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STjmnr memories 



u i> i^ 1 ivi i!j ivi u n I j^ 8,^ 



1^ ^ . o 











This book will bo found to be truly what iU name denotes* 
'*SuJinj ifemoriea," 

If the crtticbm be made that everything is given vmt^eur de^ 
nme, the answer is, Why not? They are the impj-esaionaf as 
ttey arose, of a meet agreeable TJsit, How coul4 they 
otherwise ? 

If there he chEiraeters and seenea that seem drawi^ with, toq^ 
bright a peneil, the reader wiH consider tlxaf^i gfter all, there arf | 
many worae ains than a digpoaitioi^ to thjnk and speak well * 
one's neighhom'a. To admire and to love may now and then ba ' 
tolerated, as a variety, as well aa to carp and criticize. 4-^^^*^* ^J 
and England have heretofore abounded tpwarda euch other ij|^| 
illiberal critic iBms, There is not aa unfuvoiirable aspect of 
It-iii^s in the old world which has not become perfectly famihar 
to n*f and a little of the other aide may havo a useful influence. 

The writer has been decided to issue these letters principally, 
lloweTer^ by the persevering and dehberate attoraptsj in certain 
qiiarters, to miarepreaeat the circumstaneea which are here 
given. So long aa theae misrepreientatioiia ^tEt^Ct^ <iTii?i XVnf** 
w}u^ were prctiiL't^rma^d to believe Tiftfa.^o\i(.T:^^^:3[i'^^l TR(£tfc\ia'^ 

itded But us they jkye had iome mfivieucc »m <i<sE*^is:m *»^* 



upOTi re all J ercellent and honest people » it is desirable tliat i 
trutb. should be plainly told. 

The object of publialiing these letters ifl, therefore, to give to 
tho60 who are tnie-kearted and honest the same ajpfreeable 
pic tare of lifo and manners which met the writer's own eyea. 
She had in view a wide circle of friends throughout her own 
country J between, wbosa hearts and her own there has been an 
acquaintance and sympathy of years, and who, loving excellence, 
and feeling tb« n'ality of it in themselYos^ are sincerely pleased 
to haye their sphere of hopefulness and charity enlarged. !For 
Buch this is written; and if those who are not such be^ to 
read, let them treat the book as a letter not addressed to them, 
wliich, having opened by mistake, they dose and pass to ^ha 
tme owner. ^H 

The Engliali reader is requested to bear in mind that the book 
haa not been prepared in reference to an English but an 
American public j and to make due allowance for that fact. It 
would have placed the writer far more at ease had there been no 
prospect of publication in England. As this, howeTer, was 
unaroidable, in some form, the writer has chosen to issue it 
tliere under her own sanction. 

There is one acknowledgment which the author feels happy to 
makei, and that is, to those pubhsbera in Englandj Scotland, 
France, and Germauy, who have ahown a liberality beyond the 
requirements of legal obligation. The author hopes that the day 
13 not far distant when America will reciprocate the liberality of 
other nations by granting to foreign authors those rights which 
Jier own receive from them, 

T/ii3 JbMmal which flpfpears in the continental tmu ia feoioa. 
^^^ pen of the Bev. C. Beecher. The Ldtern ^exe, tot \Ni 

most part, compiled from what was written at the time and on 
the spot. Some few were entirely written after the author's 

It is an affecting thought that several of the persons who 
appear in these letters as among the living, have now passed 
to the great future. The Earl of Warwick, Lord Cockbum, 
Judge Talfourd, and Dr. Wardlaw, are no more among the ways 
of men. Thus, while we read, while we write, the shadowy 
procession is passing; the good are being gathered into life, and 
heaven enriched by the garnered treasures of earth. 

H. B. S. 

Jii|erpoioL — The'Dingle.^A Bagged SchooL— Flowera.-^pekeHaU, 
— AtitialftTeTy Meeting f j 

JjaDcaahiro,— Carljflle. — ^Gretaa Green, — Ulasgow , , . , 30 


The Baillie. — -The Cathedral.— Dr. Wardlaw.— A Tea Party,— 

, Both well Oaatle.— ChiToIiy.— Soott and Bi^ma . « , . ^5 ; 

UmahBjban Castle.— Duke of Ajgyle.- LinlithgoT,— Edinbu^k . 34 , 

PnbEc Soiree,— Br. Guthrie. —Craigmiller Caslk.— -"Baaa ^fiiOttY. — 

£aaji0ckburn.—StirUiig, — GU^mia CftBtl?, — Bareky ^ATSrj, — -'^^ift 
lfee.^Ab&demi.-~The C^t/iedraJ.— Brig o' P^qwiu% 


Letter from a Scotch Bachelor. — ^Reformatory Schools of Aberdeen. — 

Dundee.— Dr. Dick.— The Queen in Scotland . . . .61 

Melrose. — ^Dryburgh. — Abbotsford 62 

Douglas of Cavers. — Temperance Soirfie. — Calls. — Lord GUnsborough. 
— Sir William Hamilton. — (Jeorge Combe. — ^Virit to Hawtiiomden. 
—Roslin Castle. —TheQuakers.—Hervey's Studio.— Grass Market. 
— Qrayfidars' Churchyard 81 

Birmingham. — Stratford'on-Avon 91 

Warwick. — Eenilworth 107 

Coventry. — Sibyl Jones.— J. A. James 118 

London. — Lord Mayor's Dinner 123 

London. — Dinner with the Earl of Carlisle 128 

London. — Anniversary of Bible Society. — Dulwich Gallery. — Dinner 
with Mr. E. Cropper.— Soirle at Rev. ify. Binney's . . . 182 


&pitut Koel- — Borough School. ^Ko^ra ike Poet, — Stafford Houae. 
— Ptemere CoUectbn of Paintings, — Lord John Ita^jsell . ,150 

Bnakfaat — Macanlay. — HAll&m. — Milmnn, — Sir E. InglLi. — Limch 
«t Surrey Parsonage.— Dinner at Sir E, Buitotf a . , .157' 

iflt at Lord Shafteabaiy's Ifljl 

1 Stoke NewLQjjton. —Eifeter Hail. — A ntialaTery Meeting . . . 167] 

Windaor.^TbaPictiireGiJleiT.— Eton.— The Poet Qfray . . ITS^ 

RsF. Mr. Gumey. — Riehmond, tlie Artist, — Kosifnth. — FemhFoke 
Lodge.— Dinner at Lord John Russell's. ^Lamlwtli Palaoe . , 180 

Fkjfcn-dEall.— Clorkaon , . IS^] 

Joseph Stmige, — The "TLmes" upon Dresamaking. — Dtikc of Ajifyle. 
— Sir David Brewstar,— Lord Mahon.— Mr. Gladatona . . 19{|| 

!k>£irfflQifi:aLae,,aadI3i-essinaket3.-^LordaUi^^ . 


J^fehbiakoTp of Canterbtiry's Sermon to the Bagged B<^M^M8*-r^* 

Cobden.— Mifls Qreeiifield'B Concert.— Bev. S. R. Ward.— Lady 

Byron. — Mrs. Jameson. — Qeorge Thompson. — Ellen Orafte • . 203 

Model Lodging Honses. — Lodging House Act. — ^Washing Hooses . 209 . 


B«nevolent Movements. — The Poor' Laws. — The Lunna.— Faetorf 
Operatives. — Schools, &c. 214 


Presentation at Surrey Chapel. — House of Parliament. — ^Miss Grreen- 
field's Second Concert. — Sir John Malcolm. — The Charity Children. 
—Mrs. Gaskell.— Thackeray 220 


London to Paris. — Chnrch Music. — The Shops. — The Louvre. — 
Music at the Tuileries. — A Salon. — Versailles. — ^M. Belloc . . 224 

The Louvre.—The Venus de Milon 232 


M. Belloc's Studio. — M. Charpenti^. — Salon Musicale. — ^Peter 
Parley.— Jardin Mabille. — T^TnainH of Nineveh. — The Emperor. — 
Versailles. — Satory. — Pere la Chaise. — ^Adolphe Monod. — Paris to 
Lyons. — Diligence to (Jeneva. — Mont Blancrr-Lake Leman . . 239 

^^ ^ CbjuaounL-^laiaerH , . «i5>V 



ionL-^loiUM, the Mttle.— -rhe Aeoent .... 301 


Ipa . * ... - . 


ffili to MartigBy. — HumomrB of thia Mu1d« .... 27S.^^ 


I Floirenj.— Fobs of tlie Tfite Woir 374 



io St. Beruftrd,— The Doga * SSa 


on. — BonneTuxd.— Mont Blaoc froinQieneTa, — Lutber Had 
in.— JtadaniQ De Wette.— M. Fasy . » , . , 28i 


OEde,}— Laueanne. — Freyljiirg, — Bame.|— The Steubbadi.— 

pjpe.— FloweiB.— 'Qlaciers.— The Eiger 

hierhcliea. — Sunrise id the MoTjutASliS.^ — ULonxiBatBA. \Si 


StraBboBrg , . . . 800, 

The Bhine.— Heidolberg . . . . . . . .802 

To Frankfort 30i 

Frankfort.— Le8tdi)g*s " Trial of Hnas." 306 . 

T Cologne.— The Cathedral * 308 

Cologne— Church of St. Ursula.— Relics.— DuBBeldgrf . . .809 

To Ldpric.-»M. Tftachnitz.-<Dre8den.— The Qalleiy.— Berlin . 313 

The Dresden Gfallerjr.—Schoeffer 316 

Berlin.— The Palace.— The Museum 328 

Wittenberg.— Luther's House.— Melancthon's House . . .326 

Erfurt— The Cathedral.— Luther's CeU.— The Wartburg . . 832 

The Smoker d&comfted.— Antwerp.- The Cathedral Chimes.- To 
Fsria ... ^"^^ 

tiltwcfpt — fiuMna 

Cn stehts. 




I Paris. — School cf Design. — Egyptian and A^^rian Eemains. — Mrs, 
S, G. HalL~The Pantheon,— Tho Madekme.— Notre Dama— 
BenLDg«r. — French Character. — Oheerrance of SundAy . . 340 

^ S^-mfkoeHfl <m the Channel 


trropooi., April ii, lesi. 

Ion wish, first of all, to hear of the yojh^. Let me assure yoti, inj 
dear% in the very commencement qif the msitter, that gctmg to ^ea. is nut at 
^ the thing that we have taken it to be. 

You know how often i*'e havfl longed fur a aea voyage, aa the fulfilment 
of a.11 our dieams of poetry and romimcOj ths realization of our htgbcfit 
conceptions of free, joyous existence. 

You remember our ship-Ian uching parties in Maine, when we used to 
ride to the seasitle through divrt plue forests, lighted up with the gold, 
scarlet, and oratigo tlats of autumn. Whi^t exkilai-ation there w^ia, as 
those beautiful inliind baya, one by one, uiir?>lled like silver ribbons before 
vi I and how all our sympathies went forth with the grand now ship about 
to be lauacbed I How ^raci^fnl and noble a thing alie looked, as &be sprang 
tram thc< ahore to the blue waters, like a hum^u soul sjiringing from Ufa 
into immortality ! Uow all our feelings went with her ! how we iotiged to 
be with Tier;' and ft part of her— to go with her to India, CUinn, or any 
where, so that wa might rise and fall on the bosom of that ma^rtificeat 
ocean, and share a part of thfit glorified existence I That ocean I that blue, 
sparkling, heaTing, mysterious ocean, TviLh all the signs and wonders of 
^ERvreu emhlEiaoned on its bosom, imd another world of mystery hidden 
teneath ita waters I ^VTio would not long to enjoy a freer communion, and 
nejoico in a prospect of days spent in unreserred fellowship with its grand 
and noble nature? 

Alas ! what a contrast between all this poetry and the real prose faat 
of going to Bta f No man^ tho proverb Bays, is a hero to his valet do 
chambre. Certainly, no poet., no h^o, no inspired prophet, ever lost so 
mach on near aa^uaiutance as this same niystio, giandihiquent old Ocean. 
The one step from the aublima to the ridiculous is never tjikcn with sui 
alacrity as in a sea voyage. 

In the ftrat place, it 13 a melauclioly fact, Tmt not the Usiatrvsife,, \-\va!i. ^\\"_ 
life is ti'>t at all fmpant; ui short, particTakr\j oii a ?!tevs.i!flfiX, VV^-w 


^ hour itfier SiiUins, be-ing to come lipQiL you \ S^S. ^^^V^*^^ "^ 


Stange, myeterioTia, ineffable aeusatiou wliiclrjilealfl &low]y and inexplicably 
upon yoQ ; irliicli mnkeB etvaiy heavkig bilif*''^, every whtte-capi>ed -wuve, 
tbe ship, the people, the eight, tast«,li»Tind, and smell of ©verytiing a 
iDatter.of inexprBaKibk loathing i 'ii^ cannot ntter ii, 

lb is really amaaing to wat«Kth^ ^dnal progress of this epidemic; to 
Bee people etepping on tMioEl in. the Highest possible feather, alert, aliy, 
mmble, parading the.dpctj^ "^iatty and conTersablo, mi the brat possible 
terms witli theiu^«lv^_"^(f munkiBd generally j the treacherous ship^ 
meanwhile, unduwtiti^ and heaving in the most graceful rises and pauses 
imaginiible, 'Jlke Mme voluptuotifa waltzef; sfid then to see &n« after 
another yieldiifg to tho myBterioufs spell ! 

Yoi^'ptJtj; bpinches forth, "full of aentimeut snblmie aa billows/' die- 

couriing'aii^nificently on the colour of the waves and the glory of Uje 

dotjtl^^ but gradually lie grows white about the mouth, gives sidelong 

'JuiJsaUuworda the stairway ; &t hsi^ with oue desperate plunge, lie eete, to 

, Ififee'uo more ! 

' *, * Hera sits a stout gentleman, who looks as resolute ae an oak log. * * [fheEe 
tMjigs are much the effect of imagination," he t^lls you ; "a litUe b^H" 
oontrol and rcftolutiou," k^. Ah uie [ it ijs delightful^ ythtin these people, 
vho are always talking about resolution, get (Miught on shipboard. Aa the 
Tmckwoodamau -said to tbe MissisBippi Eiver, about the Bt«!imboat, they 
' ' get tJieir match." Onr jstout gcutleniaii sits a quarter of an hour, upright 
AEi a palm tree* his back ^qtiart^l against tbe rails, pretending to he reading 
% paper ] but a, dismal look of disgust is settling down about his lips ; the 
old iea and bid wiU aiG cridently having a pitched battle. Ah, ha ! there 
he go^ fnr the stairway; says he has lefb a book in the cabin, but sihootn 
"ly with the moat Euspldoua velottty- You may fancy hia finale, 
fc^ Theu of conrse, there are young ladieSj—f harming creatures,— -whcj, in 
Bn^ut ten minutes, are going to die, and are sure they shall die, and don't 
■ ^»Te if they do J whom amdous papas, or brothers, or loTers, consign ivitb all 
ipeed to those dismal lower regions, where the briek chambermaid, T?ho 
lias been expecting them, seems to think their agomes and groans a regnkr 
part of the play. 

I h&d come on board thinking, in my simplicity, of a fortnight to he spent 
something like the fortnight on a trip to New Orlcaua^ on one of our flrat- 
iug river palaces ; that we should sit in qur state-rooms, read, sew, sketch, 
and ohat; and jftcoidingly I laid in a magniticent prOTision in the way of 
litemture and divers matters of faupy work, with which to -whik away the 
time. Some last, airy touches, in tho way of making up bows, dispodng 
ri^jns, and binding collarets, had been left to these long, leisiire hours as 
lUiOtters of ainuseiaent. 

Let me warn you, if you ever go to sea, you may as well omit all sjuch 
fTGparationa. Don't leave so much as the unlocking of a trunk to be donfj 
after sailing. In tbe few precious minutes when tlie ship stunda stdl, 
before she weighs her anchor, stt your house, that is to say, your state 
room, as ranch in order as if you wore going to be hanged ; place e\'erything 
in the most con'renient position to Ije seixed without trouble at a momein'a 
notice; for be sure that in Imlf au hour afler sailing an infinite desperation 
yf'iY[ seiae yon, in which the grnafshofper wjU be a buiilen. If any thing ia 
laj'iittr triujk, it might almost as well be In the sea, for any practical pro- 
biibilltj of^Qor^ttwg to it. 

Wis TOrXG'B, 

Moreoref, let ytmr toilet be cmincatly eimplej for jou will find tko tim* j 
doming when to tsutton a. cuff or arrange a ruff will be a matter of absolutft ] 
despft-lr. You lie disc^aiieDlate in your berth, onlj dGsiijDg to be let alono 1 
to die; and tbeiij if yoa are Uild, as yon always are, that *'ytiu mustn't \ 
^ve way,*' that "you must ronse yourself and come on dflck, you will ' 
appreciate the valus of simple attire. With, every thing in yotir berth 
dizzily Hwiaging backwards and forwards, yoor bunnet^ your cloak, your 
jQUT glcivBs, all present so many diocouraging impossibilitiea ; 
i irtringa cannot be untied , and modes of JiiHtenin^ which seemed 
i and conveuleut, when you had nothing else to do but fitisteii them, 
naw look disgustingly Lupractlcable. NtiTorthdnsa, your fute for th{} whala 
▼dySLge depends upon your rousing yourisaif W got upon deck at firctt ; to 
^ire up, then, ia to be aondemjied to the Avor&naj the Hades of the lowor J 
regions, for the rest of the voyage, ] 

Ah, tfioic lower regions! — the aaloona — eveiy couch and comer filled with! 
prostrate, despairiitg forms, with iiale cheeka, long, wdluwy hair anlj 
lankon eyes, groaning, sighing, and apoetrophiaing the Fates, and enleranly 
Towing between ovury lurch of thiJ tihip, that " yuiill ucTer <;ateh theml 
giving to sea again, that's what yon wont ;" and then the Lulletiiiis from all' 
the state roouxs — '*Mra. A, Is ekk, and Miss B. sicker, and Miss 0. 
ftlmost dead, and Mrs. E,, F., and Q. declare that they eball give up." 
l^biB threat of ^'giving up'* is a standing resort of ladies in diatresaed cir- 
eQiaatADe«&; it ia always rery Lnpreti^ively pronooneied, as if the result of 
eanicst purpose ; but how it is to be carried out practically, how ladies d^ 
give npj and what general impression is madfi on creation when they do, 
baa never yet appeared. Certainly the fiea seems to caru very little a^uut 
the threat, for he goes on lurching all Lands about Jtist as freely afterwardv 1 
as before. 

There are always soma three or four in a hundred who escape all thesa ' 
Bvils. They iire not sick, and they seem to be having a good time geneiiUly, 
and always meet you with "What a charniiiig run wti are having! Isn't 
It delightfuU" and so on. If you have a turn for being dhunterested, you. 
C»n ciinsiile your miseries by a view of their Joyouauess. Three or four 
©f our ladl^ were of Has happy OTder,, and it was really rirfreahing to ae« 

For my part, I wafl less fortunate. I coald not and would not give np 
&nd become one of the ghoets helow, and so I managed, by keeprtig on deck 
and trying to aot as If nothing was the matter, to lead a very unciirtaia and 
preearious existence, though wltli a most awful undertone of emotion, which 
seemed to make quite another thing of creniioii. 

I wonder that people who wanted to break the souls of heroes and 
martyrs never thought of sending them to sea and keeping them a lltllo sea* 
ftitik. The dmngeuns of t.)lmuti, the leads of Venice, in short, all the 
nanehty, wicked placed tiiat tyrants ever invented for brlrigujg down the 
spirits of heroes, are nothing to tlie berth of a dhip. Uet Lafayette, 
Koseuth, or the noblest of woman bom, prostrate in a, swiugiog, dizzy burth 
of one of these sea coops, called etate rooms, and FU wairant almost any 
oompromise might be got out of thejn- 

\Vhere in the worJJ the aoul goes to under finch iiifl,Taeac«aTnAisAitQsMr*\ 
oaB woctJJ jvally think the sea tipped it all o\it aX a hikd,, >ua^ ft^'V^ ^^^. 
jhe w&ter oat of Lis wash hadu. The soul seems to \)tVike uug q^ 'Otisi ij|i^ 

B 2 




Tns^ ia the Arabian Kighls ; now, it rises Uke & pi!lar «f 
clbUiI, and ftu:itH oy&t lund and sea, Luoynnt, XQimy-huccI, and ^on^us; 
(iK«int it goes down, down, aubauling inti) iU e upper vobo, imd the cuver is 
eJupped on, iind tberc you are. A aea vojaje Ja the beet device for eefctiog 
tlie fiaal Ijftck into its vofie that I ltin>w of. 

But ab nigbt ! — the beauties of a nigbt on sliipbrinrd ! — down in jijur 
berth, with tho sea hissing and fizzing, gurgling and bouming, Tvithiis aa 
incib of your wr ; and then the steward cornea jidong at twelTe o'clock atid 
pnta out your light, aod there yon jtrel Jonah in the wbiile was not darker 
or more dismal. There, in jircfound ignorance and blindness, you lie, and 
fed yqn^tclf rnUfld upwardsj and downwards, and sldewise, and all imya, 
like a cork in a tnb of water ; much such a sensation aa one might fiuppoaa 
itto htj, were one headed up in a Imrrel and thrctwu into the !>ea. 

OccatMEmolly a wave eomes with a thump against your car, as if a great 
luunmGf were knocking on your barrel, to see that all within was safe and 
sound. Then you begin tJ think of krakens, and sharks^ and por|joises, 
aud sea serpents, and all the monstrous, slimy, cold, hobgoblin bro^jd, who, 
perhaps, are your neit door neighbours j and the old blue-haired Oseaa 
whispers throngh the planks, '* Here you are ; I've got you. Your grand 
ahip in my pbything. I can do what I like -with it." 

Then yon hear every kind af odni noise in the ship — creaking, straijjiBg, 
onmuhlng, scrapingj pounding, whistling, blowing off steam, each of which 
to your unpractised ear ia significant of some impending catastrophe ; you 
lie wide awake, listening with all your might, as if your watching did any 
good, till at hist sleep ovene^omes you, and the morning light convinces you 
that nothing very particular has been the matter, and that all ihme 
fn,;litfal noisea aie only the necessaiT attendants of what is called a good 

Our voyage out was called " a gnod run." It was Toted, unanimously, to 
"he "an extraordinarily good passage,*' "a pleasant Toyage;" yet the ahip 
rocked the whole time from sdde to Bide with a ^ady, 6hzy, continuous 
Motion, like a great cradle. I had a new sympathy for babies, poor little 
thiugB, who are rocked hours at a time without so much as a '• by your 
leave" in tha case, Ko wonder there are so many stupid people m the 

There is no place where killing time m so much of a systematic and avowed 
jject aa in, one of these short nma. In a six moaths' voyage people give 
ip to their siUation, and make arrangements to live a regidar life ; but the 
ten days that now divide England and America are not long enough for 
anything. The grent question is how to get them off; they ai'e set up, like 
tenpins, to he bowled at ; and happy he whose ball proapei-s. People with 
strong heads, who can stand the inccsfiant swinging of the boat, may read 
or write. Then there is on^'s berth, a never-failing i-esort, where one may 
analyze at one's leisure the life and emotions of an oyater in the mutL 
"Walking the deck is a meana of getting off some half holura more. If a 
»hi;;i heaves in sight, or a porpoise tumhlea up, or, better still,, a whole 
ftpout.'i, it makes an jimneuse aeiisation. 

Uur favomite rc,?urt in by the old red smoke pipe of the steamer, winch 

liscs warm and lumiliotifi tt& a sort of tower of defence. The wend must 

Wpw an uncommon variety of way a at once when yuu cannot find a sbtl- 

*p/ia/ jsy«% AS »'d/ as a place to warm your feet. In fiwt, tha <M. vwhs 



pipa is this dotncaLic hcartTi of tlie ship ; there, witli tbe douMe cunrmctic* 
of wjvrmth and frash air, y^n can sit bj the railing, and, Lioklng down, 
eomoiJinil %he proapi'uCr of the ooflk's otiicud, tlia cow iiuiise, pantries, ic. 

Our cook Jias apeivUlly iiitoreatod kh — a tall, Bleudar, mtibiiicliiilj mnn, 
with a watery-blue eye, n patient, dejected Tisage, like an individual 
trcarj oF ttie storma aud coinmutium of lifey Jiod thuroughl/ impresssd 
"trith tho vunity of humaa -nrialiGS. I sit there boiu: after hour Tatohing 
Mm, and it hi evident that he perfarm^ dl Ills duties in this frame of Sjid 
composure:, Kow I see htm reaigncdly atuifing u turkey, ttnon compounding 
a sa^ice, or mgnrnfullj making Utile ripple^ in the cnust of a tart; hut all 
b done under an evident sense that it is no nse trying, 

Miuij complaintfl haye been made of our coffee since we liave heeu on. 
biard, v/]uc\ to say the trutln, L%s been as nnaettled as moat of the Bocial 
qnestiona of our dny, and, perhaps, fur that retb&ou q[uitQ oa geaerallj 
unpalatable J bnt aince I hare aeen our caok^ I am quite pcrauftded thattho 
coffee, like uther wurka of great iutiMti, hiis borrowed the hnea of its 
miiker^s mind. I think I hear him sulilociuist' over it — "To what purposa 
is coffee? — of wUat avail tea? — thick or cleLir? — all ia passing away — 1» 
little egg, or fish akin, more or lesa, whati are t^Qy f and so wb get 
melancholy eoffee and tea, owing to our philosophic coot. 

After dinner I watch him aa ho washes dishes : he hangs up a whole row 
the ship gives a lurch, and knocka them all do'wn. He laoki as 
"was gnst what he e "peeted, " Suph is life !'' he aajB, a« he piirsuca 
iky tin pa-n in one dircetion, and arrests tha pamhola of the ladle in 
anothier ; while the wicked eeo, meanwhile, with another lurch, h upeetting " 
all his dishwater, I can see how these didly triids, this performing of most 
delicate and complicated gastrontnnic operations in the mid»t of such un- 
steady, wnBettJed circumBtanoes, have gradually given this poor soul a 
d^pair of living, and brought him into thia state of philoaophio melan- 
choly. Just ^ Xautippe made a fiiigs of Sucrates, iMs whiaky, frisky^ 
Btordiy ship life has made a sage of our cook. Jteanwhile, not to d{> hiia 
jnjuatico, let it he recorded, that in all dishes which require gmve ooa- 
Tietion and steady persevenmce, rather than hope and inspi ration, he is 
eminently successful. Our table excels in viands of a reflecitive and iSnlmnxi 
character; mighty rounds of beef, vast saddles of mutton, and the whole 
tribe of meata in general, come on in a auperior style, English pltim 
pudding, a weighty ami seriivus performanoe, la ejihiblted in firat-rate order. 
The jellies want lightness, — but that ifl to he espeeted. 

I Admire the thorough order and system with whifh every tiling is done 
in those ahips. One day, when the servants came ruund, as they do at a 
certain time after dinner, and screwed up the shelf of decanters and bottles 
out of our reach, a (German geatleman remai'ked, "Ah, that's always the 
way on Kugli&h ships ; eTerything done at such a time, without Siiyiag ' by 
jour leave.' If tt had been on an American ship now, he would have said, 
•Qeatlemen^ are you ready to havethiH shelf raised f " 

No doubt this remark in true, and extends to a good many other things ; 
Init in a ship in the middle of thi ocean, wheu the least confusion or 
^ IrNguIarity in certain cases might be deatnjustiou to all on board, it doca 
inapire confidence to see that there is even in tlae lumulcsi^ ^uiwjj?, b. iiH.x4i"ti^ 
and steady svsiem, that goes on without saying " \>5 ^oxit \c2cni,^'* ^^^""^ 
^ li^dacss wiiji which lights axe aU e:rtia5tt\BktA, aJfc \<w^^a ^^'5*c*> 

atTNinr memoeibs of poreigit iAin>9, 

though It is very hard in soma cases, still givfis you coufidaiice in 18* 
watch fill iic£^ anfi «UTJ with w}ii[;h all an board is conducted. 

Oij Sunday there waa a aervice. We went mUi the cabin, atid sftw 
pmjer Iwiika arrunged at regnbtr iuterTals, and soon a procession of tliS 
jailors neatly dressed, died iu aud to^ik their places, together with snti 
passeo^er^ ii^ felt disposed, and the order of tiioriiing pruyer was read. Tbe 
B^lors aU looked Eciious and stteaiive. I could not but think that tHa 
feature of the njanageroent of hor majeaty's ehipa was a gtiod one, 
TTorthy of imitatioa. To be sure, one can aay it is only a form. Granted, 
tut ia not a serious, respectful /or m of religion better thiin nothing 1 Be£ide% 
I am not williog to think that these intelligent-looking Kiilora oonld listen 
to all those dflvout Bedtiraenta expressed in the prayers, and the boIytnitl« 
C^mboditid in the passagcH of Scripture, and not gain samethiiig froiu it, llr 
is bad to have only the for-tti of religiooj, bat not so bad as to haive neither 
the form nor the fact. 

When tha ship has heen oat about eight days, on evident bettering of 
apif its and condition obtains among the passengurs. Many of the sick ooea 
take hearty and appear again among the walks and ways of raen ; tlie ladies 
aaseiubk in little knots, and talk of getting on shore. The more knowing 
ones, who have txavelled Iwjfore, embrace this oppurtunity to show their 
knowledge of life by telling the Tiew hands all sorts of hobgoblin stories 
ahrviit the oustom honao officera and iha diffieultios of getting landed m 
England, It is a cqrions fact, that old ti^vellers generally eeepi to 
thia partic^nlur delight iu striking consternation into younger ones. 

" You'll have alt your da^nerreotypea taken away," says one lady, win 
in right of having crossed the ooean nine timea, Is entitled to speak 
eathtbti on the suhject. 

' ' All our daguerreotj'pes I" ehriek four or five at once. " Pray tell, wliat 

" They will do it," saya thft knowing lady, with an atrftjl nod ; "unicffi 
yo^ hide them and all your hooka, they'll bum up — —" * 

"Burn our hooka I" eiclalm ^e circle. " 0^ drcatlful ! 'What do thej 
do that for r 

" They're very particular always to bum up all your booka, I knew « 
lady who had a doaen burned," saya the wise one. 

' * Dear me ! "will they take our dresmf' says a young lady, with 
increasing alarm. 

*' No, but they'll pull orerything out, and tumble them veSl over^ X ta|i 
tell you." 

"How horrid P 

An old lady, who ha« been v^ay tack all the way, w lenvfld hy thip 
appalling intelligonoe. 

** I hope they wont tumble over my capsP she eKcIaima. 

'*Ye&, they will have everything out on deck," says the lady, delighted 
with the incrBasing aensation. ' 'I tell you yott don'^t know these custom 
hotiflo officers." 

" It's too bad r ** It's dreadful f *' How horrid !" exclaim aU. 

"I shall put my best tilings in my pocket," esclaimfl oufl, "Thej' 
don't search our poukets, do they f ' 

"Well, no, not here ; but ! tell you they'll fl^wdi yonr podtcf* |t 
t J^ni^ielSf " eay» tho lady, 


I ^ Somebody cotchea Uie somid, and flka off into the atitc roomB -witb tba I 

^ lateUigeme that "the custurs JiijU£& uffii^ra ani so dreailfuJ — ihty rip open I 

I your tranks, pull oat all your thiiigs, bum faui bootsj taka away your ■ 

daajerraotypes, and *Tea starch your pockets ;" and 3 row of groftim la 

hiAid aac«Ddii]ig from tbo row of state rDioma, an ail begin to rev«>lve frbat 

tkej haTe in tbeir truaksj and wbut they are to do m thla emcrEeiicy. 

" Pra-j tell me," said I to a geutlemauly man, who Lad crossed four or 
fre tlmee, *' b there re&Ily so much annoyance at the cuatom bouse V* 
'*AniioyaiiceT, ma'am ? Ifo, not ihn sliglitest^" 

*'Sut do the J really torn ont the eontenta of the triinkfl, and take ^way 
pea/pWs daguerrcotypea, and burn thdr hooka V* 

" JJatbing of the kind, iwa'ani. I apprehend no difficulty, I nmer hjid 
»Dy, There are » few artiides on which duty Is charged. I haye a ease of 
cigBTS, for Infttance ; I ahall show them to the custom house officer, and 
pay the daty. If a person E^iime diaposed to be fair, there Lb no difficulty* 
The exanunation of ladies* trnnka is merely nominal ; nothing is de- 

So sti proved. We arriFed on Sunday morning \ tha cnstom bouao ofiic^era, 
very j^e^lleui&uly men, came on board ; our luggage was all set out, and 
passed ^otigli a rapid examination, which in many calces amounted only to 
opening the trunk and shutting it, and all was oTet. The whole ceremony 
did not oaisupy two hours. 

So ends tids letter. Ton shall kear furtlieT how wd loaded iMi maaa 

1^ MTTEE 11. ^H 

uTiBPOor/.— tttn umaLB.— A uGoti} ^CBOot,.— tlowihi.— sfsm halev— | 

CsAtt Father, 

It was on Sunday mo!ming whfiu we first came in aaght of land. The day 
wafl one of a thousand— clear, calm, and bright. It ia one of those strange, 
throbbing feelinga, that come only once in a while m life ; this waking up 
to find an ocean crosaed and long-lost land restored agiuu. in another faemi- ■ 
ephere - sometlJng: Like what we ehould suppose mi^jht be the thrill of H 
' awakening fram life to immortality^ and all the wonders of the world im- ■ 
' known. That low, green line of land in the horizon is Ireland ; and w«», 
Tirith water smooth as a lake, and eaile furled, are running within a xaileof 
the shore. Every body on deck, full of spirits and espetstation, busy as 
can be l&oking through epyglaaaea^ and exclaiming at every object OQ 
eliore — 

" Lpok 1 tbere'B 8kil)aroen, whar« Mb6 wor^ of the &mine wfta^" says 

'* took ! tliafa a mined Martello tower," says another. 

We new voyagers, who had never seen any ruin more imposing than that 
<if a 00 w hoiisf, and, of couiTse, were ravenous for old towers, were now 
quite wide awake, but were diaappointed to learn that thei^e weto only 
custom house imde^oas. Here k tte covmty of Catt,. Sw\a.^ Q-oa «si^ 



" There is OXonncir* house ;"' and a -waTin dispnlo ensues vh*^^^! 
Inrge mausioTi, witli a stone chupel by it, aiiewom to Ihat namiii, At ail 
eveuta the region looks desolate enougli, And tlity sny the natiTca of it it* 
aliuost aaTa,cfe9, A passenger remnrkEs, that "O'ConneD never really dJd 
ftnyl^ting fur the Infill, but lived on hia capacity for exritiiig tUeij- enikiu* 
siasra." Thereupon .inotber expresses great contempt for tlie Irish wh& 
t^tmU ba so iakm in. Ncverthelejis, the wipability of a disluteiefited ea- 
ibusiasm iH, on tbe "wbole, & nubler property of u. hnmim being than * 
slirewd Belf-inten'at. I like the Irish all the betttr for it. 

Nyw WE paaa KinEale lighthonsa ^ tbero is the spot T^hexe the AMefl 
WDS wre<ied. It la a. bare, Irowning clitt^ with walls of pock rising per- 
pcndiflulorly ont of the BDa. Kow, to be snrej the sea smilefl and sparkles 
orouiid the btkse of it, as gently aa if it never could storm ; yet under other 
skies, and with & fierce south -eaat wind, how the waves would pour in her? 1 
Woe thc-n to the dMrossed and rudderlesa vesfisl that drifts towards thos« 
fetal rocks I 

The Albion etruck jrst ronnd the left of the point, where tha rock risea 
perpetidicnlrnrly ont of the sea. I well remember, when a, child, of the 
iiewspapera being tilled with the dceadful story of the wreck of the ship 
Albiun — how for houra, rudderless and heJpksa, they saw themselves 
driving with iacTitable certniDty ngainst these pitiless roeka ; and how, in 
the last struggle, one human being after another was dashed against them 
in helpless agony. 

What an tnlinitQ deal of mi&ery results from man's helplesanesa and 
iffaoninco and nature's in flexibibty in tliisone matter of crossing theoceatil 
"What Bgonitis of i>myer there were during all the long hotira that this shrf 
^fta driving straight on to thcao fatal rotks, all to no purpose I It etrBcT 
and cmshed jnat the same. Surely, without the revelation of God i^ 
JesQS, who could believe in the divine goodness ? I no not wonder the t 
Greeks sa often spoke of their gods as cmel, and believed tlie Tinl verse vnm 
governed by a remorseless and inexoiable fate. Who M^ould come to aaj 
other Ciinclnaion, except from the pages of the Biblo 1 

But we have sailed far past Kindle point. Now blue and sh&dowy 
loom up the distant form of the Youghal Mountains, (pronounced Yoole.) 
The sarfaoe of the water is alive with fishing boats, spreading their white 
vrings and Bkimming about lite so many moth millers. 

About nine o'clock wa were crossing tho sand bar, which lies at tie 
mouth of the Mer&ey Biver, running up towarda Liverpool. Our signal^ 
pennants are flattoring at the mast head, pilot full of energy on one whe 
house, and a man casting the lead on the other. 

" By the mark five," says tho man. The pilot with all hia energy, : 
telesraphing to the atoersman. This is a ve-y close and complicated pie 
of navigation, I should think, this running up the Mersey, /or every;! 
mflment we are piisaing some kind of a signal token, which warns off frontl 
Bome shoaL UtTu is a Lell buoy, whei-e the waves keep the bell alwjiya# 
tolling J here, a buoyant lighthouse ; and '* See there, ihose shoalit, how- 
poker ish they look [" says one of tho piussengers, [iointing to the fnani on 
oar starboard bow. All Is husUc, animation, exultation. i?ow float out 
the Atutriean stars and stripes on our bow. 

Before u a lies the great city of LiverpooL No dd ca-thedml, no castle*^ 

'• There, tliftt'a tte fort," cries one, Eiuig, bang, go tha tirn ;;hii3 
^ai OUT forwnrd gtmgTvay, 

'• I wander if tlicy will fire frem the fort," Bays tmotlicr, 
"How green that gmaa lookir s&yi » tMrdj **aad "what pretty 
[tages I" 

*'A11 modem, tliowgli," ratys somebody, in tones of disapiMsntincaL 
iw we are poa-Ving the Victoriii Deck. Bang, l^ang again. We arc in » 
w/^iii ships of h11 nations ■ tkeir masta bristlli]^ like the tall pLaea in 
^K| tli^ many coloared fla^a atre^ming like tlm farest leaves m 

** Hark f* says one ; *' there's a oliimB of belb from the city ; how Bwcet I 
lad <iuite forgi5tt«ti it was Sunday." 

Here we Gist anchor, und tlna small steam tendar comM pufHng aloDgside. 
>w for the cnstom-houae officera. State ToomB, holds, and cahina must 
glre np their trunks ; a general muater among the baggagse, and paS' 
igcr after passenger comea iarward aa their names are called, much ns 
luwa: '* Snooks." "Here, bit." "Anything contraband here, Mr. 
ooks? Any cigars, tobnooo, &o,f' "Jfo thing, aar." 
k little nnlocking, a little fumbling. ' ' Shut up ; all right ; ticket hetie." 
id a little man mistes on each artick a slip of paper, with the royal arma 
England and tlic magical letters V. R., to remind all men that thny huve 
ne into a country where a lady reign a, and of course must behave them- 
,ve3 as prettily aa thej can. 

We were iniiuirlng of Btuue frienda for the most coTiTetiieu,ti hotel, when 
[ found the eou of Mr. Crupper, of Dingle Bank| waiting in the cabin to 
te us with him to their hospitable abode. In a few roometils after th« 
ggsge had been examined, we all bade adieti to the old ship, and went on 
ard the Httlo steam tender, whtnib carries passeugera np to the city. 
This Mersey Eiver would he a very beautiful one, if it were not so dtrigy 
d muddy, is we are sriiling up in the tender towards Liverpool, I de- 
)T8 the circumstanee feelingly. ' ' "What doea make thia riv«r ^ mnddy t* 
**0," aayfl a bystander, "don't you know that 

' Tie qualify of mercy is not itrained' ?" 

And now wo are fairly alongside the shore, and we fire BOOtt going to Est 
r foot on the land of Old England, 

Bay what we will, an 4i^'^i'i<^^"j particularly n PTew Englandcr, can 
rer approach the old couutry without a kind of thrill and pufsation of 
idred. Its history for two centuries waa our liistory. Its literature, 
ra, and language are our literature, law a and hingnage. Spenser^ 
akepeare, Baeon, Milton, were a glorioua inheritance, which we share in 
umoB. Our Tery life-blood ia Knglish life-blood. It ia AnElo-Sa.xon 
rour that ia spreading our country from Atlantic to Pacific, and leading 
a new era in the wurld'a deTelopmeut, America is a tall, sighLly young 
jot, that has grown from the old royal oak of England ; divided from ila 
reot root, it has shot up in new, ridi aoU, and mider genial, hriliiant 
ics, and therefore tiikea on a new type of growth and foliage, but the eap 
it ii the eume. 

I hcid an early opportunity of mrtking acqT."iaiiQ.tanco m^^v xo^ '?iXi'^\^ 
itljTfifi/ ffir, mwb to my astonighment^ 1 fonnd qmte a. et^jwft, ow ^^ 
»pf ami we wxJked up to onr carriage throng^ a Vm^ \^s,vJ!^ csl v***"^** 


J liid looting very glad to see us. Whflu I came to get into tfcs I 
Mck it was Eurrounded by more faces than I could count. TliQj stood Toyi 
quietly, and laiked very kiDdly, tliough evidently very much itetermiited wl 
look. Something prevented the haok from moving on ; so tbe int«rvi8*| 
tvaa proluaged lor s^ine time, I tlierefore took occnaion to remark tlie vf& 
fnir, pure eotnplejdona, the clear ejea, and the general air of health ai 
vigour, whiuh seem to dmracteriie oar bxetlireQ aud ^lattTB of the klaai 
There secmcHl to be no occasion to ssk them how they did, a£ they wer 
evidently qnitQ well. Indeed, this air of health iS am of the moitt striking 
things when one landE in England. 

They were not burly, red -faced, and stou^ as I had sometimes ^xmr 
eelved of the Englisb people, but just full enough to fiuggcct tbe idea ol 
vigour and health. The presence of bq many healthy, ru^y people looking 
at tne, all reiitucred as I waB, &tst by land, and theu by seu dekueaa, mada 
me feel myself more witheitid aTid forlorn than ever. But thene waa an 
earnestness and a depth of kind feeling in somB of the fates, whit^ I shaU 
long remember. It beemed as if I had not only touched the English fihan, 
but felt the English heart. 

Our carriage at last droTn on, tafciBg ua through laverpqol^ and a mile or 
two out, and at length wound ita way along the gravel paths of a beautifal 
little retreat, on the baaka of the ifersey, colled tlh '* Dingle." It 
opened to my eyes like a paradise, all wearied as I vus T^'ith the tossing 
of the sea. I have Etnce become familiar with these beautiful little apota, 
vhich are bo common in England ; hut now all was entirely new to me. 

Wo rode by ahining clujupB of tbe Portugal laurel, & beautiful evergrsoj, 
jnucli resembling our mountain rhododendron; then there was tlie pricklj, 
polished, dark-green holly, which I had never iseen bfifure, btit which iB, 
certainly, one rf the most perfect of sliruhs. The turf waa of that soft, 
dcussUng green, and had that peculiar velvet-like sinoathness, which stem 
oharaeteriatisi of Engluad. We stopped at last before the door of a cotto^^ 
whoj^ puttrh was overgrown with, ivy. From that moment I ceased to feel 
myself a stranger in England. I cannot tell yon how delightful to me, 
dizzy and weary as I was, waa the first sight of the chamber of reeeijtion 
which bad been prepared for us. Ko item of cozy comfort that one could 
desire was omitted. The sofa liud easy chair wheeled up before a cheerful 
cual fire, a bright little teakettle e teaming in front of the grate, a table witli 
a beautiful vase of tlowers, books, and writing apparatae, and kind friends 
with words full of afiectionate cheer, — all th^ made me feel at home in « 
moment. ^H 

The hoj^pitality of Enghind has become &mouH in the -world, and, I tbbi&^H 
b jpth reason. I doubt not there is jnst as much hospitable feeiiug in othfi^| 
I rantntriea ; but in Enghvnd tho matter of codnees and home comfort ba^^| 
W seen ao studied, and matured, and reduced to syatem, that they really batf^| 
r it in thBir power to efiect mare, towarda making their guests oomfortabla^^^| 
P than perhatJB any other people. ^^1 

[ After a abort season ailotttd. to changing our ship ganuentia and for rest, 

we found our^lves seated at the ditmer table. While dining^ tho sister-in' 
I law of oxir friends came in from the neict door, to exchange a word or two 
I of welcome, and invite ns to breatiiwit with them the following morning. 
I "Between all the excitementB of knding, and meeting so many new facc^ 
I s^tf the remaim of iia lim/ motion of the ahip, wliicli still haunted biq^ \ 


fejuid it intipo35i]jiIe to close my eyea to sleep that first uigbt till tlio dim 
pstj of diiwQ. 1 g<>t up as 800Q !ia it was light, aaid looked out of the 
*iudo«r ; and as my ey&a fell on the luxuriant, ivy-cov«red porqh, tho 
ti'impa. of aliining, dark-grean hoUy buuhee, I a&Ld to iii]^h^, ^' Ah, really, i 
Ibis is England f ' 

I DfiTer saw ftoy plant that struck me as mora beautiful thuii Ihia hDlly* 
liis a deose shrub growing from six to eight feet high, with a thickly tut- 
BJshed leaf tif greea. I do not believe It can ever cn*tne to a state of perfect 
^ifelopmHat ander the fista^ ait'ernationa of beat and cold which ohbain in 
<nir New England olLmate, though it grows in the Southern States, it ia 
one «f tho symbolical Ehrnba of England, pmbably becauite its bright green 
in winter makes it eso splendid a GhrUtmas dectiration. A llttk bird s&t 
twittering od one of the epraj^e. He bad a bright red breaBt, and seemed 
evideutly to consider himself of good Mood and family, with the best f^' 
Eun, OB I afterwards learned^ Kintre he was no other than the identical robin 
redbreast renowned in song and fstory ; undoubtedly a lineal deaoendant of 
that very eoek robin whose dcatli and burial fonn ao yivld a portion of oar 
i^diiih literature. 

I must tell jiiU, then, as one of the first rem&ikji on matters and things 
England, that " robin redbreast'* is not at all the Mhw we iJi 
take Lim to be. The character who fionrisbca undtr that name 
us is unite a different bird ; he ia twice bs large, and has altogether 
iut air, and as he sits u[> with military erectnesa on a rail feuce or | 
abows not even a family likone^s to hlti dimlnutivfl KngliBh nameaakei. 
^dl, of course, robin over here will claim to have the real fumily ejstatd 
,i] title, since he Uvea in a country where sneh matters are understood 
id looked into. Our robin Is probably some fourth cousin, who, lik« 
ioth££ra, has struck out a, new course for kimSBlf in Am^ca, and thrives 
•Bpon it. 

We hurried to dress, remembering our engngements to bresMast thii 
pioniiiig with a brother of our hoBt, whose oottage stands on the same 
fround, within a ft^w stops of our own. I had not tho slightest idea of 
what l^e English mean by a breakfast, and therefore went in all inno' 
oence, sapposing that I should ace nobody hut tlie family oireJe of my ac- 
guaintanees. Quite to my oatonisbment, I found a party of between thirty 
•nd £^y people. Ladies eittlng with their bonnets on, as in a morning 
tail. It wot! impasiiiblEi, however, to fe«l more than a momentary em bar < 
''Tassment in the fdendly warmth and oordiality nf the drda by whom w» 
were aarrounded, l 

The English are called cold and stiff in their mnunera ; t hod always 
[:^«u-d they were so, but I certainly saw nothing of it here- A circle o£ 
relitiTeB could not have received aa with more wstrmth and kindness. 
fk which I nuide mentally, as my eye pagsad around the cirelo^ 
-Why, these people are just like home ; they took Lkona, and the tons 
timent and feeling Is precisely such aa I have been accustomed to ; I 
ijtaeaa with the exception of ihe anti-slavery qneatlon. I 

That question has, from the very first, been, in England, a deeply reli- 
[iotts movement. It was ooaceived and carried on by men of devotional 
tabits, in the same spirit in which the work of ford^ tuu^vdna yi'USi xvn^t^x- 
Itaken in oar own country; by just such eaiiwtj aeU^dfetvyuii^, ije^iiTjii. TSKQ, 
SammiJ. MUh and Jeremiah Evurts^ 


It ■was BDOouutersd by the same contempt and oppOEitkm, in the outspt^ I 
from men of merely worldly Imbits and principles ; and to this day it le- 1 
taing that hoU\ on the devotional mind of tho Eugli&L nation tk&t the foreigP,] 
mission Ciiuso does in America. 

Liveqxjol was at first to the {intialiiyeTy canae newly what New York* 
heen TS'ltU ns. Ite commercial intercats wctb largely implicated in the s 
trade, and tlia Tirulence of oppuiiitstm tomtrds f ho first movers of iho tinti^ 
BlsTery reform in Lirerpool Ti'aa ftbuut as great aa it is now against abcji'^ 
tioniBts in Charleston. 

When Clarkson first came here to prosecute Ids inquiiies into the BuhjeoV '. 
% mob collected around liim, and eudeaToured to throw him off the dock 
into the water ; he was rescued by a gentlenum, aome of who3° descendanti 
I met on tiiis occasion. 

The father of our Lost, Mr, Cropper, waa one of ihe fir^t and most i 
cient supporters of the cause in Liverpool ; and the whole ciiclc was con 
poaed of those who had taken a deep interest in that strnggle. The wife of 
our boat vfOB the danghtei- ftf the celebrated Lord Chief Justice Denmon, 
man v/hoj for many years, stood unrivalled, at the head of the legal mihdin 
England, aod who, with a generous ardour seldom et^uaHed, devoted all bid 
enei^cfies to this sacrod cause. 

When the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin turned the sttcnlion of iha 
British public to the existing horroTS of j<lavery In America, Bome p&Uia- 
tiona of the system appeared in English papers. Lord Deaman, though 
then in delicate health, and adTantred year?! wrote a Eciiea of letters -Dpoo. 
the subject — -an exertion which entirely prostrated his before feehio heajtii. 
In one of the addresses made at table, a very feeling allusion wag ma^e to 
Lord Denman's labours, and also to those oi" the honoured father of the two 
Me.^rB. Cropper. 

As breakfast parties are things which wo do not have in Americ^j per- 
Laps mother would like to know just how they are managed. The hoM- i« 
generally somewhere between nine and twelvej andtho whole idea and fipirit 
of the thing is that of an informal luid Bocial gathering. Ladies keep ^eir 
bonneti un, and are not dressed tn fall toilet. On thia occasion we eat and 
cbatted together socially till the ivhole ^larty waa assemliletl in the drawing- 
Toom, and then breakfast was ftnno*inced. Each gcntkman had a lady 
assigned him, and we walked into tbe dining-roomj where stood the taMea 
tastefully adorned ^ith flowers, and spread with au aba ndant cold collatiooi 
while tea and coffee were passed roimd by Hfirvants. In each plate "was a 
card, coutaininj:; the name of the person for whom it was designed. I took 
nay place by the side of the Bcv. Br. Mc^^iel, one of the most celebrated 
t'lergymon of the established church in LivErpooL 

The conTCrsation was flowing, free, and friendly. The old reminiscences 
of the antislavery conflict in England were touchingly recalled, and the 
■warmest sympathy was expressed for those in America who are carrying on 
the aame c^iise. 

In one thing I vas most agreeably disappointed. I had been told that 
ths CliTistians of England were intolerant and unreasonable in thtir op ink. tie 
on this subject ; that they could not be made to understand the peculiar 
difficnUics which beset it in America., and that they thtrefure made no dis- 
ilae^on ,77id no allowance In their cenBures. All this 1 f^jund, eo far as 
A6js circJn rare coscemedf to be BtrikinjEly untnie. IViey ».ipV^Mti ya \wi 


LiVEtifoaL ^H 13 

^ hwist* in tlieir fedltigs (is regaTdisroi y ; to have 

prfjcifltion of, and the Jtjepest sympeilij -ar religious 

iid to be extremely fleairotia to assist us i Qcultiea. I 

fdat fi,>und thera remajkably woU iiifijrmtcl upon tke They keep 

tb&ir eyes npoa our papera, out public documeuta and i in Congress, 

and are A3 well attvieed inr«s?ard to tlie process of t „1 conflict as 

oiiJ Foreign MiGaiouAry Soeitiiy i& with the state of affa in Hindostan and 

SevfcHil present epokg of the part wliicb En^rlaud origi '. in planting 

slarcry in America, as placing English ChHsDians nndf an responsi- 

bility to bring every poBsiblo moral Influence to bear for i tion. Never- 

theleas, tliey aesai to be the Girth est possible from i or denun- 

ciatory spirit, even towards those moat deeply impUf^ le remarks 

mails by Dr, McKiel to mc w '" ' " ' " " id attitude of 

all preseut, 

** I have been tTTing, Mrs. ly mind into the 

attitude of tkose ChriHtiaua he institution of 

Btavery. Thiire are real Chri .*e there not ?" 

I replied that undoubtedly lable and Christian 

people who dtjl'tjQd slavery on |y±xi^i.±^jc ju-su £» i,u:isi l, ±idd been some to de- 
fend eTery form of deaiiotism, 

"Bo give md Eome idea of the views tliey take ; it is something to me so 
inconceivable, I am litterly at a, loss how it cau be made in any way 

I then stated that the most plauaibk* view, and that which seemed to 
have the most force with good men, was one which represented the institu- 
tion of slavery as a sort of wardship or guardian relation, by which an in- 
ferior race were brought under the watch and care of a superior race to be 
instructed in Christianity. 

He then inqtdred if there was any system of religious instruction actually 

In reply to this, I gave him some sketch of the operations for the reli- 
gious instruction of the negroes, which had been carried on by the Presby- 
terian and other denominations. I remarked that many good people who 
do not take very extended views, fixing their attention chiefly on the 
efforts which they are making for the religious instruction of slaves, are 
blind to the sin and injustice, of allowing their legal position to remain what 
it is. 

** But how do they shut their eyes to tlie various cruelties of the system, 
— ^the separation of families — the domestic slave trade ?" 

I replied, " In part by not inquiring into them. The best kind of people 
are, in general, those who Jcnoio the least of the cruelties of the system ; 
they never witness them. As in the city of London or Liverpool iliere 
may be an amount of crime and suff'ering which many residents may live 
years without seeing or knpwing, so it is in the slave .states." 

Every person present appeared to be in that so?te\ie(\ ^T\i\. <i\\toc\\.'?^A^ 'Ix'^'Ki^e 

of mind which disposed them to make every aV\.o\\i\.uc,e ^ot \\\e, ^\\.v\•^.^Ac>^^ < 

Christians so pecalhirly temptei], while, ivt tlie sivme Wme, \\x^v<i ^^"s- "^ 

most earnest concern, in view of the dishonour bvoviS'\\^ •vi\>o^^ ^Wv^'Cvx 

bjrthe defence of such a system. 

One other thing I noticed^ which was an agveeaAAe tW^xpi^cyvvv^^^^^^-^^ 


I liftd been told tbot thcr waa no social intcrcoursQ between the eataHsl 
church and diss^tit^wi. In this party, bowoTer, were people of mwjy 
diiltriiut dfeDonjinotJuijS, Our boat lieliingB to the establish eti chnictl, 
his hrtitlier, wilb wbuin we arc visituig Is A Bu-ptist, and their ilvther waaa 
Friend ; and thet^ npfHeitrefi to be the ntmuat sotiial cordiality. Whether 1 
skall find this nnifonuly the case will appear in time. 

After the brEakfaat party waa oTer, 1 fonnd at the door an atitty of c 
dren of the poor, i*ebnglug to a acbool kept wider the superintetjdeB»| 
Mtb. E. Cropper, and called, as is oustonsary h«re, a ragged scrhttol. 

tjhildran, however, were anything but ragged, being tidily dressed, ren 

nbly <;lean, ^'itli glowing eheeks and bright eyes. I must Bay, so far as I 
.have Been them, Eugliah children have a much beaJthler app^u^nce tJiBA 
those of America, By the aide of their bright bloom ours loot paJe and 

Another Bcbool of the same kind is kept in thianeighbonrhood, und^the 
auspices of Sir George Stephen, a ooospiuuDUB advocate of the antifikver^r 

I thought the fair patrons^ of thia Eichool Eoemed ni>t a little delighted 
■with the appearance of her protfigfia, as they aung, with gnjat eathaaJaHWH^^J 
Jane Taylor'a hymn, eommenoing, — ^^ 

* X tbatik the goodaeut and tbt gruo 

And made ma in tlieae Cbmtinii dayft 
A bappy English cluld," 

All tho little rogues were quite familiar with Topsjr and Eva, and aafttU 
in the fortune* of Uncle Tom ; eo that, being iatrodueed a& the maternal 
TclftLive of these charai'ters, I seemed to find fttvour in their eyea. And 
when one of tbe speakers congratulated them tbat thcj were born m a laail 
where no child could bo bought or sold, they responded with enthasiaiKtia 
-cheera — cheers which made me feel rather sad; but still I could not qnajrel 
with English people for taking all the pride and all the comfort which 
inspiriting truth can conTey. 

Th^y bad a haul snongh struggle in rootiug up tbe old weed of sla< 
to jnatify them in rejoi<ing in thtir freedom. Well, tlie day will come 
America, as I trust, when as much can be said for us. 

After the children were gone, came a succession of calls; some from 
aged people, the Tebarana of the old anti^lavery cituse. I was astouiiiijed 
and overwb timed by the fervour of feelin/r sotue of them manifeated j thi 
seemed to be aomotbing almost Jjropbetic in the enthuaiaam with w" 
they expressed their hopeofourfiaal succefifl in America, TJiis ext:it«mi ^ 
though very pleasant, was wearisomii, and 1 was glad of an opportunity after 
dinuer to reat myself, by rambling unrnterrupted, with my frieuds, through, 
the beautiful grounds of tbe Diugle, _^m 

Two nit'e little boys were ray erjuirea on this occasion, one of whom, |jH 

h tio^ 


n yo^i 

nf+oir 1 

Ktimly little fellow, c» being asked hie name, gave it t<j me in full hn Jo&epk 
Biiltington Iitflcauky, and I learned that iuit mother, by a former marrhige, 
had been tbe wife of Maoitilay's brother. Uncle Tom MncaiiUy, I found, 
waa a f^ivourite character with the young people. Master Harry condu( 
me tbrou^fb the walks to the conBervatoriea, all brilliant with iiaai 
And all mrts c/ &Qw&^ and then tkrough a long walk on the bi-nka t4. 



3 -wilil flowers atlrarted mj attttitJon, as being so different from 
Sfl €f Dur own country. Their daisy is not our flower^ with ita wide, 
I and yellow cantro, Tke EngliBli daisy is 

*• Tie wfle modest crimaoD*tipped Bmwvi," 

i BtmB Cfileln-atea, It is what we raise in greenhouse, and <!iill tha 
iuitaiii daisy. Its dfcctj growing profusely about fields and grasa pkt^ 
mj beaRtifuI. 
Iir« Fend muuh, among the poeisi, of the primrose, 

"EorlieBt d«aglit(^r of the Spring," 

t flower ia one, aisn^ which we cnltivatH in gardfiDB to Hnme ^irtent, 
J ouHine of it is els follows; — The hue a dBlicate straw calttur; il grows 
nifla in shady places, and has a pure, serious Iwokj which reminds utie 
de liii« of StmkMpcare :— 

*♦ Pale primrMflB, wlii*!h die mmiatried/' 

tM also the faintest and most ethereal perfume,— a perfume that seems 
time and go in the air like made ; and yon perceive it at a Httle distjincs 
a ft tuft of them, when you wt>uld not if yougatheted fthd stiiell(id thGm, 
the whole:, the primrose is a po«b's and a painter's flower. An artiat's 
wotild notice aa eiquislte harmony between the yellow-grean hue of its 
rea and ths tint of its btossoja^ I do not wonder tbat it has been bo 
it a faYoarite among the poets. It la jast Budi a flower as Hozart and 
»liael would have ioTed. 

!h«n there ia tlie bluebell— a bulb — 'irhicb ^Sb growB in deep shades. 
I a little purple be)!, with a narrow green leaf, like a ribbun. We often 
1 in EngEsh stories, of the gorse and furze ; theee are two names for the 
[e plant — a low buahj with strong, prickly leftTes, grafdng much like a 
Iper, The contrast of its very brilliant yelksw, pea-shaped blossoms, 
t the dark green of its leaves, is very beaatiful. It g -qws here in 
gas and uu commons, aoid is thonght rather a plebeian a^oir. I think 
POiqM make quite an afldition to our garden shi-ubbery. Possibly it 
trt make as muck ueuaatlou with us as our mulledn does in fuiiaign 

Lftcr rambling a nrliile, we came to a teantiful snmmer hotise^ placed in 
(tijred spcit, so OS to command a viuw of the Mtraey river, I think they 
I me tliflt H was Lord Denman's favourite seat. There wc siit down, 
I IA eonuoon with the young gentlemen and ladies of the family, had 
►»plaaBaPt ta!ik together. Among other things we talked about the 
I which is now agitating the public mind a gootl deal, — Whether it 
nt to ofpen the Cryatfll Palace to the people on Sunday. Thi?y 
h.t this course was mufh urged by some phiianthropista, on the 
and titat it was the only day when the warkiug clftsaes could Und sny 
ore tu Ttsit it, and that it seemed hard to shut them out eiitiTGJy from 
the opporttinitijs and advantages which they might thus derive; thnt to 
liade the lubiiiirer from reereation en the 8ahba^, watj the same as 
inj^ that he should never have any recreation, rjisted, ^k^ \3ti4T^\- 
thwipisis could not urge employers to give thevr wotkiaew 1^ -^jsjort. ^ 
nrd^ tl>r (bis purpose; as it seemed to me uncVivvRliaiv la Giwe \.tftAft'?« 
I ihe hboarmg mau had no time but Sunday fgr inttiW^ii^^ixoX iwi'V ^"^^ 

etmNY MEMosifis OF Tomm&s UkcnMi. 

Tecieaiion. Wo rather came to tlie ooiacluBlun tlutt Ihis was tLe r^A j 
ennraai wbetlior the people of Snj^knd will, h quite nautber nsatter. 

The groimda of the Dingle cmbmce thren cottages ; tkhose of the tw I 
Ik^^KTS. CropiM:!", and tlint of a son, who ia msuried to & davtirbter ofl 
Dr. Aroold. 1 rntber tbJuk thia 'way of relativea iiyiDg together is i 
comxnou hev^ in EnglfiDd than it is in America ; aitd there is taom iitux 
homo vermauencfl coiinected witb. the faiuilj dwelHtJg-place than. witliiia|l 
where tho o^mutry is so widu, and causes of change aiid reraoTal ao freqa 
A mtm build-in hoQEe in Englaud M'ith the e3tpu<!i»tIoii of living in it 
leaving it to hia children; while we uJied our houses ia Ameriosiaa t __ 
as a snail doea his sholh VYe live a while in Boston, ajid then a irMIe in 
JJew York, and then, poTliapSj turn tip at Cincinnati, Scarcely anybody 
Tpirh as 13 living where they expect to live and die. The man that dies i 
tbs house he was born in is a wonder. There ia aomething pleasjint In tl 
pBiinanence and repose of the li'iigliah faraily estate, wliich wti, in Amoria 
know very little of. All wiuch ia apropdi to our having finished our wa 
fljuJ got back to the ivy- covered porch again. 

The next day at breakfast, it was arranged that we should take a i 
tmt to Speko Hall, an old lanntiion, which is considered a £ne spectnum ([ 
an^^ient honsu architGcture. So the carriage was at the door. It wa»4 
cot^l, brtczy, April moroinfj, but there was an abundance of wroppera i 
earrla^e blankets provided to keep us comfortable. 1 must say, bj-the-1 
Uiat English houaekeepensi are bonntifnl in their provision for 
wmfort. Every bousebold has a store of warm, loose over garments, whid 
are offered, if needed, to the guests ; and each carriage is provided with t 
or two blankets, manufEictnrcd and sold eiptTesjaly for thia use, to envelop 
one^B feet and Hmbs ■ besides all which, aliould the weather be cold, 
out a Jong stone reservoir, made flat on both sides, and filled with 
water, fur foot stools, TJiLs is an improvement on the priiuitivo simptid^ 
(if hot bricks, aud evea on tke tin foot atove, which ha^ flourhdied in N« 

Being thus providccl willi all things necessary for comfort, wa lattU 
metrily away, aad I, remembmng that 1 wfta in England, kept my eyei 
wide open to eee what I could see. The hedges of the fields were ju 
budding, and the green showed itself on them, like a thin gauze 
These hedges are not all so well kept and trimmed as I expected to i 
them. Some, it is true, are cut veiy carefully ; thece are genei'ally hedgi 
to omametjlal grounda ; but many of those which separate the fields strag 
tud sprawl, and havs some hi-li buahes and some low ones, and, in i 
are no moro like a hedge than many rows of bullies that we have at horned 
But Buch as they are, they are the only dividing lines of the fields, and it 
is certainly a more picturesque mode of division tUttn our stone or worm 
fences. Outside of every hedge, towards the sti'eet, there is generally a 
ditch, and at the bottom of the bodge ia the favourite nestling- place for all 
aorta of wild iluwera, 1 reiuember ieading in stories about children trying 
to crawl througli a gap iu the (leilge to get at fluweiti, and tumbling into » 
diitib on the either tide, and 1 now saw e-xaetly how they cuuld do it. 

As \re drive we ptiss by many beautiful astablishjuents, abont of tha 

quality of OBF handsomest COUUU7 houses, but whose grounds are kept with 

s/uvcisioii mjJ exaaUiess nualy to be aefiu among usk ^Ve conuot get the 

S't^eaei^ who m^ qmlii&X to do itj wad ^ we covjld, V\ua ^Ti%\sik\Tv^ 

rfa ar ^_ 


vay of jTocceJing, tuid tL© habit of crfepiu^ thorewghness, whirh ar 
isaiy ti> jiccomplieli suth results, die out in Ainirica. IffcVtnliele 
grounds are ex^^eedingiy beautiful to look upon, tmd I was mucl 
^ig&l lu the owners wf thet>o plnces for keeping their gjitee JiosiJili 

na seems to be the cusU-m hen;. 
Aftar a driv€ tjf stven or ftv^ht miles, we aljghtwl in front vt Speke Halt" 
Tliis huuse is a apeciimin of tba old tortifi&ii honsea of England, uod was 
fitted up wi*.h. a moat ftnd drBwlirid/ze, nil in ttppruved feudal style, 
s built Boniewhera ab^nt thB year 1500. TUg eometiiDe ixif>at waa 
full of smooth, green grass, and tbe dTawbrid{;e no longer remaias. 
Tim w&B tlis &nt re&lly old thing that we had eeen doee our arrival m 
Soglond. We oame up first to a low, arched, stone door, AJid knocked 
a great old-fafiliioned knwker; this Lrotigbt no anawer btit a treble 
"bass dtict from a c^>iipk of dogs inside } so we opened tbfi door, and saw 
uare cun^ii't, puTed wiih round stoncj}, and a dark, golitary yew tree iiL^_ 
centre. Here in Hn^'knd, I think, they httvc Ycgctabk creations raaclg^H 
purpose to g* wiili old, dusky build irigs; and thin yew trte in i>fia^| 
'tl lieni. It has altogether a moSt goblin-like, bcwitehed air, with its 
Amkj black leases and ragged bmnches, throwing them eel vea strjiifjht out 
with oM twinta and angular lines, and might put one in mind of an old 
JBTea with »>me of hia feathers pulled out, or a Lhcb cat, with her hair 
stroked the wrong way, or any othtr strange, ttneauny thing, iiesitlfia ihia., 
t'jey live almost for btct ; for -when they haTe grawn bo old that 
rcspectiib!e tiee ougiit to be thinking about dying, th^y only take annth« 
twist, and Bo live on tinothcr bumlred years. I &aw skJUie in Eiighind seva 
hundred years old, and they had grown queerer c^cry centujy. It is i 
EperiuH of C'TtTgrieeB, and ita leaf resemblta our hendock, only it is longe 
II !b always planted about churches and graveyards; a kind of dieni! 
erahknn of immortality. Thiei s^epulchm.! old tree and the htjuss and tield 
d(^ were the only uiMiupants of the tn>iiirt. One of these, a great surly mastiff 
barked ont of his kennel on one siilft, and the other, a little wiry teriier,?! 
out of hisoti the opposite side, and buth atruiuc^d on their chains, as if they 
Vmihi enjoy tnaklug even more decided demonstratijjns if thpy could. 

There Wiis an afc-ed, rnos^y fnuntain lor huly water hy the side of the 
•wall, in whieh Bonit weeds wtre growing, A door in the houiie w!>^ soon 
opened by a deeent -looking seiviiig womaQ, to whym we commiuiieated our 
diiiire to e^ the hall. 

We were shown into a largo dining hall with a stone floor, waiaicoted 
with carved oak, almost as black as ebony. TLcra were some pious 
sentences and moml reflections inscribed in old English text, carved QTer 
the doors, and like a cornice round the eeiling, ii'hiiih was also of oajTedj 
oak. Their general drift wns to say that life is sburt, and to rjiII fc« 
watclif Illness and prayer. The fireplace of the hall yawnetl like a gp 
caTcm, and nothing elsfe, one would think, than iv ciirtlos'l tA' wesien 
fji'calliurias could have supplied an appropriate tire. A great two-hande 
iWijrd of soTne ancestor hung over the fireplace. On taking it. dovi 

it rta/'hed to 's shoulder, who, you know, is six feet hi;j;h. 

We wtiit into a Jiort of sittiug-rwoui, and Inokcd uut ihtungh ft 'wimiBrs^' 
latTJred with Ultle diamond piitics, uptm fn gardeu "wi.\4\^ Vjea-xi^^^, Ttv^ 
Lit tics WA9 nil iireaibed round with jcBsaTainea, T\vt) IvituYVatfe (alW« 




room waamoderti, ajad it seemed tlie more unique from ita contrast mtii t 
old aruhitecture. 

We wflHi up staira to see the chambst?, aud passed tltrongh a lai 
narrow, black oak: corridor, whose Blippery boards had tlie ftulboid 
gh[«tly eqvitiiik to them. There was a chwubei', hung witli old, fiuU, 
tapestry of Scripture subject*. In this chamber there was behind tlit' 
tapestry a door, whicb, being opened, displajed a staircase, that led 
delightfully off to nobody knows whera. The furniture was black ■■'-, 
carved, in th« most eUhonite manner, vitb cherubs' heads and othi i 
iLUd aokmn aubjecta, oaloulated to produce a ghoaily state of mind. .. , 
to crown all,, we heard that there was a haunted obamher, which was not 
to be opened, where a white kdy appear^ and walked at all approrod 

Nuw, onlj think wliat a foundation for a story is here. If oiir Haw- 
tbome could conjure up such a thing i^ the Seren Gables in one of oar 
prosaic ooutitry towTia, what would hs have done if he had lived here I 
Now he is obliged to get bis ghostly images by looking through smoked 
gliisa utt our square, cold realities ; but one such old place as this ia a 
auodjug mmance. Perhaps it may add to tlie effect to aay^ that tJi* i 
owner of the Loubb ia a bachelor, who liTca there very retired, and empl< 
blmself much in reading. 

The housekeeper, who allowed ub about, indulged bs with a> Tiew of tit 
kitchen, who^e anowy, Banded door and resplendent polished copper aiw_ 
tin, were sights for a housekeeper to take away in her heart uf hcurta. 
The good woman produced her copy af L'ncle Tom, and liegged th* 
tiivour of my autograpli, which I gave, thinking it quite a happy thing t*_ 
be abb to do a favour at eo cheap a rate. ~ 

After going over tho house wo wandered thraugb tbe grounds, wbict i„ 
laid out with the same picturesque mixture of the paat and presml, 
■There was a fine grove, tiudsir whose sli/idowg we walked, picking prin 
msea, and otbtrwiao enacting the poetic, till it was time to go. Aa i 
paastNi out, we were again saluted with a feu, dejoie by the two fidelitiaj 
at the door, \rhii;h we toot in very good piart, aincc it is always reap 
able to be thorough in whatever you are set to do. 

Coming home we met with an utccident to tbe carriage, which obliged m 
to get out and walk some disitjanee. I was glad enengh of it, bocauaa 
it giive me a better opportunity for seeing the country. We stopped j»t m 
oottogQ to get Sfune rope, and a youJig woman came out with that beautiful, 
clear oomplciion which I so mmb. admire here in England ; literally her 
eheekB were like damask roses. 

I told Isa I wanted to fsee as much of the interior of tbe cottages 
as I could ; and so, m we were walking onward toward home, 'we mansmed 
to call once or twiiie^ on the excuse of asking the way and distance. The 
ext-'rior was vciy neat, being built of brick or stone, and each had attached 
to it a little flower garden. Isti said that ihc cottagers often offered them & 
abjie of bread or tumbler of milk. 

Thfy Itavt! a way hore of bitihiuig the cottages two or three In a blocV 
together, which struck me as diffei-ent from our New England manner, 
where, in the conntry, every house stands detached. 
Jb the evening I went into Liverpool, to attend a. parly of friends of tbe 
■"" 'ireiiv cause. In tbe course of the evening Mr, Stowc waa ■mt^xfteaV.^HA 


I Temuka. Among other things ]ie sjtakz upon the cuppoii 

i of the world gflve to alafery, by the pureUiisu u( the prinlm;* 

B,ndf in parfcicsiliif, on the grejit qujintity gf shwe-gTown 

by England; aaggoating it oa a flubjtict fur intiuiry, 

l«asnot be aycuded. 

ntlemeiij who are largely concerned in the niaiinfiiotnrft 
"^ coitoD^ spoke to him on the subject afterwarda, atid 
Sing which ought to bo very aeriously consnderefi. It is 
hat thij CDtbon trad^ of Great Brita-in is the greut <ii»entiivl item 
ports alavery, and such eonaiieratloiia ought not, therefore, to h& 
■ ■ results. 

going sway, ih& lady of the hasMQ said that the serranti 
t to see me;, so I came into the dressing-room to give them aa 

Mr. C.'s, also, I had once or twice been called out to sea 
had come in to visit thuee of the family. All of them had 
Tom's Cahiii, and were iall of sympathy. Generally spefiking, 
seem to me quite a soperior cl:ws to what are employed in 
tj with us, They look very iiitelligent, sjie dresBed with great 
fed though Ibeir mminerB art very much more deferential Lhaa 
nints in our countTy, it nppoara to be a difference ariaiug quit© 
^om. ■elf-respeot and a sen^e of propriety oa from acvvillty. 
maanerd arc more deft^rential in England than in America, 
day waa appointed to leave LiTerpoeL It hud been arranged 
Irtiving, we sliould meet the ladies of the Kflgroea' Friend 
paoeiation lormed at the time of the original antisiavery ugitar 
Wa went in the carriage with our friends Mr. and M ra- 
the way they were conversing ufjon the laboure of Mjs, 
thrated female philanthropist, whose efforl^ for the btneSt 
awakening a very geueml interest anioug all clsLsses in 
Ihey Boid there had been lieaitation on the part of enuie goud 
Rgard to eo-operating with her, becauae eke ia a Eurnan 



pare &' 



[Tced among us, that the great liuTDanitiea of the present Hitj 
f ground on which all sects can unite, and that if any feared 
p ©f wrong sentiments, they had only to Bupply emigrant ships 
JKatly with tlie Bible. Mr. C, said that this ja a movement 
f extensive interest, and that they bopad Mrs, Chisholm would 
Dol before long. 

ling was a very iateresting one. The style of feeling expreaned 
imarks was tempered by a deep and earnest remembrance ef the 
i England originally had in planting the evU of slavery m the 
Eirld, and her consequent obligatiun, as a Chriatiftn nation, now 

hex edorbs nntil the evil is extir|3ithted, not merely j^om her 

from all lands. 

towardeAm^cft was rf?spectful nnd friendly, and tbe utmost 
flKpreiBsed with her in the difficnUies with wliit^h she is 

this evil. The tone of the meeting was deeply earnest and j 
'Jiey presented ub with a sum to he appiopTicVii Ifiii: 'Otifc\stiiSi^'i | 

* ) itfty waj we might think proper. 

f^ of imnda accompanied ub to Has, easa, am^ & "tusNoiC&i. 
o2 _ 



bouquet of ilowcra -vtas sent, with a very affecting message, fitum « si«^ 
g«ittlefnan, "who, from tlie retirement of bis dmiuber, Mt a. deieire to t&u~ 

Now, if jiU tliis enthnBiiiBTn for freed&ni and littmatiity, in tte persf>n rf 4* 
Americnii elavfl, ia to be eet down as good for iiotliing in KiigUiDd, b£i«:&u< 
thera ara evils there in society wliich require n^dncRs, what then -Ebfill ^ 
my of ourselves? Have we not been oiitliuiiaMtic for freedom in tJitj pen 
of tlio GrtEfik, tlie Hungarian, and tiiii Poie, while protec;ting a, mucK won 
deeiMiuam thitn any from which thayattflbr? Do we not consider It i 
duty to print and distribute the Bible in all fortifju lands, wJieu there ( 
tbroe niilliona of peopls ainon^ whom we dare not distribute it at huD 
and whom it is a penal offence even to teach to read, ii't Bo we not se 
lemonatranctis to 'Ihiscany, about the lladiai, when women are imprifiond 
in Virginia for teaching slaves to rejid ? Ies wU thiss bj,7)ocritical, ijjsincer| 
«iid impertinent in iiaT Are we never to send another miseSonary, 
make another appeal for foreign lauda, till wo have aboliBbed elavtry^ 
home J For my part, I think that impc-rfect and incouisistent outbursts I 
generosity and feeling are a great deal better than none. No nation, 3 
individual is wholly consistent and Christian ; but let ne not iu onrselT 
or in other nations repudiate the truest and most? beautiful devdopn 
of hutaanity, becivtise we have not yet attained perfection. 

All experii^nce lias proted that the Gublime spirit of foreign mis: 
al^raya ia suggestive oi' home philaiitbropis;a, and thut tbuEC who^e heJ 
baa been enlarged by tho lovo of all mankind are always those who are 1 
efficient in their own partieuhir sphere. 



Glasgow, April 10, ISSSk^ 

Yon shall have my earliest Scotch letter ; for 1 am sure nobo^ i 
Hympatbiae in the eniotionn of the first apprtifnh to Scotland aa yon 
A country dear to ua by the memory of the dead ajitl the living; 
conotvy whose hifitory and litetiitunj, iulerestirg cruough of itself, 
become to us »till more £o, because the reading and learning of it forma 
part of our communion for many a social hoiu', with friends long 
from earth. 

The views of Scotland, which lay oti my mother's table, even w^hlle i 
waa a little chilJ, aud ia poring over which 1 spent so miiny happy 
dreamy hours, — the Scotch ballftds, which were the delight of our evenia 
fireside, and which seenieil ttlinost to luelt the soul out of me, before 1 " 
old enough to understand their words, — the songs of Bums, which ha 
been a household treasure among us, — the en chant ment» of Scott, — -a 
these dimly retuitied npon me. It was the result of them all which I lal 
in nerve and brain. 

And, by the by, that puts me in mind of one thing ; and that is, hov 

muck of our pleasure in litei'Stiire results frora its retlcttion on na tiom 

otlier minds. As we advance in life, the literature wbkh luis chnrnicd ijb 

js tha cJnlo of our frienda, beccmea endeai^d in ua fviMn Uie rtflijcted 

J^^j&mbmnee of them^ of their individnaUtiea, their ovuiaobs, o.M. \Ut\s 

so ihsA oar mQmoiy of it is ti manj'ooloured eoii, dr&wn &am 

iog neir to Scotland, I aecmed to fad not only tny own 
but »U tlmt my fricntis wouU have lelt, hi J t!iey been with 
irtimea we s»em ta be en >.>nijii&?ed, as by a cioml, witb a 
■Bynjpathy of ttie abaent a^ t the dead. 

Iverpool with hearts o little tretnulons And «ctt«d by the Tibra- 
itcttosphere of univeml sympathy und kinduess. W» fotuid 
I leogth, abot from the warm ailieus of our frieads, in 5 fltmg 
i of the nikojui oar. The Eaglish cais are mcKlels of «omfOTt 
iepla^. There &ts &ix seitts ia a coinpa.ri;tiieatt luxorloaely 
ud uiijely carpeted, and six waa eiactiy the mimber gf owr 
lovertlieless, so ab^ioate is enstoio, that we arertied at Srst tiutb 
red our Amerlcaa cars, deficiiint as they are ia maTiy poiuls of 
' liaxury, bectause tliey are bo much mure egcial. 

' said Mr. S.t "six Yaakeoti abut up lo a car together I Not 

bH to tell us anything about the eonntry ! Just like the aix 

it mada their lirin^ by t^ttng tea at each oth«r*s housca/' 

<is the way here in England : evefy arzangcmant ia travel IId^ ia 

maintain thit privacy and reserve 'which ia the dearest &a,i 

of an Kngliahman's nature. Things are so armnged here 

please, he can travel all through England with bia family, 

tba eii^;le aa anbrokea unit, baring jtut aa Httto commtinitiatioa 

bins ontsJde of it aa la his own bovtse. 

of Ih^e sheltered apartmento m a taUrcad c^r, he can pa^s to 
pirlotii-s and ebambcn in the hotel;, ^vith kJa own eepamte 
' his domestic maiiaew and pssuUarltioa unbrokaji. Ia fact^ it ^^ 
[pact home trav^llin^ about. ^H 

liis is Tery charming to people who know already aa miieli ^^ 

aa they want to know ; but it follows from it that a Btrnngor 
ail tbroagh England, from one ond to the otlier, and not bo 
terms 'frith a person in it. He may be at the s^me hotel, ia 
with parsons able tc give him ail Imaginable informuUofl^ 
ch them at any practicable point of communiDn. This is mar* 
the «asa if his party, as ours was, i^ just largo enough to HI ilia 

le cumfcris of the cars, it ia to be said, that for the same price 
far more comfurtable riding ia America. Tbolr first-cLiss cars 
'■11 praise, but also l»eyond all prico ; their secoad-clasa are 
coahionless, and mjinTiting. Agreeably with uur theory of 
lequaiity we have a general car, not bo complete a? the one, nor 
the other, whore alt ride together ; and if the traveller in thus 
I thiuga that ociasionally aimoy him, when he remeiubera that 
popubtion, from the highest to the lowest, are accommodated 
tier, hu will certiiinly see hopefol indications in the general oom- 1 

*, and reipectabiiity whieh prevail ; all which we tallied over J^ 
otimlty together, whilo wo were laiueutin^ that th^e was uot a H 
uttr party to instniet us la the locdiUes. 

if(^' iipLjji the railri>j\d proceeds with ByBlemaAlG aftcut^^. '^^ua^ 
<M fai- L/w aiost oardess person to commit a \ATiw\feT, ^t tst^tA^ 
At the pt^iper time the oondactDr maiclie* ot^i'jVi^^ m^ ^ilW£ 

etrsTinr memobies op toebtgn 

places aad locks them Id, givea the word, "All right," and avajf-wcgo. 
BomeWdy has remarked, Tery characteristically, tEat the stai-tiDg word of 
tha Eugliaii it ^^all right," and that of the AtQeri(»ii8 " gu ahead.'' 

Away we go through Lanc^fhire, wide awnkc, looking out ob all saie» 
fk>r any EigdB of utitiqutty. lu beiog thus whirled thrrmgh English ac-cD^ry, 
I b^aiue cutisciuUB of a new uuderatanding of the spirit and phraseology of 
j English poetry. There are many pbraa« and eipresaionfl with which vs 
I kavc been fumiliar trom childhood, arid which, we suppose, in a kind of 
indeiinite way, we underataud, which, aft^r all, when we come on Eiighah 
ground, start into a new Hignificance ; take, for iaBtiac% theae liuca Sivm 
li'AHegro .— 

" SometTmea walking, uol anaeen, 
By hed^e-row elmi on biiloaks green. 
« • * * « 

Straight Tnine eje h&th caught ne? pleaaai^ 

■While rhe hmdaCAp*- round it Qit;B$iix«i j 

Rusiet InwQs and falluws grny, 

"Where the nibbhng^ flock* do stray ; 

Mouo Emilia, on whose barren breast 

Tile labutirio^ cJomlji do ofi^n leatj 

]M endows trsni with daisiN ]Ji«l, 

8haiJ(Jw broota Kod ri^era wid«: 

Towers and hattlpnienta it sees 

Boaom'dhigb in tulted ticea" 

Now, these hedge-row el me, I had never eTen asked myself what they 
'iTE till I eaw them. ; but you know, as I said in a former letter, ibe 
lieJt*^^ """s ^ot all oi them carsfully cut; in Jact^ mnny of them are i ijIj' 
irTBsolar rows of buehea, wheie, although the hawilioro is the atspl* 
eleiueut, yet firs, and brambles, aed many other intcrloiitra put in their 
cliiini, and they all grow up together in a kind of ssraggliiig nuity ; and in 
the hedges treija ar; often s«t out, particularly elms, and ii^iTe a wrj 
plensiufi efldct- 

Tbeu, too, the tiecs harj mor' of that rounding outline which ia exprep^ed 
the word "hosumed," But hent! we are, right under the walk uf Lim- 
»eMt6r, aod Mr, S. wakee me up by quoting, "Old John o'Utmiit, time* 
honoured Lnucaeter." 

"Time-honoured," euid I; "it looks as fresh afi if it luid been built 
jeaterday you do not mean to eay that is the real old caEtle f 

" To he BUve, it ia the very old eaatle built in the reign of Edward HI., 
IJ John c'Gauut." 

It Etaads on the fiaminit of a hill, afiatad regally like a queen upon » 
thrnn?, and ertry part ot it looks as fresh, and ftbarp, ntid clear, as if H 
'Were the work of modern tiroes. It is used aow as a county jail. We hatft 
but a moment to stop or itdniire — the mercitesa steam car drives on. \Va 
Imva a little tidk abont the feudal times^ aad the old past duya; when 
again the cry goes up,— 

" 0, there's sometbing ! What's tlmt f 

" 0, that is Curiisle." M 

^ " CarllBle r eaid 1 j " what, the Carfiale of Soott*B ballad ?" ■ 

"mmt haiktir 

" ^^hj, fioii't yita remember, in the Ljiy of t\vfe LaaX. 'ilV\Ti*'i,i:^\^ \\ift inPR.^ 
of AiheH Gmeme, « hkh haa flomelhing %U^A CarViaift^ft tibA^ t^bjj" 

• It waa on Eogliah lay die bright 
'When tuD e^liinPB I'nir on Cflrli»)e WftH, 
And *iho would nmrrir t SLi>Ujsdj ktugltt. 
Fur loire will atill Ije lord *}f all. 

ring qait« ba<J^H 

1 used to read llile vliea I 'wiis a diHd, and 'wcmder wBat 

CurlMa i£ one of tbe most ancient oiti&B in England, dating qait« t 
tt> tbe time of the fiomoni. Wonderful ] How tLieae BomouH left tLcir ^ 
mark eveiTTirhere ! 

Carlisle has also its ajacietit castle; the lofty, maaaive tower of ^hi^b.^ 
forma a strikitig featnre of the town, 

This eastle was built by William Rufna, David, iiog of ficota, 
Egbert Bniee botb tried tbeii" hands upon it, in the good old times, wha 
Eugl&od and Scotland were a mutual robbery aBEOciatiou. Tben tbe caslU 
of the town was its gAat feature; castles were erorytbing in tboea dftya*J 
Kow tbe cajstlo biis gone to decay, and iftuiids only for a curioaity, and 
eottoji &ctoT7 has come np in its place. Tliia place is famoua for cot- i 
tons ond gingbuma, and jnoreoTtr for a celebrated biscmt bakery, ^o 
gioea the world, — the liy€ly, vigorous shoots of the present springing out of 
the old, mouldenng trunk of the past. 

Mr. S, -was ijttau ecatAsj about ati old cliniuh, & splendid Sothic, in which 
Paley preftcbed. He waa archdeacon of Garliste. Wb fitopped here for & 
little while to take dinner. In a largej bAudeome toom tables were aet out^ 
and we sat down to a regular meal. 

Qua Bees uotLitig of a town from a railroad station, since it Ecema to ba 
tta inyariable ruie, not only here, but all oyer Europe, to locate thtim so that 
jon can see nothing from them. 

By the by, I forgot to say, among the blstoric&t recolloctiona of tbia plac% 
^at It waa the fir at stopping- place of Queen Mary, aft^r her fatal {light 
into England. The rooms which abe occupied are still ebown in the castle^ 
and there are interesting lettei's and documente extant ^om lordia whom 
filiaabetli Bent here to vis^tt her, in which they record Iier betiuly, her heroic 
ientimenta, and even h^r dress ; ao stmug was the fuscination in which 
eke held all who approached her, Carlifiile h tbe Kcetie of the denoue- 
tnent of Buy M^mnering, and it la from this town that Lord Carliale geta 
his title. 

Ajnd now keep a bright look out for rainB and old honses. Mr, 9.j who 
9jva are alwaya in every place, allowed none of tta to slumber, but ]ookin|{ 
oat, firat on his own side and then on otm;, called onr attention to every visibly I 
thiDg, If he liad been appointed on a mission oi' inqniry he could not havfti 
been more xealoos and faithful, and I began to thiok that our deau-c for an] 
Mulish cicerone waa quite auperlluous. < 

Xnd now we pass Gretna Green, famous in story— that momentoue plaeo 
irMch marka tlie commencement of Soutland. It ic? a little etrftg^lisii^ vilhige, 
and Uier« is a roadside inn, which haa heen thoBctneof mnumeitible Gretna 
Green toflrri^cs. 

Owing to the fact thut the Scottish law of mMriii,g,6 is ^Kt ta.&tt^Qsw;^^'^''^ 
kgmn^iu^'iin thaa tlte English ^ this place liaa "Wevi l^itTtAwufi ^ ^"f-* 
inatiaed lovers fmm time immemorial : and alihoiig\i t\i& pTadVKtft ^S. w^-^t^^^"* 
L*-"?x* iinjverBnIIf condemned as very uaafthty alldim^lTl:.pat,l^^^^vVft^"J 
r nnpr^pr,f,tjr^ i* I^ kept m counte^unco \iy ^ery rfehT,^^^^^^ V=^ 


Ivn lord cbanoellors 'kaxu hid the arabblo lAcakiii**? to fitU into this flMW* 1 
und one lord chiincdlor^jt eon ] so sajs the gaide book, wkich i& our KitniB 
fur tlie tjtnc being. It s^ys, moreover, thiit it would te eaay to aJii * 
leDgthoticil list fif JisHttfful^ mamed at Gretuu. Orccn j but these lordabaa'^ 
•allura (Erskine nml Kiduu) are quoted ns being tbc roost mekucholy unn 
menta. Wlifvt tihnll meaner morula do, wlicn law itaelf, in aJl hnr mdjcstj't* 
irj;;, gtiwn, iind ftll, goca by tbu b»aTtl'l! 

Wtill, M.'t ard in Scotland iit last, and now onr pulRC ris^ as the Bna 
denliuea in tho ireat. IVe catch glimpBea of the Sol way Frith and talk about 

Ont} 33.y3, " Do you rememlier the s^tie oa the 8«i shorej with whiekf 
opens, describing the licing of tke tide [" 

And snya another^ ' * DoiL^t jaa. remember thoBC lines in the Young ] 
invar ^ong? — 

* IjOre BweUa like the Solwny, bat ebbs Hta its tide.' " 

I wonder how many axithoi^ it tfUI take ta enchant our country from 
Hnine to New Orleao-s, as e?erj foot of ground Is enchanted here in 
Scut land. 

The sun went down, and night drew on ; still ve were in Scotland. 
Scotch billadg, Scotch ttmea, and Scotch lit*ratui*e were in the daiendant. 
We sang "Auid Lang Syne," ''Scots wha ha*," and "Boanie Dlhjq, 
then, cbaujing the key, sang Dundee, El;?in, and Martyrt. 

" T;vke(3U"e," said Mr, S.; "don't get too luuoh excited.** _ 

"Ab,"EaidI, "this ia a thing that comes only once in a lifetime; do 
Itit us hava the comfoi't of it. \Ve ehali never come into Scotland {or the 
frst thiie again." 

"Ah," iiaid another, "how I wishlValter Scott was ali^e !" 

Wliile we were thus at the fnsioii point of enthusiasm, the cars stopped 
at Lockerhy, where the real Old Mortality is buried. Ail was dim and 
dark outside, but we s\ioo became conscious that there was quite a nnmher 
eollected, peerin;; the window, and into with a strivnge kind of thriU, I 
heard ray name inqtiircd for in the Scottish accent. I went t4i the viindoT; 
there were men, women, and children there, and hand after hand was 
presented, with the words, " Te"re w-olcouie to Scotland!" 

Thes they inquired for, and shook hands with, all the party, having in 
Mmo mysttyiooB manner got the knowledge of who they weit*, even down 

to littk Cr , whom they totik to be my son. Wiie it not pleosan^ 

■when I had a heJirt so worm for this old country ? 1 aball never forget the 
thrill of those worda, " "Is'ie welcome to Scotland," nor the •' Gude 

After we fonnd similar welcomes in many ancceedinfi stopping -places 
and thnu^h I flid wave a towel out of the window, inetcad of a ptickel 
hanilkerehief, and commit other awkwanlnc.'^'iEiB, from not knowing how to 
play my part, jet I fancied, after all, that Scotland and we were fiumlng 
on well together. Who the good souls were that were thus watching fur us 
tlirough the nipht, I am sure I do not know; bat that tbey were of 
the "one hliXKi," which unites all tho families of the earth, I felt. 

As we came towards (ila'Jifow, we saw, upon a hi^li hill, what wo sup- 

j&nsgd to be a castk on fire — great volumea of amoke rolling up, and lirt 

£yjiu3g oat of arched windowB, 


. 25 

.ad not gone 
side of the car, 

it there had 


I the whole 

it's the iron 
1 works ?" 
e got an idea ho-vr 
times, when the 
: such scenes as 

ar me, w&At & Bonflstftution 1 " tve all exclaim* 
very far LefDr€ \fe sa-w aQotbiir, and thoa, on the oppi: 
anotlier still. 

** Why, it aeems t<o mo the couati^ ia all on fire." 

*• I ahonlfl think," said Mr. S., '' if it was in old 
been a raid from the Ilighlaiida, and set a.11 the hauati 

" Or thay miyht ba bem-otia," au;igeEted C. 

■Wo thiB some aiiQ u.hhw^x'&X out of thif Lay of the La- 
' " Swiiet Teviot, by thy siItct tide 

Tlifs gluriflg bale-Mris likic ld mote 

As we drew n^u* tc Glns^w^ tbes^illuniiu^tianB lac 
air Wiis i"eil with the glare of them. 

"Whfitcan tbey bef 

"Dear mi?," said Mr, S., ij 
works ! Don't you know &lai 

So, flflter all, in thea^ peacoi 
the oonnttT might hsrro Icjok 
Highlanders carap down rand 
iirecoiutiieinoratail in the wari; .^^5 ; — 

" Pfoadif onrpibroi.'h has thrilled in Glrn Priiin, 

Atid'liiinimifWf'H jTfoiln-i in our sIr>f;iiTi replied ; 
Olea Laid anJ £ioas Uau, thoy ivrc a.uttldiig in ruins, 
And the best of Loch Lomond lies dead on her side." 

To be sure the fires of iron founderies are much less picturesque than 
the old beacons, and the clink of hammers than the clash of claymores ; 
but the most devout worshipper of the middle ages would hardly wish to . 
change them. 

Dimly, by the flickering light of these furnaces, we see the approach to 
the old city of Glasgow. There, we are arrived ! Friends are waiting in 
the station house. Earnest, eager, friendly faces, — ever so many. Warm 
greetings, kindly words. A crowd parting in the middle, through which 
we were conducted into a carriage, and loud cheers of welcome sent a throb, 
as the voice of living Scotland. 

I looked out of the carriage as we drove on, and saw, by the light of a 
lantern, Argyle Street. It was past twelve o'clock when I found myself 
in a warm, cozy parlour, with friends, whom I have ever since been glad 
to remember. In a little time we were all safely housed in our hospitable 
apartments, and sleep fell on me for the first time in Scotland. 



Dear Aukt E. : — 

The next morning I awoke worn and weary, and scarce could the charms 
of the social Scotch breakfast restore me. I say Scotch, for we had many 
viands peculiarly national. The smoking porridge, or parritch, of oatmeal, 
which is the great staple dish throughout Sco Jaud. Then Uv^te, ^%s. "^^^ 
bannock, a, thin, wafer-like cake of the same matexvaX. W^j ix\etA\w5."^- 
in^fy said when he passed it, •* You are in tke ' \auA. o' cak&a,^ xesa.^^s^'st* 


I also fiome Uerring, sa nic^e a Soottish fish as ever wont Bealo, ^ 
lidua (kinlies ittumaernible wliJch wen not iiatioEia.1. 

Our friend and boat wna Mr. BailHe Paton. I believe ibat it ia to Bi*, 
EUjiCgeatioa in a public meetlngf tliat ve owe the invitation which liroui^^ 
us U Scoiland. 

By the bj*, I fthould say that ** Imillie" seems to correspoad to wM w* 
call a member of the city council. Mr. Pftton told UH, that they liad ei- 
pected UB earliar, and that the day before quite a joatj of ftiaodB met at 
his liooae to Bee nsf, ftmong -whom was gixxl old Dr, Waidlaw^. 

After breakfast the calling begfin. First, a friend of the family, nith 
tliree beaatiful t^hildren, the yoanf eat of whom "was the bearer of a hjittd- 
H'imely hotitid alham, coutainiug a pressed coIlectLDn of the ttea mo3S£a uf 
til (J ScottLah eoiist, very \'ivid and biautifol. 

If the Ijloom of Eus;H(ih uhilih^n appeared to me wonderful, I aeemed to 
find the stuoe thing ititenaified, if poBsihle, in Scotland. The children -ue 
brilliant as pomegranate blosaomfl, and their vivid beauty called forth un- 
cefliimg ftdiniratiuii. Nor is it merely the children of the rit:li, or*of the 
Jiigher dasaes, that are thns gifted. I have seen many a giiDup of ragged 
n re bins in th€ streets and closes with all the high colouring of Bubenn, and 
ail his fulness of outline, l^hy is it that we admire ragged childr^ oik 
cauTiVh so much more than the same in nature? 

AH thifl day is a confused dream to me of a dizay and ovenr'SeliniDg 

kind. 60 many letters that it took C from nine in the moniiug liJI 

two in the afterawon to read and answer them in the sliorteat manner ; 
letters from all eloaaes of people, liigh and low, rich and poor, ;4i tdl shades 
and Btflea of composition, poetry and prose ; some mere ontbnrsts of feel- 
ing; some invltatious; some advice and enggestions; some req^uests and 
inquirida ; jsome presenting books, or flowers, or fruit. 

Then came, in their turn, deputations from Paiisley, Greeooc'k, Dundee, 
Aberdeen, Edinhnigh, and Belfast in Irehxnd; csdls of friaudship, invita- 
tions of all descriptions to go everywhere, and to see everything, and to 
atay in so many places. One kind, venerable muiister, with bis lovelj 
daughter, od'ered me a retreat in hk quiet manse on the beautiful shores 1^ 
tJje Clyde. 

For all theM kindnesses, Tfrhat could I ^fe in lotum ? There was 
scarce time for even a gratefn! thought on each. People have often said to 
me that it mnst have been an exceeding bore. For my part, 1 could Ofjt 
think of regarding it ao. It only oppr^Bed me with an unutterable 

To me there ii always something iatcreeting and bcantiiul ahout ft 
"GniverBal popular excitement of a generous character, Itt the object of it be 
-what it may. The great dejiiriug heart of man, surging with one etrong, 
sympftthetie swell, ef?en tlxough it he to break on the beack of life and fall 
backwards, leaving the sands as barren as before, has yet a meauing and a 
power in its reatlessnessj with which I roust deeply aynipathize. Nor do I 
sympathize any the less, when the individua], who calls forth such an ou' 
burst, can be seen by the eye of sober aense to he altogether inadeq^uate 
diBproportioned to Itv 

1 do not regard it as anything against our Ameiii^m nation, that we 
tis/iahJe^ to A very yre at extent, of theae sudden personal euthusiafims, 
e&ase I ikhili that^ with au individual or & cymuiujaity,, ths tia\)aliUit;j naf 


vn. I 

beinj exalted into ft temporary enttasiasm of sBlf-forgetfalnees, HO far 
boiii'j a fiiultt ba3 in it a. quality of Bometkmg diriae. 

(.if coui'se, about all aueh things tbere is a greftt deal wMflli a cool eritio 
eould make ridiculous, but I hold to loy oiJinion of tbem neTertlaclesH. 

In the afternoon I rode out with the loi-d proYost to uee the catbedTfll. 
The lord provoi^t asRwers to the lord mayor in Eni^land. Hlfi title and 
o^(?e in botb countrka continne oaly a year, oxc«pt in cases of re-ideclton. 

Aa I mw tha wuj to the c&tbedral blocked up by a tlirong of people, wbo 
hid come out to aee me, I oould not belp eaying, " Wbat went ya out for 
to Be« ? a reed ebaken uritb the wind?" In fact, I was so warn out, that I 
coald hardly walk through the building. 

It ia in thie cathedral that part of the Bcens of Roll Boy ia laid, Thii 
wsis my first eiperience in cathedrals. It was a new thing to me alto- 
gether, and aa I 'wnlk^ aioog under the old buttresies and babtlements 
vithout, and looked into the bawildering labyrinths of aroliiteotute wllhiu, 
I aaw that, with silence and solitude to help the impreBidon, the old build- 
ing might bBcome a strong part of one's inner life. A grareytLrd crowded 
irlth flat Btoaea lies ail ai-ound it, A deep ravine separAtea it from another 
cemetery on an opposite emiaencer matllng with dark pines. A little 
1>rook murmurs with its slender Toice Wtween. 

On this opposite eminetii.'e the sta,tue of John Knox, grim aad strong, 
's with its arm uplifted, as if shaking his fist at the old catkedrdi 
in life bs Tatoly endeaToured to battle down. 
IX waa very different from Luther, in that ha bad no consarratiTt 
dement in hira, but warred equally agaidBt accea&oriea and essentials. 

At the time when the churches of ScoUaud were being p«lIod down in a 
gcoeriil iconoclastic erusade, the tradesmen of Olftsgow dtood for the defonta 
of their catlieilral, and forced the reformers to Mntcnt themsolTeH witli 
bCkviDg the idulatroMS linages of saints pnlJed down from thoir niches and 
tbfowa into the brook, while, &s Andrew FairserTics hath it, '* The auld 
kirk stood as crouse ai a cat when the fioas are caimcd afi' her, and a*bodf 
ma alike pleased." 

We weat all through the cathedral, whicb ia fitted up as a Protestant 
plAce of worship, and has a simple and maaaive grandeur about it, la ^M 
faL"t, to qaote again from our friend Andrew, we could truly sjiy, "Ah, it*a ^M 
a biTiTe kirk, nane o* yere whig-maleeriefi, and oirliewurlicg, and openateek ^* 
hems about it— a' soUd, weel-jointed mason wark, that 'nill irttmd as lang 
ai the war Id, keep banda and gun-powther aff it." 

I was disappointed in one thing : the painted gla^s, if tlicro baa erer 
been any, is atmoet all gone, and the glare of light through the immensa 
windows is altogether too great, revealing many defects and mdenesBes in 
the architecture:, which would have quite another appearance in the coloured 
rays through painted windows — an emblem, pethapJt, of the cold, dsfinite!, 
itttelleotual rationalism, which has takon thu place of the mflny-coloured, 
gurgeoua mjaticiim of former timea. 

After having been over the church, we requested, out of respect to 
BKilre Nicol Jarvie^s memory, to be driven through tlie Saut Market. I, 
bowever, was so thoroughly tired that I cannot remenilj>er anything abaulv^ ^M 

I iriil f^Jt by the way, that I Lave found out fiimc^ '\hsA, \iaVV\D,^\%i ^"^H 
Ollerlf htuBFihtia to a persoa's strength as loukiog 6.t (salWCScraift. T'^^ 
Ktnia ttpoii ths tend and eyes m Jouking up tlirgugk'ftiesfeViaifi.i^iiaq bxOq*»\ 


1^ FOBEIGir lAB-BS. 

juid tUeu tbe BOpulijhral chill wUlch nbides fron) generatioa to gptieraiSoii I 
tboiM, their extent, tiu«l the variety whick tempts yiHi to fali^uewb' ' 
yon AVti not at all awiit^ of, huve overcome, us I wris told, many bsfire i 

AIn S. and C -, boweiror, mide amsads, b/ their greit activitj i 

seal, f^ all tUat I could not do, aod I -nros pleaded to understand from 
ihcnx, that part of the old TolbootU, whore Rob Roj and the baUk had 
tlit'lr renjiontnft, waa staading safe and sound, with stuff eiwueU in It for 
bjxlf a dozen nwro etoriea, if anybody could be fouad to write theoi. And 
i,[r. 3. insisted upon it, thjLt I ^ould not omit to Dotlfy yon of tku cir- 

W«ll, in conaeiuenee of nil this, tho nest morning I was bo ill as to need 
a pbyaician, unabk to see any one that called, or to bear any of tbe le^ttera. 
I pissed most of tbe Jay in bed, but in tbe evenJog I bad ti> get up, as I 
li:id ijts;;a::ed to drink tea witb two tbotisiind people. Oor kind friends Dr. 
and *lt!i. Wardlaw came after ub^ an^ Air. S., and I vreal inthii carria 
vlth them. 

Dr. Wardlaw is a ^anei^blerlooking old man; ve both tbonght we Ea'r|_ 
itriliing resemblancB in biin to onr friend Dr, Woods, of Andaver, Ho is 
iVtiU qaite active in body and mind, and officiate;* to hia congregation with 
great acceptance, I ftiar, huflrever, that he is in ill health, for I noticed, as 
we ware pM-^aing along to cliurcb, that be frequeiuly laid hia band apon big 
heart, and seemed in pain. He Bald he hoi^od he should be able to get 
through tho opening, bot that when he waa not well, tixeitfimEnt was apt 
to bring on a spasm about the heart ; but with it all be seemed so chesrful, 
lively, and benl^jfnant^ that I could not bntftiel my affections drawn towaida 
him. Mrs. Wardlaw ia a geuUe, motherly woman, and it was a> great com- 
fort to have her with me on such an occasitan. 

Our carriage stopped at last at the place. I have a dim remembraTif e of 
a way bein^ made for ua through a great crowd all round the Kousje, and of 
golug with l[rg. Wardbvw up into a drtsalng-room, where I met and a boat 
handa witk many friendly peopb, Then we passed into a gallery, where m 
seat was rea^r^ed for our party, directly ia front of the audience, 
friend BatUe Faton presided. Mrs. Wivrdlaw and I sat together, and arou 
us many frieads, chieAy ministers of tbe different churches, ihs ladiea i 
get! tic men of the GHaagow AntiBlavetTr Society, and others. 

I told yon it was a tea-party; bnt the arrangements were alto^othe 
dia'areat from any I had over seen. There were narrow bibles stretched i3_ 
and down tke whole titent of the great ball, and every portion bad :uiJ 
appointed seat. These tables were set out witb cups and saucers, cakel^l 
biscuit, &c., and when the proper time csinc, attendants pa'ssed aba|j 
serving tea. The arrange menta were so accurate and methodii^al that tb 
wbolfl multitude iiotuuliy took tea together, without tbe ieast oppareB 
ini7oaTEnieuce or diaturbau'^e. 

There was a gentle, aubduad murmur of coDTot^Htion all over ths| 
tbe scKilable clinking of teacups and teaspoons, while the entertainraflf _^ 

ing on. It seemed to me sncb an odd idea, I could not help wciadertng 

Lii fart of a teajot that most be, in which all this tea for two tbous^nd 
pe&p/tt tKas mMd. Truly, a a Hadji Baba sayft, I think tl\c^ m>\st\ia,\fe V'nA 
the "father of aH ieatetlhs" to boil it In. I eouU not iw\v iw^Ta\>-™iS '^ 
mo&lieF 3ciitla.tid bxd put two thousand tea^poontnla oi ^«* tit ^,\» 
tpsm^, asd me for the teapot, as U our good Yaa kc<i c^B tom, 



We had qmto a, eociftbl* tame up in mn- gallery. Oar tea talila str<;t<;!ied 
^uite acitrSEs the galltry, and we drank lea ''In eight cf all the people." liy 
Kf, I meam n great numher of ministera and iheii- wiTee, and kdiea of the 
IntuilftTery Stw^ietyj besides our party, and the fritnda n-hoin 1 iaire men- 
tkiotd before. All eeemed to he eujaying theoiBeJ^ea. 

Al€r tea ihey sing a few verses of the setenty-ieeond paalm in the old 
Sv'otth Teraion. 

" The people's poar phot he tUttU jud^Cj^ 

'1 iiL* Deedy-'s fiiildrfu save ; 
And thosuf ^hall hu in pieces brefik, 
Wbo ihi.>ni oppi'eaicd Iia^p. 

" For ho the needy ahail prcserTe, 
Wli«a he to him d'jtb cdJ ^ 
The poar, qIbo, ilucL kicn Ihathalli 
Kd help ul'tuHii at. till. 
" Both from deceit and TiolenPo 
Tbr ir soiii he nhitll i!et (rfe ; 
And 111 lisn sight ri^ht prfeionB 
And deal' iheir bluod sUiUl be. 

" If ow liWsed bf the Lord, our God, 
Th(> Uud of lArwI, 
For te olonp dulh wundiom Wodts, 
lii gi«i-y that exeel. 
"And tjlegsefl be hia gloriom Ttasne 
'lo nil etirnitT J 
Thti * i toil- tanii let hie glorj fill : 
Ameuj Bolet it be," 

Wljen I Iw^ai'd tlie tinltcd mvind of all the rowes, giving force to these 
nmple acd pathetic words, I thoughl 1 cotild see soniislliing tf the re^ua 
why that indc old trnnslatioii atill holds its place m Scbilfintl. 

The fiddreteea were, many of ihtm, very beautiful; the mure si) for thii 
eamefit lind leHgioua feeling which they mm^ife&ted. That of Dr. Wardlaw, 
in paiiiculur, ^as fall of comfort and eneonra^ment, ajid breathed a mosii 
t^ndid and catholic spirit. Could oaf fnendis in Amt-nca see with wliat 
earnest warmth the religiatia htail of E:cot]and beats iuwurds them, they 
would be willing to f.uiit:r a woid of Admonition from those to wlioto lov© 
givea 0, right to speak. An ChristiauB, all ha^e a common mtereat tu what 
honours ot dit,hou{mrs Clirbtianity, and an ocean between ue does not moke 
ne lees otie church. 

M*k*st of the Bipcecheii yon will see recorded in the p.-vpera. In the course 
of the eveuijig there wjw a second service of gm pit's, oranges, ajid other 
frnita, eerTed round in the ta,m*i qttiet manner m the ita. On account of 
'iii6 fL^eble state of luy he.'jKh, they kindly escnsed me before the eieroiscs 
'©f thiJ evening were over. 

The next moiiiirg, at ten o'clock, we rode witli « party of friends to eee 
-lonjc of the ■nQUib'tUif. First, to Bothwell Cattle, of old tlie retfidujiee of the 
^Black Duuijlas. The name had for me tlie quality of enchnntnient, I 
jtEaaaot nnderetand nor wplnJu the untui-e of tljjit t«iid jsmiuiug avid lyiv^^ ^^ 
■witli which one viwte the nioiilileiing leunuiiii \A is. sV.\i& ti^ w^i^ffiS-^ ^\ti.C^^| 
we^sr&^on vrhoUy iUmjipvovQH, and win ck 0Ti6*» ttxlvtv ^wfi *^\ xv^^^^i^^ 
liink it the greatest niMovinnti t^ Ijave rec&Ued- x^\.^\\ft^^a^^Mct\v;^ 
«wrf ua^Jcr thy ^ndosv of beautiful ancient g-x\^, wvi ^^- \ f-fj 

30 stjifrr m-emobies ^of FfiBEroK la if Da. 

^voiy DflTre shiver. I remembered ihe Aim melodies of the "Lady of the 
lAkts." Both well's lord was the lord of this castle, whoea beautifal mini 
here adorn the baoka of the Clyde. 

Whatever else we ha^g or may have In Amerita, vq shixll neTcr haye the 
urild, poetic beaut? ctf these ruins. The present nobla posseBsoi-B are fully 
aware of their worth as ehjetita of taste, and, therefore, with the greatest 
care are they preserved. Winding walks ai"e cut throuc;h the grounds with 
much ingenuity, and seats or arboura are placed at every desirable and pio- 
turesque point of view. 

To the thorough-paced tourlBt, who wants to do the proprieties in the 
Bhort'eat possible time, this arrangement is undoubtedly particularly satis- 
factoiy; but to the idealist, who would like to roam, and dream, and feel, 
and to come unexpectedly on the ehoisest points of tIew, it ia rather a 
damper to have all his rapturea preamuigEd and foreordained for hitn, set 
down in the guide book and proclaimed by tiie guide, even though it should 
be done with the most ariietic accuracy. 

Nevertheless, when we came to the arboar vrhkh. commanded the finest 
view of the old castle, and saw its ^ey, iTy-clad wnUs, standing forth on a 
beautiful point, round which swept the brown, dimpling waves of the Cflydei, 
the indescribable sweetness, sadness, wildness of the wholo scene would 
make itii voice heani in our hearts. " Thy servants take pleasure in her 
duiatj and favour the stones thereof," said an old Hebrew poet, who mu^ 
have felt the inexpressibly sa.d l.icaTity of a ruin. All the splendid phan- 
tasmagoria of chivalry and faudalism, knights, ladies, banners, glittering 
armss, sweep before us ; the cry of the Imttle, the noise of the captain a, and 
the shouting; and then in eontmst this deep stillness, that green, clinging 
ivy, the gentle, rippling river, those weepiug birches, dipping in its soft 
watera^ — all these, in their quiet loveliness, speak of something more int-* 
perishable than brute force. 

The ivy on the wall? now displays a trunk in some plaeca as large aa m 
man's h:nly. In the days of old Archibald the Gtrim, 1 suppose that i^j 
was a littlct weak twig, which, if he ever noticed, he mnst hivve thought 
the feeblest and alightest of all thing3 ; yet Archibald has gone back to dust^ 
and the ivy is still growing on. Such force is there in gentle things. 

1 have often been diBsatislied with tho admiration, which a poetic eduav- 
tion lias woven into my nature, for chivaltyand feudalism ; but, on a closer 
cxuminaticn, I am convinced that there i« a real and proper f>Qndation fur 
it, and that, rightly understood^ tliia poetic admiration ia not inccnsdsteot 
with the spirit of Christ. ~ 

For, let us consider what it is we admire in the»e Boiaglases, for ini 
who, as represented by Scott, are perhaps as good exponents of the 
as any. \V'aa it their hardness, their {^ruelty, their bafitinesa 'Ui take 
offence, their fondneea for blood and mnrder ? AJl these, by and of them- 
selves, are aiinply disgusting. What, then, do we admire ? Their cqniage, 
their fortitude, their scern of lying imd disM nidation, their high aense <J 
peraonaJ honour, which led them to fed thomBelves tie protectors of the 
wwik, aad to diadai;! to take aflvantage of unequal odds against an enemy, 
M' wfi read the hook of Isaiah, we shall see that some of the most stri^kiug 
JVpivsoB^fiii'oas of God appeal to the ^ery samo ptivi?'\'p\*sj vK qiii wa^rafe, 
TAe fact ia, there can he no reliable cbaractcr wVip\i ka» tvo^ v^ >*s^^* "^ 
ffiaw siroBff qualitiea. Tho beautiful must e^er J?est \iv ^3&ft vs^^ ^l NX» 


the id^^ 

iliintf, Th6 ^£^t!c neoda the etiung to suatnin it, &e miicli m the rods 

need rucks to ^ow on, or yonder iTy the rn^ed wall wliich 
krwea. Wben we fcre admiring these things, tli^i-efore, Mfe are onj^ 
biriiig same sparklas aad gHmineis of that wkich ia diyiud, &ad eo 
liin?: neapt^r to Him m whom all fniness dwells, 

"ug at li dijitaniie, we atrollt*d through the mins theccisplvpB. 
i.icr, in the Ludy of the Lake:, wkere tha^ dxiled l)ougla% 
. daughter the iiiiagea gf his former ispltsudoitr, Siaya, — 

*' AVhen BluutTre bjinned her hoHeei Ifl^i^ 
Aitd Bcptbwi'll'a wt*LLi» Quag bock rhe pruiaa" ? 


ftwe Unes came forcihly to my mind, whan I saw iha moalderiTig ruin* 
Ibntyre priory rising Bxaotly opposite to the ooatle, on the otliisr side 
he Clyde. 
Pbe bank* of the rivor Clyda, wkerB we walked, ware thick set wi 

i;ae£e laUTel, which I h;uTe before mentioned aa iB^imilur to our thodo* 
tfuR. I here noticed a fflut with regard to the ivy which had utteu jutu, 
lied me ; and that J a, the diff -lent shapes ot its leaves in the difftreiit 8tfl,y«_ 
of Jte growth. I'he yottiig Jyy Jja»a ttscttl and indented leaf ; hut wheu it 
bin be«)me more ths n a century old every iTate and iitdeatation meUti ttwiiy, ,j 
and it aRsumes a form which I found afterwarda to be the iiivaimlliri 
fthnpft of all the oldest ivy, in all tiie loina of Eurcipe whi' ii I explored. 

This ivy, like the spida, t&kte hi?!d with htr hnnda in kings' palaces, 
ils every twig ia fuini^hed iviili maustieruble little clinging tingers, by 
trhicli it draws itself alomj as it were^ to tha tery heiui fit the old rough 

If* clinging and heantiftil tenacity has given rise to an abuiidain?e of 
eiincecta alwut t^delity, fn*jDdship, and woman's love, which bavo becoiijus 
cuoinjonplace itimply from their appi opdatene^. It might, also, flymboliz& 
thAt higher love, d noon qaei able zmd nneoaqnered, wh)[-b has embr&ceiiil 
this wiijied world from age to age, silently apreadiug its green oTer thft 
reuta and lissmea of our filleu nature, ^ving "beauty for ashes, and gar- 
menta of praise for the spirit oi heaTinees." 

There iB u modem mausioii, inhere the present proprietor of the estate 
live*. It was villi an amotion partakidg of the sorrowful, that we heard 
that the Douglas line, as Buch, was extiact, and that the eirtate had pasBtd 
to distant connexions. I was told that the preaeat Lord Dtmgln^ ii* a, 
peatjefu! clergyman, q^uite a different character from old Arehibald tho 

The present residence is a plain mansion^ standing on g. beautiful lawn^ 
neiiT the old castle. The heiid gardener of the eaUite and many of th#J 
Rurvni]ts came out to meet ns, with faces fall of interest. The gardea^u 
iV; ' ' * to show US the localities, and hud a great deal of tlie quieH 
d self-respect which, 1 think, is characteristic of the lii}>iiur«i 
„.. . . e- I noticed that on the green sweep of the hvwa, he ha4| 
out here and there a good many dftisies, as embelUstiments'WiXVvft ^ffM 

tml these in many pha&f were defended by sticks \)m\. 0N6T X\itm, v^ 

tia^ /« fa*- pfare, a. hank ormbanging the stream was raAmut V\^.\v -^^n^ 
daOinm^ i^hiob appeared to ba ve wrne up and blossom^ \,\\^Ye ^ctv^ifetAi^Wl - 

W^ne^i^ w^i io m famom Bothw^U bridge, ^ki^k V>W. ^^^ ^^^« 



tolired m Old JtorUJltj. We walked np nml dnwHf trying to recall (La 
acenea of the Wttle, aa tliere descrilffid, and were mllier niorlSiitd, (lildr 
we iiJid all our fliiSOciatiLiia comforLabiy lociittd vtp&n it, to be told tluit ife 
WAS not the same bridge — it had been uewly built, widened, rvnd olherwis» 
BoAdo more (^umfniliible a,ud convonieiit. 

Ctf course, this -wiis evidently for the benefit of society, but it vjia cer- 
tainly one of those taises wLtre the poetical auifeia fur the prjicticjU. I 
ecmforted myself in jny despondency, by loDking over at the old stoM 
piers tindemeath, which were iudisputitbly tbe same, We drove new 
through beautiful grounds^ and alighted at an ele^nt mauKion, which in. 
former days belonged to Ltrelihart, the son-in-law oi Scutt. It was in 
tlds house that Old Mortality was written. 

As X wa<i weary, the party left me here, Trhile they went on to hee tbft 
Duke of Liimilton's groutjds. Owr kiud hastess sliuwcd me into a BiniU 
fitihly, where she said Old Mortality was iiViitten. The window rum' 
manded a beautiful tIew of many of the localities described. Scott wufl 
as j>articular to consult for accuracy in. bie local descriptions as if he hui 
been writing & gaide book. 

He was in the habit of noticg down in his memoTaudum boi>k even 
names and characteristics of the wild flowera acd gtasfies that grew about 
a place. "When a friend onc« rtmorked to him, that he islionld have sup- 
posed his imiiginatioii ctuld La^e supplied &ucii trifles, he mtidtt an aaawer 
that IS Wdrth Tttntembermg by eviiry artist— that no ima^iiiatiiJii timid 
long support its freshness, that was not nourished by a constant nitd niitmt* 
obaervtttioB of nattire. 

tVaignetlian Cnstlc, whicli la the original of TiliietTidlem^ we wgw 
informed, was not fttr from thence. It is stated in Loekhart's Life of 
Scott, that thi3 ruins of this ensile excited in Scott euch dcliyht and eijtha- 
aiasm, that its owner urged bun to accept for his lifetime the ueeof aemaU 
habitable houise, encIoBcd iRithiu the circuit of the walls. 

After tlie return of the purty from Hamiltoa Fark, ive sat down lu an 
clegftut lunch, where my eye waa attracted more Uian anything elfe, hf 
the spleudour of the hothutiEQ flowers whttli adomeil the table. So iar »« 
I have observed, the culture of flowers, both in England rnd EcutJaud, ii 
more universally an object of attention than with us. iivtsry iamily j: 
etiBV circumstances seemij, an a. matter of course, to have tbeir greeuhoi 
and the flowers are brought to a degree of perfection which I havft a 
eeen at home, 

I may aH well say bere, that we were told by a gentleman, whose m 
I do not now remember, tltnt tliis whole difjtrict had been celebrated 
its urchards ; lie addetl, Loivever, that since iht introduction of the AtneticcQ 
apple into the mnrket, its J.iiperior excellence bail made many of those 
orchards almost entirely wtn-thlasa. it is n cm-iona fact, showing hovr " 
new world is working on the old. 

After takiD^: leave of our hospitable friends, we took to o«r carri; 

again, As we were driyjng sbuvty tbrough the beautiful grounds, ud 

jy/^, fl4f wc'/i^vBT fiiil to do, Heir perfect culttvatiun, a j;arty of wit.-.. 

mjif'e.-.'reiJ In ^v^/ii, wavfng their halij and liitiidkferdutffc, and tUefcv'nv^ \i^ a* 

Tin jy.'Lii,i'(/. 'Jlie6e kjndiy expv&nsinuB iwm tUt^m WMana ^^^iwasIA, i^a. nav^ 

^^ tJ:e ermhig m? had en'^-T-^ t'^ attend auot^iet loin"*, gpU*LTv%v^\^ 

(ar »« 

ud, ij 
ily VOL \ 




I lb ▼orkiufi. classes, to give ivdnuasian to maJiy "who were not in circum- 
llJKicea to pTiwhitsG tiukela for the otLer. This was to me, if anjFthitig, 
I* more iateresiiug m^nflioT;, because tliis wsj* just tlie class whom I wiabed 
] k meet. The armngeoiscts of the cntortiiimiiciit were like thosQ of the 
I erenbg before. 

As I sat iu Uie front galleiyaaa looted over the audienoe with an intense 
J interest, 1 tkought tlifcy appeareil on the wIjoIo Teiy mnch like whftt I 
1 «%ht have Been lit home m a dinilar giithering. Med, woineD, aiidchi]dren 
I »«» dreaaed in a Etyle which showed botli Btilf respect and good taste, and 
I Ifee flpeecjies were faj &hoYe mediocrity. On^ pale youag man, a watch- 
lUiker, &a I was told afterward a, delivered an address, which, thougl 
tlonbtless. ii had the pTomiEing fault of too much ehtbotatron and uniameiit) 
jet I thought had paseagea which wotdd do honour to any literary periodic! 

There were other orators leas highly ijniflhed, who yet apoke '* right on, 1 
h a strong, forcible, and really eloquent way, giTinp the grain of the wo(>" 
without they Tarnish, The contended very seriously and sensibly, thai 
".OTJgh the working men of Engljuid and Scotknd had many thinga 
Dpliun of, and majiy tlinga to b« reformed, yet their condition wast worldJ 
le different from that af the slave. 

One cannot read the histDry of the working claeseB in England, for the 
list fifty years, without fefl)iiig sensibly the difference between oppraasionaj, 
under a free goifemment and sloTery. So long iis the working class *~ 
Eoj^nd produces orators and writers, 8iich as it undoubtedly bas produced | 
HO long as it haa in it that spirit of independence and rcsifitjince of wrong 
which hoa shown itself more and mftre dniitig the agitations of the htBl 
fifty years J and bo long 8.5 the law allows them to meet and debfite, to forn 
acscNSiatioua and committeeei^ to sand up remon^rrances and potitiOQS 
government, — one can aee that their case is essential] y different from tlii 
of plantation slaves. 

I must say, I was struck thia night with the resemblan<^ hetweci 
ihe Saitchman and the liew Englonder. One sees the diatiuctive nation^ 
aJity of a country more in the middle and lahouring dasBea tliaa in tb^ 
higher, and accordingly at this meeting there was mora naiionality, 
thought, tbnn at the other. 

The hij'jhest class of mind in all countries loses nationality, tmd becomes ' 
■Qniyersal ; it is a great fjity, too, because nationality is picturesque always. 
One of the greatest uuraulea to my mind about Eossnth was, that with so 
universal an p^ducation, and such an extensive range of longuage and 
thought, hts was yet ao distinctivfly a Magyar. 

One thing has snrpriaud and rather disappointed ns, Onr enthnsiaan 
for Walter Scott does not apparen+ly meet a reppouea iuthe popular Lreaat*! 
^oiUB to Bannctfkburn and Drnmclog hrmg down the house, but entbii*' 
L for Scfjtt wa.s met with cfjmpanttive silence. We discussed this matter 
»ng ourselv^B, nwi ratLer wondered at it. 

The fact is, Soott hdutiged to a past, and not to i\\^ tcsiam^ Bk%%. I^<i 

Twiistifiwl am} Uiiortied tlmt which, is oU\ aui -psx^^w^^wNM- ^^ 

lywfdjiffi wivffupftt;.! iu hiB very soul institivliui^s v;\iit\x \Ai^ Ta-^VstVc^ s'fl 

tAe i»n,m>m j>t>^>h h^vti felt as a restr^mt aud 5X>>ui:ieu. '^^ii^ ^v^^> 

Zd^t^^ ri^''^ '^/^/cTHitt idea of a feud^ e.-vsl\o % ^UTxmi?,^^ ^^^^^^ ] 


Kow, we in America arc so far removed from feudalism, — ib haa "booi • 
thing so much of mere song and story with us, and otit -sympathiM are » 
unchecked by any experience of inconvenience or injustice in its ooov 
qnenccs, — that we are at full liberty to appredato the picturesque of i^ 
and sometimes, when we stand overlooking our own beautiful aoeneiyi to 
wish that we could sec, 

" On yon bold brow, a lordly tower j 
In tbat soft Tale, a lady's bower; 
In yonder meadow, far awi^, 
The turreta of a doiater gray}" 

■when those who know by experience all the accompaoiments of ihm 
ornaments, would have quite another impression. 

^Nevertheless, since there are two worlds in man, the real and tile idelL 
and both have indisputably a right to be, since God made the £aBnltiM a 
both, we must feel that it is a benefaction to mankind, that Soott was tint 
raised up as the liuk, in the ideal world, between the present and the piiL 
It is a loss to universal humanity to have the imprint of any phaM <if 
human life and experience entirely blotted out. Scott's fiotiana an Kkt 
this beautiful ivy, with which all the ruins here are overgrotm, — thej vd 
only adorn, but, in many cases, they actually hold together| ud piVTgdt 
the crumbling mass from falling into ruins. 

To-morrow ^e are going to have a sail on the Gyde. 



Aprfl 17. 

!uv i>rAR SistTer: — 

To-diiy a large parly of us started on a small steamer, to go down the 
Cly.Ie. It ]v\H been a very, very exciting djiy to us. It is so stimulating 
to be where every r.cimc is a poem. For instance, we started at the 
r.- omIoIiiv. Til!:.; ]"iroomielavv- is a kind of wharf, or landing. P^hi^ 
in o! 1 t::iio3 ib v,;ia Iiaugli ovorgrowa with broom, from whence it gets ttl 
juimo ; t-iis is only my conjecture however. 

