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University of California Berkeley 






W. M. LADD, 





















SOLOMON'S saying, " There is nothing new under the sun," applies to irrigation. Close study leads to the 
conclusion that irrigation is as old as husbandry. In all likelihood, man, when placed upon the 
earth, was not given a habitation in a humid climate, but in some arid section an oasis in a desert. 
Such is the contention of scientists. As primitive man outgrew nature's fertile spots, there being no rain but 
springs and streams, he lead these from their channels to the surrounding soil, and caused it to oroduce abundant 

We are told that husbandry was first taught, held honorable and extensively followed in Egypt. For 
centuries this country was the granary of the world. So great was its productiveness that it not only supplied a 
dense population, but accumulated vast stores to overcome famine brought on by plague, and supplied foreign 
nations with fruit and cereals. The great fertility of the Nile valley and vicinity was not the result, as many 
suppose, of the periodical overflow of the river, covering, at the most, but a small section, but the result of man's 
ingenuity displayed in the grandest system of irrigation ever devised. 

From ancient writings recently discovered, and from recent examinations of the condition of the Nile 
above Cairo by scientists and explorers, the conclusion has been reached that the six cataracts from Assouan to 
near Kartoum in the river Nile were not the work of Nature, but of ancient and scientific engineering for the 
purpose of irrigation and navigation. Engineering at once bold in its conception and colossal in its execution. 
That it had also been most successful in its results was evident from the remains of irrigation canals still 
stretching over many degrees of longitude on both sides of the river, as well as by ancient records of flourishing 

cities where now only barren wastes are to be found, inhabited by roving tribes of Arabs. These canals or 
their ruins are by no means confined to the valley of the Nile proper, but they reach to the very confines of the 
Great Desert. 

Gordon speaks of the ancient irrigation canals as pervading the whole Soudan, as well as what is now 
desert, on the northern side of the Nile from the Mediterranean to latitude 15 north, if not further, and many 
degrees of longitude west, as well as east of the Nile valley proper. Scientists were led to the belief that the 
cataracts were not the work of Nature by the fact that they were nearly equidistant from each other 
along the course of the river. The total distance from the first cataract at Assouan to Kartoum is seven 
hundred and twenty miles, and the division of this space by six cataracts will give one hundred and twenty miles 
between each, which is almost the exact distance between any two cataracts. The fall of the river being eight 
inches to the mile gives a needed height to each dam of eighty feet, exactly; in short, the calculation which 
would now be made, primarily, by any irrigation engineer. Last, but not least, the great square granite blocks, 
composed of a formation that cannot be found in any other part of the Nile except at the cataracts or rapids, 
stretching out for over two thousand yards across the river are still visible at very low Nile. From these facts 
modern scientists and engineers have come to the conclusion that the cataracts or rapids were not the work of 
Nature, but were enormous dams constructed by man. for the purposes above described. But the proof of the 
dams having existed where the cataracts or rapids now are, does not rest simply on the inference of experts upon 
the appearance of the river. Quite recently there have been found ancient writings which speak of this fact; and 
among the various inscriptions found in one at Sikilis to the effect that the Nile watered vast regions above 
Somnah, but that the rock gave way, and that ever after the river ceased to water the region above." * 

The writings of Plato are also corroborative of the vastness of the irrigation works of the Egyptians. 
Nowhere on the face of the earth has the work of the human race defied the ravages of time as in the valley of 

* Kinney on Irrigation, Sec. 10. 



the Nile. Today we read inscriptions as though they were the work of yesterday and they tell us of an age 
centuries past when medicine, chemistry, mathematics, sculpture, astronomy and the mechanical arts in Egypt 
surpassed, in many respects, the skill of the present period. For boldness of conception and skill in execution, 
nothing exceeds the artificial waterways constructed by the early Egyptians. 

Fix in mind a waterway excavated to the depth of one hundred feet, six hundred and sixty feet wide and 
1250 miles long, and you will but comprehend an Egyptian enterprise built for the double purpose of watering the 
land and for floating vessels. Have in mind this vast canal encircling a plain with great ditches, cutting it 
into many parts, and then a netv/ork of smaller waterways everywhere, distributing water to the rich and thirsty 
soil; picture here and there upon these waterways and the Nile great cities with palaces, temples and magnifi- 
cent tombs, the people arrayed in the richest of fabrics and ornamented in priceless jewels (for it should not be 
forgotten that there is scarcely an article of comfort or luxury now in use, but that its counterpart is shown in some 
of the pictures still fresh and bright, on the walls of the tombs of the ancient Egyptian kings);* add to this the 
pyramids, the great dams of the Nile, groves of stately palms and tall trees gently nodding in the lazy breezes of 
the Mediterranean coast; dot the plain with groves of citrus fruit and vineyards, (for here Bacchus had his 
mythical being and was worshipped,) and you have Egypt not in fancy, but as a reality centuries ago. 

Radiating from Egypt the science of irrigation reached the valleys of the Ganges, Indus and Euphrates, 
and here wealth accumulated and opulence held sway, and large cities flourished, rich in their homes and public 
places. Here man conceived strange designs, tall towers and hanging gardens, and rulers built them. Take 
from ancient history the people who subsisted by means of irrigation and what is there left to show stability, 
splendor and grandeur to the far-off past? True it is that man passed out of Egypt into eastern Asia, thence to 
southern Europe and ultimately overran the whole of the northland. He passed into the land of humid climate, 
and there built up a vast civilization, which now in many places continues to flourish. What is true as to 

* History of Egypt, by Clara Erskine Cement, 



irrigation of ancient Egypt and eastern Asia is also true of the New World. Today the archaeologists bring forth 
mummies from caves in Arizona and New Mexico. They find pottery and implements bespeaking high art. 
They trace the outlines and delve in the debris of cities now in buried ruin, where once dwelt man not rude, 
uncouth and savage, but man cultured and artistic in his tastes with science applied to his many wants. Wherever 
these traces of civilization are found whether in South, Central or North America there, too, remains positive 
evidence of irrigation carried on upon a magnificent scale. Take, for instance, the acqueduct that traverses 
Condesonyos in South America. This was of the length of five hundred miles. The historian, Prescott, states 
that canals and acquoducts were seen crossing the lowland in all directions, and spreading over the country like a 
vast network, distributing fertility and beauty all around them." 

" In Arizona are to be found remains of prehistoric canals, which with their laterals must have exceeded 
a thousand miles in length, and the ruins of many of them give evidence of the expenditure of vast labor in their 
construction. One of the largest of these canals took water from the south side of Salt River, about twenty-five 
miles from the present city of Phoenix, and after leaving the river ran for several miles through a formation of 
hard volcanic rock. Thus without explosives of any kind and with the simple tools of the stone age, the aborig- 
inal constructors of the ditch excavated a canal through solid rock of the hardest formation, to a depth varying 
from twenty to thirty feet, and to a width of about twenty feet, and having a capacity of from ten thousand to fifteen 
thousand miner's inches when the river was at its ordinary stage. The evidence of the vast amount of labor 
expended in its construction by the chipping process, is plain upon the face of the rock, while for miles on both 
sides of the canal can be found vast numbers of worn out stone axes and hammers. A party of Mormons have 
succeeded in clearing away the accumulated debris and restoring the ditch to its original usefulness, and have 
thereby converted a barren waste into fertile fields, now occupied by twenty thousand people. The canal is at 
present known as the Mesa Canal, and supplies Mesa City and vicinity with water for irrigation and other pur- 
poses. Two miles east of the above-mentioned canal, but on the other side of the river, is the head of the great 
Arizona Canal, the largest in the southwest, if not on the Pacific Coast, carrying as it does nearly fifty thousand 



inches of water. Its construction was also suggested by the remains of a prehistoric canal that could be traced 
for many miles, and the promoter of the new enterprise, being of the firm belief that what had been done could 
be done again under like conditions, had the pleasure of seeing completed a waterway which reclaimed over one 
hundred thousand acres in and around the city of Phcenix. Forty miles west of the Arizona Canal, and a few 
miles below the junction of the Salt River with the Gila on the north bank of the latter river, is the head of 
another ditch, which from the traces of prehistoric civilization, found along its banks, is of even more interest. 
It is called the 'Acequa of the Painted Rocks,' and commences where it can take from the Gila not only the 
waters of that stream, but also the water of all the canals lying north and east of it as well. Portions of the canal 
have been reclaimed, but those parts which the hand of modern civilization has not touched, are still so distinct, 
that their remains may be traced without difficulty for fifty miles, while between it and the Gila river, in the lands 
which were formerly irrigated from it, can be found the relics of ancient civilization in profusion, not only in the 
shape of ruined buildings, but also of pottery, stone implements, weapons and ornaments. But another 
curious feature of this canal, and the strongest evidence of the great length of time which has elapsed since the 
system of irrigation was maintained, is that a few miles below the point where it crosses the Hassayamba creek, 
it traverses a mesa or bench for several miles, from which it falls abruptly into a valley some forty or fifty feet. 
Where this fall takes place the waters of the canal have cut away for several feet the walls of the mesa, 
which are of the hardest volcanic character. As every evidence indicates that the erosion of the rock has been 
accomplished by the action of the water alone, centuries must have been required for the work. Upon the face 
of the rock thus cut away are to be found hieroglyphics of every description, of the meaning of which the present 
aborigines know nothing. From these inscriptions the white man has given them the name of 'Painted Rocks ' "* 

