (Deat 
xxiii. 7, 8), while it was not till the tenth 

Sneration that the descendants of a 
oabite or an Ammonite could obtain the 
same pri^41ege (3-6). Saul fought against 
the Edomites (1 Sam. xiv. 47). Dayid 
* ' put garrisons ui Edom * ' after conquering 
the country (2 Sam. viii. 13, 14 ; I Chron. 
xviii. 13 ; Psalm Ix., title). ** Syrians" in 
2 Sam. viii. 13 is a copyist's entv for 
Edomites, the two words,, written in 
Hebrew letters, being very similar. This 
conquest had long before been predicted 
by Balaam (Numb. zxiv. 18). Joab, 
David's commander-in-chief, remained in 
Edom for six months, cutting ol! eveiy 
male (1 Kings xi. 15, 16) ; but Hadad, one 

(14-22). A number of Edomites joined 
with the Ammonites and Moabites m in- 
vading Judffla during the reign of Jehosha- 
phat, out misunderstanding arising, tfaey 
were attacked and destroy^ by theuraUieB 
(2 Chron. xx. 22-30). Soon afterwards, 
when Jehoshaphat wished to build ships 
at Ezion-geber, there was no king in Edom 
—a deputy was king (1 Kings xxiL 47). 
After a king had succeeded the deputy, the 
Edomites aided Israel and Judan in the 
contest with Mesha, king of Moab, Edom 
being at the time a vasKil state of Judah 
(2 Kmgs iii. 4-27). In the reign of Jehoram 
or Joram, king of Judah, Jehoehaphafs 
son and successor, the Edomites revolted. 
Joram vanquished them in the field, but 
could not reduce them to subjection 
f2 Kings viii. 20-22 ; 2 Chron. xxi. 8-10). 
Amaziah was more successful. He slew 
10,000 Edomites in the valley of Salt, and 
taking Selah, now Petra, their capital, 
callea it Joktheel, a name which it did not 
long retain. Ten thousand more Edomites, 
captured alive, were flung from the top of 
the rock and thus slain (2 Kings xiv. 7 ; 
2 Chron. xxv. 11^ 12). In the reign of 
Ahaz, the Edomites, apparently again 
independent, invaded Judah, ana carried 
oif captives (2 Chron. xxviii. 17). When 
Jerusalem was taken by Nebucnadnezzar, 
the Edomites cut off Jewish fugitives, and 
rejoiced over the catastrophe which had 
befallen the kindred people (Obad. 10-14). 
Strong feeling in consequence arose against 
them, and vengeance was breathed (Pnlm 
cxxxvii. 7 ; Jer. xlix. 7-22 ; Lam. iv. 21, 
22 ; Ezek. xxv. 12-14 ; xxxv. 15 ; Joel iiL 
19; Amos ix. 12; Obad. 1-21). When the 
captivity of the two tribes rendered the 
territory of Judah somewhat destitute of 
inhabitants, the Edomites seixed on it as 
far as Hebron, and were themselves sup- 
planted in Mount Seir by the Nabatheon 
Arabs, descended from Nabaioth (q.v*). 
Judas Maccabeus retook Hebrcm ana the 

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oiher towns which the Edomites had 
occupied (1 Mace. v. 6d; Jo8ephus,^n%., 
XII. viii. 6). John Hyrcanus compelled 
the Edomites to submit to the rite of cir- 
cundsion and incorporated them with the 
Jewish people (Josephus, Antiq,^ XIII. 
ix. 1). The Herods were Idumaeans, t.^. 
Edomites. Many of the Zealots who took 
part in the defence of Jerusalem against 
the Bomans, and were ahnost as dangerous 
to th^ fellow-citizens as to the enemy, 
were also Idumsans. After this the tribe 
is little heard of again, in history. 

I [Heb, Edhrei = ** stronff "]. 

(1) The capital city (Deut. iiL 10 ; Josh, 
zii. 4 ; xiii. 12, 31), and apparently also 
the metropolitan district, oiBashan in the 
time of Og, who liyed **at Astaroth in 
Edrei '* (I^ut. i. 4). There were giants 
in the locality (Josh. ziL 4). There also 
was fought the great battle with the 
Israelites which deprived Og of his 
dominions and his life (Numb. xxi. 33-35; 
Deut. iii. 1, 10). Edrei has been identified 
with £d l>era*idi (Armstrong). It is about 
24 miles east by south from Oadaia, and 
is 1,807 feet above the ocean level. 

(2) A fenced citv of Nai)htali (Josh. xix. 
37). Major Con^ identifies it with the 
modem village of Y'ater, 11 miles east of 
Tyre. The names are more akin than they 
look. / and d being often interchanged in 
the Shemitic languages. 

Kglab [Heb. Eghlah = " a calf '']. 

One of I)avid'8 wives, and the mother 
of Ithream (2 Sam. iii. 5 ; 1 Chron. 
Hi. 3). 

I [Heb. Eghlaim = *' two ponds " 

A Moabite town, apparently on the 
^border of that kingdom (Isa. xv. 8). It 
is, perhaps, the same as En-£glami of 
£zeK. xlvii. 10. Site unknown. 

Sglon [Heb. Effhlon - "of" or 
** pertaining to a calf "J. 

(1) A king of Moab, who, at the head of 
an army oi Moabites, Ammonites, and 
Amalekites, captured Jericho, and re- 
tained it for eighteen years, oppressins 
the Israelites. At the end of that period 
he was assassinated by a left-handed 
Benjamite called Ehud, who had gained 
access to his presence on the pretext of 
In'nging him a present (Judg. iii. 12-30). 

(2) A town, originally Canaanite, and 
liaving a king called Debir, who, taking 
part with other petty rulers in an attack 
<m Gibeon, was defeated, captured, and 
executed by Joahua (Josh. x. 3-23, 34-37 ; 
joi 12) ferlon was in a vallejr within 
the h'nuts of Judah, and was assigned to 
^t tribe (Josh. xv. 39). It has been 

identified with Ajlan, sixteen miles north- 
east of Ghiza. 

Xgypt [Lat. ^yphts; Gr. Aiguptot- 
(n "the river N&e" (Hoiner); CI) 

A well-known country, called in Hebrew 
Mizraim and the land of Ham, in the 
north-eastern comer of Africa, not fai- 
from the junction of that continent with 
Asia, and within easy sail of south- 
eastern Europe. It is bounded on the 
north b^ the Mediterranean, on the south 
by Nubia, on the east by the Isthmus of 
Suez and the Bed Sea, and on thd west by 
Barca and the Sahara. It touches Nubia 
at Assouan [Stenb] and the island of 
Elephantine (Elephant's Island) just north 
of the first Nile cataract. Its length is 
about 500 miles; its breadth varies very 
greatly ; its area is about 177,070 square 
miles, of which, however, a laxge part is 
sandy desert. Anciently it was divided 
into Upper and Lower Egypt. Mizraim 
means the two Matsors. [Mizratm.] 
Upper Efirypt is sometimes called in Scrip- 
ture Patioros. It is a narrow valley, 
bounded on the east and west by ranges 
of hills, often with their lower strata of 
cretaceous age, and their upper beds 
Eocene tertiary, with nummuhtes. It is 
traversed from south to north by the river 

jypt and St/tiay 3, 11, etc.), of very 
le sand, brought down chiefly from the 
Abyssinian mountains, and deposited in 
what was originally a shallow sandy bay 
in the Mediterranean. It is called from 
its shape the Delta, and has its limits 
defined by two of the leading channels 
into which the Nile splits before reaching 
the sea. The capital of Lower Egypt was 
at one time Tanis [Zoan], at another 
Memphis [NophJ ; that of Upper Egypt 
was mostly Theoes [No]. In the more 
desert parts of Egypt rain is almost wholly 
wanting (Zech. xiv. 18), and the dry 
atmosphere has wonderfuUy preserved the 
temples and other erections, as well as the 
inscriptions with which they are covered. 
These inscriptions are in a land of picture 
writing called hieroglyphics, to which for 
a long time no key could be found. But 
when Alexandria surrendered to the 
British in 1801, there fell into their hands 
a slab of black basalt, called the Bosetta 
stone, from its having been found by the 
French near the B^Metta branch of the 
Nile. It is now in the British Museum. 
On this stone is cut a proclamation by 
Ptolemy V., about 193 B.C. The writing 
is in tliree characters, one hieroglyphics, 
another a more popular character, and the 
third Greek. The Greek gave t^e first 

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aid to the reading of the hieroglyphics, 
and now it can to done with wonaerf ul 
accuracy bya few European and American 
scholars. The next best authority on 
ancient Egypt is Manetho, a pri^ of 
Sebennytos. employed by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, who reined from B.C. 284 to 
24o^ to translate mto Greek certain his- 
tories deposited in the Egyptian temples. 
His worK is lost; and we are now 
dependent for our knowledge of it on 
some extracts, not always consistent with 
each other^ xnade by Josephus, Eusebius, 
Julius Afncanus, and G^rse Synoellus. 
Apparently the first record of man in 
Effypt is to be found in implements of the 
older stone age occurring m breccia near 
Thebes and elsewhere. Others, it is be- 
lieved, of the newer stone ag|e, have been 
met witii in other places ; their date^ how- 
ever, is uncertain, as apparently miple- 
ments of a similar kind continued to be 
manufactured by the wild tribes far into 
historic times. Manetho^s statements as to ' 
early Egyptian history are wholly mythic. 
He commences with a reign of gods, fol- 
lowed by one of demigods, and then by one 
of manes, etc., a ruler of the last-named 
type being the sacred bull Apis. Sdentifio 
inquiry says that when Egypt passed from 
the prehistoric to the historic age it seems 
to have existed as a number of small 
kingdoms. These were afterwards com- 
bined into an empire bv Menes (in Egyptian 
M'ena)y if, indeed, he too was not a myth. 
Students of E^^yptian chronology, quoted 
by Sayce, assign eight different dates to 
the commencement- of Menes's reign. 
These vary from B.C. 5702 to b.c. 3^. 
Dr. Birch and Mr. Reginald Stuart Poole 
are more moderate in their demands, the 
former fixing the date of Menes at about 
3000 B.C. and the latter at 2717. Between 
the extreme dates of the same event the 
discrepancy is 2985 years! From the 
accession of Menes to the Persian conauest 
of Egypt in b.c. 340 Manetho reckons 
thirty dynasties. These are now generally 

S'ouped into three periods : those of the 
Id, the Middle, and the New Empires. 
Of the Egyptologists who adopt this 
arrangement, Auc^ste Mariette Bey and 
Prof. Sayce include imder the Old imipire 
the first ten dynasties, and make it extend 
—Mariette from B.C. 5004 to 3064, and 
Sayce from 5004 to 3500; while Birch 
includes only six dynasties, and dates it 
from about B.C. 3000 to 2000. Mariette 
and Sayce include under the Middle 
Empire the eleventh to the seventeenth 
dynasties, and date it — Mariette from 
B.C. 3064 to 1703, and Sayce from 
about B.C. 3500 to 1703; while Birch 
includes under it the dynasties from the 
seventh to the seventeenth, and dates it 
from about b.c. 2000 to 1600. Mariette 

includes under the New Empiie the 
eighteenth to the thirty-first dynasties, 
this last being Persian, and dates the New 
Empire from B.C. 1703 to b.o. 332, the year, 
of Alexander the Great*s conquest of 
Egypt ; while Sayoe and Birch stop wifii 
the thirtieth dynasty, and date the 
New Empire— Sayoe from b.c. 1703 to 340, 
and Birch from b.c. 1100 to 340. The 
great feature of the First Empire was 
pyramid-building, which reached its height 
under the fourth dynasty. [Waste 
Plages.] That of the Middle Empire was 
the conquest at least of Lower Egypt by 
the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, from the 
north-east. They are ffeneraUy supposed 
to have belonged to me Shemitic race, 
but may have beem Hittites, in idiich 
case they were Turanians. It is believed 
that it was during their domination that 
Abraham visitedEgypt and that Joseph 
was its prime minisiter. There is a great 
absence of monumental evidence with 
reroect to the dynasties from the seventh 
to the tenth inclusive, and again from tiie 
thirteenth to the seventeenth indusive. 
TheNew Empire began with the ei^teenth 
dynasty, llie first notable event in it 
was the expulsion of the Hyksos, when 
they had ruled hj one account 511, by 
another 625 years. Afterwards, under 
native rulers, Egypt attained to high 
prosperity, Thothmes III. being its greatest 
wamop, and Rameses II. not much in- 
ferior. [HrmTBS.l The latter was pro- 
bably the Pharaoh who oppressed the 
Israelites [Raamhto], and his son Menedi- 
thah the Egyptian long who with nis 
army was £owned in the Red Sea. 
[Phabaoh.] Besides the several Pharaohs 
referred to m Scripture, mention is made 
of SmsHAK, So, Neoho (Pharaoh Necho), 
and TiBHAKAH (q.v.). Under the hist- 
named king Egypt was conquered bv 
Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, and dividea 
into twenty governments. [Esi^BHADBOK.] 
Revolts occurring, it had to be twice 
reconquered by his successor Assur- 
bani-paL who plundered and destroyed 
Thebes (Nah. iii. 8-10). Psammeticns, one 
of the petty rulers, rose in revolt, and, 
aided by the Asiatic Greeks and by the 
Lydians [Gk)o]y restored Egypt to mde- 
pendenoe, founding the twenty -sixth 
dynasty. In 340 b.c. ^gypt became a 
Persian satrapy. In B.C. 332 it was ocm- 
quered by the Macedonians and Greeks, 
led by Alexander the Great. [ArszAif- 


B.C. it became a province of the Roman 
empire. Joseph, Mary, and the infant 
Jesus took reiuge there during the time 
that Archelaus ruled Judasa. In a.d. 616 
Egypt was conquered by Choeroes II. of 
Persia, who lost it again permanently in 
628. Between 638 and 640 it passed from 

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the " Bomans " to the Saraoens, and be- 
tween 1163 and 1196 from the Saraoens to 
the Turks. A maancre of Christiana 
which took place at Alexandria led to 
BritiBh interrention in "Egypt in 1882. It 
still oontinuee, bat wiU come to an end 
when the country has been sufficiently 
onaoised to be able unaided to resist 
intenial revolt or external aggression. 
The Egyptian race was a mixed one, and 
-varied at different times. On the monu- 
ments it loola half Aiyan under the Old, 
somewhat Negro-like under the Middle, 
and Semitic under the New Empire. It 
entered Egypt from the north, and the 
furthsr south we proceed its architecture 
becomes more modem. The Egyptian 
language is difficult to cla%ifY. Its voca- 
htUary connects it with the Accadian and 
<yUier Turanian tongues, and its grammar 
with the Semitic languages. Its modem 
descendant is the Ck>ptic, which continued 
to be spoken in Lower Egypt till the 
ferenteenth century. Thoush now dead, it 
is known to us by translanons into it of 
the Okl and New Testaments. [VEBSioiro.] 
ICaay arts flourished in Esypt, which are 
all graphically repreeentea on the monu- 
ments. Its architecture was massiye, its 
most notable forms bein^ pyramids, 
ianpim, obelisks, and sphmxes. The 
Egyptians worshipped the sun under 
yanous names. Mar or HarmachU being 
"the rising," Ra "the midday" [Raam- 
<bb], and Turn **the seuing sun." 
[PnrRoic] Other deities were Osiris, 
^^ his wife Isis^ the eyil principle 
Typhon, with other divinities too numerous 
to recount. [Ham, Nilb.] 

lU [Heb. Ehhiy an abbreviation of 
AnnuM (?) (q.v.)]. 