Wo liave a smsill steamer quite crowded with people, our excursion partgr 
being vary numerous. In a few minutes after starting, somebody says, — 

" 0, here's where the Kelvin enters." This starts up, — 

" Let us haste to Kelyin G rovo.' * 

• Then soon we arc coming to Dumbarton Castle, and all the tears we shed 

over iliss Porter's William Wallace seem to rise up like a many-coloured 

mist about it. The highest peak of the rock is still called Wallace's Seal| 

and a part of the casLlc, Wallace's Tower ; and in one of its apartments a 

Jja^^o tn'o-bandt\l swocd of the hero ia still shown. Isviip^wi, ui fact) 

J/iiss Porters seniiaientnl hero is about as m,uc\v Wtt l\ve T:«»\.NlV5K\aaa.^iac- 

Jitce as Dauiel Ihone is like Sir Charles Gxandisou.. Ts1aK:j ». iwhx^\*&^, 

rAo has cried hcraoJf sick over Wallace in ttic woveV, v.ou\^")aaNfe\«fc\i.-2 

^rfect horror if she could have seen the real mau. fe\.iilTivvmtot«\ATj.V.MK 

aota whit thG lo3s picturesque for that. 

Now comw the Lcven, — that identical Leven Wa — wn in song, — 
ind on the rigtt is Leven GhroTC. 

"Tliei-e," KQid Homebody tfi me, "is i'he old iDfti lOn of the Earls of 
Glenciiru." Qukk as tJwiUght, flaslied through my that most elo- 
quent of Bums' s p&ema, the Lfiuntnt for Jn-mea, Earl Jaim. 

•*Thc hridegroom liiny forget the brida 
"Was made hia Wi?d<lf!d T*ift» VAitrenUi 
Tln^ monarch hqht tbrprel the tToiTn 
{That on his beftdVn hotir bath Hpea; 
Thfi mother ihbj forget the child 
Th*t BmiJea sjte sweeLly OH har kneej 
But I'll rempmbrr the^, QTcnenJrn, 
And a' that thou bast done tor me/' 

This maTision h bow the seat of Graham of Gartmo 

Now we are uhown the remams of old CarJroEs Gas lere it was said 

^bort Bratio breathed Mb — i* the beautiful 

grounds of Roaeneath, ti gn stretching out into 

the Trldening waters, 

" Peninauia 1" C — jtt said it was an 


CErtsinly, he did declare most expucLiij m the person of Mr. Archibald, 
the Ihike of Argyll's serving loan, to Kisa Dolly Dutton, when she insisted 
on going to it by land, that Eoseiieath was an island. It shows that the 
most accurate may he caught trii>ping Bometiraea. 

Of course ottr hcadB wore full k Diivid Deans, Jcanie, and Effie, but we 
aaw nothing of them. The Duke of Argylo'a Italian mansion is the most 
coDJupicuous object. 

Hereupon there waa considerable discuseioii on the present Puke of 
Argyle among the company, from n-hicii we gatliered that he stood high in 
favour with the popidar luind. One said ihd there had been an old pro- 
phecy, probably uttered somewhere up in th& Highlands, Avlicie such 
things aie indtgenoua, that a Tcry good Diilia of Argjle was to arise having 
ted hair, and that thff present duke had Torified the prediction by uniting* 
both requiBites. They say that he ia quite a young man, with ii su.-ill, 
alight figure, but wilh a great deal of energy iirj.l .^cuteness of luindj'iuid 
with the generous nnd uoblc traita which have ili- . mguished his huiise iu 
former ttmea. He waa a pupil of Dr. Arnold, a :.kember of tlic National 
Bcoteh Kirk^ and generally understood to be a iserjous and religious man. 
He ia one of the noblemen who have been willjiigto come forward ivnd malie 
nee of hia edticatlon and tftJent in the way of jjopular lectures at lyceums 
and atheniHuma ; as have also the Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of CarlLslo, 
' and some othErs. So the world goes on. I must think, with all deference 
to poetry, that it la much better to dElivcir a ly^eum lecture tlian to head a 
dan in battle; thoiiirh I Kupjwse, a century ami n. half ago, liad the thiijg 
i)een predicted to McCallummore's old harper, he would have been greatly 
at a loss to comprehend the nature of the transaction. 

Somewhere about here, I was presented, by ins owu iLe^Yae^'v:, "to ?^\i\'5>">!J^.- 

ahonldered Scotch farmer, -who stood some six icet t\\o, a,\\^^ nnV^ ^-j^a^ ^ 

the oompliment to say, that he had read my book, a^A t\\a,\. \\e nn w.V\ ^^-i 

-R6r miles to see me any day. Such a flattering evideivcie oS^ 0:\^tv\m^Ax'^ 

n«J^/f/T*!' ffP^^^^ ™j Jieart towards him ; bwt ^•V.e^^l;^^^-'^ ^f 

pnttaybAadmto his great prairie of a palm, 1 ^aa as ^ -^^^^^^^^^^'^'^^ 

© 2 


own eyes. I inquired who he was, and was told he was one of tlie Dnl« 
of Argyle'a farmers. I thought to myself, if all the dake'a fiariDen were cl 
this pattern, that ho might be able to speak to the enemy in the gates to 
Eome purpose. 

lloseneath occupies the ground between the Qare Loch and Loch. Long. 
The Gare Loch is the name given to a bay formed by the Biver Clyde, here 
slretchiug itself out like a lake. Here we landed and went on ehore^ pus- 
ing along the sides of the loch, in the little village of Row. 

As M'e were walking along a carriage came up after us, in which were 
two ladies, k bunch of primroses, thrown from this carriage, fell at my 
feet. I picked it up, and then the carriage stopped, and the ladies re- 
quested to know if I was Mrs. Stowe. On answering in the affirmatiTC^ 
they urged me s^ earnestly to come under their roof and take some refresh- 
ment, that I began to remember, what I had partly lost sight o^ that I 
was very tired; so, while the rest of the party walked on to get a distant 
view of Ben Lomond, Mr. S. and I suflFered ourselves to be taken into the 
carriage of our unknown friends, and carried up to a chanuiog little Italian 
villa, which stood, surrobuded by flower gardens and pleasure grounds, at 
the head of the loch. We were ushered into a most comfortaUe parlour, 
where a long window, made of one clear unbroken sheet of plate glass, gave 
a perfect view of the luch with all its woody shores, with Boseneath Castle 
in the distance. My good hostesses literally overwhelmed me with kind- 
ness ; but as there was nothing I really needed so much as a little quiet 
rest, they took me to a cozy bedroom, of which they gave me the freedom, 
for the present. Does; not every traveller know what a pleasure it is to 
shut one's eyes sometimes? The chamber, which is called "Peace," is 
now, as it was in Christian's days, one of the best things that Charity 
or Piety could offer to the pilgrim. Here I got a little brush from the wings 
of dewy-feathered sleep. 

After a while our party came back, and we had to be moving. My kind 
friends expressed so much joy at having met me, that it wa? really almost 
embarrassing. They told me that they, being confined to the house by ill 
healtli, and one of them by lameness, had had no hope of ever seeing me, 
and that this meeting seemed a wonderful gift of Providence. They bade 
me take courage and hope, for they felt assured that the Lord would yet 
entirely make an end of slavery through the world. 

It was concluded, after we left here, that, instead of returning by the 
boat, we should take carriage and ride home along the banks of the river. 
In our carriage were Mr. S. and myself, Dr. Robson and Lady Anderson. 
About this time I commenced my first essay towards giving titles, and 
made, as you may suppose, rather an odd piece of work of it, generally say- 
ing "l\Irs." first, and "Lady" afterwards, and then begging pardon. 
Lady Anderson laughed, and said she would give me a general absolution. 
She is a truly genial, hearty Scotchwoman, and seemed to enter happily 
into the spirit of the hour. 

As we rode on we found that the news of our coming had spread through 
iAo village. People came and stood in ttxevx Olootcs, Vxivkowvcvs,, Iwvriugi 
smiling, and waving their Jiandkerchiefs, aivd t\ie c.a.Tt\a.%<i nj^j.?, ^Ksew^Mwaefc 
stopped by persona who came to offer ftoweva. 1 Ycm^iwAiet, vi\ -^wcXXavANact,, 
group of youns sirls brought to tbe carina^G t-wo oi VXvft mvisiv. XitwvSJvVA 
iJdrea I ever saw, whose little liauds \itexaV\^ dvilwieO. m^vXJa^viN^^v^ 

fct tte Tillftg* of flelenfiburgli vfb sstopped & little w! d,il upon Mrs. 

Ball J tte T^ifa of Mr. Bell, tbe iaventgr of the steninbiji His invention in 
tliis ciiiintTy was almiit tbe same time of that of Fultis n America. Mrs. 
Bell taiiie to the cjirriage to ei>eak to us. She is a e woman, far 

adrauced in jearB. They bad prepariad a Itmcb for un lite a nomber 

of people h^ come together to me6t< iia, bnt ottr fiieiid ^nat there was 

not timB for ns to s^y, 

TVo rode throvtgli several vUlagE^s after this, and ] 'te warm wd- 

oom^. What pleaded me yftm, that it was not maiiilj tUteraty, nor 

the rich, mor the grtjat^. Imt the plttin common people butcher came - 

out (it his etell, iinil the Ijsker from his shop, and t *, dusty with 

hia flour, tJie blooming, comely, young mother, with I in her arms, 

all Bmiliiig and bowing with tJiat hearty, inteLUgen' Jy look, as iJf 

they tnew we ehould bo glad 

Onoe, while we stopped to — jf seeing some- 

thing more of ibe co entry, onest landlord and 

hia wife wera greatly diaap they got into the 

carriage and rodo on to sea j x them with a right 

good will. 

We saw BeTertil of t!ie olergymon, wno mtne out to meet us, and I re- 
member etoppin;::, just to be introduced to a most delightful family who 
Qiiae out, one by one, gnay-headed father and mother, with comely brothers 
sad fair siateta, ]i>okii3g all £so kindly and home-like, that I would have 
been glad to nie tbe wtlcoiuv tliat tlii^y fiave; mo to their dwelling. 

This day has been a strange phenomenon to me. In the first place, I 
have seen in all these villages how universally the people read. I have 
seen how capable they are of a generous excitement and enthusiasm, and 
how much may be done by a work of fiction, so written as to enlist those 
sympathies which are common to all classes. Certainly, a great deal may 
be effected in this way, if God gives to any one the power, as I hope he will 
to many. The power of fictitious writing, for good as well as evil, is a 
thing which ought most seriously to be reflected on. No one can fail to see 
that in our day it is becoming a very great agency. 

We came home quite tired, as you may well suppose. You will not be 
surprised that the next day I found myself more disposed to keep my bed 
than to go out. I regretted it, because, being Sunday, I would like to have 
heard some of the preachers of Glasgow. I was, however, glad of one quiet 
day to recall my thoughts, for I had been whirling so rapidly from scene to 
scene, that I needed time to consider where I was ; especially as we were to 
go to Edinburgh on the morrow. 

Towards sunset Mr. S. and I strolled out entirely alone to breathe a little 
fresh air. We walked along the banks of the Kelvin, quite down to its 
junction with the Clj'de. The Kelvin Grove of the ballad is all cut away, 
and the Kelvin flows soberly between stone walls, with a footpath on each 
side, like a stream that has learned to behave itself. 

" There," said Mr. S., as we stood on the banks oi \^ift CiVjt^^^^kRi^ \ti»^ 
Unshed and tranquil in the light of the BeUm« smtq., '"'' "^n^x 'Coet'i Ss 
Ajrrsbire. " 
"Ayrabire?" Isaid, '' What, where Burns IWear ^ .. 

*-.«i^ *if^'^^i^ cottage, far down to tlie sou\Ax, M^^ ^^'^ ^'^ ^'^ 
«wnw, and there are tbe bonny banks of Ayr.'' 


It seemed as if tlio evening air brought a kind of sigh "with it. Poor 
Burns ! Iiow inseparably he has woven hunself with the warp and woof ft 
every Scottish association ! 

We saw a groat many children of the poor ont playing — rosy, fine little 
urchins, worth, any one of them, a dozen bleached, hothouse flowers. We 
stopped to hear them talk, and it was amusing to hear the Scotch of ffi^ 
Walter Scott and Burns shouted out with such a right good wilL We werp 
as much struck by it as an honest Yankee was in Paris by the profijdcncgf 
of the children in speaking French. 

The next day we bade &rewell to Glasgow, overwhelmed with kindiMl 
to the last, and only oppressed by the thought, how little that was satui; 
factory we were able to give in return. 

Again in the railroad car on our way to Edinburgh. A pleasant two 
hours' trip is this from Glasgow to Edinburgh. When the cars stopped 4i| 
Linlithgow station, the name started us as out of a dream. 

There, sure enough, before our eyes, on a gentle eminence stood tl)i i 
mouldering ruins of which Scott has sung : — 

" Of all the palaces so fair, 

Built for the royal dwelling. 
In Scotland, far beyond compaw 

Linlithgow is excelling ; 
And in its park in genial Jrme, 
How sweet the merry linnet's ttuie« 

IIow blithe the blackbird's lay 1 
The wild buck's bells from thorny brake* 
, The coot dives merry on the lake, — 

The saddest heart might pleasure take. 

To see a scene so gay." 

Here was born that woman whose beauty and whose name are set in the 
strong, rough Scotch heart, as a diamond in granite. Poor Mary ! When 
her father, who lay on his deathbed at that time in Falkland, was told of 
her bii-lh, he answered, "Is it so? Then God's will be done! It [the 
kingdom] came with a lass, and it will go with a lass !" With these words 
he turned his face to the wall, and died of a broken heart. Certainly, somq 
people appear to be bom under an evil destiny. 

IJere, too, in Linlithgow church, tradition says that James IV. waa 
warned, by a strange apparition, against that expedition to Ei^gland which 
cost him his life. Scott has worked this incident up into a beautiful 
description in the fourth canto of Marmion. 

The castle has a very sad and romantic appearance, standing there al} 
alono as it does, looking down into the quiet lake. It is said that the in- 
ternal architectural decorations are exceedingly rich and beautiful, and a 
resemblance has been traced between its style of ornament and that of 
Heidelberg Castle, which has been accounted for by the fact that the Prin- 
cess Elizabeth, who was the sovereign lady of Heidelberg, spent many of 
the earlier years of her life in this place. 

Not far from here we caught a glimpse of the ruins of Niddrie Oastle, 
where Mary spent the first night after her escape from Lochleven. 

jT/ie Avon here at Linlithgow is spanned "by a ■v^a.^uct, 'w\3is3!tt.\a«i%na 
wwi- of art. It has twenty-fiye arches, -wbida. ai© ixom aeveiAi ^ft eisiJa^ 
feet high and Mty wide. 


As tKe cars ne&red Ediuburgli wo uU ojcdcuzDed at its l>eanfy, bo wDrtbOj 
caatttiwiiotated by Scott :— 

" Buch dneVy gnmaatir cIotbt?« the hdg^ht. 
Where ihc Lugtf caatlo hoUls ita «tate. 

And ul) thf Aft'^ps *lope down, 
"Whoio ridgy bnak hcairM to the slcy, 
Yilsd de<p aad msMy , ciio9« and high, 
Mina tJwn rooi^ttc tuwn !" 

BdinbuTgft las Imd an effdct on tiie literary history of tbe world for the ' 
krt S&,y jeAtfti that euuuot be fijrgoUeu by any one approaching her. Tbe 
ilr seemed to be full of spirits of tho&e who, no longer liTing, httTc woTeti & 
Jan of the thread of our osLifitoocK}. I do not know that the abortnesa of 
ium&n lif« stct so oppn^sed mo a^ it did on coining near to tlie city. 

At tbe afcation house the eara stopped anjid a crowd of people, who had 
(jsemhled to laeet ns. The lord proToat met hh at th^ dtxtt of the car, and 
Jiresented us to tbe magistracy of tbe city, and the comiuitteca of the EdCn- 
hurgh antiskTery aociiities. Tbe drab dressea and pane white bonnetJi of 
mauy Frienda were conapicuons amonfj the dense moriog crowd, uh wbitd 
doves aeen against a dark ijlond, Mr, S, and myself, and our future boatesa, 
lira. Wigbam, entered the coniage with tbe lord proToet, and away wb 
droT«, the orowd following with their shouts and cheerB. I was inexprea- 
tably touched and affected by thiB. While wo wers ptissing the monument 
of Soottf I felt an oppressive melancholy. What a moment lifa seem a in 
the presence of tLe noble dead ! What a momentary thing 1b art, In all ita 
beauty ! Where are all tboae great souls that have crcsated autih an at~^_ 
mosphere of light about Edinburgh? and bow little a space was girea theq^H 
iu lire and to enjoy ? ^H 

We drove all over Edinburgh, up to Oie castle, to the university, to 
Holyrood, to the bospitaLs;, end through mtiny of tbe priutsipal streeta, amid 
ahouta, and smilcB, and greetinga. Some boys amused me very mudi by 
their pertLntwioos attempta to keep up with tho carriage. 
•* Hfiok," says one of them, "that's her; soe the cmtrli.*^ 
The TOjious engravers, who have amuRed thomaelTes by diversifying my 
face for the public, having all, with great unanimity, agreed in giving prii- 
miiience to thia point j I euppoee tbe urchins thought they were on sa.t% 
ground there. I certainly think I auawergd one good purpose that dny, 
and that is, of giving the much oppressed and cidumniated cluss, called 
boysj an opportunity to develop all tlie noiae that was in them — -a thing for 
wltich I think they must bless me in their remembrauces- 

At last the carriage drove into a deep gtavoHed yuril, and we alighted at a 
porch (lovered Titb green ivy, and found ourii4ve3 once more at kome. ^_ 

tcniiic eoisEE.— na. &TJTHaTii.--cRjLtO)itLt'iia ciSTi-a.-'Bisa aocic.— ;BA]rtrooZi 

nCIHf.—, — CUcMia OASlXilt,— EABCbAr 0» BttT.— THE HU.^AJlMtSHiUV* 

— tan CAtnzDaAL.^BBiQ o' baluqv^ib, 

Mi i>eab Sister : — 

You may spare your anxieties alwut m^ for I do assure you-t that vf t 
were an old Sevres Cbi/ia Jar, I coiild not tave moi;e «vititA Wuiffiaii^'Ottsa 
1 do, Sr&ryi/o^y is Ci/wddoratQ ; a gi'&\t deal to laa^f , ■vf\xttU ^*fetft 4wY^siS:feVi^^ 


8o much excitement. Everybody seems to nnderataad hov good for noiluBgl 
am ; aud yet, with all this consideration, I have been obliged to lceq> mf 
room and bed for a good part of the time. One agreeable featnie of th4 
matter is, it gave me an opportunity to make the acquaintance of the ode- 
brated homoeopathic physician, Dr. Henderson, in whose e:q>eriment8 and ex- 
perience I had taken some interest while in America. » 

Of the multitudes who have called, I have seen scarcely any. 

Mrs. W., with whom I am staying, is a most thonghtfol nnrae. Thff 
are Friends, and nothing can be more a pattern of ratbnal home eojcyamt^ 
without ostentation, and without parade, than a Quaker fieanily. 

Though they reject everything in arrangement which sayoura of oiteate* 
tion and worldly show, yet their homes are exquisite in point cf oomfort. 
They make great use of flowers and natural specimens in adoming their 
apartments, and also indulge to a chaste and moderate extent in engraTiiigi 
and works of art. So far as I have observed, they are all " teetotallers ;" gMsfif 
in this respect, thq whole benefit of their example to the temperance CKom. 

To-morrow evening is to be the great tea i>arty here. How in "the irorid 
I am ever to live through it, I don't know. 

The amount of letters we found waiting here for us in Edinburgh ira^ 
if possible, more appalling than in Glasgow. Among those from penoni 
whom you woxdd be interested in hearing of, I may mention a yetj iduA 
and beautiful one from the Duchess of Sutherland, and one also from tiie 
Earl of Carlisle, both desiring to make appointments for meeting us as soon 
as we come to London. Also a very kind and interesting note &om the 
llev. Mr. Kingsley and lady. I look forward with a great deal of interest 
to passing a little time with them in their rectory. Letters also from Mr. 
Binney and Mr. Sherman, two of the leading Congregational clergymen of 
London. The latter officiates at Surrey Chapel, which was established by 
Bowland Hill. Both contain invitations to us to visit them in London. 

As to all engagements, I am in a state of happy acquiescence, having 
resigned myself, as a very tame lion, into the hands of my keepers. "When- 
ever the time comes for me to do anything, I try to behave asweU as I can, 
which, as Dr. Young says, is all that an angel could do in the same circum- 

As to these letters, many of them are mere outbursts of feeling, yet they 
are interesting as showing the state of the public mind. Many of them are 
on kindred topics of moral reform, in, which they seem to have an intuitive 
sense that we should be interested. I am not, of course, able to answer 

them all, but C does, and it takes a good part of every day. One wa» 

fiom a shoemaker's wife in one of the islands, with a copy of very fiir 
verses. Many have come accompanying little keepsakes and gtfts. It seems to 
me rather touching and sad, that people should want to give me thingfl^ 
when I am not able to give an interview, or even a note, in return. C — --- 
wrote from six to twelve o'clock, steadily, answering letters. 

April 26. Last night came off the soiree. The hall was handsomely 
decoraied with flags in front. We went with the lord provost in his car- 
rja^o. The getting into the hall is quite an affair, 1 aasaife ^wsl, ^Jaa ^qot- 
ff'ajr is blocked up by such a dense crowd', yet VJaete Ha wnafe^va^-^«^ 
'ouchinfi about these crowds. They open veiy geivW-j a»^ opia^i^ wA^Swsj 
^ Jot look at you with a rude staxe, but mt\i i«.eea i^ o1 i^vti^^^ 
^JJiffence. I have seen some look^ ttiat ^ete T^iiV^ >iWvtaSvS.% x^^ ^ 

fin. GrTHKlE. 


arE ^Flie eommon p&ople appear aa if thej ,.. .^at cur hearts 

I tliBin, How else ahtrnld it he, ua Christ is of America? — a 

which, but f(ir rme Eiult, iJl tbe -wtirlil lixis n lOn to love. 

! want up, lui befoTa, intu' n. di^saing room, T%'titi presented to 

r gentlemen and ladies. Wheti we gt> Id, the cli clapping, and 

rtampin^ at firgt strikL's on^ with a. ttrtiugc fcnEEition aen everybody 

ItKj'ks bO heartily pleafiad find delighted, and there is '.h an all-pervading 
atinO(3phere of genmlity and Eympjithy, «ih makeia one i moments feel 

quite lit home. After ail I cousider thul theae chtit ipplauses, are 

SctDtland'a ToicQ to America, a recagiiilj.s>n of the 'hood of the 


"^f e were tirranged at i^his meeting much as in GlaE^ 3 lord provost 

presided ; and in the gallery with na wei-e distijjjsr men from the 

. magistracy, the miLviireity, a, ' ' es, besides the 

memhci-s of the nnti'!^tii%e^ ^^ ^ am told, has 

heeu partioulEirly efBcient in especially those for 

i^ eilnciiition of the poorer d is supporter of the 

temperance cause. 

Among the speakei-p, I ^ ji Dr Guthrie, who 

flfiEiua to be also a partieuliir myuQnicwi wiupuuiiu. He is a tall, thin man, 
with a, kind of qualntness m hk hi ode of expressing himself, which some- 
timaa givea an air of droilai'y to his spenkiug. He is a minister of the Free 
Church, and hss jnnre particularly diirtinguishcd himself by his exertions 
ia behalf of the poorer classes. 

One passage in his epeeeh I will quote, for I wils quite amused with it. 
It was in oJltujion to the retorts wliidi Imd liicn made in Mrs. Tyler's letter 
to the ladies of England, oa tlie defects in the old (Jountry. 

"I do not dtny," he said, "thitt there are defects in our country, 
What I say of them is this — 'that they are incidental very much to an old 
ocjuntry like our o-a-n, I>r. SimpE-un kaowa very well, and so does every 
medica! ^i^an, that when a man fjet&old he getj^ver)" iufirm, his bloodvessels 
get oaaitied, and an on ; but I eluiH not euler into that part of the subject. 
"What is true of an old country is true of old men, and old women, too. I 
am very mU!^h dia^ioi^cd to say of this young nation of America, that their 
teasing us irith our defectfl might juat get the anstwer which a worthy 
meubeF of the church of Scotland gave to his aon, ivho was so dissatisfied 
"V^ith the defects In the chnrch, that hp Wiia determined to go over to a 
younger communion, 'Ah^ Sandy, Sfindy, luau, when your lum reeks as 
langris oura, it will, may be, need sweeping t'jo.'* Kow, I do not deny that 
we w jd swdeping; everybody knoWH ibrtt I hflve heen singing out about 
sweeping for the last five years. Let me tell my good friends in Edinburgh, 
and in tie country, that the sooner you sweep the better ; for the chimney 
may catch fire, and reduce your noble fabric to ashes. 

" They told us in that letter about the poor needlewomen, that had to 
work sixteen hours a day. ' 'Tis true, and pity 'tis 'tis true.' I3ut does 
the law compei them to work sixteen hours a day 1 I woxild V\k.fe \ft ^^\Jftft 
writer of tbe letter. Are they bound down to thevt gactT^iVa a.^'Ji. ^i^'jcc^ "vest 
sixteen boura a day ? May they not go wlieie ike^ \\Vv<i, «^^^^ ^"^ \i^H^K 
wages and better work ? Can the slave do tkafi Do -Oae^j ^.Os^ \x^ ^"i « 
^l^yoxu chimney has smoked as long as ovii3» it voSi, ma^ \je» ^^^^ «^ 


iiSgeiidiUdr«nf I know something aWui t^getl diililrtiD. Bat aj^ ou 
T$gg»d eluldfen comiatdiK^ to t!m street 1 If I, or tbe lord provost, i>r an 
other beiurvolHtit mas shaald take one of them from thti street tutd bring i 
to the snliQoIp dare tha poiu-emaji— miaeoUed officer of jufcstice — put hta fix 
ucrofi^ the doar to drag it oat again to the Btretjt ? Nuliody meuus ta dofeii 
our (JefbotB ; doea any man attempt to defend tbem ? Were not theee nobl 
Xodlea and excelleat women, titltxl Mid untitled^ among tho ytirj £^b t 
sbok to redreea tlic^m T^ 

I wish I could giv& yon tho stronjf, broad Scotch wccsat. 

Tht Eationai penoy offering, conaisting of a thottaatid goMsti Bovereigin. 
tm S, Bffiigiiificent BilTcr aalver, stood conapifiuouslj in view of the audianoe 
It ba> heeo an unsolicited offering, giTCa in the smullest amna, often (roti 
the eitremc poTerty of the giver. The committee wlio colJeoted it ii 
Eiliulmrgh and Olasgowr bore witneaa to tha witUngnefs with which iJiever; 
pouieat contributed the offering of their ayiui>atby. In one cott^Lge the; 
found a bliud witmiin, und snJd, " Here, at ka&t, ia oue who vill foel a 
interest^ f\» she cannot liUTe read the hook." 

'* Inde<od," stud the old lady, '' if I cannot r^d, mj wai bu read it i 
me, and I've got my penny ts&ycd to give," 

It ia to ray mind extremely to nching to see how the poor, in their poverty 
can be movsd to a generodty BUxjMiA&ing that of the rich. Nor do I maurS 
that they took it from their filender store, because I know that a 
given ftmn a kindly impulse is a greater comfort and blessing bo the 
giver than even a ponny received, 

Aa in the case of the other meeting, wb oame ont long before the api 
irere ended. Well, of course, I did mot deep any all night, Tlie im 
day I felt quito mhieiabiB, Jlrs. W. went with Mr. B. and, myself f(*| 
qolet drive in hor camago. 

It waa a beautifal, sunny day that wb drove out to Craignlillar Castle 
formeriy one of the royal reaideuL^es, It waa herci that ilary retreatw 
after tha murder of Ilizzio, and where, tho clrntnicler says, ahe was oflej 
hoard in those days wishing that ehe were in her grave. It Msemi a 
Btriitigo to see it atandinj^ there all alone, in the midst of grasay fielda, B 
idleat, and cold, and solitary. I got out of the carnage and walked abon 
it. The aboii, grtsen grusa was gemmed with daisies, and sheep wep 
peacefully feeding and resting, where waa once all tha life and bustle of i 

We had no one to open the inside of tho castle for us, where tliere an 
Etlll aome tolembly preserved rooms, but we fltruUed liatkaaly about| 
looking throngh the old arche% and peeping through slita and loopholei 
iato tho interior. 

The hist verse of Queen Mary^a lamentation seemed to ba i^hing u 
tbeaii: — 

*0, won ftJT mo flhftU flimTncr'B hbus 

Niu< nuuF light up thtt morn ; 
KftD raflir for m& the frutmnti wiwl 

Wuvff o'er the yellow oom, 
Jlut in the ttJirrovf bonap of death 

Jj?t iprinter round me ritve, 
And ihe npit Jlowera thut tloclc tbo spriaj 

Bboni on my pMccful grave." 


ihj(rjesii3irdaj, it aeemedf eince that poorbeart was yearmng and atrue. 


eaaght in (lie toik of tkia eorrowful life- How numy iim&i abd 
m tbi^ iandacape tluraiigh Bad «ye^ I I auppoBB just Bacb Httls 
grew be re in the gra^ then, and perhaps she stooped and pickud 
I, wisliiiig, juat as I do, tbat ihe piak did not grow on the under' aide 
«r them where it do^ Dot ahovr. Do you kiiow that this little daisy is the 
^wan of Scotcli poetry ? So I was tuld ly & "chMiuiug yoimg Jea£W* 
EH Glaegow, ona d&j when I wag riding out there, 

view from Craigmillor is beautiful — Auld Beeloe, Arthur'* Beat, 
Cmgis, and far down the Frith of Forth^ where we can jnst dimly sea 
Eotk, cekbtated as a prison, where the Cu vea antera wero imm ured. 
waa this fortress that Hal>akkuk Miicklewmth speakfl of in his 
when h$ saya, "Am not I Habakkuk Mucklswrath, whose njuna 
,ged to Magur-Miasabib, because I am made a terror unto mysGlf^ 
iad unto all that are around we ? I heard it : when did I Jiear it T "Was it 
not in the tower of tho Bass, that oTerbungeth the wide, wild bea I and 
itkowled iu the windu, and it roared in the billows, aud it Acreamed, and 
it whistled, and it clangt^d, with the BcrG&uLB, and tbe clang, and the 
whistle of th&sea birds, b^ tkey floatsd, and low, md dropped, and dived, 
en the boaom of the waters." 

Thsae Salisbury Craga, which OTerlock Edinburgli, have a Tery peculiar 
oatline ; they reaembk an immenfle elephant crouching down. We p.issed 
Hoshats Cairn, where Jeanio Deana met Robert-aon ; and saw Llberton, 
There Beubfiu Butler was a schoolmaster. Nobody doubtd, I hupe, tha 
lustorica] tvccuracj of these points. 

Thui^Ty, 21 Bt. We took cars for Aberdean. The appropriation of 
old historical names to railroad Btations often reminds me of Hood's whim* 
eicfli lines ou a possible railroad ia the Holy Laud. Think of having 
fiaunoekbtirD shouted by the station master, aa tha tmin rans whistling u{) 
to « small station honie. Nothing to be seen thertj but broad^ silent 
meadows, tbxougb which the bum wimples its way. Here waa the very 
MarEi^tlion of Scotland. I suppose we know more abcuit it fxom the ** Suots 
whaba" wi' Wallace bled," than we do from history ; yet tbereaj. beene^ 
is narrated by the bUtoriau, baa a moral grandeur m it 

The chroniekr t«lls us, that wheu ou this oocasiou tlio Srota formed 
th.eir line of battle, and a venerable abbot passed along^ holding up the 
cross before them, the whole army feD upon their knoes. 

" These Scots -will not fight," said Edward, who was reconnoitring nt ft 
distance. " See I they are all ou their kueea now to bag fur mt>rcy." 

'* They kaed," aald a lord who etuod by, "but it ia to Qod alone ^ trust | 
ine, thoae men will win or die." ' 

The bold lyric of Buma is but an inspired kind of varalon of the real 
address which Bmoe is said to have made to bis followers; and whoever 
reads It will see that its power lies not in appeal to brute force, but to tha 
highest eiemcntEi of our nature, the love of justice, the sense of honour, 
aad to disinterefltednesa, self-saciifiee, courage unto death. 

These things will live and form high and imperishable elements of out 
a&tnre, when maukindbave learned to develop them in other spheres than 
that of pbyaical furea. Buma'a lyric, therefore, ha.<i in it an element which 
may rousa tha heart to nobl^ endurance and devotion, even when the world 
•hall learn war no mors. 

W« p^iwed throagh tlie town of S^liiig, -v^btfy ciasf^^ to:i<giu£^$:j£S!^ 


' im 


mroiikj thfone, looks right vorthj to hxn been the seat 
^otkniTs cotiTt, afl it mu for mikny y«a». It bnraght to oar mindfi all 1 
laft sc't'ues of the Ladj of the liAke, which ^re l&id hoi^ witJi a mlntil^ 
of !gcal deaonption tmil aUosion duuscteristie of Scott-. 

AecoFdlng to our guide book, one mj^t find there the Tisible (»ii 
jart of erery thijig which he haa woTen into his beaatiM fiction— "tJ 
lady's It-jck, which mug to the applause of the multitude;" **tUe Frnncia 
can steeple, which pealed the mmy festiTali"' *'the sad and fatal muand,' 
tiposixoplufed by Doaglfla,'^ 

" Thut oft has iie&rd thf dcath^axe Ktand 
Jka CO the di>ljU'»r of lbs land, 
Fell the item beadamiui'a bloody hand }"— 

the room in the tiaftle, where '*» Douglas by his sovereign bled ■" and not 
fur off the rains uf Cituiliuskeimeth Abbey. Due eoold not btit think of the 
old da/s Scutt has described. 

Ths eisUe ^t«s ireiv opeti lliin^, 
Tbft quivering drawbiritlj^e rotikL^d and tulig^ 
Aiid echoed loud thefliBlT strnt>E 
B^ieath the «>urwrs' flaiiiitni; iVset, 

Am alowlif down lit" steep Jes^^r'iir, 
Fail* ScotLfti)d*B Icing aad nobles w^t^ 
WKilft dU Jilting Iho tjrowdcd way 
Wa3 jubDee jMid loud husiii.** 

The p&Iace has been long deserted aci a palaoe; but it is oti« of iba 
fortreasea, which, by tba artlclaa gf union between Scotland ond £i 
are always to be kept in repair. 

"We passed by the toum of Perib, ^e Boene of the "Pair Maid's" adTfiB' 
tures. We had received An ioTitation to Tisit it, but for wont of tims 
were obliged to defer it till our retnm to Scotland. 

Somewhere along here Mr, S. was quUe excited by our proximity to 
BcotiOf the old cruwuin:? place of the Sj^ottisU biuj;3" however, the old 
castle Ib entirely dcuiolii^hecl, and supeisedtd. by a uodcrn miinsLoii, tM 
£oat of the £arl of Mansfield. 

Still farther on, surrounded by dark and solemn w<3odfi, etanda G!«ni» 
Castle, tho scene of the ti-agedy in Majcbeth. We could see but a glimpse 
of it from the road, bat tho very eound of the name was enough to stimu- 
late our imagination. It is still an inhabited dwelling, though mui^h to the 
TBgret of antiquarians and loverft of the picturesque, llie cLaractemtic out- 
works and defences of the feudal agea, which Burroanded it, Uava been 
leyelled, and velvet lawns and gravel walks carried to the very door. 
Sc-ott, who passed a night there in 17 &3, while it was 3'et in its pristine 
condition, comments oa the change mournfully, as undoubtedly .n. traft 
lover of the paa% woold. Albeit the grass pJats and the gravel walks, to 
the eye of Benso^ are undonbtetUy mtwdi more agreeable and eonvejalent, 
Scott saya lu hie Demonolugy^ that he iiev«r came anywhere near to beinf 
overcome with a superstitions feeling, except twice in hie life^ and one wa» 
on the night when he slept in G binls Castle, The poetical and the practical 
elements in Seutt's mind ran together, aide by side, without misiug, at 
evidently (la the waters of the Alleghany anil Monougabehji at PHtuburg. 
Scai'ccly fiver a man Iiad so much relish for the supernatural, and «o little 
fnitii in it. One must confess, howsver, that tho mn^st Bceptical might 
Ajttv been or&reomQ a( Glomls Caetle, for its appearance, by aU accounts, 
Afc w^tiitl imd mtaaa^ Mad ghoatlj enough to Btart Ibja 4v3l\tBflt \Tr.a^^ia,\;%jsu- 


til is flfcasian Soott anja, ' ' After a T«iy hoqjitable receplJun from the 
Peter Vrjetor, *«5enesohnl of the castle, I wtw coiiJiicted io my n]»a.rt- 
t inii lUsiaut part of the Lmiidjrijj;. 1 tnnsi uvrn, thiit wLtin I Leaitl 
war ai':«r door sLut, after Tuy condmitor liiid rehired, I began to con^ideE 
ftiT>*'If R!i too fiir from tlie Jiving, ami aumewkat ti-o Qeaj* the dead, W« 
1 throngli what is called *the King's JtoDiu,' u. vatilttd apart- 
islied with stags' antlers aud airaiUr trophies of thtj chaBe, aiid 
--. . ,., ,.LyIjiiou to Ifc the spot ofMn-lailcu'B murderj njid 1 had an idai of 
the vk'Lnity of the caatie chiipel. In spite of the truth of historj, the whole 
^l^ht, K-ene in Macbeth^ b euetlo rushed at onoo upon my mind, n.nd struck 
UV uno^natioTi more forcihly thitn eTen when I have seen its terninj repro- 
Meated by the lat« John Eeutihle and hia inimitable sister. In a word, I 
•ixpericuetid seoHitions which, thoogh not remarkable either for timidity or 
«n|Mrr!ititiofi, did nut fall to affect lae to the poiut of heing ilisagreeahle, 
>hile they wcrf* min;;led, at the same time, with a strange imd Lndesciib* 
%bl^ kind of plfiasure." 

E^iternaily, the building ia quaint and singular enough ; tall ajid gaunt, 
cr^t«l with initunierabla little peppBr-bos turreta and eonitaj towers, like 
^ old Fretjcb fdntteau. 

Besides the tragedy of Maobeth, jxtiotbar (story cf still more roetaiiclinly 
interest is mnneL't^d ivitl\ it, which a pen like tliat of Hawthorne might 
"Work up with gloomy power, 
I In 1537 the yonng and beatitifui Lady Qlamia, of this places ^^^ artuoJly 
f tried and executed for witchcraft. Only think, now ! what capabilities in 
this old C4iatle, with its gbomy pine sdiades, quaint architectm-e, and weii-d 
assuciations, with this bit of historic verity to start niwn. 

Walter Scott says there is in the caatla a secret chumber ; the entrance to 
i irhicb, by the law of the iaiuily, can be known only to three peraoiis at 
1 tmae — the lord of the castle, his heir apparent, and any third person whom 

tthey miiiht choosft to take into their oonhdcnce. See, now, the mate- 
rials whioh the past givea to tho novelist or poet in these old countries. 
These aDcJont castles are standing romances, made to the author's bandfl. 
I The castle started a talk upon Shakspeai^, and how much of the tragedy 
lie made up, and how mu^b he found ready to bis ^and in tradition and 
liistory. It seems the storj is all told in HulingeliEd's CLronidea ; but kia 

* fertile mind has lulded some of the most tlirdling tomihes, such as the 
eleep-walking of Lady Msu-titth. It alwajs seemt-d to me that this tragedy 

* luid outre of the melancholy mrijeaty and power of the (rreek tUitu any- 
J thing modem. The stiniing difference is, that while fiite was tlie radical 

flera'.'Tit "f those, frue will is not les? distijietly the basis of this. Strangely 
H 1 1 lie it wuimences with a supernatural omcle, tljere is not a ti'ace 

In it, but through jill, a clear, distinct recognition of moral 
j.-s|;,>tri: ,1 ility, uf ibe power U> resist evil, wid the guilt of yieldin^j to it. 
Tlie tbeoligy of Shnk-spejire is as remarkable as his poetry. A strong and 
I clear seii>'e of mari'« iuoitlI nstpimeibility and free agency, and of certain 
future retrtluUiitn, runs through all his plays, 

* 1 enjoyed 1111"* ri^lt! to Abenleun more than anything we had s^en jet, the 
Oomitry is nt wild and sinankr. In the afternoon we c&me in sight of the 
Cfenoiut Ocean. 1 he iive;, Liivelng air from the sea, and tUe. tluiu'jjcvi \1kb.\ 
it Bctxially leiu the (iermitH, jind Lliat uver tii^iittvaxsAsiiN^ja'^vrcNSTs^.j 



vidiia .1 dttr'ji Sfiil uf us, g^ave it a strange, Toraft,T\\ie cYvixro., 
"b'uppuse weJusL run ov^x^^^ae^^^" bwiX erne ol iia* MA^tTV 



the idea, -what we should do if ve got orer tiiere^ seeing none of w vntoi 

stood Norse. 

The Avhole coast along here is wild and rock-botuid; oeoaakmaUy loig 
points jut into the sea; the blue waves sparkle and dash againat tibnti k 
little jets of foam, and the sea birds dive and scream around them. 

On one of these points, near the town of Stonehaven, are vtill Men flM 
ruins of Dunottar Castle, bare and desolate, snrrounded on all iddea \^ Al 
restless, moaning waves ; a place justly held accursed as thesoene of oM- 
ties to the Covenanters, so appalling and brutal as to make the Uood bd 
in the recital, even in this late day. 

During the reigns of Charles and James, sovereigns whom Ibuaulay Jni^^ 
designates as Belial and Moloch, this castle was ^e state prison for eonli* 
ing this noble people. In the reign of James, one hundred and rix ty -HM t l 
prisoners, men, women, and children, for refusing lihe oath of anpremacif, 
were arrested at their firesides : herded together like cattle; driven at tha 
point of the bayonet, amid the gibes, jeers, and scoffs of Soldiers, op to lOk 
dreary place, and thrust promiscuously into a dark vatdt in ihia njstlo. 
almost smothered in filth and mire; a prey to pestilent diaeAso^ iniil 
every malignity which brutality could inflict, they died here itnpitiled. A 
few, escaping down the rocks, were recaptured, and subjected to shookiog 

A moss-grown gravestone, in the parish churchyard of Dnnottat, shovi 
the last resting-place of these sufferers. 

W.altcr Scott, who visited this place, says, **The peasantry continue to 
attach to the tombs of these victims an honour which they do not render to 
more splendid mausoleums ; and when they point them out to their sona^ 
and narrate the fate of the sufferers, usually conclude by exhorting them 
to be ready, should the times call for it, to resist to the death in the cause 
of civil and religious liberty, like their brave forefathers." 

It is also related by GilfiUan, that a minister from this vicinity, having 
once lost his way in travelling through a distant part of Scotland, vainly 
solicited the services of a guide for some time, aU being engaged in peat- 
eutting : at last one of the farmers, some of whose ancestors had been 
included among the sufferers, discovering that he came from this vicinity, 
had seen the gravestones, and could repeat the inscriptions, was willing to 
give up half a day's work to guide him on bis way. 

It is well that such spots should be venerated as sacred shrines among 
the descendants of the Covenanters, to whom Scotland owes what she v^ 
and all she may become. 

It was here that Scott first became acquainted with Bobert Faterson, the 
original of Old Mortality. 

Leaving Stonehaven, we passed, on a rising ground a little to our hSk, 
the house of the celebrated Baiclay of Ury. It remains very much in its 
ancient condition, surrounded by a low stone wall, like the old fortified 
houses of Scotland. 

Barclay of Ury was an old and distinguished soldier, who had fon^ 
under Gustavus Adolphns in Germany, and oue ol t\ife feax\v«e^ wsYCTerti <n 
^^o/'/'/n<?i>/e."? of ^iie Friends in Scotland. i^8aQ,uo.\LCT,\Le\»eRa«ne«tt.Od^ ' 
of hatred and abuse at the hands of iiie magva\iac^ mA -e^^x^^RfeN^A 
te endured aU these insults and injuries with. t\ve gtt«.^«»'<' ^8«J««s«» «■ 
tbJeness of soul. . ^ . « 

"i^&irffflo«sat£a&ction,» he said, ^'aa^^eVlw. ^ouo^, Mv^«a«t^i 

^^^^^^^^^^^^rni^EF, 47 

JnHultcd for my rGligions prindples, tlitin trhdn, a, it, , ago, it was 

usimJ for the mrigistmtcB, na I passed the ciLy of Ak con, ^o meet me on 

the road and c^tndtict tne to pnb]ici cntcrtaimneat in leir hall, and then 
Bae*>rt me out &gain, to gflin my fiiTour. *' 

Whittier Laa cKlfibrabed thia incident in his \izt >allad, called 

"Barclay of Ury," The Bou of tJjia Barclay "wns the i -I'that Apology 

-w^ieh bears Ms name, and ia atUl n istandard worl mong the Friends. 
The eBta,te ie *till pOBseBscd by his dese^ndantfi. 

A littlo farther along towards Aberdeen, Mr. S, gee muse himself 

very mnch -with the idea that we ivere commg near Id Dalgetty*8 

estate of Dramthwacket, an hietori«ii remembrance t take to be 
tome what &po<!ryi>hal. 

It was towdj-ds the close of the aflaTnoon tliiit we fo selves crossing 

thG Dee, in tigw of Aberdeen, Mt Hnirita were wn ly elated : the 

grand sea sceaety and fine bi . iw of the city, 

rising, with its harbour atid . delight. Resides 

which the Bee had been ench hood, by a wild old 

tail ad which I uaod to hea , equally wUd and 
pathetic, i jiepcBted it to C j. 

"The moon bud cllictiCii the lufheat hiU 
Thitt nacH o'er l,he tmikks oiDec, 
And Iroin her fartlu^t sumiuit poQrtd 
Hur Bilvpj Hffhi oVr tower and trt;*,— 
*' When liJU-jf laid her down to alpi-p, 
Her tlioughti od Sandy fur nA, f^ru. 
And iMift ftiid low ft Tuice pho heard, 
Sayiog, ' Mary, wpep no tnoro for me.* 

^ ''Shft from \n\x pillow gentJj raised 

Hot hcudj lo iee wna tharo Tiiight be; 
Bh# *ftw 5t>ung Sftndy ahiveriii|ij stuad, 
Witt peillld E^eek and hollovr eo, 

*' * O Mary dear, cold us m v ^\w^ j 
it IJea bcDenth the liturniy Hen; 
The «torm id paatj anil I'm at rf-at; 
So, Mary, weep nc moro forme.' 

"Loud erew tbe encfc j ihs ribion fledt 
Nu naore youn^ Sandy e<aiild £bo see; 
But aoCl H mrlbg wliisper- siiid, 
' SweDt Slarjrj weep no maro for mis.' " 

I neret saw £h£flo Une^t in pmt anywhere ; 1 never knew who wrote 
them ; I had only htiard them isuag at the fireside when a child, to a tune 
as dreamy a4]id fsweet as themselveB ; hat thoy rose upon me like an en- 
chantment as i crossed the Dee, ia view of that very German Ocean, famed 
for its storms and shipwrecks. 

In this propitious state, disposed to be pleased with everything, our 
hearts responded warmly to the greetings of the many friends v. ho were 
waiting for ns at the station house. 

The lord provost received us into his carriage, and r.R\^a il'LOse:. is\'o\n?2, 
pointed oat to as tbe various objects of interest' \\v t\\ft 'NiViawHAivX *^'ons 
Among other things, a fine old bridge across t\ie Dee ix\.V;ucViv^. ow-^ ^ 
tieaJar attention. 

f^S^ condncted to the house of Mr. Cruiksihc.Tx\v, tv \'Y\e>^^ 

-~^£/oru5 there the thoughtful liospltaVvt,^ ^.VvcV nv ^ V^" 

eamaU our stoDvinf^-r>laccs. A snu- \iUlo c^vvyo^^^^^ 

cat upon tlio tililc, of which wa partook ia liiMtte, aB yta wei^e Murci.'^ 
t!mt tJie ftsscnibly nt, the hall were uniting to reeeivu un. 

T lieru sirrivt'd, wu fottud tke hull crowtleJi and with difficulty matle *Xir 
way tu the platfoiin, Whotlier owing to tlio fiiimulatins eJfecJ. of ti^ 
Rir fioifl the ouean, gr to the compaiatively aotiiU aspect of tlie a;ciic, <v* ^ 
perhjtpa Ut both, certain it ia, that we enjoyed the uieetiiia wiUi 
zeal I wua surramided on the ai^ge with blooriiifigyuqLg ludi^js, one rf who! 
put into my hnmis a lefliUiful bouquetj some flowers of which. I hare i 
dried in my i4.1hum. The rtfrEshment tables were adorned with 
exquiPAlQ wax flowers, thtj work, as I wag afterwards ttdd^ of a young 1 
ia th<j plar-e, Ono of the designs egpecinlly Interested me. It was i 
group I'f water liliea restbg oa a mirror, which gave thorn the app 
of gi-'>wjng in the water, 

\Ve had some vtry animated speaking, in which ths speakers contartifl 
to blc(id enthmElastlc admiration and loTe for Araorlca with det 
of slavery. 

All the afl^moan tte beautiful coast had Mminded mo of the StAt«< 
Haine, and tlie j;euiEis of tha ouatiting confirmed th& assoi^iation. 
seemed to tne to be a ])hiiii, genitil, Etroug, wann- hearted people^ 
those of Rluiue. 

One of the speakers canclnded hia address by saying tTiat Joho. Bull ani 
Brother Jonathaii, with Paddy und Sandy Scutl, Jihould they clasp hamls 
together, might Etaad Jigainat the world ; wMoli sentiment was rcspondijJ 
to with thiuiderB of appknee. 

It in becnnse America, like Scotland, lifts etocid for right fijjaiugt opprM- 
Bion, that the Soott-Ii lore and eympathiKC with her. For this re^vson do 
they feel it ns sumetldng taki^u from the strength Cif a common cnase, when 
America sides with iujnstice and oppression. Tho chddrBn of the Cove' 
naJ^t and the ehildran of the Puritans are of one blood. 

They presented an oScring Iti a Iftautiful embroidered purse, and after 
much shaking of handa t, e wont home, and sat down to the KUppar table, 
for a little more chat, before going to bed. The next morning, — aa we 
liwl only till noon tnn stay in Aberdeen, — our frieudjs, tlie lord pruvost, and 
Mr. Leiilif), the architeCrtj came immediately after breaklast to show tia 1^^^ 
pluce. J^l 

The town of Aberdeen is a very fine one, and owes much of its beauty ^^^ 
the light -coloured granite of whieh most of the houses' are built. It baa 
bt'ijad, clean, beautiful &tri:ets, and many very curioas and iutc resting 
public buildings. The town exhibits that union of the hoary past witH 
thfl bustling pj-eaent which is flhiiracteriHtic of the old world. 

It has twit parts, the old and the naw, aa unlike as L' Allegro and Pen- 
Eijroso— the neWj clean and modem ; the old, mofisy and di^eamy. The 
old town ia calkd Alton, anil baa venerable houees, standing, many of 
them, in ancient pardeos. And here risss tha peculiar, old, gray cathedral 
These Sot'toh cathodrds hnvo a sort of stubbod appearance, and look like 
the expression in atone of defiant, invincible resolution. This is of 
primitive granite, in tlie Baine hca^ j, massive fityle aa tlie cathedral of 
Glas::;oWj but having strong individviaUiicfl of its own. 

Whoever located tha Eccleaiiislit'al building of England and Scotland 

ferAi/n/y hail ntj exqmsite perceptioiv of natural scenerj ; for one notices 

£lia£ thejnie almost iniarinbl^ pLiccd on just lliat ^\s^ oi tini \aii-ij«a^. 

IrtiQTO tlie poet or tbe aitist winild say tbey should be, „ .^thedrals, 

^aQ^h atl liiiviitg a gen^nirgimilarity of design, eecm, uae, to have its 

hrn p$tiS3nality, as idUl;1i aa a hitman bE?mg. Looking ineteen of them 
li no compansation to you f jr {>mltting tho twentieth ; certainly 

ae ^metjung new arid pEKnili^ in that, 

Tbia Abe^eeD Cathedral, or Cathedral of St. Mach ^ted on the 

banks of the rjvet Don j one of thoae litautif iil amb wn rivers that 

K)lon;r the stones and pehblea at the hothim with a ; " 'it, such aa 

Ime Be€s in ancient pictutfls. Old treea wiive and m I, and the 

building itself, thongh a part of it hasfidlen into ruins iny parts, 

^ wonderful cleaToesB and sharpness of outline. Z c ribe these 

fcliitigs to you; architectural terina eouvey no picture .d. I caa 

BDly tf U you of the character and impression it bears— . of strong, 

&n flinch iiig endurance, appropriatelv reminditu? ciiifl o ch people, 

rhom Walter Scott compares t 8, "which 

icorns to be bLisfcd in its mo' ifluence of the 

^i^vailiog wind, but shooting dness in every 

iirectjon, ahows no weather Bi( broken, but cau 

never be bended. 

One reason for the shaifpncsa and distiuci-iJcsB of the architectural pre- 
tervafcion of this cathedral is probably that closeness of texture for which 
Aberdeen ^^ranite ia remarkablB. It heara marks of the hand of violence 
,11 many parts. The images of saints and bishops, which lie on their backs ' 
rith clasped h;mdB, seem to have been wofully maltroated and despoiled, 
n the fervour of those days, when people fondly thought that breaking 
town carved work was getting rid of superstition. These granite saints 
knd bishops, with their mutilated fingers and broken noses, seem to be 
)earing a silent, melancholy witness against that disposition in human 
latare, which, instead of making clean the cup and platter, breaks them 

The roof of the cathedral is a splendid specimen of carving in black oak, 
nrought in panels, with leaves and inscriptions in ancient text. The 
ihurch could once boast in other parts (so says an architectural work) a 
irofusion of carved woodwork of the same character, which must have 
;reatly relieved the massive plainness of the interior. 

In 1649, the parish minister attacked the " High Altar," a piece of the 
aost splendid workmanship of anything of the kind in Europe, and which 
tad to that time remained inviolate ; perhaps from the insensible influence 
f its beauty. It is said that the carpenter employed for the purpose was 

struck with the noble workmanship, that he refused to touch it till the 
ainister took the hatchet from his hand, and gave the first blow. 

These men did not consider that "the leprosy lies deep within," and 
hat when human nature is denied beautiful idols, it will go after ugly ones. 
Inhere has been just as unspiritual a resting in coarse, bare, and disagreeable 
bdjuncts of religion, as in beautiful and agreeable ones-, \tieu Vtoj^i Nsc<t- 
ihipped Juggernaut as peHinaciously as they have\eu\ia otc \X\e ^ost^c^ies.-, ?.q 
hst tie ^ood divine might better have aimed a sernioxi a.\i W\e \\*^ '^'^'M 

1 Hxe at the altar. 

We lingered a long time around here, and could scaTce\^ ^^-^ ^^^^^^"^ 
« Jva/^^ "i? '*"'' ''"^^ "'itler the old trees, looVvxv- o'R ox^ 
to, or the Don, listening to the waving brauclies, anOi i^Wvsv^ v 



<lreamy state of miod, thouKlit n- hat if it were &k bnndred years ji-^ ' ^^ . 
we were pIuQfl, suople Ijeartcd old abbots ! Whiit ii fine pluL'a t': 
he to walk op and dowQ at Bveiitida or oa a Sabbath moraixi^, rtvi: 
pcjrdteulinl paidms, or reading St. AuguEtine ! 

I cannot get over the feeliu», tliat tbe bohIs of the dead do aooieliti*' 
coiiiict;t UietDselves T^Jtb the places of their former hsbitatioOf and that the 
liuab and tbrill of fiijirit, which we feel in them, may be owing to the ^^■ve^ 
ebndawiiig preaciKic of the iuviiiiblc. St. Paul aajB, " We are compnEsel 
ahuut wiili a gipnt cbud of mtnessefl." How con the; be mtncases, if 
the J can nut see and be cognizant? 

%Ve I«fl the place by a winding iralfc, to go to the fHmons bridge cf 
Balgouniej another dream -land affair, not fai from here. It is a Etnglfl 
gray stone arch, apparently eut trom solid rock, tliat spans the Irowa 
rippling waters, where wild, oTorhanging l^iaks, ahad{>«7 treea^ and dip- 
ping wild flowers, all couspirQ to make a romantic pioture. Thi* ^ ^ ' '■ 
witjj tho ri^er and scenery, were poelie itttna that -w'cnt, -wl. 
tbiJjpi, to fgrm the Eensitive mind of Byroni who lived hero in h - 
dflya. He baa eomc Unea about it : — 

*' Ai *Huld Inbc aruc' ln'itj|zs Seotlatid, qhb and ill, 

Bcotuh platit r ' H th^ l^^*t^ ^'*^ toii clear streanui 

Tie Dw, thf' i ■ ""'9 brig'a blruk w«U, 

All toy bfl^-ii ■ I i,v gen Her dfi<qms, 

or whftt I then di<';.ju* i Lotiiidin iht-ir i>*a pnU, 

Ijibe BBHquo's oUVpring,— flu aline pfiat mo H?«dia 
My chiliihoud, in, thia t^hlldishneiB of mvi: 

1 euro not — *ti* a gliinpse of ' iudd lang jyne.' " 

This old bridge liaa a prophecy connected witTi it, whicli vta repeated to 
•DBf and jon abj^ bare it literatim : — 

*' Brig of BalgouniB. bl8ic1c*i yoor w»', 
Wr u mfe's ejs soil, and a mare'a aa foal, 
D&oa y<f Bhall fr' 1" 

The bridge was built in the time of Robert Bmce, by one Bishop Cheyne, 
of whom aU that I know isj that lie evidently had a good eje for the pk- 

After tb!s we went to Tiat King's College, The tower of it is mr- 
mniinted by a TOOSBive stono crown, whi(?h forma a Tery ein^'ukr future in 
( every view of Abenleen, and is said to be a perfectly unique itpecimea of 
tarcbitecture, Thia King's College ia very old, being founded also by » 
l^sliop, as far back aathe hfteentb century. It has an eiquiigitely carved 
I joof, and carved oaken scats, y^e went througli the library, the hall, and 
be museum. Certainly, the old, dai'k architecture of tbese univetfiitiei 
I must tend to form a diSerent Stylo of mind from our plalD mattejr-of-fiitil 
[ college buildings, 

Ht-re in Aberdeen la the Ten table Mariscbal College, so often quoted by 

fDugald Balgetty. "Wo had uot time to go and eee it, but I can assure yi>u, 

on the authority of the guide-book, that it la a magnificent Bpecimen of 

arcLitecture. ^ , 

After this, that W9 might not neglect the present in our seal for tliepnsl^ 

TTB went to the marble yards, whcro t!iey work the Aberdeen granll©. Thia 

jranite, of wbicb we have many specimenii in America, ia of two kinds, one 

beln^gi^j, the other of a, reddish hup. It seems to differ from other gra- 

Mi^ iu the SMonem /md closentisa of its gtaia, ■wbicb enable itta lECfcive th« 

tb brlUuiTii ooixeeiTa,bl« paliak X saw ei>ma superb «fae red 

oie3j whiiih wtr^ prepariug to go PTer the Baltic ti n*r an Ex- 

mge ; and a sepulcUml monmnent, whkh was going / York. All 

a buay here, sawiDg, chippiog, polishing ; aa diSereu >om tlie 

y old catbiBdraL aa cnulil be Iwi^intid, TJie gr&l way, I 

:ipos^ to couotriea which thfi old^ unB-ifphiatk J never 
iamed of. 

Dne of th^ frionfk who had awcmpaTiieil ua during tj to^rwas 

» celebraied architect, Mr. Leslie^ wkoiie CunveriiUtiio; 11 much. 

.ojiQ^Dt. H.Q »ad Mr^. Leslie gave me a most inrii og pPQ- 

it, ici wit, four volamea of engraringa, repreaeiitina ^ wd 

usleaiaatical Antiqiiitiea of Scjotland," illuijtrflted V licannpt 

1 yuu what tt minif of plt;.niure it Las been tni me. It editiop, 

1 the eQgraTinga art so viTwl, a&d the drawing so fie is nearly 

good a.i reality. It might al: . , grimage. 

kiinaider the book {i kind of ual ^ in its Bfk- 

re, poetry ; esper;ially in theae p into itself^ 

tioa'fl hia/toxjt and gives Jitera tUiM)«. 


R» 9B0X ▲ 8C0T0H BAOHSI/>B.— BX70a)Ii.T0»T SCPOOL9 0? 44(«IP»IT.^ 

EAB Cousis: 

While here in Aberdeen I received a very odd letter, bo peculiar uid cnriona 
at I will giv^ you the benefit of it. The author appears to be, in his 
ty, a kind of Christopher in his cave, or Timon of Athens. X omit HOB^ 
ita, whieh are more expressive than agreeable. It is dated 

STOKXHAVZir, N. B., Einoardinesbke, > 
ST'lf.W. This aist4prU, 1853. > 
To Mrs. Harbibt B. Stowb : — 

** My dear Madam : By the time that this gets your length, the fouk 
Aberdeen will be shewm ye off as a rare aninial, just arrived firae 
nerica ; the wife that writ Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

** I wsid like to see ye mysel, but I canna win /or want o' siller, and as I 
>ught ye might be writin a buke about the Scotch when ye get hame, I 
e just sent ye this bit auld key to Sawney's Cabin. 
*' Well, then, dinna forget to speer at the Aberdeenians if it be true 
ey ance kidnappet little laddies, and salt them for slaves ; that they dang 
vm the Quaker's kirkyard dyke, and houket up dead Quakers out o' their 
fcves ; that the young boys at the college printed a buke, and maiat naebody 
d buy it, and they cam out to Ury, near Stonehaven, and took twelve 
»t8 frae Davie Barclay to pay the printer. 

•• Dinna forget to speer at , if it was true that he flogget three 

Idles in the beginning o' last year, for the three following crimes ; first, 
r the crime of being born of puir, ignorant parenta-, se(iou!^,ic>t XJtvfcctvsaa 
beio^ left in ignorance; aud, third, for the crime oi \ia.VvQ^ ■oa'Oivva."? 

'Dinna be telling when ye gang hame that ye rode oTv^>&ft KNaec5^< 
-uffmade by a hundred, men, who were all in t\ie S\iQivft\i.«.-^eQ. ^^ 
■nnkemiess; nor above fire could sign tlieix names. 
B 2 



iig gpeediea, 91 

'* If the Scotch kill ye ivith ower feeditig and making i^ . .^,. 

to semi tbU hame to tell your fouk, thftt it was Qu^n Elimlntli whoji 
tliti first European ]n;v to buy nod sell luimaii beings lika brute bea 
She was England's glorj as a, Frnteatant, luid SL^otlaud's shame an 
murderer of their bonnje Mary. The auld hag skulked sway like (i <ow 
in the hour of death, Mii^, on the other hand, ivith ca-lranesa j 
dignity, repeated a, Latlo pmyer to the Great Spirit and Author of 
being, and calmlj resigned herself into the hands of her murderars. 

** lu the capital of her ancient kingdom, when ye are in onr Bomrf 
there are eight hundred women Bent to prison every year for tha 1 
time. Of fifte^a thnuBand priaoners examined in Boodand in the j 
1845, eight thouBand could not write at all, and three thouBOud could 

" At present there are alxjut twenty thouEand prisoners in Scoila 
In Stonehaven they are fed at about aQVcntcen pounds each, annua 
The honest poor, outside the prison upon the parish roll, are fed at 
»te of five farthings a day, or two ponnds a year. The employmen 
tile prifionera is grinding the wind, we ca' it; turning the crank, in pi 
English, The Wat improTement ia the etreekm hoard; it's a % 
improvement o' Lord Jonnie Ruageira, 

** I ken brawly ye are a ctmous wife, and would like to ken a' ab 
the Scotch bodies. Weel, they are a gay, ignorant, prond, dmiikoa pa 
they manage to pay ilka year for whaskey one million three hundred i 
forty-eight thousand pounds. 

'* But then, their piety— their piety ; weel, let's luke at it ; hing it 
by the Tiape o' the neck, and turn it roujid atwcen our finger and tbi 
on ail sides. 

" la there one school in all Scotland where the helpless^, homete; 
are fed and clothed at the public expense 1 None. 

' '' la there a hame in all Scotland for the cleaoly but eick 
to go till, until health he restored f Alas 1 there is none. _ 

" Is there a school in all Scotland for tminlng ladiea in the hi| 
branches of learniiigi Kone. \Vbat> then, ia there for the vramet, 

Scotland ? J 

* m * * * M 

' ' A weeU be sure and tty a cupful of Scottish Kiiil Brose. See aoJ 
a sup Scotch lajiff jnilk. 

" H:ind this hit line yout to the Rev, Mr. . Tell him to skore 

fats nae true. 

•■ God bless you, aJid set you safe hame, is the prayer of ih« old Sec 
Bachelor," ■ 

I think you will agree with tne, that the old testifying spirit do^ 

■eem to have died oat in Scotland, and that the hackslidings and ahomi 

tions of the laud do not want for al>le exponeutH. 
L As the indictment mns liack to the time uf Charles II., to tlxc perss 

P tions of the Qujikers in the days of Barclay ol Dry, and brings up agai 

the most modern offt^ncca, one cannot but feel thnt there ura the it 

earoviy indiLTitiona in it of Scotch iJioroughnesa. 
. S}jBe vfthe quei^tionB iihich he wishes to have me '* #/)fft*" at Aherd< 
V/fmr^ AioM I W0ald bring but an indifferent iufcwBt evea\& liici^toR^ ^"^ 


jpwm A high ficihool only to boys, and allows none to girls. On one poiBt, it ■ 
Mess to me, my frii^ad might speer himeelf to adT^ntage, and ibat is tbe 
IfiBfj commeadubla efibrta wbich ora b^ing msde now in EdinbnTgh and 
Aberdeen both, in tbe way of edncating tbe cbUdxen of the poor. M 

Ab iluB h oos of the subjecta which Are parti eukrlj on tn; nimdl, and as H 
iD inibrmat^ which, we can get upon thlia subject ta peculuirlj T&laable to 
i» In view af oommenving eSbrts ia America^ I will abridge for yoM mm 
weonnt of the ladustrial Scbock of Aberdeen, publiehcd by the 8o«i«tj fot 
JinpForing the Condition of the L&bonring Class(is, in thoir papor called tlie 
*' Idtbourers Friend." 

In June, 1841, it wna ascertained that In Ab^rdeeu there were two 
londned and eighty childrea, under fourteen years of age, who maintained 
iheniseWea professedly by begging, but partly by tboft. The first effort to 
l_i>£tt£r the moral condition of these ehildren brought witli it the discoTOry 
^irhieb our philaatbropists niade in New York, that in order to do good to 
m RtarTing child, we must begin by feeding him ; that we most gain hia 
ftmSdeucse by showing him a benevolence whkh be can underataad, and. 
Giva proceed grajdnallj to the reformation of his sptrituat nature. ^| 

In lS4lf therefore;, some benevolent individuals in Aberdeen litred H 
jroama and a teacher, and garo out notice i^monj; these poor children that 
tbey oould there bo supplied with food, work, and inatmctioa. The general 
grrangement of the day was four honra of lessons, fire hours of work, and 
[three substantial meals. These meals were employed ss the lacitementA to 
the lessons and the work, since it waa noade an indispen sable condition to 
isach meal that the child should have been present at the work or leasona 
which preceded it. This amvogement worked admirably; so that tiey 
reported that tlie attendance was more regular than at onliaary aehoola. 

The whole produce of the work of the children goes towards defraying 
fiat expense of the establishment, thus effecting several important ptir- 
pjsea,— reducing the expense of the school, and teadiing the children prac- 
ikally the Viilue of tlieir industry, in procuring for them food and instruction, 
Mid fostering in them, from tho first, a sound principle of self-dependence ; 
[naamiich as tliey knmv, from the moment of their entering school, that 
Bwj give, or pay, in return for their food and education, all the work they 
(TO capable of performing. 

The iofltitutioa did not profess to clothe the children ; but by the 
kindness of benevolent persons who take an interest in the school, them 
a generally a stock of old clothes nu band, from which the most destitute 
ire supplied. 

^ The following is the daily routine of the school : The scholara assembb 
ivajy moving at seven in summer, and eight in winter. The school is 
ipened by reading the Scriptures, praise, and prayer, and religions instrac- 
ion suited to their years, after which there is a lesinn in geography, or tha 
nore ordinary fuels of natural histoxy, tanglit bjr means of maps and 
Iffiais distributed along tlie walls of the school room; two days in the 
r^ek they have a singing lesson ; at nine they breakfast en porridge and 
ailk, and have half an hour of piny ; at ten they aEsemble in school, and are 
imployed at work' till twu. At two oVloek tliey dine ; nsually on broth, with 
**i wheaten bread, but oocaalonally on potatoes and ox -head sonp, Ice, 
'he diet ia very julain, but nntfitiouB and abiaiidaTi^^ kq^ is^^^WMa \(5i 'E«t\V 
t9 tdsteii of the papUa complctdj. It ia & pleaiinj ^^^ \fi wit 'Csvsov *^ 




aBJab\Qf\ with tht^Ir youtliful apimtitiia starffLcd by fimr hnarg' wnrt, j4i" 
iogi At least "with out'wiini dacoriini, id asking God's bleasing on tie fnoAliI 
luu pravitdcd fur thtrv, uiid muht promptly Availing themselTes of the aigtfl 
given to commence their diiintr. ' 

From dinner till three, the timft is ^pent iti ex«rttie Of recreation, occt' 
tioD&lly working in the garden ; from three to four, tliey work dther in tli* 
g*rden or In the work room ; from four till seTen, they are instnu.'ted in 
rmdiag, writing, and arithmetic. At seven tliey hare supper of purriJfie 
ami milk ; rmd, after ahort religions axerclBea, &j^ dismissed to thdf homeB 
at eight. 

On SutordaLy, thdy do not rHtnm to school after dinner ; and, ^eeadfut' 
ally, as a rewujd of good behaviour^ they acoompany the traflher in & irjjk 
to the ooniitry or the et^a ctmut. 

On Sunday, they p^scrnhk at ha!f-past eight for d<3Vi>tion ; brcAkfnst. ^i 
nine ; attend worship in the e^ihool room ; after n'hleh they dine, ud 
return home, so afl, if poMiblB^ to go with their parents to tthraxk II 
the aflemoon. 

At five they again meet^ and have Sahbath ichonl tnstraction iQ Mbl* 
And cateehi^on ; at eeveu, supper; and after evening worship are dismissed. 

Ffom this detail it will he seen that these schools differ from cotamda 
d*y ffolioob. In day aohoola neither food nor employment h prorlcted^ 
toftching only is proposed with a very little moral training. 

The itrinciplo on which the industrial school proceeds, of girinf! employ- 
m^nt along with instruction— especially as that employment is d&Agttoi tit 
the £auie time, if pussible, to teaeh a trade whit^h may be afterwaids iViih 
able— appears uf ttie highest value. It is a prat^tical discipline — amottl 
training, tiie importance of which (^nnot be Qver-cstimated. 

la a common m;hool, too, there can be hut little nioral training, howerer 
efficiently the school may be conducted, jnst because there h little opportts* 
nity given for the development and diepby of individual character. The 
whole mauagemetit of a school requires that the pupils he an speedily m pas- 
tlhl& broujjbt to a uniform outward conduct, and thuB an appearance «f 
good beliaviour and propriety is produced within the school room, which \t 
too often cast aside and forgotten the moment the pupils pass the thrcahold. 

The remark was ooce made by an experienced teacher, that for the pur- 
poses of motal training he valued more the time be spent with hia pupils at 
their games, than that which was spent in the school room. 

The pecuniary value of th« work done in these schools ia not ao great M 
waa at first hoped, from tlie difficulty of procuring employment Buch aS 
diildrsn so ncgtucted could perform to advantage. The real value ot th« 
thing, however, they consider lies in the halita of industry and the Bea»e rf 
independence tliua imparted. 

At tho outset the managers of the school regretted esttremely thdr want 
of ability to furuinli lodgingB to the children. It was thought and said that 
the homes, Ui which the majority of tbem were obliged to retnm after 
Bt'hool hours, would deprave ' faster tliau any instrtiction could reform. 
Fortunately it was impossible, at the time, to provide lodging for the chil- 
dren, and thus an experienoc was wrought out most valuable to ail future 
jAbuurera la this field, 
^j&tf managers report that aft^r sis years' trial, the instances wherp Bvii 
resiiJ£a /htm the children jietaniiing home, aro verj r,M% , ^^i^^t IWrt Vm* 

. 56 

from the acbool, through the Ti-hole family. Thcna i .*jpents, cspe- 

d^Uy m others, so abandoned aa not to be touched I maness shown to 
iheir ofiEpring. It is the direct rond to the mother's art. Show kind- 
jiEss 10 her child, and Ehe ia prt^pared at oaca to s/eco efforts on its 

teh^if. She must be debase. J, indeed, "nho will no to her child 

repeatbg its test from tlie Bible, or BiDging & tc-tsq jfant hymn ; 

and by Ihia means the first seeds of a oew lifs maj , and hare been, 
jl&nted in the panc-nt^s heart. 

Xn c&set where parenta are bo ntterly dcpraTed si ") it entirely 

topelests to reft)rin tbe child at home, they have found ist conrse to 

board them, t^o or three together, in respectable fai le inflaences 

of the family state boiog held to be essential. 

The aueci^aa which attefoded the boya' school of ind on led to the 

establishment of obq for girla, con ducted on the aame 3S ; and it is 

Bt;ited that the change wrong , these means, 

was even more strikiiig and gi s. 

After these achoola had he it was discovered 

tliat there were still maltitud . could not or did 

not avail themselvo of tbefle ; jined by the antho- 

riti(!4 of the city of Aberdeen, in ouuiyiuutj w*a* mu ocripture injunction, 
to go out into the high way a and hedges and compel them to come in. 
Under the authority tjf tht: |>olice act they proposed to lay hold of the whole 
of the juvenile vagradt^, and provide tbem with food aad instruction. 

ln£truutiona were given to the poUce, on the 19th of May, 1845, to 
convey every child found begging to the soup kitchen; and, in the course 
of the day, seventy -five were collected, of whom lour only could read. The 
Bceae which ensued is iudesuiibable. Ccu fusion aad uproar, quarrelling 
and fightiag, language of the most hateful description, and the most deter- 
mined rebellion against everything like order and regularity, gave the 
gentlemen engagod in the undertaking of taming them the hardest day's 
work they had ever encountered. Still, they so far prevailed, that, by 
evening, their authority was comparatively established. When dis- 
xoissed, the children were invited to return next day — informed that, of 
conrse, they could do so or not, as they pleased, and that, if they did, 
they should be fed and instructed, but that, whether they came or not, 
beting would not be tolerated. Next day, the greater part returned. 
The managers felt that they bad triumphed, and that a great field of moral 
iisefulness was now secured to them. 

The class who were brought to this school were far below those who 
attend the other two institutions — low as they appeared to be when the 
schools were first opened ; and the scenes of filth, disease, and misery, 
exhibited even in the school itself, were such as would speedily have 
driven from the work all merely sentimental philanthropists. Those who 
undertake this work must have sound, strong principle to influence them, 
els9 they will soon turn from it in disgust. 

The school went on prosperously ; it soon excited public interest ; funds 
flowed 'id; and, what ia most gratifying, the wotWyi?, da.^s^'s. \ftO(^ %. 

Jire/jr interest in it; and while the wealthier \n)3Labvla.u\,a ol K>q<5X^^^-q. 

contributed during the year about one hundred aiud MV^ ^o\mi\a> icx ""vV 

» ffi £n ^"""^j^Smen collected, and handed over to AAvq coxsmvXX^^, ^ 

w tium two hundred and My pounds 

raiyiew-cii/dreninatteiidance at the iiidustiia.\B<i\xoo\aAv».M^'V^^'0^ 


Ticte*! of any offence. The regularity of uttendAiK^ is owing to thediilfl*^ 
i^CfjiriDg their foot! in tbe fiehi>ijl ; and the school houra being Irom syx-ta 
ill theiii{tniin(j till seven at night, there ia little oppoxtunitj for the cokw- 
missioa of crime. 

The experience acquired in these BchmlB, and tlie connexion yMah nwst 
of tiie muiagflrB had with the criminal couri» of the citjj led to the openuiK 
of iL fourth institution — the Child's Aaylnm, Acting from day to d-iv a 
judges, these gentle men had occasionally cases brought before them whict 
gave thtim extreme paiu. Chiidxen^ — aay, infants — were bruujrht up ^"n 
crimiu&l charges : the fojcts alleged against them were incontcetably y^ved ; 
iind yet, in a moral sense, they could scarcely be held ffuiltt/^ bcainsB, b 
truth, they did not know that they had done wrong. 

There were, ho-wcver, great practical difficulties in the "wny, -which cotM 
only he got over indirectly. The magistrate could adjourn the i;ase, dircd-ia^ 
the ohild to he cared for in the mean timtj and iiuiuiry could be made tts to 
hiii family And relationa, aa to his character, and the prospect of his df-lol 
better in future ; and he conld cither be restored to hia relations, or hoftrdt-d 
in the house of refuge, or with a family, and placed at one or other of lis 
industrial uchook; the cbaige of crlmti still remaining against him, to be 
made use of at once if he de^ertetl school and returned to evil coureea. 

The great advantage Boujjht here i^as to avoid Bt«impjng the child for life 
■with tbe character of a convicted felon beffire he deserved it. Once ibu« 
brand a child in this country, and it is all but impossible for him ever, bj 
future Rood conduct, to efface the mark. How careful ought the law and 
thnfe who administer it to be, not ra^ly to impress thia stigma on "k^e 
n^lected child I 

'The Child's Asylum -sras opened on the 4th of December, 1846 ; and m 
a proof of the efficiency of the industrial schools in checking juvenile 
ragrancy and delinquency, it may be noticed that nearly a week elapsed 
before a child vras brought to the asylnm. 'W^hen a child is apprehended 
by the police for begging, or other misdeiaeanour, he is conveyed to thia 
institution, and his cusc is investigated ; for which purpose the committee 
meets daily. If the child be of destitute parent*, ho is sent to one of the 
industrial schools; if the child of a Tvoi-thlcBs, but not needy, pnrentv 
efforts BTO made to induce the parent to fnllil his dnty, and exercise hii 
authority in restraining the evil habits of the child, by sending him t© 
Bchool, or otherwise removing hiio out of the vifay of temptation. 

From the 4tb of December up to the ISth of March, forty -seven case% 
BeveraJ of them more than once, had been brought up and careftjUy inquired 
into. Most of them were disposed of in the manner now stated ; but a few 
were either claimed by, or remitted to, the procumtor fiscal,, as proper 
objects of punishment. 

It is premature to say much of an institution which has existed for so 
short a time ; but if the principle on which it is founded be as currect mjA 
Bound ae it appears, it must jjrtiaper and do goo<l. There is, however, on« 
great practical dotficulty, which can only be removed by legislative enact- 
ment; there is no power at present to detain the children in the Asylasaj 
or to force them to attend the schools to which they have been sent. 

Such have been the rise and progress of tlie four industrial schools in 
^ibcrdeen, including, as one of them, the Child's Asylnm. 
M/ the schooh are on tho moat catholic hari*, the only qualification foj- 


► beins a Eubscriptiou of a few ahiUingu a year ; ind thft cl<3ors 
» opea tit aU who require admiasioii, witliottt tUstinctioii of sect or 

The eiperience, then, of A"beri]«ea appears to demonstratG tta poosi- 
ulitT of reolaitning even the moat abjaet and depraved of oar juveailo. 
Kypijlatioa at a very moderate expense. The Bchook liave been ao long in 
%Ur!Uf that} if there had beeu anything erroneous ia the prinetplea or 
^cment of theta, It must ere duw have nppe&n&d ; tmd if atS tha 
t been encourugiDg, why should not the system bd £itendf5U and 
hed in other places f There ia nothiog in it which may not caail j bo 
eped ID any town or Tillage of our land where it ia required, 

1 cannot help adding to thia accouat Bome dircctioiiB, which a Tety 
tperieneed teacher in these schools gives to those who are deairoua of ua- 
ctl&king this enterprise. 

'*!. The acdiool rooma and appurtcnanoea ou;!ht to be of tho plninastaad 
Met unpretending description. This is perfectly condBtcnt with the muafc 
mipulotiB cieantlueas and complete ventilation. In like manner, the iuod 
^ald be wholesome, subsl^niLal, and abundant, but very pl^un — such .19 
«, hoys or girls omy soon be able to attain, or eren surpass, by their owu 
(Crtioiis after leniviug Mchoul. 

"2. The teachers must ever be of the best deBtription, patient and per- 
rering, not cos^ily discouraged, aud thoroughly versed in wbati^rer branch 
ej may have to teach ^ and, above all things, they mutst be pet^ns of 
ltd and uadoubted piety— for without this qualification, all others will, 
the end, prove worthless and unavailing. 

*' Through gut the day, the childT^a must ever be kept in mind that, 
«r all, religion ia * the one thing naedful ;' that the bouI is of more value 
in the body. 

"3, The schools mttit he kept of moderate site: from their nature thia 
absolutely necessary. It is a task of the greatest difficulty to m&n&go, 

a satisfactory manner, a large school of children, even of the higlier 
lases, with all the advantages of careful home-training and aupcria-' 
idence ; but with industrial schools it is folly to attempt it. 
•' From eighty to one hundred scholara la tlie largest number that ever 
mild be gathered into one institution- when th^^y exceed this, let 
'diiional schools be opened; in other words, increase tht numbiTy not tha 
«!, of tht ttkaoU. They should be pnt down in the localitiea most con- 
nient for the scholars, so that distance may be no bar to attendance ; and 
circumstances permit, a garden, either at the Bchool or at no rery great 
itauce, -ftill be of great utility. 

'*4. As Boon aa practicable, the ebilAren should ba taught, and kept 
ladily at, Bome trade or other, by which they may earn their aubsfiatejico 

leaving aehoo! ; for the longer they have pursued this particular occu- 
tion at school, the more easily will thtjy be able thereby to support them- 
ves afterwards. 
**»Ab to commencing schools in new places, the best way of proceeding ia 

a few persons, who are of one mind on the subjec^t, to unite, Advance 
m. I heir own purses, or raiae among their friends, the small sum necessary 
tlte outset, get their teacher, open tkoir ischQ<<l, and collect a few scbolaiSy 
ulually extend the numbar, ftud when tb^^ b3>^« Ti^tA^ ^unn^ '^Ttv^^^sub^ 
sa tell tie pabUo urbat the/ have been dqing-j m"^ l\i^oi\a wBaa wa^w'SKR' 


BB »wv(y kemobiss 01 FOEEmir i^ikds. 

Mid, if they approTOj to gire their taonsj imd inppoTt. Public iiieeliii_ 
ftnd eloqiient Bpeocliea are excellent tbiDgB for exciting interest ^d raim^' 
funds, but they are of no use in carrying on the every-dnj work of 1 " 

*' Let not the managers eTpeot iiDpo««\nUtJeti. Tbere will be msM i 
distress in ipits of industnikt soKckiIb; but they may be iQun^naely redno 
mad tat no one be dlBOOuraged by the o<?caGioiiall lapse into a (srime of a | 
mifliog pupil, Such things tauat ha while ain reigtii in the heart of mi 
let theca only be tbweby stirred up to greater and more earnest «ibi 
in their work. 

" Let them be most careftil aa to the parties irhom they admit to «et 
along with them [ for nnlefla all the labourers be of one heart and mind, 
diviEsioaa mnat enHue, and the whole "work be marred, 

^' It is most desirable that as maiiy ]>erei>ne as poraible of wealth and 
influence ahould lend their aid iu supporting these institutions. Patrons 
■nd mb^ribers should be of all ranks and denotainationji ; but they mult 
Iww^f of interfering with the actual daily working of the school, whici 
ought to be left to the unfettered energie* of those who, by tbdr seal, their 
iwitiTity, their sterling ^jrinciple, and their sucsceaaful administration, have 
proved tbemeelves every way comi«:teat to the task they hare audertakcot 

" If th« managers wish to carry out the good effect of their schools to the 
utmost, then they will not confine their kbonr to the scholars ; thftf wiH, 
thmtiijh ilifm, fftt aceets to the paretitt. The good which the ladies of the 
Aberdeen Female School hare already thus accomplished is not to be told ; 
bat let none try thla work who do m% eitperimentally know th« Tolue ef 
the immortal soul," 

Industrial acboola seem to open a bright prospect to the hitherto n^l«;t«d 
outcasts of cur cities ; for them a new {^ra seems to be ccmmeuciag -, thejr 
are no longer to be restrained and kept in order by the iron bara of the 
prison house, and taught morality by the scourgo of the eKecntioner. They 
are now to he treated as reasonable and immortal beings ; and may He who 
is the God of the poor as well as the ricb give his efiectual blessiuf wx^ 
them, wherever they may be established^ bo that they may be a aouree flf 
joy and rejoicing to aE ranks of society. 

Such is the result of the '* speeringa" recommended by my worthy cor- 
reapondenl I have given them mnch at lengtli, bee^iuae they are useful to 
ufl in the mnch needed reforms eommeiif^ing in our cities. 

As to the appaHing statements about intemperance, I grieve to way that 
iliey are confirmed by much which must meet the eye even of the passiog 
Btranger. I have said before how often the natural features of Ibis country 
remmded me of the State of Maine. Would that the beneficent law wldt'h 
baa removed, to so great an ext^ntj pauperian and flrime fe>m. that nobl* 
state might also be given to Scotland, 

I suppose that the efforts for the benefit of the poorer plassea in this rity 
might be pamlleled by efforts of a similar nature in the other cities af 
Scotland, particularly in Edinburgh, where great eiertjone have been mak- 
ing ; but t happened to have a more full account of these in Aberdeen, and 
so give them as specimens of the whole, I must say, however, that in uo 
oity which I visited in Scotland did I see such neatueaa, order, and tho- 
jvuifhnesSf a« in Aberdeen ; and in none did there a]ipe&r to be mure gra* 
^?jvh^ ef-Jff&naest ofprosp^ity and comfort am.Qng that clau wMok eitie atm 

DUlTDll. 59 

Abmit two n'elnclc we BUrted from AbDrdeeiL nmonj of friends, to 

irhom ^fd bade farewell 'with de&p regret. 

Our Tvav At first lay over the HDOurs© of yesterday, lona that beautiful 

Bea coast -^beautiful to the ^je, but ikeriloua io tlva i r. They told 

119 that the wmds and waFAs raged hore with an aw er. Not long 

beforB we caiDf?, the Duke of Satherland, an iron h , was Tn:ecked 

vpaa thJB Bhoro, In one re3|teut the coast of Mai uoo decidedly the 

ftdraJitage over thia, aad, indeed , of every other &ea co ' '.ch I have ever 

vieitcd ; and th»t la ia the richacsa of the wooding veils its pie- 

tuj-esqtie points and copes in luxuriant foldmga of Ter 

( At StonehiTen atation, where we stopped a few tah ere was quite 

% gathering of the inhabilJttits to eichatigt: {^reeting^ a .'wards at suc- 

k ceaaive ntationE aloug the road, mEioy a kindly facQ Oin. Jiade our joor* 

I tiey a plefieant one. 

I When we got into old Da welcome. We 

-went in the carriage with tl J, to his residence, 

where a party had been wait i. 

The meeting in the eTenii jnsely crowded, and 

conducted ^utich aa the otl jey came to sing the 

closing hymn, I hoped tbey wwuivi am^ i^uuubo j udt they did not, and I 
fear in Sootland, as fllscwhcre, the charaeteriatio national melodies are 
giving way befure more modona ones. 

On the stage we were surrounded by many very pleasant people, with 
whom, between the services, we talked without knowing their names. The 
■referable Dr. Dick, the author of the Christian Philosopher and the 
Philosophy of the Future State, was there. Gilfillan was also present, and 
iipoke. T<^ether with their contribution to the Scottish offering, they pre- 
tented me with quite a collection of the works of different writers of D undee, 
beautifully bound. 

We came away before the exercises of the evening were finished. 

The next morning we had quite a large breakfast party, mostly ministers 
iUid their wives. Good old Dr. Dick was there, and I had an introc'uciion 
to him, and had pleasure in speaking to him of the interest with which his 
■works have been read in America. Of this fact I was told that he had 
received mote substantial assurance in a comfortable sum of money sub- 
scribed and remitted to him by his American readers. If this be so it is a 
most commendable movement. 

What a pity it was, during Scott's financial embarrassments, that every 
man, woman, and chiJd in America, who had received pleasure from his 
writings, had not subscribed something towards an offering justly due to 
him ! 

Our host, Mr. Thoms, was one of the first to republish in Scotland Pro- 
fessor Stuart's Letters to Dr. Channing, with a preface of his own. He 
showed me Professor Stuart's letter in reply, and seemed rather amused 
that the professor directed it to the Eev. James Thom, supposing, of 
course, that so much theological zeal could not inhere in a la^uva.w. Ha 
also showed us many autograph letters of their fottaet i^asVcrt,iJvx. ^Saerjvss.^ 
whose interesting memoirs have excited a good dea.\ oi. &Wi<i\i'C\<ji\i. va. ^<arovs: 
drclesin America, 
lu ^^'f^^^as* the ladiea of the Dundee Antisla-^ex-j ^oev^'^.i c^V?^-. ^ 
£ tti rS^'^'T^ *°°^ "« '"^ l^is carriage to see tVe c\\,^. ^v^s^^^^^^ 
tiuxd town of Scotland in population^ and au p\ac© oi S^^^^'^ ^u^^.^^^^'l• 

populntioa ia 1851 was eeventy-eight thoBsamd eight Injrjdred hnd twentr- 
niiie, uud the manafaGbores cooBiat principiUJy of yams, iin^D, with caDvaaa 
and cutwn bngj^iiig, great qaantiliea of which are E^piorteti to Fi'i^uce and 
Kortli aud South America. There are about aistj spiimiDg mills and iu^' 
tories in the town aad neighbourhood, besides Beverai irtm foundries and 
manufuctoiies of ateain engines and machinery. 

Duadtie Las always buen a Btrunghold of liberty and the reformed re- 
ligion. It ia Jiaid that in the grammar Hsdiool of tbia town William W!il1a<» 
was educated ; and hero an illustrious confraternity of noblemon. andgicutiy 
uraa formed, who joined to resiet the tyranny of England. 

Here Wishart preached in the beginning of tha reformation, preparatory 
to liifi martyrdom. Here flourished soiao rude hifltoricad writers, whi 
defoted their talenta to the downfall of Popery. Singularly enough, Ihey 
accorapUdhed tJiis in part by dramatic represpiitati003, in which ^a vkea 
and abanrditicsof the Papal tHtublishment were ridiculed before the peopla. 
Amnng othera, one Jam^ Wfdderburu and his hrotter, John, yicar of 
Duudte, are mentioned as having excelled in this kind of oompceitioa. 
Tha same authom composed booka of Eong, d nominated " Gude and Godly 
BaU&ds," wherein the fraudii and deceits of Fopeiy were fuUy pointed out. 
A third brother of tie fanidy, being a mufiicol genius. It i< Bald, ** turned 
the timea and tCQonr of many profane songa into godly songa and hymus, 
whereby ho stirred up the offecrtioDSof many," which tunea were colliid tha 
Fsalma of Dundee. Here, perhaju^ was tbe origin of ** Dnnd«e'a wM 
irarhling meaaitrcs." 

The conjoint forces of tragedy, comedy, balhids, andiauaie, tlius broagW 
to bear on the popular miad, was very great, 

Dundee hag been a great sufferer during the variona dyU CTmmotLana is 
Scotland, In the time of Charles I. it stood out for tlie solemn league and 
covenant, for which crime the Earl of Montrose was sent against it, wha 
took and burned it. It ia eaid that he called Bundoo a mo^ seditious 
town, the secnreat haunt and receptacle of rebelB, and a place that had 
contributed as much *s any other to the rebellion. Yet afierwards, wheQ 
Montroiffi waa l#d a captive through Duttdee, the historian obserrea, " It i« 
remarkable of the town of Dundee, in which, he lodged one night, that 
though it had suffcfrcd mora by hia army than any town else withiQ ih* 
kingdom, yet were they, amongst all tha reatj so far from exulting over 
him, that the wholo town testified a great deal of sorrow for his woful con- 
dition ; and there was ho likewise furnished with clothes suitable to Mi 
Iiirth and person." 

This town of Dundee was stormed by Monk and thei forces of ParliamenV 
dnritig the time of the commonwealth, becaase they had sheltered the fugii 
tivu Charles IL, and grants him money. When taken by Monk, lie com- 
mitted a great many barbarities. 

It haa also been once visited by the plague, and once with a seven yearif 
dearth or fajnine. 

Most of tliese particulars I found in a History of Dundee, which fann£d 
one of the books presented to me. 

The town is beautifully situated on the Firth of Tay, vhieh here spreads 
its waters, and the quantity of shipping indicates commercial pruispcrity, 

J WAS shown no abbeys or cathedrals, cither because none ever eiisted, 
4ir I'ec^use tJtej trere destroyed when the town vas fiied» 


In oat rides about the city, the local recollections tLat our frier (Is SGemod 
t<t recur to with as much interest &b any, were those connected with the 
queEii'a visit to Du&flee, in 18i4. The spot where she landed has heen 
conmicinor:itcd by th6 erection of a superb triumphal itreh in" stone. TTia 
proTost said aome of the people were quite astonished at the plainness of 
tiie queen's dress, heiving looked for something very dazzling and over- 
powering from u queen. The}"^ could scarcely believe their eyes, wheti tbey 
eaw her riding h j in a, plain bonnet, and auTeloped in a, simpls ehephcrd'a 

The qtiean is exceedingly popular In Scotland, donbtlesa in pai-t bc-canse 
ah0 heartily appreciated the beatity of the country, and the strong and in- 
teresting traits of the people. She has & country residence at Balmoral, 
where ahe spends a part of every year j arid the iuiprosBion sceras to prerall 
nmong her Scottish, aubjeeta, that she never appears to feel herself more 
luvppy or more at home than in this her Highlsind dwelling. The legietid 
is, ihal liere she delights to throw off the restraints of royally j to go about 
plainly dressed, like a private individnal - to visit in the cottages of th« 
poor; to intereat herself in the instruction of the children; and to initiate 
the future heir of England into that practical love of the people which is 
the best qualification for a ruler. 

I repeat to you the things which 1 hear floating of the public cbaractera 
of England, and you can attach what degree of credence you may think, 
proper, Aa a general rule in this censorious world, 1 think it safe to anp- 
poee that the good which is commonly reported of public ebaracters, if not 
true in the letter of ita details, is at least so in its general (spirit. The 
■tones which are told about diatiuguished people generally run in a channel 
OMJQcitleDt with the facts of their character. On the other hand, with 
legsrd to evtl reports, it ia safe always to allow something for the naturid 
proiienaity to detraction and slander, which la one of the most ufi doubted 
fActs of humiui nature in all lands. 

We left Dundee at two o'clock, by cars, for Edinbui^h. In the evening 
we attended another miri^ of the working men of Edinburgh. As it was 
similar in all respeets to the one at Glasgow, I will not dwell upon it^ 
further than bo say how grati^ing to me, in every respect, are occasions in 
which working men, aa a dan, stand out before the publiis. They are to 
form, more and more, a new power in society, greater than the old power 
of helmet and sword, and I rejoice in every iiidication that they are learning 
to understand themselves, 

Wc have received letters from the working men, both in Dundee and 
Olaa^^ow, desiring our return to attend miries in those cities. Nothing 
eouid give us greater pleasure, had we time and strength. No class of men 
*re more vitally interested in the conflict of freedom against shwei-y than 
workiwg men. The principle upon which alavery ie Ibunded touches every 
iotere^t of theirs. If it ba right that one half of the community fihouldj 
Jeprivo the other half of education, of all oppiJiiun tries to rise in the wur!d, 
of all property rights and all family tics, merely to miike them mure con- 
venient tool* for their profit and luxury, then every ijijiisU'renncI extortion, 
%luoh oppresses the kboui-iug man in any country, can Ami (sqjiiui^^ iidwi^t^- 


vumrr siEKoittss or fobetox txTnm, 


laUtOii.—tiVtB VmH .— iJB0I«F019. 

You wanted iia to write about our tlflit to Melroee j bo her* yon haTC it 

On Tueetlay murwing Mr. S. and C hiid agreed tf*go hack to Ola^oW 

far llie purpose of speaking at a. tcmperanoe jncMjtmg, and is we were re- 
BtrieteJ for time, we were obliged to uijike tbe "visit to Meboee io tli^ 
abficoi^e, much to the regret of us alL (i~^~ tbouglit w« would mike ^ 

little qnieit run cut id the cara by ouiB«lvei, while Mr. S. and G- were 

gone back to Glnegow. 

It was one of those aoft, s]joweTyj April daj^ misty and myBticaJ, ntrw 
weepijig and now Bhining, tliftt we found ourselTea whirled by the can 
thrs>ugh this enchanl&il ground of SfOlland. Almost eiery name we heard 
Bpokea alonisf the milroad, eTery stream wa pa^ed, every point we looked 
at, focalletl ss^mo line of Walter S[;ott'H poetry, or some event of history. 
The thought that he was gone for ever, whose geniuB had giTcn tlie chann 
to ali, seemed to sBltle itself down like a melancholy mist. To how little 
pnr]b03e seemed the few, short years of hia life, compored with the capa* 
bilities of Buck » soul! Brilliant aa his suteees had been, how was ft 
pasfsed like a, dreaui 1 It seemed sad to think that he bad not only pjiseed 
away bimeelf, but that ahuoEt the whole family and friendly cirtde had 
passed with him^not a son left to bear hie uiiine! 

Here we were iti the region of the Ettrick, the Tarrow, and the Tweed, 
I opened the Lay of the Last Minstrel, Lnd, as if b? instinct, the 
liaes my eye fell upon were these : — 

" Call it not vsin ! thty do not njr 

"tVho say, that when tbe poet dietj 
MtiJe nature nionma her worshipper, 

And celebrates his obBequiea : 
Wbo iaj, tall cJifFaini cavern lone 
Tor 1ht> dejMjrted hard moke nioitii j 
That tnountoijia vt-fip in crjatal rUJ j 
That fiowers in Veaia of balm distil; 
TLrough Jiis Jo^ed groTea that bre^n ai^ 
And oafcB, in deeper ^roan, reply j 
And riTers tcuch iheir rvishinf; waT» 
To tnurmUT dirges rousd hie gtA\e," 

**WeiToser' Bflld tJie loud Toice of tha conductor; and starting, IIodkeA 
■vnp and saw quite a flourishing village, in tbe midst of which roee the old, 
^y, mouldering walla of the abbey. Now, this wa* somewhat of a disap- 
pointnient to me. 1 had been somohow expe(<ting to find the building 
Stan dt It? alone in the middle of a great heath, far from all abodes of men^ 
and with no companions more hilurions than tbe owls. However, it was no 
use eomplflining; tbe fatjt waa, there was a village), and what waa more, ft 
hotel, and to thig hotel we were to go to get a guide for the places we were 
to visit j for it was understood that wo wero to " do" Melrose, Dryburgh, 
and Abbotftfordj all in one day. There was no time for sentiment ; it waa 
a buRinesB aflhir, that must be looXetl in the face prctmptly, if we meant to 
j^if thr(fugb. EJnealatwns and ijuotationa of poetry could, of course, be 
tArpim itif AS WJJL'^m ttf Deloraine pattered liia pm:jera, 'w\ii\e -diisui. 


^ III H 


We all aligbted at a Tery coTnfuri<i1>k hotel, and . udiered into aa 

snug a little parlour o^ one's hssii could desiit. 

TJie next tiling was to hire a coachman to take ^s, n the rain> — for thd 
mist hswi nov^' swelkd into a rain, — tkrongh thij wh' "opriate rotmd. 

I ataod by and heard njiiae^ which I kstd never heard except in song, 

"brought into rieir iu their commercial reUitioua ; ao .or Abbotsford; 

sad BO much for Dry burgh ; and th&n, if Vfd wDuId lil to throw in Thomas 
tlie E.bjmer'& To'wer, why, that vould he something 

" Thumaa the Rhymer?" fisid one of the party, i stly posted up. 

** Was lie anything retnarkaWe ! Well, iH it worth w t> to his tower ! 

It will ci)3t BQuiething extra, and take more time." 

Weighed in such a saoriIegi<*n3 balance, Thomas ^ jid wanting, of 

conTSH ; the id en of driTing thres or four milea farthi e an old tower, 

BDppoaed to have belonged t ^" ' ^ J existed and to 

have been carried off by a h — es into Elfland, 

"was too al^urd for reasonab elieve myself that I 

did not care muth aboat it^ ly remarked, that if 

we did not get home by five je spoiled." 

j Afl we were all packed im otill pouring, I began 

to wifili mute Nature would uui uu nun^s bu euc^i^etic in distilling her tears. 
A few «priutUag showers, or a graceful wreath of mist, might be all very 
' ivell, but a ate&dy, driving rain, that obliged ua to shut' up the carriage 
"Windows, and coated them Tvith mist ao that we oould not look out, why, I 
say it is enough to put out the fire of flcntiment in any heart. We might 
83 well have been rolled up in a bundle and carried through the country, 
for all the seeing it was possible to do under such circumstances. It, 
therefore, should be stated, that we did keep bravely up in our poetic zeal, 
whiek kijidly Mrt. W. uIejo reiuforced, by dl&tributiag certain very delicate 
Eiatidiviches to tsupport the outer maa. 

At length, the coach stopped at the entrance of Abbotsford grounds, 
where there was a cottage, out of which, due notice being given, came a 
trim, little old woman in a black gown, with pattens on ; she put up her 
umbrella, and we all put up ours ; the rain poured harder than ever as we 
went dripping up the gravel walk, looking much, I inly fancied, like a set 
of discomforted fowls fleeing to covert. We entered the great court yard, 
surrounded with a high wall, into which were built sundry fragments of 
curious architecture that happened to please the poet's fancy. 

I had at the moment, spite of the rain, very vividly in my mind 
Washington Irving' s graceful account of his visit to Abbotsford while this 
house was yet building, and the picture which he has given of Walter Scott 
sitting before his door, humorously descanting on various fragments of 
sculpture, which lay scattered about, and which he intended to immortalize 
by incorporating into his new dwelling. 

Viewed as a mere speculation, or, for aught I know, as an architectural 
effort, this bulling may, perhaps, be counted as a mistake and a failure. 
I observe, that it is quite customary to speak of it, amow?, acsvcv^, ^"a> ^ ^xVj 
that he ever undertook it. Bat viewed as a deve\.o"^meTa\> oi. ^D^s■vD5ie^\vi'^,^ 
aaa working oat in wood and stone of favonrite{atickaaTv<iOciet\^"6.?^V?vfeas 
the building has to jne a, deep interest. The gentle-^veaiU^L ^o^X. ^v.^^^*^ 
Jbjmselfinit; this bouse was his stone and wood poem, ws vcxt%^i^^^ ^ 
Jmpa, aad aa contrary to any established rule, aa \ns liM ^^ ^"^ 


Jlmatrfil, "hut atai vriid and pflctic. l%e building Ijivs tltis interest, 
■was thri>i3ghaut hi3 own roDceptiou, thought, atid choiCK? ; thut hi? erpi 
himself in evury stone tliat was laid, and made it a kind of shriue, il . 
•which hb wove all hia trofiHurcB of antiquity, &tid where he imitated, ftoo 
tluQ beautiful, old, monlderkig rubs of Scotiad, the ports that had toMlw^ 
him moat deeply. 

Th& wails of one room Tvcre of canred oak from tlie DanfcrmlinB Atbey 
the celling of another imitated from Eoslm Caatle ; hero a fireplace wa 
WTOUglit lu tbc image of a favorite niche in Melrosd ; and there the anciea 
pnlpit of ErEkine waa wrought into & wall. To him, doubtless^ ever 
(vhject in the house waa suggestive of poetic fancies j every carving and W 
of tracery had Its history, and was as truly an expression of sometJiing i 
the poet's raind as a Terse of his poetry. 

A building vrought out in thJa way, and growing np like a tank of coral 
may very poaaihly i'l[}latfl all the proprieties of criticism ; It may poEsibli 
tcMj, violate one's ideas of mere houbewifery utility ; but by none of tha 
rules ought such a building to be judged. We should look at it rather t 
the poet's endeavour to render outward and visible the dream-land of h 
thoughts, and to create for himself a refuge from the cold, dull realities 
life, in an architectural romance, j 

These w^re the thoughts which gave interest to the scone ns we jhm 
through the porch way, adorned with petrified stag's home, into the Wi 
entrancc-hall of the maTi^ion, This porch was copied from one in Linlit 
irow palace. One side of this hall was lighted by windows of painted glai 
The floor was of blatk and white marble from the Hebrides. Round t 
whole cornice there was a line of coats armorial, richly blaioncdj and t 
fallowing iuacnption in old German t^ext : — ' ji 

" Those be the coat armories of the clanns and chief men of name v 
keeplt iha march ya of Spotl-jind in the old tyme for the kynge. Trewe m 
■war they in their tyme, and in their defance God them defendyt.*' 

There were the names of the Douglases, the Elliots, the Spotta, t 
Armstrongs, and others. I looked at thL«; arrangement with Interei 
het^Gse I knew that Scott muat have talc en a particular delight in it 

The fireplace, designed from a niche in Melrose Abbey, also in this tooi 
and a chtjice bit of sculpture it is. In it ^vas an old pmte, which had 
history iilao, and opposite to it the hoards from the pulpit of Erskine wi 
wrought into a kind of side tabic, or something which served that patpoi 
The spaces between the windows were decorated with pieces of ttrmot 
crossed swords, and stags' horns, each one of which doubtless hnd 
history. On each aide of the door, at the bottom of the hall, was a Gotl 
shrine, or niche, in both of which stood a figure in complete armour. 

Then we went into the dniwlng-rooni ; a kifty saloon, the woodworl(| 
■fthlch is entirely of eediir, richly wrought i probably another of the txnM 
favourite poetic fancies. It la adorned with a mi of snlendid antici 
ebony furaitni'o; tahmetf chaira, and piano— the gift of G*rge IV. to t 

"Wfi went into his library ; a mngnilicMit room, on which, T snppOM!, t 

poet's fancy had expended Itself more than any other. Tile rocf is 

cirved oidc, afLei" raodels from Knslin Castle, Heve, iirn jiiche, is a marl 

of Scuttf iiS we uitdersUiod ii present from Chaiitrey tn the p^Mt; 

of iha best mid lao&i flnimated TepresentaUoOB oi "himy «««: td 


nperior to the one under the monument in SdiabTirgh. On 
&7 idea to ibis elf«ct, I Jound I hi^d atriick ujmju u favoiiiite 
jk« good •wotaha who flhowed tis the Gstabluhiiit^ut ; nlw Bdeuied 
leien't serratit of lbs hoaee,, and iippeared to enterlttiu n regtiLrd 
(laird scarcely leas than iddatry. One reason why thia statue 
ds, that it repneBents hia noble forehtjad, wliiuh tlio Ediuhurgk 
bo be coQc^uled bj falMng hair : to cuver Hic/t a foreltciid fieema 
p tium a libeL 

|& &ir of thia rooiq La fuidful and pictnresque m the extreme. 
ItfiQ ^ntiftily filled with the btMkcasea, there lieiny ahcat twenty 
fOlumeB. A small tijom opi?iia frera tlie Isbriiry, which wni 
i private study. His writinif-UibIti atotxl id the centre, with Ida 
tl it, and before it a large, plain, Llaek Itiilhur arm chair. 
|i caae, I think in thia room, was exhibikti the suit of clotliijslie 
ra blue eoat with Ijirge metal buttonsj phvid troiiaura, and hroad- 
pt, Arottnd thi^ sides of this rftoiu tLere was a gallery of li^dit 
irk ; a flight of stAirs led up to it, and in one cDrucjr of it waa a 
It, the woman said led to the poet^s bed rcH>ui. Oue seemed to see 
irrmngeiaent how snag, and cosy, and comfortable the po(>t htid 
BC(^ bimself, to give himdelf up to his l»eluved labours and his 
0i£ But there wus a cold and desulute air of order and adjuet- 
k it which reminds one of the precisti and shilling arrangements 
itom wjjiah had just been, uimed out a fioTpsc ; sdl in elient oud 


|e u at present the property of Scott's only aurvidng daughter, 

ku}d has assumed the nrim^ of Scott. Wh cuuld nut luam from 

tat whether any of the family 'was in the hau<ie. We saw only 

pfUieh are shown to visitore, and a coidnesg, like that «f death, 

fetrike to my heart from their chilly solitude. 

tent out of the house we passed auuthec fiompany of tonrlata 

jto whom we heard our guide eammenciug the same recitation, 

bad *'this is," &c., jmtt aa ahe had done to us. One ihiau 

©use and grounds had dieappointcil me- there was not owe riew 

le window 1 sEiw that was worth auythiug, in point of bvanty; 

with an eye for the beautiful, cuuld have located a hfiUHo in 
tffereat spot, on an estate where so many beautiful aites were at 
Id, I could not imagme. 

i external apptiarum^e of Abbotsfk>rd, it I^a^ irregular aa can well 
t.^ There are gahlcH, and pinnacle.^ and ^qiires, and balcomefl, 
kses anywhere and ev^^rywbere, without rhyme or r^snn; for 
le poet wanted a balcony, he had it - or wherever he had a trag- 
rfid stone, or a hit of bistonc tracery, to i^mi, in, he made & 
i fortliwith, without asking leave of any rules. TJiis I take ta 
« main advantage* of Gothic architecmre ; it Is a moat catlioUo 

^jfltemj and any kmd of eceeutriciCy may find tefugo beuoatli 

nil over iha bouBe, aro stones Gurrcd with lutnorlal 
QB inacriptiona, inserted at mndom vherever the ^wet 
•y up the walliu one place is the door of lUe oUL 'C^.'CWAJtv 
rftL fie insanption o\er ll, ^'Ttte \»ut4. qI wwaSs^^tJ 
ili'MJt jjT timy tixttt tjfugt in the Utd, \&ttr 


A doorway at the weat end of the houto u ccmpoBcd of itonc* which 
formed the jiortal of the Tolbooth, giTeo to Sir Walter oa the piiHijig dow» 
of the bmlding in 1S17. 

On the east eido of the house ia & rude carving of a sword with the woriSt 
'* Dp with ye, Butora of Selkjrke. A. D. 1525." Auoiher JJQAcriptiojt, oa 
the aome aide of the house, rtuia tljus : — - 

" B)- tiiRlit, by day, irmember Wf 
'The grtodnoSM'til'lbft Ijorcl ; 
And llutnk his naine, wLds? (jloriouii fune 
Ifl Bpreatl tlirouebout tUe world.— A. C. M. D. 1610/* 

In t^ie yard, to the right of the doorway of the mansion, -we Ww till 
figure i*f Scott's faTourite dog Maid a, with a Latin iuBcriptioji — 

•' ^Taidie inAnuo»ft dormia tub iinDprine, Maid*, 
^d jauLMim domini ; ml libi Urra leria." 

"Which in our Um oxpTesaivo English we might rcndet — 

*' At thy lord's door, in Bluntbera lipht. And blwt, 
llaidB, ln?ne&tb thin mitrbk Mflioa, real : 
lifiUt lie !be (uirt'u;ik>u thy gentle broatt." 

One of the most eiid«intig traits of Scott vaa that sympathy amd h4rmcai| 
which always eitiatcd between him and tlie bmte croutiun. 

Poor Maidti seemed cold and htncly, washed hy the ruin in liie damp graai 
pjftt. ■ How Bftd, yet how expresaira iE the acriptni-al phrwe for indicating 
death I " He shall return to liia housa no more, neitbeJT shall hiti pluw 
know him any more." And this ig i^hat all our homea are coming toj 
our buying, our planting, our building, our manyiog bud giving in mar< 
ri^ge, our genial ii resides tirtd dancing children^ are all likf so many figurai 
passing through ttie magic lantern, to be put out at last in death. 

The gronnda, I was told, are full t>f heautiftil patha and seata, f&vonrita 
walks and lounges of the poet ; hut the obdurate pertinacity of the rain 
compelled us to chouJ=« the very shortest path possible to the carriage. I 
picked a leaf of the Portugal laurtl, which 1 send yon. 

!fext we were driven to Dryhurgh, or rather to the banks of the Tweedy 
where a ferryman, with a small skitf, waits to take passengers over. 

T!ic Tweed ie a elear, rippling river, with a white^ pebbly buttom, jnH 
IWb our Kow England mountain streams. After we landed we were to 
walk to the Abbey. Our feet were damp and cold, and our bo&tmaa 
invited us to his ?ottage. 1 found him and all hia family warmly interested 
ia the ferttmes of Unele Tom aiid his friends, and for his sake they received 
me BS a long-espected friend. While 1 was sitting by the ingleeJde,^ — that 
ia, a coal grate,— warminp iny feet, I fell into conversation with my host. 
He and his family, I noticed, npoke English more than Scotch ; he was an 
inteiUgsnt young man, in ap^iearancrt} and style of mind precisely what you 
might expect to meet in a cottage in Maine. He and all the household, 
oven the old grandmother, had read Umde Tuni's Cabin, and were per- 
fectly farciiliar with all its details. He told rae that it had been univerwJl;? 
read in the cottages in the vidnity. I judged from his mode of apUkiugt 
that he and his neighhoara were in the habit of reading a great deal. I 
spoke of going to Dryhui^h to see the grave of Bcott, and inquired if hia 
worka were much read by the common people. He aaid that Scott waa not 
MT maeh a fhvoiirite wi(h the people as Bums. I inquired if he took * 
sewfipapgr, Jj§ §ai4 fetuit tts jni?wsi>ap«r» W«ri keiit* at vt Ui^la * Tjiisft ^3ui 




Wstkiag men wera not able to tjike tlieia ; BOtnetiineB tliej got aiglit of tiem 
tbi>ngh clubs, or by bi>iT«>wing. Euw different, tbouglit I, from Americ^ 
tliere it witrkiiig man would as aooa tMuk of g-jJng without his bread u 
l^Jthtiut hm seinrspaper ! 

Tile CjttajEea of tLefle labottring people'^ of which thcire were a, wliole 
rilkgG along btre, art meetly of stone, tba,tohed inth eFt^aw. This tbatcii 
eozoebimca gets almost entirelj gFawn over witb green viasa. Thus mu^s- 
covered was the roof of tbe cottage where we stopped, opposite to Dryburgh 

There was about this time cm© ot those weepinij piiu&ea in the ahowery 
■ky, Miii a kind of thinning and edging away of tbe clonds, vbiob gnT« 
bopa that perhftpa the eon was going to look out, and give to our perse^ 
Ytaing researches the oouatenance of hia preaenea. This wae particularly 
desirable, as the oM woman, who came out with her keys to guide us, said 
she had a cfdd and a eough ; vtt begged that ebe would not trouble herself 
to go with us at all. The fact is, with all respect to nice old womeiij and 
th« -worthy inm of guides m geneiaJ, they are not farourable to poetio 
meditation, We promiHed to be very good if nhs would let us baT€ the 
key, and lock tip all the gates, and bring it h&*^ ; but no, i»he was faith* 
ftih^eea itself, aiul so went coughmg along thxou^ tht; dripping and drowned 
gnss to open the gates for u». 

This Dry burgh belongs now to the Enrl of Bucban, having been bought 
ly him from a family of the name of HtUiburton, ancesiial connexions of 
Seottj who, in bis autobiftgrapby, seems to lament certftin misehanees of 
fortnue which preTenteil the estate from coming into liis own family, and 
gSLve them, he said, uoihiug but the right of stretching their bones there. 
It seems a pity, too, be^jauee the possession of tliis rich, poetic ruin would 
have beeu a mine of wealth to Scott, far ti-Bmacending the Btateliest of 
m-idern houees. 

Now, if you do not remember Scott's poem of the Eve of St. John, you 
ought to Tcad it over ; for it is, I think, the most spirited of all his ballads ; 
Bothing conceals the tn^uRcendant lustre and beauty of these compodtioss, 
hot the splendour of hia other literary productions. Had he never written 
aaytbiag but these, they would have iiiade him a ncimti as a poet. As it 
was, I found the fianoifid chime of the CD.d«noes in this ballad riagln^ 
throng^h my t^ara. I kept saying to myself'— 

'* The Drylrttrgh bella do rJnp, 
And the white monks do sing 
For Sir Bichiird of ColdiEi|rli^e." 

[ is I was wandering around' in the kbyrinth of old, broken, mossy 
J I thought — 

** Thpro is a nun in Brybnrgh Isower 
Ke'er ladkB npoo the sun j 
Tlwro is a mook in M elfuae towt^r. 
He Bpukoth word to nono. 

" Thftt uun who uo'er bebDlda the dftj. 
That monk whet ipaaka to none, 
Tbiit jiun wiia Sninylhome'a ludj gay, 
Thut moiLt Iho bold IIilfqu," 

It seems that there is a vault in this edifice which has had ^me super- 
i rtitinus legends attached to it, from having Vietn ihx. vaiA^n^ Tiiaf3^'i&?si 
jTOTi oj^ of a ^jsterioag iady, who, being vmixsi ix -^ti^ Tis^et Vi Xj^si^ 

" M 





the liglit of tte sun, only left her cell rI miLtniglit, This little story, 
course, givea just enough Btiperatitious chill to tkis beautiful niim to help 
tilt effect of the pointed ftrches, the clinging wreath a tif i^-y, the flhatlowj 
pinea, and jew trees ; in short, if one hiwl ni>t a guide waiting, wbo had & 
bad eoldl, if one conld stroll here at leisure bj twilight or moonlight, one 
miglit get up a considerable deal of the mystic and poetic. 

Thera is a part of the ruin that stands most picturesquely hy staelf, aa 
if dd Tim& had intended it for a monument. It is the ruin of that part 
of the chnpel called St, Maiy'i Aisk ; it standa eurronnded by luxuriant 
thickets of pine oud other trees, & duster of l^eantiful Gothic archce eup- 
porting a secoud tier of B^mRlkr and more fanciful oue^ one or two of which 
have thfiit light touch of tho Mooriah in their form which gives such a 
singular and poetic effect in many of tlie old Gothic ruins. Out of tltese 
wild arches and wiudows ware wreatlia of ivy, nnd slender harebells shake 
their blue pen Jan ta. Looking iii and out of the latticea like little eapritioua 
fairies. There are frapnents of raids lying on the gronnd, and the vhde 
nir of the thing is as wild, and dreamlike, and pictureaque as the poet^B 
fancifnl heart could baire desired, 

Drjdemeath these archts he lies beside his wife i aromid him the repre- 
fientatiuQ of the two things he loved most — the wild bloom and beauty of 
nature, and the nrchitectural memorial of \»y-goue history and art. Yet 
tliere was one thing I felt I would have had otherwise ; it sgiemed to me 
that the flat efconea of the pavement a weight too heavy and too fcld to 
be laid on the breast of a lover of nature and the beiiutifni. The greeu 
turf, springing with flowers, that lies above a gravi*, does not seem to ua 
HO hopeless a barrier between us and what waa warm and loving ; the 
springing grass and daisies there seem types and assurances that the mortal 
MTieath ehall put an immortality ; they conae vip tc na as kind messages 
from the peaceful dust, to say that it is resting m a certain hope of a glo- 
rious roiiurreetiun. 

On the cold flrigstones, walled in by iron railings, there wer^ no daJaiai 
and no moss ; but I picked matiy of boli frum the green tmf arou 
which) with some spirigi of ivy from the walla, I send you. 

It IS strauiiie that we turn away from the grave of ttia man, who achiev 
tti himseli the most brilliant destiny that ever au author did,' — raising 
himself by Ma ojvn uuassls^ted efforts to be the chosen companion of nobles 
and princes, obtahiing all that heart could desire of riches and honour, — 
we turn away and Bay, Poor Walter Scott ! How desolately touching is 
the account in Lockhart, of hia dim and indistinct agony the day his wife 
waa brought here to be buried ! and the hist purt of that biography is the 
saddest history that I know j it really niftkes ita breathe a long sigh of 
relief when we read of the lowering of the coflin into this vault. 

^Vhat force does all this give to the passage in his diary in which he 
records hia estimate of Ufc ! — " What is this world ? a dream within a 
dre&m. Afi we grow older, each step is an awakening. The youth awakei$, 
as ho tlilnka, from childhood ; the full -grown maa despises the ptursnits of 
youth as visionary ; the old mfin looks on manhood as a fever bh dream, 
f he grave the last sleep ? Wo ■ it is the bat and final awakening." ^h 

It has often been remarked, that there ifl no particular uioml purpCMJ^^ 
filmed at by Scott in his writiDgs ; he often speaks of it himeelf, in his Iv^^ 
«5^r^ io » m^ of husuiiiy. He repreaeuto bimwlf m haTing ^eo era- 

iajm ai i 


jdojred taoBtly in tie compimitivcly iBconiisry dcpflHtnetit of giving inno- 
eeut junnsiemcnt. He often expresBed, humbly and eam^atly^ iiie hope 
thkt he hod, tA least, done no harm ; hut I am inclined to think, that 
iltJioTigh moral effect was not primariiy his object, jet tlie influence of Mi 
wnticigs and whole eiisteoce on earth has been decidedly good. 

It is a great thing to have a tnind of sach power and Bmch mflaence, 
whose recognitiona of right and wrong, of virtoe and vice, were, in most 
taaes, bo clear and deterrainBd. Ho never ailUts our e^yiapatkies ia tiTOur 
of vice, by drawing those HeductiTe pictures^ in which it cornea so near the 
ahape and funn of -virtue that the mind is puEzled as to the bound^iy line. 
He never makes young ladies feel that they would like to inarry corsairflr 
pirates, or iientimeutal fvillaina of any description. The moBt objectionable 
thing, perbapB, about hia infiuence, is its Bympath^ with tlie war spirit. 
A person ChriatianJy educated can hardly read some of his desseriptioiia in 
tbe Lady of the Lake and Marmion, without an emotion of disgust, like 
«hat U excited by the same thioga in Homer ; and, aa the world oomew 
iBore And more under the influence of Christ, it will recede more and more 
horn this kind of literature. 

SoQtt has been ecnsurcd as being wilfully unjust to the Corenanters and 
Puritans. 1 think he meant really to deal fairly by them, and what he 
called fairness might se^m rank iojnstice to those brought up to venerate 
them, as we have been. I suppose that la Old Mortality it wag Scott's 
luHieflrb intention to bcdance the two parties about fairly, by putting on the 
OaTcnant side his good, steady, well-behaved hero, Mr. Morton, who ia juEit 
an much of a Puritan as the Puritans would have beon had they taken Sie 
Walter Soott'a advice ; that ia to say, a very nice, sensible, mora! man, who 
takes the Puritdn side because he thinks it the right side, but eontemplatea 
all the devotional enthusia^im and religion a acstasies of his assoeiates from a 
merely arttatic and pictorial point of view. The trouble was, when he got 
Ha model Pnritan done, nobody ever know what he was meant for ; and then 
aU the young ladies voted steady Henry Morton a bore, and went to falling 
in lt>ve with his CaraLier rival. Lord Evan dale, and people talked as if it 
was a preconcerted wrangement of Scott, to snrprisa the finale heart, and 
carry it over to the royal if^ aide. 

The fact was, in describing Evandale, he made a livings efTeetlvo charac- 
ter, becaijse lie was dcscribbg eortiething he had fall sympathy with, and 
put hia whole Hfe into ; but Henry Morton ia a laborious arrangement of 
starohand pastebosLrd to produce one of those Bupposititious, just-right men, 
who are always the stupidest of mortals after they are made. Aa to why 
fioott did not describe such a character as the martyr Duke of Argyle, or 
Hampden, or Sir Htirry Vane, where high birth, and noble breeding, and 
chivalronft sentiment were all united with intense devotional fervour, the 
answer is^ that he conld not do it; he had not that in him wherewith to do 
it; a man cannot create that of ivhich he baa not first had the elements in 
hiiDself ; and devotional enthuriasm is a thing which Scott never felt. 
NeTerthsleSB, I believe that he waa perfectly sincere in ^ying that ha 
would, '*if neceBsary, die a martyr for Christianity." He had calm, firm 
principte, to any extent, but it never waa kindled into fetTOur. He was of 
too calm and happy a temperament to sound the deejiest recesaes of Houla 
teni np from their depths hy mighty eonilfits tai wsttfwia, ^t}!!*^^^ «s» 
mji^Mke the ''ahbmter vase of gintm^at, ^er^ iJiwa^C^ Vto^'&ss^'*^ 


perftims of deTOtinn, becflnae a |[mit Borrow hsa never broken tJieii|^_ 
Oaald SciDtt have baca ^vqq back to the world again, After the heavy diji^^| 
pliDQ of life h)%d p&BS»t over lum, he would ^ave spukon utherwise ot inn^^l 
thidga. What he vainly attnggkd to ssiy to Lockliartj on hia deathbod, 
Toufd hjivs bee a a tievr revelation of his soul to the vorld, could ho h:tvo 
K*cd to tiofifld it in literature. Sntso it is : -when we have leajrued to live, 
life's purpose is anawored, and we die! 

This is the sum and enhstatjce of some conTpreat ions held while rambling 
among thtM scwnea, goiag in and out of archos, climUing into nook* add 
ihrough loophtiles, pioStlng mow and ivy, and occasLonally retxeatiJtg under 
tbe flhwiow of souie (trch^ while the skiea were indnlging in a anddeu burst 
of emotion. The poor ^vaman who acted as our guide, eiisi^ouoing herself in 
Ji dtj coyner, ^ood like a literal Patientie na a momiment, waiting for ni to 
ho tiinragh ; we were sorry for her, hut as it waa our firat aiad last ehiujoo, 
rnxi she wonld stay there, ^e ccmid not help it. ' 

Neat hy the ahl)ey is n sijuaro, Eaodem raatision, belonging to the Earl of 
Bnchftj), at present antenauted. There were some biaek, sotemti yew treea 
there, old enough to have told us a deal of history ba/d they been iaduied to 
spenk ; as it wae^ they oould only drlsxle. 

Aa we were walking through tho yard, a bird broko out into a deat^ 
Bveei soDg. 

''What bird is that?" teid T. 

**I tltiak it is the mavis," Mid tho gQido, Thia brought up, — 

"I'ho muTlB wild, wie mony a note^ 
BJnga diowty day to rest." 
Aud alio, — 

" M^^^y It is in wild ^efa wood, ^ 
When inaviG »nd merle are ainging." 

A verse, by ths by, dignially suggestive of contrast to this rainy day. 

As we came along out of the gate, walking l«w;k towards the village of 
Dryburph, we ln^an to hope that the ekies had fairly wept thomeelvea out ; 
at any rate the itiin stopped, and the clouds wore a sulky, leadea-gray 
aipeet, H* if thoy were thinking what to do noit. 

We saw a knot of rGspectable-looking labouring men at a little distflnoa 
eortversing in ft group, and naw and then stealing glances at ub ; one of them 
at last approached and inquired if this was Mrs. Slowe, and being answered 
in the affirmative, they all s^d heartily, ^'Madiiia, yoVe right welcome to 
Scotland." Tho chief spuaker, thsu, after a Little couveiBiition, asked our 
party if we would do him the favour to step into his cottage near by, to 
take a little refredtment after our ramble; to -vhich we assented mib. 
akcrity. He led the way to a neatf stone cottHjjje, with a flower garden 
before the door, and said to a thriftyt rosy-cheekeil wonjan, who met ua, 
**Well, and wliat do you tliink, wife, if I taTa brought Mrs. Stowe and 
her party to tnke a cup of tea with us ?" 

We were soon eeated in a. neat, clean kiicien, and our hostess iicstWied 
to put the teakettle over tbe grate, lamenting that ehe had not known ^f 
oiar coming, tbitt »Iiu might have bad a fire '• hen the houBe," meaning by 
the phrase whtit we Yajikees mean by "in the best room," We caugjjt a 
glimpse of the earpat and psiper of this voam, when the door wna opened to 
Sm^ oat s lanf more chairs. 