All this teaches the lesson that in the higher civilization of olden times, irrigation was the handmaid of 
the husbandman. To it he owed his prosperity. To it a teeming population looked for subsistance. From it 

* Kinney on Irrigation, Sec. 15. 





Kings, Monarchs and Pharaohs received revenues to carry on works of arc and public utility, which are still 
stupendous in their ruins. These great irrigation systems, marvelous in their parts, built in instances with quar- 
ried stone and in others hewn from the solid rock, make vivid the thought that where nature does the most man 
does the least; and where he firmly grasps and supplements what nature has suggested, this becomes the theater 
of his greatest action and gives him godlike glory. 

WE have spoken of the ancient works of irrigation. What does the present show? Famine stricken India 
comes to mind. There, in the last thirty years, at a cost of three hundred and sixty millions of dollars, 
thirty-five million acres of land have been reclaimed from the desert waste, and, this to a large extent, 
lies under the very shadow of the Himalaya mountains, far from the sea coast. From the ocean to these artificial 
oases great lines of railroads have been constructed and now carry a vast commerce. By this means not less 
than 50,000,000 people are free from the horrors of famine. These great enterprises redounding to the glory of 
Britain have not proven financial failures, but return to the British India government, by which they were con- 
structed, an annual revenue of eighteen per cent. 

Even in the great Sahara Desert, under the skill and enterprise of the Frenchman, lying as it does below 
the surface of the ocean, by means of artesian wells the hot sands are given place to cultivated fields and 
green trees. 

In Australasia, the government and the people have, for a number of years past, realized that the water- 
less plains, which stretch for leagues and are covered with a soil containing all substances which enter into a 
vegetable formation, could only be made productive by irrigation, have expended vast sums of money in the 
construction of waterways, and since 1881 have turned 15,000,000 acres of desert into beautiful farms. Italy, 



Spain and France have for centuries appreciated the value of artificially watering land. In these countries the 
most productive portions are where irrigation is practiced. There the greatest population dwells. Take, 
for instance, irrigated Murcia, Spain; it has a population of 1681 to the square mile, while the province of 
Orihuela, where the people depend upon rain for the growing of crops, has only a population of 101. In our 
own country, where in 1847 existed a stretch of sagebrush, today stands the beautiful city of Salt Lake, sur- 
rounded by orchards, meadows and harvest fields. This is the result of the foresight of the Mormons, and the 
spreading out, by them, of the streams and rivers upon a parched soil. Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, 
New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, Arizona, have and are rapidly bringing into cultivation, by means of 
irrigation, large sections. In 1889, according to the census bulletin of the United States government, there 
were in the United States under irrigation 3,631,381 acres of land. In 1891, per estimate of the agricultural 
department, the number of acres under ditch was upwards of 18,000,000. 

What is possible to be accomplished by means of irrigation is best shown in the State of California. The 
friars and monks, who long before the discovery of gold, settled in California, took with them from Spain and 
Mexico a knowledge or irrigation. This they made use of, and near the missions and monasteries established 
by them, they watered the land by streams from the mountains and brought into a high state of cultivation 
limited tracts upon which they grew grapes, lemons, oranges and all fruits of a semi-tropical country. When 
gold was discovered thousands rushed to the State of the " Setting Sun," and when the argonautic spirit abated the 
possibilities of horticulture presented themselves and many turned their attention to fruit culture. How to handle 
water the miner well knew, for in hydraulic mining he became master of this element. At once he brought it 
forth from the gulches to the land and planted vineyards and groves of oranges, limes, olives, lemons, almonds 
and walnuts; he laid out lanes of eucalyptus, palm and pepper trees; he planted gardens of figs, guavas, 
pomegranate and the smaller fruits; he transformed the desert into an Eden and lured to it the rich of the 
East, and they, in settling there, built beautiful homes with magnificent drives grander than those of sunny Spain, 
or still more charming Italy. 



J^ tem S of 

THERE are practically but two modes of irrigation. The first is called the furrow system the other the 
flooding. By the former either a rolling or flat country can be watered, by the latter only comparatively 
level land can be served. By means of furrows, hills sloping at an angle of 30 have been successfully 
watered. To prepare the ground for the furrow system all brush and large stones should be removed, small 
knolls and hummocks cut down, the low places filled and the ground brought to a level or even slope. To the 
highest point of the land to be irrigated a lateral is run from the main ditch or canal. From this lateral a head 
ditch is constructed, following the highest contour of the land. From the head ditch, receiving its water from 
the lateral, small furrows are run with an implement resembling the corn marker of the New England farmer. 
These furrows on level tracts are run in straight and parallel lines. Where a sidehill is to be watered, the fur- 
rows are run practically parallel and upon contours. From the head ditch the water is let into the furrows by 
means of square wooden pipes constructed out of lath, and with such openings as to carry in the neighborhood of 
one square inch of water without pressure. This inch of water will follow a furrow and oftentimes successfully 
irrigate a stretch half a mile long by three feet wide, or over one-third of an acre. 

To irrigate by flooding, the land must be leveled and divided into squares with banks six inches or there- 
abouts in height, with ditches leading into and connecting the squares. Into these squares water is let and 
allowed to stand until the soil becomes thoroughly saturated; the surplus water of the higher tiers being allowed 
to pass into the lower tiers. This system can be used where the soil is extremely light and sandy, and not subject 
to baking and forming a crust through which vegetation will not grow. The flooding system has a tendency to 



cause the roots of plants and trees to grow upward toward the surface, while by the furrow system the water 
being let deeper into the ground all roots grow downward, and for a longer period are supplied with moisture 
from the surrounding earth, 

ONE of the characteristics of all arid sections is almost perpetual sunshine. To this can be added a 
remarkable fact that the soil in most arid sections is remarkably productive when supplied with water. 
Only lighter soils those which will allow water to freely percolate can be successfully irrigated. In an 
irrigated section each farmer is his own rain maker. In the vernacular of an irrigated country, he turns the 
rain on. Under irrigation there is a certainty of crop. There being no rain, harvest time is extended, as well 
as the period for plowing and harrowing. The soil being lighter, it is easier tilled. Sunshine being almost perpetual, 
and no rain, barns for storing grain and hay are not a necessity. The water that irrigates enriches the soil, 
carrying from the mountains, hills and swamps, during the flooding period, large quantities of the richest fertil- 
izers, which are distributed by means of the canal, laterals and furrows, over the fields of the farmer. 


ACCORDING to the United Stales census of 1890, the total number of acres of irrigated land in the United 
States in 1889, scarcely exceeded three million acres, of which over a million acres were in California, 
and 890,000 acres were in Colorado. The total value of the irrigated lands was $296,850,000.00, an 
average of $83.28 per acre. The average value of irrigated land in California being $150.00 per acre and 
$84.25 in Utah. The whole cost of the irrigated land was $77,490,000, leaving a net profit to the farmer and 

Fl-ATE 8 


ditch owner of $219,370,000. The average cost of a water right in California was $39.28 per acre, while 
there were fruit growing districts in that state where a water right had cost as high as $500.00 per acre. This 
great cost being the result of an extensive system of underground pipes overcoming all loss of seepage and 
greatly economizing the use of water.* 


['"HE average cost of yearly rental or maintenance tax per acre in the State of California is $1.60. In 

Colorado it is claimed that one man can irrigate 25 acres of grain per day. Twelve acres per day, how- 

' ever, may be taken as a fair average. The cost of labor at $1.50 per day, irrigating four times a year, 

would be 50 cents per acre. A crop of wheat, or alfalfa, should not be watered to exceed three or four times, 

and fruit trees from three to five times a season, according to the soil. 