The same as Annux (q.v.). (Cf, Qea. 
xM. 21 with Numb. xxvi. 38.) 

Bmd [Heb. Ehudh =^ "making one," 
" establishing unity " (?)]. 

0) A son of Billian, and sreat-grandson 
of Benjamin (1 Chron. vii. 10). 
, (2) A left-handed Benjamite who assas- 
sinated Eglon, Idnjg of Moab, then the 
<>ppres8or of IsraeL [Eolon.J He de- 
igned this to be the signal for and the 
-commencement of a national rebellion, 
^uid it was so. Having sunmioned the 
Iiraelites by sound of trumpet to assemble 
voond him in Mount Epnraim, he put 
himself at their head, ana, descending to 
the valley of the Jordan, seized the ford 
of the river. There he slew 10 JDOOMoabites 
as they attempted to cross. He became a 
"judge " of Israel for the remainder of 
his life, and while he ruled kept the people 
true to Jehorah (Judg. iii. IS-iv. 1). . 

Sker [Heb. ^^=**a root," "a 
ihoot,** '<a sucker," '*a man of foreign 
descent settled in a place "]. 

A man of Judah, ason of Bam (1 Chron. 
ii. 27). 

■kroa [Heb. Eqnm s ** eradication," 
"a rooting out"]. 

One of the five chief Philistine cities 
rjosh. xiii. 3 ; 1 Sam. vi. 16, 17). It was 
first assigned to Judah (Josh. xv. 45, 46), 
and afterwards to Dan (xix. 43). The 
boundary-line of Judah ran through or 
past it Txv. 11), and it was taken by the 
men of that tribe (Judg. i. 18) ; but alter a 
time it was recovered by the Philistines. 
When the people first of Ashdod, and then 
of Oath, two of the other Philistine cities, 
became afraid to retain the Ark of Ooa 
any longer, they sent it to Ekron, but the 
Enonites were as afraid of receiving it as 
were the inhabitants of the other towns 
(1 Sam. V. 10). After the battle at Eben- 
ezer Ekron was taken by the Israelites 
under Samuel, but was soon again a 
Philistine dty (xvii. 52). Its tutelary 
god was Baal-zebub, whom Ahaziah, king 
of Israel, sent to consult ; and from the 
language used by Ehjah in Censuring the 
deed, it is plain that Ekron was suU in 
Philistine hands (2 Kings i. 2-16). Judg- 
ment was denounced against it and the 
other Philistine cities by the prophets (Jer. 
XXV. 20 ; Amos i. 8 ; Zeph. ii. 4 ; Zech. ix. 
5, 7). After their times interest in it was 
revived by the Crusaders, who called it 
Aocaron. It is believed to be now repre- 
sented by the village of *Akir, situated 
among fine gardens, six miles west of 
Oezer, and twdve noith-east from Azotus. 
It was the most northerly of the five 
PhiUstine cities. No visible relics of anti- 
quifr have been found at the place ; but 
Prof. Bobinson {Bib i2^., iii. 24) suggests 
that the city may have been built of un- 
bumt brick, besides which he was assured 
by the Mohammedan sheikh of the place 
that in digg^g old dstems the stones of 
handmills, etc., are occasionally brought 
to light. ^ -6 

■1 (1) [Heb. J?/ = " Gkxi." The word 
means "strength" or "power," and 
when used of Gtod had at first special 
reference to His almighty power, though 
ultimately it was employed as the ordinary 
designation of Gk)d or of Deity in general J . 

El-Bebith [Heb. = "covenant God"]. 

A name of Baal-Bebith (q.vO* ^ 
also Bebttk (Judg. ix. 46— A. V. and 

El-Bethel [Heb. = " God of Bethel "]. 

The name given by Jacob to an altar 
which he reared at Bethel, after his return 
from Mesopotamia. It was designed to 
commemorate the Divine appearance to 
him when on his road to that region to 
escape from the consequences of his 
brotiier*s wrath (Gen. zxxv. 7). 

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El-Elohb IsRiZL [Heb. = ** Otod, the 
God of Israel "J. 

The name given by Jacob to an altar 
which he ere^ed at Shalem on a piece of 
land bouffht from Hamor, the father of 
Shechem (Gton. zxxiiL 20). 

■1 (2) [Heb. EL but spelled like £(1, 
which £1 = ♦♦ God '* is not] . 

A strong tree, specially an oak or a 

£l-Pailan [Heb. = ** terebinth-tree of 

A snot in the wilderness of Paran 
marked by the presence of a terebinth- 
tree (Gen. xiv. 6). On the margin of the 
A.y. £1-Paran is rendered ** the plain of 
Pftran.*' but terebinth is to be preferred. 
The IC.V. leaves the words untranslated. 
Paran is the desert El-Tlh. [Paban.] The 
terebinth seems to have grown not far 
from the south-western comer of the 
Dead Sea, but the exact situation is tui- 

SU pieb. s « a terebinth-tree "]. 

The father of Shimei, one of Solomon's 
purveyors in Benjamin (1 Kings iv. 18— 
R.V.). The A.V. inaccurately spells the 
word"Elah." [Elah (4).] 

XUdah [tieb. Eladhah = " whom God 
has clothed," t.^. ** replenished," ** made 
full "or "satisfied"]. 

A **son" or descendant of Ephraim 
(1 Chron. vii. 20). 

■lAli [Heb. = <^ a robust tree," specially 
«♦ a terebinth"]. 

I. A place. 

A valley in which Saul and the Israelites 
pitched, confronting the Philistine army 
just before the combat between David and 
Goliath (1 Sam. xvii. 2, 19; xxi. 9). On 
the margm of the B.Y. it is rendered ^* the 
valley of the terebinth," as if that tree, 
common in Palestine, was abundant in the 
valley. Prof. Bobinson {Bib, Be$,y ii. 
348, 349) first identified it as the present 
Wady-es-Sumt (or Sunt). It is formed 
by the junction of three other valleys, and 
is about 14 or 15 miles west by south from 
Bethlehem. It is fertile, and traversed by 
a stream. Bobinson saw there the largest 
terebinth -tree he had met with in Pales- 
tine, but the Wady-es-Sumt means " the 
valley of the true Acacia " {Acacia rera)y 
of wnich various trees exist in the valley. 

n. Men. 

(1) One of the " dukes " of Edom (Gen. 
xxxvi. 41 ; 1 Chron i. 52). 

02) A son of Caleb (1 Chron. iv. 15). 

(3) A Benjamite, a son of Uzzi (1 
Chron. ix. 8). 

(4) JjLA.] (1 Kings iv. 18-A.V.) 

(5) The son and successor of Baasha in 
the kingdom of Israel. He ascended the 
throne by the Hebrew chronology early in 

B.C. 930, reigned about ** two yean," or 
till near the end of b.o. 929. As he was 
drinkinghimself drunk in thehouseof Arza, 
his steward, in Tirzah, his capital, he was 
assassinated with all his house by Zimri, 
who commanded half his chariots. This 
fulfilled the prophecy made by Jehu, the 
son of Hanani, to Baasha. That it did so 
in no way justified the murderous deed 
(1 Kings XVI. 6,8-10). 

(6) The father of Hoshea, king of Israel 
(2 lungs XV. 30 ; xvii. 1 ; xviii. l). 

[Heb., from Asejrrian Efam s 
** high." See the article]. 

I. Men, 

(1) The eldest son of Shem (Gen. x. 22 ; 
1 Chron. i. 17). 

(2) The fiifth son of Meshelemiah, a 
Koshite Levite, in the reign of David 
(1 Chron. xxvi. 3). 

(3) A Benjamite, a son of Shaihak 
(1 Chron. viii. 24). 

(4) The head of a family or dan of 
which 1,254 individuals returned from 
Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezraii. 7; Keh. 
vii. 12), and 71 more with Ezra (Ezra viii. 
7). With Nehemiah he signed the cove- 
nant (Neh. X. 14). 

(5) *' The other Elam " who had just as 
many descendants as No. 4 (Ezra ii. 31 ; 
Neh. vii. 34). 

(6) One of the priests who took part in 
the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem 
(Neh. xii. 42). 

II. A region, doubtless settled originally 
by the descendants of Elam I. (1) (q.^.)* 
Irof . Say^ce believes that Elam is propmj 
an Assyrian translation of the Acoadiaa 
Numina = ** high," applied by the Acca* 
dians to the highlands which limited the 

Slain of Babylon on the east. It was 
ounded on tne north by Media, on the 
south by the Persian Gulf, on the east and 
south-east by Persia, and on the west by 
Assyria and the river Tigris. The name 
Elam is preserved in the Greek Elumais^ 
the Latin Elymais^ and its capital Shnshan 
or Susa gave rise to another name, Susiina, 
though sometimes Elymais and Susiana 
are made the names of adjacent, instead of 
identical, regions. Elam was the seat of 
a very ancient kingdom. In the time of 
Abraham it was the seat of Chedorlaomer's 
^vemment. It had already attained to 
iroportajice, for he was the head of a con- 
federacy of subordinate kings ruling over 
other regions (Gen. xiv. 1, 9\ But the 
most flourishing period of the Elamite 
kingdom was during the ei^th and 
seventh centuries B.C. At inat time 
Assyria was the dominant power in western 
Asia, and continually encroaching on other 
kingdoms. Of this the Elamites were 
jealous; and, living in the vicinity of 
Babylon, they intrigued with the nativee 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 183) 


of that great dty, then a dependency of 
AatjpAf but always restive onder its 
dominion, to assert its independence. Just 
after the accession of Sargon, kinff of 
Assyria, B.O. 722, the Elamites invaded the 
As^rrian territory, but were driven back. 
They had a great ally in Mebodach 
BAiiADAir (q.v.y, and had help from his 
family after he died. Hoetihties between 
the Assyrians and the Elamites went on at 
intervals during the remaindw of Sargon's 
reign. The siege of Jerusalem in which 
Filiunites and people from Kir took nart 
was probably that by Sargon narratea in 
the Assrarian records, but not mentioned 
in 2 Sonfls (Isa. xxii. 6). Hostilities 
between Assyria and Ekim continued 
during the reign of Sargon*s successor, 
Sennacherib. Then, under Esarhaddon, 
there was a lull, after which war, fiercer 
than ever, broke out under Assur-bani- 
paL It ended triumphantly for the 
Assyrians, who, about 645 b.o., captured 
and destroyed Shushan, reduong Elam 
itself abo to subjection. These facts, 
derived from the Assyrian cuneiform 
records, quite explain the reason why 
" Asnapper " (Assur-bani-pal) had it in 
his power, as Ezra relates, to bring Elam- 
ites to occupy Samaria, and remov^ the old 
Israelite inhabitants, among other places, 
to Elam (Ezra iv. 9, 10; Isa. xi. 11). In 
the fourth year of Jehoiakim^s reign there 
was a plurality of kincn in Elam^ as if, 
Assyria having now fallen, or bemf, at 
least, on the eve of falling, Elam had re- 
gained its independence, mough losing its 
unit;^ rjer. xxv. 25). When Seekiel pro- 
phesiea the invasion of Egypt by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, a prior slaugnter of the 
Elamites, also conquered bv Nebuchad- 
nezzar, was mentioned (Eiex., xzxii. 24). 
But in retribution for tiiis Elam, joining 
with Media, was ultimately to capture 
Babylon Tlsa. xzi. 2 ; cf . 9). To this con- 
quest ana restoration the following pro- 
phecies regarding Elam seem to refer 
rJer. xlix. 34-39; Ezek. xxxii. 24, 25). 
The cuneiform records reveal the veiy 
interesting fact that when Cyrus the 
Great commenced his career of conquest 
he was king of Elam, and that it was nut 
until a suuequent period tiiat he became 
king of Persui. [Ctbub.] This also 
accounts for the fact that the Persian 
capital, or, at least, one of them, Shushan, 
was in the province of Elam (Dan. viii. 2). 
On the return of the Jews from Babylon, 
Elamites, probably located in Samaria, 
joined with others m attempting to prevent 
the rebnildinff of the temple and city of 
Jerusalem (&Ta iv. 9). Elamites were 
present on that day of Pentecost which 
was notable for the descent of the Holy 
Spirit (Acts ii. 9). Elam or Susiana, now 
Khuzistan, is a province of modem Persia* 


(1) A son of Shaphan. He and Gemariah 
earned a letter from Jeremiah in Jerusalem 
to the exiles in Babvlon (Jer. xxix. 3). 

(2) A son of Pasnur. He was induced 
by Ezra to put away his foreign wife 
(Ezra X. 22). [Elbasah.] 

Bath, Botb [Heb. = *< trees,*' «a 
plantation,*' perhaps of palm-treesl. 

A town on the Gulf of Akaba, belonging 
originally to the Edomites, and constituting 
their southern limit TDeut. ii. 8). When 
David conquered and took possession of all 
the Edomite towns, Elath, like the rest, 
must have fallen into his hands (2 Sam. 
viii. 14). It was stOl Jewish when Solomon 
came to the throne ; and he built a navy 
of ships at Ezion-geber, described as 
** beside Eloth," to go to Ophir for gold 
(1 Kings ix. 26 ; 2 Chron. viii. 17). i3ath 
after a time reverted to the Edomites, and 
when retaken by Uzziah, or Azariah. had 
to be rebuilt (2 Kings xiv. 22 ; 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 2). It was afterwards captured, not 
by the Edomites, but by the Syrians, under 
whose power it Ions remained (2 Kings 
xvi. 6). Elath, called bv the Greeks Elane 
and by the Bomans .^Uma, gave name to 
the JElanitic Gulf (the Gulf of Akaba), at 
the north-eastern comer of which it was 
situated. It was long the station of a 
Koman legion. It was once the seat of a 
Christian oishopric. It was taken and 
retaken during the Crusades. It was re- 
discovered by Biippell in 1822. It was 
examined by Prof. Bobinson in 1838. He 
states {Bib, Jiea,, i. 241, 250-253) that 
nothing remained of it but extensive 
mounds of rubbish. Other travellers have 
visited it since his time. It is now called 
Ailah and 'Akaba. 