Wflj-chflftkfrd, freak frora bcUooI, whh satclid and achooMMoVi, to mrliom.] 
TBS introduocd n^ the mother of Topsy And Eto. 
'* Ah," said the father, "such ik tinia m ws had, when we were re&ding' 

B book ; whiles thr^y wore grcctia' and whiles in A mga.** 

llj host wiLsqaite a young-looking man, with the char blue eya and glow- 

j complexion which one stj often meEta here; and hia wife, with her 
Uoonuiig cheekfl, neat dreaa, and well -kept house, was o^idtsatlj one of 
tiic^K fully comijeteut ^_ 

" To gar o\i eUca loqlc nmiiist u wetl oa aow." ^H 

I inq^nired the ages of the HeTeinl chililren, to wliicb tliQ father answerad^i 
irttJiL about as tnuob chrodological accuracy aa men generally display in eucSi 
points of family history. The gude wife, after corTectin;^ Lis figures once 
or twice, turned away with n somewhat iudipuvnt cxclaioiitiuu abuut moQ^H 
ih&t didn't know their own bairua" Hg«s, in wliiek mauy of ue, I presiunBf^l 
ttmld sTnipathixe, 

I must not (imit to say, that a neigbhoor of otu- host had been pressed to 
eome in with ub ; an iutelliiJjeiit'|3; man, about fifty. In the oourae 
of WDTttrsRtioij,, I found that they were Loth mason a by trade, and «s 
tlifi rfun hod preTented tkeir workin;.% bliey litul met to sfiend their tlms In 
reading. They said they were reading a work on Atxierita ; ami thereat 
follow^ad a good deal of general oonTersatian on oiir dountry. I found that, 
like many othera in this old oountry, tliey bad a ti« to connect them witL 
the new — a son m America-, 

One of our company, in the courae of the conversation, sayH, '* They Bay 
in Ajnerici that ^e working dassea of Engbud and ScotlMid are uot so 
-well 00' as the alaves." Tha man's eys flashed. •' There are many things," 
lie laid, "about the working clasiess, wbichano not what they should i>a; 
there's room for a great deal of improTcment in our condition, bat," lie 
added wltJi ah emphaaij, '* wo are no slaves T* There wuii a touah of the ^M 
" Scrotal whn. ha' vri' WfilUwo lied" ^M 

about tlie man, as he spoke, wliich made the afHrmation quite nnneeea'sary, 

** But," said I, "yon tjnink the afloirs of tks working classes much im- 
proTBd of lato years f ' ^ 

** 0, certainly," said tbe other ; " since the repeal of tlie oom laws and 
ihe passage of the factory bill, and tluB emigration to America and AnstraUa, 
affairs haTe beeu very much altered.** 

"We asketl them what they could mnko a day \ tiieir trade. It was miieh 
less, oertatidy, tban is paid for the same labour in our country; but yet the 
air of comfort and reepectabQity about ttie cotta^^ tlie well -clothed and 
TreH-sckookd, intelligent children, spoke well for the reeult of their labonrs-j 

While our converaation was carried on, the teakettle commenced singina^ 
t mehfdioualy, and by a mutual system of accommodation, a neat tctt'tabll 

p siu-eod in. the midut of us, and we soon found ourselves seated, enjoy " 
JfloTDB deliciouB bread and butter, with tiie gfimiture tjf cheeae, preserveaj,^ 
iiSid tea. Onr host before the meal craved a blessing of Him who had modi 
of one blood all the families of tbe eaiiib ; a beautiful and touching allusion^j^ 
I thought, between Americans and Seokluuen, Our long ramble in tha 
rain bad given ua safnething ol an appetite, aad WBdid iiQi\Afe vi&\JiK*\fa'OBft 
erodleDce of the cbeer. 
After ieA we walked on down again towaidfe t'lua "t^ftt^L^ ^ux Vwft.tiiSL^"Ni^ 

Jn iM 

it sorirr mshobibs or wovxmv mnm. 

ttktidi fndting cm v* to ihij boat, Aa -wt puMd thxougli the villag* ol 
bijlsaiigh, «U the inlmbitants of Uie eottagw »«ni0d to be standiag in their 
doora, Dt^uie and smiling, and exprtoung thdr welcome m a ge&tile, kludlj 
wiiy, tbai mw qnit* toudiiug. 

Aa wtt were waJkiiig t^iwuTdji the Tveed, the EUdon Hill, wiUi ite tlit«e 
I»oiiit«, n)S9 before ue in tbe barizon. I thought mf the word^ i£i the It^ of 
the LMt Miastre] : — 

"AVjirrior, I could mj to tli«f 
Thi wordfl tb»t cleft Eiidon BiD in tbrwi. 
And bridled the Tw«d trith » Diu-b otaUMK." 

1 nppesled to mj friendt if tbe; knew anjiliing about tbe tradition ; I 
Dujoght th«j Miemed mther tvluolant to spe&l: of it* 0, them was Bome 
fealiJth story, tli^j belifiTed ; they did not well know vho-t it vtba, 

*£hb picturesque age of h-amsii childhcuod is, gone by ; men and women 
oftnn<}t alwnys be bo acoonimffiliiting as to beliere nnreaflonablo gtatiw for 
the eonTeiiicn<« of poets. 

At the Tweed the man with th< tiklE was w&itmg for ub. In xmrtitig 
with my friendj I said, '* FarewelJ. 1 hopo we may meet again some time." 

"I fcm anre we Bball, madnm," Aud he; *'if not hetie^ certainly here- 

After being rowed acroea I stopped a, few momenta to admire the rippling 
of tJie dear water over the pebbles. ** I want Gome of tliese pebbles of the 
Tweed,*' I Kiid, "to carry home to America." Two hsarty, rosy-oheeked 
Scotch kissei on the shore soon supplied me with a* many as 1 could cany. 

We got into oar carmge, and drove up to MelrcM. After & little n^o- 
laKlioii with th*? keeper, the doors were oulocked, Juat at that moment the 
aan was so gmciuus as to give a fuU look through the wiffdowa, and touch 
with streaks of i?)ld the green, gritssy floor; for the beautiful ruin la floored 
m%h gr^«ii graea an J roofeii with sky ; eTon poetry haa not exaggerated its 
beauty, and could nut. There is never any end to the charms of Gothio 
arcbiteeture. It le Hlic the beiuty of Cleop&tnij — 

** Ar? cannci witbfif, costom cannot itslej 

HcM ifl this Melrose, now, which hu^ been berhymed, bedrap;led thL 
infinite gaide books, and been gnped at and Kmoked at by dandies, and , 
called a '* dew Itjve" by pretty young Jadies, and been hawked about as „ 
trade article in all neiEhbrjuring ahops, and you know perfectly woll tlmt till 
yoar raptures axe spoken for and expected at the door, and yoor going off 
in as ecstasy Is a regular pai-t of the progranmie ; and yet, after all, the 
Bad, wild, sweet beauty of the thing Mmca down on one like a cloud ; oven 
for the sake of being origiual you cuuld not, in conscience, decloro you did 
not admire It. 

We went Into a minute exominatiot) with oar guide, a yoi]ing man, who 
Beetned to haTe a full Bciise of its peculiar beauties. I must say here, th; " 
Walter Scott's description in the Lay of the Lust Miostrel l& as perfi 
in most detaib as if it had been T^iitton by an architect as well as a poei 
it is li kind of gluritiofl (lugucrreotype. 
IT/jji, htiUdbis yfa» the Bret of the elaborate and fanciful Gcthie which 
isd seen, and h said tg eical vu the delicae:; o{ Ita earnn^ ml'j <t: 


Boslin CasiJe. As a specimen of the exactness of Scott's description, take 

tliis verse, irhere he speaks of the cloisters : — 

" Spreading herbs and flowerets bright, 
Glistened with the dew of night, 
If or herb nor floweret glistened there. 
But were carved in the cloister arches as fair." 

These cloisters were covered porticoes surrounding the garden, where the 
monks walked for exercise. They are now mostly destroyed, but our guide 
showed us the remains of exquisite carvings there, in which each group was 
an imitation of some leaf or flower, such as the curly kail of Scotland ; a 
leaf, by the by, as worthy of imitation as the Greek acanthus, the trefoil 
oak, and some other leaves, the names of which I do not remember. These 
Gotiiic artificers were lovers of nature ; they studied at the fountain head ; 
hence the never-dying freshness, variety, and originality of their con* 
Another passage, whose architectural accuracy you feel at once, is this: — 
** They entered now the chancel tall j 

The darkened roof rose high aloof 

On pillars lofty, light, and small : 

The keystone that locked each ribbed aisle 

Was a fleur-de-lis, or a quatre-feuille ) 

The corbels were carved grotesque and grim ; 

And the pillars, with clustered shafts so trim, 

With base and with capital flourished aroimd. 

Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound." 

The quatre-feuille here spoken of is an ornament formed by the junction 
of four leaves. The frequent recurrence of the fleur-de-lis in the carvings 
here shows traces of French hands employed in the architecture. In one 
place in the abbey there is a rude inscription, in which a French architect 
commemorates the part he has borne in constructing the building. 

These corbels are the projections from which the arches spring, usually 
carved in some fantastic mask or face; and on these the Shakspearian 
imagination of the Gothic artists seems to have let itself loose to run riot ; 
there is every variety of expression, from the most beautiful to the most 
goblin and grotesque. One has the leer of fiendish triumph, with budding 
horns, showing too plainly his paternity ; again you have the drooping eye- 
lids and saintly features of some fair virgin ; and then the gasping face of 
some old monk, apparently in the agonies of death, with his toothless 
gums, hoUow cheeks, and sunken eyes. Other faces have an earthly and 
sensual leer ; some are wrought into expressions of scorn and mockery, 
some of supplicating agony, and some of grim despair. 

One wonders what gloomy, sarcastic, poetic, passionate mind has thus 
amused itself, recording in stone all the range of passions — saintly, earthly, 
and diabolical — on the varying human face. One fancies each corbel to 
have had its history, its archetype in nature ; a thousand possible stories 
spring into one's mind. They are wrought with such a startling and in- 
dividual definiteness, that one feels as about Shakspeare's characters, as if 
they must have had a counterpart in real existftwce. Taa ^mx%^ ■fc^xsiJX'^ 
nan may hare been some sister, or some daughter, ot: &0Tft^\i Vs^^, ^i\N5aa. 
aHJBt, who in an evil hour saw the convent \)a.rrieTca t\S)& \ie\TO<6.«Q- Vet -m^ 
aU that waa loving. The fat, sensual face mav "ka^e \ift«Q. a. %M ^^?^?°t 
^me worthy abbot, more eminent in flesh t\iaji s^vrvV., ^^^-^ ^^^^^-^^ 
majr have been wrought out of the axithox's O^m 'pftx\.>«\i^^ ^w»a.' 


Hh an anxioffl^ 

Au arfihiiectnral work says that oae of thea& COTb&la, ^'ith i 
and sLaisterOrientiil cfmnt€iiftiice, has Tieiii mfldfr, bj the gnides, to ptrform 
duty as bji authontit: likeness of the wliatd Micho*! Scott. Now, I mtist 
eamesUy protest ugainst etatbg thinga in that way. Why da«B a. writer 
UPtuit to ttreat np bo taadnbk a poetie design in the guides ? He would 
bflVe been much better occupied in luterpreting some of the hiLlf-defiMed old 
inacriptions id to a corrobonitiYe account. Nti doubt it woi Michael Soottj 
a.ud looked juet like hiui. 

It wert A tino £fi1d for a story 'writer to analyze the coIu^£ption and 
groTth of an abbey or L'athftdral as it fonnod itself, day after dayj And je&t 
after year, in the iioul of eomG dreamy, iuipMsioned workman, who ma^Ie it 
tJw note-book where he wrought out impeiifihably in sUme all hi a obBcrva- 
tiona oa nature and man. I think it Is tbja ati-ong mdividu^iam of ihs 
arehif«ct in the buildinga that gives the never-dying charm and variety to 
the Gothic : each Gothic building ia a record of the growth, cbaxacter, And 
iiidiTidualittes of its builder'B soul ; and hence no two can b« alike. 

I was really disappointed to iniM In the abbey iJie atained glasB which 
giTefl auch a lustre and glow to tb& poetic deacription, I might hftTo 
known belter; but aomeltow I came there fully expecting to eeetlie triadowy 
wkere, — 

■ ' Fnll in tbs mi dat lii* croBi of red 
Triamphant Mich«l brandiihed f 

Thf mcHinb^am kiBsed tlie IidIj paue, 

And threw an the pav'itaent toe hloody stftin," 

Alas! ihe painted glass wajg all of ths poet's own setting; yfiarS ago ft 
WAB fih.^tterc!d by the handa of riolcnce, and the grace ol tlie faehion of tt 
bath p&riBb&d. 

Tlie guide pointed in a broken fragment which commanded & view of the 
TFhole interior. '* Sir Walter used to eit here/' he said, I fancied 1 coal 
see him sitting on the fragment, gaiing aroand thfe ruin, and menl 
restoring it to its original splendour ■ ho brings back the colonred Ijglit i 
the windowB, and throws: its many-hned reflections over the graves; 
ranges the banncTB along around the walls, and rebatide every shati 
arch STid aisle, till we have the picture as it rises on tta in hta book. 

I confess to a strong feeling of reality, when my piide took ma to a gntvd 
where a flat, 1,'rfieti, moasy atone, broken ncross the middle, ia reputed to Tm 
the grave of Michael Scott. I felt, for tht% moment, verily persuaded that 
if the griido wculd pry up one of the stores we should see him 
described : — 

*' Hi< hoftiy baAril in silver rolled. 

He geemad 90t(je 4i?TeQtj wiittera olcl t 

A Pidiner'a anum wrAppptl; him fCulndj 
^ "With a WHinght i^ punish baldric boiiDc!, 

^^^^^^^^^ Like ft ptlgfiiD from beyond the ton : 

^^^^^^^B fiia left tuuid held im ttook ttf might : 

^^^^^^H A lilTer {iroai waa in his ri^bt ; 

^^^^^^^M Thd kni|t waa placed hendu hig. Imeet 

^^^^^^^H H{|):]i and mnjf^tii: Wiu hiR \mV, 

^^^^^^^H At which tb? tfUMi fiftads had oboo^ 

^ And Hi I tjnruflled waa hia fin;*? ! 

W Thof triutiad hii aoul bud j^ottea gnco." 

I Issrer knew beforit Jipw fervent a belieret I had been in Uie reditlos 

There are two graTes tliat I saw, wlikh coneapond, to those mentioDed j 
■ 1 these UuM : — 

"And tliert; til:' -'■'-:"- ' ■■! rlfij Titim 

BetVire Hir urn, 

gaUnETt clii- , ■.li!>. 

And iLioff tiui n. a^.j^lii. ui Lidd^4i(le." Rnitrht of Otterh-nme waa one nf the Eairls DoQgliiaj killed ia a 
iiU Henry Percy, calletl Hotspui-, in 1388, Tlio Koight of Lid- 
■.vas another Doujjlu^, whd llTetl in the reign of David li., and was 
tilwd i,ka *' Flower of ChiTalry,*' One petformaQce of this ''Flower" is 
TAtlicr chftraeteristic of tha tioies. It eeema tho kinf; loiide ona Haiasey 
iligh sheriff of Teviotdale. The Earl of Doug Ins choee to consider Una fts 
* persenal affront, £V3 he wanted the office hiinself. 8o^ hy way of ex hi bit' 
iog hia owa qtiaJifi cations for nd minis terhig juatJce, he one day camo do 
mi fiamsey, vi et armijif took him olT hiii judgment-seat, curried him 
oofl of hia eastlea, and 'withottt more wordi^ tumbled him and Ida honto ini 
« deep dungeon, where they both starved to death. Thero'e a ^'Floi^er' 
for you, peculiai- to thd good old timiifl. Nobody could have doubtod sfk-r 
this his qualiStmtiona to bo high sheriff, 

HaTing looked all orer the abbey from belo^, I ncfticed a minotifl irind* 
ing ataireaao ; so np I went^ mstUng along through the i^, which matted 
nod woTe itself around the stonea. Sivoo I found myself looking down on 
the abbey from a new point of view — from a little nairow stone gallety, 
which throada the whole inside of the huDding- There I paced up and 
down, looking ocaisionaEy through the iry -wreathed arches on the green, 
torfy floor below. 

It Beeias aa if sdence and utillnesH had become a roftl presence in tlics&J 
Gid placet. Tlie. voice of the guide aud the company beneath, had a 
hoibJed aad muffl-zid sound j and when I rustled the ivy-leaves, or iu trying; 
It) hr&A. off a branch, lof>Bened some fragment of stone, the sound affected 
me with a startlitig diatinutnoas. I could not but inly mnse and wonder on 
the life these old monks and abbots led, shrined Dp here tiM ihey were in 
this lovely retirement. 

In ruder agee these places were the only retreat for men of a spirit too 
gentle to take force and blotidshed for theic life's work ; men who beberred 
that pen and parchmewt were better than sword and steel. Here I suppose 
maltittides of them lived harmless, dremny lives — reading old mannscripti^ 
copyiDg and illuminating new ones. 

It ia said that tins Melrose is of very aucieat origin, oitending back to 
the time of the Culdees, the eariiest missionarieB who ct^bHsbed rcligioa[ 
in Scotland, and who had a aettleraent iu this vicinity. However, a royal 
aaint, after a wliile, took it in hand to patrom^e, and of conne the credit 
went to him, and from him Scott calls it "St. BavidV lonely pile." In 
time ft body of Cistercian monks were settled there. 

According to all accounts the abbey baa laiacd some fiimou3 sainte. We 
lead of trances, Uluzninations, and niiracnlous beatificaiions ; and of one 
abbot in piirtieular, who exldbited the odour of Eanctity so strongly that it is 
aid the mere opening of his grave, at intervals, waa aufficient to perftunja 
tfef whole eatabliehuient with odouis of p&,ta.AiBfc, '&™& ?^fina& il^'A^ 
hffwffrm; W9 mast eongider that for all thfl likxalme^ wA^ mAVs^% tA *i* 




ll, all ike hmnanixiiig mflaetices vhich hold eocietj togethci', lbs 
vorld w&B for many agies indebted to tliese ntoimctic iti«titutioita. 

In the reforraatioTi tbifl abbery was destrojed amid the genera] Etomi. 
trliich Attacked the e«!le<:iastical architecture of Scottand. ' * Fall down 
the nest^ utd the rooka vill fly away, "* wm the commoQ myixxjE: of tbe mob; 
acd in UiMe dayi » hulq was fiuaons accoiiiing as he hod Hfted ap &xea 
upon tbe eaired irork. 

Mebnose -was oornetdered for many years mereTy a atoae qnarry, from 
which materials wer« talcitn for all sorta of bnildiogs, sneb as eon^jj^ctii^ 
tolbofltha, rei^iiTDg mills and sluices ; and it has been only till a com' 
paratively re<;ent period that its piicel^s value as an architeotnxal remaia 
lias led to proper efforts for it* preserration. It is now most carefiiEy 

After wandering throuf;h the iniside we walked out luto the old graye- 
y&rd, to look at the ontsidt. The yard Is full of old, eurioue, mouldering' 
gnT«aton^ ; and on one of them there is an ioiit^ription sad and peculiar 
eaongh to bave oome from the besrt of the architect who planned t^ abb 
it rmia as follows : — 

* Thi> hfHi wmSkx cm the earth, gUttering with efii ; 
The f i»rth em^ to tbi* cu'tli xinmusr tbHO it wold ; 
The earth. huiJds yti ihe ftaflh cnjittea jind towetsr 
Th« eArth ifoja to the euitJi, AS. ^httU be osiF%" 

Here, also, we were intenisted ia a p!ain marble slab, wliicb ma 
the last resting-place of Scott's faithful Tom Piirdie, his zenlons fa< 
tom. In his diary, when he henrs of the wreck ttf his fortunes, 
Bsiys of this aerving raan, *' Poor Torn Purdie, such news will wring yom 
heart, and many a poor feIlow^5 bedde, to whom my prosperity was daily 

One fancies again the picture described by loqkhart, tbe atrong lank 
fiame, hard feittturee^ atrnkea eyes,, &Dd grizzled eyebrows, the green jackets 
wMte hat, and, gray tronaera — the outer appointments of the faithful aarr- 
ing man. Our Bees Scott walking familiarly by bis side, st&ying himself 
on Tom*s ahotddeT, while Tom talks witli glee of **o!*r trees," and *' our 
bnkes." One aees the little ekiriTiishtng, when master wants trees planted 
one w&y and man seea best to plant them another ; and the magnftnimi^y 
with which kindly, crcflH-graiaed Tom at last agrees, on reflectaon, to 
** take bifl honour's advice" about the management of faia honour's own 
property, Hera, between master and man, both fifee men, is all that 
bean t J of relatiau aometimea erroaeously considered as th^ pscnhar charm 
of slavery. Would it have made the relation any more picturesque aM 
endearing had Tom been strippetl of legal rights, and made liable to Bale 
with the books and fnmitnre of Abbotsford ? Poor Tom is sleeping hero 
very qtuetly, mtk a smootti coverlet of green gra^. Over him ia the 
following inscription : " Here lies the body of Thotnaa Purdie, wood 
forester at Abbotaford, who died 29th October, 1829, aged aiity-two 
years. 'Thou hast been faithful over a few things i I will make thee ruler 
over many things,'— Matt. xxv. 21." 

We walked up, and down, and about, getting the best views of the 

building. 1 1 is scarcely possible for dc&cription to give yon the picture. 

The artist in whose mind tbe coaception of this building arose, was j 

Mcfuait la archiUctuie ; A plaintive and ethereal lightness, a ; 

»e, WM a 

MSLE03E, 77 

piintikeBfl, perraded Ma comptieitiuu. the liiiUduig ia not a l&cge uae, 
ndiihaa nut tliitt air uf B«kiiiD luosdiTe grantleur, that pklti mitjesty, 
Vlocli impresses jou in the UAtLedi-iik of Abt!rde>en anil (xksguw. Aa yua 
MiukI l:K)kiQg at tho wUdenieea uf mumi^ts ood flying buttresses, tbe mill* 
lil!iHdl Abrities, and moukUjigSf emd comiees, &tl ijicroated. with carving oa 
Mlese in ita vftritty ii« tlifs frost work on & wmdow pane ; eacli HliriiJie, 
eicli pinnace, eaelx moulding^ a ;.ludy by itsolf, yet each tionttibuttng, like 
lilt diffiei-ent struinEl uf a lijinuuiiy, to the general effect of the wbole - it 
JKems to you that for a tiling tio iLiry and lipirituul to bave sprung up by 
uichimtment, and to bave been tlie product of spells and fjilry flsgers, ia 
no uaprobable account of tbe matter. 

I Speaking of gargoyles — you are uo arcbiteet, neither am I, bat yoa may 
tt vtM get used to this descriptive term ; it mca&a the watar-ispouta wbicsb 
Qondnet the water from the gutters at the eaves of tkesQ baildini^s, and 
whi*;h are carved in every grotesque and fanciful device that can be imagined. 
l!]ity are mostly goblin and tiendisb facea, and look as if they were dartujg 
eut of tfae church in a toweling paimou, or a lit of diabolic disgust aiid 
'Bulicic. Beaides these gargoyles, there are in many othtir poiata of the ex- 
tomt buikUng Te[freae(itutionu of fiendish (aces And figures, aa if in the act 
rf flying from the building, uuder the influence of a terrible apell : by this, 
le my guide said, vraa expres^^eil the idea that the holy hymus and wutship 
pof ihe church put Satan and all his forcea to rout, and made all that was 

> O&e renmrk on this building, in Billings's architectural account of it, in- 
jkunstedme; and that k, thac it i» finished with the mufit circnmstaiiitial 
l^^i^t^ and minuteness in those coniiealed portiona whioh are excluded 
feom public view^ and whii'Ji mxh oidy be Luispected by laborious elinibing or 
groping; and he accouutu for this by the idea that the whole carving and 
bxfcution was ftjneidered as an act of solemn worship and adoration, Ui 
irhich the ai-titFt offiired up bis best faculties to the praise of the Creator. 

► After lingering a while here, we went home to our mn or hotel. Now, 
Iheae hotels in the small towns of Engkud, if this is any specimen, are 
^gfatfnl afl'aira for travelkfji, they are so comfortable and home-like, 
pur auug little parlour was nvdlatit witb the light of tliti coal grate; our 
bhle trtood before it, with its bright sil¥er, white cloth, and delicate chinii> 
pips ; and then such a dish of mutton chofjs i My dear, wB are all mortal^ 
tmi emotions of tlie beautiiEiI and sublime tend especially to make one 
buiiigry. We, tlierefore, comforted ourselves over the instability of mrthly 
iffiurst and the transitory nature of all human grandeur, by eonauhitory 
lem&rkB ou the prt^nt whiteneKs of the braid, the iJweetneBS of the butter; 
ed ^ to the chops), all declared, with one Toica. that such mutton was a 
idn$ unknown in America. I moved an emendation, except on the sea-c^uist 
)f Maine. We resolved Ui cheriali the memory of our Httle hostess in our 
keart uf hearts J and, ajj we gatliered rouud the cheery gra-te, drying our 
^M faet, we voted that poetry was a humbug, and* damp, old, musty 
lathedrals & bore. Such are the inconsistende^ of human nature! 

I ** Nevertheless," said I to S , after dinner, '' I aiu going back ag^in 

lo-night, to see that abbey by moonlight, I intend to walk the whole 

Igtire while I am about it," 
Juijt on the verge of twilight I stepped oat, to see what the town fl,fl;tn:d»i 

U^^M/ef relioi. Tq my ih& truth, m? e^je \iiii5i. Wsv wi^VM '^'®*'^ 





atmiiiiig^ little tube and puils in a m'indow, vhisk I thought might lb«ya 
in the home department. I vent into a ehop, li^-htre s,n auld wifa 
appeared, who, in reply to my infiyiriea, told me that ti?e sivid little ta 
and pailB wars made of plum tree wood from Brybivrgb Abbey^ and, of 
conrse, partook of the sanctity of rebca. She and her huahaiid seeined to 
be driving a thriving trail(i in tiie article, and eithEr plmu treaa miist be 
TBiy abaQdant at Drybargh, nr wtmt there are must be gifled with that 
powMT of solf-multiplicatioa which inheres in tiie wood of the true Cross. I 
bought them in blind faith, Ituwersr, Euppreadag all latioQalistiu doubts, 
as a good ralic-hnnter should. * 

I went up into a little room where an dderiy woman profeesed to La^t 
quite a ooUei^tton of the Mclroge relics. Some years ago extensive restora- 
tioua and repairs were made in the old ablK-y, in which Widtcr Scott took a 
deep uiterept. At that time, wheu the BCfttfoldiug waa np for repairing the 
budding, aa T uutlei-^t^jtKif Scott had the plastcr-caata made of diflerent 
part% which hi afterwards incorporated intu his own dvdling at Abbtota- 
ford. I said to the gwid woman that I had understood, by Washingtoa 
Irvijig*ii aticount, tliat Scott appropriated botmfidt I'mgment^ of the build- 
ing, and alluded to the account which te givss of the little red Eandstone 
lion from Mclrone. She repelled the idea with great fluergy, and said she 
Jitid often heard Sir Walter say thitt he would not carry off a bit of the 
building as big as his thumb. Ghe showed me severa! plaster-caata that 
filie had in her poetse^on, which were taken at thiJi tliue. Thera were 
eereral corbela there ; one waa the h&A of an old monk, and looked as if -it 
might have been a mEtfik taken of his fuce the moment after death ; tha 
eyes were hollow and sutikeHj the cheeks falkn in, the mouth lying help- 
lessly opeTi, showing one or two melancholy old Btum[!« of teeth. I won- 
dered over this, whether it really wae the fac-simile of eome poor old Father 
Anibmsa, or Father Francis, whose dJsconeoiate look, after hia death agony, 
had 90 struck iJhe gloomy fancy of the artist ns to lead him to immortaliw 
him in a corbd, for a lasting admonition to hia fat worldly brethren ; for, 
if we may trust the old song, these monka of Melrose had rather a sUBpl- 
dons reputation in the matter of woridly conformity. Th© impudEUt 
ballad saysj — 

^' 0, (he moa\a oT Melrose, tli£7 madA good IniJ 

On Priilayw, when (Itfijf fa-tted ; 
Th^y niSTcf want«d beef or ale 
Aa long lu their aeigfbbouni' luted." 


Naughty, roistering fellows 1 I thought I could perceive bow tbia poor 
Father Francis had worn hia life out exhorting them to repentance, and 
giv&n up the ghost at last in despair, and bo been made at once into a ssujat 
and a. corbel. 

Thure were fragment? of tra^ry, of moulflinss and cornices, and gro- 
tesque bits of fkrehitecturo there, which I wotild have given a good deal to 
be the poBsesBor of. Stopping into a little cottajje hard by to speak to the 
guide about unlocking the gates, when we went out ou our mwjniight ejt* 
cnrsion at midni<;ht, I caught a glimpse, iit an inner apartment, of a 
Epleudid, large, blas^k dog. I gave one exdaiuation and juaip, and wafiiato 
tlie roftm after him. 

"'^A "naiii the old man, *' that was jnitt like Sir Walter; b* always Imd 


It gaTC me a kind of pum to think of him and nia dogs, all lying in tb# 
durt t>gcrtbcr ; and yet it was pleftstant to Jitiu: thia littk remark of him, 
if it were made ly thosa who had uften seen, and ware foud of thinking 
hbn. The dog'a jism^ was CoaJ, &nd he was black enough » and rena&rkable 
eootigh, to taake a tif5:ure in a sUiry— a genuine SJijlmse Abbey dog, I 
should not wuiider if he were a desceudant, in a remote degree, uf the 
^'laanthe dDOg/' that superufiturul heAJ^ whit-h Scott commtimbnitefi in 
his note^. Thu least touch in the world of Biich blood in hia Toins wonid 
be, of course^ nai approprinte druumstanue in a, dog belonging to an old 
mined abbey* 

Well, I got home, and narrated my adventures to mj friends, and 
showed them my reliqnary pnrchaaes, and declared my strcngtbuning in- 
tention to make my ghostly visit by moonlight, if thore wus any moon to hn 
had that night, which waa a doubtful poaaibilitj. 

In the courije of the evening came in Mr. — , who had Folnnteered hUg 

aerrices as guide and uttendaint iluring the interesting operation. jj 

*• When doeii tJie moon risti ?" eaid one. 1 

•*0, a little after oleTon o'clock, I believe/' said Mr. ■ , Borne of 

tBe party gaped pgrteutonaly. 

"You know," &(iid I, "Scott says we muat saa it by moonlight; it ia 
one of the proprietiea of the place, as I understand." 

** How exquisite that description ia, of the effect of moonlight !" saya 

*' I think it probable," eays Itr, — ■ — , diily, "that iScott nerer saw it^ 
by mooidigbt himaelf. He was a man of veiy regrdar habitB^ and Beldoi 
went out evenings. " 

The blank amazement with which this communication was receiyed 
S— — into an ineittinguisbable f.t of laughter. 

*' But do you really believe he never saw it ?" said I, rather (ireatfallen, 

*'Wen," said the gentleman, "I have heard him charged with nerer 
having Been it^ and ho never denied it." 

Knowing that Soott really was Ba practical a man as Dr. Franklin, and 
as little disposed to poetic extravagances, and an exceedingly eensibJe, 
family kind of peraou, I tliought very probably this might be true, unlesB 
ha had aeen it some time in his early youth. M'*3t Likely good Mrs. Scott 
never would have let him commit the impropriety tha,t we were about to, 
and run thu risk of catchiug the rheiiinatlsm by going out to Bee how an 
oLd ahhey looked at twelve o'clock at night. 

We waited for the moon to rise, and of course it did not rise j nothiti^j 
ever does when it is waited for. We went to one window, and wont to 
another ; half-past eleven came, and no moon. *' Let ds give it up," said 
I, feeling rather foolLsb. However, wo agreed to wait another quarter of 

an hour, and finally Mr, announced that the moon wax risen ; the 

only reaaon we did not see it was, because it waa behind the Elldon Hills, 
So we voted to consider her risen at any rate, and started out in the dark, 
threaiding tho narrow streets of the village with the comforting reSetstion 
that we were doing what Sir M'^alter would think rather a Killy thing. 
When we got ont before the abbey there was enough liglit behind the 
Emdon HiH« to throw their three shaduwy conofs out dxfiUtiCXVj Xm V\%n( ^ %a&. 
to tud^h With a gloftnjln^, uncertain ray tAits iv^-cXiid ■*;bJ\'&, L^ ^t i^ja^A. 
Mniv 6&# Abi^/i lie guid^ fimhling with liia kij^f*, «Jii^ ^»ni5&^ V!b»s^ ^5a» 

.w i t 



old lock dftah as the daor Blowly opened to admit tis, I felt ft little «bi' 
of Uie glioatly {ioine ov&r me, juert enough to make it agreeable. 

In the daytime wa liad criticised Walter Scott's maonlight deacription ia 
the linfls whicli say, — 

" The diitant Tweed is lisfcfd tO rBTfc 
And the owlet to toot o'er tbs dead »&&*■ grtra/' 

*'"We heat mothinia; of the Tweed, at any rate," said we ; ** thftt muBt ha 
a poetie licence." But now at miduight, as we walked ailently through th& 
mouldering aislea, the brawl of the Tweed was m dUtiiictly ^eard that it 
seemed as if it was close by the old, hmely pile ; nor can any term descrilje 
the scmnd more exactly than the word " rare," which the poet has choiseti. 
It was the precise accuracy of thin little item of description which made mo 
fe«l as if Scott muat hare been here in th* night. I walked up into the 
old chancel, and sat down where William of Deloiaiae and the monk sat, 
ou the Scottish mouorcli^s tomb, uud thought over the ^crds 

" Strang'! ncuDds alon^ ihv cbancel paagod, 
And biuinen ware witbout a blast ; 
Still ipakfi the maok wbffD tbc^ bell toUod one." 

And while we were there the bell tolled twelve. 

And tlien we went to Michael Scott'a grave, and wfl looked thionglli 
east oriel, with its 

Bj fuliagB tracery tombiaM," 

The fanciful outlines ahowed all the more distiactly for tlie entire da 
noBS -within, wnd the gloamiug moonlight without. The tall nrches seemed 
hj^lier in their dimness and vafttcr than they did in the daytims. "Hark f" 
said I ; " what'a tliatT' aa we heard a rnstlingfc and dutter of win^-s in tbe 
ivy brftDchcs over our heads. Only a couple of rooks, whose antiquarian 
alumbers were diaturbcd by the unwonted noise there at nudnight, and 
who roai^ and flew away, rattling down some fragments of the ruin as thej 
went. It van aomewhat odd, but I could not help fancying, what if these 
Btraoge, goblin rooks were tlie spirlta of old monks coming Wck to nestle 
and brood among their ancient cloisters ! Rooks are a ghostly sort of bird, 
I think they were made on purpoae to live in old yew trees and ivy, ag 
much as yew trees and ivy were to grow round old churciies and abbeys. If 
we once could get inside of a rood's skull, to find out what he is thinking 
of, ril warrant that we should know a great deal more about theae old 
bidldinga than, we do- now. I should not wonder if there were long tradi- 
tionary histories handed down from one generation of rooka to another, and 
that these arc what they are talking about when we think they are only 
chattering, I imagine 1 see the whole black fraternity the next day, sitting, 
one on a gargoyle, one on a buttress, another on a shrine, gossiping over 
the event of our nightly visit. 

We I walked up and down the long aialea, and groped out into the doia- 
ters; and then 1 thought, to get the full ghoatUnesa of the thing, we ws' 
go up the old, ruined staircaae into the long galleries, that 
'• Midway thread tijo abbej wall," 

"VVe got about half way up, when there came into onr faces one of those 

mtdden, pas^onate pnffs of mist and rain wliicb Scotch clouds seem ttt 

Mre tiff faculty o£ getUog ap at a simuW& uaticA, Wlumki; oajnt tA« 



wiad in our fiiwes, like the rusUiug uf a whole army of apiiita down the 
itdrcasa ; whareat we all tumbled back proraiacnously on io each other, 
•ad ooQcludf^d we woold not go up. In fstet ve had done the thing, 
aod BO we went home ; and I dreamed of tu-<!h.eiB, atud corbels, imd gargojldi 
sill night. And ho, fiirewcll to Molro^ Abbey 



TnLuriLM: aA«i]E.TOjr, — esoHGS cosna. — tibit to HA^wraaiufDEir. — sosi'ta' 

c*sTLJt.^THa ftDucsna.— aafiT^T'o artrjjio. — GftiBs hauexx. — ^ux i-biabb^ 


EPLK^DUK&Jt, April. 
Mt i^EAA Sisteh; — 

Mr. S. and C rctnmed from their trip to Glasgow mnch delighted 

with the prospecte iadicatedby the resulia of the temperance nueetinsa they 
utteniled there. 

They were present at the meeting of the Scottieh Temperance League, hi 
■Q andioQce of about turn- thousand people. The reports were enooumging, 
and the feeUtig enthusiastic. One hundred and eighty roiniaters are on the 
list of the League, forming a nucleus of able, talented, and determined 
upErators. It is the intention to make a moTement for a law which shall.— 
fiecuxe to Scotland aome of the benefits of the Maine law. ^M 

It appears to me that on the queatiooji of temperance and antislavery,^ 
Vba rcUgiuns communities af the two countries are iaa situation mutaullj to 
benefit each other. Our church and mLniatry haTe been through a loii^ 
etmgglis and warfare on this temperance q^uestiOD, in which a rery valuable 
escperienoG hiia been elaborated. The religious people of Great Britain, on 
tbe ooBtrary, have led on to a successful result a great antislaTery experi- 
ment, wherein their experience aud sticoeiss c^i be equally beneficial and 
muxtmsi^ng to na. 

The day after we letnmed from Melrose we spent in Testing and riding 
about, as we liad two engagements in the evening — one at a party at the 
house of Mr. Douglas, of €av«rs, and the other at a public temperance 
v^irSe. Mr. Douglas is the author of several works which hare excited 
attention ; but perhaps jou will remember him heat by his treatise on the 
AdTanoement of Society in Religion and Knowledge, He is what is called 
liere a*' laird," a man of good family, a lai^ge landed proprietor, a ze^lona 
reformer, and a very devout man. 

We went Kkriy to spend a short time with the family, 1 *fls a little 
surjirised, as I entered the hall, to find myself in the midst of a large circle 
of well-^waed men and women, who stood apparently waiting to receive 
US, and who bowed, eonrteaied, and smiled as we came in. Mrs. D. 
apologized to me afterwards, saying that those were the servants of the 
famDy, that they were exceedingly anxious to see me, and so Kbe had 
allowed them all to come into the hall. They were so respectable ia 
their appeaxance, and so neatly dressed, that I might almost have mis- 
t^en them for visitors. 

We had a very pleasant honr or two with the family, which I enjoyed 

exceedingly. Mr. and Mrs. Douglas were full of \iv^ isifijeJsi wiTiSb.iis:r!&ft 

kindness and eo/ne of the daoghtera had iutinuikte bfiti>aBi3i^JWi35K!a.m tosi'scff*™ 

<a _ 


I enjoy -Uiene little glimpaea into family cirelea more ttan anjtbing t\m' 
there k oo wannth like fimlde warmth. 

lu the eifemug the rooms were filUd. I ihould think all the dergjmen 
of Edb burgh murt hare been there, for I wu iDtroduocd to mioistere 
withnnt number. The Scotch liflTe a good many little w«yt that ara lite 
(mrs; they call their clergy miniafcere, as we do. There \rfite many perBona 
from ancient fumilJeB, distis fished in Scottiah history both for rfLok and 
piety; MDOBg others, Lady Carstairs, SirHeiirj MonErief and lady. There 
■was iUbo the CounteBa of GaiiiEboroiijjth, one of the ladiea of the qneen'i 
honseiipld, & Terj beautiful wojuau with, chumiikg maimers, reDiiadiJi^ oof 
of the tin* of Fope— M 

" Griic«fiil fii«, ani BwwtnMa Tad of pride." " 

I was intrcdni^ed to Dr. John BroT^ii, who is reckoned one of the best 
oiegetical acholnrs in Europe He ia smiill of alatoie, aprightly, and 
pleasant in manners, with a high, hald forehead, and anow-white hair. 

There were also^ many membcra of the fiiculty of the nnivcrsity. I 
talked a little with' Dr. Gnthne, whom t defiorlbed m a former letter. I 
told him that one thing whicb had be&n an a^eeable disappomtmiint to me 
waa, the nppanent eordiallty between the membari of the Free and the 
flationul chnroh. De eeemed to think that the wounds of the old contiiot 
were, to a great extent, healed. He apokc in high terma of the Duchess «f 
Sutherland, her affability, kindntss, nnd consideratenesg for the poor, I 
forget from whom I rfeceived the anecdote, but Eomebody told me this of her 
— that, ona of her aervanta haviHg lost a relative, ^e ha<l left a party 
where ahe waa engitjged, and gone in the plaineai attire and quieteet way to 
attend the funeraj. It was remarked upon m ehowing Jier ooneideratencM 
for the feelings of those ia inferior positions. 

About nine o'clock we left to go to the tcmperantie soiree. It waa in the 
same place, and conducted in the same way, with tha others which I have 
described. The lord proyoflt presided, and one or two of the working loen 
who spoke in the fonner soiree made speech ea, and Tury good ones too. The 
meeting was greatly enlivened by the pnesenea and apcech of tlie joTial 
iLord Conyngbame, who amuaed us all by the gallant mnnner in which ha 
expreaaed the warmth of Scottish Wfilcoine towards * ' our Ameritan guests." 
If it had been in the old times of Scotiaah hoapitalHy, he said, be should 
Iiave proposed a btttnper three times three ; but ah that ccjnid not be done 
in a temperance meeting, ke proposed three cheera, in which he led off with 
a hearty good will, 

■AH that tho Scotch, people n«ed now for the proiperity of their couni 
J* the temperance rrfbniiation ; and undoubtedly they will have it. Th( ^ 
have (pod sense and stri^gth of mind enough to work out whateTor they 



We weat home tired enangh, ^^^ 

Thei next day we had a few calk to make, isd an inTitatioii from Laq^| 
Drnmiinond to vl-dt " classic Ilawthorndeii." Accordingly, in the forcnooBj 
Jilr. S, and I called tirst on Lord and Lady tlainsboroujiib ; thowgh she ia 
one of tAe queen's Loufieholdt &he ia atajing here at EiUnbiirgh, ami tha 
ifaeea at Oabome. I ini'er, therefore', that tbu fi.\vp(jVtttwL(ivL\, \T\t\i4ib* tus 
ver^ onerous dutJes, The Eari of GainsboroueU in Uia ^Vie^v" ^" 
^F, Mptist W, Ned. 

glB WlItlAM EAMTIT03r. 

P^Bb^7 QolnelKtrQiigh is tbe (kughkr of tLe Earl of Bod«Q, -who is an 
•w6h lord of the very atricteat Calviniatic perBiiasicin. Ue ia a de-ruut 
m&a. &iid for many yeara, tvb were told, midntaLaeU ft CalTinistic uhuroh of 
Iho English establiBtmeDt in Piu-ia. WMle Mr. S. talked with Lord Gaina- ■ 
IwFoagh, I talked witli bis lady and Lady Eoden, who vraa preMEt. Lady I 
Qaoosboruugli inquired ab<mt uur schools for thd poor, and how they wera ™ 
eaadncted. I reflected a moment, and then answered ihnt we hod no 
iohoota for the poor aa iuch, but tha common achod vaa open alike to 
all el&sj!es.^ 

In England and Scotland, in aJl cIms^, from the queen downward, no 
moTemfinta are oo popular aa those for the edut;atioQ and ekvation of the 
poor i one is seldoia m company without hsaring ihB canrensartion turn 
upon them. 

The conTcrsatfofl eanerally turned upon the condition of wrrimtH in. 
Amerien. I said that one of the principal difficiiJtit;:> in Amflrican houW" 
keeping proceeded from the fact tbat there were so many other op^iujvgB of 
profit that Tery fuw were found williog to assume the ixiaition of the aer- 
Twxi, except as a temporary expwlient * lu fuct, that tlie whole idea of 
Mrrice vaA riulically dllTcrcnt, it bf^iug a mero tempontry cuntmct to render 
eertftm service, not differing verjr essentially from the contrnct of the ma- 
dianio or tradesman, The ladies said they thought thcro could he no 
&mily feeling among aerrants if that we^ tho c^aae ; and I rephcd that^ 
generally apealting, there waa none; that old and attached fiunily aerrantB 
ut the free states were nvre exceptions. 

This, I know, must look, to persona in old countries, like a hard and disn 
Wraraging featuj^ of dflmoemcy. I regard it, howsTBT, m only a temporary 
difficulty. Many inotitutious among ua are in a tmnsition eta to. Gmdually 
tiie whole subject of the relations of labour and the industrial callinga will 
iisanie a new form in America, and though wo eh all never be abla t* com* 
mand the kbd of sarrice secured in arlBtocratic countries, yet we shall havi* 
that which will be as faithful and efficient. If domeatic sen' ice can b» aa plcaaant, p^fitable, and reEpoctablo as any of the induBtrial call- 
inga, it will soon beaome oa permanent, 

Obt neit Tiait was to Sir William Hamilton and lady. Sir William Im 
Um able taccEKor of Dngftld Stewart aiid Dr. Broivn in the chair of intel- 
^ leetnat philoaopby. Hia writings have had a wide circulation in America. 
Be is a man of noble prenence, though we were sorry to aeo Hi at he waa 
filtering from ill health. It eeema to me that Sixitbud hcfir^ that rela- 
tion io England, with regard to mctophywcal inquiry, that New England 
does to tlio re«t of the lltiited States, If one couata otec the names of 
dktbguisbad metaphysicians, the Scot/ih, as compared with the Ensliehj 
jiumlMr threo to one — Held, Stewart, Brown, all t^cotchmen. 

Sir William still writea and lecturea. He and Mr, S. were soon diB- 
COnrsing on German, EagUah, Scotch, and American metaphysics, while I 
was talking with Lady Ilamiltou and her dsnghtera. After we came away 
Htp S. aaid, that no man living had so thoroughly undoTstood and an^y^ea 

• Jtai 7 hjuwn aW Afjoiit Ke^w Tark and Boatou ishidi TecerA erttsaT3i&S:v5ftft"'aii«ft 

wa oa tosg^rcoagfs^ud&t^ iMii-icUnt, on not ha-ving * d*g7fcA*A wi^ WMfwW* '''^^ 
I'A Am?' ^ * **^'^ ** ***?'' '* ^* nec;«M.rv for tin to *i:Q\jae Vj VUt ^«r3 «w»».'»ww 


the Gerraajj philosophy. He aaitl that Sir William spoke of a, call 'H'hi( 
lie bad received frtmi Professor Pjirk, of AndoTer, and eiprtsstd himself 
liigh tunnfl of his nietaphjsicfll jxiwerts. 

After thftt we went to c^U ou George Combe, the physiologist, "We fom 
him and Mre. Combe in a pleasant sunny parlour, where, among ot! 
objects of artiaiao inteieit, we saw a Yery fine engraving of Mru, SJddo: 
I was not awaxe until after leaving that Mrs. Combe in her daughter. li 
Combe, though soiaewhttt ttdvanced, eecms full of life and animatloii, am 
conTersed with a greitt deal of warmth and interest on America, where he 
jnade a tour some yeara since. Like other men who sympathize in our 
progress, he waa sangnine in the iiopo that the downfall of abvery must 
oome at no distant dale. 

After a pleasant chat here we came home ; and after an interval of rest 
the CffliTinge waa at the door for Hawthornden, It is aboot seven miles from 
Edinbm-gh. It is & moat romantic spot, on the banks of the river Esk, now 
the seat of Sir Jamea Walker Dnunmond, Scott has sung in the ballad of 
the Qrajr Brother '. — ^^ 

"Sweet arci the patlis, 0, paasiHg sweet, ^^M 

rBj Eak' B fair st reb,iDiii tiuil r im„ ^^H 

O'er airy ^tcpj;, through nopBe-yroois de<E^Pi ^^^^^^H 

Lnpfiriniis to the lan, ^^^^^H 

"l^lio knttwi not Melrillc'j bcecty grave, ^^^^^H 

And Rosiiu'i rocky gleD, ^^^^^^^| 

DfkWi'ithf wlucli All thc^ virtnea lore, ^^^^^^H 

Aiid ciiisUiO HAttihorDdeiii>'* ^^^^^H 

*' Melville' s beeehy grove" in an alluBion to the gronndaof Lord irelville, 
through which we drove on oux way. The beech trees here arc magnificent j 
fnlly equal to any trees of the Bort wlii<;h I have seen in our American foreatSj, 
and they were in full leaf. They do not grow so high^ but have more 
brca^llh and a wider Bweep of branches ; on the whole they are well 
■worthy of a place in song. 

I know in my childhood I often used to wiRh that I could live in a 
rained eastl« ; and this Hawthoraden vould be the Te^ beau ideal of one 
Bs a romantic dwelling-place. It is an old casteUated house, perched on 
the airy verge of a precipice, directly over the beautiful river Esk, looking 
down one of the most rumantic glens in Scotland. Part of it is in riiinsi 
and, hung with wreaths of ivy, it seems to et^iid just to look picturesqiie. 
The house itself, vith ita qaaist high gahles, and grey antique walls, 
app«Lrs old enough to take you back to the times of William Wallace. I*^^ 
is situated within an hour's walk of HofiUn Castle and Chapel, one of tha^f 
most beautiful and poetic architectural remains in Scotland. ^^1 

Our drive to the place was charming. It waa a showery day ; but every 
lew moments the sun blinked out, smiling through the falling rain, and 
making the wet leaves glitter, aiid the raindrops wink at each, other in the 
most sociable manner poseilJe. Arrived at the house, our friend, Miaa 

B , took us into a beautiful parlour overhanging the glen, each window 

of whieh commaoded a picture better than waa ever made on canvas. 

We had a little chat with Lady Drunimond, and then we went down to 

examine the cavernB — for there are caverns under the houj»e, with long 

jgalleries and paasagos mnning from them through the mcka, some way 

t&PKB t/w rjrer. Several apartments are hollowed out here in the loek oa 

m&iah tbe hoas& h foiuadcd, which they told ui hebngijd to Bruce; th« 


tradition being, that Le waa hiddi^u hera for soma montlis. There wsa 
im 'had room, dining room, eltting room, and a very ourlotis tipartmeat 
where the widla wore all honeycombed into little pnrtition&, which they 
called hig library, theao little partitions being his book abclYea. TheM 
are small lopphole windows in these apartnienU, where you caa look up 
smd down the glen, and enjoy a magnificent prospect. For my part, I 
thought if I were Bruce, sitting there with a book ia my lap, liateniag tn 
the gtaih brawl of the Eak^ looking up and dowa the glen, watching the 
shaking rftia drops on the oaks, the biroLea^ and beeches, I abould have 
tiioaght that was letter than fighting, and that my pleasant little Ciwe was 
as good an arbour ou tbe Hill DifEealty as ever mortal man enjoyed. 

There Ib a poaderoaa old two-handed swnrd kept here, aaid to liaTOr 
belonged to Sir Wilham Wallace. It h considerably shorter than it was 
originully, but^ resting on its point, it readied to the chin of a good six 
foot gentleman of our party. Tbe handle h made of the horn of a sea- 
horse (if you know what that is), and has a heavy iron Ijall at the end. 
It muat altogether have weighed eome ten or twelve pounds. Think of a 
man hewing away on mtn with this ! 

There ia a well in this cavern, down whi'.'h we ware direoted to look and^ 
observe a hole ia the aide ; this we were told was tha entrance to aaother 
set of caverns and chambers under those in which we were, and to paasa^ea 
Trhich extended down and opea&i out into the valley. In the olden days 
the approach to these cavema waa not through the house, bnt thTongh the 
side of a deep well sunk in the OTurt-yani, wliich communicatea through a 
anbterranean passage with this wall, Those seeking entrance were let 
down by a windlass into the well in the court-yardj and drawn up by a 
wiadlaaa into tliiB cavern. Thetu was no auch accommodation at present^ 
feat we were told some enterprisiag touriata had explored the lower caverns. 
Pleasant kind jf times those old days must have been, whea bouses had to 
l>0 built like a lubbit burrow, with all these aa^ommodationa for conceal- 
ment and escape. 

After exploring the cavexns we came up into the parlours again, and 
Miss S. showed roe a Scottish album, in which were all aorts of sketches, 
memorials, autographs, and other such matters. What interested ma 
more, she wa» makmg a collection of Scottiah balladSp words and tuucs. I 
told ber that I had noticed, aince I had been in Scotland, that the yoting 
ladies seemed to take very little interest in the national Scotch airs, and 
were all devoted to Italian; moreover, that the Scotch ballads aad 
memories, which m interested me, seemed to have very httle interest for 
people generally in Scotland. Miss S- was warm enough ia her zesJ to 
make ^p a considerable account, and so we got on well together. 

While we were sitting, chatting, two young Intlies came in, who had 
walked up the glen despite the showery day. They were protected by 
good, Bubstantial outt'r garments, of a kind of shag or plush, and so did not 
fear the rain. I wanted to -n-alk down to KosUn Caatle, but the party told 
me there woidd not be time this afternoon, as we should have to return at 
a certain hour. I should not have been reconciled to this, had not another 
excursion been proposed for the purpose of e.tploring llo^Un. 

Howeviir, 1 detertnioed to go a little way down the glen, and ^t it 
distant view of it, and my fair friends, the yoiiug \»j3flea, ti'&t'CsA \fi 'aRfifSWi.- 
psuijme; so off we -Started down the vindktg paJAiBj w'taAQVisei:^ 5s^^« -ajsustiNt 


th« "bftnlta OTcrbdnging tlio Eiik, Tie grcrand was starred ovet -witU 
paLchea of paJe-yflUow primrosea, unil hr the firait time I oaw tlie ]iefttber^ 
Bpreading o?er rocks and matting itself round the roota of the trees. My 
eDmpAnioni:, to tIioiq it v&s the commona^t thing in tlifl world, could 
liardiy apprei^iite the delight which T fait in looking at it; it waa not in 
fif*wer ; I tjeiiere it does not bloasoia tili some time in Jnly or Aupust. 
We hn,ve oftea seen it In gref^ivhouses, and it h w> liardy that it is ahigulitp 
it will not grow wild iu Amertca. 

We walked, ma, and aorninbled to an omin^ce which commanded a 
Tiew of EotlJD Ciiapel, the only view, 1 foar, which will ever gladden my 
By&i, for the promised f!xpeditio]i to it dissoWed itadf into mut. When on 
tbe hill top, j»o that I could see the chapel at a diatajica, 1 stood thiukinj^ 
over the bal lad of Harold, in the Lay of t lie Luat Minstrcil, and tlie fate of th« 
lovely Rysabolj and aftying over W myiself the kst Ters«B of tlie balUd ; — 

**OVr Kwl[n, all Ihat ilrcniry night, 

"IwAii br(>:^<ll<^^ ibnn llifr wiitt.'barfl'i light. 
And Mddt'r than tbebrigrht tauodbeaiD, 

"It gUr»l on Eo«Un"* castl# rock, 

It rutldiedall the (.opaewood rIob; 
*T*f(U* (WD fentn Dcy<I*n'i proves oi'oik^ 
And trcD Irani cttTrrti'il Hitwi<Uor&iIcii4 

*'BefinMl mil on Orptkat chapeljtrDBd, 

Wh«e RflHiin'* thtd"* uncoffliwdlWi 
£aL>h bnrDn, fur a s&bh* shroud, 
Bbeatbed in bi^? iron ptino|}Ij, 

**SBeoaiid til On life witbiia, lU'LVundj 
Deep tMriftty nad lAian palo; 
Btnne PTcry piUnr ibitHirc-hoiinil, 
And gtiminered all tbe d<Sftd men's mkll, 

"S1&u>d bAltl^m^ut and pinnet high, 

BIkekI ctpft roae-carvi'd bullr««t foifj 
Bo vrlU tlifV bf^«e, wbfn fate I-? nigh 
The Igrdiy Upa af high St. Claif, 

*' There ure twsn1-T cf Bfialin'a baJftUfi bold 
Lia buried mftiln thnt proud ehapeUnJi 
?GMk one the holv v^i\t dntb hold^ 
But ih« tea hofda lurely EDskbello] 

*'An3 each St. Ckir w** buried fhere, 

With caudle, >t itU book, and wtib l^ndl; 
Sat (be acn. caves rung, and the wild windf Bong', 
The dirge of lofdf Uoubelle/* 

There iue muij allii^ioaa In tlui 'wMcK show Sc«tt'« nlnute lULbito of 
ohsenration ; for instance, theae two lines : — 

"Biased bflttloineut and pinnet hinl,, 
Ilki<*d PTerj i^iiB.eurved buttreis fwr." 


Every buttress, battlement, and projection of the exterior is incmttad 
with tlie intkat elabomte floral and leafy caj^inf, among which the roa* v 
^tea wp^i^f from its auggCBting, by Bknikrity of sound, KoeJiji. 
'^£iUiif this Hue — 

*'SbQo& (? rery pillar folia je -bwMid"— 
^^ to thf mind the profusion and elaboTaUuwa ^ '^^ ^w*l 4w!Kff^ 
"*• ^ ^# inside* Amoug these, one pUlai, nu^JMai^t^ ^^ 'T*"'^^ 


TiTe&thH of catred foluige, is oallsd the '* Apprentioo'a Pillar ;" tiie tradition 
\mng, that wliile the maet^r w&s gotio to Rome to get sqidb fmibBT hmtc oa 
exa<;utitig t\w pliin, & prBcocioas jaiuig masoiL, wbuin he l^ft at home, com- 
pleted It in his absence. The master builder sumraarilj knocked him on 
tliB heiid, us a waniing to all prugr&esiTe yoimg men not to grow urieer 
than their teaclie!i9. Trttdition points out the boada of the master and 
workmen uniong tho oorbel^. So you Bee, whereas in old (Jreek times 
people iisEd to point out their celcbritiea among the starSj and gSTB a da* 
fnncfc hero a place in the ecinstelLitionpi, in the middle ages he only got » 
ptafie among the oorbela. 

I am iosreaamgly aony that I waa beguiled ont of my persoaaJ examina- 
tion of this chapel, nmce I hare aeiQa the pl&tea of it in my Baroaiol 
Sketches. It is the rival of Melrose, but more elaborate j in fact, it is a 
perfect cataract of arcbiteetiinLl vivacity and ingenuity, m deBaut of any 
nilaa of critieism and art as the leaf -embowered arcatlee and arches of our 
Ajnerican forest (^tbedrala. Prom the compaiitjon of the platen of tha 
eugravliLgB, I ahuuld judge there was less deUf-acy of tasto, and more 
exuberam^e of invention, than In Melrose. Oae old proaaie commentator on 
it says tbnt it is quite remarkable that there are no two cuts iu it preQiaely 
alike ; each bnttrBsa, window, and pillar ia unique, though with eucb A 
gflineral resemblance to eo-ch other as to deceive the ^ye. 

It was built in 1446, by William St. Clair, who wa» Prince of Orkney, 
Dnke of Oldcnbnrgh, Lord of RobHh, Earl of Caithnesa and gtratheom, and 
BO oa ad iitjinitum. He was ijalled tha "Se«mly St. Clair," from hid 
noHle deportm^t and elegant manners ; resided in royal aplendonr at thii 
Castle of Koslin, and kept a court there m Prince of Orkney, His tabia 
mti aervfid with veMela of gold and silver, and ha had one lord for hi« 
ZDast^r of houHehold, one for his cup bearer, and one for hie carv^ir, Hi# 
jnrinceia, Elizabeth DoUf[;la9, tfjlb served by Bevenry-fiTe geutlewomen, fifty - 
three of whom were djiugiitera of noblemen, and they were attended in all 
tbeir excutBitiiiB by li retinue of two hundred gentlemen. 

These very wood a and streams, which now hear nothing but the mnrnmw 
of the Esk, were all alive with the buttle of a court m those days. 

Ths cattle w£Ls now distinctly visible ; it stands on an insulated rock, 
two hundred and twenty yards from the chapel. It has uuder it a set of 
oicavattOTig and caverns almost eqnaUy cnriotia with those of Hawthoraden ; 
there are still some tolerably preseiTed rooms in it, and Ur», W. informed 
me that tb^y had once rented these rooms for a Bummer reBldence. What 
a delightful idea ! The b^oua of ttosHn were all buried tinder this chapel, 
in their armour, as Bcott describes in the poam. And ae this family war* 
mltogetlier mote than common folks, it ia perfectly credible that on tha 
death of oQe of them a miraenlcus light should illmuinatethe castle, chapel, 
and whole neighbourhood. 

It appears, by certain ancient docuniente, that tJds high, and might j 
hmise of 3t. Clair «'ere in a piirticular manner patrons of the ma.^onie cmft* 
tl la known that the trade of masonry was then in the hands of a secret 
«nd mysterious order, from vvbom probably uuc mt^Tii ti^KjKiTi& 'W'VQi 

T/te St. C/air f&mUy, H fijipears, ^were »t ttie beaA cJ ^Vi* tsisisK, ^^ 
pew^tif mmnt omcers and places of meetiiiK, lo p\LTi\^V \^iss^^i«»'=^ 
uad otUcnm^ u? Imr& the euiXJiiiit^adeiic© ol ail Ih^it ftS&^w* 1\^^ 


89 suNirr MBMOBTEg ot foeeiou lakhs. 

lysa hlV 

may acecriint tor suet, a perfect Geysier of arclutectTiial ingenuity 
'beeo poured out upon their family chapel, wiiroh vas dedgned for a chef- 
d'fEUvrt, Ik (^oncQutrfiitioa of the best tkat ooutd be doDe to the honour of 
theix patroa^a fiimily. Tho docutsents which authenticate thiii statemeat 
are desOTbed io Biiling'B ^'Burotuol Aatiquiti<js.*' So muck for **the 
lordly ilae of high St. CIbit." 

Whan ws came buck to the house, aad after taking coffee in the drawing- 
room, Miss S. took lae OTer the interior, a m(iat delightful place, full of all 
»ortB uf out- of- the- way sanggeries, and comfortable oomere, askd poetio 
imeguliiritiea. There abe ahowed me a picture of one of the early snoeatora 
of the ftimily, the poet Dmnimond, hanging in a room which tradition haa 
aasign^ to him. It represttota a man with a dark, Bpanijih-looking face, 
with the broad ElizabetJtan raii', earnest, melancholy eyes, and an air half 
cavalier, half poet, bringing to mind the ehiyalrouB, graceful, fastidious 
hard, accomplished acholar, and courtier of hie time, the devout believer in 
the di^ne right of kings, and of the immunities and priTileg&B of the upper 
dasB generally. Thia D^nmmond, it seems, was early engaged to a fair 
young lady, whose death rendered im beautiful reti'eat of Hawthomdon 
insupportable to him, and of course, like other peraoas of romance, he 
Bought refuge in foreign travel, went abroad, and remained eight years, 
At'terwanlH ha came back, married, and lived here for some time. 

Among otJier traditions of the place, it is said that Ben Jonaon once 
walked all the way from London to visit the poet in this retreat ; and a 
tree is still shown in the grounds under which they are said to have met. 
It seems that Ben's habita were rather too noisy and convivial to meei 
altogether tie taste of hia faalidiouB and aristocratic host; and so ho bad 
hi& o^vn thoughts of him, which, being written down in a diary, were pub- 
lished by some indiscreet executor, after they wore both dead. 

We were shown an old, original edition of the poems. 1 must confess I 
never read them. Since i have seen the material the poet and novcliat has 
on this grounJ, all I wonder at is, that there bave not been a thousand 
poets to one. I Ehould bave thought they would bave been as plenty aa 
the mavia and merle, and sprouting out everywhere, Uke the primtrosea and 
heather bells. 

Our American literature fa unfortunate in this respect — that our nation 
never had any childhood, our day never liad any dawn ; so wc have V' 
little traditionary lore to work over. 

We came home alwut five o'clock, and had some company in tlie evenii _ 
Some time to-day I bad a little chat with Mrs. AT. on the Quakers. She 
is a cultivated and thoughtful woman, and seemed to take quite impartial 
views^ and did not consider her own sect as by any means the only form of 
GhriHtianity, but maintained — what every Bennble person must grant, I 
think — that it has had an impoi-tant miasion in society, even in its pecu- 
liarities, i iuferred from her converaation tbat the system of plain dreaa, 
maintained with the nicety which they always use, la by no means a saving 
in a pecuniary point of view. She slated that one yotrng friend, who had 
been brought up in this persuasion, gave it as lier reason for not adopting 
its peculiar dress, that die could not afford it ; that in Uy say, that for a 
given tnim of money she could make a more creditable appe^irattce were she 
sl/owed the miige of form, shape, apd trmmiing, which the ordinary styl 

uy Bty^_ 


I Uiink almost anf kdj, Trho knowa the magical Talne of blU of trim- ^^ 
aiiig^ andlttowit of ribbon judiciously adjusted in mtic&l locatJona, ol iiU^H 
iBtiiig, edging, imd GmbiDideiy, confdd^ipd ba eoonomic arte, most acknoii^^l 
leiga that there !a some force in the young lady's opinion. NeTerthcless 
thfi Bono simplidty of a Qoa^er iady'g dre^a, who i^ in cixcamatancos to 
choose her material, has ft peculiaj* chuia. As at present advised, the 
QiDkker ladies -whom I baTe seen totj jndidcnuly adhere to the spirit of 
plain attire, without troablidg themselves to maintain the exact letter. For 
taKtance, a plain ^raw eottags, ^ith its ^hite satin ribbon, 'm aometimea 
idlowad to take the place of the c1d3& silk bonnet of Fox's day. 

B<sf my part, whUe I reverenqe the pions aod unworldly spirit whieh 
dictated the pecnliar forms of the Qnaker sect, I look for a higher deve- 
lo|iment of religton still, when all the beautiful artistic faculties of the 
aoal being wholly sanctified avid offer e<J np to God, we shall no longer shun 
beanty in any of its tunna, eithfir in dres3 or honsehold adornment, as a 
temptation, hizt rather ofer it up as a sa^riiice to Him who has set us tho 
example, by making every thing beautiful in its season. 

As to art and letters, I £nd many of my Qnaker &iends sympathising in 
those judicious views which were taken by tha Sooietj of Friends in Phila- 
delphia, when Benjamin \yeat developed a talent for painting, regarding 
such talent as an indication of the will of Him who had bestowed it. So 
I find maay of them tivking plenstire in the poetry of Bcott^ Longfellow, and 
Wbittier, as devekprnenta of his wisdom who gives to the hiinian sold ita 
diSerent faculties and inspirations. 

More delightful society than a cultivated Quaker family cannot ba 
fonnd ; tKe truthfulness, genuinene«3j and simplicity of character, albeit not 
wantjjig, at proper times, a ahrewd dash of worldly wisdom, are very 

Mrs. W, and I went to the stnilio of Hervey, the SeottA artist. Both he 
and his wife received ns ^ith great kindness. I saw there his Covenanters 
celebrating the Lord's Supper — a picture which I could not look at critically 
an a<cconnt of the tears which kept blinding my eyes^ It represents a bleak 
baUow of a monntain side, where a few trembUng old men and women, n 
few young girle and children, with one or two young m«n, axe grouped toge- 
ther, in that moment of hushed prayerful repo^ wMah pracedes the break- 
ing af the sacnuneatal bread. There is semething touehing always about 
that worn, weary look of rest and comfort with which a aiek child Ues down 
an a mother^a boeomf and like this is the expression with which these hunted 
fugitives nestle themselves beneath the shadow of their Eedoemer ; mothers 
who had seen their sons " tortured, not accepting deliverance" — wives who 
had seen the blood of their husbands ponred out on their donrstone— 
children with no father but God — and bereaved old men, from whom every 
child had been rent — all gathering for comfort round the cross of a suffering 
Lord. In fluch hours they found strength to sufer, and to flay to every 
allurement of worldly sense and pleasure us the drowning Margaret Wilson 
aud to the temptos in her hour of martyrdom^ " I am Chrid'^ child — 
let me go."* 

Another most touching picture of Hervcy's commemorates a later scene 
of Scrjttiali devotion and martyr endurance scarcely below that of the days 
of the Goreiiant. It i« called Leaving the Jidana^. 

yfe in Afaentm all feJt to our hetttVi ftO« & ejm^efaiCQ^ ^\^ '^lQa^^si:^ 


endanmos which letl bo many Seottlsli minktcrs to forsake their c^ofehea, 
their salaries, the h&ppy homes where their children were Lorn and thair 
da.yE pusaed, rather than viol&te a principle. 

This picture is a monimieiit of this struggle. There J'ises the mafls*j 
overgr*3wn with its ilowering vima, the image of a loTely, peaceful hatm. 
The Minister's wiie, a pale, hjyely creature, ia just locking the door, out of 
which her hushiiuid and family lidve paEsed— leavinE it for eTei. The hus- 
band and father is supporting on Ma arm an aged, feeble mother, and the 
weeping childi-en ara gathering Eorrowfully round himj each bearing away 
some memorial of their home ; one has the htrdcage. But the unequalled 
look of high, uashaken patleiiee, of heroic faith, and lov^ which seem a to 
spread its li-fht over every face, is what I cannot paint, The pFunter told 
mc that the faces were jmrf raits, and the scene by no meana imaginary. 

But did not these sscridcea hring with them, er^a in thair hittemesai, tk 
joy the world knoweth not t Yes, they did, I know it full well, cot 
Tain 1 J did Christ say, Tbere Is no man that hath left houses or land* for 
ray aakii and the gosper* but ho shall receive manifold more in tku lift. 

Mr. Hervey kindly RaTO me the engraving of his Covenanter's Sacrament) 
which I shall keep as a memento of him and of Scotland. 

Hia Btyle of painting is forcible and individual He showed ua the 
Btndiea that he has t<iheu with his palette and brushes ont on the moun* 
tains and moons of Scotland, paintlni^ mass, and atoue, and brook, juGias It 
is. This IB the way to be a national painter. 

One plciisaut ereuing, not long before we left Edinburgh, C, S., and I 
wiLlked out for a quiet stroll. We went throuj^h the Grasa Market^ when 
BO many defendcra of the CoTenant have suffered, and turned into tht 
cburohynrd of the Qray FriiLrs ; & gray, old Gothic building, with multi* 
tudcs of graves around it. Here we saw the tombs of Allan Eomaay and 
nutny other diatiuguiehed characters. The grim, nntouth siculpture on tht 
old gravesj nnd the quaint cpitaphi?, interested me much , but I was mart 
moved by coming quite unoipectedly on an iyy-grown slab, in the waJl, 
commemorating the martyrs of the Covenant. The inscription struck nm 

ma mooh, thai I got C to eopy it in hia m«morandum book. 

♦*Hhlt, paSBtfagf'Tl t*ke heed wh*t you do sw, 

Il*rft fiefl interned tLe da it oflJiosB who flood 

'G-ainat perjury, reaisling unto bloodj 

Adhfsriiip to tne Co^onaQt, and laws 

1* 5t»bli«hing (he? same ; which was tha cAU^ 

Tbeir tivwi wer* sMriflctsi unto the lust 

Ofprektists tltjured, tli«u|rH hepe their diist 

Xrii'a iuikihI v,-Hh no-QrAtrtra asul olber crew 

TiVhomjustics* justly did to death pursusi 

Bat OA for thrill, na eaase wu to be found 

Worthy of deiath, but oiiJy ihajr were focuid 

CoDAtAnt tmd stoadiaat, witness! ng 

For the pTeTogaUve* of Chri»t thflii Kinp; 

WhJcli truths were sealed by fumout &ailirie*t beaSf 

And nU bIiouk ut Mr, Eenwi'cV'i blood 

The' J did «auL]re tb<^ wratb of enemies, 

Jftijimachej, toraienLi, deatlui, and injurim; 
3ulj-et iher're those who from lucbi trutibLba otm0 
Aod triaioph acnr in glory vritli tkfi lAmti. 

*S*y^f!*^ ^*«ie* fieri inV-fc anfffred, tliftfc were a^ime e\ft^l«;Ti vVqii5S«A. «bi6;«*i -w 
^^^^'W, ^f whom were ei<>LUleA it Edu^l.u^ti^ fAL^ut o™ VTJto!i«a.™^i^*™*»> 


Deapit* ilie roughness of the verse, there is a thrilTiBg 'pow^t in these 
lines. Pftoplc iti gilded hou9«i, on silken couches, at ease among booka, 
ud frienda, and literary pastimea, may sueer at the CoTetiantet-s ; it 'a 
much easier to aneer than to di* for truth and right, as they died. Whether 
thej were right in all respecta ia nothing t/n the purpose ; but it ia to tlie 
pnrpoae that iu a crisis of their conntrj'a hiatory they upheld a ^eat prin- 
ciple vital to her existence. Had not these men held up the heart of Scot- 
land, and kept alive the fire of liberty on her altars, the very litera-tiiirB 
which lias been tiaed to defame them cfjuld not have had it^s '^.'ttsteace. The 
very literary celebrity of Scotland has groflrn out of their grave ; ft»r a vigo- 
roiia and griginal literature id Impossible, except to a Htrong, free, sejf- 
Teapecting people. The literature of a people mnat spring from the aenne 
'of its nationality; and nationality is impossihle without seK-respect, and 
aelf-respect ia im possible without liberty. 

It ia one of the trials of our mortal etate, one of the dlsciplinefa of our 
virtue, that tho world's benefactors and reformer are so ofttn without form 
or comelineaa. The very force necessary to sustain the cponfiict matea them 
fcppeor unlovely* they "tr^a^l the wine -press aloue, and of the people thers 
is noiie with them." The iihriekB, the groaus, and agonies of men wrestling 
in mortal combat are often not graceful or gmeioua j but the eomment^i that 
t!ie children of the Puritans, and the children of the Covenanters, make on 
the tmgrflCfjful and severe elements which marked the stniggles of their 
grait fethers, are a.« ill-tiined as if a son, whom a mother had just borne 
ti'om Jt burning dwelling, should criticize theahneka witli which ahc E?ought 
him, and point out to ridicule th« diahevolled hair and singed gamieTits 
■which show how she struggled for hi> life. But these are they which are 
*'Bi>wn in weakneES, but raisetl in power; which are sown in dishonour, but 
Tftised in glory i" even in this ivurld they will have their judgment dayi and 
their names which went down iu tlie dust lik^ a gallant banner tioddeti ia 
the mii^, tthall rise again all glorioua in the wght af nations. 

•riie evening sky, plowing reit, threw out the bold outline of the castle, 
fttid tke quaint old edifices ah they seemed to look down onua silently from 
their rocky heights, and the figure of Salisbury Craga markeid. itaelf against 
the red eky like a cotichant lion. 

The time of our sojourn in Scotlitid had drawn towards ita close. 
Thougli feeble in health, this visit to lae has been full of enjoytuent; fuU 
of lofty, but sad memories ; full of ajnupathics and inspirationa. I think 
there it no nobler land, and I pray Uod that the old seed here bowU i^ blood 
aud tears may never be rooted out of Scotland, 

aim jcsoHiii.^isrjuTFo sn-OH-'ivoa'. 
Ht d«ir H. :— 

It waa a rainy, misty morning when I left my kind retreat and frienda 
in Ediuhnrgh. Conaiderate aa everybody had been about iinpoijing on my 
time or ati-engtli, still yL>u may well believe tlu&t 1 ■*&» mud&. 'is\la.^H^Jt^ 
We left £ilinbtirshf therefore^ with the daterimiia.\vm ^ \\TLTi%ft -6*. <3raRRb 
laia some bidden and unknown spot, where "wa mi^'ls.'pewi.VHSi ?it "^^^^ 
daf3 quieilf by oursehea ; und remembering vom Svniia.! sit ?i"ws4S.OT^-^T? 

92 stTinrr hieuobiis of TOBBiair lahtdei. 

the raikoad line ^e dtilermined to acctpt the mvitatloiv, which was lying 
hy UB, from our friend Joseph Sturgej of Binmngkim, and take sanctaary 
with him. So wB wrote oii> intmstidg hitai with the Beoret, and. chargiug 
him on DO ^iccoant to let any ono know of onr arrival. 

Well in th« rail car, we went whirling along by Preston PauB, where wag 
font^ht tha celebrated hattle in which Colonel Gardiner was MUfld ; hy 
Duubar, where Cramwell told his army to "trust iti Qod auti keep their 
powder dryj" through Berwick -ou-Uie-Tweed and Newcaeblt-ou-Tyno ; by 
the old towers and gates of York, witli ita splendid cathedral ; gettmg a 
view of Durham GathednU iu the distance. 

The country between Berwick and Newc&stli? is one of llie gr^iteat mauu- 
focturing disl^ets of England, and for smoke, Bmut, and gloom, Fitteburg 
and Wheeling be^r no oomparison to it. The English akj, alwayi^ paler 
and cooler in its tints than ount, here seems to be tui-ned into ft leaden 
canopy; tall chimneys belch forth g]o<im and confaaion; liouaea, factories, 
ftincea, even trees and gr&ss, look grim and sooty. 

It is true that people with immense wealth can live in BBch regiona in 
cleanliness and elegance ; bnt how must it bewitb the poor* I know of 
no one circumstaiiice more nnfaTourable to moral pnrity thaji the necessity 
of being physically dirty. Our nature is so intensely symbolical, tkai 
where the outward sign of defilement becomes habitual;^ the inner is too apt 
to correspond. I am quite sure that before there can be an uniTersat mil- 
lennium, trade must be poraned in such a way as to enable the working 
clones to realize sometliing of beauty and purity In ilie drcumstancea of 
tiicir outward life. 

J have heard there is ft law before the Britisb Pai-liament, whose o^ 
tion is designed to purify the air of England by introducing ehimneya wbi' 
fhall consumo all the sooty particles which now float about, obscuring the 
air and caiTying defilement with them. May that day be hastened 1 

At Newcastle- on-Tyne and some other places Tarious frienda came out to 
m^^et ns, some of wbom presented ns witb mo^ splendid bonqueta of hot* 
IiDuse tlowers. This region has been the seat of some of tbe moat xealooa 
and efficient antislavery operations i^ England. 

About night onr ears whizzed iuto the depflt at Birmingham ; but jnst 
before we came in a difficulty waa started in the company. *' Mr. Sturgo 
is to be there waiting for us, but he does not know uh, and we don't know 

him ; what is to be donef C insisted that he i^ould know him by 

instinct ; and so after we reached the deipot, we told bim to sally out and 
try, Gnre enough, in a few moments he pitched upon a ch&erful, middle^ 
rtged gentkman, with a moderat* but not decisiTe broad brim to his hat, 
and challenged him as Mr- Sturge ; the r^ult verified the truth that " in- 
stinct is a great matter." In a few xaoraemU oar new friend and ourselves 
were snugly encased in a fly, trotting off as briskly as ever we could to ^ 
place at EdgUiston, nobody a whit the wiser. You do not know how sui 
we felt to think wo had done it so nicely. 

The carriage soon drove in upon a gravel walk, winding among twttf 

jlowera, and shmbs, where we ftinnd opening to us another home as waim 

and kindly as the one we liad just left, made doubly interesting by the i6m 

of entire privacy and seclusion. 

Alter retiring to our chambers to repair Uie ravages of travd, we united 

jjt tbepleasmot suppei room, where the table wm laid before a bright coal 

cea OS 



tre: no unimportant feature this fire, I can assure you, in a raw cloudy 
evening. A glass door firom the supper room opened into a conservatory, 
l»miant with pink and yellow azaleas, golden calceolarias, and a profusion 
d other beauties, whose names I did not know. 

The aide tJ^bles were strewn with books, and the ample folds of the drab 
flBrtains, let down over the windows, shut out the rain, damp, and chill. 
Jffbeok we weris gathered round the table, Mr. Sturge said that he had 
somewhat expected Elihu Burritt that evening, and we all hoped he would 
osme. I must not omit to say, that the evening circle was made more 
attractive and agreeable iu my eyes by the presence of two or three of the 
little people, who were blessed with tbe rosy cheek of English children. 

iSx. Sturge is one of the most prominent and efficient of the philan- 
ikropiftts of modem days. An air of benignity and easy good nature veils 
and conceals in him the most -unflinching perseverance and energy of pur- 
pose. He has for many years been a zealous advocate of the antislavery 
cause in England, taking up efficiently the work begun by Clarkson and 
Wilberforce. He, with a friend of the same denomination, made a journey 
at their own expense, to investigate the workings of the apprentice system, 
by which the act of immediate emancipation in the West Indies was for a 
while delayed. After his return he sustained a rigorous examination of 
seren days before a committee of the House of Commons, the result of 
which successfully demonstrated the abuses of that system, and its entire 
inutility for preparing either masters or servants for final emancipation. 
This evidence went as far as anything to induce Parliament to dechure im- 
mediate and entire emancipation. 

Mr. Sturge also has been equally zealous and engaged in movements for 
the ignorant and perishing classes at home. At his own expense he has 
sustained a private Farm School for the reformation of juvenile offenders, 
and it has sometimes been found that boys, whom no severity and no 
punishment seemed to affect, have been entirely melted and subdued by the 
gentler measm*es here employed. He has also taken a very ardent and 
decided part in efforts for the extension of the principles of peace, being a 
warm friend and supporter of Elihu Burritt. 

The next morning it was agreed that we should take our drive to Strat- 
ford-on-Avon. As yet this shrine of pilgrims stands a little aloof from the 
bustle of modem progress, and railroad cars do not run whistling and 
whisking with brisk officiousness by the old church and the fanciful banks 
of the Avon. 

The country that we were to pass over was m6re peculiarly old English ; 
that phase of old English which is destined soon to pass away, under the 
restless regenerating force of modern progress. 

Our ride along was a singular commixture of an upper and under current 
of thought. Deep down in our hearts we were going back to English days ; 
the cumbrous, quaint, queer, old, picturesque times; the dim, haunted 
times between cock-crowing and morning ; those hours of national childhood, 
when popular ideas had the confiding credulity, the poetic vivacity, and 
versatile life, which distinguish children from grown, people. 

No one can fail to feel, ia reading any of the plays oi §s\\ak'S^eaxft,'Ofts^Ve» 
ra* born In an age of credulity and marvels, and tlvat t\iei Ta%X>eTnaSs> wA q' 
AichMamInd was woven were dyed in the grain, in t\ie \vaxm\fe^ «e^^ 
imditioo. Jt would bare b&en as absolutely impoeaiU^ iox ^^ecLVoaa 

luul lie been bom m the daylight <!>( thitcontary, to hare litdtt ibofleqnaintf 
Qolhii; strticitures of imagination, and tinted them with their pftculiiiLr 
e&loiirlnjr of marvellounieis aud mjsterjir, osfor a modern artist to drigin^kto 
and «xei!Ute the weird deaigue of &n a.iicient cathedral- J^oth Qothic archi* 
techu* and thin perfeotion of GotJxio poetry were the Bimnging »ud ftfllo- 
jtBcenoe of that ag«, JmpePMble to grow again. Tbej were the foFMi 
primeral ; oLhef ia^M maj ipiiug In their room^ tre» a^ mighty and tm 
&ir, but not Ench t!rae«. 

80, u we rod« aJoug, onr specnlationa and thonghta in the vnder cnireni 
were bnok in the old wt)rld of tradition. While, ou the other hwad, for the 
tipper current, "we were keeping up a brisk conTcrcation on tbe pe&ce que*- 
tion, on tho abolition of davery, on the iJuHsibUity of igtioriti|§r elave-grown 
produee, on Mr. Gobdan and Mr. Bright, and» ia f^ct, oa all the tntjut wide- 
ftwakg topioa of the present day. 

Ooe little incident occurred upon the road. As we were passing by a 
quaint old manaioii, wbkh stood back from the road, ■airounded by a deep 
<»urt, Mr. @. oftid to me, '• There ie & friend here who would like to mt 
tliea^ If thoti haat na obj actions," and went on to inform me that vhe waaan 
aged wonvan, wbo had taken a deap interest in the abolitian of ^arery hinee 
tibe time of it* firit inception nnder Clarkaan and Wilberforce, though now 
lying very low on a Bick bed. Of course wa all expr(ia!e&d our willinguow 
to stop, and the oarriage waa aoon dririog np the j?raTelled walk toward* 
the houae. We were ushered into a comfortable sitting-room, which looked 
ont on beautiful grounda, where the Telirat gross, tall, tkrk trees, atid. a 
certain quaint air of antiquity in disposition and arrangement, gave me * 
altigQlar kind of pleacurs< the more ao, that it oame to nve Hke a dream; 
tbat the house and tha people wera tmkTiowii to me, and the whole t 
entirely uneipected, 

I WM soon shown into a neat chamlvir, where an ^ed woman waa 1 
in bed. I waa very much struck sjid impraased by her manner of receiving 
me. With deep emotion and tears, she spoke of the aolemuity and aaored- 
Ews of the cauae which had for yeuje lain near her heart. Tbere seeiued ta 
be sometbiDg almost prophetic in the oolemn fitr&iu of a«tarance with which 
Bhe spoke of the Hnxil extinction of alaTory throughout the world. 

I ff'lt both pleased and Horrowfnl- I felt sorrowful becaufle 1 knew, if all 
tme OhriatianB in Amerii^ had the pame feelings that men, women, ood 
children, for whom Christ died, would no more be sold in mj conntry on 
the auction block. 

There hare been those in Amerii^a who havfl felt and prayed thna nobly 
&nd aiiLcerti'ly for the heflithen in Bnrmah and Hindoatan, and that aentiment 
was a beautiful and an ennobling one * but, alas ! tbe number has been few 
who have felt aud prayed for the beatbeiufim and ahiuue of our own 
country ; for tbe heath euiim which aella the -rery membora of the body ctf 
Ghriet ai merchaddi^. 

When we were agajn on the road, ve were talldng on the change of timoi 

in England since railroads b«gan ; and Mr. H. gare an amusini: description. 

efhow tJie old iorda used to traTfil in atate, with their cuacht* and horses, 

TK&i?/; tliej wBot up once a year on a Bokmn to London, with 

.poBtih'oBg tmd puiridei*. and all the country g^V^s^ wii -tnjaAttvai vI^jot 

tbeaa. ' 



i^ to OUT timts, »iid whAi iie vaold think of all the questiqiiB tlmt »re a^- 
_ the worJd now." That b« did haye theiigLta whoBe root* ma fer 
fcejood the d?pth of tlie age in which he lived, ia plain «riuugli frum nnm- 
Wloe in<liciitioiia iti his iilnvB; but %vbethet- ha wuuld have tuken &ay 
pnctieai interest in tha world's TUiiTemeDta is a fair qTiE<gtioD. The poetift 
mind la aot alw&jB t;b<^ progresaiTe ODtt ; it has, like moss and iry, a need 
for Bomctbing old to ding to And gtiTmimibQ upon. I'he artistic teiiip«ia- 
tneat, too, )8 Eoft &Dd sensitiTe ; bo th«re Are all these rei^sons fur thiuklug 
UkaA p«rbaf>8 be woTild b&re bt'on foi ke^i'ang out of the ytay of tke heiti aod 
duct of modem pro^eae. Itdce^ aot follow baoauso & num bos penetiutioiL 
to lee an ovU, he hat cnerg; to reform iU 

Emflmus saw &11 ^t Lutber saw juBt as cletii'ly, but h« nid that be bad 
rnher never hAve truth at all, than oontend for it wiUi the world in such a 
tiUBult. However, on the other hnnd, England did, in Milton, Lave one 
poet who girt himsalf up to the raughtiat nnd stormiest work of reformfitbd, ; 
SD it is not qxiite cert*in, after all, that Sbakspeare mifibt not have Tt>een a 
i^nner in our time*. One thing i* quite certain, that he wotiUl have aaid 
t»j abrewd things about all the inattftra that move the world now, aa lie 
oRlainiy did about all matters that he wae cognisant of in bis ow^ daj. 

h waa a little before noon * btn wl* 'Iruve into Stratford, Ijj vhich time, 
tritib our usual fatabty is riaiiing poetic abriaea, the day had melted off 
^ito a kind of drizsling joi»t, strongly au^jgestiTe of a downright rain. It 
Sa aoammoa trifk these Knglisb dajs have; the w«ather here acema to be 

Msaaed of a water apirit. Tbtd oonsiant driule 10 goufl fur Lyiea, and 

liWthom!!, and ladies' oumpIexLons, as whoever tratels beo^ will obaerre^ 
^t it certainly is very bed for tourisis. 

TkiM dtntf(n<d u a imall tows, of between three and fonr tboua&nd inhs' 
bitaiitBr and has in it a good many quaint old houses, and is cbaracterined 
|to I thoaght) 1^ an &tr of respeetatde, stand -still, aud meditative repose, 
iriueh^ I itm afraid, vflll entirely give way before tbe railroad demon, for I 
Hnde2itaiid ibut it ia scim to be connected by the Oxford, Woroeater, and 
WolTerhampton line with all parta of the kingdom. Jnat think oi that 
Uack little aereecbing iiup ruabing through these fields which have inspired 

many faneieu ; bow everytiimg |xietical will flj before it I Thiak of such 
■»f«| «natche« as tliese adt to the tune of a railroad wbifltls : — 

*• Hark ! h».rV t the krls it he*vpa'B gsto idiigi, 
Ajirl Fhtrbuft 'gini to rise. 
His alwdsi to w*ter *t tbo»o iptiogi 
On ehikliciMl Huwera tbat lies, 

** ArA wiAkiof Munr-biMls begiu 

To ojw their golden eyes, . 

With every tbinj; th»t preity bin 
My Udy *wert to rUe." 

Tad (igoln : — 

'' FliiloTno] with inolady alng in our awwt luHabyp 
Lu!la, luUiij iiilli*tiy, 
Ifi'Vffr hiirm, am tjiflj, nor chftrra, 
Cotne our (ovrly lidy nigh," 

. 1 0ifppcs6 tJia metdaws, with their " witiVing Mu.^ -"b^isSiar V-^vWa^ 
rf ap iiiSo buihUng'Iota in tJ>e good limes cimmg, ar^cl ^\iv\ui&<aV twi"^^ 
ipa$ a4cag0U> ms to touritfta at tbxeepence a-UtM. 



We "went to tho Wtite Lion, and scon tad a little qTiiet paxlottr to our* 
aelTCa, neatly carpeted, vitK a Eofa drawn up to the eheerful coaJ, fire, & 
good-toned piano, and in ahort everything cheerful and comfurtable. 

At firat we thought we were too tii-ecL to do anythiag till after dinner; 
we were going to take time to rest ours^slTea and proceed leienrely ; ao, 
while the cloth was laying, C — — took pofiseasion of the piano, and I of 
the sofa, till Mr. S. came in upon ua, saying, " Wiy^ Shakspcaro'a house 
is right th« next door here !'* Upon that we got up, just to take a peep, 
and from peeping ire proceeded to looking, and finally put on our things 
and went oyst seriatim. The house has recently been bought by a Shaks' 
pearka Club, who have taken npon themselves the restoration and preseir- 
Tation of the premises. 

Shak spear e*3 father, it seems, -was a maji of some positif^n and snlistance 
in bis day, being high sheriff and juEtice of the peace for the borough ; aiid 
his house, therefore, I suppose, may be considered a Epecimen of the 
riespectable qlasE of houses in the times of Qneen Elizabeth. 

We saw a good many old houses somewhat similar to this on the road, 
particularly resembling it in the manner of plastering, which shews all tha 
Jtimber on the outside. Parts of the house bare been sold, altered, and 
used for Tarious purposes ; a butcher's stall having been kept in a part of 
it, and a tavem in another portion, being new -fronted with brick. 

The object of this Shakspeare Club ha^ been to re-purchase all these 
parts, and restore them as nearly as poBsible to their primeTal condition. 
The part of the house which, is shown consists of a lower room, whieh is 
floored with liat stones very mueh broken. It has a wide, old-fashioned 
chimney on one side, and opens into a smaller room back of it. From, 
thenoe you go up a rude flight of stairs to a low- studded room, with roogh- 
plaaterod walls, where the poet was bom. 

The prints of this room, which are generally sold, allow themselves in 
considerable poetic licence, rBpresentiufr it in fact as quite an elegant apart- 
ment, whereas, though it is kept scrupulously neat and clean, the air of it 
is ancient and rude. The roughly-plastered walls are so covered with 
names that it seemed impossible to add another. The name of almost 
every modem genius, names of kings, princes, dukes, are shown here ; and 
it is really curious to see by what devioca some very insignificant personages 
have endeavoured to make their own names conspicuous in the crowd. 
Generally speaking tke inscription bocks and walls of distinguished places 
tend to give great force to the Vulgate rendering of £cclesiastes i, 15, "The 
number of fools is infinite." 

To add a name in a private, modest way to walls already bo crowded, is 
allowable ; but to scrawl one's name, place of birth, and country, half 
across a wall, covering scores of names under it, is an operation which 
speaks for itself. Ko one would ever want to know more of a man than to 
gee his name there and thus. 

Back of this room were some small bed-rooms, and what interested me 
much, a staircase leading up into a dark garret. I conld not but fancy I s i w 
A bn^ht-ejed, curJy-headed boy creeping up those stairs, zealous to eip;—* 
tie mysteries vf that dark garret. T'kiere ^rta^ \is ^^ ^Vua cat, w 
'^Kae of fjummg coal, croucking 'lore iVie TaQ^iift&^^Wr TiwifeftE* 
*Ai* (jic? garret were wonderful myBtema to \Am, t^ifvoTi* a\jaT«a 'i^ '^^^ 
"■^ eooda aad fiiimituie, and rat*, and luitie, wi4 <yi^>^<i™- i-'* 



jodigniition of BOme belligerciit grandmother or Aunt, who finds "Willie up 
tliei-* w^iitehiag a moiuie hole, with the cut, ami has him down stitught-way^ 
gmmbiing tliat Mary did not govern that child better, 

W<j kjiovv ^lot^lillg who this itary was that was hb mother; but ona 
Bometimea wonders where in that coarse age, when queens and ladies talked 
fiiniiliarly, as women would blush to t^ilk arjw, and when the hroad, coarse 
wit of the Merry Wives of Windsor was gotten tip to suit the taste of a 
virgin-queen, — one wonders, 1 siay, when women were such and ho, wher« 
be fuuud those models of lily- like purity, iromen bo eha^te in soul andpufe 
in language that they could not even bring their lips to utt^r a word of 
ebaine. l>esdtjmona cannot even bring herself to speak the coarse word with 
which her husband taunts her ; she cannot make herself believe that there 
are women wi the -world who could stoop to such groaaness,* 

For my part I cannot believe that^ in such an age, eucH deep hrairt- 
knowledge of pure womarihcn>d could have come otherwise than by the 
impression on the child's soul of a mother's purity, I seem to have a 
vision of one of those women wliom tbe world kngwa not of, silent, deep- 
hearted, loTing, whom the eoar.ser and more practically effii;ient jostle aside 
and uuderrate for their wunt ^ interest iti the noisy chitchat and common^ 
place of the day ; but who yet have a sacred power, like that of the spirit 
of peace, to brooni -ftith dovelike wings over the childisb heart, and quicken 
into life the struggling, slumbering elements of a sensitive nature, 

I catiDOt but think, in thut beautiful scene, where he represents Desde* 
mDtia as amazed and struck dumb Tv-ith the grossness and brutality of the 
charges which had l>eea thrown upon her, yet so dignified in the coasdous- 
neEs of her own purity, so magnanimous in the power of disinterested, 
fgrgiTiiig love, that he was portraying no ideal excellence, but only repro- 
ducing, under fictitious and supposititious eircum stances, the patlenee, 
magnanimity, and enduring love which had shone upon him in the house- 
hdd words and ways of his mother. 

It seemed to me that in that bare and lowly chamher I s&vr a vision of a, 
lovely face which was the first Ijeanty that dawned on those childish eyes, 
and hcAi-d that voice whose lullaby tuned big ear to an e>:qiusite sense of 
cadcncQ and rhythm, I fancied that, while she thus serenely shone upon 
him like a benignant star, some rigorous grand -aunt took upon her the 
pmetical part of his guitianoe, chased up his wanderings to the right and 
left, scolded him for w^anting to look out of the window because his little 
cUmblng toes left their mark on the neat wall, or rigorously arrested him 
when his curly head was seen bobbing off at the bottom of the street, fol- 
lowing a bird, or a dog, or a showman j intercepting him in some happy 
hour when he was aiming tt> strike off on his own account to an adjoining 
field for "winking Mary -buds ;" made long sermons to him on the wicked- 
ness of mudding his clothe and wetting his new shoes (if he had any), and 
told him that something dreadful would come out of the graveyartl and 
eatrf-h him if he was not a btttcr Ixjy, imagining that if it were not for her 
^Hjig activity Willie would go straight to destruction, 
^m, tcjo, to have a kind :^f perception of 8bakEp^T^^3^3SE«i\ ^c^sfl&V 
^i-Iag; tlioughtfiil maay ghen to tlie reading oi ^ooi XiwJfea^ ^^<iv?iK&% 

tes JabeRntidilly wronsH out %j Mrs. .Tameso^ ™ Vi« CTiiw&E^^>i*^T*» 
» at Shakipenrv^ t<j ,,-Juci, the author is iiidebtcd lor \,\ie %^%s^^^^^- 


qtuiTnels With a, mtst Clirigtittii-lIkG fear, and with but i?nitill tsJent^ eith 
in the way of speech making or money getting ; a man who Tdrora hia coat 
Tirith an easy ebuch, and who seldom knew whore his money went to. 

All these things X seemed to jterceiTe as if a sort of vision had radiated 
frcTD the old w»]1b] there saemed to be the niBtliDg of garmentfj and tho 
Bonnd of Toioes in the deserted rooms ; the pattering of feet era the worm- 
eaten stuicase ; the light of still, shady Enmnier afternoons, a hundred 
ymm ago, oeemed to fall thxeugh the casements and He upon the floor. 
There waa an interest to ererything about the house, even to the qnnint 
cron fiisteninp ahout the windows ; because those might hate airested that 
chihrs attention, and been dwelt on in some dnaimy hour of mfant thought. 
The fires that onoQ biiJtifid in thosa old chimneys, the fleeting Hparts, the 
ciirling smuke, the glowing coals, all may have inspired their fanciss. 

There ia a strong tinge of household colouring in many parts of Shat- 
spcjinj, imagery that could only have come from such habits of quiet, 
honsehold eonieixtplatiou. SeCj, for example^ tMs deacriptien of the BtillaffiB 
of the houBe, nliee all are gone to bed at night : — 

** Now sleep yalaied halh tLfl rout ; 
ifo din t>u(. unorui, the lioiap nboiit, 
Vnda louder \ij the c'crfcd brpsAt 
Of tbifl most poiDpciu mftrringB feaat. 
The cftl, with eyae of burning toal, 
m^w erouchea 'fcirci f hp iiioua<3'8 bole* 
Aad cricket* arag Bt th" otoh's roonlJit 
As the blither ibr their dronth," 

Also this deseriptiDn,of the midnight capers of the fslriea about tiliQ 
from MidBummt^r Wight's Dream i — 

• PlJCK, Now Ihn hrnRTT linti roaru, 
' ' ■'• wali^l ■ ■ ■ 

And 1.ho wali^lipliowifl the moon; 
'^hiUt thehea^Tf plociFhrnsn istii 
All with weary tusk Tordono. 

Whilst thebea^Tf plociFhniBn istiure^ 
All with weary tusk Tordono. 

Now th« waat ed bra.nda do glow, 

Tirhilst the iwritch-owl, jHTltehing lond^ 
Put* the wfctL'h, thiit hea in woe. 

In rempmbronoo of a shroud, 
Kow it ia tho time of night, 

Tbat tbs griivea uD j^iipinff wide, 
Evi-ry one lota forth hi* sprite. 

In the church fray paths to ^do: 
And we fairiefl that ito rtin 

By the triple Ilccstfl's te^oi^ 
From the pr^seape cf th^^ sua, 

Following durkncta hie a dream, 
Now are frohe ; not & irjuuiie 
Khan disturb thia hallowed hoq^e t 
I atn sent with broom beforei. 
To awcnp the duat bfibind the doaft 

" ObIi Througli thla hoo^n eirf) ghnunenng Ught, 

By th« dead itnd (Sowaj flre i 
Bverf elf, uid fairy apritc, 

Hop oa light aa bird from britsr f 
And thia ilitty Hfter me 
Sing, and dance it trippinglj-," 

By the by, one cannot but lie struck with tho rescmblAiuJc, in the spirit 
Aad ifolotuijjg of tiwo linfli, to \hxm vtny mmiliir ones in the Peu^^roao ' 


" Far fp'jio ftll rijaart of niirtb, 
8:tve the critTk<?l on thf.' bi-arHi, 
Or tb* tirflmiiQ'a JrawKV cIhiJ'lq, 
To bli'Sd t!io t\oors frum nijgbM.v liorm; 
IhYliita ^wlng cmberiif tlwvUL'li tlifi tooHV 
Teaeb Ught tu ootiuteifeit a gkx}m." 

1 liavs often notictid bow much tlie first writinga of Milton reaembk lk 
their imagery and toue of tiolcitirinc; those of ShiLkfipmrf), particularly in the 
phtaseolugy and maimer of dcscriMBg flowcni. I thinkj were e, certain 
immber of jMU'sagtia from LjcidaH and Comua intersperBed "with & certain 
mmiber from MitlsuiiiiiLcir ^'ight's Dream, the imagflry, tone of thought^ 
and style of colouring, would be found bo nearly identicnX that it woulJ be 
difficult for one not perfii^ctly lamiliar to distinguiaJi thttm. You may 
try it. 

That Milton read and admired Shakspeara is evident from hia aJlnaiou 
to him in L'Allagna. It is ef ideut, however, thnt Milton'a taste had lieen 
» formed by the Greek uiudclis, that he was not entirely airana of all that 
Tree in Shakspeare ; he speaks of him as a sweet, firiciful warbler, !nid it 
B exaotljr ui sweetness and fancifalness that he seuma to have deriveiJ 
IsDeGt from him. In hia earffer poems, Milton st^ems, like Shakai*e<irc, to I 
have let his mind run fiieely, as a broiik warbles over niany*eoluured pob- 1 
hies ; whereas in hia great poem he tmilt afl-er titodela. Had he known a»J 
little Latin and Greek as Shakspaire, the world, instead of seeing a weU*J 
arraflged imitation of the ancient epics from hia pen, vould hky& 
inaugurated a new order of poetry. 

An uneiinalled artist, who should build after the model of n Orecisn^ 
temple, would doubtleaa produne a aplendid and effective building, becauae 
a certain originality alwaya inheres in genius, even whoa copying ; ?jut far 
greater wore it to invent an entirely new style! of architecture, as ditferent 
ai the Gfothic from the Qroeiftn. Tliia merit was Hhakspeare's. He waa a 
floperb Qotbic poet; Milton, a magnihcent imitator of old fonot, which 
Ibff bin genius were wrought ahnoat. into the energy of new productions. 

I think Sbakspeare is to Milton precisely what Gothic architecture is t« 
Orecias, or rathar to the warmest, most vitalized reproductions of the 
Grecian ; there is in ililton a fflilm, sefrere majesty, a graceful and pollslied 
intiareBceQce of ornaniont, that produsea, aa you look upon it, a eerene, 
long, strong growid-Bwell of admiration and approval. Yet there i& a uold 
^ni<y of expreadon, that calls into exercise only the very highest range of 
our Acuities: there is none of tlmt wTealhed involution of auiiles and 
IfiftrB, of solemn 'eamestnesB and quaint concalta; those sudden upru^hinga 
rf gmad and magniloent sentiment, like the flame-pointed arches of cnthe* 
diala ; th^e rangtes of &ncy, half gubha, half hunsan \ those complications 
of dizay magDificenee Titb fairy lightness ; those strmmings of many-eoloured 
Bght; those carri^ags whertiin evLsry naturtil object id faithfully reproduced, 
yet combined into a kind of enchantment ; the union of all these is In 
Shakspeare, and not in Milton. Milton had one most glorious phase of 
humanity in its perfection; Slunkflpeare had all united; from the **deep 
ittid dreadful" sQb'l:>a«>i^ of die organ to the most aerial warbling of ita 
h^heat key, not a step or pipe was wanting. 

But, in due, at the end of all this we went l^ack to our hotel tq du\36RK* ] 
After ditmer we ^vt out to ece tlie church. E^eu'S^'aJAfit l<»Vt VaJi 'visjN. * 
JDiov poetic mouummt than this chnrcb, sUriuliaii^ Ba \*t. ijiifta ;isssA <Jv&^ 



'ering trwa, on the beautiful haviks of the Avoa, A Boft, BtiH 1 
Vas frilliiig on tlse leftTcs of tlie lindda trecSj 03 we iv&iked up the (ivciitie 
to the chiirch. Etch niiny thoagh it WflB, 1 utttitJftl tliat matiy little lutlB 
would oecaLHioniilly break out into King. In the event of suoh a pheno- 
tncTKin as a brijrhi dny, I think there muEt be quite & jubilco nf blrda here, 
ETtiD as he sung who lies helow :— 

*' Thf' oiicFl-^ock, flo Hwk of haeit 

"With orBnpe'tKwny bill, 
The thrcwlle witli bis note so trg**, 

The- wren with liltlf* quill ; 
The finch, the fparron. and thelni-kj 

Th* plniD-ftoag cLckoo gr*y*" 

Thfl church has been caTcfallj restoii'ed inside, bo that it is Ddw in ticcT- 
lent pTeairvation, and Shakspeare Ilea buried under ti broad, flat stonB ia 
the clmncel, I had full often read, and know by heart., the inscription on 
this Btoue ', hut somehow, when I camo and stood oTcr it, and read it, it 
affected me m if there were a» emanation from the grave beneath. I have 
<jften wondered at that inscription, that a mind eo eeasitiTe, that had 
thonght BO mnch, and ospressed thought with such startling power oii all 
tbe mysteries of death, the grftve, and the future world, shonld haTeiuaiid_ 
Jiothiog eke to inscribe en hia own grave but this i- — 

" Good Friend for lestia SAKE forb«» 
To diGO T-E DBJt EncloAscd HEBe 
BlrtB be T-E Man ^. eparea T-Es Stones 

AM cmat be He y oiotai my tonca." 

It seems that tlie inscription has not heen without ita nee, in w 
yfhpLt the aensitive poet most dreaded j for it is recorded in one of the bcxiku 
sold here, that eome years ago, in digging a neighbouring grave, a mrelees 
seiton hroite into the si tie of SliakEpenre'a tomb, and looking in saw lils 
bones, and could easily liave carried away the sknll bad he not been de- 
terred by the imprecation. 

HherB is s, monument in the side of the wall, which has a bust of Shak- 
iqteaie upon it, said to he the most authentic likeness, and eupposed to 
liave been taken by a ctust from his face after death. Thia statement vras 
made to us by the guide "who showed it, and ho stated that Chan trey had 
i3ome to that conclusion by a minute examination of the face. He took UR 
into a room where was an exact plaster cast of the bust, on which he 
pointed out various little minutisB on which tills idea wtis foundKi. The 
two aidea of the faee are nut ahkc ; there is a fdling in and depression of 
the muscles on one side wliich does not exist on the other, such as probably 
■would never have oecuned in a fancy bust, whero the c£;rt almiys is to 
Tender the two Eidea of the face as much alike as poaaibie. There is mora 
liilmesfl about the lower part of the face than is consistent with the theory 
of an idealized bust, but is perfectly conaiatent with the proliahjlities c^^ 
the time of life at which he died, and perhaps with the efeots ot ti^H 
disease of which he died. ^^M 

All this I set down as it waa relabcd to me by our priidc ; it had & verf 
phnffib/e and juraliabk sound, and I was bent on believidg, which is a gi*eat 
juati^r in faith of ftU kindE. ^ ^^ 

li is something in fjirour of tliC BuppoaitiOTi t\ia^ liiXa \% wi ^n^U^oii^H 

II " 
I 8TllATT0BD-0N-A.VO3f. 101 

Oem, that it was erected Jn Ais dwh native town Tcitliin Bovea yeara of 
dc«itli, among petiple, tlioraforc^ -vfho moat haire prc?orved tUe recalke- 
tion of hk |^>GFsoiial appearance. - After -the manner of thuse times it w:a« 
origiiiiilly pointed, the httir and berfril >Tf ivu auburn colour, the eyea liazel» 
anil the dresa was represented as eonais^i*^ af a scarlet doublet, over whidt 
was ii knf.'io block gown without aleeves ; '^IJ Ti^tUirli l^juka like arj attempt ta 
presei-vfl an esjict likcuesa. The inwerlptinn' ii^n it, hIho, seemtd to abyflr 
that there ware acme in the world by m nieaiia q^ftyaia <tf who and what 
lie was, ' \ ,' , 

Neit to tli0 tomb of Shakspeare in the chancel .ifj^-^otifi^J his faToiirit© 
diu^hter, over whom aamobodj Laa placed tbe foll&sMiig tiuaint inBcdp- 
. I^OQ ; — 

*' Witty shore her sei, but LtBt's not aW, 

Wise to salTKtinn was good ft[istfLi§5 JlaU, 

8oiii«thiii|);ul' 81iiik«pi'ure witt iti th»t, l.iuC Ibis 

%Vbollj ai' him, with vrhom she is aavf in blui^j 

ThsiJ, piwactiger, koat ne'er tt tpw, 

To weop with h«r tbftt wept with all— 

That wopt, yet ahe heiA^lf to cheer 

Them up wkli comfttrt^ cordial f * 

Her love shall Iitp, her jiMsrtj" spread, • 

WJitiu ibuu bast ue'er & tear to tHuA" 

Thifl good Mistress Hall, it appeara, was Shakapcane'a faYOtmte among 

his three children. Hfs aoHj Ilamet, died at twelve years of ago. His 

fiftught«r Judith, as uppeaJH from aurac curious dt>t;iiinenl atUl extant^ could 

not write her own nomo, but signed with hor mark; so that the " vdt" of 

the faiDil^r must huve cnnsentrated itself in Mistress Hall, Ta her^ in hla 

last will, which ia still extant, Shakij[ieare bequeathed an amount of honsea, 

I lomtis, plate, jewtila, auid iHlier valualles, Bufljeient to constitute quite a 

' fciodsrirnts estate. It would appear, from thia, tiiat the poet deemed ber 

Dt>t ouly "wise nnto salvation," but wise in her day and genemtion, thus 

intrusting her with the bulk of his worldly gotwJs, 

I His wife, A an Hathaway, ia buried near by, -under the same j^Tement. 

FriJin the slight notice taken of her in tho poet'a will, it would apiiear that 

] there was little loTe between them. Ha married her when he was but 

I eighteen; most likely ahe was a mero rustic beauty, entirely incapable 

either of appreciatiag or adapting herself to that wide and wonderful mind 

hk iti full dereloptnent. 

Am to Mistress HaU, though the estate wt^ carefully entailed, through her, 
to heirs male through all ganeraticjitt, it was uot hor got>d fortune to beeome 
tha mother of a long line, for sbt; had only oaa daughter, who became Lady 
Barnard, and in whom, dying ehildleaa, the family tiecame estinct. Shaka- 
puare, like St!ott, s<eemg to have had the desire to perpetuate himself by 
fffundlng a faiaily with an eBta,te, and the cuLncidence in the result is striking. 
(Jeniua must be its own monument. 

Afttjr we had explored the churoh, we went out to waUc about the pla,oc 

[Wa Hcrossed the beautiful bridge over the Avon, and tliougiit how lovely 

l^ose fields and memlews nfould look, if they only had sun shine ta set +bfim 

out. Then we went to the town hall, where we met tke mayor, wlw had 

kindly callod a-nd offer od to show us tlie place. 

It feccmti, in 1768, that Garrick uat himself to work in goofl eaniest 
Lonuiir to Shukj^BitrB's memoryi bjr gelUng up o.^'^'^'^ ^\Ti&tEi^T»&.<i^' 




s.nie$ttodo I 


Stratford; and tLc world, through the t'iteBttof Qua nctotf hiTing become 
alive >u)d cnthuidaEtiQ, liberal &ubam]>elc>Bs 'Vv^ro m:ide by tile ngbiUty Sttid 
gentry, tUo towa hall was Imndsom^^^ Tep^urcd and adumed, and a atatae 
of Shiikisptare, preaeat^d by Gan-rik,* » m placed in a niche at one end. 
Then all the chief men imd the,iiu£hty naen of th& nation cwoae and testified 
their reveroDRC for the poe^lT i^ving a general jubilee. A great tent was 
Bpnjad on tlie Iwmka oLiie'itTon, where tJiey made speeches and drank 
Trine, and wound up alt witii a great dance ia the town hall; and so tlie 
Toauea of Shii"kBpcartr',V£fre*d'pj>eaHed, and hia position settled for all geoera/' 
tiuus. The raum^tn'ljhd^wn'htLll is a very handsome one,, and has picturoa 
of Garricl; 'uid thtr^^ber notables who figured on that occasion. ~ 

After tha^^e irere taksn to sae New Place. * ' And what is New Fla?« 
yon say J **' the'iiouse where Shakapeare lived f Hot exactly ; but a hoi 
built ifhjrff Jife lionse was, 

Ve.T^^C out into what was Shaksp^re^s gardent where we veere pbown 
iii8*li;*iiberry — not the on a that be planted though, but a Yerl1a,il.ile mulberry 
*'pliw\ted on the Eume spot ; and then wa went back to our hotel very tired,, 
," , (Pat having conscientiously performed every jot and ^ttle of the duty of good 
• '^'jiIlgrimB, 

As we Bat, In the drizzly evening, over oar comfortable tea table, C- 

ventured to inLUnate pretty decidedly tbat h« consiJered the whole tiling a 
l&orM ; whereat I thought I aaw a slight twinlile around the eyes iind mouth 
of OUT most Christian and patient fri&nd, Joi>eph Stuiigo. Mr. S, laughingly 
iold him. that be thought it the greatest ei^ciae of Christian tolerance, 
that he should have trailed round in tho mud with us all day in our eight- 
seeing, hearing with our xmrfa&DTtable mptures. Eo smiled^ and said, 
quietly, **I mnsrt confess that 1 was a little pleased that our friend Harriet 
was so zealous to see Shakapeare's honse^ wheu it wasn't his house, and so 
eamtsst to get sprigs from his mnlberry, when it wasn't his mulberry," We 
were quite ready to allow tie foolisihai^is of tbo thing, and join the laugli at 
nnr own expense. 

Aa to our bed rooms, you mnst know thnt aJI the apartments in this 
hoiiFe are named after different plays of Shakapeare, the uams being printed 
coMspJcnonsly over each doi>r ; m that the choosing of our looma nude us 
a littk sport. 

' ' "What rooms will you have, gentkmen 1" says the pretty chamber maiiL^^ 
"Jloonjfi," said Mr. S, ; "why, what are thra^to have ?" ^^M 

" Well, there's Bichnrd HI m6. there's Hamlet," saya the girl, ^| 

"0, Hamlet, by all meana, ■ said I; "that was always my favourite» 
Can't Hleep in Ekharcl 1 11.^ we should tave such ba^l dreams." 

^'Fiit my port," add C -, *'l want All's well that ends well." ^^m 

"'I thinkf" caid the chaiciber maid, hesitating, *'the bed in namlet isni^^^l 
large enough for two. Bichard 111. is a very nice room, sir.'* ^^H 

In fa^t, it became evident that we were foreordained to Uekard ; so we 
KBdlveJ to embrace the modem hiattirieal view of this snbject, which will 
before long tnm him out a saint, and not be afraid i>f thcj muster roll of 
gboflts whitjb Shakspeara represented as infesting his apartment. 

Well, for & woudrr, the next uiorning rose a jL;entuue siinny, beantiful day, 

Iret the fact be recorded, that such things do somttiiuBs occur even in Eng- 

iBad. C-- ■ was molliliESd, and began to recant his iU-natnred heresiea of 

t&eji^i he£ot% aad wmt so f«ur i» to walk, out of his ownptoper motkn, 


to kim Hiktha way's cottage Mors breakfb^— be h&'mg one i£ tbe t^rethreii , 
described by Longfellaw, 

" Who is fifled with moat mimenloiu poweta 
Of getting up at aH i9«rU of hsma \" • 

and tberefore be came in to breakfast table -with that serenity of Tirtttoa* 
compoBiire which generally attends those who have been otit etyoyiug i\^ 
bfeaniaes of nature while their Eeighboma have been inglorioualy doaiug. 

The walk, be ^iil, was beautiful ; iJie cottage damp, musty > and fuH^yl i 
ftad a sapposititious old bedatesd, of the age of Queen Elizabeth, Tt'hicb faal j 
been obtruded upon hia notice because it miyht have beloHged to Ami] 
Hathawny's mother, rec^iiTed a special inaledlttion. For my part, mj | 
relic-hnntuig propenaitiea -were not in the slightest deigree appeiused, bat 
mther stimulated, by the inveatigatioQB of the day before. 

It seemed to me so singular that of sncE » ami. t^ere should not Temain 
ooe accredited relic ! Of Martin Luther, though ho lived much eurlier^ i 
bow many things remain I Of almost aiiy dli^tingiikbed character hoiif I 
mucli more is known than of ShakBpeace ! There la not, aa far as I cai| I 
discover, an authentic relic of anything belonging to hiin. There arfl vsty 
few anecdotes of hia sayings or duimg^ ; no letters, no private memoranda)^ I 
that ghould lot us into the secret of whut ho was personally who has ia I 
toma pcrsDiiaied ail minds. The very perfectioa of his dramatie talent haf J 
beoome an impenctrahle veil ; we can no more tell frum his writings what ] 
were hia predominant taeteB and habita thjin we can discriminato among thi ' 
TorJety of mekidiea what are tJae native notes of the mocking bird. Th6 
only msans Isft us for forming an opimoa of what he vm personally, ora 
ioferonoes of the most delicate nature from the elightest premises. 

The common idea which has ptsrvaded the world, of a joyonsj revuigv 
somewhat unsettled, and dissipated character, would seem, from many 
well-authenticated, facts, to he inccrfect. The gaieties and dissipations of 
his life eeem to have been confined to bis very Barliest days, and to have 
been the exnbaratice of a moat extraordinary vitality, bursting into exis- 
tenoo with such force and vivacity that it had not had time to collect itself, 
and BO (!ome to fielf- knowledge and control. By many accounta it would 
appear that the character he suBtained. La the lost years of hia life was that 
<^ a Judicious, common-senfie sort of man ; a discreet, reputable^ and re!i- 
pone householder. 

The inscription on his tomb is worthy of remark, as indi<»tLng the rspn- 
t«£ioQ he bore at the time ; "Jvdido PyUteWf ffeit io Socratem, arte. Maro- 
»eat.^ (In judgment a BTestor, Lagenina a Socrates, in art a Virgil.) 

The comparison of him, ia the first place, to Nestor, proverhially famoua 
fijr ptftotiKi-l judgment and virtus of life ; next to Boctatcs, who was a kind 
<jf Gretk oombinatiiin of Dr. Paley and Dr, Franldin, indicates a very dif- 
ferent impression of him &om what would generally be expressed of & poet* 
pertainly what would not have been placed on the gravs of an eecentric^ 
erratic, wiU-o'-thc-wiBp geninsj however distinguished. Moreover, the 
pious author of good Mis trass Hall's epitaph records the fact of her being 
"wise to salvation," as a more espeoinJ i^mt of resemblance to her father 
than evea her being "witty above hai sex," and expressefl most confident 
hope of her being with him in bliss. The Puritan tone of the epitaph, as 
>r^ ua, the qfloiltj nf the vtrite, ^v^a i^a&on. to vex^c^iqi^ A^oih ^ ^«t«& ^e^^ 

and I 


written by one who was seduced into a tomlatoiie lie by any auperfiuity of 
poetic HympatJiy. 

Tha Issi wQl ot Shikspeaxe, wniixia. by bis own hand and still prea^inedf 
fthows sever&I ttdngs of the m&n. 

The tntxodtictioii ia aa foUowH ; — 

"la the mme of God. Amen. I, 'William ShtiliEpeare, nt Stratford 
upon-ATon, in the county of Warwick, gcntkmanj in perfect health nnti 
memory, (God be praised,) do make and ordain this my last 'wili and tefita- 
m«nt in manner and form foliowinfr • that ie to aay, — 

*•! commend my sonl into the hands of God lay Creator, hoping, aad 
assnTedly believing, through the only mi?rits of JesuH Chriiit, ray Sftvlo' 
to bo made partaker of life everlafiting j and my body to the earth, wbfij 
it ia mode.^' 

The will then goea oa to diflpoee of an amnntit of houses, Ifinde, platei, 
money, jewels, &c., which showed certainly that the poet had possessed 
aome worldly akill and thrift in aceuranlation, atid to divide them with a 
care and twcuraLy which would indicate that ht w&a by no menna of that 
dreamy and nnpractie^U, hahit of mind which carea not what heoomes of 
worldly goods. 

We may also infer something of a man's character from tho tone and sen* 
linientii of otbGis to ward b hiiu, Glasa of a certiLin colonr easts on sur- 
niunding objects a reflettloii of it^ own hue, and so the tint of a man's 
character retnms iixren ns in the hahitnal maunor in which he is spokeu of 
by those around him. The common modo of speaking of ShaJcHpeAre 
always savoured of endearment. "Gentle Will" is an expressioji that 
neeiEied oflenest rcpeat-ed. Ben JohBsoa inscribed his ^er&l Terees, "To 
tlie Memory of mj/ Moved Ml'. Williaia Shakbpearo ;" he ca!la him the 
*' sweet swan of Avon." Again, in hia linea nnd<>r a bust of Shak^peare^ 
ha says, — 

" Tha Jgure that thou nerat put. 
It WM for goatlct ShatspenrL' fiit," 

In later times Mil too, who conld hav£ known him only by ti^diiion, 
tslls Mm "my Shakspeare," "dear son oP^ueraory," axid "sweetest 
Shakspeare." Now, nyhody ever >\*rote of swett John Milton, or gentle 
John Milton, or gentle MartiiJ Lnther, or even sweet Ben Johnson. 

Eove saj8 of Shakspsjare, "The latter part of his life was spent, aa all 
men of good senss would wish theirs may be, in ea*e, retireweiit, and the 
conversation of h)3 friends. His pleasurable wit and gowl nature en- 
gaged him in the acquaintance, and entitled him to the friondship, of the 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood." And Dr. Drake Kiys, "Ho waii high in 
reputation as a poet, favoured by the gjeat and the accomplished, and 
behaved by al! who knew him.'* 

That Shakepeare had religious principlo, I infer not merely from the in- 
dicatiouB of his will and tombatone, but from those strong evidcneos of the 
working of the Teligloua element which nro scattered through his playar. 
No man could haTC a clearer perception of God's authority and man's duty; 
Eo one has expressed more forcibly the etrongth of God's government, the 
spirituality of his roqnirementa, or shown with moi-e fearful power the 
struggles of tJifi "law in the members ^'arring a^'ainst the law of tha 
Jaind. " 
These ewidance^ mattered tlmmgli his pUiya,, of d#^ religioas stniggica, 

8TB ATF OttD - Olf - A V ON . 

malie proliflble the Idm, in the latter thouglitfaJ and tiaTiqitil yearn 
of liis Uf^, iliiVL^tional Iiupul&os might Uare wttted into habite, and that the 
aoUmn kinguftge of hia will, in which lie professes hm faitli in Christ, w*a 
not » mer* fonn. Proliably he iisul all his lifpT, ovon in hiii gayeat hourg, 
more real roJigioua principle than tha hilmity of hia manner wuuld giTC 
reason to Bnppoae. I alwaje fancy hu vas thinking of himaelf when ho 
trrote thw cLaiaeter ; *' For the m&n doth fear God, howsoever it eeem not 
In him by retieon of Bome laf^ jests he doth nrnko." 

Keith ur h there aoj fotindAtion for tlie impreniOQ thnt he was nnd^r- 
v»liied m his own times. No literary man of Mb day had more sncccsa, 
mure flattering attentions bum the gi'eai, or reaped mure of the gnbatantiul 
fyiaia of popularity, in the form of worldly goods. While hia contempo' 
rary, Ben JoTi?on, sick in a miserable alley, is fiTrcGil to beg, and rBoeiTes 
bnt a wretched pittance from Charlce I,, Slin-kspeard'a fortune steadily io- 
crea^es from year to year. Ec buys the best place lq hia native town, aod 
fits it np with great taste; he offered to lend, on proper aecnrity, & sum of 
money for the use of the town of Stratford ; he added to hia estate ia Strat- 
foTd a hnndred and eeventy acres of land ; be bongkt half the great aad 
BJnall tithes of Stratford ; and his aannal inoocne is estimated tu have beca 
what would at the present time be nearly four thousand dollars. 

Queen Elizabeth also patronized him after hor ordinary faaliion of patron- 
i^g literary men, — that is to say, she expressed her gmciuua pleasure 
that lie should burn incense to her, and pay hh own bills : economy wi» nob 
one of the least of the royal graces. The Earl of Southamptoij patronised 
bim in a more material fashion. 

Queen Eliiabetli oven so far condescended to the poet aa to perforra cer- 
tain hoydenifih tricks while lie was playing on the sta^ to see if she conid 
not diBConeert hia ajxiaJtin; by the miijesty of her royal presenile. The 
p(»et, wto waa perferming the part of King Ilenry IV., took no notice of her 
motions, till, in order to bring him to a criai.«, ahc dropped her glove at hia 
feet I whereat he picked it up, and presented it her, izaproviMng tKeso two 
lines, aa if they had been a part of the play; — 

" And. f hnup^h now beot na iMa iugk embtssjF, 
Yet atoop we to take up our coturin's glove," 

1 think tliia anecdoto Teiy characteristic of them both ; it seems to mo it 
tliowfi that the poet did not so absolutely craw) in the dnst before her, as 
did aliQoat all the ao-callod mea of her court; though he did certniiily flatter 
l»€r after a fashion in whit^h few queens caa he flattered- Hia de9cripti<in 
of the belligerent old Gorgon as tlie " Fair Vestal throned by the West" 
si-eiMS like tlie poetry and fimcy of the buantiful ^airy Queea wast^ upon 
ihu half-brute clown: — - 

*• Come tit thee down npon this flowery bed, 
1 WTiilo I thy aniiiible chcclia do tioj, 

I And stick musk ros<» in thy slwk, *niooHi henrl, 

r And kisi thy fair, large «ara, my geiiUe joy." 

Elizabetli's understanding and appreciation of Shalcspeoro was mnchafier 
tlie ffiidiiou of Nick Bottom's of the Fairy Queen. I cannot bat belicvti that 
the Mieo of genius who employed their powers in celebrating this mo^ re- 
pnhd're and diarigreeahle woman must somotimtiia have eomforted tUemsehci^ 
In; t^ Sf^ laugh in private. 



Lt ordier to «|Fpredate Shakspcarfi's tniod from hk plays, -nre miuit dis- 
I orimiiuito Tli«t expi'QBBed tlie fcruss tastes of bis age, and what he wrut« to 
[ y]«u« himselC. The Man? Wives nf Windsor was a spedmen of what bg 
I "wnulm for 41Im *' Fnir Vestal ;" & {^oinmentarj on the delicrvcy of her maidea 
[MocUtalwns. The iUdfimnmer HtghVs Diwni be wrote from his awn ioner 

b tttt niortmhi^ yte took teare of our hotd. In leaviDg we were much 

ptOttdltd vvtii ibe situ pie HtidliaeEss of the people of the bouse. The landlady 

Wr dwnghtttft cnme to hid ma fiirewell^ with much fseling ; and the 

r begged my aonptance of a bti^kd pofsc, knit hy one of her daught^^ 

l« mad, during the winter eTianings while they wore reading Uncle Tom. 

I this toivQ one finds the aimple-h^arted, kiadlr EngliE^b peoplo eorrofipond- 

f to Ihe suae dus which we aee in our retired Kew England towns. We 

I waamj iBttrke of kiadneSB finsui different regidenta in Stratford ; in 

expreMMm of them they apprMUted and entered into our desire for 

p^vsM-5 with a deliflacy whidi toacbed as sensibly. 

We had liUl« time to look about na to see Stratfoid iit the wnabiae. So 

^Via wont oT^ to a pihu» on the lunhs of th« Avon, where, it was KUii, mo 

I'tould f^ a Tvry perfect view of the chnrcb. The remerabriuice of this 

t is to me lik« a -ney pleasant dream. The day was bright, the air waa 

I WVi fltUli ■■ ve walked up nnd down the alleys of a beautiful gardoQ 

eartWfd^d quito to the oburch ; the rooks were dreamily cawing, and 

fill dark, aji7 circles round the old hnttre&ses and spire. A funeral 

]mi4 Mime \nU> the gruTeyard, and the posaing hell was tolling, A 

I wuiefiiiwl emotions strU£::y;led in mj mind. 
\ ifffmg hmit, that vixthe fancy, that snhtlo, clastic powi3r of upprft' 
aad «arpit«wig all phsuee, all passions of hnmsnity, aie tbeif 
»t£«d 0«t on th» wiikd 1 hrt they spent like the lightning? are they ex* 
* ti3» tho hnMdi id flowers t or are they atill liTing, still actiTe? and 
wImm ud Low! b it roserred for us, in that '* undieKrovered 
* irhkb ko wpdk^ o^ erer to meet tiie great souls whose breath hoe 
I our aonlrt 
[ lyiik we fn^ tiiQ consequences of our own belief in immoTtaliiy, and 
on the rattk« cf prastnkto dend as a mower on fields of prostrate 
ITS, forgokting t^at acftivity h an e^^^ntial of ^ouls, and that evEry donl 
hn,-'4 nftsscJ away from this world mnst ever since have been actlTcly 
'..ibUa vt iiilntl aJid modes of feeling which it hegan here. 
• uel, fiel6f(h EliEfibeth, and all ihe great men of her conrt^ 
:ul iw-'tlng sumfiwhtftt;; but where! For my part, I am 
.Itfu dwelling on departed genius, of Luther's ejaculatioa 
I tjt\ iiiinu- I'isisBle jpoet : ** I hope Qod will have mercy on such." 
e DtktMtk vX lh» glory of Goil as exhibited in natnral landscape making J 
Us It, rvmpared imh the glory of Gk»d as shown tn the making of sonfij 
|4v)i««<lalt^ thtwo svuLi whieh seem to be endowed with » creatiTe power Uke 
k own f 
Tlwra somm, stritrtly ^peaking, to be only two claoes of sonla — tba 

CiKim and th« noeptiTv. Now, these ereatore ssem to mo to hs^ » 
lily itnd a worth aWt them entirely independent of their moral eh*- 
tut'fir. Thftt (^tt)l;rt^tJ pow<er which shows it^If in Qrask sculpture and 
tlot^ic Aivhtttv'turo, in Kubens, Shakspear^ aatd Moiart, has a quality to 
*># i^iKtpnembiy ndmixuhh and loraUti. ^^ maf tiay, it is tru% that 


hag made us so that we 'cannot help loving it ; out souls go forth to it with 
^f^ infinite longing, nor can that longing be condemned. That mystic 
qjoality that exists in these souls is a glimpse and intimation of what exists 
ill Him in fall perfection. If we remember this we shall not lose ourselves 
in adzoixation of worldly genius, but be led by it to a better understanding 
of what He is, of whom all the glories of poetry and art are but symbols 
f«^ shadows. 