In California the duty of water is great, running from 200 to 500 acres to one second foot. In the United 
States the duty of water is far less than in India, where the greatest economy is practiced. 

rJatioQ m tt^e We^hepiQ poptiorco 

ABOUT one-third of the United States proper needs irrigation. The sub-humid portion of our country 
includes practically the whole of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, and the Territory 
of Oklahoma. The arid states are Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, 
Utah, Washington and Wyoming. From this great belt should be taken the country that lies between the coast 
range of mountains and the Pacific Ocean, and extending from British Columbia south to Santa Barbara, Cal- 

* Encyclopaedia Britannica, New American Supp. Title, Irrigation. 



ifornia; and east of this range of mountains some of the table lands, including a number of the river valleys 
notably the Snake and the Columbia lying in the southeast portion of Washington and the northeast portion 
of Oregon, and extending eastward to the Blue Mountains, where sufficient rain falls for the production of 

m h^ Jtevelopmeot of tf? e Gr^eah 

THE Orient has been the objective point of the civilized and commercial nations from the days of Columbus 
to the present hour. That the spirit that moved nations to control the commerce of that section of the 
earth, where the greatest population dwells, has not waned, is made apparent by what at the present time 
is taking place in India, China, the Philippines and other islands of the Pacific Ocean. Europe for centuries has 
striven to establish short lines for commerce to the Orient. England, directed by French skill, built and now 
owns, the Suez canal. 

On the continent of North America, leading westward, private corporations, some with and others without 
governmental aid, have constructed transcontinental railroads. Upon the completion of these arteries of com- 
merce, several large steamship lines have been established between San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma, Seattle, 
Vancouver and the centers of population of the eastern world, and between these points already the volume of 
commerce is increasing by so large a per cent, as almost to stagger the imagination as to what the future has 
in store. 

Already, to meet this growing trade, so absolutely in its infancy, vessels are being constructed which will 
carry 20,000 tons of merchandise each.* The Orient, not to be outdone by the Occident, has established cne 
of the greatest lines of vessels on the Pacific; and one of the most common sights to be seen in the sea- 

* Review of Reviews for June, 1900, 



board cities of the Pacific are large freighters owned and operated by the Japanese, and each year they are adding 
larger and more costly vessels to their fleets. That the United States has entered upon an era of great com- 
mercial development is shown by statistics, and is upon every tongue. t 

The Pacific trade of the United States has advanced two-thirds in volume during the past five calendar 
years. American imports of the products of Asia and Oceanica have increased 40 per cent, since 1894, while 
American exports to the markets of Asia and Oceanica have grown 135 per cent., or multipled nearly two and 
one-half times. 

We are taking $48,000,000 of goods a year to the East Indies, as compared with $25,000,000 in 1894. 
We are taking $16,000,000 of sugar a year from the Hawaiian islands, as compared with $8,000,000 in 1895. 
Our annual tea bill with China and Japan now runs to near 100,000,000 pounds, and our silk bill with these 
countries reaches $25,000,000 a year, comprising nearly all of our imports of unmanufactured silk. 

We are shipping $18,000,000 of American products to Japan, where we sold only $3,300,000 in 1892. 
and over $12,000,000 to China, where we shipped $4,800,000 in 1893. Our exports to Hawaii have risen from 
less than $3,000,000, in 1893, to nearly $7,000,000 now, and our shipments of American wares to Australasia, 
have grown in that time from $7,500,000 to $17,500,000 a year. Our Pacific exports of flour have risen in a 
few years from practically nothing to 2,500,000 barrels, and our sales of cotton goods to the Orient have grown 
from $4,000,000, in 1894, to $15,000,000. 

There is scarcely a market, foreign or domestic, but that handles our manufactured products our flour, cot- 
ton, beef, fish, iron and steel. Our manufactured products go to the people of all countries. The Great 
Northwest is closer by over three thousand miles to the Orient than France, Germany or England, by way of the 
Suez Canal; and the time of travel between New York City and Japan, by rail and water, is several days shorter 
than between Liverpool and the Japanese Empire. 

t Seattle and the Orient, by Alden J. Blethen, page 85. Minneapolis Times, Northwest-Orient Edition. 



Into the lap of the Northwest, Alaska is pouring a golden store. In the waters of the Pacific, its sounds, 
bays and gulfs, and Bering Sea, the supply of food fishes is inexhaustible. Already the salmon industry of Wash- 
ington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska runs annually into many millions of dollars, and the governmental 
reports show Bering Sea to be as rich in cod as are the banks of Newfoundland. Add to this the coal, iron, 
copper, timber and the precious metals so lavishly placed at man's disposal in the states, provinces and territories 
of the North Pacific, and nothing can stay the spirit of enterprise that now possesses the handful of people who 
dwell in this section. For years to come this will be the theater of man's greatest activity in the establish- 
ment of trade, commerce and manufacturing. 

The per cent, of growth of the Pacific Coast states is convincing proof that before another century rolls 
round, here will be found cities balancing in importance the great entrepots of the Atlantic. This population will 
have to be fed. To supply its wants, cereals, hay, live stock, garden vegetables and fruit in great quantities will 
be demanded, In the west, as has already been shown, the amount of land fit for agricultural purposes, is lim- 
ited. That it will be taxed to its utmost is certain. That it will increase in value as the population increases, 
Is but logic. 

THE Cascade Mountains divide the state into two sections, which differ as much in climatic conditions as 
in topographical aspects. They extend through the state from north to south, at an average elevation of 
about 8000 feet, and with numerous peaks rising to nearly twice that height. These mountains are 
paralleled by other ranges upon the eastern and western borders of the state. Generally speaking, it may be said 
they stand at an angle of about 45 degrees to the direction of the prevailing winds, thus forming almost a perfect 
rain barrier. 

In Eastern Washington the Columbia River basin slopes to the south, with numerous streams, shallow 
lakes, a sandy soil, high mountains, bordering on either side, and broken ridges lying to the north; it is well pro- 




tected from outside influences, admirably arranged, and suitably inclined to receive the solar heat, and to have a 
moderately equable climate. The figures of the whole of the Columbia River basin, deduced from official 
reports from fourteen stations, well distributed over the basin, show an average annual temperature of 48.25 
degrees. The prevailing winds of the Yakima valley are from the Cascade Mountains. They are productive of 
clear, dry weather, so characteristic of the Yakima country in particular, and the eastern slope of the Cascades 
in general. The winds blowing from the mountains clear the sky and bring about fair weather. The average 
rainfall of the Yakima valley is seven inches. The serenity of the sky is remarkable. At Sunnyside there are 
188 clear days, 83 partly cloudy, 94 cloudy, and only 33 rainy. The soil of the Yakima valley is mostly of a 
loose volcanic ash, which receives a large quantity of heat and moisture readily, and retains it for a compar- 
atively long time. 

From the first of June to the first of November, scarcely any rain falls, and a thunder storm is a rarity.* 

The aridness of the Great Bend of the Columbia, including the valley of the Yakima and other rivers, 
makes irrigation absolutely essential, and for years, upon a small scale, in various parts of this section, irriga- 
tion has been practiced. 