[Heb. = ** whom God has 

The youngest son of Midian, and the 
grandson of Abraham (Gen. xxv. 4 ; 
I Chron. i. 33). 

[Heb. £idadh = " whom God 

A man who, with Medad^ on one occa- 
sion prophesied in the Israehte camp in the 
wilderness. Joshua wished them to be 
stopped, but Moses not merelv declined to 
interfere, but maffnanimously expressed 
the wish that all the Lord's people were 
prophets too (Numb. xi. 26-29). 

KUtors [English]. 

I. In the Old Testament 

The rendering of the Hebrew Ziqneif the 
plural of Zaqen = ** an old man." Old 
men, having more experience and being 
more prudent than young men, are better 
fitted for high office. Hence, nearly every- 
where through the Old Testament history 
'* elders " figure at the head of affairs, not 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



merely among the Jews, but among all 
nations and other societies. Thus uiere 
were *' elders** in Pharaoh's house, and 
" elders of the land of Egypt " (Gen. 1. 7). 
In the wilderness there were amon^ the 
Israelites *' elders of the congreg[atiou.** 
i,e, of the whole people (Lev. iv. 15J, 
apparently 70 in number (Numb. zi. 
16-25), and elders over each individual 
tribe (Deut. xzzi. 28). After the arrival 
in Palestine every town had its elders 
(Deut. xix. 12 ; xzi. 3-6, 19 ; Judff. viii. 
16). For instance, Bethldiem had them 
rRuth iv. 2 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 4), and Jezreel 
(2 Kings X. 1), and, doubtless, all the rest. 
There were, moreover, elders of Judah 
(Ezek. viii. 1), and elders of Israel (2 Sam. 
V. 3 ; xvii. 4 ; Ezek. xx. 1). When once 
the practice was fully estabushed of calling 
the leading men in a community elders, 
the term might be applied to those who, 
fr6ia rank or exceptional merit, occupied 
high positions, though not really old. 

II. In the New Tettammt. 

The rendering of the Greek word Pres- 
hutet-oiy theplund ot Pi'e»butero9= "older," 
** somewhat old," the comparative of 
Presbm = as an adjective, " old ; *' as a 
noun, ** an old man." 

(1) In the Jewith civil politu,— The 
heads or leaders of the nation [No. I.]. 
In the time of our Lord the ** elders" of 
the people were such defenders of tradi- 
tions that these came to be called "the 
traditions of the elders" (Matt. xv. 2). 
In these circimistances it is scarcely to .be 
wondered at that, looking on Him as a 
dangerous innovator, they became His 
irreconcilable foes, and incurred heavy 
guilt in connection with his death (Matt, 
xvi. 21 ; xxi. 23 ; xxvi. 59 ; xxvii. 1, 20, 
41 ; xxviii. 12 ; Mark viii. 31 ; xv. 1 ; Luke 
ix. 22, etc.). They also persecuted the 
Apostles (Acts iv. 5, 23, etc.). 

(2) In the Christian (7/*MirA.— Presby- 
ters, ecclesiastical officers, discharging 
very important functions in the apostolic 
churches. They are first mentioned as 
having taken cliarge of the alms raised by 
Bamaoas and Saul during a time of 
dearth for the poor brethren in Jerusalem 
(Acts xi. 30), and were evidently officers 
of the metropolitan church. Barnabas 
and Paul "ordained them" (A.V.), ap- 
pointed for them (R.V.) " elders in every 
church " (xiv.. 23), as Titus was subse- 
quently enjoined to do (Titus i. 5— A. V. and 
R.V.). Gomg up to Jerusalem to consult 
"the apofltles and elders" (xv. 2), they 
were received by the church and by these 
functionaries (4). Then "the apostles 
and elders," sittmg as members of the first 
Council of Jerusalem , examined the question 
submitted to them (6), and finally issued 
decrees on the subject which were consi- 
dered binding (xvi. 4). There was a 

plurality of elders in the church at EpheBui 
(XX. 17). From Paul's address to these, 
when he summoned them to meet him ai 
Miletus, we learn that they were (over- 
seers— A.y.) bishops (text of R.V. Jthe mar- 
gin havinff " overseers ") (28). The name 
elders evidently referred to the time of 
life which most of them had reached, and 
bidiops or overseers to the ofiice they filled 
or the functions which they dischaii^ed. 
Some laboured in the word and doctnne, 
others only ruled (1 Tim. V, 17). Thedft 
which fitted Timothy for his high office 
there was given him " by prophecy with 
j the laying on of the hands of the presby- 
tery,''^ i,e, of the body of elders (l Tim. 
iv. 14— A. V. and B.V.). One dutv of tiie 
elders was to pra^over the sick ana anoint 
them with oil m the name of the Lord 
(James v. 14, 15). Peter in his old age 
modestly calls himself " also an elder"— 
A. v., or " a fellow-elder "— B.V., though 
he was really of higher eccleeiastical rank 
(1 Peter v. i), 

{Z) Apocalyptic Elden, — These were 
twenty-four m number, probably with 
reference back to the twelve founders of 
tribes under the Jev Ish economy, and the 
twelve apostles under Jie Christian Church . 
(Rev. iv. 4, 10 ; v. 6, 6, 8, 14 ; viL 11-13 ; 
xi. 16 ; xix. 4). 

Head [Heb. Eleadh = " whom God 
praises " or " commends "]. 

A descendant of Ephraim. He was 
killed with others of his kin by the people 
of Gath when attempting to cany away 
the cattle belonging to that Philistine 
town. Ephraim, who was lUive at the 
time, greatly mourned his loss (1 Chron. 
vii. 20-22). 

PHeb. Eleale (Numb. 

37) or Elcaleh^'' whither God ascended*']. 

A Moabite town rebuilt by the Reuben- 
ites (Numb, xxxii. 3, 37). By the time of 
Isaiah it had reverted to the Moabites 
(Isa. XV. 4 ; xvi. 9 ; Jer. xlviii. 34}. The 
ruins, now called El 'Ahl, are on a hill-top 
on the Roman road, a few mileA north of 
Heshbon. Tristram describes them as 
consisting of stone heaps' with a single 
standing column. 

[Heb. = " whom God has 
made " or " created "1. 

(1) A man of Judan, the son of Helei 
and father of Sisamai {\ Chron. ii. 39). 

(2) A descendant oi Jonathiui, SaaFs 
pon (I Chron. viii. 37; ix. 43). The 
Hebrew words for Elasah and Eleasah are 
the some. 

[Heb. = " to whom God is a 
help," " whose help is God "]. 

(1) The third son of Aaron (Exod. vi. 
23 ; Numb. iii. 2 ; xxvi. 60 ; 1 Chron. vi. 3 ; 
xxiv. 1). He married a daughter of Putiel, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 185) 


wliobore him a son, the celebrated I^une- 
has (Exod. vi. 25 ; I Chron. vi. 60). With 
his brothers and his father he was con- 
seorated a priest, and afterwards acted as 
such (Exod. xxviii. 1 ; Numb. iii. 4 ; xyi. 
87-40 ; xix. 3). He was not allowed to 
mourn when his elder brothers^ Nadab 
and Abihu,were killed for offering Strang 
fire (Lev. x. 6-20). He then becune chief 
of the LeTites, and second onlj to Aaron 
in priestly authority (Numb. iii. 32). Just 
besore Aaron died on Mount Hor, Eleazar, 
who had been directed to ascend the 
mountain with him, was invested with his 
sacred garments, and succeeded him in 
the high priesthood (xx. 25-28 ; Deut. x. 
6). Then in place of the combination 
" Moees and Aaron " (Numb. iv. I ; xix. 
1 ; XX. 12, etc.) there is " Moees and 
Eleazar" (xxri. 3; xxxii. 2), to be suc- 
ceeded in aue time by ** Joshua and Ele- 
azar" or **Eleazar and Joshua*' (xxxii. 
28 ; xxxir. 17 ; Josh. xiv. 1). Eleazar took 
a prominent part in distributing Canaan 
hv lot lunong the several tribes TJosh. xiv. 
1;. He was buried in a hill belon^g to 
las son Phinehas in Mt. Ephraim (xxiv. 33). 

(2) A Levite, a son of Mahh and the 
granclaon of Merari. He had no sons, but 
only daughters (1 Chron. xxiii. 21, 22; 
xxiv. 28). 

(3) A son of Abinadab. He was conse- 
crated by his father to keep the Ark when 
it arrived from the Philistine country at 
Kiziath-jearim (1 Sam. vii. 1). 

(4) One of David's mighty men, a son of 
Dodo, the Ahohite (2 Sam. xxiii. 9; 1 
Chron. xL 12). 

(5) A Levite, son of a certain Phinehas. 
He Uved in the time of Ezra (Ezra 

(6) AtonofParoeh. He was induced by 
Esa to put away his foreign wife (Ezra 

(7)' A priest, one of those who acted as 
xmuicians at the dedication of the wall of 
Jerosalem in the time of Jeremiah (Neh. 

(8) The son of Eliud, and the father of 
Matthan, in the genealogy of our Lord 
CMatt. i. 15), 

% Eleazar is the proper Hebrew name 
vrhich in the gospels of Luke and John 
becomes Lazabub (q.v.). 

i[Heb. = "anox"]. 
A village of Benjamin (Josh, xviii. 28). 
Major C<mder identifies it doubtfully with 
tlie present village of Lifta, two miles 
^fvest of Jerusalem. 

_ ; [English]. 
The English name for a genus of animals 
containing two recent species — Elephas 
indieut, the Indian, and Etephas afrieantu^ 
tbe African, elephant, with several others 
now extinct. 

In the A.y. the word elephant occurs 
only as an alternative meaning on the 
margin ; it is not found in the text. On the 
margin of Job xl. 15 it is suggested that it 
may be the Behemoth ; the B.y., more 
judiciously, substitutes hippopotamus for 
elephant. On the margin of 1 Kings x. 22 
ana 2 Chron. ix. 21 the expression ** ele- 
phant's teeth '* is given as a substitute for 
lyory in the text. The circumlocution is 

Suite accurate and more literal. In all 
tiese passages elei^iant disappears from 
the B. V . Mention is made ef elephants in 
the Apocrypha in 1 Maoo. vi. 28-30, 43-46 ; 
3 Mace. V. 1-vi. 21. [Ivoby.] 

[Heb. . Elhhanan = *' whom 

(1) A ^thlQhemite, the son of Jaare 
Oregim or Jair. According to 2 Sam. xxi. 
19 he slew Goliath the Gittite ; according* 
to 1 Chron. xx. 5 it was Lahmi, the giant^ 
brother, whom he killed. 

(2) Ajiother Bethlehemite, a son of 
Dodo. He was one of David's thirty^ • 
heroes of the second rank (2 Sam. xxiii. 
24 ; 1 Chron. xi. 26). 

XII (1) [Heb. and Aramaic = ** my 

IT Eli. Eli, lama »abacthan% [Aramaic] — 
** My God. my God, why hasl Thou for- 
saken Mef " (Matt, xxvii. 46— A. V. and 
B.V. text ; or " Why didst Thou forsake 
Me?"— B.V. margin). In Mark xv. 34. 
Eloi, Eloi is another Aramaic spelling oz 

SU (2) [Heb. = " ascension," " height." 
So named apparently because he had 
reached the elevatea position of being 
hi^h priest. One of the Hebrew letters in 
this word differs from the corresponding 
one in Eli = ** my God "]. 

The high priest who was the immediate 
predecessor of Samuel. Deeply pious, he 
nad the essential qualification for his 
exalted office, but there was one serious 
defect in his conduct— he was not suffi- 
ciently firm with his two sons, Hophni and 
Phinehas, giving them only mild reproof 
when their behaviour in the priestly office 
was absolutely scandalous. Divine judg- 
ment against him and his house was there- 
fore denounced by the lips of tiie youthful 
Samuel, who then held an office suitable 
to his years in connection with Eli and the 
tabernacle at Shiloh. There was not after 
the erring dignitary himself to be an 
old man in his family. His two sons were 
to die in a single day, and a faithful 
priest was to arise who should supersede 
Eli's descendants in their high office, 
leaving them under the necessity of apply- 
ing to this stranger for subordinate ap- 
pointments that they might be fed (1 Sam. 
1. 9-iii. 21). The first part of the predio* 

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tion was soon afterwards fulfilled, Hophni 
and Phinehas being killed in a battle with 
the Philistines, to which they had gone as 
custodians of the Ark. Eli. now ninety- 
eight years old, and blind, was sitting 
outside on a seat, when a man arriyed 
from the scene oi strife to say that the 
Israelites were totally defeated, his two 
sons, Hophni and Phinehas, slain, and the 
Ark of God taken. All but the last item of 
intelligence he was prenared to hear ; but 
on learning that the Atk of God was cap- 
tured by the enemy ^ he fell back apparently 
unconscious, and being stout, broke his neck 
and expired (iy. 1-18). He had judged Israel 
forty years, or, by the Hebrew reckoning, 
from 1 181 to 1 141 b.o. The iudfi|ment a«ainst 
his posterity was executed wnen Solomon 
deposed £U's descendant Abiathar from 
the high priesthood, substituting Zadok in 
his room (1 Kings u. 35). [Ithajcab.] 

Zliab [Heb. £liabh = *' to whom God 
is a father'']. 

(1) The son of Helon, and the head of 
the tribe of 2iebulim in the wilderness 
(Numb. i. 9 ; iL 7 ; yii. 24, 29 ; x. 16). 

(2^ A Beubenite, the son of Pallu, and 
the lather of Dathan and Abiram (Numb, 
xvi. 1, 12 ; xxyi. 8, 9). 

(3) A Leyite, an ancestor of Samuel 
(1 Chron. yi. 27, 28). 

(i) Dayid's eldest brother. He was so 
tall and had so kingly a countenance that 
on seeing him Samuel exclaimed *' Surely 
the Lord^s anointed is before him.'' But 
judged by the heart he was not worthy of 
the kingdom (I Sam. xyi. 6, 7 ; xyii. 13). 
One defect he had was his inability to 
appreciate the larger soul of Dayid, his 
youngest brother (28, 29). 