J>Mks, H. :— 

From Stratford we drove to Warwick, (or "Warrick," as they call it 
kere.) This town stands on a rocky hill on the banks of the Avon, and is 
Quite a considerable place, for it returns two members to Parliament, and 
£u upwards of ten thousand inhabitants ; and also has some famous manu- 
iafiboxia» of wool combing and spinning. But what we came to see was the 
castle. We drove up to the Warwick Arms, which is the principal hotel in 
iiiQ place ; and, finding that we were within the hours appointed for ex- 
jubitipni we went immediately. 

IJ^th my head in a kind of historical mist, full of images of York and 
Lancaster, and Red and White Roses, and Warwick the king maker, I 
looked up to the towers and battlements of the old castle. We went in 
through a passage-way cut in solid rock, about twenty feet deep, and I 
should think fifty long. These walls were entirely covered with ivy, hang- 
ing iavpi like green streamers ; gentle and peaceable pennons these are, 
lliaving and whispering that the old war times are gone. 

At file end of this passage there is a drawbridge over what was formerly 
tiie moat, but which is now grassed and planted with shrubbery. Up over 
our heads we saw the great iron teeth of the portcullis. A rusty old giant 
it seemed up there, like Pope and Pagan in Pilgrim's Progress, finding no 
scope for himself in these peaceable times. 

When we came fairly into the court-yard of the castle, a scene of mag- 
nificent beauty opened before us. I cannot describe it minutely. The 
principal features are the battlements, towers, and turrets of the old feudal 
castle, encompassed by grounds on which has been expended all that 
princely art of landscape gardening for which England is famous — ^Icafy 
thickets, magnificent trees, openings, and vistas of verdure, and wide 
sweeps of grass, short, thick, and vividly green, as the velvet moss we 
Bometimes see gro\(-ing on rocks in New England. Grass is an art and 
a science in England — it is an institution. The pains that are taken in 
sowing, tending, cutting, clipping, rolling, and otherwise nursing and coax- 
ing it, being seconded by the misty breath, and often falling tears of the 
dunate, produce results which must be seen to be appreciated. 

So again of trees in England. Trees here are an order of nobility ; and 
they wear their crowns right kingly. A few years ago, when Miss Sedg- 
wick was in this country, while admiring some splexidvA. ^jTft^svQ.a.^^s^'^- 
nian'* /7ari> a lady standing by said to her encowragm^^ , "0,'^^'»'^ 
suppose your trees in America, will be grown up a,t\-eT a.w^^e'?"' 'S^sv5 
ib»t time another style of thinking of America has come wp, axi<i\Jae^ea^« 
i»t I most generally he!u: juade is, " 0, I suppose v^e ca.BXi.Q\. ^^Je^vb^ 



tbowing you anytliing in the yrnj uf trees, comiDg as ytiu fli) from Anierira P 

w9iLTowing out i>f account, howeverj the gigantic growth of our TceBtem river 

I |)otti>me, Tfbwe I LaTe Been sjcamore tmulis t« enty feet in diameter — 

aviiig out of account, I say, all thi^ mammoth arbDria, tLese English parka 

) tre^s OS fine And as eiT^ctsTe, of thdi kind, as any of ours - and when 

[ ajiy tltdr trees are an order of nobility, I mean that they pay a rev^rencfl 

t thj^n sadi as their magiu licence deserves. Such elms na adorn the strceta 

r New HaTCD, or overarch tJie meadows of Aiidover, would in England be 

nsidorod as of & value vhiah no tuonej coutd represent ; no paintt, ne ex- 

i voald be spared to preserrtt tbelr life and health i tbey would never 

t shot dwd by b&Tuig gas piixiB laid under them, an they bavti heea in 

of our Kew Snglai^ towiu ; <a suffered ta be dctvoured by cank«r 

tirms for want of any amount of money apeut in their defence, 

£>i.»mc of thti fitifSt trees in thia place arc ma^nifieiMit eediuis of Lebanoiii 

Kich br'uig to mind the expr^sion in Psalms, " Excellent aa the cedara." 

They are the v^ry imf lersooation of kingly majesty, and are fitted to graco 

the oM feudal stniiigiiold tif Wjuwick tlio king maker. These treei, stand- 

; as Ibegr do amid magDifioent sweeps &Dd uudukdona of Iswn^ throwing 

i thiJT loightj armi with mdi m^estic breadtk and freedom of ontUue, 

<: thetnwlves a Imng^ growing, historical epic. Their seed was brougbi 

llt'ty Inland in ^e dd dxyt of tbs crusadea; and a hundred le^m 

li'^la he mado Up of tho time, dat^ and oc^eion of their planting, ^esa 

cruKidui hare l&fb ^air mark eiverywhere through Europe^ ftntm the croa 

panel on the doom of oommoD houaes to the orients touches and tLrabeeE^uea 

. «r «AstIes ami datbedmls. 

In ih* wigft of Stephen, there waa ft certain Roger de Newbnrg, fle«rad 

uri t,if WitrwiclL, who appears to have been an eiceedingly active and 

iihlic^spiritel character ; and, besides eom|aering port of Wales, foundsd 

I this Btitj^hlMJurhdod various priories and hospitals, &mong which was tha 

honsu of the Temptars tuid a hospital for lepem. Ha made several pil- 

gtiinagca tu Eloly Land; and so I think it as likely as most theories th*t 

ho I. light tt» have tlie crwllt af theise cetlars. 

T)tc*B Earlis of Warwici appear always to have been remarkably stirring 

, wod in tlicir day and geiietatiou, and furomost in whatever was going on in 

I |h« world, whether political or religious. To begin, there waa Guy, Earl 

|tf Wia*wick, who fivod Bomewhere in the times of the old dispensation, 

|Vf\tir«> King Arthur, and who dibtinguiahed himself, ocoording to the 

rftoHluiiii of those days, by hilling giants and various iX)loured dnigons, among 

hich A gneu one especially figures. It appears that he slew also a notabla 

I wrw, ot% kind of miwUidon hreei!, which prevailed in those early days, 

hkih wm miJdi^gnat havoc in the lidghbourhood. In later times, when 

I gUnlflt dttgoM^ and other animals of that gort were somewhat broiaght 

nnder^ w« find th« Satla of Waiwick eriun!ly busy hnming and slayitig to 

l^e right and left ; now cnisading into Palestine and now fighting the 

1 ytvncli, who were a standing rvsort fur activity when nothing else wttf to 

'i» dwip ; with great venmtiUty diversifying these affairs with pilgrimages 

> t&0 hoh ^pii^elire, and founding monasteries and hoepitals. One stout 

tiftcF jfiujig to PaT«stine and Utyvng ftfeouV ^aasi. lUis a very ditigoa 

*po*t^ ycjitv, fii\iiii:ht horn* a IVytSaTW^cnkkis Val«vAuu,»»,^\i»ft.Nim;.' 

***(nI ami in-ub a tlirbtiau of, ri tt armi*. 

d/unti^ tbo imifile gf the Eyats, Vt isaa »>'^«rg™^ ^ ^wmHa^Visa 



lost. Stout dU Ricliarfl, tbe Icmg-mnker, set irp first one party antl 
m. iha other, according U) kiri own sovereign pleajiiire, aud showtil aa 
ich talent at fighting on bath sidaji, and liccping the oouutry in axi up- 
as the modem politicinns of America, 
T^ea the times of the Long Parliament and the Comin on wealth eamfiji 
■1 of Wurwiek waa high admiral of England, and fought Talianttj fur 
imumwealth, iming the uavy oti the popular side; and hia grandson 
the youngest daughter of OUTet Cromwell. When the royal family 
he reatorcd, an E*rl of Warwick woe one of the eii lorda who were 
Holland for Charles II. TTae earla of this family have been no leas 
" ihed for movenientH whioh have faToured the advance of dvUisa^ 
id letters than for energy in the battle^tield. In. the reittn of QueGU 
ith^ an Earl of Warwielt fijunded the Hiatory Leetui^ at Oambridge, 
I; a saJary fur the priifessor. Thia same earl wiw general patron of 
and arts, ass^tsting Doaiiy men of talents, and waa a ijarfcioiilar and 
ttiraate friend of Sir Philip Sidney. 

What more especially coucerna us aa If ew Englanderji is, that an earl of 
Jim hotiae w*8 tho powerful patrou and protector of New England during 
4lie earlier years of our country. This was ]tobert Grevilb, the high 
pdiuiral of England before alluded to, and ever lookeil upon us a protector 
Iflf the Puritana. Freqiient allusion ia mado to him in Wiuthrop'a Journal 
peiformjng varioua good offices for them. 

ffhe fir«t grant of Connecticut was made to ihiB earl, And hy him asai^ed 
to Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brooke. The patronage which this earl 
^eitended to the Purit^ins is wore remorkahle hecanae in prindpls he vm 
^Tourable to Bpiseopacy. It appears to haTe been prompted by a obiTat- 
"^us Bense of justice; probably the aame which injQuenced old Guy of Wur- 
trick, in tbe King Arthui- times, of whum the ancient chroniuler says^ 
" TMh worsliipful knight, in Ivis acta of warre, e^er consydered what pax- 
^ a liid irronge, and thorto would he drawe." 
The prosfint earl has never taken a share in public or political life, but 
7«sided entirely on his estate, devoting himself to the improvement of hid 
ground and tenantsS. He received the estate much emharroiiaed, and tho 
coodition of the tenantry was at that time quite depresaed. By the devo- 
tion of his life it JiJi-i been rendered one of the most dourj^hlng and pros- 
perous estates in thia part of England. I have hoard him apuken of aft a 
^eij exemplary, exoallent man. He ia now quite advanceil,, and has been 
for Bome time in fiiiUng health. He sent our pavty a very kind and oblig- 
lag me^Migc, desiring that we would consider ourselves fully at hbarty to 
TJait any part of the grounds uv castle, there being always some reservation 
aa to what tourists may visit. 

We caught glimpses of him once or twice, supported by attendants, aa he 
vaa takinj; the air in one of the walks of the grounds, and afterwards 
Trheeleti about in a garden chair. 

► The fainily bAS thrice died out in the direct line, ftnd been obliged t* 
ItiesuBeitate through collatei'al branches; hut it seems the blood holds good 
«otwith»tanding. As to houotirs there Is acarcdv «. puas\\i\fi ii!^<\ut<\yB.\». 
tbe stste or artay that hf^B not at one time or oUier Vteeu \iife ^Ma^fcVwi 4. 
ibis family. 

' Under the shade of thes^ Jo% cetkra ttey \iot(1 s^miiB «^Qt laSJi^XK. «^ 
rembuy Im^ of princes. Uno cannot but fee\. w \(jt>Vm?. o^ 




Uno cannot but fe^\, w \(jt>Vm% o^ ^^"^ 


majedie trees, with the battlements, turrets, and iGweiti of tLo old caade 
I evtry wliei^ surroandiug him, and the magnificent parks and la-wus opening 
I through tlreauiy viistas uf trees into whfit seems imraensurahle dietaTtce, the 
lfbrx!« of tha wjliloqny ivhidi Sbnk.sp<^artt pufe into the mouth of tlje dying 
Tfild kmg-ma,ker,^ ua he Ilea bretkLhiug out his sonl In the dust and Idood of 

the battle-fieM \-^ 

" ThuA yidda the wdar to tho ir^'i edge, 
WJKi»e CLTTOS gave shelter to tk* pnnociy eBglo^ 
"Un der who»e iihadF the rBiDpant iJOn fttcplj 
WJitae top branch nverpcoTpd Jotc'b sprendinfj hfw, 
And k«{it low nhrutw Jrom wintpr's^Kiwerl^il wtnd. 
Ilt«4««y«t, that naw are dimmed T^itb deoUi's black TbO, 
Have been w piercing aa the tjiidday sun 
To search the aetret trcnauoB of the wofld ; 
The wrinldea in tny broff , now llHed with blend, 
'Wew Ukenfd oft ta kinj^ly iepulchrea j 
Pur who lived kiap but 1 vouid dig bia grftve ? 
And who dnrat ainilo when WnrwH't beiif hifl brow? 
liO, now ID J' Blory stiiearc d in duat imd bltxsd ! 
Ky partB, my wjilke, my munors tbnt T Juw), 
Bveo now foimko mo; und ofall my buids 
la nothing left me but my body's length I 
TVhy, what is pomp, rule, reign, but cjirth and diirtP 
Anil Hve wo bow w« can^ yvl «iie we innat," 

Diiring Shak^care's life Warwick was in the poi?sessi<3u of GrcvilW, Via 
friend of Sir Philip Sidney^ fintl patron of arts and 1 otters. It is not^ 
therefore!, improhablo tKiit SUakspeftro might, in his time?, often have heen 
admitted to wander through the ma^ificent lEfronnds, and it is more thai 
probable that the eight of these raajestic c^dara iniglit h&ve auggefltfjd tht 
noble image in this fioHh>iiity. It ie only about eiglut miles from StRitfottt^ 
wittitt tlie fair litmta of a comfortable pedEstrian excoTsiou, and certiunlj 
cuidd nut bat have heea an ohje^^t of deep intereat to euch a mind 

1 have dcserihed the groviBda first, hut^ in fact, -we did not look at them 
first, hut went into the house, where we saw not otily all the gtate rooma^ 
tuli through the kiiiJuesss of the noble pt^>prietor, miiny of those which an> 
aftt commonly exhibited ; a bewildering' disphiy of magnificent apartmenta, 
pietores, gemB, vasea, arms and armotir, antiquca, all, in Bhort, that the 
wealth of a princaly and powerful family had for conturies beea accumu- 
lating. ' 
Tlie great hall of the castle ia skty-two feet in length and forty in 
feeadih, omaraented with a richly carTtd Gothic twif, in which figarea 
^_.lai^ly the fatnily cognizance of the b^r and rtig^d srtaC There ia a 5U<^^_ 
^^K^Heseion of shields, on 'which are emblazoned the quarterings of siuccesacl^H 
^^^TlBarla of Warwitik. The sides of the waU am ornainent'ed 'nith lancfll^H 
corselets, shields, helmets, and complete suite of armour, regularly arranged 
as in an armoury. Here 1 learned what the buff coat ifl, which had so often; 
puziled me in rieading Scott's descriptions, as there were several hanging np 
hero. It seemed to be a loose doublet of chamois leather, wliieb 'waa worn 
undef the armour, and protected the body from its harslmeJis. 
Sere we savf the helmet of CrinuweU, a moat Tenerndde relio. Befdl 

Hegrmtf c&vernous fireplace, vaa piled up on & sled a (juantity of yew tH 

wmd. The rude simp2i(jlt(y of tlras Wtan^ng i4 oa ttws ^sJas^'^ 4nBt <i 

Ihii tnstgnifieetit apartment atmck ma as quite singular. 
ooodnTifition of Bome andGot cuatom. 

Opening from this a|iartineiit on either sids are auitea of rooms, the 
wtofe series being three hundred an4 thirty-three feet in length. These 
troms are all hung with pJctureB, and studded with antiques and cnrioaitiea 
tjf inuneatte vtdue, TherG isj first, the red drawi»g>TOom, EUid then the 
^edax drawing Toom, then the gilt drrtwini^? room, Uie state bed room^ Ike 
^udoir, &c., fcc, hung with piotnres by Yatidykej Rubens, Goido, Sir 
Joshua Reynoltla, I^ul Veronese, any ono of which would reqiiire days of 
Stady ; q( Cfmttt, the casual glnnt-^ that oue could give theau in a rapid 
BorvBy would not anii)unt to much. 

We were ehown one table of genua tmA lapfa lazuli, which OMt whatr 
would be reckoned a coinfortahle fiirtune in New England. For matters of 
tMs kind I haTe little sympntlty. The carivag, made vivid by tli« soul of an. 
inspired artist, tells ine aumetliing of God's power in creating that soul ; 
but a table of gems ia in nowise iatereatiiig to me, e5;cept bo &r as it k 
pretty in itself. 

1 walked to one of the windowBof these lordly apartments, and while the 
eompuny were esamimag buhl L'abinets, and all other deliclonsuestt of the 
pbc0, I looked down the old gray walls into the amber waters of the Avon, 
Trhich flows at tbeir base, and thought that the most beautiftil of all was 
-without. There in a tiny fall that crosses tlie river jn.'it abov^ here, whose 
Wivtera turn the whcok of an old mossy mill, where for centuries the family 
grain has been ground. The river winds away through the beautiful pmks 
and undulating foliage, its Boffc grassy hanks dotted here and there with 
«heep and cattle, and you catch farewell gleams and glitters of it as It losss 
^etf among the trees. 

( Gi-ay moE3, wallflowers, ivy, and grass were growing here and there out 
cf crevices in the caBtle walls, as I looked down, sometimes traiHtig their 
"Jipfiliug teudrlla in the river. This vegetative proisensity of walls is end 
of the chief graees of these old huildings. 

In the state bedroom were a bed and furnishings of rich crimson velvet, 
once belonging to Queen Anne, and presented by George III. to the War- 
■wick family, Tho walls are hung with Brussels tapestry, repreaenting the 
gardeufl of Veraaillea aa tliey were at the time. The chimney-piece, which 
is Bcnlptured of vordo ttutique aud white marble, supports two black 
marble vases on its mantels Over the mantel-piece is a full-length portrait 
of Queen Anne, in a rich brocade dress, wearitig the collar and jewels of 
the Garter, bearing in one hand a ECeptre, and in the other a globe. There 
are two splendid buhl cabinets in the room, and a table of costly stonfl 
'ItOiJk Italy ; it Is morintef) on a richly carved and gdt stand. 

The boudoir, which adjoins, is hung with pea-green satin and Tclvet, la 
^fl room is one of the most authentic portraits of Henry VIII., by Hol- 
Win, in which that sellieb, bmtal, unfeeling tyrant ia veritably set forth, 
trith all the gold and gems which, in Ids day, blinded mankind ; his fat^ 
'white hands were beantifuHy painted. Men have found out Henry YTII. 
Iiy this time ; he is a dead sinner, and nothing mor« is to be expected Ox 
liim, ami so he gets a just award ; but the disposition which bows down 
■gud TVOFsbipB anything of any charact<5r in our day which is Bplendid and 
'iraoceflsful, and excnses aU mond dolinquencieB, \i tlat-^ \s.m «A^ to,^vSisii3V'&, 
*J9 iictt J» wiJt better than thftt which, cringed WtOie Htm-y , 



Ifi the F^Kifl TOom wna a boar liunt, by Ruliena, a disagreeable ai»!jja 
ctt wrottgtt Tvith vumdurful iionnr There Wnire eeveral uthtu- pictureaf 
finllxdn's in this rooia ; one of Mitrtm Luther. 

We passail thniiigh ft long ccirridor, whose aides wero lijietl flritU fMottip 
Btatatia, bu£ts, &c. Out of the muUltude, tlirea parti cularljr iaten 
ine J one wiia a noble h^tmelaticUuly bust of the Blaclc Prince, beiiutifaH 
chiwled in white miirhk ; anothtsr Wflu a. ph^ster cast, said to have beeu 
t(^ea of the face of Olivtr Cromwell Immediately after death. Tho fac^ J 
hiul a bamelj Htreugth amonntmg almost to coaraeneBfl. The evidences of 
ita geuuinenesH uppudr in glancing at it ; eveiythiag is authentic, evrai to 
tlie wart on Tbis lip * no one would have imagined such a one, but the 
flxpreEsion was nohte and peiaceful, briuging to mind tha oft quoted 
•wukIb, — 

"After Ute't fitful Tertr, lie slefipA wdL" 

At the eml of the same cairidor is a splendid picture of Charles I. oa 
huJVtiTne"k, by VamlykB, a most masterly p<!rfonaane«, and apptarinR in its 
ilbjti almost like a reality. Putir Charles had rather tard mrasure, it 
ilways seemed to ma, lie sLraply did an all other prinoes had done before 
^ that la to Bay, he lied steadily, invariably, and conscientiously, in 
eYOTy inBtamoB where he thought he could gaiu aujthing by it ; just m 
Cities v., attd Francis IV., and Catharine de Jledids, and Henry VII2., 
and Elixaheth, and James, Mid all good xoyaJ folks bad always done ; and 
lo ! kt ma^t lose Ma head for it. Hia was altogether a more gentle^ 
nanlj^ and respeiitable perfortnanoe than that of Henry, not wanting in 
^ , Bort of idijttl ma^iiieenee, which his brutal prcdoceEftr, ftr even hit 
ihambling old father ne?er dreamed of. But m it is ; it is not always 
those who m-e Biuners above all men that the tower of Siloara falU, 
it only on thotio who happen to be under it when ita time eomta. So 
I intend to cherish a little partiality for gentlemanly, magnifioeat 
CSiarlcs I.; and eertairdy one could get no more splendid idea of him 
ban by aeein^ hiui fttatuly, silent, ixnd melancholy on his white horse, at 
he end yf tUa long corridor- There be sits, facing the c^dm, atuny, 
~ icplng faice of Oliver, and ndtJier question nor reply lyasisaa between 

vm this corridor we went into the chapel, whoee Gothic windows, 

I Ti-itb rich, old painted glasa, cast a many-coloured light over the 

ak -carved walls and altnr-pietu:. The ceiling is of fine old oak, wrought 

I tlie anus of the family. The window over the altar ia the gift of tlie 

irl of Essex. This room is devoted to the daily religious worship of the 

nily. It liaa been the custom of the present earl iu former yoare to con* 

i the devotions of the family here himself. 
Aboat this time my heiwl and cyss came to that pnint which Bclomon 
J to be not commonly arrived at by mortals — wlicn tiie eye in eatia- 
^_ I irith seeing. I roraeiubor a confusod ramble through apiirtment after 
apartnvent, but not a tdugle thing in them except two jiictures of Sftlvntor 
liosa's, which 1 thought extremely ugly, and was, ttdd, as people always are 
whtn they make such declanitione, that the difliculty was entirely in ray- 
Bvlf, niilMlitit i^ 1 wuuJd study thorn two or three months in faitb, I sboald 
pertvive Fomethhig very nHtuniiilitng. This may be, but it holds equally 
jp/od ct the <xuJm uf on cr^ulng Eire, or tho siiaikH qu a chiumey back ^ in 


fttlier of which, tyrefloliite looking, aud soma imagioatioQ, one can seel 
»ny thing bts chooses, I utterly distrust thia process, by which old blai^k;! 
piettures are looked into shape ; but then I have nothing to loafi, being u|l 
ttia eotirt of the Gentiles in these matterSj and obstinately deterniinedl 
not to believe iu any real pre^nce In urt wliish I cannot perceive by my 1 

Aflor haying examined all the upper stories, we went down, into tha 
TATilt^ nQdemcattL — Taults once grim and hoary, terribJe to captives and 
feudal enemies, now deroted to no purpose more grim than that of coal 
oellara and wine vaults. In Oliver' a tjjue, a regiment waa q^uartered thea-e: 
they are extensive enough, apparently, ■ for an aritny. 

The kitchen and Its adjuncts are of magnificent dimen^ona, and indicate 
an ;impUtud« in the way of provision fur good cheer worthy an ancient 
lionse ; and what Etmcfc me as & still better foatnrc was a library of sound, 
e^nsibis, historical, and religious works for the servants. 

We went into the beer vaults, where a man drew beer into a long blai^ 
jack, such as Scott deaeribea. It is a tankard, made of black leather, I 
siitkuld think half a yard deep. He drew the beer from a large hogshead, 
and cfiei'cd ua some in a glass. It looked very dear, but, on tasting, I 
fonad it so exceedingly bitter that it fitmck me there wedd be small virtue 
far me in abstlnenc^e. 

In passing iip to go otit of the house, wg met in the entry two pleasant' 
looking young women, drei^ed in -n-hite musilin. As they paB&ed ue, a door 
Opened where a table was handacimely set out, at which quite a number of 
Trell'dnesKd people were seating themselves. I withdrew my eyes irome- 
di&tely, fearing lest I had violated some privacy. Onr conductor said to 
hb, *' That is the npper acrranta' dining room." 

Onct} in the yard again, we went to see some of the older parts of the 
tnilding. The oldest of these, Csesar'a Tower, which is said to go back to 
the time of the liomaua, is net now shown to visitors. Beneath it is a 
dark, diuwp dungeon, where prisenera used to be confined, tlio walla of 
TrMcb are traced all over with Ltisfriptions and rude diB-wiugs. 

Tlien you are conducted to Guy's Towtr, nannad, 1 suppoae, after thO' 
hero of tlic? green dragon und dun oow. Hero are five tiers of guard roonia, 
and by the ascent of a hundnid and thirty-three steps you reach the battle- 
ments, where you gain a view of the whole conrt and grounds, as well aa 
of the beautiful aur rounding landacape. 

In coming down from this tower, we somehow or other got upon the 
ramparts, which connect it with the gi'eat gata. We walked on the wall 
four abreast, and played that we were knights and ladies of the oldea 
tame, walking on the ramiwirts. And I picked a bougli from an old pine 
tree that grew over our heads ; it much resembled our American yellow 
pitch pine. 

Then we went down and crossed the gionnds to the greenhouse, to see 
the famoas W."irwiek vase. The greenhouse is built with a Gothic stone 
front, situated ou a flue point in the landscape. And there, ou a pedetii 
suri*otjnded by all manner of towering shmbs, stands Uits celebral 
[ue. It is of white marble, aud was found at the ^toiUna of a lake 
Adrian's vilk, in Italy, They eay that it holds a hundred and thirty- 
galloaiB; constriicteJ, 1 aupijoae, Iu the roifi\jetbg, old, i.tST^v&'^Mvnisa'dt 
the SXomim emperors, Wjen men fceem to liave Oilsusi^wei ^^l^J.^* \V^ 5Q»»^ 



stone I 



ohjetft for which tlicy w(?re Rent iato existenco was to perform tlie foncliff 
of wiue sIcitiB. It is beautifully ueulptured with grape letveg, and 
skin atd elaws of the panther- — tJiese latter certainly Dot an inSipprop 
CDibletD of the god of wine, beautiful, but dangeniua, 

Wei!, nf>w it was all done, ilerodach Balfui^u had moi a more perftict 
e.rpr>,',-: oj the riches of Meaeldah thau we had al the glorioa of Warwick. 
Oh:' iiU-nja likea to sse the moat perfect thing of its kiod; and probably 
tlii-^ U the most perfect specimen of tha feudal agea yet reioaioing in 
En j;! and. 

Aa 1 atood with Joseph Stm^ nndar lie old cedars of Lehajioa, ami 
watched the multitude of tonrials, and partieg of pleaanref who ware 
throaging the wnlka, 1 said to him, "After all, this eftttthlishment 
amuunta to a public mnsetim and pleiwure grounds far the ti!>e of the 
people," Hb assented. "And," said I, " you English poopk like these 
things ; you like these old mfLgtiificeiit Bcaik, kept tip hy old families." 
"That b what 1 tell them," said Joseph Sturge. *' I tell thom there is 
no daager in enlarging the suffrage, for the people would not break, up 
these old Cfitablishmcnts if they could." On that point, of course, I " ^ 
Iio means of formng an opitiion. 

One cannot tIcw an institution so unlike any thing we liave in cur i 
conntjy without baring many rtificctions excited, far one of these esfeatt 
may justly be called an ingtltntion ; it includes wi^hiti itself ail tbi" 
influence on a cf*mmunity of a great model farm, of model housekeepmg, 
of a general museum of liiBtoric remains, and of a galleir of fiDfl arta. 

It ifi a fact that all these ^stablishmentii through England ar% at cjertwa 
£xed hours, thrown open for the inspection of whoever may choose to risit 
them, with no other exponse than the gratuity whieh custom reqaircs to 
he given to the serrant who show^ them. I noticed, as we paiBed from 
one |>art of the ground to another, that our guides changed— one part 
apparently being the j)erqu!Hite of one servant, ajid one of another. Majjy 
of the servants who ehowed them appeared to be supcrannuBted men, who^ 
probably had this poet as one of the djignities and pepquisitea of their old t 

The iiifluenoe of these eetatca on the community cannot but be in n 
respectG beneficial, and should go some way to qualify the prejudice i 
which republicans ara apt to contemplate anything aricttQcmtic ; for al- 
thongh the legal title to these things inheres in but one man, yet in a very 
important sense they belong to the whole oomraunity, indeed, to nniverssd 
humanity. It may be very undesirable find unwise to wish to imitate these 
institutions in America, and yet it rnay be illiberal to nndervnlue them as 
they stand in England. A mnn would not huild a house, in this nineteeniii 
century, on tha pattern of a fendal Cflstlo ; and yet, where the feudal eustle 
is built, surely its antique gmce might plead somewhat in its fkvour, And 
it may be better to accommodiite it to modem uses, than to level it, and 
erect a modern mansion in ita place. 

If or, iiince the world is wide, and now being rapidly united by steam int* 
one country, does the objection t-o these things, on account of the room th|^H 
take up, Bcem KO great aa formerly. In tlie iiiSllion of square miles of l^^| 
^lobe there is room enough for lUl mort^ of tlungs. ^^" 

ii'j'ih Bach reflections the lover of the pictnreaque may camfort himself, 
hoping that he is not dnaing agaln^ iha u^M in hin admit:»tiDii of ^ 





One great acWeToment of tto millcaiiiuiii, I truat, will be in uniting 
tliese two elements, which have ever been contendiug. There was Errent 
4igt)iiicn.nce in the old Greek fable which ropreaciitert Venus as the di' 
Tinely-iippointed helpmeet of Vulcan, and yet alwaja qoarroIliBg with 

"We can ecartjely loot at the Btrnggling, eartli-lioinniTotidititJii uf usefnl 
labour through the world, without joiuing in ihtt befiiiliful aepiration of our 
American poet, — 

*' Snrely. tlic iviacT tims ahall ocmo 
When tiiii &ae OTcrpIoa Drmitrht, 
Il^ci iDDijer »ulleu, alow, nad il:utub, 
BLaUleap iti tnuaio imd to lighL 

*• Id thjit now chUeJhaod of the world 
Life of ilaelf shiill dnnce add plaj-, 
Trath. blQod through Time's shjjwtik Tpins be liarlnd, 
AndlabDOF m^t di^ligbt iiaXi way"* 

In tlie new state of sacietj which we are trying to found in America, it 
innBt be our effort to hasten the consumniation. These gr£*t eatatesf of old ! 
CO nil tries may keep it for their share of the matter to work uut perfuct 
modela, while we will asiit the ideas thua elaborated, aad make them the 
property of the million. 

As we were going oat, we stopped a little while tkt Xhs porter's lodge to 
look at some relics. 

No\¥', I dare avy that you have beea thmking, all tha while, that theao 
Stori*a about the wonderful Guy are a sheer faLrication, or, to uue a con- 
Tenient modert term, a inyth^ Know, then, that tha identical artnour } 
Ibelotigiag to him is etiil preserved here ; to wit, the eivord, about seven 
feet long, a shield, helmet, breastplate, and tilting-pole, together with his 
porfldj;e pot, wliich holds one hundred and twenty gallona, and a large fctrk, 
«a they call it, aliout three feet long ; I am inclined to think this moat have , 
beea tia toothpick 1 Bia aword weighs twenty pounds. 

There is, moreover, a rib of the mrietodon cow which he killed, hung up 
for the terror of all refi-actory beasts of that name in moJeru days. 

Furthermore, know, then, that there ai-e authentic doc omenta in the 
Aabmekan Museum, at Oxford, showing that the family run hack to withia \ 
four years after the birth of Chriat, no that there ia abundanca of time for \ 
tbam to have iloae a little of almost everything. It appears that they have 
been alVaya addicted to exploits, since we read of one of them, >%oon after 
tixe Christian era, encount^riag a giant, who ran upon him with a ^-ee 
which he bad snapped off for the pttrpuite, for it sesmA gianta were not uico 
in the choice of weapons ; Ijut the cliruiiicler says, ''The Lurd had gnu» 
with him, aud overcaano the giant," and in euminemuration of this event 
the family introduced into their arms the ragged staff. 

Jt is recorded of another of the race, that he was one of seven chilclrea 
faOTB at a birth, and tliat all the rest of his brfithera and Eiaters were, by 
BLahaiitment, turned intt> swona with gold collars. This remarkalle case 
eeettrred la tlie time of the gramlfiLther of Sir Gey, and of course, if wo 
believe this, we shall tiud no dlUleulty in the caJiB of the oow, or anything 

Th«re is & very scarce book in the pomenioii of & ^u\\«tQ&^ i^'^^s^t^ 



* Jtuaaf fioBseh IrOW«U's ■ 

Beivr^t BeqoV: 

sirjrK'T WRWOBisa of fobeign tANDa. 

Tmttcn hy one Di-. John Kay, or Caiua, in wliich he gives an account of tlia 
mre and p«cnliar Bniinala of England, in 1&52, In this he mentioDed see- 
ing the hones of the head and the Tertehrsi of the neck of an enormone aEimal 
h% Warwick Castle. He statea that the Bhonlder-blade vae hung up fay 
chains frow the impth gate of Coventrj', and tlmt a rib of the same njiimul 
hangiiig iip im;he chapel of Guy, Earl of Warwick , and tlmt th^pcsipla 
''bucifld it to be the rib of a cow whkh haunted a ditch near Civvejitry, and 
id ijyury to many persobs ; and he goes on to imagine that this may be 
tHie bcme of a bonassus or a urns. He saje, " It is probable many animalsj of 
^■fhia tiud fonnerly lived in our England, being of old an ialand full of woods 
and forratB, beca'usc ev^n in our boyhood the horns of these animals were in 
common itse tit thct table." The story of Sir Ghiy is furthermore quite ro- 
mantic, and contains some circumstancea very instractl^e to all Isidit's. For 
the ohton icier asserts, "that Dame Felye, daughter and lidre to Erie 
Bohand, for her beauty called Fely le Belle, or Felys the Fay re, by true 
enberitance, was Gotintcsa of Wanvyke, and lady and wyfe io the most vic- 
toriouae Knight, Sir Gny, to whom in his Tvoing tyme she made greate 
straungeres, and caused him, for her sake, to put himeelf in roeny grcata 
distne^sea, dangers, and i:ierillfl ; but when they were wedded, aud b*ea but 
ft little season together, lie depaited from her, to her gneate bevynes, and 
never waa converfiant witli her after, to her nnderatandiDge.*" That tliis 
loay not appear to be the result of any revengeful spirit on the part of Sir 
Gay, the ohronicler goes on further to state his motives — tliat, after his 
maitiige, eoneidering what he had done for a woman's eake, he thought to 
Bp«nd the other part of his life fur God's sake, and so departed from liis 
Judy in pilgrim weeds, which raiment be kept to his life's end. After 
-wandering abont a gcwd many years he settled in a hermitage, in a place 
not far from the cflfltle, called Guy's Cliff, and when his lady distributed 
food to beiggnrs at the castle gate, was in the habit ot coming amoijg thtfm ta 
recxivd alme, without making himself known to her. It states, moreorerp 
that two days before his death an angel informed him of the time of his de- 
parture, oad that his lady would die a fortnight after him, which 
happening accordingly, they were both bnrieti in the gravo together. 
A romantic cavern, at tho place called Guy's Cliff, ie shown as the dwelling 
of the recluse. The story is a curious relit; of the religious ideas of the 

On our way from the caatle we passed by Guy' a Cliff, which is tut present 
the seat of the Hon. C. B. Percy. The establishment looked beautifully 
from the road, as we saw it np a long arenne of trees; it is one of the 
places ttavellerB generally fiiamine, but as we were bound for Konilwnrth, 
we were content to take it on trust. It is but a fihort drive from there to 
Kenllwortb. "We got there abtmt the middle of the afternoon. Kenilworth 
Ima been quite am extensive a^ TN'arwick, though now entirely gone 
rains, I believe Oliver Cromwell's army have the credit of litially 
tnantUng it. Cromwdl seems literally to have left his mark on bis gen 
tion, for I never saw a. ruin in England when I did not bear that he had 
something to do with it. Every broken arch and ruined battlement seemed 
always to find a auJftcient account of itself by simply enunciating the vi 
€h>U3msU, And when we see how much the Puritans nrrayed agsi 
iAewseh't^ all tlw .TSthetic principles ti our nature, we can soraew] 
P^oii those M'ho did not look deeii*;r ikvu U\e s.\i3rtiya;, iot \\\^ ifwiad. 


ta V 

rEiriiwoKTii. llf; 

frMeli we, anil all wliLili is most precio'us to ne, aro tlio lineal deacendaata 

We w'u.ndercd ovof tLe raiitf, vliiah ava vsry ex.ien3iYe, and Trhich Scott^ 
with his iisiial Tivaoity and accuracy, htia restored and re peopled. We 
tlimbod ap intc* Amy Rabdlrb's chamhcr ; -we acramWed into one of tlie 
»rehed mndowa of 'what was formerly the great dining hall, where Bliaahetli^™ 
ieKSted in the midst of her lords and ladies, aud where CTeiy stone ho^^^ 
King to the soand of mermnent and rcTelry. The windows are brakea^l^H 
out ; it it roofless and floode^s, iwaving iind rustling with pendent ivj, and ' 
Tocni irith the aongof hundreda of little birds. 

We wandered from room to room, looking np and seeing in the walls tha 
desolate fireplaces, tier over tier, the places where the b^kmij of the Hoora 
hffld. goue into the waDs, and still the hu'da continned their singLng every- 

Nathing effected me more than this ceaseless singing and rejoicing of ^i 
Inrds in these old gray tum%. They seemed so perfectly jojons and happy ^M 
amid the desolations, bo airy and fanciful in their burgti) of song, so ignorant ^H 
ami cjvrclcaa of the deep meaning of the gray desolation aronnd them, that ^^ 
I could not but he movci.1. It w&s nothing to them how these state! j^ 
sculptured walk became lonely and minoua, and all the weight of a 
thousand thiTOglitfl and questioninga which arise to ua is never even dreamed 
by them. They sow not, neither do they reap, but their heavenly Father 
feeda them ; and so the wilderness and the desolate place ia glad in them, 
and they are glad in the wilderness and desolate place. 

It was a beautiful cont^eption, this making of birds. Shelley mlILs them 
"imk>diedJoy8i" and Christ says, that amid the vaster ruins of man^a 
desolation, ruins more dreadfully auggestive than those of seulptnred frieze 
and architrave, we am yet live a bird's life of nnanjtionB joy; or, iia 
Martin Luther beautifully pamphrases it, '* We can be like a bird that sita 
singing oti liifi twig and lets God think for him." 

The deep conecioUHness that we are oarselves ruined, and that thia world 
is a desolation more awful, and of more suHime material, and wrought 
from atnff of higher temper thau ever was ficalptured in ball or cathedral, 
thia it mast he that touches snch deep springs of Bympftthy in the presence 
tjf mina. We, too, are desolate, shattered, and seatbod; there are traceries 
and coliimna of celestial workmanship ; there are beaToa-aapiring arches, 
splendid oobnnAdeB and balls, but fragmentary all. Yet aboTe us benda 
an all -pitying Hra^ven, and spiritual voices and callinga in our hearts, like 
these little singing birds, spe^k of a time when almighty power shall take 
pleasure in these »tan<%, aud ftLVonr the dust thereof. 

Wh sat on the top of the strong tower, and looked off into the country, 
and talked a gocd whik. Some: of the ivy that montlea this building haa 
m truuk aa large aa a man's body, and throws out numberless strong arms, 
which, interweaving, embrace and intdrlaco half-faUing towers, and hiild 
tliem up in a living, growing ma^s of green. 

The walls of one of the oldest towers are sixteen feet thick. The lake, 
irhich Scott speaks of, is dried up and grown over ^-ith rushes. The 
furmor moat presents only a grasay hollow. "ftTiat was formerly a gate 
bouse is still ijjbahited by the foimly who have the care of the huildiuij. 
The Iund orouud the gate houae is tioicelif and cMiilu^^ ^iJ!A, y^i^-i, -HsA^safc 
hifih, olippsd hedges of& spedea of vajdegated 110%. 

p as amch of dd f;astlea md ivj^ FaievrtsU \q ^c&tIw q'^. 




Mt dear H. : — 

After leaving Kenilwortli we droTfi id CoTcttry, where we took 
flgaJa, This whole ride from Stratfttrd to Warft-ick, and on to CoTeiitry, 
aa:^ipera more to mj ideas of old Pjuglaud than any thing i have Been ; H ia 
coaaidered one of the ms>st heautirul parte of the kiugdoni. It iae quaidt 
old hous^ and ii certain air of rural, pdotuiesque quiet, which ia rexj 

Conintry is old emd que^, with narrow atraeits and fiarious houses, famed 
for the ancient legend of Godiva, ojie of tlioBd beautiful myths that grow, 
Vke the mistletoe, ^>n the bare hranoJies of hiatory, and which ^ if they never 
iFere true in the letter, h&ve bteu n thousand timea true in the epiHt. 

The evening cftuie (tn raw and chilly, so that we rejoiced to find onxpelves 
* once more iu the tiartiined parlonr by the bright, sociable fire. 

Aa we were drinking tea Elihn Burritt came ia. It was the first time I 
had ever stan him, thotigh I biul heard a great deal of him from our friendt 
iu Erlinhurgh. He i-s a man in middle liie, tall and slender, with fair 
comple:iion, blue eyts, an air tif deliL-acy and refinement, and man n el's of 
great gentleneBS. Uy ideas of tiie *' Learned lJIackt;mith" had been of 
Eomethiag altogether more ponderous and peremptory, Elibu has betn^ 
for eome years, operating in England and on the coutiuejit in a movement 
whioh many, in our half-Christianized time% regard with aa much ineredu- 
lity as tlie grim, old wfljlike barotis did the suepicious imbecilitica of read* 
ing and writing. The a word now, as then, eeeras bo mucL more direct » 
-way to terminate cflntroversiea, that maisy Chriatian mea, even, wumot cou- 
oaive how the world is ti} get alou^r n'ithuut it. 

Barritt'a mode of operation hai been by the silent organization of circles 
of ladies in all the different towns of the United Kingdom, who raiee & 
eertain mra for the diffusion iff the prinptfdes of peace on eailh and gyod will 
to men. Articles^ setting forth the evita of war, mora], political, and social, 
lieing prepared, these circies pay for their lusertiQU in all the pritieipnl news- 
papers of tbe continent. They have secured to themselves in thiH way a con- 
tinual utteniiiceinEranee, Sixain, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany ; 
so that from week to week, and mouth to month, they can insert ortic^lesupon 
these suLjecta. Many times th« editors insert the articles as editurial, 
which still further faifoura their design. In adiirUoti to this, the ladies of 
iheae circles In England correspond with the ladies of similar circles exifit* 
ing in other oountriea ; and in this way there ia a mutual kindliness of feul- 
ing established through theGe countries. 

When rOTently war was threatening lietween England and FrantJe, througli 

the influence of these aocieties conciliatory addresses were sent from mi^y 

of the principal towiijj of England to many of the principal towns of France ; 

JMfd the effect of these meoEni^a in alluying irritation and agitation •wh.b 

werj- pi^reepfible. 

/'arihermore, theas socletiea are prepftring n\ini<iroua little booka for 
rM/dren, Jn trhSch the priiiciplea of peace^ kintlntsw, tt-ni miiViaal WcXissa- 
ftotw one txmsiuntlj set forth and tlie evil and u.iidu'\H"t>rLi\ TiB.\.uw5 oS. xV% 
*^ eoJlIaioji of brute force egtefliitUtied ia tk tbyutta&ii ^^i^ 'S\i^ \i«*i* 


»Jso lire repritit&d in the other modem l^iguoges of Europe^ and are becom- 
ing a pavl of family litomturo. 

The object lia-d in view by tliose ia this mavement j», the general dis- | 
bftodmont of standiug armlet tutd warlike estahlifihments, tiud the ariunge- 
ment^ in their plaee, of some settled system of QationaJ arbitraticiv. Thetg 
snggfiflt the orgaukfttion of aume tribunal of mtemntional law, which shall \ 
corre£i|j<Jttd to iLe puaition of the Supremo Coiirt of the United States with 
referouco to the several states. The fai^t that the several hUtes of our 
Union, thuugh each a dlstiueli sovereignty, yet agree in this iurangement, i% 
held up aa an inat^nceof its practicability. Theae ideae are nut to ha con- 
iidered entirely chimerical, if we reflet th&t commeree and trude are as 
essentially opposed to war aa is Christianity. War i& the death of com- 
merce, maaufiictures, agriculture, and the fine arts. Ita avil results are 
always cerUiiu and defiuit«, it<a good resultf^ ^itt{>rE!d and nocidental. The 
whole curicnt of mijdern £ia{?Iety i^ an much against war as against slavery ; 
Biiid the time must certainly come when some more rational and hnmano 
mode of reaoMaif natioaal ditlknlties will prevail. 

When we ask these rBformera how people are to be freed from the yoke 
of despotism without war, tbey anaw«r, " By the diffuaiou of ideas am«mf 
AflntassQs — by teaching the bayooets to think." They say, "Ifwecon- 
tmae a vary iadividual soldier of a despot's army that war ift ruinous, 
Immoral, and unchristian, we take the uustronieDt out of the tyrant's 
iatid. If each individual man would refu«e to rob and murder for the 
Efloporor of Austria, and the Emperor of Kuasia, where would ba their 
power to bold Hungary! What gave power to the masses in the Freuch 
revolution, but that the army, pervaded by new ideas, refnsed any longer 
to keep the people down?" 

These views are dnily gaining strength in Kisglnnd. TTiey are supported 
by the whole body of the Quakers, who maintaiu them with that degree of 
infifixiblt; perseveraoce and never-dying activity which have rCDdered the 
benevolent actions of that body so ellicieuL Ths object that th«y are 
auning at is one most certain to be accomptlshed, infallible as the predio' 
tion that sworda are to be beaten Into ploughshares, and speara. into 
pruning-hooks, and that nations shitll learti war no more, 

This laovemetit, small and despiJied in it^ origin, hap gained Htrecgth 
from ye^ to year, and now has an effect on the public opinion of Enjjl&ud 
which is quite perceptible. 

We spent the evening in talking over these things, and also variouB topieg 
idating to the anti-slavery moTement, Mr. Sturge was very conlSdent 
that aomething more was to be done than had ever been done yet, by 
combiuatious for the encoaragenient of free, in the place of slave- grown, 
produce ; a question which has, ever since the d.iys of Clarksou, more or 
less deet^ily occupied the minds of abolitinnisbH in England. 

I should say that ifr. Sturge id his family has tor many years consciea- 
tionHly forboroe the use of any article produced by slave labour, I could 
Boarcely believe it poajiblo that tliere could be each on abundauee and 
Tsriety of all that is comfortable and dcsLrable ia the vaiiatja dKv«2^.x!i»;TAj^ 
«f touaehold liring mthin these limits, ilr, Stvit^e TjjtttSftTAa Vk^ s?il&v^w*> 
wiih rery great force, the more so from tke cutiavHteYit'S til Vva^'t. 
From wJijtt I have since observe J, as ^'d\ «ia feom •v^i^'^- ^^"^^ ^Jw^-.* 
t0ltffalii magind tb^t ih« Quakers E^^eiallj p%:tr^\ie \\iia wiioiiwb <al ^e^^a 


staparatiori from all conntctloTi with shvery, tvtn in the drnxm of Its proiiitd 
The nubject of the disuso of skve-growu p^Jduce lias obtained ciiiTcncj in 
the same Bpbere in whkh Elihn Buriitt, aud has exi;>it<etl tlia 
attention of tlie Olive Leaf Circles. Ita prospecta axe not so wmk as on 
first view miglit be im&ginod, if we <?on5ider that Great Britain haa large 
trojcta of cottin-gTowLDg land at her dispoajLl in India. It has beeo caku- 
latfKi tbat, were suitable Tuilroada and armngeineiitfl fw tranpportaUnii 
proTidcd for India, cotton could be rniaed in that empire sufficient for the 
whole wants of Ejiglaad, at a rate inucli ch6ap«r tbnn it can be itaporttsd 
from Amflrica. Not only so, but thay could then afford to fnrnisk catum 
cheaper at Lowell thMi the aatao article conld ha procured froiu 
Southern States, 

It is consolatory to know that a set of men have undertakea this vrt 
whose peraevenmce innuythinn once be^n haa never been daunted. Slave 
labour is booming every year more expenaive in America. The wide 
market which haa be«n opened for it litui raised it to such an extravagant 
price ae make? the stocking of a plantation almost ruinous. It England 
enters the rmfi with free labour, which has nono of these expense!!, and 
none of the risk, she will be sure to succeed. All the foroes of nature go 
with free labour ; and all the forces of nature resist slave labour. The stars 
in thtiir courses fight against it ; and it cannot but be that ere long mme 
way will be found to bring these two fjrees to a decisive i3su<j. 

Mr. Stnrge seamed exceedingly anxfons that the Aroericiui states should 
adopt the theory of immediate, and not gradual, emancipation. I toUl him 
the great difficulty was to persuade them to think of any emancipation at 
all ; that tho prttsetxt diaposltiou was to treat slavery as tile pillar and 
ground of the truth, the ark of religion, tbe summary of morulsi, and the 
only true millennial form of mod^rti society. 

He gave me, bo'weTor, a little account of their amti-sIaveTy strugglee 
England, and said, what was well worthy of note, that they miide no ap] 
rent progress in affecting public opinion, until they firmly advocated 
right of every innooeat l»eing to Immediate and complete freedom, witboot 
any conditions. He said that a woman Is fairly entitled to the credit of 
this suggestion. EliEabetb Heyrick, of Leleei^ter, a mfimber of the i^i 
of Frienda, published a pamphlet entitled " Imraetliate;, not Qradi 
Enianoipation. " This little pamphlet contains much good aense ; 
btung put forth at a time inrheu men were really euulIous to know the truth, 
produced a powerful impression. 

She remarked, very sensibly, that the diffi,<S(iHy had arisen from indis- 
tinct ideas in respect to what is implied in emandpatiim. iShe went on to 
ahow that eraamnpatlon did sot Imply freedom from government and 
reBtralnt ; that it properly brought a slave under the control of tbe lavT, 
instep of that of an individual ; and tliat it was possible so to apply law 
a^ perfectly to control the emanciiMted, This is an idea which Beenu 
simple enoupb when pointed out ; but men often stumble a Jong whiSe 
befuro they discover what is most obvioust. 

The next dny wap Sunday ; and, in order to preseTre our incognito^ and 

seeui-e an unintormptod rest, free from conTeraatJon and excitement, we 

were obliged to deprive otirselres of the pleasure of hearing our friend Rev. 

Jb/t/i An^eil jAmea, n liich we had much desired to do. 

li wss A warm pimmnt day, and we sp^t msisAx <£ ciw tuxui iu ft 




SIBV3D JOlfES, 131 

^iil arliOTir, eoTiEtrnfltEd in a relired pbice in thfl grvrden, n-liere the ireai" 
mid slvrtibbcry were so arraniied ns to make n most charmirjj retTouL, 

The Bi'o«iids of Ur. Stui-ga a.vfl very near to tbijae of ilia brotiier — 
only & jmrrov vofxd interpoeingf betiireen them. They liave contriTcd 
ina.kc them one by building nnder this road s, snbterranoan passage, 
tlmt the two fnmUies can pasa and repass into each other's gmundfl 
perfect iriTacy. 

Tlieise EpgHsh gardens delight tne mnch ; they finite Tariety, qnuntne 
ami ati imitation, of the -wildne's of itatirre, with the ntTUnj^^t care anj 
eultivatJon, I was particularly pleased with the ruckwork, which a^_ 
tunes formed the wallj* of certaia walks, the holluwa and interaticcfli of" 
TThich were filled mih every Tariety of creeping pi ante. Mr. Sturge t<»!d 
me thiit the substance of which these Toekeries are* made is sold expressly 
for the purpose. 

Ou one aide of the grounds was an old-fAi^hioned cottage, which one of 
my fdenda infonned me Mr. Stnrge formerly kept fitted np as a water-enre 
liaiipttul, fur tlio»e whose means did not iillowtbEm to go to larger establUli- 
mienta. The plan wa^ afterwards abandoned. One must see thai »uch aii^H 
enterprise would have mauy practical difficnltaes, I^H 

At noon wo dioeJ lu the house of the other brother, Mr. Edtntind^^ 
Sturge. Here I noticed a full-letifjth engraving of Joseph Stnrge, Ho iis 
represented as standing with hiB hand placed prutectlogly on the head of 4 , 
bhusk child. 

We enjoyed our qniet Beaaon with thesa two families exceedingly. Wd 
seemed to feel oarticlves in an atmosphere whore nil was peace and good^ 
will to roan. The little children, after dinner, took ua through the walk^l 
to show OB their beautiful rabbits and other pets. Evorything seemed iu 
ordei", peaceable and quiet. Towards e¥ening we went back through the 
arched passage to the other house again. My Sunday here has alwayjij 
seemed to ma a pleiutant kind of pastoral, much like the eomtn union 
Christian and Faithful ^rith the shepherds on the Delectable Mountains. 

T,¥liat ifl remarkablti of all theaa Friends is, that, although they have been " 
called, in the prosecution of philanthropic enterprises, to encounter so much 
opposition, and rae bo much of the unfavourable side of human nature, they 
are m habitually free from any titige of unchariUiblenesi? or evil speaking in 
their statements with regard to the cbariioter and motives of others. There 
1b lilfo an habitual avoidanco of all e^caggeratcd forms of t^tatement, a 
■obriety of dvctioti, which, united with great aSectionateness of manner, 
ioBpirca the warmeat confidence. 

C. had been, with Mr. Sturge, daring the afternoon, to a meeting of thd 
Friends, and heard a discourse from Sibyl Jones, one of the most popidar' 
of their female preachers. Sibyl ie 0, native of tha town of Bninswick, in 
the State of Maine. She and her hiisband, being both preachers, have 
tiaTelletl ejEtenaively in the proeeoatiun of vfuious philanthropic and reli- 
gious enterpriaes. 

In the evening, Mr. Sturge aaid that she had expressed a de/sire to see 
me. Acv^ordinjfly, I went with him to call upon her, and found her in Hie 
family of two aged Friends, Burrnuuded by a circle of the Kitne denomina- 
tion. She is a woman of great delicacy of appearance, betokening ver^ 
frail henlth, I am told that she m most of tuev tmfe m & i&aAfc <ai cs.\w 
laffemg from neuralgic complainia, Theie "wqa & ixl\tv^J^ «,i^ 







enthngiaRm and tanderneas in her face which was very interesting. 

had had, acoarduig to the language of b,et sect, a conccm tipca her i 

fur me, 

To my mind ihEre is GametlLing peculiarly inter^atijig about that priniitlTO 
BimplLcity and frankness with which tie m embers of this body esjireas 
tbemselvca. She desired to caution me againBt the temptations of ioa mncU 
flattery and applause, ttnd aj;amst tSiG worldlinosB which mi;:;lii beset me in 
London. Her manner of addressing ma was like une who h cemmiusioned 
■with a message which must bo spoken ivitk plainness and Hincerity. Aftfir 
this the whole circle kneeled, and ehe oHered prayer. I was Eomewfaat 
paip fully impressed with her evident fragility of body, (Compared witk the 
enthusiastic workioga of her mind, 

in the tionrsa of the conversation she inqnircd if I was going to Ireland, 
1 told her, yes^ that was my intention. She begged that I would vi^^it the 
western eaast, adding, with great feeling, **lt was the miseries which I 
saw there wlueh have brought my health to the state it is." Biie had 
travelled extenBitfely iu thft South era States, and hiid, in private eonver- 
aation, been able very fully to bear her witueas G^^iost Blavery, aud had 
never been heard with unk inducts. 

The wlitjle incident afforded me matter for reflection. The calliug of 
women to di Extinct religions vocations, it appeajrs to me, was a part of 
primitive Chriatianity ; baa been one of the moat etflcient elementa of power 
in the Bomish churdi ; obtained among the Methodists in Eii^'Iajid ; and 
has, in all these caies, heen pri>tluetive of much good. The dt^coQeB«£fl 
whom the apostle mentioca with honour in his epistlflj Madame Gtiyon ia 
the Rotuioh dmrch, Itlrs. Fletcher, Elizaheth Fry, are ineUuicea whicli 
show how mnch may he done for mankind by women who fed themselves 
impelled to a epeoial rvligioraj Toeatioii. 

The Bible, whicli alw&ys fftvoure liberal development, countenances this 
idea, by the instances of Ueborah, Anna the prophetess, and by allusions in 
tht5 New Testament, which plainly show that the prophetic gift descended 
npon ^vomen. ^t. Peter, quoting from the prophetic writinpa, e&ya, " Open 
yuiir fiona and upon your daughtei^ I will pour out toj Spirit, andtbey shall 
prophesy." And St, Patjl i*lUides to women praying and prophesying in 
the public assenibliea of the Christians, and only enjoins that it shonid ba 
done with bectHuing attention to the established uaagea of female delicacy. 
The example of the Quakers la a suflioient proof that acting upon this Idea 
does not prodnee discord and domestic disorder. Ko clasa of people ufl 
more remarkable for qnietness and propriety of dBportnient, and for hon 
hold onler and domestic eicellenee. By the admission of this libCTty, ( 
world is now and then ijifted with a woman like Elizabeth Fry, while 1 
femily state lasea none of its security and sacredneai. No one in our day csn 
ehargo the ladies of the Quaker iseet with boldnea^ or indecorum \ and they 
have* demonstrated that even public t^^ching, when performed under ths 
iniJuence of an over] lowering devotional spirit, does not interfere wiill 
fetnmae propriety and modesty. 
The fact is, tifii the number of women to whom this voeatian is glfta. 
Tfill alwRfs be comparatively few ', t\\tj aie^ wii gjEBHtslli 'ktII be^ ei(?ep- 
tionx,' &nd the miyarity of the Mlipvcraa TUOtViii wicwtsA. kbsV ■iai«iSuec&.,\aa 
T?*^ ^*at these oxceptiona are to \>b iTeattCi Ta^VLttvenayw;. ^ . ^ . 
^^e next nioming^ as we were sittmgdowB V> ^fteaSsSM** otse ^^^aawia <« 

e ufl 

J. A. JAMHS. 123 

ibe otbcr liouse sent in to me n pliittt of tbi» largest, finest straivbemos I 
Irave ever eeian, vrliicli, conaidoring that it was enly tk* 'attet part of A]>ril, 
seemed to ulq quite an astouiBkiug lu.'iury. 

On tba morning befoie we left ire bad agreed to meet a circle of frienda 
ijfrom Biroiinghaai, conaiaUng of the Abolitiun Soi:kLy there, iwhicb is of 
Ifiiig ataiiditig, extending back in ita mtidaories to tbe Tcry comraencement 
ef tbe rtgitatian uinler CWksuii and WLlbErforce. It was a plejisaiit 
SBomiiig, tbfl 1st of May. Tbe windowa of tbe par lam- were opened to 
^e grouad ; and tbc compuDy inni^ tilled not only tbe ruijiui, but ^od 
"in a crtiwd on tbe gnisa aruujid tbe window. Atuoog tiie pE:!i£e(hble dom- 
jany present was an admiral in the tmvy, a fine, cheerful old gentleroaa, 
■who entered witb hKirty ioterfst into the scene. 

The Ifwly secietfwy of the society read a neatly-written address, full of 
lind feeling and Cbrif^tian sontimtnt. Joseph Sturge inaJe a few seneiblQ 
tnd practical i^markg an the present aspects of the aati-iilavery cause in the 
"World, and the most practical mode of asaisting itamoog Eagliab ChrislianB. 
He dwelt particularly on the encouragemeat of free labour. The Eb^. John 
Angell James followed with some extremely kind and interesting remarks, 
■fld Mr. S. replied. Aa ws were iuteuding to retnrn to Uiia city to make a 
knjii^sr risit, wo felt that this interTiew waa but a glimpse of frienda whom 
we hopad to know mora perfijctly hereaftar. 

A throuij of friends accomjiauied us to the dep6t. We had the pleaenra 
«f the company of Ellbu Rurritt, aud enjeyed a delightful ran to London, 
tfHigge we ariived tuwardji evening. 





liozmov.— ioiiT> HAYoa'a DisimK. 
tt^K SiSTSH : — 

At the atation-hntifte in Iiondon, we found Heva. Meters. Bimiey ajid Sh^sr- 
Xum waiting for na with carriagea. C. went with Mr, Bhermun, and 
r. S. and r soon fttujjd ourselves in a chnmiing retreat, called Roae 
,Oott»ge, in ^Valworth, about which I will teU you more anon. lira. B. 
feceivwi 03 with every attention which the most thoughtful hospitality 
lid suggest. 
*Qd W., who htiA gone on before us, and taken lodgings Tery near, 
there waiting to receive ua. One of the first things S. eiiid to me, 

we g«t into our room, was, "0, H , we are so gLid you bp.?e 

^fome, fiDT we are all goiug to the lord mayors dinner to-night, and you ore 

'* What !" said I, "the lord mayor of London, that I used to rtad about 
in Whittington and his tJatf And inimediatflly there CJime to my ears the 
loQud of the old chime; which tuAde so powerful au Impression on my 
childiih memory^ wherein all the bells of London were lepr^aented as , 

iolhng, ^d 

"Turn ug^Pf WUttJHgtoii, ^^H 

Thrift' loj*d amy or of London." ^^| 

li Is eunoas what an Jcfluence these old rt^mea^WiiTe caQiai -aaan^v^creA, 

S. wetii na to teli ma that the party was tVve a.Tni\ia\ ^tmn&x ^'*^'aS»'^ 

ifea* ef England by tiie iord mayor, iina tlu^t iWtB^ft uV^x^a. 'i^ ^^ 



tired, I liutriod to drass in all the glee of meeting an a^lveuture, aa Mf. 
tuid MrE. B. and the iGEt of the party wera reajdy. Cnujk wont tlio whip, 
round went the wheels, and away we droTc. 

We alighted at the ManBion Honse, and entered a large illnmin^ted hnll, 
■uppotted by pillars. ChandelierH were glittering, Beryants with powdeie<l 
heads and gold lace coats were hnnj-ing to and fro in every direetioia, 
recemng eompftuy and aanounciiig names. IK) yon want to know hovr 
announcing is done? W«1I, suppose a stnjrcase, a hall, and two or three 
corridors, interVflning hetween yon and the drawing-room. At all conve- 
uient distances on this lonte are stationed these gmTe, powdered -headed 
gijDiLlemen, with their embroidered coats. Yon walk up to the first one^ 
and tell him confidentially that you. are llias iSmith, He calls to the man on 
the fitst Ittuding, "Alibss Smith." The man on the landing says to the matt 
in the corridor, " Miss ^mith." The man in the oorrldor shouts to the 
I aian at the drawing-room door, "Mips Smith." And thus, foUowlngthe 
ilMmnd of your name, you hear it for the lost time fLuuted aloud, joet 
liefore yon enter the room. 

We found a considerable throng, and I wa« glad to aMept a seat which 
waa offered me in the agjecable vicinity of the lady mayoress, so tlmt I 
might see what would be inbereaitng to me of the csremouial. 

The titles in Liw here, ua in everything else, are manifrdd; and the 
powdered-headed gBntloinan at the door pronounced them with an erident 
relish^ which was joyous to hear— Mr. Attorney, Mi\ Solicitor, and Jtr. 
Bbij<axat; Lord Chief Baron, Lord Chief Justice^ and Lord this, and Lord 
that, and Lord the other, more than 1 conld possibly rememljcr, as in they 
came, dressed in blatjk, with snjallcilotheft and silk stockiiuis, with sword* 
by their ddes, tmd littlo cocked hats under theii arms, bowing gracefully 
bifore tbe lady mayoress. 

I saw no big wigs, but some wore the hair tied behind with a small black 
silk bag attached to it. Some of the pnnclpal men were dressed in bltick 
Tel vet, which became them finely. Some had broad shirt fril la of point or 
Mechlin lace, with wide ruffles of the same roand their wrists. 

Poor C, barbarian that he was, and utterly unaware of the priceless 
gentility of ttie thing, aaid to me, satto wc*, "How ean men wear mich 
dirty staff? Why don't they wash it?" I expounded to him what an 
jgnoraut sinner h^ was, and that the dirt of ages was one of the surest 
indicniions of ralne. Wash point Lace I it would be aa bad as clejiaiug up 
the antiquary's study. • 

Th© ladies were in full drt^s, which hero in England means alwayi i 
dresa which ejipoaes the neck and ehtmltlcjrs. This requirement seems to 
be univerfliO, since ladies of all ages conform to it. It luay, perhaj>s, acpount 
for this custom, to say that the bust of an Engllah lady is atjldoin other wi^ 
than fine, and develops a full outline ut what we should call quite an ad- 
Tanoed period of life, 

A Tcry dignified gantleman, dressed In black velvet, with a fine head, 

jn/td& his w&^y throw gh the throng, and sat down by mc, introdncing him- 

Bslf ss Lord Chief liaivn Pollock. He told mei he had just been reading 

ilte hff.'il part of the Jvey to Uncle Tom' ft Cstbini mv^\ vtiaatV^i iMi.vw«i>V^ 

on the opialon of Judge HuiSn, In tUe csisa oi SUi\« ■". Ufc^iift^ wiWya^ 

JZM^^fe s deep hapression oa Ms mind, 0£ ttie ishsiwitex ol ^-^i^ itefi>»«ft„ 

cansiJered as a le;^l and literary documentj lie epote in terms of higli ' 
ftdoiiration ; said tkit nothing hsA ercr given Mm &o clear a view of tha 
ttsseniial nature of ekvery. We found ^at thU dticnment had prodticed 
tlie siunu impresidoti on the minds of seTierul otli<>rB present. Mr. 8. said 
that oatt or two di^tinguislicd legal gentlemen mentioned it to him in Eimilar 
terms. The talent and force displayed in it, as well aa the high spirit and 
ecom of dissimulation, appear to have created a stioug interest in itsautlior. 
It always seemtsd to me thiit there was a certain severe strenfrth wid 
grandeur about it which approached to the heroic. One or two tiaid that 
thej nvere glad such a man had retired from thid^ pr&atice of such a aysLem 
of law. 

But there w&a Bcarce a moment for ooiiTeretttionamid the whirl anid eddj 
of so many presentational. Before the company had all asuenibled, the 
room was a jwrfect jam of legal and literary utttabilitieB. The dinner vaa 
wioounced between nine and ten o'clock. We were cond n cted i nto a splandid 
h^l, where the tables were laid. Four long tables were set parallel with 
the length of the hatl, and ont; on a rs.iBed platform across the 'Upper end< 
In the midflt of this sat the lord mayor and lady mayoresfji, on their right 
li and tho judges, on their left the American miniaterf with other distln- 
gnished guests. I sat by a most agreeable and interesting youag lady, who 
seemed to tnh:e pleasure in enlighteniog me on all those inattera about which 
a stranger would naturally be inquisitive. 

Directly opposite aie was IVtr. Dickens, whom I now beheld for the 
first tinift, and was surprised to sea looking so yonng, Mr. Justice Talfonrd, 
known aa the anthor of lou, was also there with hia lady. She had i 
Ibeantiftd aaticjue cast of head. 

The lord mayor was aimply dressed la black, without any other adorn- ' 
ment tlian a massive gold chain, 

I asked the lady if he had mot robes of state. She replied, yes ; but 
tliey were very heavy and cumbersome^ and that he never wore them when 
he eonld, with any propriety, avoid it. It seems to me that this matter of 
otttward parade and stat-e ie^adnally losing ita hold even here in England. 
Ab BCiciety becomes enljghteffid, men care less and le^ta for mere shows, and 
are apt to neglect those ontward forms which have neither beauty nor con- 
Tenience on their side, auch as judges' wigs and lord mayors' robes. 

Ab a general thing the company were more plainly dressed than I had 
expected. I am reaUy glad that tbere is a movemeut being made to carry 
the dootrina of plain dress into onr diplomatic reprcjicutntion. Even older 
natiosB are becoroiag tired of mere shows- and, certainly, the representa- 
tiTea of arepublic ought not to begin to put on the finery which monarchi(^ 
are beginning to cant off. 

The present lord mayor is a member of the Ilouae of Commons— a mosii j 
liberal- minded man ; veiy simple, but pleasing in hi-s appearance and addreaa | 
one who sceme to think more of easentiale than of show. 

He ia a dissanter, beiog a member of Eev. Mr. Binney'n church, a msn* 
ipumily interested m the promotion of Sabbath echools^ ajid e;<{«^ -^rscV^^ 
and benevolent objed;. 

IT&e cerEmonJes( nf the dinner were long aTid ^(iarj, «&&-, ^ >2Msa^A"» 
iee/netl to be more fally snUired into by a floms\Ati£ iJS&vA^ ^"tto *^asA s*^ 

me ba^BBss of toosi-driiiiing is reduced to tlie mcesfc ^^wsm.. 1^^=«^ 





!, enllod & toaBt-maEteT, Btood liehind the lord mavor witti n i 
from wbich lie read the toasts in their order. Every one, according to 1 

EeveJiU fiiiik, pret-onsiona, and station, muat l^e toasted in his gmdatioi ^ 

and every person toasted must have hk name announced by the official,— 
the larger dignitajies lieing pmposed alouc in their glory, while the enitiUer 
fry were read out by the duaen, — ^d to e&c\ toaat somebody must get np 
and mak« % eimech. 

First, after the nsinal loyal toocrts, the lord raayor proposed the health of 
Uie American minister, expressing himself in the warmest tentia of ftriead- 
diip towards our country; to wkitih Mr, lni;?ersoIl responded rery hand- 
BOtnely. Ammig the s|?^ers I was particularly pleased with Lord Chief 
Baron Pollock, who, Jjl the sbflenwi of Lord Chief Justice Campbtill, ivna 
tCHistod 06 the highsst repiiesentative of the legal profession. He spoke irith 
great dignity, simplicity, and courtesy, taking occasion to pny very flatter- 
ing coroiilinieata to the Americftn legal prcfea^on, sjieaking particularly of 
Judge Story. The f^omplimEnt givve me great pleasure, because it seemed a 
just and noble-minded appreciation, ftnd not a mere cItiI Action, We are 
aJways better pleased wiih appreciation than Battery, tbongh perhaps he 
etraincd a pf'liit when he aaidj "Our brethren on the other aide of the 
Atlantic, with whom we are nnw exchanging lega! anthoritiea, I fear 
largely EUrpniBfi us in the production of philosophic and comprehensive 

8l)e£bking of the two countries he said, *' God forbid that, with a common 
U-nguage, with com m on laws which we are materijiilly impreving for the 
benefit of mankind, with one common literature, with ono commou religion, 
and ftljove all with one common love of liberty, flod forbid that any feeling 
eh cm Id arise between the two countneB but the desire to carry through the 
world these ajd vantages." 

Mr. Justice Talfouid pToposed the literature of our two countries, nndsr 
the bead of "Anglo-Saxon Literature," He made allusion t') the author 
(if Uncle Tom's Cabia and Mr. Dickens, speaking uf both as having em- 
ployed fiction as a means of awakening tbe^tteotion of the I'espectiTft 
ooim tries to tlie condition of the oppressed and eu fieri ng classes. Mr. Tal- 
founl a.ppears to be in the prime of Hfe, of a robust and somewhat fiorid 
habit. He la universally beloved for his nobkness of soul and generous 
interest iu all that tends to promote the welfare of hnmflnily, no less than 
firtr Ilia classical and scholarly attninmentB. 

Mr. Bicltena replied to thia totist in a igraceful and plp.yful strain- In 
tie former part of the evening, in reply to a toast on the chancery depart- 
ment, Vice-chancellor Wood, who spoka in the ahsscnce of the lord chan- 
cellor, made a sort of defeneo of the Comt, of Chancery, not distinctly 
alluding to Bleak House, but evidently not without refereuCH to it, The 
Kmouni of what he said was, that th^ uoart had received a great many more 
haid opinions than it merited] that they had been parsimoniously obliged 
W perfonn a great amount of business by a very inadequate number of 
judges; but thitt more recently the number of jutl;,'es had been increa&ed to 
£ieFen, and there was reason to liopo lliat «iU busiueas bi-ought befoiu it 
irutt/d now be performed without urneceKfiaTy it\ay. 

. Jfi the conclusion of Mr. Uickens's spcecb \\e a\\M4e9^ ^^t^^^vlW^ V» S\ia 
'^^ -sr Jjj telligeaoe; eaid ht was «xc«diiiily la&prV ^ ^*«* '^^» **^* ^xwjjj 

I,OB» KATOB's I>l!TiraB. 

now that a atiit, in -wliJch he was greatly interefited, would speedily 
an end. J beard a little l)y-conTerBatioii between Mr. DickeEs and a gea- 
tleJnai) of tbe bnr, who sal opposite me, in which the latter seem&i to be 
T^iteraitugthe same assjertioDs, and I niidErstoixl him to ^j, that a c&senut 
BJttmoixliiiarily complicated might he got through -witli in thr&e muuthe. 
Mr. Diokens said he was very happy to bear it ; but I fancied there waa a 
little shade of ineredulity la his inanner; however, the incident showed ona 
thing, thiit is, thtit the chancery vfiK not inaenfilble to the repteseutfttiuDs 
of Itickfu^ ; but the wholu tone of tho thing vrns quite ^ood-tiaturetl aad 
agreeable. In this Tcepect, I must pay 1 think th« EHgliifb aro quite 
remarkable, Erary thing ticre meets the very freest handlkig ; nothing ia 
too s&ored to he publicly ahown up ; but thoso who ore exhibited appear to 
too much good Reuse to recognist! the force of the picture by getting 
Mr. Dickens has gone on unmercifully oxpoaiog all sorts of we^k 
in the EnglUli fabric, pahlic and private, yet nobody cries out upon 
as the iiliinderer of hiit country. He Bonres up Lurd Dedloeka to Ms 
heart's content, yot none of the nobility make nTy facea about it; nobody iS 
in a hurry to proclaim thfit he baa recognised tKe picture, by getting into A, 
pnaaion at it. The coatrast between the people of Ea;gland and America, 
in this respect, is rather uufiiioumble to vis, because they are by profeasiou. 
couaerrative, and we by profeasiou radical. 

For UK to be annoyed when auy of our iuEtitutions aro commented npnu, 
ia in the higbejit degree absurd ; it would do well enough for Kaplea, but it 
do^ not do for America, 

There were some curious old customs ohserred at this dinner wliich 
interested me as peculiar. About the middle of the feast, the official who 
performed all the announcing made the declaration tliat tiie lord mayor and 
lady mayoresi* would pledge tlio guests in a loving eup. They then rose, 
and the official presented them with a massive gold cup, fall of wliio, in 
which they pledged the guests. It then passed down the table, and tho 
guests rose, two and two, each tasting and preEenttng to the other. My 
fair informant told mc that this was a custom whicit liad come down &am 
the most ancient time, 

The banquet waa cnllveufid at interyals hysonga from professional singer^ 
Mred for the occasion. After tlto banquet waa cvar^ massive gold basing 
filled with roM water, slid along down the table, into which ths gue^ 
dipped their napkins — an improvement, I suppose, ou the doctrine of fingex 
glasses, or perhaps the primeval foi-m of the custom. 

We rose from table between deven and twelve o'clock — that Is, we ladies 
— and went into the drawing-iyom, where I was presented to Mrs, Dickens 
Wi eeveral other ladies. Mrs. Didiens is a good Bpccimen of a ii'uly 
En^ftish woman ; tall, large, and well developed, with fine, healthy colour, 
mi an air of franltnes.q, cheerfulness, and reliabLlity. A friond whispered 
ify me that she was as obEerving, and fond of humour, as her husband. 

After a while tlio gentlemen came back to the di^ wing-room, and I had. 
A few moments of very pleasrtnt, friendly conversation with Mr. Dicktaa. 
They arc both jxiople that one could not linow a ViV(K^ otT^WsiQViX.^ft&vtVR'jiSa 
knaw wore, 
J had Bome coiiTersation with the lady mayarijas. BiW mi ^aVakS^^'ofi^^^ 
f^rJt0d io mm m^ iit Sta^ord House ou Saturday, Wt s^llli\A^^» losiaiB^^ 



ladies, ^^1 

atti:ii(l, as slid bad called a meeting on tlie same day of the city laclies, ' 
conaiderlug tlic condition of jnillinerg and dressumtjara, and to furm a 
Bodety fur their relief tu act in coajundtioji with tbufc of the West EinL 

Afier a liWk we began to tftlk of separating ; the lord mayor to uke hi» 
Eieat in the House of Comjnniis, and the reat oi the iiarty to tiny oth^ en- 
gagement that might be upon their list. 

*' Come, lot us go to the Htnifse of Comtnons,'* flaid one of my friends, 
**aHd make a night of it." "' \ViLh all my heart," replied I, "if I only 
had another body to go iuto to-morrow." 

What a conveuience ia Bjght-eeeinj; it would be if one could hare at, relay 
of bodies, as of doth&s, and go from one intrfi the other. Hut we;, not used 
to the London etyle of turtiiiig al^lit iuto day, are full 'rteary aineady * so, 
good night. 


losBoy,— uiKyBB wiru tUB ii-itt Off CAatifits. 


My TtEAft — — : — 

This mortiiDi; Mrs. Fallen called, and tvc had quite a long ehat together. 
We aTe Bepaxated by the whole city. She live* at West End, whilei I am down 
here in Walworth, which is one of the poEtBcripta of London • for London 
Jias iis many postscripts aB a lady' a letter — little suburban Tillages which 
taTe been overtaken by the growth of the city, and embraced in ita arme. 
I likfl them a p-eat deal better th[iu the city, far my part. 

Here now, (oz iuEtmice, at Walworth, I can look ont at a window and 
see a nice green meadow with sheep and lambs feeding in it, which ia some 
relief in this ainuttj old place. London ik ae emntty as Pittsbtirg or 
WhoeUng, It takes a good hour's etea^ly riding to get from here to West 
End ; ISO that my American friendB, of the newspapers, who are afraid I 
Bliall lie corrupted by ariatocratic aeBocintbns, will ece that 1 am at safe 

This evening we nre appointed to dine with the Earl of CarliRle, There 
Ja to be no company hut Ura own family circle, for he, with great considera- 
tion!, ftaid in his note, that he thought a little quiet would be the best 
thing he coald offer. Lord Carlisle is a great friend to America ; and so Is 
his sister, the Dueliess of Sntherland. He la the only English traveller 
yho ever wrote notes on our country in a real spirit of ap]>reciation. While 

(J HjiHfl, and TroUopes, and all the rest could aee nothing but onr brettk- 
in^ eggs on the wrong end, or such matters, be discerned and interpreted 
those points wherein lies the real Btrcngth of our growing country. His 

rtea on America were not very extended, bemg only sketches delivered j 

lyceutn lecture acme years after his rettim. It was the spirit and q,tt 
ither than quantity, of the thing that w:is noticeahle. 

I observe tlmt Americiin newspapers are aneering about Lis preface * 

Dhc'h To/u'b Cabin; hut they ought at least to rememher that his santl- 

jticnU vt'Uh tegjird to al.irery are no sudden fve^k. In Ihu first iiJace, he 

comes of a family that has always been ou Uib slda ot Wbttxri Msji ^TtiSHV 

. ^ye jmuciphs. He himself has been a leader yt r^iarmsi ^u xVft ^\«i!i!» 

^'^i^ It wm n teiuporai-y defeat^ wlien »'u.n aa mi a^\\i■tot\l-^aw «siii.i!a4»)^ 

wed *^^ 
efaee t^^ 


wliiclv ga-VQ Mm leiiSiirG to travel in America. After watiia he had the 
leatfefiv^tlon to be iriumpUautly returned for that diatrlctj (ind ti> soe the 
measure he kittl adv^jeated fully successful. 

WUilu lK>rd Carlisle vaa in America he never dig^ised thoaa antisliiY^ 
BCtitimentfl wMch furmeii a part of his political and religious creed as 
Engllslmiia, and as ths heir of a house always true to progress* Man; 
eldilvat'ed Eugliah people have ahmiik from ELcknowlcdging aholitiotdetK i 
Boston, where the ostniciBm of faahjon and wealth hag been en forced ttfjaii 
thera. Lord GarlislOf though moving In the highest circle, honestly aui 
openly eipressed his regpect for them tm all oceaaiona. Ha attended i 
Boston aatislaTery fair, which at that time was quite a deeded step. Ni 
did he even in any part of our country dla>ruJBe his convictioos. There is^ 
therefore, propriEty and cdiujlstency in the course h& haa Ukcn now. 

It would seem that a warm idterest In queatioaB of a public njitujio hu 
always distiaguiBhed th<5 ladies of this family. The Duchess of Sutherland'a^ 
mother is daughter of the celebrated Duchesis of Devonshire, who, in hi 
day, employed on the Ubeml side in politics, all the power of gentua, wi 
beauty, and rant. It was to the electioneering t,ilcnts of heraelf and b( 
sister, the Lady Duueannon, that Pox, at one criaia, owed his clectlo: 
We Americans should remember that it was this party who advocated oi 
cauB<e daring our revolutionary struggle. Fox and his associatas plead> 
foir ue witli much the same arguments, arid with the flftme eamestneaa. am 
warmth, that Americnin aboEtionists now plead for the slaves. They 
ikg-djiini all the power of the Hng and cabinet, as the aboUtioniMte in America^ 
in 1 350j stood against president and <3ibJnet. 

The Diuihese of Devonshire was a woman of real noble impulaea and 
generoHB Bmotions, and hud a true Eympathy for what in free and heroidi^H 
Cbieridge has Homt- fine lines addressed to her, — called forth by a sonn^^f 
which sha cotnpoaed, while in Switaorland, on. William Toll's Chapel, — 
whJci» begin, — - 

" O lady, nvraed in pomp aaS ploaaure, _^h 

Where l^med'at, tbou that heniia meaaut^F" ^^H 

Id to 
ed, |H 
ce i^^l 

The Duehesa of Sutherland, in our times, hm bMjn known to ba no less 
warmly interested on t!ie liberal aide. So great was her influence held to 
be, that upon a certain occasion when a toiy cabinet was to ba formed, 
diBtinguished minister h rejiorted to liave aaid to the queeu, that he cou' 
mot hope t^i succeed in his admitiisitration while such a decided influence 
that of the Ducheaa uf Sutherland stood at the head of her Majesty's houe 
hold. The queen's spirited refusal to surrender her faxourite atteadanf 
attracted, at the time, uiuveraal admiration. 

Like her brother, Wd Carlisle, the Duehesa of Sutherland has alwaya_ 
professed those sentiments with regsjd to slavery which aro the glory ( 
tbe English nation, and which ane held with more particular zeal hy tho) 
fa mili es who are favourable to tho progress of liberal Ideas. 

At about seven o'clock we took our carriage to go to the Earl <it Q/mx.-^ 

liflle's, the dinner hour being here somewhere IjeWtett tA^^ «a^ Titwss. Vi 

^»rpdef/ti ihrtfiigh the usual steatly diiMllng raivk, t^tna ^Vt^^fc Vkj •^x'sie^ 

tadsqnnie Uj sqaare, crossing Waterloo Bridgy, 'wvt\\ U.ft ^-vifcTiwa <^i^>a>Tai^ 

faiatJj' visible in the seetby mist, plnngtnR thTQiii;\i ^vv, \.^^^ ^S. ^^ ^"^ 

»e began to realize Bomething *f the immonso «3tW^^ ^^ l^ii&a^. 


It in JB 

Altogether the most stnkiug ubjectii tbat you puss, as you ride 
evening thus, are tke gin sUops, flamiu^ and flaring from tJje most eonapi-' 
onona poaitiona, with pkte-gliwif wmdowR aod doazUng light*, thrfjnge<i 
with mea, and womea, and children, drinking destruction. Mothers g<> 
titere with babies in their arms, and take what tnrns the mother's milk to 
potsoti, Htisbajidjs go there, and spend the money that their children want 
fcir bread, and miiltitudea of hoys and girls of the age of my own. In 
Pnrijs and other Eiiropean cities, (tt least tlae great fisher of aoula baltiS 
urith Eomethlug attractivi?, but in these gin Bhups men bite at the bare, 
barbed hook. Th&rc are no garlands, no dancing, no muaic, no thsatrical&, 
no pretenoe of social eibiUmtion, nothing but hogaheada of spirit*, and 
people going in to drtnk. The numhei- uf them timt I immod acemeU tu 
lae abBOlutely appalling. 

After long driving we found onrselvcs coming into tlic precincta of the 
West End, and txfgan to feel an indefinite sense that we were api'coachiiig 
Bomething very grand, though I cannot Sfty that we saw much liut heavy, 
emoky-wolletl buildings^ washed by the rain. At Icjigth we Htopj)cd in 
Urosvenor Place, and aliglited. " 

We were shown into an anteroom adjoining the entrance hall, and 
that into an adjacent apnrtment, where we met Lord GarMe. The 
hiul a pleiUitvut., eocbl air, warmed and enlivened by tJie blsze of a oool firs 
and wax candles. 

Wo hftd never, any of uk, met Lortl Carlisle before ; but the considerate- 
neaa and cordiaKty of our reception obviated whateviT etnbiirraesment there 
might have been in thin t'trcnmstouce. In a few m foment* after we were 
all seated tho servant auuouiiccd the Duclieaa of Sutlieriund, and Lord 
Carlifde pr«»onted me. She in tall ,%ad atntely, with a decided fnlnerii; vi 
outline, and a most noble bearin;;. Her fair complexion, hjond ^air, and 
full Hpa apeak of Saxon blood. In her early yontb she might have imu 
Kowena. I thought of the line* of Wordu worth :^ 

za. 1^^ 

* A perfect nnoi^D, nobly pliina'd. 
To warn, tu comforl, in uomtnand." 

Her manners have a peculiar warmth and coniiality. One sees people tiow 
and then who seem to raifittfe kindness and viulity, and to have a fat-nlty 
of inspiring perfect ci>nfidence In a moment. There arc no aira of gran 
dear, no patroniaidg ways ; but a genuine sincerity and kindlincfia th. 
seem to come from a deep fountain within. 

Tho engraving by Wiutcrbalter, which hajB been Bomewhat fiuniliar 
America, is as juat a representation of her pit and bearing rb muJd 

After thift we were presented to the varionii meroliers of tho Ho' 
family, -which la a very numerous one. Among them vers Lady Dover, 
Ijady LasfelleH, find Laily Labouehere, siatera of the dncheaa. The Bjurl 
of Burlington, who i^ the heir of the Dnke of Devon ahire, was aliio present. 
The Duke of Devonshire is the ancle of Lorfl Carlisle. 

The only person pi-esont not of the family connexion was my quondam 

correspondent in Anwirica, Arthur Helps. Somehow nr other I had fiirmod 

iAe impression from hia writings that he waa a venerable sag* of very 

Adranc^ j-enrSf who co/JteoipIated life aa an ajod hermit, from the door of 





Conclave my Burjirisc to find a g'*iiiiil you rig ffoutkroaii of about 
renty-five, whu lucjke<l as if ke might enjoy a joke aa well as ftiryther maji. 
clinaer I fuimrt myself betweoa litm and Lord Cnrliiale, tviid percelriiig, 

irhapa, that the nature of my t«flecttODS tvah of rather an amnsing order, 

asked me cunfidenlially if 1 did not like fun, to wliich 1 afsentod with 

TOUT. I like that little homely word /ttJi, thwgh I nuderstfuid the 
ijictionary attys ^vlmt it repr&iitntij is vulgar ; hut I think it has a good, 
^kcarty, Saxon Eound, and I liko Saicon bcttd- than Latin or French either. 
'* Whert the Bemint offered mo wine, Lord Carlisle asked roe if our party 
Verciili tcctotaltcfitf and I aaid yea; tliat la. Ameriraji all clergymen wera 
^etotollera^ of course. 

After the ladies kft the table the conTenaation tnm^ on the Maine law, 
Which 8eem*s ti> bs oonsidered mrer here as a phenomenon in legiKlation, and 
toony of the gentlemeti present inquired about it with great curiosity. 

When wo wont into the drawiag ror«u I was prs«etitetl to the vcnerahb 
Countess of Carlisle, tha carl' a mother; a Itt"ly miiTTCrsally beloved and 
anevered, not l^!ts for superior traits of mind than for ^reat lovellne^a aud 
"benevolence of charjicter. She received us with the utmoBt kindiicfls; 
MndQess evidently genuine and real. 

The walls of the drawing-room were beautifully adorned with works of 
*rt by the best masters. There wa.«i a Kembrandt hanging over the fire- 
whi(jh showed ftntly by the evening light. It was simply the por- 
iof a man with a broiul, Flemish Tliere were one or two pictures, 
by Cuyp, I should think ho must havo studied in America, so per* 
he rejiresent the piflden, hazy atmosphere of our Indian summer. 

One of th{} ladies showed me a snuffbox on which was a picture* of Lady 
[Carlisle's mother, the celebrated Duchess of Devonshire, taken when she 
■waa quite a littltf girl ; a round, happy £ace, showing great Tivacity and 
if^tilaji. On anoiher box w.'is an exquisitely beautiful miniature of a rela- 
ftiva of the family. 

After tKe gentlemen rejoined ns came in the Duke and Duchess of Argyle, 
►mad Lord and Lady Blantyre. Theee ladies are the daughters of the Duchess 
'of Sutherland. The Duchess of Argyle is of ft slight and fairy-like figure, 
jWith flaxen hair and blue eyes, answering well enough to the deacriptinn 
1^ Annot Lyle, in the Legend of Montrose. Lady Blaatyre was somewliat 

! toiler, of fuller figure, with very brilliant bloom. Lord Blantyre is of the 
Stnarl blood, a tall and slender young iniin, with very graeoful manners. 
As to the Duke of Arjgfle, we found that the picture drawn of him by 
I lis countrymen in Scotland was every way correct. Though slight of figure, 
with fair comtjlexion and blue ey^, his whole ftppearance is indicative of 
p»er^ and livacity. Hifl talente and efficiency have made him a member 
pf the British cabinet at a much earlier age than is usual ; and he has dis- 
^guished himself not only in political life, but as a writer, having given 
to the world a work an Preabj-terianisuij enihraciag an analysis of the 
secleat^tical history of Swaland since the refuruiatiun, which is spoken of 
la^vHUen with great ability, In a most candid iind lil«r«tl spirit. 

The oosapany soon formed themselves into little groups in different parts 
of tfae room. The Dnohess of Sutherland, Lord Carlisle, and the Duke 
iwitl Duchsffi! of Argylo formed a ciiide, and turned the conversiation upon 
American topics. Tha Duke of Argyle made maa^ ™;^m<y^ hSgh^V ^sn«. 
disUnguished men, particularly of Emeracm, liO&^O^Q'w.i wtA TSas'S'OBSiXtifc-t 





also oT Preseott, who appe&ra to l>c a genornl fii,T0iirit4a here, I Telt at 
inumeDt that we Dorer TtJiie out literal^ eqeq bo lauct as wlitin placed i 
circle of iuteUigcut foreigners ; it is particularly eo with Amcricane, hi _ 
we hivc nothing Ijut our men and irometi to glory in^no court, nonoblfts, 
no castles, no cathedrals ; except we produce difitioguialied sx»ecimena gf 
Imni^jity, we are uuthing. ^^h 

The quietneBs of this evening circle, the charm of its ki&d hospitalil^H 
the evidertt air of einterity and goodwill which pervaded everytlungj tuta^^ 
the cvmiing pass most delight fully to me. I had never felt royself more at 
Jiome, even lunong the Quakers, Such s, visit is a true rest and refn 
meni, a thous&nd times belter thaa the moat brilliHnt and gUtteriug en 

At eleven o'cloclt, however, the carriage called, for oiir evening ww 
drawing to its cbfie ; that of our friends, I suppose, was but just <?om 
tnonciiig, as London's liveliest hours are by gaslight ; but we cannot 
the art of turoing night into day. 

jiT till 




tOyBUlr— ,ijtyiTKMiiiT oy Sibl^s Bocmry— duiwich iSAiLfeitT — hienniB t*i 
MK. E. cuorvin— sptfi:EJt at mv, j*b. Biflrf£x'S. 

JHi.y 4. 
Mt dear S.— 

This morning ! felt too tired to go out unywherc ; but Mr. and Mtb. 
Binnej persundcil me to go juBt a little while in to the meeting of the Biblo 
Society, far you Diutst know that this Is annivereary week, and fio hciside^ 
the usual njfih, and roar, and whirl of London, there is the eunflneuce of 
all the religious forces in Exeter Uall, I told Mrs. B. that I waii worJai 
out, and did not think I could elt through a (tingle ypeecli ; butshetem 
me by a promise that I fihonld withdraw at any moment. Wo hnd a 
little snug gallery near ose of the doors, where 1 eould eee all otct 
house J and make a quick retreat in case of need. 

In one paint English ladies certainly do carry prRotical industry farther 
than 1 ever Kaw it in America, Everybody knows that an anniversary 
meetiBg is something of a siege, and I ohseiTcd many good ladies below had 
made regular pro vltti on therefor, by bitugingkulttinij: work, sewiug, erciclifct» 
or embroidery. I thought it was an improvement, and mean to return mend 
it when I get home, J ain sure many of our JHarthas in America will he 
very grateful for tho custom. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury was in the chair, and I saw him now for 
first time. Ee is quite a tall man, of slender figure, with & long 
narrow face, dark hazel eyes, and very thit^k, auhurti hair. His b^ 
was dignified and appropriate to his position, Peoplo here are airoew! 
am used >y the vivacity with which American jtapers are exhorting 
Shaftesbury to look ifl,to the factory system, and to explore the collierii 
and in gencnd to lake care of the Koffering lower clasEea, us if he had in 
dalug jii}ythiiigelss for these twenty yearR [sust. To people who know hi 
fie hns yyorked ugamat wind and tidCj in the t,ice q^ Q\*\JWitvtwu^ii,(L eliVocij 
^ad Jjow sJ] the dreadful ttatirtks tbat tlife^ quo\e aE^vQ* \cuav ^ 
J>roti/-}it out exprcsslj by inquiries set on !not miA pvotemttj \i^ ^vvm^ 
ft>w these sums MtatkUoe hnvi b&cn by ¥im rei\(iT^tt4 "m Vbsi tw* ^>*l 



eeasive Iwusesj of Parlmment till all thaso abiisea huve lieen reformed, ; 
fkr as the most stringent and minute legislation oin retorm them, — it 3 
quite aTiiimng to bf^^r hiia esLhorted to consider the sitnatioa af the worlja 
iiig classea, Oae rHasoa far this, perhapB, ia that proToking facility " 
dhAnging names which is incident to the English peani^e. During tli 
tiiae that most of the res&irches and speeehe^B on the factory eyatem an 
cnllierieB were mode, the Earl of ShafliEHhtury was in the House of Common 
with ihi title of Lord Ashley, and it waa not till the death of his fath^ 
thjit he entered the House of Peers as Lord Shaftesbury. The cotitr; ^ 
which a Tery staiii religious paper lu Aiaertc& haa drawn hetween Lort 
Asbky and Lord Shafteabuiy does not Htrike people over here as remark 
ahls appodte. 

In the course of the (speech e« on this occasion, frequent and feeling alli^ 
siisns were made to the condition of three millions of pwpte in AmeriO 
who are prevented by legislative enactments from reading for themselv<j 
the word of life. I know it is not pleasant to our uiinistera npoa 
stage to hear atich things ; but ia the whole moral sense of the world ■ 
huii its Toice, the whole miafrioaory aptrit of Christianity to be restrainoi 
beoanse it is disagreeable for us to Ije reminded of our national sins t 
least, let the mora! atmoaphertj of the world he kept pure, thongb 
abguld he too stimulating for our diseased lungs, if oral insti-nctioii ' 
do for three jniEion slaTOs in America, it will do equally well in Auji.trijd 
Iteiy, and Spain, and the powers that be, there, are just of the opiiiiq 
that they uru in America— that it m tlangeroua to the people read i ' 
Bible for themselTea. Thoughts of this kind were very ably aet forth 
some of the spoeches. On the stage 1 noticed llev. Samuel R. Ward, frog 
Toronto, in Canada, a full blooded African of fine personal presenoe, 
was received and treated with much cordiality by the ministerial brethn 
who Hurrounded him. I was sorry that I could not stay tlirongli tK 
speechea, for they were quite interesting. 0. thought they weru the 
he erer heard at an anniversary. I was ohligsd to leave after a Uttl 
Mr. Sherman very kindly came for us in his ijorriage, and took no a littl 
ride into the country. 

Mrs, B, says that to-morrow morning we shall go out to see the Dulwiej 
Ghnllery, a fine collection of ^laintingB by the old masters. Now, I ounfei 
unto yoH that I have great sus])icions of tbese old mastera. Why, I i*-ia! 
to know, should nono but old raiwtern be thought anything of if la n4 
nature ever springing, ever new ? Is it not fair to conclutk that all 
mechanical assistants of painting are improved with the advance of Boeiet 
as much as uf all arts T May not the magical tint«, which are said to be i 
iec«t with the old masLers, he tibe eifect of time iu part ! or may nd 
modem artists have their secrets, m well, for future ages to study au| 
admire i Then, besides, how are we to know that our admiration of olT 
masters is genuine, since we can bring our taste to anything, if wounlyknol 
we must, and try long enough ? People never like olives the first time ths 
eat them. In fact, I must eoufesa, I have aome partialities towards yijun 

maatara, and a sort of sunpieion that we are passing o-ffet bc^\?is?£ '^■«i\iSvis! 

at our side, to get at tfaa^ which, though, tk&best ut ^^Vt i.'&.i., im^^wAi^** 

gopfi asthe best of oars. I oortainly do not -womV^ U\feti\i"^u^^^Y^^ 

mth the exception of Milton and Shateapeare, t\ieT(i \ft mtite x^fe'uri '^'*^J?^ 

werka of the writers of the last fifty ye^rs tWii m f»XV \*^<^ ^^'^ Vs^«iXS« 


Wdl, thesB are my Biinuiscs for the jirefleut ; hnt one tLing I am 
luineil — as my ajiiiiiraliofj is notluDg ttt ADjbuUy but myself, I will ke 
some likes and dialikea of my ovm., and will not get up any rapUiFefi th 
do not Brise of themselvoi!, I am etslirely williug to be conquered by i 
picture that lias the power. I wiU \m a iiott-MslBtaut, but that is all. 
May 5. Well^ w* anw tLe Dulwich Gallery ; five rooma filled witb 
moeteis^ Murilloe, Claudes, Kubens> Salyator Hdsilb, Q^itlana, Oujps, Yk 
dyknefi, and all the reat of them ; probably not the beat Bpecimens of : 
one of tham, but good enough to begin with. C. and I took diffei 

courses, I said to liiiUj *'A'ow chooaci nine picttirQa aimply by yoiur ej^ 

Mid see how far its untaught guidance will guide you witliiu the cimoiis of 
CTitimm." Whtn he had gone through all the rooms and marked his 
piotures, we found he had selected two by Kulieuii, two by Yandyte, one 
by Salvator Eitsa, thre« by Murille, and one by Titkn. Pretty succeasfal 
thatj -was it not, for a liFSt essay? We then took the catalogue, aad 
selected all the pictures of each artist onii after aiiotbex, in order to get an 
idea of the style of each. I had a great curiosity to see Claude Lorraine's, 
Temembering the poetitaU things that bad been said and anng of him. I 
thought I would see if I could diBtiiiguish them by my eye without looking 
at the catalogue. I found I c^uld do so. 1 knew them by a cei-tain misty 
qi;ality in the atiaoepbere. I waa disappointed in them Tery much. 
Cert&inly, they were good paintings; I had nothiug to object to them, 
but I profiinely thought I had seen pictures by modem landscape pjuntera as 
far excelling them as a brilliant juorning excels a cool, grey day. Very 
likely the fault was all in me, but I could not help it ; so I tried the 
MurilloH. There was a Virgin aud Child, witJj clouds around them. The 
virgin Wfts a vttry pretty girl, imch aa you may Bee by the dozen in any 
board lug fiohool, and the child was a pretty cliild. Call it the young 
mother and sun, and it ia a very pretty picture ; but call it Mary and the 
infant Jesus, and it is an utter failure. Kot such .was the Jewish priueesa, 
the inspired puetesa and prlestees, the chosen of CrO<l atuong all women. 

It »eetiis to me that painting Is poetry expressing itself by lines and 
colours instead of wordii ; therefore there are two things to be eonsidered 
ill every picture : first, the f|nality of the idea expreafced ; and second, 
the quaUty of the laiiguage in which it is expressed. If ow, with regard to 
the flxBt., 1 hold that every person of cultivated taste is as good a judge of 
pfiiuting as of poetry. The second, wliich relates to the mode of cxpn*sing 
the conception, including drawing and colouring, with all their Hecrets, 
requires more iitudy, and here our untaught perceptions must sometimes 
yield to the judgment of artisi.B, My first i^ueKtion, then, wheu I look at 
the work of an artist, isj What sort of a mind has this man If What hai 
he to iaiy ? And then I consider, How does be say it ? 

Now, vi ith regard to Murillo, it appeared to mo that he was a man of 
ratlier a mediocre mind, with notldug very high or deep to say, but that 
he was gifted with an txtiubite faculty of expressing wliat he did say ; and 
km paintings seem to me to l«iar an analogy to Tdpe's poetry, wherein the 
power of expres^os is wi'ought to the highest point, but without fteshn(^s 
or ideaiity in the conception. As Pope could tfcTjjvtsixwa \tl mci-it 4Ti(\ulBite 
, wordJng the fervent Idcau of Eloisii, witUoul tlie i^o^ti lij ^xv&sxi^ ^msSbv, 
^ Murillo reproduced the current and fioatrng re\i^o^ftVAfi^ ^1 V\* \ot«»^ 
^itb most exquisite peifectioa of art and coVo^.t, b^t ^^l^«v^\> ^^«^^^1 * 





vitality. Tho pictures of hia whieli pleasi* ma moat, ana his beggar boya 
and flower ^ris, -whera he fibandiins the region af ideality, aad simply 
reproduces nature. His tut and colonring give an extiuiaittJ grace to annh 
, BkctchiS. 

As to Yondyto, tliough <ividently a, fine painter ^ he is one whose mind 

does not move me. He adds nothing to my stfick o( thoughts — awakena 

no enn^tion. I know it is a. fine pietur^, just aa I have sometiniea been 

conscioua in cliurch Umt I was hearing a fine sermon, whi^jih somehow hod 

' mit the slightest elTcct upon ms> 

Knbenn, on the c^antrary, vboBa pictures I detested with all th« eneiigy 
» of my stmi, I knew and felt all the time, by the very pain he gave me, to 
be a real living artist. There was a Vtnus and Cupid there, aa fat and 
I aa coarse as they could bo, but bo freely rirawu,, and bo masterly in their 
[),'expTeasion and handling, that one must feel that they were by an arfciat 
Ijwhti could jnst aa eJiaily have painted them any other way if it had antted 
Ljijs fioVBreign plea.sure, and therefore wo are the more Texed with him. 
I Wh*nyonr taata is crosseil by a eleTer peraon, it always Teiea yyu more 
'J than when it is done Ijy a stupid one, because it is done witli such power 
k that there is less hope for yoit. 

[ There were a nuuiher of plctuxea of Cuyp there, which saliaficd my thirst 
rfor colouring, atid appeavetl to me aa I expected the Claades would have 
( doiM. Genei-nlly speaking, his obJL<ctii are few in number and ^ommonplaca 
Im their RhaTactcT — a bit of land and water, a few cattle and figures, in no 
. ,_.i.i.. i,..i »!._„ u_ ii__.i,, *i "--'with that dreamy, mLity 

the days of autumn. A a 
dropping from the trees among 
the dry leaves, aud see the goldenrwda and purpls* ^wtfirB, and hear the 
t click fjf the aqiairrel as he wMps up the tree to hia neat. For this one 
Juttribnte of golden, dreamy haainess, I like Cuyp. His power in shedding 
kit over very simple objecta reminds me of some of the abort poems uf Long" 
[fellow, when things in tJiem&elves moat prosaic are flooded with a kind of 
'poetic light from the inner aoul. These are merely first ideas and imprett- 
Biona. Of course I do not ijiake up my nurid alwut any artist from what 
1 have BOwU here, We mnat not expect a painter to put hia taleJit into 
every picture, more tlian a poet into every verse that be writes. Like 
tither men, he in sometimes brilliant aud inspireil, and at other« dull and 
heavy. In general, however, I have this to say, that tliere is some kind 

rysonwlily. But yet 

_ consider the highest 

liaifision of art in tha mpeeimens I have thus far seen ; nothing whicli apeaka 
So the deepest and the highest ; which would inaplre a generoua ardour, or 
;* ftjlemn religions trust. Vainly I seek for something divine, and ask of 
i-art ti> bring me nearer to the source of all l)eauty and perfection. I find 
["wealth of colouring, freedom of dc»igu, aud capability of expreiHaion wasting 
Ltbemaelvea merely in portraying trivial aenaualitiea and commonplace 
ndofts. So much for the tirst essay, 

L In the evening we went U) dine with our old frlenda of th^ HvBiS^st^ 
jyfr. and Mrs. Edwwrti! Cropper, who are Tio^ s^tiSysv?, ^ XstiOia '^ysra*, \»^ 
^oudon. We were delighted to meet tVieTC obc^ tatiti^^ *.Tvi. '^i Vsi-sst '^'^^^"^'^ 
ar Lii^erpool frieiiilB. Mrs. Cropper's fuiYitr, li<^T'i^M«tvtw\,\i'aa>~'^*^" 
Muglimd, tlmigh with no sen»ihle improv^metili \^vV\^^^'^'^' 



At dinner wo were inttujiieeil to Lord and Ladj Hatlierton, 
Hatlierton is a memlrt.^r of the wlug party, aiul Las btsii cliief seuretary for 
JrekiuU Lady Hatherton is q p^i-son of great cultivatiou and iiiteUigeticje, 
n-arinly iiitereftted in M tLe pTogreeBive movt'jnenta of tho day ; and I gained 
inu[?h infonuatiou in het ^ociuty. There wore also preeent Sir Charles and 
Lady TroTilinn ; tlio former holda Kome appointment in the navy. Ladjr 
TreviUan i& a ^ster of Macuuluy. 

In the evening qnite a circle came in ; among otLera, Lady Emma 
Campbellj dster of the Lnke of Argyle ; the daughters of the Arehhiahop 
of Canterbiiiy, who very kindly invited nie to viait them at LambetJi ; 
and Mr. Arthur Helps, heaides many nthena whose n&mes Z need not 

i'eople here continually a-pologize for the weather, which, to w,y tha 
least, has heon xa-ther na gracious since we ha,Te been here ; as if one ever 
expected to fimi anytlilng hut smoke, and darkness, and fog in London. 
The anthfentiiL" air with whic}i tliey lament the esistcLice of these thlnga ai 
premnt would sJiaost persuade one that hi general London was a very clear, 
hriglit place. I, however, aaaured tljem that, having heard from my chUd- 
liood of the smoke of London, ita dimiio^ and darknes^ I found thin 
juueh better than I had expected. 

They talk here of spirit rappings and t^hle turnings, I find, as <\ 
iLmarica, Many rumours are afloat which seem to have no other eff« 
than merely to enliven the cliit-chat of an evening circle. I paaaed a very 
pleasant evening, and left about ten o'clock. The gentleman who was 
Landing me down-staira said, "I suppose yoa are going to one or two other 
places to-night." The idea etrnct me as so preposterous that I could not 
help an exclamation of surprise. 

May 6. — A good many calls this morning. Among others came Miss 
Greenfield, the (ao-called) Black Swan, She appears to he a gentlei, 
amiable, and interesting young person, She was horn the slave of a kind 
inistreas, who gave her everything hut education, and, dying, left her free 
■mih a little property. The property she lost hy some legal quibble, hut 
iiftd» like others of her lucc, a pasjilon for mnisic, and could alug and pky 
by ear. A young hwJy, discovering her taste, gave her a few Icisiona. She 
has a most astonishing voice, C. eat down to the piano and played while 
she snug. Her voice runs through a compass of three octaves and afourth. 
This is four notes more than Miilihran's. Siie slnga a most magnifif^jit 
tenor, with such a breadth and volume of sound that^ with your back 
turned, you cj>uld uot imagine it to be a woman, WhDe she was there, 
Mrs. S. C. Hall, of the Irish Sketches, was announced, Slie is a tall, well- 
proportioned woman, with a line colour, dark-brown hair, and a cheerful, 
cordial manner. She hrouglit with her her only daughter, a young girl 
about fifteen. I told her of Miss Greenfield, and she took great interest ifl 
her, and requested her to sing fij.iniething for her. C. played tlie accomp 
liiment, and she sung "Old Folks at Home," first in a soprano voice, . 
thee in a tenor or ijaritcNue. Mis. Hidl was amaze<l and dubi-htet?, 
oBtercd at once into her cause. She eiaid that slie would call with 
sjid present her tit Sir Qeorge Smart, who is at the head of tlie queei^ 
xausical estubliisbmeiitf aud, of course j the sitkiiOw\*id3fei \eajitT bi XjsvSh 
to tisimljadgm eat. 
J/rs. Mali very kindlj told me Umt B^xe liai ca^^ie^ ^ viotv^ Tn» V* iwite. *i 

retreat witb her bj Ler chajmJDg Httle coijiitry honFC near London. I do' 
ntft mean Uiat ^Ac called it a diamiijig llttk retriiat, but that every one 
Tjflio epciiks of it gives it thiit thoxtR'tor. She told m^ that I should there^ 
bare poaitiTe and perfect quiet ; and what oould attiract rae raore than that 
Siie eaid, njoreoTer, that there they had a great mflny nlghtingalca. 
Ihi s " bower of vosen hy Bentletnecr'a stream," could I only go there ! 
1 am tied to London hy a hundred engiigemente ; I cannot do it. NeTei 
lees, I have promiBed that 1 will £0 and spend some time yet, wlieii Mr. 
Jeavea Loudou. 

In the uounie of tlie Jay I hod a< note &om Mrs, Hall, sayiTig that, Qa 
Sir George Smart was aUjut leaTing town, ehe had not waited to nie, "but 
liad taken Mias Greenfield to him herself. S"he writea that he was rerdly 
astonished and ehamied at the wonderful weight, tsompaflB, and power of 
lier voitie. Ho was also as weU pleased with the niind in her singing, and 
lier qiucknas3 in doing and eatchiug all that he told her, Should {jhehave 
H public opiJi>rtiiuity to perform, he offered to hear her rehearse biiforehaud. 
J^Ir,^. Midi isaya tliia is & great deal for hini, 'whuse hours are tdl marked 
with gold. 

In the evening the house waa opened in a general way for callers, who 
were coming and going all the evening. I think there nrn^t have been ov " 
two hunflrixl people— ajmong them Martb Faniuhar Tupper, a littlo m 
with frash, rosy complcixion, and cheery, jnyouB manaers; and M. 
Howitt, juBt Bucli a cheerful, ^ensihliSj fireside companion as we find her ij 
her hooks, winning love and trust the very firat few moments of the inter- 
view. The ^eueral topic of remark on meeting me Beems to he, tlistt I am 
not Bt) liad-looking aa they were afraid I was ; and I do aaaure you that 
when I have jjeen the things that are pnt up in the Bh op-windows here vfii 
my name under th^ra, I have been in wondering a^lmiration at th^ hnnnt 
Jetis loving-kiudnessof my EngliBh and Scottish friends, in keeping up sui 
a warm heart far such a Gorgon, I should think that the Sphinx ia 
Jjgjidon Muacum might have sat for most of them. I am going to make 
CoUeotion of theso pijhrtnuts to bring home to yoxi. There is a great variol 
of thorn, and thc^ will he ufieful, like the lriflhman''a gnidf-Loard, whi* 
showed where the road did not go. 

Before the evening was through I was talked out and worn out— thi 
was hardly a cliip of me left. To-morrow at eleven oVJcmk monies the meei 
Ing at StsJTord House. What it will amount to I do not know ; but I take 
no thouglit fyr the morrow. 

ffh o 




liBciiPTlo?r AT flXArroBn notrss. 

May 8. ! 
Mir MAE C. :— 

In fulfihnent of my a,!^Eenient, I will tell yon, aa nearly as I mn j 
member, all the dei^le of the meeting at Stafford Ilonfia. 

At about id even o'clock we drove under the aictie^ i^ttTrv^^ei "wii"^ 
maasiaa, i'xt&rnally, mi very showy in ap-\ieax:a.\iC;e. \H. ^WtA* «vv "^Ias 
Iturdera of St JmiiUHB Part, opposite to Bu.<:k\n|j>i!\ni. TtCacei ^^"^^ "^ "^"^ 
on the noHfi side, and beautiful fij^rdens oTi tlhc «u\i\\i, ^\\A^ ^^ ^^^ 


We were received at tlio dtxvr liy tvi^i stately HigUIandera in fall coBtun 
anil what seaim-d to ma ud iiiDumemblo multitude of servants in live: 
with yywdercfl hair, repeated onr nauios through the long earridoirav fit 
one to anQtheir. 

I hare only a ooufascd idea of passing &am passagie to passage, ajid i 
h&l] to hall, till finally wo wcte introduced into a largo drawing nMjfD, 
person waB present, and I was at full leiaur^; to survey an apartment whose ar- 
rangements mare perfectly .waited my eye and insts than any 1 had nvei 
Been before. There was not any particnlar splendour of furniture, or 
daailing display of upholstery, but an artistic, poetic air, resulting from 
the arraiiigement of colours and the dispoKition of the workfl of Wr/u with 
'whioh the room abounded. The gi-eat fault iu many splendid rooms, ts, 
that they are armngiid without any tyc to unity of imiire&sion. Tho thingn 
io them rjiiiy be all fino in their way, but there ia uo Jjarniony of resiUt. 

People do not often eonaider tlvat there may be a general BCutiment to lie 
CKpresaed in the armngt'inent of a room, ns well as in the eom^xtsitLUti of a 
picture. It is thia leading idea which corrospornJs to what painters calltho 
ground tone, or harmonizing tint of a picture. The presencse of thi» often 
rendora a very simpla room ^Ktreiuely fascinating, and the absence of it 
rmikes tlie most splendid combinations of fnruiture powerless to please. 

The walla were covered with green damaftk, laid on flat, and eon fined in 
it« place by narrow ^It bands, which bordered it around tiie margin. The 
chaira, ottiimanft, and sofas were of white woodwork, varnlslied aud gilded, 
covered with the same. 

The carpet wt\3 of a green ground, bedmpped with a small yellow leaf; 
and in each window, a circular standing basket contained a whole bank of 
primroaos, growing us if in their native mi\f their pale yellow blossoms and 
green leaves harmotdiiiug admirably with the general tone of colouring. 

Through the fall of the lace curtains 1 could see out into the U'autifiil 
grounds, whose clumps uf blussaming white lilacs, aud velvet grass seemed 
ao in Uarmoay with the green interior of the nwm, tliat one wonJd tliink tbey 
had bctju aiTangod as a euntinuation of the idea. 

Une of the first individual objects which attracted my attention waa, 
(iver tht mantel -piece, a large, splendid picture by Landsecx-, which 1 have 
i>ftf!n steen engraved. It represents Ht^ tw'o iii<lBtt cluldren of the Duchess 
of Sutherland, the Jfarquis of Stafford, and Lady Blantyre, at that time 
Ludy Levi son Gbwer, in their childhood. She iis represented as feeding a 
i'nwii I a little poodle dog is holding up a rose te ker; and her brother is 
lying on the ground, playing with an old staghound. 

I had been familiar with Land^or^s engravings, but this w«s the first of 
hk paintings I had ever seen, and I was struck with the rich and harmoni- 
ous quality of the eolouring. Thei-o was aW a full-length marble statue 
of the Manpvis of Stafford, taken, I should think, at about seventeen years 
of age, in full Highland cj^tume. 

When the ducheaa appeared, 1 thought ehe looked handsomer by ilay light 
thaa in the evening. She was dressed in white muslin, witli a drab vtlv^t 
imsqae .^Ifmbeil with satin of the Mime colour. Her hair was conftned by a 
£'eld UBii t/Iiiniond uot on the back part of her bead. 
S'/ie reaaived us with tJie etime warm and fllmplB Vm4'fte;Bs Ti\i\(;'^ ^%>saSL 
*^ofrn Wfors, We were Ijrwsented to the Buke oV t^viXV^erH^iV \\« V* ^ 
•A shi^der mail, with mther ft thin face. VigU \sro^u ^i^^^, «^ ^ t«.^*^ 


STAFKOHD nOtrSS!. 139 

Uiie eye, i^ltli an air of gentlen&ss and dignity. The dsWcAjcy of hia liealth 
pPBTents liiru from moving la gen^l society, or entering into puUtc life. 
He ai>t>Dt1ii mi]i;li i»f Lia time la reading, and dcviaingatid executing iicLtimefl 
uf priurliiial bi^neTidiiuca for tlie welfare of hia nnmGrons i1et]'i3Ddanta, 

I sought a little private couvtirBu.tion with the dachesa in her boudoir, inM 
wklck I frankly canfesse/ed a little niixiety rei^pectiug tho armngetnents of 
the day ; having livuti all my life in suuh a shady and sequestered w^y, 
mmA biaag entirely ignorsmt of life as it exists in the sphere in vhich she 
moTe^ fnicJi apprehensiona were rather natural. 

She begged that I would make myself entireJy e&s^t and consider mysalf 
hs. among my ovn\ fricads.; that she had inrited a few friends to liUM^f 
and ttiat afterwards U'thers would call ; that there would he a sliort address 
from the ladies of England read hy Lord ShuHeahury, whkh would reqtilrej 
no ort&M'cr. 

I could nut but be gratcfut for the consideration thua evinced. Thff 
matter beinj^ thus adjusted^ we ciune boek to the drawing room, when th 
party hegan to assemble. 

The only difleretiRe, I may say, by the by, in the gatltering of such a. 
company and one witJi us, is in the announcing of names at the door ; & 
custom which 1 think a good one, saving a vast deal of breath we always 
expend in company, by asking "Who ia tliat S and that?" Then, too^ 
people can full into converwiUon without a formal preBentation, theppeeump- 
tioa bding that nobody is invited with whom it is not proper that you 
should converse. The functionary who performed the announcing waa a 
&ie, stalwart man, in fall Bighland coatume, the duke being the head of k 
Higbland clan. 

Among the first that enti^red were the members of the family, the Duke 
and Duchess yf Argyle, Lord and Lady Bkntyre, the Marquis and Mur- 
chioneaa of StiifFoi-il, and Lady Emma Oampbell. Then folluwod Lord 
Shftfteabury with Ids beautiful lady, and her fiitiier and mother, Lord and 
Lady Palraerston. Lord Falmerston is of middle hciglit, with a kiitn, dark 
eye, and Uiurk hair streaked with grey. There is something peculiarly 
ftlert and vivacious about all hiiis muvements; In Sihort his appearance per- 
f(KitIy iuiswers to what we knuw of him from his public Hfe, One has 
& et^ange mytkolo^^ical feeling aliout the exiat^ncd of people of whom one 
lie&rs for many years without ever seeing them, Wbile tiilkiag with Lop' 
Palmerston 1 could but remeiiibtr how often 1 had hetird father and Mr, T 
exuiting over his foreign dciipatdu<fi by our home firettlde. 

The Marquis of Lansdoi,vn(; now entenxl. Ho is about the middle height, 
with grey hair, blue eyea, and a mild, quiet dignity of manner. He is 
one of til 080 who, lut Lor<l Henry Petty, took a distingulHhet.1 part with 
Clarkson and Wilberforce in the aljolitiiinof the slave trade. Hehtwalwaya 
beeti a moat munificent pntron of literature and art. 

Tliorc were pres^ent, aho. Lord John Hussell, Mr. Gladstone, and Lord 
Qrenville. The latter we all thought very strikingly resembled in his ap- 
pearance the poet Longfellow, My making the remark intrnjdnced the 
Hubject of his poetry. The DuchesB of A.rgv^*J fi-vitifcfiifei '^ \>s^ \-«-?,\itiJiK<i 
boys, who Etooii eacfi side of her, if they remeimWTtyi \vtt t^^vR^^'s^^^'^'^" 
line to tbem. It is a ijratiticatioti to to© t\vt^t \ ^m\ >i^ «^ft^ ^si^nS 
ffreaieh tmces of one of our American poeta. "S\\ea«s \-v.'<j VvXJCi^'taia^^ ^ 
DacAesB of Argyh, and the youngest botv of tW -Dxx^V^* "^ ^e^^^J^iet™ 


were beautiful fair-baired (iliilihen, plctmresqtioly attlretl in tJio Iligls 
costiimp. There were atjine otber charming diildren of the family cirde 
present. The eldest son of the Duke of Ajgyle liears the titlti uf the Lctrd 
of Lom, wkieh Bcott Ims rendered so poeticnj & sound to our eatrs. 

W^hen lunch was annotiiiced, tlio Duke of Sutherland gave me his &-. 
fl-nd led me through a suite of rooms into tlie dining halL Kut^h room 
w£ passed wns rich in ita pLctunja, statues, and artistiQ a.Traiigoiiients ;' 
pitetic eje and taste had evidently presided over all. Tbe table was beattj 
fully laid, umamented by two magnificent t'pci^npif, crystal m%^^ aupportj 
by wrought ailvtr Etandards;, filled with the most brilliant huthooM! floweei 
on the edges of the vases and nestling among the flowers were ailFer do 
of the size of Ufa. The walla of the room were hung with gorgeous pietu 
imd directiy opposite to me waa a portrait of the DuchesB of Sutherland, 
Sir Thomas Lawroiice, whieh has figured largely in our souvenirB and Ix)' 
of beauty. She is represented with a little diild in ber arms ; this cbil( 
now Lady Blautyre, was sitting opposite tti me at tablej with a charming 
little girl of her own, of about the same apparent age. When one seeaaucb 
things, one almost fanoiea this to be a fairy palace, wKere the cold demons 
of age and tim« have lost their power. 

1 was saatod next to Lord Lausdowne, who conversed mucli with, me 
abont affairs in America. It seems to me that tlie great men of the old 
world regard our country thoughtfxiUy. It is a new development of society,, 
acting every day with greater and greater power on the old world ; nor i9 
it yet clearly seen what its final results will be. His oliservationa indj^ 
eated a caha, clear, thoughtful mind— an accurate observer of life and luHto] 

Meanwhile the sGrvauta moved nolflelesuly to and fro, taliing up _ 
various articles on the table, and" offt^riugthem to the giicatsiu a peculiarly 
quiet manner. One of the dished breugbt to me was a pluver'a nest, pre- 
eisely as the plover made it, with five little bluc-si>sckled eggs in it. Tbia 
mode of serving plover's eggji, fw I understand it, is one of the fashions of 
the day, and has iioiaething quite sylvan and picturesque alxiut It - but it 
looked ao, for all the world, like a robin's nest that I used to watch out in 
our home orchard, that I had it not in my heart to profane the sanctity of 
the image by eating one of the eggs. 

The cuidne of these West End regions appears to be entirely under 
French logislfltion, conducted by Parisian artists, skilled in all subtle and 
metaphysical combiuations of ethereal posaibilitics, quite inscrutable ti) the 
eye of sense. Her grace's cAc/, I have heard it said dse where, bears the 
reputation of being tiie first artist of his cihiBS in England. The professitin 
as tbAis sublimated bears the same proportion to tlie old substantial Englislx 
cookery that Mozivrt'a music does to Handd'e, or MidBummar Night's Dream 
to Parftdise Lost. 

This meal, called hmch, la witli the Englieli quite an institution, being 
ftppareutly a less elaborate and ceremonious dinner. Everything is phwod 
upon the table at onee, and ladies sit down with out removing tbtir bfjone; 
it is, I imagitje, the most social and family meal of the day- one in whh 
chlJdreu are aduiitted to the table, even in the preaeuee of company. 
^oeral/j- takes place in the iniddle of the day, and the dinner, which eo: 
Aftar ft, fit eight or nine in the ovenLng, is m comv«riaoru on^^j a. iititem&' 
* Ipoald not help iMn^iigt as I looked aiouiii ovi a<j matw^j la^sn. TiVm \ 

r 13 






had lieard of hktorieaUy all my life, kow^ very much less they bear tha ^ 
inarkii of age than men who liave been connected a similar length of time 
wi^ the morements of our country. This appeoTADce of youtlifulness andW 
&leirtQe3a h&s a DDnatantly JcooptiTiJ inflnQace upon one ia Eugtand. I caimail 
realbe that people nee aa old as histnry states tLem to bo. In iho pre»eiit?j 
company there werd mea of sixty or seventy, wh(»n I stould liave pro*" 
couDCf^d at tho first glantso to be fifty, 

Genemlly speaking, our working minds seem to wear out their bodie 
fester ; perhaps bfecAuse our climate la more stimulating ; taora, perhapa, 
from the intcn^r stimulus of our political T^gims, wtiob never leases anyn 
thiug long at refit. 

The tone of manners lu this distioguislied cjxcle did not obtrude itself 
upon my miud an ilifTereut from tliat of higbly-educat^ people In om: owA^H 
country. It appeared idmpte, fritiodty, natural, and sincere. They taUceoi^H 
like people who thought of what thpy were Bajing, rather than how to say^^ 
it. The practice of thorough culturo and good breeding is snhatan- 
tiaJly the same thiough the wodd, though smaller oonventionalities may 

After lunch the whole party aaceuded to the plotuie gallsry, pasmig ou 
our way tha grand mtaircase aud haE, said to be the most magnificent ■ 
Europe. All that wealth could oommand of artistic kuowle^lge and sic 
has been expended hero to produce a> suporb result. It tills tbn emt 
centre of the building:, citonding up to the roof and surmounted by t 
splendid dome. On three sides a gallery run a round it aupparted by pilla 
To Una gallery you ascand on the fourUi aide hy a atalrcaaej which midwajj 
lias a bruod, tlat laudiog, from wld^h stairs aecend, on the right aud lefl 
into the gaUi^ry. The \vhoIe hall aud Etaircaae, carpeted with a scarlf 
footcloth, give a broadj rich mass of colouring, throwiug out finely tb 
etatuary and gilded balustrades. On the landing is a marble statue of i 
StJjjl, by Kitialdi. The walls are adorued by gorgeous frescos from Pau 
Veronese. What is peevilkr in the arrangemeuts of this hsll ie, tha 
altbDU^b so extensiTe, it still wears an air of warm homellkeoesii and com^ 
fort, as if it might he a delightful place to lounge and enjoy life^ amid thi 
ottotuaus, SLffas, pictures, ajid ^rbtuary, whicli axe disposed here aud there 

All this, howerer, 1 passed rapidly by as I o^cended the staircase, 
passed onward to the picture gallery. This wag a room about & hund 
feet long by forty wids, surrnounted by a dome gorgeously finished 
golden palm-trees and carving, Thie haU is lightL-d in the evenijig by j 
row of gaa-lights placed outside the ground glass (if the dome ; this light i 
concentrated and throwTi dr>wn by strong reflectors, communicating thus 
the moat brillkut ratUauice without the usual heat of gas. This gallery is 
jieculiarly rich in jmin tings of the Spanish achonl. Among them are two 
auperb Murilltis, taten fxKim convent by Marshal Soult, during the time of 
^ career in Spain, 
~ ',9lmre wits a painting by Paul de la Kocbe of the Earl of Strafford led 

to exficution, engrarirjgs of whicli T»e \iai;6?fcftv\.m*CiifeT^Tv»X'^^^:*' 
In Awerlca^ It ia a strong and striTdng pktvire, ^vA \iiw ^«bl\. 6ffKiMSyj& 
emx-i. Bat there was a pjilntiug in one corntr \(^ ^Y\xjssiSix bje*C>^ti.V^^ 

luuae J do oat now rcmQxnher, repreacntitig Cttifi*! ^w^tT tT(A.\JMSial^ 
before ^Ainr^hn. u ^g^ ^ candleUgkt scenfe, an^ "'a'^l "^^ ^^^* 

before C&iapbAJi. 


very diatmet j Ihc (iowin'ast, cnlni, resuluto face of CtiriBt, in whit^li 
writlea n perfect knowledgn; of liis apiiroaeliing iloom, aad the eager^ per- 
turbed velieiueut^ of the high priest, wbo was interrDgatuig him, 
frame wna engmTed the linos, — 

" Ee WH wounded for our iTanagresaioufl, 
He \taa bruised for nar iniquitiea : 
Th* cbMtiHcitieitl of our i»e»i™ w*9 upon hiui, 
Aad with baa stripea we are bealed." 

Oq t he 

The pr(»enoe of tills picture Iiere in the Kudst af tbia scene was vety 
affecting ti> me. 

The compwiy now began U> asaemble and throng the gallery, and lery 
soon the vast room was crowded. Among the throng I remember many 
preaentations, but of tionrae must liave forgotten many more. Arohbishop 
Whately was there, with Mrs. and Miaa Wbately; Alacaulay^ with two of 
hia FLsters ; Miliuau, the jjoct and historian j the Biahop of Oxford, Cha- 
Vrtlier Bitnson and lady, and many more, 

Vi' hen all the company were together Lord Shaftesbtiry read a TCry abort, 
kind, and considerate ruidrcss in behalf of the ladies of England, eipree^ve 
of their cordial welcome. The address will be seen in the Morning Adver- 
tiser^ which I send yon. The company remained a while after this, 
wiilking through the rooms and oonveraing in different groups, and I fcivlked 
with several. ArchhiKhop Whately, I thought, stemcd rather inclined to 
he jocose; he secmK to me like some of onr American divinea ; a man '^ho 
tjays little attention U> forms, and does not value them. There h a kind 
(if l)rn*witt|! humour in hia address, a downright heartiaees, which reminds 
one of weatcm character. If he had been bom in our latitude, in Ken- 
tucky or WiscouBin, the natives would have c'lUed liiin "WTiatcly, and said 
he was a real ateamhoat on an argumetit. This is not precisely the kind 
of man we look for in an archbishop. One sees traras of tliig hmnour iti 
hia Historic Doubts conoemitig the Existence of "Napoleon. I conversed 
with soma who knew him intimately, and tlioy said that he delighted in 
puna and odd turn^ of language. 