\2 e r^nnyeisle Im<?ation Canal 

IN 1889, irrigation upon a large scale was first contemplated, and took practical form in the Yakima valley 
Then it was that Walter N. Granger and associates, after carefully examining all the arid land along the line 
of the Northern Pacific railroad, reached the conclusion that no section presented greater advantages 
toward a complete irrigation system than the valley of the Yakima. Here they found a river fed by the perpetual 
snows, streams and lakes of the Cascade Mountains, which at the lowest stage of its water, flowed an abundant 

*W. N. Allen, in Northwest Journal of Education. 



supply of water. They found a soil averaging some 30 feet in depth, and of a richness scarcely to be met with 
elsewhere in any arid section. They found a country diversified as to surface; portions of it rolling, and other 
parts with gentle slopes. The climate was equable; no excessive heat in summer, nor extreme cold in winter, 
and a nominal rainfall. Here, too, they found a small ditch, which some fifteen years prior a few farmers had 
constructed, and beneath it they had built beautiful homes, and had in bearing fine orchards, from which each 
year they were reaping rich harvests. This ditch left the Yakima river just below a gap where the river pinches 
ittelf between two high hills. Nature seemed to have designed it as a place for an intake of a great canal. 
Ai once an agreement was made with the farmers by which their ditch, known as the Konnewock, was to be 
owned by a new company, and enlarged and extended, so as to carry 1000 cubic feet of water per second of 
time, and serve 68,000,000 acres of land. 

In 1890 work was commenced and continued, until the main canal was constructed to nearly the forty- 
second mile post, Laterals were constructed and land sales made. !n 1892 water was first used by the new 
settlers from the main canal. In 1893 the great panic stagnated everything. Work was stopped, and the 
settlers lived the best they could. They had before them what the farmers had accomplished under the Konne- 
wock ditch, and they did not lose faith. They cleared their land of the sage brush; they leveled it; they placed 
water upon it; they planted fields of alfalfa, clover, timothy, corn and potatoes; they set out orchards of peaches, 
prunes, pears, apricots, cherries and apples. Everything they planted grew; nature seemed to prosper their 
efforts By degrees others came into the country. They were induced to come by reason of the letters sent 
them by the first settlers; they, too. prospered. To a large extent the letters of these people will be allowed to 
tell the story of the Sunnyside Canal; what has already been accomplished and what its future is, and corre- 
spondence with them is invited. 

Already, under the Sunnyside Canal, nearly three thousand people dwell and 10,000 acres of land are 
under cultivation; it has passed out of thd experimental stage. The fact, has been established that in no country 



can a large ditch be more easily constructed or maintained. The amount of water appropriated is 1000 cubic 
feet per second of time. That potatoes, corn, alfalfa, clover and timothy can be grown in this section is made 
manifest by the many letters which are hereto appended. That this is an ideal country for horticulture is well 
known by the many settlers on the land, and the fruit merchants of Puget Sound cities. Butte, Helena, Winnipeg, 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, Chicago. Milwaukee, and many other eastern cities, for from this section already 
large quantities of fruit have been shipped to these points. A glance at the map of the west will show that the 
valley of the Yakima is most fortunately situated for both farming and horticulture. Throughout its whole length 
runs the great Northern Pacific railway, and from Portland, Oregon, another railroad is projected, and the same 
is partially constructed, while the navigable Columbia River is close at hand. For miles on both sides of the 
Yakima River, stretches the foothills of the Cascades. Here, yearly, large flocks of sheep, herds of cattle and 
bands of horses range, These, during the winter, must be fed, the cattle and sheep fattened for market. For 
the last few years large numbers of them have been fed by the farmers of the Sunnyside country. In this way, 
alfalfa has been disposed of at $4.50 per ton in the stack. When one realizes that an acre of Sunnyside land 
produces eight tons of alfalfa, here is a profit per acre quite amazing to the farmer of New England, or even the 
central west. 

There is no danger of an overproduction of hay in the Yakima valley. There is scarcely a year when 
any hay is left over in this section. The cities of Puget Sound, the logging camps of the great wooded belt west 
cf the Cascade Mountains, and of late, Alaska, the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands, are great hay consumers. 

It is, however, in the growing of fruit that the rich lands of the Sunnyside section can be best utilized. 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Wyoming, the Dakotas, and a greater portion of Montana, Idaho, Iowa and Nebraska, 
are not suited to the growing of fruit. Neither can fruit be profitably raised in British North America or Alaska. 
In this vast section a large and increasing population dwells, and the amount of green, canned and dried fruit 
consumed by the people of this belt is enormous. Nothing is more common than fruit shipped in carload lots 



from the Yakima valley; and the day is near at hand when it will be moved in train loads. This is a consumma- 
tion wished by the Northern Pacific Railway Company. That that railway company is in accord with the Sunny- 
side on the line of horticulture, we will quote President Mellen as follows: "Not a bushel of fruit will rot in the 
Yakima valley by reason of an excessive freight rate." As evidence that fruit does not rot in the Sunnyside 
country, over two years ago two large fruit evaporators were erected, but so great has been the demand for the 
green products, that these dryers have scarcely been operated. 

J)pice of kand and (epme of J)ayment 

THE amount of land owned by the Washington Irrigation Company is in the neighborhood of 25,000 acres, 
and it is being sold in tracts of 20 acres or more, the company encouraging small holdings. The price 
of land ranges from $20 to $40 per acre, according to quality, and the ease in which the same can be 
put under cultivation. The terms of payment are one-fifth down and the balance in five annual payments. 
nothing being demanded at the end of the first year, except interest. Deferred payments draw interest at the 
rate of six per cent, per annum. A deduction of $2.50 per acre is made for cash. An annual maintenance 
charge of $1 per acre is made. This is less by 60 cents per acre than the average maintenance charge for irri- 
gation purposes throughout the State of California, With each 160 acres of land there is sold a cubic foot of 
water per second of time. This is in excess of what is necessary for the perfect irrigation of so small a tract, 
but as there is an abundance of water, the farmers are given the advantage of it. 

The irrigation season extends from the first of April to the first of November in each year. This gives 
the sap in the trees a chance to go down in the winter season, and the trees thereby escape all danger from frost 
and cold. 



of F^apmio^ and 4kvio<^ a 'Home m hl^e 

AS has already been stated, there are only 33 rainy days in a year in this section. It comes as near being 
perpetual sunshine as can be wished. Only during a few weeks in the winter is the soil so frozen that it 
cannot be ploughed. The soil is light, and easily turned by the ploughshare, and one harrowing thor- 
oughly pulverizes it. A roller, however, is sometimes used to pack it. 

The harvest season extends from early June to November, During this period scarcely any rain falls. A 
farmer does not hesitate to cut down a large field of alfalfa cure, windi DW, cock, and then stack it. This can 
be done with impunity, as there is no fear of a shower ruining his crop. The rancher's crop is entirely under 
his control. He has no drouth, nor too much rain to contend with, Neither are there any cyclones to destroy 
his crops, orchards and buildings. He has pure air to breathe, and no malignant diseases to contend with. 
During the whole irrigation season he has an ample supply of water for his stock, fowls, and domestic purposes. 
He can have flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle and horses ranging back upon the foothills of the mountains 
and table lands during the spring, summer and autumn in the winter to be brought home, to be fed and fattened 
for the market. Not to exceed 100 miles from his dwelling place, a high grade of coal is mined, and this can 
be put in his bin for winter use at not to exceed $3.50 per ton. There being no long period of cold weather, his 
fuel bill is light; and, on the other hand, his children and family need not wear the heavy clothing of the New 
England States, nor of the middle west. Here, too, his children can receive a common school education, quite 
as good as that furnished by the State of Massachusetts, for the Washington farmer takes pride in the 
district school. Already, under the Sunnyside, 10 districts are established, and school maintained therein. 
Neither are the people lacking in moral or religious influences. There are several religious denominations, which 
hold services regularly in the school houses and public halls, and money is now being raised and donations made 



toward the erection of a number of fine churches. Seventy-five per cent, of the people of this section are of 
American birth, and law and order are as strictly maintained here, as in the central portion of York State. In 
fact, among the three thousand people who dwell here, there is only one saloon, and there are no hotels in which 
liquor is sold. The Odd Fellows and Woodmen of the World have halls of their own, and other secret orders 
are maintained. At Sunnyside there is a brass band, and the national game is quite as much enjoyed by the 
youth of this section as elsewhere. A private telephone system is maintained by a number of the farmers. Three 
fine bridges span the Yakima River, and connect the Sunnyside with the railroad stations of the Northern Pacific 
Railway. Numerous highways are being built and maintained. On these pages are shown half-tones and photo- 
graphs of actual scenes under the Sunnyside. 