(5]) A " son " of Gad, or a Gadite, of the 
heroic type who joined Dayid at Ziklag 
(1 Chron. xii. 9). 

(6) A Leyite, made a porter in Dayid's 
reign (1 Chron. xy. 20). 

[Heb. Eliadha = 

** whom God cares for '*" {GeBeniu8\\, 

(1) A son of king Dayid (2 Sam. y. 
16). Called also Beemada (q.y.). 

(2) The father of Rezon, a man who, 
fleeing from his own country, Zobah, gaye 
trouble to Solomon (1 Kings xi. 23— A. V. 
and E.V.). 

(3) One of Jehoshaphat^s chief captains 
(2 Chron. xvii. 17). 

Ii [Heb. Eliyah = " my God (is) 
Jehoyah. ' ' In Hebrew it is the same word 
as EujAH (q.y.) J. 

(1) A Benjamite, a son of Jeroham (1 
Chron. yiu. 27). Called in the R.V. 

(2) A son of Elam. Ezra induced him 
to put away his forei^ wife (Ezra x. 26). 
Again the R.V. substitutes Elijah. 

[Heb. ^/iWiAfta = " whom 
God hides " or ** has hidden "]. 

A Shaalbonite, one of David*s mighty 
men (2 Sam. xxiii. 32 ; 1 Chron. xi. 33). 

»M^v«w fHeb. £lyaqim = *' whom God 
has set up "J. 

(1) A son of Melea. He was the fifth 
in descent from King Dayid, and in the 
direct line of our Lord's ancestiy (Luke 
iii. 30, 31). 

(2) The son of ISlkiah. In Hezekiah's 
reign he was oyer the household, and wu 
mentioned first of three representatives of 
the king who were sent to hold a con- 
ference with the Rabshakeh or Prime 
Minister of Sennacherib, and afterwaidi to 
report to Hezekiah what answer was made 
(2 Kings xyiii. 18, 26, 37 ; laa. xxrvi. 3, 
11,22). Next they were despatched to 
lay the matter before Isaiah, aiid deriie 
him to obtain the Diyine direction in tite 

rat crisis which had arisen (2 Kings xix. 
. Isa. xxxyii. 2\ The prophet so highly 
commended Eliajdm, aiiu made him sudi 
promises from God, as to suggest that he 
must be regarded as a type of the Meadsh 
(Isa. xxii. 20-25). 

(3) One of Josiah's sons, made king hf 
Pharaoh-nechoh, who changed his name 
to Jehoiajldc (q.y.) (2 Kings xxiiL 34; 
2 Chron. xxxyL 4). 

(4) One of the piests who officiated at 
the dedication of Zerubbabers Temple 
(Neh. xii. 41). 

(5) A son of Abiud, and grandson of 
Zerubbabel (Matt. i. 13). 

KUain [Heb. The same as Anuniel, 
with the letters transposed, thus El-i-am, 
Amm-i-el. Both mean ** one of the 
family " or "people of God "]. 

(1) The father of Bath-sheba (q.y.) (2 
Sam. xi. 3). Called in I Chron. iii. ^ 
Ammiel. [See etaiology.] 

(2) (?) One of Dayid's nughty men, and 
the son of Ahithophel, Dayid's unworthy 
counsellor (2 Sam. xxiii. 34). 

BUM [Gr^ from Heb. Ztitfah and 
J?/fyaAtt= "Elijah"]. 
Elijah (Matt. xyu. 12, etc.— A.V.). 

XUasaiA [Heb. El^/asaph = '' whom 
God has added"]. 

(1) The son oi Deuel or Beuel, and the 
head of the tri^^e of Gad in the wildeniesa 
(Numb. i. 14 ; ii. 14 ; yii. 42, 47 ; x. 20). 

(2) A Leyite, the son of Lael, and 
** father " of the Gershonites during the 
wilderness wandering (Numb. iiL 24). 

Sliatfiib [Heb. Hlfjathibh =^ " whm 
God has restored "J. 

(1) The head of the eleventh priflstiy 
coursefl Chron. xxiy. 12). 

(2) The father of Johanan. He lived m 
the time of Ezra (Ezra x. 6). 

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Ely ah 

(3) A singer whom Ezra induoed to put 
awar his foreign wife {Ezra x. 24). 

(4) A son of Zatta. He was similarly 
pereoaded (Ezra n. 27). 

(5) A sou of Bani. Also persuaded (Ezra 

(6) The high priest in the time of Nehe- 
miah. He Mrith the priests whose head he 
Fas rebuilt the sheepgate of Jerusalem 
(Neh.iiL 1,20,21). Ehashib was the second 
in succession from Jeshua, the contempo- 
mry of Zerubbabel (Neh. xii. 10). 

(7) A son of Elioenai, a descendant of 
Zerubbabel (1 Chron. iii. 24). 

[Heb. = " to whom God has 

A ** son " of Heman, and a musician in 
the reign of David (1 Chron. xxv. 4). 

1 [Heb. £lidhadh = «< whom God 

A pnnce who by direction of Moses was 
to represent the tribe of Benjamin when 
Joshua divided the land of Canaan (Numb. 
xxziv. 21). 

, [Heb. J?/y<f- 

kornai = ** my eyes (are turned) to 

(1) A Korhite porter, the seventh son of 
Hohelemiah (1 Uhron. xxvi. 3— A.Y. and 

(2) A son of Zerahiah. He with 200 
f oHowers accompanied Ezra from Babylon 
(Ezra viii. 4— A.V. and B.V.). [Euenai, 


[Heb. = " to whom God (gives) 
strength '^. 

(1) The great-grandfather of " Shemuel," 
apparently Samuel the prophet (1 Chron. 
VI. 34). 

(2) A Mahavite, one of David's mighty 
men (1 Chron. xi. 46). 

(3^ Another of David's heroes (verse 47). 

(4) One of the Gadites who came to 
David at Zikhig (1 Chron. xii. 11). 

(•5) A Levite, a son of Hebron. He lived 
in David's time (1 Chron. xv. 9, 11). 

(6) A Benjamite, a son of Shimhi (1 
ClaxMi. viii. 20). 

(7) Another Benjamite, a son of Shashak 
(1 Chron. viii. 22). 

(8) A chief man of the half- tribe of Ma- 
oasieh east of the Jordan (1 Chron. v. 24). 

(9) An overseer of the tithes and offer- 
ings in ihe reign of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 
Uri. 13). 

1 [Heb. = ** my eyes (are turned) 
'ipon Jehovah." A contraction for Eli- 
HOEXAI (q.v.).] 

A Benjamite, a son of Shimhi (I C^hron. 

' [Heb. =r" whose help isGod"]. 

(I) A man of Damascus, who was the 
Heward of Abraham's house (Gen. xv. 2). 

(2) The younger son of Moses, so called 
" for the God of my father, said he, was 
mine help, and delivered me from the 
sword of Pharaoh." [See the etymobgy.] 
(Exod. xviii. 4.) 

(3) A Benjamite, a son of Becher (1 
Chron. vii. 8). 

(4) A son of Zichri. He was a captain 
over the Reubenites in David's reign (1 
Chron. xxvii. 16). 

(5) A priest in David's reign (1 Chron. 
XV. 24). 

(6) A prophet, a son of Dodavah of 
Mareshah. He predicted the shipwreck 
of Jehoshaphat's vessek because he had 
joined with Ahaziah, of Ahab's family 
(2 Chron. xx. 37). 

(7) One of Ezra's subordinates, sent for 
Levites, when it was found that there were 
few of them among the returning exiles 
(Ezra viii. 16). 

(8) A priest whom Ezra induced to put 
away his foreign wife TEzra x. 18). 

(9; A Levite, similarly induced (Ezra x. 

(10) A son of Harim, similarly induced 
(Ezra x. 31). 

(11) The son of Jorim and the father of 
Jose, in the ancestry of our Lord (Luke 
iii. 29). 

EUboenaL [Eliehoenai.] (Ezra viii. 
4— A.V.) 

KUliorepli [Heb. Elihhoreph = " to 
whom God is a reward," or "whose 
reward is God"]. 

A scribe, the elder son of Shisha. He 
lived in Solomon's reign (1 Kings iv. 3). 

liUha [Heb. = " whose God is He "]. 

(1) An Ephraimite, the son of Tohu 
and the grandfather of Elkanah (1 Sam. 
i. n. 

(2) David's eldest brother, called also 
EUab (cf. 1 Sam. xvi. 6 with 1 Chron. 
xxvii. 18). 

(3) A Manassite captain who with others 
joined David on his way to Ziklag (1 

i Chrou. xii. 20). 

(4) A porter duzing David's reign (1 
Chron. xxvi. 7). 

(5) One of Job's " friends," a Buzite, 
the son of Barachel (Job xxxii.-xxxvii.). 

KUJali [Heb. Elvjahu, Eliyah^^^mj 
God (is) Jehovah"]. 

(1) One of the earliest and in some re* 
spects the greatest of Old Testament pro- 
phets. Either he was bom or he sojourned 
for a time at Tishbeh, a village of Gilead r?) 
(1 Kings xvii. I). Wlien Ahab, under the 
influence of his wife Jezebel, had given 
himself to the worship of the false god 
Baal, Elijah suddenlv appeared upon the 
scene. He presentea hmiself before the 
' erriiMf king, and predicted a drought of 
I indemiite duration as a penalty for the 

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( 188 ) 


rejection of Jehovah. The famine aifeoted 
the prophet as well as the rest of the 
people, and he retired first to the brook 
Chsbith (q.v.), where he was miracu- 
lously fed by ** ravens." [Raven.] Then, 
the brook drying up, he went to Zarephath 
(the New Testament Sarepta, on the coast 
of the Mediterranean between Tyre and 
Sidon). A poor widow there shared har 
little with him, he in return multiplying her 
barrel of meal and cruse of oil, and when 
her son died, restoring him to life (i Kings 1-24 ; Luke iv. 24-26). In the third 
year of the famine which the drought had 
produced, Elijah was directed to show him- 
self to Ahab, and, notwithstanding th^ re- 
monstrances of a pious dignitary, Obadiah, 
carried out the Divine command. Then 
followed the scene at Mount Carmel in 
which Jehovah, by consuming Elijah's sac- 
rifice, vindicated His godhead; and Baal's 
prophets, failing to obtain for the imagin- 
ary being whicn they worshipped similar 
evidence of divinity, were taken down to 
the brook Kedron, which washed the 
northern base of the mountain, and sLaia 
(1 Kings xviii. 1-46). Jezebel, furious 
at the destruction of her ** prophets," 
vowed the death of Elijah, who fiea away 
to Mount Horeb, where, like Moses, he was 
miraculously sustained for forty days and 
nights (Exod. xxiv. 18 ; xxxiv. 28 ; Deut. 
ix. 9, 18 ; 1 Kings xix. 8), a foreshadow- 
ing of the siiHilar incident in the life of 
Jesus (Matt. iv. 2; Luke iv. 2). Elijah 
was fed, rebuked, and sent bade to nis 
duty. He was Divinely direct«)d to anoint 
Hazael king over Syria, Jehu king over 
Israel, and Elisha prophet in his room 
(\ Kings xix. 1-22). When Jezebel and 
Ahab perpetrated the judicial murder of 
Naboth to obtain his vineyard, Elijah met 
the king in the coveted plot of ground, 
and denounced Jehovah's vengeance 
against him and his female participant in 

fuilt for their great crime (xxi. 1-29). 
Ilijah was not able to appear at court 
when the Rarooth-gilead expedition was 
planned, but its issue commenced the veri- 
fication of the predictions which he had 
tittered against tne royal house (xxii. 1-40). 
When A£ib's successor Ahazioh, seriously 
injured by falling thi-ough a lattice, sent 
messengers to Baalzebub, the god of Ekron. 
to ask whether the roval patient should 
recover of his fall, Elijah turned them 
back, and when twice over a captain of 
fifty witli his men was sent apparently to 
arrest him, he called fire from heaven and 
consumed the whple party (2 Kinp^ i. 
1-16). In connection with tnis inadent 
there is an interesting account of Elijah's 
personal appearance. He is describe as 
** an hairy man and girt with a ^^irdle of 
leather about his loins " (2 Kin^ i. 8). A 
letter written by him, about which there is 

some dironolopeal difficulty, denounood 

J'udgment against Jehozam, th« mm of 
ehoshaphat, for following the ways of 
Ahab and his house (2.Chron. xxL ri-15). 
Finally the prophet obtained the great 
honour, bestowal before only on Enoch 
(Gen. V. 24)^ of being translated to heaven 
without dying. A chariot and horses of 
fire appeared to him, when he had gone 
with his servant Elisha to the east of the 
Jordan, and, parting them asunder, took 
Elijah up in a whirlwind to heaven (2 
Kings ii. 1-12). The last two verses of the 
Old Testament seem to predict the return 
to earth of Elijah *^ before the coining of 
the great and dreadful day of the Lord '* 
(Mai. iv. 5, 6). But the New Testament 
explains that the reference was to John 
the Baptist, who was like the Tish- 
bite in semi-savage dress and appearance 
(cf. 2 Kings i. 8 with Matt. iii. 4 ; MaA 
i. 6), and resembled him also in his fidelity 
and the work which he did (Matt. xi. 1 1 - 14*; 
xvu. 10-12; Mark ix. 11-13; Lukei 17). 
Elijah appeared on the Mount of Trans- 
figuration as the representative of the 
Old Testament prophecy to do honour to 
Jesus, its theme (Matt. xvii. 4 ; Mark ix. 
4 ; Luke ix. 30) ; and his ascension, to 
which there was nothing analogous in the 
history of John the Baptist, doubtleas 
foreshadowed that of our risen Lord. 

(2) A Benjainite, a son of Jeroham, 
resident at Jerusalem (1 Chron. viii. 27 — 
R.V.). The A. V. calls him Eliah. 

(3) A priest, a son of Harim. He 
married a Gentile wife (Ezra x. 21). 

(4) A certain Israelite who married a 
Gentile wife. He was a son of Elam 
(Ezra X. 26— R.V.). The A.V. calls him 

■■■■- [Heb. Eliqa» Etymology doubt- 
ful = « whom God purifies" {fy (Oxjord 

A Harodite, one of David's mighty men 
(2 Sam. xxiu. 25). 

[Heb. EUm, Elimah = " treee," 
aSjfor instance, palms]. 