I was also introdncetl to the Bishop of Oxford, who is a son of Wil- 
herforee. lie is a short man, of very youthful appearance, with bland, 
praeeful, courtcotis manners. He is mnch admireil as a speaker. 1 heard 
him spoken of as one of the most pojmlar preachers of the day. 

I must not forget to say that many ladies of the Society of Friend a were 
here, and rtne came and jmt on to ray arm a reticule, in which, she said, were 
carried about the very (ii'st autislavery tracts ever distributed in England, 
At that time the aubjcot of antislavery was as unpopular in England as 
it van be at this day anywhere in the world, and I trnflt that a day wil! 
come when the subject will \to aa iw>pular in South Caroliiia an it is now 
in England. People always glory in the right after they have done it. 

After a while the company diapersed over the house to look nX the 
rooms. Tliertj are all sorta of parloura and reception rooms, fnrnlB. 
with the same correct taste. Each room has its predominant coW 
amoii^ them blue was a pnrtncular favourite. 

The cArpeta were aU of those amall figures I have dc5crlhL>d, the bill© 
OI10S Iteing of the K-imc pnttem with thts grceTi. TlW visasb, \ liuvv^^i&a^ >& Vi 
ptoduoa ,1 mass of colour of a certain tone, and uol Sa ^ia^x^"^ ^^ ^i?* 
ynib tho compl]cat9d pattern Whare bo ma-Tv^ o^l**^^ °^ ^"^^ ».uft. <«nTtxi. 


are V) be oxLiblkO, wlihuut ibiij caxo iu rf^gulatitig and tjimpliiyJag tJiu 
grotiiicl tiiita, there would bo no unity m< Hits iJiipr^Haion- TliiH wuh my 
pbilnstiphisiug aa tho mnttcr, ami if it is nut tho rf^iusoii why it in dunt*, lb 
ought tii Uu It ia as gotxl ii tlietiry us most tliooriea, at any rate. 

Brfbre we went away, I roadd a little call uii tbe Lady GonBtaJice 
GrraiTenor, and saw the future MarquLs uf Wsistiiiinfitcr, heif to the lar^i'et 
estate )Q England. Ilia Luautlful mother is cclebratixl in thu miUdtH of 
the court journal ae ono of the hnDdAom^t lodicu iu Euglaui!. Hih littln 
lordfihip was prebented to mo in all the diijciilty of loJifj, t'tubroiderfHl 
duth^H, bciug iheri} I believe, not quite u fortLijjht uld, and I can a^ieuTQ 
yon that he demeaned liiniMelf with a gravity beooming bis rank and 

Thcr*] JH a more than commtm Intcretit attached ti) these chQulrea by 
oiMJ who wftichBJi the pr^^etit ntntt^ i>f the world. On the character aad 
etlncatiou of the princes and nubility of tbiu genenitioii the futuro kifitury 
of England miuct greatly depend, 

Thia Stafford Hotuie ineetiug, in any Tiew of It, in a moat remarkable 
fact. Kind and gratifying Aii itH arrangements havu biion to me, I am far 
front appropHiLtiug It to myuelf individually aa a periiaual honour. I rathor 
reitartl it m the moat public expresaion ptisaiblo of tho feelinga of tJio women 
of Englftnd, on one of the most importaQt qucationa of our day— that uf 
iadividual liberty conBidcrad in tta reljgioufl bearings. 

The most spleudiil of Enghiud's palaccu baa this day ofiiened ita diHjrR to 
the sUve. Ita treat^ures of weidtb and of art, ita prtjatige of high nama 
nnd hiHtoric inemorlea, have butui couuecrated to the aakagwledgtneut of 
Ckriatianity in that fomi wherein, in our day, it is moat frcqueatly danied 
—the reoognition of the hrotherhuud of the humati family, and the ei],uul 
l^ljgjaus Talue of every human mouI. A fair and nuhle hand by thiji 
meeting bu« 6xed, lU the must public manner, ivn iuefl'iwjeablo Btsil to the 
bctiutiful Mtitunenta of tbnt moflit tJhristian docniuent, the letter »if the 
jof Great Britain ttj tlie buiieJi of America. Tbnt letter aud tkia 
itation of it arc mn- bLtitoric: lacta, wbldi wait their time and i 

_ _ ifiQt of advancing Chriatianity, 

CbnpflmLng that IttttT 1 have one or twa tbinge to say. Kothiug caa be 
moFti false than the ins^iunation that hoa been tbrowa out in aome Ame- 
rican {.K^iers, that it was a jioliticat uiovetoent. It bad its flrat origlu iu 
the det'p religiou(i feeliniLja of the man wliofie wholij life hm been devoted to 
tho abolition df thu wUIto-labom- Hlnvery of Great Britaio ; the man whoao 
eye explorutl the dorknefiH of the collieries, and counted the wmry ateps of j 
the cotton- Bpinn era — who penetrated the dens where the iiiBone were tor* ' 
tured with darkneaa, and cold, and atripcB ; and tbrttwlmi the loatbsouKj 
alleys of London, haunts of fever and choloiu; this man it was, wbo&y 
heart was overwhelmed by the tale of American alavary, and who eould 
find no relief from tlda diatreas except in raiaing aome voice to tha^ ear of 
Cbrintianity. Feaiful of the jealousy of puliticnl interference. Lord Shaftes- 
buiy piublifthed Mi luiihean to the huUea uf England, in wbitii be tuld them 
that ha felt binijiclf mov^d by an irruswUhlo imi^mbwi t^v taATtisA.*0(v^\^ 'u* 
raiae their vuice, m the nawo of a comianu (.jVwtwCvKft'vVj i"^^'^ ^Ni\fi3ss!v\>»^j 
to iheir Amort&m aisten. Tho abuBe w\uti\\ \iW4 U\\ou \\ya\\V\iVLSjii: >aw*^ 
Moai Chnstiao procaeiUug docs not in t\vQ lewi^- mT^nwa \wi\, ^^*^'*'***' Vj-jj 
"• *Aa kbtd ii)*t hm aJwajs met bvBi m Vi^r^ Twiti^v^\*aii'^ tjia^'soMO" 





WhtUf in lli« Farluuneni of En^knd, lie %^8 pl^adug for womat in 
mllienes nrho vtte luimess«d like b«aKt« of burden, *ad laiiJe to 
It<«iT}r lotuin throiQ^ mil; aiul dark iwsss^es^ and ^r cMldre'ii who 
taken (U Uare« jmis did to Libour where the stm nereT sluiie^ Iw ms : 
villi dMermiaed and furious oppoeltioii axtd oUoqn; — accuasd \>f l^eliiis^l 
disoi^mBiser, and of wishlisg to restore iht daxk t^ea^ Yery siimlar m6 
aitiooB hATe alteaded all Ms tS^trU f^«r Uie kbuuring cl&sses duiiixg 
long oooTH of seventeen jcats, wMch resulted at last m ihe tnamii 
pvsBgie of the furtoij bilL 

Wc in Aju^c^ ODg^Lt to reaiember tiiAi the gentle iCBKiRjfilnaoe of I 
l atter of the biUesof Bugiziiul <WDt«tast in th« rnOdesi foni^ the seota' 
of KMTCts&l Chmtmidom. Bebukea much mote poiiiteii are coming 1 
ai mttai ham mo- own mi£sioii»ri«a. A di^ i» oa&uag when^ P^^J 
tetap0f«i7 cwTfMts of woritlly exatemeniy wie shall, ei«h of us, 5t«a 
&ce to Gux whh the perfect puritj of oor Rcdeem«-> The thooghtl 
K final iuterriew ought cwtai&ly to laodifr stil our jud|?a^ts mom, T 
msj itrire to appnrt^ oiiJ|^ irhat we sliiill thea appnjTe, 


Am to those ridienlona Ktad«9 about Uie Duchess cif SntherianS, whki 
tove fevad Ihdr «i^ iiilo mazgr «f the prints in Amonca, one haA odI j ^ 
he h«ni, mttri^g in tod^^ to see how extMindlf ahson) th^ are. 

All ngr ii<ay tluwt^ Scr^tbvnd, aoil tht\i>n^ £i^;l»i<l, 1 w? 
fnni day ti> d^, vith people of emj rd^<>U£ d<eiicminatitm, and 
nnk of tir«. I hare he«a with diraesten and vith ehnithmea ; with j 
■rtkoal FMbTterian ehnidi ind the &ee Fltosfajterian ; with Qixafceisi 

la all these dides 1 hare b«evd the gre^t aad DoUe of ihe land fit^ 
spoken of and caoTa^^aed, ajad if there h»A tteen At least diadow of a fv«nd- 
Miem tx any sneh aecusttionis I oata.ialT should have heaud it ):«ciL^Ba|d 
In anne muaux: If in do other^ such warm friend;^ as t harit! hc^nd speak 
wnovM hacTV alluded to the snl^ect in the unj of defeoioe ; but I KaTe 
MtwUlr nerer heazd nAj allvidon ef any aort^ aa tf thenr was a«j1hEn{ In 
he M|4iiaed «r t«enmt«d fc<r. 

At I h«f« bdwe iutixnat«%l, ^ How«id fiynilj, ta «hi<>^ the ^i^Mn 
helafteB» t* one which has »)w«k^ been on the ^le of {K^i^Qlar T\|:hte aari 
pttffUliU- rcfarm. Lo^ Cwlifle, her brother, has l««n a l«a4^er c>f thi* pco|J(^ 
parlMulariv during the time of the 4v>m-law reformitlJAHi, «iv.l lAt has ^een 
ksM^wn to take a wide and pe»entQsinlenst in all these 5«bi<v'l.*> KTery* 
vhert that I have mored thrAu^ Scaf4land and £i9i|:ilaad t 1iut« hcard^lier 
kiadneB of hearty her a&MIii^ of manner, and her «tt«Ai&tt to the f 
«f «ilhna apnken of as narkal eharactenstifs^ 

JwiiiiM^ then, what ]N»f>(e muft think «h«a fhej find in 
Ammitmt jtttnti the ahsard £tory o( he? borwixi^ \»x \e«usft» <!)!il i 
y»; n«J flnJieriD^ the e«>t^t£«e lo be s*l *» tirt w« 'OtoBci \«aft*i 
•wnW not iMJ wtt. ^ ,^ 


146 grNNv MEiioiiEs vv foreign lands- 

many hnudreds, I believe thousands, of acres to tte knd in cfnltiTatiort 
aiuoe they wKre placet! upoii the shore, 

** Previous to that diattge to wliic^h I have referpd, tkey eiported very^ 
few cattle, and Imnily anythitjg else. They wiere, nlso, every now aa 
then, ciposed to all the difficulties uf extreme fnroiue. In tha yoAB 
1S12-13, and ISltl-lT, so great waa the misery thfit it iJraa neeeaiaTy 1 
Bend down oatmeal for their supply ti>tho amount of nine thousatid fiouTiiii 
and that was given to the peaple. But, aince induatrionH habits were i 
troduced, and they wera settled witliin reach of fishing, no snch calamity 
has uTartakca them. Their oondiiion v^as then so low that they were 
obliged to bleed their cattle, f^unng the wiut«r, and mix the Idood with the 
renmant of meal thsy hnd, in order to saTo them from starvutiou. 

' * Since then the ootmtry has improved so much that the fish, in parti- 
cultiir, which they eiqiorted, in 1$15, fn>m one villa^ alone, Helmsdale, 
^which, proTioug to IWll, dtd not exist,) amounted to five thousand three 
iimdred and eiehteen han-ela of herring, and in 1844 thirty -seven thourand 
five iinndt^d and mnety-four barrela, giving employment to about tiztee 
tfcouaand nine liumlred people. This tiStends over the irhole of the connty, 
in Tffhieh fifty tsix thousand bfirrels ^rert cured. 

'*Do not lot me be supposed to say that th pro are not Cftses requiring 
attention : it must be eo in a large population ; hut there can be no ihacans 
taken by a laadlord, or by thoB& under him, that are not bestowed upon 
that tenantry. 

"It has b^n said that the contribution by the heritor (the dnke) to onff_ 
Irirk session for fJie poor was but six pounds. Now^, in the eight parisb 
wtich are C4xlled Snthorland proper, the amount of the contribution of i 
Uoie of Sutherland to the kirk session is forty -two pounds a year. 
is>a very i^mall sum, but that sum merely ia eo given because the landloi^ 
thinks that he can distrihnte his charity in a more beneHeial manner to the 
people ; and the amount of clifirity which he give;^ — and which, I may say, 
ia settled on tiiem, for it is given regularly — ia above fonr hundred and fifty 
pounds a year, • 

•* Therefore tbe statements that have been made, so far from being cor- 
rect, arc iu evtxry way an exaggeration of what is the fact. Ko portion of 
the kingdom har adTani;ed iu prLisperity so much ; and if the honourable 
membfr (Mr. 8. Crawford) will go down there, I will give him every 
facility for aueing the state of the people, and he shall judge with hja own 
eyes whether my r ^presentation be not correct. I cciiM go throngh a great 
many other portico'iars, but I will not trcjuble the houac now with them. 
The statements I h'sve made are accurate, and I am quite ready to prove 
them iu any way tha i is necessary. "' 

ThiB eam^ Sir, Liich htm published a pamphlet, in which he has tracked 
cnt the cficcta of the fcystcm pursued on the 8 other land estate, in many very 
inttportaot ijarticnlftra. It appears from this that preWonsly to 1811 the 
people were generally Bnb-tenanta to the middle men, who exacted high, 
rentft, and also various ^tkcrquisHes, sm.'b as the delivery of poultry aad egg&, 
^/n'a^ sa matty days' lal >our in harveflt timOj cutting and carrying peat vaA 
^stones for building. 
SiDc& 1 81 1 tlie pcaph have become iiranedmU tcnMAs, &\ a, ^it*^^^^ &ana,- 
^Ishcd mte of rent, aad releAaed from all fhee^ e^aelMii*. T^ot TOs^ssauA, 
irro parishes, iu I81f^ tli« rents y^t^ ^^e tli<iuBMi.4tstoTa^isiiii^»si^ 

to oi^^i 




tiiiioty-three pottnds, and in 1323 they were only nine hundred aiijii aeventy* 
two poundB. In aaothei' padeh tha t-eductioii of r&htu has amon^ntod^ or 
ftn average, to thirty-aix per wnt. PreTioua to 1811 the hoiasea were turf 
huta of the poorest dascription, in many iust)iiicea the mttle being kept, 
nnder the asime roof witJi the family. Since 1311 a large propurtiuti of 
their hoiiaes hare l>een rebuilt in :v aajxirior manner — the landlord haYing 
paid them for thtiLr old timVter where it Hiiild not be moFed, and haTing 
ftlflit (Mntribnted the new timbef, with lime. 

Before 1811 all the rtjnts of the estates were used for the ijersoaa. 
profit of tlia lundlord ; hut «iace that time, both by the prssont duke &nd 
hh ^.theiv 0,11 the rents hiive boen expended on iiuproyementa in the 
euunty, besides aixty thonsfiod pounds more which have been re twitted from 
Eoglftnd for the purpoae, Tlus money has beau apeat on chundma, school 
liouaL>fl, harhtKirs, public iiiDS, roads, aAd bridges. 

In ISll there was not a carriftge road in th« county, and anly two 
bridges. Since that time fuor hundred ajid thirty miles of roEwi bAve baen 
ooMtnieted uu the eatata, at the expanse of the proprietor and '^eiiantH. 
There is not & turupike gate in the county, and yet the roads ars kept 

Before ISII the mail was coavey^ entirely by a foot ninnjcr, and there 
■was but one post otE.ce itv the county ; and tliere -r'ss no direct post (verosra 
the eottJity, bnt letters to the north aod west were forwftriied once a month. 
A mail ooach hm since beea establbheJ, to which the luba Duke of Sutherland 
Quntribnted more than two thousand aix hundi'ed pounds; and Hin(."e ISM 
-mail gigs have been established to convey letter's to the north and west 
coast, towartla which the Duke of Sutherland eonti'lbntes three hundred 
ptinmlfl a yenr. There are tkkteen post oflioea and suh-officea in th©j 
county. Before ISll there was no ion in the ooxinty fit for the receptit 
of atmngere. Since tbf*t time there hsvve been fourteen inns either bnilt 
anlarged by the duke. 

Before 1311 there wna Bcarealy a cart on. the e^te ; all the carrla^ 
waa done on the hackg of pomeii. The cultiTation of the interior w 
generally executed with a rude kind of spade, and there was not a ^ ^ 
in the county. In 1845 there were one thousand one hundred iMid 
thirty carts owned on iJie estate, and aetcu hundred and eight ploughs, 
alio forty-one gigs. 

Before 1813 there wiaa no bak&r, ttnd only two shpps. In 1846 thera 
vfttia eight bakeis and forty-fii^ gix)c*ers^ shops, is nearly all of which shod 
blacking was sold to some esrtyeut, an xumustakahle eTidenca of tid^raaolng 

In 1808 the oultiTation of the poast flida of Sutborhind was bo defectiTe; 
that it was necusaary often, in a &kll of anow, to cut dni*Ti the youug S(3otd»' 
firs to feed the cattle on ; and in 1808 hay had to be imported. Now the 
coust aide of Sutherland exhibits an extensive district of land cultlrated 
&M:urding to the beat piinciplea of modem a;j^Joul;ture ; Beveral thousand 
acres have been added to the arable land by these improvemanta. 

Before Idll thare wei-e no woipdlaada of any extent (jia. t&i es^ja^ w^ 
tiinbijr had k> he obtained from a disrtanee. BimceyhBi.tA"Hi&TSiSwvi "(iEvwssais^ 


bred , 


aerea of waodhnd liare him planteil, t\ve thii\iim?JR ijl VSait\iA*-™^'^*^^'.^ 
thep&ipie at a modemta rate, haye greatly Vnftt«SVB<afl^ tWvi wTssi^'sV 'MiaJ^ 
jiwred their dxtme^tic arraugemeiita. 


Before 1811 there vrene only two blafkBniithA In the county. In 1846 
tkeaf^ -wOTfi forty-two blacksmiths and Bixty-tJiree carpenterB. Before 1829 
the esportfl of the county consislctl of hhvk cattle of an inferior descrip- 
tion, pioWed salmon, and sojub ponies ; l«t these wertj precarioua aoureea 
^if pro&t, as luauj died in winter for wiiiit of food ; for Examplo, in tb^ 
spring of 1807 two hundred cows, five liundned cjittle, and more than two 
bnndred ponies died in the parish of Kildonati aloue. Since that time 
tlia measunea pursued by the Duko of Sutherbnd, m introducing im- 
proved brtedfl of cattle, pigs, and modes of agriculture, have produo€d 
Tteaults in exports which tell their own story. About forty tlioueand sheep 
and one hundred and eigbty thou eaud fleeces of wool are exported annually; 
also fifty thoueand barr^ilss of herring. 

ThiJ whole fisldng village of Hehusdale has been built since that time. 
It now oontiuus from thiileen to fifteen curing yarda covered with slate, 
and several streets with houtjea similarly huilt. The berring fiabet^, 
-wbtcK has been metitioned s.3 so productive, hae been e^^tabli^hod (unce 
the change, and affords employment to three thousand nine hundred 

tHitico 1811, also, a sttvinga bank baa been establiabed in every parifili, 
wbii^h the Dnke of Sntherland is patron and treasurer, and the aaringa 
hate been very ciJiisiderable. 

The education of the children of the people has been a subject of deep 
interest to the Duko of Sutherland. Besides the parochial B<choolB, (whii^ 
anawer, I suppose, to our district ticboolH,) of which the greater number 
have been rebuilt or repaired at an expense exceeding what ifi legally r^ 
quired for such purposcEs, the Duke of Sutherland contributes to the sup- 
port of several schools for youug femalee, at which sewing and other 
branches of ednctitlon are taugbt ; and in 1844 he agreed to eBtabliab 
twelve general assembly schools in such parts of the county aa were with- 
out the sphere of the parochial 8<.':hool9, and to hudd school and school- 
maators' houjsee, which ivSJl, upon an average, cost two hundred pounds 
each ; and to contribute annually two hundred pounds iu aid of salari^ 
to til e teiiclie:'!!, beaidcs a {garden and cows' grass; and in 1845 he 
made an BTraugement with the educ^itiou committee of the Free church, 
wberaby no child, of whatever persuasion, will be beyond the reach of 
moral and relijjious education. 

Thure are five niedical gentlemen on the estate, thrcfl of whom receive 
allowftueee from the Duke of Sutherland for attendance on the poor in the 
districts in which they reside. 

An agricidtural association, or farmers' dub, has beien formed under the 
patronage of the Duke of Sutherhtnd, of which the other proprietor* in 
the county, and the larger tenantry, are members, which is in a very active 
and flottrishiag atate. They have recently invited Professor- J ohuRten to 
vidt SuthetUud, EJid give lectures on agricultural chemistry. 

The total population of the Sntherland estate ia twen<^-one thouBaad 
seven hundretj and eighty-four. To have the rharge and care of so large 
ji£t L'siattf of com-se, must require very e^'stetnatic arrangqmenta ; but a 
taJent for my stem BeomB to he KLliier tlie forte of Ibe Engliah. 
Til e estate is ijr«ft tl/videri into three districts, and eack So^rixnA va wii^Bt 
4^e saperini^sdGnce of a &ctor, ivho ccmTtmnlcatea w*\\,k tVe ti^uVt \i^TQM\^ 
^gsneml agent. BesMea this, when tlie dvike U otv ^k^i e^Xale, ^\i.\«i^ >fc 


dnritig ft poilaoa of ercrj jear, he receii^n va HondAy irhci«r£r of hk 
tenfttits vibJibs to Me him. Their 0(«tidaiBta or vidiw ve presented u 
irritiiig ; ht laJtes thiem into eonradexstioii, ftud gtr«s written lepliea. 

Besides tiie thi«t ftctota thsne is & groDod officer, or tub-betor. In ererj 
|ii3!lflb, Koi tax «gri«iiltiimt in the Daorobin district, who gim partieiilir 
atteatba to instme^^ the peu'pk itt the best methods of Uuidag, The 
&ctoT3, the groood offieeia, ind the a^enlturiAta dl wot^ to one conuaan 
end, Thef tc&ch the lulTajjtageai. of dnhiiiig ; of ptooghiog deep, «m1 
fonziing their ridges m straight lin» > of oomkocy^g tvaks for sariog 
tiqmd isauGTe. The jousg fKimerB Mso ptek Dp a gieKt deftl of know- 
ledge wfaen worfcing u ploughmen or l&bouren on 1^ more Inuoedisto 
grounds of tlie estate. 

Tbe liesbd ageut, Mr. Lorh, has be«n kind enoa^h to put into taf hnada 
a general report of the oonditioa of tte estate, which be drew up for tht 
inspection m tbe duke, Maj 12, 1853^ *Qd in which be goea minutelj orer 
the cODclitiua of every port of the estate. 

One anecdote of the former Duka of SatberUad wQl show the spirii 
wMcb baa ioflneaced the brUiilf in their inaniigem£Ut of the estate. In 
1817, when there was much Buffering oa account of bad Beasona, the Duke 
of Suttierbmd jseut down hie chief agent to look into the conditioii of the 
people, who desired tbe uiini^tcis of the pmahoi to send in their listfl of 
the poor. To bii» lUfprise it vug found thjit there were ItK^ted on the 
Nitate a numb*;? of people who had settled there without IfsTe. They 
amounted to fuur huudted aud eight families, or two thousand persona ; 
attd though thej had no legal title to remain where they were, no besito- 
tion was sliown in supplying them with f xd in the same mauner with those 
who wero teuaute, on the wde condition that on the fii^t opportunity they 
eboubl take cDttagn od tbe aea shore, and becoma induetrioufi people. It 
W1U the constant object of the duke to keep the iicDts of bin poorer tenonta 
at a nominal aioount. 

What led me more particularly to inquire into these f&ciB was;, that 
I received bj maU, while in London, an account contaiubis some of these 
atoriee, which bad been indnstrionaly eireulated in America. There 
were dreadful acoonnEs of cnmJtiw practaawi in the process of inducios the 
tenants i/^ change their ploc^ of residenee. The fallowing is a specimen of 
tbew storioa : — 

*' I was present at the pulling down and burning of the hoUAO of William 
Chiaholui, Badinloskln, In which was lyitjg his wife s motfaor, an old, iKid- 
ridden vroman of near one hundred yeatu td" age, n&ne of tho family being 
present, I infortued the persona abont to act fire to the house of this cir- 
cumstance, and pro vailed on them to wait till Mr. Sc'^lUr came. On bis 
arrival I told him of the [loor old woman being in a condition unfit for 
removal. Ha replied, 'Damn hiir, the old witch, she has lived too long; 
let her hum.' FJre was immediately Bet Ui the Uouae, and tbe blankets in 
which she Tiva* carried wcrG in flames l>efore stiL* (ion Id ba {jjot out. She was 
plAced in a little abed, and it was with great difficulty they wore prevented 
from firing that also. The old weiman^^ dawg^vtfeT iU'i'v\t*iT«\cJ^'a^ftV'wawh 
was OH fire, odJ asiiitted the neighbours in reowv vtv^ Vet msAXt^i^ «^V ^ '''^ 
if^meanad Diuoke, f/rusentiui' a picture uf Vv'.trruT vg\v\tV\ ^as^^ tiKS^ tsO:- 
fgi, bat isumet attempt to describe. She died ^\tVVii ^^e ^^^^-^^ ..- «^ «« 
Wm Ji»arrf to this story Mr. Loch, the agaul, ^^^, ^' ^ ^^*^ ^\,\«ft ^ 


oiUy ihbig like a, fact stated m ibe newEpa-pcr extract irliich yon sent j 
me, wUcrein Mr. SeUar is accaeed of ROts of cruelty tcrwaids snme of i ' 
peijple. Thie Mr, Sellar tested, Iry ttrbj^mg tui action a^^uhist the 
Hlieriff sulietitute of the county. He obtftined & verdict for heavy dnnia 
The shtrilT, by wlioro the eland^ was propagatEcl, left the caimty, 
ire BiDce de&d/* 

Eaviiig, throngh Lord SltAftesbnrj^ffkindnes?, recrlTed the benefit of Mr. 
Lodi^s oonediunB to tliiB trbatcment, I am pennitted to m^ke a, little fnrtJter 
extract fronj his rtiply. He aavs, — 

"In addition to wliat 1 was able to say in my former paper, I can tien^ 
Kt&te tiiot the DulKe of Sutherliuid has received, from cnt' df the ma 
determined opposer* of tlic measure, who travelled to the north of Soo 
as editor of a nevspaper, a letter rtsgrettiilg all ho hsi^l -n'ritten an 
■object, being convinced thftt he was entirely mibinformcd. Asyun takej 
much interest in the aubject, 1 toII ctinduile by sayuig that noCbiiig con 
exceed the proBperity of the (xranty during tlie pftHtyeaj* s their et(«-k, she«p, 
•nd other things sold at high prieea ; their crojts (tf grtiin and turnips were 
never eo good, and the potatoeis ware free from all die^ase ; rents have 1 
paid better than -wrb ever known. * * * As an instance of tie impro' 
hahits of (Jie farmers, no house ia tiov built for tliem that tliey do 
require a hot hath and imter cloEotB." 

From this long epitome you can gather the following results ; first, if^ 
system n'tre a bad {jne, the Duchess of Sutherland had nothing td do i 
it, Kioce it ims first inttiiduced in 1806, the aame year her piai?e was b 
and tije accusation against Mr. Sellar flates in ISll, whea her grace ' 
fivie or BIX years old. The Sutherland arrangements were (.'onipleteiif 
1811*, and her graiMi was not married to the duko till 1623, so that, '. 
the arrangement been the worst in the world, it is nothing to the pur 
Eo fur as she ia ccmcerned- 

An tu whdtlier the arrangement ii a bad one, tlie facta which haT?B been 
Btatiid speak for them^ttlves. To my view it is an almost sublime instance 
(jf the heneTolent employment of superior wealth and power in ahort^tiing 
the BtrnggieE of advatieing civilizatioii, and elevating in a ftw years a whole 
roinmuaity t<j a point of education aud material prosperity, which, ttn- 
assigtcd, they ud^ht never have obtained. 

LETTia xvm, 



BAiTisT Noiei.,— noBorcn school. — soGEizif, xna poet, — btaftofh notrsv. 

XLLBlUUXH COitLXCXlOir OF f^OKXI^tiB. — Losn iobls ILVHA&LI,, 

Mr. S- l» very unwall, in Ivcd, worn out wtlJi the threKf(>ld 
I'f making aud reepiving calls, viritiiig, and dehvtiring pabbc addrcEeoB, 
went tfl hear Dr. McNelle, of Liveri»(jnlj preach^oiits of the lending mtn of 
tie estahihhed church evangel) eal patty, a Btioiig nuUeuaiian. G, said 
thiith^ wssasilnea kiotlng person in cftUt»TL\<:a.U hftW evt;ic fe-i-w luth* niulpit. 
/a dociiiae he is wb&t we iu Am erica shtj^ild ca\lTL<rs 6,'\iwc\'6 0kii.'«.V!nX.V 
^^ycjjf, iis I had always predetennined to do, ii ^^^.tI cKtIu^te^^uv^^^^ft 
^mr JSapu-st Nod, diMYU tbilLcr by ilio tnsAoiTJ tmi meii^arT} ^ ^ii«« 



beftutlfiil tymiia of hifi^* which must meet a response in evfiiy GirlstLaa 
heart. He h tali and well formed, ivith one of the niofit claasipai and har- 
jnoniouB liEiuls I tjver jhiw. Singnlaily. enongh, he remindctl me of a bngt 
of Achillea at the LondoTi Masevim, Ma is indetjd & awift-fi>ote(l AchUlee, 
bat in smother race, itnothLT warfare. Bom of a noble iViinJJj, jmturoJly 
endow&d with B^n^itiveneaa and ideaHlj- ta appretiiattf all ttti nmenttm tuid 
MAvitiea of lirnt brLUismt sphere, tiie SJU^ritice mu^thave been inconceivahly' 
great for him ti> reftuunt'e favour nud prL'fefment, position in aooiety,— 
—which, here in ^oglund, meanB more tJian Americana nau ever drKwn of, 
— io de^'end from beinf;; & uourti chaplain, to become a preacher m a, Baptist 
diasbQting ohftpel. Whatever may be thought of tha unrrectnesa of the 
intellactuiil (smclusdons width led him U suuh & step, mi one eani fail 
to revere the strength and purity of principle whicli could prompt to Buch 
Kicri£cee. Many, perhaps, might huTti prefeiTCHJ tluit lie ehould havflf 
ctoson R less deciiied conrae. But if hia judgment really lod to these 
results, 1 iJt?e no way in which it was posBibla fyr him to have avoided it. 
It was with an emution of reverence that J contrasted the haren^s, plain - 
jiBBS, and poverty of thut little cliapel witk that evident air of elegance and 
cultivation which appeared in all that he eiud and did. The 8i':rmDU wa,a 
OQ the text, "Now ahideth futb, hope^ and charity, these three.' 
Naturally enough, the sabject divided itself iut^i faith, hope, and charity. 

His style c*lm, flowing, amlperf- 'i" ' iTntmowfi, hia delivery Bereneand 

graeefnl, the whole ilowad ovtr ■ ■ Ua and clertr strain of mnfiicu 

It was a sermon after the style .> iid other Crerman Bermoniaers, 

who seem to hold that the pun *)fie of pivanking h not tu rouse the Boul by 
asL antago Dirt tie: struggle with win through the reaaon. but to soothe the 
pwjaksnfi, fiuiet the will, and jring tlie mind into a frame in which it ahall 
indiiie to follow ita oi*ti cor ictiona of duty. They tftlce for granted^ th&t 
the reii&au why men sin ia . ot becaaae they are ignorant, but because they 
are distracted and temptwl by pai^sjot] ; that they do not need bu much to 
he told what is their thity, .iftijerHiMwled to do it. To me, brought up on 
the very huttle-iield of coi,trovHraial thsologyj accuatotued to hear every 
TeligioQS idea guarded by definitions, and thoroughly haiiMnered un n 
Icgiiad anvil bsforo the preadier thought of makiug any uae of it for heart 
or conacienoe, thouEh.l ejuji^yed the discourse extremely, I eould not help 
.wondering wlmt an Ameritsn thoologioal professor won Id make of anch & . 

" To preach on faith, ho|ie, and cliarity, all in one disoourae — why, we 
fihonld have aix sermons ou the nature of faith to Iwgin with : on specab- 
tive &ith ; Sftvlng faith ; praL^ioal £idth,'and the faith of iniraclea; theu we 
should have the Jitwa of faith, and the connexion of faith with evidence, and 
the nature of evidence, and the different kiuda of evidence, and so yti. For 
my part I have iiikl a suspicion Blui^e I have been here, that a touch of this 
Jtind of thing might imptMve Mngliidi prejR'liiiig ; as, als*\ 1 do think that 
srarmuns of the kind I have dciscribfcd would heu:?efiil, by wiiy uf [iltemtive^^J 
among ua. If I could have but one of the two uiann^>ni, 1 should prefe^^f 
oiM* own, becauae I think that this habit of preach iiigia <«)a at ^.W^P^r^iaTsstsii^H 
flducati(>xi»l hrces that forms tha mind of onr coxm^. 

• Tbeby-ibBs begummg iriih tlie«a linea, "If Imxaiai 'VQatoMli isv«^'''' Tfe^aKt»ij 
'Btshald where, in a taorlai thrm," are specliaeiiE* 


need te I 
moon ^^B 

After the Berries waa twer I wexxi into the vestry, and i^'as mirodnced te_ 
Nr. Noul. The eongrcgfttion of tlte eetablinhed clmrch, to vliich he i 
teretl during his cotmexioa ^vith it, are etil! warmly attuchGd to him, 
leaving them was h dreadful trial ; Boiue of them can sciart^ely mention 
namt wilbnut tejire. C. says, with regard to the. churoh singiugj as 
lie heatd it>, it ia twenty years behiiui that in Boetoji. In the nfteraoon ' 
stayed at home to nuxM Mr. 8. A note from Lady iToha Rnssell, isvitaii^ 
VB there, 

Monday, May 9. I should tell you that at the Duohesa of Sutherland's 
an artist, Dame(5 Bumard, presented me with a very fine CAinec) head of 
Wilberfarcie, tiut from a statue in Wcstmimrtfr Abbey. He i& from Cam- 
wall, in the Si;nth of Eaglaad, and hiis attained some eclebrity as an artist, 
Ho li^'anted to tako a hust of me ; and though it alwayfi makes me langk to 
flunk of having a mew Ukene&B, considering the melandioly results ^ ail 
former enterpneea, y*t still I find myself easy to be entreatt^, in hopes, as 
Mr. Micawber says, that something may '* turn up,'' thongh 1 fear the dif- 
ficulty is radical bi tlie subject. So I miide an appointmeut wiih Mr. Bnr- 
nard, anduiy very kind fri«nd, Mr. B,, in atlditton to aJl the other confi 
sions I have occasioned in his mansion, coni8eDt«d to have his study tiJ 
into a studio. F|K)n the heels of this ccmea annther scuiptor, who has a bu 
begun, which he says is going to be finished in Parian, and published, 
TPhetber I ait for it or Bot, thotiah, of eourse, he would mnCh prefer to ^t 
a look at mfl now and then. Well, Mr. B. says he may ojme, too ; so tlieifi 
you may imagine me in the study, perched upon a y^try hjgh sttHil, dividisg 
my glaiicea V»etweeiij the two sculptor^ one uf whom is taking one Aide of 
»y faee, and on<! tlia other. 

To-day 1 went with Mr, and Mrs, B. to hear the examination of a 
horoMgh -school for bojH. Mrs. B, told me it was not precisely a ohmity 
Bchon], but one where the means of eduetition were furnished at so cheap a 
rate that the poorest chiSJ^e ctiulil enjoy thera. Arrived at the hall, we 
found f|uite a number of digiiii'fU^a, bishopsj lords, and clergy, besidea num- 
bers of others ftssembled tr> heai*. The room wna hiing round with tbe 
drawings of the boys, and spei:!iinens of handwriting, 1 Sraa quite aato- 
niished at ^me of theuj. They were executed by ])en, ])encil, or-crayon^ — 
drawings of macbiuEry, landEcapes, heade, groupHs wid f^owerfi, all in a style 
which iiny jiarent among ujs would be jiroud to exhibit, if done by our owji 
children. The boys Io<)kof.l very bright and intelligent, and 1 was delighted 
with the .system of inistruction whith had e'l'idently been pur^tted with 
them. We beard them first in the reading and reciUition of poetry ; afCer 
that in arithmetic and algebnv, then in natural philosopliy, and last, and 
moBt satisfactorily, in the Bible, It was perfectly evident, from the nature 
of the questions and answera, that it wan nr>t a crammed examination, and 
that the teadinera of reply proceeded not fr(!in n mete commitment of words, 
but from a sjittem of intdlectnal training, which led to a good uuderetaad- 
ing of the subjeut. In arithmetic and algebra the answers were so !»-_ 
markabJe as to induce the beUef in some that the boya miust have ht. 
pnvnU'ly fjrepared on their qiicJ-ti'inis ; but th« ttamher desired Lord Jo 
J^ussell h> W77te iJoirii any number of qwEBtions ^vhinh be wished to haii 
^'ren to the hojB to solve, from his owu mini. \jOTi\itsVvwTVi'u&vViMtuXT 
'oi- three problems, and I *-as amused at t\i.(i wjoX imd &v\i\li Wx^ ;«i>b 
SA«? bajs seized upon nnd mastered tli^m. Iqui^S T^1!>^ ^** «^^&«<^ 


vide awAkiOt and tha prinvi miti lifter h liaself vruJi not to catcb tJiem napping. 
Tlie little fellows' eyes glistoned as tbciy mttletl off their i^iliitionfi. Aa I 
luaov notliing about mabbematics, I was all the more impressed : but wken 
tbey came to be exummed in the Bible, I was moTe astomabed than ever. 
The masters had said that they would he willing any of the gentleinea 
should qnestion theia, and Mr. B. cammenoed a course of questions on the 
(JOCtrinea of Christiaiiity ; asking, 1b there any text by which you can prove 
this, or that ? and inimediately, with great accuracy, the bays woiild cite 
text ujiou text, quutiug not ouly the more obmus tmea, but sometimes 
Applying Scripturo with an ingeauity &ai force which I heut not thought of, 
sad aJwaya quoting chapter and verso of every teit. I do not know who ia 
at the head of thk teaching, nor how f:ir it ia a aample of Englieth schooU ; 
Irat I know that these boye had been wonderfully well taught, and I felt my 
old professional etitlmsiastu arising. 

After the examination Lord John came forwanl, and gave tbe boyH a jjjood 
fatherly talk. He told tlicin that they had the bappiuesa to live under a 
free government, where itll offices are alike o|>en to iudnatry and inerit, aud 
where auy boy might hope by application and talent to liae to any station 
below that of the sovereign. He moiU soiue sensiible, practical comments 
on their Scripture leeaons, and, in shortj gave precisely sueh a kiud of 
address as one of our New England judges ut governors might to school- 
boys in similar circninst£.nces. Lord John hesit.ibes a little in his delivery, 
but bas a plain, commoti-sense way of " speaking right on," which seems 
to be taking. He is a very aimplo man in bss munnera, apih-vrently not at 
all fielf ^conscious, and entered into the feelings of the boys and their 
masters with goml-naturod sympathy, which was very winning. I should 
think he waa one of the kind of men who are always perfectly easy and 
aelf-possessed let what will come, and who never could be placed in asitua' 
tiou in which he did not feel himself quite at homo, and ^isrfectly compe- 
tent tii di,> whatever wm to l>e done. 

To -day the Duchess of Sutherland called with the Duchess of Argyle, 
Itias Greeaheld happened to be present, and I begged Itavs to prefient her, 
giving a alight sketch of her history. 1 was pleased mth the kind and 
ea^ affability with which the Duchess of Sutherland oonvoreed with her,, 
bekaying by tio inflection of voice, and nothing in air or mnnncj", the great| 
lady talking with the poor girl. She ashed all her qucations with aa much 
delicacy, and mado her request to hear her siug with as mnch consideration 
and politeness, as if ahe had been addressing auy one iu her own circle. She 
■eemed much, pleased with her singing, and remarked that she should l)e,J 
bappj to giTe her au opiwrtunity of perforimng in Stafford House, so eooal 
as fib e should be a little relieved of iv heavy cold which aeeiued in oppress 
her at pre^nt. This, of course, will be decisive in her favour in London, 
The duchess is to let uB know when the arrangement i? completed. 

I never realized so much that there really is no natural prejudice against 
colour in the humtm mitnl. Miss Ureeufield is a dark mulatl^^as, of a 
ple&sing and gentle face, though by no me&UE baudiiome. She is short and 
thick set, with a chefit of great amplitude, aa one wovild tL™k w\ V«»ivTi"^ 
her tenor, J havo never seen iu any of tlifi ptrsJ^Tift Sm yAv^-m. \ ^sa«^ ^v.y:- 
amted iiar the /east indications of »uppreaai&A aur^ivsft ot ^\^vja.V ^tc^ -ficsst^ 
£4kb ws^ouJd exhibit on th© reception of iv da.TU't;<im^\^T^.(itsK^ 'Si'^aJffiag 



ur rprtngaow. AOsa GrreeaJSeld bears her aucoeas wiOi lunob quletnora aoid 
good acoae. 

Tuesday, Maj 10. C. and I wam to go to-day, with Mrs. Cropper and 
Lady HatUartoQ, to call oq the poot Ktigerf!. I wan told that lie was ia 
very delietite lieulth^ but that he atill rttMiived Meuds at h.U hoUBe. Wa 
ftJuud the house a perfect poU&eiiuu of the Most tsxe aifd costly works of 
ftH^dioicest morbleSf raees, picturoB, £«msj and Etutuary met ihs eye erery' 
when). Vfe spent the time in examining some of these while the eenant 
Trent to announce ub. The mild and vener&blo old mm himself was the 
choicest picture of all. He ban a spletidid head, a benigti faue, and 
ramiuded me of an engraving I once eaw of Titian. He seemed very glad 
to see u.i, spoke to me of the gathering at SUkSurd House, and aaked me 
trhat I thought of tlie place, "^VLan 1 expresi^ my admiration, he 
*' Ah, I have ofteu Baid it la & fiiiry palace, and that ths dwdietsB is 
good fairy." Again, he ^id, '* I ha,ve seetL uU the palaces of Europe, 
there is none that I prefer to tllia." Quite a large circle of fiiendf 
came in and ware pr88eiit&,L He did not rise to receiTe tliem, but sat 
in hia easy chair, and couTerBOd qidetly with ua all, sparklini; out now 
then in a little ripple of playl'duaaa. In tlila njom were his best baUi^ 
pictTires, aad it m his pkaaure to show them to bia fritnd^. 

By a C4jntrivao(je <]uite new to me, tlie pictures are made to r^ToWe on, 
pivot, fio that by touching a spring they move oat from the wall, and 
Ike aeen in different lights. There was a picture over the mantel -piece of » 
Emnan Triumphal Prooesdou, painted by llubeus, which attraeted my 
attention by its rich djlouring and sjimted rupi-eseutution of ftnimalH, 

The colouring of Ktiboaa always Hjitisiiefi my eye better tlmn that of 
other master, only a sort of waut of grace in tlie conneiitioa digturba me. 
this case botli conception and colouring are replete with baiuty. Eoj 
seeim^ to be ciV"^fully waited on by an attendant who baa learned to 1 
pret every motion and antioipate every desire. 

I took leave of him with a toucb of sadnesa. Of all the brilliant 
of poeta, which liaa so delighted us, he ia the last— and lie bo feeble I 
memorien, 1 am told, extend back to a f*ei^oiial knuwlodge of Dr. Jdhnson. 
How I ahould like to sit by hJm, and Bearch into that cabinet of recollec- 
tions t He presented me bia poems, bciiutifully il lustra ted by Tamer, mth 
bis own autogr<iph on the dy leaf. He writes tilill ii olear, Urm, beautiful 
haud^ like a lady's. 

After timt, wa all went over to Staiford HouBe, and the Diikc mod 
Ducbess of Sutherland went with U8 into Lord Elleaniere's collection 
adjoining. Lord EUefiUiere Bails for America to-day, to lie proeent at tfae 
opening of the Crysial Pakce. He left us a very polite message. The 
DucbefiS of Argyle, with her two little boy a, was there also. Lord Carliale 
very soon camo in, and with him — who do you think 1 Tell Hattie and 
EILsa if they could bare eeen the noble etaghound that came bounding in 
with him, they would bave turned &om all the pletureii on the wail t^tluB 
llTing wark of ait. ~ 

Landseer tlunks he does well when be painta a dog ; another in&a 
t/jn^ in stape: what would tjicy think of themselves il' they r^oold string 
. Jier fTpN itad nmsdcA, mid wake up the tiffiecWna axi*! \u¥itui».AAi, ^^^ \kt va^ 
livli^ ereMtm-e t Ths.t were to be an ariiBt mieeiV Tkt ilo^.-wfti^wA »i!»ia.^■ 
tk0 s^hij, mudi at home, pvittinfi Ua neae u^ fcc^.^* 'i'^ f*^^ ^*i^*^ 

I totJuB I 

ring tJ^H 


another of tte d5sth]gais.hed pereons bj Tji-hom he was 8tLfrrviiiide(.l j aiid 
once in a wkHe Bfcopplng, in an easy nvce about the ball, would plant 
LimBelf before & picturCj with his haid on one BJde, and au air of high-bred 
nppToral, much as I haTc seen young £entl<?men do xindor gimllnr circium- 
■ti^ceK. AH ha wonted was an eyeglass, and he would have been perfectly 
Bet tip as a fritlc. 

As for the pictures, I have purfimely delayed ooming tir> them. Imagine 
a botanist dropped mto the middle of a blouming prairie, waving witt 
nnouixibered dyea and fornix of flowerB, and only an honr to examine and 
make acquaintance with thein ! Etioni aftei- room we passed, iiiled wth 
TitianSj Murilloa, Guidosj &c. Tiiere were four K^iphaelH, the first I had 
CTCsr eeen. Must I confess the truth i Baphael had been lay di^om for 
I expected something which would ovenjomo and bewilder me. I 
a divine Imptisim, % ce]t'*tiiftl mesmerism ; and I found ftjur very 
itiful pifjtures — ptcturea which left me quite in pM^ession of my eenees, 
and at lilKiiny to ask myeelf, am 1 pleased, and how much ! It was not 
that I did not admire, for I tlid ; but then I did not admins enough. The 
pi«rtiireB are all holy familtee, cabniet size ; the figures, ilary, Joseph, th* 
infant Jesus, and John, in variouH attitudes. A little parrerse imp in my 
heart suggested the questions, " If a modem artiot bad painted thase, what 
would bo thought of them? If I did not know it was llflphad, what should 
I think ^" And I eonfeiu} that, In that case, I tdiould think tiiat tliere was 
m one or two of them a certain hardnefs and sharpness of ontline that was 
not pleasing to me. Neithei: any mora than Murill>, has he in these pic- 
tuim shadowed fi>rth, to my eye, the idea of ilary. Protestant as I am^ 
no Catholic picture sontentB mo. I thought to myself that 1 had seen 
among living women, and in a face not far aS, a nobler aiid sweeter idea of 

It is ttjo much to aat of a^iy enrthiy artiet, howeTer, to gratify the Mpi- 
r&tjons and erarings of thuine who hart^ dreamed df tb^ for yeaj^a unjEatif!' 
fed. Ferhitpts no oarthly vauTi^H atgd bruish imu acoom.pUBtL tliis marrel. I 
thinlc the idealist must lay aside his highest idei3.1, aad be satiiified he shall 
never mt^et it, and then he will begin to enjoy. With this mood and un- 
dersMUiding I did enjoy very much an Assumption of the Virgin, by (jJtiido, 
and more especially Diana and her Kyciphs, by Titian ; in this were that 
ealtn€sa of outlino, and that blending of light and sIumIow into each othijr^ 
of which I folt the want in the Riiphnnls. I felt as if there was a parfeotion 
tif cultivate*! art in this, a claeaical elegance, whieh, so fii^ as it went, left 
the eye or mind nothiog to desire. It ecemed to m& that Titian was a 
tireek painter, the painter of an ethetoalized iienauouBJieaBj which leaves 
the spiritual nature wholly unmoved, and therefore all that he attempts he 
attains, Baphael, on the contrary, hag spiritualism ; his works enter a 
sphere wht^ru it ie wore dilKcult to Siuthify tlie eoul ; nay, perjiaps, from the 
nature of the can^, imposiiblo. 

Thert' were some glorious pieces of imn shine, by Cuyp. There waa a 
aoot^aive aea piece by Tujuer, in which the atroug .■solemn swell of the gtecn 
waves, and the misty wreatliinga of clouds, wer*i \w«ferf»iU.'j i^wssv, 

Thriv M/J* /I A j^'Jj/j dramatic piece, Vjy "Pau\ is 'W^&tt^^x'ft, -^le^ti^K 
Ch&rlos 1. in s. guiird-rijom^ insulted by lUe smA'Vv&t^'- \Le ^vVa \fli!LB, 
iadni»}laie, while tiiey aro paSiag lobacisa-aDttAtft m\iv& S.^«^i ™^ 


156 fitlXNY MEilOUlES OF FOBEiaN LAA"1>S, 

vulgar jokua. His thoughts appear to be far away, hie efte looting beyofti 
tbeni T^ith sin air uf patient, praud wearineHa, ' 

Indepemlenlly of the pleasure one recti vea from porticTiIiir pietursB in 
these gaJIeri^ there is a general exaltation, impart from critical coniddcira- 
tions, an excltemeut of tho nerves, a kind of dreamy state, whkh is a gain 
in oar experieocc, Oftoti ia a landscai'e we first single out particular ob- 
jeda — this old oalcj that cascade, that min — and derive from them an 
individiial joy ; then relapsing, ife view the lati JiJtftpe as a wliole, and eceni 
to be aurrounded hy a kind of atmosphere of tliouglit, tlie result of the 
oombinod influence of all. This states too, I think, is not without its 
fluenoe in educating tlie esthetic aeuse. 

Even in pictures whldh ve comparatiTely rejectj because -we sea them 
the presence of superior onet^ there is a wealth of beauty, which won! 
grow on UB from day to day, {lould we see them often, When I give a sigh 
to the thought, that in our country we are of neoeeaity, to a great extent^ 
shut from the world of art, I then rejuice id the inepirititi[j thought that 
Nature ia ever the superior. No tree painting can compare with a splendid 
elm in the plenitude of its majesty. There are colourings beyond lht«e of 
Rubens pourai forth around us in every autumn scene ; there are Mtirilk» 
smiling by our household firesidba ; and as for Jladoanas and Vonn; 
think Ti\ BjTot), 


"I've aeen more spliondid wnmieD, ripe and real, 
Than all the nonsense ortboir si<Jtip ideal." 


Still, I long for the full advent of our American day of art, already dai^ 
ing auBjncionsly. 

After finishing our inspection, we went hack to Stafford House tu lunoh, 

in the evening we went to Lord John Russell's. We found Lady Hussell 
and her daughtei^ sitting quietly around the ev tuning lamp, quite h^ them- 
selves. She is elegant Mid interesting in her personal appearance, and has 
the sjune charai of simplicity add eiiiucritj of manner which we have found 
in so many of tho upper sphere. She lA the daughter of the Earl of Itlintch 
add the second wife of Lord John. Wo pEw^sed here an entirely quiet aod 
domestic evening, with only the family eircle. The cunTersatiou turned on 
vario^iB topics of practical benevolence, connected with the care and erluca- 
tion of the poorer classes. Allusion being made to Mrs, Tyler's k4.ter, 
Lady Eufflfill expressed some concern lest the Hineere and well -In tended e^- 
presdon of the feeling of the English ladies miglit havo dou« harm. T said 
that I did not think the spirit of Mrs, Tyler's letter was t<i he taken as 
repreeentiug the fijeliag of American ladies generally — ooly of that class 
who are determined to maiiitaiu the rightfulness of slavery. 

It seema to me that the better and more thinking jiart of the higher 
clashes in England have Muscientiously accepted the responsibility wiiieh 
the world Ims ohfirged upnu tliem of elevating and educiiting the poorer 
classes, Li every circle since I have been here in England, I liave heard 
the subject discussed as one of p^amouut importance. 

One or two yonng geiitleuieu dropped in in the course of the evening^ i 
the iii^jf nrse bmntiuxl out on the various topi^Js of the day ; such «b 
weather, //ieraiure, art, spjritnid-rappiiigtj, and taliletumines, and aJl the *' 
^oAtiug et ceter:&s of life. Lady Eusaell aiJoVoi-ked ior t\^e. aNv^ieus.^ \A\at4. 
j0Aa in FArUament, and mvitecl us to dine ^itV tVtm ft^ ^Xieix ^t9a*.w6Wfc 
w lUduaond F&rk asut week, when there is to Vie e^ ii«c\\amMitB.Tj ^^ff^s^r 


We Uh about tea o'clock, and went t^ pass tlie night with oiir fri^da 
Mr. anil Mrs. Cropper, at ttdr hotel j Ijeing engsged to hreakfiist at tha 
West End in the morniug. 


SBXiJ71ST, — KACAULiT. — HALI,! « .— Ml LU A X .— SI B K. IH GLIB.— LUyCH XT BI^X: 
HB»ONlQ£,— DiyiTEA jkT BIK B. BriTOH'B. 

DbAR K. :— 

Tliifl ktter I coneecrate to you, because I know that the persons and 
tluugB to be introduaed into it wifl moflt particularly ba appreciated by you. 

Ill 2f(jur evenidg reading circle, ^^facaulay, Sidnt^y Smitb, and Milroan 
hiLYe long beeu such ftiniiliar itamea that you will be ^lad to gn -with me aU the a^^ewcs of wiy mornmg breokfiist at Sir Ckarles Trevelyan's 
yesrtcrday. Lady Trevelyau, I bolieTe I have aaid befure, is the sister of 
Macaulay , and a daughter of Zacharj Macaidiiy — that undaunted labourer 
fur the slare, whose place in the hcartB of all Eagllah Ghii&tians in little 
below saiutship. 

"We were Bet do^^ra at Welboume Terracfl, aomewherej I believe, about 
eleven o'clock, and found quite a number silready in the drawing room. I 
had met Macaulay before, but as you liave not, you wiLl of courac suik a lady'B , 
first queatian, *' Howdoea lie look?" 4 

Well, my dear, a> far as relates to the mere outward hufk of the aoul,* 
our engravers and daguerref^typista have done their work ae well as they 
iLsiudly do. The engraTing that you. get in the be^t editions of hiB workk 
lu&y be considered, I suppose, a ^r repreEentation of how he looks when 
he sits to hate Im picture taken, which is generally Tery different from 
the vay anybody look a at auy other time. People seem to forget, in 
taking likenesses, that the features of the face are nothing but an alphaliet, 
and that a dry, dead map of a person's face givua no more idea of how 
one hoka tbaii the simple premutation of an alphabet shows wimt therB in 
in a poem. 

Macau lay's whole physique gives you the impreRsion of great strength] 
and stamina of constitution. He has the kind of frame which we usuaUj I 
imagine as peculiarly English ; short, stout, and firmly knit, Thei*e is 
lioiuetljlng hearty iu all hla demou^tratious. He speaks lu that full, round, 
rolling Toice, deep from the cheat, which we also conceive of m being 
more common in England than America. A« to hJa conver^tion, it is 
juit like bis writing; that is to say, it shows very Jitrnjugly the same 
qu&lities of mind. 

I wait iiifi>rtuei:l tliat he ht famons for a most uncommon memory ; oiie of 
thorn men to whom it seems iraposgible to forget anji.hing once read; and 
he has rend all Bort« of things that cau be thought of, in all htngnages. A 
gentleman told me that he cuuld repeat all the old Newgivte Iit«rttture^ 
banging ballade, last speeches, and dying confessions ; >vhile his knowled^ 
of Milton i» so accurate, that, if bis poems werft Vi\tittfi^ cra^ >i1 ^'iY^jK&5»^ 
thei' might be restored simply from his memuty, 'IVw sa.iiftft la^omsife 
kntiwted^ extends Iw tie Latin azid Greek claaaka^ wii 1<j 'SvNitfe^ ^fi^ '^^ 
litentttire of modern Europe. Had nature been r^qvmei Ui TaiJ!ta o, "^^"^ 
order, far a, perfect Jiistorum, Dothing tietter could Im^ e \f^&s. ^t^^ Xra^^^^ 

is ^ 


eqiecmlly sltrce tbere isfjnough of the poetic fire mclii'ied in the corDposntioa, 
to fuse all these tQultipHeid materials together, and cqIout the kiBtoTijB;sI 
oryFstuUizatioii ivith them. 

Macaula^ is ahout fifty. Hu hoB nmsr married. ■ jot there are unimna 
takeahle evidences iu the breathings nud agipectB of the fiimily circLa oH 
whcim ho was Bunoimded, that the soeml part ia not wantbg in liia wra- 
fornuition. Some very charming joung lady relntivea Heem&fl to tliirik 
q^nite oa much of tlieir g^ifted nncle as yua might have done had he beea 

Maoaalay ia celebrated as a converBationalist ; and, like Coleridge, Car- 
lyle, uid JiLixiLoat every one who enjoys thi& i^putaiioti, he hftfl sometimes 
beon nccueed of not allowing people their fair ^hare in conrei^iitiotk Tiua 
might prove an objection, pos&ihiy, to those who wish io talk ; but s* I 
grtuitly prefer to hear, it woTdd prove none to me. I must aay, howenar, 
tliat oa tliia oocaaion the matter was quite equitably managed. There 
wttrej I Ehonld tJimk, gome twenty or thirty at the breaJcfast ta-ble, and the 
cjonverwjtioa formed itself into little eddi<3a. of two cir tbrtje aronnd the table, 
iiov and then welling out into a great bay of general discouise. I was 
tt^ted between ]^[acaulay and 3r£ilmaT), and must t'^jtifess I wm a Utile 
embarrassed at times, liecause 1 wanted to hear what they were both ^ying 
At the same time. However, by the use of the f/aeully by which yoii play a.' 
pani) with both hands, I got on very comfortably. 

MIJ mail's appefii'ance ia quite striking ; tall, stooping, ^ith a keem Itlock I 
eye and perfectly white hair — a singular and poetic oontraat. Ha b«gan | 
upoiL architecture and Weatminater Abbty^ — ^ subject to which I am always 
nwake, I told hun I had not yet seen Weatmmster ; for I v/aa now busy ia 
seeing life and the present, and by and by I meant to go there and ^a death 
gjid the post. 

iOlman was for many yeara dean of Westminster, and kindly offered md 
his Ber pices, to indoctrinate me into Ita aatiquitica. 

Miicaulay made some suggestive remarks on cathedrals generally. I said 
that 1 thought it singular that we m seldom knew who were the arcbitecla 
that designed these great buildings ; that they appeared to me the moat 
sullime efforts of human ganiua. 

Ho eaid that all the cathedrals in Europe wera undoubtedly the reisralt of 
pne or two minds ; that tliey rose into existence very nearly cont^enipora- 
neoualy, and were built by traTelllng companies of masone, under the 
direction of some syHtematic organization. Perhaps you knew all this 
before, but I did not} and so it atmck me as a glorious idea. And if it ia 
not the true account of the origin of cathedrals, it ceitainly ought tc be ; 
and, as our old gramlmother used to say, "I'm going to believe it." 

Looking around the table, and seeing how everybcSy seemed to be enjoy- 
ing thcmselvea, 1 said to Miwraulay, that thosB breakfast ptwiies were A 
novelty to me ; that wo never had them in America, but that I thought 
them the moat delightful form of social life. 

He seiaed uijou the idea, as be often does, and turned it playfully insidfi 

ovt^ and shook it on all ifides, juut aa one nught play witli the iustrise of a 

chandelier- — to see them glitter. He expaAiflAjei on V\v6 Tntrltti of bueakfost 

p&rtliiii as compared with all other pB.rtie», l&st ^v\ fcroua ^Krtkw, tai^ 

mere formalitieif. You invite a man to diim^ \3tas,\%is& ^sa ti*-M4t\Ts?nSfc 

^^; bevamsQ you are acauamted ^itii \m gra.uMa^:i«*, ot iS. ^a ^ptoTgistii* 

MACAULAr. If5&' 


dionld ; but you iiwlte a, man i.o brenkfast because yoU "want to B«e /ttw, 
Yon may be sure, If yuu are iinrit^il to breakfuat, tkat there is >fiom£htlLiii^: 
agreeable about you. Tbi« idea struck me us Tery Beusihle ; and i*'e aU, 
genemlly baviiijsr'tba fkit before our eyes that W€ were incited to brenkfast^ 
approved the Bentinieiit, 

'* Yes," Siid Macaulay, ** depend upon it ; if a man ib a bore he neror 
g^e^ts an invitatido to htvakSaiA.*' 

" lUtber hard on the poor bores,''' aaid a lady, 

" PtirtieiilJirly,'*- sftid Macaulay, laughing, **as bortii are usually th» 
most irreproachiible of human beinp, I>id you ever bisar a bore tsyin plained 
of wbflu they did not say that he was the best fellow m the world ? For 
lay part, if I wantad to get a gnatdtan for u family of ikfencelese orphan^ 
1 shot! Id inquire for the graateat bore in the Ticinity. I Ehonkl know that 
he would bo a man sjf unblemiahed hononr and integrity." 

^The oouTorsiitinn now went on to Miltou and ShaJcBpearc. Ma<*ai3lay 
made one remark that geatlemon are Rlways maldng, and tbst Is, that tho 
ia very little characteristid difference between ShakBpeare'a woman. We: 
*ibere IH no hope for that matter - m long as men are not women they 
think EQ. In geaenil they lump togetlier Miranda, Juliet, Deademouft, 

" As tnatt-FT tori soft n Iiistiqg murk to faesr 
And beat djBtiagUjBhrd u blact, brown, ot fair." 

It took Mrs. Jameson to set this matter forth in her Characteristics ( 
Women ; a bock for which Shakspeare, if he could gat up, ought to make' 
her llis L^^t bow, espech^Iy as thero are fine tliiDgs awnibed to him there, 
vhich, I dare say, he never thought of, carol ess fellow that he was ! Butj 
I take it, every true painter, poet, and artiat is in some senBe bo &t a 
prophet that his utterancea convey more to other mmds than he himielf 
knows ; so that, doultlees, ahonld all the old mastCTB rise from the dead, 
they might be edified by what posterity has found in their works. 

Some how or other, we found ourselves next tftlking about Sidney Smith ; 
and it was very pleaiaint to me, r<»calliag tho evenings when your father 
liaa road and we have laughed over him, to hear him spoken of ujs a living 
adatenee, by one who had known him. Still, I hav^^ alwaya had a quarrel 
with Sidntiy, fur the wioked t]ae to whinb he put hiR wit^ in abuaing good 
old Dt, Careys, and the missionaries in India ; nay, in some pianos he evon 
rtoopetl ^ be spiteful and vulgar. I could not help, therefore, saying^ 
when Macaulay observed that he had the most agreeable wit of any literary 
man of hiij acquamtauce, "WeU^ it was very agreeable, but it could not 
tftve been very agreeable to the people who came under the edge of it," 
instatifsed hia treatment of Dr. Carey. Some otbei^ who were 
seemed to feel warmly on this subject, too, and Macaulay said, — 

'* A hj well, Sidney repented of that, afterwards, " He seemed to cling fo" 
bis memory, and to turn from every fault to Itis joviality, as a thing he 
eould not Cdoiigh delight to renrember. 

Truly, wit, like charity, covers a multitntte of Bins. A man who ha& tW 
fkctilty of raising a laugh in ttiie sad, estrnest ^wotXi \a ^e^tsn^oet^ 'wSSitL 
indiil;:em'e and comp/arency, always. 

Then^ nerp sererni other perflons of note pretsciit at ^Jtt\B\re^»JK^fe«^v]'^^ 
iwiiTermUiHi I bad not an apportfmity of liearmg, aa\V<i^ ^-sA- ^'^'«»' *^'**f 
irvm lOft Then- waa Lord GJeniflg, biutkei oi Sii ^B^\)e^^^^^> ^^'^ 

it," aii^^^ 



of Bombey, iv*liose beautiful hymtifi. hare retidored kirn fajniliaj* la A me 
The favourite one, coiumGiicing, *' When gathering clouda around I yie#j| 
TTJis from hjji pen. LtJrd Qlenelg, farmerly Sir Clirvries Gmnt, himself I 
lieea the auihor of several jiiecea of ifoetry, wMch trere In their time i 

The lujstorJau Hwllmn was oho present^ whose OQUBtitutiDual 
you will rcmeiuher, gave rt&e to one of Macaulay's tiuest reviews; a quiet, 
rctiriug wsi.ti, with a benignajit, somewhat ttad, expibisioii of couiitenaiiM» 
The has of an only son Iiob ca«t a eiiadow orer his lifen, It was on thia fltm 
tlmt TemiyBon wrote hia " /» Mtuwrtam.'* 

Sir Bobert II. Inglia was also present, and Mr, S, held eousideTable cou* 
Tfiraation with hlra. Knowing that he was both high tory and high chureh, 
it was an agreeable aurprise to And him particuliu-ly gentle and bland in 
manners, enrneat and dt^vout in religions aeDtiment. I havo heard him 
iipoketi of, bv^u timong dissentors, as a devout and efiniest man. An(}iher 
proof ttiia of what iuiBta.ke3 we fall into when we judge the characterB of 
parsons at a distance, from what we suppose likely to be the effect of th aiy 
sentiment<9. We often find the professed aristocrat gentle and i 
ing, and the professed supporter of forms spiritual. 

I think it very Hkely there may have been other celebiitiea pra 
whom I did not know. I am always finding out, a day or two after, that 
I have boeu with somebody very remarkablcj and did not know It at the 

After breakfast wa found, on eoneulting our list, that we were to lunch 
at Surrey porBoxiage. 

Of nil the citiea I was ever in, London Is the most absolutely unmanBge- 
able, it takes so long to get anywhere ; wherever you want to go it se^ms to 
take yon about two hours to get there. From the W^e&t End down into tbe 
city is a di. stance that seeras all but ijiterminable. London is now more 
than ten miles long. And yet tlila monster city is streti^hlng in all direc- 
tions yearly, and where will be the end ofit nobody knows, ^outbey says, 
*' I began to study the map of London, though dismayed at its prodigious 
extent. The river is no asaieUvace to a stranger in finding his way ; there 
is no street along its banks, and no eminensie from whence you ean look 
around and take yr>ur bearings. *' 

You may take these retJections as passing through my mind while we 
were driving through street after street^ and going round corner after 
comer, towards the parsonage. 

Surrey Chapel and parsonage were the church and residence of the cele- 
lirated Kowlaud Hill. At prt.seut the inoumbent is the Ucv. Mr. Sherman, 
well known t<i many of our Americjin olergy by the kind hospitalities and 
attentions with which he ha^^ enriched their stay in London. The church 
maintains a medium rank IjetwOEn Congregationalism and Episcopacy, 
retauiing paii of the ritual, but being independent m its government, 
The kindness of Mr, Sherman had asEembled here a very agreeable company, 
among whom were Farquhar Tupper, tho aitist Crulkshank, from whom 
J^r&ceired a call the other morning, and llr, Pellatt, M.P. CrnikEhank is 
JtH old man with gray hiiir and eyebrows, etrowgly marked ftaturcfi, and 
4eea eyas. He talked to me souietliing atout VUti YHfifia'atvwuil X^.tsi.vewatf'A 

Ar/^ sen'os oCntemij sketches illuatTatetl Vy bis v^ncii. 
I sat bj a lady who vs-as well aciimmted mtU lS.ii^^*\tTI, 

^]ti« B.'<3&UT liji 



^Itau Locka, Uypatiu, and othpr wgrka, yr'ith. whom 1 Lad aointi cOHTerFu-, 
tiw with jregB I'd t^the influence of liia writings. 

She ^d that he liftd beea iuatrmneatal m reacumg from intidelitj maD7^^ 
j^tuig iBQH whose mitids had become uosBttled ; that he wag a d^rat^ aud i 
Ubni-ious clergynjan, eserting himself, i^ithout any ceeffivtion, fof the good j 
of his parish. 

After the cfmpaiiy wete gone I tried to get eomerest, ns my laboui'a wera 
Bot yet over, we heiug engaged to dhic at Sir Edward BTjjttou'B, This "was 
em Bttoat disaipated day in Lomion. "We never tried the experiment a^Uh 
of going to three jiartiea in one day. 

By the time I gtjt to iny third appoiatment I waa entirely exhausted. I , 
met here som^, however^ whom I was exceedingly interested to see ; among j 
them SaiQiiel Giimey, brother of Elizabeth Fry, iA-ith his wife and family. | 
Lady Edward BuxUn in one of his datighters. All had that air of benevo- 
lent £riendiin«9ij inhiah la chamcterlstic of the sect. 

Dr, LuBhington, the campanion and venerable ossuciate of "W^ilberfarct | 
ftnd ClarkBon, wag abo present. He was » miambEr of Pflrlifl-mertt with I 
Wilberforce fnrty or fifty years ago. He is now a jadga of the admiraltjf I 
conrt, that IB to say, of tho law relating to marine iLffairg, TMa is a branch J 
of law which the nature of onr govemnient m America makes it impDssiibld i 
for ns to have. He i« exceedingly brilliant and animated in convBrsataun. j 

Dr, Cunning Uaui, the anthrjr of Worid without Souls, wjuj present. ] 
There was also a master of Harrow School, He told mo an aneodot^J 
which pleased me for several rca»>ns ; that on<:e, when the queen rieitt 
the school, she put to him the tnqiiiry, "whethur tbo educational syBtei^l 
of England did not give a disproportbtiate attention to the t.tndy of ih*| 
Mjcient classica T His reply wu^ ' ' that her majesty douM best satisfy hetpJ 
mind oil that jiolnt by ohserving what men the pnblic eoboola of Engl audi 
hiid hitherto produced;*' eertaiuly a veiy adroit reply, yet one which would! 
be equnJly guod against tlie Buggestion of any improvement wbstever, "Wft J 
might aa well say, aee what men we have been able to raiAe In, Aniericsai 
without any classic^ education at all; witness Benjamin Franklin, Gfeorge 
Washington, aud lloger Sherman. 

Jt is a curious fact that Christian nations, with one general consent, ;fl 
the early education of youih neglect the volume which thoy consider inspire " 
snd bring the mind, at the most aueceptihlo period, under tho dominion 
the literature and mythology of the heathen world ; And that, tee, when thii 
eaered history and poetry are confessedly superior in Etcrary quality. Grava 
dootora of divinity expend their forces in commenting on and teaching thi'ig 
which ■would be utterly ticouted, were an author to puhli&h them in Englii 
as original eomposltious. A Christian community has it£ young men cdti'j 
cated in Ovid and Anacreon, but is shix;k£U when one of them cometi out l 
English with Bon Juan ; yet, probably, the latttr poem is purer than eithei 

The EngMsh literature and poetry of the time of Pope and Ihyden t 
a state of association so completely heathenized, that an old Greek or Eon 
raised from tho dead could .scares lenni from them that any chatige hai 
token place in the religion of the world, and e^en MUt«Q. cftea ^^waat "w 
by introducing second -hand pagan mythology Into ^ti. ^tri ^^kiSiis™ ^^t y! 
^t&msi thi-one. In soibg parts of the Baiadiae 1*q'^, iVfc ^rj^ieE^'iasflXa^'^ss** 
vf Homer are to me the poorest and moat paintol ^aseajy*- ^^ 

Timsdaration of the ancient classics Yvswa \n,m \\]k.%*. &s»fi^^^'^*P*' ^ 


I modem nrL ajid literatiuie ; l3ecaufl& mtn, instead of Tjmiig them simply 

I excliemeut &nd iuEgpiratioti, have congeoled t^em into fi^ed, iiii'_ 

I rules. As the flaeaice liaTe been nsed, I thini, wonderfiil as hare 

I tie minds c-dutaitcd unAer tkem, there would Iutg been, more Taciety flai 

I fxiginAlity without ttem. 

1 With whidi long sermon on ft short t<5xt, I wiE conclude my letter. 

imply l^^l 





ThtLPsdiirj BT^ 11. 
Mr BiAii I, :— 

TeBterdnyj wli&t irrth my brcakfaat, lunch, and dinnerj I was, as tiie 
feshionahle Baying h, "fairly knoeke^d. up," This Dxpncssion, which I 
find oLtttiiifl uniTMsaUy h^re, oorreBpoads to wliat we mtsm hj being "used 
up." They talk of AmericauismB, and I havo a little innocent Bfpeculation 
no* and then conosruing Anglicisms. I certainly find severai here for 
which I aan perceive no mare precedent in the well of '* English undefiled," 
tban for some of ours; for instautic, this l)eing "IcDoeked np^" whicli 18 
Tarionsly inflected, as, for <!iample, in the form of a pnrticlpial adjectiYC^ 
as a " knoclviiig up" afiSiir; in tho form of n noun, !i& when they say ''such 
a person has got quite a knocking up," and so on. 

The fact ia, if we had oTer.Lad any experience in London life we should 
not have made three engagements in one day. To my simple eye it is 
quite atiinfiing to |Cfi how they manage the social machine hero. Peopto 
are under ench a presfinre of engagements, that tliey go abont with their 
lists in their pockete. If A wants to invito B to dinner, out wime thdr 
raspective lists. A says he has only Tuesday and Thursday open for tU^H 
week. B looks down liia list, and says that the daytt are all closed. j^H 
looks along, and siiya tLat hs has no day open till next Wedtieiidfly wedl^^ 
Bj however, h going to leave town Tuesday ; so that settles the matter a& 
to dining; so they tarn back again, and try the breakfasting ; for tliougli 
you ciiiinot dine in but one place a day, yet, by menus of the breakfast and 
the Innch, you can make three social visits if you aro Ktron^ enough. 

Then there are evening parties, which begin at ten o'clock. The first 
card of the kind that was sent me, wliich was worded, "At home at ten 
o'clock," I, in ray simplicity, took to bo ten in the morning. 

But hero are people staying out night after night tiU two o'clock, aittiiig 
np all night in ParKflment, and seeming to thrive upon it. There certi 
is great apology for this in London, if It iu always as dark, drizzling, 
smoky hi the dayliiae as it has been since I have been here. If I 
one of tho London people, I would live by gasliglit as they do, for 
btreets and houses axe altogether pleasanter by gitslight than by dayli^ 
But to ape theete cuiftoms under our cicjir, American skies, so contrary 
our whole social system, is dmply ridiculous. 
TTt/ji usdrnmg 1 was exceedingly tired, and had a perfect lon^ng to 
out of London into aome green lields — to i^et wimtwbdTE where there 
^oboily. So kind Mrs. B. had tbe carri&ge, mi4 u5 w^ ivoNeVj^XJiMs. 
mid by we foimd ourselves out in tJie couutrj, ^TidftttiEil 'wwi^ft^Vi ^juc 




After ft ■« hUc ft lady came along, riding a little dunkey. These donkeys 
JutYe iimused me bo juucli since I haye been here ! At aevera] places on the 
i>utd£irts of t]ib c^ity the; liave them fltaiiillijg, nil girt tip with saddles 
odvered with white cloth, for ladleB to ride on. One gets ont of Londou hy 
jmcans of an Dmuihus to one of these plaeos^ and then^ for a, few pence, can 
have a ride upon one of tliem into the wnntry. Mrs. B. walked hy the 
^ide of the latly, n-nd said to her aomeftbing which I did not hearj Btnd she 
Immediately alighted and asked me with great kindness if I wanted to try 
the saddle; bo I got upon the little heast, which wajj about im large aa tv 
<good-id2ed calf, and rode a few paces to lay him. It ia & alow but not nn- 
j>leasant gnit, aud if the fireattira were not so inaignificaatly small, oa to 
malte yoa feel mneli as if you were riding upon a cat, it would he q^uite ft 
plea«i«ut affair. After dismounting I crept through a hale m a hedge, and 
looked for some iiuwerH; and, in sliort, made the most tliat I could of my 
interfiflw with natnrs, till it came tiiDe to go home to dinner, for onr diimer 
iionr at Mr* B/s ia between one and two ■ quite like home. In the evening 
we were to dine at Lord Shaftesbury's. 

After napping all the after aoon we went to QroBTenor Square. There 
-was only a £imaU, sdect party, of about Bixteen. Among the ^eeta were 
"Dr. MuAU, Hebrew professor in King's CuHcgo, Lord Wriothealey Hussell, 
brother of Lord John, and one of the private chaplains of the queen, and 
tbe Archbishop of Canterbury. Dr. McAU is a millenariati. He sat next 
to C. at table, and they bad some conTersation on that subject. He said 
Hiom ideas liiui made a good deal of progress in tbe KugiliEih loiiid. 

Wlulo 1 was walking down to dinner with Lord Bliaftesbury, ho pointed 
out to niQ iu Uie hall i^ie portrait of hia distinguished ancefttor, Antony 
Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shafteabury, whose i:i:atne he hears. Tlua ancestor, 
potwthjstaading his sceptical phiioeophy, did some good things, as he ^-aa 
the author of the habeas corpuji act. 

After dinner we went bfiok to tbe drawing rooms again ; and while tea 
and coffee were being served, uames were consUwitly lieing announced, till 

the rooms were quite fnil. Among the earHefst who atiived wae Mr. ^ 

a mulatto gentleman, formerly British consul at Liberia. I found him h, 
man of considenihlo cultivation and intelligenoc, eTin^lng maoh good sense 
in his observations, 

I overheard some one saying in the erowd^ ' * Shafteslmry baa been abeut 
ihe chimney swcoperfs ^ain in Parliamont." I said to Lord SlubfWbury, 
*' 1 thungbt that matter of tlie chimney sweepere had been attonded to 
lomg ago, and laws made about it. ' ' 

" So wB have made laws," said he, *' hat people wont k©ep them nnleaa 
ve follow them up." 

He ha^ a very prompt, cheerful viiy of apeakin|;, and tbrowa Mmself 1 
Into everything he talks about ^^tb great interest and zeaL He introduced 
me to one gentlemaQ- — I forget bis name now — as the patron of the shoe- 
. On my inquiring what that meant, he said that he had started the 
i)f providing employment for poor slreot hoys, by furaislvuv^ ^^Wkl 

brnshes and blackiugj and formittg t\\eui \i\\« rt^xiijM tt™iT;«?i.TVife5i '^'^ 

thoeblflcks. Eaok bay h^ts Ms pfirtiLiiilaj sUuvA, >*-\ifeYfe V^ XAiw^^a. ^Jti^^'?'^ 
Iff 0reij pAS80t bjr who diooses to take tiie. tTQM^\ii d^ ^\\tXKxv% ^^ ^^^ r*^ 
unf pt^ying Mb twopence. Lord Sbaftesbviry a-lao -^■ceReiv'WiiSi- ^^^^\^Ia^ 
rho bad been » rery sHooessfnJ teacKer m tUe TS^g^ei ^\l.<io^*^ *^ 

M 2 _^m 



pentleroan who, he suid, had bfeii very active m tlje Loiitkn city mi 
Some very inj^iiiuufi v-ork done in ili« rauged boLooLh irofi sat on the 
for the company t^j examine, und excited mucli interest. 

I talked A little wJiile with Lord Wriothealey Bnssell. From him irt 
derivod the idea that tha queen was partictilarly taref^l in the training 
«id religjouja instruction of lier children. Ho snid that she claimed that 
the young piinoB should be left entirely to his parente, in regard to hw 
neligioUB iaBtmction, till lie was seven years of age ; but that, on sxaminiag 
him at that limc^, they Vfere cr^ually BUrprised and didightcd inth lili 
knowledge of the Scriptures. I must remsj-k here, that such an e^cample 
afl the queen Bets in the education of her children njakes itself felt throngh 
all the faonilie^ of the kingrdom. Domesticity is now the fashion in higli 
life. I have had cwcasion tc see, in mnny instAncca, how carefully Indian 
of rtnk inatmct thtrr chihiren. This? RTgues more faTonrably for tiic c&n- 
tinnance of EugliBh Institutious than anything I have seen. If the next 
genemtitm of thoee who are bom to rank and powt?r are educated, in the 
M-ords of Fcuelon, to consider llifse things *' aa a ministrj'/' which they 
hold for the benefit wf the poor, the pr<;iblem of life in England will become 
earner of aolntion. Such ara Lord Shafte-fbury's viewfl] and aa he throw* 
them out with uuccjiBing fenrotix in his ODnverwition and conduct, ttflj 
fannct but powerfully atfect not only hia own circle, bnt all circles thn>ugh 
the kingdom. Lady ShaftefibTiiy is a huautifui and interesting woman, 
and warmly enters iiilo the l>entiVDlent plans of her IniBlwnd. A gentle- 
man and lady with whom I travelled jjaid tliat Lord and Lady Phafteebiiry 
had visited in person the luost forlorn and wretched parta of London, that 
thoy might pet, hy their ot*ti eyesight, a more correct yange of the misery 
to be relieye<L I did not eee Lord BhaftE^abury's children ; hut, from the 
crayon likenesses which hung upon the walls, they must be & family of 
unconunon heaiitj. 

I talked a, little wliile with the Bi^liop of Tuam. I was the inore 
mterested to do f o bep^'iuse he was fTf.m thai part of Ireland which Sibyl 
Jones has spoken of as being in so particnlarly mi?erajjle a ewdition. I 
«iid, *' How are you doing now, in that part of the country? There has 
been a ^eat deal of misery there, I hear.^' He said, '* There has been, \mt 
we have just turned the corner, and now I hope we shall see better d&yn. 
The condition of the ]>eople h^H Ijeen improved by enaigration and other 
causes, till the eviklmve been brought within rench, and we feel that there 
ia a hope of effecting a permanent improvement." 

M'hile I was sitting talking, Lord Sliafte^bury broujcht a gentleman and 
lady, whom he introduced aa Lord Chief Justice Campbell and Lady 
gtrathe<len. Lord Campbell ts a man of most dignified and imposing 
person at presence; taU, witk a large Irani e, a flue, high forehead, and 
strongly marked ft^itures. Naturally enough, I did not suppose them to 
ho husband and wife, ai>d when I ditcovered that they were »o, expressed a 
pood deal of surprise at their diflerence of titlee; to which vha replied, tJiat 
she did not wonder we Americans were tnnnetimes puzzled ajtiong the 
number of iiths. She eoemed quite intcrcfited to inquire into our ma oner 
of living Olid cnstomsj and bow they etrntV. ■vnn as wiiii\va3:w\ -WTitv llwirs. 
Syie letter of Mm, Tyler was much IsdVed o^,™i ^me ^VtA ik*-\&\ 
^^oppo«ed Mrs. Tyler reaJJy wrote it, expTCBmus\e ti^\\ ^^^^^ 
V^JI^* I told tbLi that 1 had heard it Baidfha^ ^^ m^^\.^^^>««^^^ 


It ail ^j 

auc;hbihhop of caxtebbuky, 165 

by Home of thegeuUemeu in the family, because it was generally undergtood 
that Mrs. Tyler Wfts a vury ladylike person. Sjiue sriid, "It ddca ua no 
h&rm io be remiinLled of oar delkieneiBB ; Tv^nee^l a,ll tha rsspooailiiLitjtbat 
can be put upoD ua," Qtbera aaiil, " it is certo,iii we have many defects;" 
but L(*ril (Jajupbell satd, "TbGre h this diiferencB between our evilH and 
those of Btavary : oiura eidst contrary to law; tboae arc upheld by law." 

r did not get any opportunity of coiiTeraing witb the Archbishop of Can-; 
terbnry, though this is the aec&nd tiius I have been in enmpany with Mm- 
He is n mast preposaesaLng man in hia appeftruiica — aimple, fioarfcaoua, mild, 
and ftlfiible. He was formarly Biabop of Cheater, and ia now Primate of all 

It Ls aooie intlication of the tendeDoy of things in a country to notice w. 
kind of men ;ire patronized, and promotod tu the high. platC^ of tiie chtirek 
Sumner ia a miiu rehned, guntk, aSuble, scbohiTly, thoroughly eTaugellcal 
in sentiiuent ; to render 1dm iuto American phraseology, be ia in dactrine 
what wa sbould call a raodtirate New Schoiil man. He hm been a moat 
iudiistrious writer ; one of his principal works ia hia Commentrtiy on the 
New Testament, in several volnmea ; a work most admirably adapted for 
popular uEfl, eoinbining practitsil devotion with critical accuracy to an 
unoommou degree. He has ainj publtalied a work ou the Evideucea of 
Cfuistiaiiity, in which he eetji forth sumo evidences of the geiiutnenesij of 
the gospel uarrfttiTe, Tvliich could only have been conceired by a mind of 
peculiar delicacy, and which ara quite interesting and original. Ha hea 
alao written a work on Biblical (leology^ which i3 highly spoken of by Sir 
Charles Lyell aud others. If I may bebeve accounts that I hear, this mild 
and moderate man has sbowii a, moat admirable firmness aud facility in 
guiding the ship of the establishment in some critical and perilous places of 
late yeiirs. I should add that be is warmly interested in all the efforts now 
making for the good of the poor, 

Aniuiig i>tber pgruons of dlHtLnciipn, this eveuiug, I noticed Lord and 
Ijady Palmerston. 

A buly asked me tbia evening what I thought of the beauty of the ladies 
of the English ariato(."nu;y ; she was ix Scotch lady, by the by ; bo the quea 
tiun waa a fair one. I replied, that cei-tainly report bad not oxaggerai 
th^T cburms. Then came a home question — how the ladiea of Englaa 
eompiiiiKl with the ladie.'^ of Americft i "Kow for it, patriotism,'' said I 
to mjaelf j and, invoking to my aid certain fjur sainls of my own country, 
whose faces 1 distinctly remembered, 1 assured her I had never seen mora 
beantifid women than I bad in. America. Grieved was I to be obliged to 
add, "But your ladies keep their beauty much later and longer." This 
fact stares one in the ftw?e In every company ; one meets ladies past fifty, 
glowing, radifcnt, and blooming, with a freshness of completion aud fulnaEs 
of outline refreshing to contemplate. Wliat can be the reason 'i TeB ua, 
Muses aud Graces, what can it be f Is it the conaerrative power of s^ 
fogfi and Qosii smoke — the same cause that keejja the turf green, and makes 
Iha holly and ivy fiouriish ? How comes it that our married ladies dwindle^ 
fade, and grow tbin, that their noses incline to sharpness^ and tl\Q,k ^Vfcft-**. 
to augulniity, just at the time of liie when UieVt iaViiaii ■wsNkt::* ^wsaS^ 'a'Qi^ 
into a co/nfortabJe and beoomiu^ amplit^ide aud. iuVuwa'l ^S. vV \i, '^v^s, "vctii^ 
jifft/ the sm-CiiaJ, why, then, 1 aia ftfraid we ftWW \\(i^ex QsarCQ&Jo.'^ ^JV, 
iUm. Bui perhaps there may be other ca-nuea vj\i^ a. ttt'vi.^'^'^'3 -^VviXx^^**. 

uea- I 

7,1 T^" 


some of tlie moot beaatifal girU in the iforld prodnces m few beantiM 
women. Have act our cloBe heated sto've-TOomSi aonjething to do with 
Bnve not the imraeiiBtj^ {umovnt of hot biscuits, hot coni cftkes, and ot) 
cotnpouiMis got up with the acrid poi^n of salcratuBi somethiag to do Tsid 
it ? Abovei aU, has not our clitndte, with ita ulteniate t2stt*nies of hea 
oud cold, a. tendency to induce htibita of iu-door indolence? Climate, cftiv ' 
tainl^r, has s greort deal to do with it ; ours is evidently more trying and 
mora exhauHting ; und because it k so, ^c ahoold not pilo npon its h* ' 
errors of dross and diet which are aToided by our neishboura. They k^ 
their tieauty h^aiMiie they keep their health. It has been as romarkable I 
anything to me, since 1 have been here, that I do not constantly, as I 
home, hear one and tui other epoken of tts in iQiB«!rabIe health, as very detl 
eat^ ic. Health Beems to be the mle, and not the exception. For 
part, I muat say, the most favourable omen tliat I know of for fero 
beauty in America is, the multiplication of wnter-enire establifehineii^ 
where onr ladies, if they get nothing dae, do gain some ideas aa to tf 
neoenBity of fraah iur, re^gnlar exrat^lBe, simple diet, and the laws of byj^oi 
in geaeraL 

There is one thing more which goes a lon^ wny townrds tbo oontiuned 
health of these English ladies, and therefore t-owarda their beauty ; and tiN 
IK, the quietude and perpetuity of their domestic institutionG. They do noi 
like ua, fade their clieeis lying nwalce nights ruminating the awftil qa 
tion, -ffho shall do the waahing next week, or who shall take the chnmb 
maid's place who is going to t>e married, orthfit of tlie cook, who ] 
fiignified her iiitentioti of imrtbi j with the mistrefia. Their hoapitality ] 
never embarrsKBed by the conaideration that their whole kitchen cabin 
miiy tleoeirt aJb the moment that their guests arrive. They are not obli 
to choose between waahing their own dishes, or having their cut gli 
silver, and thina, left to the mercy of a foreigner, who has never do 
anything hut field-work. And last, not least, they are not posseffied with 
the ambition to do the impossible m all brjtnchea which, I believe, is the 
death of a third of the women in America, Wlmt is there ever read of in 
liooks, or deiicribBd in foreign travel, a& attamed by people in possession of 
every means and appliance, which onr women will not undertake, Eingle- 
imiided, in spite of every providential indication to the contrary ? 1^o is 
not cognizant of diimer i^arties invltetl, in which the lady of the bouse has 
figured Fiiccesaively aa confeotisiner, cook, dining-roctm girl, and, lastly, 
rushed up stairs to f lathe her glovring cheeka, smooth her hair, draw on 
satiij drees and kid gloves, and appear in tihe dxawing-roi>ra as if nothing 
were the matter I Certainly, the undttUBted bravery of our American 
females can never enough be atlmired. Other women ea.n phiy gmcefu Hy 
th e head of theestabli silent; but who, like them, could behead, hand, and 
footf all at once ? 

As I have spoken of stovea, 1 will here remark that I have not yet aaen 

one in Kngland ; neither, so far as I can remember, have I Peeu a honoe 

wrvrmed by a furnace. Bright coal fires, in grates of polishefi steel, are aa 

yei the lares and penate* of Old England. If I am inclined to mourn over 

Anf defeetdon in my own cotintrif, it is tbe clofiinif np of the cheerful open 

^fe, nStk ita bright lights and dtmdng EbwlQi>fa^ Kn4 t"^^ ^VwiNlvai* 1*10. wst 

daaestie hmrth of th&t Sttllen, stifling gJHJiii6» tia^ wc-^^^- ^ ^^ff^ ^*=^ 



Hnvilionie In tbrnkuig fJid moTement &t&l to pAtdatiftm ; for wl)« wanld 
fi^bt fur im air-tight ! 

1 haLve ran «ti a ffood va/ b^fond ottr erening oompany ; «d good bf far ^ 
the preiieiit. 


Mat 13. 
Bala Pathbr :~ 

To-day we aie to go out to visit jour Quaker friend, Mr. jyexardet, : ^ 
fitoke Newingtoa, where you pa^ed so maoy pJeaeunt liottrB during yone- 1 
BojonTQ in England. At half past nine we went into the Congregatidns^ J 
Union, wlilc'h Is now in session. I had a sout upon the platform, where £ ] 
could cotunuLud ^ view of the house. It wa.3 a moft mtere^Ung a3^<?embla^ :| 
to me, recalling forcibly our New Englnnd associations, and impres&inEj 
more than ever on my mind bow much of one blood the two countries ars; J 
Tiiese earned, though tf til, JntellJgent-looking men i3«gmed to transport ma 1 
back to my own country. They reoeived iis with moat gnati^ng cordtall^J 
and kindness, Most natuxaUy CongregationaEsm in England m^ist turfl. 
with deep interest and sympathy to CongregatlonaliRm in America. In 
several very oordial addresaeg they testifiud their pleasure at seeing ua 
among them, speaking most affectionately of you and your labours^ and your 
former Tisit to England- The wi^es and daughters of many of them 
present expreisaed in their countenances the deepest and most affectionate ^B 
fbi^Lbig. It ia cheering to feel that an oc^^ does not divide our hearts, aad'^l 
that the Christians of America and England are vne. 

In the afternoon we drijvti out to JUr. AlexaaJei-'s. His place is called 
ParaJiHe, and very justly, being one more of those home Edens in wMob i 
England alwunds, where, without ostentation or display^ every appHanue ( ~ 
rational enjoyment surrounds one. 

"We were ushered into a ebeerful room, opening by oce gkas door npaj| j 
a brillLint fionservatory of Sowers, ajid by another upon a neatly ^kjefiftil 
g^-den. The air was fresh and swefit with the perfume of htoaGomin^l 
trees, and every (.hiug seemed doubly Tefreshing fr^n: theeuntrast mth tbu 
din and smoke of London. Our chamber looked out npon a beautiful prkTI 
Bbaded with fine old trees. WhUe contemplating the white dr.ipories ofl 
oar windows, and the snowy robin ga of the bed, we could not but calLj 
to mind the fiictj of which we were befora avrai-e, thiit not an article I 
was the result of tlie nnpaid toil of the slave ; neither did this lestrid- f 
tiofl, rolnntarily ajisruned, fetter at all the bountifulneas of the table.! 
■where free-grown sugar, coffee, rico, and apleea seemed to derive a doabl|J 
value to our friends from ibis consideration. 

Some of the Quakers carry the principle so far as to refuse money in 
basineas trautuictiuu which they have reason to believe hiia b<?eii gainei 
by the unpaid toil of the slave, A Fiiend iu Edinburgh tuld nie ^ ft. 
l»othcr of his in t)ie city of Carlisle, wVjo Vv^ a <ai\ft\n[is!iKj^ Xtwa^ii'. 
iietkmy, irlio ntfraireti an optler frxna New OxXeaua Iqt aXJcvuttsavti. ^<5^i»:t* 
MTirm of bisctiits. Before closing tbe Issjgain ^e U«W \Jft.& \>mi^sx '^^ 
M« gMaHnn r*0ia, aod teid him that lio lifti waacusuXaavt* ^itfV'^'*^'** **"'^ 

168 ttJtrUY MEM0U1E3 ©F PORfilGS LANUS, 

TwjeiTing money from alaveliolders, and that in case he were one lie 
pilfer not to trnde with him. Furtuuatelyi in thia case, cntifiietetLcy 
intereat were lh>th on one side. 

Things like thesa caanot hat excite reflection in one' a mind, iind ihe 
(lEiory muat arise, if aH who really bclieTC slaTery to be a xrong should 
pursue thia course, what would ba ths result ? There arc great practical 
diScutties m the way of such a conrso, particularly in America, where the 
subject has leoeivied oouiparatiTely little attention. Yet since I have been 
in England^ I am informed by the FnendA here, that theiie has been for 
many years an asaodation of Friends in rhiladelphia, ^'bo have sent tKdr 
agents through the entire Southern States, entering by them into commnmi- 
cation with quite a condderable number scattered through the states, who, 
either from poverty or principle, raiso their cotton by free labour ; and thej 
b&Te established a depAt in Fhiladelphui, and alao a manufactDry, where 
the cotton thna received is made iiito various honsehold articles; and thus, 
by dint of some care and self-sacrifice, mauy of theni are enabled to abstain 
entirely from any participation with the rasalte of this crirn^. 

As Boon as I heard thi.-! fact, it Haahtid upon my miud immediately, that 
the beautiful cottou lands of Texas are as yet unoccupied to a great extent; 
that no law compels eottou to Xte raised there by slave hibour, and that it 
is beginning to be raised there to some eiteat by the labour of free ixermaa 
emigrants.* Will not something eventnally grow out of this ? I trust so. 
Even the smallest chLnk of light is welcome in a prisou, if it speak of a 
possible dogr which cr>unijge and zeal may open. ' I cannot as yet admit the 
jostaaaaof the general propositioo, that it is sq »3tus,l dn to fUit, ilrink, or 
wear anything whinh haa been the result of slave labour, because it i^senis 
to me to be based upon & principle altogether too wide in e:ttent. To be 
consistent in it, we must e?d,eud it to the results of all labour which is not 
conducted on jnst and equitable principles ; and in order to do this eon- 
sistently, we must needs, as St. fanl says, go out of the world. But if 
two syat^ms, one founded on wrong and robbery, and the otiter on right 
and Justice, are competing with each other, should we not patronise tlie 

I am the more inclined to think that some oonraeof this kind is indicated 
to the Cliriatiaa world, from the reproai^bas and taunts which proslavery 
papers ai-e citing n|H>n xt%, for patronizing their cotton. At oil events, ~ ~ 
Qnakers escape the awkwardness of this ^enima. 

In the evening quite a large circle of friends uame to meet us. "We W( 
particularly interested in the conversation of Itr. and Mrs. Wesby, mis- 
sionaries from Antigua. Antigua is tho only one of the islands in which 
emancipation was immediate, without any previous apprenticeship system ; 
and it is the one in which the results of emancipation have been altogether 
the mo3t happy. They gave us a very interesting account of their schools, 
and showeil us some beautiful specimens of plain needlewotk, which bad 
been wrought by young girls in tliem. They confirmed all the aocount^H 
which I have heard from other soun-ea of the peaceableness, docility, nii|^^| 
^Oi)d chamcter oi' tht nc^'sfoes ; of their kindly disposition and willinguesf' l^^l 
imeive mstruction, 
^Her tea Mr. S. and I waJted out a Uttk w\i\\e, faA Sjn'iAwi^ tfeTiis!u«i, 

• Oatf emtU town ia Text, made evgbt hxmdred bsleftlMft, jesx \if tr»\ji>iWH, 




iWliere repdae the ftstiefi of Dr. Watts. This buryiag-grdiitid ocotLpiea th« 
IDte of tte dwelling and grouiKli* fannerly cohered by tke i^aidence of Sic 
T. Abaey, with whum Dr. Watli^ spfiut many of tlie last years af Lb life. 
It hjis ijJwajTi seemed to in& that Dr. Watta's xaak as a poet hn£ never bean 
properly appreciated- If Bver there was a pi;»eli byrii, hti was that man j he 
attained witliout study a siiiocithtiKi.5 of versifi cation, -wliich, with Pupe, wils 
the rdiiultfj'f the Iutc3ii5ei»t analysis and most arbiBtio coro, Nor do tlie inOJ^t 
•inajQStio and ix'soiinding liuea q£ Dry den equal fiome of his in majesty of 
Ycdnme. The most iiarmoaioua linea of Diyden, thut I luiow of, are 
pthese :— 

•' "WTien JuTml Btrntli the chftrJtid aheU, 
His iiRtoniug brelliren stood arfiujad, 
And won Jerine, od their Caceu fell. 
To vromhip that opl4»tl.)dJ i^ound. 
Lew thmi 4 God ther^thoiipht there could act dwell 
Withiii I he hollow ofthat ^lu^U, 
That »pokL» ao sweetly and so well," 

The fit^ font tines of thi;a al'irajfl seem to me magnificent] jr li&nnoniouit. 
teiit almost any venae at random in Dr. Watta's paraphr!},s.{! of tlie one 
lired and forty-eighth P«aiin exceeds them, both in malody ojid majesty . 
Pot instance, take these lines t — 

" Wide es his vast, doimnion lies. 

Let the Crealor's name be knoffflj 
Loud w his tbtindeT whout hiJi praise, 
And «Duiid it, lotty aa hia throne, 
" ^peak of tho wonders of tiftt low 

Whick Gabrjel plays nji eTery ehord ! 
From hU Itelow iind all abore, 
Loud baQelujolia lu th<i Lord." 


Simply as & spec^imen of harmonious Ter3ifi,cation, I ironld place this 
paraphrase by Dj*. Watts above everything ia the Enghah language, nut 
^en excepting Potje'a Messiah. But in hymns, vihere the jdaas luie 
", by his own anul, we have esamples in which fird, fervour, imagecy, 
■om the soul of tlie poet in a strei^rn of versification, evidently spouta- 
'Beoas. Such are all tliowe liymns in which he deecribe* the glories of the 
Jbeayeoly state, and the advent of the great events foretold iti prophecy ; for 
loBtajice, this v^rse from the openlug of one of his jndgmsat hymns : — 

" Lo, 1 behold the Si.!'otl<ired shad&a ; 
I Tho dau'D of hi>Rve>n appe^oTH ; 

I The Bweet linniurtal morning sheds 

■ It* bltuiho^ t'otiud the Bphores." 

I Dr. Juhason, in his Lives of the Poeta, turns him off with small praise, 
ft is trae, saying tliat hia deTotlonai poetry is like that of others, unsatie- 
jlwtory ; graciously adding tJiat it is sufficient for him to have done batter 
ttban others what no onts has dona well ; and, lastly, that he m one of thoae 
•poeta with whom youth and ignorance may saftily be pleased. Btit if Br. 
[Johnson thought Irene was pwitryj it is not singular that he aliauXiL ^^iiMl*■. 
itbo lyrics of Watta were not. 

I Stoke JVewington is also celebrated as the leaideTieei oi^Sel^ifc. '^^ ^lass^ 
i ia our walk, the aacioDt raunsiuD iu which \ie Iwci. l&e^^^^^^. •^>ii£X\ 
itbpoush tLegrQumlB of our boat, ia tm artVivciiA s^.tttusx,^'^^'^ ^* '^^ 




to bare yxm first saggested by hia c>Ddl«ssJy hrijla and ladtista-Milft 
OS prDdnctive in pmctiwil projeots as in books. 

It alwayfi fleemjed to mo that there are three writers wlach eTcry on* vho 
want* to know how to nao the Eoglieb ItmgQsga eflfectirely should stn'" 
and theae are Shakspearo, Bunjan, and Befoe. One greeA sei?ret of ti 

(M on the popular mind Is their being so radioallj' and thoronghly Engli 

Siey have the solid gra-in of Iho English onk, not veneered by learning 

» claasicfl ; not inlaid irith ambeaques from other nations, but develoj 
wholly out of the Engliali nationaEty, 

I have heard that Qoethe said the reason for the jrreat eatltnsiaam. wift 
wliich his countrymen regajded him was that to did kiwvf hws to rmtt 
(Tfrman^ and bo also these men knew how to write Knglifih. I thitLJc BefM 
the most suggestive writer to an ai>tiBt of fiotion that the English Idugn&ge 
affords. That power by which he wrought fiction to produce the impreffiioii 
of reality^ so that hia Phigue in London waa quoted by medical men M 
an authentdc narrative, anil his Life of a CaTalier recommended by Lord 
Chatham as an historical authority, is certainly worth an analyaiB. With 
hira, undoubtedly, it wa^ an instonot. 

One anecdote, related to ua this eviening by our JrieiuiB, brought to mind 
with new power the annoyances to which the Quakera have been Bubjecited 
in En^jflajjd, under the old systera of church rat^s. It being contrary to the 
conscientious prineiplss of the Quakers to pay these church rotea volunta- 
rily, they itilowed the officer of the law to €nter their hen sea and t&k* 
whatever article he plaased in satisfaction of the claim. On ono occaaiDii, 
for the satisfaction of a claim of a few pounds^ they seized and sold a most 
rare and cogtiy mantle clock, which had a paxticnlar value as a choice speci* 
men of mechanical skill, ajjd which was worth four or five timea the snm 
owed. A friend afterwards repnr chased and presented it to the owner. 

"We were rejoiced to hear that these church rates are now Tirtuallj 
abolished, fhe liberal policy pursued in England for the last twenty-five 
years ia doing inoro to make the clmrch of England, and the goverun 
genemlly, respectable and respected than the most extortiona.te i 

We ported from our kind friends in the morning : came back and 1 1 
while to Mr. Burnard, the sculptor, who entertained me with variijus i 
dotes. He bad taken the bust of the Frince of Wales; and I g^ti 
from hia statements that young princes have very much the same fe^elingii 
and dealrea that otber little boys havsi, Mtd that he has a very judicioM 

In the afternoon, Mr, B., Mrs. B., and I had a pleasant drive in HyJe 
Park, aa I tiaed to read of heroines of romance doing in the old nnvelB. 
It is delightful to get into thia fairy laad of parks, ao green and beautiful, 
whieb tsmbcllish the West End, 

In the evening we hud an engagement at two places^ — ^at a Highland 
School dinner, and at Mr. Charles Kckens'. I felt myself too mucb *x- 
liaustcd for both, and so it wii3 concluded that I sbonU go to neither, but 
^j^a little qaht drive into tho country, and an early retlrument, as ths 
Jnvst prudent terminatjfin of the week. Vfblk Mt. S, ^tc^Ared to go to 
*-^e meeting of the HighlAni Scbool Bocirty, TAt. MiiSL^AT*.^. \wTt laa *w 
Mile drive into the eoaotry. After % ^We t^e? aS:^^V\.oA >^^^^ v T^t^ 
9^iljlc Ch^^resfiUoi^ college, in St. Jotin\^*^«^. ^ U^i ^^ ^^.'.WS 


"been n kind of tea-drinking thBrc by the ConuregatiaiiBl mini sters and their 
femlliesi, to celebrate tlie opening of the (wlloge, 

Oa returniagj we called for Mr. S., at tho dinner, and went iot a few 
numieatB into tho gnlleiy, the eiitertaiiiment being now nearly over. Here 
TTB heard some Scottish song3, Tcry chflttningly sung ; and, what nmiiBed 
me Tery much, a few Highknd mnsiuLina, ireseed in fiili costume, ooca- 
Biunally marcihe^ throu^^h the hall, playing on their bagpipes, tus wbb dtts- 
tomary in old Seottisli entertainments. The histOTJan, AjchihaJd Aliaoa, 
flheriff of Lanark^ire, sab &t thabeadof tbe table — & tuU, fine-looking maiif 
of very commanding pMsenee. 

Ahuub nine o'clock we retired. 

May 15. Heard Mr. Bxnney preaoh this moraing. He is one of the 
Bferongcst men among the Con jregationalista, and a vtfry jHjpular speaker. 
He is a tall, large man, with a finely-built head, high forebeadj piercing, 
dark eye, and a good deal of foi'ce and determiiiation in all his movements. 
His aermnn was the first tliat I had heard in England whick seemed to 
recognise the existencs of any posirible s<?eiit3cal or rationalizing element in 
the minds of hia hcarei'S. It wiw in this respect rn^re like the preacbing 
iliat I had Wn in the habit of hearing at home'. Instead of & calm Jitato- 
ment of certain admitted religious &<!t3, or exhortationis founded upoa 
them, his diseonrse aeemed to lie reasoning witli individual cases, and an- 
Bwering various forma of objections, such as might ariee in ditferent minda. 
This mode of preaching, I think, cannot exist imlcas a minister cultivates 
ftQ Individual knowledge of his people. > 

Mn Binney'a work, entitled, How to make the beat of both WorldSj 
I have heard spoken of as having had the largest iale of any religiouB writ- 
ing of the present day. 

May 16. This evjening ia the great antisLavery meeting at Exeter Hall. 
lAird SUafttsbury in the chair, Exeter Hall stands before the public aa the 
representation of the strong democraticj religious element of England, In 
Exeter Hall are all the pbilituihropies, foreign and domestic ; and a crowded 
meeting there gives one perhaps a better idea of the force of English domo- 
orQcy— of that kind of material which goea to muko up tho mass of the 
nation —^than anything else. 

When Macau lay expressed aome sentiments which gave offence to this 
portion of tlie community, he made a defence in which he alluded Bsrcasti- 
cally to the bray of Exeter Hall, The expressittn seema to have been remem- 
Lsred, for I have often heard it quoted ; though I believe they have foi^veu 
him for it, and concluded to accept it a» a joke. 

The hail this night was densely crowded, and, as I fdt very unwell, I 
did not go in till after the services had commenced — a thing which I greatly 
regretted afterwards, as by this means I lost a most able speech by Lord 
Shaftesbury. ^m 

The Duchess of Sutherland entered aoon after the commencement of the ^M 
exerclaes, and was most enthnaiastically cheered. When we came in, a ^^ 
iSeat had bean reserved for us by her gi'ace in the side gallery, and th<s 
cheering was repeated. I thought £ had heard somethiti^ (it tW fesA \3i 
Scotland, but tht?re was a vehem^iffe about tUa t\iftA, ma^ifi; -ms '^?Etti!5^^. 
TIieiTB is always something &w{ttl to my mmd ihoiit. B.S.fcu?a gvo's^^v^*'*'^^*^ 
Ofh^h sxcitement^ let the nature of that eircitemeviV \ie ^\i^.^.\V'«^. 
Id& timt hdi9v& thut tJtioi-8 is in all Amex^ft^v m^Tti vt^^isi^'o.^^ '^ ***^ 


crac^, more Tolcank farce of power, thaii eomes out m oua of Uiese ^fi&t 
gathoringB in our u!d fatbi^liind. 1 sftw ]i)amly enonRh where CotuJOTil, 
Lfixinjfton, and Bunker Hill eamc from ; ftnd it Ptfiraa to me there is enou^ 
of thiii eleiDout of iucli;,^aaiioD ftt wroug, aud re:^5{aacd to tjrannj^ to 
half a dosen rawe republics as strong as we are. 

A little intideut tlmt tccurred gave me an idea of what such » 
mi^ht li«<^iiiie iu u confuiseil atate of excitement. A womau fainted 
ilujtarit put of the houBe, and a policeman attempted toforTo li way throi 
tho deuselj'packed crowd. The serricea were interrupted for a few md- 
mflntSi and there were hoarse autginga. and swelling* of the mighty mlWB, 
who were eo eloaely packed that they moTed together like vavea. 8«iw 
hegun to riaa in their seats, and some cried, '• Order 1 ordErl" And oae 
eould easily se«, that wiitre a sudden panic or oTer whelming excitement to 
break ap the order of the meeting, what a terrible acene might enaoe. 

*' What ia it?'* said I to a friend who Bat next to me. 

'*A pickpocket^ pcrhapa," said she, "I am afraid we are going to 
have a row. They are going to give you ona of our genuine Exeter HiU 

I felt a good deal fluttered ; but the Duchess of Sutherhind, who 
the British lion better than I did, seemed so perfectly coUected that 
f^uue nsctfisurcd. 

The character of the spceehcs at thie meeting, with the exception 
Lord Sbaftesbiiry'jti was more denunciatory, and had more to pain tbe 
national feelings of a^ii American, tlian any I had ever attended. It was 
the real old Sason battle axe of Brother John, swung without fear or 
favour. Such ibiuga do not hurt me individoully, because I have snch a 
radifid faith in my country, such a genuint; litlief that she will at last 
right herself from every wrong, that I feel she can affurd to have these 
thiugB eaid. 

Mr. 8. spoke on this pcnnt, that the cotton trade of Great Britain is the 
princi^jol Biappurt to slavery, and read extractn from Cliarlerton papers in 
which they boldly declare thut they do not care for nay amnuiil of moral 
indignation waated upoo thdm by nation!} who, after all, must and will buy 
the cotton whieb they raise. 

The meetiag was a very long ©ne, and 1 was much faU^etl when 

Tomorrow we are to m»ke a little run out to Windsor. 

ion 1^" 

wiwDsqe.— Tas piCTraB oalleet.— ktoit,— mis post oa^r. 

Dear M. :— 

I caa compare the cmbarT^issment of our Londou life, with its multiplied 

solicitiitiona and infinite stimulants to euriosUy and desire, only to tbat 

admual perplexity wJiieh used to beset ^ in our cldldhcod on tliunkagiving 

day-. Maying been kept all the yeir w'vWvu t\i« Waata ^NsAt\i. -^x^ijlavuae 

i*"^™- to ueil -regulated cbildrea, came at Wl t\\ego^^emuY'ftl&ttJS^*Ma6iC^a\^ 

emml Saturnalia of daiutloa for Uw mUe ou«a. ^^^ maiiKs ^J» 

WIKUaOH. 173 

of licence were throvii oiieii, and we, ]jlniiip(yi down inlo Ihe midst of 

jjujding, exeeediug all ons^eptiya but that of & Yankee kouEO' 

', were Irft to fitniggle our way out as best we migbt. 

&y h^ne, beside all tbe livJDg world of liOndoD, it& scope aJid mnge of 

icraona and nJrclos uf tbougbt, come ita arcliitectvire, its arts, its localitieR, 

istoric, poetic, nil that expreeaea its past, its preseat, and its future. 

!T€ry day and every hour brings ita CDnflictiiig alhirementB, of poraoiiB to be 

^■660, places to be Tiated, tliinKH to be done, beyond all compntation. Like 

Itiss Edgewortb'e plulofiopliic little Frank, we aiie obbgod to make out our 

i^^t of wjuiit maa muat want, and uf what be Maif want ; and in our list of 

^be former we set down in largo and deciuirfl characters, one quiet day for 

lihe exploration ajjd enjoyment of lYJndeor. 

We w^eie aijltoited, indeeil, to go irtanotlier directiun ; a party waa fmnnHl 
to go down tha Thames with the Hight Hon, Sidniiy Herbert, secretary at 
I'war, and risit an emi^ant ship jnst starting for Australia, I should ssy 
Ihcre, that since Mrs. Cbisholni'a labours iaTe awakened the attention of 
tbe Engli&b public t<! the wants and condition of emigrants, the bcneToleovt 
people of England take great interest in the departing of emigi-aat ships. A 
aoctety bos bc^n formed, called the Family Colonization Loan Society, and 
& fund raised by which money can be loaned to those defiiring to emigrate. 
iSTbla Bociety mnkes it an object to cnltivate (u;qnaintatice and intimacy am oag 
,ibo9<@ about going ont by uniting thsm into gronpa, and, na far aa jtossible, 
^^plv^ing orphan cbildi"en and single females under the pratection of iamilie^. 
Any one, by BuLiicribiog ssJat gnineas tuwardsi the loan, can secuFe one pas* 
fS3.^G. Each individliial becomes responsible for refunding iiiflown fare, and, 
'iurtherraore, to pay a certain assesament in case any individual of the gronp 
I fails to make up the passage money. Thf! siulaig of emigrant ships, there- 
fore, has become a scene of great interest. Those departing do not leare 
their native shore without substantial proofs of tho interest and care of the 
land tliey are lenvijig. 

In the party who were going do\™ to-day were Mr, and Mrs, Binney, Mr. 
Sherman, and a number of distinguished names ; among whom I recollect 
to have heard the names of Lady Hathertou, and Lady Byron, widow of the 
poet. This would have been an exceedingly intereating scene to us, bnt 
being already worn with company and excitement, we prtferrad a quiet day 
«t "Windsor. 

For if we took Warwick as the representative fendal estate, we took 
Windsor aa the representative palace, that which embodies tbe English idea 
of royalty. Apart from this, Windsor iinfi Iveen immortalifled by the Merry 
Wlrea ; it has still standing in its park the Heme oak, wher«} the miB- 
chJevoua fairiee played their pranks upon old Falstaff. 
i And the castle still has about it the charm of the poet's iuTOcatiun :— 


* ScAreh Windiior Csuilk, dvcs, wilhin, without, 
Strew good luc?k, ouphea.on evtry uMirfd room, 
Th«.t h joiiy BtBiad till llie ^^rpi'tual doom 
In ntate ta wIiDlfBomi! &a in itjite 'tis Ot, 
Worthy the owner, &iid th<* owucT it. 
ThP severs] cbttifs of ordtjr , look yoxi, wjisvi* 
TITfJi jiiiop i/Cbulm ond e^ery wmotts^ofltat, 
Eivh lair iri9titliuc<ti1., coftt, Kiid sese^cteSiX, 

With loyal blazon eTerMMsrebfelttlftftt. 

ilud aighlty^ meadow fanee, locU jvn, tta^ 

P^e to the garter'i (rompaa&, m a tos%. 



Tba e^Msiuine that it 1war«, green let it b«. 
More iwliltf , fr^shj Umn all tht' flel<i to b«s, 
Aiid Hooi soit qui niftl t ppusp, fl'rite 
In eoienJd tufts, flow*?!**, jiurplo, bine, mod white, 
L!k(< sappiiin'', pearl, and rich embruidpij, 
Fiiiriefl use flowers for tlieir clisjBtJteTj." 

As if for the roya] piirpoee of rccommendiDg old iTmdsor, the l&gG^ 
sties had eieored up into brightness. About nine o'oltxik -we foaxi<l tmr- 
aelves ia He cars, riding through a jpsrpetiml gnrtleu of Idryiniing trees and 
li!Lj».«tDTQLDg hedges ; birds in a perfect fury of delight. Onriipirtte vrere oU 
dated. Good^ honest, cackling Mrs, Qniekly heraelfnas not more difi]iOBed 
to make the best of everything and everyhydy tbdn were we. Mr, S., in 
ijarticular, waii h*j joyous thut 1 woh airaid he would break out into i 
after the "feahion of Sir Hugh E-mna,— 

'* Melodiom liirds «ang mftidng^li) : 
Wliea u I tiat ic Biil'jflon/' tc. 

EltO MBji^^ 

By the by, the fishing ground of Izaak Walton Jfione of the looBJitittewi. 
BBoted with WindEcir. 

The ride was done all tno eoon. One should not whirl through Aud 
choice hit of England in the; cjira ;; one shouIO mther wish to aiuble over i 
way After a sleepy, contemphitive old hori?e, &n vo used io make rural \ 
onrsiona in Kew England ere yet railroads were. However, all thafs i 

must fa<!fl, and thia among the rest. 

About eleven o'clock we found oarselTes going up the old etone steps to 
tho caatle. It was the last day of afiiii- which had been holden in this part 
of the country, and erowde of the comuiou peuple were flocking to theraw^ 
jwen, women, and chiklren pattering up the stairs btfure and after ua. 

We went first through the state apartnietita. The principal thing \ 
intereatcd me was the ball room, which was a perfeet gallaiy of Vandyk 
paint) Dgfl. Here was certainly an opportunity to know what Vaudyke j 
1 ahoidd call him a true yourt painter — a master of splendid dcnventioni" 
ties, whose portraits of kinga are the mojjt powerful jHTguinentfi for 
divine right I know of. NevertbelcsB, beyond conventionality and oiitwa 
magitifioence, bin S<lea« have no range. He suggests nothing to the moral 
and ideal part of tis. Here again was the pictui-eof King Oharlea on hortfe- 
baiik, which hud interested me at Warwiiik. It had, however, a peeoliar 
and rotoantlc chftrta from its pofiltion at the end of that long, dim currid^T, 
via-i-via with the m&sque of Cromwell, which did not aecompany it hea^ 
where it was but one among a set of pictures. 

There waa another, presenting the fi'ont side and three quartera fuc* of 
■the fi&me aovefraigE, painted by Vandyko fnT Benini to make a bTirt !&um. 
There were no lesa than five poitraita of his wife, Henrietta Maria, in 
dliferent dresaea and attitudes, nnd two pictures of their children. No 
soverKign is so jf)rofuiaely and perseveiingly rtprtaenteil. 

The quean's audience chamber in hung with tapestry represenlijjg ficencf 
/hoin tJie book of J?5ther. This tnpestry made a very great uiipresaion ttptt n | 
J2?ft A knowledge of the diffic^ultieB to be ovfjietsTin> va tkt mu-Vetval yart d^H 
J^'ai/nff IS undoubteitly an iinatispecteiTi elemeut ol nvati^i at \\vt\^s»wax%'^M 
f^'re from it; And for tys reason, prot«.\j\v, tUa le.T?e.Kta^ K^eKc^ >**1S 
W^^ ih&n painOngs exetrirted ^nth eqoal uptrit \ti o^- ^* *i™t^^ 



«i»eodiiig!j, entirelj' careless of whab critice might think of uu if th^ 
knew it. 

Another room was hung with Gfobolin t&pestry representing the whole of 
fbe ixs^edj of Medea. First yon have Jason cutting dnwn the go! ilea 
tfleece^ while the dra-gon lies slain, ivnd Medea is locking on in admiratiou. 
In unotlier ho pledges hia love to Medea. In a tliird, the men sprung from 
the dragon's teeth are sEen contending with ratch other. In auothtif thct 
iinfiiithful loTer eaponses CreuBo. In the ntjjct CVeusa in seen burning in 
tbe poisoned sbirt given ber by Medea. In another Mede^ is seen in a car 
dn&wn 1^ dragDHi!, bearing her two ohildren by Jason, whom she has stabbed 
.in revenge for his desertion. Nothing can exceed the ghastly reality of 
ieatbf as shown in the stiffened limbs and sharpened featurea of these dead 
children. The whole drawing and groapmg is escetjdingljr spirited and life- 
Jike, and has great power of impression. 

1 was charmeil also by nine landscapes of Zncca;eUi, which adorn the 
state drawing room. Zuccarelli was a follower of Oande, and these pictures 
fsr fixceed in effect any of Claude's I have yet seen, The charm of theiu 
does not Lie merely in the atmospheric tints and effects, as those of Cuyp, 
but in the rich and fanciful combination of objects. In this respect thej 
perfonn in painting what the fijfst part of the Castle of indolence, or Ten- 
nyson' a Lotus Eaters, do in poetry— evoke a faiiy land. There was some^ 
thing peculiar about their charm for me. 

Who can decide how much in a picture belongs to the idiosyncrasies and 
Msociation^ of the |>erHun who looks upon it. Artii>ts undoubtedly ];ower- 
ful imd fins may have nothing in them wlijph touches the nerrou^ 
Bjmpnthtee and tastes of some persona : who, therefore, shall e»tahl]«h any 
4uthoritative canon of taste l who shall say tfaat Claude is finer than Zuo- 
csLrelli, or Zuccai'cUi than Claude? A man pii^'ht as well say that the 
woman who enchants him is the only true Venus for the world. 

Then, again, how much in jhiiinting or in poetry depends upon the frnme 
of mind in which we see or bear ! Whoever looks on these pictures^ or 
^V'eads the Lotus Eaters or Castle of Indolence, at a time when aoul and 
ijboiiy are weary, and longing for retirement and rest, will recoiTB an im- 
^reiBsion from them i^noh as could never be made on the strong nerrsfl of onr 
more healthful and hilariotis seasons. ^ 

Certainly no emotions so rigidly reject critic^ restraints, and diRdmTi to ^m 

tfbe bound by rule, as those excited by the fine arts. A man unjiupresaible ^M 

»nd incapable of moodw and tejjsea, is for that jncasan an incompetent criyo ^B 

-4nd the sensitive, excitable man, how can he know that he doe» not impo#^ 

(Alls peeulifiir mood as a general rulel 

From the Btate rooms we were taken to the top of the Eound Tower, ^H 
-^here we gained a magnificent view of the Park of Windsor, witli its rogal ^| 
lavcnue, miles in length, of ancient oaks; its sweeps of greensward ; clumps 
w trees ; its old Heme oak, of classic memory ; in short, all that constitutes 
(the idea of a perfect English laudscai*e. The English tree is sbortej.' an«l ^^ 
Ifetouter than ours ; its foliage dense and deep, lyitig with a full^ rounding ^M 
ontliuc aji;ainat the aky. Everything here conveys the idea vif lasBKSsv^^^Ajt^ ^H 
Vitality, but withemt that rank luxuriaact; efitti \\\ tJUT MQftsivE&VL ^«f^«^. 
ISsp/flsr iiafoituBotedy ti-thausted the EiiglUb \aTigvkA%"t oft '^^ 's^v*^ '^^ 
V9s^ I will not repeat any ecatasies upon that toyvc, ,^ 

•idAir detomdiag from the t<rwer we Med off \x> Vine ^xo^ o^iistf^^^^ 



Rhow our ord^i'S for ihe privale rm.irosi. The srtntw apartments, wMrh 
hod been looking at, ar« ojien at ail timfa^ but the i»riTttte apnrlments flub 
only be «e«i in the rjueea'a abseouej a ad hy a special permission, which 
hh(\ been prrxmred for ub gjx thi« occasioa by tke klndnefia of the Duchess of 

One of the first objects that attinotod iny attention when entering thu 
Te«ti)juk Ts'fUi a bahy'a wicker waggon, etrniding in one cdruerj it vas rotich 
Buch a rnrriftye as all TnotUerg itre fainilinr with ; such aa figures largely ia 
the hiatciry of nliiioat every family. It had neat curtains ajid cuBhionn oi 
grwn merino, and wfta not royal, only mat^ntaL I uiuseJ over the littte 
thing with a. goi>d deal of interest. It is to my mind one of the prort- 
dctitial signs of our times, that, at this stormy aJid most critical p«ri(id 
of the world's hijstoty, the sovereignty of the most powerful nation un 
earth ia represented by a woman and a mother. How m&ny humaitlrii)^, 
gentle, and pacific influence!? csonstantly emanate from this centre 

One of the most interesting apartmenta was a long corridor, hung 
paintingB, and garniahed along the eidea with objects of art and 
Here C, and I renewed a dispute which had been fur some time pending, ft 
respect to Canalctto'a paintings. This Cajmletto i/vna a Tenetinn i>aint«r, 
who was bom about 1697, and died in London in IT^S, and was greatly ia 
vogue with the upper circles in tlioue dnys. He delighted in arcihit«clural 
]iaintinpB, which be represents with the accuniicy of a daguerreotype, 
and ft management of perspective, chiaro osctiro^ nnd all the other nry« 
terica of art, such as make his paintings amount to about the same M ' 

WeU, tere, in thiB corridor, we had liirn in fuJl force. Here was T< 

served up to order — ^its streets, palacea, churches, bridgew, canals, and 
gondolas made aa real to our eye a» if we were looking at them out of a 
window, I admircfl tliem very warmly, but I could not go into the rap- 
tures tliftt C. did, who kept calling me from eTerything else that I wanted 
to Bee to come and look at thiK Canaletto. '*\Vell, I see it," said 1; 
*' it if good — it is perfuet-^it cannot be bettered ; hut what then ? There 
is the some difference between these and a landscape of Zuccarelli as thiite 
i between a neatly-arranged statistical treatJae and a poem. The 
Wggcata a thonskud images, the former gives you only infonnation.' 

were quite int^refited in a series of paintings v^hifih represented 
events of the present siueen's history. ITiere was the oomnatioti 
■Weatniinster Ahbej'^that national romance which, lor oace in onr pro- 
saic world, nearly turned tJie heads of all tte sensible people on earth. 
Thmk of yetting the sovereignty of so much of the world in a fair young 
L girl of BETBUteen ! The picture is a very pretty one, and is taken at the 
rTery moment she is kneeling at the feet of the Arcbbishop of Canterbuiy 
rio receive her crown. She ia repreeented as a fair-h aired, interesting girl, 
rthe BJmplidty of her air contraetiniff strangely witli the pomp and gorgeous 
Uaplay around. The painter has dune justice to a train of charming yonog 
adies who uurround her; among the facea I recognised the blue eyea «^d 
lobJe forehead of the Duchess of Sutherland. 

Then followed, in dne order, the baptism of children, the reception of 
jwof oM Louis FhiUppe in bia exi\e, and vamviB oVkcr uMiiMsa ^^ VJty& »«& 
v'Mch go to jmake up royal pictnreB. ^ , .>. ,. ^ * 

/fl the family ibreatfaat-twm tre b*w e«B&e tu* ^i*i\jt\i:s. \«[!*»m?j«!|« 

>'ng, ft 
itly ia 


8 tbin 


BT. GEOEQe's chapel, JSf 

Bentinj; the daasical story of MBlcager. In one of the roomB, on & pedestal, 
Btooil a gigautift cliiua vase, a preEent from the Emperor of Russia, Mid in 
the fltate TooTDB before we had seen a large naalacblte Tase froui tho same 
donor. The toning of this room, with reg:ml to coI<iiur, ivaa like that of 
the room 1 tlescrif>e(l in StaiFurd House — the <2ari>ali of green ground, with 
the same little leaf uptm it, the walk, chairs, and aofas covered with green 
damask. Around tho waJla of the rooia, in some places, were orrangedi 
casi^ of Ixioks about three feet high. I liked this arrangement partieu- 
larly, becauee it gives you the compamonship of books iu an apartment 
-without occupying that space of the wall whicli is advantageous for pic- 
tures. Moreover, books placCid higU against tUe walls of a room give a 
gloomy appearance to the apartment. 

The whole air of these rooms was very eharming, suggestive of refinetl 
taste and domestic habits. The idea of hoioe, whitih pervadea everything 
in England, from tho cottiVge to the palace, was as much suggested here as 
in any apartinenta I have aeon. The walls of the dilt'ereut rooms vero 
decorated with portraits of the members of the royal fiiiuily, iUid thoso of 
oUier European priiictis. 