To all this might be added scenic beauty. Far below the land watered by the Sunnyside Canal, flows the 
Yakima River, with its waters during a greater portion of the season as clear as crystal, and across and beyond 
are the mountains from which rise Mount Adams and Mount Rainier, towering heavenward the latter to a height 
of 14,444 feet. These mountains and peaks are, at their tops, perpetually snowclad; and in them are forests 
and streams abounding in game and fish. These pleasure grounds can be reached by a short journey on 

Intensive v<;. Extensive 

AS has already been stated, the Washington Irrigation Company does not encourage large farms. A man 
is as well off with 10 acres under the Sunnyside as he is with 40 acres in the State of New York. Forty 
acres is all one man ought to possess. In this way, instead of distributing his efforts broadcast upon a 
wide area, he concentrates them upon a small farm, and makes every rod of ground do its best. The long season, 
with its early spring and late fall, makes it possible for the Yakima farmer to devote his attention to the raising 



of a variety of crops, selecting those which experience teaches to be the most profitable. This is known as 
diversified farming. A division of the Sunnyside district into small farms, insures, ultimately, a dense popula- 
tion. The district will become suburban in its character, and therefore most eligible for a home. The possibilities 
for improvement of social conditions in such communities are practically unlimited. 

of Dpeapin l^and for 3 Cultivation 

THE cost, per acre, to clear, grade, and place water upon land in the Sunnyside, is $12.50. This places 
the land in condition for cropping. The Sunnyside section is covered with a dense growth of sagebrush; 
this can be readily removed with a mattock, a good worker being able to grub an acre per day. The 
sagebrush can be used for summer fuel, burned in heaps, or placed upon the highway, making an excellent road. 
After the removal of the sagebrush, the land is ploughed, and the high knolls are cut down either with an ordi- 
nary scraper or with a so called buck scraper, to which four horses are hitched. The buck scraper is a useful 
invention for the leveling of ground for the purpose of irrigation, and small knolls or hummocks are cut down by 
means of a scraper resembling that used for scraping highways in the eastern states a leveler is also used. This 
consists of six long timbers, with cross pieces, which catch the higher portions and carry them into the low places. 


HE proximity of Yakima County to the great timber belt of Western Washington, makes all building 
material much cheaper than in almost any other part of the United States. 



How to Reael? tl^e 

THE Northern Pacific Railway Company runs two daily trains, equipped with Pullman and Tourist sleepers, 
each way over its line. These pass through Toppenish and Mabton. Land seekers are met at Toppen- 
ish and taken to Zillah, four miles distant, where the company has its office, and are then shown the 
lands of the Sunnyside district. Mabtown is opposite the town of Sunnyside, and seven miles distant. A good 
road and a bridge across the Yakima River, connect these two places. 

of Information 

THE Washington Irrigation Company earnestly requests all homeseekers to write to the settlers under the 
Sunnyside ditch, or if unable to do this, to write to C. W. Mott, General Emigration Agent, Northern 
Pacific Railway Company, St. Paul, Minnesota; Thomas Cooper, Western Land Agent, Northern Pacific 
Railway Company, Tacoma, Washington; Fred B. Grinnell, Spokane, Washington; H. B. Scudder, North 
Yakima, Washington; Denny-Blaine Land Company, Seattle, Washington; or the Washington Irrigation Com- 
pany, Zillah, Washington. 



X X 

In the preparation of this little book, which, it is hoped, may be read by many a home seeker, we have 
called upon the people of the Sunnyside to bear witness, and give evidence of the productiveness of their farms, 
and make statements concerning the country in which they have settled, and these we append without comment. 

Sunnyside, Wash., Sept. 17, 1897. 

Washington's fine fruit exhibit at the World's Fair brought me to this State. Her fruit exhibit, in my opinion, was the 
finest exhibit there in point of appearance and size. I was in charge of the Michigan horticultural exhibit at Chicago, and was 
appointed on a committee with Professor Fowter, of New York, and Mr. Strong, of Canada, to gather fruit from various state 
exhibits, for purposes of comparison. In this way I had every opportunity of viewing all the fruit shown at Chicago. After seeing 
and handling the Washington fruit, I decided to come to this State and raise some of it myself, though I had retired from actual fruit 
growing in Michigan. Three years ago my wife and 1 moved here and bought ten acres, which I have set out to apples, psars, 
peaches, prunes and grapes. Next year my trees will begin bearing. I am sixty-seven years old, and think that these ten acres 
will give me all that I can do. I would advise the ordinary settler to take twenty acres of land, which gives enough to keep some 
hogs and cattle. I have made a study of fruit growing for more than forty years, and do not hesitate to say that the Sunnyside 
valley will be one of the great fruit growing countries of the world. 

In Michigan 1 was vice-president of the State Horticultural Association; president for five years of the West Michigan 
Fruit Growers' Association, having its headquarters at Grand Rapids; and president for many years of the South Haven and Casco 





Pomological Society, with headquarters at South Haven, 65 miles across the lake from Chicago. I lived at South Haven for 
thirty years. 

I have studied fruit conditions in Yakima County for three years, and was judge of fruit at the State Fair at North 
Yakima, two years ago. Regarding the kinds of fruit best adapted for this valley, I would say: It is admitted that in the markets 
of the world red winter apples sell for the highest price. Of these varieties, I would plant the Esophus Spitzenberg, Jonathan, 
Baldwin, Ben Davis and Northern Spy. The Wealthy, a native of Minnesota, is a fine red apple, and worthy of a place in every 
orchard. The Stark and Red Canada are good apples, and will keep until spring. For summer and fall use, the Red Astrachan 
and Yellow Transparents, and Summer Pippin. For late fall, the Gravenstein, a German apple, and Norton's Melon, one of the 
best apples for the table. The Rome Beauty is a good apple. 

Of peaches, Early. Charlotte, Hale's Early and Late Crawford, Elberta, Susquehanna andSalway, are among the varieties 
mostly cultivated for market. Other deserving varieties include Hill's Chile, Reeves' Favorite, Mixon and the Smock Freestone. 

Of 1000 or more varieties of pears, the Bartlett is first in the estimation of our people, and for canning is without an equal. For 
market purposes, orchardists would do well to plant a portion of Clapp's Favorite. The fruit is of fairly good flavor, large, and 
richly colored. The d'Anjou is a fine pear of French origin, and grows several degrees larger, and is of richer flavor in this state 
than in its native country. It does well in this country, but is weak in its fertilizing properties, and on this account should bs 
planted in rows alternating with Seckel or Howell. The Howel is a la"ge pear of good quality. The Seckel stands first in qual- 
. ity, but is scarcely of medium size. In this country, however, fruit grows to nearly double the size it usually attains in the East. 
This pear commands a high price in the majket. For winter markets, the Estee Beaurre, and Winter Nellis are considered 
the best. 

Washington is justly celebrated for the size, beauty and flavor of her prunes and plums. The varieties of prunes chiefly 
cultivated are Hungarian, Italian, French and Silver. Of plums, the Green Gage stands first in quality. Other plums which do 
well here, include the Bradshaw, Coe's Golden, the Yellow Egg, and Riene Clande da Bavay. 

goil j 2 !!! i^ah Can <ge 

The three principal natural agents for the production of fine fruit are soil, sunshine and water. The soil of the Yakima 
country is all that can be desired rich in all the elements necessary for the formation of a vigorous growth of timber; and, 
without a strong, healthy growth of timber, we cannot expect to gather first class fruit. The soil of this country is not only rich 



on its surface, but downward to a depth of thirty, or even forty feet, in many places. This fact proves that our soil is almost 
inexhaustible in its nature. The writer saw trees growing in this country six, seven, and eight years ago, heavily laden with 
fruit, and the same season they made from 15 to 24 inches of timber. This, alone, goes a long way to prove the stimulating 
properties of our soil. 