The second stage of the Israelites in the 
wilderness after the passage of the Bed 
Sea. They reached it after leaving Marah 
and before they had entered the aesert of 
Sin. There were there twelve weUs 
(A.y.), more accurately springs (B.y.), of 
water, and seventy paun-trees, beside tlie 
former of which the encampment was 
made (Exod. xv. 27 ; xvi. 1 ; Numb, 
xxxiii. 9, 10). Two valleys, Wady 
Ghurundel and Wady Useit, or Waseit, 
are rivals for the honour of represen^ur 
the ancient Elim. Both are fringed with 
trees and shrubs, though the adjacent 
parts of the desert are biu«. The vegeta- 
tion consists of palm-trees, tamarisks, sjdmI 
acacias. The palms are described by t)eaa 

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( 189) 


Stanlej as either dwarf, i,e, tmnUees, or 
elae with savafle, hairy trunks and 
branches all dishevelled (Stanley. Syria 
and Fialettine^ p. 68). The claims oi Wady 
Useit exceed those of Ghaiandel. The 
Rev. Dr. John Wilson, who considered 
Useit to be very probably the Scripture 
Elim, found in 1843 only one pool instead 
of twelve wells, but ascertained that others 
could be obtained by dimne (Lands of 
the Bible, i. HA), 

[Heb. Elitnelek = ** whose 
king is God"]. 

A man from Bethlehem of Judah, the 
h u sband of Naomi. He died early ; so did 
his sons, MahloQ and ChiliQn, as if the 
tendency to some mortal disease was 
heredituy in the family (Ruth i. 1, 2, 3, 5 ; 
iL 1 ; iv. 3, 9). 

[Heb. Elyoenai = ** my eyes 
(are turned) towards Jehovah." In No. 3 
£lye?u)enai\, ' 

(1) A descendant of Simeon *(1 Chron. 
iv. 36). 

(2) A Benjamite, the son of Becher 
(1 Chron. vii. 8). 

(3) The same as Eliehoenax (q.v.) 
(1 Chron. xxvi. 3— A.V.). 

(4) A son of Pashhur. Ezra induced him 
to put away his foreign wife (Ezra x. 2*2). 

(5) A son of Zattn. Ezra induced lum 
also to put away his foreign wife (Ezra 
X. 27). 

(6) The eldest son of Neariah, of the 
royai family of Judah after the captivity 
(1 Chron. in. 23, 24). 

^ See also Eushosnai and Eueitai. 

Xll^ial [Heb. = '* whom God judges "1 . 

A son of Ur; one of DavitTs mighty 
men (I Chion. xi. 35). Called also 
Eliidielet, the son of Ahasbai. [Eliphelet 

XllpliAlat. [EupHELET.] (2 Sam. v. 
Ift— A.V. ; 1 Chron. xiv. 7.) 

Xttpbas [Heb. = *' to whom God is 

(1) A son of Esau, by Adah, one of his 
wives (Gen. xxxvi. 4). 

(2) ATemanite, one of JoVs ** friends " 
(Jobii. 11 ; iv. 1 ; XV. 1 ; xxii. 1 ; xlu. 7, 9). 
Probably a descendant of No. 1, who had 
a son Teman (Gen. xxxvi. 11). 

BMlMlali [Heb. Eliphelehu = *< whom 
God mstmguisnes (as excellent) "]. 

A Levite, a singer and a hajnper, who 
acted also as a porter when Davia brought 
np the Ark from the house of Obed-edom 
(1 Chron. xv. 6, 18, 21), 

Xllpli^let, Xlli^liAleC [Heb. Eliphelet, 
in pause EUphaUt = ** to whom God is 
safety." « whose safety is God "1. 

(1) A son bom to David in Jerusalem 

(I Chron. iii. 6, 8). Called in xiv. 5 
Elf ALET (q.v.). 

(2) Another son of I)avid*s, bom also at 
Jerusalem (2 Sam. v. 16— A.V. and R.V. ; 
1 Chron. iii. 8 ; xiv. 7— A.V. and R.V.). 


(3) A son of Ahasbai, and one of David's 
mighty men ^2 Sam. xxiii. 34). Called 
also £!lipual (q.v.). 

(A) The thira son of Eshek, a descendant 
of Jonathan and of Saul (1 Chron. viii. 39). 

^5) A son of Adonikiun. He returned 
with Ezra from Babylon (Ezra viii. 13). 

(6) A son of Hashum. Ezra induced 
him to put away his foreign wife (Ezra 

II The R.y. uniformly sjfells the name 
Eliphelet The A.y. does so also in all 
places but two, viz., 2 Sam. v. 16 and 
1 Chron. xiv. 7. [See No. 2.] 

BllMlMtli [Gr. Elitabet, from Heb. 
Elislteba = *' to whom God (is) an oath "]. 

The wife of the priest Zacharias and the 
mother of John the Baptist. She bore him 
when she was of advanced years, his birth 
and mission having been communicated 
beforehand by an angel to her husband. 
Though a Levite, and the Virgin Mary of 
the royal family of Judah ^ yet the two 
were cousins, and Mary visited Elizabeth 
at a village (probablv Juttah) in the hill 
country of JuosBa. EUzabeth, inspired by 
the Holy Ghost, welcomed Marv as tlio 
mother of the Lord (Luke i. 5-45;. 

[Latinised from Gr. Elissaios^ 
\* Elisha " (q.v.)] . (Luke iv. 27— A. V.) 

[Heb. = " God his salvation," 
" whose salvation is God "]. 
. One of the two great prophets of the 
older period of Israelite history. He was 
the son of Shaphat, was bom at Abel- 
XEHOLAH (q.v.), and was formallv anointed 
by Elijah as his successor (1 Xinss xix. 
16). Unless'* anoint "is here used figura- 
tively, a call preceded the anointing. It 
was given by Elijah throwing his mantle 
over him, on wnich, becoming imbued 
with a new spirit, he bid adieu te his 
parents, sacrificed the oxen with which he 
had been ploughing, and was then at 
Elijah's service for any work he might 
desire him to undertake (xix. 16-21). 
When Elijah went eastward to and 
beyond the Jordan to be translated to 
heaven, Elisha kept close to his side, and 
was asked to name what he would like to 
obtain as a parting gift. He had the 
wisdom to petition for a double portion of 
Elijah's spirit. When the fiery chariot 
bore his master away, he returned to the 
Jordan, and taking the mantle which had 
fallen. ftt>m Elijah at his ascension, struck 
the Jordan with it, dividing it in two, and 
crossing to its weetem side (2 Kings iL 

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1-18). His whole 8ubse<)ueot life as 
recorded in Scripture was little more than 
a series of miracles, some of kuowledfe. 
others of ix>wer. [3totA.CLE«] He healea 
the deleterious waters of a spring adjacent 
to Jericho (19-22). He caused two bears 
to come out of a wood and devour forty - 
two " young lads " who had contemptu- 
ously ordered him to " go up" (i.e. to 
heaven, as Elijah had done) (23-25). He 
predicted the deliverance and temporary 
success of the three kings who were in- 
vading Moab J;M£SHa] (iii. 11-27). He 
multiplied a widow's pOt of oil (iv. 1-7). 
He predicted to a Shunammite woman the 
birth of a son, and raised that sou to life 
when he had died (8-37). He named an 
antidote to a poisonous plant in the pot in 
which food was being cooked for the 

ahets (38-41). He multiplied twentv 
»y loaves and a few husks of com till 
they sufficed to appease the hunger of a 
hundred men (42-14) . He cured ^ aaman^s 
leprosy (v. 1-19), and as a punishment of 
lying and covetousness transferred it to 
Gehazi (20-27). He made an iron axe- 
head swim (vi. 1-7). He communicated to 
the king of Israel, without being informed 
of them, the movements and intentions of 
his Syrian rival (8-1 2) . He revealed to his 
servant horses and chariots of fire sur- 
Toimding them for their protection (13-17). 
He caused blindness to fall on the Syrian 
emissaries sent to arrest him (17-23). He 
intimated, without being told it, that a 
messenger from the king of Israel was at 
the door to take his life (vi. 24-33). He 
predicted great plenty and consequent 
cheapness of food m Samaria, wliile it was 
at famine prices during a siege, adding, 
however, that an unbelieving lord who 
discredited the prediction should not par- 
ticipate in the boon, which he did not, for 
he was trampled to death in a crowd (vii. 
1-20). He informed Benhadad, king of 
Syria, of his approaching death (viii. 7-15). 
He declared the destruction of Ahab and 
his whole house, and sent a young prophet 
to anoint Jehu to execute the threatened 
judgment (ix. 1-x. 28). He predicted 
three victories over the Syrians (xiii. 
14-19). Finallv, after his death, a man 
hastily cast into the same sepulchre on 
touching his bones was at once restored 
to life (20, 21). [Eliseus.] 

been used for the whole Pdoponnesos 
itself. It did export dye stuff. Another 
opinion is that Elishah stands for the 
jEolians in the north-western portion of 
Asia Minor. 

TOahama [Heb. = " whom Qod been " 
or " listens to^»1. 

(n The sou of Ammihud, and the prince 
of tne'Ephraimites during the sojourn iii 
the wilderness (Numb. i. 10 ; ii. 18). 

(2) A man of Judah, a son of Jekamiah 
(1 Chron. ii. 41). 

(3) A son of David, bom to him it 
Jerusalem (1 Chron. iii. 6). Called abo 
Elishcjl (q.v.). 

(4) Another son of David, younger than 
No. 3 (2 Sam. v. 16 ; 1 Chron. iU. 8). 

(5) A priest, one of those sent hr 
Jehoshapnat to teach in the cities of Jadah 
(2 Chron. xvii. 8). 

(6) A prince and scribe in the reign of 
king Jehoiakim (Jer. xxxvi. 12, 20, 21). 

(7) The grandfather of that Ishmael of 
the seed royal who murdered Gedaliah, the 
governor of Judcea imder the Babylonians 
(2 Kings XXV. 25 ; Jer. xli. 1). 

mtaliapht [Heb. = "whom God 
judges " (Geaenttu), ** my God (is) 
judge" rp)i. 

One of me captains of hundreds who 
supported Jehoiaioa in the revolt against 
Athaliah (1 Chron. xxiii. 1). 

, [t5p<? the article]. 

(1) A ** son" of Javan, who doubtless 
settled in the region described under (2) 
(Gen. X. 4). 

(2) Certain ** isles " from which the 
Tyrians imported blue and purple where- 
with to dye the awnings of their ships 
(Ezek. XX vii. 7). Gesenius believes the 
place to have been Elis in the Pelopon- 
nesus (the Morea) of Greece, but to nave 

[Heb. ElUhebha = *' to whom 
God is an oath," i.e. ♦' who swears by 
God ' *] . [Elizabeth.] 

The daughter of Amminadab, and sister 
of Nahshon. She became the wife of 
Aaron, and the mother of Nadab and 
Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar (Exod. tl 

■Uahaa [Heb. = " to whom God b 
safety " or "salvation "]. 

A son of David, the sameasEusHiiu (3) 
(2 Sam. V. 15 ; 1 Chron. xiv. 5). 

mod [Gr. EHoud ; probablv fro^ 
Heb. Eliyehudh = " God of Judah" or "of 
the Jews," a name which does notocenrin 
the Old Testament]. 

The son of Achim, and the father of 
Elea3»r, in the ancestry of our I^w 
(Matt. i. 14, 15). 

SUsaphmii [Heb. EliUapJian = '' whom 
God protects "J. 

(l£The son of Uzriel, and the chief of 
the Kohathitee in the wilderness (Numb, 
iii. 30) : called also Elzaphan (q.v.). 

(2) The son of Pamach, and pinoe of 
the tribe of Zebulun in the wildane* 
(Numb, xxxiv. 25). 

Xllsnr ("Heb. EiUsur = " to whom God 
is a rock "J. 
The son of Shedeur, and prince oftM 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 101 ) 


Keubenites in the wilderness (Numb. i. 5 ; 

[Heb. Elqamh = " whom 


(1) A Leyite, the second son of Korah, 
and head of a Korhite family (Exod. yi. 
24 ; 1 Chron. vi. 23). 

(2) A Kohathite, a son of Mahath 
(1 Chron. vi. 22, 26, 35). 

(3) Another Kohathite, a son of Joel 
(1 Chron. ri. 36 ; cf . 24). 

(4) A man of Mount Ephraim, the son 
of Jeroham, the husband of Hannah and 
Peninnah, and the father of Samuel 
(1 Sam. i. 1 ; 1 Chron. vi. 34). He lived 
atBamah(ii. 11,20). 

(5) A hero who joined David at Zikkg 
(1 Chron. xii. 6). 

(6) A doorkeeper for the Ark during 
the reign of David ^1 Chron. xv. 23). 

(7) A high digmtary at the court of 
Ahaz^ second only to the king (2 Chron. 
xxviii. 7). 

(8) A Levite, the father of a certain Asa 
(1 Chron. ix. 16). 

Klkotfitta [English. InHeb.i^^MAH. 

A native of a vula^ or town evidently 
called Elkosh, the birthplace or residence 
of the prophet Nahum (Nahum i. 1). 
Situation unknown. One opinion is that 
it was in G^alilee, another that it was in 

' [Heb., meaning doubtful] . 

A region having for its king in, early 
times Arioch, who was one of the con- 
federates with Chedorlaomer, king of 
Elam, in the invasion of the Jordan valley 
(Gen. xiv. 1, 9). Arioch, king of Ellasar, 
IS called on the Assyrian monuments 
Eri-aJcu, king of Larsa. The remains of 
his capital now constitute the mounds of 
Senkereh, a little to the east of Erech. 
Some have thought that the Ellasar of 
Gen. xiv. and the Telassar of Isa. xxxvii. 
12 were one and the same place, but the 
identification is doubtful. 

, [English]. 
The rendering of the Hebrew word 
Elah in Hosea iv. 13— A.V. Identically 
the same word is translated '^oak'* in G^. 
XXXV. 4 and Judg. vi. 1 1 , 1 9. The R. V. ren-. 
ders I3ah **the terebinth" in Hosea iv. 13, 
and in the other passages inserts oak in the 
text, placing terebinth on the margin. 
Elah means ''strength** or *'a strong 
tree," especially the Tebebimth (q.v.). 

n [Gr., an alter- 
ation of Heb. Abnodhadh 01. [Aucodad.] 

The son of Er, and the father of Cosam, 
in the ancestry of our Lord (Luke iii. 28). 


[Heb. = "whose delight God 

A Jew, whose sons were valiant men in 
David's army (I Chron. x. 46). 

Wnatliaii [Heb. = «« whom God 
gave "1. 