After this we went through the klbclicn department— saw the silver and 
gold plate of the table; among the latter were some designs which I 
thought particularly grateful. To conclude all, we went through, tbe 
stables. The man who showed them told us that several of the queen's 
fftirourite horses were taken to Usborne ; but there were many beautiful 
creatures left, which I regarded with great complacency. The stables and 
stalls were ijerftctly clean, and neatly kept ; and one, in short, derives 
from the whole view of the economics of Windsor that satisfaction which 
Ecaulta from seeing a thing thoroughly done in the best conceivable 

The laane^ement of the estate of Windsor ia, I am told, a model for all 
landholders in the kingdom. A society has been formed thei'e, within a 
few ycai^, under the patronage of the Queen, Prince Albert, and the 
Ducliesa of Keut, in which the clergy and gentry of the principal parishes 
in this vicinity are interested, for improving the condition of the labouring; 
elaflfica in this region. The Queen and Prince Albert have taken mueli 
interest in the pLinning and arranging of model houses for the lahourir^ 
people, which combine cheapness, neatness, ventilatiun, and all the faci- 
lities for tlie formation of good personal habits. There is a school kej>t 
on the estate at Windsor, in which the Queen takes a very practicsil 
intm-cst, regulating tlie books and studies, and paying frequent visits i;> 
it during the time of her sojourn here. The young girls are instructed iji 
fine needlework; hut the Queen discourages embroidery and oruamental 
work, meaning to make practical, etiicieut wives for hdwuring mon. Thesti 
particiLdars, with refpird to this school, wcro related to me by a lady liviiig 
in the vicinity of , Windsor, 

We went into St. lieorge's Chapel, and there we were all exceedingly 
interested and enchained in view of the marble monument to tli 
Princesa Charlotte. It ei::inBists of two j^roupa, ?w\il \^ ^iBs^-^Twi&v V> 
express^ In one view;, both the celesitial 'axA t\\fe XfctttsVicXisN. '^Wf^'^ 
lif deatJt—tli& risible and the invisible vart ot i\yvw^. Vti^ '^^^'i '^~^'**]?^ 
pjirty you have th& h<xly oC the princeaa iu tiU Uvti ^i^waV.i.'Cv^m &.w^ ^^ 
doMmeu$ ^f d(^tt. Thii attitude of tlie figurt S& m '^ ^^ ^^-^ ^^ 



bfifaelf over m a conTulslon, aufl died. Tlie body is lying liHtleas, 
covereil with a tilieet, thr<mgh every fold of' which you pan ste the Qtt<ff 
reJaxatJim of tlml wiomtiiit when vitahty defport*, bvt the limbs have not 
>et fitiffent'd. Her huiid and » psu't of the una &rc haugitig down, expofled 
to view bcittath the eht'ct. 

Fmuj- figures, with bowed heeds, coTered -with drapcT?, nre TiGprcseDted 
iiB aittmg aioiind in mute deEpair. Tlie idea mtaut to be Lonvejed by tL* 
whole grtrap is thflt of utter deepltttitm imd libandosmt-Dt. All in over; 
there h ncil dtcq heart enongli left in the moni-ners to Rlraightcii the 
corits© for the burial. The mute maj-hle Bays, us plainly aB maiUe can 
(fp&ak, '*L«>t all go; 'tis so mcttter now; th^re isiiOtmore use in Ura^-^ 
nothing to be dune, sothing to Ikj hoped f 

Above thifl group riaeS the form of the princeBs, springiDg truojaBt Hid 
eltittic, OB augel wings, a smile of trinnrnh and afiiiimtkin lighting up lot 
couDtenBuce, Her drapery floats behind her as uhe rijfes. Two KBgiAa, 
ttdc carrying her infant child, and the other mtt clasped hands of ext^taal 
jtjy, are risitjg with her, in eerene and (solemn triumph, 

Neyw, I eiiiiply put it to you, of to any one who am judge of pactij, if 
this is not a pcietical conceptioii, I fiek any one who baa a hearty if thexe 
is not pathos in it. In there not a high p«tic merit in the mei'e «»!• 
ception of these twu secnefi, thuB presented? And It yd we eeeti it mdeij 
rhijqjed and cbSseHtd out by miiufi artist of the middle ages, wliose hand 
had ni7t yet heeu ])rBctiKcd to do justice to his Mtictptiona, should M'e not 
bave said this wulj;tor had fi. glorious thought within liini 1 Eut the du- 
celling of this piece is not unworthy the conceptitiiTi. Kathing can be moffe 
exquisite than the turn of the htad, neck, and shoulders; nntJi lag mors 
finely wrought than the triumphant smile of the angel pi-ineesa ; notiing 
cuukl be mure artietic tJnau the representation of death in all ifa lurp&- 
lemnGm, in the lowet hgure. Th^ poor, dead hand, that shows itielf 
biineath the sheet;,, has on luiutterable pathos and beauty in it. As to tbe 
working of the drapery, — an inferior conBideralaoii, of euuxeej — I see no 
leaxtm yrhy it should not compare advantageuuialy -with asy in the Bntiah 

Well, you will ask, wl»y are yfra going on in this argnmentotive stj 
TV ho douirta yon !.' Let me tell you, then, a little fhigniont of my 
rionte. We saw tliis grcitiij of Kta.tuarj' tlie last thing befttre dinner, 
a mbflt fatiguing furenoun of bight-Eeehi^^, wben we were both tired and 
hnngiy,— a mfst iitipr(tiiitious time certainly, — ttnd yet it etn'banted 
whole compiaiy; ivhat in more, it made us all cry — a fact uf whicJi I 
Jiut astiamed, yet. But, only the next day, when I was expressing 
iidniiratioji to an artjfit, who is ouo of the authorities, and knows all 
is proper to 1:« fwhuired, 1 "Waa met witli, — 

'* U, you have seen that, have you? Shocking thing ! litiseniblo 
— miserablg ]" 

*' Dear ine," said I, with apprehension, " what is the matter with it fj 

*'0,'* said he^ ''melodraniatie, mebtdramatit"— terribly so !" 

/ was iso itppid\ei by this word, of whoise meaning 1 bad not a very 
jcfes, that 1 dropped the defence at on^i and determined to reconaider 
iteiw. To huYe hem actually mado to ery \jy ^ t\\nit i\iKSi.^tiSi tiw^ 
Jusi/e^ was a, distresnim con side ratioii, 8triOTi<s\^i \vtwtveT, ^utet^^KA* 

tie obj^Ui^j^ 1 tee no ueuBC m it K tto6 im "^^ t^^^^^^^****^ ^* *^ 


ETOIf — (IB AT. 

prther atli tfiftt a man pleaces ; ao that it be atrmigly BuggestiTC, poetie, 
ttlietif, it. JiQS ti right to its uvn peculiar plivce in the world of art. If 
itE had had their wny in the ctTBtttiun i>f this iivorld, then; wouhl have 

in only two or three kiuds of things in it ; the first three or ftjur things 
^t God {?reated would hay^ imen enacted luto fised miea for makiug all 
fee rest. 

But they let the works of nntnre alone, because thej" know there is no 
|[ope for thern, and content thenisalvea with enacting rulta in literature and 
trt, which lurike all th© perfeetion and grace of the past so mtinj impassable 
barriera to progrees in future. Because the ancientn kept to unity of idea 
Itt their gronps, and attained to most b^ntifol reaulta by doing ho, shall no 
Biodem make an .intithesia in marble ? And why baa not a man a right to 
Sramfttize in mariile as well as on tiaiiTas, If he can produce a powerful and 
iflffcotiTe result by fio doing ? And even if by being melodramatic, as the 
tetrible word is, he can shadow forth a grand and comforting religious idea 
• — ^if he can unveU to those who have s«en only the desolation of death, its 
j|lofry, and its trituiiph — who shall say tliat he may not do su, beco-use he 
iriolates the linea of fiome did Oreok artist ? Where would Shakapeare''a 
gramas haTe been, had he studied the old dramatic unities 'i 

So, you Bee, Uke an obstinate republican, as I am, I defend my right to 
lave my own opinion about thia monument, albeit the guide book, with its 
iuiifll diplomatic caution, says, •' It la in verj' questionable taBte," 
f We went for our dinner to the White Hart, tho vcxy inn which Shak- 
iqpeajre celebrates in bis "Merry Wives," and had a most overflowing 
Ineny time of it. The fact is, we had not seen eacJi other for bo long that 
lo be in each other's company for a whole day was quite a Btimnlant. 

Afbar dinner we had. a Ijeantifnl drivu, pasalug the oolleges at Eton, and 
veeing the boys out playing critket ; hiwl au eaicclleiit opportunity to think 
liow true Qray^s poem on tho ' ' Prospect of Eton" is to boy nature then. 
How, and for ever. We were bent upon looking up the church which gave 
Jiae to his Elegy in a Country Churchyard, intending when we gut there, to 
1i»ve a little scene over it ; Mr. S., m all the consoions importance of having 
Ibfxv. there before, assuring ns that he knew exactly where it was. So, 
%tbf!r stima difficulty with our coachman, and being stopped at one church 
Wbich would not answer our purpoee in any respect, we were at last set 
down by one which looked authentic ; embowers*! in moesy diiiH, with a 
jMiofft ancient and goblin yew tree, an ivy mantled tower, all ijerfect an 
eould be. ^J 

There had been a sprinlvle of rain, — an ornament which few English days ^H 
!Want>— and thss westering teams of the sun twinkled through innumerable ^| 
^trtrps. In fact, it was a pretty place ; and I felt auch * ' dispositiona to 
SielaJicJiolies," an Sir Hugh Evaua would have it, that I half resented Mr. 
$*a Bnggestion that tlie cars were waiting. However, as he was engaged 
$0 speak at a peace meeting in Loudon, it was agreed he should leave ub 
there to stroll, while he took the cars. Bo away he went ; and we^ leamJi^g 
«i]i the old fence, rei^eated the Elegy, which certainly appliea here oa 
iWautifuIly as language could apply. 

What a cairn, shady, poetical nature is eKpresaed in \\iSSft \\wsa\ **^^ 
ipe/w.9 tfi h&rt! btvn sent into the world for TLOtVine^ "buX to \ift t*. ^^e^>'*^^^^ 
^iD8 of those fnhahunj shadowy beings whidv \iaviu.Wv\ Wift *u*A -etioWi^i^ ^^ 
tec*«fl immitaiBs ; onsitures that seem to Wt« li^J x.Ttui\\tiBX<^*^»^'3 "** 

H 2 


otUy tv kind of voire, an tcho, h^ard for a little, and then lost id 
He Eeemed to be in him&alf a^ kind of elegy. 

Fmm tbeivce we atroUed ulitng, enjoying the beautiful rural 
Having had a kind invitation to visit LabonohGrie Park that day, whi<dn 
were obliged to doeliue for want of timo, Wfl were pleasod to diacoFer 
"we had two m<tre hours, in which we could easily accomplish a stroll there. 
By a most tfitiguUr infelicity, onr party becama separated ; and, misundcr- 
Btttiiding each other, we retnainod waiting for W, till it was too late fur as 
to gOf while he, on the other liand, supposing us to have walksd before hiui, 
was redoubling his speed aU the w^hile, hoping to overtake na. In conat:- 
qncnce of this, be accomplished the walk to Labouch^re Park, and we 
waited in the dismal dL[Kit till it vas too late to wait aiiy longer, tsiod 
finally want into Loudon without him. 

After all, iiuaj^ine our chagrin on being informed tliat we bad not been 
to the genuiue ehurchyitrd. The gentlemaa who wept over tlie scenes ef 
his early days on the wrong doorstep was not more grievoniily diBappf>inted. 
However, he ajul we wnld Uith cousole onrselves Ktith the reflection that 
the emotion was admirable, and wanted only the ri^bt place to makaitlhe 
most appropriate in the world. The genuine country diurchyard, howevfiTj, 
was that at ^Stoke PogiK, ^v^bich wo should have seen bad not the iatea for- 
bidden our going to LkbouchSre Park. 

,1. 1 

it¥T. KB, QURinnr. — stcswoitn tub autist,— loaBrm.^-pitjriixioiciB i^ooi^x,— 

Dbae Sibtsb :— 

The evening after onr I'etura from Windsor was spent with onr kin^ 
fi-iends, Mr, smd Mrs, Gui'noy, Mr, Guruey in recttir of Mary-le-Boue 
pai-isb, one of the largest districts in London ; and he iii, I have been told, 
one of the court chaplaiJii:! ; a man of the most cultiratod ajid agreeable 
manners, eaj*nestly and devoutly engaged in the buainesa of hia calling. As 
oae of the working men of the church establishment, I felt a strong Interest 
in Ms views and opiniouit, and he seemed to take no ksa interest in mine, oa 
coming from a country where there is and can be no chnrch establisihment. 
He asked many questions about America; the gcneml (style of our preachy 
ing- the chttra4;ter of onr theology ; oui modes of religioua action ; out i 
vivals of religion ; oiir theories of sudden and infrtantaneouB converaion, I 
di^tinguiaheti from the gradual converfiion of education; our temp 
Bocietic's, and the stand taken by our clergy in behalf of temperance. 

He wished to know how the English style of preacbing appeared to me 1 
comparison with that of America, I told him one principal diflerence 1 
struck me was, that the English preaching did not recognise the i 
of auy element of iuijulry or doubt in the popular mind ; that it Uea,U 
eeiiiila trutlia as axioniB, which only needed to be stated to bo boUove 
wlierms m American sermouB tbore ia always more or less time employed^ 
Gxphwlu;^, provitig, and answeriug o\jj(itt\ona Vi \,W XtviAXtt, ftwliitcji^, t 
^^uoteil Baptiat NoeVs wrnion in UUwtTn.tion ^tl ^\mt 1 Bi<ia.\\\-. 
/ ^i^'tv/ him to wliat extent the element ^l affle^liciam, NosivTiaipsi \^ xfe- 


ligiotis tmti], hail pGrvaded tlie mind of England ? adding that I hsicl uiferrctt 
its existence tliert from such uovdfl as Ihme of Kingsley. Ho thoirght that 
there wiw muck of tliis element, partiffuLirly in the working claasea ; that 
they wcro coming; to regard the ckrgy with suspicion, and txi be less under 
thelf influence than in former times ; and aoid it was a matter of nmch. 
eolicitti(5e to know how to reach them. 

I told him that I had heard an American clergyman, who had traTelled 
!n England, say, that dissenters were treated much as free negroes were in 
America, and a<ided that my e^Eperiezice mnet have been very exceptional, or 
the r^uiark much overetJVtcd, aa I had met dissenting clergymen in all circles 
of society. He admitted that there might be a good deal of higotiy in this 
T«5pect, but added that the infrequency of asfioeiation waa more the result 
.Hof thoae oircumstaucea which would naturally draw the two partiea to them- 
setnes, than to stipErciliousneBa on the hide uf the establishment, adding 
iKat where a court and ariskicracy were in tho established chnrch, there 
would nece^iarity be a presstire of fashion in its faTour, wliich might at 
tJmeB hriii^ uncomfortable results. 

The cMldreu were sitting by studyiriK their evening lessonB, and I begged 
Mm. Gfuniey to allow me to loot over their geographies and atlases; and 
on her inquiring why, I told her that well-informed people in England 
BOiaetJmefi made such unaccountalde mistakes about the geography of oiir 
countrj' aa were qnite Burprimng to me, and that I did aut undcrKtajid how 
it wfi3 that our children fthouW know so nmch more about England than 
they aliout us, I found the ehlidreii, however, in poaaeasion of a Tcry ei- 
cttllent and authentic map of our country. I must aay also that the most 
.highly edup-ated pef>ple I have met in England have never betrayed any ^^ 
want of infottuation on this snbject. ^M 

The next momlng we had at breakfiist two cIoi^gymeD, members of th« ^H 
established church. They appeared to be moat Dxqellent, devout, practical 
toeu, anxiouB to do good, and thoughtfully seeking for suggestious from any 
quarter which mlglit assist them iti their labours. They renewed many of 
the inquiries which Mr. Gurncy hatl made the evening before. 

After breakfast I went Tidth Mr. Gumej^and Mr. S. to Kiehmond' ^, 
atudio to pit for a Ukeneps, which is to be presented to Mr. S. by several ^M 
flriends. Richmond's name is one which in this London sphere has only to ^M 
be announced to explain itself; uot to know him argues yourself unknowu. 
He is one of tbe moot successful artists in a cjertain line of portrait pain ting 
that tlie present day affords. He devotes Taimsdf princiiially to crayon and 
water-colour sketches. His crayon beads are generally the size of life ; liia 
wafer-colours of a small size. He often takes full-lengths iu this way, 
which render not merely the features, but the figure, air, manner, and wha 
ia charactenstic aliout the dres«. These latter eketchea are finished up very 
'highly, with the minuteness of a raluiature. His forte consists in Beiajng 
iBid fixing those fleeting tr.dts of countenance, air, and moveiaent, which 

•o far towards making up our idea of a person's appearance. Many of 

'^fingravijj^jj of dlatihguiHlied persona, with which we are familiar., have 

from his designs, auoh aa Wiiberforce, Sue ¥iiVfft\\'au^^vt.,^Xvta5wsS!!EL 

.4 !j, ai>d othem. 1 found his studio quite a gaWeiy oi tiuVsiySOBfia^ i^tsij^ 

W/ itie diWnffn^s of the if ay having eat to \um-, era \ teiV^'!Cv\A^ ^Ws. N»^^ 

ttfufftctioii offcoUng mjB^Jf m good compp-Tiy. T^\t. ^^^^^"^'^"^'^'^'^SSft^ 

utJifaif (but £ mver cao judge of any oae's aaja kexa,'^ "-Wi xon^^. ^^-'***' 

blue ej 
r and Hi 



coiiTv>rs&tioa, full afivtieodote in regard to all the iBa?iag Hfe of Londoiw 
presiLin^ his powtir of eDtertOiLnmj; otjnvct^iatiioti k one sficrei of his im' WM ^' 
fut likoneaaea. Same portrait painters keep colli og on you tor expneanon 
All the wiule, aad my nothing m the world to awaken it. 

Prom Eichmond'a, Mr. S., €., and I droTS not to cidl npoQ SoRsaiih. 
"Wa f>Qud him hi n.a ohaciire loflgin;^ on. the outakirts of Londonu I ftnonld 
thftt some of the editora in Amjeric^ who hitve thrown o^it itiBmaiLtioM 
about hif» li^ijtig m luKurj, coutd have seea the utter hareueBb iind plainiiiM 
of tha iii3i3eptiQii rof^m, which had nothinij; in it bi?:yoitd the Kimpl^ nesm- 
sodes, H^no dwelk the man whose f^atest fault is an undying loTO of luv 
oonatiy. We all know that if Kossuth would have taken wealth aoA * 
«acur« retreatj with a lifo of ease for bimFielf, America wiiuld gkdly h«f« 
laid all Uiese at hid foet^ Bat becao^ h6 could mt A&qmGa&e in the na> 
merited diahonoiiF of Ms country, he Uvea a life of obsciuity, povertj, vaii 
labour. AH this was written in hia pale, worn fauo, and sad, thoughtful 
blue eya. But to me the unaijlfiBh patriot ia more Teuerahle for bh [xivertjf 

' his misfortunea. 

tTe we, ainoag tUs thousatida who spf^ak loud of patriot! sm in Ami 
mfid, who, wore she enfeebJed, despised, and tmrapled, would ft 
aud Bulfer aa lon^, aa patiently fur her f It is even eoeier to die fii» 
gc>od CFiuaa, iu some hour of high enthusi&sm, wheu all that ia nobleni 
us cun be rouaed to one great venture, than to live for it amid wearing y< 
of diacouragemont aud Kope delayed. 

There are those even here in England who deligkt to get up aEandei 
against Ko^uth^ and not long ago some most unfounded ahargea w 
thrown out ajjainst liim in some pubhc priuta. By way wf ooiinterpniBe _ 
enthuaiaatvc public meeting was held, in which he waa presented witli' 
li splendid aet of Shakapeare. 

He entered into ounveraatioa with U3 with oheerfulness, speaking English 
well, thnngh with tho idioms of foreign Lauguagiaa. He aeemcd iinite 
nmunfed at th.e aonaation which had been oxcited by Mr. S.'s cotttvn Bpet;cb in 
Eieter HalL C, asked him if he had still hopes for his oause. He 
answered, ' * I hope otill, bacanise I work still ; my hope is la God and in 

I inquired for Mailame Kossnth, and ha answered, *' I have not yet seen 
her to-day," adding, "she has her family affikirs, yon know, mjidam; wo 
Hfo poor exil^ here ;" and, fearing to cause embarraiitimcut, I did not press 
an interview. 

Whoa we paj^ted ha took my hand kindly, and B&id, ** Qod bleaa yon, my 

I wonld nut lose my faith in such men for anything tiie world could 
give me. There are some people who involve in thetiisehcs so many of 6h& 
demeuta which go to miike up our coufidenee in human nature general! 
that tp lose Goniidenc?e in them Wiimm to uudemiino our filth in hu' 
virtiue. As Shakapeara says, tlicir defection would bo like "antitUer 
of man." 

IVe went back to 3Ir. Qomcy'a to lunch, and then, as the afternoon was 
/inc, Mr, and Mra, fifitrDey dtove wit^usYntkekiaTmai^toPauiljTOkeLodise, 
i/je CfHwtrr sent of Lord John llnas^U. It waii mv TX3acHmmw:i:a 'twftjaAkSs^ 
Uturrjoou. aur/ the view from RiclunoiiA WAX was 'is Tjcdw-V, % B^ftavn*^ ^ 
■^JJ^lijiJk lundacapef asea under ike mtiat Yjo-oisaJwA wwfM**^ » ^^ ''^^^ 




hope to e^joj. OnihAi^ gardona, villta, charmini^ meodowa Qn:iinGlbd 
Witli flowQFa, tbo silver vixidinga of the Thames, the lu\:uriaut outEuea of 
tiie foliage, varietl here and there by the gr-iceful porpeadiculiir of the p'lp- 
Iftrs, all formal oae of the richeat of IruidHCtxpea. The brow of the hill ia 
Jij»atifu.lly laid out with tufta of trees, windrng paths, diversified hers and 
with arboura and ruatie seats, 

.ond Purk in adorned with clumps of ancient trees, among which 
of duex were strolling. Femhrcike Ljdga iai a pkin, unostentatioiiB 
J, riainjj in the midat of charming grounda. We wore received ia 
iwijug-room hy the young ladies, aad were eorry to leara that Latiy 
was so nn-^oll aa to be unable to give na her eotnpituy at dinner, 
charming litrtik lioys oime in, and a few momenta after, their father, 
John. I had been much pleiised with finding on the centre tfiblu & 
beautifnl edition of that revi^red friend of my ehildho(»d, Dr. Watts' s 
Divine Song^s, finely illastnited, I remarked to Lord John that it was' the 
t$a^ of aa old friend. He said it was presentad to bia littlo boy a by their 
gtjdfatbcr, Sir George Grey ; and when, taking one of the little boya on bia 
kneev be aaked bJm if be eoald repeat me one of bra hymna, the whole 
thing seamed so Kow Eagl ami -like that I begau to feel myaelf quite at 
iLotae. 1 hopa I shall some day see in America an edition of Dr. Watts, in 
'which the illtiatr^vtioug do as mudt jnsti«,>e to the asitbor's soatimBnta as in 
this, for in all our modern religiousj worka for obildren there ia notbin;; that 
rftitcsls tbcae divine aongs. 

Tbwe were oaly a few gaeate; araoog them Sir George Gray and lady; 
he ia nephew to Earl tlrcy, of reform memory, and abe ia the eldoat 

• d&nghter of tbe pious and learned Bishop Ryder, of Llohtield. Sir George 
i is a man of gr&it piety and worth, a liberal, and mutili ijitereated in all 

l*enevoknt movements. Tbaro was also tb(j E.iri of Albamarla, who ia ^ 
J eoloQ^ in the army, and baa aervod many years under Wellington, a par- 
( ticniilarly obeerfal, enter Uijiiag, e-unveraable man, full of anecdote. He told 

Ipereral very character iatit; and eomiiial stories about the Duke of Wellington. 
At lUuner;, among other things, the conversation tunied upon hunting. 
It always aeemed to me a enrioua thing, that in the height of English oLvilj- 
xation this vesftige of the savage state should stilL remaui, I told Lord 
Albemarle that f thought the idea of a whole concour-^e of stroag men tnrn- 
" ing out t*j hunt a poor fox or hare, orBaturea bo feeble and iiiaignilifiant, atid 
who oould do mithinj? to- defend tbemselyea, waa hardly coti^ti^teut with 
J nuwdineas ; that if they bad some of our American bulkloes, or a Bongal ^^ 

* tigi^, the affjur wouM be 8«^mething more dignified and generous. There- ^M 
k'ttpon thoy only laaghod, and told stories about fox-hunters. It seems that ^| 

Idling a fo£, except in the way of bunting is deemoi:! among hunters an 
uspardoiiable olfouLte^ and a man who has the misfortune to do it woidd bu 
almost an unwilling to let it be known as if ho bad kiUod a man. ^m 

Tbey also told abont doerstoikiag in tho highlands, in which exervjise X ^M 
inferred Lord John liad been a prolioien*. The cuUTersatiou remindwi ms ^* 
of the hnnting storit^a I bud beard in the log cabins in Indium^ and I 
»musfld myself with thinking bow some of th^i nn,tx&?[»Tft *<«(iia\&. ar^^sjfc''>^ 
smong my high-hreil friBtida. Ther& Is BVic\i a. t^oavuX yvNii.'aVu^ «mS- ^\^?^.- 
»jr abnat that liAlf-savii^c MesUirii lifii, aa u\w&yft ^vv«a& \\ ^ *?svvvTii!Cv t». t^o^ 
weoJJ&jtIou. I tboaght of the jolly old kunter ^W* aVn^^i^ co^i^s^yi^^ w 
lerstroxw &f tks dux ^y discharging hia rii© ^\ Via^'aS^^ ^^^^ '^'^™* 



mnglj ensconced himself in bed ; and of ibe odebratcil Ecene in vhidk 
Iknrj Claj won im old bunter'H yiM in nn election, by hjfl &ptne^ in taatr 
inp into a polilicaj simile t<Pinc pointu in the mRtmgement of a rifle. 

-Now there is, to mj mind, Bomeibiiig infinitely moTe sublime )iiiot]l 
bunting in real enrntst amid tbe eolcnm eliadows of out intertuiuabl« foitsiB^ 
llinn in making- be! i ore bunt in i>arke. 

It is undo«btet11y the ftvct^ tliat tbeec out-of-door Eportn of England h»ni 
A great dejil to do with the firm health Tehii;h men here enjoy. iSpeaking 
of tlijs Bubject, I could not help ejitpressing my Hurpripe to Lord Jiilm at 
the apparently jierfect health enjoytd hy mesaWxs of Pajliamcnt, notwith- 
slandiug thair protra«tdti night iaboura. He thinkB that the seBsioo rf 
PiifUament thin year will extend nearly to August. SpeakJug uf bros^- 
inifti, he ftaid they often had delightful breakfasta about three, o'dodc io. 
tiie day ; this is a total ruversc of all our ideas in regard to time. 

Affcer dinner Lctrd and Lady Ribbleedak came in, connexions of Lord 
Jiihn by a former marriuge. I eat by Lord John ou the sofa, and listeoied 
with great inteneat to a eonToraation beti*'eea him and Ijady Grey, (jq iho 
working of the educational syateni in Eiiglaiid ; a subject which has p*r- 
(icularly engaged the atteittJon of the Enji^lisli guvenimeut Kince the reign of 
the present Queen. I Tpifod s. difficulty in underfrtfloding many of tlis 
terms they used, though I leanied much that int<?reBted me. 

After awhile I T?Bnt to Larly EvisseU'a apartment, aud bad an hoar qI 
\ery pleaBJmt couTersjitioD with her. It grtatly eubrgea our confidence io 
human natiirtj to find such identity of feeling and upiniou among the really 
good of different countrieet, and of all differpiit cirt^ks in thoao countdes. 
1 have never Ijcen more impreiwed with this idi-a than during luy sojoajtl 
here in England. Different aa the inetitutions of England and Americft 
arc, they do nut prevent the fonoatJon of a very geiieml hatfh of agreement 
in eo far aa radical ideas of practical momUty and religion are concerned ; 
and I am increasingly rertiiin that there is a foundation for a histing unity 
between the two couutries which eliall iuci'euse constantly, ae the incrcaeing 
Jiidlitiftsof oommunication leK;en the distitnce ^watween us. 

Lady Knsseli inqnireil with a good deal of interest after PreBcott, our 
bistttrian, and expressed the pteaaure which rfie and Lord Jotn had deri 
from his writings. 

« We left early, after a most agreeable evening. The next day at ek' 
iVelock we went to an engagement at Larabeth PMace, where we bud 
iuTito<l by a kind note froni jte vejierable master, the Archbi&bop 
Canterbury. Lambeth is a Btutely pile of quaint, auticiue buildirgF, 
rising most magnificently on the hanks of the Tliajues, It is surrounded 
by beuuliful groundB, laid out with choice gardening;. TIirou(;b an unciq " 
hall, lighteil by rtAined-glsEs windows, we were uphereil into ttio dral 
ing room, where the giitsls were rfttnibliug. There was quite a nnipl 
iif people thei-e, among others tlie ludy and eldest son of the Bjj^hop of 
London, the Karl and Ccuntess VValdegraYe, and the family fritjid^ of 
the archbishop. 

The good archbishop was kind and benign, ss ufiual, and gave m« hi* 
nrtn while we explored ilje cuiioffilifs (if the palaee. Now, my dtjjr, " 
you will please to recollect that the guidi-btXik snys, •'this jiiUaco 
tmusali the gmdaiifms of ajchitccture from enrly English to iateperj 

I our , 




calar," yon vill ceiiainly not <?,xftect me to describe it in mo letter. It 
hfta "been the reBirlenoe of the Arch bishops of Canterbury from tLme ini- 
liemorial, both in the dajs Lefor* the Taformation arid since. 

The chapel i*"R3 bwilt l>etweeii the years 3300 ami laoo, and there up*d 
to h^ pninted windows in it, ns Ardibiehop Land bajb, >vhicli contained tlio 
whole history of the >'orld, from the creation to the day of judgment, , 
Unfortunately tliese conipTehenaive windowB ^ere de&troyed in the civ " 

The part called the Lollftrdis' Tower ia celehrated as haTJnp been the re- 
puted prison of the Lollards. Tlipse Lolbirds, perhaps you will remember^ 
were the foUowers of John Wickliffe, called Lollajrde, as Chriift waa called 
A ** Nazarene^" sunply btHjanse the word wae a tonn of reproach. Wick- 
liffe hiinEitilf was summoned here to Ltimbcth t-o giTc an account of his 
teachings, and in 13S2, AVilliam Courtnay, Arctbishop of Gaaterbuj^, 
called a council, which condenmcd his doctrines. The tradition la^ that 
at vorii>n9 times these Lollard a were imprisoned here. 

In urtler to get to the t«wer we had to go through a great many apart- 
menta, passag<i!Eq, and corridors, and terminate all by cEmbing a winding 
staircase, 8tee[>er and narrower thmi waa at all deainihle for any bttt 
wicked hereticB, who ought to be made ae uncomfortable aa po^siKlu. How- 
evei', by rcnaonablc pcrsefTcrancCj the archbishop, the bkhop's lady, and all 
the noble company present found themBelvea safely at the top. Our host 
remarked, 1 think, that it was the second time he had ever been there. 

The Toom ie thirteen feet by twelve, and about eight feet liigh, wain- 
seotted with oak, which is scrawled over with namca and inieiiptions. 
There are eight large inm rings in the wall, to which the prMODers were 
chained; for aught we know, Wickliffe himself may havts baen one. As 
our kind host moved about among us with his placid face, we could not but 
think that times had altered ainee the days when nrchbisbopa use*! to iui- 
prison heretics, and preside over grim, inftuisitorial triimnalfi. We all 
^^fted, however, that, consitlcnng tlie very beautiful prospect this tower 
mda up and dowu the Thames, the poor Lollards in s^me reapecta 
it have been worse lodged. 

We pasaed through the guard room, library, and along a corridor where 
hung a TOW of pictures of all the archbishops from the very earliest times ; 
and then the archbishop took me into his study, ivhich is a most chnrming 
room, coninining his own private librarj' : after that we fill sat down to 
lonnh in a large diuJng hall. I was seated between the arrhbiahop and a 
TCnernhle admiral in the navy. Among other things, the latter aaked me 
if there were not many milroad and steamboat accidcnte in America. O my 
countrymen, wliat trouble do you make us ia foreign lands by your terrible 
oarelesencss ! I was* obliged, in ctitnlour, to say that I thought there was a 
Bhocking number of accidents of that sort, and uiiggested the best excuse I 
Cii»ultl thbik of — our youth and ineiperienec ; but I ccrtttinly thought my 
venerable friend had touched a very indefensible point. 

Among other topics discussed in the drawing room, I hejird some more 
ofk dit9 respecting spiritunl rappings. Everybody seemfi to be wondering 
what tliey are, and what they are going to aintg^ut to. 

We took luave of our kind host and his family, gratefully im^rfflsaffli -«^*ii- 
tlic amplidty and fliicere cordujity of owi t««^^vqii. '^V'«i% isa^ '^sfflaa^ *e&-- 


ferpint a*m€S for goodnflae m i\m world : bnt^ after aJJ, true brotlierly 
tieas uud cb&rity is mucL the HAtae ilimg, whether il ahow Itsdf 
Qnakcr'K fireside or iii aii *rchbiabop'a p<iLu%. _ 

, Leaving tbe arebbishop'a I weat to I^cknioad'a a^in, where I waa mfurt 
aj^^ree^Lbly entertained for an hour or two. We have an eiigB.gemerLt fW 
PIayfnrH.1 Hii^U tci-morronT, and wo breakfiist witli Jotsepli Stursre : H being 
ndw the time of the yearly meeting of the Friondfiy be and his fanuly aj^ in 


id yo tt 





M? DRAR S.— 

The nejtt morning C. and I took tks cars to go into the country, to Play- 
ford HalL '*Aiid what'a Playford Hallf you say. " And why did you 
go to see it r^ As to what it m, here in a reasonably gotid picture 
you. Ab to wliy, it waa for maJiy yeiiDJ the residence of Thomas Chir] 
and is now the residence of Ma veaerahb widow and hec fiiTuily. 

PUyforti Hall is ciinsldered, 1 tkiat, the oldest of the fyrtifiod hoiwe*^ 
EngLind, and is, I tun told, the only one that "h&a wuter in the moot. 
TH'ater which gicdiea tJie wisJl is the moat : it anrronnda the pliu^e entiridy, 
Jeariag nu atjceaa exctipt acro^na the bridge- 
After croBsitig tkw bridge, you come into a green courtyard filled wi 
choice plants ami flowerius shrubs, and carpeted with that thick, 
veWetdike grass whicli iB to be found nowhere else in so parfeet a tAaA 
in England. 

The water is fed by a perpetual spring, whose current is ao duggish 
scarcely ta ba perceptible, but whieh yet haa the vitAliiy of a, 

It has a dark; and glassy atillness of surface, only broten by tbe forms of 
the water phiute, whose leaTes float thickly over it. 

The walls of tho moat are green with ancient mofis, &nd from th« ci 
(Springs an abundant flowering vine, whose delicate leaves and bright yelli 
flowers in some places entirely mantle the stones with their 

The picture I bafo given you rspresenta only one aide of the moat, 
ethsr Hide is grown up witli dark and thick shrubbery and ancient 
riaing and emboworing the entire place, adding to the retired and nbi^ 
cffwt of the whole. Tho phiea is a specimen of a sort of thing which di 
not exierti in America. It is one of ihoae significant landmarkB which 
the preaeut with the past, for which we must return to tho country of 01 

ri;iyford Hall is jieculiarly Engliah, and Thomas Clarkson, for whose 
B.ilte 1 vieit*d it, wjia &h peculiarly an Engbfibman — a specimen of the very 
lenii Jcind of English mind and character, as. this ia of characteristic English 
Wc Aagla-SaiEojis ba.Y& won a hard nurafe m ^^ \^roic\a.. "Thee^ wa 
jtooAiiW/^ /wiW «im£r.y wjjiclj are true about UB. a k^. 

2^J^-n^' our deyelQpmmta aa a race, bot^ w %Xi^i^^ e*^ Km^ 


CLAfiKSON. 187 

m^j be jasU; called the Ramatis of ike nlnete^iitli ceninry. Wc tiare be?tt 
ik^ nu^ whifjh lias CDnquensd, eubdued, and broken in piiKSss athesr weaker 
iMio», with little regard either to justice or meiry. With rtjgimj to benefits 
bj MS impaTted ki conquered nAtlonii, I think a bett^ starj^ on the whute, 
CftD be made out for the Ramans than for as. Witness the tz«&tmcat of tha 
Cikuieae, uf tlio tribea of India, and of our Qwn Amerioitn Indiana. 

But sfciU tJiere ie in Anglo-Saxon blood a vigorous aense of justice, as 
appears in our bttbeos corpua, out jitry trials, and othbr ft^atures cf Btate 
orgaulzution; and, when this is tempcn^ in individnals, w^itk the eiementi} 
of gentkneE3 and compa^on, and enforced hy that c^ntrgy and indomitable 
perseverance vbvA toe ehs]»ctem^ of the Aaglo-Saxon miad^ they fonn ^ 
o style of philantiiTOpy peculiarly efficieat. In short, the Anglo -Saxon id ^ 
etfioient, in whatever he sets himeelf about, whether in crnfihing the weak 
or lifting them up, 

Thomaa Clarkflou was born in a day when good, pious people imported 
cai^oea of slavett from Afrioi, as one of the regular Chmti^niztid mode-s of 
gainipg a AubgiEtence and piroviding for themselves and their households. 
It was a thing that everybody was doing, and everybody thought they had 
ft right to do. It waa supposed that all the sugar, molasses, and rum iii 
the world were dependent on stealing men, women, and childrou, aud con Id ^M 
be got in BO other way ; and as to oansume sugar, nuohuisefl, and rutn, wtre ^M 
evidently the chief ends nf hi;iaaii existence, it followed that men, women,, ^ 
and children uu»t be ekikn to the end of time. 

Surae gotKl people, vrhen they now and then heard an appaUing story of 
the (Cruelties practised in the shtve sMp, declared that it was really too bod^ 
Bympatbetjcally remarked, "What a sorrowfid world wa live inf stirrei 
their sugar into their tea, and went on :i;a before, becai^e, what was there to ^1 
do? — '* Hiwfai't flverybjjdy always dorie it 'i aud if they didn't do it* wouldji't H 
atimebody elsef' 

It is true that for many years individuals at differeut timss luvd remon- 
vrritten treatises, yosma, Htoriea, and movements had been made by 
religious bodlea, particularly the Quakers, but the opposition had 
ted to uothing piactieally efficii^nt. 

attention of Clarkson was first turned to the anbJEiet by having It 
£Tven out as the theme for a prize com|iofiitiou in hLi college chias, he bfing 
at that time a uprightly young man, about twanty-four years of age. He 
eutetvd int.i the investigation with no other purpoee than to eee what he 
oould make of it as a coUege themje. 

He soys of himself, ** I hatl expecte<l pl^iaTire from tho invention of 

" arguments, frou the arrtuigemcnt of them, from the puttin;^ uf tliem 

I together, and from the thought^ in the interim, that I waa engj^jed in au 

innocent eoatcst for literary honour; but all my pleaBors w^t^e damped bj 

^thB Uets which were now coutbiuallj before me. ^m 

^ "It was but one gloomy stibject from morning tiU iii{:ht; ia the daytime ^M 
twtm uneasy, in the night I had little rest; I sometimt'S never dlo»ed uiy ^* 
S eyelids for grief," 

I It bec; not now bo much a trial for atadtmc^ le^TaSjsSvcpcL %». Ha ^^rc*ft 
a work nhinL shotdd he useful to Africii, It is JifAi aMi^YVHta^ ^"^'^ ^^"^^ 
writica under th*^ force ol'siUoh fctflin^ bIioviIA Tevb-nb gsCiTawiw tVi ^^^vt^-* "»* ^, 
ii(L aiarksott wan BUmm<iU(xi from Londun to CaxuXrevt^^ft, V^i "^^^""^w^^ 
' «*»/ pai^Jjc/jr. He aaj's of hlmsttlf, on TCt^xmmi v>\io^^^^ 


subject of it almost wholly en^osaed my thoughis. I tecaroe a.t 
yevf Berionaly affected vhiJo on tho roAcl. I stopped mj horse oc«&ii(n)ia]l|:, 
dJEnnmnted, aud valked. 

" I frcqtietitly tried to persuade mystlf that the contents of my tsen^ 
fnuM not l« true ; bntthe luore I x'«flected on the authorities on whiek ibvy 
wtTG founded, iho more I (rave them credits Coming in sight of Wado'i 
Alill, in Hertfordehire, I £At dovn diaconEolaie on the turf b;y the roodxidd, 
fliu! held my horse. Here o. thought camo into wy mind, that if tkei otm- 
tents of the esny vera traei, it w«Et time ihut somebody gboold em these 
c&bmities to on end." 

These refiectioM, as it appeaxa, were put off for a whiles but 

Thifi yotitig and nohk he^Tt was cf a kind that could not comfort i1 
60 easily for a brother' r sorrow as many do. 

He fiaya of himisolf, " In the course of the Siutumn of the Bome year, 
wiilked frequently into th« wocitlft, that I might tliink of the subject in ai- 
liiude, anil find relief to my mind there; but there the question still 
recurrwl, 'Are thffie things truer Still, the answer followed as inertaii- 
tftueouBly, * They are ;' stiU the rcBwlt accorajmnied it — surely Bomo peisou 
should interfere. I began to envy those wlm had sh'At^ in Parlioinent, 
ticheH^ and widely extended connexions, whit^h would suable them to take 
up thjg canee. 

** Findttjg HcafCt'ly any one, at the time, who thought of il, I was turned 
frequeutly to myself; but here mimy difEcultiea arose. It struck me, among 
others, that a young man only twenty-four years of age could not have that 
Bolid judgment, or that knowledge of men, manners, and thingBj is-hich wert 

■uisito to quaUfy liim to undertake a task of such magnitude and irapttrt- 
and with whom was I to unite? I believed, also, that it It>okcd ttrj 
much like one of the feigned bbcturs of Heroules, that my undeKitandiiig 
would he snapectcd if 1 proposed it." 

Me, however, resolved t^o do Gomething for the cause by tmuslatiiig his 
'JtKAy from Latin into Englieh, enlarging and presenting it to the public. 
Jinmediately on the publication of thifi eaeiiy he discovered, to M& oatoniflh- 
tncnt and delight^ that he wu« not the only one who hod been interested is 

Being hivifed to the houBe of William Dillwyn, one of these fnenda to the 
rvkitse, he says, '* Dow suritrffied was I to learn, in the courpe uf our con- 
versation, of the labours of Granville Sharp, of the writings of Maiusey, and 
of the controverpy in which the latter was engaged ! of all which 1 had 
hitherto known no.thing. How surprised was I to Icnra tluit William 
Dillwyn hnd, two years before, nJ*6ociated himself with five othors for the 
purpoKe of enlightening the public mind on tliia great fluhject ! 

" How astonished was I to find that a society had been formed in Ameiii 
for the Hume idjjeut ! These ihouglits almost overjiowered n^e. My mi 
was ovei-whelmeil by the thought that 1 had been p^o^^det^tially directed 
this house ; the finger of Providence was beginning to be discerniblt), 
that the day Btw of Afriean liberty was rismg.*' 

After this he associated with many fneurta of the cause, and at Ikst tt 
bpeame evident that, in order t^j etTi'c.t anything, he must Ea*,'rif]ce all other 
frffffpecie in life, aijd devote himtielf excluEively to this work. 



doing tliis, * ' I could look, therefOTO, to no poraon but myself ; and tUo 
qaeation iv^as, wlictlier I waa prcpdfBd td m&ko thg saorifice. lu f&vour of 
the undertaking, I ui^ed to niyaelf that never woa any <muae, wUicb liuil " 
been token up by raan, ia any country or in any aga, eo grisat .ainl 
iiupi^rtniii; that uever was there ime in which so much misery waa beiird 
to cry tor rtjdrcaa.; tliat never waa there ono in which au mueh good could 
be done ; uever oue rn which the duty of Ghriatian cliority could be ea ex- 
tensively exercised j never one mere worthy of the devotion of a whole IL^ 
tow&rids it ; and thiit, if a man thought properly, he ought to lejoica to havt 
been called into eiciatonce;, if ho were only permitted to become an instri 
ment in forwarding it in any part of ita progress, 

** AgainaV these sentinienta) on the other band, I bad to urge that I had 
been designed for the church ; that I liad akeady advanood aa far aa deacon's 
orders in it ; that my proapecta tb^ra on account of my conneiiou9 were 
then brilliant; that, by appearing to desert Tuy profession, my fauiily would 
be diasatisEled, if uct uubappy. Theae thoughts pressed, upou me^ and 
Tenderod the con£i(^t difficult. 

**Bitt the aacrifice of my projipecta irtivggered me, I own^ the mosi 
WbcB the other objections which I have i-elatt-d occurred to me, my enthu- 
BftSBl instantly, Uke a flash of lightning, conannied them ; but thia atiu k 
to mfii and troubleil me. I had ambition. I luul a thinrt after worldly 
interest and honours, and I could not cxtin^iah it at once. I waa more 
than two horn's in solitude under this painful coudict. At length I yielded^ 
not te<Hraae I aaw any rea^nable proapeot of auccess in ray new ujjder- 
toking, — for all cool-be^iid and cool -hearted men would have pronounced 
against it, — but in obedience, I beUeve, to a higher Power. And I can aay, 
that both OQ the moment of this reih.dutiQa and for acme time sfterwardd, 
I hatl mure anblime and happy feelings than at any former period of uiy 

Li order to show how thid cnterpriae was looked upon and talked of vo: 
commonly by the majority of men in those time«, wo will ex tract the ft 
lowiitg passage from Bosweira Life of Jghnaon, in which Bozzy thus entei 
liis Bolemn protest : "The wild and dangerouB attempt, whit'h lias for no. 
time been per,4isted in, to obtain an aet of our legislature to abolish ao vei 
important and necessary a branch of commercial interest, must have btjei 
emshed at once, had not the insignificance of the zealotd, who vainly t<iJok 
the lead in it, madi} the vast body of planters, merchants, and others, whns^ 
immense propertlei* are involved sn that trade, re^onably enough suppi 
ibftt there could be no danger. The encoursgement which the attempt 
received excitos my wonder aad indignation; and though Bome uien 
!ii)j>erior abilitie.^ have supported it, whether from a love of temporary 
popularity when prosperous, or a love of ijeneral tnJachief when desptifate:, 
my opinion is unshaken. 

*' To aboliah a sfatus which in all agoa Crod has sanctioTieti, and mfin ha9 
continued, would not only be robbery to an innumerable class of our fuUow- 
■ubjeota, but it wi>uld be extreme cruelty to the Afiwsui garngeB, a portdon 
of whom it 'Hives from massacre or intolcrablo bondage in their own cuuntiy^ 
and iutroducea into a much happier sUite of life; especially now, wlj( 
tlieir paf^aa^ to the V7est Indies, and their treatment there, ia bumaii' 
juigidated. To abolish this trMe would be to 

' "— shut the gates of tucrcy on tnw&inflw: *• 







One of tliG finrt steiis of Clarkson Jind bjs MaxflateB waa the fomsatiflB 
& ccnDinittee' of twelvu p^rsoiis, for the calJection aaid dissemiiurfiOD of ii 
inmtiuM oil the eabjfeit. 

Th« (?oitte«t now befan in oflrnest, a. cout^ ss snMime as any the w(n-1d 
ever B&yr, 

Tlie abolition coatrover^ more fnlly aronsed the vixtne, the talent, and 
the riiliiu'iuu of the grt^t EBglisli nation, than any other e^-eiit or tnitin 
wliich iivtiT iwcumed. 

' Wilberfurce was the leader of the qneation in Parliament. The othtf 
mttmhers of the antiala?eiy committee perfoiTOed ihckse hvbcmrs whidi wa« 
jpBoeasary out of it. 

-* ThiB lalx>tir eoitsiHtcd prinoipaUf in the colleddon of evidence with regard 
to the troiSi*, trad thft presentatiori of it hefore the pnhhc mind. In this 
bbonr Clarkfion Wfta partii^ubrly engiiged. The subject wns hemmed in 
■with the parae difficnltiee that now bciiet iha antislavety eatisu i|i Ame: 
Those who knew most aho^t it were precisely those whose Lnterei^ il 
to prevent inquiry. An iminenso moneyed interest was arrayed 
iaveatigiitiou, and wiub determined to supprefls the agitation of ttie 
Owing to this powerful press nTCf many, who were in passesEiioii 
whioh wenld bear upfm this Eubject, refused to eommnxticate them 
often, after a long and wearisome journey in search of an individual w] 
could thraw lipht upon tlie subject, Clarkson had the mortification to 
hie lips sealed by interest or timidity. Ah visual, the t^Qse of ijppressli 
was defended by the most iriipodent lying ; the slave-trade was asserted 
be tlio latest revised edition of philauthropy. It wae said that the 
Afriiftn, the slave of niiaei-able oppression in hijs own country, wna w: 
by it to ail ftEylum in a Ohrietiaii land ; that the middle paeBiige was to 
poor negro a perfect Elysium, infinitely happier than anything he had 
kjjown in Mb o-hti cttuntry. AH this -writi said while manaulea, find haW 
eviffii, and thumbscrews, and instnimcnta to, force open the mouth, were a 
rcjjnlar part of the Htouk for a slave ahip^ and were hanging in the 
windows of Liverpool for Kale. 

For ClarkBoii's attention wm first called to these things by ol 
tlicm in the shop window, and on inq^uiring the use of one of them, 
man infornied him that many tioiesi xiegroea were sulky, and tried 
atsirvc themselves to death, and this instrument w^as used to force 
t.heir jaw«. 

Of Clarkson's labour in thL^ inveetigation some idea may be gathi 
irom hk own worfa, when, sLiting that for a seaion he was cam^llbd 
retire from the cause, he thus speaks :■ — 

* * As far as I mysolf wa* concerned^ all exertion was then crver. The 
nervous Hyfttetn was almost shattered to pieaes. Both my memory and my 
hearing iuiled me. Sudden diizinesaee aeizetl my head. A confused nli 
ing in the ear followed me wherever I went. On going to bed the vi 
stairs seemeii to dance up and down under me, so, misplaefaig 
foot, 1 Hometimea fell. Talking, too, if it continued but lialf an hoi 
exhansteA me so that profuse perspiration followed, and tlie 
e^eai wns produced even by Ml active eixertion of the mind for the like 


^' ITJwjie (Unorders hud l»eeu hronclit cm M aeereeB,\n can»^TV5S^«; ot ^^ 

Jaibouri} Jiec^aarily attadied to tbs jiwuw^ioti ^ ^^W csji*. 

too, ^_ 
to a^^ 


ieven years 1 haA 9 carrespeiidaie^ to mointaiii vn±h four litmdn?d person g, 
with my own baud ; I had same bi>ak or other annnally to write in behalf 
of the caiute. In thi« time I had travcQed more than thirty -fiye thousand 
ma&i in search of endence, and a ip-eftt part of tb^ae jcnttne^ in the lught. 
All this tme toy taiud had been on tJie etretdi. It had heen bentp too, 
tiiis Qtie subject, fur I hud not &ma. leisiUKr to attend to m^ awn oow 
Tbe various matanecs of btu-baritj vhich luid eomc saccGSsively to 
fcnowlcMigo, vitbiii tbls period, had vexed^ haraaaed, and afflicted it. The 
voniid which the«e hod prwiuced was rendered ftill deeper by those cruet 
diM^jpouilmerrta before teliited, which arose from tbc- mterated tefualfl of 
pefBons to giTie their testimony, after 1 iiad traTeUed himdreds of mil«i in 
quest of them. But tlie Beryrefit strut e was that inJiicted by tbe persecu- 
tdnn, beg>;ii and pars^ued by petiMiBS interested in tbe contmutmicti of the 
'bwlGf i>f Buch witn^iseA a£ had been examined against them, &nd whoi 
on aceonut of tbcii d«pE!ndeiit situation in life, it waa most easy to oppi 
Afi I liad been the mejme of bringing tbeae forward on these oocaisioiia, 
natunilly came to me, when thus peTsecnted, m the author of their miseriea 
and thtiir min. From thoir snpplicatiot^ and wants it would liave b«m 
ungunerons and nngrat^ul to hsTe fled, rheee difl'erent lircnmst&ncea, by 
H/Ctiag together, had at leiigtb brought me into tbe idtnatiou jnat nieti- 
tioaed ; aud I i*-bs, therefore, obUgijd, though Tery reluctantly, to b« 
boruti out of the £iold whtji^ I had placed the gneat honour and glory of mjr 

I may as well add here, that a Hr. Whltbread, to whoro Clarksou mea- 
tioned this latter cause of distresB, geuerooaly offered to repair thu pecu- 
lUAty ioaeea of all who had suffered in tbia cause. One anecdote will be a 
specmieii of the energy la'ith -w^hick Qarkson pursued evidence. It had 
been raty atienuoualy asserted and maintained that the subjects of the slaviw^M 
tmde were only stich unfortunates as hod t>ecome prisoner* of war, aQ^^| 
who, if not carried out of the Coutitry ijn th ia manner, would be expuaed t^^ 
death or Bome more dreadful doom in their own country. Tliia was one of 
those etories which nobody believed^ and yet was particularly nsetul lu the 
liandfi of the opposition^ because it wns diHicnJt legally to (liisprove it. H 
■waB perfectly well known that in vtry many cases slave tmderB mado direct 
incursions into the coimtry, kidnapped and carried off the inhubituuts 
wbule viD^es j, but the question was, bow to efitablish it. A gentlem. 
whom Clarkson accidentally met on oue of his Journeys informed him tb; 
be had been ia company, about a year before, with a sailor, a very respect- 
able-looking yomig man, wbo had actually been enga<;ed in one of theea 
expeditions; he bad spent lialf an hour with him at an inn ; he deacri "" 
his person, but knew nothing ui' his name or the place uf bis abode ; all 
knew vaSt timt he belonged to ti ship uf war in ordinary, but knew nothing' 
of the ijort. ClarkHon determined that this man should be iiroduced »w ft 
witness, and knew no better way than tu go jiersoually to all the ^hips Ia^h 
ordiiiary, until the individual was found. Ue actually Tisited evtry aen^^M 
p«irt ttJWti, aiid bujarded every ship, till in the very laat pojt, and on thi^l 
VBry taut ship, which remamcd, the individual was fonud^ wvvA.'i'^wcAv.'Hsfe 
possessed of just the faebs and intbrmiiitloii 'wVde^ weva Ticcessaai^ - ^% "^^ 
hilKituft of Cittrksoa owrf hie L'ontemporarieB, au VncrftiVftAft titcAVfi.ia«c*' -v^^s^ 
prvtlQi.^ throaghoat aJJ fingljiiid. The pictUTsa and Ta«(\ft\ft '^'^ "^'^'^^^t^ 
ite of iiie crufslthB pra<jtiBed in the tmd^, -wu^^i <i\Y<ivi»'\s^jgU 






itiduabj wbieh loft not a man, woman, or diUJ in Englajid uninsia^cted, 
la diosemituilitL^ itifurnmiiun, and in uw-^k^iiing fnniling and conscience, tbe 
VdSul!!! of EngWd were particularly (truest, and laboured with that wkole- 
lie&rtod devotion which charactoiizea the Bex, 

It flseniB that nft«r the eonimittee had iitjbtiahed the facts, and sent them 
to evttry town in Ei)y;lfkud, Clarkiiim falluwtii them up by jonmeyiiig to all 
the placses, to see that they were rtjud and attended to. Of the stata of 
fe^liiig at tbi* time ClarkaQn giTca the following account : — 

"And fiwt i may observe, that there was no town through which I 
puaed in which there was tiot some one individual who had left off the u^ 
of augar. In the smaller towns there were from ten to fifty, by eatimatiou, 
»nd in the Intgier from two to five hundred, who made this sacrifice to 
virtue. These were of all ronfca and partiea. Rich and poor, churchmen 
and di»3Cnter», had nJupted the mtasure. Eren grocers liad left oif tnuliug 
in the article^ in aame places. In gentlemen^a families, where the master 
had set the example, the eerva^nts had often voluntarily followed it ; a ad 
«Ten chlldr«!n, who were capable of underatauditig the liistory of the 
HUffetinga of the Africaaa, e:xcluded, with the mostTirtuona resolution, the 
sweets, to which they luid been accustomed, fmm their lipa. By the best 
computation I was able to make, from no tea takeo down in my joaniey, no 
fewer than three hundred thou Band persooa had abandoned the use of 
sugar." It was the reality, depth, and earnestness of the public feeling, 
thus arouBed, which pressed with rciji^leaa force upon the government ; for 
the government of England yields to popular demandu quite as readily as 
that of America. 

After years of protracted struggle, the victory was at la&t won. The 
fllavB- trade was finally alwlLahod through aU the British empire ; and u»% 
only so, bnt tlie Englinh nation committed, with the whole fon!« of its 
national intlnoncej ti'> seek the abolition of the 8l£iv«- trade in all tlic nationii 
of the earth. But the wave of feeling did not rest there ; the investigation b 
bad bronglit befuce the Eogliuh conBcieuce the horrors and aboii>iuatk)Ps 
of slavery itself, and the agitation never ceased till slavery was finally 
abolished through all the British provijices. At this ti^ne the religions 
mind and conscience of England gained, through this very Btrnggle, a power 
which it never has lost. The prmciplti adopted by them was the same w 
sublimely adopted by the church in America in i-eference to the foroigD 
missioaary cause : '* The field is the world." They suxw and felt that, aa 
the oxamplt* and practice of England had been poworful in giving sanction 
to this evil, and particularly in introducing it into America, there w,is tlw 
greatest reason why ehe should nev«r inter^iiit her cfForUt till the wrong wu 
righted throughout the earth. 

ClarkeoD, to his last day, never ceoeed to be Interested in the sa , 
and took the warmest interest in aU movemrjnts for the abolition of sla^ 
in America, 

At the Iijswich depot we were met by a venerable lady, the danghter of 
Ckrkson'B asBociata, William DiUwyn. SHie seemed overjoyed U* meet Ufi, 
and took us at once into her carriage, and entertained ns all out way to the 
hall by anecdotes and jnti^ldente of Clarkson and hja times. She read me a 
maniisiiript Ititter from him, written at a very ndvanctii age, in which be 
spejiksi witli the utmost ardour and eiithusiasm of the first antiehivoiy 
juoFtinmiitts o£ fksaitis M. Clay lu Kciiliu^ky. She described him to me w 

ig waa 


a cheerful, eoTDp&nioiiabb being, Crtuik and Bimple-hearted, and ^th. a good 
dftUd of qtiiet linmoilr. 

It is renaarkable of him that, mtll auch intsDae feeling for humfln suf- 
fering sist He had, and worn down mnd exbansted as he waa by iba draadM 
ndaeriea and aorrowa witb whiub be wa* aoaaijasitij oblij^tid to he &iiuiuf ^ 
ke n«ver yielded to a iipirit of bitterness or dennnciatiaB. 

The muTtLtire which be gir^ Is tts «iIiju fuid unmpaBBQSudr and ati free 
&iQ!m Any tmlt of thiH kind, as tb» narratives of tiiA evutgditta. Thus 
riding and talking, wfi at iast arrired at the ball. 

The old stone bonse, the moat, the draw-Viridge, all spoke of days of 
violence long gone by, when no mati waa safe esuept within fortified uraUn, 
and cTery nijui'a housu literally had to be bis tiastle. 

To nie it was interBsfcing as the dwellinEj of a coaqn^ror, aa one who bid 
ffliOt wrestled witb tleiili ami blood merely, but with pHacipiditka and powers, 
and the f ulera of the darkness of thts world, aud wlo had ovemoine, as hia 
giieat Master did before him, by faith, and prayer, and labour. 

We were received with much cordiality by tho widow of CWkson, now 
in her eighty-fourth year. She hja^a beea a woman of great eaergy i 
yigour, and an eflicieut co-labourer in his plans of benevolenoe. 

6b*i id now quite feeble. I w»a plafi&l Uiader tho care of a 
female serrant, who forthwith installed mo in a lar^e cLamber overlook _ 
thf couTt-yarJ, which had been Clarkson's own room j the room wUere, for-^ 
yvars, many of hh moat Important liibaurs had 1>een conducted, and fmia 
whence hie soul bad OiSCendHl to the reward of the juft. 

The servant who attended me seemeil to be quite a superior wonian, like 
many of the servanta in respectable 'l^glish families. I:Jhe had grown up 
in the family, and was identltied wi^ it ; its ruling ain^s and purposes had 
become hers. She had been the personal attendaut of Claikaon, and im 
nurse during Wb Iiist bit^kneefi; she had evidently «udei-eto<jd, aaid been 
iot^rcsted iu his plans ; and the reneration with which she therefore spoka 
of him bad the sanction of intetligent apprseiation. 

A daughter of Clarkstvn, who was married to a neighbouring defgyuun^ 
with her husband, was also preaent on this day. 

After dinner we rode out to see the old cliarcb, in whose endoetire ihm 
retaalns of Glarkson repose. It was just snch a still, quiet, aofisy old 
^UTcb as you have reiwl of in story books, with the gravc^yawl sprtaid all 
aromid it, like fi tlioughtful mother, who watehes the rei*ting of her children. 

The grasa in the yard was long and green, and tlio daisy, which, in othec 
placet!, lies like a little button on the ground, here had a richer fringe < 
cixuiflon, and a atalk abont &U inches high. It jh, I weU know, the viii 
influence from the Alumbering du&t l>en^th which gives the richnesa to thii 
grasB and tiiesfl flowers ; but let not that be a painful thought ^ let it rath 
either us, that beauty shouEd spring from ashes, and life smile brighter from ' 
the near preaeuce of deatliJ The grave of Clarksou is near the r-hurfjb, 
en<?1(fm6d l»y a railing, and msukod by a simple ubite uiaible Blab ; it ia 
eareftiUy tended, aitd planted with flowers. In the church was an old book 
of recontis, and among other cnriou* inftorlptiutis was one recording how a 
pious committee of old NoU's army bad lioen there, knockiog off xunii^ 
noi^e?, and otherv^iM ptirgiu;; the church from the relics of idolatry. 



Near by the church was the parsonage, the home of my friendB, s ii«i4 
pleMant, sequestered dwelling, of abaat the atfyle of a New Eaglimd cotuiti7 

The effect of the whole together was inexpressibly beAutif nl to me. Ft>r 
A wander, 16 was a pleasant day, and tliis is a thing always to be thankfiiUy 
ftclaowlfldged In England, The calm etiUneas of the aft^moon, tbe se- 
cluflicm of the whole plrioe, the silence only broken Vty the tawiB^ of the 
rooks, the aiwient church, the mossy graves with their flowers and green 
gittss, the BUBBhiae and the tree shadows, all seemed Ui mingle ttjgetlier in 
ft kind of haiy dream of peaoefnlnoss and reat. How natural it is to say 
of flome pkoe sheltered, simple, eool, and retined, here one might find peace, 
41 if peace came from without, and not from witliin. In the shadier nnd 
stilleet plaoefi may be the moat tnrhulcnt hearts - and there are hearts which, 
through the busiest BceT&es, carry with thom unchanging j>eajce. As we 
were walking hivcfc, we passed many cottages of the }wor. 

I noticed, with particular pleasure, the invariable flower garden attached 
to each. Some ponsies in one of them attraotod my attention by their 
peeuliar beauty, eo very large and richly coloured. On being introduced 
to the owner of thom, she, with cheerful alacrity, offered me some of the 
finest. I do not doTiht of there being suffering and misery in the agricol- 
tural population of Kncland, hut still there are multitudes of cott'igeB 
which are really very pleasant ohjeots, as were all these. The cotl^ew 
had that bright, rosy IrwU of health which we seldom see in America, and 
appsarad to be both polite and self-rei3pefiting. 

In the erening we had quite a gathering of frienda from the neighbonr- 
hoofl — intelligent, aenaible, earnest people, who had grown up in the 1ot6 
of the antislavery cause as into rehgiou. The subject of ixinveiimtion wiw, 
**The duty of English people to free themselvos from any partiHpation in 
American slaTery, by taking means to encourage the produotioa of free 
cotton in the British provinces?." 

It la no more impossible or Improhahls that something effectire may 
done in this way than that th$ slave trade abonld have been alioliflh' 
Every great movement s&ems an impossibility at first. There iu no end 
the uiimber of things declared and proved impossible which Iuitb been 
already, so that this may beaome something yet. 

Mrs, Clarkson ha*l TtJtired from the room early ; after a while she 
for me to her sitting room, llie faithful attendant of whom I spoke 
with her. She wishetl to sliow roe some relics of her husband, his wai 
and seals, some of his papem and man □ scripts; among these was 
identical prize es^y with which he began his career, and a commentary 
the Gospels, which he had written with great care, for the use of his _ 
son. His seal attracted my attention — it wau that kneeling figure of 
negro, with claBped hands, whioh was at first adopted as the kvd;^ of 
causey when every means wait being made use of to arouse the publict mh 
and keep the subject before the public-. Mr. Wedgwood, the celebmi 
porcelain manufacturBr, designed a cameo, with this representation, which 
was much worn aa an ornament by ladies. It was engraved on the seal of 
t/i& AntJ^hvhrj Society, and waa need by its naerobers in fseallng all thi 
ieitets. This of Clarkson'a was handaomfe^^ Ukgntu^ ovt a. Wispi, q' 
^sldoned corneUan ; and iS^rely, if we look w\th emo\,\ou ciu\Xi.g iwvwik 
Mhjmj-ted Iiew,^which, at best, -we (^ cqhsU^x ot^V-j t>s *, ™x»»a^ 


eTilj— ^we may look with unmmgled pleasure on this roemoTial of & Hood- 
JflftS Tietory. 

When I retired to mj room for the night I oould not bat feel that tha 
place waa halloweiil; uacefleing pisjer had there been offered for the 
endnTed nnd wronged rai:^ of Africa by that noble and brotherly heart, I 
could not but feel that tltose pmyers had had a wider reach than the mere 
extinction of skTeryin one liintl or Coiintr>\ and that their benign mfluenoe 
would not cease while a Blave waa left upon the Eace of the earth. 



J03XPS flTrsns.— TUB " times" rpoir mms^ifiirrNf^.— ntrx^ of xiotu.^ — 

Deas C. :— 

yse rfitnmed to London, and found Mr. S. and Joseph Starge waiting for 
US St the dBp6t. ^Ye dined with Mr. Sturge. It aeeoia that Mr. S.'b 
Hp6ech upon the subject of cotton haa c^at^ some considerable disturb- 
ance, different Jjapers declaring themaelves for or against it with a good 
deal of vivacity. 

After dinner Mr. Stnrgie deairod me rery much to go into the meeting of 
ih« women ; for it seems that, at the time of the yearly meetiug among the 
Friends, the men and women both have their separate meetings for attend- 
ing to bndness. Tht! aBpect of the meeting waa very intereating— ao many 
placid, amiable faces, shaded by plfun Quaker bonnets; bo maoy neat 
white liand kerchiefs, foldied across peaceful boaoma. Either a large nuM-j 
ber of very pretty women wear the Quaker dreaa, or it ia quite beeomun;! 
in ita effect. 

There are some thinga in the mode of apeaklng among the Friends, par- 
ticularly in their public meetings, which do not strike me agreeably, and 
to which I think it would take me some time to become accustomed ; such 
oa a kind of intoning somewhat similar to the manner in which the church 
service ia performed in catliedrals. It is a curioua Cict that religiona 
exereiBes, in all Ages and couutries, have inclined to thie form of e:spre3sion. 
It appears ia the cantilation of tbe synagogue, the service of the cathedra], 
the prayers, of the Covenanter and the Puritan. 

There were a table and writing materials in this meeting, and a circle of 
from fifty to a hundred ladles. One of those upon the platform requested 
me to express to them my opinion on free tabuur. In a few words I told 
them I conaidei-ed niyself upon thftt aubject more a learner than a teacher, 
but that I was deeply interested in what I had leame<l npon this subject 
since Riy travelling in England, and particnlariy interested in the consift- ^^ 
tency and self-denial practiced by their sect. ^H 

I have been quite amuBed with something which has happened lately* ^H 
It always has aecmed to me that diatinguished people here m England live 
a. rEwarkably out-door sort of life ; and newspapers tell & '^^^ AssiL liws^iN. 
people's &>ncems wljich it is not our msfcom \jO lull's, VvtS*i T^t^siX "vr fei3&«^K^ 
Sncbf for instance, as where the Hon. Mr, A. vs aXa-jw^iia^,!*^^'*^'''^^^^ 

^w^eeis to gb spst ; what her gT&ce wore at ttve \aat WiV, ^"^"^ T^^^^^q. 

^g$I ehjldreu roife out, and what tliey had oi\ \ ttud th\vqtsx Aj^^"^ ^^^^^ 


one htkA to dinner ; besides n large ntunbor of ptiftictit&n} ^rltidi pFotM3)t; 

Could 1 luvTe expected d«ir old England to make me bo much one of the 
fiuaulfu to treat sij humble fcirtunes in this same public manner ? BotH 
is flnran 80. This week the Times has informed the United Kingdom thaf: 
M™, 6to*e IB getting a new dreas made 1 — the fhnrnihig old sriBt<wiirtic 
7Vm««, wliit^k everyhody dedares Is melt & vickeil paper, ^ttd yet -wbkh. 
they c^D no more do without th&n thej can their breakfast t What am 
uid what i« tnj father's house, that such dietinction should come upon: 
I junire yon, ray dear, I feel ray self altogether too much lettered. Titer 
inde by side with spaculationa on the eastern question, and eoiyectnrefi^ 
regard to tke socret and reveaied will of the Emperor of Rnasia, news frai 
her Majesty's musb stacred rotreat at Osborne, ind tlie last debateii m 
Purtiament, comim uiy browu eilk dress ] The T/Hies baa omitted the colour; 
I bftf! a great mind to send liim wor*l aKmt tbat. But yt>u may tell 
girls-^for probably the uows will spread through the Aiiierif»ii paj 
UlAt it U tJie blown Chinefw silk which thoy put into my trunk, 
when I waa tm ill to ait up aod be fitted, 

Mr. Titftri wants to know if Mrs. Stowe Is fturare irhat sort of a place her 
dreas Is being made to ; and there is a letter from a ilressmiaker'a apj 
tice stating that it 18 being made op piecsmeal, in the most shockingly 
tressed den* of Loinioti, by \)ftoT, mlseniblo white slaves, worse Ireateid 
the planUHiin ebives of America, 

Notr, Mrs, Stowe did not know anything of this, hut simply gave the 
silk into the hands of a frlond, and was in due time waited on in her own 
apartment by a very respeetable woman, who offered to make the dreas ; 
and lo, this is th« restdt ! Si act: the publication of this pieee, I hare re- 
oejTed earnest missiTes, from Tarions parts of the country, begging me to 
interfere, hoping that I was not goiiig to patroniJw the white alaTery of 
Esgiand, and that 1 wuuld employ my talonte equally againgt oppres&Lon 
imder every form. Tbe person who had been eo unfortunate as to receii 
the weight of my public patronage was in a very tragical state ; prtiJ 
her innooence of any eonnesiun with dens, of any overworking of haot 
&e.( with as mnc^U forvonr as if I had been appointed on a eoDxntitlee 
parliamentary inquiry. Let my case be a warning to all phUantLropli 
who may happen to want clothes while they are in London. Some of ta} 
correspondentfl seemed to think that I onght to publish a manifesto for 
the benefit of diBttessed Great Britain, stating how I came to do it, and all 
the circumstance?, eince they are quite sure f roust have meant well, and 
eontainiug gentle cautions as to the disposal of my future patronage in tke 
dre^mnking line. 

Could these people only know in wliat sacred eimpli<^^ I Lave 
li-ving in the St!it« of Maine, where the only dressmaker of our clrde w»»i 
intelligent, reiiut^d, vcU -educated woman, who was wnsidered a$ the eqi 
ef US aUj and whose aprliig and ftill tniniBtrntions to our wardrobe 
retgarded a double pleasure, — a friendly visit as well as a domestic 
JWW*, — I say, eould they know all this, they would see how guiltleaa I wi 
/a the matter. I verUy nerer ttiougU\tnl iVitA tive ivwe, vl^i^sant yer»m 
^bo ctawe to measare me for my ailLk, waa giima ^ '^i^^ \V Vto* *!»V 
ffie U herself; it neTer occurred to me •QaaX ^^ ^** ^^ Vtj»i ^m**<«&». 

TEE "times'* JOfD THB UEEaSMlKlBS, 19T 

And noH% vrhat am I to do ! Tbth Ti'mfs se^^iiLS to think th&t, in order to 
be eoDfiistent, I ought to iaike up the conflict iiumedbt^lj ; but, for mj 
part, I think otberwiee. Wiiat an unreasoiinijle creature ! Doea be vap- 
pQse me fut lost tu all doe sense of buinilii;f fta to take out of hi« hAEda a 
{»iise wbich be ia plesiiiliBg so well i If tbe plantation alnvea had such a 
good friemd &s tbo Timet, and if every oTer-wwked female cotton picker 
coultt writ^ aa clever lettera as this dresBmaJter's appTcntice, and get them 
pnUii&heid in a» iuiltitatial papers, and excite aE^envtul & ^eumlhii by tiiem 
jtstliis scema to have d^hue, I t^iink I should feel that tbt^rc yfu^ no need of 
mj interferisg in a work so m^icb bGtttir done. Unfortuiiately, out female 
mMtm plickera do not know how to read and write, and it is against the law 
to teaeb them ; ami tbk luiitaiice sUovfs that tb« lav is a »{%ivcioQS o«tie, 
BanCfif dotibtl^Bfl, if tbtiy (M^uld Tead aud wjite, moat embaiTaaaLDg commimi' 
cations might be made. 

Kothing abowa lonre plainly, ix> my mind, than ihia letter, the different 
between thowurkiny clasa gf En^'Iaiid and the slave, Tlie frt^e workman or 
work woman of England or A to erica, howtsver poof, is ^If-roBpecting ; ia to 
some extent, cle^oT and luteUitjent; ia determined to radat itrong^ and, m 
this incident Bh^wa, hag abundant meona fyr doing bo. 

Whea we ahall see the col am n a of tbe ChaTktton Vtmrift adorned wrth 
commiinicationa from cotton piok<3r,s, and alaro aeamstteajjeH, we i^hall thoa 
think the compariaon a fair one. In fact, apart from tbe whimaiuality of 
the affiiir, and the little aanoyutiee one feels at notoriety to wJiicb one ia hot 
ai:!CUi)tomt!d, 1 eanslder thu incident as in aomo aapecta a gratifying one, ae 
showiuf how awake and active are the sympathies of the British piiblio with 
that njuch oppreated class ut needlevomen. 

Horace Greeley would be delighted could his labonrs in this line excite a 
flimilar commotion in New York. 

We dine^l to-day at the Duke of Argjlo's. At dinner there were the 
members of the fiimily, the l>uchei5B of b'u therland, Lord Carlisle, Lord and 
Lady Blantyre^ ^c. The conveTsation lie wed alonu in a very agreeable 
ohanuel, I told them the more I coiiternplatdd life in Great Biitain, thi 
more I van Eitrnck with the euntrast between the comparative smaltneaB of 
the territory and tbe rast power, physical, moral, and iatellectnal, which It" 
exei-ted in the world. 

The Dncbesa of Sutherland added* thiit it was beautiful to obaerva ho^ 
gradually the idea of freedom had develojjed its*lf in the hiatory of thi 
Bngliab nation, growing clearer and more diHtinet in every snooMiiv^^ 

I might have added that the histoty of our own Amcricim Tepublic ia but 
& contlnuntitju of the history of this devebpment. The reaktance to the 
stamp act wna of the same kind as the reaiatance to the ship money ; and 
in our revolutionary war there were aa eloquent ddeneeii of onr principltfa ^ 
imd course heard in the British Parliament aa echoed in Faueuil Hall 

I oonTened lome with I^y Caroline Campbell, the tluke'a sister, witli ' 
regard to Scottiah preaching and theohigy. She ia a uieEiber of the I'i'**;! 

oharuh, and attends, in London, Dr. Cmammg'a tc)ii-£ttsE><\wi. \iiiKrrt«S( 

the impresaioo irum bet remarks, that the at^Ae oi\flt(5a>i^\i\^\Ti'fefc^J^w:^'^ 
juifiv diaenmhaiing and doctrinal than in En^VaM. VJiiU "w^w *^'^^)^''^j 
piektrea giren m Saott's novel* muEst oft^n \\a.^« \5«i«^ i^it^i^ T'w^ 
tPPRreni ahnihriij hx til© theologic training aa4\*a\iaa oi <!*^'=> ua«^*v 


\ of I 






1&8 8U5NT HBMORlfia 01* FOSEIQN LiNI>S. 


dHseB la N^^ England And Scotland. The hcu^ -featured mau, whom 
describes iu Ei^b Roy t^ following the prcache^r ho imrDestly, keeping 
coimt of the doctriiia! polnte on his auccesstve lingera, is one wiiicxh c*dL 
litill be fieen in the retired, riiial diHtricts of New Englifttid; and I be!ie^ 
that this severe intellectual discipline of the pulpit has Ijeen one of 
groELteat means in forming that strong, BeLf-snsUiniiig ckaractar peculiar 
both cotrntries. 

The Ihiko of Argyle s»aid that Chevalier Bunsen had Ijeeii Bpcaking to 
him in relation to a eoUege for coloured people at AntiguiL, &nd inquired 
my views respecting tiie emipiition of coloured jjeople from America to 
thie West India islanda. I told iiim my impreaaion waSj that Canada would 
beamueh bttt^r place to def elope the energies of the race. First, on 
account of its cold and bracing climat«; second, because, having. never been a 
slave state, the while population there are more thrifty and industrious, 
and of course the infliiienc« of such. A community waa letter adapted to ft 
thrift and industry in the negro. 

In the evening, some of the ladies alluded to the dress-maker's letter 
the Timrf. I inquired if ther« was nothing done tor bbera as a class in 
London, and some of them said,— 

** J, Lord Shaftesbury can tell you all about it; he ia president of tlie 
society for their protection." 

Sol said to Lord JShafteaburj, playfully, "I thought, my lord, you 
had reformed everything here in London," 

** All, indeed," he replietl, "but this wa» not in one of my liouaes. I 
pref*ide over the West End." 

He talked on tlic Hubjeot for some time 'with con^derable enetgj ; «ul 
it was one of tha most difficult he had ever attempted to regulate, and 
promised to send tuv a few documeutB, which would show the nieaenrea he 
had pursued. He said, however, that there -was progress making; ithd 
Epoke of one es^tablinhmont in particular, which had recently been eroctcd in 
London, and was adrmrably arranged with regard to ventilation, being 
oonductcd in the must perfect manner. 

Quite a number of diatingnished persons were preaent this erenlngt 
among othere,. Sir Bavid firewijter} famtjd in the scientific world. H« ia % 
fine-looking old gentleman, with ailver-white hair, v,ho seemed to be un 
terms of great faujiliarity with the duke. He bears the character of a 
decidedly religious man, and is an elder in tte Free church. 

Lord Mnliun, the celebrated h-istorian, was there, with bifi lady. He h 
a younp;-l<"ioking man, of agreeable mamiers, and fluent in convergati«n. 
Thifi 1 gather from Mr. S,, with whom ho conversed very freely on our 
historians, Fresoott, Bancroft, and cKpecially Dr. Sparks, Uis sharp con* 
troTersy with whom he seema to hear with fj^nettt equanimity. 

lady Mahon la a handaome, interisstiug woman, with very pleaaiug 

Mr. (iladBtono was there, also, one of tlie ablest aud Itest laen in the 

kingdom. It is a commentary on his character that, atthoiagh one of the 

hl;3:best of th^ High Chnrcb, we have never hejird him Sfhoken of, even 

^mofjgdissenters, otherwise than aaan exccWcTvVKQdVi^^Ul'Sftsiuwie'atiouBiQAii. 

^or n gentleman who has attained to m^\ ceV(j\)X^lT; , \hjvV \\\ Wvevftafle^s wwi. 

pontics, he looks remarkably yotmg. He is UVl, 'ft'^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ '^^^^ "^ 



a themghtful, Barious cnat of ctumteiiance, and is easy and agroeable 
On the whole, this vae a rery delightful eTcuing. 


uiBuoif laiiUKjBA jUiJ) uaEBauxxKBd.— ix>a]> buitxe^bukt. 
DEAii C. :^ 

I will odd to thw a little sk&toh, derived from the docnnieiitB sent me by 
Lord SJhftftosbuiT, of the mDvementB ia behalf of the milliuei's aad dri^sa- 
jimkers in London for seven years past. 

About tbirtwjn years ago, in thtJ year 1841, Lord SLafteBhury obtalped 
a parliaaieutary commis»iu<a of inquiry into tho employment of childnea and 
yovitig persane in vnrioua trades and maoufivcturiefl. This ccimmiitaioii, 
ojnong other things, wiaa directed toward tlie millinery and dresBiuakiiig 
trade. Thrae commissioners elicited the followiag facts : that there were 
fifteen hundred emplnyera Iti this trade in London, and fifteen thousand 
ycmng people employed, hi^dea a great number of jonmeywomHD who took 
the work home to their own hou^^a. They discovered > also, that during 
the London season, which occupied about four months of the year, the 
regular hours of work were fifteen, but in many eatablishmeuttt they were 
entirely unlimited—the young women never getting more thau td^ boura 
for alL'op, nud often unly two or three; that frequently they worked 
night and pi4rt of Sunday. They dlsoovex'ed, also, tbnt the rooms In will 
they worked and alept were overcrowded, and deficient in veutdation ; hi 
that, in consequence of all these am sea, blitidneBB, cousumi/tioOj uud m 
titudes of other diseases carried thouaauda of them yearly to tho grave. 

Theae (vtnts heiug tnu^le public to tho English nation, a society wa:^ formed 
is London in lb 4 3, called the Association for the Aid of Milliiiei^and Dreaa- 
makera. The president of this society is iJie Earl of ShafteaUury j 
rioe preaideata are twenty gentlemen of the most infiuential po»itiou. 
mdesthia there ia a oonunitt^e of ladies, and n committee of gentlemeu. At 
the head of tho committee of ladiea stands the name of the Dnchesa of 
Sutherland, with seveiityeeii others, among whom we notice the Conntesa of 
BhafteBbury, Couiit<^ij of EUesmere, Lady Itol>art Grosvatior, aud others of 
the upper London sphere. The Hubscription list of donations to the societj^^^ 
is headed by the queen and royal family. ^^M 

The featui-es of the plan whii->h the society undertook to carry out 'vrat^^ 
briefly these : — 

Eirat, they opened a registmiiou office, where all young per^oos desiring 
employment in the dressmEkking trade might euroU their names free of 
expense, and thns come in a manner under the care of tho aaaot'Lation. 
From the young people thus enrolled, they eugaged to supply to the prin- 
cipals of drcHsmakitig e^tablitthments extra assistants iu periods of uncommon 
preftaure, so that tliey should not be under tl\ft i^L^iC^ffiaKvyj oi «THi's\a:nsv^'*^«t^ 
workwoiQen. This a^i±$tance is extended tmly \fi t3tiQ«4i\x<iVha«i*i. '«\»sitt.'wSSv 
tfbmsrfe ths mofJerattf hours recommended b'j I'tia iiaawi\&,^\o'a- -„v— jj 

Id tJteseaaad place, an urrangament ifl inaA«s \i^ Nj'tii'ti \ICia-^WKa%/^^ 
tbm re^ist&r&d are entitled to the best o£ la^iWii &ATt(i«b **^ ^s*^"^ ^'^^"^^ 






the film of five Bhlllinga per year. Three physicians and %vo couEniltuig 
Burgdotia arc ccumected with the aaaociation. 

Id Ihe third place, rnqdelfl of simple and cheap modos of Tentilatioii are 
kept hi S.11 times at the nffica of tho isociety, and all tte influeuce of the 
Df^SQciatioii ia ueetl t<» iuduee emptoj-era to place tUem in the ivork and 
Bleeping rooms. 

Fourth, a kind of Baviugs bank hai h&BB. inBtituied, in whicb the work- 
-women are encouraged to deposit fflnaU e&rnings on geed interest. 

Thia ia the plan of tlie society, and as to its results I have at haod the 
report for 1851, from which y«n can gather some pttrticnlam of its prac- 
ti^ werkings. They say, * ' Eight years have elapsed since this aeaorlation 
WM estftbliflhed, daring which n most gratifying ohiinge haB boea vrronithi 
ia respect to tliemcKie of fondurtiug the dres^mcikinga^d millineTy hnsiDeeia. 

" Withont OTerstepptng thfl strict Uniitg of truth, it may be affirmed that 
the larger p«rt of the ^ootl thus achieved is attributable to the inflaenee and 
unwaaing efforts of this jiodety. The general result, so far as the metropolie 
is concerned, may be thns smted : First, thehonrsof work, epeaking gg a- 
rnlly, now rarely exceed tweWfl, whereas feimerly fiixteen^ sareaieeakf flj^H 
eighteen hours vere Dot nnnaual. ^^^| 

' ' Second, the jouag persons ar* rarely kept np all niglit, whioh irfta fcl^^ 
merly not an nmisual oocnrrenee. 

•' Tliirdf labour on the Lerd's-day, it U TOsfidently helieTcd, has boea 
entirely abrogated. 

" Under the old system the health and conirtittttion of many cf th^youBg 
people wero irretriorably destroyed. At present permanent loK of heidUi 
is rarely entailed, and even when eickness does from any cause arifle, akilful 
and prompt adrioo and medicine are proTided at a moderate charge by 
thfl association, 

"In addition to theao and Eimilar ameliorations:, other and more im- 
portant chajiges have been effected. Among the heads of e^JtAbliabmenta, 
as the coimaittee are happy t/> know and mopt willing to record, more ele* 
■vated Tiewg of the duties and refipouBibilitiee, insej*arable from em ploy era, 
haTe secured to the association the aealona co-operation of THimerons and 
influemtJaJ principals, withont whoae aid tJbe efforts of the last few years 
would have been often impeded, or even in many ioBtances defeated. Nor 
haTe the yonng persona engaged in the dressmaking and mUlitiery btisi- 
neas romaiaud QDinflueii'::fxl amidrrt the general iraproTcment, Fiadingtiiat 
a stTEnnouB effort was Id progress to promote their phyEicfll and moral 
welfare, and that increa^d industry on tbeir part would be rewarded by 
diminished boors of work, the assistants haTo become more attentJTC;, 
the workrooms are better naanaged, and both iKtrties, reUeved from a 
Ejstem which wcuB opprassiTe to all and really beneficial to none, have 
recognised the fnndBUPaental truth, that in co Industrial pnrsnit is there 
any «al Incompatibility between the intereste, rightfullj' interjiret^d, 
of the employer and the employed. Although not generally 
known, eTils Bcareely le^a serious than those formerly preraient in the 
metro|>ulia were not UDCumnton in tlie inanufacturing towns and fashionable 
watering-places. It is obriotisly impracticable to aecertftin to what ei 
ihe effoits of the aEsociation have bceii attended with ffuccesfl in the 
rtacss/ hut it rule hs^ I*twn eatabllBhed that in no inatanoe ahali th« ce-o^ 
is^0n of ihe oMoe, in providing assisUntft, be eitt«jELa«4 \» wkj wAafcliahjiiMt 



ia which the Itonrs of work nre known to exceed thorn iikid down bj the 
aagocistioB. On tb«ee ctraditioiiB the prineiijala of many country i^sttkhlieh' 
mente have for SBTeral jsam besn supplied ; Utter ij, indeed, owing to the 
grtiat efficiency of the JUJiaageT, Miaa Newton, &nd to the general iitttisfrw;tion 
thds created, these appHn^tions have so mnch increiistid as to conBtitutf^ a 
pTincipal part of the buBineas of the office ; !vnd with the increase the iaflu- 
emce of the associtUioa hoa been pfoportioniLlly extended." 

Thiii, tui you pt'TcoiTo, was the report for ISfll, Lord SJiaft^bujy haa 
kind I J handed me the hrst proof of the Teport for 1853, from which I 
Bend you a few eitnwta. 

After the publication of the letter from the ladieH of England to 
ladies of Americar, much was said in the Tiraet and other newApapelH.! 
with regard to the condition of the dfe^oijikerg. Thsse things art! wl 
are alluded to in the com mem cement of the report. They say^ — 

'Mn presenting thuir annual report, the comnutteee would In the 
plare refer to the puhHc natioe tha^ h&s lately been directed to the mode 1 
which the dresamaking and millinery basiness is conducted : this they feel 
lie due both to the ftssoeiAtion and to those eiuplujers who haTe co-«per»tedl 
in the good vork of improTement. It haa been stated in fanaier reporta, i^atH^- 
fliuec the first eetablishmeut of tlik ffociety, in the year 1343, and eas^* 
liaHy through its infiueuce, i^>at ameiioratiofie have been secured ; tJiat 
tie inordinate hours of work formerly preralent had, speakiug generally, 
fae«Q gr^tljT reduced ; tliat Sunday labour had been aLuliahed ; thai the 
young people were rarely kept up all night ; and that, aa a consequence 
of th^se improrement^ there bn<d been a marked decrease of fteriousaickn^ea, 
^' At the preeeut moment, iu coDsequencb of tiie statementa that liavfi 
ftppeored in tbe pubhe Journal^ and in order to guard a^onst tmisconcep- 
tione, the committees lire anxious to announce that they perceive no reason 
for withdrawing any of their preceding atatemonta — tiie latest, equally with 
former investigationsj indicating the great imj'roTement effected in recent 
TC&fa. The manager at the office haa been instructed to aiake eiprcsB 
inquiries of the young dresamakora tbemaelTea ; and the result distinctly 
proves that, on the whole, there has b^n amarlied diminution in the houra 
of work. 

"The report of Mr. Trouncser, the noeditMl office* who hafs attended tht, 
larger number of the young persons for whom advice hii,a been proviiled by 
the aseociation, is equally satisfactory. This gentleman, after alluding to 
the great evils in regard to heal th intiicted in former years, remarks tliat 
tJiese have, through the instrumentaiity of the association, been greatly 
ttmeliorated ; that, as regards consumptiou,' — although the nature of th« 
employment itaclf, however modified by kindnCBsi, has a tendency to develop 
tbe disease where the predispoaition exists, — he is ha]>py to state that tlta 
average number of caaes, even in the incipient stage, has not been so great 
as miifht, from the oircnmBtances, have been anticipated j that during the 
llwt two years, out of about two hundred and fifty cases of sicknesa, no 
death has occurred ; and tliat but in a few inMaufies only has it been n&xa' 
Bftry to advise a total cessation of haBiaeBS, Mr. TrouncEr adds — and thia 
iM A Htatenient whi(rh the oomndttees liave much pleasure in announcing^ 
that, i^ the majority of the West End houseis, the principals have^ in e&sea 
of aicknees, acted the part of parentB, evinsbg^mft^Jll»\Sffi^aMSK»^^"^^^^''^'' 




"In SJiIditioa to these satiirfactoTy B.Dd tdialik statements, it Is a metier 
of nimpk justjoe to state that m&nj hauses of bnBliteas have co-operated 
with the awtociatioa in raducing the hours of work, iu improviiig the work- 
xuonw and aleepiag apartmenta, ftud gea&rally in promutiug thtj comfort t£ 
those in their employ. Some employers have aleo very creditably^ and at 
ooneiderable expense^ exerted themselYea to secure a good gystem of veoti- 
lation — a subject to which the committees attach griait importance, both ai 
regmrda the health and o»mft>rt of those employed. 

" It u not, by these atatemonta, intfsnded to be Bwd that all requiring 
amendment has been corrscted, In their laat report the committees re- 
marked that Bome few konsee of business Hjstematicallj pereisted iu exact- 
ing exc^Bire labour from their assistants ; and they regret to state that tkis 
obsarration is still applicable. Tha important subject of ventilatiou U HtUl 
I much iQeigLected, and there is rejLa<m to apprehend that the sleeping aptirt- 
meuts are often muRb ttvercruwded. Another and a mure preTaiiing evil 
rclat&B to the tune aUuwed for meals -. this is oCteu altogether iiisiiffiuient, 
Bad stJ'Oiigly contraated with the custom in other judnfttriiil pui^uits, in 
which one hour for dinner, and half an hour for breakfast or tea, aa the 
CBAa may be, is the usual allowance. In an occupation so sedentary as 
dretismaking, and especially in the oksis of young females, hurried meals are 
most injurious, and are a frequent cause of d^aa^ed health. It la also tk^ 
painful duty of the committees to state that in Bomeei^tahlisbments, lu^ord- 
ing to the medical report, the principals, in cases of aickuei^, will nether 
allow the young people an opportunity of calUng on the medical ofilcer for 
hi» advice, uor permit that gentleman to Tlsit them at the place of buaineaL 
' The erda reanlting from this absence of aU proper feeling are so obTious that 
it is hoped this public rebuke will in future obviate the necessity of reouf- 
ringto BO painful a tiipisj," 

The eymmittee after this proceed to publish the folio wiug declftration, 
signed by fifty -three of the West End dressmakers :— 

" *We, the undersigned prineipala of inilUnery and dressmaking esta- 
blisbmcnta at the West End of London, having observed in the newspapers 
BtAtements of exeeatiive labouj in out business, feel called upon, in self* 
di; fence, to make thefoUo^'iug public statement, especially aa we baye reason 
to believe that some of the assertions contained in the letters published in 
the uewspspers are not wholly groundless :— 

•' ' 1. During the greater portion of the year we do not require tbe young 
people in our eatabliahments to work more than twelve hours, inclusive of 
&Be hour and a half formeaU: from March to July we reqnije them to 
work thirteen hours and a half, nllo^'ing during that time one hour a r^at 
fax: dinner, and half an hour's rest for tea, 

" ' 2, It has been our object to provide Hui table sleeping accommodationa, 
and to avoid overcrowding. * 

" * 3. In no cnae do wo require work on Sunday s, or all night, 

"'4. The food we supply ia of the beat quality, and anllmitod in 
fjUantity.' " 

Five of these dreesmaketa, whose uamea are designated by stars, eigned 
with tlie understanding tkat on rare oecaaiona the hours might poodbly be 
' exceeded. 

^Iie iismaikji which the committee make, consider ing that it baa upon its 
^M iJis most m^uentiai and distiaguiidied Wka of the London world, are, 



I tlLink, TOrtb attemtion, as aha wing the atrong moral influence 'wIiklinnLBt 
thtisbe brought to bear, both on the tmde and on fashionable society, by this 
aasociatioa. They first remark, with nega-rd to tboge eilfployera who signed 
wTtli the reserrotioa alluded to, that th«y have every itsasou to believe that 
the feeling which prompted this quEilificatioii itt to be rcspeated, h^ it ori- 
giuated in a determiimtion not to uadertake more than thej honestly in-j 
tended to perform. m 

They say of the document, on the 'whole, that, thoagh not realiiiitig all" 
the YKWS of the oasouiation, it mast bo regarded aa crBditable to those who 
bare signeil it, since it indicates the most important advance yet made to- 
wards tbe improvement of the dressmaking aiid millinery boBiness. Tlie 
comaiitteea theu go on to express a mo&t decided opinioa, first, that the hours 
ef work in the dressmaking trade ought not to exceed ten per diem ; sacond^ 
that during th<? fashionable season ladies should employ sufficient time for 
the execution of their orders. 

The influence of this association, as will be seen, has extended all over 
England. In Manchester, a paper, signed by three thousand ladies, waa 
presented to the prindpals of the eatabliabments, de^dring them to »do] 
the rules of the London assoeiataon. 

I mentioned, in a former letter, that the lady mayoress of London, w 
the ladies of the city, held atneetmg on the subject only a sbort time aim 
witli a view of carrying the same improvement through all the establijibnientB 
of that part of London. The lady mayoress and five others of tliis meat- 
ujg consented to add iheir names to the committee, so that it now represanta 
the whole of London. The Bisthop of London and eeveral of the clergy 
ertend tlaeir patronage to the association. 






— GKoami TK0iii'»03r.^jiLj,£:r cuorxs. 

Dear S, :^ 

The next ilay we went to hear a sermon in behalf of the ragged schools, 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The cbildreu who attended the ragged 
scliools of that particular district were eeuted in the gallery, each side of 
tho orgsn. As this was the Sunday appropriated to the eitercise, all three 
of the creeds were read — the ApoatlesV, Atbanasian, and Nicoae ; all wliiti* 
the little things repeated after the archbishop, with great decorum, ; 
probably with the same amount of underatanding that we, when childre 
had of the Assembly's Catechism. 

The venerable archbishop waa ushered into the pnlpit by beiadles, witil _ 
gold lace cDcketi hats, striking the ground majoatieally with their long 
staves of office. His sermon, however, was aa simple, clear and beautiful 
ftn esposition of the duty of practical Christianity towards the outcast and 
eniny as 1 ever heard. He said that, should we tiiid a young child waiL- 
dering away frijm ita home and friendk, we abu\i\<i 'VDaS.m^sCv*^'^ I'w^ '^ ^^^^ 
duty to restore Ue JittJo wauderer ; and evwiii, \iei ^\i, S& ^"^ ^i«*J3 ^^ '=''** 




to ill t]ie» yQtuag oateuto, who hiul fitrayed from Hoe hexm c^ tbdr 

Afker the lermoit tb«r to&k op » ooUectinn ■ and when wa went lute ika 
Vestry to ife»k to ib& ardibiabop, we haw him EViTTcwBded bj the efaiud)- 
inin]«B% cottnUug orer iiio money. 1 notloed in tliti back, P^^ <>' ^ 
irch a niunber of children in tAitered K&rment^ vith, niib«r a forloiv 
wild appeomnce, and waa tcdd that tLeeo wsne thoefi who hod jpii bMU 
oducsed into tlie tichool, and bad nat been there long encngli to oe]a« 
nritki- its mmliffing i»dii«nc€a. We were told thai tlney were ahra^V tbtti 
torn and fLiTlorn in thulr appearsiioe at fiist, hot ^at they gradually fawk 
pBin!} to make tbemselTeB rmpeetekhle. The archbishop mid^ pleasantljf 
*' When tliey Tetam to tbair right uiliid they appear chtkcd, alao^ aod 
Bitting ,it the fe«i of Jesna.^' 

The archbiMbop sent nte aftorw^irdg a heauiiful edition of his Bermoiisl 
Chrt«<ti!in charity, cmbnieing a series of diEcoorsea on various topieBj 
prtkctioal benevolence, relating to the elevation and christianization df i 
masses. They are written with thu ftanie pnritj of Btyle, and show 
aame devout and benevolent spirit with his other writinp. 

Jly tlioughts were much saddened to-day by the news, which I reeaiv^d 
thie wevk, of iba dea^ of Ma-ry Edmonson. It ia not for het that I qoQ' ' 
weep ; far she died as calmly and serenely at ehe lived, re8%QiD[^ her i 
into the ban da of her Shriour. What I do weep for is, that under the 1 
of roy CGuntiy — and that coantiy a ChriHtian one — such a Hfe aa Ma^y'a 
could have been lived, aod bo little said or done ahont It. 

In the afternoon I went to the deanery of St. TaaVs — a retired building 
in a deep court oppt>.4te tlie cathedral. After a britf couTerBation witii Mr, 
and Mrs, Mil man,, we went to the cathedral. I had never seen it liefoj 
find v.'M touch impressed with the majpsty and grace of tke itit&riil 
NeirerthelGSB, the Italian style of archit-ecture, with all its ekpincw, 
to aflbct me equally with the Gothic. The very rudenesH of the latter, 
something inchoate and onfinisbed^ is BJgnificaijt of matter stniggUng 
religions idcaa too vast to he fully expressed. Ev<;n as la the an client 
Scripturea ibare are ideaa which Be«n to overtask the powen of hun»an_ 
lanpnagq. I eat down with Mr«. M, in one of the little corapartmentK, < 
attdtf, as they are called, into which the galleriea are divided, and whii 
arc richly carvftl in bliici: oak. The whole service was chanted by a 6ha 
expresaly trained for the piirpos*. Some of the perfoTroerB ar« boya ©f 
about thtrteeo yearn, aitc) of beantifu] countenanoeB^ There ifl a pectiliar 
mrinner of rcadinf? tbe service practised in the oathedTala, wbicb is called 
*' intoning.^' H IB a plaintiv{>, rythmical chanty with aa string an mnetion 
of the nasa! as ever prevailed in a Quaker or Mathoiltst meeting, I caancrl 
exactly understand why Episcoparjy threw out the alur of "naaal Iwmg" 
sa one of the pecpHaHtieB of the conventicle, when it is in full foroe in tli* 
moat approved weats of church orthodoiy, I listened to all in as unctitioal 
aad sj^pathetie A spirit Off posqibte, giving myaelf np to he lifted by the 
masic aa, high as it cunld waft me. To one thus listenbg, it ia impossible 
to critiotBe witli Beverity^ for, nnlens positively ofTensive, any music beoomca 
beautiftd by the po^ver of fFympathy and aaaoc'intion. After Berviee wa 
Bstaned io a short sermon from the llcv, Mr. Villiera, fervent, affetatiiMiafce^ 
jmd er^gvJle^I in apirit, and much in th* geiwrd rtyle of iermomxiag 
tr&j'eh Ijlu^re *Ireadj deeoribed. 






Ji Mr, 

nia n 


ME. COBPEJr- 305 

Monday morning, May 23, We went to breaklut at Mr. Cubdeu'a, 
Mr, C. 13 a man of sbader fmras, rather uDder than over the middle bkb, 
with great ease of matiner, and feribiHtj of moTOinentj and the most fraask, 
fsuBeinntiag smile. His upp^anuiOE) la a saffide&t &0(X>unt of hia populatity, 
foT he aeemfi to be one of thc»<i men who ofiTTT bbout them an atmo^phera 
of TiTacity and mcltd exhilaration. We Iiad a verj pleasftnt add aooial tims, 
diBPUSsing ami eumpfirJng thinga iti England and America. Mr. Cobden 
aaaur^ ne that He hcKl hiid curioti^ ualls from Amerioaufi, soiQetimes. 
Onee an editor of a small village paper called, who had been mftkiiif & totir 
through the mral di^inctE of England, He said that lie liad oaked eoma 
movers how they were prsjuspering. They answered, "We ain't proeperin' ; 
we're hayin'," Said Cobdea, '* 1 told ths man, ' Now doit't you go home 
wid pnbliah that in yoni- paper;' bnt he did, nevertheless, and sent me 
over the paper with the story in it." I might iiave oomfortad him with 
toivoy a similar anecdute of Aineri<yins, aa for example, the man who was 
dead set a;5niiiKt a tariif, *' 'cauEse ho knew if they once got it, they'd run 
the old tliiiiia: rijlit through his farm;" or those immortal feunsylvaaia 
Dutehmen, Who, to this day, it Is said, give in all their votes under tbeaolemn 
conviction that they are upholding General Jackfdon'a administration. 

The coTiversation ttinied on the qutistion of the cultivation of cotton by frt 
labour. The Lmp<irtance of this great measure waa fnlly appreciated by MrJ 
Cobden, as it miisdi be by all. The diffiftultiefl to be o^ercomu in eatftbli^inji 
the movement were no leas clearly Been, and ably pointetl out. On th« whol^^ 
the ccTOpariBtin of views was not only interesting in a high degreH, but touB, 
at least, eminently profitable. We veutured to aug'ar favoumtrly to tlii 
cause from the indications of that interview. 

From this 'breakfti.'rt we retnnjed to ditie at Surrey parsonage ; and, afte*; 
dinner, attended Misa Greonfield's concert at Bbufford House. Mr. S. conl( ' 
not attend on account of so sonn leaving town. 

The ooncert ro<onk was the brilliant and pictnrflsque hall I haTO before 
described to yon. It looked more picituredikeand dreamy than ever. The 
piano was on the flat stairway just below the broad catttral landing. It wna 
a grand piano, standing end outward, nad perfectly intnktd Kjo ^^monji,; litA- 
liooae fiowere, so that only its gilded top was TJaible. Sir (.teiMTj;e Swart 

Clded. The dioicest of tbe ^iite were there. Lailies in demi-toiltt and 
teted. MiBB tiTeenfleld stood aoiNog tku singers on the stairt:usti, anil 
excited a sympathetic murmur among the audience. She is not handsome^ 
but loolied very well. She has a pleaaiuf; dofk face, wore a bla^ik velv< ' 
headdresa and white comctian mir rings, a bbick mohr uatigue silk, naadi 
high in the neck, with white lace falling sleovea and white gloves. A ear' 
taju gentleness of manner and self-poaseBaion, the Teenlt of the uuiveritail:! 
kindness sbowti her, sat welt npon her. Ohevalier Bunson, the Pniftsian 
amhassftdcir, sat by me. He looked at her with much inter^t. " Are the 
ince often as good looking ? '* he said. I said, * ' Sh& is n*'t handsome, csom* 
pnred witt many, thougt I confess die looks nncommonly well to-day." 

Among the coinpawy present I noticed the beantifnl Marchionei^ij nf Staf- 
heA. I have spoken of her once iicfure ; bnt it is difficult to dcBcribe hor, 
tbere is something so perfectly simple, yet elegant, in her ap]M}aninoe ; but 
it has cut itself like a cameo in my memr>ry— a figure Under the middle 8izia^?_ 
peifeatly moulded, dressed simply in black, a Viea,xvv\^ V'Si^^ \iism ^ ^^ 
Madonfuit (irnJim^tit^ bj a Land of gold coina Qft\Aa)^'^^^feV'. ^^ftsA**- 





BiTinrr ushobtbs ot toeeton zxtos. 

the aame krod Micircling her throat is the otily relief to the sevei« aiinpli 
of her dreaa. 

The sijiging was beautiful. Six of th« moat cultiTated glee singers «f 
Laudon s&ng, among other tlungi) "Spiiug'a delights are now retuming," 
and "Where the bee sucks there lurk I." The duchess said, " Tliesegtees 
are pecTiliarlj Englifih.'' It waa indeed delightful to heat Shakspeare'a 
aerial worda uiMla rofal witluix die walls of thia faiiy palara. The dachem 
hofi a strong niLtiGnalitj ; luid niitiouahtf , alwaya interesting, nerer appeals 
in SQ captivating Ji form as when it expresses itself through a beautiful atid 
finltiTatcd woman. One likes to see a person identifying one's self with a 
country, and she emhraeeJi England, with its hiatory, its strength, its aplMi- 
dour, its moral power, with an evident pride and ali'ection which I love to 

Mies Greenfield's turn for singing now came, and there was piufotuid 
attention. Her voice, with ita keen, eearehitig fire, its penetrating, vihrant 
quality, its *' timhrc,-* as the French have it^ cut it« way like a Da,iuascrDs 
bl&dE! to the henrt. It was the more tduohing from occassonal ntstkitieB 
and ortiBtic defects, which showed that she had red^ved no culiture ftom 

She Bang the ballad, "Old folks at home,*' giving one verte in tJi« 
eoprono, and another in the tenor Ti>iee. 

As she Btood partially coneealed by the piano, ChetaUcr Btinsen thonght 
that the tenor pitrt was performed by one of tlie gentlemen. He was per- 
fectly astonished when he discovered that it was by her. Thia was rapW- 
ously encored. Between the parts Sir George took her to the piano, and 
trieti her voice by skipa, striking notes hers and there at irindom, without 
oonncxiun, from D in alt to A first space in Baas clef : she ful lowed with 
unerring precision, striking the scmnd nearly at the eame Instajtt hia finder 
touched the key. This brought out a burst of applauaa. 

After the cnncert we walked throufjh the rooms. The effect of the groups 

of people sauntenng thiijugh the hall or looking down from the galleries was 

picture-like. Two of the duke's Higlilaud piperSj iu fnU costume, playing 

their bagpipes, now made their appHartince, atid began to promeaade the 

-talk, playing. Their dress reminds me, in its effect, of that of our Ameri- 

Ifian Indiana, and their playing is wild and harliaric. It had a striking effect 

|«mong these wide halb and corridors. There is nothing poetic connected 

With the history and position of the family of which the fair owner of the 

lialls does not feel the power, and which she cannot use with artistic skill 

in heightening the enchantmente of an entertainment. 

Rev. B. K. Ward attrsicted attention in the company, as a fuIl-hlo(}ded 
Jncan, tall enough for a palm tree, I observed hi in in conversation with 
' J dukea, «nd ambassadors, sustaining himself modestly, but witk self- 
' poaseaaion. All who converse with him are satisfied that tlna-e i^ no native 
difference between the Afric&ti and other men. 

The dnchesa took me to tixjk at a mi>del of Dunrohiu — their castle on the 

Sutherland estate. It is in the old French chateau style in general archi- 

tflcture, something like the print of Ulamniis. It is curious that the FreQcb 

hitecture has ohtadned in Scotland. Her grace kindly Invited me to vt^ 

unrubin on my return to Scotland in the autumn, taking it after luvexttjft. 

^Thjs will be delightful. That Scottish coast I lovo abaoat like iDy < — — 



Lord SiafteaTiury waa tliere. He came and spoke to us after tlie conoertJ 
Speaking of Miss Greenfield, he said, ** I consider the nse of theaa haXls 
the encourogeioent of an OTitcaat race, s constcratioTi, Thia is the true u» 
of wealth and splendour when it k empluyed to ndse up and encourage the 
despijsed aad forgotten/' 

In the oveniug, though Tery weary^ C. perauaded me to aodept an inyita- 
tian to hear the Creation, at Exeter Hall, performed by the London Saj^red 
Harmonic Society. They had Wndly reserr^d a gallery for us, and when 
WB w**nt, in Mr. Surmfin, the founder and for tventy years ctondnctor of the 
society, presented me with a beautifully bound copy of the Creation. 

Ha'Tiug never lieard it before, I could not compare the performance with 
others, I heard it aa I should hear a poem read, shupty thinking of the 
author's ideas, anil not of the style of reading. Haydn 1 vraa thinking of, 
— the bright, brilliant, cheerful Haydn, — who, when complained of for 
makin;^ church music into dancing tunes, replied, "When I think of God, 
my soul la always so full of joy that I want to dance I" Thia Creation is a 
descriptive poem— the garden parts unite Thomson ajid Milton's style — the 
whole effect paatoral, yet brilliant. I wna never more animated. 1 had 
had a new eKperifinoa ; it is worth while to know nothing to have such a 
fresh sensation. 

The next day, Tuesday, May 24, we went to lunch with Miee R., at 
Oxford Terrace. Among a number of dietinguiehed guests waK Lady Byron,, 
with wbora I had a few momenta of deeply interesting converwatiou. N) 
engmTinga that ever have been circulated of her in America do any justii 
to her appeiLrance. She is of a alight figure, formed with exceeding delicacy, 
and her whole form, l^e, drssa, and air unite to make an impreE^siou of 
character stngnlarly dignified, gentle, pure, and yet strong , No wo: 
addressed to me in any conversation hiUierto have aajde their way to lai 
inner soul with aircli fonw as a few reiriark.** dropped by her on the preflentl 
i^ligioua aspect of England — remarks of such li quality an one seldom heai:^.. 

Lady Byron's whole course, I have I{?arned, has been one made veitertit: 
hy consigtent, active benevolence. I was happy to find in her the patrom 
of oar American outcasts, William and Ellen Crafts. She had receivi 
them into the schools of Uer daughter. Lady Lovelace, at Occum, and now 
spoke in the highest terms of their character and proficiency in study. 
The story of their misfortunes, united with their reputation for worth, had 
produced auch an impression on the simple country people, that tbey 
always respactfully touch their hats when meeting them. Ellen, slje saya, 
has become mother of a Kiosit beautiful childj and their friends are now 
making an effort to put them into some little business by which they may 
obtain a anpport. 

I oonld not hut observe with regret the evident fragility of Lady ByTon*j 
health ; yet wliy iibould I regret it f Why wish to detain her© those wliose' 
home is e\'idcntly from hence, and who will only then fully live when the 
sliadow we call life ia passed away? 

fiiwe^ alao, I waa peraoually introduced to ii lady with whom I had 
paisetl many a dreamy hour of sfiiritnol communion — Mrs. .Tamesoo, 
ytrhom works on art and artists were for years almost my only food for 
certain claas of longings. 

Mrs, Jaracson la, the most charming of crities, wiiVi tW ^\l\i., (s*^! 
little prizodj of diacoreriag and pointitig QUt bfea.u\iea TO.'OtiaT x^saaa. isSssivft "• 



strKrr memostbi o? foeeign laitm. 

it g^ 

beauties which we miy often have fwwseil ramotieed, but which^ when so 
pointed ontj nerer again concaal Uiemselvea, This shows itaelf particuJju'ly 
in her " ChMi-acberiatica of Shfltapeartt'a Wirtneu," a critiqae whieh oulj ii 
true woiiia.u cxivlM havtJ written. 

She seemed mthcT i^ui|iris&{l ti) find me inqniriug aboui art uid arUsiff. 
I ask^l her where one might go to stndy thai BabJ»?t mofit proltablf, and 
her answer wRa, tn Munich. 

By her side >tM Mr«, Chiaholro, the author of UioBe heiievoleut moTs- 
unenta for the emigmnte, which I have mentioned to joa. Sho Is a Gtout^ 
practical lookiug woman, who impre&aeajou with the idea of x^i-fect health, 
exuberaut life, xad an ir«m couatitutiun. Her £i£« ezpreseei^ dt^didoTi, 
energjr^ and good sense. Bho is a wosmu of few words, ever^ moiueat 
of whoae time seema preciutia. 

One of her remarks struck me, from the quiuut force with which it i 
tittered. " I found," mid slie, "if we wimt auytliing do^ie, we mtist i^ 
to wnrk suid do; it ia cf no M»a U t,Uk, uont; whatever. " It ia tlia eecrei 
of iicr life's Bucceaa. Mra. Oiishoim ftrat l>c;g&n liy daimj on a sm>al) i 
whht (ili& WAtited done, aiul people sBeing the result fcU iu with and hell 
her ; hut to have Minvinced them of the feasibility of hor plans by Udkil^ 
witliout tlia practical dcmonstratioiij wguld have been imposi^ible. 

At thin rfsani&n^ aim, wb« Mr. George Thoiupaoii, whom I had never 
seen hafore, and ms-ny of tho w&rmost friends of the slave. During this 
yiisit I w*s taken ill, juid obliged ta return to Mr. Guniey's, where I wed 
indiBposef! duiing the remaindei- of the day, and labe In the eveainjg i 
home tfj Surrey parBonagc. 
Tho next evening, Wednesday, May 29, we attended an ajitialar 
^.#©ifr<*f, at Willis's r«>[>m8, formerly known as Alioaek's; so at least I 
.^d. A number of large rooma were thrown opein, brilliantly lighted i 
adorned, and fiUetl with throngs of people. Iji the course of tJio eve 
we went upon the platform iit the large hall, where an addresa was pre- 
fiented by S- Bowley, Esq,, of (ikinoeBter. It was oae of the jnost bea*rtiful, 
BBoaiblfi, judicious, and Christiim addxee^Hfls tiiat <»>uld lu).ve beL>n m&fle, 
and I Ustened to It with uumlngled pleasure. In reply, Mr. S. took 
fjctausiou still further to explain hiy views. wilJi respect to the &ee-gr«wa 
cotton moveiuejit in Bnglajid, and its bearings on iiie future progresB of Uii 
cause of freedom.* 

After t-lie addresses w« dispersed to different roomSf where refreshment 
tables were bomitifully Inid out and adorned. By my side, at one end n 
them, was a youug female nf pleamng exterior, with fine eyea> delicate ] 
»on, neatly dressed in white. She was introducfid to me as Ellen Cn 
a name memorable in Boston annals. Her hui^banil, a ple^iaant, intellig 
young man, with handsome mnunera, was there also. Had it uot beein j 
my introduetinn I could never have fancied Ellen to have been Miy 
than some Enj^bah girl wltJi rather a paler cheek than common. She 
very sweet manners, and uscb itnwjmmonljf eorrect and beautiful lftn£UH|g&^ 

• W# art ha^T tw »y tbp*. a Iftrge body of reUpouR prvsotiH In Grfnt Briioiii ha 

IwfiQnte^ f4<TQ?T!obif& to 1ih»u> vi^wa. A Tii^oiroua bxrietjr biwt lk(wn t'^tul.tlinlied, L'otidiiti.'' 

India reform and free cultfln with tho rtntialtivpry c&usp. Thu Eur) .tf jUhf^innrlc inn_ 

whUe WL» werw m Londaii, ii vigorotia ladia relbrm speeib in fhp Hi>i4»p5 of LiOfdft, «i 

Messtyi. Briffbt and Cohiien me fully m fur iiu Muue objocrt in the Coasmoaii, Th«i 

SB luadi hupem the movenaent. 


lusM I 


Let it not be supposod that, vlih sxn^h miu^^vs. an tliKSS among ihwa, 
KngHeh brethren have derived tkeir firet practical knowledge of elavt 
IroDii Uncle Tom's C&h'm. Tho mere knuwttjdge that iwo such person* 
Wlliiiiin aod Ellen Crafta hare been rated fta murchantftble Cfjinmoditwa, in any 
conn try hut oora trould be a aofficieat ctunment on the sjBtem. 
We retired early after a rery s^eeabie efveuitig. 


My usAii CouaiiT 1— 

Thia. morning Lord Sbaftesbsry camet ftccording t<t J^ppointment, to tnke 
me to nee the Mudel Lrxlging Houses. He reiraftiketl that it wonJd be m- 
possiblfl to give me th« fall effect of seeing them, unless I could first yiait the 
flensof filth, diaeoae, and de^adation, in which the poor of Lr>ndoQ feimerlj 
were lodged. With a good deal of BatiBfaction he told me that the Aine- 
rican mbister, Mr. Ingetijoll, preYlons to karing London, had requssted 
the polica tQ take him over the dirtieat and laoat nn^vbi>leaome parts of it^ 
that he might see the lowest as w^ll as the highest sphere of London life. 
After this, hoffeTor, the policeman took him thiungh the ba.thi>, Wft«h- 
honsaei, and model lodging houses, Tvliidi wa were going to visit, and he 
expresaed himf^elf both surprised and delighted Mritb tke improvement that 
hftd been made. 

We first Tisited the lodging house for sLngla men in Cbarlfta-atrfct, Draiy- 
lans. This wna one of the first experiments made inthia litie, und to effect 
the thing in the most economical ruanuer iwseible, three old houses were 
bought and thrown into one, and fitted up for the purpoBo, On the ground 
&CinT we saw the superintendent's apartment, and a Isj'ge, long aitting- 
TOdia, famished with beaehea, and olesn, scoured tables, where the lumate^i 
were, Romu of them, reading books or pa]>er8 : the day being wet, perhaps, 
kept them from their work. In the kitchen were ample cooking occom- 
modatiotjjj, and each inmate, as I understand, cmjk» for hijuself. Lard 
Shaftesbury said^ that Bomethkg like a common table bad been tried, bnt 
that it was found altogotbar eafller or more satis^tory for each one to Euit 
hiinself. On this floof, (dso^ was a bathing room, and a well-selected 
library of useful reading booka, hialorv, travels, &c. On the next floor 
were the dormitories— a grsat hall divided b/ boaril partitions into little 
Bleeping ceUs about eight feet square, eiwdi containing a neat bed, chair, 
nnd stand. The partition does not eitewl quite up to the wall, and by 
this means while each inmate enjoys the privaciy of a amaU room, be baa all 
the comfort of breathing the air of the whole hall. 

A working tuan returning from bia daily toU to this place, can first oiijofj 
ihB comfort of a bath ; then, going Into iJie kitchen, make his cup of ^ 
nr coffee, and sitting down at one of the clean, icoured tables in the alttio^ 
roum, aip bis tea, and look o¥er a book. Or a firieudly company may pn 
jNire their supper and sit down to tea together. Lord Shaftesbury said _ 
that the effect produced on the men by anch a,n aTTa.uijistti^?iA Ni^s&iH^sBAsaAsiw. 
TJiey betame deceMt, dscoroufff and BeH-reapBcttu^. TLWi TfissBaftSt 'C^ik**^ ^ 


order fot tLeir cominumtj'. They eubscribed far thdj libraty from ih 
own enmitiga, and the bcwka are mostlj cf their own selection. "It 
itiEiarkable/' aaid Mb lordship, * ' that of their own wseord they declddt 
reject every profaae, indecent or immoral work. It ehowed,'' he skii 
"how Strang are the influences of the surroundings in reforming or minh 
the character," It should b« remarked that oil these advantage!! are 
enjoyed fnr the saaie price char;ged by the most crowded and filthy of 
lodging houses, namely, fonrpence per ulght, or two shillings pn3r week. 
The huilding will accommodate dghty-two. The operatioQ supports iteelf 

I jsKould remark, hy the by, that in order to test more fatly tbc prActi- 
Cftbillty of the thing, this was accomplished in one of tho worst neighbour- 
hoodfl in London. 

Frrao these we proceeded to -riew & more perfect specimen of the same 
Bort in the Model Lodging Houae of George Street, Bloom sbury Square, ti 
house which waa built de noro, for the purpose of perfeetlj illustrating the 
principle. This house acconunodatea one hundred and four working mi 
and combines everything eesential or valuablo in such an establishmea' 
complete ventilation and drTvinage ; the use of a distinct living room 
kitchen and a washhonae, a hath, and an ample supply of water, and 
the convenieaceB which, while promoting the physical comfort of the in- 
mates, tend to increase their self-reapect, and elevate them in the scale of 
moral and intellectual heinga. The aixangement of the principal apart- 
ments ia such as to insfuts economy as well lut domestic comfort, 
kiti^lien and waahhousc being furnished i»^ith every requisite conveniem 
including a bath sDpplitid with hot and cold water - aleo a separate 
well -ventilated sufe for the food of each inmate. Under the care of the 
superintendent in a small, but well-iselected library. 

The common room, thirty- three feet long, twenty-three feet wide, and 
tea feet nine inches high, is paved with white tiles, laid on brick aroliea, 
and on each side are two rows of ttiblea with seats ; at the fireplace is a 
constant supply of hot water, and above it are the roka of the establish- 
ment. The titaircEise, whidi occupies the centre of the buiirling, is of 
stone. The dormitories, eight in number, ten feet high, are subdivided 
with moveable wot:id partitions six feet nine inches high; each compartment, 
enclosed by its owu dijor, is fitted up with a bod, chair, and clothes hoi, 
A shaft is carried up at the end of every room, the ventilation through it 
being assisted by the introduction of gas, wlilch lights the apartment. A 
similar shaft is carried up the fltaircaae, supplying fresh air to the dorm! 
tories, with a provimoa for warming it, if necesBaxy, The washing cl* 
on each floor are fitted up with slate, having japanned iron hadnB, 
water laid on. _ 

During the fearful ravageis of the eholera in this immediate neighlviir'- 
hood, not one case occurred in this house among its one hundred and four 

From this place we proceeded to one, if anything, more interesUng to me. 

ThiEs wati upon the same prindple appropriated io the lodgment of single 

women. When one considers the defenceless condition of single women, 

who labour for then- own subsistence in a large dty, how easily they ure 

impomd tipOB and oppressed, and how quickly a conatitiition may be 

d^ttojr&d for wjUkt of pore air, fresli "waiter, aad othdt (^atmnon neoBesort^ 








of life, one fully cppredates the worth of a large and beautiful 
which provides fur thia oppresaad, fra^e clf^. 

The ThaDkBgiviD^ Model Buildings at Portpool laup, Gray's Idti, are 
fio called becaueo tbey were built witli a thank-offering collected in the 
YaritJUB religious aocieties of London, a^ an appropriat^c cippeseion of their 
gratitude to God for the rcmoTal of the cholera. This hlock of huildingsj 
has in it accommodations for twenty families, and one hnudred and twenty^ 
eight eingle women ; tojjether with a public washliouae, and a krgc eellarJ 
in which are stored away the goods of those women who liTe by tha 
huckster's tmde. 

The hundred and twenty -eight eingle women, of whom the majority are 
Bupposed to be poor Deedlewoineu, occupy elxty-fuur rooms in a building of 
fonr stories, divided by a centml Btaircaae ; a corridor on either eide forma 
ft lobby to eight rooma, each twelve feet six uich(?a lon^, by nine feet six 
inches wide, sufficiently large for two persons. They ara fitted up with 
two bedheads, a table, cbaira, attd a washing-stand. Tbe charge ia one 
ehilUng per week for each person, or two shillings per roam. 

Lord Shaftesbury took me into one of iJie rooms, where w^as an aged 
female partially bedridden, who maintained herself by sewing. The room 
was the picture of ncatnoBts and comfort ; a good supply of hot and cold 
water was furnished in it. Her work was spread out by her upon the bed, 
together with her Bible and hynin Ixiok - she looked ehcerfnl and comfort^ 
nhle. She seeiaed pleased to see Lord Shaftesbury, whom slie had evidentT 
seen many times before, aa bis is a familiar countenance in all these plai:c«n 
She expressed the most fervent thankfulness for tbe quiet., order, and 
comfort of her pleasant lodgings, comparing tliem very feelingly with what 
used to be her condition before any such place had been provided. 

From this place we drove to the Strentham Street Irfulgtng House for 
f^imUies. Tbifl building is, in the first phice, fire-proof ; in the second, 
the separation in the parts belonging to different famlHea is rendered com- 
plete and perfect by the use of hollow brick for the partitions, which en* 
tirely preventa, aa I am told, the transmission of sound. 

By meatia of the sleeping dotset adjoiuiTig the liTing room, each dwelling 
affords tiirce good sleeping apartments. The meat safe preserves provisions. 
The dust flue is bo arranged that all the sweepings of the house, and all 
the refuse of the cookery, have only to be thrown down to disappea p^M 
for ever ; while the sink is supplied to ati unlimited extent with hot an^^f 
cx)Id water. These gjdieiies, into which every tenement opens, run roua^^H 
the inside of the hollow ctmrt which the building encloses, and afford an 
admirable play-placo for the little children, out of the dangers aud tenip-^ 
tations of tho street, and in view of their respective mothers. "" 

"ffow," said Lord Shaftesbury, as he waa fihowing mo through tie 
tenements, which were motkls of neatness and giwd keeping, "you mnil 
bear in mind that these aro tenanted by the very people who onra were 
Hving in the dirtiest aud filthiest lodging houses ; people whom the world 
said, it did no good to try to help ; that they liked to be dirty better than 
dean, aiid would be dirty under any drcumstauces," 

Ho added tho following anecdote t^j show the effect of poor lodgings m 
degrading the charact«T. A fine young man, of smjas, CBEisa^«c!idS.v. \»sSy& 
and talent, obtained hia living by dedgniug Tpattjenvft l^it "^^ii ■^w^Kt. ^ 
hji^ and expesdve lUneae eo reduced Ma di(!fimuAKQ5K&, ViusAi^s^^'**^ ««o3^ 



213 strsmr memories of fobeiqk lajitds, 

to wseto^e t« one {^f these bw, Ulthy IcnJ^ng hon«ea alroadf allad^ to, Fran 
thftt time be becfune an altci-ed man - hh wife eaid th^t lifi k»t all tneiisri 
all taste iQ deagtimg, lore ttf reiuiiiLg, and fundaesa for his iomilj ; beg&a 
to iTOqwent drinking ohopaj uid was visibly on tba roatl tin min , Bear**^ 
of tliew Itxlguig honseB, be Bncceeded in rentmg a tenemcal. in one of tbi 
&r tbe Bame stun wbicb be bad paid for the miaerable dwelling. Di 
1^ infiuence of a neat, airy, pleasant, domafitlc home, the mau^a ' 
ire agsia awok«, but health itn pruned, ba ceased to ctave ardent a; 
bii firmer ingmiuitjr in bia profeBsiun ruturned. 

'**Now, this ebon's," Gaid Lord SJiaftoBboiy, "that hiindreda may lia' 
been milled simply by living iii roiserabie dwellings." 1 looked into thit 
yonng man'a tenement ; it wa^ not oaly neat, but ornamented witb a great 
variety of engroTings tastefully fliaposttd upon thu wall. On my exp: 
my p!ea»ure lu tkis circumstaiice, he added, "It ie ime of the pleas 
Statures of the case, to notica bow soon tbey began to orsament tb^r 
dwelUags; name hove cages with ainging binl% and some pota of flo' 
plants ; some, piuturca and engraving,^. ^' 

•* And are these buildings jsuucessful La a pecuniary prjijit of vie»f* I 
aid. " Do tbey pay their own way V 

" Ym," be replied, "they do. I consider that these buildinga, if tbey 
bays doae noihmg more, have eatabli&bed two points ; irst, that the poor 
do Dui prefer dirt and disorder, where it ia pcif^ble for them to aecure 
Uflatness and nrder ; and second, that buddings with every proper nccoon- 
modatiou can be affkjrded at a price which will support au establishment." 