In Michigan, trees of the same age, having a less quantity of fruit, would make little or no timber. It is well understood 
by practical fruit growers that a growth of from 4 to 6 inches on the apple tree, annually, is necessary for the health of the tree, 
and for the assurance of a fair crop. Now, when we find that trees, whether apple, peach, pear or prune, grown in this country, 
will bear, as they do, nearly double the quantity of superior fruit they do in the Eastern States, and make at the same time treble 
the growth of timber, we are forced to attribute these effects to some cause or causes. Soil is the principal cause, for, without 
good soil, sunshine and water will not bring forth such effects. From observations since I came to live in Yakima valley, I am 
led to believe that fruit can be grown profitably for 40 per cent, less than can be done in Michigan or Illinois. Sunshine is neces- 
sary for the production of fine flowers and fine colored fruit. In California the sunshine is too intense during the day, and the 
heat too strong during the night, to admit of long-keeping, crisp apples, or the finest flavored peaches. The apples of that state 
grow large, as do the peaches, but will not, in my opinion, compare in flavor with apples or peaches grown in this state, Mich- 
gan or New Jersey. 

In Yakima County there is almost continual sunshine, from April 1 to November 1, while the heat ranges from 75 
to 85 degrees above, with a few days when the mercury rises to 95 and 100 degrees. This degree of heat is iust about 
right, with cool nights, to impart a rich color and fine flavor to fruit. At the World's Fair, at Chicago, in 1893, it was generally 
conceded that the fruit from Washington, taken as a whole, was the finest on exhibition; the fruit from California being a little 
too dark, caused by too much sunshine and heat, while the fruit from Eastern States was lacking in color. A certain degree of 
cold in winter is also necessary for the production of fine flavored fruit, such as apples and peaches. 


Sunnyside, Wash., June 23rd, 1900. 
R. H. Denny, Esq., Seattle, Wash. 

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 20th, asking if I wish to make any modifications in a letter printed in a circular issued by the 
Northern Pacific Railway Company, September 17, 1897, received. No, sir. But I can say truly: I am more in love with the 
Sunnyside District than I was five years ago. It is all, and more than I expected it to be, for the production of all kinds of fruit 



and vegetables. From two cherry trees planted four years ago, I sold this month $4.00 worth of fruit, besides enough for our 
family. This is simply a sample of what fruit will do in the Sunnyside valley. 1 know of no place in our whole country where 
there are so many inducements for a man with limited means, as this valley. Yours respectfully, 


ar2d Alfalfa 

GENTLEMEN: Parker, Wash., October 30, 1899. 

1 have lived in the Sunnyside valley for twenty-three years, and on my present ranch nineteen years. My place is at 
the upper end of the valley, and we originally watered our land with a farmer's ditch. Later, the canal company built the big 
irrigation canal, and absorbed our little ditch, since when we have had an abundance of water for all purposes. 1 have 291 acres 
which were taken up as desert and timber claims. I have 40 acres planted in hops, and 40 to winter apples' including Spitzen- 
berg, Wolfe River, and Rome Beauty, my orchard being eight years old. I have eight acres planted in timber, and a hundred 
trees in black walnuts, which are bearing. The balance of my farm consists of alfalfa fields. My orchard is doing well, con- 
sidering that the trees are young and just coming into bearing. My hop fields produced 1800 pounds of dried hops to the acre 
this year. Sometimes 1 have taken a ton of hops to the acre from it. Last year the price was \4}4 cents, and this year 1 1 cents, 
leaving a good profit. We can grow hops here for 7^ cents per pound, including labor, teams, and everything. In fact, I have 
contracted to have my hops grown and harvested next year, and delivered to me baled, on the hop house floor, for 7^ cents per 
pound, Hop experts tell me that the hops grown here are equal to any in the world, whether English or American. 

I have sold the bulk of my alfalfa crop at $4.00 per ton; I have 200 tons left, for which sheepmen have offered me $4.50 
a ton in the stack. I have refused this, believing that the price will go higher. From 170 acres of alfalfa 1 cut 1 150 tons of hay 
this year; this averages 6j^ tons to the acre, or $30.00 an acre at present prices. 

As a stock country this cannot be excelled. I have traveled from Maine to Washington, and through Texas and the 
south, and ! have never found any place where I would like to live, except this valley. It has a healthful climate, and a good 
class of people live here. We have good schools. I did not fully appreciate a good home until I went to Europe last winter; I 
could not be hired to live over there, and got back as soon as I could. 

We grow here the very finest potatoes in the world; in fact we can grow anything that one will put in the ground and 
take care of that is, anything that grows in a temperate climate. I came here from southwestern Missouri, near Joplin. 




Zillah, Wash., October 31, 1899. 

I have a ten-acre place under the Sunnyside Canal, and am making a good living. I have seven acres of orchard set to 
summer and winter apples, prunes, plums, gages, peaches, pears appricots, nectarines, quinces, grapes and cherries. We have 
also black walnuts, butternuts, and all kinds of berries, including gooseberries, red and black raspberries, dew-berries, wine- 
berries, currants, blackberries, etc. 

I came here seven years ago, and set out my main orchard the next year. We have made a good, liberal living off the 
place ever since we got it well started. Besides our living, we have sold $1000 worth of fruit, etc., from the ranch this year. 
We had 300 boxes of winter apples from 2^ acres of six-year-old trees, just beginning to bear. Some of the trees will not begin 
bearing until next year. We had 200 boxes of summer apples, and 152 boxes of Italian prunes. We have also sold a big quan- 
tity of French and Hungarian prunes, Silver and Golden prunes, Egg plums, Washington plums, Yellow and Greengages, etc. 
From one six-year-old tree, of Male's Early peaches, we sold $15.00 worth, at least, and maybe more. We also have Foster and 
Crawford's Early peaches, apricots, and red and white nectarines; we have sold peaches almost daily from the middle of July until 
in October. During the entire period we have taken in $2.00 to $25.00 a day from fruit sold at retail to newcomers and ranchers, 
whose orchards are not yet in bearing. This year we sold on the trees our Italian prunes, and part of the summer apples. 
Buyers are plentiful here, and will buy fruit either on the trees, or after it is packed. Horticulturists use their prerogative to sell 
either way, as they can do the best. I own three horses, two cows, chickens, and a number of hogs, and we have our own butter 
and cream. 

I lived for eighteen years in Franklin County, Neb., in the cyclone belt. Storms destroyed our crops for four years in 
succession, and then I decided to come to Washington. I have traveled over the world considerably, and consider this the best 
country I have ever found. My tent is pitched here for good; I say this after living in Los Angeles and other places. For varied 
products, depth and fertility of soil, climate, and general possibilites of life all through, this is the best place on earth, I believe. 
We have always had an abundant supply of water, and are always able to sell our fruit in the orchard, without hauling it away. 
I spsnt part of last year back in New York, where I was born. The electrical storms caused tremendous damage there, and in 
Pennsylvania, and I was glad to get back home, where we never have any thunder and lightning. 




The past year has been one of unusual activity in the Sunnyside country. More lands have been sold; more actual 
settlers have come, and more material advancement made than during any three previous years of the country's history. 
Nothing in the nature of a boom has existed, but the tendency has been toward substantial and permanent improvement. 
A goodly number of large and well designed modern country houses, besides numerous smaller unpretentious houses have been 
built or are under way. On the first of March more than fifty new buildings could be counted from one spot near the town of 
Sunnyside, and many more have been put up since. As an indication of the rate of growth it may be said that the records at the 
postoffices of Zillah and Sunnysi le show that the number of people who get mail at these places has more than doubled in the 
past year. The enterprise and public spirit shown by the people is encouraging, and the Irrigation Company, in order to keep 
pace with the general progress of the country, has made, and has under way, a number of desirable and permanent improvements 
in its property, among which may be mentioned a new and substantial dam across the Yakima River at the intake (built of steel 
upon a concrete foundation), for the purpose of diverting water from the river into the canal; together with a neat stone house of 
modern design at the headgate; two new waste ways and structures on the main canal, one at Zillah and the other at Black Rock 
Canyon, that will materially aid in the safe operation of the canal; about 35 miles of branch canals and laterals added to the 
distributory system; over 200,000 feet of lumber in new structures, besides many other smaller and less important improvements, 
made necessary by the rapid development of the country and to accommodate the increased demand for water by new settlers. 