(I) The father of Nehushta, mother of 
King Jehoiaohin (2 Kings xxiv. 8). Pro- 
babfy the same man as Elnathan, the son 
of Achbor (Jer. xxvi. 22 ; xxxvi. 12, 25). 

(2^ 3, 4) Three Levites, the first two 
'' chief men,** and the third '* a man of 
understanding ** sent for by Ezra to the 
brook Ahava (Ezra viii. 16). 

Xlol [Aramaic = ''My God**]. [Eu 

[Heb. = '♦ strength,** " an oak**]. 
L Men. 

(1) A Hittite, whose daughter Esau 
married (G^. xxvi. 34 ; xxxvi. 2). 

(2) The second son of 2^bulun, and 
founder of the family of the Elonites 
(Gen. xlvi. 14 ; Numb. xxvL 26). 

(3) A Zebulonite who judged Israel for 
ten years, in the Hebrew chronology from 
about 1130 to 1120, and was buried at 
Aijalon, in Zebulun (Judg. xii. 11, 12). 
The consonants of Elon and Aijalon are 
the same, and the two words look so like 
each other in Hebrew, though not in 
English, that Aijalon, the town, may have 
been named after Elon the judge. 

II. A place, — A frontier village of Dan 
(Josh. xix. 43). Major Conder doubtfully 
places its site at the modem village of 
Beit EUo, 8 miles N.W. bv W. from 
Bethel. Its height above the Mediter- 
ranean is 1797 feet. 

Elon Beth-hanan [Heb. Elm Beth- 
Hhanan = "theoak(?) of Beth-Hanan **]. 

One of the villages or districts over 
which the son of Dekar, one of Solomon's 
purveyors, was appointed p Kings iv. 9). 

Ma^or Conder considers it to be probably 
the village of Beit 'An^n among the low 
hills east of Lydda, and 8^ mues N.W. 
from Jerusalem. 

■toth [Elath] (1 Kings ix. 26; 2 Chron. 
viii. 17 ; xxvi. 2). 

XllMua [Heb. = " to whom God is a 
reward '* or " recompense **]. 

A man of Benjamm, the son of Hushim 
and the father of Eber, Misham, and 
Shamed, the builders of Ono and Lod, 
with the adjacent villages (1 Chron. viii. 
11, 12, 18). 

mpelet, Xliialet [Heb. ElpeUt, in 
pause Elpalet, The same as Eliphelet 


The same as Eliphelet (1) (cf. 1 Chron. 
iii. 6, 8 with xiv. 5— A.V. and B.V.). 

mtekeli [Heb. Elteqe and Elteqeh = 
" whose foundation is God **]. 

A frontier village of Dan (Josh. xix. 44 ; 
xxi. 23). Sennacherib, in the records of 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


( 192) 


his victories, mentionB the plains of Eltekeh 
in connection with Dan. In 701 b.o. he 
gained a great victory there over the king 
of Egypt. Major Conder identifies Eltekeh 
with Beit Ltkia in the territory of Dan, 
two miles south of the Nether Beth-horon. 

mtekon ^eb. Elteqon = '* whose 
foundation is Qod **]. 

A village in the mountains of'Judah 
(Josh. XV. 59). Exact site unknown. 

mtoUd [Heb. Eltoladh = *< whose race 

A town or village in the extreme south 
of Judah (Josh. xv. 30). It was assigned 
to the Simeonites (xix. 4). Callea in 
1 Chron. iv. 29 Tolao (q.v.). Exact situa- 
tion unknown. 

■lol [Heb.. from Assyrian XHulu = 
" (month of) the spirit " (Saucey], 

The sixth mouth of the Heorew year. 
It extended from the new moon of 
September to that of October {Geaeniua), 
Approximately August (Sayce), September 
{Bevan). (Neh. vi. 15.) 

Blnsal [Heb. = *< God is (the object of) 
my praises^']. 

One of the valiant men who came to 
David to Ziklag (1 Chron. xii. 5). 

(cf. Exod. vi. 22 and Lev. x. 4 with Numb, 
iii. 30). 

[Lat., from Gr. Elumat = " a 
sorcerer," apparently from Arabic *Alim=. 
" learned"}: 

An opponent of St. Paul whom the 
Apostle encountered in Pa|)hos, a town of 
C vprus, during his first missionary journey. 
Though he had adopted an Arabic name, 
he was really a Jew called Bar- Jesus (the 
son of Jesus). He is termed a Magian ; 
but that word, at first highly honourable, 
had been degenerating, so that it was 
coining to mean ^* one who practised 
magic^' [Maoi], and Bar- Jesus, or Elymas, 
seems to have been no more than an 
itinerant practiser of clever tricks, perhaps 
sleight of hand. He sought to turn from 
the faith Sergius Paulus, the Roman 
deputy or proconsul of the island, who 
seemend disposed to accept the doctrine of 
St. Paul and seek for baptism. The 
Apostle, therefore, severeljr rebuked the 
sofcerer and struck him with temporary 
blindness, the miracle removing the last 
doubt which the proconsul had as to the 
claims of Christian truth on his acceptance 
(Acts xiii. 6-12). 

Iflitaliftrt [Heb. Ekabhadh = ** whom 
God has bestowed "J. 

(1) The ninth of the valiant Ghidites 
who came to David (1 Chron. xii. 12). 

(2) A son of Shemaiah. He was a porter 
in David*8 reign, and his broth^ were 
strong men (1 Chron. xxvi. 7). 

KLnphmii [Elizapran]. 

The same as Euzaphan No. 1 (q.v.) 


To attempt by means of "balm" or 
sweet spice of any kind to preserve a dead 
body from decay. The art of embahning 
seems to have been invented by the 
Eg^tians, and was mactised by them 
from verv early times. Thus, when Joseph 
died, ** tney embalmed him, and he was 
put m a coffin in Egypt " (Gen. L 26). The 
Egyptian embalmers were a numerous 
class, and by the time of the eighteenth 
dynasty [Eotft] had brought toeir art 
to great perfection. The entrails, brain, 
etc.^ were removed, while the abdoomnal 
cavity wfui washed out bv the injection of 
palm wine, and then filled with bruised 


myrrh, cassia, cinnamon, and other spioes. 
Next the whole body was plunged in 
natron, and left among it for seventy days. 
Then it was rolled in linen bandages onlj 
three or four inches wide, but of tb» 
extraordinary length of 700 or even 1,000 
^rards. Gum was lued to Iroep the bandages 
in their place, and finally the corpse, now 
mummiiied, was placed in a comn or a 
series of coffins one vrithin another, or in a 
stone sarcophagus. AU this and much 
more was done in the case of a rich man, 
whose interment, according to the Sicilian 
historian Diodorus, cost &e relatives the 
equivalent of about £240. A second-rate 
embalment cost about £80, and there was 
a much cheaper kind for the common 
people. If the deaths were 155,000 
annually— |ths, or about 130,000, those of 
the common people ; ^ths. or about 20,000, 
those of the middle ; ana ^th, or about 
5,000, those of the upper class— then the 
annual cost of embalmmg would be about 
£3,320,000. But Diodorus is thought to 
have exaggerated the price. Embfunung 
ceased about a.d. 700, by which time it is 
believed that 420,000,000 mummies had 
been preserved (Bawlinson, Ancient Egypti 
i. 510-614). 

Many mummies are in the British and 
other museums. Occasionally one is on- 
rolled, but it tends to fall to pieces when 

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(193 J 

exposed to the air. The action of Nioo- 
demus in placing lOOlbe. weight of myrrh 
and aloes around the body of Jesus was a 
partial but ineffective embahning ; so was 
that designed by the women. An Egyptian 
embafauer would have scorned these 
amateur efforts, but, spiritually yiewed, 
they were worthy of all praise (Mark zvi. 
1 ; LukB xxiii. 56 ; zxiv. 1 ; John xix. 39, 

ttilvoldery [English]. 

Ornamentation by raised figures of 
needlework, executed with coloi^ed silks, 
gold or silver thread, or any similar 
material differing from that of the original 
cloth. The A.Y. makes the coat of Aaron 
to be embroidered ; the B.Y. limits this 
kind of ornamentation to his girdle (Exod. 
xzviiL 39). It agrees with the A.y. in 
describing Bezaleef and Oholiab or Aholiab 
as able to practifie, among other arts, that 
of embroiaerin^ in blue, purple, scarlet, 
and fine linen (Exod. xxxv. 35 ; xxxviii. 

XnMndd [English from .... Lat. 
Smarugdu9f Gr. &narap<i9$. See {2)]. 

(1) The rendering in the •Bible of the 
Hebrew Nophek in Exod. xxviii. 18 and 
zzxix. 11, where it figures as the first stone 
in Uie second row of those on the Jewish 
high priest's breastplate. The Syrians 
imported precious stones of this kind into 
Tyre ^z&. xxvii. 16), and the Tyrians 
Qsed them for ornaments (xxviii. 13). 
The exact meaning of Nophek is doubtful. 
Oesenius hesitatingly compares it with 
fuk = ♦* a fucusj*' a higher kind of sea- 
weed. The B.Y. sometimes calls it on 
the mugin Cabbttncle (q.v.) [21. 

(2) The rendering in the New Testament 
of the Greek StnaragdoSf meaning **a 
|ncious stone of a light green colour.'* 
Idddell and Scott think that it may be 
applied to any green crystallised mineral. 
Dana doubtfulhr suggests the turqiioise. 
It was compared to a rainbow (Be v. iv. 3). 
It was to be the fourth foundation in the 
^ew Jerusalem (xx. 19). The emerald is 
a variety of bcoryl, distinguished by its 
ooloar, which is bnght green, from ty^caX 
bsryl, which is pale green, passing into 
light blue, yellow, or white. While the 
hoylis coloured bj iron, the emerald is 
coloured by chromium. Anciently it was 
found in Egypt and the mountains of 
Ethiopia ; now the best are brought from 
Peru and New Grenada. The turquoise, 
U. the "Turkish gem," "the ^&m brought 
into Europe from Turkey,'* is sky-blue, 
bluish green, or apple-green. One of its 
localities is between Suez and Sinai, where 
a mine of it was worked by the Egyptian 
kin<^ from an early perioa of the Middle 

[A corrupted form of English 

Hemorrhoids, HsBmorrhoids, Gr. JTouMor- 
rhoide*. from haima = " blood," and rAs# 
= "a flowing"!. 

Piles, external or internal. They were 
inflicted on the Philistines of Ashdod and 
Ekron, to compel them to send back the 
Ark which they had captured (1 Sam. v. 
6-vi. 11). 

»»"<w», »w*<w [Heb. Emim s " ter- 
rors," "terrible men," the plural of 
Etnah = "terror"]. 

An ancient people, the aborigines of the 
Moabite territory. Chedorlaomer and his 
confederates slew some of them in Shaveh 
Kiriathaim (Gen. xiv. 5) . They were once 
a people " maX, and maxiy and tall as the 
Anakims," Doing, like them, giants. They, 
however, seem not only to have been 
diminished in number, but to have physic- 
ally degenerated after the Moabite occupa- 
tion 'of their land (Dent. ii. 9-11). 

Xmnuuiiiel [See the article]. 

The New Testament Greek form of the 
Hebrew Iiocanusl (q.v.) (Matt, i 23— 

Xmmaiui [Gr. Emmaoue^ which may be 
a corruption of Heb. Hammath = " a hct 

A village to which Cleopas and another 
disciple were walking on the resurrectioa 
eveiung, when Jesus joined them and went 
with them to the place of their destination. 
After breaking bread with them there, He 
suddenly vanished from their sight, on 
which they returned to Jerusalem, and 
reported to the small Christian community 
whom they found assembled what had 
taken place. Emmaus is described by 
St. Luke as distant from Jerusalem about 
three score furlongs, i.e, 7i miles. The 
Sinaitic manuscript says a hundred and 
three score (20 miles), which is probably a 
wrong reeulmg, for this would be a long 
distance for the disciples to traverse twice in 
one day, and vet be m time for an evening 
meetin g (L uxe xxiv. 13-35). Josephua 
( War, vll. vi. J 6) says that Yeenasian 
locatea 800 soldiers, whom he had dis- 
charged from his army, at Emmaus, calling 
it exactly tiie same distance from Jerusalem 
that was done by St. Luke. Major Conder, 
examining his notes after returning, 
thought that the site was probably at the 
modem Khamasa, 8 miles south-wet of 
Jerusalem. It is in a very retired spot, on 
a slope at the bottom of which is a spring 
of clear water and a little pool. The 
identification not having been made on the 
spot, there seems to have been no inquiry 
whether or not there were hot springs in 
the vicinity {Survey of PaUstiney iii. 36-4*2). 
Other sites have also been proposed. 
Besides the Scriptural Emmaus, whicn wbs 
apparently an un walled village, there was 
a town ol some note called by the r 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 194) 

name (See 1 ICaoc. iii. 40 ; Josephus, War, 
IL zz. i 4). 

■mmor \See the article]. 
The New Testament Greek form of the 
Old Testament Hamob (q.v.) (Acts vii. 16). 

■n [The construct, state of Heb. Ain — 
(\) "the eye" ; (2) "the countenance"; 
(3) " a fountain," tiie sparkling water of 
which was supposed to resemble a lustrous 
human eye]. 

A fountam {See the comjwunds which 

(Ezek. xlvii. 10). Tristram thinks that 
it may have been the same asBETH-HoauL 

£n-Ganndc [Heb. = " fountain of 

(1) A village in a valley belonging to 
the tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. U). M. 
Clennont-Ghmneau identifies it with the 
present Umm Jina, about a mile west by 
south from Beth-shemesh, and three west 
of Ebenezer. 

(2) A town on the boundary-line of 
Issachar (Josh. xix. 21), assigned to the 

En-Dob [Heb. = "fountain of habita- 

A fountain and town within the limits 
either of Issachar or of Asher, but belong- 
ing to the tribe of Manaaseh (Josh. xvii. 
11). Sisera and his king, Jabm, perished 
in its vicinity (Psalm Ixxxiii. 10). It was 
the residence of the woman with "a 
familiar spirit," popularly called "the 
witch of Endor," wnom king Saul con- 
sulted when he found he coukI obtain no 
conmiunication from God (1 Sam. xxviii. 
7). It has been identified by Prof. Robin- 
son and others as the village of End6r or 
EndCtr, on the northern shoulder of Little 
Hermon, six miles east of Nazareth. There 
are caves still inhabited in the neighbour- 
hood, in one of which the " witch " may, 
perhaps, have lived. 