Siiid Ij " Atb people imitating these Ivdgmg houses vtitj rapidly f* 

" To a gPDBt extent they are," he replieil, "but not so much as I dsriin. 
Buildings on these principles have bean erected in the principal towns of 
Englaad and Scotland, The state of the miaerable dwellings, coui-ts, alleys, 
&e., is the consequence of the neglect of former days, "when Bpecula* 
and builders were allowed to do as tbey liked, and run up hoTsls, wb( 
the working man, whoist house muBt be regulated, not by bis eboioe;, I 
by bia work, waa (:ompeUt.d then, as ho ia now, to live, however maron^^ 
UBhealtby. or repulsive tba place might be. This waa calJod ' the liberty 
of the subject.' " It has been ono of Lord Shaftesbury ^s most arduous 
parliamentary labours to bring the lodging liouses uuder govenunental 
regolatioa. Be told me that bs inttiodno^ a bdl to thi» effect in the Hoiiae 
of Oomnions, whils a member, as Lord Asldey, and that just as it had' 
piBsed tJirougb the House of Commons, he enteretl the House of Lords, as 
Lord SbtifUisbury, and so had th£ aatisfaotion of carrying the bill to Its 
completion in that house, where it passed In the year 1851. Tb^j provi- 
sion b of this bill reciuire every keeper of a lodging house bii register bis 
uame at the metropuiitan pnllct} uHice, under a penalty of a Ane of five 
pounds for every lodger reneivod before this is doae. After having givaa- 
notioe to the police, tbi^y are not allowed to receive lodgers until the offiomt 
have inspected tbe boujse, to see wliethtT It acmrds with the rtquiretl ^^f^H 
ditionj. These cojiditioTis are, that tho walls and ouilijigB be wliitewBslied|^H 
iiai the MooTB, j^tairw, beds, and lieflclothes are L'leau ; that there be som^^B 
Jtiode of ventlLitiDg cvgtj room; that cativ Wstibc ^ -peuVMYoi '♦i^jJa. ^h^tj 
*f!^mmoda.tion for prouioting decency aad Tiea.lT^(i«*', ^^^e*. x\i& i\r.^% tj^ 
^-paaJs are per^ct; the yards properly ^laveA, «o aa to ^^^^„^X\iX 





I- m II 

iiig ; and finally, that no person with an infactmus diseaas is inliabitiiifi 
iiiB konse. It is enacted, moreover, that only so many aha)] be placed ia 
a room as shall be permitted by the comiaiEsionera oi tbe poE&aj and it j» 
made an indispfnaable flondition to tbe fitnesiit of a hoase, that tbe prQ-^' 
prietor should b&ng up in e?ery room a card, properly Kigned by tbe police' 
infltiectar, stiLting the predae number wbo are allowed to be lodged tbere. ' 
The law alsn strictly fyrbUis persona of diflerent eexea occupying the same 
room, esoept in oajse of married people with, children under ten years? of 
age ; more than one married couple may not inhabit tite eajne apurtment^ 
witboQt the proriEion of a screen to seen re priTacy. It is alao forbidden 
to use the kitcbena, sculleries, or cellara for sleeping rooms, unless spe- 
eially permitted by the police. Tbe k<>epBr of the honse is required 
thorongbly to whitewash the walla and ceilings twice a year, and to cdeanea 
the drains and ceBspools wis en aver re<jnirfed by the ptjlke. In case of aick- 
neaa, notice must \t6 immediattilj' given to tJie police, imd Auch uLeaaursFi 
ptuflued, for preventing infection, m may be dfiomed judicious by Lha 
inspector. , ^^ 

The QomEniasionet- of police reparts (so the secretary of atate systematicallj- ^H 
tui to tbe results of this sjabem. ^^M 

After looking at these thlnga, we proceeded to view one of the modfl ^\ 
mahing houBia, which had been erected fur tbe convenience of poor women. 
We entered a large hall, whi(?h waa divided by low wood partition a into 
small apjirtments, in each of which » woman was wnabiug. The whole 
prtJoeM of wiisbing clothes in two or tliree waters, and boiling them^ can be 
effacted without moving from the apot, or changing tiie tub. Each succea- 
«¥e water ia let out at the bottom, while freah is let on from the top. 
When the clothes are ready to be boiled, a wooden coyer ia placed over 
them, and a stream of scalding ateam is directed into the tub, by turning 
a atop cock ; this boila the water In n few momenta, effectually cleansing 
the clothes ; they are then whirled in a hollow cylinder till nearly dry, after 
which they are dmwn through two rollers coviiired with flannel, which 
presses every remaining particle of water out of them. The clothes a^a 
then hung upon framea, which abut into large closota, and are dried by 
ateam in a very short apsrce of time. 

Ixird Shaftesbury, pointing out the partitionsi, said, " This is an aixange- 
ment of delicacy to save their feelings : their elothea ara sometimes m old 
and ababby, they do not want to show thtmi, poor tbinga. " I thought this 
feature worthy of sj»ecial notice. 

In addition to all these improvements for the laljouring elasiea, very 
large bathing establishments have been set up oiprcflsly for the use of the 
working clasaea* To ahow the popularity and effectiToness of thifl move- 
meot, Ave hundred and fifty thousand hatha were given in three houses 
during the year 1 S SO. These bathing establi ahmenta foE the working claiaee 
aUB rapidly incre!l£ing in every part of the kingdom. 

When we returned to our carriage after this survey, I remarked to Lord 
Shoftesbury, that the combined influence of these causes must b»,i«s, 
'Wfougbt a considerable change in the city. B« vs.^sa'«W!!&^, VijiK cjast-^^ 
" YtJiJ can 2tar^ no idea. Whole streeta and i\?i\xwAA \^astt \=»4!e5x '**'^?''^ 
tfanteed hy it, Tha jwople who were foTmeiVj «i^u?fi ^^^^^^ ^'^^'*^ 
becaasa they mppos&l themscdvGS despised fi.w\ fiJiitvuitiiTi^ ^"^0^-rS 
(e<}£ly qal^t sad docm. I can asiiurtj you l^tjA. liQ^I S^v^V^Vai^ v^-*- 


ildfoef mtb no &tbendaDt but a little chHd, tbitiu^ streete in London trben^ 
7GAn agoy A wall-dremad mMn coold npt 1i3v« pisaed bmMj without m 
e«cott of the police," 

I emd to bim tbat I nvw notbin^jt now, witb all ih« iraproTementa ibe; 
vere nmkiog tliroughout tbe kingdom, to prevent tlielr working classes 
berammg quite oa proeperouB oh oni:^ except tbe tr^nt of a tempecuce 

He assented witb earneatneBa. He believedf he eaid, that the ainattnt 
spent in Hqnora of Tarioua kiuds, which do no good, but much injury, waa 
euoagb to fttrnisb evet^ laWurer's ilweinujt, not otJy with comforts, but 
with elegfuioefl. " But tbeu/ ' be eald^ "one thing is to be considered : a 
TcforiD of the dwelLiugs will do & great deal towjird^ promotiog a temper* 
MCe refonaation. A laKa who liTea in a close, unwholesome dwelling, 
deprJTed of the natural fitimulua*of freajj oar and pure water, comes into a 
morbid and unheal thy atate ; be craves atimulantfl to aopport the sinking 
of bis vital powers, cnused by these imlifudthy inflnenoes.*' Tbcre is cer- 
tainly a preat deal of truth in this; and I tblnk that, in America) we 
should add ta the fon»i of our Mdite law by adopting^ bome of the reatric- 
tions of tbe Lodging tlouse Act. 

I have addressed this letter to you, my dear oonain, on account of 
desip interest you have tftken in the condition of tbe poor and periahim; 
tbe city of New York, While making these esaminationa, these iiueatii! 
occurred to my mind : Could our rich Cbristian men employ tlieir tiapil 
in a more evangelicfll manner, or more adorn the eity of Kew York, tbjm 
Taislnie: a large and beautifid lodging boose, which should five tbe m^ 
of healtb, comfort, and vigour to tlioufiands of poor needlewomen? 
fiftme queiy may be repeated concerning aJl the other lodging houses I bftffl 
mentioned. Fnrthennore, should not a movement for the regiatration and 
Jnapection of common lodging bonscf; kcsp pace with efforts to suppreaa tbe 
wile i>f spirits ? Tbe poiBon of these diamai haunts creates a craiiin; fur 
stimulants, which constantly tends to break over and evade law. 


kBijnrvoiiis^ TioTtvwTn. — thb rooB Liwa. — raa orsAni!.— 
pjlczouv OPBiuTrTBfl.— acnooLUj btc. 
AH FATinni;;— 

I Tvigh in this letter to give yon a brief view of lbs movements in i 
country fur the TEbgiona instmction and genei-al education of tl\a i 
If we compare the tone of feeling now prevalent with that existing: hut i 
few years hack, we notice a striking change. No longer ago than in f' 
time of Lady Huntingdon we find a lady of quality ingenuously confer 
that her chief source of scepticism in regard to Christianity wajj, that i 
actually seemed lt> imply that the educated, the refined, the nobl^ uuri 
need*) bs saved by the same Savionr and the same gospel wi(h tbe ignoraQ 
iiJjd flebasod working cI&sS6S. Traces of a similar style of fdelii>g are djA 
cemjbie la the /ettera of tbe politihed cOTTespouAauU fit Wramisii "^^w 
Robert. iV^IpoIe gaiiy Intimates bimaelf fioinii^\in.t4\vt>ek&ii!0t'VVfe\iwi.'t 
^e nobUHj And tbtj vulgar should be equsH? su\>)e^t \^ \,V^x<nft-t-im\* ^^Gx^ 



Sabbath and iM lav of (jfcid— ^uaJly exposed to tlia sajoctiouH of endleai j 
r^etrib^titi]]. And Yoting makes LIb higlx-borti (Lmis inquire, 

" Shnll pteasurea of a sbiirt durntiuti olmiii 

A l-uiiif't rwul ill ererlajitiag pnin ¥" 

Jn broad contrast to thiB, all the naodera popular roovementa in England 
are bused upon the recognititm of the equal value of every Imman aoul. 
The Tm€*f the intist aristocratic paper in Enghuid, pubhahas lettera from 
TiBisdk' Women aod dresamakers^ apprentices, and reads grave lectures to 
duch esses and countesEes on their duties to their poor aistBrs. Ooe may 
f&Qc; what a stir this wotdd have made in the courtly circles of the reigai 
of (leorge EI. Fashionuble literature now arrays itself on the side of thai 
working classes. The current of novel imting ia revaraed. Instead of 
millinera and eharobermaids bemg bewitched with the advodturea of I 
oountesscM find dukes, we now have fine lords and Lidiea hanging enchanted 
OTtir the history of John the Carrier, with his little Dot, drojipiug sympa- 
thetic teara into little Charlie's waBk-tub, and pursuing ihti fortunes of a 
dressmaker' a apprentice, in company with poor Smike, and honest John 
Drodie and hiu little Yorkshire wife. Punch laughs at everybody but the 
workpeople ; and if, oeeasionally, he laughs at tliem, it is rather in a kindly 
way than with any air of contempt. Then, Prioce Albert visits model 
lodging- bouses, and ei>mmanda all the ingenuity of the kingdom t^J expend 
itself in completing the ideal of a workman's cottage for the great World's 
Fair. Lorda deliver lyceum lecture*; ladies patroniie ragged schools; 
(wmnuttees of duchesseB meliorate the condition of needlewomen. In short, 
the great ahip of the world has taeked, and stands on another murse. 

The beginning of this grt^t humanitarian movement in England was 
nndouhtedly the struggle of Clarksou, WUherforee, and their associates, 
for the overthrow of the slave -trade. In that strufrgle the religious demo- 
cratic element was brought to bear for years opon the mind of Parliament, 
The negro, most degraded of meUj was taken up, and for years made to , 
agitate British aoelcty on the simple ground that he had a human soul. 

Of Citurso the religious obligations of society to erertf human soul werftl 
mvolved in the discussion. It educated Pftrliament, it educated the oom- | 
munity. ParHament becarae aceusttmied to hearing the simple principles i 
of the gospel aaaerted iu its halls as of biudiog force. The commniilty 
were trained in habits of efficient l^enevolent action, which they have never 
lost. The use of tracts, of committee.s, of female co-operation, of voluntary 
ftSfliwratioti, and all the appliauceB of organised reform, were diaoovered and 
^lieceasfully developed. Tfie triumphant victory then aciiieved, moreover, 
became the jiledge of future conquests in every department of reform. 
Coneerniiig the raovementa for the elevation of the masses. Lord Shaftesbury 
biis kindly fiirniahei) me with a few brief memoranda, set down as nearly 
ns possible in chronological order, 

Iu the first place, there has been a reform of the poor laws. So corrupt 

hiul this system become, that a diatiuct cjiste had well nigh s^Tuu^wiya 

permanent existence, families having been, kno^ii to wA^\?X*\TL\®Lca&'*ai'^'*s£ 

five genemtions solely by means of Bkiliul fliip^TO^f^i'OiaTi al ^\^doft is»Sk 

private eh&ritiea. t^- 

The bivr giving to iin.upevs the pTeference Vn a\i ^aassa^Vet^^Sx^^ 


216 Bvssx VBMOBm ov vosMsam lilItdb. 

! employmai^l 

Tjutt of watk : hf dackting thdcMlra paapfflmthiyQbtMwi i . _ 
ThuiA, rlftu^ff • Loan^ was cffiscd to pufpainK. His lordahip zt- 
jxtarkf, — 

" Thae hare Iwen lad defeeU, no doaU, and aooie barsknesx, under the 
or* sySUm; btit ibe general iie^t lui^ lieen eiiCseUent; and, in maiif 
jmirtamrrr. th* aj^tea haa beea ledoced to p»ctue ia a bulj pattian^Lal 
ipifit. The gr»t diffieultjr and tiie sre^t &£liij« an femitl m the tight and 
wfe oeeoiieittofi of diildron Thit are izaioed in tlieM -vorkhosses, of irhifih 
H> mQ«h haa Iteai ttid." 

In the feodnAd pboe, tlie tf«atiM!iit of the iitnne faai letdbted a thorou^ 
]iiT«ati£atiML This began, in 1B28, bj a oamsmbtet of mquijy, mored &r 
by Mr. Qordtm. 

An aJjuost meredible amoDnt of suSenng asd honihie bsirfaaii^ was 
thus bn/uj^it to li^bt. For tlie niuSst part It a]>pazed that the traatineDt 
of tbe iiituuie bad b««ii eoadvict«d on the old, abeurd id» wbidi etite tbem 
off from hnnuwitf , and reduce* ^um below the lerd dl ^e htuUm, 1%w 
regiiuba m piiTate madhonies wa» aacb that Lord Sbafbeabwry remariced of 
iiuim, in a speecb on the mbjed, ** I hare said befort, and ni>w saj again, 
that Blirjald it plesLse GKhI to viait me with such an afflid^on, I wunld greatiy 
prefer the treatmaiit of paupcni, in an establii^m^it like that of the f 
Asylu att to tbe troitaieiit of the rich in ahnoat any one of these recepti 

Inutjuicfiii are recorded of mdiTiduttls who wexe exkumod fixon ceUv wh 
they hud existed witbont clothing or oleansijig, na waa ascertamed, /«" 
jfeam after tketf had efUirdy recovered the txarcit of toand rtatcm, 
lord Sb&fbeebQij praanred the paau^ of biila secnring thethoroogh sapet- 
viinon of these bititiitlamB bj eompetent rifiitiiig <?oiii mittens, aud the 
ionallls diMBlmtal of aU who were pronouDced cured ; and the adoptioa 1 
tba ptaptr ianne of a jndicioui course of remedial treoiment. 

G%e third step waa tiie passage of the ten -hour factory hill. This 1 
neArij eighteen ji^ara of labour and nticeafilng^ actiTity in Farltameat and in 
the proyincea. Its tj|>fcratiOD affects full Imlf a loilhon of actual workers, 
and, if the faxniUtB he included, nearly two millionB of personsj joung and 
okL Two thirds «ia mapy as the southern slaTes. 

It is needlesa to enlarge on th« horribU diaclflsures in reft;rence to the 
fijditory operativftfl, made during this investigfttion. England never shud- 
dered with a deeper thrill at ttm unveUing of American Savory tlian did all 
America at thia iinTeiling of the white-labour at^very of England. In read* 
ing the apeecbe* of Lord Sbaft4.iBhiiry, ono aeea, that, iu preaenting this 
Buhjeet^ he had to encounter the same op[Kwitiaa and obloquy whioh noif 
braet those in Aroerioa who seek the abolition of slavery. 

In the beginning of one of his speech bs, hlH lordaLip Bays, " Ne 
eleven years hava now elapsed since I drst made the prupoisition t^^ 
house which I BhKll renew thia oight. Kever, at any time, hare I 
fcTcater apprelieijaJonj or even aniiety. Kot through any fear of personal 
dijfoiit; for dii^ivppoiutment t» *tho hadgo of our tribe ;^ hutbe^u^ Iknoi^H 
well tho hautility that I haveorouBed, and the certaiu issues of indlBtretld^H 
ea my part aJfectrng the wel&re of those who hare ei> long confided tb^^H 
Iioptu mid interests to my charge." Od-s mai jTi^is wocAfiT a^ ■wWt 4SQa^ 
eel rn bio grounds any could poaaibly cppoafe ^^ aMocft-U; <sl *. T&fesjsKa \^ 
-fAf-, Ho w,. opp^ed on the tame grouiid t\^^ ^^^?ltJ^^^ 

i ao t- 

I tM^^ 

I fel^ 



tiiQi bIato tnde would he to ^iiut the gates of morcj on nuuikiad," so tlio 
Advoeatea of dgUteea hours hihour in fictories said that the tea-hoiu- system 
would duuMBh produoo, bwer ws^ea, and bring atarvatinn on the work- 
men. His. lurdidup was deaoanuiid as &a inooodiaj-j, a, meddling ^maiic, 
interfering lyith the rights of mfistera^ and desiring to exalt hie own ordor 
by destfijyiiig the pruspkirlty of tlie mantifocturi^ra. 

In th« Ckjncliimon of ono uf hie spcK^chigfi, lie sajjji, ** Sii*,. it may not be : 
given Cfle to paaa over this Jordan ; other and hetter maa have preceded me, 
and I eater«d into thdr labours j other imd better men iriil follow me, and j 
eater into mine ; bat Hua aaa^i&lwa 1 shall erer continne to enjoy^ — tlnit, 
amidst mu^h injustice and somewhat of calumnj^ we have at It^t ' lighted 
Bu«Ii a caniUe m England ««, by God's ble-s^g, shidl never bo put oat,'" 

The next eflbrt 'was to regulate th.6 Ulxjur of children in the calico and 
print work«. Tbe great unh^thine.'^ of the work, and the teadcir uge of 
the children em|dojed, — aome even as young as fuur years — wcra fully dia- 
olosed. An extr^t from hiM lordelup's remM-ka on this suhJEct will bLovt 
ihat liuman nature t&ksA tlie BMsati coarse in all oountries: "i^ir, in the 
-vBiions discnssione on these kindred subjects, there has heett & {K'rp&ttial 
endeavour to drive ub from the point under debute^ &nd taunt uh with a 
uarraw and one-Bided humanity. 1 vr&s told there were {&r greater evils 
tkan those I had assailed — that I had left untouched much worse things. 
It -wTiB in vain ti: reply that no one could grapple witli the whole tit once ; 
my opponents on the ten-honr hill eent me to the coUieriea ; when I invadeil 
tfat? Oullieries I waa i-eferred ti> tha print-works ; from the print-works I 
know not to what I shall be Bsnt ; fi>r what can be worse! Sir, it lia«. been 
Bflod to ine, more than onea, * Whure will you stop f I reply, Ko where, ao 
la&g as any portion of this mighty evil remaiuH to be removed, I confess 
tliat my desire and ambition are to bring all the labouring children of thia 
empire witli in the reach and opportunities of education, within the ephesre 
of usefnl and happy citizens. I am ready, bo far as my services are of any 
▼slae, to devote wliat little I have of energy, and all the Tetuaindor of my 
life, to the iiocomptiahment of this end. The labour would be groat, and tba 
tux.ietiD5 very heavy ; but I fear neither one nor the othor. I fear nothing 
bat defeat, " 

From the alltuioii, alxtve, to the oolUery effoTt, it would aeem ibat the 
not for removing women and childrBa fi-nm the coal-pits preceded the reform 
of the print-works. Ooneeming the result of these various enterprises, hd j 
Bays, "The present Jftatc of things may be told in a few words. Full fifty 
thousajid chiltlreu tinder thirteen years of age attond Bchool ^very day. 
None are worked more than seven, generally only aii, hours in the day. 
Those above tlurteeii and under eighteen, and all woman, are limited to ten 
faonrii and a htnif, eiotnsivo of the time for meals. The work begtne at six 
in tie morning and ends at si:x in the evening. Sattirday's labour ends at 
four o*clock, and there is no work on Sunday. The print-works are brought 
undfir regulation, und the women aud children removed from the coal-pits." 
His lordship adds, ** The report of inspectors which I send you will give you 
m &int picture of the phyBical, aocial, and moral gwni IbieA, Sma t^'\a!A*&.- 

" aofely say of theae measures, that God iia.a "bl^iiSiftii ^?iTii '^t \je^wo&. 
^^^^teotAtion, stiii Almost eqnstl to my hcarCa deftVrft." 
T5»e next ^rmt baaevolent movement is the xQ^fA wiiW^ fe-j^^Jim- ^^^''^ 
mlaermUe hoh iu J?ieid Lane, they haYe gtwii 1x5 ^ ». Vvwx^w. -^ 


' 218 griTNY MSirolltB3 OF FOEEI&N LANDS. 

Hijtteen in n amber. Of these Lor J Shafbesbury says, ** They h&ve product 
— I B^peak HoriQunly — some of tlio most boantifml fruits tkat ever grew upon 
the tree of life. I believe that from the teajehera and &om the childrao. 
though many bth dow gone to their r<;st, might have Wn, and niigM still 
be seleuttid mme of the mi>st pure, simple, aSectioQate specimens of Cltria- 
tianity the world ever saw," Growiog (]iit of the raHgati suhnol is an insti- 
tatioH i>f most iuteresting character, cidled " a place for repeutance." It 
liftci ita origiQ in the effbrta of a yoang man, a Mt. Nash, to reforta two of 
Ids pupils. They aaid they wished to be honefit, but had nothing to eftt, 
and muM ateal to live. Though poor Mmaelf, he invited them to Iub 
humble abode, and shared witb theui his living. Otbar pupile, houiqg of 
this, desirtid to join with lliem, and become honest too. Soon he Iiad nx. 
Now, the htfntjsi bcholara iu tlve lagged sehcol, seeing what -vtom going on^ 
uf their own aowrd began to aliare their bread with tins little hand^ and to 
fluntrihtjte their peuniefl. Gradually the number iDcreased. Benewleut 
individuals noticed it, aatl supplier ^owod in, until at laat it hab grown to 
bo an establishment in whicii seveml hundreds aie seeting reformatioD, 
To prevent imposition, a rif^dd probation M prescribed. Fourteen days the 
applii^ant feeds ou bread and water, in solitary confinement, with the door 
unfastened, hu that lit! can depart at any moment. K he goes throngh with 
that ordeal it is tliouglit h« r^Uy wauta to be honest, and he is admitted & 
member. After sufficient time spent jn tbe institution to form correct 
habits, aaaiataiice is given him to emigrate ti> Borne of the colonies, to com- 
mence life, as it were, anew. , Lord Shaftcabury has taken a deep inters 
in this flstablifahment; and among other affecting letters reoeived from ita 
ooloaistB in Australia, is one to him, oommencing, " Kind Lord Asdiley^'* 
in which tbe boy says, ** I wish your lordship would send out more hoya, 
and use your iu^uence to eonvert all the priBona into ragged sehowla. Aa 
aoon as I get a farm i shall call it after your name." 

A little anecdote related by Mr. Kaab shows the grateful feelings of the 
inmates of this infltitution. A number of tliera were very desirous to havo 
a print of Lord Shaftesbnry, to hang up in tlieir sitting-room, Mr. Kaah I 
told them he knew of no way in which they could earn the money, exuept 
by giving up something from their diiily alio wanes of food. This they 
cheerfully agreed to do. A benevolent gentleman offered to purchase the 
pioture and present it to them ; but they unanimously declined. They 
wanted it to be their own, they said, and they could not feel tliat it was so 
unless they did ^mething for it themselves. 

Connected with the nvgged sohofjl, also, is a movement for es^bibliaMiig ( 
what are called ragged churohea^a system of simple, gtatuitona r^Ugioui 
instrutition, which goea out to seek those who feel too poor and degraded to , 
be ^'ilUng to enter the churches. 

Another of the great movements in England i» the institution of tlie 
Labonrei''a Friend Sodety, under tlie patronage of the most difttinguidiod 
perTOnagea, Its principal object hi\a been the promotion of allutmeuts q£^_ 
land in the cnnntry, to be cultivated by the pea'iantry after their dai^^H 
JitbouTf thus adding to their day's wages the produce of their fie^d£ aq^^| 
gsrdea. Ji ias been inetmmeni&l, ^rst and laflt, of eatabliflhing nearly 
four hundred thousand of tlieae a.l\otmeutB. 1\- ^^Mviena, i^wi, is ^uiH^sivkVi 
Ji^pei, cnlM the l^-ibourer's Friend, lU iA>vVt\v a\\ m\ii^Na t*i»i^^ft ^ft ^^ 

la canseqtietif!*} of b.11 ihBs& moTonicnta, the dwellings of tlie la-boTirimj^^l 
cUssea through uut Great Britain are receiving much attention ; b<j that, if 
m&i\jsvs progreaa for a few yeara us they have done, the eottagea of the 
workiDg people will be excelled by Done in the world. 

Another lyfreat moTeinent ia the repeal of the wru hiWB, the hensfit of 
which ia tt«o obviQua to need corametit. 

What has been doing for millinerg and drosamakeraj for tlie reform 
lodging honaes, and for the supply of baths and waahhouaes, I have showii^^ 
lit lengtli in fonaer letters. I will add that the city of London hM thl^H 
flervicea of one hundred and twenty (5ity misaionaiies, ^H 

There ia a great multiplication of churches, atul of clergymen tn labour in 
the more populous diatricta. The Pa3ti:'rftl-Aid Society and the Scripture 
Reading Society are both extensive and fruitful labourera for the services of 
the majss of the people. 

There has alio been a public health act, by which towns aad viliafes are 
to be dmned and supplied with water. This has gone into operation in 
about one hundred and aiity populoun placea with the most beueficial ^^ 
results. ^H 

In fine, Lord Shaftesbury says, " The best proof that the people afC^| 
cared for, and that they know it, appeared in the year 1846. All Eurtipo 
■vrafl convulsed. Kings were falling like rotten pears. We were aa quiet 
and happy in England aa the President of tlje United States in his di-awing 

It la true, that all these eHbrta united could not radically relieve the 
diatreaa of the workiog cliLsaea, were it not fur the outlet furnislied by 
emigration. But Australia baa opened as a aew world of hope npoa 
England. And confirmatory of all other movcmenta for the good of the 
working classes, come the benevolent effbrta of Mrs. Chiaholm and the 
colonissing aiicifity formed under her auspicea. 

I iftill *iay, H Daily, that the aspect of the religions mind of England, ae 
1 have been called to meet it, ia very enconra^ing in this respect ; that it ia 
humble, activs, aad practical. With all that haa bc<jn done, they do not 
count themBelves to have attained, or to bo already perfect; and they 
evidently think and spook more of the w*ork that yet remains to be done 
than of victories already achieved. Conld you, my dcftr father, have been 
with tne through the different religions eireks it has been my privitege to 
enter, from the humble cotter's li reside to the palace of the hightiSt and 
uobli^, yonr heart would share vrith mine a sincere joy in the thought that 
the Lord "has much people" in England, Called by different names, 
Churchman, Puseyite, DiBsenter, Presbyterian, Independent, Quaker, dif- 
fering widely, sincerely, earnestly, I have still found among them all evidence 
of that true piety which conaieta In a humble and childlike spirit of obedience 
to God, and a sincere desire to do good to man. It is comforting and en- 
wniaging la know, that while there are many seeta and opinions, there is, 
after all, but one Chrjatianity. I Homctimea think that it hun been my 
peculiar lot to see the exhibition of more piety and loTclinaas of spirit in 
the differing sects and ranks in England than We^ ca.Ti. sm&Vr ^siSvi ^il^^t - 
And it Uysin my miud a deep foumlatiou y? Ivo^ ^^it ^*!tWi^«j ws<M!^-^ 
Mjr belief is, tlutt a regenerating process ia (BiVvig tin m'Bia^Ti^'^ ^ ^'*«^^^ 
tfrfwwM in religion, of which contending yi.xWsi!& W^mife\^e'i ^^^^"^"^.^^ 

Elating togotliex, 1 tmsS Tano^*-<iT^ ^^^ *^^ 

Phdgt F^ridua formB till ^.reeaetgiaiingto 


of « flnperfoT 8pfa*t, wlio la gently moderatiTjg nMrbitiei, «inoTOig " 
jttdioeit, tueltmng: Ui ctiucUifttJoa And bftniiciDj, and pr^psjiiig England 
dewrfope, (ivm mmiy outward furuiBj the one, p»ire^ beautifulp 
cliorch iii CJiiriat. 


ttscosD coacEJiT- — Hia jouk malcolm.— thij cuajlut child muf.— 

Loor&0¥, JuM 83. 
Mt IIVAR HviBAjf I) ;-^ 

Aocarditig to requettt T will eiideaTOTir to keep yon infornjei of sll our 
gomgH on after you left, np to tlio time of our dtiparture for Paris. 

Wo bftve borne in mind your advioe to biiaten uw&y to tlio contitieiit. 
f?. wrote, a day or two since, to Mrs, <]. nt Paris, to aecure very pmaAe 
JoiiyiingB, and by no means let any one know that we were coming, 
lizw replied, urging as to come to her bouse, and promlsiog ontire a^dn 
Hud rest. So, sines you depaxted, we haTe bsen pasEing with a 
^omprebenflire flkip and Jump over remaining engagements. And first, 1 
evening after yon left, came ojjf tbe prefiontution ot tke inkstand by tbe 
ladieii of Surrey Cbapel, 

Uur kind Mr, Sborman fihowed great t(i£t« as well as energy in Uie 
on-angements. Tba locture room of the ohftpel waa prettily adorned i 
flowers. Lord Shafteabnry ,waa in the oh air, and the Duchess of , 
and the Marquis of Stafford were there. Miiss Greenfield sang some i 
aad there were speeches in which eaii speaker said all the obligiiig 1 
he eonld think of to the rest. Rev. Mr. lUnney compllniented tfie noT 
and Lord ShaftsBbury coniplimont<Bd the peoplo, and all were but too ] 
in what they said to me— in fact, there was general good humour in tlia 
whole sceue. 

The inkstand is a beautiful specimen of sUytrwork. It in eighteen i»eli« 
long, with a firou[t of silrer figures ou Itj repreaentinE Eeligion with the 
Bible in her liand, giving liberty to the slave. Tbe slave ia a mtitAealj 
piece of work. Ho stands with his hands clasped, lookDig up to heaven, 
whiJe & white man is knocking the Bhiicklea from hia feet. But the 
prettiest part of the scene was the presentation of a ffold pen^ by a band of 
beHiutiful children, one of whom made a veiy pretty speech. I called the 
little things to come and stand around me, and talked with thera a few 
ininntcs, and this was all tli« speaking that fell to my Ahare. Now Ihia, 
rually, wm tt)0 kind of these ladiei, and of our brotherly friimd Mr. S., and 
I was quite touched with it ; especially as I have been able myself to du w 
very little, socially, for anybody's pl^sure. Mr. Bhemian etill lias con- 
tinued to be as thoughtful and careful as a brother could be ; And hh 
daugliter, Mrs. B., I fear, has robbed her own family to give ub the 
additional pleasure of !ier society. We rode out with her one day Into tbe 
eotiairjj iiud aaw her home and little family. iSatunJay morning we 
^inaai'/rtsf^ 4t Steflbnl houae, 1 wiab you ^m\.\ Yk^^ VstMa. i\i««,. KU w»a 
J^-* voal, ^id qmet, and etill there, as \m sotne te^xc&t ^L-e^ m 's&vft csMsste^. 
^JVe went first inio the ducliea«'B t™^^«^»'^^^J«^r'^Irr^'S^^ 




pftts blue. We tnlked with her some tunc, before any one phiho ra, abcmt 
Miss Groenfield. I showed har a simple note to her grace in, whicli MiM 
G. tritxi to express her grivtltniie, and which ahs had sent to me to correct 
for her. The duchejt!^ aaid, " O, giTA it me I it ia A gr^t deal better as it 
is. I lUce it just ns she wrote it," 

People always like Klmpliclty anfl truth better than finish. After enter* 
jng the breakfast room the Duke and Dncbesa of Argyle, mid Lor«l Carlisle 
Appesu^d, and soon after Lrjpd Shy,ftesbnry. We breakfasted in that 
lieautifal green rmm nvbicU hm the two etatttea, the Eve of Thorwaldffeti 
ftnd the Venns of Ganova. Tha view of the gnrdens nnd trees from the 
■window gave one a Bense of eeclngion and security, and raadi* me forget that 
ira ware in great, crowdwl London. A pleasant talk we hatl. Among 
other things they proposed T^ons inqniries respecting affjurn in America, 
particularly as to the difference between Preabyterianii and Congrega- 
tlomillste, the influenee of the A»»embly*a Catechkm, lind th« peculWitieB 
tt the other religious denominations. 

The Duke of Ai^gyle, who is a Presbyterian, necTited to feel an interest in 
those points. He said it itidicated ^Teat power in tli« Assembly's CateohiraH 
Uml it could hold such ascendancy in sneb a free country. 

In the oouree of the conversation it waa aaked if there waa really danger 
that the antifilaveiy spirit of England would excite ill-feeling between the 
twu countries, 

I said, were it possdWe that America were always to tolemte and defend 
alavery, this might be. But this would ba self-dastniction. It cannotj 
SiTiBt not, will Dot be. We shall Btrug^fle, and shall overcome j and when 
tiie victory boa been gained we shall love Eogland all the more for l>er noblo 
ttand in tke conHict. As I ^id thin I happened to turn to the duchess, 
§&d her beantiful face wat; light^l with sneb a strong, iaspiFed, noble 
expression, as set its feeal at once in my heart. 

Lord Carlisle is goiag to Cocstautinopla to-morrow, or nefxt day, to be 
gone perhaps a year, Tlia eastern question la much talked of now, and the 
chanctfl of war between Ruasia and Turkey. 

Lord Shaftesbury is now ail -engaged upon &Bfite of the sffven thousand 
ijiaiity children, which is to come off at St. Paul's next Thursday, 

The Duchessee of Sutherland and Arigyle were to Have attended, but th» 
quecm has jaat come to town, aud the first dramng room will be held on 
ThuisJay, bo that they will be unable. His lordship had previonsly invited 
|ii0, and this morning renewed the invitation. Onr titae to leave London is 
~ ad for Friday; but, aa I am told, there la no sight more peculiar and 

mtifut tlian this /^fe, and I think I can manage both to go there and be 
ibrwMil with my preparationa. 

In the afternoon of thia day I went with Lord Shafteabwry oirer the 
model lodging honsea, which I have deaeribed very partieuLirly in. a letter 
lo Mr. C. L. B, 

On Thursday, at five,, wb dravfi to Staffonl House, to go with her 
^rsice to the House of Parliament, What a magnificent building l I Rst^ 
m, in contempt of all ciitidsm, I hear tKat a\k tmids f^\ liltiwi'^ uk^ wsA 
jlgtunst it For my part, I con aider that no "pWie \s ao laWw^^ Vcsv^^^"^ 
iu« of a aiotlern urchitect intmst^l with a, great pw\iVic;\jvn\-J^-ft'fe- 'VX^"* ^'x'a 
Sv fault that be is modem, but hia misfort^me. 'tVuv^^ "'^'^^^^-^'tJ^cnsS 
Odlnss Argsimetioued by time Le may not altem^it \ t^ai Vi ^ift ^'vioJfcffl* ^ 


y, aafl 

fftv} tlujiga, that is Htill worse. He ia fndr game for eTerybodyB oritic; 
He IjuiMft too high far one, too low for another ; U too omsXe for tbia, 
plcun for tbat ; he ^crificee ntilitj to [i&&thGtics, or Essthetics to utility, 
Homebody is diapleued eitbsr way. Tbe d\icheR:E hm been a sympatbizing 
friend of the ftrchitoet tbrougb tbla arduous ordeal. Sbe took pleasoiB. 
and pride in bia work, and fibowed it to me aa aometbing in which ulie f ~ 
an almoflt perEH>aal Interest, 

For my part^ I freely confess that, Tiewed as a natioDal monument, ^ 
fieems to me a grand one. AVbat a splendid hiHtoric corridor is old West- 
mioHter Hall,^ with its ancient imlccn roof ! I seemed to s^ all tbat bril- 
liant scene when Burke spoke there amid the nobility, wealth, and fashion 
of all England, in tho Warren HastiagB trial. That ispeech. always tninkes 
mo bhndder. I think there never was anytbinj^ more powerful than itfi con- 
clusion. Then the corridor that ia to be lined with the etatnes of the groat 
men of England will be a noble affair. The etatiie of Hampden iB grand. 
Will tbey leave out Cromwell ? There is less need of a monument to him, 
it is true, than to most of them. We went iato the Houee of Lords. The 
Earl of Carlisle made a apeeGh on tho Cuban qne^^tion, iu the course of 
whi(;b be alluded very gracefully to a petition from certain liidiets tliat Eng- 
land should enforce the treaties for the prevention of the slave trade there ; 
and apoke very fwliagly on the reaa4jna why woman ahould laanifeBt a pw- 
ticnlai interest fur the oppress^cd. The I>«ke of Argjlc and the Bishop of 
Oxford oBme over to the place where we were sittinje;. Her grace Intimated 
to the bishop a des^ire to hsu- from him on the question, and in the ooorse 
of a few momenta after returning to bis place, he aroee and spoke. Re has 
a fine voice, and speaka very elesantly. 

At last I saw Lord Abenleen. He looks like eome of owr Freahytmaa 
uldera ; a pluin^ grave old man, with a bald head, and dressed in black ; by 
the by^ I believe I have heard tbat he is an elder in the National kirk ; I am 
told he is a very good man. You dou't know how strangely and drewnilj 
this House of Lords, as seen to-day, mixed itself up with my historic recol- 
leotions of by -gone days. It had a very sheltered, comfortable, parlour-lite 
air. The lords, in their cushioned seats, seemed like men that had raet,^^ 
a social way, to talk over public affairs ; it was not at all that roomy, ^~ 
deeUmatory national hall I had imagined. 

Than we went into the House of Com moos. There is a kind of lattio 
gallery to which ladies are admitted — a chunntng little Oriental rookery. 
There we found ths l>ueleBs of Argylc and others. Lord Carlisle after- 
wards jo hied Vt&f and we wont all over the house, examining the freiaxi^ 
looking into closets, tea-rooms, librarita, smoking-rooms, committee- roomsj 
aiid all, tit! I was thoroughly itittiated. The terrace that skirts the 
Thames is magniiieent. I inijuired if any but members might enjoy it. 
Ho j it was only for statesmen ; our abort promejiade there was, therefore, 
an act of grace, 

Oa lie whole, when this Parliament House shall have gathered the dmi 

of two hundred years — when Victoria's reign is among the myths — fntnre 

gesemiions will then venerate tills building xts one of the rare ereatioQB of 

o/f/ mRnt&rs, lUid declare that no modem sstonAvixa mkcl &%« M^jiol it. 

The uext d&Y, at three o'clock, 1 wjjTit \a m^a Qt**^^.^^ % Sit*. .^^a^ 

marmng eouoert, a bill of whidi I ^^ 1<^^ ^^* ^^^** ^^^ ^"^^ ^^- 



tronage Cff all the great names, you observe. Lady Hatlierton was there, 
and the Duuhesa of SatherliiDd, mth all her danghtera, 

Mies (rrten field did very well, and waa heard "with indulgence, thougli 
surrounded by ardete who had enjoyed what she had not— a life's traiaSig. 
I could not but think what a loss to art Is the eaelaving of a race ii^hich 
might produce so much musical talent. Hod she had culture equal to her 
Toi™ and ear, wo einger of any country could have surpaBaed her* There 
oouJd Bveu be a^aociatiouB of poetry thrown around the dusty hue of her 
trow were it asaociated n-ith the trlumpha of art. I 

After concert, the Duchess of S. invited Lady H. Bud myself to Stafford . 
House. We took tea in the green library. Iiady C. GampbeU was there, 
and her Onwe of Argyle, Af(*r tea 1 saw the DucbesB of S. a little while 
alone in her boudoir, and took my leave then and there of one aa good aad 
tme-hearte:l ae l^eautifnl and noble. 

The next day I lunched with Mrs, Malcolm, daughter-in-law of jourl 
faTOunto traveller, Sir Jolm Midcolm, of Fersiau memory. You sliould 
hare been therQ. The houae is a cabinet of Persian curioEitiea. There wa^^j 
tJjfi original of the picture of the King of Peraia in Ker Porter' a Travel*. 
It was given to Sir John by the monartih hiuiself. There were also twi 
daggers which the king presented with hia own hand. I think Sir John 
inuBt somehow haTe mei^merized liltn. Then Captain M. showed me 
sketches of his father s country house in the Himalaya .Mountains ; think 
of that [ The Alps aro commonplace ; but a country scat ta the Himalaya 
Mountains is something worth Bpejiking of. There were two bricks from 
Babylon, and other curiositiBa inniimerabk. 

Mm. IL weut with me to call oa Lady Carlisle. She spoke much of the 
beauty and worth of her cliaracter, and said that though educated in the 
gayest circles of court she had always preserved the same unworldly purity. 
Mrs. M, has visited Dunrobin and seen the Sutherland estates, and spoke 
iDueli of the duke's character as a landlord, and his efforts for the improTe- 
ment of his tenantry. 

lady Carliale was very affectionate, and iutited me to visit Caatle Howard 
on my return to England. 

Thursday I went with Lord Shaftesbury to sk the charity children. 
Wliat a tiight ! The whole central part of the cathedral waa converted into 
an amphitheatre, and the children, with white caps, white handkerahiefH, 
and AThite aprons, looked like a white fluwer-bed. The rustling, when they 
all rose up to prayer, waa like the ri^ of a flock of doves, and when they 
dutnted tbe eburoh service, it was the warble of a thousand little brooks, 
kit Spenser aaya— 

''The AngeiicB], soft, tTerahUng voiMft inadp 
" ) the ' 


Uiito the itisLruiiieati) ronpoudetice Bieet." 

During the course of the aerviees, when any little one waa overcome with 
sleep or latigue, he waa carefully handed down, and conveyed in a miLu^fl 
anns to a refreshmeHt-ruoni, 

There wai? a sermon by the Bishop of Cliester, very evangelical gi.^iv««*- 
ticaJ. On the whole, a more peciUiar oi moTeWeVj «;'svi'fc\TM£^^ ^^ • 
The elegant arches uf St. F&aVii could liav& iio moxe \M3JXi^lTi^^ ''lA^^'^''^^*''^ 
iima those immvrtat Sowers. ^ 

AJter serriix we laaohed witL a, large party, ^')S!a. "itoi' l&XimMi* *^ ^ 


hsrd b;. Hz^ Jimes4/n wa& thene, «iid Mia. Gaak«ll, jmtli{)r«» of 
Ihzy dsrtoD aoid Enlb, 8he Ins a "verj lovelf, gcsitle ik^ saet knoks 
DifiMa of all tin ptt&ot Airt h«r mritiiigii tkow. I promised her & visit 
wlnai I go te MjkDeliester. TlmdEeraj wsa there, with kif fine ^itte, and 
frmnk, cbeerfrtl bonDg. He spoke In * iioUc 9^d In^tberlj v»j of AiBBrici, 
ttd aeemed to have kigfaljeDjoif«d bis irisii in ucor <»uiitr7. 

After Ha» w^ made a Imrerwdl call at ibe lord mayoFsu We found tJie 
lad;^ BUif^msi ntnraed frem ibe qoeen^B dTa-viog'Toom. Froia her ae- 
Qonnts I sboold jod^ the i:eremotiial nUitf ibti^utg. Mra. M. aakcd me 
j M l wday if I had ay cnrioaatj to aee <me, I etiK&iMd I luuliioib. He»tf 
to ne puUie people is public places, in the way of parade and ceretBonf , 
VIS nener ro«erest&Bg to me. I bare seen veij little oi eetemaaj or sMr 
iA Bngland. W^l^ now, I hare bfrongkl yon down to this tiiire. I hare 
oitiitt^d, Lowever, that I went with Lady Hatherton to aUI on Mr, Mid 
Diokemi, and waa aorrjr to find him tuo unwell U^ he able to see bb. 
WdkeOB, who ww hn^ in attending him, ajai excused herrelf, and 

To-roorfow wa gi> — |y|o to qniet, to ©baettrity, to peaicse; to Paris, to 
SwitxBrland i there we shall find the lotieUe«t glen^ and^ as the Bible ttays, 
** hXl Qu (deep." For our adtenturQis. oa the w&y^ meanwhile, I t^fer yoti 

tontP^x TO Timn.—^TBTrECH itithtc,— tbb sHora.— toe iotttm.— jchbio at 


Jane i, 1853. Bade adieu with r^et to dear Snitey parBonage, 
drove to ike Great South -Western Station Houbc. •*raris?" said an 
official at our ctib-doar. "Paris, by Folkestone and Boulogne, " was out 
anrwer. And in a few momenta, without any inconvenience, we were off. 
Reached Folkestone at nine, and enjoyed a smooth passage acroBS the 
duaded channel. The steward's bowls were paraded in VAin. At 
BoulogUQ come the long-feared and abhomsd ordf^ of piLS8p«rts and polic*. 
It was nothing. We alipped through quite easily, A narrow ladder* the 
quay, genB-d^armee, a hnil, a crowd, three whiekers, & glance at the pftss' 
port, the uaburlding of a handle, -eoUa tout. The moment we issued 
forth, howeirer, upon the quay again, ttere was n discharoe of forty voioea 
shouting in French. For a moment, completely atuaned, I forgot where w» 
were, which way goiag, and wha.t we wanted. Up jumped a lively ^ 

" Monmcur'j vevi allcv ^ Paris, n'^eaf cc jia^f* "(JuLng to Parifl, 
you uot, Rir!" 

" h tnonsieut^fi Ijiciggage regkterdi V 

" TDiKis monaionr wij^h to go to the station hoiim V 
" Can one find anytliing tliera to eat f 
*^ Tes, jmt oitniu hotel." 
We /ie!tl&l at (ii*cretion, and gar^m. twAt ^oBSsasslun of ub. 

' ' ^ngtiali f * iaid jar^c^ as we enjojed tlie pleaafuit iralk on tlie Bqxmx 

"No, Amerksn," we tepHed. J 

"Ah!" (Ilia I'iice brightening up, nnd ipcaking confidentLillj*,) "yoal 
have a republic there." , 

Wc gave the lad a franc, dined, and were off for Paris. The ride was 
delightful. Cam BCtitiiig eight ; cl^n, «oft-cuKhioneil, nit^e. The isuOQ of 
the country, though not striking, was pleaaing. There were many poplars, 
with their Hilvery shafta, and a miuglmg of treeB of variona kinds. The 
fohage hiia an airy grace — a certain spirit uelle ex press Jon — as if the trees 
knew they were growing in ttt belle France, and must lie refined. TLea 
the air is so different from the fog and ftmoke of London. There is more 
oxygen in tbe atmosphere. A pall is lifted. We are led ont into sunshine. 
Fields are red with a scarlet white-edged poppy, or hlue witb a flower like 
larkspur. Wheat fields half coTered with this unthrifty beauty ! But alas I 
the elastieity is in JSature's works only. The works of man breathe over 
US a dismal, sepulchral, stand-stiH feeling. The Tilbge:) have the night- 
mare, and men weitr wooden shoea. The day's ride, however, wao 
memnnible with novelty ; and when we saw Mont Martre, and its moth- 
Eke windmilla, telling us we were c<iming tt> Paris, it was almost with 
regret at the swiftness of the hours. We left the cars, and floweii with the 
tide into the Salle d'Atteute, to wait till the baggage was sorted. Then 
cwne the famous ceremony of nnlocking. The oflicer took my caq>et bag 
first, and poked his baud down d^p in one end. 
"What is this r* 
" That is my collar box," 

** All, fd." And he put it hack haBtUy, and felt of my traTeUing fawa, 

"Only ft wrapping gown." 

**Ah, fa.'" After fumbling a little more, he took sieter H/b haf, gav 
Oi dive here, a poke there, and a kind of promiscuous rake with bis five 
fitigiers, and turned to the trunk. There he seemed somewhat dubious. 
Eying the fine silk and !aee dr eases, ^fiiirt one, then the other, — *'Ah, 
ah P' sjiid he, and ennifed a Httle. Then he peeped under this corner,, 
and cocked his eye under that corner; thoiij all at once, plunged his arm 
down at one end of the trunk, and brought up a little square box. ' ' What's 
thatf said he, H. unrolled and was about to open it, when suddenly he 
geem^ to be seisced with an emotion of confidence. *• .VVn, non," said he, 
frankly, and rolled it up, shoved it hack, atttflbd the things down, smoothad 
all over, signed my ticket, and passed on. We locked up, gave the baggage 
to porters, and eaJled a fiacre. As we left the etation, two ladies; met ufl, 
** la tberc any one here e>!:pecting to see Mm. 0. T said one of them, 
•Yea, madam," afljd I, " w*« do," 

*' Qod bless yon, " said she, fervently, and seized me by the hand. It 
I Mrs. C. atid her sister. I gave H, into their posaesdon, 
Ft)tir troubles were over. We were at home. We rode through sti^eta 
irhAse names were familiar, croaaed the Car rouse!, passed the Seine, and 
stopped before an ancient mansion in the Hue de Vemeuil, belonging to M. 
le Marquis de Brige. This Faubourg St. (Germain is the part of l^ria 
where the ancient nobility lived, and the houses es:hibit. wU6.xta. viS. "Wevw^ti 
splendour. The mai^uJs is one of those cbivitVtciua \^'gLt\tsassL\&'^V^i''mijQ.':^^ 


iiio claims of Henri T, He livea in tlio cotmtry, and rents Uile Ld 
Mrs. C. oconpiea the eiiite of roomsi on the lower Hwr. We entered h^ i 
pnodenjos old gateway, opontyl by the ctmcif^e, pasijed through a largn 
p«ved quadrtoit'le, traversod a short lial], und found ourselves in a large, 
ehotrful pwlour, lotiting oDt iato a small flower garden. There was m 
carftet, but what is eaIJ«l liere a parquet floor, or mosaic of oak \Axhif 
wttxe<l and highly puluttied, The mfas and ohairs were ooTeretl with ^ llglii 
cJjintjij and the whole Etir of the apartmi^nt Bh&dj and cool as a grotta, A 
jariUnieiv filled with flowers stood in the c^entre of the room, and amaadft . 
a group of living flowers — mother, b inters, and daraghters—scjiroclf !» 
l>eHiiti^. In five nunuten wa wero at home. French Efe ie diffe^at tern 
any other. Elsti where you do aa the world pleaaea ; here you do aa JM 
please youiBelf. My Bpirita alwaja rise when I get among tie French, 

^bbath, Jun« G. Ueada<uhe all the forenoon. In ike afternoon ire 
WAlke>d to the Madeleine, aud heard a lermon on clinrit; ; liateued to ttu 
chnntinp, and gazed at tie fantastio ceremonial of the aUfir. J hiid anti* 
dpiatCHl 80 raueh from Henry*8 descrifition of the organs, that I vib^ disaj** 
pointed. The mn«i1j was tina ; bnt our ideal had outatripp^d the real. Ti* 
strangest pai-t of the perforjuance was tlie censer swinging at the altar. It 
wa« done in certain parts of the chajit, with rhythiuie aweep, aad glitter, 
and Tftpour wreath, that prtjduced (t strtkiiiii efftttx There was an immense 
audience — qniet, orderly, and to all appearance detout- This was the ( 
Romish Ee^v^ce I over attended. It ought to be impressive hure, if a 
■wliere. Yet I caimot say I was uiovcd hj it Eome-ward. Indeiedjl 
felt a kind of Pnritan tremor of eonsc-ience at i^itiiesaing eueh ^ theatrica! 
pageant m. the Sabbath. Wc soon aaw, however, sm we walked hon 
across the ganJens of the Tuileries, that there is no Sabbath in, 
ticcording to oiir ideas of the day. 

Monday, Jnn« fl. This day wa,s consecrated to knick-knacks. Ao 
panied hy Mrs. C, whom jeara of residence have converted into a i 
PariKkftft^, we visited shop aftur fib op, and store after store. The poln 
ness of the shopkeepei^ is inexhaustihle. I fslt quite ashamed to speita 
hnJf-hour looking at everything, and then depai-t without buying j bat r 
civil Frenchman bowed, and amded, imd thanketl us for coming. 

in the evening, we rode to L'Arc de Triomphe d'Etoilo, an immense | 
ejf massive masonry, from the top of which we enjoyed a brilliant pano^n 
Paris was beneiith us, fiom the Louvre to tlie Bois de Bouhfgne, with 
gardens, and moving myriads* its sports, and games, and ligbtbe 
«irth— a vast Vanity Fair, blaising in the sunlight, A deep and strangely- 
Hended impresaioa of sadness and gaiety snnk into our hearts as wo gujied. 
Alt IB vivaeity, graeefnlness, and sparkle, to tlie eye; bnt ah, wliat fires 
are smouldering beloiv I Are not all these vines rooted in the lava luid 
ashes of the voloano aide f 

Tuesday, June 7. A Ia toui^rc/ But first the Ifuliefl Jnxiift **shop" ■ 
little. 1 ait by the coxmter and watch the pretty Pariaiuji tthopof^racy, 
lady presides at the desk. Trijn little grisettea servo tho eu«tom«rB 
deftly, that we wonder why awkward men should «ver attempt to do nju 
thingB. Nay, they are bo dvil, m evidently diainterssted and solicitcrtJS I 
your welfare, that to buy is the most natural tkimg imajrfuable. 
Biti ia the Louvre J Providiid with catalogues, I aliandontxl tl*o India 
and strolled along to take a kiiid o£ crtiQia-dtimmiiLS Itiot bA. Ul^ ^Uole. 


waa highly elated with one tiling. Thum were three MaJonaas with dark 
liair auUajea : oaa byMnrillo, another hy Carracci, and another by tiuido. It 
aliuwtiii that pQ,mtor,s werij nut m utterly huji^jle^ an a ol^^s^ and gl^eu 
jovor hy comiuiiu sense Up bliadness oi mindy iis i had auppoeed, 

E, begiai* to i ecaut her hctrtjaj in regard to Rubens. Hara we find Jiisi 
lai^4^ £He<»t:3. Utjro we find the rml Qi'ltjiimh of Boyeral real originals we 
HAW in Engliah gulleriss. it aeems cub thuugh oaly upon a pictmre as 
large aa the ^iJ.e ol' a pivduur uuuld hln eicuberant genius fiiid scope t'uliy to 
laj itself aut, 

WJidii 1 met H, at last — after finishing tlie aarvey — her cheek waa 
flushed, and her eye seemed ta Bwim. "Well, H.," said I, **have you, 
di^tuik deejj enough thia timfl if 

"Yes," eaid she, **1 have heea aatui^if c2, for the first time." 

Wednefidaj, J nue 8, A day cm foot in F^iris. Eiurnendcrod H. to the 
care of oui- lair hostess . Atttimptod tu hiro 'a boat, at one of the great 
'lathing estalill'TilLtnetiti^, for a pull on the Seme. Wiiy not on the Seine, as 
weQ ^ uu the Thames i Eiittiie old Triton demnrred. The i\AQ marched 
too BtToug — "/i Hi^rcka trap fwt." Uuwardj then, along the quays; 
Tiaitiug the curioue old buuk-atadls, picture-at*nda, and flowtr-markita. 
Lbu-u Oi'er the p&rapat, and gaze upon this modern Eu[ihjates, runhing 
butwetin solid walls of laasoury thru ugh. tlie heart of another Babylon, 
The river ia the only thing not old. -i'hese wati^rs tire as turbid, tnniul- 
tuous, utibridled, aa wken toreatE coTored all thesa banks— fit symbol of 
ptwpks and nations in their mad career, generation after gdueration. Inati- 
tutiona, like hewn gnanitei may wall them in, aiKl vjist arches Bfian their 
flow^, and hiiir;Lrchiea domineer over the tide \ but the scorning waters hurst 
into life uiidmugeable, and sweep impatuoufi tlu'ough the heart of Vanity 
Pair, and ditsh gut ayam bito the future, the eatoe grand, uugovemahle 
Euphrateii atream, 1 do not wonder Egypt adored her JNlle, and Eomeher 
Tiber. Surely, the lifo artery of Paris ia this Seine beneath my feet ! 
Aiid there is no scene like this, as 1 gaze upward and downward, eompre* 
l^ndingf in a glance, the Immense panorama of art and architecture—life, 
motion, eaterpdse, pleasure, pomp, and power. Ijoautiful Paris I What 
dty in the world cam compare with thee? 

And ia it not cluefiy i^eauae, either hy accident or hy instiootive good 
taste, ber treasures of beauty and art are so disposed along the Seme aa to 
be fisible at a glance to the best elfed;? Ab the instinct of the true Puri- 
ueone teaches her the mystery of setting off the graces of her person by the 
faaciuatioua of dress, no the inatinct of the nation to set off the eity by the 
fasoinations of architi3i;tQre and eculjelljfihment. Ilence a chief ^superiority 
of Paris to London, The Seine is stniight, and its iHinhs are laid out in 
Iffoad terraces on either KldCj called qiialxj lined with her stateliest pfdaoea 
and gardens. The Thames forms au elbow, and is eu veloped in dense smoke 
I nnd fog. London lowers ; the Seine sparkles ; London abuts down upon the 
Tbamefj, and there is no point of view for the whole river paaoramji, Parifi 
rifles amphitbeatncally, on either side the Seine, and the eye from the Pont 
d'Austerlitx seems to fly through the immense reach like an arrow, casting 
its shadow on everything of beauty or grandeur Paris posseasea, 

Ri^idiy now I sped onward, paying brief vistia V) ttxe Y-ai&Jia Ssi^AHfei^iN, 
the Hotel d*? yUh, and ^jxinding a cool ba\f ^out lu "S^^At^ Ti*.m'£. V \wi& 
Jf sli ill tht^ti majmiti^ ikueSf aLfstiuctiiig tk«[a feoui. \Vt fcu^w.^^isiiii.^'^*^'^ 



does bat (!eBecnvie ttii'tn, and gnza upward to tbesr lofty , vaxtltod ftrrlie^ t 
drink la the impression of architectuml subliniity, which 1 can imA 
ADalyzfl noF express. Cath«dralB do not se-Evm to tne to have been 
Thejr ieem, rather, stupendous gro^tbfi of nature, like crystals, orcUftI 
bMftlt. Tliere is little omaiueut here. That roof looka plam and ' 
yet I feel that the air Jb dense iv^ith fiublixnity. Onward I sped, croasiBi 
bridg^ir hy the Hotel Dieu, and, lejiving the riv«r, plujiged into i 
streets. Explored a quadraTijLfulftr umrket; ffurveyed the old church of 3 
Gen evi five, and the new— now the PantbSoa ; went onward to the Ja 
dea Plontt*, and explored its tropical bowers. Many tkings remind 
to- day of New Orleans, and its levee, its MiBsissippi, ite catbedralt anttti 
luxuriant vegetation of the i^lf. in h,c% I seem, to be walking in : 
sleep in a kind of glorified New Orleans, all the while. Yet I retam ( 
the gardens of the Tuilerief) and the Place Yendome, and in the sbadov t 
Kapoleon*a Column the illuaion vanishes. Hundreds of battles look ( 
uyau uie from their blaionry. 

In the evening I reste<l from the day's fatigue by an hour in thegaf^eiiO_ 
the Palais Auyal, I eat by one of the little t^Meii, and called Sx on 
ice. There were hundredi^ of litulics and gentlemen eating ices, drinkiBg 
wine, reading the papers, smoking, chatting ; Kcorea of pretty children wera 
frolicking and enjoying the balmy evening. Here eisL or eight miijgotn wfW 
jumping the rope, while pnpa and mamma swnngitfor them. Pretty litl 
things, with their flushed cheeks and sparkling eyes, how thej did seeiati 
enjoy themselves ! What parent was ever far from horoe that did not i _ 
in every group of children his own little ones — his Mary or hie Nelly, hi 
Heai7 or Charley ? So it was with lue. There was a ring of twenty 
tbiiiy KMging and dancing, with a smaller ring in the centre, while old folk*'" 
a»d boys stood outside. But I heard not a single oath, nor saw a roogh or 
rude action, during the whole time I was thfere. The boyB standing Ig^ 
looked on quietly, like young gentlemen. The heat finale of such a toil- 
some dfty of sightaeeing was a wnrm bath in the Rue dn Bae, for the tnftuig 
snm of fifteen eous. The cheapnesB and convenience of bathing here la a gnftt 
recommendation of Paris life. They will bring yon a hot bath a| yow 
honse for twenty-five cents, and that without bustle or disorder, A^i 
nothing fio effectnnlly as an evening bath, aa my experieuca teetifies, cures 
fatigue and propitiates to dreamlesB elun^bipr. 

Thursday, June 9. — At the Louvre. iStudied three fltatnes half an hour 
each— the Yenua Victrix, Polyhymnia, ajid Gladiatcur Combatt&nt. The 
first is mutilated; but if disanned she cotiqnerB all hearta, what wDold 
she aohitve in full panoply I As to the Gladiator, I noted a* follows un 
my catalogue :^A pugilist; antique, brown with age; attitude, leasdng 
forward ; left hand raised on guard, right hand thrown out back, ready to 
strike a side blow ; right leg bent ; straight line from the head to the too 
of left foot ; muEcles and veins most vividly revealed in iuteuese devetop- 
me»t; a wouderful jjrfn/ot^tcin, an if he had been smitten to stone ftt the 
instant of striking. i 

Here are antique monies, in which coloured steties seem liqueiied, 
realizing the most t>eautiful effects of painting— quaiirigie, warriors, arms, 
armour, vases, streams, all lifelike. Aseending to the hall of French 
j)aintings, I spent an honr in studying cue picture — La Mcduse, 
&c'nmutt. It is a shipwreck wl crew upon & taft m mid ooeau. 1 



until all Bnrrounding oLjecte dl8a|)t)eared, and I was alone upon the wide 
Atlantic. Those truQsparent oiaerald Vftives are no fiction i they liaip 
mndly, hungering for their prey. That difitanded saU U tilled with tlie 
lurid nir. That d«ad mnn's fuoi hongs ofT in the seething brine a etark 
reality. ^Hiat a fixt?d gaze of despair in that father's atony eye ! What 
f group of deathly living ones around that fmil mast, while one -with 
intense engcrnesa fluttera a Bignal to soma fur- descried bark I Coleridgc'a 
J^ticient Mariner has no colours mor« fearfully faithful to his thenia. 
Heaven pities them not. Ocean ja all in uproar againiit them. A ad there 
ifl no Toice that can summon the distant, flying Bail I Bo Franca appeared 
to that prophet painter's eye, iti the subfiidmg tempcsta of the revglutijtitt. 
So mGo'n hearts failed them fur fear, and the dead lay aUrk and atiff 
among thg liriug, amid tlie sea and the waves roaring ; and so mute aignala 
of distress were hung out in the lurid sky tw natiouB afar. 

For my part, 1 remain a heretic, (iive to these French pictures the 
mellowing effects of age, impreguatitig nut merely the picture, hut the eye 
that s^ea on jt, with ita enbtle quality ; let them be gaaed at through, tho 
haae of two hundred years, and they will— or I cannot see why they will 
not — rival the productions of any past age. I do not beheve that a more 
powerful piece ever was painted than you raft by G^ricault, nor any moiu 
beautiful than several in the Lnxemlwurg ; the " Becadefice do Rome," for 
eiamjde, exiiibiticig the revels of the Bomaus during the decline of th6 
eiapirti. Let this^ D6cadence unroll before the eyes of men the caudf, that 
inreek hy Gerieault Bynibclize the fffedj in tlic great career of nations, and 
th<» (w-o are sublimely matched. 

After vbjiting the Luxembourg, I resorted to the gardens of \hs Tuileiies. 
The thermometer was at about eighty degrees in the shade. Fruju tha 
number of people assembled, one would have thought, if it had been m 
the United Ktites, tlmt stime great masa convention is as coming off. Under 
tha impenetrikble screen of tho tree«, in the dork, cool^ refreshing shade, 
are thousands of chairs, forwliich one pays two cents apiece. Whi>le families 
come, locking up their door, bringing the baby, work, dinner, ©r lunch, 
take a certain number of choirs, and spend the day. As far as eye cvA 
reach, you see a multitude seated, as if in church, with other multitudea 
moYing to .ind fiti, ^vhik hoyn Aud girlii without number are frolicking, 
racing, playing ball, driving hoop, iic^c, but contriving to do It without 
making a hideous racket. How French children a}.<e taught to play and 
eajjoy themselves without disturbing everybody ehie, ia a mysttry. ** Ceai 
ffentil" saems to be » taUanmrna spell; and "Cen'titptm tftniil fa" is 
saffitiietitto check erery riHJug iitegubrity, that some naraitt would 
write a Vxjok and toll ub how it is done 1 I gneed for half an hour on the 
spectacle. A more charming sight my eyes never beheld. There "ware 
groyheatled old men, and women, and invsjids; and there were beautiful 
demomlles working worsted, embroidery, sewing; men reading papers; 
and, in f;ict, people doing everything they would do in their own parlours. 
And all were graceful, kind, and obliging; not a word nor an act of im- 
politeness or indecency. Ko wonder the French adore Paris, thought I ; in 
no other city in the world is a scene like this pui^uible 1 No w^ouder that 
their hearts die Mdthin thtm at thoughts of e^le in the I'uns of 
C^yonne ! 

JJut uurfef till this tkcr& Jie^ as undei; tib* (jiaifefe3«4 ti:^;^ t&. "^^a^ ^^^ 



wnr]<1, d^^^^^^^BliI, vfhere Toknuic masHea of molten 
nnd shatcG'ttie tremtiloiiB feirth. In tha guy find hustHug BouleraHa.] 
frieiiil, ?iii old r^aiJent of Paris, pointed out to me, a& we rode, tha Imfll 
marks tJiot Slurred the houae« — signiEcant toteHB of wlmt seexaa, botj 
not, foT]gx]tten. 

At aimBet n military bnitd of about fieTenty performera b<?gtiii plajinf a 
fn>nt of the Tiiileries. Tb* y formod an imiupiiBe circle, the lender in i" 
oentrt^. Ho jdayed tUo octave flute, which ntao eerved as a, baton I 

rking time. The mnaio wm charaetariBed by delicacy, prwiflion, 
Hitju, uiid Bubjiigfliion of rc1)€llitiiis mntcrift]. 

I ittiBgiiied ii conpreftg of homR, clarianets, truidpst*, &r,, converdng i 
Itiw tones on anoe importaivt thfjuie ; nay, rather a conepiracy of ' 
ments, mounriiig hrtween whiles thctr Buhju.t^atiou, and ev 
Isreaking cut in a ficrw ^r^lclft^^, then trepresFied, liMfflied, dyin;.- 
they had lienrd of Baron Mnni^hausen'B frozen horn, and had <; 
idea of yielding their harnfimiloa Tnthout touch of hxiinan Hpa, yet 
ai^hing and eobbing at their impoleaee. Perhapa I doteo+ed the puls« j 
' Pation^B palpitating heart, ih robbing for lil>erty, bit trodden down, H 
' bJDg in despair. 

In tho ovoninj; Mrs. C. had ?!cr*ri/on, a fashion of receiving one's friel 
IftpaTticnbrniftlit, tlmtonBiTiphca could he traustilauted t.<> American i 

fo lavitiitions are given. It is nimply nnderrtood that on 
eTening, the season tUmn^li, alndy remi'CifherfriendB. All come tha 
"withfiut ceremony. A little tahlo is eet outi^-rth tea and a jdnto i 
Behind tt presides some fairy Emma or ElizabelJi, dispenaing tea and 1 
bonbons and boii-iflots, witli cqaal jcinice. The j^esta enter, chat^ 
(tbout, spend tip much time, or as little, aa they choose., and retire. Th«J 
cdmo when they please, and go when they please, and there is no jiatvte 
jjjuan of fintrde or exit, no time wasted in fonual grectingE ami leafe 


Up to thlB hoiir wfl had converged little ia French. One is natunill|; 
difBdent at first. ; for if one mnsters eouTBge to efiminence a conTersatJfli 
with propriety, the prohluin ia how to eatjape a Scylla in the seoind, and [ 
Charybdia in the third sentence. ?aid one of oar fair entertain el's, " Wii«( 
I firet began, I would think of aoiiie eeuteuoe till I could eay it witli* 
stopping, and couraireouftly deliver my fsclf to some gwest itr acquninte.nee.'j 
But it vaa like pulling th^ string of a shower-bath. Delighted at nay < 
rect sentence, and avipiHj^iiig me ati faitf they poured upon me awch 
deluge of Erench that I held my bre<T,th in di.TOiay. Considering, haweve 
that nothing Is to be gained by half-way mestsnres, I resftlved upon a desj 
rate gjimc. Launching In, I tallred away right- and left, up hill and don 
— Jumping over genders, cases, nouns, and adjectives, floundering throtti; 
swamps and momsseB^ in a perfect steeple chase of words. Thanks to < 
proTBrblal yjolitenesa (if ray friends, I came off covered with glory ; tbemilt^l 
mijrtakeB I rando the more complacent they grew, 

Notliing can flwrpiisstlio ea»e, facility, and genial freedotn of tliege toir^aj 
Ccni'piveof our csicellent profia^ior of Arahie find Sanscrit, Count M,, fairlij 
cornered ljy three T^-iekod fairies, and litughing at their i&torita tuid Hwtn 
witLiciaros till the tears roll do'ttn his cheeks. Behold yonder ta.ll nnd aoari 
veteran, an old aoldior of Napoleon, capitulating now before the witdie] 

of genius and wit. Here tlio noble EuBsiaii esil& fofgcts hia Borrowfi in 
those trntllea that, nnlike tte auroTS, warm while they dazzle. And our 
celebrated Mmposer is discomposed easily by rtlert ttnd nimble-footed mb- 
chief. And otir profesaor of Grrect and Hebrew roota la roijted to tUo 
ground with naioniahmeat at finding himself put through all th« moods and 
ienseB of fun in a twinkling. Ah, culpable sirens, if the pangs ye ha,yc 
infliflteU were rflijkoued tip unto you — ^the heart achee and Bids aabiai — how 
eauld ye rejw&e o' nights ? 

Gatunlay, June 11, Versaillea ! When I have written thut one word I 
have said all. I ought to stop. Deacriptioa is out of the queistion. Describe 
•jctine miles of painting ? Bt^aeribo Tisions of splendour and gorgeousneaa 
fhat Cftnnot be examinHd in mouths ! Suffice it to say that we walked from 
hall to hall, until there was no more soul left within ng. Then, late in the 
afternixin we dxoye away, about three juilee, to the villa of M. Belluc, dirvc- 
teur de rEcole Imperlide tie Ikssnin. Ma<la,rae Bdhxi had produced, as^iated 
hy her friend, Mademoiselle Moatgolfier, the best French translation of ITncle 
Tom's Ciibia. At this Little family party we enjoyed ouiBolrcs exceedingly, 
in the heart of genuine domesrtio life. Two beautiful married daughtera wera 
therc', with their huabands, and the household seemed cowplet-e, Madame B. 
speaks Englijih well ; and thus, with our limit-ed French, we got on de- 
lightfully tHjggther. I soon discovered that I had been sinning against all 
law in admiring anything at VeraaiDea, They were all bad paintings. 
There might be one or two goorl paintingH at tlie Luxembourg, and one or 
two good modem pttintltig^ at the Louvra^the Meduat, by Gfiricanit, for 
example. (How 1 rejoiced that I had admired it !) But all the reat of the 
modern paintings M, Bel loo declared, with an inimitftblo shrug, are pnor 
poiin tings. There is nothing saffily admirable, I find, bnt the old luasftetB- 
AIJ thoae battles of all famous French genei'aJa, from Charles Martel to 
Kftpoleon, and the battles iu Algiers, by Uorat'e Vemet, are wholly to ha 
aniiiikd at. In painting, R8 iti theology, ago )s the mteriow of merit. Yet 
Vemet'spaintiijgs, though dceried by M. la Llireeteur, I admtrod, and told 
Mm 80, Said I, in French as lawless as the aentiment, "Monsieur, I da 
not kiiow the rides of painting, nor whether the picture ia according to 
them or net ; I only know that I like it." 

But who shall descrilho tho social eharmfl of our diruier ? All wedged 
togothor, aa wo were, in the snoggest little pigeon-hole of a ditiing-room^ 
pretty little chattering children and all, whom papa hold upon his kne« 
and fed with bonhnns, all the while iniiirt'iiiiiujjf uprni tliem the absolute necea* 
Hity of their leaving the tiible ! Thera the salad was mixed by acclamation, 
eaeh member of the purty adding a word of advice, and eaeh gaily laughing at 
ihe advJoe of the other. There a gay, red lobster was pulled in pteeesamong 
na, with induite goiit ; and Madame Belloc iiatlietically expressed her fears 
thMi wo did not like French cooking. She might have saved herself the 
trouble ; fljr we take tt> it as natnndly as ducks take tiJ the water. And 
,theu, wliea we tetumod to the parluur, we resolved oiimelvL'S into a oom- 
fiivttee of the whole on coffee, whieh v/n» concocted ia a trim litllti hydro- 
ilAtic engine of latest modern invention, before the faces of all. And 
#>j WW tight merrily Kpont ilie evening. 11. diBiu.s&ad poetry and art with 
wnr kind L<*sUj bo her heart's content^ and Mt u. liita hour wa drove ia UiU 
laulroadf and returoed to fmn. 







THa ]>OtfVftK— THE VSSTVS DI iHLoa-. 

Mt dejlU L. : — 

At I&^ I hitVG {!c)nie Into d ream kind ; into tbe lot<n-eater'« piuiaiiise; 
int'O tho land where it is always ufteraQon, I bjq roleiued from care ; Ism 
unknown, unknowing ; I live in. a bouse whoi&e amuigementB seem to me 
strong old, and dreamy. In the lieartof a gteat city 1 am ah stJll ii« if ins 
convent; in the burning heats of summer our rooms are shadowy and ccml 
AS ft <»Te. My time is jiU my own. I may at will lie on a sofa, and 
d7«amUy watch the play of the leaves and flowers, in the little gartlen int*} 
•wiach my rctom opens ; or I may go into the parlour adjoining, whentw I 
hear the quick voices of my beautiful and Tivacious young frbnds. You 
ought to Bee theae girls. Emma might look like a MadonntL, wore it uot 
for her wicked wit; and ae to Anna and Li»zie, aa they gknce by lue, now 
and then, 1 aeem to think them a kind of sprite, or elt^ made to inhabit 
shady old houses, just ns twinkliup harebells grow in. old cAptlcs ; und thidn 
the gracious tuamtna, who speaks French, or Knglisb, likt; a stream ef 
bIy^t — is eliti not, after sU, the faireet of any of them i And tbcf« is 
Caroline, piquant, raey, full of conversatiou — sharp as a iiuaita crysial: 
Low I like to bear her talk ! These people know Paris, liB wti say in Ame- 
rica, "like a iHxjJf:." They bavy studied it testheti«illy, historically, 
Booiivlly. They have studied French people and Freocb lit-eratiire, — ai 
studied it with enthuEiasm, as -petiple ever ahonid, wbo would truly nur 
smnd. They arc all kindness to me. Whenev^er I wish to see auytMni;i 
have only to apeak j or to know, I have only to ask. At break fiwt ev, 
morning we comixirc nottFj, and make up our list of wants. My bi 
course, was tbe Louvre, It is close hy us. Think of it. To one tirj 
starved all a life, iti vmn imngiiiings of what art might be, to 
tbat you are witlun a stone*3 throw of a museimi full of its miraclen, 
Assyrian, Egyptian, Eoman sculptors and modem jjainting, all there I 

I scarcely cunaidt^r myielf to have seen anything of art in England. Tbe 
cftlla of the living w(»rld were m various ande.nV/fHjri', I hiui so little V 
for reflection, that although I mvf m&ny paiutiugs, I could not study 
and mauy times I a&v/ them in a state of tbe nervous system too jaded 
depressed to receive the full force of the impiusiion. A day or two befow I 
left, I visited the National Gallery, and made a rapid survey of its iKiDtents. 
There were two of Turner's master-pietie* there, which he ^jresented on tbe 
significant ci>ndition thjit they should bang side by Bide with tlieir two iiltest 
Claudes, 1 thought them all four fine [licturea, but I Hked the Turners 
best. Yet I did not think any of them fine enough to fL>m] an abacdutQ 
limit to human improvement. Eut, till I had t)eeu in Paris a day or %' 
perfectly seclndeii, at full liberty to Ihink aud rest^ I did not feel that 
time for examining art had reaJly come. 

It was, then, witli a thrill almost of awe tbat I approached tbe Lou 

Here, i)erbaps, said I to myself, I slvall answer, fully, the question t! 

has long wrought within my Boul — ^What is art t and wbat can it do 't Hero, 

p<ThiipB, tbese yearnings for the Ideal will meet their aatitf action. The 

offceat tfj the picture ^'alleiy tends to produce a Jiutter of i^stciteraenl 

F tiiflayH 



F 1 


carvings, the gloriuus HbH of Apollo, rooma with mosaic pavements, 
antique vflfiea, countless Bpoils of art, daialo the eye of the neophyte, and 
prepare the niind for soma grand enohaatment. Then opens on one the 
grand hall of paintings arranged by schools, the worka of each artist by ^| 
themselves, a wildemesa of gorgeous growths. ^H 

I first walked through the whole, odering my mind up aimlesisly to see if 
there were any picture tJiere great and giorious enough to ueize and control 
my whole heing, and answer, at ouco, the tiniving;s of the pootic and artiiitio 
element, For any such I looked in vain. I saw a thousand heautieS| as 
fiklso a thousand enormities, hut nothing of that overwhelming, e^ubduing' 
nature which I had conceived. Most of the men tliere had painted with fl 
dry eyes and cool hearts, thinking only of the mixing of their colours and ^ 
the jugglery of their art, thinking little of heroism, faith, love, or immor- 
tality. Yet when 1 bad rtsigned this longing — when I was suie I should 
not meet there what 1 aoughtj then I began to enjoy very heartily what 
tbeTB was. 

In the first place, 1 now saw Claudes worthy of tho reputation ho bore. 
Three or four of these were studied with great dehght ; the delight unefeelH 
who, cf^nscientiously bound to be delighted, suddenly earner inti:) a situation 
to be so, Ivfiflw now those atmospheric trrtita, those reproduRtiona of the 
rayateriea of air, and of light, which are called so wonderful, and for which 
&U admire Claude, but for which so few admire him who made Claude, and 
wKo every day creates around U6, iu the commonest aeeuee, effects far mora 
"beautiful. How umeh, even now, my admintion of Claude was genuine, I 
cannot say. How lain we over be sure ou this point, when we admire what 
lias prestige and eanetion, nut to admire which \s an argument against 
ourselves if Certoinlj, however, I did feel great deHght in some of th^ra ^M 
works. ^M 

OuE of my favourites vras Eerabrandt, I always did admire thegorgeons ^^ 
and solemn mysteriej* of hia i» louring. Kembrandt is like Hawthorne, He 
chooses simple and every -day ulyetitJi, and bo arranges light and shadow m. 
to give them a sombre riehncsa and a mysterious gloom. The House of ^M 
Seven d^bles is a succession of llembrandt pictures, done in words iniiteiid ^| 
of oils. Now, this pleases us, becauae our life really is a haunted one; the 
aijinplest thing in it in a mystery; the inviKible world always lies round us 
like a shadow, and tbereforc this golden gluam of Kembrandt rrieets some- 
what in our consciousness to which it corresponds. There were no jtictures 
in the gallery which I looked upon so long, and to which I returned so often, 
and with such growing pleasure, as these, I found in them, if not a com- 
manding, a drawing infiueuoe, a full satisfaction for one part of my nature. 
There were Eaphaela there which still iJiiSttppointed lue, because from 
Saphael 1 asked and expected moro. 1 wished to feel hU baud on my soul 
with a stronger grnap; these were too passionless in their serenity, and 
almoet elTeminate in their tenderness. 

Eut Kulffius, the great, joynus, full-souled, all-pow^erful Rubens I — there 
be was, full aa ever of triumphant, abounding Ufe; diatgusting and pleasing; 
making me laugh and making me angry; defying me to dielike hira; drag' 
giiig me at bts chariot wheels; in deapite of my protesta forcing me to con- 
fiss that tliere was no other but he. 
< This Medici giillery is a BUCCKalcm of gorg,e,tiua t^fei^otNa ^vs\XJt&'^-* ^sroa. 
i.Biibe iiiBtmvG of Mary of Medici, to celebrate i\KB v^isft ^lA ^^i^^ cS.^J&^ 



fftmUy. I wns prtsdctermiiied. not to like them, for two reasons t first, 
I tliKlik^ allpgorica] flubfePtB; unci nerond, that I htite and despise 

Mwlkii family Mad ftU tliat belongs to thero. So no sympathy with 

Btibject blinded my oyea, and drew me gmdufllly from nil else iti the WfT 
to contempljitfl these. It was aimply the Iotd of power iimi of figrtility thftt 
held me astonLsh@d, whieh seemed to express with noncfaahint ease wliAk 
other paiatere attoia by labor! owa offorta. It occforred tfj me tluit otter 
painters are fain una for aing^le heads, or figurea, and tlukt were the striking 
headu or flgare* with which those pictnrea ohonnd to bo parcelled out singly, 
any one of them would make a man's reputation. Any animal of Rubenii,. 
akiiMj, would mtike a man's fortnne m that department. His frnits AxU 
flowers are unrivdled for richness and abiindance; his old meo's heads trt 
wonderful; and whea he choosea, which he does not often, he can erta. 
create a pretty woman. Generally speaking bis women are kia worst pro- 
ductions. It would aeem that he had revolted with Bueh fury from tliB 
meagroj pnle, cadaveroiiH outlines of womankind painted by his predeceSBof^ 
the Van Hyks, whose women resembled potato -sprouts grown in a eel' 
that li<! altogether overdid the matter ni the opp<iaite direction. His 
herant soul ahhora leatmeBa as Nature abhbra a vacuum; and hence all 
wvnneu seem Inirsting their badices with fulness, like overgrown caniatl< 
breaking out of their green calyxes. He giTes yon Tenuses with anuB 
to wield the hammer of Yulwin; vigorous Graces whose dominion would 
alarming were they indisposed to elemenciy. His weaknege, in fact, liia be- 
Bet^ng sin, is too truly described by Moses: — 

"But Jf^ahu^lln mtmwI J'lit sad Idck«d ; 
Tbuu axi waii'a fat, thnu art gruvra thick* 
Thou art covt'red with Mnesa." 

Scornfully he is determined upon it 5 he will none of your scruples: 
women shall be fat a» lie pleftfies, and you »hall like him neverthijless. 

lu his Medici gallcrj' tho fault appears less prominent than elsewht 
Mjiny of the faces are portraits, and there are specimonfl among them of 
female beauty, so delipate as to demonstrate that it was not from any waal 
uf ability to represent the softyer itrraces that he m often beomnesi bard 
tioanie. My friend, M. Belloe, made the reniai-k that the genius of Ru 
was fiomewhat reatnuned ia these piotnrea, and chastened by the rigid rul 
of tlie Freui;h school, and hence in them he k more generally pleading. 

J ishould (30tfipitra Rubens to 8hftkspoara, for the womierfuJ variety 
vitid force of his artisatic power. 1 know no other mind he so nearly 
sumblcs, lake Shakgp^ire, he forces you to accept and to forgive a tfaoi 
e^cceases, and uses his own faults aa rausieiaiis wae discords, only to enh. 
the jwrfectJon of haitnony. There cerUiinly iis some use even in defects, 
fuoltless style sends you to sleep. Defects ronee and excite the senmbilii 
to su^ek and appreciate excellencee. Bomo of Shaki^pe^iTe's finetit paiisages 
exiilode all grammar and rhetoric like skyrockets — the thought blows tJjC 
laugimgo to dijvera. 

As to Murillo, thfre are two splendid fspecimens of his style hews, tii ear 
qttitcita ai< any 1 have fieen ; but 1 do not find rouson to alter the jtidgfilAUt. 
made irtmi my first eurvey. 

} ia bis t'eJebmted pietnro of the AssiiHipUon of the Virgin, whick 
cii^aht&d in prLat shops in America, but whicth ajipeai^ «f 



"fridrfy fllfFeTent pharadflr in the pamting. The Yir^n is rfdng in » flood 
of amber Hglit, sutrouuded hj clouda iud ladJatiDCt nugfil figures. Siie iB 
lookiiJg upwiird witli cl&sped hands, a^ in an ecBtasj: the crt'Sueut moan is 
liejitj<i.di hEir inet. The whole tone of tlie pietuA — the elaads, thu drapery, 
har flowLDg hair — -are pt?rvad{!id with tJus amher tint, Eubliiuat'ed and 
spiritual, J>o J, then, like it ? Ko, Doea it affect mo t Not at all, Wi)y 
§oi B&iSkune thifi is a, sahject jequiring earneBtsefis ; yet, after all, there ia 
»o eariiBatnesa of religiona feeling expressetl It h & ^urfmx picture, ex- 
quiaitely painted — the feelittg goes no deeper than the OMiTas. But how do 
1 know MnrJllo haa no enrnestnesB in the religioos idea of this piece ? How 
do I know, when refitdin^ Pope's Measiaih, that A « was not in earnest — that 
he -was only moat exqulsiteiy reprodndng what others had thought! Does 
h6 not assams, in the most grateful way, the language of inspiration and 
itaiy rapture ? But, through it aJl, we feel the sitisfied amirk of the artist, 
•nil the fine, sharp touch of his diamond tile. What is done from a gimniue, 
Rtrong, inward emotion, whether in writing: or painting, always mesmerises 
the piper, or the caovaa, and gives it a power which eveiyhody must feei, 
ihongh few know why. The reasou why the BiUle hss hem omnipotent, in 
flJI ages, has been because there were tiie emotiaus of G^on in it ; and of 
^^ntings nnithing ia mora remarkable than that some presert'B in them such 
& degree of genuine vital force that one cau ueTsr look on them with indif- 
ference ; while others, in which every condition of art eeema to be met, 
inapire no strong emotion. 

Yet this picture is immensely popular. Hundreds stn-nd enohantod before 
it| and declare it embodies their highest ideftl of art and roligion ; and I 
iuppose it does. But ai> it always is. The man who hfis esqnieite gifts of 
exprtiaaioti passes for more, popnlarly, thfia the mnn with great and grand 
ideas who utters hut Imperfectly. There are mme pictures here by Cor- 
piggiu — -a sleeping Venus and Cupid^a marriage of the infant J t^^us and St, 
'Catherine. This Corre|!gio is the poet of phj^cxd beauty. Light and 
^lhadow are hia god. What he lives for in, to catch and reproduce fiitting 
phases of these. The moral is nothing ti> him, and, in )iis own worhl, he 
"doe* what he seeks. He is a great popular fftvourile, since few louk for 
^iDure in a pictm-e than exqnisite beauty of form and colnur. I, indetid, like 
liim, ao far us it is honestly understood between na that hia sphere is to be 
earth, and not heaven ; were he to attempt, profanely, to reprosont heavenly 
^iu^ I must rebel, 1 should as &jHjn want Tom Moore to write me a 
grayer book, 

A large saloon ia devoted to the masters of the French school. The works 
(B^ no living artist are admittod. There are some large paintinga by David. 
He is my utter aversion, J aee in him notliing but the driest imitation of 
llhe claasit?s. It would Ikj too much praise to call it reirrdducfciou. David 
^ad neither heart nor soul. How conld he ba an aii.i?it i — he who ood,ly 
look his portfolio to the gniUotine to take leESons on the dying agouioe of 
As TJotims — how could he ever palut nnythiug to touch the heart ? 

In general all French artists appeitr to me to have b;eu very much in- 
jured by a wrong use of chLst^ii' antitjuity. Ifothing could hi* njore piorio^is 
Wtd heautiiiil than tlie fiioi-iiAU J ovelopment ; nothing more unlike it thiiu 
fiiaSe, wearisijnif, iLptliUiius iuiitatlous of it in motltm limey. The 
productiouB theraHoJveM ha%'e a living power to thi* day; bat aiL 
of them are cold and tiwBome. TUe»* ^ViOressita -OMftftfii *Mi3e>- 






heftatiful tlujigR, becatiae ih«y did not imitate. That rajsterioru vftalitj 
whicli stMl imbnfis their rsm&iDs, aad which aeemi to eacbant trea the 
fni|;iDentfl of tbeir mstrbld, is the meBmede riiaiit; of fr«ah, at^nsl eoft- 
ceptjon. Artj built upon thi% is just like what the shadow of a beaatiful 
voman lb io the iroman. One geta tired in these galleries of the daasiebtuid, 
and tho classic; headdrc^ and the i^laBsk attitude, and the endleaa repetl* 
tlon of the elafisic urn, and vase, and lamp, as if uotMug elso were ew Io 
be madt: in the world except these things, 

Agnia : in injgnnl to thii whole French gallery, there is mueh cf a ce^ 
tain qtiiJity which 1 find it rtry dtlKcult to describe ia any ona word— i 
dmiDatic amartn^is, & searching for attikiiig and pecidinr effeota, whidl 
iren<]t>r the pictnreii very likely to please on first ni^iht, and to weary oa 
loriRier acquabtance. It ee^jtas to me to be ths work of a rojce whoee moKt 
judA petctiptionB of the outwdrd have been cuitJvated more ihaa the deepb- 
wani t'lDDtian*. Few of the picturca aeem to hiive been the reault of alvng 
aofl profound fefliii^, of Imbitii of earnest and (^acctitratod thought. TlMn 
is an jibumJasice of beautiful little phases of sentiment, pointedly expreMedi; 
there h a great deal of what one should cftU the picturesque of the iHWoJf ; 
but few of its foundation ideas. I mn&t except from these remarks tlw! 
very strong and eani^t painting of tiie Meduse, by Giricaalt, which C. 
htis de^rlbed. That weme to me to be the work of a man who hnd not &e<en 
human lifo and suffBring merely on the outside, bnt had felt, in th* vvij 
depths of his soul, the Burging aud naartliqTiake of ttoae raysteriea of pasnoD 
aiHl BufToring which underlie our whole exiateutje in this world. To nw' it 
was a picturo too mighty and Uso painful — whose power I cunfeasod, bnt 
which I did not like to contemidate. 

On the wlu>lc, French painting is to mc an exponent of the gr^t dtiil- 
culty and danger of FreQch life ; that passion for the outward and Tiiable, 
which till thoir eduaition, all the arangemeiits uf their social life, CFcry- 
tiiirij: in their art and litemturo, tends contintially to cidtiTate and inofUK. 
Ueticv tlicy have liecome the leaders of the world in what 1 should call tte 
minor artiatica — all thoae little particulars which TBnder life heautlfuU 
Hence there are in ore pretty pictures, and popuUr lithographs, from Fraiioe 
than from any othur country in the world; but it produces very lir" 
the deepest and highest style of art. 

In this connexion I may as well ^ive you my Luxembourg experienced^ 
il illiiBtratefl tho same idsL I like Paul de la Roche, on the wh( 
nltlv.tugh 1 think he hfia sometliing of th& fault of which I speak, 
has very great dramatic power; but it is more of tbe kind shown hy 
^^ilter Scott than of the kind shown hy Shakapeare. He can re-prodnce 
historioal characters with gii^at vividEeas and effect, and with enough 
knowledgo of humanity to make the verisimilitude admirably strong ; 
but ua to the deep knowled;;e with which Sb&kspeare searches the radical 
elements of the human soul, he has it not. His death of Queen Elizabeth 
^^ is a strong Walter Scott picture ; bo are his Execution of Stratfurd, aiid Mb 
^^BChartes L, which I Haw in England. 

^^^1 As to Horace Yemet, I do not think he is like either Scott or Shakvpeare. 
W In him this French capability for rendering the outward is wrought t*» the 

I highest point ; aud it is outwardness nn pura from any touch of inspiration 

I i>r sentimeiii as 1 ever remember to have eeen. He is yraphio to the iitmcwt 
I t^xireme. Eh horses aud hia meii e^ba^^ from ih<^ C'bjxvw tQ tlie Htaiult* 




ment of all belioldera. All is Tlv:icLt]r, bustle, diuixle, wiA eltciw^. I tLink ^ 
Mm M perfect, of hia Itiud, as poaaible ; thuugb It 1b a khtd of art ^th 
which I do not sympnitlilse. 

The picture of the Decadence de Rome indlcatea to tny mind a painter J 
who haa studied and uadexHtood the claBsical formB ; vitaliizmg them, liy* 
tlie reproductive force of his own mieti, bo as to gire them the liTiBg 
power of new creations. In thin picture i» a motit grand aud melancholy 
moral lesson. The cla^sit^I forms are evidt^ntlj not introduoed because 
tLey are classic, but iu subBervience to the expression uf the moittL 111 
tbe orgies of the sensualists here represented he gives all tlie grace 
and beauty of Bdnauality without ita sensualizing effect. Nothing could 
be more exquisite than the introduction of the busts of the departed 
heroes of the old republic, looking down from their pedestals on the 
potme of debauchery below. It is a noble picture, which I wisb was hung 
up in the capital of our nation to teach our haughty people that as pride, 
»nd fulness of bread, and laxneBS of priiicipk brought down the old re- 
publics, so also oui^ may fall. Although tho outwurd in this painting, and 
the classical, is wrought to s^ fine a point as in any French pit^turc, it ia 
so aubordiuate to the severity of the thought, that while it plKisea it does 
not distract. 

But to return to the Louttc. The halls deTOted to paintings, of wHeh. 
I have spoken, give you very little idea of the treasuraa of the institu- 
tion. GitUery after gallery is liUed with Grreek, Roman, Assyrian, and 
Egyptian eculptureSj coins, TaJ*eSj and antique remains of every descrip- 
tion. There is, alBO, an apartment in which I took a deep IntereBt^ 
containing the original sketclit^ of ancient masten?. Here one may see the 
peu and ink druwingsi of Olaudc, dirided into squares to prepare them 
for the copyist. One compares here with interert the manners of the 
different artists in jotting down their idejis as they rose \ soiue by cbalk^ 
some by crayon, some by pencil, amm by water coburj*, and some by 
a heterogonooiis mixture of all. Mozart' k scrap bag of musical jotting* 
oanld not have been more amusing. 

On the whole, cravings of mere ideality ave corae nearer to meeting 
satiafaetion by some of these old mutiliited remains of Greek sculpture 
than anything which I have met yet. In tbe paintings, even of \h& 
celebrated masters, there arc often things which are excessively 
loying to me. I scarcely remember a master in whuse works I haTe 
i©t found a hand, or foot, or face, or feature so distorted, or colouring 
at times so unnatural, or something so out of place and prr>portion in 
the picture as very Bcriously to mar the pleasure tbat I derived frook 
it. In this statuary less is attempted, and all is more barmonions^ 
and one's ideas of proportion are never viiilated. 

My favourite among all these remains is a mutJlateil statue which 
they caU the Venus de Milon. This is a statue which is so called ficm 
liaving been dug up some years ago, piecemeal, in the islattd of Milos, 
TLere wa» quite a struggle for her between a French naval officer, the 
English, and tbe Turka, The French officer carried her off like another 
Eelen, and she was given to Paris, old Louis Fhilippe being bridegroom 
by proxy, Savaits refer the statue to the time of Phidias ; and as thia 
ia a pleasant idea to me, I go a little furtker^ and oieauW Vx^x \i^ ^Vv^ 






The statue is much mutilated, both armsibeing gone, and part of thefooi 
But there is a majesty and grace in the head and fece^ a union of lovelinei 
with intellectual and moral strength, beyond anything which I hare evt 
seen. To me she might represent Milton's glorious picture of nnfallf^n^ pei 
feet womanhood, in his Eve : — 

"Yet when I approach 
Her loveliness, so absolute she seems. 
And in herself complete, so well to know 
Her own, that what she wills to do or say 
Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best. 
All higher knowledge in her presence faUs 
Degraded ; wisdom, in discourse with her. 
Loses discountenanced, and like foUy shows. 
Authority and reason on her wait. 
As one intended first, not after made 
Occasionally ; and to consummate all. 
Greatness of mind, and nobleness, their seat 
Suild in her, lovehest, and create an awe 
About her, like a guard angelic placed." 

Compared with this matchless Venus, that of Medici seems as inane an 
trifling as mere physical beauty always must by the side of beauly baptized 
and made sacramental, as the symbol of that which alone is truly fair. 

With regard to the arrangements of the Louvre, they seem to me to b 
admirable. No nation has so perfectly the qualifications to care for, keep 
and to show to best advantage a gallery of art as the French. 

During the heat of the outburst that expelled Louis Philippe ftom th 

throne, the Louvre was in some danger of destruction. Destructiveness i 

a native element of human nature, however repressed by society; an 

hence every great revolutionary movement always brings to the surface soni 

who are for indiscriminate demolition. Moreover there is a strong tendenq 

in the popular mind, where art and beauty have for many years be© 

monopolized as the prerogative of a haughty aristocracy, to identify art am 

beauty with oppression ; this showed itself in England and Scotland in tb 

general storm which wrecked the priceless beauty of the ecclesiastica 

buildings. It was displaying itself in the same manner in GJermany durio] 

the time of the reformation, and hpd not Luther been gifted with a natur 

as strongly aesthetic as progressive, would have wrought equal ruin there 

So in the first burst of popular enthusiasm that expelled the monarchy, th 

cry was raised by some among the people, "We shall never get rid a 

kings tiU we pull down the palaces;" just the echo of the old cry in Scot 

land, "PxJl down the nests, and the rooks will fly away." The populao 

rushed into the splendid halls and saloons of the Louvre, and a general en 

campment was made among the pictures. Li this crisis a republican artis 

named Jeanron saved the Louvre ; saved the people the regret that mus 

have come over them had they perpetrated barbarisms, and Liberty tJli< 

shame of having such outrages wrought in her name. Appointed by thi 

provisional government to the oversight of the Louvre, and well knowi 

among the people as a republican, he boldly came to the rescue. " Am j 

not one of yon V he said. " Am 1 not ona <A ^*^5e«^Vi''i 'C^oaa anodic 

tf^orkB of art, are they not <yax^% Ai© tVej tqxA. >i5a6 \ffv^* ^^A ^^sstj «&. «« 

'ountrjr? 8b&ll we destroy oxir «noBt g\otvo\«^«aRaB«s^'^'2£«i%5»\\«sva 

■spasBiiig into our hands?' ^^ c «. Wo.\«v^iSfl^a \ai 

Moved by Jm eloquence tlie people d^:«Bxp^ tomVJi.^Vvi^^^^>«^ 

{THE JLOt'VBS. 239 

It in Ills lauds. Empowered to make all Jiuch arrangeineuts fur its renoTai' 
tion und cmbellkhment as hifi lutjatic tttHte ahoulii dcsinGj he condiicie^l 
important repairs in the building, rearrangeti the hallSj had the pictun 
carefully examined, cleaned when neoeasttry, imd distributed in aijliuols wi 
sdentiiic amsiracy. He had an ttpaiimfmt prepared where ktb displaji. , 
those £rst lik etcher hy distingnislied masters, which furm o^e of tbe muat 
ittfltructive dei^iurtwenta uf the Lauyre to a Btudeiit of art. Tlie govern- 
mettt SGCuudDd all his meoaureis by liberal suppliua of montiy; and tbt 
liouyro is placed in its ^proseat perfect coiiditiun by the thoughtful audt 
cherishing hand of the republic, 

Thuaa fiMjta ba^-e beon communicated to me from a perfectly reliable 
Eource. Ab an AmBricaa and a. republioim, I cannut but take pletib'nre in 
them. I meutioQ them because it is often supppsad, from the deutructive 
eSccts which attend the first adTSJit of democratic prinaiples where they 
have to explode their way into existenctJ through niasi?e;b of ancient mbbli^hj' 
that popular liberty is unfavourable to art. It never could be ao lu Frain^B^ 
because the -ft hole body of the peo])le ore more thoroughly artistic iu their 
taatea and feelinga tbau in mi>iit cimntriea. They am almost elavesi to the 
outwardly tKjautilul, tak^n captive by tha eye and the ear, and only the 
long association of beauty with tymnuyj mth sufl'ering, want, and degrada- 
tion to ,,themselveB, could ever have inspired any of them with even a 
momentary' bitt^'^rucsjs againnt it. 


JOURNAL— (CoHTtifinJto). 

JAEPm MiBIt-LE, — n?MAISS OH HlHMfSS.. — TSS IlMPaROU.— vrttBilLLiiS-^^ 

Rjji^rauT. — FAiiii LA cuAisx.--iLiiOLPSi uoaoj}, — fAJuH to I.VCIJ(U. — diliubsox 


MospAT, Jane 13. — Went thia momiug with H, and Mrs. €. to the 
studio of M. BeHoc. Found a general ji.ssemhly of heada, anus, legs, and 
every species of nude and other hiimaDity peirtaining to a studio ; also au 
agreeable jumble of old pictures and new, picture frames, canvas, brugbes^ 
boxes, unfifikhed sketches, easela, palettes, a sofa, some cuahlno^ a ehaij | 
or two, bottlee, papers, a stove rusty and flreless, and all things moi 
cham>ingly innocent of any pro&no ' * clariu' up timea" what&oever. 

The firat question which M, Belloc pi'oposed, with a geuuino French air^ 
waa the qneation of ^[vosf," or poeitioii. It was cuneluded that aa other 
pictures liad taken R. looking at the spectator, thin should take he 
looking away. M. Belloc remarked, that M. Charpeutier said H. appea 
always with the air of au observer^waa always looking around on every-' 
thing. HCfuce M, Belloc would take her " en oboervatTia; mats pas ett 
CMnVuJie" — with the air of observation, but not of Cttrloaity.^ ^l 

At it he went. I stood behind and enjoyed. Kapid creative sketching!^H 
In dialk aud charooal. Then a chaos of colours and clouda, put on noff^l 
with bmuhes, now with fingera. ** God began with cliaoa," said he, 
qmttmg Prudhon. *' We conuLjt expect to do better tlum God." 

Wit£ intonseiit onjoyinent I watched the chaotic tlaojAs ^unscm^ ^otw Sls^fi 
canvas round a certmn nncJeua, gmdually iQfadv'm^ iJtwtiisfcVi^ mSjc. ifiaa^v^-. 





anul lightening up with tints and touches, until & hcftd EieemdL elowl 
emerging from Amidst the ehadowss. 

Meanwhile, art animated ooiiTcrsatioTnras proceeding. M. BellcMS, in 
rich, glorious Freach, rolling out like mn^tic from an organ, diaonesed 
problums of his Art; ^hile we ever and anon excited him hy onr apecnla- 
iiuus, onr theories, our horeaies. H. tallEBd in English, and Mth. C 
tiKkn^ltLted, and I pnt in a French phrase sidewayB every now and tlien. 

By and by M. Charpentier came in, who is more voluble, more ore 
ffl/wwrf'j, ffrandiosej than M. Belloc. He began panegynatng ^' Uncla 
Tom ;" and this led to a diacnsiiion of the grouud of itH uuprec^ented 
success. In Mb thirty-five yairs' experience as a hooka eller, he had known 
nothing like it. It surjiiiBsed all modem writers. At first he would not 
reail it; hh taste was fur old Tnawters of a eentnry or two ago. " Like 
Belloc in painting," said I. At length he found hia friend, M. Alfred 
Miiste, the first intelligence of the age, reading it, 

" What, you too ?" said he. 

" Ah, ah !'' enid De Musee ; " eay nothing abott this Ijook ! Tlwi 
nothing like it. This Icares ua all behind— all, rU, mH^ behind I '' 

M, Belloc said the reason was becauae there waa in it more gni 
faith than m any book. And we branched off into florid eloqueni 
touching pflganisni, Christianity, and art. 

" Chriatianity,*' M. Belloc said, "hfla ennobled man, but not made him 
happier. The Chriatian ia not ao happy as the old Greek. The old Greek 
mythology ia full of imagea of joy, of lightness, and vivacity ; nymphji adi4 
fauns, drysuls a^nd hamadryads, and all sportive creations. The 
grow up out of ChriBtianity Ujo all tinged with sorrow." 

"This is true in part," replied H,, " becaiiaa the more you e; 
person's general capacity of feeling, and his quantity of being, the more 
you enlarge hisi capacity of Buifering. A man can Buffer more ihan 
oyster, Christianity, by enlarging the aeope of man' a h^rt^ and 
ing his nature, has deepened his sorrow," _ 

M. Belloc referred to tiie pointingis of Eustadie le Soenr, in the Louvre, 
in illustration of hi^ idoa — a series based on the experience of St. Bruno, 
and representing the effecta of macei-ation and ghostly penance with revolt- 
ing horror.'!. 

** This," H, replied, "is not my idea of Chri.'itianity. Religion ia not 
asceticism, but a principle of love to God that beautifies and exalts common 
life, and fills it withjoy." 

M. Belloo ended with a splendid jianegyrlc upon the ancient Greeks 
eloquence of which 1 will nut mar by attempting to repeat. 

Ever and anon H, was amused at the pathetic air, at once genuine 
French and thoroughly ainoere, with which the master assured her, th»t he 
Ts-as "dhole" to put her to bo much trouble. 

As to Christianity not making men happier, miathinks M. Belloc forgets 
that the old Greek tragediejs are filled with despair and gloom, as their 
prevailing eharaeteriBtic, and that nearly all the music of tiie world before 
Christ waj? in the minor scale, as since Christ it has come to be in the 
major. The whole creation has, iudeed, groanetl and travailed in pain 
together until now; but the mighty anthem haa modulated since the cross, 
Aod the reqmem of Jeans has been the world 'a birthsong of approaching 

ihan ||^^_ 


KuBic is A fur Ijetior teat, tnorcfjvor, on Bucli & pointy than pointing, for 
just where paititing is wej^lcest, uamoly, in the expresaioa of the tiijfhest 
montl find s]iiritual ideas, there louftie ia rooat flubHinely strong. 

Altoi^ether this worning iti the painttr'a studio was one uf the most 
agrecaible we evt;rs;pi;nt, But wh/it shall I any then of the cTening in a mil* 
mudc'ttft,' with tha first violoncello playing in the wtirld, and tin} Frinti 
Caarti^ryHlii jit the ]*iaiio1 We were iuvited at eierht> tmt it was nine hvft 
we I'litercd unr i'iirr(rv;jro. We urrived at the hotel of Mr*, Erskine, a ainl 
of Lord Dutidutk, uud found a very solect ptirty. Theno were chairs 
Bofim enongh fur nil without crowding. 

There waa Fr.tukomtn of tlia Conaarrfttdire, wttli his Stradivarius, 
iaatrumeflfc one bundrad and fifty jcnra old, wldrh coat wx tliuusand 
ilollara. There was hia son, a little lad of twelve, who played ttlmoBt «s 
well as his father. I wish F. and M, muM have neon this, Uo wiia but a 
year <>lderltiaii !■., and yet playd ^ tlic raoift astonishing perfection, 
Ani'jtig otii&r thingii the little fellijw perfo lined a morceiitt of •his own <?om- 
poi^ition, which was full of pathos, and gave tokcna of uncommon ahiHty. 
Hifi father gave us mnataa of Moaart, Chopin, &c., and a polonahe. 
The Friacesa Czartoryski DaceempJinted on the piano with extiaordinary 

That was an even in e; to be remembered a Hfetlme. One heard, pri)habty| 
the best miisto tti tlie world of ita kind, perferraed under prepareil circuj 
Htatice^, tiie most perfectly adapttsd to give effaut. Thoro was no w*his[ 
ing, no noise. All felt, and heard, and enjoyed. I conversiid with the 
prineeisa and with Frjinkomm. The fonner speaks English, tJio latter 
none. 1 interpreted for H., atd ebe had ipiite a littla conversation vdth 
him about hin sou, and about music. She told liini shu hopeil the Jay was 
coining when art would be conHOcmted to cipl^■3B the best and pn 
emotions of hnmiioity. Ilo Lad read Undo Tom ; and when he read It 
exclaimed, "Thia ia geimine Christianity" — Ceei est la rraie Chrii^ 

The attentioaa shown to H. were very touching and. agr«eabler Thern 
is nothing said or dune that wearies or opprEsaea her. She is made to feel 
perfectly free, at large, at ease ; and the regard felt for her h manifeiited ia 
a way so deliciite, so imperceptibly fine and considerate, that siio is to " 
atrengthened by it than eshaaated. Thit is owing, no douht, to the 
that w^e C.1I11G determined to he as private JMi poBsible, and witli an explii 
underataudiiig wttii Mrs, 0. to thateflect. InEtead of trying to defeuther 
pttqMifle, tind force her into publicity, the few who know of her preaeu( 
Heem to try to help her cany it out, andeee how mucit they can do for hi 
conaistently therewith. 

Tnesday, .Inne 14. To-day wo dined at six P.M., and read till nine. 
Then drove to an evening salon — <|uite an early little party at Mrs. Put- 
nam- s. ^aw thert) Feter Parii>y md La Konhfyuquelin, tlie only one of the 
old nobility that jciiicd Lt>uie Kapoleon, Peter Ftirley ia consul no longer, 
itaeema. We discUBsed tlio empire a very llttlo. "To bo, or not to 
that is the question," Opinions are various na the circles. Every cii 
drBws into Hself items of information, that tend to indicate what it wial 
ia be aliont to happen. Stdl, Peter Parley and I, and some other equal 
Kiutiona people, think thatfA;'* cannot always last. B'j ihi*T til tfjarsfc. 
mean this " tbifl^'"— thia einpircj ho called. ^OTi^x qt \fi.\.iii^ >*. "^aw^ 



!u la 



in revolution; and thsa what'f Siiid a ijcntleinau tlie other day, 
holds him up but feav of tho Red,"* 

After cliattiag a while, Weaton and I elippad out, and droTe to tie 
Jardiu Mabiltt^ a gsrdenL In the ChatupH EIys6es, whither thouB&uds rg 
*V«ry night. We entered by un avenue of poplara and other treciB ami 
ahruba, bo ilUiminat^d by jet^ of gna sjiriokled aniongat tho foliage s» to 
give it the effect of eflehantnieut. It was neither moonlight nor daylight, 
but a kind of Bpectral niironi, that made every thing Be«m unearthly. .-^— 

Aa we enteri^ the goxden, we found dower beds Iidd out in c.'ir<i[d^^| 
squares, lozenges, and every ccniceivable form, with diminutiTe jets of gj^^l 
BO distributed as to imitate flowers of the softest tints, and the moat perfwt 
ub&pe. 'fids, ioo, fieomed unearthly, weird. We tsuemed, in au in^tiuit, 
transported into Bome Thalaba's cave, infinitely beyond the oommoti aights 
and Hounda of every-day Ufti. In the centre of theea grounds there i* a 
circle of pillars, on the top of each uf whidi 13 a pot of flowera, with gaa 
jeta, and betis^n tliem an arch of ga^aJLtti. This circle is very Iftrgo. In 
the midst of it is another circle, forming a pavilion for musicians, also bril- 
liantly illuminated, and ooutftLU]i».g a large cotilloa band of the most fixuehed 

Around this you find thouBands of gentlemen and ladies M.roniijg sini 
in pail's, or in gi'oups. There conld not be Igjjs than throe tiioueaud pi 
present. Wliile th« musiciana repose, they loiter, saunteriiig round, 
recline on aeata. 

But now a lively waltz atrikca the ear. In an inatant twenty or thirty 
conples are whirling along, floating, lite tliistlea in the wind, around the 
cuntnil pavilion. Their fetst scarce touch the atn 00th -trodden uailh. Hound 
and rouml, in a vortex of life, beauty, and brilliancy thtiy go, a whirlwind 
of delight. Eyea sparkling, cheeka flushing, and giiuBy draperies ftoatiog; 
by; while the crowds outside gather in a ring, and watcli the giddy re' 
There are conntlesa forma of aymmetry and graoe, faces of wondroua beai 
Ixitb among the dancer a and among the spectators. 

There, too, are feats of agility and elasticity quite aeiial. One lithe 
active dancer gra«|;ied his fair partner by the waiat. f^he wfw dres&ed 
red dress, was emiill, elastic, agile, and went ty like the wind. And now 
and thon, in tho course of evoiy fow seconds, he would give her a whirl and 
a lift, eeniMng her sj>inning through the air, around himself as an axis, full 
four feet from the griHind. 

Then tho music ceases, the crowd di&^lves, and floats and saunters a^ 
On every hand are games of hazard and akill, with bidle, tops, wheels, 
where, for five cents a trial, one ndght seek to gain a choice out of glitterij 
articles exposed to view. 

Then the band strike up agadn, and ike whirling dauce Tiemewa it^ 
vertex ; and so it goes on, from hour to hour, till two or thrw in the mora* 
ing. Not that ire stayed till then ; we saw all we wanted to see, and lefl by 
eleven. But it is a acene perfectly unearthly, or rather iterfectly PaciJ ' 
and just OS earthly o^ possible ; yet a scene where earthlinesa is worked 
into a a^la of sublimation the most exquisite conceivable. 

Entrance to this paradise can be had for gentlemen^ a dollar ; ladies free. 
This tells the whole etcny, Neverthelesa, do not infer that there ace mt 

* That is, ffew of tte "B^ "afi^Mauia. 


ud, fl^* 




a it^ 



any respectaye lailiea thefo. It is a place fo r^nmrkabla that very fev;, 
Btniiag€TH stay loDg in Paria without taking a look at it. And thoiigU joi 
ladiea naaiding m Paria ne-rer go, and niatroiift very seldom, yet oti(ai«iom 
it in the ca&e thAt some ladies of respectability look in. The beat rltuicei 
tiiioae who exhibit such surpriEing feats of skill and agility j are proftasioi 
— paid by the eBtablishiaent. 

NevettbelesiM, aside from tht? impropriety inherent in th« very naliLpa of 
M'altzing, Ihcrd was not ft word, look, or g^ture of iflUaorality or iiajjn 
priety. Thfl dxesBea were all decent ; and if there voa vice, it waa yf 
Masked under the gmee of polite propriety. 

How diifereut, I could not but reflect, is &1I tfaia from tha gia-palaeea of 
Lttnduu ( Thiire, there ih, iudeerl, a dazzling splendour of gaii- light ; hat 
iUere ia nothing artistic, nothing refined, nothing appealing to the iamqi- 
luvtiou. There are only l^ogsheads &ud barrela, luid the appliances for 
Borving out strong drink. And thi^re, for one eole end, the swallowing *}f 
fiery Btimolant, canine the nightJy thonBundfl — from the gay and well-drepseii 
to tlte hog^rd and tattered, in the last stage of debaseuieat. The end i^ thft^^ 
same — by how fhjfferent patbn ! Here, they daaoe nlong the path to rui]k^| 
with fiuwtira and mu^jiu; there, they cast tkenuteLvi^a bodily, as it were, iiiM^| 
the lake of fire. ^^n 

Wednesiili>', June 15. Went in. the forenoon to M. Belloc'a Btadio, and 

^^^n^ irhile H. wtu< sitting. ^^ 

^^^HTben we drove to Modamo Ik^gcr'a, who is one of the lead<^rs <*{ Paii|^^| 

^^Hkbs and legiiilation In dreaa, and who is ^id to have refused to work for al^l 

duchess who neglMted to retuni ler husband' a bow. 1 sat in the outer 

wttrta wbilc (some mysterious aJfaira were being trajifiMtcd iJi the innar 

itjorns of statie, 

Tiu'ii we droTfl to the Louvre, and visited tho reraaJna from iJinere^ 
They itre f«!wer In number tlian those in tlie Brifciah JUusettin, wliich I h&f 
not yet HOtin. lint the pair of buman-hcjiwlcd wujtied bulla are wdd to 
equnl in size to any. 

I was very much unprcgaed, not only by the eulemn grandeur of tJ 
thought that thirty centuries were looking down u^hju mo out of iii(r 
Btony eyes, but by what I have never 8e«n noticed, tho magnifiiieat pbrcm 
logical dtivelopment of the heads. The brow iu al^suliitely prodjii^iiiiifl- 
broad, high, projecting, masi^ivo. It m the brow of ft divinity '.■ ' 
a cbenib, which I am persuaded Ls the true designatJou of tbr: 

They are to iire but the estrlieat known att^npte to preaervt il.^ 

th&l furmeil the tit:ry portabi of tbe Eden i^miple until queacihed iu 
■ar%efl of the deluge. 

Out of those eye« of serene, banign, profound reflection, thereforxj, nq 
tliiriy. but sixty centuries look down upon me. 1 seam la ha s^taiiditig a 
tLd 'us Edtsn gates, where Adam and Kve first gnided tb 

w. r ii'ld, amid the sad, yet sidjliine s*yuiU>l» of n previous oi 

eiicfj ... ,,..,.- .J y renlms. 

After leaving tlie Louvre H, and 1 took a m^^rAf, or open two-seat 
carriage, and <lrovo fmUi thence to the Madi;l?iue, and tlieuco the whole 
leni^l of the Uonltvarda, circling nmnd, erofisJng the Pont d'AUhterlitz, and 
4,'oiuiii« back by the Avouue de rObtf»rvatoiro and the LuAemboiiig. 

LTh«u wt «^w tkeatres, the Port St. Deuifi, i^z\> ^V. ^%&m£S:v^^ '\)y^ lei^A^^^ 


of the Boatil^, and the most gaj, beautiful, aitd buetllng boulevitrda. of 

Aa WB were pntweediBg alou^ the Boulevard dea Itahena, I mv the stieet 
beginning to line with peoplti, the caba and carridgea dfawtng to either side 
tttid sUtpping ; piilitie officei^ commaziding, directing, people nuuLtng, 
pottbiui;, bwkinpthiij wjvj and that, "Qi** p a-t-il f said I, jstaading Up \iy 
the driver— " WhafH the matter V 

" Ttie emperor in coming," said he. 

" Wellt" ^d 1, '' dniw to one side, and turn a little, so that we can aee." 

h~ He did m, and H. awl I W>th atocd up, looking rituud. Wd saw sevei 

tridera in livery, on thu fnll trot, followed by saveral can-i]ig<?«. Tl 
_ me very fast, the outriders calling tfj the people to get opt of the w 

la the first carriago ant the emperor aud the empreas~be, cold, si 
stately, and Jwmely ; ube, pale, beautiful, and sad. They rode not V 
r^xls fr^jtn ua. There was not a hat taken offj not ft single sliout, no! 
" Vive t EvipeTf-iir.^' Without a fiinglo token of greeting or applause, 
itjde tbrtjugb the ever-fornung, ever-diasolving avenne of peoples- 
abhorred, the tolerated tyrjint, " Why do they not cry out T" I said to 
eoaehman, "Why do they not cry, " Vive PEiHpereur f' A Kumt oipi __ 
live tshiTig was tho answer, and " I do not know. I stippaBa, becjanee tbey 
do not diooae." 

Thursday, .Tune 16. Immediately after breakfa^ we were to visit 
Cbnteaa de Corbeville. The carriage came, and H,, Mrs, C.j and W. 
enteretl. I moiauted the box with the " rodter" aa uwaK To be shut up 
iu ti Iwxi iMid peep out ftt the window while drivmg through such econijfi) Ii 
horrible, By the way, our party would have beeu hirger, but for the BUtst 
of Monsieur F., an intimate fjiend of the family, which took place at fi?e 
o'clock in the morning. 

He was here yesterday in fine apirila, ajid he and Wa "wife were to have 
joined our ps.rty. His arre&t is on some political fiuspitdon, and jiks the 
iBsult taiJinot be foreseen, it easts a shadow over the spirits of our hoase- 

We drove alni»g through the bright, freah morning— I enjoying the 
pinoraiiia of Paris eiceedingly—lffl the Western Railway Station, where wi 
took tickets for Veraames. 

We feel as much at home now, in these continent^] railroad stfttiona, as 
in our own — nay, more m. ETferything h so regulated here, there Is almost 
no possibility of going wroni?, and there is always somebody at hand whoso 
business it n to be very iwlite, and tell you jngt what t*v do. 

A very pleasant half hour's ride brought us %^^ Versailles, There 
took a bsjouche for the day, and started for the chateau. In about an ho' 
Sdid a bah", thrangh very pleasant scenery, wo came to the Hpot> wheift 
were met by Madame V. and her danghter, and, alighting, walked to the 
diatcau thri'sugh a h»ng avenue, dark with overarching trees. We were to 
have a second hrtj^kfast at aliont one o^clock in tlie day ; so we strolled oat 
to & seat on tho terrace, commanding a fine and very extenedve prospect 

Madame V. is the wife of an eminent lawyer, who held tho office of 

intendant of the civil li&t of Louis Philippe, and has liad the settlenje^Qt of 

iliat geiiikuian's pecuniary affaira since his deatli. At the timt! of tha 

£*pa/i ttetat, heinp theu a rcprcseTitative, he was imprisoned, and his wife 

s^Q wed cftmaiJerable mtrepidity ia ^\^a ^i^x^^ -^Tsfflsisii^ «u. tuot through 



the priTOU yard, amongst the saldiers BiUinp drmk on the cflnaon. At ^^ 
present Mon^eur Y. is engaged in his profe»%ilori at Parii<. J^l 

Matiimt^ Y. U n pleasant-looking Frt^nchwoman, of highly-culiivateol^H 

mirnl ami agreeable Uiiiiiners; accoropliahed in lausit aad in painting, ller 

daughter, about fifteeo, piaya well, ftnd h a goaH apcdmm of a well- 

rjMhieated Franeli demoiuelle, not yet out. They me suuply oiplters, e:^c&ptij^H 

^B^ developed in cotiuexiou M'ith and ti^hind BLetter of tlmir mother, i^hoj^f 

^■^^rfonncd noma beautiful thiiigH beautifully, and tliea bi^r mother played (iT^H 

duet with hor. We took a walk throtigli tlitt groves, and Ha<t ou the bank, 

on the brow of a commanding eminence. A wide landisca^x! was before us, 

dumu^temed by every beauty of foliage conceivable, but by noue mot% 

■diuirahle, to my eye, thau the poplars, whicb suetam the Bame relation to 

Freucb scenery that apnicas do to that of Maine. Reclining tbere, we could 

almost see, beaitles the ancient territory of the Duke D'Orsay, the celebrated 

valley of Chartreufse, whera was the famous Abbey of Pert ILoyal, a valley 

fiUod with historic ajasoeiations. If it bad not been for a bill -which stood 

m the way, ^ve should have seen it. At our leisure we discsussed painting. 

Before ns, a perfect landscajuj ; around ua, a deep uolitudo and BtijIiietiaB' 

broken by the Highmg <jf ancient oriatoeratic Hhadea, and the songa of liJrda| 

within ua, emotiona of lasaitade and dreamy delight. 

We biul fuuud a spot where eadstsuce waa a blessing; a spot wbere 1 
exist was enough * where the "to be" was, for a moment, disjoined fron 
the mexorable "to do," or "toaafler." How agreeable to converse wit" 
cultivated and refined ai-tistic minds ! Itow delightful to find people 1 
wbom the beautiful iiaa been a Htudy, and art a world in which they caxiU 
live, mo^e, and have their being ! And yet it waa impiiAsible to prevent 1 
^bade of deep sadness from resting on all things — a tinge of melanchtJyJ 
Why 1 — why ihia veil of dim and indeiinable anguish at aight of whatov 
is most fair, at hearing whatever is moftt lovely I h it the exiled spiri^ 
yearning for its own ? Is it the captive, to whom the my of ln^aven's tywnM 
glory comes through the creviee of liia dungeon walls i But tliia ts a 1 
digression. Returning, we examined the mansion, a fine HiMJtimen of the 
old French diateau ; square butlt, with high Norman roof, and a round, 
coutcal -topped tower at each comer. In frvmt waa a garden, curiously laid 
out in betlB, and kuoia of flowera, witli a fountain in the centre. TUia 
garden was oncloeed on all sides by beei:!b ixeea, clipped iuto lofty walla of 
green. The chateau luid once been fortified, but now the remains of tbe 
fortifin^tationa are made into terraces, planted with rosea and honey sucklea. 
Here we heard, for the first time in onr lives, the utghtingAle'a eoug ; a 
gTiilgUug warble, with an ooca-sional ercacendo, d la Jenny Lind. 

At five we dined j took carriage at afven, cars at mn«^ and arrived : 
Poria at teu. 

Friday, June 17, At twelve o'clock I started for Yersafflea to visit 
the camp at Sartoiy, where I understood the emperor was to review the 

At Versalllea I mounted the top of aa omnibus with two Farisi'* 
gentlemen. As I opened my umbrella one of them complimented me i 
having it. I replied that it was quite a necessary of life. He answereilj 
and we were aoon quite chatty. I iwqulrel about tbe camp at Sartory^ attd 
whether tlie oinperor was Uj be tliere. He ftaitl\it\i'a,i)k^\\'4Jii*\ *»^i. 

Ho thca tutkcd me if we bad not a cttmii utax luyuAisvi^ ^visi\\v*j 'sios^ ^^ 



took TUB for an Englisbraan. I replied that t^iere wfta a, ca^mp tbcTts, though 
I hail not Been it, and thiit 1 wae !ni Aiiierican, In reply, te coiigratiilatwi 
me thai the Americtma were far aherwi of the English. 

I cumplimeuted him then in turn on YermiUes and its galleriea, and ' 
him tliat there was not & nation on earth that \iiu.\ such juonumentR of i 
own history and greatness. Tliey weiu higiily ulat&l at thi^ and wb 
along ia the best pflssiblu humour together. Nothing will make a Frend 
man thoronghly yonr friEod sooner than hefirtlly to praise his countiy. 
is for this I h)ve them. 

ArrlvEHl at Ssrtoty, I had a long ¥'alk to reaoii the catup ; tmd ineti 
of iiiquiringT as I ought to have done, wh^^ther the Teview was to take pin 
1 t^ok it for granted. I savhotliea of aoldlare moving in Yarioaa direetiu 
ofBoera galloping aliout and flying artillery trundling along, and. he 
dmiiJK, trumpets, and bauds, and thought it was sdl right, 

A fifteen mimittjii' wrdlc brought me to the camp, where tents for soma 
twenty 'five thousnnd the plain far as the eye am reach. There, too, 
I iBOW distant massefi of infantry moving. I might have knowu by the 
alouchf way that they were getting homo fninn parade, not preparing for | 
But T tliought the latter, and lying down under a tree, Wfuted fortbe 1 
to begin. 

It was sliuost three o'elo^lt. I waited, and waited. The eoldiera did 
not c*jirie, I waited, and waited, and waited. The soldiers Beemed tt» have 
ffOTi4* more and more. Tho throne were the emperor was to sit remriinf*! 
unoccupied. At last it was four o'clock, Thought I, I will juat ask. these 
risdcapjj here &bout this. 

'^ Msssienra," said I, ^* will you be bo good as to inforiQ me !f i^e em- 
peror is to be here kj-dayf 

* ' No," they replieil, ' * he •eomos on Smnday," 

** And whnt is t* be done here, then f ' I aaked. 

**Hera,'' they replied, "to-day? Nothing; (?'€^/ ftti—it is all 
The review was at one o'clock," 

There I had been walking from Tefsaillca, and waiting for & 
»ome two houTw after it was all OTer, among crowds ui people^ 
cituld have Icdd me at once, if 1 hail not been bo eKcasaiTely modest as 1 
to aak. ^^ 

About that time an Aniericon might Lftv<} been seen precipititely se^kinf 
the railruad. I bad «o^ seen the elephant. It was hot, dasty, and there 
waft neither cab nor taliche in reach, 

I arriired at the railroad station jtiet in time to see the train go out at 
one end m I came in at tjie oiJi^r. , Tluu was ct>nducive to a frame of mind 
that scarcely ncedp remark. Out'of that depflt (it Wfli? half past four, and 
six they dine iu Paris) with augmented zeal and deuision I pitched JoU? 
a cab, 

"j4 Tatitr^ stntioit, vitCf viitP* — To the othe* etfttifta, quick, quid 
He xQonnted the box, and commenced lashing his Hosinantt;, whn 
Hubjeot for crows to mourn over (because they ennld hope for noUdng^i 
trying to pick him), and in an ambUng, BcromliHng pivce, composed 
trot, a canter, and a kick, wo made a descent Uke on avidanche into tbft 
fi^titm jArd, There Richard waa himself attain. I aesumed at once the 
I ^Ir afa gentiemsin who bad seen tba TBV\ii'w, ft.>ui. walked about with ivim. 

ed iaitf 

PEBE LA. CHAtgE. 2i7 



(inecoedetl in getting liome just in the middle of dinner, and ty dint i 
hard ejifcjng caught up at the third course with the rest, 

^hat I consider a very white day. Some Jtnight mil it ^re^rc, liut ! 
m&rk BQeh days with white always. 

In tha evening we attended th^ mion of L*dy Elgin, a friend of oil 
ho6te«9. Fountl there the Marriiiia do M,, whose book on the apmtwal* 
tupping iyomcs, out next week. Wa converaeil on the rappinga (Ui 

By tlie wtiy, her ladyehip rents the Hotel de la Eachafoucauld, in the 
Rn« do Yapenno, Faubourg St, Qtjrinain, 

St, Germain ia full irf lipase priacwly, arist^jcratici mansions. Mournfully 
beautiful — desolately grttnd. Out of the steru, Etony street, we fintered a 
wide, Hqtiare court, under a inassiTe arnhwi gateway, then thmugh thm 
Eez-de-Chausafie, or lowt^r auite of ronais, pfussed oiit into the mm of th 

[se Ui find ourwelvea in tlie gnnlen, or rather a kind of park, ^^^th 1 
floodetl in moonlight, t»athed in gplcndours, and witli their ilistan%l 
arehea (cnt with artistiu skill) reminding one of a Gothic temple 
Stich a magnificent forest wene in the vtry heart of Paris I 

Sutnnliiy, Jane IS. — AAf;r breakfaat rode out to Arc da Triomphe 
TEtoilo, and thence round the (exterior baTriera and bouleTards to I'Sre ] 

At eveiy entrance to the city pafit the harriers (wiiiah are now only % 
street) there is a gate, and a building marked " Octroi," wbicli raeanfi 

No carriage ai,n pass withorat being examined, though the examin&tiaB ] 
a m€i'e form. __ 

Fere la OhaiHC did not interest tnc much, except that from tlie top of the 
hill I gaineil a gt«xl yiew of tho city. It ia filled with tombs aad nionmnents, 
and Isid ont in {^tTuots. The houses of the dead are smaller than 
liouaes of the liviitg, hot they arc made like honses, with doora, window 
and an empty ptiice inside for an altar, crucifix, lamps, isreaths, &o. Tomt 
have no ohujm for mt?. I am not at all interested or inpi'lrcd by them. 
They do not serve with me thy purpoje intended, vb., of <?alUng up the 
memory of the departeil. On the contrary, thidr memory ia nBSrxsiateid with 
tUeJT deeds, thetr *orkis, the jdat^es where they wruught, and the moutiuieuta 
of themsolves tlicy havtj left. Here, however, in the chamel houtw!i ie cojn- 
memorated bnt the event of their deepest flhamo and degradiitlon, th«ir total 
vanqnishment under the dominion of death, the triumph of ourrnptioji. 