Marked progress has been made in the dairy and livestock industries, both of which are so well adapted to the Sunnyside 
country. Our farmers have discovered that more money can be realized from their hay by feeding than by selling in the stack 
in the one case bringing from $10.00 to $15.00 per ton, and in the other from $3.50 to $5.00 per ton. Several hundred head of 
high grade milch cows have been shipped in, and agents are now in the East buying good milch stock in carload lots to fill the 
orders of the Sunnyside farmers. The dairy industry promises to reach large proportions in the near future. What is true cf 
that industry holds good as to livestock in general. Large numbers of high grade beef cattle, Short Horns and Hereforos, 
pure bred swine, mutton and wool sheep, besides fancy poultry, have been brought in during the past year. Mention should also 
be made of a number of fine stallions, both for road and draught purposes, especially the handsome Percheron stallions brought 
from Illinois by T. C. Williams, proprietor of the Sunnyside Hotel; and it is evident that the Sunnyside country is destined to 
become famous for the production of all kinds of high grade livestock. 

Our school houses, which have always been the pride of the Sunnyside district, and which had become inadequate for 

*Z& ',- 



the increased number of pupils, were supplemented, during the year, by three new buildings, all commodious, modern in design, 
and in keeping with the older houses. Others will be required in the near future, and will, doubtless, be built as soon as demanded. 

The enterprise and morality of the district is apparent in the churches already organized. Three large buildings have 
been completed and three more are under construction. These are described as follows: A Presbyterian Church in Parker 
Bottom, a frame building to be completed in August next; a Christian Church in Zillah, a neat frame building, dedicated on 
June 2d last; an Episcopal Church in Zillah, of soft gray sandstone, which would be a credit to any community, will be completed 
August 1st; an Episcopal Church in Sunnyside, a frame building, to be completed July 1st; a German Baptist Church in Sunny- 
side, a neat frame building, to be dedicated in a few days, and a Federated Church in Sunnyside, a frame building, just 
completed, that is the largest and of the most modern design of any in the county, and deserves more than passing mention. The 
organization represents the most advanced ideas in church union, and is composed of five different church societies, as follows: 
Baptist, Methodist, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Progressive Dunkards, each having an independent organization and 
interest in the building. 

The Sunnyside Townsite Company has shown a commendable spirit in seeding all of the vacant lots, and covering the 
streets with sagebrush, which makes a fine roadbed when crushed into the soil by travel. The building of sagebrush roads has 
been carried on, in a limited way, all over the country, but not to the extent that it should be. 

In conclusion, the rapid growth of the Sunnyside country by the addition of nearly five hundred new families, and 
several thousand acres of new hay and orchard lands, to the cultivated area, has been a surprise to even the most enthusiastic 
supporters, and judging from present indications, it is safe to say that the progress of the past year will be fully equalled, if not 
exceeded, during the coming year. 


Zillah, Wash., June 12, 1901 General Superintendent. 

Sunnyside, Wash., October 31, 1899. 

I came here from Lanark, 111., last March, and have 120 acres, one and a half miles east of Sunnyside. In the six 
months I have been here, I have seeded and planted the entire ranch. I have 32 acres in clover and timothy, 7 acres in orchard 
and yards and the balance, 80 acres, in alfalfa. I know, by my own experience, that all of this valley can be made highly pro- 


^t>Tf**\ ** 


8*?r$*jS* - 



- -,v *^ 



ductive. On 41 acres of alfalfa I have pastured all summer 1 1 old hogs and 13 shoats, all the time, and 10 head of work horses 
nights, Sundays and idle days. All of this stock has done well and fattened, I think this is a very encouraging showing for 

The climate and fruit brought me out here. It is my purpose to go into stockraising. My wife has raised this summer 
all kinds of garden truck that grows in a temperate climate. Our sweet corn and potatoes have been especially fine. They are 
as fine flavored as any corn or tomatoes raised in Illinois or Iowa. 

Butter always brings a big price here, and alfalfa makes a good, rich feed for the cows. We have been getting 50 cents 
a roll at local stores, for two months, for ordinary ranch butter. This country is also especially adapted to poultry raising. There 
are no rains to drown out the chickens, or chill them, and no rats to kill them off. Prices paid here for eggs and poultry are 30 
per cent, better than the prices paid in the East. 1 am familiar with this subject, for I supplied the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. 
Paul, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads with butter, and part of the time with eggs, for many years. I operated 
a large creamery near Lanark for this purpose. We are very well satisfied with this country. 


ho Philadelphia aod Oh^er 3 

Zillah, Wash., October 31, 1899. 


I live three and one-half miles northwest of Zillah. I have ten acres in prunes, which bore the first crop this year. I 
shipped four carloads of green prunes to Chicago, Minneapolis, Philadelphia and Cincinnati. The car sent to Chicago contained 
960 crates of Italian prunes, which sold at $1.20 and $1.35 per crate, giving me gross returns of $1 100, and net returns of $750, 
after paying freight, commissions, etc. The car shipped to Cincinnati sold at $1.05 to $1.25 per crate of twenty pounds. This is 
a very good showing for a new orchard; an orchard of prunes in full bearing will produce a carload to the acre. I have also sold 
650 boxes of apples, at 95 cents and $1.00 a box. 

I came here six years ago from Colorado. I consider this essentially a fruit country. It will produce a variety of high 
grade crops, such as hops, alfalfa and fruit. I do not think this country can be beaten; at any rate I would not leave it. 





Zillah, Wash., June 9, 1900. 
Washington Irrigation Co., Zillah. 

GENTLEMEN: In answer to your question whether the Sunnyside is a healthful section, I beg leave to state that I am a 
graduate of the Kentucky School of Medicine, and for the last seven years have followed my profession in Zillah and vicinity. 

My primary object in coming to this section was to get relief from asthma, which for years had given me serious trouble 
and inconvenience. Within a few weeks after my arrival I felt greatly relieved, and within one year all traces of the disease had 
left me, and I am now, and ever since, have been absolutely free from it. 

As the best proof that the Sunnyside district is healthful, I will say that I have been the only physician that has practiced 
at this place, and I have attended to the medical needs of nearly three thousand people. In other localities, every one thousand 
persons seem to need the services of one doctor. The reason, in my judgment, that there is so very little sickness in this section, 
is that the prevailing wind is from the west; there is scarcely a day that there is not a breeze stirring, and the air, moving from 
the mountains, and spreading out over the plain, is perfectly pure. While there are some hot days, the heat is of short duration, 
lasting from 10 A. M. to 4 p. M., and the nights are always cool. The climate being dry (the annual rainfall being in the neighbor- 
hood of eight inches), rheumatic, throat and lung troubles are hardly known. Of late it has been reported that there have been 
cases of scarletina in the lower country; but my experience is that persons thought to have scarletina have only German measles, 
as no deaths result. As to pneumonia, I have had but two cases, and there have never been any other cases reported that I know 
of; and the country is absolutely free from smallpox. Now and then people are sick with chills and fever. This is the result of 
the land being newly broken, and water placed over it for irrigation purposes, and allowed to stand in low places. This can be 
remedied by proper drainage of the waste water. This sickness is, however, of a mild form, and a doctor's services are scarcely 
ever required. 

I like the climate, the people and the soil, and without doubt will spend the remainder of my days at this place. 

Very truly, DR. A. McCRACKAN. 



Sunnyside, Wash., June 3, 1901. 

Washington Irrigation Co., Zillah, Wash. 

GENTLEMEN: You have asked me for a letter concerning the Sunnyside. Willingly I accede to your wishes. To siart 
with, let me state that I am an enthusiast. 1 believe there is no other section with the same prospects as this. What impels me 
to speak so favorably of this country is, that one with so little can do so much. Here, where a few years ago, there was nothing 
but sagebrush and jack rabbits, we have now beautiful farms and orchards. There are no paupers, but all are profitably employed. 
At the present there is more work than there are people to do it. There is work for every member of the family, from the six- 
year-old to the grandfather. Children are profitable in this country. They are first employed in the picking of strawberries, then 
the other numerous small fruits, including cherries, followed by apricots, peaches, pears, prunes, plums, apples, etc. Finally 
comes the jolly time of gathering hops. Whole families have been so profitably employed in this line of work that they have 
been able to more than live off of their earnings. 

As to irrigation, boys and old men can keep the water running over large fields, and the soil is so easily cultivated that 
a mere boy can hold a plough. 

All sorts of labor in this country is held honorable. A woman, if she wishes to, can farm or sell town lots. As for 
myself, in the last year I have sold a number of town lots in Sunnyside and a few tracts of land. 