En-Eoiadc [Heb. En - Eghlaim = 
•* fountain of two calves "]. 

A place in the Dead Sea at one extremity 
of a line which had En-gedi at the other 

Gershonite LeVites (xxi. 29). It seems to 
be the Ginaea of Josephus (Antiq,^ XX. v. 
1 ; JTar, HI. iii. 4). Robinson identified 
it with the modem Jenin. Conder and 
Kitchener, accepting this view, describe the 
modem village or small town as beinff the 
capital of the district, and having 3,000 
inhabitants. On its northern side there 
are gardens [see etymology] with pahns, 
oranges, tamarisks, etc., enclosed by 
hedges of prickly pear (Survetf of Western 
Palestine^ u.45). Jenin is five miles north- 
east of Dothan and about seven south-west 
from Mount Gilboa. 

En-Gkdi [Heb. En-Gedhi = " fountain 
of a kid"]. 

(1) A fountain, originally called Hazawn 
Tamar or Hazezon Tamar, meamng 
" pruning of a palm " [Hazazon Tajob] 
(2 Chron. xx. 2). In the time of AbrahsJD 
it was occupied by the Amorites, niany of 
whom were slaughtered at the spot by 
Chedorlaomer and his confederate king^ 

Digitized by 


( 195) 


(Oen. ziv. 7). Barid took refuge for a 
oertain period in its stroocholdB (1 Sam. 
xxiii 29). It was while Sam was pursuing 
bim xmm the rocks of the wild goats [see 
etymoWy] that the fngitiTe cut off the 
monarch's skirt (xxiv. f-22). When the 
Ammonites and Mbabites invaded Judsea 
dminff the reign of Jehoshaphat, tibey 
haltedfora little at £n-ffedi (2 Chron. xx. 2). 
The fountain, which still bears the name of 
'Ain Jldy, is a copious hot spring of fresh 
water, bursting forth about 300 or 400 feet 
above the base of a vast clifF, on the western 
diore of the Dead Sea, 22 xnilee in a direct 
Hne from the entrance of the Jordan, and 
25\ from the southern point of the sea (cf . 
Ezek. xlvii 10). The hot water has created 
an oasis, rich with semi-tropical vegetation, 
as the osher (CalcirovU procera), the ju- 
jube, and the Indian honeysuckle. 

(2) A town or villa^ which arose not 
hr from the fountain (Josh. xv. 62). 
Near it were vineyards with Camphire 
(Song 1.14). 

(3) A wilderness west of the fountain 
and town or village (1 Sam. xxiv. 1). It 
vas called also Jeshdcon (q.v.), and was, 
perhaps, the wilderness of Judah or Judsea. 


En - Haddah [Heb. J?« - Hhaddah - 
'* fountain of sharpness,'* ** sharp" or 
''vehement {i.e. swift-flowing) fountain "]. 

A frontier village of Issachar (Josh. xix. 
11), Major Ck>nder locates it at Kefr 
AdAn, about five miles north of Bothan , and 
three north-west by west of Engannim (2). 
It is a village of moderate size^ built of 
(tone on the slope of hills, with olives 
bebw and a well on the west. 
. Ek-Hakkobb [Heb. En-Haqqore = 
"fountain of the crier"]. 

The name given by Samson to a fountain 
which, in answer to lus prayer, sprung up 
when '' God clave the hollow phice tlmt is 
inLehi" (the jawbone) (Judg. xv. 18, 19). 
Exact situation unknown. Major Conder 
thinks it may have been *Ayun K&ra, a 
little north of Zoreah. 

Ey-HA£OB [Heb. En-Hhattor = 
"fountain of (the) viUage"!. 

A fenced city of Naphtali (Josh. xix. 
37). It has been located at Haztreh, a 
nun 14| mileB west bv north from the 
watOTs of Merom, and about 9iin the 
"sme direction frcnn ond of the Hazors, 
Jabin's capital. 

Eh-Mibhpat [Heb. = *< fountain of 

The same as Kadkhh (q.v.) (Gen. 
nr. 7). 

Ek-Rdocoiv [Heb. = ''fountain of a 

A town or village in Judah, inhabited 
after the captivity (Neh. xi. 29). It has 
sometimes been thought that the Ain and 
Riwmion of Joah. xv. 32 and xix. 7 should 

be joined, in which case they might be the 
same place as £n-Rimmon. A fetal 
objection to this, however, is tiiat they are 
numbered separately in 1 Chron. iv. 32. 
En-Rimmon nas been located at Umm er 
Rum4min, in the south of Judah, ten miles 
north-east by north of Beersheba. 

En-Rooel [Heb. En-Roghel— ' ' fountain 
of (the; fuller"]. 

A fountain just outside Jerusalem 
(2 Sam. xvii. 17\Dut on a lower level than 
the city (note tne force of the words '*go 
down " in 1 Kinffs i. 25). The boimdary- 
line between Ju£^ ana Benjamin passed 
through the spot (Josh. xv. 7 ; xviu. 16). 
During Absalom's rebellion Jonathan and 
Ahimaaz took up their abode or concealed 
themselves there, to be able more easily to 
communicate with David (2 Sam. xvii. 17). 
The fountain had beside it a stone called 
Zoheleth, at which Adonijah engaged in 
festivities when he assumed the royal 
dignity (1 Kings i. 9). The traditionaiy 
situation of the fountain accepted by Prof. 
Robinson, Dr. John Thomson, Prof. Sayce, 
and others is Bir Eyub. the ^ell of Job or 
of Joab, which is at the junction of the 
valleys of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat, south 
of Jerusalem. But it is a well, not a 
fountain. On this and other grounds Dr. 
Horace Bonar, Sir George Grove, Major 
Conder, and others prefer to identify iii- 
Rogel with the Fountain of the Virgin, 
the only fountain of living water in the 
immediate vicinity of Jerusalem. [Beth- 

E8DA, GlHON.] 

En-Shemesh [Heb. = ** fountain of the 

A fountain and town on the boundary- 
line between the territories of Judah and 
Benjamin (Josh. xv. 7 ; xviii. 17). It has 
been identified with *Ain-Haua, a little 
east of Bethany. 

En-Tappuah [Heb. En-Tavpuahh = 
"fountain of Tappuah," i.e, "of an apple" 
or " an apple-tree"]. 

A fountain near the toWn of Tappuah (2) 
(q.v.) (Josh. xvii. 7). Major Conder places 
it doubtfully at tne spring near Yastif, 
about eight miles south by west of Shechem. 

, [Heb. = " two fountains "]. 
A village in a valley belonging to the 
tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 34). Major 
Conder thinks it ma}r possibly be identical 
with the modem ruin *Allin or 'AUn, in 
the low hills south-west of Jerusalem, the 
change of » to i and of m to n being not 
unusual in Semitic words. 

[Heb. = " having eyes," " see- 



le father of Ahira, the chief or captain 
of the tribe of Naphtali in the wilderness 
(Numb. i. 16 ; ii. 29 ; vii. 78, 83 ; x. 27). 
Knohantment, Inobantikieiit 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




The practice of certain magical arts, or 
the utterance of certain words, believed to 
produce supernatural effects over human 
Deings, dangerous animals, or nature 
generallv. Enchantments were largely 
practisea in pre-scientifio ages, as tney 
stm are in half-civiliBed countries, but 
they everywhere recede before the progress 
of science. The pretended enchantments 
mentioned in Scripture are discriminated 
from each other with difficulty. In the 
A.y. the word enchantment is the render- 
ing of words from four distinct roots, and 
doubtless all differed in meaning. So also 
the term enchanter is the translation, not 
of one, but of two words, which also nave 
different significations. In Exod. vii. 11, 
22 ; viii. 7, 18, the word for enchantments 
is Lehatim^ from Ldhat = *' to conceal," 
hence "to practise secret arts." InLev.xiz. 
26^ Numb, xriii. 23; xziv. 1; 2 Kings 
zvii. 17; zzi. 6; 2 Chron. xzxiii. 6, the 
woids are all connected with Nahha$h — 
« an incantation " and Nahhash = ** a 
serpent," from Ndhhash = ** to hiss," as if 
some use of a snake had to do with these 
enchantments. In Eccles. x. 1 1 the word 
is Lahhaah^ properly meaning ' *■ a whisper," 
as if mystic words not to oe heard were 
muttered. It oomes from Ldhhash = ** to 
whisper." Hhabarim in Isa. xlvii. 9, 12 
is from Hheber = '* conjimction," " social 
life," from Hh&bar = " to bind together." 
Of the two words for enchanters, that in 
Deut. xviii. 10, Menahhethy is connected 
with Xahhash = " a serpMont " ; that in 
Jer. xxvii. 9, Ouena]um, is from dnan = 
"to cover," ** to conceal/* "to practise 
secret arts." Here the B.Y. translates 
the word " soothsavers." In the A.V. 
the magicians of Egypt transform their 
rods into serpents by their enchantments, 
for which the K.V. on the margin substi- 
tutes secret arts (Exod. vii. 1 1)^ ; they make 
water into blood (22), and bring up frogs 
from the Nile (y'm. 7) ; but they fail when 
they try to make dust into lice, sandflies, 
or fleas (18). Perhaps the precautions 
against imposture, which had not been 
complete enough the first three times that 
the magicians tried their secret arts, had 
become sufilciently perfect to prevent any 
trickery from being successful when the 
subsequent attempts were made ; or tiny^ in- 
sects may have been too difficult to obtam in 
auantities, or to counterfeit, or to manipu- 
ito. The practising of enchantments was 
forbidden by the Mosaic law (Lev. xix. 
26; Deut. xviii. 10). Balaam at first 
sought enchantments against Israel, but 
had ultimately to confess that they failed 
of effect (Numb, xxiii. 23 ; xxiv. 1). The 
ten tribes used enchantments (2 Kings 
xvii. 17), so did Manaaseh, kin^ of Israel 
(2 Kings xxi. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6), and 
bis Babylonian captors (Isa. xlvii. 9, 12). 

In the time of Jeremiah the enchanters 
attempted prophecy, and were in this 
respect simply a section of the false 
prophete (Jer. xxvii. 9) ; the B.V. maken 
them soothsayers. Enchantments practiRd 
to prevent a venomous snake from biting 
did not require trickery ; a serpent can be 
fascinated vrithout the possession on the 
operator's part of any superhuman powers 
rEodes. X. 11— A. V. and B.V. ; cf. Psahn 
Iviii. 6 ; Jer. viii. 17). [Chabmeb.] 

■noeh [Heb. Hhanok - " initiated " or 
** initiating * *] . [Hanoch, Hekoch.1 
^ (1) A son of Cain, who biult for nim a 
city, which he namea after himself, Enoch 
(Gen. iv. 17, 18). 

(2^ A son of Jared, and father of 
Metnuselah. He was bom, by the ordinair 
Hebrew computetion, about B.O. 3382. 
He lived on euih in all 365 years, during, 
at least, the greater part of which he 
"walked with Qod." and then "he was 
not ; for God took him " (v. 18-24), whidi 
means, aa we learn from Heb*. xi. 5, that 
he was " translated that he should not see 
death." In Jude 14, 15, there is a quota- 
tion from a prophecy of Enoch's in which 
he threatens the unrighteous with final 
judgment [H]. 

{S) The " dty " built by Cain for his 
son Enoch [No. 1]. 

^ Tke Book of Enoch,— hn apooyphsl 
book believed to have been penned a uttle 
before the Christian era. It is not included 
in our modem Apocrypha. It is an extra- 
vagant production, amplifying the ante- 
diluvian history, and rendering it less 
credible. It was known to ttie early 
fathers, but appears to have been lost, at 
least to the churehes of Europe, about the 
eighth centurr. But, though the fact was 
uiuaiown and attracted no notice, copies 
of the book were to be found in Abyssinia, 
whence three were brought to Hhigumd by 
James Bruce, the traveller, in 1774. In 
1826 the book of Enoch was translated into 
English by the Bev. Bichard Lawrence, 
LL.D., Arehbishop of Cashel. It contains 
the passage quoted in Jude 14, 15. 

Enoft [Enosh] (Gen. iv. 26: v. 7, 9-11 

[Heb. Em$h = "a 


The son of Seth. At the age of 90 he 
begat Cainan. He died at the age of 905 
CGen. iv. 26 ; v. 6-11 ; 1 Chron. i. 1 ; Luke 
ui. 38 ; cf. A.V. and B.V.). 

[Lat., from Gr. EpatneUa- 
" to be praised," " praiseworthjr "]. 

A convert belonging to Achaia, and the 
first-fruits of that region to Christ. St 
Paul called him " beloved " (Bom. xvi 5). 

[An abbreviation for Epa- 

phroditus (i*)]. 

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( 197) 


A Ghrifltiaa who, coming to Fiaul whilst 
he waa a prisoner at Borne, gave a highly 
fttTonxabie aooonnt of theColossian chiutdi, 
with which he was connected, perhaps as 
its minister. He j<nned the Apostle in send- 
ing it salvtations (Col. i. 7, 8 ; iv. 12). 

In the epistle to Phnemon (t. 235 Panl 
calls him his fellow-prisoner in Christ. 

VlMtplirodltiis [Lat., from €hr. Epa- 
pkroditos = " lovely," " fascinating," 
^'charmiiL^ *'], 

A Christian, whom the chnroh at 
Fhilippi, of which, perhaps, he was the 
pastor, sent with a present to the Apostle 
Paul, then a prisoner at Rome. On arriv- 
ing at that capital, he handed over the 
present, the receipt of which Paul grate - 
rally acknowledged. Soon afterwards he 
hecame so sick timt his life was in danger. 
It grieved him neatly that the news of 
this had reachea Philippi, and created 
anxiety among his friends there. On his 
recovery, Pa«d thought it well that he 
should go thither, and give the church 
ocular proof that his sickness had departed 
(Phfl. li. 25-30 ; iv. 18). Perhaps Epa- 
phroditus and Epaphras may have been one 
and the same person, but there is a diffi- 
culty in accepting this view^ for the former 
seems clearly connected with the church 
at Fhilippi, and the latter with that at 

■pliali (1) [Heb. = '' darkness"]. 

I. Men. 

(1) The oldest son of ICdian (G^en. xzv. 
4 : 1 Chron. i. 33). His descendants are 
mentioned in Isa. Ix. 6 as rich in camels 
and dromedaries. They, therefore, pro- 
bably lived in, or near, the desert, but 
their exact locality is unknown. 

(2) A man of Judah, a son of Jahdai 
(1 Chron. ii. 47). 

n. A icoman, — A concubine of Caleb 
(1 Chron. ii. 46). 