Here all that waa vieiblo of them jh maultud by tho last enemy, ia 1 
dieepeEt^ most humiliating posture f)f conttimely. 

From Pure la t.'hniae I Ciime home to dinntr at m%, H., meanwhile, lia 
been ait ting to M. Belloc. 

After dinner H. and the two Missea C. rwlc out tt» the Boie de Boulogne, 
the laahiouablo drive of Paris. 

We saw all the splendid tumouta, and all the tiot splendid.- Our hot 
was noted for the springhalt. It ia weU to havu Bomeihiag to attract atf 
tten about one, yon know, 

Sabbath, June 19. After breakfa»t went with Miafl W. to the tenip!e 
Bt. Marie, to hear Adolphe Moaod. "Was able to understand him very 
well. Gained a new idea of the capaUlitloa (it ^Vift'?W5ic!ft\^^i^e*5a!^'«^'**'*^^'^ 
vehicle of religioiin tlouyht and exprnea^ift. WiioA \!iiwu^\. '0&&.Ni"^^^'=*'^ 





sn^s^KY stEsrosTBa of poheigk lands. 

language incapable of being inade to e::qire.'ia the Hebrew mind and fceli 
of Scriptnre. I tbink dirtErtintly. The langUfi^e of Caii^ifltt can make 
wftj tlittjugh all laupiagts, and in the Frendi it has a iMVthos, pointj 
tjimplicily wiiii^b are wouHierful. There were tboni^tH in tlits Bfjrmoa which 
I shall never forget. I feel niyaell' highly rewarded for going. 

The congtegutiuti waa ae large u^ tha church could pesi^iblj linld^ and 
'knnpoisGd of very interesting and intelligont-looking people. Ilia subject 
WHS, •* If any man hurt wisdom, let liim a-sk of God, wbo giveth willingly, 
und without upbraiding," &c. It was most tonchingly adapted to the 
wauta o£ the unhappy French, aii4 af ftH poor alimers ; mid it camo hoiae to 
me ia particular, as if it had b^a luldresaed kt me aingly, so ihut I could 
not help e tying. 

The aftenioou and evening spent at home, rending. IL went ia tbe 
moruujg with Mad^-tme do T. to the Catholic senicMt at the church St. 
Oeriuiiitie rAuxerrois, mid hor eompanion pointed out tlio diftbrent parta 
the service, 

H. add «he waa moved with comimsilou towmids thciic muItitddeB, 
Reeni bo very ciunesst and solemij. Their pmyer-hookB contain much that 
in ffX[»>Llent, if it was not mixed with so much that is idolat^ou^. 

Monday, Jtino 20. Went to have our jiaft-sport 'ohstd. The sky was 
bitvck, and the rain pouring in tyrrents. Ab I reiielied the quay the Seine 
WM rushing darlc, and turbidly foaming. I crept into a fiacre, and 
amuBod^ a^ we rattled on, to see the plight of gay and glittering I'ai 
One pLwr urgau grinder, on the Punt Nfitional, sat witb his unibrella o^ 
]ii« hej*d, md Ids body jjehiad tlie pwapet, fading away in the howlii 
storm, it was tba beat use for a hand organ I ever saw. The gankna 
tbe TuUerififl presented a eony dgiit. The iseatriea slunk within th 
Iwxea. The clioiTS were Btueked and laid on their side^. The paths ■*( 
iloudtxl ; and the classic statnea looked as though they had a dutinal timu 
it, in the goneral fihower bath. 

My piiBsport w«nt through the offioe of the Araerican embassy, pr^ft 
of the piilice, und the bureau dvs ajfahts Lii^any&ren, and the SwIsB 1 
tion, and w« were all right for the frontier, 

Our ftiir hostesses are all Alpiiic inountalneerB, pobtetl tip in mouu" 
lure. They lualie you look blank one moment with horror at some esra 
of theirg from bcLug (la<:lR<d down a pnecipi*^; the ntit they run you a 
indeetl itver the Ei^lu ; anon you shamble throngh Chaniouniit, and b; 
yimr neck ovtr the Cobde-halnie, and, before you ai-o aware> are 
the hwiking at lutcdaohcn, 

Wednesday, Juno 22. Adieu to Pari si Ho for Cfbalons uur Sinoi 
Afttur affectionate farewell a of oar kind friends, by eleven o'clock we wi 
rushluf, in the pleasantest of oara, over the smoothest of raila, throi 
Burgundy that was; 1 riadiug to H. out of Duraaa' JmprcaaioTi^ dt Yoj/t 
going over otir very route. We arrived at Chalons at Jiine in the evei 
and were soon eatabUshed in the Hotel du Park, in two email briek-fli 
eh^ml'ere, looking out npon the steamboat bituUng. 

Thnrsday, 23. Eight o'clock a.m. Since five we bave had a iino hvii 

on the quay below oui' wiudows. There lay tliree ste:iinerii, bhaped^ 

aU tlie world, like our last night's rolla. One would tldnk Ichabod Cj 

juigLi sit mtride om of them ocid dip Mb ft^et in tbt; \^ at<:r. They m^ 



Ihone — 

id witl^^l 

ho liLiIcj^H 




to be swift, VHironddU (tbe Swallow) flew at Atg; anotiier at six. 
leave at nine. 

Eleven u'cloct. Here we go down the Saone, Catm tliirty feet by ta 
l»petx-{^d and varuisled m itnitatiou al maple. Ladies knitting, netting 
nodding, nappiti^ j gentleman yawning, snoring ; chlJdrun frolicking ; dogi 
wfaining. Overhuad a conetant trajupln';, atampinf^, and screeching of the 
steam vjilve, IL auggeata an *i;(curaii;ni forward. We heave uplxomlladtSf 
owid cautiously tilKjad the cnjwded A I iHrat of a decl£. The day ia fintjj 
the air is fllkd with golden l>t;nniB. 

i/tmvo and more heautiful grows tlie Hesne as we appmach tlte Hhone 
the river broader, hilla more commanding, and ardUtecture tinged 
the Italian. Bradahaw aays it eqaala the Rhine. 

At Lyouii there was a scene of Lndeseri table cQnfuaion. Out of the 1 
a iivj.u mtk a rope and hook waa hauling bafrgfige uj> a smooth 
Thrrie hundred people were sorting tlieir gwculij without (.'heokB, PartersI 
were ahonldering immense loads, four or five Leavy trunka at onw^ corded 
togetlier, and stalking aE Atlant^n. Hatboxes^ bandboxes, and valiiH^ 
burat like a metetiric! shuwer out of a crater. "^1 mM», a moiT' waa tha 
C17, frym old incnj yonng women, eoMIera, sUopkeepere, and ^r^^in^J 
scufliitig and ahoviiig together. Carelesa tt ouco of gramiaar and of gma^ 
I pulled and shouti^id with the best, till at length our plnndi:r waa eangli^_ 
corded and policed on an herculean tieck, >Ve felluwed in the wake, H. 
trembhBg lest the cord Elioitld break, and wo experienTO a pre-Alpine 
avalanche. At length, however, we breathed more freely in rooms m* 
qutttriime of llotd de t Utihcrs. |1 

After dinner we drove t<j tho cathedral. It wag St Jokn*a eve. **■ A4J 
twelve o'clock to-ni^jht," said H., *'^th(j Eplrits of all who are to die thiB 
year will appeal' to any who will go alone into the dai'k cathedral and 
Bumraou them !" Wo were charmed with the interior. Twilight hid all 
tbe dirt, cobwebs, and tawdiy tinsel ; softened the outlines, and gave to 
the imiiieuae arches, columna, and stained windows a atrango and Uirilliug 
beauty. Q'he disEiint Lap era seeining ii>moter than rejdity, tlie kaeehng 
0rowd», the heavy vesper chime, all combined to realise, II. said, her 
dreomfi of romance more perfectly tlwtu ever bel'ore. Wo could nut tear 
ouraelvea away. Bwt the chish of the sexton'a keys, as be emote them to- 
gether, wii« the aignal to be gone. One afkr another the tajiers were ex- 
tinguitihed. Tlie kneeling tiyurea rosie ; and ahadewily we iUtted forth, as 
from some gorgeous cave of granrmaTye. 

Satur*lfiy, June 25. h^<m& to Cieniva. Aa this was our first expe- 
rience in. the diligence line, we noticed partieularly every pecnliarity. A 
diligence is a laige, heavy, strongly-built, well -bung stage, consistmE of 
five distinct dei)artmenta,'— coapfi, berline, omnibus, bauqaette, and bag- 
gage tO]J. , 

After setticg uii lionaekeeping in our berlinc, and putting ail " to rights^" 
the whips cracked, bells jingled, and away we thundered by the arrowy 
Khune. I had had the idea that ti ililigenco was a rickety, slow-moulded 
antediluvian nondescript, toiling patiently along over impaesable roads at «._ 
Snairs pace. Jndge of my astonishment at finding it a fnJI-bloode^* " 
vigorouB monster, of nnaernpulons rallwny mumentum tmA importTirbab' 
equipoise of mind, ^, 

iJywu themaflffliaDaf^ed slopes w© thviudereAata. v**^^*^'**^^^®*^''' ^^'««i 

250 BurtrNT M^MOHrEg of fohbtgw lands. 

lulls we trotted ^nth six boraes, three abreaet \ madly through tlie little 
towri3 we biirat, like a whrrlwmil, cmsliing across the pe1ili1e<! BtraetB, and 
out upon the hroatl, smooth, road again. Before wfl htid well cousiJertiJ 
the feet that we were out of Lj'Ons, we stopped to change horses. Done in 
a jiffy ; and whoop, crick, crack, whnck, rimd>Ie, hump, whirf, wMsk, 
away we biased, till, ere wo kmew it, anotLtjr ch.inge, and another, 

'Mieally, H.," said I, "this ia nut slow. The fact, i?, we are go5i 
ahesj.!. / mil this travailing — never waa so csomfortable in my liffc" 

" N'nr I," i^aotb she, *' And, beHidea, we are ■unwindiug the Elione alt 

And, sure onongh we woiie; over nud anon getting a glimpse of tij 
spread wsuiily rdl abroad in some btautiful vale, iFke a midguard aimeoni 
ddnt) HI (silver. 

At Nantua, a sordid town, with a sqttftlid inn, we dined, at t' 
deli*;iou8ly, on a red alirimp Boup ; no, not Bintp, it wjia a poioffej noj 
Fit«w ; no, a creamy, unctiuni8 inotie, mU5s, or whatever you please to 
it. Sandho Panza never ato his ollti. podrida- with more relif^h. Suooees 
mint) host 4)f the jolly inn of Nantua ! 

Then we thnnderbolted along (igAin, tshat thmsugh a grim fortrei 
crossed rs, hyimdary line, and were in SwitEerlAud, TiTa Sviitzt^rland ! I 
of Alps, gluiiitire, and freemen ! 

Ah evening drew on, a vniMl Bpmng np, and a storm sepmed g.^ithorii 
on the Jura. The rain dashed against the panes of the iHJfliBe, as we 
paat the griin-fa(?od monarch of the "misty Fshrcrod,'* A cold wind wi 
Kweoping by, and the Khone was rushing far heluw, diswrnible only in 
dtnliiniie as a rivulet of fla'^hing foam. It vae night as we drove 
Geneva, and stopped at the Messagerie. 1 huard with joy a voice demai 
mg if this; were Monsieur Beshare. I replied, not without aome Bcmples^ 
coiiseienee, " OiU, movukuTf t^ut moi^" though the name did Tiot eoi ' 
exactly like the one to wliieh I had been wont to newpond. In half an h 
^ve were at home, in the mansion of Monsieur Fa^y. 

Geuflve, Montlayj .Tnne 27. The day da\(Tied clear over this palace 
encliantmont. The motiutams, the lako, the entire landflcapo on evi 
Bide revealed It-aelf from oar lofty windows i*ith transpariint hrilliani 
This house is built on high ground, at the end of the lake near where 
Rhone flows out. It In very high in the rooms, and wo are in the fi.di: 
story, and have diBtant views on all f(»ur sides. The windows are very 
larjje, arid open in leaves, en hinges, like doors, leaTiog the entire window 
clear, as a iirarae for the distant picture. 

In the afteration we rode on t across the Rhone, where it hreaks from 
lake, and round upon the ascending shore. It i.? seldom here that the i 
arc viflihie. The lea«t m\tst hides them completely, Eo tliat travellers 
WiHit ti> recchrd it in* their diari^ sis a great event, '* I saw ]\b>nt 131 
to-day.*' TeiJterdi».y there was nothing hut ckmtls and thick ghwm ; 
now we had not ridden far before H. spring suddenly, as if she had lost 
BOTS09 — her eheek flushed and her eye flashing. I waa frightened. 
"There," said she, j^ointing out of the side of the carriage aeross the 
lake, "there he in — there's Mont Bhinc.*' *' Pooh," sfttd I, "mi " 
thing. " And softie trees for a moment intervened, and c*hut out the vi( 
J*i-esej)t}j the irees opened, and H, erici, "'1\\eT(i, that itrhiff; dou't 

. voU 


Mont blakc, 

i¥ady to fly, I lofltcil and saw, sum enongh, beli'md ilie dark mass of tlie , 
Molsj (a huge lilftebWk mouBtaJn in the fordgronnd), the j^nita mug 
riaiug gn*dajilly and grim aa "we rode ; tut, furthEr Htil], Ijehind those grA 
fljid ghaatly ImrrierB, all batlied and blazing in the buh'h ft^b ^plendon 
undininieci Iiy a oloud, unrolled even by a filmy &B&ce of vaprjur, Auti n!i 
so white— so intensely, blindingly white ! agaioHt the daik-bluc sky, thll 
ueedlefii the spires, the solemn pyminid, the transfignratkni cone of Mod" 
iBlanc. Higher, and still higher, tliose apotirilyptic sjdtndourB eeeao 
lifting their specti-nS, exjiritua.! forms, &aeTnin!j to rise as wb, rose, Beemin 
to atart Uke lEfiants hiddati from behind the black brow of intefvx'ninl 
ranges, ttpening wider the amphitheatTe of glory, until^ fts we reached the 
hi^buat point in our roatl, the whole un^irthly vision stood reveokd in 
gnblime persfpective. The lan^nago of the Revelation came rushing through 
my 8oq1. This is, aa it were, u. door opened in hearen. Here are some < 
thtnao everliLBting mountain raitgt's, whose light in not of the sun, nor of th 
moon, but of the I/[nd <Tod and of the Lamb. Here is, Ra it were, a | 
white throne, on which One might sit Iwfore whosfi face heftTeu and ear 
might flee ; and htire a sea of gtaffi mingled with 6t^. Nny, rather, hen 
are some faint shadoWB, at^medim and Teileii reaemblancaa, which bring on 
earth -impriist>nLHl Hinrits to conceive rcmoUtly what the di Bene umbered ey 
of the ecfttatic apostk gaeed upon. 

With solemn tlmnkfiilne«3 we gated — tbankfalness to God for liavid 
withdrawn bis Tell of clouds from tlus tliTesbold of the heavenly Teatibul^ 
And brought us across the Athanticto behold. And ft» <>ureyea, blinded 1 
the daKKling viaiun — which we mig'ht reside here years "fl.*itb()nt behoidio 
in Bueh perfection — filled with tears, we were forced to turn themnway an 
hide them, of faateti them upon the daj'k range of Jura en the other side ( 
aa, until they were able to gate again. Thus we rode onwjird, obtainin 
new ijH:iint» (jf view, new cft'ecta, and deeper bmotiono; nor ean time etB 
the imprusEions we ria^^eivtjd in tlie dejjths of our eouIh. 

A lady, at whose door vra alighted for a moment to obtain a parti imh 
point of vit>w, told us that at ijunBet the mountain assniisefl a peculiar 
transpureucy, with most myirterioua hues of Mne and purjde ; so that she 
hod swea irretigieua natures, frivolous and light, when sudLltnly called out 
to I<iK3k, aUmtl petrified, or rather exalted alwvc tbenistilves, and Lrresrstlbly 
tnming their faces, their thoughts, their brea things of aduratiou up to (5od. 

I do not wonder that the eternal home of the glorified should he eym- 
Itidized by a Mount Zion. I do not w^iuder that the Fsalmfat should my, 
*• I will lift up mine eyes unto the hiUs, ftom whence cometb my help*" 
For surely enHb cannot prpiient, nor unaasiMed fanoy conceive, an objt'ct 
more profouudly significant of divine Tnajestythan these mauataiua in their 
linen vesture of everlasting snow. 

TuesJriy, Juno 28, The mondng dawned clear, warm, and cloiidleaa. A 
«oft ha^e reKtM on the distant landscajjo, withifut, however, m the least 
" anilng itJH l>ea,uty. 

it ftbont eleven we set off with two horsea in an open carriage, by tli 
shore, to viflit St, Cergue, end ascend the Jura, All our way w| 
gradually ascending, atid before tie, or rathyr acroaa the lake (»n nue side, 
hIckkI the glorious New Jerufialem acjtne. ^Yo were highly favouriid, Er^^ri 
moment dimiidiihed the intervening mjtyn]a\ftvia'&, wA \!ii"u!^ '^■a ^I'^sssra* 
iv/tgtuat higher to to the a^ture. 


of tta 

252 srNNV MEMoEir.B of foseton lakph. 

Eirery step, fiT&ry tiini, preatsated it in somo new pumt of yiow» and ex- 
tended the range of i>W«rvatioti. New Alps vreru cuutinuaJly riaing, and 
dianiojid-polnted peiika gkneing up behind stmibro gratiite bnlwarka. 

At noon Cticfter Htopjied at a yilliige to refreah hits horst^. We proceeded 
to ii cool terrace tilled with trees, and lulled Ly the Bplaah of iv fountain, 
from whence tliu Mountain wan in fiill view. Here we investigated tLa 
nxyst^ritiS of a certain Imakot wLicli om- pruvident lioatess liad lirougiit with 

After due refrealiBneut aad repose we continued our route, ascending the 
Jura, towards the B&le, whicli ia the liighest mountain of that range. A 
m:u'adauiized road coiled up the niotintiiiii ride, affording v.s at e^ery turn- 
ing a new aud more eplendtd view of tliei other shore of the lake. At 
length we reached St. Curgul, and leaFing the carriagej H. and I guided by 
a peftsnnt girl, went through tLe woo^la to tlie highest point, where ware 
the ruius of the aucieut chateau. Far be it from me to deaeribt wl 
we saw, I feel that 1 hayo alreaily been too pieaumptuous, "We flat di 
and each imiaL> a hasty skeU^Ii of Mont Blanc. 

We took tea at the hotel, which reminded ua, by the neatness of tta 
scoured chaml^iers with their white bedflj)readij, of the apartmtints of some 
Out-of-Uie-way New England fkruihouse, ~ 

The people of thti neighbourhood Imvbig discovered wbo H. "waSi 
Tiery kind, aud foil of delight at seizing her. It was Scotland over a^ 
Wo have had U.i bo unfliachrng to prereut her being overwhelmed^ hoth in 
Paria and Geneva, by the same demonstratioas of rbgiu'd. To this wo were 
driven^ as a matter of life and death. It woi^ touching to listen to the talk 
of these secluded mountaineei^. The goo<J bostess, even the Bfirrant makla, 
hung about Hj, expressing such tender interest for the slave. AHliad read 
Uncle Tom. And it had apparently lieon an erft in tbeir lil'e'a monotony, 
for they said, "0, madam, do write another? Etmembcr our w inter niglita 
here are rcry long !" 

The proprietor uf the inn (not the landlord) wasli gentleman of ei.hicat.ion 
and polished demeanour. He had imt t^n AVa, he eaid. And ht; apoke with 
deep emittion. He thanked H. for what she had wTitten, and at partii 
said, ** Have course ; tbe sacred cause of Liberty will yet preTuil thrxj 
the wtirld." 

All, they breathe a pure air, these generona Swisa, among these monni 
tops ! May their simple words be a prophecy divine. 

At about six we returuetll, and as we slowly wound down the mountaici 
side we had a full view of all tlie phenomena ol' colour attending the sun's 
departure. The mountain, — the city rather, — for &> high had it risen, that 
1 could imagine a New Jerusialem of pearly whito, with Mqnt Blanc fur the 
central citadtjl, or temple,— the city wae all aglow. The air behind, tlt« 
eky, became of a dcHcatc apple grsen ; the anow, before so incande^ceut in 
whitcnesa, aEsumed a rosy tintt We ^lanscd — wo sat in silence to witneea 
these miraeuloua traiisforuiationa, ** Charley," iwdd H., "sing that hytwu 
of yours, the New Jorusalem." And hi the bush of th«i mountain solitudea 
■we sang together,^ 

" Wp ftre oa oar joarnej home, 

A'\'biTO CHrist, our Imnl hiia gone; 
Wp will rnif'tit arouud Ma ihitnio, 
When lie mutt's fe ijt!**^'^ ^lae 



' "We fttn «D(» that dint ant htnuip, 
ThoD^li I'louda riao oft between; 
Fiuth views thti rikditiut dome, 
And a luHtro Qjar«<hnA keen 
i?''rom the Kcw Jeruavlcm. 

' O, glory abJniDC! far 

Prora tliP tJevur-acHiBp sun ! 
O, tTciiil>liii(» ]uoniin|i[ slut" [ 
Oiir jouropy'H nlmoEt donp 
To tlio Now JoruB&leni. 

" Our hrarLs nre briwkijig mi w 
ThoHe ninnaiunB fair to i*e : 
O Lord, thy hfinvoiiJi bow, 
Axid ruiat; oa up wiili IbtH? 
To thft Kow JamEudetu." 

The etifioes of our Tcjice« died along tta monJitfiLm skies, m slow? 
weddtiil our dowuwtkrd way. Tho rosy tiuaL be^rin In fiulo. A i icli oroj 
ov oninge hue ^omcd bo inibuo thtj Kcmje, ftiid fijiallyj rb the shiulowA froia' 
the Jura, crept higher, and covered it witli a pall, it assumed a fitartliug, 
deiitblikB pallor of chalky white. Muut Bhiua was dead. Mont Ulauc 
waa walking as a ghost upon the gran He mng^. But aa tkrkmaia tanie 
Oft, add as the sky over the Jura, where the huu had set, iihUiiutid a deep, 
rosy tiugej Muut Blauc rerrved a little, aad a flush pf dijlii^t^, trauBpareut 
pink tinged his coue, and Mont- Blanc waas asleep. Good night to Mont 

Weducaday morning, J una 29, Tho dny is iutensely hot ; the weather 
is QXOHfdiugly tiir, but Mont Bbue is not visible. Kot a ^-estige — not a 
trao^. All vanished. It does not seem poaaible, Thera do aot 8«?m to 
exiflt the condiiioos for aneh celeatial pageant to hiwe atood there. What 1 
there — where my eyeis now look Bi^axiily and piertntigly into the blue, int 
the Bcainitigty fathomloiss azure— there, will they tell me, 1 eav that enrap 
tured vision, as It were, the city (.lescending from iJod out of he^iven, aa A 
bride adorned for her huBhand !! Incredible 1 It must he a dream, n viaion 
of the night. ^ 

EvQiiiug. After the heat of the day our whtde houaehold, old aadj^f 
jonngf B«t forth for a boating eitcuraion on the lake, Dividing our partj^l 
ill two boats, we paUed about a mile up the left shore. Lake Leman 
was before ua in all its InveUneaa ; and we were dippine onr oar where 

■■ving I^H 

Byron had floated post scenes which scarce neetl to bemme cUeaio to 
A «ui>erior cbarro. The aun wm just gone behind tlie Jum, lei 
glorioitn sky, Mont Blauc stood afar behind a hazy veil, like a spirit 
revealed. We saw it paJis before our eyes act we moved, " It stood still, 
hut we could not diacem the form there(»f-" As we gUded on post boatB_ 
UBConnted, winged or many-footed, mutionJcas or atiB, we softlj snng,— ^ , 

'• Tbitii of me oft at twilight hour. 
And I will tliinJc of th<'e ; 
Bemf'Bibpring how we felt ita power 
Svhen thou WMt itill with mo. 

Dear ia tbat hour, foi' d»v th^n sle^pB 
Upod the gpny oloud'ft urcwt \ 

And not » vuica or Eicmud a' ^ 'kw^ 
Bis wearied eyes Erom xi»t," 


It IV^H 


The Kuriiace of the kke waa unru filed. The air was sti]]. An occasii 
burst from the hcnd in the garden of Eou^ean Cftme tKjftened in the distaoce. 
Enveloped ill her tliiek shawl H. reclinefl in the stem, and gave herself to 
tbe iaflnenceB of the hour. 

IhrknesB oune down npoD the deep. And in the gloom we tamed onr 
prowH towards the many-twinkling qnaySj far in the dist&nee. We heint to 
the onr in ciutjlouft contest, and onr huj-ks fouiued find hissed through the 
water. In a^few motu exits we were passing through the noisy eruwd on 
qxihy towiurds oni ijuiet home. 



Dm^B Chiierith : — ■ 

I promised to write from Chttmonni, ao to commence at the conuneace' 
ment. Fane J" me, on a hroihsg day in July, panting with heat, gaxiug 
from my window ia llenava u|>fm Lake Lemau, which reHecits the sun '" 
hurning ^m&, and thinkitig wkother in America^ or anywhere else. It 
ever su hot Lefure. This was quite a ut»w view of the subject to nse, 
had been wiu-ned in Pima ouly of the neeesaity of blanket shawls, luid liad 
come to Switzerland with my head full of glaciers, and mj trunk fnll 
futiS. ^ 

While arranging: my traTalling prap&mtioQs^ Madame F, enters. 

" Have you ctinsideied liow cold it is up tliere T she inquirea- 

" I am glad if it is cold any^'h^re,'^ eaid l. 

** Ah, you will find it tireadful; yon will need to be thoron, 

I suggeated tippets, fiartnele, am! furs, of which I already pos9es.?ed 
modwale supply. But no; these were altogether inauflicJentL It was 
neoesaory that I should buy two immense fur eoats : one for C, and one 
for niyaelf, 

I assure you that such pnjpaiationB, made with the therraoiaeter between 
eighty and ninety, iinprGss one with a kind of awe. "What re<^ions m 
they be,'' thought i to myself, "thus aealetl ap in etemnl siiow.^ whi 
tlio country at thdr feet lies scorching in the very fire f' A bluulow 
iucredulity mingled itsfilf with my reflections. On the whde, 1 bought 
one fuT cotit. ' _ 

At thiB u^omont C. came up to tell me tliat W., S,, and ft had all comft 
back from Italy, so that our party was once more tfigether. 

It waa on the 5th of July tliat S, and I took our seats in the caupt^ of 
diligence. Now, this ccntpS is low and narrow enough, so that our com 
tion reminded me shghtlyof the luckless fowls which I huve sometimes 
rilling to the Cincinnati market in conp^Ji of about eqtuii eonTeniei 
NeTertheleas, it might be considEred a peat'eahle and eatisiactoi^ style 
accommodation in an ordiuaiy country. But to rido among the wonders 
the Alps in such a vehicle ia Bomething like contemplating infinity tlnui 
the nose of a bottle. It was really very tautolizJug and provoking to 
till C. was so obliging as to resign liia seat on top in my favour, ni 
demxnd into S/ie&l, aa he aoid. Then I began to UTe ; for I could see to 
munmi^ of the immeoBe wftUs of Toek vmier ^lUw^i ^^ y^-^xa, ^Qualiigi 




aad by -we were reminded, by tlie examination of onr jjaaHports, tlmt we 
|iiad anteir^ Sfudlnia ; and tha oliioerSj LuLog diily Eu^tu^ed tbat^'o were 
not goJJjg tti Clianioiuii to levy aji anuy amcjug the gkciere, or raiBe a. 
aediticiu among tlie a^almiebi^, let ub pass free. The discretion nnd wkdom 
of ttuB passport system can never bo fiiifficiently admired. It muRt h\i 
entirely owing to tliis, that the Alps do not hrenk out on Europ* gouerally, 
^M. tear it in pieces. 

But the momittiina— bow sliall I givs yon tlie least idea of ikem I Old, 
Bombre, Imj^gard genii, half TeDed in clonda, belted with pines, worn and. 
fnrrowed with stornia and avalanches, but not' lUi yet crowned with huow. 
Por m&ny miles after leaving Oeneva, the Mole is tho ijrincipal object; its 
Hue-bluek outline veeriug a,nd fthifting, taking on a thousand strange 
Tarieties of form as yon approach it^ othera iijgaia oa you recede. 

It is a cloudy day ; and heavy volumea of vaponr are TrreatEung and un* 
writhing themfitU'es around tlie gaunt fortna of the everlasting rocks, like 
liuman reasoniogB, ^lesirBS, aud hopes nround the ghastly realities of lii'e and 
death ; graceful, n adulating, and isoinetimes gleaming out in silver or roay 
Vreiitlis. StilJ, they are nothing but mist ; the dread reulitiea are Just 
■where ^^nf were Ijefore. It ia odd, though, to look at these cloud i»per- 
ings ; quite us biter eathig^, in its way, iis to read new fiystems of tnio- 
»L<ei)d«ntJiI philo&ijphy, and perhapa q^uite as profitable. Yonder is a 
grtat, wlntuheaded cloud, slowly nnrolling hiraeelf In the bosom of a black 
pino forest. AcroBS tlie other side of tlio road a huge ^anite cliff has picked 
up a hit of gansty Bilver, which he is winding round bis scraggy neck. 
And now, here cornea a cascade right over our heads ; a caacode, not of 
"Water, ?jut of cloud ; for tho pi>or little brook that makes it faints away 
"btfore it gets down to ua ; it falls, lilte a shimmer of moonlight, or a uhower 
of powdered silver, while a tremulous rainbow appears at unocrtam 
inttirvidN, like a ludf-seen spirit. 

Th» cascade here, as In monnl^ins generally, is a nerer-faiUng eonrce of 
lil'e and variety. Water, joyous, buoyant aon of Nature, ia callSig to yon, 
leaping, eparkllug, mockmg at yon between bushes, and singing as he goes 
4own the della. A thoni^nd llttte pictures hs makes among ^e rock^ na 
he goes. 

Then, tlie hkarrt outline of the rocks ; well doei Ghiethecall them "the 
giftiit-flnftuted craga ;" and as ti^ie diligence winds slowly on, they seem to 
lean, and turn, and bead, flow tliey close up like a wall !n frout<, now 
0[>ea in piny and eloudy vistas : now they embrace the torrent in their 
great, hhick armB ; and now, flashing laughter and babbling defiance through 
rifted rodca and uprooted pinea, the torrent shoots past them, down Into 
aome fathomless abyss, Thejjo old Alp mothers cannot hold their ofhipring 
back from abyaaes any better than poor earth mothers- 
There are pliofiea in nature wludx correjqiotid to every phase of human 
timught and emotion; and tluei stem, cloudy sceneiy answers to the lucliiu- 
eholy &taliani of Greek tragedy, or the kiDdred moni-nfulness of tho Book 
of Job. 

Them dark diannelled rocks, worn, as with eteroal teara, — tliese tracea, 
so evident of ancioat and vast djMoIation&, ^snggest tho idea of bcjundleea 
power and inexorable will, beforo whose oourse the moat vehemf^nt of human 
feelings are as the fine spray of the cataract. 




" For, Durcly, tlie ntoubtJiin, iaUing, coiiieth to nought j 
• The rock ie removed o«i ofhij pHitie; 

Thp w^tcm wejir the ninnes ; 

TboQ wiuhrfll; nwaj the Ihinga Ihnt grow out of Cbc euth, 
Atnl I hem (Ipflfroj-PftS t}n- hop™ of uinn; 
Thiiu prpvii.i3wt fLguinBt Mm, aoil he pHiSWth; 
Th<iu cJiLicgtfjl, hi» LMiuntE^Danc^e, »nd itndi>Bt Mm nwaj" 

TLh sceptical inqnii^r into the mysteries of etemtil things might ] 
ever, ted iLo solemn irouy of EUphaz the T^manite :— 

" Shall! i1 a. wise in an iitt4>r tbLe knowledf?? 
HhuLild be rniHoit with iiiipri>fltahU' talt ? 
Of witb sjwiwhL's thul; cau dfj no gocHl ? 
Art, thou Iht' iirut man Thfit cvef wm bum ? 
Or woat tkuEi oiitdQ b(<Xorc thu IiLlla ?" 

Tliert) ard soum cf luj fGllow-traTellai-s, by the by, who, if they had 
beea nirtJe before the bills, would werer have lieeu tjuuch wiser. All through 
thesis 6(.»lemju pa^isiigcs i^nd gotgeii, tkey are discuBeing hotels, ohaiap^^e, 
winu, iinil cigars. I presume they would do the samo thiu)^ at the gates of 
the Ciilestia] City, if they should accident JiUy fijjd themflelTCs there. It i» 
PUB nf tbij (lark providences that multitudes uf this cftlilire uf mind find 
* IcL^ure nud means to come ami}nj{ thefta scenes, while many^u whom they 
would be mx inspiration, in whuae sonla they would unseal {:easelesB foiiB- 
lilt n a of htiunty, are ^r ever excluded by poverty and ojire. 

At noun we irtopped at ^UencheSj famoua for two things; first, m the 
spot where people get dinner, and {second, where they take the char^ a 
carrin:L;e nseil whea tlie road is too steep for the dUigtsnce. Here S., who 
had bt'Cia foeling ill all tlie monutig, became too nnweU to proceed, b<j that 
we haJ to lie hy jui hottr or two, and did not go ou wiLh the cnrn-vaa. I 
aat down at the room window to study aad sketch ft nnjuntuin that rose 
exactly oppoaite. I thought tti myself, '*Now, would it be possible tfl gite 
to one that liiui not eeen it an idea of how ihia lonksf Let me try if 
words rain p;iLnt it. Right ahove the flat n:h>f of the houses on the oppo- 
site sidt! of the street rose this imintuse niountiiti T?i'all. Thff lower tier 
seemed to be a turbulent sweil of pasture Innd, rolling into eyery im«[gi- 
nsblfl bhape ; green billows and dells, rising higher and higher in the air 
as you looked upward, dyed here and there in bright yellow streake, by 
the Willi crocus, and spotted over with cattle. Dark clumps aud belts of 
pine now and then rise up among them; and scattered here and there in 
the heights, among green kollow!!,, were cottages, that look^ai about u 1% 
na hidtory mats. 

Above all this region was still another, of black pines and craga; tho 
pmea going up, and np, and up, till they looked no larger than pin feathen; 
and Burmounting all, stralghi^ castellated turrets of rock, looking o«t of 
swathing banda of cloud, A narrow, dtuysHng line of snow croimed tke 

You see before you tbroa distinet regions — of pasture, of pine, of 
eternal sterility. On inquiring the name of the mounlain, I was twii 
was the " Aiguille" somtftMng, 1 forget what ■ but T ditteo\'ert:d that ala 
all tile peaks in this region of the Alps are called Aiguille (needlft] 
BUpjuyse from the straight, aharp polats that rise at their summits. 
2^hert is a, tridge here in aalkutiUea, itonL^Vvii-, m tiWa -weather, oao 


of the best vieura of Mont Blanc can be obtained — m ih$y tfeU ua. To-day 
it is as muck behind the veil, and aa nbsolutely a matter of faltb as heaven 
itaelf. Looking in that direction yon coold not l^Deve tliat tbere ever had 
liean, or could be, a moiintaiii there. The c«iice»liiig cloiids look m gray» 
as cool, and an absolutely uncouHsuouij of any world of glory behind them 
as oar duU, cold, every-day life di>es of a heaven, which ia, perlapa, equally 
near ub. As we were pajisLng the bridge, however, a gust of icy wind 
Bwept down the course of the river, whose chilly breath spoko of glaciers 
and avalencheis. 

Qm driver waa one of tbose merry aoiils, to be found the world over, 
wlioBe hearts jearji after talk ; and when 1 volnnteered to shsure the outaidfi 
se&t with hiin^ that I might see better, h^ inqiiired aaxlonaly if "made' 
moiselle understood French," that he might have the pleasure of enlightening 
her on the loL-alities. Of oonrse mademoUelle could do no leas than be 
exceedingly grateftjl, sincft a peasant on Kw own ground is generally better 
informed than a, pliiloaopher from elsewhere. 

Our path lay along the banka of tho Arve, a raving, brawling, turbulent 
BtreAiu of muddy water. A wide bolt of drifted, pebbly land, on either 
Bide of it, showed that at times the tcrrent had a much wider sweep than 
»i present. 

In fact, my guide informed me that the Arve, liko most oth^ mount&ia 
atreams, liad many troublesome and inconvenient personal babits, svch as 
lisiAg up all of a sudden, aome ntght, and whisking off housesi, cattle, pine 
treee ; in short, gottiag up sjiiliug parties in such a promLscuoua manner that 
it is neither safo nor agreeable to live in his neighbourhood. He fibowed 
me, from time to time, the traces of such Kuhleboni pranka. 

We were now descending rapiiUy through tho valley of Chamouni, by a 
winding road, tlie scenery becoming every moment more and more impres- 
sLve, The path wa« so steep and so stonj that our guide was well euouglL 
contented to have ua walk, I was gbid to walk on aJone ; for the aceneaT- 
was HO wonderful that human sympathy and communion seemed to be out 
of tho question. The effect of such scenery to our generally ttleepmg and 
drowsy aouli, bound witb the double chain of earthllnesa and siti, in lika 
the electric toncb of the angel on Peter, bound and sleeping. Thoy make 
us reali^ ttat we were not only made to commune with God, but also what 
a God he is "with whom we ^nay commune. Wo talk of poetry, we talk of 
painting, we go to tho ends of the eartlt to see the artists and great men of 
this world : but what a poet, what an ajrtist is C-l-nd J Truly said Michael 
Angelo, ' ' The true painting is only a copy of tba diTine perfections — & 
ab»low of liis pencil," 

I was sitting on. a mossy trunk of an old pine, looking up admiringly on 
the wonderful heights around me — crystal peaks sparkltng over dark pine 
trees — shadowy, airy distancei) of mountain beights, rising ery^talllDe amid 
fljany -coloured masses of cloud ; while, looking out over my head from green 
hoUoire, I saw the small cottages, so tiny, in their airy distance, that thej 
wemed acorcely bigger than a flquirrel's nut, which ha might have dropped 
in bifl paaaagc. A pretty Savoyard girl, I should think about fifteen ye«i* 
oldf came up to me. 

".Madame admires the mduntolus,^' ehe said. 

I assented. 

»* Yesi^" she added, " strangers always atooi* proit ■vEtW.iiytoafc 




" And 3oTi*t yon admine tfcem f ' said I, looking, I stippose^ rtthtr 
amused into her bright eyes. 

" Ko," she said, laugliing, " Btrangerp poukj fiwm htmJioda «f milM M 
fiee them nil tfae time ; but we pess^nts donH care fbr tbem^ no more * 
the dujrt of tli« Toad. " 

I could bat talf bdicre the bright little pnEa when shs mid so; 
there w»« » lampiHli BOggy fellow accompimyiiig her, whoso nature appeared 
io be suffideatly vmleavqned to m&ke almort anything credible in the lint 
of Btapidity. In fact, it ia one of the greatest dj:awba<?ks to the pleflsart 
vith whic^h one trareis tbrotigh tMs beantifnl eouatEj, to see what kin J of 
hnmon beings inbaMt it- Here Jn the Alps, beaTcn above and earth 
beneath, tree, rock, w»teiT, light and Rhaxtow, every form, and agent, and 
power of natere, s«ja to be eiertuig tlietnaeltfea to praduea a constMlt 
aad chtm^ilg poem and ronmnce; everytliing is gntad, nfjble, free, and 
yet beauttfnl -. in alt these regions there is nothbag ad lepnlaive iia a kmiuiii 

A little farther on we stopped at a Tillage to refreeb the borses. *^ 
tmberge where we atopped wivs built like a great bam, with an eartk floofj 
des&lftte and eomfortless. The people looked poor and ground down, At il 
they had not a thought above the coaraest animal wants. The dirty 
children, with their hair tangled beyond all hope of oo^mlmig, bad the 
begging whine, and the trick of raifdng their hands for money, when owe 
looked at them, which is nniTersal in t!ie Cathslic parts of 8wrt£erl&iid. 
Indeed, all the way from the Sardinian frontier we hod been dogged 
IbegpuB oontinually. Farcnta aeewed to look nj>on their children as valui 
only for this purpose; the very baby in arma ia taught to make a piti: 
MttJe whine, and put out ita fat hand, if yonr eye re^ta on it. The fiiot 
they are poor — poor because inTention, enterprise, and intellertual vi\ 
— aU that Hurronnds the New England mountain fanner with compi 
and ooniinrt— are quenched and dead, by the combined infttience of a 
gion and goTerament whoso interest it is to keep people atupid, that 
may be manageable. Yet tko Savoyards, as a ra-M, it aeema to me, art 
Jiaturally intelligent; and I cannot bat hope that the liberal eonwe lately 
adopted by the Sardinias govemnieat may at last reach tliem. 
yeama over many of the bright, pretty children, whose little bani 
been up, from tirtie to time, around our carriage. I could not help 
ing what Eood sehoola and good instmction might do for them. It ia not 
their fault, poor little things, that they are eduoated to whine and beg, and 
grow np mde, uncultured, to bring forth another met of children just like 
tiemselves ; but what to do with them ia the queation. One generally be- 
gina with giving money ; but a day or two of eipmenoe shows that it would 
be jujrt about as hopeful to feed the locusta of Egypt on a loaf of bread, 
Bnt it is hard to refuse children, eapecially to a mother who has left flv« 
or si I at home, and who fancies she seea, in some of these little ^ager, 
<!hildish fivcea, something now and then that reminds her of her own. Pot 
my part, I got echooTed so that I could stand them all, except the little 
toddling tbreo-year-olda— they fairly overcame me. So I supplied my 
pocket with a quantity of angar loienges, for the reUef of my own mind. 
1 asmUy fouad the little Mowa looked exceedingly delighted when tiej 
dwoov&red the ^a£ure of the coin. C!tul6i«ti «i« unaophiiiticated} «nd Wta 
0o^t j&efter thaa silverj wiy day. 



In this avherge was a little chamois kid, of "which fact.W0 were duly 
apprised, when we got out, by a board put up, which said, " Here one can 
see a live chamois."' The little live representative of chamoisdom came 
skipping out with the most amiable unconsciousness, and went through his 
paces for our entertainment with as much propriety as a New England child 
says his catechism. He hopped up on a table after some green leaves, 
which were then economically used to make him hop down again. The 
same illusive prospect was used to make him jump over a stick, and per- 
form a number of other evolutions. I could not but admire the sweetness 
of temper with which he took all this tantalizing, and the innocence with 
which he chewed his cabbage leaf after he got .it, not harbouring a single 
revengeful thought at us for the trouble we had given him. Of course the 
issue of the matter was, that we all paid a few sous for the sight — not to 
the chamois, which would have been the most eqtiitable way, but to those 
who had appropriated his gifts and graces to eke out their own convenience. 

"Where's his mother ?" said I, desiring to enlarge my sphere of natural 
history as much as possible. 

*^ On a tuSsamer^' — *' They have killed his mother," was the reply, 
cool enough. 

There we had the whole story. His enterprising neighbours had invaded 
the domestic hearth, shot his mother, and eaten her up, made her skin 
into chamois leather, and were keeping him till he got big enough for the 
same disposition, using his talents meanwhile to turn a penny upon ; yet 
not a word of all this thought he ; not a bit the less heartily did he caper ; 
never speculated a minute on why it was, on the origin of evil, or any- 
thing of the sort ; or, if he did, at least never said a word about it. I 
gave one good look into his soft, round, glassy eyes, and* coTild see nothing 
there but the most tranquil contentment. He had finished his cabbage 
leaf, and we had finished our call ; so we will go on. 

It was now drawing towards evening, and the air began to be sensibly 
and piercingly cold. One effect of this mountain air on myself is, to bring 
on the most acute headache that I ever recollect to have felt. Still, the 
increasing glory and magnificence of the scenery overcame bodily fatigue. 
Mont Blanc, and his»army of white-robed brethren, rose before us in the 
distance, glorious as the four and twenty elders around the great white 
throne. The wonderfal gradations of colouring in this Alpine landscape 
are not among the least of its charms. How can I describe it ? Imagine 
yourself standing with me on this projecting rock, overlooking a deep, piny 
gorge, through which flow the brawling waters of the Arve. On the other 
side of this rise mountains whose heaving swells of velvet green, cliffs and 
dark pines, are fully made out and coloured ; behind this mountain rises 
another, whose greens are softened and shaded, and seem to be seen * 
through a purplish veil ; behind that rises another, of a decided cloud-like 
purple ; and in the next still the purple tint changes to rosy lilac ; while 
above all, like another world up in the sky, mingling its tints with the 
passing clouds, sometimes obscured by them, and then breaking out between 
them, lie the glacier regions. These glaciers, in the setting sun, look like 
rivers of light pouring down from the clouds. Such was the scene, which 
I remember with perfect distinctness as enchaining m^ ^MueoictfsoL wv^sosi 
point of the road. 

We hod now got up to the valley of Chamouni. 1 \oQV^\j'dQ^'i^'^> *»SV" 

a 9. 



saw, lying in U10 lap <>{ llie green valley, a gIgftuLic pile of ivy pillars, wlili 
Efxn thTough tbe trees, at first uupgi'stcd the idea of a caBt'twk*. 

"What is that J" said I to tlie guide. 

*'ThB Glaciet de Boisson.*' 

I may oe well atup liere, and eiplain to you, once for all, wltat a glaeier 
is. You aee befoTe you, as in tliis case, stay tliirty or forty mountain peate, 
and between these peaks -what eeem to yoa frozea rivers. The bddw frutu 
tiiQe to time meltiBg, nnd dripping down the Etd^ia of the m^mtitam, mid 
Gousfloiing in the elttvated hollowa between the peakSj forms & half-fluid 
mass — a river of iiie — which is callol a gla^isr. 

A& it lies upon th« datitiitg tiurface, and is nat entirely sulid throughout, 
the whole ma^ ia coutinually pushing, with a gradual hut Jiu{>en>3pt[h[e 
motioii, down into the valleys below. At a distance these glaciers, as I 
tave BaW hefore, look like friizen rivers ; when one approaches nearer, or 
wheM they prass downward into the valky, Kke this (ilacier de BoisBoa, 
they look liks immense crystals and pillain of ice piled tojfether in evay 
ccmcdvahle form. The effect of tlila pile of ice, lyjug directly in tho lap rf 
(ft-ecn grasa and flowers, is c^uite lingular. The village of Chamouni itielf 
has nothing in particnW to recommend it. The huildlugs and eyetTtlStng 
about it have a rough, coarse appearance. Before we had entered the 
Talley tlua evening the sun had gone down ; the sky behind the mountajna 
was cleur, aud it fteetned for a few tnotnentJi as if darkiicss wiis rapidly 
coming on. On our right hand were black, jagged, furrowed. wtsMn of 
mountain, and on our left Mont Blanc, with hia fields of glaciei-s and worlds 
of fjiiow J tliey seemed to hem us in, ^id almost proKs ns dowti. But in a 
few momout!) couimencujd a scene of transfiguration, more glorious than any- 
thing I had wituciSBed yet. The cold, white, disiiial fields of iee gradually 
changed into hues of the moat heautifiil rose colour. A bank of white 
clouds, which rch'ted above the mountains, kindled and glowed, as if some 
spirit of light had entered into them. You did not lose your idea of th& 
dazzling, spiritual whiteness of the snow, yet you seemed to see it thmiugh 
u royy veil. The sharp edgcfi of the glaciers, and the hollowa between tho 
peaks, reflected wavering tints of lilac and purple. The effect was solemn 
and spiritual aljcve everything I have ever seen. These words, which h^l 
been oftea in my miud through the day, and which of5eurred to me nmre 
often than any others while I Maa travelling through the Alps, came into 
jiiy mind with a pomp and magnificence of meaning unknown before — *' For 
iVini were all things created in heaven and on Kiiiih, visible and invito- 
ble, whether they he throne.^ or dominions, or principalities, or lowers ; all 
thiui^s are by him and fur liini; and ho is before all things, and 1^ 
him all things subsist," 

In this daKaling revelation I saw not that cold, distant, Ttnfeeling fiite, 
or that crushing regularity of power and wisdom, which wha all the ancient 
Greek or modern Df ist can behold in (5od ; but 1 beheld, as it were, crowned 
and glorifiisd, one who had loved with our loves, and sufferctl witli our 
sufferings. Those uhitiitig snows were as hi:j gariaenta on tho Mount of 
Transifigii ration, and that (serene and InclFable atmosphere of tenderness and 
beauty, wliloh Beeraed to change those dreary defierts int*» worids of hi^veoly 
J^gfit, was U) iQG an image of the light shed by his eternal lov« on the siua 
md Jtorruwa of time, and tte dttaA a\i^B& bi eternity. 



Mt Dear :— 

Well, I waked up this morning, and the first thought was, " Here I am 
in the valley of Chamouni, right under the shadow of Mont Blanc, that I 
have studied about in childhood and found on the atlas." I sprang up, and 
ran to the window, to see if it was really there where I left it last night. 
Yes, true enough, there it was ! right over our heads, as it were, blocking 
up our very existence ; filling our minds with its presence ; that colossal 
pyramid of dazzling snow ! Its lower parts concealed by the roofs, only the 
three rounded domes of the summit cut their forms with icy distinctness oil 
the intense blue of the sky ! 

On the evening before I had taken my last look at about nine o'clock, 
and had mentally resolved to go out before daybreak and repeat Coleridge's 
celebrated hymn ; but I advise any one who has any such fiturgic designs 
to execute them over night, for after a day of climbing one acquires 
an aptitude for sleep that interferes with early rising. When I left last 
evening its countenance was "filled with rosy light," and they tell us, 
that hours before it is daylight ui the valley this mountain top breaks into 
brightness, like that pillar of fire which enlightened the darkness of the 

I rejoice every hour that I a^^ among these scenes in my familiarity with 
the language of the Bible. In it alone can I find vocabulary and images to 
express what this world of wonders excites. Mechanically I repeat to 
myself " The everlasting mountains were scattered; the perpetual hills did 
bow ; his ways are everlasting." But as straws, chips, and seaweed play in 
a thousand fiuitastic figures on the fac« of the ocean, sometimes even con- 
cealing the solemn depths beneath, so the prose of daily existence* mixes 
itself up with the solemn poetry of life here as elsewhere. 

You must have a breakfast, and then you cannot rush out and up Mont 
Blanc ad libitum; you must go up in the regular appointed way, with mule 
and guides. This matter of guides is perfectly systematized here ; for, the 
mountains being the great overpowering fact of life, it follows that all that 
enterprise and talent which in other places develop themselves in various 
forms, here take the single channel of climbing mountains. In America, if 
a man is a genius he strikes out a new way of cleaning cotton: but in Cha- 
mounif if he is a genius he finds a new way of going up Mont Blanc. 

As a sailor knows every timber, rope, and spar of his ship, and seems to 
identify his existence with her, so these guides their mountains. The 
mountains are their calendar, their book, their newspaper, their cabinet, 
hoi'barium, barometer, their education, and their livelihood. 

In fine, behold us about eight o'clock, C, S., W., little G., and self, in 
all the bustle of fitting out in the front of our hotel. Two guides, Balmat 
and Alexandre, lead two mules, long-eared, slow-footed, considerate 
brutes, who have borne a thousand ladies over a thousand pokerish 
places, and are ready to bear a thousand more. Equipped with low- 
backed saddles, they stand, their noses down,, their eyes contemplatively 
closed, their whole appearance impressingone with an air of practical talent 
and reliableness. Your mule is evidently safe aad «fcvx\f\<ikV& ^ca.-^ ^^ssskct^- 

tiTe of any coimtry ; you may ba sure i utic fires, no new influx of 

ideas will ever hwi him to deaert tJiG good utd patks, and tumble jou down 
precipicea, Tho hiirnf^fi;^ tUty weoJ" lii bo oxccedingly imuient, Rnd hosi^udi 
a dilapidated appeaxaiiee, as if hdd toggthor only by tke merest aotiidealk 
tliat 1 could not but expreaa a littk ivlarm on mounting. 

" Those girths — won't tbdy break?" 

**0, no, no, n]a;d(!mois<DllQ !" i^d the gnides. In .fact, they seetu bo 
delighttid T*"ith their arrangemejits, that I ffwallow my don'btB in Hilenjisi. A 
third uiule bebig added for the joint use of the geatlemeU} and all beiaf 
equippetJ with iron 'pointed polds, off wa start in high spmtfl. 

A glorious day ; air clear as crystal, sky with as fixed a. blue as If it 
could not think a cloud ; gmdea oongratulate ua, '* Qu'ii fail trei ftrait/" 
We p»sBtbe lanes of the vjIIjj^o, ourheada almust on a level with the flat 
fltone'laden roofa ; otir mules, with their long rolling pace, like the wa^^ of 
the Bea^ give to their riders a facetious wag of tke body that ija ignite striking. 
Now the Tillage is passed, and «ee, a road handed with green ribands of 
turf. S.'s mule atid guide pass on, and bead the party. G. rides anotber 
jnule. C. and W. leap along trying their alpcnstoctB ; fftopping once in ft 
while to adnure the glaciers, as their brilliaut forms apptmr Uirough the 

Here a di^nssion comiuenees aa to where we are going. We had. agreed 
among ourselves that we would visit the Mer de Gl&ce. We fuUy meant to 
go thera, and had eolxdd the guide on starting ; hut it appeijirs he had 
other vievb's for us. There it) a regular way of seeing tJilngts, orthodox and 
ap[»iiited ; and to get eight of anything in the wrong way would be aa had 
as to got well without aecientitic physician, or any oth^ irregular piece of 

It appeared tram the repTesentatioiiB of the guide that to visit Mer de 
GlAce before we had Been La Pl6gfere, would no more aoswer than for 
Jacob to marry Rachel before te had married Leah, Detarmined not to 
yield, as we were, we aotnehow ftiund ourselves vanquished by our guide's 
argument*, and eoborly j?oiag off his way instead of ours, doing exactly what 
we had resolved not to do. However, the point being yielded, we proceeded 

As wo had Bome way, EoweY^r, to trot along the vaEay before we came 
to the ascending place, I improved the opportnnity to cultivate a little the' 
acquaiutance of my guide. He was a tall, apare man, with bhifk eyea, 
blatk hair, and features expressive of Ehrewdnefis, energy, and determina- 
tion. Either from jjaralyBis, or some other cause, he was subject to a spas- 
modic twitching of the features, producing very much the effect that heat 
lightning dosa in the summer sky— it seemed to dash over hia face and Jie 
gone in a wink ; at first this looked to me very odd, but so much do our 
ideas depend ou assuciution, that after I had known him for B<ime tdmei, I 
really thought that I liked him better with tiian I should without it. It 
seemed to give originality to the expression of his face ; ho was sud) a 
£omi, fatherly man, and took such excellent care of mo and the mult, and 
showed so much intelligence and ilignity in his tion vernation, that J could du 
no lem than like him, heat lightning and all. This valley of Chamouni, 
through which we are winding now, is everywhere as flat as a parlour 
Hour. These valleys in tha Alps seem to have this peculiaritj' — they are not 
h(?Eow.% ben ding do wu ward in lUe mlddi^, 'a&A Im^rceptibly elophig up ward 

THE ^ac•ssT, |Mfp 

into the motintaina, but they lie perfectly ,fiat. T^^f w^^Ti^t^inyy p^ vp]^ 
around them like walls, almost perpendicularly. 

'* VoUdr' says my guide, pointing to the'left, tp a grei^ boar ^xji^ 
"down there came an avalanche, and knocked down those Ixouseg 4^ 
killed several people." t 

"Ah !" said I; "but don't avalanches generally come in the sum pU^sttS 
every year?" 

" Generally, they do." 

* * Why do people build houses in the way of them V said J. 

"Ah ! this was an unUsual avalanche^ tiiis one here." 

" Do the avalanches ever bring rocks with them f ' 

"No, not often; nothing but snow." 

"There !" says my guide, pointing to an object about as big afj f^ 4<M^' 
sized ^, on the side of a distant mountaini "tiiere's the auSeiytt on Ia 
Flegere, where we are going." 

" Up there?" say I, looking up apprehensively, and qjierying in my xuxd 
how my estimable friend the mule is ever to get up there vith m^ aa )ufl 

"0 yes," says my guide, cheerily, "and the road is up through th^t 

The ravine is a charming specimen of a road to be sure, bat no mattar— 
on we go. 

"There," says a guide, "those black, rocks in'iiie middle of tlu^t 
glacier on Mont Blanc are the Grands Mulets, where travellexs sleep goiag iap 
Mont Blanc." 

We wind now among the pine trees till we come almost under the ller 
de Qlkce. A most fiairy-Uke cascade falls down from under it^ pillars of y^ 
over the dark rocks — a cloud of feathery foam — and then streapis intQ tj)ip 
valley bdow. 

" Voilct, L'Arveiron!" says the guide. 

"0, is that the Arveiron?" say I; "happy to fsaJj^ th^ M- 

But now we cross the Arve into a grove of pines, and direct our my 
to the ascent. We begin to thread a zigzag pi^ on the sides of i^ 

As mules are most determined followers of precedent, every one keeps bis 
nose close by the heels of his predecouor. The delicate poiut^ theiefort^ 
of tiie whole operation is keeping the first mule straight. The ^rst mule 
in our party, who rejoiced in the name of Souase, was selected to head tba 
caravan, perhaps because he had more native originality than most pulet^ 
and was therefore better fitted to lead than to follow. A troubles<ai»B 
beast was he, from a habit of abstract meditation whi9h was always iiabls 
to come on him ia most inconvenient localitks. Bvery now and then, 
simply in accordance with his own sovereign wiU and pleasure, and without 
consulting those behind him, he would stop short and descend into himself 
in gloomy reverie ; not that he seemed to have anything in particular on 
his mind, — at least nothing of the sort escaped his lips, — but tiie idea would 
seem to strike him all of a sudden that he was an ill-used beast, and thai 
he'd be hanged if he went another step. Now, as his stopping stepped aU 
the rest, wheresoever they might happen to be, it often occqpod ^iA*.-«.% 
vere detiuned in most eriticftl locaUUea, ^^Ui!b m. %^ x«c!| -^wHk A «s°^ 


treiD«ndoiM precipice, or up & tmij atairway. Id vaiu did the foremo 
driver Afhncmsli him by thumping his iiofio with a aliiu-p ^iiuk, and tugfjin 
And polliDg upon the bridle. Bousae yvaii gifted wiUi ono uf thckse lo{ 
India rubher nacks that can stretch out indefinitely, so that the ntoxost 
pulling and jerKng onJj look hU head along a little further, but left hifl 
heels planted exactly where they were before. Hia eyea, meafiwhile, devoutly 
dosed, with an air of meeknoBH oversprefidiiig his visaf^e, he might hare 
stood aa &k embleni of cooBcientious obstinaey. 

Thfl fact ia, that in ascending these mountains there is juet enough 
danger to make one's nerves a little unste^y ; Lot by any meaufi as much 
aa on board a rail {iar at home ; still it cornea to you in & more demon^irablQ 
foruiki Here you are, for instance, on a precipice two thousand feet deep ; 
pine trees, wJiicK, when you passed them at the foot you saw were a 
hnndred feet high, have dwindled to the size of jma. No barrier of any 
kind protecta the flJEiy edge, and your mule is part,iciilarly eonscientions to 
stand on the very Terge, no siatter how wide the pdth may be. Now, 
under auch circnm stances, tliough your gnide assures you that an accldont 
or a person killed is a thing unknown, you cannot help seeing that if the 
saddle should tum^ or the girths break, or a bit of the crumbling cdgo 
caTB sway — all which things appear q^tiite possitilfr — all won Id be over -wiih. 
ytra. Yet 1 suppose wG are no more really dependent tipon God's provi* 
deneo in suab circumstanceSi than in many cases where we think ourselyss 
most aecnre. iStill the thrill of this seoRiitiou is not without its ple»siire, 
especially with such an image of almighty power and glory conatantij 
before one's eyes aa Mont Blanc. Our own littJenesa and heiplesHuesa, in 
"riew of these vast objects wliich surround ns, give a strong and pathetic 
force to the words, " The eternal (jod is thy refuge, and underneath thee 
are the everlasting arms," 

I like beat these snow-pnre glacJera seen througli these black pines ; thero 
la something mysterious about them when you thus catch glim])se3 and see 
not the earthly base on which they rest. I recollect the same fact in seeiug 
the Cataract of Nijigara through ^tree% where merely the dizzying fall o£ 
water was yisible, with ite foam, and spray, and rainbows; it pr<xiuced an 
Idea of Bomething eupematura]. 

I forgot to aay that at the foot of the mountain a party of girls atarted 
to ascend with ua, carrying along bottles of niQk and small saucers full of 
mountain Btrawberries. Alxint half way up tbe ascent we halteil by a 
spring of water which gushed from the side of the mountain, and there we 
found the adTantage of these arrangements. The milk h very nicH, almost 
as rich as cream. I think they told me it was goat's milk. The Btraw- 
berries are very small indeed, Uke onr field-strawlicrrics, but not as gtiod, 
Ojje-devouTs them with great relish, dmply l>ccAnsa tlis keen air of the 
maun tain dispoaca one to mi Bomethtng, and there is nothing better to bs 
had. They were hearty, rosy-luoking f^rls, chBerful and obliging, wore 
the flat Swiaa hat, and carried their knitting work tilong with them, ; 
knit whenever they could, 

Wben you asked them the price of their wares they always said, " Jl 

jrfetwr," i,e., whatever you please; but when we came to offer them monejJ 

we found '^auptttisir" meant so much at any rate, and as much more r 

tAej- coitld get. 

TJ)ei>i§ wvTB Boma children wUo riiia^X^ li^ Tn,W WiR.'SfMt^^ wlw < 

LA FLiO^SE. 265 

us flowers and crystals " au plaiair" to about the same intent and pur- 
pose. This cortege of people, wanting to sell you something, accompanies 
you ererywhere in the Alps. The guides generally look upon it with com- 
placency, and in a quiet way favour it, I suppose that the fact was, these 
were neighbours and acquaintances, and the mutual understanding was, that 
they should help each other. 

It was about twelve o'clock when we gained a bare board shanty as near 
the top of La Fllgdre as it is possible to go on mules. 

It is rather a discouragujg reflection that one should travel three or four 
hours to get to such a desolate place as these mountain tops generally are ; 
nothing but grass, rocks and snow ; a shanty, with a show case full of 
minerals, articles of carved wood, and engravings of the place for sale. In 
these show cases the Alps are brought to market as thoroughly as human 
ingenuity can do the thing. The chamois figures largely ; there are pouches 
made of chamois skin, walking sticks and alpenstocks tipped with chamois 
horn; sometimes an entire skin, horns and all, hanging disconsolately 
downward. Then all manner of crystals, such as are found in the rocks, 
are served \xp — agate pins, rings, seals, bracelets, cups, and snuff-boxes — 
all which are duly urged on your attention ; so instead of falling into a rap- 
ture at the sight of Mont Blanc, the regular routine for a Yankee is to begin 
a bargain for a walking-stick or a snuflF-box. 

There is another curious fact, and that is, that every prospect loses by 
being made definite. As long as we only see a thing by gUmpses, and im- 
agine that there is a deal more that we do Tiot see, the mind is kept in a 
constant excitement and play; but come to a point where you can fairly 
and squarely take in the whole, and there your mind falls listless. It is 
the greatest proof to me of the infinite nature of our minds, that we almost 
instantly undervalue what we have thoroughly attained. This sensation 
afliicted me, for I had been reining in my enthusiasm for two days, as rather 
prfemature, and keeping myself in reserve for this ultimate display. But 
now I stood there, no longer seeing by glimpses, no longer catching raptu- 
rous intimations as I turned angles of rock, or glanced through the windows 
of pine — here it was, all spread out before me like a map, not a doud, not 
a shadow to soften the outline — there was Mont Blanc, a great alabaster 
pyramid, with a glacier running down each side of it ; there was the Arve, 
and there was the Arveiron, names most magical in song, but now literal 
geographic realities. 

But in full possession of the whole my mind gave out like a rocket that 
will not go oflF at the critical moment. I remember, once after finishing 
a very circumstantial treatise on the nature of heaven, being oppressed 
with a similar sensation of satiety, — ^that which hath not entered the heart 
of man to conceive must not be mapped out, — hence the wisdom of the 
dim, indefinite imagery of the Scriptures ; they give you no hard outline, 
no definite limit ; occasionally they part as do the clouds around these 
mountains, giving you flashes and gleihns of something supernatural and 
splendid, but never fully unveiling. 

But La Flegere is doubtless the best point for getting a statistically 
accurate idea of how the Alps lie, of any easily accessible to ladies. 

Our guide pointed out every feature with praiseworthy accuracy. On 
the left of the mountain lies Mer de Glace, witii -tV^i krieawsi. \iiik&5s<^ 'w»\b. 
It. Tbe Arve crosses tbe valley below ua, Tl\« ^oc^^^c^N^ssviS':, ^'^'^•» '^''^ 

near view, are fifty feot tight i^^^ mere ripplca. Its purity is mnch. soiled 
hj thp dost ttnd dfbris wLich ore conBtaittly'blo>Ti upon it, mnkiDg it look 
in Home plocea riicir« like mud tiiau lc«. Its solid masses oontraat vi-itk ti* 
dazzling whiteneas of the upper pe;?ittii3, jiiat as huBian Tirtae exposed 
lia wind and dust of earth, with the bpotlesa pnrity of Jeaua. 

These mulets, whi«h at this diatancse appear like blaok points, are hi 
ctifik riBing fti a dtisart of snow. 

Coming dowrti I mentally oompared Mont Blane and Niagara^ as one 
should compare two grand pictures in different styles of the aamg master. 
Both ore of that claea of thiaga which majk ems in a mind's history, and 
upon a new door whicli no man can shut. Of the two> I think Niagara is 
tho moat impreadve, perhaps becatiae those aerial elements of foam and 
Hpray give that Tagne and dreamy indefiiiiteness of outline which 
oesentiiiJ in the sublime. For thia reag<jn, while Kiagara hs etqaally impi 
sive iu the di^tauce, it does not li>e« on the iio:irest approaah — it iB alv^ 
mysttsiiuuii, and^ therefore, stimulating. ThoEo varying upr&y 
rising like Osgian'a ghosta from its ahyaa; thoae shimmeritig taiQho' 
through whose veil you look ; those Jizjying fall3 of water that seein Vkh 
cliHida poured from the hollow of QmYti liaad ; and that mystic uodertwifi 
of sound that seema to parrade the whole heing as the voice of the Almighty, 
—all these bewilder and enchant the discriminative and proeaic part of us, 
and bring us into that cloudy region of ecstasy where the smjuI comes nearest 
to him whom no oy& hath seen, nor can see, I have somctimea a-sked mj- 
Htlf, if, in the coiintle>ia ages of the future, tlie heirs of God shall ever be ea- 
dowed by him with a creative power, hy which they shall bring into ' 
thinga like thesti i la thiii infajioj of his existence, man creates plc^ 
st!Lti;es, cathedrals; but when he ia made "ruler over many things,'' wj! 
his Father intrust to him the building aud adorning of worlds t the ruling 
of tlifc glorious dazzUag forces of naturoT 

At the f of the mountain we found again our company of strawberry 
girls, with knitting work and goat's mUk, lying in wait for us. They kue; 
■we should be thirsty and hungry, and wisely turned the circumatajica " 
aeeoimt. Some of our party would not buy of them, beeauae they mid 
were sharpers, trying to get all they could out of people j but If everybody 
who tries to do this is to be called a ahnrper, what is to become of refrpect- 
nble Booiety, I wonder I 

On the Htrcngth of this reflGctlon, I bought some more goat's milk and 
straw IjQrriea, and verily found them eaccellont ; for, as Shakapeara says, 
"How many things by stiason e^soncd are," 

Vfa returned to our hotel, and after dining and taking a long nap, I 
bsgon to feel fresh once morej for the air here acta like an elixir, so that one 
is able t-o do twica aa much as anywhere else. &. was too much overuomu 
to go with us, but the rest of ua started with our gnidett once more at five 
o'clock. This time we were to vLsil the Cascade des Pelerina, which 
comea next on the orthodox list of places to be seen. 

It was a lovely afti*moon ; the snn had got over the Mont Bhmc sidi of 
the workl, and threw the broad, cool shadow of the iiiountnins quite aerobe 
the Talky. What a curiouB kind of thing shadow is,^that invisible veil, 
falling so evenly and so lightly over aU things, bringing with it such 
thoughts of ca/mnesa, of coohaees, and of rest. I wonder the old Greeks did 
Jiot haild teaipks to Shadovf, %\A csi\l W \\* ^feialf^i: ^ Thought and Pea*??. 




The Hebrew writers speak of the ■' overshadowing of the Almighty ;" they 
call hia protection "the shadow of a great rock in a weary huad." Even 
as the shadow of Mont Blanc falls like a Sabbath across this valley, so falls 
the sense of his presence across our weary life-road ! 

As we rode along under the sides of the mountain, everything seemed so 
beautiful, so thoughtful, and so calm ! All the goats and cows were in 
motion along the moimtain paths, each one tinkling his little bell and filling 
the rocks with gentle melodies. You can trace the lines of these cattle 
paths, running like threads all along the sides of the mountains. We went 
in the same road that we had gone in the morning. How diflferent it seemed, 
in the soberness of this afternoon light, from its aspect under the clear, 
crisp, sharp light of morning ! 

We pass again through the pine woods in the valley, and cross the Arve ; 
then up the mountain side to where a tiny cascade throws up its feathery 
spray in a brilliant jc^ d'eau. Everybody knows, even in our sober New 
England, that mountain brooks are a frisky, indiscreet set, rattling, chat- 
tering, and capering in defiance of all law and order, tumbling over pre- 
cipices, and picking themselves up at the bottom, no whit wiser or more 
disposed to be tranquil than they were at the top ; in fact, seeming to grow 
more mad and frolicsome with every leap. Well,, that is just the way 
brooks do here in the Alps, and the people, taking ad.vantage of it, have 
biult a little shanty, where they show up tiie capers of this child of the 
mountain, as if he tumbled for their special profit. Here, of course, in the 
shanty are the agates, and the carved work, and so forth, and so on, and 
you must buy something for a souvenir. 

I sat down on the rocks to take, not a sketch — ^for who can sketch a 
mountain torrent ? — ^but to note down on paper a kind of diagi-am, from 
which afterwards I might reconstruct an image of this feathery, Msky son 
of Kuhlebom. 

And whUe I was doing this, little G. seemed to be possessed by the 
spirit of the brook to caper down into the ravine, with a series of leaps far 
safer for a waterfall than a boy. I was thankful when I saw him safely at 
the bottom. 

After sketching a little while, I rambled oflF to a point where I looked 
over towards Mont Blanc, and got a most beautiful view of the Glacier de 
Boisson. Imagine the sky flushed with a rosy light, a background of purple 
mountaius, with darts of sunlight streaming among them, touching point 
and cliff with gold. Against this background rises the outline of the 
glacier like a mountain of the clearest white crystals, tinged with blue ; 
and against their snowy whiteness in the foreground tall forms of pines. I 
rejoiced in the picture with exceeding joy as long as the guide would let me ; 
but in all these places you have to cut short your raptures at the proper 
season, or else what becomes of your supper ? 

I went back to the cottage. A rosy-cheeked girl had held our mules, 
and set a chair for us to get off, and now brings them up with " J « plaisir^ 
messieurs" to the bearers of our purse. Half a dozen children had been 
waiting with the rose des Alpes, which they wanted to sell us ** ait plaisir," 
but wluch we did not buy. 

These continual demands on the pui-se look very alarming, only the coin 
you pay is of such infinitesimal value that it takes about a -^wJfiA^. 'isiS^Vi 
loake a oent. Such a currency is alwaya % d^ oi ^^^^^t^i^. 


We liail a charming ride down the muntitjiiii Bide, in the gluw 
twilightL We passcTl through a wliole Hock of goats which the cl 
were driving hnme. One dear little sturdy Savoyard looked ao like a < 
littk Charley at hftrae that I felt quite a going foi'tli of soul to Ului. Aswe 
rmifl on, 1 Ihouffht I would williuglj live and die in aach a place; bat I 
&hall Be« ii kundred such before we laave the Alpa. ^m 

^^^^ TBX ALPS. ^^^^^H 

TnunBDAT, July 7. Weather still euleatial, as yo«torday. But h, 
lltese frail tabemaelca Iwtray their carthlinsa. H. reii:tarlted at brcul 
fn:St that nil the '* tired" of yeatonlay w:ifl piled up into to-day. Ajid ' 
actually pleaded inability, and detennined to remain at the hotel. 

However, the Mer de Gbice tnust be seen; eo, at Heven Williswn, 
Georgy, H., and I, set off. When about half way or more up the 
mfluntain we crosaed the track of the avalanches, a ati-ii> or trail, whicli 
li>aks from beneatli like a mower's ewath through a field of tall graaa. 
It is a clean path, about fifty rods wide, without trees, 'ivith few rock^ 
smooth and etccp, and with a bottom of Ice covered with gravel, 
" Hurrah, Wilham," said I, " let's have an avalanche J " 
*' Agreed;," said lie ; " there's a big- rock," 

"Monsieur le Guide, Monsieur le Guide!" I shouted, "atop 
moment. H.J atop; wo want you to aey our avalanche," 

" No," cried H,, "I will not. Here you ask me to stop, right on 
the edge of ihia precipice, to sec you roll down a stoue!" 

So, on she ambled. Meanwhile William and I were already on foot, 
and our mules were led on by the guide's daughter, a pretty little laaa of 
ten or twelve, who accompanied us in the capacity of mule driver. 

We found several stones of inferior size, and sent them plunging 
down. At last, however, wo found one that weighed Homo two tons, 
■which happened to lie so that, by loosening the earth bcfoi-^ and under It 
with our alpenKtocka, we were able to ilisioilgii it. Slowly, reluctantly, 
as if conscious of the awful race it was about to tftke, the huge 
tremhletl, slid, poised, and, with a crunch and a groan, went over, 
thu first plunge it acquired a heavy revolving motion, and was Boi 
whirling and dashing down, bounding into the air with prodigious lcap%^ 
ami catting a white and flashing path into the icy way. Theu firHt I 
began to realize tho awful height at which we stood above the phiiii. 
Tract*, which looked as though we could alinofit step ncrosg them, were 
reached by this terrible fitone, moving with frightful velcicity* and 
bound after bound, plunge after plnngn It mftde, and wo held our breath 
to sue eaeh tmct lerr^then out, as if sec on da f^rew into mi nates, iuch«] 
into rods ; and still the mitss moved on, and the nucroscopic way leugtb* 
enei} out, till at la.%t a curve h.i<l its further pmgreaa fram our view. J 
What othor cliflfe we might have toppled over the muse refusea to telli^ 
or oiLT fiiithtul ^liilo returned tn say tha,t it was not quite safe; that 
tbere were alvmya shepherds aivd ftocVii xu \\ui ^^Vist-^j, -aoi^l^t they 

THE ALPS. 269 

might be injured. So we remounted, and soon overtook H. at a foun- 
tain, sketching a pine-tree of special physiognomy. ' 

'• Ah," said I, " H., how foolish you wore! You don't know what 
a sight you have lost." 

" Yes," said she, " all C. thinks mountains are made for is to roll 
stones down." 

"And all H. thinks trees made for," said I, "is to have ugly 
pictures made of them." 

" Ay," she replied, " you wanted me to stand on the very verge of 
the precipice, and see two foolish boys roll down stones, and perhaps 
make an avalanche of themselves! Now, you know, C, I could not 
spare you; first, because I have not learned French enough yet; and 
next, because I don't know how to make change." 

" Add to that," said 1, "the damages to the bergers and flocks." 

'* Yes," she added; " no doubt when we get back to the inn we shall 
have a bill sent in, 'H. B. S. to A. B., Dr., to one shepherd and six 
cows, fr.' " 

And so we chatted along until we reached the au^erge, and, after 
resting a few moments, descended into the firozen sea. 

Here a scene opened upon us never to be forgotten. From the 
distant gorge of the everlasting Alpine ranges issued forth an ocean tide, 
in wild and dashing commotion, just as we have seen the waves upon 
the broad Atlantic, biit all motionless as chaos when smitten by the mace 
of Death : and yet, not motionless ! This denser medium, this motion- 
less man, is never at rest. This flood moves as it seems to move; these 
waves are actually uplifting out of the abyss as they seem to lift; the 
only difference is in the time of motion, the rate of change. 

These prodigious blocks of granite, thirty or forty feet long and twenty 
feet thick, which float on this grim sea of ice, dofioat, and are drifting, 
drifting down to the valley below, where, in a few days, they must 

We walked these valleys, ascended these hills, leaped across chasms, 
threw stones down the crevasses, plunged our alpenstocks into the deep 
baths of green water, and philosophized and poetized till we were tired. 
Then we returned to the avherge, and rode down the zigzag to our hotel. 



My Dear :— 

The Mer de Glaoe is exactly opposite to La Fl^g^re, where we were 
yesterday, and is reached by the ascent of what is called Montanvert, or 
Green Mountain. The path is much worse than the other, and in some 
pl^es makes one's nerves twinge, especially that from which C. 
projected his avalanche. Just think of his wanting to stop me on the 
edge of a little shelf over that frightful Qhasm, and take away the guide 
from the head of my mule to help him get up avalanches! 

I warn you, if ever you visit the Alps, that a travellixv^ ossvsss^-KsskKJsv 
who has not the sJightest idea what feat ia m\i ^^ft'^QNXtasav^ i». w^ssssvar 


tign. For inetancp, thia Mcr de Glnco ia traversed everywhere V 
crevasses in the ica, which go to — nobody knows ivhere, down into the 
under worUI — great, gaping, blue-gi'een ruouths of Hadea ; and C must 
needs jump ftorosa tlieiii^ iinil climb down Into them, to the mingle™ 
dehght and apprehension of the gitide, who, after consuieiitioufsly shod 
ing out ft reproof, would say to mo, in a lower tone, " All, he's the mi 
to olittib Mont Bl&nc ; ho would do well for thatf " 

The fact i% nothing would eult our guides better, this cfcar, brlgl 
weather, than to make up a party for the top of Mont Blartc-. Thi 
looked longingly and lovingly up to its clear, white fields ; they show 
thie Btag<es a.nd resting' places, and ^leem really to think that it is a wai 
of thia beautiful wealier not to be puttiug it to that moat subli 

Why, then, do not wo go tip T you say. Ab to ua ladies it is a thitig 
that hJaa been done by only two women since the world stood, and those 
very different in their js^i/sjgac from any we are likely to raise in AmencA, 
unlijsa wo mend our inannens very much. Theae two were a peasant 
woman of Chamouni, called Mario de Mont Blanc, and Mftdemoisella 
Henriette d'Augeville, a lady whoRa acquaintance I made in Geneva. 
Then, oa to the genUemen, it is a serioua^ coneidei'ation, in the first pla<aef 
that the affair costs about one hundred and fifty dollars apiece, takes 
two days of time, uses up a week's strengthj iill to get an experience of 
fiotne very diBagreeable sensations, which could not afflict a man in any 
other case. It ifl no wonder, theu, that gentlemen look up to the moun- 
tain, lay their hands on their pockets, and say. No. 

Our guide, by the way, ia tho son, or grandson, of the very first msa 
that aecenddl Mont Blant^ and of couree feehi a Bort of her^ifeary ~ 
perty and pride in it. 

C. spoke about throwing our poloa down the pools of water in the ii 

There is something rather curious about tht^.se ponla. Our g%ude 
UB measuring the dtspth of one of themi which was full of gretmish- 
water, colored only by the refraction of the light, lie took our long 
alpeu stock, and poiHing it, sent it down into the water, as a nmn m^hfe 
throw a javehn. It disappeaied, but in a few seconds leaped up at "~ 
out of the water, as if thrown back again by an invisible baud 

A poet would HAj that a water (spirit burled it back ; perhaps some ol( 
under-ground gnome, jus^t going to dinner, had hia windows smashed by 
it^ and sent it back with a becoming spirit, as a gnome should. 

It waa a sultry day, and the Bun was ejcerciBi^g bis power over the 
whole ice fields. I sat down by a great ice block, about fifty feet long, 
to JoteiTogate it, and see what I could make of il, by a cool, confideuti^ 
proximity and examination. The ite waa porous and spongy, as I bave 
Hoen it on the shores of the Connecticut, when beafinidng to thaw nut 
Tinder the influence of a spring sun, I could ijee the little di-ops of 

which showed that it was auxely'and gradually giving way, and flowinjf 
Ztofsk aguia, 
Drop by drop the cold iceberg waa ctaaighi^ mto a «treamf tci flow 
d6wn the aidoB of the valley, no longer iui matge ^ wJ^^'awi Ta\i. iss*^. 


but bearing fertility and beauty on its tide. And as 1 looked abroad 
over all the rifted field of ice, I could see that the same change was 
gradually going on throughout. In every blue ravine you can hear the 
clink of dropping water, and those great defiant blocks of ice, which 
seem frozen with uplifted warlike hands, are all softening in that bene- 
ficent light, and destined to pass away in that benignant change. So 
let us hope that those institutions of pride and cruelty, which are colder 
than the glacier, and equally vast and hopeless in their apparent magni- 
tude, may yet, like that, be slowly and surely passing away. Like the 
silent warfare of the sun on the glacier, is that overshadowing presence 
of Jesus, whose power, so stil^ yet so resistless, is now being felt 
through all the moving earth. 

Those defiant waves of death-cold Ice might as well hope to conquer 
the calm, silent sun, as the old, frozen institutions of human selfishness 
to resist the influence which he is now breathing through the human 
heart, to liberate the captive, to free the slave, and to turn the ice of 
long winters into rivers of life for the new heaven and the new earth. 

All this we know is coming, but we long to see it now, and breathe 
forth our desires with the Hebrew prophet, " that thou wouldst rend 
the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the mountains might 
flow down at thy presence." 

I had, while upon this field of ice, that strange feeling which often 
comes over one, at the sight of a thing unusually beautiful and sublime, 
of wanting, in some way, to appropriate and make it a part of myself. 
I looked up the gorge, and saw this frozen river, lying cradled, as it 
were, in the arms of needle-peaked giants of amerfchystine rock, their 
tops laced with fljdng silvery clouds. The whole air seemed to be sur- 
charged with tints, ranging between the palest rose and the deepest 
violet — tints never without blue, and never without red, but varying in 
the degrees of the two. It is this prismatic hue diffused over every 
object which gives one of the most noticeable chai-acteristics of the Alpine 

This sea of ice lies on an inclined plane, and all the blocks have a 
general downward curve. 

^i told you yesterday that the lower part of the glacier, as seen from 
La Fl^gfere, appeared covered with dirt. 1 saw to-day the reason for 
this. Although it was a sultry day in July, yet around the ^cier a 
continual hi^ wind was blowing, whirling the dust and dihna of the 
sides upon it. Some of the great masses of ice were so completely coated 
with sand as to appear at a distance like granite rocks. The efiect of 
some of these immense brown masses was very peculiar, l^y seemed 
like an army of giants, bending forward, driven, as by an invisible 
power, down into the valley. 

It reminds one of such expressions as these in Job : — 

" Have the gates of death been open to thee, or hast thou seen thd 
doors'of the shstdow of death ?" One should read that sublime poem in 
such scenes as these. I remained on the ice as long as I could persuade 
the guides and pariiy to remain. 

Then we went back to the house, wbere^ of course^ we looked at «axa.4& 
wood Woi^, agates, and all the et cetera. 

Than we tamed our steps downward. "W© -^ttiAi «iLOXk% "Ca.^ iv^** '^l'^'*' 

273 R^:^*^'T itsiiOBTfis of vonmant tAsruS* 

ghcier, anJ I deaireKl to climb ovev tva near as poiwlljlej, tn orJer to 
tliB mnipce (if tbe Arvelioti, wh'wh is foimed by tlio melting of this 
gUcier, Its cradle ia n ribbed and roeky cavern of I due ice, &nd Lik^ a 
crwitture born full of vijjour and iiumoi-trdity, it begins lifowitli n,n impe- 
tuoua leap. Tlie cold a.nns of tbe jjlaclera cannot retain it ; it luunt go to 
the wMTii, flowary, velvet tueadowti below. 

The guide waa quite anxious about uib ; ho seemed to consider A lady 
ILS aome thing that must necessarily break in two, or come a[>art» tike a 
German doll, if not managed Yfith extremeat care ; atid therefore to sea 
one boundiug through bushes, leaping, and Bpringing, and climbisg' over 
rocks at such a rate, appeared to him the htsight of desperation. 

The good, faithful soul wauted to keep mo within orthodox Itmlt^ and 
felt oonacieutioualy bouud to follow lue wherever I went, and to offer me 
his hand at every turn. I coiisid&red, on the whole, that 1 ought not to 
blame him, since guides hold themsplveB roBponaible for life and limb : 
nrid any accident to those under their charge k fatal to their profesaional 

Going down, I held sonie conversation with him on matters and tliinp 
in geriernl, aud Ufa in Cbamouui in particular. He inquired with great 
interest about America ; ■which, throughout Europe, I find the working 
clasaes regard as a kin d of star in the west, portending something of good 
to themselves. He liad a non, he salil, settled in America, oeftr St. 

*' And don't you want to go to America V aaid I, after liearing 
pn^l^e the good land. 

*' Ah, no^" he said, -with a smile. 

" Wliy noti" aaid I ; *' it is a much easier country io live in." 
He gave a look at tlie etrde of mountains around, and wid, "I luVQ 
Chamouni." Tlie good soul ! 1 was much of his opinion. If I had been 
horn within sight of glorious Mont Blanc, with its apocalyptic cloud*, 
and store of visiuui^ not all the fat pork and Eat prairies of Indiana and 
Ohio could tempt me. No wonder ths Swiss die for their native Vidlcys ! 
I would if I were they, I asked him about educatiou. He said liw 
children went to a school kept by Cathohc sbstera, who taught roading, 
writing, and Lutiu, The dialect of Chamciuui k a patoiSj composed qJ" 
French aJid Latin. He said that provision was very scarce in the winter, 
1 asked how they made their living when there were no travellers to b* 
guided up Mont Blanc. He had a trade at which he wrought In winter 
months, and his wife did tailoring. 

I must not forget to say that the day before thei-e had been some con- 
fidential passages between us, wliicli began by his expressing, ioten'iJBa- 
tively, the opinion that ' ' madenioisello waa a young lady, he suppoeeuL " 
When mademoiselle had assured him, on the contrary, that «he waa & 
venerable matron, mothEr of a thriving family, then fidlowed a little com- 
parison of notes as to numbers. Madame he a«certainetl to have six, and 
he had fouj, if my memory serves me, as it generally does not in raattera 
of figures. So you see it is not merely Siniong na New Englandera that 
the unsophisticated spirit of curiosity exists as to one's neighbours. In- 
deed, I take it to be a wholesome development of human nature in 
£sneral. For my part, 1 co\ild t^xA, tktnk highly of anybody who 


THE hescent, 27i 

be brou^'ht long into coimt"s.ion with another human bem^ and feel 
intt^reNt to inquire into hU iiistory ajid surroimilingi}. 

Aa we stopped, goiug down the duscetit, to rest the mule^, I look* 
up above luy head into thu craga, und naw a flock of goats browaing. 
One goat, in particular, I reineniberi had gained the top of a. kind of 
table roqk, which stood apart from the Teat, and which was carjjeteci with 
liohenii. and gr&en moss. Th*ii'e he atood, looking as unconacious and 
contemplative as possible, tho wicked fallow, with his long b«ard 1 He 
knew ho looked picturesqug, and that ia what he atood tkero for. But, 
ae tbey say in New EngUwid, he did it " «» Tia^Tal tia it pictur /" 

By the by, the girls with strawltetriefl, milk, and knitting work Wi 
on hand on the way down, and miit Ms just where a cool spring guah 
tiut at the roots of a pine tree } and of course I bought aomo mora mil 
and straw berricB, 

How drejulfully hot it was when we got down to tha bottom ! for tb( 
we bad the long, shadeicaa ride home, with the burning l(:nscij of tho g\ 
ciera concentrated upon our defencelesB heads. I waa past admirii 
anything, and gltul enough for the shelter of a roof, and & place to 

After dinner, although the Glacier de Boisiron had been spoken of m 
the appointed work for the aftHrnoon, yet wo discovered, (la the paahii 
book eajs^ that 

"The furce oftiatiire could no fiuihor go." 

What ta Glacier de Boiseon, or glacier anything ebe, to a person used up 
entirely, with no aenae or CApiibility left ftsr atiything but a gontral 
ncbing ? No ; the Glacier de Boisflon wan given up, and I am sorry for it 
wow, becauise it ie the commence Dient of the roatl up Mont Blanc ; and, 
though I could not go to the top thereof, I ehotitd like to have gonfs aa 
far aa I csould. Tn fact, 1 Bhutild havo been glad to aljeep one night at 
the Grands MuletJi : however, that was impossible. 

To look at tlie ftppan-ntly sRiooth Hurface of the mountain side, one 
would never think that the ivacent cotild be a work of such difficulty and 
dtifiger. Yet, look at the picture of croaaing a crevasgef and comp.ire the 
aisse of the figures with the dimenaiona of the blocks ol ioe. Madatne 
d'Angcrville told me that she was drawn acmsa a ertstants tike this, by 
ropea tied under her arms, by the guides. Tho depth of flome of the en- 
t<a«»?j may be conjectunjd from tbe faet stated by Ag^Hsiz, that the 
thickest parts of the glaciers are over one tbo\isand feet iti deptlt. 



F RID AT, July e.— Cbamouni to Maitigny, by Tdte Noir. Mides 
arnnf. We act off In a cal^cfie. After a two hours' ride we came 
" //tosfr ntiiks,"' On, to the ^s of Tfite Noir, by paths the most aw/ui 
As my mvile trod within six loches of tli« verge, I looked down into an 
ahya^ ho deep' that talleat pinea looked like twi^a \ ^e^^ otl ^^i &^j({rae4«6. 



Hide of the pM3, 1 looked up the steep precipice to an etjual hei^lit, wliere 
giant trees eeemed white fluttering JHnge, A dizzy sight Wo Hwept 
round au angle, ontured a, dark tunnel iilcisted out tL rough the aolid ruch, 
emerged, and aaw before uu, on «nr right, the far-famed T6te Noir, a 
black: ledge, on whose face, so high is the oppoijite clif^ the sun never 
fihinefl. A few steps brought us to a hotel. William and 1 rolled do' 
Bome avalancbog, bj way of getting an appetite, while dinner was 

After din net we commenced descending towards Martigny, altematdy 
riding and walking. Here, while 1 was on foot, noy mule took it 
hia head to run away, I was never more auiyriBed in my life thaa to 
Bee that staid, eolenui, meditative^ melancholy beast suddenly perk ujji 
both his long ears, and hop about over the steep paths like a goat, Nl 
more surprised should I be to see some Tenembk D.D. of Princel 
leading off a dance in the Jardin MabiUe. We chaaed him here 
chae«d him there. We headed him .-vnd he headed us. We aaJd, " N* 
I have you,"* and he said, "No, you don't!" imtll the affair began 
grov^ ooraically seriouH, "/J se ■Bioqu& dt vous!*' said the guide. Bi 
s,% that mora en t, I if prang and caught him by the bridle, when, preaj 
down weot his cars, shut went the eyeB, and over the entire gay b) 
^read a viaible veil of stolidity.' And down he plodded, slunyH 
shambling, pivotting round zigEag comers, as before, in a style whi 
any one that ever navigated such a craft down hill knows without furUieiF 
telling. After that, I was sure tliat the old fellow kept iJp a "terril ' 
thinking," in spite of hia stupid lookej^ and knew a vnet deaJ more 
he chose to tell. 

At length we opened ^n the Ehonc valley ; and at eevfin we reach* 
Hotel lie la Tour, at Martigny. Here H. and S. managed to get xip two 
flights (.if Btone stairs, and sank speechlcqa and raotionlegs upon their 
btSfl. I must aay they have exhibited spirit t<j-day, or, as Mr. C used 
to E.iy, "pluck." After stfttling with our gfuideSj — fine, fellowa, whom 
TV« bated to lose, — I ordered supper, and sought ilew guides for our rtjuite 
to the etmvent Oar only difficulty in reaching there, they say, is the 
mttw. The guidetf were uncertain whether nmles ffiuld ^'ct thr«jugh 
early in tlie season. Only to think ! To-day, riding hroilinglj thro' 
hayfielda— to-mojToWj stuck in snow dii^ ! 



Dear Hexet:— 

You cannot think how beautiful flro these Alpine Talleya. Our c 
aU the first morning after we left Charaouni, lay beside a htfiad, he«rtyi 
jfjyous monntain torrent^ called, jierhaps frcm the darkness of its watetHt 
Eau Noire, Cliarming mea^lowg akij'teil its banks. All the way alggg 
T could tiiink of nothing hut Bunyan's mendowa besiide the river of 1 
"Airionsly adorned with lilies,'" Thtse were oiiriouely adomad, b^ 
deredf nnd la wrought with :dower», many and brilliant as tht>Re ijj 
weaiern prairie- Were I to uiidi5rtait& *wj &«cdV\,\\(5m, I might ttiM 

KB mvcntory as long- sa Homer'* list of the sUiiis. Tliere waa thfl Cjm- 
tcrbury bell of our ^nlen ;; the white tntftdow sweet; the blue and whito 
campanuia; the tall^ slender hRrubulIj and & little, short-tuftetl variijty 
of the earae, which our guide teUe lue is caJied "J>es CJlochettee, " or the 
"Jittla bells" — ■fairiea might ring them, I thought. Then there »re 
•whole beds of th<s little blue forget-me-not, and a wliite flower which 
much resemhlos it in form. I aleo no tilled, hanging in the cleftg of the 
rocks around T6te Noir, th« long golden treasea of the khumum. It 
has seemed to nie, when I have been travelling hero, as if every flower 
I ever saw in a garden met me seme where in nocks or meadows. 

There is a strange, unsatisfying pleiLsm-e about flowers, which, like 
flU earthly plEasure, ia akin to pain. What csan yi^u do with themt— 
you wrt tit to do Hoiuetbitjg, but what? Take them aU up, and cony 
them with youl You cimnot do tbitt. Get down nnd look at them? 
What, keep a whole cttravan waiting for your ohBorvationB ! TTiat will 
never do. Well, then, pick and carry tbem along them with you. Itat 
is what, in despidr of any better resource, I did. My good old guide 
was infinite in patieuee, stopping at every hbw exclamation point of 
mine, plunging down rocks into the meadow land, climbing to the points 
of great rock'i, and returning T^itli hia hands filled with flowery. It 
iieenied almost sacrilegious to teaj away such faucilivl creations, that 
loolfed as if they were votive ofi'eruiga on an altrtr, or, more likely, hving 
eiistencesij whoHo only couBcloua life was a continued exhalation of joj 
and praine. 

These flowers seemed to me to be earth's raptures and asplxations — her 
better moments — her lucid Uitervals. Like everything else in our esiat- 
C-nce, they are myi?terlou8. 

In what mood of mind were ttey couceivwl hj the great Artist 1 Of 
what feeUijgJj of his are they the oxprefSia ion— springing np out of the 
dust, in these gigantic, waste, and deanlato regions, where one woidd r 
think the sense of Lifl almightinesa might overpower the soul? Born in 
the track of the glacier and the avalanche, they seem to saj to ns tba>t 
this Almighty Seing is very pitiful, and of tender compassion ; that, hi 
his infinite soul, there is an (jxq^uisite gentleness and love of the beautiful, 
nnd that, If we would be blessed, hie will to hleas is infinite. 

Thfl greatest men have always thought much of floworn. Luther 
always kept a flower in a gla!?a, on his writing-table ; and when ho was 
waging bis great public controversy with Eckius, he kept a flower in bis 
hand. Lord Bacon has a beautiful paesage about flowers. Am to 
Shakspcarc, he is a perfect Alpine valley— he is fuU of flowery; tbay 
Bpring, and blossom, and v/ave in every cleft of hla mind. Witness the 
Midsummer Night's Dream. Even Milton, cold, aerene, and stately as 
he is, breaks forth into exquisite gushes of tandomess and fancy when he 
SiftTahalB the llowerB, as in Lycitks and Coinus. 

But all this while the sun ban bwsn witheilug the flowers the guidtt 
brought me; how they lo<->k! blue and white Canterbury bellst harebells, 
clochetteri, all bedraggled and wilted, like a young lady who has been up 
adl night at a ball. 

"No, no," say I to the guide; "don't pick ine any more. J. doai' 
want tbem. The fact is, if they are pretty 1 CMaitiN* \u^ W \.^tsstaj**j 
even take it out in lookiqg m 1 go by." 


One thing ia ovidctit; Ho who maJe'the world in no utilitAikTij 
flespiaer of the fine jirta, and na condemnar of omaraent; and th 
religictnifltSj who seek to restrain everything within the Jiniita of doI 
batre utility, do not imitate our Father m heaven. 

Cannot a bonnet cover your head, without the ribbon And the ^ 

say theyt Yea; and coidd not a peach trefl bear psfichos withoof? 
blosaomt What jv waste is all this coloured corolla of flowera, aa if the 
need could not niBiturc without them ! God could have cr&ated the frutt 
in goodj strong, homely bushel baskets, if he had been ao dispoeecL 

"Turn off my cyus from beholding vanity," says a good man, when 
he aeea o display of graceful ornament. What, then, must be think of 
the Almighty Being, all who«e useful work (a S[> overlaid with ornament f 
There is not a fly's leg, nor an itist^gt's wing, which is not polished and 
decorated to an extent that we should think positive extravagance in 
finiBhing up a chtld'K dress. And can we guppose th.-vt thi*i Being can 
take delight in dwelllnga and mndeB of life or forms of worulup where 
everything is reduced to, cold, nake<l utility? I think not. The instinct 
to adorn and beautify is from him; It likens us to him, and if rightly 
undcratowl, ioMtead of being a niron to beguile our hearts away, it will be 
the closest aflihating bmnd. 

If this power of producing the beautiful h:is been always so faacbating^ 
that the human race for its sake have bowed down at th^s feet even of 
men deficient In moral worth, if we cannot forbear loving the jjainter, 
poet, and sculptor, bow much more shall we li>ve God^ who, with all 
goodness, has also all beauty ! 

But all thifl while we have bfien riding on till we have pafuted the 
meadows, ami the fields, and are coming into the dark and awful p>ase of 
the T6to Noir, which C. has described to you. 

One thing I noticed which ho did not. When we were winding along 
tliB narrow path, biJaiing no iriore pi-opoition to the diaay heights above 
and belaw than the sniallost Jnstjct creepiiag oti the wall, I looked aero 
the chasm, and evm -a row of shepherds' cottages perched midway onj 
narrow shelf, that seemed in the distance not an inch wide. By a vi _ 
natural impulse, I exclaimed, *' What iJoes become of the Httle cfaildifia 
there ■? I should think tlrey would all fall uver the precipi<Sfl! " 

My guide looked up benevolently at me, as if he felt it hts duty to 
quiet my fears, and said in a soothing tone, " 0> no, no, no!" 

Of course, I might have known that little children have their aiigcla 
there, aa wcD as everywhere else. ''When they have funeralH there," 
said he, *'they are obliged to carry the dead along that road/' pointing 
to a road that nesembled a tlirea*.l drawn on the rocky wall. 

What a strange idea — -such a life and death! It seemed to me, t^t I 
could see a funeral tram creeping along; the monks, with their black 
cloaks, carrying tapers, and singing psahns; the whole procession together 
not larger in proportion than a flwarm of black gnats; and yet, i^ertiikps, 
hearti thera wrung with an infinite aorrow. In Ujat black, -rnQvias 
point, may be a soul, whose convulsions and agonies Cfttmot be meaoUIM 
or counted by anyflung human, so imposaibla is it to measure soub by 

■ Wb&t cw»n they think of^ t\iese creatutii^ ^Ttw are bom in this 9lning« 

■ jiiEaca fcaif way between hew-voa and eajrik, '^ ^V(to\ \Jfta wsvxTid of 


rinui I 



avaiiuiches k a ora<]y liyiuti, and who can never ee? the atln abore the'' 
toji of the L'litf on either aide, till ha rau-Wy gwts into the zejiith ? 

What thejf can be thuikini^ n( I ij^uiinit tcU. Life I suppoaej is mode 
up <>f the a!iiivt> prosaic niatednl thcro that it La ovory where. The tivothtjr 
tbinka how sho Bhail ninkc her goat's miUt and bla^k breafl hold out. 
Tlie grantimother knita Btoekiugs, and runs out to Bee if Joques or 
Pierre have tiot tumbled over the pnicipice. Joquea or Pieire, in return, 
tangle grand mother' a yam, upset mother's milk bucket, puU the gaat'i 
beard, tear their clothea to pieeas nn the huahe<ii and rackfl, &xiA, in shor^ 
commit incredible abominatioiiJi daily, just tm uliildrtiu da every where. 

In the night how curiouflly this little ueet of housce muat look, lighted 
up, winkhi^ and bliakiiig at the solitary traveller, hke aome mjateiiuuB 
eyes looking out of a gi%at eternity I Thero thwy ail aie fust a^I^cp, Piemen 
and JaquaH, and graudmother, aud the goat«, Iti tlie night they hear tL 
tremeiiciouM noise, aa if all nature waa goiug to piecta* ; they half wake, 
open one eye, smy, "Nothing hut an avalancho !'" and go to ^luep again. 

This road, through the pasa of the Tcto Noir, used to he dangerous * a 
very narruw bridle-path, undefendeil by any sureen whatever. To have 
piwaed it in tbosw old liitys would bave had too miitjh of the sublime to 
be quite agreeable U> me. The road, an it is, is wide enough, 1 ahquld 
think, for three mules to go abreast, and a tunnel baa been blasted 
through what seemeid the nioat difficult and dangerous pohit, and a little 
beyond thin tunnel b the Hotel de la Courotine. 

If any body wanted to stop in the wildest and loneBOmest place he 
could hud in ths Alps, so aa to be aaturated with a sense of savagenesa 
And deaolatioUi I would recommend this hotel The cliambera are 
ToasDnably comfoA^ble, and the beds of a good equality ^ — aptiint which S, 
uid I tested experimentally soon after our arrival. I thought I ahouid 
like to atay there a week, to be left there aloii« with Kature, ajid is«j 
vhut she vfould have to say to me, f 

But two or thite hyuni' ride in the hot sun, oii a mule's back, indis- 
poaea one to make much of the grandest sceneg, inaornuch that we were 
jfiad to go to sleep ; and on awaking we wei'e glad to get some dinner, 
BQcb aa it waa. 

Well, after our dinner, which consisted of a dish of fried potatoes ! 
Bovae fossdiferous bi%ad, ancli as pievaib here at the ^mall hotels 
SwitJcerland, we proceeded onwaivl. After an intq]lerahly hot ride for 
half an hour we began to ascend a mountain caUfed the Forcl^w, 

There is something magnificent about going uj) tlieae inountjun», 
tippaUing atf it seems %t> cue's nerves, at particular tuiiia and angles of 
tuti road,i where the mule stops you on th^ very "brink of for trver," as 
one of the ladles said. 

Well, at laat we reached the top, and began to desflisend ; and there, at 
our feet, as Lf we were looking down at it out of a cloud, lay the whole 
beantiiul valley of the lihone. I did not know then that this waa one of 
the things put down in the guide hook, that we were expected to admirft, 
M I found afterwards it was ; but nothing that I uaw any where through 
ihe Alpa impreascd me ari this did. It semned to mo more like the 
vision of " the hind that is very far off" than any thing earthly, I 
dwa self it now just as distinctly as I ii«w vt ^iiwtv\ mve ^iS. ^iiift»i ■%«*» 
BwiB9 vflUeys, grvi^D iU! a Velvet cai-pet, Btuddv;i^v\^\l\^^^^^^'a'^'^'*^'^^^ 



iner, i 

Is iil^ 

278 szissr memoeiks of foeeigjc i^ujds. 



poifl Bd 

tbe-t looked like dota in the distant, iwjd embraced on ttJl rides by t' 
iimgriiBcent TDountains, of which thuae nearest in tliQ proirpoot were 
tinctly made onti with their n>ckH, pine trees, and foliajje. The next 
the receding distance were fmiiter, and of a purpHsh green j the next dt 
a vivJd purple ; the next, lil»c ; while far in the fading view the cryaW 
Bummits aud glneiera of the ObeHand AJpa ixtae like an cxhalatien. 

The afternoon ann wag throwing its level beams in bttween 
many- coloured ranges^ and on OTie of them the mms of nn old Roi 
tower stood picturesquely prominant. ThQ Simplon rofld could be 
dividing the valley like an arrow. 

I had gene on quite ahead of my cotnpaTiy, and as my mule Bobedy 
pacad downwaj^ in the almost perpendicular road, I seamed to be poiaBd 
«0 higti above the encliftnting HCone that 1 bad somewhat the same » 
Him aa if I were flying, I don't wonder that larka seem to get into 
a raptoro when they are high up m the air. VYhfit a dreamlike be* 
there iij in diatance, disk-ippearing evor as w© approaeh ! 

As I camu down towards Martigny into the pasture land of the gresit 
mountain, it seemed to me that the Hcenery might paas for that of the 
Deleetable Mouutaius — such beautiful, grreen, shadowy hollwwH, amid 
great dumpa of chesttiut and apple trees, where people were making 
their bay, which smolled so delightfully, while cu2j littlo Swiw cottAges 
stood in overy nook. 

All were out lu the fiddsj men, women, anil children, and in 
hayfleid I «*w the baby's cradle — baby, of course, conceal t«i from 
nnder a small avalanche of a feather bed, as the general fafihion in tl 
partH seetnB to be. The women wore broad, flat hata^ and all app( 
to be worfciDg rather lazily, aa it was coming on evoiing. 

This place might have done for Arcadia, or Utopia, or any other of 
those plftcea people think of when they want to get rid of what is, 
get into the Tcgioii of what might be. 

I was very far before my party, and now got off my mule, and 
down on a log to wait till they came up. Then the drama enaote^] 
C.'a mule took place, which be liae described to you. T merely sai 
dbtJtut corumotion, but did not enter into tho merits of the casa 

As they wore somewhat slow coming down, 1 climbed over a log 
a hayfleld, and plucked a long, delicatej white-hloeaomed vine, 
which I garlanderi tjie top of my flat hat. 

One h often reminded of a text of Scripture in these vidleya-^" 
sendeth springs into tho valleys, which ran among tho hills." 

Every where are these little, lively, murmuring brooks falling down 
rocks, prattling ibTough the hayfields^ sociably gosaiplug wMi etidi ' 
an they go. 

Here comes tho party, and now we are going down into Martignj- 
How tired we werel We had to ride quite through tlie town, then 
through a. long, long row of trees, to come to the Hotfl de la Ti 
How delightful it seemed, with ita etone entries aud stair cases j Its 
rooms as inviting an eleanhnoss could make them ! The eating md< 
c^ned on to a beautiful garden fllled with rosea in ftdl bhxun. llii 
were IltUo tithhs mt about Tinder the trees for people to take their » 
beniefi sjnl cream, or tea, in t\ie open. UAt \S: \X\^ ^t^sHerred it, a 

ifAHTlONY, 279 

A ttim, tidy young woman in % white ctvp, mth a bunch of kojs at her 
igirdle, usiiened us up two flif^^hta of gtons Htairo, into a very clean, nioo 
»partraeiit, with white muslin window curtaina. Now, there is no faa- 
ture of a room that (tpeaba to the heart like white muslin window cur- 
tain ; they alwayji ahed light on the whole Bceny, 

^yter i-yating s. whib we were called down to a supper of strawberrleB 
«nd cream, and nire little rolls with honey. This honey you find at 
'every !n>t*l in Switjserland, as ons of the inevitohlea of the hreakfaat or 
tea table. 

Here wo were to part from our Chammin! guidca, an<! engage new 
ones to take ua to St. Btirnard- I had become so fond of mine tliat It 
teally went quite to my heart; wa had an affecting leave-taking in the 
dark stone entry, at the foot of the ataircase. In the earaeatn&BH of my 
emotion 1 {;ave hi in all the change I !iad in my pooket, to buy mu%Ynira 
for bis little folkB at home, for you know I told yon wo had cotnp&tod 
notes on HUKidry domastic points, 1 really flattered myself that I was 
doing something quite liberal: but this deceitful Swiss eoin! I found, 
when I came to tell C, about it, that the whole stock only amounted to 
n,bout twenty cents ; lilce a great many tbinga in this world, it looked 
more than it was. Tlie good man, however, acemed aa gr,ateful aa if I 
had done something, wialied all aorta of happiness tome and my children, 
Itnd Bo we parted. Peace go with bim in hia Cbamouni cxittage. 

JOURNAL"(CoiTi'istfM), ) 

¥HB SJJti!. 

Saturday, July 9, Hose in a blaze of glory, RodefiveTnorttdbonra 
III a t'har-a-htmc, sweltering under a burning aun. But in h-jis than ten 
lisinutea after wtJ mounted the mules and Btrudt into the gorge, the lafljea 
muflleJ thDmflelvts in thick ahawk. We seemed to have paaaed, aluiOJjt 
jjn n moment, from the trnyiica into the frigid 2one, A fur oloak wat sug- 
gested to ine, but as it happened I was adequately calorifled without. 
Chftljoing to hti the h\at in the file, my mule Hudrlenly stopped to eat, 
*' A ilin, allez I" said I, twitching the bridle. 
*' I want,'* said ha, aa plainly aa eu,ra aud legs could S]>eak. 
** Alfi^f" thundered 1, jumping off, and bestowing a kick upon hia libi 
which madtj uie suffer if it did not him. 
I wotU" said he, wtufiily. 

Wont you 1" said I, pursuing the BAme line of iudactive »i;gument, 
IrJth rhetorical flourishes of the briide. 

"Never!" he rcpliurl agnin, moat miiliahly. 

*'Then if words imd kieka wont do," said I, *'letufl nee what virtue 
[hero ia in atones ;*' anrl auitifig the action to the word, I showered him 
rith fragmentH of granitflj as frym a catapnlt. At tweiy concussion lie 
umped and kiclted, but kept his nose in the urune relative poitSlion. 
©doubkid the logical admonitiMn; he jumned the more pwce^itib 
inally, after an uiiuanally affecting a\'ipeiA ^toifvi TS ^"Msfife ^\ '^Ms&fth, 
foir^y huJged, itnil I sei^iaii tho bridle t*^ n\ovwi\. 

u lie 


"Not At all," said Ue, wlieeling round to Ida first position, Uke a i 
proelavejy demagogiiff. 

"AIi^' iuiui 1; and weut over tba aune line of ^T^gument in a i 
solid and couvlncltig manuer. At length the aalutaryirapreasion seen 
pBtiutuiieiitly fasteiisil on liu miuil - lie fairly gAVe tn; aad I rode on a 
tnuiiiph to overtttkt! the party — having no need of a fur coHit. 

Hon:!), Sinai, a;td Hor* Wliat a, wiyerno-ss! what a Budden chioigel 
Nothing but savage, awful preclpicea of naketi gratiStej anowy fidda, &ud 
verdureleas wastes! In every otljcr place in the Alpft, we hava looked 
upon the snow is the remote diatiince, to be dazxied with its Hhecfay 
ettulgeiice — ourselves, mean while, in the region of verdure and warmth. 
Here wo march tlu'ougli a horrid desert— not a leaf, nut a blade of grass 
— over tlie dt.'ep tlrifts of snow; and we find our admiration turns to 
horrar. And this is the road that Hannibal trod, and Charlemagne, tad 
Napoleon! They were fit conijuerora of Horae, who could vanqniah tba 
sterner deapotism of eternal winter. 

After an hour's perUous climbing, we i-eachetl at last^ the hoitpict, and 
in five niinutea were sitting at the supper table, by a good blazing finv 
with a lively csmspany, chatting with a gentlemanly abb^, diicuBBlog 
figs and fun, cracking filberts suid joked, and reeling ourselves genudly. 
But ever and anon drawing, with a balf shiver, a little closer to the 
roaring fagots in the chimney, 1 thought to myself, ''And this is our 
midflummer nights' dreami" 



ABcitrt TO ST. ssaa-jiKD.— TfUB noaa. 

During hreakfaat, we were di8m],9aing whether we troiild get Ihrongh 
the atiow to Mont St, Bernard. Some thought we could, and sotne 
thuughi not. Ho it goes here ', we are gnsptng and sweltering one liour, 
and plunging through anow bajiks the next. 

AJTter breakfast, we entered the char-ii-banc, a crab- like, aideway (su^ 
rhige, and were soun on oiu- way. Our path was cut from the breast of 
the niountain, in a stifling gorgo, where vvallK of reck oti both sidas 
served m double refie>c>tunj to concentrate the heiit of the sun on our h&^ 
lees heads. To be butt, there wsifl a fine foanung stream at the bottom 
of the pass, and ever bo much fine aceoery, )f we eouhl have seen it; but 
our chai-s opened but one way, and that against the perpendicular rodk, 
close enciugli, altnost, to blii^ter our faces ; and the sun beat in so on oar 
backs tliat wo were obliged to have the curtain down. Thus we were as 
uneognizant of tlio scenery wo passed through m if we h*J been naU^ 
up in a box. Nothing but the considcnition that we were trnvolling for 
pleasure coidd for a momcTjt have reconciled us to such inconvetiiencei- 
As it wag, I oeeasionaDy calletl out to C, in the hack cartiago, to he 
sure and take goiLK] cai^e of the fur coat; wliich alwaya brought shouts of 
laughter from the wlude paj-ty. The irlea of a fur coat seemied so 
supreme!/ ndiculoua to ui, there was no making us believe we evef 
nfjoulii or could wajit iL _ ^ 

^jfjai was tJie meat utipleaawA OLk^'w Tii'i \ ^'^ "^ ^^ ^^ 



JVtoppt^d to titke di!m(>r in the little wititched viUiiige of Liddes. Yuu 
iia,v& no idfls whsit a ilL<iiigroijn,bla, unaavoury concern one of these vil- 
^la^ea U. Umisas, ijoue ai' which look mucU better than the log brtrnfl in 
•ui' West«m States, act clone together on ciLher iide of a street paved 
vith round atoues; coarae, BuribumI: woineu, with their neuka Enlarged 
[Ihy the goitre ; and dirty children, with tangled hair, and the ajtme dia- 
gufltinff disease;, — these were the principal features of the Bcene. 

This goitre prevails so exttjneively in thia region, that you seldom see 
A person with the nock in a healthy condition. The worRt of the mutter 
is, that in many cases of children it indnces iiltotiy. Ca/^e^ of this kind ^^ 
were no frequent, that, after a while, whenever I mot a child, I began to ^M 
Bfiarch in its faee for indkntiona of the appirtach of tUia disease. ^H 

They are called Cfetiiis. In many cases tbe whole hejid appears e welled 
and deform ed. As usual, every one yoii look at puts out the liarid to 
beg. TEie tavern where we stopped to dine (teemed more like a great 
barn, or cavern, tlian .anything else. We go gruping along perfectly 
dark stone passages, stumbling up a stone staircase, and gaining light 
only when the door of a kind of reception room opens upon ns — a long, 
rough- loi>kin^ room, without any eari^et, furnished with a table, and 
eome chairs, and a rudo sofa. We were shown to a bed- room, carjjetlees, 
but tolerably clean, with a very high feather hed in each comer, undtT a 
canopy of whits curtain h. 

After dinner we went on towards St. Pierre, a miserable hamlet, where 
the mules were taki^n out of tlic cliars, and we -prepared to mount them. 
It was between three and four o'clock. Our piitb lay up a desolate 
mountain gorge. After we had ascended some way the eold heoaniia 
intense. The monnL'dn torrent, hy the i^ide of which we went up, leaped 
and tumbled under ribs of iee, and througli banke of Btiow. 

I noticed ou either side of the defile tliat there wore higli posta put up 
on the rocks, and a cord stretched from one to tbe other, 'llie object of 
theste, my guide told mo, was to hHow the path, when this whole ravine 
is filled up with deep snow. 

1 could not help thinking how horrible it muat be to go up here in tho 

Our path aometiraea came bo near to the torreait aa to Buggeat uncom- 
fortable ideas. 

In one pkee it swept round the point of a rock which projected inin 
the foaming flood, an It wan completely undt^r water. I atop[ii?d a ^X 
little before I came to this, and told the guido 1 wanted to got down, ^H 
He wa«t all aeeummodation, and lifted me from my i^d<.lle, and then stood ^| 
to see what I woidd do next. When I made him understand that I 
meant to walk round the point, he very earttestly insisted that I i^hould 
get back to the waddle again, inid was ao positive that 1 had only to obey. 
It wti« well I did so, for the mule went round safely enough, and could 
afibrd to go up to his ankles in water better than I c*.)nld. 

As wo neared the hoapice I begiio t<i feel the effects of the r;irefied air 
very sensibly. It made me dizzy and siek, bringing on a most acute ^^ 
he&daelte — a sharp, kuit'e-like pain. ti. was atiU more affected. ^H 

I waa gbul enough whtiU the old building or^me in vlew^ thout^h th^^H 
road lay up an ascent of snow almost perpMidieoW. ^ 

At the hot of this ascent we pauaed. Oar ^vMta, '^w\\«\'3«3»s^ *>?"*» 


J0t srsrrr mmmamoB «iv voKxxesr li^tds. 

fill i hM m fey aiMUMtf cwrremiioa. » wMA Que woti •*fmtt'* 
WwmpmiSt iiIbiTj fgvaaa/e^ Avard wbkk I took to be eqttivsknt to o«r 
AifMi '^stmmpr 9JtA isdaed tfae pbex ikM inggcstTfe of tlwjdii^ 
tke macm had •» &r melted and »nll»«d CBilr' ihe kifliuinBe of 
flan, tlui floflwcl^r^ of fchia hxiid, in g^mq^ up the asoeast, 
iaffy ppoljdile. l^e maa ctood l***»'<»g on Mi a^xastock, 
lbeittu&^tot>edeni<Kialnl«d. Tbere vere two paltK, both eqnaDf 
Md«io«7. At iMt he nUier^dnp the bridle, wid «tautedixt» the 
drrect way. The male Sd not lake ii at all, erideotlty, and eiqsresaed hiii 
dkgtut hf oeca^dnaHy ita|f^ diort and anuffinf, meanuif^ ptobably 
to intuoatfr tlut he conaidmd the whole thing & hnmbnig. &xtd that in h£l 
fjpinititi we «b.o«id all Rlum]» throagh tog«4li«v Juxl S° to-^^obody knowa 
where. At last, when we were almost np the SMoeot, be did ahmip, aad 
Went up to hia btieatft in tiie snow; whenat the i;;inde piilled me oat of 
the aaddle wifb one hand, and pnUed Mm out of the hole wtth the «thcr. 
IJB a miDUte be had me into the saddlw again^ and after a few^roonienlc 
more we were up the ascent and drawimgf near the hotffice — a 
inynATef vtrottg, stone building, standing alone anioii|f n>dk^ and 

Aa we dmvc tip nearer I saw the Mttle porch in front of it exo' 
with gentlemen amofcing eigan, and gazing on otu- appraa«h just as any 
«^ of loafera do from the porcb of a fashionable hot^ This was qnite a 
~ idea of the matter to me. We had hoon flattering oura^r^ on per- 
an incredible adventupci; and lo and behold^ aQ the woi4d wen 
tiling for us. 
feawfl 11 [) to the steps, and I wae so mppled With fatigue^ and so 
HU-.': k with the tbiu air, that I hardly knew what I was doing. 

\^ lowbrowed, dark, archil, ston^ pnesagc;, fltnelting diamally 

ol :iiivi']ijny iiiid doga, when a brisk voice accosted me in the very choicest 
of French, and bi terms of welcome as gay and courtly aa if we wew 
enttrring a iDtifon. 

KeyH claahed, and we went up stone staircases, oiir cnt?rtaincr taltlng 
volubly all the way. As for m^ vM the French I ever knew, was buried 
undur an avalanche, C. ha^l to make answer for latj, that inadame was 
Very unwell, which brought forth aoother stream of condolence as we 
cattle into a »tipper roopi, lighted by a wood fire at one end. The long 
table was atretched out, on which they were pLicing Hupper. Here I had 
li^ht enough to perceive that rmr erttertatner waai a young man of a lively, 
intelligent countenance, in the Augustine monks' tlKSS, vk., a long, 
bUok camlet frook, with a kind of white band over it, which looks mnoh 
like ti pair of suspenders worn on the outside. He spoke French vi ~ 
purely, and had aM that warm eordiulity and graceful vivacity of mam 
winch aeetm to be peculiar to the Fr&neh. lie appearetl to pity us vi ^ 
nnjch, anrl waa full of offers of asaistancse; and when ho heard that I had 
a bad hoadiiche, inslffteil on having some tea mnde for me, the only diii " 
on the table being wine. The supper conisiated of coiifiab, atewed appf 
brvad, filberts, and raisins. Immediiite^ly after we were «)iown up 
staireuseSi aitd along atone pA9!<agiL% to our rooms, of which the 
infiUng feature was two high, single beds covered with white sp 
75c trwdon's of the room* were bo iiarrow as to aeem only like loopbal 
23ifiTO H'JM A looking gksfl, table, chair, ivtt4 woiB ^jME«»i.T^HSi\a^ 



A good old womnn came to see if we wanted anything. I thought, 

I aiTetched rayBelf in the bed, with feathers under me and fcathf*ra 
(over mo, what si heaveu of rest this placB must havo a&emed to ptsor tra- 
TelJeT:* beni.ij'hted and perishmg in the anow. In the mornings I looked 
cat of my loophole ou the tall, grim rocks, and ti. atasll hike iVoxt^u tmd 
with anow, '*Ifl tkia iake nlwuja frouen?" Baid 1 to the old 
_ woman who had en me to bring 113 hot water for waahJng. 
Sometimes," eaya uhc, "about the latter part of August, it In 

I suppoao it thaws tlitj last of August^ and freeaes the firet of SeiJ- 

After droraing ourselTes we crept down staira in hopes of finding the 
fire which we left the night before in the sitting-room. No sueh thing. 
The sun wag ahining, and it wag what was called a wami day, that J3 to 
Bay, a day when a little thaw trickles down the aouth aide of snow banks ; 
MO the fire was out, and the winduvra up, and our ^y Augustine friend 
coming in, congratulated ua on our channing day. 

The firaplace was piled up with wood and kindlings ready to be lighted 
In the eveiiujg ; but beitiif made to uiiderataud that it waa a very sultry 
^y, we could not, of courae, suggest auch an extraTagauce as igniting; 
i3ie tempting pile — an extravagance, hecatise every stick of wood has to 
lie brought on the backa of muleg frani the vaUeyi below, at a reiy great 
me of time and luoney. 
same is trae of ^itrovigiona of all aorts, and fodder for cattle. 
[I, after breakfast, 1 went to the front porch to view the prospttit, 
what did I see there? Banks of dirty, half- melted anow, bones, 
scmps of offal, patches of bars earth, for a small apaoe, si^y about 
"^fifty feet round, and then the whole region shut In by barren, inaoceasible 
*3:ock^ which cut elf all view in every dirtjction. 

Along hy the frOKtJu lake there is a kind of causeway path made for a 
promenade, where one might walk U> observe the beauties of the eeaauu, 
iftnd our cheery ^tertajner offered to show it to us ; no we walked out 
Vith him. Under the rncka in one phice he showed us a little plat, 
aibout as large as a eloset door, wliich, he saifl, laughing, was their ganlcn. 
• I asked him if any thing ever really grew more. Ho ah rugged hia 
tfioaldera, and said, *' Sometimea." 

We pursued this walk till we carae to the end of tlie lake, and there ho 
(Sljowed me n atone pilkr. 

"There," said he, "beyond that pillar is Italy," 

** WcE," BEud I, " I believe I ahall take a trip into Italy,** So, as he 
jtamed back to gn to the house, W. and I continued on. We went some 
<fray into Italy, down the ravine, and I can assure you I was not parti- 
Colltriy atmck with the country, 

I ohaarved. no iiidieations of that superiority in the fine arts, or of that 
Benial climate and soil, of which J had heard 30 niuch, W. nud I jigj^eil 
fb givo fjuraelves aire on thia subject whenever the matter t>f Italy was 
{ntrodnced, and to declare that we had boen tliere, and had seen none of 
Ihe things of which people vrrite in bonks, 

** What a perfectly diaro-^l, comfortless place •'* Baid I; but climbing 
ip the rookfl to rest mo m a sunny pUtce, 1 dVBQOTCKs^ ^Jto-^t. ^w^ •««xst'si -©i. 
tamsiitid with tbo most b riUiant flowei^. 



881 suKKT MEiionma or FOHKiei* t&nim. 

In particular I remark wl beda of velvet ksobh, wbicli bora a pi: 
blosBom. Then thfre was A kind of low, htairy ^tiitkui, *jf a. bright 
metallic blue - I tneJ to paiut it nftcrwartljj, but noillior uUrHliulrineDor 
any colour I ctiuld find would iii^prcjaent ita brilliaDcy ; it was & kind ol 
living brightness. I uxandned the petaifs to ttee how tbia cffuct wm pm- 
<iuced, a.nd it see mod la hfi by a kind of pHaniatia aiTAngement of the 
small round particles of which thoy -wera composed. 1 ^read down my 
pocket bandki^rehief, and proce^ed to see bow roany varieties I coald 
gather, and iti a. very Kjuall circle W, and I collected eighteeu. Could I 
have thought, when I looked ffom my window over thi^j blen^ I'egion, 
that anytbuig ho perfectly lovely as this little purple witch was to bo found 
IbereTf It waa 4uite a Bigraficant fact. There ia no coiiditiuii of life, 
probivbly, bo dreary that a lowly and i>atient seeker cannot find it* 
flowers. 1 began ta think that I nught be contented even tliere. Biit 
while I was looking 1 waa so sickened' by hemJachej and diiuigreeubls 
feelings aming from tlie air, that I often bad to lie down ou the sunnj 
Bide of the hank. W., I found, waa almllarly troubled ; be said he rcBiUy 
thought in the morning he waa going to have a fever. We went hack to 
the house , Tljere yfere sendees in the chapel ; I could heaj* the organ 
pealing, and the singera responding. 

Seven great doga were sunning tbemaelves on the porch, and a* I 
knpw it waa a subject partJeuLirly intoreatitig to you, I made mlnutit in* 
quiritia respecting thorn. Like many other thinj^.<;, they have boen-muck 
overstated, I think, by travellers. They are of a tuwiiy-ytsHow cqkiar, 
short haired, broad cUe^^ted, and iitrong limbed. As to sizo, I hare «eeta 
much lai^^er Newfoundland dogs in Boston. I mode one of them Open 
his mouth, and can assure you it wati black ua night ; a fact which woftld 
seem to imply KewfoundLind blood. In fact the breed orlgiiially bavx 
Hpajn is Hupposed to be a cross between the Pyrenean and the Nowfo' 
land. The biggiest nf tlierii was called Pluto. 

For my part, I waa a little mieaay among them, as they went wall 
ing and frisking around me, flouncing and roUing over each other on 1 
atone floor, and making, evejj now and theuj the most hideous noil 
that it ever came into a dog's head to conceive. 

As I saw them hititif each other in their clumsy frolicfi, I he^an to he 
afraid lent they should take it into their hes>ds to treat me like ou6 of the 
family, and m stood reaily to run. 

The man who almwed them wished to know if Tsfbouldllketosee acwne 
puppies ; to which, in the ardour of natural history, I a^ented ; bo ha 
opeued thu dour of a little stone closet, and sui^ enough there h,y madani 
in state, with four little, blind, uuubbed-noeed pledges. As the maix 
picked up one of these, and held it up ht^foreine in all tlie helplessnesa of 
infancy, looking for all the world like a roly-poly pudding witli a fihort 
tail to it, I could not help iiuerying in my mind, are you going to be « 
St, Bermud dog { 

One of tlie large dngs, seeing the door open, thonght now was a gaoA 
time to e^camitie the premises, and so w:ilked hiiskly into the kennel, bbti 
wsfl received by the amiable mother with such a sniff of the noae as scut 
him howling Iwick into the passage, apjiaretitly a much wiser and better 
dog titan he had been before. 'Clieir principal use is to &id paths in Iba 
deep 8U0W when tb© fathers go oul to \oqV i«T Vewi^iuata, Tka-tliAY olwi^ 




THE DOClS. 285 

do in stormy weather, Tlicy aro not !oiiglivc([ ; neitlier umn nor aiujiiftl 
can stand the aeifcfe (^mperatnrcanfl the thin air for a long time. Many 
of the dogg die from diaeaaca of the hinge »nrt rheumftttstu, bBsidas those 
kilted b