While the Sunnyside has made wonderful progress in material development, the social side has not lagged. At Sunny- 
side we expect to have a reading room for the old and young; we have a guild, a Christian Endeavor Society, and literary 
societies. We meet and have public entertainments, in which all join. 

I have lived here for six years, and during the whole of this period there has been no law breaking scarcely worthy of 
mention: neither has there been any social scandals. We have an excellent school and are soon to have a fine Episcopal church, 
and the Dunkard colony and Federated Society have commodious houses of worship. 

As 1 ride about the country and observe the large farm houses and broad fields, so nicely levelled for irrigation, and 
bearing heavy growths of timothy, clover and alfalfa: the orchards, with their perfect rows of trees; horses, cattle, pigs and 
sheep, and not a poor one among them; long lines of highway well fenced, and farmers everywhere at work, I can scarcely realize 
that the canvass of this scene six years ago was a sagebrush waste. 1 am so glad I am an enthusiast, for 1 feel that my 
enthusiasm has located a number in the Sunnyside section, who today are the possessors of fine homes, and are happy in the 
ownership of them; and I shall certainly do all in my power to bring the less fortunate of the east and other localities and have 
them settle here. 

I might spsak of the growing of different kinds of fruits, hay, cereals, poultry, stock and of dairying. They are all 
profitably followed. Should 1 state what wonderful things I have seen and of the things I have heard and re-heard concerning 
the productiveness of our farms in the growth of all sorts of produce, I am satisfied that what I should say would not be believed; 
for a great majority of the people cannot appreciate how much more productive land is when watered by means of irrigation, than 
when watered by the rainfall. Yours truly, 

(Mrs. W. H.) 















Zillah, June 8, 1900. 
Washington Irrigation Company, Zillah, Washington. 

GENTLEMEN: Your question, "How do I like the Sunnyside?" I will answer in this wise: 

I used to live in Lyons county, Iowa. Five years ago I settled upon twenty acres of Sunnyside land. As soon as possible 
I improved it, putting in eleven acres of winter apples, three acres of mixed fruit cherries, pears, prunes, apricots, grapes, 
berries, etc., including some black walnut trees and the balance in timothy and clover. At two years old my grapes 
Concords commenced bearing, and this year I will have an excellant crop. At four years of age my walnut trees bore and the 
nuts matured, and this year they give promise of an abundant crop. My apple trees the present, as in the last two years, will 
yield well. 

The Sunnyside is a good enough section for me, Already I have induced a number of my old friends and acquaintances 
to come here and settle, and I am going to keep on in the good work. y trulv 

Zillah, Wash., June 10, 1900. 
R. H. Denny, Esq., Manager Washington Irrigation Company, Seattle, Wash. 

MY DEAR MR. DENNY: I do not know why you should ask me concerning hunting and fishing near the Sunnyside, unless 
it be the fact that one of your friends was able to induce me lately to go fishing with him. But, to be frank with you, I will 
admit that I like to commune with Nature, and the gun and fishing rod are always reminders of many a day pleasantly spent. 
Even now, the years creeping on apace, I love the brook where lives the sportive trout, the sedgy pond where just at dark the 
Mallard splashes, and the stubblefield where in thousands the wild goose lights. 

For years it has been a great pleasure to me to go fishing in the Yakima river, which is almost within a stone's throw of 
my home, and in the many mountain streams that empty into it. I also have enjoyed duck shooting in the sloughs and ponds of 
the Yakima valley; and on the Indian reservation, just across the river. I have spent hours following the prairie hen in her whirr 
and flight. And dead must be the soul of him who, for the last six years, has lived in the Sunnyside and has never visited Horse 
Heaven. There is but one Horse Heaven in the United States, and that is in the state of Washington, within easy distance of 
Zillah. I have been there several times, and for about a month after each trip nothing rings in my ears but the honk of wild 



geese. In Horse Heaven they are everywhere in the air, in the sagebrush, in the grass and in the stubblefield. Game "hogs" 
have been known to kill as high as seventy-five in a day. 

That I may not be taken in too light a vein, 1 would like to add that I enjoy farming, and that I have found farming 
profitable; that I was among the first to settle in the Sunnyside district, and have taken quite an interest in school matters. I am 
proud of the schools already established, and especially of the one at Zillah, as I have taken a particularly active interest in it. 

Yours very truly, A _ C- WAL KER. 

"flome ho e pond Of 

Washington Irrigation Co. Zillah, Wash., June 9, 1900. 

SIRS: I am quite pleased that you have seen fit to take a photograph of my place. I am proud of my little home, and 
my wife insists in saying that it is the prettiest place in the Sunnyside country. We have tried to make it homelike. 

We grow just as nice blackberries, raspberries, currants, cherries and peaches as anyone can wish for. Our principal 
fruit crop are apples and prunes, and last year and this the trees have borne as much as they ought if anything, too much for 
their good. One of the difficulties, so to speak, of fruit raising in this section is that the young trees overbear and their fruit 
ought to be thinned. 

I am a builder by trade, and for a number of years was a contractor in the city of Tacoma, but now I have become so 
fascinated with farming, and my wife so thoroughly enjoys the country life and the pleasure of horticulture, that I believe we will 
pass the remainder of our days upon our ranch. 

As to the people, I do not care to live in a better community. Our acquaintances here are intelligent and pleasant, and 
we have our little societies and visit and enjoy ourselves quite as much as people of other sections. Very respectfully, 


Cli2 Ideal Frail: Rapm 

(SEE PLATE 10) Zillah, Wash., Sept. 18, 19X. 


Thirty-three years ago, at the age of 25, I came to the Yakima Valley and engaged in the cattle business, continuing in 
the business of raising and dealing in cattle up to nine years ago. In the spring of 1891 I began to improve my place under the 

rJ^H^WW*^^* 1 ' 




Sunnyside Canal. I have 330 acres under ditch, 125 acres now in orchard and two and one-half acres of hillside in grapes. In 
the spring of 1891 I cleared off the sagebrush and put out thirty-five acres in peaches. Three years later I shipped 3000 .boxes of 
early peaches from 950 of those trees, or six acres. For two years 1 raised corn and potatoes between the trees. Have grown 
the large Yellow Dent variety of corn, which matures well in this valley, and will go fifty to sixty bushels per acre easily. With 
extra care and cultivation I think it would yield seventy-five bushels of shelled corn per acre. One year I had about sixty acres 
of the orchard planted in potatoes, which would equal about forty acres clear of trees. The yield was a little over 8000 bushels 
of good potatoes. I shipped them to Puget Sound points and to St. Paul, receiving as high as $13 per ton for some, the lowest 
price being $10 on cars at my nearest station, making the average price between $1 1 and $12. 

I don't believe there is any country where hogs can be raised more cheaply or successfully than in this valley, in our 
dry climate hog cholera is unknown. They grow and do well on alfalfa, and stock hogs will winter even on the dry hay. It is 
certainly cheap food, for with a good stand it will turn off eight tons per acre at four cuttings each season. Anyone should get 
an average of seven tons easily. I put up 700 tons this year. Have never sold any for less than $3.00 per ton, and from that up 
to $6.00. Large quantities usually bring better prices per ton than small bunches, as it is then more easily fed to large bands of 
cattle and sheep for the Puget Sound market. It makes the best of sheep-feed, and the thousands of sheep which range in the 
mountains in summer are fed in the valley during winter. It does not cost over a dollar per ton to irrigate, cut and put it in the 

A part of my ranch has been cropped for twenty-nine successive years without any fertilizing. I raised wheat and cut it 
for hay for fourteen or sixteen years, and even the last crop grew so rank as to fall down and lodge. My bench land is composed 
of soil twenty to forty feet deep. 

I consider the climate remarkably healthy. The doctors say it is "distressingly healthy." Winters are short and mild, 
and we frequently have what Eastern people would call no winter at all! A short spell of cold weather, usually not over two 
weeks, but sometimes as long as two months, is the chief winter we have. 

My orchard, besides the thirty-five acres in peaches, consists of 1000 apple trees, 1000 pear trees, two acres of cherries 
and seventy-five acres of prunes. 

Over a year ago I constructed a large fruit dryer, but owing to the high price of green fruit, I have had scarcely any use 
for the same. p j