Iialft (2) [Heb. Ephah, but the first 
is different from that in Ephah (1). 

Oiphi or Hoiphei = an old 


A measure of capacity containiuff ten 
omers (Exod. xvi. 36). It was used for 
such articles as flour (Jndg. vi. 19) or 
barl^ (Bnth ii. 17). Dishonest traders 
sometimes had an ephah of insufficient 
capacity and used it for fraud (Amos viii. 
5). The rahah contained 3 pecks, gallons, 
and 3 pints. 

Spiwl [Heb. = ''fatigued," '' languish- 

A Netophathite, who with others came 
to GedaHah, the wbylonian governor of 
Jndoo, after the fall of Jerusalem, and 
was promised protection (Jer. xl. 8). All 
were subeeqnently massacred by a certain 
Ishmael (xH. 3). 

[Heb., from Arabic Ghifr = " a 
calf," " a young mule " {Oesenius)], 

(1) The second son of Midian (Oen. 
XXV. 4 ; 1 Chron. i. 33). It has been sug- 
gested that his descendants may be the 
Arab tribe of Banu Ghiphar in Hedjaz. 

(2) A man of Judah, son of a certain 
Ezra (1 Chron. iv. 17). 

(3) A chief man m the half-tribe of 
Manaaseh, east of the Jordan (1 Chron. v. 

WiM Dammlm [Heb. == "Umit" or 
** cessation of bloods," i.e, ** of blood- 

A place within the territory of Judah, 
between Shochoh and Azekah (1 Sam. 
xvii.n. Called also PAS-DAiaa]C(l Chron. 
xi. 13). Exact site unknown. Major 
Conder {Tent Work, II. 160) suggests Beit 
Fased(* 'house of bleeding"), near Shochoh. 


A native or an inhabitant of Ephesub 
((],v,) {Attsxsi. 2<)). 

H * * Th& Epiatle of Paul the Apostle to the 
J^^/ir«ifl/M."— TIh*' fifth in order of the 
Tst'W Teataraent Ej »ist 1 es. It was addressed 
bv Pjiul ** k> tlifc ^aints which are at 
^be^ii- T\v\*\ ihr f i-^l fulin Christ Jesus" 
(iilir^. t I 1. ..,. The revisers say 
*' some very ancient authorities omit at 
J? ' " but in the edition of the Greek 
Ti containing the readings which 

th ,, led (Oxford, 1881) the words 
vtuiA ilk the text, showing that, in the 
opinion of the revisers, the preponderance 
of evidence is in their lavour. Those who 
omit them believe the epistle to have been 
a general one and not addressed primarily 
to the Ephesian church. like most oi. 
PauPs epstles, this one may be divided 
into four sections : (1) An introduction or 
a salutation (chap. i. 1, 2J ; (2) Doctrinal 
teaching (chap. i. 3-iv. 16) ; (3} Practical 
exhortations (chap. iv. 17-vi. 20J ; (4) A 
concluding portion with explanations and 
parting suutations (vi. 21-24). Internal 
evidence shows that the church atE^^esus 
was mainly a G^entile one ; and the Apostle 
lays great stress on the commission which 
he received from the Divine Head of the 
Church to reveal the mystery hidden 
from former ages, viz., that tlie Gentile 
converts were to oe placed on a footing 
of absolute equahty with those of Jewish 
descent in the Church of Christ (i. 9-12 ; 
ii. 1 -22 ; iiL 1 - 1 2). A most notable feature 
of the Epistle to the Ephesians is the great 
similarity both in ideas and in language 
which it presents to the Epistle to the 

Cf. EphM. i. 1 with Col. I. 1, 2 














Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


( 198) 


Cf. Ephes. 

1. 10 with CoL L 


11 M 


15 „ 


16 „ 

17 „ 
1» „ 



20 „ 

iii. 1 




ii. 10, 15 

., 22, 23 „ 




Similar correspondences run through all 
the other chapters. The most natural 
explanation is that the two epistles were 
penned about the same time, Paul having 

Onesimus had also with him the letter to 
Philemon (Philemon 10, etc.). [Efisilbb.1 
The Epistle to the Ephesians was quoted 
or alluded to by Polycarp, Irensus, 
Clement of Alexandria, Teitullian, etc 
With the exception of a few modem 
rationalists, Christians ^erall^ have 
accepted it as an authentic and mspired 
letter of St. Paul. 

MjflMmuM[ljii.t from Gr. Epftesoa]. 

A dty of Lydia on the western coiast of 
Asia Biinor, nearly equally distant from 


commenced the second one immediately on 
finishinfi^ the first, and while its ideas and 
even its language still clung to his memory. 
Differences of opinion exist as to whether 
the Ei)i8tle to the Ephesians or that to the 
Colossians was first penned : probably that 
to the Colossians had the priority. When 
Paul wrote that to the Ephesians, he was a 
prisoner for the Gentiles, and especially 
for those at Ephesus (iii. 1 ; iv. I ; vi. 20). 
The riot whicn led to his arrest and sub- 
sequent imprisonments at Jerusalem, at 
Cffisarea, and at Rome arose, it will be 
remembered, because it was supposed he 
had brought Trophimus, an fiphesian 
Gentile, contrary to law, into the Jewish 
temple (Acts xxi. 29-xxviii. 31). It was 
apparently during the last of these im- 
prisonments that the epistle was penned, 
probably in or about jl.d. 62. It was 
carried by T^rchicus (Ephes. vi. 21), the 
same who with Onesimus was the bearer 
of that to the Colossians (Col. iv. 7-9). 

Miletus on the south and Smyrna on ilie 
north. It was one of the twelve dties 
belonging to the Ionian confederation, and 
was itseu the capital of Ionia. It was 
situated at the mouth of the river Cayster, 
and in the vicinity of two lakes. Such a 
situation might seem to be marked out by 
nature for the site of a dtj ; but it is pos- 
sible that the temple of Ihana was erected 
first, because the spot was deemed sacred, 
and that the infiux of worshippers from 
all quarters created the dty. [DiAiri.] 
The first inhabitants seem to have been 
HiTTiTES (q.v.). These were ejected by 
the lonians, a section of the Greek noe. 
It was under the lonians that the temple 
of Diana rose into celebrity. Ephesus was 
taken by Croesus, king of Lyoia, whose 
capital was at Sardis. Then it fell under 
the Persian domination. When the vic- 
tories of Alexander the Great overthrew 
the Persian empire, Ephesus came under 
Macedonian-Greek rule. Hitherto it bad 

Digitized by 





been confined to a low alluvial plain liable 
to be flooded. About 300 B.C., however, 
Lysiniachas extended it to an adjacent 
eminence which the water could not reach. 
In 190 B.C. the Bomans, after defeating 
Antiochns the Great at Map^esia, took 
Ephesus from him, and gave it to Attains 
Philadelphus, king of Pergamoe. On hia 
death it reverted to them, and became the 
capital of the Roman province of Aida. 
and the residence of the ** Asiarchs.'' 
[Ajbiabch.] Paul paid a short visit to 
Ephesus towards the end of his second 
misBionary journey, and sailed thence to 
ORsarea m Palestine (Acts xviii. 19-21). 
On his third, he laboured at Ephesus at 
least two years and three months. It was 
on this second occasion that the riot 
occurred when Demetrius, who made 
shrines for Diana (models of tiie temple (?)) . 
found that his ** craft" was endango^d 
by the preaching of the Apostle (xix. 1-41 ; 
cf . 1 Cor. XV. 32 ; xvi. 8 ; 2 Tun. i. 18). 
Paul left Timothy behind to prevent the 
church from bemg corruptea by false 
doctrine (1 Tim. i. 3). When subsequently 
at Miletus, and unable to revisit Ephesus, 
be sent for the elders of the church and 
save them solemn counsel (Acts xx. 16, 17). 
Tychicns was afterwards desj^tched 
tmther, carrying with him the Epistle to 
the Ephesians (Ephes. i. 1 ; vi. 21 ; 2 Tim. 
!▼. 12). The church at Ephesus was the 
first of the *^ seven churches of Asia** 
addressed by the Apostle John in the book 
of Bevelations (Rev. i. 11 ; ii. 1-7), and 
tradition makes himself spend the last 
raus of his life in the city. The decay of 
Ephesus arose chiefly from the silting up 
of the harbour by mud brought down 1^ 
the Cayster. The destruction of the great 
temple by the Goths about a.d. 260 com- 
pleted the desolation. Now only a few 
remains of the city exist, but they are of 
great interest. These are part of uie wall, 
a fine theatre, nrobably that in which the 
natives shoutea "Oreat is Diana of the 
Ephesians,*' and finally portions 'of the 
** goddess's " temple. [Dianjl.] 

VpUal PHeb. = <<a judicial trial ** or 
" sentence ^1. 

A man of Judah, the pon of Zabad, and 
the father of a certain Obed (1 Chron. ii. 

[Heb. Fphodh = *^aji ephod**; 

from Aphad = " to gird around,** ♦* to 
throw around,'* ** to wrap about," used 
qmaally of an upper garment]. 

J n An upper garment worn by the Jewish 
High Pric»t, one of six sacred vestments 
wmeh he was required to put on when 
abont to conduct the worship of God 
(Ezod. xxviii. 4). The ephod was to be of 
sold, of blue, of purple, of scarlet, and 
me twined linen, tne whole executed by a 

skilful workman. It had two shoulder 
pieces joined by the two edzes (xxviii. 6, 7). 
There was to be a hole in the top, doubtless 
for the head, with a border around, to 
render the cloth less liable to tear (32). 
Two onyx stones, each having engmved 
upon it the names of six tril^, were to 
stand on the two shoulders of the ephod 
(xxviii. 9. 12 ; xxxix. 6, 7), to which the 
rings of the breastplate were to be bound 
with a lace of blue, so that the breastplate 


itself might be supported. With the same 
intention there was a *' curious girdle of 
the ephod "—A. v., a "cunningly woven 
band of the ephod"— R.V., below the 
breastplate (xxviii. 26-28; xxxix. 19-21). 
There was a robe of the ephod distinct 
from the ephod itself. Beneath on its 
hem there were to be golden bells and 
pomegranates placed alternately, the bells 
to tincle while the high priest went into or 
out of the Tabernacle (xxviii. 31-35 ; xxix. 
6; xxxix. 22-26). When David desired to 
ask counsel of God in the presence of the 
high priest Abiathar, he seems to have con- 
siderea it essential that the ephod should 
first be brought out (1 Sam. xxiii. 9-12; 
xxz. 7, 8). A more simple ephod of linen, 
probably without the ornamentation, eeems 
to have been worn by ordinary priests, for 
the eighty -five whom Doeg slew all wore 
a linen ephod (1 Sam. xxii. 18). Samuel, 
also, wore an ephod while he was a child 
in charge of Eu, the high priest (I Sam. 
ii. 18). David wore one apparently of 
simple linen ^2 Sam. vi. 14 ; 1 Chron. xv. 
27). The eptiod seems at times to have 
become an object of idolatrous worship 
(Judg. viii. 27 ; xvii. 6J. 

The children of Israel, it was prophesied, 
should remain many days without an 
ephod, the meaning probably being that 
the high priest should not m allowed to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( 200 ) 


oAdata, or, beinff in exile far from 
Jenualem, might uunk himself not war- 
rmnied to do so at a soot where JehoTah 
had not cfaoMQ ipeciaUyto dwell (Hosea 
tit 4). 

(2) The fatlier of Hanniel, prince of the 
trioe of Manasseh in the wilderness 
(Nnmb. xxziv. 23). 

b [An imperatiTe of Aramaic 

Pjtkmkh=z** to opea**]. 
Be opened (Mark vii. 34). 

I [Heb. = ''fruitful"; cf. Gen. 
xlL 52; or "a two-fold land,** "two 
lands" (?)((?«MWtiM)]. 

(1) The younger son of Joeeph. His 
mother was Asenath, the daughter of 
Potipherah, priest of On. He was bom 
while Joeei^ was prime minister of Egypt 
(Gen. zlii. 45-52). When the two sons 
were brong^ht to Jacob on his deathbed, to 
leoeiTe theur ffrandfather*8 blessing, Jacob 
intentionally laid his right hand (Uie hand 
of greater honour) on the head of Ephraim, 
the Yonnger grandson, and Ms left on that 
of Manasseh, the elder. Being remonstrated 
with by Joseph, he explained that both 
should oecome the pro^anitors of peoples 
or tribes; but Epnrami should be the 
greater and shoula be the ancestor of a 
multitude (or the fulness) of nations (Gen. 
zlTiiL 8-20). Ephraim and Manasseh, 
though onl^ grandchildren of Jacob, were 
treated as if they had been his children, 
and their descendants were consequently 
Marded as two tribes, instead of one. 

(2) The tribe of which Ephraim was the 
progenitor (Josh. xvi. 10 ; Judg. v. 14, 
etc). The rise of the tribe was for a time 
retarded by the death of several of his sons 
during the lifetime of their father in a 
fray against the Philistines (1 Chron. yii. 
21-28). At the first census in the wilder- 
ness the Ephraimites numbered 40,000, 
bekig the lowest in number of the tribes 
excepting only Manasseh and Benjamin 
(Numb. 1. 33). They fell off during the 
wanderings, and at the second census 
numbered only 32,500, being now the 
lowest of all the tribes except Simeon 
(XX vi. 37). In Moses's blessing these 
words are used with regard to the future 
rather than the time that then was, '' the 
ten thousands of Ephraim *' and '' the 
thousands of Manassen '* (Deut. xxxiii. 17 ; 
cf. also 13-16). When Joshua was the 
leader of Israel, the tribe rose rapidly in 
reputation, for he was himself an Ephraim- 
ite (Josh. xix. 50 ; xxiv. 30). The Ephraim- 
ites failed to expel the Canaanites from 
Geser, which was within the lot of 
Ephraim ; but, either alone or in conjunc- 
tion with their kindred the Manassites, 
they captured Bethel (Judg. i. 22-26, 29). 
They acted patriotically in the fight cele- 

brated in son^ by Deborah (v. 14). They 
quarrelled with Gideon, who was a 
Manasw'te, for not having called them to 
aid him in expelling the Mjdianifas froia 
Canaan (viii. 1-3). They absolutely en- 
counterea in battle Jephthah, thedehverer 
of Israel, for not havmg summoned them 
to assist him in the Ammonite war, 42,000 
of the now evidently much more populous 
tribe falling in tlie struggle (xiL 1-6). 
Micahf of graven image notoriety, was an 
Ephraunite, or at least resided in Mount 
Ephraim (xvii. 1) ; an